# Structural Analysis Guide

ANSYS Release 8.1

001972 April 2004

ANSYS, Inc. is a UL registered ISO 9001: 2000 Company

**Structural Analysis Guide
**

ANSYS Release 8.1

ANSYS, Inc. Southpointe 275 Technology Drive Canonsburg, PA 15317 ansysinfo@ansys.com http://www.ansys.com (T) 724-746-3304 (F) 724-514-9494

Revision History Number 001612 001695* 001788* 001901* 001972* Release ANSYS 6.1 ANSYS 7.0 ANSYS 7.1 ANSYS 8.0 ANSYS 8.1 Date April 2002 October 2002 May 2003 October 2003 April 2004

* ANSYS Documentation on CD.

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Table of Contents

1. Overview of Structural Analyses ......................................................................................................... 1–1 1.1. Definition of Structural Analysis .................................................................................................... 1–1 1.2. Types of Structural Analysis ........................................................................................................... 1–1 1.3. Elements Used in Structural Analyses ............................................................................................ 1–2 1.4. Material Model Interface ............................................................................................................... 1–2 1.5. Types of Solution Methods ............................................................................................................ 1–2 2. Structural Static Analysis .................................................................................................................... 2–1 2.1. Definition of Static Analysis ........................................................................................................... 2–1 2.2. Linear vs. Nonlinear Static Analyses ............................................................................................... 2–1 2.3. Performing a Static Analysis .......................................................................................................... 2–1 2.3.1. Build the Model ................................................................................................................... 2–1 2.3.1.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................... 2–1 2.3.2. Set Solution Controls ............................................................................................................ 2–2 2.3.2.1. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box ...................................................................... 2–2 2.3.2.2. Using the Basic Tab ..................................................................................................... 2–2 2.3.2.3. The Transient Tab ........................................................................................................ 2–3 2.3.2.4. Using the Sol'n Options Tab ......................................................................................... 2–4 2.3.2.5. Using the Nonlinear Tab .............................................................................................. 2–4 2.3.2.6. Using the Advanced NL Tab ......................................................................................... 2–5 2.3.3. Set Additional Solution Options ........................................................................................... 2–5 2.3.3.1. Stress Stiffening Effects ................................................................................................ 2–5 2.3.3.2. Newton-Raphson Option ............................................................................................. 2–6 2.3.3.3. Prestress Effects Calculation ......................................................................................... 2–6 2.3.3.4. Mass Matrix Formulation ............................................................................................. 2–6 2.3.3.5. Reference Temperature ............................................................................................... 2–7 2.3.3.6. Mode Number ............................................................................................................. 2–7 2.3.3.7. Creep Criteria .............................................................................................................. 2–7 2.3.3.8. Printed Output ............................................................................................................ 2–7 2.3.3.9. Extrapolation of Results ............................................................................................... 2–7 2.3.4. Apply the Loads ................................................................................................................... 2–7 2.3.4.1. Load Types .................................................................................................................. 2–7 2.3.4.1.1. Displacements (UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ) ................................................... 2–7 2.3.4.1.2. Forces (FX, FY, FZ) and Moments (MX, MY, MZ) .................................................... 2–7 2.3.4.1.3. Pressures (PRES) .................................................................................................. 2–8 2.3.4.1.4. Temperatures (TEMP) .......................................................................................... 2–8 2.3.4.1.5. Fluences (FLUE) .................................................................................................. 2–8 2.3.4.1.6. Gravity, Spinning, Etc. ......................................................................................... 2–8 2.3.4.2. Apply Loads to the Model ............................................................................................ 2–8 2.3.4.2.1. Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters ........................................... 2–8 2.3.4.3. Calculating Inertia Relief .............................................................................................. 2–9 2.3.4.3.1. Inertia Relief Output ............................................................................................ 2–9 2.3.4.3.2. Partial Inertia Relief Calculations .......................................................................... 2–9 2.3.4.3.3. Using a Macro to Perform Inertia Relief Calculations ........................................... 2–10 2.3.5. Solve the Analysis .............................................................................................................. 2–10 2.3.6. Review the Results ............................................................................................................. 2–10 2.3.6.1. Postprocessors .......................................................................................................... 2–11 2.3.6.2. Points to Remember .................................................................................................. 2–11 2.3.6.3. Reviewing Results Data .............................................................................................. 2–11 2.3.6.4. Typical Postprocessing Operations ............................................................................. 2–11 2.4. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) ........................................................................................ 2–13

Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8.1 . 001972 . © SAS IP, Inc.

Structural Analysis Guide 2.4.1. Problem Description .......................................................................................................... 2–13 2.4.2. Problem Specifications ....................................................................................................... 2–13 2.4.3. Problem Sketch .................................................................................................................. 2–14 2.4.3.1. Set the Analysis Title .................................................................................................. 2–14 2.4.3.2. Set the System of Units .............................................................................................. 2–14 2.4.3.3. Define Parameters ..................................................................................................... 2–14 2.4.3.4. Define the Element Types .......................................................................................... 2–15 2.4.3.5. Define Material Properties ......................................................................................... 2–15 2.4.3.6. Create Hexagonal Area as Cross-Section ..................................................................... 2–15 2.4.3.7. Create Keypoints Along a Path ................................................................................... 2–16 2.4.3.8. Create Lines Along a Path .......................................................................................... 2–16 2.4.3.9. Create Line from Shank to Handle .............................................................................. 2–17 2.4.3.10. Cut Hex Section ....................................................................................................... 2–17 2.4.3.11. Set Meshing Density ................................................................................................ 2–17 2.4.3.12. Set Element Type for Area Mesh ............................................................................... 2–17 2.4.3.13. Generate Area Mesh ................................................................................................ 2–18 2.4.3.14. Drag the 2-D Mesh to Produce 3-D Elements ............................................................ 2–18 2.4.3.15. Select BOTAREA Component and Delete 2-D Elements ............................................. 2–18 2.4.3.16. Apply Displacement Boundary Condition at End of Wrench ...................................... 2–19 2.4.3.17. Display Boundary Conditions ................................................................................... 2–19 2.4.3.18. Apply Pressure on Handle ........................................................................................ 2–19 2.4.3.19. Write the First Load Step .......................................................................................... 2–21 2.4.3.20. Define Downward Pressure ...................................................................................... 2–21 2.4.3.21. Write Second Load Step ........................................................................................... 2–22 2.4.3.22. Solve from Load Step Files ....................................................................................... 2–22 2.4.3.23. Read First Load Step and Review Results .................................................................. 2–22 2.4.3.24. Read the Next Load Step and Review Results ............................................................ 2–23 2.4.3.25. Zoom in on Cross-Section ........................................................................................ 2–23 2.4.3.26. Exit ANSYS ............................................................................................................... 2–23 2.5. A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ................................................................ 2–24 2.6. Where to Find Other Examples .................................................................................................... 2–26 3. Modal Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 3–1 3.1. Definition of Modal Analysis .......................................................................................................... 3–1 3.2. Uses for Modal Analysis ................................................................................................................. 3–1 3.3. Overview of Steps in a Modal Analysis ........................................................................................... 3–1 3.4. Build the Model ............................................................................................................................ 3–1 3.5. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution ............................................................................................ 3–2 3.5.1. Enter the Solution Processor ................................................................................................. 3–2 3.5.2. Define Analysis Type and Options ......................................................................................... 3–2 3.5.2.1. Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] .................................................................................... 3–2 3.5.2.2. Option: Analysis Type: Modal [ANTYPE] ........................................................................ 3–3 3.5.2.3. Option: Mode-Extraction Method [MODOPT] ............................................................... 3–3 3.5.2.4. Option: Number of Modes to Extract [MODOPT] ........................................................... 3–4 3.5.2.5. Option: Number of Modes to Expand [MXPAND] .......................................................... 3–4 3.5.2.6. Option: Mass Matrix Formulation [LUMPM] .................................................................. 3–4 3.5.2.7. Option: Prestress Effects Calculation [PSTRES] .............................................................. 3–4 3.5.2.8. Additional Modal Analysis Options .............................................................................. 3–4 3.5.3. Define Master Degrees of Freedom ....................................................................................... 3–4 3.5.4. Apply Loads ......................................................................................................................... 3–5 3.5.4.1. Applying Loads Using Commands ............................................................................... 3–5 3.5.4.2. Applying Loads Using the GUI ..................................................................................... 3–5 3.5.4.3. Listing Loads ............................................................................................................... 3–6

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Structural Analysis Guide 3.5.5. Specify Load Step Options .................................................................................................... 3–6 3.5.6. Participation Factor Table Output ......................................................................................... 3–6 3.5.7. Solve ................................................................................................................................... 3–7 3.5.7.1. Output ........................................................................................................................ 3–7 3.5.7.1.1. Output From Subspace Mode-Extraction Method ................................................ 3–7 3.5.8. Exit the Solution Processor ................................................................................................... 3–8 3.6. Expand the Modes ........................................................................................................................ 3–8 3.6.1. Points to Remember ............................................................................................................ 3–8 3.6.2. Expanding the Modes .......................................................................................................... 3–8 3.7. Review the Results ...................................................................................................................... 3–10 3.7.1. Points to Remember ........................................................................................................... 3–10 3.7.2. Reviewing Results Data ...................................................................................................... 3–10 3.7.3. Option: Listing All Frequencies ........................................................................................... 3–10 3.7.4. Option: Display Deformed Shape ........................................................................................ 3–11 3.7.5. Option: List Master DOF ...................................................................................................... 3–11 3.7.6. Option: Line Element Results .............................................................................................. 3–11 3.7.7. Option: Contour Displays ................................................................................................... 3–11 3.7.8. Option: Tabular Listings ...................................................................................................... 3–11 3.7.9. Other Capabilities .............................................................................................................. 3–12 3.8. A Sample Modal Analysis (GUI Method) ....................................................................................... 3–12 3.8.1. Problem Description .......................................................................................................... 3–12 3.8.2. Problem Specifications ....................................................................................................... 3–12 3.8.3. Problem Sketch .................................................................................................................. 3–12 3.9. A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ............................................................... 3–13 3.10. Where to Find Other Examples .................................................................................................. 3–14 3.11. Prestressed Modal Analysis ....................................................................................................... 3–14 3.12. Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution ......................................................... 3–15 3.13. Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods ....................................................................................... 3–16 3.13.1. Block Lanczos Method ...................................................................................................... 3–17 3.13.2. Subspace Method ............................................................................................................ 3–17 3.13.3. PowerDynamics Method .................................................................................................. 3–17 3.13.4. Reduced Method .............................................................................................................. 3–18 3.13.5. Unsymmetric Method ....................................................................................................... 3–18 3.13.6. Damped Method .............................................................................................................. 3–18 3.13.6.1. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvalue ................................... 3–18 3.13.6.2. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvector .................................. 3–18 3.13.7. QR Damped Method ........................................................................................................ 3–19 3.14. Matrix Reduction ...................................................................................................................... 3–19 3.14.1. Theoretical Basis of Matrix Reduction ................................................................................ 3–19 3.14.1.1. Guidelines for Selecting Master DOF ........................................................................ 3–19 3.14.1.2. A Note About Program-Selected Masters .................................................................. 3–21 4. Harmonic Response Analysis .............................................................................................................. 4–1 4.1. Definition of Harmonic Response Analysis ..................................................................................... 4–1 4.2. Uses for Harmonic Response Analysis ............................................................................................ 4–1 4.3. Commands Used in a Harmonic Response Analysis ........................................................................ 4–2 4.4. The Three Solution Methods ......................................................................................................... 4–2 4.4.1. The Full Method ................................................................................................................... 4–2 4.4.2. The Reduced Method ........................................................................................................... 4–2 4.4.3. The Mode Superposition Method ......................................................................................... 4–3 4.4.4. Restrictions Common to All Three Methods .......................................................................... 4–3 4.5. How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis ........................................................................................ 4–3 4.5.1. Full Harmonic Response Analysis .......................................................................................... 4–3

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Structural Analysis Guide 4.5.2. Build the Model ................................................................................................................... 4–4 4.5.2.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................... 4–4 4.5.3. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution ................................................................................... 4–4 4.5.3.1. Enter the ANSYS Solution Processor ............................................................................. 4–4 4.5.3.2. Define the Analysis Type and Options .......................................................................... 4–4 4.5.3.3. Apply Loads on the Model ........................................................................................... 4–5 4.5.3.3.1. Applying Loads Using Commands ....................................................................... 4–8 4.5.3.3.2. Applying Loads and Listing Loads Using the GUI ................................................. 4–9 4.5.3.4. Specify Load Step Options ........................................................................................... 4–9 4.5.3.4.1. General Options .................................................................................................. 4–9 4.5.3.4.2. Dynamics Options ............................................................................................. 4–10 4.5.3.4.3. Output Controls ................................................................................................ 4–10 4.5.3.5. Save a Backup Copy of the Database to a Named File ................................................. 4–11 4.5.3.6. Start Solution Calculations ......................................................................................... 4–11 4.5.3.7. Repeat for Additional Load Steps ............................................................................... 4–11 4.5.3.8. Leave SOLUTION ....................................................................................................... 4–11 4.5.4. Review the Results ............................................................................................................. 4–11 4.5.4.1. Postprocessors .......................................................................................................... 4–11 4.5.4.2. Points to Remember .................................................................................................. 4–11 4.5.4.3. Using POST26 ............................................................................................................ 4–12 4.5.4.4. Using POST1 .............................................................................................................. 4–12 4.6. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) ..................................................................... 4–13 4.6.1. Problem Description .......................................................................................................... 4–13 4.6.2. Problem Specifications ....................................................................................................... 4–13 4.6.3. Problem Diagram ............................................................................................................... 4–14 4.6.3.1. Set the Analysis Title .................................................................................................. 4–14 4.6.3.2. Define the Element Types .......................................................................................... 4–14 4.6.3.3. Define the Real Constants .......................................................................................... 4–15 4.6.3.4. Create the Nodes ....................................................................................................... 4–15 4.6.3.5. Create the Spring Elements ........................................................................................ 4–15 4.6.3.6. Create the Mass Elements .......................................................................................... 4–16 4.6.3.7. Specify the Analysis Type, MDOF, and Load Step Specifications .................................. 4–16 4.6.3.8. Define Loads and Boundary Conditions ...................................................................... 4–16 4.6.3.9. Solve the Model ........................................................................................................ 4–17 4.6.3.10. Review the Results ................................................................................................... 4–17 4.6.3.11. Exit ANSYS ............................................................................................................... 4–18 4.7. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ............................................. 4–18 4.8. Where to Find Other Examples .................................................................................................... 4–19 4.9. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis ......................................................................................... 4–20 4.9.1. Apply Loads and Obtain the Reduced Solution ................................................................... 4–20 4.9.2. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution ........................................................................ 4–21 4.9.3. Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass) ................................................................................. 4–21 4.9.3.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................. 4–21 4.9.3.2. Expanding the Modes ................................................................................................ 4–21 4.9.4. Review the Results of the Expanded Solution ...................................................................... 4–23 4.9.5. Sample Input ..................................................................................................................... 4–24 4.10. Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis ..................................................................... 4–25 4.10.1. Obtain the Modal Solution ................................................................................................ 4–25 4.10.2. Obtain the Mode Superposition Harmonic Solution .......................................................... 4–25 4.10.3. Expand the Mode Superposition Solution ......................................................................... 4–27 4.10.4. Review the Results ........................................................................................................... 4–27 4.10.5. Sample Input ................................................................................................................... 4–27

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Structural Analysis Guide 4.11. Other Analysis Details ............................................................................................................... 4–28 4.11.1. Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis .......................................................................... 4–28 4.11.1.1. Prestressed Full Harmonic Response Analysis ........................................................... 4–28 4.11.1.2. Prestressed Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis ................................................... 4–29 4.11.1.3. Prestressed Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis ................................. 4–29 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis ................................................................................................................ 5–1 5.1. Definition of Transient Dynamic Analysis ....................................................................................... 5–1 5.2. Preparing for a Transient Dynamic Analysis ................................................................................... 5–1 5.3. Three Solution Methods ................................................................................................................ 5–2 5.3.1. Full Method ......................................................................................................................... 5–2 5.3.2. Mode Superposition Method ................................................................................................ 5–2 5.3.3. Reduced Method ................................................................................................................. 5–3 5.4. Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis ................................................................................ 5–3 5.4.1. Build the Model ................................................................................................................... 5–4 5.4.1.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................... 5–4 5.4.2. Establish Initial Conditions ................................................................................................... 5–4 5.4.3. Set Solution Controls ............................................................................................................ 5–6 5.4.3.1. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box ...................................................................... 5–6 5.4.3.2. Using the Basic Tab ..................................................................................................... 5–7 5.4.3.3. Using the Transient Tab ............................................................................................... 5–7 5.4.3.4. Using the Remaining Solution Controls Tabs ................................................................ 5–8 5.4.4. Set Additional Solution Options ........................................................................................... 5–8 5.4.4.1. Prestress Effects ........................................................................................................... 5–9 5.4.4.2. Damping Option ......................................................................................................... 5–9 5.4.4.3. Mass Matrix Formulation ............................................................................................. 5–9 5.4.5. Apply the Loads ................................................................................................................... 5–9 5.4.6. Save the Load Configuration for the Current Load Step ....................................................... 5–10 5.4.7. Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step ................................................................................... 5–10 5.4.8. Save a Backup Copy of the Database .................................................................................. 5–10 5.4.9. Start the Transient Solution ................................................................................................ 5–10 5.4.10. Exit the Solution Processor ............................................................................................... 5–11 5.4.11. Review the Results ........................................................................................................... 5–11 5.4.11.1. Postprocessors ........................................................................................................ 5–11 5.4.11.2. Points to Remember ................................................................................................ 5–11 5.4.11.3. Using POST26 .......................................................................................................... 5–11 5.4.11.4. Other Capabilities .................................................................................................... 5–12 5.4.11.5. Using POST1 ............................................................................................................ 5–12 5.4.12. Sample Input for a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis ........................................................... 5–12 5.5. Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis .................................................... 5–13 5.5.1. Build the Model .................................................................................................................. 5–13 5.5.2. Obtain the Modal Solution ................................................................................................. 5–13 5.5.3. Obtain the Mode Superposition Transient Solution ............................................................. 5–14 5.5.3.1. Points to Remember .................................................................................................. 5–14 5.5.3.2. Obtaining the Solution .............................................................................................. 5–14 5.5.4. Expand the Mode Superposition Solution ........................................................................... 5–18 5.5.5. Review the Results ............................................................................................................. 5–18 5.5.6. Sample Input for a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis ................................... 5–18 5.6. Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis ...................................................................... 5–19 5.6.1. Obtain the Reduced Solution .............................................................................................. 5–19 5.6.1.1. Define the Analysis Type and Options ........................................................................ 5–20 5.6.1.2. Define Master Degrees of Freedom ............................................................................ 5–20 5.6.1.3. Define Gap Conditions ............................................................................................... 5–20

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...... 5–30 5............................ 5–33 5................... 5–33 5.. Apply Loads for the First Load Step ..7..7..2............................. 5–28 5................................10...4.... Output Control Options . 5–30 5. 5–23 5......10....4. 5–26 5..........................6........... 5–29 5........6.................. 6–1 6.......6.......................... Dynamics Options .. 5–29 5.................................................. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution .....................................................7....................................3........7.......3.................1...3...................................... Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass) .....5............. 6–1 x Structural Analysis Guide ..............3.......7...................4................................. Prestressed Full Transient Dynamic Analysis ............................................. Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) ................... 5–31 5.........................1.............. Points to Remember ...................................3........... 5–33 5.1...........................................9.9............................................1............................4...7...1.........3.... 5–36 5..3.....4............6... 6–1 6.................. Solve the First Load Step ........................................Structural Analysis Guide 5............... Problem Sketch ....................................2.. Specify Loads and Load Step Options ...........................................5. Write the First Load Step to a Load Step File ......................7................................ Define Material Properties .........................................................................3...................8. 5–33 5...................................... 5–24 5................3.................... 5–30 5......................... Definition of Spectrum Analysis ..................................................................................... 5–28 5...........1.............. Review the Results of the Expanded Solution .................. Specify the Title .................................................................... Spectrum Analysis ..2........... 5–27 5......... Obtaining the Solution .......... Where to Find Other Examples ... Apply Loads for the Next Load Step .......... Problem Specifications ......................................................4...... Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) ....................... 5–29 5...................................................3....................................................... Set the Next Time Step and Solve ...3..........................1........................1..1.......................................................... 5–26 5..3.......................................7........................ 5–27 5............6............................ Define Element Types ............................1....7............... 5–31 5.............................. 5–22 5. 5–23 5........................ 5–40 6.................. 5–30 5......................3............6........................1... General Options .......7................................... Problem Description .................. 6–1 6................................................................. Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) .......... ...........4..........................2......... 5–30 5.7....................... Set Load Step Options ... Solve the Next Load Step ............... Other Analysis Details ........2.13.................. What is a Spectrum? ......................................... 5–23 5......2.................................................................2.............................................. Guidelines for Integration Time Step ............................................................................................ Review the Results in POST1 ........ 5–32 5...........7..1................6....3...1...4...........1 .....7...... 5–29 5..... 001972 .................................10............................................... © SAS IP....................................... Response Spectrum ........ Define Nodes ...3.... Define Master Degrees of Freedom ..........5................. Gap Conditions ......7.............................................................................11.................... Review the Results in POST26 .........6.................8.................... 5–32 5........ 5–22 5.....2...... Prestressed Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis ....................................................1............7........................... 5–23 5......................9........................3...........7....7......................3....................... Inc.........................4.....4.......................................................... Damping ....9.. Define Analysis Type and Analysis Options ..............2................................................................1...................2....................................11......................................2....................... 5–24 5.....10...9..12......... 5–21 5...........................1....................................................... Automatic Time Stepping .............................6....... 5–31 5....................7............ 6–1 6..............6......................3.2...... Prestressed Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis ......... Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis .........................................4..... 6–1 6..................................................................................................................................7............. 5–27 5................... 5–26 5................................... 5–31 5.......................7.................7..............................3..................... Run the Expansion Pass and Solve .........................................6.................................................6.......1......................... Expanding the Solution .......................7..................4. 5–28 5............ 5–35 5........... Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ................. 5–24 5..................................2.............. ANSYS Release 8....1.... 5–25 5..1....................... Exit ANSYS ............................................7....... Specify Output .......................6......7................................6.3................................................... Define Elements ................................4.. Apply Initial Conditions to the Model .. 5–27 5...............................6.......3...........................................3............. Define Real Constants ...............................7............... 5–29 5............10.............1..............3.............. 5–20 5...... 5–23 5........1.........................................

.....1............6............. Obtain the Spectrum Solution ..... Specify Analysis Type and Options . 6–6 6............................. 6–16 6........................4....................... 6–2 6..............4...2.... 6–2 6.6.................17................................... Inc..................................... 6–23 6...4.................4............3.... 6–22 6.......4..............2.....4.........................................4.4........................................................................................................................................ How to Do Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Analysis .. Expand the Modes ...............................4...........4......................................... 6–3 6........4.. Buckling Analysis .........4................ Sample Input ........................................................................... Review the Results ....................4.....4............................................. 6–18 6.............................................................................4.4............ How to Do DDAM Spectrum Analysis ................ Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis ........... Reviewing the Results in POST1 ..............................1................... Problem Sketch ................ 6–23 6.......................9...........3............. Expand the Modes .............4.................................4...15..............3....10... Display the Results ..........................4....................... 6–12 6..4...................................... Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) .........2................................. 6–14 6......... Procedure .................................................................... 6–14 6......................4..... 6–18 6.............................. Element..................... Power Spectral Density ...... Define the Element Type ..........................................13.........7............... 6–24 6..................... 6–16 6.20..4....7.......... Postprocessing: Print Out Nodal. 6–3 6.................. How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis ...........7.......................................4......................................... Probabilistic Analyses ..........5.4....... 6–15 6...... Review the Results ... Set Up Mode Combination for Spectrum Analysis ........................... 6–22 6...............................4....................2..4..........................2..................................................................... 6–12 6.4................................................. 6–13 6..................... Define Spectrum Value vs.... 6–15 6......................................... Where to Find Other Examples ...............4.... 6–13 6.4......3..................... Calculating Response PSDs in POST26 ..7................... © SAS IP......................... ANSYS Release 8............... Read the Desired Set of Results into the Database ........................ 6–21 6..................................4...............3.......2.............. 6–11 6...........................................4............ Solve Spectrum Analysis .............16......3...................... 6–25 7................................................................................................................8.........6...3................................................................ xi ..........................................4.................................................................................. and Reaction Solutions ..4.... 6–10 6..2......................... Obtain the Modal Solution ..........................1..... 6–12 6. Solve the Modal Analysis ...4........ Define Material Properties ..1.................................................... 6–10 6...19......................................5............................................................................. Set Global Element Density and Mesh Line .................... 6–18 6...........................................1..............4...........7...... Build the Model ..4.........3.... 6–3 6...................................................... 6–3 6.............4.......7.. 6–14 6......3................ Define the Real Constants ..................................... 6–2 6.................................11........................................ Combine the Modes .................................4............................. 6–11 6.. Select Mode Combination Method ............ Expand the Modes ..Structural Analysis Guide 6..........7..............................4................... Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM) ....18..............................4.......................................... 001972 ........... 6–13 6...........1..............................2............... 6–17 6......................................................1....4................................................................ 6–8 6............................4......... 6–15 6........................................................4.................4.....................4.. Exit ANSYS ... 6–15 6............................................ 6–10 6....................... Combine the Modes ................................................................4.............................................................. Set up the Expansion Pass .............................................................. 6–15 6.. Problem Description .....3....... 6–23 6...... Deterministic vs.................4........ Frequency Table .............4..................... Points to Remember ........... Sample Spectrum Analysis (Command or Batch Method) .............7............................. Set Boundary Conditions ......................8... Start Expansion Pass Calculation ....................1... 6–22 6.......................... 6–25 6..4......... Obtain the Spectrum Solution ........ 6–2 6......1 .............. 6–14 6.................................................. Define Keypoints and Line .....7..........................7...............................................4............... Combine the Modes ..............4............. Problem Specifications .................1....... 6–13 6.......2............................... Calculating Covariance in POST26 ....4..4.9...................................4.......... 6–11 6....................3.......................................................14.............. Set the Analysis Title ....................................7.............................. 6–11 6............................3................. Set Up the Spectrum Analysis ...................................1...... 6–6 6................4.. 7–1 Structural Analysis Guide ..................5......................3...............................3.........................12..................7................................................5.................................. 6–11 6..2.............................

3.......7..................... 7–2 7............ Nonlinear Materials ................................1... 7–12 8................5..1........... Problem Description ............4..........................................4...........5.......3.......................................2...................... 8–6 8.......... Where to Find Other Examples .........1................................6. 7–1 7..1............. Basic Information About Nonlinear Analyses ....6.......... 7–8 7.. 8–2 8....2.......................... © SAS IP..........................4..................................1............... Modeling Material Nonlinearities .................................................................................................3...........................................................2......4.... 7–2 7................. Define the Boundary Conditions .......................... 8–8 xii Structural Analysis Guide ................. 7–12 7............................1................6.............................. Define the Element Type .............5...............................................3.2................................................... 7–5 7.2....................................4........... 8–1 8............................6..................................................................................1............................................................... Conservative versus Nonconservative Behavior...5........ Solve the Static Analysis ....................................6.... 8–1 8..................................2...................... 8–5 8..................2...................5.................. 001972 ..................................................... Material Nonlinearities ........... Procedure for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis ..................3..... 8–7 8......................................3............... Obtain the Eigenvalue Buckling Solution .........................6........................................1.............. 7–9 7. Obtain the Static Solution ................................ ANSYS Release 8.....................................1................7............................................ Set the Analysis Title .................3........... Points to Remember ........................ 7–1 7.......... 7–10 7...1.................. 7–8 7................4........................... 7–6 7.........3............................................ 8–8 8..... Geometric Nonlinearities ............................... Load Direction in a Large-Deflection Analysis ..............................3.. Inc................................6............ Nonlinear Transient Analyses ....................................................... 7–2 7.......... Stress Stiffening ................. Nonlinear Structural Analysis ..... 7–12 7..................1.1.... 8–7 8...........2.............3..............1..........................4................................................3.........................8......................2................................................5......................5................................. Review the Results ....3................................................. 8–6 8...............2.............................. 8–7 8................................. Exit ANSYS ............... 7–11 7....................................6...................1........................................... 7–12 7... 8–5 8.............3........2....................... Automatic Time Stepping ................................................................................. Review the Results ............................................5............................... Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) ............................. Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis ......1............................................. Applying Load Increments ............................................................................................................. Expand the Solution . Expanding the Solution ....1.......................................................................... 7–7 7........3......... Important ........................... Substeps .............1.........................4.................................................2....................2.. Sample Buckling Analysis (Command or Batch Method) .................................................. Large Deflections with Small Strain .....5.. 7–9 7........................................ Points to Remember ........4..... 7–3 7. Problem Sketch .............. 8–6 8... Commands Used in a Buckling Analysis .........................................................3.................... Using Geometric Nonlinearities .....1.......6........................ Spin Softening ...... 7–3 7............Structural Analysis Guide 7.................... Points to Remember ............................................2..................6........................... 7–4 7..........2...6..................................... 7–6 7................... Nonlinear Buckling Analysis ........................................................................................................1..........................3. 7–11 7.............. Define the Real Constants and Material Properties .. 7–1 7......3....3..............8...... 8–2 8.........................................................................2...................................6....................1.. What is Structural Nonlinearity? ............................. Solve the Buckling Analysis ...............6..... Path Dependency ..............................4........................................................................ Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis ......... Stress-Strain .................................................................2.........4...............1.............................................................. Causes of Nonlinear Behavior .. Types of Buckling Analyses ....... 7–3 7...............1...... 7–11 7..............................................................3................................ 7–9 7........................................................... 8–1 8............. 8–8 8... 7–8 7................................2.... 7–10 7....6.......1 ..............................................................1.......................................................................... 7–1 7..5........................................9....1.....................2.................... 8–2 8.........1..................1.... 7–2 7............................. Changing Status (Including Contact) .....1................................................................ 7–6 7........................................1.. Definition of Buckling Analysis .................................... 7–2 7............................................................ 7–4 7.............................................5. Build the Model ................1... Problem Specifications ....................................2................2................................... 8–2 8.............2...... Define Nodes and Elements ................................... ............................................

... BISO and CHAB Example .2............... 8–40 8.........3......3.2.. 8–37 8.................. HILL and NLISO Example .. Blatz-Ko Foam Hyperelastic Option ........3.............3..............2..... 8–35 8...... HILL and CREEP and MISO Example ............................11.1...............2........................7.......................... HILL and MKIN Example ..................5... 8–35 8... 8–35 8........................... HILL and MISO and CHAB Example ....................................2..................1.....4.......... Shape Memory Alloy .....3.....10.... 8–9 8..................1........3....3.................... Material Model Combinations .............................. 8–16 8...... MISO and CREEP Example .......................................................2.................2........2.. Multilinear Elasticity ............................................ Hyperelasticity ....18.....23.. Viscoelasticity .....4... HILL and RATE and MISO Example ........................................................................................3........ MISO and RATE Example ........2....... HILL and RATE and BISO Example .....1.......................................................................2.....................................................1.......4......1........................9.........................1............................................1......................................3............................... Explicit Creep Procedure .. 001972 .................................. 8–39 8...................14......... HILL and CHAB Example ......4...........2............... 8–20 8...3....2.................1............ HILL and BKIN Example .................... NLISO and CREEP Example ..... User-Defined Hyperelastic Option ................ User Defined Material ..3..........2.........3.............................. 8–20 8..................2...2.........................................1..... ANSYS Release 8......................................................................10...3...........Structural Analysis Guide 8.......4...........3..........................................................................3.2.............. 8–18 8........................3.........3...............1....... 8–31 8............ NLISO and CHAB Example ................................ 8–31 8.........3......... BISO and CREEP Example ................................................7................3...........................1........ 8–10 8....4..............11.... Polynomial Form Hyperelastic Option .............. 8–19 8.......................................3.3........ xiii .................... Swelling ..............................3.......................................................................................................... 8–36 8........ BISO and RATE Example ............................... 8–41 8......................1....................... 8–19 8..3. Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB. 8–44 8............... 8–44 8..12... 8–35 8.2................................3...........................................................2...5.28. Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB. HILL and NLISO and CHAB Example .3.................... HILL and MISO Example ................9.............. 8–16 8............. 8–47 Structural Analysis Guide ............................1..............................21.... 8–39 8..................3............................4.....3.3............... Creep .............26...............2........... Gent Hyperelastic Option ........5...........................................17.........3............. 8–17 8................ 8–47 8.3.............. BKIN and CREEP Example ...................... 8–18 8........8......1................2.....1......................2..................................... 8–42 8............ 8–19 8............20.....6.......6...... 8–37 8.......... MISO and CHAB Example .............2.......3...............1........4................... 8–29 8...1.......... 8–47 8.......1... HILL and RATE and NLISO Example .......................2......... 8–34 8.....................3...................3.........2................................1...............3........................................ 8–41 8.........................5.......................... 8–20 8...................................................................8.....1.... Viscoplasticity ............................7.................................................25.3................................ HILL and CREEP and BKIN Example ...4........2.............. 8–21 8.. 8–40 8..........................................5................ HILL and KINH Example ...................................... 8–41 8....4..3...............1 .................. 8–39 8.1.....MOONEY) ......... HILL and BISO and CHAB Example ...........2..... 8–21 8............... 8–38 8............................... NLISO and RATE Example .................3.. Implicit Creep Procedure ......... Arruda-Boyce Hyperelastic Option ................ 8–37 8..........................................................2.................... 8–30 8..................................4............3...........4.................... 8–45 8.... HILL and CREEP and BISO Example ... HILL and CREEP and NLISO Example ..........3............................................. 8–32 8....................................................3.HYPER) .....................1......................................... © SAS IP....................................4. 8–43 8.......... Yeoh Hyperelastic Option . Inc......3.....6.....................19.......3..............2......... Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option ..................2.................................1............... 8–20 8......................8................................................... HILL and CREEP Example ........3...............................................15...3........13.........2.........................1.......................................................................................................3............1...... Plastic Material Options ........................................3......3...........................................27........3...3......................................9......1............................3.........................3................................ Plasticity ....3...22.......................2.... 8–46 8...........4........... 8–33 8....2.............3......16..................... HILL and BISO Example ..1...........3............... Ogden Compressible Foam Hyperelastic Option ....3. 8–36 8......2.. 8–38 8........ 8–38 8...1..................................24........................... Ogden Hyperelastic Option ...

.....1....5............................3..2. 8–49 8.......... 8–61 8................. 8–55 8.5..........5.........1................ Terminating a Running Job........................................................... Tracking Convergence Graphically ... 8–53 8..1................2............2.10... Starting Out with Nonlinear Analysis ...3.2..............................................5...........................................1.... 8–54 8.......................10....... Using Nonlinear (Changing-Status) Elements ...2...................2........................... 8–61 8..... Advanced Analysis Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box .................. Advanced Analysis Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box ..5................... Automatic Time Stepping ............................................................................. Line Search Option .................................. 8–64 8.....................................2................... 8–55 8.........5.......................3............. 8–63 8.......................... Performing Nonlinear Diagnostics ....................... Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis .......5.............. Reviewing Results in POST26 ............ Using Automatic Time Stepping ......................................... 8–52 8......10......6....2.1.......6...... Cutback Criteria .............10.....8.... 8–49 8........................3. Review the Results .....1.......................................................10........ 8–63 8..........7........................2.10.........................10.............................3....... Overcoming Convergence Problems .............3................... 8–63 8..................... 8–53 8...................10......................5.........3........................... Solve the Analysis ...... 001972 .2...... Be Aware of How the Program and Your Structure Behave ...............................................10...................... Time Step Open Control ............................2............................ 8–59 8.....................................7............ 8–60 8............. 8–57 8..... Output Control .............. 8–51 8.................1................................................3..........5.......4..................... 8–66 8........... Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution ............ 8–57 8... Element Birth and Death ... 8–51 8....................... 8–63 8...... Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis ............3............... Build the Model ...2......... Restarting ........3....................... 8–48 8........................ Using Line Search ........................ Inc..........2..........................1.. Equation Solver ................................................ .... 8–49 8............................. 8–69 xiv Structural Analysis Guide ...........5........................2.................5.......................4.................5... 8–68 8....................... 8–63 8.......................5. 8–50 8........................... Using the Basic Tab: Special Considerations . Stress Stiffness ........................................5............4...........................................................................................3...................... 8–53 8.......1... ANSYS Release 8........................ Apply the Load Gradually ......2.................................. Reviewing Results in POST1 .........................2..3................................................. 8–52 8...................... 8–59 8................. Build the Model ...........6........................................................................... 8–50 8.....................6. Using the Arc-Length Method .. Sample Input for a Nonlinear Transient Analysis ...................................... Apply the Loads ................2.................................5........................................ Predictor-Corrector Option ...........3........1.....1........5...........5...6........5............................2.............................5.....3.......... Newton-Raphson Option ...............5......................................10..............................10........... © SAS IP..............5.......................2.............. Restarts ... 8–56 8......................... Convergence Criteria ................................3....................................................................... 8–67 8......................2.......... 8–55 8.....9.............. Solution Monitoring ....................................10..............2.....3................ 8–57 8......................... 8–64 8........................................5.... Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis ....5...................................2........................5....5......... 8–64 8................... 8–51 8........ Birth and Death .................................5.................2........2......2.......... Points to Remember ......1............... 8–48 8...........6...................2. Use an Adequate Mesh Density ...................................................5......6..10.6................................ Artificially Inhibit Divergence in Your Model's Response ........................................5........3. Keep It Simple ...............................1.5...1.... 8–56 8..1 ....... Advanced Load Step Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box .............3..3............Structural Analysis Guide 8.............3................................................4.................................................................................................6................................2................ Creep Criteria ...9............ 8–55 8..1............... Advanced Load Step Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box ....................................... Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations ..............6.............1........... Review the Results .... 8–56 8.................4............5........................ Set Solution Controls ..........2...........2... 8–57 8......................2......... 8–64 8.......4.3.......................................................... Set Additional Solution Options ........ 8–53 8.........2............................................... 8–53 8............1.................5................5....................................3..5............ 8–59 8...........................................................................1... 8–62 8... 8–65 8.....2............................. 8–60 8..........5.......................................................................3...................1..................................................... Running a Nonlinear Analysis in ANSYS ........2................ 8–68 8..

............................................................................... Initialize the Coefficients .....11........................................ 8–73 8....3..............................................................16....................2.............11..... 8–70 8....................... Use the General Postprocessor to Plot Results...............................................................................3..2.... Batch .2.................................... 9–4 9...........2...... 8–72 8.....1...2.... GUI ....................................3....2. Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ....2......................................1............ 9–4 9................................................................................ Review the Monitor File ................... 9–4 9....... Material Curve Fitting .........................................................................................11.................. 8–74 8..........6.................................................3......2........................................ GUI ......... 8–71 8.2................. Using Birth and Death Wisely .................. 8–82 9......1.......................................... 8–75 8...........................4................... 9–2 9......... Assign Analysis and Load Step Options .........................................2...........................1...5........................................ 8–75 8.......... Turn Off Extra Element Shapes ........5..... 9–6 9.......................... 8–72 8...2..11........3..................11................2.. Solve the Next Six Load Steps ... 8–76 8...................11...............1..................................3.2..........................................................18......... xv ...................................1....8............................ 8–75 8....................................................... 9–1 9........................................... Applicable Material Behavior Types ................ GUI ......... 8–78 8................2...........1..11... Plot Time-History Results .........Structural Analysis Guide 8.............1........11.. 9–5 9............... 9–6 9.................... Select a Material Model Option .... Problem Description ........................................... Review/Verify .............................. Write Data to TB Command ............................. 8–79 8....3..... 9–5 9.......................................... 9–6 9...........................................................2...................................... 9–7 Structural Analysis Guide ...1... Prepare Experimental Data ......... 8–79 8..................................11...13...............................................................11.1....... Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) ...............12...................... Problem Specifications ............10.1.1.......3.3................................1.. 8–77 8................7................ 9–3 9.............. Set Element Size ...................2................................... GUI ...1.......11...3............................. .......3....... 8–76 8............2........10.............................. Graph the Load and Response History ........1.........................................4.............................. Batch ................1...............1.17...................11.............................1........................... Specify the Kinematic Hardening material model (KINH) .2................................... 9–6 9....................................2.2......................................... 8–73 8.............2.. Batch ....6................ 9–1 9....13.................6........ 9–3 9....... Monitor the Displacement ........5........ 8–77 8...... Define Material Properties .......11.....7.2............... 9–1 9........8.....2...2............11........................1............... Inc.2.............................11......... Create Rectangle ..........1............................................................2....11.........2.2...............10........................ Label Graph Axes and Plot Data Tables ...................2..... Batch ..................................3.2... 9–5 9............ Define the Element Types ...........1............. 8–74 8. 9–3 9....................2....................................3..11.............................................................................................................................11.....2..........................1..........1.....................7............3...... © SAS IP........................................................................................10.........................2..........................................10.7.....2.........................................................3...................1 ........................... Exit ANSYS .....3... Set the Analysis Title and Jobname ..3...................... 8–70 8.2....................11....... Read Your Output . Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting .3...........................................9.................. 8–74 8......................................3.......................1......1........7................................... 9–6 9............................................................................1..........1.. 8–78 8.......................1....................................................... 001972 ..................... 9–5 9.2..3. 9–3 9........... Batch ..........................................................11......... 8–75 8.. GUI ............................................................................... Define Variables for Time-History Postprocessing ..................................3.....................12............1..... Where to Find Other Examples ........................2..... Solve the First Load Step ... 8–71 8..............6........14...........................11................ Input the Data into ANSYS ...... Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Hyperelastic Material Behavior .........6.....................5......................3..................................11..... Specify Control Parameters and Solve ....1.............................................................................................................................................. 8–74 8.. 9–4 9..................1.............. Plot Your Experimental Data and Analyze ...............................15............9......3................................................10..................... Batch ............... 9–1 9.........4.......................... Problem Sketch ........................................... 9–6 9.... 8–70 8.................................... Mesh the Rectangle .................. ANSYS Release 8.................. GUI .. 8–73 8.......4..................11.....................3..................... 8–77 8.......... Apply Constraints ...................................................

.............5...............................1..................4.........6................................................1.... Gasket Joints Simulation .................3........................ 10–1 10....................1....................... 9–10 9..........................4.............. 9–15 9........................................................................... 9–17 9.......................................3..................4.......1.......... Batch ...............1.......... Element Topologies ... 9–11 9...................2...... 9–20 9....................................................................... 10–1 10.................... 9–9 9.....1.......4................................................... 10–1 10. 9–12 9..........................5..1......2.................3...3.......3............................ 9–11 9..................1.......................4............. 9–20 9.3....................................7...3.................. Initialize the Coefficients .............................................................1..................1...........................1............... 9–11 9.......1........................................................ Batch ................................................................4..................1 ...Structural Analysis Guide 9.............. 9–9 9... Performing a Gasket Joint Analysis .............................................................................1................... Batch ...1.............1....4................... 9–20 9................................................ GUI ............ GUI ...... Batch .........3.....3............3..........1.. GUI ......... 10–2 10............3......................... 9–10 9..................... 001972 ................ 9–7 9..............1.......2............... 9–21 10...................... 9–20 9...... Batch ............................1....6....... 9–20 9............1.......................................................... 9–12 9..............3.2.................................. Input the Data into ANSYS .......... 9–17 9................ Batch ..... 10–2 10.......... 9–14 9.. Specify Control Parameters and Solve ..........................3..............4............................................................................. 9–12 9....1.. Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting ........1.........3..............2................... GUI .......... Select a Material Model Option ...........1..............4............................2.. Write Data to TB Command ................................6.......... Inc...................... GUI .......................1..............................................1...............1. 9–7 9..............7.1...................................................... Tips For Curve Fitting Creep Models ................3..........3........................ 9–9 9.....1............. Batch ..........................4.........1......... 9–18 9...................4.................3.......................................................................1...... Creep Material Curve Fitting ............................................................ GUI ......2...................3............................................................................2......1..........................................................1.1........... Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit ............................... 9–16 9............4.......................1.......3.................................................1....................2......................................2.......3.5.................1...... Using Curve Fitting to Determine the Coefficients of Viscoelastic Material Model ....2..................................................4...........3....... © SAS IP............................................................3.............4..........................2.................. Write Data to TB Command .........7..1.4.................1.. 10–2 10...................................... 9–9 9...... Batch ... Initialize the Coefficients ................. GUI ......................................6. 9–18 9...1.......... Prepare Experimental Data .... 9–18 9.................... 9–7 9......................................1.......1...1......4.......2......... GUI ................................................1........ Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze . GUI ................................ Batch ........... Input the Data into ANSYS ..1...................... 9–16 9................................................ Batch ....................................................... Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Creep Material Behavior .......1..................................................................................................... .............4............1...... Select a Material Model Option ..................1.............1..................... Specify Control Parameters and Solve ....................... GUI ................................................. 9–19 9...1....3.....................3..... GUI ...................6....2...................................... 9–16 9. 9–12 9................................................4............................ 9–12 9.................................... 9–12 9.. Batch .......2......................................3......................4......................6.................................... Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze .2.......................... 9–20 9........3.4............................................... 9–20 9..1........2...............................................................................2........................1............1................4. 9–11 9..........4............................................. 9–14 9.................................. ANSYS Release 8..... Batch .......... 9–17 9.......5................ Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit ..................................................6.........3...................4.......... Thickness Direction ............3........................4.....................................................7..........................3........................................................3.................................. Overview of Gasket Joints ......5................................ 9–11 9..5....................................7.......................... Prepare Experimental Data .................................3.............7... 9–9 9.......1....................................... ANSYS Family of Interface Elements ..........................4.....4...1.........3........................2.......6..2...........1...1.....4......................................................................... 9–10 9................2.... Finite Element Formulation ........1. 9–16 9.............1......................1...3....................... 10–3 xvi Structural Analysis Guide .. GUI ..................................... 9–12 9.....................................4..............4.............................................3..............

....6......................7.......................................8...........2..............................................................4.............Structural Analysis Guide 10..... 11–13 11...4......................................6............. 11–7 11.................................1................................. Contact Overview ............. 10–19 10.................5...............................8......................................3..........6................ 11–17 11........... 11–2 11....................... 10–16 10.......5....................................................4.......................................3................2.. Contact ..4............... Input Format ....................5............................................... 10–19 10....................5.. 11–9 11.................. Defining the Target Surface ..........4....................................... 10–5 10..3...................2......................................8...... Define Compression Load Closure Curve .........................................3................................. 11–7 11..... Temperature Dependencies .................. 11–8 11.......................................... 11–4 11.................................7.........................1............ 11–4 11..............................5...............3..................1......................4.......... Define Linear Unloading Data .....................................................................................7........ 10–4 10..... Using Surface-to-Surface Contact Elements ............................... 10–3 10.4..... 10–4 10.4....................... 11–1 11......................1........... 10–20 10...................3....... 11–6 11... Verifying Nodal Number Ordering (Contact Direction) of Target Surface ................................. ANSYS Release 8...........1...... Positive and Negative Real Constant Values ......................2...........3. 11–17 11............1......2... 10–6 10.........1............ 11–5 11........................5... xvii .......... Background .... Pilot Nodes ......1.................4..................................................... © SAS IP.................................3....4.......2.......... Identifying Contact Pairs ..................................1.................................................4......4............................... Element Types and Real Constants .... 10–6 10........... 11–3 11....... Node-to-Surface Contact Elements ............................ Solution Procedure and Result Output ...................................................... 11–5 11.....4.........................................................5...6.... Define General Parameters ..............................3.... Set the Real Constants and Element KEYOPTS .................... Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis ...................4........................ 11–1 11............. Material Characteristics .............................................................................................. 11–5 11.........5.....3........................................... Applications ..........3............................................. 11–14 11.................................................4.................................1.......... 11–12 11... 11–10 11.....1................................. 10–12 10............................................ 11–1 11.............................................................. 11–8 11......................4.... Points to Remember .... Symmetric Contact .... Element Selection ............ 10–20 11.... 10–7 10.... Node-to-Node Contact Elements ...................................1............................................8........4.................. 10–11 10..........3.................................5................. 11–19 Structural Analysis Guide ........................................8.................. Steps in a Contact Analysis ................... Using ANSYS Meshing Tools to Create Rigid Target Elements .............4........ Meshing Interface Elements .............. Explicit Dynamics Contact Capabilities ........2.......5.....................5............. Element Type ............. 10–17 10...............................................4........................................................................1.........2..............................4.............. General Contact Classification ....... Reviewing Results in POST26 ......................2...........................2.................... Real Constants ...... Using KEYOPT(8) .......................................................4.............7........................... Creating the Model Geometry and Mesh ...4............5..........................................1.2.....8.............1..........................6.........6.......................6.. Primitives .......4..................2.. Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ..........2.................1...................... Defining the Deformable Contact Surface ................................. Inc........................................................... 11–1 11...................... 11–4 11..................... Some Modeling and Meshing Tips ....................1................................. 11–14 11. 10–6 10.................. Designating Contact and Target Surfaces .............. Using Direct Generation to Create Rigid Target Elements ..................5............ 10–8 10.4.1 .......................................................9..... 11–3 11..1..............1................................................... 10–19 10.....7............ 001972 .......... Material Definition ....8........2........5. Asymmetric Contact vs....... 10–3 10..................................... Define Nonlinear Unloading Data .4.................................... 11–7 11.........................4............................................................. 11–8 11...6..........................................................................2..... 11–15 11......4............................ 11–16 11........................................ Reviewing the Results ................................................................... Typical Gasket Solution Output Listing ........... ANSYS Contact Capabilities .............. Reviewing Results in POST1 ..........................4.........................................................................7........... 11–8 11....1.................................... Surface-to-Surface Contact Elements ...5...............................1................4......4..............4...6...............................6................................... Plotting Gasket Data ............... Generating Contact Elements ........ 11–7 11...... Real Constants and Material Properties ................. Defining Target Element Geometry .5.......

...8......................... 11–22 11....4............. 11–44 11...14..............4. Using KEYOPT(11) .............8...... 11–22 11.....8.... Selecting Location of Contact Detection ....................... 11–46 11............... Background .......... Using the Quasi Solver Option ......................8....... 11–25 11............4. 11–43 11...8..8................2................1......4.........2................10......................8.........4................8............ and COHE ................................ ANSYS Release 8......8........ Using KEYOPT(4) and TOLS ......1.............................8..................... 11–41 11.........................................................4.....................4.........5. Choosing a Friction Model ............................................................................8..............2..............5..5................11.10.............8........8.....10.... 11–26 11...............4........ 11–42 11.................... 11–46 11..................4............. 11–46 11.....4.....8............. Using FHTG and FWGT ...... Temperature on Target Surface ........................... Background ............................4...1......... 001972 .....6.4......8....10.......8................................. Selecting Surface Interaction Models ................................. 11–24 11...................4.4....... 11–42 11...7....4...........................4.............. 11–46 11..........4............6.......... Free Thermal Surface ............... FACT.. 11–47 11..... Chattering Control Parameters .2............3.........2...................... 11–42 11.. Background ............... 11–41 11.....4.......... Determining Contact Status and the Pinball Region .. DC...................... 11–47 xviii Structural Analysis Guide ........................4............... Using the Birth and Death Option .. Background ..4................... Element KEYOPTS .......................... Physically Moving Contact Nodes Towards the Target Surface ..1 ..................1..... 11–26 11.........................................9......4.......................8..................................... 11–47 11.4...........9.........................4........... 11–28 11......6.............................12... Background ... Background ............8.........................4...........2...... 11–39 11........... 11–45 11................7..4.... Modeling Radiation ... 11–38 11............................4.......................4.4......10................. CNOF..4....4... 11–45 11........8.........15.....10......1......................1....8........ Using TCC ............................ and KEYOPT(9) .. Accounting for Thickness Effect ........................6............................................................ Background . Using PINB ....8.4...................................... 11–30 11........................2....................4...... 11–37 11...........4................4..4.........4...........................8..........8...... 11–45 11.... Using SBCT and RDVF ......................8..13....... Static and Dynamic Friction Coefficients ................ 11–41 11.................2........................ 11–40 11.. Background ......4..........4... 11–42 11...................4.............8.............. 11–21 11.......................4.... Background .........10........................................4........4.............................................................................10..........7.14.........................................4............................8................................. 11–23 11......... Modeling Thermal Contact ..... 11–47 11....3....... 11–42 11................12.4...............8.............3..............9.................................. Using KEYOPT(3) .....1....................................... Inc..........10..........5..1.............................................. 11–38 11.................. 11–23 11.2...........................3...................... ..............................8.............4........................ 11–25 11.............2...........................................................................4........................4................8......1...............5................................. 11–25 11.... Modeling Heat Generation Due to Friction .4....12...................2..... 11–39 11...2........................ Modeling Conduction ............. 11–42 11.................4.............................................................2.. 11–20 11....... KEYOPT(5).2...............................4.. Using KEYOPT(7) ................................8....... 11–42 11..11.............................................11............................10..........3....10...........1....................4..................... Modeling Contact with Superelements ....................10............................9....13.....4..........8...10.1............................ PMAX..4............7.... Using FKT and SLTO .... Modeling Convection ............4.............13.........................................14...... 11–40 11.......8................. 11–28 11................. Contact Status .........4...........4.....7.................................. Avoiding Spurious Contact in Self Contact Problems ........4................8.1...................................1..................... ICONT........ 11–40 11........ Using KEYOPT(10) .........................4...1..................................8.......... Background ................... Thermal Contact Behavior vs...............8...................................4......... Background ................................ Using TAUMAX...8............................. Controlling the Motion of the Rigid Target Surface (Rigid-to-Flexible Contact) ....... 11–44 11......... Using PMIN...... © SAS IP... Background ......10................................7..............6...... Determining Contact Stiffness and Allowable Penetration ...........4........................................... 11–28 11.............. 11–21 11..4..............................4..Structural Analysis Guide 11.............. 11–30 11........... Adjusting Initial Contact Conditions ..... 11–44 11............10. Selecting a Contact Algorithm (KEYOPT(2)) . 11–30 11.........6................8............8............. Using Time Step Control .......................... Using FKN and FTOLN .............................................. Using KEYOPT(12) and FKOP .5....................

.......................................... Using MCC ........ 11–53 11........................................................... Defining Solution and Load Step Options ................. 2-D Fracture Models ...........................1.. 11–53 11...............3............... 11–72 11....................4... Modeling a Shell-solid Assembly ...... 11–68 11...........................................................................................4.......................... 11–50 11.6...16......6.......... 11–60 11......................2.... 11–57 11................................................................ 11–71 11..5.................15... Node Ordering ........................ 11–76 11................................................ 11–71 11......6...... 11–74 11...........................................2.................... Reviewing the Results .....4.....8......................................8............................2...............8......1. 11–59 11..... 11–60 11...................................................10......... 11–56 11............ 12–1 12............................................ 11–73 11.6.............................. The Contact Wizard ...................... 12–3 Structural Analysis Guide ................................................. Definition of Fracture Mechanics ....... Background ..................1............................ 11–50 11......1............... Using ECC ............................7........................... Modeling Perfect Magnetic Contact ................8...................6.............5................................................................................................ Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis ............. Modeling the Crack Region ....8.........1..................14..13....... Modeling Heat Generation Due to Electric Current .....1...........................................................................................................1........................ Creating Geometry and Meshing the Model ........................................4......................8........8............................1............ xix .......................................................................................1. 11–61 11....2...........2..4................ Modeling Solid-solid and Shell-shell Assemblies .............................3....... Reviewing Results in POST26 ..........................................6.............. Performing a Node-to-Node Contact Analysis . Using the Node-to-Surface Contact Elements ...3..2.....4..................7................................ 11–76 12................. 11–66 11...........11.........................3..............................2......................................................................... Solving Fracture Mechanics Problems ...........2.......................................... Generating Contact Elements ...........11............................... 11–49 11........... 12–1 12........ 11–74 11....................................3............................4..3... Inc......................................................4............................16............... 11–48 11......................1....... Selecting the Contact Algorithm .......................................................... 11–51 11..............8..........16...............1.....7.. 11–52 11..12.............4....Structural Analysis Guide 11..........................1.................8...1.........................1............................................ Modeling a Beam-solid Assembly .......7.........1.....2...........................................8.... Generating Contact Elements Automatically at Offset Nodes ...................4...8..... Defining the Contact Normal ..........................................2.............. 11–75 11... Points to Remember ...................................................... Multiphysics Contact ....3............2................................................. 11–59 11.....................1..................... Modeling Magnetic Contact ....................11.................... 11–55 11............. 001972 ......... 11–53 11........... 12–1 12...4........ 11–70 11... 11–69 11... 11–62 11.1................... ANSYS Release 8......8.......................4........................ 11–57 11......................... Surface-based Constraints ............3...1............. CONTA175 Real Constants ........... 11–74 11....2..12............9. Reviewing the Results ............... Defining Surface-based Constraints ..................... Modeling Surface Interaction ............... 11–49 11.............................................................................4.................1 .......................... 11–72 11..... Managing Contact Pairs .......... Modeling External Heat Flux .............................................1.... The Contact Manager ........................ 11–54 11........................................................................................................8.............2.4.......... Reviewing Results in POST1 . CONTA175 KEYOPTS . Generating Contact Elements Automatically at Coincident Nodes .................................................... 11–54 11.........................7.......... 11–51 11...1........................................................................ Restrictions and Recommendations for Internal MPC .11.....................................12................. 11–51 11....... Using the Internal MPC Approach for Assemblies and Kinematic Constraints ................................................... Solving the Problem ..1............ 11–48 11....... 11–59 11. KEYOPT(4) ..7............11.............................................1............................6.......... KEYOPT(3) ........1...............2..2..................................................... Fracture Mechanics ............. Solving the Problem .........5......................................4..7.....................................8................ 11–60 11....... Applying Necessary Boundary Conditions to the Deformable Elements ......... © SAS IP...............5............................... 11–48 11.......... 11–67 11....................7..2.........16......6............................. 11–72 11...... 11–48 11...... Defining the Solution Options ................1............................................. Modeling Electric Contact ... 12–1 12.......1............................................. Defining the Initial Interference or Gap ..................... 11–54 11... Applying Necessary Boundary Conditions ...........................4............4............2...........................................4......................5..................... GUI Aids for Contact Analyses ..............8..................

.....2................... xx ...................................3.......2................2................ Choosing the Proper Element Type ........ 14–9 14......................1.....4....1..1........................................................................................... J-Integral .... Activate the Fatigue Calculations ...........2................................................ 15–1 15....................... Inc................2.....2.................3.......... Specify Material Properties and/or Real Constants ........................ 12–5 12......... 14–2 14........................................................................... What the ANSYS Program Does .......................4...........4................. Listing............................. Using Program Defaults ....... Additional Information for Building Your Model ............... Composites ............................. 12–4 12............................................1............... 14–4 14...2..........................2.........3........2.......... 15–3 15..1...... 13–1 13................... Definition of Composites ........1..................................................4..........................................................................................2.......2................ 14–1 14... Additional Modeling and Postprocessing Guidelines ......3...............3......... Calculating Fracture Parameters ......... Define the Model Geometry ...............3........3...... Node Offset .....2................1...... Benefits of Using the p-Method .......2........................... p-Method Structural Static Analysis ..4......................... 14–4 14...................................................................................................................2............. 14–4 14..............3.......................3............ 15–1 15...................................................................................2......... 15–4 15........ 15–1 15............... 13–2 13..........................4.....................3......... Plotting..............2.... Assigning Event Repetitions and Scale Factors ..... Manually Stored Stresses .................2..... Definition of p-Method Analysis .... 15–3 15..........1........... Modeling Composites ........... 14–9 14............... 14–5 14.....................................................................................7..... 14–2 14................................................. Nodal Stresses from Jobname............ 13–4 13................ Build the Model ..................4..........3....................... 13–5 13......3.............2..2.... 14–6 14....................... Basic Terminology ........... 13–6 14........ Enter POST1 and Resume Your Database .. Stresses at a Cross-Section ...............................................2............. Specifying a p-Level Range ....................................1....................................2........... Material Properties ............................................................ 13–5 13...... 14–9 14.........................2.....2............................. © SAS IP...................... Select the p-Method Procedure ... Stress Intensity Factors ..................................2..............3....................................3....................... 15–2 15..2.......... and Locations ..... 15–4 15..................2...............1....2.........1 ..3....................3............2.... 13–1 13........Structural Analysis Guide 12..... Fatigue Material Properties................................3............................................................................................6............. Specifying Failure Criteria ........3.... 14–9 15......... 13–4 13.................................1........ Sandwich and Multiple-Layered Structures ................. 12–6 12.......... 15–5 15..... Define the Element Types .....2..2..3........2............................... 15–2 15.... 13–1 13............................ or Deleting Stored Stresses .....3....... 14–2 14...................................................................2..3...........................................2.... ANSYS Release 8.. 15–5 Structural Analysis Guide ............................................ Sample Input .............. Review the Results .. 14–7 14.................1..................2..................... Other Approaches to Range Counting ..................................... Using the p-Method ....................................RST ..................................................................................................................3...............2............. 13–1 13............................ Store Stresses and Assign Event Repetitions and Scale Factors ........... 14–1 14...3.................................2...2.............. 15–1 15............................................3................................3.......5............1............................2................1.............4......................2.......2.........................................1.....2...2.....2....3................................1....... Doing a Fatigue Evaluation ....2........ Definition of Fatigue ............................................................................. Fatigue ....... Energy Release Rate ..................................... 14–1 14....................2........ Guidelines for Creating a Good Mesh ......................... 001972 ... 14–5 14....................................... 12–5 12.....................2.......................2.......................... Defining the Layered Configuration ....................................2............................... 15–2 15................................................................................... 14–6 14..3.............................. Real Constants ............1......3..................3.......................................................................3........................................ 14–1 14................................ Mesh the Model into Solid or Shell Elements .....................1.......2..............1..... 13–3 13... 3-D Fracture Models .....2...................2..... Specifying Individual Layer Properties ...................................................2.........................................2................................ 15–4 15...............2........................... 15–4 15........1...................................................2................................. 15–1 15.......1................................2..................................2.. Guidelines for Obtaining Accurate Usage Factors ......1...............................................2. Defining the Constitutive Matrices .... Establish the Size...... Storing Stresses .......2........................................2............................2.... 15–3 15......2.. 12–8 13.............. Specifying Mesh Controls ......

.................................................................. 16–4 16.... 16–12 16..... Problem Sketch .............................. 15–15 15...................................................... 15–14 15..................................................... 15–17 15.................................................................4..............1..6............................ 16–1 16... Solve the Problem .......3........... Define Symmetry Boundary Conditions ........4.............4..........3........2................................................................2............. 15–14 15...................2..3.. Defining a Tapered Beam ....4.......................4.........................1.............3...... 16–5 16............... Mesh the Line and Verify Beam Orientation ...................................... Defining Cross Section Geometry and Setting the Section Attribute Pointer ........................................6............ Midside Node Coupling ....................... 15–12 15............................................... 16–3 16..................... 16–5 16............................. 15–6 15.3.......1..........3.....4.......3...........3.2....... 001972 ............. 15–16 15...3............................ ANSYS Release 8....... 16–8 16............................... Problem Diagram ........................6....... 15–6 15......9............. 16–2 16..............................................4......3.......... Specialized p-Method Displays and Listings ..................... Printing and Plotting Node and Element Results ..... Coupling of Corner Nodes ......... Creating Custom Cross Sections with a User-defined Mesh ........3.................6.....................................4. Set the Analysis Title ..... 16–6 16............................................Structural Analysis Guide 15....3................................................................................... How to Create Cross Sections ....1.. Review the Results .................. 16–3 16.............................................4............................................................................................. Helpful Hints for Common Problems ...................................................1 .........................3..................................................1..3...................................6...........3.......3.........6. 15–17 15...5........................ Defining a Section and Associating a Section ID Number .................... Creating Cross Sections .......6.............. Sample p-Method Analysis (GUI Method) ......... 15–15 15.......... 16–12 16.....4.........4.... Select p-Method ...........2.............................3........... 15–15 15. Define Material Properties .............................4.......3......1............7............................................2...........3...................... 16–1 16...............................1........................................ Problem Specifications ............ Managing Cross Section and User Mesh Libraries ....................................... .......................... Using the Beam Tool to Create Common Cross Sections ......................... 16–4 16...............................5....2..................8.... 16–7 16..4............. 16–12 16.......................... © SAS IP.......3........................ Define the Material Properties and Orientation Node ...................... 15–17 15. Mesh the Areas ........6....................................4...................................11............................. 15–16 15.......................1...................................................8.4.......3..................................................... Define the Element Type and Options .................... Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution ....... xxi ......................4....4.................4....................... Define the Real Constants ......................... 15–16 15..................................................................................... 15–5 15...............4......................................................... Defining Composite Cross Sections ......2......... 16–10 16......3.........1...........12....... Set the Analysis Title and Define Model Geometry .................4.... 15–15 15...................4...... 15–15 15.......5...................................4...........3........... Eigenvalue Buckling and Nonlinear Collapse ... 15–7 15......10........ 16–9 16..........................4............................7..... 16–9 16................... 16–8 16.... Viewing your element model .......................4..1....................6.................................5.. An Overview of Beams .......................... Problem Description ........3..... 15–17 15.......6. Sample Lateral Torsional Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) ..... Review the Results and Exit ANSYS ...... 15–7 15.5.................3......................... Beam Analysis and Cross Sections ...5..................... Determining the Number of Cells to Define .....................4.......................................................................... Creating Custom Cross Sections with Mesh Refinement and Multiple Materials ........ Inc.............. 16–10 16................6.........2......3... The p-Element Subgrid . 15–18 16.....................................3............................. Coupling ..............................................3..8..... 15–15 15....................... 15–14 15................................................................4........ 16–11 16...................................3...........3.....7.........6.. 15–13 15.................................. Querying Subgrid Results ................................. 16–13 Structural Analysis Guide ........................ Define Pressure Load along Right Edge............................ 16–11 16..... 16–1 16... Create Plate with Hole ........................8................................... Problem Description .......1.. Sample p-Method Analysis (Command or Batch Method) .................. Meshing a Line Model with BEAM44. 15–12 15.....................................................................3..................................... or BEAM189 Elements ..................... BEAM188........... Problem Specifications ................... What Are Cross Sections? ..........2....... 15–13 15..................................... Define Element Type and Cross Section Information .....3.... Define Convergence Criteria ..................................... 15–16 15....................................3......................3....................................6.....3............3..............3.. 15–18 15.........2.........................................................

.................4..6.... Stress-Stiffened Beams .......................................................................... 3–20 3........................................................0 ...........................8..............................................................1 .............. 17–2 17...................... 8–8 8.......... Single-Point and Multi-Point Response Spectra .... Solve the Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis ........................................................................... Bar with Hinged Ends . 8–1 8......... An Overview of Shells .................... Using the Shell Tool to Create Sections .............................. ......................................................... Diagram of Allen Wrench ............. 5–27 5............................................... Transient Response .................................................... Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves .......6......................................................................................................3.................................................. Load Steps......... Harmonic Response Systems ...... 16–13 16............... 16–17 17........ Adjusting Variable Loads to Find an Eigenvalue of 1..............2............................................................................................. Sample Problem with Cantilever Beams....... 16–15 16............... Index–1 List of Figures 2................................................. 8–3 8.................... 16–14 16................................................... Define the Boundary Conditions ..................................................................................................................3....................8........ Rayleigh Damping ................ 001972 . 17–3 17........................... 5–21 5.. Defining a Section and Associating a Section ID Number ..............................................2......6.................3.... 5–38 6.. 5–34 5................... What Are Cross Sections? ........ 8–2 8.................. 7–4 7............. 16–16 16.................................... Load Directions Before and After Deflection ............................................................... Buckling Curves ...............................1..........6..................1.................. How to Create Cross Sections .... Managing Cross Section Libraries .......... 3–20 3.. 8–6 8................................................................................................... Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle ..............7.............. Common Examples of Nonlinear Structural Behavior ................................................................. 17–5 Index ................................................................2...............................................................................3.... 17–1 17........3...................................................................................... Substeps.........11....................................... 4–7 4........................................ Traditional Newton-Raphson Method vs................... 8–9 xxii Structural Analysis Guide ........................... Elastoplastic Stress-Strain Curve .......................................... Defining Layer Data ......................................... 6–11 7. 6–2 6............12..........................................2........ 17–3 17.......................... 4–6 4........... Choosing Masters in an Axisymmetric Shell Model ...2........................................... Model of a Steel Beam Supporting a Concentrated Mass .............. Where to Find Other Examples .................................................................................1............................3...................... Transient Input vs................... Overriding Program Calculated Section Properties ................................................2.............................3.......9................ 17–1 17.......................................................... 8–5 8........................5........................................... Choose Master DOF .......... © SAS IP... 17–2 17.................................................................... Examples of Gap Conditions ...... ANSYS Release 8.................... Associating an Area with a Section .....3..................... Newton-Raphson Approach .......1.............................4.................................3...... An Unbalanced Rotating Antenna .................... 17–3 17........ 4–1 4.................... 5–35 5.............................. 4–14 5............4....................... A Fishing Rod Demonstrates Geometric Nonlinearity ........................... 17–1 17....................2............6......................... Setting the Section Attribute Pointer .......... Shell Analysis and Cross Sections .....1................... 16–15 16.. 17–1 17...... Solve the Nonlinear Buckling Analysis .................Structural Analysis Guide 16.............8...................1.....3....................................... 8–4 8......................................................................3.... 2–14 3..... 7–9 8.................................................. 3–21 4..................................................................... 3–12 3......................................... Diagram of a Model Airplane Wing ..................... Choosing Master DOFs ...10.. Arc-Length Method ................................1..................................................... Command Method ............. Nonconservative (Path-Dependent) Behavior .......................................................... Specifying a Shell Thickness Variation (Tapered Shells) .7........................................................................... 7–1 7........................................ Effect of Integration Time Step on Period Elongation ..............................4.............1....7.......... Inc...9.......................... Two-Mass-Spring-System . 8–4 8................................................................................................4...............5........................3..................................3................................................................ 17–3 17.................1................ 17–3 17....3.....6.......................................... Simply Supported Beam with Vertical Motion of Both Supports ..........................2............................................................................... Plot and Review the Results .................................. 5–4 5..............5............. and Time ....6.....................................3...........................................................................

...................................... Convergence Norms Displayed By the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature ...................................22......18......1....9....................................5...................................................... 8–10 8...................... 8–14 8.................................Structural Analysis Guide 8......... Sliding Contact Resistance ......................6............ 10–11 10........................................................................ Hyperelastic Structure .............. 11–38 11..... Correct Node Ordering .................21............................................................................................................................... 11–27 11................... A Scenario in Which Initial Adjustment Will Fail .........................................19.........................1 ............. 8–30 8..................... 11–13 11.... 10–15 10............................................ Contact Surface Adjustment (PMIN................................ Localized Contact Zones ........... 11–6 11............................ 11–33 11......... Depth of the Underlying Element ............. Viscoplastic Behavior in a Rolling Operation .............. 11–20 11.... 10–2 10....... 8–27 8...........................................................15................ Stress Relaxation and Creep ............................................... ANSYS Geometric Entities and Their Corresponding Rigid Target Elements ....2........ 8–70 8..................13................................................... Gasket Compression and Unloading Curves at Two Temperatures ....................................... Components of True Penetration .23........................................ 8–11 8.......17............................................... 11–12 11.. 10–15 10.................................................................................................................................................................. Inc..24.................... 8–29 8..................................... Example of a Contact Wizard Dialog .............. Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays .................................................... 10–16 11................ © SAS IP...............23..........................................4................... 10–14 10.................................... A Single Circular Target Segment Created From Arc Line Segments ............7................................................................................................................18........... Ignoring Initial Penetration........................................................3................17..........21........................................20.......6........... Gasket Material Input: Linear Unloading Curves ............................... Time Hardening Creep Analysis ........................ 11–29 11................................. Contact Detection Located at Gauss Point ........................................................................10....................... 11–45 11...................................... KEYOPT(9) = 1 ............2.......22................................................. Linear Interpolation of Nonlinear Results Can Introduce Some Error ..............16................................................................................................................9............................. Contact Element Types ............ ANSYS Release 8............................ 8–58 8........................................ Target Temperature .............................................. 11–37 11.............................. 10–7 10........... 8–17 8..........................7................................. Contact Manager Toolbar ..12. 11–35 11..................... 8–67 8......... Typical Hyperelastic Stress-Strain Curves ...................... Interface Layer Mesh ................................... Viscoelastic Behavior (Maxwell Model) .................................................................................................................. 11–26 11...........................24.........................................................1.. 11–28 11.........................................25........................................................ 11–10 11... Element Topology of a 3-D 8-Node Interface Element .......... 11–17 11..................10.. 11–56 Structural Analysis Guide ................................................................................................................. Ramping Initial Interference ...............11...........................................................................................................25.. Whole Model Tetrahedral Mesh ...............14.. 8–33 8................ Whole Model Mesh with Brick Element ............... 11–13 11.................................................................. Smoothing Convex Corner ...............26............................................. 8–32 8......10............................................ Friction Decay ......................................... 001972 ......................................... Cyclic Point Load History .................................. 10–14 10................. Typical Nonlinear Output Listing ...................................................................... NLISO Stress-Strain Curve ......................................11............................................. Typical Evaluated Hyperelastic Stress-Strain Curve .........................8...................................................................3...... 10–8 10.............. Contact Surface Adjustment With ICONT ..................... 8–16 8.......... 11–32 11... 11–29 11...5........................ 8–25 8............. Meshing Patterns for Arbitrary Target Surfaces .................. 8–34 8.....8........... 11–34 11................. Pressure vs........ Closure Behavior of a Gasket Material .......... Gasket Material Input: Nonlinear Unloading Curves ............ Kinematic Hardening . xxiii ........................... Specification of the Contact Surface's Outward Normal .................................................... 11–15 11.......... Auto Spurious Prevention ........................... 8–23 8.......................................................... Gasket Finite Element Model Geometry .................................................. Effect of Moving Contact Nodes ...... 11–39 11.............16................4...15.................................20................. Node Slippage Using Nodal Integration KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2 ....................................................13.......... 11–11 11.............................. Shape Memory Alloy Phases ............... Cast Iron Plasticity .............................................................................................................19................... 11–54 11................................... 10–5 10............. Bauschinger Effect ......................................................14............................................................................................ 8–73 10................................................................12.... PMAX) ...... Contact Detection Point Location at Nodal Point ............................ 11–36 11...... Interface Layer Mesh with Degenerated Wedge Elements ...............................

............................... Coupled Nodes on One Element ....... 13–7 13... 11–69 11..................................................... 12–3 12...............................39.............................................. 15–5 15............................... Normals Rotated Properly .................................................................................. Fan Model Showing p-Element vs............ 11–63 11......................................................................................3................................................ Force-distributed Surface ...... 11–75 12......... 16–6 16............................................ 11–70 11...........................................................................Structural Analysis Guide 11.............................................. Examples of Singular Elements .................. 15–13 15.............. 11–73 11..................5..............6... Shell Tool With Summary Page Displayed ........... Crack Tip and Crack Front ..... 11–72 11...............1..... Types of Solid Section Cell Mesh ...............................................2............... 12–5 12...........................................................................31.......3............. 17–2 17.................................. Sandwich Construction ................................................................. 13–3 13. 11–64 11... Two Concentric Pipes........................................................... 001972 ............................................ 16–11 17. 14–6 15..... Layered Model Showing Dropped Layer .......... Shell Tool With Layup Page Displayed .... Inc.............................................32................................ Shell-solid Assembly (Original Mesh) ....................... Cylinder Wall with Stress Concentration Factors (SCFs) ... Example of Shell-solid Assembly .......................................... 12–4 12....................... Crack Coordinate Systems ................................................. Plot of a Shell Section ...........34........45/45] Sequence ................ 11–58 11......................8...........2..................................4......................2...............................1.....................................3...... p-Element Subgrids for Quadrilateral Elements ............................................... 16–2 16.................................... 15–15 16................. Both Corner Nodes are Coupled .... Contact Between Two Concentric Pipes .............. 15–6 15......... 12–4 12......................................... Shell-solid Assembly with Shell-solid Constraint Option .............................7............................37..... Shell-solid Assembly with Solid-solid Constraint Option .....2.....26.......... 17–5 xxiv Structural Analysis Guide ................................ J-Integral Contour Path Surrounding a Crack-Tip ... BeamTool with Subtypes Drop Down List Displayed .........................5............................5...2... 11–65 11.... 15–7 15.35.5........... Layered Shell With Nodes at Bottom Surface ............ Node-to-Node Contact Elements ........... Nodes Coupled Between Adjacent Elements ....................30....................................................................................7.......................................... Three Loadings in One Event .....4...... Diagram of a Beam With Deformation Indicated ......................8....................................................................... Constraints on Rotated Nodes ......28.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Beam-solid Assembly Defined by Rigid Constraint Surface ...................................................................................... 11–67 11....... Typical Path Definitions .............................................1 ..........38..................................... Taking Advantage of Symmetry ... Shell Tool With Section Controls Page Displayed .................................. ANSYS Release 8........................... Example of Overconstrained Contact Problem ..........1........................................ 17–4 17......................... Sample LAYPLOT Display for [45/-45/ .36.............................................................................................................. Lateral-Torsional Buckling of a Cantilever I-Beam . Node-to-Surface Contact Elements ....................................6..............................................................6...............................3.......... 15–9 15..... Steel Plate With a Hole ............................................. Beam-solid Assembly Defined by Force-distributed Surface ................................................................... 13–5 13.............................3............ 13–8 14....................... 12–7 13........................... 11–69 11................ © SAS IP..........................................27................ 14–4 14........... 12–7 12................................. Examples of Paths for J-integral Calculation ......................................... Rigid Constraint Surface ............... Layered Shell With Nodes at Midplane ......... 11–66 11............................................................1.... 12–6 12. Example of an Element Display ...........................33......................... Surface Nodes are Identified by PPATH Prior to Executing FSSECT .1.... Shell-solid Assembly with Shell-shell Constraint Option ....................................................................................2...........................................................29.1....... 15–6 15................ A Fracture Specimen and 2-D FE Model .................................................. All Coupled Nodes are Midside Nodes ............................... 14–5 14...... 16–4 16.............................................. 12–2 12................................................................. 16–10 16.............................4........ 15–7 15.............. 13–4 13................................................... 11–64 11..............................................................................3.......................................................................... ..4................................................. 11–62 11............................... 13–5 13.................................................... Plot of a Z Cross Section ..4.................................................................................................................... 17–4 17................ h-Element Meshes ....................

............. 001972 ...........5......................... Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis ....................................Structural Analysis Guide List of Tables 1.... 8–24 9................................5.. Summary of KEYOPT Defaults in Different Environments ......5........................................................................................... 4–7 4..................... xxv . 9–3 9........................................... ANSYS Contact Capabilities .....4...................................................1................................. Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays ....6................... Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types .....6.....................................2...............................................1...............................4............ Load Commands for a Harmonic Response Analysis .................2............. 11–2 11..................1...........................................................3.....................1................................ 3–5 3...................................................................... 2–5 2.....................................3........ Symmetric System Eigensolver Choices ................................ Nonlinear Tab Options .... 11–18 11........................................6................ Sol'n Options Tab Options ................................................. 9–8 9.......................................2...... 9–8 9..........................2................. 6–21 6......................................... 9–2 9. Load Commands for a Modal Analysis ..................1............................................................................................ 3–2 3........................................ Loads Applicable in a Modal Analysis ...................................... 4–9 4.....7.......................... Analysis Types and Options ............... Expansion Pass Options ................................... Analysis Types and Options ................................................................................................................................ 3–6 3.................................. Expansion Pass Options ................................. Creep Model and Data/Type Attribute ...................... 2–8 3....... Load Step Options ........................... Damping Matrix Formulation with Different Damping Coefficients ....... Solution Items Available in a PSD Analysis ..................... 4–8 4. 2–4 2............................... Organization of Results Data from a PSD Analysis ................................ 5–36 5........................... 4–4 4........................................ 5–8 5..................................... Load Step Options ............................3....................................... 11–21 16......4.......................... 8–23 8....................1.............................................................. ANSYS Release 8....................1........................................... 3–8 3........................ 9–10 9........ Inc........................3.......1.......................... Options for the First Load Step-Mode Superposition Analysis .................................................................................................................................................. 2–3 2............................................... 6–4 6............2........................................................ Damping for Different Analysis Types ......................3.................................................. Expansion Pass Options ........................1 .............................................. 6–4 6..................................... Creep Models and Abbreviations ................. Structural Element Types ...................................................................................... Options for the First Load Step-Reduced Analysis ..................................... Summary of Real Constant Defaults in Different Environments .... Analysis Types and Options ...4..........................................1.............................................................. Suggested Mooney-Rivlin Constants ...................... 4–22 5.... 1–2 2......................................................................................................... 3–5 3..... 16–2 17.............................. ANSYS Cross Section Commands ................................................................................. 3–17 4.......2...... © SAS IP.. 5–15 5....1...................... Experimental Details for Case 3 Models ....................................................................4.5........................................................................................ 17–1 Structural Analysis Guide ... 9–15 11...................4............................................................... Load Step Options ..........3............ Experimental Details for Case 1 and 2 Models and Blatz-Ko .............................................................................................................................................. 2–4 2................................................ Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis ..................... Basic Tab Options ...... Advanced NL Tab Options ...... Creep Data Types and Abbreviations ........................... 5–22 5........... 9–2 9..................................................5.................................3.......................................... 5–39 6....................................................... 5–24 5.............. ANSYS Cross Section Commands ..... Viscoelastic Data Types and Abbreviations ... Transient Tab Options .......2......................................................................................................................................................1...............................2.... 6–22 8..............................................................................................

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ANSYS Mechanical. stresses. and reaction forces. as well as mechanical components such as pistons. etc. ANSYS Structural. © SAS IP. but also naval. used to calculate stresses and strains due to a response spectrum or a PSD input (random vibrations). Transient Dynamic Analysis--Used to determine the response of a structure to arbitrarily time-varying loads.2. are then derived from the nodal displacements. Explicit Dynamic Analysis--This type of structural analysis is only available in the ANSYS LS-DYNA program. Both linear and nonlinear static analyses.Chapter 1: Overview of Structural Analyses 1. In addition to the above analysis types. contact surfaces. and machine housings. and creep. several special-purpose features are available: • • • • • Fracture mechanics Composites Fatigue p-Method Beam Analyses Structural Analysis Guide . The term structural (or structure) implies not only civil engineering structures such as bridges and buildings. . Modal Analysis--Used to calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. ANSYS LS-DYNA provides an interface to the LS-DYNA explicit finite element program. machine parts. aircraft bodies. Other quantities. Explicit dynamic analysis is used to calculate fast solutions for large deformation dynamics and complex contact problems. Buckling Analysis--Used to calculate the buckling loads and determine the buckling mode shape. Explicit dynamic analysis is described in the ANSYS LS-DYNA User's Guide. and ANSYS Professional programs only. stress stiffening. Spectrum Analysis--An extension of the modal analysis. Nonlinearities can include plasticity. Inc. 001972 . Definition of Structural Analysis Structural analysis is probably the most common application of the finite element method. such as strains. Static Analysis--Used to determine displacements. aeronautical. Types of Structural Analysis The seven types of structural analyses available in the ANSYS family of products are explained below. Each of these analysis types are discussed in detail in this manual. stresses. Structural analyses are available in the ANSYS Multiphysics. and mechanical structures such as ship hulls. hyperelasticity. and tools. The primary unknowns (nodal degrees of freedom) calculated in a structural analysis are displacements. under static loading conditions. large strain.1. Both linear (eigenvalue) buckling and nonlinear buckling analyses are possible. All nonlinearities mentioned under Static Analysis above are allowed.1 . 1. Different mode extraction methods are available. large deflection. ANSYS Release 8. Harmonic Analysis--Used to determine the response of a structure to harmonically time-varying loads. You can perform the following types of structural analyses.

INTER193. SHELL99. SHELL63. The p-method provides an excellent way to solve a problem to a desired level of accuracy while using a coarse mesh. BEAM24. COMBI165. COMBI165. MASS166. SHELL93. INTER194. FLUID29.5. SOLID65. SOLID168 Element Name(s) 1. HYPER74. INFIN111. LINK10. FLUID30.4: Material Model Interface in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details on the material model interface. HYPER56. See Section 1. MATRIX50. LINK167. 001972 . The h-method can be used for any type of analysis. FLUID116. SOLID186. HYPER86. SOLID164. COMBIN39. SOLID148. INFIN110. BEAM188. SOLID62. LINK11. In general. and SOLID168). FLUID130 COMBIN7. SOLID98. COMBIN40. PLANE162. but the p-method can be used only for linear structural static analyses. VISCO108. Material Model Interface For analyses described in this guide.1 Structural Element Types Category Spars Beams Pipes 2-D Solids 3-D Solids Shells Interface Contact Coupled-Field Specialty Explicit Dynamics LINK1. Most types of structural analyses can use any of these elements. CONTA173. PLANE25. the discussions in this manual focus on the procedures required for the h-method of solution. HYPER158. CONTA172. COMBIN37. PLANE146. SOLID191 SHELL28. INTER195 CONTAC12. PLANE42.3.Chapter 1: Overview of Structural Analyses 1. VISCO89. PIPE59. This interface uses a hierarchical tree structure of material categories. MASS21.4.2. SHELL51. LINK167. SOLID164. ANSYS Release 8. SHELL163. PLANE183 SOLID45. PLANE145. Table 1. SHELL41. VISCO88. CONTA175 SOLID5. BEAM161. HYPER58. HYPER84. TARGE170. PIPE60 PLANE2. PIPE20. SHELL163. SURF153. PIPE18. VISCO107. FLUID38. CONTAC52. PLANE162.1 . if you are using the GUI. 1–2 Structural Analysis Guide . LINK180 BEAM3. FLUID81. VISCO106. BEAM189 PIPE16. TARGE169. MASS166. you must specify the material you will be simulating using an intuitive material model interface. BEAM161. SHELL150. FLUID129. Elements Used in Structural Analyses Most ANSYS element types are structural elements. FLUID79. © SAS IP. BEAM4. SOLID147. SOLID92.4. PLANE82. FLUID80. CONTA174. Chapter 15. LINK8. “p-Method Structural Static Analysis” discusses procedures specific to the p-method. the h-method usually requires a finer mesh than the p-method. SOLID187. PLANE182. PIPE17. SOLID46. CONTA171. SHELL181 INTER192. BEAM54. BEAM23. BEAM44. SURF154 LINK160. Types of Solution Methods Two solution methods are available for solving structural problems in the ANSYS family of products: the hmethod and the p-method. SOLID185. PLANE13. which is intended to assist you in choosing the appropriate model for your analysis. 1. SHELL43. . Depending on the problem to be solved. Note — Explicit dynamics analysis can use only the explicit dynamic elements (LINK160. MATRIX27. Inc. PLANE83. SHELL91. SOLID64. SHELL61. SOLID95. ranging from simple spars and beams to more complex layered shells and large strain solids. COMBIN14.

Details of how to handle nonlinearities are described in Chapter 8. Points to Remember Keep the following points in mind when doing a static analysis: Structural Analysis Guide . plasticity.1 . stresses. creep. the loads and the structure's response are assumed to vary slowly with respect to time. however.3. 001972 . 3. hyperelastic elements.5: Solve the Analysis Section 2.3.3.3: Set Additional Solution Options Section 2.3.large deformations. Inc.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 2.4: Apply the Loads.2.3. include steady inertia loads (such as gravity and rotational velocity). 2. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”. Nonlinear Static Analyses A static analysis can be either linear or nonlinear. For further details. Steady loading and response conditions are assumed. such as those caused by time-varying loads. with brief references to nonlinearities.2: Set Solution Controls Section 2. 4. . ANSYS Release 8. strains. stress stiffening. 2. that is. Definition of Static Analysis A static analysis calculates the effects of steady loading conditions on a structure.1.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.4: Apply the Loads Section 2.3. This chapter focuses on linear static analyses.6: Review the Results 2.3. Linear vs. 2. Performing a Static Analysis The procedure for a static analysis consists of these tasks: 1.1.3. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. © SAS IP.3.3.1. Build the Model See Section 1. The kinds of loading that can be applied in a static analysis include: • • • • • Externally applied forces and pressures Steady-state inertial forces (such as gravity or rotational velocity) Imposed (nonzero) displacements Temperatures (for thermal strain) Fluences (for nuclear swelling) More information about the loads that you can apply in a static analysis appears in Section 2. 2. and time-varying loads that can be approximated as static equivalent loads (such as the static equivalent wind and seismic loads commonly defined in many building codes). All types of nonlinearities are allowed . while ignoring inertia and damping effects. 6. contact (gap) elements. 5. Section 2. Static analysis is used to determine the displacements.1.1: Build the Model Section 2. and forces in structures or components caused by loads that do not induce significant inertia and damping effects. A static analysis can. and so on.

2. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box To access the Solution Controls dialog box. Note the following information about mesh density: • • Regions where stresses or strains vary rapidly (usually areas of interest) require a relatively finer mesh than regions where stresses or strains are nearly constant (within an element). and constant or temperature-dependent. Young's modulus (EX).2. you can take advantage of a streamlined solution interface (called the Solution Controls dialog box) for setting these options. of the options. and so on). 2–2 Structural Analysis Guide . which means that you may need to set only a few. The Solution Controls dialog box provides default settings that will work well for many structural static analyses. © SAS IP. Set Solution Controls Setting solution controls involves defining the analysis type and common analysis options for an analysis. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. Chapter 8. see Section 3. For thermal loads (temperatures). it is the method that is presented in this chapter. the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. When you are doing a structural static analysis. you can set solution controls for your analysis using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths (Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> option).1 . Inc. if any. plasticity requires a reasonable integration point density (and therefore a fine element mesh) in areas with high plastic deformation gradients. hyperelastic coefficients. For inertia loads (such as gravity). – – – You must define stiffness in some form (for example. 2. choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Controls. The controls that appear on the Basic tab provide the minimum amount of data that ANSYS needs for the analysis.3. For details about how to set these options. you must define the data required for mass calculations. The following sections provide brief descriptions of the options that appear on each tab of the dialog box. . 2. While considering the influence of nonlinearities. you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to adjust the default settings for the more advanced controls. as well as specifying load step options for it. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” also contains details about the nonlinear options introduced in this chapter. For a general overview of the Solution Controls dialog box.1.2.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis • • You can use both linear and nonlinear structural elements. Because the streamlined solution interface is the recommended tool for setting solution controls in a structural static analysis. 001972 . ANSYS Release 8. select the tab that you are interested in (from within the ANSYS program). remember that the mesh should be able to capture the effects of the nonlinearities.11: Using Special Solution Controls for Certain Types of Structural Analyses in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. 2. and then click the Help button. Material properties can be linear or nonlinear. such as density (DENS). For example.3. you must define the coefficient of thermal expansion (ALPX). If you prefer not to use the Solution Controls dialog box (Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Controls).2. Using the Basic Tab The Basic tab is active when you access the dialog box. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab. isotropic or orthotropic.3.

6. or other rate-dependent material behavior). and click the Help button.NRES to increase the limit (see Chapter 19.Section 2.4: Output Controls in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Control time settings. and number of substeps to be taken in a load step [NSUBST or DELTIM] Specify solution data to write to database [OUTRES] • • • Special considerations for setting these options in a static analysis include: • When setting ANTYPE and NLGEOM.4: The Role of Time in Tracking in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. remember that this load step option specifies time at the end of the load step. choose Small Displacement Static if you are performing a new analysis and you want to ignore large deformation effects such as large deflection. 2–3 .0 plus the time specified for the previous load step.7. When setting OUTRES.0 for the first load step. Table 2. Use the command /CONFIG. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Section 3. For subsequent load steps. select the Basic tab. If this number is exceeded (based on your OUTRES specification). the program will terminate with an error.2. ANSYS Release 8.1 Basic Tab Options Option Specify analysis type [ANTYPE.2.3. Inc.3: Performing a Static Analysis You can use the Basic tab to set the options listed in Table 2.1: “Basic Tab Options”. The Transient Tab The Transient tab contains transient analysis controls. Choose Restart Current Analysis if you want to restart a failed nonlinear analysis.1 . • • 2. it is used as a convenient way of referring to load steps and substeps (see Chapter 2. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options. When setting TIME. Choose Large Displacement Static if you expect large deflections (as in the case of a long. and large strain. it is available only if you choose a transient analysis and remains grayed out when you choose a static analysis. only 1000 results sets can be written to the results file (Jobname. keep this caution in mind: Caution: By default.16: Restarting an Analysis in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. see: • • • Section 1. viscoplasticity. including: time at end of load step [TIME]. NLGEOM] For more information on this option. © SAS IP.1: General Options in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. the default is 1. automatic time stepping [AUTOTS]. The default value is 1. it is not described here. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). access the dialog box. Structural Analysis Guide . Although time has no physical meaning in a static analysis (except in the case of creep.7. and you want to specify additional loads. “Memory Management and Configuration” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide).1: Defining the Analysis Type and Analysis Options in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Chapter 8. or you have previously completed a static analysis. slender bar under bending) or large strains (as in a metal-forming problem).3.RST). large rotation. 001972 . For these reasons.

For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options. bulky structures) Algebraic Multigrid (AMG) solver (applicable in the same situations as the PCG solver. see the following section(s) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide: • Section 3. . select the Nonlinear tab.2.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 2.3 Nonlinear Tab Options Option Activate line search [LNSRCH] For more information about this option.2. Table 2. recommended) Frontal direct solver Note — The AMG and DDS solvers are part of Parallel Performance for ANSYS. See Chapter 13. Inc. and click the Help button. Table 2.3. static and full transient analyses) Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) solver (recommended for large models/high wavefronts. Using the Sol'n Options Tab You can use the Sol'n Options tab to set the options listed in Table 2. access the dialog box. Using the Nonlinear Tab You can use the Nonlinear tab to set the options listed in Table 2.2. but provides parallel processing.3.3: “Nonlinear Tab Options”.5.16.2 Sol'n Options Tab Options Option Specify equation solver [EQSLV] For more information about this option. for linear static/full transient structural or steady-state thermal analyses only. ANSYS Release 8. for faster turnaround times when used in a multiprocessor environment) Distributed Domain Solver (DDS) provides parallel processing on multiple systems across a network Iterative solver (auto-select. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options.10: Using the Automatic Iterative (Fast) Solver Option Section 3. 2. which is a separately-licensed product.5: Line Search Option Section 8.2.4: Using Line Search 2–4 Structural Analysis Guide . access the dialog box.2: Multiframe Restart Specify parameters for multiframe restart [RESCONTROL] • Special considerations for setting these options in a static analysis include: • When setting EQSLV. © SAS IP. select the Sol'n Options tab.10. see the following section(s) in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide: • • Section 8.5. and click the Help button.3.1 .2: “Sol'n Options Tab Options”.2: Selecting a Solver through Section 3. “Improving ANSYS Performance and Parallel Performance for ANSYS” in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide for more information about these solvers.4. specify one of these solvers: – – – – – – – Program chosen solver (ANSYS selects a solver for you. based on the physics of the problem) Sparse direct solver (default for linear and nonlinear. 001972 .

