Chapter 8 OFDM Applications

CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

8 OFDM Applications 8.1 DAB 8.2 HDTV 8.3 Wireless LAN Networks 8.3.1 HIPERLAN/2 8.3.2 IEEE 802.11a 8.3.3 IEEE 802.11g 8.4 IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access System


CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

8.1 Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)


CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

. Lab.8. which are Excellent sound quality Large number of stations Small portable receivers No quality impairment due to multipath propagation or signal fading 4 CCU Wireless Comm.1 Introduction to DAB 1/33 Current analog FM radio broadcasting system cannot satisfy the demands of the future.1.

DAB is a digital technology offering considerable advantages over today's FM radio. .1. 5 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.1 Introduction to DAB 2/33 Current analog FM radio broadcasting systems have reached the limits of technical improvement.8.

. 170 man-years) :completion development of individual system specifications. France. Netherlands and United Kingdom Second phase (1992-1994.1 Introduction to DAB Eureka project EU 147: DAB 3/33 Launched at 1986 First phase: 4 year plan (1987-1991) of research and development Participants from Germany. and considerations of additional services 6 CCU Wireless Comm.8. Lab.1. development of ASICs.

7 CCU Wireless Comm.1.8. Lab.1 Introduction to DAB 4/33 Ability to deliver CD-quality stereo sound. Switch between the eight or more stations carried by every single multiplex. Ease of use of DAB receivers. .

1 Introduction to DAB 5/33 No need for drivers to retune as they cross a country. Wider choice of programs. Lab.8. 8 CCU Wireless Comm. Each multiplex is able to carry up to six full-quality stereo programs. .1.

Lab.1.1 Introduction to DAB 6/33 Service Information Multiplex Information Audio Service Audio Encoder Channel Coder FIC OFDM Transmitter Transmission Multiplexer Radio Frequency Data Service Packet Mux Channel Coder MSC Multiplexer 9 CCU Wireless Comm.8. .

1.8. . Lab.1 Introduction to DAB 7/33 Audio Service Tuner OFDM Demodulator Channel Decoder Audio Decoder FIC Packet Demux Independent Data Service Control Bus Controller User Interface 10 CCU Wireless Comm.

1 Introduction to DAB 8/33 DAB can carry text and images as well as sound. Enabling broadcasters to transmit programme-associated data (PAD) such as album title. Selection by name or programme type. DAB can be transmitted at lower power than today's FM and AM services without loss of coverage 11 CCU Wireless Comm. song lyrics. or contact details. Lab. .1.8. All but the smallest will be able to display at least two 16character lines of text.

12 CCU Wireless Comm.8.1 Introduction to DAB 9/33 DAB combines two advanced digital technologies to achieve robust and spectrum-efficient transmission of high-quality audio and other data.1. depending on the desired sound quality and the available bandwidth. Lab. The signal is then encoded at a bit rate of 8-384 kbit/s. DAB uses the MPEG Audio Layer II system to achieve a compression ratio of 7:1 without perceptible loss of quality. .

1 Introduction to DAB 10/33 Signal is individually error protected and labeled prior to multiplexing.8. 13 CCU Wireless Comm. Independent data services are similarly encoded.536 distinct frequencies within the 1. The coded orthogonal frequency division multiplex (COFDM) technology is used for transmission. 2.5 MHz band. . Lab.3 million bits of the multiplexed signal in time and across 1.1.

cable and for future satellite broadcasts 14 CCU Wireless Comm. Such a single frequency network (SFN) makes DAB's use of the radio spectrum over three times more efficient than conventional FM. DAB is designed for terrestrial. . In a DAB network.1.8. all transmitters operate on a single frequency.1 Introduction to DAB 11/33 An conventional FM network must use different frequencies in each area. Lab.

1 Introduction to DAB Technical characteristics 12/33 Frequency range up to 20 kHz 48 kHz sampling rate. dual channel.8. and joint stereo Bit rates from 32 kbit/s mono to 384 kbit/s stereophonic programme Audio frame 24 ms corresponding 1152 PCM audio samples Digital I/O conform AES/EBU standard 2 kbit/s (bytes of data per frame) for program associated data (PAD) 15 CCU Wireless Comm. 18-bit resolution 4 audio modes: mono. Lab. stereo.1. .

