"IMPACT OF CULTURE ON INTERNATIONAL MARKETING

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AUTHOR: MD. JOYNAL ABDIN BBA (GUB), MBA (SEU) CELL: +88 - 01813-318620 E-MAIL: mdjoynal@gmail.com

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Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1267863

9/14/2008

EXECUTIVE SUMMERY Culture is the totality of our life style & personality. At a glance is can be said that, culture is that what we are i.e. our way of dressings, specking, eating, thinking, learning, attitude, believes, values, norms etc all included in our culture. International marketing is the marketing activities of a company outside their country of origin. Culture has a great impact on international marketing. A marketer must have to study about the local culture in-depth before offering a product to them. Because of every marketing promotion has done to promote the product i.e. communicating product feature to the customers and influence customers to buy it. To have an effective communication one must send the message according to the receiver’s culture, customs and learning process. There are some major barriers by which effective communication can be hampered. Self Reference Criterion (SRC) and Ethnocentrism can make the effort worthless. Here we can draw an example how SRC can make all effort worthless. As we know that Disney land is a name of success in the amusement park business around the globe. But when they have started their journey in France they faced a tremendous problem and fall in billion Dollar loss. In USA, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Japan they earned a great amount of profit. But why they failed in France? Disney management started a study and fined out that self Reference Criteria of American managers make the French people hart. As a result they do not used to be here in Parish Disney Park. Not only in France out of every ten US managers eight have to replace from Saudi Arabia within three month of their joining. It is because they fail to cope with the Saudi culture and customs. It is human nature that, everything want to judge according to self learning process and Cultural measurement. But a single thing can have different meaning in different culture. For example showing thumb carries the signal of all right to the western but it carries a serious negative meaning to the Bengali rural people. For this reason a marketer in international market must have to convert his all thinking into the culture of the local people. Sometime marketer fails to make this conversion successfully as a result they fail to have local people attention and make huge loss.

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Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1267863

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Primary data and Secondary data. Secondary data are the information collected from pre published articles or books. religion and faith. social interactions. teachers lecture and local peoples thinking about the topic. this paper consists of both types of information Primary and Secondary data. and ethics and mores. language.g. From the viewpoint of a marketer. We also add our personal thinking. aesthetics.OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY As the topic of my study is “Impact of culture on international marketing” this paper must have to make crystal clear thought of the following understanding:  Identified elements of culture and examined how they affect marketing practices  Described national and regional character and cultural variability worldwide  Discussed impediments to mutual understanding and cooperation  Analyzed the global consumer culture  Examined the depth and effect of different cultural influences on international marketing Nature and Impact of Cultural Environment on International Marketing Knowledge of a culture can be gained by probing its various aspects – but which aspects? Since culture is such a vast concept. it is desirable to develop a field for cultural understanding. METHODOLOGY We know that research has done based on two types of data e. one way of gaining cultural understanding is to examine the following cultural elements within a country: material life. it is a vast concept. Here in this paper we collect mainly secondary data to prepare this paper. In this sense. * Page 3 9/14/2008 . pride and prejudice. Primary data are collected from the respondents directly for the current research.

These may equip this paper up to a standard. Ethnocentrism should be void. teachers lecture and local people’s opinion about the topic. Self Reference Criterion should be abolished. examinations. c. PERIOD OF THE STUDY July & August 2008. Limitations may be described as follows: A. f. b. We have budget constraint as a result we did not get access to some specialized articles. BENEFIT OF THE STUDY This study consists of a clear picture of culture’s impact on international marketing. So this paper can be helpful for the marketers in following issues: a. Finally. d. an international marketer must have to convert all his thinking into local people’s thinking according to their culture & customs.Primary data is our thinking. LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY As a full time student we have to attend several classes. Advertisement should be constructed after thinking about the cultural views of locality. & other works during this study as a result some limitations may be here in this paper. * Page 4 9/14/2008 . Marketer should be more conscious about local consumer’s expectations. Time is limited so elaborations may not be done as it should do. e. B. Product design and packaging should hold local traditions accordingly. Secondary data is the ideas collected from some specialist’s articles we collect from internet.