3. see the following section(s) in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide: • • Section 8.3. © SAS IP.1: Creep Criteria Section 8. 001972 . 2–5 .3.3. and are described further in Chapter 8. include stress stiffening effects regardless of the SSTIF command setting.5: Using the Arc-Length Method Chapter 2.1.6: Cutback Criteria • • • • 2. ARCTRM] For more information about this option. These options do not appear on the Solution Controls dialog box because they are used very infrequently.2.3: Performing a Static Analysis Option Activate a predictor on the DOF solution [PRED] Specify the maximum number of iterations allowed per substep [NEQIT] Specify whether you want to include creep calculation [RATE] Set convergence criteria [CNVTOL] Control bisections [CUTCONTROL] For more information about this option. Using the Advanced NL Tab You can use the Advanced NL tab to set the options listed in Table 2. see the following section(s) in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide: • Section 8.5: Creep Section 8. ANSYS Release 8.2.4: Predictor-Corrector Option Section 8.10.3. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options. select the Advanced NL tab.2.2.5.4: “Advanced NL Tab Options”. refer to the appropriate element description in the ANSYS Elements Reference.5.2.2: Convergence Criteria Section 8.3. and their default settings rarely need to be changed.3.1 .5.3: Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations Section 8.2. Table 2.5.Section 2. 2. and click the Help button. Set Additional Solution Options This section discusses additional options that you can set for the solution.2. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”. To determine whether an element includes stress stiffening. including those in the 18x family of elements.3. access the dialog box. Stress Stiffening Effects Some elements. Specific situations in which you can turn OFF stress stiffening effects include: Structural Analysis Guide .6. By default.3: Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations Section 8.1.3.5. Inc.4 Advanced NL Tab Options Option Specify analysis termination criteria [NCNV] Control activation and termination of the arc-length method [ARCLEN.3. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide • • 2. Many of the options that appear in this section are nonlinear options. stress stiffening effects are ON when NLGEOM is ON. ANSYS menu paths are provided in this section to help you access these options for those cases in which you choose to override the ANSYS-assigned defaults.5.2.3.3.

You can specify one of these values: • • • • • Program-chosen (default) Full Modified Initial stiffness Full with unsymmetric matrix Command(s): NROPT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options 2. Mass Matrix Formulation Use this analysis option if you plan to apply inertial loads on the structure (such as gravity and spinning loads). The default is OFF.3. If both are specified.3. you can turn stress stiffening OFF.3. see the appropriate dynamic analysis section for recommendations. Including stress stiffness terms. Note — The stress stiffening effects and the prestress effect calculation both control the generation of the stress stiffness matrix. for example. Keeping in mind the points listed above. local failures. . you know that the structure is not likely to fail because of buckling (bifurcation.3.3. If you are performing a linear analysis [NLGEOM. © SAS IP. Newton-Raphson Option Use this analysis option only in a nonlinear analysis. snap through). the last option specified will override the previous setting. and therefore should not be used together in an analysis. in general. 001972 . such as a prestressed modal analysis. the choice of mass matrix formulation may be important.4.3.3. if you want to do a prestressed dynamic analysis on the same model. the mass matrix formulation you use does not significantly affect the solution accuracy (assuming that the mesh is fine enough).2.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis • • Stress stiffening is relevant only in nonlinear analyses. Prior to the analysis. This option specifies how often the tangent matrix is updated during solution. Command(s): PSTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options 2. accelerates nonlinear convergence characteristics. Command(s): LUMPM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options 2–6 Structural Analysis Guide . Prestress Effects Calculation Use this analysis option to perform a prestressed analysis on the same model. you may choose to turn stress stiffening OFF for specific problems in which convergence difficulties are seen. You can specify one of these values: • • Default (depends on element type) Lumped mass approximation Note — For a static analysis. Command(s): SSTIF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options 2.OFF]. However. ANSYS Release 8.1 . Inc.

They can also indicate symmetry boundary conditions and points of known motion. Apply the Loads After you set the desired solution options.3. © SAS IP.9.3. 001972 . ROTY.3.1.2.3. UZ. Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Caution: Proper use of multiple OUTPR commands can sometimes be a little tricky. Load Types All of the following load types are applicable in a static analysis. FZ) and Moments (MX. Reference temperature can be made material-dependent with the MP. Command(s): MODE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> For Harmonic Ele 2.3.7. Inc. Reference Temperature This load step option is used for thermal strain calculations.4. UY.6. 2. See Section 2.3. ROTZ) These are DOF constraints usually specified at model boundaries to define rigid support points. Command(s): CRPLIM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Creep Criterion 2. The directions implied by the labels are in the nodal coordinate system.4.4.1.3. ANSYS Release 8.3.5.OUT).REFT command.3.3. Creep Criteria This nonlinear load step option specifies the creep criterion for automatic time stepping.4: Output Controls in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on how to use this command. you are ready to apply loads to the model. The directions implied by the labels are in the nodal coordinate system.1 .4. 2.Section 2. Extrapolation of Results Use this load step option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default when no material nonlinearities are present).1.1. MZ) These are concentrated loads usually specified on the model exterior. ROTX.3. Command(s): TREF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Reference Temp 2.3. Mode Number This load step option is used for axisymmetric harmonic elements. Printed Output Use this load step option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname. FY. Command(s): ERESX GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt 2. 2–7 . Forces (FX. Structural Analysis Guide . 2.8.3.7.3. 2. Displacements (UX. MY.3: Performing a Static Analysis 2.

removed. You can also apply boundary conditions via TABLE type array parameters (see Section 2. FY.4. Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters You can also apply loads using TABLE type array parameters.2. 2. and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements).4.6. valid primary variables are TIME. Spinning.4.1.8: Body Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. For details on using tabular boundary conditions.6.6. UY. Temperatures (TEMP) These are applied to study the effects of thermal expansion or contraction (that is. UZ.1.3.6.3. 2. 2–8 Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 2.4.4.4.4.. or you can specify temperatures directly. or listed. Etc. ANSYS Release 8.15: Applying Loads Using Function Boundary Conditions). which are independent of the model. see. you can define loads either on the solid model (keypoints. operated on.6. FZ. Fluence (FLUE) Gravity. 2. Inc.7: Surface Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. You can read in temperatures from a thermal analysis [LDREAD].5. TEMP. Moment (FX. thermal stresses).14: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. In a structural analysis. see Section 2.3: DOF Constraints in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2.9: Inertia Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Displacement (UX. These are inertia loads that affect the entire structure.6.6: Forces (Concentrated Loads) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2. Y.6.3. Gravity. Table 2. Density (or mass in some form) must be defined if inertia effects are to be included. and so on Surface Loads Body Loads Inertia Loads 2.2. 2.1. ROTY. loads can be applied. 001972 . They are used only if you input a swelling or creep equation. Table 2.3.3.5: “Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis” summarizes the loads applicable to a static analysis.3. and location (X. MZ) Forces Pressure (PRES) Temperature (TEMP). MX. lines. also usually applied on the model exterior. Constraints ROTZ) Force. using the BF family of commands.1. ROTX. Fluences (FLUE) These are applied to study the effects of swelling (material enlargement due to neutron bombardment or other causes) or creep.6. MY. Apply Loads to the Model Except for inertia loads.2.3. Section 2. Pressures (PRES) These are surface loads.4.1 . © SAS IP.1. Z).5 Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis Load Type Category For details on commands and menu paths for defining these loads. Spinning. . The coefficient of thermal expansion must be defined if thermal strains are to be calculated.. In an analysis.1: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters) or as function boundary conditions (see Section 2.3. Positive values of pressure act towards the element face (resulting in a compressive effect).

2. ANSYS pulls the information from the database. The summary listing of mass and moments of inertia (produced during solution) is accurate. This output consists of the translational and rotational accelerations required to balance the applied loads and can be used by other programs to perform kinematics studies. ANSYS Release 8. SHELL99.3. Additional constraints. Partial Inertia Relief Calculations You can also do a partial inertia relief calculation.DENS. Three constraints (or fewer. as shown in the command input below: /PREP7 .4..1 GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Inertia Relief • • • 2.. The effects of offsets and tapering are ignored for beam elements (BEAM23.2. . Your model should meet the following requirements: • • The model should not contain axisymmetric elements. Inc.3.. ! Generate model. You can think of inertia relief as an equivalent free-body analysis.those required to prevent rigid-body motion.1. which contains the inertia relief output from the most recent solution [SOLVE or PSOLVE]. When you issue IRLIST. Command(s): IRLIST GUI: No GUI equivalent.. define density Structural Analysis Guide .. substructures. .. BEAM24. . Specify only the minimum number of displacement constraints . or nonlinearities. (Breaking up each tapered element into several elements will give a more accurate solution. © SAS IP..) Data required for mass calculations (such as density) must be specified. Calculating Inertia Relief You can use a static analysis to perform inertia relief calculations..1 . The loads for which inertia relief calculations are desired should be applied.3. You can define a table array parameter via command or interactively. The reaction forces at the constraints will be zero because the calculated inertia forces balance the applied forces. Models with a mixture of 2-D and 3-D element types are not recommended.. see the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide.3. Use the partial solution method [PSOLVE]. such as those required to impose symmetry conditions. but check for zero reaction forces at all the constraints to make sure that the model is not overconstrained for inertia relief. 2–9 . not approximate. BEAM44. and SOLID191). are permitted. 2.4.Section 2.. The effects of unsymmetrical layups for layered elements are also ignored. Issue this command before SOLVE as part of the inertia load commands. Inertia Relief Output Use the IRLIST command to print the output from inertia relief calculations. Inertia relief output is stored in the database rather than in the results file (Jobname.3: Performing a Static Analysis When defining the table. TIME must be in ascending order in the table index (as in any table array). SOLID46.3.3. and BEAM54) as well as for layered elements (SHELL91. depending on the element type) are necessary for 2-D models and six (or fewer) are necessary for 3-D models. Command(s): IRLF..4. 001972 . MP. which calculate the accelerations that will counterbalance the applied loads. For more information on defining table array parameters.RST).

3. (Other methods for handling multiple load steps are described in Chapter 2. You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME. 2–10 .1 . 2. saving. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.. 4. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS If you want the analysis to include additional loading conditions (that is..4. OUTPR.) Leave SOLUTION. Solve the Analysis You are now ready to solve the analysis. Macros are described in the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide. F.. 2. They consist of the following data: • Primary data: – • Nodal displacements (UX.. and solving for each load step. multiple load steps).ELPREP IRLIST FINISH ! Specify only minimum no. you can write a macro containing the above commands.. SF. Save a backup copy of the database to a named file. UY.ALL IRLF.ELFORM PSOLVE. 3. ROTX.5. ROTY..Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis FINISH /SOLU D. 001972 . 1. ANSYS Release 8. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as Start solution calculations. IRLF. Inc. Review the Results Results from a static analysis are written to the structural results file. UZ.3. no inertia relief Calculates element matrices Modifies element matrices and calculates inertia relief terms Lists the mass summary and total load summary tables See the ANSYS Commands Reference for discussions of the OUTPR. you will need to repeat the process of applying loads. specifying load step options..RST. © SAS IP. 2.ALL..3. of constraints ! Other loads ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Activates printout of all items Can also be set to -1 for precise mass and load summary only.3. IRLIST. Using a Macro to Perform Inertia Relief Calculations If you need to do inertia relief calculations frequently.1 PSOLVE. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. Jobname.3.6. ROTZ) Derived data: – – – Nodal and element stresses Nodal and element strains Element forces Structural Analysis Guide .. 2. and PSOLVE commands.

see Chapter 4. Points to Remember • • To review results in POST1 or POST26. the time-history processor. 2. the general postprocessor.3.6. Typical static analysis POST1 operations are explained below. POST26 is used in nonlinear static analyses to track specific result items over the applied load history. Identify the data set by load step and substep numbers or by time. the ANSYS program will perform linear interpolation on all the data to calculate the results at that time. and POST26.3.Section 2.3: Performing a Static Analysis – – Nodal reaction forces and so on 2. The results file (Jobname.3.1 and then request a node or element display [NPLOT or EPLOT].4. 2. See Chapter 8. Command(s): RESUME GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume from Read in the desired set of results.3. 3. (If you specify a time value for which no results are available. The KUND field on PLDISP gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display. Typical Postprocessing Operations Option: Display Deformed Shape Use the PLDISP command to display a deformed shape (Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape). 2. Inc. the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated.RFOR. Read in the database from the database file.) Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> By Load Step Perform the necessary POST1 operations. “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.6. Reviewing Results Data 1. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” for the use of POST26 in a nonlinear static analysis. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions. Postprocessors You can review these results using POST1. Option: List Reaction Forces and Moments The PRRSOL command lists reaction forces and moments at the constrained nodes (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu). ANSYS Release 8. 2–11 . To display reaction forces. (Use RMOM instead of RFOR for reaction moments.1 . 001972 ..RST) must be available. • • POST1 is used to review results over the entire model at specific substeps (time-points).2. © SAS IP. Some typical POST1 operations are explained below.3.6.) Option: List Nodal Forces and Moments Structural Analysis Guide . issue /PBC.1.6. 2.

3. and so on) (Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table). For a body in equilibrium. EPELY..F (or M) command to list nodal forces and moments (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution). (You can activate automatic mesh refinement by means of the ADAPT command .. ANSYS Release 8. strains.. Regions of high SERR on the contour display are good candidates for mesh refinement.. Option: Line Element Results For line elements.) (Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu). Option: Structural Energy Error Estimation Use PLESOL. Option: Error Estimation For linear static analyses using solid or shell elements. Option: Contour Displays Use PLNSOL and PLESOL to contour almost any result item. EPELZ. which represents the error relative to a particular mesh discretization.. Inc.). SY.6: Estimating Solution Error in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more details about error estimation. such as stresses (SX. SZ. 2–12 Structural Analysis Guide . UZ.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis Use the PRESOL. This command calculates and lists the percent error in structural energy norm (SEPC). such as beams. ..SERR to contour the element-by-element structural energy error (SERR) (Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solu).1 . Select a set of nodes and use this feature to find out the total force acting on those nodes: Command(s): FSUM GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Nodal Calcs> Total Force Sum You can also check the total force and total moment at each selected node. See the ETABLE discussion in The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details.).) See Section 5. use ETABLE to gain access to derived data (stresses. the total load is zero at all nodes except where an applied load or reaction load exists: Command(s): NFORCE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Nodal Calcs> Sum @ Each Node The FORCE command (Main Menu> General Postproc> Options for Outp) dictates which component of the forces is being reviewed: • • • • Total (default) Static component Damping component Inertia component For a body in equilibrium.see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information. and displacements (UX. Results data are identified by a combination of a label and a sequence number or component name on the ETABLE command. 001972 . the total load (using all FORCE components) is zero at all nodes except where an applied load or reaction load exists. spars. use the PRERR command to list the estimated solution error due to mesh discretization (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Percent Error). UY. You can list the sum of all nodal forces and moments for a selected set of nodes. The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display. and pipes. strains (EPELX. © SAS IP.

1 . different shell thicknesses.are available in POST1. Caution: Derived data. use selecting (described in Chapter 7. are averaged at the nodes by the PLNSOL command. Alternatively. a 20 N downward force is applied at the same end. or other discontinuities meet. “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. and so on before issuing PLNSOL. 001972 . Option: Tabular Listings Use these commands to produce tabular listings: Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results). use PowerGraphics with the AVRES command (Main Menu> General Postproc> Options for Outp) to not average results across different materials and/or different shell thicknesses.5 cm Structural Analysis Guide . Later. you will run a static analysis of an Allen wrench. ANSYS Release 8.2. S3). To avoid the smearing effect. and so on GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> solution option Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Nodes or Sort Elems).Section 2. and so on . PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data). same shell thickness. 2.4. Other Postprocessing Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions . such as stresses and strains. and principal stresses (S1. Inc. such as displacement (DISP).4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) Use PLETAB and PLLS to contour element table data and line element data (Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Element Table and Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Line Elem Res).1. The objective is to determine the stress intensity in the wrench under these two loading conditions. Problem Specifications The following dimensions are used for this problem: Width across flats = 10 mm Configuration = hexagonal Length of shank = 7. load case combinations. 2–13 . 2. S2.4. See Chapter 4. © SAS IP. Option: Vector Displays Use PLVECT to view vector displays (Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined) and PRVECT to view vector listings (Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Vector Data).4. at the same time retaining the original 100 N torquing force. Vector displays (not to be confused with vector mode) are an effective way of viewing vector quantities.mapping results onto a path. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample analysis. Problem Description An Allen wrench (10 mm across the flats) is torqued by means of a 100 N force at its end. rotation (ROT). “Selecting and Components” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) to select elements of the same material. 2. This averaging results in "smeared" values at nodes where elements of different materials.

Continue entering the remaining parameters and values in the same way. ANSYS Release 8.3.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis Length of handle = 20 cm Bend radius = 1 cm Modulus of elasticity = 2. 2.4. Type the command /UNITS. The Angular Units for Parametric Functions dialog box appears. For example. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. Define Parameters 1. Click on Accept after you define each parameter.1. In the drop down menu for Units for angular parametric functions. Set the Analysis Title 1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title.3.1 .3. 2.SI and press ENTER. 4. Set the System of Units 1. 2. first type “exx = 2. ¨ ¥ ¦£ ©§ ¥¦£ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¢¡ ¥ £ ¡ ¦¤¢ ¡ ¢¡ ¡ ¢ . 3. Parameter EXX Value 2.4.07 x 1011 Pa Applied torquing force = 100 N Applied downward force = 20 N 2.4.07e11” in the Selection field and then click on Accept. 2.07E11 Pa 2–14 Structural Analysis Guide . Notice that the command is stored in the history buffer. Inc." Click on OK.4.3. Problem Sketch Figure 2. which can be accessed by clicking on the down arrow at the right of the input window.2.1 Diagram of Allen Wrench 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Angular Units. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. 2. Click once in the Input Window to make it active for text entry. 5. Type the text "Static Analysis of an Allen Wrench" and click on OK. select "Degrees DEG. © SAS IP. Type the following parameters and their values in the Selection field. 001972 .3.07E11 Description Young's modulus is 2.

4. click once on "Structural Solid.5.4.01 m Element length . A dialog box appears. 2. click once on "Brick 8node 45.01 W_HEX* TAN(30) .2 .0075 m Number of divisions along hex flat = 2 Tolerance for selecting node = 25E-6 m Note — You can type the labels in upper. and . Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. 3. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. Click on OK to define Quad 4node42 as element type 2. 7.075 m Length of handle (long end) . 2–15 .0058 m Length of shank (short end) .4.2 m Bend radius . Isotropic. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Polygon> By Side Length. 001972 . 8.6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. ANSYS Release 8. © SAS IP.3. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.075 . Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. This sets Young's modulus to the parameter specified above. 3. Click on Close.or lowercase.01 m Width of flat = . Define Material Properties 1. ANSYS always displays the labels in uppercase.4. Scroll up the list on the right to "Quad 4node 42. Enter W_FLAT for length of each side.3. Create Hexagonal Area as Cross-Section 1. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. 4.3 for PRXY. 3. 2. Structural Analysis Guide . 6. Click on OK. 3.3. Define the Element Types 1.01 ." Click on Apply to define it as element type 1. Linear." In the scroll box on the right. In the scroll box on the left.1 . 2. 2.0075 2 25E-6 Value Description Width of hex across flats = . Type the text EXX in the EX field (for Young's modulus). double-click on the following options: Structural. 2. Click on Add.4. 5. Elastic. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes. Inc. The Polygon by Side Length dialog box appears.Section 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. 4. Enter 6 for number of sides." Click once to select it. In the Material Models Available window.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) Parameter W_HEX W_FLAT L_SHANK L_HANDLE BENDRAD L_ELEM NO_D_HEX TOL . 2.

Enter 0.8. Click the Line numbers radio button to turn line numbering on. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Keypoints> In Active CS. Enter 8 for keypoint number. © SAS IP. Inc. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan/Zoom/Rotate. Y. 2. 13. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Straight Line. 7. 2. and click on OK. use the controls on the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box (Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan/Zoom/Rotate) to zoom in. The Create Straight Line picking menu appears. 15.4. Click once on keypoints 7 and 8 to create a line between keypoints 7 and 8. 5. select "Global Cartes X. 4. 7. Y." Click on OK. 18. 8. Enter 0. Enter 7 for keypoint number. Click on OK. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Angle of Rotation. Click on "Iso" to generate an isometric view and click on Close.7. Create Lines Along a Path 1. Click once on keypoints 4 and 1 to create a line between keypoints 1 and 4.0. select "At top left. Create Keypoints Along a Path 1. Enter 9 for keypoint number. Click the Keypoint numbers radio button to turn keypoint numbering on. Y. ANSYS Release 8. (If you have trouble reading the keypoint numbers in the ANSYS Graphics window. Z location fields. 12. 14. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. 11. Click on Apply. Z location. The Window Options dialog box appears.-L_SHANK for the X.3. 3.1 . ." Click on OK. and click on Apply. 9.3. 4. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. 17. 6.) 16.4. The Angle of Rotation dialog box appears. 2–16 Structural Analysis Guide .-L_SHANK for the X.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 4. 6.L_HANDLE. Click on OK. Click once on keypoints 8 and 9 to create a line between keypoints 8 and 9. 001972 . Z location. Type a 0 in each of the X. 3. Enter 90 for angle in degrees. The Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box appears. 10. In the Location of triad drop down menu. The Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Window Controls> Window Options. Click on OK. In the Axis of rotation drop down menu. A hexagon appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. 2. 2.

2–17 . 11. The Create Component dialog box appears.11. and click on OK.9. 2. Click on OK.3. 2. 10. ANSYS Release 8. Cut Hex Section In this step. Click on OK. 2. 6.4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Lines. (If you have trouble reading the line numbers in the ANSYS Graphics window. 8. 2. This step is required to satisfy mapped meshing.10. Enter NO_D_HEX for number of element divisions and click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Line Fillet. set the element type to PLANE42. 9. The Line Fillet picking menu appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. 1. The Line Fillet dialog box appears. Set Element Type for Area Mesh In this step. 3. Click once on lines 8 and 9. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component. 5. select Kept. Click on OK in the picking menu. Click once on line 7. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears.Section 2.4. 3. 5.4. Enter BENDRAD for Fillet radius and click on OK. Enter 1. The Divide Area by Line picking menu appears.1 . In the Subtracted lines will be drop down menu.6 in the picker.12. Click once on the shaded area. 4. Click on OK in the picking menu. Enter BOTAREA for component name. Click the Keypoint numbers radio button to Off. The Divide Area by Line with Options dialog box appears. 12.) Click on OK. In the Component is made of drop down menu.3.2. select "Areas. Create Line from Shank to Handle 1.4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Divide> With Options> Area by Line." 13. 2. © SAS IP. Set Meshing Density 1.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) 2. you cut the hex section into two quadrilaterals. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Areas. 2. Inc. all quadrilaterals for the area mesh. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. 4. 3. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears. 001972 . use the controls on the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box (Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan/Zoom/Rotate) to zoom in. then press ENTER.3. Click OK. 7. The Element Size on Picked Lines picking menu appears. Structural Analysis Guide . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Lines> Picked Lines. 4.3.

3. 3. 8. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesher Opts. Click on OK to accept the default of select BOTAREA component. ANSYS Release 8. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. select “2 PLANE42” and click on OK. select “1 SOLID45” and click on OK. The Element Attributes dialog box appears. Inc. 6.3. Select BOTAREA Component and Delete 2-D Elements 1.4. The Global Element Sizes dialog box appears. The Mesher Options dialog box appears. 9. 2–18 Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Select Comp/Assembly. The Sweep Areas along Lines picking box appears. 001972 .3. 2. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. . Click the Line numbers radio button to on if it is not already selected. Drag the 2-D Mesh to Produce 3-D Elements 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Global> Size. 12.4. Structural Analysis Guide . 6. Enter L_ELEM for element edge length and click on OK. 11. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Areas> Mapped> 3 or 4 sided. 4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Lines. 13. 7. In the Element type number drop down menu. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. 1. The Element Attributes dialog box appears. 10. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. In the Mesher Type field. The 3-D model appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. 3. Click once on lines 8. The Select Component or Assembly dialog appears. 2.4.14. click on the Mapped radio button and then click on OK. Click on OK.13. 3.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 1. Click on Pick All.1 . 2.15. 14. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes. 2. generate the area mesh you will later drag. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Extrude> Areas> Along Lines. 5. and 9 (in that order). 2. In the Element type number drop down menu. A second picking box appears. Click on OK to accept the default of Quad for 2-D shape key. 5. © SAS IP. Generate Area Mesh In this step. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. 2. 2. 10. The Mesh Areas picking box appears. Click on Pick All. The Set Element Shape dialog box appears.

4.3. 2.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) 3. Display Boundary Conditions 1. 2. 16. The Select Entities dialog appears. select "Nodes. The Clear Areas picking menu appears. The Select Entities dialog box appears. © SAS IP. Click on OK to accept the default of select BOTAREA component. 12. The Select Component or Assembly dialog appears. 15.4. 1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. The Apply U. select "Areas. 10. all" radio button to select it. 5. select "Arrows." Structural Analysis Guide .3. In the top drop down menu. 001972 . In the Surface Load Symbols drop down menu. Click on the "All Applied BCs" radio button for Boundary condition symbol. 6. ANSYS Release 8. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. Apply Pressure on Handle In this step. In the top drop down menu. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Select Comp/Assembly. 7. apply pressure on the handle to represent 100 N finger force. The Apply U." Click on Apply. 3. 4." In the “Show pres and convect as” drop down menu. 2. In the scroll list for DOFs to be constrained. Click on the "Sele All" button. 11." Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. 13. then click on Cancel.3.17. select "Pressures. Click on OK. 3. 4. 9. 8." 17. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Clear> Areas." In the second drop down menu. In the top drop down menu." 14.Section 2. 5. select "Exterior. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols.16. Inc. 5." Click on the "Lines.1 .4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. select "Lines. Click on OK. 2. select "Lines. Click on Pick All.4.18. Apply Displacement Boundary Condition at End of Wrench 1. 6. 2.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Symbols dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. 2–19 .ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. Click on Pick All. click on "ALL DOF. In the top drop down menu. 2." In the second drop down menu. select "Attached to.

select "By Location. 34. In the scroll box on the right. In the scroll box on the right. 5. Enter W_FLAT/2. 4. Click on "X coordinates" to select it." 10. 19. The Get Scalar Data dialog box appears. Max. The Get Data for Selected Entity Set dialog box appears. Click on OK.L_HANDLE-(3. . Click on Pick All. 2–20 Structural Analysis Guide .0*L_ELEM)-TOL for Min. 38. 24. Enter "minyval" for the name of the parameter to be defined. 30.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. In the scroll box on the right. 25. 6. In the second drop down menu. In the scroll box on the left. Click on Reselect. 28." 15. The Get Data for Selected Entity Set dialog box appears. Type the text PTORQ=100/(W_HEX*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) in the Selection text box and click on Accept. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Get Scalar Data. Enter "maxyval" for the name of the parameter to be defined. 9. 35. © SAS IP. 16.L_HANDLE for Min. 20. 21. 31. 22. Click on Apply. 13. In the second drop down menu. and click on Apply. In the scroll box on the left. 8. 001972 . Enter L_HANDLE+TOL. Enter BENDRAD. Click on Apply. In the second drop down menu. 33. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. Max. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. Click on OK. and click on Apply. 27. 36. Enter PTORQ for Load PRES value and click on OK. all" radio button to select it. select "Nodes. In the scroll box on the left. In the top drop down menu. select "By Location. The Apply PRES on Nodes dialog box appears. scroll to "For selected set" and select it. 12. 32. click once on "Max Y coordinate" to select it." 11.1 . Click on the "Areas. 26. ANSYS Release 8. Click on the "Y coordinates" radio button to select it. click once on "Current node set" to select it. Max. 14. Inc. Click on OK again to select the default settings. Click on the "From Full" radio button to select it. select "Attached to. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears. 37. click once on "Min Y coordinate" to select it. scroll to "Model Data" and select it.W_FLAT for Min. 7. Click on OK. 18. 23." Click on the "Y coordinates" radio button to select it. 29. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes. click once on "Current node set" to select it. 17. Click on the "Reselect" radio button. Click on Close.

Type the text PDOWN=20/(W_FLAT*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) in the Selection text box and click on Accept. Max. 40. In the second drop down menu." Click on the "Z coordinates" radio button to select it. 001972 . Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. 3. In the top drop down menu. 20. Write the First Load Step 1.20. 16. 22. © SAS IP.L_HANDLE-(3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) 39. representing 20N (4.4. Enter L_HANDLE+TOL. 8. The Apply PRES on Nodes dialog box appears. 9. 11. In the top drop down menu. In the second drop down menu. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File. 6." 13. select "Nodes. select "By Location.0*L_ELEM)-TOL for Min. all radio button to select it. 2–21 . 2. 3. ANSYS Release 8. 5. Click on Close. Define Downward Pressure In this step. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. 2. 7. select "Attached to. Click on the "From Full" radio button to select it. Inc. The Write Load Step File dialog appears. 4.4. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears. and click on Apply. 19." 15. 14. select "Areas. Enter PDOWN for Load PRES value and click on OK.3. Click on OK. Click on OK.19. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. The Select Entities dialog appears. 23. Structural Analysis Guide . select "By Location.Section 2. 21. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes. 17. Click on the "Y coordinates" radio button to select it. 18. Click on the "Reselect" radio button. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes. Click on Apply. you define the downward pressure on top of the handle. Enter -(L_SHANK+(W_HEX/2)) for Min. 10. 2. 2. Enter 1 for load step file number n.3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. Click on Pick All." 12. Click on the Areas. Max.5 lb) of force." In the second drop down menu.1 . 1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes.

and click on OK. 2. The Angle of Rotation dialog box appears. 11.3. The Write Load Step File dialog box appears. 14. Click on OK.4. 5. Click on OK to accept the default of All Items." In the scroll box on the right. © SAS IP. 2. Enter 1 for Starting LS file number. 19. select "Edge Only/All. and click on OK. The Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears. Click on OK. Read First Load Step and Review Results 1.21. click on "Intensity SINT. 10. Inc. 12. and click on OK.3.23. 2. Review the information in the status window. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu. . Click on the Close button after the Solution is done! window appears. The Symbols dialog box appears. Write Second Load Step 1.Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. 6. 2. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar." 21. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. Click on the "Def + undeformed" radio button and click on OK. In the Axis of rotation drop down menu. 2–22 Structural Analysis Guide . and click on Close. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Edge Options. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Angle of Rotation. 4. click on "Stress.1 . 3.gsa" in the Selection box. The Solve Load Step Files dialog box appears. 8. In the scroll box on the left. Type "pldisp. 20. Enter 2 for Ending LS file number.3.4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols. The Edge Options dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Save Plot Ctrls. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files. 15.22. ANSYS Release 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set. Click on the "None" radio button for Boundary condition symbol. Enter 2 for Load step file number n. The List Reaction Solution dialog box appears. In the Relative/absolute drop down menu. and click on OK. 001972 . Enter 120 for Angle in degrees. 16. 9. 7.4." 18. 3. select "Global Cartes Y." Click on OK. select "Relative angle. Solve from Load Step Files 1. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File." 17. In the Element outlines for non-contour/contour plots drop down menu. 13. The Save Plot Controls dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape. 4.

The Hidden-Line Options dialog box appears.067 for X. Review the information in the status window. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. Zoom in on Cross-Section 1.26. 9.No Save! Structural Analysis Guide . 6. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Next Set. scroll to "Intensity SINT" and select it. 8.4.24. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Restore Plot Ctrls." In the drop down menu for Cutting plane is. 12. On the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box. 2. select "Working plane. Click on "WP. click on "Stress. 8. In the drop down menu for Type of Plot.25. Exit ANSYS 1. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Save Plot Ctrls.-0.3. 3. Y." Click on OK. click on the large round dot several times to zoom in on the cross section. Choose QUIT from the ANSYS Toolbar.0. 3. 4. 2. Choose menu path Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Offset WP by Increments. 11. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Restore Plot Ctrls. Click on OK.Section 2. The Pan-Zoom-Rotate tool box appears. 2–23 . and click on Close. Read the Next Load Step and Review Results 1. 2. The Save Plot Controls dialog box appears. Choose Quit . 7. 10.4. select "Capped hidden. 2. Click on the "Def + undeformed" radio button if it is not already selected and click on OK. The Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears.3. 10. 23. 7. © SAS IP. The Offset WP tool box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. The List Reaction Solution dialog box appears. Type "plnsol." Drag the Rate slider bar to 10. 2. In the scroll box on the left.gsa" in the Selection box.4: A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) 22. 001972 ." In the scroll box on the right. Z Offsets and click on OK.4.gsa" in the Selection box. Type "plnsol. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan-Zoom-Rotate. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Hidden Line Options. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu. Inc. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape.3. 4. 5.gsa" in the Selection box. Click on OK to accept the default of All Items. 9.1 . and click on OK. and click on OK. Enter 0. ANSYS Release 8. 13. Type "pldisp. and click on OK.

07E11 ! Young's modulus (2..1 .1 SAVE ! Save database before meshing AMESH..L_ELEM ! VDRAG. A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example static analysis of an Allen wrench using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices.30 in) NO_D_HEX=2 ! Number of divisions on hex flat TOL=25E-6 ! Tolerance for selecting nodes (25e-6 m = .001 in) /PREP7 ET. /FILNAME.01m=.1.7 ! Keypoint at (0.pm02! Jobname to use for all subsequent files /TITLE.2D ! Mapped quad mesh MSHKEY.8. for batch ! run plots are written to pm02.2m=7.NO_D_HEX ! Number of divisions along line 1 LESIZE.1.0.9 in) BENDRAD=.Static analysis of an Allen wrench /UNITS.-L_SHANK ! Keypoint at shank-handle intersection K.BOTAREA.1. Click on OK.2.SOLID45 ! Eight-node brick element ET...1.BOTAREA ! Type pointer set to SOLID45 Element size Drag operation to create 3-D mesh Precise hidden line display Select BOTAREA component and 2–24 Structural Analysis Guide .2 ! PLANE42 elements to be meshed first MSHAPE. Items prefaced with an exclamation point (!) are comments.XM ! Rotates model 90 degrees about X /PNUM.3.6.1 ! Isometric view in window 1 /ANGLE. 2.NO_D_HEX LESIZE. .1.PLANE42 ! Four-node quadrilateral (for area mesh) MP.2.7.0in) L_HANDLE=.0) K..9 ! Line along handle LFILLT.39in) *AFUN.9..Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis 3.9 ! /TYPE.8.6.1 ! Line through middle of hex shape L.-L_SHANK ! Keypoint at end of handle L..01 ! Width of hex across flats (. Inc..5.1.SI ! Reminder that the SI system of units is used /SHOW ! Specify graphics driver for interactive run.7.W_FLAT ! Hexagonal area K...1 ! Line numbers turned on LPLOT /PNUM.DEG ! Units for angular parametric functions W_FLAT=W_HEX*TAN(30) ! Width of flat L_SHANK=.NO_D_HEX TYPE.0.07E11 Pa = 30E6 psi) W_HEX=..2.90.8..9.1 ! ESIZE.LINE.AREA ! Component name BOTAREA for the two areas ! Generate area mesh for later drag LESIZE.EX.0075 ! Element length (.0 ! Line numbers off L.0.Meshed hex wrench EPLOT CMSEL.075 ! Length of shank (short end) (.BENDRAD ! Line along bend radius between shank and handle /VIEW...2 ! Length of handle (long end) (.1.075m=3.KEEP ! to satisfy mapped meshing requirements for bricks CM.PRXY..L_HANDLE.1.3 ! Poisson's ratio for material 1 RPOLY.. 001972 .39 in) L_ELEM=.EXX ! Young's modulus for material 1 MP. © SAS IP.4 ! Hex section is cut into two quadrilaterals ASBL..Meshed hex wrench end to be used in vdrag EPLOT ! Now drag the 2-D mesh to produce 3-D elements TYPE.0075 m = .10.HIDP ! /TITLE.grph ! Define parameters for future use EXX=2.01m=.01 ! Bend radius of Allen wrench (... ANSYS Release 8.8 ! Line along middle of shank L.8.4.LINE.ALL /TITLE.

.ALL ! Displacement constraints LSEL.Boundary conditions on end of wrench NPLOT !Now apply pressure on handle to represent 100-N (22.PDOWN ! PDOWN pressure at all selected nodes ALLSEL /TITLE.R.PRES.1 .BENDRAD.1 ! Reads load step 1 results PRRSOL ! Reaction solution listing /PBC.and all corresponding nodes NSEL. representing 20-N (4.NODE..2 ! Pressure symbols turned on /TITLE..pldisp..STATIC ! Static analysis (default) /TITLE.W_FLAT ! Two areas on one side of handle. 2–25 .S.ALL.YM.1...0*L_ELEM)-TOL ! Reselects nodes at ! back end of handle (3 element lengths) *GET.load step 2 ! Downward pressure on top of handle.ON ! Turns on entire legend column /PLOPTS.ALL FINISH ! delete the 2-D elements ! Apply loads and obtain the solution /SOLU ANTYPE.MNLOC.Y ! Get minimum Y value of selected nodes *GET.ALL.LEG1..U...L_HANDLE+TOL.ALL /PBC. NSLA. © SAS IP.Deformed allen wrench caused by torque PLDISP.L_HANDLE-(3.Stress intensity contours caused by torque PLNSOL.Allen wrench -.Y.NODE..5-lb) finger force ASEL..R.1 ! Nodes on those lines D.Boundary conditions on wrench for load step 1 NPLOT LSWRITE ! Writes first load step /TITLE.Y.2 ! Initiates solution for load step files 1 and 2 FINISH !Review the results /POST1 SET.Load step 1 ! First fix all nodes around bottom of shank CMSEL. 001972 .LOC.L_HANDLE-(3.Section 2.gsav /PLOPTS..L_HANDLE ! Areas on handle ASEL.1 ! .5: A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method) ACLEAR. Allen wrench -.Z.INT ! Stress intensity contours Structural Analysis Guide .MXLOC.OFF ! Turns off legend header /ANGLE.W_FLAT/2.gsav ! Saves graphics specifications on pldisp.LOC.R..PTORQ ! PTORQ pressure on all selected nodes ALLSEL ! Restores full set of all entities /PSF.-(L_SHANK+(W_HEX/2)) ! Area on top flat of handle.BOTAREA ! Bottom areas of shank LSEL.LOC.MAXYVAL.MINYVAL.X..0*L_ELEM)-TOL ! Reselects nodes at ! back end of handle (3 element lengths) SF.1 ! Additional rotation about model Y (to see high stress areas) /TITLE.INFO.LOC..DEFA ! No BC symbols /PSF. NSLA...2 ! Deformed shape overlaid with undeformed edge plot /GSAVE.1 ! Edges only.EXT ! Exterior lines of those areas NSLL.ALL. Inc.Y. no interior element outlines /TITLE.Boundary conditions on wrench for load step 2 NPLOT LSWRITE ! Writes second load step SAVE ! Save database before solution LSSOLVE.Y ! Get maximum Y value of selected nodes PTORQ=100/(W_HEX*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) ! Pressure equivalent to 100 N SF.5 -lb) force PDOWN=20/(W_FLAT*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) ASEL..DEFA ! No surface load symbols /EDGE.PRES..PRES.and all corresponding nodes NSEL..ALL ASEL..LOC.L_HANDLE+TOL. ANSYS Release 8.1 ! Displacement symbols turned on /TITLE.120.1 ! .

plnsol.Friction on a Support Block VM31 .Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends VM135 . 1 .Bending of a Solid Beam VM18 . The ANSYS Verification Manual includes the following structural static analysis test cases: VM1 .Lateral Vibration of an Axially Loaded Bar VM63 .Cross section of the allen wrench under torque and force loading PLNSOL.INT WPOF.Bending of a Circular Plate with a Center Hole VM41 .ALL 2.gsav ! Resumes graphics specifications from plnsol.INT FINISH /EXIT.Out-of-plane Bending of a Curved Bar VM20 .gsav ! Saves graphics specifications to plnsol.Beam Stresses and Deflections VM4 . The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS family of products.067 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view /TYPE.Simply Supported Laminated Plate Under Pressure VM127 .1. However.pldisp.2 ! Reads load step 2 results PRRSOL ! Reaction solution listing /GRESUME.. Inc. ANSYS Release 8. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual and the ANSYS Tutorials.Static Hertz Contact Problem VM78 .WP ! View will be normal to the WP /DIST. © SAS IP.Small Deflection of a Rigid Beam VM44 .01 ! Zoom in on the cross section /TITLE. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. describe additional structural static analyses.plnsol.Bending of a Beam on an Elastic Foundation VM141 .Stresses in a Long Cylinder VM29 .1. the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.Statically Indeterminate Reaction Force Analysis VM2 . 001972 .1 ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP /VIEW.Bending of an Axisymmetric Thin Pipe Under Gravity Loading VM53 .Bending of a Parabolic Beam VM183 . Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.6.Combined Bending and Torsion VM13 ..Diametric Compression of a Disk VM148 .Cylindrical Shell Under Pressure VM16 .gsav ! Resumes graphics specifications from pldisp.Deformed allen wrench caused by torque and force PLDISP.gsav SET.1 .Chapter 2: Structural Static Analysis /GSAVE.Vibration of a String Under Tension VM59 .5 ! Capped hidden display /CPLANE.2 /GRESUME.Deflection of a Hinged Support VM11 .Residual Stress Problem VM12 .Stress intensity contours caused by torque and force PLNSOL. .S.Limit Moment Analysis VM39 .Transverse Shear Stresses in a Cantilever Beam VM82 .Cylindrical Membrane Under Pressure VM25 . While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.gsav /TITLE.gsav /TITLE.Harmonic Response of a Spring-Mass System 2–26 Structural Analysis Guide ..S.Cable Supporting Hanging Loads VM36 .-0.

Stranded Coil with Voltage Excitation VM211 .6: Where to Find Other Examples VM199 .Lateral Buckling of a Right-Angle Frame Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8.Rubber Cylinder Pressed Between Two Plates VM216 .Viscoplastic Analysis of a Body Undergoing Shear Deformation VM201 . 001972 .1 . © SAS IP. Inc. 2–27 .Rubber Cylinder Pressed Between Two Plates VM206 .Section 2.

2–28 .

PowerDynamics. You must define both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) for a modal analysis. Inc. Build the model. 3. You can do modal analysis on a prestressed structure.1. are ignored even if they are defined. Details about mode-extraction methods are covered later in this section. and so on). which allows you to review the mode shapes of a cyclically symmetric structure by modeling just a sector of it. 2. 3.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. ANSYS Release 8. remember these points: • Only linear behavior is valid in a modal analysis. dynamic analysis. COMBIN14. When building your model. It also can be a starting point for another. If applying element damping.2.4. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. you must define the required real constants for the specific element type (COMBIN7. Overview of Steps in a Modal Analysis The procedure for a modal analysis consists of four main steps: 1. Modal analysis in the ANSYS family of products is a linear analysis. Nonlinear properties are ignored. their stiffnesses are calculated based on their initial status and never change. such as a transient dynamic analysis. 4. Another useful feature is modal cyclic symmetry. 3. © SAS IP. Material properties can be linear. and constant or temperature-dependent. a harmonic response analysis. Structural Analysis Guide . reduced. COMBIN37. • . such as a spinning turbine blade. they are treated as linear. 3.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 3. They are also required if you want to do a spectrum analysis or a mode superposition harmonic or transient analysis. 001972 . subspace. damped. unsymmetric. such as plasticity and contact (gap) elements.3. Review the results. more detailed. Definition of Modal Analysis You use modal analysis to determine the vibration characteristics (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of a structure or a machine component while it is being designed. You can choose from several mode-extraction methods: Block Lanczos (default). Apply loads and obtain the solution. The damped and QR damped methods allow you to include damping in the structure. If you specify nonlinear elements. Any nonlinearities. Expand the modes. Build the Model See Section 1. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are important parameters in the design of a structure for dynamic loading conditions.1 . and QR damped. isotropic or orthotropic. Uses for Modal Analysis You use modal analysis to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. For further details. or a spectrum analysis. if you include contact elements. For example.

DDAM). For details. 3.1. Inc. apply loads.1. © SAS IP.1: “Analysis Types and Options” for a modal analysis. of Modes to Expand (see Note below) MXPAND Note — When you specify a modal analysis. 001972 . a Solution menu that is appropriate for modal analyses appears. Note — In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT. ANSYS Release 8.SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT. Enter the Solution Processor 1.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 3. specify load step options. but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis). see Section 3.” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session.1 Analysis Types and Options Option New Analysis Analysis Type: Modal (see Note below) mode-extraction Method Number of Modes to Extract Mass Matrix Formulation Prestress Effects Calculation Command ANTYPE ANTYPE MODOPT MODOPT LUMPM PSTRES GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Modal Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options No.1 .2. . 3–2 Structural Analysis Guide . The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution In this step you define the analysis type and options. do a new analysis each time (or use the "partial solution" procedure described in Chapter 3. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is. Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] Choose New Analysis. “Solution” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). choose NO for mode expansion (MXPAND) on the dialog box for the modal analysis options (MODOPT). Define Analysis Type and Options After you have entered the solution processor. based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command.1: Using Abridged Solution Menus in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis. you define the analysis type and analysis options.5. ANSYS offers the options listed in Table 3. the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis. 3. Table 3. Each of the options is explained in detail below. If you need to apply different sets of boundary conditions. Note — Restarts are not valid in a modal analysis. solution options that are valid for you to use. select the Unabridged Menu option.5.11.2. and begin the finite element solution for the natural frequencies.5. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution 3. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for modal analyses.5. Enter the ANSYS solution processor.

Option: Mode-Extraction Method [MODOPT] Choose one of the extraction methods listed below. ANSYS Release 8.PCG. reduced. You can use this method for the same types of problems for which you use the subspace method.) • Block Lanczos method (default) The Block Lanczos method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems. For most applications. see Section 3. subspace. overriding any solver specified via the EQSLV command. The unsymmetric. When you specify a mode-extraction method. 3. but it is very slow.2.2. such as fluid-structure interaction problems.13: Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods.ON) To use the PowerDynamics method when running in batch or command mode.000+ DOFs). • PowerDynamics method The PowerDynamics method is used for very large models (100. Inc. but you achieve a faster convergence rate. This method automatically uses the lumped mass approximation (LUMPM. 001972 . use the subspace method with the frontal solver instead of the JCG solver. (The PCGOUT solver can also be used.SUBSPACE. When doing a modal analysis with a large number of constraint equations.13: Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods.) • Reduced (Householder) method The reduced method is faster than the subspace method because it uses reduced (condensed) system matrices to calculate the solution. you first issue MODOPT. you will use the Block Lanczos. You can then choose the most appropriate extraction method (subspace or Block Lanczos) for running the final solution. damped. The Block Lanczos method uses the sparse matrix solver. Several solution controls are available to control the subspace iteration process. followed by EQSLV. • QR Damped method The QR damped method is faster and achieves better calculation efficiency than the damped method. ANSYS automatically chooses the appropriate equation solver. It uses the reduced modal damped matrix to calculate complex damped frequencies in modal coordinates. or PowerDynamics method. and QR damped methods are meant for special applications. such as bearing problems. it is less accurate because the reduced mass matrix is approximate.2. Structural Analysis Guide . (See Section 3. Option: Analysis Type: Modal [ANTYPE] Use this option to specify a modal analysis.5: Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution 3. and is especially useful to obtain a solution for the first several modes to learn how the model will behave. or use the Block Lanczos mode-extraction method.5. • Damped method The damped method is used for problems where damping cannot be ignored.1 .) • Unsymmetric method The unsymmetric method is used for problems with unsymmetric matrices. 3–3 .3.5. © SAS IP. • Subspace method The subspace method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems. (For more detailed information. However.Section 3.

If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis. click OK. the lumped mass setting [LUMPM] in this and subsequent solutions must be the same as it was in the prestress static analysis. 3. 3.5. the lumped mass approximation often yields better results. You see some combination of the following fields: FREQB. 3. for some problems involving "skinny" structures such as slender beams or very thin shells.5. SUBOPT. Also.2. 3. Inc. We recommend the default formulation for most applications. FREQE.3. unsymmetric. Option: Prestress Effects Calculation [PSTRES] Use this option to calculate the modes of a prestressed structure. You should choose at least twice as many MDOF as the number of modes of interest. . the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter run time and lower memory requirements.6.SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT. 3. By default.4. but results in more solution time. and QR damped methods are not available in the ANSYS Professional program. Note — You can use only axisymmetric loads for prestressing harmonic elements such as PLANE25 and SHELL61. However.5. regardless of the mode-extraction method. the structure is assumed to be stress-free. you also need to define master degrees of freedom.2. PRMODE. These are required only for the reduced mode-extraction method. Define Master Degrees of Freedom In a modal analysis.1 .2.7. We recommend that you define as many MDOF as you can based on your knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of the 3–4 Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 3: Modal Analysis Note — The damped. Master degrees of freedom (MDOF) are significant degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure. Refer to the MODOPT and RIGID command descriptions for the meaning of these fields. To include prestress effects. If prestress effects are turned on. 001972 . Option: Number of Modes to Expand [MXPAND] This option is required for the reduced.5.2.5.DDAM).2.5. and damped methods only. you need to turn on the "Calculate elem results" option. Option: Number of Modes to Extract [MODOPT] This option is required for all mode-extraction methods except the reduced method. Nrmkey. ANSYS Release 8. In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT. However. you will need to expand the modes as well. see Section 3. no prestress effects are included. if you want element results. unsymmetric. choose NO for mode expansion (MXPAND) on the dialog box for the modal analysis options (MODOPT). A dialog box specific to the selected extraction method appears. the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis. If you want the mode shapes normalized to unity for the Block Lanczos or subspace methods.5. that is. element files from a previous static (or transient) analysis must be available. based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command.8. © SAS IP. Additional Modal Analysis Options After you complete the fields on the Modal Analysis Options dialog box. RIGID. Option: Mass Matrix Formulation [LUMPM] Use this option to specify the default formulation (which is element-dependent) or lumped mass approximation. 3.11: Prestressed Modal Analysis. For the unsymmetric and damped methods. requesting a larger number of modes than necessary reduces the possibility of missed modes.

the program will calculate a load vector and write it to the mode shape file (Jobname. Notice that you can apply them either on the solid model (keypoints. ROTZ) In an analysis. The only "loads" valid in a typical modal analysis are zero-value displacement constraints. see Section 3. 3–5 . © SAS IP.forces. 3. and delete extraneous MDOF [MDELE]. then the load type (displacement. ROTX. and so on).1.can be specified in a modal analysis. see Section 3. Table 3. but are ignored (see Note below).5. accelerations. Structural Analysis Guide . Constraints D ROTY.2.MGEN].2 Loads Applicable in a Modal Analysis Load Type Category Cmd Family GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement Displacement (UX. the program calculates rigid-body (zero-frequency) as well as higher (nonzero frequency) free body modes. Table 3.4. Inc.4. temperatures. and so on). UY.3 Load Commands for a Modal Analysis Load Type Displacement Solid Model or FE Solid Model Solid Model Solid Model Finite Elem Entity Keypoints Lines Areas Nodes Apply DK DL DA D Delete DKDELE DLDELE DADELE DDELE List DKLIST DLLIST DALIST DLIST Operate DTRAN DTRAN DTRAN DSCALE Apply Settings DSYM. and so on .5.1 .4. ANSYS Release 8.14: Matrix Reduction. and then the object to which you are applying the load (keypoint. You can list the defined MDOF [MLIST]. node.3: Listing Loads) are accessed through a series of cascading menus. delete. force. and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements).5. For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite-element loads. lines.) Other loads can be specified. Applying Loads Using the GUI All loading operations (except List. However. pressures. DCUM 3. and also let the program choose a few additional masters based on stiffness-to-mass ratios [TOTAL]. From the Solution menu.Section 3. but they are ignored for the mode-extraction. or listed. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.MODE) so that it can be used in a subsequent modesuperposition harmonic or transient analysis. For directions in which no constraints are specified.4. operated on. Note — Other loads . apply loads on the model. see Chapter 2. line. Apply Loads After defining master degrees of freedom. Applying Loads Using Commands Table 3. removed. 001972 . loads can be applied. Command(s): M GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define 3. UZ. (If you input a nonzero displacement constraint.5.2: “Loads Applicable in a Modal Analysis” shows the commands to apply displacement constraints. the program assigns a zero-value constraint to that DOF instead. and so on). Table 3. you select the operation (apply.3: “Load Commands for a Modal Analysis” lists all the commands you can use to apply loads in a modal analysis. For more details about master degrees of freedom.5: Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution structure [M.

3: Damping in Chapter 5. © SAS IP. If you include damping and specify the damped mode-extraction method.DMPR Command Element Damping (applied via element real constant) R Damping is valid only for the damped and QR damped mode-extraction methods. which is then used to calculate the response to the spectrum. The QR damped eigen analysis itself. it is used to calculate an effective damping ratio for each mode.13: Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods for details. Participation Factor Table Output The participation factor table lists participation factors.4 Load Step Options Option Damping (Dynamics) Options Alpha (mass) Damping Beta (stiffness) Damping Material-Dependent Damping Ratio Constant Material Damping Coefficient ALPHAD BETAD MP. .5. “Spectrum Analysis”. 3. does not include the effect of the constant material damping coefficient. 3–6 Structural Analysis Guide . Spectrum analyses are discussed in Chapter 6. the calculated eigenvalues and eigenvectors are complex. follow this GUI path: GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On lines 3. Note — Damping can be specified in a non-damped modal analysis if a single-point response spectrum analysis is to follow the modal analysis. Also see the section Section 5. Specify Load Step Options The only load step options available for a modal analysis are damping options. The participation factors and mode coefficients are calculated based on an assumed unit displacement spectrum in each of the global Cartesian directions and rotation about each of these axes. Table 3. the eigenvalues are complex. to apply a displacement load to a line.DAMP MP.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis For example. see the Note below. Inc. The corresponding modal damping matrix is formulated during modal harmonic analysis. Only the QR damped method supports the constant material damping coefficient application in a downstream mode superposition harmonic analysis. the real eigenvectors are used for the mode superposition analysis. Although the damping does not affect the eigenvalue solution. however. and mass distribution percentages for each mode extracted. “Transient Dynamic Analysis” for more information on damping.6. Listing Loads To list existing loads. If you include damping and specify the QR damped mode-extraction method. 001972 . ANSYS Release 8. However.1 . follow this GUI path: GUI: Utility Menu> List>Loads> load type 3. Damping is ignored for the other mode-extraction methods.4.5.5. mode coefficients.5.3.10. See Section 3.

There are two methods that you can use to investigate the missed mode: use more iteration vectors. The factor or coefficient is valid for the excitation (assumed unit displacement spectrum) directed along the last of the applicable coordinates (rotation about the Z axis for a 3-D analysis). so you cannot postprocess the results yet. Theory Reference for more information. Change the value of the NPAD field and click OK.FREQB command.1." where n and m are integer numbers.5: Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution The reduced mass distribution is also listed. (See the ANSYS. then click OK. you need to expand the modes (explained next). Output The output from the solution consists mainly of the natural frequencies. © SAS IP. The printed output may include reduced mode shapes and the participation factor table. then click OK.) To use more iteration vectors. If you prefer to use the GUI to adjust the number of iteration vectors. If you prefer to use the GUI to change the shift point. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 3. You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME. Note — You can retrieve a participation factor or mode coefficient by issuing a *GET command. Inc.MODE). Choose “Subspace” as the mode-extraction method and specify the number of modes to extract. Structural Analysis Guide .7. then issue another *GET command. 2..5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. To change the shift point that was used in the eigenvalue extraction. or that the mthand nth mode gave the same frequencies and only m modes were requested.NPAD command. 2. This indicates that a mode has been missed.OUT) and also written to the mode shape file (Jobname. 3–7 .. perform a spectrum analysis with the excitation set (SED) to the desired direction. ANSYS Release 8.1. To do this.5. you can issue the SUBOPT. 3. The Subspace Modal Analysis dialog box appears. Solve Before you solve. Output From Subspace Mode-Extraction Method If you use the subspace mode-extraction method. follow these steps: 1. The Modal Analysis dialog box appears. follow these steps: 1. No mode shapes are written to the database or to the results file. you should save (SAVE) a back-up copy of the database to a named file. depending on your analysis options and output controls.7. To retrieve a participation factor or mode coefficient for another direction. you might see the following warning in the solution printout: "STURM number = n should be m. 3. or QRDAMP) is used.5. subspace.1. or change the shift point used in the eigenvalue extraction.. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. Inc. 001972 .7. Now start the solution calculations. which are printed as part of the printed output (Jobname.1 . Rotational participation factors will be calculated when a real eigensolver mode-extraction method (such as Block Lanczos. Choose “Subspace” as the mode-extraction method and specify the number of modes to extract. you can issue the MODOPT. The Subspace Modal Analysis dialog box appears. 3. Both methods are briefly described below. The Modal Analysis dialog box appears.Section 3.

Exit the Solution Processor You must now exit the solution processor. we use the term "expansion" to mean writing mode shapes to the results file. The imaginary part of the eigenvalue represents the natural frequency. the real eigenvectors are used for the mode superposition analysis. Thus. ANSYS offers these options for the expansion pass: Table 3. Expand the Modes In its strictest sense. the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis. Inc.6. the eigenvalues are complex.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis 3. 001972 . if you want to review mode shapes in the postprocessor.6. Jobname. In a modal analysis. Change the value of the FREQB field and click OK. That is. The database must contain the same model for which the modal solution was calculated. 2. however. However. the term "expansion" means expanding the reduced solution to the full DOF set.MODE). the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are complex. of Modes to Expand MXPAND 3–8 Structural Analysis Guide . 3.ESAV. based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command. you must expand them (that is. and the real part is a measure of the stability of the system.5. "expanding the modes" applies not just to reduced mode shapes from the reduced mode-extraction method. 3. In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT. .1. Expanded modes are also required for subsequent spectrum analyses. If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method. No expansion is necessary for subsequent mode superposition analyses. Points to Remember • • The mode shape file (Jobname. The "reduced solution" is usually in terms of master DOF. If you use the damped mode-extraction method. ANSYS Release 8. Reenter the ANSYS solution processor. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Note — You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass. and Jobname. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis. © SAS IP.SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT. Expanding the Modes 1.1 . choose NO for mode expansion (MXPAND) on the dialog box for the modal analysis options (MODOPT). but to full mode shapes from the other mode-extraction methods as well.8.EMAT. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Main Menu> Finish 3. 3.TRI (if reduced method) must be available. Activate the expansion pass and its options.DDAM).2. write them to the results file).5 Expansion Pass Options Option Expansion Pass On/Off Command EXPASS GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes No. Jobname.6.

Expansion Pass On/Off [EXPASS] Choose ON. Default is no modes expanded. and 4 for additional modes to be expanded (in different frequency ranges. you cannot write information for every other mode. Range for Expansion MXPAND Stress Calc. Stress Calculations On/Off [MXPAND. Default is no stresses calculated. only modes within that range are expanded.RST). "Stresses" from a modal analysis do not represent actual stresses in the structure. Start expansion pass calculations. Number of Modes to Expand [MXPAND. The FREQ field on OUTRES can be only ALL or NONE. stresses. Frequency Range for Expansion [MXPAND. FREQB. FREQE] This is another way to control the number of modes expanded. 3. 001972 . The only options valid in a modal expansion pass are output controls: • Printed output Use this option to include any results data (expanded mode shapes. 3. Repeat steps 2. Each expansion pass is stored as a separate load step on the results file. and forces) on the printed output file (Jobname. relative stress distributions for each mode.OUT). Elcalc] Choose ON only if you plan to do a subsequent spectrum analysis and are interested in stresses or forces to do the spectrum. but give you an idea of the relative stress distributions for each mode. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 5.6: Expand the Modes Option Command GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes Freq. Remember that only expanded modes can be reviewed in the postprocessor. If you specify a frequency range. Specify load step options. On/Off MXPAND Each of these options is explained in detail below. ANSYS Release 8.. For example.1 . NMODE] Specify the number. Command(s): OUTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File 4.. 3–9 . for example). if requested. Structural Analysis Guide . Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout • Database and results file output Use this option to control the data on the results file (Jobname. © SAS IP. The output consists of expanded mode shapes and. that is. the data are written for all modes or no modes. Inc.Section 3...

Option: Listing All Frequencies You may want to list the frequencies of all modes expanded. Jobname.1 . Each mode is stored on the results file as a separate substep. the general postprocessor.7. ANSYS Release 8. if you include the MXPAND command in the modal solution step. Typical modal analysis POST1 operations are explained below: 2. based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command. Review the Results Results from a modal analysis (that is. the modal expansion pass) are written to the structural results file.RST. for instance. © SAS IP. 3.SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT. If you expand six modes. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions. Some typical postprocessing operations for a modal analysis are described below. ***** INDEX OF DATA SETS ON RESULTS FILE ***** SET TIME/FREQ LOAD STEP SUBSTEP CUMULATIVE 1 22. Results consist of: • • • Natural frequencies Expanded mode shapes Relative stress and force distributions (if requested). Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.973 1 1 1 2 40. Leave SOLUTION. Inc.1.SBSTEP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> substep Perform any desired POST1 operations. 6. see Chapter 4. choose NO for mode expansion (MXPAND) on the dialog box for the modal analysis options (MODOPT). but also expands the specified mode shapes. the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated. However.7. your results file will have one load step consisting of six substeps. 001972 .DDAM). A sample output from this command is shown below. In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT. You can now review results in the postprocessor.476 1 2 2 3–10 Structural Analysis Guide .7. The results file (Jobname. Command(s): SET. 3. “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.7. the program not only extracts the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Reviewing Results Data 1. Points to Remember • • If you want to review results in POST1. 3. Note — The expansion pass has been presented here as a separate step. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis.3. 3.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis Caution: Spectrum analyses expect all expanded modes to be in one load step. . You can review these results in POST1 [/POST1]. the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis.2. Read in results data from the appropriate substep.RST) must be available.

001972 .. Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Use the KUND field on PLDISP to overlay the nondeformed shape on the display. Option: List Master DOF Command(s): MLIST. See the ETABLE discussion in The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. Option: Line Element Results Command(s): ETABLE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table For line elements.ALL GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> List All Note — To display the master DOFs graphically. and so on). strains (EPELX.5. ESORT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> solution option Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Nodes Structural Analysis Guide . EPELZ.7. SY. plot the nodes (Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes or command NLIST). PLLS GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Element Table Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Line Elem Res Caution: Derived data.).6. such as stresses (SX. This averaging results in "smeared" values at nodes where elements of different materials. UZ...082 188. and so on before issuing PLNSOL. such as stresses and strains. UY.7. same shell thickness. use selecting (described in Chapter 7. or other discontinuities meet. 3.. and so on NSORT. different shell thicknesses.4. 3. The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the nondeformed shape on the display. To avoid the smearing effect. EPELY.7. Option: Tabular Listings Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data)..Section 3. and pipes.7. Inc. 3. such as beams. spars.7. strains.). are averaged at the nodes by the PLNSOL command. Results data are identified by a combination of a label and a sequence number or component name on the ETABLE command. “Selecting and Components” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) to select elements of the same material.7.LIST GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results 3.. © SAS IP. use the ETABLE command to access derived data (stresses.1 . Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use these options to contour almost any result item.). 3. SZ. ANSYS Release 8. You can also contour element table data and line element data: Command(s): PLETAB.34 1 1 3 4 3 4 Command(s): SET.8.7: Review the Results 3 4 78. 3–11 . and displacements (UX.

and its cross-sectional area is defined to be a straight line and a spline. TOTAL. Problem Sketch Figure 3.8. The wing is of uniform configuration along its length. MODOPT.3. and so on .3 Density = 8. ANSYS Release 8. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE. .9. SET. It is held fixed to the body on one end and hangs freely at the other. M. Problem Description This is a modal analysis of a wing of a model plane. A Sample Modal Analysis (GUI Method) In this example. Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions . 3. you perform a modal analysis on the wing of a model plane to demonstrate the wing's modal degrees of freedom. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details.8.3e-5 lb-sec2/in4 3.1 . as shown.are available in POST1. The objective of the problem is to demonstrate the wing's modal degrees of freedom. 3. and PLDISP commands.2.7. MXPAND.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Elems Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them. 3. Inc. 001972 . EXPASS.8.8. © SAS IP.mapping results onto a path.1.1 Diagram of a Model Airplane Wing 3–12 Structural Analysis Guide . 3. The wing is made of low density polyethylene with the following values: Young's modulus = 38x103 psi Poisson's ratio = . Problem Specifications The dimensions of the wing are shown in the problem sketch. load case combinations.

3.5E-1 SET.2.5E-1 SET..0 ANMODE.9.1.1 .0.ALL MXPAND.EX.FIRST PLDISP.10..SUBSP.Modal Analysis of a Model Airplane Wing /PREP7 ET.-1..5.3E-5 MP. The version of the problem that appears in the Modal Tutorial contains an explanation of the warnings.5E-1 Structural Analysis Guide .0 K.9.2 ESIZE.0 ANMODE.5E-1 SET.45.1 NSEL.0 ANMODE.DENS. Modal Analysis of a Model Airplane Wing.0..PLANE42 ! Define PLANE42 as element type ET.U.10.NEXT PLDISP...3.1 ! Create a straight line between BSPLIN.1 /REP EPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.SOLID45 ! Define SOLID45 as element type MP.1 /ANG.MODAL /TITLE. 3.ALL NSEL.25 ! Create a B-spline AL. /FILNAM.3.2.NEXT PLDISP..3.1.25 AMESH..2 SET.10.5 ESEL.9: A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method) The detailed step-by-step procedure for this example.5. Items prefaced with an exclamation point (!) are comments.45 ! Define keypoint 4 at 1.1.1 ESIZE.1..-1.3. 1 2 keypoints 1 and 2 keypoints 5 and 1 ! ! ! ! Choose modal analysis type Choose the subspace mode-extraction method..8..1.2 ! Create a straight line between LSTR..0 K.1 ! Define keypoint 1 at 0.2 ! Define keypoint 2 at 2.-.TYPE..0 ANMODE..10.3 K.1.25 ! Define keypoint 5 at 1.2.10 /VIEW. A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example modal analysis of a model airplane wing using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices.. Inc.Section 3.5E-1 SET.0 D.2.1.LIST..10. is included in the Modal Tutorial.4. You may receive warning messages when you run this problem..0 K.ALL.2 VEXT.10 TYPE. ANSYS Release 8. 001972 .Z.ALL..LOC..0 ANMODE.. extracting 5 modes Unselect element type 1 3–13 .5.MODAL MODOPT.NEXT PLDISP.NEXT PLDISP...38000 MP..1.0 K.NUXY.2.0 LSTR.1.5 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.9.4.S.25. © SAS IP..2 ! Define keypoint 3 at 2.

However.Natural Frequency of a Spring-mass System VM47 .Automobile Suspension System Vibrations VM53 .Seismic Response VM70 . Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.Vibration of a Rotating Cantilever Blade VM55 .Lateral Vibration of an Axially-loaded Bar VM60 .Nonaxisymmetric Vibration of a Stretched Circular Membrane (Harmonic Els) VM153 .Nonaxisymmetric Vibration of a Circular Plate VM152 . The ANSYS Verification Manual includes variety of modal analysis test cases: VM45 . . The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS family of products.Natural Frequency of a Cross-ply Laminated Spherical Shell VM61 .Vibration of a Stretched Circular Membrane VM57 .Torsional Frequencies of a Drill Pipe VM59 .Vibration of a Flat Plate VM67 .Natural Frequency of a Motor-generator VM50 . While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.Vibration of a Fluid Coupling VM175 .Seismic Response of a Beam Structure VM76 .Torsional Frequency of a Suspended Disk VM48 .Fundamental Frequency of a Simply Supported Beam VM52 . such as a spinning turbine blade.Longitudinal Vibration of a Free-free Rod VM62 .Harmonic Response of a Spring-mass System VM202 .Natural Frequencies of a Two-mass-spring System VM151 . most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. describe additional modal analyses. © SAS IP.10. ANSYS Release 8.Dynamic Load Effect on Simply-supported Thick Square Plate VM212 .11. Prestressed Modal Analysis Use a prestressed modal analysis to calculate the frequencies and mode shapes of a prestressed structure.Transverse Vibrations of a Shear Beam VM203 .Vibration of a String Under Tension VM54 . except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis: 3–14 Structural Analysis Guide . the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis FINISH /EXIT 3. Inc. The procedure to do a prestressed modal analysis is essentially the same as a regular modal analysis.Nonaxisymmetric Vibration of a Stretched Circular Membrane (Modal) VM154 .Natural Frequency of a Flat Circular Plate with a Clamped Edge VM182 .Natural Frequency of a Piezoelectric Transducer VM181 .1 .Harmonic Response of a Guitar String VM89 .Radial Vibrations of a Circular Ring from an Axisymmetric Model VM68 .Transient Response of a Spring-mass System VM183 .PSD Response of a Two DOF Spring-mass System VM69 . 001972 .Modal Analysis of a Rectangular Cavity 3.Vibration of a Wedge VM66 . particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual.

Inc. as shown in the sample input listing below. In such a case. Prestress must be applied (PSTRES.12: Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution 1.. Files Jobname.EMAT. SOLVE FINISH ! ! Prestressed modal analysis ! Structural Analysis Guide .STATIC ! Static analysis NLGEOM.ON ! Flag to calculate the prestress matrix . large deflection static analysis ! /PREP7 . in cases where stressstiffening helps convergence: • • Stress-stiffening (SSTIF. Expand the modes and review them in the postprocessor. include spin-softening effects (via the OMEGA command's KSPIN option) in the modal solution if necessary.ON) during the static portion of the analysis. If the deformed shape from the static solution differs significantly from its nondeformed shape. However.ON].) The EMATWRITE. ANSYS Release 8. If the model is spinning.ON ! Large deflection analysis PSTRES. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on [PSTRES.ON). 3.1 . (This requirement applies to elements outside of the 18x family of elements only. 3–15 . Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution You can also perform a prestressed modal analysis following a large deflection (NLGEOM. This procedure uses the element matrices and element load vectors (for example.OFF command prevents all previously specified prestressing from being applied.OFF or SSTIF. The same lumped mass setting [LUMPM] used here must also be used in the later prestress modal analysis.. Along with the PSOLVE command. Step 1 above can also be a transient analysis. 2. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. save the EMAT and ESAV files at the desired time point... from pressures. include spin-softening effects (via the OMEGA command's KSPIN option) if necessary. Chapter 2.ON) must be applied instead. 001972 . These loads will be passed through to a subsequent mode superposition analysis if specified (LVSCALE command).Section 3.ESAV from the static analysis must be available. also with prestress effects turned on (reissue PSTRES. Use the prestressed modal analysis procedure. ! Initial.YES command is also necessary to write the element matrices to File. temperature or acceleration loads) from a previous static analysis.ON) static analysis in order to calculate the frequencies and mode shapes of a highly deformed structure. but use the PSOLVE command (rather than the SOLVE command) to obtain the modal solution. you can perform a prestressed modal analysis of a large-deflection solution instead.EMAT (if ANSYS creates it) and Jobname. Issuing either a PSTRES. you must issue the UPCOORD command to update the coordinates necessary for obtaining the correct stresses. “Structural Static Analysis” describes the procedure to obtain a static solution. © SAS IP. Reenter SOLUTION and obtain the modal solution. If the model is spinning.12. 3.

) Note — The damped. Theory Reference for more information. Following the table is a brief description of each mode-extraction method. In such a case.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis /SOLU ANTYPE. Use EIGLANB or EIGFULL to match MODOPT command.) QR damped method (The QR damped method solves a different equation.ON PSTRES. 3–16 Structural Analysis Guide . and reduced) are the most commonly used. PSOLVE.1. MXPAND.ON MODOPT.EIGREDUC).. unsymmetric. subspace. see the ANSYS. !Additional solution step for expansion. Inc...6: “Symmetric System Eigensolver Choices” compares these four mode-extraction methods.ON PSOLVE. if desired. © SAS IP. Prestress effects ON Select eigensolver Specify the number of modes to expand.13. a PSOLVE. ! Expand the eigenvector solution.EIGxxx command. Inc.) Note — You may also use one of the other eigensolvers (PSOLVE. see the ANSYS.0. The first four methods (Block Lanczos. (Required if you ! want to review mode shapes in the postprocessor. PSOLVE. ANSYS Release 8.EIGSYM..MODAL UPCOORD. PSOLVE.. . 3.EIGxxxx FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.EIGDAMP or PSOLVE. ANSYS offers these methods: • • • • • • • Block Lanczos method (default) Subspace method PowerDynamics method Reduced (Householder) method Unsymmetric method Damped method (The damped method solves a different equation.EIGUNSY. Table 3. Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods The basic equation solved in a typical undamped modal analysis is the classical eigenvalue problem: [K ]{φ i} = ω2 [M]{φ i} i where: [K] = stiffness matrix {Φi} = mode shape vector (eigenvector) of mode i ω2 Ωi = natural circular frequency of mode i ( i is the eigenvalue) [M] = mass matrix Many numerical methods are available to solve the above equation. Calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Inc. and QR damped methods are not available in the ANSYS Professional program.TRIANG command must precede the PSOLVE. Theory Reference for more information.EIGEXP FINISH ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Display mode shapes relative to deformed geometry in the postprocessor.. PowerDynamics. 001972 .1 .

001972 . To find few modes (up to about 40) of large models. Can be used to find few modes (up to about 40) of large models with proper selection of master DOF. Reduced To find all modes of small to medium models (less than 10K DOF). Recommended for fast computation of eigenvalues of over 100K DOF models. Missed modes are possible when repeated frequencies are present.13.3. For the same reason.13. Therefore. use the subspace method with the frontal solver instead of the JCG solver. Works well if memory availability is limited. the subspace method is slower than the reduced method. overriding any solver specified via the EQSLV command. or if the matrix is ill-conditioned. This solver performs well when the model consists of shells or a combination of shells and solids. Block Lanczos Method The Block Lanczos eigenvalue solver is the default. 3–17 . but may not converge if the model contains poorly-shaped elements. The Block Lanczos method is especially powerful when searching for eigenfrequencies in a given part of the eigenvalue spectrum of a given system. ANSYS Release 8. but faster. which internally uses the generalized Jacobi iteration algorithm. It is highly accurate because it uses the full [K] and [M] matrices. When doing a modal analysis with a large number of constraint equations.6 Symmetric System Eigensolver Choices Eigensolver Block Lanczos Application Default. 3. High Low Low Low 3. © SAS IP. when you use a shift frequency (FREQB) to extract n modes beyond the starting value of FREQB. Recommended when the model consists of poorly shaped solid and shell elements. but accuracy of frequencies depends on the master DOF selected. however. This method may be significantly faster than either the subspace or the Block Lanczos methods.1 . Using the JCG solver when your analysis has many constraint equations could result in an internal element stiffness assembly that requires large amounts of memory.2. 3.13.13: Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods Table 3.000+ DOFs) to obtain a solution for the first few modes. On coarse mesh models. Do not use this method if you will be running a subsequent spectrum analysis. It uses the Lanczos algorithm where the Lanczos recursion is performed with a block of vectors. Works faster but requires about 50% more memory than subspace. Recommended when the model consists of well-shaped solid and shell elements. the frequencies are approximate.1. This method is as accurate as the subspace method. or use the Block Lanczos mode-extraction method. but uses the PCG iterative solver. Memory Required Medium Disk Required Low Subspace Low High Power Dynamics To find few modes (up to about 20) of large models. the algorithm extracts the n modes beyond FREQB at about the same speed as it extracts the lowest n modes. PowerDynamics Method The PowerDynamics method internally uses the subspace iterations. Structural Analysis Guide . This method is typically used in cases where high accuracy is required or where selecting master DOF is not practical. The convergence rate of the eigenfrequencies will be about the same when extracting modes in the midrange and higher end of the spectrum as when extracting the lowest modes. Subspace Method The subspace method uses the subspace iteration technique. To find many modes (about 40+) of large models. Inc. The Block Lanczos method uses the sparse matrix solver.Section 3. This method is especially useful in very large models (100.

13. as reported = σ/(2* π) 3. or stable. Therefore.Chapter 3: Modal Analysis The PowerDynamics method does not perform a Sturm sequence check (that is. the real component of the eigenvalue will be zero. negative σ gives an exponentially decreasing. response. which also uses the full [K] and [M] matrices. therefore. missed modes are a possibility at the higher end of the frequencies extracted. Reduced Method The reduced method uses the HBI algorithm (Householder-Bisection-Inverse iteration) to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Using master DOF leads to an exact [K] matrix but an approximate [M] matrix (usually with some loss in mass). This method always uses lumped mass approximation. Ω. . Therefore. and positive σ gives an exponentially increasing.) If there is no damping. At any given node. This gives the frequency in Hz (cycles/second). The real part of the eigenvalue represents the natural frequency and the imaginary part is a measure of the stability of the system . In other words: Imaginary part of eigenvalue.6. in other words. represents the steady-state circular frequency of the system.13. It uses full matrices ([K]. such as rotor dynamics applications. depends on how well [M] is approximated.4. 3. 001972 . is meant for problems where the stiffness and mass matrices are unsymmetric (for example. Unsymmetric Method The unsymmetric method. then the displacement amplitude will decay exponentially. © SAS IP.13. it does not check for missing modes). 3–18 Structural Analysis Guide . in accordance with EXP(σ).6. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvalue The imaginary part of the eigenvalue.6. It is relatively fast because it works with a small subset of degrees of freedom called master DOF. response. Note — If you use PowerDynamics to solve a model that includes rigid body modes. or unstable. whereas a positive value means the system is unstable. and the damping matrix [C]). Damped Method The damped method is meant for problems where damping cannot be ignored.1. ANSYS Release 8. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvector In a damped system. Sturm sequence checking is not available for this method. then the amplitude will increase exponentially. acoustic fluid-structure interaction problems). which in turn depends on the number and location of masters.a negative value means the system is stable. a shaft mounted on bearings). represents the stability of the system.2. [M]. The real part of the eigenvalue.13. the amplitude will be the vector sum of the real and imaginary components of the eigenvector. missed modes are a possibility at the higher end of the frequencies extracted. 3. Sturm sequence checking is not available for this method. Note — The eigenvalue results reported by ANSYS are actually divided by 2* π.14: Matrix Reduction presents guidelines to select master DOFs. be sure to issue the RIGID command or choose one of its GUI equivalents (Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options or Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Analysis Options). If σ is greater than zero.1 . 3. Section 3. Inc. as reported = Ω/(2* π) Real part of eigenvalue.13.5. σ. 3. It uses the Lanczos algorithm which calculates complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors if the system is non-conservative (for example. The accuracy of the results. If σ is less than zero. which might affect problems with multiple repeated frequencies. (Or. It uses the Lanczos algorithm and calculates complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors (as described below). the response at different nodes can be out of phase.

The net result is that the reduced stiffness matrix is exact. Because the accuracy of this method is dependent on the number of modes used in the calculations. The key assumption in this procedure is that for the lower frequencies. Inc. We recommend that you do both: choose a few masters yourself. The ANSYS program then calculates reduced matrices and the reduced DOF solution in terms of the master DOF. 3.14. Therefore. or you can have the program choose masters during solution using the TOTAL command. Theoretical Basis of Matrix Reduction The ANSYS program uses the Guyan Reduction procedure to calculate the reduced matrices. Theory Reference. whereas the reduced mass and damping matrices are approximate. 001972 .13.1. The following list summarizes the guidelines for selecting master DOF: • • The total number of master DOF should be at least twice the number of modes of interest.14. the program can pick up any modes that you may have missed.1 . You choose the "dynamic" portion by identifying key degrees of freedom. Inc. For a given problem. refer to the ANSYS. 3–19 .Section 3. especially for highly damped systems to provide good results. © SAS IP.1.1. You can then expand the solution to the full DOF set by performing an expansion pass. a smaller eigenvalue problem is then solved in the modal subspace. The accuracy of the reduced mass matrix (and hence the accuracy of the solution) depends on the number and location of masters. Choose master DOF in directions in which you expect the structure or component to vibrate. Using the QR algorithm. For a flat plate. This method is not recommended for critically damped or overdamped systems. The key concept is to approximately represent the first few complex damped eigenvalues by a linear combination of a small number of eigenvectors of the undamped system. The main advantage of this procedure is the savings in CPU time to obtain the reduced solution. Guidelines for Selecting Master DOF Choosing master DOF is an important step in a reduced analysis.14: Matrix Reduction 3. You can choose masters using M and MGEN commands. It is mainly used in dynamic analyses such as modal. harmonic.14. and also have the ANSYS program choose masters. This method outputs both the real and imaginary eigenvalues (frequencies). a sufficient number of fundamental modes are recommended. Matrix Reduction Matrix reduction is a way to reduce the size of the matrices of a model and perform a quicker and cheaper analysis. 3. that characterize the dynamic behavior of the model. the total mass of the structure is apportioned among only the master DOF. QR Damped Method The QR damped method combines the advantages of the Block Lanczos method with the complex Hessenberg method. 3. This approach gives good results for lightly damped systems and can also be applicable to any arbitrary damping type (proportional or non-proportional symmetric damping or unsymmetric gyroscopic damping matrix). you can choose many different sets of master DOF and will probably obtain acceptable results in all cases. called master degrees of freedom. ANSYS Release 8. After the undamped mode shapes are evaluated by using the real eigensolution (Block Lanczos method).7. This way. Matrix reduction is also used in substructure analyses to generate a superelement. as you would for a static stress analysis. for example. and transient analyses. and use only a "dynamic" portion of it for a dynamic analysis. the equations of motion are transformed to these modal coordinates. Matrix reduction allows you to build a detailed model. you should choose at least a few masters in the out-of-plane direction (see Fig- Structural Analysis Guide . inertia forces on the slave DOF (those DOF being reduced out) are negligible compared to elastic forces transmitted by the master DOF. especially for dynamic analyses of large problems. but outputs only the real eigenvectors (mode shapes). For details about how the reduced matrices are calculated.

2: “Choose Master DOF” (a)).3: “Choosing Master DOFs”). (b) large mass • • • • If your primary interest is in bending modes. Inc. Figure 3. This recommendation can be relaxed if the motion is primarily parallel to the centerline. you can neglect rotational and "stretching" DOF.1 . ANSYS Release 8. For axisymmetric harmonic elements with MODE = 2 or greater. In cases where motion in one direction induces a significant motion in another direction. do not choose masters at locations with relatively small mass. or at locations with high stiffness (such as DOF close to constraints). choose master DOF in both directions (see Figure 3.3 Choosing Master DOFs Choose masters at locations with (a) large rotary inertia. Conversely. choose only the first (primary) DOF of the coupled set.2 Choose Master DOF (a) Possible out-of-plane masters for a flat plate(b) Motion in X induces motion in Y • Choose masters at locations having relatively large mass or rotary inertia and relatively low stiffness (see Figure 3. choose as masters the global UX degree of freedom at all nodes on those sections of the model that are parallel to or nearly parallel to the center line. If the degree of freedom to be chosen belongs to a coupled set.4: “Choosing Masters in an Axisymmetric Shell Model”). For axisymmetric shell models (SHELL51 or SHELL61). Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 3: Modal Analysis ure 3. © SAS IP. Figure 3. Choose master DOF at locations where forces or nonzero displacements are to be applied. 001972 . 3–20 . choose as masters both UX and UZ degrees of freedom.2: “Choose Master DOF” (b)). Examples of such locations are overhangs and "loosely" connected structures. so oscillatory motions between master DOF can be avoided (see Figure 3.

2.14: Matrix Reduction Figure 3. The reduced mass should be. in general. a flat plate). 3–21 . where the program-selected master DOF may be concentrated in the higher-mass regions.1 . at least in the dominant direction of motion.4 Choosing Masters in an Axisymmetric Shell Model The best way to check the validity of the master DOF set is to rerun the analysis with twice (or half) the number of masters and to compare the results. Inc. different master DOF sets may be selected depending on whether the elements are processed from left to right or from right to left.Section 3. the distribution of masters will. A Note About Program-Selected Masters If you let the ANSYS program select masters [TOTAL]. 3. this difference usually yields insignificant differences in the results. However. the distribution of masters selected will depend on the order in which elements are processed during the solution. For example. © SAS IP. Structural Analysis Guide . For meshes with uniform element sizes and properties (for example. MGEN]. you should specify some master DOF of your own [M. ANSYS Release 8. 001972 .14. In such cases. not be uniform.1. Another way is to review the reduced mass distribution printed during a modal solution. within 10-15 percent of the total mass of the structure. The same recommendation applies to structures with an irregular mass distribution.

3–22 .

are not accounted for in a harmonic response analysis (see Figure 4. Harmonic analysis can also be performed on a prestressed structure. ANSYS Release 8. thus enabling you to verify whether or not your designs will successfully overcome resonance. The idea is to calculate the structure's response at several frequencies and obtain a graph of some response quantity (usually displacements) versus frequency. such as plasticity will be ignored. and other harmful effects of forced vibrations. Fo and Ω are known. even if they are defined. Figure 4.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4.1 Harmonic Response Systems ω φ Typical harmonic response system. however. Harmonic response analysis gives you the ability to predict the sustained dynamic behavior of your structures. Inc.11. fatigue.1: “Harmonic Response Systems”). Uses for Harmonic Response Analysis Harmonic response analysis is a technique used to determine the steady-state response of a linear structure to loads that vary sinusoidally (harmonically) with time.1 . Harmonic response analysis is a linear analysis. "Peak" responses are then identified on the graph and stresses reviewed at those peak frequencies. Transient and steady-state dynamic response of a structural system (b). 001972 . Structural Analysis Guide . uo and Φ are unknown (a). “Acoustics” in the ANSYS Coupled-Field Analysis Guide). Some nonlinearities. 4. This analysis technique calculates only the steady-state. which occur at the beginning of the excitation. The transient vibrations.1. Definition of Harmonic Response Analysis Any sustained cyclic load will produce a sustained cyclic response (a harmonic response) in a structural system. have unsymmetric system matrices such as those encountered in a fluidstructure interaction problem (see Chapter 15. © SAS IP.2. such as a violin string (assuming the harmonic stresses are much smaller than the pretension stress).1. 6 2 ¡¨ ¦ U @ 0 ©!0 7©9¤¥£ ¡¥5¥1§¤!X#S4 !0 33§¤W9©§H2 D ©@¥¥9¨ V 2 B 2 ¨ ¦¨ " ¦ ¡ 7¨ 6 2 ¡¨ ¦¤ ¡ U ¤ ©!0 7©9¥£ ¥5¥§T#S4 !0 33§¤P! 3!§RQ 2 B 2 ¨ ¡ 2 ¦¤ 6£ 3T4 Y` abc ad` 6 IP¨ 4E¥HG' CFEC 20 D 2 B2 ¤ ¦ !0 339A!¥ £ ¡¥!!¦ &¥19!08$ 0 ¤ @ ¤ 6 4 20 $ % 7¨ 531)'(&$ #"¤! ¥©¥¦ ©¦§¥£ ¢ ¡ ¡¨ ¤ ¡ ω ' 8$ 6 (¦94 .1: Prestressed Full Harmonic Response Analysis for more information on prestressed harmonic analyses. You can. See Section 4. forced vibrations of a structure.

It allows unsymmetric matrices. ANSYS Release 8. It allows effective use of solid-model loads. The disadvantages of the reduced method are: 4–2 Structural Analysis Guide . when you use the JCG solver or the ICCG solver. 4. 4. relatively expensive method is to do a transient dynamic analysis with the harmonic loads specified as time-history loading functions. Section 4. It uses full matrices. and mode superposition. The Full Method The full method is the easiest of the three methods. It accepts all types of loads: nodal forces. Likewise. “Transient Dynamic Analysis” for details.1 .4.4. The advantages of the full method are: • • • • • • It is easy to use. you choose similar options from the graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models no matter what type of analysis you are doing. The Reduced Method The reduced method enables you to condense the problem size by using master degrees of freedom and reduced matrices.6: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) and Section 4. It calculates all displacements and stresses in a single pass. (A fourth. reduced. 4. respectively. see Chapter 5.) The advantages of this method are: • • It is faster and less expensive compared to the full method when you are using the frontal solver.7: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method) show a sample harmonic response analysis done via the GUI and via commands. imposed (nonzero) displacements.3. For detailed. It uses the full system matrices to calculate the harmonic response (no matrix reduction). A disadvantage is that this method usually is more expensive than either of the other methods when you use the frontal solver. Prestressing effects can be included. because you don't have to worry about choosing master degrees of freedom or mode shapes. Commands Used in a Harmonic Response Analysis You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform a harmonic response analysis that you use to do any other type of finite element analysis. Inc.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4. The matrices may be symmetric or unsymmetric. © SAS IP.2.) The ANSYS Professional program allows only the mode superposition method.4. so no mass matrix approximation is involved. . see the ANSYS Commands Reference. 001972 . which are typical of such applications as acoustics and bearing problems. for a more detailed discussion of the reduction procedure. However. alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands.1.14: Matrix Reduction. let's explore the advantages and disadvantages of each method. After the displacements at the master DOF have been calculated. the solution can be expanded to the original full DOF set. the full method can be very efficient. and element loads (pressures and temperatures). Before we study the details of how to implement each of these methods. (See Section 3. The Three Solution Methods Three harmonic response analysis methods are available: full.

etc. (However.3. 001972 .5. Disadvantages of the mode superposition method are: • • Imposed (nonzero) displacements cannot be applied. 4–3 . It accepts modal damping (damping ratio as a function of frequency). is required for a complete displacement. Transient effects are not calculated. No nonlinearities are permitted. Structural Analysis Guide . A second step. Build the model. 4. known as the expansion pass. temperatures. All loads must be applied at user-defined master degrees of freedom.4.1. unless the modal analysis was done using PowerDynamics. stress.5. Prestressing effects can be included. ANSYS Release 8. more accurate tracing of the response curve. and force solution. You can overcome any of these restrictions by performing a transient dynamic analysis. initial conditions cannot have previouslyapplied loads. the expansion pass might be optional for some applications. 4.) • • 4. 4. All loads must have the same frequency. This results in a smoother. Inc.1 . How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis We will first describe how to do a harmonic response analysis using the full method. Its advantages are: • • • • • It is faster and less expensive than either the reduced or the full method for many problems. © SAS IP. “Transient Dynamic Analysis” describes the procedure for a transient dynamic analysis.4.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis • The initial solution calculates only the displacements at the master DOF. Full Harmonic Response Analysis The procedure for a full harmonic response analysis consists of three main steps: 1.) cannot be applied. It allows solutions to be clustered about the structure's natural frequencies. Chapter 5. The Mode Superposition Method The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (eigenvectors) from a modal analysis to calculate the structure's response.Section 4. Element loads applied in the preceding modal analysis can be applied in the harmonic response analysis via the LVSCALE command. and then list the steps that are different for the reduced and mode superposition methods. (This limits the use of solid-model loads. Restrictions Common to All Three Methods All three methods are subject to certain common restrictions: • • • • All loads must be sinusoidally time-varying. with harmonic loads expressed as time-history loading functions.) Element loads (pressures.4. When you are using PowerDynamics for the modal analysis.

Build the Model See Section 1. 4.2. For further details. “Modal Analysis”).5. if any. Review the results. will be treated as linear elements.3. Note — Peak harmonic response occurs at forcing frequencies that match the natural frequencies of your structure. apply loads. Define the Analysis Type and Options ANSYS offers these options for a harmonic response analysis: Table 4.5. Points to Remember • Only linear behavior is valid in a harmonic response analysis. their stiffnesses are calculated based on their initial status and are never changed. Both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must be defined. . Nonlinear elements. and constant or temperature-dependent. If you include contact elements.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.1.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 2. Material properties may be linear. ANSYS Release 8. Details of how to do these tasks are explained below. • 4. for example.3. © SAS IP. 001972 . specify load step options. if any. 4. Before obtaining the harmonic solution.2.5. 3. you define the analysis type and options. isotropic or orthotropic. Apply loads and obtain the solution.1 . Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution In this step. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. and initiate the finite element solution.3.2.1. Inc.5. Nonlinear material properties.5.1 Analysis Types and Options Option New Analysis Command ANTYPE GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Harmonic Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Analysis Type: Harmonic Response ANTYPE Solution Method Solution Listing Format Mass Matrix Formulation Equation Solver HROPT HROUT LUMPM EQSLV 4–4 Structural Analysis Guide . you should first determine the natural frequencies of your structure by obtaining a modal solution (as explained in Chapter 3. are ignored. 4. Enter the ANSYS Solution Processor Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution 4.

However. 4. three pieces of information are usually required: the amplitude. Also.3. You can choose between real and imaginary parts (default). and amplitudes and phase angles. the sparse direct solver (SPARSE). the lumped mass approximation often yields better results. if you need to apply additional harmonic loads. 001972 . choose the sparse solver over the frontal solver. The frontal direct solver or sparse direct solver is recommended for most structural models. • Option: Mass Matrix Formulation (LUMPM) Use this option to specify the default formulation (which is element dependent) or lumped mass approximation.3. © SAS IP. by definition. 4–5 . To completely specify a harmonic load. assumes that any applied load varies harmonically (sinusoidally) with time. and the forcing frequency range (see Figure 4. Apply Loads on the Model A harmonic analysis. • Option: Equation Solver (EQSLV) You can choose the frontal solver (default). • Option: Analysis Type: Harmonic Response (ANTYPE) Choose Harmonic Response as the analysis type. where you choose an equation solver. the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter run time and lower memory requirements. the phase angle. When using a direct solver to solve a relatively large problem. click on OK to reach a second Harmonic Analysis dialog box. We recommend the default formulation for most applications.OUT). or the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver.5. Restarts are not valid in a harmonic response analysis. ANSYS Release 8. • Option: Solution Method (HROPT) Choose one of the following solution methods: – Full method – Reduced method – Mode superposition method • Option: Solution Listing Format (HROUT) This option determines how the harmonic displacement solution is listed in the printed output (Jobname. • Option: New Analysis (ANTYPE) Choose New Analysis. Structural Analysis Guide . After you complete the fields on the Harmonic Analysis Options dialog box.1 . Inc.2: “Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle”).5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis Each of these options is explained in detail below.Section 4. the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver. do a new analysis each time. for some problems involving "skinny" structures such as slender beams or very thin shells.

It is specified later as a load step option with the HARFRQ command.2: “Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle” shows how to calculate the real and imaginary components.3: “An Unbalanced Rotating Antenna” will produce out-of-phase vertical loads at its four support points. you specify the real and imaginary components of the out-of-phase loads using the VALUE and VALUE2 fields of the appropriate displacement and force commands. the unbalanced rotating antenna shown in Figure 4. The phase angle is required only if you have multiple loads that are out of phase with each other.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis Figure 4. The forcing frequency range is the frequency range of the harmonic load (in cycles/time). Inc. instead. © SAS IP. Figure 4. 4–6 Structural Analysis Guide .2: “ Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis”. which you specify using the commands shown in Table 4. On the complex plane (see Figure 4.1 . The phase angle is a measure of the time by which the load lags (or leads) a frame of reference. or using a mode superposition harmonic response analysis if the mode-extraction method is Block Lanczos (see the SF and SFE commands). For example. 3 S 7 $A43 2! 0@9( 6 P a ¨© ¦§ ©¨ ©¨ `Y £¢ X WbXc¦§ &UT¡ ¡ ¤ V © # 3 ¨ ¥ ¥ 7 2&$#"1hI$ge 7Hf 78$453 2! 1)( 6 0 2 7 " RQ P # IHdC¡ ©¨ ! ¤ P HIGDE CB¦§ ¨ F ¤ ¡ © ¨ © ¦§ P ¤ ' &$# " % ! .2 Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle The amplitude is the maximum value of the load. The phase angle cannot be specified directly. it is the angle measured from the real axis. 001972 . Pressures and other surface and body loads can only be specified with a phase angle of 0 (no imaginary component) with the following exceptions: nonzero imaginary components of pressures can be applied using the SURF153 and SURF154 elements in a full harmonic response analysis. ANSYS Release 8.2: “Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle”).

