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DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
1
Digital Filter Specifications
Only the magnitude approximation problem
Four basic types of ideal filters with magnitude
responses as shown below (Piecewise flat)
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
2
Digital Filter Specifications
These filters are unealisable because (one of
the following is sufficient)
their impulse responses infinitely long non
causal
Their amplitude responses cannot be equal
to a constant over a band of frequencies
Another perspective that provides some
understanding can be obtained by looking
at the ideal amplitude squared.
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
3
Digital Filter Specifications
Consider the ideal LP response squared
(same as actual LP response)
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
4
Digital Filter Specifications
The realisable squared amplitude response
transfer function (and its differential) is
continuous in
Such functions
if IIR can be infinite at point but around
that point cannot be zero.
if FIR cannot be infinite anywhere.
Hence previous defferential of ideal response
is unrealisable
e
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
5
Digital Filter Specifications
A realisable response would effectively
need to have an approximation of the
delta functions in the differential
This is a necessary condition
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
6
Digital Filter Specifications
For example the magnitude response
of a digital lowpass filter may be given as
indicated below
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
7
Digital Filter Specifications
In the passband we require
that with a deviation
In the stopband we require
that with a deviation
1 ) ( ~
e j
e G
0 ) ( ~
e j
e G
s
o
p
o ±
p
e e s s 0
t e e s s
s
p p
j
p
e G e e o o
e
s + s s ÷ , 1 ) ( 1
t e e o
e
s s s
s s
j
e G , ) (
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
8
Digital Filter Specifications
Filter specification parameters
 passband edge frequency
 stopband edge frequency
 peak ripple value in the
passband
 peak ripple value in the
stopband
p
e
s
e
s
o
p
o
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
9
Digital Filter Specifications
Practical specifications are often given
in terms of loss function (in dB)
Peak passband ripple
dB
Minimum stopband attenuation
dB
) ( log 20 ) (
10
e
e
j
e G ÷ = G
) 1 ( log 20
10 p p
o o ÷ ÷ =
) ( log 20
10 s s
o o ÷ =
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
10
Digital Filter Specifications
In practice, passband edge frequency
and stopband edge frequency are
specified in Hz
For digital filter design, normalized bandedge
frequencies need to be computed from
specifications in Hz using
T F
F
F
F
p
T
p
T
p
p
t
t
e 2
2
= =
O
=
T F
F
F
F
s
T
s
T
s
s
t
t
e 2
2
= =
O
=
s
F
p
F
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
11
Digital Filter Specifications
Example  Let kHz,
kHz, and kHz
Then
7 =
p
F 3 =
s
F
25 =
T
F
t
t
e 56 . 0
10 25
) 10 7 ( 2
3
3
=
×
×
=
p
t
t
e 24 . 0
10 25
) 10 3 ( 2
3
3
=
×
×
=
s
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
12
The transfer function H(z) meeting the
specifications must be a causal transfer
function
For IIR real digital filter the transfer function
is a real rational function of
H(z) must be stable and of lowest order N or
M for reduced computational complexity
Selection of Filter Type
1 ÷
z
N
N
M
M
z d z d z d d
z p z p z p p
z H
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
+ + + +
+ + + +
=
2
2
1
1 0
2
2
1
1 0
) (
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
13
Selection of Filter Type
FIR real digital filter transfer function is a
polynomial in (order N) with real
coefficients
For reduced computational complexity,
degree N of H(z) must be as small as possible
If a linear phase is desired then we must
have:
(More on this later)
¿
=
=
÷
N
n
n
z n h z H
0
] [ ) (
] [ ] [ n N h n h ÷ ± =
1 ÷
z
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
14
Selection of Filter Type
Advantages in using an FIR filter 
(1) Can be designed with exact linear phase
(2) Filter structure always stable with
quantised coefficients
Disadvantages in using an FIR filter  Order of
an FIR filter is considerably higher than that
of an equivalent IIR filter meeting the same
specifications; this leads to higher
computational complexity for FIR
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
15
FIR Design
FIR Digital Filter Design
Three commonly used approaches to
FIR filter design 
(1) Windowed Fourier series approach
(2) Frequency sampling approach
(3) Computerbased optimization
methods
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
16
Finite Impulse Response
Filters
The transfer function is given by
The length of Impulse Response is N
All poles are at .
Zeros can be placed anywhere on the z
plane
¿
=
÷
=
÷
1
0
). ( ) (
N
n
n
z n h z H
0 = z
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
17
FIR: Linear phase
For phase linearity the FIR transfer
function must have zeros outside
the unit circle
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
18
FIR: Linear phase
To develop expression for phase
response set transfer function (order n)
In factored form
Where , is
real & zeros occur in conjugates
n
n
z h z h z h h z H
÷ ÷ ÷
+ + + + = ... ) (
2
2
1
1 0
) 1 ( ). 1 ( ) (
1
2
1
1
1
1
÷
=
÷
=
[
÷
[
÷ = z z K z H
i
n
i
i
n
i
 o
1 , 1 > <
i i
 o
K
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
19
FIR: Linear phase
Let
where
Thus
) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
z N z KN z H =
) 1 ln( ) 1 ln( ) ln( )) ( ln(
2
1
1
1
1
1
¿
÷ +
¿
÷ + =
=
÷
=
÷
n
i
i
n
i
i
z z K z H  o
) 1 ( ) (
1
1
1
1
÷
=
[
÷ = z z N
i
n
i
o ) 1 ( ) (
1
2
1
2
÷
=
[
÷ = z z N
i
n
i

AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
20
FIR: Linear phase
Expand in a Laurent Series
convergent within the unit circle
To do so modify the second sum as
)
1
1 ln( ) ln( ) 1 ln(
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
z z z
i
n
i
i
n
i
i
n
i

 
¿
÷ +
¿
÷ =
¿
÷
=
÷
=
÷
=
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
21
FIR: Linear phase
So that
Thus
where
)
1
1 ln( ) 1 ln( ) ln( ) ln( )) ( ln(
2
1
1
1
1
2
¿
÷ +
¿
÷ + ÷ =
= =
÷
n
i
i
n
i
i
z z z n K z H

o
m
N
m
m
m
N
m
z
m
s
z
m
s
z n K z H
2
1
1
2
) ln( ) ln( )) ( ln(
÷
·
=
÷
¿
+ + ÷ =
¿
=
=
1
1
1
n
i
m
i
N
m
s o
¿
=
=
÷
÷
1
1
2
n
i
m
i
N
m
s 
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
22
FIR: Linear phase
are the root moments of the
minimum phase component
are the inverse root moments of
the maximum phase component
Now on the unit circle we have
and
u j
e z =
) (
) ( ) (
u  u
u
j j
e A e H =
1
N
m
s
2
N
m
s
÷
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
23
Fundamental Relationships
hence (note Fourier form)
u u u
u
jm
N
m
m
jm
N
m
j
e
m
s
e
m
s
jn K e H
2
1
1
2
) ln( )) ( ln(
÷
·
=
÷
¿
+ + ÷ =
) ( )) ( ln( ) ) ( ln( )) ( ln(
) (
u  u u
u  u
j A e A e H
j j
+ = =
u u m
m
s
m
s
K A
N
m
m
N
m
cos ) ( ) ln( )) ( ln(
2
1
1
÷
·
=
¿
+ + =
u u u  m
m
s
m
s
n
N
m
m
N
m
sin ) ( ) (
2
1
1
2
÷
·
=
¿
÷ ÷ ÷ =
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
24
FIR: Linear phase
Thus for linear phase the second term in the
fundamental phase relationship must be
identically zero for all index values.
Hence
1) the maximum phase factor has zeros
which are the inverses of the those of the
minimum phase factor
2) the phase response is linear with group
delay (normalised) equal to the number of
zeros outside the unit circle
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
25
FIR: Linear phase
It follows that zeros of linear phase FIR
trasfer functions not on the
circumference of the unit circle occur in
the form
 
