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Cd-HOC -DAT
. . . . . .
c
TAP HAl
. an llin thu 3)
Nguai dich: NGUYEN UrtN
1RJNH VAN ClJONG .
(Trucmg hQC Thtiy: Ha N{)i)
Ngubi hi?u dlnh : v0 CONG NGO
(Truong bQC XAy dt.tng Ha N(}i). -
--
!'-'• '· ;-
. -.. : -: -- - .. . -; .. - f
_ :
-....._ . ____ ;
' .. · ,
NHA XUA T BAN GIAO Dl)C - 1999
I .
\
.
'
Basic
soil mechaniCs
Second Edition
Whitlow
Longinan
Scientific &
Technical
Copubli shed in the United States with

John Willey & Sons, Inc., New York
Chtu tr4ch xu at bdn :
Giam doc VAN AN
TOng. bien t:)p NGUrtN NHl1 Y
Bien tQp:
PHMtHA
bay bla :
DOANHONG
Bien tQp lei thul)t :

Sua b4n in :
NGUYi!N U'Yl!N, PH.Mi I-J.A
Slip chu:
PHONG BAN (NXB GIAO Dl)C)
4(V)(07)
·GD _
99
49&'216 - 99
Ma s6 : 7B281T9
--
.
Ml)C LI)C
LUi gioi tJU?u cho bdn djch tiE ng
Lo; gi6i
LUi m6 40u cho llJn xuilt bdn thU hai
LOi m6 40u cho OJn xudt bdn thU nhat
Bdn ld cac kJ hifu
I
Chuang 8. AP Ll}C HONG CUA DAT
s.t. can thU:y tinh va can dim
8.2. can bing deo va li Rankine
8.3. Ap ltJc hong len ttldng cl13n : di6J thoat nt!&:
8.4. Ap ltJc hong len ttliJng cMn : diAt kiert khong thoat mJ<Jc
8.5. Li Callomb va ttldng nh3m
8.6. Ap bJc chu d()ng lett fttdng nh.am
8.7_. Ap ltJc bi dqng 1en nMm
8.8. Vi tri dtldng tac d1JI)g Clia ap ltJc chti d()ng
8.9. Dieu kiert 6n djnh"pia ttliJng trQng ltJc
8.10. Ttldng ngam. va t11dng b.ao
8.1 L Tddng c6
8-)2. cit
8.13. Neo d3t
Bai
,/
_,
Trang
7
9
11
12
14
21
24
29
43
49
51 .
60
64
66
. 72
80
84
98
101
3
4
Chuong 9. ON DJNH CUA MAI o6c
9 ,L Sl] djch il m3i d6c tl] va nhan
9 .2. Lt.:ta chQn cac thong s6 dQ ben khang cat cho mai d6c
9.3. Tru<Jt tinh tiat tren mai d6c vo
9.4. Cd clu pba b<>?i mai doc trong dat dinh
.... 9.5. on dtnh khong thoat m1&- phan tich ling suat tong (f'u = O)
9.6. Mai dOC khong dOng nMt khong m:r& = 0)
9.7. Mai doc ntldc = 0)
9.8. Vj tri ct1a rung tru(Jt nguy
9.9. PhttdiJg phap s6 On djnh cia Taylor
9.10. 6n djnh t hoat m.t&- pban tich i!ng suat hietl qua
9.11. He s6 on dinh tinh vt1i ifng suat hlc;ti qua
9.12. Xac dinh ap h,rc nt!dc 10 r6ng
9.13. Trtl<Jt khong theo amg trim
9.14. A.nh ht1dng ctia d(} cong dau ru6i khoi tru(Jt bj
9.15. Pbtldng phap pban tich nan
9.16. Cac y6J t6 trong mai d6c
9.17. s6 an toan
Bai
'-
Chuong 10. TiNH NEN VA D(> LUN CUA DAT
10.1. chuyen vj c1ia va nMn gay lun
10.2. thiJi bay hin khong thoat ntldc
io.3. Liin do oo ket
10.4. T6c d() c6
10.5. Xac dinh a, tu thi nen (h<?p nen oedometer)
to.6 . . c6 ket .thir cap
10.7. Thi gia tai lien
10.8. Gia tri va d(} t in ciia thi nghit;m c6 kt!t
10.9. Danh gia de) hln t6ng b3ng pht1dng phap Skempton- Bjerrum
10.10. Hiet.I chinh cho St.f gia tai dan-dan
10.11. Nen cua dat c4ng
Bai
/ /
107
109
112
119
121
126
129
132
136
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148
153
158
160
162
167
170
172
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184
188
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210
225
227
233
238
241
243
243
\

Chuong 11. sOc CHlU TAl CUA MONG
11.1. Gidi thi(!u
1 L2. cae yeu t6 trong ke m6ng nong
11.3. Dinh site ehi!l tai
1 1.4. Site tai Cl)e ctia m6ng nang
1 1.5. On djnh gidi eho m6ng nong
11.6. Tieu ehufut d(} Inn eho thift ke m6ng
1 L 7. Danh gia sf1e chju tai cho
1 1.8. djch cac thi nghiem hii:-..1 tru<sng xac,djnh siic chju tai
11.9. Mong CQC
11.10. Cong thiie CQC d(>ng
11.11. PhtJdng trinh efl!u tai tinh ctia CQC
I L 12. Siic chju tai ctia nh6m CQC
Bai
Chuung 12 KHAo SAT meN TR110NG VA
THi NGHISM Tai Hit;N TR.UONG
12.1. viva ml)c dich khao sat hit;n trudng
12.2. viva d(} sau kMo sat d hit;n tn1dng
12.3. Cac phtldng pttap khao sat khu dAt
12.4. Cac ph11dilg pttap man dat
12.5. Thi nghiem <s hit;n truang
12.6. Quan ·trac n11& du<Ji dat
12.7. cac pht1dng pttap dja li
12.8. Bao cao kbcio sat d tru<sng _,...
P'* 1¥£. Tieu chu§n Chau Au 7 ve Nen M6ng
Dap so cac bm rgp
Tm r1umz lch4o
248
250
253
256
260
274
280
284
305
308
308
316
320
324
327
328
334
338
348
355
359
361
366
369
5
'\
T.t).P 1
1
>
Chupng J._Nguon goc va thimh pMn ctia dat
Chuong 2 Phan dat theo IDl,IC dich xay d\IDg'
Chuung 3. Cac tinh chat li oo trdll ciia dat
Chuong 4. St_t pMn oo va tck d()ng aia nll<ic trong d:it
ciia nl1& trong dat
Chuong ti. lJ ng va biro d.tjmg trong dat
I -
Chuong 7. Danb gia d() ben ch6ng cat cila d3t
'\
\
--
(1) ban sach in lllQt De tr.inh sacli qua day, ban dich tac. t 2
nen {) m.i)i ChUng toi d6J. in ten cic chddng CUa kia va mQl s0 J-C n thiet
khcic de dQC lien theo doi
6


Lai giai cho ban djch tieng .
Ca hoc dat Ia mot mon hoc ki thuat ca sa ma sinh vien ctia tat
.. - .. . .
ca cac nganh xay dlfng cong tr/nh deu phai hQC VOi khoi /Uqng
dang ke (khoang 60 giiJ hQC tren lop) va phai.ndm v{Jng de CO kien
th(Jc CO Qan cua nguai ki Hang hllng ngan sinh vien cac
nganh nay doi hoi c6 sach Ca hQC dat de hQC va cac ki su can
c6 sach de tham khao. Trong khi d6 thl cac sach ve Co hQc diit
qua it, qua thieu. Lau nay chung ta dii quen thui)c voi nguon sach
tit Lien Xo CUI nhung con qua it sach til cac nguon Bdc My va Tay
nen chung toi thay can chQn sach til ngu_on nay.
. Chung toi da xem _xet m{)t so til nhiing cu6n co tinh kinh
dien (nhu ctia K. Terzaghi) den nhung cu6n viet di)c dao·lf thu (nhu
ctia Lambe), hay viet rat ry mi day dti (nhu cu6n Advanced Soil
va cu6i cung dii chQn djch quyen Basic Soil Mechanics
xuat ban ran th(J 2 ctia R. Whitlow (da duqc in l(!.i lien tiep trong cac,
til 1990 den 1993) vi thay n6 thich hqp han ca cho sinh vien
va ki su Nam chung ta.
Quyen sach nay da de c?.p den tat ca cac van -de ctia Co hQc·
dat theo mi)t thong sang sua va theo mi)t each th{/c tot : mi)t
giai thich ro ve ban chat v?.t If, co hQC ctia van khac
luon luon di kern VOi _nhflng Vi dlJ tfnh toan dlf bao rat ClJ the, thUiJng
trong thlfc hanh ctia nguai ki su. Kh6i lilqng quyen sacn ciing
hqp If ; n6 tuy Jan_ so v_ai gia h9c If thuyet thong thuang tren lop,
nhung Ia vita phai de sinh vien co duqc nhOng kien_ thuc va ki nang
can thiet.
Neu theo qui uac (tinh til K. Terzaghi - 1925) thl lich su ·phat
trien Co hQc dat Ja-ngiln, nhung thlfc ra nhflng kien thuc, n_hiing If_
thw;et ve dat dii c6 til rat /au (it nhat Ia tit J. C. Coulomb--- 1788)
Qua may ki gan day, Co hQc dat da pha! phong phu den
(
7
m(Jc khong the nao g6i ghem tro_ng m9t quyen ·sach nh6. Quyen
sach djch nay dugc tach lam 2 t?.p ·/til chuang 1 den chuang
7 va II til chuonglJ'aen chuang 12) se cung cap cho nguai
hQc, nguai dQc m9t ihong tf!.m gQi Ia day. du nhung hieu
ve Co hQC dat 0 muc vila phai.
'
Chat chan Ia, cilng voi Slf phat trien rat mq.nh cac cong trlnh
xay dlfng a nuoc ta, nhieu quyen sach -ve Co hQC dat khac se sam
· tiep tt;tc duqc _ra b(1.n dQc
Ha N<)i, 10- 1995
/ GS TS Vu Cong Ngii
.: 8
Lai giai
Xay dqng va kl thuQ_t cong tiinh Ia mgt qua trlnh vira doi hoi vua
kich thich tri tuong tuqng, trong d6 cac cong trlnh da duqc xay
dlfng Ia -chfJ dlfa vinh cuu cho tri tuang tuqng, ki nang va 6c sang
te}o ctia tat ca nhiing ai tham gia vao. De hieu dugc ve cac qua
trinh nay can pha.i : cong trinh lam boi vQ_t gi, duqc ket
no; voi nhau ra sao, -kha nang chiu dlfng, lam v?ri hanh va
bao duong ch{J_ng ra sao ; chung duqc sua chua va thQ_m chL bf
fun Sljt nhu the nao. Cac nghien cuu quan den ca qua trinh va
san pham Ia nhiing ngh_ien cuu da nganh bao gam nhieu ki nang
va chl!yen mon khac nhau. Ban-than cac cong trlnh duqc thiet ke
de thoa man cac yeu cau chuc nang va tham mi khac nhau nen
c6 hinh de}ng-va kich thu6c thay doi, tu nha dlnh nh6 cho tai
cong sa, ctJa haQg, khach S(!.n, ngan- hang, nha hat, dlii:Jng giao
thong, cau, tr(!.m nang luqng, d?p, cong trlnh va cong -trlnh
ven bo. MfJi cong trinh ra cac van de rieng va can c6
nhiing qua trlnh _ hinh thanh quyet dinh phuc t(!.p,
Thuq_t ngii xay ba(J ham. nhieu ngUiJi lam cac nganh nghe
khac nhau nhu : nguoi xay dlfng, kien true sti, _kl su ket cau va .
cong trlnh dan dljng, ki su moi truong, ngui:J_i do -ve dia hinh va
khoi lugng, nhan vien giam sat cong trinh cung nhu -nguoi chti
cong- trlnh. Tat ca cong trinh xay dlfng tren nen thien nhien phai
d(!.t duqc Slf on dtnh ClfC hC}n ctia chung. Chinh a day doi hoi kien
th{/c va ki nang chuyen man ctia ki su dta chat va ki su chuyen ve
dat Va d{)i ngfi dong dao can b{J ki thUQC CBC /anh VlfC khac
nhau nay, phai ket hgp vai nhau de tim ra giai phap cho nhieu bai
toan xay dqng va tl]iet ke_. Nhi eu hu hong cong trinh Ia do thieu -
kien thtrc ve dat a duai m6ng cong "trinh. C6 the tranh dugc dieu
nay neu nh[Jng dq doan va danh gi<i chinh xac ve dieu dat
duqc dua vao ngay til giai dof!_n thiet ke ban dau cho _m6i dlf an.
Can nhfJ rang, cac dlf an xay dqng khong cai nao gi6ng cai nao
va m6i ket cau trong -chung (tril nha a c6 gia trt thfip) ciing deu
khong l?.p l(!.i. San pham cu6i cilng vua ri)ng viia ph{fc tq.p va dat
tien, khong the l();!.i b6, khong c6 khufJn m§u truac va khong lam l(!.i
duqc. Do mfJi dlf an moi dij.t ra mi)t loq.t van de m6i ·can cac gi(li
phap mai, cac giai phap f!lOi nay doi hoi moi nguoi ket hgp
che ki nang, Sf! hieu biet, kinh ta.i nhij.n x_et Va OC sang tf!:O.
Ma dau chuang 11, tac gia cu6n sach nay da e6 suy nghl tong
quat khi neu len : sue ehtu tai khong phai Ia tinh chat ni)j t'!-i
cua dat ma Ia . dij.e trung ehtu tuong tac voi m6ng eong trlnh. M6ng
khae nhau tren eilng lo(!. i"'dat hay dat khae nhau a du6i eung .
m6ng se e6 eau tra loi khong gi6ng hhau .. Cong trlnh tae di)ng toi
dat va dat tac di)ng 1?-i cong trlnh. Nen (dat ·hay da) Ia phlin chil
yeu cua cong t'=lnh, n6 do cho cong trlnh hay tl! chong do
la.y. Kha nang thfjnh tlfu ctia bat eu cong tfinh nao (ve ket cliu, v?.n
·hanh hay kinh_ teY phf! thui)c nhieu vao gia:i phap xu If cac van de
lien quan toi nen cong trlnh. Ngay ca truong hqp cong trlnh c6 df!.i bi)
Ia ket cau nam o tren dat thl thqc te-phan gia tr! kha Ibn ctia
hgp dOng v§n luon thui)c ve ket cliu phan duoi cua oong. tiinh.
Nho ehuyen mdn gioi va kinh phong phu a Khoa Gong
- trlnh va Baa inoi truong thui)e Truong D?-i hQc Bach khoa Bristol
va voi tu each nguoi co van, tae gia da lam noi cac yeu to
duge qe c?.p. tren trong euon sach nay. Rat chinh xac .khi tae gia
d!nh Ia mQi nghien euu ve van· de c6 ban chat ki ph(Jc
tf!_p nhU the, phai bat dau VOi Slf hieu thau mi)t each VUng Vang cac
nguyen 1i co ban. Bat cu sinh viefl nao thea duoi slf di sau
vao cong nghi) xay dlfng phai c6 t6i thieu mi)t so kien th(/c va ki
nang co ban ve co hQC dat. Y djnh dung dan ctia Whitlow da dugc
the trong cac trang viet etia cu6n Cae va quan
diem duge trlnh bay m(Jt each sang sua, 1?-i duge _cling eo them
cac vi dl! mau '(a bai da d(!.ng vira rat can thiet eho
dao sau hQe ctia sinh vien vila nhij.t va nang eao kiel} thue
cho nhung nguoi thlfc hanh dii _co nhieu kinh
10
Giao su Matthew M. Cusack
Chu Khoa Cong trlnh va Bao
moi truang Truong hQc Bach k.hoa Bristol _
Lai. ma dau cho lan xuat ban th(r hai
Vao thai giiin nay, sau khoang 10 nam ke til fan xuat bail thu
nhat, ky thu?.t co hQc dat dii · c6 nhung bien doi /an. M1Jc
dfch va d6i ctia cu6n sach v§n giong nhll /an xuat _ban th(J
- nhat _· cu6n sach giao khoa co so de nghien c(Ju mon !Jgc nay.
Tuy nhien, trong m{)t s6 chuang, khfa thiet ke dii duqc tang
·cuong de cung cap nhieu nguyen tac chi han cac ky su
thuc hanh.
Cac chuang 6 va 7 van giii n_guyen trlnh llf ban dau, trong. chuang
6 trlnh bay· day _dti han cac nghien c{Ju ly thuyet nay ve dij.c
trung ung suat va bien Trong ·chuang nay, nay de them
bai giang ve ly thuyet tr(!.ng . thai gioi .dang dugc thira
Ia mo hlnh tin ctia trf!.!lY thai ung suat va bien dt!-ng the tfch.
Khai ve tr(!.ng dat chtu c6 thoat nuac va khong thoat
nuoc c;iing duqc dua vao trong ket cau bai giang a chuang. nay va
cac chuang stia doi khac. Cac tien bf) moi nhat ·ve thf gia
tai lien tl!c duqc de trong chuang 10. Trong chua_ng 11, cac ·
. ..; ...
yeu cau cho thiet ke, Ia xac d!nh cac thong so bang
thf truong dugc nhan m(!.nh nhieu han.
_ --Ve tieu chuan Chau Au mai, toi dii trlnh bay cac net chfnh ctia
tieu chuan Chau Au 7 ve Nen va M6ng cong trlnh a· dt!-ng phil
VI tieu chuan Chau A_u chi Ia phac !hao nen con qua sam de
dua ra duq_c cac huang dan hay d8;n giai chi tiet, nhung · df)c gia
c6 the thay Slf th{J VI vai y djnh chien luge thiet ke chfnh dlfa
tr(!.ng -thai giai hf!.n. De xuat phan lof!.i. cong ·rrlnh va van· de d!a ki thuat
theo cac cap dia ky mdi cap doi hoi m{Jc df) chuyen mon va
kinh khac rihau, ciing dugc nhieu nha thiet ke hoan nghenh.
Toi dii dugc df;Jng vien nhif#u bai cac loi khuyen va Slf co vfl
chan thanh ma cac df)c- gia da viet cho toi, va. toi hy vgng dieu d6
. -
(
11
se con tiep lf!C. Cu6n sach dlf djnh giup cha cong tac thlfC hanh
cila cac di)c gia a nhiiiu trlnh di) va mQi xet th(Jc day cai tien
se duqc nghiem tuc tiep thu cho cac Jan xuat ban sau.
. -
Toi xin cam on lai chi bao va giup da ctia Tien si Jan Francis
cung nhu ctia cac bq.n dong tq.i truong D(!.i hQc Bach Khoa
Bristol. Nguai hd trq va giup do tin nhat ctia toi
6
mi)t fan niia
lf!.i Ia· Marion, vq toi. Tfnh kien nh§n va tri ctia co da -lam cho
toi kham phiJC Va biet On.
. .
Loi ma dau· cho lan xuat ban th(r nhat
Roy Whitlow
Bristol 7 - 1989
Cu6n $ciCh nay dq kien dung lam sach giao khoa chinh ve If
thuyet va cac nguyen If co ban cila co hQc diit nham dap {Jng yeu
cau cho sinh vien
6
ki vien va ki su thqc himh trong linh vqc
cong trlnh va ki thuij.t xay dqng. Tac _gia coi, rang
6
ngilai_ dQc _da c6
kien "th{Jc co ban ve toan hQC va khoa hQC, dij.c biijt Ia cac mon
co hQc co so.
Sach bien so?.n chti yeu _de dung cho sinh vien hQc tlj.p duoi sq_
giang df!.Y ctia giao vien. Cac co so va nguyen If trlnh· bay ro rang6
nhung cung giai thfch kha dti va hieu. Tac. gia mong
muon ·sinh ngoar dqa vao sue mlnh6 .co duqc slf giup do
va khuyen bap chuyen man cila cac giao vien gi6i. NeiJ m6ng ctia
ki en . thuc tot khong "the choi cai dugc phai Ia : . cac
nguye_n If co
Thea kinh giang_ d?Y cua zac gia
6
ung df!ng cac nguyen
li Ia each hQc tot nhat. Do cu6n sach c6 nhieu vf dl! mau ngay
trong bai giang va a cac bai tij.p ap d1Jng cuoi mfJi chuang. Dieu /
quan trQng doi vai sinh vien Ia phai viing nhanti- nhat cac bai -
12
toan thlfc tien dan gian, hen trong mf;t so truang hqp rieng lq.i
gioi thiiju bai toan truoc khi bay phan If thuyet. .
du ten sach chi Ia -cu6n Co hQc diit ca sa, nhung rat c6
the Ia nhieu df)c gia con muon /uu giii sach lq.i ae nghien c(Ju sau
han va sau nay dung cho thf!c te xay dt!ng. Do ngoai kien thuc
ca sa, con c6 mi)t so chti de c6 ni)i dung va vi dl! a muc d{)-cao
han gianh cho so bq.n dQc c6 nhieu kinh thlfc te. Danh
sach cac tai lieu tham khao cho a cuoi sach se c6 ich cho sinh
- . .
vien khi can tim dQC them. So luqng cac chti de kha toan dti
de dap (Jng cac yeu cau ctia sinh vien . mQi giai ,do(!.n trong chuang
trlnh hgc tq.p cung nhu cho cong nhan va cac ki su chuyen nganh
tq hQc them.
Toi xin bay to long biet an cac Nha xuat ban, hi}i, cac to
ch(Jc va ca nhan cho phep sti df!ng cac tai da cong bo.
Toi xin cam_ an Sl/ giup da va df)ng vien ctia cac bq.n dong
tq.i truong Dq.i hQc Bach khoa Bristol va dij.c Ia Tien si
M.M. Cusack, Chti Khoa ctia toi, da viet loi giol cho
cu6n sach. Cung xin cam an sv giup do ctia ngai C.R.Bassett cilng
cac dong Sl/ thuf)c truong Gao dang Ki Cu6i cung,
xin thanh cam an Marion, vq toi, khong chi danh may giup ban
thao ma con thanh giup do, hfJ trq toi trong su6t thai gian
viet cu6n sach nay.
Roy Whitlow
Bristol 3 - ·1983
.,
13
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cw
D
Dd
DlO' D6o
Dr
d.
E
E'
Eo
E -
u
e
/
h;cc dlnh bieu k!en trong khai dng suat
tong adieu khong thoat nuac
htc dlnh khi thf nen m(>t no hong
so c6 ket
so. truong no
, .,1' '
dQ dinh gifta dat va be cong trinh
de? san, duang ldnh; so de? sau
de) ·kho ttlOtig doi
cac ldch co trung
de? tuong dof
d() sau, duang ldnh, -chieu dai dttang nuac
modun dan hoi Young
modun dan hoi khi thoat nuac
modun dan hoi m()t chieu
modun dan hoi khi khong thoat nl.tac
so rong
so rong toi
so rong ban dau
so an toan .
so chinh
ma sat ngoai
ling suat chay cua thep
modun cat
trQng htQng rieng cua dat
gia t6c trQng tr11C1ng (9,81m/s
2
)
-
chieu cao, be day lop, d() doc cua Hvoslev
chieu cao gil1i cua mai dao tJ:lAng dU:ng
khong c6 chong do
chieu cao, c()t nttcc thuy tinh hay <_!Qt nttac
chieu cao mao din
cP.ieu cao tl1i dui1ng tong hQp ltjc
chi so gion
chi so nen (co ngot)
chi so de)
15
16
lc
J
J
K
Ka, KAC ·
Kpc
K ·
0
Ks
k
L
LI
LL
LS
1
M
m
Illy
N
PL
_,
p
cac so anh huong ung suat
thua so anh huong bien
so anh httong chuyen .vi
gradien thuy ll!c ' -
gradien thUy h;tc giili
htc tham
ap tham
_modu:n -the tfch
so ap da:t chu dl)ng
so ap lltc dat hi d()ng
so ap I11c <tat tinh
· s6 ap lcjc dat (trong phuang trlnh bai toan CQc)
so tham
chi.Cu dai .
chi so chay
giai chay
dl) co ngot tuyen t:lnh
chieu diri
khoi htQng, d9 cua duang· thai-giai
d() am, so fin d!nh cua mai doc
so nen the tich
thua so .tln d!nh mai doc, so· do. xuyen
tieu chuan (SPT)
cac so cua sue ch!u tai
so xuyen con
d(> rong, sO-dn cijnh cua mai doc
lljc, hQp lljc cua ap hjc
hgp lljc cua ap hjc chu d()ng
hgp lljc cua ap h$c bi d(>ng
hgp" h;cc cua ··a.p lt;tc thuy tinh
chi so deo
giai deo
ap ltJc:; ung suat phap trung blrih
Pm
r
pF
Pw
pH
Q
q
qa
qb
qc
qnet
qo
qs
qu
R
Rc
Rr
r
ri, rp, r
5
ru
s
p
sr
ss
st
SL
s
sc
se, sq, s
1
S-
J
- -
sc, si
sf
T
Tv
t
2CHDIT2
ung suat phap ljch sic trung bJ.nh C\fC
chi so hut am cua dat
ap h;tc hong cua nuC1c duai da1
gia tti dl) axit/d9 kiem
Iuu h.tQng dong tham, tong tai trQng tren cQc
toe sue chju· tru, dl) ung suat
sue ehju tru eho phep
SUC ehj.u tai CUa miii CQe
sue khang miii xu yen -( tinh)
sue ehj.u tru thljc
ap }ljc ph\1 them tren
sdc chju tru an toan, s U'c khang ma sat
ngoai cua CQC
sue chju tru C\1C
ban ldnh, ll;le khang
s6 qua c6 ket
so du
ban ldnh
cac so nen
so ap hie nude lo rong
SO eQC
d{> bao boa
trt1ng, ap h;tc hut am cua dat
dl) (cua ctat set)
giai co ngot
d() hin, bat bien ung suat.
d() lun do co ket
cac s6 hlnh (a pht1ong trlnh sue c]l!u W)
de? hin tdc thai
d(> hin chap duQc
dl) euoi eung
lljc cang be hjc xoan, lljc cang
yeu to thai gian
d(>, thai gian, ba:t bien ung suat
[T_,7,- ,,,: -::: . :_-< :·:
.- _· . . -::- ·o:
·t,- <t A a _J;01J __ j
17
'-
--
18
u, uo, v.·
ua
uw
v
v.
a
vs
vv
vw
v
w
X
y
z
zo
z-
a
a f
ar
P .
{Jc
f3s
r
y
y
,
yd
Ys
Ysat.
Yw
A
0
d(> co ket
d() c<f ket trung blnh
ap hjc nuac lo rong
ap ll;!c khllo r6ng
ap lljc nuac lo rong
the tlch, the tfch rieng
the t_fch pha khl
the tlch pha ran
the tlch lo rong
the tfch pha nuac
the tlch rieng, toe
toc tham
trQng lttQng, tai trQng, ll;{c
d(> am (trong·cuon sach nay bieu thj d() am
bang chft m)
khoang each theo h11(1ng X
khoang each the'? huang y
d(> sau, khoang each theo huang z
d() sau khe nut do ch!u . keo
d(> sau toi d11C1ng hQp }ljc cua ap ll;!c
goc
g6c cua pha
so ma sat cua vong do
goc, goc cua mai dat
g6c gioi cua mai dat
SO rna sat ngoai (trong phU<tng tr}nh CQC)
phan h! chan cua the tich rieng
'
trQng htgng don vj the tich
trQng h:tQng don vi qua trong nuoc)
trQng l11Qng kho dan vj
trQng hiQng dun v! cua ran
trQng htQng don vj the tich bao hoa
trqng htQng vj cua nadc
sai phan hiiu d(_) chenh
goc ma sat iJ vach ( tuimg)
£
£1, Ez, E3
:
.
Es
...,
Ev
"l
(J
k

t
1
p.
f.L
0
, f.£1
v , v '

f .
p' ·
pd
P s
Psat.
Pw
Pa
I
6
6'
61' 62, 63
6' 1' 6' 2' 6' 3
"6 ' 6 '
ha' hp
6d
6'
h_.
6n
6:
n
6'
0
6'
; p
.
or
6'
v
bien tnjc tiep (phap tuyen)
cac bien chlnh
bien ·ca.t
. bien the tich
d9 nhlJt d(>ng ·
g6c
d() doc cda ducmg no
so d()
--
d() doc cUa. du:<mg thai gibi
soma sat
cac- so chuyen vj .
so Poisson
suat CUa nhom CQC, trung sai SO
dung trQng tt;t nhien, d_Q hin (chuyen Vi · be
dung trQng nttoc
dung trQng kho
.. dung trQng cua cac ran
dung trQng bao boa
dung trv-ng nttoc
suat tro bieu kien
t6ng, phep c(}ng
phap t6ng
dng suat phap qua
cac ·suat chlnh tc1ng
cac dng ·suat qua tong
ap .l1:_1c hong"chti d<_>rig va bj d()ng -
d(l dng suat
dng suat qua theo -phltong..__ngang
ung sua:t phap t6ng
. ung suat phap qua
ung suat qua cua lop phu
ung suat co ket truiJc
ung suat huang tam
ung suat qua theo phu<ing dung
--
19
rmax
"l" m' l" mob.
-,;r
<P
f{J
q;
,
,
cpc
lfru
,
. f{J f
f{J m' f{J mob.
,
f>r
f/Ju
'
q; ult.
X
qJ
1/J
(J)
20
cac thanh phan ung suat phap theo
huang x, y va z
ung suat cat
cuong dQ chong cat (ung suat cat khi pha
cuong d(> chong cat cao nha1 (mnh)
ctibng dq chong cat cl;(c
cuong d() chong cat dugc huy· dqng
cuong d() chong cat du
ham the
goc cua cuang d() chong cat trong khru
ung suat tong
goc cua cuong dQ chong cat trong khai
ung suat qua
goc gioi cua cuong d() chong cat
goc cua cuong dQ cat trong khai
ung sua:t tong dugc xac d!nh bang thl
co ket khong thoat ntt<Jc
g6c Ian nhat cua cu<mg d(> chong cat .
goc huy d()ng cua cuong d(> chong cat
g6c du cua cuO'ng d(> chong· cat
g6c ctia cuong d(> chong cat xac djnh trong
khong thoat nuac
goc cljc cua cuong d() chong cat
s6 ung suat qua cho dat bao hoa m()t
ham dong .
g6c
goc nghjeng

Chuang 8
AP Ll_IC HONG CUA OAT -
8.1. Can bang thuy tinh-· va can bang dan hoi
-
Dttui chat long a thai can bang thuy tinh (khong c6
dong chay), ni()t diem bat ky ap ltjc theo cac phuong Ia bang
nhau va tang tuyen tlnh v{ri d(} sau. ffinh 8-1 cho thay Slj phan
b6 ap lljc hong clia chat I6ng doi viii m()t chan. Vi the, t6ng
ltjc day hong cho moi chieu diU dan v! ctia chan bang tich
cua bieu do ap }ljc tam giac : --
Ap lljc hong : 6' h = y wz
Ll:_ic day hong : [8.1]
a day : Yw- trQng d<1n vj cua chat long.
Duong tac d1.:1ng cua P w di qua trQng ·tam cua tich bieu dO
1 . .
ap ll:_ic, co nghla Ia h =
3
H.
__ . Trong <fat, gifta cac dat, than da, than cOC vft cac
rai khac cO stlc can n()i ma sat phat trien gifta cac ke sat
nhau. D() ldn ap ll/.C hong czia dat ph\1 thu()c vao cac trung
d() ben khang cat cua dat, dieu bien. hong, ap ltjc
nttac lo va thai can bang cua da1. Nhftng yeu to
den lttQt, chung phl;l thu()c vao dieu thoat nu:uc, tac d1.:1ng
qua gifta dat va tui1ng, d9 lCin va chat cua cac chuyen vj
tucJng doi.
M()t the du<}c gQi la a thai can bdng dan hoi khi m()t
thay d6i nho cua ung suat tac d()ng len no gay ra m{)t thay doi
21
1. z
VII--
- =..!!
3
I· t'wff

liurk 8- 1. Ap I"'c hong l>di chat long
,
ung ve- bien. 0 thai can bdng deo, bien
khong thui).n ngh!ch dien ra khi ung suat khong thay doi. Tieu
chuan pha .hoq,i Mohr - Coulomb 6.4) la m(>t each ·bieu th!
thai can bang deo vC1i _gia thiet Ia, khi tapg dng suat khoi
dat van d thai can bang dan hoi cho den hie t(Ji dieu
chay deo (ph a tfnh toan ap ltjc da:t, lien quan t(Ji
ba thai sau :
a) thai tinh : can bang dan hoi khong c6 bien hong ;
b) thai chu d(>ng: can bang deo kem theo dan n<l hong;
c) thai b! dt}ng : can bang deo kern co ep hong.
Ap l\fc dat tinh
Neu thai ung suat trong khoi dat nam duai duang bao
pha Mohr - Coulomb (hay duong thai wai thl dat
con o thai can bang dan hoi (hlnh 8-2). Cung nhu the, tram
tlch a dieu thien nhien co htQng bien ngang khong dang
ke. Trong cac dieu nay, khoi da:t dUQC gQi !a d thai tinh
hay thai K
0
va quan ung suat qua· nam ngang () h
tl1ong ung vl1i ung suat qua thang dung () v m()t diem ba:t
ky nhu sau :
22
lJ day :
6' h = K
0
6' v [8.2]
K
0
- so ap _htc dat tlnh.

elY kY ·
. //
/
I
I
c
\
1
/

/
'!Jol
Kmh s-2 . .Ap h,fc itat tinh
I
I
I
I
/
/
/
I
.
'
Gia trj K
0
ph\1 thu()c vao l!ch sit chat tai I da tai va dq
tuong doi cua- dat. Vai da:t c6 ket thong thttong, Jaky (1944) de
nghj quan kha phil hgp vtJi gia trj quan sat (Bishop, ;
Brooker va Ireland, 1965), sau day :
K = 1 - sinm' [8.3a]
0 T C
a day : VJ' c - gia trj f's a thai c\fc
K
0
tang tai khoat;lg 1,0 cho dat hai qua co !ret va tang hon nfia
vbi sil qua co ket Rc :
. Ko( oc) = Ko(nc) l} {RJ
[8.3b]
Gia tr! cljc cua K
0
tu<1ng ung thai tren dubng
thai giai (xem ml}c 6.6) c6 nghla K
0
I> tgl(45° + VJ'j2). Neu
23 .
:;.
.'
. .
xay ra nd hong; tr! o_' h giam xuong cho toi khi. xuat
thai chu d()ng cua· chay deo, nghla la K
0
I< tgl(45° - VJ'j2).
Tien himh thf nghit?m gia tai m()t httC1ng trong phong thi
co the do duCJc gia trj K
0
. Chang lJ dudi du:i1ng thai gioi
taco:
dq'
3
(0"' 1 - 0"' :J
dp' = 0"' 1 + 2d' 3
Rut ra dttQc :
- K;o
3 - dq'/dp'
3 + 2dq'/dp'
Tit phttang trlnh [6.11], ciing c6 :
v'
Ko = l-v'
3(1. - KJ
1 + 2K
0
[8.3c]
[8.3d]
Dung thiel b! ep hong t\1- khoan (Mair va Wood, 1987), c6 the
do duc;sc ap l\fc nuilc lo rong va dng sua:t tong nam ngang {J
truimg roi tlnh dttgc K
0
• Bang 8- 1 cho cac gia trj cua
ICO.
BANG 8-1. PMM VI CAC GIA TRI
Cat z-di

nat set c6 ket thong thtiisng
Dat set q-Ja. oo tet
Dat set dam
K
0
0,45- 0,6
0,3- 0,5
0,5- 0,7
1,0- 4,0
0,7 - 2,0
8.2. c·an bang deo va ii thuyet Rankine
Cac vong tron tlnh thay hlnh 8- 2 bieu thj thai ma
0 dttai thai co pha trUQt. Tuy nhien, vlfi Slj chay deo
hong, (f' h se tang hay- giam, vbi dttang !dnh vong tron Mohr bien
doi tuong dng (AB hay BC!. Khi n<l hong, thai c3.J?- bang deo
24
(pha ho?i) dt1QC gia trj ff h C\!C tieu, khi ep CO hong
thai giCJi tCJi gia trj o' h ctjc Trong ca hai truifng h_qp
nay, sue chong cat ctia dat dtt(Jc buy a()ng toan bQ. Rankine (185-7)
gQi tttong tlng Ia thai chit dijng va b_i: d()ng ctia da:t. D9 'em
cu.a a'h chi ph1;1 thu()c vAo d<) ben khang cat cua <tat va ung suat
qua thang ddng, va Ia hiLi toan tlnh djnh, co nghla la khong
yeu cau tlnh den gia trj chuyen vj. -
Hay xem xet khoi dat khong dlnh, d6ng nhat, vi ban vo
co goc ma sat trong Ia VJ'. m()t diem bat kY l1 dl1ai-
nam ngang, dng ·suat q'JA lay bang :
U ng suat thAng dung tr v = o'
1
rr ng suat nam ngang o' h = ff 3
Cac vong tron Mohr bieu thi hai thai can bang deo co the
c6, deu tiep xuc vbi dttiJng bao pha (hlnh 8-3) bifi vi chung
deu quan vbi m()t dieu gioi
Cac diem Ava C bieu th! thai U:ng suat hong lien _hQp
tuong dng vCJi tr::J.ng thai chu d()ng va bi d()ng :
OA = 6' ha - ap ltjc hong chti d()ng ;
oc = ff hp - ap ltjc hong bj d()ng._
Khi no hong se d&n tbi 6' ha < (f' v·
, -
Khi co ep hong se d&n toi o' hp > ff v·
Til vong tron Mohr, pha dtlQC d!nh hulJng ttidng U:ng
bai goc aa va ap:
1
- (2a)
2
(9Q" + q:>') [8.4a]
1 1
ap =
2
(1800 - 2a) =
2
[1800- (900 + = 45°- cp'/2 [8.4b) _,
'
\ >--......
\ '
'
-,
\ '
'

0
D
-z:
a)
,'
----
/
o.,.
------
----
____ _J

--
Kutk 8-3. Cac tqmg thai can birng deo cna Rankine
a) t:r;J.ng thai chu d<)ng ; b) tr?ng thai b! d(»ng
Quan giua ap l-.jc hong giai va "ung suat thang dU'ng duQc
bieu th! bang so ap lttc dat : --
26
() ha = _Kao' v (Ka - so _ap l\fc da:t chu d()ng}
(J':' -
hp
v - h E} so ap h,:ic dat b! d()ng) _
Theo lttQng giac, soap l"tjc dat co the bieu dien qua
goc ma sat trong 'P' -cua dat. Dl;ia theo hlnh 8.:...3, ta co :
6'ha OA OF - AF 1 - AF/OF
Ka = rt v = OB = OF f FB = 1 + FB/OF
Nhttng AF = FB = FD va FD/OF = sin'P'
Nen:
1 - sinrp'
1 + SiDfP'
Do cac tam giac ODB
DB
va ODA dong ciing co
OB OD
OD OA
Nhung
Nen
DA.
DB
DA
OB
tgtt, chota: OA = tgla
OA
OB
......
1 - Silllp' _2 fJ'
Ka = 1 = ( 4f>O - -2 )
+ Sillf'
Tu<1ng tlj, ta co :
K
p
---------
1 + sinp' 'P'
= t....2 ( + -2 \)
1 - sinrp' !;
Dat dinb thoat n11ifc va khong thoat nttuc
Dieu kiin thotit nutic
[8.5a]
[8.5bl
Ly thuyet ban dau cua Rankine chi giru quyet ap hjc trong
(c6 ma sat) va khong xem xet den h;cc dfnh. Trong dieu
khong thoat nt1Uc va trong dat qua co ket, d¢ ben cat duQc
bieu toan bQ hay m()t phan bang l\fc dfnh bieu kien (cu hay
c'). Dlja tren pht1<1ng phap Rankine, nam 1915 Bell cong b6 lai giai
c6 hjc dfnh d\{ phan the bang m()t t ren tr\}C d() ben cat
(hlnh 8-4).
27
--
"
---
-
c
'1'/
.F
0 /1
13
cs-n.
/
,
I•
C C(YYf/ .
;Jio l·
6hz
·I
,
<Jv
lrmh 8-4. Vong tron Mohr cho ap hJc chu d()ng trong dat dinh
Ta thay dt1QC vong tron Mohr cung vdi duang bao pha cho
dat qua co ket. Nhu trong truim.g hQp dat khong dlnh, diem xuat
phat Ia ty so CUa cac dng suat qua : .
28
PA
PB
c'ctgo' + () ha
c'ctgo' + 6'
y
Nhttng ciing c6 :
PA PF - AF
PB PF+ BF
1- FD/PF:_
1 + FD/PF
1 - SiiYp'
- =K
1 + sinrp' a
Vi c'ctgfJ' + ti' ha = K
3
(c'ctgVJ' +a',).
Sap xep I¢ a' ha = Kaa' v + (K
3
- 1 )c' ctg fJ '.
Bay gio, taco :
, , , 1 - sintp' - (1 + siDp') cosp'
(Ka- l)c ctgo = c 1 + sillq'' si.Dp'
CO.Q<n'
-2c' __ --r--=---
1 + SillfP'
__
2
c, (1 - sin
2
f'')
1 + s!np'
_
2
c' "\ (
1
1 - sinrj/ )
+ SiJ¥' .
- 2c' VK
3
.
Vi the, ap l\fc chu d(}ng tlnh theo :
(} ha = Kat/ v - 2c' 1)Ka
Tttang tv, tinh duqc ap ltjc bi d(}ng :
ffhp = +
Dieu khOng thotit nu6c
[8.6a]
[8.6b]
Cac phttang trlnh [8.6a] va [8.6b] dUQc dung khi ch!u tai c6
thoat nl1i1c, bieu thj dieu lau dai clia can bang deo gii1i
Vbi bai toan can bang kMng thoat nuqc (ng3.n ngay) trong bao
hoa, goc ma sat IPu = 0 (xem m1;1C '!-1), va vl Ka = = 1 cho nen
ap lljc hong t6ng bang : .
Ap l\fc chu d(}ng oha = ov - 2cu
.Ai> l¥c bi d9ng ohp = ov + 2cu
[8.7a]
[8.7b]
8.3. Ap k!e hOng len 1uimg chin : dieu thoat rube
Xet t11ang co cac dieu dan gian nhat (hinh 8-5) : lung
tu<Jng nhan, thing dung chan gift khoi da:t c6 be khong chat
tai, nam ngang. Tit ly thuyet Rankine, up dQ sau z, ta co :
o' ha ·= K
3
y'z [8.8]
o day: y' - trQng htqng dan vi the tfch qua cua da:t_ ;
y' = y (is tren ml;!c nttllc ngam) ;
y' = Ysat· - Yw (is dl1ili mljc nuoc ngam).
chan t11i:Jng, khi z = H thi 6' ba = K
3
y'H.
T<lng ap htc ngang ctia diit len tl1()ng bang tich cUa. bieu
do phan 00 ap lljc va tac dl;.lng qua trQng tam CU.a tich nay :
CuiJng d() _ap bjc Wit chu d<)ng t6ng P A tlnh theo :
P A = ! tf hfi = ! K,.r'H
2
[8.9]
. 1
P A tac d1;1ng len lung tuang d(} cao
3
H ke tit chan tu<mg.
29
Kmh 8-5. PMn oo ap ltJc chu d()ng trong dat khong dinh
Vi d1} mA.u 8.1. M{)t tuimg coon co lztng tuimg nhan, thang _
dling chan giil kh6i dat co be mt'J,t ndm. ngang tOi d{) s4u 5,4m.
Hay ti.nh di) lcm cua_ uJng ap l ~ t c dat chit d()ng len tztimg va duimg
tiic d¥ng czia no. Dat co g6c ma sat fJ, la 300, hv,ng luqng don vt
y la 19,8 kN!m
3
. Mrtc n u o ~ ngam n4m o duOi chan tuimg.
Bdi gitii
Trude het, tfnh gia tr! Ka :
1 - sin300
K = - 0,333
a 1 + sin300
~ d(> sau 5,4m : tY ha = 0,333 X 19,8 X 5,4 = 35,6kN/m
2
. .
30
Tong ap htc· chu di)ng p A :
·p A = X 35,6-x 5,4 = 96L""l/m
,-
- - 1
tac dl}ng 4U d(} cao each chan tu<mg Ia :
3
x 5,4 = 1,8m .
Anh hu:img cua dat nghieng
Nai dat nghleng kbong ch!u tai, dng suat thing ddtig
d() sau Mt kY c6 gia tr! f( v =-y' zcosf3 (hlnh 8- 6). Gia d!nh ap h;cc
da:t hong tac d1;.1ng len h!ng _tl1img phhg thAng ddng se sopg song
vOi dat. Til vong tron Mohr, bang gim tinh co the dUQC
quan giua ap ll;tc va U'ng suat thang ddng. dil ca each
ve va giai tich c6 phdc han ; bieu thdc co ban chu yeu vAn gan
nhau.
--
,
a/,qrz;H, i
Jruth 8-6. Pban b6 ap hJc chu d()ng khi nghieng
31
Ap l\lc chu dqng tJ ha = Ka(J' vcos{J,
Ap hjc bj d()ng
(j' hp -:-
a day:
va
co'4J - (cot;.p - cot;.VJ')
Ka - cosfJ + (coff.p
cos{3 + · ( cot;.fi - ')
= - V (cofl.f3· - cofl.VJ')
1

[8.10a]
[8.10b]
N eu g6c nghieng clia dat bang goc ma sat, tdc Ia f3 = VJ',
thai chu d()ng va bj d{tng trilng nhau va (5' ha = (j' h = (5' vcosfJ.
Dat se a thai can bang deo gidi vl1i m(>t hQ cac
phb.g pha hoi# song song vl1i dat. Trong dat hoan toan khong
dinh (c' = 0), g6c cUa. nghieng khong dl1Qc Vlt<Jt qua g6c nghl
Ia g6c ma sat CUa da:t a thai riri nhat. .
Vi mAu 8.2. Lam lq,i vl dt!- TPAU 8.1 cho tntimg hQp mij,t
dat nghieng len tit dinh vOi dij d6c· l : 3.
Bai gidi
Goc nghieng dat {3 = · arctg(l/3) = 18,44°.
cos{3 = 0,9487 va = 0,8660.
. 0,9487-

-
Nen K cos{3 = 0 9487 = 0 399
a ' 0,9487 +

-

'
d() siiu 5,4m, ta co :
. . ?
(J' ha = 0,399 X 19,8 X 5,4 = 42,66 kN/m-.
va ctlong d() ap ltj:c chtl d()ng tdng '
1
P A =
2
. X 42,66 X 5,4 = 115kN/m
1
tac d1)ng d() cao tren chan tulmg la
3
x 5,4 = 1,8in, nghieng
voi phti<1ng nam ngang goc 18°44 {d() doc 1 : 3).
Anh huilng cua dat phan ldp
0 noi dat sau tttiJng c!:tan gom hai hay nhieu l6p, trulJc het xac
djnh S\1 phan 00 ap }lJC hong trong moi }(1p roi ve bieu do hQp nhat.
Gia sa phan each gi:fta hai ldp (l{Jp R nam tren lap S co
' . .
cac tntng tuang ung tp' R' yR va rp
5
, y
5
va dng suat qua
thAng dung Ia 6 ' v' thl ke sat phan liip tr ba - . KaRt5' v va
. ke sat dilm phan l(Jp 6' ha = KaSO"' v· Co bttl1c nhay d()t bien cua
cuiJng d(> ap ltjc hong trong bieu dO ap }ljc (xem vi dl} mau ;
trong thl;_tc te dieu nay khong xay ra, vi rang da 00 qua U:ng
suat cat nam ngang dQC theo phan lap. 'fuy nhien gia tbiet SJ$
phan bo nhu the Ia hQp lj, vi rang qua sai so ve d() Ian va vi
tri cua dl) tOng Ia khong dang ke
vi d9 8.3. Mi)t tuimg chan co lztng tuimg. nhan tMng
dang chan gift khoi dat tOi d{) sau 12m. Khoi .dat g'Qin co hai lap
n4m ngang:
LOp tren: = 0; ffJ = 2Efl; y = 18 kN!m
3
; be day 7,0m.
LOp duOi : = 0 ; tp = 3.r ; y = 20 kN!m
3
.
nuac ngam nltm duoi c/;.,P,n tuimg. Hay xac dtnh di; l6n va
cuimg di; ap chu d{)ng tong.
1 - sin2fr
0,361
+ sin28l 1
L6p dl1l1i K.t
1 - sina.fl
0,283.
-
1
Gia hi iip htc l{Jp da:t tren :
z = o thl (f'ha = o
z = 7,0m thi a' ha = 0,361 x 18 x 7 . 45,5 kN/m
2
.
3CHDfl'2
. ··. 33
Gia tr! ap 4U Idp dat _dum :
z = thl rr v = 18 x 7 = 126 kN/m
2
.
a' ha = x 126 = 35,7 kN/m
2

'4i z = 12,0m th! tJ' v = 126 + x 5 -- 226 kN/m
2

-a' ha = 0,283 _ x 226 = 64,0 kN/m
2

-s\1 phan bO ap thay li trong hinh 8- 7, tong tfch cUa
l>ieu do cho_ Ct(iJng d"Q ap l\{c-tdng cho met dai t11bng :
34
PA = Pl+P2 +P3
- 1 - 1
=- X 45 5 X 7 +35,7X 5-+ - (64 0 - 35 7) X 5 = 409kN/m
- 2 , -- 2 , - ,
- -
De tim h, lay ·inomen vlJi chan tttimg (PAh = : _
- 7 - 5 5
pi ( 5 + 3) + p 2 X 2 + p3 X 3
h
PI + p2 + p3 -
_ 159,3 )( 7,333 + 178,5 X 2,5 + 70;8 X 1,667
4 24
m
409- - '----
7-17./77
. - /
C =//
r,/ =
a=
... . . - ..
-
/h1uH:p4"c
H'mh 8- 7
- .../ .
? -
Anh hudllg cua tai ti"C}ng phl:,X tren mjj.t (thoat nude)
Neu tdi tr9ng phf!. q la ph4n b6 tac -d9ng tren bQ
dat thi c6 the gia thiet Ia dng suat qua thang dang tang theo
gia tti. clia tai trQng -phlJ.
Nen d() sau z, ta c6 :
rrv = y'z + q va tr ha = K
3
(y'z + q)
F
VI the, tuy theo truesng h<Jp, ap l\fc hong _tang tttcng dng vm
K
3
q -
Vi dl}. mAu 8.4 • . Lam lqi, vi df!, m4u: 8.1 khi co citng c4c
cu nhung them tdi trQng phi!, 48 kN/m
2
dOng nMt, ph4n b6
rl)ng tren mij,t dat .
.J;-+/77.
-1


,
h
limk 8-8
35
Bdi gitii.
Giong nhu tntlJc Ka = 0,333, va sau 5,4m ta c6:
do tiQng htgng dat :
do tii trQng ph\1 :
a' ha = 35,6 kN/m
2
,
IT ha = 0,333 48 · 16,9 kN/m
2
.
. .
Hinh 8-8 cho thay Sl/- phan bo ap h.;tc, trong do p 1 va p 2 tl1Ung
dng 1a hgp l1Jc clia diEJn tfch hlnh chft va tam giac :
P
1
--: 16 x 5,4 = 86,4
1
P
2
==
2
x 5,4 = 96,lkN/m.
Cltimg d<fap ll:tc- chu d(}ng t6ng se Ia :
)
P A = P
1
+ P
2
..:_ 182,5 kl"'l/m
tac d1;1ng ll d<} cao h each chan :
86,4 X 2,7 + 96,1 X 1,8 =
2
,
2
Sm.
h = 182,5
Trong truang hgp tdi /;r(!ng phan b6 theo duong thdng va td.i
,
tlj,p sil ly
thuyet dan hoi co the
dttgc cac lm giai toan hQC.
Can thiet c6 m9t so cAi tien
Q

de ket qua ly thuyet phil T
hQp vlli gia trj ap 1\):c quan
sat dl1gc.
(
· · . tai tr9ng phan b6
theo dztimg tMng (hinh 8-9),
tacO ·=
(t = .
rz xH(m2+ n2)2
- .
doi v(Ji m < 0,4, m == 0,4
36
<] _ !
H'mh 8-9. Ap h.tc hOng do tai trQng phl}
pMn oo theo d11dng thAng
/
Khi tdi trQng tlj,p trung (hlnh ·8-1 0 ), ta c6 :
1,77Qnln2 d6- "= o 4 - ·o 4 - [8.12a]
()' =
2 3
r v0.1 m < , , m - ,
rz H2(m2 + -
Sl$ bien thien theo :
t:F rz(y) = 6' rzco5
2
(1,1a) [8.12b]
'
'
.,


X
.6)
-
-H'UIIJ 8-1 o. Ap ltJc hoiig do tai trvng phg trung
a) bi6t d&i theo phtfdng dung ; b) bi6r d6i theo pbtfdng ngang
- -
Tlch phan phtt<Jng trlnh [8.11] hay [8.12a] gi_ua gi8i 0 va
H c6 the dtt(fc ll:fc day hong cho moi met dai cua t11ifng ; vi
in c1ia no tim ra bang each lay momen trong bieu do phan bO -
c11<mg -d9 ap ll:fc.-Cac s6 dung trong cac bieu thdc sau, lien -
- - • X -
d(} Ian va vi trl cua ti)ng ap ll:fc hong vlri cy s6 m = H' dttQc cho-
trong bang 8-2.-
Cho tdi trf)ng pMn bo duimg thdng :
(8.13a]
[8.'!3b]
37
-
-
:
..
Cho tdi tf!,p trung :

Psp = KsP Q!H -
[8.14a]
z = N
5
pll
[8.14b]
P S(y). . P gpCog2(1;la) [8.14c]
BANG 8-2 HS s6 .AP Ll}C HONG CHO TAl TRQNG -
TiffiN PHAN s6 rimo DUONG rnANo vA TAP TRUNG
'
.
.
I
X · Tai trQng theo dttdng thing
T'ai trQng trung
m =-
.
H -
KsL
NSL
.
KSP
NSP
-
0,4 • 0,793 0,410
-
0,546 0,389
-
.

0
0,591 0,471
0,505 .
0,437
. .
0,6
-
0,451 ·o,5ts 0,463 0,475
0,7 0,349 0,556 0,422 - 0,504
0,8 0,272 . 0,585 0,382 0,528
'
.
0,9 -0,214 _0,609 0,345 0,547
1,0 0,169 0,627 0,312 0,562
.
1,1 0,135 0,642 0,282 0,574
1,2
"'
0,108 0,655 0,255 -_ 0,585
1,3
,
0,087 0,665 0,231 0,593
1,4 0,071 0,673 0,209 0,600
1,5 0,058
0,190
:
-
0,606
:._1,6 0,048" 0,686 0,174 0,611
-
. .
1,7 (_),039 0,691 0,159 0,615
1,8 0,033 0,695 0,146
.
0,619 .
.
0,622
-
1,9 0,028 0,699 0,134
-
2,0 0,023 0,705 0,123 0,625
·-
-
-
-
Trong CP2 Cac cong trinh chttn dat (1951), de nghj m9t-llJi giai
dung. Phttdng phap nay, duQc mieu ta a hlnh 8-11, cho lm giai
dan gian d n<ri dat c6 ma sat va da:t nain nghieng.
38
I
,-
:
I
..
Cho ttii tr()ng tac d'f!,ng· theo
d'llimg tMng :
-
"' ·
Anh huilng cua
nude ngWn
[8.15a] ·
[8.15b]
Trong dat set bao hoa nttlJc
(<tat co tlnh. tham kem), dieu
nguy hiem nhat ra d
Him khong thoat nulJc. . Trong
truiJng hqp nay, · dung cac dnf
suat tdng va cac thong sO cu ya
y Ia thlch h«Jp. Ve ly tulrng thl f'u
X
Kmh 8- 11. Ap hJc hong do _
tai trti_pg tac d\lllg
d11ang thing (CP 2002)
bang khong. Th\fc hanh dung d3.n cac oong trlnh chan dat Ia
duifng thoat nttlJc thfch va nhtt the dam dtCQc dieu
hoan toim thoat nulJc. Sau _ khi dap, khoi · hoa ntiac
can c6 m()t thm gian de thoat nttlJc,_ nhltng nen gia thiet la dieu
dn «ijJih dtCQC cai trong thifi gian }au dai tit dieu
khong thoat ntClJc ban dau (tpu = 0). ·Trong m()t so da1 set pha
cat mem va qua cO ket nhieu, ap hjc hong lau dai co xu httlJng
tang,, tai gia bang dng suat thAng ddng. Dat thai xau
nhat bieu nhu m()t djch the c6 _trQng lttQng don vj ·y.
Trong khong dfnh, thl h<Jp ly Ia chap gia thiet
rang ap lljc ntelJc lo rong d noi nam tren ntelJc ngam Ia
bang khong. Phai chuan b! tot dieu thoat. ntelJc cho khoi .dat
de m1Jc1 nulJc ngim khong the dang len qua chan tttang. Trong
tntang hQp nay, trQng lttQng dan vj qua cUa. dat y' bang trQng-
lttqng don vi the tfch thoat ntClJc y. Neu mljc nttlJc ngam dang len.
phla s au tttiJng do thoat ntllJc kem hay l9t bat thte<mg_ thl
trQng htQng don vf qua cUa. dat d dulJi m\tc nttlJc ngam se
bang Y sat. Y w·
39
Gia .thiet rang khong c6 dong tham va mljc n116c ngam
dat (khong chat tai), thl ap l\tc hong d(> sau z se bang :
Chu dl)ng tr'ha - K
3
(ysat.- fw)z [8.16a]
Bi di}ng
Thuy tinh
Pw .
[8.16b]
[8.16c]
Khi tfnh toan thl tOng ap lljc tac dt}ng len tltirng pbai bao gam
ca. ap- }ljc thuy tlnh gay ra blri ap ll:{c n11ac lo rong :
1
pw = 2 Yw?!-
- Vi dy mAu 8._5. Mi)t tuimg chan co lung tuimg nhan, thang
dang, chan khoi diU tot. di) · sau 1Om. Cac ·dtj,c tntng d6t :
c' = 0 · m' = 28° y = 18 kN/m
3
· y = 19 5 kN/m
3
, r ' ' sat . '
xac dtnh di) lOn. va_ vt tri czia tong ap. llf,c chzi di)ng len tuilng
trong cdc dieu sau :
40
a)- mlf,c nztac ngam o dum chan tuimg ;
b) mlf,c nztac ngam b4ng m(j,t dat ;
c) mlf,c nuac ngam giila mij,t di£t va chan tuimg.
JJdi gi4i:
K
3
.· = tgl(45°- 28/2) = 0,361
a) Mlf,c nu{Jc ngam o duOi chan tllimg (hinh 8-12a)
. .
Trong hQp nay y' = 18 kN/m
3
P A _= ! K,.r'H
2
= X 0,361 X 18,0 X 1o2 = 325kN/m
.
- 1
va. h =
3
H
3,3&11
,

I• •1 I• •I
- - 4J - 9
IrmiiB-12
b) Mile nztoc ngam ... mij,t dat (hlnb 8-12b)
\ -
Trong trttiJng' hQp nay - co hai bieu do ap ltjc va·
. i'= 19,5- 9,81
P = !_ K y' H
2
-
2
1
X 0,361(19,5- 9,81) x to2 175kN'm
A a
va P =
1
- y' H
2
= _!_ X 9 81 X to2 = 490 kN/m . -
w 2 2 '
I
Tong ap 1\fc P = P A + P w _-=-:o 665kN/m
'lam cU.a hai bieu dO trilng_:-·nhau :
1
1i = -H =333m -11
a-- ,
- -
c) Mile nuiic ngam n4m gifta inij,t dat va Chari tztiJng (b]nh 8:-12c) .
r -
Trong trttiJng hQp nay cO hai bieu dO ap }tjc va da:t dttQC COi nhtt
.,
"co 2 lap. 0 tren nuac ngam y' = 18,0 va a du:(Ji mljc nuac
ngam y' = 19,5 - 9,81.
: mtjc nttac Rgain: z = 5m va a'ha = 0,361_ x 18 x 5 = 32,5
kN/m
2
.
41
chan tttong : -
Z = ·10m va o'v = 18,0 X 5 + (19,5 - 9,81)5 _= 138,8 kN/m
2
,
a' ha = 0,361 X 138,5 = 50,0 k.N/m_
2
·C?n PA = P
1
+P
2
+P
3
1 1
=
2
X 32,5 X 5 + 32,5 X 5-+
2
( 50,0 - 32,5) _5 = 288kN/m
1
-p = - X 9,81 X 5
2
= 123kN/m
w 2
- Tong ap ll;{c P = P A + P w = 411 kN/m
De tim vj trl cUa. P, lay niomen viJi chan: tuemg :
- 5 - 5 5 5 - -
PI(5+a)+P2 x 2+P3xa+Pwxa -
h = --------------------------------- = 2,98m·
PI +P3 +Pw
, ......
Dieu thoat n1tlic trong dJft
DtJa tren tleu ch!lan Mohr - Coulomb cho trong ml}c 8.2 (phu<1ng
8.6a va 8.6b), liJi giAi cua Bell cho ap llJc dat chu· d9ng- va b!
d9ng nJ!tt sau : ·
Ap
, luc chit dong· : ti'h = K a' - -2c'-'Ir
· · a a v w.n.a
Ap ll!-c bi: di)ng : a' hp = v +
- Vi the, dung ung suat qua c6 the xem. xet thai pha
C6 thoat nttl1c cho dat set qwi co ket (c' > 0). Thy nhien, phan
_t.jc dfnh tham d\1 lien che gia bl nho CUa bien
trong khi iJ can deo -sl:J. chay deo-keo theo bien iJ
ll1n. Cac gia tti c' th\fc hay ttl1c111Qng c'fthe
duqc doi vl1i dieu iJ 9inh pha nhung hQp 11 hon nen gia
<ijnh la S\f chay deo se ra 0 thai dng_ suat eat t{ri
(cu6i cung). Do de ngh! Ia trong phan ilch co thoat nl1lfc _
cho qua co ket, d d$ng c6 khe nut, nen .chQn cac
thong so sau :
42
.J
.
·-
I
i
I
i.
I
I
I
I
I

V(Ji bai toan bien tityen trong dat set qua c6 ket:
c' = 0 vit·. = tp' c ·(gia· trj thai t(Ji [cuoi cling]):·
V(Ji trttilng hQJ> khi bien hong d1;t doan rat thap :
- ' c' > 0 (nhltng 1 20 k.N/m
2
) va .VJ' = tp' f (g!a trj dlnh) .
V(Ji set c6 ket thong t"f!,u:img (tat ca cac trttbng hQp) :
c' = 0 va rp' = rp'c {gia tr! iJ thai ·wi [cuoi c:Qrig])
8.4. ll!c hong len tuang chan : dieu
thoat nuoc
' Khi tai trQng thay doi, cat va cuqi thoat nu(Jc tlj do nharib
chong, vi the th\Lc te khong xay ra thai khong thoat
nltoc. Trong dat set va dat bl}i, tOe dq giam ap 11$c nU(Jc lo r6ng
dtt do thay doi tai trQng rat quA Ia, can xem ·xet dieu
kit?n pha cho ca S\1 tai CO thoat nltOC va khong thoat nttac.
81$· on djnh ngity CUa tttbng lien quan vai diem khong
thoat nt1lic, dl!QC tien hanh phan tlch theo dng suat tong.
Trong phan ldn c3.c van de thiet ke cho dat _set va bvi bao hoa,
thai ph.a. _ khong thoat n11dc .Ia thai nguy hiem. h<1n
ca. Bieu thdc ap ll$c hong Ia cac phtt<mg trlnh 8. 7a va 8. 7b :
Ap htc '?hu d()ng : aha ·av - · 2cu
Ap lljc bj d()ng : _abp = O"v + 2cu
Khe nUt cang.
Doi vai chan nhan, thang ddng, ap l1;tc chu dQng · phan bO
nhtt a hlnh 8- 13. Ap ltjc hong ton t<Ji d() sau zo' do. ap
ll$c chu d()ng b3.ng khong. rnp dat, khi z = 0, ap bjc chu dqng
.,
cod() Ian Ia- 2cu. 0 trong dai ap l1:_tc am nay, dat sea thai
keo hong. Theo quan diem th\Lc sdc keo nay Ia tlnh hoan
toan n()i bQ CUa khoi dat. Noi the nghla 18., no k.hong the tac dl}Dg
len btbng va khong can phai chong d(1: Khe nUt ciing CO httlntg
phat trien trong dai ch!u keo, xuat phat til dat va keo diU
. xuong dttai t(Ji de) sau ctjc d;p. zo. Trong tlnh toan cttbng d() ap 11$c
43
' .
hong chti d()ng, bO qua ddi chju keo va gia trj P A lay
tfch dttang d1if1c ngang). . .\ . _


. ZCq,
r
I•
.. f
t
....
z
-Kudl 8- 13. S\1 pban b6 ap hJc clui d(}ng trong dat set bao hc>a
Tdng ap 1\iC chu d()ng p A . tfnh theo :
. 1
p A = 2 0"' ba(H)(H - zJ
. .
con t:un ke khong chat tai :
. ... . . •. 1 . 2 .
PA = 2 y(H - zJ .
. .
[8.17a]
l8. 17b]
P9 sau clia dm cbiu keo oo the tim ·tu phttung trlnh rs:7a1 ·bang
z :- va a' ha = 0. Cling c6 ti' v = yzo' vi khong co tAi
trQng phl} tren diit va ap l\{c nltclc 16 rong bang khong.
44
. .
Cho nen ti' 113 = yz
0
- 2'b = o:· .
Rut ·ra :

z =-
0 'Y
.
. -[8.18]
-.
.. Ap diit bi dqng trong dat set bao hoa
·s\t phan oo ap lljc b! d(}ng trong Wit set khong thoat .nttiJc nhtt
lJ hlnh 8-14. Tong tip lttc dat bt dQng do da:t ra (khi khong
chat tai tren dat) cho bdi tich cua vilng dl1Qc ngang.
Tdng ap lljc dat b! d()ng P P-=PI+ P2
1 2
=
2
yH + 2cu [8.19]
. Dttirng tac dl}ng cua hQp lt;tc nay tim dttQC bang lay
vlJi chan ttt<sng : ·· ·
P
1
x !H +P
2
x !H
li - -------------------
. PI+ p2
[8.20]
Zcu
I• •I
1\
'\
I \.
I \. z
I
'\
I ""\. ,
"' %tz.J
I """\.
-.
"\
f
"'
Pz
""\
I ""\
I
\
I
\
I
" I \.
I
\.
I '\
.
'\
I """\.
2Cu (fH
I• ·I", •I
G""A.ir{'.H)
I· a.l

Kuala R-14. S\f pban b6 ap · 1\fc d3t hi d<)ng trong da:t dinh thong thoat m1&
Vi d¥ mlu 8.6. Mi)t tuimg chlm co lung tztimg nluin, tluing
chan giu kiWi -dat s® Bm, co be mq,t kh!Jng cMt tdi. -Hay
tinh cuimg di) ap llf,c dat chu di)ng len tuiing khi dat co cac dac
tnlng sau:
C
0
= 32 kN/m
2
; ifu = 0; y = 18 kN!m
3

45
Baigitii
DQ sau cua d<1i chju keo :
z
0
= 2c
0
/y = 2 X 32/18 = 3,5.6m
Tong ap lljc chu .d()ng :
1 2
pA·= 2y(H- zJ
1
- = - x 18(8,0 - 3,56)
2
= 178 kN/m
2
tac dl}Ilg a d() cao chan tliang Ia :
i
3{H zJ = 1,5m
,
Anh h11bng c-.ia w trqng phl} tren DU)t (khong thoat nuiic)
Neu tai trQng phl} q tac d9ng tr:en mij.t dat ·1a. dong nhat, ·
,. .
phan bo r()ng khap thl ap 1\{c;.chu d()ng thing ddng va ap lljc b!
d()ng se Ia:
(J'v = yz + q
[8.21a]
..A_p llf,c chU di)ng .: [8.2lb]
Ap lrtc bj dQng : · [8.21c]
· Trang tntimg hQp chu dl)ng, anh ctia tAi ph1;1 lam
giam d(> sau clia diJi chju keo _ph1;,1 thu()c vilo q < · 2c
0
hay q > 2c
0
,
thl c6 the c6 hai phan bo ap 1\tc chu d(}ng (hlnb 8-15). Co.
the phan bang each d:inh gia dg sau chju keo z : gia trj
dttang khi q < . 2cu (hinh 8-15a) va tri 4m khi q :::: 2cu. (hi:rih
g.:... 15b). .
De d11Qc zo' aha = 0 va z = z
0
va co: a =O=yz +q-2c
ha o . u
46
I
'
'
!
;
I
.
I

i
l
- - -
}---

, .. 31/s?.,
t?} 9'('2Cv
I• •I
1} ?'/2Cu
Do
lilllh B-15. Anh hlldng ciJa t3i trQng phQ tdi
su pban b6 ap IUc chu d()ng
2'b -q
z = ---
0 y
[8.22]
TrOng trttilng h<.:fp khac, tdng ap hjc cho bdi tfch cUa
bieu do.
Vdi q < 2c
0
thl : P A = ! y(H - z,/·
[8.23a]
·vm q > 2c thl · P = .!.. y(H - z '
2
- .!..
u • A 2 ol 2 o
1
= nY(H- 2zJH
2 .
[8.23b]
. .
-Vi d1J mlu 8.7. Mqt tuimg chtm co lung P.Jimg nhdn, thg,ng
dllng, cao Bm, coon giil dat co-cac dij,c tn.tng nhu sau :
c = 30 kNim
2
• m = 0 · y = 18 5 kNim
3
u. , ru , , ·
Hay ti nh gia tri tOng tip lttc :
a) mijt dat khOng co tdi trt,ng phy, ;
b) mij,t dat co tiii tr9ng p·hl!- la 25kN/m
2

c) mij,t dat co td.i trgng phy, la 75kN!m
2
.
47
48
Bdi gi4i
a) Mq,t dat khong co_ tdi tNJng ph¥
. -

Z
---
- -
0 ,
2 X 30 -
185
= 3,24m
'
_- -Tong ap -l\fc chu d()ng:
1 ' 2
p A = 2 y(H - zJ -
·-
1
=
2
x 18,5(8,0 - 3,24)
2
= 210 kN/m.
b) nii trQng q = 25kN!m
2
2<;,. 2 X 30 - 25
z = - = = 1,89m (d11<1ng)
0 , 18,5 -
Tong ap _ll;.tc chu d()ng :
- - -1 -
p A = 2 y(H-- zJ2
1 2 -
=
2
x 18,5(8,0 - 1,89) = 345kN/m.
c) 7lii- trf)ng phf!.-q ::;:: 75 kN!m
2
2cu . -
z
---
- -
0 ,
2 X 30-75 - -
18 5
= - 0,814 m (am)
'
ap l\fc chu d()ng :
' 1
p A = -2 y(H - zJH
1
·=
2
X -+ 2 X 0,814)8,0 = 712_ kN/m
Tfnh theo each khac :
Z = 0 thl aha = yz + q - 2cu = - 75 - 2 X 30 = 15,0

z = 8 thl aha = 18,5 x 8 + 75 - 2 x · 30 = 163,0 kN/in
2
Tong ap chu d()ng :
1
p A = - X 8(15,0 + 163,0) = 712 kN/m
2 - '
·.
-
!
i _
8.5. Li thuyet Coulomb va tuiJng nham
dii ll thuyet Rankine cho giai thlch
tfnh toan don gian, -nhttng rio co m()t so che va dAn aen nhftng
sai so. No d\ia tren gia htng tttang_illuin, thang dung ma
xet den d{) nghieng cua lung ttti1ng IAn ma sat gifta htng
tui1ng va dat. Tuy nhien, sai sO nay chi xay ra cJ phla an toan va
vi the cac gia tti tfnh toan dttQc Ia c6 tfnh bl quan. Vl1i bai. toan
khi dat nam nghieng bat thui1ng va tai trQng ph1} tac
d\}ng tren dat khong theo quy phdc t?p thl vi(k!--sa
dt_J.ng kho khan. Ll thuyet Rankine dtiQC xep vao li thuyet bien
dUOi va ·do_ cho lui gifrl bi quan vi no gia thiet }a Slj chay CUa _
toan b(} rong trlnh dttQC an_· trong slj chAy cua m()t tll nho.
80 trul1c khi Rankine bo ll thuyet cua minh,
Coulotnb (17'16) da dua ra gia thuyet Ia cuang d() ap l1;,tc tac d9ng
lei) tui1ng nen hili nem dal day vao lung tttbng.
Xem xet nem dat thay d hlnh 8-16a. Khi tttang hoi chuyen djch
se dan den da:t iJ thai chu d{)ng va nem co xu httl1ng di chuyen
ve phla ittang. Luc xay ra nhtt nem trttQt xuong theo
ttti1ng AB va dQC theo phA hQai BC. Cac l1Jc tac dt_1ng len nem
0 thai can bang deo gii1i nay cimg vm tam giac h;tc
cho a trong hlnh 8-16b va 8-16c. Day Ia van de phan tich thuan
tiiy C(J hQC cac 1\fc tac _dt_J.ng len nem.
w - trQng lttQng cua nem dat ; cho dat dOng nhat thl.
1
W _
2
ysin(/3 + 8) . AB .
P A - cttang d{) ap h;tc dat chu d()ng len ttti1ng ;
R- phan h:tc c1ia dat (gbi tri khong yeu cau phai biet) ;
a - gOC pliang pha ;
f3 - g6c ·nghieng clia ;
- -
J - gOC ma sat CUa ttt<Jng gjUa ttt<Jng va dat ;
- - I
8 - gOC nghieng tttbng ;
-.
49
f[J' - : goc ma sat cua dat ; -
y' - trQng luQng ddn vj cua da1.
hj
.
'
c
c)
_ Jrmh B-16 - Li nero ciJa Coulomb
a) cat; b) cic hJc tac d1;1Dg lm nem; c) tam giac ll}c
. .
. I
. G6c ma ·sat cua tuimg J lien quan vm ca g6c ma sat cda dat rp'
va d{) nham.cua tttlfng. Vm.tltbng be tOng thang ddng, thttang chQn
gia trj ,tily j nam gifta 1/2 tp' va 2/3 rp'. Tri so J CO-· the xac dj.nh
trong phong thl h{)p cat cho cac miu hon h<Jp datI
., ,
be tOng; 0 ca tnptg chu d(}ng va hi d()ng, ma sat tttbng a gan
chan tuemg c6 anh hltong th\IC Slj: Ia 1!-en pha cong
(hinb Tu.y nhien, trong phan tlch Coulomb l:P gia. thiet
pha phAng. -
50
H',a 8-17. Mijt pM cong ·do ma sat aia tuiJng
Sai so khong dang ke trong tnt<1ng h<Jp ap 1\tc chu d()ng
nh11ng cho tnc<ntg hQp ap_l\tc hi d()ng c6 d >- tp'/3 (xem m\}.c 8.7),
ket qua tinh-d11Qc Ia qwi llJn.
a.&. Ap ll!c ·chu d{»ng len tuang nham
Dieu ki(m thoat n11oc (c' = 0)
Xem hlnh 8-I6, co the tbay Ia d() llJn cua ap 1\tc hong cho_
-bdi tt:Qng l11Qng W nem ABC va cac goc khac nhau· :
P A = Wsin(a - -tp')/sin[(8 +-d) - (a - y>')]
va W=! y'sin(/J+ O).AB.BC= !y'H
2
xF{a,p,6} .
Vi the
1 'H2
PA = 2 Kay

l1 day Ka = F{a,{3, 8}, dP/Ja = 0 thl tim dt1Qc gia trj Cljc
ctia no. Nh11 trong tru<ntg hQp chu d()ng, khi a = a
3
thl =·
[8.25]
-I sin(8 - fJ') I sidl _ 1
2
-- [sin(8 + + _/ [ -sin(tp' : d)sin(tp' - {3)]
- v stn(8 - {!)
Cho tru:lfng hQp doo gian· nhat, diem ctia P A tren tttbng
(diem B) a de? cao 1/3 H ·ttt<1ng- xem them ml}c 8.8. Gia
tri K
3
c6 the lay theo bang_ 8-3.
51
KA
Kp
liANG B-3. c.Ac H€ s6 .AP Ll}c DAT (khi = O)
(ci.i bien tif CP2 vdi siJ cho prep ctia Vien lieu Anh)