Programs are divided into a total of 1536 carrier frequencies bandwidth 1.1.1 Introduction to DAB Transmission system 13/33 Radio signal is normally distorted by Physical conditions Multipath propagation Interference can be avoided by using COFDM COFDM with error detection and correction provides a digital transparent channel allowing transmission of a stereo program or any other data.8.5 Mhz. . Lab. 16 CCU Wireless Comm.

The audio is encoded by MPEG audio layer II. .2 DAB System Overview 14/33 Audio. 17 CCU Wireless Comm.8.1. and digital data service are multiplexed together to form OFDM signal on the air. control information. Lab. The control information is used to interpret the configuration of the main service channel (MSC).

2 DAB System Overview 15/33 The control information is transmitted over the fast information channel (FIC). . 18 CCU Wireless Comm. See the block diagram shown below. which is made up of fast information block (FIB).1.8. Lab.

8. Lab. .1.2 DAB System Overview 16/33 Conceptual DAB emission block diagram 19 CCU Wireless Comm.

Several convolutional coded stream are then combined and mapped into OFDM symbols. .3 DAB Channel Coding 17/33 Channel coding is based on a convolutional code with constraint length 7. Lab.1. 20 CCU Wireless Comm.8. Punctured convolutional coding allows unequal error protection (UEP).

i = ai ⊕ ai − 2 ⊕ ai −3 ⊕ ai −5 ⊕ ai −6 for i = 0. Lab.i ..3 DAB Channel Coding + {( x0.8.i . x3..i = ai ⊕ ai −1 ⊕ ai − 2 ⊕ ai −3⊕ ai −6 x2. .1.2.1..i = ai ⊕ ai −1 ⊕ ai − 4 ⊕ ai −6 x3.i )}iI=05 18/33 −1 The mother code generates from the vector (a ) iI=0 a codeword x0. I + 5 21 CCU Wireless Comm. x1.i = ai ⊕ ai − 2 ⊕ ai −3 ⊕ ai −5 ⊕ ai −6 x1..i . x2.

8.3 DAB Channel Coding Convolutional encoder 19/33 22 CCU Wireless Comm. . Lab.1.

31 ) 23 CCU Wireless Comm.. Lab.3 DAB Channel Coding 20/33 Puncturing procedure: some predefined coded bits generated by the mother code are not transmitted.1 ..1. .8.. vPI .. 0 . The first 4I bits are divided into consecutive sub-blocks of 32 bits. vPI . The i-th bit in each sub-block is process according to the puncturing vector vPI = (vPI .

the corresponding bit shall be retrained in the sub-block and shall be transmitted. Lab. i = 1 . For v PI .1. 24 CCU Wireless Comm. .8.3 DAB Channel Coding 21/33 For v PI . the corresponding bit shall be taken out of the sub-block and shall not be transmitted. There are total 24 possible puncturing vectors so the rate of the punctured convolutional code varies from 8/9 to ¼. i = 0 .

Lab. .1.4 DAB Modulation Transmission frame structure 22/33 25 CCU Wireless Comm.8.

The first OFDM symbol of the transmission frame shall be the Null symbol of duration TNULL. 26 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.4 DAB Modulation 23/33 Four transmission modes are defined. The remaining part is OFDM symbols of duration TS. . Each transmission frame is divided into a sequence of OFDM symbols.8.1.

l (t ) = ⎨ j 2πk ( t − ∆ ) / TU Rect (t / TS ) ⎩e L: Number of OFDM symbols per frame K: Number of transmitted carriers TF: Transmission frame duration TNULL: Null symbol duration fc: Central frequency of the signal for l = 0 for l = 1. 2.8. . L TU: Inverse of the carrier spacing Δ: Guard interval TS = TU + Δ : Duration of OFDM symbols Z m.l ..l.1. Lab..k: Complex D-QPSK symbol for carrier k of OFDM symbol l during transmission frame m. k g k .l (t − mT F − TNULL − (l − 1)TS )⎬ ∑ ∑ k =∑ / 2 m = −∞ l = 0 −K ⎩ ⎭ with 0 ⎧ g k . 27 CCU Wireless Comm..4 DAB Modulation Each OFDM symbol can be expressed as 24/33 ⎧ j 2π f c t ∞ L K / 2 ⎫ s (t ) = Re ⎨e z m ..

. and IV. 28 CCU Wireless Comm.II.1. Lab.4 DAB Modulation 25/33 Definition of the parameters for transmission modes I.III.8.

