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Kombucha microbiome as a probiotic: a view from the perspective of post-genomics and synthetic ecology
N. O. Kozyrovska, O. M. Reva1, 2, V. B. Goginyan3, J.-P. de Vera4
Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NAS of Ukraine 150, Akademika Zabolotnoho Str., Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680
D. K. Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, NAS of Ukraine 154, Akademika Zabolotnoho Str., Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680
Department of Biochemistry, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Unit, University of Pretoria, South Africa Lynnwood road, Hillcrest, Pretoria, South Africa, 0002
SPC «Armbiotechnology», NAS of Republic of Armenia 14, Gyurjyan Str., Yerevan, Republic of Armenia, 0056
Institute of Planetary Research, DLR, Germany Rutherfordstr. 2D-12489, Berlin, Germany firstname.lastname@example.org Probiotics are essential for establishing and maintaining optimal immune health. The probiotic therapy is known from alternative medicine for ages; however, the recent demonstration of the normal microflora to induce innate immunity has introduced the science-based concept of therapeutic application of potentially beneficial probiotic microorganisms for a treatment of functional disorders. Traditionally, probiotics are associated with dairy products, however, novel formulations are needed, first of all, originated from naturally occurring symbiotic microbial communities as the most robust assemblages. Especially, safe and robust probiotics are needed for longterm expeditions, outposts, extraterrestrial permanently-manned bases, where humans are exposed to adverse environmental factors. Kombucha beverage is Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast (SCOBY) and associated with health-promoting effects. Kombucha tea/mat is being in use in human livings within millennia as a probiotic drink for healing and health prophylaxis effects, however, new research opportunities promise its «renaissance», going to be used pharmacologically. Keywords: probiotics, kombucha microbiome, post-genomics, synthetic ecology.
Introduction. Products and probiotic preparations with beneficial microorganisms have formed the basis for functional human nutrition. The World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations have defined probiotics as «Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host». Most often, the probiotic bacteria come from Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium or cocktails (for example, Dr. Ohhira’s Probiotics), however, soil and other bacteria in dairy, vegetarian or other formulas are accepted as
Ó Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, NAS of Ukraine, 2012
probiotics. A few common probiotics are yeasts such as Saccharomyces boulardii, S. cerevisiae etc. Importantly, administration of probiotics is effective, if nondigestible foods (cellulose fibers) are available in the diet. It is why prebiotics (food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial microorganisms already in people’s colons) are highly recommended, and along with probiotics these supplements known as synbiotics (a combination of prebiotics and probiotics). Examples of foods containing probiotics are yogurt, fermented and unfermented milk, miso, tempeh, some juices, fermented cabbage juice, and brews like kombucha tea.
normalizing processes in gut and boosting immune system . 15]. were isolated from different ecotypes of KT [6–8]. as well as research activity on the background of functional nutrition study. an active component of the kombucha microbial community (KMC). Ni. the hepatoprotective effect against oxidative stress via suppression of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis . Schizosaccharomyces. Diverse microbial metabolites like enzymes. ulcer-healing activity . Fe. organic acids and other biologicals originated from kombucha are in use. etc. Bacterial cellulose (BC) synthesized by G. hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects .KOZYROVSKA N. we note that the kombucha mat and kombucha’s secondary metabolites have applications in several other aspects.. Cu. and the next step of the project is microbial product characterization in a context of understanding the microbiome (including probiotic bacteria) functions and its relationship to health and diseases. The U. organic and amino acids. Pichia [3–5]. Kombucha products raised interest in veterinary medicine. However.. Probiotic microorganisms provide a balance in intestinal microbiota. improve digestion. The KT microorganisms co-exist in interdependent symbiotic relationships: during fermentation in sweet tea the added sugar is converted into organic acids and ethanol by yeast. 23] and thus increased performance observed in meat/egg characteristics. however.. could be promising and complementary for traditional probiotic foods and preparations. Mn. and this is a reason that keeps the SCOBY within ages. SCOBY gives a pleasant sweetish sour sparkling beverage under aerobic conditions. Organic acids and ethanol protect SCOBY from the colonization of other microorganisms. At the beginning of this millennium we observed kombucha’s «renaissance» as the consequence of a slow returning to natural healing products. Ca. The kombucha’s greatest health benefits are its ability to detox and energize the body. in lysine . nov. The representatives of yeast found in the SCOBY can vary and may include Brettanomyces/Dekkera. however. In spite of tremendous progress in a study of beneficial human intestinal microorganisms with probiotic traits and its interrelationships with the host. antioxidants [12. [13. the range of candidates for probiotics is mainly restricted to lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. M. DE VERA J. KT is known from ages. Torulaspora. exhibiting diverse composition of naturallyoccurring symbiosis of beneficial microorganisms. in 60-s interest to kombucha declined probably on the reason of the wide expansion of synthetic pharmaceuticals. Zygosaccharomyces. National Institute of Health has initiated Human Microbiome Project (HMP) to characterize the human microbiota . In parallel. protective effect on chromosomal aberrations induced by gamma radiation .. Approaching mid century. GOGINYAN V. and it is rich in fiber. 