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In mobile communication systems, capacity and performance are usually limited by two major impairments. They are multipath and co-channel interference . Multipath is a condition which arises when a transmitted signal undergoes reflection from various obstacles in the propagation environment. This gives rise to multiple signals arriving from different directions. Since the multipath signals follow different paths, they have different phases when they are arrive at the receiver. The result is degradation in signal quality when they are combined at the receiver due to the phase mismatch. Co-channel interference is the interference between two signals that operate at the same frequency. In cellular communication the interference is usually caused by a signal from a different cell occupying the same frequency band. Smart antenna is one of the most promising technologies that will enable a higher capacity in wireless networks by effectively reducing multipath and co-channel interference , , , . This is achieved by focusing the radiation only in the desired direction and adjusting itself to changing traffic conditions or signal environments. Smart antennas employ a set of radiating elements arranged in the form of an array. The signals from these elements are combined to form a movable or switchable beam pattern that follows the desired user. In a Smart antenna system the arrays by themselves are not smart, it is the digital signal processing that makes them smart. The process of combining the signals and then focusing the radiation in a particular direction is often referred to as digital beamforming , . This term will be extensively used in the following sections.
It provides a considerable increase in network capacity when compared to traditional omnidirectional antenna systems or sector-based systems. When an incoming signal is detected.1 Types of Smart Antenna Systems There are basically two approaches . In this approach. They are • • Switched beam Adaptive Arrays The Switched beam approach is simpler compared to the fully adaptive approach. low-cost. It is a major challenge to apply smart antenna technology to personal wireless communications since the traffic is denser. the base station determines the beam that is best aligned in the signal-of-interest direction and then switches to that beam to communicate with the user. 4. However. 27 . digital processing components and the development of software-based techniques has made smart antenna systems a practical reality for cellular communications systems. Also. the advent of powerful.1. Since interference suppression was a feature in this system. . the time available for complex computations is limited. .  to implement antennas that dynamically change their antenna pattern to mitigate interference and multipath affects while increasing coverage and range.The early smart antenna systems were designed for use in military applications to suppress interfering or jamming signals from the enemy . an antenna array generates overlapping beams that cover the surrounding area as shown in figure 4. . . this technology was borrowed to apply to personal wireless communications where interference was limiting the number of users that a network could handle.
Like switched beam systems. These complex weights are computed by a complicated adaptive algorithm. The weights are complex in nature and adjust the amplitude and phase.2.Figure 4. These signals are combined to yield the array output.2 Beam formation for adaptive array antenna system  28 . which is preprogrammed into the digital signal-processing unit that manages the signal radiated by the base station. the received signal from each of the spatially distributed antenna elements is multiplied by a weight.1 Beam formation for switched beam antenna system  The Adaptive array system is the “smarter” of the two approaches. This system tracks the mobile user continuously by steering the main beam towards the user and at the same time forming nulls in the directions of the interfering signal as shown in figure 4. Typically. they also incorporate arrays. Figure 4.
Figure 4. with each sector served by six directional narrow beams. Switched beam employs an antenna array which radiates several overlapping fixed beams covering a designated angular area. These antennas do not have a uniform gain in all directions but when compared to a conventional antenna system they have increased gain in preferred directions. Each beam can be treated as an individual sector serving an individual user or a group of users.3 Switched beam coverage pattern 29 . The selection is usually based on maximum received power for that user. The spatially separated directional beams leads to increase in the possible reuse of a frequency channel by reducing potential interference and also increases the range. The Switched beam antenna has a switching mechanism that enables it to select and then switch the right beam which gives the best reception for a mobile user under consideration. Note that same beam can be used both for uplink and downlink communication.3 that is divided into three sectors with 120° angular width. Consider a traditional cellular area shown below in figure 4.2 Switched Beam Systems This type of adaptive technique actually does not steer or scan the beam in the direction of the desired signal.4. It subdivides the sector into many narrow beams.
