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MATERIAL TESTING Laboratory Manual - 2006
Preface……………………………………………….. 3 Safety ……………………………………………..... 5 Tensile Testing of Metals……………………………. 9 Hardness…………………………………………… 12 Impact Testing ………………………………………16 Fatigue Testing………………………………………20 Metallography (micro/macro) ……...……….……… 21 Jominy Hardenability Test………………………….. 30 Non-Destructive Testing …………………………….33
MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006
Materials Laboratory Attendance
This attendance sheet will be signed by the test assistant after each test. If you have not studied the necessary material before coming to the laboratory or if you don't show the necessary interest during the test, the assistant will not approve your attendance and you will have to REPEAT THE TEST. No.: Name:
CHARPY / FATIGUE
MACROSCOPY / MICROSCOPY JOMINY
MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006
In this course we are seeking to understand material properties through laboratory experiments. Usually the class is divided into groups. Each group will do a different experiment every week until all the required experiments are completed. Each instructor will indicate the experiments to be conducted and advise on the nature of the lab report and time of submission. However, a typical format for a lab report is included below. It is important that all the information necessary to complete the lab report is obtained before students leave the lab.
B. Lab Report Requirements
GENERAL The following suggestions should be helpful. • Avoid personal pronouns. • If you quote from a text, identify the text. • View this report as though you were in industry and writing for your boss. Hence sloppiness will not be accepted. FORMAT 1. TITLE There should be a Title Page with title, authors, group number, date, for whom report was written. II. ABSTRACT It should be approximately half a typed page in length. An abstract should tell: What was done briefly how experiment was conducted to satisfy objectives and what the major conclusions or representative results are. III. TABLE OF CONTENTS Must have page numbers of different sections in the report.. IV. INTRODUCTION A. Establish general interest in the subject. B. Establish specific interest and justification for conducting this investigation leading to a statement of the specific objective(s). C. Introduce the report itself. That is, tell the reader how the report is organized and what to expect. V. THEORY A. Present theoretical basis for the experiment or investigation. B. Present equations used with clear indication of which variables were measured and which is calculated. VI. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS A. Diagram of the test set-up illustrating the general relationships among the various components of the system and the locations at which the measurements were taken. B. Instrumentation (measurement systems) that was used should be stated and related to the measurement locations on the diagram (with a statement of the uncertainty associated with each measurement system).
MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006
VII. TEST PROCEDURE VIII. DATA ANALYSIS IX. RESULTS Introduce results; that is, explain what is being presented. Don't just include the plots, charts, etc., without any explanation. Tables and figures must be self-contained. They must be numbered and with a caption. Thus the reader can tell what a table or figure means without having to look through the text. X. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS A. Interpret and explain results B. Point out most important results Even if the results as presented seem obvious to you, you want to be sure your reader notices the most important features and trends, etc. State what you think the results show, prove, demonstrate or illustrate. XI.CONCLUSION Summarize your findings; that is, itemize the most important things that you found out, measured, observed. Anything that could be preceded by "It was found that" or "It was discovered that" is a finding, not a conclusion. Remember conclusions are generalizations based on results of a specific investigation. XII. BIBLIOGRAPHY Number your references in order. XIII. APPENDICES Extensive pages of data can go in Appendix.
1. Follow all safety instructions given in the class and in the laboratories. 2. Charpy machine can be lethal. Never leave the hammer in the up position until ready to break a specimen. 3. Furnaces. Be careful in touching and handling specimens. Use tongs for placing specimens in the furnace and removing them. Most specimens can be quenched in water after removal from furnace. 4. Tensile Testing. During the tensile test pieces can fly out during fracture. 5. Use safety eye shield when grinding specimens. 6. Do not remove specimens from abrasive cut-off machine until the wheel has stopped. 7. NO eating or drinking in the lab.
fire or explosion. research and teaching workplaces (labs. teaching assistant. Your personal laboratory safety depends mostly on YOU. and safety shower in your lab and know how to use them. With good judgment. Nevertheless. DO NOT TOUCH ANYTHING WITH WHICH YOU ARE NOT COMPLETELY FAMILIAR!!! It is always better to ask questions than to risk harm to yourself or damage to the equipment. it is important that all students arrive at each session on time. Common Sense Good common sense is needed for safety in a laboratory. lab safety contact. shops. Emergency Response 1. Notify your instructor immediately after any injury. Know the location of the fire extinguisher.) are full of potential hazards that can cause serious injury and or damage to the equipment. Never eat. eye wash. It is your responsibility to read safety and fire alarm posters and follow the instructions during an emergency 2. ask your Teaching Assistant or Instructor for advice. etc. or smoke while working in the laboratory. at least two people should be present so that one can shut down equipment and call for help in the event of an emergency. or staff member at the beginning of a new assignment or when a new hazard is introduced into the workplace. drink. Read labels carefully. Students must adhere to written and verbal safety instructions throughout the academic term. Know the building evacuation procedures. Safety training and/or information should be provided by a faculty member. 4. Since additional instructions may be given at the beginning of laboratory sessions. the chance of an accident in this course is very small. With prior approval. 5 . It is expected that each student will work in a responsible manner and exercise good judgment and common sense. or spill. 3. 2. If at any time you are not sure how to handle a particular situation. Personal and General laboratory safety 1.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY All students must read and understand the information in this document with regard to laboratory safety and emergency procedures prior to the first laboratory session. Effort has been made to address situations that may pose a hazard in the lab but the information and instructions provided cannot be considered all-inclusive. Working alone and unsupervised in laboratories is forbidden if you are working with hazardous substances or equipment.
6. 10. 9. ever modify. 12. report it immediately to your lab assistant or tutor. through your chest. make sure it is tied back or confined. across aisles. purses. Wear safety glasses or face shields when working with hazardous materials and/or equipment. Do not use any equipment unless you are trained and approved as a user by your supervisor. and down the other arm. Maintain an unobstructed access to all electrical panels. Shorts and sandals should not be worn in the lab at any time. Capacitors can hold charge for many hours after the equipment has been turned off. Never pipette anything by mouth. and install it safely. etc. Extra books. Equipment Failure . Wear gloves when using any hazardous or toxic agent.Students are responsible for the proper disposal of used material if any in appropriate containers. Keep the work area clear of all materials except those needed for your work. Avoid using extension cords whenever possible. Never try to fix the problem yourself because you could harm yourself and others. 7. 5. If you must use one. obtain a heavy. Your other hand is best placed in a pocket or behind your back. When you are adjusting any high voltage equipment or a laser which is powered with a high voltage supply. 11. If you have long hair or loose clothes.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 3. or plugged into other extension cords. 6 . attach or otherwise change any high voltage equipment. and safety shield or glasses. turn off all ignition sources and lock the doors. Extension cords should not go under doors. 3. 13.If a piece of equipment fails while being used. This procedure eliminates the possibility of an accident where high voltage current flows up one arm. 8. If leaving a lab unattended. 6. 2. 14.duty one that is electrically grounded. Clean up your work area before leaving. be hung from the ceiling. Shoes are required when working in the machine shops. that requires air flow or ventilation to prevent overheating. 5. Never. Clothing: When handling dangerous substances. with its own fuse. 4. Electrical safety 1. Coats should be hung in the hall or placed in a locker. 7. USE ONLY ONE HAND. Always make sure all capacitors are discharged (using a grounded cable with an insulating handle) before touching high voltage leads or the "inside" of any equipment even after it has been turned off. wear gloves. Disposal . 4. should be kept away from equipment. laboratory coats. Obtain permission before operating any high voltage equipment. Wiring or other electrical modifications must be referred to the Electronics Shop or the Building Coordinator. Wash hands before leaving the lab and before eating.