15' 3cf 3s<> 4cf
0 0,4-1 . 0,33 0,27 0,22
10° 0,37 0,31 0,25 0,20
20° .
0,34 0,28 0,23 0,19
300
-
0,26 0,21 0,17
0 2,5 3,0 3,7 4,6
10° . 3,1 4,0 4,8 6,5
.
2ffl 3,7 4,9· 6,0 8,8
.
30° 5,8 7,3 11,4 -
* Khi khong c6 s6 Iit;u xac dinh, c6 gia trj <S cho day
4s<>
.
0,17
0,16
0,15
0,14
-
-
-
-.
.:
Clui 4i}ng Bi 4i}ng
Tt1dng bttong hay U:fdng
CQC tiJep phti nhJJa dpiJng
CQC tbep khong oo lisp phti
Trong truifng hqp tl:!i1ng nhin truing dung va dat nam ngang
o = 0, 9 = 90° va p = 0, phuang trlnh [8.25] rut thanh :

1 -sinrp'
1 +sinrp'
Phuung phdp do gidi;
tttong· du<Jng loi gilli cUa. Rankine.
Khi dat khong phang hay c6 tai trQng phtJ, tinh toan bang
gilli tich dlja tren phuang trlnh [8.24] va [8.25] khong dang.
Cullmann (1866) da dtta ra each giai bang dO giAi d<Jn gian co xet
den sat ctia ttt<mg, khong va tai trQng f4p
trung tai trQng phl.:l dong nhat. Tren cat tu<Jng theo tl
52-
ve m()t cac nem thu (ABCl' ABC
2
, ABC
3
, ... ), - kem theo Ia
m()t da giac lt.:tc (hlnh 8,_18).
lJ
\
.
'
Irmh phiip cho c!at khotig dinh
a) cac nan ve tbU; b) da giac hJc -
u
TrQng htQD.g CUa cac nem W
2
, W
3
, ..• dttQC--tlnh va Ve dQC
theo dttimg tai trQng chung OW 1' OW
2
, OW
3
, •.. Vm m()t nem bat
ld, goc gif1a W va P Ia : 180 - 8 - d va g6c gifta W va R Ia : _a -
VJ'. Cac dttimg lt.:tc bieu p va Q cho m6i nem dt1QC ve til dttiJng
- tai trQng cho chung cat nhau nen xac djnh dt1QC gia tri p cho
moi trltiJng_ hqp. Thn gia trj ct.:tc P A bang each : tru6c het ve
-,.m9t dttifng cong tran (dl1iJng Cullmann) di qua cac diem cat roi
ve duiJng song song dttang tiri trQng, no se tiep v<Ji
dttang cong.
Tu tiep tuyen nay, ve tam giac lt.:tc OTW bieu nem
pha tht.:tc st.:t, cac gia trj duqc nhu sau :
----
p A . TW va af = TOW
53
,_
. .
Phuong phap Cullmann thich dng de hQp nhat bien
d6i khac. ChAng nhu tren nem truQt co tai trQng phl}. Trong
tr11Cing hQp tlri trQng phlJ. dong nhat (hinh 8-19), tr(•ng htQng
cua moi nem se tang len trj so -qcosfJ.AC. ·Trong trubng h<Jp tai
1rmh 8-19. li nfm: 3nh htldng ctia t3i trQng ph\1 phan 00 d6J
trQng phl} -tac dl}ng theo dttang thang, de ve m()t trong
cac pha thil diem cua l1Jc (hinh 8-20). Cho toi
khi tdi diem nay thi bo qua tai trQng do trQng htQng ne;m, roi sau
do dttQc dtta vao. Khi ve da giac lljc se thay Ia co nhay
d()t bien tren duiJng Cullmann n<1i co tai trQng theo du<Jng
thang. Tuy gia trj p A CljC· dt1QC tim theo cung each lam
truac day.
Dieu khong thoat nude (f'u = 0)
Dieu khong thoat nuac gia djnh xay ra iJ sau tubng trong
da:t set bao hoa khi thai gian thi oong nhanh, ngan ngay ap
ltjc nude rong dtt chua trong m()t thai gian sau do. Trong
cac tntang hgp nhu the, ngtt<Ji ta xem xet slJ c>n d!nh ngin ngay
vm ung suat tong va d() ben cat khong thoat nu{lc ctia dat, tuc Ia
1: = cu va 'l'u = 0. Nghien cuu truang hQp khong phuc ria m()t
tuemg nham thang_dung va dat nam ngang (hinh 8-t21a). M()t
54
l
6)
q.·
HI.: 2
'-4
0
lrmh 8-20. Li nem : -3nh hu<Jng ct1a tai trQng phg theo dt1<1ng
a) vi tri cUa cac nem thif ; b) dO l\(c

//I• H qoc ;----=!
/.,IT,....
H Fwf -t,:

KcosQ('
lJ
,
uv«{HJ.
I« ... I
a)
h)
_ Kmh 8-21. Li thuyet Coulomb trong dieu kif;n kliong thoat nu&
55
phang pha BT gia thiet ket thuc a chan khe nut· cang
, "
d<) sau z
0
. 0 thai gibi nem ABTC duy tri duQc can bang
blJi sau }ljc :
1 .
· W - trQng h.t?ng cua nem ABTC ; W =
2
y(HZ - zJ
2
cotgx ;
E - ·phan lt!c phap tuyen ctia pha ;
p a - ap lljc chu di)ng tac d1}ng len tuang ;
F c - ll!c chong cat dQC theo BT ; F c = c
0
(H - z
0
) coseca ;
F W - - ll!c chong cat dQC theo AB ; F w = cw(H - zo) ";
p w - ap lljc hong blJi nttac trong khe nut cang ;
1
pw = 2 rEo
cu:ang d(> cat khong thoat nuoc (1\{c dfnh) ;
cw - hjc dlnh khong thoat nu<Jc gifia tuiJng va dat.
D(> Ibn llf,c dink ella. tuang bien doi giua 0,3c
0
cho dat set
tm bang cu cho dat set yeu, nhttng vi xuat dQC theo
tuang ron phai ban cai. Khi khong co chung cb thljc
thuiJng chap gia tti la· 0,45c
0
; trong CP2 (1956) de ngh! gia
tzi cl$c Ia 50kN/m
2
.
Tu da giac l1Jc tac d9ng len nem (hlnh 8-2lb), co the thay Ia :
Rcosa=W-Fsina-F
c w
tit do :
R = Wseca- Fctga-
va
P A - P w = Rsina - F ccosa = Wtga - F c(sina tga + cosa) - F ctga
Sau khi thay the W, F c va F w' ta co :
1 c "
P A - P w =
2
y(H
2
- z,/ [{I + tga + cotjp]
-
De tlm gia trj a a' gia trj a cho P A cljc Hiy vi phan :
OP c
oaa = - cu(H - zJ [ ( 1 + cw) sec?-a - cose<1a] = 0
u
56
r

l
!
i
i
I
I
I
I
tit d6 cotgx
3
= lJ(l + c.Jc
0
)
VI the:
1
P A = 2 y(H2 - - - zJ..J (1 + cvfcu)
hay
P = _!_ y(H
2
- z
2
' - c (H - z 'K
A 2 . ol . u ol :A.C
l1 day : KAc = 2 (1 c.Jcn)
d() sau bat kl, ap hjc hong xac djnh theo :
ff ha = Y!l - 2'1I l (1. + c,Jc
0
)
[8.26a]
[8.26bf
[8.27]
chan CUa dm ch!u keo-thl z = zo va ff ha = 0. Do ,:
2c
0
l (1 + c.Jc
0
)
z = ------
0 y
[8.28a]
neu c6 tai trQng phl} phan bO deu q tac d\lng tren dat thl :
+cvfcu) -q
[8.28b]
z =-------
0 y
LUi giai bang giai tich nay c6 the ma l'Qng cho tltbng_ khong
thang ddng va khong ngang. nhien, toan se .
dai va cho ket qua a bieu thuc phuc Trong cac trubng '
h<;fp do,-phuong phap dO giru thlch hqp hon.-
pluip 40 gitJi
Co the chap phue1ng phap Cullmann da trinh bay a tren
de phan tfch cho tru(!ng hQp dat bat thui1ng c6 khong
c6 tai trQng ph\1 tren khong thoat nulJc. Ve cac phang
pha thil tlJi '?han cua khe nut cang (hlnh 8-22a). Giong nhtt
. trulJc, xac djnh cac hjc tac dl}ng len ml)t nem dat, ron httbng cua
chung xac djnh theo cac so cua bai toan. Gia thiet Ia, d() sau
cua-khe nut cang duqc tinh theo pl!-uang trlnh [8.28b], dil rang gia
tti nay khong hoim toan chfnh xac. Sau khi xac ·<ijnh W, P w' F c va
F w' ve da giac hjc cho moi nem thil (hinh 8r22b). Giong nhtt trulJc,
dung phuong phap Cullmann de xac djnh gia tri C\[C p A va goc
cua phang truqt gioi aa.
57
. z;,
a.)
. .h)
Irmh 8-22 Phl1dng pbap CUIImann cho sl:( 6n djnh khong thoat n11&
a) eac h,tc tac dt,mg len m(>t ntm thif; b) da giik b,tc; c) bifu d6 bJc
Dat set qua oo ket thoat nttoo (c' > 0)
Khi nghien cuu on djnh cua dat set qua co ket can
phru xem xet h.iQng bien gan lien v{Ji hie bat dau-pha
D() ben IBn nha:t dat rf = + (J'
0
tgp't dttQc dua vao-khi biet
58
I
I
.
.
I
i
I
'
- f
I
i
l
chi c6 bien rat nho trul1c khi pha Phan I6n cac
truiJng h<Jp chan, bien W!-ng truac khi chay du 1® de sirih .
ra slj _gUin nl1 dang_chu y. Vl the, pha se xay ra a trq,ng thai
ai{Ji han 7: = (') tam' ,- tdc la c' = .0.
-- o • . c n bY c
Do vi}.y, nguyen tac chung Ia phai dung cac thong so o
thai giro (c' = 0, VJ' = VJ'c> va phuong"trlnh [8.24] va [8.25]
tfnh cttiJng de? ap ltjc chu ccic_ tntiJng hQp ta
thiy rang h<Jp Ii khi gia thiet Ia pha xay ra hie dng suat ll1n
nhat, cac thong so se Ia : c' > 0 (nhu khi xac dj.nh trong thl
ba tl11C) va VJ' = VJ'r (goc sat Ibn nhat); m()t Stj thoa hi(!p khong
hoan toan h<Jp Ii m(>t s6 tac gia Ia dung VJ' ·=_ rp'c cung vdi c'
> 0. Khi do ·ap 1\tc chu d()ng len tttiJng·du<Jc tfnh theo
1 2
P A =
2
yH Ka - c'HKAC [8.29]
-d day : Ka va KAC' giong nhtt trul1c, Ia cac so ap ltjc dat ;
gia trj. CUa chung dlt<JC lay theo bang 8-4.
BANG s-4. cAcHe s6 AP LlJc o.AT, c > o
(Cai bien tiJ CP2 vdi s\f cho phep aia Vit;n tieu chuart Anh)
Cw
rp'
-
c
0
S' uf IS'
.
20° 2S'
-
-
KA
0 ci 1,00 0,85 0,70 0,59 0.48 - 0,40
'P •
giatn 1,00 0,85 0,64 0,50
.
0,40 0,32
KAC
0 0,0 2,00 1,83 1,68 1,54 1,40 1,29
-:
0 1,0
. 2,83
2,60 2,38 2.16 1,96. 1,76
.
-rp' 0,5 2,45 2,10 1,82 1,55 1,32 1,15
.
rp' 1,0 2,83 _2,47 2,13 1,85 1,59 1,41
-
-
-
Kp
0 ci 1,00 1,20 1,40 1,70 2,10 2,50
.
tp' gia til 1,00 1,30 1,60 2,20 1,90 3,90
.
Kpc
0 0,0 2,00 2,20 2,40 2,60 2,80 3,10
0 0,5
-2,40 2,60 2,90 3,20 3,50 3,80
0 1,0 2,60 2,90 3,20 3,60 4,00 4,40
rp' 0,5 2,40 2,80 3,30 3,80 4,50 5,50
rp' 1,0
·2,60 2,90 3,40 3,90 4,70 5,70
* Xem b3_!Jg 8-3
59
+ Gia tri 'W lay theo chi d&n dtldi day
Ntu c < 50 kN/m
2
c = c
w
c - 50.kN/m
2
w \
,
8.7. Ap II!C bj d{tng ten tuiJng nham
Dieu thoat nttdc (c' = 0)
Bi48
.. _ng
1
c = -c
w 2
Lf Coulomb co the dung de thiet ap l1Jc bi d()ng len
tttim.g nham c6 lttng tttong nghieng va iJ n<1i da:t Ia ph&ng
nghieng deu. phan tfch theo cung each nhtt cho ap lljc chu
d()ng da trlnh bay trong IDl;,lC 8.6a. De xac d!nh duQc bieu thuc
tlnh sau :
1 -
P = - K_vH
2
A 2 P"
[8.30]
trong do
= [ sin(8 + tp')/sidJ 1
2
- [ sin(tp' + o)sin(qJ' .+ {J)]
sin(8 -{3)
[8.31]
De xac d!nh cac goc, xem hinh 8-23.
- 1
Khi fP8. tti <5 Ion h<1n khoang
3
fJ', truQt cong dang ke (J
phla cuoi gan chan tttimg (hlnh 8-1 7). Vi d\fa tren gia thiet
pha phang, dung H thuyet Coulomb trong cac truong hQJ>
do dan den danh gia cao sdc khang bj d()ng. M()t so pht1<1ng
phap da duQc kien nghj trong do pJtan cong dttQc xem nhu cong
tri>n ellip d11i1ng xoan oc logarit.
Nh11 nneu ta trong bang 8-5, co S\i khac ro gifta cac ph11<1ng
phap khac nhau, phuong phap Coulomb cho sl;l danh gia qua IBn
60
i
•.
r

l
!
I
I
I
..
!
;
. i
.
!
'
.
.
I
I.
i
I
.
i
.
.
I

i
I
\
I
r .
c
a)
b)
Jrmh 8-23. li Coulomb. cho sifc kbimg l!i
· (c' = 0)
a) cac h{c tac dl)Ilg len nem ; b) tam giac h,tc
khong chap duQc Giua phtt<Jng phap khac, s\f khac
It h<Jn va co the chQn dung phttong phap th\tc hanh va dung
cac gia trj_do Packshaw (1946) de nghj da dttqc dtta vito CP2 (1951)."
vi toan bQ cac gia trj nay va cac he so ap It;tc dat dttQc de
ngh! da cho trong bang 8- 3 va 8- 4 .
BANG 8-5. SO CAC PHAP TiNH Kp

Plunmg pliBp . . tp' = 400_
gi/li tich
"
cS. = 0° 10° 20°
300
-
,.
Crulomb (p":ddng trinh [8.41)) 4,6 6,9 11,1 21,5
CP2 (Packshaw; 1946) 4,6 6,5 8,8 11,4
.
.Row va Peaker (1965)
'
4,6 5,8 7,2 8,8
Shields va Tolunay (1973) 4,6 6,3 7,8 9,2
Sokolovski (1965) 4,6 6,5 . 9,1 11,6
Slj phan bO ap l\fc bi d{)ng len tuim.g c6 the coi nhtt tuyen
tlnh va xac djnh theo :
[8.32]
61
khong thoat

= 0)
Dieu khong thoat nude co the chap trong dat
set bao boa khi then gian thi cong ngan vi! c6 the cho rang slj
khong giam ap ltjc nude lo rong dtt Ia rat Cac phan tlch
dttQc thlJc trong dieu kif?n ap 1\tc tong. Giong nhu khi phan
-tfch cho truirng hQp thoat nttoc, anh huang ctia sue khang ma sat
tiep tuyen vdi tuarig da ra truQt cong o gan chan
'fuy nhien, trong truimg h"p nay (khong thoat sai
so do gia djnh trttQt khong Ian. ffinh 8-24 cho thay slJ
phan bo cac l-.jc.
- Hr/Rnf/J

cz._)
H'mh B-24. A.p h.tc bi d(}ng trong dieu kic;n khong thoat nt1&:
a) nem C<Dlomb ; b) cong
Miit phd phling (hlnh 8-24a)
phan tich {j day tttan:g tlJ nhl1 a IDl:l£ 8.6b, nhl1ng khong c6
khe nut cang. Vi the, g6c a xac djnh theo :
62
va
a day:
cosz = + (c.Jcu)
1
p = -yH
2
+ c HK
J1l 2 u---pu
Kpu = 2-.J (1 + cvJcu
- .
1
- .. K 2 499
co nghla Ia khi cw =
2
c
0
thi - --pu = ,
[8.33]
[8.34]
.
Mijt lw{li cong (hlnh 8-24b)
I
.
! '
·,
djnh tac dl}ng d9c theo goc ·cua
a . dl1QC xac djnh theo :
sin(2a) = cvJcu [8.35]
'TIP gia tii dien hlnh c.w = 4cu thl a = .15°; g6c clia trugt
ke iien val tttiJng B la 15°. Tuy nhien, each _xa tl1qng d() ben
.. cat thang ddng cua da:t tang len: tui cu (gia thiet ·d() ben
dB.ng_httlJng), vl the = 1 Ia a= 45° cuoi
cua tntQt. phb. tfch dtja tren xac <ijnh CUa
cong nay cho gia tr! Kpc va
1
Pp = orH
2
+ c HK [8.36]
2 u .... "'PC
a day : Kpc co the lay 8-4, tttang dng vlJi rp' = 0 va
()=0
Khi _cw 4cu, Kpc = 2,4, chl ket qua 2,4 cUa trugt
phang cc? 3, 75%." Cac phan tich khac, khi rp lay bang khong, cho
thay bien d<Si tm 8%. Xet. ve cac d9 llJn dien hlnh cua sai so so
trong tlnh toan thiet ke, thl dung· iia trj· tntQt phang
dtt<mg.·nhtt Ia h<Jp li cho hau het cac ID't}C nhling de dang
thllay gia trj trong bang
. .
Bat set qua oo ket thoat (c' > 0)
Vui dieu Ia bien trttlJc khi xay ·ra pha ho:P Ia thap
< < 2%), d9 ben khang cat diem chay c6 the lay bang dl} ben
' tt)t dlnh <Cf = c' + ()'
0
rp' c> (xem them ml}c 8.6c). Trong truiJng
hQp bien tntlJc khi chay kha liJn, ph& dung dq ben o trang
thai tOi ht!,n (Cc = li'
0
ttp' c> co nghla la c' = 0.
Ap l\fc bj d9ng luc bien hong nho tfnh theo :
. 1 '
p p = + c'HPC
[8.37]
a day : K va Kpc Ia -cac s6 ap ll:fc da1 da trlnh bay truuc
day, c6 fay gia trj theo bang 8-4 d\{a tren cac thong so d() ben
dinh c_' > .0 va tp' = rp' r· -
63
'
8.8. Vj tri dubng tac cua, ap ll_IC chu_ d{»ng
Vi tn cda dui1ng va diem CUa tong ap ltjc chu d()ng phl}.
thu()c vao ba yeu to chlnh : each thuc tltl1ng hi · cliuyen djch,
tntng ctia dat va tai trQng ph\1 tac d9ng.· De cung ca sa
cho giai cac bai toan C\1 the, m()t so h<JV xac d!nh rieng
-hay ket h«Jp -duqc trlnh bay _day.
d_}
. 64
-_ • .?H
z--
.3

h =:!.H
3
c
d)
... .
.e)
//
f)
Kmh 8-25. Vi tri ap lt,tc hong
a) xoay quanh mep dtltli; b) xcay quanh mep tren; c) dat nghieng deu;
d) dat nghieng khong theo quy tAc, khong c6 tcii trvng ph1;1 ;
e) tai trQng ph:J dong nbat ; f) vi nem ln1Qt c6 tili trQng ph{)
trung hay phan b6 theo dtldng tMng
Chuyen djch di;n thai chit dqng hoan toan
Trong trttang hgp tttang b! xe djch do xoay quanh mep dttiii
hay trl1Qt hoan toan ve phia truac, gia djnh Ia nem trugt chuyen
sang hoan tpan lJ thai can bang deo chu d()ng. Diem
1
cua tong ap hjc (J dq cao each chan tui1ng la 3 ll_·(hlnh 8- 25a)
- 2H
vaz = 3.
dich dln den thai chu dqng m9t phan
Trt.tang hgp ttiang hi xe djch do xoay quanh mep tren, phan tren
cua nem khong the chuyen sang thai hoan toan chti d9ng.
Trong dat ma sat cao, do qua vom dAn den pha cong
va ap hjc chu d<)ng phan b6 nhu a hlnh 8-25b. Vj trl thljc p A
co the xac dinh chlnh-xac bang giai tlch, nhung cho hau het cac
IDl}C dlch, co the lay xap xi 0 d(> cao gif.ia_ 0,45H va 0,55H tren
chan tttang. Gia trj p A co. the lay bang trj sO {J dieu chu
d()ng hoan toan.
5 CHDfl'2
65
dat nghieng deu co tili trqng ph9
. .
Trttbng hQp m;)t dat nam ngang hay nghieng deu va khong chat
bii, gia thiet ap 11$c chti d()ng phan bo tbeo tam giac ya p A ·
1 .
0 dQ cao each chan tu!Jng ta
3
H (hlnh 8- 25c) va z =
M*t th1tong, oo tai trqng ph9
Trong tru<mg h<Jp dat thay doi bat thttirng, nen dung each
do giai (hinh 8- 25d). DaU: tien xac djnh vj tri tam trQng ctia
nem sau do ve mQt dlti1ng qua no, song song vm
phang pha BC. Diem CUa p A Ia giao diem cua dtt<mg nay
vai du<mg AB.
'lYU trqng ph\1 phan bO deu
Gia thiet cttong d() ap hong do tai trQng ph \I phan bO. deu
1
tac d9ng up chieu cao
2
H (hinh 8- 25e). Vi cua hQp lt;:ic tOng
pAR = p A + p S cO the dttQC bang each lay momen :
0,667P A +0,5Ps
z = -------------
PA +Ps
'llli trf:lng ph\1 ttp trung hay phan bO theo d11ilng thing ·
tren nem _pha
· . .Anh ctia ta.i tl"Qng phl} Ia lam dang cao
vi trl CUa pAR vi the no nam dllm diem A khoang giua 0,4H
va 0,667H (hlnh 8- 250. Uri giai gin dung sau :
0,667W + 0,4Q
z =
W+Q
0 day : W - 'trQng lttQng CUa nem pha ;
Q - tai trQng ph1;.1.
8.9. Oieu on cua tuemg trQng ·ll!C
Ph11ong phap trq,ng thai giOi hq,n dttQ«? dimg trong ke tttitng
; dieu do doi hoi nghien cdu m()t so dieu gidi
tinh nang sit d9ng hay pha cuoi cling) va so an toan
66
\
,-- -_-
\
\
\
•. ·.a -
" . -
- ll
4 • Nffo/
..• M-$

. . . . ...
----Ia. . • •
1 •
• • • •
.


""
d)
lrmh 8-26. cac tlldng eMil .
a) UJiJng cifng hay kh6ng c6 cot thep, b) tllisng tong cOt thep ;
c) tt1()ng ciii ; d) ttldng IV da
67
dof vai Slj xuat cac giai do de dung nhtt m(>t tieu
chuan thiet ke cho moi tiuiJng hQp. fuiJng trQng h_tc dt1<JC coi . nht1
Ia khoi nguyen cung, doi khi gom c6 m()t phan ctia dt1<JC
chan gift. M(>t so cong trinh khac nhau du<Jc thay tren hinh
8-26. Tuimg cllng hay tuimg khong co cot thep hoan toan Ia m()t
khoi va Slj on <f!nh phtl thu()c chti yeu vao .trQng lt1Qng cua chung.
Tuimg be tong cot thep va :be tong cot thep ring suat truoc duqc
thiet ke nhu cau chju uon va vi the c6 chut It chuyen vi ;
. chung thuang c6 chft L hay chit T va Sl;i on djnh ph'} thu()c
m()t phan vao trQng ll1Qng CUa dt1QC chan gift nam tren
phan ban day thiet ke sau hing tuang. Thong CUi dt1<JC blJi cac
cau cili vao nhau (be tong due san, kim go ... dat duqc
li1p l1 ben trong. Tuimg rl) da Ia c9m cac cili h1m thep s<fi chda
cu(>i rat tho hay da tang.
C
1
dan ""t A d• h ' h""' "" t '
ac . g ma ODJD va so oan.
}{hi sii d\lng li thuyet Rankine cho tuiJng c6 lung phru
gia thiet Ia dat duqc ch.an boi tuiJng thang ddng keo dai til
chan sau tu<fng tm diit dt1Qc ch6ng giu (hlnh 8-27). Phan h.1c
q
. . ..
.· .
..
. . .
6)
llmh 8-27. L\fc ch6ng 43 hic;u qua cila tl13ng cMn ·
v cua dat nam dttui ban -day cua tttang. se bang tong cac 1\tc t:ic
dl}ng httang xuong dttui :
V = W
1
+ W
2
+ ·W
3
+ Q
1
+ P A sin{3
- D() tam cua phan ltjc nen doi vai tam cua ban day dtlQC
xac (ijnh bang each Hiy momen vm mep truac cua chan tui1ng.
l4t
Thtti:Jng gia thiet Ia, neu hi (hlnh 8-28a) thi ttti:Jng se xoay
quanh chan tntac cua no. so an toan chong dttqc xac djnh
bang ti s6 clia momen on dinh _vffi momen pha lay doi _vai mep
tntac cUa. tttang. Trong CP2 (1951), so an toan nay de nghj
khong dttqc nho bon 2,0, ·ron noi nttlfc ·ngam c6 kha nang dang cao
d sau lttng ttti:Jng thl gia trj toi thieu phru la.2,5.
(momen cua w, Q, ... vai mep tntac clia chan tttifng)
F -
OT {momen cua P A' ... vai mep truac cua chan tttiJng)
Tru{Tt
so an toan tntqt ve phla tntac (h.inh 8-28b) dt1(_1C
xac djnh bang ti s6 giua tong cac ltjc khang nam ngang vf!! t-Ong
clia cac hjc pha nam ngang. Ll,;{c khang tru<_1t ban day
va dat quQc tinh nhtt sau :
R
8
= Vtga hay R
5
= (khi truifng hqp c6 the xay ra)
Vm tuiJng-be tong due san 4ri chO, c6-the lay gia trj ma sat cua
tttiJng 0 = VJ' va hjc dinh -
Khi tlnh sdc khang bj d()ng d phia tntac tui1ng, phAi xet den
anh hudng cua ·phong hoa, slj pha do giao thong va d()ng
thi rong, cac ho morig dttQC dao, d{)ng CUa kenh din,
... Co le phan llfn Slj chuyen· djch cua ttlifng doi hoi sdc khang bj
d(}ng phAi dttQc huy d()ng toan bQ. Gia trj giam gan dung c6 the
dliqc khi bO qua lllp dat 0,5-lm d dinh tui:Jng. du, ve nguyen
-. _-:_ :tac c3.c thong s0 d() ben khang cat phti dl1Qc tlnh so, CP
2
dua
·:-: .. _ .-ra m()t s6 an toim doi vm cac gia trj chua duqc tinh so la
-; :· ··.:-' :=khong dttqc nho hon 2,0 .
. .. ; . .· .
·- -- ..
·; : : . -
---··
.. - ! - 69
70
- - ~
r '
I \
I \
\
'
'
'
'
'
w
' ...-
---
_,
I
'
I
I
'
I

'
'
, ..
--1
~
'
w
I
~
~
AS
D.)
d )
Irmll 8- 28. cac kieu pba haP etia t11iJng cb3n
~
a) l:;t (F "t 2,0) ; b) tru_,t (F 1: 2,0) ; c) m:it phin 1\fc dt1di nett dM ;
d) keo d cac m6i n6i.
'.
!
! "
I
-
.
I
.
Phan lq:c nen · iJ ban day
St;t phan bo ap ltjc len nen dat a dttoi ban day la hlnh thang·
(hlnh 8-29a), . th1ti1ng ap ltjc ctjc C, mep tntoc chan tulnig. Gia
x ·
A/Z
c 6
________ j f;
a)
Jrmh 8-29. S\f pban b6 ap 1\fc nen
-
trj Cljc khong dlt<Jc Vlt<Jt qua ch!u tai cho phep. Gia trj x
va sau do e xac djnh bang each lay momen vlri mep tntl1c chan
tl1i1ng. Phan htc dttQc ric djnh nhu sau (cho lm chieu dai) :
nhung
Nen c6:
va
V ' M . V · M
qA = B+Z va qB = B - Z
M =Ve
v
qA = B
v
qB
-
B
6Ve
+ -
B2
6Ve
---
B2
1 X B
2
va z = 6
--
[8.38a]
[8.38b]
71
Luu y la trong phu<1ng trlnh [8-38b], khi e_ > B/6, gia tr! qB Ia
am. Trong thtJc te, nay khong xay ra dttgc yl tlng suat keo
khong the truyen gifta ban day cua btong va dat. Trong truang
hgp nai c6 e > B/6, C!Q nghia la V ca_t ban day ben ngoai phan ba
a giua, thi phAi dimg bieu thuc sau :
2V
QA = 3x
va giua C va B thl q = 0.
Ph4 keo trong cac moi noi
[8.39]
Nhtt da giB.i thlch trong chudng tru(;c, khi e > B/6, tttong
a gan day se chju keo (hlnh.8-28d). Noi chung, de trach dieu
nay, gilri -phap hay la tang chieu r()ng cua ban day vi v{Ji tl:ldn.g be
tong, lmh httong cua ung suat koo co the Ia cljc tieu v&n co
qua nghiem trQng_ den moi noi..
- Tttbng xay, tttCing xay, tttCing hoi cac khoi due san nhu
tu<Jng cUi khong cho phep chju cac lljc keo. Anh hl1<lng chlnh cua
chung Hi mls l'Qng cac moi noi, nlllic tham vao dttgc va d&n den
moi noi bj phan htiy. Dieu de ung suat keo khong xay ra
trong ttti1ng Ia phan ltjc V cua ca.t ban day trong khoang phan
ba gifta ·do Ia quy tac phan ba giita.
Pha do truqt xoay
Trong dat dinh, pha pho bien xay ra khi pha
gan blnh tr\1 phat trien a du:lJi ban day cua
_(h!nh 8-30). do xay_ ra neu d g:an chan t11C1ng -di
ehuyen hay d() ben cat cUa dat b! __ giam do phong h6a hay tac d9ng
clia nude dttei dat. phan tich pha nay dttQc de
trong ch11<1ng _9.
8.10. Tuong ngam va ttrong hao·
De co duQc djeu kit?n chti d()ng hoan toan, tuinlg cong
trlnh chan bat ld khac phai co djch chuyen du loo. SU: dl}ng m()t
so tttiJng ngam c6 the h:p1 che luQng va each thu:c· <ijch chuyen,
: trong truiJng h<Jp nay cong trinh phai chju ap ltjc ldn han gia trj.
tinh theo thai chu d()ng.
72
I
pm

1 --------
I
I
I
I
I
I
KDIIa l-30. Phi do tnJOt may
--
Vi neu Wihlg hay cOng trlnh ngim to8.n de khOng
di ngang, no phti thiet kE de chiu duCJ(: tAng
!en do ap cUt tinh. Dieu ki(!n nay thltihlg dy ra trong tntbng
mong cUa Wihlg ch8n dUQC :dy de ch6ng da cOng trlnh

- -
v1 m.l.u 8.8. Xiic phlm triim SGi s6 pluii chP,, nLu 6p
llf.c chii. duqc dung bdi SGi s6t ui gill. trj 6p_ hie tin.h tuon.g
Ung, khi
a) f'' = 300 vi. b) tp' = 45°.
1Jtli.gi4i
1-siD300
a) tc = _ = 0,333 d lC = 1 - sinOOO :::;: 0,500
....... 1 + siD300 --=-o
N«u s6 ... chJnh dimg JA Kor sai s6 sA lA :
0,500-0,333 -
= 0,500 _ - X 100 = 3&J,
73
1-siJl450
b) 1l' = = 0 172 vii. K = 1 - sin45° = 0 293
1 +siJl450 • 0 ,
f: - 0,293- 0,172 00 -
s - O
293
X 1 - 41%

Vu b'ltllg h8o c0 thanh ch6ng
van b1tng d1ta 'rio hAo ch6ng da thttCJng dttCJC gill ch6
bAng thanh ch6ng. Trong di& nay, cHt .khOng gi6ng nhtt cl
tb8i chu HcJn nila, ph.An b6 8p se ph'} thu(k:
'rio c8ch b6 trl va trlnh c8.c thanh ch6ng dttCJC Do
d6, phii tim c8.c ICli -giAi gh dung vi. ICli giAi kinh nghi(!m.
theo c8.c quan tdc tai trQng vi. thi hlnh, Thrzaghi
vi. Peck (1967) da d1ta ra ph.An b6 ap nhtt th4y cl hinh
OJDH

I• •I
{f. 6P_,./H)
iZ)
c) ne:, JfP/C,.,,(-4, H7 = _, / _
,;;;', ¥H/&,., )+ / P7 =44l'i#"(Q"
Ira 1-31. S\1 p111n b6 3p 1\fC uen van bdnc bao
Vm cHt .khOng cHnh, d4u ti@n hQ nghi ap Wng bAng
0,66K;H
2
viri. ap l@n van b1tng phln b6 hlnh thang Orlnh
74
i
;
I
I
j
I
I
' -
,
.
. 8-31a) ; phan bo nay.cung dttqc CP2 ,0951) de ngh!. Nam 1967
va 1969, 'Thrzaghi va Peck dtta ra phan bO ap dong nhat do
d9 ldn cua ctti1ng d9 ap xap xi nhau (hinh 8-3lb). Cho da:t dfnh,
hQ cling de nghj phan oo·hinh thang (hlnh 8-31c). djnh
CUa daf set thUQC vao SO on dj.nh (yH/cu) ; khi SO on djnh· nho -
hun 4·, dat nam ke i1 -thai can bang dan ·hoi. Gia tri m phm
lay bang 1,0 cho dat set ran chac, va qua c6 ket (tdc Ia khi
yH 4) ; cho dat c6 ket thong thucmg khi KH/cu > 4), dung gia
cu
trj. giua 0,4 va 1,0.
Vi d9 mAu 8.9. Mi)t hiro sau 6,5m duqc chong giil bang van
go . voi cac thank chong ngang each nhau 2, Om, nam duOi mij,t
dat lm, 3m va 5m. Hay tinh tai trQng tac df!,.ng len moi thanh
chong, neu dat co trQng luqng don vi la 19,8kN!m
3
v_a g6c ma
stit 3SO.
K
3
= tJ? (45° - 35°/2) = 0,271
Gia thiet pha.n bo ap -h;lc hong Ia dong nha:t (hinh 8-31b),
nen co : .
tJ' ha = 0,65K
3
yH = 0,65 ·X 0,271 X 19,8 X 6,5 = 22,67kN/m2
bO ap cho mOi thanh chong d11Qc cho iJ hlnh
thanh phan nhtt sau : ..
p l = 22,67 X 3,0 X 1:5/2 =-51,0kN/m
p
2
= 22,67 X 3,0 X 0,5/2 = 17,0kN/m
. 1 .
- P
3
= P
4
= 22,67 X 2,0 X
2
= 22,7kN/m.
· P
5
_ P
6
= 22,67 x 1,5 x = 17,0kN/m
75
. .
)Jr
oiL
.I
]II" (
.L_

,..
.
.
. .
-
.... -
. .
Kmh8- 32
. .
.
.

.?z





,•
Cac hjc ella. thanh
chong se bang :
'
FT = P
1
x2 = 102kN
1
Phan hjc P
6
Ia do dat
nen.
Dimg bim bentonit chong do hao
Trong k.hi thi cong chong th.am cho mong, de quai, ... c6
the chong do then tui1ng hao bang bun hay bentonit. Luc
dang ho mong bang gau ec1 hQc thl hao duQc chda day bun.
Betong sau do dttqc dtta vao trong hao bang ong do be tong duai
n uac va day bun til dttai day hao len.
Trong dat set, c6 slj hap ph\1 ban dau nttac til vfta vao thanh
hao. Dieu do nhanh chong dan 4en hlnh thanh m()t IQC hau
nh11 khong tham. ra chan. Vi slj do nay chi Ia Upn
thi1i, nen gia thiet dieu khong thoat nttac va truQt
goc 45° (hlnh 8- 33). ·xem xet cac lljc. tac dl}ng len nem ABC, c6
the danh gia gan diiDg so an toan.
Gia tti C huy d()ng can cho on dj.nh Ia Cmob. _ tfnh theo
c (W - p )/{2
mob. m
1 . .
lJ day : W = ?H
2
(y- trQng ht(1Dg dCIIl vi cua dat),
p m = } m(nH)
2
(y m -_ trQng 111(1Dg dCIIl vi cua bun).
Neu d() ben cat cda dilt Ia cu thl C = cuHf2.
76
h)

HW • .Ap b,tc ten bao dlira dJy bUn
a) cUr dinb ; b) cUr tbGng dinb
Do s6 an toln F se Ia
c
F= - -=----
Cmob_ H(y - y mn2)
w
[8.40]
Trong cat, dil U.y ra St1 xAm vil t6n thit phh nao
trong c8c 16 r6ng, bim sinD. hlnh thAnh gen :ric biEn d
ytt chm. 6n diDh c6a hao r(t cim vdi m\{c ntt& ng4m
C11ng nhu dO sl.u c1ia ria. Hlnh 8-33b cho tMy c8c 1\fc t4c
lb d4t ch6Dg cia. - ·
7?
! -
i
!
!
L.

il.
Gi.ii ai.c b_fc nlm. nga.ng va thAng ddng :
Nh1tng
N4!n
P = Nsina- Thosa
m
W = Ncosa + .Tsina
N = N' + U va T = N' tg
P m = N'(sina - + Usina
- - tgJJmob.> + Usina
va W = N'cosa(l + - Ucosa
CAn bang, ta c6 :
Til do
N'cosa = p m - Usjna = W - Ueo&:z
tg::r - t. mob. 1 + tg::rt§' mob.
P-Usina
tg(a - fJmob.) = W- Ueo&:z
Tbay ba lllc va gOc tnff,_Jt vi.o, Wi a = 45° + f)mob_/2 ;
1 1 . 1
P = -- (nH)
2
• W = - yH
2
cotcra - U = - y (mH)
2
coseca
m 2"m , 2 . b' , 2 W ,
se ci11QC :
18
Til ph11dllg trlnh [8.411 cang oo the Ia :
1-K.n
=
[8.42]
[8.43]
'
I
;
j
I

!
.
I
I
I
i
'
,
I
f
I
I
r

!
f
I
i
r
. so an toan khong phl_l thu()c vao d() sau hao va dtlQC
tfnh theo :
[8.44]
s6 an thlJc te cao h<1n gia tr! nay vita da bo quad()
ben cat cua bun khi no c6 tfnh XUC bien va tac d<)ng CUa
mang. 'fuy nhien, no cho dtlQC tr! so htloog dAn tin hqp H cho
_ thiet ke. Anh htlOng CUa m1;_tc ntldc ngam dtlQC mota trong·vf dl_l
mau sau day.
Vi dl} mlu 8.10. Mi!t hiw duqc dao tbi di) sau 6r_n cMng
dii b4ng bitn bentonit cho tOi mij,t dat. Dat bao quanh la cat co g6c
ma sat 3£? viz. trQng luqng don vt bdo hoo liL 19kN!m
3
.
a) Hay tlnh so an toim chong lq,i pha hoqi, tnJqt cat khi ditng
bun co trf.)ng tuqng don vt 12kN!m
3
va khi mrtc nuac '!Cam thay
doi o giila miJ,t ddt va dl) s4u 2m.
b) Tlnh toan trf.)ng don vi yeu cau clw bitn neu so an
toan toi thieu la 1,5, khi mflc nuac ngam liL tq,i mij,t dat.
Bdi gi4i
a) Vi hao chda day bun, n = 1, dilng phtl<Jng trlnh [8.44] :
sa an toan F tfnh theo :
acta
. y
F-

1-J\n
12
K.n=----
19 -9,81m2
ntldc ngam nam dttm da:t 2m :
m· = ·0,667; K.n = 0,522 va F = 2,20.
M1Jc ntldc ngam nam d1tiJi dat 1m :
m = 0,833 ; = 0,426 va F = 1,65.
Mltc nlioc ngam dat :
_m = 1,000 ; 1\n = 0,238 va F = 0,93.
Vl the, pha xay ra neu ID\IC nliOC ngam dang tc':li dat.·
b)
f'mob. yeu cau = arctg(tg36°/1,5) = 25,84°,
'
tgl( 45° - tgq.> mob_/2) = 0,3928.
Su d1,.1ng_ phtie1ng trinh [8.42], trQng ltiQng-d<1n vi yeu cau cho
bun Ia:
Ym = (19 - 9.81 X 1,0) + 9,81 x- 10 = 13,42kN/m
3
.
8.11. Tuong dat co cot
N gttm _dau tien giai sti d\lng dat co cot nhtt Ia m()t
cong trlnh la Henri Vidal, m()t kien true va ld_sli ngttoi Phap (Vidal,
1966 ; 1969). Cong -trinh gam co dap co ma sat dtigc dam
theo lap va gia c6 hOi cac dm thAng cac khoang each deu
chieu dllng va chieu -ngang. nay, dat c6 cot dtigc
dung trong chan, tliong bien, tliong ben tau, mo cau,
dat va cac oong trlnh xay dtjng dan d\lng tliang tlj. dung dai
cot thep che san va panen op ngoili cung vai kha nang deo vor
co cua cho phep thi cong kha nhanh. TrQng ltiQng tliOn{
da:t co cot chi bang nita tliiJng be tong co ldch thliac tlidng tlJ
vi the phan ltjc ella. nen Wit tac dtJng se thap han : m()t liu the hal
-d&n vai dat yeu, dat kern-chat ltiCJng. Dat co rot chju dtigc cac biet
tlidng doi ldn ma khong lam nguy cho cong trlnh.
Cac thanh phan chlnh cua dat c6 cot Ia :
a) Dat dap. dap dtiQc chQn llJa can voi yeu cau };
ti phan tram m!n thap < 15pm khong Ion h<1n 15%
Va gOC ma sat qua q.>' 25°.
b j Cot. Ca va hlnh cat ngang deu qua-
--_ tl'Qng. Ve Cd hQC, yeu cau co tlnh ma sat va ben vfin
---cao, kha nang rao S\1 ben vftng cua oong trlnh hi khong ch
hoi cac tfnh do cua.dAi cct. thong thliong dung lathe
80
r
!
1
i
i
l-
j-
I
I
i
I
'
i
l
I
I
i
I
I
I
!
I
thep khong rl, hgp kim nhom va thep phu hOi chat deo,
tat ca deu c6 modun bien cao so vili dap dien hinh.
dung cot bang vlri d!a co trong dat dli<}C ham m() do chi phi
thap, trQng I11gng h<1n, tang cao d<) ben va trung rna sat
tot h<1n (Murray, 1980).
c) LOp vo mij,t ngoai. thlilJng gom c6 cac panen kim
hay be tong due san ciri vao nhau. V1;l chu yeu cua
lbp vo ngoai Ia ngan ngUa va chong l?i slj an mon c1;1c -b<) ;
khong co dong gop ve co hQC de tlilJng on djnh.
Cac nguyen tac thiet ke
Nguyen tac CC1 ban cua thiet ke Ia tang rna sat giua dai cot va
da:t dap-4e khong xay ra trugt. Sti d1;1ng li thuyet gan dung ve ap
lljc hong cua dat nhli. If thuyet Rankine, Coulomb, ... ta tlnli d11gc
dng suat ngang T.
ffinh 8-34 cho thay cat tlilJng dat c6 cat vbi N dlri rot
each deu nhau theo ph11<1ng dtlng Ia Sv va theo ph11<1ng ngang Ia
-Sh. Chieu ca.o clia tlibng do Ia H = NSv.
If
6CHDIT2
:• L
4317
,. ..,

c/efP-d'v-or

.6)
--=irmh s-34. ruong dat ro rot
a) ngoai ru()n; b) ngoai du"c gan vdi m6ng_
81
V ai dat dap gia thiet dieu thmit nude hoan toan
(c' . 0) va khong c6 tai trQng phl:.l tren dat, ap l1;1c dat chu
dt)ng (J' ha tlnh thea : (J' ha = yzK
3
, d day K
3
= (45° - cp' /2). Ll!c.-
keo ma m()t ,dru rot phru chiu tai dt) sau z, do Ia :
Tz = yzK
3
SvSh [8.45]
Tz co gia tq cljc muc dai cot thap nhat. so an toan
doi v{Ji hjc keo trong cac dai tlnh theo :
o day:
btty htt;,
FT = Tz
b - . chieu l'Qng cua dai ;
t - chieu day cUa da.i ;
\. -r- dt) ben chay CUa dai.
[8.46]
Nham tranh cho dai khoi hi t9t ra, yeu cau chieu dai dai phirl
du de. phat huy duQc sdc chong sat. Chieu dai qua
la chieu dai qua vilng chu dt)ng Rankine.
Vi the, sau z, chieu dai yeu cau CUa dAi Ia :
L = (H-z) tg (45°- m'/2) +I = (H- +I
z r e a e
Sdc khang ma hili mt)t dai (hai d() sau z Ia:
Ru = 2yzbletgo-
Do s6 an toan doi vdi pha keo t9t ra Ia :
Ru 2bletgo-
Fp = Tz =
[8.47]
[8.48]
Hinh clia pb.B ho2P
Gia thiet pha chu d()ng CUa Rankine vm pha
phang vm tuiJng thang ddng g6c 45° - v>/2 c6 nao
Ia bao thu (hlnh 8-34a). Cac nghien cdu mo hlnh va theo tlnh the
. .
82
r
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i
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t
i
t
I
i.
!
I
I

c6 khuynh huang de xuat· ra pha cong xoan Oc (hinh
8- 34b), vai IDl;IC dfch thljc te, C6- the dttQC xap xi theo hinh
thang. Tuy nhien, Schlosser (1972) va cac tac gia khac da htu y
cac bien doi dang ke trong cac tntiJng hqp quan sat. Murray ( 1980)
chi ra slj th1;.1c Ia phan tlch chlnh xac hon chi sai khac 3% so
Vdi S\f danh gia truyen thong ( Va ddn gian hon) bang STl d\,:1ng
phuong phap Rankine. Hon nita, can ghi nhu la cac thay doi trong
qua trinh thi rong nhu thai dam khac nhau, d() ani h!c
do, ... co the s\f khac Ian han. Du co phan b_ao thu, mo
hlnh Rankine to ra lqi do on djnh va don gian, st;t ba:t lQi ve
kinh te ma no gay ra tuong doi nho, Mi co the dugc duy- tri
sit d\}ng.
on djnb ben ngoiri
Giong· nhu- truiJng hqp vai cac rong trinh chan dat khac,
phai tien hanh kiem tra sl,;( on djnh toan bQ : a) ; b) trt1Qt ; c)
l\fc nen dat; va pha cung- tntqt sau.
Phan l1;.1c nen Wit gan tai gia tr! yH khi ban day cua tuang It
nha:t la 0,8H. M()t nguyen tac chi don gian la tu<Jng dat c6 rot
se phai chju lljc nen tuong duong vm k.hoi dap c6 chieu cao
tuong t1,.1.
v1 dl} mAu tuimg d_at c6 cot yeu Cali . c6 chieu cao
cuoi cung la 9m. Sau khi dam o tn.timg, vq,t dap co cac-
dij,c trung sciu: trf.)ng luqng don l!"i 18kN!m
3
, g6c ma sat 31?. Dung
ddi cot thep co' cac dij,c tlnh sau:
Ctich nhau theo phztong ngang lm, theo phztong dllng 0,5m.
G6c ma sat be mij,t za 24° .
DC) ben chdy btio ddm liz 240MNim
2
.
T6c dl} an mon trong dieu thOng thztimg liz 0,025mm/oom.
Gid thiet liz mflc nzt6c ngam khOng dang qu_a chlin tuimg va
tuoi thQ cong tnnh yeu diu la 50 nam, citng vcn M s6 an toan toi
thilu chOng lq,i_, cd pM hoq,i tang va· keo tf!,t liL 3. Hay xac djnh
klch thztoc va chfeu dizi thlch hQp i:ho ddi cot thep.
83
.....
.. .

Bdi gitii"
s6 ap 1\tc dat K
3
= (45° - 35°/2) = 0,271.
Ung suat lJ chan tu<1ng (phttdng trlnh [8.45]) :
Tmax = ·yHK
3
S_flh = .18 x"- 9 X 0,271 X 1 X 0,5 = . 22,0kN
Til .phttcJng trlnh [8.46], _tlch cat ngang yeu cau Ia :
b
3 X 22,0 X 1 o6-
7
2
t= =25mm
240 X HP
Neu b = -75mm, thl t yeu- cau bang 3,667mm.
dj.nh cho phep an mon: 0,025 x 50= 1,25mm
Be day yeu cau ban dau Ia 4,95mm.
Kfch thtt(Jc yeu cau cho dai cot thep : 75mm X 5mm. -
. Chieu dai yeu cau CUa dai cot thep tlm d11Qc theo phttong trinh
[8.48_] . Chieu dai· cua dai gom da:t nha:t (z . 0,5m) se dttQc
tfnh ; ron cac dai ron do tlnh thljc te, nhtt nhau :
L = (9,0 - 0,5) -' 0,271 +
3
X 0,
271
X
1
0,
5
= 10,5m
· . v - · 2 X
8.12. Tubng cir
Gifia tttilng cit va ttti1ng trQng lljc cdng co ba diem
co ban :
a) tttifn.g CU chj.U dttQC uon va d11QC thiet ke ve ket cau nhtt dam
chla (chong do hay khong .chong do);
b) slj chong do cua tu<Jng cil ph\1 thu(}c vao sllc khang b! dt?ng
cua dat. ;
c) c6 trQng htQng doi va dUQC 00 qua khi tfnh tln
djnh. Ngom ra, khi ket cau khong phil hc;Jp, ttt<Jng c6 the pha
do xoay ngay tren chan ttt<rng hay djch ve phia tntbc
btbng do sue khang hi dQng "khong du.
84
f
I
Vm cat va cu(_)i co d(_) tham til trung blnh den eao, phlri dung
phtidng phap dng suat qua de tlnh cho ca. ap l\{c chu d()ng va
b! d()ng. 0 noi d\f doan c6 dong tham, phlri dung h1<1i tham de xac
d!nh ap 1\fc tham. Ma sat hay 1\fc dlnh cua tttC1ng xuat do .
chuyen d()ng ttt<1ng doi giila van cit va dat, Ia ltt(Jng cht:La khug
d!nh, vi the bo qua khi tinh toan (Corbett ·va Stroud, 1975).
so an toan phii dung cho cac thong s6 d(_) ben CUa dat hcsn
la cho l\fc b! d(>ng (Henkel, 1982). cac hili toan thong thttbng
thl so It nhat phai c6 d(> tin trung blnh ; s6 an toan de
nghj_ cho ca l\fc dlnh vii. gnc ma sat Ia til l,3 den 1,5. Khi _cae
trttng cUa. dat kem tin so an toim thap nhat Ia 2,0 .- Khi
dung thep rong theo ·s6. tay thiet k€', ciin biet dlch· x:ic
ccic so da dttQc tinh so hay chtta dttQc tlnh so.
Van cit ngiun
. Ttioog ciL ng3m chu yeu dttQC· dung lJ rong trlnh thiri
trong dat khong dinh vii. s\{ fin djnh c1ia chling ph9 thu(>c hoan
toim vao sdc khang bi. d(_)ng xuat a phla truiJc t11oog. Gia thiet
Ia tttC1ng bi pha .do xoay quanh diem C, a ngay tren mep tr11<1c
.
h.J
c)
Jrmh s- Js. van cit ng3m
a) hinh thiic pba he$ ; b) stj phan b6 ap· ltJc theo li thuyet;
c) stj phan b6 ap ltJc d1.1f)c ddn gi3n boa
85
,.

chan van i cu (hlnh 8- 35a)-va nhtl the ap hjc chu d()ng a sau ttliJng
can hAng vm ap }ljc b! d()ng.
Sue khang bi d()ng chu yeu bieu 19 lJ ph:la -truac tuang, nhung
phla dttai lljc bi d()ng se chong xu hul1ng xoay. Do ap
bQ nhu a hinh 8- 35b. De cho giai dtlgc d<Jn gian, dtla
ra gia thiet Ia l1;.1c khang bi d()ng a sau tttang (gifta C va D) tac
dl)ng .nhu Ia mqt ltj:c trung C, vi the -d9 sau dong gi:l d!nh
Ia d = BC. St_1 phan oo da dtlgc d<rn gian hoa nay cho trong hinh
8-35c, d() Ion cua cac ltj:c nhtl sau :
1 - 2
d() ap ltJc chu d?ng P A =
2
KJ'(H + d) .
1
Sdc khang b! d()ng P P =
2
y
2
.
Phan l"f!c bj d()ng R = P P - P A (gia trj khong yeu cau biet) .
"De can bang thl LMC = 0
Neu sO an toan bang = tu do danh gia dtl<}C
K
3
va
1 1 -
L.Mc = 0 = 3p Pd = 3p A (H + d)
Bo qua ma sat ttliJng' va thay gia trj p A va p p vao, ta co :
- 1 3 1 3
0 = - K vd = -K "'{H + d)
- 6-.,.. - 6-----ar -
Rut gQn :
= (H - d)3
GiAi ra, se dtlgc :
d = H
K213 -1
p
[8.49]
Vl khi dttgc trj sa nay da b6 qua chieu dai CD, nen thtliJng
phAi tang 20% de chieu sau dong cu dtlgc an toan. Clrleu· sau dong
.- ?in d
8
"' 1,2d.
86
r -
Vi mAti 8.-12. M{)t tuimg cit ngam dung do thanh cua
m{)t ho mong siiu 3m. Xac dtnh chieu siiu an toan can dong viL
uon ClJ,C dq,i tac d{)ng len van cit. Dat co cac dijc trung :·
c' = 0 ; cp' = 30°; y = 20kN/m
3
.
Btli gitii
Danh gia F ' :
F = 1,4.tg1'mob. = arctg (tg30°/l,4) = 22,41°
= tgZ(45° + 22,
0
41/2) = 2,23 va K
3
= = 0,448.
Til phu<1ng trlnh [8.49], tlnh duQc chieu sau dong : ·
d = 3,0
2,232'3 - 1
4,24m
. Chieu sau dong an toan :
d
2
= 1,2 x 4,24 = 5,08m.
Momen uon c\fc xay ra o diem zs, a dttiJi B, c6 l-cjc cat bang
khong (hlnh 8.36).
Can bang cac l-cjc, ta co :
1 K . (H. 2
2 aY zJ .
Hlnh 8-36
87
Rut gQn: = (H + zJ
2
Tu do, tfnh dtCdc z :
. s
H 3,0
-zs = - 1 1,23
'
Momen uon ctjc xac d!nh theo :
2,44m
1 -
Mmax =
6
X + 2,44)
3
- 2,23 x = 1"32 kNm
Cit ngam trong dat set thoat nltdc
Xem phtldli_g trinh [8.7a] va [8.7d], khi rp = 0, nen K
3
= = . 1,
dieu kiEJn lin djnh khong the thiet dtCgc trit khi H < 4culr . Vi
the, lay so an toan bang 1,5 va vai ti"Qng ltlgn.g d<Jn vj dat dien
hinh, c;i11Qc _dung van cu khi cu/H < 7:
Van cit neo ·
Ipri chong do thbi, van cu ngam chi thich hgp li ttCang trong
cac trtli1ng hgp nhat dj.nh, no kho phil hgp cho bun va dat set, va
ngay ca. trong khong dinh, khi chieu sau chong do tren 6m no
slnn tro nen khong kinh te vi chieu dai yeu cau cua no. Dung each
neo bang day c(}t hay chong gan dinh ttloog, chieu sau
dong yeu cau giam dang ke, cilng vai giam ca. chuyen vj hong
va momen uon tac dl_lng len van cu.
-- Thttang dung hai phtlang phap giai tlnh sau, stj khac biEJt giua
chung. Ia gia thiet dtla -ra khi htu y den stj ngiun cdng lxli dat a
chan tuoog. Phttong phap •chong do dat - b/. do• gia thiet Ia ttlong
- xoay t\{ do, vi the khong c6 sdc khang bj d()ng a phia sau ttliJng.
Phttang phap •chong _do dat - co dtnh • gia thiet Ia ngam hoim toan
xoay, sue khang bi d()ng co ca. a hai phla.
· Phuung pluip chOng 4!i tMt-
Vm dieu k.iEJn da1 dong nhat, gia thiet ap ll!c phan oo nhu hinh
8-37a, no cho phan bO thtjc nhtl hlnh 8-37b. Bon ltjc duy tri can
bang nhu sau :
_ T- ltjc trong neo (se dtlgc xac djnh) ;
.-
88
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.,__-------'J-T·
L __ m

I· ' •I• • I I· .. I • ... I
a_) . h)
Irmh 8-37. Van cit neo: pht1dng p.Mp "ch6ng dCi dgt- u,t do"
a) Stj piWl bO ap lt,!C gia djnh ; b) pban b6 ap lt,!C th'tJC:
PAD - cttimg d() ap ll:{c chu d()ng a tren B
1
P = - K v (H - z \
2
·
AD 2 '
RP
1
- sdc khang b! d(}ng 1
RP
1
= - - 1KarHJd ;
RP
2
- sdc khang bj d()ng 2
1
Rp2 = 2 <Kp_ - ;
trong do, dung gia trj lf'' va c' da xu H. Bdi hai gia trj cht1a
biet, gi)m c6 T va d nhung chi xac djnh theo bai tinh.
Can bang cac .momen voi neo : _
- 1 . ..
= 0 = PAD[(H- a)-
3
2(H- zJ]
. .
1 2


[(H- a)+
2
d] - RP
2
[(H- a)+
3
d] [8.50] '
89
Giai ph11oilg trlnh ph11ong Day tim trj d: Can Mng
cac ll,.lc thea phttdng ngang : - - -.__j
lli = 0 = T - pAD + Rpl + Rp2 [8.51]
Til phttdng trlnh nay, tim dugc gia tti T cho ml>i met dill cua
tut1ng. Day neo thuang cacl;t nhau·2- 3m va gin vao cac thanh
ngang cung chac de _phan tan tai trQng. Trang CP2 (1950) de nghj
tang gia trj tlnh T len 15%-do tai trQng trung
neo v1 cu co tfnh deo. -
Vi 8.13. Mqt tuimg cit neo duqc yeu diu de chong do
cho ini)t ho m6ng-sau 9m. Day neo duqc gan tq,i di£m each dink
tuimg lm (nl!m dum mij,t dat). Dung phuong phap "chong do diit
- fit do" de xac dtnh dl) sau an toan phdi dong cit va neo cho
. inoi di:ti. Cac dq,c trung cua dat nhu sau : ·
c' = 20k.N/m
2
; VJ' = 24
6
·; y = 18kN/m
3
- Bai gidi
Danh gia F:
90
F = 1,5tg({Jmob. = arctg (tg24°/l,5) = 16,53°
. tf! (4SO + 16,5:J>/2) = 1,80; Ka = = 0,557
:va c' mob_ = 20/1,5 =

2c' 2 x 13,3
_zo = 'Yl/K;: = 18 X =
1
'
98
m
(H - z ) = 9 - 1 98 = 7 02m · (H - a) = 8 Om
0 ' - ' ' '
1 2 1 c-:1 -
pAD=
2
Kay (H- zJ =
2
X 0,557 X 18X 7,0z- = 247,0
RP
1
= [2c'mob . - fl\) -
= [2 x 18 x 9]d = -65,4dkN/m.
- 1 1 -
R = - fK - K )yd
2
= -(1 80- 0 557)18d
2
= 11,1S'il
2
kN/m.
p2 2 ,--p a 2 ' - '
r
I
I
t

I
i
j
I
I
I
!
!
Can bang vert T giong nhtt phttang trinh [8.50] :
1 1 - 2 2
L. M.r= 0 = 247,0(8,0- 3 -X 7,02)+ 65,4d(8,0+ 2 d)-11,18'1l (8,0 +gd)
Chota: .
. 3 2
0 = d + 7,616d - 70,15d - 187,4.
Giai ra, tim duQc :
d = 6, 79m, lay tron 6,80m
Can bang cac ltjc theo phttang ngang giong nhu phttang trinh
[8.51] : . .
m = o = T- 247,o- 65,4 x 6,8o + 11,187 x .6,80
2
Til do T = 247,0 + 444,7- 517,3 = 174,4 kN/m
Ltjc neo thiet ke :
T
3
= 1,15 X 174,4 = 201 kN/m
Phuung phdp chOng dO: dat - co dinh
Trong phuang phap nay, gia thiet van cu bj uon (hlnh 8-38a)
vbi diem ngiun t;p D va diem chong uon cong F. Gia thiet
ap ltjc phan 00 nhu hlnh 8-38b v{Ji Slj dan gian hoa Ia sue khang
bj d9ng tren chieu dai CD tac dl}.ng nhtt m9t t3i trQng theo dttCing
- thhg nam ngang C. Theo quan diem ket cau, :van eli nay dt1QC
. xem nhu hai dam tttang duang AF va FC noi tiep nhau hoi moi
, -
noi ghim F. Stj phan bo_ ap ltjc thtjc tttang ung tren cac dam
tttang duang nay dUQC thay trong hlnh 8-38d. Khoang each X xac
djnh vj trf CUa diem chong uon cong tim dttQC bAng giai tlch dan
hoi chfnh xac vili qua trlnh tlnh Thy nhien, ph6 bien han
gia thiet ti so x/H lien vbi qJ' theo chi din dt.tili day.
fJ' (d(>) 15 20 25 30 35 40
x/H
0,37 0,25 0,15 0,08 0,033 -0,01
Mt)t phttang phap dan gian han, gilt thiet Ia diem chong uon
conga diem co ap hong bang khong. hQp H khi
A
.f"/1
i
I
I
=::: lJ
lr
d'
- a_)
c
p
fi
A
T
r
.,U'n;.:

T
If,
.6_)
- -
Jrurh 8- 38. Van cif neo : phtldng phap ch6ng dd - c6 dinh
a) u6n ; b) pban b6 gia djnh ; c) S1J phan b6 momen u6n ;
d) aic 1\fe lert dam ttldng dtldng
·cho rang SUC khang bj d(}ng bieu lQ du de dtlQC Stj cO djnh -
gia trong pht1<1ng pha.p nay, chi xay ra trong dat cat va CUQi
Con trong da:t khong dfnh xop rlri va trong dat b\li, set,
muc d() co c:ijnh khong chac chan, vi the phttang phap chong do .<fat
- tl;"f do dttQC coi Ia hQp han. Xem xet dam tuang duang AF
(hlnh 8- 38c), c6 cac lljc sau· :
1
PI = 2 KJ'{H + x)2
-Can bang momen vlJi diem E :
2 - 2 -
- 0- P [ - (H+x)- a] - R [-x+H-a]-R-'H+x- a) [8521
E- - 1 3 1 3 . .
Til phttang trlnh tren, tim dttQc gia tri va ltjc trong day neo
bang: -
T = PI- Rt - Rr
[8.53]
92
' -
Tiep do_, xem xet dam tltong duong FC, co cac ll!c tac dtJng sau :
= PF (d x) d day pf- = K
3
y(H - x) -
1 2
va _=
2
<Kp - K
3
)y(d - - x)
Can bang momen vlli C :
- 1 1 1 1
LMc= 0= Rr(d-x)+
2

2
Rz-
3
R._;
Til day c6 the_ giAi tim (d - x), roi d. Gia trj nay se 20%
vl khi phan tfch da bO q_ua chien dai ·en : d
8
= 1,2d. -
-
Neu momen uon cl!c xay ra d dulli dinh tulJng khoang
zs thi : -
Chota:
1 - 2
T =
2
K
3
yz;
va = T(z
8
- a) - ! [8.55b]
[8.55a]
vi d9 m.Au 8.14. Mt;t tztimg cit neo duqc dung de chOng do cho
mt;t hO m6ng sau 9m. Day neo dztqc gan tQ.i diem each dinh tztimg
lm -(ndm dum mij,t dat). Ditng phuong phiip chOng do dat- co
dinh de me dinh dt; siiu an toan phdi dong cit, neo cho moi
met _dai va uon ClJC dq,i gay ra cho van cit. Cac d(j,c trztng
cua dat nhzt sau :
c ' = 0 ; fJ' = 39° ; y = 20kN/m
3
:
Baigitii
panh gia F:
F = 1,3tgrp' mob. = arctatg3go/1;3) = 32,(1>
= ttr (4SO .+ = 3,25 vA Ka = = 0,307
x/H = 0,061 {bang n(}i suy) ; vl the x = 0,061 x 9 = 0,_549m
93 : - -
.
..
. .
Cac hie tac d\lng len dam dUdng dt1dng a tren :
1 1
P
1
=
2
K
3
y(H + x)
2
=
2
X 0,307 X 20 X 9,54g£ = kN/m
1 1 .
R
1
= ·
2
¥ =
2
x 3,25 x 20 x 0,5492 = 9,80 kN/m
Can bang momen vai diem E:
-L ME= 0= 279,9[ x 9,549- 1]-9,80[ x ·o,549+ 8,0]- Rr-x 8,549
94
Tu-do:
= (1502 - 82,0)/8,549 = 166,1 kN/m
Ll!c neo yeu cau :
T
3
= (P
1
- R
1
- =
pF = 0,307 X 20 X 9,459- 3,25 X 20 X 0,549 = 22,95 kN/m
2
Cac lt1c tac d1:1ng len dam. t1te1ng d11<1ng a dl1i1i :
_ 22,_95 (d- x)
1 :
=
2
(3,25 -=- 0,307) 20 (d_ - x)
2
= - x)2
Can momen vm diem C :
1 . 1
..... = 0 = 1661 +- x 22 95(d -x) -- x 29 43(d -x)
2
=
L.Mc ' 2 ' · 3 '
· = (d- x)
2
- 1,170 (d- x)...:. 16,93
Giai ra, tim dttqc :
· d- x = 4,74m
Vi the, d{) sau cu dong an toan bang :
ds = (4,74 + 0,549)1,2 = 6,35m
V! trl c6 ll!c cat bang khong :
z =
0
2 ·x 104
( 0,307 x 20) =
5
'
82
m
Momen uon Cl:fC tlnh theo :
- 1
Mmax.. = 104(5,82-- 1,0)-
6
x 0,307x 2 x 5,823 = 384kNm
cho moi met cu
Sl$ tham va ap nt:tiic 16 r6ng
·'
Trang cat vit. cu(li, neu _m\fc nttbc -ngam trulJc vit. sau tttang chenh
thl can xem xet ap llfc_nttlJc lo rong thuy tinh khac nhau. Mt.:tc
nttbc ngam c6 the bien doi do bm:n hut, mlta hay dieu thuy -
trieu. Trong thai gian can ·de khoi phl}C Sf/. can bang CUa ID\fC nttoc
ngam, qua tnnh tham ra vbi qua lit. them tac d()_ng toi ap
l\fc nttbc lo rang vit. dung trQng Trong dat set, do tfnh
yeu nen tham It khong tham, nhttng vAn phai xem xet l\fc ap
l\fc nttbc lo rong chenh -
aJ Ytin dong. vao ·trong tlat set
Hinh 8-39a cho thay s\f phan oo ap lt.:tc thtiy tinh. Cac It.:tc thtiy
tinh tht.:tc lJ phfa chti d()ng gom : -
1 2
pwl = 2Y.Jt1
_S/ __ _
h)
[8.56a]
'
[8.56b]
Jrmh. B-39. Ap hJc mfdc 10 rOng d phia sau ttJdng van cit
a) trong set ; b) trong cit
i
95
.
Vl khong xay ra tham (do_ tfnh tham kem), dung trQng i1 phfa
chu d(>ng va hi d(>ng nht1 _nhau.
b) Van dOng vtio trong cat
;
Gia dieu tham on djnh, do c()t nttlfc tong bj
giam khi qua van cil a gifta haf mljc nttac ngam.
Cach khae, che h<1n, c6 the dung m()t lttai tham. C()t nttlfc
thuy do la h
1
va chieu dili c1la duifng dong Ia h
1
+ h
2
(hinh
8- 39b). _Ap ll!c nt10C lfi rong Cl!C U xac djnh theo :
u

h + h · Yw
1
[8.57]
1
pwl = 2 uhl
[8.58a]
1
pw2 = 2
[8:58b]
.Ap h;tc . tham j se la hang so,. vOi dong th3:J,n xuong dttlfi xay ra
{j phla chu d()ng_ va dong tham hu6ng len {j phia bj d()ng
ya tlung trQng cua dat se bang :
Phi a chu d{)ng : y, = y sat. - 9,81 ( 1 - j)
Phia dQng: y, = Ysat. - 9.81 (1 + j)
Neo cho van cit
[8.59]
[8._60a]
[8.60b]
M()t so pht1<1Dg phap neo da dt1QC dung va cac pho bien
nl;lat thay i1 hlnh 8-40. Day van cit song song vm-nhau (hinh 8-40a)
dung lQi khi khong gian bj che hay rong trlnh k:ha
thai. De tranh cho van cil bj uon va trong _ hgp lJ ndi c6 dat
dap, co the dung cac=-cQC xien (hlnh 8-40b). Neo dat (hinh
8-40c va xem IDl:lC 8.13) gOID CO thanh hay day cap chju keo dt1C}C
. trong vfla xi mang. phl:lt, c6 feb khi khong c6
96
--
I
I
I
r
I
I
/1 - - --
. . . ...
. . . . . . . . . . - -
---liB
. a._)
A .. . . . . . - . . -
----1.6
/
/
/
/
/
•/

.// -
fi . - .. .. .. . .
H
fi . - . -- . . . .. . . -. , . -. --. -
_-_ -_ ·. mowh "/.. .... - .
· · - · /Vucuc
:·. -_-: . /p

- - . . - g
rl-/!1 r(' .
/f11J
./
.11
.6_)
Hlnh 8-40. Cac d<,lng neo cho van Ctl
a) van cit ; b) CQC xien ; c) neo dat ; d) neo chet
7 CHDfl'2
97
- .. ... !
dttang di vao be neo ph6 bien nha:t la neo •chet•, d6 la
khoi tuang _be tong khong rot thep hay m{tt cac khoi dugc due
trong dat (hlnh 8-4od). Dieu quan trQng la cac neo chet nhtt
the nao de vilng pha cua tttong va cua khoi n-eo khong phu
nhau. M{tt phtiong phap don gilm theo quy tac ngon tay c3i bao
dam dttgc dieu do, thay a hlnh 8-40d. Dau dttlJi cua nem pha
,_chti d{tng dugc xem nhu xay ra a chan ctia yan cu, noi da su d1:1ng
phtt<1ng phap chong da da:t - t\1 do de xac djnh d() sau dong, hay
3 -
diem dum B la
4
d trong trttang hQp dung phttong phap chong
do dat - co dinh.
Co the xac djnh sU:c chju keo cho phep cho m{tt neo chet nhtr
I
sau: -
N eo chet lien t¥c :
1 2
T = - T .tK - K )
- A 2 '"-2 -,-1> a
- [8.61]
KIWi rieng : -
1
2 - ' -1 [8 62]
TA = 2rd2[L<Kp - KJ + Ko(dz· --dl)tgrpmob. ·
a day :
c
1
T A - sdc chju keo cho phep d
1

2
dz );
L - chieu dai neo chet cho moi day neo ;
d
1
- chieu sau tdi tren cua neo chet;
d
2
- chieu sau toi dttoi ctia neo chet ;
r - trQng lttgng d<1n dat ;
K
3
, K
0
- cac hEJ so ap l1Jc dat d\ia tren VJ' mob. ;
tn' b - go' c rna sat da co he so hieu chlnh.
r mo . · ·
8.13. Neo dat
N eo da:t Ia m()t ket cau de truyen tai trQng keo toi khi dat hay
da ch!u tai an toan. _Neo co ba phan chfnh : a) dau truyen dng
suat, b) gan va c) mo neo co d!nh.
98
Gan co thanh hay cap nhieu day thttang dung thep
chju keo cao· (fy 800 MN/m
2
). Ba neo da1 chlnh dtlQC thay
a hinh 8-41.
I
.b) I
l

