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The Maturation Instructions on The Preliminary Practices from The Longchen Nyingthig as Taught by Dorje Lopn Jigme

According to Chatral Rinpoche

Introduction The incomparable King of the Shakyas, Buddha Shakyamuni, taught 84,000 divisions of dharma [chos kyi phung po brgyad khri bzhi stong] in order to tame afflictive emotions: 21,000 sections of the Vinaya [dul bai sde] as the antidote to desire [dod chags]; 21,000 sections of Sutra as the antidote to aggression [zhe sdang]; 21,000 sections of Abhidharma as the antidote to stupidity [gti mug]; and 21,000 sections of the fourth Pitaka, the Secret Mantrayana, as the antidote to the three mind poisons combined [dug gsum cha mnyam]. The number of sentient beings that exists is equal to the extent of space. Wherever sentient beings exist, karma [las], afflictive emotions [nyon] and suffering [sdug bsngal] are present. Without exception, all sentient beings that are under the power of karma, afflictive emotions and suffering have at one time been our parents. Although they all aspire to happiness, they are ignorant about the causes for happiness, which are the ten virtuous deeds [dge ba bcu]. Although they do not wish to experience suffering, they constantly form the causes for suffering by engaging in the ten non-virtuous deeds [mi dge ba bcu]. So that all these miserable beings may be freed from suffering and reach a state of constant happiness, the level of buddhahood, Buddha taught the 84,000 divisions of the dharma. All these teachings can be condensed into the 12 sections of scriptures [gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis], which in turn can be condensed into the three collections, the Tripitaka [sde snod gsum]. The quintessence of all these inconceivable teachings of sutra and tantra are the teachings of the Great Perfection, Dzogpa Chenpo. As for the number of Dzogchen teachings, there exist 6,400,000 Dzogchen tantras, all of which Garab Dorje received directly from Vajrasattva and passed on to his student Jampal Shenyen. These teachings are divided into the three sections of Dzogchen: the outer mind section [phyi sems sde], the inner space section [nang klong sde] and the secret instruction section [gsang ba man ngag gi sde]. Jampal Shenyens student Shri Singha divided the teachings of the instruction section into four cycles: the outer cycle [phyi skor], the inner cycle [nang skor], the secret cycle [gsang skor] and the most secret unexcelled cycle [yang gsang bla med gyi skor]. Longchenpa classified the 17 Dzogchen tantras [rgyud bcu bdun] and the Nyingthig Yabzhi [snying thig ya bzhi] as the profound cycle [zab pai skor] and his Seven Treasures [mdzod bdun] as the vast cycle [rgya che bai skor]. Jigme Lingpa met Longchenpas wisdom body [ye shes kyi sku] three times through pure perception and gained complete mastery of all the words [brjod byed tshig gi dbang] and the meaning [brjod bya don gyi dbang] of the Dzogchen teachings. Jigme Lingpa then condensed the realization he received through Longchenpa into the teachings of the Longchen Nyingthig. In Jigme Lingpas tradition, the student proceeds through a two-fold sequence:

first, through empowerments, which lead to maturation [smin byed gyi dbang], and then through instructions, which lead to liberation [grol byed gyi khrid]. On this occasion I will not talk about empowerments, which lead to maturation, but instead teach on the instructions, which lead to liberation. These instructions include both the preliminary [sngon gro] and main practices [dngos gzhi]. The preliminary practices are two-fold: the general outer preliminaries [thun mong phyii sngon gro] and the special inner preliminaries [thun min nang gi sngon gro]. The four contemplations that transform the mind [blo ldog rnam pa bzhi] and the mind-training [blo sbyong] practiced during a period of 100 days [zhag brgya gi rim pa] belong primarily to the general outer preliminaries. The general outer preliminaries have six sections [sa bcad rnam pa drug]: 1. The difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [dal byor rnyed par dka ba] 2. The impermanence of life [tshe mi rtag pa] 3. The defects of samsara [khor bai nyes dmigs] 4. The principle of cause and effect [las rgyu bras] 5. The benefits of liberation [thar pai phan yon] 6. Relying on a spiritual friend [bshes gnyen bsten pa]. The special inner preliminaries include: 1. Going for refuge, which is the foundation of all dharma practices [chos thams cad kyi rming rdo skyabs su gro ba] 2. Developing bodhicitta, which is the root of Mahayana [theg pa chen poi rtsa ba sems bskyed] 3. The meditation and recitation of Vajrasattva, which purifies adverse conditions, negative deeds and obscurations [gal rkyen sdig sgrib sbyong ba rdo rje sems dpai bsgom bzlas] 4. The mandala practice, which gathers the accumulations [tshogs bsags mandal]; and, gathering the accumulations in the manner of a Kusulibeggar-yogin [ku su lii tshogs bsags] 5. Guru-yoga, which is the method for causing the wisdom of realization to dawn in ones mind-stream [rtogs pai ye shes rang rgyud la skyed pai thabs bla mai rnal byor]. The preliminary practices conclude with instructions for the transfer of consciousness [pho bai khrid]. The main practice includes the visualization practices [bskyed rim], which belong to the path of the Vase empowerment [bum dbang gi lam], the first of the four empowerments. The practices of nadi, prana and bindu [rtsa rlung

thig le] belong to the Secret empowerment [gsang dbang] and to the Knowledge-wisdom empowerment [shes rab ye shes kyi dbang], the second and third of the four empowerments. The instructions on Primordial Purity of Cutting Through [ka dag khregs chod] and Spontaneous Manifestations of Direct Crossing [lhun grub thod rgal] belong to the fourth empowerment, the Word empowerment [tshig dbang]. In short, the Longchen Nyingthig encompasses all the teachings, from the very beginning when a person enters the path and develops renunciation, until the attainment of the realization of the Great Perfection. Since the Longchen Nyingthig includes the complete teachings on ground, path and fruition [gzhi lam bras bui chos], it belongs to the Great Perfection, Dzogpa Chenpo, which is the teachings on the Ground Great Perfection, the Path Great Perfection and the Fruition Great Perfection. The Lineage of Longchen Nyingthig The lineage of Longchen Nyingthig begins with the Dharmakaya teacher Samantabhadra followed by the Sambhogakaya teacher Vajrasattva, the Nirmanakaya teacher Garab Dorje, Jampal Shenyen, and Shri Singha. Shri Singhas students were Vimalamitra and Guru Rinpoche, who in Tibet instructed the king Trisong Detsen, the subject Vairocana and the consort Yeshe T sogyal. From these masters the lineage runs in uninterrupted teacherto-student succession down to the Omniscient Longchen Rabjam. From Longchenpa the teachings were transmitted directly to Jigme Lingpa. Jigme Lingpa passed the teachings on to his student Gyalwey Nyugu. Gyalwey Nyugu imparted the teachings to the Vajradhara Paltrl Rinpoche. Paltrl Rinpoche transmitted the teachings to Lungtog T enpey Nyima. Lungtog T enpey Nyima gave the teachings to Khenpo Ngagchung Rinpoche (Khenpo Ngawang Palzang). Finally, Khenpo Ngagchung Rinpoche entrusted the entire teachings to our kind root guru Chatral Sangyey Dorje Rinpoche. This is the short lineage [nye brgyud] of Longchen Nyingthig. In addition, Khenpo Ngagchung Rinpoche met Longchenpa in a pure vision and was authorized as the lineage holder [chos kyi bdag po] of the Longchen Nyingthig. This is the extremely short lineage [shin tu nye brgyud] which Chatral Rinpoche received from his root guru Khenpo Ngagchung Rinpoche. Chatral Rinpoches lineage contains inconceivable blessings. This is, in short, the lineage history of our practice lineage. It is said in the scriptures that if one does not know the history of the lineage it is difficult to gain faith in the ultimate key points of the Great Secret (Vajrayana), and one will have the defect of doubts. It is very important to know the history of the lineage masters, the source of all the teachings. Approaching the Preliminary Practices

In the beginning you enter the path by developing renunciation from samsara [khor ba las nges byung], since renunciation is the very root of dharma practice. Then, you gradually train your mind through the process of mindtraining [blo sbyong]. Only a person of highest capacity begins with the practices of Cutting Through [khregs chod] and Direct Crossing [thod rgal]. If you begin dharma practice with the four contemplations that transform the mind [blo ldog rnam pa bzhi], you will have fewer obstacle-causing demons [dgegs] and errors [gol sa] in your practice. The reason for the gradual approach is to infuse your mind with the dharma. Beginners practice the four contemplations that transform the mind in the practice sessions and in this manner mingle their mind-stream with the dharma. This is a very important point. First, you receive empowerment [dbang], through which your mind is ripened. Then, you receive the instructions [khrid] that lead to liberation. In the tradition of Longchen Nyingthig there are two styles of instructions that lead to liberation: the faith instructions [mos khrid] and the gradual maturation instructions [smin khrid]. The faith instructions, the path of devotion, can be given if a master of highest realization instructs a student with the highest degree of faith, diligence and intelligence [dad brtson shes rab]. In that case, the master directly introduces the student to the practices of Cutting Through [khregs chod] and Direct Crossing [thod rgal]. However, since such a situation is a very rare occurrence, it is safer to instruct the student through the gradual maturation instructions. Preview of the Format for the Meditation Session At the beginning, you divide each meditation session into three parts [cha gsum]. In the first two parts of the session you practice mind-training, and in the last part you practice going for refuge. First, complete the session preliminaries, as described in Khenpo Ngagchung Rinpoches Notes. Then, on the first day, during the first two parts of the session, you contemplate the eight freedoms [dal ba brgyad], which you have gained by being liberated from the eight unfortunate conditions [mi khom brgyad]. These eight unfortunate conditions are: (1) Being born in a hell realm, (2) as a hungry ghost, (3) as an animal, (4) Among the long-living gods, (5) in a land of barbarians, (6) in a land of those with wrong views, (7) In a land where a buddha has not come, or (8) as a mute retard. You must imagine that you have actually taken rebirth in each of these eight unfortunate states. It is not enough to think about them as though they were

distant realms or situations. Imagine that you have really been born there and consider whether or not you have the time or opportunity to practice the dharma. Imagine that you have taken rebirth in the hell realms and consider whether or not you are able to practice the dharma. Visualize the different hot and cold hells one by one, contemplating and examining in this manner. Experience the suffering of these realms within your own mind and examine whether or not you have the chance to practice the dharma. When contemplating the difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [dal byor rnyed par dka ba], take the essence of these teachings to heart and mingle your mind with the teachings. In some traditions, masters may allow students to focus on the preliminary practices for a few days, weeks or months [zhag khrid zla khrid] and then instruct them in the practices of nadi, prana and bindu, or give them the instructions on Cutting Through and Direct Crossing. While such teaching styles do exist, in the Longchen Nyingthig tradition, teachers follow the style of the gradual maturation instructions. T truly incorporate the dharma into o ones mind is the style of the maturation instructions [smin khrid]. Next, continue with the contemplation on the difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [dal byor rnyed par dka ba] and recite the respective section from the preliminary liturgy. First, contemplate the eight freedoms from the eight unfortunate conditions [mi khom brgyad las ldog pai dal ba brgyad]: At this time I have gained freedom, liberation from the eight unfortunate conditions [mi khom brgyad]: (1) Being born in a hell realm, (2) as a hungry ghost, (3) as an animal, (4) Among the long-living gods, (5) in a land of barbarians, (6) in a land of those with wrong views, (7) In a land where a buddha has not come, or (8) as a mute retard. While you recite these words, remember their meaning [tshig rjes don dran]. After you have recited this text section, stop the recitation of the preliminary liturgy. During all four meditation sessions, contemplate for the next three days [zhag gsum] the eight freedoms [dal ba brgyad], which are liberation from the eight unfortunate conditions [mi khom brgyad]. Then, contemplate for four days [zhag bzhi] the five individual advantages [rang byor lnga] and the five circumstantial advantages [gzhan byor lnga].

Overview of Chatral Rinpoches Basic Structure for Retreat in Solitude [ri chos mthsams kyi khog dbub]:

Those fortunate ones who endeavor in the essential practices for three years in the tradition of the unexcelled innermost secret Longchen Nyingthig, the Luminous Great Perfection, the ultimate essence of boundless vehicles, should receive empowerments for maturation [smin] and the instructions for liberation [grol]. First, by receiving either the empowerment of the Peaceful and Wrathful Deities According to the T antra Section [rgyud sde zhi khro], or the empowerment of the Eight Logo Sadhanas [sgrub sde bka brgyad], based on the rituals of the root empowerments of this path, students ripen their mind-streams. Second, concerning the instructions that lead to liberation, there are two instruction styles: the instructions that lead gradually to maturation [smin par slob pa] and the instructions that make devotion the path [mos pa lam byed]. Since it is nowadays very rare to find students with highest faith, diligence and intelligence, the instruction style of making devotion the path is not generally feasible. In particular, from the time of the great Knowledge-holder Jigme Lingpa until the present day, the gradual maturation instructions [smin khrid] have been handed down through an uninterrupted lineage. In accordance with the Introduction to the Meaning of the Three Virtues [dge ba gsum gyi don khrid], from the Natural State of Mind [sems nyid ngal bso], written by Longchenpa, Jigme Lingpa taught his students to recite and practice each stanza of the general and special preliminaries during the meditation session itself, so that actual experience arises while practicing the preliminaries. Simply reciting the words of the five sections of the preliminaries as though they are an obligatory but insignificant part of the practice does not allow the practitioners mind to develop. In order to remove all ones doubts and practice correctly, the student should request teachings on the Words of My Perfect T eacher [kun bzang bla mai zhal lung] and the Notes [zin bris] of this text written by Khenpo Ngagchung Rinpoche. In each meditation session one should recite slowly the preliminary liturgy of The Excellent Path to Omniscience [rnam mkhyen lam bzang], beginning with the four contemplations that transform the mind [blo ldog rnam bzhi], such as the difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages, and so forth. When you come to the point of the meditation topic you are working on, stop the liturgy and recite the respective beginning stanza from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. Then, engage in the actual meditation topic and practice the sequence [go rim] of its essence [ngo bo], its differentiations [dbye ba], and its enumerations [grangs nges] by analyzing [dpyad], meditating [jog] and alternating [spel]. Following the contemplation, recite the respective ending stanza from the Words of My Perfect T eacher.

For example, when contemplating the eight unfortunate conditions, begin with the hell realms [dmyal ba] and bring each of the eight hot hells [tsha dmyal brgyad] and the eight cold hells [grang dmyal brgyad] to mind. Then, think about the temporary hells [nyi tshe ba] and the neighboring hells. Imagine that you have been born in one of these hells and carefully analyze [dpyad] the conditions found in each particular hell. Now, consider whether or not you would find the opportunity to practice the dharma [chos byed khom dang mi khom]. This part of the contemplation is called analyzing or analytic contemplation [dpyad] and is practiced first. Next, you meditate [jog] or rest in equanimity [mnyam par jog]. Finally, you alternate [spel/spel ma] between analytic contemplation and resting in equanimity. In this way you mingle analytic contemplation [dpyad bsgom] of the hell realms with resting in equanimity [jog bsgom]. While you imagine the details of the hell realms, analyze what mind state brought them into existence. Remember that the hell realms are a product of a mind involved in negativity [sdig sems]. Imagine that you are physically living in the hell realm right this moment, and experience with your mind its circumstances and sufferings. At the same time, realize that all you experience is simply a perception of your mind [rang gi sems kyi snang ba]. At some point during the visualization of the conditions and sufferings of the hell realms, you will become tired of so much suffering. Remember that the hell realms are a display of the mind [sems kyi rol pa], a mere perception of the mind. Recall that these perceptions of mind lack true existence [don la rang bzhin ma grub pa] and all suffering is nothing other than an illusory perception of the mind [sems kyi ltar snang ma gtogs]. In reality these perceptions lack any reality whatsoever. Knowing the illusory nature of these experiences and perceptions, give your exhausted mind a rest and remain in the essence of your mind [sems nyid], in the natural state [gnas lugs]. This is called resting in equanimity [mnyam par jog pa]. When, after some time, thoughts and concepts begin to arise in your mind, return to the analytic contemplation and visualization [dpyad] of the hell realms. In this manner, alternate between analytic contemplation and resting in equanimity. When you practice in this way, your mind will be infused with the dharma. This manner of practicing is very similar to the advanced practice of Separating Samsara and Nirvana [khor das ru shan]. In the same manner, contemplate the unfortunate states [mi khoms pai gnas brgyad] of the preta realm, the animal realm, the realm of the long-living gods, in a land of barbarians or those with wrong views, and so forth. Really imagine that you have taken rebirth in each of these conditions and consider whether or not you would be able to meet and practice the dharma. Training ones mind in this manner will make the mind pliable [las su rung ba].

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Divide each session into three parts. During the first two parts, practice mind-training [blo sbyong]. First, recite the section from the preliminary liturgy on the eight freedoms from the eight unfortunate conditions [mi khom brgyad las ldog pai dal ba brgyad]: At this time I have gained freedom, liberation from the eight unfortunate conditions [mi khom brgyad]: (1) Being born in a hell realm, (2) as a hungry ghost, (3) as an animal, (4) Among the long-living gods, (5) in a land of barbarians, (6) in a land of those with wrong views, (7) In a land where a buddha has not come, or (8) as a mute retard. Then, read the Words of My Perfect T eacher and Khenpo Ngagchung Rinpoches Notes and get very clear about what you need to imagine. Contemplate and train in just these topics during the first two parts of the session. Practice for three days, four session per day, three hours per session, which is plenty of time to cover the entire topic. You may in each session go through all eight unfortunate states [mi khom brgyad], or you might just spend the first session of the first day on the hell realms, the second session on the hungry ghost realm, the third session on the animal realm, and so forth. During the third part of each session of the first 58 days, practice going for refuge. Begin by slowly reciting the liturgy of the general preliminaries from Though I have obtained all of those until Free me quickly from this prison. Then recite the lines for going for refuge: T the essence of the Three Jewels, the Sugata; and to the Three Roots; o T bodhicitta, the nature of the nadis, pranas and bindus; o And to the mandala of essence, nature and capacity, I go for refuge until (I reach) the essence of enlightenment. While reciting these words, visualize the refuge tree [tshogs shing]. Know what the essence [ngo bo] of going for refuge is. Know the distinctions [dbye ba] between the different types of refuge. All these details will be explained later on when we come to that particular section in the maturation instructions. During the course of the 100 days of mind-training, you will complete 100,000 recitations of the stanzas of both going for refuge and developing bodhicitta. Bodhicitta must truly be cultivated in our mind, so the recitation should not be practiced merely for the sake of accumulating a certain number of repetitions. When you practice developing bodhicitta, you only recite 30,000 times the four-line stanza for developing bodhicitta. Then, through extensive mind-training, genuine bodhicitta will dawn in your mind.