104 11]. improvement after lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress  and cytotoxicity  induced by environmental pollutants. S. O. vitamins [10. nov. scientific interest to SCOBY was increased at the beginning of the last century. antiobesity. urogenital and other levels were substantiated (see ). Recent well-documented research works on the KT administration have exhibited antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity [13. novel types of probiotics. disbacteriosis. Gluconacetobacter xylinus. forming a jellyfish-like zoogleal mat where microbial cells are attached.-P. especially. Kombucha-derived microorganisms produce a cocktail of diverse metabolites. Acetobacter intermedius sp. nov. Due to efforts of many scientific teams. However. endocrinological. kombucha symbiotic culture must surely contain the acetic acid bacteria and yeast. The HMP has increased understanding of the diversity and genetics of the microbiota associated with the human body. boost immune system. 13]. positive effects of kombucha on immunological. is chemically pure. free of lignin and hemicellulose and may have several practical applications in nanobiotechnology and biomedicine [24. essential elements (Na. still manufactured by tradi- . Few bacterial species. Medusomyces gisevii Lindau represents a symbiotic microbial community known as tea «fungus» or kombucha tea (KT). Potential health effects of the SCOBY’s metabolites have created an increased interest in kombucha drinks. xylinus. originated from kombucha. however. enzymes . 25]. gastro-intestinal. The exact microbiological composition depends on the source of the SCOBY. REVA O. K. 22. The supplementation of dried mat in animals and poultry feed had the positive influence on the treatment of intestinal infections. Finally. G. contaminated wounds. kombucha was established in official pharmacopoeia in Germany. and Zn) . kombuchae sp. especially. and bacteria use the latter to produce cellulose fiber. cardiovascular. Acetobacter nitrogenifigens sp.
TLRs are localized on the surface of 105 . Indigenous microbial communities serve important functions for the human host that are not prescribed in the human genome. and Proteobacteria [18. called DAMPs (danger-associated molecular patterns) (BOX 1) . the most diverse family of PRRs is the cytoplamic NBD-LRR family. A new insight on human-microbial ecosystem as «a superorganism» provided by HMP. triggering inflammation. PAMPs may include lipopolysaccharides. insects. viru- ses or parasites trigger the two-step immune response: innate immunity halts the infection and adaptive immunity subsequently clears. In this paper. If the first step of defense is not effective. Firmicutes. However.KOMBUCHA MICROBIOME AS A PROBIOTIC tional microbiological industry. amino acids. Human commensals and mutualists. PAMPs are recognized by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). and in primitive multicellular organisms. The vast number of bacteria in host tissues raises the question of how symbiotic host-bacterial relationships are maintained without eliciting potentially harmful immune responses. without relaying on an intracellular signal. In plants and animals. lipoteichoic acids etc. despite the fact that biotechnology is declared as the leading science and technology in 21 century. The human intestinal microbiota is composed of 1013 to 1014 microorganisms whose cells outnumber those of the human body by ten times . The innate immunity can destroy invading microorganisms. Human gut microbiota also plays important roles in harvesting energy from the diet. Using metagenome data. DCs (dendric cells) and other cells. BOX 1. B. having more members than the cell surface LRR receptors. assembling inflammasomes with bacterial elicitors . have been cleared in series of research works [30–32] awarded by the Nobel Prize in 2011. bacterial peptides. engulfment and destruction of microorganisms by phagocytes. microbial nucleic acids. DAMPs include uric acid. Intestinal indigenous microflora: effect on the immune system. does not confer long-lasting protection to the host. All surfaces of the human body. [34–37]. Its results showed that a number of total genes carried by associated microorganisms are two orders of magnitude higher than that contained in the human genome .  demonstrated that gut microbiota played beneficial roles in the human host by regulating many genes related to the metabolism of glycans. The innate immune system is an evolutionarily older defense strategy. adaptive immunity is called into action. Several reports indicated that in the colon microbial communities were dominated by five identified phyla: Actinobacteria. 