]cn-ip² ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\n At´ymJym `àt\m?

Fw. Ipcy³ tXmakv

1876þse ]t{Xmkv ]m{XnbÀ-¡o-knsâ kµÀi-\w-sIm­v amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn\v hyà-ambpw aq¶v
A\p-Iqe LS-I-§Ä e`n-¨p. H¶m-a-Xmbn amÀ amXyqkv A¯m-\m-tkymkv tImS-Xn-IÄ¡v hnt[-b-\mbn.
c­m-a-Xm-bn Xm³ Hcn-¡Â {ian¨p \S-¡msX t]mb ae-¦c Atkm-kn-tb-j³ cq]o-I-cWw ]m{Xn-bÀ¡oknsâ A²y-£-X-bn apf-´p-cp-¯n-bn ae-¦c ]ÅntbmKw IqSn km[n-s¨-Sp-¯p. aq¶m-a-Xmbn ae-¦-cbnse kXyhnizm-kn-I-fpsS A\n-tj-[y-t\-Xmhv Xm\m-sW¶v FÃm I£n-I-sfbpw t_m²y-s¸-Sp-¯m³
km[n-¨p.
]m{Xn-bÀ¡o-knsâ aS-¡-bm-{X-bv¡p-tijw amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn\v t\cn-tS­ {]Xn-k-Ôn-IÄ hfsc
hep-Xm-bn-cp-¶p. amÀ A¯-\m-tkymkv tImS-Xn-IÄ¡v hnt[-b-\m-sb-¦nepw BZn-ap-XÂ tIkp \S-t¯-­nbn-cp-¶p. AXn\p hcp¶ `oa-amb sNe-hn-\pÅ ]Ww DSs\ Is­-t¯-­n-bn-cp-¶p.
]m{Xn-bÀ¡o-knsâ kµÀi\w amÀ Znh-¶m-tkym-kn\v At±-l-¯nsâ i{Xp-Xbpw k¼m-Zn-¨p-sIm-Sp¯p. ]m{Xn-bÀ¡o-kn\v hnt[-b-Xz-¯n-\pÅ DS-¼Sn sImSp-¡m-Xn-cp-¶Xv At±-l-¯nsâ A{]oXn hnfn-¨p-hcp-¯n. ae-¦-c-bpsS kzmX{´yw A]-I-S-s¸-Sp-¯p¶ Hcp tcJ \evIpI amÀ Znh¶m-tkym-kn\v Akm-²yam-bn-cp-¶p. Cu kml-N-cy-¯n sImÃ-¯nsâ sa{Xm-k-\-¯n-ep-]cn ae-¦-c-k-`-bpsS s]mXp-X-eh\mbn
At±-ls¯ AwKo-I-cn-¡m³ ]m{XnbÀ-¡okv hnk-½-Xn-¨p. F¶m 1877þse shfn-b-\mSv kp¶-l-tZmkv
ae-¦c]Ån-tbmKw Zoh-\ym-tkym-kn-t\m-sSm¸w \nev¡p-sa¶v hyà-am-¡n-bn-cp¶p.
Cu kml-N-cy-¯n Xs¶ A\p-k-cn-¡-cp-sX¶v hyà-amb Iev]\ DÅ Bdp \h-sa-{Xm-·m-cpsS
km¶n²yw amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kns\ Bi-¦m-Ip-e-\m-¡n. ]m{Xn-bÀ¡o-kns\ t_mws_-bnÂ\n¶pw bm{Xbm¡n aS-§n-sb-¯nb amÀ Zoh¶m-tkymkv sh«n-¡Â Zb-d-mbn \h-sa-{Xm-·mÀ \S-¯nb 40 Zn\ [ym\¯n-te¡p IS-¶p-sN-¶Xv Cu Bi-¦-I-tfm-sS-bm-Wv.
ae-¦-c-k-`-bpsS CXx-]-cy-´-apÅ Ncn-{X-¯nse Gähpw Ipim-{K-_p-²n-bmb k`m-²y-£-\m-bn-cp¶p ]pent¡m-«n amÀ Zoh¶m-tkymkv A©m-a³. At±-l-¯nsâ \b-Nm-Xpcn sh«n-¡-en kaÀ°-ambn {]tbmKn¨p. amÀ Zoh¶m-tkym-kns\ X§-fpsS tae-²y-£-\mbn AwKo-I-cn-t¡-­-Xnsâ Bh-iy-IX \hsa{Xm·mÀ¡v t_m²y-am-bn. A¯-c-¯n AhÀ k½-Xn¨v amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn\v tcJbpw \evIn. AXn-\p-ti51

j-amWv 1877 Pqsse 11 \v sh«n-¡Â [ym\w ]ncn-ªXpw sa{Xm-·mÀ CS-h-I-`-c-W-¯n-\mbn Xncn-¨-Xpw.