& 2 % $ " ¤#1)¤ ¤©§¦¢ 0 ( ¨ ¡ ¥ £ ¡ & ' % $ " ¤#! ©§¦¤¢ ¨ ¡ ¥ £ ¡ @!9 !9 @9 3 @H9G!4 #¡ $ 9 ¨ 6 C I I F C W V 8U 5 !4 @! IG¤9 5S!P¤¡R@P¤¡ $ C T ¨ C Q F £ Q 6 4 £ D @¤69 8!4 4 6 6 ( C!@¤@6 !@¢! A A B 5 A % 6!4 T X E 0 9 ¨ @6!9 !9 @9 3 @H9G!4 C#¡ C I I F % 4–7 . For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite element loads. and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements). you can define loads either on the solid model (keypoints. Except for inertia loads. Forces FZ. ROTZ) Force.2: “ Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis” summarizes the loads applicable to a to a harmonic response analysis. ANSYS Release 8. Table 4. © SAS IP. two machines with different rotating speeds running at the same time). FY. UY.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis Figure 4.1 . MX. However. ROTX. Inc. see Chapter 2. lines. MY. POST1 can superimpose multiple load cases to obtain the total response. Moment (FX.2 Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis Load Type Category Cmd Family D F SF GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure Displacement (UX. Table 4.3 An Unbalanced Rotating Antenna 7 86 5 4 3 An unbalanced rotating antenna will produce out-of-phase vertical loads at its four support points. ROTY. Note — A harmonic analysis cannot calculate the response to multiple forcing functions acting simultaneously with different frequencies (for example.Section 4. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. MZ) Pressure (PRES) Surface Loads Structural Analysis Guide . Constraints UZ. 001972 .

removed. or listed.Keypoints el Finite Elem Nodes Solid Mod.1 .Areas el Finite Elem Nodes Finite Elem Elements Pressure Temperature. loads can be applied. 001972 .Areas el Finite Elem Nodes Force Solid Mod. etc. Fluence (FLUE) Category Body Loads Cmd Family BF GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Temperature Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Other Gravity.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis Load Type Temperature (TEMP). © SAS IP.3.3. Spinning.Lines el Solid Mod.Keypoints el Solid Mod.1.Areas el Solid Mod.3: “Load Commands for a Harmonic Response Analysis” lists all the commands you can use to apply loads in a harmonic response analysis. SFBEAM.Lines el Solid Mod. .5. TBUNIF Solid Mod. SFCUM BFCUM . BFUNIF . 4.Volumes el Finite Elem Nodes BFK BFL BFA BFV BF BFKDELE BFLDELE BFADELE BFVDELE BFDELE BFKLIST BFLLIST BFALIST BFVLIST BFLIST BFTRAN BFTRAN BFTRAN BFTRAN BFSCALE 4–8 Structural Analysis Guide . Inertia Loads In an analysis.Lines el Solid Mod. DCUM FCUM SFGRAD SFGRAD SFGRAD.Keypoints el Solid Mod. operated on. SFFUN. Inc. ANSYS Release 8. Table 4.3 Load Commands for a Harmonic Response Analysis Load Type Solid Model or FE Displacement Entity DK DL DA D FK F SFL SFA SF SFE Apply Delete DKDELE DLDELE DADELE DDELE FKDELE FDELE SFLDELE SFADELE SFDELE SFEDELE List DKLIST DLLIST DALIST DLIST FKLIST FLIST SFLLIST SFALIST SFLIST SFELIST Operate DTRAN DTRAN DTRAN DSCALE FTRAN FSCALE SFTRAN SFTRAN SFSCALE SFSCALE Apply Settings DSYM. SFCUM SFGRAD. Fluence Solid Mod. Applying Loads Using Commands Table 4.

3.DAMP. DOMEGA.Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> PR Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping Output Control Options Printed Output OUTPR Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/ Results File Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt Database and Results File Output OUTRES Extrapolation of Results ERESX 4. 4.3: Listing Loads for more information.Section 4. 001972 . BETAD.4. General Options General options include the following: • Number of Harmonic Solutions (NSUBST) Structural Analysis Guide .3.3.4 Load Step Options Option General Options Number of Harmonic Solutions NSUBST Stepped or Ramped Loads KBC Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time . 4–9 .4.5. OMEGA.1 .5.2.Time Step or Freq and Substeps Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Command GUI Path Dynamics Options Forcing Frequency Range Damping HARFRQ ALPHAD. Applying Loads and Listing Loads Using the GUI These steps for a harmonic analysis are the same as those for most other analyses. CGLOC.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis Finite Elem Elements Load Type Solid Model or FE Inertia Entity BFE Apply ACEL.DM. ANSYS Release 8.5. CGOMGA. DCGOMG BFEDELE Delete BFELIST List BFSCALE Operate BFCUM Apply Settings - 4.5.2: Applying Loads Using the GUI and Section 3.1. MP.4. See Section 3.5. Inc. © SAS IP. Specify Load Step Options The following options are available for a harmonic response analysis: Table 4.4.3. DMPRAT MP.

See Section 5. the program will calculate the response at 31. SOLID45.4. Inc. • Damping Damping in some form should be specified.. No response is calculated at the lower end of the frequency range. 33. • 4–10 Extrapolation of Results (ERESX) Structural Analysis Guide . 39. . Output Controls Output control options include the following: • Printed Output (OUTPR) Use this option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname. SOLID92. For example. if you specify 10 solutions in the range 30 to 40 Hz. and SOLID95 element types. 4. they are ramped. • Database and Results File Output (OUTRES) This option controls the data on the results file (Jobname.5.3.DAMP) Constant Material Damping Coefficient (MP. • Stepped or Ramped Loads (KBC) The loads may be stepped or ramped.3. . By default. except for those applied to PLANE2. the program uses zero damping by default.3: Damping for further details. Note — If no damping is specified in a direct harmonic analysis (full or reduced).RST). Damping can also be specified for individual materials using MP.4. 001972 .1). • • • • • Alpha (Mass) Damping (ALPHAD) Beta (Stiffness) Damping (BETAD) Constant Damping Ratio (DMPRAT) Material Dependent Damping Multiplier (MP. Within this range.DAMP and MP. Dynamics Options Dynamics options include the following: • Forcing Frequency Range (HARFRQ) The forcing frequency range must be defined (in cycles/time) for a harmonic analysis.1 . ALPHAD and BETAD result in a frequency-dependent damping ratio. 32.OUT). By stepping the loads (KBC. ANSYS Release 8. the response will be infinity at the resonant frequencies.DMPR. the same load amplitude will be maintained for all substeps in the frequency range. Note — Surface and body loads do not ramp from their previous load step values. otherwise.5.. the load amplitude is gradually increased with each substep.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis You can request any number of harmonic solutions to be calculated.DMPR) 4.2. and 40 Hz.. whereas DMPRAT specifies a constant damping ratio to be used at all frequencies. The remaining element types always ramp from zero or from the value specified via BFUNIF.10. The solutions (or substeps) will be evenly spaced within the specified frequency range (HARFRQ). you then specify the number of solutions to be calculated.3. that is. © SAS IP.

For a complete description of all postprocessing functions.3.3. Structural Analysis Guide .2: Points to Remember in Chapter 2.and to then use POST1 to postprocess the entire model at these critical forcing frequencies.5. Points to Remember The points to remember for a harmonic analysis are the same as those for most structural analyses. Leave SOLUTION Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. see Chapter 4. Review the Results The results data for a harmonic analysis are the same as the data for a basic structural analysis with the following additions: If you defined damping in the structure.Section 4. All results are then complex in nature and are stored in terms of real and imaginary parts.5: How to Do Harmonic Response Analysis Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default).4. the frequency ranges should not overlap from one load step to the next. 4.7. Some typical postprocessing operations for a harmonic response analysis are explained below. 4–11 .5. If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26). © SAS IP. • • POST1 is used to review results over the entire model at specific frequencies. 4. See Section 2.5.2. ANSYS Release 8. POST26 allows you to review results at specific points in the model over the entire frequency range. See Section 2. 4.4. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as 4.3. Repeat for Additional Load Steps Repeat the process for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is.6: Review the Results in Chapter 2. is described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.5. Inc. “Structural Static Analysis”.5.6. 4. “Structural Static Analysis”. Another method for multiple load steps. Complex results will also be produced if out-of-phase loads were applied. Start Solution Calculations Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 4.8.1.3. Save a Backup Copy of the Database to a Named File You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME. 4.4.5.5. “An Overview of Postprocessing” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.1 . the response will be out-of-phase with the loads. for additional load steps).6.3. 001972 .3. Postprocessors You can review these results using either POST26 or POST1. which allows you to store the load steps on files and then solve them at once using a macro.5. The normal procedure is to first use POST26 to identify critical forcing frequencies .frequencies at which the highest displacements (or stresses) occur at points of interest in the model .

Many other functions.4. PRRSOL. 2. By reviewing the time-history results at strategic points throughout the model. Inc.. etc.5. phase angle. damping component. contours of stresses. You can use the SET command for this purpose. and the RFORCE command for reaction force data. etc. Display the deformed shape of the structure. © SAS IP. • 4–12 Structural Analysis Guide . use the FORCE command.5. • Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu 2. use the EXTREM command. ESOL. The true magnitude of the results is given by an SRSS (square-root-of-sum-of-squares) combination of the real and imaginary components (see Figure 4. “The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details.1 . etc. PRCPLX GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables> List Extremes Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> List 3. static component of the total force. with variable number 1 reserved for frequency. or the inertia component. strains. Then use the PRCPLX command to work with amplitude and phase angle or real and imaginary part. such as stresses).3. Define the variables using these options: Command(s): NSOL. or vector plots of vector items (PLVECT). Graph the variables (versus frequency or any other variable). but it will read in either the real component or the imaginary component. see Chapter 6. moving array parameters into variables. Using POST1 1.. . are available in POST26. To obtain tabular listings of data. PLCPLX GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> Graph Get a listing of the variable. RFORCE GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Note — The NSOL command is for primary data (nodal displacements). 4. To list just the extreme values. or imaginary part. Using POST26 POST26 works with tables of result item versus frequency.4. Then use PLCPLX to work with just the amplitude. Each variable is assigned a reference number. use PRNSOL. moving variables into array parameters. such as performing math operations among variables (in complex arithmetic).2: “Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle”) and can be done for specific points in the model in POST26. PRESOL. you can identify the critical frequencies for further POST1 postprocessing. Read in results for the desired harmonic solution. 1. not both at the same time. To specify the total force. ANSYS Release 8. the ESOL command for derived data (element solution data. EXTREM. real part.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4. Command(s): PLVAR. 001972 . Command(s): PRVAR. known as variables.4.

).. RFORCE. transforming results to different coordinate systems. • Option: Vector Plots Command(s): PLVECT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined Use PLNSOL or PLESOL to contour almost any result item.. 001972 .6.). PLDISP. 4–13 . etc. 4. © SAS IP. ANSYS Release 8. PRCPLX. such as stresses (SX. 4. DMPRAT. KBC.. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE.). EPELZ.6. UZ. PRVAR.6. A frequency range from zero to 7. EPELZ. EPELY. • Option: Tabular Listings Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data) etc. NSOL.).2. strains (EPELX. PRRSOL. SZ. NSORT. such as stresses (SX. 4. UY.5 Hz with a Structural Analysis Guide . “Solution” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details.. load case combinations. HROPT. HROUT. Problem Specifications Material properties for this problem are: m1 = m2 = 0.. PLCPLX..6: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) Use these options to contour almost any result item.. Two master degrees of freedom are selected at the masses in the spring direction.). HARFRQ. PLVAR. Many other functions. see Chapter 3. SY. and PLNSOL commands.. UY.5 lb-sec2/in k1 = k2 = kc = 200 lb/in Loading for this problem is: F1 = 200 lb The spring lengths are arbitrarily selected and are used only to define the spring direction. The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display.. you will determine the harmonic response of a two-mass-spring system. SY. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample problem. ESOL. NSUBST. UZ... strains (EPELX. are available in POST1. and displacements (UX.1 . SZ.. Problem Description Determine the response amplitude (Xi) and phase angle (Φi) for each mass (mi) of the system shown below when excited by a harmonic force (F1sin Ωt) acting on mass m1. EPELY. and displacements (UX.Section 4. Inc. ESORT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them.1. such as mapping results on to a path.)..

Click on Apply.2. 4–14 Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. Define the Element Types 1.6.6. Scroll down the list on the left to "Combination" and select it. 001972 . POST26 is used to get an amplitude versus frequency display. 4. 2. Structural Analysis Guide .3. 4. ANSYS Release 8. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. Inc. Click once on "Spring-damper 14" in the list on the right.3.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis solution at 7. Click on Add. Type the text "Harmonic Response of Two-Mass-Spring System" and click on OK. 5. 2.4 Two-Mass-Spring-System 4. .3.1.5/30 = 0. 3. Problem Diagram Figure 4. Set the Analysis Title 1. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.25 Hz intervals is chosen to give an adequate response curve.6. 4. © SAS IP.1 .

3. 9. Click on Add. 8. Enter 4 for node number. 7. 6. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. MASS21. Enter 200 for the spring constant (K) and 0. Click once on Type 1 to highlight it. © SAS IP. Click on OK to accept the default of 2 nodes to fill. 12. 5. 4. click once on nodes 1 and 4 (on the left and right sides of the screen). respectively. Click on Apply. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. Click on OK on the picking menu.6. respectively. Inc.1 for the damping coefficient (CV1). Click on OK.5. Structural Analysis Guide . 0. A small box appears around each node. 9. In the graphics window. 10. The Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes dialog box appears. 8. 0. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds. 4. Click on OK. Click on Apply. 14. 0 for the X. Click on OK. 3. Enter 1. 6. A line appears between the selected nodes. Repeat steps 2-4 for Type 2. 5.6. Create the Nodes 1. A picking menu appears. Enter 0.6.1 . In the ANSYS Graphics window. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes. Define the Real Constants 1.6: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) 6. and Z coordinates. Enter . 4. 7. Scroll up the list on the left to "Structural Mass" and select it. 4.3. Enter 1 for node number. Nodes 2 and 3 appear in the graphics window. 8. Click once on "Node numbers" to turn node numbers on. 3. 001972 . 4.Section 4. Click once on "3D mass 21" in the list on the right. ANSYS Release 8. The Real Constants for COMBIN14 dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS. 13. A picking menu appears. 4–15 . 2.4. click once on nodes 1 and 2. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes. 2.3. Y. Click on OK.3.5 for mass in X direction and click on OK. Click on Close to close the Real Constants dialog box. Create the Spring Elements 1. Y.3. 0 for the X. and Z coordinates. 11. 2. Click on OK.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. 2. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. 5. © SAS IP. Click OK in the Full Harmonic Analysis dialog box. Define Loads and Boundary Conditions 1. A picking menu appears. A picking menu appears. Click once on nodes 2 and 3.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4. 8. Click on "Last substep" to set the print frequency and click on OK.6. A line appears between the selected nodes. Enter 2 for element type number. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. Click on Apply. 6. 11. 13.6. Click once on nodes 3 and 4. Click once on node 3 and click on OK. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps.7.6. Enter 0 and 7. 2. MDOF. A line appears between the selected nodes. and Load Step Specifications 1. The Apply U. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. 001972 . Enter 2 for real constant set number and click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes. 7. 5. Structural Analysis Guide . 7. 3. Specify the Analysis Type.8. 9. 4–16 . 12. Create the Mass Elements 1. 10. A picking menu appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes. Click once on "Harmonic" and click on OK. click once on node 2.1 . Click on OK.5 for the harmonic frequency range. In the graphics window.3. 4. 3.6. Click on Apply. ANSYS Release 8. 5. Click on OK. click once on "UY" to highlight it (make sure no other selections are highlighted). 4. 7. 4.3. In the scroll box for DOFs to be constrained. 3. Enter 30 for the number of substeps. Click on OK. Click once on "Full" to select the solution method. Click once on "Stepped" to specify stepped boundary conditions. 4. ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. Click on Pick All. Inc.3. 6. 4. Click once on "Amplitud + phase" to select the DOF printout format and click on OK.

The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. In the scroll box on the right. 4. Enter 200 for the real part of force/moment and click on OK.1 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 10. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/ Moment> On Nodes. 2. Click on Close. click once on "FX. 12. Enter 3 for node number. Enter 3UX for the user-specified label. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. ANSYS Release 8. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears.9. In the scroll box on the right. you will review the time-history results of nodes 2 and 3. In the graphics window. 7.10. click once on "UX" to highlight it and click once on "UY" to deselect it. Review the Results For this sample.6. 11. 9. Solve the Model 1.Section 4. 6. In the scroll box for DOFs to be constrained. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. Click on Close. © SAS IP. Enter 3 for reference number of variable. Inc. 14. When the solution is finished. The Define Nodal Data dialog box appears. 16. 3. click once on nodes 1 and 4. click once on node 2. 13. 5. click once on "Translation UX" to highlight it.3. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. Click on OK. 3. Enter 2 for node number. Click on Add in the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box. 13. In the graphics window. Click on OK. click once on "Translation UX" to highlight it. 4. Click on OK. The Apply U.6: Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) 6. Enter 2 for reference number of variable. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. 1. Click on OK. 4.3. Enter 2UX for the user-specified label. In the scroll box for direction of force/moment. Click on Add. 15. Click on OK. A picking menu appears. 11. ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. 4. 8. 7. The Define Nodal Data dialog box appears. Structural Analysis Guide ." 14.6. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. Review the information in the status window and click on Close. 10. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables. 4–17 . 001972 . 9. The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box appears. 8. 12.

2 4–18 Structural Analysis Guide . 19. Harmonic response of a two-mass-spring system ET. /PREP7 /TITLE. Click on OK.COMBIN14. 4. 1. 4. Enter 3 for 2nd variable to graph. 2. Choose the save option you want and click on OK. ANSYS Release 8.1. The Graph Controls dialog box appears.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 17. In the ANSYS Toolbar. The Graph Time-History Variables dialog box appears. 23. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables.6.. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example harmonic response analysis of a two-mass-spring system by using the following ANSYS commands instead of the GUI.1 .3.. Inc. A graph appears in the graphic window. 22.11. Exit ANSYS You are now finished with this sample problem. click on Quit. . Enter 2 for 1st variable to graph. Your graph should look like this: 21. Click on OK. 001972 . In the scroll box for type of grid. scroll to "X and Y lines" to select it.7. 18. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs. 20. © SAS IP.

. 001972 ..Random Vibration Analysis of a Deep Simply-Supported Beam VM76 .Harmonic Response of a Dynamic System VM87 .UX.U. Inc.30 HARFRQ.2 REAL.. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.1 N.3UX /GRID. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments.Harmonic Response of a Spring-Mass System VM203 .2.2. range Frequency range from 0 to 7. © SAS IP.2 E.7.4 R.. However.200 R.1 /AXLAB.Section 4.5 HZ Step boundary condition Constrain all 44 DOF Constrain nodes 1 and 4 in UX ! Store UX Displacements ! Turn grid on ! Y-axis label disp ! Display variables 2 and 3 4.3.2UX NSOL.8.4 D.Equivalent Structural Damping VM88 .1. The ANSYS Verification Manual includes a variety of harmonic analysis test cases: VM19 .1.5 N.1.Frequency Response of Electrical Input Admittance for a Piezoelectric Transducer VM177 .3 E.X.Harmonic Response of a Guitar String VM86 .4 TYPE.2 E.2.FULL HROUT.1 FILL E.1 NSUBST.MASS21.1 .2.2.X.2.3.Natural Frequency of a Submerged Ring VM183 .4.Y.. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual.3.HARMIC HROPT.5 ! Spring element ! Spring element ! Mass element ! Mass element ! Harmonic response analysis ! Full harmonic response ! Print results as amplitudes and phase angles ! ! ! ! ! 30 Intervals within freq.OFF OUTPR.Harmonic Response of a Two-Mass-Spring System VM176 .200 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL. describe additional harmonic analyses.Response of an Eccentric Weight Exciter VM90 .1. ANSYS Release 8. the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.8: Where to Find Other Examples ET.3 FINISH ! Spring constant = 200 ! Mass = 0..FX.DISP PLVAR.BASIC. 4–19 .4.2 E.1 D.2.U. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.Dynamic Load Effect on Simply-Supported Thick Square Plate Structural Analysis Guide .. The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS family of products.UY.3 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.5 KBC.3 F..

Harmonic loading is the same as described for the full method. Apply Loads and Obtain the Reduced Solution By reduced solution. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis The reduced method. uses reduced matrices to calculate the harmonic solution. Inc. 4. and accelerations are not allowed. Review the results of the reduced solution.1: Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis for details. we mean the degree of freedom solution calculated at the master DOF.1. The procedure for a reduced harmonic analysis consists of five main steps: 1. master DOF are also required at locations where you want to apply forces or nonzero displacements. Enter the ANSYS solution processor. Structural Analysis Guide .11. Specify load step options.ALL (or NONE)). 3. You can include prestress effects (PSTRES). See Section 4. Build the model. ANSYS Release 8. © SAS IP. 5. Apply loads on the model. Forces and nonzero displacements must be applied only at master DOF. Save a copy of the database. Of these.1 .9. This requires element files from a previous static (or transient) analysis that also included prestress effects. as its name implies.NSOL.9. except for the following restrictions: • • Only displacements and forces are valid. 3. The tasks required to obtain the reduced solution are as follows: 1. 2. The OUTPR command controls the printout of the nodal solution at the master DOF (OUTPR. Details of the other steps are explained below. Element loads such as pressures. the first step is the same as for the full method. 7. 4. temperatures. Options for the reduced solution are the same as described for the full method except for the following differences: • • Choose the reduced solution method. and the constant material damping coefficient (MP.DMPR) is not applicable for the reduced method. 5. See Section 3. 4. For a reduced harmonic response dynamic analysis. 2. 4–20 .Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4. Review the results of the expanded solution. Expand the solution (expansion pass). Master DOF are essential or dynamic degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure.14: Matrix Reduction for guidelines to choose master DOF. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as Start solution calculations. Define master degrees of freedom. These are the same as described for the full method except that the OUTRES and ERESX commands are not available. 6. Apply the loads and obtain the reduced solution. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and options. 001972 .

TRI. for additional load steps). The database must contain the same model for which the reduced solution was calculated.3.RFRQ. is described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.3. Reenter the ANSYS solution processor. As with the full method.) Only nodal degree of freedom data (at master DOF) are available for processing.9. ANSYS Release 8. Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass) The expansion pass starts with the reduced solution and calculates the complete displacement. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. POST26 looks for a results file. 4.EMAT.9: Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 8. For instance.RFRQ. Leave SOLUTION. Another method for multiple load steps.9.1. except for the following differences: • Before defining the POST26 variables. which is not written by a reduced harmonic solution.2. these displacements will be complex in nature if damping was defined or if out-of-phase loads were applied.RFRQ. use the FILE command to specify that data are to be read from Jobname. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution Results from the reduced harmonic solution are written to the reduced harmonic displacement file. 4. you should review the results of the reduced solution (using POST26) and identify the critical frequencies and phase angles. the FILE command would be: FILE.2. which vary harmonically at each forcing frequency for which the solution was calculated. Jobname. if you are interested mainly in displacements at specific points on the structure. or if you are interested in the stress solution. Repeat steps 4 through 7 for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is. An expansion pass is not always required.HARMONIC. so you can use only the NSOL command to define variables. (POST1 cannot be used. . . if you want to determine displacements at non-master DOF. They consist of displacements at the master DOF. (By default. which allows you to store the load steps on files and then solve them at once using a macro. then you must perform an expansion pass. If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26).3.ESAV files from the reduced solution must be available.1 . For example. Therefore. 9. © SAS IP. before you begin the expansion pass. 4.9. These calculations are done only at frequencies and phase angles that you specify.RFRQ. the frequency ranges should not overlap from one load step to the next. Points to Remember • • The . You can review the master DOF displacements as a function of frequency using POST26. 001972 . and . then the reduced solution could satisfy your requirements. because the complete solution at all DOF is not available. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Structural Analysis Guide . Expanding the Modes 1.Section 4. • 4. and force solution at all degrees of freedom. Inc. However. if HARMONIC is the jobname. 4–21 . stress.9.) The procedure to use POST26 is the same as described for the full method.

you can specify the phase angle at which peak displacements occurred using HREXP.angle. • Option: Phase Angle for Expansion (HREXP) If multiple solutions are to be expanded over a frequency range (NUMEXP). This number of evenly spaced solutions will be expanded over a frequency range (specified next). NUMEXP. For example. we suggest that you request both the real and imaginary parts to be expanded (HREXP. Inc.2000 specifies four solutions in the frequency range 1000 to 2000 (that is. EXPSOL HROUT GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Singe Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Singe Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Singe Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Each of these options is explained in detail below. Default is to calculate stresses and forces. you can use EXPSOL to identify a single solution for expansion (either by its load step and substep numbers or by its frequency value). 2. stresses. Activate the expansion pass and its options. and other results. 1500. Range for Expansion Phase Angle for Expansion Stress Calculations On/Off Nodal Solution Listing Format Command EXPASS NUMEXP NUMEXP HREXP NUMEXP.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis Note — You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass. . • Option: Expansion Pass On/Off (EXPASS) Choose ON. • Option: Stress Calculations On/Off (NUMEXP or EXPSOL) You can turn off stress and force calculations if you are not interested in them. • Option: Frequency Range for Expansion (NUMEXP. BEGRNG.ALL).4. ENDRNG) Specify the frequency range. expanded solutions at 1250.NUM) Specify the number.5 Expansion Pass Options Option Expansion Pass On/Off No. © SAS IP. and 2000). If you do not need to expand multiple solutions. on the other hand. ANSYS offers these options for the expansion pass: Table 4. See the example above. This way. • Option: Number of Solutions to Expand (NUMEXP.1000. ANSYS Release 8. If. of Solutions to Expand Freq.1 . a single solution is to be expanded (EXPSOL). 1750. • 4–22 Option: Nodal Solution Listing Format (HROUT) Structural Analysis Guide . you can easily combine the two parts in POST26 to review the peak values of displacements. 001972 .

strain versus frequency. Use the SET command to read in the results. 5.OUT). Review the Results of the Expanded Solution This step is the same as the corresponding step in a basic structural analysis with the following additions: You can review the results using POST1. 6.9.Section 4. Note — The FREQ field on OUTPR and OUTRES can be only ALL or NONE.1 .9: Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis Determines how the harmonic displacement solution is listed in the printed output (Jobname. Specify load step options. etc. Leave SOLUTION. Caution: Subsequent spectrum analyses expect all expanded modes to be in one load step. You can choose between real and imaginary parts (default). 4. and amplitudes and phase angles.3. (If you expanded solutions at several frequencies. and 4 for additional solutions to be expanded. there is only one solution available for each frequency. 4–23 . Command(s): OUTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File • Extrapolation of Results Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default). 001972 . Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. See Section 2. The only options valid for a harmonic expansion pass are output controls: • Printed Output Use this option to include any results data on the printed output file (Jobname. ANSYS Release 8.angle). except for one difference: if you requested expansion at a specific phase angle (HREXP. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Repeat steps 2. Each expansion pass is stored as a separate load step on the results file.OUT). Start expansion pass calculations.6: Review the Results in Chapter 2. 3.RST). Command(s): ERESX GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt 4. “Structural Static Analysis”. Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout • Database and Results File Output Use this option to control the data on the results file (Jobname. © SAS IP. Structural Analysis Guide . 3. You can now review results in the postprocessor. you can also use POST26 to obtain graphs of stress versus frequency. Inc.) The procedure to use POST1 (or POST26) is the same as described for the full method.4.

. PLDISP....Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis 4.. ! List reactions PLNSOL. ! Title /PREP7 ! Enter PREP7 -----! Generate model --FINISH ! Apply Loads and Obtain the Reduced Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE. HARFRQ. 4–24 Structural Analysis Guide ... PLVAR. ... D... ! Master DOF TOTAL.. ! Forcing frequency range DMPRAT. ! Damping ratio NSUBST. TOTAL. PRRSOL. © SAS IP. ! Loads (real and imaginary components) HARFRQ. HROUT. HREXP.RFRQ NSOL... NSUBST. Sample Input A sample input listing for a reduced harmonic response analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM.. HREXP.HARMIC ! Harmonic analysis HROPT. 001972 .. PRVAR.. EXPSOL.. PRCPLX. ! Define how to plot complex variables PLVAR.REDU ! Reduced method HROUT.9.. EXPASS. ! Harmonic analysis output options M.. ! Deformed shape PRRSOL.....RFRQ ! Postprocessing file is Jobname.5.... Inc.. FILE........ DMPRAT.ON EXPSOL...... ! Store nodal result as a variable PLCPLX.. OUTRES. ! Read results for desired frequency PLDISP. HROPT...1 . ! Constraints F...... SOLVE FINISH ! ! ! ! Reenter SOLUTION Expansion pass Expand a single solution Phase angle for expanded solution ! Review the Results of the Expanded Solution /POST1 SET. ! List variables FINISH ! Expand the Solution /SOLU EXPASS. ! Define how to list complex variables PRVAR. M. KBC.. NSOL....... ! Ramped or stepped loads SAVE SOLVE ! Initiate multiple load step solution FINISH ! Review the Results of the Reduced Solution /POST26 FILE... and PLNSOL commands.. ! Jobname /TITLE. ANSYS Release 8. ! Number of harmonic solutions KBC.. ! Contour plot of nodal results -----! Other postprocessing as desired --FINISH See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE.... PLCPLX...... ! Plot variables PRCPLX....

DAMP. The mode shape file (Jobname. temperatures. the program uses mode shapes extracted by the modal solution to calculate the harmonic response.) Do not change the model data (for example. 4. If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method. Inc. 4–25 . or QR damped. For the reduced mode-extraction method. PowerDynamics. and so on). Obtain the modal solution. 5. (ANSYS ignores damping specified during the mode superposition harmonic analysis.10. 2. The modes need not be expanded for the mode superposition solution. The procedure to use the method consists of five main steps: 1. It is the only method allowed in the ANSYS Professional program. and the database must contain the same model for which the modal solution was obtained.Section 4.2. include those master degrees of freedom at which harmonic loads will be applied. or element damping including gyroscopic) that you want to include during preprocessing or in the modal analysis. Expand the mode superposition solution. therefore. If you need to apply harmonically varying element loads (pressures.) You can set a constant damping ratio (DMPRAT). but calculates a load vector and writes it to the mode shape file (Jobname.1 . define constant material damping coefficients (MP. specify them in the modal analysis. ANSYS ignores the loads for the modal solution. Obtain the Mode Superposition Harmonic Solution In this step. unsymmetric and damped. MP.10.DMPR). Obtain the mode superposition harmonic solution. You can then use the load vector for the harmonic solution. 4. or define the damping ratio as a function of mode (MDAMP) in a modal superposition harmonic analysis. the LVSCALE command is not valid unless the scale factor is set to zero. Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (obtained from a modal analysis) to calculate the harmonic response. 001972 . you must specify any damping (ALPHAD.10: Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis 4.1. ANSYS Release 8.10. Of these. subspace. (If you want to review mode shapes. only u = 0 is valid as the initial condition). BETAD. PowerDynamics does not create a load vector. The imaginary component of the load vector calculated from element loads will always be zero with only one exception: in a full harmonic response analysis or a mode superposition harmonic response analysis with the Block Lanczos mode-extraction method.MODE) must be available. If PowerDynamics was used for the modal solution. • • • • • 4. do not apply to mode superposition. Obtain the Modal Solution Chapter 3. however. accelerations. “Modal Analysis” describes how to obtain a modal solution. reduced. The remaining steps are described below. you must expand the mode shapes. Review the results.) Be sure to extract all modes that may contribute to the harmonic response. nodal rotations) between the modal and harmonic analyses.MODE). Following are some additional hints: • • • The mode-extraction method should be Block Lanczos (default). If the modal solution was performed using the subspace or Block Lanczos Structural Analysis Guide . (The other methods. © SAS IP. Build the model. the first step is the same as described for the full method. no nonzero loads or displacements are allowed (that is. 3. you can apply imaginary pressures via SURF153 or SURF154.

Save a copy of the database.1 . The default is to calculate four solutions. accelerations. then specify the item(s) of interest by invoking OUTRES. Specify load step options. These are the same as described for the full method. Optionally.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis method using the default mass formulation (not the lumped mass approximation). (Any value over this range defaults to 10 and any value below this range defaults to 4. These are the same as described for the reduced method except that you can also specify modal damping (MDAMP).RFRQ file.LANB or SUBSP). cluster the solutions about the structure's natural frequencies (HROUT) for a smoother and more accurate tracing of the response curve.) 5. ANSYS Release 8. Inc. Note. 001972 . Enter SOLUTION. Use the LVSCALE command to apply the load vector from the modal solution.ALL.RFRQ file. 6. The following tasks are involved: 1. If mode shapes from a reduced modal solution are being used.FULL) must also be available. The NSUBST command specifies the number of solutions on each side of a natural frequency if the clustering option (HROUT) is chosen.RFRQ. the full file (Jobname. 2. Optionally. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as Start solution calculations. Repeat the OUTRES command for any additional nodal components that you want to write to the . Generally. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and analysis options. OUTPR. forces may be applied only at master DOF. at each frequency. if the QR damped method is specified. constant material damping coefficients (MP. and the load vector created in the modal analysis are valid. Note that ALL loads from the modal analysis are scaled.DMPR) can be defined. except for the following restrictions: • Only forces. 4–26 . If you used either the Block Lanczos (default) or the subspace option for the modal analysis (MODOPT. first suppress all writing by invoking OUTRES.NONE. Apply loads on the model.NSOL. To avoid load duplication. but you can specify any number of solutions from 2 through 20.NSOL command to limit the displacement data written to the reduced displacement file Jobname.NSOL must be specified to print mode contributions at each frequency. 7. The expansion pass will only produce valid results for those nodes and for those elements in which all of the nodes of the elements have been written to the . you may use a nodal component with the OUTRES. Harmonic loading is the same as described for the full method.NSOL.component. • 4. This determines the accuracy of the harmonic solution. the number of modes specified should cover about 50 percent more than the frequency range of the harmonic loads. print a summary table that lists the contributions of each mode to the response (HROUT). except for the following differences: • • Choose the mode superposition method of solution (HROPT). Specify the modes you want to use for the solution (HROPT). In addition. • • 3. including forces and accelerations. To use this option. © SAS IP. delete any loads that were applied in the modal analysis. Structural Analysis Guide .

/PREP7 ------FINISH ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ! Generate model ! Obtain the Modal Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE... ANSYS Release 8..RFRQ.. as explained for the reduced method.. /TITLE. ! Element loads SAVE SOLVE ! Initiate modal solution FINISH ! Obtain the Mode Superposition Harmonic Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE... Jobname. © SAS IP. PowerDynamics..9.RST.4.. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.... See Section 4.10: Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 8... Repeat steps 3 to 7 for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is.10.. 001972 ...10. Block Lanczos. 4. and reaction forces at each forcing frequency for which the solution was calculated. 4..Section 4. or QR damped method was used for the modal solution. ! Constraints SF. 9..MSUP.... containing expanded results. F.5..TRI from the modal analysis is needed only if the reduced eigenvalue extraction method was used.10. Jobname. 4–27 . You can review these results using POST26 or POST1.. If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26). regardless of whether the subspace. number of modes to use Harmonic analysis output options. You will therefore need to expand the solution if you are interested in stress results. D.3..HARMIC HROPT. The output from the expansion pass includes the structural results file... The mode superposition harmonic solution is written to the reduced displacement file. ! Masters TOTAL... the frequency ranges should not overlap from one load step to the next. Review the Results Results consist of harmonically varying displacements. Expand the Mode Superposition Solution The procedure for the expansion pass is the same as described for the reduced method. for additional load steps). cluster option Scale factor for loads from modal analysis Nodal loads Forcing frequency range Structural Analysis Guide .. 4. Inc.REDU ! Reduced method M. Sample Input A sample input listing for a mode superposition harmonic response analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM.3: Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass). ! ! ! ! ! ! Harmonic analysis Mode superposition method.1 .. HARFRQ. HROUT.. Jobname. reduced. Leave SOLUTION. stresses.MODAL ! Modal analysis MODOPT. LVSCALE.

! Plot variables FINISH ! Expand the Solution (for Stress Results) /SOLU! Re-enter SOLUTION EXPASS.. NSUBST... ! Phase angle for expanded solution SOLVE FINISH ! Review the Results of the Expanded Solution /POST1 SET. PLVAR..ON). Prestressed Full Harmonic Response Analysis The procedure to do a prestressed full harmonic analysis is essentially the same as that for any other full harmonic analysis except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis: 1... 4..RFRQ ! Postprocessing file is Jobname. ! Read results for desired frequency PLDISP. HROUT.. ! Deformed shape PLNSOL.. 001972 . Other Analysis Details 4..1. Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis A prestressed harmonic response analysis calculates the dynamic response of a prestressed structure... such as a violin string. “Structural Static Analysis”. HARFRQ...... EXPASS..1 . KBC. 2.. ANSYS Release 8. 4–28 Structural Analysis Guide . TOTAL. NSUBST. these thermal body forces must not be deleted during the full harmonic analysis or else the thermal prestress will vanish.ON ! Expansion pass EXPSOL.ESAV from the static analysis must be available. FILE.1. SET. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES. EXPSOL..... The procedure to obtain the static solution is explained in Chapter 2. It is assumed that the harmonically varying stresses (which are superimposed on the prestress) are much smaller than the prestress itself.. MDAMP. Reenter SOLUTION and obtain the full harmonic solution. Hence...11. 4.Chapter 4: Harmonic Response Analysis DMPRAT... ! Expand a single solution HREXP... F..11. PLCPLX. Files Jobname.EMAT and Jobname. any temperature loads used to define the thermal prestress must also be used in the full harmonic response analysis as sinusoidally time-varying temperature loads.. Inc. HREXP.11. also with prestress effects turned on (reissue PSTRES. DMPRAT.1.. ! Contour plot of nodal results --FINISH See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE. MODOPT. and PLNSOL commands. If thermal body forces were present during the static prestress analysis.. ! Store nodal result as a variable PLCPLX. HROPT. M. © SAS IP. MDAMP. KBC.ON). ! Define how to plot complex variables PLVAR. SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! ! ! ! Damping ratio Modal damping ratios Number of harmonic solutions Ramped or stepped loads ! Initiate solution ! Review the Results of the Mode Superposition Solution /POST26 FILE. LVSCALE..RFRQ NSOL.. . NSOL. You should be aware of this limitation and exercise some judgement about whether or not to include temperature loads in their static prestress analysis..

11: Other Analysis Details 4. “Structural Static Analysis”. Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP. Prestressed Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis The procedure to do a prestressed reduced harmonic analysis is essentially the same as that for any other reduced harmonic analysis except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis: 1. also with prestress effects turned on (reissue PSTRES.EMAT and Jobname. 4–29 .Section 4. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES. 001972 .3. Inc. See Chapter 3. Once prestressed modal analysis results are available. 4. Prestressed Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis To include prestress effects in a mode superposition analysis.ON). Reenter SOLUTION and obtain the reduced harmonic solution. you must first perform a prestressed modal analysis.1. The procedure to obtain the static solution is explained in Chapter 2. Files Jobname.1.ESAV from the static analysis must be available.2.ON). proceed as for any other mode superposition analysis. ANSYS Release 8.11.1 . 2. “Modal Analysis” for details.11.

4–30 .

Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. By doing a modal analysis. “Structural Static Analysis”). Inc. Understand the dynamics of the problem. you might be able to use a static analysis instead (see Chapter 2. consider substructuring the linear portions of the model to reduce analysis costs. you can learn how the structure responds when those modes are excited. transient. For example. The basic equation of motion solved by a transient dynamic analysis is (M){ u } + (C){ u } + (K){u} = {F(t)} where: (M) = mass matrix (C) = damping matrix (K) = stiffness matrix { u } = nodal acceleration vector { u } = nodal velocity vector {u} = nodal displacement vector {F(t)} = load vector At any given time. masses. For a nonlinear problem. The ANSYS program uses the Newmark time integration method or an improved method called HHT to solve these equations at discrete time points. Structural Analysis Guide . In some cases. in terms of the “engineering” time involved. If you are including nonlinearities. stresses. Preparing for a Transient Dynamic Analysis A transient dynamic analysis is more involved than a static analysis because it generally requires more computer resources and more of your resources. If the inertia and damping effects are not important. 5. .1. © SAS IP. 4. nonlinearities need not be included in the dynamic analysis. which calculates the natural frequencies and mode shapes. these equations can be thought of as a set of "static" equilibrium equations that also take into account inertia forces ((M){ u }) and damping forces ((C){ u }). strains. and harmonic loads. You can save a significant amount of these resources by doing some preliminary work to understand the physics of the problem.2. Analyze a simpler model first. This simpler model may be all you need to determine the dynamic response of the structure. The time scale of the loading is such that the inertia or damping effects are considered to be important. 3. The natural frequencies are also useful for calculating the correct integration time step. 2. The time increment between successive time points is called the integration time step. You can use this type of analysis to determine the time-varying displacements. and springs can provide good insight into the problem at minimal cost. A model of beams. try to understand how they affect the structure's response by doing a static analysis first. you can: 1. 001972 .1 . and forces in a structure as it responds to any combination of static. t. Definition of Transient Dynamic Analysis Transient dynamic analysis (sometimes called time-history analysis) is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under the action of any general time-dependent loads. Substructuring is described in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide. ANSYS Release 8.

Before we study the details of how to implement each of these methods. you should consider using one of the other methods because the full method is also the most expensive method of the three. It allows effective use of solid-model loads. For procedural information about using the full method. The only nonlinearity allowed is simple node-to-node contact (gap condition). imposed (nonzero) displacements (although not recommended).1 .4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis. The ANSYS Professional program allows only the mode superposition method. Mode Superposition Method The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (eigenvectors) from a modal analysis to calculate the structure's response.1. © SAS IP. This is the only method available in the ANSYS Professional program. so automatic time stepping is not allowed. 5–2 Structural Analysis Guide . The advantages of the full method are: • • • • • It is easy to use. Inc. 5.3. Element loads applied in the preceding modal analysis can be applied in the transient dynamic analysis via the LVSCALE command. Its advantages are: • • • It is faster and less expensive than the reduced or the full method for many problems. . • The main disadvantage of the full method is that it is more expensive than either of the other methods. It allows all types of nonlinearities. and so on). It uses full matrices. ANSYS Release 8. 001972 . large deflections. It does not accept imposed (nonzero) displacements. unless the modal analysis was done using PowerDynamics. so no mass matrix approximation is involved. Note — If you do not want to include any nonlinearities.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. It accepts all types of loads: nodal forces. The disadvantages of the mode superposition method are: • • • The time step must remain constant throughout the transient. 5. because you do not have to worry about choosing master degrees of freedom or mode shapes. and element loads (pressures and temperatures) and allows tabular boundary condition specification via TABLE type array parameters.2. see Section 5. It is the most general of the three methods because it allows all types of nonlinearities to be included (plasticity. Full Method The full method uses the full system matrices to calculate the transient response (no matrix reduction). Three Solution Methods Three methods are available to do a transient dynamic analysis: full.3. All displacements and stresses are calculated in a single pass. we will examine the advantages and disadvantages of each. and reduced. It accepts modal damping (damping ratio as a function of mode number). mode superposition. large strain.3.

the expansion pass might not be needed for some applications.3: Set Solution Controls Section 5. and so on) cannot be applied. © SAS IP.4.4. and ANSYS Structural products) consists of these steps: 1. see Section 5.1 . so automatic time stepping is not allowed.6: Save the Load Configuration for the Current Load Step Section 5. • • • • For procedural information about using the reduced method.7: Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step Section 5. known as the expansion pass. 6. 5.5: Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis.) Element loads (pressures. ANSYS Mechanical.4. are allowed. 2.4. is required for a complete displacement. 5. 7.14: Matrix Reduction for a more detailed discussion of the reduction procedure. you are encouraged to become familiar with the concepts presented in Chapter 2. (This limits the use of solid-model loads. (See Section 3.1: Build the Model Section 5. Section 5. The disadvantages of the reduced method are: • The initial solution calculates only the displacements at the master DOF. 001972 . stress. “Structural Static Analysis”. Section 5.4. 5.4.4.5: Apply the Loads Section 5. ANSYS expands the solution to the original full DOF set. and force solution. We will first describe how to do a transient dynamic analysis using the full method. however.) The advantage of the reduced method is: • It is faster and less expensive than the full method.4. We will then list the steps that are different for the mode superposition and reduced methods.3.8: Save a Backup Copy of the Database Section 5.3.Section 5. Section 5.4. ANSYS Release 8. Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis Note .4. 8.Before reading this section. After the displacements at the master DOF have been calculated. 4. The only nonlinearity allowed is simple node-to-node contact (gap condition).6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis. see Section 5. Inc. A second step. 3. Accelerations.4.4.) The time step must remain constant throughout the transient.2: Establish Initial Conditions Section 5. All loads must be applied at user-defined master degrees of freedom.11: Review the Results Structural Analysis Guide . The procedure for a full transient dynamic analysis (available in the ANSYS Multiphysics.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis For procedural information about using the mode superposition method.10: Exit the Solution Processor 11.9: Start the Transient Solution 10. 9. (However. Reduced Method The reduced method condenses the problem size by using master degrees of freedom and reduced matrices. temperatures.4: Set Additional Solution Options Section 5. 5–3 .

the mesh should be able to capture the effects of the nonlinearities. as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5.2. If you are interested in wave propagation effects (for example. • 5.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. the mesh should be fine enough to resolve the wave. A transient analysis. involves loads that are functions of time. For further details. Regions where stresses or strains are of interest require a relatively finer mesh than regions where only displacements are of interest.1: “Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves”.1. If you want to include nonlinearities. Inc.1 Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves 5–4 Structural Analysis Guide .4. Both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must be defined. 001972 . by definition. plasticity requires a reasonable integration point density (and therefore a fine element mesh) in areas with high plastic deformation gradients. 5. For example. Establish Initial Conditions Before you can perform a full transient dynamic analysis on a model. Material properties may be linear or nonlinear. Points to Remember Keep the following points in mind when building a model for a full transient dynamic analysis: • • You can use both linear and nonlinear elements. you need to understand how to establish initial conditions and use load steps. you need to divide the load-versus-time curve into suitable load steps.4.1 . see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. ANSYS Release 8.1. . Some comments on mesh density: • • • The mesh should be fine enough to resolve the highest mode shape of interest. © SAS IP.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5.4. and constant or temperature-dependent. a bar dropped exactly on its end). To specify such loads. A general guideline is to have at least 20 elements per wavelength along the direction of the wave. isotropic or orthotropic.1. Build the Model See Section 1. Each "corner" on the load-time curve may be one load step.

! ! ! ! ! ! Time integration effects off Small UY displ.004 LSWRITE DDEL. the condition at Time = 0).0 over a time interval of 0. You then write each load step to a file and solve all load steps together.1 .UY. but you can specify nonzero initial accelerations by applying appropriate acceleration loads over a small time interval.4 = 2.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis The first load step you apply is usually to establish initial conditions. if you define an initial velocity at a single DOF.. The following paragraphs describe how to apply different combinations of initial conditions. TIMINT. along with other load step options such as whether to step or ramp the loads.. For instance. and so on.This is similar to the above case. as shown below.Section 5.1.OFF D. Initial accelerations ( o ) are always assumed to be zero. The first step in applying transient loads is to establish initial conditions (that is.0. the initial velocity at every other DOF will be 0. that is. you do not need to specify anything.UY ! ! ! ! ! Time integration effects off Initial displacement = 1. For each load step.ALL. use automatic time stepping.. (assuming Y-direction velocity) Initial velocity = 0.The nonzero velocity is established by applying small displacements over a small time interval on the part of the structure where velocity is to be specified. TIMINT. you will want to define initial conditions at every unconstrained DOF in your model. you need to specify both load values and time values. if uo = 1.001 TIME. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the TIMINT and IC commands. Zero initial displacement and nonzero initial velocity .ALL.. For example if u u uo = 0. Zero initial displacement and zero initial velocity .ALL. ..ALL.4 LSWRITE DDELE.These are the default conditions. both uo and o are assumed to be zero.. Command(s): IC GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define Caution: Be careful not to define inconsistent initial conditions.You can set these initial conditions with the IC command.S01) Remove imposed displacements uo = 2. except that the imposed displacements are actual values instead of "small" values. For example. if uo = o = 0. In most cases. Establishing initial conditions is described below.001 over a time interval of 0.S01) Remove imposed displacements Time integration effects on Nonzero initial displacement and nonzero initial velocity .4: . you can apply a displacement of 0. ANSYS Release 8. 5–5 . the remaining tasks are described later in this chapter. as documented below (rather than by using the IC command).0/0. You may apply the loads corresponding to the first corner of the load-versus-time curve in the first load step.5 Write load data to load step file (Jobname.ON . You then specify the loads and load step options for the second and subsequent transient load steps.004.0 and a displacement of 1.001/0.0 TIME.UY TIMINT.5.UY. it is usually much easier to define initial conditions explicitly.. Nonzero initial displacement and/or nonzero initial velocity .0 Initial velocity = 1.25. 001972 . If these conditions are not the same at every DOF.25 Write load data to load step file (Jobname. A transient dynamic analysis requires two sets of initial conditions (because the equations being solved are of u u second order): initial displacement (uo) and initial velocity ( o ). If no special action is taken..OFF D. potentially leading to conflicting initial conditions.. you would apply Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP.004 = 0. Inc.

. . .001 ! Small time interval NSUBST.1 ! Stepped loads ! The structure must be unconstrained in the initial load step.001 ! Small time interval NSUBST. ! Time integration effects on Nonzero initial displacement and zero initial velocity .81 ! Initial Y-direction acceleration TIME. or ! else the initial acceleration specification will have no effect. © SAS IP.. TIME. ANSYS Release 8.0: .. DDELE.UY ! Remove displacement constraints KBC.This requires the use of two substeps (NSUBST.. LSWRITE.3.1.1..S02) . the commands to apply an initial acceleration of 9.2) with a step change in imposed displacements (KBC. leading to a nonzero initial velocity.7: Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step). ! Realistic time interval NSUBST.S01) ! Transient solution TIME. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box To access the Solution Controls dialog box. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for discussions of the ACEL.0 ! Ramped loads (if appropriate) ! Continue with normal transient solution procedures . NSUBST. “Structural Static Analysis”) with the following additions: If you need to establish initial conditions for the full transient dynamic analysis (as described in Section 5.S01) ! Transient solution TIMINT.2 ! Two substeps KBC.. Inc.. DDELE. ! Constrain structure as desired ! Continue with normal transient solution procedures LSWRITE ! Write load data to load step file (Jobname. . 5.4.1).. Nonzero initial acceleration . ! Realistic time interval DDELE..2: Set Solution Controls in Chapter 2.3.UY..This can be approximated by specifying the required acceleration (ACEL) over a small interval of time. TIMINT.1 ! Stepped loads LSWRITE ! Write load data to load step file (Jobname. ! Remove displacement constraints (if appropriate) LSWRITE ! Write load data to load step file (Jobname. For example. and KBC commands. KBC.ALL. ACEL.ON ! Time-integration effects on for transient solution TIME. You can then cycle through the Solution Controls dialog box additional times to set individual load step options for the second and subsequent load steps (as described in Section 5. Without the step change (or with just one substep). . choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control.. 001972 .....0 and o = 0.ON . ! Use appropriate time step KBC.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis TIMINT.9..ALL.2 ! Two substeps KBC..4.0 ! Ramped loads (if appropriate) D. Set Solution Controls This step for a transient dynamic analysis is the same as for a basic structural analysis (see Section 2..OFF ! Time integration effects off for static solution D.. 5..81 would look like this: .0 TIME. The following sections provide brief descriptions of the options that appear on each tab of the dialog 5–6 Structural Analysis Guide .1 .2: Establish Initial Conditions). The example below shows how u to apply uo = 1. you must do so for the first load step of the analysis.3..0 ! Initial displacement = 1...4. the imposed displacements would vary directly with time..4..

1: “Transient Tab Options”. see Section 5. The time step size determines the accuracy of the solution: the smaller its value. and click the Help button.3. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab. large rotation. help to limit the range of variation of the time step. Using the Transient Tab You can use the Transient tab to set the options listed in Table 5. we recommend that you turn on automatic time stepping. only the last substep (time-point) is written to the results file (Jobname. When setting OUTRES.2. You should consider several factors in order to calculate a "good" integration time step. you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to adjust the default settings for the more advanced controls.1 . or you have previously completed a static prestress or a full transient dynamic analysis. remember that this load step option (which is also known as time-step optimization in a transient analysis) increases or decreases the integration time step based on the response of the structure. and then click the Help button.2: Automatic Time Stepping for more information. 5. 001972 .Section 5. To write all substeps.1: “Basic Tab Options”. Special considerations for setting these options in a full transient analysis include: • When setting ANTYPE and NLGEOM. slender bar under bending) or large strains (as in a metal-forming problem). For details about how to set these options. choose Small Displacement Transient if you are performing a new analysis and you want to ignore large deformation effects such as large deflection. and click the Help button. “Memory Management and Configuration” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide).3. You can specify the time increment directly or indirectly (that is. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options. Also. keep this caution in mind: Caution: By default. • • • 5. access the dialog box. Using the Basic Tab The Basic tab is active when you access the dialog box. in terms of the number of substeps). with upper and lower limits for the integration time step. by default.4. Inc. the program will terminate with an error.1: Guidelines for Integration Time Step for details. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box. Structural Analysis Guide .10. specified using DELTIM or NSUBST. access the dialog box. The integration time step is the time increment used in the time integration of the equations of motion. If this number is exceeded (based on your OUTRES specification). select the tab that you are interested in (from within the ANSYS program). The default is ON. see Section 5. ANSYS Release 8. © SAS IP.NRES to increase the limit (see Chapter 19. When setting AUTOTS.3. set the Frequency so that it writes all of the substeps. select the Transient tab. Use the command /CONFIG. For most problems. NSUBST and DELTIM are load step options that specify the integration time step for a transient analysis. Choose Restart Current Analysis if you want to restart a failed nonlinear analysis. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis” also contains details about the nonlinear options introduced in this chapter. the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes.4. Choose Large Displacement Transient if you expect large deflections (as in the case of a long. select the Basic tab. For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options.10. These limits. and you want to extend the time-history. the higher the accuracy. only 1000 results sets can be written to the results file.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis box. The controls that appear on the Basic tab provide the minimum amount of data that ANSYS needs for the analysis. and large strain. Chapter 8. You can use the Basic tab to set the options listed in Table 2. 5–7 .RST) in a full transient dynamic analysis.

Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis Table 5.2: Transient Analysis in the ANSYS. Transient integration parameters control the nature of the Newmark and HHT time integration techniques.1. Inc. “Structural Static Analysis”: 5–8 Structural Analysis Guide . The default is Newmark method. Theory Reference ANSYS.3.4. “Structural Static Analysis” for a list of these options: • • • Section 2. Inc. See the following sections of Chapter 2. along with descriptions of those options that are the same.3. see the following sections of Chapter 2.5: Stepping or Ramping Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 5. Exception: You cannot use arc-length options in a full transient analysis.6: Using the Advanced NL Tab.1 Transient Tab Options Option Specify whether time integration effects are on or off (TIMINT) Specify whether to ramp the load change over the load step or to step-apply the load change (KBC) For more information about this option.3: Damping in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Section 17.5: Using the Nonlinear Tab Section 2.2. 001972 . • • • 5. see: • Section 8. TRNOPT (TINTOPT) specifies the time integration method to be used. Time integration effects must be turned on for inertia and damping effects to be included in the analysis (otherwise a static solution is performed).10. that is. ANSYS Release 8.4. or mass.3.4.2: Damping Option for other damping options. Inc. This option is useful when beginning a transient analysis from an initial static solution. Theory Reference • • Specify mass and stiffness damping (ALPHAD. .3.4.2. For a general description of what additional solution options are.5: Stepped Versus Ramped Loads in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide Section 2.4.4. See Section 5. TINTP is a dynamic load step option that specifies transient integration parameters. ALPHAD (alpha. Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis.2. © SAS IP. so the default is to include time integration effects. or stiffness.6: Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Section 2.4: Using the Sol'n Options Tab Section 2.7. 5. Newmark or HHT (TRNOPT) Define integration parameters (TINTP) • • • Special considerations for setting these options in a full transient analysis include: • TIMINT is a dynamic load step option that specifies whether time integration effects are on or off. damping) are dynamic load step options for specifying damping options. BETAD) Choose the time integration method. damping) and BETAD (beta. the first load steps are solved with the time integration effects off. Using the Remaining Solution Controls Tabs The options on the remaining tabs in the Solution Controls dialog box for a full transient analysis are the same as the ones you can set for a static structural analysis. Set Additional Solution Options The additional solution options that you can set for a full transient analysis are mostly the same as the ones you can set for a static structural analysis.1 .

5.9: Extrapolation of Results Additional solution options for a full transient analysis that differ from those for a static analysis.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis • • • • • • Section 2.4.DMPR) is not applicable in transient analysis.3.10. Except for inertia loads. We recommend the default formulation for most applications. you can define loads either on the solid model (keypoints.3.3. To use this option: Command(s): LUMPM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options 5. Command(s): PSTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options 5. 5.4.1 .1. see Section 5. Prestress Effects You may include prestress effects in your analysis. Mass Matrix Formulation Use this analysis option to specify a lumped mass matrix formulation. Table 2.3.DAMP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping Note that constant material damping coefficient (MP.9: Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis for details.4.8: Printed Output Section 2.3.3. lines. Section 2.2.5: “Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis” summarizes the loads applicable to a transient dynamic analysis.4.3: Using the Transient Tab). 5.3. the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter run time and lower memory requirements. such as slender beams or very thin shells. the lumped mass approximation might provide better results.3.4.1: Stress Stiffening Effects Section 2. Inc. Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis. Damping Option Use this load step option to include damping. © SAS IP. and so on) To use the MP form of damping: Command(s): MP.DAMP) Element damping (COMBIN7.3: Set Additional Solution Options Section 2. you can specify the following additional forms of damping for a full transient dynamic analysis: • • Material-dependent beta damping (MP. or have different descriptions are presented in the following sections.3. However. In addition to setting ALPHAD and BETAD on the Solution Controls dialog box (as described in Section 5.3. This requires element files from a previous static (or transient) analysis. 5–9 .3: Damping for further details.4.2: Newton-Raphson Option Section 2. for some problems involving "skinny" structures.4.3. ANSYS Release 8.4: Structural Analysis Guide . Apply the Loads You are now ready to apply loads for the analysis.3.3. and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements).3.7: Creep Criteria Section 2. Also. 001972 .Section 5.4. See Section 5.

LNSRCH.. You can also apply time-dependent boundary conditions by defining a one-dimensional table (TABLE type array parameter).1: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters.. see Section 3. Start the Transient Solution Use one of these methods to start the transient solution: Command(s): LSSOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files For additional ways to create and solve multiple load steps (the array parameter method and the multiple SOLVE method).6. CNVTOL.. see Chapter 2. TINTP. . KBC. Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step For each load step that you want to define for a full transient dynamic analysis. .8.1 . ... BETAD. . ERESX. You may also want to have an additional load step that extends past the last time point on the curve to capture the response of the structure after the transient loading.4. removed.2... “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.9. and write the load configuration to a file. Save the Load Configuration for the Current Load Step As described in Section 5.14: Solving Multiple Load Steps in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.4. . Loads .4. you can reset any of these load step options: TIMINT. OUTPR.. LSWRITE TIME..2: Establish Initial Conditions. LSWRITE Etc.DAMP. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as 5. loads can be applied... LSWRITE TIME. DELTIM.7.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis Apply the Loads describes the types of loads that are applicable. OUTRES.. In an analysis. That is.. NSUBST. . Command(s): LSWRITE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File 5. PRED.4. Inc. Save a Backup Copy of the Database Save a copy of the database to a named file. operated on. reset any desired solution controls and options. © SAS IP. CUTCONTROL. you need to apply loads and save the load configuration to a load step file for each corner of the load-versus-time curve.. For each load step.3. or deleted. KBC. NCNV. CRPLIM. MP. Loads ... ALPHAD. NEQIT. Loads . You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME. 001972 . KBC. . apply loads. 5–10 Structural Analysis Guide . KBC. For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite-element loads.4. AUTOTS. you need to repeat steps 3-6. TIME... 5. An example load step file is shown below: TIME. for each load step.4. and RESCONTROL. ! Time at the end of 1st transient load step ! Load values at above time ! Stepped or ramped loads ! Write load data to load step file ! Time at the end of 2nd transient load step ! Load values at above time ! Stepped or ramped loads ! Write load data to load step file ! Time at the end of 3rd transient load step ! Load values at above time ! Stepped or ramped loads ! Write load data to load step file 5. ANSYS Release 8. See Section 2.

Each variable is assigned a reference number.4. Some typical postprocessing operations for a transient dynamic analysis are explained below.11. © SAS IP.10. which is the general postprocessor. response frequency. you can identify the critical time points for further POST1 postprocessing. Define the variables.2. By reviewing the time-history results at strategic points throughout the model. Exit the Solution Processor Use one of these methods to exit the solution processor: Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.4: Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis 5.4. Command(s): NSOL (primary data. and so on) GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Note — In the mode superposition or reduced methods.1 . “Structural Static Analysis”. 1.4. nodal displacements) ESOL (derived data. POST1 is used to review results over the entire model at specific time points. 5. which is the time-history postprocessor. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions. or POST1.6: Review the Results in Chapter 2. 2. element solution data. that is. Inc. “Structural Static Analysis”. Command(s): PLVAR (graph variables) PRVAR.Section 5.4. number of equilibrium iterations. that is.11. or static. 5–11 . Graph or list the variables.3.1: What Is Postprocessing? in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Points to Remember The points to remember for a full transient analysis are the same as those for most structural analyses. See Section 2. such as stresses) RFORCE (reaction force data) FORCE (total force. Review the Results You review results for a full transient analysis in the same way that you review results for most structural analyses. 5. 001972 . known as variables.2: Points to Remember in Chapter 2. with variable number 1 reserved for time. Using POST26 POST26 works with tables of result item versus time. ANSYS Release 8. 5. see Section 4. Postprocessors You can review these results using either POST26.1. only static force is available with the FORCE command.6.11. See Section 2. EXTREM (list variables) GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes Structural Analysis Guide .4.11. 5. or inertia component of total force) SOLU (time step size. • • POST26 is used to review results at specific points in the model as functions of time.3. damping.3.

.. are available in POST26.TRANS ! Transient analysis TRNOPT.11. Use the SET command to identify the data set by load step and substep numbers or by time.. Sample Input for a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis A sample input listing for a full transient analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM.. such as performing math operations among variables. time. the results that are stored will be a linear interpolation between the two nearest time points.4.... Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions.. ! Time step size OUTRES. ! Time at end of load step AUTOTS. Note — If you specify a time for which no results are available.... See Section 2..4. /TITLE.. /PREP7 -----! Generate model --FINISH ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ! Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE....ON ! Auto time stepping DELTIM... Read in model data from the database file.. ! Mass damping BETAD.... Command(s): RESUME GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume from Read in the desired set of results. © SAS IP.11. ! Constraints F. 001972 . 3. See Chapter 6. ! Loads SF. .4. “The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details.3.. and moving array parameters into variables.5.. 5. 5... Inc.. ALPHAD.6.FULL ! Full method D. The typical POST1 operations that you perform for a transient dynamic analysis are the same as those that you perform for a static analysis. ! Store solution summary data 5–12 Structural Analysis Guide .4: Typical Postprocessing Operations for a list of these operations.. ! Stiffness damping KBC... 2.. ANSYS Release 8..12.1..4.. etc.1 .2 ! Initiate multiple load step solution FINISH ! ! Review the Results /POST26 SOLU..Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. Using POST1 1. for 2nd load step --LSWRITE ! Write 2nd load step SAVE LSSOLVE. ! Results file data options LSWRITE ! Write first load step -----! Loads. ! Ramped or stepped loads TIME.. Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> By Time/Freq Perform the necessary POST1 operations. moving variables into array parameters.

no nonzero loads or displacements are allowed (that is.5. ANSYS Mechanical.. do not apply to mode superposition... For the reduced mode-extraction method.5. Be sure to extract all modes that may contribute to the dynamic response... only u = 0 is valid as the initial condition). ! PRERR ! -----! Other postprocessing as --FINISH Read desired set of results into database Deformed shape Reaction loads Contour plot of nodal results Global percent error (a measure of mesh adequacy) desired See the ANSYS Commands Reference for discussions of the ANTYPE. See Section 5. BETAD. ALPHAD. 5.. Inc. • • • • 5–13 . ANSYS Structural.. ESOL.5: Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis NSOL.. ! PLDISP. © SAS IP. 5. ! PRRSOL.1. ESOL. 5.. Build the Model Building the model for a mode superposition transient dynamic analysis is the same as that described for the full method. 3. 2. PLNSOL. LSWRITE. subspace.. and ANSYS Professional products. Obtain the modal solution. BETAD.... RFORCE.2. SOLU. 5. Obtain the Modal Solution Chapter 3.. Expand the mode superposition solution.. LSSOLVE.. Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (obtained from a modal analysis) to calculate the dynamic response. NSOL. PLVAR.. PLVAR. PRVAR..) PowerDynamics does not create a load vector. therefore. If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method. Following are some additional hints: • The mode-extraction method should be Block Lanczos (default). reduced. (The other methods. DELTIM. the LVSCALE command is not valid unless the scale factor is set to zero. PRRSOL. FINISH ! ! ! ! ! Store nodal result as a variable Store element result as a variable Store reaction as a variable Plot variables List variables /POST1 SET. unsymmetric and damped.. RFORCE. AUTOTS. PRVAR. Review the results. include those master degrees of freedom at those nodes at which forces and gap conditions are to be defined.. and PRERR commands.. PowerDynamics does not create a load vector.Section 5. TRNOPT.1 .. KBC. ! PLNSOL. MP. PLDISP.. or element damping including gyroscopic) that you want to include during preprocessing or Structural Analysis Guide . The procedure to use the method consists of five main steps: 1. Build the model. Obtain the mode superposition transient solution.DAMP. OUTRES. If PowerDynamics was used for the modal solution. TIME. 001972 . ANSYS Release 8. PowerDynamics.4..1: Build the Model for more information. 4. or QR damped... you must specify any damping (ALPHAD..5. This method is available in the ANSYS Multiphysics. “Modal Analysis” describes how to obtain a modal solution.

4: Set Additional Solution Options).2. if any. nodal rotations) should not be changed between the modal and transient analyses. but a load vector will be calculated and written to the mode shape file (Jobname.MODE) must be available. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for mode superposition transient analyses. Inc. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is. Obtain the Mode Superposition Transient Solution In this step.1 .11.) You can set a constant damping ratio (DMPRAT) or define the damping ratio as a function of mode (MDAMP) in a modal superposition harmonic analysis. see Section 3.4: Set Additional Solution Options) and the standard corresponding menu paths.4. Restarts are not available (ANTYPE).5.3: Set Solution Controls and Section 5. For details.DMPR) is not applicable in transient analysis.” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session.4. 5. solution options that are valid for you to use. • • Specify displacement constraints.MODE). • • • 5–14 . © SAS IP. • • 5. except for the following differences: • You cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to define analysis type and analysis options for a mode superposition transient analysis. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and analysis options. Note that constant material damping coefficient (MP.) The model data (for example. Choose the mode superposition method of solution (TRNOPT). (ANSYS ignores damping specified during the mode superposition harmonic analysis.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis in the modal analysis. accelerations. The modes need not be expanded for the mode superposition solution. you must specify them in the modal analysis. temperatures. You can then use this load vector for the transient solution. you must expand the mode shapes. and so on) in the transient dynamic analysis.4.5.5. Points to Remember • • The mode shape file (Jobname. however. a Solution menu that is appropriate for that specific type of analysis appears. Obtaining the Solution The procedure to obtain the mode superposition transient solution is described below: 1. If you need to apply element loads (pressures.3. you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands (which are listed in Section 5. 001972 . (If you want to review mode shapes from a reduced modal solution. but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis). ANSYS Release 8.1. These are the same as the analysis options that are described for the full method (in Section 5. select the Unabridged Menu option from the Solution menu.3. The database must contain the same model for which the modal solution was obtained. Enter SOLUTION. Instead.3: Set Solution Controls and Section 5. the program uses mode shapes extracted by the modal solution to calculate the transient response. Structural Analysis Guide . 5. These constraints will be ignored if they are specified in the mode superposition transient solution instead of in the modal solution. When you specify a mode superposition transient analysis. The loads are ignored for the modal solution.4.3.1: Using Abridged Solution Menus in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged. 2.

They can only be defined between two master degree of freedom (DOF) nodes or between master DOF nodes and ground. Define gap conditions. active DOF. In modal superposition transient analyses. 5.1 . BETAD. If you do not want to use rigid body (0 frequency) modes. and a load vector created in the modal analysis are valid. use MINMODE on the TRNOPT command to skip over them. More details about gap conditions are presented in Section 5. If you expect higher frequencies to be excited. NROPT) are not available. For this pseudo-static analysis. 001972 . SSTIF. as explained next. ANSYS Release 8. © SAS IP. The following load step options are available for the first load step: Table 5. • Multiple load steps are usually required to specify the load history in a transient analysis.1.2 Options for the First Load Step-Mode Superposition Analysis Option Dynamics Options Transient Integration Paramet. • • 3. When a non-reduced mode-extraction method is used. forces may be applied only at master DOF. gap conditions are not supported. MP. you should use all modes that you think will contribute to the dynamic response. Generally. If mode shapes from a reduced modal solution are being used. At a minimum. Use the LVSCALE command (Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Load Vector> For Mode Super) to apply the load vector from the modal solution. The first load step is used to establish initial conditions. The default is to use all modes calculated in the modal solution. Nonlinear options (NLGEOM. Command(s): GP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> Define Apply loads to the model. if any. the only load applicable for the first load step is initializing nodal forces. If you used the QR damped mode-extraction method. DMPRAT.3. a master DOF implies an unconstrained.Section 5.TINTP ers Load Vector Damping LVSCALE ALPHAD. This determines the accuracy of the transient solution. accelerations. 4. the mode superposition method may yield poor results at TIME = 0 if nonzero loads are applied. a first solution is done at TIME = 0. The following loading restrictions apply in a mode superposition transient dynamic analysis: • Only forces. 5–15 .5: Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis • Specify the number of modes you want to use for the solution (TRNOPT). This establishes the initial condition and time step size for the entire transient analysis. Imposed nonzero displacements are ignored. MDAMP Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Load Vector> For Mode Super Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping Command GUI Path General Options Structural Analysis Guide . Establish initial conditions.1: Gap Conditions. the number of modes specified should include the higher modes. Inc. for example. and second and subsequent load steps are used for the transient loading.6.

see your ANSYS. – Damping Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis. The DELTIM command is valid only in the first load step and is ignored in subsequent load steps. – Load Vector (LVSCALE) The load vector option allows you to apply a load vector created by the modal solution as one of the loads.1 . You can specify five forms of damping in a mode superposition transient dynamic analysis: ¡ Alpha (mass) damping (ALPHAD) ¡ Beta (stiffness) damping (BETAD) ¡ Constant damping ratio (DMPRAT) ¡ Material-dependent beta damping (MP.5. Note — If you do issue the TIME command in the first load step. Theory Reference for further details. Constant material damping coefficient (MP. temperatures. Write the first load step to a load step file (Jobname. See Section 5. any damping that you specify in the mode superposition transient analysis is ignored if you used the QR damped mode-extraction method.DMPR) is not applicable in transient analysis. • The output control option for the first load step is printed output (OUTPR). You can use such a load vector to apply element loads (pressures. Inc. Command(s): LSWRITE Structural Analysis Guide . • The only valid general option for the first load step is integration time step (DELTIM). as described earlier in Section 5. which is assumed to be constant throughout the transient. The default is to use the constant average acceleration scheme.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis Option Integration Time Step Output Control Options Printed Output OUTPR Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Command DELTIM GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step • Dynamics options include the following: – Transient Integration Parameters (TINTP) Transient integration parameters control the nature of the Newmark time integration technique. 001972 .DAMP) ¡ Modal damping (MDAMP) Remember that. and so on) on the model. 5–16 . The first solution is always a static solution at TIME = 0. 6. Use this option to control printout of the displacement solution at the master DOF. it will be ignored.3: Damping for further details. the integration time step is assumed to be 1/(20f).2: Obtain the Modal Solution. ANSYS Release 8. © SAS IP. where f is the highest frequency chosen for the solution.S01) by issuing the LSWRITE command.10. By default. Inc.

Specify loads and load step options for the transient loading portion.SUBSP).RDSP file. The expansion pass will only produce valid results for those nodes and for those elements in which all of the nodes of the elements have been written to the . writing each load step to a load step file (LSWRITE). Start the transient solution. 8.FREQ. Save a backup copy of the database to a named file. in which case the default is to write every solution).Section 5.ANSYS uses the last frequency specified by OUTRES. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as 9. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. you may use a nodal component with the OUTRES. – Database and Results File Output (OUTRES) This option controls the data on the reduced displacement file.NSOL.LANB or MODOPT.RDSP file. Structural Analysis Guide .NSOL command to limit the displacement data written to the reduced displacement file Jobname.COMP. – Load Vector (LVSCALE) The load vector option allows you to apply a load vector created by the modal solution as one of the loads. • General options include the following: – Time Option (TIME) This option specifies time at the end of the load step. • Output control options include the following: – Printed Output (OUTPR) Use this option to control printed output. The default is ramped. 10. Only one output frequency is allowed .NONE. Repeat the OUTRES command for any additional nodal components that you want to write to the .1 . then specify the item(s) of interest by invoking OUTRES. © SAS IP. ANSYS Release 8.NSOL. Inc. 5–17 . If you used either the Block Lanczos (default) or subspace option for the modal analysis (MODOPT.1). The only valid label on these commands is NSOL (nodal solution). Leave SOLUTION. Command(s): LSSOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files 11. To use this option. The default for OUTRES is to write the solution for every fourth time-point to the reduced displacement file (unless there are gap conditions defined. first suppress all writing by invoking OUTRES. – Stepped or Ramped Loads (KBC) This option indicates whether to ramp the load change over the load step (KBC) or to step-apply the load change (KBC.5: Performing a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File 7. 001972 .RDSP.

5. 5. and reaction forces at each time-point for which the solution was expanded. containing expanded results.TRI is needed only if the reduced method was used for the modal solution..MSUP. Note — In the mode superposition or reduced methods. /PREP7 -----! Generate model --FINISH ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ! Obtain the Modal Solution /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION ANTYPE.. . The output from the expansion pass includes the structural results file. stresses.3: Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass)).4..RST...REDU ! Reduced method M... 001972 .Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis The mode superposition transient solution is written to the reduced displacement file.. ! Ramped or stepped loads OUTRES...4.. Sample Input for a Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis A sample input listing for a mode superposition transient analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model /FILNAM. © SAS IP.. ! Mode superposition method LVSCALE... Block Lanczos... Expand the Mode Superposition Solution The procedure for the expansion pass is the same as described for the reduced method (see Section 5.. only static force is available with the FORCE command.. ANSYS Release 8. for 2nd load step TIME..MODAL ! Modal analysis MODOPT. ! Time at end of second load step KBC. ! Element loads ACEL... reduced..5. ! Integration time step sizes LSWRITE ! Write first load step (Remember: the first load step --! is solved statically at time=0.5.. SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! Obtain the Mode Superposition Transient Solution /SOLU ! Reenter SOLUTION ANTYPE. Review the Results Results consist of displacements. Jobname.5. Inc.RDSP..) -----! Loads..... ! Constraints SF... ! Modal damping ratios DELTIM. regardless of whether the subspace.6...1 .TRANS ! Transient analysis TRNOPT. Jobname. ! Results-file data controls --LSWRITE ! Write 2nd load step (first transient load step) SAVE 5–18 Structural Analysis Guide .5... D. You can review these results using POST26 or POST1.. PowerDynamics. as explained for the full method (see Section 5.6... ! Nodal Loads MDAMP... ! Scale factor for element loads F. ! Master DOF TOTAL... /TITLE... 5.. Jobname. or QR damped method was used for the modal solution. etc.11: Review the Results). You will therefore need to expand the solution if you are interested in stress results..

PLNSOL. TOTAL... ! Read desired set of results into database PLDISP. as its name implies. KBC. MODOPT.. SOLU.. Command(s): /SOLU Structural Analysis Guide .1. Expand the solution (expansion pass).Section 5.ON ! Expansion pass NUMEXP. 001972 . 5.RDSP ! Results file is Jobname.. The tasks required to obtain the reduced solution are explained in the following sections. you need to first enter the SOLUTION processor.. ! Store solution summary data NSOL. OUTRES. ACEL. FILE. the first step is the same as for the full method. of solutions to expand. ! Results-file data controls SOLVE FINISH ! Review the Results of the Expanded Solution /POST1 SET. OUTRES. except that no nonlinearities are allowed (other than simple node-to-node contact. 5. Obtain the reduced solution. Obtain the Reduced Solution By reduced solution. and PRERR commands. ! Contour plot of nodal results PRERR ! Global percent error (a measure of mesh adequacy) -----! Other postprocessing as desired --FINISH See the ANSYS Commands Reference for discussions of the ANTYPE. 5–19 . MDAMP. we mean the degree of freedom solution calculated at the master DOF. and ANSYS Structural products...RDSP SOLU. Review the results of the reduced solution. LVSCALE... TRNOPT. M.. uses reduced matrices to calculate the dynamic response. LSSOLVE.. ! Reaction loads PLNSOL. Build the model. It is available in the ANSYS Multiphysics. time range OUTRES. DELTIM.. PLDISP. ANSYS Release 8. 2. ! No.6.... NUMEXP.. ! Deformed shape PRRSOL... Details of the other steps are explained below. ANSYS Mechanical. PLVAR...6..6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis LSSOLVE FINISH ! Initiate multiple load step solution ! Review results of the mode superposition solution /POST26 ! Enter POST26 FILE. Inc. NSOL. EXPASS. Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis The reduced method. For the following tasks. The procedure for a reduced transient dynamic analysis consists of these main steps: 1.... TIME. which is specified in the form of a gap condition instead of an element type). 3... Review the results of the expanded solution. 4. © SAS IP. ! Plot variables PRVAR.. You should consider using this method if you do not want to include nonlinearities (other than simple node-to-node contact) in the analysis. Of these.. ! Store nodal result as a variable PLVAR. PRVAR. 5.. ! List variables FINISH ! Expand the Solution /SOLU ! Reenter SOLUTION EXPASS.1 . PRRSOL..

Instead. Command(s): GP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> Define You can also list the defined gaps and delete gaps. master DOF are also required at locations where you want to define gap conditions.4: Set Additional Solution Options) except for the following differences: • You cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to define analysis type and analysis options for a reduced transient dynamic analysis. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for reduced transient analyses. solution options that are valid for you to use. but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis).1. Choose the reduced method of solution (TRNOPT).14: Matrix Reduction for guidelines to choose master DOF. Gap Conditions Gap conditions can only be defined between two master degree of freedom (DOF) nodes or between master DOF nodes and ground.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis GUI: Main Menu> Solution 5.1. NROPT) are not available.4. see Section 3. MGEN. For details. © SAS IP.6. MLIST. You can list the defined master DOF or delete master DOF as well.2.3.6. See Section 3. select the Unabridged Menu option from the Solution menu.1. Restarts are not available (ANTYPE). Define Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOF are essential degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure. 001972 .3. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is.4: Set Additional Solution Options) and the standard corresponding menu paths.3: Set Solution Controls and Section 5. forces.1. GPDELE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> List All Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> Delete 5. MDELE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Copy Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> Program Selected Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> List All Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Delete 5.4. a Solution menu that is appropriate for that specific type of analysis appears. TOTAL.1: Using Abridged Solution Menus in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. For a reduced transient dynamic analysis. Command(s): GPLIST.4. Define Gap Conditions Define any gap conditions.1.6. Define the Analysis Type and Options These are the same as the analysis options that are described for the full method (in Section 5. The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged. • • • • 5. When you specify a reduced transient analysis. or nonzero displacements. . you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands (which are listed in Section 5.11.3: Set Solution Controls and Section 5.1. 5–20 Structural Analysis Guide .6.1 .4. Command(s): M. Nonlinear options (NLGEOM. ANSYS Release 8. as shown in the following figure.” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session. Inc. SSTIF.

multiple load steps are usually required to specify the load history in a transient analysis. Acceleration loading is not allowed if the model contains any master DOF at any nodes with rotated nodal coordinate systems. You can estimate the adjacent element stiffness using AE/L. If the stiffness is too low. therefore they cannot be used to specify an initial velocity. where A is the contributing area around the gap condition. • 5. by using an equivalent nodal load vector. The only initial condition that may be explicitly established is the initial displacement (uo). to determine uo. In a reduced transient analysis. that is. and translational accelerations (such as gravity) are valid. initial velocity and acceleration must be zero ( o = 0. Inc. • Establish initial conditions. using the loads given. Forces and nonzero displacements must be applied only at master DOF.2 Examples of Gap Conditions Gap conditions are similar to gap elements and are specified between surfaces that are expected to contact (impact) each other during the transient. Damping conditions are ignored for the reduced transient analysis method.6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis Figure 5.1.1 . as explained next. Apply Initial Conditions to the Model The following loading restrictions apply in a reduced transient dynamic analysis: • • Only displacements. which develops when the gap closes. and L is the depth of the first layer of elements at the interface. E is the elastic modulus of the softer material at the interface. u u 5–21 . Only TRNOPT = MSUP allows the nonlinear gap damping action. As mentioned for the full method. forces. © SAS IP. Displacements cannot be deleted in subsequent load steps. Some guidelines to define gap conditions are presented below: • • Use enough gap conditions to obtain a smooth contact stress distribution between the contacting surfaces. 001972 . and second and subsequent load steps are used for the transient loading. ANSYS Release 8. Structural Analysis Guide . a static solution is always performed as the first solution. Define a reasonable gap stiffness. The ANSYS program accounts for the gap force. If the stiffness is too high.4. The nonlinear gap damping provided through the DAMP field of the GP command runs faster than a full transient analysis using a gap element COMBIN40. a very small time step will be required during impact. o = 0). the contacting surfaces may overlap too much.6.Section 5. A general recommendation is to specify a gap stiffness that is one or two orders of magnitude higher than the adjacent element stiffness. The first load step is used to establish initial conditions.

DAMP Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time.10. The first solution is always a static solution at TIME = 0. . 001972 . Note — If you do issue the TIME command for the first load step. The integration time step is assumed to be constant throughout the transient. Inc. Inc.6. Dynamics Options Dynamic options include the following: • Transient Integration Parameters (TINTP) Transient integration parameters control the nature of the Newmark time integration technique.4.3 Options for the First Load Step-Reduced Analysis Option Dynamics Options Transient Integration Parameters Damping TINTP ALPHAD. ANSYS Release 8.1.1. MP. see the ANSYS. it will be ignored.Time Step Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Command GUI Path General Options Integration Time Step Output Control Options Printed Output OUTPR DELTIM 5. Valid options appear in Table 5. 5. © SAS IP. • Damping Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis. You can specify four forms of damping in a reduced transient dynamic analysis: – – – – Alpha (mass) damping (ALPHAD) Beta (stiffness) damping (BETAD) Material-dependent beta damping (MP.4. 5–22 Structural Analysis Guide .6.DAMP) Element damping (COMBIN7.3: “Options for the First Load Step-Reduced Analysis”. and so on) See Section 5.1 .1. The default is to use the constant average acceleration scheme. Theory Reference for further details.2. BETAD. General Options The only valid general option is Integration Time Step (DELTIM). Table 5.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis • Specify load step options for the first load step.3: Damping for further details.

6.1.2.3.4.6. except for the following differences: • Before defining the POST26 variables.7. (POST1 cannot be used.RDSP. The following load step options are valid for the transient load steps: • General Options – – • Time (specifies the time at the end of the load step) (TIME) Stepped (KBC. Specify Loads and Load Step Options Specify loads and load step options for the transient loading portion. if the jobname is TRANS. Write the First Load Step to a Load Step File Write the first load step to a load step file (Jobname.1. © SAS IP. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution Results from the reduced transient dynamic solution are written to the reduced displacement file.Section 5. use the FILE command (Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> File) to specify that data are to be read from Jobname. Jobname. 5–23 .8: Save a Backup Copy of the Database Section 5.6. in which case the default is to write every solution).6. Inc.6. Command(s): LSWRITE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File 5. 001972 .4.4.RDSP. See the following sections for a description of those steps: • • • Section 5. 5.) The procedure to use POST26 is the same as described for the full method.6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. ANSYS Release 8. the Structural Analysis Guide . They consist of time-varying displacements at the master DOF.4.1 .6.S01).9: Start the Transient Solution Section 5.10: Exit the Solution Processor 5. because the complete solution at all DOF is not available. The default for OUTRES is to write the solution for every fourth time-point to the reduced displacement file (unless there are gap conditions defined.5. writing each load step to a load step file (LSWRITE).1. 5. Output Control Options Use the Printed Output (OUTPR) option to output the displacement solution at the master DOF. Obtaining the Solution Solving a reduced transient dynamic analysis involves the same steps as those involved in solving a full transient analysis. For example.1. You can review the master DOF displacements as a function of time using POST26.1) or ramped loads (KBC) Output Controls – Printed output (OUTPR) – Reduced displacement file (OUTRES) The only valid label on these commands is NSOL (nodal solution).

001972 .6.6.TRANS.) • Only nodal degree of freedom data (at master DOF) are available for processing.6.ESAV. (By default. Inc. Before you begin the expansion pass.TRI files from the reduced solution must be available. therefore. However. or if you are interested in the stress or force solution. .4 Expansion Pass Options Option Expansion Pass On/Off Command EXPASS GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> By Time/Freq No. and . which is not written by a reduced transient solution. ANSYS Release 8. . you should review the results of the reduced solution (using POST26) and identify the critical time points.DB.1.2.RDSP. Expanding the Solution 1.NUMEXP ded Single Solution to Expand EXPSOL • Option: Expansion Pass On/Off (EXPASS) Choose ON.3.EMAT. Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass) The expansion pass starts with the reduced solution and calculates the complete displacement.RDSP. 5. POST26 looks for a results file. 5. if you want to determine displacements at non-master DOF. if you are interested mainly in displacements at specific points on the structure. The procedure for the expansion pass is explained below.3. Reenter SOLUTION. Points to Remember • • The .Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis FILE command would be: FILE. stress. then you must perform an expansion pass. so you can use only the NSOL command to define variables. The database must contain the same model for which the reduced solution was calculated. of Solutions to be Expan. and force solution at all degrees of freedom.3. then the reduced solution could satisfy your requirements. Activate the expansion pass and its options. • Option: Number of Solutions to be Expanded (NUMEXP) 5–24 Structural Analysis Guide . For instance.1 . 2. 5. © SAS IP. . These calculations are done only at time points that you specify. Table 5. Note — An expansion pass is not always required. . Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Note — You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass.

You can specify it either by load step and substep number or by time. ANSYS Release 8. 6. Each expansion pass is stored as a separate load step on the results file.OUT). Start expansion pass calculations. you can also use POST26 to obtain graphs of stress versus time. strain versus time. 5. Specify load step options. 4. Structural Analysis Guide . and so on. See Section 2. 5–25 . 3.6: Review the Results in Chapter 2.3. and 4 for additional solutions to be expanded. Inc. 001972 . Leave SOLUTION.Section 5. – Extrapolation of Results (ERESX) Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default). © SAS IP.6. You can review these results using POST1. Also specify whether to calculate stresses and forces (default is to calculate both). 5.4. • Option: Single Solution to Expand (EXPSOL) Use this option to identify a single solution for expansion if you do not need to expand multiple solutions in a range. Also specify whether to calculate stresses and forces (default is to calculate both). Review the Results of the Expanded Solution You review results for an expansion pass in the same way that you review results for most structural analyses.RST). Note — The FREQ field on OUTPR and OUTRES can only be ALL or NONE. The only options valid for a transient dynamic expansion pass are output controls: • Output Controls – Printed Output (OUTPR) Use this option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname. – Database and Results File Output (OUTRES) This option controls the data on the results file (Jobname. (If you expanded solutions at several time points. “Structural Static Analysis”.6: Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis Specify the number. This number of evenly spaced solutions will be expanded over the specified time range.1 . 3.) The procedure to use POST1 (or POST26) is the same as described for the full method. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution window. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Repeat steps 2. The solutions nearest these times will be expanded. ERESX allows you to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default).

Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) In this example. Inc.7.7. © SAS IP. .1 .6 in4 h = 18 in = 20 ft = 240 in. If the weight of the beam is considered to be negligible.075 sec 5–26 Structural Analysis Guide .1.0259067 kips-sec2/in The following geometric properties are used for this problem: l = 800. 5. a steel beam supporting a concentrated mass is subjected to a dynamic load. ANSYS Release 8.2. In this problem. Problem Description A steel beam of length and geometric properties shown in Problem Specifications is supporting a concentrated mass. A static solution is done at the first load step. 001972 . determine the time of maximum displacement response tmax and the response ymax. The time of maximum response (0.092 sec) is selected for the expansion pass calculation. Also determine the maximum bending stress σbend in the beam. Loading for this problem is: F1 = 20 kips tr = 0. Problem Specifications The following material properties are used for this problem: E = 30 x 103 ksi m = 0. you will perform a transient dynamic analysis using the reduced method to determine the transient response to a constant force with a finite rise in time. 5. The final time of 0. One master degree of freedom is selected at the mass in the lateral direction. Symmetry could have been used in this model.7.1 sec allows the mass to reach its largest deflection.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 5. m. The beam is not used in this solution and its area is arbitrarily input as unity. The beam is subjected to a dynamic load F(t) with a rise time tr and a maximum value F1.

Problem Sketch Figure 5. Enter the text "Transient response to a constant force with a finite rise time. 3. 6. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. Click on OK and click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. click on "2D elastic 3.7. 5. 5.3.3." Click on OK. 2. The Element Types dialog box appears. In the left scroll box. In the Element Types dialog box.7. click on "Structural Mass. 2.7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete." and click on Options. 001972 . 4. 5–27 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete." and click on OK.2. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. In the left scroll box. click on "Structural Beam." In the right scroll box.3.3 Model of a Steel Beam Supporting a Concentrated Mass 5. The Real Constants for BEAM3 dialog box appears. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears. Inc. Click on Type1 BEAM3 then Click on OK." In the right scroll box.Section 5. ANSYS Release 8. Define Element Types 1.1 . scroll to "2D w/o rot iner" and select it. The Real Constants dialog box appears. click on "3D mass 21. 3. 5.1. Structural Analysis Guide .3. Define Real Constants 1.7: Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) 5." and click on Apply.3. In the scroll box for Rotary inertia options. 3. 9. Specify the Title 1. Click on Add. 2.7. 7. 8. Click on Add. © SAS IP. click once on "Type 2.

3.0.3.” In the Real constant set number drop down menu. 3. Click once on nodes 1 and 3 in the ANSYS Graphics window.0. double-click on the following options: Structural. . and 18 for Height. Enter 1 for Area.3. enter 0. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. 6. The Elements from Nodes picking menu appears. 5–28 Structural Analysis Guide . 5. Click on OK. 9.7. 4. Isotropic. Z coordinates and click on OK. 7. 6. Click once on nodes 1 and 2.0259067 in the 2-D mass field and click on OK.3 for PRXY. 4. 5. click on Add. Click once on node 2 and click OK. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left.4. and click on Apply. Enter 30e3 for EX (Young's modulus). Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes. 6.7. In the Element type number drop down menu. 4. 800. 2. The Fill between Nds picking menu appears. 5. for MASS21 dialog box appears. Enter . 3. 7. Elastic. Define Elements 1. The Elements from Nodes picking menu appears. In the Material Models Available window. Y. The Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes dialog box appears. 2. Click once on nodes 2 and 3. Click on Type 2 MASS21 and click on OK. Define Nodes 1.6 for IZZ. and click on OK in the picking menu. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes. A dialog box appears. 5. Inc. Click on Close in the Real Constants dialog box. and click on OK.5.0. Click on OK to accept the default settings. ANSYS Release 8. and click on OK. 8. 7. Linear. select 2 and click OK. 8. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. 2. The Create Nodes in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. Enter 240. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS. 001972 . select “2 MASS21. The Element Attributes dialog box appears.1 . © SAS IP. Enter 3 for node number. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. The Real Constant Set Number 2.6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes. Define Material Properties 1.7.0 for X. Enter 1 for node number and click on Apply to define node 1 at 0. 5.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 4. In the Real Constants dialog box.

1 . 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis.7. The Define Master DOFs dialog box appears. In the drop down menu for 1st degree of freedom. Structural Analysis Guide . The Transient Analysis dialog box appears. 8. 4. 9. Inc. 5.8.3. 5.7. select "FY. 6.7: Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) 9. In the drop down menu for Damping effects. The Apply U. Click on node 3. 5–29 . 6. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.Section 5.11.7.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. Choose the menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step.3.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. select "UY. The Controls for Database and Results File Writing dialog box appears. Click on "Reduced" and click on OK. 5. 2. and click on OK.3. Define Analysis Type and Analysis Options 1. The Apply U. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. 4. Click on OK.9.7. 2. The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears. 4. Define Master Degrees of Freedom 1." Click on OK. The Apply U. Enter . 3." Click on OK.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. Click on OK. Click on node 1 and click on Apply. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. 001972 . The Apply U. In the drop down menu for Direction of force/mom. "UY" should remain selected." Leave the value as blank (zero) for the initial static solution.7. and click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. Apply Loads for the First Load Step 1. 5. Specify Output 1.10. and click on OK. 5.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. Set Load Step Options 1. 2. 3. select "Ignore. Click on "Transient" to select it. 3. © SAS IP. 5. The Define Master DOFs picking menu appears. ANSYS Release 8. Click on node 2 and click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define. Click on "UX" to select it. Click on node 2 and click on OK. The Time and Time Step Options dialog box appears.3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File. Click on "UY" to select it and click on Apply.3. 7.004 for Time step size and click on OK. The Reduced Transient Analysis dialog box appears.7.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS.092 for Time-point/Frequency and click on OK. 5.7. 5–30 Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass. and click on Close.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 2. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Finish. Review the information in the status window. 4.4. Structural Analysis Guide . and click on Close. © SAS IP. 4. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears.13.12. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>Time-Time Step.4. Click on the "Every substep" radio button and click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes. 3.075 for Time at end of load step and click on OK. The Expand Single Solution by Time/Frequency dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 5. Inc.4.2. The Time and Time Step Options dialog box appears. The Time and Time Step Options dialog box appears.3. Solve the First Load Step 1. Enter .7. Enter .3. 2. Solve the Next Load Step 1. and click on Close. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears 5. Review the information in the status window. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step. 4.7. The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears. 2. ANSYS Release 8. 4. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu >Solution> Solve> Current LS. 3. 6. 5.1. 3. Enter 0. Enter 20 for Force/moment value and click on OK. Apply Loads for the Next Load Step 1. Run the Expansion Pass and Solve 1.1 for Time at end of load step and click on OK. Set the Next Time Step and Solve 1. 7. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. 5.7. 2. 4. . The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears.7. Set the Expansion pass radio button to On and click on OK.1 . Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. Click on node 2 and click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> By Time/Freq. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. 5. Review the information in the status window. 2. 001972 . 3. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS.

5.4. 11. Pick node 2 and click OK. Enter 2 for 1st variable to graph and click on OK. 2. Click browse and select "file. Exit ANSYS 1. Make sure that 2 is entered for node number. Click on OK. The File Settings dialog box appears. Click on Add. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example transient dynamic analysis of a bracket using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices. 001972 . Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> File. 7. 10. Click on "Def + undeformed" and click on OK. Enter 2 for 1st variable to list and click on OK. Items prefaced with an exclamation point (!) are comments.Section 5. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears.8. 6.4. 8. 12. 3. Choose QUIT from the ANSYS Toolbar.4. 9. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. 5.5. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables. click on "Translation UY" to select it. Review the Results in POST1 1. © SAS IP.3. Review the information in the status window and click on Close.7. 2. ANSYS Release 8. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables. 5. 5–31 .BEAM3 ! 2-D beam Structural Analysis Guide .7. Click on the save option you want. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape. 14. In the right scroll box. Review the Results in POST26 1. Review the information in the status window. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables. The Define Nodal Data picking menu appears. and click on Close. 5. Enter NSOL for user-specified label. then click on Close in the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box.1. 15.8: Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method) 5.7.rdsp" and click on open then OK. /PREP7 /TITLE. 7. 13. The graph appears in the ANSYS Graphics window.4. Accept the default of 2 for the reference number of the variable. Inc.1 . Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. Transient Response to a Constant Force with a Finite Rise Time ET. 4. 5. and click on OK. The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box appears.