J,Z/a /hZ/n- r

Kurh 8-41. Neo dfit
a) vUa bang iip hJc; b) day cap b¢n; c) hefl Jchi dl)C r()ng them
Neo trong cuf;\i tho va ccit (k > 1 X 10-
4
m/s)
ctat t:po oo s6 tba:m > 1 x 10-
4
m./s, vUa. xi mang
tham vao dtlQC kho8ng rong dQC theo chieu dai neo cO dinh (hlnh 8-41a).
Stj..lien ket voi gan dtlQC bang each uon gan hay dung ong nen,
nose gian no khi ·tac tai dng suat truoc. Sdc mang tai
cljc T co the tlnh theo bieu thdc sau (Littlejohn, 1970) :
T = [8.63]
D -:... dttang klnh mo neo co djnh ;
L - c.hieu dai mo neo co Cijnh ;
99
tp, -: goc ma sat cua da:t ;
m - so thay doi tit 150 den 600 thu(>c vao ldch thuoc
cua da1.
Xac djnh gan dung m ( theo Littlejohn, 1977) :
lgm = 2,52 + 0,34 lgD
50
8.64 .
a day: D
50
-co trung.
Neo trong cat mjn va cat b1}.i (1 X 10-
6
< k < 1 X 10-
4
m/s)
Trong da:t co so tham nho, vfia xi mang tham h<1n nhieu
va chieu tham kern hdn· do mang. neo a hinh
8-41b kha thlch hgp cho cac dat nay: nhieu sQi thep dugc
dtia vao xi n;i8.ng phllt. Duang ldnh roo neo co djnh bang du?lng
kinh cua .6ng gan. Dung phuang trlnh [8.63] de xac djnb T. ·
N eo trong dat set ran va da macno
Trong th\fc te, khong the mong dgi vfia tham vao trong cac
dat dlnh nen thuang phai dung phu<1ng phap dl;.lc r(>ng them
(hinh 8-41c). Thong thuang, duang ldnh mo neo co djnh gap 6 Ian
duang klnh ong gan. Dat co cu < 90 kN/m
2
thubng kbong dliQc
xem Ia thlch hgp de dong neo vao.
Sue mang tai gioi T tlnh theo bieu thuc :
a day:
· .
T = .n:DLKcu
[8.65]
c -
u
K-
d(> ben cat khong thoat nuoc cua dat ;
tu 0,45 den 0,6 phl! thu(>c vao
phudng phap neo.
..:t '
On djnh toan b(l tttang neo
Voi tltong dugc lien ket voi m(>t day neo ddn, cac phu<1ng phap
sil d""ng ap hjc da:t chu d<)ng va bj d<)ng da trlnh bay a tren Ia thlch
dang. Cung din dung so an toan cho cac thong so d<) ben chju
cua dat. Phai kiem tra S\1 on djnh toan b<) cua m<)t neo dan
ket hgp voi dat nghieng hay thay doi khong quy pha
gan dung nhu a hinh 8-42a va xem xet nero dat thanh
khi can bang¢oi neo, se lam cho pha cong (hinh
100
i
I
I
!
l
I
4-82b), trong truong hqp nay phan tich bang phuong phap phan
manh cung vai kiem tra an toan cho m6i neo.
d)
b.J
H'urh 8-42. pM cho tliCsng neo
a) day cac neo ddn; b) neo
Cac bai t if 1 den 11 c6 y d6 lam ro sl,f bien d6i ve dQ ldn vii vi tri ciJa t6ng ap
chii d9ng gay ra do di6J dat kbac nhau d p!Ua sau tl1dng cMn. Trong m6i
h<:Jp. tliiJng c6 111ng tlidng llMn. tMng diing vii chong da kh6i dat sau 12m. ·
Vdi mOi tn1CJng hc;Jp. bay tinh d9 ldn vii vi tri tren chan tliiJng) ciJa t6ng ap h,rc
chii dQng p A' gia ml,fc nlidc ngam mm dlidi chan· ll!CJng. Ki cac In1ng CUa
dat dli(Jc c;li6ng dd :
c· - dinh bib! kien ;
m' - a6c cUa sire khang clt .
T b · •
y - tiQng ddn vi-
c· = 0;
3
y = 18,0 kN/m .
101
·-
·,
-
2. dat ngang, tai trQng phan dru Ia 24kN/m
2
, chi c6 IDQt I<lp daL
c' = 0 ; tp' = 32° ; y = 19,5 kN/m
3
3. dat nA.m ngang. khong c6 tai trQng c6 hai l<lp dat :
o - 5m a d11<li
dtldi 5m
c· = 0 ; tp' = 30° ; y = 18,0 kN/m
3
c' = 0; rp' = 36°; y = 20,0 kN/m
3
4. dat mm ngang, khong c6 tai trQng c6 hai ldp dat :
0 - 4m a d11di dat c' = 0 ; tp' = 34° ; y = 19s6 kN/m
3
dUdi 4m c' = 0 ; tp' = 28° ; y = 18,4 kN/m
3
5. dat nghieng vdi ph11dng mm ngang 15°-ttl .dinh t11dng, k.hong c6 tai trQng
phl), chi c6 mQl ldp dat :
c' = 0; y = 19,0 kN/rrt
6. dat mm ngang. khong c6 tai trQng chi c6 IIlQt I<lp dat :
c = 45 kN!m
2
• m = 0 · y = 18,0 kN/m
3
u ' Tu '
7. dat mm ngang, khong c6 tai trQng chi c6 m()t l<lp dat:
c' = 15kN/m
2
; y = 18.0 kN/m
3
S. dat nam ngang. tai trQng nh3t Ia 24kN/m
2
, chi oo m()t I<lp dat :
c' = 15kN/m
2
; tp' = 20° ; y = 18,0 kN/m
3
9. d3t nam ngang, tcii trQng phan b6 dru Ia 60kN/m
2
, chi c6 m()t I<lp dat :
c' = 1SkN/m
2
; tp' = 20° ; y = 18,0 kN/m
3
10. d3t mm r1ooang. thong c6 tai trQng c6 hai ldp d3t: .
o- 5m a dU<1i dat c = 12 kN/m
2
·
u ,
·· dUdi 5m c = 35 kN/m
2

u •
UJ = 0.
ru •
UJ = 0.
ru •
3
y = 17,0 kN/m
y = 18,0 kN/m
3
11. dat mm ngang, khong c6 tai trQng phl), c6 hai ldp dat :
0- 4m a dtldi dat c' = 0 ; tp' = 30° ; y = 19,6 kN/m
3
dUdi 4m c' = 25 kN/m
2
;
3
y = 18,2 kN/m
12. Mc)t ll1dng chan betong c6 lung t11dng nMn, tMng dung ch3.n giii khoi
sau 8m c6 trung sau :
c' = 0;
Khong c6 tai trQng tren dat.
102
3
y' = 19kN/m ;
Hay linh dQ ldn ctia t6ng ap hjc chu d(}ng tac dt,Jng ltn l11dng lrong ci.c di6J k:ien
sau day:
a) thoat m1de hoan loan va tl) do djch;
b) thoat mJ& hoan toan nhtlng dinh ttldng bi giii chong chuyen d!ch ; _
c) tl) do chuyen djch, mt,fc mt<k ngam bang da:t .
.
13. M(}l ttliJng cMn belong c6 lttng ttliJng nhAn, thing difng chan giii kh6i
sau 12m gom c6 hai ldp:
0 - 7m a dtldi mjt da:t : c' = 0 ; rp' = 22,
0
y thoat nude = I9,2kN/m
3
y bao hoa = 20,6 kN/m
3
dtldi 7m : c = 25 kN/m
2
• ., = 0 · v = 18 1 kN/m
3
U ' Tu ' I '
Hay tinh dQ l<ln ctia t6ng ap ll)c chu d(}ng tac dl,lng len tUisng cho. ci.c truisng
ml)c nUde ng3m nhtl sau :
a) ml)c nUde ngam du<li chan tuisng ;:
_,.·
b) mtJc nu& ngam du<li dat 7m;
c) ml)c nUde ng3m bang da:t. .
14. M(}t tt13ng ch3n bang betong c6 lUng ttldng dltng chan giii kh61 dat sau
5m c6 ci.c tntng sau :
c' = 0; rp' = 3't; y thoat nJJdc = 18,8 kN/m
3
M(}t tai trQng phl,l dimg pMn b6 theo duisng tMng Ia 80 kN/m
2
tac dt,Jng song
song va ci.ch htng lUdng 3m.
. a) Hay tinh t6ng ap lt,1c hOng tac dl,lng len ltlng tUiJng, gia dat lhoat mJdc hoan
toan va:
- tuisng nMn
- g6c rna sat ctia ltldng (giiia ttlisng va da:t) la 25°
b) Neu khoi ctia ttldng Ia 222 kN/m, hay tinh he s6 an toan chong (gia
chong dd nMn dimg).
15. Ltlng ctia lllQt tttisng ch3n nghieng vdi phtlSng ngang g6c 80° va co chieu
cao difng Ia 9m TiJ dinh tttdng, khoi dat chong dd doc len vdi goc
nghieng 20°. cac trung ctia dat
c'- = 0; y = 20k.N/m
3
;
103
-.
t
.; .
I,
Xac dinh Ctldng d() ap h,rc chu d()ng hong tac dt,mg len tt.fdng gay ra bdi cac nem dat
thti co pha 1?0 vdi phll<lng nfim ngang cac goc 75°, 60° va 45°_
16. M()t tt1dng chan (hinh 8- 43) chong gili c6 cac trung sau :
c' = 0 ; <p • = 33° : y = ; = 20°
a), }(ac dinh d() ldn cUa tbng ap lt,(C P A tac dt.mg lm ltldng
- khi khong c6 tai trQng ph1,1 tren ;
- khi tai trvng ph1,1 tren tac theo dt1iJng thing Ia 100 kN/m nhtl iJ hinh
8-43_
II/17A-/Y/P7
X= /7.8/77
Jrurh 8-43 -
b) Xac dinh khoang each t6i thieu X (J sau ttlCSng rna tili trvng phl,l c6 the (J d6
rna khong lam ap ltjc len ttliJng_
17. Dung cac ht; s6 ap h,lc dat dtja tren li nem de tinh :
a) ctt<1ng d9 ap hJc chu d()ng tac d1,1ng len ttldng thing dung cao 6m ;
b) slic khang bi d()ng bdi dling cao 4m.
104
c6 cic tnJng sau :
c' = 25kN/m
2
;
f{J' = 15° ;
18. cat ngang CUa mQl
tt1iJng cMn bang be tong dt1<JC
nghi thay d hinh 8-44, trQng
ddn vi ciJa Ia 24
kN/m
3
. xac dinh he s6 an loan
chong quanh .(\., he s6 an
toan ch6ng ·-tnJ(It (oo qua siic
kh3ng bi de}ng) va ffng chju
diirig t<li dat a dt1<li
A trong cic dieo kien san : a)
chong do dat khong dinh thoat
nl1dc hoim toan :
c' = 0 ; f/J' = 34° ;
3
y = 20kN/m
b) ch6ng da· dat gia
khe nitt se hiert
trong vimg chju teo va
chiJa day nl1dc :
c = 22kN/m
2
- -
u •
dJ = 0.
ru •
3
y = 18kN/m
19. Hinh 8-45 cho
th3y cat ngang ctia
mc}t tl1dng ali belOng
dt1<JC xay dljng v<li
tl1<lng thing di1ng. nat
chong giil dt1<JC dung
Jam day ali co cac
tfl{ng sau :
)
c = 12 kN/m- ·
w •
6 = 10°; y = 19kN/m
3
-r-
0.8/TT
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6 • tJ.
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ll c.'
I> • II
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A' •J, \ ,A,'
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Kurk B-45
105
c' = 0; f!J' = 32° y thoat mtdc = 19Iu''Um
3
<5 = 20° y bao hoa = 21 kN/m
3
Trvng h1"ng ddn v! trung binh ciJa ciii va datla 22kN/m
3
.
86 qua sue-khang bi d()ng nhtJng xel tiii tai trQng pht,i, xac dinh chieu I"Qng yeu
diu cila chan ciii th6a man tieu cbu&n ke sau :
a) he s6 an toan ch6ng 1: 2 ;
b) he s6 an loan chong trtJ"t <t 1.5 ;
c) Phan 11)c nfn o dttiii chan ttJiJng "j> 600kN/m
2
.
r
20. M()t hao dili va ht;p sau 8m du"c chong d<l bfu1g bim bentonit c6 trvng ltJ"ng
ddn vj 12kN/m
3
. MtJc nUde ngam va m1)c bun trong bilO nam dlfiii dat tlfdng ilng lit
1,8m va 0,5m.. xac djnh he s6 an -toan d6i viii X1.,1l lis thilnh hao trong m6i dat sau:
a) cit : c' ;:= 0 ; f!J' = 32° ; y = 20kN/m
3
;
b) dat set : c = 40 k.N/m
2
- .,. = o --y = 19k.N/m
3
u 7 Tu ,
21. M()t van a) ngim: yeu diu ch6ng dCi khoi Wit sau 5m c6 ci.c dijc trung sau :
c' = 0; f{J' = 35°; y = 20,8kN/m
3
?'ac dinh chieu dai yeu diu van cii ni!u dung ht;- s6 an toan Ia 1,5 cho cac thong
s6 de} ben va cho pbep tim hilnh gicli tich gan dung.
22. M()t wang van cii neo chong da kh6i dat s.au 6m, thoat ntJiic hoim toim va c6
cic tnmg sau :
c' = 0;
• 380
f{J = ; y = 19,0kN/m
3
Cac neo mm ngang g3n de} sau 1,4m va cic tam 2,5m.. Dimg phl1<1ng
phiip chOng dCi dat - t\1 do va he s6 an toim Ia 1,4 df xac dinh :
a) chieu sau dong an loan toi thifu yeu cau ;
b) truyen -cho m6i thanh neo.
23: M6t tlfiJng van cii neo ch3n giii dat thoat nlf& sau 5,9m, c6 cac trung sau:
- 3
c' =:= 0 ; f!J' = 3-t' ; y = 20kN/m
Van cit c6 t6ng chieu dili Ia 10m va neo dibn dttiii phia tren 1,3m
viii thanh liro ket nam ngang cac tam 3.0m.. Dilng pht1<1ng phiip ch6ng do dat - ttl
do va b6 qua ma sat, xac djnh :
a) phan slic khang bj d()ng c6 kh3 ruing da lruy d()ng tiii chieu dili cii dong vao
Ia bao nhieu ·?
b) h)c truyen cho m6i thanh neo.
106
r
f
I
t
i
t-
\
!
I
I
i
I
l
!
'
I

I
I
j
i
i
I
I
i
I
I
I-
I
\
i
Chuang 9
ON DINH CUA MAl DOC
9.1. 5I! di chuyen 0 mai doc t1! nhien va nhan-tCllO
Mai d6c cua khoi dat da co the d1.tgc hlnh thimh do cac tac nhan
ttj nhien hay nhan nh1.t m9t s6 vf d\l cho iJ trong 9- 1.
Tat ca mai d6c deu c6 xu hli®g giam d9 d6c den m9t 6n
djnh h<fn - cuoi cung chuyen sang nam va trong hOi cAnh
nay, mi£t on dl.i«;__C quan Ia khi c6 xu h1.tbng di chuyen
va phiL lwq,i - "khi khoi dat da thljc Stj di chuyen. Cac ltjc gay mat
l)n <ijnh lien quan chu yeu vl1i trQpg ltjc va tham trong-.khi sdc
chong-pha ca ban Ia do hlnh mai d6c ket h<}p v(Ji ban
than dQ ben khang cat CUa dat va da nen.
S-.J di chuyen clia khoi dat da co the xay ra do pha cat dQC
theo m9t a ben trong khoi hay do ung suat qua gifta cac-
giam nen stj hoa long m(}t phan hay toan bQ. Ng1.toi ta da
quan sat dltQC nhieu di ·chuyen (pha khac nhau ; de
lJ day chi xem xet ba di chuyen sau :
MAID6c

X6i IDOn hoijc
chia cat
-
I
M3i doc m<m d6i
va tlmng lUng
I
Vach lx1 bien
va lx1 50ng
-
Gom hoijc
tdm tich
I
M3i doc to tich va
dOng oong tnfdc nui -
I
Mai
va truc;n dong
NHAN TAO
----------
Dap Dao
1-
Khoictap

D6ng d&t thai
va dong d3t dao
Hao riinh va cac ho
m6ng khong dtlc;Jc
chong dd
Jr:uth 9-J. Cac m3i doc t\1 nhien va nttan
107
. •··.
:J
·.
81!-t lo. Dat da -di chuyen rlsi xa khoi cho bi gian : cac tho
nut, khe nut, phan lop doc, ddt gay, .. . va dieu
c6 the du<_;fc ho tr<J hay thuc day do tac d<)ng·cua ap
hjc nuoc hay ap hjc bang (hlnh 9-2a) 0 trong cac gian do.
c)
Kmh 9-2. Cac di chuybt CUa khoi dat da
a) sl)t ld; b) tnf(Jt tinh tiifu; c)_tnf(Jt d) tnf(Jt dong
Tntqt. 0 d.i chuyen- ni.y, khoi dat da ce1 ban khong bj xao
d(}ng trong khi tru<Jt dQC theo m(>t xac dj.nh. Ve ket cau, ro
rang co hai tru<Jt sau :
· _ a) Tn.tqt ttnh tim. truQt nay Ia slj di chuye-n tuyen tfnh
: CUa khof da dQC theo ph.3.ng phan }dp Slj di chuyen CUa
lclp dat nam gan diit d6c. Slj di chuyen nhu the thttbng kha
· nang va song song vdi dat (hlnh 9-2b).
b) Tntqt xoay. XAy ra trung trong dat dlnh_hay da mem yeu
dong nhat ; sl_;( di chuyen ra dQc theo cat cong bang each
Ia khoi tn:t<Jt t1;1t xuong a gan · dinh mai dac va day choi o gan chan
d6c (hinh 9-2c).
Truqt dong. 0 day ban than khoi truqt ciing bj xao d{!ng va di
chuyen mqt_ phan hay toan b() nhtt m()t chat long. TrttQt dong
108
- - -----
thuang xay ra trong da:t yeu bao hoa nuac khi ap h;tc nuCJc lo rang
tang dude lam mat toan b(> d() ben chong cat. tritgt tht;ec hau
nhu khong co hay chi bieu tung hie.
St;t thay doi cac dieu nhu mua, thmit nuac, chat tai
on djnh be hoc bo lap phu tht;tc thubng thuc
day Slj pha mai doc. Cac bien doi-do co the xay ra ngay sau
khi xay dljng phat trien trong nhieu nam
xay ra d()t ng()t lJ thai diem bat Id. Trong phan tlnh cac. mai
doc dao cling nhu mai doc dap, can thief xem xet ca dieu ki(}n 6n
djnh tuc thai va lau · dai. Ciing can thiet xem xet pha co. the
co theo trugt mai ra hay theo trugt da ton tr1tac,
blJi vi trong m()t so dat, co st;t khac nhau dang ke gifta d(> ben
khang cat dinh va d() ben khang cat du.
M()t so mai doc co the ton hang nam lJ trg.ng thai bat dau
pha hoq,i - lJ ben bi1 cua slj di chuyen han niia. Do Ia dau hi(}u
thu cho mai doc tlj nhien va mai d6c dat thai ; can ghi nha Ia
nhieu suan doi bi giam m()t each tt;t nhien do phong hoa ciirig
co the tien gan den thai pha Trong hoan canh nay, slj
can thi(}p ctia con nguai nhu hoc bo lap phti thljc hay dao vao
chan mai d6c co· the thuc day mai doc di chuyen.
N ()i dung ctia chuang nay chu yeu quan tam den st;t an djnh cua
mai doc dao va niai dap. De trlnh bay cac quan co ban
dugc sang sua, ta chi xem xet cac trttang hgp gia tai co thoat nuac
va khong thmit nuac dan gian. Tuy nhien, cac phuang phap va each
phan tlch de d day co the ap d1}.ng cho cac hili toan mo r(;ng
han chang cho mai doc tv nhien, diit thai va dat co nguon goc
va thanh phan phdc Ve chi tiet cua tugng Sf!,t ld va trztqt
dong, nguai dQC phai tham khao sach giao khoa dja chat cong trinh
thlch hgp.
9.2. Ll!a ChQn-cac thong SO dQ-ben khang cat ChO·
thiet ke mai doc
Nhu da de trong chuang 6 va 7, cac thong so dung de d!nh
h.t<;Jng d(> ben khang cat co ban ph\1 thu()c vao ca ljch su ung suat
cua dat l&n dieu thoat nuac.
109
(
Trong hgp bai toan on djnh mai doc, m(Jt htu y them
niia Ia sl! di chuyen pha se xay ra a trugt mai ra hay
a trugt da ton - do ttlQng trugt da xay ra tntf1c do
de
Cac n()i dung trl.nh bay duai day Ia nham cho IDl}.C dlch thiet ke
chung va can phai nho rang kha nhieu bai tmin cong trinh diit
co tinh rieng Cac nguyen tac chi dq,o cho thiet ke la c6 :lch,
tri.i cac quy tac chung thtlong din den nhieu kho khan. Cac
hili toan roi vao cap dta ki thuij.t nguy hiem 3 (xem tham khao A)
doi hoi sl! chu trQng ctia cac kl stl dja ki co nhieu kinh

.
- Trt1qt dqc theo tntqt da ton 4U tntdc
thai pha nay chi co a noi cac chuyen vj Ian, co the
Ia viti met, da xay ra. Phai dung cac thong so di) ben du sau day :
Khong thoat nuoc :
Thoat nuoc:
l"=c
ur
Tntqt theo m*t truqt mdi thanb -
Khi ben trong khoi dat da chac chan Wi dq ben giai
hay dq ben t(Jt dinh thl se xuat m()t - truqt mOi. ll!a
chQn cac thong so chi dtlgc tien hanh sau khi da xem xet can
lich ·sit llng suat va thai thoat ntlO'c da dl! doan trtlO'c.
_ Dat co kit binh thuiTng
-- Thu(Jc nay gom co dat co ket blnh thtlong v!J. hoi
qua ·co ·ket, tllc Ia dat am bon (hay kern hon) J:_hai
gioi -
Vai dieu khong thoat nuoc, d<? ben t<?t dznh se thap hon
d() ben gioi hq,n, vi the dung :
l"=c
u
VO'i dieu thoat nl10'c, phru dung d<? ben giO'i ·=
r =
110

I
.I
r
t
Dli I qua co Ice I m(lnh
da:t nay kho hon (hay han) thai gioi va vi
the, hie bien nho d(> ben t(>t dlnh cao hand(> ben gioi hq,n.
LC1i khuyen chan thanh cho cac nha thiet ke Ia phai trQng
trong cac tnti1ng hgp khong biet hay dl! doan bien kho khan.
- Bien dq,ng nho (dl!a trend(> ben t(>t dinh) :
- khong thoat nttoc -c = cu
- thoat nttoc r = c' +
Cach khac ( dl!a tren d(> ben toi :
- khong thoat nttoc -c = cu
- thoat nttoc r =
Trong dat set qua co ket c6 bien rat -Icm, can xem
xet S\1 S\lt giam CUa- d(} ben sau bien t(}t dinh. Trong tnt()ng
hgp nay, dung cac thong so sau ( d1 nhieii phai giam so an
toan) Ia thlch hgp han :
r: = cu va r:' =
Bat ctit
han thai gioi :
r = (d(> ben t()t dinh)
Xop rai han thai gioi :
r = (d(> ben gii1i
0 noi da tien hanh thl dung trQng Ion nha:t va nho nhat,
lay gia trj n(>i suy cp' tttang tlng voi dung ti"Qng a ngoai troi.
Cac nha thiet ke phai chac chan rang hQ da hieu biet ban chat
thl!c cua cac ket qua va thong so thl -trong cac bao cao
trong phong va ngoili troi. Thl ba tn}c khong thoat nttoc
nhanh con dugc sil d1.1ng I"Qng rai, dil chi cho cac thong
so ling suat tong - gia tri thut1ng dung khong nhieu trong thiet
ke mai doc. Tu thi ba tr\IC cO ket - khong thoat nttoc voi
111
do ap h.tc lo rang, co the danh gia cac thong so U'ng sua1
qua thich hQp. Bang thl cat - vong hay h<?p cat ngugc
(xem chuang 7), xac djnh dugc cac thong sod<) ben du.
9.3. Tnrt;Jt tjnh tien tren mai doc vo
ngft truqt ttnh tien mai doc vo h(!.n thuong dung de mieu
ta m<)t slj di chuyen tjnh tien theo nu:j,t phang a nong song song
vai mai doc keo dai. Khi co m<)t lap dat cung han nam dttai se
hu<)c pha theo m<)t phang. bo qua anh htrong
cua d<? cong 4ti tc)t dinh doc, chan mai doc va ben suon doc da dan
tai mc)t ket qua de cho mai doc 1om hay thang, nhung tlnh
qua on djnh cho mai doc co goc va cong loi. Pha thuong
bj thuc day do ap lljc nuoc lo rang tang d<)t ngc)t trong
dat rna be bj say kho m<)t phan roi lien ket voi nhau va di
chuyen nhu mc)t ban phang mong rna doi khi nguoi ta sic d1,.1ng
ngft truqt lop.
Mai dac vo khong thoat nttdc
Xem xet cat cua m<)t mai d6c vo b! pha dqc theo
m<)t trugt phang song song voi dat (hinh 9-3). st,L on djnh
khong thoat nuoc cua lang the phl,.l thuc)c vao cac ltjc sau :
TrQng luqng cua
lang the w = yzbcos{:J c·
ltjc phap
tuyen len phang
truat N = Wcos{3 .
. c
- Ll:fc tiep tuyen
huang xuong mai doc
T = Wsinfic·
. L11c khang cat huang
len mai doc R = £b,
a day : {3 c - goc giai
han cua mai doc ;
T - dq ben cat
khong thoat nuoc cua
dat · r = c
' u·
112
z
H'i.nh 9-3. Cac hJc tac len
d mai d6c khOng t hoat m.t&:
Cac nt)i h,tc truQt E
1
va E
2
duQc xem Ia bang Dhau va nguQc
chieu, vi the tieu.
VI can giCii nen R - T = 0
Do the : cub .:-. Wsinf3 c = yzbcosf:J csiDf:J c
Chota: /
hay
cu 1
- = sinfJcosf:J = - sin2f:J
yz 2 c
2c
• CJR u
SID"""P = -
c yz
[9.1]
Ro rang, dieu on dinh nay chi co gia t:rj khi 0° < f:J c < 45°,
co _nghla la :
2cu
1
yz
Thl,ic te h<1n, Ia lam ro phu<Jng trinh [9.1] vm d{) sau gioi
hq,n - dt? sau truQt co the bieu
Dt? sau gilJi zc dttQC tinh :
2cu
zc = ysin2{3
[9.2]
Tuy nhien, -phili nhd trong diit set co ket thong thtti1ng cu
tang theo d(> sati, tru vi:tng say kho m(>t ph_an a gan dat. Phil
hoq,i nong dttgc dt_t doan theo dieu can bang nay. M(>t ghi trj
zc khong_ nang tlnh thea phtt<Jng trinh [9.2] tat nhien khong bieu
thj mai doc an toan, nhttng co nghla Ia co kha nang trugt xoay
nam sau.
vi dl}- 9.1. Tq,i m{)t mai doc keo dai, dat d{) ben khang
cat khong thoat _nuac la -50 kN/m
2
va tr9ng lztqng don vt 18 kNJm
3
.
Dung phuong phap rrtai doc vo hqn, xae d-inh d{) sau· truqt cat
co -the xay ra khi g6c_ nghieng mai d6c la 22?.
113
·J
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·-
: '
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•I

Btli gitii
Xac djnh de) sau gioi thea phudng trinh [9.2] :
2 X 50
z = = 8,0m
c 18 x sin4.f>
Voi de? sau zc = 8,0m rna cho la trugt nong thl mai doc se qua
dai. Vl the 0 day co the la hili toan trttgt xoay va dieu do phai dt1gc
tien hanh khao sat.
¥i dl}- mAu 9.2. Hay tinh so an toan cho Sit on khong
·thoat nuoc czia mai doc keo dai, c6 di) doc 1 : 1,5, neu tq,i dij sau
co mt;t lap dat dink yeu vOi cu = 24 kN!m
2
; lap tren cor =
18,5 kNfm
3
.
Bai gitii
Til [9.1], ta c6 :
2 X 24
sin2f3c = 18,5 X 1,8 =
1
,
44
1
Goc nghieng mai doc thl,ic fJ = arctg
1 5
= 33,69°
'
s6 an _toan
F = 1,44 = 1 56
'
sin(2 x 33,6!1') --
Mai doc vo thoat nude
Trang thoat nuoc, de) ben khang cat cua dat tlnh theo :
hay
-r = dntf§p'
7:' = c' + t/ te»n'
0
. br
VOl gia trj c' va rp' chQn la thfch hgp (xem IDt)C 9.2).
Xet_ m()t lang the phan -to {j mai doc vo thoat nt10C (hlnh
9-4}. Dau tien, nghien" cdu truiJng hQp tong quat- voi ml;.tc nt10C
ngam song song voi dat, vi the ap ll;.tc nt1oc lo rong thay doi
114
..
r=
"" i.
i
..
t
f-
t
t
·-
theo de} sau nhttng la
hang so dQc ·theo
co nghla Ia xay ra
tham on_ djnh
song song v<li dat.
Cac l\fc tac d1.1ng len lang
the a thai can bang
gom co:
. TrQng htgng cua lang
the w = yzbcos{J c·
Phan hjc ph!ip tuyen
le!l phang trti-Qt
N = Wcosf3c·
L\fc tiep tuyen
hr'fng xuong ·mai doc
T = Wsinf3c· ·
Kznh 9-4. cac ltJc tac dt,mg len the
d mai doc thoat mtdc
Lljc ap lljc ntibc lo rong- len phang trttgt u -:-

Lljc khang cat huang len doc R = rb.
a day;
i .
p c goc gidi cua mai doc ;
T - d() ben cat thoat ntidc CUa dat.
Bieu thuc tong quat-khi c' = 0
Vi can bang gidi lu}.n :nen R = T,
trong do : R _ = · =

= (yz - Ywh)bcog2f3ctgq:>'
va
T = Wsin{Jc = yzbcosf:Jcsin{Jc
Rut ra : (yz - yJt)bCos
2
f3ctgq:>' = yzbcos{Jcsin{Jc.
Do
yz -yJt tgf:Jc
_yz
tgrp' .
Vi tlie

tg{Jc = ( 1 - rz) tgp', ..
[9.3]
115
va so an toan
(J day : [:J - goc_ nghieng cua mai -doc.
Theo each khac, ap ll!c nt1oc lo rong u =

;
so an toan tlnh theo :
•.
[9.4]
u tgv>'
F - (1 - )-
- yzcosfp
. [9.5]
Gac bie"u thllc t6ng quat ve on dinh da dt1C}C thiet nay co
gia tti khi nghien cdu m(>t so truang hQp rieng, trong do chi co
- dt1Qc quan tam Ia dieu thoat nt1oc.
a) Cat hay -cui}i kho
Coi dat khong dlnh (c' = 0) la kho co mllc hut mao dan
khong dang ke do kha tho.
Trong truang h<Jp nay h = 0.
VI the : tg/J c = tgq.>'
[9.6]
b) Ml!-c nuoc ngam vOi mij,t phang truqt
. Trong dat tho c' = 0 va h = 0.
Vi the tg/Jc = tgq.>' (giong nh11 cho cat kho).
c) .M11-c nuoc ngam o duoi mttt phang truqt
Trong cat mjn va bl:li, s ue hut mao dan se gay ra ap ll!c
nuoc lo rang am, vl th_e do am, U'ng suat qua true}t
se len .
..
. Neu m1Jc nt1oc ngam nam dt1oi phang truQt Ia h
5
thl co :
. .

tf!/3 = ( 1 . + -) tgtp' [9.7]
c yz
Do p c co the ri1 doc, chi doc ddng, nht1 da dt1Qc minh
chung ro rang bang thanh cat a ba bien.
d) Mai doc ng(j,p nztoc voi dong tMm song S(Jng on dtnh
Voi dong tham song song voi mai doc, dttang dong tren cung
voi ·dat va h = z.
116

Yw
-Nen
tgf3c = ( 1 - --y) -t gp'
[9.8a]
hay
y'
tgf:J = -tan'
c y or
[9 .8b]
e) Mai doc ngqp nuoc uoi dong tham thang dllng on dtnh
0 nai nuac ngam thmit nuac thAng dung xuong phla duai vao
lop hqc hay lap than1 nuac khac o dttai tn.tQt 9-5),
ap h$c nuoc lo rong mqi trong dat se bang khong, dieu
do chdng to rang khong co dong tham song song ben tren
phang truqt.
V1 h = 0 va tgftc = tg9''
, / " ..... /
flf!l!clti ;:ong 0',/at
ca ct9cdiempamg,i/a be"
lhoaJ nutic

-
.........._::::::t::--- -t--===:::........,:±---t::::=== Cac t1 vdng dong
Ltlj}lho/1 nude. v5n bao
boa- phan.
u=o
Hlnh 9-5. Dong tham tMng d\mg ldi IDQlldp thoat ml&
f) Mai doc trong dieu c, > o
Trong nhf.tng hoan canh xac djnh nhu trong gat tat qua co ket
hay xi mang boa gia tr! c' t(»t dinh c6 t he lay Ian hdn k.hong.
VI t he, d(» ben khang cat cua dat Ia :
r = c' + --
/
117
' I
va hie u thuc cho so an toan tro thanh :
F = c'b + N'tgp'
T
c' + (yz - ywh)coSl{Jtf!jp'
-

g) Ditng tl so tip ll/-C nuoc lo rong
[9.9]
De lgi, doi hie thj ap ll!c nuoc lo rong bang d(> sau
trugt hay ap ll!c cua lop phu - sli d\fng ti so (hay sO) ap
ll!c nttoc lo rong : '
1. Cho
Nen c6 -
2. Cbo
VI the
Nen
Do
m = h/z
tgfJc = (1 -
u Y vJtco:l-p
r =--
u yz yz
ywh = ruyzsec
2
{3
tf!/3 = ( 1 - r

-
tgrp'
F = (1 - r sed{J)-
u tf!/3
[9.10]
[9.11]
Vi d9 mAu 9.3. Chap nh,Q,n M so an toan za 1,5, hay xtic dink
g6c nghieng lOn. nhd,t cho ph:ep cho mt;t mai doc cua dat cat trong
ctic dieu sau day :
_- a) Khi kM.
b) Khi vita ngq,p nuac uOi dOng tham oT_L dinh song t;ong uOi mij,t
dat. Dllt cO- cac dq,c trung sau :
tp' = 36° ; c' = 0 ; y = 20 kN 1m
3
.
c) Tinh M so an toan cita TTUii d6c ngijp nuoc ch6ng lqi. pha hoq,i
theo mi)t mij,t phdng truqt song song uoi Tn4t dat o dt; sau 4m ;
tq,i dt; sau nay co m(jt lOp dat dinh mong uOi cac dij,c trung sau :
c, = 0 ; tp' = ; y = 20 kN!m
3
. -
118 -
f
I
i
'
I
Baigidi
a) Khi dat kho thi h = 0, til phuong [9.6] ta co :
tgp'
F=-
rtyjJ
nen
-
tgag:>
tg/3 . 1,5. = 0,4844
Vi the Pmax = ·26° (hay de? doc -1 : 2)
b) Khi dat nttfJc va _mtjc nttfJc ngam bang da:t thi h =
z, tit phttong trlnh [9.8] ta co :
VI the:
Nen
'tarn'
F = . .;_Y _o:;...:._r
ytyjJ
tg/3 = (20,0-9,81)tg3SO = o,
2470
20,0 X 1,5
Pmax = 14° (hay de? doc 1 : 4)
c) Neu khi do mai doc nghieng 14° va chti y den lfJp dat dlnh
z = 4m, thl til phuong [9. 7], ta c6 :
c' + (yz - y.)t)coSZ.f3tf!JP'
F = ------------------
yzsin{Jcof(J
12 + (20 x 4 -9,81 x 4)cos'l14° x tg24°
- 1,55
20 x 4 x sin1.f> x cosl.f>
-
9.4: Ca cau pha ho'i mai doc trong dat dinh
Ph11ong phap th11<1ng dung nhat de phan tlch Stj . on djnh cua
mai doc trong dat dlnh Ia dtja tren xem xet can bdng deo gioi
hq,n. Ve can ban, dieu can bang deo gifJi ton til thf1i
diem ma djch chuyen tru<Jt cat bat dau va bien cu tiep
ma .ung sua:t khong doi. Do la dieu can thiet tien de xac djnh
hinh cua trttQt ; khoi dat di chuyen C1 tren nay duQc
coi nhu Ia mqt the ttj do adieu can bang. Can danh gia
cac ltjc hay momen tac d\lng len the ttj do nay va tien hanh
so sanh cac h,!c .cat tac d\).ng dQc theo trttqt v{Ji sue chong cat
co kha nang ra bai dat.
119

M()t so trugt co the d11gc xem xet cho dat dinh nh11
thay a hinh 9- 6. gian nhat, do Cullmann dua ra vao
nam 1866, Ia m()t phAng dai vo di qua chan mai doc.
di.t phan tlch st_:i can bang cua the tl;l do trong truang hgp
a)
C)
b)
- ---
ffinh 9-6. Cac pha
I
1!17i
I
ij
/
a) pMng; b) rung trim; c) khong theo quy d) h6n hc:Jp
nay Ia dan gian, phuang phap so chay an toan da danh gia
qua cao dieu on dinh tht.:tc. khac, khi h,ta chqn m()t
- ph de han nhu cong _xoan logarit hay co khong
-theo quy tac co the cho ket qua gan vi1i gia tri th\[c, nhttng
phan tfch tr<l nen dai dong va kern hap d&n. Cho hau het cac
-IDl.IC d:lch, m()t trl!- tron - a cat Ia cung tron, se cho ket
qua thoa man d() ch:lnh xac ma khong can thu phan tfc_h qua
phuc
St,t fin djilh cua mai doc dao hay mai doc dap ph1.1 thu<)c
vao st,t thay d6i cua d<)ng thai ap lt.:tc nui1c lo rong. Trong khi thi
cong khoi dap, ap 1\tc nui1c lo rang se tang len va sau khi thi cong,
no se giam dan xuong. Trong cac ranh hao, dao liic dau se
120

I
·I

J
I
I

.
t
i .
_,
Jam giam ap 1\iC ntiOC Jo rong, nhung khi CO dong tham chung se
tang dan len. u ng suat qua va do d(> ben chong cat thttifng
quan voi ap ltJc nttoc lo rong. so an toan gioi
nhat (thap nhat), vi the dtt<Jc trong khi thi cong hay ngay sau
khi thi cong k.hoi dap sau do dat sedan dan ben chac han. Ngtt<Jc
d() ben chong cat trong muong hao giam di theo thai gian va
so an toan ciing nht.t
Bai the, can thiet xem xet ca. Stf on d!nh ngan ngay (cuoi thi
cong) va dai ngay. Trong hoan canh nay, se phil h<Jp khi cho __ rang
dieu ngan ngay la hoan toan khong thoat nt.toc di} ben
chong cat dti<JC cho Mi 7: = cu (co nghla = 0) . Trong phan sau,
trttifng h<Jp dau dti<JC xet se Ia S\1 on djnh khong tho3,t
nttoc ctia mai doc trong dat set bao hoa. phan tlch nay'thttang
quy vao nhtt Ia phttang phap llng suat tong hay = 0 . .
Voi bai toan dili ngay va bhl toan co dieu bien doi keo dai
sau khi ket thuc thi cong (chang thap d<}t ng<}t ctia mtJc
nttoc trmig ho chua) phai yeu .cau phan tich d llng suat
qua. Nhftng pht.tang phap nay co the thtJc. a phan tlch
can bang h.tc hay can bang momen, voi trttQt phang, tron hay
doi bat kL Voi hili toan phuc dung pht.tang phap dt.tang
ung suat va tntiJng dttang · trtt<Jt. Cac thong so d<} ben chong cat
phai chQn ltJa din (xem 9.2).
. 9.s. on dinh khong thoat nuac - phan tich ung
,r
suat tong {qJu = 0)
.Phan t!ch ung suat tong co the dung cho truang hQp mai doc
moi dap, hay moi dao trong dat set hoan toan bao hoa. VI cp = 0,
. u
d() ben cat k.hong thoat ·nttac 1: . cu. Gia cat ctia
pha co cung tron va thttiJng dtt<Jc xem Ia cung truqt.
Tam ctia cung trttQt giai a m()t nai nao do ben tren dinh mai
doc. Cung tru<Jt gioi (pha Ia m()t trong so vo cung
kha dl ve dti<JC vai ban kfnh va tam khac nhau (hinh 9-7). M<}t so
cung se qua chan mai doc va so khac se cat data phfa truoc
chan mai doc.
121 .
/
Jrmh 9-7. Cac rung tn1<_1t c6 ban kinh va tam khac nhau
Cung gioi hq,n Ia mc?t cung ma dQC theo no pha de xay ra
nha:t va c6 so an toan thap nhat. ChQn mc?t so cung tha va
phan tfch d11QC cho moi cung cho t(Ji k.hi dl.t<JC SO
an toan thap nhat.
Hinh 9-8 cho thay cat ngang cua mQt mai doc cung vCJi
mc?t cung tha co ban Idnh R va tam 0. Sl:i mat on dinh co xu ht1(Jng
lam the co trQng htQng w nam tren cung truQt djch chuyen.
A
I
I
I
-

/ t/ d ----8
-
Irmh 9-8. Phan tic_h ung t6ng = 0)
Momen pha Ia Wd.
122


f- Xu huang c:ijch chuyen hi can hoi momen cua dQ ben chong

f cat duqc huy dQng dQC theo cung tron AB.
Chieu dai cua cung
L-.jc khang cat dQC theo cung
khang cat = cuR
2
8.
N en so an toan F tlnh theo :
AB =RD.
AB =cuRB.
momen khang cat
F = momen
cuRZe
Wd
f9.12]
Gia tr! W va d tim due}c bang each chia vimg danh_ bOng thanh cac
manb hl.nh tam giac/hlnh chf1 rei Jay momen tlch vffi. tJ11C
thang dung di qua chan. mai doc hay mQt diem khac.
. .
Khe nut cang
. Trong dat dlnh, khi dieu can bang gilsi ( va pha bieu
lQ, c6 xu huang hinh thilnh khe nut cang a gan dinh mai d6c. DQ sau
CUa khe nut eang cO the tlnh theo phudng trlnh (8.18] () chudng 8 :
2cu
z =-
0 y
S\i phat trien cua cung trtiQt duqc ke't thuc dQ sau khe nut
cang va chieu dai cung trtiQt thljc te Ia AC (hlnh Khoi trtiQt
A

B Yc
I
I
I
H'uzlr. 9-9. Anh ht1dng cU.a khe mit clng .trong phan tich ling t6ng
123
- v?t the tl! do co khoi h.t<;fng W Ia vung danh bong dugc giai
hoi da1, cung tron trugt va khe nut cang. Trang khe nllt cang,
d() ben khang cat khong co nhung neu chlla day nuac, trong momen
pha phai tlnh them d&'n l1Jc thuy tinh P w tac d\}ng theo phuong
ngang:
1
pw = 2
Dua dieu do vao trong tlnh tmin cung vai SlJ thtjc Ia cung trugt
hi giam di, bieu thuc so an toan se tra thanh :
c R
2
o
u c
F=Wd+PwYc
[9.13]
Vi d9 9.4. Mi)t h6 m.ong trong dat set bao hoa co nuii doc
cao 10,0m. uai dq doc 1 : 1,5. TrQng luqng don ut the tich dtit la
18,5 kN/m.
3
viz ll!c dinh khong tluxit nuac bdng 40 kN!m? (tpu = 0).
Hay xac dtnh so an toan chong pha hoq,i truqt tuc thai theo
cung truqt nhu a hinh 9-10 trong cac truimg hqp sau :
a) bo qua khe nut cang;
b) khe nut cang khong chua nuac;
c) kh-e. nut cang chua day nuac.
Btli gidi
Dung phuong phap phan t.lch ung suat tong de xac djnh so
an tpan chong pha cat tuc thai. Dau tien, can thiet xac
hJ.nh . va tlch khoi tr11gt.
a) Trang truang hgp bo qua khe nut cang, khoi truQt dugc giai
b()i dat va cung tron AB, co the tlnh cac tr11ng cua
khoi trugt nay nhu sau :
Ban ldnh R = OA =

+ 16,7
2
)
G6c hlnh 0 = 84,06°.
17,43m.
t.lch k.hoi trugt A = 77,35nl
2
.
Khoang each trqng tam tu 0 : d - 6,50nl.
124
0
_,
6.7m
T
I Yc =9.58m
/- -
p I -
w
A
Hinh 9-10
Til pht1<1ng trinh [9.12J; taco :

F = Wd
40 X 17,4a2 X 84,06 X 1t
77,35 X 18,5 X X 180 -
1
'
92
b) Khe nut cang lam giam chieu dai cung tru<Jt til AB xuong
con AC. . .
D(j sau cua khe ntlt cang z
0
= 2 X 40/18,5 = 4,32m.
Goc hlnh (Jc = 67,44°
tlch khoi trugt A = 71,64m
2
Khoang each trQng tam til 0 d . = 5,86m.
Trong tri1ang hgp nay p w = 0.
125
'J'u ph':lang trlnh [9.13], ta c6 :
cllRlec
F = Wd
. .
40 X 17,432 X 67,44 X H -
· -
71,64 X 18,5 X 5,86 X 180
- 14304 = 1 84
7766 '
c) Khi khe nu:t cang chda day nuac, ngang p w se tac dl}ng
len khoi trugt.
1 2 1 nJ
p w =
2


=
2
X 9,81 X 4,3r = 91,54 k.N/m.
,
Canh. tay don c*a P w v{Ji ·0 : y c = 6, 7 + 2 x 4,32/3 = 9,58m
TU phuang trlnh [9.13], ta co :
c R2o
F = ll c
Wd+PwYc
14304
1,.65
--·
+ 91,54 X 9,58
9.6. Mai doc khong dong khong thoat nuiJc
(f'u = 0)
,
.. -,Dat dong nhat se co cung d<) ben cat khong thoat nu{Jc
ell up_ ca cac diem trong toan bQ khoi cat. Mij.c dii chac chan
: la nhu chi ton If thuyet, doi vm m()t
sO truiJ;ng hQp nhat _djnh, gia thiet ell Ia hang sO ·c6 the gitip cho
viE}c danh gia so an toan . dttQc hoan toan hgp ll. Tuy nhien,
khong the b6 qua chat khong dOng nhat khi :
a) c6 mij.t hai hay nhieu lap da:t khac nhau ro ;
b). trong m<)t lap dat c6 d<j cat bien doi dang ke theo d<)
sau.
126
,.
Bai toan nhieu Iiip
'-
mai dac nhieu lop pho bien xay ra khi do hay dap m(>t
dat tren be da ton truoc cua dat khac de
- - -
-- .--
_ -_ iJofA · · _
... . - -- --:-- -
-- - -
\.
.,__. - -- .-=..
... _.:_. ..
--
:....-oo--- '"'-:- ;--':"""";""·
.:=. 1Jtit-l--:-..:_-
-.- · --- . - -
_-- --:- - - ... - .. - --=-:-
. : -- .. - .. : -- :-

.. - . .
. :_. .--_- _- :_ _ ·.-·:_ _·-:
· < : ·-:.-. -: _--_< __ : ::::-.: --. :_:
"a)
. . .
b )
'"' "' '"' I
Kmlz 9-11. Mai doc nhieu I6p
a) khoi dap hay d6 ; b) dao trong tnlm tich phan ldp
5.5"m
0
f
B.om
lrmh 9-12
B

Dai"A
x;. = 19kN/m3
CuA = 50kN/.nr2
_,
OafB
18 /BirN/m1
cu
8
·,Jo kN/m
2
127
khoi dap (hinh 9-1-Ia). nhieu lop co the b()c 19 k.hi ho mong
dao qua tram_ phan l<'1p (hinh 9-llb). xu H hili toan
nay chti yeu phl;l thu()c gia tq so sanh ell trong da:t 0 ca hai
phfa CUa ·phan lop. 0 n<1i dat CO dQ ben cat tl.t<1ng doi giong
nhau, co the dung each phan tlch ung suat tong da trlnh bay 0 -
phan tn.toc:
Khoi tn.tQt tt.tong ung voi m(>t cung thu nao do dt.tQc chia ra
thanh ·cac vilng (hinh 9-12) va xac djnh tlch, vj trj tr<_>ng tam
va goc hinh cho moi vilng.
Co the s ua doi phuong trlnh [9.12] nhu sau :
F = R2(cuA8 A+ cuB(JB + ... )
(W AdA+ WBdB + ... )
[9.14]
Vi d\1 mAu 9.5. Mai doc czia m()t h6 m6ng cao 10m, cod()
/ doc 1 : 5. Kh6i dat gom c6 hai lap dat set bao hoa nhu thay a
hinh 9.12. Dung phuong phap itng suat tong (f'u = 0), hay xac
di:nh so an toiLn chong pha hoq,i cat theo mij,t truqt thit
- trong thay.
Bai gitii
Dau tien, coi khoi dat co hai vilng rieng c6 ban ldnh chung
R tim dt.tQc la 19,31m
Cho vilng A (FBDE) :
(JA = 25,32° Goc hlnh
tlch AA = 65,943m
2
.
Khoang each tr<_>ng tam tit 0 dA = 9,79m.
Cho vilng B (EDA) :
88 = 57,20° Goc hinh
tlch A
8
= 53,74 m
2
.
Khoang each tr<_>ng tan tit 0 d
8
= 2,85m.
128
Tit phuang trlnh [9.4], ta co :
F = 19,31
2
(50 X 25,32 + 30 X 57,20)x I 180
(65,94 X 19,0 X 9, 79 +53, 74 X 18,0 X 2,85)
19407
15022
1,29
Anh httifng CUa lap dat CUng
.
Khi ldp nam dtidi c6 de} ben cat ldn han nhieu thl cung trttgt
gidi b! kiem. che chi phat trien trong lOp dat yeu nam,
Trong trttang hQp mai d6c duQc dap tren mc?t ldp dat cling da ton
phlli lay tat ca eung thti: di qua {J ngay tren chan d6c.
Trong dilt nhieu ldp, phlli kiem tra S\f on djnh CUa ban than }dp
dat yeu nam tren cung nhu eua toan mai d6c (hlnh 9- 13).
0.)
Kmh 9-:13. Anb htt<Jng etia mc?t ldp ciing ben dt1di
9. 7. Mai doc ng'p nuac (fJu = O)
Trong trui1ng hCJp khoi dap ·chan nttdc nhu dat, biJ kenh, biJ
ho va ·eong trlnh. tti<1ng t\i, thl m9t phan hoijc doi hie toan b() mai
d6c bj nttde. Hinh 9-14 cho thay mai d6c bj mc}t phan ;
tit hlnh c6 the suy ra ·Ia momen vdi 0 cua khoi nude trong nti:a
mieng EFH can bang chuan xae momen v<n 0 cua nude trong
nti:a mieng FGH. VI the momen ap nude bang khong,
cho da:t bao hoa. Trong trubng hQp nay, ·trQng btQng eua phan khoi
9CHDff2 129
. H'urh 9-14. Anh h11dng cUa Imii doc n11iic
tntCJt lJ dttlli EFG (mtjc nttllc ben ngoai) duCJc tlnh tren ca slJ cua
trQng lttCJDg don v! nullc <r sat. - y w>. <) plian tren EFG, vAn
_dung trQng lu(Jng don v! the tich y.
Ve qua, nullc ton lJ phan mai doc nuoc m()t
thanh phan momen khang ph\1, vi s6 an toan tang len khi
mljc nullc dang cao va giam. xuong khi mljc nttllc thap.
Vi d9 mA.u 9.6. Mtii dOc cua mi;t khoi dap coon nuac cao 10m,
c6 di; doc 1 : 2. Dat bao hiJa holm toan, c6 lTtc d{nh khong thoat
nuoc liL 30 kN/TJ1.
2
, tr9ng luqng don vt 18 kN!m
3
. Hay :rae dtnh hi!
s6 an· toan chong pha hoqi, cat theo cung truqt thil thdy trong hinh
9-15 trong. cac truimg hqp sau :
a) khi mTtc nuoc a chan mai doc ;
·b) khi mTtc nlloc a tren chan mai doc 6m.
Bdi gidi
Dau tien, coi khoi tru(Jt c6 hai rung rieng biElt c6 klnh chung
R tlm dUQc Ia 22,83m.
ChO vitng A (FBDE) :
DiEln tfch A = 4192m
2
A '
Khoang each trQng tam til 0 dA = 13,00m.
130
' -
'Cho vung B (AED) :
tlch
Khoang trQng tam tit 0 d
8
= 4,44m.
D() sau cua khe nut cang z = 2 X 30/18 = 3,33m.
0 _,
Goc hinh 8 = 76,06°
Cttang d() ap l1;tc thtiy tinh trong k.he ndt cang:
1 2
pw = 2yzzo
1
=
2
X 9,81 X 3,332 = 54,4 kN/m.
I .
.
=to.orn
Yc -12.22rn
4-.0m
s.om/
lrurla 9-15
131
1
f.·
. •.
·I
I
I
f· .
r
I' ·
: :
!i
..
·'
i - -
..
I .
.. .
i

.
i .
;-.
'
'
Canh tay don ella. ctti1ng d() ap h;cc thuy tlnh :
Yc = 10 + 2 X = 12,22m.
Trong moi tntC:Jng hqp deu gom co ct1C:Jng d() . ap h;cc thuy tinh
-trong khe ndt cang.
a) Ml!c nuoc a chan mai d6c
30 X 22,8:i X 76,06 X

F - 41,92 X 18 X 13,00+ 144,11 X 18 X 4,44.+ 54,4 X 12,22
20757
= 9809 + 11517 + 665 =
0
'
944
c6 nghla pha cat se xay ra.
b) Ml!-c nuoc o tren chdn nuii d6c 6m
20757 .
F = 9809 + 144,11(18,0- 9,81)4,44 + 665 =
1
'
32
• 9.8. ·Vi tri. cua cung tru9t nguy hiem nhat
Q)
•132
b)
-
. .
Irurh 9-16. cac yc!u to 3nh huang vi tri ciJa gi<li
a) qua chan m3.i doc neu f{J > 3° hay f3 > 53° ;
b) a tnldc chan m3.i d6c neu f{J < 3° hay {J 53°
I./I 8 G .1 .J 2S 2 1. 5 1 0,75
0.5



0 /0 20 30 1-0
o« t/tfc'ftt'
50 60
. /
IIJmh 9-17. Y..i' tri thtl dau tien CUa rung gidi
truqt nguyfhlem nhat la m()t cung trttqt co so an toan
thap fib-at. s6 an toan toi _ ro rang Ia tieu chuan yeu _cali
133
_____________


,,

134
0.1.1 l--l-------¥---.-----t------t--:h"r---L-------"------....__ ____ .....,6


'<::)
I:.)
0 .08 L-____ _._ ____ ___._ ______ ,____,

a:.;
2
I
I

l
!
i
I
I
i
I
'
i
,

.,




<I;;)
'-5
f!.20
0.181
O.l§
0 10
70 8/J 90
llmla 9-18. Bifu· dO s6 dinh ciJa Taylor
a) truong h<;Jp rpu = o ;
b) tru<irig h<;Jp rp > ,_ o
cho .ke. Bai toan ve vi tri ctia cung truQt nguy hiem nha:t co
the thtJc bang m(>t trong hai each sau day :
a) . bang m<}t qua trinh thu va sai so, dung m()t so hQp ly cac
cung "thil" va m()t each thdc tim kiem co chu dlch ;
. -
b) bang dung quy t3.c kinh de chi d!nh m()t cung thil
cljc gia dinh, dong thai dua ra an toan giai du Ian
de dtj phong Slj chUa hoan cua quy tac.
135
l ...
!
'

: !

-.

·l -
l


t-
l-
, :
.

..
: : ·-
!l .
:>
• f

i•
I
-

•"'
I ;

'
Trong each thtl va sai so, phudng phap. phru thay doi ba thong
SO hlnh hQC : vf trf CUa tam, ban klnh va khoang each cat 0 phfa
tntac chan mai d6c. De d9 tin chap du<Jc, phai ve rat
nhieu cung tha. may tfnh da lAm cho phu<1ng phap nay
kha thi nhieu han va ciing tin hun.
N gay ca khi dimg phuung phap thtjc m()t s6 htqng thti Ian,
se rat hfiu fch neu. dtta ra dttqc S1j danh gia dung gia trj dau tien
hay gia trj giong•. thai cua cung truqt khong hoan toan
bat ld, ma trcli c6 the quan sat dti<Jc tntac m()t so hinh
x:ic cijnh. Chang khi g6c ma Ian hun 3°, cung gibi hau
nhtt luo:ri luon qua chan mai d6c. Dieu do cdng la trttCJng hCJp khi,
vai mQi gia trj rp, goc nghieng mai doc Ian hun 5a<> (hlnh 9-16).
Trong dieu ki(!n dong nhat khong nlioc, tam thti dau tien
dtt<Jc tlm bang bieu do {J hlnh 9-17. Gia ttl CUa y cfH va XJH dtiQC
dQC ung vm g6c Iruii doc {J, trong do :
Xc - khoang each ngang til chan mai dac ten tam cung thti ;
Y c - khoang each ddng til chan mai doc tm tam cung tha.
ROi lay tam thti dau tien lam tam cUa. nhom chln cung thti dau
tien. Sau khi da:rih · gia h(! s6 an toim, khan kheo chQn cac tam moi
theo chi_eu huang gia trj thap" nhat. thay dtli ban kinh co
the h<Jp nhat trong khi tfnh toan. Ki ve dttCJng dOng mdc va
phan htoi dun gilm thliCJng dti<Jc quen dung de khoanh vj trf cung
nguy hiem nha:t.
D() sau cung b! che iJ nui c6 m()t lop da hay dat nam
_. a· duoi mai d6c (hinh 9-18). Th1Jc te, cung nguy hiem nhat tiep
tuyen vai .(Jp c:tat da cdng hdn nam du6i.
9.9. Phuong phap so on djnh cua Taylor
Nam 1948, J?.W.Thylor de nghj m()t phttung phap ddn gian de
xac djnh s6 an toan nho nhat cho mai d6c trong dat dOng nhat.
Dung ph11e1ng phan tich dng suat tOng va bO qua kh8. nang
c6 khe nut cang, ong d11a ra m()t cac dtiCJng cong h(! so
on djnh N voi g6c nghieng mm doc {:J.
1"36
Xem xet bieu thllc cq ban dung trong ·phan tich ung suat t6ng,
til pht1<1ng trlnh [9.12] vlJi chieu dai cung la L :
cuRL
F = Wd-
Se thay la L ti vdi H va W v6i yH
2
, co nghla Ia L = K
1
H,
W = JSrH
2
, nen : -
cuRHK,. _
F=---
!'H2:K2d
So on dtnh N ph1:1 thu()c viw hlnh cung trtt<Jt va dtt<Jc xae
dinh theo bieu thdc:
Tit d6
vi
Kzd cu
N=-=- - -
FyH
cu
F=--
NyH
[9.15]
cmob. = cu/F, yeu cau cmob. = NyH
Bieu dO o hlnh 9-18a va b cho thay gia trj N lien vm g6c
nghieng mai dOc {3, g6c CUa sUC khang cat f'u va so sau Dr- VCii
goc nghieng mai dac ldn hcJn 53°, cung gidi di qua chan :m.3.i
doc va dung bieu do o hinh 9-18b. VCii goc nghieng mai doc
nho hcJn 5SO, cung gidi cat o phia truCic chan dac _va dung bieu
do {J hlnh 9-18a. Khi cung gim bi che di qua chan inai
dOc, phai dimg dttiJng ddt tren bieu do. Til dttllng dut _manh,
dttcJc gia tri n cho diem V11<ft o trttlJc chan mai doc cUa. cung
gim
--
Vi d9 mlu 9. 7. M{)t hO mong trong dat set bao hOa co d{) sau
1Om. Dum day ho m6ng 6m co mqt l6p dti cung chdc. Dat set co
llJ.c dinh khong thotit nu{lc liz. 34kN!m
2
va luqng don vt the
tich 19kN!M
3
. Cho M so an toim chOng phti hoq,i cat ngan ngay
la 1,25, hay me dtnh g6c nghieng an toim lfm nMt cua mtii d6c.
137
"
, _
, _
'
,_
:-
.
I
'
Bai. gitii
Xem hinh 9-18a.
H = 10m va DH = 16m nen D = 1,5
cu 34
So on djnh yeu diu N =
1
,
251
H =
1
,
25
X
19
X
10
= 0,143.
Tren bieu do, diem xac- djnh hOi D = 1,5 va N = 0,43 cho g6c
nghieng mai doc p = 18°. Ciing ttl bieu do con = 0,2.
"· Vi the, cung se vttgt trttC1c chan mai doc 2, Om .
.
Vi d\1 miu 9.8. MQt h6 m6ng trong dat dink c6 mai doc cao
Bm, g6c nghieng mai la 35°. Dung phztong phap on dtnh cua
Taylor, me dtnh an toan chong phap hoq,i cat cho cac trztimg
hqp sau:
a) c = 40kN
1
m
2
· m = 0 · y = 18kN/m
3
• D lim
U I• ' T U ' I• ' •
b) c = 40kN
1
mu · m = 0 · y = 18kN
1
m
3
· D = 1 5
U I• ' T U ' I• ' ' •
Bdi pii
a) Kb.i D llm, vC1i P < 53° va 'Pu = 0 nen N = 0,181.
40
so an toan F =
0 181
x
18
x
8
= 1,53.
'
· 'b) Khi D = 1,5 , p = 35° va 'Pu = 0, tu hinh 9-18b taco :
N = 0,16.8 van= 0,6
so an toan F =
40
165
· 0,168 X 18 X 8 = -'--
. Nhu l{Jp diit cdng co da che pha trong
cung cljc nho hcJn, vl the s6 an toan se Ian h<Jn va
diem g§.y vfJ (nH) clia cung nay se Ia 0,6 x 8 = 4,8m.
9.10. on djnh ruOc- phan tich ling suit qua
Phan tich dn dinh phAi tien hanh trong dieu U:ng suat
qua trong cac bai toan co ap hjc nubc lo rorig thay doi nhu n<Ji
138
cac khoi dap va dat thai da ton ; ciing can tlnh ca Sl1 on djnh
dai ngay, va trong truong h<Jp cua dat set qua cO ket thl ca. dieu
tdc thai dai ngay. V1 dng suat thay doi theo mi!t -tnl<Jt
nen coi khOi tnt<Jt nhu Ia m()t day cac manh.. M()t cung tru<Jt
tha du<Jc chQn c6 tam 0, ban ldnh R (hlnh 9- 19) va chia khoang
_ each ngang giita hai duoi cung A va B thanh cac manh c6 be r()ng
b bang nhau. '-
--
o}
H'mh 9-19. PhtJdng phap phan m3nh
a) pMn manh kh6i ln1(Jl ; b) cac lt.tc tac d1)11g len m()t
Cac I11c tac d\lng len m()t manh co chieu dai l m gom c6 :
W- trQng lti<}Bg CUa manh; W = yhb;
N' - phlm I11c phap tuyen qua len day manh-;
T -=- cat ra dQc theo day manh ; T = W sin a ;
R
1
va - cac ltjc ben bdi cac manh ke - chting c6 the dua
vao de giai ;
E
1
va E
2
- l\tc phap tuyen giua cac manh;
X
1
va ltjc tiep tuyen gifia cac manh.
Anh hudng cu.a tai t rQng ph\! bat ld <l tren da:t phai dtta
vao trong tlnh toan trQng lu<}ng cua manh va cac ltjc khac.
139
i
-j

can bang gioi t6ng momen pha se can bang
chuan XaC viJi momen CUa h;tc chong cat huy dQng tong dQC theo
AB.
Chota :
-
,L-cmm = L ; IR- = ,L WsinaR ·
. t"f J)
F = "'-"'

aa.y gia, trong dieu ung sua:t qua
va
Vi the
t"r = c' + 6' n tgf' '
= c' l +
c'l + N'tgp' ·
F = L Wsina neu dat dOng nhat thi :
c'L + tgp'm'
F =
. LWsina
d day : LAC - chieu dai cung AC ; LAC = 8R.
[9.16]
Ket qua ph\1 thUQC rat nhieu vao gia trj N' dU:QC nhu:. the
nao. M9t cac phu:ong phap da dU:Qc de nghi, m9t s6 thl tu:ong
doi -don gUm va m9t sO kh.a che. danh gia chlnh xac nhat
·duQc theo cac phuong phap che, nhttng chi c6 kha nang
thl;lc neu dung chu:ong trinh may tfnh. Co the dung loi thoa
bang each ket hQp phu:ong phap phan tlch don giAn han vdi
s6 an toan tang len. ·
. Ph11ong phap cua Fellenius
Trong·phu:c:Jng phap nay, gill Ia cac ll;lc gifta cac manh b3ng
nhau va ngtt<Jc chieu nen tieu lin nhau, c6 nghla E
1
= E
2
va
X
1
= Bay gill, chi can .thiet giti cac ll;lc tac d\lng len day cua
manh, vl .the : .
N' = Wcosa - ul
= yhbcosa - ubseca (b =
140
neu u = ruyh, k.hi do ta co . :
N' = yh(cosa - ruseca)b
hay LN' = yb _Lh( - rusem:)
Thay the vao ph11ong trlnh [9.13] :
. c'LAC + - r
0
sem:)
F= L
Wsina
[9.17}
So cac manh tlnh toan khong d11<JC nho hon 5, va ro rang siS
mltnh cang Ibn thi danh gia F se tot_ hdn. Tuy nhien ph11e1ng
phap nay c6 xu hulJng clio gia trj F khoang chilng 50% ve phla
thap di. Sai s6 co the tang len khi r
0
ll1n va cung tru<Jt nam sau
hay c6 ban klnh t11C1ng doi nho. Trong cac truiJng h<Jp do, dung
phudng phap Bishop Ia thlch h<Jp.
Phltoitg phap gian boa cua Bishop
Trong dieu t11ong doi dong nhat va khi r
0
gan nh11· Ia
hang co the gilt thiet Ia cac hjc tiep tuyen gifia cac manh
bang nhau va ng11<Jc chieu, co nghla X
1
= nh11ng E
1
¢ E
2
(hlnh 9-20).
v {;i can bang dQC theo day cua manh, se co :
· ·'r .c'L + N'tgtp'
0 = Wsina- F 1,= Wsin a- F
VI the
F = L( c'l + N'tgtp')
i:Wsina
v m can bang theo ph11e1ng ddng, se co :
'r
0 = W - N' cosa - ulcosa - -lsinz
F
c'
= W - N' cosa - ulcosa - -lsin-z
F
141
. . I
i
!

c'
W - F ( silk:l - ulcosa)
N'-
t ,
cosa + silk:l
Nen
Sau khi thay the I = bseca va N', sap xep ta co
F = _ 1 I [c'b + (W - ub) tgv>']seoo
L W sina tgatgrp'
1 + F
[9.18]
tfnh toan bat dau bang gia thiet m(>t gia trj thit cho F a
phla tay phai roi dung qua trlnh de h()i t1,1 gia tti F th\fc cho
m(>t cung thit da cho. Do Ia each lam- thong d1,1ng trong cac cht1e1ng
trlnh d119C thiet ke cho sa dl,lng may tinh; nay, da san c6
chttong trlnh may tfnh c6 kha nang giai quyet cho -ca. dieu
nhieu Iilp, c6 tai trQng ph1,1
tren ap lljc nt1Cic
lo rong phan b6 thay doi
va ca den Slj dlj phong ctia
bO bao va thoat nttilc.
Trong hau het cac bai
toan, co the chap lay
gia trj trung blnh khong
doi cho ru. sa an toan
-dt1Qc tfnb theo phttcJng
phap nay co the Ia he1i
_ --thap, nhllng v8i sai so
_- th11ong khong qua 3%, tril
t:rong cac truong hQp
- khong blnh thuong vai
day cua cung pha sau
v.a F nho han dan vj.
Phttang phap c6 tfnh den
cac thay doi cua ll:fc tham
len manh va a trong manh
se cho ·so an toan thap
142
Wsina.

\
\
\
\ - -
._
I
t Ul COSr:J.
I
Irmh 9-20. M3nh ddn gian h6a cUa. Bishop
he1n nht1ng_ chlnh xac nhieu he1n_ (King, 1989). Tuy nhien pht1e1ng
phap tinh vi nht1 the pht.:t thUQC nhieu VaO danh gia dung ap
hjc· nt1dc lo rong.
Vi dl} mAu 9.9. Xac dinh so an toan blLng ung suat
qua cho cung thit trong mai doc a hznh 9-21.
Cac dij,c trllng cua dat nhu sau
c' = 10kN!m
2
'qJ' = 2lf'J ; y = 18kN!m
3

.-
Sq, phdn bo itp nztoc lo rong dQC theo cung thit nhQ,n theo
cac dztimg dang the dztqc phac thcio tq,i moi tam manh.
Bai gidi
- Hlnh 9- 21 cho biet co the dt1Qc m9t phan lai giai bang do
. giai nht1 the nao. Khoi truQt dt1Qc chia thanh cac manh co be r _9ng
3m va cat dt1Qc ve theo ti thlch hQp. Chieu cao h trung blnh
CUa moi manh do theo ti Sd do va trQng }t1Qng moi manh t}nh
theo bieu thdc sau :
W = yhb = 18 X h X 3 = 54,0h kN/m
Chieu dai cua day cung day cua moi manh do theo ti va
Ct100g dQ ap }ljc nt10C }c) rong dt1QC tlnh nht1 sau :
ul = hw x 9,81 x I
De dt1Qc cac gia tri N vaT, ve m9t tam giac lljc
moi . manh. Cac tlnh toan xep thanh bang dt1di day :
Manh s6 h w
hw I N ul N' T
(m)
-
(kN/m) (m) (m)
I 0,6 32 0,6 3,2 31 19
12 -
-8
2 2,4
. 130
1,7 3,1 128 52 76 -20
3 4,6 248 3,6 3,0 248 106 142 0
4 6,4 346 4,6 3,1 341 140 201 51
5 7,4 400 5,3 3,2 378 166 212 130
6 8,3 448 5,1 3,5 381 175 206 218
7 7,2 389 . 4.1 3,9 298 157 141 251

8 3,7 246 1.3 6,9 150 88 62 186
I
1052 814
• Chi&l r-Qng Ia 3, 7rn.
143
70m
I
144
4.5m
I
I
0
Kmh 9-21
LAc = oR = 91,47 x
1
~
0
x 1s,ss = 2 ~ , 1 m .
'
I
Til phuang trlnh [9.16]
c'L +
F
AC
= IT
· 10 X :29,7 + tg2S0 X 1052
814
1,05
Cac tfnh toan tttang ttj tren may vi tlnh cho F = 1,074. M<)t
tlnh toan k.hac dung ph11e1ng phap d<fn. gian hoa cua. Bishop tlnh
bang may tfnh cho F = 1,22.
Vi dl} mlu 9.1 0. Xac dink M so an toan theo ilng suat
qud cho cung thit trong mtiz doc tMy o hznh 9-22.
5.Um
A
3
4
Jrmh !F22
IOCHDIT2 145
Gia thiet la tf soap lztc nztoc lo rang ru = 0,3 va cac dtj.c trztng
cua dat nhzt sau :
L6p tren: c'
1
= 25kN/m
2
; cp'1. = 12°; y
1
= 18,0kN!m
3
.
L6p dztOi : c'
2
= 7kN/m
2
; f{J'
2
= 2SO ; y
2
= 19,5kN!m
3
.
Bai gitii
Khoi truQt duQc chia thailh m()t so manh co be I'Qng
b nhti da lam trong vi 9.9. Chieu cao trung blnh CUa moi manh
dtigc do tu ban ve theu ti cua cat ngang bang hai tilan.D.
phan h
1
va h
2
. Do trQng lttQng cua moi manh se Ia: _
w = (ylhl + y2h2)b
nhtt Ia m()t phtt<1ng phap so sanh vbi phtt<1ng phap da dung
trong VI mau 9.9 (bang each ve tam giac ltjc), trong vi
nay, danh gia gee a cho moi manh theo:
a = arcsin (x/R)
Til ph11<1ng trlnh [9 .1 7]
h:'I -+ tgrp'I[W(cosa
F =
IWsinz
Truong hQp go hai lbp da:t, trinh se co :
- F A I
-[ + rusem)+ rusem)J
B - F -

IWsina
Vbi moi lai giAi, phAi tlnh cho 10 manh ; cac ket qua dtiQC xep
vao trong bang dubi day
146
Manh
hi
h, w X a cosa: - r seca N' T
-
u
...
so (m) (m) (kN/m) (m) (de))
I 0.00 0.6 23.4 5.67 24,10 0,584 13,7 -9,6
2 0.00 2.1 81.9 4.00 16,70 0,645 52,8 -23,5
3 0,00 3,9 152,1 2.00 8,28 0,686 104,3 -21,9
4 0.55 5.0 214.8 0,00 0,00 0,700 150,4 0,0
5 2,00 4.8 259,2 2,00 8,28 0,686 177,8 37,3
6 3,30 4.4 290,4 4,00 16,70 0,645 187,3 83,5
7 4,70 3.5 305,7 6,00 25,60 0,569 173,9 132,1
8 5,00 2,5 277,5 8.00 35,20
-
0,450 124.9 160,0
9 5,00 0,7 207,3 10,00 46,00 0,265 54,5 149,0
}:N'(A- F) 1040

11,8 1 58,1 1 -0.039 1 o+ 1·06,4
2,9 0,0 125,3
}:T(A- B) 613
* Be r<)ng Ia 2,4m
.
+ Khi cosa - r u seca < o . N' lay b3ng o vi N' khong lhf am.
N' = W(cosa - ; T = Wsina
1l
LAF = 8 AFR = 79,9 X
180
X 13,39 = 19,37m
1l
LFB = 23,7 x
180
x 13,89 = 5,75m_
_ [25 X 5,75+ 7 X 19,39]+ + tg2&'(1040)]
Nen F =
613
279 + 485
613
1,25
M()t pban tich tltdllg t\f thl!c tren may vi tlnh cho F = 1,27.
M()t phan tlch tren may tlnh khac dung ph11ong phap don gian hoa
clia Bishop, cho F = 1,42.
147
- :
:--I
i
l. i
r '
t; -1
J !
- j
. .,_
.,

.;

]'" .
I
:.
.-
. • , I
.. I
I
-.
1
9.11. so on dlnh tinh voi ung suit qua
M()t phuong phap cung

so 6n (ijnh tuong t1;.1 nhli phuang
phap Taylor, nhting tlnh voi suat qua da dugc Bishop va
Morgansten de xuat (1960). so an toim F ph\1 thuQ<: vao nam
bien so cua bai toan :
a) goc nghieng mai doc {3 ;
b) sod() sauD (giong nhtt trong phttang phap Ta,.lor- hlnh
9-18) ;
c) goc khang cat rp' ;
d) thong so khong thu nguyen c'/yH;
e) sO ap h;tc nttac lo rong ru.
,
so an toan bien doi tfnh vai ru theo bieu thuc:
F=m-nr
u
[9.19]
a day : m va n - cac sO lien quan vai cac bien sO neu tren.
Trong nhom cac bieu do . tfnh toan goc, vi cac gia tti
nhtt sau : cotgf:J = 0,5 5,0 ; f'' = 20° tm 40°; D = 1 tai
.1,5 va ._ 0 tai 0,05 va chung thich hQp cho dat tttcJng doi
yeu. va Mitchel (1977) da ma r()ng c1ia bieu dO
cho ca c'/yH = 0,075 va ·0,100; nhttng m(>t s6 dat va da mem
yeu vco gia tri cao han tii s6 do. Trong khi chuan bi chua ban
thao cho cuon sach nay, tac gia da tfnh gi3. trj m va n
'vi ma r()ng hcJn nfta CUa c'/yH ·= 0 tai 0,150 va cac gia trj
-nay dugc cho trong bang 9-1. Cac tinh toan hif}n tren may
vi theo phl.icJng phap dcJn gi8.n hoa cua Bishop liun ccJ sa, dimg
nghien cdu thong ke va phucng phap thlch hgp de cac gia hi
giai cho m van. Chandler va Peiris (1989) da·cong b6 cac ket
quA tttong tl_t kha phil h<Jp vm cac gia tr! cho a day.
-
Tit cac sO CUa dat va d6c, •trtt& tien tinh gia trj c'/yH.
Bay giif, chQn phan CUa bang 9-1 cho D = 1,00 va c'/yH hcJi }{Jn.
h<1n gia trj trong hili toan. Dung suy tuyen · tinh, dugc gia
- ./
148
BANG 9-1. H£-so 6N DINH TINH VOl lTNG SUAT HleU QUA
c'y!H = 0
De} dOc, CDtr/J : 0,5: I I : I 2: I 3: I 4 5: I
D
- 0

m n m n m n m n m h m n
20 0,18 0,90 0,36 0,72 0,73 0,90 1,08 1,21 1,45 I,54 1,81 1,88
25 0,23 1,16 0,47 0,92 0,92 1,16_ I,40 1,55 I,86 I,97 2,32 2,4I
30 0,29 I,43 - 0,58 1,15 I,I5 1,43 1,72 I,91 2,30 2,44 2,88 2,98
35 0,35 1,74 0,70 1,39 1,39 1,74 2,10 2,32 2,97 2,97 3,48 3,62
40- 0,42 2,09 0,83 1,67 1,67 .. 2,09

2,79 3,34 3,55 4,18 4,34
c'r!H = 0,025
De} d6c, cnfiJ : 0,5: I I: 1 2: I 3: 1 4: I 5 : I
D
0
fJ
m n m n m n. m n m n m n
I,OO 20 0,52 0,72 0,70 0,76 1,11 I,01 I ,53 1,34 1,95 1,69 2,37 2,04
25 0,59 0,79 0,83 0,96 I,35 1,27 1,87 1,69 2,39 2,13 2,91 2,5'9-
30 0,67 0,88 0,97 1,19 1,60 1,56
:uJ
2,07 2,86 2,61 3,41 ' 3,I7
35 0,'16 1,00 1,13 1,44 i,87 I,88 2,b3 -2,50 3,38
4,I4 -3,83 -
40 0,86 1,17 1,30 1,72 2,18 2,24 3,07 2,98 3,95 3,76 4,86 - 4,56
1,25 20 1,00 0,93 1,02 1,29 I ,20 1,60 1,45- 1,93 1,76
2.30
2,06
25 . 1,22 1,18 1,31 1,30 1,60 I ,53 1,97 1,87 2,42 2,25 2,87 2.,65
30 1,46 1,47 1,59 1,62 1,95 1,91 2,4I 2,33 2,93 2,80 3,49 3,28
35 1,74 1,76 1,90 1,96 2,32 2,31 2,89 2,83 3,50