3. notify your instructor or teaching assistant IMMEDIATELY! Your ability to recover from an eye injury decreases the longer you wait for treatment. 7. Make sure all chemicals are clearly and currently labeled with the substance name.or pneumaticallydriven equipment. Use volatile and flammable compounds only in a fume hood. Sudden or unexpected motion can inflict serious injury. Never return chemicals to reagent bottles. Always use "beam stops" to intercept laser beams. types of approved containers and cabinets. 7 . Chemical safety 1. The best way to avoid these injuries is to always wear your goggles and NEVER LOWER YOUR HEAD TO THE LEVEL OF THE LASER BEAM! The laser beam should always be at or below chest level. no matter how low power or "eye safe" you may think it is. Never walk through a laser beam. 9. 3. If you suspect that you have suffered an eye injury. proper labeling. 5. 6. Procedures that produce aerosols should be performed in a hood to prevent inhalation of hazardous material. 4. use only approved nozzles and never direct the air towards any person. Always wear safety goggles if instructed by your Instructor or Teaching Assistant. Clean up spills immediately. Always use gloves. Guards on machinery must be in place during operation. When using compressed air. concentration. 5.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Mechanical safety 1. (Try for the correct amount and share any excess. Dispose of waste and broken glassware in proper containers. 10. Never allow them to propagate into the laboratory. Comply with fire regulations concerning storage quantities. EVER LOOK INTO ANY LASER BEAM. 2. Treat every chemical as if it were hazardous. If uncertain about regulations. sides of mirrors or from the "shiny" surface of an optical table. NEVER. 2. etc. date. Some laser beams of only a few watts can burn a hole through a shirt in only a few seconds. contact the building coordinator. Exercise care when working with or near hydraulically. Do not store food in laboratories. The most common injury using lasers is an eye injury resulting from scattered laser light reflected off of mountings.) 4. 3. 8. Never allow a solvent to come in contact with your skin. Lasers safety 1. and name of the individual responsible. Never "smell" a solvent!! Read the label on the solvent bottle to identify its contents. 2.
do not post areas unnecessarily and be sure that the labels are removed when the hazards are no longer present. biohazards. and carcinogens should be posted accordingly. Areas containing lasers. Do not leave an on-going experiment unattended. Maintain unobstructed access to all exits. Only shop staff may operate forklifts or cranes. Also. electrical panels. Clean your lab bench and equipment. use a bulb. However. Cracks could cause the glassware to fail during use and cause serious injury to you or lab mates. radioisotopes. 8 . Keep your lab space clean and organized. Always inform your instructor if you break a thermometer. Never work alone in laboratory. Any overhead storage of supplies on top of cabinets should be limited to lightweight items only. Check your glassware for cracks and chips each time you use it.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Additional Safety Guidelines • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Never do unauthorized experiments. Do not use corridors for storage or work areas. emergency showers. Be careful when lifting heavy objects. Never use open flames in laboratory unless instructed by TA. remember that a 36" diameter area around all fire sprinkler heads must be kept clear at all times. and lock the door before you leave the laboratory. and eye washes. fire extinguishers. Do not store heavy items above table height. Do not clean mercury yourself!! Never taste anything. Never pipette by mouth.
a purely mechanical or hydraulical device may be employed for measuring the load.true strain curve can also be determined with the help of the tensile test. in older or simpler testing machines. This eliminates error due to the deformation in the ends of the specimen. Engineering stress S = Engineering strain e= Load max Ao Load Ao l True stress True strain = Load Ai lo = ln (l/lo) Load f Af 0. toughness. There are different types of specimen depending on the type of the grips and on the form of the available material (sheet. yield strength. load is measured using a load cell. ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Strain can be measured from the displacement of the crosshead or directly from the specimen. Introduction In this test the load is applied along only one axis. Strain transducers have the advantage that they measure only the displacement in the gage length of the specimen. the gage section and the ends. Generally all specimens have two main parts. uniform elongation. electrically-resistive strain gages attached to the specimen. elongation and reduction in area at rupture. This laboratory experiment is designed to demonstrate the procedure used for obtaining mechanical properties as modulus of elasticity.) A good surface finish is required so that surface flaws do not provide stress concentrations to cause premature failure.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 TENSILE TESTING OF METALS Objective The tensile test measures the resistance of a material to a static or slowly applied force. rod. Besides the true stress. In modern tensile testers. Typical devices for measuring strain are mechanical dial indicators. slack in the load train. and the stiffness of the testing machine.2% permanent strain TS= True fracture stress f = % elongation= (l f lo ) × 100 lo (A % reduction in area= o A ) × 100 Ao 9 . The dimensions of the specimens are standardized (TS.). This test is done on a universal mechanical testing machine which is typically screw-driven or hydraulically powered. strain data. etc. elongation which are to be converted into stress vs. The primary data generated are load vs.2% yield stress is the stress for 0. a strain gage or an inductive or capacitive transducer. and the rate of loading is constant. ASTM etc. DIN. In some cases the machine may be computer controlled. or extensometers that employ either an optical device.
2. Dieter. Or if the material is not known try to guess it with the help of the mechanical properties. Write the equations relating these two modulus to Young's modulus. Determine the 0.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Procedure A servo-hydraulic or servo-mechanical testing machine is used. What % elongation and % reduction in area measures of? 6. After the specimen is broken. NTÜ YayMnM. The load is measured by a load cell.) 1. However the computer can also plot an engineering stress-strain curve directly. The crosshead movement and/or strain are recorded. Ensari C. Why is there a significant difference? Answer questions listed below. McGrawHill. yielding. 10 Discussion Tensile Test Questions References .D. Explain the different deformation mechanisms which are active in the different regions of the tensile stress-strain curve. If the material is given compare your test results of strength and ductility with book values. Prentice-Hall. i. using the appropriate conversion factors and specimen area and gauge length. Metalik Malzemelerin Mekanik Deneyleri. (elastic.2% yield stress. bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio. The specimen of known dimensions are loaded in the machine and strained at a constant rate. the final length and diameter are measured. 2. and . Determine the mathematical expression for the true stress true strain curve for the second material. Which modulus did you find from the initial portion of the stress-strain curve? If did not use an extensometer but determined strain from the crosshead movement. Determine the engineering stress-strain curve and the true stress. in order to determine the fracture mode. 4. Dowling E. 5.elongation curve for each specimen. 3. Mechanical Metallurgy. ductile or brittle and explain the reasons. Find the mechanical properties of the tested material from Handbooks and make comparisons.Mechanical Behavior of Materials.. Results 1.Dikey F. for strain measurement an extensometer is used. % elongation. i. What is the area under the stress-strain curve equivalent to? What does the area under the elastic portion of the stress-strain represent? 5. 2. strain hardening. UTS. what does it represent resistance to? 4. Identify the fracture mode. would the initial slope still allow you to determine an accurate modulus? Explain.true strain curve. The X-Y plots are obtained.. % reduction in area.e. Write the definition using symbols for shear modulus. The fracture type and the fracture surface are investigated. 1. necking etc. 3.e. 3. modulus of elasticity. Plot a load . What is the approximate value of Poisson's ratio for metals? What is the physical significance of Poisson's ratio. KayalM S.