living standards. iii. with direct negative effects on marketing practices. Identify the elements of culture and examine how they affect marketing practices around the world. way of interaction everything they do from the morning up to go to the bed in late night included their culture. socializing. Culture & international marketing clearly. believes. i. believes. vi. Not only that. business practices. norms. CULTURE: Culture is that what we are! Our way of speaking. with direct negative effects on marketing practices Describe the global consumer culture as it manifests itself around the world ii. Then we will discuss cultural variability in terms of the Hofstede dimensions with appropriate examples and address cultural change in a marketing context. gift giving. norms. iv. Describe national and regional character based on dimensions such as time orientation. eating. DEFINING CULTURE & INTERNATIONAL MARKETING A. dressing. v. gender roles. Address the self-reference criterion and ethnocentrism and describe how they impeded mutual understanding and cooperation. and materialism Discuss cultural variability in terms of the Hofstede dimensions with appropriate examples and address cultural change in a marketing context Address the self-reference criterion and ethnocentrism and describe how they impeded mutual understanding and cooperation.BEGINNING Before discussing the impacts of culture on international marketing lets try to define – i. and judgment also included into their culture. Studying culture of a nation includes the overall study of a nations lifestyle. values and judgment everything included in our culture. * Page 5 9/14/2008 . values.

rituals. beliefs. Dutch management professor Geert Hofstede refers to cultures as the “software of mind” and argues that it provides guidance for human being how to think and behave. g. e. and thought process that are learned. Culture is a continuously changing totality of learned and shared meanings. the economic system and even the man himself”. b. art. belief. morals. Hodson. symbols.S ambassador to Japan describe culture as a “thicket” this last metaphor holds hope for struggling international marketers. c. Set of commonly held values. f. of thinking and of conceiving the underlying assumption about the family and the state. former U.According to some specialists culture can be define as follows: a. * Page 6 9/14/2008 . we knew that they were up again was a complete different way of organizing life. and traditions among the members of an organization or society. h. shared by a group of people. but effort and patience often leads to success. think and do as members of their society. and transmitted to generations to generations”. a way of life of a group of people includes knowledge. norms. Anthropologist & Business consultant Edward Hall provides a definition even more relevant to international marketing managers: “ The people we were advising kept bumping heads against an invisible barrier. it is a problem solving tool. Most traditional definition of culture is “Culture is the sum of the values. customs and habits. rituals. law. An integrated system of learned behavior patterns those are characteristic of the members of any given society. Everything that people have. d. According to the ambassador thickets are tough to get through.

Elements. Topography. Fauna. and Consequences of Culture * Page 7 9/14/2008 . Religion. Symbols. Media.THE ORIGIN OF CULTURE The origins. Beliefs & Thought Process) Application Consumptio n decisions & Behaviors Consequences Management Style Figure: Origins. Rituals. School. elements. Flora. Government. and consequences of culture can be shown in the following figure at a glance: Origins Geography (Climate. Corporations) n Imitatio Elements of Culture (Values. Histor Technology and political economy Adaptation Socialization / Acculturation Peers Social Institutions (Family.

II. price.B. Let’s try to know the specialists views. if any transaction occurs without profit then it may know as donation or grants. International marketing is the profitable transactions of goods & services between two or more countries. Here the author has given priority to the 4ps of marketing i. Product. The most significant part of this definition is more than one nation. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING: In general understanding. price.e. I. But to be international marketing transaction must be occurred for a profit. international marketing is the marketing activities of a company outside its home country territory. promote and direct the flow of company’s goods and services to consumers or users in more than one nation for a profit. * Page 8 9/14/2008 . International marketing is the performance of business activities design to plan. place (Outside the home country). The last and final part is for a profit. If transaction occurs inside the territory than it is known as domestic or native marketing. promotion and distribution.