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At the end of each session, complete the entire recitation of the preliminary liturgy up through the guru-yoga, dedication and aspirations. During the first 58 days of your retreat, at the end of the third part of your session, which is the practice of going for refuge, you may end your session in the following way: three recitations of bodhicitta; 21 recitations of the one-hundred-syllable mantra of Vajrasattva and 100 recitations of the short Vajrasattva mantra; three recitations of the mandala offering (skip the Kusuli-Ch practice at this point as you will do it after the evening session [srod thun] according to Chatral Rinpoches liturgy arrangement); 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]; 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]; take the four empowerments; dissolve the visualization; and complete the liturgy. In this way you will always practice the entire preliminary liturgy in each meditation session. Now I will give the exact number of days to spend on each section of the 100 days of mind-training: First, contemplation on the difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [dal byor rnyed par dka ba]: 1. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on the eight freedoms from the eight unfortunate conditions [mi khom brgyad las ldog pai dal ba brgyad] 2. Four days [zhag bzhi] contemplation on the five individual advantages [rang byor lnga] and the five circumstantial advantages [gzhan byor lnga] 3. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the examples of the difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [rnyed dkai dpe] 4. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the numerical comparisons [grangs kyi khyad par] 5. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the eight unfortunate conditions of temporary circumstances [phral byung rkyen gyi mi khom pa brgyad] 6. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the eight unfortunate conditions that disconnect the mind [ris chad blo yi mi khom pa brgyad]. Thus, contemplate for 11 days these six instruction segments on the difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [dal byor rnyed dkai khrid rkang drug]. Second, contemplation on the impermanence of life [tshe mi rtag pa]: 1. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the impermanence of the outer universe [phyi snod jig rten mi rtag tshul] 2. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on the impermanence of sentient beings [nang bcud skye gro mi rtag tshul]

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3. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the impermanence of sublime beings [dam pai skyes bu mi rtag tshul] 4. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the impermanence of those in positions of power [skye dgui bdag po mi rtag tshul] 5. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on impermanence by means of various examples and meanings [dpe don sna tshogs la bsam ste mi rtag pa bsgom tshul] 6. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the uncertainty of the circumstances of death [chi rkyen nges med la bsam ste mi rtag pa bsgom tshul]. With very strong determination, contemplate on impermanence also during the session breaks. Thus, contemplate for 10 days these six instruction segments on the impermanence of life [tshe mi rtag pai khrid rkang drug]. Third, the contemplation on the disadvantages of samsara [khor bai nyes dmigs]: 1. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on the general sufferings of samsara [khor bai sdug bsngal spyir bsam pa] 2. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the eight hot hells [tsha dmyal brgyad], the specific sufferings of the first of the six realms, the hell realm 3. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the eight cold hells [grang dmyal brgyad] 4. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the temporary hells and the neighboring hells, including the sixteen additional hells [nyi tshe ba dang nye khor ba lhag pa bcu drug bcas] 5. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the pretas who live collectively [yi dvags la bying gnas], the specific sufferings of the second of the six realms, the preta realm 6. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the pretas who move through space [mkha la rgyu bai yi dvags] 7. One day contemplation on animals who live in the depths [dud gro bying na gnas pa], the specific sufferings of the third of the six realms, the animal realm 8. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on animals who are scattered in different places [kha thor ba] 9. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering upon suffering of human beings [mii sdug bsngal gyi sdug bsngal], the specific sufferings of the fourth of the six realms, the human realm

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10. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering of change [gyur bai sdug bsngal] 11. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the omnipresent suffering in the making [khyab pa du byed kyi sdug bsngal] 12. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering of birth [skye bai sdug bsngal] 13. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering of aging [rga bai sdug bsngal] 14. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering of sickness [na bai sdug bnsgal] 15. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering of death [chi bai sdug bsngal] 16. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering of meeting enemies [dgra sdang ba dang phrad kyis dogs pai sdug bsngal] 17. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering of losing loved ones [byams pa dang bral gyi dogs pai sdug pa] 18. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering of encountering what one does not wish to encounter [mi dod pa thog tu babs pai sdug bsngal] 19. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering of not getting what one wants [dod pa thog tu mi khel bai sdug bsngal] 20. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering of quarreling and fighting of the asuras [lha min thab rtsod gyi sdug bsngal], the specific sufferings of the fifth of the six realms, the asura realm 21. One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering of the death, transition and descent of the gods [lha chi pho ba dang lhung bai sdug bsngal], the specific sufferings of the sixth of the six realms, the god realm. Thus, contemplate for 23 days the 21 instruction segments that explain the general and specific disadvantages of samsara [khor ba spyi dang bye brag gi nyes dmigs bshad pa khrid rkang nyi shu rtsa gcig]. Fourth, karma, cause and fruition [las rgyu bras]: 1. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on the nature of the ten non-virtuous deeds, that which must be avoided [spang bya mi dge ba bcu yi rang bzhin] 2. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on the nature of the ten virtuous deeds, that which must be practiced [bsgrub bya dge ba bcu]

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3. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on the fact that everything has the nature of karma [thams cad las kyi rang bzhin du bstan pa]. Thus, contemplate for nine days on the three instruction segments on karma, cause and fruition [las rgyu bras kyi khrid rkang gsum]. Fifth, the benefits of liberation [thar pai phan yon]: T wo days [zhag gnyis] contemplation on the single instruction segment on the benefits of liberation [thar pai phan yon bstan pai khrid rkang gcig]. Sixth, how to rely on a spiritual friend [bshes gnyen bsten tshul]: Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on the single instruction segment on how to rely on a spiritual friend [bshes gnyen bsten tshul gyi khrid rkang gcig]. These six instruction sections of the general outer preliminaries [thun mong phyi yi sngon gro khrid rkang drug] must be practiced as mind training for 58 days. In the course of completing these mind-training practices, the student will have also completed the 100,000 recitations of going for refuge, including the 10 percent amendment, which belongs to the special inner preliminaries [thun min nang gi sngon gro]. Next, the student proceeds with the instructions on developing bodhicitta. The training for bodhicitta of aspiration [smon pai bslab bya] includes the Four Immeasurables [tshad med bzhi], equalizing oneself with others [bdag gzhan mnyam pa], exchanging oneself with others [bdag gzhan brje ba], and treasuring others more that oneself [bdag bas gzhan bces]. The training for bodhicitta of aspiration [smon pai bslab bya]: The Four Immeasurables: 1. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on equanimity [btang snyoms] 2. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on loving-kindness [byams pa] 3. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on compassion [snying rje] 4. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on sympathetic joy [dga ba]. Equalizing Oneself with Others: 5. Four days [zhag bzhi] contemplation on equalizing oneself with others [bdag gzhan mnyam pa]. Exchanging Oneself with Others:

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6. Four days [zhag bzhi] contemplation on exchanging oneself with others [bdag gzhan brje ba]. Treasuring Others More than Oneself: 7. Four days [zhag bzhi] contemplation on treasuring others more that oneself [bdag bas gzhan bces]. The training for bodhicitta of application [jug pai bslab bya], the six transcendental perfections: 8. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on generosity [sbyin pa] 9. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on discipline [tshul khrims] 10. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on patience [bzod pa] 11. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on diligence [brtson grus] 12. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on concentration [bsam gtan] 13. Three days [zhag gsum] contemplation on knowledge [shes rab]. Thus, contemplate for 42 days on the 13 instruction segments for developing bodhicitta [sems bskyed kyi khrid rkang bcu gsum]. During that period, recite only 30,000 times the four-line stanza of bodhicitta from the preliminary liturgy. As you practice this mind-training for 100 days, from the four contemplations that transform the mind [blo ldog rnam pa bzhi] to developing bodhicitta, you will also gain experience in shamatha and vipashyana meditation practices. While there are many special instructions for practicing shamatha and vipashyana, in the Longchen Nyingthig tradition, you will gain sufficient experience in these practices through the 100-day mind-training. Gaining experience in these two types of meditation will prepare the mind [sems las su rung ba] for the meditation practices to be learned in the future. Vajrasattva: Then, recite 100,000 times the one-hundred-syllable mantra [yig brgya] in conjunction with the meditation and recitation of Vajrasattva [sdor sems bsgom bzlas]. Mandala Offering: Next, recite 30,000 times the trikaya mandala practice, T ongsum Jigtenma [stong gsum jig rten ma], and 70,000 times the Dagzhen Dsumma [bdag gzhan dus gsum ma], including amendments. The Dagzhen Dsumma was composed by Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. As an alternative to the Dagzhen Dsumma, you may also recite the Sazhi Pjugma [sa gzhi spos byug], which King Trisong Detsen composed when he offered his entire kingdom and all its

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riches to Guru Rinpoche. Because Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo is considered to be the incarnation of King Trisong Detsen, there is absolutely no difference between reciting the Dagzhen Dsumma and the Sazhi Pjugma. As an extension of the main mandala practice [mandal gyi yan lag], you also practice offering your body [lus sbyin] in the style of the Kusuli-beggar yogin, which is a means for gathering the accumulation of merit. After every evening session [srod thun] during the entire retreat, recite Chatral Rinpoches Liturgy Arrangement for the Daily Ch Practice [rgyun gcod don grig], which includes the lines of refuge and bodhicitta from the Khandro Gyeyjang. When you practice this Ch, it is not necessary to recite many OM AH HUNG mantras. Instead, focus primarily on the visualization for offering your body. If you are not doing full-time retreat, and are therefore not practicing this Ch after every evening session, you may recite it during the daily morning practice of the preliminary liturgy. Guru yoga: Then, while reciting the Seven-Branch Supplication [yan lag bdun pa], offer 100,000 full prostrations [brkyang phyag], including the 10 percent amendment, which amounts to 111,000 prostrations. On this particular point, the Longchen Nyingthig preliminaries differ from the preliminary practices of other traditions. In most traditions, the student offers prostrations while reciting the lines of refuge. In the Longchen Nyingthig tradition, however, the student offers prostrations during the guru-yoga practice. While reciting the lines of the Seven-Branch Supplication, you only count your prostrations. You do not need to align each prostration with one full recitation of the Seven-Branch Supplication. During the first half of the recitation session [thun gyi stod] of the Siddhi (OM AH HUNG BENDZA GURU PEMA SIDDHI HUNG), recite after every 1,000 Siddhi mantras the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]: Immaculate Lord, Guru Rinpoche, Glorious One, who embodies The compassion and blessing of all Buddhas, Sole protector of all sentient beings, My body, possessions, mind, heart and the core of my being [blo snying brang] I offer to you without reservation. From now on until the attainment of enlightenment, Through all happiness and misery, good and bad, highs and lows, Great Immaculate Lord, Padmasambhava, think of me!

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During the second half of the recitation session [thun gyi smad] of the Siddhi (OM AH HUNG BENDZA GURU PEMA SIDDHI HUNG), recite after every 1,000 Siddhi mantras the supplication requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]: There is no hope for me other than you. We beings of the present degenerate age Are sinking in the swamp of unbearable sufferings. Great Guru, protect us from this! Blessed One, bestow the four empowerments! Compassionate One, transfer your realization! Powerful One, purify our two obscurations! Recite the Siddhi mantra not too fast and not too slowly and thus accumulate 11,300,000 recitations [bum brgya dang bcu gsum]. Even in full-time retreat, when practicing guru-yoga four sessions daily of three hours each, you still need more than one year to complete this number of recitations in the proper manner. The entire retreat on the Longchen Nyingthig preliminaries takes a minimum of two years. (At this point in the text, Chatral Rinpoche gives an overview of the practices the student would do after completing the preliminary practices. Before continuing on, the student must receive the specific empowerments for these practices.) The practices for the path of the Vase empowerment [bum dbang] are Rigdzin Dpa [rig dzin dus pa], the inner guru-yoga [nang sgrub]; Thugje Chenpo Dugnal Rangdrl [thugs chen sdug bsngal rang grol], the secret guru-yoga [gsang sgrub]; Thigle Gyachen [thig lei rgya can], the innermost secret guru-yoga [yang gsang bla sgrub]; the yidam practice of Palchen Dpa [dpal chen dus pa]; and the Dakini practice of Yumka Dechen Gyalmo [yum ka bde chen rgyal mo]. These are the practices for the three roots [rtsa ba gsum], Lama, Yidam and Dakini. At the same time, students should receive teachings on the practices of the visualization stages [bskyed rim] and the completion stages [rdzogs rim] from the manual written by Jigme Lingpa called The Stairway that Leads to Akanishta [og min bgrod pai them skas] and also from the manual written by Paltrl Rinpoche called Oral Instructions on the Key Points that Combine the Vital Essence [srog sdom gzer bzhi]. Students should know the different key points for the practices of Mahayoga, Anuyoga and Atiyoga. At each level they must know how to practice the different types of recitation practices, such as approach [bsnyen pa], close approach [nye bsnyen], accomplishment [sgrub pa] and great accomplishment [sgrub chen]. They must know how to do retreats according to time [dus], numbers [grangs] and signs [rtags].

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The practices for the path of the Secret empowerment [gsang dbang] are the training in Kumbhaka [bum can], the practice of Tummo [gtum mo] and the practice of Yantra-yoga [khrul khor]. The practices for the Knowledge-wisdom empowerment are the practices of the oral instruction lineage [snyan brgyud kyi khrid], which go together with the secret upadesha instructions [man ngag bka rgya ma]. The practices for the path of the Word empowerment are the practices of Cutting Through [khregs chod] and Direct Crossing [thod rgal], which are taught in a one-to-one teaching situation [chig brgyud] using the two manuals of the oral lineage [snyan brgyud] written by Khenpo Ngagchung Rinpoche. As a support, practice the great instruction text called the Instructions of the Wisdom T eacher [khrid ye shes bla ma]. This ends the short summary of Chatral Rinpoches Basic Structure For Retreat In Solitude [ri chos mthsams kyi khog dbub] as explained by Dorje Lopn Jigme.

Overview of Chatral Rinpoches Addenda for Retreat in Solitude [ri chos mthsams kyi lhan thabs]
Arise before dawn, at about 3:00 a.m., and assume the meditation posture, according to the key points for the body [lus gnad skyil krung bca]. Then, according to the key points for the breath [ngag gnad], expel three times or nine times the stale breath. Next, recite the lines for consecrating the speech [ngag byin rlabs] together with seven recitations each of the vowels, consonants and the Quintessence of Causation [rten snying]. In conjunction with this, recite seven times the increasing mantra [gyur sngags] OM SAMBHARA SAMBHARA BIMANA SARA MAHA DZAMBHA HUNG, which increases the blessing of the general mantra recitation. The consecration of the speech and the increasing mantra are only practiced in the first session of the day. Now, practice the key points for the mind [yid gnad] by transforming your motivation [kun slong bcos] and developing bodhicitta. Next, begin recitation of the preliminary practice according to the liturgy of the The Excellent Path to Omniscience [rnam mkhyen lam bzang]. Saying three times Lama Khyen, cry out to the guru from afar [bla ma rgyang bod] and invoke the guru by reciting the six lines of invocation [bzhengs bskul gyi tshig rkang drug]: From the blossoming lotus of devotion at the center of my heart, Sole refuge, kind guru, please arise! T protect me from my unfortunate state o Of being tormented by my karma and afflictive emotions,

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Remain above my head, ornamenting my Mahasukha-Cakra. Let there arise in me constant mindfulness and guarding introspection. While reciting these lines, imagine that the guru rises from your heart center through the central channel to the top of your head. Then, receive the empowerments from the guru by reciting the following supplication: "Essence of all the Buddhas of the three times, lord of the four kayas, glorious and sublime root guru, I supplicate you. Please confer empowerment upon me and grant your blessings. Please bless me so that the special realization of the profound path is born in my mind. Please bless me so that I realize the view of the primordially pure natural state. Please bless me so that I perfect the wisdom of the four spontaneously present visions." Having supplicated the guru in this way and received the four empowerments, mingle the enlightened mind of the guru with your own mind and rest in equanimity. The session preliminaries [thun gyi sngon gro], or the preliminary to the preliminaries [sngon groi sngon gro], are (1) the key points for the body, (2) the key points for the breath, (3) the key points for the mind, as well as (4) the meditation and supplication to the guru. These four points are indispensable at the beginning of every meditation session. In the last three sessions of the day, one may abbreviate the session preliminaries by omitting the calling of the guru from afar [bla ma rgyang bod] and the six lines of invocation [bzhengs bskul gyi tshig rkang drug] and instead begin directly with the supplication to the guru: "Essence of all the Buddhas of the three times, lord of the four kayas and so forth. With regard to the different styles of instructions, the instruction style that makes devotion the path [mos slob] is not generally feasible. It is preferable instead to follow the tradition of the instructions that lead gradually to maturation [smin khrid]. First, you should spend 100 days on mind-training [blo sbyong], from the four contemplations that transform the mind [blo ldog rnam pa bzhi] through the training for developing bodhicitta [sems bskyed kyi bslab bya]. Beginning with the practice of going for refuge up through guru-yoga, which is the outer way of accomplishing the guru [pyhi sgrub bla mai rnal byor], you should perform each practice 100,000 times, thus completing 500,000 repetitions [bum lnga] for refuge, bodhicitta, Vajrasattva, mandala and guruyoga. Practice until you experience the signs of the preliminary practices. This will be the practice for the first year (according to the books, but in actuality it might take two years). In the second year, you should practice the three roots beginning with Rigdzin Dpa, the inner way of accomplishing the guru [nang sgrub rig dzin dus pa]. Complete the recitations according to time, numbers and signs.

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In the third year, you should practice T sa-lung [rtsa rlung], Cutting Through [khregs chod] and Direct Crossing [thod rgal]. The early morning session [thor thun] begins at 3:00 a.m. and ends at 6:00 a.m. During the session break, perform the Smoke Offering called Riwo Sangch [ri bo bsangs mchod] and then take breakfast. The mid-morning session [snga thun] begins at 7:00 a.m. and ends at 10:00 a.m. The afternoon session [phyi droi thun] begins at 1:00 p.m. and ends at 4:00 p.m. The evening session [dgon thun / srog thun] begins at 6:00 p.m. and ends at 9:00 p.m. Each session should be about three hours. After the mid-morning session, practice the concise Nyingthig Pungtor [snying thig spungs gtor bsdus pa] and the Water-torma according to the Chogling T ersar tradition. Offer 100 full prostrations while either reciting the Tungshak or the Yeshe Kuchog [ye shes sku mchog]. Then, take lunch [gung tshigs bzhes]. During the free time after lunch, you can read practice manuals or the life stories of sublime masters. After the afternoon session, recite the short liturgy for the Dharmapalas and various other aspirations. Then, take dinner [nub ja bzhes]. Finally, when it gets dark begin the night session [srod thun]. After the night session, practice the body offering [lus sbyin], which is the accumulation of merit of the Kusuli-beggar-yogin. Practice this according to Chatral Rinpoches Liturgy Arrangement for the Daily Ch Practice [rgyun gcod don grig], which includes the lines of refuge and bodhicitta from the Khandro Gyeyjang. Afterwards, conclude with various prayers. During the first year, when you practice the preliminary practices, after the night session while lying in bed, visualize the guru descending from the top of your head and taking a seat in your heart center within the central channel. Visualize that, from the guru who sits on a four-petalled lotus in your heart center, immense light streams forth and illuminates first your entire body, then the surrounding area, and finally the entire universe. With this visualization, fall asleep and recognize your dreams and luminosity. In the second year, when practicing the visualizations of the three roots, after the night session visualize in your heart center the mantra chain [sngags khor] of the respective yidam you are practicing at the time. While reciting this mantra, fall asleep. In the final year, when practicing the Great Perfection, after the night session fall asleep according to the instruction of keeping the object of awareness within the vase [shes bya bum par bsdu bai man ngag].