3. 6..2% yield stress. References. . .?? 4. . . Experimental Procedure. 11 . What data is produced. . How did you find 0.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 CHECKLIST FOR TENSILE REPORT 1. . UTS. tables and figures. A brief summary of what you accomplished. Conclusion . . Define all the properties you determined. Show graphs of the stress strain curves. List values of all the mechanical properties determined in the test with correct units. 10. what did you do. Why are tensile properties of materials important in engineering. 9. Data Analysis. Original graph of load vs. i. Compare alloys. All axes identified with scales. % elongation. ..true strain curve. What measurements are made. . true fracture stress. What is the TS (Türk StandartlarM) standard number for this test. Introduction section. 7. highest ductility. . Compare your results with values from a reference. If your results are different. . explain. Display measured values of specimens. Describe specimen. Discussion . . etc. 8. What measurements are made after the test 5. Results . . Describe the program used for data analysis. Appendix . Brief detail of test. Neatness of bound report. Describe how you plot the engineering stress-strain curve. . Organization of report in sections. Give details of the recording system for data. What tensile machine is used. . What mechanical properties can be determined in a tensile test. % reduction in area and other properties . How did you determine the mathematical expression for the true stress . What properties can be determined. which is strongest.e. strain correctly identified. 2.
MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 HARDNESS TESTING Objective To introduce the principles of indentation hardness testing. Vickers and Rockwell hardness tests for metals and alloys. different load and ball diameter combinations can be selected and used in Brinell hardness testing. 12 . etc. The load and ball diameter selection is important depending on the hardness of materials and 500 kgf is used for softer materials with the same ball diameter. The geometry of indentation is given in Figure-1. The most popular methods are Brinell. a =135° Figure-1: Geometry of deformation under a Brinell hardness indenter. strain hardening. and the hardness is determined according to the relationship. Keeping the ratio of load P to the square of diameter D2 constant (30 for steels and cast irons and 5 for soft metals and alloys). The Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) is obtained by dividing the applied force P. emphasizing the limitations and significance of the results. Figure-2: Vickers hardness indentation. The harder the materials. by the curved surface area of the indentation. the greater the resistance to penetration. Factors influencing hardness include microstructure. in kgf. BHN = 2P D[ D ( D2 D2 )1/ 2 ] where D is the diameter of the indenter ball and d is the average diameter of the indentation. thus specifications often require the results of hardness tests rather than tensile tests. Introduction Hardness is generally considered as resistance to penetration. grain size. Brinell Test In a standard Brinell test 10 mm diameter hardened steel ball is forced to penetrate the material by 3000 kgf for steels and cast irons. Generally as hardness increases so does yield strength and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Hardness is directly related to the mechanical properties of the material. both in mm. which is actually a segment of sphere.
The Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) of materials is obtained by dividing the applied force P. In order to establish a reference position a minor load of 10 kgf. Therefore. where X indicates the scale used (i. Rockwell Test In the Rockwell test. It should be noted that a Rockwell hardness number is meaningless unless the scale is not specified. depending on the depth of penetration.6 mm (1/16") and 12. Most commonly used Rockwell hardness scales are given in Table-l with typical applications. in kgf. 50 HRC for 50 points on the C scale of dial).7 mm (1/2") are used in testing softer materials. Test load is selected between 1 and 120 kgf depending on the hardness of materials. HR = E-e Figure-3: Increasing depth of penetration in the Rockwell test 13 . except the indenter is a diamond pyramid with square base.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Vickers Test The Vickers hardness test is based on the same principle as the Brinell test. Due to the shape and hardness of indenter the method is applicable to metals and alloys with wide variety of hardness. The hardness numbers are designated HRX. surface condition of specimens is very important in Rockwell testing because of its high dependency on the accuracy in indentation depth measurements. and the major load is then applied.8544 P d2 (in some sources VHN is cited as DPH) where d is the average length of diagonals in mm. is first applied. by the surface of the pyramidal depression yielding the relationship VHN= 1. a diamond cone or a hard steel ball is employed as the indenter depending on the hardness of materials. Rockwell tests differ from other indentation hardness tests in that the depth of indentation determines the hardness rather than the indentation size (see Figure3). Diamond cone or Brale indenter with cone angle of 1200 is used to test hard materials and the balls of sizes between 1. The angle between the faces of pyramid is 1360 as shown in Figure-2.e. Additional penetration due to major load is measured and readings are obtained from a calibrated scale (dial) directly. It is also possible to apply micro hardness testing by keeping the force between 5 grf and 2 kgf in Vickers scale. which has a maximum value of 100.
45 x BHN • Rockwell hardness tester • Brinell hardness tester • Microhardness (Vickers) tester • Different test specimens Procedure Determine the proper Rockwell hardness scale. take five readings per specimen. polymers Since the deformations caused by an indenter are of similar magnitude to those occurring at the ultimate tensile strength in a tension test. reinforced polymers Soft sintered products Very soft metals. Analysis Calculate the range and mean in hardness values for each test specimen which will be considered in lab report. determine the VHN at 0. 4. until the hardness remains unchanged. For example. polymers Very soft metals. for steels UTS can be roughly estimated from Brinell hardness as follows: Equipment UTS (in MPa) = 3. Cu and Al alloys Al and Mg alloys. some empirical relationships have been established between hardness and engineering ultimate tensile strength of metals and alloys.20 mm distances from the surface to the center of case carburized specimen. Using microhardness tester. 1. Perform Brinell hardness measurements on designated specimens (3 readings) 5. 3. Ti alloys Annealed steels. calibrate the Rockwell hardness tester. Sheet Steels Hardened steels and cast irons. 6.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Table-I: Commonly used Rockwell hardness scales. Indenter Type Major Load Scale Typical Applications X (kgf) I A D C B E F M R Diamond Brale Diamond Brale Diamond Brale 1/16" Diameter Ball 1/8" Diameter Ball 1/16" Diameter Ball 1/4" Diameter Ball 1/2" Diameter Ball 60 100 150 100 100 60 100 60 Tool Materials Cast Irons. Determine the core hardness of the carburized steel. 14 . 2. .
Are there any units involved? Describe the procedure for the Rockwell test. 3. Jones. 15 . What is the limitation on the thickness of specimens for a hardness test? Explain. Calculate the minimum thickness for one specimen for the Rockwell test and one for the Brinell test. 4. Dieter. Vol. Nov. Mc Graw Hill. 2.N. "H. N. 1990. 1986. 2. Discussion (only those indicated will be answered in the lab report) 1. 3. How do the Rockwell and Brinell tests actually measure hardness? Give any appropriate sketches and formulae. What surface condition is necessary for Brinell. 8. pp.. . 20. Rockwell and Vickers? 5. "An Evaluation of the Impression Test for Estimating the Tensile Properties of Metallic Materials. 9th ed. Results • List hardness values of Rockwell and Brinell for each specimen.. What are the limitations for distance from specimen edge to indentation and distance between indentations? Explain why these limitations exist in both cases. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. 4. Journal of Testing and Evaluation. Metals Handbook. What are the advantages of Vickers test against Brinell test? References 1. Dowling. S1 ed.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Lab Report Requirements 1. 403-407. Prentice Hall. Vol. Mechanical Testing. G. Mechanical Metallurgy. Why is the mean pressure (stress) under the indentor much greater than the yield stress? How much greater is it? 6. 1992. 1993. • Determine the effective carburizing depth that corresponds to 400 VHN 2. • List VHN versus distance from surface for carburized specimen. explaining the reason for the pre-load.