4,17 3,98
40 2,04 2,11 2,23 2,35 2,74 2,75 3,43_ 3,39 4,14 4,04 4,93 4,75
c'y!H = 0,050
De} d6c, CDtdJ : 0,5: 1 I : 1 2 :1 3 : 1 4: I ·5 = I
D
0
fJ
m n m n
m-
n m n m n m n
1,00 20 0,69 0,78 0,90 0,83 1,37 1,06 1,83 1,38 2,32 1,77 2,77 2,08
25 0,80 0,98 1,05 1,03 1,61 . 1,33 2,18 1,75 2,77 2,20 3,33 2,64
30. 0,91 I,21 1,21 I,24 I,88 I,62 2,56 2,15 3,24 2,68 3,91 3,21
35 1,02 1,40 1,37 1,46 2,17 I,95 2,99 3,78 2,58 3,25
4,57 3,96.
40 1,14 1,61 1,55 I,71 2,50 2,32 3,44 3,06 4,40 3,91 5,30· 4,64
1,25 20 1,16 0,98 1,24 1,07 1,50 I,26 1,82 1,48 2,22 1,79 2,63
2,I9
25 1,40 1,23 1,50 1,35 I,8i I ,59 2,2I 1,89 2,70 2,28 3,I9 2,67
30 1,65 1,51 1,77 1,66 2,I4 1,94 2,63 2,33 3,20 2,81
3,8! 3,30
. 35
1,93 1,82 2,08 2,00 2,53 -2,33 3,10 2,84 3,78 3,39 4,48 4,01
40 2,24 2,16 2,42 2,38 2,94 2,78 3,63 3,38 4,4I 4,07 5,22 .4,78
1,50 20
. 1,48 1,28 1,55 1,33 1,74 1,49 2,00 1,69 2,33 1,98 2,68 2,27
25 1,82 1,63 1,90 1,70 2,13 1,89 2,46 2,17 2.,85 2,52 3,28 2,88
30 2,18 2,01 2,28 2,09 2,56 2,33 2,95 2,69 3,42 3,10 3,95 2,56
35 2,57 2,42 2,68 2,52 3,02 2,82 3,50 3,25 4,05 3,75 4,69 4,:31
40 3,02 2,91 3,16 3,02 3,55 3,37 4,11 3,90 4,77 4,48 5,50 5,12
149.--
' ·- ·-----
c"y/H = 0,075
- ----
D<> doc. eotdJ =
0.5: I 1 : 1 2: 1 3: I 4: I 5: 1
D
f/)0
m n m n m n m n m n m n
1.00 20 0,85 0,80 1,09 0.84 1,61 l ,IO 2.44 1,44 2,66 I,80 3,I7 2,13
25 0.95 1,01 1,25 1,05 1,86 1,38 2,50 1,80 3,13 2,26 3,74 2,n
30 !.06 1.24 1.42 1,30 2.14 1.69 2,88 2,20 3,62 2,76 4,36 3,33
35 1.19 L-i9 _ 1.61 1.56 2.44 2,03 3,31 2,66 4,18 3,33 5.02 4,00
40 1,33 I. 76 l.80 1,82 2,77 2.39 3 ,78 3,15 4,79 3,95 5.78 4,76
1.25 - 20 1.34 1,02 1,39 1,09
,}.69
1,29 2;07 I ,54 2,49 I,82 2,95 2,I7
25 1.58 1,28 I , 66 1,39 2,00 1.64 247 1,96 2,97 2,32 3,52 2.73
30 1.83 1,56 1,94 1,70 235 2.01 2,89 2,39 3,50 2,86 4,I5 3,36
35 2,11 1,87 2.25 2,03 2,73 2,39 3,36 2,87 4,08 3,46 4,83 4,04
40 2.42 2,21 2.58 2,40 3.15 2,84 3,89 3,43 4,73 4,!3 5,60 4,83
'-
1,50 20 1.64 I,3I 1,71 1,35 1.92 I .51 2,20 1,73
2.55
1,99 2,93 2,1:7
25 1.98 1.66 2,05 1,71 2.31 1.91 2,66 2,20 3,08 2,53 3,55 2,92
30 2,34 2,04 2,43 2,10 2,74 2,36 3,16 2,71 3,66 3,13 4,22 3,59
35 2.74 2,46 2,84 2.54 3,21 2.85 3.71 3,29 4,30 3,79 4,96 4.34
40 3,19 2.93 3,31 3,03 3,74 3,40 4,33 3.93 5.03 4,53 5,79 5,19
c'y!H = 0,100
D<} d6c, c:nt'lfl : 0,5: 1 1 : I 2: 1 3: I 4:1 5: I
D
f/)0
m n m n m n m n m n m n
1,00 20 0,98 0,80 1,25 .086 1,83 1,I3 2,41 I,46 2,97 1,83 3.53 2,15
25 I,10 1,02 1,41 1,07 2.09 1,42 2,78 1,84 3,36 2,29 4,09 z.n
30 1,21 1,25 1,58 1,30 2.37 1.72 3.17 2,25 3.91 2,80 4,71 3.34
-35 1.34 1,50 1.77 I .57 2.68 2.08 3.59 2.71 4.49 3,34 5.39 4,03
40 1,48 1,78 1,99 1,87 3.01 2,44 4.07 3.21 5,10 - 3/rl 6,14 4,80
1.25-
20 1,48 1,03 1,52 1,09 1,86 1.29 2.27 1,55 2.74 1,83 3.23 2.I5
25 t,n 1,29 1,79 1,38 2.19 1,63 2.67 1,96 3.21 2.32 3,81 2,74
30 1,99 1,59 2,08 1,73 2.53 2,00 3.09 2.41 3.73 2.84 4.42 3.35
35 2,27 1,90 2.40 2,07 2,91 2.41 3.58 2,90 430 3,44 5.10 4.04
40- 2,58 2,23 2,74 2,44 3,33 2.85 4.09 3,44 4.96 4.ll 5.88 4,84
1,50 20 1.77 1.30 1,85 1,36 2,07 1,52 2.38 1.73 2.76 2.00
3,14 2.28
25 2.11 1.66 2,20 1,72 2,47 1,93 2.83 2,21 3,28 253 3.78 2,91
30 2,48 2,05 2,58 2,1! 2.90 2.38
3.3' 2,n 3.86 3,12 4,44 3,59
35 2,88 2,47 2,98 2,54 3.37 2.86 3,88 3,28 4.49 3.78 5,17 - 4,34
40 3,33 2,94 3,45 3,03 3,90 3,42 4.49 3,92 5,21 4,51 5,99 5,16
150
----
~
----
--~ - ~ ~ - ~ - - - 8
.I
c'y/H = 0,125
0<) d6c, cot'lfJ ; 0,5 ; 1 1 ; l 2: I 3; 1 4; 1 5 : I
D
0
f{J
-. m n m n
m · n m n m n m n
I,OO 20 1.13 0,81 I,43 0.88 2,04 1.15 2,69 1,54 3,26 1,78 3.87 2.12
25 1.25 1,04 1,60 1,11 2,32 1,45 3,06 1,91 3,74 2,27 4.45 2,72
30 1.38 1,27 1,77 1,34 2,62 1,78 3,46 2.30 4,25 2.81 5,07 3.37
35 1,50 1.61 1,96 1.5, 2,93 2,12 3,88 2.71 4,82 3.4I 5.77 4.05
40 1.61 1.75 2,17 1,89 3,Z7 2.48 4.36 3.18 5,46 4.06 6,55 4,89
1.25 20 1.64 1,06 1,67 1,10 2,05 1,32 2,49 1,58 2,98 1,86 3.50 2,17
1.99 2,38
~
25 1.89 1,33 1,94 1,40 2.38 1,67 2.89 3,48 4.08 2.75 "
30 2.16 1,63 2,23 1,73 2.73 2,04 3,32 2,43 4.01 2.92 4,71 3,41
35 2,45 1,95 2,56 2,09 3, 11 2,45 3.80 2,93 4,59 3,50 5.41 4,13
40 2,77 2,30 2,92 2,49 3,54 2,91 4,33 3.49 5,24 4.16 6.21 4:9-5
1.50 20 1,92 1,32 2,02 1,39 2,23 1,55 2,57 1.75 2.96 2,00 3,40 2.29
25 2,26 1,68 2,3.7 1,75 2,64 1,97 3,03 2,23 3,50 2.55 4,02 2,91
f'O = 30° 30 2,63 2,07 2,15 2,15 3,07 2.43 3,53 2.75 4,08 3,15 4.69 3.60
35 3,04 2,50 3,16 2,58 3,55 2.92 4.08 3.32 4.73 3.81 5 ~ 4 4 4.36
40 3.50 2.98 3,63 3,07 4,09 3,49 4.71 3,98 5,46 4,57 6,38 5,23
c'y!H = 0,150
0<) d6c. cotrft :
0,5; 1 1 : 1 2: I 3: 1 4: I 5; 1
D
0
f'
m n m n m n m n m n m n
1.00 20 1,25 0,81 1,58 0,89
2 , ~
1,16 2.89 1.44 3.57 1.80 4.21 2,15
25 1,37 1,02 1,75 1,12 2.53 1,45 3.24 1,80 4.01 2.27 4.78 2.77
30 1,50 1 , ~ 1,93 1,36 2,83 1,78 3,64 2,24 4.54 2.79 5.41 3,39
35 1,65 1,53 2.12 1.61 3.14 2,14 4.09 2.71 5.10 3,38 6.09 4,09
40 1,80 1,82 2,33 1,89 3,49 2,53 4,57 3.24 5,74 4,05 6.86 4.85
1.25 -20 1,79 1.07 1,80 1,10 2,22 1,32 2,69 1.59 3.22 1,86 3,77 2.17
25 2.03 1.33 2,07 1,40 2,55 1,68 3,09 2,01 3.71 2,37 4,33 2,76
30 2.30 1,63 2,37 1,74 2,90 2.06 3,51 2,44 4,22 2.92 4.96 3,38
35 2,60 1,96 2,69 2,08 3,28 2,47 4,00 2,94 4,81 3,50 5.66 4,10
40 2,92 2,33 3,05 2,44 3,72 2,92 4,53 3,48 5,46 4,17 6.44 4,92
1.50 20 2,05 1,33 2,15 1,39 2,38 1,54 2,74 1.75 3.15 2,01 3.63 2,30
25 2,39 1,68 2,51 1,76 2,77 1,97 3.1 9 2,23 3.67 2,55 4.23 2,90
30 2,76 2,07 2,89 2.16 3,22 2,43 3,70 2.75 4,26 3.14 4 .90 3,57
35 3,16 2,50 3,30 2.59 3,69 2,92 4,24 3,31
4 , ~
3,79 5.64 4.33
40 3,62 2,98 3,76 3,07 4,23 3,48 4,87 3,95 5,63 4,54 6,37 5,19
_.
151
trj m van tUCing ung vai cac gia trj cotg{J va rp' cua bai toan. Neu
n tim c6 duang duoi, mc;>t cung hiem hon (nho hon
F) co the ton d() sau Ion hon. Trong tntang hgp nay, phan
bang cho D = 1,25 (va neu can thiet, D = 1,50) du<Jc dung cho toi
khi dugc gia tq n khong b! duoi. Nhung tfnh toan nay
dugc cho cac phan cua bang tuong ung vai gia tri c'/yH hoi
nho hon tti so trong bai tmin. Dung phuong trinh [9.17], tlnh hai
gia tri so an toan F
1
va F
2
cho cac gia tri c'/yH tuong U:ng sat
a tren va dubi trj so trong bai toan. R.Oi tim gia trj cua F bang
each nc;>i suy tuyen t!nh giua F
1
va F
2
.
Thong so ap lljc nuoc lo rang ru dttQC xac djnh bang gia trj trung
binh a ben trong k.hoi truqt gifia da:t va cung truqt (xem m1:1c
9.12). so an toan tfnh duqc nhu the co chieu httdng danh gia
cao, trong cac truang hgp cljc doan tdi 7%.
Vi dl::l mlu 9.1 L Mt>t hO mong trong dat set c6 mai doc cao
17m, dij doc 1 : 3. Gia bi r u = 0,2 va dat c6 cac dij.c trung sau :
c' = 12kN!m
2
· m' = 22° · y = 18kN!m
3
, 7' · '
Dung so on dtnh ti nh uOi llng suet qua, xcic dtnh sq
an toan.
Bai_gidi
Trang bang 9-1, dung n(>i suy tuyen tfnh cho cotg/3 3 va
J p' - 2_2<>.
_ Y.ai 'c' /yH = 0,050 va D = 1,0 thl m = 1,97 va n = 1,528
Trj -so bi dubi, v1 co the ton m()t cung gidi h:;_1n
sau hon:.
Vdi c'/yH = 0,050 va D = 1,25 thi m = 1,976 van = 1,644
Vi the F
1
= 1,976- 1,644 x 0,2 = 1,647.
Vai c' /yH = 0,025 va D = 1,00 thi-m = 1,666 va n = 1,480.
Vi the F
2
- 1,666 - 1,480 x 0,2 = 1,370.
152
=
0,0392-0,025 .
F = 1,370 + (1,647 - 1,370) O
050
_
0 025
= 1,53
' ,
Cung bai toan, cac phan tfnh khac cho cac ket qua sau day
1. Dung phuang phap Bishop va Morgensten : F = 1,51
2. Dung bang cua Chandler va Peiris :
3. Dung phuong phap Fellenius tren may tlnh
9.12. Xac dinh ap II!C nuoc lo rang
F = 1,56
F = 1,41 ·
Bang phan tich theo ung suat tong, se danh gia dl.1Qc sq an
toan toi thieu trong dieu tdc thbi (khong thoat n11<Jc). De
danh gia cho dieu dai ngay, phan tfch doi hoi dt_ta tren
dng suat qua. Vi the v{Ji moi cung trugt tha can xac djilh
dt1gc Sl$ phan 00 cua ap }l.fc nt1iJc }o rong. ThltiJng xem xet ba nhom
dieu gioi sau day :
Cum thi cong
VI thbi gian thi oong dat va cac khoi dap Ian thttbng keo
dai nen ap l1;_1c . lo rong dl.1 co the giam xuong, cho. nen
phan tfch theo ung suat tong se xe <ijch gia trj F ve phfa thap di.
Ap lt_tc n11<Jc Io ·rong m<)t diem bat_ ki se la u
0
+ L\u
trong do : u
0
- gia trj ban dau ;
L\u - bien doi ap }1;_1c nt1CJC }o rong do bien doi cua Ung
suat chfnh <?hu yeu L\af .
Dung so ap l1;_1c nl.1CJC lo_ rong B (xem pht1ong trlnh [7.16]
ch11dng 7) :
u ,
h = ru (ti soap nztoc lo rong).
y .
Nen co:
_ Ao
1
ru = yh + B yh.
153
Nhung noi chung 8o
1
= yh (khong c6 tai trQng
- Vl the
uo
r =- + B
u yh
[9.20]
Dung m()t kieu cua thl ba (xem chuong 6) c6 the
xac djnh dugc so ap hjc nubc lo rong B. Neu da:t dap c6 d() am
- -'
nho bon de} ;\m tot nha:t, gia trj u
0
hau nhu bang khong, trong
truong hgp nay ru = B. Gia tti ru co the giam do tang toed() tieu
tan ap hjc nude -lo rong bang each ket hgp cac lap thoat nubc.
Tham on djnh
Dieu tham on d!nh dltgc hinh thimh sau khi ho chda day
nubc trong m()t thai gian. Cach thdc de dl,.ing htai dltong tham cho
dieu nay dttc;sc trlnh bay trong chllong 5. Ap hJc nti& Io rong
m()t diem da cho tren m()t trngt thil lay theo gia tri cua
d11ong dang the di qua diem do.
Trong hinh 9-23, ap lljc dttgc bieu thj boi dtibng dang the di
qua p se bang hw.
Nen co
ru-
At at
lri/dlllur
- fluting ding lhe-q, ·
//UiYP
yh
[9.21]
.
. - hn
cung
h
Hinh 9-23. Ap laJc mJdc 16 r6ng dong tham 6n djnh.
154
\
j
Trong dieu dong nha:t, gia trj. ru c6 the thay doi len t{Ji
0,45 nh11ng khi co cac lap thoat n11ac a ben trong thl se lam cho -
gia trj. do nho h<1n.
thap nhanh mJ!c nttoc ngam
Trong truang bqp mljc n1.1oc bj thap nhanh chong, n11oc trong
da:t CO XU btt{Jng tham ngt1QC ve ho chda qua mai thl1Qng lttu.
Trong hoan canh nay, du cho th<Ji gian Ia viri tuan co slj
bien doi •nhanh. ve phan b6 ap ltjc nttoc 16 rong : co the dung
lttai tham cho dieu ki(!n tham on djnh truac khi thap mljc
Tit hlnh 9-24, thay rang ap hjc nttac lo rong diem P (tren m(}t
cung truqt thil} tru:ac khi thap mljc n11ac dttqc tlnh theo bieu
thuc:
-.· .
----
---
.fluting tftin!J ?ren
cung
H"uth 9-24. Ap h.Jc m!& 16 rOng sau khi hC;t nhanh mt)c m!& ng3m
Gia thiet them rang ung suat chlnh Ian nhat tOng P bang
ap hjc lap phu (()
1
= yh}. Khi thap mljc nttoc, nttac ngam
gilun xuong toi thap h<1n S11 bien doi ung sua1 chlnh Ion nha1
tong se Ia:
A61 =
va lam cho ap }ljc nttac lo rong bien doi gia tti t11<1ng ung :
Au= -B Ywhw
155
(
Vl the, ngay sau khi thap mljc nltbc, ap lljc nltbc lo rong
p lit:
Bai vf!_y
u = u +Au
0
= Yw(h + - h') - ByJlw
= Yw[h + - B) - h ' ]
u
r = -
u yh
Yw . - h'
= y-[1 - h(1 - h]
[9.22]
Vl h ' tht1ang q.ua nho nen co the 00 qua va ru thltang c6 gia tzi
trong khoang 0,3 den 0,4.
Danb. gia r u bang tinh trung bi.nh
dcinh gia dung. dan ti so ap ltjc nu:ac lo rong trung b!nh ru
Ia quan trQng, khi dung cac phttang phap do Bishop va
Morgens tern de nghj (ml}c 9.10). Bromhead (1980) dl1a ra ph11ong
phap cho m()t lai giru c6 thong va tuang doi dan gian. Dat duqc
chia t hanh cac dru c6 be r()ng bang nhau (hinh 9- 25) va moi dru
156

Pna
f/VcJ/
1 .. d • I
f .
-
Hinlt 9-25. Ap hJc mldc 16 r6ng sau khi nhanh mtJc m1dc ngam
' .
chia thanh ba phan bang nhau theo pht1<1ng thAng dung. Sau khi
ve cac dtt<1ng Wing tti ctia ru (hay dung m(lt htlfi tham), gia tti ru
trung bJ.nh n h ~ n dltCJC cho vilng thfch hCJp ctia moi manh va danh
gia tzi :-so trung blnh toan bQ cho mai d6c tbeo bieu thuc :-
0.3
al
0.1
L(Mr
0
)
ru- }AA
0.25
0.30
------ - 0.35
0 ~ - - ~ - - ~ - - ~ - - ~ - - - - L - - - ~ - - ~ - - ~ - - ~
0 0.1 0.2 IJ.J 0.4 0.5 O.ti 0.7 - 0.8 o_g
1/Dw
Kmh 9-26
[9.23]
157
a day : M - tlch cua vilng manh.
Vimg manb ph.ai dttQC chQn tren c3c CC1 sa sau (ciing xem hlnh 9-25).
a) cho pha nang : dung m(}t phan ba tren cung ;
b) cho pha tfing quat. : dung m(}t phan ba lJ gifta ;
' )"
c) cho d?Dg pha mong : dung m()t phan ba dttlfi cling c()ng
them chan doc cac manh lJ dau va a chan.
Gia trj ctia vimg cho ru c6 the n1$i tic bieu dO thay a hlnh 9--26.
Mai doo tll nhien
Dung cac gieng quan tclc hay ong do ap trong m()t thifi
du dai bao trim dltqc ca nhftng dieu xau nhat, roi tien hanh
do 0 ngom triJi se xac djnh dttQC ap }tjc nltdc }fi rong.
0 dttdi khOi clap
So ve ap ltJc n'ltdc lo rong co the khong c6 kfui nang_ dap
U:ng cho khoi dap, trong do ·du.ng B = 1. Thui1ng thuifng,
tham se phat trien huang ve chan .mai dOc. Trong khoi clap dam
hut am thttoog dttQC Wip ung ngay, nhl1ng Stj do them dat
dap se dem ap lljc nulJc lo rong du<Jng. Neu con nghi thl
dung B = I. ·
9.13. TruQt khong theo cung tron
Tlnh hflu lch cua phtt<1ng phap ddn gifm hoa cua Bishop, voi gia
thiet truqt tl'\1 tron, da dua t{n mi}t sO de xuat theo each tlt<Jng
tlJ de giai quyet trugt co bat kl. Janbu (1954) Ia ngtti:fi
dau tien cong 00 phl1<Jng phap nh11 the, du con c} ch11a
dung.· Morgenstern va Price (1965, 1967) da dua ra m(}t ph11ong
"phap tt1<Jng tlj va cuoi cung Janbu (1973) da oong 00 m()t c:ich lam
dung dan ma nay d11qc chap nh11 Ia phtt<1ng phap trlnh ttj
tong quat.
phan ttJ nh11 cua Bishop, cho bieu thJlc xac
djnh s6 an toan sau day :
, , secl-a
L.[C b_+ (W -ub + AX)tgtp J
1
+twztgp'/F
L(Wsinx)
F-
[9.24]
·-
158
i1 day :AX= X
1
- - sl$ chenh gifia cac ll$c thAng dung -
ttlang tac gifta cac manh ;
<:<>n cac 1d khac co cung y nghla nhtt i1 trong phttang trlnh
[9.16].
---
-----..V,dlfrpPT

OJ
b)
0.2
d
L
IIA
Irmll 9-27. Hit:u chinh s6 an toan cho tru«;tt thOng theo rung trim
159
Cung -giong nhtt vai phttang phap dan gian hoa cua Bishop, qua
trinh co thong dt.tQc dung de h()i t\1 theo ht.tbng tbi gia trj
cuoi cung (nho nhat) cua F. J anbu da htu y them !a phtidng phap
nay c6 chieu httang danh gia so an toan thap mat tbi 13% khi
ti so gifta d() sau voi chieu dai khoi tntgt tang len (hlnh 9-27a).
Vi the, khi su d\lng bieu do (J hlnh 9-27b, phai dung m()t so
chlnh f
0
:
[9.25]
Ttong truang truc_:Jt rat nong, phm trQng khi tlnh
F, dung phztong phap mai doc vo hq,n (xem IDl}C 9.3) theo phudng
trinh [9.11] :
t ,
F = 1 - r sec
2
R) 1§p
u p trfl
Lai giAi. sau nay Ia :m()t lm giAi. m.a phuang phap fn!.. tron hulJng
tai, vi rang trltQt song song vai dat tttang duang vai vong
tron co ban kinh Ibn vo
Anh huang cua d9 cong dau cuoi toi khoi
truQt bl che
Gia thiet bien ph.3.ng cho chudng trinh tfnh 9n d!nh theo
pht.tdng phap can bang giai h;pl da bo qua anh ht.tang CUa dQ cong
hong cac dau khoi truqt. Trong phan Ibn cac truong hQp, be
r()ng clia phan ti'\1 tron <l trung tam Ibn hdn nhieu be r()ng <l phan
cu6i (hlnh 9-28). Ciing ti so gifta be r()ng <l phan trung tam
Ybi. d() cao mai doc thuong Ia l{Jn. Trong nhftng truirng hCJp nht.t
the da bo qua anh huang CUa phan cuoi.
'fuy nhien, a khoi tn.tqt hq,n_ che, c6 nghla la khi LJH < 4 (hlnh
_ 9-28), phan tfch theo bai toan hai chieu da din den_ket qua
la danh gia thap dang ke s6 an toan. Cac trt.ti1ng hqp nay c6
the xay ra trong gieng lo, ho mong sau, mai d6c lom ro va
cac g6c lom. cac goc loi thl ket qua se danh gia cao so
an toan).
160
z
f
\
\
\
Jf.aflnf.dlhiniJ ---
7ru ..,...._....... \ '-........._
"':Y..,.... \ .
_.......
_.......--- \
____ _....... \
\
\ .
\
'
'
"
...........
\ I
I :
L<:. \ I II 1
. '\_J U I
.........._ '("r',;
........... '- <
·"-.._ ........... _
'- --
"-._
"-y
lrmh 9-28. Anh hUdng cUa dQ cong dau/woi
M(>t sO phuang phap phan ticli bai toan ba chieu da dl1QC de
xua:t bdi Hovlumd (1977); Humpherey- va Dunne (1982), Chen. va
Chameau (1983), HutchinsQn va Sarma (1987) va Hungr (1987).
phap Ia chia khoi thimh m(>t nh6m cac c(>t thang
dung va phat huy toan can bang gioi cho chung. Tiep
theo la m()t each tinh t6ng tuang tl;_t nhli phltang phap clia.
Bishop. Trong tat ca trttong hQp, deb. dl,ta !:ren may tlnh
dugc dung de danh gia thong so, _thuang la dua vao 100 - 160 phan
tit cQt.
Khi c6 sv. khac nhau r?t gifta cac phuong phap, ro rang la
so an toai¥ phan tfch ba chieu F
3
thuang bang hay cao hdn
gia trj phatj tich tlieo bien phAng tu<1ng d1:f<Jng F
2
: Cac gia
trj dien hllih trong b4ng sau day ininh hQa cho dieu nay.
_11 CHDrr2 161
.-o._.
· .
Ti s6 FJIF
2
cHo MAI ooc c6 oo ooc 1 : 2,5
L /H .
E
c' = 0, tp' = 40° c' = 30kNtm
2
, tp' = 15° .
y = 19kN/m
3
y = 19kN/m
3
LjH
.
0,8 3,0 0,8 3,0
0,5 1,08 1,00 1,30 1,08
4,0 1,02 1,00 1,07 1,03
-
Cac con soda g¢ ra·Ia. trong tn.ti1ng hgp c' = 0, co nghla Ia iJ
da:t cat va dat set cO ket . thong thttiJng; danh ihap chi {J
muc nho, khi ra:t che (LJH < 0,5). Doi vai mcii doc
trong dat set ·qua co ket -dung d(> ben t()t dlnh. (c' > 0), _phai
trQng_ khi danh· ghi theo bien phang do_ no cao hon tai 40%,
bdi vi khi dung cac thong so dtt (c' = 0 va v>' = v>r> da phai gia
cac 11ac tlnh hoi qua cao. cac goc loi, so an toan doi
hoi phai cao h<1n, vi rang F
3
co the nho chi bang 0,6F
2

9.15. Phuong phap phan tich nem ·
Trong bai toan on djnh mcii doc khi co m<)t lap da hay dat cd:ng
khong che m()t phan hay toan b<) hlnh ctia_ trugt thl
thtti1ng dung phttong phap phan tich nem Ia thlch hgp. Phan mcii
doc iJ tren trogt dugc chia cac nem hgp li
bang cac dtti1ng thang. Roi tiep theo,- danh ghi cac ltjc tac dl}ng len
moi nem cau thanh, bat dau dlnh mcii doc, bang phttong phap
giai tfch phtt<1ng phap do giai.
Co· the du:r;tg_ so htr;tng bat ky cac nem hlnh tam giac hay hlnh
bOn nhung khi lan bon nam thl tt.:tc se dili, thieu hap
_d§.n .. D() chlnh xac ella. s6 an toan dti<Jc pht.:t thue)c m(>t
phan. vao dQ tin ctia so va vao gia thiet ve httang cua cac
lt.fc tac giua cac manh.
Hinh 9 - 29-cho thay m<)t nem dien hlnh {? tren m<)t phan ctia
tr11gt AB. Cac h;:tc tac dt.:tng len nem gom co· :
W - trQng lttgng cua W = y X cat;
u - htc ap h;:tc nubc lo rong ; u = ap ll!c nu(Jc lo rong trung
. --:;.
binh x chieu diti AB = uL ;
1"62
.... .; ..
C - h;cc
kh::ing dinh,
C = c'L/F;
R - tong
phfm h;cc do
ma sat dQC
theo AB;
N' - }1jc
phap tuyen
thljc tac dt.Ing
len AB;
s ..., sue
kh::ing cat ma
sat dQC theo
AB.
'
S = N'tgtp'/F.
I
I £
I A'
W I \
,-' I
WsinC(
15
,

Kurh 9-29. Dung nem de phan tich miii d6c
E
1
va E
2
- cac l1,tc tu<1ng tac giua cac manh, nghieng vbi phap
tuyen giao cac goc tuong ung o
1
va o
2
. .
Giai cac l1,tc phap tuyen vbi mai doc.
N' = W cosa + E
1
sin (o
1
-a) - E
2
sin(o
2
- a).
giai c6 the don gian hoa bang each o
2
= a ;
Giai cac l1,tc dc;»c theo mai d6c :
E
2
cos(o
2
-:- a) - E
1
cos(o
1
- a) + N'tgtp'/F + c'L/F = 0
Vi the l1jc giua cac manh thap hon co the danh gia xap xi nhu
sau:

- a) = E
1
cos(o
1
- + Wsina
- [Wcosa - U + E
1
sin(o
1
-a}] tgtp'/F - c'L/F [S.26]
Neu Ian giai quyet cac nem tit dlnh mai d6c, cac lt,!c tuong
tac giua cac manh se chuyen xuong tai nem cuoi cimg. a day, gia
163
rtti du cl\a ER bieu thj h,;tc ngoai can bang va co the giai quyet bang
m(>t trong hai each sau : .
a), Neu trugt co dtnh do m(>t lop cdng hdn hay tucrng· tl,;t,
va F Ia gia tri gi(Ji thl can m(>t rong trlnh chan de chong do
m(>t ll,;tc n3.m ngang bang ER.
· b) Neu tim dl1dc he s6 an toan roi thieu cho mai d6c thl c6 the
chinh gia trj fJ' mob. nhtl lJ dUm day va phan-tich dUQC
cho- tlJi khi tttdng tac gifla cac ma.nh du ER = 0 ·
AtgfJ' mob. = +
Vm nhftng truifng hQp dung hlnh ve, co the dung phUdng phap
do giai . ddn gian rna khPng co sai s6 1®. Ve m()t lien hQp cac da
ghic lt!c bat dibl til ciinh m.ai d6c va d&n den danh gi3., theo ti
hjc ER. Sau khi bien doi f>' mob. va F, ve dtlQc m()t da giac
thd hai va tiep tl}C nht1 the cho U1i khi c6 ER = 0. .
Can trQng phan nao khi chQn cac goc cU.a nhitng l1,;tc tl!<JD.g
tac giita cac milnh a . Gia tr! ER vlJi J, tuy nhien J anb.
htlclng kem ro tt1i gia trj. F cuoi ciing nhat). Thuang lay
J bang tp' each dtt<Ji cti.a moi nem. Cach
thdc phan tich dtlgc mieu ta bang v1 d\1 mAu sau day .
. vl· d9 :miu 9.12 . . Hznh 9 ..:. 30 iii, miJ,t cat ngang cua-m{)t m.4i
doc-trong mi)t lap dat dink nlim, tren lOp di£t cung nhtzc. De -p,ght
xem-Xet miJ,t try.tqt thu ABCD c6 mijt phiz:n n4m iren lap dat cllng
Dung phztortg phap phan tick nem, hiiy xiic dtnh M so an
toan cMrtg tn.tqt cat. Cac dij,c trung lOp di!t tren nhu sau :
c, = tp, · = 2:f1; r = 19kN!m
3

Bai gitii
Dufig chu thlch trong hlnh 9 - _ 30, dau tien tfnh cac gOC :
a
1
= arctg [(0,5 + 8,4)/6,5] :._ · 53,9°, -
. .
·a
2
= arctg [(2,0 + + 6,0-_ 8,4)]/23,0 = 18,3°,
164

- .- [ <217) = -
- . -:. ·:::--- --
)
i
I
i
I
I
I
I
J
I
I
- v
'165-
Cho goc nghieng gifia cac manh o = cp' = _22°
Cho F = 1,5 ; nen mob. = tg2_20/1,5 = 0,269, v1 v?-y
cp'mob. = 15,06o.
Chieu dai va tfch co the tlnh do til cat ngang
theo ti roi sau do dung phuong trinh [9.26] danh gia
_ E
2
cos(o
2
·- a). -
tfnh toan dt1Qc xep vao bang dt1oi day._
· Nem

a) Wsina Wcosa- U + E
1
sin(d
1
- a)
c•L

a)
1 0 444 324 - 165 + 0
-
264•
i 265
-
1264 3817- 1528 + 17 581
3 409 -183 639 - 193 + 320 175
2: = 2894 + 337 2: = 1020
cp' mob. chinh :
atmo' mob. - ER/(LN' + Lc'L) = -97/4251 = - 0,023
' Vi the lay mob. = 0,269 - 0,023 = 0,246, co nghla
b = 13,8° va F ·= 1,64.
mo .
2i5
518
-97
Nem -E
1
cos(d
1
- a) Wsina Wcosa.- U + E
1
sin(d
1
- a)
c•L

a)
r 0 444 324- 165 + 0 264 244
2 - ,
286 1262 3817 - 1528 + 19 581 626
3 _- 494 - 183 639 - 193 + -386 175 0
-
Nhl1- khi o = 2_20, so an toan bang 1,64. D(l chlnh xac
cua phl1<1ng phap thl!c ra khong ma r9ng cho vi tzi thd ·hai, vi the
F danh gia tot nha:t la 1,6 .
. M()t phan t:lch tu<1ng t1,.1, trong do gia thiet cac ll;tc giiia cac manh
song song voi phang tntgt, c6 nghla o = a, cho _gia tr! F
1,72.
166
- --
,
9.16. Cac yeu to trong thiet ke mai doc
Khi bat dau thiet ke mai doc, nguoi ky su ciin phai xem xet m<)t
so cau hoi cd ban sau day ngay tu dau :
a) Mai da:t dao hay khoi dap ?
b) Nhung thay dc1i ve ap I1Jc nubc lo rong, ung suat qua
va the tlch sedAn den nhung qua .xay dl_lng nao?
c) Nhung qua nao Ia ngan ngay va nhung qua nao Ia
diU ngay·?
d) Bao nhieu dieu ki(!n du<1ng nhu se thay dc1i trong tu<Jng
O,u
obandiiu
obanoau
6oan 1
oiiu
" / :>
!/ng .suaflon
"
6cuoicung
Thoi 'lim
/ , 7
1/ngsuatfon
. u Oilfl I ucuo/ CUQfl

..

a.?bBilt/ TIJ/. ZJrj'giamafil¢nvtfc ltirong can_bangct/ofcvng
bandlu co"r,g
q; tJap
H'mh 9 - 31. su thay d6i itng sua't trong khi thi cong mai doc
167
KI xao va ki nang cua ld sti thiet ke dugc bieu trong kha
dtia ra cac quyet cijnh hQp ly doi v(Ji cac cau hoi nhti tren.
nghien cuu m(}t s6 yeu to can dugc xem xet a day Ia thlch
dang. .
Mai dao
Mm diw hlnh thanh khi dao, trong khi mai _dap thl khi clap.
Trong khi dao, chuyen dat di se lap1 gi8m ung suat tong va
ap hjc ntibc lo rong giam theo. Sau khi xay dtjng, d(}ng thai tham
xay ra a mai dOc ph\1 thu(}c vao dieu thmit nit(Jc va tfnh tba:m
CUa dat. Ket qua Ia ap ll/C lo rong tang trong khi ung suat tong
-van Ia hang so, do ung suat qua giiim di 9 - 31a).
Vi d(} ben cat CUa dat ti v(Ji ung suat phap qua nen no cling
giam. C)n· _<ijnh dill ngay cua mai dat dao do the kem hem Sl:f fin.
d!nh _cUa. no vao hie cuoi thi cong.
Ban tlnh cua trugt ph\! thu()c vao dieu dat. Trong dat
. .
cat va bl}i chda cat dong nhat, trugt tjnh tien d11?1ng nhtt g8n sat
dat. Nhftng khe ndt vi kho tren llJp dat b\li hay dat set
cO the cho DliCJC vito nhanh va thuc day S1j djch chuyen ; }(;p
phu d\1 phong c6 the-ngan ngila hay It nhat Ia giam den
mdc toi thieu m(}t trttQt sau c6 cat ngang la cung tron.
Trong tram tfch phan llJp, can xem xet m()t sO truQt, .
a Ddi cO }(Jp dat rcln chac se khong che S\{ phat trien cua trttc;,:Jt.
Trong diit set qua cO ket (nhli dat set London, da macnd
Keuper va m(}t s6 da phien set) da.o dat da "tlj do" cho ung
suat bi chot S\1 gian nd nhanh dftn. den nulic c6 the dugc thu
hlit vao', vi the lam giam d(} ben khang cat; ciing bien
hong t-ttong doi lcln co the tac d1;.1ng.len cac cong trlnh chong do.
Trong cac trtldng bgp nhtt the, can thiet tinh dQ ben kbang cat
cfuJ. cac m&u che bj bj (fJ' m/ va c6 the can tien himh phan tfch
bien (chuyen vi}.
Phai xem xet can phong ngita bang thoat nttlic, bcli
VI no CO anh httong dang ke den goc nghieng cho phep CUa Jruii
d6c. Neu so an toan Ia 1,25, d() d6c cho phep cua mai doc thoat
nttdc (hay kho) .vilo khoAng O,Slp', trong khi cl mai d6c nliC1c
168
chi vao khming Vdi cac mai da:t dao vinh tinh_on
djnh dl,;la trend() ben khong thoat nttdc chi dung lam chi dAn ban
dau, vi chi co tlnh toan dl,;la tren dng suat qua thl mbi
. -
du tin H<1n nua, phai thl,;lc dl,;l phong cho nhung thay doi
ve thoat nttbc bat lQi co kha nang xay ra trong ttt<tng lai.
Khm dap
KIWi dtzp dttqc 4to Mi c8c l{Jp dat lien tiep dttgc chQn ll,;la ya
_ Him chij.t bang dam Ian hay m<)t each kh.ac. Ban dau, trong-qua
trlnh dmn k.hi d:ttQc thoat ra., Dbung khi kh6i da.p ca.o len
dttm se chju ap ll,;lc ntt6c lo rong tang h<1n (hlnh g...:.alb). -
Trong da:t tho, ap 11,;lc nttbc 16 r6ng dtt giam .kha nhanh.
Trong dat mjn, ap 11,;lc ntt<1c 1o r6ng dtt giam va stj cO
ket c6 keo dai vai nam. cac dai tieu. ntt6c nam ngang
va thang dung dtiCJC dung day nhanh qwi trlnh nay. rheo dong
thili gian, ap ltjc nttdc 16 r6ng giam, U'ng suat vii. do the
dq ben khang cat tang len. Vi the, vdi m()t khoi dap dieu 6n
djnh gidi nguy hiem :nhat xay ra vao luc cuoi thi oo_ng,
doi khi trong thi cang. - .
Trong trttC1ng hQp ctia d(j,p ddt, S\1 giam them dq ben khang cat
co the xay ra a mai thttQng lttu khi ho chua nharih va
tac d\Ulg chang do cua nttdc bi bo. Dieu do dttqc hieu nhu Ia
stj mat on djnh do hq, thap _ nhanh mlf,c nzt6c (hlnh 9 - 32). Vm
dat, can xem xet bOn nhom dieu on djnh sau -
•.
I
I
- I -
1- L;/int:ta;· 1 Hocnui -
Phin·fa; I htit:hva I oiii/ nude
H'mh 9--Jl- Bi6t deli aia iing suAt qua va ap 1\fe mt& 10 rfing trong
169
a) cuoi thi cong : truce khi chua nttac day - mai htu ;
b) cuoi thi cong : truac khi chua nuac day - mai thu(1ng hiu ;
c) sau khi chua nuoc day va tham on d!nh tien trien - mai
htu ;
d) sau khi ml,tc nuoc thap nhanh - mai thl1gng I11u
Trong dat va cac khoi dap c6 kha nang tham m(>t
diem nfia can xem xet Ia Slj _dlj phong bang thoat ntldc lJ chan mai
(xem them IDlJ.C giam ap ltjc tham lJ gan chan mm
th110ng la trung tCU CUa Slj thie't ke CO kinh
va kinh te.
0 nai khoi dap xay dljng tren da1 c6 d(> ben gan bang
hay kem h<Jn,. pha thuang nhat c6 the la pha hoq,i
nen (hinh 9 - 6). Khi daf nen cung nhac hon, pha mai doc
chac chan la se xay ra vai trugt xuat lJ chan hay lJ gan
chan mai doc.
9.17. He so an toan
Trong quyet d!nh so an toan toi thieu cho m(>t bai toan rieng,
can xem xet m(>t cac yeu to sau :
a) Nhftng qua cua truong hgp co the gay ra yeu to chong
kha nang an toan, tuc la trugt clia khoi hay lJ mai dao.
b) Anh huang cua cac bien doi nhftng thong so lien quan tai gia
..
trj F.
c) D() tin cua gia tri nhf:ing thong so do hay gia djnh
da dung va tfnh toan.
d) Mat kinh te cua bai toan.
qua cua Sll pha m(>t khoi aap hay mai dao c6 the dan
gian la phAi thl_;{c m(lt so cong sua chua hay lam trd nmU.
duang giao thong, ra sv. bat va ton kern. Van de tuan:g doi
nghlem la khi slj pha de dQa an toan cua cong va
con nguoi. Trong cac truong hgp nhat djnh, gia tri F cljc tieu cho
mai· doc co the lay thap bang I, 2, con lJ noi cong trlnh va con
-nguai co the bi nguy thi phAi lay gia trj cljc tieli la 2,0.
170
---
Trong cong trlnh da1, anh huang the bang con so la ro
rang, blsi vi phuong trinh dt) ben khang cat co hai thanh phan,
mt)t hay ca. hai thanh phan do co the anh httlsng den de? an toan:
c' c' tgp'
em = F + (j 'n tgp' hay 'm = F + t5' n F
c fJ
Trong mt)t so quy trlnh, so toan cuoi cung bao dam rang
F c = F fJ' ls ph11ong phap ung suat qua ctia Bishop
them v1 d\} mAu 9.10). Gia trj F co the rat cam voi Slj :thay
dc>i cua mt)t vai thong so nay, nhl1ng tttong doi khong cam
voi mt)t so thong so khac. Dieu nay thay trong bieu do cua
Bishop va Morgenstern; chang q>' c6 h11lsng ro nh11ng
chi can xem xet ba gia trj clia D {xem them ID"l)C 11.14).
..
hien nhien Ia, dt) tin cua bat kl t:lnh toan nao-se ph\1
thu(>c ngay vao d(> tin cua cac gia trj thong so cua chiing.
Ca voi cac thi dttgc tien hanh dung dan va hoan toan
th:lch hgp __ (1 trong phong, gia trj do cac thong so cua dat hiem
khi co dt) chinh -xac cao hon + 5%. 0 noi mau th1 khong
hay qui trinh thl khong chac chan va
khi dung gia hi gid dink cho cac thong so chlnh, thl so an taan
phm dttgc tang· len tttong U:ng.
Theo qua.p diem kinh te, mtli bai toan phcli tt.:t xll H cac gia trj
cua no va gia trj. toi thieu cua F dl1C}C dinh tren 00 sls cUa
tat cA cac yeu to anh h11lsng, nhttng theo nguyen tac chl da
d11C}c tc>ng quat hoa thi de nghi cac gia tr! cua so an toan nhtt
sau:
Cuoi thi cong (khoi dap va mai dao) : 1,30
Dieu tham on djnh : 1,25
Sau khi m1jc nttac thap dt)t ngt)t : 1,20
Mai doc t\1 nhien keo dai : 1,10 - 1,20
Khoi dat thAi
Cac bai toan gom ca cong trinh
: 1,50
: 2,0
171
. '
1. M(\t mai d6c Ireo dai trong dM set qua c6 ket c6 g6c ngbieng 12°. Ml,lc nlldc ngjm
iJ mai· d6c dbng th3m on dinh song song vdi n»jt dat. Hay xac dinh he s6 an
toan ch6ng trtl(Jt cat tinh ti6:t phfuJg tren pldng song song vt1i clt d()
sau tlldng img 3m, 4m va 5m: cac trung ciia :
2 . 3
c' = 14kN/m ; fJ' = 2s<>; y = 20 kN/m
2. M()t mii d6c teo_ dai Clia dat cit c6 g6c nghieng 1 ; d dl!di 4m J.a mQt ch3t
cilng khong tMm n3m song song vdi dat. cac t.rung cU3 cit :
3 . 3
c' = 0 ··m• = ·"' = 18kN/m · v = 20kN/m
t T t I t I sat. •
Hay xac s6.an toim ch6ng.djch va d() sau cU.a mjt trtl(Jt trong cic
truong h(Jp sau : .
a) Bo qua nu:& d ti"Ong mn d6c ;
b) M3i d6c nu:& vOi dOng tMm song song.
c) M\fc ngam d() sau 2m song song va dong
song song.
3. Trong mc)t m3i doc 12° c6 tit lau, m()t dich cbuyen tnrqt da x3y ra
dl) sao 5m theo m¢t mjt piling r(}ng song song vdi m3i d6c. Gi3 tbia J.a cW -eta ng;tlp
nu:dc (miic nu:& cW) va dong tMm dien ra Ia song. song, bay tinh gi8 tri
f'' d1l (ay c' = o va y =
9 - 33 Ia mat cai ngang ctia ml)t m3i dao trong d't set d6ng c6
d() kbang cat·khong thoat nllOc Ia 35kN/m
2
va dung trQng t\f nhi!n 19kN/m
3
(f' D-= Hay tinh he s6 an loan chOng pha cat thea AB trong cac truiJiig
h(Jp_sau:
a) Bo qua kh3 mng c6 khe nin ding.
b) Khe nift clog khong c6. nude.
- c) Khe nift dmg chita day ntldc.
5. Hinh -9 - 34 J.a cat ngang CUa mc)t mal dao trong mi}t ldp dJnh dOng IJhat,
pba h01;li trtl(Jt x3:y rn dQC theo mjt ACB c6 d;p::Jg m.Qt amg tron. Gill tbiet trQng lll(Jng
ddn vj cia cmt Ia 18kN/m
3
va f' u = 0, c6 mOt khe nin dog sau 2m. Hay xac dlnh d()
ben cat thong thoat ntldc cUa d3t vao hie pba
172
r ~
\
6. M(>t mai dao sau lOrn. nghieng 35° trong m(>t ldp dat dinh dong rmat kha day.
Dung phlldng phap Fellenius - Jumikis, co cac tam thll cho rung tn.fqt nguy
rmat di qua phia trudc chan mai doc 2m. cich thlllien xac dinh he s6 an toan
nho nhat cua nhom cac rung nay va dinh tam cti.a n6 (khoang each ngang va thAng
diing tif chan mai doc). Cac trung ctia dat nhll sau
2 0 8kN 3
c = 40kN/m · rn = 0 · y = 1 /m
u ' ru •
7. Hinh 9-35 Ia cit ngang clia lllQt mai dao trong dat dinh. 0(> bbl cit khong
thoat mtdc ( cu) CUa Jdp dat tren Ia 25kN/m
2
va cti.a ldp dlldi Ia 42kN/m
2
; ci hai ldp dAI
c6 trQng 11.1qng ddn vi Ia 19kN/m
3
va fJ u = o.
Hay tinh he s6 an toan chong pha truqt cat theo rung trim AB trong cic
trudng hqp sau :
a) Khong c6 kite ntn ding.
b) Khe m!t ding khong chila nll&:.
c) Khe ntn ding chiia day nll&:.
li:llm -j_ .


I
/ 029m
y
B:!lm
/
A
174
3-SOm
Jrmh 9-35
,
Dien tli:n
fr.hD=30.3 m
2
-IS
--........ --------------------------------- -- ---- i>.. • •
8. Mc)t mai dao sau 9m, nghieng 25° trong mc)t Itlp dat· dinh khong dOng nhat kha
day. Dung s6 6n djnh cua Taylor, hay xac dinh s6 an toan chong pha tn1Qt cat
khi dat c6 cic trung sau :
2 3
c = 45kN/m ·"' = 0 · v = 19kN/m
U 'Tu t I
9. o m()t cang tru<)ng ngtr<1i ta tien h.anh dao dat de lam dt16ng qua mc)t ltlp dat
dinh dOng rmat nam tren mc)t ldp da phien ran cttac :
Cac trung cU.a ldp tren nhll sau :
2 3
c = 30kN/m · "' = 0 · v = 19kN/m
U • Tu t I
Khi de) doc mai Ia I : 1,5, hay tinh ht; s6 an toan chong ph3 tn1Ql cat cho cac
trudng h<;Jp dao sau day :
a) Da phien a sau tom, de) sau dao _Ia Sm.
b) Da phien (J sau 6m, de) sau dao Ia 6m.
c) Da phien o sau 4m, d¢ sau dao Ia 8m.
10. Hay xac djnh d(} sau an toan cho m(}t h.ao c6 vach dung rna khong phai chong
dd khi dao trong dat set c6 cac trl!ng sau :
c = '35kN/m
2
• "' = 0 · y = 18kN/m
3
u 'ru '
Ht; s6 an toan Jay Ia 2,0.
11. Dung phllelng phap phan manh CUa Fellenius, hay xac djnh so an loan
_chong pha cat vdi ung suat hir;u qua dQC theo ACB a mai d6c dl1Qc tMy d
hinh 9- 36.
-
Ap h,tc nt1& r6ng dQC theo tn1Qt co danh gia theo chi bao clia ong do
ap, gia thiet dieu kien tbam 6n djnh. Cac tnlng CUa dat nhl1 sa•! :
? 0 3
c' = 12k.."'l/m- ; fJ' = 24 ; y = 19kN/m .
12. Dimg phliClng ph3p phan manh da ddn gian h6a CUa Bishop, hay xac djnh so
an toitn vdi iing suat qua cho rung thtJ trong mai d6c chi d hinh 9 - 37. Ti s6
ap }t)c nt!<k 16 r6ng r
0
CO lay 0,25 va cac trung CUa dat nbli sau :
175

a..om
12.0rn
176
I
I
Kmh 9-36
Ku.h 9-37
13. M<)t mai dao sau 15m, d<) doc mai I : 2,5 trong dinh. c6 trQng h1"ng
ddn vj 20kN/m
3
va cic thong s6 d<) ben khang cit nhl1 sau :
..
c ·= · ., = 0 ·
u 'ru '
Ti so ap h,tc nt16c 16 r6ng trung binh r
0
co 0,4. Hay xac dinh h(! s6 an
toan trong cac truiJng h"p sau :
a) pM cit tiic thai ;
b) pha cit dai
14. M()t khoi cao 24m, dAt, sau khi va dam lm c6 cic trung sau :
a) x.ic djnh h(! sO an loan CUa k.h6i cO d() doc mai .1 : 3, nltJ ti sO ap h,fC 16 r{)ng
trung. binh r
0
= 0,2.
· b) Cho he! s6 an toan Ia 1.5 va gia r
0
C1,fc Ia 0,35, hay xac d!nh m3i doc
thich hcJp.
12 CHD/1'2 177
Chuang 10
, , ' A , • .,._ ._,
TINH -NEN VA OQ LUN CUA NEN OAT
- 10.1. Cac d,ng· chuyen V! cua dat va .nguyen nhan
gay lun
Quan gifta chuyen vj cua da:t on dinh cua cac cOng
c6 lien la m(>t quan phdc Trttbc het, dat co the
chuyen vi theo oo che va h<1n nua cong trlnh c6 nhieu
moi cO khA nang khac nhau "khi chju dljng b! htiy ho?i
do chuye-n vj._ M(>t s6 cong trlnh khoi xay bang thtt<nlg
gay nen co the bj nut va ca htt ket cau chi "bdi cac chuyen
vj rat nho CUa Jiu)ng. 'I'rong khi cac cong tnnh khac CO the xay
dljng de chju cac vi kha l(tn rna khong c6 htl h?i thtjc

quan trQng la thdc rang, _ thm CUa
dat tntbc, trong khi va sau khi xay dt;tng_ c6 khuynh h11<1ng bien
d6i, doi khi kha Ibn. dtj doan cac thay d6i Ia V1}. kho
nhat ctia ngttm thiet ke. Phan 1® htt oong trlnh xay ra
la 'mong chuyen vi vl khong tntllc cac tr;plg thai cua _
dat ma nguyen nhan _c<1 ban hau nhu Ia do khao sat khu dat
khQng lam day du va thieu cac hieu biet ve cac trnng clia da:t.
Trong chu<1ng nay se trinh bay ccic phlicmg phap co de Winh
gia d(> bin va roc d_(> h1n ctia nen theo nhftng Cd che xac djnh. Cac
danb gia nay se c6 tin hqp ly khi -cac trung ctia dat
chap dung trong tfnh toan Ia :
a) tieu -bieu tot cho thai te, va
I
b) thlch cho suot ca. thifi gian liun ctia oong trlnh.
178
-

la rat c6 ich neu ta bat dau bang xem xet van tat m<)t
so ce1 che chuyen vj ella. dat - la nguyen nhan tiem nang gay lun.
Nen -
Nen la qua trinh cac dat bj ep chuyen sang thai
len he1n cung v(Ji S\1 giam tttdllg U'ng ve the tfch va khf thoat
ra (xen them chtte1ng 3). Qua trinh nay doi hoi m()t nang ht<Jng ec1
hQC va thtt<mg Ia S1;i gia tai do trQng ltt<Jng bAn than t8.i trQng
ph\1 tren dat sinh ra. Slj dao d()ng do xe cQ chuyen d()ng,
ha.nb: may moe va cac d{>ng thi rong nhtt dong CQC
gay ra bin do nen Trong vilng d{)ng dat, s6ng va cbh c:i{)ng
co the c6 qua tue1ng ttj. Nhung dat cam nhat Ia cat hay
cat chda cu()i rm, dap, sau khi do khong duQc lu
Ian hay dam day du.
COket
\
Qua trinh ntt(Jc lo rong trong dat dlnh bao haa thmit ra do tai
trQng tac dt.:tng tang len gQi Ia qua trinh c6 Mt. The tfch giam dan-
dan cho tm khi ap ll!c nu(Jc Jo rong d ben trong can bang,
giam tai _trQng c6 the gay ra true1ng n<l lam cho dat duy trl slj. bao
haa. Hau het phan can ctia chtt<1ng nay Ia danb cho nghien
cdu chi tiet qua trlnh co ket vii. cac phtte1ng phap danh gia d<) hin
sinh ra do c6 ket. Can hieu rang de qua trinh dUQC bat dau thl tai
ti'9ng phai thay d()i va cO-the phai mat nhieu nam mm dttCJC
d() bin cuoi cung.
- Diit cam nhat_ la dat bun va. dat set c6 ket ·blnh thttlJng,
m()t so dat dap nhat d!nh dttQc bao hoa. Than bun "-a dat than
bun c6 tfnh ep co khii. cao, ket qua la dtt(Ji tai trQng mdc d() vita
ph& be day lap_ thay doi nhieu, oo the tm 20%.
B
-- d
1en ua.u 01
Khi chju tai trQng thl tat ca ran-deu bien Dat c6
ban chat rieng bien m{>t phan 13. do nen hay co ket
nhlt vita de i1 tren, phan kh3.c Ia do bien dan hoi. Trong
tat ca cac dat, bien dan hoi xay ra hau nhtt ngay sau khi
tai trQng tac-dl}ng ; d{> I lin_ gay Mi qwi trlnh nay gQi Ia dq lun
tUc thOi- mt.:tc 10. 2 va xem chtte1ng 6).
179
Sl$ thay doi d9 am
M()t so da:t set c6 Sl;l tang hay giam the tlch dang ke khi
d() am ttlang ung tang hay giam. Dat set bieu cac trung
nay dtlQC gQi la dat set CO ng6t hay tnLang nova phat thay
lJ cac tinh phla nam va phfa tay. D!a tang lien quan vili dat set co
ng6t la set Lower Lias, set Oxford, set Kimmeridge, set Gault, set
London va m()t so a Woolwich va Reading Beds (xem them ml}c
1.5).
Tro:rig vii.ng nay da phat rang, dQ am bien d6i theo mila co
the till d() sau dttoi Wit 0,8m. 0 V.Ung 'lliy Nam ntloc Anh,
chuyen vj be hang nam c6 the cao, till 50mm. Nhihlg dat
set nay c6 truilg gioi chay va chi so deo ca.o. M9t s6 Wit
gQi la •c:tat bong den" ra trong dieu dOi it mtta
cac vilng a Australia, Trung Phi, Trung My c6 muc d() gian no
911
80
---.------
311
20
Ill
__ ,
RAT CAD
,
/oqicua·B/?c
24(1{ '!lBO)
Kmh 10 - 1. mng co ngat w trudng na aia dM set.
180
----- ---- -
80
/
/
va co ng4t rat cao khi d() am bien d6i (Clarke, 1957). Kha nang
co ngot va gian nlf rua da:t -lien quan v{Ji htgng set va tlnh deo
CUa no tfnh CUa da:t ph1i<1ng trlnh [2. 8]. S1;1 phan gan
dung kha nang co ng6t va. tru<1ng nlf lf tren bieu do .hlnh 10 - 1
Ia d1;ta tren cong trlnh cua m()t so tac gia, dang chii j Ia Holtz va
Gibls (1956), Holtz (1959) Williams va Pidgeon (1982), Van de
Merve (1964), va Ia S\1 phan ttt<1ng t\{ cho trong san
clia T6 Nghien cU'u Cong trinh xay d1;tng s6 240 (1980) -
san cua T6 chU'c Nghien ctlu Cong trlnh xay d1;tng s6 241
(1980), de nghj Ia trong truoog hQI> oong trlnh c6 d() cao thap lihtt
nha a, c6 the th1;tc phap phong ngita hgp ly bang' each;
trong cac dat nay, sau mong toi thieu c} dat-la
0,9m.
Anh httilng cna th11c
M()t yeu to khac ket hgp v{Ji dat set co tlnh deo cao de gay ra
·Iun Ia anh hliang clia cay. Ban ldnh phat trien rua m()t
h<1n chieu cao rua cay, c6 the «4t tCJi d() sau viti -met. Cach
m()t $g d1i<1ng Ia 25m, chuyen Vi CUa m()t mdng nha a
ghi dligc la lOOm. di chuyen cac cay do c6 nghla la lam cho
dat am h<1n va vi the xay ra giaD. nlf. 0 -nc:1i cay va bl:li kha
phat bj di chuyen di khoi oong trtiCJn_g, de cO the dti<JC
din bang se phai mat thiJi gian tit m()t den hai mila dong .
., '
0 n<1i dat set co tlnh co ngot phai dieu chlnh can cac cay
co trong ke v{Ji oong trlnh. M()t qui tac h-fiu luon luon
de cay moi trong each xa c6ng trlnh it nhat 1,5 Ian chieu cao hoan
-ctia cay. tia b{Jt cay va xen ngQn cung im.h hlilfng
. mat d() am cua dat va vi the dAn den trt1<1ng no. Mac d() say
kho ( va do la kha nang trudng no ) c6 the danh gia bang so
sanh d(} am va SO dQC gi{Ji chay CUa -dat lf gan cay dang ton
vita dli<Jc di chuyen) v{Ji s6 dqc lay lf dat tttdng t\{ l() -ra
tren
Anh httllng cua h?- thap mlfc nttdc ngam
Khi hom nuCJc til h6 mong, mljc nuoc a khu da:t xung quanh se
thap xuong. Lun co the sinh ra do slf thap nay trong dieu
181
thtiy tinh bdi hai qua trinh. ThU:. nhat trong m(>t s6 dat set
nhu da trlnh bay a tren, giam de? am se sinh ra giam the
tich. Dat o tren mt;tc nuac ngam thap co the b! co ngot. Thd
hai giam ap }\{c nUCJC lo rang thuy tlnh nen St;{ tang ap
suat qua cua l{Jp phti tren. cac l6p nam duCJi.
VI dat la dat huu ce1, dat set yeu) nam du6i mt;Lc.
nt:f{Jc ngam thap c6 the cO ket do U'ng suat qua tang len.
Anh httilng cua slj bien doi dq
Khi da:t set a dtllJi mong cac lo slim, lo nung voi, lo noi
hdi ... bj kho di thl CO the xay ra Sl! CO ngot nghiem trQng. 'I'rong
truong hQp ella. m(>t cong trlnh noi hdi xay dl!ng 0 London, chua
tlJi hai nam liin a tam da tlJi 150mm va a ben la 75mm. Gifta cac
nguon nhu the va dat nen •thui:Jng thanh khoang trong
khe ho khong khL
Khi duy trl d d() thap, m()t so dat nhu dat bun, cat
mjn, dat phan voi va trong ban than da phan co the xay ra dong
no. Luc dong bang, nulJc trttdng ni1 khoang 9% va vl the lap
da1 bao hoa day 1m co d(> rong 45% co the trUdng nd toi
0,09 X 0,45 X lfr3 = 40mm. d ntloc Anh, d(> sau cua dat dong
bang do bang gia vao mila dong hiem khi vtl<Jt qua 400mm. Tuy
nhlen, da quan sat dtlQC dQ nd do dong bang }a 30% be day CUa
ldp (xem them m\}c 4.8). Slj tnt<Sng ni1 manh co the xay
ra a trong dat nam duesi cac kho tril khi co 00 trl each ly.
Anh !ntilng cua tbam va xoi mon
·frong da:t cat nhat djnh nht1 cat kho mj.n va hoang tho,
chuyen d()ng cua nuoc co t he cuon troi m()t sa nho. Xoi mon
la tt.tQng dttQC chuyen di:Ji do DUOC tren va sOng
suoi, hay xay ra 4ti noi cac kenh tieu hay d1ti:Jng ong Dl1CJC bj
.. . .
:va. 0 nai ho mong dao dttoi mljc nulJc ngam nam ben trong de
quai thl ciing t11<1ng tlj, dong th:im tu dttdi gay ra d;plg mat on
(ijnh gQi la dun. (xem them m1:1c 5.15). Trong vilng kho
dat cO the bj xoi man be do dt)ng ctia gio.
Trang m()t so da:t da nha:t djnh, ket dlnh khoang co the bj
hoa tan do nubc ngam d(>ng. St_1 hh1h thanh hang d()ng va song
182
ngam Ia trung cua vimg co da voi va da phan, tl.tQng hin
do hang d()ng khong phru khong pho bien. Cheshire, ,cac
c()t muoi de chong <(o vom d()ng bj hoa tan nen mo da muoi f!() bj
da gay ra h1n '- ·
trong vi 1&1.
Mat kha nAng
chong dii hong
M()t chuyen
vj mong pho bien
thubng dAn den
nghiem tr'-'mg,
chl Ia tham h<;>a co
lien quan vm
dao cac ho sau d<;>c
theo mong rong
trlnh. Nhieu trubng
hQp pha do ho
mcng ke hen da
duQc ghi (Feld,
1967, 1968 ; Ham
mond, 1956 ; Me
Kaig, 1962). Sllc
chju cua dat tl"ljc
tiep nam dum mong
thu()c vao sllc
Ito :n()-n!J . _ _
knong cllong oo
-:1:1::---fl--.-. / _ .-r _---
IJ_.ch t - -
8)
chv!fetwgang -_
Jla:uattu nhien
..., _ _ ha_!/da"b
' . - -
" - - . ·'
. . c!Jvyen
/--- -
Af_clffrurJit/udf -_ -
IJJ
"Kmh 10 - 2. Llin vi do milt khi! mng chOng d3 hOng
a) do h6 m6ng dao ke ; b) do di chuyen m3i doc
chong do hong bOi dat a d<._>c ben : trong vi(k tfnh toan slj
ch!u tai cljc cUa da:t c6 xet yeu to nay {xem thenrch11ong lJ).
Neu sdc chong do ben b! mat di nhtt a tr.tbng hvp ho mong
khong co gfi van chong do, thl rat c6 the sinh :ra tnt¢ do cat cua
da:t lJ d1tl1i mong, se dlta mong troi vao trong ho dao {hinh 10. 2a).
Tuong tt,t, lun co the sinh ra do dat di chuyen vi bj tru«;t, truQt
dong cac mai dat tt,t nhlen hay c3c mai dao (hlnh 10- 2b).
Anh httOng CUa SlJ.t' dO dao mo
Phttong phap dao mo than thong dt,.mg Ia phap tztimg
diJ-i trong do than dU:Qc khai thac qua m()t guong lo I'Qng. Khi rong
183
tien trien, thai chiem m(>t phan khoang trong va ket
cau chong do mo dugc chuyen di. Roi vom dan dan bj va xuong
keo theo no la toan b(> lap phu cho Wi dat, n<1i se xay ra lun.
Song lun ro rimg xuat lJ dat, chuyen vj sau do chut
it va theo httdng tien cua gt.t<Jng lo than. Co kha nang tinh dttgc
vi CUa tt1Qng bin nay va d\{ doan thai gian tre CUa no.
Phru co Slj bao oong trinh chong tac d(>ng cua lt1n S\lt phil
hgp vdi co Slj ooi thuong. phap bao nam trong
hai huang sau. ·
a) dieu chinh 5\1 dao m6, nhu de nhftng c(>t trv, dao theo dai.
b) ket cau cong trinh co d;plg nhu ket cau khop, mong
be nang.
1 0.2. Lun rue thai hay lun khong tho at nuac
thai dng suat- bien cua khoi dat bao hoa khong
thoat nude chju tac d\}ng cua tai trQng tlidng ttJ thai cua
the dan hoi va no co bien tlidng doi nh6.
Dieu do co le dung trong truang hgp cua mong, khi rna ung
suat thtJc chi bang 1/3 gia tr! c1Jc h;p1 (co nghla F = 3) ma khong
phai la truong hgp biri toan mm doc va -ho khi F == 1.5. Gia
tq llng suat tllc thi:Ji cao nhat xay ra (J dtioi diem tm va xa
khoi nay theo chieu ngang va theo chieu sau thi giam di. Do
biri toan lun dan hoi hay lun trlc thiJi dttgc mo hlnh hoa
bang nfla khong gian dan hoi vo chju tai trQng tren M(>t
SO ldi gim da dt.iQC de trong ID\IC 6.16 va phtl<Jng tnnh (6.67]
Ia bieu thllc tieu chuan :
qB(l--y2)
S- = I
I E p
D(> luh tU:c thbi
Trong dieu khong thoat nuoc thl v = v u = 0,5 va Eu xac
dtnh dugc tu thi nen ba trt)c khong thoat nlioc.
·vai d!a tang tuong doi dOng nhat thi xem E
0
Ia hang so, dau
rang no tang theo dq sau. Tuy nhien, voi lop co be day tren 3m,
tot hdn la coi nhu m()t nhom cac lap ph1) vai cac trung thlch
184
h"p gan cho moi ldp ph\1. Gia tq h(! so anh huang IP tit cac
do thlch hQp (nhu bang 6.8 va 6.JO). ·
Vi d1.:1 mlu 10. 1. Mi;t mong be bdng betong dai 32m, rl)ng 18m
truyen viw dat mQt tip lrtc tiep :me dOng deu la 240kN/m
2
tq,i di;
sau 2,0m. Hay .me dink tong di; bin tlic thoi tq,i tam m6ng. Gia
thiet la mong mem, Eu = 45MN/m
2
, v = 0,5 va y = 2_0 /lNln_£
3
.
Bdi gitii
D() h1n tuc th(Ji tfnh theo bieu thuc :
qB(1 -
5
i =- E
- u
L 32
B = 18 -= 1.
78
-
Ttl bang 6- 8, n()i suy se co :
' 1,78 - 1,50
IP = 1,36 + (1,53 - 1,36)
2
,00 _
1
,
50
= 1,46
Ap l\fc xuc th\fc q = 240- 20 x 2 = 200kN/m
2
V1 the d9 h1n ttlc thai bang :
s: = 200 x18(1 - x1,46 x1o3 _
88
mm
1
45 x1o3
Dq hin tuc thm cua lop dat mong
Trong khi tfnh gia tri I cho trong bang 6.8, gia thiet· Ia ldp dat
nam duai mong phan bo tai d() sau tudng doi ; tuy nhien ket
qua tlnh-toan nhti the la qua cao neu lap co be day nho. han hai
Ian be r{)ng. Vai l(Jp co be day gibi phla dudi co lap da:t cung
thl c6 the dung bieu thuc sau day (Jan bu, ... , 1956) de xac d!nh
d() lun trung binh duoi mqt nu)ng mem,
!lJ!
1
qB(l - v
2
)
sl. = (phuong tnnh [6.68],
E
u
185
o . · . I . , . · · · - ·
L .. _ . - -. -.
, r- ..__.._-:- _ _._--L..·--L. s ---"' --.....__,__, _ . . • .
. ___ __.,.--t . - •
. • . H1 ·_ . - . . . .· , • •
- ..... -.
. . Ha :
.. - -- -
- - ---- -
- - - -----= .:::-
- - -- --
-
- -- -- -
-
---- - --
-
Kmh 10 - 3
Cac gia trj p
0
va p
1
dttQc cho trong hinh 6 - 49 va ph\1 thu()c
vao be r()ng va d() sau cua mong, day cua li1p dat nam dttm
mong. Trong trubng hQp co m()t li1p mong dl!C1i li1p mong (hinh
10 - 3) co the tfnh d() hin tdc thbi bang hie dau lay gia tr! llt(B)
ttldng ung vl1i l{Jp c6 be day H
8
, roi lay gia trj Pt(TI tl!dng dng vi1i
lap co be day Hrr. Roi dung phu<1ng trlnh [6. 68] tfnh d() hin ttlc
...
thai do lap mong gay ra, trong do llt = P.l(B) - P l(T)
vi d§J mAu 16.2. Mijt mong co kick thztoc 6 X 3m truyen tip
lrtc tiep :rue th'lf,c dong deu 175k1V/m
2
tq,i df! sau 1,5m, trong
mi)t lop set phan bo toi dij . sau 5m o dztoi mij,t dat. Gid thlet
Eu = · 40MN!m
2
ua v = 0, 5, hdy xac dtnh tong d() lun trung bl.nh
duimg nhu da dien ra.
Bai gidi
:Xem h!nh 10 - 3 taco
D 1,5 L 6
---
-
0,5 -
2
B 3,0 B 3
Po = 0,9
H 3,5 L ·
2 ---
-
1,7 -
B 3,0 B
P.t = 0,55
186
·,
T:lnh tong d() hin trung blnh theo phtlong trlnh [6.68]
s. = 0,9 x0,55 x1,75 x3 xlo3(1 - =
4
,
9
mm
1
40 xlo3 ·
vi dl} mAu 10.3. Mi)t m6ng mhn c6 kick thztoc 12 X 18m a·
dzt(Ji mij,t dat 1, 7m truyen tip tiep Xlic dOng deu la 160.kNJm
2
.
{J di) sau tit 5 den 10m, tinh tit mij,t dat, la lap set pha cat c6
Eu = 35 MN!m
2
, y = 19kN!ni
3
va v = 0,3. Hay me dink -tong_ di)
lun blc thiJi trung binh sinh ra do nen dan hOi czia lap dai. se__t.
Bdi git1i
Ap lljc tiep xuc thljc q = 160 - 19 x 1, 70 = 128 kN/m
2
.• --
Xem hlnh 6 - 49, ta co :
D 1,7 L 12
B =
8
O = 0,2 va B . = S = 1,5
'
tra bieu do p
0
= 0,9'1.
Vffi l(Jp da:t tit 0 den 10m, co nghla H
8
= 10,0- 1, 7 = 8,3m
HB 8,3 L
B = 9 0 = 1,04 va B = 1,5
'
tra bieu dO co Pt(B)- = 0,49
Vbi lap dat tu o den 5m, co nghla HT = 5,0 - 1, 7 = 3,3m
Ry- 3,3 L
B = 8,0 = 0,41 va B = 1,5
tra bieu do co
Pt(T) = 0,27.
Cho nen p
1
= 0,49- 0,27 = 0,22
Tong d() Inn ttlc thiJi trung binh tfnh theo phuong· trlnh [6. 68] :
0,97 X0,22 X 128 X 8 X 10\1 -
s . = = 5,7mm
1
35xlo3
187
1 o.a. Lun do co ket
Qua trlnh co ket
Trong qua trlnh tram tfch tlj nhien cac lo;p da:t min nhu
da:t bl}i va dat set da ra qua trlnh cO - . nubc d gifta cac
dan dan thmit ra do trQng lt1Qng CUa cac l{Jp tram dQng iJ tren.
Sau m()t thai gian (co the la kha nhieu nam), thai can bang
dttQc va tuang nen dilng l;p. Dat dttQc gQi Ia hoan toan
co ket khi the tich Ia hang so iJ tr'}ng thai ung suat khong doi. Dat
co ket thong thui:Jng Ia dat nay a thai tuang ung vai
ap ll!c oo ket cuoi cizng. Dat qua co ket khi ap ll!c phu nay
nho han ap lljc co ket cuoi cilng doi khi da co trong qua khu,
chAng nhu trttbng hqp dat dttqc co ket dttai m9t lop bang
ma nay khong con lbp bang do, a nai m()t phan lbp
phu nguyen thtiy da bj ria troi do xoi mon. Neu dieu dng
suat thay doi thl phai tbi thai can bang mbi (xem them
6.2)
Trong khi xem xet Cd che nen hin cua dilt, c6 the gia thiet Ia
khoang va nuac lo rong khong bj ep co. Vi the .qua tdc
thai (len khoi dat) cua tang ung sua:t tong Ia ap llJc nuac lo
rong tang len. Khi nuoc lo rong tham khoi dat, Slj tang ap }ljc n11dC
lo rong bj tieu tan dan m()t each Khi toan hQ dQ tang
ap htc nuoc lo rong dab! tieu tan, da:t hoan toan c5 ket. De
bieu tb:j qua trlnh nay. Terzaghi (1963) da d11a ramo hlnh d hlnh
B)
188
6,/J
b.)
dantfau :
/!ill = AfS
Aci = 0
'
'
...... --
--
mn1, 1 o - 4. co ket IDQt htJiJng
_, -
[uoicung:
&J = 0
AC$"' = A6
Thdigian
a) mo hinh cua Terzaghi ; b) dt1i1ng cong ling suat- th<li gian
10 - 4a, dung lo XO bang thep de the khung ket cau CUa da:t.
Gia thiet Hi pittong khong co ma sat dttgc chong do boi lo xo va
ong t11:1 chda day nttl1c. Neu tai trQng tac d\lng len pittong ma van
bi dong thl chieu dai cua lo so khong thay d6i vi da gia thiet Ia
nttl1c khong ep co. Neu tai trQng ra d() tang CUa dng suat tong
la /:i(J, thl toan bQ gia trj nay phai dligc bang m()t lttgng tang
tttang dttang CUa ap 1\tc ntt(lc lo rong (hlnh 10 - 4b). Khi van mlJ;.
ap hjc nttl1c lo rong dtt Him cho nttl1c thoat ra, ap ltjc ntt8c lo rong
_giam va pittong hin xuong vi lo so b! nen. Nhti the, tai trQng truyen
dan dan cho lo so lam cho no co ng3n cho tdi khi chju bQ
tai trQng. Do a giai dO?n cuoi, d9 tang. dng suat qua
qua" trong ep co) bang d() tang dng suat tong va
ap ltjc nttl1c lo rong dtt da giam tl1i khong. T6c d() ep co ph1;1 thu(Jc
ro rang VaO dQ ma CUa van - tttong tlj tlnh tham CUa dat. '
Tinh nen IU.n
Khi nghien CUu cO ket, dat dttgc coi nhtt Ia m9t ket cau khung
co tlnh ep co cua cac khoang (ban than khoang
khong hi ep co). H<1n nfta, n:eu gia thiet Ia trong suot qua trinh oo
ket dat Iuon baa_ hoa thl din den qua Ia dq giam the tlch.bang
the tfch nttl1c ra va do bieu 19 bAng Sf!. thay doi
sO rong. Hay xem xet m()t mo hlnh CUa mAtJ. dat chju dng suat
tang (hlnh 10- 5). Qua trlnh rung gia thiet Ia ml)t
chieu , tdc Ia kich thttcl'c khong thay doi theo be ngang, chi c6 · _
day thay doi. Stj thay d6i the t:lch A V Ia do d() tang dng suat
qua Art do co the bieu thj m(>t each ly tttang bang stj thay
doi :t?e day MI Sl!- thay doi ht$ sO rong lie va vi the bien
the t:lch se bang .
lie
1 +e
0
Bai the, s\f thay d9i be day _ctia m9t lbp co be day ban
H Ia · ·
0 .
lie
1 +e Ho
0
[10.1]
189
Ito Vq - _ . . . . _ -_ -
- ... - .
0)
- . -
--- o ._.- ·:·:
:-. _non -:
. . . .
.. .. .. .
. - - -
... - .
-. - -.. . . . .
f
- .. . - - .. :
_- - - - o"an' -- :--
. . n• .
.. .. .. ..
- .... --.
/J)
Jrurh 10-5 . Giili thich tinh ep co m6 hinh d3t
a) tnldc khi cMt tai ; b) sau khi cMt tai
1
Bien the t:lch ro rang cling la ham sa cUa. d() tang tlng
suat, vi the co the tlnh lun do co Mt theo bieu thtlc.
s =A H = m AdH
c -v 0
[10. 2]
CJ day : - SO nen the tfch, tU'c la S'f!. thay doi the tlch
dcJn vj cho moi deln vi tang dng suat qua,
c6 dcJn vi la nghj.ch dao cua dng suat, la m
2
/kN
Thi oo ket mf)t chien (thl oedometer)
Cac trttng nen bin cua dat co quan v4i ca. d() ldn J=ln d()
tlii1img d11Qc xac djnh bang thi c6 Mt, dung m()t thiet
bj gQi Hi may nen oedometer (mgt trt.:tc khong n<l hong) (hinh 10 -
6). dat co cua m()t c8.i wa (thttbng c6 dttbng kfnh 75mm,
be day-15- 20 mm) dtigc cat tu m()t dat nguyen ra.
dttgc vao trong m()t vong kim gifta hai dla da
xop, dla tren c6 dttbng kinh nho heln va dla dttbi co dttlJng ldnh
ll1n h<1n chut It so vbi von.g kim
- B() lap rap nay duQc trong h()p nen va dt1QC gift vi
trl bang vong Tai trQng ddng dttqc len mau
qua m(}t thong tay don va Sl$ thay doi be day CUa d11QC do
bang cac gia tti trung binh clia dOng ho vi hay h()p chuyen.
DQC cac so do tiep t \}C cho den khi mau co ket hoim toan cho m()t
190
.-
Taitrf!ng
Jrurh 1 o - 6. H(}p nen
chu kY thtt<Jng Ia 24 hay 48 gi<J. Sau do gia cap tai trQng_tiep sau,
moi cap tai trQng gap doi cap tai trQng trttOC do, va dQC cac
so do dttQc So htQng va gia trj cua cac <;ip tai trQng se ph\1
thu()c vao dat va vi ctia dng suat dl! kien a truifng.
Ap h!c tac d1}ng cho· giai dau· thong thttang phai hang dng
sual thAng ddng cho {J dq sau lay miu, khong ke dat set yeu
va rat yeu phti dung gia trj thap h<fn : 25, 12 hay 6kN/m
2

chflkN/m
2
cho dat set hftu C<f rat yeu va than bun.
DttlJi tiri trQng cqoi cung, sau khi co ket hoan toan d11Qc
thl do tai theo m(Jt hay viti giai va dttQc cho truung
nd. Chu kY nd d<1n gian chi m()t giai co kha nang
cho mAu dttQc fin djnh tnilJc khi d() . am cuoi cung dltQc xac dj.nh ;
tru<1ng nd each khac _co the xay ra khi bo mAu ra khoi h()p nen
va vi din den sai so. Neu can phai co dttiJng cong trtt<1ng
nd, tien hanh d<J tai theo ilhieu giai va ghi S\{ thay doi
cua be day miu.
Cho moi cap tai trQng, c6 the d11QC so rong tttdng dng
vlJi cO ket hoan toan bang "each t:lnh ngti(fc tu d() am cuoi cung va
cac sO d(}c be day cuoi cung :
191
D(> am sau chu kY truong no la m
1
.
so r6ng sau chu kY trttdng no

= m
1
Gs.
(bai vi nat bao hoa sr = 1,0 ) .
Be day a cuoi giai Ia hr
Be day a dau giai Ia h
0

sO rong {J cuoi giai do;pi Ia e I.
St1 thay doi be D1Au Ia ah.
Ttl phttcm.g trinh [10 . 1) xac ajnh dtt(}C sO rong thay doi :
.
Ah
Ae = h(1 + e
1
)
1
s6 rong o hie bat e
0
= e
1
- Ae
D1tilng cong so r6ng - Ullg suat qua e/6'
So t4p hQp til thi c6 ket c6 kha nang bieu thi quan
bien ddi s6 rong v<Ji bien ddi U:ng suat qua. Cach co ban
chi ro quan nay Ia ve mgt dttang cong hay do th! Clia so
rong doi vm dng suat qua (hlnh 1 0- 7). Phttong phap tlnh tl'\tC
tiep n.Mt d() bin do co ket doi hoi dung dltifng cong so rong e
- dng suat 6' .
·Giasiim()t
I{Jp <tat set co
be day H
0
chju suat
thay
doi til d
0
UJi
a' i. Cac .gia
m tlt<1ng dng
....
e
0
va e
1
.. 1m
dtlCJC ttl dltbng
cong e - 6' va
roi tlnh d() hin
do co ket.
192
e

q, 6;
Hllfh 10- 7. cong he s6 r6ng- ilng suat hieti qua
sc theo phuong trlnh [10.2] :
sc- = L\H
eu- el
H
1 + e o
(I
[10.3]
duung cong e-(J' thu()c vao·}!ch su co ket cua dat.
Dieu do duqc minh hoa trong hlnh 10-8, tren do ta thay duqc anh
huong do tai
data diem A
va cho phep
xay ra truong
no, roi chat
tai gay
nen nen l:;ti.
Duong cong
nen phru
tro duung
cong goc t:;ti
diem A va
thoai hon hoi
vi m<)t phan
e
B u;k!l /;inn t.hutTnfl
/

cua d<) hin H'mh 10- 8. Nil va nen
nguyen thuy
Ia khong ngh!ch. Tit dieu do ro rang Ia, da:t set qua co ket se
co duung cong thoru hon dat co ket thong thuung. Hinh 10- 9 cho
biet m<)t duung cong e - a' cho qua trlnh tram tich va bao
qua trinh dien hinh t:;to ra dat · qua co ket. Trong thai gian qua
trinh tram tfch thong thuung, m()t duung cong nguyen thuy duqc
t:;to ra nhung sau do c6 s1,1 bao mon hay tan bang, m<)t phan ap
l1,1c b! mat di. Khi ling sua:t qua giam tit ap l1,1c truoc co ket
xuong ap l1,1c lop phu nay dat trd thanh qua cO ket.
Chi so nen Cc (xem them 6.2)
Tit cac so thi neu ve duung cong bien doi cua e
theo lg6' thi duung cong co _ket nguyen thuy tim duqc rat gan m<)t
duung (hinh 10- 10). Phan dau cua duung cong bieu thi cho
I :l CHDI1"2
193
---
sv. co ke't_.
trtt(Jc,
dau nay cang
ldn thl khoang
qua co ket
cang Ian. Neu
cho nova roi
nen thi
d11<Jng cong
nen phai
quay
dtt<Jng cong
nguyen thuy
nan thang
ct!ng m()t
diem. D9 doc
cua dtt<Jng
cong nguyen .
thuy nan
:
e
.... - ./ _, -
Tromficn A8/d"rfv
/
1-nng
/uc lnrm ncn YA Tq/Tq;ng ph_q -
o'olxrhr/(
/
co-L:e1 7ntfng -t-Avi-R$'
du}
thang dugc IfJ-9. Dlfc)ng cong e - if cho qua trinh c6 tiJ nhien
xem nhu · la
chi so nen Cc :
e - e
o I
[10.4]
bo c6 the dttgc so rong c4o m9t thay d6i ctia ung
sy qua -
[10.51_
Vbi m9t da:t da cho, khi tlnh hin cho vi ung suat qua
nam trong gi(Ji ctia dtt<Jng cong nguyen thuy nan thang c6 the
lay chi so nen la hang- sO ; c6 nghla I a no ho?-t d9ng nhu dat set
co ket thong th11<Jng.
Xuat phat ti'l phuong trinh [10.5] va
e
0
- e
1
- Cclg(6\ Itt o>, d() ltin-do· co ket sc tlnh _theo:
194
Ae
e
.. -= / congcil !ref
lrong 1/i:n SV ."guye/;so' nayomh Muing
e= eoc - Cc logtr

' cAo nd/nen /qi -
- - ---- -- ---I- - - - -- - - ----- . I . .,
1 e = c,shsd
I

, ....
,

A/ogd'
Kmh 10-10 Otldng conge- lg<T va chi s6 nen
[10.6]
Tu ket qua thf 'Thrzaghi va Peck {1967) da_ chung minh
mQt quan gan dung gifla chi so nen c c va gioi h=?n chay CU?- da:t
set c6 ket thong thti<Jng : -
Cc = Q,009 (LL- 10)
d day : LL - phan tram gi<1i h:p1 chay.
DQ doc trung binh cua dti<Jng cong nd - nen duqc coi hi chl
so no C (xem muc 6.2).
s .
xac dinh Ung suat co ket tr11ifc
Casagrande ( 1936) de ngh! mQt phtldng phap do thi theo kinh
d\[a tren dtilJng cong e - lgt.t de xac djnh ung suat co ke"t
trubc (hlnh 10-11). TntiJc het, diem P duQc cong nha1
195
t:
------H
kn6'
6_" iT
pc
Hinh 10-11. Phtldng pMp cUa Casagrande xac dinh ifng suat c6 trudc
gifla A va B, roi ve hai dttiJng thang qua'-P, ·in(>t dttiJng tiep tuyen
v<n dttong cong TPl' va dtti1ng kia la PQ song song vm tr\}c U:ng
sua:t. Diem giao nhau S giiia dttiJng phan giac PR (cua goc QPT)
hinh chieu phan .thang BC CUa duang cong cho gia tri gan dung
cua U'ng suat co ket trubc tt p·
Ap smit_ .co ket trnac co the dung de chi dan huu cho
d(> lun trong dat set qua co ket, vl rang gia tr! nen do co
kef- se khong Ian khi dng sua:t qua tang len ma vin nho
hon r : ·

so nen the tich
Nhu djnh nghla trong phuong trlnh [10.2], so nen the t:lch
bieu thi gia tr! bien doi the tich dcrn vj gay ra do d(> tang don vj
CUa dng suat qua. Vm m(>t dat, gia tq 11\. khong Ia hang
so rna thay doi vdi mdc cua U:ng suat qua. vi cac gia
trj cua 11\. dl1Qc theo ket qua th! nen.
196
-------
Tu phu<1ng trlnh [10.2] _:
s = L\H = m L\trH
c v
Rtit ra :
L\H
= L\trH
Nhttng til phu<1ng trinh [10.3] taco :
... 1:7 e - e
u.u. o I
H = 1 +e
0
Ae
1 + e
0
Thay the vao phtt<1ng trinh t lnh :
Ae 1
lily = Aff · l+e
0
[10.7]
a day:
Ae
Aa' - d() doc-cua duang cong e - a'.
Vl dv mAu 1 0.4. Thi nen cho mtjt mau dat set biio hOa
cfto ta so 49C duoi day. 1lii tr9ng duqc giil khong doi trong 24 gio
tru« khi tang cap tcii lrf!.ng M tiep.