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Teachings from Khenpo Ngagchung Rinpoches Notes [zin bris] on the 100-day Mind Training Retreat
Session Preliminaries Key Points for the Body [lus gnad]: At the beginning of your practice session, sit in the posture of relaxing in the natural state of mind [sems nyid ngal bsoi dug stangs] or in the posture of the seven points of Vairocana [rnam snang chos bdun]. It is important to sit without any pain or discomfort in a relaxed fashion. Keep your body straight. If the body is straight the nadis are straight. When the nadis are straight the prana flows straight. And, if the prana flows straight the mind is at ease. This is the reason for a comfortable but straight body posture. These are the points for the body posture [lus gnad]. Key Points for the Breath [ngag ngad]: The points for the speech or breath [ngag gnad] are the instructions for clearing the stale breath [rlung ro bsal ba]. Practice either the three-fold [sum sprugs] or the nine-fold [dgu sprugs] expelling of the stale breath: once or three times through the left nostril, once or three times through the right nostril, and once or three times through both nostrils. With the thumb, index and middle finger of your right hand, form the threepointed vajra mudra [rdo rje rtse gsum pai phyag rgya], and with the left hand press the nail of the thumb to the base of the ring finger and form the closed-vajra-fist mudra [rdo rje khu tshur]. With the right hand in the threepointed vajra mudra block the right nostril, and with the back of your left hand in closed-vajra-fist mudra press against the main vein on your upper left thigh. Breathe in through your left nostril, then breathe out in the manner of a barley grain [nas bru]: slowly at first, then with more strength, and finally let it fade out [nar gyis]. A barley grain is fine [phra bo] at the top, bulky [sbom po] in the center, and again fine at the end. While breathing out, imagine that all the karma [las], afflictive emotions [nyon mongs], negative deeds [sdig pa], obscurations [sgrib pa], broken samayas and meditation defects, such as drowsiness [bying], dullness [rmugs] and sleepiness [thib], that for countless lifetimes you have accumulated through desire [dod chags] are cleared away into the far distance, dispelled from your body in the form of black breath. Then, again breathe in gently. In this manner dispel the stale breath once or three times through your left nostril.

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Then, change your hands. With the thumb, index and middle finger of the left hand, form the three-pointed vajra mudra [rdo rje rtse gsum pai phyag rgya], and with the right hand press the nail of the thumb to the base of the ring finger and form the closed-vajra-fist mudra [rdo rje khu tshur]. With the left hand in the three-pointed vajra mudra block the left nostril, and with the back of your right hand in closed-vajra-fist mudra press against the main vein on your upper right thigh. Breathe in through your right nostril and repeat the instructions as above. While breathing out, imagine that all the karma [las], afflictive emotions [nyon mongs], negative deeds [sdig pa], obscurations [sgrib pa], broken samayas and meditation defects, such as drowsiness [bying], dullness [rmugs] and sleepiness [thib], that for countless lifetimes you have accumulated through aggression [zhe sdang] are cleared away into the far distance, dispelled from your body in the form of black breath. Then, again breathe in gently. In this manner dispel the stale breath once or three times through your right nostril. Finally, press both hands in the closed-vajra-fist mudra against the main vein on both your upper thighs. Breathe in through both nostrils and practice the instructions as above. Both male and female practitioners practice in the same manner. While breathing out, imagine that all the karma [las], afflictive emotions [nyon mongs], negative deeds [sdig pa], obscurations [sgrib pa], broken samayas and meditation defects, such as drowsiness [bying], dullness [rmugs] and sleepiness [thib], that for countless lifetimes you have accumulated through stupidity [gti mug] are cleared away into the far distance, dispelled from your body in the form of black breath. Then, again breathe in gently. In this manner dispel the stale breath once or three times through both nostrils. Now, imagine that you have purified and expelled all your negativities. Practice this technique at the beginning of every meditation session. These are the oral instructions of the lineage. Key Points for the Mind: The key point for the mind is to engender the proper motivation [kun slong bcos pa]. Relax your mind and recall that the number of sentient beings is equal to the extent of space. Wherever sentient beings exist, they are under the sway of karma, afflictive emotions and suffering. Remember that, without exception, each and every sentient being has been your parent. Then, form the thought: I will practice in order to free all sentient beings from the causes and fruitions of suffering and establish them on the level of perfect buddhahood. This motivation is called the precious bodhicitta.

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Practice these key points for body, breath and mind at the beginning of every session. Consecration of Speech [ngag byin gyis brlab pa]: For every early morning session, begin with the consecration of speech [ngag byin gyis brlab pa]. Recite: OM AH HUNG Fire emerges from (the syllable) RAM (on top of) my tongue and burns (all the obscurations of my speech, transforming my tongue into a) Three-pronged vajra in the form of red light. In (the center of) its hollow Are the vowels and consonants, surrounded by the Essence of Causation. From the syllables, which are like a mala of pearls, Light streams forth and pleases the Victors and their sons with offerings. When (the light) returns, I imagine that the obscurations of my speech are purified, That (my voice) is consecrated into the vajra-speech, and that I have obtained accomplishments. Recite seven times the vowels: A I U I I E EH O OH ANG A Recite seven times the consonants: KA KHA GA GHA NGA, TSA TSHA DZA DZAH NYA, A HA A HA A, TA THA DA DHA NA, PA PHA BA BHA MA, YA RA LA WA, SHA KA SA HA KSHA Recite seven times the Quintessence of Causation: YAY-DAR-MA HAY-TU TRA-BA-VA HAY-TUN TAY-KEN TA-THA-GA-TO HA-YA VA-DAY TAY-KEN TSA-YO NI-RO-DA E-VAM VA-DI MA-HA SHRA-MA-NA SO-HA Recite seven times the increasing mantra [gyur sngags] (inserted): OM SAMBHARA SAMBHARA BIMANA SARA MAHA DZAMBHA HUNG Recite this only for the early morning session. Calling the Guru from Afar [bla ma rgyang bod]: Then, visualize your root guru in front of you and invoke the guru by saying three times: LAMA KHYEN! (Guru, think of me!)

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Having recited this invocation three times, cry out (for the guru) with intense longing. Imagine that your root guru, in the form of Guru Rinpoche, resides upon a blossoming eight-petalled lotus [pad ma dab brgyad] in your heart. Sitting on the lotus, he rises through the central channel, emerges through the crown of your head, and sits in front of you in the sky. The Six Lines of Invocation [bzhengs bskul tshig rkang drug]: While imagining this, recite the six lines of invocation [bzhengs bskul tshig rkang drug]: From the blossoming lotus of devotion at the center of my heart, Sole refuge, kind guru, please arise! T protect me from my unfortunate state o Of being tormented by my karma and afflictive emotions, Remain above my head, ornamenting my Mahasukha-Cakra. Let there arise in me constant mindfulness and guarding introspection. Supplicating the Guru [bla ma la gsol ba debs]: Then, receive the empowerments from your root guru and recite the lines for supplicating the guru [bla ma la gsol ba debs]: "Essence of all the Buddhas of the three times, lord of the four kayas, glorious and sublime root guru, I supplicate you. Please confer empowerment upon me and grant your blessings. Please bless me so that the special realization of the profound path is born in my mind. Please bless me so that I realize the view of the primordially pure natural state. Please bless me so that I perfect the wisdom of the four spontaneously present visions." While reciting these lines, visualize that from a white OM at the guru's forehead center, white light streams forth and enters your forehead center, and you receive the Vase empowerment [bum dbang]. From a red AH at the guru's throat center, red light streams forth and enters your throat center, and you receive the Secret empowerment [gsang dbang]. From a blue HUNG in the guru's heart center, blue light streams forth and enters your heart center, and you receive the Knowledge-wisdom empowerment [shes rab ye shes kyi dbang]. Then, visualize that a second HUNG emanates from the guru's heart center and dissolves into your heart center, and you receive the precious Word empowerment [tshig dbang rin po che]. Having supplicated the root guru intensely and fervently, with great affection and kindness for you, the guru dissolves into light, which in turn dissolves into you. Know that the enlightened mind of the root guru and your mind mingle into one. Rest for a while in the non-conceptual state, free from thoughts of the three times, past, present and future.

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Do this short session preliminary practice at the beginning of every meditation session. At this point, you have been given explanations on how to begin sessions by applying the key points of body, breath and mind and on how to consecrate the speech [ngag byin gyis brlab pa] in the early morning session. In addition, you have been given details on the session preliminaries; that is, how to call the guru from afar [bla ma rgyang bod], how to invoke the guru by reciting the six lines of invocation [bzhengs bskul gyi tshig rkang drug], how to supplicate the guru, how to receive empowerment from the guru, and how to mingle your mind with the gurus mind. The General Outer Preliminaries The general outer preliminaries have six instruction sections [sa bcad rnam pa drug]: 1. The difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [dal byor rnyed par dka ba] 2. The impermanence of life [tshe mi rtag pa] 3. The defects of samsara [khor bai nyes dmigs] 4. The principle of cause and effect [las rgyu bras] 5. The benefits of liberation [thar pai phan yon] 6. Relying on a spiritual friend [bshes gnyen bsten pa]. First, you must understand that all of samsara has the nature of suffering. The first two instruction sections of the general preliminaries, the contemplations on (1) the difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [dal byor rnyed par dka ba] and (2) the impermanence of life [tshe mi rtag pa], turn the mind away from leading a worldly life [tshe di sgrub pa la blo ldog]. The third and fourth instruction sections, the contemplations on (3) the disadvantages of samsara [khor bai nyes dmigs] and (4) karma, cause and fruition [las rgyu bras], turn the mind away from living a worldly life in your next rebirth [skye ba phyi ma khor ba sgrub pa la blo ldog]. Through these contemplations you lose all interest in gaining a high position in the human realm in your next life or gaining a high state of rebirth in the god realms. The fifth and sixth instruction sections, the contemplations on (5) the benefits of liberation [thar pai phan yon] and (6) how to rely on a spiritual friend [bshes gnyen bsten tshul], inspire you to traverse the path to liberation and omniscience. Once you realize that the happy states within samsara are impermanent and temporary, you develop the wish to reach the state of permanent happiness [gtan gyi bde ba] of liberation and omniscience. You realize that all states within samsara are permeated by suffering. You know that even the highest realms within samsara are still subject to the omnipresent suffering in the making [khyab pa du byed kyi sdug bsngal]. You understand that the three lower realms are subject to the suffering upon suffering [sdug

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bsngal gyi sdug bsngal] and the suffering of change [gyur bai sdug bsngal]. You know that the only unchanging happiness is the state of liberation and omniscience. In most traditions, only four instruction sections are given for the preliminary practices, which are the four contemplations that transform the mind [blo ldog rnam pa bzhi] and turn the mind away from samsara [sems khor ba las blo ldog]. In the Longchen Nyingthig tradition, however, Jigme Lingpa teaches two more instruction sections, totaling six instruction sections. Since the four contemplations only turn the mind away from samsara, you must also be taught how to turn your mind toward liberation [thar pa] and omniscience [thams cad mkhyen pa] and how to develop the desire to reach liberation and omniscience. Once you have turned your mind away from samsara, it is also necessary to teach the benefits of liberation [thar pai phan yon], the fifth instruction section. And, since you do not naturally know the path toward liberation and omniscience, you must learn how to rely on a spiritual friend, which is taught in the sixth instruction section. Therefore, the Longchen Nyingthig preliminaries have six instruction sections included in the general outer preliminaries.

Contemplation on the difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [dal byor rnyed par dka ba] (Days 1-11) The six instruction segments on the difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [dal byor rnyed dkai khrid rkang drug] are (1) three days contemplation on the eight freedoms from the eight unfortunate conditions [mi khom brgyad las ldog pai dal ba brgyad]; (2) four days contemplation on the five individual advantages [rang byor lnga] and the five circumstantial advantages [gzhan byor lnga]; (3) one day contemplation on the examples of the difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [rnyed dkai dpe]; (4) one day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the numerical comparisons [grangs kyi khyad par]; (5) one day contemplation on the eight unfortunate conditions of temporary circumstances [phral byung rkyen gyi mi khom pa brgyad]; and (6) one day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the eight unfortunate conditions that disconnect the mind [ris chad blo yi mi khom pa brgyad]. Now, I will teach the three-day contemplation on the eight freedoms from the eight unfortunate conditions [mi khom brgyad las ldog pai dal ba brgyad].

(1) For three days contemplate the eight freedoms from the eight unfortunate conditions [mi khom brgyad las ldog pai dal ba brgyad]

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The First and Second Part of the Meditation Session / Days 158
Divide each meditation session into three parts [cha gsum]. In the first two parts of the session practice mind-training, and in the last part practice going for refuge. Liturgy After you have finished the session preliminaries, recite the following text section from the preliminary liturgy: At this time I have gained freedom, liberation from the eight unfortunate conditions: (1) Being born in a hell realm, (2) as a hungry ghost, (3) as an animal, (4) Among the long-living gods, (5) in a land of barbarians, (6) in a land of those with wrong views, (7) In a land where a buddha has not come, or (8) as a mute retard. Beginning Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher Now, recite the following stanza from the end of the section on the freedoms and advantages in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Although I have won these freedoms, I am poor in dharma, which is their essence. Although I have entered into the dharma, I waste time doing other things. Bless me and foolish beings like me That we may attain the very essence of the freedoms and advantages. dal ba thob kyang snying poi chos kyis dbul chos sgor zhugs kyang chos min spyod pas g.yengs bdag dang bdag dra rmongs pai sems can rnams dal byor snying po lon par byin gyis rlobs Contemplation These eight unfortunate conditions include four unfortunate conditions of non-humans [mi ma yin pai mi khom pa bzhi] and four unfortunate conditions of humans [mii mi khom pa bzhi]. The four unfortunate conditions of non-humans are (1) being born in a hell realm, (2) as a hungry ghost, (3) as an animal, and (4) as a long-living god. The four unfortunate conditions of humans are being born (5) as a barbarian, (6) in a land of those with wrong views, (7) in a land when a buddha has not come, and (8) as a retarded person.

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Concerning the contemplation on the hell realms, keep in mind these four points: the environment [gnas], the types of bodies [lus], the types of suffering [sdug bsngal] and the lifespan [tshe tshad]. First, contemplate being born in the hot hell realms. The environment in these realms is an atmosphere of pitch-black darkness. Because the hell realms are a manifestation of anger and aggression [zhe sdang] rooted in ignorance, the entire ground in the hot hell realms consists of burning, red-hot iron just emerging from the fire-pit of a blacksmith, so there is nowhere at all to safely put your foot. Everything is a searing, hot expanse of blazing flames. Fire mountains are ablaze with dark smoke. The bodies of hot hell beings are four times bigger than the bodies of beings from our world. They have very thin and sensitive skin, as sensitive as open eyes, making the slightest touch unbearable. Their hair stands on end, they have triangular eyes, coarse limbs, and their bellies are bloated. If human beings were able to see them, they would likely fall unconscious from shock. Because the suffering in the hot hell realms is so intense, they are tormented day and night. They never find rest during the day or sleep during the night. A constant rain of hot ashes descends on their bodies and burns them from top to bottom. Their suffering is so overpowering that they do not have the slightest opportunity for happiness. The lifespan of hot hell beings lasts for one intermediate aeon and cannot be counted in years. Contemplate the conditions and sufferings in each of the eight hot hells [tsha dmal brgyad]: (1) the reviving hell [yang sos], (2) the black-line hell [thig nag], (3) the rounding-up and crushing hell [bsdus joms], (4) the howling hell [ngu bod], (5) the great howling hell [ngu bod chen po], (6) the heating hell [tsha ba], (7) the intense heating hell [rab tu tsha ba], and (8) the hell of ultimate torment [mnar med pa]. Read the description in the Words of My Perfect T eacher and imagine that you have taken rebirth in these places. Know that ignorance and aggression are the cause for accumulating the karma to take rebirth in these places. Know that all the frightening perceptions and sufferings are nothing other than the result of ignorance and aggression. Consider whether or not you have the opportunity to practice the dharma in such horrible places of rebirth. Practice visualizing all the details of these places until you can really feel the intensity of the suffering in your mind. Know that an inconceivable number of beings suffer unimaginable pain and misery in these places. Experience in your own mind their pain and misery. If you train in this manner, the unbearable suffering will exhaust your mind. When this occurs, bring to mind that all these perceptions are nothing other than the perceptions of your mind. Understand that the perception of the hell realms lacks from the very beginning any reality and is a deluded perception. In the same way, all phenomena of both samsara and nirvana are completely devoid of any self-nature. Know that the causes for these horrible percep-

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tions are ignorance and aggression, which lead to such deluded perceptions. All of this is merely a perception of dualistic mind [sems kyi snang ba] and not a perception of wisdom [ye shes kyi snang ba]. There is no hell or perception of hell outside the mind. With this understanding of the illusory nature of phenomena, rest a while in the recognition of the natural state. Then, when thoughts arise, return to the same topic you have been contemplating, or move to the next topic, the eight cold hells. You have three-days time to contemplate all eight unfortunate conditions. Spend the early morning session contemplating (1) being born in the hell realms and (2) being born among the hungry ghosts. During the mid-morning session, contemplate (3) being born in the animal realm and (4) among the long-living gods. During the afternoon session, contemplate (5) being born in a land of barbarians and (6) being born in a land of those with wrong views. In the evening session, contemplate (7) being born when a buddha has not come and (8) being born as a mute retard. In this manner, you cover all eight contemplations in the course of one retreat day. Train in this way for three full days. Next, contemplate the eight cold hells. The environment in the cold hells is entirely composed of snow mountains and glaciers, continuously enveloped in snowy blizzards. The bodies of the beings in the cold hells are similar to the bodies of those in the hot hells. For beings born in the cold hells, the suffering is that of intense cold, and their lifespan is unfathomably long. The eight cold hells [grang dmyal brgyad] are (1) the hell of blisters [chu bur can], (2) the hell of bust blisters [chu bur rdol ba can], (3) the hell of clenched teeth [so tham tham pa], (4) the hell of lamentations [a chu chu zer ba], (5) the hell of groans [kyi hud zer], (6) the hell of utpal-like cracks [utpal ltar gas pa], (7) the hell of lotus-like cracks [pad ma ltar gas pa], and (8) the hell of great lotus-like cracks [pad ma chen po ltar gas pa]. Imagine that you have taken rebirth in these places and experience the particular sufferings of the eight cold hells in your mind. Consider whether or not you have the opportunity to practice the dharma in these places. When analyzing and imagining the conditions of these places, you may become tired and unable to continue with this practice. At that point, understand the illusory nature of these perceptions. Do not pursue past thoughts, invite future thoughts, nor link your mind to any present thoughts. Leave your mind in uncontrived naturalness and thus practice resting in equanimity. When thoughts begin to stir again in your mind, resume the analytic contemplation and visualization of this or the next topic. If you are unable to continue and your mind becomes tired again, rest in the same manner as just described. In this fashion, alternate [res mos byed pa/spel ma byed pa] between analytic contemplation and resting in equanimity. Next, contemplate the unfortunate conditions in the neighboring hells [nye khor ba] and in the temporary hells [nyi tshe ba], as outlined in the Words