1. Lab.4 DAB Modulation 26/33 Conceptual block diagram of the generation of the main signal 29 CCU Wireless Comm.8. .

TNULL]. Lab.k ⎧e jϕ k =⎨ ⎩ 0 for − K / 2 ≤ k < 0 and 0 < k ≤ K / 2 for k = 0 30 CCU Wireless Comm.4 DAB Modulation 27/33 Synchronization channel: the first two OFDM symbols During the time interval [0.8. The second OFDM symbol is the phase reference symbol defined by the value of z l. the main signal s(t) shall be equal to zero.k for l=1: z1.1. .

8.k −k ' + n ) The values of the parameter hi .1. Lab.4 DAB Modulation ϕk The values of following formulae 28/33 shall be obtained from the ϕk = π 2 ( hi . . j as a function of indices i and j are specified in the standard 31 CCU Wireless Comm.

Lab. .8.5 Channel for DAB OFDM System 29/33 Assume that there are M stations that transmit synchronous OFDM frame s(t).1. s(t ) h1 (t ) r (t ) = ∑ s (t ) *h j (t ) j =1 M s(t ) receiver hM (t ) s(t ) h2 (t ) 32 CCU Wireless Comm.

The received signal from the j-th station can be expressed as rj ( t ) = s ( t ) ∗ h j ( t ) where * denotes the convolution and hj(t) is the channel impulse response from station j to the receiver.1.8. The overall received signal from all stations can be expressed M M as r ( t ) = ∑ rj ( t ) = ∑ s ( t ) ∗ h j ( t ) j =1 j =1 = s(t ) ∗ ∑ h j (t ) j =1 33 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.5 Channel for DAB OFDM System 30/33 The signal from the station j propagates to the receiver. M .

34 CCU Wireless Comm.5 Channel for DAB OFDM System h (t ) = ∑ h j (t ) j =1 M 31/33 Now we may define the overall channel impulse response as The received signal can be expressed as r (t ) = s(t ) ∗ h (t ) No inter-symbol interference (ISI) if the spreading of h(t) is less then the guard interval.8. Lab.1. .

. 35 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab. Robust frequency tracking is required. Fast channel and timing tracking to overcome the rapidly change condition.8.6 Receiver for DAB OFDM System 32/33 Tuning (frequency) accuracy required is 5%.1.

8.1.6 Receiver for DAB OFDM System 33/33 Block diagram of DAB receiver 36 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab. .

8. Lab. .2 HDTV-Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) 37 CCU Wireless Comm.

8. Quality of service issues. . DVB-T 38 CCU Wireless Comm.1 Introduction to DVB Audio and video-centric Very large files transmission. Lab. scalable audience Broadband downstream.2. Guaranteed bandwidth Jitter Delay 1/34 Large. narrowband up Satellite: DVB-S Terrestrial: ATSC.

8. Lab. 39 CCU Wireless Comm. .2. encrypted program stream.1 Introduction to DVB 2/34 European standard for transmission of digital TV via satellite. cable or terrestrial DVB-S (satellite) QPSK – quadrature phase-shift keying DVB-T (terrestrial) COFDM – coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing MPEG-2 compression and transport stream Support for multiple.

2.8. Lab. .1 Introduction to DVB 3/34 40 CCU Wireless Comm.

1 Introduction to DVB 4/34 Digital video combines traditional and interactive content and applications Traditional Film TV Music Books Magazines Board games Interactive Enhanced DVD Movies/music Interactive games Videophone Creating and sharing documents Online E-commerce 41 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.2.8. .

8.2.1 Introduction to DVB



CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

8.2.1 Introduction to DVB



CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

8.2.2 DVB System Overview


MPEG-2 source coding and multiplexing Outer coding (Reed-Solomon code) Outer interleaving (convolutional interleaving) Inner coding (punctured convolutional code) Inner interleaving Mapping and modulation (BPSK,QPSK,16-QAM, 64-QAM) Transmission – orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)


CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

2. . 8K mode: used both for single transmitter operation and for small and large SFN networks. 45 CCU Wireless Comm.2 DVB System Overview Operate within existing VHF and UHF spectrum The system must provide sufficient protection against co-channel interference (CCI) and adjacent-channel interference (ACI) 8/34 OFDM with concatenated error correcting coding is being specified. Lab. Flexible guard interval is specified Two mode of operations: 2K mode: suitable for single transmitter operation for small SFN networks.8.