tone of voice. Religion and Its Impact on Marketing Practice: Religion is another powerful element of culture having most powerful impact on * Page 9 9/14/2008 . Orientations. Sylhet and North Bangle all speaks Bangla but in different tone and with different special words. Culture is a wide topic its elements include everything of a nations day to day living. Language (Spoken/Written Language): Same language can provide difference meaning in different culture. But in the Western society it means all right. Low versus High Context Cultures: Low-Context cultures: What is said is precisely what is meant High-Context cultures: the context of the message — the message source. Otherwise he will fail to communicate his product or service to the local communities. Not only that. Major elements of culture are as follows: A. Translator can be used in this purpose but it’s costly and may not be such effective. Postures. IDENTIFY THE ELEMENTS OF CULTURE AND EXAMINE HOW THEY AFFECT MARKETING PRACTICES AROUND THE WORLD. D. and body language—are all meaningful. One particular language can have several regional formats. Olfaction’s. Nonverbal communication: Not only verbally but sometimes people used nonverbal body language or other means of communications like. C. inside Bangladesh the people of Chittagong. Otherwise serious mistake can be done and all market promotions may be worthless. his or her standing in society or in the negotiating group. Oculesics’ Chronemics’ Haptics’ Kinesics’ Paralinguistic Appearances. show thumb to some body means he is neglecting any effect or actions of the person to home it is shown on the person who show in Bangladeshi rural culture. One particular body sign may carry different opposite meaning to the people of different language. Showing thumb is a negative sign according to Bangladeshi rural culture. level of expertise. A marketer must have to know the local language and tone to do marketing well.ii. B. in Bangladesh & West Bengal we are speaking Bangla but it has a clear distinction. For example. A marketer must have to know the local meaning of body language or postures and gestures that being used by the general people of that community. For example we can say that. Proxemics.

v. Protestant Religion – stresses hard work and frugality Judaism – stresses education and development Islam – focus on rules for social interaction Hinduism – encourages family orientation and dictates strict dietary constraints Buddhism – stresses sufferance and avoidance of worldly desires Business days – Business day of a community also be selected based on their religious believes. vii. For example most Muslim country celebrate Friday as a holiday because of Jumma prayer on the other hand Christians prefer Sunday as weekly holiday. In a men leadership society usually male choice is valuable in case of product selection & vice versa. For example most of the devoted Muslim family used not to go in the market. Women are family leader as well as wealth holders. Because it plays a vital role in every aspect. society as well as in the economy also be selected by following their religious instructions. View point of different religions as follows: i. For example we can say that beef & pork both is protein provider.consumer behavior which controls buying process & product choice resultant on major impact on marketing as well as international marketing. viii. But consumers are not same only for religious effect. For example according to the Islamic law “Men will lead the family women are followers” it is well practiced in the Muslim society on the other hand there are some tribal people their religious trends to offer female leadership. Gift giving – Giving gift to anybody is a very responsive action of culture. Marketing practices – marketing pattern of a community also regulated by the religion. A marketer must have to think about the religion on the local community before offering a product to them. Muslim can not select pork in his menu & a Hindu can not select beef in his menu. Though this trend in reducing with the modernization but till now it is a vital fact in many localities. iv. Gender roles – Role of male female in the family. vi. iii. E. ii. But choice of selecting gift item also determine by the local peoples practiced religion. Cultural Values: * Page 10 9/14/2008 . Religious impact on human action should not be neglected. ix.

►Gender Roles – Gender role is mainly dominated by the culture. as a result they used to take major decisions of the family according their choice. Cultural Norms: Norms are derived from values and defined as rules that dictate what is right or wrong. In male lead society father is the owner of wealth as a result he used to dominate in the family. For example. But Polychromic people used to think about a lot of work at a time they are P-time people. business hour in Indian subcontinent is ten am to five pm. Monochromic time or (M-time) people think only one thing at a time. acceptable or unacceptable (A) Imperative: What an outsider must or must not do (B) Exclusive: What locals may do but an outsider cannot (C) Adiaphora: What an outsider may or may not do G. ►Business Hours – business hour of different community differs based on their native culture. National/Regional Character: ►Time Orientation: The people of different region of the world are habituate to do their jobs according to different times. social role in a word collective achievement. M-time & P-time people. Most of the western society used to practice individualism thinking rather than collective one. But it is eight am to two pm at most of the western countries. ►Socializing – we human being is socialized animal. But we in Indian sub-continent used to think about family life. Not only that. in male dominating culture males used to have more than one married * Page 11 9/14/2008 . Our social ethics or actions are regulated by our culture. (2) Guide the selection or evaluation of behavior (3) Are ordered by importance in relation to one another to form a system of value priorities (4) Enculturation: Process by which individuals learn the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by one’s own culture (5) Acculturation: Learning a new culture (6)Assimilation: Maintenance of the new culture. Culture reflects our individualism or collectivism nature of the society. Time orientation can be divided in two times.(1) Enduring beliefs about a specific mode of conduct or desirable endstate. On the other hand in some area mothers are the wealth owners. and resistance to new cultures and to one’s old culture F.