1 ±
±
i
j
i
e
u
µ
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
26
FIR: Linear phase
For Linear Phase t.f. (order N1)
so that for N even:
) 1 ( ) ( n N h n h ÷ ÷ ± =
¿
±
¿
=
÷
=
÷
÷
=
÷
1
2
1
2
0
). ( ). ( ) (
N
N
n
n
N
n
n
z n h z n h z H
¿
÷ ÷ ±
¿
=
÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
=
÷
1
2
0
) 1 (
1
2
0
). 1 ( ). (
N
n
n N
N
n
n
z n N h z n h
 
¿
± =
÷
=
÷ ÷
1
2
0
) (
N
n
m n
z z n h n N m ÷ ÷ = 1
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
27
FIR: Linear phase
for N odd:
I) On we have for N even,
and +ve sign
 
¿

.

\

÷
+ ± =
÷
÷
=

.

\

÷
÷
÷ ÷
1
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
). ( ) (
N
n
N
m n
z
N
h z z n h z H
1 : = z C
¿

.

\


.

\

÷
÷ =
÷
=

.

\

÷
÷
1
2
0
2
1
2
1
cos ). ( 2 . ) (
N
n
N
T j
T j
N
n T n h e e H e
e
e
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
28
FIR: Linear phase
II) While for –ve sign
[Note: antisymmetric case adds rads
to phase, with discontinuity at ]
III) For N odd with +ve sign
¿ 
.

\


.

\

÷
÷ =
÷
=

.

\

÷
÷
1
2
0
2
1
2
1
sin ). ( 2 . ) (
N
n
N
T j
T j
N
n T n h j e e H e
e
e
2 / t
0 = e
¹
´
¦

.

\

÷
=
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
2
1
) (
2
1
N
h e e H
N
T j
T j
e
e
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¿
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷
÷ +
÷
=
2
3
0
2
1
cos ). ( 2
N
n
N
n T n h e
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
29
FIR: Linear phase
IV) While with a –ve sign
[Notice that for the antisymmetric case to
have linear phase we require
The phase discontinuity is as for N even]
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
¿
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷
÷ =
÷
=
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
2
3
0
2
1
2
1
sin ). ( . 2 ) (
N
n
N
T j
T j
N
n T n h j e e H e
e
e
. 0
2
1
=

.

\

÷ N
h
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
30
FIR: Linear phase
The cases most commonly used in filter
design are (I) and (III), for which the
amplitude characteristic can be written
as a polynomial in
2
cos
T e
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
31
Design of FIR filters: Windows
(i) Start with ideal infinite duration
(ii) Truncate to finite length. (This
produces unwanted ripples increasing in
height near discontinuity.)
(iii) Modify to
Weight w(n) is the window
{ } ) (n h
) ( ). ( ) (
~
n w n h n h =
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
32
Windows
Commonly used windows
Rectangular
Bartlett
Hann
Hamming
Blackman
Kaiser
2
1 ÷
<
N
n
N
n 2
1÷

.

\

+
N
n t 2
cos 1

.

\

+
N
n t 2
cos 46 . 0 54 . 0

.

\

+

.