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of My Perfect T eacher. In actuality, there are an infinite number of hell realms. The Words of My Perfect T eacher only gives a general outline of the circumstances of these miserable rebirths, but there are infinite variations on these hell realms and their particular sufferings. Every mind that is infused with ignorance and aggression forms the causes for rebirth in a particular hell realm. These circumstances and sufferings are beyond number and count. This completes the contemplation on the first of the eight unfortunate conditions. Second, contemplate being born among the pretas. The environment of the pretas is full of hot ashes, fire pits, poisonous bushes, and dried-out river beds. Their bodies are thin, with fragile bones and hardly any flesh. They have tiny heads, their throats are as thin as a horses hair, and their bellies are as big as a valley. The suffering of the pretas is in seeing many fruit-bearing trees, but which disappear whenever they get close. They perceive a big lake with waves and foam moving on its surface, but when they get close the water has dried up. They feel miserable and experience tremendous suffering. In the individual perception of the pretas, their world is real and solid. This is the particular suffering of the preta realm. Their lifespan may last up to 10,000 human years. The entire experience of the preta world is the result of stinginess [ser sna]. There are two types of pretas: those who live collectively [bying la gnas pai yi dvags] and those who move through space. Pretas who live collectively suffer from external obscurations [phyii sgrib pa can], internal obscurations [nang gi sgrib pa can], and specific obscurations [sgos khur gyi sgrib pa can]. For details on these different kinds of pretas, read the respective passages from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. Imagine that you have taken rebirth in the preta realm and consider whether or not you have the opportunity to practice the dharma. Alternate again between analytic contemplation and resting in equanimity. Third, contemplate being born as an animal. The environment of most animals is an atmosphere of pitch-black darkness, so dark that they cannot perceive their own arms, whether outstretched or bent. They may have the bodies of fishes, crocodiles, etc., and may reach sizes so big that they can coil their bodies three times around Mount Sumeru. They may have bodies as tiny as a particle or the tip of a needle. Their suffering is the suffering of stupidity, not knowing what to do or not do. In particular, the bigger animals eat the smaller ones, while very tiny ones live inside bigger animals, feeding on their bodies. All animals experience the suffering of the fear of being eaten by one another. Animals are classified into two categories: those living in the depths [bying la gnas pa] and those scattered in different places [kha thor ba]. For details, read again the respective sections in the Words of My Perfect T eacher. Khenpo Ngagchung Rinpoches Notes [zin bris] are based on the teachings

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he received from his own root guru, Lungtog T enpey Nyima. These notes contain all the necessary key points that Paltrl Rinpoche did not include in the Words of My Perfect T eacher. Understand that all beings are born into the six realms as a result of accumulating the karma of one of the six afflictive emotions. Anger [zhe sdang] is the main cause for taking rebirth in the hell realm; stinginess [ser sna] leads to rebirth in the realm of the hungry ghosts, the preta realm; and stupidity [gti mug] results in rebirth in the animal realm. Desire [dod chags] is the major cause for rebirth in the human realm; jealousy [phrag dog] is the force that hurls one into birth among the asura demi-gods; and when pride [nga rgyal] dominates, it leads to rebirth in the realm of the gods. These are the six karmic perceptions [las snang drug] experienced by sentient beings, and in each realm beings experience their own unique type of suffering. Bring to mind that you have gained the precious human body and have met the precious dharma and a sublime master. You have received the teachings and have the opportunity to practice day and night, and you are in a unique position to generate bodhicitta. Thus, form the resolve: I will practice the dharma in order to liberate all mother-like sentient beings of the six realms from their particular suffering and establish them on the level of perfect enlightenment. The essence of the dualistic mind [sems kyi ngo bo] is the natural state [gnas lugs]. Within the realization of the natural state, neither samsara nor nirvana has any self-nature, any true existence whatsoever. Rest in the recognition of the natural state, free from thoughts of the three times, past, present and future. Relax within that recognition and refrain from all analytic contemplation of the conditions of the three lower realms of samsara. Resting in the recognition of the natural state is, in fact, the main practice. Further, understand that all karmic perceptions of the six realms of samsara are experienced as a tangible reality for all the beings born there. Humans experience the human world as solid and real. But, in actuality, all experiences of all the six realms, including their sufferings, are no more real than a dream. They appear, but they lack true existence. Once we humans have acquired a human body, we have also acquired the causes for old age, sickness and death. This is the way the human world is perceived. But, in actuality, on the ultimate level, there is nothing there to begin with [ye nas grub ma myong]. When you practice alternating between the analytic contemplations of the eight unfortunate conditions and resting in equanimity, renunciation [nges byung] naturally arises in your mind, as you clearly see that all of samsara has the nature of suffering. You naturally develop the wish to enter the path toward enlightenment to reach liberation [thar pa] and omniscience [thams cad mkhyen pa] for the sake of all sentient beings. Devotion and faith toward your root guru also naturally arise, and eventually you recognize the essence

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of your mind. In addition, you gain extraordinary confidence in the oral instructions of your root guru. Fourth, contemplate being born as a long-living god. The environment of a long-living god is experienced as one of the four dhyana states. Their bodies manifest as a samadhi-body. They lack the ability to distinguish between happiness and suffering, virtue and negative deeds, and live in a state similar to deep sleep. They have neither physical nor mental sensation and are in a state of cessation. As they are free of concepts, they may live for eight great aeons, but they are totally separated from the sublime dharma, so they never have the chance to practice the dharma. Imagine that you have taken rebirth in such a state and consider whether or not you have the opportunity to practice the dharma. Thus, contemplate on the four unfortunate conditions of the non-humans and gain certainty in your own mind about the actual conditions and sufferings in these states. Now you will begin the contemplations on the four unfortunate conditions of the humans [mii mi khom pa bzhi], numbers five through eight of the eight unfortunate conditions. Fifth, contemplate being born in a land of barbarians. Barbarians are primitive or savage human beings who have no knowledge of how to distinguish between virtue and negative deeds. Such people make offerings to spirits and demons with the blood of animals, and they believe that taking life is something good. Sixth, contemplate being born in a land of those with wrong views. This refers to human beings born in a land where the general world view is either eternalism or nihilism. Eternalists believe that the entire universe is created by an almighty god. Nihilists do not believe in the law of karma, in past and future lives, in enlightenment, and so forth. Such views prevent beings from meeting the genuine dharma. Seventh, contemplate being born when no buddha has come. Being born in a time when there is no buddha is considered a dark aeon. In a universe when no buddha has appeared, no one has ever heard of the Three Jewels, so no dharma practice is possible. Eighth, contemplate being born as a retarded person. A retarded person is someone with a speech dysfunction [ngag lkugs pa] or a mental disability [yid lkugs pa]. A person who is born in such a condition is someone whose mind is not functioning properly [rang rgyud las su ma rungs pa] and therefore cannot properly listen, contemplate or teach the dharma. A person born with a mental disability cannot properly comprehend the dharma. In both cases, one is deprived of the opportunity to practice the dharma.

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Think carefully about these states and the kind of karma that causes rebirth in these conditions. Read all the details about these conditions in the Words of My Perfect T eacher and imagine that you have taken rebirth in these situations. Consider whether or not you have the opportunity to practice the dharma. Thus, contemplate the eight unfortunate conditions for three days. Meditate on the fact that you are extremely fortunate not to have taken rebirth in any of these eight conditions. Develop joy about your present situation and understand that freedom from these eight unfortunate conditions is the result of the good karma you have accumulated in previous lifetimes. Make the firm resolve that you will make the best use of your present human rebirth, which is endowed with these eight freedoms, and practice the dharma diligently. If you are unaware of the fact that you are endowed with the eight freedoms and the ten advantages, you are like a beggar who lives poorly although a huge treasure is buried under his doorstep. The reason for contemplating the eight freedoms and the ten advantages is to inspire you to practice the dharma day and night and not let this precious opportunity go to waste. If you truly have understood the preciousness of the human rebirth, endowed with the eight freedoms and ten advantages, you will no longer by able to spend your days in laziness and distraction. Understand that this precious situation is very fragile and you could lose it any moment due to impermanence [mi rtag pa]. You cannot even be sure if you will live to see tomorrow. Understand that death is not the end of all; rather, through the experience of death, the force of your former karma pushes you onward. Your positive deeds lead to positive results and your negative deeds to negative results. Thus you understand the law of karma, of cause and result [las rgyu bras]. Through contemplating the topics of this mind-training, you recognize that all places within the six realms of samsara have the nature of suffering. Thus, you understand the disadvantages of samsara [khor bai nyes dmigs]. By contemplating the benefits of liberation [thar pai phan yon], you generate the wish to attain the state of liberation and omniscience. But, you also realize that without a realized master you will not know how to get there. Therefore, you must rely on a spiritual friend [bshes gnyen bsten pa], a realized master. You must learn how to please a true master in the three-fold way [mnyes pa gsum] and know how to interpret his intentions and conduct [dgongs spyod]. Finally, you must understand that the direct path to enlightenment is to mingle the realized mind of your root guru with your own mind. Once the stream of his blessing has been infused in your mind, realization of the natural state will be born from within. This is the ultimate reason for practicing these preliminary practices. By alternating between these contemplations and resting in equanimity your mind becomes pliable and can then be directed onto any topic you wish. You

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will be able to rest free from thoughts, without suppressing them. You will naturally arrive at some experience of shamatha and vipashyana. While other traditions teach specific instructions for shamatha, the various techniques to cultivate calm abiding, in the Longchen Nyingthig tradition, you automatically gain some experience of shamatha and vipashyana while practicing the 100 days of mind-training. Only through this kind of mind-training can true understanding of the dharma be born in your mind. Only through such mind-training will the dharma and your mind fuse into one and cause your mind to be transformed. This fusion of mind and dharma is the special feature of the Longchen Nyingthig preliminaries, as Jigme Lingpa intended. Ending Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher At the end of the mind-training session, when you have completed the contemplations on the topic of the day, recite the stanza from the end of the section on the freedoms and advantages in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Although I have won these freedoms, I am poor in dharma, which is their essence. Although I have entered into the dharma, I waste time doing other things. Bless me and foolish beings like me That we may attain the very essence of the freedoms and advantages. dal ba thob kyang snying poi chos kyis dbul chos sgor zhugs kyang chos min spyod pas g.yengs bdag dang bdag dra rmongs pai sems can rnams dal byor snying po lon par byin gyis rlobs Closing Supplications While contemplating the sufferings of samsara, compassion will naturally arise in your mind. Then, recite these supplications from the second chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara:
[47] Therefore, I go for refuge from today onward

T the Victor, the protector of beings, o Who strives to shelter all that lives And with great strength eradicates all fear.
[48] Likewise, I go for refuge in a perfect way

T the dharma he has realized o That clears away the fears of samsara,

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And also in the assembly of bodhisattvas.


[49] Panicking with fear, I

Offer myself to Samantabhadra; T Manjushri also o I offer my body.


[50] Also to the protector Avalokiteshvara,

Whose conduct is free from delusion, I let out a mournful cry of lamentation, Please protect me, the most wicked one!
[51] In the noble Akashagarbha,

In Ksitigarbha and In all protectors of great compassion, I seek refuge and cry out in lamentation from my heart.
[52] I go for refuge to Vajrapani,

The sight of whom causes (all) aggressors, Such as the messengers of the Lord of Death, T flee in terror to the four quarters. o
[53] Previously, I ignored your advice.

Now, seeing (clearly) these great fears I go to you for refuge. By doing so please swiftly clear away these fears. Recite these lines for the sake of all sentient beings. Now, recite also the lines from the Lamentation of Rudra [ru drai smre bshags]: Hero, you possess the strength of compassion, And since the karmic residual of previous ties is powerful, Do not be vague, indifferent or indolent, But regard me sincerely, victorious deity of compassion. Also, recite these lines from the Karling Shitro [kar gling zhi khro]: Kyema Kyih! Compassionate Jewels! Since you Victors are endowed with loving compassion, Grant your blessings and liberate myself and others right now From the sufferings of samsaras six realms. With these supplications, you have finished the first two parts of your meditation session.

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(For the Tibetan liturgy of these three supplications, see Chatral Rinpoches Addenda for Retreat in Solitude [ri chos mthsams kyi lhan thabs].) Liturgy Now, recite the remaining liturgy of the preliminaries until the refuge section.

Third Part of the Meditation Session / Days 1-58


Recitation of Refuge Lines For the third and final part of your meditation session, recite the following lines of refuge as much as possible: T the essence of the Three Jewels, the Sugata; and to the Three Roots; o T bodhicitta, the nature of the channels, energies and essences; o And to the mandala of essence, nature and capacity, I go for refuge until (I reach) the heart of enlightenment. While reciting these words, visualize the refuge tree [tshogs shing]. During the course of the 100 days of mind-training, you will complete 100,000 recitations of the stanza of going for refuge. Therefore, keep count of the number of recitations you complete in each session. Concluding Liturgy End the refuge practice with three recitations of the lines for bodhicitta; 21 recitations of the one-hundred-syllable mantra of Vajrasattva and 100 recitations of the short Vajrasattva mantra; three recitations of the mandala offering (skip the Kusuli-Ch practice at this point as you will do it after the evening session [srod thun] according to Chatral Rinpoches liturgy arrangement); 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]; 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]; take the four empowerments; dissolve the visualization; and complete the liturgy. In this way you will always practice the entire preliminary liturgy in each meditation session. The Three Excellences Each practice session must be embraced by the Three Excellences [dam pa rnam pa gsum]. At the beginning of each session, develop bodhicitta, which is the excellent beginning [sbyor ba sems bskyed dam pa]. This is the resolve: I will practice the four contemplations that transform the mind in order to free all sentient beings from suffering and establish them on the level

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of perfect enlightenment. This resolve is called the precious bodhicitta and is absolutely indispensable at the beginning of every session. During the session, practice the instructions as just taught, the analytic contemplations and resting in non-conceptual equanimity. This is the excellent main part, the non-conceptual practice [dngos gzhi dmigs med dam pa]. At the end of the session, dedicate the merit that you have accumulated during your meditation session. This is the excellent conclusion, the dedication [rjes bsngo ba dam pa]. All the merit that springs from meditating on the four contemplations that transform the mind must be dedicated at the end of the session for the sake of all sentient beings. Make the aspiration: I dedicate the merit that I have generated during this session, and the actual merit that I have accumulated throughout the three times, and the non-defiled root of merit of the Victors and their sons, as well as all the defiled merit of all sentient beings, and combine this all into one, in order that all sentient beings may be freed from both the causes and fruitions of suffering and may reach the precious level of perfect buddhahood. As to the manner of dedication, I will dedicate everything exactly like the Victors and their sons dedicated their merit, a dedication that is utterly free from the three spheres [khor gsum yongs dag pai bsngo ba]. At the end of the session, recite the stanza from the Zangch Mlam [bzang spyod smon lam] that begins with Jam-pal Pawo [jam dpal dpa bos.]. Session Evaluation At the end of the meditation session, do not rise hastily [har langs mi byed par], but instead investigate the meditation session, thinking: At the beginning of my session, I formed the resolve to liberate all beings from suffering and establish them on the level of complete enlightenment. Did I really keep this motivation during my entire session, or did I fall under the power of delusion? If your session went well and you did not fall under the power of delusion for one second, you may become overjoyed and proud, but you must let go of your pride. Understand that a good session is just the fruition of merit. Check whether or not your next session goes equally well. At times, you may have a session where you are unable to generate a single virtuous thought, and you become depressed and think, I cannot handle this. If I cannot even practice properly for one session, how can I stay for a long period of time in retreat? On such occasions, you must uplift your heart [sems gzengs bstod] by generating a joyous frame of mind. Think: Well, although it is not excellent that I have fallen under the power of delusion, it is also nothing to get depressed about. From beginningless time until now I have been deluded. It is only just now that I am dividing my time into sessions and session breaks and beginning to meditate. If I would not have fallen under the power of delusion from the very beginning, I would already be

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an enlightened Buddha. I now make the firm resolve not to fall under the power of delusion in my next session. After you have analyzed your session in this manner, gently rise from your meditation seat and engage in the activities of the session break. During the session break, continue to reflect on each of the eight freedoms. An iron rod might be glowing hot while in the fire, but once you take it out of the fire it cools down and turns black again. During your session you may have succeeded in transforming your mind a little bit, but during the session break you may get excited about the entertainments of this worldly life. You may forget to consider the eight freedoms you have obtained, and in this way create the potential danger to slide into a calloused mind [blo dred por chor nyen yod]. (2) For four days contemplate the five individual advantages [rang byor lnga] and the five circumstantial advantages [gzhan byor lnga] Divide each meditation session into three parts [cha gsum]. In the first two parts of the session practice mind-training and in the last part practice going for refuge. Liturgy After you have finished the session preliminaries, recite the preliminary liturgy up through the following text section: (1) T be born human, (2) with all the sense faculties, (3) in a central land, o (4) Not in an extreme karmic predicament, and (5) to have faith in the teachings, Are the five advantages that depend on oneself. (6) T be born when a buddha has come, (7) where the dharma has been o taught, (8) Where the teachings remain and (9) are being followed, and (10) to be accepted by a spiritual friend, Are the five advantages that depend on others. Though I have obtained all of these, This life may be lost due to the uncertainty of many conditions, And I will pass on to the next world. Think of me, Guru (Rinpoche)! Turn my mind toward the dharma! Let me not deviate into any wrong and inferior path!

