I

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Hans D ieter Betz

The “Mithras Liturgy”
Text, Translation, and C om m entary

M o h r Siebeck

born 1931; student o f Protestant theology at Bethel and Mainz (Germany), and Cambridge (England); 1957 Dr. theol., 1966 Habilitation at Mainz; 1963— 1978 Professor o f N e w Testament at Claremont, California; 1978— 2000 Shailer Mathews Professor o f N e w Testament, University o f Chicago; emeritus since 2000.
H a n s D ie te r B e tz ,

ISBN 3-16-148128-3 ISSN 1436-3003 (Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum) D ie Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliographie; detailed bibliographic data is available in the Internet at http://dnb.ddb.de.

© 2003 J.C.B. M ohr (Paul Siebeck), P.O. B ox 2040, D -7 2 0 1 0 Tubingen.

This book may not be reproduced, in w hole or in part, in any form (beyond that permitted by copyright law) w ithout the publishers written permission. This applies particularly to reproductions, translations, microfilms and storage and processing in electronic systems. The book was typeset by Martin Fischer in Tubingen using Bem bo typeface, printed by Gulde-Druck in Tubingen on non-aging paper and bound by Buchbinderei Spinner in Ottersweier. Printed in Germany.

Table of Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................. Abbreviations and Short T i t l e s .................................................................... Critical Signs used in the Papyrus T e x t ................................................. VII IX

XVIII

In tro d u c tio n .................................................................................................
I. The “Mithras Liturgy”: A Provocative Title ............................................ II. The Papyrus ...............................................................................................

1 1 5 5 11 14 26 26 27 28 31 32 39 50 60 88 88 88 91 101

1. O rigin and Provenance .................................................................... 2. E d itio n s ................................................................................................. III. Albrecht Dieterich (1866-1908): Life and Scholarship ........................... I V Genre and Composition .............................................................................. 1. Delimitation . ...................................................................................... 2. T he literary genre .............................................................................. 3. C o m p o sitio n ............................................................... ....................... 4. R e d a c tio n ............................................................................................ V. The Religio-historical Context .................................................................. G re ek T ext .................................................................................................... T ranslation ............................................................................................ ..

L iterary Analysis ( C o n s p e c tu s )............................................................... C o m m e n ta ry ...............................................................................................

I. The Exordium (II. 4 7 5 - 8 5 ) ......................................................................

A. The Invocation (1. 475) .................................................................... B. Presentation o f a Petition (11. 475— 5 ) ............................................ 8 II. The Main body o f the ritual (11. 485—7 3 2 ) ..............................................

......... Introduction to the ascension narrative (11............. 2...................................... A..............................VI Abbreviations and Short Titles A..... Prescription o f the breathing ritual (11............................................ 7 3 2 .. 273 ...... 792-813) ............................... Optional rituals for including a fellow-initiate in the consultation (И.............. B................................ Ascension narrative in seven scenarios (11.............. Epilogue (11.............. 813-19) ............................. Further items o f information (11.... 544— 732) ............................................................................................................. 1................................... Second ritual: the plant kentritis (11.................................................. Third ritual: the phylacteries (11..... .............. . 751-78) ...................... 8 1 9 ................. D... III...... The opening (first) prayer (11.............. Voces magicae .............. .......................................................... 778— 92) ............ 101 130 132 134 198 198 204 206 214 218 223 225 Plates ........................................ B... Additional instruction (11... 257 I................................. 732-50) ...................................... ......8 1 9 ) ........ IV..................... 4 8 5 -5 3 7 )...... 245 Indices . 537-38) ....2 0 ) ........................ 4....... First ritual: the sun-scarab ointment (11.................. Greek W o rd s ................. 227 B ib lio g rap h y ......................... 539-44) ................ C..... 750— 819) ...................... 3........................................................... Supplemental rituals (11....... 257 II...........

570-73 Preface T he Preface to Albrecht D ieterich’s Eine Mithrasliturgie is dated Heidelberg. Und wie wir’s dann zuletzt so herrlich weit gebracht. Calhoun for their checking o f the manuscript. and the latter also for compiling the Greek word index. Zu schauen wie vor uns ein weiser Mann gedacht. institutions provided support o f various kinds. and making the text and its interpretation accessible to an English-speaking readership has been the aim o f the present writer. 11. T he present commentary appearing a century later is deeply indebted to this ground breaking work which has remained in print through several re-editions w ith updated notes. and annual meetings o f the Society o f Biblical Literature.Verzeiht! es ist ein groB Ergetzen. It is simply impossible to sort out the generous contributions made by so many colleagues and students who attended seminars and lectures over a good num ber o f years. Cristiano Grottanelli. Sich in den Geist der Zeiten zu versetzen. both experienced papyrologists. W herever needed. D ieterich’s main achievement was to elevate a seemingly obscure papyrus text to one o f the most important original documents reflecting an insiders perspective o f Graeco-Egyptian religion in the late Hellenistic period. May 2. Chicago. Tel Aviv. however. 1903. Thanks are due to Walter Burkert and David Martinez for reading and commenting on the completed manuscript. Several persons. Substantial assistance was rendered by graduate stu­ dents. Special acknowledgements are due to the participants o f seminars at Claremont. Janet Spittler and M atthew R . and Ithamar Gruenwald. should be named. D ieterich’s work. M atthew Dickie. Specific contributions were made by Christopher Faraone. however. Fritz Graf. Thanks are due to Deans Clark Gilpin and Richard Rosengarten o f the Divinity . Sarah I. Faust 1 . Responding to the challenge o f carrying further D ieterich’ investigations in s the light o f new evidence. has re­ mained unfinished and his achievements have been recognized only partly. among them Thomas Dusa for suggesting egyptological references. Interest and encouragement by many colleagues and students in several countries helped speed up the com pletion o f the commentary. examined the new photographs o f the papyrus and perm itted me to include their readings. Jerusalem. David Martinez and David Jordan. G o e t h e . Johnston.

and the Institute for Advanced Study at the Hebrew University for generous fellowships. and the Bibliotheque nationale de France in Paris for permission to publish the photographic plates o f the text.VIII Preface School o f the University o f Chicago for continuous support. and to the team o f M ohr Siebeck. for making it possible that such a specialized study can see the light o f day. the Universitatsbibliothek in Bonn for the permission to quote from the unpublished correspondence o f Albrecht Dieterich and H erm ann Usener. for their pleasant and efficient cooperation. May 2003 Hans Dieter Betz . Last but not least. to the editors o f the series “Studies and Texts in Antiquity and Christian­ ity” for accepting the volume. Chicago. the Sackler Institute for Ad­ vanced Study at Tel Aviv University. I am exceedingly grateful to Georg Siebeck. my pub­ lisher. the administra­ tions o f the Hebrew University o f Jerusalem. especially Henning Ziebritzki and Matthias Spitzner.

Revelation BAH Bibliotheque archeologique et historique Bagnall.T BDAG BDF BDR BEAT Beck. Prophecy Aune.Abbreviations and Short Titles ABG Archivfur Begriffsgeschichte Adam Abt. A Greek Grammar of the N ew Testament Friedrich BlaB. Dejixionum Tabellae Auguste Audollent. Die Apologie ACSt ADAI. Revelation David Aune. Sonderreihe Papyrologica Coloniensia Abhandlungen der sachsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.. Beiheft Abhandlungen der Rheinisch-Westfalischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Planetary Gods Bibliotheque copte de Nag Hammadi. Liturgische Lieder an den Sonnengott Antike und Christentum Audollent.A AGJU AHAW AHAW. 2000) Friedrich BlaB & Albert Debrunner. Prophecy in Early Christianity Aune. Planetary Gods and Planetary Orders . Egypt R oger Bagnall. Defixionum Tabellae David Aune. Liturgische Lieder AuC Archiv fur Religionswissenschaft. Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch Beitrage zur Erforschung des Alten Testaments und des antiken Judentums Roger Beck. Die Apologie des Apuleius von Madaura Abt. Albert Debrunner & Friedrich Rehkopf.PH AIVi ANRW APF American Classical Studies Abhandlungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts Kairo. Beiheft Archivfur Religionswissenschaft ARWB ARWAW. Philosophisch-historische Klasse Albae Vigiliae Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt Archivftir Papyrusforschung APF.PH Assmann. Agyptologische Abteilung Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums Abhandlungen der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften Abhandlungen der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften. A Greek-English Lexicon of the N ew Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (3rd ed.B ARW Archiv fur Papyrusforschung. Section textes Walter Bauer. Philologisch-historische Klasse Jan Assmann.PC ASAW. Egypt in Late Antiquity BAK Beitrage zur Altertumskunde BCH Bulletin de correspondence hellenique B C N H .

Hauptprobleme der Gnosis Bousset. Sternglaube Boll. Reallexikon der agyptischen Religionsgeschichte Peder Borgen. M. History of the Synoptic Tradition Walter Burkert. publiee sous la patronage de 1’Association Guillaume Bude Bultmann. Paulinische Studien Betz. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien Collection des Universites de France. Paulinische Studien Hans Dieter Betz. Bezold. Kyrios Christos (5th ed. Sternglaube und Sterndeutung Boll. Hellenismus und Urchristentum Abbreviations and Short Tides R . Series apocryphorum Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries Chronique d ’Egypte Corpus Hermeticum CEg CH Chadwick. Ancient Mystery Cults B yZ Byzantinische Zeitschrift Brashear.X Berg. Proclus’ Hymns Hans Dieter Betz. Origen: Contra Celsum Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum Manfred Clauss. Gottesbegegnung und Menschwerdung Beitrage zur historischen Theologie Bibliotheca Teubneriana Bonner Jahrbiicher Betz. Kyrios Christos Wilhelm Bousset. Proclus’ Hymns Betz. Beihefte Corpus Christianorum. “Greek Magical Papyri” Bude William Brashear. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation Hans Dieter Betz.SA CCTC Beitrage zur Altertumskunde Zeitschrift fur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft. Philo Index Bousset. Galatians Betz. Studies in Magical Amulets Bonner. Sphaera Boll. van den Berg. G M P T Betz. H S T R udolf Bultmann. Ancient Mystery Cults Walter Burkert. Wilhelm Gundel. Himmelsreise der Seele Wilhelm Bousset. Origen CIL Clauss. Lukian Betz. R A R G Hans Bonnet. Gottesbegegnung BHTh BiTeu BJ BKP Boll. The Sermon on the Mount Hans Dieter Betz. Antike und Christentum Betz. Lukian von Samosata und das Neue Testament Hans Dieter Betz. Hellenismus und Urchristentum Hans Dieter Betz. D ie Himmelsreise der Seele Wilhelm Bousset. Gundel. The Philo Index Borgen. Aus der Offenbarung Johannis Beitrage zur Klassischen Philologie Franz Boll. Kleine Schriften Franz Boll. “The Greek Magical Papyri” BzA BZNW CChr. Studies Bonnet. Kleine Schriften zu r Sternkunde des Altertums Bollingen Series BollS Campbell Bonner. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien Bousset. Galatians Hans Dieter Betz. Mithras Henry Chadwick. Antike und Christentum Hans Dieter Betz. Greek Religion Burkert. Hauptprobleme Wilhelm Bousset. Sermon on the Mount Betz. Sphaera Franz Boll. Greek Religion Burkert. The Roman Cult of Mithras The Classical Review CIR CMG Corpus Medicorum Graecorum .) Bousset. Aus der Offenbarung Johannis Franz Boll. Carl Bezold.

Das Alphabet ed. Licht vom Osten Adolf Deissmann. Dodds. After Life in Roman Paganism Franz Cumont. Textes et Monuments Cumont. Herbarius Delatte & Derchain. Light from the Ancient East Armand Delatte. Ecstasy and Other Worldly Journeys Brian Copenhaver. Lux Perpetua Robert Daniel & Franco Maltomini.Abbreviations and Short Titles XI Collins & Fishbane. Supplementum Magicum DDD Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum Paravianum Franz Cumont. After Life Cumont. Death Copenhaver. Sol Salutis Dornseiff. Doxographi D. Worterbuch A dolf Erman & Hermann Grapow. Nekyia Albrecht Dieterich.PH Dolger. Light from the Ancient East Adolf Deissmann.. Lux Perpetua Daniel & Maltomini. Denniston. Death.. Hermetica Comptes rendus des seances de VAcademie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres CSLP Cumont. Greek Particles Diels. Textes et Monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra Franz Cumont. The Greeks and the Irrational Dodds. Dieterich. eds.-hist. Das Alphabet in M ystik und Magie editor (editors) Evangelisch-Katholischer Kommentar zum N euen Testament Etudes preliminaires aux religions orientales dans 1’empire romain Eranos Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Eranos-Jahrbuch der agyptischen Sprache Egitto e vicino oriente Erman & Grapow.. eds. Worterbuch Hildegard von Deines and Hermann Grapow. Worterbuch . Klasse Franz Joseph Dolger. Doxographi Graeci Hermann Diels & Walther Kranz. Supplementum Magicum Karel van der Toorn et al. der agyptischen Drogennamen Worterbuch der agyptischen Drogennamen Deissmann. eds. eds.(eds. DNP Abraxas Nekyia Mithrasliturgie Kleine Schriften Untersuchungen John D.. Eine Mithrasliturgie Albrecht Dieterich. Collins & Michael Fishbane. Dieterich. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker Albrecht Dieterich. Les Intailles magiques greco-egyptiennes Delatte. The Greeks and the Irrational DOAW. Herbarius Armand Delattes & Philippe Derchain. The Greek Particles Hermann Diels. Les Intailles Denniston. eds. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der griechischen Sprache Der Neue Pauly Eric R . Dieterich. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Deines & Grapow. Philos.) EKK EPRO Eranos ERE ErfB der agyptischen Sprache EVO Denkschriften der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.. Licht vom Osten Deissmann. Dieterich. Sol Salutis Franz Dornseiff.. Abraxas Albrecht Dieterich.-K. Dieterich. Kleine Schriften Karl Dieterich. Hermetica CRAI John J.

La Revelation FGH Fowden. Religion in Roman Egypt Hans-Veit Friedrich. Griffith & Herbert Thompson. La Revelation d ’Hermes Trismegiste Felix Jacoby. Furley & Jan Maarten Bremer. A Grammar o f the Greek Papyri Hans Dieter Betz. Griffith & Herbert Thompson. Helios Megistos Festugiere.. Ansichten griechischer Rituale Fritz Graf.XII Faraone & Obbink. eds. Magika Hiera Wolfgang Fauth. Religion Friedrich. Dekane und Dekansternbilder Gundel. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation Fritz Graf. Thessalos von Tralles Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des FRLANT Alten und Neuen Testaments Furley & Bremer. Dekane Wilhelm Gundel. Meliouchos Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft Hessische Blatterfur Volkskunde Helbing. From Apocalypticism to Gnosticism Gundel. ed. Gottesnahe Graf. Demotic Magical Papyri Griffith & Thompson. ed. Grammatik Hesp. Magika Hiera Fauth. The Demotic Magical Papyri of London and Leiden Graf. Weltbild und Astrologie Hans Georg Gundel. Ansichten griechischer Rituale Francis T. Guthrie. Plutarch Griffiths. A History of Greek Philosophy Harrauer. Studies HLV HNT Holzhausen. Apuleius of Madaurus: The Isis-Book Gruenwald. Das Corpus Hermeticum Deutsch .. Apuleius Gruenwald. The Egyptian Hermes Frankfurter.. Griechische Palaographie Viktor E. Faraone & Dirk Obbink.. LI. Magic in the Ancient World F. ed. Greek Hymns FZPhTh Freiburger Zeitschriftfu r Philosophie und Theologie Gardthausen. Thessalos Abbreviations and Short Titles Christopher A. Hinnells. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism Ithamar Gruenwald. Gottesnahe und Schadenzauber Fritz Graf. Helios Megistos Andre-Jean Festugiere. Griechische Palaographie D ie griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen GCS GGA Gignac. Magic Griffith & Thompson. Gardthausen.. The Egyptian Hermes David Frankfurter. Studies in Mithraism Hans Lietzmann-Vorlesungen Handbuch zum Neuen Testament Jens Holzhausen. Grammar GM PT Graf. From Apocalypticism to Gnosticism Ithamar Gruenwald. Das Corpus Hermeticum John R . LI. Grammatik der L X X Hesperia Hinnells. K. The Leiden Papyrus Griffiths. Weltbild und Astrologie in den Guthrie. History of Greek Philosophy griechischen Zauberpapyri W. The Leiden Papyrus F. ed. C. Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker Garth Fowden.. ed. Robert Helbing. Greek Hymns William D. eds. Gignac. Meliouchos HAW HBVK Christine Harrauer. Astrologumena Gundel.. Plutarch: D e Iside et Osiride John Gwyn Griffiths. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism John Gwyn Griffiths. Astrologumena Wilhelm & Hans Georg Gundel.

Conceptions Hornung. Ancient Philosophy Kirk & Raven Klauser & Rucker.E Jaeger. Theology of the Early Greek Philosophers Jahrbiicherfur classische Philologie JCPH. Mithras Reinhold Merkelbach. Ancient Philosophy. The Hellenistic Philosophers Lohr.. Ausgewahlte koptische Zaubertexte LA Jiidische Schriften aus hellenistisch-romischer Zeit Dimitris Kaimakis. Pisciculi Kotansky. Verherrlichung Long & Sedley LSJ Mach. Agypten HRWG H ThR Theodor Hopfner. Ausgewahlte koptische Zaubertexte Lexikon der Agyptologie LCL Lewy. eds. Mithras Merkelbach. Mandilaras. comments by letter David R . P Michigan X V I Martinez... Entwicklungsstadien Mahe. Jordan. Conceptions of God Erik Hornung. Michigan X V I David G. Robert Scott.. Chaldean Oracles and Theurgy Lexicon iconographicum mythologiae classicae Gebhard Lohr. The Presocratic Philosophers Theodor Klauser & Adolf Rucker. The World of Ancient Magic JR S David Jordan. Verherrlichung Gottes durch Philosophie Anthony A. eds. eds. The Verb Martinez. Erganzungsband Werner Jaeger. Handbuch religionswissenschaftlicher Grundbegriffe Harvard Theological Review HThSt HUTh IG S I JA C Harvard Theological Studies Hermeneutische Untersuchungen zur Theologie Inscriptiones Graecae Siciliae et infimae Italiae Jahrbuchfur Antike und Christentum JAC. P. Kirk & J. Supplementband Journal of Egyptian Archaeology Journal of Mithraic Studies Jordan Jordan. Die Kyraniden Peter Kingsley. Martinez. Amulets Kropp. Merkelbach. S. E. Henry Stewart Jones.Abbreviations and Short Titles XIII Hopfner. Hermes en Haute-Egypte Mandilaras. Baptized Martinez MBPF Merkelbach. Chaldean Oracles L IM C Loeb Classical Library Hans Lewy. Martinez. Die Kyraniden Kingsley. Isis Regina Henry George Liddell.. Griechisch-agyptischer Ojfenbarungszauber Erik Hornung. by communication Miinchner Beitrage zur Papyrusforschung und antiken Rechtsgeschichte Reinhold Merkelbach. Raven. Entwicklungsstadien des jtidischen Engelglaubens Jean-Pierre Mahe. Kotansky. A Greek-English Lexicon Michael Mach. et al. Wei.. Isis regina —Zeus Sarapis . O Z Hornung. Hermes en Haute-Egypte Basil G. Mystery and Magic G. Martinez. The Verb in Greek Non-Literary Papyri David G. eds. The World o f Ancient Magic Journal of Roman Studies JSHRZ Kaimakis. Greek Magical Amulets Angelicus Kropp. Long & David N. Theology JCPh Jahrbuch fur Antike und Christentum.. Das esoterische Agypten Hubert Cancik et al. Baptized for Our Sakes David G. Sedley. Weihegrade und Seelenlehre der Mithrasmysterien Reinhold Merkelbach.S JE A JM iS Jahrbiicher fur classische Philologie. et al. Pisciculi R oy D.

XIV
Merkelbach & Totti, Abrasax Meyer, “Mithras Liturgy” Meyer & Smith, Ancient
Christian Magic MH Michel, Gemmen Moulton, Grammar Muller, Agypten Naveh & Shaked, Amulets

Abbreviations and Short Titles

Reinhold Merkelbach & Maria Totti, eds., Abrasax Marvin Meyer, “Mithras Liturgy” Marvin Meyer & Richard Smith, eds.,

Ancient Christian Magic Museum Helveticum Simone Michel, Die magischen Gemmen James H. Moulton, A Grammar of N ew Testament Greek Dieter Muller, Agypten und die griechischen Isis-Aretalogien Joseph Naveh & Shaul Shaked, Amulets and Magic Bowls; Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity Naveh & Shaked, Magic Spells Joseph Naveh & Shaul Shaked, Magic Spells and Formulae Novum Testamentum Graece (post Eberhard et Erwin Nestle-Aland

NF Nilsson, G G R NHC NHS
N JK P H

Nestle ed. Barbara et Kurt Aland, et al.; 27th ed. rev.; Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993) N eue Folge Martin P. Nilsson, Geschichte der griechischen Religion Nag Hammadi Codex Nag Hammadi Studies
Neue Jahrbucherfur Klassische Philologie

N ock, Essays N ock & Festugiere Norden, Agnostos Theos
N ovT

Arthur Darby N ock, Essays on Religion and the
Ancient World

Arthur Darby N ock & Andre-Jean Festugiere, eds.,
Hermes Trismegiste

Eduard Norden, Agnostos Theos
Novum Testamentum

NovT.S N R SV

N ovum Testamentum, Supplements
The Holy Bible containing the Old and N ew Testaments, N ew Revised Standard Version (Oxford: Oxford University

NTApoc N TApok NTFi

Press, 1989) Edgar Hennecke et al., eds. N ew Testament Apocrypha Edgar Hennecke & Wilhelm Schneemelcher, eds.,
Neutestamentliche Apokryphen Nordisk Tijdskriftfor Filologi

OCT
OEAE Orph. Frag.

Oxford Classical Texts
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt Orphicorum Fragmenta, ed. Otto Kern

OTL
OTP

Old Testament Library James H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament
Pseudepigrapha

Pap. Parker, Miasma PDM Pease, Cicero PG
PGL

Papyrus Robert Parker, Miasma Papyri Demoticae Magicae Arthur Stanley Pease, ed., M . Tulli Ciceronis D e natura
deorum

Patrologia Graeca
Patristic Greek Lexicon, ed. G. W. H. Lampe Papyri Graecae Magicae Philologus

PGM
Ph.

PhAnt

Philosophia antiqua

Abbreviations and Short Titles Phoe. Phron.

XV

Phoenix. Bulletin uitg. door het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch

Genootschap ‘Ex oriente lux’
Phronesis

PL Pohlenz, Die Stoa Pradel, Gebete PRE PRE.S Preisendanz & Henrichs Preisendanz, vol. 3 (index)

Patrologia Latina Max Pohlenz, D ie Stoa Fritz Pradel, ed., Griechische und suditalienische Gebete Paulys Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft Paulys Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Supplementband Karl Preisendanz & Albert Henrichs, eds., Papyri Graecae
Magicae

Preisigke, Worterbuch PTS
RAC R A C .S

Karl Preisendanz, ed., Papyri Graecae Magicae. Die griechischen Zauberpapyri, vol. 3 (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner, 1941 [unpublished galleyproofs]) Friedrich Preisigke & Emil KieBling, eds., Worterbuch der
griechischen Papyrusurkunden

Patristische Texte und Studien
Reallexikon fu r Antike und Christentum Reallexikon fu r Antike und Christentum, Supplementband Ludwig Radermacher, Neutestamentliche Grammatik Revue archeologique Richard Reitzenstein, Poimandres Richard Reitzenstein, Das iranische Erlosungsmysterium

Radermacher, Grammatik
RAr

Reitzenstein, Poimandres Reitzenstein, Erlosungsmysterium

Reitzenstein, H M R
RGG

RGRW
RHR

Richard Reitzenstein, Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen Hans Dieter Betz, et al., eds., Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (4th ed.; Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1998— ) Religions in the Graeco-Roman World
Revue de I’histoire des religions

Ritner, Mechanics
R hM

Robert K. Ritner, The Mechanics of Egyptian Magical Practice
Rheinische Museum fur Philologie

Robinson, Library Roeder, Kulte Rohde, Psyche Roscher, Lexikon RW SAWW.PH SAOC SBA SBL.TT SBW SC Schafer, Ubersetzung Schafer & Kippenberg,
Envisioning Magic

James Robinson, ed., The Nag Hammadi Library in
English

Gunther Roeder, Kulte Erwin Rohde, Psyche Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher, Ausfuhrliches Lexikon der
griechischen und romischen Mythologie

Religionsgeschichdiche Versuche und Vorarbeiten Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in W ien, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilizations Schweizerische Beitrage zur Altertumswissenschaft Society o f Biblical Literature: Texts and Translations Studien der Bibliothek Warburg Sources chretiennes Peter Schafer, ed., Ubersetzung der Hekhalot-Literatur Peter Schafer & Hans Kippenberg, eds., Envisioning Magic

XVI
Schafer & Shaked,
Magische Texte Schenke, Nag Hammadi Deutsch Schmekel, Die Philosophic Schreckenberg, Ananke Schroder, Plutarchs Schrift Schiirer, History Schweitzer, Geschichte Schwyzer, Grammatik Scott, Hermetica Sethe, Pyramidentexte Sethe, Ubersetzung

Abbreviations and Short Titles

Peter Schafer & Shaul Shaked, eds., Magische Texte aus
der Kairoer Geniza

Hans-Martin Schenke, Nag Hammadi Deutsch August Schmekel, Die Philosophie der mittleren Stoa Heinz Schreckenberg, Ananke Stephan Schroder, Plutarchs Schrift D e Pythiae Oraculis Emil Schiirer, The History of the Jewish People Albert Schweitzer, Geschichte der Paulinischen Forschung Eduard Schwyzer, Griechische Grammatik Walter Scott, ed., Hermetica Kurt Sethe, Die altagyptischen Pyramidentexte Kurt Sethe, Ubersetzung und Kommentar zu den
altagyptischen Pyramidentexten

SGAM SGKA SG R R SHAW PH Smith, Studies
SO

Sudhoffs Archiv fur Geschichte der Medizin und Naturwissenschaft Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Altertums Studies in Greek and Roman Religion Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse Morton Smith, Studies in the Cult of Yahweh
Symbolae Osloenses

Speyer, Frtihes
Christentum

Wolfgang Speyer, Fruhes Christentum im
antiken Strahlungsfeld

SSIA Stengel, Kultusalterttimer StPP SubEpi
SVF TDNT

Skrifter utgivna av Svenska Institutet i Athen Paul Stengel, Die griechischen Kultusalterttimer Studien zur Palaographie und Papyruskunde Subsidia Epigraphica Hans von Arnim, ed., Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta
Theological Dictionary of the N ew Testament

TDSA Theiler, Poseidonios
ThW A T ThW N T

Testi e documenti per lo studio dell’ antichita Willy Theiler, Poseidonios: Die Fragmente
Theologisches Worterbuch zum Alten Testament Theologisches Worterbuch zum Neuen Testament

TK
TLG

Texte und Kommentare
Thesaurus Linguae Graecae

Totti, Texte Tran Tam Tinh, Essai
TRE

Maria Totti, ed., Ausgewahlte Texte der Isis- und
Sarapisreligion

Vincent Tran Tam Tinh, Essai sur le culte d’Isis a Pompei
Theologische Realenzyklopadie

TSAJ TU UM S.H Velde, Seth Vermaseren, C IM R M Vermaseren, Mithriaca I Vermaseren, Mithriaca II

Texte und Studien zum antiken Judentum Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchrisdichen Literatur University o f Michigan Studies, Humanistic Series Henk de Velde, Seth, God of Confusion Maarten J. Vermaseren, Corpus Inscriptionum et
Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae Maarten J. Vermaseren, Mithriaca I: The Mithraeum at S. Maria Capua Vetere Maarten J. Vermaseren, Mithriaca II: The Mithraeum at Ponza

Abbreviations and Short Titles

XVII

Vermaseren, Mithriaca III Vermaseren, Mithriaca I V Vermaseren & Van Essen,
The Excavations

Maarten J. Vermaseren, Mithriaca III: The Mithraeum at
Marino

Maarten J. Vermaseren, Mithriaca IV: Le monument
d’Ottaviano Zeno et le culte de Mithra sur le Celius

Maarten J. Vermaseren & C. C. van Essen,
The Excavations in the Mithraeum of the Church of Santa Prisca in Rome Henk S. Versnel, Inconsistencies in Greek and Roman Religion Visible Religion Cornelia J. de Vogel, Greek Philosophy Paul Volz, D ie Eschatologie der judischen Gemeinde Theodor Wachter, Reinheitsvorschriften im griechischen Kult Otto Weinreich, Religionsgeschichtliche Studien Carl Wessely, Griechische Zauberpapyrus

Versnel, Inconsistencies
VisRel

de Vogel, Greek Philosophy Volz, Eschatologie Wachter, Reinheitsvorschriften Weinreich, Studien Wessely, Zauberpapyrus Wessely, “Zu den griechischen Papyri” Wiedemann, Herodot
WJA WKP W St

Karl Wessely, “Zu den griechischen Papyri des Louvre” Alfred Wiedemann, Herodots zweites Buch
Wurzburger Jahrbticherfiir die Altertumswissenschaft Wochenschrift fu r klassische Philologie Wiener Studien

WSt.B W UNT
ZPE

Wiener Studien, Beiheft Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament
Zeitschriftfu r Papyrologie und Epigraphik

Zuntz, Persephone

Gunther Zuntz, Persephone

Critical Signs used in the Papyrus Text
[] < > [] () { } аЈЗ^б Lacuna Omission in the original Deletion in the original Resolution o f a symbol or abbreviation Cancelled by the editor o f the text Interlinear addition Uncertain letters Illegible letters

” R G G (4th ed. the famous Belgian scholar on Mithraism. 48. 41. 1923. Fondateur. 1966). 1903.1 H e intended this title to be provocative. Dieterich dedicated his book to Franz C um ont (1868— 1947). decided to call the segment o f text taken from the long magical papyrus o f Paris (Bibliotheque Nationale. 2 See the commentary infra. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. “Cumont. the provocative title “Mithras Liturgy” (which o f course does not occur in the papyrus itself) became a kind o f trigger to evoke controversies going straight to the heart and substance o f classical scholarship. at lines 477. 771. Secondly. we thus recognize that it was D ieterich who. 747.4 Instead o f C um ont s attribution o f the text to an Egyptian magician engaged with Hermeticism. by Otto Weinreich. “Franz Cumont. 3 On Cumont see Robert Turcan. 3rd ed. which calls for explanation. 252-71.2 the subtitle o f his work (p.” Hieros 2 (1997) 11— 20. “D ie Religion des Mithras. 1911). Suppl. Dieterich realized that a different descriptive title is found in the text itself.). The title announces two basic assumptions. a fact proved subsequently by the reception o f the book. 1910. First o f all. Dieterich s proposed to take the text’ reference to Mithras s 1 Albrecht Dieterich. 2nd ed. Moreover. . Franz. XI). The “Mithras Liturgy A Provocative Title T he title o f the present book is borrowed from Albrecht Dieterich s Eine Mithrasliturgie. see Albrecht Dieterich. 2 (1999) 504— 5. The provocation turned out to be greater than Dieterich had anticipated. the approach to the text is indirectly through Dieterich s commentary. After publication. grec 574) by the name Eine Mithrasliturgie. Richard Wiinsch. so he made that title. Leipzig & Berlin. by Richard Wiinsch. Corinne Bonnet. Eine Mithrasliturgie (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. followed by Text und Ubersetzung der Mithras­ liturgie (“Text and Translation o f the Mithras Liturgy”). AI1A 0A N A TI2M O 2 ([Ritual of] Immortalization). after considerable preparatory work had been done. 647— 741. 4 On this point.Introduction I.3 w hom he greatly admired but whose fundamental theories about Mithras he wished to challenge.” B J 108— (1902) 9 26— reprinted in his Kleine Schriften (ed.

das class. 260— 61. p. 300. 234— 36). 7 Cf. Bruxelles: Maertin. idem. but here I share the skepticism o f Reitzenstein (NeueJahrb. Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra (2 vols.2 Introduction seriously and to interpret it in the context o f syncretistic forms o f Mithraism. XLVII. 1904. had it existed. These objections are. it should be understood that Dieterich had walked into another highly 5 Cumont’ major review o f Dieterich is entitled. 1903.” C um ont found it utterly incredible that an Egyptian magician should have had access to a Mithraic liturgy. 1904.. N either the former nor the latter doctrine. D ieterich answered briefly in Archivf. orientates dans le paganisme romain (Paris: Leroux. 1956). which. but attributed it to the stereotypical cleverness w ith which Egyptian magicians dressed up their forgeries. T he name o f Mithra. Stuttgart: Teubner. the most important is that o f Albrecht Dieterich. VIII. but no trace o f it has survived. however. p.”6 C um ont based his views regarding Mithraism on the evidence o f inscriptions and literary texts. 1959). through positive testimony that they taught the dogma o f the passage o f the soul through the seven planetary spheres. 272. helped to circulate an Egyptian forgery . Besides the problem o f defining the term “liturgy. 1896). but Cumont remained uncon­ vinced and repeated his criticism in the 4th edition (Paris: Geuthner. H e has endeavored with some ingenuity to show that a mystical passage inserted in a magical papyrus preserved at Paris is in reality a fragment o f a Mithraic liturgy. Eine Mithrasliturgie. pp. 502. The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism (Chicago: Open Court Publishing. Die orientalischen Religionen im romischen Heidentum (trans. de Vinstr. however. 1929). T he author o f the passage in question may have been more or less accurate in giving his god the external appearance o f Mithra. but he certainly did not know the eschatology o f the Persian mysteries. such an esoteric text. August Burckhardt-Brandenberg. . 279-80. Religionsms. is found in the fantastic uranography o f the magician. as elsewhere that o f the magi Zoroaster and Hostanes. en Belg.. D ieterich’ other s suggestion. reprinted N ew York: Dover.” Revue de Vinstruction publique en Belgique 46 (1904) 1— see also his Les Religions 10. . 6 Franz Cumont. Iff. Dieterich advanced further arguments to persuade Cumont (in Mithrasliturgie.. “U n livre nouveau sur la liturgie s pa'fenne.7 He did not take the name Mithras that occurs in the text seriously. speculative in view of the fact that the Paris Magical Papyrus is meant to be just such an esoteric text. for instance. Altertum.” was equally unacceptable to Cum ont. see also the German edition. according to which the text contained a “liturgy. 1905.. We know. W hile these issues will have to be discussed further in the present com m en­ tary. 192) and I have given my reasons in Rev. publ.5 C um ont’ basic objections are the following: s “A m ong the learned researches w hich w e cannot enumerate here. would have been highly secret.41. 1. 1906). 1911. but w ithout convincing me.f. and that Mithra acted as a guide to his votaries in their ascension to the realm o f the blessed. contained nothing comparable to D ieterich’s Mithras Liturgy. 1899. as he correctly pointed out.

ed. Denn ich will meine Hellenen nicht bewundern.I. 1. Kleine Schriften.” The final sentence reflects Goethe s ballad o f 1797. CT: Wesleyan University. Erich Trunz. folklore (“Volkskunde”). 66. “Nekrolog einer Epoche: Hermann Usener und seine Schule: Ein wirkungsgeschichtlicher Riickblick auf die Jahre 1856-1979. given 1893 at Gottingen. 664— 76. especially. Hellmut Flashar. See Richard Wiinsch. William M.” 182-83. that o f the methodological debate between the two most influential schools o f classical scholarship at the time. sondern verstehn. W ilamowitz-M oellendorff was deeply divided about the Usener school’ s extension o f classical scholarship into the areas of popular religion (“Volksreligion”). Stuttgart & Leipzig: Teubner. ix— xlii.” in N ew Paths of Classicism in the Nineteenth Century (Middletown. Berlin: Weidmann. Calder III. soli er schonen. 263-305.”11 Although he respected Usener. the schools o f Hermann Usener (1834-1905) in Bonn8 and Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff in Berlin (1848-1931). Usener und Wilamowitz: Ein Briefwechsel 1 8 7 0 -1 9 0 5 (2nd ed. Only Part I was published: Mutter Erde: Ein Versuch tiber Volksreligion (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. 1989). “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken..10 on the other hand.273— with the commentary.. 254-55: “Ich habe einmal gehort. esp.” 183. Calder III. O n the one hand. entitled “Aus agyptischen Grabern” (Reden und Vortrage [2nd ed. he sensed the danger that classical philology could be neglecting the great Hellenic tradition by bogging down in what he contemptuously named “Botokudenphilologie. 1982). DaB sie das tun. “Albrecht Dieterich. In Part IV he wished to treat the subject o f “Formen der Vereinigung des Menschen mit Gott. Pfister. where both articulate their basic premises regarding ancient religion. ‘“Der Glaube der Hellenen’: Religionsgeschichte als Glaubensbekenntnis und Kulturkritik. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken in der Religionswissenschaft. xxxvi. xxx. and magic. 33— 48. 1 Reported by Pfister. weil sie dem Altertum den vornehmen Schimmer der Klassizitat nehmen. —soli er strafen. 1902]. 9 See. w ie ein bedeutender Gelehrter beklagte. On the Usener school see Hans Joachim Mette. 280. Wilamowitz confirmed that the study o f antiquity must include all o f antiquity. der Herr der Erden. muB den Menschen menschlich sehn. 1994). especially 55-58. esp. 1985).” A R W 35 (1938) 180— 85. Friedrich Pfister. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.” in Wilamowitz nach 50 Jahren (eds.” and in it he planned to complete the commentary work on the second part o f the Mithras Liturgy. 1 12 Dieterich made known his future plans that seem to confirm Wilamowitz’s suspicions: a multi-volume work. entitled Volksreligion: Versuche tiber die Grundformen religiosen Denkens. In Berlin. 10 See the remarkable conclusion o f his lecture. aber ich freue mich dessen. Miinchen: Beck. Arnaldo Momigliano.” Lustrum 22 (1979— 1980) 5-106.” in Dieterich. he saw in D ieterich’s scholarship a tendency toward disinte­ gration o f the discipline o f classical philology. . 1905). ist unbestreitbar.. Wilamowitz and 8 Instructive is the correspondence between Usener and Wilamowitz. “Der Gott und die Bajadere: Indische Legende. 283-84. daB die Papyri gefunden waren. “Her­ mann Usener. 224— 55). his father-in-law and close collaborator. The “Mithras Liturgy”: A Provocative Title 3 contentious territory. superstition (“Aberglaube”).9 Dieterich represented the methodological approaches developed by Usener.12 As a result. ed. damit ich sie gerecht beurteilen kann. 287-88. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken. Albert Henrichs. Theodor Lindken.” in Goethes Werke (Hamburger Ausgabe. Und selbst Mahadoh. see William M.

M artin P. 82. 1986). n. Regarding the main thesis. to be sure. Nilsson summed up the com m on view about Dieterich s book in this way. From early on. William Calder III.” . scholars distinguished between D ieterich s pro­ vocative claim that the Mithras Liturgy actually came from the liturgy o f the cult o f Mithras and the plethora o f materials and suggestive ideas assembled in the book.iKj$cwa. 1901. 1961). he says that “it should now be 13 See the studies included in Wilamowitz nach 5 0 Jahren (eds..15 these responses did not diminish the continuous stimulation exerted by it. Therefore. Theodor Lindken. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Egyptian Mind (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wiirdest Du ‘Mithrasliturgie’ oder ‘Mithrasweihe’ auf die Seite drucken? Ich muB auch. esp. As correspondence w ith Usener reveals. whatever the risks were. 280-84. 33: “The section that mainly concerns us here (475— 750) is what Dieterich misleadingly dubbed “eine Mithrasliturgie” in his book o f that name. der Zusatz sollte nur eben die Zugehorigkeit zum M ithraskvlt [sic] gleich vorn hervorheben. he took them knowingly and courageously. die ich noch anhangsweise herausgebe: es schien mir die Bezeichnung zu sein. had to do not so much with differences in philological m ethod but w ith deeper competing conceptions o f what constitutes the discipline o f “classical philology. he mentions his previous lectures on the Mithras Liturgy in the Preface. Geschichte der griechischen Religion (vol.”13 Dieterich was aware o f the kind o f risks he was taking.4 Introduction his school consistently treated D ieterich’ work as marginal. The deeper s reason. die Worte des Titels formuliren. weil in dem Papyrus nachher diese Partie so genannt wird in einer Stelle. replying to Useners suggestions (non-extant) in the letter o f December 8.Tia\xoq hatte ich zuvorgesetzt. 15 So also Garth Fowden.14 H e also gave lectures about his work before publica­ tion. although he may have got more than he had bargained for. he brings up the “Mithrasweihe” and raises the question o f the title in a letter o f October 29. 14 In his letter to Usener. 2.. dated May 3. die diese Leute fur den Kultakt wirklich brauchten. Wiirde Dir gefallen: EINE M ITHRASLITURGIE Text Ubersetzung Einleitung von . Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Ich andere das. he decides on “Eine Mithras­ liturgie”: l‘b. 1985). in particular the title o f the book. oder die Mittelreihe weglassen? D ie Fragen haben aber gar keine Eile! ” Quoted with permission from the Nachlafl o f Usener and Dieterich in the University Library in Bonn (Signature: S 2102. The ongoing role Dieterich s book played in scholarship has been docum ented by the editors in the succes­ sive editions. Thanking his friends Siegfried Sudhaus. and Richard Wiinsch for their suggestions and warnings means that he shared manuscripts and galley-proofs w ith friends. Hellmut Flashar. he discussed matters beforehand w ith him. Although even present-day scholars repeat C um ont s rejection o f the title and the major hypothesis o f D ieterich s book. 1901. In his authoritative work.2). Paul Wendland. 1901. da an einer Abbildung fur den Titel (eben der Rindschulterszene) probirt wird.

20).64... It is an aTca&avaTtafji. was enacted in the mysteries o f Mithras. G G R . as contained in this magical book. 87) as having 33 pages (see below. 2: “Diese These . see ibid. 18 Papyri Graecae Magicae.. that the fantastic voyage to heaven.176— esp.. 68. still demand explanation: the appearance o f the name o f Mithras and the “liturgical” nature o f the text.. the success o f w hich was lasting and well-deserved. however. Mithraic. was criticized im me­ diately and can hardly be maintained. 2.”16 This evaluation. That document is neither a liturgy nor. 192): “We are here in the sphere o f individualist religion. therefore. w ith special elaborations on a syncretistic background. The two implications o f Dieterich’s title.” Yet. this is the point where new investigations need to begin. II. also Arthur Darby N ock who follows Cumont and Reitzenstein in his article o f 1929 (“Greek Magical Papyri. The present assessment o f D ieterich’s work has been well stated by Walter Burkert: “The interest in magical papyri for the history o f religion was initiated by Albrecht Dieterich in his books Abraxas and Eine Mithrasliturgie.18 the name derives from its great length o f 36 16 Nilsson. Origin and Provenance T he text o f the Mithras Liturgy consists o f a segment o f what scholars call the “Great Magical Papyrus o f Paris. n.6<. properly speaking.” Essays. directions how one shall make oneself immortal and pass through the heavens__ ” 17 Burkert. 1. Yet the thesis implied in the title Mithrasliturgie.II. The Papyrus 5 given up. part o f the Anastasi collection. 1. he also explains the different description in Lenormant’ s auction catalogue (p. #1073). 94. is the key to the understanding o f the so-called Mithrasliturgie. sondern auf den von ihm vorgetragenen allgemeinen Gesichtspunkten. requires revision in the light o f more recent research in the areas o f hellenistic syncretism in GraecoEgypt and in Mithraism. 286-93. n. The text describes a private trip in a quest for oracular revelations.670. According to Preisendanz..” For a more detailed discussion o f Dieterich. Ancient Mystery Cults. but on the more general ideas he presented. as Reitzenstein has observed. which in many ways have since become standard. There remain puzzling problems in explaining this and similar texts. Cf. T he Papyrus 1. .. “T he significance o f D ieterich’ book does not depend on this s thesis. And this.”17 Indeed. not a communal mystery rite.” now housed in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris (Supplement grec #574. diirfte nunmehr aufgegeben sein__ D ie Bedeutung des Dieterichschen Buches beruht nicht auf dieser These. die vielfach maBgebend geworden sind .

w ritten on both sides and to be taken as the pages o f a papyrus codex. he divides the Mithras Liturgy into two parts.19 The m an’ original name may s have been different. . This division. Fol. however. formed the book cover. Besides business and politics. Giovanni Anastasi (1780— 1857).” 11. 821— 34). 16 and 34 recto. Mr. The delimitation o f the beginning and end o f the Mithras Liturgy was made first by Dieterich on the basis o f Wessely’ edition. needs reconsideration in the light o f a thoroughgoing compositional analysis. Moreover.. he remained undecided about its end. “Anastasi. the small Coptic piece in fol. his naming o f the first part as “liturgy” (“Mithrasliturgie”) and second part as “Anwendung” (Application) seems artificial. Fol. W hile Dieterich was s right about the beginning. This son became wealthy and gained the favor o f the Pasha who appointed him in 1828 as Consul General in Egypt to the kingdoms o f Norway and Sweden. The delimitation o f the text segment. verso are blank. 16 and 34 recto. since he ignores the fact that both parts are “applications. w ritten in Italian or French (Jean d ’Anastasy). esp. a. H e was the son o f an Armenian merchant from Damascus w ho had settled in Alexandria. 1 verso seems to have been w ritten onto it as an addition. 467— 74). but he was known under the assumed name. which he folded in the middle like pages and on which he wrote from p. In his commentary.6 Introduction leaves containing 3274 lines. called fcnoL&owixTioiioc. for whatever reason. is not based on a composition analysis and therefore creates more problems than it solves. therefore. Sallier. 1 recto. 475— 723).” Dieterich s reason follows from his assumption o f a primary Mithraic source and its secondary magical application. 158-60. sandwiched between the Hom eric quotations. and the “Anweisung zu magischer Verwendung der Mithrasliturgie” (“Instruction for the magical application of the Mithras Liturgy. Anastasi enjoyed great 19 See Warren R . Circumstances of Discovery Regarding the origin and provenance o f the papyrus book not m uch is known. “Immortalization” (11. 36 recto verso. W hile he includes the quotations from H om er at the end (11. he served in this capacity until his death. Dawson. 2 recto onwards. M ore likely is that the Mithras Liturgy is. 723-834). and what little information we have seems to have come from the collector. and fol. The creator o f the book had 18 double-leaves. and Harris and Their Papyri. 3 verso. the ritual proper. he does not include those that stand before the beginning (11. together w ith fol. 1 recto verso.” JE A 35 (1949) 158-66.

22 Lenormant s description is rather fanciful (p. little was known at the time about the content o f the papyri. At the widely publicized auction in Paris in 1857 this papyrus was acquired by the Bibliotheque Nationale (#1073). sera vendue aux encheres publiques Rue de Clichy. confirming the origin in Thebes (169.” 68: . 20 The sizable catalogue o f 1129 items was compiled by Francois Lenormant. see Karl Preisendanz. visited temple libraries. Koln: Brill. location and circumstances o f the discovery.23 If the “great magical papyrus of Paris.21 probably because Anastasi had said so. scholars. where it is until today.. Papyrusfunde und Papyrusforschung (Leipzig: Hiersemann. The Egyptian Hermes. Most likely working through Egyptian agents.” was compiled from many sources. o f which he sent several shipments to Europe for auctions in Paris and London. 84): “M. especially pp.” 21 On this city in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. ed. 1995). d’Anastasi. Carl Wessely (W S t 8 [1886] 189) who opts for Heracleopolis at the time o f Tertullian. see W. N ew York. also Fowden.. Fowden. which would presuppose that the author travelled. 166— “Temples and priests. 23 This is Preisendanz’ conclusion. 1933). but all sources agree that they came from Thebes. there is no concrete evidence concerning the time.22 However. Hundred-Gated Thebes: Acts of a Colloquium on Thebes and the Theban Area in the Graeco-Roman Period (Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava 27. (Paris: Maulde et R enou. 169— speaks o f the Anastasi collection as “the Thebes 71. For the PGM. Vleeming.” 95: Cf. perhaps in a large box or terracotta vessel. Catalogue d ’ une collection RassembUe par M . Among the materials were 60 papyrus manuscripts. 16982. n. P. one o f w hich was the Great Magical Papyrus. In the post-Napoleonic world a wave of interest in these antiquities developed on the part o f European dealers. Because o f the similarities between the pieces in the collection and the fact o f their relatively good condition. was indeed found in Thebes. Anastasi was able to amass huge treasures. see the essays and bibliographical materials in S. Etc. 48). The collection. Tait. 91— “Bibliothek der Zauberpapyri von Theben. 1857). but they could just as well have been excerpted at other places in Egypt. it is conceivable indeed that all or most o f them came from the library o f a learned priest and magician that was placed w ith him in his grave. The Egyptian Hermes. Leiden). J. “Theban Magic. dated March 18. Anastasi. and shared materials with other magicians.Jeudi 25. The Papyrus 1 success as an enthusiastic dilletant and collector o f Egyptian antiquities. les Mardi 23. Consul general de Suede a Alexandrie. and museums.II.” and together w ith it the Mithras Liturgy. it does not necessarily imply that the papyrus was also w ritten there. He was o f course not the only collector. Leiden. Mercredi 24. dans ses fouilles a Thebes avait decouvert la bibliotheque d’un gnostique egyptien du second siecle— ” Cf. 8 4 88: “Papyrus. Vendredi 26 & Samedi 2 1 Juin 1851. No.20 As the printed auction catalogue reveals. 16. cache” and refers to a letter by Anastasi.” ibid. 1828 (now in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden. but the time was ripe for rich pickings. These sources may have existed in Theban temple libraries. a une heure. serving a practicing magician as a “handbook.

Salt’ collection o f Egyptian Antiquities. denn von “Buchern”. wissen wir nichts. nat. together w ith a catalogue o f Mr. unzusammenhangenden Blattern bestanden. he wrote up a personal account o f his activities. Esq.. 79. 3. and the Six following Days (Sunday excepted). 28 Ibid. Ce fromage n ’est autre que la gnose. gr. 36) Einzelblattern kannte.. 1073).28 24 Lenormant..8 Introduction The Mithras Liturgy explicitly refers to such sharing o f ritual texts among magicians. 87 (Nr. suppl.26 D ’Athanasi s s own collection was auctioned off in London by Leigh Sotheby in 1837. . which will be sold by auction by Mr. on Monday.” who was a resident for eighteen years at Thebes. qui debutant par l’histoire d’un fromage mystique pour la composition duquel s’associent Osiris. 26 Ibid. “Zum Pariser Zauberpapyrus der bibl. — Ecriture du second siecle de notre ere.. Leigh Sotheby. 151. A Brief Account of the Researches and Discoveries in Upper Egypt. or that the final copy resulted from a combination o f both these activities. engaged in hunting after objects o f antiquity. 575— “Aus dem 76: ganzen Passus geht hervor. March 13th. Wellington Street. a 60 lignes environ par page.27 These collectors speak o f the manuscript scrolls as having been found in terracotta urns in or near tombs. and his father was a merchant in Cairo. 151. At the suggestion o f English travellers w ho m et him in Thebes.”24 Some general information about the milieu of these collectors can be gleaned from one o f Anastasi’ acquaintances. illustrated with twelve engravings o f some o f the s most interesting objects. 1836). Das war natiirlich die urspriingliche Form des Buches nicht. Sabaoth. This assumption could mean either that the handbook was filled not at once but over a period o f time. Papyrusbiicher in Codexform dagegen kennen wir. Jesus et tous les autres eons. 68 [1909] 575— 77). 27 Catalogue of the Very Magnificent and Extraordinary Collection of Egyptian Antiquities. at his house. to which is added a detailed catalogue o f Mr. En tete sont trois pages de copte. Strand. Giovanni d’Athanasi. the Property of Giovanni d ’Athanasi. 574” (Ph. 151. About the “great magical papyrus” the catalogue has this to say: “M anu­ script sur feuilles de papyrus pliees en livre. on this passage Karl Preisendanz.25 He was born on the island o f Lemnos. made under the direction o f Henry Salt. 1837). die aus iibereinandergelegten. ix. ix. 1837.. where he worked as an interpreter to an English collector by the name o f H enry Salt. and an enumeration o f those articles purchased for the British Museum (London: John Hearne. formant 33 feuillets ecrits des deux cotes.. or that the sections were successively assembled before they were copied together into the handbook. Salt’ collection o f antiquities. com­ s monly known as “Yanni. Cf.” 25 Giovanni d’Athanasi. at One o ’Clock precisely (London: J. daB man schon damals den Papyrus als eine Schicht von 33 (bzw. Iao. This account was published in London in the year 1836. Davy.

followed by the ritual function of the original text in the Egyptian Mithras cult (150— 200). Christian-gnostic. 29 See Dieterich. the text is thoroughly Hellenistic-Egyptian w ithout any traces o f Christian. 1. 1907.: Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider. 3rd ed. 30 Dieterich. (2) because he has no detailed compositional analysis on hand. however. however. this date applies to the extant script. It seems reasonable to estimate that it took about 200 years for the composition and its parts to come together.64) also refers to Wilhelm Schubart. who points out that the papyrus codex came into use just about this time. or Neoplatonic influences — although traditions o f Middle Stoicism are apparent. .II. the origin occurring in the years 100— 150. do not render Dieterich s time frame invalid. pertains to the w ritten papyrus as extant: “Die Zeit Diokletians ist also terminus. and concluded by the inclusion o f the final copy in the papyrus book.64. Internal criteria point to some older and some younger sources. the subsequent adaptation and development by the magicians (200— 300). Date The question o f the date has been decided firmly on linguistic and palaeographical grounds by the Vienna papyrologist Carl Wessely (1860— 1931). but the text presupposes a longer process o f development. beset w ith problems. These problems. The Papyrus 9 b. to Hermeticism. Das Buch bei den Griechen undRomern (Berlin: Reimer. (3) Dieterich s own hypo­ s thetical assumption o f an earlier stage as a Mithraic cultic text and subsequent adaptation by magicians determines how he sees the development.29 This. with w hom all other papyrologists agree. Externally. The fact that the text shows evidence o f the interpretation o f older traditions means that these traditions have a prehistory o f their own. 44 (emphasized). 46. but does not conform to the textual evidence. 43— Preisendanz. ante quem das Papyrusbuch abgefaBt sein muB: auf alle Falle ist die Liturgie in dieser Abschrift geschrieben zur Zeit hoher Bliite des Mithrasdienstes. Mithrasliturgie. Dieterich’s hypothesis is. however. Mithrasliturgie. They date the script to the early fourth century. 1962). Papyri Graecae Magicae. he cannot clearly identify the au­ thor’ contributions in distinction from sources. as is a certain closeness . Preisendanz (1. Dieterich suggests that the development o f the composition took more than 200 years.”30 As Dieterich indicates. Considering the complexities. (1) He does not distinguish clearly enough between scribe and author.

at least in principle. As one m ight expect. 610— 17. if taken seriously. 495— 98.204. and he adds supplementary informa­ tion before he ends w ith a note indicating completion (11. Therefore. 478— and cross-references to the sup­ 81) plements. imply that the scribe or author had available more than one version o f the Vorlage.34 He adds learned theological commentary w ith explanations o f traditions (e. below. older sources adopted and adapted from tradition. 2002): “Palaeographically. 33 Cf. see also Graf. T he redactional comments. and supplements added at various stages o f the composition by subsequent copyists. 798— 813). 9. Redactional references in the text itself indicate that we must. 60— 87.33 A He inserts a marginal com m ent (11. 211 n. 33. 7). the final text is the authors own autograph that included all the insertions and supplements. n. 31 On the references to variants see below at n. Authorship Introduction T he question o f authorship is also complicated. while source materials excerpted from other contexts had their own authors before inclu­ sion in the final copy. distinguish the scribe from the author. While the final author remains anonymous. while the scribe copied his autograph. IV. there is no evidence o f multiple authorship at the final level. Even when he identifies himself by names in passages we call “self­ presentations. VII. The scribe is clearly conscious o f what he is doing: he leaves spaces within the line to mark punctuation and sometimes even to distinguish words. he begins his work with a fine literary preface (11. 791— 98). he speaks in the first person throughout. 11.. And there are several previously unnoticed lectional signs over some o f the clusters o f vowels. 591). 32 For the full evidence see the Conspectus o f the literary analysis. he was an expert in the handling o f magical materials. that final copy has only one author and redactor. W hat is surprising.” he leaves the place vacant by using the symbol A or magical names.” See below on 11. XIII. also PGM 11.29. 529— 32).g. he would then be the author.10 c. 236. Things get more complicated by the facts that the author s work is a highly developed redactional composition involving his own contributions. If scribe and author were the same person. is his expertise as a literary scholar and writer. Finally. pp. ol бѕ' cruvxAelcrca (1.731. 34 David Jordans evaluation confirms this (letter o f December 17. 475— 85). however.50. the papyrus is more interesting than I had thought.31 If the two were different persons. 819— 20). 500) and срмто^ хтхсига. V51. 1277. . Gottesndhe.201. and he corrects his own earlier practice (11. or library research and consultation o f herbalist sources for information on the plant kentritis (11. XII.32 H e has carefully examined other versions o f the text and has noted textual variants: ev ocA to (1. W hat we see on the papyrus pages is the work o f a scribe who copied the text from a Vorlage into the codex. one o f them had compared the versions and noted the textual variants. Magic.

1889). 1888). he himself was more interested in the religio-historical interpretation w hich comprises the main body o f his book. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals (Wien: Verlag des K. . “Zu den griechischen Papyri des Louvre und der Bibliotheque Nationale. based on his collation made in Paris in August o f 1883. and as part of 35 Carl Wessely. apparatus. included in Preisendanz’s edition o f 1928 (1. 1.38 Karl Preisen­ danz. Balashev. 16. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals.II. supplemented by other evidence. 42 See Dieterich. 12-19. Novossadksy. 2. 27— 208. 723. 129). Petersburg: V S. Part 302. and the third edition (1923) by O tto Weinreich.64— 2. p. edited and published in 1928 by Karl Preisendanz (1883— 1968). 68 (1909) 575— idem.” Ph.44 Although he paid careful attention to the textual evidence. Richard Wiinsch also used the plates (see Dieterich. Abteilung. “Ad papyrum magicam bibliothecae parisinae nationalis adnotationes palaeographicae. did not change Dieterich s text.35 in 1888 he checked the papyrus again and published his corrections in 1889.” W St 42 (1920) 24— idem. Papyri Graecae Magicae. Novossadsky.43 In Dieterich s book.” Ph. 2. These editors. 33. nat.36 All subsequent editions depend on Wessely. continue until the end.42 This supplementary material was added in appendices to the second edition (1910) by Richard Wiinsch. “Zum Pariser Zauberpapyrus der bibl. “Adversaria graeca. K . 1. the Greek text.37 N. 723— as belonging to the original Mithras Liturgy. 36 Idem. 41 See Preisendanz.PH 36. 40 Collations o f 1927. gr. 77. Greek text and notes. 38 N. 37 Wilhelm Kroll. It includes the “GroBe Pariser Zauberpapyrus (P IV)”. appendix to the 3rd ed. 56— 65. with apparatus and notes.64. although several papyrologists examined the papyri and proposed different readings: W ilhelm Kroll. The edition o f the Papyri graecae magicae.”Journal of the Ministry of National Education. the section containing the Mithras Liturgy is found on pp. ebenso die in der zweiten Auflage enthaltenen Nachtrage” [scil. Mithrasliturgie.. in the preface to the third edition. Editions T he first edition o f the Paris Papyri was published by Wessely in 1888. but his German translation ends at 1. suppl. xvii. 1895). “Griechische Zauberpapyrus von Paris und London” (DOAW. 834 however. Mithrasliturgie. 82— 87. K. 43 So Weinreich. Mithrasliturgie. 39 Karl Preisendanz.41 In his own commentary Eine Mithrasliturgie o f 1903.65). iv: “Dieterichs Text blieb selbstverstandlich unverandert. 44 See Dieterich. however. includes PGM IV 475— 834. 53 (1894) 416— 28.” in Fiinfzehnter Jahresbericht des K . D ieterich relied on Kroll s collations and on the photographic plates. The Papyrus 11 2. December 1895 (St. because he did not regard 11. Papyri Graecae Magicae. Dieterichs]. placed the Paris magical papyrus in the first volume.v— 66. apparatus.39 Richard Ganszyniec. Wien: Tempsky. “Miszellen zu den Zauberpapyri. 574.40 and others.