Low-priority stream is low-level protected. . Lab.2 DVB System Overview Multi-level QAM modulation Different inner code rates (punctured convolutional code) MPEG stream is separated into High-priority stream Low-priority stream 9/34 Unequal error protection (UEP) High-priority stream is high-level protected.2.8. 46 CCU Wireless Comm.

. Lab.8.2 DVB System Overview Functional block diagram of the DVB transmitter 10/34 47 CCU Wireless Comm.2.

3 Channel Coding and Modulation Transport multiplex adaptation and randomization (scrambler) 11/34 48 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.8. .2.

49 CCU Wireless Comm.8. The data of the input MPEG-2 multiplex shall be randomized with the above circuit.2. . Lab.3 Channel Coding and Modulation 12/34 The total packet length of the MPEG-2 MUX packet is 188 bytes.

Lab. .239) is adopted.2. 13/34 50 CCU Wireless Comm.188) shortened code from RS (255.8.3 Channel Coding and Modulation Outer coding and outer interleaving RS (204.

3 Channel Coding and Modulation Convolutional interleaving Convolutional byte-wise interleaving with depth I=12 14/34 51 CCU Wireless Comm.8. Lab.2. .

Generator polynomial G1=171OCT and G2=133OCT 15/34 52 CCU Wireless Comm.8. Lab.3 Channel Coding and Modulation Inner coding Convolutional code of rate ½ with 64 states.2. .

8.2.3 Channel Coding and Modulation Punctured convolutional code 16/34 Puncturing pattern and transmitted sequence after parallelto-serial conversion for the possible code rate 53 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab. .

.8. In non-hierarchical mode: xdi = b[ di (mod)v ]( div )( v / 2 ) + 2[ di (mod)(v / 2 )]. Define a mapping (demultiplexing) of the input bits xdi onto the output bits be.2.3 Channel Coding and Modulation Inner interleaving 17/34 Bit-wise interleaving followed by symbol interleaving . Both the bit-wise interleaving and the symbol interleaving processes are block-based.di ( div ) v 54 CCU Wireless Comm.

8.di ( div ) 2 Low-priority input x' 'di = b[ di (mod)(v − 2 )](div )(( v − 2 ) / 2 ) + 2[ di (mod)((v − 2 ) / 2 )]+ 2.di ( div )( v − 2 ) 55 CCU Wireless Comm. .3 Channel Coding and Modulation In non-hierarchical mode: High-priority input 18/34 x'di = bdi (mod) 2.2. Lab.

2.3 Channel Coding and Modulation Non-hierarchical modulation mapping 19/34 56 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab. .8.

2. .3 Channel Coding and Modulation Hierarchical modulation mapping 20/34 57 CCU Wireless Comm.8. Lab.

H e ( w ) where He(w) is a permutation function which is different for each interleaver..8.1 .0 . Lab. be .125 ) where e ranges from 0 to v-1.. ae . be . 2 . be . The interleaved output vector A( e) = ( ae .. the input bit vector is defined by 21/34 B( e) = (be .125 ) is defined by ae . ae . ..1 ..w = be . 58 CCU Wireless Comm.3 Channel Coding and Modulation Bit interleaver For each bit interleaver.. ae ..0 . 2 ..2.

To spread consecutive poor channels into random-like fading.8.2. Symbol interleaver address generation schemes are employed for the symbol interleaver. . 59 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.3 Channel Coding and Modulation Symbol interleaver 22/34 Map v bit words onto the 1512 (2K mode) or 6048 (8K mode) active carriers per OFDM symbol.

. The non-uniform signal constellation provides unequal error protection (UEP).2. non-uniform 16-QAM or non-uniform 64-QAM. Lab.8.3 Channel Coding and Modulation Signal constellations and mapping 23/34 OFDM transmission All data carries in one OFDM frame are modulated using either QPSK. 16-QAM. 60 CCU Wireless Comm. 64QAM.

16-QAM and 64-QAM mapping and the corresponding bit patterns 24/34 61 CCU Wireless Comm. .2. Lab.3 Channel Coding and Modulation The QPSK.8.

.2. Lab.8.3 Channel Coding and Modulation The non-uniform 16-QAM and 64-QAM mappings 25/34 62 CCU Wireless Comm.