_ (kN/m .. ) 0
------- ------
Beday(IIDD) 19.60
25 50 100 200 400 800
19.25 18.98 18.61 18,14 17.68 17,24
Luc ket thuc chu ki tcii trQng cuoi citng thl. do tcii_ va cho mau
no trong 24 giiJ, tq.i cuoi thiJi gian nay be day mau la 17,92mm viz
dQ am xac dllqc la 31,8%. Tr(!ng lllqng rieng cua hq,t dat
liz 2,66.
a) Ve duimg conge- a' va me dinh so nen the tich m,, cho
phq,m vi ung suat qua 220- 360 kN!m
2
_
b) Ve dui:lng conge- lga' viz tit do xac dinh chi' so nen Cc viz
ap suat c6 ket trlLOc (J' p·
c) Ve duimg cong m,.- a' cho dat.
197
·--
d) Dung cac s6 nhQ,n duqc trong a), b) va c) de tim viz so
sanh cac gia tri dtj bin do c6 ket cho lop sei co be day 4m, khi ung
suat qua trung binh thay doi tit 220 tOi 360 kN/m,
2
.
Baigitii
Tiuac het, xac djnh so rong ban dau .
.. Vl Sr = 1,0 nen e
1
= m
1
Gs
= 0,318 X 2,66 = 0,842
S\1 thay d6i so rong
db
L\e = h (1 + eJ
0
trong giai no
0,68
= 17 92 (1,842)
'
0,070
trong giai - 800 : L\e = (1, 772) = -o,045
,
Cac ket qua con va cac t1nh toan dufJc thanh bang
duai day.
Jl.e •
cT l:icr h /:ih /:ie lgu· e
-
11\,
.
M
(kN/m
2
) (kN/m
2
) (mm) (inm) x 10-
3
(m
2
/MN)
0 19,60 1.014
......
25 -=0,35 - 0,036 1,440 0,715
-
25 19,25 0.978 1.407
25 -0,27 - 0.028 1,120 0,566
50
,
18,98 0,950 1.70
-
. .
50 -0,37 -0,038 1,760 0,390
.... ..
100 18,61 0,912 2.00
-
100 -0,47 -0,048 0,480 0,251
200 18,14 0,864 2.30
200 -0,46 ! -0,047 0,235 0,126
400 17,68 0,817 2.60
.
400 -0,44 -0,045 0,113 0.062
800 17,24 0.772 2.90
0,68 - 0,070
0 17,92 0.842
J
198
, .
!
.
I
;
a) Duong cong e - 6' ve dugc co the thay o hinh 10-12.
Tu duCJng cong vai 6'
0
= 220 thl e = 0,858
7.00
. 0.95
0,90
0,85
0,80
vbi 6'
1
= 360 thl e = 0,825
e
I
lf = 0,925"
_____ ..1. __ _
I
~ · ~ .
'' I
,'b I
01
I
~ .
~ .
II I
,..._
'QI
o, ?s .___-'----.L..L..-...L---'-_L_-_._ _ _.__....J._ _ _.L.._--L.-_ a' {kN/m/
0 200 400 GOD 800
llmh lD-12. Dtt3ng tong e- a' cho vi dt.I m§u 10.4
Tlnh h ~ so nen the tlch ~ theo phuang trlnh [10.7] :
L,e 1
~ = t(f 1 + e
- 0
(0,858 - 0,825) x Io3 = 0,
127
m21MN m
2
/MN
(360 - 220)1,858
b) Dt.tong conge - lgti' ve_ dttgc lJ hinh 10- 13.
--
199
0.95
0 .90
0,85
0.80
T
.11 logo-'
------ t
I
I

zs so 100 200 400
cr' (kN/m
2
1
fflnh !9-13. OtJimg cong e-lga· cho m.&u 10.4
Chi so nen C c bang d() doc cua phan thang
c = 0,864 - 0,772 = 0 153
.. .• c lg800 - lg200 , .
Dung phu<1ng phap Casagrande xac djnh U:ng suat c6 ket tntoc
(} 43kN/m
2
.
p . ·. .
c) C{»t gia tr! dt1QC :
Ae 1
Jl\.=M.l+e
0
Dttang cong mv - (J' ve ra thay a h!nh 10- 14 v6i · gia tti 11\.
c} diem cuoi cua moi giai dng suat (c6 the theo each khac
tlnh gia tr! cua mv t11<1ng dng vl1i gia tr! e trung blnh cho moi
giai
200
O,J
0,1
,
1':.; g;oid""'!n cuo;
I
d,'
L_ __ L_ __ L_ __
0 200 41111 IiilO 600
o'(lcN/m2J
ll'lllh 16-14. DlfiJng cong mv - a" cho vi m§u 10.4
d) Tit so d a). ::
sc
-:0,127 x HP (360- 220) x 4 x l <P _= 71mm
Tit so if b) :
0,153
=
1858
Ig(360/220) x 4 x 10
3
= 70mm
'
Tit so a c) : Dung hlnh 10-14, visi dng suat giai
cuoi_ (J' 1 = 360 kN/m
2
thl so nen the tlch lily tttang dng bang :
1nv = 0,13 m
2
/MN.
Nen sc = 0,13 x 10-
3
(360- 220)4 x 10
3
= 73mm.
201

10.4. Toe df> co R:et
CO the chip Ia d() liin blc thcri do nen dan hoi C1ia dat xay
ra theo 52.!! :u.gay blc khi t-<>"":g dng suat. 'fuy trong qwi
trlnh el ket thl }ihii mat m()t th.m gian de ntiac tham khoi ·«fat va
ap l1,tc mtac lo &ong b! tieu ta!!. . Ben the:, t6c d() c6 ket ra
thu()c chu yeu v2.o tlnh tJWn cUa cfat. (} vi hcJn, DO cOD
thu()c vao bien ti't bien CU.a khung ket cau cac dat va
v3.o d(! nen CU.a cac thanh thanh dat nhll kh6ng khl, hai
nll(Jc, c!J.at .hb! ca va M11 chat ran. DI nhien, dat dllQC
lw j nhieu t:-cng hau het cac hai toan liin Ia dat set va bao
haa hoan toa:: cO nguoll g6c hOi tich hay cua s6ng.
Do de lcfi coi c6 Mt so ciip uh11 J.a. S1.1 thay doi the
tich do nllCic lo rong thim til dat bao haa ra va co ket thu cap la
do tit bien, truQt giua cac
Li -;.huyet e6 ket C1ia 'Thrzaghi
Vao nam 1925, Vien - que hllang ong, d1,ta tren m6 hlnh dit
c} hla& 10-4, Thrzaghi dlla ra m()t 11 thuyet de d.anh gia co ket so
clip. Li thuyet do sau nay dllQC h<Jp trong cuon Co hQC d6.t li
thuyet (1943) cua ong. Cac giA thiet sau day dllQC d11a ra :
a) Dat ba.o haa hoim toim va nhlit.
b) Ca nllCic va dit deu khOng ch!u nen.
c) ::ung d!nh Darcy cho dong tham.
d) Sl! thay d6i the tfch J.a. m()t chieu hllang cu.a dng suit
tac ·
e) s6 th.&m theo htti1)\g hang s6.
0 Sl! thay doi the tich t1mng dng S1.1 thay doi s6 rong va
ae 1 atJ" luon 18. hang s6.
MC)t lap d.at set (hln.h 1 G-15) ch!u :f() tang suat tOng d()t
Ia M
1
phAn b6 deu tren vilng ban v6 ru,.n. Vao luc chit tAi
(thai gian bang kh6ng), ap !ljc nllac lo rong c} trong lbp se tang
gi6ng nhau J.a. Au
0
(cl dAy Au
0
= M
1
) tre:v toan hQ be day H C1ia
lap dit. Dieu do dttc;Jc the bang bieu dO abed trong hinh 1G-15b.
202
,
Sau thui gian troi qua t, S1j thoat mtac vao cac l(Jp cat n3.m tren
va phla dl1cn se lam cho ap ll!c nl10c 16 rong dl1 giAm, trong
cat 18. phan abed khong danh bOng.
u, = 4Gf
I • • I
"

I Ca>1 .: : : :· _- ,_- _- __ ·. -. - : _·:_::_:_ -_-
1rw. 10-1s. Sl.f pban b6 iip 16 r6og dlf trong mOt q, chiu dO rang
itng Sldl dlrng gi6ng nbau
a) clt ; b) pban b6 ip 1\IC :6 r6og dlJ
Bay giu, xet m()t lop phan t6 c6 be day dz trong lop diit set,
thm diem t c6 ap ll,tc lo rong dl1 18. u. Bing c8ch dl1a vilo c8c ong
do ap gia thuyet (hlnh lo-15a), c6 the thay Ia qua pb.an t6 ap ll!c
nl10c lo rong giam di dh.
Hinh 10-16 cho thfy m()t phan lang 1111 cU.a l(Jp phan t6 c6 klch
th110c 18. dx, dy, dz. S1,t thoat nl1oc qua :miu Ia m()t chieu theo h11ang
z vcn gradien thuy l1,tc 18. -ah I az. Theo cijnh Darcy, <?ic dieu
clia dong tham se Ia.:
Dong th6m TU : qzo = vA = kiA (A - tich cU.a dong thfm)
= -k ah cbdy
(Jz
ah a
Dong th6m uiw : qz
1
= -k az dxdy + k az
ah
( az) d:llbdy
203
Do btu htc;mg C1ia dong thfm ra khoi pban t6:
ilh
-k-chdydz
az2
cl dAy: k- h(! s6 tiWn (hay dAn thuy
/Ji¥tlrfi,m=J {- (- '!Yz}o', dz
,J,
HW DOn& mOt ciU61 CJJa pban t6 cmr aanc lf\1
Th4r tich 16 r6ng trong phAn tO lA :
e
1
+ e dxdydz
Vl lttc;mg thay d6i thl tich 16 r6ng lA :
a e ae 1
at (t +edxdyd' = at"1 +edxdydz
BAy gib btu btqng dong thfm ra khoi phAn t6 phAi blng htc;sng
thay d6i the tich 16 r6ng, vl the :
alb. ae 1
kazl=at.l+e
Nh111lg
ae 1
ao-·1 +e'
- 204
Va i1e 1 ()(1' da gia thiet Ia hAng s6 va tJ luon khOng doi
Thay the
hay
= --- -
Neu ~ s6 c6 Ut dl1CJC djnh nghia Ia :
k
c = --
v IDJ' ..
thi
Do Ia phllang trlnh vi phan ca ban ctia c6 ket.
[10.8]
[10.9]
De n h ~ n dl1Qc len giii cho phttang trlnh [10.9]. cac h ~ s6 khong
thd nguyen sau day dttc;JC thay vao :
D9 co ket
e - e u
0
- u
U = _o __ = ---
z ef -eo
H ~ sa thai gian
z
H ~ s6 dttang thoat nttlJc Z = d
a day : eo - h ~ s6 rong ban dtu,
e - h ~ s6 rong sau then gian t,
er - h ~ sO rong cuoi.
u
0
- ap h,tc nttck lo rong dtt ban diu, U
0
= M
1
,
u - ap h,tc nttlJc 16 rong dtt sau then gian t ,
t - thbi gian,
d - chi& clti d1tbng t h ~ t n1tlJc.
d'u l!y ttU ell} sAu z khi :. va (Jl lu6n a bAng s6
Sau khi thay vao, phllang trlnh tro thanh :
aluz auz
az
2
aTv
Nhore cac dieu c6 ket pho bien nbiit dll(JC mieu ta trong
hlnh 10-15, khi co thoat nllck m()t chieu, S1J phan b6 ap h!c nllck
lo rong dll ban dau tren chieu day l8p Ia bang nhau ven U:ng suat
tOng J.a hAng sO theo thm gian. Trong tntang hgp thl nen
cU.ng dimg cac dieu nhll Cac dieu bien se Ia :
T = 0
v
ten CD
Z=O u=O
T = 0
v
ten CD
Z=2 u=O
Tv= 0
Z=O
t(Ji2
u = Aa-
1
Cho l<Ji giii sau day :
m=..,2 ..
U = 1 - L -sin(MZ)e:-
2
MI,.
z m= JI..
[10.10]
a day:
7C
M =
2
(2m+ 1)
m = 0, 1, 2, ...
Di nhien, do la d9 c6 ket Wong dug wi d9 sau rieng z. D9
c6 Mt trung binh trong l(Jp dllQc cho Mi :
m= .., 2
u = 1 -:L ..
m=O M
2
[10.11]
a day:
st - dQ hin do c6 ket thm t t'llang dng vOi gia
tri rieng ctia Tv ;
Sr - d9 hln cu6i cimg do c6 ket.
206
Anh ... dieu thoat D!10c va iing han ciau
Cac hie!! thj S1J phan oo ap hjc nliac lo rong (hlnh
10-15h) c!•..:Qr. gQi Hi duimg dtmg thCi va cia chung ph1;,1
thu(_)c W\o 51! pban be ban diu CUa sO gia dng suat tOng M
1
{va
do the ia st; phan 00 ctia ap lt!c nuac lo rong du) chieu day
liJ? vfr ciing phl;,l th".!Qc ca vao dieu thoat d bien tren va
duti ct1a lap. Khi l{Jp tnoat nuac tt! do a ca m?-t t.::en va dum lap
thl dUQC gt:>i Ia l6p 1r.0 va chieu dai ctia duang thoat mtlJc d bing
r.!!a be day lap :i.0-17). Neu thoat mtiJc tt! do chi xay ra a
m{>t bien duQC gQi Ia l6p nria dong va chieu dai cia duang thoat
nlliJc bang be day lap.
T/J!i";,
·_ -- - - --. -- . -.. _ - - --_ ---: : ::
tJvviig ""Ati.tl
If
f}u'dtgtlq, d
_,
-F

h)
: ·-t-ht;;;, : -->·: :-_: _::
a)
Kulla lfJ-17. Ldp m0 vi lOp raia d6ng
a) ldp mii : d = H/2 ; b) Jdp nla dong : d = H
M(>t bien khong tham co the xay ra a m{>t mong betong
du ml)t sO betOng c6 the tham-nlloc) hay lap set kha.c h*
da c6 tinh tham rat nho. Bien th&m :dy ra a dit khong dlnh,
cac da tMm dUQC {nhll cat ket), mong nam dum Ia v.t r.in
chAc, cac lap than bun.
Ml)t s6 kieu phan b6 U'ng suat ban cfau khac c6 the nay sinh
trong tht!c te theo ctia hoan clnh :d.y Cac kieu cho S1l
phiin b6 tlnh {h* gan dung Ia tuyen tlnh) don giAn dliQC
xem J.a cac kieu co ban. Hinh 1 o-18 cho thfy cac kieu co ban trong
lap ma lin lap nita dong. C6 the xay ra 51! phan b6 phd'c hon
nh11ng xu li bing each nhll Ia tinh trung gian giii'a cac kieu
co ban. Vi d1;,1, 51! phan b6 a ben trong ml)t kh6i dap mm chiu tai
207
'i.
I
208
trc;mg ph1,1 tren se gan hinh thang, c6 nghia a giua kieu phan
bo deu va phan b6 tang theo d(> sau.
Nham bao trum duQc hau het cac truong hQp thljc te, chi
can xem xet lai gim ctia ba truang hQp cho phuong trlnh [10.11],
do Ia:
Tntimg lu!p 0 : Dung cho tat cac phan b6 tuyen tinh trong l(Jp
ha va cho slj phan b6 deu trong lap ntia dong nhu th«y a hinh
to-ISa, b; c, d.
Uo= 1-; ( e-(.TH)T., + e-(lS.T!/-')T., + ··-} [10.12]
Tntimg lu!p 1 : Dung cho Slj phAn b6 dng suat giAm tuyen tinh
theo d(> sau trong l(Jp ntia dong, nhu thay a hinh 1o-18e.
Ul= 1- 32(e-(.z!/-I)T,- 217e-(9;iJ4)T,+ 1!5e-(li:t:!/-I)T,+ ... ) (10.13]

Tntimg lu!p 2 : Dung cho Slj phan b6 dng suat tang tuyen dnh
theo d9 sau trong l(Jp nita dong, nh11 tbay a hinh 1o-18f
U2 = 1- [ (][- 2) e -(;r!/4)T_. + 217 (ln-- 2) e -(9;r!/-I)T., +
1 !
+ 125 (57£ - 2) e -(25.T /4)T., + ··-J [10.14]
Ciing c6 the chdng minh ring
U = 2U - U
2 o I
[10.15]
Vi the khi biet ·jo va. u
1
• co the danh gia d11QC u
2
.
De tinb toin c6 khA nang don giAn. gia tri Tv
t11ong dng vm m(i·; khoing gi.8. tri ctia u da d11QC tinh d6i vm ba
truang hQp va. cbo trong bing 1 o-1.
T'nlimg lu!p hin.h tlumg
Co the duQC gia tri Tv cho truang h<JP hlnh thang tbeo
cac bieu tbdc sau :
[10.16]
14 CHD'T".l
209
[10:17]
_a day : cac tq Tv(o) ; Tv(!) va Tv(
2
) tt1<1ng ung vi1i trttang
hgp 0, 1 va 2 va gia trj cua 1
01
va 1
02
d11gc theo bang.
10-2.
10.5. Xac dinh Cv til thi nen (hQp nen
oedometer)
Ph11<1ng phap can hai cua thiri gian (phttCing phap
Th.ylor)
Trong ph11dng nay, cac dieu bien gia thiet la cac
dieu cac phu<1ng trlnh [10.10] va [10.11] Hi dung dan.
giAi gan ·dung sau . ·
day cho phttong·
I
trlnh [10.11] c6 sai
so nho hdn 1% vbi
gia trj U a gifta o
va 0,6.
U = ( 4:v)
[10.18]
Khi ve u theo
V Tv, co dttgc m()t
d6_ dU:ang thang
vffi:. d() d6c la V (4/x)
(hlnh 10'-19). Se
. .
thay Ia khi u > o, 6,
d11oog cong bat
<tau roi khoi do th!.
dtii1ng. thb.g.
210
.--------------v%
1,0
a,g,/{ffJ = 0,7916
H"mh 16-19. ·ouang cong Ii thuyft c6 kft S(j
BANG Jo-1. CAC GIA TRJ CUA H(! s6 TH()I GIAN Tv
D() c6 ket
trung binh
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
Khi T:v = 2,0
Trudng h<;Jp 0
. . .
. .
v3 t ~ t ci phan b6
tuyen tinh iJ I6p miJ
0,008
0,031
0,071
0,126
0,197
0,287
0,403
0,567
0,848
00
u = 0,994
He s6 thdi gian Tv
Trtldng h<;Jp I
.. . -. . .
. . . ... .
0,047 0,003
0,100 0,009
0,158
0,024 :
0,221 0,048
0,294
0 , 0 ~ 2
0,383 0,160
I
0,500 0,271
0,665 0,440
0,940 . 0,720
00 00
0,993 0,996
- ·· . -......
i .
211
B.A.NG JD-2. CAC HB SO TiM Tv TRONG TRVONG HQP HiNH TIIANG
_ Cac tnJdng h"p 0 - I Cac trudng h"p 0 - 2
-
. . . ..
.
.
.
.
-
. . .
.
a
AO"o lia,
-
t/
d
.
A ad Ac:rd
.
-- ........ .,,_, ......... , .........

l:!JO
1
ol
&J
I ..,
0 0
0-
find &Id
0 1,0 1,0 1,0
0,1 0,84 1,5 0.83
0,2 0,69 2,0 0,71
0,3 0.56 2,5 0,62
0,4 0,46

-
0,55
0,5 0.36 3.5 0,50
0,6 0,27 4 0.45
0,7 0,19 5 0,39
0,8 0.12 7 0,30
0,9 0.06 10 0,23
1,0 0 20 0,13
--
-- :, -
tim diem C, tren d11bng cong, t11ong tlng vffi U - 0,9 can
chlnh hlnh ve theo d11iJng thang.
hinh 10- 19, ta c6: AB = 0,9 (:) = 0,7976
AC = -.J 848 (xem bang 10- 1)
= 0,9209
0,9209
- 0 7976 = l,l
5
'
D11ang cong li thuyet Ia d11ang khong thd nguyen va d11ong nh11
phil hQp vl1i du:ong cong thi t:rong phong dtt<Jc ve theo so
212
-··
dQC cua be day mau
voi can hai cua
thoi gian (hlnh
10-20). Duong
thAng tot nhat d11Qc
ve qua phan CUa
d11ong cong bieu thj
u > 0,6 voi d() doc
d11Qc - chinh
bang each tang
hoanh d() len 1,15
Ian. Dttong thang
"da chinh" nay
xem nhu cat du(Jng
cong thl
diem bieu th! 90%
co ket so ·ca:p
(U = 0,9) se. cho
khoang chan . tren
thoi gian bang
hi<:Jng ung v{Ji
VT
90
tren d11ong
cong H thuyet.
Theo djnh nghia
Rut ra :
Ctic so nin
ii = o,g
A ------ c -·
\
'\ Dtldng cong
\ ..-t-Jl(c Aflhifm

tsuunv/
H'mlz 18-20. Pht1<:1ng phap din hai ciJa thdi gian
c t
Tv
v -
-
-
2
, VI the :
d
T90
cvt90
-
d2
T d
2
90
[10.19]
cv
t90
Duong cong thf gom co ba phan :
a) Nen ban dau: bien th! bai m(>t cong ngan, chu yen la
do khong khi co trong da1 hi nen hay cac d!nh hu{Jng
2 13
chut It trong giai nay, gia thiet Ia chi co khf (ma
khong co nuoc) thoat ra.
b) Nen giai doq,n mQt (nen so ciip) : bat dau ngay khi nufJc b! _
ep khoi dat va dugc bieu thj bang phan duong cong tu u = 0 toi
u xap xi bang 1,0 du phan nao da xay ra nen giai hai)
c) Nen giai doq,n hai (nen thit cap): bieu thi bang phan cong
cuoi cung cua duong cong, nen tiep tl_lc ra sau khi ap ltjc nul1c
16 rong da. bang khong va duQc hieu Ia do slj dinh h11<1ng m9t
each ch?m ch?p c'Ua cac diit do tlnh nhat cao ctl.a lap nul1c hap
phl).
o \(1-IJI)g;lln)
u = o iJiJna4v
-------------+--
- J
iJ = 0.9
Ollu_,; g/oi
tfP!fn mt[l
Hinb 1 o-21. Nen ban dalt, nen giai mQl v3 giai hai CUa
Diem bat dau thl,tc cho nen giai m()t co dugc bang
' keo lUi phan thang cua duong cong tai ti'1}C be day up thai
gian bang khong (hlnh 10-21). Diem nay bieu thi U = 0 va phu
214
-
.
i
l
j
nen giai m(>t cua dubng cong nay keo dai giua u - 0 va
u = 1,0.
Doi khi cac so sau day du<Jc dung,_ cho bie't gia tri t uang doi
cua d(> nen ban dau, giai m(>t va giai hai (h:inh 1 0- 24) :
Tren trt)c_ be day : OF - d() nen ban dau;
FD - d(> nen giai Dl(>t ; FD = _F NO, 9 ;
DG - d(> nen giai hai ;
OG - d(> nen t6ng.
so nen ban dau [10.20]
FD
r =
OG
p
[10.21]
. sa nen giai m(>t
so nen giai hai
DG
rs
-
OG
[10.22]
"
Vi mAu 10.5. Trong m()t giai doq,n chat tai cua thi
CO ket, SJ! thay doi b.e day mau ghi dztqc nhzt sau :
ThiJi gian (phut) 0,00 0,04 0,25 0,50 1,00 2,25 4,00 6,25 . 9,00
Thay d6i be day
(mm)
I o,oo
0, 121 0,233 0,302 0,390 0,551 0,706 0,859 0,970
ThiJi gian (phut) 12,25 16,00 25,00 36,00 64,00 100 360 1440
Thay d6i re day
mau (mm) 1,065 1,127 1,205 1.251 1,300 1,327 1,401 1,482
Luc ket thuc giai doq,n cu6i (1440 phut), be day mdu la 17,53
mm UnQ suat tang len tOi 100 kN!m
2
va d() am la 24, 7%.
Dung phztong phap can bij.c hai cua thiJi gian, kdy xac dtnh :-
a) M s6 co ket cv ;
b J M so nen ban .dau va giai doq,n m()t ;
c) s6 nen tJ1! tick mv vh h? s6 tham, gia thiet Gs - 2, 7Q
215
Biii gidi
Truoc het, chqn ti th.lch hqp tr\}c can hai thbi gian,
tr\IC thay doi be day m§.u va ve cac diem cua dtibng cong th}
(hlnh 1 0-22).
Con IJic Aoi g/Q/J ( I"J!hdf _ J
0 1 2 3 4- 5 6 7 1/

I
I

"'il
ll


I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
jj = 0.90(1.108} c
----------\
[j == J.O{t.2Z2} __
. \"'
'\
----- ----------- - --- \.
X 0.15¥
9
ffinlt JQ-22. Dtldng quan thay d6i bC day mAu - cAn hai thdi gian
cho vi dl}. 10.5
10
Bay gib, ve dttbng thang tot nhat qua cac diem a trong 60%
dau tien cung nhu the cua do thj. Dttbng_ thang nay cat
be day vj tri u = 0 (diem F), tlldng ung voi Sl! thay doi be day
mau Ia 8h
0
(L\h
0
= 0, 078 mm).
216
Tiep do, ve m(>t duong th:ing vai hoanh d(> 1,15 Ian hoanh d<)
cua duong th=ing thu nhat. Gia thiet duong thang ch:lnh nay
cat dtibng cong th! diem c c6 u = 0,90.
a) Tit do thi Vt90 = 3, 79 nen t90 = 14,36 phut
Tit bang 10-1 : T
90
= 0,848
1,482
Trong giai nay, be day trung b}nh CUa DlftU = 17,53 + .
2
= 18,27
chieu dai ctia duong thoat nuac d
18,27
2
9,14mm
VI the, tfnh so co ket cv theo phttdng trlnh [1 0.19] :
T90 d
2
0,848 X ·9,14
2
t90 14,36
b > Tit do th!· ah
90
= 4,93 mm
2
/ph.
1;108 mm
va
Nen co
Tong
Ah
0
= 0,078 mm
1,108 - 0,078
8 hJOO = O
90
+ 0,078 =
'
-.!\h = 1,482 mm
1,222mm
Bai so nen ban dau
r.
l
0,078 - 0,053
1,482
va so nen giai mt)t
1,222 - 0,078 - 0, 772
1,482
c) so rong cuoi cung
tie day ban dau
St;t thay so rong
e
1
· m
1
G
5
= 0,247 X 2,70 = 0,667
h
0
= 17,53 + 1,472 = 19,00 mm
.!\h ·
Ae = h (1 + e
1
)
0 .
1,482 X 1,667
-
19,00
0,130
217
so rfing ban dau e
0
= 0,667 + 0,130 = 0, 797
so nen the tich tinh theo pht.t<1ng trlnh [10. 7] :
0,130 X 1oJ
- 0, 723 m
2
/MN
100 X 1,797
so tham xac djnh theo pht.tang trlnh [10.8] :
k = Cv ll\, Yw = 4,93 X 10-
6
X 0, 723 X 10-
3
X 9,81
= 3,5 x 10-
8
m/phut.
Phttt1ng phap lg thiri gian (ph11ong phap clia Casagrande)
M<.>t pb11ang phap d11Qc l1;.1a chQn de tim cv' do Casagrande de
xuat, · dung d11ang cong thl Ia do thj ve be day
thea lg thai gian. Dliang cong· H thuyet gom co- ba phan : duang
cong ban dau xap xi la duong parabol, phan duong thang d giua
va cong CUOi lay tr\IC thai gian lam dt.tdng (h}nh
10-23).
Sau khi ve dO thi theo ket qua thf ciln. thiet djnh vj tri
die:nt"·F tt.t<lng dng v<1i u = 0. Vi phan dau CUa dui:Jng cong xap xi
la dui:Jng parabol, do th\{c bang chQri hai diem p va Q
tre.n dt.ti:Jng cong vbi cac gia trj t Ia so cua 1 : 4, co nghia 1 phut
va .4 phut, 2 phut va 8 phut, ... De djnh vj tri diem F, bat dau til
P lay len phla tren bang khoang each thang ddng giua P va Q. Do
OF_la dt) nen ban dau.
Phan cuoi ctia duang cong thl phai tim Ia gan thang
nhung khong nam ngang. Diem E bieu thj U = 1,0 dugc xac Cijnh
la giao diem cua phan thang cuoi ciing vC1i ctia phan thang d giua.
D() nen cua co ket Sd cap bang FD. Dung cac phu<fng trlnh [10.201
[10.21] va [10.22] t fnh d11QC cac SO nen.
218
-- ------'-------- - - - --- - ---------........
H
D iJ == 1.0 ___ --- --- ---
- ,
c
1
DP fun cuiifcvPg
a .
AIJ
H'mh 18-23. Phtrdog pbap lg th<Ji gian
Chieu diem H len duang cong (FH = HD = ! FD) tim d11qc
diem tuung ung voi U = 0,5. Bay gia, gia trj t
50
duqc trer
t111c thbi gian, con gia trj cv duQc t1nh nh11 sali :
Tsodz
c = ---
v tso
[10.23]
Tinh thiri · gian hm
so co ket thlJc st,;t khong the coi la hang so cho m()t da:t
da cho, vi rang gia trj. cua no ph\1 thu()c vao so .tham k va
so nen the tlch ca hai &0 nay deu thay doi : k vffi cac thay
'doi sO rong va,IIlv voi cac thay d6i ung suat qua. Tuy nhien,
bien doi ella. cv c6 the tuung doi nho suot ca. vi ung suat
219
- -
gioi nen hiy bang hang so co the Ia hgp H. Neu da xac d!nh
dugc cv, thi thai gian can d<_> co ket nao do se tinh tu ph uang
trlnh :
cho thai gian lun t - [10-24]
Vi d\1 mftu I 0.6. Dung phztong phap lg thai gian, lam, lq,i vi
dl!- m.au 10.5.
Biii gidi
Dau tien, chqn cac ti thfch hQp, cac t111c lg thai gian va
tt11C bien doi be day va ve do thj tbeo cac diem cua duang cong
thf (hlnh 10-:-24).
a) De djnh vi trl U = 0, chQn hai diem P va Q tren dttong cong
sao cho t
0
= 4tp. Vl dttang cong xap xi dttong parabon nen song
song vC1i tiVc be day : FP = PQ.
Tu do thi : tP = o,25 phut, L\hP = o,233,
t
0
= 1,00 phut, L\h
0
= 0,390.
Vl··the L\hF = L\h
0
= 0,233- (0,390 - 0,233) = 0,076 mm.
Bay gio ve hai dttang thang : m()t di qua m()t so diem cuoi citng
cua d1;1ong cong va dttang kia qua cac diE!m a phan giua. Diem E
diem cua hai duong nay, do u = 1,0.
Tit do thi : L\h
100
= 1,224 mm
Nen ti h
50
=
1
'
224
; O,O?S + 0,076 = 0,050mm
Bay gib dinh vi tri

tren do thj, lg t
50
tim dugc Ia 0,525
cho t
50
= 3,35 phut.
Tit bang 10-1 co T
50
= 0,197.
Giong vi d1;1 mftu 10.5, d = 9,14 mm.
220
-,.
...




'-

t
I
.. - - - - - - - - - - - - - .... - -- - - -
"') : I
I
I
I
'-"> L

I
!

......
I
I
!

i
I

...... !
I
I
'
:._ - - - - - -- - - - ---

== «.too/
•I•
••
II II
I
I

......
. i-
I


I
I
, I
I
..., .





I ,_,

i

h

"' I
I I !
u I
•:::::,
, I
I
I
I
...,
"""
I I
I
t

'-
'Ia

-
,.

-.........

' II


•· E::

r-·
___ .,..,I
_,. -- -..
....._....
221
'
so c6 ket cv d11gc tlnh. theri ph11dng trinh [10.23] :
2 -
Tso d 0,197 x 9,14
2
c = -
v - t
50
- 3,35
= 4,9-1 mm
2
/ph.
Tit dO. thi Ah
100
= 1,224 mm
va
T<Sng
Ah
0
= 0,076 mm
Ah - - 1,482 mm
Do do so nen ban dau r.
I
0,076
1,482
0,051
' - ... , , -- -- - Q,076 0 775
va so nen cua· co ket sd cap rP
1 482
- _..;_' _
,
c) Phibi l<Jfgilri nay giong phan c) cua vi d\1 mau 10.5
Vi du mlu 10.7. He so co ket c cho mot dat set tim duoc za
• . v . .
0,955 min
2
/ph. Di) bin cu6i citng do co Mt cho l6p dat set nfl,y c6
be day 5m tinh duqc la 280 mm. Gid thiet tren ua dum set za
l6p _tMm nuoc va co ap nunc lo rong du ban dau phan bo dOng
deu, hay tinh thiJi gian lun cho :
"a) 90% co ket so cap :1.
b) d{j lun dq,t 100 mm .
..
Bai gi4i
Vi do la m9t llJp mo, d11<Jng thmit nl1dc d
5,0 = 25m
2 ,
va do phan bo Au ban dau la dOng deu nen m = 1
J'il hang 10- 1, vlJi U = 0,90 thl T
90
= 0,848
Thm gian de 90% d9 IUD. :
222
T90d2
_0,_84_8_(_;_2_,5_x_l_W__;;)_2 - 5,55 x Hf ph.
0,955
= 10,55 nam
\ _
b) De d(> hin 100 mm thl U
100
- 280 = 0,357
bang 10-1 bang n(>i suy tuyen tinh co T
35
,
7
= 0,102
, • • A , 0,102(2,5x 10
3
)
2
6
·
ThOJ.gJaDde lun 100mm=

= 0,95S = 0,668 x 10 ph.
1,27 nam
Quan thoat n1tiic - thiri gian
Neu hai miu cua cung da:t set, cA hai chju d() tang dng suat
qua nhu nhau va d(> co ket giong nhau thl theo ll thuyet,
diem s6 Tjcv trong moi mau phai nhu nhau. Vi the, ton
quan sau day :
Tv tA .
- - - - - [10"25]
cv d2 d2
A B
{J day : t A - thbi gian lun mau dat l{Jp A ;
ta - thbi gian lun mau dat ldp B ;
tue1ng llng vlJi cung gia trj Tv
d A - dubng thoat nulJc dat llJp A ;
d
8
- dubng thoat nulJc mau dat lap B ;
Quan nay cho m(>t ph11<1ng phap dun gian de tinh thm gian
lun a trulJng tu cac ket qua thl trong phong ma khQ.ng_o·
can danh gia cv. .
Vi dl}. mAu I 0.8. LOp dat set tq,i m(jt cong tn.timg co be day
6m ; yeu diu ti nh thili gian de dq,t 50% dtj lun cu6i cung do c6
ket. Thi nen trong phong cho mtjt mau dat set co be day
19 mm, diem co ket 50% dq,t duqc sail 12 phut. Hay xac dtnh t/Wi
gian lun o tn.timg cho dtj co ket 50% khi lop set :
a) thoat nuac hoan toan o noc ua day lop;
b) chi thoat nuoc tit m(jt rtt{j,t.
223
-
.,:
..,..
'
I
J
Bai gidi
a) Phong thl
Cong t
-?
B - .,
:r-tL phtt<1ng_ trinh [1 0.25] ta -
19,0
- -- n1m
2
6000
dB· =
2
mm
12 X 6000Z
1,197 x 1o6 phut
-
lg2
= 2,28 nam
b) Phong thl
dA
-- 192,0 mm
t A = 12 ph tit,
Cong truang t
-?
B - ., dB= 6000 mm
12 X
----- x 2
2
= 9,12nam
1g2
Vi _dlJ mlu 10.9. Dqng cac so trong vl dt!- mau 10.8, hay
. dinh thiJi gian trong phong va _0 cong trUimg dq.t dUqc 90% di)
co ket.
BtU gitii
. Thili gian can de 50% d9 c6 ket da. biet, vi the dung bang
1o-1 dung U = 1(4TjH) vi U < 0,6 biet dttQc T
50
.
r•-? H -
T
50
= O,o-
4
= 0,196
Til bang 1o-1 co T
90
=
Luc nay ---
nhttng d la hang so
224
r
I
Do
va cho lop ma : a cong tntbng :
12,0 X 0,848
0,196 .
t
90
= 51,9 X 6000
2
/19
2
= 5,175 X 10
6
phut
= 9,85 nam
cho lap nila dong : a cong truong :
51,9 phut
t
90
= 5,175 X 10
6
X 4 = 20,7 X 10
6
phut
= 39,4 nam
1 0.6. Co ket thu cap
Neu H thuyet cua Terzaghi ;.la m()t mo hinh hoan hao cua
thai co kel thl sau khi ap h;tc nuiJc lfi rong dti da hoan toan
tieu, dat se khong nen them ntia. nghien cuu cac duong cong
dien hlnh e-lg thai gian chi ra ro rang Ia khong xay ra nhu
Phan cuoi cua dubng cong e-lg thbi gian tim dugc thuang doc va
gan nhu tuyen tlnh. Dola giai co ket thtl cfip, hay doi khi gQi
Ia nen thtl cap va thtibng Ia ket qua cua m()t so cua co che
tu bien lien quan voi cau true cua dat.
M()t so yeu to co anh huang den d() va toe d<? co ket thu cap
Ia : ti so ung suat chinh (6
1
/6
3
), toe dey tang tai, d<? xung
quanh, ijch sii ung be day lap. Ngoiti ra, co ket thu cap dlilJng
nhli }{jn hdn trong da:t hf:iu Cd ung SUat thap bdn ung SUat CO
ket trubc va khi chat tai d dieu K
0
vbi chat Uri dang
ht!ilng).
Trong tinh ki nang hi?n nay, chtla thiet dtlgc li thuyet
co SlJ tin dligc thua ve ttlgng tu bien nay. Vbi ffil}C
dfch thiet ke, dung djnh nghia sau day ve so co ket thu cap
dugc chap
ca- SlJ thay d6i be day ddn vi cho moi lg - chu kl ctia-thifi gian
sau khi U = 1,0 da bj vtlgt [10.26].
15CHDIT2
225
Ngoai ra, d{) Zan cua co ket thu cap Ia :
sc - thay doi be day gay ra do tac cua tru tr<_>ng sau
khi ap ltjc nttac 16 rong du tieu hoan toan va tai trQng truyen
toan_ b() til nttoc trong diit sang cau true cua da:t.
Vai IDl,_IC dich thljc ca c6 the do dttgc tu d() d6c cua dttong
cong e-lg thai gian nam giua t = 100 phut vat= 1000 phut hoi!-c
nam gift a t = 1000 phut va t = 10000 phut. Cac gia tti cua C a
sap xep co thu tl:I gan dung nhtt sau :
Dat set qua co ke"t : Ca 0,005 .
Dat set c6 ket thong thttong: Ca = 0,005 + 0,05
-
Dat hfiu co : Ca = 0,05 + 0,5 Voi dat tl:I nhien, ti so CjCc
thttong a trong vi 0,025 + 0,10 ; con da:t hfiu co phai dung
gia tr! cao han (Mesri va Godlewski, 1977).
Vi d9 mAu 10. 10. Dung so cho trong vi dl!- m.au 10.6 va
do tht d hinh 10-24, hay xac dtnh so co ket cap cho dat.
Bili gidi
Trong hlnh 10-24, s lj thay doi be day lien quan vai lg- chu kl
til t = 100 phut tai t = 1000 phut Ia 0,14 mm.
t = 100 phtit, be day Ia : 17,53 + (1,48.2 - 1,327) = 17,69 mm.
t = 1000 phut, be day la : 17,69 - 0,14 = 17,55 mm.
Ig - chu ld nay, b.e qay trung binh Ia 17,62 mm.
Vi the c = 0;14/17,62 = o,oo79.
a .
I
Cau hoi ve anh httong cua co ket thu cap tai do lttong dQ.
c6 ket so cap t:r:ong giai tiep theo tht1ong dugc di!-t ra. MC)t
s6 nghien cuu (Olson, 1986) cho thay lit, voi m()t gi.ai da cho
phai dung d() nen tong de tlnh sO rong va khong phai chinh
cho co ket thu cap. 'fuy nhien, cua dttang cong s - it c6 the
b! anh httdng, vl rang da quan sat thay c6 d() 1om xuong phan nao
226
trong cac giai tai tffip sau giai da co co ket thu cap
-dang ke.
1 o. 7.- Thi gia tai lien
Cach thU:c gia tai tU:ng cap, nhu da tien hanh tr:ong thl
nen tieu chuan, dttqc sti. dt:Ing rqng rai va cho mqt quy trinh don
gian ve trlnh t\1 thl nhttng chung co m<)t so bat lqi nghiem,
trQng. Cac bat lqi nay ho:).c duqc bo ho:).c giam toi da bang thl
gia tai lien t\lc :
a) Co the giam khoang thai gian de hoan thanh thf bang
giai . phong dtlCJC thiet bj va tang S\1 quay vong rong
b) N gubi lam thl co the chQn toe d<) thf vi_ the
dat co so tham cao hon co the thf nhanh hon chang
nhu khoang 2 gia cho dat kaolin- trong khi phai mat 48
cho dat set London.
c) Trinh t\1 gia tai co the tlj d<)ng va vi the d(> lao .
d(>ng giam di. ·
d) Cac so lien t\IC ve U:ng bien d?.ng, thbi gian dtCQC
thu se cung cap cac tai ro net va tin han.
c) Co the lam duqc nhieu thU:c gia tai va tieu chuan nhu
toe d<)' bien khong d6i, toe d<) tang ung suat la khong dc5i,
so ap ll:tc nude lo rong khong doi, ... '
0 Ghi chep t\1 d<)ng cac so va giam sat ld dang.
. . .
g) dang giam so nha::t la khi dung may tfnh
de in va ve do th!.
Mqt sO lo?.i phttong phap gia tai lien tt:IC da dugc de nghj va
trinh bay trong cac tai Thiet b! yeu cau chu yeu la m<)t buong
nen thuy ll:tc nhu h()p nen Rowe, h<)p cua Truong hQC Torig
hqp Oxford stia hqp nen (oedometer) de dung dttgc trong
m()t khung tai bang co hQc nhu h9p nen Bristol (hlnh 10-25). -
dieu hanh va giam sat dttgc trg giup bang tlnh la
trung cot yeu cua hau het cac thl Cac thl nay
cho dugc mqt dttbng cong lien tl!c e- cr hay e -lga' voi S\1 ph9ng
phu cac diem ve doth! va vi the co so tin cao, m<)t
227
so thl se re tien hdn so vai thf gia tiri tung cap.
S\f bat lgi chlnh cua chung lien quan tai cac thiet b! yeu cau thuang
Ia phuc dat tien va doi hoi cac ki vien dt1QC huan
tot de thao tac thl Cac thl gia tai lien t1,1c
chinh dugc trlnh bay duai day.
·raitrqng
/ trong
Ap 1{/c ngu_uc =Lit -


Ap ll(c ·?.ulh ..
d'ag = 1/IJ
Hin]a Jo-25. H()p nen thi gia tai lien tl,IC
a) h{)p md cho thi khung tai khong c6 ap hJC f\:.atl"C;
b) h()p dong cho thi khung tai vdi ap h..fc ngt1"c
TW too dq bien Ia hang so (CRS)
Th1 t6c d(> bien khong doi da xuat va phat
trien-vao cuoi nhf:ing nam 1950 (Hamilton va Crawford, 1959) voi
y cijnh co dugc nhieu diem do thi (e, a') hdn khi thl cac
dat cam. T6c di) chuyen vj. thang ddng dli<}C gift la hang so
bang each dung m(}t Cd cau truyen d(}ng vft Cd hQC vffi IDQt h(}p
nen nhu thay {J hlnh 10-25a. tJng suat tac d9ng, be day miu va
ap ll;tc nuac lo rong dugc giam sat lien tl,:lC vai thC1i gian. Toe d(>
chuyen" vj. phai du. thap de ra ap l\{c nuO'c lo rong nho hdn
: khoang 10% ung suat t6ng tac dl,:lDg.
228
Thi too d(} gia tai la hang so { CRL)
Dung m()t buong thuy (hlnh 10-25b) de ung suat tac d¥ng
tang voi toe d() khong doi, tuc la da, /dt . hang so. Cac phue1ng
trlnh [10.28] tai [10.31] vftn dung, tru giai nen ban dau. Dung
t6c de? gia tai la 6-300 kN/m
2
cho moi gib thl thl co the
hoan thanh trong 3 den 72 giC1. Toe de? tAi tot nhat ph&i dugc
xac djnh bang thli theo quan diem duang nhu
. -
la hgp ll va chap dttgc toe de) tai cho phep thf
hoan thanh trong 1, 2 3 ngay lam
Thl Ia s6 (CG)
Toe dC) iai duqc dieu chinh den roue ap ltjc nuoc lo rong ub
day khong tham cua duy tri mgt gia tri khong doi:-·.Ap ltjc
n11£1C lo rong ra bang ap hjc Dgti<}C va do the, neu DO gift
dltQC khong doi, th} gradien ap hjc nt1C1c lo rong ngang qua be day
mftu cling Ia hang so. V<Ji d<? co ket tren 0,8, cac phttcmg trlnh tfl
[10.28] tui [10.31] co hjc.
Thl hf$ soap l\fc nuoc.I6 r6ng la hang s6 (CPR)
Ti so ap ltjc nuac lo rong a day voi ung suat tang tac d-gng
(uJa) duy tria mC)t gia trj khong doi. quy trinh nay duqc Janbu
va cac tac gia khac (1981) cho Ia mC)t "thl gia tai lien t1,;1c", .
nhling trong quan cua cac quy trinh khac duong nhu: can
thiet CO Stj mo til rieng
Phan tich dc:1n gian hoa cho thl gia tai lien t"c
trung noi cua so thu Ia Stj phong phu cua cac
diem ve do th! trong St;l lien tl!C Ve ung suat - bien - thai
gian. phan tlch dl!a trend(> cua ca': dltong cong ung suat
-bien va bien chuyen vj) - thiri gian co nhieu
each thdc phan tlch chi tiet da dttQc de ngh!, m9t s6 trong do doi
hoi nhung chinh theo kinh nhli cua Wissa, ... (1971),
Head (1985), Janbu, ... , (1981)- va nhflng ngltC1i khac. Tuy nhien,
phan tfch da d<1n gian hoa nhu day Ia d1l dap ung duqc
cho da sO cac ID\lC d}ch thf
229
Voi m9t d9 h1n AH da cho, so r6ng cua duc;_:sc cho bui :
H - LlH
0
----- 1
Hs
e = [10.27]
-
a day : H
0
-:- d(> cao (be day) ban dau cua m&u thl ;
Hs - d() cao tttung tugng ctla pha ran da:t ( trong
. suot qua trinh th1 la hang sO.) ; .
Hs = MJAGJ>w'
trong do Ms - khoi htgng pha ran
GJ>w - dung trQng cua pha ran.
A ....:. tlch ma.u ;
Bay gia modun m()t chieu hay mooun nen {E'
0
M) Ia :
1 ()·" ()
-E' = - = _ _ v = _ _ v H [ 10.28]
o 111y o£ oH o
Vi the E'
0
(hay co the dugc tu duang cong dng suat
- chuyen vj.. ·
Trong h()p nen Rowe hay tu<Jng tt;L, day khong tham va chi xay
ra thoat nttoc len tren qua be day ma.u. Do dhg suat qua
trung binh a trong ma.u la : .
tJ = 6 - a ub [10.29]
a day : ub ap }l:fc ntloc lo rong day khong tham ;
a - so ap 11$c nttoc lo rang. "'
TrOng thl
oedometer tieu
gia trj. a hie
Mt.·dihtla 1,0, giam
xuong con. khoang
. 2/3: Khi dng suat
tang tuyen tinh vm
2
thai gian, a =
3
;
tl1<1ng t\{, neu duang
, quan dng -
bien Ia tuyen
230
H

I
I
t
z

limh 10-26. Dlldng ding thdi parabon
tlnh thi a === . Neu gia thiet Ia qua mau ap hjc n11ac lo rong
phan bo parabon th1 a chlnh xac bang (hinh 1 0-26).
S\1 bien thien parabon cua ap hjc n11ac lo rong u theo d<) sau se
a uz = az
2
+ bz + c, va co the dttgc danh gia nh11 sau :
ub .
u = · --(2Hz- z
2
)
z H z o
d
2
u
Vi phan [10.301 c6 dzl
0
[10.30]
I [10.31] -
The tlch dong tham ra dl.1QC bieu thj bang tfch d duang
cong trong hlnh 10-26 va do t6c d<) bien d6i the tfch cho bdi
t6c dq bien d<Si dq d6c cua d11i1ng dang thai
dE c)H 1 k d
2
u
at = 0 t · H
0
= Yw dtl
[10.32]
Vi the SO tham dl.1QC xac djnb theo bieu thuc
YwHo c5H
- dt
k [10.33]
co nghla la dung dq doc cua d11img cong chuyen vi- th<Ji gian, -
va tit do c6 the danh gia dtlQC SO CO ket :
k
c =--
v
[10.34a]
oo the d3nh gia tnjc tiep tit dtt(Jng rong dng su.at - thm gian :
c) ()v
c ----
v - 2ub dt
[10.34b]
Binh ve thl gia tai lien t\IC
11 u chlnh cua thl gia tai lien t\}c la kha nang ghi
khong it thi nhieu slj xac djnh lien t¥c cac thong so e, E, k, My
231
va cv nhu Ia c:ic ham so cua ung suat qua. Stj ba:t lQi co ban
(khong ke gia thiet bD Ia anh huang cua co ket thu cap bj che giau.
Van de nay co the khac ph\IC m{>t phan bang each gift ung suat
tac Ia co djnh trong m(>t khoang thai gian ngan m()t so
' khoang chien dQC theo duang cong bien - ung suat.
Toe d(> bien can duQc tuyen chQn can : nho bon 5%
moi gia cho dat set deo va khong Ion hdn 10% moi gia cho dat set
cung. Duong cong e-Jga' chju tac d(>ng cua toe dl) bien
va doi hoi s\1 chinh de tieu chuan hoa. chlnh bang kinh
sau dttQc dua ra a day { theo Lerouriel, 1985), co gia trj
thoa dang trong vi 10-
8
< d£/dt < 10-
4
.

= 2,0 + 0,14lg ( dt) [10.35]
d£ -
a day : dt - d(> tang bien cho moi giay ;
.
Khi ay m(>t so rong cho truac ghi dt1Qc dng sua1 thl
thtjc te se dugc ve t?i ung sua1
[10.36a]
neu dpc da dugc til m(>t duong cong chtia
chinh thi
[10.3Gb]
chlnh nay, cac trj suy ra cho hlnh nht1 tt1<1ng
qua.p t-Ot voi cac gia trj (J tntang. Gia tr! .cv do dl.i<JC dtlong
nhti khac nhieu gia trj dugc tu thl nen (oedometer)
tieu-chuan, trong m()t so truong hgp ghi dttgc thay cao hdn t8i 100
Ian, du chiing rat gan gia trj dtt<Jc tit phan tlch - ngugc
lJ truang. Hai van de chlnh duong nhu hi co ket thu .cap va
- dong thoi chua hoan thanh deu chju tac dl)ng hOi toed(> bien

De lam giam toi thie u cac anh huang nay va v:8i S\1 quan tam
t<1i dieu hanh phong thl tot, duifng nhu thai gian
232
gia tAi It nhat 24 gia Ia thlch hgp cho hau het da:t. Trong cac
hoan cAnh nhti the, cac ket qua thl gia tai lien c6 the
xem it nhat ciing co de) tin nhtt cac ket qua dugc tu cac
phuang phap gia tai truyen thong. , Gia tri cv cao han, dugan
gia trj truang han, trong nhieu tntong hgp hay con khong
phil hQp chac chan. Cac gia tri truang luon cao han la do cac
yeu to nhu : thoat nubc nam ngang, bien trtlQt cau true cua
dat, Slj phan 00 ung suat khong theo mo hlnh, ... Cac ket qua thl
trong phong khong the xem xet co l?p rna phiri so sanh
vbi cac quan trac h1n a ngoai tr<1i va dq ap llJc nubc rong.
10.8. _ Gia trj va dQ tin ctia thi co ket
Mt}t th:f do luang cac t:lnh chat muon xac dinh la thl
c6 gia trj va tin khi ta tien hanh do nhieu Ian
van cho cac gia tri d!nh lttQng giong nhau ve cac t!nh chilt nay.
Trong co ket, _quan U'ng suat- bien do duQc
thuilng duQC chap viii cac chinh nho a m(>t SO truang
h<Jp. Tuy nhien, xac d!nh quan bien - thai gian kh6ng
the xu ly vlJi muc d() tin cao dugc. Theo quan diem ly thuyet,
nguon g6c chlnh clia sai so trong thl tieu chuan lien quan
tlJi gia thiet Ia k va o£/&J Ia hang so. Tuy m()t so toed() lun
quan_trac duQc (Taylor, 1948, va David, Raymond, .1965) cho da:t
set co ket thong thubng tuang tl;l vlJi gia tri dl;l doan bang phuang
phap Terzaghi.
Hau het cac quan trac a tru<mg cho thay la t6c d() hin thlJc
(c..) thubng Ian h(Jn toe d() dlj doan bang bat ky thj nao do
trong phong, du ghi tq thl gia lien -nhu
gan cac gia tr! a tntang han so vdi cac gia trj _ghi chep dugc
cua thf nen. Cac Slj khac nhau nay c6 the m()t _phan Ia do
anh huang cua C;3.c bien doi ve ket cau dat va .cac bien· doi Slj
phan_ bo ung duQc gia d!nh. Dieu thoat nuac cij hulJng Ia
do c6 cac trung nhu : cac lop cat bun set dlli va
dat set sau don,g bang), phan phien va nut ne, slj chat
hfiu 00 hay cac lo rong nho (lo hong re cay). d ndi c6 ton dieu
nhu" the, can thl nhieu mau trong hQp nen thuy ltjc,
nhtt cac h()p nen duQc Rowe va Barden (1966) de xua:t.
233
Anh hl1ong co ket thu dip trong giai dau cung lam sai liJch -
so do cl)a cv, hoi vl gia" tri ty cua co ket thu cap rs tang len khi
be day mau giam· va dan den bieu trong thl trong
phong ro rang h<1n thf ngoru trbi. Gia tr! tj cua co ket
. , .
thu cap cling tang len khi ty so !1d/6 giam xuong·. Vi nguyen nhan
nay, so gia tang U:ng sua:t phirl luon luon bang gia trj U:ng suat
co, tU:c la ung suat tac moi Ian can dugc tang. gap doi de gift
116'/d khong d6i. Gia tti co ket thu cap trong dat set co ket thong
thl1iJng lem h<111 trong da1 set qua co ket, duty so ctia cO ket
thU: cap v{Ji cO ket Sd cap co the nho hdn. Co· ket thU: cap lem nhat
trong dat hf:iu cd.
C6 kha nang ra mQt so co xu huemg 4to sai so trong
khi lay ma.u: _ t:rong qua trinh thl nghiiJm.
Ma sat ooa vong
rr ng suat qua te tac tai dat bj giam di do rna
sat gitla vong-cO ket va ben mau. Khi danh gia muc d() gilun
nay, va vong cO bay khong dt1QC boi tr<1n m.{)t
each qua la quan ti'Qng. Cac con so chi de ngh! sau day
dl1gc dung khi gia tai cho dat set co ket thong thtliJng :
Ung suat tac d9ng trung bl.nh (j = aca
a day : ar - so rna sat vong ;
I
kim · -nh.an hoi tron ar = -:- 0, 95
[10-37]
kim :nh.an khong hoi trdn ar = 0,70 -:- 0,90
chat deo ooi trdn ar = 0,90 -:- 0,98
chat deo khong hOi trdn ar = 0,80 -:- 0,95
Anh hudng cua rna sat nay se llJn hdn trong khi d6 tai.
'iril khang ciia bien dong tham
Tam da xop o tren ya phia dttC;i mau phai Ia cac du min de
ngan caD S\1 bjt kfn hoi cac vi the can trlJ dong CUa
-nl.tbc lp rong bj tong ra. _S\{ bjt kin c6 the duQc phong ngila bang
each dung dia giay tham (Whatman so 54) 0 _gifta dat va moi tam
da xop.
234
r-
f
!
St1 xao de)ng mAu
De thl co ket dugc tot, quy dinh Ia mAu ph3.i nguyen
nhung trong thl:fc te do chi la each noi tuang doi. Sl,;C pha
mau Ia do sl,;( ket hgp cua m(>t cac yeu to voi muc d() khac
nhau.
Anh hudng cua dl!-ng Cl!- li£y mau
a) Giam llng suat do ung suat lbp phu hi lay di.
b) Bien cat trong da:t phla duoi ong hay pittong.
c) Thay d6i d() am trong khi lay mau : giam do ap ltjc k.hi d<?ng,
tang do hut am khi rut len.
d) Cat thang dung phla ben trong dat ke vai trong CUa ong.
e) xao tr()n dQC theo thanh mau.
0 Cac thay doi dung trQng : tang do ap ltjc dong, giam do na
hong d cac duang kfnh hd.
Anh hudng cua vlj,n chuyen viz. luu giil
a) BQC g6i khong qua lam d(> am thay doi.
, b) Pha oo hQc, rung hay va
c) Di chuyen d() am theo phuang ngang va phuang thang dung.
d) Stj oxy boa va chuyen djch ion tit ong thep.
e) Stj ket tinh cUa. nuoc cac dung djch khac trong nuac ng3.m.
Chuan mau
a) Dung tn;,>ng va d(> am thay doi do khi lay mau ra phai day
mau khoi ong mau.
b) Xao tr()n hay lam be thoat nuac tac d(>ng
den bien cua dong tham : be day mau bj tac d()ng thu<1ng danb. gia
Ia 2mm.
c) Co ng6t hay trttang n<l sC1m han dl,t djnh.
M(}t trong c3c 8.nh httdng chlnh cUa. S1! pha mAu Ia Jirm cong
dO th! e-lgo-' gbi dt1gc : vai m(>t gia trj d da cho, gia trj e gbi dtlQC
gilun xuong. Ngoai ra, vj trl cU.a dpc la khong ro rang (hinh 1 0- 7).
235
---
Klch thuoc cua mAu thl
co anh huang dui1ng
nhu nho toi dubng cong
e-lgff' nhung ro tai-ev.
Rowe ( 1971) tim thay la gia
trj cv do khi dung m&u
250mm X _ 90mm SO vai gia
tti cv do bang m&u qui ttoc
76mm x 20mm thay d6i tu
2 tdi 100. Kich thu(Jc nim cua
mftu dttQc dung
voi dieu ngoai tri1i tiep·
-r
....__ ________ .., /ty'tr'
tt_lC la van de chu yeu. Cac Kurh 10-27. Anh_huang CUa phil
quan trac lun iJ trt.ti1ng
va do ap nllOC lo rong phai dtCCJC sif dt_1ng cho ffit_lC dfch nay.
Thi gia tai nhanh
Nham tang toe d() phUdng phap gia tai qui tlCJC - m()t so no hjc
da dttgc tien hanh de h() stj tang them sO cap tai trQng
ke tiep truoc khi d() lun giai cuoi cung. Co the thay
rang, tang them so cap tai tYQng thi u = 90% se co sai so d
t
50
la 7%, va up U = 50% sai soIa 14%. Do the, co the tranh ciii
Ia tang them m()t cap tm trQng 4U hay sau U = 100% se chi gay
ra sai so toi tieu cho va m()t gia tti cv thap han nhttng khong
qua sai. Tuy nhien, suy nay chi ap dt_lng neu lmh httiJng cua
c6 ket thu cap co the oo qua.
- va Ramjah (1960) phat rang voi m{>t chu kY
tai ngay, gia trj do cua cv cao han khi dung chu ky gi() hay
chu Icy tuan Diem thljc quan trQng khac Ia vai stj tang tai
vao hie t
90
t
100
, can doi hoi S\1 giam sat lien ttJC va ky
vien tm phai tien hanh- cong viEJc bat chap th()i gian cua ngay.
Cac qui trinh nhu the chac chan Ia gay kho khan cho ke va
ctat tien khi hanh.
So sinh ph110ng pMp can hai then gian lg thiri gian
Ca hai phttong phap co gang de cung cap m()t mo hinh thlch
hgp v(Ji each thuc thf hanh. Khong c6 phuang phap
236
-------- -
- - ------
.I

nao cho dugc S1f. thlch hgp hoan chinh toan diE}n nhung moi phuung
phap co the chap khi m<)t so dieu kiE}n dugc trin ti'Qng va ca.
hai deu dun gian .khi ap Voi nhieu bai toan, phuung each
ben Ia dung ca hai, va chQn trong Stj IQC ltja ciic each
djch.
a) Phttung phap can hai thai gian thich h<Jp cho djnh vi U o'
vi no dang va It rna ho khi duang cong ly thuyet
.. U = ( Tv) , han Ia dung each thtl dan tren dttang cong lg thai
gian.
b) De djnh U IOO' khi khong xay ra co ket thd cap ca ·h;n
phttang phap co gia trj ngang nhau. Phttang phap can hai th£1i
gian co the dung neu co ket . thu ciip tac d<)ng den u90 bo
qua, noi each khac dung du£1ng cong lg thai gian Ia tot han.
Tuy nhien, duoog cong lg thm gian cling trlJ nen khong ro rang
khi phan ket thd cap Ion han phan khong tuyen tfnh gioi '
c) Gia ·tti cv do-hoan toan bang phu<fng phap lg thai gian luon ..
carr han gia trj cv do hoan toan bang phuang phap can hai th£1i
.
d) Dung phap can hai th£1i gian, may tfnh dang
ttj d<)ng hoa ve cong tron ci>n may in/may ve thl.:{c hiE}n ban
sao chac chan cho ca hai. -
Nhling dieu de thiet ke
h1<Jng cua s6 liE}u se dtl<Jc dung trong thiet ke ph\1 thu()c
m(>t phan vao giam thieu c:ic sai s6 ve m§.u va thl nghiE}m, va mqt
phan vao viE}c chQn phuung phap thf nghiE}m thlch h<Jp nhat. Voi
cong trlnh c6 d() lun dl.:f dean Ion nhu khoi dap tren dat yeu,
cac ket qua c6 d<) tin chap dugc Ia til thi nghiE}m nen
· oedometer thong thtt£1ng. Dung lay miu pittong c6
thanh mong de lay miu trong lop dat set yeu. Cac m&u dtlgc chuan
bj co dul1ng kinh nho han mciu a ngoiti trm nham tru vilng
pha phla ngoili.
Trong thl nghlE}m gia tai tilng cap, so gia tai trQng la /J..(J = (J 0
da d1.1(1C chap cho bau bet cac IDl)C d{ch. Vllf do th1jc va
237
de tranh biri toan co ket thai va co ket thU: dip, kien nghj chu
kY tai la 24 gia 48 gia. Trong phan tlch cac ket qua,
phuang phap can hai thai gian thlch h<Jp -han de thie't
_U
0
, U
90
va U
100
va til do· t
50
, t
100
, ... Phuong phap lg thai gian _
dugc dung de xac <ijnh co kel thU: cap (c).
Cuoi cung,. phai ghi nhd rang, trong loi noi cua Karl Terzaghi,
cac ket qua thf da:t
11
• •• dan lap kin cac lo hong trong
kien thU:c, va neu can thiet (nguoi thiet ke bu<)c ph:li) thay doi tiet
ke trong thai gian xay dl,;lng". "LO hong" dugc lap ldn bai cac ket
qua th:l thuang nho so vai toim b(} kien thU:c noi chung de
thiet ke. Cung nhd rang, dat rat khac nhau va vi cac tlnh
chat tl,.i nhien bien doi trong khoa.u.g kha r(}ng, chAng dat set
Gault : e = 0, 75, o' = 7000 kN/m
2
(Samuels, 1975) ; dat set Mexico
p
City : e = 14,0, dp = 90kN/m
2
(Mersi, .. . , 1975).
10.9. oanh gia dQ lun tong bang phuong phap
Skempton - Bjerrum
Trong khi danh gia d(} h1n do c6 ket, m{>t nguon sai so co hliu
xuat phat til thl,.ic te Ia, cac dieu trong thl nen tren-
oedometer Ia dieu m()t chieu, trong hie do dieu thl,;lc C:J
truang khong phAi nhu Trang dieu m(}t hliang, bien
hong bang k.hong va so ap ll,;lc nuoc lo rong A bang dan
vi, tU:c Ia so gia ap ltjc nuoc lo rong ban dau bang so gia U:ng suat
tong.
Trong dieu a trliC,ng, so A chi gan dan vj khi
vi vilng tai Ibn so voi be day lop. Trang cac lop kha day, bien
hong se co anh huang nhat djnh va so gia ap lt!c nuoc lo rong
ban dau se tuong ung vai gia tri A khong phcli Ia dan vj.
Trang cac truang hgp nay (bien hong khac khong) di) hln
tong s se gom hai thanh phan :
a) Di} bin tuc thai s i trong dieu khong thoat nuac c6 the
danh gia bang each dung phuang trinh [6.67] [6.68], su dl).ng
modun khong Eu va v = 0,5 (xem IDl).C 10.2 va 6.15)
238
;
b) D{) bin do c6 Mt sc nho co thmit nuac khi ap h:tc nuac Ia rang
du h! tieu.
Do hin tong s = s. + s
• I C
Skempton va Bjerrum (1957) de ngh! Ia co the bO qua anh huang
cua no hong (do bien hong) va nen (do tang ung sua:t
qua hong hie ap l1Jc nttac lo rong tieu). du thua
rang, dieu do-co the gay sai so tai 20% va da quan trac dugc sai
so 15%, stj ddn ghin hoa vAn duQc kien ngh! dung hoi v1 no cho
phep s-d dl).ng c:ic ket qua cua th:l nen oedometer. Lambe
(1967) dade nghj m()t phtidng phap chlnh xac, bao gam 'thanh
do thj chuan xac dui1ng ung suat cho qua trinh co ket va tH!p
do tien hanh thl ba t111c trong phong theo do thj khi
do bien D<; hin duQc tlnh theo cac bien do dtigc.
du phuong phap sau nay co the thay Ia tin ve nguyen tac, no
doi hoi tj my va trlnh ttj keo dai hoi the k.hong thlch hgp cho cong
bi.nh thui1ng.
Tuy nhien, de ngh! Ia gia trj lun cua may -nen (oedometer) soed.
CO the bien doi nham cho phep ke den SlJ bien doi ap llJC nliOC lo
rang do bien hong.
Trong dieu m(}t chieu (bien hong bang khong) :
soed. = d6
1
h = _·IIlyAuh
tlch phan soed. - - f:

= J: -ny\udh
lJ day : h - be day cua lap. -
Bay gio, tu phuong trinh [4.10] (o day B = 1 cho diit bao hoa)
Au = .d6
3
+ A(A6
1
- Ao
3
)
- ll.63
= A.6 [A + - (1 - A)}
1 Ao
1
Nhu khi A -:#; 1, 0 se co :
H A63
sc = f

[A + ll.o
1
(1 - A)] dh
0
239
Dua vao he so lun 11-
_ r-c
ti0.38]
fl.(j3
f:

[A + (1 -A)] dh
trong do
0.8
0.7-1
0.67
0-6


•o
"'