notched-bar impact test results are affected by the lattice type of materials.g. strikes and fractures the specimen at the notch. 16 . Equipment • • • • Coolants Standard Charpy V-Notched Test specimens Impact tester Furnace Introduction Notched-bar impact test of metals provides information on failure mode under high velocity loading conditions leading sudden fracture where a sharp stress raiser (notch) is present. E = m. little energy is absorbed during impact failure. degree of strain hardening. Brittle materials have a small area under the stress-strain curve (due to its limited toughness) and as a result. are relatively smooth and have crystalline appearance in the metals. called fibrous fracture. The geometry of 55mm long. the area under the curve also increases and absorbed energy and respectively toughness increase. Charpy v-notched impact tests are more common in practice.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 IMPACT TESTING Objective To conduct Charpy V-notch impact test and determine the ductile-brittle transition temperature of steels. indicating brittle behavior. rising a maximum height h ' which should be lower than h naturally. As plastic deformation capability of the materials (ductility) increases. testing temperature. If the dimensions of specimens are maintained as indicated in standards. On the contrary. those for high energy fractures have regions of shear where the fracture surface is inclined about 45° to the tensile stress. The fracture surfaces for low energy impact failures. The pendulum continues its swing. Similar characteristics can be seen on the fracture surfaces of broken specimens. standard Charpy test specimen is given in Figure-2.(h-h ') where m is the mass of pendulum and g is the gravitational acceleration. The apparatus for performing impact tests is illustrated schematically in Figure-I. The load is applied as an impact blow from a weighted pendulum hammer that is released from a position at a fixed height h. and have rougher and more highly deformed appearance. were designed and used extensively to measure the impact energy. chemical composition of materials. etc. The energy absorbed at fracture E can be obtained by simply calculating the difference in potential energy of the pendulum before and after the test such as. the Charpy and Izod. which has a knife edge. Although two standardized tests. The specimen is positioned at the base and with the release of pendulum. thermo-mechanical history. The energy absorbed at fracture is generally related to the area under the stress-strain curve which is termed as toughness in some references.
Determination of transition temperature can also be done by examining the fracture surfaces of specimens tested at different temperatures. For example 20 J transition temperature is an accepted criterion for low-strength ship steels. is called fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT). Some steels may show transition characteristics in their failure mode from ductile to brittle gradually as temperature is decreased. 17 .MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Figure-I: Apparatus for impact testing of materials. often exhibit a decrease in impact energy as the temperature is lowered. particularly steels. The temperature at which a sharp decrease in impact energy occurs is called the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) as shown in Figure-3 schematically. Figure-2: Specimen and loading configuration for Charpy V-notched impact test. at which the fracture surface consists 50 percent cleavage (crystalline) and 50 percent ductile (fibrous) types of fracture. Another common criterion is to determine the transition temperature on the basis of an arbitrary energy absorbed. This transition temperature is generally chosen as a lower limit for the application of such metals. In this case different approaches may be used in determining transition temperature but the average energy concept is the most popular one. Body centered cubic (bcc) metals. For example the temperature. which is given in Figure-4 schematically.
Lab Report Requirements 1.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Figure-3: Typical ductile-brittle transition curve for annealed low carbon steel. and as many temperatures in between as possible. Check the zero calibration of the impact tester. 4. 3. Plot impact energy versus temperature and % brittleness versus temperature. First. 5. a fully (or nearly) brittle test. Test specimens over a selected range of temperatures. 2. Figure-4: Various criteria of transition temperature obtained from Charpy tests. Results • • • Display the test data in a Table. Procedure Note: Test one material with two specimens for each temperature. Note fracture energy and estimate the % brittleness from the appearances of fracture surfaces of the specimens. . test a specimen at room temperature. Find DBTT of the steel that you tested. 1. 18 . decide whether to concentrate on higher or lower temperature. attempting to establish a fully ductile test. Based on the room temperature result.
MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 2. ASTM and TS Standards. when does a biaxial stress state occur? 4. 12. 2. 8. G. Metals Handbook. Mechanical Testing. Dieter. List the ASTM and TS specifications for the two impact tests with titles. Explain the effect of manganese on DBTT of steels. 1993. What are the main uses of the Charpy test? 5. 1990. Would this occur in thick or thin material? Thus. Mechanical Metallurgy. Dowling. 9th ed. What are the 3 basic factors which contribute to brittle fracture of steels? Do all 3 have to be present for brittle fracture to occur? 3.. N. Explain the effect of carbon content on transition behavior of plain carbon steels in annealed condition. 5. SI ed.. Vol. 1986. 2. 6. 19 . 3. ASM Metals Handbook. Mc Graw Hill. Suggest 2 ways in which DBTT can be lowered. 7. Discussion (the questions will be answered in the lab report) 1. Prentice Hall. References 1. Mechanical Behavior of Materials. Give the estimated values of DBTT for your steel. 4. Explain the relation between fracture toughness (KIC) of steels and impact energy. Explain how a triaxial stress state can arise at the root of a notch. 9th ed. Vol. 8.
Determination Fatigue Limit on the Rotary Bending Machine Each point on the surface of the rotating specimen will go trough the points 1. Introduction Fatigue failure accounts for the majority of mechanical failure of metallic materials subjected to cyclic loads. 2. Rotary bending fatigue testing machines are simple and low-cost practical machines which are used since 1850. etc. i. Equipment • • CJ Rotary bending fatigue testing machine Dartec 100kN servo-hydraulic testing system. The modem fatigue test frames are servo-controlled electro-hydraulic or electro-mechanical devices. There are different types of fatigue testing machines. The number of rotations is determined by a counter and the machine is stopped at failure. The "stress amplitude . and will be subjected to a dynamic stress. 3.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 FATIGUE TESTING Objective To demonstrate how fatigue tests are conducted and how to interpret results. In all cases the number of cycles to produce failure increases with the lowering of the stress leve1. 20 .time curve is a sinusoidal curve with the amplitude a . The stress . Fatigue failures result from repeated applications of stress which is usually well below the static yield stress. Fatigue cycles are often completely reversed state of stress.e. tension and compression in a rotating beam but can also be tension-tension.number of cycles" curve can be determined by repeating the test at different stress levels. The load F can be adjusted by positioning the sliding piece with the weight G.
Plot all the available results on a S-N curve. Discussion Include in your discussion answers to the following questions. 1. Where do most fatigue cracks start? Why? 21 . What are the stages in a fatigue fracture? 3. What is distinctive about the surface appearance of a fatigue fracture? What information can be obtained observing the fracture surface? 2.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Fatigue Component Test on the Dartec Fatigue Tester Here a component test is demonstrated. Estimate the fatigue limit for this steel. Results 1. 2. Note the scatter. The fatigue loading of a spring is done in stroke controlled mode and the number of cycles to failure is determined.
A. What is the mean stress and the R-ratio? 5. Describe fatigue machine make and model number. 7. Why does improving surface finish improve fatigue properties? References 1. 9. Why are fatigue properties important in engineering and how are they used. G. . 6. 5. Abstract. A brief summary of what you did and the. Vol. etc. 12) CHECKLIST FOR FATIGUE TEST REPORT 1. ASM Metals Handbook. 10.E. I. . Dieter. . 8th Ed. Results: . Failure of Materials in Mechanical Design 2. result. Mechanical Metallurgy (Chap. Conclusion: . Data Analysis: . Describe how you plot S-N curves. 3. Show formula and sample calculation. See if you can find any published values to compare your data with. What are fatigue properties. Describe specimen and its preparation. Display measured values in a table of all results. ..MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 4. p. Introduction. 2. Discussion: . References 22 . 4. Show S-N curves with proper labeling. Collins. Estimate fatigue limit. Describe setup for test. 102 3. 8.. Table of Contents with page numbers. starting and stopping. Introduction section: . What is the difference about behavior of steel and Aluminum? 6. Experimental Procedure: . Report organized into appropriate sections.