3 Channel Coding and Modulation OFDM frame structure 26/34 Each frame has duration TF Consists of 68 OFDM symbols Four frames constitute one super-frame Each OFDM symbol contains K=6817 (8K mode) or K=1705 (2K mode) carriers The duration of each OFDM symbol is TS =TU+Δ where Δ is the guard interval and TU is the useful part.2. . Lab. The symbols in an OFDM frame are numbered from 0 to 67 Scattered pilot cells (carrier) Continual pilot carriers TPS carriers 63 CCU Wireless Comm.8.

2. The carriers are indexed by k ∈ [ K min . K max ] .8. frequency synchronization. where Kmin=0 and Kmax=1704 or 6816. Lab.3 Channel Coding and Modulation 27/34 The pilot can be used for frame synchronization. Numerical values for the OFDM parameters for the 8K and 2K modes for the 8Mhz channels. transmission mode identification. 64 CCU Wireless Comm. channel estimation. . time synchronization.

k ( t ) = ⎨ e ⎪ 0 ⎩ k: carrier number l: OFDM symbol number m: frame number K: number of transmitted carriers TS: symbol duration TU: inverse of the carrier spacing Δ: Guard interval 65 28/34 The emitted signal is described by the following expression: ( l + 68 × m ) × TS ≤ t ≤ ( l + 68 × m + 1) × TS else fc: central frequency of the RF signal k’: k’=k-(Kmax .3 Channel Coding and Modulation ⎧ j 2 πf c t ∞ 67 K max ⎫ s ( t ) = Re ⎨ e c m .l. Lab.l .l . k × ψ m . k ( t ) ⎬ ∑0 ∑ k =∑ m = l =0 K min ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ j 2 π Tk ' ( t − ∆ − l ×Ts − 68 × m ×Ts ) ⎪ U ψ m .8.2.l . .k: complex symbol for carrier k of data symbol number l in frame number m CCU Wireless Comm.Kmin)/2 cm.

2.8. Lab.3 Channel Coding and Modulation Duration of symbol part for the guard intervals for 8Mhz channel 29/34 66 CCU Wireless Comm. .

3 Channel Coding and Modulation Reference signal 30/34 Various cells within the OFDM frame are modulated with reference information whose transmitted values is known to the receiver The value of the pilot information is derived from a pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) Two kinds of pilots: scattered pilot and continual pilot 67 CCU Wireless Comm.2.8. Lab. .

2. Lab.l . .8.l .3 Channel Coding and Modulation Location of scattered pilot cells Pilot is modulated according to 31/34 Re{cm .k } = 0 68 CCU Wireless Comm.k } = 4 / 3 × 2(1 / 2 − wk ) Im{cm .

k } = 0 69 CCU Wireless Comm.2. .l .l .3 Channel Coding and Modulation Location of continual pilot carriers Pilot is modulated according to 32/34 Re{cm .k } = 4 / 3 × 2(1 / 2 − wk ) Im{cm .8. Lab.

8. Lab.2. 70 CCU Wireless Comm. The TPS is transmitted in parallel on 17 TPS carriers for 2K mode and on 68 carriers for the 8K mode. .3 Channel Coding and Modulation Transmission parameter signaling (TPS) 33/34 The TPS carriers are used for the purpose of signaling parameters related to the transmission scheme.

34/34 71 CCU Wireless Comm.8.3 Channel Coding and Modulation The TPS carriers convey information on: a) Modulation of the QAM constellation pattern b) Hierarchy information c) Guard interval d) Inner code rate e) 2K or 8K transmission mode f) Frame number in a super-frame g) Cell identification. Lab.2. .

8. Lab.3 Wireless LAN Networks 72 CCU Wireless Comm. .

2Mbps) IEEE 802.1 Introduction to Wireless LAN Networks 1/36 IEEE 802.4GHz band (1Mbps.The first international standard for WLAN.8. 2Mbps) Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) radio in 2.11 .4GHz band (1Mbps. 1999 5GHz band Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) 6Mbps to 54Mbps 73 CCU Wireless Comm. .3. 1997. Infrared (IR) baseband PHY (1Mbps.11a. Lab. 2Mbps) Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) radio in the 2.

11g (802. .1) Power control 74 CCU Wireless Comm.1 Introduction to Wireless LAN Networks 2/36 IEEE 802.11a-1999 PBCC (optional) CCK-OFDM (optional) IEEE 802.2. Lab.2.4GHz band ERP-DSS/CCK: IEEE 802. September 2002 Radar detection in 5GHz band Regulatory (ETSI EN 301 893 v.11b + 80211a) operating at ERP-OFDM: IEEE 802.11h/D2.