D-2
0.1-9-
/
/
/
JH lllyAt5ldh
0
---Mo!Jg hi;,hfron
, ,.
----IIIIODg do;
H
= A -t- (1-A)ol
0.2 a4- O-li a8 1.0
____ _L ______
• ltd.i qua _, _, _ - - f)iif-5t9
0
240
, , C6 Hullflfl.n v,;.,' •
kel cti'keT A '' •• ., , __ 7 , .... ,,_,
0.5
- . / , - -
H f! so op nu'tk; lo ro"9 A
lrmh Jo-28. s6llin,Uc
(theo Skempton va Bjerrum, 1957)
J_O
1.2
De thljc hanh dugc lgi, gia thiet la trong m()t lap hay lap
ph\1, gia tri cua Illy va A Ia hang so, vi the so f.lc co the dugc
the nhu sau :
if day
Pe = A + (1 - A)a
JH Aa
3
dh
0
a
[10.39]
Dung ly thuyet dan hoi lay gia tti so Poisson v khi khong
thoat nuac la 0,5, co the dugc gia tti a ; vi cac gia-trj
Pc t11ang _ung vlri ty so be day/be r()ng cua lap dugc cho trong hlnh
10-28.
1 0.1 o. Hi(!u chinh cho Sl! gia tai dan dan
Trong slj phat trien cua ly thuyet co ket, trong cac trang truac
gia thiet Ia tai trQng dtlgc tuc thai. Tuy nhien, trong thl;lc te
hau het cac bai toan co ket lien vai qua trinh xay dl;lng keo dai
tren vai thang tai vhl nam. Trong giai thi cong ho mong; _
tai trqng tac d\lng giam dang ke, trong tn.tang hgp nay qua
trlnh co ket se chua bat dau cho tai khi dugc thay the bang tAi
trQng mai. Duong cong do thj d() lun - thoi gian dlja tren cd sif
tai trqng tuc thbi se danh gia cao d() hin m()t k.hoang thC1i gian
da cho neu trong thljc te tai trQng tac dl,lng dan dan. Terzaghi de
nghj m()t pht1dng phap chinh dt1ong cong tuc thai. ffinh 10-29
cho thay m(}t do thj bieu quan ung ·sua1 tong trung blnh
- th<1i gian trong ':hoi kY thi cong. Trong hie thi cong muc ung
suat giam va roi ti ng len, vi the sau m(jt th(Ji gian muc ung sua1
khong. '4-diem nay, co ket (va do dolun) bat dau. lJng
SUat tong tiep tl;lC ting cho tf1i CUOi thai gian thi cong, trong khoang
thai gian them nua Ia t
1
; sau do ung suat t6ng la hang so vai gia
trj (Jl"
Duong cong do thj d() hin tuc thai - thi1i gian dt1gc diem
0, ndi co ket thl;'{c Sl;t bat dau. De co dt1<}C chinh, gia thiet la
d() hin do c6 ket if thoj diem t
1
bang d() lun cho bl1i dttong cong
16CHD!f<2 '241
tlJ"_1fl s uor _
tong To/]g fJo/g.ia/7 rhidlng
, ,

r6R§
TAo/u.ian r./1./co/;#
9'vb
+ Dom'n
Kmh JD-29. Hic;tl chinh_ cho slj gia tai d3n dan trong thili gian thi c6ng
>" 0
. . 1 . -
tdc thai i1 th(li diem
2
t
1
va diem Q tim bang each chieu song song
yoi tl1.:1C th(li gian toi khi tung dQ tl. TU cac diem p va Q
ve phla trttoc, hoanh dt} cua du(lng cong chlnh se lC1n
1
h<1n
2
t
1
so vai du(lng cong tuc th(li. De c6 duQc du(lng cong
chinh ngay trong hie thl rong, diem R djnh vj tren dtt(lng cong tuc
- 1 . 7
thi:li th()i diem 2 tva diems tim bang each chieu nam ngang
len t11.:1c diem t. R.Oi diem T (tren dttang cong
cblnh) dt1gc tim bang giao diem cua OD vai tn}c tung thai diem
t. Qua trlnh nay cho tai khi c:ic diem thlch dang da dttQc
xac cho xay d1;1ng duong cong chinh.
·-
242
1 0.11 . Nen cua dat
Trong phan IC1n truang hgp, vit?c thiet ke mong tren da:t
hi khong clie _Mi tieu chuan hoa (co nghia khong phai la d9
ben chong cat). :Boi vi cat va cuqi co tlnh tham cao, hau het d9
liin ra trong qua trinh thi cong va se hmln thanh phan IC1n
- , -
vao cuoi th<Ji kl xay Anh huang cua tu bien duifng nhu
dugc bo qua, trit trong trubng hgp mong kha _r(>ng dat
khac nhau, a ndi phan bo h\li- cat hon hgp. Cac bai toan lun
sau thi cong khac co the quan ti1i S\1 rung do dam
nude ngam tai trQng tac bien doi nhanh, anh hudng cua
d(>ng da1.
B<li vi dat thubng kern dong nhat h<Jn dat set· nen tj
so d(> liin chenh lt?ch vi1i d(> liin tong thuang IC1n h<Jn : lis/s = 0,5
+ 1,0. Ngoiri ra, hau nhu khong co kha nang lay dugc m&u dat
nguyen va mAu dugc dam thuang khong
giong dieu va tlnh chat a ngoai trai vi1i d() tin nao
do. Cac phu<Jng phap chlilh de xac trung nen cua dat
do ph:li Ia cac th1 <} tntang.
a) Thl nghit?m ban nen.
b) Thl xuyen tieu chuan.
c) Th1 nghit?m xuyen con.
d) Tlii nghit?m hong.
Do cac phudng. phap thiet mong tren dat trung
chu yeu vao djch ket qua cua cac tru nen S\1
mo ta cac phli<Jng phap phan tlch dttgc gi:li quyet trong chudng
11 ; con vit?c giai thlch phan nao ve phap ky tntang
dugc de trong chudng 12.
1. M{)t m6ng hinh chii 6 X 4m te;ti de:} sau 1,2m trong mQt ldp set day bao hoa
truyen ap h}c me phan b6 deu Ia l 80kN/m
2
. Ncil modun khong thoat mtdc Eu ctia
243
dftt set Ia 42 MN/m
2
, hay dinh d(> hin tiic thdi tr..mg binh co VQng ra c)
dlldi mong. Tn;mg lll<;'ng ddn vi cua dftt set 13 19kN/m
2
. -
2. Til thi nen ba ll1JC khong thoat ntldc cho m(>t m.§.u dat set c6 dt1<;c cic s6
li¢.1 sau day :-
Biln d:lng II1)C (%) . I" 0
1 2 3 4 56 7 8
D<> iing ruat (kN/m2) o
61 108 143 161 170 175 176 172
D3nh gia Eu roi xac d jnh de;.> hin tiic thdi ch3.c se diEn ra (} dttdi m6ng hinh vuong
m6i chieu 3m truyen tai tiQng phan b6 deu Ia 2,2 MN sau 1,4m <1 trong I6p set
day 9m. Gia dtldi ldp set Ia ldp dat cifng. TIQng lll<!ng ddn vi ctia dat set Ia 18,5
kN/m
3
va ., = 0,5. Hay xac djnh de;.> hm tiic thdi t?i :
a) cic goc ctia m6ng ;
b) tam -ctia mong.
3. Ttl thi ngoai trisi da pbat ding, m6dun khong thoat ntldc cua m(>t
ldp dat set bien d6i theo de;.> sau theo phtldng trinh gan dling sau : Eu = 15 + 2,2z (z -
d<) sau dtldi d§t). Trqng ltt<;ng ddn vi c'Ua dat set Ia 20kN/m
2
va v = 0,5. Mc;.>t m6ng
mam dai 8m X r(}ng 3m s3u 3m trong dat set nay va truyen ap h,Ic xUC phan 00
deu Ia 280kN/m
2
• 04) sau toan b() clia ldp set Ia 12In, dtldi Ia ldp da cling. Bilng each
chia Jdp set tbanh b6n ldp phi} nhau, bay danb gia de? lun ti!c thai trung binh c6
ra. •
- -
4. Trong thi c6 b3ng may nen oedometer be day mfu1 dat set giam ttl
19,36mm :xuong 19,08mm sau khi ling Sliat tac dt,mg ttl-200 len 400 kN/m
2
va duy
tri trong 24 giil. Roi ling suat dttc;Jc n3 oo va cho nd trong 24 gid ; vao ruoi thdi
gian nay, dQ Am xac djnh dtlc;Jc Ia 28,9%. Gia Gs = 2,7, hay tinh :
a) SO r6ng vao h1c dau Va cuoi CUa giai dO?D t!ng suat nay ;
b) hi; s6 nen tich cho piD_un vi iing suat nay.
S. Trong thi nghit;m c6 ket cho m(>t dat set, m6i cap ap h,Ic d11c;Jc duy tri trong
24 gid. Vao ilic thuc giai ( dd tru) ru6i cimg, d(> fun ctia mftu xac djnh dl!<;c
Ia 28,6%. Tr9ng h1c;Jng rieng cua dat Ia 2, 70, sl,l thay d6i be day mau dtl"c ghi
nhtl sau
244
· :-:( ..,-•···

24gid(mm) ..
0
19,80
50 100
19,39 19,24
200" 400 800 0
18,97 18,68 18,45 19,02
a) Tinh s6 r6ng tttdng iing (J w6i m6i clp t3i trvng vii ve d6 thi dttdng cong
s6 rOng - Ig iing hic)..t qua.
b) X3c djnh dq hin WOi cimg dt!qc dl,l k:ibt do c6 ket CUa ldp set day 4m khi
..
- til 136kN/m
2
!di 320kN/m
2
;
- til 85kN/m
2
tdi 240kN/m
2

6. Tren mqt oong trtldng cii tc;to ri}ng ldn, ml,lc nlfdc ngam da"t, c6 mqt

bQ rong ·trudng. Cac s6 sau day da xac dinh dttqc :
TrQng ht<Jng .. ddn vj: Ia 21kN/m
3
.. · cat Ia 20kN/m
3
r.' da"t set Ia 18k.N/m
3
..
sO nen tich CUa da"t set Ia 0,22m
2
/MN.
a) Tinh flng su3"t hic)..t qua dftng tc;ti tam CUa ldp set trudc va sau khi da"t.
b) Tir.h dq lun w6i ciJng dttqc dl,f do c6 ctia ldp set.
7. Mong CUa rnqt c6ng trinh ldn tc;ti de) sau 2,5m trong mQt ldp cat Til
da"t. ldp cat day 5.5m roi tdi ldp set day 6m, dt!di nila Ia ldp phim set ran M\fc
m.tdc ngam sau 3,6m. Da tinh dttqc ding t3i trvng m6ng se lam ftng sua"t hic)..t
qua diing Ia I40kN/m
2
n6c ctia I<1p set va 75k.N/m
2
day t<lp set. Ket qua thi
nghit;m nen va cac thi kMc cho (1 dt!di day.· Hay tinh dq lun w6i cimg dl,f kien
do c6 ket cua ldp set.
Ung
I
h;c;u qua (kN/m
2
)
·I
25 50 100 200 400 800
i
H¢ s6 r6ng
I
0,892 0,884 0,866 0,834 0,800 0,766
!
245
TiQng lt1<..Jng dc:Jn vj : cit Ia 2L2kN/m
3
(bao hoa)
va 19,6kN/m
3
(thoat m1dc) ;
set Ia 19,5kN/m
3
8. Mc)t m6ng xay dl,lng tren lllQt ldp set c6 thong thlfisng ro day 3m. dl,( kien
ra dc) tang iing qua ttl gia ban dau Ia 160kN/m! tdi gia tri ruoi ding Ia
340kN/m
2
• Neu biet gidi chay cua set Ia 52% va he; s6 r6ng cua IDQt IDAu dat
set tim dlf<_Jc Ia 0,712 khi chju iing suat hit;u qua Ia 200kN/mz. hay xac d!nh de} hin dtJ
kien cuoi cimg do c6 ket ctia dat set.
9. M(>t lbp d.it set day 4,4m chju de} iing suat qua phan b6 deu Ia 180kN/m
2
.
a) Cho he; s6 nen tich mv Ia 0,25m
2
/MN, hay tinh de} lun ruoi cimg dl) kien do
co ket gay ra.
b) Cho he; s6-tham k cila dat Ia va s6 thisi gian T cho c6 ket toan
Iii 2.0 ; tinh thisi gian can df dQ llin cuoi cimg (gia thii!t thoat nlfdc hai phia).
10. M(>t lclp se! day 5.Bm. nam dtlcli Ia m<)t lbp da phien set khong tMm m1dc. con
,
nam tren 12 ldp cit tham trung binh.
Tai trQng nhlf se lam dong deu iing suat hic;u qua trong toan be} be day
cua ldp set tren m(>t vimg r(>ng ldn. Trong thi nen trong phong, m<?t rnau dat
set c6 be day 20m chiu cimg mire iing sual qua. thay rang s6 r6ng _thay d6i
ttl 0,827 xuong 0,806. Cling quan trac dll<;Sc rang, 65% c6 ket da xay ra sau thi1i gian
30 phut.
Tinh d9 llin cuoi cimg dl,l do c6 ket.
b) Tinh thi1i gian can df :
- mia de} lun cu6i ciing.
- · 3/4 de) hin Cla6i cling.
(Gia tri Tv tham khao bang Io-1).
11. Quan trnc mQt oong trinh they rang qua hai dau sau khi dlf<;Sc xay dl,lng da
xay ra de} lun trung binh la 65mm. Thi nghic;m trong phong vdi m§u set mm dUdi
oong trinh cho de} lun ru6i cung do c6 Ia 285mm. Gia 65mm trong s6 d6
Ia do c6 trong dieu kic;n thoat nu<k hai phia, hay tinh :
a) Thisi gian can 50% de} lun ruoi cung.
b) DC) h!n dtJ do c6 sau thisi gian 15 IWn ttl hie xay dl,lng).
246
-
12. Trong m<)t thi _nghic;m nen trorig khi ling suat tac tMJg ttl100kN/m
2
tiJi 200kN/m
2
da ghi dtJ<;Sc cac ket qua sau day :
Thisi gian troi
qua (phut) 0 0,04 0,25 0,5 -1,0 2,25
Be day
mau (mm) 18,98 18.91 18.81 18.75 18,67 18,52
-.
Thdi gian troi
1
\.
---
-
\,
qua (phut) 4,0 6,25 9,0 12,25 16 25 36 64
[00
day
(mm) 18,40 18,27 18.05 17,98 17,90 17,85 !7,79· 17,76
Sau 24 gid. be day Ia 17,58mm. Dung pht1dng phap colin hai thdi gian,
xac dinh :
a) he; sO cO ket ;
b) he; sO nen ban dau va ht; sO nen sd cap cho ph;.tm vi ling suat nay.
13. Bang cac tai trong bai 12, dung phtJdng phap lg thdi gian de xac djnh hi;.
sO cO ket va sO nen ban dau va ht; sO nen sd cap.
14. M<)t m6ng be hinh vuong qmh f'Qng 15m t;.ti d<) sau 2m trong m<)t liJp dat
set qua c6 ket co re dily 8m tinh ttl dat. Da xac dinh la d<) tAng trung binh cUa. ilng
- ., -
suat qua trong dat set Ia Cac thi nghit;m trong phong ttJdng ilng viJi
ph;.tm vi l!ng suat nay da cho biet :
. . .,
Ht; s6 nen the tich 11\, =
Ht; s6 ap h}c ntJiJc 16 r6ng A = 0,50.
'
D3nh gia d<) lun woi cung do c6 ket dtJ<;Sc dtJ<;Sc chinh b3ng pht1dng phap
Skenipton '- Bjerrum.
247
Chuang 11
, , .. .,.,.,. ,
SUC TAl CUA NEN MONG
11.1. Giai
Nen mong Ia ca so chong do cua cong trlnh, no ra giao
qua do tai trQng dugc truyen tCJi lf1p dat hay da nam ben dum.
Trong hau het cac truang hQp, mong ella. rong trlnh xay dljng dan
dl:lng va nha d dugc xay dtjng don gian bang betong rot thep.
M(}t so dang chu y la eac cong trl.nh bang dat hay da nhu
duang giao thong, k.hoi dap va ngoai ra, m(}t so m6ng cQc co
the bang thep hay go.
VI cuon sach nay chi quan tam den e<1 hQC dat ca so han la ld
nen mong theo j nghla chuyen nganh nen cac van de trong
cht1<1ng nay chu yeu lien quan VOi k.hfa cci hQC <fat ella. mong
va m6ng cQc don gian. cac phan tfch sau he1n, cac chi tiet
xay dljng va chuyen mon hap ham cac van de nhu m6ng sau, gieng
chlm, ... nguai dQC 'phai tham khao cac sach thlch hQp _nhu eua
Barker (1981), 'lbmlinson (1986).
Chat lugng chung va tlnh nang cao ctia m6ng ph1:1 thu(}c nhieu
vao tac dl:lng giua cong trinh ben tren va bQ dat
-da ben dubi. Tlnh nang eua m6ng phl:l thu<)c vao da1 va tinh
nang ctia dat ph1:1 thuQ£! vao va ldch thubc mong,
thai bien cua cau true ben tren. Bai the, khong nen nghi rang
da:t co sue chtu tiii n.qi tq,i ma dling hon, ngttai thiet ke phai nghi
den do ia site_ chtu tdi cua nhilng cau true m6ng rieng vdi cae
thong so mieu ta cic chuan so tlnh cua ca da1 va cong trlnh
ben tren.
248
Do yeu cau cua thiet ke la phai d\! phong ,i.e d?t hin giai
cic chuye"n d:lnh khac, _s\! an toan doi vdi pha trugt
gidi kha nang bao dam. Cong nang va S\! ben vf:ing CUa
tfnh kfnh te ve gia thanh xay dl!ng ciing nhl1 bao dl1ong trong.
t11<1ng lai.
da s6 cac bai t.min thiet ke mong mQt mat xich dttgc
-, giai bang each d¥ng ket h<Jp kinh yai cac djeu dja
phu<1ng. Vi dt.:t, lJ V11<1ng quoc Anh {bao gom Bac Ireland), thiet
ke va xay dljng nha ft tang va mong ella chung phai tuan m(>t
trong c3c van ban phap quy sau day :
..
a) 0 Anh va Wales- Cac quy djnh i1
[The Building Regt!lation (1976)]
b) Trong viing London .... ve_ nb.a a London (1930 - 39)
[The London Building Acts (1930- 39)]
- xay d\!ng dja phu<1ng
[Constructional Bye-laws]·
c) 0 Scotland- Tieu chuan xay d\!ng. (Scotland) (Co ket)
[The Building Standards (Scotland)
(Consolidation)]
- Cac quy djnh ( 1975)
[Regulations (1975)]
Mong dttgc thiet ke .theo dung vbi BS8004, BS8103 va CPlOl
dl1<JC coila thoa man nhfing yeu cau cua Cac quy dj.nh ve nha d.
Theo Tieu chuan Chau Au so 7 ve Nen M6ng, cac bai toan nhu
the nam trong Cap Dta ki thu4,t 1 (xem tai tham khao), vai
cap nay it: can tl1 van ctia chuyen gia Cd hQC dat. Co the xay ra
nhfing dang ke ve thiet ke, nhttng thlibng khong du de
anh hliong nghiem trQng den tfnh qua va-tfnh sti dt.:tng. Cong
thiet ke thong thtiiJng nht.i the phl}. thUQC nhieu vao S\! tuan
thu ti mi quy trinh va kinh dja pht.i<:Jng ke ca cac nghien
cuu ve tfnh cua cac rong trinh tuong t\! da Him truqc.
249
11.2. Cac yeu to trong thiet ke m6ng nong
Mong nong doi khl gQi Ia m6ng mo rt;ng, gam co mong dc:Jn,
mong va-mong be. Dinh nghla thong thuang nhat cua m6ng
nong dlja vao d() sau mong nho hon be I"Qng mong._ Thuang thu<sng
dieu do chap dt1QC trong phan Ion truang hQp cua m6ng dan
va mong bang, nhltng ro rang khong chap_ dtiQC cho mong be
r¢ng. Do vi ngf1 "nong" co ngh!a Ia nho hon 3m
hoq,c nho han be ri)ng cua m6ng la hgp H. Theo quan diem gilli
tfch, "nang" hiy thea ngh!a Ia khi tfnh sue chju till bo quad() ben
chong cat CUa dat d tren cao· d¢ mong {xem IDlfC 11.5).
Khong xet den Slj thiet ke ctia ban than mong betong cua cong
--- trlnh th1 ba tieu chuan thiet ke ch1nh phru duqc xem xet nhu sau.
a) Di) sau thich hqp. Dq sau mong Ia d<) sau tu dat cho
tai duoi ctia mong. D<) sau nay phai thfch dang de ngan ngfia
bat cu anh huang co do nhf!ng thay doi cua cac dieu tren
dat. Chung co the bao gom cac thay doi khl ve dg
hay mtla, d<)ng dong bang va tan bang, nhfing thay doi
d<) tu cong trinh truyen tai, va nhfing thay doi mljc nuoc ngam.
D() sau ttlcmg xung dang dttqc quan tam han nfia khi mong ch!u
, tru trqng ngang II).omen Ion:
b) Dt} llin gim hq,n. Gia tq d<) lun tong, d<) lun va
bien xoan goc co the chju dt:fng phtf thu()c vao chdc
yeu diu cua cong trinh va doi hoi cua ngttai sit dtfng ciing
nht1 vao cac yeu to kinh te nhti gia hi tai san, tien dong bao hiem,
kha nang ton that von va phudng ... D(> hin tuc th<1i {d¢ hin
khong thoat nubc hay dan hoi) phru dttQc xem xet rieng tach
khoi d() lun theo thai gian, hau het slj pha hong do lun co the phan
la Slj pha hong kien triic, dliQC che toi lop phu bao va
se ket thuc. Khi chiu tai trQng ban than va tai trQng s-d d¥ng, da
phan d() lun tuc thai ra trong hie xay dl!ng; do slJ pha
huy tiep theo la toi thieu neu cong hoim lam chiPn sau
khi d<) lun do tai trQng ban than da hoan thanh.
Nhung nguyen tac chi ti1i gia hi gioi da dugc de nghj --
theo m(>t so nguon, nhung cac gioi h?-n quen thu(>c sau day du<lng
nhu thuang d11Qc chap va Mac Donald, 1956) :
250
r
I
i /
-.
... ,
DAT CAT : D9 lun tong Ian nhat cho cac mong don Ia 40mm.,
cho mong be la 40 - 65mm.
D9 liin chenh Ian nhat giiia cac c()t ke nhau Ia 25mm.
,
DAT SET : D9 liin tong Ian nhat cho cac mong don Ia 65mm,
cho mong bela 65 :- 100mm.
D() lun chenh Ian nhat gifta cac c()t ke nhau Ia 40mm.
c) so an toan doi vOi pha hoq,i cat. Pha trl1Qt xay ra
khi dat chia thanh cac kh.Oi hay vilng. rieng bj di chuyen toan
b() hay tung phan tiep tuyen vai nhau dQc theo
dieu chay deo bieu 19 khi ung suat cat dqc theo tn1<Jt-
gia trj giai ngh.ia la trq,ng thai hq,n. Pha cat a
thai ClJC chi la m(}t yeu to kiem tra thiet ke hQp
trong tru:ang -hQp mong tren da1 cung don, diU co tlnh deo thap ·
hay trung binh ; thong thl1ang hon Ia dung d9 lun giai lam
yeu to kiem tra. Mong nh;g cam nhat vai pha cat Ia
co ti so tm vm tm tri}ng ban cao nhu cac cong trlnh
kho chua, cau, thap, cong trinh chan n11ac. Tieu chuan· co
ban cho thiet ke se Ia tieu chuan ve ti so d9 ben chong cat cua da:t
VOi ung suat cat buy d()ng ClJC Vli<Jt qua IDQi gia -tq thfch
h<Jp, do laM so an toan. Th11ang thl1ang, so an toan nay It nhat
Ia 2,5 hay 3.
Co the djnh nghla ba pha cat (trttQt) chlnh sau.
PM hoq,i cat (trztqt) tong quat (hlnh 11-1a). Pha nay xay
ra khi co m()t truQt chay .deo hinh thanh ro dt.toi mong va phat
trien ra ngoai ve m()t hai phfa va cuoi cung tai dat. Pha
x4y d()t ng()t va thuang di theo la sl:f nghieng di nghiem
dAn tai nghieng do clioi cung ve m()t phla. pha nay
thuang gan vai da:t hay qua c6 ket c6 tlnh nen thap.
Pha)toq,i cat (truqt) Cl!-C b¢ (hlnh 11-lb). Trong dat co tlnh nen
eao, chuyen djch Ibn thing dung co the xay ra trttac khi co bieu
dang chu j nao do cua truQt. Khi dat a du:ai mong
- dieu chay, tnt<Jt hinh thanh nhling khong .han phat
trien. t(Ji dat. Co the xay ra Slj day troi ben nhung d{l
251
nghieng hinh thanh rat nho. D() lun xay ra luori Ia chi tieu ch1nh
cho thiet ke.
Pha hoq,i cat (tntqt) kieu :ruyen (hlnh 11-lc). Trong cac dat nen
yeu chuyen <ijch thAng ddng Ian xay ra cung vbi S\1 phat trien cua
. ,
- - - - -

Hinlz 11-1. Ciic d<)ng pha cit
a) pha cat t6ng quat ; b) pha cat Cl,lC bQ ; c) pha cat kibJ xuyen
252
'f
I
i
I
,-
.
i
trugt gi(Ji t(Ji phang-thang dung ke v(Ji cac phla
cua mong. da:t _ thuang khong c6 lun rna dugc thay bang
st;t keo xuong.
pha chu yeu ph\1 thu(>c vao tlnh nen cua da:t. Dieu
cat tong quat thuang xay ra vai da:t cat va da:t dinh c6
tlnh nen thap. Pha cat kieu xuyen th:lch h<Jp-nhat v<n dat set
va bun co tfnh nen c;ao. Trong cat rbi ta cling quan sat dugc
pha kieu xuyen nhung duoog nhtt xay ra lJ d(> sau Ian-hcJn
Ia do nen cua m(>t l<Jp ·yeu nam dttbi. Trong dat set co ket
thong thuC1ng, dieu thoat nttac co the anh huang den
pha : trong khi ma hie pha cat t6ng quat xay ra trong
dieu khong thoat ntClJc, thl trong dieu thoat ntC<Jc lau dai
- '-
h<Jn, pha c6 the do cat kieu xuyen.
11.3. Dinh _ nghia sue chju tai
Cac djnh nghia sau day lay trong Tieu chuan Anh BS8004 {1986)
ve Nen Mong.
Srlc chtu tai c-q,c hq,n qu qf. Gia trj ctCC1ng d() tai trQng
tht;tc rna do b! pha do trtCQt. Trong ban dt;i thao Tieu
chuan Chau Au so 7, gia trj ttC<Jng dtC<Jng dtCgc d!nh nghla Ia srlc
chtu tai thang dung thiet ke tq,i trq,ng thai giOi hq,n cttc hq,n Qd
va dttgc d!nh lttgng Ia tai trQng {lljc) chu khong phru la ap ll,!c
{ung sua:t). .
Cuang dQ tdi trQng thl/,c. Gia tr! cttang d(> tru tr<__>ng them phru
ch!u day m6ng do cong trlnh mbi, ke cit cong tac dat.
Cuimg dt? tai trQng tong. Cttong d(> tai trQng day mong do
tat ca. tai tn}ng nam ben tren cao d(> nay.
Gia trt chtu tai d-q, doan. Gia tr! ctCong d() tai trQng dtCgc
coi la gan dung cho ID\IC dfch thiet ke Sd b(> v(Ji moi dat
rieng
Srlc tdi cho phep. Ctii1ng d(> tai trQng tht;tc cho phep l<Jn
nhat day mong dti<}C dua vao tlnh toan sUC chj_u tai, d(> }(Jn va
hin mong dgi ma kha nang cong trlnh da cho se hin den
chung do.
253
Vm m()t mong xac djnh trong m()t dat da cho, m()t gia tri sue
chtu tai hg,n co the d11gc xac d!nh tu do ma co m<_>t_gia trj an
toan gia trj lam nhu sau. ·
Sue chju tai an toan [11.1]
Gia tti tinh toan cua <lu dtj:a tren bien doi ve U:ng suat.
diu) lap

D (hlnh 11.2) ·
gay radQ giam
llngsuatmng
yD. Gia tri
sllc chju an
toan do Ia
t6ng d() tang
cho phep CiuiF
va ap ltj:c lap
phu ban dau , D.
z
7
,.,
Jruth 11-2
_ N goiri ra, cung phai y den gia tri bin sao cho c6 the chju
dl:fng dttqc. Dung cac trl.nh tlj mieu ta trong ch11ang 10 co the
dtlQC C110ng d{) tai trQng thljc yeu cau de gay. ra d()_ lun CO the chtu
- duqc. Trong hai sO lay gia tq thap han lam gia trj cuoi cung cho
' sue chiu tdi cho phep.
- r_rrlnh t1j thiet ke thtt<Jng bat dau vm m()t Io;p mong gia djnh, ,
va ldch thttac mong dttgc de ngb.j va dung ·ca.c gia trj
sue chju dlj doan cho trong bang 11.2. Buac sau bao g6m danh ..
gia cac dieu tai trQng va tfnh ap lljc tiep xuc mong dCJi. Cac
gia trj ca ve UQ ben va d() ll)n CUa dat CO the tfnh dtlQC tu cac tru_
trong phong ngoai tr<Ji. Trang bj bang cac thong tin
- ngtt(Ji thiet kebay gi<J c6 the danh gia sue chju tai va so sanh
. no vai cac ap h;tc mong dcfi. Kfch thllac va chieu sau cua mong hie
nay dttgc chinh de di tbi m()t thiet ke bieu tfnh ' qua
ca ve cong trlnh Ian kinh te. Trong khung canh nay,
nghien ctlu khong chl chu y cac yeu cau ve tlnh nang cuoi cung
254
r
I
I

i
CUa c6ng trinh ma cit tlnh qua va S\1 an toan CUa qua trinh
xay d\ing.
BANG 11-1. GIA TRJ sue CHIU TAl Dl} ooAN CHO OAT v.A oA
(Sao theo bang 1, BS8004 v<Si stJ cho phep clia
Vii;n Tieu Anh)
Dti
Da macma hay da W;mg gdnai citng
Da cat ket vii da voi c11ng
oa phi6t vii da· ngoi
Gifl tri
sfrc ch!11 tiU
dlfdOOn
(kN!m
2
) .
10.000
4.000
3.000
Chit thich
Chi cic da hoim to!m
khong phong boa
Da phifn set vii acgilit c11ng ; cat yeu 2.000 Cac da phan ldp m6ng
· set vii acgilit y6J
Da pMn ding ; da voi ylu
600 - 1000 va V1,Ul ph3i dtl(Jc danh gia
Dat khOng dinh
OJ()i aJQi cat
Cu()i aJQi cat trung binh
Cu()i aJQi cat nli
Cat
Cat trung binh
cat riJi
,
600 sau khi tra
> 600 Vdi di61 kii;n Ia :
200- 600 Be r()ng B 4. 1m
<200 vii ntt& ngam
>300 1- 8 d dtldi day m6ng
100- 300
< 100
Datdinh Nhom nay cim v<Si
set timg Um cUng cln ; set c11ng
set citng ch.3.e
set
set vii bim yeu
set vii bim rat ylu
300- 600 lun tau dili
150 - 300
7.5- 150
< 15
khong dimg
Ghi chu : a) Cac -gia tri nay chi c6 tinh chi cho
thiei ke w bQ.
b) Chung Ia cac gia tri t6ng
255
11.4. Sire chju tai Cl!C cua m6ng nong
Giong nhu trinh tl! ctia nhieu phan tlch trong cd hQC da:t, tr;p1g
thai cua m(}t mong th\{c dau tien dugc li tudng hoa lJ m(}t
mo hlnh dii don gian hoa. Mo hlnh du<}c dung lam cd so cho sl,.i
. phan tlch toan hQC va thtliJng can cai tien phan nao theo kinh
nham dlt<}c slj tuong quan tOt gif:ia tntng li thuyet
va tlnh chat quan sat dtl<}C . .
-
Trong truilng hqp nay, truac het xem xet sdc chju tai cua m(}t
mong bang tren ctia m(}t lap dat sau vai gia thiet dat
khong trQng lugng va dong nhat. De nghj xet theo truimg hQp pha
ho:P cat tdng quat va dung dieu can giai gia d!nh
t:P diem Trong hinh 11.3 tnnh bay m(}t mong nhu the
nam tren m(>t lap set trong dieu tai khong ntlac
("u = 0). Ap l\fc lap phu do de? sau th\fc cua mong D dugc xem la
m(>t tAi ti'Qng ph1:1 tren dat quy uac CABD : avo = yD. Gia
thiet dat 0 thai dan hoi cho tai khi tr:pig thai can bang
giai va bieu deo dQc theo trugt
J
Jrmh. 11-3. Pha cit tOng quat trong dieu kien khong thoat nu&: (f>u -: O)
Khi sue tdi hq,n qu, m(>t nem dat ABF chuyen djch
xuong duoi, nem nay bieu thai chu d()ng Rankine va co
sung suat chfnh Ion han theo phuang thang dung va dng suat chfnh
256
--------
l
I
I
'
'
r
i
.
.
I
I
j.
I
!
I
I
I
nho han theo ph11ang nam ngang. Cac hinh ke AFE va BGF
bj. ep qua mgt ben quay quanh mep mong. 0 day, cac cat toa
ra tit cac mep A va B va hulJng cua U'ng suat chlnh dttgc quay di
mgt goc. la 90°. Trong cac nem ngoai CAE va BDG, do cac U'ng
suat ch:lnh duqc xep thAng hang phil hqp vlJi thai hi dgl)g
Rankine.
Trong dieu khOng thoat nuoc (V'u = 0, co nghia if = c),
cac dttang cong FE va FG Ia cung tron, vi the lai giru dttc,;sc
nhu san:
[11.2]
Trong dieu thoat nuoc (f!J' > 0), goc a .cua cac tnt¢
cat phil hgp ttt<Jng U'ng vlJi cac gia trj. Rankine chu dgng ( 45° +
f!J'/2) va bj. dgng (45°- V''/2) (hlnh 11-4). Cac dttang cong FE va
Kmh 11-4. PM cit t6ng quat trong
ditu thoat mt&
FG hie nay co cac dltong xoan logarit va lui gim d11qc bien
lJ
[11.3]
17CHD/r'2
257
o day: Nc va Nq -Ia cac so kh?ng thu nguyen ph9 th:oQc-
khang cat thoat nt.tO'c fJ'. .
Da co cac llfi giai chlnh xac cho Nc va N nhttng vi S\t khac
nhau ve gia tti khong c6 j nghla, nen th11iJng dung cac gi8. tri ban
. dau dl1QC Prandtl (1921) va (1924) t:le nghj :
Nq = extgp'tg2(4!}Q + rp'/2)
Nc = ctgf{J'(Nq- 1)
Cho den day, dat dltQC gia thiet bi khong 00 trQng htqng, va nhl1
the mf}t so cau trong bieu thd:c 'lu phai xem xet den dung
trqng ctia 'Thrzaghi £1943} de _nghi mf}t bieu thuc ba s6
cho m()t m6ng bang keo diti vo c6 be I"Qng B :
1
qu = cNc + O"voNq + 2 &tNy
[11.4]
o day: Nc va Nq du<Jc d!nh nghla tren;
NY Ia m()t s6 tt1<1ng tlj, cijnh nghla Ia sdc chju tai
cua dat c6 dung trQng y, khi cA c va O"vo bang khong.
Cho den bay gia chua· co liri. giru chlnh xac cho NY. Terzaghi da
dua ra mf}t nhom cac gia trj kinh dtja tren mf}t vilng pha
goc a = VJ', nhung cong trlnh sau do eho thay a= 45° + fJ'/2
Ia gia. tti thl,_tc han. -Khong c6 Slj tan thanh chung ve nb.:>m
cac gia tti kinh NY, nhung m()t s6 don vi nPi.en cU:u da
cho thay la hai bieu thU:c tl1<1ng tlj deu tin duQc va cho sai
so· lO'n nha:t nho h<1n 10% :
N
1
= 2,0(Nq + l)tgqJ' (Caquot va Kerisel, 1953),
N
1
= 1,8(Nq - l)tgf{J' (Hansen, 1961).
Bang 11-2 cho cac gia trj CUa N c va N q cung viii cac gia trj
NY cua Hansen. Dua cac gia trj N c' N q va NY da bien ddi vao trong
tfnh toan Uri trQng nghieng va tam da dl1Qc Beer (1965, 1966),
Meyorhof (1953), Hansen (1961) va Sokolovsk.i (1960) nghien cuu.
258
?.,_._
.,.: ·· --
r-
VCJi hau het cac mong l1 d() sau tttung xdng thl chi dm _xem xet
hinh mong ; trtt<Jng hQp IE: la cac ddn ch!u
bii trQng chu yeu theo phtt<1ng ngang- co momen (xem
muc 11.5). · -
BANG 11-2 c.Ac H£ s6 sOc emu TAI (f' > O)
f'
N N
Nr
f'
N N
N Y
f'
N N N
c q c q c . · q -
r
0 5,14 1,00 0,00 15 11,0 3,94 1,42 30 30,1 18,4 18,1
1 5,38 1,09 0,00 16 11,6 4,34 1,72 31 32,7 20,6 21,2
2 5,63 1,20 0,01 17 12,3 4,77 2,08 32 35,5
24,9
3 5,90 1,31 0,03 18 13,1 5,26 2,49 33 38,6 26,1 29,3
4 6,19 1,43 0,05 19 13,9 5,80 2,97 34 42,2 29,4 34,5
5 6,49 1,57 0,09 20 14,8 6,40 3,54 35 46,1 33,3 40,7
6 6,81 1,72 0,14 21 15,8 7,07 4,19 36
50,6-
37,8 48, 1
7 7,16 1,88 0,19 22 16,9 7,82 4,96 37 55,6 42,9 56,9
8 7,53 2,06 0,27 23 18,1 8,66 5,85 38 61.4 48,9 67,4
9 7,92 2,25 0,36 24 19,3 9,60 6,89 39 67,9 56,0 80,1
10 88,34 2,47 3,47 25 20,7 10,7 8,11 40- 75,3 64,2 95.5
11 8,80 2,71 0,60 26 22,3 11,9 9,53 41 83,9 73,9 114
12 9,28 2,97 0,76 27 23,9 13,2 11,20 42 93,7 85,4 137
13 9,81 3,26 0,94 28 25,8 14,7 13,10 43 105 99 165
14 10,4 3,59 1,16 29 27,9 16,4- 15,40 44 118 115 199
-
Gia trj Nc theo Prandtl
.
45 134 135 241
-
Nq theo Reissner
46 152 159- 294
Ny theo Hansen
47 174 187 359
Vdi f'u = 0 xem hinh 11-5
48 199 222 442
(gia trj Nc)
49 230 266 548
50 267 319 682
- 259 "
11.5. Thiet ke on djnh giai cho m6ng nang
Trong cac phan tich d11gc t6m tat trong cac phan tntbc, chieu dai
mong duqc gia thiet Ia dai vo Nbam d11a ra mc?t phucmg ph.ap
chung cho ml}c dfch thiet ke cang trlnh, th11ang djnh ro
mong: bang, chit va tron. Theo cang trlnh cU.a de Beer (1907)
va Vesic (1970) thi vm mong nong c6 d() sau mong tUdng xdng
va tAi trQng tac d1,1ng theo ph11<1ng thang ddng, bieu thuc tOng quat
sau day dugc chap di.t c6 nhftng che nhat d!nh
1
qu(net) = cNcsc + l>voNqsq +
2
yBNYsY - yD [11.5]
o day : Nc, Nq, NY - cac so sU'c chju tru (bang 11-2) -;
s, s ' s - cache so hinh dang (bang 11- 3).
c q y • .
BANG 11-3. H6 SO-HiNH DANG CHO MONG NONG > 0)
(Theode Beer, 1907 va Vesic, 1970)
Hinlz drjng m6ng s s
sy
c q
Bang 1,00 1.00 1.00
(
B B
Ch.ii
1+ 1 + ( L) tg-p I- 0,4 ( L)
c
--
.
N
Trim hay wong
1 + tgp 0,6
N
c
- .Nhung che chlnh ella. bieu thuc t6ng quat nay Ia :
a) Khong quan tam den t:lnh de nen cua dat va nhung bien d6i
ve the tlch ctia dat ;
b) Gia thiet quan tuyen tinh ton gifia VJ' -va U'ng suat phap
qua, trong trubng hgp gia trj U'ng suat qua cao co the
khong co quan nhu v?y.
Kha nang ap d1;1ng cua bieu thuc t6ng quat, do phlti dugc
gibi trong dieu tai khong thoat nubc trong dat set va
260
-.
r
t
'
t
'
!
i
I
l
r
!
i
!
dieu tlri thoat nuac trong cat khi ma dng suat phap
qua chi tit trung binh tai thap. Trong cac dieu khac, chi
tieu d() h!n duong nhti khong che thiet ke.
Mong tren cat va cuf)i soi
Trong cac dat co tlnh tham cao, nhfing bien doi cua mtjc
ntttJc ngam co the xay ra nhanh vtJi anh huang tiep theo ve
- -
dung trQng va ap hjc n\iCJC lo rong cua dat. Tlnh sdc tai
phai tien hanh doi vai dng suat- qua va phti<1ng trinh [11.5]
viet a
[11.6] -
Nha rang ngU "ltjc dlnh" b! oo, Mi vi c' = 0. Cac gia- -
tri N vaN thuang du<1c suy tit cac thl nghiem hien tn.tang (xem
. q r . . .
ID\IC 11.8), CO the lay theo bang 11-2-trong quan v(Ji goc
khang cat thoat nutJc qJ'. Tti so la ap ltjc qua ctia lap phu
d() sau mong :
a day:
[11.7]
<Io - cuang d() cua tAi trQng ph"Q. tren ;
Az -be day ltJp.
Tr! so y' Ia tr(!ng lztqng don vt qua cua moi lap dat dl.t<JC
xac d!nh nhl1 sau :
0 tren mtjc nuac ngam : y' = y
0 duOi nutJc ngam :
khong tham y' = y - r
sat. w
tham thing ddng di len y' = y sat. - y w - iy w
tham thang ddng di xuong y' = y sat. - y w + iy w
a day : Yw - trQng h.tQng don vj cua nl1dc, Yw = 9,81 kN/m
3
;
i - gradien thuy 1\tc cua dong tham.
261
\
Sue chju t3.i cua dat khong dinh voi gia trj til trung binh
den cao giam nhieu khi mt.:tc nltac ngam nam trong dai keo diti
. til dat xuong tlJi dttlJi day mong m()t d() sau Ia B. Hinh. 11;-5
cho thay cac gia trj y' dtt(Jc dung trong cac phltdng trlnh [11.6]
va [ 11. 7] doi vai cac vj trf . gi(Ji khac nhau ctia
n ttlJc ngam.
Vj tri clia
S6 thii

.
1
haiuN =
0 q

2
ByNY
('lc, + y'z)Nq
lc
B

fot
{j_
.sz_.
.
.m.ijt y'
= y -. Y, y' =y -
Yw
. .
-
.
--. .
.
--
-
- - .
. .
q,;
.
-
.
.
.

.
, ,, +
.
.
-
.
,, , , ,
t 1
,,
-
.
-
SL
- r-
-
-
. -
--==-:l y' y.•
. . . .
-
=y =y-
Y, .
.
- -
-
.
-
. .
-
B
.
-'--
- - ----
'\1
-
: vimg y' = y y' =y
--

l?i !10ng
..
--
- ,
- -
'
.- - -·
irmh 11- 5. S\f giam y' do mt& ng:bn
Ghi chU : _Nlu c6 ID.{)t tMnh pMn dOng tMm di len viJi gradien thliy l\fc i,
tlQng b1"ng ddn vi. hil)l qua r' bj gi3m them m')t h1Qng ·iy ••
Co the tien himh tfnh suy cho cac vj tri m\fc nlt(Jc
gian, nhdng de d(JD gian va cho kha nang an toan han nen
dung vi tri m\fc nuac ngmn cao han lien
262
f
r-
!-

!
Vi d9 mA.u 11.1. mong bang T"Qng 2,5m dq,t n6ng tq,i dq
sau 2m trong mqt lap cat chij,t thoat tOt co cac dij,c trung sau :
c' = lJ; tp' = ; y = 19,0 kN!m
3
Dlf,a tren SUe chtu tiii -giOi hq,n va dung M so an toan la 3,0, -
hiiy xac djnh td.i trt)ng an toan cho m.Oi met dai.
Bai gitli
TntC1c het x3.c <ijnh stlc chju tai c\IC tht_;tc. Gia thiet-khong
c6 tai trQng ph\1 tren ke vm mong : ---
Til bang 11-2 :
Til bang 11-3 :
- 'DN
1
' 'D
-'In( net) = y qsq + 2 y BN,s, - y
Nq = 29,4, N, = 34,5.
sq = s,; = 1.0
Trong dieu kiE}n thoat -n1tC1c tot : y' = y = 19 kN/m
3
.
Vi the
1
'Ju(net) = 19 X 2(29,4 - 1) +
2
X 19 X 2,5 X 34;5
= 1899 kN/m
2
Sue chju tai an to3.I1 q
8
_ = 'lu(rretfF + y'D
= 1899/3 + x 2 = 671 kN/m
3
'm.i t1'9ng an toim cho moi met dai : Q
8
= 671 X 2,5 = 1678 kN
Vi mAu 11.2. Mqt mong bang tq,i dt) siiu 0,9m cein
m.Qt tiii trgng toan ?q la 650 kN/m t6i mt)t lOp cat chij,t co cac dij,c
trung_sau:
c' = 0; tp' = 3SO ; Ysat. = 20,4 kN/,;,
3
.
Gid thiet za mllt. nztoc ngam dfmg len tOi mij,t dat va chlf.p nhq,n
toim la 3,0, xac dtnh chieu rt;ng yeu diu czia m6ng.

Bili gitli
Til bang 11-2 co Nq = 48,9, N = 67,4
y -
263
Sllc chj.u Uri cljc thl;lc :
q
= y'DN + _!_ y'BN - y'D
u(net) q 2 Y
1
= (20,4- 9,81)0,9 X 4 7,9 +
2
(20,4- 9,81)B X 67,4
= 456,9 + 356,9B
DQ Ian tai trQng an toan q
8
= Q/B = qu(net)/F + y'D
Do 650/B = 152,3 + 119,0B + 0,9(20,4 - 9,81)
Chota :
Til do
0 = 119,0B
2
+ 161,8B - 650
B = 1,75m
Vi d9 mlu 11.3. Mgt m6ng hznh vuong moi cq,nh 4,2m dij,t tq,i
dg sau 2,0m trong lap cat co ctic dtj.c trztng sau :
.
Xtic dtnh sue chtu tdi giOi hq,n czia m6ng khi m11c nzt6c ngam :
a) nli.m sau dztai: day m6ng ;
b) ndm ngang day m6ng ;
c) bdng m(j,t dat;
- ..
d) bdng mij,t dat vOi gradien 'thity thlim len i = 0,4
- Bai gitii
11-2 v<Ji fJ' = 32° c6 Nc = 35; Nq = 23,2; N
1
= .24,9
Tit bang 11..:..3 : sc = 1 + 23,2/35,5 = 1,653
s = 1 + tg32°
q
s = 06
y '
VI khong c6 tai trQng phl} a
0
= y'D
264
1,625
- a) Kh.i mljc nl1Uc ngam nam sau duui day mong, phuang trlnh
[11.8] trd thimh :
. 1
'lu = 0 + yDNqsq +
2
yBNrs,
1
= 0+20 X 2,0 X 23,2 X 1,625+
2
X 20 X 4,2 X 24,9 X 0,6
= 20 X 75,4 + 20 X 31,4 = 2315 kN/m
2
b) M1;lc nuuc ngam nam ngang day mong:
. 1
'lu = 0 + yDNqsq +
2
(Ysat. -
,.
= 20 x 75,4 + (20,0 - 9,81)31,4 = 1828 kN/m
2
c) M1;lc nttuc ngam bang c:tat :
. 1
'lu = 0 + (Ysat. - Yw)DNqsq +
2
(Ysat. - Yw)BN,s,
· = (20,0 - 9,81)75,4 + (20,0 - 9,81)31,4 = 1088 kN/m
2
d) Vai dong tham len co i = -0,4:
= (20,0 - 9,81 - 0,4 X 9,81)75,4 + (20,0 - 9,81 - 0,4 X 9,81)31,4
= 669 kN/m
2
-
vi dl} mA.u 11.4. Clw ui. df!, de thay duqc Slf. danh gia sue chtu
- -
tdi Clf.C hq,n thf/,C rot nhq,y cdnz. uOi COc bien ddi czia gia tfi cp, dUQC
dim.h giti hay do dq,c. ·
BQi gitii
Hay xem xet m()t mong bang nong co :
B = 15m· D = 1Om· c' = 0 · y = 20 kN/m
2
' ' ' ' ' .
Sdc chiu tai giffi · thl:(c :
'lu(net) = y'DNq + .W'BN, - yD
= 20(N - 1) + 15N
q ,
265
(
<;
..
Bien d6i cua 'lu(net) voi rp' dl1QC thay a bang dudi : gia trf
bang khac la R = <Juf'lu(30) ; m()t R dugc tieu chuan boa
doi v{Ji qn(net) cho 'f'' = 30°, va phan tram sai SO gay ra v{Ji Slj danh
gia qua cao Ia 1_
0
trong gia trj ella. fJ'. ·
fJ'
Nq NY
'lu(oct)
'lu
% -sai sO cUa
(dQ)
(kN/ml
R= --
A '" 1°
'lu(30)
fJ = +
20 6,40 3,54 161 0,26 14,2
25 10,7 8,11 316 0,51 14,2.
30 18,4 18,1 620 1,0 14.5
35 33,3 40,7 1257
.
2,03 16,0
40 64,2 95,5 2697 4,35 17,5
45 135 241 6295 10,2 20,2
Cat va cuQi stJi chijt trung binh den chijt, thotit nutic
Tri>ng nhftng dat nay, sdc chj.u tai ciing ngay ca..
khi tfnh den slj dao dqng cua mljc nu<Jc ngam, . vi the trong
nhieu tnt<Jng hQp tieu chuan d() hln chap du«,;Jc se khong che
thiet ke .
.. Ctit va cu9i chijt tnmg binh biio hoa
Mljc nuac ngam cao oo. the lam giam sdc chju tai gim tren
va phai d\f doan dieu thoat nltiJC SaU khi xay d\tng va
gia cac • h«Jp xau nhat• xay ra. Trong m()t tru<mg
hQp mong bang thi sdc chju tai gim c6 the_ khong che
thiet ke, nhung v{Ji cac mong bang r()ng va mong be thl d() ltln
luon Ia to khong che. Ngoai ra, xem xet 3.nh huang ctia
bmn hut trong.hlc xay d\{ng ciing quan tl'Qng.
Cat cluia va edt riri rf:l£ biio hOa
Trong cat mj.n tzung - min va cat chda bt}i
rat riJi (N < 5) bao hoa ml$c nlloc ngam dang nhanh c6 anh
266
httdng llnl den S\1 8n d!nh gibi Ciing cO k.ha nang phai xem
xet ·st,;t hoa long do rung d()ng ra blri xe_ c(), may : m.Oc. _dC}ng;
dat, ... 13. dat dttQC dam t(1i - thai han (bang dam
Ian, nen dam rung, dam d()ng, dam nen sau bang chuy riing, ... )
la mong phirl xuong l(Jp thlch hQp han.
M6ng tren tl4t sit va dilt
'1.
'
'\
Sdc chju tlri ct,;tc cua dat dlnh c6 tfnh tham kern la kem
nhat ngay sau khi xay dt,;tng, trtt(Jc khi ap 1\tc nu(Jc lo rong c6 thm
gian de tieu tan, c6 nghla la trong dieu khong -thoat _nu(Jc.
i Trong khoang then gian khi xay ra oo "ket, d() cling clia dat'tang
r
i len va d() ben chong cat cling tang len. Do thiet ke mong tren
dat dfnh phai theo dieu khong thoat nubc dieu dng
1 suat t<ing.
Skempton (1951) de thi -13, vm dat set bao h{la khong thoat nubc
(f'u = 0) dung phuang trlnh ci1 ban ctia Thrzaghi, nhttng vm
gia tri Nc tuy theo hlnh va d() sau fi1:6ng.
Vm
'lu(net) = cuNc
(Vi Nq = 1 va N,. = 0)
[ll.Sa]
[ ll.Sb}
; -
Gia tri N c c6 the xa.c dinh tit bieu dO d hinh 11 - 6
bieu thdc kinh sau :
[ l lj 9]
vlJi cac gia trj loo nhat khi D/B 4,0 nhtt sau :
(mong bang) ; khi BIL = 0,
khi BIL = 1,0, (mong tron hay hlnh vuong).
_Cac gia t_rj tren nhu d11Qc suy ra bang ml)t so phan tich -
Dg\tQC cho S1j pha da biet, chl tru tr11ilng hqp CUa dat set rat
hay set chay.
267
Vi d9 11.5. Mt;t mong hinh chft nhQ,t dai 15m, rt)ng 6m
dij,t tq.i dt) sau 4,5m trong m{}t lop dat dinh co cac dQ,c
trztng sau :
c = 40kNZm
2
• m = 0 ·
u ' ru '
?fac dtnh stlc chtu tdi giOi hQ,n cho mong.
Baigitii
10
9
6
7
6
s
268
D/B = 4,5/6,0 = 0, 75,
BIL = 6/15 = 0,40.
I
Trun .hoy
B/1. =I
I

---
/
/"
I
-
. ./
v/
/

Ooi B/L.=O
I
1 2 3
z/8
limh 11- 6. cac trj Nc CUa
Skempton khi f{Ju = 0
y = 18kN/m
3
s
Dung gia tr! N c ctia Skempton bang each nt)i suy tu hinh 11-6 :
Nc = 6,7
qu = cuNu + yD
= · 40 X 6,7 + 18 X 4,5 = 349 kN/m
2
Dung phuong. trinh [11.9] :
Nc = 5,14(1 + 0,2 X 0,40)[i + (0,053 X 0,75)
112
] = 6,66
Do v[!.y _:
<Ju = 40 X 6,66 + 18 X 4,5 = 34 7 kN/m
2
Dung phucJng trinh tong quat [11.5] va cac h ~ so theo bang
11-2 va 11-3 :
N c = 5,14 ; N q = 1 ;
1
sc = 1 + 0,40 5,14 = 1,078 ;
N = 0.
y
sq = 1,0.
Do vf!.y : qu = 40 X 5,14 x 1,078 + 18 x 4,5 = 303kN/m
2
Ket qua cuoi cung nay thap hon hai ket qua khac khoang 11%
va co the xem Ia gia tr! t h ~ trqng. _,
Vi d ~ mAu 11.6 Xtic dinh be r{)ng czia m{)t mong bang ciin
chuyen m{)t ttii trQng toan b() la 550kN/m
2
a tq.i di) sau 1,5m ui:w
lap dat di nh co cac dq,c tntng sau :
C ... = 90kN/m
2
• en = 0 ·
u ' ru '
Bai gidi
S
~ h " ~ . A : t ' Q
llc c !U LC1l an oan qs = B
y = 18kN!m
3
.
va qu(net) = cuNc = 90Nc
90
Nc 550
nen qs = F + yD = B
269.
Thil vlJi
Chota
Thll vm
Chota
B = 2,0m ; DIB = 0, 75 ; · B/L = 0 :
Nc = 5,14[1 + (0,053 X 0, 75_)
112
] = 6,16 .
550
q
8
= 30 X 6,16 + 19,0 X 1,5 ...:... B
B = 2,6m
B = 2 5m · D/B '- 0 6
. , , . - ,
Nc = 5,14[1 + (0,053 X 0,6)
1
12] = 6,00
550
q
8
= 30 X 6,06 + 19,0 X 1,5 = B
B = 2,6m
Vl the be r()ng mong bang B = _2,6m
Vi dy. miu 11.7. Mt;t mong bang clin truyen mt;t tdi trQng
toan bt; la l,lMN/m vao mt;t lop dat qua co ket co cac dij,c
trung sau:
c' = l8kN!m
2
; VJ' - 2SO ; y = 19kN/m
3
.
VOi M so an toiLn la 3,0, xac dink be ri)ng :mong yeu cl.iu khi
.. at; sau dij,t m6ng li:r, :
a) l,oin;
b) 2,0m.
Bdi lO.m
Tu bang 11-2 co : Nc = 22,3 ; Nq = 11,9 ; N, = 9,53.
GQi B la be re}ng mong, sdc ch.ju tAi thljc yeu cau :
_ 1,1 X 1<P _ D _ <lu(net)
qnet - B y - F
a) Khi · D = l,Om
270
i
!
.
I ·
!
l
I
1
q. - c N + yD(N - 1) +
2
yBN""
u(net) - u c q ,
1
= 18 X 22,3 + 19,10 X 1,0 X 10,9 +
2
X 19,08 X 9,53
= 609 + 90,5B kN/m
2
Vi h
- 1,1 1o3 _
19 0 10
609 +90,5B
It e B , X , = .
3
ta 1,11 X 10
3
= (203 + + 19)B
B
2
+ 7,35B - 36,4 = 0
Do B = 3,4m
b) Khi D = 2,0m
1
qu(net) = 18 X 22,3 + 19,0 X 2,0 X 10,9 +
2
19,0B X 9,53
Rut ra :

1,1 X Io-1 . 816 + 90,5B
B - 19,0 X 2,0 =
3
B + 10,3B - 36,4 = 0
B = 2,8m
Nhli be r(>ng mong yeu cau giam di khi di) sau mong
tang len ( vai D = 3m thl B = 2,3m).
Diit set cling den chijt cling
Trong hau bet cac trt.t<fng hgp cua dat c6 tinh tham kern nhti
dat set c6 ket thong thtt<fng tit cdng den ctl'ng, dat set qua cO
ket khong b! phong hoa va ntl't ne (bao gom dat set tang Ian), thl
tieu chuan ve sdc chju tai giai se khong che thiet ke. Neu doi
vai pha giai sa d\}ng sO an toan toi thieu la 2,5, thl
di) lun se luon a trong giai cho phep.
Dieu tai khong thoat nt:Cac ngan ngay trong hie xay
dtJng ngay sau khi xay dtJng se la dieu nguy nhat,
v1 the co the dung cac phuong trinh [11.8] va [11.9]. Vai di) sau
271
·.
mong nong, co the Ia gia thiet Ia d() ben chong cat khong thoat
nude la hang so va bang each lay trung binh _cac gia tri gioi h?n
tin nhi).n duQc trong cac thl ba trvc qui 11<Jc co ket -
khong thoat n1tdc. Miu lay trong ddi nam gifta d() sau mong
va d<) sau bang be r<)ng mong.
Dat set va bi!.i co ket thOng thuiTng yi_u (niim)
D<) hin do c6 ke't chac chan la chi tieu thie"t ke cua dat c6 tlnh
· nen trung binh den cao. Danh gia thi).n rQng. sU:c chju tai gi<Ji h?n
-tuy theo ca d<) bin chj_u d11QC va cat CljC h?D, trj sO thap
nhat dugc chap nhi).n Ia gia trj thiet ke.
Dat set qua co ket yeu tui cling
D<) cU:ng va d<) ben cua dat set qua co ket ch!u anh h11ang Ibn
cua phong hoa nhu dat set phong hoa mau nau London
Tntdng no ra va d() ben chong cat khong thoat n11bc giam
xuong m<)t luQng dang ke. S\1 co cua khe nut se lam bing t6c
d<) trudng nC', trong cac dieu nao do cua vet 1<) nhu
da:t bj chia cat bang cac SltOn doc mdi va l1 ndi co mljc nude
ngam dao d<)ng. P.hai kiem tra cA on djnh ngan ngay (khong thoat
nuoc) Ian on dinh dai ngay (thoat n1tac): Vai phan tlch diri ngay,
phirl danh gia ung suat qua va dung cac thong so cua tr?ng
thai gibi h?n nhu c' = 0 va cp' = cp' c· -phai dung cac tfnh chat cu._,
dat set phong hoa chU: khong phru la dat set t11di khi tlnh d() !lin
sU:c chju tai cho phep). Ngoai ra, phai xem xet kha nang
-_tritong no trong khi xay dljng vao hie da dao sau ho mong va mong
tai trQng da hoan thanh.
NJW; nhreu tang va cong trinh nijng
Hau het cac cong trlnh nay dugc xem thu()c ve bai toan Cap
dta ki thuQ,t 3 (xem Ph1:.1 l1:.1c A) va doi hoi phai su d1:.1ng m()t chuyen
gia dja ki Phai tien hanh phan tfch day du ve ung suat, ap
htc nuac lo rong, bien d?ng thang dung va bien d?ng hong, sU:c
ch!u tai.
272
.
i
j•
;
Triim. tich P.han l(ip
LUp set mllng o tren tram tich ben hon (hinh ll-7a)
Neu sue chj.u tai c1Jc khong che thiet ke lJ trong lop dat
ci:tng day bon, co the dung bien doi cua phuong trlnh
[11.8]
[11.10]
lJ day : N cH - so sue chju tai cua Skempton, du(Jc bien doi
nhu sau:
B!H <2 2- 7 >7
Nc + (B/2H-1) 7,6 -
H - be day cua lap mong .
Hi. u. 11-1. Anll ctia m()t lap ylu h<Jn
a) lclp ylu h<Jn mm ; b) ldp ylu h<Jn n3m du61
L6p yeu. hun tldm duui (hinh Jl-7b)
Phuong don gian nha:t hili toan nay Ia gia thiet tai
ti"Qng tac d1}1lg md ra ben theo so 2 : 1. Do noc
cUa. lllp yeu hoo tai trQng tac d1_1ng dong deu duqc gia thiet Ia :
Mong bang:
B
qw=qB+H
[ll.lla]
18CHDIT2
273
Mong chf1 : . qw = q (L + H)(B +H)
[11.11b]
Mong tron:
B2
[11.11c]
Cac bieu thuc nay thtjc S\t danh gia qua th.ap 'lw trung tam
va danh gia qua cao qw mep nhung dl1Qc xem Ia chap
dltQC_neu so an toan It nhat Ia 3. Cac phan tfch che
va chlnh xac hdn tham .khao 6.11.
11.6. Tieu chuan dQ lun cho thiet ke m6ng
Da s6 dltQC dung cho cac rong trlnh co trung,
bao gom khu nha a. Phan Ian, chung dttQC "thiet ke" ddn gian tren
Cd sa nhung qui \iac th\fc banb' theo cac chi din trlnh bay
trong cac quy djnh cua dja phudng (xem 11.1). Chac chan 13.,
bet rong trlnh dugc thiet ke qua cao, nhung s\f dli thong
' tht1dn.g nay khong tac dl)ng den cac kinh te tram
trQng. CAc phttdng phap thiet ke "thlch hQp" ddn· gian nhat chi d\fa'
tren cac trung chi sO (xem IDl:IC 7.19 va 10.3) nhltng cho cac
ket qua rat gan vffi ket qua dUQc bang cac phudng phap
che han.
Gia tri giA thiet cho tai trQng thiet ke th11<rng Ian han nhieu gia
til rong trlnh se. gay ra, a ndi co tinh den tai. 0 da
so cac rong trinh, tai vao khoang 15 - 30% tai trQng han
va thubng toan bQ tAi trQng ban than da tac d1,.lng truac khi
lap rap CUOi cimg va S\f hoan hoan thanh. Vi the, phan
lcm dg h1!l tU:c thoi ia do til trvng ban va trong nhieu trul1ng
h<Jp (nhu trong dat khong dlnh va dat set sit) hau nhu hoan.··
thanh vao cuoi thai gian xay dtjng.
· de chu yeu gan b6 voi lun trong qwi trlnh lam_ clia
co_ng trlnh la nut do bien xoan gOC. Cac tJ.:tanh phan clia cong
trlnh nhti tuong va tam san be to_ng thuilng rat gion vade
-dang bi nut khi bi xoan. dau pha gion nhu theft xay ra
hdn voi cac de uon che hang thep, go vil be tOng cat
274
r
I
i
i
thep, nhltng Slj qua dng suat khong chap d_UQC van c6 the
A
xay ra.
Quyet djnb tieu chuan
xac djnh yeu to nao quyet tijnh d(j lun chju dttqc
thttong lay tily sai lam. Tuy nhien,. qua, neu
bat lqi, se lmh httlmg den nhieu ngttoi : kien true slt, nguai thiet
ke cong_ trlnh, chuyen gia dja kl nguoi than, chu oong trinh,
ngttoi sU: d1;c1ng oong trinh, nhan vien khuye:ri bao hieni. Cac
! - tlnh nang gi6i xuat phat til nhftng ngttoi ch!u trach
thiet ke, nhl.ing chi sau khi da tham khao .cac ben lien quan
Ba nhom tieu chuan can-dtt(;fc xem xet la :
a) Bieu nhin thay duqc. D9 khoi ph11<1ng thang dung
Ian he1n 1/250 se thay ro va co the lam cho ngttru d1;c1ng vit ng-ttoi
quan sat cam thay sq hai. Dang chu y tuang tl;i la d(> thea
phltdng ngang la 1/100 va sod() vong/khau d() Ia 1/250.
b) Hu hq,i nhl.n _thdy dztqc. Muc d9 chap dttCJc
dfii C\1 the theo va be} cong trinh bj tac de}ng. _Jennings
va Kerrich (1962) de nghi each phan btt -co -lien
Slj dang khi SUa chfta. J)l;ia chu yeu vao cong tnnh nay,
' -
Burland, Broms vade (i978) da sap phan nh:tt
cl bang 11-4.
c) Hzt fr.Q-i tac dt;ng den ket cau hoij.c tinh tong hqp chuc nang.
Htt do khe ndt c6 the cho iut6c cac dung djch khac
xam d&n tlJi S\i phat trien tiep theo c-ua ca.c h11 khac, nhu
an mon cOt thep, suy yeu cac lien ket, day Sl;i IDl}C
nat phan ra, ... GilJi ctia S1:i di chuyen va bien xoan
bi ap blri tfnh nang su d1;c1ng ctia cong trinh m()t bQ
rieng nh11 thang may, phttcJng chuyen, can tl'\IC d
tren cao, may moe chlnh xac, thong tieu nulfc, cua llJn, ... Trong
cac kho hang dung thong iuu -gift ria chfia tlj
d9ng doi hoi nhimg qui rieng. Phai htu j de ngan
h11 - do ndt trong cac tuang ch!u lljc vi s1j .mat tfnh
toim cua cang trinh c6 the -lam suy giAm Ian r()ng ·ra C<1 cau
i chju 1\lc ctia nha.
I
I 275
t.
BANG 11-4. PHAN THEO S'l)' HU MI NHiN THAY DVQC CUA
TVONG VA. YtU CAU SUA CHf1A DON GIAN
(Theo Burland, Broms va de Mello, 1978)
cap Miiu tA: hrr IUJi diln liinh* Chi"eu gan dung
lur h{li yeu COu SUa chfra drrt7C in nghieng khe nlrt (nun)
.
0 Khe niit dudng n!ID h<ln 0,1mm dU<;Sc phan clp hu
Khong
d3ngke
Ia khOng dang ke < 0,1
.
.
Khe nrh nhO co eM :rU If dl dOng trong hoiJn thifn chang
I thulmg. co trong oong trinh c6 nfn nlu; rieng
Ratnho cac khe run benngoru rong trinh th3y 1-5
khi xem xet ki o g3n.
.Khe li.Ut dlliip day. CO yeu dlu plu1i hoan thi?n 1¢.
2
"!My m()t s6 nin nh6 ben trong rong trinh. Khe nin
Noo
o ben ngo3i va IDQt s6 din dU<JC tnit ben >5
ngo3i demo dam khong bi phong h6a. ala ra v3o va
a1a s& oo the phinh
C4c khe nrh pliiln nao m6 r{irn.g va duqc thq til trm l{li.
Cac khe nrh lti di lti lai c6 eM b4o v€ b/Jn lOp lim
. _rp _rp . . . g .
3 /ret thich h{1J'. Trlill{li bm ngoai cang utnh btlngg(lCh

Trung va m(Jt khoi hct;mg nJuj rong trinh IBng gr.JCh co kJuj
khenin;;;?: 3
binh niingpluii yeu dlu may the. aia ra vaova aia s6 phinh
ra, cic d11dng c_:_,? oht.JC VlJ c6 the! nfn, tinh kin phong
h6a thUdng suy kern.
Cling SICa chUa ian bao !Pm phdi ph4 ra va thay
4
me c4c phOn tu(mg, c.4zc 0 tren cria ra vao va c:Ua
15 - 25, nlnJng
sd. cac kbmg aia s6 va aia :ra vao bi san
Nghiem
nghifng di ro ; tttdng bi nghieng hoijc phOng ra ID}t
ph1,1 tmQ<: vao
t(Qng
each dang Iw y ; aam "! giam siic ch!u ; d11dng 6ng
s6kheni.ft
phl)C VI) b! vii
5 Yeu c1Ju SICa chUa Vm bao gfjmxlly 1¢ ml)t ph)Jn TbLf{mg > 25,
Rat roan b{). Dmn kha mng chju tai, nhunga1ng
nghiem ngbieng tMm va can ch6ng do d)t ; aia sa ph1,1 tmQc: vao
trQng vd tung; nguy do khOng 6n dpm.· s6kheniit
'
• Chi6J r-Qng khe nin chi Ia m(}t khia o;mh h11 ru,i va thong dU<;Sc dung Ia IDQt s6
do tnJc tiep cU3 hlf
Ghi chu : Trong danh gia cap hll ph3i h.tu y vj tri aia n6 (J trong rong
trinh hay clu
276

M9t so n ghien cllu cua Skem.pton va MacDonald (1955), Polshin
va Tokar (1957), Bjerrum (1963), Burland va Worth (1975) de ngbi
giiti quyet vai cac gi(Ji thiet ke kien nghj la d() -Iun, d(> lun
chenh va bien g6c. Nhfing chi dan ve d(> hJ.n va d(> hin
chenh da dttgc neu trong ID\].C _11.2. Cac Cijnh nghia ve dQ
va d(> xoan sau day (theo Burland va Wroth) dugc de nghj dung
trong cac nghien cuu Cijnh lttgng lien quan viJi thiet ke mong
(xem them hlnh 11-8).
H
L.,..,

Lac
I•
.I.
"I
L ·
1 I
I "!
!
D D
D i IJ
D
_D
o
1
/o
D
D D
D
I
Bi
.A
I
c
A
I
c
Hinh li - 8. Cac djnh nghia v3 ki hi(!u cho bien m6ng
(theo Burland v3 Wroth, 1975)
.
1
Sc -
SB

Di) lun s hay p la chuyen vi di xuong cua m(>t diem da cho nhu
d(> lun cua diem B bang SB. '
DQ lun chenh o
8
hay op Ia chuyen v! ctia m(>t diem nay
vai m()t diE!m khac, nhtt chuyen "i cua B doi vai A bang o5sA
211
Bien dq,ng g6c up m()t diem la Sl! thay doi d(> diem
nay' nh 11 a A = OSs..<isA + .
G6c w Ia goc xoay ella. the ran cua m(>t d<1n vi c6ng
trlnh d11qc dinh ro rang.
Dij xoay tuong doi {3 Ia dq xoay cua ·m()t d11ang thang giiia hai
diem moe co lien quan tai st;( nghieng.
Dij vong A Ia chuyen vj Ian nhat ra giua hai diem so vai
d11dn.g thang ve gifta chung.
Dq meo g6c AIL Ia t1 so ct1a dq vong gifta hai diem vai k.hmmg
each gifta chung. Ghi nha rang d() moo goc giong nhu: d() xoay tltoog
doi khi dung bien cat ddn gian ; tuy nhien, d6 khong phlri la
trt!iJng hQp uon khi Sl! xoay xay ra cac gOi dfs CUa dam ddn.
GiOi hq,n czia bien dq,ng g6c (xoan)
Bang 11-5 cho gia tr! chi dan ve giai bien g6c
xoan lien quan vai htt da quan sat d11qc. Skempton va Mac
Donald de xuat cac giai thiet ke thl!c hanh ve bien g6c
la 1/500 cho hau het cac cong trlnh thong th11ang va 1/1000 khi
can tr:inh hu Ia cac khe ndt nhln thay dl:lQC. H11 cong trlnh
it xay ra vai gia trj AIL nho h<1n 1/150. c
BANG 11-5. GIOI DANG GOC
Theo Skempton v3 MacDonald (1956), Bjerrum (1963), Burland va Wroth (19'Z5)
··. ·wL Hoan clznh ciing tr"inb gitii iuJn
· 1/5000 n;tn li ti quan sat th3y trong oong trinh b3ng k.hong rot thep; cic
tlldng chju tai bi cong.
· 1/3000 Cac vet ntn nhin truly a cic tt13ng chju tcii
1/1000 Cac vet nin nhin th3y d tlldng g{lch chen k.hung
1n5o Gioi thtjc te ngm stj din b3ng ciJa may m6c nh{ly.
1/600 MtJc qua ling cho phep trong cac "clu nghieng tris nen dang
1/500 Gidi thJJc t<! ngMI cl$1 cic vet nllt trnm trQng trong nh3. k.hung va
oong trinh
1/300 Ht1 tdi khung oong trinh va ttrdng panen; c6 van de cho dt13ng di ciia
cic can ln,IC _(1 cao.'
1/250 Nghieng dang ctui y trong cac nha nhieu tang
1!150 Ht1 clu d6i vdi Mu bet cac rong trinh.
278
·- .
r-·--


r

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t
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.