Ahn-sS-h¨v ]m{XnbÀ-¡o-kn-\m \ntcm-[n-¡-s¸« Atkm-kn-tb-j³ tbmKw ]cp-a-e-bn hnfn-¨p-Iq-«p-¶Xn\pw Xocp-am-\-am-bn. Chn-sS-\n-¶mWv ]cn-ip² ]cp-ae Xncp-ta-\n-bqsS `c-W-Imew Bcw-`n-¡p-¶-Xv. apIfn ]dª ]Ým-¯-e-¯n thWw At±-l-¯nsâ kw`m-h-\-Isf hne-bn-cp-¯m-\pw.

]cn-ip² ]cp-ae Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS `c-W-Imew
]cn-ip² ]cp-ae Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS `c-W-Imew 1877 apXÂ 1902 hsc-bpÅ 25 hÀj-§-fm-bn-cp-¶p.

52

CXnÂ

At±-l-¯nsâ ae-¦-c-k`m `c-W-cw-K-¯pÅ kw`m-h-\-Isf s]mXp-k`, `-{Zm-k-\w, -C-S-h-I-]-Ån-IÄ F¶n§s\ aq¶p Xe-§-fn thWw hne-bn-cp-¯m³.

s]mXp-k`
]cn-ip² ]t{Xmkv ]m{XnbÀ-¡okv aS-§n-t¸m-b-tijw 1878 Ipw`w 6\v ae-¦c AtÊm-kn-tb-j³ ]cpae skan-\m-cn-bn IqSn. A`n-\h sa{Xm-·msc I½än sa¼Àam-cmbn AwKo-I-cn-¡p-Ibpw Ahsc hyh-lm53

c-¯n-\pÅ ]Ww kam-l-cn-¡p-¶-Xn\p Npa-X-e-s¸-Sp-¯p-Ibpw sNbvXp.

CXn-\n-S-bn sImÃ-hÀjw 1052

IÀ¡-SIw 2\v amÀ amXyqkv A¯m-\m-tkymkv Imew sNbvXp. ]n³Km-an-bmbn At±lw \nÝ-bn¨ tXmakv
A¯m-\m-tkym-kns\ {]Xn-tNÀ¯v sIm.-h. 1054 Ipw`w 22\v Be-¸pg PnÃm-t¡m-S-Xn-bn amÀ Zoh-¶mtkymkv tIkv ^b sNbvXp. "skan-\m-cn-t¡kv' F¶-dn-b-s¸-Sp¶ Cu hyh-lmcw At±-l-¯n\p ]qÀWambpw A\p-Iq-e-ambn sIm.h. 1064 (1889) anYp\w 30\p Xncp-h-nXmw-IqÀ tdmb tImSXn hn[n-¨p. Cu tIkv
\S-¯n-¸n\v amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv kln¨ _p²n-ap-«p-IÄ ANn-´-\o-b-am-Wv. Xsâ tamXn-chpw Éo_bpw
]e-h«w ]Wbw hbvt¡-­n-h¶ At±-l-¯n-sâ [\-ZuÀe-`y-¯nsâ Bgw kl-Nm-cn-bmb C.-Fw. ^nen¸v
54

hÀWn¨n-«p-­v.

GXm-bmepw Cu bp²-¯n amÀ Zoh¶m-tkymkv A©m-a³ hnPbw t\Sn k`sb kXy-

hn-izm-k-¯n \ne-\nÀ¯n. s{]m«-Ìâ v A\p-`m-hn-IÄ "amÀt¯m½ k`' Fs¶mcp ]pXnb k`-bp-­m¡n
]ncn-ªp-t]m-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
ae-¦c alm-C-S-h-I-bnse Xsâ tae-[n-Imcw Bdp \h sa{Xm-·mcpw AwKo-I-cn-s¨-¦nepw Ah-sc-¡pdn¨v amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn-\p-­m-bn-cp¶ `bw ]qÀW-ambpw AØm-\-¯m-bn-Ã. At´ymJym ]m{Xn-bÀ¡okp-am-cn BZyw ae-¦c I­ hyàn amÀ ]t{Xmkv XrXo-b³ AXns\ Ggp `{Zm-k-\-§-fmbn Xncn-¨Xpw
Bdp ]pXnb sa{Xm-·m-sc-¡qSn hmgn-¨Xpw hyà-amb Dt±-iy-§-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bm-bn-cp-¶p. Xsâ t\cn-«pÅ `c-