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Inseparable from the Omniscient Masters (Longchenpa and Jigme Lingpa), kind guru, think of me! When you recite the last three lines of this section, supplicate Guru Rinpoche so that his blessings will turn your mind [blo sna] toward the dharma. Lama Khyen means Guru Rinpoche, think of me! The inferior path [lam dman] refers to the path of Hinayana. Wrong path [lam gol ba] refers to a path that teaches the views of eternalism and nihilism [rtag chad gyi lam]. When reciting the line Inseparable from the Omniscient Masters [kun mkhyen rje], think that your root guru is inseparable from Guru Rinpoche, Longchenpa and Jigme Lingpa. Place your trust and hope exclusively in your root guru. Entrust your body, speech and mind entirely to your root guru. Beginning Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher Now, recite the following stanza from the end of the section on the freedoms and advantages in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Although I have won these freedoms, I am poor in dharma, which is their essence. Although I have entered into the dharma, I waste time doing other things. Bless me and foolish beings like me That we may attain the very essence of the freedoms and advantages. dal ba thob kyang snying poi chos kyis dbul chos sgor zhugs kyang chos min spyod pas g.yengs bdag dang bdag dra rmongs pai sems can rnams dal byor snying po lon par byin gyis rlobs Contemplation Now, practice the contemplation on the 10 advantages. Having only obtained the eight freedoms is not sufficient. If you want to practice the dharma, you must also have the five individual advantages [rang byor lnga], which are the perfect conditions that depend on oneself, and the five circumstantial advantages [gzhan byor lnga], which are the perfect conditions that depend on circumstances. The five individual advantages are (1) to be born human [mir gyur], (2) with all the sense faculties [dbang po tshang], (3) in a central land [yul dbus], (4) not in an extreme karmic predicament [las mtha ma log], and (5) to have faith in the teachings [bstan la dad pa]. The five circumstantial advantages are (1) to be born when a buddha has come [sangs rgyas byon], (2) where the dharma has been taught [chos gsungs], (3) where the teachings remain [bstan pa gnas], (4) when they are

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being followed [de la zhugs], and (5) to be accepted by a spiritual friend [bshes gnyen dam pas zin]. Especially analyze whether or not you actually possess the last two points of both the individual and circumstantial advantages. If not, endeavor to acquire them. What is known as the precious human body requires that the eight freedoms and all 10 advantages are complete. If any of these 18 components are missing, your existence is not considered to be a precious human body. (1) Consider that, among the six realms of samsara, it is only the human realm that is truly conducive to dharma practice. (2) Not to have all your sense faculties intact would be a hindrance to practicing the dharma. For instance, if you have no eyesight, you cannot see the representations of the body, speech and mind, such as statues, scriptures and stupas. If your mental faculties [yid kyi dbang po] are impaired, you may be in a state of confusion that does not allow you to understand and practice the dharma. (3) If you are born in a remote place where the dharma has not spread, you would never have the chance to come to know it. As to what is meant by a central land [yul dbus], one should distinguish between a geographically central land [sa tshigs kyi yul dbus] and a central land in terms of the dharma [chos tshigs kyi yul dbus]. Geographically speaking, the central land is said to be the Vajra Seat of Bodhgaya, India, at the center of Jambudvipa, the Southern Continent [lho dzam bui gling gi yul gyi dbus rgya gar rdo rje gdan], where the thousand Buddhas of this Fortunate Aeon all attained enlightenment there. In terms of dharma, a central land is any land where the dharma has spread. All other countries and regions are considered to be peripheral countries and regions [mtha khob]. (4) If you are born into an extreme karmic predicament [las mtha ma log], such as into a family of butchers and hunters, you become accustomed to killing animals from early childhood onward. Then, it is very difficult for you to generate compassion and abstain from killing sentient beings. (5) If you are born a person who does not have any faith in the teachings of the Buddha, you lack a most important factor among the 10 advantages. Because these five advantages need to be complete with regard to ones own situation, they are called the five individual advantages. (6) If you are born in a time when no buddha has come, then you are born into an aeon of darkness [mun pai bskal pa]. In such a period you do not hear even the mere mention of the terms buddha, dharma and sangha. There is no teacher who can teach you what kind of action you should avoid and what kind of action you should undertake.

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(7) If you are born in a time when a buddha has appeared but has not taught the dharma, then you would be extremely unfortunate. After Buddha Shakyamuni attained enlightenment, he did not teach for 49 days, thinking: I have found a nectar-like dharma Which is profound, peaceful, without complexity, luminous and uncompounded. T whomever I teach it, it will not be understood. o Therefore, I will remain in the forest, without teaching. (8) If you are born in a time when the teachings of the Buddha no longer remain in this world, in a time when the doctrine has died, then you have no chance of practicing the dharma. Presently, this is not yet the case, as the teachings of the Buddha still exist in our world. (9) But, if you do not enter into the teachings of the Buddha, although they still exist in our world, they will not benefit you at all. (10) And, finally, even if you want to enter into the teachings of the Buddha, you need to be accepted by a spiritual friend. Without the help of a spiritual friend and teacher, you cannot truly understand the teachings of the Buddha. Because these last five factors need to be complete with regard to circumstances that do not depend on oneself, they are called the five circumstantial advantages. Contemplate these 10 points and consider whether or not they are all complete in your own life. You must apply these contemplations to yourself. Practice during the first and third sessions the contemplations on the five individual advantages, and during the second and fourth sessions the contemplations on the five circumstantial advantages. Thus, contemplate for four days the five individual advantages and the five circumstantial advantages. Ending Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher At the end of the mind-training session, when you have completed the contemplations on the topic of the day, recite the stanza from the end of the section on the freedoms and advantages in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Although I have won these freedoms, I am poor in dharma, which is their essence. Although I have entered into the dharma, I waste time doing other things. Bless me and foolish beings like me That we may obtain the very essence of the freedoms and advantages. dal ba thob kyang snying poi chos kyis dbul

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chos sgor zhugs kyang chos min spyod pas g.yengs bdag dang bdag dra rmongs pai sems can rnams dal byor snying po lon par byin gyis rlobs Closing Supplications Then, recite the supplications from the second chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara, the lines from the Lamentation of Rudra [ru drai smre bshags], and the lines from the Karling Shitro [kar gling zhi khro], as explained before. With these supplications, you have finished the first two parts of your meditation session. Liturgy Now, recite the remaining liturgy of the preliminaries until the refuge section. Recitation of Refuge Lines Finally, for the last part of your meditation session, recite the lines of refuge as much as possible. Concluding Liturgy End the refuge practice with three recitations of the lines for bodhicitta; 21 recitations of the one-hundred-syllable mantra of Vajrasattva and 100 recitations of the short Vajrasattva mantra; three recitations of the mandala offering (skip the Kusuli-Ch practice at this point as you will do it after the evening session [srod thun] according to Chatral Rinpoches liturgy arrangement); 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]; 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]; take the four empowerments; dissolve the visualization; and complete the liturgy. Always embrace the entire meditation session with the Three Excellences. Session Evaluation At the end of the meditation session, do not rise hastily [har langs mi byed par] but instead investigate the meditation session.

(3) For one day contemplate the examples of the difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [rnyed dkai dpe]

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Divide each meditation session into three parts [cha gsum]. In the first two parts of the session practice mind-training and in the last part practice going for refuge. Liturgy After you have finished the session preliminaries, recite the preliminary liturgy up through the following text section: If I do not make this well-favored basis meaningful now, In the future, I will not regain this basis for attaining liberation. When the merit for the basis of this happy existence has been exhausted, I will wander after death in the lower realms as a lower being. Not knowing how to distinguish between virtue and negativity, I will not even hear the words of the dharma And will not meet a spiritual friendwhat a great misfortune! T think of the numerical comparisons and variety of sentient beings o (Is to realize that) obtaining a human birth is nearly impossible. T see even human beings engaging in wicked deeds, contrary to the dharo ma, (Is to realize that) those who act in accord with the dharma are as rare as a star in the daytime. Think of me, Guru (Rinpoche)! Turn my mind toward the dharma! Let me not deviate into any wrong and inferior path! Inseparable from the Omniscient Masters (Longchenpa and Jigme Lingpa), kind guru, think of me! Beginning Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher Now, recite the following stanza from the end of the section on the freedoms and advantages in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Although I have won these freedoms, I am poor in dharma, which is their essence. Although I have entered into the dharma, I waste time doing other things. Bless me and foolish beings like me That we may attain the very essence of the freedoms and advantages. dal ba thob kyang snying poi chos kyis dbul chos sgor zhugs kyang chos min spyod pas g.yengs bdag dang bdag dra rmongs pai sems can rnams dal byor snying po lon par byin gyis rlobs

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Contemplation At first, contemplate in accordance with the oral instructions [man ngag lugs] the causes that lead to the achievement of the freedoms and advantages. Consider how much virtuous karma you have accumulated in the past as well as in the present, and compare this to the inconceivable negative deeds you have accumulated. Realize how difficult it is just to obtain the eight freedoms [dal ba brgyad], not to mention the 10 advantages [byor ba bcu]. In order to obtain the freedoms, you must maintain pure discipline [tshul khrims]. In order to obtain the advantages, you must gather an enormous accumulation of virtue, such as generosity [sbyin pa] and so forth. Furthermore, in order to obtain the freedoms and advantages, you must embrace your practice with pure aspirations [smon lam]. The discipline, which is the cause for obtaining the freedoms, consists of the 253 pratimoksha precepts [so so thar pai sdom pa] that set forth what must be avoided [spang bai bslab bya] as well as the 17 bases that must be accomplished [gzhi bcu bdun po]. This discipline for obtaining the freedoms is difficult to maintain. If one considers the discipline of the bodhisattvas, which concerns the 18 root downfalls [rtsa ltung bco brgyad] of the profound view system [zab mo lta srol], the two trainings with regard to bodhicitta of aspiration and application [smon jug gi bslab bya gnyis], and the subsidiary 80 defects [yan lag gi nyes byas brgyad cu po], then these are even more difficult to maintain. If one considers the discipline of the bodhisattvas with regard to the root downfalls of the vast practice [rgya chen spyod pa], including the four motivations [kun slong bzhi], the eight applications [sbyor ba brgyad], and the 46 subsidiary defects [yan lag gi nyes byas zhe drug], then these are extremely difficult to maintain. One who is able to maintain the Vajrayana discipline for obtaining the freedoms is as rare as a star at daytime. You must be able to keep the samayas of body, speech and mind, the 25 branch samayas, the four Dzogchen samayas of non-existence [med pa], all-pervasiveness [phyal ba], singleness [gcig pu] and spontaneous presence [lhun grub], as well as the 100,000 branch samayas. If, through pure discipline, you have gained the cause for obtaining the freedoms, you must still accomplish the cause for obtaining the advantages through practicing generosity. For this, you must make offerings to the Three Jewels and give gifts to the beings of the three lower realms. When you honestly consider to what degree you have offered and given gifts, you find the attainment of the advantages is also very difficult. If you have in fact maintained discipline and practiced generosity, consider whether or not you have embraced these practices with pure aspirations

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[smon lan]. When your practice of virtue, such as discipline and so forth, is embraced by the precious bodhicitta, you will automatically obtain a human body. If you accomplish one single virtuous action [dge ba] while intending to reach the level of the omniscient Buddha, you will automatically obtain the physical body of a human being or celestial god. Reflect carefully on all of this and practice alternating between analytic contemplation and resting in the natural state. It is said, If you want to know what you have done in previous lifetimes, look at your present body. You have obtained this special support, your present body, as a fruition of the merit you have previously accumulated. Also, it is said, If you want to know where you are going in future lifetimes, look at your present deeds. Having thus contemplated the difficulty of obtaining the freedoms and advantages by reflecting on the causes for the freedoms and advantages, you must make proper use [snying po zhig len dgos] of your freedoms and advantages. Making proper use of the freedoms and advantages means to practice the dharma. You are now at a crossroads that either leads to your ascent or descent. You are like someone guiding his horse with the reins: which direction you take is in your hands. If you intend to take hold of happiness, you should practice the sublime dharma. Then, in the second part of your life you will be happier than in the first part of your life. In the bardo you will be happier than in the last part of your life, and in your next life you will be happier than in the bardo. Thus, you traverse from happiness to happiness. By gathering the accumulation of conceptual merit [snang bcas bsod nams kyi tshogs], you will acquire a happy body, that is, you will achieve a level rich in caste [rigs] and qualities. Through the knowledge that realizes egolessness [bdag med rtogs pai shes rab] you will obtain a happy mind; that is, once you have realized the illusory nature of relative truth and the simplicity of absolute truth, you will be freed from the fears of samsaric suffering and become blissful. If you intend to take hold of negativity [sdig pa], which is also in your hands, and you exclusively engage in negativity and non-virtue, then the second part of your life will be worse than the first. The bardo will be worse than the second part of your life. Your rebirth will be worse than the bardo, and in future lifetimes you will wander endlessly from bad to worse existences in the lower realms. Therefore, in addition to having obtained the freedoms and advantages, you must make use of this situation by practicing the dharma. With regard to making use of the freedoms and advantages, a person of lesser capacity [skyes bu chun ngu] understands that the three lower realms have the nature of suffering. So, in order to achieve the status of the higher realms, one gathers merit that arises from keeping the discipline of rejecting

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the 10 non-virtuous actions and practicing the 10 virtuous actions. One gathers the merit that arises from generosity by presenting offerings to the Three Jewels and giving gifts to the unfortunate ones. Although one practices the samadhi of the four dhyanas and the four formless states, which accumulates the merit that arises from unmoving karma [mi g.yo bai las], one is still only making use of the freedoms and advantages in the manner of a person of lesser capacity. Although one is accomplishing the support (body) for the path, one is not truly practicing the essence of the Mahayana path. Therefore, this is not the greater manner of a person of medium or highest capacity. A person of medium capacity [skyes bu bring] practices primarily the training of knowledge [shes rab kyi bslab pa], which is the realization of egolessness, and the practice of the truth of the path [lam bden]. This person also practices the training of discipline and samadhi [tshul khrims dang ting nge dzin gyi bslab pa]. Thus, a person of medium capacity practices the three precious trainings. Although one makes use of the freedoms and advantages in the manner of a person of medium capacity, it is still not the greater manner of a person of highest capacity. A person of highest capacity [skyes bu chen po] makes use of the freedoms and advantages by practicing either the long path of the vehicle with characteristics [ring lam mtshan nyid theg pa] or the short path of Vajrayana [nye lam rdo rje theg pa]. The three outer tantras of Kriya-tantra, Upaya-tantra, and Yoga-tantra constitute the long path. The inner tantras of Maha-yoga, Anu-yoga and Ati-yoga constitute the short path. This person can also practice the swift path of the Great Luminous Perfection [od gsal rdzogs pa chen po]. The person of highest capacity utilizes whichever of these three paths is most suitable to make best use of the freedoms and advantages. In this manner, alternate between analytic contemplation and resting in the natural state. Read the respective section in the Words of My Perfect T eacher that gives examples of how difficult it is to find the freedoms and advantages, and contemplate each example in the same manner as the last session. Concerning the example of the turtle [rus sbal gyi dpe], understand the ocean to be a metaphor for the endless sufferings of the three lower realms, which are as vast and deep as the ocean. The blind turtle is a metaphor for the beings of the three lower realms who lack the vision [mig] to distinguish between what must be accepted and rejected. Also, while the turtles rising to the oceans surface only once every 100 years is very rare, but liberation is even rarer than this. Just as the hole in the yoke is very small, so is the chance to achieve rebirth in the body of a god or a human being. That the yoke is tossed hither and thither by the wind is analogous to our karmic dependency [gzhan dbang can] on virtuous and negative deeds. Consider

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these examples and alternate between analytic contemplation and resting in the natural state. Ending Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher At the end of the mind-training session, when you have completed the contemplations on the topic of the day, recite the stanza from the end of the section on the freedoms and advantages in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Although I have won these freedoms, I am poor in dharma, which is their essence. Although I have entered into the dharma, I waste time doing other things. Bless me and foolish beings like me That we may obtain the very essence of the freedoms and advantages. dal ba thob kyang snying poi chos kyis dbul chos sgor zhugs kyang chos min spyod pas g.yengs bdag dang bdag dra rmongs pai sems can rnams dal byor snying po lon par byin gyis rlobs Closing Supplications Then, recite the supplications from the second chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara, the lines from the Lamentation of Rudra [ru drai smre bshags], and the lines from the Karling Shitro [kar gling zhi khro], as explained before. With these supplications, you have finished the first two parts of your meditation session.

Liturgy Now, recite the remaining liturgy of the preliminaries until the refuge section. Recitation of Refuge Lines Finally, for the last part of your meditation session, recite the lines of refuge as much as possible. Concluding Liturgy End the refuge practice with three recitations of the lines for bodhicitta; 21 recitations of the one-hundred-syllable mantra of Vajrasattva and 100 recitations of the short Vajrasattva mantra; three recitations of the mandala offering (skip the Kusuli-Ch practice at this point as you will do it after the

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evening session [srod thun] according to Chatral Rinpoches liturgy arrangement); 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]; 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]; take the four empowerments; dissolve the visualization; and complete the liturgy. Always embrace the entire meditation session with the Three Excellences. Session Evaluation At the end of the meditation session, do not rise hastily [har langs mi byed par] but instead investigate the meditation session. (4) For one day contemplate the numerical comparisons [grangs kyi khyad par]. Divide each meditation session into three parts [cha gsum]. In the first two parts of the session practice mind-training and in the last part practice going for refuge. Liturgy After you have finished the session preliminaries, recite the preliminary liturgy up through the following text section: If I do not make this well-favored basis meaningful now, In the future, I will not regain this basis for attaining liberation. When the merit for the basis of this happy existence has been exhausted, I will wander after death in the lower realms as a lower being. Not knowing how to distinguish between virtue and negativity, I will not even hear the words of the dharma And will not meet a spiritual friend what a great misfortune! T think of the numerical comparisons and variety of sentient beings o (Is to realize that) obtaining a human birth is nearly impossible. T see even human beings engaging in wicked deeds, contrary to the dharo ma, (Is to realize that) those who act in accord with the dharma are as rare as a star in the daytime. Think of me, Guru (Rinpoche)! Turn my mind toward the dharma! Let me not deviate into any wrong and inferior path! Inseparable from the Omniscient Masters (Longchenpa and Jigme Lingpa), kind guru, think of me!

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Beginning Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher Now, recite the following stanza from the end of the section on the freedoms and advantages in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Although I have won these freedoms, I am poor in dharma, which is their essence. Although I have entered into the dharma, I waste time doing other things. Bless me and foolish beings like me That we may attain the very essence of the freedoms and advantages. dal ba thob kyang snying poi chos kyis dbul chos sgor zhugs kyang chos min spyod pas g.yengs bdag dang bdag dra rmongs pai sems can rnams dal byor snying po lon par byin gyis rlobs Contemplation Read the respective section in the Words of My Perfect T eacher that describes the numerical comparisons showing how difficult it is to find the freedoms and advantages, and contemplate each comparison in the same manner as the last session. Alternate between analytic contemplations and resting in the natural state. Ending Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher At the end of the mind-training session, when you have completed the contemplations on the topic of the day, recite the stanza from the end of the section on the freedoms and advantages in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Although I have won these freedoms, I am poor in dharma, which is their essence. Although I have entered into the dharma, I waste time doing other things. Bless me and foolish beings like me That we may obtain the very essence of the freedoms and advantages. dal ba thob kyang snying poi chos kyis dbul chos sgor zhugs kyang chos min spyod pas g.yengs bdag dang bdag dra rmongs pai sems can rnams dal byor snying po lon par byin gyis rlobs Closing Supplications

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Then, recite the supplications from the second chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara, the lines from the Lamentation of Rudra [ru drai smre bshags], and the lines from the Karling Shitro [kar gling zhi khro], as explained before. With these supplications, you have finished the first two parts of your meditation session. Liturgy Now, recite the remaining liturgy of the preliminaries until the refuge section. Recitation of Refuge Lines Finally, for the last part of your meditation session, recite the lines of refuge as much as possible. Concluding Liturgy End the refuge practice with three recitations of the lines for bodhicitta; 21 recitations of the one-hundred-syllable mantra of Vajrasattva and 100 recitations of the short Vajrasattva mantra; three recitations of the mandala offering (skip the Kusuli-Ch practice at this point as you will do it after the evening session [srod thun] according to Chatral Rinpoches liturgy arrangement); 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]; 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]; take the four empowerments; dissolve the visualization; and complete the liturgy. Always embrace the entire meditation session with the Three Excellences. Session Evaluation At the end of the meditation session, do not rise hastily [har langs mi byed par], but instead investigate the meditation session.