Prestressed Full Transient Dynamic Analysis You can include prestressing effects in a full transient dynamic analysis by applying the prestressing loads in a preliminary static load step. Inc. Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis A prestressed transient dynamic analysis calculates the dynamic response of a prestressed structure. I = 800.2 REAL.BASIC.FY.2! Beam elements EGEN.EX. depending on the type of transient dynamic analysis being performed. © SAS IP. such as a heat-treated part with residual thermal stresses.REDUC.1. Prestressed-analysis procedures vary.2 E.UX.0259067 MP.rdsp NSOL.9.2 PRVAR. h = 18 ! Mass ! Type 2 element with real constant 2 ! Master DOF in Y direction at middle of beam ! Transient dynamic analysis ! Reduced transient analysis.004 D.30e3 N.1 OUTRES.800.NSOL PLVAR.1.2.1 SOLVE FINISH ! 2-D mass ! Beam area = 1..1.1..) The procedure consists of two steps: 1. 001972 .Y.20 SOLVE TIME.file.240 FILL E.1 TYPE.0. and define a transient analysis type (ANTYPE..4 R.1. Build your model..6. .MASS21.9. ignore damping ! Integration time step size ! Force = 0 at Time = 0 ! Time at end of load step ! Force is ramped to 20 ! Constant force until time = 0.ON ! Expansion pass on EXPSOL.UY OUTPR.. enter SOLUTION.2.TRANS TRNOPT.ALL.18 R.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis ET.0 FILE. 5–32 Structural Analysis Guide .1 N.2.FY.1 F.3.UY FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.U. (Do not remove these loads in subsequent load steps..FIRST PLDISP. 5...2.075 F.0 SOLVE TIME. ANSYS Release 8..1 FINISH ! Define the variables ! Graph the variables ! List the variables ! Read in results ! Display deformed and undeformed shape 5.UY D.TRANS).1 /SOLU ! The following is the expansion pass using BEAM3 and MASS21 elements EXPASS.3.2.2 FINISH /POST1 SET.NODAMP DELTIM.2 M..2..1.092 ! Time of maximum response SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NUMVAR.2.1.2.1 ..6..

A time step that is too small will waste computer resources. It is assumed that the transient (time-varying) stresses (which are superimposed on the prestress) are much smaller than the prestress itself. you must first do a prestressed modal analysis. Prestressed Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis The procedure to do a prestressed reduced transient dynamic analysis requires that you first prestress the structure in a separate static analysis. See Chapter 3. automatic time stepping. In the case of geometric nonlinearities (large deformation effects). Once all load steps are written to files (LSWRITE). as explained below. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES. you can initiate the multiple load step solution (LSSOLVE).1 . the higher the accuracy. Other Analysis Details The following sections provide additional details about defining integration time step. you should use the full transient dynamic analysis. Reenter SOLUTION (/SOLU) and obtain the reduced transient solution. Once prestressed modal analysis results are available. Jobname. 5. Inc.OFF).10: Other Analysis Details • • • • • Apply all prestressing loads. Set time equal to some small dummy value (TIME). The procedure to obtain a static solution is explained in Chapter 2.1. you can capture the prestressing effect by issuing NLGEOM. © SAS IP.Section 5.ON. 5–33 . 1.EMAT. Files Jobname. Turn time integration effects off (TIMINT. and proceed using the full transient dynamic analysis procedures described previously. the accuracy of the transient dynamic solution depends on the integration time step: the smaller the time step. several load steps might be required to complete the static prestressing phase of your analysis. and damping. A time step that is too large will introduce error that affects the response of the higher modes (and hence the overall response). ANSYS Release 8. To calculate an optimum time step. Guidelines for Integration Time Step As mentioned earlier.9.2.10.DB. 001972 .S01 (LSWRITE). Prestressed Mode Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis In order to include prestress effects in a mode superposition analysis. 5. also with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES.ON). Turn stress stiffening effects on (SSTIF. and Jobname. If prestressing effects develop because of nonlinear behavior (as in the case of residual thermal stresses in a casting). 2. 5. 5.ON). “Modal Analysis” for details. Note — The static prestress solution must be done as a separate solution if initial conditions are to be defined with the IC command.3.10. “Structural Static Analysis”. For all subsequent load steps. you should consider the following guidelines: Structural Analysis Guide . 2.ESAV from the static analysis must be available.ON). If they are not.ON). turn time integration effects on (TIMINT. (Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define) The IC command is valid only in the first load step. Write your first load step to Jobname.9. proceed as for any other mode superposition analysis.

1 .4 Effect of Integration Time Step on Period Elongation For the HHT time integration method. 001972 . . Resolve the applied load-versus-time curve(s). Stepped loads require a small ITS at the time of the step change so that the step change can be closely followed. ANSYS Release 8. the same guidelines for time step should be applied. Transient Response”. it has been found that using approximately twenty points per cycle of the highest frequency of interest results in a reasonably accurate solution. Resolve the response frequency. the integration time step (ITS) is given by ITS = 1/20f Smaller ITS values may be required if acceleration results are needed. The following figure shows the effect of ITS on the period elongation of a single-DOF spring-mass system. Inc. Since the dynamic response of a structure can be thought of as a combination of modes. The time step should be small enough to resolve the motion (response) of the structure.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis 1. That is. © SAS IP. 5–34 Structural Analysis Guide . Figure 5.5: “Transient Input vs. For the Newmark time integration scheme. the time step should be able to resolve the highest mode that contributes to the response. especially for stepped loads. the HHT method will be more accurate compared to the Newmark method. as shown in Figure 5. if f is the frequency (in cycles/time). Note that if the same time step and time integration parameters are used. 2. ITS values as small as 1/180f may be needed to follow stepped loads. The time step should be small enough to “follow” the loading function. The response tends to lag the applied loads. Notice that 20 or more points per cycle result in a period elongation of less than 1 percent.

There are a few exceptions.10. Resolve the contact frequency. and N is the number of points per cycle. Resolve the nonlinearities. for example. Based on a problem time scale of unity. 5.10: Other Analysis Details Figure 5.5 Transient Input vs. Transient Response 3. The integration time step can be determined from the contact frequency (fc) as: ITS =1/Nfc fc =(1/ 2π) k /m where k is the gap stiffness. Exceedingly small numbers can cause numerical difficulties. Caution: Avoid using exceedingly small time steps. Otherwise. resulting in computer resource savings. however: if the structure tends to stiffen under the loading (for example. 5–35 . at least thirty points per cycle of (N = 30) are needed. The main benefit of this feature is that the total number of substeps can be reduced.Section 5. because the effect of any energy loss on the total response would be small. Inc. If you are interested in wave propagation effects. an apparent energy loss will occur and the impact will not be perfectly elastic. 4. ANSYS Release 8. also known as time step optimization. In problems involving contact (impact). use the minimum value for your analysis. For most nonlinear problems. © SAS IP. Resolve the wave propagation. you can let the ANSYS program decide when to increase or decrease the time step during the solution. a time step that satisfies the preceding guidelines is sufficient to resolve the nonlinearities. For the reduced and mode superposition methods. time steps smaller than 10-10 could cause numerical difficulties. To minimize the energy loss. the time step should be small enough to capture the momentum transfer between the two contacting surfaces. especially when establishing initial conditions. Automatic Time Stepping Automatic time stepping. m is the effective mass acting at the gap. the higher frequency modes that are excited will have to be resolved. the Structural Analysis Guide . Larger values of N may be required if acceleration results are needed. 5.4.2. Automatic time stepping is discussed next.1: Build the Model for a discussion of element size. You can use fewer than thirty points per cycle during impact if the contact period and contact mass are much less than the overall transient time and system mass. By using automatic time stepping.1 . the time step should be small enough to capture the wave as it travels through the elements. See Section 5. large deflection problems that change from bending to membrane load-carrying behavior). N must be at least 7 to ensure stability. attempts to adjust the integration time step during solution based on the response frequency and on the effects of nonlinearities. 001972 . Also. After calculating the time step using the appropriate guidelines.

If nonlinearities are present. seismic loading). where the time step tends to change continually as different frequencies are excited Kinematics (rigid-body motion) problems. nonlinearities.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis number of times that you might have to rerun the analysis (adjusting the time step size.5: “Damping for Different Analysis Types” shows the types of damping available for different structural analyses. Table 5. Table 5. © SAS IP. there are some cases where it may not be beneficial (and may even be harmful): • • • Problems that have only localized dynamic behavior (for example. You can specify more than one form of damping in a model. .DMPR N/A N/A 5–36 Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8. The constant material damping coefficient is only applicable in full and modal harmonic analyses. see Chapter 8. (For more information on automatic time stepping in the context of nonlinearities.10.) Although it seems like a good idea to activate automatic time stepping for all analyses. and Coefficient so on MP. turbine blade and hub assemblies).Dependent Constant Damping Damping Ratio MP. You can activate automatic time stepping with the AUTOTS command. where the rigid-body contribution to the response frequency term may dominate 5. The program will formulate the damping matrix (C) as the sum of all the specified forms of damping. and so on) is greatly reduced.DAMP DMPRAT N/A N/A Modal Damping MDAMP N/A Element Constant MaDamping(3) terial Damping COMBIN7.3. BETAD Static Modal Undamped Damped Harmonic Full Reduced Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No(5) Yes No(5) Yes No(5) No No No No Yes No No(7) N/A Material. where the low-frequency energy content of part of the system may dominate the high-frequency areas Problems that are constantly excited (for example.1 . Beta Damping ALAnalysis Type PHAD. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”. Damping Damping is present in most systems and should be specified in a dynamic analysis. The following forms of damping are available in the ANSYS program: • • • • • • Alpha and Beta Damping (Rayleigh Damping) Material-Dependent Damping Constant Material Damping Coefficient Constant Damping Ratio Modal Damping Element Damping Only the constant damping ratio and modal damping are available in the ANSYS Professional program. 001972 .5 Damping for Different Analysis Types Alpha. automatic time stepping gives the added advantage of incrementing the loads appropriately and retreating to the previous converged solution (bisection) if convergence is not obtained. Inc.

Dependent Constant Damping Damping Ratio MP.QRDAMP). MPRS(2) DDAM(2) PSD(2) Buckling Substructure Yes(1) Yes(1) Yes N/A Yes Yes Yes Yes(6) Yes(6) Modal Damping MDAMP Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A No N/A Not applicable 1. respectively. The values of α and β are not generally known directly. and you specify any kind of damping during preprocessing or in the modal analysis. you can evaluate β from known values of ξi and ωi. Structural Analysis Guide . ξi. If ωi is the natural circular frequency of mode i. β damping only. 3. The damping matrix (C) is calculated by using these constants to multiply the mass matrix (M) and stiffness matrix (K): (C) = α(M) + β(K) The ALPHAD and BETAD commands are used to specify α and β. In such cases. i. BETAD Mode Sup Transient Full Reduced Mode Sup Spectrum SPRS.DAMP DMPRAT Yes(4.DMPR Yes(6) Yes Yes Yes(6) No No No N/A Yes Yes(7) No No No No No No N/A No Alpha.10: Other Analysis Details Material. an effective damping ratio is calculated for subsequent spectrum analyses If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method (MODOPT. so choose the most dominant frequency active in that load step to calculate β. no α damping Damping is used only for mode combination and not for computation of mode coefficients Includes superelement damping matrix If converted to modal damping by expansion of modes If specified. 001972 . Beta Damping ALAnalysis Type PHAD. Alpha damping and Beta damping are used to define Rayleigh damping constants α and β. © SAS IP. 2.Section 5. ANSYS ignores damping specified during the mode superposition analysis Only the QR damped method supports the constant material damping coefficient application in a downstream mode superposition harmonic analysis 7.6) Yes Yes Yes(4. and Coefficient so on MP. alpha damping (or mass damping) may be ignored (α = 0). ANSYS Release 8. 5. 6. 4. α and β satisfy the relation ξi = α/2ωi + βωi/2 In many practical structural problems. as β = 2 ξi/ωi Only one value of β can be input in a load step. but are calculated from modal damping ratios.1 . ξi is the ratio of actual damping to critical damping for a particular mode of vibration. Inc. 5–37 . as decimal numbers.6) Yes Yes No N/A Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A No Element Constant MaDamping(3) terial Damping COMBIN7.

β can only be specified for the element as a whole.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis To specify both α and β for a given damping ratio ξ. Therefore. Note. as well as in the system response. two simultaneous equations can be solved for α and β. leading to inaccuracies in the spectrum input. ANSYS Release 8. that MP. The constant material damping coefficient is available only for full and modal harmonic analyses. (You can use the large mass to convert an acceleration spectrum to a force spectrum. The resulting change in damping can sometimes be opposite to the actual change in damping that can occur in physical structures. and so on.6 Rayleigh Damping Alpha damping can lead to undesirable results if an artificially large mass has been introduced into the model. Also note that for multi-material elements such as SOLID46. an ANSYS model that has beta damping will experience a decrease in damping as plastic softening response develops. β is determined from the material pointer for the element (set with the MAT command). For example. harmonic response. it is commonly assumed that the sum of the α and β terms is nearly constant over a range of frequencies (see Figure 5. DMPRAT is available only for spectrum. © SAS IP. SOLID65. Beta damping and material damping can lead to undesirable results in a nonlinear analysis.6: “Rayleigh Damping”). It is specified with the MDAMP command and is available only for the spectrum and mode superposition method of solution (transient dynamic and harmonic response analyses). In these cases. not β. and mode superposition transient dynamic analyses. and SHELL99.1 . SHELL91. COMBIN40. It represents the ratio of actual damping to critical damping. The constant damping ratio is the simplest way of specifying damping in the structure.DAMP). Element damping involves using element types having viscous damping characteristics. 5–38 . and is always evaluated at T = 0.SPECTR) specifies a material-dependent damping ratio ξ. Modal damping gives you the ability to specify different damping ratios for different modes of vibration. MP. given ξ and a frequency range ωi to ωj. however. not for each material in the element. such as COMBIN7.DAMP is not assumed to be temperature-dependent. Material-dependent damping allows you to specify beta damping (β) as a material property (MP. These damping coefficients are multiplied by the stiffness matrix.DAMP in a spectrum analysis (ANTYPE.0. which is constantly changing in a nonlinear analysis. Figure 5. whereas physical systems that experience softening due to plastic response will usually experience a corresponding increase in damping. which is multiplied by the mass matrix. and is specified as a decimal number with the DMPRAT command. will produce artificially large damping forces in such a system. rather than the material pointed to by any real constant MAT for the element. COMBIN37. 001972 . Structural Analysis Guide . COMBIN14.) The alpha damping coefficient. One common example is when an artificially large mass is added to the base of a structure to facilitate acceleration spectrum input. Inc.

Inc. Inc.5: “Damping for Different Analysis Types” is handled in a dynamic analysis.6: “Damping Matrix Formulation with Different Damping Coefficients”. For more information about damping. 001972 .lysis(1) (modal lysis lysis(1) lysis(1) damping ratio) Modal Analysis QRDA(1) ALPHAD α BETAD β α[M] β[K] No α[M] No ΦTα[M]Φ = α ΦTα[M]Φ = α No Φ Tβ[K ]Φ = βω2 i Φ Tβ[K ]Φ = βω2 i βωi 2 No β[K] MP.10: Other Analysis Details If you are running a mode superposition analysis and used the QR damping solution method for the modal solution.Section 5. ANSYS Release 8. 5–39 .6 Damping Matrix Formulation with Different Damping Coefficients Analysis Type Full Harmonic & Modal Analysis Mode Superposi. The explicit mathematical expressions that form the damping matrix in different analysis options are shown in Table 5.Mode Superposi. Inc. alpha (ALPHAD).DMPR βξ j Harmonic Nm j =1 No No No ∑ 2βξ [K j ] j Ω 2βξ [K j ] j Φ ∑ Φ Ω j =1 N T m Structural Analysis Guide .tion Transient Ana.Spectrum AnaTransient AnaLANB(1) tion Harmonic Ana. These expressions define how each of the damping options in Table 5. Theory Reference. Theory Reference Nm m ∑ β j [K j ] Nm Φ T ∑ βm [K j ]Φ j j =1 Nm Φ T ∑ βm [K j ]Φ j j =1 No j =1 DMPRAT ξ Harmonic No 2ξωi 2ξωi ξ No 2ξ [K ] Ω MDAMP ξm i No No 2ξmωi i No 2ξmωi i No ξm i No No Element Damping Ne k =1 ∑ [Ck ] No Ne k =1 ∑ [Ck ] No Φ T ∑ [Ck ]Φ k =1 Ne Φ T ∑ [Ck ]Φ k =1 Ne MP. and element damping must be defined in the QR damping modal solution for the damping to be available in a subsequent mode superposition analysis. Table 5.1 . material-dependent. © SAS IP. beta (BETAD). see the ANSYS.DAMP βm j Nm j =1 m ∑ β j [K j ] No No No Nm j =1 Nm m s ∑ βj Ej s ∑ Ej j =1 See Equation 17–104 in the ANSYS.

Damping System VM72 .Transient Response to a Constant Force with a Finite Rise Time VM79 . . However. mode superposition.Large Rotation of a Swinging Pendulum VM156 .Plastic Response to a Suddenly Applied Constant Force VM81 . ANSYS Release 8.Transient Response of a Spring-Mass System 5–40 Structural Analysis Guide .Natural Frequency of Nonlinear Spring-Mass System VM158 .Dynamic Double Rotation of a Jointed Beam VM182 .Transient Displacements in a Suddenly Stopped Moving Bar VM91 . and spectrum analyses the boxes are split where applicable with the top indicating the Lanczos method and the bottom indicating the QR damped method.11. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.Large Lateral Deflection of Unequal Stiffness Springs VM40 .1 . The ANSYS Verification Manual includes a variety of transient dynamic analysis test cases: VM9 . For modal. Mass.Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping VM74 . particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual. The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program.Transient Response to an Impulsive Excitation VM75 . While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems. 001972 .Transient Response of a Drop Container VM84 . describe additional transient dynamic analyses. 5.Transient Response of a Bilinear Spring Assembly VM80 .Logarithmic Decrement VM73 .Transient Response to a Step Excitation VM77 .Transient Response of a Spring.Motion of a Bobbing Buoy VM179 . most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments.Transient Response of a Ball Impacting a Flexible Surface VM71 . the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts. Inc.Chapter 5: Transient Dynamic Analysis Note — 1.Large Deflection and Rotation of a Beam Pinned at One End VM65 .Displacement Propagation along a Bar with Free Ends VM85 . © SAS IP.

velocity. 6.2.2.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 6. It is mainly used in place of a time-history analysis to determine the response of structures to random or time-dependent loading conditions such as earthquakes. Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) In a multi-point response spectrum (MPRS) analysis. ocean wave loads.1.1. rocket motor vibrations.2. wind loads. Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) In a single-point response spectrum (SPRS) analysis. ANSYS Release 8. 6. Response Spectrum A response spectrum represents the response of single-DOF systems to a time-history loading function. It is a graph of response versus frequency. and so on. where the response might be displacement. Three types of spectra are available for a spectrum analysis: • Response Spectrum – – • • Single-point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Multi-point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM) Power Spectral Density (PSD) The only method available in the ANSYS Professional program is the single-point response spectrum. Definition of Spectrum Analysis A spectrum analysis is one in which the results of a modal analysis are used with a known spectrum to calculate displacements and stresses in the model.1.2. . Structural Analysis Guide . 001972 . you specify one response spectrum curve (or a family of curves) at a set of points in the model. as shown in Figure 6. Two types of response spectrum analysis are possible: single-point response spectrum and multi-point response spectrum.1 . 6. as shown in Figure 6. you specify different spectrum curves at different sets of points. or force. jet engine thrust. Inc.1: “Single-Point and Multi-Point Response Spectra” (b).2. such as at all supports. acceleration. What is a Spectrum? The spectrum is a graph of spectral value versus frequency that captures the intensity and frequency content of time-history loads.1: “Single-Point and Multi-Point Response Spectra” (a).1. 6. © SAS IP.1.

In a singlepoint random vibration analysis. you specify one PSD spectrum at a set of points in the model. It is used in random vibration analyses in which the instantaneous magnitudes of the response can be specified only by probability distribution functions that show the probability of the magnitude taking a particular value. Build the model. 6. on the other hand. you specify different PSD spectra at different points in the model.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis Figure 6. Naval Research Laboratory Report NRL-1396. Probabilistic Analyses Response spectrum and DDAM analyses are deterministic analyses because both the input to the analyses and output from the analyses are actual maximum values.3.2. 6–2 Structural Analysis Guide . Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM) The Dynamic Design Analysis Method (DDAM) is a technique used to evaluate the shock resistance of shipboard equipment. 001972 .2.2. ANSYS Release 8.3. Power Spectral Density Power spectral density (PSD) is a statistical measure defined as the limiting mean-square value of a random variable. Mathematically. It is a graph of the PSD value versus frequency. The technique is essentially a response spectrum analysis in which the spectrum is obtained from a series of empirical equations and shock design tables provided in the U. . velocity PSD. 6. is probabilistic in nature. acceleration PSD.2. 6. Random vibration analysis. where the PSD may be a displacement PSD. Similar to response spectrum analysis. In a multi-point random vibration analysis. Inc. Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis The procedure for a single-point response spectrum analysis consists of six main steps: 1.1 . Deterministic vs. because both input and output quantities represent only the probability that they take on certain values. or force PSD.1 Single-Point and Multi-Point Response Spectra 6. © SAS IP. the area under a PSD-versus-frequency curve is equal to the variance (square of the standard deviation of the response).S. A PSD is a statistical measure of the response of a structure to random dynamic loading conditions. a random vibration analysis may be single-point or multi-point.4.

Inc. isotropic or orthotropic. and the database must contain the model data. Obtain the Modal Solution The modal solution .3. The other methods . At the end of the solution. • 6. 6. Structural Analysis Guide . if any. 001972 . 6. “Modal Analysis”. Expand the modes. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide.are not valid for subsequent spectrum analysis.1.is needed to calculate the spectrum solution. (See the use of the SIGNIF field on the MXPAND command. © SAS IP.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. are treated as linear. ANSYS Release 8. choose YES to expand all the modes at this phase. Obtain the modal solution. • • • • • 6. by performing the spectrum solution ahead of mode expansion. 6. it must be specified in the modal analysis. Obtain the spectrum solution. damped. and constant or temperature-dependent. so that modes are not expanded at this time.MODE. their stiffnesses are calculated based on their initial status and are never changed. If you include contact elements.Section 6.1. Nonlinear properties.) Otherwise.FULL) from the modal analysis must be available. or reduced method to extract the modes. The modal solution is required because the structure's mode shapes and frequencies must be available to calculate the spectrum solution. If you are using GUI method. QR damped.2.3. but you should keep in mind the following additional points: • Use the Block Lanczos (default). 4. Also.3. 6–3 . Points to Remember • Only linear behavior is valid in a spectrum analysis. Build the Model See Section 1. but can be expanded selectively in a separate solution pass. Review the results.1 .natural frequencies and mode shapes . The mode file and the full file (jobname. if any. Obtain the Spectrum Solution The procedure to obtain the spectrum solution is explained below. leave the SOLUTION processor. 5.3. for example.3.1. are ignored. 3. If material-dependent damping is to be included in the spectrum analysis. you can expand only the significant modes that contribute to the final solution. and PowerDynamics . For further details. The procedure to obtain the modal solution is described in Chapter 3. Nonlinear elements. The number of modes extracted should be enough to characterize the structure's response in the frequency range of interest. Material properties can be linear. Combine the modes.3: Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis 2.unsymmetric. Be sure to constrain those DOF where you want to apply a base excitation spectrum. jobname. choose NO for mode expansion on the dialog box for the modal analysis options [MODOPT]. subspace. Both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must be defined.

Inc. © SAS IP.FREQ. ANSYS Release 8. the higher the accuracy. The accuracy of the solution depends on the number of modes used: the larger the number. Table 6. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and analysis options. SV frequency Curve Damping (Dynamics Options) Beta (Stiffness) Damping BETAD 6–4 Structural Analysis Guide .2 Load Step Options Option Spectrum Options Type of Response Spectrum SVTYP Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Settings Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Settings Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Freq Table or Spectr Values Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Command GUI Path Excitation Direction SED Spectral-value.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 1. 3. Specify load step options.ANTYPE trum Spectrum Type: SPRS SPOPT No. The following options are available for single-point response spectrum analysis: Table 6. Make sure to choose YES on the SPOPT command if you want to calculate element stresses. • Option: Spectrum Type: Single-point Response Spectrum [SPOPT] Choose Single-point Response Spectrum (SPRS). • Option: Number of Modes to Use for Solution [SPOPT] Choose enough modes to cover the frequency range spanned by the spectrum and to characterize the structure's response. of Modes to Use SPOPT for Solution • Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] Choose New Analysis. 2. Not all modal analysis options and not all eigenvalue extraction techniques work with all spectrum analysis options.1 .vs. 001972 . Enter SOLUTION. . ANSYS offers the following analysis options for a spectrum analysis. • Option: Analysis Type: Spectrum [ANTYPE] Choose analysis type spectrum.1 Analysis Types and Options Option New Analysis Command ANTYPE GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Spectrum Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Analysis Type: Spec.

4. see Section 5.1 . “Transient Dynamic Analysis”.3: Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis Option Command GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Constant Damping DMPRAT Ratio Modal Damping MDAMP • Spectrum Options These data include the following: – Type of Response Spectrum [SVTYP] The spectrum type can be displacement. ROCK. MP. they are assumed to be specified at the base. velocity. FY. The PSD spectrum [SVTYP. each curve for a different damping ratio. 6–5 . as used in other analyses). – – Excitation Direction [SED] Spectral-Value-Versus-Frequency Curve [FREQ. Inc. © SAS IP. For further details about the different forms of damping. that is. SV] SV and FREQ commands are used to define the spectral curve. All except the force spectrum represent seismic spectra. a more robust random vibration analysis procedure is described in Section 6. – Constant Damping Ratio [DMPRAT] This option specifies a constant damping ratio to be used at all frequencies. or PSD. – Modal Damping [MDAMP] Note — Material-dependent damping ratio [MP. You can define a family of spectral curves. 001972 . The following forms of damping are available: – Beta (stiffness) Damping [BETAD] This option results in a frequency-dependent damping ratio.4] is internally converted to a displacement response spectrum and is limited to flat. acceleration. Command(s): SOLVE Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8. the spectral curve with the lowest damping is used.3: Damping in Chapter 5. If no damping is specified. allows you to specify a rocking spectrum.DAMP also specifies a material-dependent constant damping ratio (and not material-dependent beta damping. force.10.DAMP] is also available but only if specified in the modal analysis. FZ. The spectral value at this effective damping ratio is then calculated by loglog interpolation of the spectral curves. Another command. and the direction is implied by labels FX. Use the STAT command to list current spectrum curve values. Start solution calculations. • Damping (Dynamics Options) If you specify more than one form of damping. the ANSYS program calculates an effective damping ratio at each frequency.Section 6. narrowband spectra. The force spectrum is specified at non-base nodes with the F or FK command.7: How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis.

or reduced extraction method.5. But if you want to expand only the significant modes. If you are interested in stresses caused by the spectrum. Command(s): MXPAND GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Modal Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Expansion Pass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Expansion Pass> Expand Modes You must expand modes regardless of whether you used the Block Lanczos. choose YES for mode expansion on the dialog box for the modal analysis options [MODOPT] in the modal solution step. If you want to expand all the modes. which means no stresses are available for the spectrum analysis. The participation factor table. © SAS IP. you can include the mode expansion steps in the modal solution pass by issuing the MXPAND command.3. 6. Details of how to expand the modes are explained in Chapter 3. (See the use of the SIGNIF field on the MXPAND command. Click on the expansion pass option button on the Expansion Pass dialog box to signify YES for an expansion pass.rst at this time. You then perform mode expansion as a separate solution pass after performing the spectrum solution.1 . Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. be sure to request stress calculations here. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for additional response spectra. By default. 6.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS The output from the solution includes the participation factor table. no stresses are calculated in the expansion pass. Expand the Modes 1. “Modal Analysis” under "Expand the Modes" as a separate solution pass. if any. 2. mode coefficients (based on lowest damping ratio). • • • Note that modal analysis solutions are written to the results file (Jobname. To obtain the maximum response of each mode (modal response). choose NO for mode expansion on the dialog box for the modal analysis options [MODOPT] in the modal analysis phase.RST) only if the mode expansion is performed. You do this by retrieving the mode coefficient with the *GET command and using it as a scale factor in the SET command. Inc. Note that solutions are not written to the file.3.) If you are using the GUI method and want to selectively expand modes. Enter SOLUTION. 6–6 .4. Leave the SOLUTION processor. you must perform mode expansion as a separate solution pass after performing the spectrum solution. multiply the mode shape by the mode coefficient. The procedure is as follows: 1. If you are using the GUI method and want to expand all the modes. subspace. 6. 001972 . but you should keep in mind the following points: • Only significant modes can be selectively expanded. 5. Only expanded modes are used for the mode combination operation in the subsequent mode combination pass. ANSYS Release 8. Command(s): /SOLU Structural Analysis Guide . and the mass distribution for each mode. lists the participation factors. Combine the Modes Combine the modes in a separate solution phase. which is part of the printed output.

. Choose one of the mode combination methods. In addition. © SAS IP. Command(s): ANTYPE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis • Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] Choose New Analysis. (Elcalc = YES on the MXPAND command. Note — You must specify damping if you use the Complete Quadratic Combination method of mode combination (CQC). NRLSUM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Spectrum Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Opts> Single-pt resp Main Menu> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Spectrum-Single Point-Mode Combine These commands allow computation of three different types of responses: • Displacement (label = DISP) Displacement response refers to displacements. • Velocity (label = VELO) Velocity response refers to velocities. • Acceleration (label = ACEL) Acceleration response refers to accelerations.Section 6. • Option: Analysis Type: Spectrum [ANTYPE] Choose analysis type spectrum." etc. 3. stresses." etc. "stress accelerations. ANSYS offers five different mode combination methods for the single-point response spectrum analysis: • • • • • Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) Double Sum (DSUM) Grouping (GRP) Naval Research Laboratory Sum (NRLSUM) The NRLSUM method is typically used in the context of the Dynamic Design and Analysis Method (DDAM) spectrum analysis." "force accelerations. Define analysis type. 6–7 . GRP. 001972 . ANSYS Release 8.DAMP.]. The DSUM method also allows the input of time duration for earthquake or shock spectrum. forces. "stress velocities.) Structural Analysis Guide . The following commands are used to invoke different methods of mode combinations: Command(s): SRSS. CQC.. DSUM.. you must request that element results be calculated in the modal expansion." "force velocities.1 .3: Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis GUI: Main Menu> Solution 2. if you use material-dependent damping [MP. etc. Inc.

displacements and stresses are combined for each mode on the mode combination command. Note — If you want a direct combination of the derived stresses (S1. DSUM. strains (or strain velocities or strain accelerations). SI) from the results file. Review the Results Results from a single-point response spectrum analysis are written to the mode combination file. Leave the SOLUTION processor.MCOM file. The overall response consists of the overall displacements (or velocities or accelerations) and. © SAS IP. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. to review the results. Note that the command default (SUMTYPE.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 4.MCOM. You can use POST1. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS The mode combination phase writes a file of POST1 commands (Jobname. repeat the mode combination step after postprocessing the displacement solution by using the VELO or ACEL label on the mode combination commands (SRSS.6.5.3. Jobname. issue the SUMTYPE. If you selected velocity as the response type (label = VELO). 5. With the PRIN option. Command(s): /INPUT 6–8 Structural Analysis Guide . 001972 . SEQV.1 . ANSYS Release 8.COMP) is to directly operate only on the unaveraged element component stresses and compute the derived quantities from these. see the ANSYS Commands Reference for a description of the SUMTYPE command. in the form of POST1 commands. NRLSUM). component stresses are not available.MCOM file is overwritten by the additional mode combination step(s). The mode combination method determines how the structure's modal responses are to be combined: • • • If you selected displacement as the response type (label = DISP).MCOM contains POST1 commands that combine the maximum modal responses by using the specified mode combination method to calculate the overall response of the structure. GRP.3: Creating and Combining Load Cases in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. 6. the overall stresses (or stress velocities or stress accelerations). Inc. Remember that the existing Jobname. Note — If you want to compute velocity or acceleration in addition to displacement. Refer to Section 5. If you selected acceleration as the response type (label = ACEL). Start solution. Read in this file in POST1 to do the mode combinations.MCOM.RST) from the modal expansion pass. and reaction forces (or reaction force velocities or reaction force accelerations). velocities and stress velocities are combined for each mode on the mode combination command. . CQC. These commands calculate the overall response of the structure by combining the maximum modal responses in some fashion (specified by one of the mode combination methods). using the results file (Jobname. The file Jobname.MCOM). Read the commands on Jobname. Also. S3.PRIN command before reading in the Jobname. the general postprocessor. if placed on the results file during the expansion pass. 1. accelerations and stress accelerations are combined for each mode on the mode combination command. S2.

. different shell thicknesses. etc. To avoid the smearing effect. such as mapping results onto a path.1 . 001972 . MID) by using KEYOPT(8) = 2 (for SHELL181 or SHELL93) or KEYOPT(11) = 2 (SHELL63). the results of the PLNSOL or PLESOL command are affected by the particular SUMTYPE command option (SUMTYPE.. such as stresses and strains. strains (EPELX. “Selecting and Components” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) to select elements of the same material. SY. transforming results to different coordinate systems..PRIN) that you selected. These KEYOPTS write the mid-surface node results directly to the results file. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. Display results.. issue /INPUT with the following arguments: /INPUT.MCOM!Assumes the default jobname FILE 2. This averaging results in "smeared" values at nodes where elements of different materials. are averaged at the nodes by the PLNSOL command. 6–9 . UZ .3: Steps in a Single-Point Response Spectrum (SPRS) Analysis GUI: Utility Menu> File> Read Input From For example. • Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use PLNSOL or PLESOL to contour almost any result item. The default method of averaging the TOP and BOTsquared values to obtain a MID value can possibly yield incorrect MID values. • Option: Vector Displays Command(s): PLVECT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined Option: Tabular Listings Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data) GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions. or other discontinuities meet. and displacements (UX. UY. Use the PLETAB command to contour element table data and PLLS to contour line element data. ANSYS Release 8.. If you previously issued the SUMTYPE command. same shell thickness.Section 6.). use selecting (described in Chapter 7. such as stresses (SX. EPELZ . • • • If you are using batch mode. before issuing PLNSOL.). and load case combinations.FILE. You can view correct membrane results for shells (SHELL. Inc.. EPELY. © SAS IP. are available in POST1.COMP or SUMTYPE.). note the following: Structural Analysis Guide . SZ . and allow the membrane results to be directly operated on during squaring operations. Caution: Derived data.

MODAL] solution pass.ON] solution pass with a mode combination command. © SAS IP. Inc. ANSYS Release 8. 001972 . The mode expansion and mode combination solution passes can be combined into a single modal analysis [ANTYPE. is subjected to a vertical motion of both supports.4. 6.4. you determine the seismic response of a beam structure. with spectrum loads [SV.2. Problem Description A simply supported beam of length .Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis • • The modal solution and spectrum solution passes can be combined into a single modal analysis [ANTYPE. reactions forces.1 . 6. The motion is defined in terms of a seismic displacement response spectrum. and section properties shown in Problem Specifications. Problem Specifications The following material properties are used for this problem: E = 30 x 106 psi m = 0. mass per unit length m. and the element solutions. Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample problem.9726 in2 = 240 in h = 14 in 6–10 Structural Analysis Guide . FREQ]. . 6.MODAL and EXPASS. Determine the nodal displacements.4.1.2 lb-sec2/in2 The following geometric properties are used for this problem: I = (1000/3) in4 A = 273. SED. SVTYP.

Type the text "Seismic Response of a Beam Structure" and click on OK. Procedure 6.3.2. The Real Constants for BEAM3 dialog box appears.2 Simply Supported Beam with Vertical Motion of Both Supports 6. Scroll down the list on the left to "Structural Beam" and select it. 6. Click on Add.4.4. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. 2. 6–11 . Inc.1 .4. 4.3. Click on OK.4: Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) 6. Click on Add. © SAS IP.4. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. 2. The Real Constants dialog box appears.4. 5. Set the Analysis Title 1. 001972 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants. Click on "2D elastic 3" in the list on the right. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. 2. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears.4.4. Click on OK. Define the Element Type 1.4. The Element Types dialog box appears.1. 3. 3. Structural Analysis Guide . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete.4. 6. Problem Sketch Figure 6. 6.Section 6. Define the Real Constants 1. ANSYS Release 8.

A picking menu appears.4.4.4. Z coordinates of 0. Set Global Element Density and Mesh Line 1. Define Material Properties 1. Double-click on Density. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. 7. 6. 8. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. A dialog box appears. Click on OK. Define Keypoints and Line 1. Enter 1 for keypoint number. respectively.9726 for cross-sectional area.0. 5. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. 6–12 Structural Analysis Guide . 6. The Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. 4. A picking menu appears.4.0 for X. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Keypoints> In Active CS. A dialog box appears.4. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. Y. 2. 3. and click on OK. The picking menu closes. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. Enter 8 for the number of element divisions and click on OK. 6. Enter 2 for keypoint number.6. 10. Enter 240. © SAS IP.5. 6. 4. 6. Inc. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Lines. Click on keypoint 1. 12.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 4. 3.0.1 . Isotropic. 6. The picking menu closes. and click on OK. and Z coordinates. Y. 9. Enter 14 for total beam height and click on OK. . Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Straight Line. 4. 7. The Global Element Sizes dialog box closes. 001972 . Click on Close to close the Real Constants dialog box. The Global Element Sizes dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. A straight line appears between the two keypoints. 2. 2.4. 11.0. Click on Apply to accept the default X. double-click on the following options: Structural. Click on Pick All. Enter 73E-5 for DENS (density). Enter 30e3 for EX (Young's modulus). Click on OK. 5. and then on keypoint 2. Elastic. Linear. Click on "keypoint numbers" to turn keypoint numbering on. Enter 273. 3. Enter (1000/3) for area moment of inertia.4. In the Material Models Available window. ANSYS Release 8. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Global> Size.

Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS.4. 6. 3. In the graphics window.1 . 8.10. Solve the Modal Analysis 1. Pressing OK will cause you to exit and reenter SOLUTION. Set Up the Spectrum Analysis 1. 5." Click on CLOSE to close the warning message box. 4. The Modal Analysis dialog box appears. 6. 10. 2. 8. 6. 7. The Modal Analysis dialog box closes. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. Click on "Reduced" as the mode extraction method [MODOPT]. A picking menu appears. Enter 3 for the No. The New Analysis dialog box closes. Repeat steps 1-3 and select the node at the right end of the beam.Section 6. Choose Pick All. along with a status window. and click on OK. The Define Master DOFs dialog box appears.4. This will reset load step count to 1. and then click on Close. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. The picking menu appears. Select UY for the 1st degree of freedom and click on OK. 6. Click on OK. Carefully review the information in the status window. Specify Analysis Type and Options 1. results dialog button [MXPAND] to specify YES. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define.4. Click on "Spectrum" to select it. Click on OK. The New Analysis dialog box closes. 6.7. Inc. Click on OK.9. When the solution is finished.8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. 11." Both "UX" and "UY" should be highlighted. The Define Master DOFs dialog box closes. 9. click once on "UY" to highlight it. and the Reduced Modal Analysis dialog box appears. 4.4. Set Boundary Conditions 1. Enter 1 for the number of modes to expand.ROT on Nodes dialog box closes. The Apply U. 6–13 . Click on "Modal" to select it and click on OK. Click on Close. In the scroll box of DOFs to be constrained. 2.4. click once on "UX.4. The Apply U. 3. 5. The New Analysis dialog box appears. The Reduced Modal Analysis dialog box closes. of modes to print and click on OK. 001972 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options.4. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution. ANSYS Release 8. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. Click on the Calculate elem. Structural Analysis Guide . 3.4. 4.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. along with a warning message that states: "Changing the analysis type is only valid within the first load step. click once on the node at the left end of the beam. © SAS IP. In the scroll box of DOFs to be constrained. 7. The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears. 2. The New Analysis dialog box appears.4: Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) 6.

When the solution is finished. Expand the Modes 1. Define Spectrum Value vs.4.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Expansion Pass.005 for the significant threshold. Enter 10 for the number of modes to expand and enter 0. Enter 0. . The Expand Modes dialog box closes. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution. Set up the Expansion Pass 1. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Spectr Values. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Expand Modes. The Settings for Single-point Response Spectrum dialog box appears.1 for FREQ1.4. 2. The Expansion Pass dialog box closes. 2. 3. 6. This will reset load step count to 1. The Expand Modes dialog box appears. 6. 4.4.1. 6. ANSYS Release 8. Select "Seismic displac" in the scroll box as the type of response spectrum.4. Carefully review the information in the status window. 4.11.4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Pressing OK will cause you to exit and reenter SOLUTION.4.44 and 0. Enter 0. Click on Close. The New Analysis dialog box closes. © SAS IP. Solve Spectrum Analysis 1.4. Click on OK. 3. and then click on Close. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Settings.1 . The Frequency Table dialog box appears. Frequency Table 1. The New Analysis dialog box appears.14.0 for excitation direction into the excitation direction input windows and click on OK. Click on the expansion pass dialog button to turn it ON and click on OK. 4.4. Click on "Modal" to select it. Enter 0.44 for FREQ1 and FREQ2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Freq Table. Click on the calculate element results dialog button to specify YES for element results calculation. 5. The Spectrum Values dialog box closes. 3. along with a warning message that states: "Changing the analysis type is only valid within the first load step. The Spectrum Values . 001972 . and click on OK." Click on CLOSE to close the warning message box. along with a status window.13. Click on OK to accept the default of no damping. respectively.Damping Ratio dialog box appears. 4. The Spectrum Values dialog box appears. The Expansion Pass dialog box appears. 3. Inc.12. 2. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. 6. enter 10 for FREQ2. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. and click on OK. 6–14 Structural Analysis Guide . The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears. Click on OK. 2.

3. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution. 2.4. Select SRSS as the mode combination method. 3. The Mode Combination Methods dialog box closes. This will reset load step count to 1. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. and Reaction Solutions 1. Enter 0. Click on Close. The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears. Pressing OK will cause you to exit and reenter SOLUTION. 3. along with a warning message that states: "Changing the analysis type is only valid within the first load step. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Read Input From. Click OK. Set Up Mode Combination for Spectrum Analysis 1. 6.15. and then click on Close. 4. 3. a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears.16. Click on Close.4. When the solution is finished. The New Analysis dialog box closes.17. and then click on Close. Select Mode Combination Method 1.15 for the significant threshold.4. Start Expansion Pass Calculation 1. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. 5. ANSYS Release 8. 2. The Mode Combination Methods dialog box appears.4. The SET Command listing window closes. along with a status window.4. 2. Select displacement for the type of output.4. The Spectrum Analysis dialog box closes. Review the information in the listing window. Element. The Spectrum Analysis dialog box appears.1 .4. and click on OK. 4. select the jobname. 2. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. 4. 4. The New Analysis dialog box appears. Click on "Spectrum" to select it. 001972 . 6. From the right side of the Read File dialog box. 3.4. select the directory containing your results from the scroll box. When the solution is finished. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Mode Combine.18. 6–15 .19. Accept the default spectrum type single-point response.4. The Read File dialog box appears.4: Sample Spectrum Analysis (GUI Method) 6. © SAS IP.Section 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Results Summary.4. along with a status window. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS." Click on CLOSE to close the warning message box. 4. 6. Combine the Modes 1. From the left side of the Read File dialog box. Click on OK. 2.mcom file from the scroll box. and click on Close. Inc. Carefully review the information in the status window. The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears. Structural Analysis Guide . The SET Command listing window appears. Carefully review the information in the status window. Postprocessing: Print Out Nodal.

30E6 MP. The PRESOL Command listing window appears.X. Click on OK. The Read File dialog box closes. 10.. 001972 . I = (1000/3). Choose the save option you want and click on OK.ALL. The List Element Solution dialog box closes.1.73E-5 K.273. The List Reaction Solution dialog box appears.4. In the ANSYS Toolbar.1.1. Scroll down the list on the left to select "Line Elem results" and select "Structural ELEM" on the scroll box on the right. Click on OK to accept the default settings of "DOF solution" in the scroll box on the left and "All DOFs DOF" in the scroll box on the right.LOC.EX. /PREP7 /TITLE Seismic Response of a Beam Structure ET. 15. click on Quit. H = 14 MP. You are now finished with this sample problem. Scroll down the list to "All struc forc F" to select it and click on OK. Sample Spectrum Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example spectrum analysis using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices. 14. 6. The PRRSOL Command listing window appears. 7.MODAL ! Mode-frequency analysis 6–16 Structural Analysis Guide .1 K. 8.S. 2. . ANSYS Release 8. 13.14 ! A = 273.UY NSEL.20. Exit ANSYS 1.1.240 L. The PRNSOL Command listing window appears. The List Element Solution dialog box appears. © SAS IP.S. 9.5. Review the results and click on Close to close the PRNSOL Command listing window. The List Reaction Solution dialog box closes. Review the results in the listing window and click on Close to close the PRRSOL Command listing window..1 .0 D.BEAM3 R.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 6.X. The List Nodal Solution dialog box closes.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. The List Nodal Solution dialog box appears.LOC. Items prefaced by an exclamation point (!) are comments. 11.UX.1 NSEL.2 ESIZE. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution.4.8 LMESH.. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu.1.DENS. Inc.(1000/3).9726.ALL.9726..2.UY NSEL. Review the results and click on Close to close the PRESOL Command listing window. 12.. 6.240 D. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution.

print first 3 reduced mode shapes ! Expand first mode shape.15 and displacement solution requested ! Print nodal solution ! Print element solution in element format ! Print reaction solution 6.44.44 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ON MXPAND.0.. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.DISP SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.SPECTR SRSS..SPRS SED.15.1 SVTYPE. EXPASS... calculate element stresses ! set signif=0. The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program.SPECTR SPOPT..mcom PRNSOL.YES M.BASIC. D. SVTYP. CQC. and DMPRAT commands.005 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.3 FREQ..F FINISH ! Householder. SV. the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts. However.REDUC.. NRLSUM. MXPAND.ALL. SRSS. table Spectrum values associated with frequency points ! Mode-frequency analysis ! Expand 10 mode shapes.. calculate element stresses ! ! ! ! ! ! Spectrum analysis Single point spectrum Global Y-axis as spectrum direction Seismic displacement spectrum Frequency points for SV vs. 001972 . freq. GRP. Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.005 ! Square Root of Sum of Squares Mode combination ! with signif=0.. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual.Seismic Response of a Beam Structure VM203 .YES.10. 6–17 .6.Section 6.Dynamic Load Effect on Simply-Supported Thick Square Plate See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE.1.Seismic Response VM70 ..10 SV.Random Vibration Analysis of a Deep Simply-Supported Beam VM68 .1 .0. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments..1. SPOPT. describe additional spectrum analyses. Structural Analysis Guide . FREQ.LIST /INP. © SAS IP..3 MXPAND.MODAL EXPASS. MODOPT.ELEM PRRSOL. The ANSYS Verification Manual includes a variety of spectrum analysis test cases: VM19 .. SED. Inc.PSD Response of a Two DOF Spring-Mass System VM69 . DSUM. ANSYS Release 8.6: Where to Find Other Examples MODOPT.DOF PRESOL.UY OUTPR.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.

7. In the GUI method. you must save the database at this point. . Combine the modes. the database must contain the model data as well as the modal solution data. Obtain the Spectrum Solution To obtain the PSD spectrum solution. . Build the model. Enter SOLUTION. If you want to exit ANSYS after running the modal analysis. 6. By default. the first two steps are the same as described for a single-point response spectrum analysis. 4. which means no stresses are available at the end of the spectrum solution. The mode expansion can be performed as a separate step. Obtain the modal solution. Choose YES for mode expansion.1 . Details about expanding the modes are explained in Section 3. the following files from the modal solution must be available: Jobname. Inc.7. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define the analysis type and analysis options: 2. Random vibration analysis is not available in the ANSYS Professional program. you must save the database. © SAS IP. If you leave ANSYS after running the modal analysis. How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis The procedure for a PSD analysis consists of six main steps: 1. The procedures for obtaining the modal solution and expanding the nodes are combined into a single step. the dialog box for the modal analysis options [MODOPT] contains an option for mode expansion [MXPAND]. 1. The procedure for the remaining four steps is explained below. . be sure to request stress calculations here. or reduced extraction method. but keep in mind the following additional points: • • Only expanded modes are used for the mode combination step. 5. Review the results. You then follow the instructions in Section 6. 3. 6. In addition. Obtain the spectrum solution.EMAT.1: Expand the Modes. 6–18 Structural Analysis Guide . • • As explained in Chapter 3. leave SOLUTION with the FINISH command.ESAV. 2. or can be included in the modal analysis phase. Block Lanczos. Expand the Modes You must expand modes regardless of whether you used the subspace.2. you can combine the modal solution and mode expansion steps by including the MXPAND command in the modal analysis step (GUI and batch modes). “Modal Analysis”.7.1.6: Expand the Modes. 001972 . Expand the modes. At the end of the expansion pass. .Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 6.FULL (only for subspace and Block Lanczos methods). If you are interested in stresses caused by the spectrum. ANSYS Release 8. .MODE. 6. no stresses are calculated in the expansion pass.7.RST. Of these.

If a pressure PSD is to be applied. – – – 6–19 . you should add one or more intermediate points to the table until you obtain a good fit. whereas DMPRAT specifies a constant damping ratio to be used at all frequencies. BETAD. PSDGRAPH GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> PSD vs Freq Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Graph PSD Tables PSDFRQ and PSDVAL are used to define the PSD-versus-frequency table. Specify load step options. 001972 . or acceleration. choose Power Spectral Density (PSD). ANSYS Release 8. • Damping (Dynamics Options) The following forms of damping are available: ALPHAD. you should graph the input. You can issue STAT to list PSD tables and issue PSDGRAPH to graph them.7: How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis • • For spectrum type [SPOPT]. Step 6 describes how to apply additional PSD excitations (if any). velocity. – PSD-versus-frequency table Define a piecewise-linear (in log-log scale) PSD versus frequency table. force. The following options are available for a random vibration analysis: • Spectrum Data – Type of PSD Command(s): PSDUNIT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Settings The PSD type can be displacement. which is overlaid with the fitted curve.1 . the pressures should be applied in the modal analysis itself. to ensure a good fit. Command(s): PSDFRQ. and MDAMP result in a frequencydependent damping ratio. If the fit is not good.Section 6. Note — If no damping is specified in a PSD analysis. pressure. Whether it is a base excitation or a nodal excitation is specified in Steps 4 and 5. a default DMPRAT of 1 percent is used. Since a curve-fitting polynomial is used for the closed-form integration of the curve. If you specify more than one form of damping. PSDVAL. Specify stress calculations ON [SPOPT] if you are interested in stress results. © SAS IP. ANSYS calculates an effective damping ratio at each frequency. Inc. – Alpha (Mass) Damping Command(s): ALPHAD GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Beta (Stiffness) Damping Command(s): BETAD GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Constant Damping Ratio Command(s): DMPRAT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Frequency-Dependent Damping Ratio Command(s): MDAMP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Structural Analysis Guide . Stresses caused by the spectrum are calculated only if they were also requested during the modal expansion pass. 3.

Inc. and by FX. which specifies the amount and form of output written to the results file. For nodal excitation. A value of 0. FY cannot be applied to one node and FZ be applied to another). Use a value of 1.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis The remaining steps are specific to a random vibration analysis: 4.0 can be used to scale the participation factors. If you need to apply multiple PSD excitations on the same model. The PSDSPL and PSDWAV commands are not available for a pressure PSD analysis. Then define. 4. or DA) for base excitation F (or FK) for nodal excitation LVSCALE for pressure PSD GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Spectrum> Base PSD Excit> On Nodes 5. respectively. PSDSPL and PSDWAV relationships might be quite CPU intensive for multi-point base excitations. UY. 001972 . Nodal excitation and base excitation input must be consistent when using PSDWAV and PSDSPL (for example. Command(s): D (or DK. . The excitation direction is implied by the UX. as necessary. and 5 for each additional PSD table. FZ on the F command (for nodal excitation). bring in the load vector from the modal analysis (LVSCALE). Using OUTPR. use OUTRES at the mode expansion step. You can use the scale factor. ANSYS Release 8. Begin participation factor calculations for the above PSD excitation.3: “Solution Items Available in a PSD Analysis” shows a summary of the possible solution sets. repeat steps 3.0 to indicate points where the PSD excitation applies. for Parcor on the PFACT command. Command(s): PFACT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Calculate PF 6. Command(s): PSDRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Calc Controls Table 6. Each of these can be relative to the base or absolute. the degree of correlation between the excitations. 6–20 Structural Analysis Guide .0 (or blank) can be used to remove a specification. values other than 1. UZ labels on the D command (for base excitation). To limit the amount of data written to the results file.NSOL. For pressure PSD. FY. Up to three sets of solution quantities can be calculated: displacement solution. 7. velocity solution. DL. Apply the PSD excitation at the desired nodes. Note — You can apply base excitations only at nodes that were constrained in the modal analysis. Use the TBLNO field to indicate which PSD table to use.1 . Specify the output controls. and Excit to specify whether the calculations are for a base or nodal excitation. you must use SPATIAL or WAVE. The only valid output control command for this analysis is PSDRES. © SAS IP.ALL provides a summary table of the significant modal covariance terms. using any of the following commands: Command(s): COVAL for cospectral values QDVAL for quadspectral values PSDSPL for a spatial relationship PSDWAV for a wave propagation relationship PSDGRAPH to graph the data overlaid with the fitted curve GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Correlation Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Graph Tables When you use the PSDSPL or PSDWAV command. or acceleration solution.

etc. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Leave the SOLUTION processor.7. Relative. If you want to exercise these options.7: How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis Table 6. 6.1 . force Relative. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Leave the SOLUTION processor. 5. absolute. strains. the program does not calculate the one-sigma response of the structure. stresses. Command(s): PSDCOM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Spectrum> PSD> Mode Combin The SIGNIF and COMODE fields on the PSD mode combination method [PSDCOM] offer options to reduce the number of modes to be combined (see the description of PSDCOM command). Only the PSD mode combination method is valid in a random vibration analysis.3 Solution Items Available in a PSD Analysis Solution Items Form Relative.7. 4. © SAS IP.. or neither velocities. • Option: Analysis Type: Spectrum [ANTYPE] Choose analysis type spectrum.2: Obtain the Spectrum Solution to first investigate the relative contributions of the modes toward the final solution. Enter Solution. stress accl's. Inc. 9. Start solution calculations. 001972 . in the structure. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Define analysis type.Section 6. absolute. ANSYS Release 8. or neither Displacement Solution (label DISP Displacements. 2. Structural Analysis Guide . or neither Acceleration Solution (label ACEL Accelerations. This method triggers calculation of the one-sigma displacements. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. stress velocities. The procedure is as follows: 1. force accl's. 6–21 . forces on PSDRES) Velocity Solution (label VELO on PSDRES) Velocities.3. stresses. on PSDRES) 8. • Option: New Analysis [ANTYPE] Choose New Analysis. it is prudent to print the modal covariance matrices in Section 6. etc. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. etc. absolute. Combine the Modes The modes can be combined in a separate solution phase. If you do not issue the PSDCOM command. 3. Start the solution.

the corresponding load step is left blank.RST. stresses. and forces) 1 σ velocity solution (velocities.4: “Organization of Results Data from a PSD Analysis” shows the organization.Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 6. you first need to understand how the results data are organized on the results file. 001972 .. stress velocities. . Jobname.1 Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set 6–22 Structural Analysis Guide . 1 sigma displacement solution 1 sigma velocity solution (if requested) 1 sigma acceleration solution (if requested) 6. stress accelerations. or 5 in a PSD analysis. if you suppress the displacement. and force velocities) 1 σ acceleration solution (accelerations.1.4.4. only) 1 2 Etc. Expanded mode shapes from the modal analysis Static solution for base excitation [PFACT. Unit static solution for PSD table 1 Unit static solution for PSD table 2 Etc.1. to read in the 1 σ displacement solution. if mode combinations are requested [PSDCOM] and based on the PSDRES setting: • • • 1 σ displacement solution (displacements. Table 6. 2 (Base excit. They consist of the following quantities: 1.7. Also. Inc. and force accelerations) You can review these results in POST1. strains. the time-history postprocessor.7. the general postprocessor. issue the command: SET.1. or acceleration solution using the PSDRES command.1 .7. 6. Review the Results Results from a random vibration analysis are written to the structural results file. and then calculate response PSDs in POST26. the superelement displacement file (. strain accelerations. 3 4 5 1 1 1 Contents Expanded modal solution for 1st mode Expanded modal solution for 2nd mode Expanded modal solution for 3rd mode Etc. Table 6.4 Organization of Results Data from a PSD Analysis Load Step 1 Substep 1 2 3 Etc. Read the Desired Set of Results into the Database For example.DSUB) is not written for load steps 3. 4. Also. © SAS IP. 3. Note — Load step 2 is left blank if you specify only nodal PSD excitation. velocity. Reviewing the Results in POST1 To review results in POST1. ANSYS Release 8.BASE] The following output. strain velocities.4.3. 2.

and/or RFORCE GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Calculate the response PSD and store it in the desired variable. Command(s): CVAR GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Calc Covariance 2. Calculating Covariance in POST26 You can compute the covariance between two quantities available on the results file (displacements.7: How to Do a Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis 6. Enter POST26. Note — Nodal stress averaging performed by the PLNSOL command may not be appropriate in a random vibration analysis because the "stresses" are not actual stresses but stress statistics. velocities. and/or RFORCE GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Calculate the contributions of each response component (relative or absolute response) and store them in the desired variable. Display the Results Use the same options available for the SPRS analysis. Command(s): /POST26 GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro Store the frequency vector.7. reaction forces. etc. The PLVAR command can then be used to plot the response PSD. the time-history postprocessor.4.RST and Jobname. velocities.3. and/or accelerations) if the Jobname. if the Jobname. The PLVAR command can then be used to plot the modal contributions (relative response) followed by the contributions of pseudo-static and mixed part responses to the total covariance. The frequency vector is stored as variable 1. 4. 3. Calculating Response PSDs in POST26 You can calculate and display response PSDs for any results quantity available on the results file (displacements.4.RST and Jobname. Enter POST26. 6.2.2. The procedure to calculate the response PSD is as follows: 1. Command(s): NSOL. and/or accelerations).) are to be stored. 6–23 . 001972 . ANSYS Release 8. Command(s): RPSD GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Calc Resp PSD 2. Command(s): STORE. stresses. 6.7. ESOL.) are to be stored. the time-history postprocessor.NPTS GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Store Data Define the variables in which the result items of interest (displacements.7. 3.1 . Inc. NPTS is the number of frequency points to be added on either side of natural frequencies in order to "smooth" the frequency vector (defaults to 5).1. The procedure to calculate the covariance between two quantities is as follows: 1.4. Structural Analysis Guide . stresses. Command(s): NSOL.PSD. etc.PSD files are available.PSD files are available. © SAS IP. reaction forces. ESOL.Section 6. Command(s): /POST26 GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro Define the variables in which the result items of interest (displacements.

Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis 4. Obtain the covariance. Command(s): *GET,NameVARI,n,EXTREM,CVAR GUI: Utility Menu> Parameters> Get Scalar Data

6.7.5. Sample Input

A sample input listing for a random vibration (PSD) analysis is shown below:

! Build the Model /FILNAM, /TITLE, /PREP7 ... ... ... FINISH ! ! Obtain the Modal Solution /SOLU ANTYPE,MODAL MODOPT,REDU M, ... TOTAL, ... D, ... SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! Expand the Modes /SOLU EXPASS,ON MXPAND, ... SOLVE FINISH ! ! Obtain the Spectrum Solution /SOLU! Reenter SOLUTION ANTYPE,SPECTR SPOPT,PSD, ... PSDUNIT, ... PSDFRQ, ... ! Jobname ! Title ! Enter PREP7 ! Generate model

! ! ! !

Enter SOLUTION Modal analysis Reduced method Master DOF

! Constraints ! Initiates solution

! Reenter SOLUTION ! Expansion pass ! Number of modes to expand

PSDVAL, ... DMPRAT, ... D,0 PFACT, ... PSDRES, ... SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! ! Combine modes using PSD method /SOLU ! Re-enter SOLUTION ANTYPE,SPECTR ! Spectrum analysis PSDCOM,SIGNIF,COMODE ! PSD mode combinations with significance factor and ! option for selecting a subset of modes for ! combination SOLVE FINISH ! ! Review the Results /POST1 ! Enter POST1 SET, ... ! Read results from appropriate load step, substep ...! Postprocess as desired ...! (PLDISP; PLNSOL; NSORT; PRNSOL; etc.) ... FINISH ! ! Calculate Response PSD /POST26 ! Enter POST26

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Spectrum analysis Power Spectral Density; No. of modes; Stress calcs. on/off Type of spectrum Frequency pts. (for spectrum values vs. frequency tables) Spectrum values Damping ratio Base excitation Calculate participation factors Output controls

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**Section 6.9: How to Do Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Analysis
**

STORE,PSD NSOL,2,... RPSD,3,2,,... PLVAR,3 ... ! Calculate Covariance RESET NSOL,2 NSOL,3 CVAR,4,2,3,1,1 ! ! ! ! Store frequency vector (variable 1) Define variable 2 (nodal data) Calculate response PSD (variable 3) Plot the response PSD

! ! ! ! ! *GET,CVAR23U,VARI,4,EXREME,CVAR ! FINISH

Reset all POST26 specifications to initial defaults. Define variable 2 (nodal data). Define variable 3 (nodal data). Calculate covariance between displacement at nodes 2 and 3. Obtain covariance.

See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE, MODOPT, M, TOTAL, D, EXPASS, MXPAND, SPOPT, PSDUNIT, PSDFRQ, PSDVAL, DMPRAT, PFACT, PSDCOM, SUMTYPE, and PSDRES commands.

**6.8. How to Do DDAM Spectrum Analysis
**

The procedure for a DDAM spectrum analysis is the same as that for a single-point response spectrum (SPRS) analysis (including file requirements), with the following exceptions: • • • Use the British system of units [inches (not feet), pounds, etc.] for all input data - model geometry, material properties, element real constants, etc. Choose DDAM instead of SPRS as the spectrum type [SPOPT command]. Use the ADDAM and VDDAM commands instead of SVTYP, SV, and FREQ to specify the spectrum values and types. Specify the global direction of excitation using the SED command. Based on the coefficients specified in the ADDAM and VDDAM commands, the program computes the mode coefficients according to the empirical equations given in the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference. The most applicable mode combination method is the NRL sum method [NRLSUM]. Mode combinations are done in the same manner as for a single-point response spectrum. Mode combinations require damping. No damping needs to be specified for solution because it is implied by the ADDAM and VDDAM commands. If damping is specified, it is used for mode combinations but ignored for solution. Note — As in the Single-point Response Spectrum analysis, DDAM spectrum analysis requires six steps to systematically perform the analysis. If you are using batch mode, note the following: • • The modal solution and DDAM spectrum solution passes can be combined into a single modal analysis [ANTYPE,MODAL] solution pass with DDAM spectrum loads [ADDAM, VDDAM, SED]. The mode expansion and mode combination solution passes can be combined into a single modal analysis [ANTYPE,MODAL and EXPASS,ON] solution pass with a mode combination command.

•

•

DDAM spectrum analysis is not available in the ANSYS Professional program.

**6.9. How to Do Multi-Point Response Spectrum (MPRS) Analysis
**

The procedure for a multi-point response spectrum analysis is the same as that for random vibration (PSD) analysis (including file requirements), with the following exceptions: • • Choose MPRS instead of PSD as the type of spectrum [SPOPT command]. The "PSD-versus-frequency" tables now represent spectral values versus frequency.

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Chapter 6: Spectrum Analysis • • • • You cannot specify any degree of correlation between the spectra (i.e., they are assumed to be uncorrelated). Only relative results (relative to the base excitation) not absolute values, are calculated. All mode combination methods are available except PSDCOM. Results from a multi-point response spectrum analysis are written to the mode combination file, Jobname.MCOM, in the form of POST1 commands. The commands calculate the overall response of the structure by combining the maximum modal responses in some fashion (specified by the mode combination command in SOLUTION). The overall response consists of the overall displacements and, if placed on the results file during the modal expansion pass, the overall stresses, strains, and reaction forces. If Label = VELO or ACEL on the mode combination command (SRSS, CQC, GRP, DSUM, or NRLSUM) during SOLUTION, the corresponding velocity or acceleration responses are written to the mode combination file.

Multi-point response spectrum analysis is not available in the ANSYS Professional program.

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**Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis
**

7.1. Definition of Buckling Analysis

Buckling analysis is a technique used to determine buckling loads - critical loads at which a structure becomes unstable - and buckled mode shapes - the characteristic shape associated with a structure's buckled response.

**7.2. Types of Buckling Analyses
**

Two techniques are available in the ANSYS Multiphysics, ANSYS Mechanical, ANSYS Structural, and ANSYS Professional programs for predicting the buckling load and buckling mode shape of a structure: nonlinear buckling analysis, and eigenvalue (or linear) buckling analysis. Since these two methods frequently yield quite different results, let's examine the differences between them before discussing the details of their implementation.

**7.2.1. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis
**

Nonlinear buckling analysis is usually the more accurate approach and is therefore recommended for design or evaluation of actual structures. This technique employs a nonlinear static analysis with gradually increasing loads to seek the load level at which your structure becomes unstable, as depicted in Figure 7.1: “Buckling Curves” (a). Using the nonlinear technique, your model can include features such as initial imperfections, plastic behavior, gaps, and large-deflection response. In addition, using deflection-controlled loading, you can even track the post-buckled performance of your structure (which can be useful in cases where the structure buckles into a stable configuration, such as "snap-through" buckling of a shallow dome).

**7.2.2. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis
**

Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength (the bifurcation point) of an ideal linear elastic structure. (See Figure 7.1: “Buckling Curves” (b).) This method corresponds to the textbook approach to elastic buckling analysis: for instance, an eigenvalue buckling analysis of a column will match the classical Euler solution. However, imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from achieving their theoretical elastic buckling strength. Thus, eigenvalue buckling analysis often yields unconservative results, and should generally not be used in actual day-to-day engineering analyses.

Figure 7.1 Buckling Curves

**(a) Nonlinear load-deflection curve, (b) Linear (Eigenvalue) buckling curve
**

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Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis

**7.3. Commands Used in a Buckling Analysis
**

You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform a buckling analysis that you use to do any other type of finite element analysis. Likewise, you choose similar options from the graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models no matter what type of analysis you are doing. Section 7.6: Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) and Section 7.7: Sample Buckling Analysis (Command or Batch Method) show you how to perform an example eigenvalue buckling analysis via the GUI or via commands, respectively. For detailed, alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands, see the ANSYS Commands Reference.

**7.4. Procedure for Nonlinear Buckling Analysis
**

A nonlinear buckling analysis is a static analysis with large deflections turned on [NLGEOM,ON], extended to a point where the structure reaches its limit load or maximum load. Other nonlinearities such as plasticity may be included in the analysis. The procedure for a static analysis is described in Chapter 2, “Structural Static Analysis”, and nonlinearities are described in Chapter 8, “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”.

**7.4.1. Applying Load Increments
**

The basic approach in a nonlinear buckling analysis is to constantly increment the applied loads until the solution begins to diverge. Be sure to use a sufficiently fine load increment as your loads approach the expected critical buckling load. If the load increment is too coarse, the buckling load predicted may not be accurate. Turn on bisection and automatic time stepping [AUTOTS,ON] to help avoid this problem.

**7.4.2. Automatic Time Stepping
**

With automatic time stepping on, the program automatically seeks out the buckling load. If automatic time stepping is ON in a static analysis having ramped loading and the solution does not converge at a given load, the program bisects the load step increment and attempts a new solution at a smaller load. In a buckling analysis, each such convergence failure is typically accompanied by a "negative pivot" message indicating that the attempted load equals or exceeds the buckling load. You can usually ignore these messages if the program successfully obtains a converged solution at the next, reduced load. If stress stiffness is active [SSTIF,ON], you should run without adaptive descent active [NROPT,FULL,,OFF] to ensure that a lower bound to the buckling load is attained. The program normally converges to the limiting load as the process of bisection and resolution continues to the point at which the minimum time step increment (specified by DELTIM or NSUBST) is achieved. The minimum time step will directly affect the precision of your results.

7.4.3. Important

Remember that an unconverged solution does not necessarily mean that the structure has reached its maximum load. It could also be caused by numerical instability, which might be corrected by refining your modeling technique. Track the load-deflection history of your structure's response to decide whether an unconverged load step represents actual structural buckling, or whether it reflects some other problem. Perform a preliminary analysis using the arc-length method [ARCLEN] to predict an approximate value of buckling load. Compare this approximate value to the more precise value calculated using bisection to help determine if the structure has indeed reached its maximum load. You can also use the arc-length method itself to obtain a precise buckling load, but this method requires you to adjust the arc-length radius by trial-and-error in a series of manually directed reanalyses.

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Section 7.5: Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis

7.4.4. Points to Remember

• If the loading on the structure is perfectly in-plane (that is, membrane or axial stresses only), the out-ofplane deflections necessary to initiate buckling will not develop, and the analysis will fail to predict buckling behavior. To overcome this problem, apply a small out-of-plane perturbation, such as a modest temporary force or specified displacement, to begin the buckling response. (A preliminary eigenvalue buckling analysis of your structure may be useful as a predictor of the buckling mode shape, allowing you to choose appropriate locations for applying perturbations to stimulate the desired buckling response.) The imperfection (perturbation) induced should match the location and size of that in the real structure. The failure load is very sensitive to these parameters. In a large-deflection analysis, forces (and displacements) will maintain their original orientation, but surface loads will "follow" the changing geometry of the structure as it deflects. Therefore, be sure to apply the proper type of loads. You should carry your stability analysis through to the point of identifying the critical load in order to calculate the structure's factor of safety with respect to nonlinear buckling. (Merely establishing the fact that a structure is stable at a given load level is generally insufficient for most design practice; you will usually be required to provide a specified safety factor, which can only be determined by establishing the actual limit load.) You can extend your analysis into the post-buckled range by activating the arc-length method [ARCLEN]. Use this feature to trace the load-deflection curve through regions of "snap-through" and "snap-back" response. For those elements that support the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (BEAM4, SHELL63, and SHELL143), activate the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (KEYOPT(2) = 1 and NLGEOM,ON) to enhance the convergence behavior of your nonlinear buckling analyses and improve the accuracy of your results. This element KEYOPT must be defined before the first load step of the solution and cannot be changed once the solution has started. Many other elements (such as BEAM188, BEAM189, and SHELL181) will provide consistent tangent stiffness matrix with NLGEOM,ON.

•

•

•

•

•

**7.5. Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis
**

Again, remember that eigenvalue buckling analysis generally yields unconservative results, and should usually not be used for design of actual structures. If you decide that eigenvalue buckling analysis is appropriate for your application, follow this procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Build the model. Obtain the static solution. Obtain the eigenvalue buckling solution. Expand the solution. Review the results.

**7.5.1. Build the Model
**

See Section 1.2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. For further details, see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide.

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Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis

7.5.1.1. Points to Remember

• Only linear behavior is valid. Nonlinear elements, if any, are treated as linear. If you include contact elements, for example, their stiffnesses are calculated based on their status after the static prestress run and are never changed. Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) must be defined. Material properties may be linear, isotropic or orthotropic, and constant or temperature-dependent. Nonlinear properties, if any, are ignored.

•

**7.5.2. Obtain the Static Solution
**

The procedure to obtain a static solution is the same as described in Chapter 2, “Structural Static Analysis”, with the following exceptions: • • Prestress effects [PSTRES] must be activated. Eigenvalue buckling analysis requires the stress stiffness matrix to be calculated. Unit loads are usually sufficient (that is, actual load values need not be specified). The eigenvalues calculated by the buckling analysis represent buckling load factors. Therefore, if a unit load is specified, the load factors represent the buckling loads. All loads are scaled. (Also, the maximum permissible eigenvalue is 1,000,000 - you must use larger applied loads if your eigenvalue exceeds this limit.) Note that eigenvalues represent scaling factors for all loads. If certain loads are constant (for example, self-weight gravity loads) while other loads are variable (for example, externally applied loads), you need to ensure that the stress stiffness matrix from the constant loads is not factored by the eigenvalue solution. One strategy that you can use to achieve this end is to iterate on the eigensolution, adjusting the variable loads until the eigenvalue becomes 1.0 (or nearly 1.0, within some convergence tolerance). Design optimization could be useful in driving this iterative procedure to a final answer. Consider, for example, a pole having a self-weight W0, which supports an externally-applied load, A. To determine the limiting value of A in an eigenvalue buckling solution, you could solve repetitively, using different values of A, until by iteration you find an eigenvalue acceptably close to 1.0.

•

Figure 7.2 Adjusting Variable Loads to Find an Eigenvalue of 1.0

•

You can apply a nonzero constraint in the prestressing pass as the static load. The eigenvalues found in the buckling solution will be the load factors applied to these nonzero constraint values. However, the mode shapes will have a zero value at these degrees of freedom (and not the nonzero value specified). At the end of the solution, leave SOLUTION [FINISH].

•

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Section 7.5: Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis

**7.5.3. Obtain the Eigenvalue Buckling Solution
**

This step requires files Jobname.EMAT and Jobname.ESAV from the static analysis. Also, the database must contain the model data (issue RESUME if necessary). Follow the steps below to obtain the eigenvalue buckling solution. 1. Enter the ANSYS solution processor. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Specify the analysis type. Command(s): ANTYPE,BUCKLE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Note — Restarts are not valid in an eigenvalue buckling analysis. Note — When you specify an eigenvalue buckling analysis, a Solution menu that is appropriate for buckling analyses appears. The Solution menu will be either "abridged" or "unabridged", depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for buckling analyses. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is, solution options that are valid for you to use, but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis), select the Unabridged Menu option from the Solution menu. For details, see Section 3.11.1: Using Abridged Solution Menus in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. 3. Specify analysis options. Command(s): BUCOPT, Method, NMODE, SHIFT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Regardless of whether you use the command or GUI method, you can specify values for these options: • For Method, specify the eigenvalue extraction method. You can choose subspace iteration or Block Lanczos. The Block Lanczos and subspace iteration methods use the full system matrices. See Section 3.5.2.3: Option: Mode-Extraction Method [MODOPT] in this manual for more information about these solution methods. For NMODE, specify the number of eigenvalues to be extracted. This argument defaults to one, which is usually sufficient for eigenvalue buckling. For SHIFT, specify the point (load factor) about which eigenvalues are calculated. The shift point is helpful when numerical problems are encountered (due to negative eigenvalues, for example). Defaults to 0.0.

2.

• •

4.

Specify load step options. The only load step options valid for eigenvalue buckling are output controls and expansion pass options. Command(s): OUTPR,NSOL,ALL GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout You can make the expansion pass a part of the eigenvalue buckling solution or perform it as a separate step. In this document, we treat the expansion pass as a separate step. See Section 7.5.4: Expand the Solution for details.

5.

**Save a backup copy of the database to a named file. Command(s): SAVE
**

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Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save As 6. Start solution calculations. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS The output from the solution mainly consists of the eigenvalues, which are printed as part of the printed output (Jobname.OUT). The eigenvalues represent the buckling load factors; if unit loads were applied in the static analysis, they are the buckling loads. No buckling mode shapes are written to the database or the results file, so you cannot postprocess the results yet. To do this, you need to expand the solution (explained next). Sometimes you may see both positive and negative eigenvalues calculated. Negative eigenvalues indicate that buckling occurs when the loads are applied in an opposite sense. 7. Exit the SOLUTION processor. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.

**7.5.4. Expand the Solution
**

If you want to review the buckled mode shape(s), you must expand the solution regardless of which eigenvalue extraction method is used. In the case of the subspace iteration method, which uses full system matrices, you may think of "expansion" to simply mean writing buckled mode shapes to the results file.

7.5.4.1. Points to Remember

• • The mode shape file (Jobname.MODE) from the eigenvalue buckling solution must be available. The database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated.

**7.5.4.2. Expanding the Solution
**

The procedure to expand the mode shapes is explained below. 1. Reenter SOLUTION. Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution Note — You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass. 2. Specify that this is an expansion pass. Command(s): EXPASS,ON GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Specify expansion pass options. Command(s): MXPAND, NMODE, , , Elcalc GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Expand Modes Regardless of whether you use the command or GUI method, the following options are required for the expansion pass: • For NMODE, specify the number of modes to expand. This argument defaults to the total number of modes that were extracted.

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The only options valid in a buckling expansion pass are the following output controls: • Printed Output Use this option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname. Also. 7. They consist of buckling load factors. 7–7 . the results file (Jobname. 1. if requested.5. no stresses are calculated.Section 7. © SAS IP. Note — The expansion pass has been presented here as a separate step. You can review them in POST1. Review the Results Results from a buckling expansion pass are written to the structural results file. the general postprocessor. Command(s): OUTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrl> DB/Results File Note — The FREQ field on OUTPR and OUTRES can only be ALL or NONE. List all buckling load factors. 4. "Stresses" in an eigenvalue analysis do not represent actual stresses.you cannot write information for every other mode.OUT).RST) from the expansion pass must be available. the database must contain the same model for which the buckling solution was calculated (issue RESUME if necessary). Leave the SOLUTION processor.LIST GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Results Summary Structural Analysis Guide . the data can be requested for all modes or no modes . You can now review results in the postprocessor. ANSYS Release 8. that is. for instance.5. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.RST). and relative stress distributions. Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrl> Solu Printout • Database and Results File Output This option controls the data on the results file (Jobname. buckling mode shapes. By default.1 . Note — To review results in POST1. 5.RST.5: Procedure for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis • For Elcalc. Command(s): SET. You can make it part of the eigenvalue buckling solution by including the MXPAND command (Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Expand Modes) as one of the analysis options. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS 6. indicate whether you want ANSYS to calculate stresses. but give you an idea of the relative stress or force distribution for each mode. 001972 . Start expansion pass calculations. The output consists of expanded mode shapes and. Jobname. Inc. relative stress distributions for each mode. Specify load step options.

F. OUTRES. EXPASS. Problem Description Determine the critical buckling load of an axially loaded long slender bar of length with hinged ends. The moment of inertia of the bar is calculated as I = Ah2/12 = 0. 001972 . Inc. 7. See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE. and area A. ANSYS Release 8.) Command(s): SET. MXPAND.5 in Loading for this problem is: F = 1 lb. SET.2. 4.0052083 in4. Problem Specifications The following material properties are used for this problem: E = 30 x 106 psi The following geometric properties are used for this problem: = 200 in A = 0. . The boundary conditions become free-fixed for the half-symmetry model. you will analyze the buckling of a bar with hinged ends. © SAS IP.SBSTEP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> load step Display the mode shape. Only the upper half of the bar is modeled because of symmetry. The bar has a cross-sectional height h. 7. BUCOPT. PLDISP. and PLNSOL commands. Read in data for the desired mode to display buckling mode shapes.1.6. Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Contour the relative stress distributions.Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis 2. Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solution 3.6. PSTRES. SF. (Each mode is stored on the results file as a separate substep.25 in2 h = 0. Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample problem.6.1 . 7–8 Structural Analysis Guide . D. 7.

Section 7. 2. follow these steps to set the title. In the scroll box on the right.3.3 Bar with Hinged Ends 7. Structural Analysis Guide . 001972 .3. Define the Element Type In this step. Problem Sketch Figure 7. 2. Click on OK.6. Set the Analysis Title After you enter the ANSYS program.3. Inc. 7. The Element Types dialog box appears. © SAS IP. ANSYS Release 8. and then click on Close in the Element Types dialog box.6. 5. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title.1. 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. Click on Add. 7–9 . 3. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. In the scroll box on the left. click on "2D elastic 3" to select it. 4. 1.2.6.6: Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) 7.1 . you define BEAM3 as the element type. Enter the text "Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends" and click on OK. click on "Structural Beam" to select it.

11. Elastic. 8.0. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS. and click on OK.3. Click on OK. Click on Apply. Click on node 1. 14.0 for the X. The Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. 9.25 for area.4. Click on OK. The Real Constants for BEAM3 dialog box appears. 2. Inc. 13. 10. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes. Enter 0. Click on Close in the Real Constants dialog box. . 12.1 . 3. The two nodes appear in the ANSYS Graphics window. Click on nodes 1 and 2. The remaining elements appear in the ANSYS Graphics window. 52083e-7 for IZZ. Node location defaults to 0. The Copy Elems Auto-Num picking menu appears. 9. 7. The Copy Elements (Automatically-Numbered) dialog box appears. A dialog box appears.3. 5. 3. Enter 10 for total number of copies and enter 1 for node number increment. The Fill between Nds picking menu appears. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. 7. 6. Click on OK. and number of nodes to fill 9). Enter 11 for node number. Enter 30e6 for EX (Young's modulus). 8.6. ANSYS Release 8. To turn the triad off.Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis 7. Enter 1 for node number. by default. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds.6. 4. 2. Isotropic. Z coordinates. 15. then click on OK. and click on OK. Enter . The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. Click on OK to accept the settings (fill between nodes 1 and 11.5 for height. Define Nodes and Elements 1.0. Define the Real Constants and Material Properties 1. The Elements from Nodes picking menu appears. The Real Constants dialog box appears. and . Click on OK. Linear. © SAS IP. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete. Click on Add. then 11. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears. 7–10 Structural Analysis Guide . Then click OK to close the dialog box. 5. double-click on the following options: Structural. 7. choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Window Controls> Window Options and select the "Not Shown" option for Location of triad. Y. In the Material Models Available window. 001972 . 10.100. The Create Nodes in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears.3. Note — The triad. Click on Pick All. 4. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. 6. hides the node number for node 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Copy> Elements> Auto Numbered.

4. The New Analysis dialog box appears. 3.6. 9. 7.1 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Expand Modes.Section 7. Define the Boundary Conditions 1. This will reset the load step count to 1. 5. then click on OK. Click OK to accept the default of "Static. Click on the "Block Lanczos" option.6. Solve the Buckling Analysis 1. 001972 . Click on OK. Click on node 1 in the ANSYS Graphics window.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. then click OK. The force symbol appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. Solve the Static Analysis 1. 2. and enter 1 for number of modes to extract.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. In the scroll box for Direction of force/mom.3.3.5. 6.7. and click on OK. and click on OK. 4. Click on OK. The Apply U. Click on node 11. 8. 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Enter -1 for the force/moment value. then click on OK in the picking menu. and click on Close. 7–11 ." Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. 2. ANSYS Release 8. 4.6: Sample Buckling Analysis (GUI Method) 7. © SAS IP. The Eigenvalue Buckling Options dialog box appears. Carefully review the information in the status window.3. Inc. scroll to "Prestress ON" to select it. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. Click on OK in the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. Click on Close in the Information window when the solution is finished. The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears. 6. Click on "All DOF" to select it. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. 5. In the scroll box for stress stiffness or prestress. Note — Click on Close in the Warning window if the following warning appears: Changing the analysis type is only valid within the first load step. 11. 7. and click on OK. The Static or SteadyState Analysis dialog box appears.6. Pressing OK will cause you to exit and reenter SOLUTION. 2. The Apply U. 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. scroll to "FY" to select it. Structural Analysis Guide . Enter 1 for number of modes to expand. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. In the New Analysis dialog box. 3. 3. 12. 10.6. click the "Eigen Buckling" option on. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> New Analysis. 7.

100 FILL E. describe additional buckling analyses.52083E-7.30E6 ! Define material properties N.1. Inc. the ANSYS Verification 7–12 Structural Analysis Guide . Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.1. Click on OK in the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution.1.1. © SAS IP.BUCKLE BUCOPT.LANB.ON D. In the ANSYS Toolbar.7. The deformed and undeformed shapes appear in the ANSYS graphics window. click on Quit.FY.IZZ. Exit ANSYS 1. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.STATIC PSTRES. Sample Buckling Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example buckling analysis of a bar with hinged ends using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices. 7.6. 7.EX.6. and click on Close. 11.5 ! Area. /PREP7 /TITLE.1 MXPAND... The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program. height MP.8.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET. Carefully review the information in the status window. . BUCKLING OF A BAR WITH HINGED SOLVES ET.. 10. Review the Results 1. Click on OK. 2.ALL F.1. particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual.3.11.2 EGEN.9.1 FINISH ! ! ! ! Static analysis Calculate prestress effects Fix symmetry ends Unit load at free end ! Buckling analysis ! Use Block Lanczos solution method. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set.FIRST PLDISP.1 .Chapter 7: Buckling Analysis 9. Click on Close in the Information window when the solution is finished.-1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.10.8. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. Items prefaced by an exclamation point (!) are comments.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 3. ANSYS Release 8.BEAM3 ! Beam element R. extract 1 mode ! Expand 1 mode shape 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape.3.1.11. 7. 001972 . 2.25.1 N. Choose the save option you want and click on OK. Click the "Def + undeformed" option on.

8: Where to Find Other Examples Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts. © SAS IP. Inc.1 .Section 7.Snap-Through Buckling of a Hinged Shell VM127 . 001972 . However.Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends (Area Elements) Structural Analysis Guide .Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends (Line Elements) VM128 . ANSYS Release 8. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. 7–13 . The ANSYS Verification Manual contains a variety of buckling analysis test cases: VM17 .

7–14 .

Figure 8. which can be grouped into these principal categories: • • • Changing status Geometric nonlinearities Material nonlinearities Structural Analysis Guide . What is Structural Nonlinearity? You encounter structural nonlinearities on a routine basis.1 . ANSYS Release 8.1: “Common Examples of Nonlinear Structural Behavior” (a). you would discover that they all exhibit the fundamental characteristic of nonlinear structural behavior . For instance. whenever you staple two pieces of paper together.) If you were to plot the load-deflection curve for each of these examples. the contact surfaces between its pneumatic tires and the underlying pavement change in response to the added load. (See Figure 8. . Causes of Nonlinear Behavior Nonlinear structural behavior arises from a number of causes.1. Inc.1 Common Examples of Nonlinear Structural Behavior 8.1.) As weight is added to a car or truck. 001972 . © SAS IP.1.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8.) If you heavily load a wooden shelf. (See Figure (c). (See Figure (b).a changing structural stiffness. it will sag more and more as time passes. the metal staples are permanently bent into a different shape.

a roller support is either in contact or not in contact. An example would be the fishing rod shown in Figure 8.2.1 . Geometric Nonlinearities If a structure experiences large deformations. Geometric nonlinearity is characterized by "large" displacements and/or rotations. and the amount of time that a load is applied (as in creep response).2: “A Fishing Rod Demonstrates Geometric Nonlinearity”.2 A Fishing Rod Demonstrates Geometric Nonlinearity 8.1.1. The load increments can be applied over several load steps. © SAS IP. See Chapter 11.1.1. 8.1. Changing Status (Including Contact) Many common structural features exhibit nonlinear behavior that is status-dependent. Status changes might be directly related to load (as in the case of the cable). 001972 . “Contact” for detailed information on performing contact analyses using ANSYS. ANSYS Release 8. the load is subdivided into a series of load increments. Basic Information About Nonlinear Analyses ANSYS employs the "Newton-Raphson" approach to solve nonlinear problems. Situations in which contact occurs are common to many different nonlinear applications. 8. For example. Figure 8. Figure 8.2. environmental conditions (such as temperature).1. Inc.1. . or they might be determined by some external cause. its changing geometric configuration can cause the structure to respond nonlinearly. In this approach. Many factors can influence a material's stress-strain properties.1. Contact forms a distinctive and important subset to the category of changing-status nonlinearities.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8.3: “Newton-Raphson Approach” illustrates the use of Newton-Raphson equilibrium iterations in a single DOF nonlinear analysis. Material Nonlinearities Nonlinear stress-strain relationships are a common cause of nonlinear structural behavior. 8–2 Structural Analysis Guide . a tensiononly cable is either slack or taut. including load history (as in elastoplastic response).3.

causing severe convergence difficulties.4: “Traditional Newton-Raphson Method vs. which is the difference between the restoring forces (the loads corresponding to the element stresses) and the applied loads. The program then performs a linear solution. thereby often preventing divergence. 001972 . In some nonlinear static analyses. the arc-length method. using the out-of-balance loads. Such occurrences include nonlinear buckling analyses in which the structure either collapses completely or "snaps through" to another stable configuration. the tangent stiffness matrix may become singular (or non-unique). the stiffness matrix is updated. The arc-length method causes the Newton-Raphson equilibrium iterations to converge along an arc. deflection curve becomes zero or negative.Section 8. the out-of-balance load vector is reevaluated. if you use the Newton-Raphson method alone. and bisection. For such situations. A number of convergence-enhancement and recovery features. ArcLength Method”. ANSYS Release 8. 8–3 . then the program attempts to solve with a smaller load increment. Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP. If convergence cannot be achieved. If convergence criteria are not satisfied. This iterative procedure continues until the problem converges. automatic load stepping. and a new solution is obtained. can be activated to help the problem to converge. such as line search. the Newton-Raphson method evaluates the out-of-balance load vector.1: What is Structural Nonlinearity? Figure 8. you can activate an alternative iteration scheme. and checks for convergence. Inc.3 Newton-Raphson Approach Before each solution. This iteration method is represented schematically in Figure 8.1 . to help avoid bifurcation points and track unloading. even when the slope of the load vs.

• • Figure 8. . Inc.5 Load Steps.4 Traditional Newton-Raphson Method vs.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). © SAS IP. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. and equilibrium iterations in Chapter 2. the program will perform a number of equilibrium iterations to obtain a converged solution. and Time” illustrates a typical load history for a nonlinear analysis. substeps. you can direct the program to perform several solutions (substeps or time steps) to apply the load gradually. Arc-Length Method To summarize.1 . At each substep. Figure 8. Within each load step. Substeps. ANSYS Release 8. Substeps. Also see the discussion of load steps.5: “Load Steps. and Time 8–4 Structural Analysis Guide . a nonlinear analysis is organized into three levels of operation: • The "top" level consists of the load steps that you define explicitly over a "time" span (see the discussion of "time" in Chapter 2. Loads are assumed to vary linearly within load steps (for static analyses). 001972 .

Section 8. This feature will cut a time step size in half whenever equilibrium iterations fail to converge and automatically restart from the last converged Structural Analysis Guide . the system is said to be nonconservative.1.6 Nonconservative (Path-Dependent) Behavior 8. if desired. Displacement-based (and. when applicable. displacements. rotation-based) convergence checking can be added. Additionally. each item can have a different convergence tolerance value. moment-based) convergence tolerance. For multiple-degree-of-freedom problems. 8. or rotations. Bisection provides a means of automatically recovering from a convergence failure. but at a cost of increased run times. you also have a choice of convergence norms. but should usually not be used alone. Inc. Path Dependency If all energy put into a system by external loads is recovered when the loads are removed. An analysis of a conservative system is path independent: loads can usually be applied in any order and in any number of increments without affecting the end results. Automatic time stepping activates the ANSYS program's bisection feature. 8–5 . An analysis can also be path dependent if more than one solution could be valid for a given load level (as in a snap-through analysis). ANSYS provides automatic time stepping that is designed for this purpose.6: “Nonconservative (Path-Dependent) Behavior”. small time step sizes) usually result in better accuracy.1 . moments. Conversely. If energy is dissipated by the system (such as by plastic deformation or sliding friction). Substeps When using multiple substeps. 001972 . using many substeps) to the final load value. Automatic time stepping adjusts the time step size as needed.2.1.1. You should almost always employ a force-based (and. © SAS IP. the system is said to be conservative.2. when applicable. or on any combination of these items. Conservative versus Nonconservative Behavior.1: What is Structural Nonlinearity? The ANSYS program gives you a number of choices when you designate convergence criteria: you can base convergence checking on forces. An example of a nonconservative system is shown in Figure 8. gaining a better balance between accuracy and economy.2. you need to achieve a balance between accuracy and economy: more substeps (that is. ANSYS Release 8. Path dependent problems usually require that loads be applied slowly (that is. Figure 8. an analysis of a nonconservative system is path dependent: the actual load-response history of the system must be followed closely to obtain accurate results.

1 . 8. © SAS IP. regardless of the element orientation. Pressure loads always act normal to the deflected element surface. the loads applied to your system maintain constant direction no matter how the structure deflects. Load Direction in a Large-Deflection Analysis Consider what happens to loads when your structure experiences large deflections. Nonlinear Transient Analyses The procedure for analyzing nonlinear transient behavior is similar to that used for nonlinear static behavior: you apply the load in incremental steps.7 Load Directions Before and After Deflection 8. 8–6 Structural Analysis Guide . Calculated displacements are therefore output in the original directions.1. Using Geometric Nonlinearities Small deflection and small strain analyses assume that displacements are small enough that the resulting stiffness changes are insignificant. . The automatic time stepping and bisection feature is also applicable for transient analyses. Thus. ANSYS Release 8. forces will change direction.7: “Load Directions Before and After Deflection” illustrates constant-direction and following forces. 8.2. In many instances. Figure 8. 001972 . Figure 8. If the halved time step again fails to converge.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis substep.3. bisection will again cut the time step size and restart. continuing the process until convergence is achieved or until the minimum time step size (specified by you) is reached. The main difference between the static and transient procedures is that time-integration effects can be activated in the transient analysis. and the program performs equilibrium iterations at each step.2. depending on the type of load applied. Inc. In other cases. Accelerations and concentrated forces maintain their original orientation. The ANSYS program can model both situations.2.1. and can be used to model "following" forces.4. Note — Nodal coordinate system orientations are not updated in a large deflection analysis. "time" always represents actual chronology in a transient analysis. "following" the elements as they undergo large rotations.

in some structural systems (such as in Figure 8.Section 8.ON (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options). Large Deflections with Small Strain This feature is available in all beam and most shell elements. By issuing NLGEOM. the stiffening stress is only obtainable by performing a large deflection analysis. © SAS IP.8: “Stress-Stiffened Beams” (a)). ANSYS Release 8.) To convert strain from small (engineering) strain to logarithmic strain.1 . use εln = ln (1 + εeng). the procedure requires that strain increments must be restricted to maintain accuracy. as well as in most of the shell and beam elements.1. A drumhead. such as cables or membranes. Structural Analysis Guide . Issue NLGEOM. known as stress stiffening. which gains lateral stiffness as it is tightened. or linear.) However. 8–7 . as well as in a number of the nonlinear elements.2.2. the stiffening stress is obtainable using small deflection.see below. theory.8: “Stress-Stiffened Beams” (b)). 001972 .2. For small-strain regions of response. The large strain feature is available in most of the solid elements (including all of the large strain and hyperelastic elements). To convert from engineering stress to true stress. The large strain procedure places no theoretical limit on the total rotation or strain experienced by an element. you activate large strain effects in those element types that support this feature. true strain would be expressed as ε = ln ( / 0). would be a common example of a stress-stiffened structure. the total load should be broken into smaller steps.1.1. Thus. (Certain ANSYS element types will be subject to practical limitations on total strain .2.2: Using Geometric Nonlinearities In contrast. true strain and engineering strain are essentially identical. In other systems (such as in Figure 8. 8. Even though stress stiffening theory assumes that an element's rotations and strains are small. (This stress conversion is valid only for incompressible plasticity stress-strain data. use σtrue = σeng (1 + εeng). is most pronounced in thin. Large strain effects are not available in the ANSYS Professional program. 8. Stress-Strain In large strain solutions. This coupling between in-plane stress and transverse stiffness.) 8. large strain analyses account for the stiffness changes that result from changes in an element's shape and orientation. highly stressed structures. Inc. (In one dimension.ON (Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options) to activate large deflection effects for those elements that are designed for small strain analysis types that support this feature. Stress Stiffening The out-of-plane stiffness of a structure can be significantly affected by the state of in-plane stress in that structure. all stress-strain input and results will be in terms of true stress and true (or logarithmic) strain.