until the surface is completely ground. The extra time spent on each paper should be increased as the finer papers are used. After cutting operation. 2. The direction of grinding is changed from paper to paper. The silicon carbide grinding papers are held flat in a unit containing water facility for lubrication purpose. employing magnifications with the optical microscope of from 100x to as high as 2000x. burrs on the edges of the specimen should be carefully removed by a fine file or coarse grinding paper. that is. Specimen preparation 1. usually under l0x. The specimen is washed thoroughly to remove coarse silicon carbide particles before proceeding to a finer paper. Each unit contains four grades of papers. the specimen is washed thoroughly and dried. The specimen should be held 23 . starting with grade 400 (coarse) and finishing with grade 1200 (fine). Now. Grinding of the work piece is done by starting with the coarse papers and then continuing with the fine papers. Introduction There are two examination methods in metallography: I) Macroscopy 2) Microscopy In macroscopy the examination of the structural characteristics or chemical characteristics of a metal or an alloy is done by the unaided eye or with the aid of a low-power microscope or binocular. Polishing The polishing is done on rotating wheels covered by a special cloth. Grinding A small piece of specimen is cut by a metal-cutting-saw. but the total polishing time shortened by starting on the 7 or 3 micron grade. The pad should be kept well supplied with lubricant. At the end of the grinding sequence. In microscopy similar examination is done with the prepared metal specimens. In each stage. The 1-micron size is commonly used. grinding is done by rubbing the specimen backwards and forwards on the grinding paper in one direction only. the specimen is ready for polishing.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 METALLOGRAPHY Objective To study the structural characteristics or constitution of a metal or an alloy in relation to its physical and mechanical properties. Alumina is employed as polishing agent. until only grinding marks due to this particular paper can be seen to cover the whole surface. so that the removal of previous grinding marks is easily observed.
3. with good contrast in the image. and color of the grain. During polishing the specimen should be rotated or moved around the wheel so as to give an even polish. a quantitative analysis of the micrographs provides some information about the bulk properties of the specimen. the specimen surface is polished and subsequently etched with appropriate reagents before microscopic examination. the etching not only delineates grain boundaries. Further etching can then follow to strengthen up the details as required. a good general. Etching results in preferential attack or preferential colouring of the surface. After each etching. Etching is generally done by swabbing. it is 24 . Optical metallography is a basic tool of material scientists. A limited study of line and surface informations is also possible with the optical microscope. Differences in contrast may result from differences in light absorption characteristics of the phases. Etching times will vary from specimen to specimen. the specimen should be thoroughly washed in running water. procedure is to observe the surface during etching. * As a guide the following etchants are commonly used: Alcoholic Ferric Chloride -copper alloys Mixed Acids -aluminum alloys Nital (ethyl alcohol+ 2% HN03) -iron and steel Dilute HCI -zinc alloys A. but excessive pressure should be avoided. Distribution and morphology of the phases can be studied and. followed by drying off with acetone or alcohol. If the final polishing has involved the use of magnesia ( in the form of an aqueous paste of fine magnesia) or alumina (in the form of an aqueous suspension of fine alumina). In a polished specimen. The preferential attack is electrochemical corrosion.MICROSCOPICAL EXAMINATION The microstructural study of a material can provide information regarding the morphology and distribution of constituent phases as well as the nature and pattern of certain crystal imperfections. it is essential to ensure that the polished surface is grease and smear free.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 firmly in contact with the polishing wheel. Etching Before etching. The specimen should be thoroughly cleaned and dried between each wheel. In order to obtain reproducible results. then thorough washing followed by drying off with acetone or alcohol will give a suitable surface. but also allows the different phases to be distinguished by differences in brightness. and to remove the specimen when evidence of the grains first appears. shape. Microscopical examination will then reveal whether the degree of etching is sufficient. since the equipment is relatively inexpensive and the images can be obtained and interpreted easily. however. although it must not be fingered afterwards. if their properties are known.
Microstructural examination can provide quantitative information about the following parameters: 1) The grain size of specimens 2) The amount of interfacial area per unit volume 3) The dimensions of constituent phases 4) The amount and distribution of phases. It is almost good practice to examine specimens first in the polished condition.M where C is some constant greater than 1 ( Typically. the grains intercepted by a theoretical line on the specimen surface are counted (Fig.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 well known that different materials corrode at different rates. 1). Failure analysis depends a great deal on metallographic examination. focusing is completed with the fine adjustment.5 is adequate). For grain size measurements. and then successively higher magnifications are used to resolve the fine details. corrected for the magnification. 25 . The average grain size is indicated by the inverse of nL. It would be useful to obtain an average value of grain diameter from a microstructural section. M. This is formed by chemical reaction between the etchant and the specimen. Fig. Grain boundaries are often anodic to the bulk metal in the interior of the grain and so are etched away preferentially and delineated. a value of C=1. the grains along a line. even if it is almost level. The prepared surface is made level by means of a suitable levelling device. it is best to fix it on a glass or metal slide by means of a piece of plasticine.1 Linear intercept method for grain size determination Experimental Specimens are going to be polished and etched as explained above. The correct procedure is to start with low power examination in order to obtain an overall picture. is given by d= C/nL. then. Magnifications up to 1000x can be obtained with a resolution of 2 Vm. In general. Staining is produced by the deposition of solid etch product on the specimen surface. In linear intercept method. Under favorable conditions the use of a proper etchant enables the identification of constituents. circle. With an unmounted specimen. In focusing. the stage is gradually moved towards the objective and when the image appears. the average grain diameter. The number of grain boundaries intersected per unit length of a test line (nL) can be noted. or within a known area are counted. of the micrograph. d.
examination. This is followed by an examination in the etched condition. porosity. such as the presence of inclusions. 2.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 as certain features. and the extent to which they exist therein. as for 26 . are revealed. MACROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF METALS Objective To examine the nature of inhomogenities and flow lines in a metal by unaided eye or with the aid of a low-powered microscope or magnifying glass. cracks. are best determined by macroetching a representative piece and subsequently examining the conditions thereby revealed with the unaided eye or with the aid of a low-powered microscope or magnifying glass. whereas the prepared surface represents a two-dimensional picture in the plane of the micro-section. Chemical heterogeneity. the presence of fabricating defects. such as pipe can not be examined by microscopy. and sometimes even the different phases. using linear intercept method. Such segregation may be intentional (the introduction of carbon into the surface of steel during the process of case carburizing). This fact should be taken into account in the interpretation of the geometry of any particular configuration. The magnification employed is usually not over 10x. and residual ingot defects. Macroetching sections may reveal conditions in the metal that are related to one or more of the following heterogeneous circumstances: 1. 3. It should always be remembered that the structure of a given specimen exists in three dimensions. These data represent the characteristics of the metal only at the particular section of the piece. owing to impurities in the metal or alloy and to localized segregation of certain chemical constituents. Do not examine one or two fields only. B. Such an examination is referred to as a macroscopic. or macro. the presence and extent of which depend upon the manner of solidification and the crystalline growth of the metal or alloy. Calculate the average grain diameter of the micrograph. Results The investigation result of the optical microscopy is going to be recorded as follows: 1. the uniformity of structure. The general distribution and variation in size of nonmetallic inclusions. Introduction Metallurgical data obtained by a chemical and metallographic analysis of a metal or an alloy are usually not representative of the entire piece. The nature of inhomogenities in a metal. Estimate the carbon content of the steels. Crystalline heterogeneity. such as seams or hammer bursts. the location and extent of segregation. or may be unintentional and undesirable. Examine each specimen and sketch typical microstructure 2.