As a result women decide what ought to be. if Pageare perceived as a vase. But it is because of their culture power distance is barring here. Cultural Change & Marketing: Marketers need to identify the symbolic elements that are important to a market segment and use them effectively in creating the marketing mix. I want it. This individualistic and collective thinking has a great effect on their product choice as well as purchase of product. I have this. Who has to be highlighted in their promotional campaign and advertisements? □ Individualism versus Collectivism – Maximum western country is suffering from their individualistic mentality. wealth owner and earning member is mother in the family. they would not be altered. society and in the country. In some tribal community live in the northern region of India they are mother lead society. But on the other hand westerns are risk lover. * In an advertisement. We have this. □ Uncertainty Avoidance – we are always try to avoid uncertainty and happy with that what can be found certainly. public transportation H. we have done it and we need it. etc. We the Muslims and Indian sub continental people used to be closer during interaction. if the above are perceived as faces. but in our sub continental culture we think collectively. I. ►Other – for example. On the other hand the western Christians used to hold a gape between two interactive people. Cultural Variability: □ Power Distance – Power distance means the distance between two people during mutual interaction. I have done it. As a result here father’s decision is the final one. Muslim thinks that westerns are not friendly and they think Muslims are pushy.on the other hand women used to have more than one married at a time in female dominated culture. they 12 9/14/2008 . They used to take challenges during any action. personal automobile. censors might erase them. □ Masculinity versus Femininity – Culture define the priority of decisions in the family. what have to do. On the other hand in male dominant society father is the owners of wealth and earning member of the family. access (transportation by bicycle. This masculinity and femininity has a great impact in case of product selection / brand choice and final purchasing decision. As a marketer he must have to know what types of society he is offering product.

J. A firm desirous of entering international market must consider these factors and it should also evaluate the degree of influence and involvement of these factors. Social Institution: This includes the consideration of social organization. Global Consumer Culture Trends:  Proliferation of transnational firms and the related globalize capitalism  Global brands  Globalize consumerism and the desire for material possessions  Homogenization of global consumption M. Global Consumer Culture: * Shared consumption-related symbols and activities those are meaningful to segments * Often attributed to the diffusion of entertainment from the US to the rest of the world L. Material Culture: This includes technology and economic aspects of that country. is the language of the foreign market. There is also a tendency. to regard foreign goods as the things of social status. The belief and family system its kinds are also be considered. commonly present in all economies. on the decision of international marketing policies. N. ◘The Self-Reference Criterion: The unconscious reference to one’s own value system K. and political system of the foreign country. education system. And the last but not the least. Obstacles to Cultural Understanding: ◘ Ethnocentrism: A related belief that a particular culture is superior to another and that strategies that are used in the home country will work just as well abroad. One more reason for the * Page 13 9/14/2008 .

mechanization of agriculture is unknown. which is still emerging from total dependence on farming. business across national boundaries would make sense. and quality seeds are unfamiliar. Suppose a large proportion of a hypothetical population is engaged in agriculture. agricultural tools would be more important. the two men hold hands in front of a judge to finalize the marriage. VCRs. two essential parts of material life are knowledge and economics. After agreeing on a small payment for the bride. The tools. Opportunities for multinational business in a primitive environment will be limited. techniques. Modern techniques of farming such as use of fertilizers. The woman’s father chooses the husband-to-be. what people do to derive their livelihood. and so on.indication towards foreign products is the inferior nature of the domestic products. In such a culture. cars. they are veiled. education and marriage. Money is the medium of exchange. O. if women are seen at all. For example. methods. People live in urban centers and have such modern amenities as television. * Page 14 9/14/2008 . P. pesticides. but the study of material life in the two countries would show that Brazil is ahead of Pakistan. These roles and patterns are supported by society’s institutional framework. knowledge. The woman sees her husband for the first time when he comes to consummate the marriage. stereos. which includes. Thus for a successful international marketing. and processes that a culture utilizes to produce goods and services. Outside the home. Material Life: Material life refers to economics. whose authority and command cannot be questioned. In Pakistan. The social role assigned to women in the strict Islamic world is one of complete dependency on men. Consider the traditional marriage of a Saudi woman. proper understanding of the culture is essential. are all part of material life. Material life refers the standard of living and degree of technological advancement. A woman’s place is always in the home. The material life of any given society will fall on a continuum between traditional and industrialized poles. Agricultural operations are mainly performed by manual labor. for example. as well as their distribution and consumption. offering market opportunities for electrical appliances. and television sets. Social Interactions: Social Interactions Social interactions establish the roles that people play in a society and their authority/responsibility patterns. this feature is more common to the developing economies. newspapers. that is. Brazil and Pakistan are both developing countries. Thus.