Consider a switched beamforming system shown in figure 4. It consists of a phase shifting network. The control logic is governed by an algorithm which scans all the beams and selects the one receiving the strongest signal based on a measurement made by the detector. Phase Shifting N/W Detector RF Switch Output θ Control Logic Figure 4. switched beam systems are only used for the reception of signals. The selection of the right beam is made by the control logic. Let us consider a scenario where User 1 who is at the side-edge of the beam which he is being served by. The RF switch actuates the right beam in the desired direction. thus. Therefore switched beam systems are best suited for a little or zero-interference environment.4. which forms multiple beams looking in certain directions. If a second user were at the direction of the null then there would be no interference but if the second user moves into the same area of the beam as the first user he could cause interference to the first user. In case of a multipath signal there is a chance that the system would switch the beam to the indirect path signal rather than the direct path signal coming from the user. Since these antennas have a non-uniform gain between 30 . This leads to the ambiguity in the perception of the direction of the received signal.A typical switched beam system for a base station would consists of multiple arrays with each array covering a certain sector in the cell.4 Block diagram of Switched beam systems This technique is simple in operation but is not suitable for high interference areas.
Also. The set of different inter-element phase shifts is given by: ∆φ = ±(2k − 1) π 2N k ∈ [1. Switched beam systems cannot reduce multipath interference components with a direction of arrival close to that of the desired signal. increase in capacity. It consists of twelve 90° hybrids and eight fixed phase shifters that form a beam forming network. For example if the 2R beam needs to be activated then the 2R input port needs to be activated.  is used to provide the necessary phase shift for a linear antenna array. and a considerable interference rejection when the desired user is at the center of the beam. Different approaches can be used to provide the fixed beams in a Switched Beam system. two or more input ports need to be excited 31 . Some of them are discussed below which use fixed phase shifting networks: 4. Consider the 8 × 8 Butler matrix array shown in figure 4. A N × N butler matrix can produce N beams looking in different directions with an N-element array. it produces a different interelement phase shifts between the output ports. Also. these systems lead to frequent hand-offs when the mobile user is actively moving from the area of one beam to another.2. all the output ports feeding the array elements are equally excited but with a progressive phase between them. the switched beam approach is less complicated (compared to the completely adaptive systems) and provides a significant range extension. it less expensive and can be easily implemented in older systems. Therefore these intra-cell hand-offs have to be controlled. When a signal impinges upon the input port of the Butler Matrix. N ] Where N is the number of ports of the matrix. A N × N butler matrix requires an ( N / 2) log 2 ( N ) 90° hybrids interconnected by rows of ( N / 2)(log 2 ( N ) − 1) fixed phase shifters to form the beam pattern. When one of the input ports is excited by an RF signal. If multiple beams are required. Despite of all these disadvantages. This results in the radiation of the beam at a certain angle.the beams the mobile user when moving away from the edge of the beam is likely to suffer from a call loss before he is handed of to the next beam because there is no beam serving that area.5.1 Butler Matrix Arrays In this approach a Butler Matrix .
6 Radiation pattern for 8 × 8 Butler Matrix array  32 .6 shows the radiation of two beams 1R and 3L. which is achieved by simultaneous excitation of input ports 1R and 3L.5 8 × 8 Butler Matrix array Figure 4. or a single transmitter and/or receiver and the appropriate beam can be selected using an RF switch as mentioned earlier.simultaneously. Antenna Ports A1 A5 A2 A6 A3 A7 A4 A8 90° Hybrid Phase Shifters 1L 4R 3L 2R 2L 3R Tx/Rx Ports 4L 1R Figure 4. Figure 4. Each beam can have a dedicated transmitter and/or receiver.
1 No.. Port 0 provides equal delays to all elements and hence produces a broad side beam.. is simple but has a low performance because its loss is attributed to the resistive terminations. The loss involved is very small. whereas other ports provide progressive time delays between elements and hence produces beams at different angles..0 Terminator θ1 θ0 Figure 4.7 shows an 8element array fed by a Blass Matrix.. Figure 4. Each node is the direction coupler to cross-connect the transmission lines..2. Also.2 Blass Arrays The Blass matrix uses directional couplers and transmission lines to provide the necessary phase shift for the arrays in order to produce multiple beams. It is easy to implement and requires few components to build compared to other networks. when you send signal into the different inputs. . .. directional coupler No.M . The Blass Matrix.. phase shifters and transmission lines. However in a butler matrix. Therefore. beamwidth and beam angles tend to vary with frequency causing the beam squint with frequency. 4... . more and more crossovers make interconnections complex. normal wavefront steering angle antenna array τm Beam Ports (Signal in) θM . you will get different steering angles. θ3 ∆τ θ2 No.The Butler matrix is one of the most popular switched beam networks.7 Blass Matrix beam forming network 33 . which comes from the insertion loss in hybrids. . as the matrices get bigger..