XIII). durchgesehen und herausgegeben von Albert Henrichs [2 vols. and to Richard Wiinsch. xliv. 2 includes those texts that were to be part o f vol. although they are still useful in the absence o f a newly compiled index verborum.50 Moreover. where Preisendanz had taught. his contributions consist o f the inclusion o f supple­ mentary notes by Preisendanz and his own textual emendations (Zweite. They were used also by Albert Henrichs for the new Preisendanz edition o f 1973 (1.64.46 In addition.47 O ne should realize that the edition was intended merely as a study edition. photo­ copies o f which have circulated among scholars. until after World War II. The photographs were deposited at the University Library in Heidelberg. Missoula.45 Preisendanz uses the text o f Wessely. 48 Preisendanz’s Vorrede (l. 1976). 3 (printed in the new edition. as Professor Ludwig Koenen reported. a set o f the galley-proofs was saved. Meyer.XIII.49 O ther study editions have been published more recently. The new edition o f vol. Preisendanz’s vol.GRRS. 48— 54. herausgegeben und iibersetzt von Karl Preisendanz (1st ed. The comprehensive indices were not reprinted because they are now outdated. See Henrichs s Vorwort zu r Neuausgabe. 2. also Betz. verbesserte Auflage mit Erganzungen von Karl Preisendanz. a study edition was pub­ lished in 1992 by Reinhold Merkelbach in the third o f his four-volume collec- 45 Papyri Graecae Magicae: D ie griechischen Zauberpapyri. paving the way for a standard critical edition which has not yet materialized. 1973. 2 vols. Preisendanz made use o f photographic plates which D ieterich had procured and which his widow.48 The second edition o f Preisendanz prepared by Albert Henrichs was intended as an improved republication.VII— XVII). For his work Henrichs was able to use Preisendanz’ NachlaJ] in Heidelberg. MT: Scholars Press. and also the reconstructed Hymns according to a new reconstruction by Ernst Heitsch.. . Stuttgart: Teubner.VI): “Auch dieses Corpus der griechischen Zauberpapyri geht auf EinfluB und Anregung ALBBJECHT DIETERICHs zuriick. Oft betonte er in jenen Heidelberger Seminariibungen des Sommers 1905 und im personlichen Gesprach als Hauptgrund ihrer verachtlichen Behandlung durch die philologischen und theologischen Forscher das Fehlen einer leicht zuganglichen. M arie Dieterich. 88— 100. 46 Preisendanz. a former student o f Dieterich. 1943. G M P T .” W St 41 (1919) 140-44. foremost among them D ieterich.” 49 As Henrichs explains (l. Michigan. Meyers English translation was included in Betz. 42 (1920) 24— 33.TT. M arvin W. ibid. 1. 1 . Preisendanz explains the contents in the Vorrede to vol. 1. allgemein lesbaren und verstandlichen Ausgabe der verstreut publizierten und teilweise hochst mangelhaft bearbeiteten Texte.12 Introduction it the Mithras Liturgy. 50 Marvin M. 1928). Meyer contributed a fascicle entitled The “Mithras Liturgy. Unfortunately.” which contains the text o f Preisendanz and an English translation. 3 was not published because s the printing plates were destroyed when the Teubner publishing house in Leipzig was bombed on December 4. 2. 47 Ibid. The “Mithras Liturgy” (SBL. dedicated his edition to the memory o f his teacher. 1974).64— 180. G M PT . modified ac­ cording to the carefully noted suggestions made by earlier scholars. had made available to him. the Mithras Liturgy. Fortunately. they were subsequently lost in the mail on the way to Ann Arbor... see also the citations in note 14 above.. 3. Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. and Preisendanz.12). “Miszellen zu den Zauberpapyri.

.3. 169— (text. 155— Text and translation o f 57.303— following mostly Dieterich. 212— (German 13 translation.II. 60 R eview o f Preisendanz s edition. 53 “Adversaria graeca.” C lR 10 (1896) 409— 13. 233— an especially valuable 49. 95.475— 824). 52 For his own explanation o f his work. text-critical notes and commentry on the exordium). 76 “Eingangund SchluB der Mithrasliturgie. based on his own readings o f the Greek text.” StPP 4 (1905) 84— 107. published in 1995 by a prestigious publishing house. 55 “Griechischer Sprachbrauch. 1992).51 The Mithras Liturgy. contribution is his Introduction to both “Weihezeremonien” (PGM XIII. 62 Dokumente der Gnosis (Jena: Diederichs. PGM IV. although Preisen40. translations. and IV. German translation. I I /l.55 W ilhelm C ronert.60 and Andre-Jean Festugiere. B y Z 31 (1931) 355— 63. but contributing his own notes as 9. 58 O Z . Die PschaiAion-Liturgie) (ARWAW.” N T F i 10 (1922) 102-16.58 Richard Reitzenstein. 131— There is no clarity about text or translator.” in Textbuch zur Religionsgeschichte (ed. 1-85). 181— 19 92). introduction. 56 “Zur Kritik der Papyrustexte. 58— 182. to which Merkelbach adds his own textual read­ ings. Critical and Explanatory. 1. 59 H M R . esp. Band 3: Zwei griechisch-agyptische Weihezeremonien (Die Leidener Weltschdpfung.475-824 are given on pp.168-74.53 Ernst Riess. 33.63 51 Reinhold Merkelbach.54 Ludwig Raderm acher. 57 “Varia. 83— 239-40.56 Sam Eitrem . Abrasax: Ausgewahlte Papyri religidsen und magischen Inhalts.57 Theodor Hopfner. 99-101. and interpretative notes. G M P T are known to the author. which he renames “Pschai-AionLiturgie. by Wolfgang Schultz. see pp. The commented German translation follows Dieterich. 63 (1904) 4— 5. 54 “Notes. following Dieterich). 1-230. and on Dieterich s notes for the commentary. 1910).PC 17.59 Friedrich Zucker. danz’s edition and Meyer’s translation in Betz.” 421. by Edvard Lehmann and Hans Haas.” is based on Preisendanz s edition for the text. 1995). Leipzig: Deichert. §§ 116— (pp. an anonymous work. 3. 29— with notes. and textual notes were contributed by W ilhelm Kroll. vii. Erlangen: Scholl. presents a French translation o f the Mithras Liturgy. entitled Abrasax . with notes pp. The Papyrus 13 tion. on the Magical Papyri. well. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 1922). idem. 343-71. Sarapis-Aion-Iao-Abrasax and Pschai-Agathos Daimon (pp. 63 Manuel de magie egyptienne: Le papyrus magique de Paris (Paris: Les belles lettres. 61 La Revelation.62 Finally.” Ph.52 Partial texts.61 Somewhat idiosyncratic is the early translation and gnostic interpretation. He sees both the rituals as representative o f an Alexandrian theology involving the main gods o f the city.

68 which ventures to explore on a purely 64 For the following I am indebted to the essay “Albrecht Dieterich. quam C. Albrecht. Having first taken up theology. for instance in his book Das Weihnachtsfest. Leiden: Brill.” 66 Hermann Usener. commentario critico instruxit. Usener advised him to write a “Preisarbeit” (an essay competing for a prize) on Aeschylus. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken in der Religions­ s wissenschaft: Zu seinem 30. the 3rd edition o f 1969 is a reprint from Usener’s Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen. Dieterich expanded the second essay into his doctoral dissertation o f 1888. published by Conrad Leemans in 1885. 1888). In 1886 Dieterich went to Bonn.”65 His main teachers were Franz Biicheler and Herm ann Usener. grew up in a home o f liberal Protestant parents who were open to the delights o f culture and the arts.14 Introduction III. to which you must dedicate your life. but he also studied classical archaeology and art with Reinhard Kekule von Stradonitz.” based upon a variety o f sources and personal witnesses. 68 Papyrus magica musei Lugdunensis Batavi. 1866 in Hersfeld (Hessen). by Richard Wunsch.66 R ather than letting him drift into “the great problems. the daughter o f the director who in turn was the son o f a theology professor in Marburg.. Dieterich’ former student s and editor o f Albrecht Dieterich.. 2. Todestag. Careful guidance by his father led to the baccalaureate (1884) and the beginning o f his university studies in Leipzig. The oldest son. Justus Herm ann Lipsius.67 Having won the two prizes. See also Betz. Kleine Schriften (Leipzig: Teubner.” A R W 35 (1938) 180— 85. 65 Cited from Wiinsch’ article. J 384 andj 395 are in vol. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 . where the first lecture by Herm ann Usener convinced him like by a strike of lightning that classical philology was to be his future: “Here lie the great problems. 21. n. xi— xlii. Leemans edidit in papyrorum Graecarum tomo II (V). O tto Ribbeck. G M PT . and after that Biicheler assigned to him the task o f working up textual and com­ mentary annotations to Papyrus Leiden J 384. 1911). Usener who died in 1905 entrusted the 2nd edition to Hans Lietzmann who published it in 1910. part I. which . denuo edidit. he was soon drawn toward philosophy of religion and German literature. Papyri Graeci Musei Antiquarii Publici Lugduni-Batavi (2 vols. but then he turned toward classical philology (represented by Ernst Curtius. where his father was a teacher at the local Gymna­ sium and married to Henriette Miinscher. 1885).64 He was born into a family o f teachers and theologians on May 2. Das Weihnachtsfest (Bonn: Bouvier. written in memory o f the 30th anniversary o f Dieterich’ death. prolegomena scripsit A. D. 1-li. 67 Conrad Leemans. and R udolf Hirzel). For Dieterich’s continued influence see the essay by Friedrich Pfister. denen du dein s Leben widmen muBt.” however. 1843.1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship Albrecht D ieterich’ personal life was from the beginning destined to be that o f s a scholar. O tto Crusius. W hat mostly interested him was the way Usener combined classical philology and history o f religions. his teachers trained him to prove himself as a philologist o f the classical literature. xii: “Hier liegen die groBen Probleme.

usually relegated to the area o f magic and superstition. The Prolegomena were reprinted in Kleine Schriften.” A P F 8 (1927) 120-23. 1891).72 he could use the other research material for his next work. .70 they were again investigated by the papyrologist R o b ert ~W.71 After he passed the state examination in 1889 and completed the required year o f teaching as an intern in a Gymnasium. “Die griechischen Zauberpapyri. he identifies it as a syncretistic text containing elements from ancient Egyptian religion. 2. Indeed. he insisted undertaking a trip to Leiden personally to collate the papyrus.57— 131. an extensive com men­ tary on J 395.” Importantly. 72 D e Hymnis Orphicis capitula quinque (Marburg: Elwert. esp. Westostlicher Diwan: “Sag’ ich euch absurde Dinge. Especially because o f the work o f Gottfried Herm ann. After his Habilitation 1891 at Marburg. Papyri Graecae Magicae. daB ich Abraxas bringe. The title “Abraxas” comes from Goethe. 70 See Preisendanz. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Instead he went back to the Leiden Papyri for his Habilitationsschrift. 73 Abraxas: Studien zur Religionsgeschichte des spdtern Altertums. Denkt. Part II focuses on the “Eighth Book o f Moses” and explores the literary environment of “Jewish-O rphic-G nostic” cults and the magical literature. Festschrift H e r m a n n Usener zur Feier seiner 25jahrigen Lehrtatigkeit an der Bonner Universitat. but they also provided a way to show the link between “higher literature” and the magical papyri. The work was presented to Usener at the celebration o f his 25th anniversary as a professor in Bonn. 71 Robert W. focusing on the so-called “cosmopoiia o f Leiden. however. Idem. dargebracht vom Klassisch-philologischen Verein zu Bonn (Leipzig: Teubner. whose daughter M arie he m arried in 1898. 69 As a good philologist would. now on J 395. n. although he liked it and returned to it much later. Daniel. Dieterich selected the O rphic Hymns as topic. 57. 1— 47. Greek religion and Stoicism. that Dieterich spent several weeks appeared in JCPh. Highly suggestive. Daniel who published them together w ith photographs in 1991.PC 19. were generally not accepted as qualification for a chair in Classics. 1891). It is interesting. warned by the fact that the magical papyri. 1991).69 T he Leiden Papyri J 384 and J 395 became PGM XII and XIII in the collection o f Preisendanz.III.S 16 (1888) 749— 830. it is an exemplary fruit o f the close cooperation between Dieterich and Usener. he left teaching in a secondary school. Two Magical Papyri in the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden: A Photographic Edition of J 3 8 4 and j 3 9 5 (= P G M X II and XIII) (ARWAW. this work raises a host o f new questions and provides impetus for further investigations. these hymns had come to be recognized as cultic poetry. However. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 15 philological level the yet mostly unknown magical literature o f Hellenistic Egypt.73 The work has two major parts. astrological mysticism. Part I deals w ith the text and religio-historical interpretation o f J 395.” For a new publication o f J 395 by Robert W. 71. which was published in the same year. Daniel see above.

1924. 1956). Muller. in order to m eet the great philologists representing a competing approach to classical studies: Carl Dilthey. his Agnostos Theos: Untersuchungen zur Formengeschichte religioser Rede (Stuttgart: Teubner. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. A second edition was prepared and provided with additions by Richard Wiinsch (1913.77 Besides a critical examination o f the text and a German translation. M it den Briefen Eduard . Herakles (3 vols. 1913. Eduard N orden (1868— 1941). the first o f w hich outlines w hat he terms “Greek folk-religion concerning the realm o f the dead” (“Griechischer Volksglaube vom Totenreich”). 1969)..78 Richard Reitzenstein 74 Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. and the present state o f research. who authored the magis­ terial Religion und Kultus derRomer (HAW 4:5. 77 For the editions. Leipzig: Teubner.76 This fragmentary parchment codex was discovered in a tomb at Akhmim.. 4th ed. In the Preface Dieterich thanks Hermann Usener and A dolf Jiilicher for their cooperation. Euripides. especially. 1893). 2nd ed. Kurt Rudolph and Jorg Riipke. whose edition and commentary o f Euripides. D ieterich’ s work has three major chapters. 2nd ed. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Herakles74 had greatly impressed Dieterich.16 Introduction at Gottingen. Palingenesia 49. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Berlin: Weidmann. On Norden see the essays and bibliographies in Eduard Norden (1868—1941): Ein deutscher Gelehrter judischer Herkunft (eds. Miinchen: Beck.” 107— 27. Der Altertumswissenschaftler Eduard Norden (1868— 1941): Das Schicksal eines deutschen Gelehrten judischer Abkunft. 1912. Die Geburt des Kindes: Geschichte einer religiosen Idee (SBW 3. D etlef G. the second chapter on “Mystery cult teach­ ings concerning blessedness and condem nation” (“M ysterienlehren iiber Seligkeit und Unseligkeit”) demonstrates how old elements o f folkreligion emerge in official literature and religion. 1959). These explorations came to the fore in his next book dealing w ith the discovery o f what became known as the Apocalypse o f Peter. Bernhard Kytzler. NTApoc 2. see C. Wilt Aden Schroder. 76 Nekyia: Beitrdge zur Erklarung der neuentdeckten Petrusapokalypse (Leipzig: Teubner. including my own: “Eduard Norden und die friihchristliche Literatur. the third chapter deals w ith “O rphicPythagorean Books on Hades” (“Orphisch-pythagoreische Hadesbiicher”). See Wiinsch. Friedrich Leo. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 1902. In many ways. but he also lectured on Greek mythology and history o f religion.” xvi— xvii.620-38. 75 His colleague and friend at Marburg was Georg Wissowa. 1971). and especially Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. Understandably. W hile Christian in provenance. translations. N TApok 2. 1895. In his teaching as a Privatdozent in M arburg75 D ieterich treated a wide range o f subjects pertaining to Greek language and literature. 1994). repr. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 78 See. going as far as the decline o f ancient religions and the rise o f Christianity.562-78. 1958). these topics quickly became controversial. it also draws together sources from Jewish and Greek traditions about the netherworld. 1889. “Albrecht Dieterich. but through the debates they also began profoundly to change scholars’ perception o f the field.

where a boat took him to Korfu. Hildesheim: Olms. 80 See. articles. Giuseppe Cambiano. To continue w ith Dieterich s life. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht..79 Eric R obertson Dodds (1893-1979). Gottinger Universitatsschriften.III. reprinted 1961). 1 . 83 For the present state o f research. R G G (4th ed. and from there through the Corinthian G ulf to Athens.” in D ie Klassische Altertumswissenschaft an der Georg-August-Universitdt Gottingen (ed. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. Karl Preisendanz who was one o f Dieterich s former students dedicated it to his memory. see Karl Priimm. On Dodds.v. but they were still far from what m odern tourists tend to take for granted. 84 See Preisendanz. 287-94. Helmut Koester. Papyri Graecae Magicae. Essays. Geneve: Cramer. idem.” Zeitschrift fu r Religionsgeschichte 3 (1995) 49-80. Conversion: The Old and the N ew in Religion from Alexander the Great to Augustine of Hippo (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1977). Like many other projects.vi. in March o f 1894 he set out on his long desired grand tour to Greece and Italy. Band 14.84 and its main editor. “Richard 96. D ieterich travelled to Triest. with a bibliography pp. By the middle o f the 19th century. xvii— xxxiv. 1964). 1933. 81 See his main works. see the texts. 10 (1985) 200— Wolfgang Fauth. and bibliographies in Graf. “Dodds. Eric Robertson. In and around Athens he benefitted from resident scholars like W ilhelm Dorpfeld and Paul Wolters at the German Archaeological Institute. The most impressive symbol o f Dieterich s con­ tinuing influence was the collaboration o f many scholars in producing the collection o f the Greek Magical Papyri. Cahiers d’Orientalisme 10. The Greeks and the Irrational. Philologie (1914— 1928). From a present perspective. especially.892— 93. . Professor der klassischen 10. his Sather Lectures for 1951. Dieterich had originally suggested this work. 178— Carsten Koch. vingtcinq etudes reunies etpublies (eds. “Richard Reitzenstein.80 A rthur Darby N ock (1902-1963).. Early Gentile Christianity and Its Hellenistic Background (New York: Harper. 1984).81 and Andre-Jean Festugiere (1898-1982)82 became indicators o f the new direction o f classical studies. 2003).” Dictionnaire de la Bible. 1999) 2. H e took advantage Nordens an seinen Lehrer Hermann Usener aus denJahren 1891—1902 (Spudasmata 73. idem. Suppl. See also. Saffrey. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 17 (1862-1931). see Memorial Andre-Jean Festugiere: Antiquite paienne et chretienne. also Hugh Lloyd-Jones. his autobiography is instructive. Enzo Lucchesi & Henri D. N ew discoveries o f texts and archaeological remains such as the Orphic-Dionysiac gold tablets and the Derveni Papyrus83 have moved classical studies in directions that would have delighted him. 1999). Blood for the Ghosts: Classical Influences in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (London: Duckworth. travelling to the historical sites and monuments had become m uch easier than it had been for previous generations. “Reitzenstein (Richard). 1982). 6. 1989).” R G G (4th ed. 79 On Reitzenstein. Carl Joachim Classen. s. 82 O n Festugiere. Serie A. it is impressive to see how many of Dieterich s suggestive and provocative ideas have later been confirmed or at least gained in probability. Reitzensteins Beitrage zur Mandaerforschung. Missing Persons (Oxford: Clarendon Press.

1897). 87 Pulcinella: Pompeianische Wandbilder und romische Satyrspiele (Leipzig: Teubner. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken.” xxi— xxii.85 T he m onth o f September saw Dieterich in R om e. From Constanti­ nople he travelled to Naples. In Palermo his search for ancient manuscripts was rewarded by the discovery o f the Apokalypse o f Anastasia. visiting Corinth. Then he headed south to Sicily.62— Eckhard Wirbe63. Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. complet­ ing an enormously enriching tour that was not to be his last.87 Those who knew him well could not but notice 85 Apocalypsis Anastasiae (ed. where he was received and shown around by Theophile Homolle. Eugen Petersen and Christian Hiilsen. visited Pompei guided by August Mau. His travel companions were terrified and suspected internal or head wounds. At the end o f May.). . 86 Die Grabschrift des Aberkios (Leipzig: Teubner. Wiinsch. see Guntram Koch. Jahrhunderts. in particular W ilamowitz-Moellendorff. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff s stinging review appeared in G G A 159 (1897) 505-15. lauer. Dieterich travelled to Smyrna and from there to Pergamon. After R om e and a visit to Tuscany he returned to Marburg in the spring o f 1895. 1998) 1. Sardes. Ephesus. which threw him down onto the stony road where he lay unconscious. whose immense treas­ ures and rich life overwhelmed him. For the present state o f research. Pfister. which he entrusted for an edition to his friend R u d o lf H om burg. but after he was transported to Olympia he recovered sufficiently and could continue on the journey. Cf. der Schuler des reinen Hirten im Romischen R eich des 2. 1896). R iding on a mule toward Olympia. Arcadia.” 182-83. R udolf Homburg. as well as August M au and W ilhelm Helbig made sure he fully enjoyed his R om an days. the s Argolis. and Olympia.” R G G (4th ed. although they generated severe criticism by leading scholars. “Aberkiosinschrift. BiTeu. His edition o f and commentary on the mysterious inscription o f Aberkios in the Lateran M useum brought into discussion this fragment o f a third century CE tomb inscription by a Phrygian bishop.86 His studies o f the Pompeian wall paintings and the comic figure o f Pulcinella were helpful for understanding the im portant role o f cult paintings. In Troja he met again w ith Dorpfeld during one o f the excavation seasons.18 Introduction o f the Institute’ guided tours to the Peloponnesos. The scholars at the German Archaeo­ logical Institute. in Constantinople he admired such treasures as the Alexander Sarcophagus and the colorful life o f the Bazaars.. After his appointment to “auBerordentlicher professor” (associate professor) at Marburg in the summer semester o f 1895 his academic responsibilities changed and increased. H e showed that this inscription provides evidence o f pagan and Christian syncretism in Asia M i­ nor. “Aberkios. Dieterich himself lost hope that he would survive. Another boat trip took him to Delos. “Albrecht Dieterich. 1903). His next publications reflected findings and impres­ sions in Italy.” Historia 51 (2002) 359-82 (bibl. he unfor­ tunately hit against a branch of a tree. and Magnesia.

” These fields o f scholarship. der erzieht und fordert. especially o f his hom e province o f Hessen. however.” Z N W 1 (1900) 336— reprinted in Kleine Schriften. O n the contrary. 193— 38. was verfehlt ward. it is noteworthy that about the same time the field o f N ew Testament studies changed in similar ways. Dieterich understood that the contextual interpretation o f ancient religion would require long-term com­ mitments by others as well. From volume 7 (1904) onwards.90 Dieterich s interest in the religion o f Mithras originated w ith C um ont s monumental work. der beleidigt und im innersten verletzt. The fact that GieBen had only two classicists meant that his lectures had to appeal to a wider audience o f students. Moreover. in w hich many o f the dissertations w ritten under him appeared. indicated by the creation in 1900 o f the Zeitschriftfur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der alteren Kirche. he made the point that he understood very well how to separate valid criticism from personal insult. The article “Die Weisen aus dem M orgenlande” 88 Mithrasliturgie. other scholars had also recognized the value o f folklore in bringing classics out o f its cultural isolation by showing its connection w ith the social context o f what people considered to be their own culture. he even published an article in the first volume o f the new journal. 90 “ЕиаууѕХссттѓ^. where he became a professor ordinarius and the successor o f Eduard Schwartz. Eine Mithrasliturgie. und alien Tadel der verdient ist. were not as far removed from classical studies as it seemed at the time. je mehr die Sache dabei gewinnt. the journal Archiv fu r Religionswissenschafi89 and the m onograph series Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten (1903-). but he enjoyed having a great deal o f freedom in developing lecture courses. D uring his years in GieBen he also moved closer to the developing field o f ethnography and folklore (“Volkskunde”). its founder was Thomas Achelis.III.” 89 The journal A R W began in 1898. he was supplied w ith a new but still rare slide projector (“Lichtbilderapparat”) that enabled him to show photographic pic­ tures during lectures. Anticipating further hostile reactions. . He became involved in the “Hessische Vereinigung flir Volkskunde” and published articles in the “Hessische Blatter fur Volkskunde. Denn ich weiB den Tadel. Also. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 19 his anger and disappointment. Dieterich served as co-editor. H e laid the groundwork by training an amazing num ber o f creative students and by helping to establish two publishing ven­ tures. However. vi: “Aber rechtfertigen. so much so that he took the unusual step o f responding firmly to these critics in the introduction to his next book. Expressing his long-standing interest in the origins o f Christianity. sehr wohl von dem zu unterscheiden. Two im portant articles appeared in 1902 that express D ieterichs new interest. nehme ich umso lieber auf mich.88 In 1897 D ieterich accepted a call to the University o f GieBen. kann kein Vorwort. 95.

30-212). which include a brief Introduction (pp. After a discussion of the terms “liturgy. From our present perspective.([xuaTTjpt-ov. the learned apparatus o f the text continues to the end. 225-26. the first study investigates the theme o f “The H um an Being in God and God in the Hum an Being. reprinted in Kleine Schriften.20 Introduction connects the legend o f the Magi from the East paying homage to the child Jesus w ith the visit o f the Parthian king Tiridates to R om e in 66 CE. he regarded the following section (11. richly docum ented by references and discussion.1— he suggests that >. 25— 30) and topically arranged chapters (pp. “The 91 “Die Weisen aus dem Morgenlande: Ein Versuch. with additions.” Mithrasliturgie.92 but he differed from C um ont for the first time in seeing in a section o f the Paris Magical Papyrus a remnant o f a Mithraic ritual. the Eating o f the D eity” (Der Mensch in Gott und Gott im Menschen. This division derives from his thesis o f the section’ origin as a ritual o f the cult o f s Mithras and the other as its later appropriation by a magician. 213-18.” [Aucmr]pt. das Essen des Gottes. however.” Z N W 3 (1902) 1-14. n. 256-58. a critical edition o f the Greek text (PGM IV. showing Dieterich’ s systematic interests. and sacramentum as effecting a cultic unification with the deity. where he worshiped Nero &< xod xov Mt&pav (Cassius Dio 63. This suggestion then led to the main thesis o f his book o f 1903 (Eine Mithrasliturgie). Chapter I deals w ith the “O ri­ gin and the Sources o f the Papyrus Text” (Herkunft und Quellen des Papyrustextes. As we m entioned above. Second. a large section containing “Inter­ pretations” (Erlauterungen). 272— 86. Dieterich himself seems to have changed his mind later because in his future project (see above. He thus separated the nonmagical Mithraic liturgy from its secondary reworking as a magical ritual. 95— 121). 93 “Reste antiker Liturgien. 7).91 A later article on “Die Religion des Mithras” sums up his admiration for C um ont s work. 71.93 The work contains two major parts: first. . pp. however. stops after what Dieterich took to be the end o f the Mithras Liturgy proper . 252— 41. 12) he had planned to complete the translation. 30— 92). the three Magi are priests o f the Mithras religion. At any rate. pp. The second study specifies more narrowly.ov. 723— 834) as “directions for the magical application o f the Mithras Liturgy” (A n weisung z u magischer Verwendung der Mithrasliturgie). Chapter II (92— 212) investigates “The Liturgical Images o f the Mithras Liturgy” (Die liturgischen Bilder des Mithrasmysteriums) in five thematic studies. such a division makes little sense. 92 B J 108— 109 (1902) 26— reprinted in Kleine Schriften. In fact. In fact.475— 834) and a German translation which. the chapter includes a step by step review o f the entire text. 1. a collection that is still valuable today. even after the German translation was concluded. in an appendix o f this book he collected other remnants o f liturgical fragments. 723).

97 Schweitzer also questions the title: “Jedenfalls ware es besser gewesen. 157— 79). n. Indeed. 141-84. W hile C um ont’s nega­ tive critique seemed to sway many in his direction. 134-56). and the final.96 According to Schweitzer. some im portant scholars came to D ieterich’s defense. . 96 Ibid. 146-60. The appendix on “Remains o f Ancient Liturgies” (Reste antiker Liturgien. including his own additions gathered from his papers by Richard Wiinsch. the debates o f the next ten years coin­ cided w ith the formation o f the “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule. D ieterich approaches the text “directly” as a “Mithras Liturgy. and Weinreich s additions. The volume concludes with valuable indices. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 21 Erotic U nion o f the Hum an Being w ith the G od” (Die Liebesvereinigung des Menschen mit dem Gotte. 1911). 219— 58). The ensuing contro­ versy shows admiration as well as substantial criticism. 93. In his book Geschichte der Paulinischen Forschung. his appointment at Heidelberg attracted a growing num ber o f excellent stu­ dents. wenn Dieterich dem Buche den unnotigen und umstrittenen Titel nicht gegeben hatte” (146. several reviews took up the issues with profound seriousness be­ cause they understood that not only the title and text o f the Mithras Liturgy but also the methodology o f interpretation were at stake. the work was received with great anticipation.”97 and thinks the prayers were to be recited in the course o f the ascension. Albert Schweitzer places D ieterich s work in the context o f chapter VII. pp. 95 Geschichte der Paulinischen Forschung von der Reformation bis auf die Gegenwart (Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. pp.Nachtrage. followed by a third on “Being a Child o f G od” (Die Gotteskindschaft. references to ancient texts and secondary litera­ ture.”95 His presentation o f D ieterich’s thesis and m ethod is remarkably positive and to the point. fifth on “The Soul’ Ascension to s Heaven” (Die Himmelfahrt der Seele z u Gott. several other reviewers took issue w ith the title o f the book. pp. pp.III.” in which he analyses critically the methodology o f the early “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule. pp. Understandably. so that his scholarly reputation. in spite o f the negative reactions. “Die religionsgeschichtliche Erkl'arung. was greatly enhanced by the debate. as well as arguments against critical reviews.94 It is followed by rather confusing 18) sets o f additional notes in the second and third editions o f D ieterich’ work s (. 179— 212). 213— has already been m entioned. W iinsch’ additions. However. In fact.” Moreover. 1). pp. At least two reviews were substantial and are still worth reading. n. These s additions provide corrections. Apart from C um ont. The fourth study is on “R ebirth” (Die Wiedergeburt. which carries the 94 See above. the reviews focused on the title to the extent that little else was discussed. 121— 34)..

And yet.. In fact. collecting as many parallels and analogies as possible seems necessary. 98 Ibid. “Religionsgeschichte und Eschatologie.” which fit neither Paul’s nor John’ theology.” N JK A 1 (1904) 177— (192-94 on Dieterich).. idem. In fact. but Dieterich himself warns against this kind o f “Analogienwut. 146-47.98 T he main points o f Schweitzer’ criticism concern D ieterich’ m ethodol­ s s ogy o f comparing the Mithras Liturgy w ith the theology o f Paul and John’ s Gospel. 152. daB wir hier eine religiose . in order to explain the origins o f their theologies as derivatives o f mystery cults. the aim o f the ascension to heaven was that the soul would attain immortality. that in all this Schweitzer has also his own axe to grind.”101 Reitzenstein. “Hellenistische Theologie in Agypten. Reitzenstein agrees with C um ont that the Mithras Liturgy does not provide any information about the Mithras cult as Cum ont conceived o f it. T he question remains whether this was the supreme mystery o f this religion.” “redeemer god.100 a second review in 1912 also benefited from Schweitzers o f 1911. which the devotees experienced only once. sie ist weder eine Liturgie im engeren Sinne. The Mithras Liturgy “is not a liturgy in the narrower sense o f the term. Guided by the sun god through the heaven o f the fixed stars he reaches the supreme deity. 100 Richard Reitzenstein. The ancient initiates ritually performed this ascen­ sion in the Mithraic grottos. indeed.” O ne must not forget. however. 28 16 101 Ibid.” or “mystical union w ith the deity. D ieterich’ apparent goal s s is to get beyond the individual texts and develop a conceptuality for all ancient religion.. or whether it took its regular place in the cult. In order to docum ent such a conceptuality. Freilich der Seltsamheit und Bedeutsamkeit der Tatsache. sie ist fur Cumonts Zwecke wirklich unbenutzbar und vollkommen gleichgiiltig. for Cum ont s aims it is unusable and totally irrelevant. in Dieterich’ hands and for his purposes the papyrus segment he calls ‘Mithras s Liturgy’ has proven to be an immensely precious treasure. 99 Ibid. O ther substantial reviews came from Richard Reitzenstein who was more sympathetic to Dieterich than Schweitzer was. Und doch hat sie sich in Dieterichs Hand und fur seine Zwecke als unschatzbares Kleinod erwiesen. archeological findings could point to such scenarios. noch kann sie zur Rekonstruktion irgendeiner anerkannten Form der Mithrasreligion verwertet werden. nor can it be used to reconstruct any kind o f official Mithras religion.22 Introduction initiate out o f this world o f the four elements through the stars to the region o f the gods. If the ritual was performed as a sacramental drama.” Z N W 13 94 (1912) 1— (12— on Dieterich). 12: “ .”99 Schweitzer’ discussion reaches beyond s D ieterich and is directed at the often unguarded assumptions o f the early “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule... In the course o f that comparison Dieterich employs concepts such as “sacramental.

the book remained in discussion.. Egyptian learned priests such as the author o f the Mithras liturgy became devoted to Mithras. but he did have some valid information about the cult o f Mithras. until it was reprinted w ithout change in 1966. there was plenty o f room in the Egyptian temples for Egyptian as well as Greek deities. in particular in R om e. full o f individual life and deep intensity. er iibertrug sie von der Bildung des Gotterbegriffes oder Mythos auf das tiefste Innere aller Religion. so why not Mithras? If the priests were charged with developing the liturgies appro­ priate for worshiping so many other deities. Albrecht Dieterich (1866 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 23 however. individuellstem Leben und tiefster Innerlichkeit haben. die er von Usener ubernommen hatte. to the longing o f humans for unification w ith the divine. but also in Egypt. Each time Dieterich s former students.. As it spread over the R om an empire through the military and the administration. die sich doch keiner uns bekannten Religionsform eingliedern laBt. local adaptations were a normal phe­ nom enon.. 13: “D ie Formensprache religiosen Denkens zu erkennen. ist Dieterich sich nie klar bewuBt geworden__ ” 102 Ibid. die uns aus der Zeit des Synkretismus erhalten sind. That the author was a m em ber o f a Mithraic community is less likely. “Dieterich took over from his teacher Usener the great task of studying the formal language o f religious thinking. contrary to the early criticisms. why not for Mithras? Therefore.” .”103 Today.. claims that Dieterich did not fully realize that we have here a religious document o f large size. justified as it is in and o f itself. he transposed it from the formation o f the notion o f deity or myth to the deepest ground o f all religion.”102 In other words. edited and expanded the notes while leaving the main text intact.III. cannot be the only one admissible. Today. Mithraism has been shown to be a religion which experienced several reconfigurations in its history. because o f the newly develUrkunde von groBtem Umfang. “Cum ont s way o f looking at the evidence.. which simply does not conform to any religion known to us. daB Cumonts Betrachtungsweise.. Richard W iinsch (1869— 1915) and O tto Weinreich (1886— 1972). even while they served as priests in the Egyptian temples. The authors intense devotion to Mithras should not be denied its own integrity.. because o f the large increase in data. evidenced by the two further editions o f 1910 and 1923.. because it leaves out o f consideration the numerous monuments o f individual religious life that are extant from the period of syncretism. Conceivably.” 103 Ibid. 13: “ . Given the syncretistic aura o f Hellenistic Egypt. das war die groBe Aufgabe... nicht die einzig zulassige sein kann. auf die Sehnsucht des Menschen nach Vereinigung mit Gott. In fact. so berechtigt sie an sich ist. weil sie die Fiille der Denkmaler individuellen religiosen Lebens unerklart beiseite lassen muB. Dieterich did recognize the unique as well as syncretistic character o f the Mithras Liturgy. but he did not make enough use o f it in his defense against C um ont s view that there is only one kind of Mithraism.

on 1. See also Graf. See above. La Reve­ lation 1. 3. 111 For discussion. in modified forms still have present-day representatives.” he simply equates it w ith “ceremony. “Initiation.”J R S 88 (1998) 115-28. das geistige Milieu aE. 17.”105 “Einweihungszerem onien. while retai­ ning the term “liturgy. “Merkelbach’s Mithras. “Mithraism since Franz Cumont. Merkelbach’ commentary104 is based on Dieterich s s work. 110 For further discussion. 13 n. 90— 95. Manfred Clauss. 2nd ed. 1.” ANRW II. 3: Zwei griechisch-agyptische Weihezeremonien (Die Leidener Weltschopfung. in dem der Vollzug innerer Mysterien empfohlen wurde. D ie Pschai-Aion-Liturgie). Antonia Nevill. esp. des 3. 51. 2050-51. Gottesndhe. 109 For surveys o f the history o f research. section V o f this Introduction. 25. 107 Ibid. doch vom gleichen Geist durchtrankt. v. p. Les cultes orientaux dans le monde romain (Paris: Societe d’edition “Les belles lettres. Richard Gordon.109 Discoveries o f fresco paintings. 1058. idem. but he rejects Dieterich s title and proposes his own: “Die Pschai-AionLiturgie. however.110 Im por­ tant in this respect is a newly discovered fresco painting from a m ithraeum in Ponza (Italy). 1992). have arisen in recent years that fundamentally challenge both Merkelbach s and Turcan s position.108 N ew developments. 17:4 (1984) 2002-2115. idem. nC.” which he groups together w ith the Leiden Papyrus (PGM XIII). The Roman Cult of Mithras: The God and His Mysteries (trans. 126. see below. see Roger Beck. esp. 2000). Jh. 193. 105 Ibid. . Abrasax.” R A C 18 (1998) 87-159. 106 Ibid. unpassend ‘Mithrasliturgie’ genannt hat. see the commentary infra. Mithr. mosaics. Festugiere.111 As Dieterich m entioned in his letters to Usener (October 29 104 Merkelbach. vol.”106 or “Die Pariser Unsterblichkeits-Liturgie. “The Mysteries o f Mithras: A N ew Account o f Their Genesis. and other archaeological findings have in­ creased the evidence pointing to syncretistic forms o f M ithraism.. 699. 91.”107 Thus. 303/8. 41 (1987) 294-316.24 Introduction oping interest in the phenom ena and literature o f magic as well as Mithraism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.” Phoe. The older positions. he sees it marginally related to theurgical Neoplatonism . ET: The Cults of the Roman Empire (trans. Rande des theurgischen Neuplatonismus stehend. 169/74). 108 Robert Turcan. the book has moved from the margins into the mainstream o f the increasing study o f Hellenistic religious syncretism. C um ont s basic position is maintained emphatically by R einhold Merkel­ bach and R obert Turcan.. showing clearly Mithras’ raising up o f the shoulder of a bull which is m entioned also in the Mithras Liturgy as a ritual act o f central importance. 6-7. 1996).” Turcan con­ tinues C um ont s denial that the Mithras liturgy has anything to do with Mithraism. Oxford: Blackwell. inscriptions.” 1989. however.. 119— 126-27: “Am 20.” Consequently. calling them by various terms: “Weihezeremonien. kennzeichnet das ‘Rezept der Unsterblichkeit’ (PGM IV 475-732.. das Dieterich. Turcan does not mention the ML in his work.

. O ne book appeared. As a result. n. there are many scholars today w ho insist that the Mithras Liturgy rightly carries the provocative name given it by Dieterich and that it should be attributed to syncretistic developments of Mithraic mysteries in Hellenistic Egypt. 1 n. 117 See the forthcoming article by Friedhelm Hartenstein and Hans Dieter Betz.”117 His commentary demonstrated his five major discoveries: (1) that the text segment in question differs significantly from the other segments o f the larger Paris Magical Papyrus..112 To return to Dieterichs biography. today C um ont’ criticism s o f Dieterich has become far less impressive than it first sounded and should not stand in the way o f a positive assessment o f the latter’ accomplish­ s ments.116 D ieterich’s major books were reprinted after World War II by the Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 2004). 116 See above.” R G G (4th ed. daB ein so feinsinniger Gelehrter wie Cumont bis in seine neusten Veroffentlichungen hinein Dieterichs Verdienst verkennt. 1905). In Heidelberg. Marie Dieterich contributed his papers and research materials to the Usener-Archiv at the University Library in Bonn. Albrecht Dieterich (1866 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 25 and Decem ber 8. where it still is today. “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule. H e had reached the peak o f his career w hen on May 5 he went into the lecture hall to begin a new semester. 114 “Der Untergang der antiken R eligion. p. 170. Therefore. his wife and his former students took the necessary steps to secure it. 449— 539. 1901). the year 1903 brought another major event: the move to Heidelberg where he accepted the prestigious chair for­ merly occupied by Erwin R ohde and O tto Crusius. published by Richard W iinsch. To sum up. it was this point that caused him to attribute the PGM text to Mithraism. p. but after the first few sentences he suddenly stumbled and collapsed because o f a fatal stroke.III.113 but the ever increasing commitments that come w ith success and authority collided with the sudden death o f H erm ann Usener (October 1905) which hit him especially hard and disrupted his plans.” in his Kleine Schriften. (2) that one must 112 This was recognized already by Reitzenstein (H M R . 4. 1): “Ich bedauere. 14. He died w ithout regaining consciousness on May 6. H e began working on a biography of Usener which he never completed. his activi­ ties shifted by necessity to lecturing.” 113 Mutter Erde (Leipzig: Teubner. 1908. on the subject o f M other Earth. D ieterich’ “Mithras Liturgy” became known as a landmark of s the “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule. D uring a journey to Hamburg to lecture on “The End o f Ancient R eligion”114 he contracted influenza but refused to take time out for recovery. 4 n. As far as his legacy is concerned. 115 See above.115 His essays were collected in Kleine Schriften. traveling as well as editorial and adminis­ trative tasks.

I V Genre and Composition 1. 118 This discovery by Dieterich can be newly appreciated in the light o f current studies on the significance o f images. Image and Value in the Graeco18. Statuette.” VisRel 4— (1985— 5 86) 114— idem. Burckhardt Gladigow. Zwirn. 49 favorable and unfavorable times attributed to the Greek planetary deities. Representation in Religion: Studies in Honor of Moshe Barasch (Numen Book Series: Studies in the History o f Religions.. 469— After this.118 As a result o f new discoveries and more refined methodologies o f interpretation. <p£A ou<. 468--69. Boston. but rather continues to stimulate the discussion about this fascinating text and the larger issues o f the interpretation o f ancient religion. 470— 74. entitling it again Про? (11. “Kultbild. Hampshire: Variorum. followed by a historiola. 468— 821-34). Delimitation As stated before. 833— 34). 468— 69 is called ^ujjioxaTO^ov (“Charm to restrain anger”). Roman World: Studies in Mithraism and the Religious A rt (Aldershot. (1990) 98-121. (3) that the text is influenced by Stoic philoso­ phy and is close to Hermeticism. with bibl..1560. 831 suprisingly repeats the thtfioxaxo/ov of 11. “Bilderkult. so daB vor und nach ihm noch deren gesprengte Stiicke erscheinen. (4) that this text involves a kind o f “liturgy” .” Word & Image 5 (1989) 2— Richard Gordon. Koln.” H R W G 4 (1998) 9— idem. ed. see Burckhardt Gladigow. “Prasenz der Bilder —Prasenz der Gotter. and another Homeric verse (1. and the first Hom er 70). Mithrasliturgie. 24 section title. the section o f the Paris Magical Papyrus we call Mithras Liturgy is sandwiched between a series o f Hom eric verses which have been interrupted by this insertion (11. “Epiphanie. have section titles designating their function as charms. Kultbild. 1. verse o f the section (11. 1998) 1. an untitled short story serving magical functions (11.” R G G (4th 14. Baumgarten. called Прос. the papyrus continues in 11 835— with an untitled section on . (“To get friends”). (5) that cultic images play a significant role in the procedures. 825— 29). daB zwischen die Homerverse der groBe Wahrsagezauber eingeschoben ist. 11 821— contain four more lines o f H om er verses without a separate . “Bild. The charm 11. “The Intention o f Biographical Narration on Mithraic Cult Images.” VisRel 7 33. 1996). 119 So Dieterich. 20-21: “Es scheint. Stephen R .. today these five discoveries can be far better appreciated than in D ieterich’ own s days. After the conclusion o f the Mithras Liturgy. eds. D ieterich’s book thus in no way resembles an outdated experiment. 830). Leiden. 74.” . 89. 2001). At this point.” ibid. followed by 11.26 Introduction interpret this segment in the syncretistic context o f the mystery cults of Hellenistic Egypt and beyond. idem et al. 1562— Jan Assmann & Albert I.119 These Hom eric verses 74.

Perhaps. The literary genre a. 20— regards 11. 121 Differently. verses. in 11. while the isolated H om er verse in 1. 74. 2145— correspond to 11.2145— 2240. it does. 831 but also at the end o f the sequence in 11. 249) follows Dieterich. there seems to be no paragraphos sign before the beginning o f the Mithras Liturgy. the question o f its genre requires a complex answer. the Qo^oxaxo^ov o f 11. which are therefore not part o f its internal composition.100-1 [apparatus]) reports on the problem as unresolved. However. and resumed the H om er charms afterwards (11. 468— 69 reappears not only in 1. Moreover. (3) The problem remains unresolved. 821-24. The Mithras Liturgy has no parallel in the PGM or anywhere else from which an external title could be derived. 3. Merkelbach (Abrasax. The repetition o f 11 468-70. after 1. 821— 34). Whereas the PG M corpus contains many spells w ithout section titles. 830 occurs previously at the end o f the sequence 11 469— The papyrus has paragraphos signs between the Hom eric . 475). Apparently. 54). 475-820). also be the result o f that confusion. some kind o f confusion on the part o f the copyist must have occurred. the Vorlage had no section title. begin w ith a new line (1. 821— to be a part o f the 21) 34 Mithras Liturgy. 831-34 must then . G M PT . 2.121 (2) For no detectable reason.I V Genre and Composition 27 Since there are no detectable reasons for breaking up the sequence of Hom eric verses and sandwiching the Mithras Liturgy between the parts. no such confusion appears elsewhere in the papyrus. Preisendanz (1. Martin also points to the parallel in PGM IV. “Divine assistence from three Homeric verses. 47.” The three Homer verses in 11. 468— 74). 471— and 51 73 821-23. the copyist interrupted the charms containing the Hom eric verses. the copyist became confused about what he had copied already and what he still had to do. External genre designations Since there is no external designation o f the literary genre o f the Mithras Liturgy. Dieterich (Mithrasliturgie. 820 there is a vacant space. which does carry a section title indicating function (Тр^сттг/ГјОС 'Ојхѓјрои тгаребро^. . in most cases a section title can be supplied on the basis o f parallels. 120 See the explanations given by Hubert Martin and Marvin Meyer (Betz. how­ ever. He does not give a reason why he omits the Homer verses preceding the beginning (11. T he following conclusions can be drawn from this evidence:120 (1) The Mithras Liturgy is originally independent from the H om er verses.182. inserted the Mithras Liturgy in its entirety (11. including the section titles. and neither the author/redactor nor the copyist inserted one. By contrast.

249) that some portion at the beginning o f the Vorlage may have been omitted. 486).” 3. Part II (11.басгхаХ(а ттј? (1. 741— 42). These linguistic markers are important for the determination o f the compositional parts. (тбџугцш (“m em orandum ”) comes from legal language and states the completion o f the docum ent which. 820) are technical. 479-82 and 820. 750) points to “instruction pertaining to the ritual” as the purpose o f the composition. occurs only in the supplemental rituals o f Part III (11. Prayers are called Xoyoi. 741. also called тсрсато^ Xoyo? (“first prayer” in 11. Composition In spite o f its complexity. 573. however. 638 kontxGTiytoq (Xoyo??). and 82) both refer to the text as a whole. describing the function o f the main body.” This name. The section title o f бг.28 b. beginning with “the invocational prayer” (11. the name for “the ritual o f immortaliza­ tion.”123 1 82 Subsidiary parts are also marked by appropriate terms. however. serves as the head title expressing the literary genre o f the whole composition. 123 See the commentary on 11. Second (o (3' Xoyoc. 479— leads us to conclude.? (1. 577 and 587. 747. was sent to a “daughter. 771).) and third (o y ' Xoyoc) prayers are enumerated in 11. Most important is атса&оо/атгсЈ^б^. however. The contributions by Dieterich as well as Merkelbach represent significant steps.122 The terms аштау[ла (11. as the insertion o f 1 . Merkelbach s suggestion (Abrasax. 558-59. 623). 485732) as “becoming immortalized” (атса&о^ат^еаФоа [11. 647— 48]). There is no evidence. In m odern descrip­ tive terminology we might label it a “Ritual to obtain an ascension and consultation with the god Mithras. Considerable agreement exists in the scholarly litera­ ture about the separate sections. the literary composition o f the Mithras Liturgy is clear and well executed. 481— and итт:6^7][ла (1. 3. N one o f these terms. A greeting prayer can be named in 1. 485— 537). that this name at one time served as the head title and was omitted by the redaction. but so far a detailed literary analysis has 122 Cf. 577-78. Internal genre designations Introduction The text o f the Mithras Liturgy uses several terms o f literary self-reference. . The term auvxayfjia points to the text as a “composition” out o f subordinate parts. tou Xoyou >]бе 7] хХујсте. but it is unclear how these three are to be related to the citations o f the ai'fri-logos (11.

771. especially 155— “D ie Einleitung zu dem Text 56: ist sekundar. see ха&аро^ 1. als man die Zeremonien auch an andere Personen weitergegeben und zu anderen Zwecken als den urspriinglichen verwendet hat. especially because they are required for the magician and the fellow-initiate (11. ayioq 11. 3.) is central. especially. This prayer involves a petition for pardon in view o f what is described as risky and potentially inappropiate transmission in writing o f the secret tradition of mysteries to a fellow-initiate. Merkelbach calls the exordium “secondary. the redactor may have excised them for several reasons: (l)T he Paris Magical Papyrus (IV. . sections o f the commentary. (2) The author presupposes that he and his addressee are already initiated ([листтоа) and have thus learned to observe the prepara­ tions. 475— contains a well-constructed exordium which takes the 85) form o f a prayer to the divinity o f Providence and World-Soul. Part I (11. has been excised and replaced by the present exordium. may have greater importance than the conventional purification rituals. rituals o f Part III (11. 69. see the respective 87. 81).” 127 N ot self-evident are the insertions o f 11. 784. below pp. 813— mentioned before at 11. sondern ist hinzugefugt worden. 708). 760. 733— 36). no evidence exists for an excision o f a text segment from the Vorlage which would have the present exordium as its replacement. 83. the insertion o f 11 479— . but also in the sense o f replace­ ment. 668— ayveuw 1. 522. 19. 40. Merkelbach is certainly right about the necessity o f preparatory rituals.128 W hile separately or in combination any o f these reasons could have caused the omission. 126 Merkelbach (Abrasax. which need to be perform ed prior to the ascension ritual.155— 59). 651— and the supplemental 55. 659-61.I V Genre and Composition 29 not been undertaken. ха&ареи»)? 11.124 O ur own literary analysis125 shows four distinguish­ able parts. ayraapia 522. 60— for detailed discussions. If such rituals appeared in the source material ( Vorlage). This applies also to the preparation o f the special amulets (11.”126 which he means not only in the literary sense that every introduction is secondary to whatever is being introduced. 128 Terms designating purity are relatively infrequent in ML. 125 See the Conspectus. 124 Merkelbach describes sections by way o f their content. the fact that no such preparatory rituals are found at the beginning o f the Mithras Liturgy needs to be explained.127 (4) For the philosophically-minded author purifi­ cation by the spirit. H e assumes that a text segment containing preparatory rituals.28— 159— 233-49).26— 52— begins with preparatory rituals which may suffice 51. 85) for the following rituals. Diese Einleitung gehort nicht zum urspriinglichen Text. but he does not provide a detailed literary analysis (Abrasax. ayiai^w 522. Therefore. 3. 479-81. 569. By contrast. the notion o f “spirit” (7tv£U[xa) in association with fire (тгир хтА. as it takes place in the ascension ritual itself. (3) T he author may regard the performance of the preparations as selfevident and adds only matters that are not self-evident (see. 732— 819).

Fourth scenario (11. vor.afx6<. 556— 69): overcoming the threat by the planetary deities. 129 Merkelbach.130 (1) (2) (3) (4) First scenario (11. Der Kandidat steht auf einem Podest.28— especially 32: “Man stelle sich ein dunkles Zimmer 40. Included in the narrative are prayers o f invocation and greetings o f the deities encountered as well as ritual acts to be performed at critical moments o f the ascension. including special effects.” See also ibid. Subsection C (11. 585— 628): vision o f the opening o f the doors to the world o f the gods.. 537-38) prescribes a breathing ritual for inhaling “spirit” (7ivsu[xa) carried downwards by the rays o f the sun. “O ne may imagine a dark room. Merkelbach considers the possibility that the “realism” would consist o f a kind o f theatrical production. This part subdivides into four subsections which deal with the major phases o f the ritual. partly narrative descriptions o f the ritual process.”129 But o f course one can also imagine that for a spirit-inspired Stoic machine-made “virtual reality” would be redundant. well-composed and highly complex prayer o f invocation o f the four elements which consti­ tute the universe as well as the creation and recreation o f the hum an body. 39.30 Introduction Part II (11. 539— 44) provides religio-philosophical explanations o f the concept o f ascension through the spirit.. The candidate stands on a pedestal that at some point can be lifted by ropes or by hydraulic machinery into the air. 485-537) sets forth for recitation a long. Abrasax. 3.” 130 Ibid. which carries the name aTca&avocTt. Subsection B (11. and imaginary in terms of a journey through the seven spheres of the universe. (5) Fifth scenario (11. The subsec­ tions are partly prescriptive recitations. 569— 85): vision o f the sun-disk. in welchem an einer Stelle ein helles Licht leuchtet. daB dieses Podest gar nicht erforderlich war und daB der Initiand sich die Reise in die Luft nur meditierend suggerieren sollte. 485— 732) includes the main body o f the ritual. 544— 55): encounter w ith the planetary deities. 628— 61): encounter w ith Helios. Third scenario (11. in which one corner is illuminated by a light reflecting the sun disk. . W hile the ascension takes place in the mind o f the acting magician. Subsection A (11. He points as evidence to G raeco-Rom an authors who describe the use o f “Sacred Theater” in a cultic context. 34: “Man kann sich auch vorstellen. it is both “realistic” in terms o f the performance of ritual acts. Subsection D (544-731) narrates in carefully described scenarios the seven stages o f the ascension culminating at the seventh stage in an encounter w ith the god Mithras. das die Sonnenscheibe reprasentiert. das spater entweder durch Seile oder durch eine hydraulische Konstruktion in die Luft gehoben wird. Second scenario (11. (“ritual o f immortalization”).

Consultation w ithout a medium (11. 750— 92): (a) Preparation o f the sun-scarab ointm ent (11. 736— 38). 11 750— . desirable or optional within the parameters o f ritual competence (e. ritual knowledge that is primarily unw ritten determines what is to be inserted at which place and in which order in the w ritten account.g. However. w hich enable the author to determine what is appropriate in literary terms.. 813— 19). (2) Three items o f information (11. 732-819) contains supplemental rituals. knowledge o f rituals determines the required components as well as the sequence o f the ritual acts. This knowledge is also presupposed in Part III which contains supplemental information. Additional stipulations (11. . 796— 98). These rituals need to be performed in conjunction with the preceding formula. the composition as a whole involves redaction w ith regard to the traditions that have been included. 778— 92). Firstly. 732— 35). W hat is supplemented are procedures considered necessary. Subsection B (11. 792— 96). This competence lies also behind the internal cross-references (e. In other words. Part IV (11. several levels o f redaction need to be distinguished. They include the following: Subsection A (11. 661-92): encounter w ith the deities o f the Bear constellations. Part III (11. 738— 46). (3) Third preparatory ritual: the phylacteries (11. (b) Change o f the ritual concerning times o f performance (11.I V Genre and Composition 31 (6) Sixth scenario (11. Redaction Regarding redaction. 751— 78). 732-50) provides three optional rituals for including an associate: (1) (2) (3) (4) Consultation by using a medium (11. (7) Seventh scenario (11. and arranged in the way shown by the document. 819). 693— 732): encounter w ith Mithras. as indicated by crossreferences. (b) Preparation o f the plant kentritis (11. perhaps modified. the Mithras Liturgy in its entirety is the result o f redaction on the part o f the author/redactor. 11. (c) Botanical information about the plant kentritis (11. 819— 20): concluding epilogue 4. 792— 813): (a) Change o f the ritual o f the ointment (11. Consultation working w ith showing o f symbols (11. These redactional activities presuppose literary skills.g. 750— 819): contains additional instructions: (1) Two preparatory rituals (11. 746— 50). 487— 81).. Secondly. 798— 813).

“Ritual. a magical handbook in which the Mithras Liturgy appears along with many other texts. therefore. Clearly. van Essen. 2000). Milner.131 V The Religio-historical C ontext . which has been inserted into a section using Hom eric verses. see the commentry ad loc.731). it stands out like an intruder from a different world.133 A Mithras sanctuary existed in Alexan­ 131 For further discussion. the point of departure should be the text as we have it. 127— idem. 500. Neue Ausgrabungen und Forschungen in Kommagene (ed. see N. We may approach the question from several angles. even though what we have before us is anything but self-evident. cf. 132 See Maarten J. 660-61. P. 28. IV. the omissions in 11.201. Hans Dieter Betz. also 11.” JRS 90 (2000) 145-80. “N ew Votive Reliefs from Oinoanda. there are a few redactional flaws that may be attributed to the copyist rather than the author (e. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. “The Mysteries o f Mithras: A 91. . and Initiation in the Mysteries o f Mithras: N ew Evidence from a Cult Vessel. Myth. “Kultstatten der Mithrasmysterien in Doliche. XIII.g.” J R S 88 (1998) 115— esp. 814-19)..29. Vermaseren & C. XII. V. they certainly played some role in the ritual. for the association o f Helios and Mithras. Doctrine. 1277. Seen in this context.49.” in Gottkonige am Euphrat. C. However. what we know about the liturgy o f the Mithraic mysteries is very limited. it is necessary for the interpretation to go beyond its immediate context. Determ ining in a more precise way the place where the Mithras Liturgy fits in its religio-historical context requires careful methodological considerations.” Anatolian Studies 44 (1994) 65— 76. and he has annotated textual variants (11. The immediate context is the Great Magical Papyrus o f Paris.132 Evidence o f syncretistic Mithraism is increasing as a result o f archaeological discoveries. Betz. 591. the author/redactor has compared his Vorlage w ith one or more other versions. 72— Roger Beck. the Mithras Liturgy does not seem to fit in the context o f Mithraism as we know it. VII. 93— 99. Jorg Wagner.204. the Mithras Liturgy is not like any o f the other texts even in the larger corpus called Papyri Graecae Magicae.” N o v T 10 (1968) 62— reprinted in 80. in fact.51. but w hich role it was is unknow n. Fourthly. N ew Account o f Their Mysteries. To obtain valid comparisons. The Excavations in the Mithraeum of the Church of Santa Prisca on the Aventine (Leiden: Brill 1965).32 Introduction Thirdly. W ithin certain parameters these texts display a considerable degree o f diver­ sity. 133 It is hard to keep track o f the discoveries. As C um ont and others have seen. Anke Schiitte-Maischatz and Engelbert Winter. “The Mithras Inscriptions o f Santa Prisca and the N ew Testament. 28. Miinchen: Von Zabern. The inscriptions painted on walls o f the m ithraeum o f Santa Prisca in R om e are equally puzzling.