and subsequently dried in the usual manner. Mechanical heterogeneity. Sulphur printing detects and permanently records the distribution of sulphur in steel. When fixation is completed. The reaction of the sulphuric acid with the sulphide regions of the steel produces hydrogen sulphide gas. either as manganese sulphide or as iron sulphide. The examination of properly prepared sulphur print will disclose quite clearly.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 example. which reacts with the silver bromide in the paper emulsion. Experiment Three experiments will be performed: 1. arising from cold-working or process that introduces permanent stresses into the metal. Grinding the surface on papers. the segregation of sulphur or phosphorus that is so often found in cast steels. the precise location of sulphur inclusions on the prepared surface of the metal. Photographic bromide paper is soaked in a 2% aqueous solution of sulphuric acid for approximately 3 or 4 min. Such heterogeneity seldom occurs in cast metals. The surface of interest to be tested for distribution of sulphur should be reasonably smooth and free from foreign matter such as dirt and grease. Care must be taken that all entrapped air bubbles between the paper and the specimen surface are eliminated. the photographic paper is removed from the surface of the specimen. and then fixed permanently by placing it in a photographic fixing solution for about 15 min. the print is again washed in running water for approximately 30 min. forming a characteristic brown to gray-black deposit of silver sulphide. The paper is removed from the acid solution and allowed to drain free from excess solution. Sulphur may exist chemically in steel in one of two forms. because of the presence of darkly colored areas of silver sulphide. 3. especially sulphur content in steel makes it brittle. numbers 400 to 1200 and subsequent thorough washing will generally produce a surface satisfactory for the purpose. It is desirable that their amounts should be minimal and homogeneously distributed within the product. Sulphur Printing: Impurities may exist in steel products. but its presence is of importance in cold-rolled metals. The emulsion side of the paper is then placed in direct contact with the prepared specimen surface and allowed to remain in contact under moderately applied pressure for 1 or 2 min. rinsed in clear running water. These impurities degrade the mechanical properties of the steel. etc. forging. A grouping or gathering of such silver sulphide areas indicates the presence of sulphur 27 . These reactions may be expressed as follows: FeS + H2SO4 ~ FeS04 + H2S or MnS + H2SO4 ~ MnS04 + H2S H2S + 2 AgBr ~ Ag2S + 2 HBr When the reaction has proceeded for approximately the recommended length of time.
The orientation of this pattern with respect to the plane of the prepared surface indicates the direction of metal flow during deformation. Flow lines: done without a specimen. cut. Flow lines: It is sometimes desirable to determine whether or not a finished piece has been forged. 3. in saturated picral. the direction of metal flow. This procedure is repeated several times to lessen the light reflectivity characteristics of the surface and to produce some relief of the macrostructure. Specimens 1. The specimen of interest is then etched by immersion for about 2 min.Welded sections: finding the location of weld section of a welded-material Procedure 1. after which the surface is thoroughly washed and lightly rubbed on a metallographic polishing cloth until the columnar grains in the weld metal show distinctly. to determine the soundness of a welded joint and to observe macroscopically over a cross section of the weldment the various zones wherein structural changes have occurred. in 5% nital. in the event that it was forged. or in some cases with a milder reagent such as 2 or 3 % nital (ethyl alcohol + 2% HN03). 2. shown on blackboard 3. Welded sections: It is often desirable. distribution of the sulphur inclusions. The specimen is finally rinsed in alcohol and dried in a stream of warm air. This is accomplished by macroetching the prepared surface with the usual hydrocWoric acid solution. whereas a random dispersion of the spots denotes a more uniform. or cast into shape and to note. and frequently necessary. sulphides and other elongated heterogeneous areas are selectively attacked by the etching reagent. Sulphur printing: follow the instructions in the introduction section. The flow lines are made visible because the elongated inclusions of impurities.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 segregation. 28 . Sulphur printing: a piece of rail material 2. The prepared surface is then etched for 10 to 20 sec. A macroetched forged-material shows a directional flow pattern consisting of streaks and striations. followed by thorough washing in cold running water and swabbing with a tuft of cotton to remove the loosely adhering reaction products formed on the surface. such as oxides. the specimen of interest is prepared in a manner described for metallographic specimens and finally alternately polished and etched in saturated picral to remove disturbed metal. it is likely that the material may be defective and may contain an excessive amount of inclusions and segregated areas. Flow lines as revealed by macroetching in forgings are a natural consequence of applied mechanical working. If the flow pattern shows highly selective etching characteristics. In ferritic welds.
29 . Draw schematically sulphur inclusions in the rail material (Specimen 1). 1949. 3rd Ed. Are the sulphur inclusions distributed homegeneously or as segregated points in the material? Discuss their effects on the mechanical properties of the material.. References 1. relate this result to the mechanical properties of the material. G. etc. 2nd Year Materials Laboratory Notes for Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineers. NTÜ. Kehl. 2. 6. please consult with the librarian). Do flow lines exist in casted materials? Why? 4. 4.. Welded section: follow the instructions in the introduction section (for grinding the specimen use number 240 to 400 grinding papers then rub the specimen surface using a cotton tuft by 9g FeCl3 + 6 cm3 HCl + 100 cm3 H2O solution until the weld section appears). What do the flow lines indicate in terms of mechanical properties of the material? 5. 3. Results 1. Flow lines: 3. Makina Fakültesi. Imperial College of Science and Technology.Y. Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science. Malzeme Ders Notlan. 3 What causes the flow lines to appear.L. ASTM Standards and ASM Standards (they exist in our library. 2.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 2. The Principles of Metallographic Laboratory Practice. Draw schematically welded-section of specimen 3. What do you find out by examining the welded-sections? Can you talk about the weld quality. appearance and the welded materials.. Güleç.? By inspecting the weld section.
and (3) the structure of the steel before quenching. or other suitable medium. The water flow rate is adjusted so that the water column is approximately the distance 50 mm above the end of the pipe. The dependence of hardness upon quenching rate can be understood ftom the time-temperature-transformation characteristics of steel. As section size increases. it becomes increasingly difficult to extract the heat fast enough to exceed the critical cooling rate and thus avoid formation of nonmartensitic products. In a small section. After the entire sample has cooled to room temperature. The most important factor influencing the maximum hardness that can be obtained is mass of the metal being quenched. hardenability increases with carbon content and with alloy content. The surface of the part is cooled rapidly. oil. It is a cylindirical bar with a 25 mm diameter and 100 mm length. Hardenability refers to capacity of hardening (depth) rather than to maximum attainable hardness.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 JOMINY HARDENABILITY TEST Objective To study hardness as a function of quench rate and investigate the hardenability of steels. Because of the nature of the T-T-T diagram. when water is flowing freely. it is removed from the furnace and placed directly into the quenching apparatus. The specimen is placed in the furnace at 900 0C for about 1/2 hour. thus exceeding the critical cooling rate of the specific steel and this part would thus be completely martensitic. can be estimated from the T-T-T diagram. for a particular steel. A part may be hardened by quenching into water. The hardenability of a steel depends on (1) the composition of the steel. Procedure Sample of medium carbon steel machined to the shape shown in Fig. resulting in high hardness. whereas the interior cools more slowly and is not hardened. Introduction The hardenability of a steel is defined as that property which determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching ftom the austenitic condition. and.2. the hardness does not vary linearly from the outside to the center. In general. the heat is extracted quickly. The critical cooling rate is that rate of cooling which must be exceeded to prevent formation of nonmartensite products. After the sample has been austenitized. Hardenability of all steels is directly related to critical cooling rates. the 30 . A jet of water is quickly splashed at one end of the specimen. (2) the austenitic grain size.