(5) For one day contemplate the eight unfortunate conditions of temporary circumstances [phral byung rkyen gyi mi khom pa brgyad]. Divide each meditation session into three parts [cha gsum]. In the first two parts of the session practice mind-training and in the last part practice going for refuge. Liturgy After you have finished the session preliminaries, recite the preliminary liturgy up through the following text section:

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Though I have reached this jewel island, a human form, A negatively conditioned mind in such a good physical basis Is not a suitable basis for attaining liberation. In particular, (1) to be under the sway of Mara, (2) stirred up by the five poisons, (3) Beset by bad karma, (4) distracted by laziness, (5) Enslaved by others, (6) to resort to dharma as a protection from fear, (7) to pretend to be a practitioner, And (8) to be stupid are the eight unfortunate conditions of temporary circumstances. When these conditions contrary to the dharma befall me, Think of me, Guru (Rinpoche)! Turn my mind toward the dharma! Let me not deviate into any wrong and inferior path! Inseparable from the Omniscient Masters (Longchenpa and Jigme Lingpa), kind guru, think of me! Beginning Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher Now, recite the following stanza from the end of the section on the freedoms and advantages in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Although I have won these freedoms, I am poor in dharma, which is their essence. Although I have entered into the dharma, I waste time doing other things. Bless me and foolish beings like me That we may attain the very essence of the freedoms and advantages. dal ba thob kyang snying poi chos kyis dbul chos sgor zhugs kyang chos min spyod pas g.yengs bdag dang bdag dra rmongs pai sems can rnams dal byor snying po lon par byin gyis rlobs Contemplation The 18 freedoms and advantages can be compared to 18 sheep, and the eight unfortunate conditions of temporary circumstances can be compared to a wolf. If the wolf manages to kill just one sheep, all 18 freedoms and advantages are no longer complete, and you are no longer in possession of the precious human body. T oday, you might be free from the eight unfortunate conditions of temporary circumstances, but tomorrow they might attack your mind. They might not have attacked you in your last session, but could very well attack you in your next session. They might be absent at the beginning of your current session, but when you reach the end of the session, you

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may find they have already taken hold of your mind. Therefore, you must carefully examine whether or not any of these eight unfortunate conditions of temporary circumstances are present in your mind and know the respective antidote to each of them. The eight unfortunate conditions of temporary circumstances can hit you at any moment. You must be able to recognize these conditions and deal with them in the proper manner. (1) If you are under the sway of Mara [bdud kyis zin] you have been following a Mara-like false teacher who has been teaching the wrong view and the wrong conduct. Check carefully whether or not your teacher is a genuine master. It is not important whether he is endowed with magical powers, higher perceptions and the like, but rather whether his mind is endowed with the precious bodhicitta. If the teacher is endowed with bodhicitta, you will have a meaningful teacher-student connection, so you should cultivate appreciative joy about your situation. If he lacks bodhicitta, he is a Mara-teacher or a Mara-friend, and you should leave him. If possible, separate in a peaceful manner from a false teacher. If a separation on peaceful terms is not possible, just walk away from him. (2) If you are stirred up by the five poisons [dug lnga khrugs], practice the respective antidote. The antidote to desire [dod chags] is the contemplation on ugliness [mi sdug pa]. The antidote to anger [zhe sdang] is loving-kindness [byams pa]. The antidote to stupidity [gti mug] is the analytic meditation through which you distinguish the elements [khams]. Sometimes mind poisons can be so strong that the student simply cannot sit down and practice the dharma. (3) If you are beset by bad karma [las ngan thog tu babs], you fail to develop any of the right qualities in your mind. The backlog of your negative karma is so overwhelming that you lose confidence in the dharma. Some practitioners get severely sick or depressed and lose the heart to continue to practice. Based on the ripening of their own negative karma, they feel overwhelmed and give up the dharma. For example, as a beginner you may meet a teacher, study under him, and practice meditation. Then, suddenly and unexpectedly, obstacles arise and you think, I should not have these kinds of obstacles. When circumstances arise as obstacles, you must be prepared to deal with them since you may experience severe obstacles in the course of your dharma practice. As it is said in the Vajrachedika [rdo rje gcod pa]: A bodhisattva who practices the perfection of transcendental knowledge might be tormented by extreme tortures. At that time, practice the antidote for these obstacles by generating confidence in the unfailing law of karma, cause and effect, and practice remorse with regard to your previous negative actions. (4) If you are distracted by laziness [le los g.yengs], although you might feel inclined toward the dharma, you procrastinate engaging in practice. The antidote to laziness is to take the contemplation on death and impermanence

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to heart and endeavor in constant [rtag sbyor] and respectful [gus sbyor] diligence [brtson grus]. (5) If you are enslaved by others [gzhan khol bran g.yog], as the servant of a lama or a rich person, you have lost your autonomy and the freedom to practice the dharma. The antidote to this situation is to carefully seek a skillful way to set yourself free. (6) If you resort to dharma as a protection from fear [jigs skyobs], you are not practicing with the proper motivation. You only want to avoid the unpleasant aspect of this life. The antidote to this tendency is to practice pure renunciation [nges byung] and pure bodhicitta [byang chub sems]. (7) If you pretend to be a practitioner [chos ltar bcos pa], you are trying to win possessions, services and prestige through the pretense of dharma. The antidote to this tendency is to clearly understand the defects of a worldly motivation and livelihood. (8) If you are stupid and dumb [blun rmongs], although you may study, you cannot understand the teachings; although you contemplate them, you dont understand the meaning, and although you meditate, no realization is born. This is a sign that you have accumulated a great amount of negative deeds [sdig pa] and obscurations [sgrib pa] in former lifetimes. If this is the case, offer confessions that have all four powers complete. Since each of the eight close sons, which are the eight great bodhisattvas, have their own individual bodhicitta aspirations and individual activities, in particular you should supplicate Manjushri, the deity through which you can develop knowledge [shes rab bskyed pai lha]. Read the respective section in the Words of My Perfect T eacher that explains the eight unfortunate conditions of temporary circumstances. Consider whether or not you are beset by any of these conditions. If you detect the slightest trace of any one of these eight unfortunate conditions, rid your mind of these defects. Contemplate each unfortunate condition, alternating between analytic contemplations and resting in the natural state. Ending Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher At the end of the mind-training session, when you have completed the contemplations on the topic of the day, recite the stanza from the end of the section on the freedoms and advantages in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Although I have won these freedoms, I am poor in dharma, which is their essence. Although I have entered into the dharma, I waste time doing other things. Bless me and foolish beings like me That we may obtain the very essence of the freedoms and advantages.

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dal ba thob kyang snying poi chos kyis dbul chos sgor zhugs kyang chos min spyod pas g.yengs bdag dang bdag dra rmongs pai sems can rnams dal byor snying po lon par byin gyis rlobs

Closing Supplications Then, recite the supplications from the second chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara, the lines from the Lamentation of Rudra [ru drai smre bshags], and the lines from the Karling Shitro [kar gling zhi khro], as explained before. With these supplications, you have finished the first two parts of your meditation session. Liturgy Now, recite the remaining liturgy of the preliminaries until the refuge section. Recitation of Refuge Lines Finally, for the last part of your meditation session, recite the lines of refuge as much as possible. Concluding Liturgy End the refuge practice with three recitations of the lines for bodhicitta; 21 recitations of the one-hundred-syllable mantra of Vajrasattva and 100 recitations of the short Vajrasattva mantra; three recitations of the mandala offering (skip the Kusuli-Ch practice at this point as you will do it after the evening session [srod thun] according to Chatral Rinpoches liturgy arrangement); 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]; 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]; take the four empowerments; dissolve the visualization; and complete the liturgy. Always embrace the entire meditation session with the Three Excellences. Session Evaluation At the end of the meditation session, do not rise hastily [har langs mi byed par], but instead investigate the meditation session.

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(6) For one day contemplate the eight unfortunate conditions that disconnect the mind [ris chad blo yi mi khom pa brgyad]. Divide each meditation session into three parts [cha gsum]. In the first two parts of the session practice mind-training and in the last part practice going for refuge.

Liturgy After you have finished the session preliminaries, recite the preliminary liturgy up through the following text section: (1) T have little weariness, (2) to lack the richness of faith, o (3) T be bound by the lasso of desire and craving, (4) to be prone to coarse o behavior, (5) Not to shy away from non-virtue and negativity, (6) to live in an extreme karmic predicament, (7) T violate ones precepts, and (8) to break ones samayas o Are the eight unfortunate conditions that disconnect the mind. When these conditions contrary to the dharma befall me, Think of me, Guru (Rinpoche)! Turn my mind toward the dharma! Let me not deviate into any wrong and inferior path! Inseparable from the Omniscient Masters (Longchenpa and Jigme Lingpa), kind guru, think of me! The term disconnect [ris chad] implies that the mind [rang gi rgyud] is separated [so sor bral ba] from the path to liberation [thar pa] and the path to omniscience [thams cad mkhyen pa]. When any of these eight unfortunate conditions arises, the sprout of liberation and the three types of bodhi [byang chub gsum] have dried up. Because you are disconnected from the affinity with liberation [thar pai rigs], the term is also explained as disconnected from affinity [rigs chad]. Beginning Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher Now, recite the following stanza from the end of the section on the freedoms and advantages in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Although I have won these freedoms, I am poor in dharma, which is their essence.

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Although I have entered into the dharma, I waste time doing other things. Bless me and foolish beings like me That we may attain the very essence of the freedoms and advantages. dal ba thob kyang snying poi chos kyis dbul chos sgor zhugs kyang chos min spyod pas g.yengs bdag dang bdag dra rmongs pai sems can rnams dal byor snying po lon par byin gyis rlobs Contemplation If any of these eight unfortunate conditions that disconnect the mind from the dharma arises, you have destroyed the precious human body, endowed with the 18 freedoms and advantages. Consider whether or not you truly have all the aspects of the precious human rebirth complete. If you find in yourself any of the eight unfortunate conditions that disconnect the mind from the dharma, practice the respective antidote: (1) If you have little weariness [skyo shas chung ba] toward samsara, contemplate the defects of the three realms of samsara and generate a mindset of renunciation [nges byung]. When you clearly see the sufferings of the beings in the six realms, weariness [skyo shas] or sadness [sems pham pa] will naturally arise in your mind, and you will naturally develop the wish to become free from the sufferings of samsara. The wish to be free [bral dod kyi blo] from suffering is called renunciation [nges byung]. Renunciation also includes the wish to enter into the practice of the dharma. (2) If you lack the richness of faith [dad pai nor dang bral ba], you must practice the antidote to faithlessness. Contemplate the qualities of the dharma and the teacher and gain an irrevocable faith [phyir mi ldog pai dad pa]. (3) If you are bound by the lasso of desire and craving [dod sreg zhags pas bcings] and have strong attachments to samsara, contemplate the defects of the four ends of impermanence [mi rtag mtha bzhi]: The end of birth is death [skyes pai mtha ma chi ba]; The end of hording is dispersion [bsags pai mtha ma dzad pa]; The end of gathering is separation [dus pai mtha ma bral ba]; The end of elevation is downfall [mtho bai mtha ma lhung ba]. (4) If you are prone to coarse behavior [kun spyod rtsub/kun spyod ngang pa], you are beyond salvation. Even a genuine spiritual teacher would find it very difficult to set you on the noble path. There is no antidote to coarse behavior.

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(5) Some people do not shy away from non-virtue and negativity [mi dge sdig la mi dzem] but instead take pleasure in harmful and negative actions. They lack any noble qualities and have turned away from the dharma. (6) T live in an extreme karmic predicament [las mtha log] refers to rebirth o in a family of butchers or hunters, which accustoms you to killing animals from early childhood onward. (7) If you have violated your precepts [sdom pa nyams], generate remorse and practice confession. When you enter into discipline [tshul khrims] and do not violate your precepts, you are one who has hoisted the victory banner of the Buddhas doctrine and brought down the banner of Mara. If you are one who has hoisted the banner of Mara, make confessions from the bottom of your heart and thus restore your precepts. When you have violated your precepts, make confessions in the proper manner so you can once again hoist the victory banner of the doctrine. If you have violated the precepts of the bodhicitta of aspiration and application, and you confess before the sixth part of your session has passed [thun gyi drug cha las ma das gong du], these violations do not turn into root downfalls [rtsa ltung]. Therefore, you must confess violations before the sixth part of your session has passed. (8) When you have broken your samayas [dam tshig ral ba] and thus violated your Vajrayana precepts [sngags sdom], cultivate bodhicitta as the antidote. All tantric precepts are included within the samayas of body, speech and mind. The samaya of body means not to harm the body of your lama and your vajra brothers and sisters. The samaya of speech means not to contradict the speech of your lama and your vajra brothers and sisters. This also refers to the mantra recitation of your yidam. That is, at best, practice the recitation like the uninterrupted flow of a river. Next best, practice it during the six sessions. At the very least, practice it at the new and full moon days, or at the very minimum, recite the mantras during the great festival of the first months of the new year of the lunar calendar. With regard to the samaya of mind, maintain the ten secrets [gsang ba bcu po] and do not upset the mind of your lama and your vajra brothers and sisters. Read the respective section in the Words of My Perfect T eacher that describe the eight unfortunate conditions that disconnect the mind from the dharma. Consider whether or not any of these conditions has befallen you. If you detect the slightest trace of any one of these eight unfortunate conditions, rid your mind of these defects. Contemplate on each unfortunate condition, alternating between analytic contemplation and resting in the natural state. Ending Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher

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At the end of the mind-training session, when you have completed the contemplations on the topic of the day, recite the stanza from the end of the section on the freedoms and advantages in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Although I have won these freedoms, I am poor in dharma, which is their essence. Although I have entered into the dharma, I waste time doing other things. Bless me and foolish beings like me That we may obtain the very essence of the freedoms and advantages. dal ba thob kyang snying poi chos kyis dbul chos sgor zhugs kyang chos min spyod pas g.yengs bdag dang bdag dra rmongs pai sems can rnams dal byor snying po lon par byin gyis rlobs Closing Supplications Then, recite the supplications from the second chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara, the lines from the Lamentation of Rudra [ru drai smre bshags], and the lines from the Karling Shitro [kar gling zhi khro], as explained before. With these supplications, you have finished the first two parts of your meditation session.

Liturgy Now, recite the remaining liturgy of the preliminaries until the refuge section. Recitation of Refuge Lines Finally, for the last part of your meditation session, recite the lines of refuge as much as possible. Concluding Liturgy End the refuge practice with three recitations of the lines for bodhicitta; 21 recitations of the one-hundred-syllable mantra of Vajrasattva and 100 recitations of the short Vajrasattva mantra; three recitations of the mandala offering (skip the Kusuli-Ch practice at this point as you will do it after the evening session [srod thun] according to Chatral Rinpoches liturgy arrangement); 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]; 100 Bendza Guru mantras in

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conjunction with requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]; take the four empowerments; dissolve the visualization; and complete the liturgy. Always embrace the entire meditation session with the Three Excellences. Session Evaluation At the end of the meditation session, do not rise hastily [har langs mi byed par], but instead investigate the meditation session. Thus, contemplate for 11 days these six instruction segments on the difficulty of finding the freedoms and advantages [dal byor rnyed dkai khrid rkang drug].

Contemplation on the impermanence of life [tshe mi rtag pa] / Days 12-21 (1) One day contemplation on the impermanence of the outer universe [phyi snod jig rten mi rtag tshul] Divide each meditation session into three parts [cha gsum]. In the first two parts of the session practice mind-training and in the last part practice going for refuge. Liturgy After you have finished the session preliminaries, recite the preliminary liturgy up through the following text section: Now we are not tormented by disease and suffering, Nor are we controlled by others through slavery or other means. Therefore, at this time, while having the auspicious coincidence of independence, If we waste these freedoms and riches in a state of idleness [snyoms las], When the time comes that companions, wealth and relatives must be left behind, And even this body that we hold so dear Is taken from its bed to a deserted place And torn apart by wolves, vultures and dogs; At that time, when the fear of the bardo will be very great, Think of me, Guru (Rinpoche)! Turn my mind toward the dharma! Let me not deviate into any wrong and inferior path!

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Inseparable from the Omniscient Masters (Longchenpa and Jigme Lingpa), kind guru, think of me! Beginning Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher Now, recite the following stanza from the beginning of the section on the impermanence of life in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Seeing this threefold world as a fleeting illusion, You have left this lifes concerns behind like spittle in the dust. Practicing hardships, you have followed in the footsteps of the masters of old. Peerless teacher, at your feet I prostrate. srid gsum mi rtag sgyu mai tshul du gzigs tshe dii bya ba bzhag mchil mai thal bzhin bor dka spyad mdzad pas gong mai rjes su snyogs mtshungs med bla mai zhabs la phyag tshal lo Contemplation Because you are subject to impermanence and death, you dont have much time to make use of the precious human birth, endowed with all the freedoms and advantages. At first, contemplate the outer universe as it is described in the Abhidharma. Contemplate how the outer universe develops from the ground upward [mas nas yar chags pa] and how sentient beings develop from the higher realms downward [yas nas mar chags pa]. Contemplate these topics in the same manner as that of the difficulty of obtaining the freedoms and advantages. During the actual session, contemplate the following: Before our world came into being, there was a period at the end of the previous aeon during which everything was a state of empty space for a period of 20 intermediate aeons [bar bskal nyi shu]. This period is called the aeon of emptiness [stong pai bskal pa]. Following this, our world began to develop. First, the deep blue space-mandala developed from the general merit [spyi mthun gyi bsod nams] of all beings of this aeon in the form of the triangular source of dharma [chos byung], which is light blue at its periphery. On top of this, the green wind-mandala in the form of a double-vajra [rgya gram gyi rnam pa] developed, which is dark green at its periphery. On top of this, from the rain that descends from the Cloud of Gold Essence [sprin gser gyi snying po], the round and white water-mandala, which is bright white at its periphery, developed. On top of this, the (yellow and square) earth mandala developed. On top of this, Mount Sumeru with its golden mountains, the four

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continents [gling bzhi], together with the surrounding iron mountain wall, developed. Sentient beings developed from the top downward. That is, from the peak of samsara down to the hell realms, sentient beings gradually descended as their conceptual minds became more and more gross until, finally, the first being was born in hell. This entire process, wherein the universe developed from the bottom upward and sentient beings developed from the top downward, took 20 intermediate aeons. This period is called the aeon of development [chags pai bskal pa]. Next, the aeon of abiding [gnas pai bskal pa] began. In this aeon the lifespan of beings will decrease from countless years to a mere 10 years. During this initial descent, called the initial lengthy decline [ya thog ring mo], the lifespan of beings will fluctuate between 80,000 years and 10 years. Then, after 18 ups and downs [phel grib bco brgyad], the period called the final lengthy ascent [ma thog ring mo] will begin, and the lifespan of beings will increase again up to countless years. The initial lengthy decline, the 18 ups and downs, and the final lengthy ascent together comprise the 20 intermediate cycles [bar bskal] of the aeon of abiding. During the final lengthy ascent, when the age of beings has again reached 80,000, the aeon of destruction [jig pai bskal pa] will begin. During this aeon sentient beings will no longer take rebirth in the hell realms, and those who have already taken rebirth there will gradually exhaust their karma and rise to higher forms of rebirth. Sentient beings who, due to their karma, are destined to take rebirth in the hell realms will take rebirth in the hell realms of other universes. The hell realms will become empty, except for those beings who have committed the five heinous crimes at Bodh Gaya, given up the sublime dharma, or broken their samayas with their tantric vajra-master. Next, the preta realm and the animal realm will gradually become empty. In the human realm, one being will enter into solitude, reach the level of the second dhyana, and exclaim, Alas, the joy and bliss that arises from solitude is such! As a result, all beings will begin to meditate and upon reaching the second dhyana level, will leave the human realm and take rebirth in the luminous environment of the second dhyana level. All beings who have previously attained the first dhyana will progress to the second dhyana level. All the realms below the second dhyana level will be emptied of sentient beings, the rains will stop falling, and all vegetation and forests will dry up. Gradually, seven suns will appear and Mount Sumeru and the four continents, together with the abodes of the gods, will catch fire and turn into a single flame. The fire will begin in the hell realms and ignite the final fire that arises at the end of an aeon [dus mtha me]. Through the power of sentient beings negative karma, this final fire will destroy the fire in the hell realms and the entirety of the hell realms. The moment the avici hell is destroyed, in the blink of an eye, all beings still suffering there will take rebirth in an avici