Burland va Wroth da nghien cdu m{»t quan hE} de sil d1,1ng
trong thiet ke, hau het dlja tren Cd sO Slj . ndt ne .--__ ·cua m{)t dam
dong nha:t c6 tfnh gion. du cac quan hE} nay e6 dugc til m{»t
phiin tlch ft chlnh xac chung cung cho gia tr! c6 the so sanh
vbi cac gia tti lien hE} vbi cac hu quan sat dttgc. Dung phan
tfch hoi co dien va chap tieu chuan do Skempton va Mac
Donald, Polskin va Tokar de nghj, m{>t hgp tieu chuan thljc
hanh dttgc de nghj cho vet _ ndt va hti khac. Tieu chuan kien
nghj rang Slj xuat hiE}n CUa vet ridt lien quan voi bien keo
gay ra do xoan : vlli cong trlnh bang va liE}u gion tudng
t\1, Slj xuat hiE}n nay nam trong vi 0,05 den 0,1%. -VI -the,
mgt gia tti gibi dtlgc nghj cho ecrit. = 0,075%. Y_eu to
che khac la so modun cdng (E/G) : vai liE}u dang huang
E/G = 2,6, nhting vai ket cau mem khi cat E/G se eao hdn va vm
ket cau tttdng doi cdng thl thap Jidn. . .
Cac gia tti gim dttgc de nghj cho a hlnh 11-9 va dlja tren
ecrit. = 0,075%, cac cong trinh khac nhau dttgc pha_n
·
A
L 0.001
0./JIJ()S
fli /dn-- __.----:---
-- .
--
--. _, , ·' -J.iJm
-- Kef qui/ _ --
--
---------------
. 0 1
u,u, II-9. Bim g6c I<ln nMI Jien he viJi runh aia thfmh
(Theo Burland va Wroth, 1975) · -
, tnnh dQ"' cun:g cat tMp "rutu nha khung> tttbng
thep, ... a day vet nat do bten Wimg koo xien se la tieu-chuan
gtm
279
b J Cong trinh uong xu6ng rat gion khi keo nhu cong trinh
bang khong co cot thep va tuang xay, a day bien keo
khi uon t::,ri bien tren se Ia tieu chuan giai
c) Cong trinh uong rot gion khi keo nhu oong trlnh bang
k.hong co cot thep va tuang xay' a day bien keo khi uon
bien tren se Ia tieu chuan giai
d) Cong tnnh chtu u6n ua cat ket fl,qp nhu panen khung chen
va cac ket cau khong cho phep co vet nut, a day d() xoay tuong doi
p Ian nha:t khong qua 0,002 (1/500).
11.7. Oanh gia sue chiu tai cho phep
Trong da so cac bru toan thiet ke mong, giai de? hin ch!u
duQc cho thih nang su d1}ng se khong che thiet ke, nhung nguoi
t hiet ke phai coy thtlc ve cac k.ha nang thai tong quat co

the xay ra. On djnh ngan ngay va lau dai co the lien quan vai cac
co che khac nhau, ngohl ra cling co the la thai trong hie xay
dl;Lng. Giai tuy y duqc t6ng quat hoa co the khong thlch hqp
cho cac cong trinh phtlc va a noi thai da:t co bien doi.
Iv1¢t so b() cua cong trlnh co the co d() cung Ian hon hay nho
hon bQ khac vi the yeu cau cac giai khac nhau. Tac dl}ng
qua gifta cong trinh va dat thuang lam tang cac Cd che bien
dang luu y nhat. Dieu chu yeu nha:t CUa thiet ke tot Ia
da:rih gia _phai tuy theo va dtiQC suy ra ttl nhftng hieu biet toan
ve thai cua ca. cong trlnh va dat.
· Sue chiu tai cho phep cua · da:t set
. Ca_c phuong phap tlnh hin duqc trlnh bay trong chttong 10. M()t
khi gioi hq,n d() lun chap nhf!,n da dl!Qc xac v{Ji slj quan tam
toi quan thiet cua cong trlnh va chlic nang, thl co the tlnh
d9 Ian cua ap ltjc chju tai gay ra d() hin do. VOi cac tru<tng h<Jp
khong phlic co the dung phuong phap ddn gian h<.?a sau day,
con {1 noi gom co cac ldp dat nen sau hay phan tang phai dung
phan tich chfnh xac hdn.
280
Voi dq lu11 tllc thOi chap nhij;.n si , tu phuong tr!nh [6.67]
s.E
1
qa = + yD \._11.121
B(l-v
2
)IP
Voi dq lun do co ket chap nhQ,n sc, tit phu<1ng trinh [10.2] :
sc
qa = ID.v(I + l)H + yD [11.13)
a day : mv - so nen the tich ;
H - be day CUa l{fp nen i1 dum mong ft nhal_li{2B.
I - ung suat thlch hQp dtl<JC theo chttung 6,
tu<1ng ung v<Ji d<) sau H du<Ji mong.
Hai ph11<1ng trinh nay dung dttgc trong dieu thoat -nude
nhttng thUQC vaO mftc ung SUa1 qua ban daU Ya CUOi cung
-trong •tat 0 duai m6ng va quan cua chiing vai ung sua1 co ket
tru<Jc () p· N eu diit chi u ung suat khong qua () P' co the chap
gia thiet bien dan hoi va dung phudng trlnh [11.12] v(Ji cac
thong so thoat nutc E' va v'. M¢t -khi rugt qua o' P thi xay ra lun
do co ket ; can tfnh thee hai giai khl o' p nam giiia ung suat
ban dau va cuoi cung.
Vi d'l} miu 11.8. M()t m6ng be hznh chil nh{j,t dai 25m, r()ng
9m. dij,t tq,i d() sau -3,2m. Ml!c nuac ngam a duai mij,t dat 2,5m ..
Lap ctat set sau c6 cac dij,c tntng theo ket qua thi trong
phong nhu sau:
cu = 25kN!m
2
;
c' = 5kN!m
2
;
tn = 0.
ru '
en' - ?.QQ -
r - '
y = 17,4kN/m
3
E
0
= 3 6MN/m,
2
Xac dtnh sue chju tdi cho phep trong cc:ic truong hqp sau day :
AJ Ngay sau khi xay di!ng, girl thiet di"eu bao hoa khong
thoat nuac.
BJ Sau mQt thili gian. lal! han, gid thiet toe dq dttt tai du cht;,m
de krdlng bieu ap lif,c nu{;c lo rong dl!.
281
{-
.
- .
' .
I .
,_.
J
Xem xet vCii trttiJng so an toim doi yCii pha cat Ia
3,0_, d() lun chj.u trung binh Ia sdc ch!u tai cho phep
se lay bang tr! SO thap nhat tttdng ung dtt'lC
- -
Dau tien, can darih ghi cac trttng dan hoi va hlnh hQC CC1
ban:
v' =
B/L = 9/25 = 0,360
D/B = 3,2/9,0 = 0,356
Ko
1+K
0
1 - = 0,38
2 - sin2a<>
- - - '2
Tit trlnh 16.12] : E' = E'
0
( 1 -
1
v')
- 2x 0,3s2
= 36,0 ( 1-
1
_
0
,
38
) = 19,2 MN/m
2
1,5 2
Tl)·phttdng trlnh [6.14].: = E' x
1
+ v' = 20,9 MN/m
Tntimg lu!p A
· a) Plui cAt: = 0 dung phuang pha.p Skempton
..
-Nc = 5,14(1 + 0,2 X 0,360)[1 + (0,053 X 0,356)
1
12] = 6,26
Nen
- 2
<lu(net) =- c
0
Nu = 25 X 6,26 = 157 kN/m
-
_ ·po '!s =
1
!
7
+ 17,2 X 3,2 = 108kN/m
2
-b) D() bin : Tit bang 6- 8 vm LIB _ 2,778
- - thi = 1,477
Vm dieu bao hOa. khong thoat n11Cic v = 0,5
Vi
Eu -7,5 X 10:-j X 20,9 X !OJ
qa = ------
B(l - vl)IP 9(1 - O,fil) 1,477 --
_ 157kN/m
2
282
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!
:-
,.--
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i
Trong tntemg llQp-A dq ben chong cat CUa dat la yeu to .khong-
- vi the Sdc chj.u tai cho phep la 108 kN/m
2
Tntimg hqp B
a) Vm dieu thmit nui1c hay lau dai dung cac thong so ung
suat qua c', ip', v', ... cung vm phucsng trlnh Terzaghi.
Til bang 11-2, vl1i tn! = 23° thl N = 18 1 · N = 8 66 ·
r · c ' ' q _' '
NY = 5,85.
Til hang- 11-3: sc = 1 + 0,360 x 8,66/18,05 = 1, 17
sq = 1 + 0,360 tg23° = 1,1&
sl' = 1 - 0,40 x 0,360 = 0,856
iT
0
= 17,4 x 25 + (17,4 - 9,81)(3,2 - 2,5) = 48,8 kN/m
2
·
1
' - 'N + ' N + - 'BN - tJ'
q u(net) - c esc Y o q
8
q 2 Y y
8
y o
Tiep do
= 5 X 18,1 X 1,17 + 48,8 X 8,66 X 1,15
1
+
2
(17,4 - 9,81)9,0 X 5,85 X 0,856 - 48,8
= 714 kN/m
2
,

714
'Is = 3 + 48,8 = 287 kN/m
2
b) DQ h1n: Vl chlia biet ung c6 ket trliilc, dung bien
dan hoi trong dieu thoat ntti1c de <ijnh gia trj q
3
:
s.E'
I
q - -
3
- B(1 - -
75x 1<Px 19,2x HP =
129
kN/m2
9(1 - 0,38l)1,447
Trong dieu lau dai thl gilJi dQ ltin chju dttQc se
trttlJc khi dieu d() ben chong cat an toan, do sue chju
tai cho phep la 129 kN/m
2
. nhien, co kha nang la gim d()
bin chju dttQC 75mm CO the giam dido xe-t den tOed() lun tiep t1:1c.
Vi d\1, neu lay gia tri 50% nhtt la tieu chuan dai ngay thljc
hcsn (gia thiet m()t t6c d9 hQp H) thl sue ch!u tAi gim se
gan gia trj qs hcsn.
283
I
=--
·.
Site chiu tai cho phep ctia cat
Trong truong hgp cua cat, d<) h1n hau nhtt toan bt) la tuc thai
va phai tfnh cho dt) Ian toi da cua tai trQng (ban than + tm)
tac N gttoi ta thay la iJ noi mong co cung klch th11ac,
dt) hin chenh chac chan khong qua 40% dt) lun t6ng, va ngay
ca voi cac mong rt)ng ciing hiem khi qua 70%.
trung lun, va do sue chj.u tai cho phep, ctia cat ph9
thut)c chu yeu vao dung trQng doi cua dat va vj trl mljc nttoc
ngam ; ngoai ra, sli ung suat va muc dt) gan ket ciing quan
trQng. Hau het tram tlch cat, bao gom hon h<Jp cat ·chua cut)i va
chua co chieu h11ong khong dong nhat ve kfch cB, thanh phan
va dung trQng t11<1ng doi. S\1 co gang de lay d11gc cac mAu
nguyen bieu _tot thl vita kho khan vua ton kern. Cac yeu
to nay da toi qua phat trien m<?t so phuong phap thf
truang, til do co the tien hanh tlnh sue chj.u tai cho
phep va dlj toan d<) lun (xem 11.8).
11.8. Dien dich cac truang de xac
djnh s(rc chju tai
St,_t trinh bay ve thiet hj va cac ph11ong phap thl
truong khac nhau se d11gc de trong chuong 12. Trong phan
chung toi coy djnh gim thfch each cijch cac ket qua thl
va cac phttong phap ket hgp de danh gia dt) lun va sU'c .
ch!u tai cho phep. Phm ghi nho dieu quan trqng Ia, gio:Rg nhu trong
-truong hgp cua mQi thl thljc dt) tin cua thong
•tin" thu dugc khong phm la rieng cua thl ma
doi hoi ca Sl$ xac tU cac nguon khac nh11 thf trong
phong, cac thf truong khac, kinh trong qua
khu. Mt)t chf rat hftu lch ve cac ph11ong phap thl
truong da d11gc Schmertmann ( 1975) xuat ban.
Thi ban nen
Ph11ong phap thf ban nen dttgc trlnh bay a 12.5.
Ve co ban, dat t ai day cua m<)f ho tham do hay Io
I
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khoan qua m()t ban thep hlnh vuong moi it nha:t 300mm.
Trong nhieu bai bao, Marsland ( 197 4) da cong bo st_t so sanh thl
xuyen va nen hong voi thl dung ban nen 865mm
xuong tai d<) sau 25mm trong da1 set London. D(> tin cua ket
qua phl}. thu<)c nhieu vao tfnh dong nhat cua dat trong vilng anh
huemg dng suat duai ban nen so vai tfnh dong nhat duai mong
tht_tc. Moi nguy Ion nhat trong vi(k! dien djch cac ket qua la do
suy qua cao nen thong tin trli nen khong chac chan va gia
Cach lam H tltemg la can tien hanh m<)t thl bang
ban nen co ldch thtt<Jc khac nhau va nhieu d<) sau ca ·tren
-
va du<Ji mt_tc nuac ngam. Di nhien, cong dose ron kem ·tien
cua va thai gian.
Sit dl}.ng so tic thl nay, Terzaghi va Peck (1967)
de ngh! dung quan sau day de danh gia d<) hin tdc thiJi
cua mong:
[11.14]
a day : sb - d<) hin_ cua ban nen co la "b ;
SB - d<) lun clia mong co Ia B cilng gia tri
tai trQng.
Co nhftng bang chdng dang ke da phat rang ket qua th1
nay bien d6i kha r<)ng : phc> bien Ia danh gia thap 20% va
trong m<)t s6 truang h<Jp gia tri tim dlt<Jc cao han tffi 100%. Tlnh
tin trong dat set ndt ne, dltqc cAi bang each
dung ban nen kfch thuac Ian han trong ho da chuan h! can
M<)t phat trien gan day Ia ban nen xoan <>c, trit cac
sai so khong theo quy tren co the xoay lien tl}.c vao
trong dat.
Thi xuyen tieu chwm (SPT)
Do Ia m()t thi d<)ng dltQc tien hanh trong 16 khoan khi
khao sat a Phltang phap d11Qc ghi ro trong BS1377
va trlnh bay chu yeu trong IDl}.C 12.5 ctia cuon sach nay. Dung
m()t bua chuan dong m{)t dl}ng Cl} lay mau dat k.ieu ong btla
285
.. , __
..
:
doi day m9t ho. dao trong diit. Sau dQt dong ban dati duqc
150mm, can --ghi I;p so nhat biia can dg dong ong them
300mm. So nhat bua· nay duqc coi la sue tieu ch-uan ·
hay gia tri N .
- Khi thl dttQc tien hanh a dttoi m\[c nttac ngam trong
lap cat mjn hay cat_ chua b\ri, ap lljc ntlflc lo rong_ c6 xu h:tt(Jng
bj giam a vU.ng Ian ong gay ra 511 tang ch6c Iat ct\a dng
suat qua. Terzaghi va Peck (1948) de ngh!.gia trj N chlnh
theo bieu thdc sau :
1
N = 15 + - (N - 15) ·
corr. 2
[11.15]
Gia tr! N do dttgc cung bi anh hllang Mi ap I11c de) sau
do, va vi the phAi tien hanh chinh doi vlJi ap l\fc qua Clia
l{Jp phu. M()t s6 de. ngh! chinh da dttgc cong· bo (fHbbs va
Holtz, 1957 ; 'Ibmlinson, 1969 ; . Peck va Baz3.raa, 1969 ; Peck,.
Hanson vil Thorbun, 197 4), trong so do co so chlnh dita
ra IO'n bang bon ; nhung nhieu nglim xem s6 do Ia qua· Bieu
do theo de ngh! cUa. Peck, va Thorb_urn v(Ji gia trj Ion nhat
la 2 cho a hlnh 11- 10.
Khi xeni xet 3.nh h11ang CUa phtl®.g phap thf tCli gia trj
N do dttqc, Skempton (1986) _dtta ra la d:p1g de, phtldng phap tha
- va chieu dai ca!l khoan lmh huang den nhieu gia trj nang
htQng. th\[c co khA nang dEr tien hanh xuyen: Tl s6 nang lttQng
can (nang Ittgng th11c I nang lttQng n:1i tlj do Clia bua) tim
duqc thay d6i giua 45% va 80% cac n11bc k:Mc nhau khi dung
. . .,
cac phttong phap _khong giong nhau. 0 Vtt<1ng quac Anh, · dung
ph11ong phap va. thiet hi tieu chuan Anh, ti so nang cUa can
danh gia Ia 60% cho ca"" dai tren 1Om. Do kien ngh! rang, vm
m\{c so sanh gia tri th,i d11Qc bang phuong phap
khac vai phuong phap BS (Tieu chuan Anh) thl phai tieu chuan
hoa ve ti s6 nang lllqng can Ia 60% va dtl«Jc trlnh bay Ia. gia trj
N
60
• chinh doi vcn chieu da.i can _khoan va duifng kinh lo
khoan· co the thl!c nhu sau :
286
H i ~ u chlnh can khoan :
vbi 1 < LR < 10 thl CR - 1 - 0,04(10 - LR)
vbi LR ~ 10 thl CR .= 1
lf.ti'so h i ~ u cni,;IJ CE
0.5 7.0 ~ - 5 2.0
0
0
f- I I I I
I I I I I I I i
v
r- -
- -
-
- -
f-
1-
1-
'--
f-
1-
I
.
-
1-
sou
Iruth 11- 1 fl. H i ~ chinh gia tri N cU.a SPT vi1i iing suit Iiip phil -
[11.16]
287
d day : - cb.ieu diri t6ng-cua can khoan
Dl1dng kinh 10 khoan (mm)
115 150 200
Ht; s6 hi(!u chinh (CR) 1.0 1,05 l,f5
va Burbridge (1985) de nghj rang trong trl!ang hgp cua
va CUQi- cit can m(}t chinh nua, khi dung gia
trj N theo danh gia tfnh nen. -
chinh cho cu()i : CG = 1,25 _ (11.17)
Bai the, neu tat ca. c3.c chinh dlt<}C th\{c gia tri N
(N') se d11qc tit so do. Gia trj N da chlnh c6
the dung de danh gia tti<fng .doi, goc khang cat .dinh va
stlc chju tai cho phep. 'Thrzaghi va Peck {1948) de nghj m()t ttt<1ng
quan d()· tuong doi va gia tri N va dtta ra tieu chuan
hanh cho m1.:1c dich phan (bang 11-6a). dung gia trj N de
danh gia d¢ ben ehong cat khong thoat nl1C1c ctia dat dlnh thi kern
tin ; nhttng cho mtJ.c dlch phan c6 the dung cac so a
bang 11-6b ; cac gia trj cho d() ben chong cat thoat nl1l1c dl1gc coi
Ia kha gan dung.
BANG I 1-16. PHAN L0.61 TIIEO GIA TRJ N CUA SPT
a) O:!t khcng ciinh
<4
4- 107
, 10- 30
- -- - 30- 50
>50
Gm tTi N
aia SPT
Ratylu
Ylu
Ciing
_ sit
Dung lrt]ng trrung doi
Miiu IQ
Rat rili
Risi
trung binh

RAt
0- 15
15- 35
35-65
65-85
85-:-- 100
< 20
20-40
40-75
75- 150
<2
2-4
4-8
8- 15
> 15 Rat sit ran >150
288
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f
t

1
_,
Peck, Hanson va Thorburn (1974) de ngh! cac quan gan dung
giua gia_ tri N va goc khang cat dinh va ngoai ra ca cac so sue
cWu tiri Nq va NY (hlnh 11- 11)
-
I
!
Rdi
/ru"§ br£h CAor &;}cfiq"l-
rqc
v
!liD
!40
----
I
----
-
-
I
r-e_
..

I J
!20

........... I
7
7 /
---
I '/
-
""-...
-
/ 7
!
"""'
,.
/ A
/
:;y

K
20

v
.
:::;;--
.
0
n u k • H
, ,
5QC lcMnp CUT C{/C t:/_Q/
1
( t) I}
l Gl/ah h!' g.ttf tJf N J'nm ?ech, Hqnson YQ-T/Jor/Jurn .
·2. f?..2
Kmh 11-11. Quan gifta gia tn N va tp', Nq, Ny
. Ghi chu : 1. Quan he tp' - gia tri- N Peck,- va Thorburn
2. Qu.m Nq - tp' va N bang 11-2-
r --- -- -
19CHDtr2
289
/
Dung gia trj N xac dinh sue chju tai cho phep
Terzaghi va Peck (1948) de nghj m()t t11ang quan giiia sue ehju
tai va gia tti N da ehinh lJ m()t bieu do (hlnh 11-12).
700
I
I
I
C/!t ofri 25" mm
600
"'

I'---
r---
1--
"'

r---
r---
50 500
"-.......
r---
r---1'--
-..............
r---
1'---
--
I

-----
100
10
5
f 2 .3 -9 5
6
CIJieu rfnu mon? I B (m}
llurh 11-12. Quan h¢ giiia gia tri N va sire chiu tii cho phep
(Theo Tenaghi v3 Peck, 1967)

Chieu -rQng etia mong va gia tr! N d11ge Ia so d11a vao va
sue ehju -tai eho phep_ qTP dttge dQe tu t111e tbang .dung ben tnii.
Anh h11ang etia m"f!e ntlae ngam co the d11a vao tfnh toan bang
each dung chinh sau :
290
i
l
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I
f
i -
I
I
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f
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1 Dw
chinh m1Jc nt.tCJc ngam Cw =
2
( 1 + D + B)
[11.18]
a day: Dw - d() sau d\t{Ji dat cua nuCJc ngam ;
D - d() sau mong ke tu dat ;
B - chieu r()ng mong.
Vi the
qa = CwqTP
[11.19]
Phudng phap Thrzaghi va Peck cho gia tr! q
3
-qua trQng
biJi vi co gang bao dam rang d() hln khong nai nao lCJn h<m 25mm.
Vffi cac mong I'Qng va mong be, gia tri gim co the cao tm
50mm. Meyerhof (1965) de nghj la gia trj qTP c6 the tang 50% va.
khong can hi(!u chlnh cho mljc n11oc _ngam '!i anh h11ang da
nhat trong gia trj N do-d11Qc. Meyerhof ciing de ngh! m9t hQp
cac quan thiet_ ke don gian nht.t sau :
Sr_N
Vai B < ! ,25m : q
3
= l9 [11.20a]
'
Vffi B > 1,25m :
_ +
qa 2,84 B - ,
[11.20b]
Cho mong be:

[11.20c]
a day : SL - giffi d() b1n cho phep {mm) ;
N - gia trj N trung blnh a giua z = D va z = D + B* ;
B - chieu r()ng mong.
Dung nhieu so quan trac lun, Burland, Broms va de Mello
(1978) ve do thi ti sO-d() hln cho moi ap hjc d<m vi (s/q) doi vai
chieu I'Qng mong (B)_ (hlnh 11-13). Trong moi tru<Jng hQJ>, dat (cat)
dt.tgc phan the nht.t rm vita theo gia tq
N do dt.t(}c. Khong tfnh den mljc nttdc ngam, d() sau mong hay
hlnh ctia m«?ng.
* M«?t s6 y kien de nghi Hi vi nay phai Jay giiia z = o va z = o + 2B
291
...
,. i
! .
I
r

- ue ;;;--
.. '. L"'t(!. - ....-
6JOI
.-
1
I
---

0./ 0.5 1 S fO 50
C/)leu rt/ng 6 (m}
liznh 11- 13. Di? tun ciia m6ng tren cit
(Theo Burland, Broms va de Mello, 1978)
Chieu h1tang tuyen tfnh ro cua cac ket qua da ling h() quan
diem lad() hin vai ap l\fc·chju nhll a phlldng trinh cua Meyerhof
([11.20]_). Giai tren ve cho moi d9 tll<'ng doi c6 the
dung lam nguyen tac chi cho ·thiet ke nhll sau :
a) Cho d() bin khd di xAy ra bang nti-a gia tii giffi tren thlch ung ;
b) Gia thiet rling gia tri l6n nMt se khong qua 175 Ian gia hi
khd·di.
c) Chi dung dllimg giai dllbi rili rq,C lam slj danh gia bQ
trong nhung bru toan nhtt mong be r()ng be chua tren da:t cat
rdi
292
r
!
t
I
I

}
f
I.
r-
i
i
Trong cung rong trlnh, da tien hanh phan tlch chi tiet cho tren
200 tai ve d(> hin ctia mong, be chua va khoi dap tren
cu(>i. Cac yeu to nhtt hlnh de? sau mong, co va thai
gian da dugc xet den va m(>t quan tu:ang doi ddn gian du:gc thiet
gifia gia tri N, ap ll!c chju dl!ng, chieu r()ng mong vade? hin.
Tfnh nen ctia dat du:gc bang gia tri N trung blnh nhu la
de? chju nen va chi so nen Ic. Hinh 11-14 minli hQa cac quan
nay va du:a ra bieu thuc kinh sau day:
Chi so nen
1,71


[11.21] .
a day N - gia trj N trung blnh do du:gc gifia de? sau
z = D va z = D + du:gc chinh cho cat min, bl}i min·
cu(li (phu<Jng trinh [11.5] va [11.17], gia trj tuong duang lien
vai co lay theo thl nghiEJm chily xuyen.
Vai cit co thong thuang, d() hin tuc thai vao cuoi thi cong
tUdng ung ap lljc m6ng qua trung blnh Ia q' se tlnh theo :
De? lun tuc thai trung bl.nh [11.22]
nai co sL - d() Iun giai. thl
Sue chju tai cho phep [11.23]
d day Ic co the tu phu<1ng trlnh [11.21] tu hinh 11- 14.
Vai cat qua c6 ket, tai ho m6ng ma co ap h;tc
lap phu Ion nhat tn.toc kia ung qua co ket) Ia o' vo' thl
d¢ hin tuc thai trung blnh xac djnh theo :
1
si = 3 o' vo !c + (q' - lt vJB0,'1J:c
do so thu hai khong the am, vi the:
Khi q' > o' · s. = (q'-
2
6' ) B
0

7
I
vo· 1 3 vo c
[11.24a]
293
!
I .
'
I ·
Khi q'
0.0011
I
r
t
I
I
' . ·\:
', }
' 1\
'\ : .. \
------.--\.-- - , --------------

\%-'r
.,
\
: ' \
: \. . ·\
--,-
: '
10
fi1i ftJ"N cub SPT
'\ . .
'
"
'\
Hb:b 11-:-14. 0uan he giita chi s6 nen L: w gia tri N
(Theo Burland va Burbridge, 1985)
=::; (/ • S- = !_ B
0
·1:
vo· 1 3 c
ndi c6 Sr. - d() hin gilJi thl
Sdc chju tai cho phep q
3
-
294
2
7T + 3 t5'vo
B
0
··1
c
[11.24b]
[11.25]
Da ket duQc rang, theo thong ke nu<Jc ngam khong
anh httang dang chu j t<Ji cac gia tr! nay, nhttng khong ton m()t
t11<1ng quan co j nghia doi vC1i hinh cua mong. Do
ph11<1ng trinh [11.24a va b] ph:li nhan v(Ji s6 chink h'inh _
dq,ng sau:
[
1,25IJB J2
fs = (IJB) + 0.,25
H Hs
fL = · - = - . (2 --)
S. Z- Z-
1 I I
[11.26a] ..
.
0 day : Zi - d(} sau CUa dm h11Cing, trong d(Ji nay xay .ra.-75%
d{) lt1n va c6 the Hiy g3n dung
z. = e0,77lnB
. I
H - chieu day cUa. l(Jp dttai mong ;
. L - chieu dm mong ;
H - chieu r()ng mong.
[11.27]
Trong trlt<Jng hQp mong chju tAi ti'Qng dao d()ng nhtt cau, xilo,
ong khoi cao, b(! may' ... d() lun tllc thm se cao han so vbi. tai trQng
t1nh va. d{) bin ph\! thu9c thm gian cling dang chu ·y-. Khi t - > 3
nam, de nghi s6 hi(!u cblnh trQng sau :
st
f = - = [1 + R + R lg(tJ3)]
t S- .... "'3 ... "'t
I
[11.28]
o day : - d{) tang t11<1ng xtlng d() bin ra trong 3 nam dau ;
= 0,3si (tAi ti"Qng tinh) 0,7si (tai dao d()ng) ;
Rt - d() t mg tttang xttng d() bin dien ra trong moi chu ki
lg c Ua. thm gian sau 3 nam.
Rt = 0,2si (tAi ti'Qng tlnh) O,Ssi (tai dao d{)ng)
Phtt<1ng trlnh [11.28] cho cac gia tri sau :
S6 mm khi hoan tb3nh (t) 3 5 10 20 30
ft cho t3i trQIJg tinh 1,32 1,36 1,42 1,47 1,50
ft cho t3i dao dl)ng 1,80 1,44 2,18 2,39 2,50
295
Thl chuy xuyen (CPT)
Thiel bj va phtt<1ng phap thf chuy xuyen (CPT) dugc
trinh bay trong ffil;IC 12.5. Chuy dttQC an vao trong dat voi toe dQ
20mm/s va sue khang chity <lc do Ia ll;ic lCJn. nhat ghi I;p trong hie
xuyen cho tfch dau chuy. Chuy xuyen tieu chuan co dau
chuy nhQn goc dinh 60°, dul1ng kinh 35, 7mm cho tfch dau
chuy la 1 OOOm
2
; khi dau chuy co ao do ma sat, ong do nay
tlch (hinh trt.:t) la 15.000mm
2
.
Ma sat uach ClfC bi) fs dttgc do nhula sdc khang rna sat cho moi
ddn vi tlch tren ao do ma sat.
Beer va Martens (1951) de ngh! m()t so nen (ttt<1ng tl! -chi so
nen cua da:t dfnh trinh bay trong phan 6.2) :
C = 1,59c
rJVO
[11.29]
a day : <Ic - sue khang cua chuy (MN/m
2
) ;
() VO - ap ltjc qua cua lap phu (MN/m
2
)
D9 hin si U;ri trung tam m9t lap co be day H :
H- ()vo + Aq
si = C lg ( () ) [1 L30]
vo
iJ day : Aq - d() tang_ suat up tam ldp do-ap ll!c mong q ;
Ph1t<1ng phap nay dugc xem la danh gia qua cao gia
Meyerhof (1974) dtta ra pht1<1ng phap trQng nhanh :
" qnB
si = 2<ic
[11.31]
q
- () .
VO'
tri S-.
. I
<Ic- - sue khang cua chuy trung t;p d<j sau bang
chieu rqng mong B tu day mong. -
Co le phttdng phap ki htfmg va tin h<1n ca de t:lnh d9-liin
theo ket qua chuy xuyen (CPT) d11gc Schmertmann (1970) de xuat
va Schmertmann, Hartman va Brown ( 1978) bien doi thanh
sau day. Khoi cat lJ -dttoi mong d11gc chia thanh mqt so l{Jp
296
f
t
'
t
tai d9 sau tu day mong la 2B cho mong vuong va 4B cho mong
bang (L lOB). ROi tlnh bien trong moi lap nh11 sau :


q
- tY .
VO'
E - modun bien ;
-Iz- so anh hulJng bien <4tn%, tu hlnh

U.ng suiif t-ac di!n!J f!n= (/-a-;.,
Irmh 11-Is. He s6 anh ciia d<;mg ditng
(Theo Schmertmann, Hartmann va Brown, 1978)
297
D(> hin tdc thi:Ji dttQc tinh theo :
-
5
i = CIC2qn L E .dz
{J da:y cl va c2 Ia cac sO chlnh nhtt sau :
s6 chlnh de) sau C
1
= 1 - 0, 5 (t:F vo1q,? cho
qn (J' vo' cl = 0,5
sO chlnh tit bien c2 = 1 + 0,2lg (lOt)
a day t - thai gian sau khi tai (nam).
[11.32
[11.33.
[11.33:
Mooun bien E suy tit sdc khang xuyen cho trong ban_g
11- 7.
BANG il-7. QUAN HS GIUA Moou:N s1-eN vA sOc KHANG
lJI1l c6l ut thri-Jrg lJI1l c6l ,.a elf ut
Mong hinh wong
-
E = 2,5qc E = 5qc
(UB = 1,0)
M6Jig diii
E = 3,5qc E = 7qc
(UB > 1,0)
Co the ctanb gia d9 ben chong cat khOng thoat nttfsc theo quan
· · sau : ·
C- =
u
[11.34]
a day : Nk - M s6 cua chuy, ttt«Jng t1J s6 sdc cbiu tai N c·
Gia trj Nt thay diii theo hlnh va dau xuyen, tOe dq
xuyen ciing nhtt ijch sit dng suat va vi cau trtic clia dat. Gia -tri
Nk kien nghj nhtt sau :
Dat set co ket blnh thttoog Nt = 15 - 21
Dat set qua c6 ket va Nk = 24 - _30
298
t
I
i
I
I
.
I
I
I
I
r
Dat set song bang Vuong qu6c Anh Nk = 14 - 22
nen E'
0
cho dat set c6 the viet theo :
E
' 1
=- = aM'lc
0 Illy .
[11.35]
a day: s6 gia trj bm Sanglerat (1979) (bang 11-8).
De danh gia E'
0
tOt h.<fi:t, hay dung ket qua thl
oedometer phong va cac tr'11ng chi so, nhttng quan
rieng giua 'lc va E'
0
cung c6 ich khi danh gia nhilng thay doi ve
tfnh nen cUa dat.
BANG 11-8. MODUN NEN Dt1QC HI"SN BANG
s(Jc KHANG CUA CHUY
(theo Sanglerat, 1979)
B¢ vll set co Ut thbng thulmg<
1
)
Bt.ti va set tinh deo cao
set cO tinh deo tnmg binh hoij.c tMp
2
qc < 0,7 MN/m
qc > 0,7 MN/m
2
BtJi
8\li hW 00
Than bim
SO% < W< 100%
100% < w < 200%
w > 200%
81)i va set 8nh cleo cao
set cO tinh dOO tnmg binh hoij.c th3p
Bgi
CH.MH
CI.CL
MI.ML
OL
Pt.OH
CH.MH
CI.CL
MI.ML
a... = E 'lq
o c
2-6
2-5
3-6
2-7,5
3-10
2-6
3-7,5
2-10
1,5-5,0

0,4-1,25
. > 2,0
(MN/m1
1-2,5
1-3
Ghi chU : (1) Kho3ng aM bao g6m s6 lieu clia ldp ao chily va d3u Im1i cliuan ; gia trj
dan mfii (trung binh) cao h<Jn 25%.
(2) chi c6 s6 li.gu ldp ao chiJy
299
i
! .
• I
!-
Quan thi nghi(}m chiiy xuyen va xuyen tieu chuihl
(CPT va SPT)
_ D\!a tren gia trj N, bang each chuyen doi stlc khang cua chuy
co kha nang diuig cac phu<1ng phap tfnh sue chju tai cho phep khac
nhau. Vf d¥, Meyerhof ( 1956) de nghj la :
[11.36]
.
Cac quan trac sau do cua Meigh va Nixon (1961) cho thay m(>t
quan thay d6i gifta cat mj.n chtla bl}i ('lc = 0,-25N) va cu()i
tho (qc = 1,2N). Kha gan day, Burland va Burbridge (1985)
dl:la tttdng quan dtja tren nhieu quan trac qcfN va 00
trung D
50
. Hlnh 11-16 cho thay dl:long tttang quan trung blnh
cung vai vilng chtla cac ket qua.
Jhiiuck1n --
---
rru11f1 biiih --
----'><--
--
--
Miq I Trung
BVI CAT CUOi
11-16. Quan giiia CPT va SPT (theo Burland va Burbridge, 1985)
300
Vi dl}. mAu rt.9. Mt)t mong hinh vuong cq,nh 3,5m. dq,t tq,i dt)
sliu 1,5m trong l{Jp cat hq,t min (y - . 19,4 kN!ni
3
) . Mlf,c nztoc ngam
nl!m sau 3,5m. Trong khi khdo sat a truang, thi xuyen
chuan cho cite gia tri sau :
DC) sau theo BS (m) 1,5 2,2 3,0 4,6 5,4
Gia tri N 7 9 12 12 17 20
Dlf,a tren giOi hQ,n dt) ·zun tile thOi liL 25mm, xac dink s!lc-chtu
tai cho phep. -
Bdi gitii
Phuong phtip Terzaghi va Peck
Tn:lbc het, gia tr! N do dttQC chinh doi vm ap ll,_tc l{rn . phu,
roi tlnh gia trj trung binh cua d() sau m6ng va d() sau dttm do
bang be I'Qng m6ng.
N'
N'
DC)sau
UVO = )'Z
u a' N
eN
vo
trung
(kN!m
2
)
.,
(kN/m
2
) Z (m) (kN/m-) (hinh 11-10}.
binh
-
1,5 29,1 0 29,1 9 1,5 13,5
2,2 42,7 0 42,7 11 1,35 14,9
3,0 58,2 0 58,2 14 1,24 17,4 16,6 .
3,8 73,7 2,0 71,7 14 1,15 16,1
4,6 89,2 9,8 79,4 19 1.10 20,9
5,4 104,8 17,7 87,1. 23
-
VI the, theo hlnh 11-12 vbi B = 3,5m thl qTP = 164 kN/m
2
.
chlnh cho ml,.tc n1tbc ngam :
1 ( 3,6 )
- cw = 2
1
+ 1,5· + 3,5 -
0,86
. .
Do sdc ch!u tAi cho phep qa = 164 x 0,86 = 141 kN/m
2
.
301
Phuong phap Meyerhof (a) :
Gia trj N do trung blnh gifta z = D-va z = D + B Ia 13,4.
Theo hlnh 11-12 co qTP = 125 kN/m
2
Tang gia trj nay 50%, v1 the q
3
= 125 x 1,5 = 188 kN/m
2
.
Phuong phap ·Meyerhof (b) :
Dimg phttong trlnh [11.20b] cua Meyerhof vlri d() hin gilJi
sL = 25mm:
_ 25 x 16,6 ( 3,5 + 0,33) 2 _ kN/m?
qa - 2,84 - 3,5 - 175-__
Phuong phap Burland va Burbridge :
T11ong U:ng vm B = 3,5m, vilng co de} anh h11ong Ia :
zi = e
0

771
nB = exp (0, 77 X In3,5) = 2,6
Do gia trj N do trung blnh lay gifta z = 1,5 va z = 4,1 :
N trung blnh = 12.
Chi so nen Ic = 1, 71/12
1

4
= 0,0527
Neu d(> bin tllc then gim Ja 25mm, thl theo ph11<1ng trlnh [11.22] :
= sr. =
25
= 197 kN/m
2
qa B
0

7
I 3£11•
7
X 0 527
c ,
Do Ia gia tzi thl!c, vi phai them ap 11Jc l(Jp phu ban dau theo
phttong trinh [11.24a] se co sU:c chju tai cho phep :
2
q
3
= 197 +
3
X 29,1 = 216kN/m2
Vi mA.u 1 LIO. Mi)t m6ng hinh vuong cq,nh 3,0m di;,"t tq.i di)
sau 1,5m trong mi)t lap f:iLt hq,t trung - min (y = 18,4 kN!m
3
ua
Ysac. = 20,2 kN/m
3
). nu6c ngam sau 3,5m. Gia trt tai
trqng la 160 kN /m.
2
. Dung sue khang xu yen czia chity cho trong
hinh 11-17 de danh gia kha nang llin. -
302
BQi gi4i
st/C khan!T con, 9c(MN/mZ)
0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
2
7
z,::2B
8
2.1

5.1
6.4


H'mh 11-17.
Dung phttcJng phap clia Schmertmann, Hartman va Brown.
z = D, ()' vo 18,4 x. 1,5 = 27,6 kN/m
2
va c6: qn = 160 - 18,4 X 1,5 132,4

303
d<) sau B/2 dubi mong
z = 3,0m va 6' vp = Ly'z = 18,4 X 3 = 55,2 kN/m
2
Tham khao hln-h 11-15 :
I = 0,5 + 0,11}(132,4/55,2) = 0,655
p .
Vbi mong hinh vuong tren dat co ket thong thtti1ng, theo
bang 11-7 c6 E = 2,5Gc.
Luu y Ia lap tren cung mong h<1n Ia do d<) sau mong.
Dt) sau
Zr
Iz Iz&
liz (m) <lc (kN/m
2
)
-
(hinh
B E
z (m) zf (m)
- 11-12)
(m
2
/MN)
1,2 2,9
1,7 0,25 0,5 2,1 0,083 0,192 0,0182
2,7 1,2 1,4 5,8 0,400 0,544 0,0525
3,8 2,3 0,8 4,1 0,767 0,566 0,0442
4,8 3,3 1,2 5,1 1,100 0,455 0,428
5,8 4,3 0,8 . 8,4 1,433 0,344 0,0131
6,85 5,35 1,3 14,2 1,783 0,277 0,0083
2: = 0,1792
so chinh cho an chuy C
1
= 1 - 0,5 (27,6/132,4) = 0,896.
so chinh tu bien C
2
= 1,0 (ngay sau khi xay dljng).
Vi d<) l:Un tU'c thai :
Dung so chinh tu bien, d<) bin c6 kha nang trong tuung
Iai se Ia :
Sau 2 nam: C
2
= 1,26 nen s
1
= 26mm
Sau 5 nam: C
2
= 1,34 nen s
1
= 28mm
Sau 10 nam: C
2
= 1,40 nen s
1
= 29mm
304
·.
11.9 . . M6ng coc
dung mong CQC trong da:t xau hay ung nuoc da co til thai
tien "sil. Chung eli sti dl}ng CQC go la a cay thang va sau
Ia cac CQC dam dti<JC etta tit cay moi dEm va tuong tt_i da tim thay
trohg khao c6 hQc til thai van minh c6 xua nha:t cho tlii thai gian
k.ha gan day. CQC va kj dong CQC Stl d1p1g khoa hQC
va kj tien tien ; so qua trinh: cdng nhtt kj
ke da trCJ rat .tinh xao. 'fuy nhien, nguyen Cd ban dung
CQC thay cho cac d:p1g mong k.hac phan llin la giong nhau. __ Ia
m()t .sa bai toan mong dien hlnh rna m()t CQc co the cho ta m9t
Ioi gim quyet : ·
a) {) 1:\di }{Jp da:t sUC chju_tai tuOng xU'ng dang tin nam
qua sau cho dung mong nong rna co l<Ji ve kinh te .
., .
b) 0 n<1i m()t hay nhieu lop dat yeu It nam trijc tiep .
dttai cong trlnh.
., .
• c) 0 n<1i mQt hay nhieu lop dat nam tnJc tiep dttoi oong trinh
bien doi ve va tinh chat til wa den .
., -
d) 0 khu dat b! phan lap va trong mQt tntang h<Jp dat
d6c dung.
e) Khu dat d song hay ven bCJ chju tac d()ng cua song va thuy
trieu, bj xoi rUa, htQng ?J gan be m?t co the thay d6i._
0 Vai cac cang trlnh truyen tai trQng trung rat cao.
g) Vm cac cang trlnh truyen tai trQng nghleng ngang llJn.
h) Ym cac rong trlnh ma ket cau va tlnh nang cam v(Ji
lun khong !feu. ·
Ve each giai qt yet chi tiet cho CQC va phtt<1ng phap C!Qc
ngttai dQC pha.i tham khao cac sach Uen quan vlii qui trlnh kj
nen mong nhtt CUa 'lbmlinson (1986) hay Whittaker. (1976).
Theo quan. diem ve ca thiet ke va xay dt_ing, CQC dti<JC chia
thanh hai :
a) CQc dong hay cQC gay chuyen : CQC thltang che trulic
khi dong, ep xoan vao trong dat.
-
20CHDfl'2
305
b) Cqc khoan hay cqc thay the : Truoc phai khoan
lo, cQc duqc hlnh thanh trong lo do, thuang dung be tong
cot thep.
Armstrong (1973) cQng bo m(>t ban chi dan chQn Io;p cQc
- dttqc sap xep theo thU' tlj rat lQi._
Cach phan cQc khac la theo k.ha nang. truyen tlti trQng .
CUa CQC :
Cqc chOng (hlnh 11-18a) ; CQc dl)ng nht1 m(>t c<)t b! kiem
che hong, tlti trQng truyen tai mill cQC va dti<Jc chong bang sue
chju tlti ctia da:t.
- .,_ -
- -
a}
306
,
.oaf
geu
c)
Jrmh 11- 18. IOta nAng truyen tai trQng cU.a
a) CQC ch6ng ; b) CQC rna sat ; c) ket ch6ng va-ma sal
...
-/
t
r
f
t
r:
r
t
r
r
' ;.
I
.


Coc ma sat (hlnh 11-18b) : 'llli trQng truyen vao da:t qua l\{c
-d:lnh l\{c can do rna sat dQC theo· ben CQC. CQc rna sat
thuan tuy c6 chieu huang qua diU vi kha nang truyen tAi trQng la
ham so cua di(!n tlch ben CQC tiep xuc ydi Wit. Trang dat khong
dlnh cAt trung, d() ttlung doi til_ trung blnh den thap,
CQC ma sat thuifng dung de tang d() va do tang-d() ben
chong cat.
'fuy nhien, trong da so truang hgp kha nang truyen tai_ ti'Qng
ph\1 thu()c ca chong va ma sat thanh 11-18c). Cac dlptg CQC
khac cho nhflng bai toan chuyen mon Ia : cQC chtu keo (hiilh 11---I 9a)
de chong cho oong trlnh cao ; cQC rien (hlnh 11-19b) - cac
c()ng tnnh tren _song va cang ; va CQC chong cat {hlnh. 11-19c)-de
chong lljc hay chuyen d()ng nam ngang.
--
Theo quan diem thiet ke, l<Ji nha1 Ia chia CQC thanh hai
dau tien Ia CQC dong va CQC khoan, hoi vi each thtlc de co dU<JC
kha nang truyen tii trQng khac nhau dang ked moi COng·
. thdc d()ng hQC dung cho CQC dong va oong thdc tlnh hQC dung ·cho
§io/
/
#en
C)
-.
Irmh i 1-19. Cac CQC biet
a) CQC chju keo ; b) CQC xi en ; c) CQC chong cat
307
. . '
cQc khoan. Cong thuc tinh hQc cling c6 the dung cho cQc dong,
la lJ trong dat khong dlnh.
11.1 o. Cong thuc · cQc dQng
Sue khang tinh gilJi ella. CQC dtlgc dlj doan tu d<)ng hQC cua
ban than slJ thlJc dong cQc. D(>ng nang truyen tu bua thi
bang cong lam cho CQC xuyen vao trong dat. D(>ng nang thljc =
cong thljc trong khi xuyen.
: Ve c<1 ban, vlJi bua c6 trQng htQng W r<ri. til d(> cao h va gay ra
khoang sau la s thi tai trQng k.hang co theo :
Wh - ( t6n that nang htgng) = Rs
- /
T6n that nang ht<}ng la do Slj nay cua bUa, Slj nen cua CQC va
mu CQC, ina sat, va ella dat. M(>t so oong thuc dl.ta
ra c6 xet tat ca cac yeu to nay. VlJi d<) tin thay d6i can c6 m<)t
phuung trinh trong nhftng hoan clmh thu yeu cau d<) tin
thay d6i ; nhttng trQng tat ca. cac tntong trong
dat khong dfnh, cac ket qua phai t11ung thlch vm thl tai
trQng tinh thlch hgp. Ramey va Johnson (1979) da cong bo ket qua
khao sat ve Slj SO sanh thong lte ket qua tru tai vlJi
k.ha nang chju tai d11gc dl,.t bang nam trong so cac; cong thuc
hay dung nhat .
.. 11.11. Phuong trinh chju tai tinh cua coc
Phtt<1ng phap can bang tlnh cho thiet ke CQC phan nhieu giong
_ cho m6ng nong. CcJ sll la ly th':lyet dan hoi deo thong thuang
vai cac thong so d9 ben chong cat thoat ntldc khong thoat
ntlac. 81;.1 khac nhau chu yeu phat sinh tu th1;.1c the la dat day
va dQC theo thanh CQC thtioog {J sau dulJi dat.
Tai trQng dQC tr1:1c gi{Ji CUa CQC d<1n dti<JC coi }a tfing CUa
SUC chju tai dau CQC va lljc k.hang ma sat thanh CQC dl.tgc buy d(>ng
blJi tai trQng tac d1:1ng
= Qb +Qs- W
= Abq'b + LAsq's- W
[11.37]
308
r
f

a day : Ab va As - tlch day va- thanh CQC ;
qb - sue ch!u Uri cljc th-.;cc cua da1 dau C(_)C ;
q
5
- 1-.;cc dlnh 1-.;cc k.hang ma sat dQc theo thanh
da huy d(>ng .
W _ .. trQng·.htqng CQC - trQng luqng
dat thay the,
. • W = 0,25:n:d
2
L(y P - y) ;
d - duang klnh CQC ;
L - chieu dai CQC ;
Yp - dung trQng trung bJ.nh cua CQC.
Luu j rang, trong nhieu tru<mg hqp bo qua w v(1i C(_)C
go, nhttng dang quan tam trong truifng hqp CQC thep.
Dat khong clinh
SU:c ch!u tai ·gilli cua cat chu yeu ph1;.1 thu(>c vao d(>
tltcJng doi CUa dat, nhling neu CQC dong -vao thJ. CO h:tc lam
tang Dr. VI dieu do anh huc1ng dang ke tlli trung d(> ben chong
cat sau do, nen d-.;c doan kha nang truyen tai trQng bang cac
thong sO do dliCJC tru{Jc khi dong C(_)C tht.tong kho khan. Trang cac
truong hqp nh11 the, lien t11<1ng quan vdi ket qua thl .
tai Ia can thiet.
SU:c chiu tai cljc th-.;cc day CQC :
c1 day :
q'b =a'
o' v - ap 1-.;cc Idp phu qua ;
N - he so sU:c chiu tai-
q . -
[11.38]
Gia trj cua Nq da d11qc . Meyerhof (1976) va Berezantsev, ... ,
(1961) de xuat, gia trj ctia Berezantsev t11<1ng quan tot vdi gidi
hin d11Qc chap (hlnh 11-20).
Ll:.fc can do ma sat gay ra dQC theo thanh C(_)C bang tlch
thanh CQC nhan vui ma sat ngoai trung binh tong c<)ng cho
309

__ -....
25' 30• .Js·
6uc .t-.Qong cd'/, t;r'
H'urh 11-20. Gia tri ciJa Nq ·cho rong thiic CQC
(theo Berezantsev, ... , 1961)
· m9t nhom cac lap dat. Vai m()t l6p da cho, sue can do rna sat
ngoai tfnh theo :
a day:
310
l ______ _
qs = Kst) vtg o = f3li' v [11.39]
Ks - s6 ap hjc da:t ph1:1 thu()c nhieu vao d()
t1t<1ng doi cna da:t ;
tl v - ap bjc lap phu qua trung trong l<ip ;
<5 - goc rna sat giua CQC va dat.
_ ..... _
L\fc khang a day
va h_tc can do rna sat
thanh cQc du8i m<_>t
dt} sau xac dj.iili thi
khong bieu
tuyen tlnh v6i d<_>
sau. Dieu nay ·cd
ban Ia do hiE]u ung
vom trong da1 lien
quan vai dt}
tt.tdng doi -va tlnh
nen cua no. Do
klen nghj. rang, ap
l\fc qua cua lap
phu (trong pht.idng
trinh [11.38] va
[11.39]) chi tlnh
toan la tuyen tfnli
tai dt; sau gioi hq,n
zu d11ai do gia thiet
Ia hang so. Gia tr!
ctia zL cho trong hlnh
tt.idng doi Dr(%) va cp'.
,:;:




3
"'>
2

2 s s- ;u 2P .1o so· ;ou
Cn/eu r_,lng, Bfm)
Hinh 11-21. De) sau anh httong
(theo Burland va Burbridge! 1985)
11-21 tt.tdng quan gan dung vm dt}
Kh
- '
1 Z < ZL : 6 v = -yz - liz
Bang 11-9 cho cac gia trj. kinh nghi?m de nghj. ve Ks, <S va :i?-(!
SO ket h(Jp f3s cho CQC 00 tong va CQC thep trong cat. Trong th\fc te
vi(!c lay mciu nguyen_ d:plg de thl nghi(!m trong phong th11<1ng
khan nen gia trj kinh nghi(!m cp' lay theo thl nghi(!m tai
thl nghi(!m hi(!n trttC1ng.
311
B.)..NG 11-9. H$ SO MA SAT MAT NGOAI
.
/J
5
lg0
K 0
s
tp' = 250
f' ' = 40°
.
C9C be rong :
Cat r-di 1,0
0,75f''
0,34 0,58
2,0 0,68 1,15
C{JC rhep:
Cat r-di 0,5
2ft'
0,18
1,0
Dimg gUi tri N cila SPT dti.nh gill slic chiu tdi cila
Meyerhof (1976) dua ra tue1ng quan giU:a ltjc khang day CQC va
can ma sat vai gia tr! N (bang 11.10) ; kien nghi rang, gia tq
N trubc het duqc tieu chuan hoa doi vlli ap ltjc da:t phu mllc
do) Ia 100 kN/m
2
, dung chinh sau
CNP = 0, 77 lg (1920 / (J'v) [11.40]
a day : (J' v - h,_tc lap phu qua dQ sau do.
BANG 11-zo. sac CHlU TAI GiiH cuA coc vA GIA TRI N cDA SPT
(theo Meyerhof, 1976)

LoiJi C!JC Lot# dOt kluing CfEC luJn lT
day Cf!C qb (l:NJm
2
)
ain gwi IUJn lT
thiinh Cf!C q
5
(/cl{/m
2
)
.
..
.
Cat chila ru<)i 40 (Ud)N
-
Dong
cat
;;a:: 400N
2N
B\li chila cit 30(Ud)N
.
B\li (ML)
;;a:: 300N
Cu<)i 13 (Ud)N
-
Khoan
cat
;;a:: 130N N
B\li chila cit ·10(Ud)N
B\li (ML)
;;a:: lOON
I
a chi6.. qai
d - dt1dng kinh CUa CQC ;
N - gia tn N a gan mfii CQC ;
N - gia trj N trung binh dQC theo chieu dai an CQC.
* vdi CQC oo non ti"Qi qua I%, t .. 50%
312
r ,
- . - --
----- ----
>
I -
i
Dung giti tri stic klui.ng xuyen de x6c dinh sric chiu ttli ella CIJC
Vi slj -bien doi co huu cua tram tlch cat, can xac djnh gia tq
trung bi_nh khang xuyen a ph!a tren va dubi dau cQc. M{)t
· phuong phap da duCJc Heijnen. ( 197 4) de nghj :
[11.41a]
- [11.41b]
'let - gia tri trung trinh thap nhat cda qc dttbi dau cQC trong
khoang o;7d va 0,4d (tlnh thu m{)t -
<Jcz- gia trj trung binh cua qc trong khoang mill CQC va len
tren 0,8d.
..... . ·-
Quy trlnh ky Ha Lan dien hlnh Ia neu len cac gia tri gibi
cho q lien v(Ji gia trj tfnh dung phu<Jng trlnh [11.41a va
"b] va ijch Cu ung suat CUa Gia tii kien nghj (te Kamp,
1977) cho trong hlnh 11-22.
5 10 f5 2t1 Z5
6/q m.·r/hJ
Jrmh 11-22. Gia tri gidi cua si1c ch!u mfii-CQC trong cit va ru()i
(theo te Kamp, 1977)
du l1$c can fJ thimh co. the xac dinh theo gia tq rna sat ben
Cl:IC bQ, d:inh gia chfnh xac hdn can theo SU-C khang miii.
313 -
·:: : _.
t·:
. .: -
: .:
., .
.-.
...
.,
..
. .

l
• ,
I -
.. ·-. .
.. 4:
:· .

:U
• il ".
... J ;
-.::
'.l
'.
1 .
.. .
. .
: .. -
,: i..
.
.. .
•• !
..
. •.
l ;-
I
!-:.·=·
I .
....
' I •

t .>
I :
I.
L
L\lc can thanh CQC ctjc Qs - sp L 'lcn:d.AL [11.42]
0
d day :_. L - chieu dai CQC ;
. · . S - so ph¥ thu<)c cQc, gia tti de nghi cho cQC go
ran, CQC tong due san va CQC thep gay chuyen vj la ,
0,005 - 0,012 ; CQC thep miii CQC ha la ·0,003 - 0,008.
Cqc dcin trong dat 4inh
M(>t so yeu ·to quy tlj lam giam d() ben chong cat va ket
qua }a giam }tjc dfnh d quanh CQC, chang nhl1 CaU
cua da:t, bi yeu di-do nl!ac trong lo tit be tong tl:tai,
do tham cua nttCic lo rong. Thong thtti1ng, gia thiet dieu
khong thoat nl1<1c ton luc tai, nhl:lng cac cdu gan
day. cho thay rang slj tieu tan cua ap ll!c lo rong la kha
nhanh. Trong trnong hQp nay, hie cqc chju toan b() tai trQng, th1
c6 the gan dieu thoat nuoc han. Burland (1973) de nghi
--mgt phttang phap ap d¥ng Sl,_i phan tlch U'ng SUat qua dung
cac so kinh
LtJc chiu tAi miii CQC v&n lien v{Ji gia tr! d(> ben chong cat
khong thoat nuoc cu :
qb = cuNc [11.43]
_ .a day : Nc - gia t:rj cua Skempton, bang 9,0 khi LIB > 4
75 cho dat set nut ne, nhtt da:t set London.
Bien d6i til ph11ang trlnh [11.39], ma sat ngoirl di nhien
- ciing doi vbi U'ng suat qua :
[11.44]
- Gia trj. Ko ph1,.1 vao da:t, phtl<1ng phap CQC va ljch
sit ung suat ctia dat .
Lien voi thf gia tai thay Ia vbi dat set yeu f3 s rai vao
trong vi gia tti (0,25 ·tdi 0;4), bat ke dat set: Voi
dat set sft va qua co ket, co tinh phdc h<1n chu yeu
do s1_1 kh6 khan khi danh gia K
0
, gia tr! nay thay d6i theo d(> sau.
314
'· •
=· =· ---
Skempton va nhieu ngttoi khac cho thay Ia, vf d1:1 trong dat set
London, K
0
c6 the bang 3 a gan dat, giam xuong du:iJi 1 o d()
sau tren 30m.
M(>t gia trj giiJi du:lJi cua {3 s co the du:gc bang each gia
thiet t5 = fJ
7
d va du:a den
K
0
-:- 1 - sinfJ' d
/3
5
= (1 - sinfJ' d)tgq.>' d
[11.45]
a day fJ
7
d - goc khang cat thoat nu:ac khi cau true
'fuy nhien, tru tren CQC dong trong da:t set Lond9n._cho
thay gia trj fls trQng vi 0,8 den 1,0. Cole hgp ly Ia tiep t1:1c
sit dt}.ng gia trj '
trvng cua {3 s cho den
khi c6 cac phl1<1ng
phap c6 kha nang
cho s6 do K
0
tin
Ma sat a.m.
(tren ngoai)
Khi dong c<_>c qua
IlJp dat dap du:qc co
ket hay nen
du:lJi
trvng lugng ban
than, l(Jp dat a
d11m d11gc co ket do
trvng I11gng lop dap,
thl CO m(}t Sl;C keo
xuong tac d(>ng
len thanh CQC
(lpnh 11-23). Ma
sat_ ngoai gifia
CQC va dat do
tac d(>ng theo hul1ng
t
'16
Jruda 11-23. Ma sat ngoai am
·315
......
. -
: l
- .;s_-.
·-
'
. -
. ; -
! .
·;
·- -
t .. ·
l ·.
,j --- --
... -;"- -

- di xuong vi the t:li trQng len CQC tang len. Khi CO .ket tiep
gia tr! ma sat am_ ngoai tang len, vi ap ll!c lap phu qua
(j 0 tang len khi ap ntiCJC lo rong tieu tan. Dieu do dti<JC can
bang ngtie}C t{Ji vi nao do giam ap htc lap phu
qua do sl! truyen tai Uri. CQC. Burland (1973) de nghi gia tzi fJ = 0,25
la thlch hgp, It nha1 Ia cho dlch thiet ke S<1 bQ, trong dat set
- - co ket thong thtt<Jng.
Bieu thtlc tong quat cho kha· nang troyen tai tr9ng elia CQC chju
ma sat ngoai am Ia :-
[11.46]
11.12. SUe chju tai cua nhom CQC
, CQC thtiong thanh nhom vai khoang each giua cac tam CQC
dien hlnh {J khoang giua 2 va 5 Ian dttong kinh CQC. Cac dau CQC
dtt<;sc hQp nhat trong m(>t tam cung dai Ct:JC co tac
ep bUQC nhom CQC d(}ng nhu }a m(}t ddn vj nguyen khoi
la nhll cac cQC rieng Xu huang nay se khi khoang
each gan nhau hdn.
Sue chju tai toan bQ ciia nhom cQc n6i chung khong bang tong
sue chju ctia CQC rieng le. Ti so giua tai trQng gim trung bl.nh
-. -cua. nh6m CQC vbi tOng tai trQng giai'. cua CQC d<1D. dttQC cor Ia
sua:t CUa nhom CQC :
tai trQng glai cua nhom CQC
- - [11.47]
- N x tai trQng iiai CQC rieng Ie
lJ day : N - so cqc trong nh6m cQc.
N6i chung, du _gia thiei Slj- phan b6 tai trQng la dong deu
cho m()t vj trl tlti dQC cfing tac thil cho thay ro -
rang Ia CQC (J ·chu vi cua nhom phlti chj.u tai h<1n la CQC {1
. tt'ting tam.
Dat khong _ dinh
'lac dqng ctia dong CQC VaO trong dat cat la tang dQ tudng
doi va vi the chju tlti cua nhom CQC co the Ian hon tong cua
316
sU:c- chj.u rieng (c6 nghla > 1,0). Kien ngh! rang trong truong
hQp nay lay gia tJi = 1. Trong tnti:Jng hQp CQC khoan vao cat,
suat nho h<1n vi vilng bj cat ke cac CQC trilm len nhau nen gia
tr! thap, bang 0,6.
Dat dinh
Neu khoang each cac CQC trong nh6m Ia 2B tai 3B thl Sl.lat
khoang 0, 7. Kieu pha chac Ia pha khoi, trong d6 CQC va
dat giiia cac cqc duQc xem nhtt Ia m<)t tl'1:1 duong Idnh to. Phtt<1ng
trlnh cd ban cna tai trQng [ 11.37] dtt<Jc bien d6i nh11 :
[11.48]
a day : N c - gia tr! CUa lay theo hlnh 11-6 ;
cu - d() ben chong cat khong thoat nttdc d() sau D ;
B g - chieu l'Qng cua "khoi" nhom ;
Lg - chieu dai cua "khoi" nh6m ;
D - D() sa.u tdi day ctia nhom ;
cu - d() ben chong cat khong thoat nltdc trung· b!nh giiia
0 va D (m) d11oi mat dat.
C6 the gia thiet dieu khong thoat n11C1c cho thiet ke .
tieu tan ap n11dc lo r6ng se keo dai h<1n trong trtti:Jng hQp nhom ·
CQC. Neu CQC nam tren dat, tai trQng thiet ke phlli lay tr! sO
nho nhat trong 2 tr! sOla tai trQng cua nh6m Qu(nh6m) va
tong sdc chju cua CQC rieng Ie (Qu X N). Khi cac CQC rieng
2
re, trQng thiet ke khong dt.tQc qua
3

Vi dl} miu ll.ll. Mt;t c()C betong tiet vuong, cq,nh 400m
duqc dong tOi dt; sliu 12m trong dat dinh co cac dij,c trztng sau:
eu = 35 + 4,2 z kN!m
2
(z - dq siiu dztuf mij,t dat) ;
fJu = 0 ; y = 20kN!rn
3
.
317
:.
-
-..
.. " . :
.· .. : -
..
I
.. ; -.
.. · - -.

.. .
;: ·:
:! ..
..
r
..! -.. _
,.
-.. { .
l-

\t·
.
j J
·:· .. ..
i 1
.
.. i ..
• fr ..
.. - . 1
:i>
nuoc ngam tq,i d(j sau 3m. Hay tinh_:
a) Sue chtu tdi an toan cho cqc. Lay so an toan sau day :
3,0 doi v{Ji ll/.C chiu mui -CQC j 1,5 doi VOi pha hoqi, lftC can thank
cqc ; 2,5 doi vOi plui hoq,i cat toan b(j.
b) Sue chtu· tdi an toan chq nhOm cqc gom 9 cqc bo tri hinh
vuong, tam cqc each nhau 2,25m; lay M so an toim. doi vOi pha
hoqi, nh6m C(}C la 2,5. Tlnh suat czia nh6m CQC.
BQ.i gidi

z = 12m thl cu· =·35 + 4,2 x 12 . 85,4 kN/m
2
.
a) Lljc chju 4au CQC (phttong trlnh [11.37] va [11.43]) :
Qb = Abqb = .
= 0,400
2
X 9,0 X 85,4 = 123kN
L\{c can thanh CQC (phttong trinh [11.37] va [11.44])
Qs = A. <Is = A.P (jvo.
Ung suat ·lap phti trung vo = 20 X __6 - 9,8 X 3 = 90,6kN/m
2
.
Gia thiet
f3 = 0,4
' .
Q
5
. 1,20 X 0,40 X 4 X · 0,4 X 90,6 = 696kN
Dimg cac s6 an toan :
123 696
Tii trQng an toan Q > 3 +
2 5
= 319kN,
'

Q. > l 23 2+5 696 = 328kN.
'
VI the Q an toan = 319kN
b) Pha nh6m CQC :
z 12 .
B=225=
5
,
33
g '
318
l
iJ·1·



F
..
..
\
\.
Nc = 5,14 X 1,2 [1 + 0,053 X 5,33)
112
] = 9,45 ;
Nc = 9,0 (gia tti Ion nhat)
D() ben chong cat trung bl.nh
cu = ! (35 + 35 + 4,2 X 12) = (j0,2kN/m
2
.
Phu<Jng [11.48] :
= 9,0 X 85,4 X 2,25
2
+ 60,2 X 2 X 12(12,25 + 2,25)_
= 10393kN
10393
T.ii _trQng an toan Qs =
2 5
= 4157kN
'
Pht1<1ng trlnh [1 1.4 7] :
10393
suat ?; = 9(123 + 696) = 1,41
D9 lun cua nhom CQC
-D9 hin ella nhom cQC trong ca. dlnh lin khong dlnh deu Ion
h<Jn d() bin do m()t cQC rieng le. Nham danb gia d() bin thttiJng xem
2
. xet nhtt Ia m()t m6ng be tztong duon.g d()
3
D, D Ia d()
0
r7 \
J{i \
dl 1 1 r 1 1 1
Along !Je 7111Hifl
r/1/dng
Jruth 11-24. D() It1n cila nhom CQC
319
•.
;
..
;:
i ..
chon sau cua (hlnh 11-24). tlch CUa mong be ttt®g dU<1ng
dttgc xac djnh bang gia thie't Ia tai trqng trai ra tu plila dttbi ella.
dai CQC theo ti 1 (ngang) : 2 (dung). D() hin do mong be ttt<1ng
du<1ng ch!u tai dong deu dttQc tlnh theo each thlch hgp v6i cac·
thong so tu thi trong phong thl xuyen
cho.
1 • .x.ic djnh sUe chju tai ClJC h<;m thtjc CUa IilQt m6ng Mng cO I'Qng 2,5m san
dtldi cUt 1,2?m trong ldp set day c6 cic trung:
Cu = 88kN/m
2
; rpu = 0.
2. M()t m6ng c6 2,4m c:fc) sau 2,8m trong dat c6 cac
trung sau:
xac djnh:
a) site cb.ju tai gi6i h<;m thtJc ;
b) sue cb.ju tcii an toan, lay hi; s6-an toan Ia 3,0
3. M6ng ciJa lll()t thap hinh trim c6 d11t1ng kinh 18m de? sau 2,5m. Cac
trung ciJa. dat : .
.... :.
c' = 0 ; rp' = 34°, y bao hoa = 21 kN/m
3
, y thoat nu& = 19.kN/m
3
.
xac djnh sllc chju tai Cl,[c b<;m thtjc khi mljc mt& ngam : .
a) mm s&u dt!di m6rig ;
day m6ng ;
, c) dat.
·4. Mc?t m6ng dai 12m, I"Qng 3m xay dtJng trong IIK)t d3p quai dt!di dt:<lng
vet bim san 1,8m. D3t a> cac trung sau
c' = 0 ; 'I'' = 32° ; )'sat. = 20kN/m
3
.
Tinh sftc cb.ju tai CtJc h.c;m tOng cho dieu kien khi ml,fc nt!& ngb1 is dtf<lng
vet bim 1,5m v3 c6 dong tMm di lbl ditng, v6i gradien thiiy ltJc Ia 0,25.
s. xac dinh n)ng cUa m6ng tmJg can chuyen mQt tcii tiQng ph.An b6 deu 13 600kN/m
trong cic hoan cimh sau day (MtJc nt!&: ng3m mm san d116i day m6ng, lay he s6 an toan
doi vdi ph.a. clt Ia 3,0) :
320
_,
a) 0(> sau mong Ia 0,5m; cu = 80kN/m
2
; f'u = 0; y = 18kN/m
3
.
b) 0() sau m6ng Ia 4,5m; cu = 80kN!m
2
; 'Pu 0; y = 18kN/m
3
.
c) 0() sau m6ng Ia 0,5m ; c' = 0 ; tp' = Jo
0
; y = 20kN/m
3
.
d) 0(> sau m6ng Ia 4,5m; c' = 0; tp' = 30°; y =

6. M(>t m6ng hinh vuong d(> sau 2,6m se truyen m(>t tai trQng dong deu Ia
2,6MN. Uly he s6 an toan Ia 3,0, xac djnh kich thude' cua mong yeu cau. cac
trung ctia :
2 3
Cu = 64kN/m ; tpu = 0; y = 19kN/m.
7. M(>t mong chii 10 X 5m dt1<;Jc thiet ke vdi s6 an toan Ia 3,0 truye_r:t tai
trQng d&ng deu 86,6MN trong dieu thoat nUde hoan toan vao co cic
trung sau:
c' = 0 ; tp' = 35° ; y = 20kN/m
3
; }'saL = 22kN/m
3
a) xac djnh d(> sau m6ng thich h<Jp;
b) Xac djnh d(> giam tinh ra phan trnm ella kha mng tai trQng do mtjc nUde
ngam dang len tdi :
- phia dUdi m6ng
c) Tinh s6 an toan neu tai trQng Ia 86,6MN va xay ra hai _dieu kien nhU db).
8. M(>t bai thai dai 120m. r(>ng 60m dt1"C thi rong tren m(>t ldp bl,li ooi tich -
mang cO cic trung sau :
2
Cu = 24kN/m ; tpu = 0; y = 18kN/m"'.
Gia Ia goc doc cua suiJn set nhao dinh Ia 45°, trQng lt1<Jng ddn
vj diit thai Ia 20kN/m
3
, My hi; s6 an toim Ia 2,0, xac djnh chi&! cao an toan 16n
cua bai diit.
9. M()t m6ng 1m1g c6 be! r(>ng 2,5m d(> sau 2,0m. s6 an toan d6i vdi pha
h<><.,li cit Ia 3,0 va d(> lun khong dU<JC Vt1<Jt qua 50mm. xac djnh sue chju tai cho pbep
khi m6ng frong cic ldp sau (gia tbiet be day d dUdi m6ng Ia 28).
a) d* Ia set ooi tich ylu :
eu = 35kN/m
2
- ; tpu = 0 ; y = 28kN/m
3
; mv = 0,92m
2
/MN ; Eu = 5MN/m
2

b) Ia set tang sit :
c' = 25kN/m
2
; f!J' = 22° ; y = 20kN/m
3
; m.-

; E'o = 22MN/m
2

21 CHDff2 .
321
c) cit chlia ru<)i
c' = 0; '{)- = 32°; y = 20kN/ m
3
; E"o = 145kNtm
2
-
10. M<)t m6ng be tron c6 dtldng kinh 15m d<) sau 4.5m. Ml,!c nlldc ngam nfim
rni;t dat 2,5m va lop dat set h(ji qua co ket day ro cic trung sau day:
Cu = 32kN/m
2
; '{Ju = 0 ; y = 18kN/m
3
c' = tp" = 24°; E'o = 55kN/m
2
Xac d!nh sl1c chju tai cho phep doi voi ci dieu kien khong thoat nllac tl1c thdi l-in
dieu kit;n thoat nllOc Iau dili, n6J ht; s6 an toan doi voi pha cat yeu clu Ia 3.0 va
d<? lun trung binh khong qua 60mm.
11. cat ngang CUa m<)t mong thay d hinh 11-25. Cac trung thich iing
CUa dat nhll sau :
3
dat cit : c' = 0 ; tp' = 32° ; r = 19kN!m-' ; fsat- = 2lkN/m ;
dat set : eu = tpu = 0; y 19kN/m
3
.
Nfu he; s6 an toan doi
voi pha cat cho ci set
vii cit Ia 3,0, tinh siic chju
tai an toan q
5

12. M()t m6ng be
r-Qng 4m de} sau 4m_
Thi nghiem xuyen lieu
tien hanh d<? sau
I<
- /
·Col
;o.f
'
_?i;Y cho gia tri N chtia hi¢.1
chinh Ia 16. Tim gia tri
chinh cho N' va ltr do
-r- - "-<- • ..!..:._- - , - - - - - - ,..-. -
==-- -- !.--; --:-_ -_:... .-:
- danh gia sl1c chiu tai cho
Hinltli-25
- phep cho m6ng khi ml}c nllOc ngam :
a) mm sau dtloi day m6ng ;
b) dtioi dat I ,6m.
(TCQng d(jn vi cua dat Ia I9kN/m
3
).
13. M()t m6ng be hinh vuong, qnh 5m tai d<? sau 3,5m trong m()t lop cat
day; ml,fc nlloc ngam duy tri d t10i dat khoang 1,8111- Trong khi khao sat iJ hic;n
trudng cac gia lri N cht1a hit;u chinh ghi dll<Jc lrong m()t thi nghit;m xuyen lieu
nht1 sau :
322

09 sau dt!di rnttt dat tm) 1.5 2.5 35 4.5 55 65 7 5 8.5 ').5 10.5
Gia tr! N 10 11 15 18 24 26 2'1 31 34 36
y thoat miik = I9kN/m} ; y hao hi>a = 2lkN/m
3
.
Xac djnh sifc chiu tai cho phep.
14. M<)t m6ng be tron kinh 8m d<) sau 2.4m truyen ap hJc xuc Ia
vao ldp cat chifa day. Ml)'c nt!ik ngam iJ dt? sau 3.5m. Tn;mg lt!Qng ddn vj
cua ca.t chila Ia: y thoat mi<k = 17.5kN/m
3
, y bao hoa = 19.4kN!m
3
. Dung h,Jc khang
xuyen cho dt!di day. danh gia d<) lun ella mong theo pht!dng phap Schmertmann. J:laitman
va Brown.
D(>s3u (m) 2.5 3.2 4.0 4,8 5.6
().6
7.6 8,6
.,
qc(MN/m-) 2.1 2.8 2.6 2.9 3.5 4.2 4, 1 6,2
D()sau (m) 9.6 10.6 11.6 12.6 13.6 14.6 16.6 17,6
..
qc(MN/m-) 6,8 7.5 8,6 8,1 102 10.9 11,4 13.2
15. CQC khoan dtiiJng kinh 600mm d¢ sau lOrn trong m()t ldp set cifng c6
cic trung dung sau day :
DQsau (m)
Dq ben ch6ng cat
khong thoat nt!dc(kN/m
2
)
2.0 '4,0
..
34 _ 36
5.5
42
fJu = 0 ; {J = 0,6 ; y = 19,6kN/m
3
.
Ml)'c ntiik ngam d() sau 2,5m.
He; s6 an toan yeu diu nhti sau :
7.0 9.0 10.5 i2.5
49 61 7 1 85
Toan bQ = 2,5 ; h)c chju miii CQC = 3,0 ; hJc cin thanh cqc = 1,5 ; pha nh6m
CQC = 2,5.
a) Tinh sue chju tai an toan dtJ tinh cua m<)t CQC ddn.
b) Tinh silc chiu tili an toon dtJ tinh ctia m()t nh6m 4 x 3 tam cich nhau 1,2m.
c) Tinh suat Clla nh6m CQC.
323
Chuang 12
KHAO SAT HleN TRuONG VA THi
TRUONG
12.1. Pham Vi va ml)C dich khao sat truong
K.hao sat truang ki luang va toan Ia cong chuan
bj toi can thiet cho thiet ke va thi cong m()t cong trinh xay dl!ng
dan dl}.ng. Co va cong trinh se anh. huang tai vi khao
sat va khong m()t cong trlnh_.riao rna khong can khao sat ngay ca
cong trinh nho nhat cung dugc--baq _dam bang m()t so khao
sat ·truang. Tieu chuan tlN:fc cua Anh BS 5930 : 1981
......... . . .
cho m()t cac·ml}.c tieu cua kbao._sat truang nhu sau :
a) Danh gia Slj thlch hqp chung cua k.hu dat va moi trui1ng cho
cong trinh yeu cau.
b) Cho phep chuan bj dugc m()t thiet ke day du va kinh· te, bao.
gom· ... ca. thiE!t ke cac cong trlnh thai. ·
c) Dll kien phtldng phap xay d\ing tot nhat : thay truac va dlj
phong cac kho khan va c6 th€ nay sinh trong khi . xay
dtjng.do dat va cac dieu ClJ.C b{) khac.
d) xac d!nh nhftng bien doi co the phat sinh trong c:tat va dieu
moi trui1ng, do tt;r nhien Ia ket qua cua cong trlnh
va anh hli<lng cua cac bien doi do tbi trlnh, cac rong trlnh
Ian va moi truang noi chung.
e)- 0 nai c6 nhieu each llja chqn, thl kien nghj ve 811 thlch hgp tt:lcmg
doi ctia. cac vi tri khac nhau, ho?c cac phan khac nhau cUa cimg khu dat.
N goru ra, khao sat can thljc khi phai bao cao
ve kha nang an toan cua cac cong trlnh da co, khi ke
324
- ------
- -. 0
I
I
j
./
thay doi cac cong trlnh dang ton t::,U, khao sat _ cong trlnh bj pha
ho::,U va tim kiem nguon xay dl,tng.
Hau nhu: khao sat can hoan thanh trttoc giai thiet ke
cua m()t rong trlnh, dii co dOi phan chong goi len nhau,
trong truifng hQp cac cong trlnh chlnh va a n<1i doi hoi thl
_ nghit?m truifng.
Khao sat khu dat lien quan vai cong trlnh hung binh tai se
gom m()t so giai Cac giai lien qua toan b() -va co
thtg g6i len nhau theo trlnh tl,t khong giong nhau thy
khac nhau cua khu da1 va c6ng trinh. Qua trinh toan, bQ. c6
the co nghla Ia so tu m()t giai c6 the can lam
theJ;U 0 cac giai khac va do c6 the tiep tgc trong suot
chl ca sau ket thuc hqp dong.
a) Nghien cllu van phong: Chti yeu thu thong tin bao quat
lien quan tifi khu da:t nhu ban do, cac ban ve ; cac chi tiet ve slj
ton t?i ljch sir phat trien, thong tin ve chlnh quyen dja phudng;
ban do d!a chat, ki yeu, cac tai htu gift ; cac chi tiet ve
cac nganh phl}c V\1 cong c()ng, djch V\1, nhftng ngan cam, quyen uu
tien, chu nhan cua bat d(>ng san nam ke, anh tren khong (mqt
danh sach toan thong tin va cac tai duqc cho trong
BS5930).
b) Khdo sat khu dat : Rat can thiet nho cac chuyen gia thlch
hqp tien nghien cU'u ban dau- nhu dja chilt, do dja
hlnh,-tho nhuong, thtiy van ... Can thu cac thong tin ve S<1 do
bo trf toan bQ cong tntang, dja hl.nh, C<1 SO dja chat ; chi tiet ve
dttang vao, loi vao va chieu cao giai Phru xem xet cac dieu
d!a phu<1ng nhu khl dong chay, dieu nuoc ngam, s lj
sir dl}ng khu dat c6 lien quan vf1i khl va thai gian cua nam.
0 ndi c6 the thljc dugc, phai gift cac di anh.
c) Khdo sat chi khu dat va lay mau: Khao sat chi tiet ·ve
dj.a chat va thai cua dat 0 duoi da:t bang do ve tren
ho tham do, cong trlnh khai dao, lo khoan, do sau, phU:<1ng phap
dja H khi thlch hQp ; khao sat thai nu{Jc duoi dat trong
suot mt)t thai gian kha dai (c6 the ca sau khi hoan thanh c6ng
trlnh), nghien cdu cac cong tnnh da co va gan ke c6 da:u nut
325
_,-
ne lun ; vj trf cua cac cong trinh nga:m hang d(>ng, ong
ngam, cong trinh djch V\}, . . . ; CUDg cap mau cho nghien CUU
them va thl trong phong.
d) Thi nghi?m, mau trong phong: Thl mftu nguyen
va mau khong Dguyen do cac d()i 0 truong dua ve ; th}
dat (khi djnh ro) da phan lo:;ri, trttng, tinh tham, d(>
ben chong cat, tlnh nen, . . . ; thl tren loi va mau da ve
cttong de? vade? ben ; thi xay dtjng, nhu tl so chju
tru California CBR, thl nuoc duoi dat ; phan tlch hoa hQC
va hQC.
e) Thi nghi?m hi?n trz.tlmg: Tien hanh thf lJ vj tri xay
dl!ng truoc trong hJ.c xay dljng; thi dat nht! cat canh,
xuyen tieu chmtn, xuyen tlnh, ban nen ; ep hong; thl chju
tlti ella cong tr.lnh nhu thl nen c<_>c, tAi trqng cho phep toi
da, quan trac chuyen vi.
f) Bao cao ket qua: Cac chi tiet nghien cuu dja chat bao gom
cau true, dja tang va ban do; ket qua khoan- gom co ·mat cat
lo khoan, cac chmtn cho mau va giai trinh dja tang khi yeu cau ;
cac xet va kien nghj lien q uan to! thiet ke va xay d\fng cua
cong trinh dt1 djnh, nhftng kien nghi lien quan den khao sat
va thf them va ve tien hanh giam sat trong khi xay dl,.tng
va sau khi thanh cong trlnh .
.. vi va IDlJ.C d}ch cua khao sat khu dat se phtJ. thu()c m()t
phan vao ban than dieu tl! nhien cua vi tri va m<)t phan vao
cong trlnh. So lttQng cac truong hgp va hoan vi khac nhau di
nhien Ia vo cung ; cac vi sau day se dung de chi ra vi
khac nhau r()ng nhu the nao :
. Cac loq,i khu dat xay
a) Tq.p trung .• :Sao gi)m thanh pho, nong thon mil r()ng, vilng nlii,
dong bang bai ·ooi, thung lung sang, ven bien, cang, vilng xa bo.
b) Keo diLi : Dubng bQ, duong sat, duong ham, ong tieu nuoc,
dubng ong, kenh, dttbng truyen tai oong St$ phong thu ven bien.
Cac loq,i cau tnic : Mai dang ton ; nhieu tang hay It
tang, cac cong trinh - ket cau khung, ket diu khoi, tr<_>ng
326
f_: .·
.. -
r.
i _