Smith. Evaluate the hardenability of the steel used in this experiment using the plotted hardenability curve.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 scale oxidation is removed. Results Plot a hardenability curve of Rockwell hardness vs. 3. ASM. 3 ) Discussion and Questions 1. IF. Predict the microstructure of the steel all along the bar in correlation with your hardness measurements. Introduction to Materials Science 2.. W. References 1. two opposite and flat parallel surfaces are ground along the length of the bar. Rockwell C hardness measurements are then made every 2 mm and these readings are recorded.F. Principles of Materials Science and Engineering 3. 2. How is the role of carbon and various alloy elements on the hardenability of steels (Give examples of different hardenability curves ). distance from the quenched end. ( Fig. Shackelford. Heat Treater's Guide Water spray Specimen Fig.1 Schematic illustration of the Jominy end-quench test 31 . What is the ideal critical diameter and can it be determined with a Jominy test.
MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 32 .
these techniques generally require considerable operator skill and interpreting test results accurately may be difficult because the results can be subjective. only for 33 . internal voids. and variety of less visible. no subsurface flaws. These were. trains to derail. Table 1 Commonly used NDT techniques Technique Visual Inspection Microscopy Radiography Dye penetrate Ultrasonic Magnetic Particle Capabilities Macroscopic surface flaws Small surface flaws Subsurface flaws Surface flaws Subsurface flaws Surface / near surface and Limitations Small flaws are difficult to detect. surface cavities. very special tests have been developed for specific applications. and coatings in order to detect cracks. Certain standards has been also implemented to assure the reliability of the NDT tests and prevent certain errors due to either the fault in the equipment used. delamination. composites. such as the quality control of the products. advantages and applications of various NDT methods. etc. No subsurface flaws not for porous materials No subsurface flaws not for porous materials Material must be good conductor of sound. Commonly used NDT test methods can be seen in table 1. plastics. incomplete defective welds and any type of flaw that could lead to premature failure.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING Objective To gain experience with and understanding of the types. These methods can be performed on metals. However. reactors to fail. pipelines to burst. tensile testing. but equally troubling events. interdisciplinary field that plays a critical role in inspecting that structural component and systems perform their function in a reliable fashion. In certain applications. This kind of evaluations can be carried out with Non destructive test (NDT) methods. however. Limited subsurface capability. radiation protection. cermets. no subsurface flaws. hardness testing. Smallest defect detectable is 2% of the thickness. product integrity and future usefulness. Introduction Up to this point we have learnt various testing methods that somehow destruct the test specimens. the evaluation of engineering materials or structures without impairing their properties is very important. the miss-application of the methods or the skill and the knowledge of the inspectors. ceramics. failure analysis or prevention of the engineered systems in service. Successful NDT tests allow locating and characterizing material conditions and flaws that might otherwise cause planes to crash. Not applicable to larger structures. It is possible to inspect and/or measure the materials or structures without destroying their surface texture. These are universal NDT methods. The field of NDT is a very broad. To be able to choose the best NDT method for a given part.
Difficult to interpret in some applications. only for metals. 34 . expensive equipments.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Eddy Current Acoustic emission layer flaws Surface and near surface flaws Can analyze entire structure ferromagnetic materials. Difficult to interpret.
etc. incomplete penetration welds. The difference is the source of the penetrating electromagnetic radiation which is a radioactive material such m Co 60. The sensitivity of xrays is nominally 2% of the materials thickness. undercutting. A thin crack does not show up unless the x-rays ran parallel to the plane 0 the crack. dents. Essentially. This method is an inexpensive and convenient technique for surface defect inspection. Materials that are commonly inspected using LPI include the following. and the like. Radiography: Radiography has an advantage over some of the other processes in that the radiography provides a permanent reference for the internal soundness of the object that is radiographed. Some of these flaws are listed below. Its popularity can be attributed to two main factors. copper. visual inspection should be performed the way that one would inspect a new car prior to delivery. metals (aluminum.5mm in dimension. The x-ray emitted from a source has an ability to penetrate metals as a function of the accelerating voltage in the x-ray emitting tube. many ceramic materials. slag inclusion. large cracks. Like wise. cavities. such as poor welds. rubber. Liquid (Dye) penetrant method: Liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) is one of the most widely used nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. Thus for a piece of steel with a 25mm thickness. wrong parts.). poor fits. The technique is based on the ability of a liquid to be drawn into a "clean" surface breaking flaw by capillary action. wrong dimensions. If a void present in the object being radiographed. For this reason. glass. fatigue cracks. inadequate size. steel. Bad welds or joints. The limitations of the liquid penetrant technique include the inability to inspect subsurface flaws and a loss of resolution on porous materials. Many welding flaws are macroscopic: crater cracking. VI is also suitable for detecting flaws in composite structures and piping of all types. titanium. lack of code approval stamps and similar proofs of testing. delaminations in coatings. Gamma radiography is identical to x-ray radiography in function.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Visual inspection: VI is particularly effective detecting macroscopic flaws. Liquid penetrant inspection is used to inspect of flaws that break the surface of the sample. which are its relative ease of use and its flexibility. etc. Liquid penetrant testing is largely used on nonmagnetic materials for which magnetic particle inspection is not possible. the smallest void that could be detected would be 0. However this method is less popular because of the hazards of handling radioactive materials. parts are often radiographed in different planes. quench cracks 35 . improper surface finish. plastics. missing fasteners or components. more x-rays will pass in that area and the film under the part in turn will have more exposure than in the non-void areas.
coating thickness measurements. Eddy currents can be used for crack detection. as well as physical distance between coil and material. immediate results. fast and traditional nondestructive testing methods widely used because of its convenience and low cost. minimum part preparation. pin holes in welds. material thickness measurements. such as iron filings to detect flaws in components. ability to detect surface and near surface defects. Eddy current testing: Eddy currents are created through a process called electromagnetic induction. These currents are influenced by the nature of the material such as voids. For the best sensitivity. portable equipment. If there is a discontinuity such as a crack or a flaw on the surface of the part. lack of fusion or braising along the edge of the bond line. porosity. cracks. heat damage detection. cobalt. suitability for many different applications. a kerosene-iron filling suspension is poured on the surface and the electromagnet is energized. or some of their alloys. The only requirement from an inspect ability standpoint is that the component being inspected must be made of a ferromagnetic material such iron. This cluster of particles is much easier to see than the actual crack and this is the basis for magnetic particle inspection. nickel. laps seams. Magnetic particles: Magnetic particle inspection is one of the simple. When alternating current is applied to the conductor. heat treatment monitoring. an enormous volume of structural steels used in engineering is magnetic. the lines of magnetic force should be perpendicular to the defect. If another electrical conductor is brought into the close proximity to this changing magnetic field. such as copper wire. Some of the advantages of eddy current inspection include. the iron particles will also be attracted at the edges of the crack behaving poles of the magnet. The sensing circuit is a part of the sending coil. These currents form an impedance on a second coil which is used to as a sensor. and electronic equipment monitors the eddy current in the work piece through the same probe. In its simplest application. This method uses magnetic fields and small magnetic particles. sensitivity to small cracks and other defects. case depth determination.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 grinding cracks. ability to inspect complex shapes and sizes of conductive materials. changes in grain size. a magnetic field develops in and around the conductor. Then just like if iron particles are scattered on a cracked magnet. no necessity to contact the part under inspection. an electromagnet yoke is placed on the surface of the part to be examined. conductivity measurements for material identification. This magnetic field expands as the alternating current rises to maximum and collapses as the current is reduced to zero. In practice a probe is placed on the surface of the part to be inspected. current will be induced in this second conductor. 36 . the particles will be attracted to and cluster at the pole ends of the magnet. since these materials are materials that can be magnetized to a level that will allow the inspection to be effective. overload and impact fractures. magnetic flux will be broken and a new south and north pole will form at each edge of the discontinuity. On the other hand.