The tools. and/or an employee. are all part of material life.S. social. business across national boundaries would make sense. Material Life: Material life refers to economics. Brazil and Pakistan are both developing countries. * Page 15 9/14/2008 . newspapers. For example. Thus. The educational system. protection. The material life of any given society will fall on a continuum between traditional and industrialized poles. pesticides. Likewise. two essential parts of material life are knowledge and economics.Social roles are also established by culture. and quality seeds are unfamiliar. and religious life. social interactions influence family decision-making and buying behavior and define the scope of personal influence and opinion. Opportunities for multinational business in a primitive environment will be limited. With reference to marketing. cars. and the religious leader in many societies is derived from the culture. providing companionship. and so on. agricultural tools would be more important. a woman can be a wife. Suppose a large proportion of a hypothetical population is engaged in agriculture. VCRs. In Pakistan. marriages. Pride and Prejudice: Even the culture most backward in the eyes of a westerner will foster a certain pride in its people about its traits and ways. Material life refers the standard of living and degree of technological advancement. the nuclear family is the focus of social organization in the U. and a common set of values. mechanization of agriculture is unknown. and customs and traditions prescribe roles and patterns for individuals and groups. a community leader. rituals and practices on different occasions such as festivals. the authority of the aged. R. offering market opportunities for electrical appliances. the social settings. a mother. that is. and processes that a culture utilizes to produce goods and services. the teacher. Q. Behavior also emerges from culture in the form of conventions. It is the canter for all economic. political. methods. knowledge. In Latin America and Asia the extended family is considered the most basic and stable unit of social organization. techniques. In contrast. and times of grief or religious celebrations. In such a culture. which is still emerging from total dependence on farming. and television sets. People live in urban centers and have such modern amenities as television. informal gettogethers. as well as their distribution and consumption. Money is the medium of exchange. Modern techniques of farming such as use of fertilizers. stereos. For example. what people do to derive their livelihood. but the study of material life in the two countries would show that Brazil is ahead of Pakistan. Agricultural operations are mainly performed by manual labor.

S.Indeed. The third viewpoint. Are there strong values about work.S. The Chinese are jealous of their cultural heritage.S. the cultural traits demonstrated in U. and learning processes: 1. Cultural pride and prejudice make many nations reject foreign ideas and imported products. and primacy-of-host-country viewpoint. morality. family relations. and so on that relate to this product? Does this product connote attributes that are * Page 16 9/14/2008 .host-country approach. “We are the best. and they speak of it with great emotion. Determine relevant motivations in the culture. For example. cultural analysis may be based on any of the following three approaches: ethnocentrism. But the reverse also occurs: a perception of greatness attributed to another culture may lead to the eager acceptance of things reflecting that culture.” Many U. religion. Determine what broad cultural values are relevant to this product. What needs are fulfilled with this product in the minds of members of the culture? How these needs are presently fulfilled? Do members of this culture readily recognize these needs? 2. the Japanese are proud of their culture and economic achievement and prefer to buy Japanese manufactures. Determine characteristic behavior patterns. assimilation.S. This approach considers domestic information inappropriate to successful operation in markets outside the U. the primacy of. developing countries sometimes evince more pride-and prejudicethan developed countries. So do the Egyptians of their heritage. motivations. The ethnocentrism approach assumes. Cultural Analysis: The analysis of cultural differences is necessary for the formulation of international marketing strategy. An assessment of a country’s culture for marketing’s sake involves analyzing the people’s attitudes. In contrast. is a cultural melting pot. society are relevant anywhere.S. Conceptually. many Americans express feelings of being deprived of cultural history in a country so young and diverse by nature. bases decisions on the cultural traits of the host country. assuming that since the U. What patterns are characteristic of purchasing behavior? What forms of division of labor exist within the family structure? How frequently are products of this type purchased? What size packages are normally purchased? Do any of this characteristic behavior conflict with behavior expected for this product? How strongly ingrained are the behavior patterns that conflict with those needed for distribution of this product? 3. The assimilation approach is somewhat similar. companies assume that what is good at home will work in foreign markets as well. perceptions.