However.8 Beam formation for adaptive array antenna system The adaptive array systems are really intelligent in the true sense and can actually be referred to as smart antennas. Unlike switched beam systems. greater performance improvements can be achieved by implementing advanced signal processing techniques to process the information obtained by the antenna arrays. and at the same time minimizes interference arising from other users by introducing nulls in their directions. Figure 4.3 Adaptive Array Systems From the previous discussion it was quite apparent that switched beam systems offer limited performance enhancement when compared to conventional antenna systems in wireless communication. follows the user as he moves. the adaptive array systems are really smart because they are able to dynamically react to the changing RF environment. There is no beam squinting with frequency.The Blass matrix is simple in the sense that it has simpler interconnection layout of the circuit since it does not involve any crossovers as in Butler matrix. However they require more components compared to the Butler matrix.8. The smartness in these systems comes from the intelligent digital 34 . which makes it costlier and heavier. An Adaptive array. 4. They have a multitude of radiation patterns compared to fixed finite patterns in switched beam systems to adapt to the everchanging RF environment. This signal processing steers the radiation beam towards a desired mobile user. This is illustrated in a simple diagram shown below in figure 4. like a switched beam system uses antenna arrays but it is controlled by signal processing.
Therefore it is possible to continuously steer the main beam in any direction by adjusting the progressive phase difference β between the elements. Secondly. As discussed previously in the section of phased arrays it is quite evident that the direction of radiation of the main beam in an array depends upon the phase difference between the elements of the array.9. The processing is mainly governed by complex computationally intensive algorithms. Lastly a beam is steered in the direction of the desired signal and the user is tracked as he moves while placing nulls at interfering signal directions by constantly updating the complex weights. the desired user signal is identified and separated from the rest of the unwanted incoming signals. The same concept forms the basis in adaptive array systems in which the phase is adjusted to achieve maximum radiation in the desired direction.1 Basic Working Mechanism A smart antenna system can perform the following functions: first the direction of arrival of all the incoming signals including the interfering signals and the multipath signals are estimated using the Direction of Arrival algorithms. To have a better understanding of how an adaptive array system works.3. 4. Processor D/C D/C ADC ADC W1 W2 To the Demodulator ∑ D/C ADC WN ADC =Analog to digital converter D/C = Down Converter W’s = Complex weights Adaptive Algorithm Figure 4.9 Block diagram of Adaptive array systems 35 . let us consider a typical adaptive digital beamforming network shown below in figure 4.processor that is incorporated in the system.
determines the complex weights (amplification and phase information) and multiplies the weights to each element output to optimize the array pattern. Analog-to-digital converters (ADC’s) are provided for this purpose. which minimizes the contribution from noise and interference while producing maximum beam gain at the desired direction. Before the incoming signals are weighted they are brought down to baseband or intermediate frequencies (IF’s). Therefore it is required that the down-converted signal be converted into digital format before they are processed by the DSP. This approach is suitable when the signal statistics are time varying. Adaptive antenna array systems use digital signal processors (DSP’s) to weight the incoming signal. and the Recursive Least square (RLS) algorithm. Continuous adaptation: algorithms based on this approach adjust the weights as the incoming data is sampled and keep updating it such that it converges to an optimal solution. For accurate performance. The processor interprets the incoming data information. 36 . Based on adaptation 1. they are required to provide accurate translation of the RF signal from the analog to the digital domain. The receivers provided at the output of each element perform the necessary frequency down conversion. 4. The digital signal processor forms the heart of the system.3. The optimization is based on a particular criterion.2 Adaptive Algorithm Classifications The adaptive algorithms can be classified into categories based on different approaches .In a beamforming network typically the signals incident at the individual elements are combined intelligently to form a single desired beamformed output. which accepts the IF signal in digital format and the processing of the digital data is driven by software. Examples: The Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm. There are several algorithms based on different criteria for updating and computing the optimum weights.