29]. biosynthesis of vitamins and isoprenoids and showed for the first time physiological phenomenon not regulated by human. consisting of facultative and strict anaerobes. peptidoglycans. composed of a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). providing also systemic fast response on repetitive infection. and is the dominant immune system found also in plants. archaea and fungi). fungi. triggering the activation of innate immunity and mediating the communication between innate and adaptive immunity. Endocytic PRRs promote the attachment. suggesting that NBD-LRRs can detect a large array of microorganisms. such as membrane-bound Toll-like (TLRs) and cytoplasmic NOD-like (NLR) receptors. are triggered when the host recognizes specific structures. The human harbors a complex microflora. including the skin. stimulating the proliferation of the intestinal epithelium. which includes more than 5000 species of bacteria . With its highly specialized systemic T. RIG-I-like helicases etc. Gill et al. Signaling PRRs include the large families of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) in TLRs and NLRs. it produces antibodies and killer cells that destroy infected cells. called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or endogenous stress signals. however. Infection of the human body by pathogenic microorganisms. both pathogenic and beneficial. Bacteroidetes. Fusobacteria. Innate immune responses to microorganisms. The adaptive immune system maintains an immunologic memory. Innate immunity and adaptive immunity. we discuss the potential of kombucha microorganisms as probiotics from the position of current knowledge on the role of intestinal microbiota in immune system and perspectives of KMC from the point of post-genomics and synthetic ecology. regulating fat storage in the host . the most intriguing role of human microbial associates is hidden in the developing of immune system. The mechanisms. mucosal surface and genital and gastrointestinal tracts are occupied by habitat-specific microorganisms (bacteria.
Being in an inactivated state. may have a substantial impact on both effector and regulatory T cell subsets. propionate)  can exert profound effects on NF-kB activation.. Commensal bacteria educate T cells to be tolerant of foreign antigens. implying an important role for local antigens in shaping the colonic Treg cell population. and abnormal gut microflora may contribute to alterations in the mucosa and immune system. TNFa) that regulate or assist in the active immune response. Commensal microbiota regulate NF-kB activity in intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal immune cells [43. the proflammatory Th17 cells have significant roles in protecting the host from bacterial and fungal infections . As a result. a variety of extracellular signals can activate the enzyme IkB kinase (IKK). polysaccharide A. to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules via MAP kinases cascades in intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal immune cells. dissociation of IkBa from NF-kB. leading to diseases. Relatedly. A role of intestine microbiota in the developing of immune system. 44]. in turn. DE VERA J. 46]. Th cells divide rapidly and secrete cytokines (like interferon gamma. butyrate. 54–56] and so on. GOGINYAN V. NF-kB is located in the cytosol complexed with the inhibitory protein IkBa . Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are crucial for the maintenance of immunological tolerance (the process by which the immune system does not attack an antigen) . Once activated. dietary patterns. antibiotic usage. Through the intermediacy of integral membrane receptors.KOZYROVSKA N. T helper type 1 (Th1) cells produce cytokine IFN g and control intracellular microorganisms (viruses and bacteria). REVA O. colonic Treg cells used T cell antigen receptors different from those used by Treg cells in other locations. depending on the context . and degradation of IkBa by the proteosome.-P. The microbial factors positively or negatively regulate this key pathway: commensal bacterial DNA  or bacterially produced metabolites. Human microbial communities are affected by external and internal factors that may disbalance its relationships with immune system. PRRs activate various transcription factors. Comparative study of microbial community structure showed that these are lifestyle. Segmented filamentous bacteria promoted the development of Th17 population in the small-intestinal lamina propria . Normal gut bacteria limit excessive inflammation through the suppression of NF-kB signaling. Importantly. host genotype [29. lining the intestinal tract . T helper cells (Th cells) provide signals for orchestrating the immune response. A balanced indigenous microbiota is required to prevent or stop these programmes. the Th2 cells produce interleukins and control infections caused with extracellular microbes and helminths. IFNg. Universal NF-kB is a key element of the signaling cascades that ultimately regulates the transcription of defensive genes. These and other findings clearly demonstrate the role of normal gut microbiota in immunity status and dependence the status on its balance in the microbiome. and tumor necrosis factor alpha. different T cells (T lymphocytes) and epithelial cells. Interestingly. In normal homeostasis. different pathogens elicit specific transcription 106 programmes. After sensing microbial elicitors.. The . IKK. Either exo. indigenous bacteria specifically prevent NF-kB activation by blocking ubiquitination of its inhibitor IkBa that elicits an intracellular state of tolerance against further TLR activation [45. phosphorylates the IkBa protein which results in ubiquitination. O. including universal Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kB) and interferon regulatory factors. colonization of the mouse gastrointestinal tract with the human gut commensal Bacteroides fragilis or administration