N ew series. 84— speaks o f “Einweihung.134 W hat does it mean that the initiating priest in Apuleius’ Metamorphoses has the name Mithras?135 If William Brashear is right. Brashear. e. 135 Apuleius. Berol. 1992).139 and among the formulae are some that seem like quotations o f a preceding ritual. 33 dria. 136 William M. Gebet und Gesang im christlichen Altertum. 245-52. A Mithraic Catechism from Egypt (P. “Magie und Mysterienkulte. “rituals o f sanctification” or “rituals o f oracular consultation. 89-107 (ET: “Magic and Mystery Cults. except Helios-AionMithras.” 139 See the commentary below on 11. Munster: Aschendorff. the review by Roger Beck. however. Cultores Mithrae: Die Anhdngerschaft des Mithraskultes (Heidelberger althistorische Beitrage und epigraphische Studien 10. 21196) (Wien: Holzhausens.g. For the later solar cult o f Christ. 140 N o other traditional names o f gods are mentioned in the ML. 1925). a fragmentary GraecoEgyptian papyrus could be a Mithraic catechism in dialogue form . idem. Sol Salutis. See Griffiths. 134 See the collection o f evidence by Manfred Clauss.V The Religio-historical Context . published under the tide Gottesbegegnung und Menschwerdung: Zur religionsgeschichtlichen und theologischen . on 1. cf.6-7.. is to examine the religio-historical presuppositions internal to the text as well as close analogies elsewhere in contemporary ancient literature. while using mystery-cult language and concepts. the Mithras Liturgy wishes to be taken as a secret mystery-cult text. see Franz Joseph Dolger. Martin Wallraff. Helios Megistos.136 The wider context o f Hellenistic mystery cults poses similar problems because the Mithras Liturgy. 137 For the evidence see my essay.” in Gottesnahe. Michal Gawlikowski. therefore. Cf. 2001).” Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 11 (1997) 53-63. To be sure. Christus Verus Sol: Sonnenverehrung und Christentum in der Spdtantike (JAC.” if this refers to a first initiation. 1992). However. while further procedures could be called “rituals” with specifications. there is no indication which mystery initiation is assumed.” “Weihezeremonie” 85) and “Initiation. Apuleius. XI. XI.” in Magic. “Initiation” should be used for a first introduction into a mystery-cult.22: ipsumque Mithram ilium suum sacerdotem principuum. 105— 126. an initiation ritual is assumed as a precondition for the present ritual. Ingeborg Huld-Zetsche. 243. see also my Hans Lietzmann Lecture o f 2000. Munster: Aschendorff. 96— 117). “Magic and Mystery in the Greek Magical Papyri. “D ie Stiertotung als Sternenkunde: Astral-mythologische Hintergriinde im Mithraskult.. also Graf. 209— 29.” in Hellenismus und Urchristentum.140 T he best way to proceed. The Roman Cult of Mithras. 138 Merkelbach (Abrasax.137 It would be misleading to call it an “initiation ritual. Metam. 3. M it besonderer Rticksicht auf die Ostung in Gebet und Liturgie (Liturgiegeschichtliche Forschungen 4— 2nd 5. is not as such a mystery-cult text. O n its own terms at least. Fauth.” Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 10 (1999) 197— 204. “A N ew Syrian Mithraic Tauroctony. 475— 84. ed.25: complexus Mithram sacerdotem et meum iam parentem. there are no agreed definitions o f what qualifies as a mystery-cult text.” Antike Welt 30 (1999) 97— 104. Gnomon 67 (1995) 260— 62. 281-82.141 Already Dieterich had noted the syncreAlbert D e Jong.E 32.138 Yet the practitioners claim to be initiated [листтоа. “Hawarti: Preliminary Report.” but without clearly defining these terms. Stuttgart: Steiner. 482. See the commentary below. 8. thus. 141 For the following.

” R G G (2002) 5. 1— idem. 3044: on the Mithras Liturgy). animals. H ow to assess these religious developments is the subject o f present scholarly discussions. Although the non-G reek voces magicae may be intended to be “Egyptian” in Greek transcription. “Der Untergang der Hieroglyphenschrift: Schriftverfall und Schrifttod im Agypten der griechischromischen Zeit. 115-35. Envisioning Magic. etc. idem. “Hieroglyphen. The World of Ancient Magic. Helios-Mithras-Aion is the only deity named. Ritner. Les pretres de I’ancienne Egypte (Paris: Persea. whether the author knew Egyptian script or language cannot be determined. although they refer to Egyptian places.” ANRW 11. Encycopledia of Ancient Egypt 3 (2001) 321— Jan Assmann. 'Fu/r).. and then Roman traditions. but these influences differed from place to place. 732-820). . Weisheit und 18. Given its monotheistic tendency. “Probleme der R eligion im romerzeitlichen Agypten.142 The names o f the ingredients are Greek. If.34 Introduction tistic character o f the Mithras Liturgy and identified main contributors. Religion in Roman Egypt. see Serge Sauneron. 142 Religion in Graeco-Roman Egypt was diversified. plants. “Magic and Theology in 36. and m iner­ als. 163-93. 2001). 2000).18:5 (1995) 3333— idem. 143 On the vanishing ability to understand the hieroglyphs in Graeco-Egypt. 1988). The country was strongly influ­ enced by Greek language and the religious ideas coming with it.144 the author was a learned priest/magician serving in a temple in Thebes. for the Hellenistic and Roman world. idem.” The Oxford 79.” R A C 15 (1989) 83— 103. “The Formation o f Authoritative Tradition in the Greek Magical Papyri. David Frankfurter. See. idem.” in Jordan.1344— 47.143 W hat is astonishing. as is assumed.. Religion in Roman Egypt. “Mithrasreligion. 144 For assumptions regarding the author. 10.18:5 (1995) 2894-3049 (3023— 49: on magic. for Egypt. involving older Egyptian. but in addition there are deified abstracts such as Ilpovora. Mysterium: Das Bild der Griechen von Agypten (Miinchen: Beck. “Egyptian Magical Practice under the Roman Empire: The Demotic Spells and Their Religious Context. 62-98. Ancient Egypt.” in Schafer & Kippenberg. and the same is true o f Greek gods. Overall there was a growing tendency toward syncretism. ET: The Priests of Ancient Egypt (Ithaca. is that not much appears in the Mithras Liturgy regarding Egyptian religion. N one o f the traditional Egyptian deities are m entioned by name.’ ” ibid. especially. “Ritual Expertise in Roman Egypt and the Problem o f the Category ‘Magician. see Erich Winter. Laszlo Kakosy. Berlin: de Gruyter. Bagnall. Egypt. NY: Cornell University Press. FI. Greek. Hornung. Agypten. and various astral divinities and powers. 145 For learned magicians see my essay. Mechanics. 198— 237. however. “The learned magician and the collection and transmission o f magical lore. 2000).145 it is Bedeutungder ‘ Mithrasliturgie’ (P G M I V 475— 820) (HLV 6. Frankfurter.” CEg 69 (1994) 218-45. Sternberg-El Hatabi. see above. Dickie.” ANRW 11. That the text as a whole is situated in Hellenistic Egypt is evident especially from the final Supplemental Rituals (11.” in Hellenismus und Urchristentum. The authors handling o f the voces magicae does not provide evidence for his knowledge o f that language to the extent he under­ stands and writes Greek. see Matthew W. 173-83. “Magic.

93). 35 surprising that he does not seem to be interested in utililizing the Egyptian pantheon and its concomitant myths.886. Leiden: Brill. “Chairemon. 44. know Dieterich’s Abraxas (2.”) 149 Dieterich. 1. 67. he articulates ideas o f the philosophy o f religion typical o f Middle Stoicism. o f course. 79.152 The third edition o f 1927 takes into account the 146 A similar figure seems to have been the first century CE Isis priest and Stoic philosopher Chaeremon o f Alexandria.151 This situation has changed radically in R eitzen­ stein s Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen nach ihren Grundgedanken und Wirkungen.148 Since Dieterich displays an enormous range o f source materials in his Mithrasliturgie. ich habe in ihr. die eine direkte Einwirkung neuplatonischer Lehren und ihrer Formulierungen auch nur wahrscheinlich machen konnte. 31.550. The Fragments collected and translated. soweit ich erkennen konnte. wenn Abhangigkeit vom Neuplatonismus sich nachweisen lieBe. n. nirgends eine Spur entdeckt. 150 On Reitzenstein. his aim is to give interpretations o f religious themes such as recreation/rebirth and ascension into heaven that are philosophical rather than m ythico-theological. VII. Dedicated to the m em ory o f Albrecht Dieterich. 82. 80— 155— 86. 148 Dieterich. even if dependency on Neoplatonism or Christianity could be demonstrated.146 These Stoic ideas were already discussed by C um ont and D ieterich.” ANRW 11. 55. 2. n. noch einmal betonen. 61. 147 Dieterich.. 133. 1910). 83— Mithrasliturgie. 208: “ . the work is deeply influenced by him . 87. it is puzzling that he does not point out the many parallels to the Herm etic literature.” In a defensive footnote (n. that he is familiar w ith the Herm etica and refers to them . the Mithras Liturgy does not show any evidence of Neoplatonic influence. 55. By comparison.149 The omission o f the Herm etic literature in D ieterichs Mithrasliturgie may be caused by the fact that he is focused on M ithraism and that Hermeticism was brought first to the forefront by Richard Reitzenstein in his book Poimandres. Abraxas. (“Ich will auch hier. 151 Reitzenstein (Poimandres. van der Horst.V The Religio-historical Context . 15) mentions “das von Anz erkannte Mithrasmysterium” without further comment. His Abraxas shows.O 103. see above. Chaeremon: Egyptian Priest and Stoic Philosopher. who became N ero’ teacher in 49 CE and who s wrote a work called AiyuTcxtaxT) iaxopia which described the Egyptian priest’s life as a fulfilment o f Stoic ideals. Michael Frede. with explanatory notes (EPR. 15. G M P T . durch Erfahrungen gewarnt. He does. Abraxas. This fact and his concentration on the Herm etic literature may have prevented him from even considering the Mithras Liturgy passage. .36:3 (1989) 2067-2103. daB es meinen Ausfiihrungen gar nichts nehmen wiirde. 152 This work began as a lecture delivered in 1909 and published a year later (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. n. 56. and passim). 134 (pointing out that Hermes Trismegistos is mentioned in PGM IV. however. 1984). 2) Dieterich emphasizes that it would make no difference to his argument. See Pieter W. n.150 This book appeared in 1904 and shows no awareness yet o f Dieterich s Mithrasliturgie. see Betz. Mithrasliturgie.. Rather.147 As the author himself shows. 61. so wenig wie ein etwaiger Nachweis der Abhangigkeit vom Christlichen.

.. aber die engere Fiihlung mit der Orientalistik blieb ihnen versagt. Fowden. More recently. a point he explains in the Preface (p. Wenn wir hier erganzen und nacharbeiten. 161 Ibid. 137— 191). 46— 167-91. 168— has rightly emphasized the connections between the Mithras Liturgy and the 72. n. 157 Ibid. 82— 53. dem Philologen und Theologen.200— 57. 4. 169— 191: “Dieterichs Hauptfund. et npd^iq dans la magie. 47— 58. besteht also durchaus zu Recht. Corpus Hermeticum XIII and Early Christian Literature (Leiden: Brill. The Egyptian Hermes. 160 Ibid. 4. Grese. daB es sich um die Schrift 70. Reitzenstein supports Dieterich s idea o f the Mithraic character o f the Mithras Liturgy. 159 On Festugiere. 46-67. and passim. La revelation.. und doch ist das Christentum eine orientalische Religion. 82. the latter drop the ritual and fully internalize and spiritualize the religion.36 Introduction controversies about Dieterich s “classic book Eine Mithrasliturgie.” .158 This turn to spiritualization enabled Festugiere to interpret the entire Herm etic literature in terms of a mystical Platonism.203. 154 In the third edition o f 1927 Reitzenstein adds the name o f Wilhelm Bousset to the dedication. XIII consiste dans une experience tout interieure. Ill): “Weg und Ziel haben jedem Forscher auf diesen Gebieten Hermann Usener und Albrecht Dieterich gewiesen.. meinen Dank.” 155 Idem. sans l’aide d’aucun sacrement.161 Accordingly.” 156 See the programmatic chapter “Orientalischer und hellenistischer Kult” (ibid. H. see above.156 emphasizing its similarities w ith the Herm etic litera­ ture. in ihrem Sinn. See on this point Wilham C.”160 It is intended to distinguish sharply between the philosophical mysticism o f the Hermetica and magical rituals. 1979). wie ich von beiden weiB.155 He further integrates it into the orientalhellenistic syncretism.” W hat does Festugiere mean by this expression? It is a liturgy. Agreeing w ith D ieterich s critics he calls the Mithras Liturgy a “pseudo -Liturgie. Der Fiihrer aber fur diese Erganzung ist Wilhelm Bousset gewesen..157 The differences between the Mithras Liturgy and the Herm etica are also clear: whereas the former maintains the actual practice o f the ritual. his comparison o f C H XIII and the Mithras Liturgy places the latter into the context of the former and points out the many close parallels. mais avec cette difference essentielle que l’operation de C. 81. Nur diirfen wir sie mit dem iepoq Xoyo? eines bestimmten Mysteriums so wenig identifizieren wie das poetische Gebet in dem Nephotes-Zauber oder bei Petosiris-Nechepso mit dem izpoq Аоуо^ eines agyptischen Mysteriums. so geschieht es. its liturgy is rather an 153 Reitzenstein. H M R . 81. but not in the strict sense o f the term. n. So zolle auch die neue Ausgabe dieses Biichleins den verstorbenen Freunden. Hermetica as well as the Nag Hammadi texts.”153 cautiously affirming his major hypotheses and expanding the study o f oriental litera­ ture. 1: “Meme distinction entre Xoyo<.159 His im portant analysis o f C H X III carries the title “La mystique par introversion. eines Mithrasglaubigen handelt. 87.154 O n the whole. 158 Ibid. H M R . rite ou representation symbolique exterieure. entre Xsyojxeva et Spwjxsva dans les mysteres.

analogous to gnosticism. DC: The Folger Shakespeare Library. differently from the Corpus Herm eticum . plus precisement.. a mon sense. In this way they created an intellectual religion. Sol Salutis. Bos. Festugiere overlooks that the ritual o f the Mithras Liturgy is supposed to be perform ed realistically. Stoic ideas enabled the author to give “rational” explanations for magical practices. rather than old Egyptian. on the religious side there is no evidence o f Jewish or Christian influences in the entire passage. 45— 58.V The Religio-historical Context . The cosmological worldview is Greek in origin. Given these contributing factors. He went as far as virtually ignoring the traditional Egyptian gods. 170: “II ne s’agit pas d’une liturgie: outre d’autre raisons.163 The Hermetists sepa­ rated the intellectual treatises from the ritual performances. so that the whole journey is merely “symbolic. while magical proce­ dures were relegated to the “scientific” areas o f alchemy. 484— 732) from the supplemental and mostly 162 Ibid. . “Immanenz und Transzendenz. the performance o f the ritual magic in the Mithras Liturgy goes hand in hand with the imaginary journey to heaven. as its persistent emphasis on magical procedures shows. The fact that the composition separates the more philosophical main body (11. To sum up. le style ne s’y prete aucunement.”162 However. not Neoplatonic: the Mithras Liturgy originated in a milieu prior to Neoplatonism. Therefore. “Magic in Hellenistic Hermeticism. The religion o f the Mithras Liturgy is strictly pagan. the Mithras Liturgy occupies a precarious place between various ancient traditions. because otherwise the author would not consider it necessary to provide apologetic explanations. 1988).. the Mithras Liturgy seems to reflect an early or nascent Hermeticism o f the first and second century CE. Grese. d’un ‘livre de devotion’ d’une maniere geneerique et vague.. Washington. and so forth. II ne s’agit pas non plus. 1— w ho refers to Christian parallels in Origen and Augus­ 2. Abraham P. tine. This approach implies a certain skepticism w ith regard to traditional Egyptian religion. Ingrid Merkel & Allen G. l’experience est tout interieure.164 Moreover. substituting for them deified philosophical concepts. Debus.” R A C 17 (1996) 1041— 92. 37 exercise in “virtual reality” comparable to apocalyptic narratives. That philosophy is Stoic. astrology. At stake is the entire complex o f problems concerning immanence and transcendence. The entire ritual o f rebirth is justified and believed effective because it is constituted in “natural” processes o f generation and regeneration integrated in the cosmos. d’un recit de montee au ciel comme la litterature apocalyptique. its development took place in an Egyptian religious milieu under the influence o f Hellenistic philosophy. Clearly.” 163 See Dolger. II s’en rapproche aussi par la fait que la montee est symbolique: c’est en esprit que Ton s’eleve.” in Hermeticism and the Renaissance: Intellectual History and the Occult in Early Modern Europe (eds. 164 See on this William C. mais.

see also Betz.494— 611. the refer­ ence to an Herm etic prayer in XIII. G M PT. p.165 O ther passages in the PGM . 114-122). хХѓфас. 6. O high-minded god.154-205). “The Delphic Maxim TNH 0I DAYTON in Her­ metic Interpretation.” ibid. Besides the frequently occurring name o f Hermes. 38-39 (with apparatus. but it has not yet reached the Gnostic stage o f the Corpus H erm eticum . s. for the literature see Betz.. та ета&ијлата TcpoorecptovY]aev <ev> еаитои Lepa (ЗфХсо eTUxaXou^evY) 'Птериус.v. a list o f names for Egyptian divinities is introduced by the words: xoc ovo^axa. б [леуаХофрш $eoq.42-195). The papyrus reads EPM AI. 22— 51. 732— 819) shows the way Hermeticism is going. 179.-Apuleius. the episdes o f Pnouthis (1. n. M orton Smith]). 172 n.” in Hellenismus und Urchristentum. Unfortunately. the god is called: cpavYjtK ev ттј (xavTela. “Hermes’ R ing” (V. . 138 is textually dubious and the name 'EpfxaCxo? is Preisendanz s conjecture. see “Schopfung und Erlosung im hermetischen Fragment ‘Kore Kosmou’. Preisendanz. “Consecration” addressed to Helios (IV. to Nephotes (IV. e. “Hidden Stele” (IV .Ill5— 66). in Betz. 20 168 See. 92). xptapieyai. 3.15 quotes from an otherwise unattested “Herm etic” book: ex бе таиту]? ттј<.168 165 Several o f my earlier articles on the Hermetica show that the writings reflect various stages o f development and thus diversity within the Corpus Hermeticum. A passage in XIII. with two tiny illegible letters w ritten over it and vacant spaces before and after it.540-78). and to Pitys (IV. with apparatus. 175.38 Introduction magical instructions (11. 33-34. and “Hermeticism and Gnosticism: The Question o f the Poimandres” in Antike und Christentum. “Stele” (IV. with nn. 1167-1226). 591-609 in Ps. 219-29. Two Greek Magical Papyri. G M P T . XIII.2006-2125). 'Ep|i%. Hermes thricegreat” [1.5 (“from this book Hermes plagiarized w hen he named the seven kinds o f incense [in] his sacred book called Wing” [trans. 92— 111. (“Appear to me in the divination. For these articles.). “R ing” (XII. ad loc. 443ff.g.850— 929). {ЗфХои 'Ер(луј<. furthermore.. For the interpretation. a eypa^iev ev 'HXiorcoXet. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 167 See Preisendanz. 500 Hermes is also given the magical name Semesilamps.96171). 174-80. (“I speak your name which thrice-greatest Hermes wrote in Heliopolis with hieroglyphic letters” [11. 487— 495— 90. o тркт^еукЈто? 'Ерјлт)? lepoyAiKpixoi^ урајЈЦластс. Morton Smith. “Stele o f leu” (V. 166 See the photographic edition by Daniel.167 there are a num ber o f spells that are in many ways close to the Mithras Liturgy.. and a comment by A. 895-96]). Asclepius 41. Brinkmann. m ention the name o f Hermes Trismegistos. 206-21. however. In the piece called “Charm o f Solomon” (IV.219— (index). 'Epfxyji. In a “Lamp divination” spell (VII. and Nag Hammadi Codex VI.270-350). passim.212-302). who stands for the Egyptian T hot as well as for the Greek god. 1596-1715). with parallel versions to 11. 551]). 11. The closeness is evidenced by terms and concepts found also in the Herm etica. Spell to establish a relationship with Helios (III. 25 (who notes the omission in the parallel version B. 173.166 In XIII.

7 recto 475 476 477 478/9 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 "IXo iK [xot. xou ev sptol TcvsufAaxo? 7tpc5xov —[x(uxwaov xpl?) —тсир. Papyri Graecae Magicae. . but different readings based on the photographic plates by David Jordan and David Martinez have been considered and adopted.. utco xou ap^ayyeXou auxou. ep. ripovota x al ЧРихУ). [xovto бе xexvw a&avaoxav a£uo. Ха^јфаveiv yvkobc..vxtov ev ejjtol xpacreoov Феобсорујхоу. ^ u tx j хт^ У]|лехѓра<. хабе ypa<povxc. хт)? ev epiol оиаѓа? уембои? тсрсохт) u ] utoT]. infra. upwxov cototo a a a eee. тсарабоха [хиогтѓјрса.88100. np&rov Y rjta cy]. бтсо)^ £y< ^ovo? alexo? oupavov p al*> vw x al хахотсхгисо icavxa.. ибсор ибахо^. Фр[*]. °ФХ*) 0C *)<?> тсрмхт. For details see the commentary.Greek Text* f. Mi&pa? гхѓХги. cf(upoaov PX xpt?). стс5[ла xeXecov е[лои xou б(е)1^а) хтј? б(г)!^а). "HXc. jv ctsv ^. ’'Eaxiv бг xou Xoyou 7]бе r\ хХтја^' [rjeveat-i. n(6iXTcuCTov xpi?). f. бсаy uercXaCTjjLevov итсо fiptxyiovoq cvxljxou x al бе- * The text given here on the whole follows Preisendanz. xou ev ]u ejxol ибахо<.Y]v xpacxt. <[X7]vu^Y](jeCT^aL> ev xw x zk zi xou lepou jaou auvxaу[хахо? — Y o (xeya? 0 (eo)c. (3oxav«v x al ѕ1бс5у xwv [x[eX]Xovxwv aot. 1. xo etc.o<. хаихт]? o3v сте. c xa <а>тт:рата. w 9-иуахгр. 7 verso 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 7iv£U[xa 7r:veu[Aaxo<. xou ev spiol rcupoc. ouata уембтјс.ou(o.oi ^ехабо&т^а^. б т/а jl c y fiewc. тсрсохт) xr\q е^тј? y e v e ^ ^ " aer]t.

ае ттј a&avaTw yevecrei. ev те афизд) x al ефихм[л. аф&артои ev а<роот1ат(о x al б^аиуе! xoajjuo.aTL јлетаy ev <v >y]9'W xpao^pa!. ’Ercel oux Icttlv [jlol e<pixTov 9-vy]tov уеумта auva<v>t.етатгараХу]^.). epovout rcapaxouvY)^.а? yeipoq acp&aptou.40 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 Greek Text ? y z ip o c. ay la? и<рестт(осту]? [jlou тсро? oXlyov ty)? avt)pw7rl— vy)? fxou фи^хт)? Suvocjjlcm?.a^ap<p[./]pt. ’Ercel fjiXXw хатотстеиесл/ cnrjfjiepov toc? a&avaTot.ѓу« uyji aut eutoLe.xe^u(j. 'ѓгре(^а& — [хѕтатгарабо^а^ . Y eyw TiaXiv jv [Ј.’Eyw yot-p el^-L o ulo? фи^м^] бе[хои npo’ oi тсрма. tva ^aufxaato )& to lepov uup xucpe. a vyp scppevecroucptpLy^. x al axoucnr) [xou o (^cooyovo? x al 7iept.’Eyw o 8(e)i(va.? 6[x[xaat. eyto elfjtx p. ay lot.. aa> e’ au ] i i tua ieco. p ot(A evap^o^at.Y —ev aXXto.а1 [хета ty]v eveaTwaav x al xaTC7ielyouaav pie 7uxpav avayxYjv axpeox67rY]Tov. tpS-apTY] (BpoTtov cpuai. ’Eav бе ujxtv бо^т) јхетгрта p j <ра&' [ле&ар&а <. х ата боу^ха &eou ajj-eTa^erov euY u’ a evjc.tw aO-avaxw ибатс.]v x .evat ^риаоесбест^ [xap^xapuyal? т?ј? a&avarou XaptY^o— vo? c y aeco Y]ua cw j uae coiae. ov yj б(е)1^а).? ayiaa&el? ayiaajxaat. (Be^eXTitojiivo? што хратои? ЈлеуаХобша(хои x al бг£Ј. a&avarw 7iveufj. tw сттересотата) aspc e'ioaY] феуаЈЗсог)' tva voY)p..aTi tov a&avaTov Alto­ va x al беатиоту^ tcov rcuplvwv бсабујЈха— tmv.fJieV ) [A U cpU TSt/ tva Y TC X Y O C [хета tyjv evecrxwaav x al стсробра хатетtel— youaav [xe ^petav еттотстеиаа) tyjv a&avaTov ap5(y]v r a a^avaxw TtveujxaTt.evo? al&Yjp apvojxYjtkp.фо^. tva O-eaaw^xaL to a(3uacrov ттј? avaTo)aj? cppixTov ибсор vuto &eaw s'/M ovyisyoitx. o ju y есттаОг. xal nvevari ev ejxol to lepov 7iveu}xa v e ^ e v атготои vey&w арти Y . &vy)to? yevvY)&el? ex &vy)tyj? иатера?. SJOyLSVMQ T ) U O et. x al airclxa <avaXa(3e> pie иуиј [лета ttqv аттара1тт]тоу xal хате7т:е[с]— youcrav xP ^av.

Kal xoxe офу] xou? &eou? aoL eujxevw? e^XcTiovxa? x a l jxv]— xext. xou? rcoXeuovxa? ava(3alvovxa? el? oupavov &eou?. cpavqcrexai. 2и бе еиФѓа)? елхв-е? бe^tбv бaxxuXov етг1 хб ахо[ха x a l Хеуе’ St-yvj. | агутѓ].. ’'Erceixa crupiorov [xaxpov a(upK70v био). aXXou? бе xaxa(3alvovxa?.Greek Text 41 537 538 539 540 541 542 [лои тсрсофих^ тгрме.. 'H бе тсореса xaiv opcode— vtov &ewv б(. [o]uxe av&pwrcou outs £co u aXX<ou>. f'EXxe ал:6 xtov | axxlvoov 7T:veu[Jia y' avaCT7rcov. x a l б exepo? б[ло1со? el? ха [хе— ру] xa exelvou.сохои. У Офт] {сти} бе axevl^ovxa? аос. ’Офт] yap exelvY)? хтје? Yjfiipa? x a l хтј? wpa? &elav 0-eat. тгахро? [лои. OuXa^ov [хе. xou? &eou? x a l i n i сте 6pfju*)[xevou?. Y ap)(Y] xou Xet-xoupyouvxo? avefxou. ercl as бppuo|Aѓvou?. 8 recto 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 xtov sttI утј? &vt]xc5v ev exelvT) xyj copa. eav 9) xexXyjptofjiivo? el? xa [херт] xou атпг)Хс. б[ло1(о? бе x a l б xaXoujxevo? аи— Хо?. OuSevo? бе axoucrec. &еои.v. o Suva[a]at. rravxa бе офу] a&avaxa. ’’Офт] ] yap атсб xou б1ахои w? auXov xpejxap-evov el? бе xa fJtipy] ха тсрб? Хфа arcepavxov olov кпи]— Xccotiqv. асучѓ) v z y & e ip &av[zeXou.барк«) хирт] cpLX(3a. бфу) xyjv arcocpopav xou бра^лахо?. стсу/). <жтхе сте б о х е ф jx]— s o ov xou aepo? elvat. euetxa tiotcuucrov Xeycov Протсросреууу) (xopio? n p o — cpup тсрофеуу^ vepiexhpe apфevxev tcix7]x [ [xetou evap& cpupxe^w фи— al рс. x a l бфт] creauxov avaxoucpc-^ofxevov [x]al uuep(3aivovxa el? ифо?. aXXa rcopeuofjti— .а xou битхои. оибе офт) ouSev o f. CTUfj-^oXov &еои ^(ovxo? аф&архои.

U oX <pwx6< xxlcrxa —ol бе’ auyxXelaxa —2е[Аестс. avaXajxutov б Eu. "Oxav oOv 1бт]<. Aoyo? y ' ercaxouaov ptou. Tcupt&ufjie | Iato.).2t.xXove e r x ix a . xa nupivcn xXyj&pa xou (xexpa)— Xt^wfAaxo?.axc<)(v). | yaXXa(3aX(3a. M exa бе xo elrcelv ae xov (3' Xoyov.a(ou<. CTiyr] Xo(yo<.. Hu бе TraXiv Xeye. 7 | pLCT7rope apet. xaXXtcpco^ a^a’ i. 2u бе eu&eax. 7 tveupiax6< (o . xou б(е)с^а) хтј? б(е)Т^а). xov avto x6ct[aov xa$apov x a l Sovoufjievov x a l (X7]Ssva xwv &e«v t) ayyeXtov 6p<[x>(0[xevov. ’Eyw elfxc <o> a u p iX a v o ? ufxlv aaxY]p. стгрѓ). x a l xou б£ахои avot.yv). .yevxo<. x a l TtLKXtovxa? oXov xov aepa. Alwv ax(3a. атсХсо— tHjcrexat.<. 6 а^бтјаа? 7 iveu[xaxt. TC ptTC e uevxLxepouvL. aupicrov (3' x a l 7V(otctcuctov) [3'. [xeyaXY]<. 7 iXcIctxou<. б битхо<. (nevxa^axxu— Xt. TrupLTrvoe фирп/среи. срсохобмха. 595 596 597 598 тси | pLCTcofxaxe qjvouTjvio^. Ttuplva? атгохе— xXeu7[jtiva<. Tauxa crou e l n ovxo? eu&eax. xupie.42 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 Greek Text vouc. x a l ex xou (За&оис. 2u бе uocXlv XeyeIk y Y]. . тсростбоха (3povx?. otcou ac/yr] (3' x a l xa axoXou&a.pov xuxXw^xa x a l &upa<. «pwxoxpaxtop п е п п е р тсретсеЈАтата. ercl xyjv iSlav xa£c. бфт] атсо xou бСстхои aaxepa? TCpocrep^ojjiivouc. w axe a e e x - 7cXay7)voa. axou— aov [xou. o Егр&гиФ. x a l eu&eto<. бфт) a 7 tet.v tw v Ttpay[Jt.Ха(А. ги n upt.. war p< тгир^ар?] | eXoupe. Ѕ ш х е xov v t z o — xelfxevov Xoyov xapi[AUcov ctou xou? ocp&aX— [AOU?. a x o u a e a & a i xxutcov.

7) 7](0 0(0 07] C£(0 07] (007] (. cpwxo? xX eo? f^eeyevTjxe. 7]07] (OUT] 7](007]£ £(07]La ат]а£7]а 7]££7] ££7] ££7] l £(0 7]£(0 07]££07] 7]£(0 7]U(0 07] £C(0 7](0 (07] (07] ££ 0 0 0 UU07]. vtj? wctxe xw v 9 -( e (o) v . 7 ev 7tup[. loo? exxeX ectt)? xou? 11' a& a v a x o u ? &£ou? x o u хост[лои. 'O x a v o5v атгохахааха& тј a o u 7] фи^т].Greek Text 43 f. T a u x a a o u z l — tcovxo ? axoucTEt. ет и х а Х о и — 605 606 607 608 609 610 (jwa evexa хтј? хахетгесуоистт)? x a l m xpa? x a l атсарасхтјхои avayxT ]? x a (лтјбетсм ^ w p yjaavxa e l ? S'VYjxYjv cpucrcv [лт]бе cppaaO evxa ev б с а р — ^pcociet. a v o t^ o v [лос. o ? e o T iv e v — атсо хтј? x o u О-ѕа^хахо? 7]бо— 7ivE U [xa a o u au v x p s^ E C -v x a l хтј? x a P ^ ? x a l a v a (3 a lv £ iv .7] (01.<7 )(7 ]< l<p«? | aoucrtvecpi.a . p a a a o fx e v o v . 2 x a ? oOv eu 9-£(o? IX x e атсб xou 629 630 &£tou axsvL^wv sc? a s a u x o v x o 7tV£U£Aa. (BpovxT)? x a l xX ovou x ou n z p i — 'Ojxouo? 8 e aE au xov а 1 а $ 7 ]9 т]а£С.8 t v a n u p c ^ t. ’Асттроба^ха. (. 600 x s p a u v o |x X o v e ir\ m \ u o t ju o . X s y s - .Хра. 7 tu p t . £[леftet-pe [х8 рс. apsv(3apa£et. 2 u б е TcaXtv X £ y e ‘ асут ] X o (yo?). ixapjxapevxeu.££(0 £ lx a ojao I m ? x o бeu x £ p o v a p 5( 6 {JL£vo?.7] £(0 07] t-tt. cpooxoxLVTjxa a a v ^ s p ( o [ 3 .(0(0 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 07) 7]£(0 7)C(0 O ] 60) 1 (0(0 07]7]C (07]£ Y (007] (. oxt. 8 verso 598 599 cptoxo^ta toaoaa). 624 625 626 627 628 E l x a | avot-^ov xou ? бф& аХ^ои? x a l офт] a v s w y u t— a? x a ? &upa? x a l x o v xoa [x o v x o ? xcov Dupwv. | (3 o o a 7 ]i. T a u x a r ca v x a X£y£ jxexoc 7tup o? x a l 7tv£upia— x o ? x o Tcpwxov octcoxeX m v .£(0 07] £7] KO 07] LOT] (07](0 £07] 0£(0 (0(. x a — e^ ovxo?. u n o a v ^ p o o m v T ]? уХооаат)? 7] & V 7]xou cp&oyyou 7] 0 V7]X7]? <ptov7]? a & a v a x a ^tovxa x a l evxLfJia o v o fx a x a 7]£(0 07]7](0 (. 601 602 603 604 аи^тјсгЃсроо? aouaive<pc.о[хотир 7]ф 1. 7тротсро<рѕуу 7].

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Y ] epoupo[x(3pt. Y ?". (Зрофесос. p. Y б'. o T t p a ix o ? . Xaipe. Обхоѓ. (isjxvocl x a l aya&al TCap&evoi.. Tauxa ISwv асттса^ои оихсо?" Xalpexe. ] Xalpe. ol xv&^a— x o c p u X a x e ? . ou? беТ ere асттсастаа&ас opioca)? exa— axov xaj 1б6со auxwv ov6p. Y Tcpwxvj. S^OfJLJXLY]. o e ' .v ol xaXoujjievot. lepal x al ofxoStaLxoL xou [ji(. al ayicoxa— xat.vc. Y y '. pLE^pav. Xaipe. a x a p a — a v e v x a T ? e v e a x w a a c . o ?'. x a l оф/) xaxep^ofjiva^ aaxparca? x a l cptoxa [xap— .[xepo?. o y '. axevc^e xto aept.7]?. ? x y j ? a Y jfjie p o v Y ] ^ e — p a ? a y a & a t ? w p a t ? . | ^vea^eY)?. 7ioXoxpaxope? xou oupavou. "Oxav бе evaxakriv ev&a x a l ev&a xyj xa^et. 6721 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 TcpoawTta eyovaoLC. ] XalpE. | o Z. eopaaL^Y]. oupavou Tu)(oa. ] Xalpe. ] XaZpe. a x o ? ) ? x e x a l o p a c re w ? e u x o v la v . e^ovxe? ev 7tept. | Xoxpaxope? & eoL 689 690 691 692 693 694 Xatpe. Y] s ' . &XPlXl0UPXaipe.o t. a c e p t o v t k . 6 S'. хрѕф^&атг)?. 7] (3'. Xalpe. Auxai xaXouvxat. | x^vovSaY)?.. u y e l a v x a l стсо^хахо? o X o x X y j — p la v . xou oupa— vou. -/риаеа. Xaipe. . e fx o l б е e u a e P e i &еоае(Зг1 ovxt. | apappia^Y]?. elat. o l l e p o l x a l a X x L [j. бе x a l Ixepot &eol xaupwv pieXavtov проампа. Ilposp^ovxat. Xalpe.ppo<pop.. ерЈЛ[-х^а^мФ Xalpe. XlXP(01*Xl9-co.epxet. xpaxouaat. [хестарусХхм.£(o— jxaaLV Xivol? xaxe^ovxe? бсабтѓ)[лаха xpu— стеа.jAt.Greek Text 45 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672. o [S'. cpuXaxLaaai xtov xecrcxapwv axuXlcrxwv.'. Xalpe. al Tu^at. v e a v l a t .axr Xalpexe.— e v x e ? e l ? б и а с т е јЗ а ^ cp u X a . o l x u p t o t [jlou x a l f x e y a X a l p e . o l c r x p e — cp o vx e ? u tto ev хеХеист[ха x o v 7 ie p i^ iv Y ) x o v x o u x u x X o u a ^ o v a x o u o u p a v o u x a l (3 p o v x a ? x a l аахра7та? xa l x a l a e i a j j iM V x a l x e p a u v w v (ЗоХа? acpt.

w? ctu £vo[xo^£XY]aa? . [xa— xpov zic. w? cru sxxt-aa?. x u p ie . S u v a a x a Tuvsujjiaxo?. 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 sv&o cpevev &po7Ufa)t). ’'E rcetxa бфу] auxou e x xwv ofAjxaxcov acrxparca? x a l e x xou ст(ор. 9 verso 709 710 tpepepL. vefxe ev хт) | ф и ^ p-ou.. xaxacpt-Xwv rcaXiv x a cpuXaxxY]pia x a l X eyw v [XOXpt-jJLO (pep[. iv a ctuvxlvyjctt]^ x a ? Ttevxe o c i a d r j a s i g . jxr] [jie хахаХѕсфт]?. ф а т vy)v 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 I^ o v x a t t ] v бф[л/.а X^p'1 № aX0U yj ’’ Apxxo? xivouaa x a l avxt-axpscpouaa xov oupavov. j3a<ravl£(ov xyjv y acrxsp a. crot. sfxsakpt. x a x a wpav avarcoX suouaa x a l хахатгоХвиоиаа. Ха Ф £ ’ *°c™ pxa I Y?]?> X alp s. e c tx lv бе£с. xpucroxofxav. apx£vx£7tc. ^w<Y]> [xou. vew xepov.[JLO— f. sv y i x w i X eu x w x a l ХРи(ТФ ax£<pavtp x a l a v a ^ u p i a t .. x a x e ^ o v x a x?) cSjaov ypuoeov. S u бе eu&eco? <[xuxw > [xuxwfxa [xaxpov. ptivs au . 7iepl xou SsTva тсрау^лахо?. 6c. au£6[Ji£Vo? x a l a u ^ & e l ? | x e X euxco.aov. TcaXt. тгротгрофЕуугј. K upte. Ха[А7грофеу |утј. 6xi x eX eu et. (^cooyovou y£vo[A£ |vo?. xou S e lv a .ахо? a a x sp a ? aXXofiivou?. eI? a7ioy£V £atav avaXu&sl? тсорѕио | \lvli.'1 46 695 696 Greek Text f x a tp o v x a x a l crstofjiivYjv xy]V yvjv x a l x a x s p x o [A £ v o v & (s o )v U K epfxeyeO iq. 9т]гк jxt. K a l axevt^ e xw &eco | fxaxpov [xuxwjxevo? x a l aarca^ou оихм?" K upte.[Ji£(o uevapco cpupX£XW Ф^Р^SapLW Фрт) Фрт)Х(За.vyev6[xs | vo? aTioytyvo^at. 721 722 атсо yeveaefax. aTuoQ-eaiv [xuxw. x a ^P£ > беатсоха ибахо?. Xpy)fjiax[.

<. x a l еи&ѓ— to? auxov офу] Tipoaep^ofAevov x a l е а $ ѓ — o v x a . x a u t c o xou [AeyaXou &eou pyjOivxa.p7)<. XP^W a uxou T7)v о ф ^ ТФ [AuaxTjptto.. П — V yvexat. Xeye auxou ercl хтјс.pto[Aevo<. бе o aua&avaxt. (3aXe tic . ’E a v бе (3ouXt)$t] r i g .v aacpaXw? «<. Xet-waa? Tcolirjaov [Aa^cov. w? x a u — x a rcavxa ^copYjcret. ev ex a x a a e t. T a u x a aou e in o v x o c .Greek Text 47 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 x a l | inoLriacnq [Auaxrjpiov.. бе aot.a a x lx wv T° v XPylC L v x a ' e^<5)(v ) I[J° L arceXeuaexat.^ auxojAaxa)?. axouet-v. UTcap^et. aruoxplvYjxat.? eveo?. ’Eyco e l [A <pepoupa | [At-oupi. x a v -?)v [Auplwv a x t x wv o x.. t.. w x ex v o v . ou Y apx*]' T eve— ] gic . ТтсѓхХихо? бе eaei. yeveaeto? aeyjt-ouw. тсра^еа)?Aaf3«v | xavQ-apov 7)Xt. rcptoxT] хтј<. w? [AuaxTjc. fhqalov xaXXaivov (3a&u ev артсаутј хтј<. x a l oxav <pay7]. еи&ем? XP7)CT[A(oSif]aet. [Aexa xo 7capayyeX[Aa {хм } T capaxouaai. x a l ..? wc. tv a [ay] axouav]. xetpaXyj? a{u }xovto cp&oyyto. ’E a v бе x a l Sel^aL auxto &e— Xt)?. ттј фи/тј x a t oux ev aeauxw e a e t.. A eyet.. e|A )<. ЈЗХтгјОт^ас. aeXr]V7)<. x a l x oxe [AVY)[A0Vcuaet. au бе axyjxet. au vayveu exw aot. ДсбаахаХСа тг\<.P^<7[aoi. oarapaf3ax(o<. xplvac. w axs x a Xeyo[Aeva ex elv o v [aovov auv aot. auve[A(3aXtov auxw X wxopqxpa? атс ѓр [А а x a l [AeXt. ’E a v бе ОеХт)? x a l аи[А[АиaxY] xpyjaaa&at. Xeyet. x a l eyxet. xp^^°c[Aevo? xw xotcco.v6[Aevo<. euO-eto? Ovrjaxet. oxav aot.a[A6<. St. T ou— xov aveX6[Aevo<. обхо? xpl? xou evcauxou. oaov ^ouXet. a y y e lo v ueXouv [Aupou р о б ^ о и xaX X laxou. Y T a бе tZjic. w? < a u > итсер auxou xpt.. 7)[Aepa<. xov Tcpai— xov итсо[ЗаХе auxaj Xoyov.. ’E a v бе x a l [a o v o ? тјс.. av — 9-ptorcoi. e l a i'io ? eaxt.a[A(o.axov xov x a q ф ' axxTva? e^ovxa Tcolirjaov tic . < x w > ouxext. x a l arcoaxeaJko e ^ u x « v x a l (3aXa— v elou . a7tocpot. ev xw aTca&av<ax>t. x a utco xou 0-eou elpy][Aeva..

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Euwvup. . x a l т а cpuXXa оиХотера x a l tov xaprcov e^ovTa 6 [aoiov tw xopufx(3w a<T7iapayw a y p lw .Greek Text 49 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 Т оито | e x k i y e . tou |ay]vo?. ty}? fxeXavY)? у?}?. ’'Еатсл/ бе | [aovoxXwvov x a l 7iuppov c ty p i ty}? pO^qc. to бе аито бтѓјаа? veupot. 'H бе y v w a i? аит?}? outw? y ly v e T a r ’'IfBew? Trcepov -/pLexon t o a x p o — [xeXav x<*Xaa&ev tw xaL ТФ y e lv аттотитстес. ojjiola бе ccttlv tw op&w TcepujTepewvc..a e^et. т а 7ттера. x a l t o cpuXXov eXl^a? ерфаХе e l? to poSt-vov.iov y p ^ o v el? u[xe— v a тсро^атои f/iX avo? (^xupvofjiiXavt-.<ov t > ou Tcpoa&ufXTjpL. tv a сриХахттјрЕ-астОт]?. E lu e v бе { xol 6 &eo?‘ M tjxctl xpw | стиу/р1ст{лат[. Т оито тои xu p lou и тсобе1£^ то? еиреОт) ev tw M e v e — Хаѓтт) ev ty} ФаХаури тсро? таТ? avajSoXal? tc y t ov X jc I < ty}?> tou BY ]<cra>a(^o? (Sotocvyj?. tov Tporcov t o u t o v t o ptiv 8eE.’'E gtlv бе 7Tapa7rX-y]CTtov tw xaXoujxevw таХатг/]. . бота!. тсХт]реата— tov x a l to итсорлг^а e^ et.? ^OTavY] <pu— етас атсо [xy]Vo? Ilauvt. aXXa p ^ a v T a el? TtoTajJiov < XP^1> XP^a ^ a t ф ороиута to jjtiya pLuaTYjptov tou xav& apou tou ava^wTiupTj&evTO? бкх twv x e ' £wwv opvewv. 'H бе xevTptTt.? тои аитои £wou тсер1афа1. ev tol? Repeat.. ПоХХахс. 10 verso 819 820 Tpouw. to бе euwvupiov el? ujxeva Xeuxou тгроЈЗатои x a l xp& ™ auTw f. w? to a y p to v a eu — t Xov.avT l тои х а т а ето? y \ х а т а 7tavoeX7]vov. T a бе <puXaxTYjpt. xpacr^at.? бе ty] 7грау[хате1а xpTQ^afxevo? ш гере& аи[xaaa.

YEI AYI EYOIE. which the great god Helios Mithras ordered to be handed over to me by his archangel so that I alone may go to heaven as an “eagle” | and behold [the] all. first beginning o f my beginning. which will be [made known] to you at the end o f my sacred treatise). which. w ithout soul and yet alive w ith soul.Translation* 475 480 485 Be gracious to me. earth material. M M M fire god-given for my mixture o f the mixtures in me. for an initiate o f this our power (furthermore.]. . after the present and * The translation is a revision o f Marvin W. 48-54. This is the invocation o f the prayer: 490 495 500 “First origin o f my origin. in another place) IEREZATH . w ho writes these mysteries handed down. Meyer’s in Betz. whose m other is N N . based on the commentary infra. and for an only child I ask for immortality. the first o f the fire in me. not for gain. if it seems right to you. now. PPP SSS P H R [. O daughter. O Providence and Psyche. G M P T (1996). to take | the juices o f herbs and drugs. because o f its fashioning by a noble arm and an incorruptible right hand in a world w ithout light and yet radiant. the first o f the water in me. AEEIOYO. transfer me to the immortal birth and next. the first o f the earthy material in me | YE YOE. it is necessary for you. water o f water. O O O AAA EEE. spirit o f spirit. the first o f the spirit | in me. EY EIA EE. to my underlying nature. a perfect body o f me. N N . in order that. M ETERTA | P H O T H (M ETH ARTHA PH ER IE.

O perishable nature o f mortals. For today I am going to envision w ith immortal eyes — I. and at once <take me back> safe after the inexorable and pressing | need. but improved through the exceedingly powerful m ight and the imperishable right hand | and w ith the immortal spirit. E R O N O Y I PA R A K O U N ETH . but rather you will see all immortal things. which I will again | receive after the present bitter and relentless necessity 525 530 535 540 545 which is pressing down on me —I. drawing in as much as you can. with the immortal water. I am M A C H A R PH [. Since for me. the presiding gods arising into heaven. it is out o f reach to ascend together w ith the golden radiances o f the immortal brilliance. 510 A N C H R E P H R E N E S O U P H IR IG C H . frightful water o f the dawn. You will hear nothing either o f hum an or o f another living being.]N M O Y P R O P S Y C H O N P R O E . nor in that hour will you see anything o f mortal affairs on earth. N Y O TH ESO E C H O O Y C H IEC H O A . so that you seem to be in midair. [Then] you will see yourself being lifted up and | ascending to the height. according to the immutable decree o f god. and others setting.” Draw in breath from the rays three times. 515 520 ARNOM ETH PH . For I am the son PSY CH O [N] DEM OY P R O C H O PR O A . EIOAE PSENABOTH. K R A O C H R A X R O IM E N A R C H O M A I | and the sacred spirit may breathe in me. being | mortal. N N . in order that I may marvel at the sacred fire.Translation 51 exceedingly pressing need. w ith the firmest air. a mortal born from a mortal womb. I may envision the immortal | 505 beginning with the immortal spirit. in order that I may gaze upon the unfathomable. For you will see the divine constellation on that day | and hour. and that the life-giving | and encompassing ether hear me. sanctified through holy consecrations —which holy [power] supports for a short while my human soul-power. KYPHE. . w hom N N bore. N E C H T H E N A PO TO Y N E C H T H IN A R PI ETH. stand. in order that I may be born again in thought. [to envision] the immortal Aion and lord o f the fiery diadems —I. OEY AEO EUA EO E YAE OIAE. EYE YIA EEI AO E'lAY IYA IEO.

. Thus w hen you see that the world above is pure | but agitated. w hen it is assigned to the region o f the east. | And you will see the gods intently staring at you and rushing at you. and immediately you will see | a multitude o f five-pronged stars proceeding from the sun-disk and filling all the air. for you will see it hanging from the sun-disk like a pipe. But you say again: “Silence! Silence!” And w hen the sun-disk has opened. and in the same way the other [west wind going] toward the regions o f that one [scil.” 575 580 585 Immediately after you have said this the sun-disk will be expanded. my father. But you say again: “Silence! Silence! (the formula) I am a star. the XY. and that none o f the gods or angels is threatening you. but rather going about in their own order o f affairs. the pipe]. the X E R T H E U T H . T hen you will see the turn-about o f the image [scil. the east]. expect a great crash o f thunder to be heard.52 Translation 550 555 560 565 570 N ow the course o f the visible gods will appear through the disk o f god. wandering about w ith you. w ith the result that you are shocked. and say: “PR O PR O PH EG G E M O R IO S P R O P H Y R PRO PH EG G E N E M E T H IR E A R PSEN TEN PITETM I M EO Y E N A R T H P H Y R K E C H O PSY RID A R IO | T Y R E PHILBA.. and in a similar way the so-called pipe. | At once close your eyes and recite the following prayer. . next make a popping sound. and shining forth out o f the | deep. After you have said the second formula. But you at once put your right finger on your m outh and say: “Silence! Silence! Silence! Symbol o f the living imperishable god | Guard me. you will see the boundless circle and its fiery doors shut tight. Toward the region o f the west [it is the source of] the unending east wind. make the hissing sound twice and the popping sound twice. | the origin o f the ministering wind.” And then you will see the gods looking graciously upon you and no longer rushing at you. where there is “Silence! Silence!” and what follows. Silence! N E C H T H E IR T H A N M ELO U !” Then make a long hissing sound.

living and honored. N N . Light-mover. Fire-delighter. PEPPER PREPEM PIPI. Light-forcer. Fire-body. SOUSINEPHI. IAO. Aion. the immortal names. AKBA. O lord. Fire-sower. AZAI. Fire-light-maintainer. Fire-whirler. whose m other is N N . O Fire-burner. you who have bound together w ith your spirit the fiery bars o f the fourfold | root. because | o f the pressing and bitter and inexorable necessity. ELO U R E. SA N C H ER O B . PE N T IT E R O U N I. Light-increaser. PSY RIN PH EU . Fire-breather.. PY R IC H IB O O SEIA . open for me. Spirit-light. AREI EIKITA Fire-thronger. GALLABALBA. OAI. | Light-ruler. Lightning-shaker. P H N O U E N IO C H . AIO. PR O PR O PH EG G E EM ETH EIR E M ORIOM OTYP^EPHILBA. SO U SIN EPH I A R EN B A R A ZEI M A R M A R EN TEU . [ IE OE IO EIO . BEEGENETE. . For I invoke. Light-creator (others: Confiner). Light-giver. Light-famous. Fire-spirited. which have not yet passed into mortal nature nor declared in articulate speech by human tongue or mortal speech or mortal sound: | EEO O E EO IO O OE EEO EEO E O O E E O IO O OEEE OEE O O E IE EO O O O E IEO OE O O E IEO OE IEEO EE IO OE IOE O E O EO E O E O OIE OIE E O O I III EOE OYE EO O E E EO EIA AEA EEA | E EE EEE EEE IEO EEO OEEEOE . Subduer o f stars.Translation 53 The third prayer: 590 595 600 605 610 615 “Give ear to me. hearken to me. SEMESILAM.. Light-beauty.

N ow stand still and at once draw spirit from the divine into yourself. you will see a youthful god. N N . O lord.” Recite all these things w ith fire and spirit. then in the same way w hen you begin the second time. mighty is your power. lord. while you gaze intently.requests to worship | you. A R C H A N D A R A PH O TA ZA PY R IPH O TA ZA BY TH IX E TIM EN M ER O PH O R A T E N ER IE P R O T H R I P H O R A T I. has become immortal out o f so many myriads in this hour according to the wish o f the exceedingly good god . great might. Then. so that from the pleasure and joy o f the sight your spirit runs ahead and ascends. the sun rays will turn themselves upon you. and wearing a fiery crown. which is within the doors. O lord. whose m other is N N . speak: “Com e forward. | who was born from the mortal womb o f N N and from the fluid o f semen. Then w hen | your soul has been restored. and who. the first time performing to the end. announce me to the greatest god. W hen you have said these things. T hen open your eyes. At once great him w ith the fire greeting: “Hail. E O R O R O R E . look into the center o f them. and you will see the doors opened | and the world o f the gods. | king. and in the same way you will experience yourself being shaken.” W hen you have spoken this. But you say again: “Silence!” (the prayer). you will hear thundering and shaking in the surrounding realm. until you have gone through the | seven immortal gods o f the universe. great power. since he has been born again from you today. beautiful in appearance. that he may appear and give revelation during the good hours. and supplicates w ith as much power as a hum an being can have (in order that you may take along with you the horoscope o f the day and hour today. w ith fiery hair. which has the name TH R A PSIA R I M O R IR O K . in a white tunic and a scarlet cloak. w hen | you do this. greatest o f gods: mighty is your breath. the one who begat and made you: that a hum an being am I. If it be your will.54 Translation 620 625 630 635 640 645 650 EEO EY O OE EIO EO OE OE EE O O O Y IO E .

PRO SY M ER I!” After have said these things. but to me.Translation 55 655 660 665 670 675 680 685 O R R I O R IO R R O R R O I O R R E O R O R I E O R E O R E O R E ). and make a strong bellowing sound. They are called the Fates | o f heaven. the second. dressed in linen garments. W hen you see these things. O noble and good virgins. CHREPSENTHAES! Hail to you. giving off your whole breath and squeezing your loins. O sacred Ones and companions o f M IN IM IR R O P H O R . the sixth. bellow. TICHNO NDAES! Hail to you. | he will come to the celestial pole. and calmness in the present good hours o f this day. the first. in linen | loincloths. ” After you have said these things. each o f them w ith his own name: “Hail. the fourth. ECHOM M IE! Hail to you. like with a horn. O warders o f the pivot o f the celestial sphere. O sacred and brave youths. you will see the doors opening and seven virgins coming from deep within. O seven Fates o f heaven. Gaze intently. the fifth. O my lords and powerfully ruling gods! Hail to you. who send out thunder and lightning and jolts of earthquakes and thunderbolts against the nations o f impious tribes. and with the faces o f asps. MENESCHEES! Hail to you. and in possession o f seven golden diadems. ARARM ACHES! Hail to you. w ho turn | at one command the revolving axis of-the vault o f heaven. first toward the right: “Protect me. who have the faces o f black bulls. the third. the first. w ho am a religious and godfearing man. greet in this manner: | “Hail. A IE R O N TH I! . and kiss | the phylacteries and say. These are the so-called Pole Lords o f heaven. M EC H R A N ! Hail to you. you [give] health and soundness o f body | and acuteness o f hearing and seeing. O most holy guardians o f the four pillars! Hail to you. the seventh. and wield golden wands. E R O U R O M B RIES!” There also come forth another seven gods. w hom you must greet in the same manner. and you will see him walking as if on a road.

the seventh. and holding in his right hand 700 a golden | shoulder o f a young calf. 705 And at once | make a long bellowing sound. O founder o f the earth! Hail. immensely great. life o f me.” And gaze at the god while bellowing loudly. w ith a white tunic and a golden crown and trousers. as you have decreed and authored (the) mystery I am P H E R O U R A M IO U R I. O master o f the water! Hail. the third. in their order. C H IC H R O A L IT H O ! Hail to you. O lord.” After you have said these things.56 Translation Hail to you. w ith its upward and downward seasonal revolutions. 710 Stay! Dwell in my | soul! D o not abandon me! For E N T H O P H E N E N T H R O P IO T H commands you. and again kiss the phylacteries. youthful. O lord. and say: “M O K R IM O P H E R IM O PH E R E R I. that you may excite the five senses. O ruler o f the wind! O bright lightener! | 715 PRO PR O PH EG G E E M E T H IR IA R T E N T E P I T H E T H M IM EO Y E N A R O P H Y R C H E C H O PSERI DARIE P H R E PHRELBA! Give revelation. bellow long until total exhalation. the second. Then you will see lightning bolts leaping from his eyes and stars from his body. the fourth. ER M IC H TH A TH O PS! Hail to you. on the one side and the other. MESARGILTO! Hail to you. Having been born from a life-generating birth. in the opposite direction. I am passing on. the fifth. N N . EO R A SIC H E!” N ow w hen they take their place. 720 while growing and having grown. | and the earth shaking. concerning the N N matter. and lights flashing. golden-haired. This is the Bear which moves and turns the heavenly vault around. the sixth. A C H R IC H IO U R ! | 690 Hail to you. he will immediately respond . Having been born again. M ERCH EIM ERO S! Hail to you. O lord. gaze in the air and you will see lightning 695 bolts going down. w ith a shining face. and a god descending. and greet in this manner: “Hail. J I am dying. straining your belly. I am passing away. released to death — as you have founded.

o f which the beginning is “First origin o f my origin. that you may prove useful to me | alone. | and after grinding it w ith honey. at a time w hen the m oon is invisible. O child. and | spreading sacred sand in a pure manner. as you are anointing his face w ith the mystery. N N alone. you speak as inspired in ecstasy. | N ow you will grow weak in your soul. and you will not be in yourself. the scarab] moving forward and eating. This immortalization takes place three times a year. and when it has consumed it. turquoise cup. B ut you stand speechless.” And say the successive things as an initiate. even if the oracle contains myriads o f verses. for at a later time | you will remember infallibly the things spoken by the great god. as m uch as you wish. He. that your substance may be useful to me. then for him it will no longer | be in effect. and after speaking he will depart.Translation 57 725 730 735 740 745 750 w ith a revelation. Pick it up and throw it into a glass vessel o f excellent rose oil. | handling the occasion as though in the immortalization ritual you yourself were being judged in his place. But if you are alone. prepare a cake. while the sun is in midheaven: “It is I w ho have consecrated you. But if you want to consult the oracle by using a fellow initiate. then say the name over the vessel for seven days. and you are [directly] engaged w ith the pronouncements o f the god. And at once you will see it [viz. and set the vessel on it. let him be pure together with you for [seven] | days. in a soft voice. and make it fall into a deep. B ut again if you wish to show him. so that he hears only the things spoken together w ith you.. put in together with it the seed o f the fruit pulp o f the lotus. for I am P H O R P H O R A PH O S . after the instruction wishes to disobey. And if anyone. however. recite for him the first prayer. Instruction for the performance: 755 760 765 Take a sun scarab which has twelve rays. it immediately dies. IE IA EEE OY EIA. and abstain from meat and bath. so that he may not hear. when he answers you. over | his head. after you judge whether his w orth as a man is secure. [wondering] how you will by yourself comprehend all these things. A EEIO Y O . pronounces the oracle to you in verses.

get the juice of the herb called Kentritis. so that you may be protected. and he will give it to you. take the juice and. [you must] consult while wearing the great mystery | o f the scarab revitalized through the twenty-five living birds. after you have entertained and feasted together.” Lick this up. 790 795 800 Many times I have used the spell. it [the plant] was found in the 805 . according to the god[‘s reckoning]. and bury it w ith myrrh and Mendesian wine and fine linen. and rolling up the leaf.58 Translation 770 775 780 785 PH O TIZA A S” (others: “P H O R P H O R O PH O TH EIX A A S”). Ask the god what you want. at full moon. in the regions o f the | black earth. Begin to consecrate him on the new m oon in the lion. | throw it into the rose oil. The name is: “I EE O O IAI. and smear it. instead o f three times a year. If you want to show this to someone else. along with the rose oil. As the lord | demonstrated to me. O n the seventh day pick up the scarab. Consult once a m onth. around the eyes o f whomever you wish. and w hen the feathers are touched. in a pure way. at the conjunction [of the sun and the moon] occurring in the Lion. And having kept yourself pure for three days in advance. and deposit it in a flourishing bean field. | lick off the leaf while you show it to the sun. the black edge weakend by the juice. and thus he [the sun god] will listen attentively. This is how to recognize it: the wing o f an ibis is smeared. I have not found a greater procedure than this in the world. and is similar to the erect verbena. come at m orning to face the sunrise.” The Kentritis plant grows from the m onth o f Pauni. But the god spoke to me: “Use the ointm ent no longer. | and he will see so clearly that you will be amazed. for the immortalization. they fall off. after casting it into the river. | Then. as given below. deposit the ointment. The encounter w ith the great god is like this: Having acquired the above m entioned herb | Kentritis. write on a leaf o f the persea tree the eight -letter name. after mixing it w ith honey and myrrh. and have been absolutely amazed. but.

and the leaves are rather crinkled and have fruit | like the tip o f wild asparagus. .Translation 59 810 815 820 Menelaitis area near Phalagry. and use the same method. It is o f a single stem. | [With this] the m em orandum has [finally] reached its completion. T hen the phylacteries are o f this kind: Copy the [amulet] for the right [arm] onto the skin | o f a black sheep. with myrrh ink. put it on. and after tying it w ith the sinews o f the same animal. near the Besas plant. and [copy] that for the left [arm] onto the skin o f a white sheep. It is similar to the so-called Talapes. The [magical name] for the left [arm] is: “PR O ST H Y M E R I” . like the wild beet. at the river banks. and reddish down to the root.