ON (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options) in your first load step. and stress-related.8 Stress-Stiffened Beams To use stress stiffening in the second category of systems.3. large deflection. It should not be used with the other deformation nonlinearities. Large strain and large deflection procedures include initial stress effects as a subset of their theory. and hyperelastic materials will cause a structure's stiffness to change at different load levels (and. and viscoelasticity will give rise to nonlinearities that can be time-. and stress.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8. multilinear elastic. Swelling will induce strains that can be a function of temperature. Spin Softening Spin softening adjusts (softens) the stiffness matrix of a rotating body for dynamic mass effects. then you must use the TB family of commands [TB.1 . viscoplasticity. © SAS IP. neutron flux level (or some analogous quantity). typically. Creep. Any of these kinds of material properties can be incorporated into an ANSYS analysis if you use appropriate element types.1. The adjustment approximates the effects of geometry changes due to large deflection circumferential motion in a small deflection analysis.3. TBPLOT. time. TBCOPY. It is usually used in conjunction with prestressing [PSTRES] (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options).ON] (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options). . TBLIST. which is caused by centrifugal force in the rotating body. ANSYS Release 8. For most elements. TBDELE] (GUI path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Structural> Nonlinear) to define the nonlinear material property relationships in terms of a data table. Inc. 8. 001972 . or large strain. Nonlinear Materials If a material displays nonlinear or rate-dependent stress-strain behavior. 8. 8. Modeling Material Nonlinearities A number of material-related factors can cause your structure's stiffness to change during the course of an analysis. initial stiffness effects are automatically included when large deformation effects are activated [NLGEOM. you must issue PSTRES. TBPT. Nonlinear stress-strain relationships of plastic.2. at different temperatures). TBDATA. Spin softening is activated by the KSPIN field on the OMEGA and CMOMEGA commands (GUI path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Inertiav Angular Velocity). TBTEMP.3. rate-. temperature-. The exact form of these commands varies depending on the type of non8–8 Structural Analysis Guide .

Section 8. See Data Tables . but will not necessarily become inelastic. 001972 . If you anticipate plastic response in your analysis. Plastic behavior. If you expect large deformations in your structure. The maximum plastic strain is printed with the substep summary information in your output (Jobname.OUT). Figure 8. In particular. the sequence in which loads are applied and in which plastic responses occur affects the final solution results. 8–9 . the program will bisect and resolve using a smaller step size.9: “Elastoplastic Stress-Strain Curve”). © SAS IP. path-dependent phenomenon. material stress-strain properties must be input in terms of true stress and logarithmic strain. the ANSYS program assumes that these two points are coincident in plasticity analyses (see Figure 8. Plasticity Most common engineering materials exhibit a linear stress-strain relationship up to a stress level known as the proportional limit. If too large a step was taken. large deflection and large strain geometric nonlinearities will often be associated with plastic material response. Plasticity is a nonconservative. The different material behavior options are described briefly below. In other words.9 Elastoplastic Stress-Strain Curve The automatic time stepping feature [AUTOTS] (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>Time and Substps) will respond to plasticity after the fact. by reducing the load step size after a load step in which a large number of equilibrium iterations was performed or in which a plastic strain increment greater than 15% was encountered. Structural Analysis Guide .1. you must activate these effects in your analysis with the NLGEOM command (GUI path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) or Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options). so that your model will follow the load-response path as closely as possible. you should apply loads as a series of small incremental load steps or time steps. For large strain analyses. Inc.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities linear material behavior being defined. ANSYS Release 8. the stress-strain relationship will become nonlinear. characterized by nonrecoverable strain.3. Because there is usually little difference between the yield point and the proportional limit.Implicit Analysis in the ANSYS Elements Reference for specific details for each material behavior type. Beyond this limit. 8. Other kinds of nonlinear behavior might also occur along with plasticity.1.1 . begins when stresses exceed the material's yield point.

0. so that the Bauschinger effect is included (see Figure 8.29.-8E3 TB.1 /XRANGE.1. It is not recommended for large-strain applications.1 .1. /XRANGE.1.1.EX. This option is recommended for general small-strain use for materials that obey von Mises yield criteria (which includes most metals).3.000.2 TBTEMP. Stress-strain-temperature data are demonstrated in the following example.12E6.1.01 TBPLOT.1.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8.330. MP.BKIN.1. © SAS IP.8E6 List the data table X-axis of TBPLOT to extend from varepsilon=0 to 0. see Section 8. Figure 8. and TBPLOT command descriptions for more information.33E3. You may incorporate other options into the program by using User Programmable Features (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features).2E6 Temperature = 500 Yield = 29. TBDATA.0.11: “Bauschinger Effect”). Figure 8.BKIN.0. Tangent modulus = 1. The Bilinear Kinematic Hardening (BKIN) option assumes the total stress range is equal to twice the yield stress. TB.0. Plastic Material Options Several options are available for describing plasticity behavior. TBTEMP.10: “Kinematic Hardening”(a) illustrates a typical display [TBPLOT] of bilinear kinematic hardening properties.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.BKIN. ANSYS Release 8.8E6 TBLIST.01 Display the data table See the MPTEMP. You can combine the BKIN option with creep and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors.1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Define temperatures for Young's modulus C0 and C1 terms for Young's modulus Activate a data table Temperature = 0.0 Yield = 44.1.44E3. (b) Multilinear kinematic hardening 8–10 Structural Analysis Guide . Tangent modulus = 0.500 MP. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.2E6 TBTEMP.10 Kinematic Hardening (a) Bilinear kinematic hardening.0 TBDATA. Inc.0. Also.500 TBDATA. TBLIST. . MPTEMP.3.1. 001972 .

0. and BEAM189. BEAM188.0 TBPT..1.2013.1290.0 TBPT.05 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Activate a data table Temperature = 20. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.1. Also. KINH is preferred for use over MKIN because it uses Rice's model where the total plastic strains remain constant by scaling the sublayers.0 Strain = 0.9 Strain = 0.0.0 Stress = 1.0. so that the Bauschinger effect is included.0. PLANE182. ! Plastic Strain = 0..0 TBPT. The assumption is that the corresponding points on the different stress-strain curves represent the temperature dependent yield behavior of a particular sublayer.KINH.2 TBPT.1012. 8–11 . The plastic strain can be converted from total strain as follows: Structural Analysis Guide . when KINH is used with LINK180.0000.0 Strain = 0. except now the strain value is the plastic strain.1 . see Section 8. 5).2000. For either option.12926. then each curve should contain the same number of points.0900.09088.008.09088. SOLID186. Figure 8. TB.1.05 In this example. if you define more than one stressstrain curve for temperature dependent properties.Section 8. you can use TBOPT = 4 (or PLASTIC) to define the stress vs.000. KINH allows you to define more stress-strain curves (40 vs.1.1.2 Stress = 1. ! Plastic Strain = 0.0000.2. A typical stress-strain temperature data input using KINH is demonstrated by this example. ! Plastic Strain = 0.. 5). You can combine either of these options with the Hill anisotropy option to simulate more complex material behaviors.0.12926. Stress = 1.2013. Stress = 1.2 TBPT.0.0 ! Plastic Strain = 0. Stress = 1.0. and more points per curve (20 vs.09088.0 ! Plastic Strain = 0...001.0 Strain = 0. Inc.008. A typical stress.20.9 TBPT..20. Stress = 1. PLANE183..2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.11 Bauschinger Effect The Multilinear Kinematic Hardening (KINH and MKIN) options use the Besseling model.1. SHELL181..2 Strain = 0..12926.plastic strain temperature data input using KINH is demonstrated by this example.10: “Kinematic Hardening”(b) illustrates typical stress-strain curves for the MKIN option.05 In this example.40. also called the sublayer or overlay model.0 Stress = 1.0.05 ! Activate a data table ! Temperature = 20. 001972 . ANSYS Release 8.3 Temperature = 40.0 TBPT.3 TBTEMP.3 TBTEMP.0.2.2013.. the third point in the two stress-strain curves defines the temperature-dependent yield behavior of the third sublayer.1.1.1012.0..0.0.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities Figure 8.0.3. Stress = 0.1..0 Strain = 0. These options are not recommended for large-strain analyses. Also. plastic strain curve.0. Stress = 1.0 TBPT. SOLID187.3 TBTEMP. ! Plastic Strain = 0. SOLID185. the stress . TB.1.001.PLASTIC TBTEMP.0 TBPT.0 TBPT.40.strain behavior is the same as the previous sample.KINH. © SAS IP. ! Temperature = 40.3 Stress = 0.9 TBPT.9 Stress = 1.3.1012.1.008.1000.0 TBPT.1. Stress = 1.

/XRANGE.STRAIN ! Next TBDATA values are strains TBDATA.100 TBDATA.2 TBTEMP.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.43. You can combine BISO with Chaboche.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Plastic Stain = (total strain .0 TBTEMP. MISO.12E6.2 ! Activate a data table TBTEMP.55E3. This model is suitable for large strain analysis. Theory Reference for details. The MISO option can contain up to 20 different temperature curves.60E3. TBTEMP. however.3. you can use the CHABOCHE option to simulate monotonic hardening and the Bauschinger effect.1 TBDATA.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.500 ! Define temperature-dependent EX. By combining the CHABOCHE option with isotropic hardening model options BISO.33E3. and C25 at second temperature Please see the TB.C2. and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors. You can also combine this option with the Hill anisotropy option to simulate more complex material behaviors. This option is not recommended for cyclic or highly nonproportional load histories in small-strain analyses.C15 TBTEMP.3E3. see Section 8. and TBDATA command descriptions for more information. Like the BKIN and MKIN options. and TBPLOT command descriptions for more information. with up to 100 different stress-strain points allowed 8–12 Structural Analysis Guide .stress)/Young's Modulus. TBDATA.1.C12. Also.1. C14.0. C2. and C3 The following example illustrates a data table of temperature dependent constants with two kinematic models at two temperature points: TB.40.3. and NLISO. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. Also.0 TBDATA. C13.47E3 ! Stresses at temperature = 500 /XRANGE. See the ANSYS.C1.C23.C11. The following example is a typical data table with no temperature dependency and one kinematic model: TB.15E-3 ! Strains for all temps TBTEMP.1. TB.7E-3.1.02 TBPLOT.3.C25 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Activate CHABOCHE data table Define first temperature Values for constants C11.CHABOCHE.37E3. and C15 at first temperature Define second temperature Values for constants C21.44E3. The model has 1 + 2 x n constants. Inc.C22.50E3.CHABOCHE.1. you have the further capability of simulating cyclic hardening or softening. MP. A typical stress-strain temperature data input using MKIN is demonstrated by this example.0. The Multilinear Isotropic Hardening (MISO) option is like the bilinear isotropic hardening option. 001972 .65E3 ! Stresses at temperature = 0. see Section 8. This option is often preferred for large strain analyses.C14.67E-3. and is defined by NPTS in the TB command.1. © SAS IP. viscoplastic. MP. where n is the number of kinematic models..MKIN. C24.29. It is.C24. C23. See the ANSYS. TBTEMP.7E3.5E-3.1.EX.200 TBDATA.MKIN. recommended for large strain analyses. The Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening (CHABOCHE) option uses the Chaboche model.-8E3 ! as in BKIN example TB. Inc. which is a multi-component nonlinear kinematic hardening model that allows you to superpose several kinematic models. C22.10E-3.500 ! Temperature = 500 TBDATA. creep.1 Please see the MPTEMP.C13.0. MPTEMP. This option also allows you to simulate the ratcheting and shakedown effect of materials. C12.0 ! Temperature = 0.0. TBPT.C3 ! Activate CHABOCHE data table ! Values for constants C1. You define the material constants using the TBTEMP and TBDATA commands.1. ANSYS Release 8. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. The Bilinear Isotropic Hardening (BISO) option uses the von Mises yield criteria coupled with an isotropic work hardening assumption.C21.1 .2.1.1. . Inc. except that a multilinear curve is used instead of a bilinear curve. Theory Reference for details.

500 TBPT.33E3 TBPT. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.DEFI. The NLISO option is a variation of BISO where an exponential saturation hardening term is appended to the linear term (see Figure 8.7E-3.MISO. The stress-straintemperature curves from the MKIN example would be input for a multilinear isotropic hardening material as follows: /prep7 MPTEMP.1.15E-3.DEFI.5 TBTEMP.DEFI.1.14.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities per curve. MP.DEFI.10E-3.55E3 TBPT.1. Inc.40.EX.29.7E3 TBPT.0.12. ANSYS Release 8. 8–13 .2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.500 ! Define temperature-dependent EX. viscoplastic.3 TB.1.37E3 TBPT.0 TBPT.2E-3.DEFI.47E3 /XRANGE.3.665E6. stress at temperature = 0 ! Temperature = 500 ! Strain.3E3 TBPT.DEFI.PRXY.5E-3. Theory Reference for details).43. TBPT. /XRANGE. Also.7E-3. You can combine this option with nonlinear kinematic hardening (CHABOCHE) for simulating cyclic hardening or softening.27. Inc.12: “NLISO Stress-Strain Curve”).65E3 TBTEMP.02 TBPLOT.1 .DEFI.0.33E3 TBPT. see Section 8.2. MPDATA.2E-3.MISO. Structural Analysis Guide .0.0.10E-3.0 ! Strain. 001972 . and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors.0. © SAS IP. TB.15E-3.5E-3. TBTEMP.Section 8.60E3 TBPT... Strain points can differ from curve to curve. stress at temperature = 500 See the MPTEMP.DEFI. The Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening (NLISO) option is based on the Voce hardening law (see the ANSYS.1 ! Activate a data table ! Temperature = 0.423e6 MPDATA. and TBPLOT command descriptions for more information.50E3 TBPT. You can also combine the MISO option with creep.DEFI.2.DEFI.

C14 at first temperature Define second temperature Values for constants C21.C23. C24 at second temperature Please see the TB. C23. and shear. You can obtain the material constants by fitting material tension stress-strain curves. C12. y. creep. viscoplastic. this model is only applicable to the tensile curve like the one shown in Figure 8. However. 8–14 Structural Analysis Guide . .1. Also. You can combine NLISO with Chaboche. C13. Inc. Unlike MISO.1 TBTEMP. see Section 8. compression.C11.12 NLISO Stress-Strain Curve The advantage of this model is that the material behavior is defined as a specified function which has four material constants that you define through the TBDATA command.C13.C21.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations. The following example illustrates a data table of temperature dependent constants at two temperature points: TB. ANSYS Release 8.C22.C14 TBTEMP. C22.1 . This option is applicable to metals that have undergone some previous deformation (such as rolling).100 TBDATA.3.12: “NLISO Stress-Strain Curve”. The Anisotropic (ANISO) option allows for different bilinear stress-strain behavior in the material x. and z directions as well as different behavior in tension. 001972 . The yield stresses and slopes are not totally independent (see the ANSYS. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. © SAS IP. and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors.C12. Theory Reference for details). and TBDATA command descriptions for more information. This option is suitable for large strain analyses. TBTEMP. It is not recommended for cyclic or highly nonproportional load histories since work hardening is assumed.1.200 TBDATA.NLISO.C24 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Activate NLISO data table Define first temperature Values for constants C11. there is no need to be concerned about how to appropriately define the pairs of the material stress-strain points. Inc.

EX.2. and is the same in tension and compression.0.241E+05 TBPT.0.0.27 TB.0.0.0. The TB.500E-02. Structural Analysis Guide ...288E+05 TBPT.. The Drucker-Prager (DP) option is applicable to granular (frictional) material such as soils. Use the TB. and concrete. SOLID92.800E-02.0 ! Cohesion = 2. SOLID185..322E+05 TB. The Hill potential may only be used with the following elements: PLANE42.110E-01. Elastic behavior is isotropic.UNIAXIAL command to enter the yield and hardening in tension and compression..3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities To define anisotropic material plasticity.0. PLANE82.UNIAXIAL..10 TBPT. SOLID45. ! Angle of internal friction = 32 degrees. 8–15 ..0.1.ISOTROPIC TBDATA. and creep .9. which can be temperature dependent.656E+05 TBPT. ! Dilatancy angle = 0 degrees See the MP. SOLID186.350E-02.131E+05 TBPT. Then.NUXY. and NUXZ). SOLID95. NUYZ.450E-02. viscoplasticity.550E-03.0. PLANE183.1.1. rock. use MP commands (Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props) to define the elastic moduli (EX. flows.1.DP. and BEAM189.250E-02.0.100E-02.0.10 TBPT. and TBDATA command descriptions for more information. (See Nonlinear StressStrain Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference for more information. SOLID187.all using the Hill potential. BEAM188. and hardenings in tension and compression.1 TBDATA. PLANE182.5. The Cast Iron (CAST.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.0.0..0. EZ.140E-01.9 (use consistent units)..1.813E+04 TBPT.0.500E+05 TBPT. ANSYS Release 8.) The Hill Anisotropy (HILL) option. EY. UNIAXIAL) option assumes a modified von Mises yield surface.Section 8. Note — Cast Iron is intended for monotonic loading only and cannot be used with any other material model.UNIAXIAL.0.13: “Cast Iron Plasticity” illustrates the idealized response of gray cast iron in tension and compression.CAST.0. TB.5.0.CAST command is used to input the plastic Poisson's ration in tension.203E-02. 001972 . TB. © SAS IP..1..0.32.0.0. and uses the outer cone approximation to the Mohr-Coulomb law. SHELL181. which consists of the von Mises cylinder in compression and a Rankine cube in tension.TENSION TBTEMP. issue the TB command [TB.0.. NUXY.300E+05 TBPT.1 .1.581E+05 TBPT.700E+05 Figure 8. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.ANISO] followed by TBDATA commands to define the yield points and tangent moduli. when combined with other material options simulates plasticity.5000 MP.COMPRESSION TBTEMP. Also. LINK180. MP.04 TB. It has different yield strengths.1.3. see Section 8. Inc.1.

which are ANSYS user-programmable features (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features). 8. relatively large load steps might be appropriate for models that incorporate this type of material nonlinearity. The USER option works with the USERMAT subroutine in defining any material model (except incompressible materials). Then define the temperatures and material constants using the TBTEMP and TBDATA commands. SOLID65.2. when you use any of the following elements: LINK1.3. The USER option works with the USERPL subroutine in defining plasticity or viscoplasticity material models. SOLID95. and BEAM189.4 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Define material 1 as user material with 2 temperatures and 4 data points at each temperature point.0. SOLID45. © SAS IP.3. LINK8.19e5. SHELL181. To access the user material option. PLANE42. SOLID92. TBTEMP.2. 001972 . issue the TB.1e3. BEAM188. The choice of which subroutine to use is based on which element you are using.3.0 TBDATA. SOLID187.100.3. SOLID185.USER command to define the material number. . ANSYS Release 8. SHELL91. PLANE183.0 8–16 Structural Analysis Guide .USER.1. User Defined Material The User Defined (USER) material option describes input parameters for defining a material model based on either of two subroutines.1 . BEAM23. the number of temperatures.1.13 Cast Iron Plasticity Compression σc σt Tension ε See the TB and TBPT command descriptions for more information. Inc. when you use any of the following elements: LINK180. PLANE182. PIPE60. Second temperature. PLANE82. except that the TB command now uses the label MELAS. SOLID186. SOLID62. 8. Thus. PLANE2. BEAM24.2. SHELL93. Input format is similar to that required for the multilinear isotropic hardening option.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8. SHELL51. The following example illustrates defining a material with two temperatures and four data points: TB. First temperature. PIPE20.1. SHELL43.1. TBTEMP.1. 4 material constants for first temperature. and the number of data points. Multilinear Elasticity The Multilinear Elastic (MELAS) material behavior option describes a conservative (path-independent) response in which unloading follows the same stress-strain path as loading.

see Mixed u-P Formulation Elements in the ANSYS Elements Reference. If you use state variables in the USERMAT subroutine.1 . whose derivative with respect to a strain component determines the corresponding stress component. 001972 . the strain energy potentials are expressed in terms of strain invariants.1. Hyperelasticity A material is said to be hyperelastic if there exists an elastic potential function (or strain energy density function).3.. The material response in ANSYS hyperelastic models is always assumed to be isotropic and isothermal. TBDATA. and TBDATA command descriptions for more information. which is a scalar function of one of the strain or deformation tensors. and on mixed formulation of the 18x solid elements. You cannot use TB.4.1. Unless indicated otherwise.21e5. which ! has 4 state variables.14: “Hyperelastic Structure”. and all of the 18x family of elements except the link and beam elements (SHELL181. ANSYS Release 8. A representative hyperelastic structure (a balloon seal) is shown in Figure 8.14 Hyperelastic Structure There are two types of elements suitable for simulating hyperelastic materials: the hyperelastic elements (HYPER56.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities TBDATA. SOLID185. and SOLID187).C1.3. 8. HYPER58. you must first define the number of state variables using the TB.100.STATE command.Section 8.1. You then use the TBDATA command to initialize the value of the state variables. the hyperelastic materials are also assumed to be nearly or purely incompressible. Figure 8.STATE in the USERPL subroutine. ! 4 material constants for ! second temperature. Material thermal expansion is also assumed to be isotropic. Inc. as shown in the following example: TB. Because of this assumption. Hyperelasticity can be used to analyze rubber-like materials (elastomers) that undergo large strains and displacements with small volume changes (nearly incompressible materials).STATE.1. ! Initialize the 4 state variables.C3. For further details on the use of hyperelastic elements.C4. HYPER74.C2. PLANE183. © SAS IP. HYPER158). PLANE182. ! Define material 1. Structural Analysis Guide .0.2e3.ON]. SOLID186. 8–17 . Large strain theory is required [NLGEOM.4. See the TB.

SHELL163.MOONEY).2. For example. see Section 8. To access the MooneyRivlin option for these elements.. and it requires enough data to cover the whole range of deformation for which you may be interested. SOLID186. Compared to the other options.. HYPER158. All of the TBFT command capability is available via either batch or interactive (GUI) mode. For example.163498 TBDATA. SOLID185. The following example input listing shows a typical use of the Mooney-Rivlin option with 3 parameters: TB.. HYPER74.3. © SAS IP.4. is also applicable to elements HYPER56.014719 TBDATA.3.HYPER.MOONEY.1.6.1.3. Ogden Hyperelastic Option The Ogden option (TB. allows you to define 2. SOLID186.HYPER) in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.4. PLANE183. HYPER58.MOONEY TBDATA.1. SOLID164. PLANE182... use TB.1 . Each of the hyperelastic options is presented in the following sections.1. 5. ANSYS Release 8. If you want to use the Mooney-Rivlin option with elements HYPER56. . It may however cause numerical difficulties in fitting the material constants. The TBFT command allows you to compare your experimental data with existing material data curves and visually “fit” your curve for use in the TB command. All options are applicable to elements SHELL181. to define a 3 parameter model.1.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis ANSYS supports several options of strain energy potentials for the simulation of incompressible or nearly incompressible hyperelastic materials.. 3.OGDEN) allows you to define an unlimited number of parameters through the NPTS argument of the TB command. 001972 . and explicit dynamics elements PLANE162. HYPER58.1. HYPER158. K is the bulk modulus) Refer to Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Material (TB. which is the default.0.93063E-5 !Activate 3 parameter Mooney-Rivlin data table !Define c10 !Define c01 !Define c11 !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K.2. For these reasons.HYPER. A higher parameter value can provide a better fit to the exact solution.HYPER.0. and SOLID187. Compared to the other options.HYPER.. HYPER74. and SOLID187.HYPER.5. or 9 parameters through the NPTS argument of the TB command.. a high parameter value is not recommended. the Ogden option usually provides the best approximation to a solution at larger strain levels.HYPER. SOLID185. 8.1.HYPER. The Mooney-Rivlin option (TB.4. use TB. or SOLID168. the Mooney-Rivlin option. ANSYS provides tools to help you determine the coefficients for all of the hyperelastic options defined by TB. The 2 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option has an applicable strain of about 100% in tension and 30% in compression. The following example input listing shows a typical use of the Ogden option with 2 parameters: 8–18 Structural Analysis Guide .4.125076 TBDATA. PLANE162. SOLID164. PLANE183.OGDEN.3.11: Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB. and SOLID168. SHELL163. to define a 5 parameter model you would issue TB. One of the options.. higher orders of the Mooney-Rivlin option may provide better approximation to a solution at higher strain.HYPER) Note that this section applies to using the Mooney-Rivlin option with elements SHELL181. Inc.0. The applicable strain level can be up to 700%.3.MOONEY. PLANE182.3.MOONEY). Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB.1. 8. Access these options through the TBOPT argument of TB. See Material Curve Fitting (also in this manual) for more information.

For example.5.HYPER. and has an applicable strain range of 20-30%.0e-5 !Activate Neo-Hookean data table !Define mu shear modulus !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K. it is equivalent to the 9 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option (see Section 8. the polynomial form option may provide a better approximation to a solution at higher strain.NEO TBDATA..HYPER. 001972 .0.Section 8. 8. ANSYS Release 8.1.HYPER.2 TBDATA.1 .. For NPTS = 1 and constant c01 = 0.4.HYPER.HYPER) for a sample input listing).3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities TB.3.1.1.. Refer to Polynomial Form Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.1.3. for NPTS = 1.1.1: Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB. K is the bulk modulus) Refer to Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Material in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.1.0.POLY) allows you to define an unlimited number of parameters through the NPTS argument of the TB command..577148 TBDATA..1..HYPER.3.NEO) represents the simplest form of strain energy potential.5.2.. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Neo-Hookean option is presented below.6. 8.1. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Arruda-Boyce option is presented below.250152 TBDATA..001 !Activate Arruda-Boyce data table !Define initial shear modulus !Define limiting network stretch !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K.2. to define a 3 parameter model you would issue TB.2.3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option for a sample input listing). Similar to the higher order Mooney-Rivlin options.POLY..HYPER.. Polynomial Form Hyperelastic Option The polynomial form option (TB.5. Inc.HYPER.0 TBDATA. TB.4. 8.1.-0.2.3. K is the bulk modulus) Refer to Arruda-Boyce Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option. Structural Analysis Guide .0 TBDATA. K is the bulk modulus) !(Second incompressibility parameter d2 is zero) Refer to Ogden Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.3..1. 8–19 .326996 TBDATA.200.BOYCE) has an applicable strain level of up to 300%..0.OGDEN TBDATA.4.4.4.93063E-5 !Activate 2 parameter Ogden data table !Define µ1 !Define 1 !Define µ2 !Define 2 !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K.4.1. TB. For NPTS = 2. the polynomial form option is equivalent to the Neo-Hookean option (see Section 8.1.. © SAS IP. and for NPTS = 3.3.3. Arruda-Boyce Hyperelastic Option The Arruda-Boyce option (TB.4. Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option The Neo-Hookean option (TB. it is equivalent to the 5 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option.-2 TBDATA.BOYCE TBDATA.. Also.3.3.. it is equivalent to the 2 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option.7.

HYPER....2.FOAM) simulates highly compressible foam material.HYPER.1.. This option is analogous to the Neo-Hookean option of incompressible hyperelastic materials..1..3.4.42. and it requires sufficient data to cover the whole range of deformation for which you may be interested.1.0 TBDATA.5..1.1.HYPER.3: Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option for a sample input listing).HYPER.3..HYPER.1. the Ogden foam option usually provides the best approximation to a solution at larger strain levels. An example of a 3 parameter model is TB.1. Compared to the Blatz-Ko option.2.. 8. K is the bulk modulus) Refer to Gent Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.6.1. the Yeoh form option is equivalent to the Neo-Hookean option (see Section 8.1 .1.9. An example of a 2 term Yeoh model is TB.0 !Activate Blatz-Ko data table !Define initial shear modulus Refer to Blatz-Ko Foam Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option. It may however cause numerical difficulties in fitting the material constants..0 TBDATA.4...GENT) has an applicable strain level of up to 300%...HYPER. The following example input listing shows a typical use of the Yeoh option with 2 terms and 1 incompressibility term: TB.0.BLATZ) is the simplest option for simulating the compressible foam type of elastomer.2. a high parameter value is not recommended.6.. Yeoh Hyperelastic Option The Yeoh option (TB.93063E-5 !Activate 2 term Yeoh data table !Define C1 !Define C2 !Define first incompressibility parameter Refer to Yeoh Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8.4.3. © SAS IP.125076 TBDATA..3.. The higher the number of parameters.HYPER. 8–20 Structural Analysis Guide ..3 !Define incompressibility parameter !(as 2/K. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Gent option is presented below.4.YEOH.0.. 001972 . the better the fit to the experimental data.7. Similar to the polynomial form option. the higher order terms may provide a better approximation to a solution at higher strain. TB.0.3. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Blatz-Ko option is presented below.POLY..1..HYPER.2. 8.3.3.3.1.HYPER.1.GENT TBDATA.4. Blatz-Ko Foam Hyperelastic Option The Blatz-Ko option (TB. For NPTS = 1. TB.FOAM. For these reasons. 8.001 !Activate Gent data table !Define initial shear modulus !Define limiting I1 .163498 TBDATA. Inc.YEOH TBDATA. .3.YEOH) is a reduced polynomial form of the hyperelasticity option TB. Ogden Compressible Foam Hyperelastic Option The Ogden compressible foam option (TB.HYPER.8. Gent Hyperelastic Option The Gent option (TB..1. ANSYS Release 8.BLATZ TBDATA.

2. you can enter them directly with the TB family of commands.3. PLANE183. If you want to use the Mooney-Rivlin option with elements SHELL181.125076 TBDATA.0.1.-9. HYPER74. The Mooney-Rivlin constants for any given hyperelastic material are not generally available in the open literature.0. 8.0047583 TBDATA.5.5 TBDATA.1. Theory Reference for information on the Mooney-Rivlin function.) For these element types.5 TB. © SAS IP. and SOLID187.014719 TBDATA. Refer to the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features for a detailed description on writing a user hyperelasticity subroutine.92 !Activate 2 parameter Ogden foam data table !Define µ1 !Define 1 !Define µ2 !Define 2 !Define first compressibility parameter !Define second compressibility parameter Refer to Ogden Compressible Foam Hyperelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the material constants required for this option.85 TBDATA.92 TBDATA. using *MOONEY to generate a generally applicable hyperelastic material model will require test data that encompasses all possible modes of deformation: tension.1 .3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities The following example input listing shows a typical use of the Ogden foam option with 2 parameters: TB.0. ANSYS Release 8. SOLID164. HYPER74. or nine-term MooneyRivlin constants. and shear modes of deformation. Therefore.1: Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB.1.HYPER).1.2.0003882 ! (Constants 5. SOLID186.4.5 TBDATA.6. An example input listing showing a typical use of the Mooney-Rivlin for these elements is presented below : MP. (See the ANSYS. compression.0.11. Theory Reference for a discussion of hyperelastic test methods and equivalent deformation modes.MOONEY) in the ANSYS Elements Reference for a description of the constants required as input for this option. Inc.FOAM TBDATA.0 in this example) Refer to Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Material Constants (TB.6.1.1.4. PLANE162.. SHELL163. Hyperelastic stress-strain relationships usually differ significantly for tension. Inc. User-Defined Hyperelastic Option The User option (TB..1.NUXY.4. See the ANSYS. five-term. compression.0. but you might find that you need to obtain more data from a testing laboratory.3. three-term.USER) allows you to use the subroutine USERHYPER to define the derivatives of the strain energy potential with respect to the strain invariants. Hyperelastic material behavior is much more complicated than typical metallic material behavior. HYPER58. 8.. Inc.3. Structural Analysis Guide .1. 001972 .-0.MOONEY. 8.HYPER. and 9 default to 0. ANSYS element types HYPER56.3.HYPER.. or SOLID168.3. you can use the *MOONEY command to automatically determine a set of Mooney-Rivlin constants from a set of known experimental test data.4.4.-4. PLANE182.163498 TBDATA.4.20 TBDATA. and HYPER158 use up to a nine-term Mooney-Rivlin elastic potential function. 8–21 .0.49999 ! NUXY should be almost equal to.MOONEY) Note that this section applies to using the Mooney-Rivlin option with elements HYPER56. SOLID185.0. Sometimes the manufacturer of the material will be able to supply some or all of the needed test data.10.1. you can also specify the material function as a User Programmable Feature (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features). If you already know the values for two-term. see Section 8. Consequently.1 TBDATA. and shear. HYPER158.Section 8.2. Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB. 7. HYPER58. but less than 0.

but for convenience. 2. if you have 20 data points from uniaxial tension/compression tests and 10 data points from shear tests. 001972 . 8–22 Structural Analysis Guide . . in such cases the deformations experienced in the model should be limited to be of the same nature as those experienced in the tests. Fill the input-data arrays with engineering stress and strain test data. 4. For example. you can use it in future analyses to define that same material's Mooney-Rivlin constants . Once such a file exists. Additionally. such as STRAIN. You can substitute any other valid parameter names that you like. get more test data! You can use the *MOONEY command to automatically determine a set of Mooney-Rivlin constants from experimental test data. where N equals the maximum number of data points in any one of the three columns. you cannot accurately predict the behavior of a part that experiences such deformations or strains. Apply the Mooney-Rivlin constants in your analysis. If your test data extend only from 0% to 100% strain. Determine the Mooney-Rivlin constants automatically.TB) that records the Mooney-Rivlin constants in the form of a series of TB and TBDATA commands.1 . 3. if only uniaxial tension data are available). you discover that the available test data do not adequately characterize the model's response. it is not necessary to do so. Evaluate the quality of the automatically determined Mooney-Rivlin constants. STRESS. N = 20. Determining and Applying Mooney-Rivlin Constants The procedure for determining and applying Mooney-Rivlin constants consists of five main steps: 1. STRAIN Array: An array of engineering strain data from mechanical material tests.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis If an incomplete set of data is provided (for instance. If. after reviewing your analysis. ANSYS Release 8. SORTSN. This advice is simply common sense . if all you have is uniaxial tension data. even if fewer than three types of test data are available. Step 1: Dimension the Arrays Command(s): *DIM GUI: Utility Menu> Parameters> Array Parameters> Define/Edit You must dimension arrays before using the *MOONEY command. and SORTSS. and calculated stress-strain evaluation. In most cases. Inc.) The arrays are STRAIN. Mooney-Rivlin constant storage. you will need to dimension at least six different arrays. it writes an ASCII file (Jobname. do not model a part that experiences significant shear deformations. and so on. Dimension all arrays that will be used for data input. and in an array parameter. (You can give these arrays any valid parameter names. 5. arranged in three columns: • • • Column 1: uniaxial tension and/or compression data Column 2: equibiaxial tension and/or compression data Column 3: shear data (planar tension and/or compression) This array has the dimensions N x 3. the test data should represent all modes of deformation and ranges of response (strain) that will be experienced in the model. © SAS IP. STRESS. CALC. ANSYS determines the constants and stores them in the database.if you do not know how the material behaves in a certain mode of deformation or range of strain. Although it might be preferable to input the data points in order of ascending strain values. In other words.you do not need to use the *MOONEY command every time to regenerate these constants. the program can still determine usable hyperelastic material properties. For example. CONST. do not model a part that experiences 150% strain. in our discussion. we will use specific array names. However. This array must always be N x 3.

Section 8. Dim.. Dim.20. How many Mooney-Rivlin constants should you use? As a rule of thumb. These stress values will be sorted into the same order as their corresponding sorted strain values (which will be sorted into ascending order).3 *DIM. if your test data contained up to 20 data points for any one test type.1 Suggested Mooney-Rivlin Constants Number of Points in the Stress-strain Curve No inflection points (that is. 5. and nine-term functions in sequence. SORTSN Array: An array of dimension N x 3 in which sorted input strain data are stored. single curvature) One inflection point (that is. you might issue the following commands to dimension the necessary arrays (remember that you can substitute any valid parameter names for the ones shown here): *DIM. 001972 . Using more terms will usually improve the statistical quality of your curve fit (that is. © SAS IP.5. As a practical matter. any other value will produce an error message when *MOONEY is invoked. in which sorted calculated stress values are stored.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities STRESS Array: An array of engineering stress data from mechanical material tests input stress-data array.20. You must input stress data points in the same order as the corresponding strain-data input.3 *DIM.20..) (CONST) for 5-term M-R constants (CALC) for sorted calculated stresses (SORTSN) for sorted input strain data (SORTSS) for sorted input stress data See the *DIM command description for more information. Dim.SORTSS.. For example. as defined above) as the desired number of Mooney-Rivlin constants.3 *DIM.3 *DIM. and then writes the values of those constants to this array.. or 9. SORTSS Array: An array of dimension N x 3 in which sorted input stress data are stored. 8–23 .15 Typical Hyperelastic Stress-Strain Curves CALC Array: An output stress-data array of dimension N x 3 (where N is as described above).STRAIN. ANSYS Release 8.20. The *MOONEY command later reads the dimensions of this array to determine how many Mooney-Rivlin constants to generate. and if you wanted to generate a five-term set of Mooney-Rivlin constants. also of dimension N x 3. (M must be either 2..) You actually tell the program in this dimensioning operation how many Mooney-Rivlin constants you want. Dim. and examine the resulting stress-strain curves to decide which function gives you the best combination of tight fit and satisfactory curve shape.. Structural Analysis Guide . it will probably be more tightly fitted through the data points). Dim.STRESS. CONST Array: A Mooney-Rivlin constant array of dimension M x 1.SORTSN. Inc.20.CALC.CONST. array array array array array array (STRAIN) for 20 input strain-data points (STRESS) for input stress data (20 pts. five-term. you should probably try two-term. where M equals the desired number of Mooney-Rivlin constants.1 *DIM. double curvature) Two inflection points Suggested Mooney-Rivlin Function Two-term Five-term Nine-term Figure 8. Table 8. you should have at least twice as many data points (N.1 .3 ! ! ! ! ! ! Dim. but the overall shape of the curve might be worse than that obtained with fewer terms.

with each column of the arrays containing data from one type of test. ANSYS Release 8. uniaxial tension. Schematically. 001972 . Table 8. These arrays are of dimension N x 3. Likewise.1 . but the second column of the array contains data from equibiaxial tension and/or equibiaxial compression. you must leave the missing columns blank. The first mode of deformation.16: “Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays”. in this order: • • • First column: Uniaxial tension and/or uniaxial compression Second column: Equibiaxial tension and/or equibiaxial compression Third column: Shear (planar tension or compression) Note that these do not have a 1:1 relationship with the modes of deformation and their equivalencies. (Again. Inc. © SAS IP. equibiaxial tension. the second mode of deformation.) Note — The *MOONEY command interprets all input stress and strain data as engineering stress and engineering strain. but the first column of the array contains data from uniaxial tension and/or uniaxial compression. remember that you can give these arrays any valid parameter names. data input might be represented as shown in Figure 8. you can then fill the STRAIN and STRESS arrays with test data using the *SET command (GUI path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters). . has uniaxial compression as its equivalency. has equibiaxial compression as its equivalency. particular array names are used here only for the convenience of this discussion. 8–24 Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Step 2: Fill the Input-Data Arrays Once you have dimensioned your arrays.2 Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays Mode of Deformation Uniaxial tension Equibiaxial tension Shear Equivalent Test Types Uniaxial tension Equibiaxial compression Equibiaxial tension Uniaxial compression Planar tension Planar compression Array Location for Test Data Column one Column two Column two Column one Column three Column three If fewer than three types of tests are used.

MAT.Fname.NTEMP. and writes a series of TB and TBDATA commands in the ASCII file Fname. . .1). Inc. © SAS IP. and the number of data points represented by N1 and N2 in this example can be any integral numbers): ! Uniaxial Tension Data *SET.TB).1). ! ! Shear Data *SET. SORTSS(1).CALC(1). ! *SET. the arrays can have any valid array names..1 *MOONEY. with Lab = MOONEY and TBOPT = 1. stores them in the database and in the CONST array (which can have any valid parameter name).. Step 4: Evaluate the Quality of the Mooney-Rivlin Constants Structural Analysis Guide . and planar (pure shear) equations for the data in column 3.. ANSYS Release 8.. Note — All the laboratory test data entered in the STRAIN and STRESS arrays will be used to determine the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material constants..SORTSN(1).STRESS(1. Uniaxial equations will be used for the data in column 1.Section 8.3)..3). ... 001972 ..STRESS(11. first use the TB command. inserting the appropriate names of arrays that you have already dimensioned (particular names have been used in this example for convenience of discussion only.STRESS(1.1).1).1)..1 .STRAIN(1..STRAIN(1.16 Data Locations in Stress and Strain Input Arrays Consider a case in which data from uniaxial tension and shear tests are available...STRAIN(11. ! *SET.MOONEY.. ! First 10 strain data points Strain data points 11 through N1 (if N1<21) First 10 stress data points Stress data points 11 through N1 Strain data points 1 through N2 (if N2<11) Stress data points 1 through N2 See the *SET command description for more information. issue the *MOONEY command.1).STRESS(1. ! *SET. .. ! *SET.CONST(1).Ext The program automatically determines the Mooney-Rivlin constants.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities Figure 8. 8–25 .Ext (default file name = Jobname.. you can use any valid parameter names): TB.STRAIN(1. Step 3: Determine the Mooney-Rivlin Constants To generate Mooney-Rivlin constants automatically. The commands to store the strain and stress data in the input-data arrays could look something like this (of course. Next. equibiaxial equations for the data in column 2.

TB file to make this operation more convenient. 8–26 Structural Analysis Guide . The following example demonstrates how to graph a calculated curve for the uniaxial compression deformation mode: ! Dimension strain and stress arrays for the calculated curve: ! (Any valid parameter names can be used) *DIM.ECALC. and a uniaxial compression curve only in regions of compressive strain.OUT). The root-mean-square error." These two values give you a statistical measure of how well your calculated stress-strain curve fits the experimental data points. should be "close" to zero. given that the CONST array is either 1 x 2. *EVAL. graph [*VPLOT] the calculated stress-strain curve.5 means 2. you should compare the calculated uniaxial compression curve against the uniaxial compression data only. you should use the *EVAL and *VPLOT commands (GUI paths Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Mooney-Rivlin> Evaluate Const and Utility Menu> Plot> Array Parameters) to graph the input and calculated stress-strain curves. typically 0.) Next. Finally.XVAL(1). Because *EVAL reads these same constants from this CONST array.XMAX). You can fill this array fairly easily. However.Y. you should compare calculated values against test data that represent the same mode of deformation. In addition. Graphing your curves over such an extended range can help you qualitatively understand your model's behavior if its response ever happens to exceed the range of experimental strain. specify the mode of deformation. 1 x 5. a value of 2. and use the M-R constants (CONST) to fill the strain (XVAL) ! and stress (ECALC) arrays with calculated data: *EVAL.ECALC(1) See the *DIM. Remember that good practice usually requires that the test data should represent all modes of deformation and ranges of response (strain) experienced by your model. you must dimension [*DIM] two more table array vectors (identified as XVAL and ECALC in the *EVAL command description.Engineering Stress ! Plot the calculated uniaxial compression curve: *VPLOT. Similarly. where P is the number of points you want to use to plot your curve.1000 ! Specify the mode of deformation (EVPARM).XMIN. If you already have the Mooney-Rivlin constants (and thus will not be doing a *MOONEY calculation). you can extend the displayed curve into regions that were not defined by the experimental data. any valid parameter names may be used). then that portion of the display will be meaningless. ANSYS Release 8. 001972 . define an extended range of strain. (Typically. You could also add the *DIM and array-filling commands to your archived Jobname. define the strain range ! (XMIN.XVAL(1).XMAX.ECALC(1) ! Label the graph axes: /AXLAB. When you graph your calculated stress-strain curves. To check your curve's shape. you will want to make P fairly large in order to generate a very smooth curve. using the *EVAL command. The *MOONEY command automatically writes the Mooney-Rivlin constants to the CONST array. and the calculated shear curve against the shear data only. you should compare the shape of the calculated uniaxial tension curve (EVPARM = 1 in the *EVAL command) against uniaxial tension data only (column 1 of the sorted STRAIN and STRESS arrays).XVAL. . In comparing these curves.CONST(1).TABLE. which is expressed as a percentage (that is.1000 *DIM. © SAS IP. That is.2. you should graph a uniaxial tension curve only in regions of positive strain.TABLE.0 (that is. /AXLAB. and fill the arrays with engineering strain and calculated engineering stress data. you must first dimension [*DIM]and fill the CONST array with the Mooney-Rivlin constants before you can evaluate the curves [*EVAL]. For instance. but should be "close" to 1.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis In your printout (file Jobname. and *VPLOT command descriptions for more information.1. examine the "ROOT-MEAN-SQUARE ERROR (PERCENTAGE)" and the "COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION. realize that if you extend a displayed curve into a region that represents a different mode of deformation.1 . Each of these table array vectors should have dimension P.X. or 1 x 9 at most.Engineering Strain /AXLAB. in order to obtain a visual check on how well the calculated curve matches the experimental data.0.99 or better). you can readily do a *EVAL following a *MOONEY operation in the same ANSYS session.5 %). The coefficient of determination will be less than 1. Inc.

. 001972 . If the material is stable over the range. 8–27 . and lists the Mooney-Rivlin constants that you entered. then lists the constants that were entered for this example: Structural Analysis Guide . you can simply read in [/INPUT] the file Jobname. ANSYS provides internal stability checks for hyperelastic materials based on the Mooney-Rivlin constants that you enter. choose constants with caution and experiment with slightly different values. and planar tension and compression). Therefore.]. equibiaxial tension and compression.17 Typical Evaluated Hyperelastic Stress-Strain Curve Step 5: Using the Mooney-Rivlin Constants If the curve-fit statistics and the overall curve shape are satisfactory. The sample warning message below lists the nominal strains where Material 1 loses stability. If the material is not stable over the range. The check is for six typical stress paths (uniaxial tension and compression. Some values of Mooney-Rivlin constants result in very stable stiffness matrices whereas others do not.TB to load the constants into your new database. © SAS IP. do not forget to define a value for Poisson's ratio [MP. These checks occur at two levels: • The first stability check occurs before the analysis. ANSYS Release 8.1 . Always remember to examine your analysis results carefully to determine whether or not your model's modes of deformation and values of maximum strain were properly represented by the original test data.. Analyses involving hyperelastic elements are sometimes very sensitive to material property specification and load application.1 to 10. you will not see any message or indication.NUXY..3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities Figure 8. Inc. and covers a stretch ratio ranging from 0. then you can proceed to use the generated Mooney-Rivlin material properties in your analysis.) In future analyses using the same material model. However.Section 8. (The *MOONEY command will have stored these constants in the database. a message appears that states the critical values of the nominal strains where the material first becomes unstable.

000E+00. . ANSYS Release 8. If the problem fails the stability check.565E+00 0. You will not see any messages if the problem passes the check. foam-like elastomers. The strain (nominal) limits where the material becomes unstable are: UNIAXIAL TENSION UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION EQUIBIAXIAL TENSION EQUIBIAXIAL COMPRESSION PLANAR TENSION PLANAR COMPRESSION 0. For nearly incompressible materials with Poisson's ratio greater than 0. during an analysis. You should be aware that even though a material failing a stability check is often an indication of convergence difficulty. In general. HYPER58.1 . indicating that two or more different geometric configurations have the same minimum potential energy.81 CRITERION= 0. for the particular element of interest: HYPER56 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands.000E+00.000E+00. Note — The element types HYPER84 and HYPER86 are intended primarily for modeling compressible. ANSYS detected 3 Gauss points that exceeded the material stability limit: DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 22. then use MP commands to enter appropriate values for EX and NUXY to define the initial material shear modulus. 0. Inc. See the appropriate table for the SMISC item that corresponds to instability indicator STFLAG.150E+03 0. but it is limited to two-term Mooney-Rivlin only.000E+00 0.516E+00 -0.170E+02. The SMISC number for STFLAG differs for some of the elements. You can plot the region of instability in POST1 by plotting this SMISC record identified as STFLAG for the element. HYPER58.645E+00 -0.1917E+05 >>> 3 Gauss points have exceeded the material stability limit For elements that contain at least one unstable Gauss point. The sample message below shows that. and HYPER158).000E+00 • For the hyperelastic elements with mixed u-P formulation (HYPER56. we recommend that you use the hyperelastic elements with mixed u-P formulation (HYPER56. 0. Bifurcation of the solution. the instability indicator is set to 1 and stored in the result file as an item in the SMISC record. and HYPER158). 0. Each problem may be unique and require special consideration.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis *** WARNING *** CP= 1. 0.220E+00 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. © SAS IP. In most instances.5000 EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. Select the Blatz-Ko option by setting KEYOPT(2) = 1 for these elements. it does not necessarily mean that your solution is invalid once the material enters the unstable region. HYPER74 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands. HYPER74. MAX DOF INC= 10. the program checks every Gauss point in the problem for stability violations.110 TIME= 16:59:52 Material 1 can become unstable under certain loading. 0.369E+00 Mooney-Rivlin constants of the hyperelastic material are: 0. it is recommended that you use HYPER56. or HYPER158 (not HYPER84 or HYPER86) for all incompressible hyperelastic materials. HYPER58 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands. HYPER74.000E+00. The material stability check is simply a tool to help you diagnose the problem when the solution fails to converge. 0. HYPER158 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands. An incompressible hyperelastic material option is also available for HYPER84 and HYPER86. load application should be slow so as not to over-distort elements in the converging sequence. HYPER58.49. Problems using hyperelastic elements can be sensitive to the rate of load application.585E+00 -0. 001972 . you can also have ANSYS perform a stability check during an analysis by setting KEYOPT(8) = 1. may occur at various times during the 8–28 Structural Analysis Guide .000E+00.00 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. HYPER74. For each equilibrium iteration. you will see a message in the solution history section of the ANSYS Output window reporting the total number of Gauss points that were unstable for that iteration.5018E+07 CRITERION= 0. using a Blatz-Ko function to describe the material properties.

PIPE60.Section 8. these various creep equations. The creep strain rate may be a function of stress. BEAM188. The explicit creep method is useful for cases where very small time steps are required. Creep Creep is a rate dependent material nonlinearity in which the material continues to deform under a constant load. PLANE42. BEAM24. and BEAM189.” or any elements referred to as “explicit elements. Both are applicable to static or transient analyses. such as for nuclear reactors. ANSYS Release 8.18: “Stress Relaxation and Creep”(a)). 8. Creep can also be significant for some materials such as prestressed concrete.18: “Stress Relaxation and Creep”(b). the creep deformation is permanent. Over a period of time at high temperature. secondary.1. Conversely. Structural Analysis Guide . SOLID186. and irradiation induced creep. and neutron flux level. as well as simultaneous coupling with isotropic hardening plasticity models. PIPE20. for the explicit creep option. The three stages of creep are shown in Figure 8. BEAM23. SHELL181. SHELL51. Creep constants cannot be dependent on temperature. SOLID92. ANSYS analyzes creep using two time integration methods. and recommended for general use. Coupling with other plastic models is available by superposition only. © SAS IP. accurate.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities loading history.” The implicit creep method supports the following elements: PLANE42. (See Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for discussions of. suppose you apply a preload to some part in a nuclear reactor to keep adjacent parts from moving. Automatic time stepping with bisection [AUTOTS. 8–29 . SOLID95. PLANE2. SOLID92. SOLID187. PLANE82. and input procedures for.1 . SOLID185. SOLID45. 001972 . PLANE183. temperatures used in the creep equations should be based on an absolute scale.18 Stress Relaxation and Creep Creep is important in high temperature stress analyses. It can handle temperature dependent creep constants. PLANE82. Typically. see Figure 8. fast. LINK8. Inc. strain. The ANSYS program has the capability of modeling the first two stages (primary and secondary). the reaction force (and stresses) will diminish over time (stress relaxation. the preload would decrease (stress relaxation) and potentially let the adjacent parts move. PLANE182. SHELL43. In particular. and SOLID95. SOLID65. SOLID62. Figure 8. Note — The terms “implicit” and “explicit” as applied to creep. SOLID45. For example. The explicit creep method supports the following elements: LINK1. have no relationship to “explicit dynamics.ON] is often effective in overcoming these difficulties.The implicit creep method is robust. temperature.5.) Some equations require specific units.3. Libraries of creep strain rate equations are built into the ANSYS program for primary. if a displacement is imposed. LINK180. The tertiary stage is usually not analyzed since it implies impending failure.

TB. Also. Since the time period in this load step will affect the total time thereafter. The following example shows how five state variables are defined. The RATE command must be turned ON. Implicit Creep Procedure The basic procedure for using the implicit creep method involves issuing the TB command with Lab = CREEP.STATE.OFF TIME. and the four constants associated with this equation are specified as arguments with the TBDATA command. the time period for this load step should be small. apply mechanical loading !Creep analysis turned off !Time period set to a very small value 8–30 Structural Analysis Guide . /SOLU RATE.1.0E-8 !First load step. and the material creeps as time increases. see Section 8. you must also issue the solution RATE command. To perform an implicit creep analysis. Temperature dependency is specified using the TBTEMP command. The following example input shows the use of the implicit creep method. TB. bilinear kinematic.CREEP] and isotropic.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations.2 TBTEMP. You can define the number of state variables using the TB command with Lab = STATE. and Hill anisotropy options to simulate more complex material behaviors.100 TBDATA.3.1.1. with Option = ON (or 1). The second load step is a creep analysis. ANSYS Release 8. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities. The following example shows a procedure for a time hardening creep analysis (See Figure 8.1. and choosing a creep equation by specifying a value for TBOPT.C2.C1.1. 001972 . .CREEP. For this example.1. the user specified a value of 1. TBOPT = 2 specifies that the primary creep equation for model 2 will be used.5.19 Time Hardening Creep Analysis The user applied mechanical loading in the first load step.C4 You can input other creep expressions using the user programmable feature and setting TBOPT = 100.C3..5 You can simultaneously model creep [TB. Here the mechanical loading was kept constant. © SAS IP.1 .3.1. and turned the RATE command OFF to bypass the creep strain effect. Figure 8.4.19: “Time Hardening Creep Analysis”).0E-8 seconds.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. Inc.

All of the TBFT command capability is available via either batch or interactive (GUI) mode.1.100 . SOLID186. The ratio may vary with materials so your decision on the best value to use should be based on your own experimentation to gain the required performance and accuracy. Nitinol is a flexible metal alloy that can undergo very large deformations in loading-unloading cycles without permanent deformation. a small time step must be used with the explicit creep method. you can use the RATE command with the following elements: LINK180. you can use the RATE command with the following elements: PLANE42.2.CREEP. a suggestion is to first perform a time increment convergence analysis on a simple small size test.. BEAM188.CRPLIMIT. When modeling anisotropic creep (TB. ANSYS provides tools to help you determine the coefficients for all of the implicit creep options defined in TB. SOLID186. SHELL181. For larger analyses. SOLV RATE.HILL). SOLID185. Explicit Creep Procedure The basic procedure for using the explicit creep method involves issuing the TB command with Lab = CREEP and choosing a creep equation by adding the appropriate constant as an argument with the TBDATA command. The following example input uses the explicit creep method.3.CREEP with TB. ANSYS Release 8. SOLID187. For highly nonlinear creep strain vs. A creep time step optimization procedure is available [AUTOTS and CRPLIM] for automatically adjusting the time step as appropriate. TB. a general recommendation is to use a small initial incremental time step.C6 For the explicit creep method.CREEP. Because of this.. SOLID187. 8.C3. A recommended value for a creep limit ratio ranges from 1 to 10. Shape Memory Alloy The Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) material behavior option describes the super-elastic behavior of nitinol alloy. and BEAM189. © SAS IP. . See Material Curve Fitting (also in this manual) for more information. the creep strain rate changes significantly at an early stage. Creep strains are not computed if the time step is less than 1. When modeling implicit creep with von Mises potential. Note that all constants are included as arguments with the TBDATA command. As illustrated in Figure 8. SOLID95.3. For most materials. the material behavior has three distinct phases: an austenite phase (linear elastic).1.1 .C1.5. PLANE183. SOLV !Solve this load step !Second load step.. you can incorporate other creep expressions into the program by using User Programmable Features (see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features). BEAM188. and BEAM189.1. you may need to examine the effect of the time increment on the results carefully because ANSYS does not enforce any creep ratio control by default. PLANE183. You can always enforce a creep limit ratio using the creep ratio control option in commands CRPLIM or CUTCONTROL. PLANE82. 001972 .0e-6. time curves. SOLID45. SOLID185. The TBFT command allows you to compare your experimental data with existing material data curves and visually “fit” your curve for use in the TB command. SHELL181.C4. SOLID92. then specify a large maximum incremental time step by using solution command DELTIM or NSUBST. Structural Analysis Guide . no further mechanical load !Creep analysis turned on !Time period set to desired value !Solve this load step The RATE command works only when modeling implicit creep with either von Mises or Hill potentials.20: “Shape Memory Alloy Phases”. Inc.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities .1 TBDATA. LINK180. For implicit creep. and that there is no temperature dependency. PLANE182. PLANE182.ON TIME.C2. and the transition phase between these two. a martensite phase (also linear elastic).6. 8. 8–31 .Section 8.. TBOPT is either left blank or = 0.

8.420.ON]. SOLID185.15 TBDATA. which involve large plastic strains and displacements with small elastic strains (see Figure 8.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8. ¡¥¢ ¦ ¡ ¥¢ ¦ ¢ ¤¡ ∫ ε Define second starting temp Define SMA parameters £¡ ¢ . Inc.10 TBDATA. PLANE183. and TBDATA for more information.SMA command to input the behavior of the transition and martensite phases.0E3 MP.2 TBTEMP.1. Use the TBDATA command to enter the specifics (data sets) of the alloy material.SMA.1 . Viscoplasticity Viscoplasticity is a time-dependent plasticity phenomenon.0.1. © SAS IP. SOLID187. A typical ANSYS input listing (fragment) will look similar to this: MP.10.07.0. where the development of the plastic strains are dependent on the rate of loading.0.3. SOLID186.600.0.300.520.0.0E4 TBTEMP. with two temperatures Define first starting temp Define SMA parameters See TB.7.0.20 Shape Memory Alloy Phases σ ε σ σ σ σ ∫ Use the MP command to input the linear elastic behavior of the austenite phase. The plastic strains are typically very large (for example. The primary applications are high-temperature metal forming processes such as rolling and deep drawing.7.EX.5.1.0. SMAs can be specified for the following elements: PLANE182.200.1.20 TBDATA.7.0.0E3 ! Define austenite elastic properties ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Define material 1 as SMA.60.4.1. 50% or greater).0.12 TBDATA.540. You can enter up to six sets of data.0.NUXY.0. and the TB.0.0. 001972 .200. requiring large strain theory [NLGEOM.21: “Viscoplastic Behavior in a Rolling Operation”).1.300. 8–32 Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8.3 TB.

SHELL181. PLANE183. SOLID45. but part of the deformation is removed when the loading is taken off. Further. SOLID185. © SAS IP. The Rate-Dependent Plasticity (Viscoplasticity) or TB. ANSYS Release 8. This option is also suitable for large strain analysis. see Section 8.21 Viscoplastic Behavior in a Rolling Operation Viscoplasticity is defined by unifying plasticity and creep via a set of flow and evolutionary equations. Also. SOLID187. you can simulate anisotropic viscoplasticity by also combining the HILL option. BEAM188.8. the Perzyna and Peirce models also include a yield surface. One type of viscoelastic response is illustrated in Figure 8. A common viscoelastic material is glass. You must use the models in combination with the BISO. SOLID95. the Perzyna model and the Peirce model (see the ANSYS. For isotropic hardening. Two material options are available.3.1 . and VISCO108. Some plastics are also considered to be viscoelastic. Some typical applications of these material options are metal forming and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). or NLISO material options to simulate viscoplasticity.1. 8–33 . 8. See Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference for the combination possibilities.Section 8. Inc.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities Viscoplasticity is modeled with element types VISCO106. In contrast to other rate-dependent material options in ANSYS such as Creep or Anand's model. Viscoelasticity Viscoelasticity is similar to creep. Figure 8. Structural Analysis Guide . Theory Reference for details). The plasticity and thus the strain rate hardening effect are active only after plastic yielding.RATE option allows you to introduce the strain rate effect in material models to simulate the time-dependent response of materials. SOLID186. PLANE182. VISCO107. the intent is for simulating the strain rate hardening of materials rather than softening. Inc.3.22: “Viscoelastic Behavior (Maxwell Model)”. SOLID92. MISO.2: Material Model Combinations in this chapter for sample input listings of material combinations. PLANE82. 001972 . and is applicable to the following elements: PLANE42. A constraint equation is used to preserve volume in the plastic region. and BEAM189. LINK180. using Anand's model for material properties as described in Nonlinear Stress-Strain Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.

1.0 !Large Strain Viscoelasticity tb. SOLID187.ex.0. PLANE183. or swelling.25.2.1. In order to include swelling effects.. 8–34 Structural Analysis Guide ..3 tb.1.prony. SOLID185.2E-6 tb.2.0 tb.5.shear !define viscosity parameters tbdata.bulk !define viscosity parameters tbdata.bulk !define viscosity parameters (bulk) tbdata.2. For LINK180.0.1.1.25..PRONY and TB.0E5 !elastic properties mp.1.4.0.0. ANSYS Release 8.0 See Viscoelastic Material Constants in the ANSYS Elements Reference and the ANSYS. BEAM188.1.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8.3. 001972 . PLANE183. © SAS IP.1. SOLID186.hyper.38.shear !define viscosity parameters (shear) tbdata. USERSW.0. 8.462E4.1.5. PLANE182. The elasticity constants correspond to those of the fast load limit. Inc.1. The TBFT command allows you to compare your experimental data with existing material data curves and visually “fit” your curve for use in the TB command.1. the underlying elasticity is specified using the MP command (hypoelasticity) only.1.0 tb. you must write your own swelling subroutine.1. All of the TBFT command capability is available via either batch or interactive (GUI) mode. SOLID185.prony. See Material Curve Fitting (also in this manual) for more information.5. Inc. and SOLID187 the underlying elasticity is specified by either the MP command (hypoelasticity) or by the TB.0.1.1. SHELL181.20.0.prony.HYPER command (hyperelasticity). . SOLID186.prony.2. BEAM188.nuxy. Use the TB. (See the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features for a discussion of User-Programmable Features. For SHELL181.PRONY. Theory Reference for details about how to input viscoelastic material properties using the TB family of commands.) Swelling Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference discusses how to use the TB family of commands to input constants for the swelling equations.2.0.22 Viscoelastic Behavior (Maxwell Model) Viscoelasticity is modeled with element types VISCO88 and VISCO89 for small deformation viscoelasticity and LINK180.4.5.0. such as moisture content.1.moon !elastic properties tbdata.. !Small Strain Viscoelasticity mp.. and BEAM189 for small and large deformation viscoelasticity. Swelling can also be related to other phenomena.9..SHIFT commands to input the relaxation property (see the TB command description for more information).1 . The ANSYS commands for nuclear swelling can be used analogously to define swelling due to other causes. Swelling Certain materials respond to neutron flux by enlarging volumetrically. and BEAM189.2. PLANE182. ANSYS provides tools to help you determine the coefficients for all of the viscoelastic options defined by TB. You must input material properties using the TB family of commands..

and Section 8.9.100.EX.5 ! CHABOCHE TABLE TBTEMP.3. Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Elements Reference presents the model options you can combine along with the associated TB command labels and links to sample input listings.3.200.1 TBDATA..2.3 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS TB. 001972 .1.1.3.3.200.CHAB. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3. Material Model Combinations You can combine several material model options discussed in this chapter to simulate complex material behaviors.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities 8.0.380 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE ! THIS EXAMPLE ISOTHERMAL ! MISO TABLE For information on the MISO option.3 TB.MISO.0E5 MP.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.100.500.2.1.185E3 MP.3 TB. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3 TB.100.185.20.1.1.3.180. Inc.3.1.NUXY.1 .Section 8.0 TBTEMP.1.100.1. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.7E-4.100.EX.1. For information on the CHAB option. MP. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference. and Section 8.1.NUXY.0.1 TBDATA.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.10000 TBDATA.2.0E3 MP.1000.1.1 ! THIS EXAMPLE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT TBDATA.180.NUXY.200 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE ! BISO TABLE For information on the BISO option.1 TBPT.3.1. For information on the CHAB option.1.0.3 TB.1.180 TBPT.0.1.CHAB. MP. ANSYS Release 8.7.40000.BISO.20000. MP.1.1.20.40.2.2.3.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.180. These sample input listings are presented below in sections identified by the TB command labels.EX.1.1.. and Section 8. MISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening plasticity. 8–35 . © SAS IP. 8.1. 8.CHAB. BISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening plasticity.1 TBDATA.3. NLISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity with Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening plasticity.2 Structural Analysis Guide .1. and Section 8. 8.

400.1080.2 TBDATA.040. For information on the RATE option.EX. ANSYS Release 8. MISO and RATE Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with the TB.60.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.120.0E5 MP.1.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.20.0.0.0E5 MP.1400. MP. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3.0 TBTEMP. 001972 .500. Inc.2.2600. and Section 8.1.020. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.880.9000.1. For information on the CHAB option.32000 TBPT. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference. 8.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.1.244000.33800 TBPT.700.1. BISO and RATE Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with the TB.0.1. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.20.60.1 . © SAS IP.0.1.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis TBDATA..1.1.1.5.RATE command to model viscoplasticity.2. and Section 8.1000. 8.3.MISO.10000 TB.3 TBDATA.1 TBPT.050.3000.0. and Section 8. 8–36 Structural Analysis Guide .0.900.4. and Section 8.1 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BISO TABLE ! RATE TABLE For information on the BISO option.2000.1.PERZYNA TBDATA. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference..3 TB.025.1.880..0.3.RATE command to model viscoplasticity.0.45800.1.1.3.015.36500 TBPT.3..500..PERZYNA TBDATA. and Section 8.38000 TBPT.7 ! NLISO TABLE For information on the NLISO option.1.5.7.1.40.. and Section 8.39000 TB.BISO.NUXY.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.EX.12200 TBDATA.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.0.1.1080.1 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE ! RATE TABLE For information on the MISO option.1. For information on the RATE option..0.RATE.1.3.3 TB.200.RATE.1.030.3.2 TBTEMP.10200 TBDATA.0.NUXY.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.30000 TBPT.1.7.43800.204000.2800..060.1 TBDATA.80.. MP.0. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.35000 TBPT. .1 TBDATA.3.NLISO..5.0 TB.0.1.3 TBTEMP..0.0.1.

and Section 8.. For information on the RATE option.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities 8.100000. and Section 8.050..5625E-14.5.3.3.Section 8.5.0. 8–37 .1.20.1.RATE. MP.1.0.025.MISO.0.2.CREEP.3. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.1.5.33800 TBPT.2. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3 TB.-0.35000 TBPT.2.040.PERZYNA TBDATA.36500 TBPT.5.10000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BISO TABLE TB.1 TBDATA.0.5200..1.0. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.NUXY.0E5 MP.EX.0 For information on the BISO option.0.0.9000.0.060.1.30000.1. and Section 8.3 TB.NUXY. ANSYS Release 8.-0.1.0 For information on the MISO option.NLISO..1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.5.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.1..32000 TBPT. 001972 .1.5.015. and Section 8. Inc.1. Structural Analysis Guide . NLISO and RATE Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity with the TB.1.1.0.. © SAS IP.6.0. BISO and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with implicit creep.EX.0.1.030.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.0E5 MP. For information on the CREEP option.1 .0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.38000 TBPT.5625E-14..1.0.1.30000 TBPT. MP.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.RATE command to model viscoplasticity.3.3.0E5 MP.20. and Section 8.1.1 TBDATA.. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3.1 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE ! RATE TABLE For information on the NLISO option..1..0.1.1.1...172 TB. 8.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.3.39000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE TB.NUXY.3 TB. 8.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.CREEP.7.1.020.EX.20..8.3.BISO.1.1 TBPT. MP. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference. MISO and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity with implicit creep.

5.1.3.1.1.0402.0.1.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.1.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter. © SAS IP.0E5 MP.9 TB.100000. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.1. see Bilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.5.2.5.3.0. and Section 8.0. and Section 8.0.0. and Section 8.172 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE TB. MP. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.1.30000.07895.11. BKIN and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining bilinear kinematic hardening plasticity with implicit creep.1. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference. 8–38 Structural Analysis Guide . Inc.1. NLISO and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity with implicit creep.200 TBDATA.1.3.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. 8.1.3.EX.24897.1. and Section 8.1.100 TBDATA. and Section 8.CREEP.1.0 For information on the NLISO option.42000.9...4e-21.7.NUXY. ANSYS Release 8.EX.0 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BKIN TABLE ! CREEP TABLE For information on the BKIN option.200 TBDATA.1000 TB. MP. 001972 .374.1.3 TB.1.100 TBDATA.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.5.20.0. .5625E-14.1.BKIN.325.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis For information on the CREEP option.NUXY.1.-0.1.0.1 TBTEMP.HILL.97.2.1.0.10.3.0 ! BISO TABLE For information on the HILL option.BISO.1e7 MP.1.5.9.3.3. For information on the CREEP option.124.EX.5.NLISO.2 ! HILL TABLE TBTEMP.400.0E5 MP. MP.1.1.3.3.. 8.1.586 TBTEMP. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.0.1.6 TBDATA.1. 8.0.CREEP.94.0.1.0.0.3 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS TB.NUXY.1. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. For information on the CREEP option.1.20.2 TBTEMP.1.0.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.5200.1.0. and Section 8.461.9.2.1 TBDATA.1.32 TB. TBDATA.1 . HILL and BISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with bilinear isotropic hardening.3.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter..

see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.040.0.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.20. and Section 8.MISO.EX.3. 001972 .30000 TBPT.1..HILL.0.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.0.1 TBPT.1 TBDATA.NLISO. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.10000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BKIN TABLE TB.100000.1.0.3.0.1.HILL.1. © SAS IP.1. ANSYS Release 8. Structural Analysis Guide .1.1.3.3.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.3 TB.0E5 MP.9.3 TB. For information on the MISO option.0...1.80 For information on the HILL option. and Section 8.9.33800 TBPT.015. and Section 8.3.0.9000.HILL.1..050.0.1.9.0.30000.NUXY.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.80 For information on the HILL option.20.1.0E5 MP..025..EX. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.36500 TBPT. and Section 8.BKIN.85.9.14.1.3.39000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE TB.1. 8–39 . see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference. MP.1.3. HILL and NLISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with nonlinear isotropic hardening.1..1.Section 8.1. and Section 8.0.1. HILL and BKIN Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with bilinear kinematic hardening.1. 8.0. 8.3. For information on the NLISO option.38000 TBPT.030.3.1.80 For information on the HILL option.0.060.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.0.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.0.0.1 TBDATA.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.EX. Inc.1. 8.2. HILL and MISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with multilinear isotropic hardening.35000 TBPT.9.1.0.2.0. MP. and Section 8.12.85.1.20.1.NUXY.1.1.0.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities For information on the BISO option.32000 TBPT.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.0.172 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE TB.1.NUXY.020.1 .1.85.0.0. MP.0.5200. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.2.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.9.1.3 TB.1.13.0E5 MP.

0.1.1.1.PRYZ.31140..GYZ.90000.0.0.115000.1.00.20.0015.1.0.1.0.MKIN.800.1.1.1.375.120000 TBTEMP.1.160E4.0.EX. and Section 8.1..23.1.1 TBTEMP.1.1.93 TBTEMP.1. 001972 .0 TBDATA.1.060E4 MPDATA.1. MPTEMP.1.30.0 TBDATA.0.76E6 MPDATA.strain TBDATA.2E3 TBPT.0.400 TBDATA.0 TBDATA.76E6 MPDATA.0.36E6.190E4.76E6 MPDATA.060E4 MPDATA.0.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.3.KINH.1.0 TBDATA.34665.5.1.1.30.1.93. Inc.080E4.25.0.110E4.20 TBDATA.1.080E4.1.36E6. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.GXY.92440 TBTEMP.88588.0.11E6. For information on the MKIN option.1.16.20E6.00E6.1.0. 8.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.82080.1.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis For information on the BKIN option.1. 8.69330.0.3.1..368.1 . see Bilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.96600.93.006.1.160E4. ANSYS Release 8.110E4.62280.0.93 TBTEMP.0.1.1. see Multilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1. .HILL.45000. MP.104880.0.1.190E4.25.060E4 TB. and Section 8.359.1.36E6..1.1.20E6.1.27.1E3 TBPT.1.79580.160E4.1.0.0.351.PRXZ.1.950 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS MPDATA.0.41040.0.3.23.20.950.377 MPDATA.1.NUXY.27.27.20.01.1.1.3.83040 TB.1.1.2.1.20.0.20.1.650.1.110E4.400.3.109440 TBTEMP.41520.23.54720.25.800 TBDATA.15.0.1.1.375.EZ.0.0. HILL and KINH Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with multilinear kinematic hardening.351.93.080E4.20E6 MP.75600.5 ! HILL TABLE TBTEMP.1.1.0.GXZ.0.1.0.93 TBTEMP.2.3 TBPT.46220.00.0.6E4 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! KINH TABLE 8–40 Structural Analysis Guide .0.08.37800.93.1.351.377 MPDATA.11E6.04.1.0.11E6.50400.1.0.1.1.60.359.800.1.0.650.0.950 TBDATA. HILL and MKIN Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with multilinear kinematic hardening.1..1.0.650 TBDATA.5 ! MKIN TABLE TBTEMP.PRXY.0.93.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.EY.375.1.0.359.0.3 TB.1.0.00E6.0.377 MPDATA.1.00 For information on the HILL option.1.30.00 TBTEMP.60000.1.1.EX. and Section 8.1.00.1.1.93.0 TBDATA.0. © SAS IP.100800 TBTEMP.20E6.1.00E6.0.368.0.1.0.1.0.0.1.00.0.190E4.400.368.5E-5.

HILL.0.0.1. 8.200 TB.185E3 MP. ANSYS Release 8.95 ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.85.3.0.2.Section 8.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. and Section 8.0 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE TB.1 TBDATA.NUXY.1. 8–41 .EX. and Section 8.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities TB.1.1.3.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.3. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.HILL. 8.0.3.1.180.CHAB.3 TB.0.0.3 TB. Structural Analysis Guide . HILL and BISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with bilinear isotropic hardening and Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening.0.1.3.1. HILL and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening. 8.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1 TBDATA. Inc.3. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference. and Section 8.0.1.1.3.1.0.19.0.85.1.2. MP.1. and Section 8.1.3. For information on the BISO option.0.1.1.18.0.3.1.9.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1.9. and Section 8.1.1.1 TBDATA. and Section 8.80 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE ! BISO TABLE ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.1 TBDATA.1.100.1.1.85. and Section 8. For information on the CHAB option.180.9. HILL and MISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic plasticity with multilinear isotropic hardening and Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening.0.400.1 TBDATA.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.NUXY.1.180. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference. For information on the CHAB option.0.BISO.1 .9. 001972 .1.1.9.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.CHAB.80 For information on the HILL option. MP. see Multilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference. © SAS IP.185E3 MP.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.EX.1.0.1. For information on the KINH option.HILL.17.1.90.1.3.3 TB.1.2.0.3.1. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.

0.973E4.890E4.050E4 MPDATA.1.PRXY.250E4.PRXZ.1.0.100.9.377.963E4.946E4.1.3 TB.1.185 TBPT.700.368.1. and Section 8.1. © SAS IP.1.1.3.1.140E4.0.384.85.1.650 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS MPTEMP.0.1.0.384.0.EX.185.1.100.185E3 MP.050E4 MPDATA.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.550.1.160E4.0.0.1.250E4..0.3.0.HILL.1.1.0.GXZ.890E4.0.060E4.1.1.1.973E4.973E4.0.110E4.20..380 MPDATA..1.020E4.080E4.1.1.0.1. 8.908E4.080E4.995E4.001.3 TB.0.EZ.850.090E4.1.351.3 ! NLISO TABLE ! CHABOCHE TABLE 8–42 Structural Analysis Guide .040E4 MPDATA.1.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.963E4.0.020E4.250E4.391.0.0.391.380 TB.1..1.359.200.380 MPDATA.MISO.0.1.887E4 ! MPDATA.1..EX.377.3.865E4 ! MPDATA.1.0.384.865E4 ! MPDATA.393 ! MPDATA.1.1 TBDATA.386.110E4.1..210E4.389.0.020E4.0. 001972 .0.351.0..000E4.0.EY.908E4.060E4.060E4.1.0.1.932E4.160E4. and Section 8.180.1.1.1.1.1 TBPT.080E4..GXZ.190E4.1.1.PRXY.050E4 MPDATA.382.1.0.0.0.1..0.0.. see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.0.CHAB.020E4.100.140E4.2.1.0.382.932E4.190E4.1.1.890E4.110E4.946E4.386.GXY.040E4 MPDATA.1.1.1..0.0.1.0.0.1.1. .0.1.0.0.020E4.0.0.0.1. For information on the CHAB option.1.0.377.359.900.EZ.0.0.20.1.0.1.1.995E4.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.PRXZ.1.0.000E4.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.932E4.3.0.1.1.160E4.1.0.180.800.9.EY.1 TBDATA.750.210E4.1.0.1. Inc.0.368.GXY.1.1.0.1.020E4.1.963E4.5 ! TB.1.070E4.908E4.090E4.NLISO.1.382.1.0. ANSYS Release 8.0.351.887E4 ! MPDATA.040E4 MPDATA.190E4.380 MPDATA.359.0. HILL and NLISO and CHAB Example This input listing illustrates an example of combining anisotropic plasticity with nonlinear isotropic hardening and Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening.0.1.0.1.995E4.0.0.400.389.80 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! CHABOCHE TABLE ! MISO TABLE ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.0.0.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis MP.386.0.000E4.1.1.PRYZ.NUXY. MPTEMP.1.0.1.0.391.368.090E4.1.389. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.0.1..0.GYZ.1 .1 TBDATA. For information on the MISO option.0.PRYZ.EX.375.070E4.1.887E4 TB.GYZ. and Section 8.1 TBDATA.1.375.0.393 ! MPDATA.1.393 ! MPDATA.CHAB.375.950 ! MPDATA.1.0.865E4 ! MPDATA.0.1.140E4.070E4.210E4.600.1.946E4.0.0.

93.27.1.1.93 TBTEMP.0.1.377 ! MPDATA.351.160E4.23.080E4.1.0.1. TBDATA.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.0.850.5 ! RATE TABLE TB.30.23. Inc.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1.1.1.800.5 ! HILL TABLE TBTEMP.1. For information on the NLISO option.800.27.1.76E6 ! MPDATA.1.93.11E6.0. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.0.0.3.0.0.76E6 ! MPDATA.375.00E6.PRXZ.1.EZ. MPTEMP.1.1.1.93.93 TBTEMP.93.0 TBDATA.190E4.800.0.1.0.368.0.1.377 ! MPDATA.93.93 TBTEMP.0.0 TBDATA.1.1.0.110E4.0.1.0.EY.0.36E6.3.3.1.25.1.190E4.0.0.080E4.1..1.0.1.1.1.377 ! MPDATA.1.1.1.1.1.0.1.1.1.1.760000 ! BISO TABLE TB.0.00.0.750.1.36E6. © SAS IP.0.1.0.GXZ.36E6.93.080E4.1.0 TBDATA.20.1.950 TBDATA.1.1.27.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities TB.375.1.0 TBDATA.0.3.0.1.359.160E4.1.1.1.0.0 TBDATA.368.1.0. HILL and RATE and BISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic viscoplasticity with bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity.160E4.23.1.00E6.1. 001972 .0.1.1 . see Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.3.1.11E6.0 TBDATA.0.2.1.21.359.0. and Section 8.1.11E6.25.351.1.25.93.93 TBTEMP.00 TBTEMP.1.20. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.1.850.2.93 TBTEMP.1.1.45000. ANSYS Release 8.GXY.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.76E6 ! MPDATA.20 TBDATA.1.950.1.0.1.1.1.110E4.93 TBTEMP.368.0.0.00 ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.0.0.0.060E4 ! MPDATA.351.060E4 TB. and Section 8. For information on the CHAB option.0. 8–43 .0.GYZ.93.20E6.0.0.93.00.1.0.PRYZ.0.20E6.1.750. and Section 8.1.1.3 TBTEMP.0.HILL.0.20E6.0.0 TBDATA.30.110E4.0.375.1.1.BISO.900.190E4.00E6.950 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MPDATA.1.060E4 ! MPDATA.PERZYNA TBTEMP.0.1.1.HILL.0.5 TBTEMP.EX.400.0 TBDATA.20.0.93.RATE.20.0.0.1.1.0.1.1. 8.1.0.900.0.650.1.1.Section 8.93.00.00.93.0.0.359.0.0.1.0.0 Structural Analysis Guide .0.30.PRXY.

0..5200.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis TBDATA.1. and Section 8. and Section 8. MP.1.0. ANSYS Release 8.1.1. For information on the RATE option.0.1 ! RATE TABLE 8–44 Structural Analysis Guide .1.PERZYNA TBDATA.020.1 TBDATA. and Section 8. For information on the BISO option.35000 TBPT.1.1.30000 TBPT.0.1.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1 .0.EX.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.38000 TBPT.NUXY.0E5 MP.1.0E5 MP. HILL and RATE and MISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic viscoplasticity with multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity. For information on the MISO option.030.1. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.0..9.1 TBPT.172 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE TB. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference..33800 TBPT.3 TB.MISO.0.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1. and Section 8. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.PERZYNA TBDATA.1.2.3 TB.1.3.0. MP. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.0.040.1.0.0.HILL.1. 8.1.23. © SAS IP.0.1.RATE.32000 TBPT. 001972 .1.3.1. 8.RATE. .3.HILL. and Section 8.1..00.3.1.85.2. and Section 8.0.1.20.3.025.1..NUXY.1. HILL and RATE and NLISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic viscoplasticity with nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.0.9. Inc.1.950.36500 TBPT.1.0.1.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.1.1.0..85.00 For information on the HILL option.015. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.80 TB.1.1.30000.0.3.EX.5.1 ! RATE TABLE For information on the HILL option.1.0.9.0 TBDATA..1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter. For information on the RATE option.0.3.22...1.0.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.3.00.5..20.060.0.1.0.1.100000.0.NLISO.00.1.00 TBTEMP.050.1.1.0.00.0.39000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE TB.0.80 TB.9..

1.865E4 ! MPDATA.1.0.1.0.0.0.946E4.93.1.393 ! MPDATA.3.1.995E4.0.00 ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.865E4 ! MPDATA.0.GYZ.0.1.1.1.0.1.060E4.386.1.0.1.391.650 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS MPTEMP.375.368.0.1.140E4.000E4.6.0.0.0.1.140E4.1.0.890E4.800.PRXZ.EX.GXY.700.887E4 TB.391.1.93.1.0.210E4.0.0.389.0.160E4.210E4.0.250E4.1.351.351.2.0.1.1..393 ! MPDATA.1.963E4.1.1.070E4.1.1. For information on the CREEP option.200. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.1..3.000E4.0.20.1. For information on the RATE option.368.1.0.1.1.EY.0.0.EY.377.1..946E4.0.0.1.0.900.090E4.0.0.0.550.1.0. 8–45 .1.0.190E4.887E4 ! MPDATA.1.00 TBTEMP.0.1.800.0.0.1.0. For information on the NLISO option.000E4.384.973E4.040E4 MPDATA.250E4.0. ANSYS Release 8.00.1.1.0.3.0.932E4.0.5.EZ.1.060E4. MPTEMP.050E4 MPDATA.359.0.1.1.1.020E4.93 TBTEMP.890E4.0..0.00.973E4.0.995E4.0.EZ.1.0. and Section 8.0.950 ! MPDATA.0.250E4.93 TBTEMP.600.1.1.0 TBDATA.160E4.1.932E4.1.0.0.PRYZ.190E4.0.040E4 MPDATA..110E4.-0.908E4.0.0.060E4.1.0.0. and Section 8.1.1.1.0.1.1.1.CREEP.750.080E4.1.PRYZ.368.1.380 MPDATA. HILL and CREEP Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep.946E4.1.25.00.1 .0.377.1.1. 001972 .1.0. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.384.0..1.0.389.PRXZ.0.850.1.911E-34.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities For information on the HILL option.2 TBDATA.080E4.1.1.93.040E4 MPDATA.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.0.393 ! MPDATA. and Section 8.HILL.1.0.0.389.0.0.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.PRXY.GYZ.1.950.190E4.375.0 TBDATA. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1. © SAS IP.386. Structural Analysis Guide .1.1.0.0.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.110E4.887E4 ! MPDATA.3.995E4.1. and Section 8.1.1.0.7: Viscoplasticity in this chapter.1.090E4.5 TBTEMP.1.380 MPDATA.0.400.070E4.0.386.0.0.850.1.140E4.5.1.0.1.375.1.1.0 TBDATA.0.1.0.050E4 MPDATA.0 TBDATA. see Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference.0.0..1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.391..0.090E4.020E4.1.0. Inc.210E4.380 MPDATA.020E4.382.0.1.1.1.25 ! CREEP TABLE TB.963E4.PRXY.908E4.0.865E4 ! MPDATA.382...1.GXY. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.93.0 TBDATA.1.110E4.0.020E4.1.93 TBTEMP.93.3.1.382.377.1..050E4 MPDATA.1.0.1.1.1.1.973E4.908E4.1.1.1.160E4.963E4.1.359.1. 8.1.750.1..Section 8.080E4.0.890E4.24.1.93.1.020E4.1.0.359. and Section 8.384.351.932E4.00.1.1.020E4.GXZ.EX.1.1.070E4.GXZ.900.3.

3.-0.0.1.1.1.PRYZ.973E4.070E4.20.0.0.0.3.000E4.1.1.386.750.140E4.1.00 TBTEMP.0.1.1.0.0.0.00 ! HILL TABLE For information on the HILL option.1 TBDATA.000E4.080E4.210E4.380 MPDATA. and Section 8.25.93. 8–46 Structural Analysis Guide .0.1.GXZ.020E4.GXY.1.351.0.160E4..EY.93.1.GXZ.5. 001972 .1.060E4.1.0.1.0.1.1.1.384.0 TBDATA.GXY.EZ.0.1.0.0.1.1.050E4 MPDATA.0.0.0.93.890E4.2 TBDATA.0.1.1.1.0.1.1.1.0.911E-34.382.140E4.865E4 ! MPDATA.0.1.995E4.0.250E4.1.995E4.1.1.1.1. HILL and CREEP and BISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep with bilinear isotropic hardening plasticity.180.1.0..1..GYZ.0..93.1.0 TBDATA.0.393 ! MPDATA.946E4.. For information on the CREEP option..1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.190E4.0.1.1.090E4.0.0.1.368.1.0.386.0 TBDATA.110E4.973E4.1.384.850.1.1.020E4.351.368.0.900.865E4 ! MPDATA.1.1.995E4.963E4.382.25.110E4.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.1.0.391. ANSYS Release 8.650 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS MPTEMP.0.0.1.1. and Section 8.1.1.0.1.3.0.1.389.359.0.0.0.850.160E4.1.CREEP.0.908E4.PRXZ.0.080E4.932E4.050E4 MPDATA.0.0.0.0.0.0.963E4.PRXZ.EZ.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8.950 ! MPDATA.1.0.1..1.00.0.210E4.377.375.1.887E4 ! MPDATA.190E4..200 ! BISO TABLE TB.0.0.93.1.PRYZ.1.110E4.0.3.0.00.800.250E4.1.060E4..090E4.391.0.040E4 MPDATA.0.908E4.389.1.600.070E4.1.0.0.0.210E4.932E4. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.865E4 ! MPDATA.1.359.070E4.1.93 TBTEMP.140E4.BISO.040E4 MPDATA.93 TBTEMP.1.1.0.375.0.1.0.1.0.946E4. and Section 8.887E4 ! MPDATA.190E4.HILL.6.391.060E4.0.1.700.25 ! CREEP TABLE TB.0 TBDATA.0.1.0.0.1.377.1.0.200.0.020E4.0 TBDATA.375.1.GYZ.0.382.020E4.1.0.0.EX.393 ! MPDATA.0.932E4.890E4.1.1.1.160E4. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.380 MPDATA.908E4.1.00.0.5 TBTEMP.1. © SAS IP.1.1.0.368.93 TBTEMP.1.0.1.EX.1.1.1..020E4.1.1.0.1.1..080E4.359.946E4.1.0.887E4 TB.400.1.0..2.0.1.1.0.000E4. MPTEMP.380 MPDATA.1.384.1.1.1.PRXY.1.040E4 MPDATA.963E4.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1.1.973E4.750.393 ! MPDATA. .890E4.800.1.0.1.1.020E4.00.1.090E4.0.389.0.1.050E4 MPDATA.1 .386.900. Inc.0.550.0.5.93.1.EY. For information on the BISO option.351.1.377.PRXY.0.250E4.0.950. see Bilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.

80 TB.1.Section 8.3.3.HILL.1.1.3. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.020.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.39000 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! MISO TABLE TB.0.0.1.1 TBDATA.0. HILL and CREEP and BKIN Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep with bilinear kinematic hardening plasticity.26.5.NUXY..3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities 8. and Section 8.0.1.3.2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.1.5200.1.3.0.3.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.1.20. HILL and CREEP and NLISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep with nonlinear isotropic hardening plasticity.0.5.0E5 MP.35000 TBPT.9.5625E-14..0.0.1 TBPT..2 ! CREEP TABLE TBDATA.1.1.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.5625E-14.100000.20. 8–47 . For information on the CREEP option.85.030.1.5.33800 TBPT.. and Section 8.CREEP.27.1.. see Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.2..1. For information on the NLISO option. 8.30000.0.015.1.1.3. and Section 8.0 For information on the HILL option.1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.0.2.1.NLISO.0. © SAS IP.5.. and Section 8.0 For information on the HILL option.EX.38000 TBPT.2.0.28.9.5. Structural Analysis Guide .0.0.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.0..172 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! NLISO TABLE TB.1.36500 TBPT.5.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter..1.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.050.3 TB. Inc.060.1 . MP. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference. and Section 8..-0.MISO.0. HILL and CREEP and MISO Example This input listing illustrates an example of modeling anisotropic implicit creep with multilinear isotropic hardening plasticity.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.9.EX.1. 8.NUXY.3. MP.CREEP.0.32000 TBPT. ANSYS Release 8.1. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.0.1. For information on the CREEP option. For information on the MISO option.0.0.1.1.0. 001972 .040.80 TB.HILL..0.3 TB.1.9.3.025.30000 TBPT. see Multilinear Isotropic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.1. and Section 8.85.1. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference.-0.0E5 MP.

CREEP.42000. issue SOLCONTROL.1 ! HILL TABLE TBDATA.3.1 TBDATA. ROTY. For information on the CREEP option. ANSYS Release 8.BKIN.HILL. and ROTZ.1: Implicit Creep Procedure in this chapter.1. see Implicit Creep Equations in the ANSYS Elements Reference. Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis The procedure for performing a nonlinear static analysis consists of these tasks: 8–48 Structural Analysis Guide .32 TB. UZ.0. You can also refer to the individual command descriptions in the ANSYS Commands Reference.0. If you are not satisfied with the results obtained with these values. sets various nonlinear analysis controls to the appropriate values. UY. For information on the BKIN option.OFF in the /SOLU phase. © SAS IP.0.3. If you do choose to override the ANSYS-specified settings.1.5.1.0. you can manually override the settings.EX.0 ! ELASTIC CONSTANTS ! BKIN TABLE ! CREEP TABLES TB.1.5.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.5.1e7 MP. see Bilinear Kinematic Hardening in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1.0. See the SOLCONTROL command description for more details.6 TBDATA.7.1. 001972 .NUXY. cannot be used to set solution controls for a thermal analysis.1.15. Instead. Note — The Solution Controls dialog box.. and Section 8. Running a Nonlinear Analysis in ANSYS ANSYS employs an automatic solution control method that.1. 8. which is described later in this chapter. 8. ANSYS' automatic solution control is active for the following analyses: • • Single-field nonlinear or transient structural and solid mechanics analysis where the solution DOFs are combinations of UX. and Section 8. see Hill's Anisotropy in the ANSYS Elements Reference.05.1.3.0. Inc.1.3.1: Plastic Material Options in this chapter.1. Single-field nonlinear or transient thermal analysis where the solution DOF is TEMP. and Section 8.1000 TB. or if you wish to use an input list from a previous release of ANSYS.1.4. ROTX. . based on the physics of your problem.1..1.0 For information on the HILL option.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis MP.1 .0. you must use the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths.1.1.1.4e-21. The following commands are set to optimal defaults: AUTOTS DELTIM NSUBST CNVTOL LNSRCH ARCLEN PRED NROPT TINTP CUTCONTROL OPNCONTROL CDWRITE MONITOR NEQIT SSTIF KBC EQSLV LSWRITE These commands and the settings they control are discussed in later sections.

2. apply loads.2.3.2.3. 8.3. A nonlinear solution will differ from a linear solution in that it often requires multiple load increments.5.5.5: Solve the Analysis Section 8. keep in mind that not all nonlinear analyses will produce large deformations.1. See the following sections in Chapter 2. “Structural Static Analysis”. rather than a restart. you set solution controls (analysis type. See Section 8. The general procedure for performing these tasks follows.2. 8–49 .3: Set Additional Solution Options Section 8. For a nonlinear analysis.3. after you issue your first SOLVE command).1: Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box Section 2.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) for a sample problem that walks you through a specific nonlinear analysis. If your analysis includes large-strain effects.1.) Choose Restart Current Analysis if you want to restart a failed nonlinear analysis.2. your stress-strain data must be expressed in terms of true stress and true (or logarithmic) strain. load step options.4: Running a Nonlinear Analysis in ANSYS. and so on). analysis options.1 . See Section 8. the default settings in the Solution Controls dialog box are essentially the same settings employed by the automatic solution control method described in Section 8. After you have created a model in ANSYS. although a nonlinear analysis might include special elements or nonlinear material properties.4: Apply the Loads Section 8.3: Modeling Material Nonlinearities. 001972 . and Section 8. Structural Analysis Guide . See Section 8.2: Using Geometric Nonlinearities for further discussion of large deformations.2: Set Solution Controls Section 2.Section 8. Inc.5. ANSYS Release 8.2.2.9: Using Nonlinear (Changing-Status) Elements.2: Using the Basic Tab Section 2.2.6: Review the Results 8. for more details.3: The Transient Tab Section 2.5.2: Set Solution Controls Section 8. choose Large Displacement Static if you are performing a new analysis. You will usually choose to do a new analysis. Set Solution Controls Setting solution controls for a nonlinear analysis involves the same options and method of access (the Solution Controls dialog box) as those used for a linear structural static analysis. Restarts are discussed in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. For more information on building models in ANSYS.6: Using the Advanced NL Tab 8. and always requires equilibrium iterations.5.5: Using the Nonlinear Tab Section 2. You cannot change this setting after the first load step (that is. Build the Model This step is essentially the same for both linear and nonlinear analyses.1: Build the Model Section 8.4: Using the Sol'n Options Tab Section 2.5. with exceptions noted: • • • • • • • Section 2.5. (But.5. Using the Basic Tab: Special Considerations Special considerations for setting these options in a nonlinear structural static analysis include: • When setting ANTYPE and NLGEOM.3. and solve.3. © SAS IP.5.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis • • • • • • Section 8.3.