of one of its products.or endogenous stress signals are being recognized with PAMP/DAMP immunity and further transduced via complex signaling cascades to the target genes encoding effector molecules that involved in tissue protection.. The DNA/NF-kB complex then recruits other proteins such as co-activators and RNA-polymerase which transcribe downstream DNA into mRNA . such as ATP  or shortchain fatty acids (SCFA) (acetate. The education of T cells takes place in the thymus where self-reactive cells are either eliminated or differentiated in Treg cells . M. The activated NF-kB translocates into the nucleus where it binds to specific sequences of DNA called response elements. It was shown that indigenous clostridia species induced Treg cells in the colonic lamina propria (a thin layer of the mucosa which lies beneath the epithelium) . the structure of normal gut microbiome may change dramatically.
including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis . hypertension . Also the continuous lactobacilli administration. It is therefore interesting to note that probiotic bacteria were shown to modulate phagocytosis differently in healthy and allergic subjects: in healthy persons. type 1 diabetes (T1D) . Indigested probiotic bacteria also modulate the metabolic activity of gut microbiota. Recent findings highlight the important role of commensal and mutualistic bacteria in the bidirectional communication of the gut-brain axis and suggest that certain microorganisms may prove to be useful therapeutic adjuncts in stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression . gastric and colonic cancers . there was an immunostimulatory effect. The demonstration that gut microflora induces innate immunity has nourished a background for research on probiotics. reactive oxygen intermediates and lytic enzymes in various inflammatory reactions. down-regulation of the inflammatory response was detected . results in functional disorders .KOMBUCHA MICROBIOME AS A PROBIOTIC overgrowth of some intestinal opportunistic or pathogenic bacterial species as Clostridium difficile. mainly in the immune effector site of the gut. Probiotic Bifidobacterium species have been shown to produce acetate which results in lowering pH in microeconiche. Recent data show that probiotic microorganisms exert their protective effects by multiple immune and nonimmune mechanisms. inhibition of human gut pathogens. Recent and future advances in functional 107 . g-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main central nervous system (CNS) inhibitory neurotransmitter and is significantly involved in regulating many physiological and psychological processes. fragilis etc. Chronic treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus can alter the transcript level for receptors of the neurotransmitter GABA in the CNS in a region-dependent manner. Lactobacilli up-regulated human beta defensin-2 via induction of proinflammatory pathways. interleukins. as well as MAPKs in human . Probiotics: immunomodulation of local and systemic response. including NF-kB and AP-1. protected the mice hosts by modulating the inflammatory response. Several strains of live lactic acid bacteria have been shown to induce in vitro the release of TNFa. One of the principal mechanisms of protection against gastroenteric infections by probiotics is via modulation of proinflammatory cytokines. B. and in the activation of immune response . Proteus spp. 68]. Specific probiotic bacteria possess significant anti-inflammatory properties which benefit in IBD.. Phagocytes release toxic agents. whole genome transcriptional profiling showed that the exogenously administered probiotic Bifidobacterium longum expanded the variety of polysaccharides targeted for degradation by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron which is a prominent member of the adult human gut microbiota . Probiotics modulate the composition of the intestinal microflora. Probiotics have the capacity to reverse deleterious changes in gut microbiota and local immunity. before and after Salmonella challenge. Phagocytic activity results in the further recruitment of immunocompetent cells and the generation of inflammatory response. In germ-free mice. Probiotics have been shown to influence both innate and adaptive immunity or modify the composition and activity of the gut microbiota. Use of Lactobacillus species to combat human urinary tract infection is now giving modern concept of genitourinary vaccine that activates TLR and prevents inflammatory reactions in the response of pathogens . reflecting stimulation of`innate immunity [63. whereas in allergic persons. IBD. decreasing TNFa and increasing IFNa and interleukins production in the small intestine . Alterations in central GABA receptor expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression which are highly comorbid with functional bowel disorders. 64]. producing anti-microbial peptides such as defensins  and bacteriocins  against food-borne pathogens. The change of human gut bacterial community is associated with obesity . These examples show that Lactobacilli administration maintained the innate immune system in alert state through modulated expression of TLRs and cytokine signals in the effector and inductor site of the gut immune system and implicate the potential use of probiotic bacteria as immunomodulatory agents for humans. Oral introduction of Lactobacilli enhanced phagocytosis which responsible for early activation of the inflammatory response before antibody production [67. multiple sclerosis (MS) (a devastating autoimmune disease leading to progressive deterioration of neurological function) .