\

+
N
n
N
n t t 4
cos 08 . 0
2
cos 5 . 0 42 . 0
) (
1
2
1
0
2
0
  J
N
n
J
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷
÷
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
33
Kaiser window
Kaiser window
β Transition
width (Hz)
Min. stop
attn dB
2.12 1.5/N 30
4.54 2.9/N 50
6.76 4.3/N 70
8.96 5.7/N 90
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
34
Example
• Lowpass filter of length 51 and
2 / t e =
c
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
100
50
0
e/t
G
a
i
n
,
d
B
Lowpass Filter Designed Using Hann window
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
100
50
0
e/t
G
a
i
n
,
d
B
Lowpass Filter Designed Using Hamming window
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
100
50
0
e/t
G
a
i
n
,
d
B
Lowpass Filter Designed Using Blackman window
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
35
Frequency Sampling Method
• In this approach we are given and
need to find
• This is an interpolation problem and the
solution is given in the DFT part of the
course
• It has similar problems to the windowing
approach
¿
÷
÷
=
÷
=
÷
÷
1
0
1
2
. 1
1
). (
1
) (
N
k
k
N
j
N
z e
z
k H
N
z H
t
) (k H
) (z H
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
36
LinearPhase FIR Filter
Design by Optimisation
Amplitude response for all 4 types of
linearphase FIR filters can be
expressed as
where
) ( ) ( ) ( e e e A Q H =
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
=
4 Type for ), 2 / sin(
3 Type for ), sin(
2 Type for /2), cos(
1 Type for , 1
) (
e
e
e
e Q
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
37
LinearPhase FIR Filter
Design by Optimisation
Modified form of weighted error function
where
)] ( ) ( ) ( )[ ( ) ( e e e e e D A Q W ÷ = E
] ) ( )[ ( ) (
) (
) (
e
e
e e e
Q
D
A Q W ÷ =
)] (
~
) ( )[ (
~
e e e D A W ÷ =
) ( ) ( ) (
~
e e e Q W W =
) ( / ) ( ) (
~
e e e Q D D =
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
38
LinearPhase FIR Filter
Design by Optimisation
Optimisation Problem  Determine
which minimise the peak absolute value
of
over the specified frequency bands
After has been determined,
construct the original and
hence h[n]
)] (
~
) cos( ] [
~
)[ (
~
) (
0
e e e e D k k a W
L
k
÷
¿
=
=
E
] [
~
k a
R e e
) (
e j
e A
] [
~
k a
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
39
LinearPhase FIR Filter
Design by Optimisation
Solution is obtained via the Alternation
Theorem
The optimal solution has equiripple
behaviour consistent with the total
number of available parameters.
Parks and McClellan used the Remez
algorithm to develop a procedure for
designing linear FIR digital filters.
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
40
FIR Digital Filter Order
Estimation
Kaiser’s Formula:
ie N is inversely proportional to
transition band width and not on
transition band location
t e e
o o
2 / ) ( 6 . 14
) ( log 20
10
p s
s p
N
÷
÷
~
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
41
FIR Digital Filter Order
Estimation
HermannRabinerChan’s Formula:
where
with
t e e
t e e o o o o
2 / ) (
] 2 / ) )[( , ( ) , (
2
p s
p s s p s p
F D
N
÷
÷ ÷
~
·
s p p s p
a a a D o o o o o
10 3 10 2
2
10 1
log ] ) (log ) (log [ ) , ( + + =
·
] ) (log ) (log [
6 10 5
2
10 4
a a a
p p
+ + + o o
] log [log ) , (
10 10 2 1 s p s p
b b F o o o o ÷ + =
4761 . 0 , 07114 . 0 , 005309 . 0
3 2 1
÷ = = = a a a
4278 . 0 , 5941 . 0 , 00266 . 0
6 5 4
= = = a a a
51244 . 0 , 01217 . 11
2 1
= = b b
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
42
FIR Digital Filter Order
Estimation
Formula valid for
For , formula to be used is
obtained by interchanging and
Both formulae provide only an estimate
of the required filter order N
If specifications are not met, increase
filter order until they are met
s p
o o >
s p
o o <
p
o
s
o
AGC
DSP
Professor A G Constantinides
43
FIR Digital Filter Order
Estimation
Fred Harris’ guide:
where A is the attenuation in dB
Then add about 10% to it
t e e 2 / ) ( 20
p s
A
N
÷
~
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