The sparse direct solver is the default. choose the PCG solver.2. only the last substep is written to the results file in a nonlinear analysis. Use the following guidelines for selecting either the sparse or the PCG solver for nonlinear structural analysis: • • If it is a beam/shell or beam/shell and solid structure. Other choices include the frontal direct and PCG solvers. although the solution time may increase depending on the manufacturer of your computer and the speed of your processor. MSAVE.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis • When working with time settings.2. 001972 . in sharp contrast to the iterative solvers included in ANSYS. A nonlinear analysis requires multiple substeps (or time steps. Only 1000 results sets (substeps) can be written to the results file. The MSAVE command triggers an element-by-element approach for the parts of the model that use SOLID92.2. For applications using solid elements (for example. The sparse direct solver. it must be a small strain (NLGEOM. Equation Solver ANSYS' automatic solution control activates the sparse direct solver (EQSLV. 200. 2 x 2 x 2 integration for SOLID95). it triggers bisection. in addition to those available on the Solution Controls dialog box. The NSUBST and DELTIM commands both achieve the same effect (establishing a load step's starting. the two terms are equivalent) within each load step so that ANSYS can apply the specified loads gradually and obtain an accurate solution. After completing the bisection. except for the generation pass of a substructure analysis (which uses the frontal direct solver). Advanced time/frequency options.5. If you are using the PCG solver. the solver continues the solution if the resulting matrix is wellconditioned. the entire nonlinear load step can be solved. then the starting substep size is used throughout the load step. choose the sparse direct solver. especially when doing 3-D modeling. remember that these options can be changed at any load step. and maximum step size). and/or SOLID187 elements with linear material properties. but by reciprocal means.5. SOLID95.RST).3: Advanced Load Step Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box. whereas DELTIM defines the time step size explicitly. If using SOLID186 and/or SOLID187 elements. is a robust solver. the PCG solver may be faster.OFF) analysis.5. when the PCG solver encounters an ill-conditioned matrix. ANSYS Release 8.NRES to increase the limit (see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). Other parts of the model that do not meet the above criteria will be solved using global assembly for the stiffness matrix. SOLID92 or SOLID45). If automatic time stepping is off [AUTOTS].ON can result in a memory savings of up to 70% for the part of the model that meets the criteria. Inc. you may be able to considerably reduce your memory usage with the MSAVE command.1 . the solver will iterate to the specified number of iterations and stop if it fails to converge. By default. 8. as well as the chosen element options (for example. When this happens.1. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on these options. you must be doing a static analysis or a modal analysis with the PowerDynamics method.2. are discussed in Section 8.2. To use this command.SPARSE) for most cases. 8. Although the PCG solver can solve indefinite matrix equations. minimum. See Chapter 2. Eventually. If it is a 3-D solid structure and the number of DOF is relatively large (that is. . Advanced Analysis Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box The following sections provide more detail about some of the advanced analysis options that you can set on the Solution Controls dialog box. NSUBST defines the number of substeps to be taken within a load step. SOLID186. © SAS IP. • OUTRES controls the data on the results file (Jobname.000 or more DOF). 8–50 Structural Analysis Guide . but you can use the command /CONFIG.

8.Section 8.01). Thus. TOLER defaults to 0.ON].2. An internal auto-time step scheme ensures that the time step variation is neither too aggressive (resulting in many bisection/cutbacks) nor too conservative (time step size is too small).3. which is not recommended) your criteria. The default value of VALUE is the SRSS of the applied loads (or. when applicable. If SOLCONTROL. an L2-norm check on displacement with TOLER equal to 5% is also used in addition to the force norm check.5. whichever is greater. Automatic Time Stepping ANSYS' automatic solution control turns automatic time stepping on [AUTOTS.001 and MINREF defaults to 1. ANSYS' automatic solution control uses L2-norm of force (and moment) tolerance (TOLER) equal to 0. In most cases. or has insufficient displacement boundary constraints.2.1. 8–51 . but at the cost of more equilibrium iterations.) Using tighter convergence criteria will improve the accuracy of your results. for applied displacements.3. Inc. you will have to redefine force convergence checking.3.5%. You can also add displacement (and. you should change TOLER Structural Analysis Guide .5.2. rotation) convergence checking.005.1 .5. At the end of a time step. the entire default criteria will be overwritten. a setting that is appropriate for most cases.2. or has a big difference in material properties in different regions of the model. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. of the Newton-Raphson restoring forces). 8. The check that the displacements are loosely set serves as a doublecheck on convergence. the program bases convergence checking on the change in deflections (∆u) between the current (i) and the previous (i-1) iterations: ∆u=ui-ui-1. For displacements. 001972 . ANSYS Release 8. the size of the next time step is predicted based on four factors: • • • • Number of equilibrium iterations used in the last time step (more iterations cause the time step size to be reduced) Predictions for nonlinear element status change (time step sizes are decreased when a status change is imminent) Size of the plastic strain increment Size of the creep strain increment 8. when rotational degrees of freedom are active. The default value of TOLER is 0. moment) convergence by comparing the square root sum of the squares (SRSS) of the force imbalances against the product of VALUE*TOLER. By default.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis • If the problem is ill-conditioned (triggered by poor element shapes). (Use multiple CNVTOL commands to define multiple convergence criteria. Convergence Criteria The program will continue to do equilibrium iterations until the convergence criteria [CNVTOL] are satisfied (or until the maximum number of equilibrium equations is reached [NEQIT]). You should almost always use force convergence checking.0 for force convergence. if you define displacement convergence checking. choose the sparse direct solver. the program will check for force (and. Note — If you explicitly define any custom convergence criteria [CNVTOL]. If you want to tighten (or loosen. © SAS IP. Advanced Load Step Options You Can Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box The following sections provide more detail about some of the advanced load step options that you can set on the Solution Controls dialog box. You can define custom criteria if the default settings are not suitable.OFF.

5. This feature accelerates convergence and is particularly useful if nonlinear response is relatively smooth.5000. often producing some unwanted residual force.001 makes sense in the context of your analysis. the predictor is also turned off. You can activate a predictor on the DOF solution for the first equilibrium iteration of each substep. and if auto time stepping is on [AUTOTS].3. you should continue to use the default value of VALUE. we do not recommend putting two or more disjointed structures into one model for a nonlinear analysis because the convergence check tries to relate these disjointed structures. 001972 .U.3. © SAS IP.) Example For the following example. It is not so helpful 8–52 Structural Analysis Guide . If your analysis uses certain sets of units or has very low load levels. Also.4.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis by one or two orders of magnitude. 0. Checking Convergence in a Single and Multi-DOF System To check convergence in a single degree of freedom (DOF) system.2 8.5. the analysis will attempt to bisect. you might want to specify a smaller value for MINREF. CNVTOL.) However. (You can also perform a similar check for displacement (and rotation) convergence for your single DOF. not VALUE. Predictor-Corrector Option ANSYS' automatic solution control will set PRED. In general.2. that is. 8. the substep will be considered to be converged if the out-of-balance force (checked at each DOF separately) is less than or equal to 5000*0.0 CNVTOL. in a multi-DOF system.10.001 (that is.2.5). The ANSYS program provides three different vector norms to use for convergence checking: • • • The infinite norm repeats the single-DOF check at each DOF in your model.0.0005 (that is. (Of course. then the analysis will either terminate or move on to the next load step.1 .ON if there are no beam or shell elements present. The L1 norm compares the convergence criterion against the sum of the absolute values of force (and moment) imbalance for all DOFs.3. additional L1 or L2 checking can be performed for a displacement convergence check.0.001. you compute the force (and moment) imbalance for the one DOF. If bisection is not possible.01). ANSYS Release 8. If the convergence criteria have not been satisfied within this number of equilibrium iterations. The L2 norm performs the convergence check using the square root sum of the squares of the force (and moment) imbalances for all DOFs.0005. depending upon the physics of the problem. The idea is to employ a small time step with fewer quadratically converging iterations. according to the instructions you issue in the NCNV command. and compare this value against the established convergence criteria (VALUE*TOLER). 2. Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations ANSYS' automatic solution control sets the value of NEQIT to between 15 and 26 iterations.F. PRED is turned off. change the convergence criteria by adjusting TOLER. Inc. For transient analysis. you might want to use a different method of comparison. You should make certain that the default value of MINREF = 0. If the time step size is reduced greatly in the current substep. . This option limits the maximum number of equilibrium iterations to be performed at each substep (default = 25 if solution control is off). and if the change in displacements (checked as the square root sum of the squares) is less than or equal to 10*0.

The number of points per cycle for second order dynamic equations (Lab = NPOINT) is set to VALUE = 13 by default to gain efficiency at little cost to accuracy. ANSYS scales the entire ∆U vector. you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths. 001972 . This command has no effect when used with several ANSYS elements. Set Additional Solution Options This section discusses additional options that you can set for the solution.5. 8. and their default settings rarely need to be changed. LNSRCH is toggled on. Option]. If you are confident of ignoring such effects.1. As noted above in Section 8. a run cannot converge until at least one of the iterations has a line search value of 1. When an imposed displacement exists. otherwise. This field is set to such a large value for avoiding unnecessary bisections caused by high plastic strain due to a local singularity which is not normally of interest to the user. Using the predictor for large rotations can cause divergence and thus is not recommended for problems with large rotations.3. These options do not appear on the Solution Controls dialog box because they are used infrequently.5. 8. there is no maximum creep criteria by default. for Lab = PLSLIMIT (maximum plastic strain increment limit). adaptive descent is not automatically activated if the line search option is on. You can however. We do not recommend activating both line search and adaptive descent simultaneously.5. By default. VALUE. 8.1 .2. For most non-contact problems.3. including the imposed displacement value.3: Set Additional Solution Options.5. This is a reasonable limit for creep analysis. Command(s): SSTIF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Structural Analysis Guide .5. ANSYS does not impose the full value of the displacement. © SAS IP. bifurcation behavior.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis in analyses that incorporate large rotations or viscoelasticity.3. Advanced Analysis Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box The following sections describe some advanced analysis options that you can set for your analysis.6. you cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to set the options described below. specify any creep ratio control. whenever a stiffening response is detected. Cutback Criteria For finer control over bisections and cutback in time step size. Inc. Stress Stiffness To account for buckling. ANSYS Release 8. Lab.5.OFF). Until one of the iterations has a line search value of 1. For explicit creep (Option = 0). LNSRCH is toggled off.2. For most contact problems. For implicit creep (Option = 1).1. ANSYS includes stress stiffness in all geometrically nonlinear analyses.3.1.Section 8.3. 8. use [CUTCONTROL. Instead.5. 8–53 . a "small" displacement would occur everywhere except at the imposed DOF. ANSYS menu paths are provided in this section to help you access these options for those cases in which you choose to override the ANSYS-assigned defaults. you can turn stress stiffening off (SSTIF. This convergence-enhancement tool multiplies the calculated displacement increment by a program-calculated scale factor (having a value between 0 and 1). 8. see the ANSYS Elements Reference for the description of the specific elements you are using. Line Search Option ANSYS' automatic solution control will toggle line search on and off as needed. VALUE is set to 15%. Because the line search algorithm is intended to be an alternative to the adaptive descent option [NROPT]. Lab = CRPLIM (creep increment limit) and VALUE is set to 10%.

however. where n is the element number) in the ANSYS Elements Reference. BEAM23. the program discards the divergent iteration and restarts the solution. • Modified (NROPT. as long as the residual decreases. and no negative main diagonal pivot occurs). node-to-surface contact elements are used for contact analysis with friction. It is not applicable to large deformation analyses.USER. Newton-Raphson Option ANSYS' automatic solution control will use the FULL Newton-Raphson option with adaptive descent off if there is a nonlinearity present.1 . The matrix is not changed during equilibrium iterations at a substep. Full (NROPT.AUTO): The program chooses which of the options to use. • • You should first try NROPT. The underlying contact elements require adaptive descent for convergence.UNSYM if you experience convergence difficulties. in which the stiffness matrix is updated at every equilibrium iteration.4: Determining Contact Stiffness and Allowable Penetration in this manual for details. you can specify one of these values: • • Program-chosen (NROPT. than if you use a symmetric solver. using a weighted combination of the secant and tangent stiffness matrices. . You can include pressure load stiffness using SOLCONTROL. then try NROPT. Full with unsymmetric matrix (NROPT. BEAM24.MODI): The program uses the modified Newton-Raphson technique. an unsymmetric pressure load stiffness might be helpful in obtaining convergence. PIPE20. but it often requires more iterations to achieve convergence.FULL.2.INIT): The program uses the initial stiffness matrix in every equilibrium iteration. 8–54 Structural Analysis Guide .3. Note that using an unsymmetric solver requires more computer time to obtain a solution. Command(s): NROPT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Use this option only in a nonlinear analysis.1 for an element. See Section 11.INCP. Inc.4. However. If adaptive descent is on (optional). Adaptive descent will be automatically activated. If divergent trends are detected on an iteration. the program will use the tangent stiffness matrix only as long as the iterations remain stable (that is.8. then adaptive descent is automatically turned on (for example. ANSYS Release 8.FULL): The program uses the full Newton-Raphson procedure.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. When the iterations return to a convergent pattern. and PIPE60). Initial Stiffness (NROPT. in which the tangent stiffness matrix is updated at each substep. an unsymmetric contact stiffness matrix would fully couple the sliding and the normal stiffnesses. in which the stiffness matrix is updated at every equilibrium iteration. when appropriate. This option specifies how often the tangent matrix is updated during solution. Activating adaptive descent will usually enhance the program's ability to obtain converged solutions for complicated nonlinear problems but is supported only for elements indicated under "Special Features" in the Input Summary table (Table 4. If you are running a contact analysis. If you choose to override the default. irrespective of the Newton-Raphson option. This option is not applicable to large deformation analyses.UNSYM): The program uses the full Newton-Raphson procedure. it would be updated at the iteration in which it changes status. the program will resume using the tangent stiffness matrix. it generates and uses unsymmetric matrices that you can use for any of the following: – – – If you are running a pressure-driven collapse analysis. If you are defining an unsymmetric material model using TB. This option can be less likely to diverge than the full option. In addition.1. you would need NROPT. when node-to-node. 001972 . Adaptive descent is not available.5. Adaptive descent is not available. based on the kinds of nonlinearities present in your model.UNSYM to fully use the property you defined. © SAS IP. • If a multistatus element is in the model.n.

8. this creep criterion will have no effect. As noted above in Section 8. the time step can be opened quickly.) For explicit creep (Option = 0).5.3.Section 8. Creep Criteria If your structure exhibits creep behavior. or set the time steps to be longer than the previous time step.1 by default).3.5. The default is that if the TEMP increment is smaller than 0. if an excessive number of attempts were made for a substep. for all elements. Time Step Open Control This option is available for thermal analysis.2. Option]. the program will then decrease the next time step size. The command also provides the user with a means to quickly review the solution convergence efficiency. © SAS IP.) The program will compute the ratio of creep strain increment (∆εcr. you cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to set the options described below. Command(s): OPNCONTROL GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Open Control 8. rather than attempting to gather this information from a lengthy output file.2.25.3. if it is less. (If automatic time stepping [AUTOTS] is off. 8.5. a divergent solution is possible and the analysis will be terminated with an error message.1 in three (NUMSTEP = 3) contiguous substeps. there is no maximum creep limit by default. Command(s): MONITOR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Monitor Structural Analysis Guide . you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths. For implicit creep (Option = 1). use the RATE command with Option = OFF.2. the information contained in the file provides hints to either reduce the initial time step size or increase the minimum number of substeps allowed through the NSUBST command to avoid an excessive number of bisections. The time step size can then be opened continuously for greater solution efficiency. 001972 .2. Solution Monitoring This option provides a facility to monitor a solution value at a specified node in a specified DOF. This problem can be avoided by making the minimum time step size sufficiently small [DELTIM and NSUBST].3.2. Advanced Load Step Options You Cannot Set on the Solution Controls Dialog Box The following sections describe some advanced load step options that you can set for your analysis. impending element status change. Command(s): CRPLIM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Creep Criterion Note — If you do not want to include the effects of creep in your analysis.1 . and if the time increment cannot be decreased.0e-6 longer.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis 8. (Remember that you cannot perform a thermal analysis using the Solution Controls dialog box. the change in creep strain in the last time step) to the elastic strain (εel).1. ANSYS Release 8. If the maximum ratio is greater than the criterion CRCR. 8–55 . For instance. the program might increase the next time step size. Instead. You can however.CRCR. you can specify a creep criterion for automatic time step adjustment [CRPLIM. the time step size can be "opened-up" (value = 0.5.5. but not more than 1. In such cases. you must use the standard set of ANSYS solution commands or the standard corresponding menu paths instead.3.) This option's primary use is in unsteady state thermal analysis where the final temperature stage reaches a steady state. (The program will also base automatic time stepping on the number of equilibrium iterations. Inc. and plastic strain increment. The time step size will be adjusted to the minimum size calculated for any of these items. specify any creep ratio control. if the ratio ∆εcr / εel is above the stability limit of 0.3: Set Additional Solution Options.

The integration point nonlinear strains are always copied to the nodes.3. See Chapter 2. Another way to affect element behavior during solution is to change the material property reference number for selected elements: Command(s): MPCHG GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Change Mat Num Note — Use MPCHG with caution. Extrapolation of results [ERESX] copies an element's integration point stress and elastic strain results to the nodes instead of extrapolating them. . you can change the material properties for selected elements [MPCHG] between load steps. Changing material properties in a nonlinear analysis may produce unintended results. “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on these options. there are several other output control options that you can set for an analysis: Command(s): OUTPR. 8.2. ERESX GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt Printed output [OUTPR] includes any results data on the output file (Jobname. Remember that inertia and point loads will maintain constant direction. Element loads (pressure. which you can set on the Solution Controls dialog box. Birth and Death Specify birth and death options as necessary. but surface loads will "follow" the structure in a large-deformation analysis. Output Control In addition to OUTRES. if nonlinear strains (plasticity. See Chapter 2. © SAS IP. Inc. EALIVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Birth & Death> Kill Elements Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Birth & Death> Activate Elem The program “deactivates” an element by multiplying its stiffness by a very small number (which is set by the ESTIF command). “Loading” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for load information.2. 8.5. and then reactivated at the beginning of the appropriate load step. ANSYS Release 8. Command(s): EKILL. Apply the Loads Apply loads on the model. swelling) are present in the element. thermal strains. and so on) for inactive elements are also set to zero. You can deactivate [EKILL] and reactivate [EALIVE] selected elements to model the removal or addition of material in your structure.4.ON) their geometric configuration (length.OUT). “Structural Static Analysis” in this guide and Chapter 2. and by removing its mass from the overall mass matrix. 8–56 Structural Analysis Guide .2.1: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters in this guide for more information. When elements are reactivated.4. area. creep. You need to define all possible elements during preprocessing. Those elements to be “born” in later stages of your analysis should be deactivated before the first load step. As an alternative to the standard birth and death method. See Section 2.5.5. you cannot create new elements in SOLUTION.3.4.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. particularly if you change nonlinear [TB] material properties. 001972 . they have a zero strain state. and so on) is updated to match the current displaced positions of their nodes.1 . You can apply complex boundary conditions by defining a one-dimensional table (TABLE type array parameter). See the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide for more information on birth and death.5. heat flux.3. and (if NLGEOM.

the load step file method and the array parameter method .) Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> load step You can also use the SUBSET or APPEND commands to read in or merge results data for selected portions of the model only.3. which can be identified by load step and substep numbers or by time. 3. 8. Command(s): /POST1 GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc Read in results for the desired load step and substep.RST.2.5. You can review these results in POST1. and reaction forces. and that the results from that substep should have been written to Jobname. See Section 2. 8. stresses. Additionally. you should usually postprocess at a TIME that corresponds exactly to the desired substep. Inc. The results file (Jobname. the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated. Solve the Analysis You solve a nonlinear analysis using the same commands and procedure as you do in solving a linear static analysis. Other methods for multiple load steps . Verify from your output file (Jobname.OUT) whether or not the analysis converged at all load steps. See the individual command descriptions in the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information. If you need to define multiple load steps.5.1. 8–57 .5. (The load step option command OUTRES controls which substep results are stored on Jobname.RST) must be available. Thus. If not. you can use the ETABLE command to store result items for selected elements. The LIST argument on any of these commands lists the available solutions on the results file. and then save and solve for each of the additional load steps.6. Reviewing Results in POST1 1. “Structural Static Analysis”. Structural Analysis Guide .5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis 8. however.are described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Remember that in POST1. ANSYS Release 8. Review the Results Results from a nonlinear static analysis consist mainly of displacements. the general postprocessor. or in POST26. and so on. only one substep can be read in at a time.) A typical POST1 postprocessing sequence is described below. Caution: If you specify a TIME value for which no results are available.5. 001972 . Enter POST1.23: “Linear Interpolation of Nonlinear Results Can Introduce Some Error”).RST. • • 2. (Note. strains. You can also limit the amount of data written from the results file to the database through the INRES command. If your solution converged. the time-history postprocessor. the ANSYS program will perform a linear interpolation to calculate the results at that value of TIME. that arc-length results should not be identified by time. If your model is not currently in the database. Realize that this interpolation will usually cause some loss of accuracy in a nonlinear analysis (see Figure 8. other than to determine why convergence failed. load step options.5: Solve the Analysis in Chapter 2.6. you probably will not want to postprocess the results.6. then continue postprocessing. issue RESUME. you must respecify time settings.5. Points to Remember • • To review results in POST1.1 . © SAS IP. for a nonlinear analysis.Section 8. 8.

23 Linear Interpolation of Nonlinear Results Can Introduce Some Error 4. or any other applicable item. with different material types. Inc. NSORT ESORT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them. ANSYS Release 8.. Selecting logic (described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) provides a means of avoiding such errors. 001972 . You can also contour element table data and line element data: Command(s): PLETAB.1].1 . strains. If you have adjacent elements with different material behavior (such as can occur with plastic or multilinear elastic material properties. or with adjacent deactivated and activated elements). you might prefer to use a true scale display [/DSCALE.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Figure 8. The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display. PLLS GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Element Table Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Line Elem Res Use PLETAB to contour element table data and PLLS to contour line element data. . Display the results using any of the following options: Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape In a large deformation analysis. © SAS IP. Option: Tabular Listings Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data) PRETAB PRITER (substep summary data). you should take care to avoid nodal stress averaging errors in your results. 8–58 Structural Analysis Guide . and so on. Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use these options to display contours of stresses.

NROPT.6: Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions .7. Terminating a Running Job. Restart procedures are covered in Section 3. PRED. Reviewing Results in POST26 You can also review the load-history response of a nonlinear structure using POST26. See Chapter 3.16: Restarting an Analysis in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Structural Analysis Guide . NEQIT. 8. The SOLU command will cause various iteration and convergence parameters to be read into the database. “Structural Static Analysis”). “Solution” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. or you might list the plastic strain at a node and the corresponding TIME value. the time-history postprocessor.OUT) whether or not the analysis converged at all desired load steps.1 . 8. Use POST26 to compare one ANSYS variable against another. enter POST26. Command(s): NSOL.6.mapping results onto a path.3. NSUBST. report quality listings. The program will also stop upon successful completion of the solution. where you can incorporate them into your postprocessing. Load case combinations usually are not valid for nonlinear analyses. “The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions are available in POST26. Inc. OUTRES. and so on are available in POST1. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. You should not base design decisions on unconverged results.ABT). ANSYS Release 8. NCNV. ESOL. However. 001972 . RFORCE GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables Graph or list the variables. Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis Many of the tasks that you need to perform in a nonlinear transient analysis are the same as (or similar to) those that you perform in nonlinear static analyses (described in Section 8. issue RESUME. KBC. See Chapter 6.5. © SAS IP.6. AUTOTS. 4. Command(s): /POST26 GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro Define the variables to be used in your postprocessing session. and SOLU command descriptions for more information. TIME. CNVTOL. If your model is not currently in the database. See the NLGEOM. SSTIF.5. this section describes some additional considerations for performing a nonlinear transient analysis. Command(s): PLVAR (graph variables) PRVAR EXTREM (list variables) GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes 3. Restarting You can stop a nonlinear analysis by creating an "abort" file (Jobname. A typical POST26 postprocessing sequence might follow these steps: 1. or if a convergence failure occurs. 2. Verify from your output file (Jobname. If your solution converged. 8.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis) and linear full transient dynamic analyses (described in Chapter 2. You can often restart an analysis if it successfully completed one or more iterations before it terminated.Section 8. For instance. you might graph the displacement at a node versus the corresponding level of applied load. 8–59 .

you can also define material-dependent structural damping [MP. .1 . © SAS IP. 8. TINTP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Transient Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration An explanation of the dynamics options follows. For creep. The general. you must specify whether you want stepped or ramped loads [KBC]. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for further discussion about ramped vs. A transient load history usually requires multiple load steps.DAMP].1. • Damping Rayleigh damping constants are defined using the constant mass [ALPHAD] and stiffness [BETAD] matrix multipliers. See Section 5. stepped loads.do not use BETAD. cannot be used to set solution controls for a thermal analysis. If you want to. BETAD. However. except with care.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis Remember that the Solution Controls dialog box. viscoplasticity. you must use the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths. For a nonlinear transient analysis. TIMINT. use a static analysis). if your analysis includes time-integration effects. and output control options available for a nonlinear static analysis are also available for a nonlinear transient analysis.3: Damping for details about damping. New Analysis or Restart [ANTYPE] Analysis Type: Transient [ANTYPE] Large Deformation Effects [NLGEOM] Large Displacement Transient (if using the Solution Controls dialog box to set analysis type) Apply loads and specify load step options in the same manner as you would for a linear full transient dynamic analysis. “Transient Dynamic Analysis” for procedures for defining nonzero initial conditions. which is the method described in Section 8.5: Performing a Nonlinear Static Analysis. be sure to include a value for mass density [MP. time must be greater than zero. Inc. • Time Integration Effects [TIMINT] Time integration effects are ON by default in a transient analysis. 8. In a nonlinear transient analysis.10. nonlinear. or swelling. birth and death. See Chapter 5.6.6. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution 1.2. Specify transient analysis type and define analysis options as you would for a nonlinear static analysis: • • • • 2. with the first load step typically used to establish initial conditions (see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). Build the Model This step is the same as for a nonlinear static analysis. and transient integration parameters. These 8–60 Structural Analysis Guide . You can also specify dynamics options: alpha and beta damping. viscoelasticity. Command(s): ALPHAD. In a nonlinear analysis the stiffness may change drastically . ANSYS Release 8.DENS]. you should turn the time integration effects off (that is. time integration effects. 001972 . Instead.

3. It is unconditionally stable and more robust for highly nonlinear thermal problems such as phase changes. Command(s): LSSOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files After you have solved all load steps. ON). 8–61 . Theory Reference for more information about these parameters. Command(s): LSWRITE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File Save a backup copy of the database to a named file.) ANSYS' automatic solution control sets the defaults to a new time integration scheme for use by first order transient equations. Except in kinematic (rigid-body motion) analyses. “Transient Dynamic Analysis”. Write load data for each load step to a load step file.7: Sample Input for a Nonlinear Transient Analysis time-dependent effects are usually not included in dynamic analyses because the transient dynamic time step sizes are often too short for any significant amount of long-term deformation to occur. so that the response first order eigenvalues can be used to more precisely determine a new time step value. Inc. you can access all of these options [ALPHAD. which provide numerical damping to the Newmark and HHT methods. Sample Input for a Nonlinear Transient Analysis A sample input listing for a nonlinear transient analysis is shown below: ! Build the Model: /PREP7 --------FINISH ! ! Similar to a linear full transient model. Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu. nonlinear elements Structural Analysis Guide . 6. TRNOPT] on the Transient tab.0 (set by SOLCONTROL. TIMINT. Procedures are much the same as described previously for nonlinear static analyses. Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save As Start solution calculations. 5. 8.Section 8. Note — If you are using the Solution Controls dialog box to set solution controls. See the postprocessing procedures outlined in Chapter 5. Inc. Review the Results As in a nonlinear static analysis. Again. KBC. leave SOLUTION. ANSYS Release 8. Other methods for multiple load steps are described in Chapter 1. (See your ANSYS. Time-history postprocessing using POST26 is essentially the same for nonlinear as for linear transient analyses. you can use POST1 to postprocess results at a specific moment in time. © SAS IP. you will rarely need to adjust the transient integration parameters [TINTP]. This is typically used for unsteady state thermal problems where θ = 1.1 . you should verify that your solution has converged before you attempt to postprocess the results. with ! these possible additions: nonlinear material ! properties. this is the backward Euler scheme. 8. More details of postprocessing procedures can be found in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.6. BETAD.0. “Getting Started with ANSYS” in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. The oscillation limit tolerance defaults to 0. 001972 .3.7. TINTP. 4.

. TRNOPT.s. determine critical time step.. KBC. FINISH ! /POST1 ! General Postprocessor SET. ! Nonconvergence termination controls PRED. PRED.CNVG ! Check convergence SOLU. 8..FOCV PRVAR. max) AUTOTS.ON ! Stress stiffening effects ! NROPT=AUTO by default: Program will choose appropriate Newton-Raphson and ! Adaptive Descent options..1. and SOLU command descriptions for more information..3 ! Initiate multiple l.. ! Postprocess as desired PLNSOL..Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis ! Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution: /SOLU ANTYPE.. depending on ! nonlinearities encountered ! Loads: F.. ANSYS Release 8. min. ! Time step controls (starting. ! Read results from desired time step PLDISP. unless you turned it OFF for ! initial-condition load step ! Nonlinear Options: CNVTOL.16: Restarting an Analysis in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. SSTIF. FINISH See the ANTYPE.ALL ! Results for every substep written to database LSWRITE ! First "real" transient load step --! Additional load steps.. including bisection ! KBC=0 by default (ramped loading) ! Dynamic Options: ALPHAD.. D. NCNV..ON ! TIMINT. ! Convergence criteria ! NEQIT=25 by default NCNV. Restarts Restart procedures for a transient analysis are essentially the same as for a static analysis... DELTIM.. stresses..TRANS ! TRNOPT.. etc. ! Mass damping TIMINT. NEQIT.2.FULL by default --! Establish initial conditions as in linear full --! transient analysis LSWRITE ! Initial-condition load step NLGEOM.. TIMINT.) as ! variables PLVAR.ON by default.. 001972 . LSSOLVE. see Section 3.ON ! Predictor ON OUTRES. as needed --LSSOLVE.. ! Load Step Options: TIME. ! Store results (displacements.. TIME to evaluate general quality ! of analysis. CNVTOL. solution SAVE FINISH ! ! Review the Results: /POST26 ! Time-History Postprocessor SOLU. PRNSOL...... TIME. NLGEOM... ! Graph results vs.. etc.. Inc. OUTRES. ALPHAD.. © SAS IP.ON ! Automatic time stepping...1 ..2.8. NSORT. ! TIME at end of load step DELTIM. AUTOTS.. 8–62 Structural Analysis Guide .ON ! Nonlinear geometric effects (large deformations) SSTIF... NROPT... LSWRITE....3.ALL..3 NSOL.. .

001972 . The birth and death feature is discussed in detail in Chapter 11. © SAS IP. Be Aware of How the Program and Your Structure Behave If you have not used a particular nonlinear feature before. and springs can provide insight into the structure's dynamics at minimal cost. and make sure you understand how to handle this feature before you use it in a large.10. CONTA172. • Gain preliminary insight into your structure's behavior by analyzing a preliminary simplified model first. ANSYS Mechanical. 8. their overall stiffness changes drastically. when a cable goes slack. CONTA171. Structural Analysis Guide . For nonlinear transient dynamic analyses. EALIVE.9. construct a very simple model (that is. When two separate bodies come into contact. ESTIF] (Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other) can be used to deactivate or reactivate selected elements in such cases. • • • • • • • • • • COMBIN7 COMBIN14 COMBIN37 COMBIN39 COMBIN40 CONTAC12 and CONTAC52 TARGE169. a preliminary model of beams. CONTA174.10: Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis 8. For nonlinear static models. Starting Out with Nonlinear Analysis By taking your time and proceeding with reasonable caution. ANSYS Release 8." The birth and death options [EKILL. 8. and CONTA175 LINK10 SHELL41 SOLID65 8.1.1 . “Element Birth and Death” in the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide.9. Using Nonlinear (Changing-Status) Elements Nonlinear elements display an abrupt change in stiffness when they experience a change in status.10.Section 8. Some of the nonlinear element features described below are available only in the ANSYS Multiphysics. TARGE170. For example. and ANSYS Structural products only. masses. containing only a few elements). a preliminary linear static analysis can reveal which regions of your model will first experience nonlinear response. its stiffness suddenly drops to zero.10. Element Birth and Death Sometimes. Preliminary nonlinear static. CONTA173. and at what load levels these nonlinearities will come into play. See the ANSYS Elements Reference for details. 8–63 . by applying birth and death options to applicable elements (see the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide). you can avoid many difficulties commonly associated with nonlinear analyses.1. Inc. 8. The following suggestions should be useful. linear transient dynamic. These and other status-dependent stiffness changes can be modeled by using nonlinear elements (described below).1. Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis This section describes tips and guidelines that can help you to perform a nonlinear analysis. or by changing material properties [MPCHG]. complicated model. an element's status changes between "existent" and "nonexistent.1.

Use a mesh density adequate to resolve any transient dynamic wave propagation through your structure. If you can reduce your model size through the use of symmetry or antisymmetry surfaces. If wave propagation is important. path-dependent systems. Provide a mesh density adequate for resolving stresses.10. Apply the Load Gradually • • For nonconservative. 8. Antisymmetry can also be rendered inapplicable by large deflections. (However. 001972 . Areas where stresses or strains are of interest require a relatively fine mesh compared to that needed for displacement or nonlinearity resolution. The number of elements needed depends on the elements' assumed displacement shape functions. • Read and understand the program's output messages and warnings. Use an Adequate Mesh Density • Recognize that regions undergoing plastic deformation require a reasonable integration point density (mesh density is particularly important in plastic-hinge regions). the 18x elements are recommended for nonlinear analyses. 8. do so. Model transient dynamic loading in terms of static-equivalent loads whenever possible.4.2. do so. before you try to postprocess your results.1.1. However. Solution control (SOLCONTROL) automatically adjusts solution parameters and attempts to obtain 8–64 Structural Analysis Guide .10. if your model is loaded antisymmetrically. ANSYS Release 8. . Higher-order elements use only the corner integration points for nonlinear analyses. plane strain.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis and/or modal analyses can also help you to understand various aspects of your structure's nonlinear dynamic response before you undertake the final nonlinear transient dynamic analysis. If you can represent your 3-D structure as a 2-D plane stress. • • • • 8. do so.1. then provide at least 20 elements to resolve one wavelength. the printout's equilibrium iteration record can be especially important in helping you to determine if your results are valid or not. you need to apply the load in small enough increments to ensure that your analysis will closely follow the structure's load-response curve. make sure your problem converged. For path-dependent problems.2. You can sometimes improve the convergence behavior of conservative systems by applying the load gradually. large load increments causing nonconvergence. Inc. as well as on the mode shape itself. material instabilities. or large deformations causing mesh distortion that result in element shape errors.3. Overcoming Convergence Problems When performing a nonlinear analysis you may encounter convergence difficulties due to a number of reasons.10. you can generally not take advantage of antisymmetry to reduce a nonlinear model's size. Consider substructuring the linear portions of your model to reduce the computational effort required for intermediate load or time increments and equilibrium iterations.) If you can omit a nonlinear detail without affecting results in critical regions of your model. Some examples may be initially open contact surfaces causing rigid body motion.10. or axisymmetric model. © SAS IP. At a minimum. • • 8. Keep It Simple • Keep your final model as simple as possible. so as to minimize the number of Newton-Raphson equilibrium iterations required.1 . Provide an adequate mesh density on contact surfaces to allow contact stresses to be distributed in a smooth fashion. Use a mesh density adequate to characterize the highest mode shape of interest. thus lower-order elements provide the same accuracy as higherorder elements.

Inc. a part in your model is constrained only through contact with other parts and if the contact surfaces are open. providing inaccurate results. Other limits are fixed. The MCHECK command can help you identify defects in the mesh such as holes or cracks. This can cause your nonlinear solution to stop.2. especially when the mesh is imported from a third party software. and after a solution.NRRE command. Highly distorted elements can take on unacceptable shapes.10: Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis a robust. Such a capability can be useful when you experience convergence difficulties in the middle of a load step. Performing Nonlinear Diagnostics The nonlinear diagnostics tool NLDIAG can help you find problems in your model when an analysis will not converge. and CNCHECK commands help you verify if there are any obvious problems with the model before you start the solution. some portions of the initial mesh can become highly distorted. When you analyze models with large deformations. determine when convergence criteria have been violated. Structural Analysis Guide . The following sections detail some of the techniques that you can use to attempt to improve the convergence performance of your analysis. When this happens. a contact pair's properties) instead of having to deal with the entire model. 8. accurate solution. when exceeded. © SAS IP. If. for example. several tools are available in ANSYS that can help you identify potential problems before. Using ESCHECK at different time points will help you to identify the load conditions that cause mesh deterioration. A convergence failure can also indicate a physical instability in the structure.10.1. and element shape checks. The CHECK command does an overall verification of the model. ANSYS Release 8. 8–65 .Section 8. thereby allowing them to retain acceptable shapes.NRRE command to write out the residuals. identifying whether the contacts are initially open or closed. 001972 . the CUTCONTROL command sets the maximum plastic/creep strain increments allowed in an iteration. The CNCHECK command provides the initial contact status of contact pairs. By tracking the way the residuals change over several equilibrium iterations you can identify a portion of your model where large residuals persist. for example. You can then contour plot the residual forces via the PLNSOL. You can restart the analysis and issue an NLDIAG. Some limits are user-controlled.1 . use the ESCHECK command to perform shape checking of deformed elements in the postprocessor (based on the current set of results in database). Identify Regions of High Residual Forces Issue the NLDIAG. or it can merely be the result of some numerical problem in the finite element model. MCHECK. where the model has a large number of contact surfaces and other nonlinearities. the CNCHECK command can help you identify this potential error condition. nonlinear analyses fail to converge for the following reasons: ANSYS has default limits which. Identify Problem Elements • • • • Too large a distortion Elements contain nodes that have near zero pivots (nonlinear analyses) Too large a plastic or creep strain increment Elements where mixed u-P constraints are not satisfied (mixed U-P option of 18x solid elements only) Typically. during. You can then focus on the nonlinearities in that area (for example. unconstrained model. In addition. including missing elastic properties. which will help to identify regions of high residual forces. CHECK. This deformed-shape checker will help you to identify the portions of your model that require different meshing.NRRE command to write the Newton-Raphson residuals from equilibrium iterations to a file.

nlh file.EFLG command identifies elements that violate the above criteria and records them in a file (Jobname. You can also track results during batch runs. and click on it to invoke the tracking utilty. For example. The result data are written to a file named Jobname. you can request nodal data such as displacements or reaction forces at specific nodes. a reaction force-deflection curve could indicate when possible buckling behavior occurs. even after the solution is complete (the data in the file must be formatted correctly). You can also request element nodal data such as stresses and strains at specific elements to be graphed. or type nlhist81 at the command line. the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) feature displays the computed convergence norms and criteria while the solution is in process. 8.1 . Monitor the Diagnostics Results in Real Time The NLHIST command allows you to monitor results of interest in real time during solution.ndxxx nonlinear diagnostics files.ndxxx). Nodal results and contact results are monitored at every converged substep while element nodal data are written as specified via the OUTRES setting. Process the Tracked Results Issue the NLDPOST command to process the . Pair-based contact data are also available. GST is ON for interactive sessions and OFF for batch runs. Inc. Either access the ANSYS Launcher and select File Tracking from the Tools menu.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis The NLDIAG. The command creates components of elements that violate a certain criterion for a particular equilibrium iteration (or iterations). You can use this utilty to read the file at any time. Available in both batch and interactive sessions.nlh. 001972 . By default.10. ANSYS Release 8. ANSYS computes convergence norms with corresponding convergence criteria each equilibrium iteration.2. To turn GST on or off.24: “Convergence Norms Displayed By the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature” shows a typical GST display: 8–66 Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP. Use the supplied file browser to navigate to your Jobname. use either of the following: Command(s): /GST GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Grph Solu Track Figure 8. Before starting the solution.2. Tracking Convergence Graphically As a nonlinear structural analysis proceeds. .

turbine blade and hub assemblies) in which the low-frequency energy content of the system could dominate the high-frequency areas. seismic problems). This can be important in the following situations: – – – Problems that have only localized dynamic behavior (for example. This ensures that all of the modes and behaviors of interest will be accurately included.10. because imposed displacement input has (theoretically) infinite jumps in acceleration. Structural Analysis Guide . Do not use α-damping (mass matrix multiplier. 001972 .Section 8. which causes stability problems for the Newmark time-integration algorithm. Problems with short ramp times on some of their loads. 8–67 . – Avoid imposed displacement history specifications.05 < γ < 0. • Take care when modeling kinematic structures (systems with rigid-body motions).1 . If the time step size is allowed to become too large. Using Automatic Time Stepping • Be sure to place an upper limit on the time step size using DELTIM or NSUBST. © SAS IP.24 Convergence Norms Displayed By the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature 8. ANSYS Release 8. as it will dampen the rigid body motion (zero frequency mode) of the system. especially if a coarse time step is used.1 on the TINTP command) into the solution to filter out the high frequency noise. especially for complicated models.3.2. These guidelines can usually help you obtain a good solution: – Incorporate significant numerical damping (0. Inc. ALPHAD command) in a dynamic kinematic analysis. ramped portions of the load history may be inaccurately characterized.10: Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis Figure 8. Problems that include structures that are continuously excited over a range of frequencies (for example.

Using Line Search Line search [LNSRCH] can be useful for enhancing convergence. consider that more substeps will result in a longer solution time. You generally have to adjust the reference arc-length radius (using NSUBST) by trial-and-error to obtain a solution at the limit point. Using the Arc-Length Method You can use the arc-length method [ARCLEN and ARCTRM] to obtain numerically stable solutions for many physically unstable structures. or until the minimum arc-length radius is used (the minimum radius is defined by NSBSTP [NSUBST] and MINARC [ARCLEN]).10. DELTIM].U].Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. you want to choose the minimum number of substeps required to produce an optimally efficient solution. Use the force criteria [CNVTOL. To help minimize solution time with the arc-length method. please keep in mind the following considerations: • • The arc-length method is restricted to static analyses with proportional (ramped) loads only.4: “Traditional Newton-Raphson Method vs. . • Do not use line search [LNSRCH]. Inc. ANSYS Release 8. or time-integration effects [TIMINT] when the arc-length method is active..F] instead. If an arc-length solution fails to converge within the prescribed maximum number of iterations [NEQIT]. you cannot use this method to obtain a solution at a specified load or displacement value because the value changes (along the spherical arc) as equilibrium is achieved.ON]. If you notice (from the program output messages) oscillatory convergence patterns.2. the maximum number of equilibrium iterations in a single substep [NEQIT] should be less than or equal to 15. the program will automatically bisect and continue the analysis. Do not attempt to base convergence on displacement [CNVTOL. It might 8–68 Structural Analysis Guide . but it can be expensive (especially with plasticity). automatic time stepping [AUTOTS. Ideally. 8. Arc-Length Method” how the specified load point. adaptive descent [NROPT. using the following formula: (Total Load or Displacement) NSBSTP B Reference Arc -Length Radius = where NSBSTP is the number of substeps specified in the NSUBST command.5. Bisection will continue either until a converged solution is obtained.. In general. You might have to take an "educated guess" of the desired number of substeps. The actual load at convergence is somewhat less.1 . When choosing the number of substeps.2. it can be difficult to determine a value of limiting load or deflection within some known tolerance when using the arc-length method in a nonlinear buckling analysis. If you are analyzing a "flimsy" structure which exhibits increasing stiffness (such as a fishing pole). © SAS IP. You might consider setting line search on in the following cases: • • • When your structure is force-loaded (as opposed to displacement-controlled). • a F1 • • • • is only used as a starting Similarly. TIME. 001972 . The program calculates the reference arc-length radius from the load (or displacement) increment of the first iteration of the first substep. the predictor [PRED].4. and adjust and re-analyze as needed. When using the arc-length method. Note in Figure 8.10.

or to control displacements through periods of unstable response (for example. or passes through. • Use the load-deflection curve as a guide for evaluating and adjusting your analysis to help you achieve the desired results. you should always reference the desired results data set by its load step and substep number (LSTEP and SBSTEP) or by its data set number (NSET).Section 8. (A single value of TIME might reference more than one solution. as appropriate.10: Tips and Guidelines for Nonlinear Analysis be more convenient to use standard Newton-Raphson iterations with bisection [AUTOTS] to determine values of nonlinear buckling loads. Negative ALLF or TIME values can be commonly encountered in various snap-through analyses. remember to define an appropriate variable range [/XRANGE or /YRANGE] before creating any POST26 graphs. can also be either positive or negative. an unsuccessful arc-length analysis can be traced to an arc-length radius that is either too large or too small.2.) Additionally. Often." in which the analysis retraces its steps back along the load-deflection curve. a singular (zero stiffness) configuration. Structural Analysis Guide . This approach can be used to start a static analysis closer to the equilibrium position. It is usually good practice to graph your load-deflection curve (using POST26 commands) with every analysis. which can cause a solution failure with this solver. because TIME in an arc-length analysis is not always monotonically increasing. The total arc-length load factor (item ALLF on the SOLU command) can be either positive or negative. TIME.6. © SAS IP.ABT) See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for a discussion of termination and restart procedures. Similarly. you can use imposed displacements instead of applied forces. "Drifting back.1 . Artificially Inhibit Divergence in Your Model's Response If you do not want to use the arc-length method to analyze a force-loaded structure that starts at. An arc-length solution terminates under these conditions: – When limits defined by the ARCTRM or NCNV commands are reached – When the solution converges at the applied load – When you use an abort file (Jobname. Inc. ANSYS Release 8. If TIME becomes negative. 001972 . because the arc-length procedure might result in a negative definite stiffness matrix (negative pivot). You can then use the NSUBST and ARCLEN commands to adjust the arc-length radius size and range. Study the loaddeflection curve to understand this problem. • • • • • 8. • You should usually avoid using the JCG solver [EQSLV] in conjunction with the arc-length method. to switch from arc-length to Newton-Raphson iterations. When reading arc-length results into the database for POST1 postprocessing [SET]. is one typical difficulty that is caused by using too large or too small an arc-length radius. the program cannot correctly interpret negative TIME values (which might be encountered in a snap-through analysis).OFF]. deactivating the arc-length method in the first load step of the restart [ARCLEN. you can sometimes use other techniques to artificially inhibit divergence in your model's response: • In some cases. 8–69 . You can freely switch from the Newton-Raphson iteration method to the arc-length method at the start of any load step. snap-through or postbuckling). you must terminate the analysis and restart. Do not reference results by a TIME value. which in an arc-length analysis is related to the total arc-length load factor.10. However. Negative values of ALLF or TIME indicate that the arc-length feature is applying load in the reverse direction. in order to maintain stability in the structure.

Such singularities can cause convergence problems.10. When activating or deactivating elements. . (Use a small time step size if necessary to accomplish this. . . . . . You can also apply temporary artificial stiffness to unstable DOFs. . . (Printout either appears directly on your screen. . 8. . . using control elements (such as COMBIN37).YES (EXIT) . STEP CHANGE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS .2. is captured on Jobname. the artificial stiffness is removed. . PRINT OUTPUT CONTROLS . using time-integration effects in an attempt to prevent the solution from diverging in any one load step). TERMINATE ANALYSIS IF NOT CONVERGED . . . 2 .OUT. . TIME AT END OF THE LOAD STEP. . 10 .10. . then you may choose to turn extra shapes off to reduce CPU/storage requirements and enhance convergence. Using Birth and Death Wisely Realize that any sudden change in your structure's stiffness matrix is likely to cause convergence problems. . . The program printout gives you continuous feedback on the progress of these approximations and corrections.891 TIME= 11:09:22 Nonlinear analysis.8. Inc. . ON . . . INITIAL NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . . . If your problem is predominantly bulk deformation. . . . . . . As the system displaces into a stable configuration. . . In particular. 10000 . 200. using the SOLU and PRVAR commands. . . However. . Figure 8. . . . NO . AUTOMATIC TIME STEPPING . . . • 8. . 001972 . or in POST26.2.2. or is written to some other file [/OUTPUT]. © SAS IP. . doing so precludes the ability to model any bending. . A typical nonlinear output listing is shown in Figure 8. DATABASE OUTPUT CONTROLS ITEM FREQUENCY COMPONENT BASI -10 8–70 Structural Analysis Guide . NROPT set to 1 (full Newton-Raphson solution procedure) for all DOFs. 15 . . 100 . . . do not dismiss any program error or warning statements without fully understanding their meaning. . You should make sure that you understand the iteration history of your analysis before you accept the results. . . L O A D S T E P O P T I O N S . . . .00 .Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis • Another technique that can be effective in circumventing problems due to initial instability is running a static problem as a "slow dynamic" analysis (that is. . . Turn Off Extra Element Shapes ANSYS provides "incompatible" modes" formulation (also referred to as "extra shapes") for modeling bending applications. . 8. . . . . . . . try to spread the changes out over a number of substeps. . . . Read Your Output Remember that the ANSYS program performs a nonlinear analysis as a series of linear approximations with corrections. CONVERGENCE CONTROLS.NO PRINTOUT LOAD STEP NUMBER. . . . ANSYS Release 8.25 Typical Nonlinear Output Listing SOLVE command echo Checking Logic Load step summary table ***** ANSYS SOLVE COMMAND ***** *** NOTE *** CP= 13. .) You can examine some of this same information in POST1. . . .9.25: “Typical Nonlinear Output Listing”. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS. . . MINIMUM NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . .) Also be aware of possible singularities (such as sharp reentrant corners) that might be created as you activate or deactivate elements.10. . .1 .7. . . The idea here is to artificially restrain the system during intermediate load steps in order to prevent unrealistically large displacements from being calculated. . . . .USE DEFAULTS . using the PRITER command. . . . or using the birth and death option on other elements. . . .

1746E-03 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 778. MAX DOF INC= -0.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. MAX DOF INC= 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. MAX DOF INC= 0.4 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 4 *** LOAD STEP 2 *** TIME = 103.9 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 2 *** LOAD STEP 2 SUBSTEP 2 COMPLETED.2.9019E-03 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.6674E+05 CRITERION= 594. POST26 graphs of load and response histories should agree with your informed expectations about your structure's behavior.6943E-04 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 347.9 EQUIL ITER 2 COMPLETED.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = -0. Inc.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. CRITERION= 480. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.00000 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. ANSYS Release 8.50000 CUM ITER = 13 Load step 2 substep 2 Load step 2 substep 3 Equilbrium iteration summaries Substep summary 8.1451E-02 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED.9578 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. MAX DOF INC= 0.7 EQUIL ITER 4 COMPLETED. you will run a nonlinear analysis of an elastic-plastic circular plate under the action of a dead load and a cyclic point load. 8–71 .11. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. CUM ITER = 7 *** TIME = 101.5329E-02 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.1746E-03 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.8570E-04 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 77. the maximum and minimum number of substeps for a load step.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0.95 CRITERION= 551. © SAS IP. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.10. MAX DOF INC= 0.2 CRITERION= 502. MAX DOF INC= -0. and the various load steps that describe externally applied loads.4 CRITERION= 507.000 TIME INC = 1.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) Load step 2 substep 1 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. reaction forces.6943E-04 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. CRITERION= 534. TIME INC = 1.1333E+05 CRITERION= 575.2006E+06 CRITERION= 1125. The results of interest (displacements.500 SUBSTEP 3 COMPLETED.1 . You will also learn how to interpret the monitor file that ANSYS writes for a nonlinear analysis.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = -0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. CRITERION= 488. and so on) should show relatively smooth response histories.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. CUM ITER = 9 *** TIME = 102. CRITERION= 540.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) In this sample analysis.8570E-04 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.3628E-02 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.9 EQUIL ITER 3 COMPLETED.1034E-03 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 0.5 CRITERION= 497.5329E-02 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 8237.3 EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. 8.10. Any non-smoothness may indicate that too coarse of a time step was used.4318E-02 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0.Section 8.000 TIME INC = 1. CRITERION= 532.2 EQUIL ITER 2 COMPLETED. MAX DOF INC= 0.1272E-01 LINE SEARCH PARAMETER = 1. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.87 CRITERION= 512.9019E-03 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 1751.3 EQUIL ITER 4 COMPLETED. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. and reviewing the iteration history. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. stresses.2 EQUIL ITER 3 COMPLETED.000 SCALED MAX DOF INC = 0. Graph the Load and Response History This verification technique may be considered to be a graphical combination of two other techniques: checking for reasonableness. MAX DOF INC= 0.7 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 4 *** LOAD STEP 2 SUBSTEP 1 COMPLETED.4318E-02 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 626.2 EQUIL ITER 2 COMPLETED. MAX DOF INC= 0.9905E-04 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 41. Structural Analysis Guide . 001972 .00000 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. MAX DOF INC= 0.1272E-01 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 4267. as well as load step options.3628E-02 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 3905.1451E-02 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 1135.4 EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. You will define a kinematic hardening plasticity curve.

Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis ANSYS uses an incremental solution procedure to obtain a solution to a nonlinear analysis.80 25. then ANSYS uses a constant load increment for all substeps within the load step. If you define the number of substeps. For this example.07 31. Inc.11. you will use an axisymmetric model for the plate. If the plate exhibits mild nonlinear behavior. See Section 8.1 . You will specify 10 substeps for the first load to ensure that the increment of the dead load applied over the first substep is 1/10 of the total load of 0. since this number controls the size of the initial load increment applied in the first substep of the each load step.3 The kinematic hardening plasticity curve for the material is: Log Strain 0. using four-node PLANE42 elements with the axisymmetric option to mesh the model. Specify the kinematic constraints as follows: The nodes located at the center of the plate are constrained to have zero radial displacement. You must specify the number of substeps for each load step. Problem Specifications The circular plate has a radius of 1. The following material properties are used for this problem: EX = 16911. You will apply the dead load in load step 1 and the cyclic point load in six subsequent load steps. © SAS IP.001865643 0.11. As described earlier in this chapter. the maximum and minimum number of substeps all to be the same.1.2. You will also specify a maximum of 50 and a minimum of 5 substeps to ensure that if the plate exhibits a severe nonlinear behavior during the solution.0 m and a thickness of 0.004471788 0. ANSYS automatically determines the size of the load increment for each subsequent substep in a load step.125 N/m2. 001972 .00 22.11. then the load increment can be cut back to 1/50 the total load.23 Pa PRXY = 0. you will specify 4 substeps. with a maximum of 25 and a minimum of 2 substeps.002562402 0. The history of the cyclic point load is shown here: 8–72 Structural Analysis Guide . The nodes located at the outer edge are constrained to have zero radial and axial displacement. You can control the size of the load increment for these subsequent substeps by specifying the maximum and minimum number of substeps. 8. then the load increment can be increased up to 1/5 the size of the total load.3: Problem Sketch.73 The plate has a dead load acting as a uniform pressure of 0. Problem Description In this example. you will monitor the history over the entire solution of the vertical displacement of the node at the location where the point cyclic load is applied and the reaction force at the node located at the bottom of the clamped edge.001123514 0.125N/m2. the total external load within a load step is applied in increments over a certain number of substeps. You will perform a geometrically nonlinear analysis. In this example. ANSYS Release 8. .1 m.08 29. For the subsequent six load steps that apply the cyclic point load.006422389 True Stress (Pa) 19. 8. ANSYS uses a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure to solve each substep.

3." Click on OK." In the list on the right. 5. The Change Jobname dialog box appears. click once on "Quad 4node 42. In the list on the left. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes.3.11. click once on "Structural Solid." Click on OK. 6. 8.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) Figure 8.11. 7. 3. 2. Set the Analysis Title and Jobname 1. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. Define the Element Types 1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname. ANSYS Release 8. Problem Sketch a Y I X V G 7` "¨¤WH FUD R ¦¦¤R Q"P Q T S S $%# " ! 0 ) ( ' & C R %`b 4B 6 ¤ 1 ¤ 8–73 . Type the text "Cyclic loading of a fixed circular plate. Click on OK. scroll to "Axisymmetric" and select it. 3. 2. Click on Add.11. 9.1. The PLANE42 element type options dialog box appears. Structural Analysis Guide .3.26 Cyclic Point Load History © §¨¦£¤¢ ¥ ¡ 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box. 4. 4. 5. Type the text “axplate” in the entry box and click OK. 001972 .1 . Inc. Click on Options. 8.Section 8.2. © SAS IP. In the scroll box for element behavior. I F F H G 9¤F 9FEDE¤¤8 @ 9¢7 53 ¢32 C B 4 A 5 8 6 4 1 8.

In the Material Models Available window. Multilinear (General). Repeat revisions and graphing as needed until you are satisfied with the graphed results. Click on the Graph button. Repeat the previous step to enter the following Strain/Stress value pairs: 0. © SAS IP. Click on OK.7.1.8. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. 4.11. 4. In the Material Models Available window. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. 3. 4. Linear.3. 19. 2. Rate Independent.23 for EX (Young's modulus). ANSYS Release 8. Kinematic Hardening Plasticity. Enter . Isotropic. 8. Enter the following Strain/Stress value pair in the table: 0.00447. double-click in Material Model Number 1.0.00112. 2. 8. revise the stress/strain values and click on the Graph button again. If necessary. Type "thick=0. 22. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. Create Rectangle 1. 3.5. 0.4.00256. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. Define Material Properties 1.3 for PRXY (Poisson's ratio). 5. 31. 8–74 Structural Analysis Guide . 0. In the Material Models Defined window. .00187.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs> Modify Axes. 6. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box. The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. Click on OK.1. This value is the radius of the plate. A dialog box appears.1" in the Selection field and click Accept. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left.3. Click Close. Enter Total Strain for the X-axis label. 8. Inc. and Multilinear Kinematic (General). Click on OK. Label Graph Axes and Plot Data Tables 1. 7. 29. Type "radius=1. von Mises Plasticity. 25. 3. The Axes Modifications for Graph Plots dialog box appears.00642.11.11.3. Elastic.11. The dialog box appears that includes the Strain/Stress data pairs that you entered. Enter True Stress for the Y-axis label and click OK. 2. 3. 001972 .6. double-click on the icons next to the following options: Structural. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models.3. 6.1 . The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. A dialog box appears. A graph of the data table values appears in the Graphics window.0" in the Selection field and click Accept. double-click on the following options: Nonlinear. Inelastic. 5.3. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. Specify the Kinematic Hardening material model (KINH) 1. 8. and enter the next Strain/Stress value pair: 0. Click on the Add Point button. This value is the thickness of the plate. 2. Enter 16911.

Set Element Size 1. 4. 7. scroll to "UY" and select it.3. 8. Structural Analysis Guide .0)" in the Selection field and click Accept. as well as the reaction force at the fixed end of the plate. 3.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) 4. In the scroll box for Quantity to be monitored. 2. The MeshTool dialog box appears. radius" for X-coordinates. 5. 6. The Monitor dialog box appears. 2. then Close. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Lines. 4. 6.10.7. and choose Every substep for the File write frequency. 8–75 . pick Quad and Map. Click OK in the picking menu. 4. Type "ntop = node(0. 8. 1.9. 8. you monitor the displacement of the node located at the axes of symmetry. Type "ntop" in the picker and press RETURN. The Create Rectangle by Dimensions dialog box appears.0. 001972 . Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Monitor. Enter 8 for number of element divisions and click on OK.3. The Mesh Areas picking menu appears.0. Monitor the Displacement In this step. Repeat these steps (1-3). Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. then click MESH. Click on Close on the MeshTool. The Element Size on Picked Lines picking menu appears.0. 8. 4. Inc. A rectangle appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. 2. Click OK on the picking menu.3. Click OK. 5. Verify that All items are selected. Mesh the Rectangle 1.1 .11. but choose horizontal lines 1 and 3. Turn large deformation effects ON and click OK. Click Size Controls> Lines> Set. On the MeshTool. The Monitor picking menu appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Rectangle> By Dimensions. The Static or Steady-State Analysis dialog box appears. ANSYS Release 8.thick. Enter "0. 3. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. Enter "0.0)" in the Selection field and click Accept.11. The Controls for Database and Results File Writing dialog box appears. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.Section 8. Click on Pick All.3. thick" for Y-coordinates and click on OK. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File.11. Type "nright = node(radius.8. Assign Analysis and Load Step Options 1. Click on the two vertical lines (2 and 4). © SAS IP.11. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears.0. and specify 40 element divisions. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options. 3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. Click OK. 2.

Enter 10 as the number of substeps.125" in the Load PRES value field and click OK. The Apply U. 8–76 Structural Analysis Guide . Type "nright" in the picker and press RETURN. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. Click OK. 14. In the scroll box for Quantity to be monitored. The Apply PRES on nodes dialog box appears. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Monitor. . Click Pick All. Click on Y coordinates and enter "thick" in the Min. Inc.11. Max field and click OK. and enter 5 as the minimum number of substeps. Enter "0" in the Min. and enter "radius" in the Min.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. Apply Constraints 1. 9. In the scroll box for Variable to redefine. Click on "All DOF" for DOFs to be constrained. 6. Click on Pick All. The Monitor picking menu appears. scroll to "Variable 2" and select it. Max field. 3. Click OK. 2. 3. 4. Verify that Nodes and By Location are selected. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 9. © SAS IP. Solve the First Load Step 1. Review the information in the /STAT window. 11. 4. The Apply U.12. The Time and Substep Options dialog appears. 7. The Select Entities dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. 15. Click Pick All. The Apply U. The Monitor dialog box appears.0" as the Displacement value.11.ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. 001972 . and click on Close. Click OK. Click OK. 13.1 .3. By Location. 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes. Enter "0. 10. The Select Entities dialog box appears. scroll to "FY" and select it. 16. 8. The Select Entities dialog box appears.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. ANSYS Release 8.3. Select Nodes and By Location in the first two selection boxes. 8. Enter "0. Click OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. Click OK in the picking menu. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps. Verify that X coordinates are selected.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 7.ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. This will select the nodes at the X=0 position. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. Click OK. and X coordinates are selected. Verify that Nodes. The Apply U. 8.11. Max field. 5. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. 2. enter 50 as the maximum number of substeps. Click on All DOF to deselect it. 17. Click on "UX" for DOFs to be constrained. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. 12.

and reaction force evolution over the entire solution. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solu. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes. 5. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape. 3. 5. Click on Close on the Information dialog box when the solution is done.3. 13. 8. and "2" for the minimum number of substeps. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears. Review the Monitor File 1. Review the information in the /STAT window.11. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. vertical displacement. Choose Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters.010" in the Selection field and click on Accept.11.1 . The contour plot appears in the Graphics window. The Time and Substep Options dialog appears. In the selection box on the right. Review the time step size. "25" for the maximum number of substeps. 12. 001972 . Click OK in the Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu. Use the General Postprocessor to Plot Results. Inc. 6. 10. Structural Analysis Guide . entering "f" in the Force/moment value field at Step 7. 9. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Click Close. Repeat Steps 5-10. Enter "-f" in the Force/moment value field.13. Choose menu path Utility Menu> List> Files> Other.mntr file and click on OK. Click OK. 8. 1.15.14. choose Eqv plastic EPEQ. 2. 8. Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. Select the axplate. 7. Click OK. and click on Close. In the selection box on the left. ANSYS Release 8. Repeat Steps 5-11 two more times. © SAS IP. 3. Click OK. The deformed mesh appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. 6. Click OK. 8–77 . Click on Close on the Information dialog box when the solution is done.3.11: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (GUI Method) 5. The List File dialog box appears. 8. 3. 4. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps.Section 8.11. Select "FY" in the Direction of force/mom selection box. Click on Close. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Last Set. The Contour Element Solution Data dialog box appears. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar. Enter "4" for the number of substeps. 2. The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. Enter "ntop" in the picker and press RETURN.3. choose Strain-plastic. Solve the Next Six Load Steps 1. Enter "f = 0. Click on Def + undef edge for items to be plotted. 11. for a total of three cycles (six substeps). 2.

7. enter 3 as the 1st variable. item S. and name SY. Repeat steps 7-10. Choose Elements in the first drop-down selection box. Verify that Nodes and By Num/Pick are selected in the first two boxes. 10.1 . Click OK on the picking menu. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> Graph. 8. and enter 4 as the 2nd variable. 5. © SAS IP. 3. Click OK on the picking menu. The Select Entities dialog box appears. The Select Entities dialog box appears. Click on Element results. with variable reference number 3. 8–78 Structural Analysis Guide . 11. 18. Click OK. Click on Close on the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box. The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box reappears. In the Define Element Results Variable dialog box. 16. 6.16. Click OK. Click OK. Choose Attached to in the second drop-down selection box. The Graph Settings dialog box appears. The Define Elemental Data picking menu appears. Enter Y-Stress as the Y-axis label. 2. with variable reference number 4. In the Define Element Results Variable dialog box. 12. Inc. node number 50. ANSYS Release 8. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. Choose Y-dir'n EPEL Y in the selection list on the right. Click OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Math Operations> Add. Choose Stress in the selection list on the left. choose Strain-elastic in the selection list on the left. 17.17. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything. Click OK.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis 8. Define Variables for Time-History Postprocessing 1.11. 001972 . Click on Single variable for the X-axis variable and enter 5 as the single variable number. Choose Y-dir'n EPPL Y in the selection list on the right. Click on Add. 13. The dialog box should show element number 281. The Axes Modifications for Graph Plots dialog box appears. Click on Add. and it is stored as variable 5. .3. 8. Plot Time-History Results 1. 9. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs> Modify Axes. 14. Enter Total Y-Strain as the X-axis label. The Add Time-History Variables dialog box appears. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. 2. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. with a second variable listed (ESOL). Choose Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables. The Define Element Results Variable dialog box appears. Click on the top left node of the top left element. choose Strain-plastic in the selection list on the left. Verify that the reference number of the variable is 2. Verify that Nodes is selected. Click on the top left element in the ANSYS Graphics window. 3. Repeat steps 7-10. Enter 5 for the reference number for result.3. component Y. The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box appears. The Define Nodal Data picking menu appears. Choose Y-direction SY in the selection list on the right. This adds the elastic and plastic strains that you stored as variables 3 and 4. Click on Add. The Select nodes picking menu appears. 4. Their sum is the total strain. Click OK. Type "ntop" in the picker and press RETURN. Click OK. Click OK. 4.11. Click OK. Click OK. 5. 15.

12.5.001123514. 2.08 tbpt._Y1.radius.KINH. 8._Y1. Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method) You can perform the example nonlinear static analysis of a copper cylinder impacting a rigid wall using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices.1 ! Thickness of plate (m) YM=16911.25.3. 7.True Stress (N/m^2) tbpl.1 .1.23 et. CMDEL. . .5.2..3 ! Define a Kinematic Hardening Plasticity curve using the KINH material model tb.80 tbpt.. Inc.07 tbpt.11._Y CMDEL. First point defines the elastic limit tbpt.0.4...ex. ANSYS Release 8.LINE LSEL._Y1 !* Structural Analysis Guide ..73 ! Set the axles labels for the stress-strain curve plot /axlab.8. ! The rectangle has a length equal to the radius of the plate and a height equal ! to the thickness of the plate rect.nuxy.00 tbpt.5.0. Click OK.29.Section 8. .0. 001972 .axplate /prep7 radius=1. Cyclic loading of a fixed circular plate /filnam. and click on OK.1. © SAS IP.1.1.19.1 ! Plot and verify the material stress-strain curve ! Define a rectangle which is the axisymmetric cross section of the plate.Log Strain (N/m^2) /axlab.31. /BATCH.1. . 8–79 . Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables.0 ! Radius of the plate (m) thick=0.12: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method) 6.006422389. Enter 2 as the first variable to graph.PLANE42.YM mp. Exit ANSYS 1. The Graph Time-History Variables dialog box appears.4 CM.1 ! PLANE42 axisymmetric element mp..0.001865643.P51X !* CM.004471788. total log strain curve for this material model ! using 5 points._Y LESIZE..ORDE...1.18. Items prefaced by an exclamation point (!) are comments.. 8.2 FITEM.2 FITEM.0.LIST /title.Y.LINE CMSEL.X._Y.0. Choose QUIT from the ANSYS Toolbar.5 ! Define the true stress vs.KINH.002562402.thick ! Select the left and right bounding lines of the created rectangle and set ! the line division to 8 (8 elements through the thickness of the plate) FLST. Click on the save option you want.22. .

_Y1._Y LESIZE.10.1 ._Y1 CMDEL. © SAS IP. CMDEL.40.0._Y. nsel.x.on! Turn on geometric nonlinearity ! Get the node numbers for the nodes located at the top ! of the axis of symmetry and at bottom right of the model ntop = node(0._Y CMDEL.. nsel.ntop.pres.mntr monitor._Y.s. .LINE CMSEL.5.50.125 alls! Select all nodes ! Define the number of substeps (10). Also define maximum number of ! substeps (50).all. nsel. 1 CM.1.0 d.loc.loc. ANSYS Release 8.2.0) nright = node(radius. This will be written out to the monitor file ratch.uy monitor.2 FITEM.0 ! Define the load for Load Step 1.all.fy outres.AREA CHKMSH.125 N/m^2 as dead load on the plate.1. ! Select the nodes located at top surface of plate and apply a uniform pressure ! of 0.4.0. 001972 .2.thick. .Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis ! Select the top and bottom bounding lines of the created rectangle and set ! the line division to 40 (40 elements through the radius of the plate) FLST._Y1._Y2 fini /solve nlgeom.1 FITEM._Y amesh. . .0) ! Activate the monitoring of the displacement and reaction force histories ! during the analysis. Inc.ux.5.y.ORDE.0._Y1 !* CM.3 CM.x.AREA ASEL.5. .radius d. .0.s. ._Y1.S. and the minimum number of substeps (5) for the automatic ! time stepping algorithm.s. nsub.P51X !* CM.all ! Output all the results for all substeps to the ! results file for later postprocessing ! Select the nodes located at right end and constrain their radial (x) and ! axial (y) direction displacement to be zero.thick sf.5 8–80 Structural Analysis Guide .LINE LSEL.all ! Select the nodes located at left end and constrain their radial (x) direction ! displacement to be zero.all. .all CMDEL._Y CMDEL.nright.all. .loc.'AREA' CMSEL.

ntop f.2 solve nsel.2 ples. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 3 ! Define load for load step 4 ! Set the number of substeps..ntop f.4.s. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 6 ! Define load for load step 7 ! Set the number of substeps. ! ! ! ! Plot the deformed mesh with the undeformed edge only Plot the total accumulated equivalent plastic strains ! Plot the mesh ! Select the node where the point load is attached Structural Analysis Guide . max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 5 ! Define load for load step 6 ! Set the number of substeps.epeq fini /post26 eplo nsel.-f nsel.2 solve ! Start Cycle 2 ! ---------------nsel.all nsubst.all.node.1 .4.f nsel.25.fy. Inc. ! Over six load steps apply a cyclic point load of magnitude f = 0.01 units ! applied at the center of the plate over three cycles ! Start Cycle 1 ! ---------------nsel.fy. max and min number ! of substeps.ntop f..-f nsel. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 2 ! Define load for load step 3 ! Set the number of substeps.nl.all nsubst. f.. max and min number ! of substeps ! Solve load step 4 ! Define load for load step 5 ! Set the number of substeps.25.ntop f.fy.f nsel.ntop ! Define load for load step 2 ! Set the number of substeps.25. used to apply ! the cyclic point load..4.Section 8.all.12: Sample Nonlinear Analysis (Command or Batch Method) solve f = 0.25..s.all.25..node.node.node.all nsubst.all.last ! (final state) pldi.2 solve nsel.4. ! Solve load step 7 ! Read in the results from the last substep of ! the last step.ntop f.all.s.s.all nsubst.25.s.2 solve save fini /post1 set.2 solve ! Start Cycle 3 ! ---------------nsel.s.node.4.f nsel.node.fy.4.-f nsel. © SAS IP.all nsubst.2 solve nsel.node.01 ! Solve load step 1 ! Define the parameter.fy.fy. 001972 .all nsubst. ANSYS Release 8..all.ntop f. 8–81 .s.

elem. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems.Plastic Loading of a Thick-Walled Cylinder Under Pressure VM56 .1.elem.Heat Transferred to a Flowing Fluid VM132 . ! Define variable 4 to be Y component of plastic strain at the node where the ! point load is applied ESOL. ANSYS Release 8. the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts.Y.Y.2 fini /eof /exit. However.ntop.1 .Stress Relaxation of a Bolt Due to Creep VM133 .elem.ntop. most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments.0.3.1.EPEL. describe additional nonlinear analyses.Y-Stress plvar. The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program. The ANSYS Verification Manual includes a variety of nonlinear analysis test cases: VM7 .Residual Stress Problem VM24 . xvar.y.Plastic Hinge in a Rectangular Beam VM38 .Plastic Bending of a Clamped I-Beam VM146 . .Bending of a Reinforced Concrete Beam Structural Analysis Guide . Inc. © SAS IP.ntop.2.Motion of a Rod Due to Irradiation Induced Creep VM134 . 001972 .EPPL.4.4.3.S. ADD.5 ! Set the axes for subsequent x-y plot to be variable 5 ! Define the x and y axes labels for subsequent x-y plot /axlab.Plastic Response to a Suddenly Applied Constant Force VM104 .5.Discharge of Water from a Reservoir VM126 .Total Y-Strain /axlab.Transverse Shear Stresses in a Cantilever Beam VM80 .Y.Liquid-Solid Phase Change VM124 . Where to Find Other Examples Several ANSYS publications.Hyperelastic Thick Cylinder Under Internal Pressure VM78 . ! Add the elastic and plastic strains in variables 3 and 4 and store the total ! strain in variable 5. . particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual.Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural Analysis esln elem=elnext(0) alls ! Select the element attached to this node ! Get the number of this element ! Select back everything in the model ! Define variable 2 to be Y component of stress at the node where the point ! load is applied ESOL. 8–82 . ! Define variable 3 to be Y component of elastic strain at the node where the ! point load is applied ESOL. .nosav ! Plot the Y-stress stored in variable 2 8.Plastic Compression of a Pipe Assembly VM11 .13.x. .

Viscoplastic Analysis of a Body Undergoing Shear Deformation VM200 .Current Carrying Ferromagnetic Conductor VM198 .Hyperelastic Circular Plate VM220 .Section 8. 8–83 .1 .13: Where to Find Other Examples VM185 .Eddy Current Loss in Thick Steel Plate Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8. 001972 . © SAS IP.Large Strain In-Plane Torsion Test VM199 . Inc.Viscoelastic Sandwich Seal Analysis VM218 .

8–84 .

Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Hyperelastic Material Behavior The steps for Hyperelastic Curve Fitting are defined as follows: 1 2 Section 9.2: Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting For Hyperelastic material models. Hyperelastic curve fitting is based on the HYPER option of the TB command. The data manipulations and constructions are performed by the TBFT command. ANSYS Release 8.2: Input the Data into The experimental data can be read into ANSYS by browsing ANSYS to the file location in the GUI or by specifying the filename and path (batch) on the command line. You input your experimental data. Creep and Viscoelastic material behavior for Curve Fitting • Section 9. Ogden. graphically view the curve fitting results. 9. Inc.1.2. Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting Hyperelastic curve fitting is a tool for estimating the material constants for your material by inputting your experimental data and comparing it to the ANSYS supported hyperelastic material models. Gent.2. 9. your creep strain rate or creep strain as a function of time. you decide which material model to use during solution. Based on these comparisons. time data is converted to ANSYS supported Prony series format. Compressible hyperelastic models Ogden hyper-foam and Blatz-Ko are also supported. Curve fitting helps you estimate coefficients for these situations. © SAS IP. . 001972 .Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Use the ANSYS material curve fitting feature to evaluate experimental data for use as coefficients for certain nonlinear material models built into ANSYS. 9.2. You perform curve fitting either through an interactive user interface or via batch commands.1. With this feature. your stress-strain curves can be converted to any of the available ANSYSsupported hyperelastic models. Polynomial. your shear modulus vs time and/or bulk modulus vs. Neo-Hookean. Nearly Incompressible and Compressible. Curve fitting for temperature dependency is supported using the SHIFT option. Curve fitting is based on the data table configurations outlined in the TB command. ANSYS hyperelastic models can define three types of behavior: Purely Incompressible. • Section 9. and Yeoh. Arruda-Boyce.2. perform a regression analysis. including Mooney-Rivlin.1. Section 9. choose a model from one of nine hyperelastic models supplied. Structural Analysis Guide .1: Prepare Experimental Data The experimental data must be a plain text file delimited by a space or a comma. Applicable Material Behavior Types ANSYS supports Hyperelastic. compare the fits to the experimental data. stress or temperature can be converted to any of the thirteen ANSYS supported implicit creep models.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting For viscoelastic material models. • Section 9.1 . and write the fitted coefficients as ANSYS nonlinear data table commands to the database for the subsequent finite elements analyses.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting For creep material models. you compare experimental stress data versus ANSYS-calculated stress data for different nonlinear models.1.

2.1. you can still change to another model if an ideal fit is not realized. referencing your stress vs. 001972 . Table 9.1: “Experimental Details for Case 1 and 2 Models and Blatz-Ko”) Case 2 .Hyperelastic curve fitting can be a linear regression or a cients nonlinear regression process.2. Inc. 5 6 7 Section 9. Hyperelastic curve fitting does not support temperature dependent data.Engineering Stress Strain ing Strain Biaxial Engineering Strain Thickness Direction Engin.2. strain values.2 Experimental Details for Case 3 Models Experimental Type Uniaxial Test Biaxial Test Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Longitudinal Engineering Lateral Direction Engineer.1. © SAS IP.4: Initialize the Coeffi.5: Specify Control Parameters and Solve Section 9.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 3 Section 9.1.2. Section 9.Totally Incompressible Models (see Table 9. If the results you obtain are not acceptable repeat steps 3 to 5 to perform a new curve fitting solution.1. and the associated process for each are listed in Table 9. The hyperelastic material models. Once you pick a model.1.3: Select a Material Model Option The material options for the applicable curve fitting regimen are defined in the TB command. ANSYS Release 8.6: Plot Your Experimental Data and Analyze You will specify the type of error norm to be used to generate the curve fit. Your hyperelastic curve fitting data needs to be a comma or space delimited file.7: Write Data to TB Command 9.1.1 .1. Write curve fitting results as the TB command to ANSYS database. You review and verify the results by comparing the experimental data and the regression errors. .Nearly Incompressible Models (see Table 9.1: “Experimental Details for Case 1 and 2 Models and Blatz-Ko”) Case 3 .Engineering Stress eering Strain 9–2 Structural Analysis Guide . 4 Section 9.1 Experimental Details for Case 1 and 2 Models and Blatz-Ko Experimental Type Uniaxial Test Biaxial Test Shear Test Volumetric Test Column 1 Engineering Strain Engineering Strain Engineering Strain Volumetric Strain(J) Column 2 Engineering Stress Engineering Stress Engineering Stress True Stress Table 9.Compressible Models (see Table 9. Hyperelastic curve-fitting supports three main behaviors: • • • Case 1 .2: “Experimental Details for Case 3 Models”) The types of data required for each of these cases is defined in the tables below. depending on the model.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types”. Prepare Experimental Data Curve fitting requires experimental test data.2.2. Nine hyperelastic models are supported.

Supplying zero coefficients for the volumetric data field will also denote an incompressible model.Option2. etc.3 Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types Model Name Mooney-Rivlin Polynomial Yeoh Neo-Hookean Ogden Abbreviation moon poly yeoh neoh ogde Order/Options 2. Option4 fields. SHEA.2.2. First you designate whether they are uniaxial. 001972 . delimited set of stress and strain values similar to the following: 0.Option4 Option1 = UNIA.2.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types”.Section 9.1. All of the stress values will be engineering stress.Option1. When no volumetric data is supplied.2. BIAX.2 231. and those model options will be available. 9–3 . You can also “Browse” to a file in a specified location.1 9. Batch TBFT. the model is understood to be incompressible.2.2 175.EADD.2. and only the available options will be available. GUI The Material Properties GUI provides an input field where you can type the filename of your data file. a compressible.ID. Input the Data into ANSYS The EADD argument for the TBFT command determines how you input your data files. except for the volumetric option (true stress). Table 9.1. Inc.9127 0.).2. and also include the appropriate path.3.1 .2: Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting Experimental Type Shear Test Volumetric Test Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Shear Engineering Strain Thickness Direction Engin.8847 60.Engineering Stress eering Strain Volumetric Strain(J) True Stress Note — J is the ratio of current volume to the original volume. below lists the models that are available for hyperelastic curve fitting. Option3. Select a Material Model Option Table 9. biaxial. or VOLU Option2 = name of file containing experimental data Option3 = file name extension Option4 = file directory 9. 5. shear or volumetric.1. ANSYS Release 8. © SAS IP. and then you designate the location in the Option2. The file should be a simple. 9. or nearly incompressible model is implied. When volumetric data is supplied. 9 1 to N 1 to N 1 to N No.00 118. Separate input is performed for each Option1 value (UNIA. 3. BIAX. 9.1.9412 0. of Coefficients Linear/Nonlinear [1] Fitting 2/3/5/9+1 see below [2] N+N 1+1 2*N+N Linear Linear Linear Linear Nonlinear Structural Analysis Guide .9703 0. All stresses that ANSYS outputs in POST1/POST26 are true stresses and logarithmic strains.2.Option3. SHEA.1.

5.HYPER.3.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) specifies the number and type of coefficient(s) necessary for each hyperelastic model type. while allowing the other coefficients to be operated on.Option2.2: Hyperelastic Material Constants. The number of coefficients is usually the sum of the number of deviatoric coefficients and the number of volumetric coefficients.Option5 Option2 = Model name. Option3 = Order or number of coefficients.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Model Name Arruda-Boyce Gent Blatz-Ko Abbreviation boyc gent blat Order/Options 1 to N No.2.1 .1. Option3 = not applicable 9–4 Structural Analysis Guide . For most hyperelastic models. However. Table 9.2. ANSYS Release 8. You can then release the fixed coefficient later if desired.Option4. The options displayed will be dependent on the format of your experimental data file. 9. The number of coefficients for a polynomial will be dependent on the polynomial order N. 9.4.2. More information on the hyperelastic models ANSYS supplies for curve fitting can be found in Section 2. The initial values of the coefficients generally come from experience.3. You specify a value for a coefficient and keep it unchanged.SET. for instance.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the models available. Inc. Initialize the Coefficients Depending on the model you choose. Batch TBFT. all of the coefficients are free to vary.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above). GUI You can navigate to a pull-down selection menu in the material GUI to pick the applicable material model option. By default. The Gent model.2.HYPER. For Ogden hyper-foam.Option3 Option2 = Model name. provides good fit with initial coefficient values as high as 1000. Number of Coefficients = ∑ (1 + i) + N i =1 N Blatz-Ko and Ogden hyper-foam are compressible models.2. .ID.1. the initial coefficients you supply will determine how accurate and efficient your curve fit will be. of Coefficients Linear/Nonlinear [1] Fitting 2+1 2+1 1 2*N+N Nonlinear Nonlinear Nonlinear Nonlinear Ogden Hyper-foam foam 1.Option3. coefficient values can vary greatly depending on the model chosen. the experimental data you supply will require additional fields.1.1. and also from studying the function that defines the model you are attempting to compare/fit your data to. 2. hyperelastic curve fitting can be a linear or a nonlinear regression process. as specified in Table 9. See Table 9.ID. 001972 .FADD.1. You can also fix (hold constant) your coefficients. 9. where applicable.4.1. © SAS IP.Option2. Batch TBFT. 9. 1 or -1 is a good starting point.

. © SAS IP.5. Option7 Option2 = Model name.HYPER. Select the options and Solve to generate the coefficients.Option4.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for possible values. See the TBFT command for details.. . Inc.1.5.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for details). The normalized error norm is the default regression option.2.. You can modify these values to initialize them at values you believe more appropriate. 9–5 . Wherever nonlinear regression is used.2.2. and the solver options) interactively. number of iterations residual tolerance coefficient change tolerance The solution stops when both residual tolerance of error norm and coefficient change tolerance is met or if the number of iterations criteria is met.5. 9. Batch TBFT. 9. Your error norms can be either normalized and unnormalized. 2. 3. 9. See Table 9.4. GUI The GUI lets you specify all of your control parameters (error norm.Section 9. since normalized error gives equal weight to all of your data points. Specify Control Parameters and Solve Depending on the model.Option3. Change the parameters and repeat the solution as necessary to ensure the accuracy of the results.1. 1 = normalized least squares Option5 = maximum number of iterations Option6 = tolerance of residual changes Option7 = tolerance of coefficient changes Other solution parameters are available. Option3 = The order or number of your coefficients. 001972 . Option4 = curve fitting procedure: 0 = unnormalized least squares.2.1 .ID. solution control parameters.1. 9. Normalized error norms generally give better results than the unnormalized error norms. The unused options are disabled whenever necessary.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the models available. See Table 9. GUI The GUI automatically updates your coefficient tables depending on the model you pick.Option2.2: Hyperelastic Material Curve Fitting Option4 = index of coefficient Option5 = entr “0” for variable.1.2. you need to initialize your coefficients.2.SOLVE. 1 for fixed. your hyperelastic curve fitting will be either a linear or nonlinear regression process (see Table 9. Structural Analysis Guide .1. The solution control parameters of a nonlinear regression include: 1. ANSYS Release 8.

2. you can write the curve fitting data to the ANSYS database using TBFT.1. .3. Batch TBFT. 001972 .1. the coefficient tables will contain the fitted coefficients and also the residual errors.Option2. FSET. or VOLU Option3 = Model name.2. Column one is always your X. Plot Your Experimental Data and Analyze After you initiate Solve.ID. See Table 9. Write Data to TB Command After you are satisfied with your curve fitting results.1. 9.2. you may want to go back to step 3 and solve again. Error norm values are not always the best indicator of a valid curve fit. ANSYS stores the data as part of the material property set for use in subsequent analyses.2. You can then plot your data and visually interpret the results.2.FSET.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for possible values. If the results are unacceptable. The data in column 1 is always the X-axis. Option4 = The order or number of your coefficients. You use the /WINDOW command to configure the graphs for each of the resultant curves for the individual stress types. See Table 9.1 .Option4 Option1 = UNIA. 9. Your plots will show Columns 2 and above as separate curves. SHEA.2. 9. either by picking a different model.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the models available.1.1.1.6. 9.6. and pick a desired option to view the results. and switch the scales between log scale and regular scale. or redefining your initial values of the coefficients or other control parameters.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for the models available. Review/Verify After plotting the curve fitting results. plotted as a function of column 1.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 9. you can then review them and also verify the error norm/residual values that are printed in the curve fitting GUI window.6. 9. 9–6 Structural Analysis Guide . To view a specific data and its corresponding fitting result.HYPER. with each additional column plotted separately as a function of column one. ANSYS Release 8.7. Repeat steps 3-7 until you get an acceptable solution.HYPER. Other plotting utilities can be found by using the right click of mouse button on the listed data in the curve fitting GUI window.PLOT.Option1. you can use the right click of mouse button on the specific dataset. See Table 9. You can also turn the legend and/or axis displays on and off. By default all the experiments are plotted in separated graphs in the GUI window. These values help you determine the quality of curve fitting and whether to accept the results. BIAX.ID.axis.Option3 Option2 = Model name. © SAS IP.1. You can use the middle-mouse button to eliminate a specific curve and clarify or refine the remaining curve. Plotting the curves and visually assessing the result is often the best indication.6. GUI Use the GRAPH button to plot the data.1. The GUI or the command line converts the coefficients to the appropriate form before writing to ANSYS TB tables.2. Batch TBFT. Inc.7. increasing the order.Option3.

The type of data you need to provide will depend on the creep model chosen. 9. you write the fitted coefficients as ANSYS nonlinear data table commands (ANSYS TB command format) to the database for the subsequent finite element analyses. The test data must be delimited by a space or a comma.3. 2 Section 9. 5 6 7 Section 9.Creep curve fitting is a nonlinear regression. 9.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting Option3 = The order or number of your coefficients. 001972 . temperature. Section 9.1. the initial values cients of the coefficients to be determined can be very important for a successful solution. stress and/or creep strain. repeat steps 3 to 5 to obtain a new curve fitting solution.6: Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze You choose the error norm to be used for an acceptable curve fit.7: Write Data to TB Command 9.3.2.1. biaxial. The creep data must be a plain text file. you can still switch to another model if an ideal fit is not realized. and then perform a regression analysis. You can use either the interactive user interface (GUI) or batch commands. Structural Analysis Guide .1. Using Curve Fitting to Determine Your Creep Material Behavior The steps for creep curve fitting are defined as follows: 1 Section 9. You review and verify the results by comparing them with the experimental data and the regression errors.2: Input the Data into The experimental data can be read into ANSYS by browsing ANSYS to the file location in the GUI or by specifying the path (batch) on the command line.5: Specify Control Parameters and Solve Section 9. 3 4 Section 9. Thirteen implicit creep models are supported.3. Prepare Experimental Data You need to provide accurate experimental test data in order to achieve valid curve fitting results.Section 9.1.4: Initialize the Coeffi. you will use either the creep strain value or creep strain rate. Creep Material Curve Fitting ANSYS provides a number of creep models. tension. Inc.3: Select a Material Model Option The material options for the applicable curve fitting regimen are defined in the TB command. Section 9. along with the tools to fit derived coefficients to your experimental data. Once you pick a model. etc.3. delimited by a space or a comma.1: Prepare Experimental Data The experimental data must be a plain text file with headers to describe the data types and attributes. Write curve fitting results in the TB command format to the ANSYS database. You input your experimental data. choose a model from one of the supplied creep models.1.3.3.1.1.3. you are returned to the material properties dialog. If they are not acceptable. You then graphically view the curve fitting result.1 . GUI Once you complete the process and update your material data properties with the representative curve data.1. If the curve is acceptable. ANSYS Release 8.3: “Hyperelastic Curve Fitting Model Types” (above) for possible values. 9.1.2.1. The experimental data is named “creep” to distinguish it from other types of data such as uniaxial. 9–7 .3.1. See Table 9. derived as a function of time.7. and compare it for fit with your experimental data. All thirteen implicit creep models are supported.3. © SAS IP. The curve data can now be accessed for the full range of material behavior.3. For the creep analysis. which contains the headers and the test data as a table.

00406109 100 0. Please note that for strain hardening and modified strain hardening. and value is the value of the attribute.000140946 0.dcreq ! indicates fourth column is creep strain rate 4000 0. Table 9. You define a data attribute in the header as follows: The header format to define a data attribute is /attr.seqv ! indicates first column is stress /2. There are a total of five different creep data types.000181314 0.4000 ! indicate this creep has a constant stress of 4000 /temp. value.0102068 100 0.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting The header can be used to describe the data types that characterize the test data columns or attributes of the data.000203055 0. Inc.00664691 0.creq ! indicates second column is creep strain /3.5 Creep Model and Data/Type Attribute Creep Model Strain Hardening Time Hardening Generalized Exponential Generalized Graham creq x dcreq x x x x x x x time seqv x x x x temp x x x x 9–8 Structural Analysis Guide .temp ! indicates third column is temperature /4.4: “Creep Data Types and Abbreviations”. ANSYS Release 8.00215869 100 0. you need to input both creep strain and creep strain rate in the experimental data.0102068 0.000152217 0. in the above example. The model you choose will determine the experimental data required for the curve fitting process.creq ! indicate first column is creep strain /2.00215869 0. and abbr is the abbreviation for the type of data in the column. © SAS IP.000203055 4000 0. . 001972 . the stress and temperature are constant throughout the range. Table 9.000165303 0. An example of a typical data input is shown here: /1.00406109 0. The following tables describe the creep data required to perform curve fitting for each model type. An example of a typical input data using attributes is shown here: /seqv. you can define it as an attribute.000181314 4000 0.00664691 100 0.0151416 100 0.1 .dcreq ! indicate second column is creep strain rate 0. as described in Table 9.000130945 There are thirteen model types available from ANSYS for creep curve fitting. where attr is the abbreviation of data type. where n is the index of the data column in the file.0220102 0.000152217 4000 0.4: “Creep Data Types and Abbreviations”. For instance.0151416 0. see Table 9.000165303 4000 0.000140946 When a particular column is unchanged over the loading history.4 Creep Data Types and Abbreviations Time Equivalent Creep Strain Equivalent Creep Strain Rate Equivalent Stress Temperature time creq dcreq seqv temp The header format that defines the type of data column is /n.100 ! indicate this creep data is at a constant temperature of 100 /1. abbr.

There are two ways to input the experimental data. You prepare this file according to the previous section.3. The header portion is absolutely required for creep analyses. 9–9 . and can be a complete set of experimental test data or a part of a series of files of experimental test data.Option4 Option1 = creep Option2 = name of file containing experimental data Option3 = file name extension Option4 = file directory 9.1. to perform a creep curve fitting. Select a Material Model Option There are thirteen models available for curve fitting. Each file is viewed as a data set in ANSYS. such as tests performed at different stress levels and/or temperatures. Inc. You'll find it helpful to view the formula before you proceed to solve. 001972 .3.1.Option2.CREEP. You can include several data sets.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting Creep Model Generalized Blackburn Modified Time Hardening Modified Strain Hardening Generalized Garofalo Exponential Form Norton Prim+Sec Time Hardening Prim+Sec Rational Polynomial Generalized Time Hardening x x x x x x x x x x x x creq dcreq x time x x seqv x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x temp 9.1. Batch The EADD argument of the TBFT command is used to identify and specify the location of your data files.2.EADD.Section 9. 9. © SAS IP. Batch TBFT. GUI In interactive mode you can input experimental data by typing the filename (with the appropriate path if the file is not in the default directory) into the appropriate area.Option1. Also see Table 9. Use the Add Data Set button to add additional data sets for creep curve fitting. You pick the one that best satisfies your requirements.1.3.FADD.1 .6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations”).ID. There is no restriction on the number of data sets you can add. It will tell you what initial coefficients you might use and also lets you determine the format of your experimental data. The command syntax is: TBFT.3. You can also “Browse” to a file in a particular location.1.2.2. 9. including both header information and formatted test data.3.1. ANSYS Release 8.Option3.2.6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations” to determine a starting point for the initial creep model coefficients.3. 9.1.Option3 Structural Analysis Guide . You will use the creep model abbreviation in subsequent equations to identify the creep model (see Table 9. Use the creep models table (below) to view the formulae of the creep models and to determine the number of coefficients.3.Option2.ID. Input the Data into ANSYS The experimental data must be read into ANSYS from a plain text file.

9. all of the coefficients are free to vary. You specify a value for a coefficient and keep it unchanged. Table 9.1.Option2. as follows: TBFT.1. All of the options and constraints listed for batch input apply.Option4.4.6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations”. For some creep models the initial value of certain coefficients is critical to achieving a successful fit. You can also fix (hold constant) your coefficients.1 . .CREEP. 9. while allowing the other coefficients to be operated on. ANSYS Release 8. Option3 = not used for creep curve fitting. In general the more parameters a model has. see Table 9. Batch You define your coefficient values using the SET option of the TBFT command. Initialize the Coefficients Creep curve fitting is a nonlinear regression process. When this happens you can adjust the initial value of specific coefficients and rerun the problem again. A successful curve fit depends greatly on the initial coefficient values. See Table 9.Option5 Option2 = Creep model name Option3 = not applicable Option4 = index of coefficient 9–10 Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Option2 = Creep model abbreviation. GUI You can pick the appropriate model option from a menu in the data entry area.3. The following table describes the creep models available and their abbreviated names for Option2 (above). This suggests that certain variances may cause your curve fit to fail to converge.3. 001972 .SET.ID.2. You can then release the fixed coefficients to obtain a solution. © SAS IP. By default.Option3.1.3.4. Inc.6 Creep Models and Abbreviations Model Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Name Strain Hardening Time Hardening Generalized Exponential Generalized Graham Generalized Blackburn Modified Time Hardening Modified Strain Hardening Generalized Garofalo Exponential Form Norton Prim+Sec Time Hardening Prim+Sec Rational Polynomial Generalized Time Hardening Fitting Name/Option2 shar thar gexp ggra gbla mtha msha ggar expo nort psth psrp gtha Note — It is very important for the experimental data to be consistent with the creep model you choose.1.5: “Creep Model and Data/Type Attribute” for the data types required for each creep model.3. 9. the more difficult it is to get the solution to converge.