A work in extreme conditions (mines. – multiple healing effects. REVA O. correction with probiotics and prebiotics may be reasonable. their state of gut colonization by normal microbiota may be dysbiotic. – slow-growing biofilms produce substantial numbers of persisters (a subpopulation of dormant cells which tolerate adverse factors). a slightly carbonated. DE VERA J. – kombucha provides SCFAs and other metabolites which boost immunity. however. using sequence. safely and at low cost and labor produced in situ (at home. – the diversity of naturally occurring symbiotic microorganisms and appropriate wide range of their activity are advantageous in KT over single strain-probio108 tics or artificially assembled communities of beneficial microbial strains. polar expeditions. – due to kombucha biofilm. transriptomics. The reason is that the microbiome of crews may deviate substantially from that of its normality as a result of unusual external influences. – the final KT product. Symbiotic kombucha microbial community as a synbiotic. Protective gut commensals and mutualists may disappear. space stations etc. Kombucha tea/mat may be a promising formulation of a probiotic/prebiotic for extreme expeditions on several reasons : – kombucha provides a source of both probiotic bacteria and yeast. and may have large health consequences such as altering predisposition to allergies and autoimmune disease. expeditions. as well as prebiotics (microcellulose) which help fuel the growth of helpful microorganisms in digestive track. submarines. as well as a resource . KMC may be accepted as a synbiotic. out-posts etc.). For this purpose L. vacuum etc. metabolomics and other «omics».) is starting to look at how to use probiotics in foods for astronauts.-P. the starter is practically immortal and can be activated when needed. metagenomics has been driven by the increasing biotechnological demands for novel enzymes and biomolecules. there is no systemic scientific approach to characterizing KMC collective genome and its expression in changed environment. The microbiome-focused therapeutics is focused on altering the composition of the community and endowing it with new functions. and taking probiotics may not be so effective. BOX 2. using new research opportunities (BOX 2). – kombucha is easily.KOZYROVSKA N. is to create delight and positive emotions. O.) needs the robust immune system and balanced indigenous intestinal microbiota. Since it is well accepted that the majority of microbes has not yet been cultured. these microorganisms represent intriguing hidden new knowledge. The astronaut’s diet is not rich enough in vegetables (soluble and insoluble fibers). Metagenomics is the cultivation-independent analysis of the collective genomes of microbial communities within a given environment. GOGINYAN V.. MS. This means that the longevity of the KT shelf-life has no sense. T1D. Currently probiotics reached a new frontier and may contribute to the maintenance of human health under unearthly circumstances. Metagenomics is developed to elucidate the community genomes with the goal to better understand global microbial ecology. Post-genomics as a new field of research has been developed over the past decade for comprehensive study of individual and community organisms and includes metagenomics. On the other side. acidicsweetish beverage. because of insufficient food sources for the probiotic bacteria do not support them in the intestines.. an energizer. genomics and transcriptomics allow elaborate the personal probiotics-based TLR-therapy which comes true even in local clinics in the future. Reverse altering community composition in a positive way may not be quite as straightforward. Combined with sharp changes in diet and the increasing sanitary conditions in which crews live.and function-based approaches . S. proteomics. in model experiments (will be published).. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U. In spite of tremendous interest to the health-promoting activity of KMC. – KMC has metabolic plasticity and can be adapted to various feeding resources. M. rhamnosus as leading probiotic bacterium is a promising species. as well as psycho-emotional discomfort in hostile conditions. – KMC is resistant to adverse abiotic factors as a high dose of UV radiation. leading to secondary infection by opportunistic microbes. resembling cider or champagne. Practically all findings in a study of kombucha microbial symbiosis have been done with traditional microbiological approach.