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hell in another universe. Eventually, the entire universe, including the celestial realms below the second dhyana level, will be consumed by this final fire and be reduced to a single heap of ashes. Then, beings will progress from the second dhyana level to the third and, from the second dhyana level down, a stream of rain will begin to fall from the Cloud of Gold Essence [sprin gser gyi snying po], with raindrops the size of ploughs and yokes. This rain will wash away the heap of ashes. Then, beings will progress from the third dhyana level to the fourth. From below, the cross-vajra of the wind-mandala will spin upward and scatter all the ashes up to the third dhyana until all that remains is one single empty space. This period is called the aeon of destruction and will last 20 intermediate aeons. Then, the period of this single empty space will last for 20 intermediate aeons and is known as the aeon of emptiness [stong pai bskal pa]. The four aeons, the aeon of development [chags pai bskal pa], the aeon of abiding [gnas pai bskal pa], the aeon of destruction [jig pai bskal pa], and the aeon of emptiness [stong pai bskal pa] constitute what is known as one great aeon [bksal chen gcig]. Since each of these four aeons lasts 20 intermediate cycles [bar bskal], one great aeon [bskal chen gcig] consists of 80 intermediate cycles. Thus, meditate on the impermanence of the universe and its inhabitants. Ending Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher At the end of the mind-training session, when you have completed the contemplations on the topic of the day, recite the stanza from the end of the section on the impermanence of life in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Impermanence is obvious, yet I still think things will last. I have reached the gates of old age, yet I still pretend I am young. Bless me and misguided beings like me, That impermanence is born in our minds. mi rtag mngon du gyur kyang rtag par dzin rga bai grong sgor sleb kyang gzhon par rlom bdag dang bdag dra log rtog sems can rnams mi rtag rgyud la skye bar byin gyis rlobs Closing Supplications Then, recite the supplications from the second chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara, the lines from the Lamentation of Rudra [ru drai smre bshags], and the lines from the Karling Shitro [kar gling zhi khro], as explained before. With these supplications, you have finished the first two parts of your meditation session.

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Liturgy Now, recite the remaining liturgy of the preliminaries until the refuge section. Recitation of Refuge Lines Finally, for the last part of your meditation session, recite the lines of refuge as much as possible. Concluding Liturgy End the refuge practice with three recitations of the lines for bodhicitta; 21 recitations of the one-hundred-syllable mantra of Vajrasattva and 100 recitations of the short Vajrasattva mantra; three recitations of the mandala offering (skip the Kusuli-Ch practice at this point as you will do it after the evening session [srod thun] according to Chatral Rinpoches liturgy arrangement); 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]; 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]; take the four empowerments; dissolve the visualization; and complete the liturgy. Always embrace the entire meditation session with the Three Excellences. Session Evaluation At the end of the meditation session, do not rise hastily [har langs mi byed par], but instead investigate the meditation session. (2)Three days contemplation on the impermanence of sentient beings [nang bcud skye gro mi rtag tshul] Divide each meditation session into three parts [cha gsum]. In the first two parts of the session practice mind-training and in the last part practice going for refuge. Liturgy After you have finished the session preliminaries, recite the preliminary liturgy up through the following text section: Now we are not tormented by disease and suffering, Nor are we controlled by others through slavery or other means. Therefore, at this time, while having the auspicious coincidence of independence, If we waste these freedoms and riches in a state of idleness [snyoms las],

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When the time comes that companions, wealth and relatives must be left behind, And even this body that we hold so dear Is taken from its bed to a deserted place And torn apart by wolves, vultures and dogs; At that time, when the fear of the bardo will be very great, Think of me, Guru (Rinpoche)! Turn my mind toward the dharma! Let me not deviate into any wrong and inferior path! Inseparable from the Omniscient Masters (Longchenpa and Jigme Lingpa), kind guru, think of me! Beginning Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher Now, recite the following stanza from the beginning of the section on the impermanence of life in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Seeing this threefold world as a fleeting illusion, You have left this lifes concerns behind like spittle in the dust. Practicing hardships, you have followed in the footsteps of the masters of old. Peerless teacher, at your feet I prostrate. srid gsum mi rtag sgyu mai tshul du gzigs tshe dii bya ba bzhag mchil mai thal bzhin bor dka spyad mdzad pas gong mai rjes su snyogs mtshungs med bla mai zhabs la phyag tshal lo Contemplation Remember that, because you are subject to impermanence and death, you dont have much time to make use of the precious human birth, endowed with all the freedoms and advantages. At first, contemplate the outer universe as it is described in the Abhidharma. Contemplate how the outer universe develops from the ground upward [mas nas yar chags pa] and how sentient beings develop from the higher realms downward [yas nas mar chags pa]. Contemplate this present topic in the same manner as the last one. Think that, just like the outer universe [snod] and its beings [bcud] are impermanent, so is your own body. Your body is the vessel [snod] and your consciousness is the content [bcud] within it. In the life of a human being, the period of conception [chags pa] until birth [btsa ba] is like the aeon of development [chags pa]. The period from youth [byis pa] onward until you reach old age [rga ba] is like the aeon of abiding [gnas pa]. The period from the

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moment you are stricken by illness until you die [chi ba] is like the aeon of destruction [jig pa]. The period when the white element descends [dkar lam] and destroys the water element, when the red element [dmar lam] ascends and destroys the fire element, when they clash together [nag lam] and destroy the wind element, and, as a result you fall unconscious is like the aeon of emptiness [stong pa]. In this way, contemplate during your sessions and session breaks the manner in which the universe and all sentient beings are impermanent, and alternate this contemplation with resting in equanimity. Ending Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher At the end of the mind-training session, when you have completed the contemplations on the topic of the day, recite the stanza from the end of the section on the impermanence of life in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Impermanence is obvious, yet I still think things will last. I have reached the gates of old age, yet I still pretend I am young. Bless me and misguided beings like me, That impermanence is born in our minds. mi rtag mngon du gyur kyang rtag par dzin rga bai grong sgor sleb kyang gzhon par rlom bdag dang bdag dra log rtog sems can rnams mi rtag rgyud la skye bar byin gyis rlobs Closing Supplications Then, recite the supplications from the second chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara, the lines from the Lamentation of Rudra [ru drai smre bshags], and the lines from the Karling Shitro [kar gling zhi khro], as explained before. With these supplications, you have finished the first two parts of your meditation session. Liturgy Now, recite the remaining liturgy of the preliminaries until the refuge section. Recitation of Refuge Lines Finally, for the last part of your meditation session, recite the lines of refuge as much as possible. Concluding Liturgy

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End the refuge practice with three recitations of the lines for bodhicitta; 21 recitations of the one-hundred-syllable mantra of Vajrasattva and 100 recitations of the short Vajrasattva mantra; three recitations of the mandala offering (skip the Kusuli-Ch practice at this point as you will do it after the evening session [srod thun] according to Chatral Rinpoches liturgy arrangement); 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]; 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]; take the four empowerments; dissolve the visualization; and complete the liturgy. Always embrace the entire meditation session with the Three Excellences. Session Evaluation At the end of the meditation session, do not rise hastily [har langs mi byed par], but instead investigate the meditation session.

(3) One day contemplation on the impermanence of sublime beings [dam pai skyes bu mi rtag tshul] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last two segments. Incorporate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher.

(4) One day contemplation on the impermanence of those in positions of power [skye dgui bdag po mi rtag tshul] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Incorporate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (5) Three days contemplation on impermanence by means of various examples and meanings [dpe don sna tshogs la bsam ste mi rtag pa bsgom tshul] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Incorporate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher.

(6) One day contemplation on the uncertainty of the circumstances of death [chi rkyen nges med la bsam ste mi rtag pa bsgom tshul].

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Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Incorporate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. Divide each meditation session into three parts [cha gsum]. In the first two parts of the session practice mind-training and in the last part practice going for refuge. Liturgy After you have finished the session preliminaries, recite the preliminary liturgy up through the following text section: Now we are not tormented by disease and suffering, Nor are we controlled by others through slavery or other means. Therefore, at this time, while having the auspicious coincidence of independence, If we waste these freedoms and riches in a state of idleness [snyoms las], When the time comes that companions, wealth and relatives must be left behind, And even this body that we hold so dear Is taken from its bed to a deserted place And torn apart by wolves, vultures and dogs; At that time, when the fear of the bardo will be very great, Think of me, Guru (Rinpoche)! Turn my mind toward the dharma! Let me not deviate into any wrong and inferior path! Inseparable from the Omniscient Masters (Longchenpa and Jigme Lingpa), kind guru, think of me! Beginning Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher Now, recite the following stanza from the beginning of the section on the impermanence of life in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Seeing this threefold world as a fleeting illusion, You have left this lifes concerns behind like spittle in the dust. Practicing hardships, you have followed in the footsteps of the masters of old. Peerless teacher, at your feet I prostrate. srid gsum mi rtag sgyu mai tshul du gzigs tshe dii bya ba bzhag mchil mai thal bzhin bor dka spyad mdzad pas gong mai rjes su snyogs

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mtshungs med bla mai zhabs la phyag tshal lo Contemplation Reflect on the fact that only your virtuous deeds [dge ba] will benefit you at the moment of death and that your negative deeds [sdig pa] will harm you. Milarepa said, Although negative deeds possess no positive qualities, negative deeds do have a positive quality in that they can by purified through confession. Therefore, confess your negativities. If you lack virtue, then you must now practice virtuous deeds as much as you can. Consider whether or not your mind is governed by virtue or negativity. If you weigh your virtue and negativities at the moment of death and discover that you lack virtue and are endowed with negativities, you will think, Alas, I have failed. I will not fare well. Your eyes will be filled with tears, with your fingernails you will cover your chest with scratch-marks, and while your mind is filled with immense sadness, you will begin the great journey into your next life. Therefore, consider again and again, Wouldnt it be better if I practice now a dharma that will help me at the moment of death? During the sessions and the session breaks, contemplate these three facts: 1) you will certainly die [nges par chi ba], 2) the time of death is uncertain [nam chi nges pa med pa] and, 3) at the time of death nothing can help you [chi bai dus gang gis mi phan pa]. 1) You will certainly die [nges par chi ba]. It is the law of nature that whatever is born must die. Life is running out like the sun setting in the west or like an animal being brought to slaughter. From moment to moment, your life is getting shorter. Whether one is 80 years old or a child who is not yet one year old, both are destined to die since both cannot reach much more than 100 years of age. Although this appears easy to understand, the uncertainty of death is not easily grasped by the mind. 2) The time of death is uncertain [nam chi nges pa med pa]. Although you think, I am young, there is no certainty that you will not die. Although you think, I have gathered perfect conditions, such as food, clothing and so forth, there is no certainty that you will not die. Although you think, I have no sickness, there is no certainty that you will not die. What would it take to have the certainty so that you can think, I will not die? Only if the omniscient Buddha foretold it, saying, For that long you will not die. Or, if you have undefiled higher perceptions such that you really know, For that long I will not die. Or, if you have had a meeting with the Lord of Death on a good day and he told you, For that long I will not come and take you with me. The duration [phen pa] of this life is like an arrow or like a butter lamp. The distance of a arrow-shot depends on the pulling power of a person, and the duration of a butter lamp depends on the amount of butter. You cannot be sure if the butter lamp will run out of butter today, tomorrow, in the first half

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of the month, or in the latter half of the month. Just so is the time of your death uncertain. When your lifespan is finished, you will die. Even the Medicine Buddha has no medicine to give you to prevent death. Even Amitayas, the Buddha of Longevity, has no longevity empowerment to confer upon you that could prolong your life. Even Vajrapani cannot protect you, so you will die. Although it is sometimes possible to prevent death caused by sudden circumstances through doing rituals and virtuous deeds, you can still die prematurely, just as before a butter lamp has run out of butter, it can easily be extinguished by the wind. Sudden circumstances that cause death [glo bur gyi rkyen], such as the 404 different kinds of illnesses [nad rigs bzhi brgya rtsa bzhi], the 80,000 kinds of disease-causing demons [dgon stong phrag brgyad cu], the 360 spirits [ye drog sum brgya drug cu] and so forth, cause unexpected and sudden death. Thus is the lifespan of beings in Jambhudvipa uncertain. Regardless of where you go, you will die. Regardless with whom you associate, you will die. Regardless in which land you live, you will die. Regardless of how much wealth and riches you possess, you will die. Concerning the duration of this life, you dont know if your life will end today; therefore, when you will die is totally uncertain. Even if you have not reached the full length of your potential lifespan, the time of death is uncertain, as you could still die prematurely through sudden circumstances. In this way, contemplate from the depth of your heart over and over again. 3) At the time of death nothing can help you [chi bai dus gang gis mi phan pa]. At the time death, nothing but the sublime dharma will be of help to you. Neither your food, your clothing, your bed, your riches, nor your parents, your relatives, your friends, your beloved ones, nor anyone else will be of any benefit to you. Even if you are the guru of many thousands of monks, at the time of death you will not be able to take a single monk with you. If you are the lord of many hundreds of thousands of subjects, you will not be able to take a single servant with you. Although you might have power over the riches of this world, you will not be able to take a single needle with you. Finally, even your body, maintained with so much care, will be left behind in an empty place, and you must die. You will sleep for the last time in your bed, enjoy your last meal, wear your clothes for the last time, tell your final story, and be surrounded for the last time by your relatives. When the time for dying has come, no one can prevent it, and no one can stay behind. Unable to let go of your relatives, friends and riches, yet unable to care for them any longer, now the time has come for you to embark on the great journey into the next life, naked and with empty hands tucked under your armpits. All the negative deeds you have accumulated to benefit your father, mother, relatives and friends cannot be divided and transferred [mgo bsha

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byed du med par] to anyone else; instead, you must depart alone carrying the burden (of your negative deeds) with you. Also at that time, should you be without any harmful, negative deeds, even if the entire world arises as your enemy, no one can shoot even a single arrow after you. Only the sublime dharma will be of benefit to you. If you cannot even carry as much as a needle with you, although you might own the riches of this world, only the dharma can be your protector [mgon po], your refuge [skyabs], your island [gling], your resort [gnas], your support [dpung gnyen], your vision [snang ba], and your lamp [sgron me]. Therefore, you must practice the dharma now so that it will be beneficial when you die. A person of lesser capacity, motivated by the understanding that the three lower realms are suffering, is thus eager to reach the level of the higher states of the gods and human beings, and so practices meritorious deeds. While this is the specific style of death practice [chi chos grub pa] of a person of lesser capacity, it is not the greater style of death practice of a person of medium capacity or highest capacity. A person of medium capacity, having understood that all existence, the three realms of samsara, is suffering, is motivated by renunciation and wishes to liberate himself alone. Although one might be practicing the three precious trainings [bslab pa rin po che rnam pa gsum], this is the death practice of a person of medium capacity, but not the greater death practice of a person of highest capacity. If a person of highest capacity, motivated by bodhicitta to help others, practices the death practice, such as the long path of the vehicles with characteristics [ring lam mtshan nyid theg pa], or the short path of Vajrayana [nye lam rdo rje theg pa], or the swift path of the Great Luminous Perfection [myur lam od gsal rdzogs pa chen po], then that person practices the perfect death practice, the natural path of a person of highest capacity. From among these, if one practices in particular the perfect death practice, the path of the Great Luminous Perfection, one practices with the two-fold commitment, thinking, I vow to capture the original domain of deathless1 ness during the time between birth and death, and further, I will not slacken in this commitment. In this manner, during your meditation sessions, alternate between analytic contemplation [dpyad sgom] and resting in equanimity [jog sgom]. Ending Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher

[chi med gnug mai btsan sa zin pa zhig mi byed re shi] means I swear I will reach, I rather die that not = dam bca ba]

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At the end of the mind-training session, when you have completed the contemplations on the topic of the day, recite the stanza from the end of the section on the impermanence of life in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Impermanence is obvious, yet I still think things will last. I have reached the gates of old age, yet I still pretend I am young. Bless me and misguided beings like me, That impermanence is born in our minds. mi rtag mngon du gyur kyang rtag par dzin rga bai grong sgor sleb kyang gzhon par rlom bdag dang bdag dra log rtog sems can rnams mi rtag rgyud la skye bar byin gyis rlobs Closing Supplications Then, recite the supplications from the second chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara, the lines from the Lamentation of Rudra [ru drai smre bshags], and the lines from the Karling Shitro [kar gling zhi khro], as explained before. With these supplications, you have finished the first two parts of your meditation session. Liturgy Now, recite the remaining liturgy of the preliminaries until the refuge section. Recitation of Refuge Lines Finally, for the last part of your meditation session, recite the lines of refuge as much as possible. Concluding Liturgy End the refuge practice with three recitations of the lines for bodhicitta; 21 recitations of the one-hundred-syllable mantra of Vajrasattva and 100 recitations of the short Vajrasattva mantra; three recitations of the mandala offering (skip the Kusuli-Ch practice at this point as you will do it after the evening session [srod thun] according to Chatral Rinpoches liturgy arrangement); 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]; 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]; take the four empowerments; dissolve the visualization; and complete the liturgy. Always embrace the entire meditation session with the Three Excellences. Session Evaluation

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At the end of the meditation session, do not rise hastily [har langs mi byed par], but instead investigate the meditation session. NEW STUFF Third, the contemplation on the defects of samsara [khor bai nyes dmigs] (days 22-44) Although death and impermanace will approach us, it will not be like a fire dying or water drying up but instead we will not cease to exist after we die. We will continue to move on and must take a rebirth. After we die we have no where else to go than to the realms of samsara- Therefore, one must con2 template on the defect of samsara [khor bai nyes dmigs]. Samsara [khor ba] consists of the three realms [khams gsum] and its defects are the three types of suffering [sdug bsngal gsum]. Although we have obtained the precious human body endowed with the 18 freedons and advantages, we are under the power of impermanance and death. In this life we are driven by the the suffering of birth, old-age, sickness and death [skye rga na chii sdug bsngal]. The suffering of the bardo awaits us and we end with the suffering of future lifes. When we wake up from the unconscious state during the bardo, we do not realize that we are dead right away. We say to our lamenting relatives I am not dead, I am right here, but they cannot see or hear us. Then we begin to wonder: I am really dead or not? When we check if we caste a shadow in the sun or not, if we leave footprints in the sand or not, if there is a reflection of us in water or not, and we find that none of these are the case, we think: I must be really dead. Becoming scared, we hear four frightening sounds [jigs pai sgra bzhi]: (1) a sound similar to when the great earth shakes for one moment, (2) a sound similar to when the greater world system, the third thousand-fold world sys3 tems [stong gsum gyi stong chen po], is consumed by fires, (3) a sound
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According to India cosmology, one world system consists of the central mountain called Mount Sumeru, the four main continents, the eight subcontinents as well as soon and moon. Our continent is called Jambhudvipa, the Rose-Apple Continent, to the South of Mount Sumeru. On top of Mount Sumeru begin the god realms, which extend higher until to the most subtle realms of god Brahma. One thousand of these world systems is called the first thousand [stong dang po / stong spyi phud] or the realm of the first thousand-fold world systems [stong spyi phud kyi 'jig rten gyi khams]. One thousand of these first thousand world systems is called the second thousand [stong gnyis pa / stong bar ma] or the realm of the second thousand-fold world systems [bar ma'i 'jig rten gyi khams] (one thousand to the power of two). This equals one million [sa ya gcig] single world systems.