а b) specifications (play on words?) (1)та <a>7tpaxa 477 (2) тиаработа 4.) b) action: a^iouv . nature o f offense a. presentation o f petition 1. act constituting offense: putting into writing b. Providence 2. formula: tXa(K jxot 2. category: petition for mercy in view o f offense 3. transmission o f the tradition a. invocation o f the deity by epithets 1. identification o f the recipient 1) as apprentice a) status: “the only” (p-ovw) b) designation: “child” (xexvw) 2) as “initiate” (jjluctty] ттј^ 'гцлгтѓрсис. statement o f petition 1)category: intercessory 2) identity o f the petitioner a) the author (1st person sing.Literary Analysis (Conspectus) 475— 85 475 476 I. Suvafxew^) c. object affected by offense 1)regarding the text to follow (табѕ) 2) regarding the content: sacred (oral) tradition a) technical term: та [лиат7]рс. identification o f the author 1) as owner 2) as mediator 3) as w riter (ypacpovTi) b. Exordium: a prayer A. Psyche (world-soul) B.

address o f recipient 1) identity (2nd person sing. instruction for ritual 1) need for application (xp^) 2) term for application (Xa[j. conjunction: бтш? b.v) 3) names o f ingredients a) juices o f plants b) other ingredients (г’ бт)) ѓ c. purpose and goal a.” ap^ayyeAo? b) name: unnamed 3) the author o f the present writing a) 1st person sing. chain o f tradition o f the ritual a. &иуатт]р) b. heavenly journey: oupavov fiatveiv c. authoritative hierarchy 1) the highest deity a) attribute: “the great god. quotation formula: ecrnv бѕ 485-732 485-537 485-86 .” o [iiya? b) name: Helios Mithras 2) divine intermediary a) attribute: “archangel. cts) 2) as apprentice (daughter. identifying reference a.(3avet. b) status: “alone.Literary Analysis 61 478 478-81 478/79 480 481-82 482 482-83 484-85 3) identity o f the recipient: the “initiate” 4) object: immortality (a&avacua) 5.: (A ot.M ain body o f the ritual (атгаФ^атсстЈло?) A. m ethod o f transmission 1) command by Helios Mithras 2) technical term: [летабоЅт^ас. introductory prayer 1.. cf. 7. 476) c) position: grade o f “eagle” b.” |xovo? (cf. 820) 6. secondary insertion by the author a. reference to full information 1) place: end o f the present text (750— 819) 2) name for the present composition ( t o fxou lepov auvTayjxa. vision o f the universe: хатотстеиг^ uavTa .

3 t i m e s ) sjxy]<. invocation o f the primordial sources 1 ) a d d r e s s o f y e v e c n .62 Literary Analysis b.. 3 times) 5 ) m a g i c a l n a m e (?) 489— 95 489— 90 b. e v e j x o i o u g Lolc.Y]v x p a o x v t w v e v e f x o l x p a c r e w v (2) 8-eoSwpY]TOV ( 3 ) т о и e v e fjio l л :ир6<. t e rm s id e n t if y in g th e g e n re 1 ) t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a s a w h o l e : 'ko yo c. recitation o f the “first prayer” (cf. 7 4 1 — 4 2 ) a. у ѕ с о б о и ^ тсроотт] c) v o c e s m a g ic a e 495— 98 c. 3 t i m e s ) 490— 92 2 ) s e c o n d e l e m e n t : f i r e (т т и р ) a ) a d d r e s s : тс и р b ) a t t r ib u t e s . invocation o f the four elements 1 ) f i r s t e l e m e n t : s p i r i t / b r e a t h (r c v e u jjia ) a ) a d d r e s s : r c v e u p u x 7 T v e u [x a T O ^ b ) a t t r ib u t e : tou e v e fjio u T c v e u j x a x o ^ u p a i T o v c ) m a g i c a l s o u n d : b e l l o w i n g s o u n d ([ x u x w ^ x a . e(jt.s o u n d ( n o n n \> G ii6 q . T t p w x o v c) v o c e s m a g ic a e 492— 93 3 ) t h i r d e l e m e n t : w a t e r (и б со р ) a) a d d r e s s : и б м р и б а т о с . a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s 1 ) c o n c e r n i n g t h e b o d y : “ p e r f e c t b o d y ” ( a w j x a x e X e c . t h r e e ( 1 ) t o t ic . a p x % тсрсотт]) b) whistle sound (aupt-yjAoc. ? (y e v e c T L ? т с р ш г т ] т т ј ? е[А7Ј<. b ) a t t r ib u t e : tou __ e v e p io l и б а т о ? T rp w x o v c) v o c e s m a g ic a e 493— 95 4 ) f o u r t h e l e m e n t : e a r t h (y y j) a ) a d d r e s s : o u o Lol у е о о б т ) ? b ) a t t r i b u t e : т r\c. y e v e o e a q ) 2 ) v o c e s m a g ic a e 3 ) a d d r e s s o f a p y j] fa p y j] 4 ) m a g ic a l s o u n d s a ) p o p .o v e p io u ) 2) c o n c e rn in g p e rso n a l n am e : N N 3 ) r e c o u r s e to c r e a t io n m y t h o l o g y 496— 97 a) t e c h n ic a l t e r m f o r c r e a t io n : “ f o r m e d ” ^ L a 7 te 7 tX a a [x e vo v ) b) h y m n ic m e t a p h o rs d e s c r ib in g w o r k o f d iv in e c re a to r . 2 ) th e p ra y e r o f in v o c a t io n : 487— 537 487-88 2.

petition 1) appeal to the divine will o f the elements (eav бе updv бо^т]) 2) voces magicae 3) secondary gloss citing a textual variant from another source 4) request a) in general (1) technical term: [леха7гараб1ба)^л (“hand over in return”) (2) recipient: petitioner (fxe) (3) main concern: rebirth (4) sources (a) immortal birth (хтј a&avaxw yevscrei) (b) restitution o f primordial nature (гуоџѓчмс. immortal water (иб(ор) dd. voces magicae ee. ff. voces magicae (2) second Cva-clause: thought (a) defective condition . firm air (атјр).ou сристѕс) b) in detail: 4 tva-clauses (1) first Lva-clause: vision (a) defective condition: Ananke formula ([xexa xy)v svsaxwaav x al асробра xaxeusLyouaav fxe ypeLoiv) (b) restitution: етготсхеисо (c) process: vision o f the immortal beginning (excoTcxeustv x t ] v a&avaxov apxV [cf. 487]) (d) sources o f change aa. immortal spirit (7rveu[xa) bb.Literary Analysis 63 (1) the honored arm (\жо Ppa^ovo? evxlfxou) (2) the imperishable right hand (итсо б е ^ а ? x e iP ^ аср&архои) c) cosmic polarities (1) light and darkness: ev acporrrcruw xal бсаиуѕХ xoapuo (2) soulless and ensouled: ev xe афидо xal e^uxw[xevto 4) voces magicae d. voces magicae cc. xy) UTroxstjxevY) p.

? .” toI c a&avaTot. xal rcepixs^upivo? altWjp (3) voces magicae . jJLeTayevvaa&oa) (c) voces magicae (d) source o f change: spirit (xal TiveuaT] ev ejxol to lepov uveujxa) (e) voces magicae (3) third Cva-clause: amazement (a) defective condition (b) restitution: & aup.теиеп/ (2) process: “with immortal eyes. ofxfxaac. 2) self-identification a) according to human nature (1) condition o f mortality by human birth (2) restitution: relative improvement (3) recourse to work o f divine creator (4) divine attributes (a) utco хратои? fxeyaXoSuvafxou xal (b) Se^ta? аф&артои .” хатол.aTt.oc^£LV (c) source o f change: fire (to lepov тсир) (d) vox magica (4) fourth tva-clause: vision (a) defective condition (b) restitution: Феаа&оа (c) source o f change: water (to a(3ucxaov ттј^ avaToAy)? ippiXTOV uStop) (d) voces magicae c) final petition (1) request to listen: axoueiv (2) address to ether: o ^cooyovoc. self-presentation o f the initiate 1) intention o f the self-presentation a) recourse to the promise o f salvation b) realisation o f the promise c) reference to time: “today.Literary Analysis (b) restitution: rebirth o f thinking (voY)p.” aYjjxepov d) aim: ecstatic vision (1) technical term: “envision.

[3av£t. reference to time: the Ananke formula (see 503-4) dd. (bb) беатготт)? xwv Ttuptvcov SiaSYjfxaxtov (2) condition o f sanctity (a) source: consecration rituals (ayLot. quality: “complete. son o f N N (2) reference to divine law: хаха ббуЈла a^exa&exov (3) voces magicae d) didactic explanation regarding the relationship o f the hum an and the divine (1) concerning human mortality: &vy]x6v yeywvoxa (2) citation o f principle o f incompatibility: oux saxt-v [лос. IcpLxxov. a&avaxou 1л/ ХаЈА7П)б6уо? (4) voces magicae e) resultant command (1) address o f mortal nature: cp&apxr] [3poxc5v cpuai (2) imperatives . technical term: |xexa7rapaXafji. .) (b) resultant sanctity: a y ia o& eic. N N .? aytaafxaat.auvavt-evoa (3) poetic description o f heavenly splendor: Христо£1.” t o Xiv cc bb.v cc. хт]<.” а/реохбтх/јхоу c) by name (1) formula o f self-identity: I.бе<У [хар[хариуаТ<.Literary Analysis 65 b) according to initiation (1) condition o f immortality (a) source: immortal spirit (oc&avaxov Tuveufxa) (b) resultant vision (c) object: the god aa. comparison: “again. (3) implications (a) temporary strengthening o f human soul-power (фи^хт) Suvapxg) (b) reference to eschatological restitution aa. Name: Aion bb.. attributes (aa) a&avaxoi.

525— 26) 535— 37 f) concluding formulae o f self-identity (1) first formula: “I am the son. physical sense-perception during ascent a. address: 2nd person sing. ocvaoruav) 3. ифо? 6. explanatory introduction to the ascent ritual 44 539— 40 1. transmission: by the rays o f the sun 4. positive: seeing of things immortal (тиал/та бе бфт] a&avaxa) 544— 732 D.. physical: rcveupia as breath b.. reality status: imaginative 4. 702) 5. 624.. o uLo?. actions: inhalation (eXxeiv. repetition: 3 times 6. location: in midair 541 7. action: vision (“you will see”) 3. 656. u7tep(3oavet. first scenario: encounter w ith the planetary deities . ascension narrative in seven scenarios 544— 55 1. (syto eljxt.v zic. address: 2nd person sing. 2. 635. metaphysical: ruveufjia as spirit c. also 544. 555.66 Literary Analysis (a) concerning ascent: “stand” (есттаЅг) (b) concerning return: “take me back” (avocXa[3e fxe) (c) condition: “healthy” (uytvj) (3) references to time (a) “at once” (atm xa) (b) Ananke formula (see 503-4.: бфт) 2. terms for imagined actions a. type o f narrative: vision report in the prophetic future tense (бфтз.. quantity: o Suvaaoa 539— C. 549. 693.) (2) voces magicae (3)second formula: “I am” (eyw elfjtx. negative 1) hearing: no hearing o f hum an or animal sounds 542— 43 2) seeing: no seeing o f anything earthly b.. object: TCveufxa a. avaxoucpi^ea&oa b. prescription o f breathing ritual 1..) (4) voces magicae 537— 38 B. cf. medium: sun rays 5. 565. reference to time: ev execvY] t?) wpa 543— 44 c.

for winds from west to east (c) explanation: regulation o f the winds 2. for winds from east to west cc.Literary Analysis 67 544 544-45 545-47 547-55 547-49 a. attribute: father god (тгатт)р Oso?) b) second picture (o[aouo?): the windpipe (1) action: бфт] (2) object (a) name: o xocAoup. turnable pipe hanging from the sun bb. 558 e. b) agressive approach: i n i a z oppuojjievoc. reference to time: ev exetvY) ттј wpa (543) c. name: Helios bb. objects seen 1) the planetary gods: ol &eo£ 557 2) their hostile response a) stare: axevt^ovTe? trot. prescription o f protective ritual 1) address: a u бе 2) performance o f ritual . action: бфт) c. action: vision (бфтј) d. location: midair d. second scenario: threat by the planetary gods a. objects seen 1) planetary constellation 2) function: gods o f days and hours 3) movements o f the deities in heaven a) ascending b) descending 4) appearance o f two pictures a) first picture: the way o f the planetary gods (1) description: way o f the gods shown by the sun-disk (2) explanations 549-55 (a) visibility o f the gods (b) illumination by Helios aa. auXo? (b) description 556-68 556 aa. conjunction: бе b.evo<. reference to location: in midair (540) b.

c) conforming to cosmic order d) each performing assigned function 3. action: “seeing. 2) none of the gods or angels threatening d. 582-85. 578. result 1) reference to time: tote 2) action: офт] 3) object: the planetary gods 4) their response: now friendly a) looks: eufxsva)? £{jt. ѓ c.” ’бт)<. 573-75. reference to time: oxav ouv b. 623) b) invocation (1)name: at."1 68 Literary Analysis 559-60 560 561 562-65 565-69 565 566— 69 569-85 569 570-73 a) reference to time: euQiw? b) ritual action: putting the right index— finger on the mouth 3) recitation o f prayer a) type o f prayer: petition (“second prayer” [oiy^-logos?].yr] (three times) (2) epithet: au[x[3oXov &eou аср&артои c) request for protection: cpuXa^ov (xe d) invocation (1)name: at-yir] (2) voces magicae 4) performance of magical sounds a) first sound (1) reference to time: ineizcc (2) name o f sound: aupiyjjio^ b) second sound (1) reference to time: luet-xa (2) name o f sound: nonnuGyiog c) voces magicae f. forewarning 1) o f hearing a loud thunder 2) o f being terrified .(3Xe7tovTe£ b) approach: [xyjxext i n i as opfjuojxsvot. third scenario: the sun disk a. objects 1)the cosmos xa&apo? x al Sovoufxevoc. cf.

command to recite protective formulae 1) the C tyy] crtyy]— T logos (twice? cf. appearance o f three images 1) first image a) time reference: таита aoi sinovzoq b) description (1) reference to time: еи&ѓах. 576) as a fireless circle with fiery doors closed 585-628 4.” бфт] (3) emergence o f many five-pronged stars from the sun-disk and filling the air 3) third image a) preliminary ritual (1) reference to repetition (2) recitation o f the criyr)-logos (573-75) (3) action: “seeing. u[xlv acmqp (2) ex tou (Sa&ou? avaXafx/rctov c) voces magicae f. (2) the opening o f the sun-disk: o Siaxoq атсХсо&ѓјагтоа 577 2) second image a) preliminary rituals ( 1 ) time reference: [хета to elrceTv ae 578 578-79 (2) recitation o f the “second prayer”: t o v (3' Xoyov (3) redactional comment. twice b) description 579 579-82 582-85 (1)time reference: еи&емѕ (2) action: “seeing. fourth scenario: the opening o f the doors to the world o f the gods a. 559) 2) self-identification a) formula eyco cLj l jl b) attributes (1)cru[jLTcXavo<. 585-87 b.” бфт) b) description o f the open disk (cf. explaining that the c i yr]-logos is meant (573— 75) (4) performance o f two sounds (a) aupiyfxo? twice (b) TcouTtuafjioi. 624) . command to close the eyes (cf.Literary Analysis 69 573-75 576-85 576 e. time reference: euOiox.

recitation o f a prayer to A ion 1) invocation a) formula: e7taxoua6v [xou. T U 7U O фрир^ф£и C pL V £ 7TUpi&U|A£ law Tcv£U[xaTO<pw? war nUpiJOLp7) £X0Up£ xaXXttpw? c/X jxi Alwv axpa cpwTOxparwp тс£тс1Х£р к р г к г џ л и т TtUpt.<7W [XaT£ <pV U L X O 7]V O <^тобауга TcupLcjTTopE apet ѕ'ѓхс. 577.aTO? £V . apev(3apa£et. recitation o f the following prayer d. 623) 587— 620 587— 88 e. y '. 484-5.а <pwToxt.xa хХтј&ра tou 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603-4 T£TpaXi£(op. 559-60. c) voces magicae d) reason for the petition: бтг .£ (21 svTcuptCTXTjorLtpwi. (2 7tUpC7toXe 7C TC (3 (4 (5 (6 (7 (8 (9 (10 (11 (12 (13 срмтб^ хт£ата (variant: аиухХеТстта) HcjjLsaiXajj. cf. TtvsufxaTt.aiauo 7tup^ va K u pu yi [Зоост7]с.та (14 (15 (16 (17 (18 (19 rtuptxXove yaXXa(3aX[3a cpwTo^ca (. aoua(. та 7iupt.T£pO V U [. aoua'ivecpt. redactional reference to the liturgical order: the “third prayer” (koyoc. naming the primary function o f the god: б агп/бт](га<.VY]Ta aav^epwJS xepauvoxXove vr\ wtj twrjtw cpwTo? xXeo? (SeeyevYjTe (20 au£/)<ncpwi. 605— 6 piapfxapevTeu 2) petition a) address: асгтробајла b) request: avot-^ov piot.1 70 Literary Analysis 587 c. 573-75. axoucrov [jlou 589-602 589 b) self-identification o f the orant by name (NN) c) prim ary attribute o f the god: xupie d) aretalogy o f 21 attributes and voces magicae (1 first. 582.vecpt.

appearance o f the image 1) command to open the eyes (cf. 525-526. 503-504. 559. praiseworthy b) list o f 7 lines o f vowel sequences f. 573-75. 582-85) i. 534) 3) recitation o f the secret names o f the seven gods o f the cosmos a) description (1) as by nature non-hum an (2) as not pronounced in articulate speech (3) as speaking a non-hum an language (4) as divine: immortal. instruction concerning performance 1) reference to previous list: таита Travxa 2) kind o f performance a) ЈХЕта тсиро^ x al Tcveupt-aTO^ b) line by line. command to recite the aiyr]-logos (cf. twice from beginning to end 3) explanation: each line contains the name o f one o f “the seven immortal gods o f the universe” g.youcry]£ xal Tctxpa? x al атгарастѓјтои avayxy)? (cf.Literary Analysis 71 606-16 606-10 610-16 617-20 620-23 623 624-28 626-28 628-61 628-30 (1) action: e7uxaAou[xai (2) Ananke formula: evsxa ттј? xax£7E£t. command to perform rituals 1) time reference: eu&etoi. 2) actions . 586— 87) 2) action: офт) 3) object: the open doors 4) description o f the image: the doors are open and behind them appears the world o f the gods 5) response a) experience o f 7]Sovy] x al yapa b) the initiate s Tiveufxa running w ith the gods and moving upwards (a u vxp ijziv x al ava^atvetv) 5. effect preference to the recited prayer: таита аои einovzoc. living. 2) announcement a) in the cosmos: tremendous thunder b) for the petitioner: experience o f terror h. fifth scenario: encounter w ith Helios a.

v) into the sun rays c. 655) b) address: xupc.622— to ] 23) 3) prayer formula a) command: rcpoaeX&e (cf. d.Y]cnr]? 2) action: бфу) 3) object: Helios 4) iconographical description o f Helios a) age: Феб? vewxepo? b) beauty: ѕшјбѓ)? c) hair: 7iupt.e c) voces magicae 4) predicted result a) time reference: xouxo einovcoq b) focusing o f the sun rays 5) response: look (axevi£et.бс) 1) address a) title: xupie b) appeal: jpCCpe c) three attributes (using jxsyaq) (1) [xeyaXoSuvajxe (2) [xeyaXtoxpaxwp (3acriXeu (3) [xeytcfxe Sswv d) name: Helios e) aretalogy . epiphany o f Helios 1) time reference: oxav oOv xouxo 7tot.£ d) clothing (1) white chiton (2) scarlet chlamys e) wreath: 7i:up!<vo<. performance o f the ritual o f greeting 1) reference to time: suQito? 2) type o f greeting: тсирп/о? acnraoxxxo? e. are<pavo<.v6xpt. command to issue an order 1) time reference: oxav 2) condition o f the soul: oxav oOv aTtoxaxaaxac u Y фихЃ) (c^. recitation o f the greeting prayer ('/оиргткзџ.Literary Analysis a) stand b) draw in from the divine spirit c) look intently: axsv^eiv b.

c) self-identification o f the petitioner (1)rank (attribute): av&pomo? (2) person: eyw (3)name: N N (4) recitation o f synthema (cultic formula o f self-definition (a) concerning human birth aa. (b) &еѕ 9-ewv (2) two attributes (verbs) (a) iayuei стои rj nvor) (b) iayuei aou rj Sovayag (3) address: xupte 2) presentation o f petition a) formalities o f protocol (1) submission to the divine will (2) technical term for announcing the arrival o f a visitor: ayyeXXstv b) request for an audience (1) person (a) name: Mithras (not named) (b) title: o [леусстто? (2) kin relationship between Helios and Mithras: xw ae ysvvyjaavTt.Literary Analysis 73 642 642-55 642-43 643 644-49 645-49 (1) two attributes (titles) (a) o xupto? t o o oupavou x al т9)<. immortalisation: aTca&avaxl^sLV (cf. reference to ritual (aa) subject: god (Mithras) (bb) term: (ASTayevvacr&at. 747. time reference: ev таиттј ттј copa . election dd. cc. x al Tconrjaavxt. time reference: CTjfxepov bb. 771) ee. m other (aa) origin: mortal uterus (bb) name: N N bb. father (aa) origin: sperm (bb) no name (b) concerning divine rebirth aa. 741. ут}<.

) b) image detail: wandering as on a road g.ouv x a l беест&ас bb. the departure o f Helios 1) time reference: хаиха aou zlnovxoc. 2) action: бфт) 3) object: departure o f the god 4) description o f the image a) motif: move to the pole (eXeucrexat. authorisation (aa) divine will: xaxa Soxyjchv {teou (bb) divine goodness (5) expression o f devotion (a) proskynesis (b) formulas o f devotion aa.oc b) vox magica c) turning first to the right [ d) turning to the left side] 6. expressing humility: xaxa Suvajxiv aV&p(07UVY]V d) secondary insertion (1) command to keep at hand the horoscope for day and hour (2) secret name o f the regent (3) purpose: identifying opportune times for epiphany and divination (4) voces magicae (variations on vowels) f. attitude: a£t. performance o f protective rituals 1) staring intently: axevi^ecv 2) doing the bellowing sound: (лихсо[ла 3) intensity a) loud: jxaxpov b) as through a horn: xepaxoet-Sto? c) special effort (1) giving out all breath: лл/еи^а (2) squeezing the stomach 4) kissing the phylacteries 5) recitation o f formula a) request: cpuXa^ov pt.74 Literary Analysis 649-55 651-55 655-57 657-61 659-60 660-61 661-92 ff. sixth scenario: encounter with the deities o f the Bear constellations .

o f N N (secret name) (3) third: al ayt-wxaxat. action: бфт) c.^ои oupavou c) three attributes (1) first: CT£[xval x al aya&al rtap&evoi (2) second: lepal xal б[лоб1а1хо[.c. description o f the appearance o f the seven virgins (stars o f the Great Bear) 1) location: the doors o f the heaven are open 2) arrival: ер^еа&оа 3) origin: ex xou [За&ои^ 4) iconography o f the goddesses a) figures: virgins (rcapQ-evot. f) symbols: holding golden wands: ^риаеа (Зра[ЗеТа d.) d) face masks: asps e) name: oupavou Tu^at.Literary Analysis 75 a.) b) number: seven c) dress: fine linen (ev (3uomvot. performance o f the greeting 1) time reference: хаиха LScov 2) recitation o f greeting to all a) appeal: jjxipezz b) name: al C Tu^at. time reference: xauxa elrcwv b. cpuXaxicraai xwv xeacraptov crxuXlaxoov 3) recitation o f individual greetings a) first greeting (1) appeal: ^alpe (2) address: y тсрсохт] j (3) magical name b) second greeting (1) appeal: ха Ф£ (2) address: 7) [3' (3) magical name c) third greeting (1) appeal: ха Ф£ (2) address: rj y ' (3) magical name d) fourth greeting (1) appeal: x°^Pz (2) address: rj б' (3) magical name .

..? d) address by title: xupt-ol jaou x a l [леуаХохраторес.Literary Analysis e) fifth greetings (1) appeal: x a^P£ (2) address: 7] s' (3) magical name f) sixth greeting (1) appeal: х а Ф£ (2) address: Y q ] (3) magical name g) seventh greeting (1) appeal: х а Ф£ (2) address: Y C ] (3) magical name e. aY][i. &eol . (2) second: ol crcpe<povTe<.ot.fi. (d) time reference: ev таТ? evecrтсотаг. a<pt. 2) iconography a) figures: male gods (QzoL) b) number: seven c) dress: linen loincloths d) face masks: black bulls e) name: ol тсоХохраторе? tou oupavou f) symbols: golden diademes f. wpat.? ty]c . prescription o f performance o f greeting 1) recitation o f greeting to all a) appeal: x°^P£T£ b) name: ol xvtoSaxocpuXaxe? c) three attributes (1) first: ol lepol x a l aXxc. veaviac. <боте> uyelav.epov Y]jxepa<.. description o f the appearance o f the seven black bull-headed gods (stars o f the Little Bear) 1) arrival: Tcpoepxecr&at.evTS? (a) cosmic phenomena: (SpovTa? x a l аатратса? x a l asLCTfxaiv x a l xepauvwv (ЗоХа? (b) punishment o f the godless aliens: ziq Su<xae(3c5v <puXa (c) reward for the pious orant: ejxol бе euae(3el ovTt. aya&alc. u t c o ev xeXeuafxa t o v 7iepcStvY]Tov t o u xuxXou a^ova t o u oupavou (3) third: (ol)..

time reference 1) completion o f the gods’ procession 2) arrangement in two groups on opposite sides b.v tw aept c. (3) vox magica b) second greeting (1) appeal: ^аТре (2) address: o (3' (3) vox magica c) third greeting (1) appeal: jpdpe (2) address: o y ' (3) vox magica d) fourth greeting (1) appeal: ха Ф£ (2) address: б б' (3) vox magica e) fifth greeting (1) appeal: ха Фе (2) address: o s ' (3) vox magica f) sixth greeting (1) appeal: x<xipe (2) address: o g' (3) vox magica g) seventh greeting (1) appeal: (2) address: o (3) vox magica 7. performance o f ritual: axevL^£t. seventh scenario: encounter w ith Mithras a.Literary Analysis 2) recitation o f individual greetings a) first greeting (1) appeal: ха Ф£ (2) address: б крмтос. action: бфт] d. description o f cosmic phenomena 1) lightning bolts coming down 2) lights flashing 3) earth shaking .

iconography 1) figure: 2) size: итсер^еуеЅ?]? 3) face: cpomvYjv zjovtol ttjv бфп/ 4) age: vetoxspo? 5) hair: xpucxoxoprj? 6) dress a) white chiton b) Persian-style trousers: ava^upiSs? c) golden crown 7) insignia a) mythological (Mithraic): xaxe^MV ттј бг^са J_z l9l џоауои tojjiov xp^creov b) astrological (1) identification o f the bull’s shoulder with the Bear constellation (2) function (a) m oving and turning the heavenly vault (b) as m oving upward and downward seasonal revolutions 8) cosmic features a) time reference: гтсеслга b) action: офт] c) reference to eyes: giving off lightnings d) reference to body: giving off shooting stars g. epiphany o f Mithras 1) location: higher sphere 2) appearance by descent (xaxsp^sa^ai) f. performance o f rituals 1) reference to time: eu&ew? 2) first ritual: bellowing sound a) name: [xuxw^xa jxaxpov b) intensity (1)long and loud (2) straining the belly: (Sacravi^ziv ttjv уаатѓра (3) arousing the five senses (4) until total exhalation: zlq ocTro&soxv 3) second ritual: protective a) kissing the phylacteria b) recitation o f a prayer .-702 702.-7 707.-11 707 708 e.-4 704.-11 704 705.-704 696 Literary Analysis 697 698 699.78 696.

-17 717.-24 717 718 719. greeting o f Mithras 1) preliminary rituals a) intense look: ocxev^etv xw b) bellowing sound: [xaxpov [xuxw^xevo? 2) recitation o f the greeting prayer a) address by title: xupie b) formula o f three greetings (1) first greeting (a) appeal: y c d p z (b) address by attribute: бесттгоха ибахо? (2) second greeting (a) appeal: joCCpe (b) address by attribute: хахар^а утј? (3) third greeting (a) appeal: jo u ipe (b) address by attribute: бшастха Tiveufxaxo? (4) attributes/voces magicae: Аарлтросреуут). тгрсжросреууу) 3) voces magicae i.-22 (1) invocation (a) voces magicae (b) address: ^ т [jlo со ѓ) u (2) self-identification by name: N N (3) requests (three) (a) [live ctu (b) ve[xe ev хтј jjl u o (c) рѓ) [xe хатаХесфт]? (4) appeal to divine authority (a) command: oxt.-17 712 713. xeXeuet crot (b) voces magicae h. presentation o f petition 1) address by title: xupce 2) request for an oracle response: 3) naming o f the issue: N N 4) self-presentation o f the petitioner a) address by title: xupt.e b) recitation o f the synthema o f initiation. a7ioytyvop.-24 719.-24 719 719.Literary Analysis 79 709 710. in three parts (1) first part: rebirth and death (three statements o f polarity) (a) first: TcaXt.vyev6[xevo(.-17 713 714 715 715.-11 712.oa .

type: fellow-initiate (сти[Х[лиат7]<. x a l au^YjO-el? теХеитм (c) third: arco yevsasw? i^woyovou eic. 1.) as medium c. axouetv .) 3) reliability a) words o f the god: та итсо тои [лѕуаХоо &ѕои pTj&evxa b) regardless o f the size o f the oracle: xav jxupltov o X P W 6? 732— 819 III. prophecy with m edium a. Supplemental rituals 732— 50 A.ov (3) third part: self-identification (a) formula: eyco eljxt.1 80 Literary Analysis 722— 23 723 724 724— 27 724 725 725— 26 727 727— 28 728 728— 32 730— 32 (b) second: au£6[xevo<. end o f the session 1) conclusion o f the god’s revelatory speech: e i -к ш 2) the god’s departure: атсеХеистетаг. granting o f oracular consultation 1) time references a) end o f previous ritual: таита аои ec7i0VT0? b) continuation: su&eto? 2) kind o f audience: 3) recipient’s condition during the consultation a) weakness o f the soul: итсехХито? т?) ф и ^ b) ecstasy: oux ev aeauxto east 4) form o f response: in verses (St. auoyevealav avaXu&el? rcopeuofxat. 2) m edium hears only what is spoken: та Xeyofxeva exelvov [xovov auv aoc. modus 1)role o f associate as medium: аи[Х[лиатг] xp^aaa&ai. condition after the audience: standing speechless (аи бе axTjxsi? evso?) m. three optional rituals for including an associate 732— 35 1. (c) third: x a l етиослѓјаа? pLUcrx7]pt. status: optional (sav S s Q yjc.a g t Lj j j m ) k. (2) second part: divine legitimacy (three statements concerning compliance) (a) first: w? сти ехтпсга? (b) second: w? au evo{jio9iT7]<7a<.) -sX b. promises concerning the revelation 1) concerning comprehension: at once (аитоЈлатоо?) 2) concerning memory: flawless (атгараЈЗатах. (b) secret name j.

а) 2) role o f associate: interpreter of symbol d. ritual performance 1) prayer a) recitation b) name: “first origin o f my origin” (486-537) 2) other formulae: ха бе е£т]<. ritual preconditions: prior sanctification 1) both together: cruvayveueiv 2) duration: seven days 3) abstentions a) from meat: xa е^лфи^а b) from bath: (3aXaveTov 2.. but not medium c. 650.(3wfi. eaxt.v b) genuineness as hum an being: астсраХм? ax.. second option: prophecy w ithout m edium a.Literary Analysis 81 d..) b)nam e o f the anointment: [xuaxYjpiov (see 751-78) . a) standard: w? [лиатт]^ b) modus (1) over the head: S7il тт)<. хесраХ^? (2) sotto voce: axovto cp&oyyto (3) inaudible for the associate: tva [x j axouarj y 3) anointment a) type: eye-salve (ypUiv xtjv офп. status: optional (eav бе . av&pfa)7to£ 3) standard: same as applied in the immortalisation ritual (атта&ал>атк7[л6<. type: fellow-initiate present.evo<. status: optional (eocv бе . ха бесла/и[Ј^л.. 3. modus 1) showing o f symbols: беТ^оа (sc. 0OTO<pot. conditions 1) evaluation by the mystagogue: xplva? 2) criteria a) worthiness as initiate: el o^ioc. 771) e. type: mystagogue alone: fxovo? 9)? c.) b. modus 1) direct handling o f the god’ response: iy y zip e iv xa s итсо rou 9-eou elpy)[xeva 2) as in ecstasy: w? ev excrxacret. cf. third option: prophecy by showing cultic symbols a.. 747.) b.

2. new m oon (2) dropping ingredients into cup 751— 57 753— 55 (3) grinding it all up (4) making small cake: \i<xC. additional stipulations a. name o f the ritual: oara&avaTiajJioi. section title: бсбастхаХѓ. two preparatory rituals a. first ritual: the sun-scarab ointment preference: 746. additional instruction 1. 2) first stage a) acquiring ingredients: Xa(3tov (1)a sun-scarab: xavQ-apo? 7]Xt.а ттјc. прѓи^гмс.ax6? (2) a deep turquoise cup: (Bratov xaXXaivov (3a&u (3) seed o f the fruitpulp o f the lotus: Ха)то[ХУ]тра? CTTiepfxa (4) honey b) preparation (1)time: darkness. 650. n ep iyp iziv 773— oxiy/piGyLCf. cf. xw оихетг imapl^st. 741.82 746— 50 746— 48 Literary Analysis 4. xpccrfxa 770.v 750— 819 750 751— 819 751— 78 3) solution: exclusion from the ritual. 646-47. 771) b. warning against misuse 748— 50 1) address: di tsxvov 2) situation envisaged a) time: after the instruction ([x s ii t o TiapayyeXfjia) b) technical term: 7iapaxouet.Lov 755— 57 c) application (1) putting cake before scarab (2) feeding it (3) result: killing it instantly 3) second stage a) acquiring ingredients 757— 71 (1) dead scarab (2) glass vessel (3) quantity o f excellent rose-oil (4) “sacred sand” b) preparation (1) picking up dead scarab . B. frequency: three times a year c. (cf. 793 74.

embalming with myrrh and Mendesian w ine bb. wrapping in linen cc. r\ aou оиаѓа (e) self-identification: N N (tw Setva [aovw) (f) voces magicae (g) purpose: ejxol jaovw (h) self-identification aa.. 761-71 761-62 763-67 (2) dropping into glass vessel (3) spreading “sacred sand” “in a pure way” (4) placing vessel on the sand c) consecration (1) time: high noon (2) duration: seven days (3) modus: pronouncing formula “over the vessel” (4) recitation o f formula (a) name: ovojaoc (761) (b) addressing the scarab (c) action: eyw сге етѓХеста (d) purpose: Eva [лос..) 4) supplemental ritual a) status: optional (eav бе aXXw ЈШаг]?.) b) modus: to show it (Sclxvuclv) to som eone else c) preparation o f eye-salve 772-75 . formula eyw elpa bb . secret name cc.Literary Analysis 83. deposition in field o f bloom ing bean plants (3) ointment (a) time: after dining (есттсаота? x a l avvzuor/y}$zLc. 756— 57) (b) deposition in pure manner: а7тогк>и xa&apelw? (c) purpose: for use in the main ritual (a7ra9-avaTLCT[x6i.. redactional comment noting a variant reading 767-71 d) preservation (1)time: on the seventh day (2)scarab (a) removal (b) burial ritual aa.

tov fteov.) f) amazement: ахтте g z Oaupwc^eiv 5) conclusion a) “commercial” : toutou ^.aTe(av b) theological maxim: астои бе. теХесах.et^ov’ ou^ eOpov ev xw xocxfjuo 7tpayfj. b. a (SouXei. second ritual: the plant kentritis 1) section title: yj tou [леуаХои &eou auaxonaiq 2) acquisition o f ingredient a) plant name: kentritis b) reference: tyjv 7ipoxe(. 790) d) application: around the eyes (?) e) result: clear sight (бфетоа бу]Хаиус5<. croc. x al бактес. 778-86.) 5) additional instructions a) time references (1) reference: 780 (2) beginning o f preparation .84 Literary Analysis 776-78 776-77 777-78 778-92 778-79 780 781-82 782-83 783-85 786-92 786-87 (1) substance: juice o f the plant kentritis (cf. 798-810) (2) mixing it w ith rose oil (cf. 773) c) time: zodiac conjunction o f sun and m oon in Lion (cf. 786-87) 3) preparations a) ink (1)juice o f kentritis plant (2) mixture with honey and myrrh b) leaf o f the persea plant (1) acquisition o f a leaf (2) writing the eight-letter vox magica on it (3) reference: 788 4) application a) preliminary ritual (1) sanctification (ayveueiv) (2) duration: three days b) time: early m orning at sunrise c) action (1) licking off the Persea (2) showing the leaf to the sun (Helios) d) effect: the god (Helios) will listen attentively (xal оитсо? етгахоисгетас.{xev7]v (1.

бс-a xwv xe £wwv opvetov (4) wearing it during the consultation b. 774) concluding testimony: a “commercial” d) (1) testifying to frequent usage (2) expressing great amazement 3. Further items o f information a.Literary Analysis 85 788 789-90 790-92 792-813 792-96 796-98 (3) zodiacal conjunction o f Helios in Lion: xeXeiv ty] ev Xeovxt. at full m oon . 751— 78 (2) name: [xeya [xuaxyjpLov xou xav&apou (3) reference to a ritual (?): xou ava^wTtupTj&evxoi. first item: change o f ritual concerning the ointm ent preference: с\)у-/р1аџ. o &so?) 3) instructions a) prohibition to keep the ointm ent for later usage (overruling 768-71) b) substitutional disposal: ointm ent to be cast into the Nile (before the consultation?) c) appropriate use of the scarab jxeya (auaxYjpiov xou xav&apou (1) reference: 745. second item: change o f ritual concerning times for consultation preference: 746— 48 2) inappropriate: three times a year 3) appropriate: once a month. (4) concerning the newmoon: Iv vou[XY]Vca (5) according to the divine will: xaxa &eov b) concerning the ovofxa (1) reference: ovo^Jia (783) (2) citation formula: t o бе ovopia ectxlv xouxo (3) the eight-letter formula c) concerning the Persea leaf (1) reference: 785 (2) action: licking off o f the name (3) purpose: self-protection (4) disposal o f the leaf after licking off (a) rolling it up (b) throwing it in w ith the rose-oil (cf.(х 751— '78 2) authorisation: personal revelation (eI tesv бе [xot.

) b) tying with sinews o f the same sheep c) to be w orn on right arm d. third item: botanical information about the kentritis plant 1) reference: 773. a kind o f wild beet 4. modus: тротсо? c.1 86 798— 813 798— 804 Literary Analysis 804— 13 813— 19 813 814— 17 817— 19 c. 792) b) geographical occurrence: region o f Menelaitis in Phalagry c) environment: river banks. w hen touched. cf. reference: 659— 708 61. lose its feathers at once 3) new information a) authorisation: divine revelation (touto tou xupiou итсобеС^оа/то?. cf. 661: irpoaufjiepc. Third ritual: the phylacteries a. for the left arm 1) material a) skin o f the white sheep b) ink: same as above (?) 2) preparation a) inscription: Ttpocr&upiepL b) to be w orn on on left arm . for the right arm 1) material a) skin o f a black sheep b) ink: black myrrh ink 2) preparation a) inscription (?) (missing. near the Besas plant d) description in detail (1) single stem (2) reddish to the root (3) leaves crinkled (4) fruit looking like that o f wild asparagus (5) comparable other plant: talapes. 778-86 2) earlier data a) seasonal growth: from the m onth o f Pauni b) geographical occurrence: region o f the “black earth” c) comparable other plant: erect verbena d) identification (1) formula: r\ бе yvwat? аиттј? outw? (2) method: the wing o f an ibis smeared w ith the black juice o f the plant will. b.

auvxaypia 480— 81) B. paragraphos sign after 820 . statement o f completion: тсХтЈрѓотатоу C.Literary Analysis 87 819-20 IV. technical name for the document: uu6[jLV7][xa (cf. Epilogue: statements concerning the document A.

3 For the invocation generally and further bibliography. poses several problems. 1. Zauberpapyrus. . The Invocation (I. the text o f the “Mithras Liturgy” begins at 1. followed by Dieterich. 1. 2 N H C 1. cf.) 1. Composed w ith some rhetorical care. Schenke. Greek Hymns. Because there is a religious reason for it.3 however.8 5 ) Although not indicated by a line separator in the papyrus itself.. H M R . A .1— (according to the translation in Robinson.. see Furley & Bremer. Wessely.Commentary I. (1) The second o f the two divine names invoked is disputed textually. he sets forth the exordium as a prayer o f petition. 169— 78. 1. 47585.18. O Providence and Psyche”). But blessed will they be w ho will be saved through the faith o f this discourse. The Exordium (U. But since you are a minister o f the salvation o f the saints. The latter argue for the gnostic Cerinthus as addressee. 56.1 This exordium has a remarkably close parallel in the epistolary preface o f the Apocryphon o f James from Nag Hammadi:2 [James] writes to [. [grace from] Grace. see Reitzenstein. 30). and you alone. Library. but [I have written] it in the Hebrew alphabet and sent it to you. the exordium shows evidence o f the authors literary interests and abilities as well as his religious sensitivities. Dieterich (1.4 but 1 For a text and commentary regarding this section. life from H oly Life! Since you asked that I send you a secret book w hich was revealed to me and Peter by the Lord.2. the 28 translations by Dankwart Kirchner. [faith] from Faith. I could not turn you away or gainsay (?) you. his twelve disciples. Nag Hammadi Deutsch. 4 Wessely. 219). [love from] Love. Ilpovota x al lFu)(7] (“Be gracious to me. This invocation.238 (with further parallels). read Tu)(7). 4 7 5 .52-53. N T Apok (5th ed. endeavor earnestly and take care not to rehearse this text to many —this that the Savior did not wish to tell to all o f us. 475) Appropriately.thos]: Peace [be w ith you from] Peace. the prayer begins w ith an invocation: ТАагК jxot. 475 w ith an exordium comprising the 11.

17 and 30. XXI. See Francis M. 3167. 4 7 5 -8 5 ) 89 Preisendanz’ reading o f Tu^Y] has generally been accepted. 1997). I am the descendent o f Arsaces. бе боиХо? elfxt. MA: Harvard University Press. 233): “Es ist die Weltseele gemeint.5. 8. бѓсигота/Арогахои jxev exyovo^.” 8 See Plato. The Exordium (11. cf. 11. a decision in favor o f is fairly secure. 254e. Heidelberg: Winter.PH 10. 1741-43. Both names occur elsewhere in the PG M . хата Xoyov tov slxora Ss'l Xeystv rovSs tov xoafAov £wov е[лфи)(ОУ evvouv х г ттј aXrj&eta бих ttjv tou 9-sou yevEa&at.”) Cited according to the LCL edition by Earnest Cary (Cambridge. (“Master. in which both ripovoia and play an important role. 1917).6 but none o f the passages attest the two names together.192. “Tyche.36: |леуаХобо£е IIpovoLa (Isis). cf.781. Ти^тѓ) occurs mostly together with Eros: IV. 96. the question is w hether the two names refer to two different deities. 5.d: tj tou rcavTOc.” Guthrie. elsewhere it is often identified with Isis.1724-25. to worship thee as I do Mithras.51. see also Richard Reitzenstein. London: Heinemann. t o u t o o ti av au e7T(. 57— 97: “The World-Soul. ooc.142-43. 3000. repr. it is also supported by contextual evidence. 170-74. and Luther H. “Ein syrischer Memra tiber die Seele in religionsgeschichtlichem Rahmen..2. xal ■?jX$ov xe T x p o q as t o v ejxov &eov.254. so one will have to look for parallels outside the corpus. 2665. 1738-39. Mithras and Tyche are associated in Cassius D io 62. These three problems can be solved in conjunction. л р о о х и ч т ј о ш az xal t o v MtQ-pav.I. H M R . die alle beseelt.” D D D 877-78 (Lit). IV. also 34a-36d. 1935. 6 For npovot-a see LVII. Martin. LVII. . 30b:. 233.506.2601.292— The tradition continues in later Platonism 99. ForTujr\ see IV.s the concept o f the world-soul was developed especially by s 5 Preisendanz’s edition. History of Greek Philosophy. 3. VII. XIII. (2) If one opts for Flpovoia xal Wvyyi. 1733-34.. The context.665-66 (the seven Tychai are Hathors). where the Persian Tiridates on a visit in R om e presents himself to Nero with these words: eyca. seems surprising only at first sight. Phaedr. (3) T he fact that at no other place the ML refers again to the two names raises the question how the author intended to relate the invocation to the rest o f the ML. Cf. 48— 49. 1730-31. Abrasax. and he combined Roman and Persian imperial ideology. ad loc. Cornford.20.158. Plato’ Cosmology: The s Timaeus of Plato (London: Routledge. my god. And I have come to thee. Tim. The destiny thou spinnest for me shall be mine. where a black Tuyj] may be mentioned. or to one deity identified by two epithets consisting o f hypostatized abstractions. XII.”7 Based on Plato’ Timaeus. 30).oEpa el x a l т и ^ . x a l eaofjiat. XIII. app. D ie Gottin Psyche in der hellenistischen undfruhchristlichen Literatur (SHAW. XII.' сти yap jxot.” A R W 21 (1922) 360— Merkelbach. TCpovoiav. Arthur Allgeier.158. фи/jj. brother o f the kings Vologaesus and Pacorus.5 Although the s first letter is somewhat uncertain. 1925). VIII. In his diplomatically crafted statement Tiridates told Nero what tickled his ears.xX«ar]<. OuoXoyaiaou бе xal Пахорои to o v (BaatXewv абѕХфоq. 3. 7 So following Merkelbach (Abraxas.. and thy slave. Influences o f Stoicism elsewhere in the beginning sections o f the ML make it most likely that the author refers to the “world-soul. x a l p.16. 41c.. idem. crit.18 (cf. for thou art my Fortune and my Fate.

1993). 4424. Comm.” 5. See Heinz Robert Schlette. section A. 4.3. 8. бе тои xocjfxou . from Plutarch. 950— 8. 4. 606— 610. the relationship between the invocation and the re­ mainder o f the ML can be explained with the help o f Merkelbach s observa­ tion that the exordium is a secondary feature prefixed to the received tradi­ tion. Cruickshank (London: St. 36 (1077D).24. T D N T 9 (1973). Die Allseele in Platons ‘Timaios’ (BAK 96. Weltseele: Geschichte und Hermeneutik (Frankfurt a. 3. it means that only one deity. Long & Sedley. 1992).36:7 (1994) 4417— esp.3— Hermann Dorrie. 1994). that is the universe. Philo.9. “Der Begriff ‘Pronoia’ in Stoa und Platonismus. Michael Frede. not. etc. 11 Merkelbach. 1999).” 1939). Mischa von Perger.90 Commentary Chrysippus and later Stoics.. Marcus Aurelius. 20. Divine 90. Епп. 84— 94. 10 SKFII § 1064 (312. “Die Stoa. Tipovoia.10 Moreover. was als Logos. Paul’s School.” ANRW 11. was als aktives Prinzip nach Hervorbringung der Welt aus dem ‘Feuer’ als die ganze Welt durchdringendes ‘Feuer’ weiterwirkt. § 613 (187. § 933 (268. kurz.9. 51. FZPhTh 24 (1977) 60-87. L ’Am e du monde de Platon a stoiciens (Paris: “Les belles 87. “Pronoia. 47— 48.539. Robert T. Already Chrysippus defined the deity thus: “Chrysippus asserts that Zeus. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. Leipzig: Teubner. providentia.). Peter Steinmetz. is addressed in this way.. als Heimarmene. gelegentlich nennt Zenon diese feurige Weltseele auch rcveujj-a. фи/Yj.9. als gestaltende Natur.13). was die Welt beseelt.v. 47 (with reference to Chrysippus): ty) Tcpovoia —фи^-/] 8’ earl tou x6<7fxou. Providence in Philo of Alexandria (TSAJ 77. 12 See Steinmetz (“D ie Stoa. Prov. das ist die Weltseele (mens mundi. 2. esp..” in Die Philosophic der Antike (Basel: Schwabe. Cicero. and it is here that the combination o f the two concepts frequently occurs. 1. W. 2094— 95. C. Aet. “Chairemon.35). which is the substance o f the world-soul.. “The Origins o f Pronoia: A Mystery. Myrto Dragona-Monachou. For the passages dealing with the world-soul see also Pease. and his providence is like its soul” (eoLxevoa t w [xev av^ptorcco t o v Ala x al t o v xoajxov. Gordon.35).50-51.13). also 50— 84: 51.16.” ANRW 11. Richard L. s. t y ) б е ф и ^ т ј t y ] v rcpovotav).319— Albrecht Dihle. is like a human being.: Knecht.4.” in Apodosis: Essays Presented to Dr. 12. if the invocation is influenced by Stoic ideas. б Plotinus. 3. Vit. Pneuma. W.” D D D 664— 67. 2. Apoll. Aet. Abrasax. Peter Frick. 9 See S V F I § 172 (44. spiritus. Parker. the highest deity in fact. 2. Philo. lat. § 1064 (312. 21) SV F II.M.9 Therefore.31). 1997).g. “Divine Providence in the Philosophy o f the Empire.” 539): “Das aber. lettres. ohne dass Pneuma schon ein fester Terminus ware .1 The author makes the connection between the exordium and the main 1 body o f the ML through the element o f fire/spirit.686— Joseph Moreau. als Pronoia.55.36:3 (1989) 20 6 72103.” .19— about the association o f mens mundi. Philostratus.12 (see e..5.

[j l o l .304. Cf.341. 1988. Abrasax. Luke 18:13). T D N T 3 (1938) 300-1. constituting a secondary act. 551 n. 1. See Friedrich Biichsel. Schwyzer. cf. Grammatik. See.. 82:1-3. occurring also in the N T (Heb 8:12 Qer 31:34 LXX]). III. . nicht mehr der echte Wortlaut der Liturgie sein kann: das Wort ypacpovxc. cf. xa <a>7ipaxa. not all o f which are textually beyond doubt: ха <а>ттрата тгарабоха fxucror]pt. As Merkelbach has noticed. 33:6-12. 12. 10 .oi llpovoia XTA.17 13 The expression iXa&t [aol occurs also 1.143.g. Anthol. he does not seem to realize that the act o f w riting down the sacred tradition is the offensive act precipitating the prayer. Darjtk). 69:9-10. 1. Das athiopische Henochbuch (JSHRZ 5:6.. [xol yevou. daraus folgt dann. 16 Dieterich (50): “. daB die Worte ТлагК \i. s. 948. muB es fur hochst wahrscheinlich gelten. 41 [OCT.pal. daB табѕ y p a q j o v x t .155— 56. For a collection o f passages from apocalyptic writings. where in some texts the prophet is ordered to write the things down he has seen. my Hellenismus und Urchristentum. but he explicitly observes the rule o f secrecy regarding the mystery rituals known only to the “theurgists” (173A-B). 35:2. BDAG. Presentation of a Petition (11.v. 186 (on Pausanias 39. 14 See LSJ. 2En. Giitersloh: Mohn.567. 709 n.420. Lucian. Julian summarizes main points o f myths and festivals. cf. 68:1— Test. the question o f writing is a literary topos. V.v. 1. 213. 53:2— 54:1. [. 12:4. 667 n. V. der den heiligen Text a b s c h r i e b .. .I..14 The reason for the petition is that the author confesses the commission o f a specific offense: табе ypacpovxt. 48:6— 50:1. s. тсарабоха [лиахтјр. and that therefore the entire exordium cannot be part o f the mystery ritual to be perform ed. Jacobitz 22]. 3. C. these parallels indicate that the god is asked to smile with kindness at the orant.442— 43).3124. 36:1. 1984).165. 2826. tXsco?. Dieterich recognized a discrepancy between “w riting down” the mysteries. More common is the Attic £Aewq. 475—78) T he formula ЕХалК jaol introduces the prayer. Parallel is Diew<. Epigr.13 it seems to be conventional even in its archaizing form . 183. see III.16 However. IV. 475— 85) 91 B. Since it occurs also elsewhere in the P G M . not for gain”). 2. 22:1-23:6.. See lEn. LCL edition and translation by W. Abr. while in others he is prohibited. Wright. avai. the apocalyptic literature.са (“as I write these mysteries handed down. 19:3-5. 15 The secret tradition is to be handed down orally. Since the apocalyptic literature is on the whole not secret but intends to be public.15 This secret tradition is named by technical ex­ pressions.. lAaaxofjiai. the offense consists of having written down (ypacpovxi) the text to follow (хабе) because it contains the secret tradition. ” 17 Pointed out by Merkelbach. and also Reitzenstein. den Beginn der rituellen Aktion selbst ausmachten und zur Eroffnung der Kulthandlung selbst g e s p r o c h e n wurden. which mentions Theocritus 15.169A): “And shall I write about things not to be spoken o f and divulge what ought not to be divulged? Shall I utter the unutterable?” (xal urtep xwv appTjxwv ypatpojxev xal та ave^oLCTxa e^oraofjiev xa l та avexAaAyjxa. e.206.13— 14).<x. IV. 3.. ware die ganz auBerlich eingetragene Anderung dessen. The Exordium (11.357. H M R . sxAaXrjaofXEv. cf.457. 2:17. 11.158 [Meleager] (iAoc&’. not in written form. and the original form o f oral transmis­ sion. 92:1-5. 689. .АаагНгјтѓ. the opening questions in the emperor Julian’s Hymn to the Mother of the Gods (Or. 13:6. 8. Matt 16:22. tAao<. see Siegbert Uhlig..

128. 331. Cf. 20 Wessely. s. 23 Merkelbach. XIX.23 following Usener24 and Riess. CIR 10 (1896) 411. 746. 333. Betz.) w ho render it as “unsold. Rhet. Suppl. 56. 176. See also 1 Pet 1:18 and BDAG.19 the words т а тхраха in the papyrus20 have been emended by scholars in different ways.. plausible would also be 7гра)татсаработа (“handed down first” or “handed down as most im portant”). 26 Dieterich (3) reads та тгрмта ттаработа.192. TtapaSoaii. XIII.). that is by implication.v. 2.25 contracts the words into тгатротгаработа (“handed down by the father”). Men. app. but.131. s. 180.22 Differently. тграха could simply be the result o f an error by the scribe who forgot to erase it after he had corrected himself by writing тгаработа.” Hellenismus und Urchristentum. the author could have intended a contrasting pun. 93b.. Lg. crit. 19 For 7тараб£бсо[Ја in the PGM see 1. § 27. Ale. 802e.26 In theory..). app. 24. 685. XII. 129. if one wants to contract. The term “mysteries” (pjanrjpt-a) refers to the text o f the ML. Friedrich.. Gottesnahe.бм[ЈЛ. тсарабосп^. The words p. differently.a.110. ad loc. "Oti тгаработт) yj арѕттѓ) a'). crit. according to the app.18 The |хиатт]р[. On the subject matter. 794). Sam Eitrem. ad loc. V. For parallels and bibliography. unsal­ able. 219— Graf.. IV2477. X XXIII.ov. O Z 2 /1 . XIII. “The Formation o f Authoritative Tradition in the Greek Magical Papyri. 158. s. see BDAG. 52. 173— 83. esp.448. 107 (Magic. тгараб(.132c. 2. s. 18 For pj(TT7)pt. W hile these terms belong to the familiar mystery-cult language. Hellenismus und Urchristentum.306. crit.92 Commentary Rather. o f course. to the ritual as a whole (11.v. Wendland prefers тсрмтсжаработа. 24 See Dieterich. 723). . see Betz. 2592.” SO 22 (1942) 49— 79. Reitzenstein.322. For the related тсаработео<. For further parallels see Dieterich.. translated as “unverkauflich. 71р«татс6урасрос. crit.. app. gives as references for 7гаработо<. 1. V. Cf. 45): тгарабоС^оа тгоХХа тсарабо^а.109-11 (Moses. none seems compelling. ad loc. W hile all o f these emendations are possible.. 22 Cf.933. with references. 21 See Preisendanz.а are “handed over” (тгарабоха) as “sacred tradition” (иарабоак .v. 89— 27. Preisendanz and Eitrem21 emend as < а > т с р а х а . “La theurgie chez les neo-pythagoriciens et dans les papyrus magiques. [xu<rr/)pt. 96-117). H M R . LSJ. Protr. 53-54. the parallel in Thessalos o f Tralles (ed. тсаработа is found only here.369 S. but there are ambiguities here as well. in a papyrus from Egypt (3rd c. the term refers to an ointment used in the ritual. Iamblichus. 4. Ernst Riess.v. Philodemus.v. LSJ. VII. Diogenes Laertius 4.ov in the PGM see also 1.52.: Plato.54. 25 See Preisendanz..22-23: б тсатрсжаработо<. ф 7гарѓбмха<. 1. See Hopfner.v. see also BDAG. in a supplemen­ tal section (11.12 (Xenocrates. Abrasax. 170. xa fjiucmr)pt.” in Greek a rare term according to LSJ (s. 476. LSJ lists: Plato.” If атсраха were accepted as correct. 1. the prayer o f the exordium is a different level o f ritual act performed in w riting by the author o f the exordium.ovw бѕ xexvto (“for an only child”) point to the person to whom the tradition is going to be handed over.a crou ra (TUVTEAou^-eva ’1сттра7]Х). For parallels in early Christian literature.. Merkelbach. s. X X X V I.