In TDMA every frame consists of a sequence. They themselves generate the required reference signal from the received signal to get the desired signal. 2. 37 . Blind adaptive algorithms: These algorithms do not require any reference signal information.2.  is not the actual desired signal. Reference signals required for the above algorithms are generated in several ways. . in fact it is a signal that closely represents it or has strong correlation with it. Example: The Sample Matrix Inversion (SMI) algorithm Based on information required: 1. which can be used as a reference signal. and the Decision-Directed algorithm The above-mentioned examples and more will be further discussed in a brief manner next in the Adaptive Beamforming section. Block adaptation: algorithms based on this approach compute the weights based on the estimates obtained from a temporal block of data. Examples: The Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm. This method can be used in a nonstationary environment provided the weights are computed periodically. synchronization signals can be used for the same purpose. Therefore it is required that a reference signal be available which has high correlation with the desired signal. The Cyclostationary algorithm. Reference signal based algorithms: These types of algorithms are based on minimization of the mean square error between the received signal and the reference signal. Examples: The Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA). The Recursive Least square (RLS) algorithm and the Sample Matrix Inversion (SMI) algorithm The reference signal . In digital communication.
4 Comparison between switched beam and adaptive array systems Switched beam system • • • • • • • • • • It uses multiple fixed directional beams with narrow beamwidths. It requires implementation of DSP technology.e. Since multiple narrow beams are used. Since the beam continuously follows the user. high interaction between mobile unit and base station is required. It cannot distinguish between direct signal and interfering and/or multipath signals. this leading to undesired enhancement of the interfering signal more than the desired signal. The required phase shifts are provided by simple fixed phase shifting networks like the butler matrix. i. Integration into existing cellular system is easy and cheap. upgradation is difficult and expensive. They do not require complex algorithms. Since there is no null steering involved. It provides significant increase in coverage and capacity compared conventional antenna based systems.4. frequent intra-cell hand-offs between beams have to be handled as mobile moves from one beam to another. It has better interference rejection capability compared to Switched beam systems. Since continuous steering of the beam is required as the mobile moves. It requires only moderate interaction between mobile unit and base station as compared to adaptive array system. It requires complicated adaptive algorithms to steer the beam and the nulls. steers the beam towards desired signal-of-interest and places nulls at the interfering signal directions. It is not easy to implement in existing systems. intra-cell hand-offs are less. Since low technology is used it has lesser cost and complexity. Switched beam systems offers limited co-channel interference suppression as compared to the adaptive array system. 38 . simple algorithms are used for beam selection. Adaptive array system • • • • • • • A complete adaptive system.
4.5.2 Range improvement Since smart antennas employs collection of individual elements in the form of an array they give rise to narrow beam with increased gain when compared to conventional antennas using the same power.5 Benefits of Smart Antenna Technology 4. 4. The increase in gain leads to increase in range and the coverage of the system. It can either reject multipath components or add them by correcting the delays to enhance the signal quality. Comparatively smart antennas radiate energy only in the desired direction.5.• • It provides better coverage and increased capacity because of improved interference rejection as compared to the Switched beam system. Therefore there is often negligible co-channel interference. 4. which leads to increase in the frequency reuse factor. Therefore fewer base stations are required to cover a given area. Therefore less power is required for radiation at the base station.1 Reduction in co-channel interference Smart antennas has a property of spatial filtering to focus radiated energy in the form of narrow beams only in the direction of the desired mobile user and no other direction. That is smart antennas allow more users to use the same frequency spectrum at the same time bringing about tremendous increase in capacity. In addition they also have nulls in their radiation pattern in the direction of other mobile users in the vicinity. Reduction in transmitted power also implies reduction in interference towards other users. 39 .5.5. 4.4 Reduction in transmitted power Ordinary antennas radiate energy in all directions leading to a waste of power.3 Increase in capacity Smart antennas enable reduction in co-channel interference.
It is compatible with almost any modulation method and bandwidth or frequency band. and CDMA.6 Mitigation of multipath effects Smart antennas can either reject multipath components as interference.5 Reduction in handoff To improve the capacity in a crowded cellular network. Using smart antennas at the base station.5. 40 . 4. FDMA.5. congested cells are further broken into micro cells to enable increase in the frequency reuse factor. handoffs occur rarely. This results in frequent handoffs. thus mitigating its effects in terms of fading or it can use the multipath components and add them constructively to enhance system performance.4. only when two beams using the same frequency cross each other.7 Compatibility Smart antenna technology can be applied to various multiple access techniques such as TDMA. there is no need to split the cells since the capacity is increased by using independent spot beams. as the cell size is smaller.5. 4. Therefore.
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