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similar to when the (dust of the) greater world system, the third thousandfold world systems is scattered by wind, and (4) a sound similar to when the greater world system, the third thousand-fold world systems, is washed away by water. We also see the three fightening abyses [ya nga bai g.yang sa gsum]: Generally, at that time, within a fussy darkness, (1) as a reflection of ones desire, one perceives wherever one looks, everything as being shimmering red [dmar zing zing ba]; or (2) as a reflection of ones anger, one perceives wherever one looks as being vibrating white [dkar lhang lhang]; and (3) as a reflection of ones stupidity, one perceives wherever one looks as being pulsating black [nag bun bun]. When these perceptions arise, those of pure karma will be invited by the dakas and dakinis and be liberated by going directly upward [yar gyi zang thal du grol ba], while those who have commited heinous karma [mtshams med kyi las] will have visions of henchmen [las mkhan] according to the tantric system or of many servants of the Lord of Death [gshin rjeI skye bo] according ot the sutra system, and will be go directly downward [mar gyi zang thal du gro]. Others will be in the bardo for 49 days, for three or four weeks; just how long is uncertain. If one remains there for 49 days, then for the first half of the time one will see ones body to be ones former body and during the second half as ones future body. If one is to take rebirth in hell, one will have the perception that one is moving about with ones head facing downward. If one is to take rebirth as an animal, one will have the perception as if one is having horns and the perception that one is going about crawling. If one is to take rebirth as a god or a human, one has the perception that one is moving about with ones head facing upward and one has the perception that the light of the sun or the moon is shining on ones body. If one has come to the end of such bardo sufferings, the sufferings of the next life will begin. Though according to other instruction styles one would first explain the instructions karma, cause and effect [las rgyu bras], here we follow what the T athagata has said. When he gave first the teachings on the four noble truths, he said: You must understand suffering [sdug bsngal shes bar bya]. If one is to understand suffering (the first noble truth), one must first receive the instructions on the defects of samsara [khor bai nyes dmigs] and then the instructions on how to overcome origination [kun byung spang par bya], (the second noble truth), which is the instruction on karma, cause and effect. Finally, one concludes with reflecting on the instructions on the benefits of liberation [thar pai phan yon], which is about how to apply the path to ones
One thousand of these second thousand world systems is called the third thousand [stong gsum pa / stong chen po] or the realm of the greater thousand-fold world systems [stong chen po'i 'jig rten gyi khams] or the realm of the greater world system, the third thousand-fold world-systems [stong gsum gyi stong chen po'i 'jig rten gyi khams] (one thousand to the power of three). This equals one billion single world systems ['jig rten bye ba phrag brgya].

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mind [lam rgyud la bsten] and on the instruction of how to rely on a spiritual teachers [bshes gnyen bsten pa]. These two last reflections are suppliments to the path [lam gyi mshams sbyar]. The actual path [lam dngos], (the fourth noble truth), beginning with going for refuge to guru-yoga of the preliminary teachings [sngon gro] until the actualization of cessation, (the third truth), which are the instruction of the main part, the instructions of the Luminous Great Perfection [od gsal rdzogs pa chen po]. This has two instructions: the effortless liberation of the lazy ones through Primordial Purity Cutting Through [ka dag khregs chod] and the liberation with effort of the diligent ones through Spontanous Presence Direct Crossing [lhun grub thod rgal]. (1) Three days contemplation on the general sufferings of samsara [khor bai sdug bsngal spyir bsam pa] Divide each meditation session into three parts [cha gsum]. In the first two parts of the session practice mind-training and in the last part practice going for refuge. Liturgy After you have finished the session preliminaries, recite the preliminary liturgy up through the following text section: The full ripening of my virtuous and negative actions follow after me. In particular, if I go to the hell realms, (1) I will be seared on a ground of molten iron, (2) decapitated by weapons, (3) Ripped apart by saws, and (4) crushed in red-hot hammers. (5) Trapped in iron houses without doors, I will scream. (6) I will be impaled on red-hot spears, (7) boiled in molten iron, And (8) burned in the hottest of fires. This is the set of the eight (hot hells) [tsha dmyal bryad]. Amidst dense mountains of snow and in terrifying gorges of frigid water, I will be blasted by blizzards And lashed by cold winds so that my body Is covered with (1) blisters [chu bur can] and (2) busting blisters [chu bur rdol ba can], And (3) I wail unceasingly [a chu chu zer ba]. I will be racked with unbearable pain, My strength exhausted, I will emit (5) deep gasps [kyi hud zer] like the sick at the point of death, My (4) teeth will clench [so tham tham pa], and (6) my skin will split open [utpal ltar gas pa],

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(7) Exposing the raw flesh underneath [pad ma ltar gas pa], (8) which will split even deeper [pad ma chen po ltar gas pa]. This is the set of the eight (cold) hells [grang dmyal brgyad]. Similarly, on a field of razors, my feet will be cut open, In a forest of swords, my body sliced; I will be caught in swamps of rotting corpses, and also hot ashes from which there is no escape. These are the tortures of the neighboring hells [mnar bai nye khor ba]. There are also the hells of changing qualities [gyur ba can]: Trapped in doors, pillars, stoves, ropes, and so forth And ever exploited these are the temporary hells [nyi tshe ba]. When the causes of those eighteen hells arises, Moods of intense anger [zhe sdang / dmyal ba]- arise, Think of me, Guru (Rinpoche)! Turn my mind toward the dharma! Let me not deviate into any wrong and inferior path! Inseparable from the Omniscient Masters (Longchenpa and Jigme Lingpa), kind guru, think of me! Similarly, in poor and unpleasant lands Not even the words food, drink, and wealth are heard, Nothing can be found to eat or drink for months and years, And the bodies of pretas are emaciated, too weak to stand. The cause that gives rise to those three types is miserliness [ser sna]. Eating one another, with great fear of being killed, Exhausted by exploitation, not knowing what to accept or reject, Animals are tormented by endless suffering. The seed of that is wandering in the darkness of stupidity [gti mug]. Think of me, Guru (Rinpoche)! Turn my mind toward the dharma! Let me not deviate into any wrong and inferior path! Inseparable from the Omniscient Masters (Longchenpa and Jigme Lingpa), kind guru, think of me! Beginning Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher Now, recite the following stanza from the beginning of the section on the impermanence of life in the Words of My Perfect T eacher: Understanding that samsaric activities are pointless, With great compassion, you strive only for the benefit of others.

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Without attachment to samsara or nirvana, you act according to the Mahayana textbooks, Peerless teacher, at your feet I bow. khor bai bzhag snying po med par dgongs snying rje chen pos gzhan don ba zhig gnyer srid zhir ma zhen theg chen gzhung bzhin mdzad mtshungs med bla mai zhabs la phyag tshal lo Contemplation Regarding the contemplation on the defects of samsara, there is a general [spyi] and a particular [bye brag] contemplation about the sufferings of samsara. The general contemplation on the defects of samsara [khor bai sdug bsngal spyir bsam pa] comprises of six points: (1) in which places does one circle; (2) who are the beings that circle; (3) for how long does one circle; (4) in which manner does on circle; (5) through what causes does one circle; and what are the examples for circling. Meditate on these points by alternating between analytic contemplation and resting meditation. For details about these six points see the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. Ending Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher I see that samsara is suffering, but crave it still. I fear the abyss of the lower realms, but continue to do wrong. Bless me and those who have gone astray like me, That we turn our minds away from this life. khor bai sdug bsngal mthong bzhin zhen cing chags ngangroi g.yang la jigs kyang mi dge spyod bdag dang bdag dra lam gol sems can rnams tshe di blo yis thong bar byin gyis rlobs Closing Supplications Then, recite the supplications from the second chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara, the lines from the Lamentation of Rudra [ru drai smre bshags], and the lines from the Karling Shitro [kar gling zhi khro], as explained before. With these supplications, you have finished the first two parts of your meditation session. Liturgy Now, recite the remaining liturgy of the preliminaries until the refuge section.

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Recitation of Refuge Lines Finally, for the last part of your meditation session, recite the lines of refuge as much as possible. Concluding Liturgy End the refuge practice with three recitations of the lines for bodhicitta; 21 recitations of the one-hundred-syllable mantra of Vajrasattva and 100 recitations of the short Vajrasattva mantra; three recitations of the mandala offering (skip the Kusuli-Ch practice at this point as you will do it after the evening session [srod thun] according to Chatral Rinpoches liturgy arrangement); 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]; 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]; take the four empowerments; dissolve the visualization; and complete the liturgy. Always embrace the entire meditation session with the Three Excellences. Session Evaluation At the end of the meditation session, do not rise hastily [har langs mi byed par], but instead investigate the meditation session. Samsaric people are led by happiness and end up miserable [skyid kyis go bzung sdug gis mtha phud], while practitioners are led by suffering and end up happy. Although more than a general contemplation of the sufferings of samsara is actually not necessary, yet, if one has not turned ones mind away from samsara, one must contemplate on the particular defects of samsara. Although one should contemplate the iron masions of the hell realms to have 38 stories, one should know that in general the enumerations of the places and descriptions of the hell realms are inconceivable. For details one should look what is said in the Satipadana sutra [mdo sde dran pa nyer bzhag]. For the contemplation on the defects samsara and on karma, cause and effect, 4 on must again and again consult the Karmaataka [mdo sde las brgya pa], 5 Anusmty-upasthna [dran pa nyer bzhag], and the Pra-pramukha6 avadna-ataka [gang poi rtogs brjod]. When one contemplates the enumerations of suffering, it should not by like watching a spectacle, where persons gets killed. One should rather imagine that oneself has actaully taken rebirth there and is really experiencing all these sufferings.
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Peking Vol. 39-40, No. 1007 Peking Vol 37-38 No. 953 6 Peking Vol. 40, No. 1012

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During these reflections, one should think about the location [gnas], the body [lus rten], the suffering [sdug bsngal], and the lifespan [tshe tshad], just as one did when contemplating the eight freedoms. If during these contemplations a vivid suffering arises in ones mind [sems sdug lhung nge ong ba de], then that is called weariness or sadness [skyo shas]. If one gives rise to the wish to be liberated from this weariness, then that is called renunciation [nges byung]. In general, the causes for taking rebirth in the hell realm are the accumulation of the ten heavy negative actions [mi dge ba bcu ka chen po], which are inspired by the three mind-poisons [dug gsum]. Yet, the main cause is killing, inspired by anger [zhe sdang]. Because one has accumulated that kind of karma since times without beginning and in numbers beyond count, the only antidote to these deeds is confession that has all four powers complete [sto7 bs bzhi tshang bai bshags pa]. Form the firm resolve: From now onward, I will not commit such aggressive deeds again, even if my own life is threatened. Understand that all beings being born in the hell realms are your mothers [mar shes pa]. Remember their kindness towards you [drin dran] and generate that wish to repay their kindness [drin gzo dod kyi rtog pa bskyed]. At this point, your mind should be endowed with four links [brel ba bzhi ldan]: (1) Link your mind to the earnest wish [rang gi sems dun pa dang brel ba], thinking: May they be free from both the causes and the fruition of thus suffering. (2) Then link your mind to the aspiration [rang gi sems smon pa dang brel ba], thinking: Wouldnt it be nice if they were free of suffering. (3) Then link your mind to the resolve [rang gi sems dam bca dang brel ba], thinking: I will free them from all these sufferings. Having made these three links, (4) link your mind to the supplication [rang gi sems gsol debs dang brel], supplicating the Three Jewels, the undeluded refuge, which are free from both the causes and fruition of suffering, thinking: Please free my own mothers, all these beings who live in the hell realms, from all the sufferings, their causes and fruitions. Free them right now, as I am sitting at this very place, at this very spot. Supplicate the Three Jewels with the closing supplication such as the supplications from the second chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara, the lines from the Lamentation of Rudra [ru drai smre bshags], and the lines from the Karling Shitro [kar gling zhi khro], as explained before. Following these instructions, which are according to the system of the Omniscient Longchenpa and Jigme Lingpa, one will naturally let go of ones egotistical motivation [rang dod yid byed kyi bsam pa].
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At this point you should practice the four powers according to the Sutra system [mdo lugs]. For detailed instructions, see Khenpo Kunpal, second chapter of the BCA.

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The the same way contemplate in great detail the location [gnas], the body [lus], the type of suffering [sdug bsngal], and the lifespan [tshe tshad] with regard to each suffering of the six realms of existence. Practice confession [bshags pa], resolve [dam bca ba], knowing all beings to be your mothers [mar shes], rememberring their kindness [drin dran], and so forth. (2) One day contemplation on the eight hot hells [tsha dmyal brgyad], the specific sufferings of the first of the six realms, the hell realm Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (3) One day contemplation on the eight cold hells [grang dmyal brgyad] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (4) One day contemplation on the temporary hells and the neighboring hells, including the sixteen additional hells [nyi tshe ba dang nye khor ba lhag pa bcu drug bcas] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (5) One day contemplation on the pretas who live collectively [yi dvags la bying gnas], the specific sufferings of the second of the six realms, the preta realm Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (6) One day contemplation on the pretas who move through space [mkha la rgyu bai yi dvags] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher.

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(7) One day contemplation on animals who live in the depths [dud gro bying na gnas pa], the specific sufferings of the third of the six realms, the animal realm Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (8) One day contemplation on animals who are scattered in different places [kha thor ba] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (9) One day contemplation on the suffering upon suffering of human beings [mii sdug bsngal gyi sdug bsngal], the specific sufferings of the fourth of the six realms, the human realm Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (10) One day contemplation on the suffering of change [gyur bai sdug bsngal] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (11) One day contemplation on the omnipresent suffering in the making [khyab pa du byed kyi sdug bsngal] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (12) One day contemplation on the suffering of birth [skye bai sdug bsngal] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher.

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(13) One day [zhag gcig] contemplation on the suffering of aging [rga bai sdug bsngal] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (14) One day contemplation on the suffering of sickness [na bai sdug bnsgal] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (15) One day contemplation on the suffering of death [chi bai sdug bsngal] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (16) One day contemplation on the suffering of meeting enemies [dgra sdang ba dang phrad kyis dogs pai sdug bsngal] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (17) One day contemplation on the suffering of losing loved ones [byams pa dang bral gyi dogs pai sdug pa] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (18) One day contemplation on the suffering of encountering what one does not wish to encounter [mi dod pa thog tu babs pai sdug bsngal] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher.

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(19) One day contemplation on the suffering of not getting what one wants [dod pa thog tu mi khel bai sdug bsngal] Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (20) One day contemplation on the suffering of quarreling and fighting of the asuras [lha min thab rtsod gyi sdug bsngal], the specific sufferings of the fifth of the six realms, the asura realm Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. (21) One day contemplation on the suffering of the death, transition and descent of the gods [lha chi pho ba dang lhung bai sdug bsngal], the specific sufferings of the sixth of the six realms, the god realm. Practice this instruction segment by following the same format as the last segment. Read and contemplate the respective sections from the Words of My Perfect T eacher. Thus, contemplate for 23 days the 21 instruction segments that explain the general and specific disadvantages of samsara [khor ba spyi dang bye brag gi nyes dmigs bshad pa khrid rkang nyi shu rtsa gcig].

Fourth, karma, cause and fruition [las rgyu bras]

Concerning the second truth, the Buddha has said: You must overcome orig9 ination.

8 9

See Khenpo Ngagchung Rinpoches Notes, page 99-122. kun byung spong bar bya

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Structure of the Mind-training Sessions [blo sbyong]


1. Session Preliminaries [thun gyi sngon gro] 1. Key Points for the Body [lus gnad] 2. Key Points for the Breath [ngag gnad] 3. Key Points for the Mind [sems gnad] 4. Consecration of Speech [ngag byin gyis brlab pa] (only in the early morning
session) 5. Increasing Mantra [gyur sngags]

6. Calling the Guru from Afar [bla ma rgyang bod] (only in the early morning
session)

7. The Six Lines of Invocation [bzhengs bskul gyi tshig rkang drug] (only in the
early morning session)

8. Supplicating the Guru [bla ma la gsol ba debs pa] 2. First and Second Part of the Meditation Session / Days 1-58: 1. Liturgy: Recite the liturgy of the preliminaries from the beginning up to the
text section you want to emphasize during your session.

2. Beginning Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher: Insert and recite the

stanza that appears at the beginning of the respective section in the Words of My Perfect Teacher. between contemplation and resting in equanimity.

3. Contemplation: Practice the particular topic of your contemplation. Alternate 4. Ending Stanza from Words of My Perfect Teacher: Insert and recite the stan-

za that appears at the end of the respective section in the Words of My Perfect T eacher. the Bodhicharyavatara [spyod jug], the lines from the Lamentation of Rudra [ru drai smre bshags], and the lines from the Karling Shitro [kar gling zhi khro]. tion.

5. Closing Supplications: Recite the supplications from the second chapter of

6. Liturgy: Recite the remaining liturgy of the preliminaries until the refuge sec3. The Third Part of the Meditation Session / Days 1-58: 1. Recitation of Refuge Lines: Recite and count the lines of refuge as much as
possible.

2. Concluding Liturgy: Complete the refuge practice session with three recitations of the lines for bodhicitta; 21 recitations of the one-hundred-syllable mantra of Vajrasattva and 100 recitations of the short Vajrasattva mantra; three recitations of the mandala offering (skip the Kusuli-Ch practice at this point as you will do it after the evening session [srod thun] according to Chatral Rinpoches liturgy arrangement); 100 Bendza Guru mantras in con-

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junction with the supplication to accomplish the siddhis [dngos grub sgrub pa]; 100 Bendza Guru mantras in conjunction with requesting the siddhis [dngos grub bskul ba]; take the four empowerments; dissolve the visualization; and complete the liturgy.

3. Session Evaluation: Before rising from your meditation seat, evaluate your
session.

T be continued: o

***

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***Your mind should be endowed with four connections [brel ba bzhi ldan]: Connect with the earnest wish [dun pa dang brel], connect with the resolve [dam bca dang brel], connect with the supplication [gsol debs dang brel] and connect with the aspiration [smon pa dang brel]. The connection is the earnest wish: Would it not be wonderful if all sentient beings would be free from suffering: The second connection is the firm resolve: I will do that. The third connection is the supplication