:. ... nha a, cong sa, nha may, kho tang, nang lugng,
. . . li(Ju - thep, be tong cot thep, be tong ung suat tru{Jc, cong
trlnh bang go, ...
Chi phi khao sat ro rang Ia tuy theo vi va dfch cua
cong vi(Jc thljc va chju lmh huang cua vi tri xay
d-.jng. Lay theo phan tram cua gia tr! toan b() hQp dong thl chi phi
noi chung m()t phan nao It han v{Ji d1J an l{Jn han va a noi co dieu
nen da:t tot; theo quy chung thl con so nam trong khoa:p.g
0,2 va 2% ctia tong kinh phi. .
12.2. vi va dQ sau khao sat a truang
het thong tin hqp trong khi khao· sat a truong deu
lien quan v{Ji tram tlch dat va da (J du{Ji dat. M\IC tieu toan
Ia nen m9t bU'c tranh ba cua khu dat keo dai theo
phuong thang dung va nam ngang bao gom tat ca eac l{Jp chac
chan hi anh huang do cac bien doi khi tai, do cong trlnh dlj
kien gay ra.
De dUQC vi bao ham thfch dang, kholmg each eac ho
tham do lo khoan can dlja tren xem xet ca cong ttinh
hay r<)ng, cao hay thap, hay ... ) Ian ban chat cua
dieu ki(Jn nen dat ( da hay. dat, ran hay mem; dong nha:t _hay phan
l{Jp .. .). Phai khoan cac diem chien luQc lien quan den sa do cua
cong trlnh nhu a gan cac goc, gan cac diem co tai trQng gan
cac vj tri d(> lun phai dugc che. Trong dieu dong deu va
dong nhat, lo khoan co the each nhau toi 1OOm ; trong dieu
co bien doi theo ph iiOng dU'ng va phuong ngang khoang each giam
tuong ung trong c: i.e tntong hQp nghiem trQng· khoang each gilun
t{Ji khoang 5m.
D(> sau khao sat chu yeu lien quan v{Ji da:t, da co va
tlnh cam ve nen duoi tai trQng cua chung. Co the co dugc
slJ chi dan lQi (dung la m()t chi dan chu khong phai la m()t
dieu bang each tlnh dq tang dl! doan cua ung suat thang
dung. D!a tang chac chju S\1 tang ung qua thang
dung Ia 10% ho?c han, phai o trong d¢ sau khao sat. M()t each don
gian han, nhung di nhien khong tin nhu tren, la theo quy tac
327
J
ngon tay em : tien hanh khoan sau it nha1 1,5 Ian be r9ng cua
- mong ; trong viEJc giai trlnh nguyen taG chl nay din tr<;>ng
I .
{f n<1i · c6 mong (xem m\}c 6.16).
d3_, quy <ijnh dang tin la_tiep t\IC k.hoan vao da
khong bj phong hoa it nha:t 1,5m. Trong tat ca. trubng hQp, m()t It
lo khoan phai khoan-sau han nhieu de cac lap yeu khong muon c6
khong bj b6 s6t.
phuong phap khao sat khu dat
Trong khi chQn cac phttang phap khao sat cho khu dat, co bon
- nhom yeu to can dugc xem xet. -
_ a) DiJ,c trZfng dta chat cua vt tri : Trong dat set, khao sat
kha thi nhat-la "lo khoan ; -trong dat cat c6 the can cac lo khoan
theo hang cung voi thiet bj lay mAu ; ho tham do chi kha
th1 trong dat cdng da yeu a tren ml,;lc nuac ngam ; trong
da cung, khoan lay loi toed() sau thfch dang, nhung khoan trong
da cho It thong tin ve cac trttng cau ilh.u hlnh dubng
ranh giai.
b) DiJ,c tntng dia hznh cua vi tri : Ca <ija- h!nh va loi vao
khu dat ·deu quan trQng theo quan diem di chuyen thiet bj khao
sat ; trong vung doi vj tri dOc dung, lo dQC dao c6 It nhieu
dQ nam ngang lgi han la khoan thang dung ; trong vilng I
sung-.ntiac dam lay can thiet tien hanh m()t so rong chuan,
bj trttoc nhti lam dubng cho khao sat chac chan, ...
Loq,i thOng tin yeu cau : Phan Ion ca ngul1i thiet ke va nguoi
xa,. __ dljng_quan tam den St! cO va ban chat cua dat dad duoi
da:t, nht!ng doi khi can cl cac thong tin chuyen mon: chi tiEft
hlnh aUbng ranh dong n110C ngam, Slj cO CUa cac
the hi chon viii (ttJ nhien hay nhan vj _ tri cua- pha
trubc day, ...
d) Kink phi ua tiWi gian : Thlibng th11l1ng khao sat sau han thi
se tieu ton kinh phi va thifi gian nhieu han ; hau ·het kinh phi giam
khi so ho tham do tang len ; yeu to thai gian phai xem xet trong
giai dl,;l an.
328
- -------- - - ------:---:----:--- -_..,.--,,-----:-
·.
Hotham. do
Trong dat dfnh va da mem yeu a tren mljc iutdc ngam, ho tham
do · truch hgp hon k.hoan ; chung dao vai m{)t may CO. hQC
hay ngay ca. bang tay, va c6 ttu diem la d8 nghien cuu bang mat
19 ra lien- t\IC CUa dja t ang .. Nhligc die m chu yeu Ia -gibi t8i
d() sau 2 - 3m ; dao them bang tay ho c6 the sau hdn chut ft.
_Thanh clia ho tham d?J phai dligc chong da day du, ngay ca kh.i,
, chung c!ii de l(> trong thili gian ngan ; CO-the can thiet :in()t
v&i bam n11ac, trong-da ·va dat tham nuoc. Mau c6
the a day va .thanh ho. Ho tham do -thu<mg fch lgi
trong dat chua -da tang, da. -cu(>i, khi quan trac :ritibc dlibi dat -va
khi tlm vj trl cac ·o-ng va cac cang trlnh d_!ch V\1 b! chon viti.
'
LO·dQC
LO dQC ( ciing gQi Ia
d1ii1ng ham) dliqc dao
. hau nhu nam
. a nc:fi doc
dung vach nui
hay trlibc mo da,
til day cua gieng
lo. Chi ph! dao lo dQc
( va dao a gieng lo
Ia rat cao, hon nita
dii.O nay kho khan
trong da:t riJi hay a
dubi mt_;ec n:ttbc ngam.
·no Io" dQC it khi ·-
dligc dung, tru khi
khao sat ch"Q.yen mon
nhli · d11<mg ham thl
diem, do ve khao sat
ham ino a ne1i
phuong- . phap khac
khong thlch hgp.
,.,._--
-..,
ob tl utf.?!J
iinh f r oi'J_!/
3 8 mm
a)
I!)
Kmh I 2 - 1. Khoan tay va dl)ng Cl) lay IJl_jU
. a) miii khoan I wan ; b) ong mfui 38mm
329
-,
Khoan tay
Khoan tay (con gQi tq,o lo sau, khoan I wan) Ia m<)t d\}ng
Cl_l lam bang tay dan gian dung de khoan vao dat ylfu toi dQ
sau Ion nhat 5 - 6m. phd bien gom co mui khoan da:t set
naa hlnh t111 duang kinh IOOmm qua m<)t can dai lm gan voi
_m<)t thanh ngang c6 the quay bang tay lJ tren da:t (hlnh 12-
la). De lay m&u, thay mill khoan da:t set bang ong mAu 38mm gan
vbi m<)t ong noi go truQt (hlnh 12 - lb). Nang can dai, lap ong noi
va day no xuong duoi, ong mAu dttQc dong vao trong dat day
ho. R.Oi quay thanh ngang de lam dut dau day cua va dung
ong noi dong ong mftu len.
May khoan
Phuang phap ong vet ong miic) Ia phuang_ phap sit d-gng
rt)ng rai nhat lJ Vuang Quoc Anh ; thiet hi tuang doi dan gian,
/
Thap/.fJoan
,
. -.... /
llngchong
-Dih;(ho;;n
CJJ
9
mn:, 12 - 2. b! khoan -
a) gifm khoan va tiJi ; b) ong hut ; c) lt!di khoan cit set ; d) cai dl,IC
330
r
f
.
'
mang va gift dugc toed() cua qua trinh khoan trong da:t tu yeu t{Ji
rat cung khong chua da tang, cu()i soi. Duong ldnh lo khoan thong
nhat Ia 150mm nhung co the khoan dubng klnh khac len
t{Ji 300mm ; d() sau khao sat l{Jn nhat, mij.c du co phan hi ph1:1
thu()c vao dat la trong khoang 50- 60m.
Thiel bj gom c6 m()t gian khoan, m¢t tbi may (hinh 12 - 2a)
va m(}t b() d\lng C\1 khoan. Khi dung phttang phap khoan b()
d1:1ng C\1 da_ hip rap dtiQC t(1i nang len khoang 1 m tren day ho _-roi
cho rai xuong du{Ji trQng ltiQng ban than va nhti the se dong ong
' cat vao trong dat. Khi ong ca.t day da:t thl dugc nang len tai
dat, day co the lay bj xao d()ng chua trong ong ra.
Luiii khoan cat set (hlnh 12.2c) la m()t ong t111 day he) v6i ranh
c) thanh va-m()t chan cat CO the thao rili dau du{Ji ; dl:lng Cl:l-
nay dti<JC dung rieng cho dat_ set trong cac lo khoan kho. Doi khi dftng
luiii khoan xoan cho dat set th"i luoi xoan dugc xoay bang tay de
khoan xuong, no dung de vet day ho trubc khi hiy
- .
Dung ong vet hay ong muc-(hinh khoan trong cat va
cu()i. Do cling la m(>t ong tr'\1 (khong co ranh) day he) vbi m(>t chan
cat co the thao lap va co ghep m()t van canh nho. Van canh nho
bao dam rang roi hoij.c dung djch set long dugc
trong ong vet khi keo len t{Ji mij.t dat. Trong dat khong dfnh chij.t
a noi da tang, da cu(>i soi, dung choong (hlnh 12 - 2d)
de pha VO ran ; roi cac mim.h Vl:ln va dung <ijch set long
dugc chuyen len bang ong vet.
Trong dieu am, dat risi va ho co d() sau l<1n, phm dij.t
...,
ong chong a gan mij.t da:t. Ong chong thuang Ia cac ong thep dugc
noi vdi nhau bang ren chieu dai tmch hQJ!. va dUQC klch hoij.c
vao trong ho khoan khi tien hanh khoan. Ong chong dugc keo
ien sau khi khoan xong hoij.c de neu can de quan trac them.
Khoan xoay
Khoan xoay hanh bang may dugc tren xe o to de
mang di va phuang phap khoan linh N goai khoan cho
m\IC d:lch khao sat, chung con dtiQC dung trong oong tac CQC; san
co nhieu va phieu ldch ca, til t6 may nho dij.t tren may keo
thong thuang t6i may lbn ¢ kha nang khoan sau tbi 50m v6i m()t
s6 h.toi khoan duailg klnh l6n tai 2m.
331
\
J
'rhttang dung luiii khoan -canh (guong xoan) hay luoi khoan
gau. Lttai kJtoan canh ngan (hlnh 12 - 3a) gom c6 m{)t htai dao
'
!
..
C)
Kmh 12 - 3. LU8i khoan xoay
a) Iuai khoan cinh b) Iudi khoan ci.nh lien t1,1c; c) lUdi khoan gau
xoan oc c6 chieu dai nho g3.n vao than vcn. cac rang cat va
m{)t miii khoan drut htt6ng dttang .Idnh nho dau dtlm, thl1ang
san :.co lttai dttang Idnh khoang 75 va 500mm, v6i m{)t so thiet bj
dttOn.g kinh xoan Ibn tm 1m. Vm m()t so mui khoan
loo h<1n, canh xoan chi di m{)t duang xoan thl dttQc gQi Ia htai
khoan canh dan. Lum khoan canh lien tl!-il (hlnh 12 - 3b) duQc
diin!fc6 .the cat dat dt!a len dqc theo _xoan Oc tai ho ;
nhtt _the tranh khong phai nhac-len va vet d1:1ng c(l nhieu Ian ;
khi khoan tien trien thl them cac "canh xoan kbac vao.
S\1 phat trien gan . day nhat htai khoan . ci.nh lien 1a
guong xoan can ong rong, no gom m{)t canh gan m{)t
ong rong va m(lt mt1 chuyen tiep a: tren qau. M{)t can k.hoan trung
tam _di qua suot can ong rong gan vao dau -cat 0 miii va gan vao
mu chuyen tiep if tren dau. Khi tien hanh khoan, can va can ong
rong ell noi them vao theo yeu cau, mili chuyen tiep va can khoan
\
332
I


r
i
co the thao ra vao bat cd hie nao de Uiy dt.t<Jc
can rong dtt<_1c dung nhtt m(>t ong chong. Trong tram tlch roi
yeu, a dttCii mlj:c nttCic ngam, kien nghj -nen sll
dl}ng miii khoan can ong rang.
Lztiii khoan gau (hinh 12 - 3c) gom co m(>t . ong t111 kim
dau ha vCii htili cat tren m(>t trun day ; khi da1 b! cat se di vao
trong gitu ; tung thdi gian, gau tlti(_1C dtia len va lay dat.
Co the dung khoan gau de khoan dtt<_1c nhanh trong dat
(khong -thlch h<Jp k.hi khoan dat rdi a dttoi mlj:c nutJc ngam) voi
- /
IJauong

,....
fJuilng


/

0-;,!J lrong
Jcirn
- /
tji::::::=::;if_... YongRichduanon vau
hfuf #Joan lag lol"
8)
Irmh 12 - 4. Thift bi khoan xoay
a) 6ng loi Jeep ; b) mfii khoan lay loi.
333
dubng klnh thay doi til 300mm toi 2m. Dung luoi k.hoan gau co
the khoan lQi cac gieng kienl tra co duiJng klnh khoang lm;
dung m(>t buong co thong gio thlch hQp, m(>t co the
xuong sau (J trong ho de tien hanh nghien c"du bang mat.
/ Khoan Hiy loi
Khoa.n liiy loi hanh bang may dlt<}C dung-trong dat va dat
ran, gom co ong rang duang klnh nho gan vdi m(>t miii khoan lay
. ""'
loi lJ dau duoi (hinh 12 - 4). Ong lay loi dltQC quay voi tOe d(> trong
khoang gifta 600 va 1200 vong moi phut, ap 1\tc tac dl}ng du:qc dieu
chinh va nuoc htu thong qua miii khoan. Cac manh Vl}n bj_ pha ra
trong hinh vanh khan cat dugc nuoc h1u thong mang len dat,
trong khi loi dugc chua vao ong. Thu<mg khoan moi Ia 1 -
3m dua mau len va hiy loi. Trong- khao sat a trubng,
co ong lay loi tieu chuan thuiJng dung nha:t thay doi trong khoang
gifta 30 va IOOmm (dubng kinh ho), du doi voi cac nhu cau
ciing co san thiet bj duang klnh Ion he1n.
12.4. Cac phuang phap -lay mau dat
Co hai mau dat :
Mau nguyen dq,ng: Ket cau va d(> am cua dat dugc blw toan
den muc CO bieu th! ch}nh xac dtiQC thai a trubng ;
mau nguyen can de th1 cuong d(> chong cat, co ket
va tham ; n1au thuong dti<}C lay bang ong d(}ng thfch hQp
phue1ng phap lay loi. -
Mau khong nguyen dq,ng: Mau thu khi tien hanh khoan
J:fay·dao, a day kha nang co gang chi nham._ bao toan d(> am cho.
Mau khong nguyen chu yeu can' de cho biet va phan
lo:P, thi tinh chat dat ; khi thu dugc hQc kin
trong cac thung bang thuy tinh hay chat deo, h(>p thiec hay cac tui
bang chat deo- -
Sl:! xao d()ng mAu
Hau nhu khong co kha nang lay duQc cac hoan toan nguyen
dq,ng, nha:t Ia tu cac ho trung blnh den sau. Qua trinh k.hoan, dong
dl}ng Cl,l lay }oi, nang va rut ong loi va day khoi d\}ng Cl} lay
334

loi, tat ca. da quy t'l:l gay ra mc?t xao dc?ng nao do cho lay
dugc. H<1n nfia, mau lay khoi ho co xu huang no la do ung suat bj
giam. Mau can ,dttQC lay til cac ho moi khoan moi khoan sau
them vai st;e tn?ng tranh cho tiep xuc voi nuoc. Ngay khi dua '
toi da:t, ong loi phfri dtiQC dan nhan 0 phfa trong va ngoai, dau
ong dugc tret kin bang sap va day roi dugc luu gift tranh
khong bj qua nang hay rung d()ng.
Dat set va yeu co t1nh deo thap cam S\1
xao d()ng khi lay mau nhat la a ph:la ngoili cho tiep giap voi ong
mau. 0 cac mau lay len tit nhfing ho sau, slj giam ung suat t<Sng
ra ap I1Jc nuoc lo rong am o trung tam va khi xay ra no nttoc
dugc keo tu vung ngoai vao de tieu ap ltjc nttoc lo rong am
du. Do vilng ngoai duqc co ket, nhung khi giam ap lljc nude
lo rong am cling sinh ra S\1 giam ung suat qua, d() ben chong
cat cua dat co chieu huang ghim di.
Sli d1;_1ng ong mau thich hgp c6 the gifun dugc slj xao d()ng
mau. d¥ng C¥ lay mau thuang dung Ia : dong - ho, thanh
mong, ong btla doi va dung C\1 lay mau pittong.
D'I}.D.g Hiy mAu dong - hil
ong mau ddn gian nha:t va rat pho bien la d¥ng C\1 lay
mau dong- hd (hlnh 12 - 5a), gom co m()t 6ng thep dugc ren 0
hai dau. M()t chan cat va doi khi m()t keo dai, dugc _bat vlt
vao dau dttoi ; mii CUa -d1:1ng Cl;l hiy mau m()t van khong xoay bat
vft 0 dau tren. Khi mau dong vao trong ong, cho khong
kh1 va nuoc thoat ra nhung van dong khi keo dl;lng Cl;l Hiy mau
dua len toi dat vi the giif dugc mau a trong ong.
Tieu chuan Anh BS 5930: 1981 kien du<nig ldnh cua mep
cat DC dien hlnh nho hdn 1% duang ldnh trong ctia ong Ds nham
giam llJc can rna sat gifia mau va ong. Ngoai ra, duang ldnh ngoili
- ctia chan cat D phai Ion h<1n chut it duang klnh ctia ong de giam
w -
ll!c ·can keo ong khoi ho. TY so the tfch dat b! ong mau chiem cho
voi tlch ctia mau danh gia thea tj s6 tick :
A=
r
n2 - n2_
w c X 100
D2
c
[12.1]
335
...
. - .
: -.
:.. ; .·
: :, '
( ' . .
, i.!
-
. :· .
l .
.
""
tan Moan
- ,
Canpif
tong .. _
Can Moan

ong/77au
Cacltinl.ldC chqy
Vanbi
Yanbi
A'
-U'J!l.
faih
Jrmh 12- 5. Cac C1.1 mau d;it
a) lay m&u dong hd ; b) lay thlmh mong ;
c) lfty bUa doi; d) lfty pittong
·
Bophanlc
rap pd !or.
Vittlcm
iii?-!®
De giam st:f xao d()ng mau, ty so tlch phai thap den muc
kha <nco the chap dttgc.:v(Ji dam bao d() th!ch dang
CUa thanh ong. .
dl}ng Ct} lay mau dong - hlJ ph5 bien nhat c6 dttlJng kinh
trong lOOmm, chieu dai trong khoang 380 va 450mm co tj so
tlch khoang 30%. nay thlch hgp cho tat ca cac dat dlnh;
336
r

r
voi dat cat am rdi co the can m()t keo dai lap van
c3.nh nho.
Dl:,Ulg Cl}. mAu thanh mong
Trong da1 bl)i va set yeu k.ha cam vdi xao d9ng mau, ong
mau thank mong (hay ong Shelly) thlch hqp hon dong-ha (hlnh
12 - 5b). Dau ong du(Jc che thanh mep cat vdi slj giam vao
trong cua dltemg ldnh de cho ti so tfch la 10%. Mii d¥ng C¥
lay mau duqc lap van theo phtl<Jng. phap g3.n dinh tan ep la
""
phudng phap ren. Ong lay :miu thimh mong co the c6 d1tifng-kfnh
thay ddi tu 35 den lOOmm chieu dai bien
-
Ong lay mAu _bua doi
lay mAu baa doi Ia d1;,1ng C9 cO hai ID\}C dfch (hlnh 12 - 5c),
no 'C6 the gan vdi m()t chan cat hlnh de lay mau, co··the
gan v{Ji m()t chan hlnh non va thanh d1;,1ng c1;,1 c6 the thljc
tru xuyen tieu chuan (xetp_ IDl.clC 12. 5). Nhlt ten gQi, ong
dtiQC bua dQC thanh hai ntia ban trl}. -Mu va chan ong mau dtiQC
g3.n bang each ren a dau tren va dttbi ong mau· ; khi chung dugc
fhao di, hai nlla ong co the tach r<Ji ra cho phep thao lay mau.
NhtiQC diem chlnh cua ong lay mau bua doi Ia, vi duifng kinh trong
la 35mm, d11<Jng kfnh ngoai la 50mm, nen tl so tich vao khoang
100%.
Dl}.llg cl}. lay mAu pittong
V{Ji dat set va b\ri hOi tlch rat yeu can thiet dung d¥ng Cl!- lay
mau pittOng (hlnh 12 - 5d)" gam c6 m()t ong thanh mong trpng c6
pittong. Dl:lng Cl:l My mau dliQC gan vao dau dum cuam()t diB khoan
rong, m()t can kho m ben trong di qua suot din rong de dieu hanh
pittong. Bat dau b: mg dl}ng C\1 lay mau xuong day lo khoan
vm pittong duqc cilot {J vj_ trf dulJi. -
PittOng c6 de ngan n11Cic manh Vl}.D khoi -Chui vao ong.
Khi pittong duqc ep vao dat day ho, ngttCii ta thao chot va
ong dugc dcng vao dat cho du chieu dai hanh cua pittong.
Pittfulg bay_ gi() dliQC chat dinh eng va toan-b(j ken !en
dat ; mii ong mau va pittong duqc thao ra, lay ong mau dem
bgc ldn. -
22CHDff2 337
D¥ng C1,.1 H1y mau pittong thuong co ldch co san co trong
vi 35 tai lOOmm (duong kinh trong), chieu dai toi 600mm.
D1}1lg ClJ Uiy miu I a Th\IY Dien
Do la m()t bien the cua d¥ng C¥ lay m&u pittong dt!QC
thiet ke de bao dam chieu dai lon (tdi 25m) cua miu nguyen
lien tl;IC. Nguyen li Cd ban la tru hoan toan sue can rna sat
gifta mau va thanh ong. Dieu do duqc bang each gan cac cu()n
la kim trong cac hoc san trong IDU CUa lay mau ;
chung duqc trai ra va hlnh thanh m(>t lap gifia dat va ong
mau khi len dl;lng Cl;l lay mau. Pitrong duqc keo len tren
m()t day cap va chieu dai cua ong (duong klnh trong 68mm)
duqc gan them khi ho dong sau hon.
Khi dttgc dtia len thi thao ra va tien hanh cat qua ca dat
va Ia kim
d¥ng lay mftu nay Cd ban dung de lay mau trong lop
dat set va btJ.i yeu, dat phan mong va dat chay rat yeu nhu
cac tram tfch day ho va ben cang.
12.5. Thi a truong
() m()t so dat nhti da:t set va b¥i mem va cam va m()t
so da:t -khOng dlnh tho, lay dttgc mau nguyen nguyen thl
rat kho khan (doi khi hau nhu khong lam dttqc). 0 trong phong
<;iing kho khan khi muon mo hlnh hoa chfnh xac dieu tieu
-bieu th-.jc cua ket cau va ap lt;tc nude lo rong trong cac dieu
xac d!nh a truesng nhu trong ooi . tlch rat mem. Do vf!,.y, m()t
- s() pht1ong phap thl doi dc:Jn gian da
-· dugc phat minh, chung co kha nang tot danh gia cac tlnh chat cua
dat do tien hanh trong dieu thtjc. Du trong thf
t;p truesng, d() chlnh xac va kha nang dieu khien kern
h<1n muc d() mong dqi a trong phong thl dieu do thuong
dugc Qil dap bang so ltiqng Ian thl tien hanh.
. Trong bang 12-1 la danh sach cac thl · truong
quan trQng nha:t ci:tng voi chi <Mil ve th! chu yeu co y
dinh do gl. Phtt<Jng phap gilri trinh va sa d9ng cac ket qua thl
dttqc trlnh bay (trong hau het cac truong hqp) a cho khac.
338
r-- · -
,-
'
,
I
Thi vm ong cAt
Thl vdi ong cat ciing duqc de toi trong ID\}C 3. 6 va
noi chi tiet day du trong BS 1377. M1:1c dlch cua thl la xac
d!nh dung trQng the tfch clia dat dt!Qc dam hay dat t1,.1 nhien,
sau khi xac d!nh dQ am, co the tlch dung ti'Qilg khfi. D\}ng C\} (hlnh
3-9) gam hlnh tl'\1 bang thep d11ang kinh trong lOOmm, dai 130mm, -
c6 mep il m(jt dau. V8i dau tren dt!Qc bao bang c3i chl}.p,
d\}ng Cl} _cat dtl<,;JC IDQt bua thiet ke dong VaO trong :dat,
sau do no dtlqc dao ra, ngang hai dau c:tat roi dem can.
BANG 12-1. TIIi NGHicM TAl CHO
DQ ben ch6ng clt
Site chju tai cho pbep
D1,111g C1) 6ng cat
Thay cat
Xuyeo tieu chuan
Xuyen tlnh
}
}
Uin414o
Dung trQng
Dung tiQng
ttldng d6i
Tinh nen
{
Ht; s6 chju tai California
Ban nen
Nen CQC }
tinh thoat mf<k ___ MtJc mt<k ng3m
Ap hJc mfdc 16 r6ng
a ng su&t tt# ch& ong do ap
Thi nghic;m l:xJm hut
----
Tinh th3In
Thi thay the bang cat
Day la phuung phap khac de xac d!nh dung trQng dat va da
- dtl<,;Jc trlnh bay trong ffil:IC 3.6, con chi tiet _cho d trong BS 1377.
Dat d toan bQ ho hl.nh t111 co duang kinh k.holmg 1 OOmm va d9
sau 150mm dtlqc dao ra cho vao mQt khay roi dtlqc can
- '
can Ong tr1..1 rot cat (hlnh 3-10) 4t tren ho va cat chay day
ho, xac cijnh the tfch cat nay. Co hai ong tl'\1 rot cat cho dat
co 00 min - trung va t _ho.
339
-.
'
I
tan fron!J
Onglong
I / , I,
/_.NOn ttep/en
,..._ __ __L r h-ol!ff Mtlhi/,gluCm
1
,.35-lmm ,.t
cv

0
oo
340
OFJg /O..f!!Jm·a

SatJ non ..ruyeiJ
C)
1
4
3S7mm ,..,
- - ---- ---
, ,
,Yoiliep can

-----....

sat-
Tnli§f /;/db

JJmh 12-6. Chiiy xuyen
a) chily c6 ao kib.I Ha Ian ;
-b) chily c6 6ng do rna sat ngoai :
c) xuyen dit;n
341
Thl xuyen tieu chuan
Thl nay dung r()ng riii va-d11qc tien han4 trong suot qua
trlnh khoan nham danh gia d() tudng doi-va cac trung d()
ben chong cat. M()t ong lay mau hila doi dltang ldnh" tieu chuan I "
50mm (h}nh 12 - 5c) dl1QC dong vao trong dat a day ho blJi m()t
chiec bua khoi lttQng 65 kg roi nhieu eli a d() cao 0, 76m.
, -
Ong mau dong sau vao dal toan b() khoang 450mm, s6 eli cho
300mm xuyen cuoi cilng dltQC ghi Cach di@n dj_ch ket qua thl
dltQC de trong IDl}C 11.8. VlJi dat cat va dat dlnh, co
the dung chan cat hlnh tl11 va lay miu dOng thai ; vCJi dat cu()i
soi m{)t chan hlnh non thfch hQp hdn cho d11QC cac ket qua
tudng tlj. Chi tiet day dti ctia thi c6 trong BS 1377.
Thl xuyen tinh -
Thl xuyen tinh la m()t thf xuy@n trong do chuy
(hlnh 12 - 6} d11qc day ep xuong ma khong pbai Ia dong vao trong
dal. Chuy co goc dinh Ia 60°, d1tCing kinh cuoi 35. 7mm (cho
tlch 1000mm
2
) dltQC gan vao m(>t can xuyen ; can nay dUQC bao
bang m()t ong hQC 'ngoai. 'lac dl}ng m()t 1\ic da do len can, -
chuy dliQC day ep vao dat khoang 80mm v(Ji tOe d() xuyen deu Ia
20mm/s. TY so CUa can vlJi tlch cuoi gQiJa sdc khang xuyen
Cach di@n djch cac ket qua thl dttQC trlnh bay trong
IDl}.C 11.8.
ket qua duCing tin nhat cho cat va bl}i co d() bao hba
dlilJi 85%. M()t phat trien gan day Ia xuyen ke trong chily
xuyen c6 m()t h()p do htc vi the cho phep ghi lien tl}c sdc khang
xuyen thea d() sau. S\i trinh bay chi tiet thi va each di@n
djch co noi trong tai cU.a Meigh (1987).
Thl cat canh
lay mau trong dat set va bl}i, c6-nguon g6c hOi
hay ho nong thttCing C\iC kl kho khan. Thi cat c3.nh
thiet ke de do sdc ben chongcat khong thmit nttlJc cho ctia
·i dat nay. Cach di@n dfch cac ket qua thl gi8.i
'Dg ID\lC 7.19, va quy tnnh tm chi tiet a trong
- - -- ---- - -- - - - -- --
------- - -- - -
r
Canh co bOn htoi (hlnh 12 - 7) cuoi mqt can khoan duqc
dong vao trong dat, roi canh duqc quay voi tOe d() khong d6i khoang
6°- 12°/phut cho den khi ctat chua a cac htm b! cat. Ghi
ll!c xoan Ion nhat din cho do. Ngum ta kien ngh! rang, voi
da1 yeu (eu < 50 kN/m
2
) ca luoi phai c6 chieu t"Qng 75mm, chieu
diri 150 mm va voi dat ben chac he1n chut It 50 < cu < 100 kN/m
2
),
thl ca htoi Ia: r9ng 50mm, dai 100mm.
#!oank;
t/al
-, / -
Dngkeoddi
IJebaovtf ca;,h
] __ fanh

.
Irmh 12 -7. bi clt c3nh
a) thi nghiem cat ci.nh trong 16 khoan ; b) thi myert clt cinh
(Sao 4ri tit BS 1377 vdi st,t cho pbep clia Viert ciman Anh)
343
din co canh va keo dai dttQc bao a_ trong m()t ong
bqc ngoai de tranh ltjc dinh cua da:t trong khi tac dl}ng ltjc xoan.
Ph¥ thu(>c vao ban chat cua dat, thf cat co the tien hanh
xuong toi d() sau" 60- 70m.
Thl ban nen
M1:1c -tieu ctia thl ban nen la du:qc duiJng cong tai
trQng - d() bin. nhom cac thl nhu the thubng ton kem
th()i gian va kinh phl -va tht1<1ng luon cho cac ket qua khong tin
lam. Chung co the hilu trong m(>t so hoan c8.nh xac djnh,
a ndi cac phttdng phap thf khac kho khan hay khong the
dung dU:f:_1c : vi d¥ nh11 trong thi da phong hoa, da pltan
dat _cU'ng chac.
Tn.tac· tien; dito m(>t ho tham do t(1i d() sau yeu diu, bang
day ho roi vilng chac m(>t ban thep tren da:t. Tac dl}ng tai trQng
tinh len ban nen bang m()t cac cap tai trQng, do d() Ion va toe
de) lun_(chuyen vj thang dung cua ban nen). Chat tai tiep tl}C cho
toi khi da:t a du{Jfban b! chay. M()t so -thf yeu cau tien
hanh voi duong klnh ban nen khac nhau va cac d() sau khac
nhau; du<1ng kinh thay doi trong khming giila 300mm va lm. Sai
so trong danh gia lun chu yeu la do s\{ khac nhau gifia
tlch ban nen va tlch cua mong thljc va tht!c te la oong trinh
cang Ion h<1n se anh huang the tlch dat ldn hdn ; cac lop dat sau
co the ch!u tac dl}ng ung gay ra lxli oong trlnh thl,_ic, nhung
khong ch!u ung suat trong thl ban nen. Nguon goc sai so
kha_c th11<:1ng phat sinh do ban nen khottg can ; tot nhat
la phai--tien hanh ban nen trong vfta xay paris.
Thi ti so chju tiri Californi
Thi ti so chfu tm California ve Cd ban -la th:l
xuyen trong phong, nhung no ciing co the tien hanh tru<1ng.
Voi dat dlnh am kha pho bien a Vttdng quoc Anh, khong dang
co d11gc cac qua tai dang tin ; th:l c6 the
dung nhieu trong vung d{Ji hay ban doi, a ndi day dat
kho. Quy trinh thl dugc noi toan be) chi tiet a trong BS
1377 va cho thiet ke m(>t du<1ng va san bay.
344
.
- .
r
l
[
- . - - --------------------------------
M()t vitng dat hlnh tron tntdc tien dUQC c}lo bang phang va
thl tien hftnh bang each ep m()t pittong tron tieu chuan co
tfch day 1935 mm
2
xuyen. vao dat vbi toe d() khong doi
lmm/phut, Uiy cac so dQc cua tai trQng cho moi 0,25mm xuyen. Ve
do th! ltjc - d() xuyen va cac ltjc ttt<1ng ung vdi so dQC khi xuyen-
dttQc 2,5 ·va. 5,0mm. Tl so chju tai California (CBR) cho hoi tl so
Ibn han dtt(fi day :
CBR = lllc yeu cau len dat thl
ltjc yeu cau cho xuyen tuangttj len dat tieu
Thi nen cqc
Thl nen thttang tien hanh fren m()t trong so cQC -dUQc
dung trong cong trinh a m()t d() sau thlch hQp. dlch thl
xac djnh tiri trQng cljc gia tai len CQC hoi m()t "tai
trQng minh chdng", sau thuang vUQt tai trQng rong tac de ng:h!
so phan tram dj_nh ro. CQC tai bang ldch thuy ltjc
trQng h.tQng dan tren lap rap tren dinh cQc (hlnh 12-8).
Hai quy trinh thl dt.tQc kien ngh! va trinh bay chi tiet
trong Tieu chuan Anh BS8004 Ia: phuong phdp tai trQng duy tri
va phuong phap toe dQ xuyen" "khong doi.
a) Phuong phap tai trQng duy tri : Thi trQng thl tac
dl:lng vbi cac cap bang nhau, moi cap tai trQng duy "tri cho tbi khi
d() hin quan trac dUQC ket thuc. Roi ve do thj dtiang cong d() lun
-Uri trQng va d9 lun- thai gian. Phttang phap nay kiep. ngh! dung
khi danh gia d() lun yeu cau cho tlri trQng cong tac, ket qua kern
tin khi dung de xac dj_nh tai trQng gibi
b) Phuong phap tOe dQ xuyen kh6ng doi: Trong phttang phap
nay dung kJch thuy }ljc ep CQC xuyen vao dat toe dQ khong doi
0, 75mm/phut trong· dat set va 1,5mm/phut trong cat va cu()i. Thi
trQng dtiQC do bang Jdch da tieu djnh hQp do }ljc hay vong
dng ltjc. Phuong phap nay kha nhanh va thttang yeu cau m()t quan
trac vien de lay dt.t<Jc so dQc dong thm.
34!1

0)
!II
9)
tJii"
sd'rlo
·•
Vonjtlai ICoctnJ
chit
YlfJ l'f!C
I
rrtciVchuah

1vcpc
tv

I
1ii·
I J
l<lch lhvy life
(oc cht'll
· keri
C)
Hlnll I Thi nen coc
a) chf c6 d6 ; b) kich d6i voi d6 dAn ; c) kich d6i val CQC chJu keo.
Tnenh chill. ,teo
[octh/
ngh<rlm
clc coc '{oc chtv
tl"'/ln ' ke'o'
lchoi?!l ,
dting
qui
DO th! tai trQng d() xuyen c0a CQC mit ma sat ben la uu the se
tuang tll cac
a· hlnh 12-9a.
Khi dttang cong
tra nen song
song vl1i tJ'1.:lC dQ
xuyen
thap, c6 the Iay
tAi trQng Cl!C
bang gia tii tai
trQng Ian nhat.
Trong truang
h(:Jp rna chong
mill Ia 11u the, do
thi tai trQng - dQ
xuyen se co
.{1 hlnh 12-9b.
N gttai ta kien
nghj rang, tai
trQng c11c lay
bang tai
t11<1ng dng v(Ji dQ
sau xuyen bang
10% dttang kfnh
ctia day CQC. 'fuy
nhien, dieu nay
c6 the nay sinh
m()t sO kho khan,
Mi vi vlJi CQC c6
dttan kinh Ian
g '
yeu cau tai trQng
rat I$lg de
d11CJC d() bin nhlt
the ; ngoai ra
vlJi CQC rat dai
anh httong clia
s11 co ngan dim·
hoi co the Ia
dang ke.
.r-
0)
b)
6Hf lrpng
Ci!'C tf_qi
I
I
I

70 I
O{Jxuyen
H'mk 12-9. Dib1 dicb thi nghietn nen CQC

a) chu ylu llJc"kbang ma sat; b) cbu ylu l!fc chong miii <X}C
347
Thi nghiE;m nen hong
M:ay nen hong la m(>t thiet bj dt.tgc Menard (1950, 1956 va 1969),
Baguelin, ... , (1978) phat trien cho IDt}C dlch do d(> nen va d(> ben
hiEJn tn:ti1ng. Thiet bj gom c6 hai bQ ec1 ban: m(>t ong do
dt.tqc vao trong m(>t lo khoan vach de tran va m(>t von ke lam
b() chuyen ap lljc.
""'
Ong do hoi m(>t h(>p do vlJi h(>p bao o hai dau tren va
dt.tlJi dttQc bo vao trong m(>t mang cao su (hlnh 12- 10). Dimg nttl'Jc,
dtelJi tac tlt}ng cua ap lljc khl (C0
2
) de lam cang mang cao su va
laY so dQc lien tl}c ve ap va the tfch ; hai hQil bao bAo dam
ra m{)t ap h;tc thuan hucmg tam tac d{)ng len thanh Io .khoan.
Dt.tang cong thay d6i ap h;tc - the tfch se duc;,:sc ye va dung danh
. gl.a. d(> ben. chong cat va cac trung bien
Cac thiet bj nhu may nen hong Cambridge (hlnh 12- lOb)
khong chi khoan ma oon cho cac so do bien ngang va ap
1\!C Dt10C lo rong, vl the cho phep ve UU<JC hoan chinh dttang cong
ung suat qua - bien Tt} dttang cong nay co the xac djnh
cac thong so d() ben chong cat khong thoat nt.tbc va thoat nt.tO'c
nht.t modun cat va so Poisson. Theo cac ket qua nghien cuu
(Windle va. Wrothe, 1977 ; Hughes, ... , 1977), du gia trj d()
ben do duqc bang thiet bj nen hong co chieu hu&ng cao (khong an
toan), gia tq do ve ung suat qua ngang va hang so dim
kha phil hgp v(Ji ket qua CUa nhung tru khac. IDO
tA chi tiet thl va each dich da dugc noi trong tai
cua Mair va Wood (1987) .
. 12.6. ·Quan trac nuoc duai dat
Co hai nhom quan trac nuO'c dt.tlJi da:t : xac ·djnh mt;Lc nttO'c, ap
hie ntlbc lo rong va thl tham. · Cac quan trac mlJC nUO'c
ngam tien hanh trong khi dang khoan thuong thay la khOng tin
va chl de lam chi da.n chc. thai han Ia s\f danh gia chfnh
xac. Cac bien doi ve khf dong chay, phat trien tht;tc ... co
the dAn tCii d()ng thai nuO'c duO'i diit kha khac nhau · cac thai
gian khac nhau trong nam. Do can thiet phai lay dttqc chuoi
cac so dQc bao trilm m(>t khoang thai gian thfch hqp.
348
r
aJ
/ ...

/Jail thief/"
tTd!Jt c.if ri1
b)
Kmh 12-10. hong
a) Menard ; b) Cambridge

- 7hanhYui
- . /
11t.'l1nf! kh_/ ..

- /

/l/cnudc
itirong
Chan
349
Quan trac lo khoan
TrOng qua trlnh khao sat {j truang cac lo k.hoan can de md
va neu can thl
chong vach de
dung cho m9t
diem qnan trac.
Cac . . quan trac
chi bat dau sau
khi ditng k.hoan
toi thieu Ia 24
gia. nubc
trong lo khoan
th11ang do hoi
thttbc danh dau
bang phan
th11ac vbi phao,
m9t
dtJng C\1 ·chuyen
doi khi tiep
xuc vbi nuac thl .

Doi v6i cae
quan trac hang
dai ngay
dizni" cac ong
quan trac dttang
kinh .nho hon
dua..vao trong lo
khoan la ttu viet
..,.
hon . ·ca.. Ong
quan trac ket
thuc tai do cao
. . .
thlch h<Jp d tren
dat va khdp
· vdi m9t mii ;
lo k.hoan
l50
d)
-
. -
-
.
-
.
-
-
.
.
.
.
-
. .
-
. .
.
- -
-
.
. .
-
.
.
. .
.
.
. .
.
. . . . . .
.
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. -
. . -
.
ndJcof?q;, tin d)/;n
v
,
tl'&frmg Mtlcntn
16-A:A.
t/Joig
'liOn l11i
IIIH
t,-
zo=
t2-
b)

12 'j
f
ft
ht
4
t;
=
lj-
-
.
.
.
.
- -
-
.
.
.
t-2
------
-
. .
-
.
.
-
. .
.
.
.
-
-
.
-
.
.
.
-
.
. .
.
.
. .
A{ II'& nl/#c n!Jain
;iiih dvlk
tT fnNI.
mtfi cfiwli
.
.
-
-
.
.
-
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
.
-
.
-
.
.
o,.,
Oz
It
---
-- Do
----
........
----
-
-
Kmh 12-11. Vi tri CJia ml,.tc m.l& ngam
dttqc chet kin de ngan ngita manh Vl,.ln gay ngan nttoc mtta
chay vao hay ntt<ic tren chay di.
Tro:ng da:t dfnh, phru mat mc)t thai gian thl ID\iC nt10C m{Ji 6n
djnh, trong trulJng hCJp nay, co the dung phttdng phap lam day va
muc di de tim vj tri cua no. Ho dttCJc d6 day nttoc roi muc m()t
lttQD.g nttbc ra khoi ho, neu m1_ic nttO'c quan trac sau do thay h?
xuong thl muc them ra m()t it, neu mljc nttoc dang len d6
them vao m()t ft. Qua trinh nay tiep t\}c cho tm m()t ml_ic nttbc 6n
d!nh tim dttqc - do chfnh la m1_ic nttac ngam th\ic.
M()t phtt<1ng phap ngo?i suy khac_ co the dimg, trong do ta· ve
do thf _mljc nttac quan trac v{Ji thm gian m1_ic nttllc ngam thljc flm
dttc;,1c bang suy dttoog cong cho tl1i khi no trlJ nen song song
vdi tn}c thi1i gian (hlnh 12-lla).
Neu m()t s6 m11c nttoc ghi dttqc cac khoang thi1i gian bang
nhau, c6 the dung phtt<Jng phap t:lnh sau :
h
1
- d() dang ml_ic nttdc til thai gian t
0
tai tl'
- de) dall:g ml_ic nttac til thi1i gian t
1
tm t
2
,
-de) dang ml_ic nttac til thi1i gian tlri t
3
.
Ngoai ra, t
1
- t
0
= .- t
1
_ - (hinh 12-llb)
Cac d() sau cU.a ID\iC nttoc quan trac nam dt.tlli ml_ic nttoc ngam
6n d!nh Ia:
Cac quan tr3c dt.tc;,1c tiep 1\Jc cho tl1i khi th-.;cc dttc;,1c
danb gia thlch dang vj trl cita m\ic nt.tac ngam 6n <f!nh.
Vi d\1 12.1. 0 mijt lo khoan trong dat dlnh, tq,i nhitng
khoang thai gian la 24 giil cac mrtc nuoc ngam sau day da
ghi dztqc :
351
D<} sau· cU.a ml,lc
ngam tit m?t dAt (m) 7,74 --. 7,07 6SL __ _
Ngay 0 1 2 3
Hay tlnh nuoc ngam on dtnh.
Bdi gidi
·xem hlnh 12-11b : h
1
= 8,62· - 7, 74 = 0,88m
'h = 7 74 - 7 07 = 0 67m
' ' '
'h = 7 07 - 6 57 = 0 5m
"""'3 ' ' '
Nen ta c6
0,882
Do= 088 -067 = S,G9m
' '
0,67l
Dl = 0 88 - 0 67 = 2,14m
' '
0,50
D2 = 0 67 - 0 50 = 1,.4 7m
' '
l1<1e tlnh 1 : Dw = 8,62 ·- 3,69
l16e tlnh 2 : Dw = 8,62_ - 2,14 - 0,88 - 0,67
= 4,93m
= 4,93m
11ac tinh 3 : D = 8,62 - 1,47 - 0,88 - 0,67 ..,... 0,50 = 5,10m.
w .
'!'rung bJ.nh 4,99m
...
Mlje nude ngam on djnh l1 dum m,q.t dat liz 5m.
no··a.p l\{c n11dc 16 r6ng
Ap ll!e nude lo rong c6 the do tt¥e tiep bang 6ng do ap hay
ap Mho tdi mlle yeu cau trong ldp can xac djnh. Trong tang chua
nubc khong bi chii-n, ml_;lc nulJe trong ong do ap phai tudng dng vm
mljc nude tlj do vi the ap lljc nude lo rong miii ong do ap cho
boi chieu cao tdi mljc nuac tinh (hlnh 12-12a). Khi ong do ap xuyen
vao tang chlla nuac hi ap h;cc nttdc t1;.1 phun day mljc nttife
len t(Ji ID\tC tudng llng mii-t nu(Jc ngam bieu thj. ap }ljc nt1i1c }o rong
trong tang-chua nude bj chii-n.
352
.
j
• • •• • - -&... •
:
Mt!c nubc tinh cua nttbc tt! phun c6 the a dubi (hlnh 12-12b) .
a_ tren (hlnh_ 12-2c) mt!c nubc ngam trong lbp tren
.
- . - ..
- -
---
;lfd; nvdf/A ;. .. : :_-
. I---- ... -.
.. - h .
-_ ··. ilhJ; -
• • : · • • /IJ_c./t/!n .
-· ---=-=-------
- -- _-.. -. ·:-;- -:-
- - • . . . Ltf!! .fhing 7/!qm _-_
- . - -
Jrmh 12-12 Do ap h,t_c nt1dc 16 r6ng b3ng ong do ap
J -
Ong do ap dau ho co m()t so nhttQc diem :. chung _co xu ht!bng
tra thanh b! tac do b\li va doi khi do dat set, va phan tlng CU.a
chung vf1i cac thay doi ap h;tc nubc lo rong thl rat Vbi dat
c6 tfnh tham va a n<1i can ket qua nhanh dung -ap
M kln ; chiing co hai : ap ke thity ll/.C va ap ket hl)p do ap
ll/.C.
Trong each sap ong thtiy l\fc, dau do ap up day lo
khoan ( trong cat) dong vao trong dat. Chung thuiJng rong va
chu yeu gom m()t the xop ya hai ong noi tlep thtiy l\fc (hlnh
.12- 13). Cac ·ong thuy l\fc dan ngt{QC tra ve d\Ulg C\1 do
Bourdon m(>t bang dieu khien ap ke va thuiJng lam bang .ong
nhl;la tong cdng. Dieu chti yeu Ia phm giii cho thong khong
c6 khong khl .. ·Nuac ben trong m:ffi do ap phan tlng· 'Viri cac thay
. difi ap l\tc nttlJc.lo roilg trong dat xung quanh va dieu do dUQC phan
anh qUan trac; phAi chfnh ·cho S\1 khac nhau ve yj
trl gifta bang quan trac va dau ong do ap.
23CHDIT2
353 ..
.- ..

. a_)

(;:;)
......:
'tf ·.
-r_;t
9
ff.;;,
l_ chinn
¥_atngan
ocii/t;en

- Ong tuornm
Ca1

ta-·
T

..,
Jllui
rlong
llinh 12-13. Ap
a) Casagcanae . .Cac dong : b) Geonor; c) ·Bishop
\
Cac phat trien gan day Ia cac dau _do ap ke hQp vdi h()p do' tai
trQng bang va dl}ng_ C\1 do bang day rung, s\f phan dng
chinh xac va chf nhanh hdn; va khong bj anh huang cua van
de 0 nhiem khong khl. -
354

L
;
12.7: cac phuang phap dta li
Cac tinh chat dja ll xac -d!nh nhtt tra, tinh dan hoi,
tlnh cam tit, . . . thay d6i tit ldp nay ldp khac ; do v{J.y .
m9t bien cua lop bao bang me}t ba1 thtt<Jng trong nhung so do
cua m()t d;)c ttung rieng
Phttung phap dja ll khong do dtt<Jc cac tfnh chat xay dlfng
th\tc Vl the Ia phttung phap khao sat gian tiep ; c6
sll d1,:1ng nh11 la phttcJng phap tiet dE! xac djnh ranh gibi
cac ldp, djnh vi da g6c va mtjc nttdc phat vitng hftu
CU va S\1 CO cac hang dQng dtt(fi dat. Trong IDQi . tritong
hqp, tai d!a H can dttqc lien vlJi thong tin hqp tit
khoan dao tham do.
· Co hai _ phttcJng phap dja ll thtt<1ng dung, chQ den bay
gio trong cac con:g trlnh xay dtjng van quan tam Ia : phztong phap
do trd va phuong phtip dta chan. .
phap do tril
M;)c du th;)nh phan khoang CUa da:t chu yeu }a kern,
s\1 c6 cua nttlJc dttlJi dat c6 chda hoa tan cho phep m()t
dong do. dttqc di qua khoang each ngan tlJi trung binh. Cac
- bien d6i dang ke ve tra co the phat giua cac l(Jp k.hac
nhau : 0 tren va d11lJi ID\IC nttlJc ngam ; gitla da khong nut ne Vfi
dat ; giua cho rong va da:t da.
Ph11<1ng phap do tra th11<1ng gom co dong vao
trong bon ctjc co khoang cac }:jl}ig nhau me}t du<1ng
thang (hlnh 12-14a). Khi dong I (Ampe) qua ctjc
ngoai, do chenh the E (von) giua ctjc
trong. Stj bo trl nay la kieu bo trf theo cau hinh Wenner. VlJi
dat dong nhat co the xac djnh tra bieu kien p a theo :
27tdE
Pa = I
[12.2]
De ·xac djnh vi trl cac bien thhg dU'ng, gift nguyen khoang each
va cau hlnh dtt<]c trai ngang qua khu da1, m9t bieri. d6i Ian ve
: 355
...---ll•l•t-----------i
VonJ-;'
Diencvc
the'
,
. .
- - .
- - ...
. . .
. . .. · .. ·.·.d. -. · · .- · . : ·.·."a:· .. ·. _= · .-.. A
._ - • • .. • • -. •• • .. • • I .. • • •
.. . ·.. . . -· . - . . . '""n A . . .
.. • • _ _ ,. .. LV j- ... ..
-=-=- -=-- -- ---=--=--- -::..._---= ----- - ,-- -- - -
a) - - ---- LtfP B -----:-
---.....;::--'!1. -

If'. T/Ju}Nif
.

rrliing
£
!Ia = 2
./l _ 9A / _/ d
uuVwu.wJ/Thuylif: 2/J


,
--------------2-
. ·,
-----------;
hJ
Hillh 12-14. PhUdng pbap diert trd
a) dE hinh Weimer ; b) cic dUdng cong ti s6 di.ert trd hai ldp
tnl ghi khi moi Clj«;! .di: ngang qua bien nay. De xac
djnh sau. ella. IDQt bien nam ngang, Hiy IDQt sO dQC vm
khoang each C\fC khac -nhau va· ve dttifng cong p - .d a
trnong. Sau do dttong conga truoog dttQc· so sanh vi1i mQt
356

i
.- -
.
nhom .duoog cong ti so trd li thuyet bieu -thi dja tang
·oo 2, 3. hay 4 lop thlch hQp. Hinh 12-14b cho thay m9t nhom ctia
eac duang 2 liJp ; dtja vao do theo yeu to khoang each X c6
the tim dtlQC d9 sau cua lbp A.
phap khuc X2it dja chan
Song dja chan chuyen d9ng qua cac vi}.t khac nhau thl
t6c d9 -khong giong nhau _; m9t s6 · yeu tO anh httllng den tac d9
truyen song dia chan nhtt dung trqng, d9 am, cau t;io, tlnh dan
hoi, eac khoang rang va kho:rig lien t\}C trong dat da.
khtic dja chan gom co ra m9t song am tJ:"ong· dat da
bang btia tl'Qng htQng rdi mQt V\1 ·no nho roi ghi Slj thu
nhi}.n no mqt nhom may thu dta chan cac khoang each
khac nhau so viJi gjem kich thlch 12-15a). Thm gian c..ia am
dau tien tiJi moi may thu dja chan dtiQC ghi chep vao but do CUa
may tlj ghi lien tl}C.
Voi cac may thu cija chan gan diem klch thlch, song trljc tiep
chuyen dqng vlJi toc d(> VA trong lop tren A tC1j trttiJc tien. Neu t6c
di) trong llJp du(Ji Ion h<1n, thl khoang each xa nao do so viJi
diem ldch th:lch, song khtic chuyen d9ng v(Ji toed() VB trong
l(Jp dttoi B vbi toe . .dq v A trong l(Jp tren, se toi tru(Jc tien. Ve
eac thai gian toi trttoc tien _theo khoang each til diem klch thlch
(hlnh 12-15b) chota hai dttong thAng thai gian- k_hoang each viJi
dq d6c tuung dng 1N Ava lNB. Neu giao diem cua-hai duang doc
xay ra "khoang each" X, thl d() sau cua lop A c9 the xac d!nh
theo:
. 1 VB - VA. lf2
hA = 2 X (v + V )
s · A
Phttong phap khuc dja chan co the dung khao sat sau t(Ji
300m, nhttng dieu can truiJc tien la toe d() trong l(Jp tren phai
nho hon trong l(Jp dulJi (hay eac llJp dttm) nghia la V
8
> VA.
phat sinh ttl tfnh chat }a VCJi cac song bj khuc dQC theo
bien, chung phai t(Ji theo m()t dttang voi phap tuyen cua dttiJng
bien goc gilJi ic, nhu the sinic = VAN
8
. Trong m()t nhom nhieu
357
!
;. . .
!!.
.
L
I .
I ·.
! .

.songYrf!C lkp
81 62

.stfll!J Khuc
irurla 12-JS. PhtJ<Jng pbap khiic 1q1 dja chan
ldp: m(}t ldp •mu• xay ra khi tOe d(} s6ng clia no nho hdn tOe d()
song trong l{Jp nam tren :song tn!c tiep se di qua ldp mil vuong
g6c :vm dttang bien va roi khong bj k.huc Cac _. sai sO khac c6 the
gay ra do 8\1 Ia cac bien phan ldp khong lui>n luon ttt<1ng ung
vm cac bien giua nhung ldp co toe d(} song k.hac nhau ; ngoai ra
trong dj3; tang dj httdng cOn CO the cO Stj khac nhau gifta tOed()
thang dung va nam ngang.
. Phltdllg phap phan dia chan
Phtiang phap phan khong thlch hqp cho d() sau khao sat
trong dat da Ia nong, vi rang stj tdi noi cua s6ng phan b! che
khuat hoi dQ Ian han nhieu cua cac s6ng cat va sang be Stj
358.
, ...... _
r
I
I
r
I

I
thanh cat phan dja chan do v?y, dtl<JC dung r()ng rai
de khao sat sau (> 300m) va khao sat duai nuac iJ song, ho
va bien nong. Phu<Jng phap d11gc sit d9ng trong khao sat
bien, biJi vi nuac khong the truyen dtigc song cat c6 tOe
d() cao.
phap ld bao gom phap tttang ttJ dung trong do
sau -bang tieng vang : m()t xung am d11gc phat ra va phan tu
day 00 cac bien iJ d11lfi day roi slj tai n<Ji cua am dug'? m()t
day may thu ghi Tt>c d() song cua n110C va lap duai _day can
d11gc xac djnh bang cac phu<Jng phap khac. TU cac ket c9 the
cac cat ngang va dung nhanh chong va tiet
Sao cao khao sat a truong
Bao cao khao sat iJ truang th11Cing Ia ket qua cuoi cung
cua cong tac kl:tao sat va thl dil doi khi can ngay bao
cao trong hie cac quan trac dm ngay con dang tien trien. Bao cao
se giai lam cho khach hang bat. cu ai da yeu cau khao
sat ; no co· the chi Ia so thtJc co the chua dl!ng (neu yeu
cau) ICii khuyen va nhiing kien ngbi co lien quan den thiet ke va
xay dljng ; va doi khi lien quan tai giam sat sau xay dtJng.
dii cac bao cao d<Jn le thay doi theo ban tom tat d11gc
rieng ya cac dieu phlli, m()t baa cao dien hlnh thong
th11Cing se bao gom cac n()i dung sau :
a) Gioi : 'llim tat chlnh ve cong kien ngh!, cac khao
sat tien hanh, vj tri cua khu dat, ten va ngay thang can chu y.
b) Mo tti vt tri ; Mo ta kh:ii quat vi tri : dja hinh va cac
trung be cJ;uJ. y ; cac chi tiet ve cac loi vao, ve StJ phat trien
truac do ljch f,lt thlch ung, ve cac cong trinh da co, cac cong
trinh ngam, thoat nuoc, ... ; m()t ban do cho biet vj tri cong trlnh,
cac khu dat Ian va vj tri cac 16 khoan.
c) Dia chat cua vi tri : Bat dau bang m5 t2. dja chat tong
quat co lien voi cija chat khu vljc ctia vilng ; mo ta cac thanh
dat, da chlnh va cau blnh lu?.n ve cac anh huiJng cua dja
chat den thiet ke va xay dtJng.
359
'
d) qeu: di'eu dat : Mo ta chi tiel ve cac dieu dat bat
c6 lien quan t{Ji thiet ke va xay dt;lng cac cong trinh kien
nghj ; mo ta toan b() cac lop da phat thay cung v{Ji cac ket
quA thl trong phong va trubng, chi tiet ve dieu
. n116c dl.tai dat va thoat n116c.
e) V4t xay dlf,ng : Mo ta chi tiet ve ban chat, trit htQng, kha
nang va c3.c tlnh chat quan trQng cua dl.tgc chu y cho ml}C
dfch xay dt;Cng.
f) Bznh luij,n .va cac kien nght : Cac binh can thiet ve gia
trj ya d(> tin_ cua . thong tin da dl.tgc dlia ra, (J noi c6 yeu cau
phcii lam them m(>t so thl phai de t6i ; ngoai ra, neu ban .
tom tat d1.ta ra cac k!en ngh! thl chung phai bao gom st;C xem xet
cac phl.tong phap lt;la chqn cho ca thiet ke IAn .thi cong.
-,g) Cac ph¥ l11-c: khi hgp hau het cac tiri
thu vao trong m(>t cac ph9 l9c : kllo khoan ; chi
tiet va ket qua thl nghi!?m trong phong ; ket qua thf
trubng, cac ghi chep khao d!a H; cac tham kliao; cac
trlch tai thlch ung.
Phm lam $3.n ban sao cua cao chfnh cung cac ho so tht;lc
kern theo; cilng voi cac tai dt! thau va qua, cho tat ca. cac .
ben lien quan trong hQp dong.
360
:
... .l ... ... ..... ..... ,
TIEU CHUAN CHAU AU 7 VE NEN MONG
Vao nam 1981, m9t tiy ban bao gOm cac bieu
- , -
H9i dja kl thuQ<! 9 thanh vien ctia Uy ban Chau Au da xay
d\ing ban thao dau tien Tieu chuan Chau Au 7 ve Nen Mong.
,
ban thu hai, khi Uy ban c6 them cac thanh vien la Bo Dao Nha
va 'lay Nha cong bO nam 1986.
··-
MI:IC dich Pa plu;un vi
M9C ctia tieu "chuan Ia cung cap m9t cac .nguyen li va
quy trinh nham bao dam cho nen mong, c6ng trinh chan va cong
tac c:tat chat htQng thl.;h dang. Cac vi d9 ve rong trinh dja ki
trong vi ctia tieu chu.a'!l _la :
- -
Nha ctia, cau, tl1<1ng chan, ho dao, khoi dap, de quai ho mong,
de, nho.
D3.nh gia truC:fng, k:hao sat ngoai triJi va trong phong ; quy
trlnh danb gia va thiet ke, quan trac trong va sau xay d\ing,
danh gia cac nguon.
Ctic eli dill ki thuiit
p . . -
Tieu chuan yeu cau cac rong trlnh ph& ngl1C:fi c6 kien thU:c
ve dja ki sat. De xac cac yeu diu toi thieu cho quy
mo va chat .ll1Qng ctia rong tac khao sat dja k.I -thiet ke va
thi cong da chia ra ba cap dja ki (xem bang
Khi phan m9t cong trlnh bay m9t. bQ ctia .rong trlnh
can xem xet cac yeu to sau day :
Ban cha:t va klch thuac ctia cong trlnh
361
BANG A - 1. TitU cHuAN cHAu Au 1 NBN MONG
Cap dja ki

StJ rui rove
dia ki
Chuyen gia
yru cau
Ciip 1
.
l"Mp
KMo sat vien
dja ki c6
CHATLUQNG
va k:inh nghietn
Ban chat va Ket ail. hay
kich thu& oong trinh tU<Jng d6i
oong trinh d<Jn gian va nho
Dieu kien
ve dat
K.hong c6 : dat khong
binh thl1dng, miii diip,
dat dap rai dat set
trutlng nd, dat y6.t x6p
riJi ep co
_ Cac oong Rtii ro hu
- -
trinh . khong anh hu.3ng t<Ji
_:.
quanh hay xuat phat ttl cac
cap2
Trung binh
cac Kf slJ c6
chat vdi
kinh nghient
phil
cap3
eao
Cac Kf Stf DIA
c6
kinh nghietn
Cong trinh va Cong trinh ldn hay
nen m6ng binh khong binh thddng. c6
thlfiJng, khong c6 nii ro kbac thUiJng
nii ro khac thUiJng
co the dung cac quy
trinh thi trong
phong va ngoai triJi
BiNH THUONG
de xac djnh cac
trung cho thiet ke
Do kho kMn bat
binh thUdng va
yeu cau thi
tinh toan va diht giai
KHONG THEO
SINH THUONG
CO gay rui ro tdi Co gay rui ro
cac c6ng trinh LON tdi cac oong
b! rui ro do dao trinh Ian
khu - nhil, cac c6ng m6ng, dong CQC,
van de
nu& ngam
362
trinh va kbu Vl}C
oong ct?ng Jan
KHONG dao h6
m6ng dtldi mljc nu&
ng3m, trii ooi theo
kinh nghi¢m dja
phU<Jng cho th3y it bj
niiro
th3p mljc nu& ng3m
hay thoat nu&
KHONG_ CO RlJI RO Co kb3 mng RlJI RO
hu khi khong c6 d\1 LON do mtdc ngam ;
mo tru& tac d<}ng VI d1,1 nhu khi tang
cUa vi¢c thap m1& gom nhieu ldp c6
ngam hay thoat nUde s6.tham bien d6i, mljc
tdi oong trinh hay tang nu& ng3m dao d<;ng.
dat chju hJc
r
I
i
i
I
I
I
.
i
'
i
I
I
l
D<>ng dat <J
khu 'V\IC
Anh btldng
ciJa m6i
tn1dng
Vi d1,1 vt
cic oong
trinh
Vung kbong c6
d()ng d()ng dat hay
rong trinh khong
cam
N6J KHONG ton
cac de tan -ve thliy
viD1. thtJC rruiic
hm uu,t
dat, __
Ndi TitU CHUAN
o(>NG QAT ou6c
G lA thich cho
thiet KHONG CO
vimg co kba mng riJj
roliin
Ndi cic quy trinh
BiNH TIUJONG thich
b<1p d6i ph6 vdi cic
van de
Km nb3 iJ nh(: : tai Mong c6 chan IIlid I'Qng.
trQ[Jg len a}t ctJc ¢.li Mong re., Mong O?C-
250kN ; tai tCQng len TtJ(1ng ch3n d3t va
ttidng lOOkN ; khOng rnrdc.. H6 m6ng vUa -
x3y ra hin; mong binh ph<ii. Til) va m6 clu.
thtlc1ng. Tt1dng chfu1 va Kh6i va oong t.ac
h6m6ngkh6ngsauqua d3t. Neo d3t va kmng
2m ; khOng c6 tai trQng lien ket.
ph1,1- COng tac <fat
khOng qua 3m dttdi
dlldng giao thong hay
qua Im dtldi tam
Tam m6ng thiet
ke theo kinh ngtUem
kbOng can pban tich chi
ti&. Nhil 1 va 2 rang,
klaJ nh3 cho mng
nghiep tren m>ng CQC
c6 H6 dao nho
cho oong t3c thocit
nlldc. dl1dng 6ni ---
Vilng nii ro do DONG
L
OAT M.ANH va c6ng
trinb RAT y
CAM
cac va:n de m0i tn(<)ng
KHO KHAN hay
PWCTAP
C<>ng trinh t3i trQng
kh3c thlfclng. Morig nha
nhitu tang. va cic
oong trinh ch3n khiic
chiu tac d()ng biJi ap hJc
mriic kMc nhau Idn.
Ndi x3.y ra ml,_lc nttdc
ngam hi,\ tMp thdi
hay thlldng xuyen..
Cong t.ac d3t va he
dttdng chju t3i trQng
giao th<>ng khong
binh"- thtldng. cac
rong !rinh v-;. dt!dng
h3m Ian Mong chiu tai
trvng d()ng. cac oong
trinh :xa tit cac
mng 111"ng. Nha may
h6a hQC biet khi gay
nguy Cong trinh
cim vdi d()ng
.dt)ng d3t ndi d()ng
d3t cac van dt
clia c6ng trinh ven
va tnJ"l dat quy
m61dnkhcic.
363
Cac dieu ph1t<1ng _nh11 giao thong, djch cong c(>ng,
t huy van, sl)t hin dat, ...
Cac dieu ve dat va n11<1c d1t6i dat
D(}ng dat o .khu V\tc
Phru tien hanh phan lo;p tr1tl1c khi khao sat cija 1d
Cap co the bi thay d6i d giai sau va khong giong nhau cho
cac phan khac nhau cua d\1 an. tien hanh tfD-4 to;in d cap cao
- han c6 the Ia can thiet de tim kiem cac giai phap kinh te han khi
ki s11 gioi, C6 nhieu kinh cho la thfch hQp.
Ctic tiiu chuiin ve tinh niing va tr{lng thai gi6i lu;zn
VfJi moi lo;p cong trlnh, can xem xet cac tieu chuan ve tfnh
- -
nang, mo hlnh tfnh toan va ni9t so each thtlc do Cung c6
nhung-each giai quyet khac, Ia chting c6 the dltQC chtlng minh
Ia dung dan.
Tieu chuan chia theo ph11<1ng phap thai gim trong
do moi tieu chuan tfnh nang CO the CO, dlt<JC coi nhlt la IDQt
thai gi(li h;p1. Qua tnnh thiet ke phai chtlng dltQC rang moi
thai gilfi ton d11gc xem xet rieng re thl la hi
Io;p trit hoan toan khong co kha nang xay ra.
- Hai nh6m thai giCii chlnh dlt<JC xem xet Ia :
1 : thai giCii cuoi cung
IA : C<1 cau dugc hlnh thanh trong dat
IB : C<1 cau dltQC hlnh thanh trong cong trlnh xay
ra "hli nghieni trQng ve cau trtic.
- 2 : thaf giCii ve kha nang su dl)ng
d6 bien cua nen se lam cho cong trlnh" mat kha nang
su dl)ng.
du, khi chqn cac thong so thiet ke phai xem xet den d(>
ben; nhung no khong d11qc xem nh1t la m9t thai giCii
Trong mqi khla chi tiet cua thiet ke, phai l11u y bao dam dQ
ben bang each tfnh dl:f phong t hfch hgp cho bao duy trl, ...
364
' "
Cac phap bat bu()c
Doi v<Ji mt)t so th4i gilJi thl cac mo hlnh tlnh toan
khong co khong can thiet. Thay v1, co the tranh
thai gioi bang each chap va thljc cac quy djnh chi
tiet thfihg thttong va noi chung la bao thti trong thiet ke, bang
chu j t(Ji cac chi tieu ki va kiem tra giam sat
ngttoi lam, cac phap bao va bao dttang. Chang can
dung cac phap bat bu()c de chong tac dt)ng dong bang hay
an mon boa hQC de tr8.nh cac tlnh toan khong can thiet trong
hoan canh thiet ke hoan toan tttdng tlj. -·
365
, , ' A.
OAP SO CAC BAI
Chuung 8 17. a) 293 kN/m
1. 432 kN/m ; 4,0m
b) 683 tN/m
2. 519 kN/m ; 4,34m
18. a) 2,94; l,S3; 8-2 kN/m
2
3. 366 kN/m ; 4,15m
b) 2,28 ; 0,01 ; 104 kN/mz
4. 4&4 kN/m ; 3,90m
19. a) 6.8m
S. 510 kN!m ; 4,0m
b) 6,9m
6. 441 kN/m ; 2;33m
c) 6,8m
1. 408 kN/m; 3,2Im
20. a) 1,41
8. 529 kN/m ; 3,65m
b) 2.5
9. 736 kN/m ; 4.27m
21. 11,7m

22. a) 2,38m ·
10. 655 kN/m; 3,34m
b) 213 kN
. 11. 458 kN/11_1; 3,6lm
23. a) 0.35
12. a) 187 kN/m
b) 654 kN
· b) 286 kN/m
_:. ·
Ch'lrimg 9
c) 404 kN/m -
13. a) 632 kN/m .. -
1. 2,27 ; 1,98 ; 1,81
,
-
b) 662
- '
2. a) 2,04
b) 1,04
c) 899 kN/m c) 1,51
14. a) 108 kN/m; 98 kN 3. 22.6°
b) 1.28-
4. a) 1,30-
r-
15. 308 ; 415 va 450 kN
b) 1,17
\.
( 24 ° vbi phap tuyen
c) 1,09
tt1CJng)
s. 23 kN/m
2
16. a) 290 kN/m; 330 kN/m
6. 1,29 (bO qua k.he nut ding)
b) 11,3m
1,18_ (c6 khe nut c:Ang)
X = 8m ; Y = 14,5m
366
7. a) 1,43
b) 1,39
c) 1,36
8. a) 1,45
b) 1,79
9. a) 1,20
b) 1,78
c) 2,67
10. 29°
11. 3,9m
12. 1,74
13. 1,20
14. a) 1.66
b) 1,1
15. a) 1.62
·-
b) 1 t h ~ n g dl!ng : 3,5 ~ m ngang
Chmmg 10
l. 13mm
~
2. a) 5,2 MN/m·
b) 48mm
3. 17mm
4. a) 0. 780 ; 0.806
., ~
b) 7,25 x 10·- m .. /MN
5. a) 0,844 ; 0,806 ; 0,792 ; 0.767 ;
0.740 ; 0.719 ; 0.772
b) 67mm ; 82mm
6
., ,
• a) 61 kN/m- ; 124 kN/m-
b) 68mm
7. 103mm
8. 210mm
9. a) 198 mm
b) 2,14 nAm
10. a) 67 mm
b) 11,0 nAm : 27,1 ~ m
11. a) 9,7 mm
b) 175 mm
12. a) 3.82 mm
2
/ph
b) 0,029; 0.779
13. 3,82 mm
2
/ph :
0.029 ; 0. 779
14.203 mm
Chmmg 11
~
l . 528 kN/m-
2.
..
a) 546 kN/m ..
.,
b) 235 kN/m·
3. a) 5830 kN/m
2
.,
b) 4376 kN/m-
c) 3415 kN/m
2
4. 292 kN/mz
5. a) 3,8m
b) 2.3m
c) 2.65m
d) 0,9m
6. 3,5m
7. z = 3,8m
a) 13.7%; 37,9%
b) 2.57 ; 1.81
8. 3,7m
9. a) 50 kN/m
2
(ro k<!t)
.,
b) 113 kN/m- (ep co dim hoi)
c) 544 kN/m
2
(pha hO<.:li cat)
367
-.
--.<
10. 155 lu''l!m
2
; 168 kN/m
2
11. 162 k.N/m
2
12. a) 320 k.N/m
2
b) 365 k.N!m
2
13. 445 k.N!m
2
.. :.
368
_ ,-
14. a) 77 mm
b) 46 pun
15. a) 515 k.N
b) 4540 k.N
c) 0,73
16. 1,24 ; 1,67
' A ,
TAl UI;U THAM KHAO
AASHTO 1986 SllliUlord Specifications for TranspoTtlllion MateriiJis and Methods of
Sampling .and Testing : Part 11. Methods of Sampling and Testing (14th .. dn),
. -- -
American ... Association of State Highway and 1hmsPortation Officjals,
Washington -
Ahlvin R G, Ulcly H H 1962 Tabulated values for determining the complete pattern
of stresses, strains and deflections beneath a uniform load on a homogei:lecus
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Baguelin F, Jezelfld J-F, Shields D H 1978 The Pnssuremeter and Foundation.
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Bates R L, Jackson J A (eds) 1987 Glossory of Geology American Geological Institute,
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24CHM'2
369
Bishop A W 1958 Test requirements for measuring -the coefficient of earth
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.
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Bishop A W, N R 1960 Stability for earth slopes.
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Bjerrum L 1954 Geotedmical properties of Nonvegian days. GeotechnU[ue 4 (2) :
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