154-285). VIII. 1. also Thessalos o f Tralles (ed. §§ 36— cf.) 1. The papyrus has а£см[листтоа. 30 See Betz.w. 136. ule. Cf. Agnostos Theos. The question is whether a Е. 478 may either be a supplementary specification o f xexvov or a substitute address.29 In either case. Library. 755. w ith its object being a&avaaiav (“immortality”). the parallels in Hopfner. 226. Egyptian instructional literature con­ tains addresses like “my child. Nephotes to Psammetichos (IV.” e. 748). 45). Pitys to Ostanes (IV.31 At any rate. Schenke. X. speaks o f тгарабо^ос. His later reading оа was accepted by Norden.olq) are quite uncertain (Martinez).7.b. xexvov.27 parallels in the immediate context prove that the recipient of the document is addressed. an inconsistency known also from other mystery-cult texts. N T Apok (5th ed. 93.30 As an address. 478 addresses the recipient as “daughter” (& ^иуатвр). the epilogue to Instr. 732— 50). el [ay] [xovw [cto]u Icr^t-vw uujj ctou a^t-ouvxL та [тсар’] Tjfxwv pYj& svToc £Уѕру[т]](Л(хта. however. Dieterich reads it as an adjective.192. 225.214.v. O Z 2 /1 . See BDAG. Lichtheim. the term jjlovo? points to the magicians’ common practice o f having only one apprentice at a time.ш (“I ask”). 230. For other epistolary pre­ scripts. while the exordium is not formally a letter. 33 Dieterich (3). but the reading o f the last two letters (-av or . Lichtheim 2. 290— Boll. Friedrich.2519: хријЗе. а (“worthy”).. or as relatively exclusive (“only this child at this tim e”). This text. which Preisendanz reads as a&avacxiav a£t. For 45. not o f [листттјркх. 41. 1. earlier. more material. 29 At any rate. the “daughter” in 1. presupposing a male initiate.28 but the identity o f the person is still in doubt.2 . 1. such as the Orphic Gold Tablets. qualifying [лиатт) (“initiate”). see the letters o f Pnouthis to Keryx (1.18.2006-2125). 3. see Robinson. 231. 30. (Abraxas. with references. IV. Aus der Offenbarungjohannis. to Any. Dankwart Kirchner. 343. 185. Јлиотоа тт)? 'гцхетѓрад Suvafxea)? таитт)?. 644— 719— 55.. s. he read [лиеТст& тт}^ . 475— 85) 93 The question is whether one should understand the expression as the author s self-reference. So much is clear also from the close parallel in PGM 1. 28 1. cf.I. see Norden.Е. and rzcdq. the author is male.42— 195). Nag Hammadi Deutsch. W hen the comment in 1. Agnostos Theos. ptovco бѕ tsxvm formulates an exception which can be taken as absolutely exclusive (“only this child ever”). 163). 76. Antike und Christentum.238 (with further parallels). While the language is again familiar from the mystery-cults and attested elsewhere in the PGM . 290— 94.2.32 The verb indicating petition appears to be а. it is done in a secondary insertion (see below).58-63. 734. While the phrase [xovto 8s texvco is neuter. 31 Cf. or to the fellow-initiate later mentioned as rexvov (1. Cornutus (addressed to атсоа^).18). Since the author later includes an instruction for a fellow-initiate (11.ш functions as a verbal or adjectival form.g. 38. a ulo<. would have to be secondarily applied to a female.144— Also C H V . . PGM also uses ulo<. 32 A close parallel is the exordium to the Apocryphon o f James from Nag Hammadi (N H C 1. the formulae contained in the text. it is meant to function as a memorandum sent to an addressee. See Reitzenstein. or as a reference to someone else as recipient of the text. H M R . 24).1. 742.192: таита o5v [xtjSsv'l 7гараб£бои. The Exordium (11. (IV535.33 The 27 For xexvov see XIII.

furthermore see 78. 650. 3. 4 -5 n.233) has it indented and enclosed in brackets. 39 See Dieterich (2-3. 647— aQ-avaxc>. 35 к^шс.3911. 3. 34 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 531. 11. 482 by connecting yjv with таитт)? (1. 520. 35. As scholars have pointed out repeatedly. 1922). 1 (both with important parallels). related is svepyet-a xtA. Preisendanz. see also Hopfiier. Gottesnahe. as does the verb c a^t-ouv. Friedrich Preisigke. 516-17.81 (index).a. see Dieterich. Erich Fascher. 642. 13 (Magic. 477— 524.686-88) distinguishes rightly between perma­ nent and temporary immortality. Riess.34 c Another reason for Merkelbach s change is that otherwise the adjective leaves the sentence w ithout a verb. 747. XI. §§ 32— with references. 2. however. For references to restrictions about passing on the secrets only to a son or a daughter. 478— interrupt the sentence 81 which continues in 1. immortality is o f course the prim ary benefit derived from the mysteries ([xucTYjpia). 620). See Dieterich. esp. Nilsson (G G R . The phrase concluding the sentence. 4. jxayixo?. it does imply. 544. idem. CIR 10 (1896) 411. 478). .739. 58. cf. 37 So Dieterich (49). 48. § 35. 771. s.” D D D . Hopfner. 501. O Z 2 /1 . The intern. 11). prefering [литјтѓ]^.173— 190-96. The adjective o^ lo? refers to ritual in a few places.192 as support. 477) and indicates the purpose o f the ritual called arcai)avaTicr[x6<. “Dynamis. Festugiere. 1920). a7ia9-avaTi£eiv. 609. Preisendanz (1. elsewhere in PGM. 46— 48. 49. that Preisendanz s reading o f [листтах as referring to the deities (“ihr Mysten dieser unserer M acht”). Cf. ai-touv 1.. For further references in the PGM. Preisendanz s reading seems to make sense.?).. Die Gotteskraft der fruhchristlichen Zeit (Berlin: de Gruyter.a occurs only here in the PGM (1.38 It is conspicuous that for all the magic. 3. adducing the parallel in 1. cannot be accepted. the ML presupposes temporary immortality or deification.177. a term occurring often in magical texts. incorrect. but not for the adjective. also W ilhelm Kroll (by letter to Preisendanz): [jlovov бе rexvov a&avaoxav aEiw fAwjaai. The author asks Providence and Psyche to grant (a^tw) immortality (a&avaata) to his addressee. Antike und Christentum. 741. 504-6. 38 Frequent in the PGM.88— 89) puts it in brackets and small print.” R A C 4 (1959) 415— 74. Vom gottlichen Fluidum nach agyptischer Anschauung (Berlin: de Gruyter. for the ML see 11.233)..15. a fact that causes Merkelbach to change the accusative to the genitive. with note) who treats it as a marginal gloss.35 As a result. however. Graf. 24. Graf’s assumption that the 8th Book o f Moses is dedicated to a daughter seems.51 (index).94 Commentary problem is that the papyrus reads the iota adscript indicating the dative ending for the noun.36 w ho as an initiate ([листтт]?) is entitled to it. 3. O Z 2 /1 . (11. IV. (“o f this our power”) refers to the divine power (SuvajJtx?) energizing the ritual as a whole.192. a&avamoc? a £ l o [лиатт] r/)? . 11 n. etc. Revelation. 175— 86. awkward as it would be anyway. < 11. So also Betz. The lack o f useful parallels also hampers a clear decision. see Preisendanz.v. [xayo? are not found in the Mithras Liturgy. ттј? тјЈлѕтера? Suvocfxew? таит iqc. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 36 The term oc9-avaa(. “Power (Suvocfxt. the adjective would require the genitive a&avaaLtx? (“worthy o f immortality”). 419— also Betz. terms such as [лауѕха. if one accepts the letters as they stand in the papyrus. 2. Also.37 If so.

however. (“furthermore. Although such a ritual is not described fully in the text. <[X7]vu07ja£a^at. Since additional teachings are appended as well in 11 750— . There are three options for explaining what may have happened. the first person singular piou (1. III. This insertion. (1) The author o f the exordium could have made the insertion. as a “treatise” (auvxay[j. but that a scribe mechanically copied it from the author s document.> ev xw xeXst xou lepou [jlou auvxay[xaxo<. the insertion would have to have been made as a secondary supple­ m ent to that exordium. (Soxavwv x al slSwv xtov fjifsXjXovxtov croc. 772— 813). 478-81 and 772-813. 475— 85) 95 ruption can best be explained as caused by an secondary insertion. Correspondingly. (2) The insertion could have originated as a mar­ ginal gloss by the author. the reason for putting the insertion into the exordium must have been compelling. is used in other passages. H e would have added the insertion because without it the ritual would be incomplete and would not work. This case would presuppose that the author did not himself inscribe the present papyrus. .177: [j^pyj as e7t]i&ueL. which in itself is a complete sentence: XP-] °^v * “ ftuyaxep. reflecting an afterthought and self-correction on his part.v. Since the whole exordium secondarily introduces a text o f sacred tradition. otherwise well-written. The Exordium (11. why did the author not include the insertion among the addenda at the end o f his composition? Because he himself refers to the full information at the end (11. Since the same author is responsible for both additions in 11. (3) A later redactor. That author or redactor would also identify the whole text he composed. Xapi[Sav£t. see IV. but no ritual is described in the text. O daughter. raises interesting questions. which then was slipped into the text by a scribe who copied the text. it is necessary for you. who used an older document.v jukobc. In this case the author himself would have rather clumsily messed up his own. 478— functions as a reminder saying which ingredients must (XP82 /))40 be used in an initial ritual. the author assumes that it needs to be performed.a [11. indicating instruction. Therefore. prior to the insertion. may have inserted the sentence and thereby readdressed the docum ent to a person different from the one originally intended. 481) would refer either to the original author or to a later redactor. That earlier docum ent must have included the exor­ dium (minus the insertion 478— 82) as well as the main body o f the text 40 The term.913. 977.I. 481— 82]). the insertion in 11. the conclusion should be that this author worked w ith an earlier document that he himself regarded as incomplete. here a reconstruction. The content o f the insertion specifies only some ingredients to be used at the beginning. to take the juices o f herbs and spices. composition. which will be made known to you at the end o f my sacred composition”). 819.

s.41 T he person in question.” in Gleanings from Deir el-Medma (eds. 1961).2. 232. A Magical Statue Base (Socle Behague) in the Museum of Antiquities at Leiden (Leiden: Brill. Halfte (GrundriB der Medizin der alten Agypter.v. T he transmission o f esoteric knowledge from father to daughter also re­ flects older Egyptian practice42 which continues in Greco-Egyptian and H er­ metic sources. Such an address would conform to instructional language and practice. therefore. 819— 20). The fact that some o f the supplementary rituals are needed at the beginning caused him to insert the reminder in 11. 2— 3.” “daughters. n. In the first instance. on the other hand. see the Metternich Stele. F. XL. according to which “sons. R . Addressing the recipient as “daughter” (&иуатт]р) can mean two things: she could be his own kin.v. with the translation by J. Klasens. Egyptologische Uitgaven 1. In the M emphitic tradition contained in the aretalogy o f Kyme. which also explains why he ended by declaring the document (u7tofxvY][jia) to be now complete (11. 1%уостт]р. A most important example is Isis being instructed by T h ot/ Hermes. J. 690. p. §35. Al­ though there is no other instance o f a female apprentice m entioned in the PGM . In the second instance. Leiden: Brill. but she is now treated as a colleague. .2. lines 57— 58 (saying VI). is not treated as an apprentice but as a fully initiated magician ((лиаттј^). 704. Westendorf. A. who in some texts is regarded as her father. 3). 484— 720). she may at one time have been an apprentice. X X X IV 18-19. 26— 27. Les Papyrus medicaux de VEgyptepharaonique (Paris: Fayard. 76. s. if. furthermore.. LI. IV. he would regard her as his heir to w hom he hands over a piece of sacred tradition. while in other sources she is regarded as the daughter o f T hoth/H erm es.43 A Herm etic source for father-daughter transmission is found in the prologue o f the Kyranides. 2. 5). J. added the supplements (11. VII. where Harpokration o f Alexandria addresses his natural histories to 41 For 9г>уатт)р cf. Thierry Bordinet.732— 820).96 Commentary (11. In these texts Isis is the most important example. 21. 478-82. Agypten. see H. See also Hopfher. “daughter” would be a metaphor. If the author calls her “daughter” in the metaphorical sense. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. such usage should not be excluded as a possibility. Isis is educated by Hermes (1. “Divine Intervention in Ancient Egypt and Its Manifestation (bzw).10. 1952). 1982). 42 I am indebted for this information to Thomas Dousa who mentioned ancient Egyptian medical texts but criticizes that scholars sometimes have a tendency to explain away the female gender. von Deines and W.” or “children” signify pupils or apprentices. Janssen. 39. 15. or his apprentice. The author. Worterbuch der medizinischen Texte. 123. 43 See Muller. however. the magician as father would pass on a piece o f sacred tradition to his daughter who is also a magician. BDAG. 1995). Both possibilities could be documented by parallels from ancient religions. but is called the daughter o f Kronos/Geb (1. Borghouts. p. O Z 2 /1 . Demaree andj. she is his biological daughter.

I. The Exordium (II. 4 7 5 -8 5 )

97

his daughter.44 Female magicians are o f course known from many quarters o f Greek and Hellenistic45 as well as from Jewish religion.46 The language o f the instruction is technical. The often occurring verb Xa[x(3av£t.v (“take”) indicates the acquiring and using o f ingredients, one o f which is “plant ju ice” (xyXol ^oxavwv), specified further in the supplement (11. 773 and 781).47 The term elScov, from to ѕХбос; (pi. slStj) seems strange as compared w ith other occurrences in the PGM ;48 here it refers either to drugs or to utensils.49 Since in the supplement (11. 772— 813)50 only ingredients and no utensils are detailed, the translation should be accordingly (“drugs”).51 The term pqvu&Yjaea&oa (“be inform ed”) is supplied by Preisendanz who argues for it on the basis o f the parallels in PGM IV.2016, 2046— 2069.52 The 47, information is to be found ev tw tsXei (“at the end”), where the crossreference is indicated (ttjv 7ipoxsL[xevY]v [1. 779]). Concluding his statement (1. 482), the author refers to his composition as a whole by the phrase tou lepou [xou ctuvtocy[хосто^. The term auvTocyfxa is literary, com bining the compositional w ith the functional (“composition”): the text is put together from sources, and it serves as a prescription for the performance o f the ritual.53 In 1. 482, the text o f the exordium continues, w ith the relative pronoun 7]v connecting with таитт]? (1. 479). The section (11. 482— sets forth the hier­ 85)
44 For the passing on o f tradition within the family, see Dieterich, Abraxas, 160-63; Norden, Agnostos Theos, 290— Festugiere, Revelation, 1.332— Dimitris Kaimakis, Die 91; 36; Kyraniden (BKP 76; Meisenheim am Gian: Hain, 1976), 14, lines 4-5: ex tou 'Артсохрат^шос; tou ’AXe^avSpew^ тиро^ ttjv olxelocv Suyaxepav; 15, lines 30— 31: [ЗфАо<; што 2upux<; &ер<х7геитЈ.х7), ттј olxera &иуатр1 'Apuoxpaxcwv уеурафе табе. See also the chain o f tradition involving the theurgists Nestor, Plutarch and his daughter Asclepigeneia, and Proclus (Marinus, Vit. Procli 28, ed. Rita Masullo, Marino di Neapoli, Vita di Proclo [Napoli: D ’Auria, 1985]). The note in Graf ( Gottesnahe, 212, n. 13; ET: Magic, 237, n. 11), men­ tioning PGM XIII.341— is unclear because the term there is xexvov. 43, 45 For the evidence o f female magicians, see Matthew W. Dickie, Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World (London: Routledge, 2001). 46 The “witch o f Endor” is, o f course, the most famous example (1 Sam 28). See Klaus Thraede, “H exe,” R A C 14 (1988) 1269— Giuseppe Veltri, Magie und Halakha. Ansatze 76; z u einem empirischen Wissenschaftsbegriff im spatantiken undfrtihmittelalterlichenJudentum (TSAJ 62; Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1997), 26, 29, 65-72, 79-81. 47 For further references, see below on 1. 773. 48 For е!бо? see also IH.190-91; VIII.5, 18; XIII.1077; 21.47-48. 49 Preisendanz renders “Spezereien,” Merkelbach (159) “Arten,” Hopfner (according to Preisendanz, app. crit., ad loc.) “Utensilien,” Meyer (Betz, G M PT , 48) “spices.” 50 The term т ш {x[eX]X6vTtov (11. 480— 81) refers to the supplement. The correction follows Dieterich (p. 3: fx[e]A6vT«v), Preisendanz (app. crit.), and Merkelbach (158). 51 See for references LSJ, s.v. еТбо^, IV. 52 The term refers to matters “to be informed about.” Wilhelm Cronert (“Zur Kritik,” 100) supplies -гсарабогНЃЈстѕтоа. 53 Cf. 1.45— та TCocvxa xaTaX£(,[7i6[xeva t][xlv ev] рфХос? |лирѓоа<; стиутау|л.ата. 47:

98

Commentary

archy o f authority and the transmission o f the tradition: ffj o fxeya? 'HAio? Ml&pa? sxsAsuasv fjiot, pieTa8o&Y)vai. што тои ap^ayyeXou аитои, бтсоо? eyw [xovo? al<x>Y]TY]? oupavov (3alva> xal хатотгтѕисо rcavxa (“which the great god Helios Mithras ordered to be handed over to me by the his archangel, so that I alone may walk heaven as an ‘eagle’ and behold the all”). At the top stands the highest deity, defined by his names and epithets. Clearly, the god is monotheis­ tic, indicated by his epithet o [хеуа? &e6<; (“the great god”), which occurs only here in the ML.54 The god has, however, two names: Helios and Mithras.55 For the author, therefore, the two gods, originally separate, have become united. This is all the more remarkable because in the main body o f the ML, the author’ source material, the two gods are not identical. In 1. 640 Helios occurs s alone, named as the highest god but in fact subordinate to Mithras; in 1. 643 another god is spoken o f as o fAsytcrro? &eoc;, and in 11. 696— 704 this greatest god is described without naming him; he clearly is, however, Mithras. The authors sources, on the one hand, presuppose two different gods, but on the other hand the authors intention is to merge them into “one god.” As Wolfgang Fauth has pointed out, while the ambiguity o f the relationship between Helios and Mithras reflects Hellenistic syncretism (theocrasy),56 the author of the ML had philosophical interests as well. The fact that only Helios (and not Mithras) is named in 1. 640, in spite o f what no doubt is a description o f him, may perhaps result from the author’ interest in presenting the highest god as Aion s (see 11 520— 587— . 23, 616). The double-name Helios-Mithras means that the author must have read the name o f Mithras in the source. Did the author purposefully omit the name Mithras at 1. 696? Why did he let the name of Helios stand? The reason for keeping Helios may have been that the god is needed for the ritual o f ascent through the seven astral spheres.57 Fauth also
The epithet is frequent elsewhere in the PGM (see Preisendanz, 3.133— [index], s.v.). 34 See also III.80: М£9-ра; 100-1: vat, (леу1 стте Мѓ&ра; 462: ^aipe, "HXt,e M£9-pa; V.4: Zeu "ГОаѕ Мѓ&ра Иаратп; Ostracon 2.8— Mi&peu Mi&pa. The name Helios occurs in 9: the PGM also in many other combinations. 56 For a discussion o f the relationship between Helios and Mithras, and a review o f the current literature see Fauth, Helios Megistos, esp. 11— Manfred Clauss, “Sol Invictus 33; Mithras,” Athendum 78 (1990) 423— idem, Mithras, 146— 50; 55: “Mithras and the SunGod”; N. P. Milner & Martin F. Smith (“N ew Votive Reliefs from Oinoanda,” Anatolian Studies 44 [1994] 65-76), discussing a bust o f a youthful god with a crown o f rays, addressed as M I0PA НЛШ. Cf. IV.1596— 1715, an invocation o f Helios, with the epithet zlq Zzuq Ѕаратт ic, (1715). See also Albert de Jong, Traditions of the Magi: Zoroastrianism in Greek and Latin Literature (Religions o f the Graeco-Roman World, 133; Leiden, N ew York, Koln: Brill, 1997), 157-204, 284-96. 57 Actually, this was Dieterich s (89-90) suggestion, commenting on Origen’ descrip­ s tion o f the mysteries o f Mithras and the yJaixocc; ѕтгтостгиЛо^ (Cels. 6.22). Cf. Fauth’ s critique, Helios Megistos, 22— 23.
54 55

I. The Exordium (11. 475— 85)

99

points to the Neoplatonist Julians doctrine o f the three suns in three worlds: the transcendental Helios in the intelligible world (xoafxo? voyjto?), HeliosMithras in the middle (voepoq), and the sun-disk in the visible world (брато^); accordingly, Helios is the deity uniting and holding the three worlds to­ gether.58 Compared w ith Julian, the ML is clearly pre-Neoplatonic and shows the problems Julian s theory tried to solve. The great god Helios-Mithras gave the order to “hand over” ([летаб£б(0[л(,)59 the tradition through his “archangel” (ар^ауугХос), a term used also in pagan sources, esp. in Neoplatonism.60 This mediator figure remains unnamed.61 To w hom was the tradition handed over? Apparently to the author: бтс«<; eyw [xovog. Naming the author as the exclusive recipient, however, is a rather com m on feature in similar texts.62 As indicated by the exordium, the text is just another instance in the passing on o f the tradition. T he next word (1. 484) is controversial. T he papyrus contains оатјту)?, w hich has been em ended and interpreted in various ways. Preisendanz emends to cd<x>v]Tr]c, (“petitioner”),63 rejecting D ieterich’s reading as ocIyjtoc;

58 Fauth (151— 54), discussing Julians Hymn to Helios, Or. IV.149A-D. Accordingly, Helios provides for unity between the gods, but “without confusion into unity” (бѓ/а ow f/uoeuq sic, evcoctlv); cf. 157A. At 155 A Julian mentions worshiping Mithras as a novelty and with some ambuigity concerning his relationship to Helios. 59 The term is technical in this context, a synomym оѓтгарабсбмЈлл; see for parallels 1.130 ([a ^ evI [аАЛсо [лејтабм^, аААа нри(3ѕ, ...); IV.853; VII.457; XII.93. Cf. y BDAG, s.v. [летабѓбмјлс.. 60 The occurrences in Neoplatonism seem to go back to the Egyptian Anebo; see Porphyry, Aneb. 1.4: yap, xi to yvwpiCTfjta &sou 7iapoiKjr.ai; 7] ayyeXou y ] ap^ayyeXou 7] Sai[Aovoq y\ xivoq ap^ovxo^ фи^г^. The passage in Iamblichus, Myst. 2.3 seems to depend on this (see also 2.4). See Franz Cumont, “Les anges du paganisme,” R H R 72 (1915) 159-82, esp. 175-80; Edouard des Places, Jamblique, Les mysteres d ’Egypt (Paris: Les belles lettres, 1966), 79 n. 1. 61 Depending on the religious context, the names differ. In PGM XIII, the archangel, subordinated to Aion, is named Helios (XIII.257, 334— cf. III.339 without name) or 37; Michael (XIII.928-29; IV.2356-57; VII.257); in XIV.a.5 Helios is asked to send his archangel. Other places speak o f a plurality o f archangels (1.208— IV 1203— 3051— 9; 4, 52; XIII.328-29, 744; XXII.b.3,7; 15.a; 21.9-10). For further sources, see Dieterich, 47; Reitzenstein, H M R , 171— n. 2; Merkelbach & Totti, Abrasax 1.200, 219; ibid., 2.79, 81 72, (XIV.a.5); Daniel & Maltomini, Supplementum Magicum, #29.3-4; #93.4; Kotansky, Amulets, #57.12. See BDAG, s.v.; Johann Michl, “Engel,” R A C 5 (1965) 56— 57; Mach, Entwicklungsstadien, 56, 142— 43, 177, 225, 230; J. W. van Henten, “Archangel,” D D D 80— 82. 62 Cf. 1.188; IV. 1520-21, 2961; differently XII.37; LXII.25-26. See also Thessalos o f Tralles, prooemium; furthermore i En. 19:3 ( O T P 1.23): “(So) I, Enoch, I saw the vision o f the end o f everything alone; and none among human beings will see as I have seen.” 63 Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.158, 233) follows Preisendanz, and translates: “der ich darum gebeten habe.”

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Commentary

(“eagle”).64 Preisendanz’s correction is attested in papyri,65 but it would be unique in the PG M .66 Dieterich argued (50, 220— against C um ont67 and 21) ; Reitzenstein68 that afojxo< is philologically not impossible69; in addition, in a new reading o f the papyrus Martinez favors the letter e instead o f Y so that the ), interpretation as the Mithraic title o f “eagle” (alero q) claimed by the author is highly likely.70 That this title could easily be connected w ith the following statement o f purpose was pointed out by Weinreich.71 The language describing the goals of the author (11. 483— is also rare in the 85) PGM. First, there is oupavov (3oav« (“going to heaven”),72 which is not different in meaning from the usual zic, oupavov [3a£vto (“going into heaven”).73 Second, there is хатотстеим tzolvxol (“overviewing all things’), a topos in literature regarding ascension and view of the cosmos.74 Indeed, these words sum up what the author understands to happen during the performance o f the ritual.
64 For other proposed corrections see Preisendanz, app. crit., ad l o c idem, WSt. 41 (1919) 140. 65 See LSJ, Suppl., s.v.; Preisigke-KieBling, s.v. 66 Cf. XII.144: ocEttjctis; XIII.287: yjttjcjw alTTplav ; IV.434, 1290, 1930; XXII.b.30: e^atrrjat.?; IV.462, 1294; VI.29: &,< £ xitz Zo &oli. More frequent in the PGM is Ixstt]? (11.87; XIII.637). 67 Franz Cumont, Etudes syriennes (Paris: Picard, 1917), 57 n.: “correction douteuse”; c f 89. 68 Reitzenstein (H M R , 172, 174) reads аАтјтг^ (“wanderer”). 69 For Doric cdri)xbc, see LSJ, s.v.: “Dor. for aexo<;, aiexoq.” 70 Dieterich (54, 151, 220— 21) has further material supplied by Weinreich. For the Mithraic material see Cumont, Textes et monuments, 1.314 n. 8 ; Theodor Schneider and Eduard Stemplinger, “Adler,” R A C 1 (1950) 87— (with references to Porphyry, Abst. 94 4.16, and Lucian, Icarom. 14); Wolfgang Speyer, “Geier,” R A C 9 (1976) 430-69, esp. 439— 41; Carsten Colpe et al., “Jenseitsfahrt I (Himmelsreise),” R A C 17 (1996), esp. 439— 41; Merkelbach, Mithras, 105-6 (with photos from the Heddernheim mithraeum), 240, 242 (in connection with the ascension o f the soul). Betz (Lukian, 39, 97 n. 6 , 175) points to the eagle as a symbol o f Helios and Zeus. 71 In Dieterich, 220— 21. 72 Merkelbach (Abrasax , 3.159) translates: “auf die Himmel(s-Schale) trete(n).” 73 1.67 (cf 184: ситеибм yap eiq oupavov). For instances o f this terminology, see Lucian, Peregr. 39: IXlttov yav, (Salvoa ec ’'OXuptov; similarly Philostratus, Vit. Apoll. 8.30. See Betz, Lukian, 38ff., 123, 128ff., 167— Cf. Vettius Valens, A nth. VI.1.9 (ed. Pingree [BiTeu, 69. 1986] 231, 6— 7):... та etcl утјс xaxaXL7i 6 vTa? oupavo(3aTeiv a^avaToit; фи^аТ<; xal QzL lic,. o Cf. also Lucian, Sacr. 9; Timon 49; Astr. 13; Philo, Opif. 69— а1&еро(Затем, oupavo(3aT£w, 71: C U 7repL7roXew. For the terminology, see Abraham P. Bos, “Immanenz und Transzendenz,” T [i. R A C 17 (1996) 1041-92, esp. 1045-46. 74 For хатотстѕиѕ[л/ see IV516— 17; 504: sn on xzveiv; Lucian, Icar. 12— see Betz, 16; Lukian, 39 n. 1 (with parallels). Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.233) points to the Platonic idea (Plato, Phaedr. 247b— o f the immortal souls w hen they travel to heaven on the chariot and c) break through the astral sphere to behold the heavenly world (cf. Ps.-Plato [Philip o f Opus], Epin. 978c— 986b— d, 987d). Closer to the ML is C H III.3: eiq xaxoTixelav oupavou;

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 )

101

II. The M ain body o f the ritual (11. 4 8 5 —732)

As indicated in the papyrus by a space after 1. 486, the main body o f the composition sets forth the ritual called отос&осуссгшџбд (“immortalization”; see the Analysis infra, part II, 11 485-732). This ritual has several clearly . distinguishable sections, beginning w ith a lengthy petitionary prayer (section A, 11 485-537), a prescription for a breathing ritual (section B, 11. 537-38), . the introduction to the ascent narrative (section C, 11. 539— 44), the narrative o f the ascent itself, consisting o f seven scenarios (section D, 11. 544-732). This main body is then followed by supplemental rituals (part III, 11. 732— 819), and a concluding statement (11. 819-20).

A.

The opening (first) prayer (11. 485— 537)

The importance o f prayer for the ML as a whole is shown by the long prayer (11. 485-537) to be recited at the beginning o f the ritual. According to the internal num bering o f the prayers (see 11. 741— 42), it is the first,75 a petitionary prayer by genre, consisting o f the traditional parts o f invocation (11. 486— 99) and petition (11. 499-537).76 1. Before the prayer begins, a statement o f identification (11. 485— sepa­ 86) rates it from the preceding exordium and defines the prayer by the proper terms: laxxv бе тои Xoyou т)бе Y ] (“This is the invocation o f the prayer”). Xoyo<;77 refers to the prayer as a whole, хХтјст^ to the invocation.78 2. The invocation is in two parts, first calling on “O rigin” (11. 486— 87), and second on the four elements which in effect constitute “O rigin” (11. 489— 95).79 This kind o f invocation o f cosmic powers by abstract, personified

1.3 (jta&slv QiAw та ovtoc xal vo7)am ttjv toutwv cpucnv xal yvwvoa tov 9-sov. For further references see Norden, Agnostos Theos, 24— 99— 27, 109; N ock & Festugiere, 1.46, n. 10. 75 In 11. 741-42, the prayer is identified as б Trpwxoi; ’ oyoq. k 64. Since 76 On the composition o f prayers, see Furley & Bremer, Greek Hymns, 1.50— the prayer shows influences o f Hellenistic philosophy, it will have to be classified among the philosophical prayers; see with further material van den Berg, Proclus’ Hymns, 13— “The 34: Philosopher’s Hym n.” 77 The Xoyoq contains the things to be spoken (та Xeyofjieva). 78 For the term хАтјспс;, see 11.81; V I.1; VII.878; XII.310. See also Lewy, Chaldean Oracles, 467-71: “The Caller and the Call.” 79 For the elemental origins see also the prayers addressed to Aion-Helios 1.195-222; 1.263-327; III.494-632; IV.l 115-66; IV.l 167-1226. For the а т о ^ а tou x 6 (J[xou, see III.568; IV.440, 1126, 1303, 1961; VIII.78; X II.250-51; XVII.b.15; 'X X X IX .18-20; LXII.15.

The term ysveat. 528-29.”83 The first line ends with the magical vowel sequence aerjiouw.b. 620. cf. Dornseiff. but it does not appear to be a concern in 1. 32— 33. Outside o f the ML. it originated. 544. the term yevsm*. тгрооттј jjlsv ectolto тѕтосу[xsvy] [lLx nixaiv. Collins & Margaret M. 82 Within the ML. s The first line (486) reads [TJeveat. 7. G G R . Thom. XIII. “Hebdomas. 600.742).). see 11.” PRE 7 (1912) 2547— 68 78.” in Adela Y. 3. At this point o f the prayer. Antiquity and Humanity: Essays on Ancient Religion and Philoso­ phy Presented to Hans Dieter B etz on His 70th Birthday (Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. “Planeten. DeiBmann. Cf. Lva [X] tk. also XIII. 1. however. 83 See 11. XXII. 3.206— Furley & Bremer.). Johan 15.Each line declares a primordial origin to be the source o f the present suppliant’ personal natural birth. Das Alphabet.” PRE 20 (1950) 2017-2185. 492. Licht vom Osten (4th ed.? and apx?].102 Commentary concepts. 393-99 (Light from the Ancient East.” yeveat. VIII. “Cleanthes’ Hymn to Zeus and Early Christian Literature. Since seven-vowel sequences are frequent in all sorts o f magical literature. general invocation is a parallelismus membrorum. is clear evidence o f influence o f Greek philosophy. an interpretation that has some support in the the ML. 1. On vowel series generally. 620. the ML is directed by philosophical cosmology. O C T reading (atjtk. 1749.43. 80 The phenomenon is typical o f philosophical prayers. yeveaic. C. Brashear.612. The connection o f the seven vowels with the seven planets seems obvious. 6 3 5 36. Greek Hymns. 486. using two Greek terms denoting “origin. refers to birth and rebirth (see on 11. earlier w ith the Presocratics. eds.80 As Merkelbach has pointed out. 501.). 266. 532. while astrology is a secondary overlay for the sake o f “verification. Wilhelm and Hans Georg Gundel. 495. instead o f traditional names o f deities. 477-99.812— 2. that needs to be “regenerated. 3. 498-99. one finds this lan­ guage in Plato’ Timaeus. Merkelbach (Abrasax . 493. 764. 35— (lit. The authors objective is to combine cosmology and anthropology with astrology (see below on 1.612. 788. Franz Boll.? тирмтт] ттј? ep j? yeveaew? (“First origin o f my origin”). at notes 87— 88). this cosmic origin defines what the ML means by “rebirth” : it is the underlying cpuaic. the term is used differently in reference to “creation” as understood in Egyptian and Jewish creation myths (IV1040.” 84 For vowel sequences and variations in the ML.185. X II. so that all can have the same chances in life: oxt. 41e. 81 See Merkelbach (Abrasax.? can mean both “origin” and “birth.234).81 s The first. 501. see Dieterich.” 3431 (with further literature).234) who relates the reference to the astrological birth constellation.82 In principle. 635— 36). see below. see Nilsson..84 where it is indicative o f the cosmological foundation in a more general sense. < T For the Presocratics.234) is unclear: “Offensichtlich sollte hier fur jeden Planeten seine Stelle bei der . 720. however. an occurrence in the ML is not surprising. “The Greek Magical Papyri. 453-60). Mitchell. 610-16. beginning in the fourth century BCE. еАаттоТто (Tim.5). pointing to Plato’s first birth o f human beings which is the same for all. cf.47. 2001). Merkelbach’ comment s (Abrasax.720.” implying that the human birth o f the individual has its direct source in the primordial origin o f the universe.

488) addresses the other cosmological concept: apx?] ттј? ер)? ap yy\<g> тсршгг) (“first beginning o f my beginning”). 104-18.” PRE. Anaximander used the terms y ivzoic. s 1. . and Simplicius indicate.pyjyl and axoi'/eia: A Problem in Stoic Cosmology. stars..86 The oldest parallels to this notion o f primordial apx*] are found in pre-Socratic philosophy. Accordingly. see D. called 7ro7T7cu<7[x6i. Elementum. 12 A 9. de Vogel. welche zur Bezeichung der Planeten dienen. app. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 103 The second line (1. 1899). 297 (1. Interesting is the citation o f the formula ocpX ] xal xeXoq. 9 0 93). 168. “Kosmische Machte im Bibelepos des Dracontius.II.S 9 (1962) 1433-1589. 11— 8.89 Parallel to the vowel sequence in 1. 35). 11. the problems o f later Christian adaptation are discussed by Wolfgang Speyer. 1.-K. is to be performed three times.. Kern). See Adolf Lumpe. 486.130— 687. the sound. the sun. 15). This sound is known ‘ersten’ Geburt des Initianden angegeben werden. ap^rj xal теАеитт) IV. 141-51. the first o f which are three letters w ith dots over them: n n n . “Weltschopfung.. m oon. Frag. the formulation is unique. 4— 89. For the frequent omission o f the final -q see Gignac. See Preisendanz. Greek Philosophy. ea ri toT<. 35— A dolf Lumpe. 2836— XIII. the O rphic Frag­ ments87 and Anaximander. 486.” in idem. equalling n o n n vo o v rpLg. “Der Terminus Prinzip (ap‘rj) von den Vorsokratikern bis auf Aristoteles. Vgl. 41).” However. reads apxri . earth (. 43. whole. including the hum an being (o av^pwrco?) w ho originated from the same apxat. Eine Vorarbeit zum lateinischen Thesaurus (Leipzig: Teubner. # 9 6 and pp.. while the vowel composition in 11. Aristotle. esp. apxr]v T£ x al oroi-x^ov ••• ovtwv to aTcetpov . (ed. Main body of the ritual (11. 298. Kirk & Raven. (1959) 1073— 1100. “Elementum.6-8. “beginning T and end” (IV1125. see Hans Schwabl. B 1 (I. 88 For the texts. ‘zweiten’ Geburt steht unten in der in 544 exeivYjq xr^q yjfxepa^ xal xrtq wpaq tteLcr. These sounds are indicated in the text by abbreviated symbols. crit. 17b.. 742 (differently 1. this is not done in 1. 35. 86 Again. Michael Lapidge. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien (Hildesheim: Olms. # # 11a. “a. the parallels in the ML. 1. 550). 89 See Hermann Diels. a x o ijzio v . 18 (1973) 240— On the 78. the term ocpxh ге^егѕ to both the primordial beginnings o f the cosmos and the individual beginning o f the initiate. 164. and apx>Q together in referring to the origin of the universe.v. but cf. s.88 As the sources o f Plato.e^w vyj 'fivealc.1639— 37.” Phron. 83. 487 also ends w ith magical sounds to be performed by the suppliant. ftiaiq. # # 21 (with parallels to the cosmogonic myth. 87 See Orph. 610— is expressly connected with the 16 planets (617— 20). Theology.85 Again. (“smacking the lips”). 85 The pap. T D N T 7 (1971). Gerhard Delling. esp. Die Konstellation bei seiner heutigen. esp. 31. 505. 1995). Jaeger..” A B G 1 (1955) / 104-7. обог). ad loc.124-25. auch die Vokalreihen in 610— 616. pp.” R A C 4 45. these ideas were handed down in philosophical traditions dealing w ith the origins o f the universe. according to which apx?) <(?> is Wendland’ correction. 1499-1566. Grammar.

“The Greek Magical Pa­ pyri. 561.. mentions theurgical wor­ ship in which ol rkoupyot. 44.92 The ritual sounds belong to the field o f “music. also VII. CE philosopher Nicomachus o f Gerasa (Harmonicum enchiridium 6 . xal ст(. 6. xal avap&poi<. 80. 193.j3oX!.3 9 1 -9 2 . 561-62. again with dots over them: ctctct.6 0 1 . also VII.. 203-4. Bonner. 221. According to Preisen­ danz. (jupt^etv in the ML 11. 579..767-68. 94 See Preisendanz. 48-50. O Z I. Delatte and Derchain. Pliny (Nat.234) considers a special application for the sounds: “Mit dem dreimaligen P und S(ch) wird Pschai-Agathos Daimon angerufen. 2733. W St 41 (1919) 140— 41. 91 For further material see Dieterich. Brashear.48— . equalling auptaov xptq. 277).5) as similar to a pipe tune (аиХтЈјла). 193.584) in connection with fortune telling. 602. XIII. 40— 41. тсотстсистјхбѕ in the ML see 11. xal axt. and the musical sounds. call upon the deities aiy[XOiq xe xal тсотстсист[лос<. 780.93 Line 488 concludes w ith unexplained letters: <pp[. 92 For aupiy[x6 < in the ML. Les Intailles.” 3431. on tcotctcu^eiv. ed. 49. about which the Pythagoreans had more to say. ad loc. Musici Scriptores Graeci [BiTeu. . Lipsiae: Teubner. 12. 431-40). ф The sound o f “hissing” or “whistling” is mentioned by Xenophon (Symp.8 8 . 1995]. XIII. 361. §§ 150— 51.25) reports as a consensus among all peoples that lightning should be prayed to by clucking o f the tongue (fulgetras poppysmis adorare consensus gentium est). The emperor Julian (Ep. vswxspo<. 93 Differently. 107.].” Conceivably.91 The second. See pw also below. see 1. Merkelbach (Abrasax. xal xa aXXa. 50. 561. The onomatopoeic term poppysma is mentioned by Juvenal (Sat. 28. 19) refers to the Christian ritual o f “hissing at the demons and making the sign o f the cross on the forehead” (auplxTst. 946. ocia exei [AayeueLv уеуратсхоа. n. Hopfner. concerning the connection between the seven vowels. xal aau[jL(pcI)voi^ Tjjoiq cru[i. 186— 87. 42. app. 602. 1954]. Eitrem suggested cpp[u]. See also Janus’ note ad loc. “Das Pfeifen und seine Beziehung zu Damonenglauben und Zauberei. the seven planets. It is called аир(/у[л6? (“hissing”) and occurs elsewhere in the PGM and in other magical marterials.94 Martinez points to the three dots over the letters and raises the question whether they indicate sounds rather than a word. 3.9. Willy Theiler is right in an important article that the magical sounds are indicative o f the “language o f the spirit” (“Die Sprache des Geistes in der Antike. G M PT . 90 See for the abbreviation Preisendanz. aypacpetv etcI xou [лѕхмтсои tov axaupov). 421. Der Gott wird auch mit Harpokrates und Eros gleichgesetzt. Preisendanz himself (Dieterich. crit. n. XIII.. The 2nd c. repr. 418-19. 34.у[лои? tyjs < vyj<. Richard Lasch. 6. several conjectures were proposed by scholars. 531. a hissing sound is indicated by the three letters.xw? sTCixaXouvxat. 769. 1895.5 2 7 -2 8 . Betz. IV 1902-3. in discussing the cosmic dimensions o f music. 3 8 5 .<. W St 41 [1919] 140-41) conjectured 9 p[t[xa^atj.14. Studies. der in 635 erscheinende &soi. 2.” A R W 18 (1915) 589— 93.” in: Sprachgeschichte und Wortbedeutung.323. X X X V I..368: see тф г) X' a ' a ' a W ' . 578. 48. Related is a refer­ ence by Plotinus (Enn. Wiinsch saw here the name o f the god Фртј.v xe npoq xouq Saljjiovac. 228. Festschrift fu r Albert Debrunner [Bern: Francke.” here reflecting cosmic music.40.4 1 3 . in: Carolus Janus. 292. 138.104 Commentary from the PG M 90 as well as from other magical sources. all remaining tentative.6— to a number o f magical hissing sounds: [xeXy] xal rf/ouq 8) xal TCpocnTveuar£[.

.4-5). 218 n. 485— 732) 105 T he next section (11. 71). and to the Turba philosophorum. Dieterich. 454. 55. 74-75. Here we have a ritual for regeneration and immortalization that has significant analogies both with Empedocles and w ith the ‘O rphic’ gold plates. 1.351.” 99 Kingsley. 101 See the sources in SVF: Zeno. Kirk & Raven. # 444 (146. 912b.. 11. 81. 219.-K. Robert B. 224— Merkelbach. an initial prayer to the four elements as immortal.25).95 There can be no doubt that also this part o f the invocation is indebted to pre-Socratic philosophy..29-30). Stoicism as well affirmed the doctrine o f the four elements. The passage is followed by a quotation o f IV. with Love do we see Love.” 98 Cumont. тгир. 484.476— 95 and a reference to D. idem. 354-62. personified beings. Christoph Riedweg. ибмр.98 Most recently. For discussion. 3. Greek Philosophy.103.100 This line o f transmission. 432. I # 85 (24.234: “D ie Lehre von den vier oder fiinf Elementen ist griechisch.101 Therefore.” Archaologischer Anzeiger 41 (1995) 3 4 59. 903a. de Vogel. the connection between the ML and Empedocles was pointed out by Peter Kingsley: “And it is no coincidence. IV.”99 Kingsley constructs a line o f transmission o f this Empedoclean doctrine from Southern Italy and Sicily to Egypt. 505— and 713-14. nicht agyptisch (E. 31 B 6 (1. xexpaX^wfxa below. somewhat varied.. Reitzenstein. overlooks the fact that from Zeno forward. see Pohlenz. 100 Ibid. # # 899b. water with water. # # 426. 927. esp.205. 374. see esp. see 1. Cleanthes. 31 B 109 (1. in particular Empedocles’ doctrine o f the four elements as constituting the cosmos (тестаара tcocvtcov pt^wfxara)96 and held together by храогс. # 105. 1. 433. 183-84.1189— cf. with fire consuming fire.97 The connection with Empedoclean and Stoic philosophy was seen already by C um ont and Dieterich. 3. 15). 117. and it is affirmed by Merkelbach. Hornung. Greek Philosophy. # 102 (28. 15 For (“root”). see also pp. Abraxas. present a virtual summary o f Empedoclean themes and concerns. de Vogel. 901c. to the Hermetica (esp. “The Stoics and Their Cosmology in the First 95 96 ..311. Main body of the ritual (II. Textes et monuments. On the interconnectedness 31.contains a num ber o f features each o f which points separately to Empedocles but which.). Kore Kosmou § 63). Todd. 357 (# 484): “For with earth do we see earth. Chrysippus. 53. 13-68. the appearance o f the philo­ The four elements are listed also. 28). H M R . either. 58— 79. oucaa уесабт]<. 26. 14-22). together. 97 D. in 11. 108. Mithrasliturgie. 120-24. 489— contains the specific invocations o f the four 95) elements (uveujxa. however.. to the ML. Der Eine... Die Stoa. II # 309 (112. Abrasax.351. 90. and a description o f the divine elements as existing simultaneously out in the universe and inside one which takes us to the heart o f Empedocles’ theory o f perception. 327— esp. 2. 913.II. 54.589— See 90.156. 20-23).108. 83-86. 31 B 109 (1. 61.12 and 16). Strife with dread Strife. 348-50.-K. 58— 60. “OrphischesbeiEmpedokles. # 499 (112. 82. that a section o f the Paris magical papyrus —another docum ent showing the profoundest affinities with basic aspects o f Empedocles’ teaching . 374-75.71-72. 1. ibid. Ancient Philosophy. 3 0 0-1. with air bright air.

see Jan Hendrik Waszink. 627. Second Centuries A. 658-59. First to 88. 1116 (to Tcveujxa to Sajxov arco oupavou en l yv}v). Although the text names the element o f uveufxa first. also Proclus’ Hymn 1 (To Helios). 105 See in the ML also 11. Bousset.. esp. 617-18. “spirit” (rcveupia). 1. Ttpwxov (“spirit o f spirit. 1379— 1429. weihe.104 At any rate. “ap’cd and axoiyelcf..” ANRW 11. the next line (1. 111. fire can be identified with “ether” (odOirjp). cf. “Elemente und Hypostasen”. 1163) using Stoic language. esp.36:3 (1989) 2067-2103. H M R . 223-37. 490) confirms that it is virtually identical w ith rcup (“fire”). Boll. “Die Kosmogonie 59. XIII. “Stoic Cosmology and Roman Literature. 11. See Reitzenstein. 162— 63.1— and Michael Lapidge. “Chairemon. The genitive is explained in the following clause as analogous to a divine epithet.105 The genitive expression rcveupia 7iveufxaxo<. “Die vier Elemente in der Mysterien26. 635-38. 1 Religionsgeschichtliche Studien. furthermore. fire is the highest element. H M R . e. 104 See odQ irjp 1. 589— 90. This abbreviation refers to the sound fX . the concept o f Tcveupta is 90 highly important within the ML as well as in the PGM generally. Lumpe. Metam. Reitzenstein.. 310-11. 13— with the commentary by van den Berg. 301-3. esp. LXII. 102 On the veneration o f the elements in Hellenistic syncretism see Bousset.43-44. 66) prayer to Aion (1. 233-34. also the combinations o f rcveujjia and odihqp IV. 59. 2.. for the Romans see Ovid.a and 7tup in the ML see 11. Michael Frede. XII.103 This doctrine seems consistent w ith Stoicism. 208-10. Merkelbach & Totti. .553— IV1115 58. “Elementum. 489— is unique in the ML. for which. Cf. der Mithrasmysterien. here to be performed three times by blowing air (representing and Second Centuries A.” Erjb 34 (1966) 219-57.” S O 4 (1926) 39— 5 (1927) 39— Reinhold Merkelbach. 538. by linking the primordial icveufxa Tipwxov and the rtveujjia which inhabits the hum an being. 1. 166. 714. 477. Abrasax.1115— consists o f a 16. Cf. 2094. 489— jiveufxa 90: 7iveujjLaTO<. 153-54. Line 490 orders another magical sound. Hauptprobleme.24. Proclus’ Hymns. although in the ML od&yjp does not receive special m ention. 592— 97.” ANRW 11. See Reitzenstein. shows that it is a concept functioning like a divine name. while the formulation o f 11. 223— Sam Eitrem. 9:17. 515. 211— 8 . who also refer to Chairemon o f Alexandria and Wis 1:7. Aus der Offenbarungjohannis. In turn. thereby rooting anthropology in cosmology in a way that corresponds both to Empedoclean and Stoic doc­ trines.ov.97. however.g.106 Commentary sophical tradition o f the elements in a syncretistic text such as the ML reflects a still broader tradition. Apuleius. 14. called fxuxMjjia.). Lapidge. Poimandres. 60). 617. the first o f the spirit in m e”).D. 510. 179-80: rcveujxa aipt. 200.96 (б uvsujxa ecrnv aepc. 103 For the connection o f 7tv£U|i.” 1078-79. 510-12.” / 254. (to 7iav cruaxTjjxa tou aepou 7iveufxaTO<. 43. 505. indicated in the text by the three letters fJL fA again w ith dots over them. for a non-philosophical expression 1. 144 (cf. On the concept. for possible Stoic influence cf.” ibid. “Ather... 12:1.ov).36:3 (1989) 1365-78. tou ev s [aoI Ttvsufjuxxoc.l 115— 1137— The entire ottjAy] anoxpucpo? (IV. 2087-92. Griffiths. D.102 T he first element. is addressed in 11.323-50.” R A C 1 (1950) 150-58.

еру_о[Ј. 41— 48.? plays a special role in forging coherence among the elements in the cosmos. 487 (159. Merkelbach comments (Abrasax. crit. 69.uxaofj. 221. 657. бе тои kipoq тсир ei. MA: Harvard University Press. 3. 485— 732) 107 spirit). 217— 22. 659. For discussion see Dieterich. functions in both ways: it links the xpa aeiq o f the elements to one 106 See also for the verb (jluxocv in the ML 11. 92 храас. 657. Dionysius of Halicar­ nassus: The Critical Essays (Cambridge.234. Differently. 3. 1934). 8. see the LCL edition by Stephen Usher. Aristophanes. (Leiden: Brill.14 Usener-Radermacher) та б(. 707. Main body of the ritual (11. the excessive use o f sigma. Cf.10.27— description o f ecstasy: “One [of the effeminates (cinaedi)] started to rave 28) more wildly than the rest (bacchatur effusius). s. 471 153. Plotinus. # 102 (from Arius Didymus) on Zeno’ concept o f б 1 ах 6 а(Ј. see LSJ.7.106 The sound was meant to be either a roaring or bellowing.). 49— 51. O ne should understand the sentence as parallel to the first. describing how the elements come together through conversion (тротгѓј): ex tivck.12). and producing rapid gasps from deep down in his chest as though he had been filled with the divine spirit o f some deity” (velut numinis divino spiritu repletus). 481 (158. Dionysius speaks also o f cptovr^ aupiyim q. ad loc. app. 2. as Willem den Dulk has shown. 54. 945. The term xpa aic. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien. 110 Willem Johannes den Dulk. 228-29. Крастк..a7iTecTtka. gemeint.4). 252. in regard to the suppliant.) thought o f “Briillen (wie mit einem Horn)” and refers as parallels to the “bull-roarers” in the cults o f Mithras and Dionysus.ai. Conf 184.110 the concept of храстс. ij.108 Fire is first simply named. 4. Lines 490— sum this up by saying that.II. depending on how one interprets the adverb хератоесбм? in 1. wenn man durch die Nase “M mm” und ‘N nn’ spricht.100-101. or as a hard blowing through the nose. The first o f these sums up cosmological definitions: to el c. and then ex­ plained by two defining statements. tyjv бе [pa^tv] xpaaxv ytvea&ai tt] el q аХХт]Ха twv crTo^elwv (аетароЛгј. 74.20).c. n. 712. London: Heinemann.ѓуои.а twv pwQ -covwv auvs'/ouijieva t o те M xal t o N хератоѕхбе!? arcoTeAouvTa тои^ rijovq.v. 799 (221. 705. 109 See SV F I.19). awfxaxo? блои Si’ oXou tlvo q етерои б(. 490— 92). 1985). der entsteht. Merkelbach.107 T he second element o f fire (rcup) is named next separately from spirit (11. 236. £|ay]V xpactlv twv ev efxol xpaaetov &eoS(op7]Tov (“god-given fire to my mixture o f the mixtures in m e”).242): “Es ist der tf/oc хератое 1 бт]<. Apuleius’ (Metam. Dionysios von Halikarnass. Abrasax. D e mixtione.14). but it contains interesting variations.109 Going back ulti­ mately to Empedocles. where it explains how the elements work together coherently in what Zeno calls бсахоа^тјас?. 108 Dieterich (3) und Reitzenstein consider this to be a later interpolation (see Preisen­ danz.18-30). Nub.8. 416. Erin. 472 (154. Regarding Chrysippus’ doctrine "of xpacjL? see SV F II # # 470 (152. Philo.942.” In this context. 292) or thunder. 107 Dieterich (41— 42.2802 [t] таирш [лихтјјла]. 228 with lit. s. Weinreich. The term is onomatopoeic and was compared to the bellowing o f oxen (IV. . (“m ixture”) is technical in Stoic cosmology. esp. Transmission to later authors took place through Alexander o f Aphrodisias.ГјС s Т^. 364. as befitting irrational beasts rather than rational beings. See also PGM XIII. for the noun fxuxw^a 11. De compositione verborum 14 (p.

5 (ed. For the hapaxlegomena. 11. 1142. Cf.. 492-93.67. 1146. 1. s especially Philo. 2.115 and also has parallels in Philo. Leg. ибсор ибато? (“water o f water”). Berthelot). and by the attribute tou ev efjiol ибатос. the suppliant moves without transi­ tion to the next section.v. esp. Greek Hymns. the text addresses it by name. 118 This differs from Philo’s doctrine o f God’ perfect benefits bestowed on the soul. After the completion o f the invocation.116 This address again concludes with a vowel combination: ut] ucoy] . s. he can claim it to be perfect: ас5[ха xeXet-ov s[xou (“my perfect body”).-Clem.crra -e . the first o f the earthy material in m e”). та тсро^ ty]v £[xr]V crucrracav аитархѓсттата. 495-98). The statement again ends w ith a vowel combination: Y Y]ta syj. 489--90. which explains also why at this point there is no m ention o f the “soul” (ф и^)-118 The term 1 1 1 The term is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. Vit. 135. nn. The expression ouoxa уесобт)^ is found in Stoic texts dealing w ith the four elements.31. Zosimus. 33: бста av . also 1 Thess 5:23. а<р’ ехаатои т ш a x oije tav. See P G L . 1 1 2 . W hile this doctrine is unique in the PGM. Especially interesting are the expressions ибатмбѕ^ and иуротгир^офи'/роу TCveufxa in IV. 117 For this part. Philo. 113 Vowel combinations express sounds similar to other magical sounds. &v атгѕтеАеагФт) ббе б хост[хо<. 112 The phrase is also a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. the parallels in Iamblichus. 1. this application simply draws out the consequences from what has gone before. 89.113 )u T he third element o f water is treated in analogous fashion in 11. Cf. 114. 31: eyw [iiv ouaictq 8oL'jziaa[izvoc. ysvvaxa!. 116 See. Decal. Ps.. 114 Cf. 610— 16. Furley & Bremer. утј? xal > ибато? xal аѓро^ x a l тсиро<. 493— as оисќа 95 уесобт)? ev efjiol ouaLctc.6. Cher. Alch.117 Since he had mentioned his own body throughout the preceding invocation. Migr.. The term ouctloc is equivalent to uay]. .?. The fourth element is addressed somewhat differently in 11.. making it clear that as “matter” earth differs from the other elements.35: &гобмрт]то^ avaysvvYjat. The invocation o f water ends w ith a vowel combination: toww а а а see. Pyth. as a result o f Stoic influence. Given the divine origin o f the elements constituting his body. cf. an application to the initiates body (11. it has close parallels in Stoic philosophy. see. tou sv e[xol rcupo? Tcpcoxov (“the first of the fire in m e”). See the parallels in the vowel sequence in 1 1 . This linkage receives the attribute “god-given” (t)soSwpY]Tov). in the ML 1. xeXet-a xal oAoxAvjpa xal ttocvtwv apt. I l l . 15. 506: a&avaxw ибатх.112 parallels what has been said about the rtvsujxa in 11. уеообои? тгршгт] (“earthy material. p. see above. Tcpwxov (“the first o f the water in m e”). Horn. a declaration o f its nature as a divine gift.. The two previous hapaxlegomena were referred to in notes already.114 but water is m entioned in other connections frequently.111 The second definition.. Opif.60— 64. 115 See for this expression S V F II # 438 (144.18): elvoa уембт] ty)v oucrtav.. o Q 6 < арбт].108 Commentary another in the initiate s body as well as to the primordial fire.

licet fragile sed tamen simile mundo pararet hospitium. The invocation o f the elements implies that much. made in imitation o f the macrocosm.II. Lipsiae: Teubner. (1994) 2279-2815. so that he conferred by force o f nature to the small body all power o f the elements and their substance. w hich de­ scended from the heavenly intelligence for the sustenance o f the mortal body. also 2. from fire.269. position and the w hole substance o f man. water. ut divino illi spiritui. Main body of the ritual (11. ignis scilicet et aquae. simili divinitatis substantia gubernetur. In fact. 119 The citation is according to the edition by W ilhelm Kroll and Franz Skutsch. X son o f m other Y (abbreviated w ith N N in G M P T )} 20 The suppliant thereby establishes the identity o f the preceding first-person pronouns.” PRE 2nd ser. so that the well-balanced mixture o f all these elements became a living being. maintain the human being in fiery and eternal m otion like a microcosm. this passage is quoted by Dieterich (57). . determined the shape. 3. ordered in imitation o f the divine model. 498). (Trans. Moreover. Therefore. from a mixture o f the four elements. 13. 1994]. because the same elements constitute the universe and the human being. and thus he composed the human being as a divinely artistic creation. 1897). aeris et terrae. This cosmology is summarized by Firmicus Maternus in the prooemium to Book 3 o f his Mathesis: “T he god w ho created the human being. guided by nature. since it is constituted as a microcosm reflecting the macrocosmic universe. ut omnium istorum coniunctio temperata animal ad formam divinae imitationis ornaret et ita hominem artificio divinae fabricationis composuit. 4th half-vol. the ML can be seen here as influenced by Stoicism. P.90— Scire 91: itaque nos principe in loco oportet. Through that divine spirit. not an entity separate from it. Sol etiam et Luna. Hac ex causa hominem quasi minorem quendam mundum stellae quinque. 1) attributes the statement to Hermetism.. is mine) The editor o f the Collection Bude edition. Mathesis [Paris: Les belles lettres. so that it. the human being as a whole. Monat (Firmicus Maternus.. 485— 732) 109 стм[ла is to be taken as referring to the avO-pcoruo?. together with sun and m oon. ut in parvo corpore omnem elementorum vim atque substantiam naturae cogente conferret. 1. is governed by a substance similar to the deity. and Merkelbach (Abrasax. For this reason the five planetary stars.126). rather than by the Platonic concept o f фихЃ) (see also below. At this point. Iulii Firmici Materni Matheseos libri VIII (2 vols. BiTeu.xii. 120 On this symbol see Preisendanz. just like the body o f the universe. ” 119 The suppliant identifies himself by name. Lollianus decus nostrum quod ad imaginem speciemque mundi formam hominis ac statum totamque substantiam deus ille fabricator hominis natura monstrante perfecerit. and earth. 1. qui ad sustentationem mortalis corporis ex caelesti mente descendit. esp. air. Friedrich Bilabel. 2. 2301. ut animal. quod ad imitationem mundi factum est. ignita ac sempiterna agitatione sustentant. nam corpus hominis ut mundi ex quattuor elementorum commixtione composuit. the pap. 2. 1. abbreviating the formula тои бѕТуа ттј? Sslva. the Prooemium § 4 mentions the names o f Petosiris and Nechepso.28). he provided a hom e though fragile yet similar to the world. For he composed the human body. Festugiere (La revelation. Stoic doctrine re­ gards the soul as part o f the 7tveu{jta. “Siglae. n. uses the symbol A.

124 See IV. IV.) is found frequently (Ps 44:3.. On the metaphor. Acts 13:17. In the PGM it is the arm on which to affix the charms. e-rceu^ofxat. бтс.21). 19 (ibid.). Borgen.6). 125 For the right arm cf. zeroa. 18 (4.244-45 cf.81).125 In the O T and Judaism the arm o f God is a frequently used symbol o f his power.121 That the hum an body is a 7тХаст[ха the PG M states in passages defining the human being. 39 (4. б £7tXacjev б &е6 < ev тсо ay ш еаитм . especially v. o n aeauTOV yjfjuv ебес^а^. Hauptprobleme. Cf. 519. For Hermetic parallels see CH . хеФ60. 19.110 Commentary The following statement (11. III. von Soden.ov av&pwTro? l a jy z i TrXaaat.. J.15 (Kore Kosmu. moreover. esp. LXX Gen 2:7— 15. LXII.9-10).244— t i c p. xal брбсгои xal утј<. yzipoc. аср&артои)127 which follows comes from the same language background. Berg­ man.2379. P.<rtrov. £«cov ETtXaasv. the metaphor o f the hand o f God appears with special explanations in Philo because o f anthropomorphic implications (see. Ps 118:73 (MT 119:73): al xetpes <xou eTcoLYjcrav jae xal ercXacrav jxe. renders as ev X£t-pl xpaxat-a xal ev ифу]Х« (LXX Ps 135:12). 136:12. for the left arm IV. See also Bousset... etc. evxlfAou). 2899. 50. XXII. section V. referring to Jewish angelic names). see the passages in LSJ.б9} twv б^ѓтгХасге.” T hW A T 2 (1975) 650— section III. the same applies to the LXX. but not combined with аср&арто^. 9-sou tou ev oupavco 7Г Xaajxa xaXXt.. XXV. not uncommon in Hellenistic Greek.128 Merkelbach has suggested the LXX as 121 For the term бсостгХаастм. xal eLCTxpt-vexco tov Ttept-Ttxafxevov SocLytova tou TiXacifxaTOi. tov (3[p]a[^Jlova tou a & vox fou Oeou xal xyjv т]9ј? 7: a бе^а? аитои -/[ejipa. av9 -p«7ioi. The phrase is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM .v.. 45: xiq бе eupe xeXeuQ-ou.599-600: ^aipojjiev. 2388. Luke 1:51. The human body came about “because o f fashioning by a noble arm ” (St-aTueTtAaafjiivov utco (3pa^lovo<.133-37.3024— 28: . o tl eyw eljju. атсе&емаа? ттј аеаитои yvwcjet. &eov.). see J. § 18: o f the god’ s creation o f the zodiacal signs in human form: та ал/г}роул:оѕ!.6— . 4. esp.14).312 (part o f wax тгХастЈлата). 127 See also in the ML 1. IV610.. Plant. XII. yevofxevov ex 7rveu[xaxo<. Philo-Index. 3272. 23 (4.. and C H Frag.. 67 (4. хатајЗатсо стои б аууеХо^. б атгараиггЈто^.9 (4.7-8). ay tov &eov sizi ” A[X(Xmv. 1. 16 (referring to idols): оибе1^ yap аитм opiot.4 (4. 98:1. 495-97) legitimates the claim that the body has been created perfectly w ith metaphors from creation mythology. IV. which the LXX 16. 77:15— 89:9-11. 98. ppa^lwv. For the OT evidence see F.286. N ock & Festugiere. 123 Cf. 60. References to the right hand are frequent in the PGM.26. Conf. Wisdom chapter 15. the adjective cvxijjio^ is not used in this connection (for evxLfAOi.v.298. 50). s. and in .80.5 (4. Helfmeyer. al­ though there are similar expressions elsewhere.5).. 30 (4.23. PGM XII. тоитои.a.145— Leg. For the NT. бтс ev 7tXaa|zacav тјјлЉ ovxa? . 3. Fragment X XIII. 194.1177— 80: .126 The expression “o f his incorruptible right hand” (бѕ£1ас. s. 2514.12). Philo interprets the ctuiaPoXov in Spec. Akroyd. cf. XXIV. also the Christian exorcism PGM 17.124 The “noble arm ” refers to the right arm. тсарабеиш. see 1.69). 1 Clem 28. With the question/answer format in 8.55). XIII.122 these pas­ sages are close to H erm etic123 or Jewish language.14. The hand o f God appears in the synagogue paintings o f Dura Europos.” T hW A T 3 (1980) 421-55.2. XXIII (Kore Kosmou). cf.opcpa<. 122 Cf. John 12:38.3. Ps 93:9 (MT 94:9). “T jad. where the forming (kXkgoeiv) o f a wax figurine is described. BDAG. XXV I. W. but usage does not include the adjective evziyioq. 126 In the OT the metaphor o f God’s “mighty hand and outstretched arm” (vel sim.. ed. 128 While frequent in OT and Judaism. IV.. 43 (4.