5.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting Option5 = value of coefficient Then you can modify the coefficients with the FIX option of the TBFT command.Option5 Option2 = Creep model name Option3 = not applicable Option4 = index of coefficient Option5 = 0 variable. Option7 Option2 = Creep function name (See Table 9.SOLVE. There are two available error norms available for the regression. residual tolerance and coefficient change tolerance. 9. including initializing and/or fixing certain coefficients.1. Inc.3. Each of the options specified in the command line description is presented as a pull down menu or fill in box. 9–11 .3. maximum number of the allowed iterations and the error tolerance will affect the accuracy of your results. Specify Control Parameters and Solve Error norm.5. 9.2. You can then plot your data and visually interpret the results.. © SAS IP. You can then make modifications. See the TBFT command for details.Option2.3. 001972 . The coefficients are updated after every iteration during the solve process.. 1 fixed 9.3.1.1 . Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze After you initiate Solve.1. Batch The batch command is TBFT. and each option must be specified before Solve will begin.ID.Option2. 9. The coefficients are updated in the GUI after the solution is complete.Option3. Structural Analysis Guide .4. GUI You pick your creep model from the choices on the creep model tree.FIX.2. Normalized curve fitting is the default option used to calculate error norms.ID. GUI The solution phase is entered automatically after you fill in the last set of coefficient values.CREEP. The solution stops when both residual tolerance and coefficient change tolerance is met or if the number of iterations criteria is met. ANSYS automatically configures the coefficients for the model.Option4. 1 = normalized (default) Option5 = maximum number of iterations Option6 = tolerance of residual changes Option7 = tolerance of coefficient changes Other solving parameters are available. 9.. ANSYS Release 8.axis. The plot utility also incorporates many “right mouse click” context sensitive functions that will help you to configure and optimize your plot(s). Other available solve criteria are number of iterations.CREEP.1. with each additional column plotted separately as a function of column one.6. Column one is generally your X. .1. the coefficient tables will contain the fitted coefficients and also the residual errors. TBFT.5.Option3.6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations”) Option3 = not applicable for Creep models Option4 = error norm: 0 = unnormalized.Section 9. It generally gives better results than unnormalized curve fitting since normalized fitting gives equal weight to all data points when minimizing the errors norms.Option4.1.3.

Name Notes 9–12 Structural Analysis Guide .ID.FSET. In this way you can ensure a good fit throughout the range of data. (e..6.11: Creep Equations for additional details on each implicit creep model . GUI You can simultaneously display many data sets for each function plotted. . These tips are not hard and fast specifications.3.6.1. Batch TBFT.2.1. Each window of your display can be used to display each one of the data sets you are plotting against column one. clicking on the legend area brings up controls to define and configure your graph legend).Option3.PLOT. FSET.3.1 .Option4 Option1 = CREEP Option3 = Creep model name Option4 = Not Used 9. The curve data can now be accessed for the full range of material behavior. Use the plotted curve fitting results both to determine the degree of fit at various locations. 001972 . Tips For Curve Fitting Creep Models The following are some useful tips that will ensure successful curve fitting. © SAS IP. ANSYS stores the data as part of the material property set for use in subsequent analyses.1.1. Inc. GUI When you complete the process.3.Option3 Option2 = Creep Model Abbreviation Option3 = Not applicable 9. Write Data to TB Command After you are satisfied with your curve fitting results.CREEP. you can write the curve fitting data to the ANSYS database using TBFT.ID. Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit You use the GUI to graphically review the curve fitting result.7. and also to verify the error norm/residual value.6.1.3.2. These functions change according to the type of graph you are creating and to the entity you click on in the graph. 9. Also.1. Batch TBFT. Refer to Section 2. If the results are unacceptable.1.7. click the Write to Database button to write the fitted coefficients of your creep model as a creep data table in ANSYS material database.3. Repeat steps 3-6 until you obtain a satisfactory solution. and also modifying some of the other control parameters.3.Option2. ANSYS Release 8.5.2.7.3.g.Option1. following them does not guarantee a solution.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting Clicking in various areas of the display window brings up context sensitive functions that are particular to that area.3. 9. only suggestions. You can then determine the quality of a curve fitting and decide whether to accept the results. 9. 9. The GUI or the command line converts the coefficients to the appropriate form before writing to ANSYS TB tables. 9. You are then returned to the material properties dialog.1. and then solve again with a new model. you may want to go back to step 3. You can also use a middle mouse click to hide a particular curve within a graph.Option2. redefining certain initial values of the coefficients.

Then solve. release C4 and solve for all coefficients or just C4 by fixing the C1. C4 is for temperature dependency. © SAS IP.. If you do not have temperature dependent data. Use experimental data for only one temperature. Then add data for other temperature. Use experimental data for only one temperature. make sure the initial value of C2 is such that C2σ is close to 1.1 . set C4 to zero. 9–13 . Similarly try to keep σ/C4 and C7σ close to 1. Generalized Blackburn has 7 coefficients. Modified Strain Hardening has 3 coefficients. C3 is for temperature dependency. 9 Exponential Form Structural Analysis Guide . release C4 and solve for all coefficients or just C4 by fixing the C1. set C3 to zero. fix C4 to zero. C2 and C3.3: Creep Material Curve Fitting 1 Strain Hardening Strain hardening has 4 coefficients. Generalized Graham has 8 coefficients. Generalized Exponential has 5 coefficients. To keep eσC2 within floating-point range. keep σ/C2 close to one. keep c2σ close to one when you initialize the coefficients. C4 is for temperature dependency. C2 and C3. It is advisable to look at exponential term and try to keep them from floatingpoint overflows. Exponential Term has 3 coefficients. If you do not have temperature dependent data. Use experimental data for only one temperature and fix C4 to zero. set C4 to zero. If you do not have temperature dependent data. Modified Time Hardening has 4 coefficients. To keep eC2σ within floating-point range. Then add data for other temperatures. Then solve. If you have difficulty solving temperature dependent data. and solve. If you do not have temperature dependent data. 8 Generalized Garofalo Generalized Garofalo has 4 coefficients. Then add data for other temperature. C1 was replaced with C12 but converted to the right form before it was written to ANSYS database. Use a low value of C5 (e. C4 is for temperature dependency. If you do not have temperature dependent data. To keep the Sinh term within floating-point range. ANSYS Release 8. This model is complex as far as curve fitting is concerned. Then solve. If you do not have temperature dependent data. If you do not have temperature dependent data. use experimental data for only one temperature. If you have difficulty solving temperature dependent data. Then add data for other temperature. To keep the 2 Time Hardening 3 Generalized Exponential 4 Generalized Graham 5 Generalized Blackburn 6 Modified Time Hardening 7 Modified Strain Hardening C1σC2 [(C3 + 1)ε]C3 term from going negative. Inc. Time hardening has 4 coefficients. set C4 to zero. C4 is for temperature dependency.Section 9. C2 and C3. 001972 . If you have difficulty solving temperature dependent data. If you have difficulty solving temperature dependent data. 1e-3) to avoid floating-point overflows in the exponential term of this model. fix C4 to zero. set C4 to zero.g. fix C4 to zero. You use C8 for temperature dependency. release C4 and solve for all coefficients or just C4 by fixing the C1. C4 is for temperature dependency. fix C8 to zero. set C8 to zero. release C8 and solve for the remaining coefficients individually.

3: Select a Material Model Option This includes Prony series expansion of shear and/or bulk moduli as well as shift function. Section 9. Section 9. set C3 to zero. the solution control parameters.1: Prepare Experimental Data The experimental data must be a plain text file delimited by a space or a comma. perform nonlinear regression.1. The supported shift functions include WLF and TN. If you find it hard to fit this data.4. and write the fitted coefficients as ANSYS nonlinear data table commands to the database for the subsequent finite elements analyses. C3 and C4 to zero.2: Input the Data into The experimental data can be read into ANSYS from GUI or ANSYS batch command line as a plain text file. If you do not have temperature dependent data. view the curve fitting results graphically. define the order of Prony series expansion. compare to the experimental data. Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting Viscoelastic material curve fitting is a tool to determine the material constants of the Prony series expansion for both shear and bulk modulus of the ANSYS hypoviscoelastic material option from experimental data. Using Curve Fitting to Determine the Coefficients of Viscoelastic Material Model The steps for Viscoelastic Curve Fitting are defined as follows: 1 2 3 Section 9. Here it is advisable to solve for temperature independent data first and then introduce temperature related data. Time Hardening has 7 coefficients. Generalized Time Hardening has 6 coefficients. release all coefficients. it is advisable for you to split experimental data into primary creep data and secondary creep data. 9. Primary creep data is the initial part of the curve that covers the nonlinearity in the strain rate. When initializing coefficients set C5σ close to 1 to avoid floating-point overflows.1. This is a complex model.1 .Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 10 Norton Norton model has 3 coefficients. and solve. Set C6 to zero if you have temperature independent data. Fit only the secondary data by fixing C1 to 1 and then set all other coefficients except C2. 5 9–14 Structural Analysis Guide .1. ANSYS Release 8.4. Either through an interactive user interface or the batch commands. users can input the experimental data. Then add the primary creep data.4. Currently the tools allow you to fit shear modulus and/or bulk modulus and/or shift functions. Use a low value of C3 to keep 10C3σ within floating-point range. Coefficients C5 to C10 in curve fitting refers to coefficients C7 to C12 in the implicit creep equation. the initial cients values of the coefficients to be determined can be very important for a successful solution.5: Specify Control Parameters and Solve Specify the error norm to be used.1.4: Initialize the Coeffi.1. 001972 . C3 is for temperature dependency. and perform the nonlinear regression.1.4.4. 4 Section 9. © SAS IP. .4. Section 9. Inc. Rational Polynomial is a very complex model for curve fitting with 10 coefficients. 11 Prim+Sec Time Hardening 12 Prim+Sec Rational Polynomial 13 Generalized Time Hardening 9.Viscoelastic curve fitting is a nonlinear regression.4.

6: Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze View graphically the curve fitting results.1. 001972 .186777 80000 277.4. © SAS IP. Review and verify the results by comparing with the experimental data and the regression errors.6806 10000 1347. Write curve fitting results as the TB command to ANSYS database. along with the test data as a table of data delimited by a space or a comma.7 Viscoelastic Data Types and Abbreviations Time Shear modulus Bulk modulus Temperature time smod bmod temp The headers are used to describe the data types that characterize the test data columns or attributes of the data.4. The viscoelastic test data have 4 data types.073456 20 2842.631843 100 2730.262053 800 2366. repeat steps 3 to 7 to perform a new curve fitting solution. Inc.1. The header is used to define the test data type and the temperature for your test data. such as hyperelasticity or creep. The viscoelastic test data must be a plain text file containing the headers.01 2992. and the temperatures of each of the files can be the same or different.612202 10 2891.530649 8 2905.734397 6000 1627.955396 2000 2117.100 ! define temperature attribute 0.7: “Viscoelastic Data Types and Abbreviations”.1405449 60000 392. The following listing contains the appropriate headers. For viscoelastic curve fitting with multiple temperatures. Prepare Experimental Data Curve fitting requires experimental test data.45541 4 2942.398114 200 2643. seeTable 9.475394 600 2431.125432 400 2517.264527 20000 964. either WLF or TN shift functions are used to account for the temperature dependency.7: Write Data to TB Command 9. 9–15 .199197 8000 1470.580897 1000 2313.506984 40 2798.293214 6 2922.514207 2 2965. Table 9.1.0141125 40000 586. ANSYS Release 8.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting 6 Section 9. For curve fitting viscoelastic materials. if not acceptable. the experimental data must be shear modulus and/or bulk modulus as a function of time and temperature. This also makes documenting your analyses more convenient. The experimental data is named “viscoelastic” to distinguish it from other data types. you don't calculate each temperature point and write it as a temperature-dependent Prony data table.922594 4000 1833. 7 Section 9. Instead.1.2706253 Structural Analysis Guide .53 1 2978.4.142793 60 2772.Section 9.383729 80 2750. Each file must contain only one temperature. when multiple temperatures are present. followed by the delimited data: /temp.1 .

9.005591539 9. ANSYS Release 8.Option3. the number of shear terms. including tests performed at different temperatures. Although different datasets can have the same/or different temperature.2. The data can also be a function of temperature.Option4 ID = Index corresponding to the ANSYS material number. You need to create an additional case to define different shear order.4. Select a Material Model Option The TBFT command provides the curve fitting tools for viscoelastic material modeling.87056342 400000 2.2. . Multiple temperature datasets must be input with multiple files. Option1 = Experimental Date Type. To define the material model. You can also use the shift functions to characterize the material's temperature dependency.4. Input the Data into ANSYS You use the EADD argument of the TBFT command to input your data files.2. Inc. The experimental data must be read into ANSYS from a plain text file. you must first define a “casename”.0137224 1000000 0.4. Each file is viewed as a dataset in ANSYS. You can include several datasets. each file can have only one temperature.1. You can use the “casename” to define several different options that characterize the same test data.EADD.1. if required. © SAS IP.1. bulk terms.0025278 200000 46. or shift options cannot be changed. and then specify the order of shear and bulk moduli and the type of the shift function(s).156653269 800000 0. Two types of data may be required for viscoelastic curve fitting. time. GUI Click on the Add Dataset button and type the filename into the area provided. bulk order or shift options. You can also “Browse” to a file in a specified location.1 . Separate input is performed for each data type (Option1 = sdec.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 100000 202. The experimental data must be prepared as discussed in the previous section.1. which can then be accounted for by either WLF or TN shift function. 9–16 Structural Analysis Guide . and can be the complete set of experimental test data or a part of an experimental test data.2. either shear modulus vs time and/or bulk modulus vs. and include both the header information and the formatted test data.4.669209118 600000 0. or bdec) 9.1. 001972 . You can use the GUI window or batch command to input your experimental data. Once you create a case.3. and then to compare the curve fitting results. First you define a case “casename” to associate the set of coefficients for the Prony expansions with the shift functions that characterize the material behavior.Option2.Option1. Batch TBFT. 9. either shear or bulk Option2 = name of file containing experimental data Option3 = file name extension Option4 = file directory Note — “sdec” refers to the shear modulus as a function of time and “bdec” refers to the bulk modulus as a function of time.ID. You represent your viscoelastic material behavior by a set of Prony series expansions of shear and/or bulk moduli to characterize the shear and the bulk deformation of the material.

if the time values vary from 1 to 10000.000) or (1). τ1K.” but you should redefine the initial values before solving. (10) and (10. and then the shift function. The coefficients are ordered as α0G.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting 9. NEW.4. Batch You define a viscoelastic material with the Prony series expansion by creating a case and setting the order of shear modulus. 9. You can also fix (hold constant) your coefficients. You can then release the fixed coefficient later if desired. τ2K. α2G.1. For example.ID. respectively). and τnK for bulk modulus. The follow syntax examples and argument descriptions illustrate the relationship of these activities. A complete model has (2*NG+1)+(2* Nk +1)+ NS number of the coefficients.3. FCASE command. A good guess for the WLF or TN parameter is the reference temperature you used during your partial solve for shear and bulk.Section 9. While initializing the coefficients. and if you use 3rd order Prony.Option3 CATEGORY = VISCO Option2 = pshear or pbulk or shift Option3 = Dependent on Option2 as follows: • • Option2 = pshear or bulk.000) and (10. Then you specify the number of shear terms.FINI 9.CATEGORY. Structural Analysis Guide . The first line will include FCASE.FCASE. You specify a value for a coefficient and keep it unchanged. bulk and shift options can be selected. or 1 to N Option2 = shift.1. ID. This was done to keep all αnG used in the TB tables positive.000). © SAS IP.4. (1. the coefficient table is automatically created. Initialize the Coefficients The initial values you choose for your coefficients will determine the success of your viscoelastic curve fitting operations. Option3 = NONE or TN or WLF TBFT. You create the case with the TBFT.000 (also (1). τ2G = 100.4. NG is the order of the Prony series expansion of the Shear modulus.FADD. while allowing the other coefficients to be operated on.Option2. A shift function must be used together with your shear and/or bulk modulus for temperature dependent experimental data. Each of the shear. α1G. Inc. bulk modulus and shift options.FCASE. logical guesses for τ1G . The default coefficient is set to “one. By default. The index of the reference/base temperatures is the sum of NumShear + NumBulk + 1. and you can fill in the appropriate “casename” in a text box field. 001972 . τ2G and τ3G that span this range could be τ1G = 1. Nk is the order of the Prony series expansion of the bulk modulus. α1K. ANSYS Release 8.Option2.1. α2K. The case is actually created only after the option is issued. and τ3G = 10.2.1 . then the bulk terms. Option3 = NONE. and α0K. in the shear decay versus time data file. all of the coefficients are free to vary. TBFT. you should set αnKs to 1 and τnKs to time values that are equally distributed in the log scale. As you choose the options. and τnG for shear modulus. bulk terms. spanning the data range from minimum to maximum time. 9–17 .1.3. τ1G. and the shift function.4. GUI You can use the GUI to interactively navigate the tree structure of the curve fitting window.Option3 Option2 = PVHE (Refers to Prony Viscohypoelastic) Option3 = User Specified casename TBFT.ID.ID. τ2G. You should also note that αnG used in curve fitting is the square root of the αnG used in ANSYS TB tables. The coefficients are ordered as shear terms first. … αnG. … αnK. NS is the number of coefficients of the shift function (NS = 2 for the TN option and NS =3 for the WLF option).NEW.

1.4.Option3.ID. myvisco1.5 Use the TBFT.2. 001972 .Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 9.Option4. coefficients are not fixed.FIX.SET.2. You can then adjust parameters and resolve the problem whenever it is necessary.1. myvisco1. © SAS IP.1.Option5 Option2 = casename Option3 = Not Applicable Option4 = Index of coefficient Option5 = 1 to fix.SET. ANSYS Release 8.1.1 .1 ! Fix the first coefficient to a value set via TBFT.Option2. Batch TBFT. myvisco1. 0 to vary For example: TBFT.CASE. and check the appropriate boxes to fix them or allow them to vary.CASE. However the coefficients of shift function can't be solved before the shear or bulk modulus are solved.1.1.4. SET command or to release a previously fixed coefficient. . and shift function (or all) are provided to allow user to solve only Prony coefficients of the shear modulus.4.Option3.1.5. you should follow these three steps to perform the regression: 9–18 Structural Analysis Guide . The solution control parameter of a nonlinear regression includes number of iterations.SET ! Fix the second coefficient to a value set via TBFT.ID. 9. By default.SET 9. Specify values for your coefficients in the coefficients table in the curve fitting GUI window.FIX. bulk modulus. residual tolerance and coefficient change tolerance.. TBFT.. The solution stops when both residual tolerance of error norm and coefficient change tolerance is met or if the number of iterations criteria is met..1.4.4. Specify Control Parameters and Solve Viscoelastic curve fitting is a nonlinear regression process. the bulk modulus and the shift function. The normalized error norm is the default regression option for calculation of the error. Inc.2 ! Initialize the second coefficient to 1.1.Option2. myvisco1. but to stop as the maximum iterations criteria is reached.1.1.5 ! Initialize the first coefficient to 1. You can use either normalized or unnormalized error norm for the regression. Three solver options including shear modulus only. This error norm generally gives better results than the unnormalized error norm option.FIX command to fix a coefficient to a value set by the TBFT. For viscoelastic curve fitting.SET. Prony coefficients of the bulk modulus and coefficients of the shift function. In general it is very difficult to directly solve a complete case including coefficients of the shear modulus. GUI The coefficients table is automatically updated in the viscoelastic curve fitting GUI window when the order of shear modulus and/or bulk modulus and/or shift function are defined.2 TBFT. It is normal for a solution to not converge at first.FIX.Option4. since the normalized error gives equal weight to all data points. The coefficients are updated when the solution is completed.2. TBFT.1.1.Option5 Option2 = casename Option3 = Not Applicable Option4 = index of coefficient Option5 = value of coefficient For example: TBFT.. You can then examine the curve fitting results and the solution history before proceeding any further.

TBFT.Option5 Option2 = casename Option3 = Not Applicable Option4 = comp Option5 = pshea (for Shear only) or pbulk (for bulk only).. PBULK.COMP.....6: “Creep Models and Abbreviations”) Option3 = Not Applicable Option4 = Curve Fitting Procedure: 0 = unnormalized least squares. Option7 Option2 = Creep Function Name (See Table 9. Set the reference temperature at which your partial solution will be performed using TBFT. The SOLVE command allows you to specify procedure types. SET. 1 = normalized least squares (default) Option5 = maximum number of iterations Option6 = tolerance of residual changes Option7 = tolerance of coefficient changes Other solving parameters are available.Option3.. SET.. 9–19 ..COMP. Set the partial solve option using TBFT. Solve the shear coefficients (if there are any). Inc.1. ANSYS Release 8.SOLVE. only your shear coefficients are solved. SET. TX.. Solve Note — When only the shear and bulk buttons are checked.4. All temperature data is used to estimate the coefficients. Only data at temperature TX will be used to estimate shear coefficients Solve 3. SET.CASE.1..Option2. Batch Solution option command is: TBFT. To solve for both shear and bulk. TREF is not used when you solve for all parameters.. 9.5. tolerances and number of iterations.. Set the partial solve option using TBFT. The reference temperature should be the same for both shear and bulk. PVHE.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting 1. Set the partial solve option using TBFT.COMP.Option3.Option4...ID..Option2. Solve the bulk coefficients (if there are any). See the TBFT command for details..Option4.TREF.... © SAS IP. Structural Analysis Guide . you must check all three buttons.ID...1 . Set the reference temperature at which your partial solution will be performed using TBFT.TREF. Solve the shift function (or all) coefficients..SET.Section 9. Only data at temperature TX will be used to estimate shear coefficients Solve 2. . 001972 . TX. PSHEAR.CASE.. SET.

ANSYS Release 8.6. 9.6. After plotting the curve fitting results. Batch You enter the plotting parameters from the command line as follows: TBFT. Plot the Experimental Data and Analyze The best way to verify a good fit between your experimental data and the provided curves is to plot your curves and visually inspect them. The scales can be also switched between log scale and regular scale.CASE.Option3 Option3 = casename 9.PLOT. With the middle button you can eliminate certain curves from each window's display in order to see the remaining data more clearly.1.3.1. with the corresponding fitted data as a function of column 1. in a separate window. © SAS IP.4. You can also use the right mouse button to turn the legend and/or axis on and off. By default all the shear datasets and/or the bulk datasets as well as the corresponding fitting results are plotted in two separated graphs in a GUI window. and possibly other control parameters.1 .4. GUI Graph button provides direct means to plot the data. and pick a desired option. .Option3 Option2 = CASE Option3 = casename 9–20 Structural Analysis Guide .7. Analyze Your Curves for Proper Fit All of your data is plotted as a function of column 1 for the X-axis.4. 9. If not.1.1.7.1.Chapter 9: Material Curve Fitting 9.1. redefining certain initial values of the coefficients. To view a specific data and its corresponding fitting result. 001972 .ID.Prony command) to ANSYS database. Write Data to TB Command After a successful curve fitting.2. you may want to go back to step 3.4.FSET. solution control parameters. GUI The GUI provides access for you to choose your error norm. Repeat steps 3-7 until you are satisfied with the solution. Columns 2 and above are each plotted in a separate graph.6. you click the right mouse button on the specific dataset.ID. and solver options.4. Reviewing your curve fitting result graphically is the only way to ensure a good fit. 9. 9.4. Batch TBFT. Once you complete these specifications and solve. Inc.2.4.Option2. solve again by changing the order of the Prony series.5. 9.6.1.1. you can go back and modify your parameters as necessary to obtain a good curve fit.1. This information helps you determine the quality of a curve fitting and decide whether to accept the results. you can then review it and also verify the error norm/residual value that is printed in the curve fitting GUI window. the last step is to write the curve fitting data as ANSYS Prony data table (the TB.ExpIndex. The GUI or the command line converts the coefficients to the appropriate form before writing TB commands.

Structural Analysis Guide . GUI Click the “Write to Database” button and the fitted coefficients are automatically written to the ANSYS material database according Prony data table. The τ values remain the same. © SAS IP. They are also normalized to make α at time 0 = 1.2. 001972 .1 . Please note that the coefficients you see in the curve fitting module are different from those in the TB tables.Section 9. 9–21 .7. Inc.1. The α values shown in ANSYS are the square of the α values derived during curve fitting.4: Viscoelastic Material Curve Fitting 9. ANSYS Release 8. but the α values are different.4.

9–22 .

2: Building a Model in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Presented below are the overall steps with the special considerations noted.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation 10. You specify the type using TBOPT.6: Meshing Interface Elements in this chapter for more details on this topic.1: Element Selection for a table of corresponding structural and interface elements. these elements are designed to account for gasket through-thickness behavior. see Section 10. This includes an understanding of the behavior of gasket joint components themselves in an engine operation. See Section 1. Mesh the model. and the interaction of the gasket joint with other components. The stiffness contributions from membrane (in plane) and transverse shear are much smaller in general compared to the through thickness. compression (loading). There are no special considerations for building or importing the model for a gasket joint analysis. Use TB. Define material. Most of these steps however warrant special considerations for a gasket joint analysis. Gaskets as sealing components between structural components are usually very thin and made of many materials. You then input the sets of data using the TBDATA and TBPT commands. along with links to applicable sections where more detailed information is included on that topic. through thickness. 10.GASKET to define the gasket joint material. namely.5: Material Definition in this chapter for more details on this topic. There are special solving considerations when you perform a gasket joint analysis. These are primarily concerned with the gasket element stiffness loss. The primary deformation of a gasket is usually confined to one direction.2. the order in which you execute these commands is critical. such as steel. . Special restrictions apply to the IMESH command in terms of matching the source and target. and tension (unloading). Elements within the ANSYS family of interface element are used to model gaskets. Use the AMESH or VMESH commands to mesh the structural element types. Solve. Define element type. Each of these commands involve special considerations for interface elements. and the gasket element's use with contact 2. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. A thorough understanding of the gasket joint is critical in engine design and operation. You perform this step as you would in any typical ANSYS analysis. However. For further details on building the model. gaskets act to transfer force between components. Build or import the model. Performing a Gasket Joint Analysis A gasket joint analysis involves the same overall steps that are involved in any ANSYS nonlinear analysis procedure.1. By default. You can also mesh interface layers using the VDRAG command. 5. 001972 . 3.4: ANSYS Family of Interface Elements in this chapter for more details on this topic. A typical example of a gasket joint is in engine assemblies. 1. you can account for transverse shear behavior by using an element Keyopt setting and transverse shear option of the gasket material data table. Inc. ANSYS Release 8. and use the IMESH command to mesh the gasket layer.GASKET to define four types of data input: general parameters.4. See Section 10. Structural Analysis Guide .1 . To properly simulate gasket joints. rubber and composites. See Section 10. The stiffness contribution therefore is assumed to be negligible. 4. You can use TB. and in particular. From a mechanics point of view. Also. © SAS IP. See the TB command documentation and the specific element documentation for more information. you must define structural element types and corresponding interface element types. and can generate interface elements directly using the EGEN command. Overview of Gasket Joints Gasket joints are essential components in most structural assemblies. See Section 10. You can also plot most of the gasket data types using the TBPLOT command. as applicable. transverse shear stiffness. although the TB command provides options to account for transverse shear.

Thickness Direction The thickness direction is defined as the normal direction of the mid plane of the element at the integration point. PLESOL. Inc. The positive direction is defined by the right-hand rule going around the nodes in the midplane. The thickness direction is then noted as the X-direction according to the ANSYS notation convention.3. ANSYS provides several types of interface elements for the analysis of the gasket joints.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation elements. PLNSOL. The interface elements.2.1 Element Topology of a 3-D 8-Node Interface Element 10. Figure 10. total closure. or ESOL commands.8: Reviewing the Results in this chapter for more details on this topic.1 .1. and computed inside of ANSYS. 10–2 Structural Analysis Guide . ¥ ¦ § © & %$# " ! ¢ ¨ £ ¡ ¤ .7: Solution Procedure and Result Output in this chapter for more details on this topic. Refer to Gasket Material in the ANSYS. which are based on the relative deformation of the top and bottom surfaces. See Section 10. Review Results. It is therefore difficult to use solid continuum elements to effectively model gasket joints. Thus the pressure versus closure behavior can be directly applied to characterize the gasket material. No ESYS coordinate system is allowed for the elements. The numerical integration of interface elements is performed in the element midplane. PRNSOL. offer a direct means to quantify through-thickness deformation of the gasket joints.3. © SAS IP. 001972 . Inc. ANSYS Release 8. 10. The Gauss integration scheme is used for the numerical integration. The through thickness deformation is quantified by the relative deformation of bottom and top surfaces along the thickness direction. The element formulation is based on a corotational procedure. Theory Reference for further details. total inelastic closure.1: “Element Topology of a 3-D 8-Node Interface Element” shows the geometry of a 3-D 8-node interface element available in ANSYS. Finite Element Formulation The primary deformation behavior of gasket joints is through-thickness deformation. 6. and thermal closure.3. using the PRESOL. You can also use these items with the *GET command in POST1. See Section 10. Figure 10. 10. You can print or plot any of four gasket output items: stresses (also pressure). An element midplane is created by averaging the coordinates of node pairs from the bottom and top surfaces of the elements. Element Topologies An interface element is composed of bottom and top surfaces.

HYPER86. If elements are to follow a curved boundary closely. with one of these structural elements: PLANE42. INTER195 .3-D. SOLID92. quadratic elements are ideal because their edges are arcs. They are referred to as interface elements and are summarized as follows: • • • • INTER192 . Inc. 6-node.1. With a free mesh (tetrahedral elements) the mid-node (quadratic) is required for an accurate solution. PLANE82. 001972 . PLANE182 PLANE2. linear and quadratic elements are chosen for the following reasons: • • • • Fewer nodes produce a smaller model that runs faster with less computer resources. VISCO106. linear element. A good example of the use of 2-D element INTER192 or INTER193 is the gasket between the "flanged" ends of pipe line. linear 2-D.. consisting of the gasket and the structural elements on either side of the gasket. INTER194 . 16-node. © SAS IP. Quadratic elements are necessary if stress gradients are present in surrounding bodies.3-D. Applications In general.1 .1.4. HYPER56. Element Selection The simulation of an entire gasket joint assembly. linear . SOLID187 SOLID45. use a KEYOPT to define various stress state options. VISCO88. SOLID96. quadratic element. linear element The 2-D elements. 10.Section 10.195 defines element type 1 as element INTER195. quadratic 3-D. ET. INTER193 . ANSYS Family of Interface Elements ANSYS offers 4 types of elements to simulate gaskets. ANSYS Release 8. 10–3 . SOLID65. In this case the gasket properties do not vary significantly with geometric location. PLANE183 VISCO89. Use the following table as a guideline for choosing interface and structural elements that have the same characteristics: For elements with these characteristics: 2-D. HYPER84. SOLID186. quadratic 3-D. Element selection is done by the element type command. plane stress / strain / axisymmetric. SOLID64. HYPER58.2-D.4: ANSYS Family of Interface Elements 10.4. When a surrounding structure can be considered as a 2-D structure.4. use this interface element: INTER192 INTER193 INTER194 INTER195 .. for example. SOLID95. SOLID46. for example. SOLID185 Proper element type is chosen based on the stress states of interest and structural element types used. involves choosing interface elements and structural elements that have the same characteristics. SOLID62. 10. 2-D elements are the ideal choice. INTER192 and INTER193.2.. Structural Analysis Guide . ET. quadratic element.. 8-node. 4-node.2-D.

On the other hand. there will be an open gap. Closure Behavior of a Gasket Material” shows the experimental pressure vs. Therefore. 001972 .5. 10–4 Structural Analysis Guide . it is a lot easier to fill the spaces or volumes between the adjacent components with the interface meshes. Also. The gasket material is usually under compression. and the through thickness deformation is decoupled from the in plane deformation. .1 . closure (relative displacement of top and bottom gasket surfaces) data for a graphite composite gasket material. gasket joints generally do not have tension pressure. The remainder of the gasket is much softer. and INTER195.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation For a 3-D structure such as an internal combustion engine. © SAS IP. As long as the closure is less than the initial gap. and then set an initial gap for the gasket material to account for it. A stress cap is used to restrict tension pressure in the gasket joint elements. The sample was unloaded and reloaded 5 times along the loading path and then unloaded at the end of the test to determine the materials unloading stiffness. from a modeling point of view. As it is a joint component. there often exists an initial gap or void. 10. no pressure is acted on the gaskets. For example in a cylinder head. 3-D element INTER194 or INTER195 is a good choice for simulating the gasket between the cylinder head and block. ANSYS Release 8. INTER194. and around other holes and passages.5.1. INTER193. Also the gasket properties can vary in different zones. Material Definition 10. The GASKET material option must be used with interface elements INTER192. Inc. The gasket material also exhibits quite complicated unloading behavior when compression is released. and also for several unloading pressure closure curves. when it is under tension loading. Material Characteristics The TB command option GASKET allows gasket joints to be simulated with the ANSYS interface elements.2: “Pressure vs. in which there is only one element through the thickness. the material behavior follows the compression curve while it is unloaded. The material under compression is highly nonlinear. in between cylinders. The GASKET option allows you to directly input data for the experimentally measured complex pressure closure curve for the material model (compression curve). When no unloading curves are defined. Figure 10. In this case there is no "nice" geometry because the gasket must fill in between two complicated surfaces. there is usually a much stiffer zone immediately around the cylinder to contain combustion pressure (called the "fire ring").

10–5 .GASKET. ANSYS Release 8.TBOPT where TBOPT = one of the following types of gasket material data: • • • • • PARA: gasket material general parameters. 001972 .1 .5. stable stiffness for numerical stabilization. You input the general parameters using the TBDATA command. then input the compression and unloading data using the TBPT command. NUNL: gasket nonlinear unloading data. Input Format You input gasket material data using TB.Section 10.5: Material Definition Figure 10.MAT. The material data consists of 2 main parts: general parameters and pressure closure behaviors. © SAS IP. The pressure closure behavior includes gasket compression (loading) and tension data (unloading). and stress cap for a gasket in tension.GASKET.NPTS. LUNL: gasket linear unloading data.2 Pressure vs. Closure Behavior of a Gasket Material 10.2. COMP: gasket compression data. The TB command specification for defining a gasket material is: TB. Presented in the following sections are examples of inputs for the various types of gasket data.NTEMP. Structural Analysis Guide . The general parameters define initial gasket gap. TSS: gasket transverse shear stiffness data. Inc.

0.NPTS. ANSYS Release 8.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation 10. TB..30000E+09 TBPT. 0.NTEMP.3.MAT...LUNL ! define linear unloading data TBPT.78000E-04.MAT. 0.C3 Refer to Gasket Materials in the ANSYS Elements Reference for further details on these parameters. 0. 0. 0..NPTS.xi.1.C1..35800E-03. The following input listing is an example showing the linear unloading behavior of a gasket joint material with 3 unloading points TB. 0.xi..y1 TBPT.1. These parameters are defined as C1.5.1 .5.10. 0.67350E+09 TBPT. Inc..3.15150E+09 TBPT.25100E+12 10–6 Structural Analysis Guide ..NTEMP.1.x1.5. Define General Parameters (TBOPT = PARA) The gasket material general parameters include the initial gap..2.y1 TBPT. 0.x2. Several unloading slopes can be defined to accommodate the comprehensive unloading behavior as follows: TB.. and C3 in the following example: TB.1. 0.GASKET. 001972 .43200E-03.54000E+08 TBPT. 0.y2 TBPT..2.40000E-04. . stable stiffness and the maximum tension stress cap.12000E-03.78000E-04. 0. 0. 0.2.60000E-04.37200E+09 TBPT.. ... 0. 0. 10..2. .NTEMP.19000E-03. Define Compression Load Closure Curve (TBOPT = COMP) The compression pressure closure curve gasket material definition option is defined as follows: TB. 0.COMP TBPT.78000E+09 TBPT.y2 TBPT. yi are pairs of closure and pressure values.28600E-03.PARA TBDATA.GASKET.yi where: xi.89550E+09 ! define compression data 10.47400E+09 TBPT.C2. © SAS IP. The following input listing is an example defining a compressive pressure vs.MAT. 0. C2.yi where: NPTS is the number of unloading points. xi is the closure where unloading started.GASKET.x1. 0.58500E+09 TBPT. closure behavior of a gasket joint material with 10 data points. 0.NPTS. Define Linear Unloading Data (TBOPT = LUNL) The linear unloading gasket material definition option is a simple way to define the gasket unloading behavior.LUNL TBPT.24900E+09 TBPT.20000E-04..GASKET. and yi is unloading slope.GASKET. 0.x2.50500E-03. 0..COMP TBPT.

Several unloading curves can be defined.GASKET.. 0. An example showing the nonlinear unloading behavior of a gasket joint material with 3 unloading points is as follows: TB.10600E+13 A sample plot representing linear unloading curves is shown in Figure 10.63100E-04. yi are pairs of closure and pressure values. 0.GASKET.. . 0. 0.50500E-03. 001972 . .24750E+08 TBPT. Inc..2.25500E+12 TBPT.4.66900E-04. 0. 0..GASKET.28600E-03. 0. © SAS IP.x1. The input listing format is: TB.5: Material Definition TBPT. 0. 0.1.y2 TBPT. 0..xi.Section 10.MAT..x2. Define Nonlinear Unloading Data (TBOPT = NUNL) The nonlinear unloading gasket material definition option provides a more comprehensive way of defining gasket material unloading behavior.15000E+07 TBPT.5. ANSYS Release 8.30000E+09 TBPT.NPTS. 0.78000E-04.y1 TBPT.00000E+00 TB.NTEMP. Figure 10.82500E+07 TBPT.54100E-04.3 Gasket Material Input: Linear Unloading Curves 10.00000E+00.NUNL ! define second nonlinear unloading data Structural Analysis Guide .NUNL TBPT.1 .5...3: “Gasket Material Input: Linear Unloading Curves”. 0. 0.yi where: xi.5. 10–7 ..1. 0.NUNL ! define first nonlinear unloading data TBPT..

58500E+09 0.89550E+09 TBPT.00000E+00 ! define third nonlinear unloading data TB.00000E+00. TBPT..x2. 0.25600E-03. 0. Structural Analysis Guide . 0.26400E-03..5.x1.MAT.GASKET. the closest temperature point is used. 10–8 ..1. Inc..00000E+00.NUNL TBPT. TBPT.47800E-03.50500E-03. 0.4: “Gasket Material Input: Nonlinear Unloading Curves”.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation TBPT. Temperature Dependencies Inputting temperature dependent gasket material properties follows the standard ANSYS procedure for inputting temperature dependent data for other materials.46800E-03.NPTS.T2 TBPT.y2 TBTEMP. ANSYS Release 8.y2 ANSYS will automatically interpolate the temperature data to the material points using linear interpolation..26100E-03. 0. 0.y1 TBPT.. When the temperature is out of the specified range.47500E-03.GASKET. 0. .. TBPT. Figure 10.LUNL TBTEMP. 0.x1.y1 TBPT.4 Gasket Material Input: Nonlinear Unloading Curves 10.T1 TBPT.x2.. TB. 0.1 .. 0. 0...5.. TBPT.28600E-03.13500E+08 TBPT. © SAS IP.22350E+08 0. 0.33900E+08 TBPT.15000E+07 TBPT.. The following format shows this procedure.00000E+00 A sample plot representing nonlinear unloading curves is shown in Figure 10. 0.3.90000E+07 0. 0. 0.. 0.15000E+07 0.NTEMP. 001972 .

0..35800E-03.. 0. 0.000 TBPT.50500E-03.18000E+08 0. TBPT..43200E-03. 0.19500E+08 0. TBTEMP.22450E+08 0. 0. 0. and 3 nonlinear unloading curves with each curve having 5 temperatures and 5 data points.54100E-04.16600E+08 0.. TBTEMP. 0.40000E-04..54000E+08 TBPT. TBPT. TBPT.. 0. 500. 0. TBPT..50500E-03.12000E-03. 0. 0. 0.10. TBPT. 0.78000E-04.NUNL ! define first nonlinear unloading data with 5 temperatures TBTEMP. TBPT. 0.60000E-04. TBPT.12000E-03.40000E-04.36000E+07 0.15800E+09 0.67350E+09 TBPT. TBPT. 0. 0..12000E-03. 0.24900E+09 TBPT.20000E-04.19500E+09 0. TBPT. 0.37200E+09 TBPT. 0. 0. 0.35800E-03.78000E-04.12000E-03. TBPT. ANSYS Release 8.. 0..39000E+08 0.000 TBPT. 0.83000E+08 0. TBPT. 0..28600E-03. TBPT..28600E-03.41500E+08 0. 10–9 .1 . TBPT. 001972 .43200E-03..22450E+09 0.1.COMP ! define compression data with 5 temperatures TBTEMP.63100E-04.58500E+09 TBPT. TBPT. 0. 300. 0. 0.000 TBPT..000 TBPT. TB. 5.40000E-04. TBPT.. 0. 0..89550E+09 TBTEMP... 0.5: Material Definition The following is an example input listing defining a compressive pressure vs. 0. 0...19000E-03..40000E-04.12000E-03. TBPT.78000E+09 TBPT...50500E-03. TBPT.10000E+09 0.60000E-04.. 0.82500E+07 TBPT..24800E+08 0. 0.. TBPT. 0. 0. 0.50500E-03. 0.26000E+08 0. 0.15800E+08 0...25250E+08 0.Section 10.29850E+08 TB. 0.1. Inc.. 0. TBPT. 0. 0.28600E-03..50500E+08 0.13000E+09 0.78000E-04.35800E-03..66900E-04.000 TBPT.78000E-04.52000E+08 0. 0..20000E-04.12400E+08 0. TBTEMP.50000E+08 0.50500E+07 0. 0.24750E+08 TBPT. TBPT. 100. 0. 100. 0.62000E+08 0.31600E+08 0.83000E+07 0. 0.. 0. TBPT. © SAS IP.5.10000E+08 0. 0.15000E+07 Structural Analysis Guide .19000E-03.30000E+09 TBPT. 0.40000E-04..18000E+07 0.28600E-03.60000E-04...GASKET.10100E+08 0.. TBPT. TBPT..30000E+09 TBPT.. TBPT. 0. TBPT.19000E-03. closure behavior of a gasket joint material with 5 temperature points and up to 10 data points for each temperature point.50500E-03.29850E+09 0.44900E+08 0. 0. TBPT. TBPT. 0. 0. TBPT.. 0. 0.78000E-04.60000E-04. TBPT. TBPT..GASKET.28600E-03. 0.. 0.14925E+09 0.19000E-03. 200.20000E-04.43200E-03.90000E+07 0.78000E-04. 0. 0.47400E+09 TBPT. 0. 0. 0.20000E-04.20000E+08 0.19000E-03.60000E-04..43200E-03. TBPT.. TBPT..43200E-03. TBPT. 5.. 0. 0.000 TBPT. 0.35800E-03.79000E+08 0..20000E-04. 0.15150E+09 TBPT.11225E+09 0. TBPT.12400E+09 0. TBPT.97500E+08 0... 400. 0...35800E-03..26000E+09 0.. TBPT.59700E+08 0..

000 TBPT. 0.50500E-03.50000E+06 0..25600E-03... TBPT.27500E+06 0. 0.. 0. 0. TBPT.54100E-04. TBPT. 0. TBTEMP. 5..63100E-04.63100E-04. 0. TBPT.GASKET.54100E-04.000 TBPT. TBPT.25000E+06 0..00000E+00 0.NUNL ! define third nonlinear unloading data with 5 temperatures TBTEMP.26100E-03.25600E-03. 0.78000E-04.66900E-04. 0..82500E+06 0.39000E+08 0.66900E-04.63100E-04.41250E+07 0. 0..000 TBPT.. 0..54100E-04. 0.30000E+06 0...10000E+09 0.00000E+00 0.... TBPT. 0. 0.000 TBPT. 0. 0..000 TBPT. 0. 0.00000E+00.. TBPT.. 200. 0.00000E+00.50000E+08 0. 0. Inc.00000E+00.00000E+00 TB.. 0. 0. TBPT. 0. 500. 0.27500E+07 0.46800E-03. 0. TBPT. TBTEMP. TBPT.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation TBPT.. TBPT.25600E-03.28600E-03. 0..74500E+06 0.14900E+07 0.13750E+07 0.26400E-03. TBPT. 0. 0. 0.60000E+06 0. TBTEMP.78000E-04.26100E-03.00000E+00. TBPT.28600E-03..00000E+00..25600E-03. TBTEMP.26100E-03. 0. 0. 001972 .. 300.1. 0.26100E-03. 0. TBPT. 0.10000E+08 0.33900E+08 TBPT.26100E-03.00000E+00 0...58500E+09 TBPT.. 400.10000E+06 0. TBTEMP.10000E+06 0.00000E+00 TBTEMP. 0.82500E+07 0.13500E+08 TBPT. 500.00000E+00. TBPT.78000E-04..00000E+00 TB. 0..78000E-04. 0.16500E+07 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00.50000E+06 0. 0.66900E-04. 0. 0.000 TBPT. TBPT.26400E-03.. TBPT.47500E-03.00000E+00 0. 0. 0.74500E+07 0. 0.15000E+07 0.. 5.1. 0... 100. TBTEMP.00000E+00.. 0.89550E+09 TBPT. 0. 0. 0.5. 0.. TBPT. 0. TBPT.000 TBPT.. TBPT.26400E-03....00000E+00..15000E+07 10–10 Structural Analysis Guide .54100E-04.28600E-03. TBPT..66900E-04. TBPT. 0.28600E-03. 100.22350E+08 TBPT...00000E+00 TBTEMP.28600E-03. TBPT. TBPT. TBPT.GASKET. 400.. TBPT.26400E-03. 0.00000E+00.37250E+07 0.97500E+08 0. 0.1 .50000E+05 0. TBPT. TBPT..000 TBPT. 0.5. 0.000 TBPT. TBPT...50000E+05 0.NUNL ! define second nonlinear unloading data with 5 temperatures TBTEMP.19500E+08 0. 0. 0.26400E-03. 0.20000E+08 0. 300. ANSYS Release 8.25000E+06 0.47800E-03.00000E+00 0.55000E+06 0. TBPT. 0. 0. TBPT.19500E+09 0. 0..90000E+07 TBPT..000 TBPT.25600E-03.63100E-04. 0. © SAS IP. TBPT.15000E+07 TBPT.. 0. 200. .30000E+07 0.

.00000E+00 0... 0. 0. 400. 0. 500. ANSYS Release 8. 0. 0. 0.47500E-03.50500E-03. The use of this command to plot gasket data is as follows: Structural Analysis Guide ... 001972 ..25000E+06 0. Figure 10. Inc.11300E+08 0.00000E+00 0.5.50500E-03. TBPT. TBPT.50000E+06 0.. 0.47800E-03. TBPT.47800E-03.11300E+07 0. © SAS IP.47800E-03..47500E-03.47500E-03.00000E+00.46800E-03.50500E-03. 0. 0.4.00000E+00. TBPT. 0.. 0.5: “Gasket Compression and Unloading Curves at Two Temperatures”.. TBTEMP.1 . Plotting Gasket Data You can plot gasket compression. TBPT.000 TBPT.45000E+06 0..00000E+00 Sample plots of compression and unloading curves for gasket data to two temperatures is shown in Figure 10.. 0..00000E+00. TBPT. TBPT... 0. 0. 0. linear unloading and nonlinear unloading data using the TBPLOT command..Section 10.10000E+06 0. TBPT. 0.47500E-03.56500E+07 0. TBTEMP.. TBPT.00000E+00 0. TBPT. TBPT. TBPT.5 Gasket Compression and Unloading Curves at Two Temperatures 10.50000E+05 0.000 TBPT. 0.90000E+06 0.50500E-03. % '52$"#!¦ '!¦4¥ ¨ '526' ©102¦ )2 ( % $ " 3 ¡¢ $ " ¨ '%&#!¦ ©¦§¥ 10–11 " 3 1 0 ) '%&$ !2¦ ( £ ¤ .45000E+07 0. 0.46800E-03.46800E-03.59700E+08 0..00000E+00 TBTEMP.. TBPT.14925E+09 0. 300.00000E+00.29850E+08 0. 200. 0.29850E+09 0. 0. TBTEMP. 0.47800E-03.46800E-03. TBPT.000 TBPT. 0.00000E+00..5: Material Definition TBPT.22500E+07 0.000 TBPT. 0. TBPT. TBPT..22600E+07 0.

use the IMESH command. For generating interface elements directly from a pattern. ************************************************************ /prep7 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Element Types !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ et. The model consists * /com. For meshing gasket layers by dragging an area mesh along a path. See Section 7.SEGN where TBOPT specifies the gasket material option to be plotted. /batch.9. * command to generate gasket elements. use the EGEN command.1.1 DX=0 DY=0 DZ=IH Z1=EH Z2=Z1+IH Z3=Z2+EH !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Keypoints !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ k.10.194 ! Interface layer element !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Parameters !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ EH=1.0.0.0.1 .1. © SAS IP. * of two blocks with gasket elements (INTER194) defined * /com.list /title.TBOPT.z1 k. The following example input listing shows the use of the IMESH command.1.7.0. * This is a simple test to demonstrate the use of IMESH * /com.6.12. Meshing Interface Elements Three options are available for meshing interface elements: • • • For meshing gasket layers as an area or volume. Inc.0. ************************************************************ /com.z2 10–12 Structural Analysis Guide .2.5. 10.6: Generating an Interface Mesh for Gasket Simulations in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for further details on this type of meshing.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation TBPLOT.8. * * /com. * /com.0.1.1.0.1 k.187 ! Solid tetrahedral element et.TEMP.3.0 k.0 k. and SEGN specifies whether or not to add the segment numbers to the curves.1 k. ANSYS Release 8.1. * * /com.z2 k. There are special requirements for meshing interface elements.z1 k. 001972 .2. TEMP specifies plotting either all of the temperature dependent data curves.1.GASKET.1.0 IH=0.1.1. .6. Test to demonstrate the use of IMESH command /com.0.11.0.z1 k.1.4. or a curve at a specified temperature.z2 k.1.MAT.5. use the VDRAG command.0. * between them.z1 k.z2 k.

in top and bottom of block volumes.15.7: “Whole Model Mesh with Brick Element” shows the mesh with solid brick element. SOLID185.12. INTER194. and Figure 10.7.10.1 .14. INTER195.1.16. in the interface layer between the two blocks.z3 k.8 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Second Volume !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ v.1.4 ! !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Mesh First Volume with Element Type 1 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ type. © SAS IP.10. a thin interface layer between two block volumes.DY.Section 10. Structural Analysis Guide .9.1 vmesh.1 .4.7.5. 10–13 . in top and bottom of block volumes.13.0.2 mat. 001972 .1 mat.7.16 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Middle Volume !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ v.15. Figure 10.DZ.1.3. and Figure 10.1.9: “Whole Model Tetrahedral Mesh” shows the mesh with solid tetrahedral element.2 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Plot Elements !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ /view. in the interface layer between the two blocks.6.1 vmesh.8.6: “Gasket Finite Element Model Geometry” shows the geometry of the finite element model.5..area.1 mat.13.z3 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate First Volume !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ v.2 imesh.1.TOL !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Mesh Second Volume with Element Type 1 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ type.6: Meshing Interface Elements k.z3 k. SOLID187. Inc. ANSYS Release 8.8: “Interface Layer Mesh” shows the mesh of interface element.1 !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Interface Layer with IMESH command !* using Element Type 2 (INTER194) !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ type.6. Figure 10.6.DX.0.12 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Element Size !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ esize.14.1 eplot finish Figure 10.11.1.z3 k.10: “Interface Layer Mesh with Degenerated Wedge Elements” shows the mesh of interface element (degenerated wedge).1.11.0.9.2.0.0.

001972 .6 Gasket Finite Element Model Geometry Figure 10.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation Figure 10.1 . ANSYS Release 8. .7 Whole Model Mesh with Brick Element 10–14 Structural Analysis Guide . Inc. © SAS IP.

6: Meshing Interface Elements Figure 10.8 Interface Layer Mesh Figure 10.Section 10. 10–15 . © SAS IP. 001972 . ANSYS Release 8.1 .9 Whole Model Tetrahedral Mesh Structural Analysis Guide . Inc.

A convergence failure can indicate a physical instability in the structure. Some special considerations for solving a gasket problem are as follows: • • By default a zero stress cap has been enforced on the gasket.OUT. You should not use gasket elements with contact elements unless you configure the elements accordingly. In 10–16 Structural Analysis Guide . Like most nonlinear problems. using the SOLU and PRVAR commands. especially for contact and other nonlinear applications. © SAS IP. Inc. is the default method for performing this type of analysis. or in POST26. • Like any other type of nonlinear analysis. Solution Procedure and Result Output Gasket material behavior is highly nonlinear. ANSYS Release 8. When the element goes into tension. therefore it is always recommended that you use the ANSYS default solution options.7. Gasket elements must be configured to support transverse shear. . then subsequently ramp it up . Other solution procedures for gasket solutions are not recommended. or is written to some other file [/OUTPUT]. convergence behavior of a gasket joint analysis depends strongly on the particular problem to be solved. It is always a good practice to place the lower and upper limit on the time step size using the DELTIM or NSUBST commands. This ensures that all of the modes and behaviors of interest will be accurately included and that the problem is solved effectively. (The printout either appears directly on your screen. 001972 . Even if you do so.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation Figure 10.1 .) You can examine some of this same information in POST1. The full Newton-Raphson solution procedure (the standard ANSYS nonlinear method). using the PRITER command. unless you are sure about the benefits of the changes. The program printout gives you continuous feedback on the progress of these approximations and corrections. and ascertain the mesh compatibility of the gasket layer and its mating components. ANSYS has provided a comprehensive solution hierarchy. is captured on Jobname.10 Interface Layer Mesh with Degenerated Wedge Elements 10. errors can result. it will lose its stiffness and may cause numerical instability. You should make sure that you understand the iteration history of your analysis before you accept the results. and to start with a small time step. or it can merely be the result of some numerical problem in the finite element model. the ANSYS program performs a series of linear approximations with corrections.

. .PROGRAM CHOSEN *** NOTE *** CP= 0. .1130E-04 CRITERION= 0. . *** NOTE *** CP= 0. Memory required (MB) 0 = 0.0 = 0. TERMINATE ANALYSIS IF NOT CONVERGED . . . . . . PLASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES NEWTON-RAPHSON OPTION . STEP CHANGE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . Time will default to 1. .000 TIME= 00:00:00 Nonlinear analysis. Typical Gasket Solution Output Listing S O L U T I O N PROBLEM DIMENSIONALITY. A typical output listing with gasket nonlinearity only is shown in Section 10. COPY INTEGRATION POINT VALUES TO NODE . . files will be produced. . . .2000E-06 NEW TRIANG MATRIX. . . . .STATIC (STEADY-STATE) . ALL CURRENT ANSYS DATA WRITTEN TO FILE NAME= FOR POSSIBLE RESUME FROM THIS POINT FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.2143E+05 SPARSE MATRIX DIRECT SOLVER. . . ON . . L O A D S T E P No . .YES (EXIT) . . . Minimum= 388758681 at element 0. . MAXIMUM NUMBER OF EQUILIBRIUM ITERATIONS. *** NOTE *** CP= 0. . . . . . . . 001972 . . .326388889E+11 at element 0. When other types of nonlinearity such as contact or materials are included. . . . . . Maximum wavefront = . 1. . . . .Section 10.1. . CONVERGENCE CONTROLS. 15 .7. . . FOR ELEMENTS WITH ACTIVE MAT. . AUTOMATIC TIME STEPPING . .000000 2 1 INTER195 0. .emat or .000000 Time at end of element matrix formulation CP= 0. UX UY . .1 . . . NROPT set to the FULL Newton-Raphson solution procedure for ALL DOFs. . INITIAL NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . TIME AT END OF THE LOAD STEP. 20 . 20000 . . LOAD STEP NUMBER. . Inc.USE DEFAULTS . © SAS IP. . INCLUDED.erot O P T I O N S . additional information will be printed out. . . 10. . . *** ELEMENT MATRIX FORMULATION TIMES TYPE NUMBER ENAME TOTAL CP AVE CP 1 2 SOLID185 0.0000 . . Number of equations = 24. DEGREES OF FREEDOM. MINIMUM NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . . . NONLINEARITIES PRINT OUTPUT CONTROLS . . . . . .000 TIME= 00:00:00 The conditions for direct assembly have been met.7. ANSYS Release 8. . . .4000E-05 Structural Analysis Guide .0 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. . . . . . . . . . . . 10–17 . . .000 0. . . . . . do not dismiss any program error or warning statements without fully understanding their meaning. . NO . . . . . . . . UZ .NO PRINTOUT DATABASE OUTPUT CONTROLS ITEM FREQUENCY COMPONENT ALL ALL SVAR ALL Range of element maximum matrix coefficients in global coordinates Maximum= 4. . . . .1: Typical Gasket Solution Output Listing. . MAX DOF INC= -0. . Memory available (MB) = 0. ANALYSIS TYPE . . . .YES. O P T I O N S . . MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SUBSTEPS . .4200E+07 CRITERION= 0. . . . . . . . . 200 .3-D . . . .000 TIME= 00:00:00 Present time 0 is less than or equal to the previous time. . . . .YES . . . .7: Solution Procedure and Result Output particular. . . . 1 .000 0. . . . . . . .

000000 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.1642E-20 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.253125E-01 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0.3713E-08 CRITERION= 289.000000 2 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 1 COMPLETED.8307E-09 CRITERION= 179.35 <<< CONVERGED DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.287500E-01 TIME INC = 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.2000E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 2 COMPLETED.1964E-08 CRITERION= 176. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.7716E-09 CRITERION= 100. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. Inc.000000 *** NODAL LOAD CALCULATION TIMES TYPE NUMBER ENAME TOTAL CP 1 2 2 1 SOLID185 INTER195 0.500000E-02 TIME INC = 0. CUM ITER = 4 *** TIME = 0.3000E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED.4624E-09 CRITERION= 102. MAX DOF INC= 0. CUM ITER = *** TIME = 0.168750E-01 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0.1013E-05 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED.11250E-01 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1.7 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 2 COMPLETED.000 AVE CP 0.1468E-08 CRITERION= 295.5000) 10–18 Structural Analysis Guide .6 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 5 COMPLETED. MAX DOF INC= 0. CUM ITER = 5 *** TIME = 0.25313E-01 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1.5000) FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.4 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. 001972 .3550E-08 CRITERION= 468. ANSYS Release 8.5000) FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.500000E-02 *** AUTO STEP TIME: NEXT TIME INC = 0.750000E-02 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0.112500E-01 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0.1951E-20 CRITERION= 0.7198E-20 CRITERION= 0.3257E-20 CRITERION= 0. MAX DOF INC = -0.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.37969E-01 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1. CUM ITER = 3 *** TIME = 0.5000) FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.1 .3 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 4 COMPLETED.1367E-08 CRITERION= 51.5 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 6 COMPLETED.3753E-19 CRITERION= 0.500000E-02 *** AUTO TIME STEP: NEXT TIME INC = 0.175000E-01 TIME INC = 0.5000) FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.000 0. MAX DOF INC= -0.2 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.456250E-01 TIME INC = 0.4656E-19 CRITERION= 0.75000E-02 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1.100000E-01 TIME INC = 0.3748E-20 CRITERION= 0.1833E-07 CRITERION= 459.2234E-20 >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 2 *** ELEMENT RESULT CALCULATION TIMES TYPE 1 2 NUMBER 2 1 ENAME SOLID185 INTER195 TOTAL CP 0.6750E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. NEW TRIANG MATRIX. MAX DOF INC= -0.709375E-01 TIME INC = 0. CUM ITER = 7 *** TIME = 0. .7 <<< CONVERGED >>> SOLUTION CONVERGED AFTER EQUILIBRIUM ITERATION 1 *** LOAD STEP 1 SUBSTEP 3 COMPLETED.50000E-02 UNCHANGED FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.000 0.000000 0.0 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.6 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0. NEW TRIANG MATRIX.4503E-20 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.000 AVE CP 0. © SAS IP. CUM ITER = 6 *** TIME = 0.2744E-20 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.4500E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED. MAX DOF INC= -0.1 DISP CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.2322E-07 CRITERION= 714.1800E-19 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.16875E-01 INCREASED (FACTOR = 1.2000E-06 <<< CONVERGED EQUIL ITER 1 COMPLETED.2664E-19 FORCE CONVERGENCE VALUE = 0.6406E-08 CRITERION= 728.

the general postprocessor.) A typical POST1 postprocessing sequence is described below.). or in POST26. only one substep can be read in at a time. then continue postprocessing. The results file (Jobname. Points to Remember • • To review results in POST1. • • 2. To have a better visualization of a gasket pressure plot.2. Command(s): /POST1 GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc Read in results for the desired load step and substep. strains.1 . issue RESUME. are always displayed and listed in the local coordinate system. Note that in POST1. Enter POST1. 10. it is better for you to select gasket elements only. strains and reaction forces of the structural components and the gasket joint layer information (gasket pressure. and that the results from that substep should have been written to Jobname. the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated. closure. you probably won't want to postprocess the results. etc. Note that gasket results.RST) must be available.8. or any other applicable item. 3. If not. 10–19 .8: Reviewing the Results 10. Reviewing the Results Results from a gasket joint analysis consist mainly of displacements. Inc.8. if other structural mating components are not included. (The load step option command OUTRES controls which substep results are stored on Jobname.OUT) whether or not the analysis converged at all load steps. ANSYS will plot the geometry of those components in gray. which can be identified by load step and substep numbers or by time. If your solution converged. Reviewing Results in POST1 1. You can review these results in POST1. When displaying the gasket pressure distribution. Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> load step Display the results using any of the following options. stresses.1. 10. ANSYS Release 8. See the Output Data sections of the element descriptions for any of the interface elements (for example INTER192) for a description of the available output components. 001972 . Verify from your output file (Jobname. Option: Tabular Listings Structural Analysis Guide . other than to determine why convergence failed. 4. the time-history postprocessor.RST. If your model is not currently in the database.RST. Option: Display Deformed Shape Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape Option: Contour Displays Command(s): PLNSOL or PLESOL GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu Use these options to display contours of stresses.Section 10.8. © SAS IP. such as pressure and closure.

You might also graph the displacement at a node versus the corresponding level of applied load. * * /com.5. * load step negative z-displacement is applied to one * /com. * with gasket element (INTER195) defined between them. Test to Verify Gasket Material and Element /com. * element.0E-05 is enforced so that there is no * /com. * /com.list /title.3: Reviewing Results in POST26 included in Chapter 8. * * 10–20 Structural Analysis Guide .0e-5 is imposed so that no tension stress is generated. or you might list the gasket pressure at a node and the corresponding TIME value. * /com. Load case combinations usually are not valid for nonlinear analyses. The whole system is fixed along one side of each axes to prevent rigid body motion. 10. A prescribed displacement is placed on top of the supporter element. * The test case is set up with two solid SOLID185 elements * /com. a reverse displacement is * /com. you might graph the gasket closure vs. In the first * /com.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation Command(s): PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) PRRSOL (reaction data) PRITER (substep summary data).1 . ANSYS Release 8. the time-history postprocessor. * /com. in the second load step. . GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution Option: Animation You can also animate gasket results over time: Command(s): ANTIME GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Time Other Capabilities Many other postprocessing functions are available in POST1. ************************************************************** /com. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details. * SOLID195 element causing compression of gasket elements. © SAS IP. Two load steps were used. * /com. /batch. 001972 . A pressure stress cap of 1. * A Stress Cap of 1. * /com. * Then. Inc. * /com. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”. A typical POST26 postprocessing sequence for a gasket analysis is the same as the sequence for a typical nonlinear analysis.6.9. * This is a simple test case to verify gasket material and * /com. * Displacement is applied to one SOLID185 element while the * /com. Two block elements with element type SOLID185 were generated as supporters and a gasket element INTER195 was created. The ANSYS commands are shown below.3.8. For instance. See steps 1 through 4 in Section 8. gasket pressure. Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method) This is a simple finite element model created to demonstrate the gasket material simulation. Use POST26 to compare one ANSYS variable against another. * tension pressure in gasket material. Reviewing Results in POST26 You can also review the load-history response of a nonlinear structure using POST26. * The problem is solved in two load steps. * * /com. which should correspond to the material behavior defined by TB. The gasket material is assumed to have a nonlinear compression behavior with 5 different linear unloading slopes. * other SOLID185 element is fixed.GASKET. 10. etc. * applied causing the unloading (tension) of gasket element.

. © SAS IP.1 Structural Analysis Guide .0e7 elb = 1.200499E+08 tbpt..all !*++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Parameters !*++++++++++++++++++ n1 = 20 n2 = n1*100 n3 = n1 dis1 = -0.. 3..918000E-03.gask.520884E+07 tbpt.765600E-03.816400E-03.968800E-03.para tbdata.664000E-03.195 !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Linear Elastic Material Type 1 !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ mp.0. 001972 .113134E+08 tbpt. 0.0.gask. 0.714800E-03.ex...2.0.2. 10–21 .613200E-03..delta0.1E12 mp.0. 0. 0.5.13.967287E+08 tbpt.129001E+09 tbpt.4E8 dp = -2.scap !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Gasket Compression Curve !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ tb..968800E-03.000001 pres = 1.460800E-03.0008 dis2 = -0.430000E+11 tbpt. 5.1.92300E+11 tbpt.1.0.1.0....lunl tbpt.511600E-03.1.comp tbpt. ANSYS Release 8..109326E-02.0e7 scap = 1.185 et.1. Inc. 0.357453E+08 tbpt.0.gask.0..562400E-03.2. ************************************************************** /prep7 !*+++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Element Types !*+++++++++++++++++++++ et. 0.2.565000E+11 tbpt. 0.1 .gasket.0 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Initial Gap.0e-5 tb. 0..867200E-03.0.0. Stress Cap !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ delta0 = 0.563189E+08 tbpt.0.0 elg = 0.00e-3 stiff0 = 0. 0.088000e+12 tbpt.109326E-02.nuxy..157147E+09 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Gasket Linear Unloading Curve !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ tb.816400E-03.0.0. 0. 1.Section 10.161226E+07 tbpt. 0. 2.0.460800E-03..0e7 pres2 = 10 pres3 = 1.259960E+08 tbpt.0. 1.9: Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method) /com. 0. 1.2.290345E+08 tbpt.0.440064E+08 tbpt..490000E+12 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* List Gasket Material Model !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++ tblist. Stable Stiffness.. 0.0.0.748254E+08 tbpt.101960E-02..0..stiff0.714800E-03.

n.0.n2.0.all.elb ngen.8.7.185.all nsel.all nsel.s.8.z d. Inc..svar.z.0.12.n2.1.2*elb+elg !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Front and Back SOLID185 Element !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ et..s.2.10.uz.svar.0 ngen.1.loc.15..2.uz.9.2.1 .4.10.loc.all nsel.0.0.4.all outres.loc.dis2 nall solve finish !*++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Postprocess the Results !*++++++++++++++++++++++++ 10–22 Structural Analysis Guide . type.0.0.1 mat.1 e.5.x d.all.s.13.0.1.2.elb+elg ngen.elb*2+elg d.6.all finish /solu !*+++++++++++++++++++ !* Apply Displacement !*+++++++++++++++++++ nsel. © SAS IP.z.all !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Solve First Load Step.2.6.all solve !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Solve Second Load Step.4. .1.1.dis1 nsel. Compress the Elements !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ nsubst..n3 outres.7.0 n.11.3.y d.s.elb*2+elg d.2 e.1.2.4.16 !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Generate Middle INTER195 Element !*+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ et..n1.0.14. 001972 .ux nsel.loc.n1.all.all.all.0 n.12.3.12 !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Define Boundary Condition !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++ nsel.8 e.0. ANSYS Release 8.2 mat.195.1.1.11.9.loc.1.4.n3 outres.all.0.uz nsel.0.all.4. Open the Elements !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ nsubst.0.5.0.uy nsel.all outres.1.s.Chapter 10: Gasket Joints Simulation !*+++++++++++++++ !* Generate Nodes !*+++++++++++++++ n.0.

100000E-04 -0.100000E-05 Structural Analysis Guide .277640E+08 0..159469E-03 0.100000E-04 0.400500E-03 -0. -----------------------------------------------------------------------***** ANSYS POST26 VARIABLE LISTING ***** TIME 0.2.120850E-03 -0.656120E-03 -0.600250E-03 0. -976418.477349E-03 0.409500E-04 0.press.199336E-03 -0. 10–23 .100000E-04 0..100000E-04 -0.100000E-04 0. 557953.9500 2.738405E-03 0.514686E-03 -0.279070E-03 0.765909E-03 0.85000 0.730387E-03 0.656120E-03 0. ! change sign for plotting add.693558E-03 -0. ANSYS Release 8.40000 0.5 plvar.5500 1.111591E+07 -0.epel.153437E+07 -0.4 finish /exit.4.520350E-03 0.809000E-04 0.20000 0.2000 1.3. -278977.111591E+07 0.100000E-04 -0.7500 1.3000 1.-1.640200E-03 -0.9000 1.227277E+08 -0.520350E-03 -0.585450E-03 -0.Section 10.400500E-03 0.358804E-03 0.100000E-04 -0.80000 0.10000 0.2.0000 1.440450E-03 -0.240700E-03 0.550578E-03 -0. -0.100000E-04 -0.0500 1.100000E-04 -0.last pres.100000E-04 3 EPELX delta -0.100000E-04 -0.1 .278389E+07 -0.199336E-03 0.160800E-03 0.90000 0.600250E-03 -0. .280650E-03 -0.398672E-04 -0.557968E+07 -0.710900E-03 -0.8000 1.797343E-04 -0.477349E-03 -0.-1.50000E-01 0.280650E-03 0.epto pres.2.119601E-03 0.100000E-04 -0.100000E-04 0. -557953.7000 1.360550E-03 -0. 278977.9: Sample Gasket Element Verification Analysis (Command or Batch Method) /post1 set.delta add.100000E-04 0..730387E-03 -0.480400E-03 0.70000 0.100000E-04 -0. .65000 0.3500 1.208613E+08 0.310936E+08 0.680150E-03 -0.438539E-03 0.357955E+08 0.0000 3 S X press -139488.279070E-03 -0. -418465.560300E-03 -0.320600E-03 -0.125539E+07 0.239203E-03 -0.1000 1.550578E-03 0.100000E-04 0.200750E-03 -0.s.398672E-04 0.6500 1.100000E-04 0.240700E-03 -0.989280E+07 -0. 697442.5. 001972 .318937E-03 -0.440450E-03 0.15000 0.100000E-04 0.557968E+07 0.159469E-03 -0.710900E-03 0.75000 0. -697442.1500 1. 836930.100000E-04 0.3.2500 1.100000E-04 5 ADD delta 0.epel prns. © SAS IP.100000E-04 -0.100000E-04 -0.3.100000E-04 0.208613E+08 -0.765909E-03 -0.357955E+08 -0. 418465.100000E-04 0.nosave Presented below is the POST26 output resulting from this analysis.560300E-03 0.100000E-04 0. 0. -836930.60000 0.100000E-04 0.100000E-04 -0.3.s pres.480400E-03 -0.250737E+08 0.4000 1.585450E-03 0.227277E+08 0.press esol..6000 1.95000 1.100000E-04 0.100000E-04 -0.8500 1.360550E-03 0.438539E-03 -0. .153437E+07 0. Print and Plot Gasket Element Results !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ /post26 esol.100000E-04 0. Inc.640200E-03 0.4500 1.310936E+08 -0.5000 1.100000E-04 -0.250737E+08 -0.50000 0.318937E-03 0. ! change sign for plotting prvar.409500E-04 -0.119601E-03 -0.100000E-04 0.x.125539E+07 -0.278389E+07 0.680150E-03 0.x.35000 0.epel finish !*++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ !* Post26.398672E-03 0.965988E+07 -0.120850E-03 0.152775E+08 0.55000 0.45000 0.620132E-03 -0..693558E-03 0.738405E-03 -0.989280E+07 0.delta.809000E-04 -0.4.239203E-03 0. .3.358804E-03 -0.320600E-03 0.5 xvar.620132E-03 0.797343E-04 0.30000 0.200750E-03 0.100000E-05 4 ADD press 139488.139488E+07 -0.398672E-03 -0.139488E+07 0.100000E-04 -0. 976418.100000E-04 -0.100000E-04 -0.277640E+08 -0..965988E+07 0.100000E-04 0.25000 0.160800E-03 -0.152775E+08 -0.514686E-03 0.

10–24 .

most contact problems need to account for friction. In this case. you generally do not know the regions of contact until you've run the problem. ANSYS also offers explicit contact capabilities with the ANSYS LS-DYNA explicit dynamics product. Contact Overview Contact problems are highly nonlinear and require significant computer resources to solve. Contact Overview 11. Contact problems present two significant difficulties. ANSYS Contact Capabilities 11.5. Second. flexible-to-flexible.e. one or more of the contacting surfaces are treated as rigid (i. material. Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11. is the more common type.2. see the ANSYS LS-DYNA User's Guide. boundary conditions. surfaces can come into and go out of contact with each other in a largely unpredictable and abrupt manner.1.. 11. and the interaction between the bodies is always bonded.. any time a soft material comes in contact with a hard material. Structural Analysis Guide . 11. making solution convergence difficult. “Coupling and Constraint Equations” in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information). In addition to these two difficulties. Constraint equations are only available for small strain applications (NLGEOM. the problem may be assumed to be rigid-to-flexible.7: Using the Internal MPC Approach for Assemblies and Kinematic Constraints for more information). 001972 . both (or all) contacting bodies are deformable (i. It is important that you understand the physics of the problem and take the time to set up your model to run as efficiently as possible. In general. An example of a flexible-to-flexible contact is bolted flanges. There are several friction laws and models to choose from. . and other factors. Depending on the loads. Explicit Dynamics Contact Capabilities In addition to the implicit contact capabilities discussed in this chapter. The other class. many contact problems must also address multi-field effects.1. Performing a Node-to-Node Contact Analysis 11. Frictional response can be chaotic. First.7. Explicit capabilities are ideally suited for short-duration contact-impact problems.off).6.Chapter 11: Contact This chapter covers the following topics: 11. In rigid-to-flexible contact problems. Inc. such as the conductance of heat. it has a much higher stiffness relative to the deformable body it contacts). electrical currents. Many metal forming problems fall into this category.1. and all are nonlinear. ANSYS Release 8. General Contact Classification Contact problems fall into two general classes: rigid-to-flexible and flexible-to-flexible.1 . Another alternative is to use constraint equations or coupled degrees of freedom instead of contact to model these situations (see Chapter 12.3.8.e. GUI Aids for Contact Analyses 11. General Contact Classification 11. For more information on the ANSYS LS-DYNA product and its contact capabilities. and magnetic flux in the areas of contact. have similar stiffnesses). Using the Internal MPC Approach for Assemblies and Kinematic Constraints 11. you may be able to use the internal multipoint constraint (MPC) feature (available for certain contact elements) to model various types of contact assemblies and surface-based constraints (see Section 11.1.2. If you do not need to account for friction in your model. Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11.4. © SAS IP.

© SAS IP. node-to-surface.Chapter 11: Contact 11. the corresponding component of your model is a node. ANSYS Release 8. . 171. If one of the interactions is at a surface. 001972 .Order Rigid-Flexible Flexible. 170 169 170 Y Y Y Y small Y small Y Y small Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y large large Y Y Y large Y Point-to-Point Point-to-Surface Surface-to-Surface 2-D 3-D Sliding Cylindrical Gap Pure Lagrange Multiplier Augmented Lagrange Multiplier Lagrange Multiplier on Normal and Penalty on Tangent Internal Multipoint Constraint (MPC) Contact Stiffness Y Y Y Y userdefined EINTF Y Y Y usersemisemisemisemidefined automat.Surface-to-Surface Surface CONTA CONTA CONTA 175.1 ANSYS Contact Capabilities Node-to-Node CONTAC CONTAC CONTA 12 52 178 Node-to. and surface-to-surface. Each type of model uses a different set of ANSYS contact elements and is appropriate for specific types of problems as shown in Table 11. 11–2 Structural Analysis Guide .1 . ANSYS Contact Capabilities ANSYS supports three contact models: node-to-node.automat.automatic ic ic ic EINTF Y EINTF Y ESURF Y Y (2-D only) ESURF Y Y Y Y Y Y Y ESURF Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Auto-meshing Tools Lower-Order Higher. shell.1: “ANSYS Contact Capabilities”. or solid element.3.Flexible Thermal Contact Electric Contact Magnetic Contact Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y To model a contact problem. you first must identify the parts to be analyzed for their possible interaction.174 TARGET TARGET TARGET 169.automat. Inc. Table 11.172 173. If one of the interactions is at a point. the corresponding component of your model is an element: either a beam.

1. • • The target surface is modeled with either TARGE169 or TARGE170 (for 2-D and 3-D. 11. You should use the node-to-surface or node-tonode elements in these cases. CONTA172. Theory Reference. An overview of the ANSYS contact elements and their capabilities follows. such as two beams contacting each other (at a beam tip or sharp corner node). It supports large sliding. point-to-surface. Structural Analysis Guide .1 . Inc. These contact elements use a "target surface" and a "contact surface" to form a contact pair. cornernoded or midside-noded elements). 11.3. 11–3 . CONTA173. The surface-to-surface contact elements have several advantages over the node-to-node element CONTA175.Section 11. refer to the ANSYS Elements Reference and the ANSYS. often using simple geometric shapes such as circles. respectively). More complex rigid forms or general deformable forms can be modeled using special preprocessing techniques (see Step 3 of Section 11. parabolas.2. You can find more details on defining these elements and their shared real constant sets in Section 11. such as normal pressure and friction stress contour plots. You also can use surface-to-surface contact elements for most contact regions and use a few node-to-surface contact elements near contact corners. and CONTA174. Have no restrictions on the shape of the target surface.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis. These surface-to-surface elements are well-suited for applications such as interference fit assembly contact or entry contact. harmonic. Surface discontinuities can be physical or due to mesh discretization. large deformation. For detailed information on any of these elements. The different contact elements that ANSYS uses. forging. such as pipe whip or snap-fit assemblies. you can model straight and curved surfaces in 2-D and 3-D. and procedures for using them. The surface-to-surface contact elements only support general static and transient analyses. These contact elements are overlaid on the parts of the model that are being analyzed for interaction. Node-to-Surface Contact Elements CONTA175 is a node-to-surface contact element. ANSYS Release 8.3. Surface-to-Surface Contact Elements ANSYS supports both rigid-to-flexible and flexible-to-flexible surface-to-surface contact elements. 001972 . Provide better contact results needed for typical engineering purposes. cones.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis for more information). and the corners of snap-fit parts. © SAS IP. and cylinders. and different meshes between the contacting components. Surface-to-surface contact elements are not well-suited for point-to-point. modal or spectrum analyses.3: ANSYS Contact Capabilities The finite element model recognizes possible contact pairs by the presence of specific contact elements. assign the same real constant number to both the target and contact elements. Inc. CONTA175 is typically used to model point-to-surface contact applications. or edge-to-surface contact applications. These elements: • • • Support lower and higher order elements on the contact and target surfaces (in other words. spheres. buckling. To create a contact pair. Using these elements for a rigid target surface. or substructure analyses. are described in the remainder of this chapter. and deep-drawing problems. The contact surface is modeled with elements CONTA171.

It offers a wider range of options and solver types than the other elements. 001972 . ANSYS Release 8. These are typically problems with faceted and simple geometry. Another use of node-to-node contact elements is in extremely precise analysis of surface stresses. Large deformation and large relative sliding are allowed. The element can fail if the target surface is severely discontinous. one of the boundaries is conventionally established as the "target" surface.1 . For rigid-flexible contact. Node-to-Node Contact Elements Node-to-node contact elements are typically used to model point-to-point contact applications.5: GUI Aids for Contact Analyses for more information on using the Contact Manager. CONTAC12 and CONTAC52 are available largely for reasons of backward compatibility with existing models. ANSYS element CONTA178 is the best choice for most node-to-node problems. These two surfaces together comprise the "contact pair. © SAS IP. 11. An interference fit problem is an example of a surface-to-surface problem where the use of node-to-node contact may be sufficient. For 3-D contact 11–4 Structural Analysis Guide . you need to know the location of contact beforehand. CONTA175 does not support 3-D higher-order elements on the contact surface side. An example of this type of contact problem is a wire inserted into a slot.3. the relative sliding deformation is negligible. To use nodeto-node contact elements. The Contact Manager provides an easy-to-use interface to help you construct and manage contact definitions." Use TARGE169 with CONTA171.4. unless otherwise noted. you do not need to know the exact location of the contacting area beforehand. .4. These types of contact problems usually involve small relative sliding between contacting surfaces (even in the case of geometric nonlinearities). both contact and target surfaces are associated with the deformable bodies. Node-to-node contact elements can also be used to solve a surface-to-surface problem if the nodes of the two surfaces line up. Using Surface-to-Surface Contact Elements In problems involving contact between two boundaries. See Section 11. although this capability can also model small sliding. The surfaces can be either rigid or deformable. You can access the manager via the Contact Manager icon in the ANSYS Standard Toolbar. 11. or via the menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Contact Pair. Inc. nor do the contacting components need to have a compatible mesh. where the contact point is always located between the pipe tip and the restraint. An example of a node-to-node contact application is the traditional pipe whip model. and the contact surface is the deformable surface. the target surface is always the rigid surface. 11. No contour plots are available for contact results. or CONTA175 to define a 2-D contact pair.Chapter 11: Contact You can also use CONTA175 to model surface-to-surface contact. Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis You can use the surface-to-surface contact elements to model either rigid-flexible or flexible-flexible contact between surfaces. Unlike the node-to-node contact elements. such as in turbine blade analysis.1. CONTA172. if the contacting surface is defined by a group of nodes and multiple elements are generated. and deflections (rotations) of the two surfaces remain small. The following sections explain how to set up a contact analysis using the both command and GUI approaches. Note — The following sections also apply to node-to-surface contact analyses using CONTA175. and the other as the "contact" surface. For flexible-to-flexible contact.3.

CONTA174. Creating the Model Geometry and Mesh First. 001972 . The contact zone can be arbitrary. 11–5 . Steps in a Contact Analysis The basic steps for performing a typical surface-to-surface contact analysis are listed below. or CONTA175.Section 11. 4. There is no limit on the number of surfaces allowed. you may want to define smaller. 11. 6. Each step is then explained in detail in the following pages. Inc. localized contacting zones. 2. Identifying Contact Pairs You must identify where contact might occur during the deformation of your model. use TARGE170 with CONTA173. Note — If you prefer a graphical approach to setting up your contact analysis. Command(s): AMESH.4. as discussed in Section 11.2. 9. 7. Review the results Each contact-specific step also has a corresponding GUI approach where you use functions and features on the Contact Toolbar. © SAS IP. which will then track the kinematics of the deformation process. Different contact pairs must be defined by a different real constant set. VMESH GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Note — You should avoid midside-noded elemets for 3-D contact surfaces when using node-to-surface element CONTA175. however. you define them via target and contact elements. 11. you can use the Contact Toolbar. real constants. Set element types. Mesh the contacting bodies by meshing the areas or volumes with the element type that you have chosen. Each contact pair is identified via the same real constant number. For more information.4. and material properties as you would for any ANSYS analysis.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis pairs. but be sure your zones are adequate to capture all necessary contact. Structural Analysis Guide .3. Create the model geometry and mesh Identify the contact pairs Designate contact and target surfaces Define the target surface Define the contact surface Set the element KEYOPTS and real constants Define/control the motion of the target surface (rigid-to-flexible only) Apply necessary boundary conditions Define solution options and load steps 10. 5. see the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. Once you've identified potential contact surfaces. 3.5. 11. Target and contact elements that make up a contact pair are associated with each other via a shared real constant set. 1.1: The Contact Manager.4. even if the element real constant values do not change. create solid model entities that represent the geometry of the contacting bodies. Solve the contact problem 11.4. 8. for the most efficient solution (primarily in CPU time).1 . ANSYS Release 8.

Chapter 11: Contact Figure 11.4.1 Localized Contact Zones Depending on the geometry of the model (and the potential deformation). For rigid-to-flexible contact. each with its own real constant number. Inc. the softer surface should be the contact surface and the stiffer surface should be the target surface. the other has a coarse mesh. the flat/concave surface should be the target surface. If one surface is stiffer then the other. For flexible-to-flexible contact. 001972 . target elements can penetrate through the contact surface. ANSYS Release 8. In such cases. See Figure 11. 11–6 Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP. Designating Contact and Target Surfaces Contact elements are constrained against penetrating the target surface. multiple target surfaces could interact with the same zone of the contact surface. However. in comparison. Consider the following guidelines when designating the surfaces: • • • If a convex surface is expected to come into contact with a flat or concave surface.1 . the designation is obvious: the target surface is always the rigid surface and the contact surface is always the deformable surface. . If one surface has a fine surface mesh and. 11. the choice of which surface is designated contact or target can cause a different amount of penetration and thus affect the solution accuracy. the fine mesh should be the contact surface and the coarse mesh should be the target surface.5. you must define multiple contact pairs (using multiple overlapping contact elements).1: “Localized Contact Zones”.

4. Specific situations that require symmetric contact include models where • • The distinction between the contact and target surfaces is not clear.4. If the meshes on both surfaces are identical and sufficiently refined. 11. Using KEYOPT(8) When there are several contact pairs involved in the model.1. However. For a symmetric contact definition. ANSYS will internally select which asymmetric pair is to be used at the solution stage based on the guidelines mentioned above in Designating Contact and Target Surfaces. 001972 . for 3-D node-to-surface contact. ANSYS Release 8. the surface with the underlying higher-order elements should be the contact surface and the other surface should be the target. 11–7 . by setting KEYOPT(8) = 2. the larger surface should be the target surface. The following section details the difference between asymmetric and symmetric contact and outlines some of the situations that require symmetric contact. such as in the instance where one surface surrounds the other surface. it can be difficult to interpret the results. you can just define the symmetric contact pairs and.Section 11. If one surface is markedly larger than the other surface. asymmetric contact may not perform satisfactorily for your model. This is known as symmetric contact (or "two-pass contact"). under some circumstances asymmetric contact does not perform satisfactorily. 11.1. • These guidelines are true for asymmetric contact.5. symmetric contact or asymmetric contact.1 . The symmetric contact algorithm enforces the contact constraint conditions at more surface locations than the asymmetric contact algorithm. Defining the Target Surface The target surface can be 2-D or 3-D and either rigid or deformable.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis • If higher-order elements underly one of the external surfaces and lower-order elements underly the other surface. You can follow the same method to generate the deformable contact surface (see Section 11. In such cases. This is sometimes called "one-pass contact. many analyses will require its use (typically to reduce penetration). 11. in fact.6. the lower-order elements should be the contact surface. In such circumstances. for example." This is usually the most efficient way to model surfaceto-surface contact.4. However.1. ANSYS may find one side of a contact surface as closed and the other side of the surface as closed. However.2. only one type can exist with a contact pair. © SAS IP. The total contact pressure acting on both sides is the average of the contact pressures on each side of the surface. pick one surface to be the target and the other the contact surface. you can designate each surface to be both a target and a contact surface. Both surfaces have very coarse meshes. be more "expensive" in CPU time. a self-contact case). symmetric contact is less efficient than asymmetric contact.7: Defining the Structural Analysis Guide . Note — In any contact model. You can then generate two sets of contact pairs between the contacting surfaces (or just one contact pair. However. For deformable target surfaces.5. and the graphical picking of contact and target surfaces is difficult.4.4.1. Background Asymmetric contact is defined as having all contact elements on one surface and all target elements on the other surface. In this case. you will normally use the ESURF command to generate the target elements along the boundaries of an existing mesh. Symmetric Contact 11. Obviously. you can mix different types of contact pairs: rigid-to-flexible or flexible-toflexible contact. however.5. Inc. Asymmetric Contact vs. The higher-order elements should be the target surface. the symmetric contact algorithm may not significantly improve performance and may.

CIRC. If you define a pilot node. The pilot node can be one of the nodes on the target element or a node at any arbitrary location.4. triangles. cone. Primitives cannot be defined directly in the Contact Wizard.6. You can use any combination to define the complex target surface geometry. • For CONTA173 and CONTA174 (also applies to node-to-surface element CONTA175): – – R1 is the radius if the target shape (TARGE170) is a cylinder. Forces/moments or rotations/displacements for the entire target surface can be prescribed on just the pilot node. quadrilaterals. CARC. or sphere. and parabolas. ANSYS Release 8. and quadrilaterals) to define a target surface. You should not use the following rigid target segments for a deformable target surface: ARC. and sphere primitives to model the target (which require real constants to define the radius). the following provides general guidelines. whose motion governs the motion of the entire target surface. and spheres.2. You can use any combination of low/high-order triangles and quadrilaterals to model a target surface with a complex. In 2-D cases.3. © SAS IP. Inc.4.Chapter 11: Contact Deformable Contact Surface for details). CONE. 001972 . R2 is the element thickness if the underlying element is a superelement set as plane stress with thickness (KEYOPT(3) = 3).4. In 3-D cases.6.3. You can combine primitive segments with general segments (such as lines. Element Types and Real Constants Before generating the target element. cones.1 . To set the real constant number for the target elements: Command(s): REAL GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants 11–8 Structural Analysis Guide . which can be represented with TARGE170. circular arcs. SPHE. For rigid target surfaces. Pilot Nodes The rigid target surface can also be associated with a "pilot node. cylinder.6. The location of the pilot node is important only when rotation or moment loading is required. all of which can be represented with the target segment element TARGE169. first define the element type (TARGE169 for 2-D or TARGE170 for 3-D): Command(s): ET GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete 11.4. . The default value is 1. CYL1.1. 11. 11." which is really an element with one node.6. R2 is the radius of a cone at the second node. cone. or PILO. You can think of a pilot node as a handle for the rigid target surface. Primitives You can use circle. Defining Target Element Geometry You define characteristics of the target element geometry through real constants R1 and R2 as follows: • For CONTA171 and CONTA172: – – R1 is the radius if the target shape (TARGE169) is a circle.1. the shape of the target surfaces is described by a sequence of triangles. arbitrary geometry. the shape of the target surface is described by a sequence of straight lines. ANSYS checks for boundary conditions only on the pilot node and ignores any constraints on other nodes. parabolas. cylinders. 11.

Command(s): N. Note — Specifying real constants (R1. element shapes. ANSYS Release 8. Command(s): ELIST Structural Analysis Guide . see the description of TARGE169 and TARGE170 in the ANSYS Elements Reference.6. R2) manually is necessary only if you use direct generation to create your target elements. Possible shapes are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Straight line (2-D) Parabola (2-D) Clockwise arc (2-D) Counterclockwise arc (2-D) Circle (2-D) Three-node triangle (3-D) Six-node triangle (3-D) Four-node quadrilateral (3-D) Eight-node quadrilateral (3-D) Cylinder (3-D) Cone (3-D) Sphere (3-D) Pilot node (both 2-D and 3-D) Once you specify a target element shape. Inc. If a portion of the underlying elements of a deformable surface are deleted. use the following command or GUI path: Command(s): TSHAP GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes You then specify the element shape. For a complete description of the target elements. all subsequent elements will have that shape until you specify another shape.Section 11. During solution.4. You can also use the ANSYS meshing tools to create the elements. E GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements You can then verify your element shapes by listing the elements. “Direct Generation” in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. 001972 . or use the Contact Toolbar. ANSYS assigns a deformable status to target elements with underlying elements and assigns a rigid status to target elements without underlying elements. You cannot mix rigid target elements with deformable target elements on the same target surface.4.1 . 11. see Chapter 9. For more information on direct generation modeling techniques. and real constants. an error will occur in solution. Using Direct Generation to Create Rigid Target Elements To generate target elements directly. Note — You cannot mix 2-D and 3-D target elements on the same target surface.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis For TARGE169 and TARGE170. 11–9 . © SAS IP. You can generate the nodes and elements using standard ANSYS direct generation techniques. you need only set real constants R1 and R2 (if required).

ANSYS creates a single circular segment (see Figure 11. parabolic segments over B-splines. © SAS IP. If all the arcs form a closed circle. use the following command or GUI path: Command(s): KMESH GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Keypoints Note — KMESH always creates pilot nodes. To generate 2-D rigid target elements.1 . 001972 .6. ANSYS might not create a single circular segment. and arc segments over each arc and line fillet (see Figure 11. To generate a pilot node. use the following command or GUI path.2: “ANSYS Geometric Entities and Their Corresponding Rigid Target Elements”). ANSYS will recognize the proper target element shape based on the solid model and will ignore the TSHAP setting.3: “A Single Circular Target Segment Created From Arc Line Segments”). However. Using ANSYS Meshing Tools to Create Rigid Target Elements You can also let ANSYS generate the elements automatically using the standard ANSYS meshing capabilities. ANSYS creates a single line over each line. if the arcs that form a closed circle are created from imported or archived geometry (such as IGES).2 ANSYS Geometric Entities and Their Corresponding Rigid Target Elements 11–10 Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 11: Contact GUI: Utility Menu> List> Elements> Nodes + Attributes 11. Inc. Command(s): LMESH GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Lines Figure 11. .5.4. ANSYS Release 8.

TARGE169 with a rigid specification will always mesh with one element division. For arbitrary surfaces. use MSHAPE. In these cases.4: “Meshing Patterns for Arbitrary Target Surfaces” shows the meshing patterns for arbitrary target surfaces. the analysis becomes more computationally efficient. The following command or GUI path will generate a mapped mesh wherever possible (otherwise. Inc. Command(s): AMESH GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Areas If the surface segments on the solid model form a complete sphere. set KEYOPT(1) = 1 in the target element definition. If you want a triangular target element shape. Command(s): MSHKEY. per line.2 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Areas> Target Surf If the target surface is flat (or nearly flat). © SAS IP. LMESH. it will generate a free mesh). If there is no curvature on the edges of the surface. but they need many fewer elements to discretize the whole curved target surface.3 A Single Circular Target Segment Created From Arc Line Segments To generate 3-D rigid target elements. the meshed surface may not be smooth. It is more important that the target elements represent the rigid surface geometry well. Structural Analysis Guide . if not possible. Higher-order target elements are more "expensive" to use in getting the penetration and gap.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Figure 11. or ESURF commands) the TSHAP command is ignored and ANSYS chooses the correct shape codes automatically. use the following command or GUI path.Section 11. you may select low-order target elements (3-node triangular or 4-node quadrilateral elements). the quality of the meshed target shape is not important. assign one division on that edge. Figure 11. you should use AMESH to generate target elements. If the target surface is curved you should select high-order target elements (6-node triangular or 8-node quadrilateral).1 . ANSYS Release 8. 001972 . Note — If target elements are created via program meshing (through the KMESH. By doing so. We recommend using mapped meshing on all possible areas. cylinder. Note — Low-order target elements result in "cheaper" CPU usage in getting penetration and gap. however. then ANSYS automatically generates a single primitive 3-D target element through the AMESH command. or cone. The default target element shape is quadrilateral. By creating fewer elements. ignoring any LESIZE setting.1. 11–11 .

Chapter 11: Contact Figure 11.1 . .1. Excessively coarse discretization can cause numerical convergence problems. 001972 . you must ensure that the mesh discretization of the curved surfaces on the rigid target surface is adequate.4 Meshing Patterns for Arbitrary Target Surfaces 11. However. Smoothing is not required. To avoid such modeling problems. There are no restrictions on the shape of the rigid surfaces. © SAS IP. Inc.5: “Smoothing Convex Corner”).5. 11–12 Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8. Where possible. It can be difficult to obtain a converged solution in a large sliding simulation if the target surface has sharp convex corners.6. use line or area fillet functions on the solid model to smooth out the sharp corner. or use high-order element in the region of abrupt curvature changes (see Figure 11. Some Modeling and Meshing Tips A target surface can be made up of two or more disconnected regions. use a more refined mesh. you should localize the contact zone by defining multiple target surfaces (each with a different real constant number).4.

6: “Correct Node Ordering”). Inc.6 Correct Node Ordering For 3-D contact.5.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Figure 11.1 .1 Structural Analysis Guide .4.ESYS. the target triangular element numbering should be such that the rigid surface's outward normal points toward the contact surface.5 Smoothing Convex Corner 11.6. 001972 . Command(s): /PSYMB. Verifying Nodal Number Ordering (Contact Direction) of Target Surface The node order of the target surface elements is critical because it defines contact direction. 11–13 .2. the associated (deformable) contact elements must lie to the right of the target surface when moving from the first node to the second node along the target surface line (see Figure 11. © SAS IP. Figure 11. To check the direction of the normals. For 2-D contact. turn on the element coordinate systems. ANSYS Release 8.Section 11. The outward normal is determined by the right-hand rule.