8. . Lab.1 Introduction to Wireless LAN Networks 3/36 Typical wireless system 75 CCU Wireless Comm.3.

Bluetooth. . cordless phone. Lab. furniture.2 Indoor Environment 4/36 Delay spread .8. etc.3. Statistic channel model for WLAN 76 CCU Wireless Comm. Path loss Interference . etc.refection of RF signal from wall.microwave oven.

2 Indoor Environment Typical indoor environment 5/36 77 CCU Wireless Comm.3. Lab.8. .

8. Lab. .2 Indoor Environment Delay spread 6/36 78 CCU Wireless Comm.3.

.3. Lab.2 Indoor Environment Typical measurement results I .1 m away from the transmitter 7/36 79 CCU Wireless Comm.8.

5m away from the transmitter 80 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.3.2 Indoor Environment 8/36 Typical measurement results II . and 13. 8m. .8.10m.

.2 Indoor Environment Computer model for indoor channels 9/36 81 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.8.3.

Lab. .3.8.2 Indoor Environment Ray tracing simulation result 10/36 82 CCU Wireless Comm.

Simple mathematical description and in the possibility to vary the RMS delay spread. Lab. 83 CCU Wireless Comm. .3. The channel is assumed static throughout the packet and generated independently for each packet.8.3 Statistic Channel Model for WLAN 11/36 This channel model was agreed to be a baseline model for comparison of modulation methods.

8. . xn is the transmitted signal and hk is the baseband complex impulse response 84 CCU Wireless Comm.3 Statistic Channel Model for WLAN 12/36 The received signal * rn = ∑ xn −k hk + wn k =0 K where wn is the additive white Gaussian noise.3. Lab.

3.8. .3 Statistic Channel Model for WLAN13/36 Channel impulse response 85 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

Lab. .8.3.3 Statistic Channel Model for WLAN 14/36 Typical multipath delay spread 86 CCU Wireless Comm.

. Lab.3.3 Statistic Channel Model for WLAN15/36 Path loss 87 CCU Wireless Comm.8.

8. 52 carriers with 4 pilot tones. . Lab.4 802.3. Date rate from 6Mbps to 54Mbps 16/36 88 CCU Wireless Comm.11a WLAN Standard OFDM system with punctured convolutional code.

4 802.8. Lab.3. .11a WLAN Standard Rate dependent parameters 17/36 89 CCU Wireless Comm.

8. Lab.3.4 802.11a WLAN Standard Timing related parameters 18/36 90 CCU Wireless Comm. .

4 802.8.11a WLAN Standard Transmitter of 802.3. Lab.11a 19/36 91 CCU Wireless Comm. .

pilots. with Ck defined as data. or training symbols. Lab. Ck . rSUBFRAME (t ) = wTSUBFRAME (t ) N ST / 2 k = − N ST ∑C k /2 exp( j 2πk∆ f )(t −T GUARD) where wT (t ) is a time window function defined by 92 CCU Wireless Comm.11a WLAN Standard 20/36 All the subframes of the signal are constructed as an inverse Fourier transform of a set of coefficients.8.4 802.3. .

8.4 802.11a WLAN Standard 21/36 Cyclic extension and window function (a) single reception and (b) two receptions 93 CCU Wireless Comm. . Lab.3.

4 802.3. Lab. .8.11a WLAN Standard Implemented by IFFT 22/36 frequencydomain input time-domain output 94 CCU Wireless Comm.

Lab.11a WLAN Standard OFDM packet structure 23/36 A short OFDM training symbol consists of 12 subcarriers. . which are modulated by the elements of the sequence S.8. given by The short training signal shall be generated according to rSHORT (t ) = wTSHORT (t ) N ST / 2 k = − N ST 95 ∑S k /2 exp( j 2πk∆ f ) CCU Wireless Comm.3.4 802.

modulation with 6Mbps 96 CCU Wireless Comm. . Lab.4 802.8.11a WLAN Standard A long OFDM training symbol consists of 53 subcarriers given by 24/36 The long training signal shall be generated according to Signal field .3.

scrambler initialization PSDU . Pad bits (PAD) .8.6 bits of zero to return the convolutional encoder to zero state.carry the data to be transmitted. Tail bit field .3.11a WLAN Standard Data field includes 25/36 Service field . . 97 CCU Wireless Comm. DATA scrambler and descrambler Scrambler and descrambler use the same module. Lab.4 bits.