Again.129 N ext come two statements defining the place o f the human being in a universe o f opposites. n. D. ![јл|лг/о^. See Lohr. avaxelXT] ev xau. 499— 537) contains the petition proper. Empedocles. to which the initiate wants to ascend.135 The first part o f the prayer then concludes with voces magicae: uy]c. 74e (£[лфиу_охаха and афи^охаха). 129 Merkelbach (Abrasax. p j< 6 132 For sources and bibliography. 3. 31 A 48 (1. 123-26. 247b.стхбхо^. cf. for the Stoa SFFIII.235) thinks o f the uTtepoupavio^ totzoq. 321.-K. 403— 45. 251. among them < w . . 277. referring to food. Des Places. Prior to the request itself. IV 735 (of meat). фи^от/ in discussing cosmology. ev те афихФ x a '1 ^uxwfxevw (“w ithout soul and yet alive w ith soul”).12. an appeal is made for approval by the divine Jewish magic it is a major symbol.11-15). 4b (ed. 9). Phaedr. but the verb Siauya^eiv occurs in other cosmological contexts. T D N T 9 (1973). Ps 43 [44]:4) which. LXVII. Main body of the ritual (11. esp. the phrase is unique in the PGM . however. 3. y elp . 498) refers to opposites w ithin the cosmos. 257.165 (Ф .34— 11.. Verherrlichung. B 27 (1.1766.20-21). aui eucote (11. listing some examples (Exod 6:1.35-46).фи-/ои[Ј.132 particularly also in Pythagoreanism. see Hans Conzelmann. Lieselotte Kotzsche. according to Plato. x a l Snquyacjev xa со<. Should ефи^мuivw be understood as the perfect form eve(]ju%wpivco or the present £[Ј. 36). but it seems that Stoic ideas. the hum an being exists in a world made up o f “soulless and ensouled” entities.990— 92 (cpwxli^ovxa xal Si-auya^ovxa). ха £[лфи)га which occurs in a cosmological context in IV. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 111 the background for this language in the PGM . see D.10— Numenius. esp. cpw^. 131 See IV. are textually different. as it is found in ancient religious texts. X.-K. Presocratic Philosophy.5— for Plato. See Eduard Lohse. 240-41. and in Gnostic sources.3. 238. 47. p< 58 B 5 (1. Greek Philosophy. T D N T 9 (1973).133 The second contrast (1. eax. similarly C H II. are the sources here. 497— 98) pertains to the cosmos: ev аф&тсгтсо x al SiauyeT xoafjuo (“in a world w ithout light and yet radiant”).11— 14). rcavxa).2 (text uncertain).v. this phrase is unique in the PGM . об yjfxepa Siauyacnr) xal < o)< p poi. fr. 14 A 9 (1. XIII. .ѕл/а>? Cf.452. C. T D N T 9 (1973) 306-7. Conzelmann. not Plato. Kirk & Raven.130 The first (11. 134 The term афи^о<. occurs with a different meaning. 24 A 3 (1.v. е[лфи^1а.__ 2 Cor 4:6. харбсак. 280-84.. s. 6:14 may also be related.131 This contrast points to the cosmic dualism o f light and darkness. but the evidence shows that a wider context o f ancient metaphors is more likely. 132. Cf. in PGM 1. Tim. # # 31 and 42. 498— 99). B 6 (1. 2 Pet 1:19: w? Xu^vw cpalvovxt ev au/[Aiqpw Х 0 7 Ш . de Vogel. see Pythagoras. but the individual terms occur elsewhere in the PG M . s. 130 Merkelbach (Abrasax .3.292.23.459.II.235). Philo uses the terms афиу^о^.101. VII.211. 1. афи^а and £[хфи/_а. Again. 8 — 9. That is. cf. The next section o f the prayer (11. 133 On the Pythagorean auaxoiytoL o f ap^al бѓха.453. 135 por terminology o f афи^о? —£[афи^ос. “Hand II (ikonographisch).134 and in Greek cosmological philosophy. in Greek philo­ sophical thought.3).4) and # 988 (287-88): '(ш.441. X I. # 7 1 4 (205.” R A C 13 (1986) 402-82. section B.

in Betz.лѕ ty) a&avaxw yzveaei (“give me over to immortal birth”). who in an additional note supplied by Weinreich (Dieterich. 642. 2) adduces Iamblichus ( Vit. 11:27.g.4 (with references).137 In 11 499-500 an important literary phenomenon requires mention. Mark 1:40.v. The request itself is generally stated first (1. with their differences indicated by forms o f aXkoc. For the imperatival infinitive in Koine Greek see Mandilaras. 138 So following the reading o f Dieterich..а 9-ewv [хета-п:араб(. 20.бм[л[. 392-96.5. Accord­ . Michigan X V I.” 142 The aorist infinitive has the force o f request.” which would make it the equivalent o f TtapaSiSovat. Brashear (“Greek Magical Papyri. (for further examples see pp.исттѓ]р(. Cf. B D R . Grammar.. the “Eighth Book o f Moses” (PGM XIII) contains several versions o f the book.1683) as a parallel. § 389.Zur Entstehung dieser voces: асроог) ist genommen aus аср&гсѓатм in 4. 48. The reason is that the citation formula usually precedes the citation. Schmidt ('G G A 193 [1931] 449). 4. хата бохтјаи Феои.138 but i then after < pco& an inserted gloss comments that in a different version o f the text (ev aXXto) another form o f the magical words occurs: fJie&ap&a cpvjpw].v. see Preisendanz. 144 LSJ (s.” 139 Jordan (by letter). See Moulton. z. 2.47— Betz. 140 E. meaning in Egyptian “groBe Schlange. Jas 4:15. discusses five parallel фсХтрохатабесЈјАОЕ.5.389. 2.140 However. n.144 Usener reads eav бт). but it is prefaced by the humble phrase eav бе u[ Z v j (1. 181— Martinez. |лета7гарабѓ. crit. the voces magicae are cited: ptexepxa <pco& ‘ epe^aS-. 499). 14:36 par. see Morton Smith. so auch oft sonst.136 Such appeals are part o f Hellenistic prayer language.B. 6— 82. Фар&аср aus аср9-артои in 4. The Sermon on the Mount. 525). Grammatik. BDAG.. Moulton. 648. but the author seems to like such com posita. 6 -7 .78. the interpolated gloss shows that either the author or the final redactor had at least two versions o f the text at his disposal. 1. following Karl F.142 The term fAexarcapaSiSovat. 141 Cf. the N T at Matt 8:2.. § 116. ad loc.112 Commentary elements: eav бе ujilv бб^т] (“if it deems right to you”).. 1 Cor 4:19. 32.143 The translation o f the term is disputed. app. Cf. is rare.. The gloss shows evidence o f a concern not only for magical but also for literary precision in collating ver­ sions o f the text. refers to cpcoou& (IV.26. 31). and the Lord’s Prayer in Matt 6:10. there are no other instances o f these magical words. noting the discrepancies. s. 143 Cf. which he carefully compared. [xexaTrapaXafJiPaveLv (1. Greek Hymns.226) as a parallel. Grammar. §§ 756-57. The Verb. Pyth. 221) presents a rather fanciful explanation o f the formula: “so zu schreiben und zu verstehen: [летерта<рм& ([xsdap&acp-rjpiY] ev aXXw) '£ере£а&. 136 137 . 501) as an infinitive clause: (Астатгарабошаѓ . See also eav croi боЕјт). 3. W. 1. A different reading is proposed by Jordan who takes the ev aAXcp to refer to 'ѓере^агК139 At any rate. G M P T . For more material see Furley & Bremer.11 av^pe a/peoxo 7n)Tov 4.б6 '^т£^.. LSJ translates as “hand down” or “transfer.” 3601) who. P. it refers to the Pythagoreans’ preservation o f the mysteries: they left their main doctrines unwritten and passed them on to their successors атгер [Ј. ing to Preisendanz. Grammatik. B D R .141 so only the present version o f the text has survived.

. Martinez comments that both emendations make good sense phonetically. 105— For early Christian 7.. W hatever they mean. crit. however. ттј U7coxeL[Aevy) jxou cpuCTst intend to clarify what is meant by y zv za iq .235) adduces as parallels the Taurobolium inscription from R om e (ed. s. 75. 166 nn. the author would have mistakenly used the nominative.” Accordingly.275) and t/o iie v o v reflecting the interchange o f final silent letters (Gignac. puram ac pudicam sorte mortis eximens in templa duds ac famulam divis dicas (ed. Exc. Cults. Dessau # 4152.. Ivon. Buecheler). 88. n.v. ibid. 7.1-4. 3.510: cm el б гохттјр тои izoChivyzvouc.7. der ich noch festgehalten bin”). lines 22— 24). Grammar. der e%. 485— 732) 113 In the ML. bis cpuasf. eyo[ASvaq reflecting the common interchange eo/to (Gignac. is textually emended from pap. 262-65. “transfer me to the immortal birth. 8 .evoc. C IL VI 510): in aeternum renatus.. to transfer me to an immortal birth. but interesting is also R eitzensteins suggestion that the words are an inserted com m ent meaning something like: “that means by implication. ad loc.. s. The word e^ofxevwc.” meaning rebirth.145 T he following words (1.160): “mich wiederum zu iibergeben der Neugeburt in die U nsterblichkeit. Arnobius.b. 175 n.653.XiyyevzGia.” For this meaning o f see LSJ. XXIII. Taking the preposition [лета—seriously. 60. Calhoun agrees and translates: “ .. Reitzenstein. 517— 27). the term may be more specific. reading s^o[i. see Dieterich (137— 157-61). Gottesndhe.” Thus. &e«9 7 )voa. III. 2.evov with the preceding [ЈЛ (“mich. with a lengthened “o ”.. if the following tva-clause constitutes the beginning o f a new sentence (see below. 3.” Differently. Graf.. Dieterich (4. 50.. 3.. 97. 22. 40. yevvaw. 1. H M R . 13. Main body of the ritual (11. Sudhaus ejo[±bj(x>c. 5. 39. 153). the words seem to clarify “immortal birth” in the preceding line. On rebirth generally. 1.” a synonym o f ecpe^Y)?. als Zusatz des Magiers betrachtet.16-20. 6 . l. C H 1. etc.687— Burkert. Reitzenstein proposes to connect £)(6 (j. 1.10.): “Reitzfenstein]. Dessau. N ock..” Weinreich (in Dieterich. Apol. crit. Preisendanz (app. 131— 32). which would result in: “to transfer me —subsequently to my underlying mortal nature —to the immortal birth. avayevvaw shows up only in a variant reading o f the prologue o f Ben Sira. X III. 146 With the pap. the Roman tomb inscription in which a Paulina addresses her husband Vettius Agorius Praetextatus: tu me marite. literature. in his H M R . Ancient Mystery 94. Merkelbach’ s translation (Abrasax.62: deo esse se gnatos necfati obnoxios legibus. Auovo?.v. § C. instead o f the accusative. see John 1:12— 3:3. Cf. cpucret.13.146 LSJ (s. CIL VI 1779). Essays. which Preisendanz accepts and translates: “und gleich darauf wieder meiner eigentlichen Natur. It should therefore be translated. since I hold tightly to my underly­ ing nature.147 the 145 See also VII. (and cognates) do not appear in LXX. e^opievo?. For further references see BDAG. 25.) notes that the text makes sense.. Matthew Calhoun observes that na. and thus the translation is uncertain. 221) reports Preisendanz’s suggestion to read yeveasr eyo\ieyoq. .41.. ad loc.66.” 147 See Preisendanz (app. if the words гЈоџѓммс. zjpijAvoiQ) renders “next after. TCaXt-yysveaia. 70. Merkelbach (Abrasax. entsprechend meiner vorhandenen Natur. 2. Carmina latina epigraphica (ed.190— Nilsson. If it is an adverb.26: t o u t o e c t t i t o aya&ov тѕХо^ тоТ^ yvcoaiv io yrp io o i. Justin. # 1 1 1 .v.3. G G R . it could be construed with [хѕтатсарабшоа. Tit 3:5.. 1 Pet 1:3. 8 ) proposes s^opievov.II.1.. 1. 23. the ML seems to connote transformation and rebirth (11. avayevvaw. 502) are difficult to interpret: t/o[xe\ioiq xfi urcoxetfJisvY) [xou cpuasi. 99— 101.

Exc. 762). For the divine is the entire cosmic combination renewed by nature. X .”) (my trans. see. 154 For the Hermetic doctrines. 533. pointing to the “underlying nature. see the summary in C H III. Frag. Eva.153 The following doctrine about sense-perception and recognition agrees with that o f the Hermetica. Martinez.6 . # # 314.). Cf. 3. yap Q-eIov r] тсаста xoafjax-/] стиухрастс^ <puast. XII. 150 As in Plato.9— 10. Timaios of Locri. It can be taken in two ways: (1) in conformity w ith the ML elsewhere UTcoxe£[xsvo? can mean: “cited below. app.. 514— 15). 783: uTcoxeixoa.v. as pointing forward to Ovtjty] <puaic.. Mandilaras. See LSJ. the parallels in Stoicism and Herm etism would favor speaking o f “underlying nature..114 Commentary expression ттј urtoxet-fiivY] [лои cpucrsi is also difficult.|лац 8 (1) and (2) with references. Aristotle. T.. As evidence for independent sentences beginning with an imperatival Eva he refers to Radermacher. This meaning occurs several times in the Hermetica (CHX. T D N T 3 (1938). s. 42. 46. CA: Scholars Press. 32. resulting in the translation: “ (the immortal birth) subsequent to my (mortal) nature.”150 Because o f the Stoic influences elsewhere in the ML.154 Together. Grammatik (2nd ed. as m entioned below. 26. XIII. etc. 97e (ed. # 369 (124.1.v. 11 n. shifts to the subject of hearing (11. Eva.”151 If this is the preferred meaning.2: tyj twv u7ioxet[xevwv cpuasi (versus ettlxeljaevov). q 373-74. XXIII.. P.6-7. X I. Michigan X V I. 155 For a discussion o f the “salvific Eva. XVI. 1985]. the phrase would interpret yeveat.” see BDAG.v. Preisendanz seems right in taking the first Eva-clause as the beginning o f an independent sentence. 22. g. s. 403).” (2) The expression could be philosophical in origin.) 153 preiSendanz. 607). to р стЕ . 152 This doctrine agrees with Hermetism. W St 41 (1919) 141— to which should be added B D R . 148 149 .18. and Timaeus o f Locri. C H I. H. # # 405.2.7. The first clause focuses on seeing. The Verb. 21. while the three others specify the resultant changes in recognition.g. see. On the Nature of the World and the Soul [SBL.155 A final clause. 6 .”148 that is. avavEOUfXEvrj' ev yap tm 9-elw xa l 7] cpvaiq xa&ECTTrjxEv (“ . This interpretation would support Reitzenstein s suggestion o f a gloss. p.). §§ 585-89. Preisendanz.152 The following passage (11. 170 (1). итсох£с.? as meaning “rebirth” in the sense o f a return to the underlying nature which consists o f the divine elements.22. &e«v x a l < и со< xuxAou svapL&fiXou бро^хатс. crit. (11. § 387 (3a). or the four a x o v /z ia (II. 502-15) restates the general request. t l ncoq sjovtol. avavswOTjaexaL avayxT] xal avavEcoast. s.31— 32): та u-rcoxerjjiEva x a l 7ioux xal TC& sy_ovTa xa l 7tpoi. e.2.6 . For nature is constituted in the divine.. XI.TT 26. Similar are the concepts in CH. What is meant is referred to as uay] (II. 48). the four Eva-clauses contain an entire doctrine o f salvation pertaining to visual percep­ tion. Exc. e. 27. renewed by necessity and by the renewal that comes from the gods and by the course o f nature s configured cycle.. Chico. 151 See concerning the categories SFFII.”149 or even to the “presupposed no­ tion. also Ethelbert Stauffer.4: . XXIII. ad loc. Tobin.. but now details it by way o f four Eva-clauses dealing with sense-perception. which does not begin with Eva but is connected to the previous Eva by xat. 1.

261. 157 n. 100— 101. 525 and 6 8 6 . 3.. 605). 18. 14. faculty o f vision. a see also 11. qua fatorum etiam inextricabiliter contorta retractas licia et Fortunae tempestates mitigas et stellarum noxios meatus cohibes).235— referring also to the ritual breathing o f the rcvsu^a. suggesting they mean the same in this context: “/рт] can mean ‘one must. and w hen thou hast stilled the storms o f life thou dost stretch out thy saving hand. 7tov7)pou. 487. also V. .506— XIII. Merkelbach (Abrasax.95. the change needed comes next: (tvа) Етсотстгист tyjv a&avaxov aPX7)V (“ [in order that] I may envision the immortal beginning”). Cf.3. Gal 1:4: ex xou alwvo^ t o u eveaTMTOi. 163 n.Metam. ztzoktoq 1. For ѕтсбтгттјс see VII.’ ” For further references and bibliography see BDAG. 1049. The term етг:<жтеиеп/ (“envision”) occurs only here in the PGM. Ananke. 3. 91— 83. el(xap[xev7). and avocyxT].II. 572.v. 35.237.2.2975. 525— 27.235) compares the terms jp zia . tyjv a&avarov apx/jv (“the immortal beginning”) points back to 1. IV. the spirit accom­ plishes the change in the faculty o f vision by enabling the suppliant to have a 156 For a collection o f material see Schreckenberg. w ith which thou unravelest even those threads o f fate which are inextricably woven together. 35. IV. Abrasax. it is known from the mystery-cults as referring to the final vision o f the initiate. ‘no longer burdened by astral compulsion. 158 It is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. Main body of the ritual (11. 136 n. the synonym xaxorcTeueiv which occurs in 11. 160 Cf. In other words. Apuleius..’ and jp so q is a debt one must pay Cf. 516.259. now overcome. see LSJ. parallels are found in language dealing with the liberation from the oppression by avayxT]. 157 See the parallel in 11. T he “present” condition. is described as that o f oppression: јлета ty)v sveaxtocav x al стсробра xaxsTtsiyouaav [A ypsloiv s (“after the present and very pressing need”). 7. 43.160 The object o f vision. 485— 732) 115 T he first tva-clause comprises 11 502-8 and concerns the change in the . For literature see Erich 36. especially 160— 63. The term is attested since Homer. XII. 503— 526.” R A C 5 (1962) 973— Burkert. Ancient Mystery Cults. s. 157 n. See Merkelbach. s.158 An impressive example from the Latin literature is the prayer o f Lucius to Isis in Apuleius (. Cf. 2.. 485. with the commentary pp..v. situation”) see 11.159 Given this present condition. but ever on sea and land thou art guarding men. 534— 4. 533— for the meaning o f та evecrTtora (“the present 35. thou dost pacify the gales o f Fortune and keep in check the baleful movements o f the stars” (. For XP£^ (“need”) 96.351. 159 Text and trans. 1 Cor 7:26: Sex t t jv evecjTwaav avayxTjv. also 527 ахреохбтгујто^. 59.295— VII.157 the term xaTS7te£ysiv (“pressing down”) appears repeatedly in formulaic passages.64. 11. by Griffiths. also C H 1. “Epoptie. used only in the ML (11. jpeLoc.156 Parallels occur also elsewhere in the M L. 92. Dieterich (51-52) points to the role Ananke plays in the mysteries o f Mithras. 69. quin mari terraque protegas homines et depulsis vitae procellis salutarem porrigas dexteram. 320— 23. Fascher. This kind o f formulaic statement seems to be liturgical in nature..25): “ . XII. tu^y] and ^рѕса.

161 The vision o f the primordial cosmos was an important part o f the Hermetist’s concerns. the list o f Egyptian voces magicae. 168 An unexplained hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. 165 The pap. 56) explained on the basis o f Orphic formulae. called “The Invocation to Uphor” in XII. The first is tw a&ocvocTw Tuvsufxaxc. III.168 T he question is why different elements (spirit. 1. axepecofjLa.”167 T he accompanying vox magica is eioccq феуофооО'. See also C H I. 489— As . 1. 540— 41: jjiiaov xou kepoq.170 If so. Cf.12. however.1 7 — 22.p^. IV. G M PT . “son o f the”. a[3ox “month. epovui' 7cocpaxouvY)£h164 The third dative (11.^epeфpeveфouфt. V.335— which 50. 489— 93. Cf.” 169 Cf. see C H 1. . 505]. earth) in Д. For the relationship between spirit and air.” 166 See 1. ср&архт] Ppoxwv <puC i). the omission o f fire still remains unresolved. e 170 Cf.Y)£.5— . 533: during the ascent mortal nature must be left behind (еаха9г. 11.116 Commentary vision o f the primordial beginning. 162 This concept is attested also in C H X .265. 163 The vox magica sounds as if derived from Egyptian. X II.166 The adjective атерео? occurs in astronomical/astrological contexts in the PGM. n. unexplained.v. T 8 19.169 Earth may be om itted because it plays no positive role in rebirth. LXII. Weinreich (in Dieterich. 28. 489. water. 8. has in 1. air) are named in 11 504— instead o f the four (spirit.e. 1 . 4) wants to read as стхѕрѕм xal tm.1-3. VII. 33 (on the cosmic origin o f air: spiritu tamen et a ’ re uacuum esse non possit). “spirit” and “air” are closely related.161 The following passage confirms this interpretation.961: o ev xw axepew 7xveu[xaxt. 37.3 -5 .47. 1. it is followed by a vox magica: avxpscppsvoaoucpipt-yx-163 The second dative refers to tw a&avaxw и бап (“the immortal water” [506— 7]). 18. water. cf. 1) explains as Egyptian: фгу. IX. Wiedemann (in Dieterich. IV10. 507-8) addresses xw атерѕсотатсо aept. but the interpolator misunderstood it and in effect wanted to insert what Dieterich (p. 12. pointing back to the element o f water (11. Exc. however. Ascl. 167 See 1.14 (axepewjxa хтј? y ijs). saying that “correct is only 7tv£Ufjuxxt. s. cf. See Morton Smith in Betz. etc. 165. this element is not m entioned in 11.. fire. BDAG. three o f which are named. in an invocation o f Seth.4-7 (projecting terror and ecstasy).7. (“the firmest air”). which Dieterich (p. the dative expresses both origin and appeal to the ele­ ments. but it has not been explained. 347: (Xv. 29 [i. 1. the difference can be either the result o f error or o f intention.1. 221) reports that Preisendanz and Reitzenstein keep та ахгрсмхахм aspi. X . Reitzenstein assumes. XIII. According to the Hermetica. 1210-11.162 pointing back to the rcveupia rcveufxaxo? o f 1. Lines 504-8 make the resource o f the enabling explicit by naming the primordial elements. III. 693: a x m aepi.2..11. pointing to the “firmament. but Reitzenstein puts tm a&avaxw uSaxi and tw ахересохахш aepi in brackets. 492— 93). 164 A hapaxlegomenon.165 Notably. but “air” plays a role elsewhere in the M L. reads crxepeoxaxw.5. C H 1. it is followed by another vox magica. 15— Ascl.217. (“the immortal spirit”). 95.

Frequent are passages in the Hermetica (e. cf.. 177 For lepov TCveujxa see also III.1. Ancient Mystery Cults. 221). t o u vooq. Paul’ s doctrine o f intellectual renewal uses the term as well (2 Cor 2:11. above. 59. 56) Prisca (see Betz.446. with o^pa and <xpjo palindromic. According to Weinreich (in Dieterich. аАХа аф&артои боа Xoyou ^joivxoq &еои xal \xeyovxoq (“begotten anew not from perishable but from imperishable seed. avayevvav does not occur in the ML.v. Merkelbach. Preisendanz (W S t 41 [1919]. 173 See.l— 4). XVIII. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. avaveow. Philo’s usage is related to philosophical theory about speech and music (D et. XIII. G M P T . N ock & Festugiere (3. see S V F ll.. rather than a new begetting (avayevvav). See also infra on 11.CIV.). 1 Peter: A Commentary on First Peter (Hermeneia. X IX . 127-28. s. XVII. on avayevvav 9. which remains unexplained. 1. Cf.596— 97: ^apt. 142) takes the whole as one vox magica. ayt-ov 7rveu[i. cva evap^topiat. 176 This seems to be the reading in the pap. 452) and 2. yvfckrcv vouv ( c< v>. Apuleius. 65. Main body of the ritual (11.16 and 21. The term voYjjxa occurs frequently in the Hermetica (see VIII. 317. 40. Migr. 175) wants to correct to ev<x. 51— 258— 289.?.6 .a. 485— 732) 117 The second tva-clause (11.v. the quite different concept o f salvation in 1 Pet 1:3.177 T he statement refers back to 11 489 and 505 (cf.g. see Betz.ev°? y)[x£v vouv. 15. Hermetica (3. o f inspiration.8 . 177— 262— Burkert. 94. 378 (126. 106-8. etc. 47— 82. 139-40.171 T he choice o f the term ptexayevvav indicates transformational change. ova ere vorjcrcofxev__ In XI. Cf. etc. n..175 The concluding vox magica reads храо^раЕ. H M R . the word o f the living and abiding God”). n. Post. according to which the primordial spirit inspires the human 171 The pap.172 The term voYjfxa occurs only here in the PG M . 48. 3:14. see Griffiths. 7). where it means the act o f thinking or the resulting thought.40. 175 LSJ. voeiv in a gnostic prayer. 80— Reitzenstein. in comparison with Plato (Symp. 23: avay ey evvy)[iivoi oux ex сттгора^ ср&артуј?. # # 164 (47.II. so also Reitzenstein.aa(i. s.174 The idea o f rebirth is stated by the verb fxexayevvav. R om 12:2: [лета[Аорфоисг&е хтј avaxat.38-48. Xoy<ov>. 3.176 Line 510 names the source for the change: x al ttvsuot] ev eptol to lepov Tiveufxa (“and [in order that] the sacred spirit may breathe in m e”). 172 The choice is intended. reads fAexayevTj&w which Dieterich corrects to fAexayevvYj&to. 11:3. although the specific word occurs rarely. 11. 111. n. Cf. tw rcveujxaxt xou vooq. Josephus.. avavewat. Dieterich (4-5) proposes храо^ра^о. 3. Exc.1). 78.25 (Apollonius o f Tyanas old jl serving woman): voiqaei croi (“she.v(ocret.173 it is im portant in Hellenistic philosophy and religion. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. In the NT. VIII. 236 (77... 1996).. a key concept in the mystery-cults. 10:5. . 174 See LSJ.p-/6[ievoq. Phil 4:7). 35 The Latin renatus occurs in Apuleius (Metam. 308.). also Eph 4:23: avaveouci&at. 4:4. See BDAG. For Stoic parallels. 355— and on a Mithras inscription in Santa 52. Reitzenstein (H M R.2. however. 210a. s. considering the mysterycult term apxecjtka (versus xeXeuxav). 508— 647). 517-27.19— 25). 104. 508-11) notes where the effect o f change is to take place: Eva voYj^axt [izxayev <v >y]$w (“so that I may be reborn in thought”). will find out for you whatever anyone is thinking about you”). see the notes in the editions by Scott. 174. 211c) and Paul (Gal 3:3). 1. 150— 51.a XII. p oijx evap^ojxat. 99— 79. 101). 520) and contains a doctrine . See Paul Achtemeier.v. mentions the ML (11. J A 11.1011).

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spirit.178 T he concluding voces magicae (11. 510— read чгуЏгч атготои vsy&iv 11) aprctv y]O'.179 T he third tva-clause (11. 511— refers to fire: t v а 9т>|ласт(о t o lepov rcup 12) (“in order that I may marvel at the sacred fire”). The change is indicated by the suppliant s desire to be able to “marvel” (&aup.a^£t,v) about the ritual efficacy, a key term in Greek religion.180 The expression o f “sacred fire” is m entioned only here in the PGM, but elsewhere the element o f fire occurs frequently in ML (11. 490, 617, 636— 38).181 In the ML, spirit and fire are closely related, but not identical; it is not completely clear which is higher in the astral hierarchy. The statement concludes (1. 512) w ith the vox magica: xucpe. The term seems to be related to a type o f incense called xucpi (or xoccpt).182 T he fourth tva (11. 512— focuses on the primordial water: tva OcaacojAax 13) t o a(3uacrov туј^ ал/атоХт)? cppixxov б б м р (“that I may gaze at the unfathom ­ able, frightful water o f the dawn”). The verb &еаст&оа indicates the suppliant’ s desired ability to “behold” the primordial water. W hat kind o f image the suppliant has in mind is difficult to say The adjective а(Зиаао? occurs only here in the PGM, while the noun is more common; it keeps showing up in lists o f primordial elements.183 To an Egyptian, the “frightful water o f the
178 See also XII.324-34; XIII.762. Cf. Paul’s doctrine in R om 8:15— 16: аито t o Tcveu}i.a (scil., the spirit o f God) аијЛјлартирѕТ tw v:vtu[iaxi tjjjiwv. For the interpretation, see Betz, Antike und Christentum, 240. Hippolytus (Haer. 6.34) quotes as Valentinian doctrine based on Gen 2:7 LXX: xal evetpucnqorev el q to 7tp 6 ato7rov аитои tcvotjv Martinez also points to Homer, II. 15.262; John 20:22; Ign. Eph. 17:1. 179 A hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. The pap. reads vey&sv, cf. v e jp iv . Dieterich (Abraxas, 58,2) had read Te)£&ev, but rejected it because o f vejQ iv; in Mithrasliturgie (5) he suggests eve^Siv. Also Reitzenstein takes а т г о t o u (“derived from”) as part o f the voces magicae, as does Preisendanz (in Dieterich, 221) who suggests two variants o f the same formula. Jordan (by letter) suggests that ano t o u ve/&tv may be a gloss by the copyist indicating that the veyQsv o f 1. 510 has been corrected from vs^tkv. 180 The term &auji.a£et.v occurs frequently in the PGM (in ML 1. 775). See Georg Bertram, “&аи[ха хтЛ.,” T D N T 3 (1938), section A. 181 See Dieterich, Abraxas, 48— 52; id., Mithrasliturgie, 64— Friedrich Lang, “7rup,” 47; T D N T 6 (1959) 928-52, sections A.II-III. 182 For xuipt., see IV.1313; 2971; the incense in association with Helios VII.537— 98; IV 1275-1322, 2981; V 213-303 (хоТф1 V 221, 227-28); VII.538; See for further materials, Richard Gansziniec, “Kucpt.,” PRE 23. Halbband (1924) 52— Merkelbach (Abrasax, 57. 3.236) points to Manetho’s work: Mave&wi;, ттј<; А1уитстои, ар^ереи^. еурафе кер1 хатаахешј? xucplwv. £rjTet. т I to xutpt, (Suda, s.v. Mave&w?; F G H [ed. Jacoby] 609, T 1 and F 16; Plutarch, Is. Os. 52, 80; Athenaeus, Deipn. (ed. Kaibel), 2.73 (LCL 2.66— 67); Aelius Aristides 47.26 [p. 382.30 Keil]). 183 See VII.261— 62: km ттј<; офистстои nplv yevea&ai. oupavov 7] yyjv 7} Q-aXaaaav...; 1.343; III.554; IV.1120, 1148, 1350, 2835, 3064; VII.517; XIII.169, 482; XXXV.l; X X X V I.217; LXII.29, 31. On the subject see Kathe Schneider, “Abyssos,” R A C 1 (1950) 60— BDAG, s.v. а[Зист(то<;. 62;

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dawn” brings to m ind the god N u n ,184 or the Greek waters o f Styx.185 The final voces magicae vuw $sato z~/u ouyizyoia. are unexplained.186 The final petition (11. 514— differs in three ways. (1) There is no iva.187 15) (2) The petition introduces the element o f ether, not m entioned previously: x al axoucr/] [jlou o ^cooyovo<; x al nzpixzjutxzvoq alQirjp (“and may the lifegiving and encompassing ether hear m e”). (3) The subject changes again (cf. tcveuctt) 1. 510): instead o f asking for his improved hearing, the suppliant expresses the hope that the ether may hear his prayer. As far as speech is concerned, the voces magicae empower it to make sure the prayer is being heard. The element o f ether (altWjp), located above the sphere o f атѓјр, is found only here in the ML, but in the PGM corpus it is attested more often.188 The two attributes which are attached to al&rjp, ^cooyovo? and nzpiyizjoyAvoc,,189 point to cosmology; they show up only here in the M L.190 T he final vox magica apvo(jLY)Ocp is an unexplained hapaxlegomenon. A new section begins in 1. 516, introducing the final part o f the prayer (11. 516— 37). Unusual for a prayer, it contains a detailed self-presentation o f the suppliant.191 The nature and function o f this self-presentation is partly ritual and partly didactic.
184 So Merkelbach, Abrasax, 3.236. On N un see Reinhard GrieBhammer, “N un,” LA 4 (1982) 534-35. 185 Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.236) adduces the parallel in Apuleius, Metam. 6.13— 14: rorem rigentem and fontes horridos. For the primordial waters, see C H 1.4; III. 1; for а(Зиа<то<;, see C H III. 1; XVI.5. For further references, see Leonhard Goppelt, “ибшр хтX.”, T D N T 8 (1969) 314-33, esp. sections A.I— III. 186 Various scholars have tried to restore corrupted Greek. Wessely reads еусл; Dieterich (5, n.) o eyw '£-/&(?); Sam Eitrem (“Varia,” NTF i, 4th series, 10 [1922] 112) eyto « £-/w, ou^l iyoi a(?). Jordan (by letter) wonders whether the words 'ѓуш, ouyl £'/w (“I have, I don’t have”) may come from a formula o f the kind cited in LXI.7: “you are oil, you are not oil.” 187 Translators often supply another “in order that” (Merkelbach: “damit”), or, better, make it part o f the preceding tva-clause (Dieterich, Reitzenstein, Preisendanz, Meyer); Festugiere changes the sentence: “ ... l’eau eflrayante, et que m ’entende Tether...” 188 Apparently, for the ML it is not identical with “fire.” For alOvjp, al9ipio<; see above, 1. 489-90. Cf. the references in CHI. 17; XI. 19; Exc. VI. 12; XXIII. 11, 34; XXIV. 1; XXV.7. 189 Martinez observes that in the N T “life-giving” and “pouring out” is connected with the 7rveu[xa; for references see BDAG, s.v. ex^ew, zxyvGiq; ^омпоСеш, l.a (Joh 6:63; 2 Cor 3:6; 15:45; 1 Tim 6:13: ^woyovew, with v.l.). 190 For ^woyovo<; see IV.720, 1754; ^woyovEtv IV.1162,1282,1597 (тсро<д "HXlov), 1614; VII.529 (Helios); Ti£ptx£^u[Jt£VO(; has no parallel in the PGM. Cf. also C H IX .6 (^woyovstv); XVI.10 (^ooyovwc); for тгѕрсхем *tA. see X:18; Exc. XXIII.34; XXVI.27. 191 Self-presentations are important in the ML; see below, 11. 644— 49, 719— Cf. also the 24. self-presentations on the Orphic Gold Tablets, and my article, “ ‘Der Erde Kind bin ich und des gestirnten Himmels’. Zur Lehre vom Menschen in den orphischen Goldplattchen,” in Graf, Ansichten griechischer Rituale, 222-43; reprinted in my Antike und Christentum, 244-66.

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The beginning sums up what the suppliant considers the promise which the god will next fulfill: en ei [jlsXXw kolxotctsuziv ayjjxepov xolc, a&avarot.<; (“for today I am going to envision w ith immortal eyes”). This announcement recalls the transformation of vision that was the subject o f the previous petition (11. 502— 13); the author also presupposes that the prayer has been heard by the deity (11. 514— 15). The time reference oyjfAspov (“today”) occurs elsewhere in magical and ritual contexts as almost a technical term .192 The verb xaxoTtTsuetv (“envision”), found also in the exordium (1. 485), is a synonym o f stcotctsuelv (see on 1. 504). The phrase xoXc, a&avaxot,? o^jjuxat. explains that the new vision has come about through the transformation o f the mortal eyes into immortal ones (see 11 504— . 5).193 Further information is to be gained from the following section. The section 11. 517-37 defines the suppliant as an initiate. The subsections o f this self-definition form the basis for the following ascension narrative. The summary contains the anthropology o f the ML, detailing the relationship between the hum an and the divine. Regarding human nature, the initiate defines himself as 9ллг)то<; ysvvyj&sL; ex 9ллг]т9ј<; uorepa c, (“a mortal born from a mortal w om b”). H e thereby defines human nature by two criteria: mortality and birth from a human mother. This definition appears several times in the ML and elsewhere in the PG M ;194 it conforms to com m on ideas o f ancient anthropology.195 T he benefits o f initiation are generally summarized in 11. 518— and by a 19, kind o f synthema in 11. 520— The general benefit is characterized as “bet­ 27. term ent” : (3e(3eXTt,(0[iivo<; итсо хратои? pteyaXoSuvajAou x a l бе^са? yzipbq аф&артои (“improved through the exceedingly powerful might and the im­ perishable right hand”). T he verb (SsXtxouv (“improve”), found only here in the PGM , often relates to Hellenistic ethics.196 The reference to divine power
192 See also below 1. 646, 651, 6 8 6 , and 1.165-66 III.265; IV.1455, 1618-19, 2911, and for further references, Preisendanz, 3.176 (index), s.v. Cf. Luke 2:11; 4:21; 13:32— 19:5, 33; 9; 23:43; 2 Cor 3:14; 6:2: 1бои vuv хасро<; ешгрбстбехто*;, 1бои vuv yjpiipa аооттјрѓоа;. See BDAG, s.v. cnrjfxspov. 193 Cf. III.215: ојајш. tsA[siov] IV543— 44 uavxa бѕ бфт) aQ-avara. The concept is similar to the Hermetic expression o ocpdaXpLo^ tou vou (C H V .2; X .4-6; XIII. 14, 17; Def. (Armenian) 7.3; 9.2 (ed. Mahe, L ’Hermes en Haute-Egypte, 2.379— 391 [German trans. 80, in Holzhausen, 2.495, 497]). In the N T and early Christian literature cf. Eph 1:18: 7re<pwTt.C T[xevou(; Touq dcpQ jjLou? ттј<; харб£ас;; Justin, Dial. 134.5. See BDAG, s.v. ocpOaXjAoc;, -aA 2; Hans Conzelmann, “фај^,” T D N T 9 (1973) 310— sections A.3; D .l— ; E .III.l— 58, 8 2. 194 See 1. 645: yevofxevo? ex 9-vt]ty]<; исттЕра?, and 11. 529— 30, 543, 607, 608— Cf. 9. 1. 533: ср&артт) (Зротш cpuai; furthermore IV.2537; V.409, 413; V I.ll; VII.674, 677; X X .2-3; LXXII.17. 195 Cf. Gal 4:4— for references and bibliography see Betz, Galatians, 206— 5; 8. 196 For j3sATt,ouv, (Зелтсмсп^ see, e.g., Plutarch, Virt. prof. 85C-D; Philo, Decal. 17; Fug.

ЦР^'

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 485— 732)

121

is couched in metaphors similar to those above (11. 496-97). The divine attribute xpaxo? occurs only here in the ML, but is more frequent elsewhere in the PG M .197 The attribute jxeyaXoSuva^o? (“exceedingly powerful”) be­ longs to hymnic language,198 just as the attribute бе£их<; jetpoq acp&apxou (“ [by] the imperishable right hand”).199 The rather elaborate statement in 11 520— seems formulaic in nature and . 27 resembles a synthema, comparable to formulae in mystery-cult texts.200 The passage defines the benefits o f transformation, o f which the first is the quali­ fication o f immortality: a&avaxw Tcveujxart. [xaxoTtxeueiv] xov a&avaxov Alaiva (“by the immortal spirit [envision] the immortal Aion”). W hile the “immortal spirit” has been dealt w ith before (11. 489— 505, 510), it reap­ 90, pears here as the force bringing about the vision (xaxoTtxeuetv [1. 516; cf. 504]) and immortality. Having acquired immortality, the initiate is able to have a vision o f the immortal Aion,201 w hom the author mentions here for the first time (1. 520).202 This god, whose name means “long period o f time,” “eon,” “eternity,” plays an important role in Hellenistic and R om an religions. In the

30; Det. 56; Sacr. 42; Mos. 2.66; and often (see Borgen, Philo Index, s.v.). See Reitzenstein, H M R , 262-65.
197 See VII.1020; XII.134; XIII.629, 803, 881; XXXV.21; it occurs frequently in biblical literature as well (LXX Deut 8:17; Wis 11.21; Sir 47:5; Acts 19:20; Col 1:11; etc.; see BDAG, s.v., l.a. 198 See also 11. 639, 687— 88 ([лѕуаЛохраторѕ^ Deot); IV. 1345— (in an invocation: 46 [jLsyaXoSuvajjLo^, [xeyaXoSo^oi;, fxeya&evT]?); VII.881; XII.374— 75. 199 See above on 11. 496— 97. 200 On this type o f formula, see also 11. 644— 49, and Dieterich, 213— 256— for 18, 58; further references see Betz, Antike und Christentum, 238— 243. 39, 201 The principle is that o f ojxoloi; tm ofioic^. Cf. 1 Cor 2:10— 15, esp. 13. 202 The god o f eternity, Aion, plays an important role in the PGM; in the ML he is identical with Helios-Mithras (594— cf. 111.70— 100— 95; 95, 101, 462; V.4). Cf. also 1.164, 200— (attributes: alwvaio?, alwvax<T>t,voxpaT(op, alwvoTioXoxpaTwp), 309; IV1163, 1 1169, 1206, 2198, 2314, 3168; V156, 468; VII.510 (av yap si б тсаттјр тои mxXivyevovQ AlGvo?), 584; X II.246-47; XIII.71, 299, 329, 582, 996-97. For literature see Arthur Darby N ock, “A Vision o f Mandulis A ion,” H T h R T1 (1934) 53-104; repr. in Essays, 1.357— 400, esp. 377-396; Festugiere, Revelation, 4.152— 75,184— Nilsson, G G R , 2.348, 85; 498— 505, 536, 682, 6 8 6 ; Betz, G M PT , 331— 332; Bousset, Religionsgeschichtliche Studien, 192— 230; Merkelbach & Totti, Abrasax, 2.168-169; 3.56— and passim; Daniel & Malto58 mini, Supplementum Magicum, 2.227-228; Kotansky, Amulets, 115— Michel, Gemmen, 16; #114; H. J. W. Drijvers, “A ion,” D D D 13— Gunther Zuntz, “Aion Plutonios (Eine 14; Griindungslegende von Alexandria),” Hermes 116 (1988) 291— 303; idem, Aion. Gott des Romerreiches (AHAW.PH 1989:2; Heidelberg: Winter, 1989); idem, AION im Rom erreich. D ie archaologischen Zeugnisse (AHAWPH 1991:3; Heidelberg: Winter, 1991); idem, Alwv in der Literatur der Kaiserzeit (WSt.B 17; Wien: Verlag der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1992). Zuntz does not discuss the PGM, however, but considers a special investigation for it to be necessary (44, n. 6 6 ).

122

Commentary

ML, Aion is m entioned again in the “third prayer” as the heavenly gatekeeper (1. 594).203 His attribute is беатготтј^ xtov Trupivwv бсабт^атш (“lord o f the fiery diadems”).204 W hile бѕсттсотт)? is attested only here in the ML (1. 521), seven golden diadems are m entioned in 1. 675.205 T he second qualification bestowed by the spirit is sanctification (1. 522), crfioic, ayt-aarO-el? ayiaafAatrc, (“sanctified through holy consecrations”). The expression is unique in the PGM, a fact that caused commentators to assume influence o f the LXX. The translations diverge, because o f divergent inter­ pretations o f the term ау£аст[ла, w ith most interpreters taking it to mean “holy consecration.”206 W hile it is true that the terminology o f aytoc^w, cbfioq, аусастјла occurs most frequently in the LXX, the PGM do not neces­ sarily depend on the LXX.207 In Hellenistic-Jewish and early Christian texts the term is mostly used in the singular, referring to “sanctuary,” “temple.” E.g., Philo (Plant. 50; LCL edition by Colson, 3.239) interprets ay laapia (Exod 15:17— olov ayuov атсаиуаст^ха, [лл[л7)[ла ар^ѕтитгои, ercei xa alcFtW 18): joret, xaXa t w v voTjcrsi. xaXwv elxovsc;, t o Yjxoifxacr&ai wto ^etpcov &eou, xwv xoajxoTiot-wv auxou б ^аЈлѕш (“It is a ‘sanctuary,’ an outshining o f sanctity, so to speak, a copy o f the original; since the objects that are beautiful to the eye o f sense are images o f those in which the understanding recognizes beauty. Lastly, it has been prepared by the ‘hands’ o f god, his world-creating powers”). In the
203 Some o f the hymns in the PGM addressed to Aion are theologically and conceptu­ ally similar to the ML: e.g., the yoLipzxia\xbc, 1.1115-66 (cttyjXt] атсбхрисро?); IV.1167— 1226 (cttyjXy)); IV.850-929 (2oAo[j.wvo^ хататстма^); IV.1596— 1715 (теАетуј); XII.323-50; more­ over, the теХеттѓ] 1.26— the prayer called puaxiyd] (1.195— 37; 222) the prayer to Apollo II.l— 15; the cat ritual III.1— 164; the axrfkr] tou ’Ieou V.96— 172. 204 According to Jordan (by letter), the pap. seems to read Ttupsivwv instead o f nuptvwv. 205 See also IV.675, 1337, 2840; V.483; VII.619; cf. XXXV.26, 40: б[,аб7 )[лато<р6 ро<;. For TcupLvo?, see 11. 584, 589, 637— (nvpivoq axi(pa.voQ); III.211; IV.1024— (фауѓ)9ѓ 38 25 [xol, xupte, o ev Tcupl ttjv Suva[xt.v xal tt]v la^uv e^cov), 2959; VII.801; XIII.165 (eyevero бе б &ео? Ircl tou xoafxou xal тои тсиро?); XIV.8 ; furthermore C H 1.9 ($ebq tou 7tup6 i; xal TiveufxaToi; civ); X.18; Hippolytus, Haer. 5.7, referring to the demiurge o f the Naassenes (see Dieterich, Abraxas, 48-62; Bousset, Religionsgeschichtliche Studien, 118-19, 164). Cf. for б(.абу][ла R ev 12:3; 13:1; 19:12; nvpivoq 9:17. See also BDAG, s.v. б(.абг)[ла; on the whole topic Marcell Resde, “Herrschaftszeichen,” R A C 14 (1988) 937-66, esp. 951-56. 206 So Dieterich: “durch heilige Weihen gereinigt”; Preisendanz: “rein gesiihnt durch heilige Reinigungen”; Reitzenstein: “durch heilige Weihen geheiligt”; Festugiere: “saintement sanctifie par les purifications saintes”; Meyer: “sanctified through holy consecra­ tions.” Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.236) speculates about influence by the LXX, takes the ау^астјлата as referring to the trishagion (Isa 6:3), and translates (3.161): “nachdem ich zum Heiligen geweiht wurde durch ‘Heilig’-R ufe.” Martinez points to his collection o f liturgical formulations naming the acclamations o f the trishagion ayt,aa[xol (Baptized, 70). 207 For aylacj[i.a see LXX Amos 7:13: el q бе (За!,97 ]Аouxrct. fi.Y 7tpocr97 ji; тои тсросртјтеиааг., ] oTt. aytacj[i.a [ЗаспАѓах; eaTiv xa l o!xo<; $OLaikzia.c, Icttiv. For references see BDAG, s.v. aylaafxa.

v. Hermann Dorrie../ substantia. XI. so that it makes sense that he wishes to bring it in at this point.. 113. ucpiaTYjfjii.30-186.585— xal [лета t yjv t o u u A i x o u асо[хато<. B. GieBen: Topelmann. Mithrasliturgie. it is almost technical in physics. G G R . 2. 11 [ed. 5) to итсереатмаг^. Preisendanz: “wobei in Reinheit auf nur kurze Zeit verharrt meine mensch­ liche Seelenkraft”. esp.” Cf. for references see P G L . Metam. see Chrysippus. A. Stoics. Meyer: “while there subsists within me . 1. etc. 212 See LSJ.IV. III. after which it wanes and must receive another charge by new consecrations. шге^ѕсттохту]^. Preisendanz and Henrichs keep ayt-a^. 1. Reitzenstein: “wahrend unversehrt mir bleibt auf ein kleines die menschliche und natiirliche (seelische) Kraft”.14-37).32-43). исреатсоат]^ [лои тгро? oXtyov тт]<.4-24).und Bedeutungsgeschichte. Trcocrraait. with references to Aristotle. 518-19 (165. 485— 732) 123 PGM the rare plural аус. pour un peu de temps. D. Albrecht Dihle. # # 599 (185. “итгосттастс^.686. 38. s. Dieterich: “da unter mir steht auf ein kleines rein die menschliche Seelenkraft”. however.240.v. Hagios. 210 Pap. for which see Helmut Koester.2. holy for a short time. Irenaeus (Haer.. s.209 The following part o f the convoluted sentence construction is even more difficult (11. ma nature psychique humaine”.астр.t. That sup­ portive power. (“support”). 522-24): brftoLC.8. B. 317 (114.II. eu^evpj атсохЈатаатаапл 86: 211 Translations differ.24-29). that state cannot last forever. Nilsson.22-42). “Heilig. 4. 209 Comparable is the application to Christian baptism. once the initiate has reached the state of holiness. Thus far. 202a (65. but only for a 208 See P G L . instead the soul shares human weakness and mortality This is why the soul is in need o f support by divine power which by way of consecration injects holiness into the soul. s. Epicurus. Sacr. He apparently does not share the Platonic doctrine o f the immortal soul incorporated in the mortal body. av&p«7UVY]^ [xou Suvajjiso)?210 (“which holy [power] supports for a short while my human soul-power”). 226) refers to Apuleius. Untersuchungen zu r Terminologie des Heiligen in den hellenisch-hellenistischen Religionen (RVV 19:1. 1976). referring to SiaxoCT^ot?. . XI.212 Constructing ucpi<xrY with a genitive object is unusual. appears to come from philosophy.3. Wort. which may be due to the comment having been inserted after the preceding formulaic statement. 4.ата refers most likely to “consecrations. 509 (164.a. Dieterich (Abra­ xas. Merkelbach: “wahrend mich auf kurze Zeit die Kraft der menschlichen Seele verlassen hat.”208 here specifically to the initiation ritual. ]fj. 3. For the Stoics.o<. C H 1. Reitzenstein (H M R. the verb may be related to the concept o f vkogtoloic. referring also to Eduard Williger. my human soul-might”. also 187 (61. n.6).3. lasts only for a short while. especially Stoicism.” T D N T 8 (1969) 572— 89. has ayiaq итгеогмст*^. SV F II. in his Platonica Minora (Miinchen: Fink. Harvey. in order to clarify the question o f how the consecration affects the human soul. a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. Philo. aytaofjia. the author has not mentioned the soul (фи^ѓј) in connection with anthropology. where it plays a significant role. Main body of the ritual (11. 24: perfectis solemnibus processi duodecim sacratus stolis.211 The term иср1атт][Л(. Leg. n. I. listing Gregory o f Nyssa. Festugiere: “tandis que se retire un peu de moi . Cf. Clement o f Alexandria.” R A C 14 (1988) 1-63. 98. 12— 69. idem.16. Eitrem corrects to ayt.55]) in speaking about the Gnostics refers to their notion o f 7iv£U[xaTix7] итгбатастсс. Thus.i. 1922).v. Therefore.

s. for the “bitter Ananke” see also VII. s.£TarcapaXal l3av£LV provides another instance o f the authors prefer­ u ence for verbs w ith double prefixes.. 2.342.124 Commentary finite period. Ananke. the expression ^лѕха xy]v evsaxwcrav x a l xaxsTtelyouaav fxe rcixpav avayxrjv a)(p£OX° 7ry]TO parallels 11. has preemi­ ш nence in the magical texts throughout as Ananke.? remains. one common.art.215 (index VI and index I. and in 1. 2669. 564-68. 5.236). see Merkelbach (Abrasax . 7. Dieterich (p. “Heimarmene. etc. The initiate expresses his confidence that he will regain his soulpower after he has been liberated from the oppressive force o f necessity. see 1. y jp io c ) has references attesting the metaphorical meaning as “the debt that all must pay. 5 (829C). i. 60.” R A C 7 (1967) 524-626.213 The soul needs strength especially in view o f the impending ascension. VII. 524-27). crit.506— Heinrich Otto Schroder. 622-23). 725 the soul is closed down during the oracular ecstasy. esp.v. on the other.) adduces Suda.x7) Suvafxc. undimin­ ished”.1406. w ho thinks. Schepers) and translates. with the rendering “free o f debt. Alciphron. 11. “For a short time the avQ-pwruvT] фи^хт] Suvajjac leaves the candidate [scil. associated w ith avay xy) (“ne­ 35.exa. but cf. app.93: life is a loan.. Tusc. III. Hershbell (in his edition. p. 502— and V 4 534— but there are some new terms as well. be explainable.215 Ananke is here distinguished by two attributes. 709-10 the suppliant prays that the deity may remain in the 1 soul. 7]v syw rcaAiv {АехатшраХЃЈЈлфоЈлас fxexa xtjv Eveaxwaav x a l xaxeTreiyouaav jjis 7 tixpav avay xy]v a/peoxoTTiqxov (“which I will again receive after the present bitter and relentless necessity which is pressing down on m e”).” 1. 35) refers as a parallel to Cicero.13.).302. 502— moreover 1. хрѕшхотгѕТтас. death”. 367b: xav {jlt) xic. list only IV. XV. A x. See Schreckenberg. This “necessity. X X X V I. “Fatum 74. This situation is confirmed by repeating (cf.. 1. 630 the ML speaks o f a “recovery o f the soul” (атсохахастха&т) r\ фиХ7)) from its being shaken up (11. 3. al.” 214 The term occurs only here in the PGM. 4. In 630 it says that the soul has returned to its former condition. 606. without . 527) attribute may.” identical with ХРг ' (“need. 9-octtov jpzoq аттоб^бм to £5jv. 216 See 1. Gundel. xpeotto^eTv.e. Plutarch.527. IX. in 1 . See Preisendanz. 504). s. ad loc. 70— Nilsson.39.v.. cessity”).v. 215 For the ML. and only the Trvsufj.120. 217 T L G and LSJ. 483 ((j. 501 ([xexaTcapaSLSovat. 2. furthermore IV. on the one hand. This interpretation agrees with Stoic doctrine.4 (ed. (Heimarmene).218 213 For a different interpretation. 9.). fate. n. however.v. 218 See ps. and the other unfamiliar: тихро? (“bitter”)216 and ахреохотгујхо?. for initiation]. The term (j. LSJ (s. Vit. however. 11. In 1. “without cancellation o f debt?” Cf. (otocv) атсохатаата&тј стои rj фи/j]. Wilhelm Gundel..10. 508— 647 ([xsTayevvav).-Plato..217 The second (1. aer. and with other passages in the ML. a personified demonic force.” P R E 7 (1912) 2622— 45.214 we must appreciate.eTaSiS6 vai). As a whole. 160— 63. Weltbild und Astrologie. 605. 2606. G G R . 503-4) the formulaic rela­ tive clause (11. . see above on 11.302. 3. the sense o f the preposition p.

w hen he says: “N o longer burdened by that ‘debt. at least at this point. N ock & Festugiere.6Tty]asv бсргсАтјЈлата.” 223 For a different interpretation see also Morton Smith (“Transformation by Burial [1 Cor 15:35— R om 6:3— 49. welche man der avayxr] zuriickzahlen muB = nicht mehr vom Tode beschwert.237): “Nicht mehr von jener ‘Schuld’ beschwert.14). w hom N N bore. at this point the initiate leaves his mortal nature behind during the ascent (see below. N ext (11. 485— 732) 125 accordingly. Exc. see CH. esp. crit. in his Studies. Der Initiierte hat seine friihere Existenz hinter sich gelassen. Festugiere: “apres la contrainte douloureuse de l’imminente Fatalite” (“after the painful constraint o f imminent Fate”). 533— 35). 6 . the term to /pswv played a role for Chrysippus. For parallels.1.223 Rather.219 If.jpeoy. . to erct-JSaXXov xal xa$ 7)xov хата ttjv elfjwcpjiivirjv. no longer burdened by death. By comparison. ^psoxoTceiv (“cancel debt”). apud Eusebius. originally a commercial term . 4. Preisendanz: “ohne Verkurzung” (“without curtailment”). ad loc.25: oux zo x i x b jp e o q cpuyelv.9 u[i. Diogenianus. Main body of the ritual (11. 11. х ата боу^ла &sou ajxeTa&eTOV (“I.. however. 210— 20. 176. The initiate has left behind his earlier existence. n. which included the experience o f death and rebirth. 2. Anthol. 3. 263c: outm бе xal to xpswv elp^cr9-at. repr. can be used as a metaphor. in the ML may have originated in a Stoic background.46 (Kore Kosmou. The statement is formulaic.220 and should thus be translated as “unfor­ giving. relentless. but 27) there is no evidence for such.161) translates: “nach dem mir jetzt bevorstehenden und mich sehr bedrangenden bitteren Zwang” (“after the now impending and me strongly oppressing compulsion”). 2. 221 Translations vary widely: Dieterich (p. # 914 (265. Vettius Valens. the term а/рѕох6тгг)то<.17: otzoxz el q tov aipa avaSpafjq) to XP^01^ LXX Wis 15:8: to туј? фих^? a^at-TY^el? jp io q . 9. indicated in the pap.lat. according to the immutable decree o f god”). app.8: rcoXXwv Zavarov k.”222 The text o f the ML. N N . A distinction has to be made be­ tween the ascension presently in view and the presupposed earlier initiation ritual.” Eranos 52 [1983] 87— 112.” or that the initiate is beyond death altogether. that is.110— 29. (“The curiosity o f their souls shall be frustrated by desires. p. ungeschadigt” (“uncurtailed.16): xpswxoTrelatko twv фих^ auTwv to Ttcplepyov £7it. 126— who assumes that a ritual death and transformation are presupposed here. Cf. xal Xunat? x a l z k n ia i izkctvoic. 2) connects with ijls and translates: “unverkiirzt. fears. ov y j Ssiva.’ which one must pay back to avayxY). Praep.224 The expression хата боу[ла г)еои ajJisTa&£Tov (“accor­ ding to the immutable decree o f god”) represents another formula important the day for repayment being fixed (»usuram »vitae tamquam pecuniae nulla praestituta die). 5. by the symbol A. undamaged”). See also Alciphron 1. 219 See Diodorus Siculus 38/39. Meyer: “relendess”. Merkelbach (Abrasax. because the practitioner expects a return into this life. 222 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 5]. Reitzenstein (H M R. 527— 29) comes the identification by name: eyw o Setva. as according to Diogenianus. esp. ev. XXIII. 3.II. does not indicate that the “debt” equals “death. and misguided hopes”). troubles. 26): “schuldentriickt” (“removed from debt”). 220 See SKFII. eds.6: avsu i^uyou avayxr^ wv. Barn.^ xal <poPoL<. 224 See Preisendanz. 1. ritual death is part o f the ritual in IV 154-285.”221 Merkelbach seems to agree w ith this interpretation only in part.

Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. 59 (To the Moirai).aac. and Atropos: ’'AxpoTiov бе oxi а[хета&ето<. which he. 19. 229 It is not certain whether the pap. with the commentary by Griffiths. doing the Sioixouv in the cosmos. 'i 230 The problem behind the discussion is that o f “immanence/transcendence” and human identity. aEiov k a x i v мсттгер el[xapfxev7)v ajJicTaoTaxov x a l afJieTa&eTov ev t o l c a9Xrj[j. Clotho. II.v |xot ecpt. Abraham P. 320-23. Hoffleit.’ I continued. третстсп/ xaxov. 74— 76. takes to be a corrupted palin­ drome (oe'iau | — | uaiew. Ttpovoux.exa&exov. Agypten. Hymn. line 10. Ibid. e£ oclSlwv у р о уш .) opts for elau. also the interpretation o f оцаетагкто^ in CH. Orph.evov a x o u ei (“I am victorious over Fate. (“since it is for me.64 (3.xevov vixw . [jiexaQ-eTov. 5. 3. crit.388-89. 288-89. Fate is obedient to me. ecpyjv. item 25: Tiav <xo> ev oupavw a[i. 8. Apparently.55). 283. XIII.’”228 This section ends w ith voces magicae (11. Trav to k m yv]<. # 914 (265. the Hellenistic aretalogies o f Isis claim her victory over Heim arm ene or Fatum. Text and translation cited according to the LCL edition by Paul A. Apuleius. MA: Harvard University s Press. aTpCTtxov ayaQ-ov. See also Apuleius. Isis Regina. шг/јрѓт^. Exc. Cf. Studien zum antiken Synkretismus (Studien zur Bibliothek Warburg 7. reads ajxexa&exou. a&avaxou XapnrjSovoc. 54. X I. # 913 (264. 286-87. 228 Plutarch. Exc. 1969). xal а{лет6фЛ7)то5 ecmv б xad’ ехастта SiopLC[x6 i. XI. Clement & Herbert B.15. 2 for further references). reads ecau or e'iav.”) See on this Muller. corrected by Dieterich (4— n. 113— 75. ad loc.18-19). Cambridge. where Isis speaks: eyw to elfjiap. 57 ( # 46): 7ipovoia 9-ela Toc^iq. Plutarch’ Moralia (London: Heinemann. Lachesis. w hen he reports from his table-talks: ‘“ N o r should we.v iy-TzenArf/Jdat.26). Similarly. yeywxa oruva<v>ievac. 5. esp. 1047-48. 225 226 . being mortal. 528-29): euy) u'ia eyji aw z'C lu o OQ O iua tew.227 Plutarch seems to reflect the com m on opinion o f the time. 169— Richard Reitzenstein & Hans Heinrich 70. 227 Schroder (“Fatum. 55. Ifxou to eLjj. 221— 22). 253— 277.2 (675 B): ou [xtjv оибе r/]v ’OAufjimav. Nr. 25.226 By contrast.230 It begins with stating what appears to be an accepted principle: excel oux eaxt. Metam.” R A C 1 [1969] 569— 70) names Isis as capable o f breaking the law o f fate: Aretalogy o f Kyme.apjj. 530— 32). Heimarmene is explained as the divine Logos divided into the three Moirai. from Chrysippus (Defato [rcepl s'ljj-ap^svrjc]) concern­ ing the three Moirai. corn. H M R . t l av&pwrco?. 1965). The pap.225 The formula conforms to the Stoic concept known since Zeno and Chrysippus. Suvafxis rcpovoiac (with n.64): ’AvayxT] еат1 ycpLatq [3e[3ala xal а[летатрет1 то<. # 48: xlq &eo?.). following Dieterich (5. 74— Totti. Schaeder.xxov t)v/]x6<. 1. avayxT). as if its policies w ith respect to types o f competition were as undeviating and immutable as fate. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.. See SKFII. “Immanenz und Transzendenz. Quaest. Preisendanz (app. Merkelbach. xpU T C 0£!^e<Tiv (juxpfAapyupal? x9)<. the author sees the need at this point to add a comment of clarification concerning the anthropological presuppositions for the ascent (11.126 Commentary in Greek religious philosophy. See Reitzenstein. ‘be overawed by Olympia. 21.” R A C 17 (1996) 1041— 92. Texte. 1. Bos.2 (Nock & Festugiere. 1926.

a vox magica.v. but similar terms occur elsewhere. See for a discussion o f these two principles. nor will perishability inherit imperishability”). “contracted from yeyawc.10-11 (auya£ovxe<. the previous proposition to obtain immortality appears preposterous and requires special explanation.. if the principle is accepted.”234 Meta­ phors describing “ascending together” (auvoc<v>t. Main body of the ritual (11. ” 233 For &v7]xo<. in X III. Antike und Christentum. 242. Os. Socrates cites this principle to demonstrate the impossibility for a human being to pass into the afterlife. 236 On ideas concerning becoming a star see Wilhelm Gundel. Sterne und Sternbilder im Glauben des Altertums und der N euzeit (Bonn & Leipzig: Schroeder. 195. . Betz. 535.” reprinted in his Kleine Schriften.I ll. see 11. the comment is didactic and offers an answer to an implied question. and rare in Greek literature. The first is the suppliants present condition of mortality. 16 (160C). Orph. 614. “go up together. Hymn. 143-55.v. 9.” 234 The term squxxo q is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. 54. esp. reads cruvaievai. can only be achieved by the separation and liberation o f the soul from the body. in Rom.j. s. “Kometen. perf. Phaed.” PRE 21st Halbband (1921) 1143— 93. Kern. Damascius. Sept. 67b: jxyj xa&apw yap xa&apou ефатихестОт . ax£X[3ovTes). 517— 18. sap. A related principle is cited by Paul in a similar context in 1 Cor 15:50: accpE. which Dieterich (4— corrects to cruvavisvai.238 The adjective 231 Cf. 232 Dieterich (4. 1150— 53. cruvaveijxt. Smyth. 543. 100 (ed. conv. and therefore passage to the afterlife. while Preisendanz begins a new sentence. xal aljAa PaaiXetav Феои x)or]povo[X7)(jai ou Suvaxai оибѕ r) cp&opa xy)v acp&apcaav xArjpovofxei (“Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom o f God. s. 669. 1922).” Riess (CIR 10 [1896] 411) points to au[X7iXavoc астхтјр (1. See also the references in LSJ. 147. 238 Cf. (АарЈларкреуут) 1. Cons. 27. Apoll. 4 (352D). perhaps hymnic language. [лар[Ј. purity. the epigram o f Ptolemaeus (A nth. 348. |лар[лараиуѓ). 574) as confirmation. D e princ.II. ^&хроѕхбеа пѓпХоу.233 The second is that a mortals ascension to heaven is “out o f reach.3-28.260-61 ([ларјхарсашО-). contracted yeycoc for yeyovo')^.8 he discusses the issue in connection with the deification o f Romulus.231 Dieterich s punctuation connects it by a comma with the previous sentence. 222) translates after a comma: “denn es ist mir nicht erreichbar als dem sterblich geborenen mit dem goldenen Flammenglanz der unsterblichen Leuchte in die Hohe zu steigen. IV. Frag. referring to Pindar and mystery cult initiations. The term is 5) a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. 123. the parallel in Plato. . 237 Cf. .6 8 scpt/xsa&oa with a different meaning. . 313.” Preisendanz: “Da ich es nicht erreichen kann. Betz. cf. pal. The verb yeyoaxa is part.236 The metaphors seem to reflect poetic.237 The term fxapfxapuyy] is found only here in the PGM . The argument involves two admissions. Plutarch cites and interprets the principle in Is.. 200 (§ 704b) treats this form as a poetic second perfect participle. 228. 485— 732) 127 out o f reach to ascend together with the golden radiances o f the immortal brilliance”).y] o u 9-efjaxov fj (“For that the impure touch the pure is not at all permissible”).evat. s “Das Epigramm des Ptolemaeus. see LSJ. Antike und Christentum. Indeed. 13 (107F-108D). 235 The pap. The statement looks like a principle quoted from a different context with approval. 166). 253— 5. 213. and Franz Boll’ essay o f 1894.232 Either way. idem. ) 235 with an astral phe­ nom enon demonstrate the impossibility further. calling it a vox Orphica and referring to Orph.аруе£с. asl Nuxxcx. Grammar. 7.577).. 104— 110.

for the knowledge o f it is divine silence and suppression o f all the senses. Eitrem avaXa(3e. 240 Pap. The context (cf. Jordan sees in the pap. [xa instead o f the editors’ jxe. Festugiere: “et reprends-moi sur-le-champ sain et sauf”. on 11. 502.674.5— 6: “But w e are still too weak now for this sight. 242 See below.10.242 The comment concludes with voces magicae: ш)и asw Yjua ear/) uae toLas. 20 (To the Moirai).. Preisen­ danz ш/аАафг. Meyer: “and at once receive me safe and sound”. 11. Wessely conjectures uyly) < ха 9 ѓат 7)>. See BDAG. H e stays still. [6 ] O ne w h o has understood it can understand nothing else.2.486.) as the verb. x al auxlxa <avaAa(3s> иустј [хета ttjv a7iapalxY]TOV x al xaT£Tce[l]you(jav XP£^av (“Stand. so that he orders his mortal nature245 to “stand.” Most other translators see the reference in regard to the reentering into the body. nor can one w h o has looked on it look on anything else or hear o f anything else. 9.244 translators differ in restoring and translating the text. 52526) requires a verb describing the ascent and addressing mortal nature. incomprehensible beauty o f that good. 16-17.. Reitzenstein: “und bald nimm mich wieder heil in Empfang”.243 The section on self-presentation concludes (11. 7. 11. pap. Cf. 241 Orph.” Cf. is inconsistent with the departure from “the inexorable and pressing need.11. срОартт] [BpoTtov cpuai. 243 Preisendanz (app. for j3poxol see V. Sim. Because o f some textual problems. Dieterich (6 ) takes urdei (utptet. ad loc. w e are not yet strong enough to open our m ind’s eyes and look on the incorruptible.4. III..246 W hat the author seems to say closely resembles an explanation in C H X. O perishable nature o f mortals.239 and XaptYjSwv (“bril­ liance”)240 is another hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. W here does this language come from? It has some close parallels in the Orphic Hymns. corrected by Dieterich (4).” . 677. Plato’s (Phzed. C H X . reads AafxmrjSwvo?. Hymn. which. crit. VII.2. Preisendanz: “<ubernimm> mich sofort <wieder> wohlbehalten nach der unerbittlichen und bedrangenden N o t”. Hermas.15 (To Helios).7t7]S«v. 413. you w ill see it. 607.241 Merkelbach points to the sun rays and the dust particles glimmering in it. In the m om ent w hen you have nothing to say about it. V I. Reitzenstein emends kizoSkyou. which ancient sources thought o f as vehicles for the ascension of the souls into heaven. Xap.128 Commentary -/ростоѕсбт]? (“golden bright”) is related to crowns.638.v. IV. 246 Dieterich (6 ) interprets this to mean: “und sogleich laB mich lo s . ocuxixa \iz uytr] is uncertain because a verb is missing. all bodily 239 Cf. reading ср&рату) must be corrected to cpQapxr]. 110c) use o f the term in a fantastic description o f the earth seen from above. and at once <take me back> safe after the inexorable and pressing need”).) sees a repeating sequence: w tjuocsw rjuaew rjuasw yjuastd iae. cf.6-7. 537— 38. 533— w ith the suppliant 35) addressing his human nature: есттаОг. 244 The pap. nor can he move his body in any way. 1027. however. 11 (To the Stars) 8.409. Merkelbach: “nach dieser unabdingbaren und mich bedrangenden N ot sollst du mich wieder gesund in dir aufnehmen. 59. 245 For the expression ср&артт) f3poxwv cputrt. s.” including the reminder that such a transition is not without danger.

Agnostos Theos. Koln: Brill. however.” R A C 18 58. Hartwig Thyen. esp. 1922). Although beset w ith textual uncertainties.126-128. s. 59. 31.v. 535-536.249 Some kind o f divine name should be expected.(3. N ew York. it is not necessarily true o f the magical texts. 249 This formula occurs frequently in ancient texts. ” 247 The description o f the “inexorable and pressing need” is similar to the preceding parallels (see 11.. cf.637. Pradel. s. 2. crit. Mos. For w hen soul has looked on < th e> beauty o f the good. w ith the adjective атсароаттјто^ (“inexorable”) providing variety.248 T he final words o f the self-presentation (11. “Ich-Bin-Worte. 248 For this term see also 11. and so also in the PGM. (“For I am the son o f. 762-63. my child. 672: <xp)a. “Gottessohn.7. 1. while this may be true o f the Hermetica. 1787. 251 The pap. 502— 525— 4. 225-42. Leiden. “Isangelie. Philo Index. XXXVI.” R A C 12 (1983) 19— Otto Betz. Die Gotteskraft in der fruhchristlichen Zeit (Leipzig & Berlin: de Gruyter. and beauty changes his w hole person into essence. See Norden. фиу^м бѕ (cf.267: [хетофаХш та axoi'/eia repo t o xaTeuetyov TTfi jpsLoLq. see Vit. For interesting demonological parallels see LSJ. 105. for the ML see 11. cited in Dieterich. or whether he inserted two (defective?) variants o f the same formula. 574-75. 3025. XIII. 2. 214-20.145— 146. Cf. 485— 732) 129 senses and motions forgotten. and often. Wis 16:16 (LXX).. ad loc. also 11. Cf. Cf. Early Christianity and Hellenistic Judaism (Edin­ 3. Having illuminated all his mind. uL6 ?.253 The latter seems most 247 Translation by Copenhaver. 1997). Preisendanz has as vox magica as in 1. IV.S 20. 8 6 .” R A C 17 (1994) 147-213.v. 605-6. XIII. III.1 and XIII. Cf. 31. 253 So Merkelbach.92. 2 2 2 ). (1998) 945-76.. BDAG. or whether the magician by intention obscured his divine name. 222).”). 1996). 517— 37) conclude the first prayer (11.. Main body of the ritual (11. 309— idem. Philo often (see Borgen. 25 refers to the parallels in C H 1. has oulo^ фи^со[.250 but that name is secret and only voces magicae are given: фи^м[у] бѕ[лоо тсро^со тгрсоа. 18. reads [лог/арср[. 205-209. 250 For divine sonship. Reitzenstein (Poimandres. this beauty kindles his w hole soul and by means o f body draws it upward.317. XXXVI. the edition o f N ock & Festugiere. leg. XII.].237. 484-537).p[j. perhaps a doublet or variant o f the preceding: syw eqai [xa^apcp^jv [XOU т г р м ф и ^ ^ n p o i z .oiyft]q. d. s. Martinez raises the question whether the words could be a Greek translation o f an Egyptian epithet “son o f souls” (cf. for conjec­ tures. see IV.252 The problem is whether the w riter has simply muddled up his Vorlage. believes that no divine name is required. which Dieterich (6 ) makes out as ulo^. Hermetica.1075-77. there is again a well-known formula: еум yap elpx o ulo<. app.342.251 A nother formula then follows. “soul o f souls”). . Philo of Alexandria: A n Exegetefor His Time (NovT. Dieterich. burgh: Clark. Gebete. Abrasax.1— and Peder Borgen. 177-201.” Hopfner takes фиум as “deeply I draw in breath” (“tief atme ich ein”).II. it cannot be deified w hile in a human body ..6 -9 . 194-205. 3. See Dieterich (6 ). n.4. IV.): “son (of Helios). see also Carsten Colpe. 3.. 537. Spec.c. 525-27.3.. 2032-33.]v.935. 26). 252 Pap. 111.v. For Philo s similar teaching at this point. crit.).11771180.37.. Karl Preisigke. 484. Preisendanz (app.124.<x. also C H XVI.

This narrative presupposes an ancient worldview which involves specific ideas about cosmology and anthropology. Ernst Dassmann. Ascension of the Soul and Its Relevance (EPRO 99. idem. 229-73. 178. “D ie Himmels5 reise der Seele. 38— 40. idem. 255 See on these issues. Verherrlichung. then. Martha Himmelfarb. (“Draw in breath from the rays three times. B. 2. the text moves directly to the ritual. 724 (lyto elptx w ith vox magica).” Eranos 50 (1981) 403— repr. Merkahah Mysticism. idem. as D ie Himmelsreise der Seek (Libelli 71. w ith his final words he reveals himself as a son o f a god. but com petent survey litera­ ture w ith bibliographies is available. Psychanodia I: A Survey of the Evidence Concerning the 67. furthermore Cumont. Prescription o f the breathing ritual (11. 1960). Elliot R . in his Studies. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 628— 29: сттас oOv eu9-£w<. 84. but at the same time he hides that name behind voces magicae. Wolfson. 537— 38): eAxs o ltzo t w v ocxTLvtov icveufxa y ' avaarcwv. From Apocalypticism to Gnosticism. 1994). Apocalyptic and 69. and “Jenseitsreise.255 N o doubt. 179— 70. Collins & Fishbane. Antike und Christentum. repr. Morton Smith.47— esp. 504— on the ML. 256 On general cosmology see the comprehensive surveys and bibliographies by Carsten Colpe. For the breathing ritual see Apuleius’s (Metam . 128. Culianu. “Ascent into Heaven and the Beginning o f Christianity. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. After Life. iXxe остш тои Qstou. o Suva[cr]ac. These general presuppositions and traditions cannot be discussed at this point.” A R W 4 (1901) 136-69. see the passages and literature in Betz.27) description o f a similar ecstatic ritual: “In the midst o f all this one o f them started to rave more wildly than the rest.257 First. 257 See the comprehensive articles by Carsten Colpe and Peter Habermehl. 105— 13. Ascent to Heaven in fewish and Christian Apocalypses (New York: Oxford University Press. Betz.258 As is shown by the preceding 254 For this formula. 175— 86. Antike und Christentum. and producing rapid gasps . Lohr. 490-543. “Jenseits. esp. Leiden: Brill.” ibid. 258 See the parallel in 11. Josef Engemann. Karl Hoheisel.” R A C 17 (1996) 407-66.254 but also because o f the magicians’ practice generally to keep their divine names secret. 152— 74. 54. 52— loan P. 167— Gruenwald.” R A C 17 (1996) 246-407.130 Commentary likely not only because o f the parallel in 1. 8. 1993).256 R elated to these issues is an enormous body o f materials connected with ideas on journeys to the heavenly world. 165— idem. 537— 38) Following the conclusion o f the prayer and anticipating the ascension narra­ tive. Out of this World: Otherworldly fourneys from Gilgamesh to Einstein (Boston: Shambhala. Peter Habermehl. Betz.. Still informative is the article by Wilhelm Bousset. drawing in as m uch as you can. 1991). comes the prescription o f a breathing ritual (11. including the world o f the gods and the place o f the human being in relation to it. “Jenseitsfahrt I (Himmelfahrt). Through a Speculum That Shines: Vision and Imagination in Medieval fewish Mysticism (Princeton: Princeton University Press.”) W hat is drawn in with the breath o f air is the divine “spirit” (rcveujjia). 29. Death. Lux Perpetua. 1983). Lukian..

Johnston. BollS 76.199— 205.262 Greek philosophers called the particles ^ист[лата. 634. small dust particles hovering in the air and glittering in the sun. 200. X II. 590 [axej3uxpwv]) may come from the Egyptian for “splendor o f the sun” (see Fauth. 1114.” the spirit is to be drawn in with the breath. which greets the god Aion-Helios as to ttocv стиат7](лос tou aeplou TivsujxaTo^. Brashear.462. the spirit is a fundamental concept in the M L. 1. The god appears as surrounded by sun-rays (1129). Arthur Hanson. the Chaldaean Oracles. XIII.37 (Preisendanz. 44: “I am in the rays o f Helios” (’Eyw si[ii ev таТс tou tjXlou odjyaXq). Greek Hymns. “Inspiration. Princeton: Princeton University Press. simulabat sauciam vecordiam . та xaXoujxeva 5и(Х[л.27-30]).3. Hymn 17. as though he had been filled with the heavenly inspiration o f some deity. 333. See Muller. their role as transmitters o f divine spirit and its inhalation is affirmed several times. at this point from deep down in his chest. Helios Megistos.259 Since 7iveu[xa can mean both “spirit” and “breath. 25: “Ich steige auf zum Himmel. 1989). and Pythagoreans (D. 67 A 28 [11. Sia twv QuplSwv axTlcriv. 263 Aristotle.II. n. on 11.. IV. Cambridge. also IV461.176: ocxtlvott<ol>wv. 142. Poimandres. O Z I. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien. § 733. and Some Mithraic Frescoes.zivoycdxi. 58 B 40 [1. see Sarah I. XIV. London: Heinemann.ата.2 (404a): olov ev tw aept. See Rohde. See also the gem in Hopfner. by Willard R . Shamanism. Also in accordance with ancient teachings is the idea that the spirit is transmit­ ted by the rays o f the sun (al axTtve?).78.” Ancient World 32 (2000) 10— Breathing rituals seem to go back to 24. who inspires by the spirit elcrep/o^evov .78. Track. MA: Harvard University Press. Cf. “D id the Mithraists Inhale? A 83. 2. 2. 10.263 However. “the whole system o f the aerial spirit” (1115— 16). 260 O n fcxTLves see in the ML 11.” that is. 189-90. Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy (trans.-K.” R A C 18 (1998) 329-65. 48.” There are also monumental representations showing rays proceeding from the sun. o f Isis in the aretalogy o f Cyme.261 In ancient Egypt they were regarded as means for the soul to climb up to heaven. 277— Bousset. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 131 prayer.162. Envisioning Magic. see Mircea Eliade. 751. IV.A. 1.. see Furley & Bremer. Metamorphoses (2 vols. Agypten. Psyche. early shamanism. On this passage see Reitzenstein.150— 60. 9. 74. addressed to ’AxtI? kzkLou (“Keen-eyed ray o f the Sun”).” 3581). quoting Leucippus (D. Franz- . a cpatvcTai ev xorlc.2286: ky. Cf. velut numinis divino spiritu repletus. 1964). W hile the sun rays are im portant in several ways in the PGM . For the ML. 906. he simulated a fit o f madness” (Inter haec unus ex illis bacchatur effusius ac de imis praecordiis anhelitus crebros referens.. 208— 78. 261 See the close parallel in IV. Cited according to the LCL edition and translation b y j. 98. “Greek Magical Papyri. sending them down to earth by glittering sun-dust.xtivmt6 v &eov.16— 29]).ле xa l ocvtictttw^ulsvov [jlou (“entering into me and drawing me to it” [1121— 22]). 181— Radcliffe Edmonds. Technique for Theurgic Ascent in the Mithras Liturgy. 1129. On Pindar’s 9th Paian. regarding them as souls floating upwards in the air. Heb 1:3: Christ as атсаиуааЈха ттј? б 6 £г^. 2. 73— Cf. Ich klimme empor auf den Sonnenstrahlen. see Klaus Thraede. Apuleius. D e an.1110: o. 489— 90. 13.260 Related are ancient speculations about the role o f the “sun dust. On inspiration as a whole and with further literature.). 446— 47. Helios Megistos. 1115— 66.112-13. 4 4 7 48. Main body of the ritual (11. 2.251). Der Konig als Sonnenpriester (ADAI. 1970]). 259 See above. 487— 94. in: Schafer & Kippenberg. Fauth. 262 See Eliade. 110— 412— 44. 7 [Gliickstadt: Augustin. referring to Jan Assmann.-K. The epithet o f Helios as ехфихрм^л (XIII.

322. see below. y zv za iq wiedergegeben werden und die a&avaxo^ apx*] schauen soli. chapter 3 and Excursus 37: 8 . 321— “Les papyrus magiques”. daB das unsterbliche Tcveujxa in ihm. 25. Rohde (2.4. 3. Tusc.a). 319— 24) names as the most important passages. das Feste und die Luft in ihm schaut das heilige Feuer.42. 487— (esp. the firm. vind.” (“Wenn er der a&avaxo<. Augustin (Louvain: Editions de l’lnstitut Superieur. 1985). Julian. Chico. Cicero. for the phrase o Suvaooa. also 232— refers to Rohde.44. Paris: Desclee de Brouwer. Resp. the immortal water.. 55). 539—44) Before the beginning o f the actual ascent narrative. L ’Evolution de la doctrine du pneuma dans stoicisme a S. dann erhebt er sich zum Licht und kommt mitten in die Luftsphare. see XIII. Psyche. 312— 28).”) Dieterich (59-61. Marc. V. esp.99— 1. 197. 101— 159-64) pointing to Diogenes Laertius 8. Chaldaean Oracles. des Aufgangs abgrundtiefe Flut. Ep. 6. 311.945: oarov Suvaaoa.105— 47. (After Life. Merkelbach. Lewy. 13. Cicero. Finamore. wie e i g e n t l i c h die Erhebung durch das ttvsujjlcz. 265 For avacjTiav and avxt-arcav see IV. For the whole subject. furthermore Gundel.1.” in Platonismus und Christentum. Festschrift fur Hermann Dorrie (JAC. and to the Neoplatonists’ concept o f “soul-vehicle” (6)(rjfi. 40 Library. 264 Dieterich (58— 59): “If he [scil. This section reveals the authors own understanding Joseph Dolger. 1. Seine Entwicklung von der Hauchseele zu r Geistseele. the Nag Hammadi “Treatise on the Resurrection” (Epistula ad Rheginum). the dawn’ abysmal flood. Iamblichus and the Theory of the Vehicle of the Soul (ACSt 4. 563F. then he can accomplish this only in this way that the immortal Ttveujxa in him. 1. N H C 1. Clemens Zintzen. 177— 226. the author includes an instruction about what is going to happen after the performance o f the breathing ritual (539— 44).l 122. 6.5. sera num. Schmekel. 29— (Trans. the human person] is to be returned to the aQ-avaxoc y zv za tq and have a vision o f the ocQocvczto^ ap^yj. Tusc.2. For ritual acts to be performed three times. and the air in him have a vision o f the sacred fire.265 C. 2498. so kann er das eben nur dadurch. Or. gemeint ist: er muB von den Strahlen rcveujxa einziehen. Scip.132 Commentary the ML does not speak of “souls” (фи^оа).114. This point was already made by Dieterich who explains it as evidence o f Stoic influence. Das Seelenpneuma. 93. but o f “you” and the element o f “spirit” as bringing about the ascension. Gerard Verbeke. 1933).E 10 [1983]. der heilige Geist. das unsterbliche Wasser.237.172C. on levitation). daB in ihm weht xo Lepov TtveufAoc.9-29 (esp. 565E-566A. p. then he gets lifted up toward the light and enters into the upper region o f the air. 5. Weltbild und Astrologie. CA: Scholars Press. Introduction to the ascension narrative (11.301— 31.27. Paderborn: Schoningh.104. . Later prescriptions show how this elevation by the Ttveufjta is really to be understood: he must draw in from the sun rays’ Tcveufxa.26— on the 29 spirit). “Die Apostel als Strahlen der Sonne Jesu.3. 1945). Die Philosophie der 33) mittleren Stoa. 45. the s holy spirit. Somn. “Bemerkungen zum Aufstiegs89 weg der Seele in Jamblichs D e mysteriis. John F. see Franz Riische. see also Plutarch.264 T he ritual is to be performed three times by drawing in the air as hard as possible. ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der antiken Pneumalehre (SGKA 18.” A u C 6 (1950) 30— Cumont 51. 747. Seneca. Abrasax. that in him blows t o lepov Ttveufxa. in Robinson. 43. Man sieht aus einigen nachfolgenden Vorschriften. 1.

4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 133 o f the ritual as a whole. Apoll. 3. on p. (“and you will see yourself being lifted up and ascending to the height. but Dieterich (6 ).. Porphyry. Revelation. but frequently else­ where. and Kroll as Soxet[v (j. so that you seem to be in midair”). crit. 3. 1.480. 1. reads офе[. аеројЗатем in Lucian. 1.359-60. 27 n. гт апш т ои). 539). 13). Agr. Soren Podemanns Sorensen. 90— 99. 624. Jean-Pierre Mahe.20. avaxoucpl^et-v is found only here in the PGM.270 W hat consequences does this ascension have for sense-perception? —Leav­ ing behind the body means that there will be no physical hearing or seeing 266 See Reitzenstein.10. 4. . app. Grammar.6 ) and Related Hermetic Writings. 656. Icar. 68. аитб x al aaAeuov ev xw al&spt..267 First (1. 270 For u7iep[3 odv£t.7.. Lukian. a phenom enon described by several ancient authors. reads бохеи. 269 Pap.266 An especially close parallel is Philostratus. “Mental Faculties and Cosmic Levels in the Eighth and the Ninth (N H VI.4).16 who are [летараин. 3. but not for Greeks (cf. LSJ. 6. also III. 512-13).v. Regarding Soxelv [iiaov xou aepoc si w.c.268 The text interestingly predicts that he will be able to see himself: бфт) aeauxov avaxoucpt-^ojjievov [x]al uueppalvovxa el? ифо?. cf. IV971.1.). 61). Both forms are frequent in contemporary Koine texts. s. the seven men in C H 1.II. 73-83. “the fire is then seen raised aloft in the air and dancing in the ether” (ouxw [xexewpov те браст&ас. mans in India: “they regard any rites they perform. eds. cf. in thus quitting the earth and walking w ith the sun” (tw 'HAlw £uva7r:o(3acvovTe? ty}? утј? Spakriv) “as acts o f homage acceptable to the god. 54. 6. 693.5. 263). Festugiere. based on Robert Helbing ( Grammatik der Septuaginta [Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 3. Betz. the ascending person is addressed w ith a term often occurring in the following narrative: бфт] (“you will see”).” By “extracting fire from the sun rays” (arco т?ј? axxlvo c. aiaxe сте SoxeT[v [л]еаоу тои аеро? elvat. See Dieterich (6 .]scrov.3. H M R . Chaldean Oracles (above. On levitation see also Lewy.. Vit.е | crov. for the prophetic future see also 485 [хатотхтеим]. 222 he points to parallels in early Christian literature. has офтј. s. Frtihes Christentum.269 The terminology is known from elsewhere in the PGM. 267 Cf. 42. Apoll. 13. which he interprets as levitation. 565. tou ѓ/. Main body of the ritual (11. see Gignac. also Deus 85.22. 3. 3. Historisk-filosofiske Skrifter 26 [2002]). for piaoi. 1995 (Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. 544. 11. allowing the Indian sages to levitate (jJisTscopExv) two cubits in the air. 1907]. 484— 85. 76.4. Achilles Tatius. Philo uses the term in describing intellectual ecstasy (Spec. 702. where the claim is made that levitation is typical for Indians.ѓрод cf. keeps офт] (see also 11. September 19— 24. Abst. Leuc..).171 (comparing CHXIII).v et? ифо^ cf. Vit.v. 2. nn.15— reporting about the levitation among the Brah­ 16. For avaxoucpl^eiv see Lucian. 635. however. Hermot. For further evidence see TLG . which Wessely emends as Soxst afcrjaov. 2509. 268 Pap. 167— Speyer. 21. Clit. noting that both sound the same when read aloud. Plotinus. 634. Enn. Tage Petersen. 73. The Nag Hammadi Texts in the History of Religions: Pro­ ceedings of the International Conference at the Royal Academy of Sciences and Letters in Copenhagen..357— Preisen­ 58.21.” in: Soren Giversen. 555. danz.

effected by Empedocles. specifically. o f course. XI. like descriptions o f pictorial panels. 13— 14. 2. . so that the author shows the entire journey in terms o f a predicted future.471— 72. stated in the present tense. 272 Cf. 541— 43): ouSevo? бе axouaet [ o ] u t e av&pwTcou оите ^фои aXX<ou>. the narrative is de­ scriptive. 17. # # 863— 72 (232.” R A C 15 (1991) 1023— 1111. O n the other hand. the stages o f the ascension in the future tense (бфт). оибв офу] ouSev Taiv i n i y r\q &vy)tmv sv exelvY) tyj wpa.52.1).”) Instead of hum an sense-perception. but rather you will see all immortal things. 531. Their presentation combines ritual elements of prayer and actions w ith a narrative structure. d.585-611. 516-17. conditional.30— 234.a. 620. on the correct perform­ ance o f the ritual acts. the reference to time in 11. “H oren. 504. 484-85. the uses o f axou eiv at 11. representing seven stages in the ascension. like the way the gods hear and see. 501. Ascension narrative in seven scenarios (11. see SFFII. Martinez points to the parallel in Mark 13:11 (Luke 12:12). For ev exetvy] ty] wpa see similar expressions in 1. 543— 44). 2. The ritual elements are prescriptive. It describes. Mayr. Nat. pap.272 The ancients understood that during an ecstatic seizure (“in that hour”)273 normal sense-perception ceases. 273 Cf. reads a Xk\ corrected by Preisendanz to aAAou. the m o f wpa corrected from yj (гцхера?). koyoq yvtoGiq. For Stoic teaching on the subject. Icarom. the focus is on vision o f the divine world. 544-45 (see also on the textual problem. the phrase is repeated in the following line. IV510. ascend and experience noetic sensory impressions. the similarity to Herm etic doctrines is striking (cf. 587-88. 14). 745.757 with notes. 544— Calhoun suggests that the problem 45. may be the result o f a scribal error: ev cxexvy) tq 7][[xepqc xa l xfj w]pa. 572. Franz K. 11. see 111. Cicero. 1023-57. 734.274 in the ML. O n the material as a whole.393-94.271 (“You will hear nothing either o f a hum an or o f another living being. at each o f the stages he narrates what the practitioner sees.134 Commentary (11.26). see Lucian. on the Platonic and Stoic views. 544—731) As Dieterich has observed. 541-42. nor in that hour will you see any o f the mortal affairs on earth. 609. 621. there will be higher forms o f perception (11. esp. The term a & W a forms a kind o f conclusion in 11. Cicero. “you will see”). C H 1. has тт]«ра not tt)l (Wessely). the preparatory sections lead up to a narrative o f a ritual consisting o f seven scenarios. For an improvement o f sight during Menippus’ ascension. above n.83 and Pease. on the one hand.275 Regarding the suppression o f the physical senses so that the inner self can detach. VII.23. Tiavra 8г офу] aO-avaxa. 514. 275 See 11. 274 For the enabling o f higher yv&aiq by itveujj-a/vou^ and the formula vou<. XIII. The precise relationship between the distinct elements o f 271 Pap. III. so that room was made for higher forms o f recogni­ tion. 652. 516— 539-44. D. cf.

he also repeatedly asked whether there 276 por problem o f using this technical term.II.. which he calls a “liturgy.. werden wir im einzelnen schwerlich noch nachweisen konnen.277 At any rate. what can be reconstructed is the world view which results from a confluence o f Greek ideas o f a “Stoic-Peripatetic provenience.”279 Dieterich (82— cautiously distinguished between the original “liturgy” 85) itself that can be extracted from the formula.. die Elementenlehre. 277 Dieterich (80— 81): “Es wird uns jetzt noch begreiflicher. Based on literary and archaeological evidence collected by C um ont in his collection (Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra). Der EinfluB der Stoa auf die religiosen Gebilde hellenistischer Zeit in Agypten wird immer haufiger und deutlicher erkannt. pp. Main body of the ritual (11. hineingestellt in das griechische Weltbild stoisch-peripatetischer Provenienz. and its secondary reworking by the author who uses the older Mithraic liturgy for his own construction o f a magical ritual (“Zauberritual”) designed to obtain oracular revelations. Two scholars have so far proposed detailed analyses o f the composition. since it determines the reconstruction o f the ascension ritual. which need to be considered first. D ieterich assumed some kind o f Egyptianization o f Mithraism in Egypt as part o f the general hellenization o f the native religion.. see the Introduction above. B.”276 belonging to the mystery cult o f Mithras. Diete­ rich also resisted committing himself to determining precise ritual sections which the magician may have omitted.” . Das Weltbild in dieser Ausdehnung und Spezialisierung wurde zur Konstituierung des sakramentalen Aktes eines Aufstieges der Mysten von der Erde zum hochsten Gott gebraucht. daB wir schon mehrfach gerade stoische Termini in dem Texte feststellen muBten. кбппеп wir natiirlich nicht mehr erschlieBen. waren Mithrasglaubige mit griechischen Grundanschauungen.. and Egyptian instructional wisdom. he thus regarded this “liturgy” as syncretistic in nature. 32-37. D ie diese Liturgie schufen.” the cult o f Mithras. im Mithrasdienst. o f course.” 278 Dieterich (82): “ . wie z. no longer able to trace. Dieterich argues for a formulary o f a ritual. in agyptischer Weisheit vorhanden sind.” “W ie die teilweise Agyptisierung des Mithrasdienstes vor sich gegangen ist. Aber ein gut Stuck Geschichte des Mithraskultes erfassen wir doch. containing also influences o f Stoicism as well as traces o f ancient Iranian religion. Those w ho created this liturgy were Mithras devotees who held fundamentally Greek ideas. The world view was needed to this extent and in this specialized application for the construction o f a sacramental act o f an ascen­ sion o f the initiates from the earth to the highest god. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 135 ritual and narrative constitutes the major problem for the analysis. 28— 31.” 279 Dieterich (82): “Von wo und in welcher Form sie zuerst in das so ausgebildete Mithrasmysterium kam. 2. we are. wenn wir die Schichtung der einzelnen Elemente in unserem Texte erkannt haben. und uberall ziehen sich die beiderseits parallel vorhandenen Lehren an. die so ahnlich in der Stoa.278 “From where and in which form it came into the Mithras mysteries thus developed. and thereby effects the understanding o f the text as a whole.

pi. each introduced by a prayer.<Tfji6 < eingelegt ist.” 281 For the seven stages in Mithraism. 295 (fig. cf. from which he excerpted parts. 24). Porphyry.”280 Dieterich (88— also points to literary and archaeological 92) evidence which testifies that a seven-stage ascension o f the soul through the astral world281 was part o f the Mithraic ritual. Hellenistische Wundererzahlungen (2nd ed. Another mosaic (Becatti. 1975). Mars.39— 40). Weihegrade.282 Thus. Recherches de VHellenisation philosophique de Mithra (EPRO 47.244. 13— (fig. ein a. Celsus (Origen. heralds 280 Dieterich (85): “Wenn das sicher ist. Merkelbach. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Merkelbach. 284 Origen. together with the seven planets.22: tolovSe to сшЈЈфоЛспг хл1 [Ј. 25). an атга&ал/атг... Religions­ 14.21-22. Luna. so sind die . Antr. See also Bousset. has been inserted into a magical ritual for the exploration o f the future. 5. Cels. 2: I Mitrei (Roma: Libreria dello Stato. Textes et monuments. 2. 22. 235-36. етс1 б’ аиттј тш . 22. Origen. Therefore. Cumont. Cels.7ra&a. the attribution o f subsidiary sentences or components to one or the other is relatively unimportant. figure 77 [2.63]). 24.аЕ ѕтстатгиЛо^. vol. he sees seven stages in the ritual o f the ML. Weihegrade. however. 282 Dieterich (89-92) refers to the floor mosaic in the Mithraeum in Ostia (Cumont. and Julian. c. Zuweisungen einzelner Satze von verhaltnismaBig geringer Wichtigkeit. 64-65 (fig. 1.20).стЈлб^. Mercurius. 313— idem. 2. 62— 63. Leiden: Brill. fig. See Chadwick. one cannot offer more than subjective speculations.vaTi. 114— 25. Scavi di Ostia. 58-59. ibid. 172d (Cumont. Cels. Uber die Hauptstiicke der Liturgie wird dann ein Zweifel nicht aufkommen. Saturnus. 283 For the figures and explanations. O n the side walls o f the room stand the images o f the seven planetary gods: Iupiter. see Robert Turcan. known also to Celsus (Origen. the symbols o f the zodiac. Venus. The problem with this part o f Dieterich s interpretation is that the seven stages in the ML only partly conform to the R om an Mithraic mosaics from Ostia (Mitreo delle sette sfere). 65— 68. 6 ibid. Cf. 6. and whether the author had a real “Ritualbuch” at his disposal. geschichtliche Studien. Mithras Platonicus. see Giovanni Becatti.. 5— (Cumont. Or. 1963). p. Richard 21 Reitzenstein. Most important are the represensations o f the seven gates. regard it as certain “that a genuine Mithras liturgy o f an ascension o f the soul and its immortalization. perhaps Sol on the back wall.22):284 (1) Corax (raven). plates XIX— XXV.. .136 Commentary ever was a ritual o f descension at the end. Dieterich did. 2. Merkelbach.. daB in die zur Erforschung der Zukunft ausgestaltete Zauberhandlung eine echte Mithrasliturgie der Himmelfahrt der Seele und ihrer U n s t e r b l i c h m a c h u n g . cup. Important as these questions are. Hauptprobleme.31). nymph. 25). frame the seven gates. 1954). 38). fig. 333— 36. six on each side. 22) shows a ladder-type arrangement o f seven squares with the symbols o f the grades o f initiates. Лтј оуббт). Mithras. 6. whether the whole was merely a sacramental formula to be used repeatedly. ibid. XXIV— XXV.283 O n one mosaic (Merkelbach. 24. About the major parts o f the liturgy there cannot be any doubt. idem. 6.

(2) Nymphus (destroyed). short-sword. and the spear o f Mars. the middle gate is higher and wider. Since he was initiated in a mystery cult. on its left side a raven (corax). another mosaic (fig. especially figures o f the seven grades. thunderbolt o f Jupiter. it could indeed have been an Egyptian adapta­ 285 The question o f the relationship between images and cultic functions. Mithras is not represented. The red-colored krater shows several cult symbols. diadem o f Venus. and the whip for leading the horses. and the pater is identified with Saturn. Doctrine. (6) Heliodromus. the image o f Jupiter with his thunderbolt. and on top the head of Saturn. .II. wreath rays o f the sun-god. The iconography o f these mosaics clearly reflects R om an Mithraism with its synchronization o f the seven grades and the astrological signs. however: the sixth grade is that o f the “sun-runner” (heliodromus). Beck. helmet. the three mosaics have been designed considerably differently. and Initiation in the Mysteries o f Mithras: N ew Evidence from a Cult Vessel. The seven spheres are. and holding his sickle. “Das Mainzer MithrasgefaB. Dieterich was right in assuming that at this point there is evidence o f some kind o f connection between the ML and the Mithras cult. sistrum.” Mainzer Archaologische Zeitschrift 1 (1994) 21-66. corresponding to the fourth scenario o f the ML. fire shovel. on the right side a serpent (nymphus) and a lion (leo). The side walls contain images o f a torchbearer on each side. and the symbol o f the sun-god is at a lower level as compared with a supreme god who may perhaps be Helios/Mithras. therefore. with a hanging lamp in the center. while three gates on each side are divided by columns. (5) Perses (Persian). (4) Leo (lion). Notably. (7) Pater. spear o f Mars. 485— 732) 137 wand o f Mercurius. T he author must have had some knowledge about Mithraic rituals. torch. Persian cap. which does not need to be discussed here in detail.” J R S 90 (2000) 145-80. To be sure. An identifi­ cation o f Mithras and Saturn reflects R om an adaptation. Main body of the ritual (11. cap of the Persian priest. has been reopened by the discovery o f the Mithraic cult vessel in Mainz. different from those in the ML. veiled. To conclude. the main difference is that the ML does not parallel the seven scenarios w ith the seven grades o f initiates. Further upwards are what may be water basins. however. just as ML shows Egyptian influences w hen it identifies Helios and Mithras. Myth. Also. unfortunately destroyed. and the seven planets.” Z P E 108 (1995) 1— Roger 6. sickle o f Luna. bowl and wand of the magos. a small sickle o f Luna. “Ritual. for description and color representations see Heinz Gunter Horn. The upper field shows a mixing-bowl (xpar/jp). sickle o f Saturnus. for the interpre­ tation Reinhold Merkelbach.285 At least one agreement stands out. Perhaps Helios/ Mithras occupied the eighth field which is. “Das Mainzer MithrasgefaB. lamp. Finally. 25) shows a front portal w ith seven gates. surrounded by branches and the donors inscription: Felicissimus ex votof(ecit). (3) Miles (soldier). The large middle field shows a mixing-bowl.

Orac. the appearance o f Mithras.287 According to Dieterich. 569— 85). the opening o f the sun disk. parallels have been collected by Adela Y. and vision o f the world o f the planetary gods. 59-93. frag. . esp. the appearance o f the Tu^oa. (2) Second stage (11.21:2 (1984) 1221— 87. 120. 556— 69). 693— 732). “The Seven Heavens in Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. esp. 58. 50-52. introduced by the “third” prayer to keyholding Aion and the seven planetary gods. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism. Das Alphabet. 2552. 628— 61). MA: Harvard University Press..” R A C 15 (1989) 173— 212. The apocalyptic and gnostic 85. 19. the connection between them may have come through Hellenistic syncretism or Neoplatonism. Bousset. Death. 82— for Philo see Karl 83. It should be noted that Morton Smith was one o f the first to connect the ascension through six (or seven) heavens in the Hekhalot literature with the Mithras Liturgy (“Ob­ servations on Hekhalot Rabbati. 1963]. (5) Fifth stage (11.” PRE 7 (1912) 2547— 78. 662— 92). the initiate rising to midair. 6 . 585— 628). Collins. 16.” ANRW 11. 25— Ascl. For further literature see Gruenwald. n. See Dornseiff. (7) Seventh stage (11. see C H I. the appearance o f Helios. the seven stages o f the ascension in the ML are set forth in the following manner: (1) First stage (11.” in Alexander Altman. cf.” passim. Biblical and Other Studies [Cambridge. “Himmel. Stoicismo. Des Places). Beyond this. introduced by the (first) prayer to the gods and winds in charge o f the day. “Himmelsreise der Seele. a cosmology o f seven spheres or seven heavens was shared by many cosmologies in the GrecoR om an world. 184— 202. Die Zahlenmystik bei Philon von Alexandreia (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. 142— 60). “Numerical Sym­ bolism in Jewish and Early Christian Apocalyptic Literature. 152. Staehle. but it could have been just as well some other mystery cult which had appropriated Mithraic elements. introduced by the (fourth) prayer to Helios. opening o f the gates. (3) Third stage (11. 178. Chald. introduced by the (seventh) prayer to Mithras. “Hebdomas. see Alberto Grilli. the appearance o f the pole lords. At each stage the ascending initiate is shown what Dieterich calls “liturgical pictures” (“liturgische Bilder”). 39— 50. 26. introduced by the (sixth) prayer to the pole lords. 164 (ed. (4) Fourth stage (11. Hans Bietenhard and A dolf Lumpe.286 wherein the num ber seven as such possessed sacred and magical potency.” in Collins & Fishbane. While a dependency o f these texts upon each other is unlikely. 1992). eadem. introduced by the (fifth) prayer to the Tu^oa. 33— 35. the initi­ ate rising to before the gates.138 Commentary tion o f Mithraism. The identification of the significance o f these 286 For literature and passages. On the importance o f the number seven in philosophy. introduced by the “second” prayer. 544-55). see Franz Boll. 1931). epicureismo e letteratura (Brescia: Paideia. 287 Frequent in the PGM. (6) Sixth stage (11. For Hermetism. ed.

Correctly. wie schon ofter. Jedes solche Bild ist einmal fur eine Zeit voile Wahrheit und Wirklichkeit gewesen.” Ibid. nur nach dem Bilde der Formen irdischer Beziehung der Wesen und Dinge zueinander kann er das ersehnte Unwirkliche gestalten. als es die Formeln und Handlungen des Kultus sind: der Kultus bewahrt so viel reiner und urspriinglicher die Tatsachen der wirklichen Religiositat als der Mythus. 95: “Wenn ich nun die R eihe der Bilder. Dieterich’s bitter complaint (29— 30). At this point (94— D ieterich’ discussion offers no more than 95) s a cautious and suggestive sketch.” Cf. daB durch Anfiihrung von Analogien und Parallelen keinerlei Abhangigkeitsverhaltnis zwischen dem einen und dem anderen Kulte auch nur prajudiziert werden soli. as he expected forthcoming negative criti­ cism o f his daring ideas. such pictures played a major role in ancient cultic procedures. zu erlautern und zwar hauptsachlich durch Analogien in der eigentlichen Bedeutung und dem urspriinglichen Zusammenhang verstandlich zu machen versuche.II.” .” 291 Ibid. According to him.. echte und treu bewahrte Formen religiosen Denkens anzutreffen. mich in dem zu widerlegen. 173— praises Dieterich’s idea concerning cult images as one o f his major achievements. was ich unter liturgischen Bildern verstehe.. alongside words and actions.291 (4) the significance o f sequences or 288 Ibid. these ideas can be substantiated by a wealth o f material unearthed by archaeologists and interpreted by historians o f art and religion. die Miihe. Und jedes solche Bild —das habe ich bereits am Anfang meiner Untersuchungen betont. however. In other words. intertwined with words and actions. 74) 289 Dieterich (94): “Es wird klar sein. 95: “Wo uns solche Bilder in einem Denkmale einer festen und immer wiederholten Kultaktion vorliegen.” Cf. In this sense one may compare the scenarios w ith the gallery o f pictorial symbols in the mosaics from Ostia. mag es noch so sehr nur als Bild in seiner Umgebung erscheinen. in denen die Mithrasliturgie die Vereinigung des Menschen mit Gott gestaltet und aufgefaBt zeigt. 95: “Man macht sich ja trotz meiner deutlichen Erklarungen vermutlich wieder. Reitzenstein (HMR. in effect freezing the major parts o f a ritual. da кбппеп wir am ersten erwarten. Main body of the ritual (11.. Nichts ist konservativer. Nur im Bilde ihm bekannter Vorgange kann er das Unbekannte erschauen. Basically. 290 Ibid. So geschieht aller Fortschritt des Denkens. They are genuine but stylized repre­ sentations o f cultic scenarios. 485— 732) 139 pictures was one o f the major contributions of Dieterichs work (92-95). the seven scenarios constitute a gallery o f pictures which together contain the complete program o f an ascension for the initiated reader o f the text. four ideas deserve to be singled out: (1) the constitutive role o f paintings in the performance o f rituals. um die Aufmerksam der Leser auf diese Bilder zu lenken — jedes Bild. was ich nie habe beweisen wollen. 94: “Menschliches Denken kann das Verhaltnis des Menschen zur Gottheit nicht anders auffassen denn nach der Analogie menschlicher Verhaltnisse. not to m ention the cultic program depicted on the Mithraic reliefs and frescoes. through which the initiate will remember the actual performances he or she participated in. his remarks at p. war einmal der Ausdruck eigentlichster religioser Anschauung. so muB ich nochmals ausdriicklich bemerken.290 (3) the analogical nature of the pictures showing the unknown through the medium of the known. 26.288 Today. auch des religiosen Denkens..289 (2) the conservative function o f such pictures.

which reflects mainly Stoicizing ideas about cosmology and astrology. Treating the “Pschai-Aion-Liturgie” in the same volume295 alongside the god-of-nine-forms (svvsajjiopcpo^) ..300 292 Ibid. Abrasax. 95: “Es kommt mir nur darauf an. Merkelbach (Abrasax . soweit die moglichst vollstandig herangezogenen Fragmente dieser anderen erkennen lassen. mit denen diese und andere antike Liturgien. 466. the ML and PGM XIII. 6 6 . In other words. See the glossary in Betz. predominant in the Leiden cosmogony (PGM XIII). 28-29. Merkelbach accepts D ieterich’s idea o f a “ritual. although Dieterich s influence is obvious enough. in which the practitioner ritually produces ecstatic experiences of a visionary nature. vol. G M PT . 296 Ibid. what he names the “Pschai-Aion-Liturgie” is interpreted throughout as a text of Egyptian religion. Also. 28: “Diese Gedanken sind in ein Ritual transponiert. another great god o f Alexandria.. eine Bilderreihe in ihren Zusammenhangen aufzuweisen. are rather different and cannot be harmonized as Merkelbach does. 297 Ibid. he argues.” 300 For examples o f such tricks..293 Consequently. to be sure. die die einzelnen Gruppen der Bilder stellen. 25-28. . including theatri­ cal tricks to bring about “magical” effects. . 34— 35.59— 68: “Pschai-Agathos-Daimon und der Neungestaltige.292 In short. 29-32. 56-58. .. 299 Ibid.294 He then identifies the god Pschai-Aion o f this liturgy w ith Sarapis-Aion. Dieterich conceives o f the liturgy as an imaginative performance. 60-65. D ie Probleme.298 This world view. 173) compares the performance with theatrical and cinematic special effects. 298 Ibid.” See also the Introduction. He describes at length the basic world view o f late antique astral religion.. see ibid. The name occurs in XIII.”299 which was performed m uch like a drama in a theater. 3.. 3) provides in his commentary a rather different analysis.6 8 .156.. ihren religiosen Gedankengehalt gedeckt haben. In der Zeremonie wird ein Gedanke der stoischen Philosophen ubernommen und in ein Kultspiel umgesetzt. habe ich weder losen konnen noch w o lle n __ ” 293 On this god.. O ther problems concern Merkelbach s theory o f the origin o f the ML. 25-28. 330..296 Merkel­ bach obtains a broad comparative basis for his construction o f an Alexandrian “synthetic” deity named Abrasax.” he denies any connection with the Mithras cult and associates it w ith the Alexandrian god Pschai-Aion. see Merkelbach.” but he postulates a realistic performance. Already Reitzenstein (H M R. both texts.. 295 Ibid. 294 Ibid. ” See also 39-40: “D ie religiosen Gedanken werden in heiligem Spiel dargestellt . has been “transposed into a ritual. stemming from hellenized Egypt and influenced by Platonic and Stoic ideas.297 The problem with this combination is that o f the divine names assembled only Aion occurs in the ML.140 Commentary galleries o f pictures interpreting each other and the whole. Although he calls the text a “liturgy. above.

remain entirely speculative. ty)<. only this was to them clear enough.) mentions the technical term а. x a l wpa q wpovofxov. see III. W hat was put before their eyes in a sacred play became a reality to be grasped w ith one’s ow n hands.302 The practitioner has now been el­ evated to midair (1. B. 3. G G R 2. 37— 41. The fortuitous day and hour have been determined (11. has TY](opa. x al тује? topac. idem.303 identifying the constellation o f the stars o f the day and the hour. for which see 1.401— 611. Yjfjtipai.”301 1. Nilsson. “Even a pious Stoic w ould not have needed a special ceremony to demonstrate the immortalization o f the breath o f life.” Merkelbach (Abrasax .атро$га1<х.1648— X X X V II. 266-74. Pap. Later the ritual will have been adapted. 543) by a horoscope. 61— Ernst Maass. Franz Boll. crit. because they have no basis in the text themselves.II.” PRE 7 (1912) 2547-78. Words only w ould have been to them something merely theoretical and incomprehensible. esp. w from wpa may be corrected from 7) (= 7]({jii)pa).18— 96. Thus. Otto Neugebauer and H. app. 40. which in Egypt was often the same. First scenario: the planetary deities (11. Wilhelm and Hans Georg Gundel. 516. “Hebdomas. Gundel. 5 4 4 -5 5 ) The first scenario assumes that the ascent has reached its first stage: ’Офт) yap £xetv/)<. .497— Wolfgang Hiibner.237) takes this to be the new birth constellation o f the initiate. 1902). so that it could be used for initiations o f lower ranks.epov Yjfxepai. 39— The translation o f the quotations is mine. geneis. philosophically speaking the immortality o f the rcveufxa existed w ithout ceremony. They were not satisfied by expressing their ideas through words. “Stundengotter.” PRE 8 (1913) 2411-14. they transposed their ideas into per­ formances. identifying with y evzaiq. 47. crit. $el<xv &ectlv (“for you will see the divine constellation on that day and hour”). “Planeten. app. 271— Wilhelm Gundel. “star constella­ tion. “Zwei griechische Texte iiber 98. 540). 26. esp.” For w hom was the drama performed? “The drama must have been conceived and composed for a person o f high rank__ ” Originally it was “a ceremony o f consecration for a priest o f high rank or even a king. 1959). For discussion see Dieterich. “Horo72. IV. Die Tagesgotter in Rom und in den 62. 31. Weltbild und Astrologie. Greek Horoscopes (Princeton: Princeton University Press. 304 On the gods o f the days and the hours.” H B V K 12 (1913) 100— Idem. Provinzen: Aus der Kultur des Niederganges der antiken Welt (Berlin: Weidmann.304 301 302 Ibid. 2151. van Hoesen. Main body of the ritual (11. 303 Dieterich (7.. this constellation is to rule over his rebirth and further life.” PRE 20 (1950) 2017-2185. But primitive people had an immense need o f bringing their thoughts and hopes to expression by play. however. and what occurred visibly in the play was to them as good as reality. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 141 W ho then produced this “sacred drama”? Merkelbach offers some sugges­ tive ideas which. 651— t o v 52: cry]p. 2560. so Preisendanz. Astrologumena.

307 That these gods will appear through the sun-disk is a strange com m ent. 61.-Plato (Philip o f Opus). 216. 1. 539. 576.”). izokoq occurs often in the PGM (see IV.. 44. Dieterich (62) refers to Plato. and others setting”). Theophrastos’ Schrift tiber die Frommigkeit (Berlin: Hertz. Dieterich (62): “Unmittelbar danach erwahnt der Papyrus einen merkwiirdigen Anblick. 515. 556. 656. 2. 306 See also XIII. Ignatius. XIV. In Philo the terminology is frequent. cpavYjCTsxai (“N ow the course o f the visible gods will appear through the disk o f the god. Hans Georg Gundel and Alois Kehl. брато^. 308 Differently. Der Weg der Planeten erscheint durch die Sonne. aXXou? 8e xaTa(3alvovxa<. R om 1:20.2. s. BDAG.656). Smyrn. 6— 7. 536. 3°5 por term mc)stly introducing other stages. he is told that he will have his first vision (otprj. crit. with small gates above them. man sieht. 579-80. 583. cf. 83. 624. and Karl Kerenyi. s. for Christian literature. ) &eou. Fauth. See Boll.v.931a.3. 35: 310 For this epithet o f Helios see also 11. “Vater Helios.” Erjb 10 (1943) 81— 124.309 addressed here by the epithet “my father” (тсатѓјр jjlou). Epin. also IV. from Porphyry. &eoL) are the stars. in 11 579— the sun serves as a kind o f gate.26-28). my father.34— 7)Xl6Slctxo(J.” See also 1 En.29): . “Hebdomas. In the planetary week. Helios Megistos.142 Commentary At this point. 41. d. 307 Cf. 13 (ed. 1954) 368— 70. through which the stars appear (атго . T he sun-disk is o f course Helios. Theophrastus.142. for the Hermetica. Exc. 152. h. Col 1:16. the reader is shown a verbal picture which focuses on two ele­ ments. in the direction o f the east. Cf. “Horoskop. 40d: &eol opaxoi. 11. XIII. 567. Abst. 238.2. 702. 7. 635. see Jacob Bernays. Ps. and I saw there open gates o f heaven..306 M ore specifically.v. 1134: jaLipexz.21. Gundel.213.310 die Tages.308 unless the author describes a pictorial representation in which the sun illuminates the course o f the stars. 33:3 and the references in the notes by S.” Z P E 49 (1982) 53— Merkelbach. 36 ( O T P 1. See also Wis 13:1-9. 722. T D N T 5 (orig. cf.77— 66. “you will see”).. 309 For the Slcjxo? see 11.821b. JSHRZ 5:6. Preisendanz’s (app.. 535. these are the gods who control and fix the days and the hours. 557. 551. та Trocvxa asplwv elSwAwv тсуеијлата. 846: тгоЛохратмр. IV. Tim. der dem Aufsteigenden werden soli. IV.305 T he objects o f his vision are described first in a general way: xou? TtoAeuovxa? ava(3odvovTa? el c. see 11. Abrasax. 569-71. oupavov &eou<. The first o f these describes the way o f the gods through the sun-disk (11. 252.) alternative suggestion to read op (?) in light o f 11. see C H IV 1. also Leg. тсатро? jjlou. Trail. (“the presiding gods arising into heaven. XXIII. 718.676. Potscher.” R A C 16 (1994) 597-662. 1866). 6:1. 571. V10. Piet. VII. 693. wie er durch die Sonne geht__ ” Cf. 5:2. 3. аорато<.und Stundenherrscher. Weltbild und Astrologie. XIII. . 461. Through one o f these small gates pass the stars o f heaven and travel westward on the path which is shown to them. 82 тои бсахои). According to philosophical cosmology the “visible gods” (ol optojjievot. cf. Uhlig. 984d.” PRE 7 (1912) 2560. 1 En.. for further literature Wilhelm Michaelis. 547— 49): Y бе nopetoi twv optofjtivoov &eo5v Sia тои б1стхои. Frag.