and we see a solving this problem in a comprehensive study of kombucha metabolome with modern analytical technique and programs in order to identify and characterize bioactive compounds and to study their role in healing diseases and modulation of immune system. produced by the genome at any one time. tissue. Systems biology is interdisciplinary study field that focuses on complex interactions in natural biological systems. How do we make sure that probiotic bacteria do not lose positive and do not endow negative features under effect of adverse conditions? In other words. The transcriptome shows the activity of genes at the given moment. lead to the way that will enable genetic engineering of KMC to endow its members with new desirable functions that treat disease or promote health. influencing probiotics functional properties? These questions are ad- dressed to functional genomics and transcriptomics.KOMBUCHA MICROBIOME AS A PROBIOTIC for the development of novel genes. as well as in the study of bacteriayeast interrelationships. Metagenomics approach may help by allowing comprehensive documentation of changes in the gut «microbiome» of a given individual as a function of probiotic administration. especially synthetic biology and systems biology (BOX 3). The pool of small-molecule metabolites present in a biological cell. Up to date. In this sense «synthetic» means either artificial fabrication or arrangement of synthe109 . as well as on the immune system markers allows elaborating the personal kombu chabased corrections of functional disorders in a patient-friendly manner. synthetic biology used to describe integrated approaches to solving problems of biology and a holistic view of life. The use of such an approach for a study of the KMC structure will unmask not-yet-cultivated microorganisms which are expected in such biofilms as SCOBY and stop discussions about hidden deleterious microbes. Synthetic ecology is the science of human-altered and humancreated ecosystems. In the broadest sense of the term. A parallel study of effects of KMC on indigenous or transient human microbiota. what respond will be to environmental factors. consuming as probiotics. enzymes and chemical compounds for use in biotechnology. there is inconsistency in the results of chemical analysis of the kombucha metabolome. Metagenomic approach in a study of microbial ecosystems allows reconstructing the community structure and transcriptome on the base of a high-throughput DNA sequencing and analysis of annotated sequences with bioinformatics programs. Metabolomics relies on the entire set of genes in an organism/s – genome/metagenome – to study physiology. The kombucha culture is a tiny biochemical factory. The ability to examine fully sequenced and annotated kombucha genomes will promote the application of genetic approaches to elucidate many important functional roles of probiotic kombucha microbes. The annotated KMC metagenome and deciphered KMC metabolic pathways and their networks will create a basement for separation and a study of unknown valuable specific compounds needed for the design of recombinant technology and high-throughput producing. Transcriptomics is the study of the transcriptome. the complete set of RNA transcripts. Synthetic biology aims a better understanding of biological systems through constructing them. producing valuable health-promoting substances. Recent advances in the HMP have furthered our understanding of probiotic functionality and the specific interactions between probiotics and their human hosts (see rev. organ or organism as the end-products of cellular processes under specific physiological state is metabolome. Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. ). It is important for the evaluation of dietary products. This will be helpful for metabolic engineering approach and construction of more efficient pathways of sugars utilization from waste plant materials by KMC during KT fermentation. Knowledge about the KMC transcriptomes at standard and changed conditions (which may provoke to develop populations of persisters and other latent microbes) will invest in the evaluation of putative hidden effects on human health. including comsumption of KT. Basic science efforts. Synthetic biology is a methodology for analyzing the dynamics of small biological networks to predict their behavior in experimental and computer models and the transition to more complex networks in order to understand the functioning of the model in the given conditions. pharmaceutical industry etc. BOX 3.