3/4.3.11a WLAN Standard Convolutional encoder 26/36 DATA field should be coded with a convolutional encoder of coding rate R = 1/2. 2/3. 98 CCU Wireless Comm. . The rate 2/3 and 3/4 code is generated by puncturing the rate 1/2 convolutional code with generator polynomial g0=1338 and g1 = 1718. Lab.8.4 802.

4 802.8.11a WLAN Standard Puncturing procedure for rate 3/4 code 27/36 99 CCU Wireless Comm.3. . Lab.

11a WLAN Standard Puncturing procedure for rate 2/3 code 28/36 100 CCU Wireless Comm.4 802.3. .8. Lab.

.11a WLAN Standard Data interleaving 29/36 All encoded data bits shall be interleaved by a block interleaver with block size corresponding to the number of bits in a single OFDM symbol.3. Lab. The interleaver is defined by a two-step permutation. The purpose of the interleaver is to prevent long burst of errors.4 802.8. The coded bits are interleaved in the transmitter and deinterleaved in the receiver. 101 CCU Wireless Comm.

16-QAM.11a WLAN Standard Subcarrier modulation mapping 30/36 BPSK. QPSK. or 64-QAM constellation points. QPSK. The interleaved date is grouped into 1. or 6 bits and mapped to BPSK.8. 16-QAM. Lab.4 802. 2. 4. or 64-QAM is employed depending on the rate required. . 102 CCU Wireless Comm.3.

8.3.4 802.11a WLAN Standard
Signal constellations - BPSK, QPSK, and 16-QAM



CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

8.3.4 802.11a WLAN Standard
• Signal constellations - 64-QAM



CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

8.3.4 802.11a WLAN Standard


OFDM modulation The stream of complex number is divided into groups of 48 complex number. We may write the complex number dk,n which corresponds to subcarrier k of OFDM symbol n.

An OFDM symbol is defined as

Data carriers

Pilot carriers
CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

8.3. . Lab. given by 106 CCU Wireless Comm.11a WLAN Standard Where M(k) maps from subcarrier number 0 to 47 into frequency index 34/36 The contribution of the pilot subcarriers for the nth OFDM symbol is produced by Fourier transform sequence P.4 802.

11a WLAN Standard The polarity of the pilot subcarriers is controlled by the sequence 35/36 Subcarrier frequency allocation 107 CCU Wireless Comm.3.4 802.8. Lab. .

4 802.11a WLAN Standard 802. Lab.3.11a transmitter and receiver structure 36/36 108 CCU Wireless Comm. .8.

4 IEEE 802. Lab. .16 Broadband Wireless Access System 109 CCU Wireless Comm.8.

. Internet. 110 CCU Wireless Comm.4.8.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.16 1/25 BWAS is the broadband wireless technology used to deliver voice. Lab. and video service in the 25-GHz and higher spectrum. data.

4. .1 Introduction to IEEE 802.8.16 BWAS scenario 2/25 111 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

8. .16 wireless MAN background Target: FBWA (fixed broadband wireless access) Fast local connection to network Project development since 1998 3/25 112 CCU Wireless Comm.4.16 IEEE 802. Lab.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.

Lab. Compared to Wireless LAN Multimedia QoS not only contention-based Many more users Much higher data rates Much longer distances 4/25 113 CCU Wireless Comm.4.8.16 Point-to-multipoint wireless MAN: (not a LAN) Base station (BS) connected to public networks BS serves subscriber station (SSs) SS typically serves a building Provide SS with access to public network. .1 Introduction to IEEE 802.

. ATM.16 5/25 Properties of 802. IPv6.4.1 Introduction to IEEE 802. modern and extensible security Support multiple frequency allocation from 2-66 GHz OFDM & OFDMA for NLOS applications 114 CCU Wireless Comm.16 Broad BW: up to 134 Mbps in 28 MHz wide channel (1066 GHz) Support simultaneous multiple services with full QoS IPv4. Lab.8. BW on demand (per frame) MAC designed for efficient spectrum use Comprehensive. Ethernet. etc. Point-to-multipoint topology. with mesh extensions Support for adaptive antennas and space-time coding Extensions to mobility 6/25 115 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab. .16 TDD & FDD Link adaptation: adaptive modulation & coding Per subscriber.8.1 Introduction to IEEE 802. per burst. per up-/down.