11–14 Structural Analysis Guide . Element Type The four contact element types are listed below. or sphere). Inc. The underlying elements can be solid. The contact surface is defined by the set of contact elements that comprise the surface of the deformable body. or CONTA175 for (2. or CONTA173 or CONTA174 (for 3-D).or 3-D).or higher-order). reorient the element normals: Command(s): ENORM GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Move/Modify> Elements> Shell Normals Note — Contact on target primitives (such as a complete circle. The contact surface elements are of the same order as the underlying elements (lower. © SAS IP.7. you must define the contact surface element type. can occur only on the outside surfaces of such target bodies.7.Chapter 11: Contact GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols If the element normals do not point toward the contact surface. ANSYS Release 8. along with a brief description. and finally generate the elements. Defining the Deformable Contact Surface To create the deformable contact surface. For complete information on these element types. then select the correct real constant number (the real constant number must be the same as the one used for the target surface for each contact pair). The higher-order contact elements can match lower-order underlying elements by dropping the midside nodes. 11. with compatible nodes along the edges. Command(s): ESURF. select this element and reverse the direction of the surface normals. 001972 . As with the target surface elements. see the ANSYS Elements Reference. The underlying elements may also be a superelement. or 2-D beam elements. .1 . The contact surface can be on either side of the shell or beam elements. shell. cylinder.REVE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Surf/Contact> Surf to Surf or.1. However.4.. These contact elements have the same geometric characteristics as the underlying elements of the deformable body. 11. cone.4. you must define that surface using contact elements CONTA171 or CONTA172 (for 2-D). axisymmetric harmonic elements may not be used as underlying elements.

2-node. It can be degenerated to a 3-node triangular element. Structural Analysis Guide . If the underlying element is a superelement.7. the contact normal stiffness will be reduced by a factor of 100. CONTA173: This element is a 3-D.7 Contact Element Types • • • CONTA171: This element is a 2-D. PLANE42.Section 11. Real Constants and Material Properties After defining the element type. ANSYS uses the material properties of the underlying elements to calculate an appropriate contact (or penalty) stiffness.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Figure 11.7 node quadrilateral/triangular shapes. © SAS IP. 4-node. ANSYS automatically defines a default value for tangent (sliding) contact stiffness that is proportional to MU and the normal stiffness. The real constant set for each contact surface must be the same one used for the corresponding target surface for each contact pair.2. It can be degenerated to 3 . lower-order quadrilateral element that can be located on the surfaces of 3-D solid or shell elements (such as SOLID45 or SHELL181). higher-order quadrilateral element that can be located on the surfaces of 3-D solid or shell elements with midside nodes (such as SOLID92. higher-order parabolic element that can be located on the surfaces of 2-D solid or beam elements with midside nodes (such as PLANE82 or VISCO88). shell. 8-node. you need to select the correct real constant set. CONTA174: This element is a 3-D. SOLID95. 11–15 .1 . CONTA175: This element is a 2. Each contact pair must reference its own real constant number. or SHELL51). the material property set for the contact elements must be the same as that of the original structural elements used during the formation of the superelement. 001972 . • • 11. ANSYS Release 8. Inc.or 3-D 1-node element that can be located on the surface of 2-D low order and higher order solid or beam elements or 3-D low order solid or shell elements. or beam elements (such as BEAM3.4. or SHELL93). In cases where the underlying element has TB plasticity material properties defined (whether active or not). Command(s): ET GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete Note — Use CONTA175 for node-to-surface contact. 3-node. lower-order line element that can be located on the surfaces of 2-D solid. CONTA172: This element is a 2-D.

Command(s): /PSYMB..TOP or BOTTOM GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Surf/Contact> Surf to Surf Use the TOP setting (default) to generate contact elements with their outward normals the same as the beam or shell elements' normals. 001972 . this approach is simpler and more reliable.Chapter 11: Contact 11. For each surface. view the node list.ESYS GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols 2. If the underlying elements are beam or shell elements. If the underlying elements are solid elements.1 . you can omit those nodes and reduce CPU time. If you are certain that particular nodes will never come into contact. Select the nodes on the meshed deformable body.4.7. Check the direction of the outward normals for the contact elements. ANSYS Release 8. Command(s): NSEL GUI: Utility Menu> Select> Entities Generate the contact elements. In most of these cases.8: “Specification of the Contact Surface's Outward Normal” illustrates both proper and improper specification of the contact surface's outward normal. Use the BOTTOM setting to generate contact elements with their outward normals opposite the beam or shell elements' normals. The contact surface's outward normal should point toward the target surface. the analysis will fail immediately. Figure 11. Generating Contact Elements You can generate contact elements either through direct generation or by generating the surface automatically from the exterior faces of the underlying elements. For 3-D elements. then the TOP or BOTTOM setting has no effect. 11–16 Structural Analysis Guide . To automatically generate contact elements. Command(s): ESURF. Otherwise. Command(s): ESURF GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Surf/Contact> Surf to Surf If the contact surface is attached to areas or volumes that are meshed with solid elements. 3. Inc. ANSYS may detect over-penetration of the surfaces at the beginning of the analysis and have difficulty finding an initial solution. ANSYS automatically determines the outward normal needed for contact calculations. you must indicate which surface (top or bottom) is the target surface. . You must make sure that all elements in the beam or shell element selection have their normals consistently oriented. you should always include more nodes than you think you'll need so that you don't miss unexpected areas of contact. The direction of the contact surface's outward normal is critical for proper contact detection. © SAS IP.3. However. We recommend that you use automatic generation. follow these steps: 1. the node numbering follows the right hand rule to define its outward normal.

001972 . The remaining are used by the contact surface elements. For more information in addition to what is presented here.. 11–17 .REVE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Surf/Contact> Surf to Surf or. reorient the element normals. Structural Analysis Guide .8. PMIN and PMAX define an allowable penetration range for initial penetration. CNOF specifies the positive or negative offset value applied to the contact surface.. ICONT defines an initial closure factor (or adjustment band). Inc.1.TOP or BOTTOM and checking the direction of outward normals will not apply to nodeto-surface contact (CONTA175) because it is a single-node element with no surface normal associated with it.Section 11. 11. FKN defines a normal contact stiffness factor. Command(s): ESURF. Real Constants Two real constants.8 Specification of the Contact Surface's Outward Normal If the surface normals are specified incorrectly. © SAS IP.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Figure 11. refer to the individual contact element descriptions in the ANSYS Elements Reference.1 .8. Set the Real Constants and Element KEYOPTS ANSYS uses several real constants and KEYOPTs to control contact behavior using these surface-to-surface contact elements. 11. FTOLN is a factor based on the thickness of the element which is used to calculate allowable penetration. R1 and R2. you must either change them by reversing the node number order of the selected elements. are used to define the geometry of the target surface elements. ANSYS Release 8. TAUMAX specifies the maximum contact friction.4. • • • • • • • • R1 and R2 define the target element geometry. PINB defines a "pinball" region.4. Command(s): ENORM GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Move/Modify> Elements> Shell Normals Note — ESURF.

TCC specifies the thermal contact conductance coefficient.00E+20 0 1 1 0 0 n/a n/a [1] 0. 001972 . FACT specifies the ratio of static to dynamic coefficients of friction. Real constant defaults can vary depending on the environment you are working in.1 . TOLS adds a small tolerance that extends the edge of the target surface. . FWGT specifies the weight factor for the distribution of heat between the contact and target surfaces for thermal contact or for electric contact. The following table compares the default values between ANSYS and the ANSYS Workbench.00E+20 0 1 1 0 [3] No.1 0 [2] 0 0 1. SLTO controls maximum sliding distance when MU is nonzero and the tangent contact stiffness (FKT) is updated at each iteration (KEYOPT(10) = 2). MCC specifies the magnetic contact permeance (3-D only). RDVF specifies the radiation view factor. Inc. Table 11.1 0 [2] 0 0 1. FHEG specifies the fraction of electric dissipated energy converted into heat. See your ANSYS sales representative for more information about ANSYS Workbench. TNOP specifies the maximum allowable tensile contact pressure. ECC specifies the electric contact conductance or capacitance per unit area. © SAS IP. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Name R1 R2 FKN FTOLN ICONT PINB PMAX PMIN TAUMAX CNOF FKOP FKT COHE TCC Target circle radius Superelement thickness Normal penalty stiffness factor Penetration tolerance factor Initial contact closure Pinball region Upper limit of initial penetration Lower limit of initial penetration Maximum friction stress Contact surface offset Contact opening stiffness Tangent penalty stiffness Contact cohesion Thermal contact conductance 11–18 Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 11: Contact • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • FKOP specifies the stiffness factor applied when contact opens. SBCT specifies the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. COHE specifies the cohesion sliding resistance. ANSYS Release 8.2 Summary of Real Constant Defaults in Different Environments Real Constants Description ANSYS Default ANSYS Workbench Default 0 1 1 0. DC specifies the decay coefficient for static/dynamic friction. FHTG specifies the fraction of frictional dissipated energy converted into heat. FKT specifies the tangent contact stiffness.

and the value of CNOF (see Section 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Real Constants Description ANSYS Default ANSYS Workbench Default 1 0 1 0. Positive and Negative Real Constant Values For the real constants FKN.ON or OFF. PINB.ON. or 5. a negative value of 0. PMIN. FKT. If the underlying elements are shell or beam elements.4. 1. ANSYS uses the depth of the underlying element as the reference value to be used for ICONT. 10% of target length for NLGEOM. 11–19 .1 for ICONT indicates an initial closure factor of 0.0. or 2. PMAX. 4.8.9. a positive value of 0. Figure 11. FKT. you can specify either a positive or negative value. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Name FHTG SBCT RDVF FWGT ECC FHEG FACT DC SLTO (blank) TOLS MCC Target edge extension factor Magnetic contact permeance Frictional heating factor Stefan-Boltzmann constant Radiation view factor Heat distribution weighing factor Electric contact conductance Joule dissipation weighting factor Static/dynamic ratio Exponential decay coefficient Allowable elastic slip 1.1 x depth of the underlying element. FKN.Section 11. PINB. the settings are based on each individual contact element (geometry and material behaviors).1 . SLTO) are averaged across all contact elements in a contact pair. FTOLN. and PMIN. For example. the depth will usually be 4 times the element thickness. 2% of target length for NLGEOM. For all other. ICONT. and TNOP. NLGEOM.1 units. 4. SLTO.9: “Depth of the Underlying Element” shows the depth of the underlying element for a solid element. FKN = 1 for all.1 indicates an actual adjustment band of 0. However. KEYOPT(9) setting. When KEYOPT(10) = 0. ANSYS interprets a positive value as a scaling factor and interprets a negative value as the absolute value. when KEYOPT(10) = 3. PMAX. Structural Analysis Guide .4.8. FTOLN.5 0 1 1 0 1% [4] 0 1 n/a n/a 0. However. FKOP. PMIN. © SAS IP. Inc. flex target). PMAX. Command(s): R GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants 11.5 n/a n/a 1 0 1% [4] n/a No. FKN = 1. Calculated as a function of highest conductivity and overall model size. Depends on contact behavior (rigid vs. 3. but if bonded and other contact behavior exists.OFF. all the contact related settings (ICONT. 001972 .1.2: Using PINB). KEYOPT(12) setting. PINB. FTOLN.1. 2. ANSYS Release 8. FKN = 10 for bonded.

The element KEYOPTS allow you to control several aspects of contact behavior.2. .) (KEYOPT(12)) 11–20 Structural Analysis Guide . etc. You should scale the length unit in the model.4.1 . Location of contact detection point (KEYOPT(4)) CNOF Automated adjustment (KEYOPT(5)) Time step control (KEYOPT(7)) Asymmetric contact selection (KEYOPT(8)) Effect of initial penetration or gap (KEYOPT(9)) Contact stiffness update (KEYOPT(10)) Shell thickness effect (KEYOPT(11)) Behavior of contact surface (rough. or 2. • • • • • • • • • • • Degrees of freedom (KEYOPT(1)) Contact algorithm (defaults to augmented Lagrangian) (KEYOPT(2)) Stress state when superelements are present (KEYOPT(3)) for 2-D surface-to-surface contact. 11. 10-5). Note — When the contact pair depth is too small (for example. 1. Inc. We recommend using the default settings. 001972 . ANSYS Release 8.8. which are suitable for most contact problems. For some specific applications.9 Depth of the Underlying Element When KEYOPT(10) = 0. Contact model for node-to-surface contact. you can override the defaults. © SAS IP. the machine precision may not guarantee the accuracy of penetration to be calculated. each contact pair has a pair-based depth which is obtained by averaging the depth of each contact element across all the contact elements in a contact pair. This can avoid the problem of very different element-based depths when there are meshes with large variations in element sizes.Chapter 11: Contact Figure 11. bonded. Element KEYOPTS Each contact element includes several KEYOPTS.

ANSYS Release 8. the ANSYS Contact Wizard. Command(s): KEYOPT. The spring stiffness is called the contact stiffness. Default Nonlinear (standard. Background For surface-to-surface contact elements.Section 11. See your ANSYS sales representative for more information about ANSYS Workbench. The following table compares the default values between ANSYS. 11–21 .4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis KEYOPT defaults can vary depending on the environment you are working in.1. and the ANSYS Workbench. Auto: Selection is based on DOF of underlying element. Lagr.4. rough) Auto Pure Penalty n/a gauss No adjust No control No action Include all/ramped Between load steps Exclude n/a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Selects DOF* Contact Algorithm Manual Aug.3 Summary of KEYOPT Defaults in Different Environments KEYOPT Description ANSYS ANSYS Contact Wizard Auto no super elem gauss No adjust ANSYS Workbench Default Linear (bonded. ET GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete 11. Lagr.8. This method uses the following real constants: FKN and FKS for all values of KEYOPT(10). Table 11.3. ANSYS offers several different contact algorithms: • • • • • Penalty method (KEYOPT(2) = 1) Augmented Lagrangian (default) (KEYOPT(2) = 0) Lagrange multiplier on contact normal and penalty on tangent (KEYOPT(2) = 3) Pure Lagrange multiplier on contact normal and tangent (KEYOPT(2) = 4) Internal multipoint constraint (MPC) (KEYOPT(2) = 2) The penalty method uses a contact “spring” to establish a relationship between the two contact surfaces. Structural Analysis Guide .3. plus FTOLN and SLTO if KEYOPT(10) = 1 or 2. © SAS IP. Pure Penalty Stress state when superelement no super is present elem Location of contact detection point CNOF/ICONT adjustment (blank) Element level time increment control Asymmetric contact selection Effect of initial penetration or gap Contact stiffness update Beam/shell thickness effect Behavior of contact surface gauss No adjust No control No control No control No action No action No action Include all Include all Exclude all Between Between load steps substeps Exclude Standard Exclude Standard Between load steps Exclude Bonded *Manual: Requires user to define.1 . Aug. Inc. 001972 . Selecting a Contact Algorithm (KEYOPT(2)) 11. no sep) Auto n/a gauss No adjust ANSYS Workbench.4.8.

Higher stiffness values decrease the amount of penetration/slip. It often increases the computational cost compared to the augmented Lagrangian method. be careful not to overconstrain the model. 11–22 Structural Analysis Guide . Note — The Lagrange multiplier methods (KEYOPT(2) = 3. The pure Lagrange multiplier method does not require contact stiffness. The amount of slip in sticking contact depends on the tangential stiffness. The augmented Lagrangian method would be a better choice for these analysis types.8.4. Background For the augmented Lagrangian method and penalty method. 4) introduce zero diagonal terms in the stiffness matrix. and allowable slip (SLTO).4. In most cases. ANSYS provides default values for contact stiffnesses (FKN. Compared to the penalty method. ANSYS Release 8. The contact tractions (pressure and frictional stresses) are augmented during equilibrium iterations so that the final penetration is smaller than the allowable tolerance (FTOLN). you want a high enough stiffness that the penetration/slip is acceptably small. the augmented Lagrangian method usually leads to better conditioning and is less sensitive to the magnitude of the contact stiffness.Chapter 11: Contact The augmented Lagrangian method (which is the default) is an iterative series of penalty methods. In addition. there is no guarantee that the program will eliminate all the cases of overconstraint. Therefore. However. The pure Lagrange multiplier method enforces zero penetration when contact is closed and “zero slip” when sticking contact occurs. Any iterative solver (PCG or AMG) will encounter a preconditioning matrix singularity with these methods.4. Determining Contact Stiffness and Allowable Penetration 11. CE and CP equations. ANSYS usually detects and eliminates the overconstraints. This method adds contact traction to the model as additional degrees of freedom and requires additional iterations to stabilize contact conditions. the internal multipoint constraint (MPC) algorithm.1. we recommend that you use KEYOPT(10) = 1 to allow the program to update the contact stiffness automatically. This methods enforces zero penetration and allows a small amount of slip for the sticking contact condition. allowable penetration (FTOLN). normal and tangential contact stiffnesses are required. Lower stiffness values can lead to a certain amount of penetration/slip and produce an inaccurate solution. is used in conjunction with bonded contact (KEYOPT(2) = 5 or 6) to model several types of contact assemblies and kinematic constraints. You should always verify your model carefully to address this issue.7: Using the Internal MPC Approach for Assemblies and Kinematic Constraints for more information on how to use this feature. especially if the deformed mesh becomes too distorted. The model is overconstrained when a contact node has prescribed boundary conditions.1 . The amount of penetration between contact and target surfaces depends on the normal stiffness. Instead it requires chattering control parameters. FTOLN and TNOP. 001972 .4. An alternative algorithm is the Lagrange multiplier method applied on the contact normal and the penalty method (tangential contact stiffness) on the frictional plane. Inc. When using these options. FTOLN and TNOP. in some analyses. FKN and FKS. Note — The Lagrange multiplier methods (KEYOPT(2) = 3. © SAS IP. but a low enough stiffness that the problem will be well-behaved in terms of convergence. It requires chattering control parameters. FKT). the augmented Lagrangian method may require additional iterations. 11. See Section 11. you do not need to define the contact stiffness. Ideally. Another method. 4) and MPC approach (KEYOPT(2) = 2) do not support the Gauss point detection option (KEYOPT(4) = 0) for surface-to-surface contact. you should switch to sparse solver. . as well as the maximum allowable elastic slip parameter SLTO. but can lead to ill-conditioning of the global stiffness matrix and to convergence difficulties. They support the nodal detection options for surface-to-surface contact and node-to-surface contact. The Lagrange multiplier also introduces more degrees of freedom which may result in spurious modes for modal and linear eigenvalue buckling analyses. However.8.

ANSYS updates tangential contact stiffness based on current contact normal pressure. 11. The default value is appropriate for bulk deformation. Note — FTOLN is also used in the Lagrange multiplier methods (KEYOPT(2) = 3. we recommend using a smaller value (0. current normal pressure.0.4. SLTO (FKT = MU* PRES/SLTO). with a default of 1. even though the residual forces and displacement increments have met convergence criteria. A larger value will enhance convergence but compromise accuracy. you may choose to use the real constant FKN to define a normal contact stiffness factor.01-1. a negative value indicates an absolute value of tangential stiffness. ANSYS Release 8. The default tangential stiffness corresponds to a default value of FKT = 1. Contact compatibility is satisfied if penetration is within an allowable tolerance (FTOLN times the depth of underlying elements).1. Note — When the contact stiffness is too large (for example.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11. In cases where the underlying element has a TB plasticity material defined (whether plasticity is active or not). or when the Lagrange multiplier on normal and penalty on tangent option is used (KEYOPT(2) = 3). PRES. Structural Analysis Guide . the machine precision may not guarantee good conditioning of the global stiffness matrix.0.8. 4) as a chattering control parameter. The range for this factor is less than 1. In certain cases users can override FKT by defining a scaling factor (positive input value) or absolute value (negative input value) (see Positive and Negative Real Constants for more information).Section 11. the contact normal stiffness will be reduced by a factor of 100. This factor is used to determine if penetration compatibility is satisfied. the tangential contact stiffness FKT can be obtained automatically. Based on the tolerance. and maximum allowable elastic slip.0 (usually less than 0. and is based on the depth of the underlying solid.3.1). Use real constant FTOLN in conjunction with the augmented Lagrangian method.2). In this case.2.0. If ANSYS detects any penetration larger than this tolerance. Inc. 1016).4. Using FKN and FTOLN For certain contact problems.4. The usual factor range is from 0. 001972 . You can also define an absolute allowable penetration by specifying a negative value for FTOLN. 11–23 . The depth is defined by the average depth of each individual contact element in the pair. ANSYS provides default tolerance values which work well in most cases.4. A positive value for FKT is a factor. If bending deformation dominates. For KEYOPT(10) = 1 or 2. Using FKT and SLTO ANSYS automatically defines a default tangential contact stiffness that is proportional to MU and the normal stiffness FKN. with a default of 0.9: “Depth of the Underlying Element”). and friction coefficient. The real constant SLTO is used to control maximum sliding distance when FKT is updated at each iteration. or beam element (see Figure 11. you should scale the force unit in the model if possible.1 . © SAS IP. shell.8. the global solution is still considered unconverged. FTOLN is a tolerance factor to be applied in the direction of the surface normal. You can override the default values for SLTO (1% of average contact length in pair) by defining a scaling factor (positive value when using command input) or an absolute value (negative value when using command input).

8. Penetration problems resulting from a low stiffness are easier to fix than convergence difficulties that arise from a high stiffness. The tangential contact stiffness will be updated at each iteration based on the current contact pressure. In most cases we recommend that you use KEYOPT(10) = 1 to allow the program to update contact stiffnesses automatically. Determining a good stiffness value may require some experimentation on your part. it is better to underestimate this value rather than overestimate it. PMAX. FKT. ANSYS Release 8. except in the first substep of the first load step. Run the analysis up to a fraction of the final load (just enough to get the contact fully established). same as KEYOPT(10) = 0. the normal contact stiffness will be reduced by a factor of 0. 4. for contact forcebased models (KEYOPT(3) = 0) in CONTA175. FTOLN. The default normal contact stiffness for the first substep of the first load step is the same as described for KEYOPT(10) = 0. the normal contact stiffness will be reduced by a factor of 0. either automatically (due to large strain effects that change the underlying element's stiffness) or explicitly (by user-specified FKN or FKT values). Using KEYOPT(10) The normal and tangential contact stiffness can be updated during the course of an analysis. Stiffness and other settings (ICONT.1 . PINB. FKN or FKT may be overestimated. FTOLN. Structural Analysis Guide . However. Check the penetration and the number of equilibrium iterations used in each substep. If bisections occur in the beginning of the analysis. Use a low value for the contact stiffness to start. and PMIN) are averaged across contact elements in a contact pair. FTOLN. If bisections occur in the beginning of the analysis.Chapter 11: Contact Note — FKN.4. © SAS IP. the contact stiffness has units FORCE/LENGTH.2 for each bisection. KEYOPT(10) = 1 (covers KEYOPT(10) = 0). SLTO. the normal contact stiffness will be updated at each iteration based on the current mean stress of the underlying elements and the allowable penetration.4. • • • 11–24 . except in the very first iteration. FKT has units FORCE/LENGTH3. • KEYOPT(10) = 0. and allowable slip (SLTO). KEYOPT(10) governs how the normal and tangential contact stiffness is updated when the augmented Lagrangian or penalty method is used. If bisections occur in the beginning of the analysis. you may increase FTOLN to permit more allowable penetration or increase FKN. Note — Generally. To arrive at a good stiffness value. and allowable slip (SLTO). the normal contact stiffness will be reduced by a factor of 0. If the global convergence requires many equilibrium iterations for achieving convergence tolerances of residual forces and displacements rather than the resulting penetration. 001972 . except stiffness and settings are not averaged across the contact elements in a contact pair. 3. if more iterations were used to converge the problem to within the penetration tolerance than to converge the residual forces). Inc. If the global convergence difficulty is caused by too much penetration (rather than by residual forces and displacement increments).4. FKN may be underestimated or FTOLN may be too small. The tangential contact stiffness will be updated at each iteration based on the current contact pressure. MU. Adjust FKN. MU. They can also be adjusted in a restart run. If the penetration control becomes dominant in the global equilibrium iterations (that is. the contact stiffness FKN. and SLTO can be modified from one load step to another. In general. The default contact stiffness is determined by underlying element depth and material properties.2 for each bisection. FTOLN. the normal contact stiffness will be updated at every substep based on the mean stress of the underlying elements from the previous substep and the allowable penetration. FKT. you can try the following procedure as a “trial run”: 1. KEYOPT(10) = 3. The default normal contact stiffness for the first iteration is the same as described for KEYOPT(10) = 0. 2. 11. KEYOPT(10) = 2 (covers KEYOPT(10) = 1). The possible settings for KEYOPT(10) are outlined below. the contact stiffness will be updated at each load step if FKN or FKT is redefined by the user. FTOLN.2 for each bisection. or SLTO as necessary and run the full analysis.

5. However. at which sliding on the surface begins as a fraction of the contact pressure p (τ = µp + COHE. 4) do not require contact stiffness.Section 11. 11. the two surfaces will slide relative to each other. but not necessarily an open contact status. Keep in mind the following when providing values for FTOLN and TNOP: • • A positive value is a scaling factor applied to the default values.8. then contact remains closed.1 . 11–25 .8. then the contact status changes from closed to open and ANSYS continues to the next iteration. KEYOPT(10) is ignored. The objective of FTOLN and TNOP is to provide stability to models which exhibit contact chattering due to changing contact status. FTOLN is the maximum allowable penetration and TNOP is the maximum allowable tensile contact pressure.4. the accuracy of the solution will be affected since a certain amount of penetration or tensile contact force is allowed. A negative value is used as an absolute value (which overrides the default). If the contact status from the previous iteration is closed and the current calculated contact pressure is positive but smaller than TNOP. Choosing a Friction Model 11. the solution will require more iterations. TNOP defaults to the force convergence tolerance divided by contact area at contact nodes. Otherwise the contact status switches to closed and another iteration is processed. FKN and FKT. ANSYS Release 8. same as KEYOPT(10) = 2. where µ is the friction coefficient and COHE specifies the cohesion sliding resistance). The sticking/sliding calculations determine when a point transitions from sticking to sliding or vice versa. except stiffness and settings are not averaged across the contact elements in a contact pair.5.8.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis • • KEYOPT(10) = 4. The behavior can be described as follows: • If the contact status from the previous iteration is open and the current calculated penetration is smaller than FTOLN. same as KEYOPT(10) = 1. 11. This state is known as sticking. © SAS IP. then contact remains open.5. A tensile contact pressure (positive) refers to a separation between the contact surfaces. FTOLN and TNOP. 001972 .4. If the tensile contact pressure is larger than TNOP.4. Instead they require chattering control parameters. Note — A negative contact pressure occurs when the contact status is closed. The Coulomb friction model defines an equivalent shear stress τ. • ANSYS will provide reasonable defaults for FTOLN and TNOP. Once the shear stress is exceeded. Background In the basic Coulomb friction model.4. Chattering Control Parameters The Lagrange multiplier methods (KEYOPT(2) = 3. except stiffness and settings are not averaged across the contact elements in a contact pair. 4) or MPC algorithm (KEYOPT(2) = 2) is used. Inc. KEYOPT(10) = 5. if the values are too large.1. Note — When a Lagrange multiplier method (KEYOPT(2) = 3. by which ANSYS assumes that the contact status remains unchanged. If the values you use for these tolerances are too small. two contacting surfaces can carry shear stresses up to a certain magnitude across their interface before they start sliding relative to each other. FTOLN defaults to the displacement convergence tolerance. Structural Analysis Guide . This state is known as sliding.

001972 . sliding will occur if the friction stress reaches this value. see Selecting Surface Interaction Models).Chapter 11: Contact For frictionless. Using an unsymmetric solver is more computationally expensive than a symmetric solver for each iteration. ANSYS provides one extension of classical Coulomb friction: TAUMAX is maximum contact friction with units of stress. It provides sliding resistance. FACT and DC are involved in specifying static and dynamic friction coefficients. the symmetric approximation to the stiffness matrix may provide a low rate of convergence. regardless of the magnitude of normal contact pressure. rough.4. Typically. You typically use TAUMAX when the contact pressure becomes very large (such as in bulk metal forming processes).0e20. σy Empirical data is often the best source for TAUMAX. Use MU = 0 for frictionless contact. the contact element stiffness matrices are symmetric. For rough or bonded contact (KEYOPT(12) = 1. and bonded contact. 3. .5. 3 .4. as described in the next section. If the underlying element is a superelement (MATRIX50). Its value may be close to the material being deformed. Figure 11. © SAS IP. FACT. ANSYS uses a symmetrization algorithm by which most frictional contact problems can be solved using solvers for symmetric systems. and COHE One of the material properties used for contact elements is input via the interface coefficient of friction.8.10: “Sliding Contact Resistance”). In such cases. Contact problems involving friction produce unsymmetric stiffnesses.2. ANSYS provides the following exponential decay friction model: µ = MU × (1 + (FACT − 1)exp( − DC × Vrel )) where: 11–26 Structural Analysis Guide .10 Sliding Contact Resistance Two other real constants. which has units of stress. ANSYS Release 8. TAUMAX defaults to 1. for the Coulomb friction model. choose the unsymmetric solution option (NROPT. ANSYS assumes infinite frictional resistance regardless of specified value of µ.1 . 5. Inc.UNSYM) to improve convergence. Static and Dynamic Friction Coefficients The coefficient of friction can depend on the relative velocity of the surfaces in contact. If frictional stresses have a substantial influence on the overall displacement field and the magnitude of the frictional stresses is highly solution dependent. MU can be specified as a function of temperature.3. For this reason. DC. 11. the static coefficient of friction is higher than the dynamic coefficient of friction. the material property set must be the same as the one used for the original elements that were assembled into the superelement.5. even with zero normal pressure (see Figure 11. Using TAUMAX. or 6. 11. COHE (default COHE = 0). This maximum contact friction stress can be introduced so that. where σy is the yield stress of Another real constant used for the friction law is the cohesion. MU.8.

Section 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis µ = coefficient of friction. MU = dynamic coefficient of friction input using the MP command. FACT = ratio of static to dynamic coefficients of friction. It defaults to the minimum value of 1.0 DC = decay coefficient. It defaults to 0.0 and it has units of time/length. Therefore, time has some meaning in a static analysis. Vrel = slip rate calculated by ANSYS. Figure 11.11: “Friction Decay” shows the exponential decay curve where the static coefficient of friction is given by:

µs

= FACT × MU

Figure 11.11 Friction Decay

You can determine the decay coefficient if you know the static and dynamic coefficients of friction and at least one data point (µ1 ; Vrel1). The equation for friction decay can be rearranged to give:

DC = −

**µ1 − MU × n Vrel1 (FACT − 1) × MU
**

1

If you do not specify a decay coefficient and FACT is greater than 1.0, the coefficient of friction will change suddenly from the static to the dynamic value as soon as contact reaches the sliding state. This behavior is not recommended because the discontinuity may lead to convergence difficulties.

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Chapter 11: Contact

**11.4.8.6. Selecting Location of Contact Detection
**

11.4.8.6.1. Background

Contact detection points are located at the integration points of the contact elements which are interior to the element surface. The contact element is constrained against penetration into the target surface at its integration points. However, the target surface can, in principle, penetrate through into the contact surface, see Figure 11.12: “Contact Detection Located at Gauss Point”.

Figure 11.12 Contact Detection Located at Gauss Point

ANSYS surface-to-surface contact elements use Gauss integration points as a default, which generally provide more accurate results than the nodal detection scheme, which uses the nodes themselves as the integration points. The node-to-surface contact element CONTA175 always uses the nodal detection scheme.

**11.4.8.6.2. Using KEYOPT(4) and TOLS
**

The nodal detection algorithms require the smoothing of the contact surface (KEYOPT(4) = 1) or the smoothing of the target surface (KEYOPT(4) = 2), which is quite time consuming. You should use this option only to deal with corner, point-surface, or edge-surface contact (see Figure 11.13: “Contact Detection Point Location at Nodal Point”). KEYOPT(4) = 1 specifies that the contact normal be perpendicular to the contact surface. KEYOPT(4) = 2 specifies that the contact normal be perpendicular to the target surface. Use this option (KEYOPT(4) = 2) when the target surface is smoother than the contact surface.

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Section 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis

Figure 11.13 Contact Detection Point Location at Nodal Point

Be aware, however, that using nodes as the contact detection points can lead to other convergence difficulties, such as "node slippage," where the node slips off the edge of the target surface, see Figure 11.14: “Node Slippage Using Nodal Integration KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2”. In order to prevent node slippage, you can use real constant TOLS to extend the target surface when the default setting still cannot avoid the problem. For most point-to-surface contact problems, we recommend using CONTA175; see Section 11.6: Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis later in this chapter.

Figure 11.14 Node Slippage Using Nodal Integration KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2

Smoothing is required for nodal detection algroithms, and it is performed by averaging surface normals connected to the node. As a result, the variation of the surface normal is continuous over the surface, which leads to a better calculation of friction behavior and a better convergence.

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Chapter 11: Contact Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally extend the edge of the target surface when you define the contact detection at the nodal point (KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2). TOLS is useful for problems where contact nodes are likely to lie on the edge of targets (as at symmetry planes or for models generated in a nodeto-node contact pattern). In these situations, the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off the target surface and go completely out of contact, resulting in convergence difficulties from oscillations. Units for TOLS are percent (1.0 implies a 1.0% increase in the target edge length). A small value of TOLS will usually prevent this situation from occurring. The default value is 10 for small deflection and 2 for large deflection (NLGEOM, ON). Note — The definition of KEYOPT(4) in node-to-surface contact element CONTA175 is different. KEYOPT(4) = 1 for surface-to-surface contact is equivalent to KEYOPT(4) = 1 for node-to-surface contact. However, KEYOPT(4) = 2 for surface-to-surface contact is equivalent to KEYOPT(4) = 0 for node-to surface contact. See Section 11.6.1.1.2: KEYOPT(4).

**11.4.8.7. Adjusting Initial Contact Conditions
**

11.4.8.7.1. Background

Rigid body motion is usually not a problem in dynamic analyses. However, in static analyses, rigid body motion occurs when a body is not sufficiently restrained. "Zero or negative pivot" warning messages and impractical, excessively large displacements indicate unconstrained motion in a static analysis. In simulations where rigid body motions are constrained only by the presence of contact, you must ensure that the contact pairs are in contact in the initial geometry. In other words, you want to build your model so that the contact pairs are "just touching." However, you can encounter various problems in doing so: • • • Rigid body profiles are often complicated, making it difficult to determine where the first point of contact might occur. Small gaps between element meshes on both sides of the element pair can be introduced by numerical round-off, even if the solid model is built in an initially-contacting state. Small gaps can exist between the integration points of the contact elements and target surface elements.

For the same reasons, too much initial penetration between target and contact surfaces can occur. In such cases, the contact elements may overestimate the contact forces, resulting in nonconvergence or in breaking-away of the components in contact. The definition of initial contact is perhaps the most important aspect of building a contact analysis model. Therefore, you should always issue the CNCHECK command before starting the solution to verify the initial contact status. You may find that you need to adjust the initial contact conditions. ANSYS offers several ways to adjust the initial contact conditions of a contact pair.

**11.4.8.7.2. Using PMIN, PMAX, CNOF, ICONT, KEYOPT(5), and KEYOPT(9)
**

The following techniques can be performed independently or in combinations of one or more at the beginning of the analysis. They are intended to eliminate small gaps or penetrations caused by numerical round-off due to mesh generation. They are not intended to correct gross errors in either the mesh or in the geometric data. 1. Use real constant CNOF to specify a contact surface offset. Specify a positive value to offset the entire contact surface towards the target surface. Use a negative value to offset the contact surface away from the target surface.

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Section 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Note — If user-defined values are input for both CNOF and PINB, you must ensure that PINB is greater than CNOF. Otherwise, CNOF will be ignored. However, if a user-defined CNOF is input and the PINB value is left at its default value, the PINB value will be adjusted so that it is larger than the CNOF value, as described in Using PINB. ANSYS can automatically provide the CNOF value to either just close the gap or reduce initial penetration. Set KEYOPT(5) as follows: 1: Closes the gap 2: Reduces initial penetration 3: Either closes the gap or reduces initial penetration 2. Use the real constant ICONT to specify a small initial contact closure. This is the depth of an "adjustment band" around the target surface. A positive value for ICONT indicates a scaling factor relative to the depth of the underlying elements. A negative value indicates an absolute contact closure value. The value of ICONT defaults to zero if KEYOPT(5) = 0, 1, 2, or 3. (The ICONT default is different when KEYOPT(12) = 6 for bonded-initial contact; see Section 11.4.8.11: Selecting Surface Interaction Models for more information). If KEYOPT(5) = 4, ANSYS provides a small (but meaningful) value for ICONT according to the geometric dimensions, and prints a warning message stating what value was assigned. Any contact detection points that fall within this adjustment band are internally shifted to be on the target surface (see Figure 11.15: “Contact Surface Adjustment With ICONT”(a)). Only a very small correction is suggested; otherwise, severe discontinuity may occur (see Figure (b)). The difference between CNOF and ICONT is that the former shifts the entire contact surface with the distance value CNOF, the latter moves all initially open contact points which are inside of adjustment band ICONT onto the target surface.

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Chapter 11: Contact

**Figure 11.15 Contact Surface Adjustment With ICONT
**

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Use real constants PMIN and PMAX to specify an initial allowable penetration range. When either PMAX or PMIN is specified, ANSYS brings the target surface into a state of initial contact at the beginning of the analysis (see Figure 11.16: “Contact Surface Adjustment (PMIN, PMAX)”). If the initial penetration is larger than PMAX, ANSYS adjusts the target surface to reduce penetration. If the initial penetration is smaller than PMIN (and within the pinball region), ANSYS adjusts the target surface to ensure initial contact. Initial adjustment for contact status is performed only in translational modes. Such adjustment of initial contact status will be performed for a rigid target surface that has either prescribed loads or displacements. Similarly, a target surface that has no boundary conditions specified may also be adjusted for initial contact. When all the target surface nodes have a prescribed value of zero, the initial adjustment using PMAX and PMIN will not be performed. Note that ANSYS treats applicable degrees of freedom for target surface nodes independently. For example, if you specify the UX degree of freedom to be "zero," then no initial adjustment is possible along the X direction. However, the PMAX and PMIN options will still be activated in the Y and Z directions.

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Section 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis The initial status adjustment is an iterative process. ANSYS uses a maximum of 20 iterations. If the target surface cannot be brought into an acceptable penetration range (i.e., in the range of PMIN to PMAX), the analysis proceeds with the original geometry. ANSYS issues a warning message in such circumstances, and you may need to manually adjust your initial geometry. Figure 11.17: “A Scenario in Which Initial Adjustment Will Fail” illustrates a problem in which initial contact adjustment iteration will fail. The UY degree of freedom for the target has been restrained. Therefore, the only possible adjustment for initial contact is in the X direction. However, in this problem, any movement of the rigid target surface in the X direction will not establish initial contact. For flexible-to-flexible contact, this technique not only moves the entire target surface but also moves the whole deformable body which attaches to the target surface. Make sure there is no other contact surface or target surface connecting with the deformable body.

Figure 11.16 Contact Surface Adjustment (PMIN, PMAX)

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Chapter 11: Contact

Figure 11.17 A Scenario in Which Initial Adjustment Will Fail

4.

Set KEYOPT(9) to adjust initial penetration or gap; see Figure 11.18: “Ignoring Initial Penetration, KEYOPT(9) = 1”. True initial penetration includes two parts: • • Penetration or gap due to geometry Penetration or gap due to user-defined contact surface offset (CNOF).

See Figure 11.19: “Components of True Penetration”. KEYOPT(9) provides the following capabilities: • • To include initial penetration from both geometry and contact surface offset, set KEYOPT(9) = 0. This is the default. To ignore initial penetration from both effects, set KEYOPT(9) = 1. When KEYOPT(12) = 4 or 5, this setting for KEYOPT(9) will also ignore the initial force in open-gap springs, thus creating an initially "perfect" contacting surface having no initial forces acting across the contact interface. To include the defined contact surface offset (CNOF) but ignore the initial penetration due to geometry, set KEYOPT(9) = 3. When KEYOPT(12) = 4 or 5, this setting for KEYOPT(9) will also ignore the initial force in open-gap springs, thus creating an initially "perfect" contacting surface having no initial forces acting across the contact interface.

•

For problems such as an interference fit, over-penetration is expected. These problems often have convergence difficulties if the initial penetration is step-applied in the first load step. You may overcome convergence difficulties by ramping the initial penetration over the first load step, see Figure 11.20: “Ramping Initial Interference”. The following KEYOPT(9) settings provide ramped capabilities: • • To ramp the total initial penetration (CNOF + the offset due to geometry), set KEYOPT(9) = 2. To ramp the defined contact surface penetration, but ignore the penetration due to geometry, set KEYOPT(9) = 4.

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Section 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis For both of the above KEYOPT(9) settings, you should also set KBC,0 and not specify any external loads in the first load step. Also, be sure that the pinball region is big enough to capture the initial interference. You can use the above techniques in conjunction with each other. For example, you may wish to set a very precise initial penetration or gap but the initial coordinates of the finite element nodes may not be able to provide sufficient precision. To accomplish this, you could: 1. 2. 3. Use ICONT to move the initial open contact points just onto the target surface. Use CNOF to specify a penetration (positive value) or gap (negative value). Use KEYOPT(9) = 3 to resolve the initial penetration in the first substep (or KEYOPT(9) = 4 to gradually resolve the initial penetration).

Figure 11.18 Ignoring Initial Penetration, KEYOPT(9) = 1

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.Chapter 11: Contact Figure 11. © SAS IP.1 . Inc. 001972 .19 Components of True Penetration 11–36 Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 8.

4. outside of the pinball region). See Positive and Negative Real Constants for more information on these real constants.1 . Physically Moving Contact Nodes Towards the Target Surface The initial contact status can be adjusted to close the gap by defining real constant ICONT or by ignoring the penetration (setting KEYOPT(9) = 1).e. This occurs when the target surface is far from contact (i.Section 11.20 Ramping Initial Interference ANSYS provides a printout (in the output window or file or via the CNCHECK) of the model's initial contact state for each target surface at the beginning of the analysis. 11–37 . 001972 .8. If no contact is detected for a specific target surface. This problem can be alleviated by issuing the CNCHECK.8. ANSYS issues a warning. 11.ADJUST command. However the initial contact adjustment is kept during the entire analysis as a rigid zone. © SAS IP. ANSYS Release 8.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis Figure 11. or when the contact/target elements have been killed.. which physically moves contact nodes towards the target surface under the following circumstances: Structural Analysis Guide . Inc. The initial contact adjustment can cause a certain amount of residual force if a large rotation appears at the contact surface. This information is helpful for determining the maximum penetration or minimum gap for each target surface.

ANSYS monitors each contact element and assigns a status: • • • • STAT = 0 Open far-field contact STAT = 1 Open near-field contact STAT = 2 Sliding contact STAT = 3 Sticking contact A contact element is considered to be in near-field contact when its integration points (Gauss points or nodal points) are within a code-calculated (or user-defined) distance to the corresponding target surface.4. the coordinates of the nodes that have been moved are modified as shown in Figure 11.Chapter 11: Contact • • • Only when using the nodal detection option (KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2). 001972 . ANSYS Release 8. Initially penetrated nodes with KEYOPT(9) = 1.8.ADJUST command. Figure 11.9.1 . © SAS IP. After issuing the CNCHECK. Initially open contact nodes inside the ICONT zone.1. . For those contact pairs whose contact nodes you do not wish to physically move towards target surface.4.DB file with the original contact configuration.21 Effect of Moving Contact Nodes 11. Background The position and motion of a contact element relative to its associated target surface determines the contact element status. You can change other contact related settings in PREP7 (for example.8. or when using CONTA175.9. set KEYOPT(4) = 0 to use the Gauss detection option) and save the db file. Determining Contact Status and the Pinball Region 11.21: “Effect of Moving Contact Nodes”.ADJUST command is recommended in order to resume the . Issuing the SAVE command before issuing the CNCHECK. Inc. This distance 11–38 Structural Analysis Guide . do not define KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2.

Setting a proper pinball region is useful to overcome spurious contact definitions if the target surface has several convex regions.8. ANSYS defines the pinball region as a circle for 2-D or a sphere for 3-D of radius 4*depth (if rigid-to-flexible contact) or 2*depth (if flexibleto-flexible contact) of the underlying element. © SAS IP.8.8. See Positive and Negative Real Constants for more information on this real constant. The most complex calculations occur once the elements are in actual contact.11: Selecting Surface Interaction Models for more information. ANSYS Release 8.4.9. (See the discussion of element depth in Section 11.OFF). the PINB default is different than described here. Far-field contact element calculations are simple and add little computational demands.ON). ANSYS may erroneously assume contact between a contact and target surface that are in very close geometrical position as shown below. You can specify PINB to have any value.) If you include no large-deflection effects (NLGEOM. 0 3 ¦98 7 #6 5¥ 0 ©©¡ ) ¡ 31 4¦£¤¦© 3 ¡ #$ 220 ¥ © §¥ ¡ 0 ) ) ' % #¥ § ¨¤(&£¤¡ $"!©¡ 11–39 § ¡ £ ¥ § £ ¤©¨¥¦¤¡¢ § ¡ £ ¥ ) 9$¤"CAB5§ @ .2.1. the default setting should be appropriate for most contact problems.4. However.4. (For the no-separation (KEYOPT(12) = 4) and bonded-always (KEYOPT(12) = 5 options. See Section 11.4. The computational cost of searching for contact depends on the size of the pinball region.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis is referred to as the pinball region. and assuming that large deflection effects apply (NLGEOM.22 Auto Spurious Prevention Structural Analysis Guide . the default pinball region is half that of the large-deflection case.1: Positive and Negative Real Constant Values. The near-field calculations (for contact elements that are nearly or actually in contact) are slower and more complex.1 . 11.8. Using PINB Use real constant PINB to specify a scaling factor (positive value for PINB when using command input) or absolute value (negative value for PINB when using command input) for the pinball region. Avoiding Spurious Contact in Self Contact Problems In some cases of self contact. the default for PINB will be set to the absolute value of (1. By default.) Note — If you input a value for real constant CNOF (contact surface offset) and the default PINB value (as described above) is less than the absolute value of CNOF. Inc.1*CNOF).Section 11. The pinball region is a circle (in 2-D) or a sphere (in 3-D) centered about the Gauss point. Figure 11. 11. 001972 .10.

11. • • • • • KEYOPT(12) = 0 models standard unilateral contact. KEYOPT(12) = 2 models no separation contact. We assume it (may be more elements) is spurious contact. ANSYS issues such messages only once per load step. KEYOPT(12) = 3 models "bonded" contact.1 . in which the target and contact surfaces are tied (although sliding is permitted) for the remainder of the analysis once contact is established. The default FKOP value is 1. in which contact detection points that are either initially inside the pinball region or that once involve contact always attach to the target surface along the normal and tangent directions to the contact surface (fully bonded).Chapter 11: Contact ANSYS will alert you when it first detects spurious contact in each load step. Inc. you'll see the following error message: Contact element x has too much penetration related to target element y. in which the contact detection points that are initially in a closed state will remain attached to the target surface and the contact detection points that are initially in an open state will remain open throughout the analysis. Background The surface-to-surface contact elements support normal unilateral contact models as well as other mechanical surface interaction models. KEYOPT(12) = 4 models no separation contact. Using KEYOPT(12) and FKOP Use KEYOPT(12) to model different contact surface behaviors. If ANSYS encounters such contact on the first load step.11. Also. 11. in which the target and contact surfaces are bonded in all directions (once contact is established) for the remainder of the analysis. Selecting Surface Interaction Models 11. KEYOPT(12) = 5 models bonded contact. and that force may not completely prevent separation.1.8. 11.11. KEYOPT(12) = 1 models perfectly rough frictional contact where there is no sliding. • • For modeling either no-separation or bonded contact. This provides a stiffness factor applied when contact opens. you may need to set a value for the FKOP real constant.2.8. you'll see the following message: Contact element x status changed abruptly with target element y. If FKOP is an absolute value (negative value for command input). It does not notify you of additional cases of spurious contact that were ignored during the load step. No separation and bonded contact generate a "pull-back" force when contact opening occurs. . KEYOPT(12) = 6 models bonded contact. We assume it (may be more elements) is spurious contact. If ANSYS encounters an abrupt change in contact that it classifies as spurious contact. in which contact detection points that are either initially inside the pinball region or that once involve contact always attach to the target surface along the normal direction to the contact surface (sliding is permitted).4. If FKOP is a scaling factor (positive value for command input).4. This case corresponds to an infinite friction coefficient and ignores the material property MU.8. define a larger value for FKOP. ANSYS Release 8.4. in some cases separation is expected while connection between the contacting surfaces is required to prevent rigid body 11–40 Structural Analysis Guide . To reduce separation. the value is applied as an absolute contact opening stiffness. © SAS IP. the true contact opening stiffness equals FKOP times the contact stiffness applied when contact closes. 001972 . that is. normal pressure equals zero if separation occurs.

4.2: Using PINB for more information. 11–41 . use real constant R2 to specify the thickness.25 (25% of the contact depth) for small deformation analysis (NLGEOM. For these KEYOPT(12) settings. the contact and target surface must be defined on the surface of the original elements before they are assembled into a superelement. ANSYS will automatically detect whether the underlying element is a superelement.OFF) and 0.4.4. a relatively small PINB value (pinball region) may be used to prevent any false contact.4.Section 11. Using KEYOPT(3) Use KEYOPT(3) to provide information for the 2-D analysis with superelements. it has no surface geometry on which ANSYS can define a contact and target surface. ANSYS Release 8. Therefore.05 (5% of the contact depth) when KEYOPT(5) = 0 or 4. In such instances. you can specify a small value for FKOP to maintain the connection between the contact surfaces (this is a "weak spring" effect). Remember that any contact or target nodes must be either all master nodes of the superelements or all slave nodes of the superelements. 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis motion.8. Information taken from the superelement includes nodal connection and assembly stiffness. the options are as follows: • • • • No superelement used (KEYOPT(3) = 0) Axisymmetric. Note that for this case. a relatively large ICONT value (initial contact closure) may be used to capture the contact.9. Background The surface-to-surface contact elements can model a rigid body (or one linear elastic body) contacting another linear elastic body undergoing small motions.8.2.8. Structural Analysis Guide .8. See Section 11. In 3-D contact analysis. For this KEYOPT(12) setting.12. These elastic bodies can be modeled using superelements. plane stress. When the contact pair is built in original elements used to generate superelements. Because the superelement consists only of a group of retained nodal degrees of freedom. Modeling Contact with Superelements 11.12. 001972 . (The default PINB value may differ from what is described here if CNOF is input. See Positive and Negative Real Constants for more information on these real constants. Inc.1 .12.ON). KEYOPT(3) in elements CONTA173 and CONTA174 is ignored. © SAS IP.5 (50% of the contact depth) for large deformation analysis (NLGEOM.) For the bonded-initial option (KEYOPT(12) = 6). which greatly reduces the number of degrees of freedom involved in the contact iteration. 11. use with superelements only (KEYOPT(3) = 2) Plane stress with thickness input use with superelements only (KEYOPT(3) = 3). or plane strain). the default for ICONT is 0. use with superelements only (KEYOPT(3) = 1) Plane strain or plane stress with unit thickness. the default for PINB is 0. One restriction is that the material property set used for the contact elements must be the same as the one used for the original elements before they were assembled into superelements. but no material property or stress states (whether axisymmetric.1. the contact status will not change from its initial status. In elements CONTA171 and CONTA172. For the no-separation option (KEYOPT(12) = 4) and the bonded-always option (KEYOPT(12) = 5).

4. and KEYOPT(7) = 3 provides the most control. By default. KEYOPT(11) = 0 for SHELL91).8. or if the contact status changes dramatically.Chapter 11: Contact Note — KEYOPT(3) in node-to surface contact element CONTA175 has a different meaning. .2: Steps in a Contact Analysis.4.6.8. 001972 .14. See Section 11. This setting is appropriate for most analyses when automatic time stepping is activated and a small time step size is allowed. ANSYS Release 8. and beams and shells are discretized at their mid-surface in which penetration distance is calculated from the mid-surface. Note — Only use KEYOPT(11) = 1 to account for thickness when you have shell or beam elements with nodes located at the middle surface (for example. not the mid-surface.14. Using KEYOPT(11) When you set KEYOPT(11) = 1 to account for beam or shell thickness. all of the real constant inputs and contact result quantities have the same units as the surface-to-surface contact elements. remember the offsets which may come from either the contact surface or target surface or from both. The time step size is unaffected by the prediction. it is defined from the top or bottom of the shell/beam. 11. 11.1. Background Time step control is an automatic time stepping feature that predicts when the status of a contact element will change and cuts the current time step back. In this case.1.1: KEYOPT(3).15.1.8.8. © SAS IP.1. In CONTA175. Using KEYOPT(7) Use KEYOPT(7) to take one of four actions to control time stepping.8.4. The elements can be removed for part of an analysis and then reactivated 11–42 Structural Analysis Guide . 11.4.1 . • • • • KEYOPT(7) = 0: No control.4. When used with SHELL181.2. ANSYS will automatically shift both the contact and target surfaces which are attached to shell/beam elements. Using the Birth and Death Option The surface-to-surface contact and target elements allow birth and death and also follow the birth and death status of their underlying elements. ANSYS will automatically shift the contact surface to the bottom or top of the shell/beam surface.4. Inc. Background You can account for the thickness of shells (2-D and 3-D) and beams (2-D) using KEYOPT(11).2. if you are going to account for thickness. Using Time Step Control 11. KEYOPT(7) = 3: Predict a minimal time increment for the next substep. Accounting for Thickness Effect 11. the contact distance is calculated from either the top or the bottom surface as specified previously in Section 11. 11. KEYOPT(7) = 2: Predict a reasonable increment for the next substep. certain real constants and contact result quantities can have different units (a factor of AREA (Length2) difference).14.4. KEYOPT(3) = 1 defines the contact traction-based model. For rigid-to-flexible contact. In this model. KEYOPT(3) = 0 (default) defines the contact force model.8.13. where KEYOPT(7) = 0 provides no control (the default). KEYOPT(7) = 1: Time step size is bisected if too much penetration occurs during an iteration. When you specify a contact offset (CNOF) along with setting KEYOPT(11) = 1.4. changes in thickness during deformation are also taken into account. For flexible-to-flexible contact. ANSYS does not account for the element thickness.13. When building your model geometry.8. 11.13.

This option cannot be used with "no separation" or bonded contact. Keep in mind the following restrictions on the target surface when using a pilot node: • • • • Each target surface can have only one pilot node.1 . If you want to apply any loads or constraints on the rigid target surface. The location of the pilot node becomes important only when rotations or moments are to be applied. If you need to attach the rigid surface to another element. then ANSYS treats the target nodes along the respective degree of freedom as fixed: • • • There are no explicit boundary conditions or prescribed forces for target surface nodes.. To account for a rigid body's mass.g. concentrated loads. ANSYS will automatically define an internal node and an internal constraint equation. You cannot use constraint equations (CE) or node coupling (CP) to control the degree of freedom of the target surface when a pilot node has been defined. The target surface is connected to other elements (e. you must define a pilot node and apply the loads to that pilot node. Controlling the Motion of the Rigid Target Surface (Rigid-to-Flexible Contact) Rigid target surfaces are defined in their original configuration. etc. Only the pilot node can connect to other elements. ANSYS Release 8. The target surface is subjected to rotations. Inc. Neither constraint equations nor node coupling have been used to constrain such nodes. and three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom in 3-D. define a mass element (MASS21) on the pilot node. This feature is useful for modeling complex metal forming processes where multiple rigid target surfaces need to interact with the contact surface at different stages of the analysis. Structural Analysis Guide . Target surface nodes are not connected to other elements. ANSYS checks the boundary conditions for each target surface. 001972 . Springback modeling often requires removing the rigid tools at the end of the forming processes. If all of the following conditions are met. KEYOPT(2) = 0 for the target element. © SAS IP. it should not be the node on the contact element. If you do not use a pilot node. 11.4. Note — The pilot node can be one of the nodes on the target elements or a node at any arbitrary location. you can have rigid body motions only. including two translational and one rotational degree of freedom in 2-D. to the pilot node.9. You can apply boundary conditions (displacement.Section 11. For each pilot node. initial velocity). 11–43 . rotations. you must use the pilot node to do so. The degrees of freedom of the pilot node represent the motion of the entire rigid surface. The motion of the target surface is adjusted by the equilibrium condition. ANSYS ignores all boundary conditions on all nodes other than the pilot node. By default. The rotational DOF of the pilot node is connected to the translational DOF of the internal node by the internal constraint equation. and the motion of the entire surface is then defined by the imposed displacements on the pilot node (or the different nodes of the target surface if no pilot node was defined). structural mass element MASS21). However. You must use a pilot node in any of the following situations to control the boundary conditions (and motion) of the entire target surface: • • • • The target surface is subjected to applied forces.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis for a later stage.

ANSYS releases the constraint conditions that were set internally.4. ANSYS Release 8. Note — When KEYOPT(1) is set to 2. The external flux value contributes to the contact surface. When this KEYOPT is set. set KEYOPT(1) = 2. Heat flux input. Heat convection from a “free surface” to the environment or between two open surfaces separated by small gap (“near field” convection). Near-Field Contact: Both heat convection and radiation between the contact and target surfaces are taken into account. © SAS IP. • • • • • Thermal contact conduction between two contacting surfaces. you can control the constraint conditions of target nodes by setting KEYOPT(2) = 1 in the target element definition.1. Modeling Thermal Contact You can use surface-to-surface contact elements and the node-to-surface contact element. Which feature is active depends on the contact status: Closed Contact: Thermal contact conduction transfers heat between two contacting surfaces. Free Thermal Surface If you wish to model free surface convection. The constraint conditions stored in the results file (Jobname. Heat radiation from a “free surface” to the environment or between two open surfaces separated by a small gap (“near field” radiation). In this case.2.10. there is no convective and radiative heat transfer between the contact and target surfaces. A free thermal surface can be a contact surface with no associated target (that is. set KEYOPT(1) = 1. To activate the thermal DOF only. 001972 . the contact pair lacks target elements). You should carefully verify whether the current constraint conditions are expected before restarting an analysis or resolving the problem in interactive mode. . or a surface with a supplied heat flux value.DB) may be updated due to this change. in combination with thermal-structural coupled field solid elements or thermal elements. you can define a “free” thermal surface.Chapter 11: Contact At the end of each load step. You can also set KEYOPT(3) = 1 of the target element type definition to define a free thermal surface. The following thermal contact features are supported.4. Contact Status Each contact pair can cover one or more thermal contact features. To activate both the structural and thermal DOFs. 11. If you wish. Frictional Sliding: Frictional dissipated energy generates the heat to both the contact and target surfaces.1 . free surface radiation. Inc. 11. to model heat transfer that occurs in the contact surface.RST) and the database file (Jobname. 11. both free surface radiation and convection are considered as long as open contact is detected. Free-Surface Contact: Heat convection and radiation between the contact surface and the environment are taken into account.10.4. The external flux value only contributes to both contact and target surfaces. 11–44 Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS ignores heat generation due to friction. Heat generation due to frictional dissipation.10. Thermal Contact Behavior vs.

4. Figure 11. TCC has units of heat/(time x area x temp). a small value of TCC yields a measure amount of imperfect contact and a temperature discontinuity across the interface. you need to specify the thermal contact conductance coefficient TCC through a real constant table. it is assumed that no heat is transferred across the interface. having units of HEAT/(TIME * TEMPERATURE * AREA) for force-based node-to-surface contact. Modeling Conduction To take into account the conductive heat transfer between contact and target surfaces. The temperature at the intersection between the target surface and the normal from the contact detection point represents the target temperature. The temperature on the pilot node represents the entire rigid target surface temperature if the pilot node exists. which can be made a function of temperature [(Tc + Tt)/2]. or near field radiation. TCC: is the thermal contact conductance coefficient.4. If contact occurs. and location by using the %TABLE% option. however. near field convection. When not in contact. For large values of TCC.10. a temperature for both the contact and target surfaces is required. Tt and Tc: are the temperatures of the contact points on the target and contact surfaces. Structural Analysis Guide . Temperature on Target Surface For interface heat conduction.Section 11.4. The TCC value is input through a real constant. To model contact conduction between two surfaces where a small gap exists. ANSYS Release 8.10. the resulting temperature discontinuity tends to vanish and perfect thermal contact is approached.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11. Using TCC The conductive heat transfer between two contacting surfaces is defined by q = TCC X (Tt -Tc) where: q: is the heat flux per area.23 Target Temperature 11. © ¡ ¨© ¤ 9 8¤§ (75£¤&3 )64 ¡ © ¨¡© ¤ © § ¥£ ¡ ¨¦¤¢ © § £ ) § '© ¤ )(¨21¦¤§© 0(¨©¡ §¦&$%¡¦¤#"¤§¨¨ £ © £ § ! © © § ¥£ ¡ 11–45 . pressure. time. 11. or units of HEAT/(TIME * TEMPERATURE) for the traction-based model.4. © SAS IP.4.1 .10. use KEYOPT(12) = 4 or 5 to define either the “bonded contact” or “no-separation contact” options (see Selecting Surface Interaction Models).1.3. 001972 . Inc.

you must specify the heat convection coefficient CONV using the SFE command. you must use the following contact element key options: KEYOPT(1) = 2 . CONV can be a constant value (only uniform is allowed) or a function of temperature. time. Stefan-Boltzmann constant SBCT through a real constant.JCG/ICCG The following two cases are supported: • • Thermal conductivity at contact.10. Background To model radiative heat transfer. For free surface convection.) To do so. This case requires the internal MPC approach (KEYOPT(2) = 2) and contact nodal detections (KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2) or CONTA175.TRANS THOPT. Environment (ambient) temperature.4. If you define your data in terms of degrees Fahrenheit or degrees Celsius.5. specified through the material property definition. Inc. (See Nonlinear Options in the ANSYS Thermal Analysis Guide for more information on this solver option. © SAS IP. which can be a function of time and temperature.6.Bonded always or bonded initial The following solver options must also be set: ANTYPE. You can access this command through the following GUI paths: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props • • Radiation view factor RDVF.4.Temperature DOF only KEYOPT(12) = 5 or 6 . .4. you must specify a temperature offset using the TOFFST command.2. 001972 .1 . and location as specified through tabular input. specified through a real constant.10.4. Using the Quasi Solver Option You can take advantage of the fast thermal transient solver option (THOPT.10. you must specify bulk temperature through the SFE command.QUASI EQSLV. Modeling Convection To model convective heat transfer.4.1. 11–46 Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 11: Contact 11. ANSYS Release 8. The only real constant used is TCC. Offset temperature TOFFST. It is only used for free radiation and input on the SFE command with KVAL = 2 and CONV as a table parameter (this is the same as the bulk temperature in free surface convection modeling). 11. you need to specify one of the following: • • • Emissivity value EMIS.10.6.QUASI) in the contact analysis. Perfect thermal contact which supports dissimilar meshes on both sides of the contacting interface (TCC = infinity). You can access this command through the following GUI paths: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Convection> On Elements> Uniform Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Convection> On Elements> Uniform 11. Modeling Radiation 11.

If you enter 0. 1E-8). 11–47 . The radiation modeling here assumes that the radiative heat transfer occurs in the direction of the normal between two surfaces with a small gap.Section 11. For “near field” radiation. Two real constants are required: • • FHTG is the frictional dissipated energy converted into heat.4. you can account for geometry effects. For far field radiation. heat transfer through radiation can occur.10. 001972 .4.10. RDVF is set to 1. Modeling Heat Generation Due to Friction 11. you must include transient effects on the thermal DOF. The equation is defined by q = RDVF x EMIS x SBCT [(Te + TOFFST)4 .) EMIS: The surface emissivity (input as material property). RDVF can be defined as a function of temperature.10. ANSYS Release 8.1 . The amount of frictional dissipation on contact and target surfaces is defined by Structural Analysis Guide . ANSYS interprets this as an input of the default value. FWGT is the weight factor for the distribution of heat between contact and target surfaces.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11. and if this is not defined the radiation effect is excluded.4. the rate of frictional dissipation is given by q = FHTG x τ x V Where τ: The equivalent frictional stress.OFF. Use the Radiosity Solver method for more generalized radiation problems (see the ANSYS Thermal Analysis Guide for more information). gap distance. V: The sliding rate. 11.STRUC.4. time. © SAS IP.7. RDVF: The radiation view factor input as a real constant (defaults to 1). It is only used for near field radiation. For “free surface” radiation. you should perform a coupled transient thermal-structural analysis. 11.7.6. Te becomes the “ambient” temperature defined by “bulk temperature” input from the SFE command (using KVAL = 2 and CONV as the table). FHTG: The fraction of frictional dissipated energy converted into heat. There is no default for SBCT. SBCT: The Stefan-Boltzmann constant (input as a real constant). you must enter a very small value (for example. By defining RDVF as a function of gap.7.2. and the gap distance is smaller than the pinball radius.1. Background In order to model heat generation due to frictional dissipated energy. Other freesurface conditions recognize user-specified RDVF.10. Te is the target temperature at the intersection. If you wish you can turn off transient effects on structural DOFs by using TIMINT.2. This value defaults to 1 and can be input as a real constant. when an intersection from a contact detection point to the target surface (in the direction of normal to the contact point) is detected. Inc.0 and a user-assigned value is ignored. For an input of true 0. However. and location by using the %TABLE% option.(Tc + TOFFST)4] Where TOFFST: The temperature offset from absolute zero to zero (defined through the TOFFST command. Using FHTG and FWGT In the coupled thermal-structural contact modeling. Using SBCT and RDVF When contact is open.

FWGT) x FHTG x τ x V Where qc is the contact side and qT is the target side. Electric charge across the contacting interface. KEYOPT(1) provides degree of freedom options for modeling electric contact. For either case. Inc.5. for near field contact. and time.4. . contact interaction can occur between two surfaces separated by a narrow gap.1. set KEYOPT(1) = 3 to activate the structural. 001972 . By default. average temperature on contact detection point (temperature as a table). the external flux is only applied on the contact side. in combination with piezoelectric and electrostatic elements. set KEYOPT(1) = 6 to activate the electrostatic DOF. For piezoelectric contact. thermal.1. On a given contact element either CONV or HFLUX (but not both) may be specified.1. If the “bonded contact” or “no-separation contact” option is set. You specify ECC through a real constant table.4. 11–48 Structural Analysis Guide .1 . However. Heat generation due to electric dissipation. and FWGT is the weight factor for the distribution of heat between the contact and target surfaces (input as a real constant).10. this parameter is ECC. The electric contact features are: • • • Electric conduction between two contacting surfaces. set KEYOPT(1) = 5 to activate the structural and piezoelectric DOFs. in combination with thermal-electric elements and solid coupled field elements to model electric current conduction. If you enter 0. if KEYOPT(3) of the target element is set to 1. Heat flux cannot be applied on target elements.8. However. you can define two different contact pairs: one models convection and the other models heat flux. to model electric charge across a contacting interface. 11.4. you need to specify the electric contact conductance per unit area if you are using the electric current degree of freedom. You can also use surface-to-surface contact elements. ANSYS Release 8. For an input of true 0.4. 11.11. Only uniform flux can be applied.11. For electrostatic contact. For a free thermal surface. For combined structural/thermal/electric contact. the external flux is applied on contact and will contribute to target elements. FWGT = 0. ANSYS interprets this as an input of the default value. and electric current DOFs.Chapter 11: Contact qc = FWGT x FHTG x τ x V and qT = (1 . 11.11. © SAS IP. or the electric contact capacitance per unit area if you are using the piezoelectric or electrostatic degrees of freedom. Modeling Surface Interaction 11. Modeling External Heat Flux You can apply heat flux on the contact elements through the SFE command. 1E-8). Background To take into account the surface interaction for electric contact. You can use a tabular input to define ECC as a function of contact pressure (pressure as a table). Modeling Electric Contact You can use surface-to-surface contact elements or the node-to-surface contact element. you must enter a very small value (for example. set KEYOPT(1) = 4 to activate the thermal and electric current DOFs. For pure thermal/electric contact.

and FWGT is the weight factor for the contact heat dissipation between the contact and target surfaces (input as a real constant).2.Section 11.11. Modeling Heat Generation Due to Electric Current For electric current field analyses (KEYOPT(1) = 3 or 4). Inc. For an input of true 0. ANSYS interprets this as an input of the default value.1. To model surface interaction between two surfaces where a small gap exists. 11–49 . 001972 .11. For the piezoelectric and electrostatic options. © SAS IP.4. ANSYS interprets this as an input of the default value. or the electric contact capacitance per unit area for (KEYOPT(1) = 5. use KEYOPT(12) = 4 or 5 to define either the “bonded contact” or “no-separation contact” options (see Selecting Surface Interaction Models). you must enter a very small value (for example. If you enter 0.1 . pressure. 1E-8).Vc) where: J = current density for the electric potential (VOLT) degree of freedom (KEYOPT(1) = 3 or 4).4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11. If you enter 0. Using ECC The interaction between two contacting surfaces is defined by J = ECC x (Vt .4.VC) Where FHEG: The fraction of electric dissipated energy converted into heat (Joule heating). Structural Analysis Guide .5. By default. 1E-8). 11. ECC has units of (electric conductivity)(LENGTH) or the capacitance. FWGT = 0. or 6). you must enter a very small value (for example. the heat generation due to electric current is given by q = FHEG x J x (VT . The amount of electric heat dissipation on contact and target surfaces is defined by qc = FWGT x q and qT = (1 . or the electric charge density (KEYOPT(1) = 5. For the current conduction option. and time. by using the %TABLE% option. Vt and Vc: The voltages at the contact points on the target and contact surfaces. ANSYS Release 8. or 6). which can be a function of temperature [(Tt + Tc)/2]. This value defaults to 1 and can be input as a real constant. the electric contact capacitance ECC has units of capacitance per unit area. The ECC value is input through a real constant. FWGT is the same real constant used for frictional heat generation. Note — For force-based node-to-surface contact. the electric contact conductance ECC has units of electric conductivity/length.FWGT) x q Where qc is the contact side and qT is the target side. For an input of true 0.2. ECC = electric contact conductance for the electric potential (VOLT) degree of freedom (KEYOPT(1) = 3 or 4). Vt and Vc = voltages at the contact points on the target and contact surfaces. J: The current density.

12. The following situations are possible. MCC. see Steps in a Contact Analysis. see Section 5. which can be a function of temperature [(Tt + Tc)/2]. MAG. This typically occurs at the interface between adjoining bodies. CONTA173 and CONTA174. and the edge-based formulation (AZ). Note — Non-perfect magnetic contact is only available for the 3–D contact elements.4. For more information on the use of the MAG DOF. AZ. You can model this effect by inputting the gap permeance real constant. for example. For more information on which element types should be used for a particular analysis. MCC values can be approximated as µ/t. by using the %TABLE% option.1.Chapter 11: Contact 11. is active. difference (DSP).1. see the element discussions in the appropriate chapter of the ANSYS Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide. is active. see Section 2. Modeling Magnetic Contact You can use surface-to-surface contact elements or the node-to-surface contact element to model magnetic flux across two contacted bodies. This is typically used to model the air gap in a machine.1 . For an example input listing showing a 2-D static magnetic contact analysis.12. the magnetic potential degree of fredom. Mc = magnetic potential at the contact points on the target and contact surfaces MCC = contact permeance coefficient (Henries/meters2 in MKS units) The MCC value is input through a real constant. ANSYS Release 8. contact interaction can occur between two surfaces separated by a narrow gap.3. Note — 3-D magnetic contact is not supported for the MVP formulation (AX. you must set KEYOPT(1) = 7 to select the degree-of-freedom option. If the “no-separation contact” or “bonded contact” option is set (KEYOPT(12) = 4 or 5). . or general (GSP)) are available (see MAGOPT). pressure.5: Building the Model. This option works best if the magnetic flux is normal to the gap interface. Perfect contact across dissimilar meshes. AY. For the 2-D case. where µ is the gap permeability and t is the gap width.Mc) where: MFLUX = magnetic flux density Mt . • Non-perfect contact to account for the effects of a small air gap between mating components. 001972 . and scalar potential formulations (reduced (RSP). see Section 2. For information on the use of the AZ degree of freedom. there is a gap permeance effect where an MMF drop occurs.3: Specifying Element Types and Options. AZ). Inc. For the 3-D case.3. • For both types of magnetic contact. only the scalar potential degree of freedom.4. For details on how to set up a contact analysis. In this situation. 11. and time. © SAS IP. 11–50 Structural Analysis Guide . Using MCC The magnetic flux across the contacting interface is defined by: MFLUX = MCC x (Mt . where the rotor and stator meshes meet.6: Doing an Example 2-D Static Magnetic Contact Analysis (Command Method).

11.FULL. To avoid a slow convergence rate and use an updated stiffness matrix.OFF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Structural Analysis Guide . You must use the internal MPC approach by setting KEYOPT(2) = 2. Defining Solution and Load Step Options Convergence behavior for contact problems depends strongly on the particular problem. You must also set KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2 for contact nodal detection.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis 11. set the Newton-Raphson option to FULL. Please see the ANSYS Commands Reference for further details.12.4. The time step size must be small enough to capture the proper contact zone. 11–51 . 001972 .. © SAS IP. Modeling Perfect Magnetic Contact Perfect magnetic contact supports dissimilar meshes on both sides of the contacting interface (MCC = infinity).4. ANSYS Release 8.ON GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step or Time and Substps If the contact status changes during the iteration process. Inc. Command(s): AUTOTS.Section 11. 11. 6 for bonded contact. The time step size is specified by a number of substeps or the time step size itself. The following commands adjust these parameters.1 . but may override them if needed.14. The following options are automatically invoked. For more information on applying boundary conditions. The options listed below are either typical or recommended for most surface-to-surface contact analyses. The smooth transfer of contact forces is disrupted if the time step size is too large. see the appropriate analysis descriptions in earlier chapters of this guide.2. and KEYOPT(12) = 5. Applying Necessary Boundary Conditions to the Deformable Elements You can now apply any necessary boundary conditions as you would for any ANSYS analysis.13. Command(s): NROPT. discontinuity can occur.4. Command(s): NSUBST GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps Command(s): DELTIM GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Basic Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>Time-Time Step Note — A reliable way to set an accurate time step size is to turn automatic time stepping on.

Note — For most small strains. This setting will speed up the searching time. • • See Section 2. If your model is experiencing convergence difficulties due to contact. abort the analysis and then check your geometric model. Command(s): LNSRCH GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Nonlinear Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Line Search Turn the predictor-corrector option on. however. use the NLHIST command as a debugging tool to monitor contact information during the solution.Chapter 11: Contact Also.. small displacements. If you detect any unexpected gap (or no contact) or overestimated penetration. You can issue the CNCHECK command to verify the initial contact status. If such estimated values lead to a convergence failure.4. Set the number of equilibrium equations to a number that is appropriate for a reasonable time step size.1 . contact normal stiffness. reduce the contact stiffness and restart.OFF) to avoid slow convergence or divergence. and small sliding problems. Adaptive descent usually does not provide any help for surface-to-surface contact applications.15. you probably need a larger value of FKN. This command defaults to between 15 and 26 iterations. Always check the target surface contact status in the beginning of the analysis. set NLGEOM.3. In cases where frictional sliding dominates. Solving the Problem You can now solve the analysis the same as you would for any nonlinear analysis.nlh. 001972 . etc. except for large rotations or dynamic analyses. “Structural Static Analysis”.5: Solve the Analysis in Chapter 2. 11–52 Structural Analysis Guide . OFF. UNSYM. © SAS IP. and we recommend turning it off. ANSYS Release 8. Command(s): NEQIT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Nonlinear Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Equilibrium Iter Because the iterations tend to become unstable for large increments. depending upon the physics of the problem. issue NLHIST to specify the pair-based contact items (such as contact penetration or gap. In this case. Any previous "trial runs" could have changed the settings. if the contact problem involves large sliding. do not use adaptive descent. gradually increase the contact stiffness value to an appropriate level by redefining it using RMODIF commands over several load steps in a restart. Conversely. The resulting data are written to a file named Jobname.) to be tracked. set NLGEOM. Always check your results carefully using standard engineering guidelines. use the line search option to stabilize the calculations. 11. . Inc. Be sure to follow the recommendations given earlier in this chapter for estimating contact stiffness. Before starting the solution. if overpenetration occurs in your contact analysis. ON. set the unsymmetric solver option (NROPT. Keep the following points in mind: • • Always check the real constant sets which are related to contact pairs and check the constraint conditions on the target surfaces. Command(s): PRED GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control ( : Nonlinear Tab) Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Predictor Many convergence failures in contact analyses are the result of using too large a value for contact stiffness (real constant FKN).

or in POST26. Contact penetration Contact pressure Contact friction stress Contact total stress (pressure plus friction) Contact sliding distance Contact gap distance Heat flux at contact surface Total number of contact status changes during substep Note — You can set these options through the Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu menu item. only one substep can be read in at a time.1 . follow the normal restart procedures as discussed in Section 3. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”) with the following exceptions: For step 4. However. Inc. sliding.16. the following shows the various CONT options for the PLNSOL and PLESOL commands. you can select CONT as a plotting or list item. contact pressure. See the "Output Data" section of the element descriptions (the ANSYS Elements Reference) for the available output components.. the contact element provides the true pressure and friction stress. Reviewing Results in POST1 The steps for reviewing results in POST1 are the same as those for a typical nonlinear analysis (see Section 8. and FKOP can be changed. you can also review the results from within the Contact Manager (via the Contact Manager icon in the ANSYS Standard Toolbar).g.2.RST. 11.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis If you are restarting a contact analysis.2: Points to Remember in Chapter 2.POST). and they can only be changed at the point of restart or at the beginning of a new load step. For rigid-to-flexible contact or asymmetric flexible-to-flexible contact.). © SAS IP. Remember that in POST1.2: Reviewing Results in POST1 in Chapter 8. 3-closed and sticking. ANSYS Release 8. Only the real constants FKN. the time-history postprocessor.6.RST (or Jobname. the general postprocessor.16. 2-closed and sliding. and that the results from that substep should have been written to Jobname. for symmetric flexible-to-flexible contact. 11. Points to Remember See Section 2. PINB. (The load step option command OUTRES controls which substep results are stored on Jobname. and the contact information (e. Comp and you'll see a list of the options detailed above.16: Restarting an Analysis in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide. Reviewing the Results Results from a contact analysis consist mainly of displacements. be aware that the constraint conditions of target surfaces may have been set internally. 11. Verify the constraints carefully before restarting an analysis.Section 11. However. strains.5. reaction forces.RCN for the initial contact configuration calculated by CNCHECK. “Structural Static Analysis”.3. 11–53 . CONT “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ STAT PENE PRES SFRIC STOT SLIDE GAP FLUX CNOS Contact status.4. 1-open but near contact. 0-open and not near contact.4. While in POST1.16.1. stresses.) A typical POST1 postprocessing sequence is described below. You can review these results in POST1. Choose Contact for Item. Structural Analysis Guide . etc. 001972 .6. FTOLN. For contact-related results.4. the true pressure and friction stress is the average of the pressures and friction stresses from both sides of the contact elements.

001972 . For 2-D contact analyses.5. Otherwise.16. Figure 11. Contact Properties .5. © SAS IP.24 Contact Manager Toolbar • Contact Wizard . GUI Aids for Contact Analyses 11. you must explicitly read the results of the first load step from the results file Jobname. See the ANTIME command for details. the result file may be read improperly. you can view the contact results items for the initial contact configuration as you would for any other load step.Allows you to specify the properties of the contact pair(s) via real constants and KEYOPTs for the contact elements used. and the internal multipoint constraint (MPC) method of contact . Reviewing Results in POST26 The steps for reviewing results in POST26 are the same as those for a typical nonlinear analysis See Section 8. contact friction force. Note that the contact-specific information (CONT) plots as follows.Accesses the Contact Wizard GUI described in Section 11.3: Reviewing Results in POST26 in Chapter 8. PRES. the model will plot in gray and the requested item will be contoured as an area (trapezoid) along the edge of the model where the contact elements are located. Inc. • 11–54 . respectively. To do so.1. and STOT are the contact normal force. Command(s): ANTIME GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Time If you used CNCHECK. The Contact Manager Toolbar provides an intuitive interface for the creation and management of contact pairs. (Primitives are not supported by contact wizard.) The wizard also supports surface-based constraint contact pairs. Use the FACT item to scale 2-D contour size. you may also list contact-specific information by using the CONT label and its arguments with the PRNSOL or PRESOL commands or their related menu items You can also animate contact results over time. Supports both 2-D and 3-D geometries as well as rigidflexible (with optional pilot node) or flexible-flexible contact. access the Contact Manager via the Contact Manager icon Toolbar.2: The Contact Wizard.6. For tabular listings. ANSYS Release 8. Structural Analysis Guide .Chapter 11: Contact Note — For the contact force-based model (KEYOPT(3) = 0) in CONTA175. solution (SOLU). 11. node-to-surface contact analysis (using CONTA175). The manager supports surface-to-surface contact analysis. For 3-D contact analyses.FIRST commands before postprocessing. SFRIC. and total contact force. “Nonlinear Structural Analysis”.POST to evaluate the initial contact state. and general postprocessor (POST1). The Contact Manager in the ANSYS Standard To use the GUI method.5. 11. or via the menu path Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Contact Pair.1 . You can access the Contact Manager at the Begin level and in the following processors: preprocessor (PREP7).5. the model will plot in gray and the requested item will be contoured as a 2-D surface where the contact elements overlay the model.3.RCN by issuing the FILE and SET.4. Allows you to manually define target and contact surfaces.

otherwise. Contact Selection Options . This action is limited to the elements specified in the Contact Selection Options field.ADJUST command) in order to close a gap or reduce a penetration (see Section 11. Plot Elements/Results . 11–55 . © SAS IP. Below is an example of the screens you will see. Inc. or both as specified in the Contact Selection Options field. Results are listed if Model Context is specified as “Result-”. if available (POST1 only). access the Contact Manager Toolbar and click on the Contact Wizard icon.POST command) that can be subsequently postprocessed from the contact manager.8: Physically Moving Contact Nodes Towards the Target Surface. and supports both surface-to-surface and node-to-surface configurations.8.Section 11. (Note that CONTA175 results will not display graphically. (Note that the wizard does not support rigid target primitives. 11. or lists the contact results. specified in the Contact Results field for selected contact pairs. List Elements/Results . or target.Specifies display of contact elements. The display can be limited to contact.4. You can select contact pairs from this list for displaying or editing purposes.) Physically move contact nodes to the target surface (CNCHECK. The bar below the toolbar icons minimizes or maximizes the Contact Pair list box below it. This is applicable only to flexible-to-flexible surface-to-surface contact pairs.Provides contact status information for selected contact pairs.) The Contact Wizard also supports surface-based constraint contact pairs.Specifies whether or not to display the normals on the elements when plotting contact pairs Flip Normals . Run a partial solution of the initial contact state (CNCHECK. Switch Contact and Target . or displays the contact results. if available (POST1 only). otherwise.Flips the element normals of the selected contact pair. Several options are available (click and hold down the Check Contact Status button to access these options): – – – Display a detailed listing of status information for each contact pair.5: GUI Aids for Contact Analyses • • • Delete Contact Pairs . specified in the Contact Results field for selected contact pairs.Inverts the target surface and the contact surface with each other. The wizard supports rigid-flexible (with optional pilot node) and flexible-flexible contact. To use the Contact Wizard. but can be listed with the List Elements/Results icon. The Contact Pair list box displays the defined contact pairs. elements are displayed.2.Displays the elements of selected contact pairs. (See CNCHECK for more information.) • • • • • • • Contact Results . ANSYS Release 8.1 . The listing is restricted to the elements specified in the Contact Selection Options field.) Show Normals . The wizard steps you through setting up the contact analysis.Displays the contact pairs in the context of the entire model using a translucent plot. target elements.Lists the elements of the selected contact pairs.5. controls display/listing of contact pair results. 001972 .Deletes the contact pairs selected in the contact pair list. If set to “Result-” (POST1 only). Check Contact Status . Results are displayed if Model Context is specified as “Result-”. or both. elements are listed.Shows the contact result items for subsequent viewing using the Plot Elements/Results and List Elements/Results icons. The Contact Wizard This Contact Wizard will lead you through the process of manually creating contact pairs. Structural Analysis Guide . Model Context . or shows only the contact pairs.

3. . You can specify target and contact surfaces using lines. a unique real constant set with the real constant values.1 . mesh all parts of the model which will be used as contact surfaces (including target surfaces) before launching the wizard. If you wish to create a flexible-flexible model. Note that the wizard allows you to choose more than one area for the target and contact surfaces. ANSYS Release 8. Inc. you can specify properties of the contact pair (real constants and KEYOPTs) before creating the contact pair. or node components.5. you will then have the option to define a pilot node for that contact pair. thus allowing multiple areas to form a single contact surface. When you finish specifying all the required data.Chapter 11: Contact Figure 11. Managing Contact Pairs As discussed in Section 11. click the Create button to create the contact and target element types.25 Example of a Contact Wizard Dialog The Contact Wizard remains unavailable (dimmed) if you haven't meshed any portion of your model. mesh only those parts of the model which will be used as flexible contact surfaces (do not mesh the rigid target surfaces) before launching the wizard. 001972 .) After you specify the target and contact surfaces. © SAS IP.4: Performing a Surface-to-Surface Contact Analysis it is paramount that the contact elements be oriented correctly for proper contact detection. 2. 11. volumes. selected set of nodes. If you wish to create a rigid-flexible model. Verify that the normals of the contact and target surfaces are in the correct direction Reverse normals of elements that are not oriented correctly 11–56 Structural Analysis Guide . and the elements that make up the contact and target surfaces. The contact manager provides tools that help you 1. If you specify a rigid target surface. areas. (The pilot node step is mandatory if you define a surface-based constraint contact pair by picking the Pilot Node Only option.

001972 . The Contact Properties button in the contact manager provides a simple to use interface that allows the properties of the selected contact pair(s) to be reviewed and modified if needed. in two or three dimensions. dynamic pipe whip. and only if a result set is available. it is possible to have conflicts in the real constant values or in the KEYOPT settings. rivets. bolts. (For CONTA175.1.POST command.) for the selected contact pairs. 11. The properties include real constant values and key option values as discussed earlier. etc. Note that when you have multiple contact pairs. In addition these elements can be displayed independently or in the context of your entire model.26: “Node-to-Surface Contact Elements”.) Note — Prior to displaying or listing result items associated with the initial contact configuration resulting from the CNCHECK. ANSYS Release 8. In the later case the contact elements are highlighted in a translucent plot of your model. Another important function is to edit the properties of the contact pair(s) as needed. Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis You can use our node-to-surface contact element CONTA175 to model flexible-flexible or rigid-flexible contact between a surface and a node. rolling operations. 11.FIRST commands to read the results from the proper results file (see CNCHECK for details). The contact results can be displayed independently or in the context of your entire model. Then you have an additional option of only displaying the contact surface or the target surface when verifying or reversing the element normals. and temperature changes that occur due to contact between structural parts. you need to issue the appropriate FILE and SET. Engineers are interested in the stresses. deflections. penetration. Additionally.6.1 . © SAS IP. is depicted in Figure 11. the properties dialog for those real constants or KEYOPT settings is left blank. Structural Analysis Guide .Section 11. Inc. you can display or list specific contact result items (contact status. you can use these elements to represent contact between two surfaces by specifying one surface as a group of nodes. 11–57 . When you have such conflicts. metal forming.6. etc. modeled by TARGE169 or TARGE170). CONTA175. This option is only available in POST1. forces. pins).6: Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis You can choose to display one or more contact pairs on which to perform the above listed operations. Node-to-surface contact is a phenomenon that occurs in most engineering applications: fasteners (nuts. Finally. results can be listed but not displayed graphically. pressure. Using the Node-to-Surface Contact Elements Node-to-surface contact is represented in the ANSYS program by following the positions of points on one surface (the contact surface. modeled by CONTA175) relative to lines or areas of another surface (the target surface.

For general surface-to-surface contact. the corner nodes have a negative stiffness associated with them. thermal. CONTA175 follows the contact pair concept used by surface-to-surface elements CONTA171 through CONTA174. as do the surface-to-surface contact elements. and magnetic analyses. CONTA175 is paired off with target elements TARGE169 and TARGE170. These are described below. for the 20-node bricks SOLID95 or HYPER86. Does not support 3-D contact surfaces with midside nodes.26 Node-to-Surface Contact Elements Presented below are characteristics of CONTA175: • • • • • Has one node and its target surface is defined by TARGE169 or TARGE170. CONTA175 uses the same real constant set as the surface-to-surface contact elements. CONTA175 uses most of the same element KEYOPTS and real constants as the surface-to-surface contact elements. See Real Constants for more information. electric. CONTA171 through CONTA174 are recommended. Supports 2-D/3-D rigid-flexible and flexible-flexible contact. See Identifying Contact Pairs for more information. Note — CONTA175 is recommended for point-to-surface or edge-to-surface problems. Supports structural.1 . For instance. Generates elements using the ESURF command. Inc.Chapter 11: Contact Figure 11. especially in 3-D. This condition can lead to convergence difficulties when using midside-noded elements in contact. However. ANSYS Release 8. The midside-noded elements can only be used when bonded or no-separation contact is defined. but can support 2-D/3-D target surfaces with midside nodes or 2-D contact surfaces with midside nodes. You should avoid midside-noded underlying elements of the contact surface. The “effective stiffness” at the contact surface nodes is very nonuniform. The basic steps for performing a node-to-surface contact analysis using CONTA175 are the same as those used for a typical surface-to-surface analysis using CONTA171 through CONTA174. You can access the manager via the Contact Manager icon in the ANSYS Standard Toolbar. The Contact Manager provides an easy-to-use interface to help you construct and manage contact definitions. You can still use midside nodes on 2-D contact surfaces or on 2-D/3-D target surfaces. the node-to-surface contact algorithm assumes that the stiffness is uniformly distributed across all the surface nodes when contact is made. See Steps in a Contact Analysis for details. It can also be used to supplement a surface-to-surface pair at strategic locations where edge contact exists. 001972 . b #$FV$9 UETR WP ¨ S QPF D B ¨ ¢ 0& ¦5 §#$CEC@A$¥98$76 )I" )4¥3§¥2)¥0) '%$#! (0 ¦ ( 1 ( &¤"" vwet gw`qr`pyxigwxed s d c ¡ § `#a`Y¤¢ 1 @¦ b vweut h§rd`aifhefd gsq p g WPF ¨ U S #$V$9 ETR X HGF D B @ ¨ 0& 5 §©CECA$¥9¢8$76 ¦)" ()4¥3§¥2)0¥() '%$#! 0 ¦ ( 1 &¤"" § ©§¥¤£¡ ¨¦ ¢ . or via the menu 11–58 Structural Analysis Guide . © SAS IP.

© SAS IP.4. ANSYS can determine the area associated with the contact node. See Section 11. See Section 11.2: Element KEYOPTS for a listing of the remaining KEYOPTS. Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally extend the edge of the target surface. ECC.1. A small value of TOLS will usually prevent this situation from occurring.6. When the traction-based model is defined. default). you are not able to plot the contact results.CONT or PRETAB commands. CONTA175 KEYOPTS CONTA175 uses most of the same KEYOPTS that are used by the surface-to-surface contact elements CONTA171 through CONTA174.6. TAUR.2. 001972 .1.1. 11–59 . The contact normal can be either perpendicular to the target surface (KEYOPT(4) = 0. the real constants FKN. but contact pressure in the traction-based model. or perpendicular to the contact surface (KEYOPT(4) = 1.8.ON). PRES is the contact normal force in the forcebased model. and shell thickness effect is included (KEYOPT(11) = 1). as do postprocessing items PRES.0 implies a 1. a unit area will be used which is equivalent to the contact force-based model. As mentioned. and a contact traction-based model (KEYOPT(3) = 1). 2). resulting in convergence difficulties from oscillations. When the force-based model is defined. the units of these quantities have a factor of AREA with respect to those used in the traction-based model. default or KEYOPT(4) = 3). For the contact traction-based model.6: Performing a Node-to-Surface Contact Analysis path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Contact Pair. 11. 11. Inc.1. TOLS is useful for problems where contact nodes are likely to lie on the edge of the target (as at symmetry planes or for models generated in a node-to-node contact pattern).6. and MCC have the same units used in surface-to-surface contact elements (CONTA171 through CONTA174). ANSYS Release 8.1. The GUI path is: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Surf/Contact> Node to Surf Since CONTA175 is a one node element. CONTA175 uses the ESURF command to generate elements between corresponding contact pairs. TCC. KEYOPT(4) = 2 or 3 should be used in order to capture the contact. However. KEYOPT(4) KEYOPT(4) in CONTA175 allows you to choose the contact normal direction. Structural Analysis Guide .1. or CNOF is defined. In these situations. you can list the results using the PLESOL.Section 11. Units for TOLS are percent (1. For instance. contact stiffness FKN has units FORCE/LENGTH for the forcebased model.5: GUI Aids for Contact Analyses for more information on using the Contact Manager. 11. similar to the surface-to-surface contact elements. When contact occurs on the bottom surface of a shell or beam. FKT. For the single point contact case. KEYOPT(3) and KEYOPT(4) are used but have different meanings when used with CONTA175. The default value is 10 for small deflection and 2 for large deflection (NLGEOM.1.1 . and TAUS. but FORCE/LENGTH3 for the traction-based model. KEYOPT(3) KEYOPT(3) in CONTA175 allows you to choose between a contact force-based model (KEYOPT(3) = 0.0% increase in the target edge length). the contact node may repeatedly “slip” off the target surface and so completely out of contact.

For a small deformation problem. No contact stiffness is required as input.2. By this method. the MPC equations are updated during each iteration. and MCC for the contact force-based model. The generation of internal MPC is simple because it utilizes contact pair definitions.7. and magnetic contact as you would use the surface-to-surface contact elements. For multiphysics contact. in an average sense. to define various contact assemblies and kinematic constraints.the contact surface pastes onto shell element faces and the target surfaces paste onto solid element faces Rigid constraint surface .8. ECC. Multiphysics Contact You can use node-to-surface contact element CONTA175 to model thermal contact. Using the Internal MPC Approach for Assemblies and Kinematic Constraints You can use the internal multipoint constraint (MPC) approach (KEYOPT(2) = 2). CONTA175 Real Constants CONTA175 uses the same real constants used by the surface-to-surface contact elements CONTA171 through CONTA174). 11. and MCC consistently with the surface-to-surface contact elements. • • • 11–60 . ECC. FCC. CONTA172.6. This reduces the wave front size of the system equation solver.3.1. See a listing of the real constants in Section 11.6.both contact and target surfaces paste onto shell element faces Shell-solid assembly . electric contact. ANSYS Release 8. no weight factor is needed for a force-distributed multipoint constraint (which is similar to the RBE3 command) if high order elements or axisymmetric Structural Analysis Guide .1 . If you use the contact force-based model (KEYOPT(3) = 0). the program builds MPC equations internally based on the contact kinematics. we recommend that you use the contact traction-based model (KEYOPT(3) = 1).Chapter 11: Contact 11. and CONTA175. You can use this method to model the following contact assemblies and surface-based constraints: • • • • • • Solid-solid assembly . © SAS IP.1: Real Constants. Both translational and rotational degrees of freedom can be constrained.the contact nodes are constrained to the rigid body motion defined by the pilot node (similar to the CERIG command) Force-distributed surface . For example: • • Degrees of freedom of the contact surface nodes are eliminated.both contact and target surfaces paste onto solid element faces Shell-shell assembly . This capability is available for contact elements CONTA171. in conjunction with the bonded contact definition (KEYOPT(12) = 5 or 6). CONTA174.4. which allows you to use TCC.one beam end-node is the pilot node which connects to the solid or shell surface (use the ri