What role does advertising occupy in the culture? What themes. words. on the other hand. an examination of advertising. Evaluate promotion methods appropriate to the culture.in conflict with these cultural values? Can conflicts with values be avoided by changing the product? Are there positive values in this culture with which the product might be identified? 4. themes. simply knowing about the religion or morality of a culture is not enough. Observation requires living in a culture over a long period in order to become deeply involved in its pattern of living. One way to conduct the cultural analysis of a country for the purpose of making marketing decision is to answer the specific marketing-related questions raised by Engel and his colleagues. involves gathering information on a set of variables relative to the culture. The cultural values of a nation may be studied through either observation or fieldwork. Determine characteristic forms of decision-making. Interaction: The interaction with the environment through different modes such as speech and writing. What types of retailers and intermediary institutions are available? What services do these institutions offer that are expected by the consumer? What alternatives are available for obtaining services needed for the product but not offered by existing institutions? How do consumers regard various types of retailers? Will challenges in the distribution structure be readily accepted? The information contained in this exhibit attempts to relate cultural traits to marketing decisions. The study of culture in the realm of international marketing must be based on fieldwork. phrases. Primary Message System of Edward Hall’s Map of Culture: 1. * Page 17 9/14/2008 . Fieldwork. or expressions should confirm viability of promotional decisions. For example. words. Determine appropriate institutions for this product in the minds of consumers. Similarly. What must be analyzed is whether or not the product was slated to be introduced into the country has any direct or indirect connotations that conflict with the cultural patterns of the society. or illustrations are taboos? What language problems exist in present markets that cannot be translated into this culture? What types of salespeople do members of the culture accept? Are such salespeople available? 6. Do members of the culture display a studied approach to decisions concerning innovations or an impulsive approach? What is the form of the decision process? Upon what information sources do members of the culture rely? Do members of the culture tend to be rigid or flexible in the acceptance of new ideas? What criteria do they use in evaluating alternatives? 5.

Presumably. bisexuality.4 in an analysis of the play activity for a toys and games company. Interaction/play: How do people interact during play as regards competitiveness. Association: The structure and organization of society and its various components. 10. use. 5. which he calls a map of culture. or leadership? 2.2. and defense of land and territory. perspectives of play vary from one culture to another. A person interested in learning about a culture need not study all 10 aspects. Play: The process of enjoyment through relaxation and recreation. but by examining any one of them fully can gain an adequate understanding of the culture. Learning: The patterns of transmitting knowledge. The use of Hall’s framework for international marketers is shown in Exhibit 8. For example. defense. play. 9. is a two-dimensional matrix containing different human activities. which he calls primary message systems. 3. Defense: The protection against natural and human forces in the environment. Subsistence: The perspective of activities of individuals and groups that deal with livelihood and living. Bisexuality: The differentiation of roles and functions along sex lines. His framework. subsistence. 6. temporality. 8. Play/interaction: What games are played involving acting. Territoriality: the possession. or other aspects of real-world interaction? * Page 18 9/14/2008 . association. 7. Temporality: The division and allocation of time and its use for various activities. categories 13 and 14 deal with learning as it emerges in play and play as it leads to learning. Exploitation: The application of skills and technology to turn natural resources to people’s needs. Hall’s framework creates 18 categories of questions. instigation. role-playing. learning. 4. territoriality. A different way of understanding foreign cultures is recommended by Edward T. and exploitation. Business Application of Edward Hall’s Map of Culture And Other Primary Sample Questions Concerning Cultural Patterns Message Systems Significant for Marketing Toys and Games – 1. These activities are interaction.Hall.