1 Introduction to IEEE 802.4 40 44.4.16 bit rate and channel size 7/25 Channel Symbol QPSK Width Rate Bit rate (MHz) (Msym/ (Mbps) s) 20 16 32 25 28 20 22.4 CCU Wireless Comm.16 802.8.8 16QAM Bit rate (Mbps) 64 80 89. Lab. 116 .6 64QAM Bit rate (Mbps) 96 120 134.

.16 802.8. Lab.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.4.16 link adaptation scenario 8/25 117 CCU Wireless Comm.

.16 9/25 Physical layer of 802. Lab. QPSK.4.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802.16 OFDM (WMAN-OFDM air interface): 256-FFT W/ TDMA (TDD/FDD) OFDMA (WMAN-OFDMA air interface) : 2048-FFT W/ OFDMA (TDD/FDD) Single-Carrier (WMAN-SCa air interface): TDMA (TDD/FDD) BPSK.8. 4/16/64/256-QAM 118 CCU Wireless Comm.

8.4. Lab.16 10/25 OFDM time-domain symbol description Useful symbol time Tb Cyclic prefix Tg Symbol time Ts = Tb + Ts 119 CCU Wireless Comm.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802. .

16 11/25 OFDM frequency domain Data carriers Pilot carriers Null carriers 120 CCU Wireless Comm.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802. .4.8. Lab.

16 12/25 The Transmitted signal at the antenna ⎧ j 2πf ct N used / 2 j 2πk∆f ( t −Tg ) ⎫ s (t ) = Re⎨e ⎬ ∑ /ck e k = − N used 2 ⎩ ⎭ 121 CCU Wireless Comm.4.8. Lab. .2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802.

8. Lab.16 13/25 Four types of forward error correction (FEC) Code Type 1: Reed-Solomon code only Code Type 2: Reed-Solomon code + block convolutional code Code Type 3: Reed-Solomon + parity check Code Type 4: Block turbo code 122 CCU Wireless Comm.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802. .4.

4.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802. Lab.16 14/25 OFDM carrier allocations 123 CCU Wireless Comm. .8.

8.4.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802.16 15/25
Transmit diversity – space time coding


CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

8.4.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802.16 16/25
STC encoding
Transmits 2 complex symbols s0 and s1, using the MISO channel (2 Tx, one Rx) twice with channel vector values h0 (for antenna 0) and h1 (for antenna 1). First channel use : antenna 0 transmits s0 , antenna 1 transmit s1 * Second channel use: antenna 0 transmit s0 , antenna 1 * transmit − s1 The receiver get the benefit of the 2nd order diversity


CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

8.4.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802.16 17/25
STC usage with OFDM


CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.

8. Lab.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802. •The RS encoded block is then encoded by a convolutional code of rate ½ with generator polynomial •Convolutional encoder 127 CCU Wireless Comm.16 18/25 Concatenated Reed-Solomon / convolutional code (RS-CC) •RS code is derived from (255.4.239) RS code that can correct up to 8 symbol errors. .

239) RS code that can correct up to 8 symbol errors.16 19/25 Concatenated Reed-Solomon / convolutional code (RS-CC) RS code is derived from (255. The RS encoded block is then encoded by a convolutional code of rate ½ with generator polynomial Convolutional encoder 128 CCU Wireless Comm. .4. Lab.8.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802.

2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802. Lab.4.16 20/25 Puncturing pattern 129 CCU Wireless Comm. .8.

4.16 21/25 Channel coding and modulation 130 CCU Wireless Comm. .8.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802. Lab.

Binary extended Hamming code or parity check code 131 CCU Wireless Comm. Lab.4.16 22/25 Block turbo codes Based on the product of two component codes.8.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802. .

kx) block code. After encoding the rows. Lab.16 23/25 The component codes are used in a two dimensional matrix form kx information bits are encoded into nx bits by using (nx.4.8. where the check bits of the first code are also encoded. . 132 CCU Wireless Comm.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of block code. the columns are encoded using a (ny.

Lab. .4.8.16 24/25 Convolutional turbo code Circular recursive systematic convolutional The turbo code encoder 133 CCU Wireless Comm.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802.

Lab.2 Introduction to Physical Layer of 802. .8.4.16 25/25 Convolutional turbo code channel coding and modulation 134 CCU Wireless Comm.