CXn-s\-Xnsc ]Ss]mcpXn k`-bpsS kzmX{´yw ]cnc-£n-¡p-I amÀ Zoh¶m-tkymkv A©m-asâ _m²yX Bbn-cp-¶p. ]m{Xn-bÀ¡o-knsâ `mK-¯p-\n-¶pÅ GsXmcp {]tIm-]-\hpw \ho-I-c-W-¡m-cp-ambn \S-¶p-h¶ tIkns\ {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-¡p¶ Ah-Øbm-bn-cp-¶p. 1865þ X\n¡p e`n¨ Øm¯n-t¡m\pw 1876 Atkm-kn-tb-j³ {]kn-Uâp-Øm-\-t¯-¡pÅ sXc-sª-Sp¸pw aXn-bmb 57 tcJ-I-fmbn At±lw IW-¡m-¡n. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS \ne-]mSv XnI¨pw \nÀWm-b-Iam-bn-cp-¶p. tIhew tIkn samgnsIm-Sp-¡pI am{X-aà Xsâ {]hÀ¯\-§-fn ae-¦c sa{Xm-t¸m-eo¯ Adn-tb-­-hbpw A\p-hmZw hmt§-­-hbpw bYm-k-abw Adn-bn-¡p60 Ibpw A\p-hmZw hm§p-Ibpw sNbvX-Xmbn Xncp-a-\-Ênse Iev]-\-I-fnÂ\n¶pw a\-Ên-em-¡mw. BÀ¡pw Iogvhg-§m³ XmXv]-cy-an-Ãm¯ Ipsd ]«-¡mcpw X³Im-cy-km²yw am{Xw t\m¡p¶ AÂamb {]ap-Jcpw At±-l-¯nsâ I£n-bn-ep-­m-bn-cp-¶p. CShI sa{Xm-·m-cpsS \nb-a\w aqew amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-knsâ s]mXp A[n-Imcw CÃm-Xmbn F¶v \ho-I-c-W-¡mÀ hmZw D¶-bn-¡p-I-bpw. C¡m-cy-¯n ].W-¯n³Io-gp-Å-þ-]-c-kv]-c-_-Ô-an-Ãm¯þ Ggp sa{Xm·msc-bmWv ]m{XnbÀ-¡okv cq]-s¸-Sp-¯n-bXv. AtX-k-abwXs¶ Cu samgn ]m{XnbÀ-¡o-knsâ km{am-PyXz taml-§Ä¡v Xncn-¨S . ]cp-ae Xncp-ta-\nsb At±lw GI-]-£o-b-ambn Gev]n-¨-Xp-Xs¶ ]m{Xn-bÀ¡o-knsâ hn`-P\ \nb-a\§sf At±lw hI-sh-¨n-cp-¶nÃsb¶-Xnsâ sXfn-hm-Wv. Hcp]t£ `mhn-bn Cu `{Zm-k-\-§Ä¡v ioa-sa-{Xm-·mÀ ta¸-«-¡m-cmbn \nb-an-¡-s¸-Sm\pw km²y-X-bp­m-bn-cp¶p. 55 Xsâ tkzÑm-[n-]Xy CwKo-X-§Ä¡v Gähpw henb hne-§p-XSn ae-¦c sa{Xmsâ Iogn-epÅ ae-¦-c-k`-bpsS tI{µo-Ir-X-`-cW coXn-bm-sW¶v ]. `oa-amb Hcp kwJy hÀjm-hÀjw dnio-k-bmbn ]ncn-¨-b-bv¡m-\pÅ _m²y-Xbpw Cu sa{Xm-·mÀ¡p-­m-bn-cp-¶p. sImÃw CS-h-I-IÄ ]. \ho-I-c-W-¡m-cp-am-bpÅ tIkv AXnsâ hgn¡v \o§p-t¼mgpw amÀ Zoh¶m-tkymkv A©m-a³ \q¸me-¯n-eqsS \S-¡p-I-bm-bn-cp-¶p.-h. k`sb inYn-eo-I-cn-¡m-\pÅ ]m{Xn-bÀ¡oknsâ `{Zm-k\ hn`-P-\hpw amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv A©m-a³ {]Xn-\n-[m\w sN¿p¶ ae-¦c k`-bpsS XmXv]cy-§fpw X½n Gäp-ap-«Â Dd-¸m-bn-cp-¶p. AX-\p-k-cn¨v FÃm CS-h-I-I-fnepw ae-¦c sa{Xmsâ taÂt\m-«m-[n- Imcw At±lw {]tbm-Kn-¨p-h-¶p. A`n-\h sa{Xm-·m-cn Øm\-XymKw sNbvX tIm\m«v amÀ bqen-tbmkpw 1891 amÀ¨v 9 \v Imew-sNbvX A¼m«v amÀ Iqdn-temkpw {]iv\-§-sfm¶pw D­m-¡n-bn-Ã. ae-¦-csb Ggv kzX{´ CS-h-IIfmbn Xncn-¡p-Ibpw Bdp sa{Xm-·msc hmgn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvX 58 ]m{XnbÀ-¡o-knsâ \S-]-Sn-t]mepw tIkns\ {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-¡p¶ \ne-bn-se-¯n. sIm. CXv tIkn \nÀWm-b-I-kzm-[o\w sNep-¯n. Xp¼-a¬. CXv ae-¦-c-bnse ]Ån-Ifpw kz¯p¡fpw X\Xp hI-sb¶p hniz-kn-¨n-cp¶ ]m{XnbÀ-¡o-kns\ sR«n-¨p. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\nbpsS klmbw amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkn\p e`n-¨p. s]mXp-kz-¯p-¡Ä ssIhiw In«p-Ibpw CS-h-I-¸-Ån-IÄ Hmtcm-¶mbn ssIhiw hcn-Ibpw sNbvX-t¸mÄ amt\-PnwKv I½än ae-¦-c-k`m `cWw {Iao-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ \S-]-Sn-I-fn-te¡v kmh-[m\w 61 {]th-in-¨p. Xsâ A[n-Im-cs¯ AwKo-I-cn-¡m³ _p²n-ap-«pÅ-h-c-S-¡-apÅ A©p-t]sc amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv X{´-]qÀhw Hgn-hm¡n F¶p ]d-bp-¶-Xmhpw IqSp-X icn. Cu kml-N-cys¯ ^e-{]-Z-ambn t\cn-Sp-hm³ ]. Ncn-{X-¯nsâ Zim-k-Ôn-bn kzoI-cn-t¡-­n-h¶ At´ym-Jy³ _mÔhw Hcp \ocm-fn-sb-t¸mse k`sb hcn-ªp-ap-dp¡n h¶p. Bdp sa{Xm·mscbpw km£n-I-fm-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Cu tIkn ]. amÀ Zoh-\ym-tkymkv A©m-a\v ]. At±-l-¯n\v A§s\ hnhcw sImSp-¡m³ ae-¦-c-bn Bfpw D­m- . 1061 (1886) IÀ¡-SIw 3\v amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv A©m-a³ tIm«bw skan-\mcn \S¯n FSp-¡p-¶Xp hsc Atkm-kn-tb-j³ amt\-PnwKv I½-än-bpsS {][m\ tPmen tIkp-\-S-¯n-¸n-\pÅ `oa-amb XpI kam-l-cn-¡em-bn-cp-¶p. Ahcn A©p-t]cpw samgn sImSp-¡m³ BZyw hnk-½-Xn-¨p. F¶m apdn-a-ä-¯n amÀ Cuhm-\n-tbmkpw Nm¯p-cp-¯n amÀ {KotKm-dn-tbmkpw ]qÀW- ambpw ae-¦c sa{Xm-t\m-sSm¯p \n¶p. AXm-Is« amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn\p XnI¨pw A\p-Iq-ehpw. X\n¡p hnt[-bs¸Sphm³ a\-Êp-Ip-d-hpÅ sa{Xm-·mÀ am{X-a-Ã. Cu ]cm-aÀi-\§ Ä¡p ]n¶n amÀ Zoh¶mtkym-km-sW¶v At±lw hniz-kn-¨p. 1889 Pqsse 12\v amÀ Zoh¶m-tkym-kn\v A\p-Iq-e-ambn Ah-km-\n¨ skan-\mcn tIknsâ tdmb tImSXn hn[n-bn ]m{Xn-¡o-kn\p ae-¦-c-bn euIo-Im-[n-Imcw Csöpw dniok ]m{XnbÀ-¡o-kn-\pÅtXm `cn-¡p¶ sa{Xm-\p-ÅtXm F¶p ]d-bm-\m-hn-söpw P\-§-fpsS sXc-sª-Sp-¸p-Iq-SmsX hmgn-¡s¸-Sp¶ sa{Xm-·mÀ¡v `c-Wm-[n-Imcw Csöpw \nÝ-bn-¨n-cp-¶p. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\n Xm³ amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-knsâ IogvØm-\n-bm-sW¶p samgn-sIm-Sp59 ¯p. F¶m IS-hn amÀ A¯m-\m-tkymkv Hfnªpw Itcm-«p-ho-«n amÀ iotam³ Zoh¶m-tkymkv ]c-ky-ambpw amÀ Zoh¶m-tkymkv A©m-asâ tae-[n-Im-c-¯n-s\-Xn-cmbn {]hÀ¯n-¨p. ]t{Xmkv ]m{Xn-bÀ¡okv ae-¦-c-k-`-bpsS s]mXp-hmb tae-[n-Imcn F¶ \ne-bn Hcp tcJ sImSp-¡m³ hnk-½-Xn-s¨-¦nepw At±lw AXp hI-h-¨n-cp-¶n-Ã. ]t{Xmkv ]m{XnbÀ-¡okv a\-Ên-em-¡n.n-bp-am-bn-cp-¶p. At§-bäw Ccp Zoh-¶m-tkym-kp-amcpw X½n tImS-Xn -hy-h-lmcw 56 Xs¶-bp-­m-bn. Cu ]Ým-¯-e-¯nemWv hn`-Pn¨p `cn-¡p-hm³ Bdp sa{Xm·msc \nb-an-¨-Xv. amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn\p Xsâ kz´w I£n-bn¯s¶ FXn-cm-fn-IÄ D­m-bn-cp-¶p.