Play/subsistence: What games are played about work roles in society such as doctors. schools. Play/association: What games are played about organization for example. use of parks. Play/defense: What war and defense games and toys are utilized? 15. clocks. streets. Subsistence/play: What are the significant factors regarding people such as distributors. Exploitation/play: What resources and technology are permitted or utilized for games and sport-for example. speed tests? 12. Defense / play: What are the safety rules for games. dolls. nurses.Temporality/play: At what ages and what times of the day and year are different games played/Play/temporality What games are played about and involving time-for example. and dressing up. and how do the organization patterns differ? 4. equipment. judges. 8. Learning/play: What patterns of coaching. Bisexuality/play: What are the significant differences between the sexes in the sports. Monopoly? 11. and so forth? 16. coaches. quizzes? 13. Play/bisexuality: What games and toys involve bisexuality-for example. or publishers who make their livelihood from games? 6. games. dancing? 9. scouting. and training exist for learning games/Play/learning what games are played about and involving learning and knowledge-for example. teachers. parks. team competitions and games involving kings. and so forth? 10. hunting and fishing rules. cameras. and toys? 14. and firemen? 7. vehicles. and toys enjoyed. and microscopes? Hall’s approach provides an overall perspective on the culture through analysis of one or two primary message systems. Association/play: Who organizes play. In relation to the needs of * Page 19 9/14/2008 . or leaderdeveloped rules and penalties? 5. Territoriality/play: Where are games played. tuition.3. chemical sets. and what are the limits observed in houses. Play/exploitation: What games and toys about technology or exploitation are used-for example. Play/territoriality: What games are played about space and ownershipfor example.

One marketer must have to promote them according to their choice and believes. Think according to your view point but you must have to transform it into local cultural heritage. * Page 20 9/14/2008 . Every situation must be translated according to local culture. buying behavior and so on. An international marketer must have to think first which product he is offering for whom and their cultural background. FINDINGS From this long discussion it is quit clear that.. Because of different parts of the world possess different cultural behavior.business. choices.. So a marketer in international market must be aware of his / her SRC & Ethnocentrism. Only the particular element of the culture directly related to a particular international market decision needs to be analyzed. this system works well. Know in-depth of local history and culture and offer them accordingly to have their attention. That means be French when you are in France. You just cope with the culture where you are offering your product. In this case SRC & Ethnocentrism may be two major barriers. different tests. Never make any comments it is right or wrong or mine is the best in international marketing. Whatever your culture think about the fact forget it. norms. you just cope with the local thinking up to the permitted level. Local culture should be given first priority in case of taking any marketing action by an international marketer. culture has a direct impact on consumer behavior as well as on their choices. As it is impacting buying process so it has a great impact on international marketing as well. values and attitudes. RECOMMENDATIONS In international market a marketer must be SRC free and never affected by ethnocentrism. because the time and expense for a comprehensive cultural perspective are not required.

I read all the papers attentively and reach to the summery of all papers. Fore this reason I have to collect a variety of papers on this topic written by the marketing experts of different culture. It is a qualitative research topic. * Page 21 9/14/2008 . believe attitude. norms and values. Research Design: As our topic is “The Impact of Culture on International Marketing” a very wide topic. Thus this paper consists of the global views with my Bangladeshi cultural thinking as well. I collect nine papers written by the world famous marketing specialist from different parts of the globe and express their views on the same.APPENDIX: a. I start writing this paper with the gist of their thinking and having my own cultural thinking.

b. “Cultural Influences on International Marketing” by Dana-Nicoleta Lascu. iv. University of Western Sydney. v. Denmark’s International Study Program. Fuat Firat Alladi Benkatesh published by Harwood Academic Publishers. Zillur Rahman. References: This paper holds information and views from the following sources: i. “International Marketing & Branding” by Leif Rasmussen. State University of New York Oneonta David McKee. vii. M. viii. Ilan Alon. John W. Bing (Ed. “CULTURAL DETERMINANTS OF INTERNATIONAL FRANCHISING:AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION OF HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS” by Mark Toncar. “Adapting Your Home Culture to International Business” by Dr. x. “Consumption Market & Culture” by A. Southeast University. iii. vi. * Page 22 9/14/2008 . Sacred Heart University College of Business. Assistant Professor. xi. ix. Gist of the class lecture of Dr. “Cultural Environment and its Impact on International Marketing” Published in the Social Science Research Network. International Marketing by Professor Philip R. “International Business Culture” by Dr. ii. Kent State University. “CROSS-CULTURAL MARKETING” the impact of Polish culture on marketing in Poland. Graham. Balbir B. USA. “The Impact of Culture and Relationships on International Marketing at the Bottom of the Pyramid” by Richard Fletcher. Lycoming College. Published by ClusterStar. Bhasin. School of Business Studies.D University of Massachusetts) published by ITAP. Cateora & John L.

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