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1. D = 2.

m V

Density: the ratio of mass to volume Equation of a straight line, where m =

y = mx + b

!d !t !v !t

"y y 2 ! y1 = slope = "x x2 ! x1

3. v = 4. a =

Velocity: the rate of change of position or a =

v f ! vi t

Acceleration: the rate of change of velocity

5.

v f = vi + at v f = vi + gt

The value of final velocity under constant acceleration (use g for free fall)

Distance traveled in free fall when vi = 0 6a. d = vi t + 1 2 at 2 d = 1 2 gt 2 vi + v f 7. v = Average velocity during constant acceleration 2 2 2 8. v f = vi + 2ad Relationship of initial and final velocities when time is unknown. 6.

9.

a=

proportional to the force and indirectly proportional to the mass. This formula is generally written as F

F m

A net force is required for any change in motion (acceleration). That

acceleration is directly

= ma .

10. FW = mg 11. F f = µFN

12.

An object’s weight is the force of gravity on the object. {or FA = µFW if on a level surface} Frictional Forces

Force of gravity between any two objects is a product of the gravitational constant (6.67 x 10-11 N۰m2

Fg = G F A

/kg2) and their two masses divided by the square of the distances between them.

m1m2 d2

13. P =

Pressure: force per unit area Momentum: mass times velocity

14. ! = mv

15. Ft = !mv Impulse-momentum equation. In order to change an object’s momentum a force needs to be applied for a period of time. 16. ! before = ! after Law of Conservation of Momentum 17. W = Fd Work (transfer of energy) is caused by a force applied through a distance (distance and force must be in the same direction).

Q = mc!T The quantity of heat (thermal energy) lost or gained by an object is equal to the product of its mass.6T) m s The speed of sound in air increases by 0. ! 24. Q = mH f Heat released (or absorbed) when a substance freezes (or melts). current. f = The velocity of a wave is a product of its frequency and its wavelength 1 The frequency and period of a wave are inverses. " = 2L Wavelength of harmonics n ! ! 27. KE = 1 mv 2 Kinetic Energy: the energy an object has due to its motion. closed tube " = 4 ( l + 0. its specific heat and its change in temperature (in degrees C or K). 20. closed tube " = 2( l + 0. resistance in a parallel circuit. W Power is the rate at which work is done.5 + 0. t Gravitational Potential Energy: the energy an object has due to its position in a gravitational PE = mgh field. Q = mH v Heat released (or absorbed) when a substance condenses (or boils). V 32. T 23. P = 19. % error = 1 1 1 1 Equivalent = + + Req R1 R2 R3 largest value " smallest value experimental value " accepted value x100% x100% % change = smallest value accepted value ! ! . f n = nf1 Frequency of any harmonic (n). *Equations #28 and #27 need to be combined if a change of phase occurs during heating or cooling. 34. T = 2" l The period of a pendulum is dependent only upon the length of the string (if the g acceleration due to gravity does not change). voltage. and power in I current electricity. v = f! 22. L = L0"#T Linear Expansion due to temperature change ! ! 29.8d ) ! 28. Req = R1 + R2 + R3 Equivalent resistance in a series circuit. 25. 33. Standing waves. ! 30. qq 31.6 m/s for every ˚C above 0˚C. 2 21. v s = (331. Fe = k 1 2 2 Coulomb’s Law: The force exerted between two charged particles is a product d of Coulomb’s Constant (9 x 109 N۰m2 /C2) and their two charges (in Coulombs) divided by the square of the distances between them.18. R = and P = VI The relationships between resistance. f b = f1 " f 2 Beat frequency ! 26.4d ) .

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