necessity for reference standards for both equipment calibration. limited depth of penetration. dimensional measurements. requirement for a coupling medium to promote transfer of sound energy into test specimen. glycerin and grease. The sound energy is introduced and propagates through the materials in the form of waves and reflected from the opposing surface. necessity for an accessible surface to the probe. high accuracy in determining reflector position and estimating size and shape. Its limitations. typical couplants are water. and display devices. such as the pulser/receiver. sensitivity to both surface and subsurface discontinuities. necessity for reference standards for setup. Ultrasonic Inspection: Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses a high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. A pulser/receiver is an electronic device that can produce high voltage electrical pulse. limits for roughness. applicability just on conductive materials. (b) acoustic impact technique. It can be used from various directions to inspect flaws in large parts. the transducer of various types and shapes generates high frequency ultrasonic energy operating based on the piezoelectricity technology with using quartz. skillful and trained personal. extensive skill and training. oil. Acoustic Method: There are two different kind of acoustic methods: (a) acoustic emission. possibility for other uses such as thickness measurements. or various ceramics. possible interference of surface finish and roughness. As a very useful and versatile NDT method. transducer. An internal defect such as crack or void interrupts the waves' propagation and reflects back a portion of the ultrasonic wave. The amplitude of the energy and the time required for return indicate the presence and location of any flaws in the work-piece.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Some limitation of eddy current inspection. lithium sulfate. and more. minimal part preparation. necessity for the linear defects to be oriented parallel to the sound beam. instantaneous results with electronic equipment. This method requires experienced personnel to properly conduct the inspection and to correctly interpret the results. such as rail road wheels pressure vessels and die blocks. material characterization. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection evaluation. smallness. Driven by the pulser. detailed imaging with automated systems. inability to detect of the flaws lying parallel to the probe coil winding and probe scan direction. Most inspections are carried out in the frequency rang of 1 to 25MHz. The ultrasonic inspection method has high penetrating power and sensitivity. A typical UT inspection system consists of several functional units. ability to singlesided access for pulse-echo technique. shape irregularity. necessity for an accessible surface to transmit ultrasound. superior depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement. and characterization of flaws. 37 . difficulty to inspect of coarse grained materials due to low sound transmission and high signal noise. Couplants are used to transmit the ultrasonic waves from the transducer to the test piece. thickness or not homogeneity. ultrasonic inspection method has the following advantages.
Commercially available cans of liquid penetrant dyes with different colors are used to reveal the surface defects. Vitrified grinding wheels are tested in a similar manner to detect cracks in the wheel that may not be visible to the naked eye. Acoustic impact technique: This technique consists of tapping the surface of an object and listening to and analyzing the signals to detect discontinuities and flaws. 3. In the experiment. Acoustic emissions are detected with sensors consisting of piezoelectric ceramic elements. 2. the results depend on the geometry and mass of the part so a reference standard is necessary for identifying flaws. grease. therefore. Then. only cleaner-remover will be sufficient. 38 . bending a beam. abrupt reorientation of grain boundaries. This method is particularly effective for continuous surveillance of load-bearing structures. Otherwise. Apply the liquid penetrant spray (red can) to the surface and brush for further penetration. paint. Subsequent to surface cleaning. Steps used in the experiment: 1. dust. wait for 20 min. applying torque to a shaft. friction and wear of sliding interfaces. the surface is let to dry for 2 minutes. Special care should be taken not to give additional damage to the surface to be inspected during the cleaning process. Procedure Liquid penetrant method: In this method the surfaces to be inspected should be free from any coatings. crack initiation. and propagation. phase transformation. The principle is basically the same as when one taps walls. for example. Wipe the surface with a clean textile and subsequently apply remover spray (blue can) to remove excess residues on the surface and wait for a few min. Clean the surface with alcohol and let surface dry for 5 min.. etc. dirt. Surface cleaning can be performed with alcohol. the original nature of surface could be disturbed and the results could be erroneous with the additional interferences of the surface features formed during the cleaning process. desktops or countertops in various locations with a finger or a hammer and listens to the sound emitted. However. bubble formation during boiling in cavitation. This technique is easy to perform and can be instrumented and automated. Special chemicals like cleanerremover can also be applied if needed.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Acoustic emission: This technique is typically performed by elastically stressing the part or structure. During the structural changes the material such as plastic deformation. are the source of acoustic signals. should be cleaned with an appropriate way. or pressurizing a vessel and monitoring the acoustic responses emitted from the material.
3.. commercially available magnetic powder manufactured for NDT inspection will be used. Inspection area should be clean. The following steps are applied during the experiment. The following steps should be applied during the experiment: l. Apply the developer spray (yellow can) at a distance of about 30cm from the surface. 4. 4. 5. 3. During the inspection procedure the probe will be positioned near the inspection area. Magnetic field will be applied with a strong magnet to the location of interest. etc. and then reacted with it to form a geometric shape which is the negative of the geometry of the surface features from which the penetrant is sucked. There shouldn't be any visible damage or discontinuity. Any indication with indicator deflection to the right should be evaluated. 39 . grease. free from any irregular or uneven paint. 6. All evaluated indications should be measured. The probe tip will be always at a right angle the inspection surface. The developer will absorb the penetrant that infiltrated to the surface features such as cracks. smooth. 2. splits. The surface of the specimen will be roughly cleaned wiping with a piece of textile. The inspection is performed with 2 MHz frequency and at the related calibration settings. 5. The spots where the fluorescent magnetic particles accumulated will be inspected under UV light. After this procedure. Magnefest ED-51 0 type unit will be used. etc. on the compensation point and lift off and zero will be adjusted if necessary. 1. all evaluated indications with indicator deflections. Magnetic particle: In this experiment. if needed. The test blocks were previously prepared for this experiment. Any coatings or paints on the surface of inspected specimens should be treated with special procedures. dirt. Eddy current inspection: For this experiment.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 4. A pencil type prop will be used for the inspections. The fluorescent magnetic spray will be applied on the surface being inspected. 2. The inspection will be carried out by using probe scans. will be classified as cracks and be recorded. The polymerized material may be collected on a sticky paper for future evaluation and related documentation. A strong U shape magnet will be used to provide the necessary magnetic field at the inspected area.
Two different test blocks will be employed in this test. 4. sufficient amount of couplant will be applied to the transducer scan areas on the forward and after sides of the support fitting. For the circular test specimen. A crack signal will be similar to the following: The following steps should be applied during the experiment: 1. You have to return your report on time. discussion. 3. 2. Instrument will be tuned to a frequency of 5 MHz.USM-2 type ultrasonic unit will be used.MATERIALS LABORATORY 2006 Ultrasonic inspection: For this experiment. During the inspection the calibration will be done on the reference standard. Attention should also be given to the movement of the possible peak caused by the cracks on the specimen. Echo techniques will be employed to find the cracks. The props used supports to work at frequency of 5 MHz. if needed. introduction. 5. Enough couplant should be used between the probe and tool. You should also answer the questions asked to you at the end of the experiment installing the related parts of your report. experimental procedures. An appropriate couplant used should not cause corrosion or other damage. The advantages and disadvantages of each NDT method must be stated precisely in your reports. 6. The couplant should be applied on the inspected area. For the flat specimen. A discontinuity like a crack produces a peak on the screen. The display will be monitored for crack indications. conclusion and references. no tool is needed. Report: You are supposed to prepare a test report for this experiment obeying the report preparation rules. the prop will be placed in the corresponding space in the supporting fitting tool. results. Therefore your report should contain abstract. couplant only applied between the inspected surface and the probe. 40 . Special attention should be paid on the location where possible cracks exist.
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