adn¨v k`-bpsS tbmPn-¸mWv ]. 2. amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv Atkm-kn-tb-j³ {]kn-Uâ v F¶ \ne-bn s]mXp tae-[n-Im-cn-bm-bn-cn-¡pw.âv ae-¦-c-sa-{Xm³: Hcp ]Sn-IqSn IS¶v 1895 hrÝnIw 10-þ\v tIm«-b¯p skan-\m-cn-bn IqSnb amt\-PnwKv I½än ]. 1068 (1892) hrÝnIw 13-þ\v tIm«-b¯p skan-\m-cn-bn IqSnb amt\-PnwKv I½än Xmsg ]d-bp¶ Xocp-am-\-§Ä FSp-¯p.-Fw. ]mtdm«v ]d-bp-¶p: ""At´ym-Jy-bpsS A[n-Imcw Øm]n-¡p-¶-Xn\pw \ne-\nÀ¯p-¶-Xn\pw \S-¯p-¶-Xn\pw th­n ae¦csb Ggmbn IjWn-¨v. ]m{Xn-bÀ¡o-kn \n¶p I¸\ hm§n aq¶p sa{Xm-t¸m-eo-¯m-amÀ tNÀ¶p 1889 Pqsse 29 \v amÀ AÂhm-dokv bqen-tbm-kn\v 66 \ÂIn-bXv CXnsâ {]mcw` \S-]-Sn-bmbn thWw ImWm³. ]. 1877 apX 1902 hsc-bpÅ FÃm Atkm-kn-tb-j-\p-I-fnepw amt\-PnwKv I½-än-tbm-K-§-fnepw ]. ta¸«w XpSÀ¶v a{^n-bm\m Øm\w ae-¦-c-bn Øm]n- ¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ {iaw Bcw-`n-¨p. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\n CuZri{]hr¯n-I-fm ]m{XnbÀ-¡o-knsâ Iev]-\-Ifpw Xm³ sNbvX cPn-ÌÀ DS-¼-Snbpw ewLn-¡p-I-bm-bn-cp-¶p. ]t£. CXnÂ\n¶pw ]m{XnbÀ-¡o-knsâ hn`-P-\-a-Ã. ae-¦-c-bnÂ\n¶pw ]m{XnbÀ-¡o-kn\v F¯p¶ ]cm-Xn-IÄ amt\-PnwKv I½-än-bpsS dnt¸mÀ«p {]Imcw am{Xta Xocp-am-\n-¡mhq. Ch-sbÃmw CS-hI sa{Xm-·m-cpsS Xocp-am-\-§-fpsS taepÅ A¸o-ep-I-fm-bn-cp¶p. CXv At±-l-¯nsâ `c-W-]m-S-h-¯nsâ AwKo-Im-c-am-bn þ ae-¦c sa{Xm-t¸m-eo-¯m-bp-sSbpw ae¦-c-k-`-bp-sSbpwþ thWw IW-¡m-¡m³. Cu Iev]-\-sb-¸än Btem-Nn-¡m³ sIm. XpSÀ¶v amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv A©m-asâ ]utcm-lnXy I\I Pq_nenbpsS `mK-ambn At±-l-¯n\v a{^n-bm\m Øm\w t\Sn-s¡m-Sp¡m³ ae-¦c k`-bnse {]ap-J-cmb hyàn-IÄ {ian-¨n-cp-¶p. 63 Cu Xocp-am-\-§-fn \mem-a-Xmbn H¸n-«n-cn-¡p-¶Xv ]. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS s]mXp k`m-{]-hÀ¯-\-¯n ap¼n-«p-\n-¶-sX¶v hyà-am-hpw. amÀ amXyqkv A¯m-\m-kn-tbmkv Bcw`n¨ At´ymJym ]m{Xn-bÀ¡o-kn \n¶pw ta¸«ta¡pI F¶ ]Xnhv hÀ²n¨p hcp¶ At´ymJy³ A[n-Imc tamlw aqew `mhn-bn ae-¦-c-bn ]utcm-lnXy {]Xn-kÔn D­m-¡p-sa¶v Ipim{K _p²n-bmb amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv A©m-a³ a\-Ên-em-¡n. F¶m XpSÀ¶p-­mb kw`h hnIm-k-§Ä 1912 hsc Cu {ia-§sf ac-hn-¸n-¨p \nÀ¯n. 5. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta-\nsb ae-¦c sa{Xm-t¸m-eo-¯m-bpsS Akn-Ìâmbn \nb-an-¨p. AXn-\m taÂs¸« Øm\w Chn-sS-¯s¶ \ÂIm-\pÅ kwhn-[m\w D­m-¡m\pÅ \S-]-Sn-IÄ At±lw Bcw-`n-¨p. ]cp- ae Xncp-ta\n IrXy-ambn ]s¦-Sp-¯-Xmbn Ah-bpsS an\n-ävkn ImWp-¶p-­v. 1895þ Øm\-taäv A_vZpÄ avinlm ZznXo-b³ ]m{Xn-bÀ¡okv ae-¦-c67 kµÀin-¡p-t¼mÄ CXv t\Sn-sb-Sp-¡m-sa-¶m-bn-cp¶p {]Xo-£. 1. At±-ls¯ {]kn-Uâ v Øm\-¯p-\n¶p \o¡m³ km²y-a-Ã. 65 At±-ls¯ Atkm-kn-tb-j³ amt\- PnwKv I½-än-bpsS sshkv {]kn-Uâmbn \nb-an-¡p-¶-Xn\v Atkm-kn-tb-j-t\mSv ip]mÀi sN¿p-Ibpw sNbvXp.bn-cp¶p CXns\ XpSÀ¶v 1892 \hw-_À Ggn\v amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv sImÃw sIm¨n CS-h-I-I-fn-sem-gnsI asäm-cn-S¯pw {]th-in-¡-cp-sX¶v hne-¡n-s¡m­v ]m{Xn-¡okv Iev]\ Ab-¨p. ZoÀL-amb Cu Btem-N-\-I-fn H¶pw A¶v ae-¦c apgp-h³ ]d¶p \S-¶ncp¶ ]cn-ip² ]cp-ae¯ncp-ta\n `mK-`m-¡m-bn-cp-¶n-söv hniz-kn-¡pI {]bm-k-am-Wv. amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn-s\-¸-än-bpÅ Btcm-]-W-§Ä hymP-am-Wv. kzbw `cW {ia-§Ä \ho-I-c-W-¡m-cp-am-bpÅ tIkv hnP-bn¨p XpS-§n-b-tXmsS ae-¦ck` CS-¡m-e¯p \jvS-s¸« AXnsâ kzbw `cW kzmX{´yw hos­-Sp-¡m-\pÅ {ia-§Ä Bcw-`n-¨p. At±-l-¯nsâ temI-Po-hnXw 1902-þ Ah-km-\n-¡m-Xn-cp-s¶- ¦n Hcp-]-t£. Ck-Uv. ]pXp-¸-Ån.-h. 3. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta-\n-bm-Wv. "Hcp-h³ asäm-cp-hsâ CS-hI-bn IS-¡-cp-sX-¶pÅ' ]m{XnbÀ-¡o-knsâ BhÀ¯n-¨pÅ Iev]\ \ne-\n-evs¡-¯s¶ amt\-PnwKv I½-än-bpsS \nÀt±-i-{]-Imcw hS-¡³ ]d-hqÀ. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\n {]iv\-]-cn-lm-c-¯n\p t\XrXzw hln-¨-Xmbn amt\-PnwKv I½än an\n-Svkn ImWp-¶p-­v. Cu Iev]-\-bn amÀ Zoh\ym-tkym-kn-s\-Xn-cmbn At\Iw Btcm-]-W-§Ä D¶-bn--¡p-Ibpw Atkm-kn-tb-j³ {]kn-Uâ v Øm\¯p-\n¶pw At±-ls¯ \o¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-¶p. Cu ewL-\-§Ä ]m{Xn-bÀ¡o-knsâ B{K-l-§sf XIÀs¯¦nepw ae-¦c k`-bpsS \ne-\n-ev]n\v AXy-´m-t]-£n-X-am-bn-cp-¶p. ]m{XnbÀ-¡okv Bh-iy-s¸« {]Imcw euIo-Im-[n-Imcw k½-Xn¨v DS-¼Sn sImSp-¡m³ amt\-PnwKv I½än X¿m-d-Ã. amÀ tPmk^v Zoh-¶m-tkym-knsâ ]n³Km-an-bmbn ae-¦c sa{Xm-t¸m-eo¯m Øm\¯v F¯p-hm-\pÅ km²yX hfsc DbÀ¶-Xm-bn-cp-¶p. Xsâ In¦-c-·mcmbn Ign-b-W-sa¶ Dt±iy-¯n ]t{Xmkv XrXo-b³ \ntbm-Kn- . 4. AknÌ. Nn§-h\w apX-embn kz´ CS-h-I-bv¡p ]pd- ¯pÅ ]Ån-I-fn ].