Козировська. including microecosystems. In addition to a probiotic for crew. що мікрофлора кишечника індукує вроджений імунітет. где люди подвергаются действию неблагоприятных факторов окружающей среды. especially. Synthetic ecology will undoubtedly be a lively area of research in the coming years. M. in autonomous life-support systems. что микрофлора кишечника индуцирует врожденный иммунитет. основу яких складають. Б. Secondly. В. Synthetic approaches can then be combined with analysis in the laboratory and in nature to triangulate the rules of natural systems. and will benefit from the tools and strategies of synthetic biology. укрепляющий здоровье. Гогінян.-П. a vote of confidence to natural healing kombucha products. especially. постгеномика. and the output of post-genomics studies will raise. Девера Мікробіом чайного гриба як пробіотик: погляд з позиції постгеноміки і синтетичної екології Резюме Пробіотики мають істотне значення для встановлення і підтримки оптимального імунного здоров’я. де люди піддаються дії несприятливих чинників довкілля. Kombucha is known over two thousand years and still has the potential to serve humans for health promotion. синтетическая экология. Комбуча (чайный гриб) – это симбиотическое сообщество бактерий и дрожжей. Особливо безпечні і надійні пробіотики необхідні для тривалих експедицій.-П. Ж. тем не менее. sis.. REFERENCES 1. перш за все. the engineering of the kombucha microbiota to interact directly with the human host in new ways (catabolism of cholesterol. Гогинян. Ж. Современные методы исследования находятся на стадии восстановления популярности комбучи как пробиотика для лечения и профилактики многих заболеваний.) on the basement of deciphered individual gut microbiome will be possible. will be constructed for healing purposes. для укрепления здоровья возникает потребность в новых препаратах. О. у тому числі позаземних. природные симбиотические микробные сообщества. first of all. in elaborating autonomous lifesupport systems. DE VERA J. що зміцнює здоров’я. А. Ecological engineering is a study of integrating ecology and engineering. для зміцнення здоров’я є потреба у нових препаратах. production of valuable biologicals in gut. О. постгеноміка. Особенно безопасные и надежные пробиотики необходимы для длительных экспедиций. инопланетных баз. В. Сучасні методи дослідження перебувають на стадії відновлення популярності комбучі як пробіотика для лікування і профілактики багатьох захворювань. Традиционно пробиотики связаны с молочными продуктами. однако демонстрация того. М. REVA O. Через це профілактика та коригування імунної системи за допомогою пробіотиків стають особливо важливими. іншопланетних баз. Fukushima Y.-P. Probiotics health claims in Japan and Europe // Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria: Current progress . Препарати комбучі у недалекому майбутньому використовуватимуться як фармакологічні. известный как напиток. Традиційно пробіотики пов’язані з молочними продуктами. проте демонстрація того. Б. Ключові слова: пробіотики. O. в том числе внеземных. природні симбіотичні мікробні угруповання. тим не менш. In coming future. Novel cooperative robust synthetic ecosystems composed of yeast and bacteria strains. Рева. and a kombucha mat could be used for both crews and animals feeding as a rich source of biologicals. Hurt E. Н. monitoring and construction of ecosystems. Пробіотична терапія здавна відома з народної медицини. Препараты комбучи в недалеком будущем будут использовать как фармакологические. like CoSMO (for Cooperation that is Synthetic and Mutually Obligatory) . studies on functional metagenomics would provide evidences on healing effects of KT and kombucha mat and create a basement for safe use of these products in adverse conditions of long-term earthly expeditions and in the future space missions or extraterrestrial bases. Synthetic ecology either mimics an analog of a particular environment which exists in nature. GOGINYAN V.. etc. 110 Н.. Пробиотическая терапия издавна известна из народной медицины. основу которых составляют. Девера Микробиом чайного гриба как пробиотик: взгляд с позиции постгеномики и синтетической экологии Резюме Пробиотики имеют существенное значение для установления и поддержания оптимального иммунного здоровья. or invents a synthetic one based on natural or genetically modified environment. Ключевые слова: пробиотики. Returning from the far future to nowadays. представила науково обгрунтовану концепцію терапевтичного застосування потенційно корисних мікроорганізмів. В связи с этим профилактика и коррекция иммунной системы с помощью пробиотиков особенно важны. синтетична екологія. Комбуча (чайний гриб) є симбіотичним угрупованням бактерій та дріжджів і відомий як напій. The kombucha jelly-like mat is a valuable resource for a formation of fertile soil.. we may conclude that post-genomics tools will make a progress in the research of SCOBY. в первую очередь. Н. anticipating the design. Рева.KOZYROVSKA N. KT is a promising probiotic for growing plants. Both natural and genetically engineered kombucha microbiome will be the indispensable component of regenerative life-support system. О. предоставила научно обоснованную концепцию терапевтического применения потенциально полезных микроорганизмов. Козыровская.
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