]cp-ae Xncp-ta\nbpsS Ignhv amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv D]tbm-Kn-¨p-Xp-S-§n. ]Ån-`c . ae-¦c F¶n-§s\ c­p Xe-§Ä am{X-ap-­m-bn-cp¶ ae-¦-c-k-`-bn CS-bv¡nsS A{]Xo-£n-X-ambn IS-¶p-h¶ Hcp Xe-amWv `{Zm-k\ CS-h-I-IÄ.'' 68 amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymk. adp-hi¯v ]. ]m{XnbÀ-¡o-knsâ Dt±-iy-sa-´m-bn-cp¶p F¦nepw. \Ã-X-Ãm¯ Dt±-iy-t¯msS ]. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\n¡v ae-¦c sa{Xm- t¸m-eo¯m ]pen-t¡m-«n tPmk^v amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv A©m-a-\p-ambn D­m-¡n-b-Xv. ]nXr-]p-{X-_Ôw apX-emb Øncw {]tbm-K-§-fn-eqsS CXns\ hÀWn-¡m-\m-hn-Ã. CS-h-I-¸-Ån. ]cn-ip-²-\mb At±lw sXäp-sNbvXp Ft¶m sXäm-sW¶p ImWp¶ {]hr¯n sNbvhm³ At±lw ]pd-s¸-Sp-sat¶m Bcpw ]d-bp-I-bn-Ã. ]. 1934 ae-¦-c-k-`m `c-W-L-S\ ¢n]vX-amb A[n-Im-c-hn-`-P\w \S-¯pw-hsc ChÀ X½nep-­m-bn-cp¶ B _Ô-amWv ae-¦c sa{Xm\pw CS-hI sa{Xm-·m-cp-am-bpÅ A[n-Im-c-_-Ô-¯nsâ am\-ZWvU-am-bn-cp-¶-Xv. Ac-\q-äm-­p-sIm­v \nÀPo-h-amb ae-¦-c-]-Ån-tbm-Ks¯ amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv ae-¦c Atkm-kntb-j-\mbn ]p\ÀPo-hn¸n-¨-t¸mÄ ]. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\nbpsS ]mWvUnXyhpw Pohn-Xhpw t_m²y-s¸-«-Xn-\m At±-ls¯ 1872 G{]n 7 \p apf-´p-cp¯n ]Ån-bnÂh¨v d¼m\m¡n. ]t{Xmkv XrXo-b³ ]m{Xn-¡okv GÀs¸-Sp-¯nb Cu kwhn-[m\w Xm¸-cy-an-sÃ-¦nepw ae-¦-c-k-`bv¡pw ae-¦c sa{Xm-t¸m-eo-¯mbv¡pw AwKo-I-cn-t¡-­n-h-¶p. F¶m ].Ww {Ia-ambn \S-¯p-¶X . asämcp `{Zm-k-\-¯nepw A¶v A¯-c-samcp \S-]Sn kzoI-cn-¨-Xmbn ImWp-¶n-Ã. henb sa{Xm-¨³ Adn-tb-­p¶ Imcy-§Ä Adn-bn-¨p-X-s¶-bmWv ].. "henb sa{Xm-¨³. ]c-ky-ambn A¯-c-¯n \S-¯p¶ GsXmcp {]hr¯nbpw Htc-k-abw At´ymJym ]m{Xn-¡okns\ {]tIm-]n-¸n-¡p-Ibpw \ho-I-c-W-¡m-cp-ambn \S-¶p-h¶ tIkns\ _m[n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-sa-¶-Xn111 \m CXn IrXy-amb Hcp Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-¡msX amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv Hgn-ªp-am-dn.¨-h-sc. ae-¦c sa{Xm-t¸m-eo-¯m-bpsS tae-[n-Imcw AwKo-I-cn-¡m³ ]. amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv B{K-ln¨sXt´m AXmWv ]. ]t{Xmkv ]m{XnbÀ-¡o-knsâ hn`-Pn-¨p-`-cn-¡Â X{´w 1877\p tijw amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn\pw ae-¦c-k-`¡pw ISp¯ `oj-Wn-bm-bn-cp-¶p. C¶s¯ `{Zm-k\ s]mXp-tbm-K-§-fpsS {]mKvcq]-ambn AXns\ hnti-jn-¸n-¡mw. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\nsb At±lw \ntbm-Kn-¨p. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\nbpsS `c-W-¯n A\m-h-iy-ambn ssII-S-¯m-Xn-cn-¡m³ ]pen-t¡m-«n Xncp-ta\nbpw X¿m-dmbn. \b-tIm-hn-Z-\mb amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn\v Cu \h CS-h-Isa-{Xm-·msc Xsâ k{^-K³amcm-¡n-XoÀ¡m³ km[n-s¨-¦nepw A[n-Imc hn`-P\w Hcp Iodm-ap-«n-bmbn amdn. kl-sa-{Xm-·mÀ Xsâ tae-[n-Im-c-t¯mSv adp-X-en¨v \n¶-t¸mÄ Ah-cn Gähpw hyàn-{]m-`-h-apÅ amÀ {KotKmdn-tbmkv X\n¡v hniz-kvX-hn-t[-b-\m-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn\v Bß-hn-izmkw D­m-¡n. am{X-aà Xsâ `{Zm-k-\-§-fn sshZn-I-cpsS s]mXp-tbmKw hnfn-¨p-Iq-«n AhÀ¡v Hcp kwL-S\ D­m-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\n {]tXyIw {i²n-¨p. Kpcp-in-jy-_-Ôw. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\n CS-h-I-]-Ån-tbm-K-§sf Imem-\p-kr-X-ambn ]cnjvI-cn-¨p. ]Ån-I-fpw ]Ån¡q-S§ fpw Øm-]n-¡p-¶X . F¶m Cu {]Xn-k-Ôn-L-«-§-fn ]. ]n¶oSv k`-bpsS s]mXp-hmb Imcy-§-fnepw ].nepw ]. (]cp-ae kvarXn F¶ {KÙ-¯nse teJ-\-¯nse {]kà `mK§Ä) . {]iv\-]-cn-lm-c-I³ F¶ coXn-bn ae-¦-c-bn-e-t§m-f-an-t§mfw ]. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\n \S-¸m-¡n-b-Xv. \ho-I-c-W-¡m-cp-ambn tLmc-bp²w \S-t¯­nbncp¶ sX¡³ CS-h-I-I-fn ]. sa{Xm-·m-cpsS [À½w ae-¦-csb tkhn-¡p-IbmsW¶v amÀ {KotKm-dn-tbm-kn-s\. ]t{Xmkv XrXo-bsâ `n¶n-¸n¨p `cn-¡pI F¶ e£yw sXäp-Ibpw sNbvXp. 1872 tIhew 24 hb-Êp -am-{X-apÅ Nm¯p-cp-¯n KohÀKokv tImÀ F¸n-kvtIm-¸-bn ae-¦-c-k-`bpsS `mhn amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv ZÀin-¨p. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\n amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn\v \evIp-¶-Xv. ]pen-t¡m-«n Xncp-ta-\nbpw ]. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\nbpw5 X½n-epÅ Bß-_-Ô-am-bn-cp¶p Cu A[n-Imc hn`-P-\-{]-{Inb kpK-a-am-¡n-bXv.p-am-bpÅ _Ôw hm¡p-IÄ¡v hÀWn-¡m-\m-hm¯ Hcp hyàn-_-Ô-am-bn-cp¶p ]. hmÕeyw \nd-ª "sIm¨p sa{Xm-¨³' F¶ kwt_m-[\ amÀ Zoh-¶m110 tkymkpw \evIn. CXv hfsc {]I-S-am-Ip-¶Xv sX¡³ CS-h-I-I-fn-em-Wv.' "henb ]nXmhv' apX-emb kwt_m-[-\-I-fmWv ]. {Im´-ZÀin-bmb At±-l-¯n\p ]. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\nbpsS `c-W-Im-e¯v Cu A[n-Im-c-hn-`-P-\-¯n\v \nb-X-amb Hcp {Iaw D­m-Ip-¶Xp ImWmw. aäp-Å-h-scbpw.n am{X-aà . ]cp-a-e-¯n-cp-ta\n X¿m-dmbn. tPmk^v Zoh-¶m-tkymkv kz]-£-¯m-¡n-b-Xn\v Gäw -]-än-bXpw D¯-ahpw Bb sXfn-hmWv ]cpae amÀ {KotKm-dn-tbmkv. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\nbpsS Dd¨ \ne-]mSv amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn\v Bizm-k-am-bn. A{X DZm-¯-amb H¶mbn-cp¶p AXv. amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkymkv t_m²y-s¸-Sp-¯n. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\nbpsS kPo-h-km-¶n²yw amÀ Zoh-¶m-tkym-kn\v ]qÀW-amb Bß-hn-izmkw \evIn. ]cp-ae Xncp-ta\n `cWw \S-¯n-b-Xv.

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