17]).. 11.238) w ho refers to parallel texts in Lucian. Regarding (1).311 D ieterich’s interpretation (62-64). it is obvious that the beginning lines o f the hymn to Helios shares some language with the ML: aepocpot/nrjTwv avqacov гпоуоиџ. translating it “Glutwindrohre.. 12 A 21 [1.a cttojjllou to тгир wcrrcep 8: бих тсру]сгтгјро<.-K. Cf. avejxou. the “pipe” became part o f the image that the author o f the ML describes. even to adventurous speculations. the origin o f the ministering wind.1 (355. Seneca.90.1 (Diels.10— .-K. Doxographi. 355.a.b.21-22: e'/rrjxoi jxlocv ex 7tvot)v oiov тгртјстттјро^ auAov.87. idem. and a hanging wind-bag__ ” Fantastic is Carl Gustav Jung ( Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido. Icar. Placitis.ou т?ј<.436-66).314 There can hardly be any doubt that Anaximan­ der’ cosmology.-K.28-34]).24. аирац. офг] yap arco tou ] Slctxou w? auXov xpsfxafxevov. Regarding (2).87.1).1 (374.87.eH7rvo7]< ocTcoxXeiofxevou (D.оЃ бе x al o 55) ц xaXoupi£vo<. 312 Dieterich. the added comment “so-called” (xaXoufxevoi.24-36]). 12 A 22 [1. 549— is also strange: ојј.2 (354. tou ctto[ju.TOupyouvTO<. n.”312 According to Aetius. 2.аиХо<.21— 22): exovTa [xiav extcvoyjv olov тгрујстт^рос. 348. 93— 95).. transmitted by Stoic sources. Main body of the ritual (11.-K. durch welche das Feuer strome w ie durch einen осиЛо^ тгртјатгјро?. Nat. tou тсиро<.20— 21]). See also D. he points to two texts: (1) a fragment o f Anaximander. III.. Apoll. 367). n. St.25.7— . also Seneca. 62. Nat.1 (Diels. 3.” 313 Aetius..”) This part o f the vision has given rise to much discussion. a passage already mentioned by Dieterich (62.87. in particular the winds on Mithraic monuments.7.20. (“And in a similar way the so-called pipe. 3): “One sees ‘pipe’ or ‘flute’. 2: “Anaximander nahm an der Sonne und dem Monde eine Offnung an. “which in part appears through an opening like through a heat pipe. Y apx?) тои Xet.14) report about 24 the Indians that they let out the winds from ajar (o tmv avefjiwv nLQ-oc.3— 4): . 485— 732) 143 T he second focus o f the picture (11. idem. Before getting to these monuments. 314 See Aetius. however. for you will see it hanging from the disk like a pipe. 12 B 4 (1. for whom the hanging pipe is —what else? —a phallus. analogous to the bag (астхо^) o f Aeolus.). St. Philostratus’ ( Vit.) seems to indicate that “the pipe” has become a kind o f traditional image among those familiar w ith this material. 26. this expression comes from the cosmology o f Anaximander which contained a description o f the sun as being full o f fire. 12 A 23 [1. Beitrage zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Denkens [Leipzig & Wien: Deuticke. II. Doxographi. and (2) some lines in a hymn to Helios (PGM IV. Also. H e recognizes that some sort o f image is being described. for which he refers to monuments o f ancient art.b. 348. 11. 1912].a. “heat pipe. is most careful and contains im portant clues. Doxographi. 3 11 So Merkelbach (Abrasax .II. 12 A 23— [1. better still a double-flute (бс.” He refers to Diels. аиХо^ тгртјсттујрск. auAov (D.18 (D. By implication. аиЛои.гчос.a.l9— 22). the doxographical summary o f„Anaximanders cosmology by Aetius contains an expression.”313 This pipe is also the source of thunderstorms and winds. 3.18 (D. is the origin o f the mysterious s “pipe” in the ML. .-K. Placitis III.3. 2. auXo?. cf.).

6. 319 This view was common in antiquity and the European Middle Ages. puzzling. 322 Cumont (Textes et monuments.419 (index. which he adduces. 90 (p. 1. Die altesten Weltkarten (6 vols. 75. 342— 43). Steuding.321 Perhaps. 34:1. 70— idem.319 but none o f the reliefs shows a pipe.10: Venti. 2.. in Betz. 8 (1958) 2211— 14. 41:4. 511— Franz Cumont.. G M P T 46. etc. .. Cf. 1. where he sees the heads o f the wind gods blowing into pipes. wie es Cumont mehrfach bezeichnet (I 95). see also his Isis Regina.. U hlig. Mappae mundi.1606— 1957— VIII.74— X II. Cf.323 315 Trans. 319). The hymn states com m on tradition. 118. gewohnlich blasen diese Kopfe in ein Rohr. Franz Cumont’ comprehensive essay. he relied on a quotation from Arnobius. w ho turn in lofty paths around the great p o le . also the interest by the apocalypticists in the origin o f the winds (e. 6 8 . 76:1-14. nymph. 2387. 653-56.94— 95): “Le caractere particulier de chacun des Vents est rendu avec une certaines precision.. “W inde. 457. and Porphyry. et soufflant dans dans une trompe allongee. Paris: Geuthner. Gundel. w ho wield the flame s unresting fire. ad loc. but neither this nor other hymn fragments speak about “pipes. 91 (p. 58. 10). Preisendanzs reference (app. for the musical instrument o f 7. 146-76: “Les vents dans la sculpture funeraire”. аШ ? XXXVI. 3. 316 Dieterich (63— 64) relied on Cumont (Textes et monuments.” in Roscher. “Les vents et les anges psychopompes.v. Ils y etaint representes par quatre personnages nos . Reihe. 320 Dieterich (63): “ ..”315 As for the Mithraic monuments.v. Adv. with parallels. n. 29. 116 (pp.94— 95).” 321 Also. “W inde. 206— 228— 7.. 336). 95.” ibid. (“Borne on the breezes o f the wand ring winds.g. Roeder. 26. eine Art Trichter..”).144 Commentary "HXls ^риаохбрлх. Antr. 337)..” in Klauser 17.. see S. Recherches sur le symbolismefuneraire des Remains (BAH 35.316 Vermaseren..” In his notes (94. golden-haired Helios.. because the monuments themselves do not show evidence o f heads blowing into pipes. crit. Stuttgart: Roth.87. die une trompe allongee blasen. “Les vents dans la sculpture funeraire” s (see above. Cumont adduces Arnobius. s. by Edward N. 159. fig. i En. 323 The work named is by Konrad Miller.322 Finally. “W ind37) 11. 1895— 98). Winds. see the articles by G. For the winds see also IV. hominumformae sunt bucinarum animantes tortus intestinis et domesticis jlatibus. Pisciculi. 318 See Merkelbach. and figures 74 (pp..320 The nature o f C um ont s explanation is. 381.. index. nat. s. “wind”). n. 101 (p.. 228bis c) sind es Rundfiguren. Welthild und Astrologie. al&epLouai трф оад fjtiyav noXov a^t-sXiaawv . it is evident from the collections by C um ont. 317 Vermaseren. On Helios sending out the winds. O ’N eil. Dieterich s starting point. A uf der Stele von Carnuntum (mon. 133. This is true especially o f the stele of Carnuntum . vol. entonnoir.. 324— 25). 18:2. 356. 13— Robert Boke. Mithras. Lexikon 6 (1924— 508— H.) to old world maps showing the windpipes turns out to be inconclusive. gotter. 354— 55).. does not offer evidence o f the pipes.317 and Merkelbach318 that the four winds are repre­ sented as heads o f deities blowing air from the four corners o f the world. n.” PRE 2. 75.JSH R Z 5:6 [1984] 547. 197. however. 10. CIM R M . 1942). 238. Sienwv <pKoyoq axajxaxov 7iup. OTP. & Rucker.

163): “dann wirst du sehen. IV. 3175. you will see the turn-about o f the image [scil. see 11.” Cf. 76 (O T P 1.214. 837. IV. Riess. Cf. and rain. for the east wind (ата)Х«от7]?. the pipe]. Latin subsolanus). 555-56) is especially controversial. Main body of the ritual (11. III. бфу) tyjv arcocpopav тои брајлато?.55— 56). my translation follows Festugiere: ". and changes in the direction o f the pipe produces changes in the wind. 557.642. revolution o f untiring service by (the) elements” (my translation). however.29): “There (also) I saw 3 three open gates o f heaven. E. dirigee en fait du cote de l’Ouest. T he meaning o f the concluding statement (11.” JE A 26 (1940) 53. especially.105. thus they omit ou. 55 which serves as “the origin o f the ministering w ind.327 the one pipe is their sole source.9][ла. x al o етероq opoLcbq el q t a [херт] та exelvou. 326). en tant que vent d’Est.330 ycdpe.xa 7rveu|JiaTa eiq Siaxovlav a 7ioGTeXX6 [X£va. 326 Translators differ considerably at this point. there is. its function being “service” (XeiToupyeiv). 1605. eav fj xexXY]pwfjtivoq el q xa [Аерт] xou а7ст]Хиотои. 325 Cf..b. n. not the usual four. 327 For the southwest wind (Х1ф.” It is im portant to note that there is only one wind. VII.” (1.” 324 .Toupyt. axoiysicov ахотшхтои Xei/roupyla? This term occurs only here in the ML. Festugiere (see above. but when they blow with force through the (two) other gates. 552. snow. through each one o f the (gates) the winds proceed in the northwesterly direction. and in the same way the other [west wind going] toward the regions o f that one [scil. 137. w hen it is assigned to the regions o f the east.. dew. who punctuates o?ov. also 1 En. VIII. XXXVI.9 XIII. The verb 7 xXrjpouv points to the “assigned” station.”)326 In view o f the importance o f the directions o f these winds elsewhere in the PG M . wie diese Vision wieder entschwindet. 860. 329 So Dieterich: “so wirst du in ahnlicher Weise die Umdrehung (Fortbewegung) des Gesichtes sehen”.II. VIII. Preisendanz: “das Bild (der Aulosrohre) gewendet sehen”. 994 (& cy)Xiw[tix<x]). 485— 732) 145 In 11 550— the author moves on to explain the functions o f “the pipe.329 or to the “removal” o f the sight altogether. they blow violence and sorrow upon the earth. si la direction assignee est du cote de l”Est.642. 113. 1603. en ce cas le vent oppose (le vent d’Ouest) se portera semblablement vers cette region: tu verras le mouvement tournant de l’image. XXII. Critical and Explanatory on the Greek Magical Papyri.). 823. Latin Africus) see PGM. 2436..552— 54. 3. aTCYjAuonrjv eav. 111. where twelve winds and their gates are described. 556 pap. reads офт] сти бѕ. “Notes.” Cf. 827.325 (“Toward the regions o f the west [it is the source of] the unending east wind. 105. I En. 3183. Meyer: “you will see the reverse o f the sight” (9.26. the east].10. n. a l’infini. 34:2— (O T P 1. 328 In 1. a close parallel in IV.304— 5). In Heb 1:14 angels are described as Xst.58. Through one gate they blow good things.324 The following lines provide more details o f that service: el q 8s та ^ерт) та npoq Хфа artepavTOV olov aiTYjXiwryjv. hail.” referring to the change o f direction o f the image. XIII.541 (&m)Xiurixou).28. 330 So Merkelbach (Abrasax.328 The term атсофора can mean “turn­ ing about.332— kn eveyaaq аито si q awpou р.” . which Dieterich (7) and Preisendanz take to be a possible dittography o f 1. V. “taking it [the package] 33: away to the grave o f someone untimely dead. frost. 855. 1127: “Hail. when it blows cold..

W hat is in focus now is the hostile nature of the planetary gods which are “staring at him ” (axsvl^eiv)331 and “moving against him ” (бр[хаст^ас). lines 7— B 11. the second scenario takes place at the same cosmic stage o f the planetary deities (cf. referring to underworld “guards” attempting to hold up and prevent initiates from entering into the Fields o f the Blessed (Texts B 1. esp. § 247— (Schafer. where avxcorcr\ai \xoi ([the god] “looked at m e”) results in an ecstatic vision. C H 1. the second scenario presumes the same location as previously: бфт] бе axevL^ovxai. . (1942) 818-20 with notes. 557.. “Archon. I was carried through all the elements.. especially. 92. §§ 1— p. Robert McL. esp. Ascensio Isaiae (2 vols. 629. 399— 419. he would merely shift his focus to another part o f the picture.. richteten sie ihre Augen auf mich. 335 In Gnosticism.. 6. 226— 27. 4): 27 2.. Asc.” in: Fritz Graf. ed. CChr. If the authors vision is informed by iconography.335 (Greek version).Tod . 9.332 The scenario s brief description o f the threatening nature o f the planetary deities during ascension refers to a m otif known in a variety o f forms from ancient Greek religion. X XX VI. “Als die Fiirsten der Merkava und die Serafim der Feuerflamme mich sahen. the “archons” attack Jesus and the redeemed on their ascension. 657. 392— 98. Griffiths. T h W N T 4 58. 1. Second scenario: the threat o f the planetary gods (II. also IV3218. 148. In other words. (“And you will see the gods intently staring at you and rushing at you”). Lucian. 2. Aune.” ibid. 9. 11.449— (commentary. “Initiation . s cf. see Gruenwald. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. Isa. the Orphic-Dionysiac gold tablets.SA 7— Turnhout: 8.” See § 39 and Hekhalot Rabbati. 571. Sogleich schreckte ich zuriick. 336 For texts and interpretation.333 Hellenistic mystery cults334 and Gnostic litera­ ture. bibliography). ‘“ Der Erde Kind bin ich und des gestirnten Himmels’. Hans Dieter Betz. Metam. 332 See for this term 11. tou? &eou<. 333 See. Brepols. 1977)..7. Isa. Hekhalot Rabbati). San Francisco: Harper & Row. 191— (on 3 99 Enoch). Schafer ( Ubersetzung. 402— repr. 33— 37 (on 1 Enoch 14-15: passing through fiery flames). 58 87— (on Hekhalot Zutrati. 547-48..23— mentions “passwords” for passing through. 3. 1995).”).£vou<. 53— (on Asc. 544-47). Hauptprobleme. Apuleius. aoc. erzitterte. esp. 2.. lines 9— 11. 51 10. fiel lang h in . Wilson. David 80.6. 567. after which I returned. 334 See Apuleius. Isa. Ubersetzung. For passages and literature see Bousset. On the whole motif. 9— Gunther Bornkamm. and my Lukian. Beobachtungen zur Kommunikationssituation und narrativen Technik der orphisch-bakchischen Goldblattchen.” D D D 82— 85.23: accessi confinium mortis et calcato Proserpinae limine per omnia vectus elementa remeavi.Unterwelt. ed. Ver. also Hellenismus und Urchristentum. Zur Lehre vom Menschen in den orphischen Goldplattchen. 3222.1. 359— 98. 163. hist. Enrico Norelli. 171— 244.335 and Jewish apocalypticism and mysticism. 150— 89 52.336 331 This term is almost technical in the PGM. in Antike und Christentum. Apocalyptic and Merkabah Mysticism. (“I approached the boundary o f death and treading on Proserpine’ threshold. lines 5— B 10. lines 5— B 2. 2.: threat by angels).. 11. 1. Gnosis: The Nature and History of Gnosticism (trans.220— 48 22). 11). 712. 296— 303. 556. Kurt Rudolph. See in the ML 11. 693. For the texts see Christoph Riedweg. Cf. 55 6 -6 8 ) Connected by бе and the reference to vision (бфтј).146 Commentary 2. Asc. 185— 86. x al i n i a t 6p[xto[Ji.268.

in the present context the gesture symbolizes silence. however. Does the child have the finger in or on the mouth? Is the gesture suggesting silence or adoption? The evidence is far from clear. Har­ pocrates. Isis gave him the finger instead o f her breast. the question is which ritual the text envisions. 146— reports the story that the theurgist Heraiskos was born with his finger 49) grown into his lip.338 According to Plutarch (Is.v. Metam. to be preferred. Dimitri Meeks. Trans. ctu£x(3oAov &eou £tovxo<. which suggests a different meaning. Pyramidentexte. Bonnet.” R A C 16 (1992) 579. 557. s. 343 The CTtyTj-Logos seems to be the second prayer after 11. Bonner. Isid. 628. acp&apxoir <puXa£ov jxs. # # 104— (Bibl. 558-60) comes the recitation o f the спут}-Logos. Main body of the ritual (11. 338 See for representations Betz. GieBen: Topelmann. as with Horos and Helios before him. Abrasax. Betz. R A R G . in 11.57]). 83. for the signifance in miracle stories Bultmann. Lat. esp. 582. 8eE. nn. This ritual occurs only here in the PGM. G M PT .6 бе tw cjTOfxaxt tov SocxtuXov sy e i rcepixeLjxevov e^efjiuQlac. William Brashear.” Kairos 5 (1963) 18— 40.341 that it has to be perform ed immediately is typical o f many other rituals as well. It is Egyptian in origin.340 The right finger is. 623. sophi quomodo iudicaverint de precibus (R W 4. 224— see also his comments. 339 Griffiths (Plutarch. eu&ui. the initiate is ordered to perform a protective ritual (11. 638. 9. s. ed. 5. Michel. H ST . Plutarch.10. PGM III. 35 “Harpokrates. Os. 225. o f course. 64-65. Cf. 6 . This and other attesta­ tions show the common understanding o f the sign (Varro. Studies. “Das Gefahrdungsmotiv bei der Himmelsreise in der jiidischen Apokalyptik und ‘Gnosis’. Cf. 327) comments critically on a theory advocated by Maspero who took this ritual to symbolize adoption.1. 1214c. 11. Serge Poulin. 341 See for the preference o f the right side. 38.ioq.337 As told in the ML. “Finger. but a mark was left for the rest o f his life. it occurs also. n.ov). see Johann Maier. Is. 2. 36).28). 573— 578.II. 535— 25.” L A 2 (1977) 1003— Tran Tam Tinh.122. “Horos. The finger had to be separated by surgery. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 147 Faced w ith the threat. Ling. however. “Harpokrates. 755— 57. 275. in slightly different form. 74. 6 8 (378B-C): St.343 a prayer cited in full: aiyr\ спутѓ] crrpr). 4:2 (1988) 242-66. Catullus. 929— 930 (with references).4. 1320c. index. 342 See 11. 4. o f Harpocrates having his finger on the mouth ('ApnoxpaxYjv e^ovxa STtl axo[xaxo? [xo Saxxu]Xt. s. inLQzc. Ovid. having an analogy in the m otif o f the child Harpocrates with his finger in the m outh. 576. Betz. 157. 49. supposedly putting the finger into his m outh. 579. Karl GroB.” R A C 7 (1969) 909-46..57 [LCL 5. Zintzen. BDAG.342 N ext (11. see Sethe. 557— 58). 16). Lukian. Bertrand Jaeger. in an 8 Egyptian context. 107.707— speaks.” L IM C 4:1 (1988) 415-45. 238) suggests that the initiate wants to imitate Harpocrates. 340 Merkelbach (Abrasax.339 W hatever the “original” meaning may be. as a symbol o f reserve and silence”. 484-537. Se^iov SocxxuXov £7il to ctxojjloc (“but you at once put your right finger on your m outh”). £u9-ew<. 1907). 4. Griffiths.). 724.692. Lukian. involving first a gesture: сти бе su&eto<. Metam. Os. Gemmen. §§ 663c.. Merkelbach. n. Odo . For Harpocrates’ finger on the mouth as a sign o f silence see Plutarch.v. See Heinrich Schmidt. Damascius (Vit.v. 3— BDAG. 337 The child Harpocrates/Horus with the finger in the mouth is shown already in the Pyramid texts. Veteres philo75. Apuleius. x a l аштсг^ au[x(3oAov (“For this reason does he hold his finger fixed on his mouth.

Wort. 18. 786. 1.und sachgeschichtliche Studie.2. Mich. 2311. “SYMBOAON. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1. (“the living imperishable god”). (jufi. IV. 6— 24— William Schoedel.а храиутј^.. oStexvov). so as to explain what “living” means (see below. Pieter W van der Horst. Revelation.347 Casel. 25. 90. 347).56. 344 In commenting on this translation. the second is a theological formula using two attributes: (o) &eo<. Ein spatantikes Goldamulett mit christlichem Exorzismus und verwandte Texte (Beitrage zur Altertumskunde 124. 243. 9-sou гкрау& г]. 1976). IV.766. N H C VI.6oAov and auvQTjfxa. oStexvov. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 294— 44. 308.31 (and passim). For gnostic parallels. 14. 105-6. line 19).79. cf. see IV959. see Heinrich Schlier. 1929). C H 1. but this is by no means evident. s. 2292. xal EixprjfAYicFov). the epithet aufxpoXov (“you are a symbol”) indicates the status o f silence as that o f a “symbol. n. Actually.701. see Riedweg. VII. . Hellenismus und Urchristentum. See Dieterich.148 Commentary v ty fiz i p i)av[JLsXou. 799 [BzA 120. 8:2. 45— 47. 883.). see Dieterich. $5v а<р&осрто<. 22.30— XIII.102. Aune. Apuleius. 16 (Tjauxacrov.10). Ascl. 2. 98.”346 this first invocation is different in that there is no name but only two epithets.”)344 The threefold invocation calls forth a deity by that name. 28.1782. where Christ is called God’ Xoyoq. 1919). Antike und 53. 19:1. Martinez proposes instead: “symbol o f the god who lives incorruptible” (Baptizedfor Our Sakes: A Leather Trishagionfrom Egypt (P. 346 According to Preisendanz (app.238) believes that the epithet comes from the LXX (Tobit 13:2. Wis 12:1: to yap a<p&apTov crou 7tVEup. Ancient Mysteries. XII..228. III. Eduard Vischer. Since in the first invoca­ tion no other name is given. 1999). 233. 1985).” in his Griechische Studien (ed. for silence generating silence IV. стгрѓ). appended by схср&арто^..2. Christentum.345 For exactly this s reason. 198. GieBen: Topelmann. 18. Magn. 3. Martinez. Hymn 5. On aufj. D e philosophorum graecorum silentio mystico (R W 16. rather than a name. 3.10-15. 16.945. the matter is more complicated. the epithet occurs in the N T as well.).823. Cf. 2322. 1— Griffiths. Guard me.” classified as “symbol”.87. Eph. Silence! N E C H T H E IR TH A N M E L O U . Silence is to be thus addressed. IX. Betz. The Epistles of Ignatius (Hermeneia. because there are two invocations. Burkert. 142. David G. n. see also 1. 64 n.” B 11 (397. Baptized.(3oAa and ovofxaxa are needed in invocations (see III. 238-39. esp.[3oAa is now attested on the gold tablet from Western Sicily (3rd c. 100. “Silent Prayer in Antiquity. 347 For the epithet o £wv Szoq. His translation.” Numen 41 (1994) 1— (with 15 bibl.609. 204.12. See also the peculiar passages in Ignatius. 38). because it is the manifestation o f the deity’ presence. 213— 256— Walter Miiri. 1553. the first o f which is “silence. VII.v. 2304. see Thomas Gelzer et al. for commanding silence III. 12— 15. ad loc. 1038. Lamella Bernensis. ѓто сл-угј? npoe'AQwv. 58. Stuttgart & Leipzig: Teubner. (“Silence! Silence! Silence! Symbol o f the living imperish­ able god. “Beteuerungsformeln im N euen Testament. In the PGM. 345 For silence as a deity. 150— idem. mentions the трса s |листѓ)рс. The term au[j.. turns into a relative clause what is a common epithet (o) deoq £wv. SBA 15. 13— n. “Initiation. Gustav Stahlin. ](7ov.” N o v T 5 (1962) 115— 43. 8 (Xoltcov cxu»>7tY 31. 1999).a ecttlv ev ttoccjlv). 120— BDAG.560. GieBen: Topelmann. Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zu den Ignatiusbriefen (BZNW 8 . 22. BCE [?]). crit. Dieterich and Hopfner treat the state­ ment as a gloss. see VII.” W hile the conventional invocation o f a deity uses “symbols” and “names. however. Stuttgart & Leipzig: Teubner. axiva ev У]аиу1а. LXX. 67-68. 32. Basel: Reinhardt.6.

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 )

149

The invocation is followed (1. 560) by the petition, cpuXa^ov [ле (“guard m e”),348 and concludes with second address, arpr] (“silence”), and voces magicae, vex&et-p ^avjxeXou,349 w hich may be intended as the secret name o f the deity.350 Further ritual acts in 11 561-65 mark the climax o f the protective ritual and . the transition to the next scenario. The practitioner is ordered: zneiTCf. crupiaov [xaxpov a ' o ' , ѕтсе^та jcorcrcuaov.351 (“Then make the long hissing sound, next make the popping sound.”) As discussed above, these sounds were part o f the magical repertoire (see on 1. 487). The first is called aupiyfxoi;, its performance CTupl^stv, a hissing or whistling.352 The second sound is named тсотслистр-б?, its performance 7t07i7tu(^eiv, a pop-pop sound.353 Finally, a special formula o f voces magicae is to be recited (11. 562— 65): Aeywv тсротсросрѕуу?) jjLoptoi; тсрофир тсрофѕуу?) vefAE&ipe a^ev x ev 7UTY]Tfxt, [xewu svap& supxe^o) фир^барко тирв cpt,X(3a.354 Peculiar is that in the ML there are three formulae beginning with тгротгросреуут], but otherwise different (see also 11. 603-4, 714-17). Apparently, the author cites three different formulae, rather than variations o f the same formula.355 If so, what then is the function o f beginning w ith тгротгросреуут]?356 W hy are there at least some similar
BDAG, s.v. l.a.s. Cf. also C H 1.9, 21; C l.17; CVIII.14; Ascl. 41. - For ар&арто?, see on 11. 497, 519-20. For the Egyptian background o f the epithet “living god” see Martinez, P. Mich. XIX , 12-15, esp. p. 13, n. 38, and on the ML passage p. 14, n. 38. 348 For this petition, see also 1. 661: cpuAod;6 v (лѕ, with the vox magica тсросшЈг/јрс. Petitions or orders for protection are, o f course, frequent in the PGM. See Preisendanz, 3.198 [index], s.v. срилосстстоЈ. Cf. 2 Thess 3:3; 1 John 5:21. 349 The vox magica is found only here; it is unexplained. 350 See on this point, Betz, Antike und Christentum, 159— 62. 351 According to Dieterich (6 ), the pap. reads a 'a ', obviously indicating a long hissing sound. Cf. the doubling o f the sound see 1. 578: aupt-aov [3'. See also Preisendanz, “Miszellen,” W St 41 (1919) 141-42: “Kiirzungen.” 352 There is disagreement: Dieterich (7) and Preisendanz (see his app. crit., ad loc.) translate it as “pfeifen” (whistle), but others (Meyer, Merkelbach) as “zischen” (hissing); Festugiere: “pousse deux longs sifflements.” Merkelbach’ (Abrasax, 3.60) hypothesis that s TrollTruest,v and aupr^siv allude to the name Pschai appears to be rather speculative, especially in the light o f the order in 1. 561. 353 Dieterich (7), Preisendanz, Merkelbach translate “schnalzen” (“smack”), Festugiere: “fais claquer ta langue,” Meyer: “a popping sound.” 354 Cf. Preisendanz, app. crit., ad loc., who suggests that locrrtpocpup may be тгорсрирсо^. 355 So rightly Martinez. 356 The term 7tpon;po<peyyY) has been translated by Preisendanz as “the one who shines before” (“Voranleuchtender”), but Eitrem (“Die vier Elemente in der Mysterienweihe,” S O 4 [1926] 39-59, esp. 51) prefers “the one who existed prior to light.” Fauth (Helios Megistos, 27) sees here a possible connection with Mithras the god o f fire, for which he cites Vermaseren, Mithras, 104; Mary Boyce, “O n Mithra, Lord o f Fire,” Acta Iranica 4 (1975)

150

Commentary

(sound-)words, w ith their spelling and place in the sequences different? W hy is the author not concerned about consistency in spelling and order? Is the main concern the chanting o f similar sounds? So far nobody seems to have found answers to these questions or, assuming that the word division is correct, to the meaning o f the individual words. For the purpose o f compari­ son, the three formulae are put side by side below: 357 562-65 тсротсрофѕуут] jxopux;
ТСрОфир

603-4 ттротсрофеууу) epie&eipE
[X0pt,0pi0TUp7]Cp!.XPa

714-17 Ха[Л7гроф£ууг) 'геротхрофѕуут)
£[Л£гкр(,

тсросргуут]
V£fX£tkpe

артеутгтсс,
$7]*) uevapco
Ф^рхехм
Ѕосрш (ppr)

арф ѕут^

7 tt/rr)TjA(.
[леми
SVOCpd<pvpxs](h) tyvpiSoCplb) TvprjcpiXfia.

cpp7]X(3a
x a l тоте

тои?

бфу) aXXa 7topeuo[jL£Vou? s t t I t t ] v l $ l a v x a ^ t v x w v 7 ip a y [x a T (o (v ). (“And then you will see the gods looking graciously upon you and no longer rushing at you, but rather going about in their own order o f affairs.”) The gods’ gracious look (su(jl£vw^ £[x{3X£7T£t,v) is an obvious contrast to their hostile staring (ax£vl^£c,v, 1. 556). They return to their normal affairs and to their normal course in accordance with the cosmic order.358 W ith this change, the second scenario comes to its end.
9-eou ? aoi evyLevag eyi^Xinovrag x a l j x t j x e t l i n i

The result o f the various procedures is narrated in 11. 565— 68:
as

op^xcofxevou q,

69— Julien Ries, “Le culte de Mithra en Iran,” ANRW 11.18:4 (1984) 2002— 75; 2115, esp. 2767-68. 357 The word division follows Preisendanz. 358 For as a cosmological term see also IV693; VII.829. This meaning seems to be rooted in Plato, Tim. 30a (cf. Gorg. 504a); it became technical in Hellenistic cosmology, for which see Ps.-Aristotle, Mundo 3 9 1 b ll; C H 1.26; V.3-5; IX. 8 ; XI.7; XII.14,21; XVIII.8 ; Exc. X X . 1; XXIII.16; XXIV.2; XXV.8,14; XXVI.29; Philo, Leg. 2.73; and often (see Borgen, Philo-Index, s.v.). See Lohr, Verherrlichung, 107-8; PGL, s.v. 3.e. Also the apocalyp­ tic literature shows interest in the stability and order o f the planetary world (see, esp. t En. 2.1, and the passages in Uhlig, JSHRZ 5:6 [1984] 510— 11).

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 485— 732)

151

3. Third scenario: the sun disk (11. 569— 85)

After the planetary gods have been pacified, the third scenario begins with the usual orientation (11. 569— 71): oxav o5v 1бт]£ tov avto xocrfxov xa&apov xal Sovoujjlsvov x a l prjSeva twv &£mv y) ayyeXwv op<{j.>(0fx£vov... (“Thus w hen you see that the world above is pure and agitated, and that none o f the gods and angels is threatening__ ”) The references to time and vision o f the objects seen lead to the conclusion that the ascending initiate has moved up to a higher stage above the planetary deities. That stage is called by a strange name: o avco x 6(7{aoc; xa&apo? x a l Sovoujaevo? (“the world above, pure and agi­ tated”). Understandably, the higher cosmos is clear o f impurities,359 but the meaning o f Sovoufxevo? is puzzling.360 In parallel passages, Sovelv refers to cosmic shaking and agitating, but this meaning does not seem to fit here,361 unless it is related to the following warning that thunder is to occur. If this is assumed, the question arises how it is connected with the preceding xa&apo? (“pure”), and w ith the following statement, x a l [xrjSiva. tcov {}eo5v yj ayysXcov op<(A>to[ji£vov (“and none o f the gods or angels threatening”).362 In the former instance, Sovoujjlsvo^ seems unrelated, unless one adjusts it by translat­ ing x a l SovoufAevoi; as “but agitated.” The latter instance stands in anticipation o f 11. 556-5 7 , speaking o f the attack by the planetary gods, except that the angels were not previously m entioned.363 Therefore, the entire comment, xal pqSeva twv &ewv t) ayyeAwv op<[x>co(x£vov, because it interrupts the continu359 The expression xoa[ioq xa&apoq is hapax in the PGM; for коаџос, in the ML, see 11. also 498, 620, 625, 776. In the context o f Hellenistic cosmology, “purity” could mean either that the higher regions o f the universe are pure because they consist o f ether or fire, or, more specifically, that the higher cosmos is free from the threatening planetary gods. See 5 F F II # 327 (116.36), # 440 (145.1-14); # 558-573 (176-79); D io Chrysostom 3 6 .4244; Philo, Plant. 20; Mos. 1.113; C H 1Л0; VI.4; XI.19; Proclus, Theol. Plat. 5.34 (ed. Saffrey & Westerink, 5.125,5— 10); Plat. Tim. 3.142d (ed. Diehl, 2.11.18— 24); cf. already Plato, Phaed. 111b. See Lohr, Verherrlichung, 108-10. 360 The pap. reads Sovoujasvov. Dieterich (8— proposed [xovoujxevov, “einsam” (“soli­ 9) tary”), Cronert (StPP 4 [1905] 100): Stvoujxevov (“sich im Kreis bewegend”), Preisendanz keeps SovoujJtevov, “sich im Kreise bewegen” (“moving in a circle”). Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.165) translates “rauschen” (“rustle”); I am adopting Martinez’ proposal o f “agitated” (in s anticipation o f the thunderclap). 361 Cf. IV.2533— 34, in a prayer to Selene, whose terrifying shout lets the cosmos tremble: xa xocrfxt-xa rcavra SoveLToa. In a prayer to Aphrodite (IV2936-37) the reference is to sexual arousal: атреср^е^ т ’ oux eX(,aa6[xev6<; те SoveiTaa. In the context o f cosmic thunder the term occurs also in Orph. Frag. 248a5 (265, ed. Kern): tkijxw 7tocvxa SovsLxoa. 362 The pap. reads opto[xevov, the correction to opfxcofxevov is by Wessely, Dieterich (8), and Preisendanz (app. crit., ad loc.) in accordance with 11. 557, 567. 363 Angels (ayyeXot,) are mentioned only here in the ML, but they can be compared with hostile angels in Jewish apocalyptic and Hekhalot literature (see above, on 1. 556).

152

Commentary

ation from Sovoujxevov to the warning o f thunder (1. 570), may be a redactional gloss that has been inserted as a reminder o f the change which has taken place since 11 556— . 57. Given this situation, the initiate is forewarned (11. 571-73), тгроабоха (3povTY ]<; [хеуаХт]? ахоиаесгО-оа xtutcov, мате сте ex7tXayY)vat,. (“Expect a crash o f great thunder to be heard, w ith the result that you are shocked.”). The thunder indicates that the initiate now stands in the sphere where the weather, especially thunderstorms, occur.364 The subject o f thunder has fascinated antiquity in many quarters and led to brontology, a department o f astrology/astronomy.365 Certainly, therefore, the terror caused by the thunder indicates new dan­ ger,366 and a new ritual o f protection is required. The formula is set forth in 1 . 573-75. First, the atyr]-logos appears again: сти бе n a k iv Xeye- агут] стсуѓ) 1 Xo(yo<;).367 (“But you, say again: ‘Silence! Silence!’ [formula].”) Second, and different from 1. 558, a statement o f self-identification follows (11. 574-75): eyco s i\Li <o> ctu[atcXocvoc, ujjllv acmqp, x al ex tou (ЗаФои^ avaXafATttov o Su, o Eep&sut). (“I am [the] star, wandering about w ith you, and shining forth out o f the deep, the XY, the X E R T H E U T H .”)368 Using the formula o f selfidentification,369 the initiate presents himself as one o f the wandering stars o f the firmament.370 The idea o f becoming a star after death was, however, popular in many quarters o f ancient religions, especially ancient Egypt,371
364 For references to thunder (PpovxYj) see below, 11. 621, 681; X X X V I.356; cf. [Bpovxato V151; VII.366, 994; XII.60; Ppovxa&> IV.1039, 1160; VII.235; VIII.93; ppovxaywyog IV.182; (3povToxepauvoTcaT(op IV.3102. 365 See Franz Boll, “Finsternisse,” PRE 6 (1909) 2329-64, esp. section 5; Wolfgang Speyer, “Gewitter,” R A C 10 (1978) 1107— (1120— on the PGM, 1120 on Mithraism, 72 21 1150— on apocalypticism); cf. on apocalypticism Friedrich Wilhelm Horn, “Die sieben 53 Donner. Erwagungen zu Offb 10,” S N T U A -l 7 (1992) 215— OTP, index, s.v. Thunder. 29; 366 For the term ехтсХаут^оа and its significance for the miraculous, see also VII.921; BDAG, s.v. ехгсХѓ)(тстм. See moreover Dieterich, Abraxas, 53— Mithrasliturgie, 64-65. 54; 367 Pap. reads the symbol A, meaning Aoyoq. The question is whether there is impor­ tance in the fact that the call to Silence happens twice instead o f thrice, as in 1. 558. 368 This reading according to Preisendanz supported by Jordan w ho points to the parallel in XII.297— xov ЕерсО-мФ, ... xov Sept-qjcovap. 98: 369 See for parallels in the ML, above on 11. 535. 370 The term crufi.7cAavo<; is unique in the PGM, and rare in Greek (see LSJ, s.v.). See Paul Capelle, D e luna stellis lacteo orbe animarum sedibus (Diss. Halle; Halae Saxorum: Karras, 1917), 19-36 (especially 32, n. 3; 33-36), who refers to important passages in S V F II # 817 (224— 25): in modurn siderum vagari in aere; Cicero, Resp. 6.16 (Somn. Scip.); CHX.7; Meleager, Anthol. pal. 5.191.2 (LCL, ed. Paton, 1.222— 23); Philostratus, Ep. 56; aufjutAavaojjioa, “roam­ ing around with (erotic),” Plutarch, Amat. 3 (750B); Ant. 29.2. For acrnrjp cf. also PGM IV.580, 764 (?). 371 The technical term is synastria; see Franz Boll, Kleine Schriften zur Sternkunde des Altertums (ed. Viktor Stegemann; Leipzig: Kohler & Amelang, 1950), 115-24; also Merkel­ bach, Abrasax, 3.239.

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 485— 732)

153

Greek religions,372 and Jewish apocalypticism.373 Dieterich (65) has raised the question about the more precise nature o f the stars envisaged. Because they cannot be the planets, he suggests shooting stars, and this may well be cor­ rect.374 If so, they would emerge as lights375 out o f the depth o f the cosmos.376 As a result o f performing the preceding formula, the initiate is told that he will view three images related to the sun-disk (576-77): тосита aou einovxoq eu&ew? o S ta x oq атсАсогНЃЈаетоа. (“Immediately after you have said this, the sundisk will be expanded.”) This first image is the sun-disk in its fully expanded form. The meaning o f атсЛоиа&оа, a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM , can be established on the basis o f the parallel avotyet-v (“open”) in 11. 583— 85.377
372 See, in particular, the Orphic gold tablets, which assume that the initiate, “a child o f starry heaven,” will after death become a star. See Riedweg, “Initiation —Tod —Unterwelt,” in Graf, Ansichten griechischer Rituale, 395 (text B 2, line 9: ’Асттерс-о^ ovojaoc [“Asterios is my name”]); Betz, ibid., 405; idem, Antike und Christentum, 228. Furthermore, see Dieterich, 65; Rohde, Psyche, 2.131; Cumont, After Life, 160; idem, Lux Perpetua, 171— 88, 209— 18; Martin P. Nilsson, “Die astrale Unsterblichkeit und die kosmische Mystik,” Opuscula selecta (SSIA, 3; Lund: Gleerup, 1960), 250— 65; Erwin Pfeiffer, Studien zum antiken Sternglauben (2T0IXEIA 2; Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner, 1916), 113, 129; Wilhelm Gundel, “Kometen,” P R E 21. Halbbd. (1921) 1143— esp. 1150-53; Franz Boll and 93, Wilhelm Gundel, “Sternbilder, Sternglaube und Sternsymbolik bei Griechen und Romern,” in Roscher, Lexikon 6 (1924-37) 867-1071, esp. 1062-65; Nilsson, G G R 1.692, n. 2; 2.490— 494-96; Furley & Bremer, Greek Hymns, 2.369. 91, 373 See Dan 12:1-3; 1 En. 104:2; As. Mos. 10:9; Ps.-Philo, L .A .B . 33:5 (O T P 2.348); Wis 3:7; 4 Macc 17:5 (O T P 2.562); R ev 1:16, 20; 2:1; 3:1. See Volz, Eschatologie, 396-401: “Die Lichtnatur der Heiligen”; Boll, Aus der Offenbarungjohannis, 143; George W Nickelsburg, Resurrection, Immortality, and Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism (HThS 26; Cam­ bridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972), 144— 69; Gruenwald, Apocalypticism and Gnosticism, 128— Tzvi Abush, “Ascent to the Stars in a Mesopotamian Ritual: Social 30; Metaphor and Religious Experience,” in Collins & Fishbane, Death, 15— John J. 39; Collins, Jewish Wisdom in the Hellenistic Age (OTL; Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997), 184— Mach, Entwicklungsstadien, 183— 85; 84. 374 For a discussion o f the options o f planets, fixed stars, and shooting stars, see Dieterich, 65; cf. Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.239) who seems to think o f fixed stars. On fixed stars, see the comprehensive articles by Franz Boll, “Fixsterne,” PRE 6 (1909) 2407— on 31; shooting stars, Wilhelm Gundel, “Kometen,” PFJE 11 (1921) 1143— 93. 375 avaXapLKet-v occurs only here in the PGM. The terms avaXapt-rcw, ал/аАаЈлфс^ are known from cosmological contexts (shining o f the sun), also as metaphor (light o f the mind). See, e.g., Plutarch, Alex. 30.3; Ps.-Heraclitus, Ep. 6.3; T. Levi 18.4; Philo, Opif. 33; Deus 32; Agr. 162; Plant. 40; Migr. 123; Somn. 1.11; Mos. 1.212; 2.27; Spec. 1.90; 2.140; 4.52; Origen, Cels. 5.33. 376 Comparable to the emergence o f the seven virgins, see 11. 575, 662— Elsewhere 63. in the PGM, [6ct3}oc refers to the subterranean sphere, possibly the depth o f the sea; see IV 1211; XXXVI. 146. See BDAG, s.v. 1. 377 Translations, therefore, vary: Dieterich, Preisendanz: “sich entfalten”; Festugiere: “le disque se sera ouvert”; Meyer: “will be expanded”; Merkelbach: “sich offnen.” LSJ (s.v. остгХбм, 2) gives some instances for the meaning “to be expanded.” For the sun-disk see 11. 548, 551, 579— 583. See Gundel, Weltbild und Astrologie, 12. 80,

Francesco Sbordone. “Horogeneis. which Dieterich (8) reads as avoiysvTo^. f] crtyr] at. 579— 82): x al eu&sooc. Ph. 541. 381 Pap.”) The adverbial su&ecoc is a reminder that the vision is miraculous. “Traduction des Hieroglyphica d’Horapollon. and third the nomx\>a[i6q. 508.” PRE 8 (1913) 2411— esp. 1. 1. The symbol o f the five-pronged stars has been used since ancient Egypt382 and has become part o f the cosmology of the ancient world. 583.crov ft' xal 7i(o7t7iucrov) [3'. 558— 59). or number five. cf. 383 See W. 382 The five-fingered star has the phonetic value sbz (“star”) or ntr (“god”).379 at the beginning comes the formula elsewhere called the “second logos. make the hissing twice and the popping sound twice. vol. 488. The instant result is the vision o f the second image (11. is identical with the one in 11. Worterbuch der agyptischen Sprache. 693. бтсои c iy r jft' xal та ахоАои&а. Vergote. reads aiyyj ft'. 573-75. p. 515]) is unclear... тсаХсл/ Хеуе' aiyr] асуу). Kingsley. 379 The wording.” that is. onou <yiyr\ (3' x al та axoXou&a.ap[iiv7]. 577-79): [лета бе to elicslv ere tov ft' Xoyov. tcXs Icttouc. Hier. has avotyevxoi. Egyptian Grammar (3rd ed. see Horapollo. 1957).381 (“And immediately you will see a multitude o f five-pronged stars proceeding from the sun-disk and filling all the air. Weltbild und Astrologie. бфт) атсо tou б(ахои асттѓра^ Trpoo-sp^o^evoui.a[A£va<. is typical o f redactional commentary.yr] three times. but why Preisendanz keeps avuyevxoq is unclear because ot/u is one o f the most common phonetic exchanges . 89. see 11. see also B.380 The second ritual is the cnjpiyfxoi. Dieterich (8) assumes that the “second formula” (11. Ttuplva? a7roxexXec. 561— 62). x al 7U7rXwvTa? oXov tov aepa. (“But you say again ‘Silence! Silence!’”) Apparently.358. 2412. 87: x al tou Staxou avoLyevTog Бфу] oimipoy xuxXco[xa x al &upa<.385 (“And when the sun-disk has opened. 487. you will see the 378 Pap. which has artyr) <т(. Ancient Philosophy. reads e' SaxxuXtatoix. the ortyr] ахут)-logos cited in 1.. 384 For the air. Drexler. See Alan Gardiner. 14. 1940]. 385 Pap. eyxoorfjuo?. 14.” CEg 18 (1943) 39— 89..378 (“After you have said the second formula. 55. 15— 35. to be done twice. Oxford: Griffith Institute. w hen from the sun-disk a plethora o f five-pronged stars comes forth. 2742— 43. again preceded by rituals: oru 8e . filling the air. (т^та)бахтиХ(<а£ои<. 2. For a later interpretation o f the star as Oeoc. el^. 35— 36). Erman and Grapow. Lexikon.383 The air is the sphere above the planetary realm in which the shooting stars are flying about. 573— 75. Wilhelm Gundel. 54 (1895) 562— 63. reads the abbreviation? (3 and n 'n 'ft" [stroke over (3j. the агуѓј-logos o f 11 573-75 is to be repeated.154 Commentary The second image is preceded by a reference to time and the performance o f rituals (11.уѓј twice.13 (ed. Then the vision occurs (11.”) As the redactional com m ent clarifies. van de Walle and J. where there is ‘silence’ twice and what follows. Cf.” in Roscher. x al crupt. 1/2. esp. 380 The pap. Hori Apollinis Hieroglyphica [Napoli: LofFredo. n. the discussion by Wilhelm Kroll. the pronouncement o f a iy . H ow the air is related to “ether” (aLOvjp [1. 54— I am indebted for these references to Thomas Dousa. See Gundel. —Eitrem proposes Tiposp^ojjLevou^. also to be done twice (see 11.384 The third image follows in 11 582-85. “Horogeneis T heoi..

.295. 12. LSJ. 3.44. At the beginning. Grammar. cf.300.388 If. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 585—628) Compared w ith the previous scenarios the fourth one is distinguished by several extraordinary features. XII. тшХт]. 343— 70.. 368. 576-77) and must not be confused with the opening o f the sun’s doors which is to occur later (11. but not with reference to the sundisk. “Iranisches bei Anaximander. corrected by Dieterich (8) to ajroxexAsijjivoc^. ocTcetpov is correct. 625-26. Fourth scenario: the opening of the doors to the world of the gods (11. Grammatik.v. however (see Gignac. see 11. see III.. but it could just as well a pictorial representation o f some kind.240) o f the stage in the theater. the Pythagorean image o f the eyes as t)Xlou тшХоа (Diogenes Laertius 8. cf. 239. o f two doors. The question is w hether we are to think o f two doors or o f two wings o f one door. 625-26).o uuXa^. as referring to the highest sphere o f the deity. Parmenides.272— 73). 192— 229. suggests a possible Indo-Iranean background. Icar. The pap.56.. the third scenario is concluded.613. Od.386 If arrupov is to be read. 521. Cf. esp.II. That the sun-disk has doors reminds Merkelbach (Abrasax . 14:15— 71:5— 75:4. VII. бссохе tov imoxziyLevo v Xoyov xa[x[xuwv aou хоид 6ф&аА[лои<. W ith this. 388 The term cotupov occurs elsewhere in the PGM.168) follows Dieterich.1326. On the important cosmological term oaieipov see Walter Burkert. 3. Martinez agrees: “fireless does not make sense here. See 4 Schwyzer.168. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 155 boundless circle and its fiery doors shut tight. IV2378. 584. Janet Spittler’ question (in a s seminar) whether the image may be related to the phenomena o f solar eclipses (see also PGM VII. 7. Zucker (B yZ 31 [1931] 362) ejAKupov (“feurig. 589. as we prefer. as referring to the sun-beetle XII. That the sun consists o f fire was the teaching o f 22. xuxXwjxoc as a cosmological term occurs only here in the PGM. 204. “At once close your eyes and recite the following prayer. 1. 11. Weltbild und Astrologie. 203— with n. and the sun-disk appears as fireless.846-60 Hopfner.v. it would point to the boundlessness o f the xuxAmjaoc.273-73). VII.v. reads aTcoxexXifxevoc^. For the “fiery doors” (&upoa Trupivoa). 4. r^'Aioc. however. esp. Grammar. 1. is disputed. II. philosophy since the Presocratics (Anaximenes. 184). For nupivoc. read by the pap. repr. 207— 213— 220. index s. Main body of the ritual (11. i. stands the recitation o f the “third prayer. 662. XXXVI. flammend”).29). 386 Homer.” R h M 106 (1963) 97— 134. in Kleine Schriften II: Orientalia (Gottin­ gen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. I En. II. following a ritual o f closing the eyes. Empedocles).-K. for the former. see 11. but Preisendanz (W S t 41 [1919] 143) defends it against Dieterich’ (8) correction s to aTTSLpov.” W hile the com­ (so Martinez. See Gundel. has arcoxs/xXt-CTfj-sva^. in the Greek o f this period sounded like our long e and were exchanged (not nearly so frequently as o i/v . 33. one would have to conclude that the fire is behind the closed doors. O Z 2 /1 . 637. for xuxXoc as “sun-disk” see IV..”) The opening o f the sun-disk means the same as аттАм&^стетоа (1. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien. The image suggests the latter which has a parallel even in H om er. Cf. see Lucian. Burkert (see previous note). s. 24.12: т]бе reap’ ’HeXtot.e. and u and et. 2003). 14. see D.387 thus it is invisible. §§ 141-42. 3.384. 44— 45. 22— and the rich collection o f material in 27 Weinreich.” addressed to the god Aion: <7u бе ѕб&ѓах. 227. Also arcupov. 387 Pap. LSJ. s. For the concept o f heavenly doors. refering to Gignac. F. 638. and Diels’ to 8ux7iupov.

395 Perhaps. no name is used. бестттотт]^. has y . 1:2: “ .b (bibliography). 44. 586. 394 Pap. 188— 90. 3. 97 IV.396 The problem 389 Further instruction is given below. 44) . (agreed by Burkert [in Betz. TOTA'AIZQMATOS. hearken to me. s. BDAG. but only the divine title xupio q (“lord” ). which Dieterich (8) reads as xAst&pa (followed by Merkelbach. to ттј? фи^уј^ o[xjxa (note the context o f mystery-cult language). 606— 16). while his eyes were open. See Preisendanz.v. Somn. 11. 639. 392 See for other instances. has A ttjc. Disputed readings o f the papyrus have produced controversy regarding the meaning. “Kyrios. xupio?. For this gesture see IV.v. Mithrasliturgie.. BDAG. 617-20 (cf. Cronert (StPP 4 [1905] 100) hasтѕтросбссјлосто^. connected with TETpaytovou. 717. 390 Pap.o? is frequent in the PGM. 3064.166).390 It is a petitionary prayer addressed to the god Aion whose name is m entioned in the prayer (1. 713.393 Also. I. 85 391 On Aion see above. 1948). for the opening o f the eyes 1. xafAfAuw.” [“o f the heaven. 84]). 603-4). (“you w ho have bound together with your spirit the fiery bars o f the fourfold root”).521. G M PT . 495. 3. 558— 573— 582— (second prayer). 1948. етгахоим (with bibliography). 588— 602) takes the form o f 21 epithets.” D D D 492— (bibliography).N . s. and he saw. Thomas Ohm. a statement o f need (11. “N . 640. 624). 2. 1963). Kroll and Diels (in Dieterich [8]) read б[. also in Philo. 39.. 587— 616) shows the usual composition. the self-identification o f the petitioner is offered by way o f the symbol A . 49. 1064.177. 588— 603).. 587— 88). Preisendanz (W S t 41 [1919] 143— reads тетраА^мЈлатос.” 394 The aretalogy (11.. 3. but the order to close the eyes is new.156 Commentary mand to perform a ritual at once at the beginning o f a scenario'is familiar from earlier instances. in the ML it occurs 11. a petition (11. Dieter Zeller. 486— 537 (first).126 (index). signifying xou Secva ty)? Setva. See on this formula above. 958. xupie. 520— 21. as in the previous prayers. O lord. 3268. o f two bodies”]). (Abrasax. 393 The title xupt. 588. Memoria Graeca Herculanensis (Leipzig: Teubner. It is attested in the LXX. see Dieterich. Zweileibiger. ѓтаххouslv. A. 60. s. 713. Cf. 804. Cf.” See BDAG. see II. 1903. n. “Give ear to me. Especially difficult has been the reading o f the pap. Hildesheim: Olms. The invocation uses the formula: h taxouaov [xou. n.ам[лато^ (“des Himmels. followed by an aretalogical list o f epithets (11. the number is significant: 3 X 7 . 396 Pap. 1 En.v. IV.v.391 The prayer (11. 75. Die Gebetsgebarden der Volkerund das Christentum (Leiden: Brill. s. 642. the NT. first read by Wessely as AAIZQMATOS. opening w ith an invocation (11.v.392 and. etc. s.” The terms are technical in prayer formulae. 718. 8) reads tou oupavou б(. 11. The comment belongs to the redactional numbering o f the prayers. 631. 1787. at 1.92 (index). 3227. See also Wilhelm Cronert.164-65: xafxpLucravTSi. 65. 687. 3. Dieterich (Abraxas. axouaov [aou. and a list o f secret names (11. 594). 605-6). further instances in Preisendanz. 48.389 The prayer to be recited is called “third” (Хоуо? y ').395 the first being a participle clause revealing the reason for calling this deity: o auvSyjaa^ TivsupLaxi xa 7iuptva хАтј&ра тои (тетра)Х[.а(^м[лато<.786 (ML). 101. repr.£(о|лато<.. reads хАт]&ра.

” 12. XXVI.. 28— and below. PRE 43.7]) concerning the auvSsait. 2 1 6 17 (71. Abrasax. the change from the letter p to X can happen easily. 400 For the Stoic doctrine o f auvSeojao^. 29.403 The term xa uupt«va нХу)&ра (“the fiery bars”) refers to the bars locking the doors o f the sun (1. Spathellenistische Berichte iiber Welt.-K. # 22 (247. Helios Megistos.402 and the N T . ad loc.404 The hardest problem for interpretation is the term тои хехраХс£м[лахо<. “Poseidonios.616c. auvSsw. Since this theology shows influences o f Stoic cosmology. 148 (45. ouvSeajxo?.74-75.26-27]): xou<.921c.42— 43. xAetcTxpov XXXVI. the term xAeT&pov is connected with underworld figures like Tartarus. 223]. the city Leg.36). V 4 (cf. 2. Cerberus. The expression o auvSr]aa<.520a. 197— 200) discusses the composition o f frankincense out o f four ingredi­ ents..24).II.399 the Stoics. Basel: Reinhardt. 404 Elsewhere in the PGM. Antipater Tarsensis. esp. # 22 (214.405 The four roots. Resp. Main body of the ritual (11. see Karl Reinhardt.240 (with reference to Gignac. the terminol­ ogy should be related to this possible background. Kosmos und Sympathie. if the readings relate to the Aion theology in other parts o f the ML. 208 (69. 399 Plato.22). 403 Col 2:19. T D N T 7 (1964) 856-59. 207 (68. 7. lonius. 6.18. 1. if that is the right reading.. Tim. and Hades (IV. 8:122.-K.19). n. 10. See also Fauth. app. 9— the binding 10 agent is the "koyoq.-Plato. in Preisendanz. 2294. note 407. 411— idem. 1926). 7 rvsu[jt. Grammar. Pohlenz. 31 A 54 [1.401 the H erm e­ tica. 2261. # # 147 (45. Walter Spoerri. Philo. Die Stoa. symbolically representing the four elements. Interesting is Reitzenstein’ (Das iranische Erlosungsmysterium. tw xpuaxaXAw. XXIII.317 [cf. As Eitrem and Merkelbach affirm. Kultur und Gotter (SBA 9. Eph 4:3— See BDAG.6).3. 3:14. 401 Philo (Her.2). 608-11. (see above.1— Diogenes Baby2). onrAaveTi. Ps. the expression might not be EU only Stoic.22.398 Plato. 945 (272— 73). 314]). how­ and translates “des viermal gebunden Giirtels” (similarly Weinreich [in Dieterich.6). асттѓра? CTuvSeSeaOai. “des auf den vier Wurzeln (Saulen) ruhenden Alls” (“o f the universe standing on the four roots [pillars]”) (Merkelbach). but the con­ nection w ith TTV [xa is not attested. V. 405 Eitrem.397 However. 2337. Neue Untersuchungen z u Poseidonios (Miinchen: Beck. cf.. “viermal gewundener Giirtel” [“belt wound fourfold”]. 97— 105.16. o f the atoms. but translate differently: “the roots o f the four elements” (Eitrem). 659-61. III. Eitrem and Merkelbach correct the spelling to тетрар^м^атсх. Gottfried Fitzer.axc. 174 (50. 402 C H 1. Resp. Epin. crit. 584). 1959). according to Plant. whereas Hopfner has “des vierfach gestiitzten Himmels” [“o f the heaven supported fourfold”]). 398 See Empedocles (D. 397 See S V F ll. 984b-c. 31b— 41b.400. 122. 1. could be derived from a stoicizing cosmology: auvSeapioc. with reference to c. Halbbd. 3. . cf. since the question o f which bond holds the cosmos together was discussed by the Presocratics.39. so that xexpapt^cofjiaxo? is a strong possibility. s. 485— 732) 157 may be solved. Or.293.10). where Aion has the epithet хХѕсбосриХа^ ѕ1рхттј^ јлѕуаАтј^. occurs in the cosmology o f Chrysippus.1465. (1953) 588-826. 396).v.102-7). also for definitions III. Democritus (D. Merkelbach. 238) reference to s Sib. 68 A 135 [II. but he prefers тетра?а£м|лато<. Exc. 11.

Cf. 410 See Dieterich. e yzi хХтјТбa. 323.9]. 284. furthermore Proclus’ Hymn 1 (to Helios). хХи9г. and even the xArfiouyoc. 491— 93. C H X V I. t w v oupavwv).” also 332— 30: 34. D. 432. Cf.. 152— 56. . # 417. 15. in which the fiery sun. the term auvSelv. 13— 355. 409 Ibid. Hear first the four roots o f all things. 99. life-bringing Hera. van den Berg. throw further light on the syncretistic Aion-theology o f the M L.-K. he bases an Egyptian interpretation on the reference to the four pillars (хеаоаргс. 18.408 Accepting the reading тетраЛ^мЈлато? as equalling тетрар^(0[хато<.2).c. 31 B 6 (1.-K.ov. shining Zeus. and furthermore 370. all o f them relating to fire (тсир). Chaldean Oracles. N9)crri<.-K.240..3.. Parmenides (D. Aidoneus and Nestis w h o w ith her tears fills the springs o f mortal m en w ith water. the combination o f the older Egyptian worldview with a Hellenistic cosmology would fit as part o f the syncretistic Aion-theology o f the ML.410 406 Empedocles. 407 See Kirk & Raven.455. 2.. # 359): t w v бе Alxy] 7ioXu7ioivo<. 669. 327— “The Four Roots and Love and Strife. а[лофои<. &’ y) бахри о ^ тѕуувЕ. 380— 383. W hat appears here in a poetic form became part o f Hellenistic cosmologies. Pythagoras: aevaou cpuaew^ p^w[xa (D. “According to the Egyptian view­ point the world rests on four pillars. тгиро^ voepou [ЗаагХеи. Proclus’ Hymns. 408 Merkelbach. Matt 16:19 (бмста) aoi xaq хХеѓба? ттј? ЏсиаСке1сис. light (<pw?) and spirit (7 iveufjia). w hen discussed one by one.15— 312. (“keyholder”) have their place. 385. especially the formula in v. For Dike and Ananke as хХтјбоиуо^ see 81. These epithets. 590— 602).” 409 Indeed. the great encomium to Wisdom (a ocpta) in Wis 67. 28 B 1 [1.311. сраои? та[лѓа.229. and these are rooted in four р^со^ата. Kirk & Raven. 58 B 15 [1.4 refers to fire. As for the Egyptian sources. Helios Megistos. xpouvwjxa (3poT£(.407 Merkelbachs com m ent calls attention to their syncretistic nature. 1975). 7:22— (LXX) contains 20 epithets describing the spirit (TTV 23 EUjxa). Abrasax. 90— See also Fauth. cttuAictxoi) in 1. cited according to Kirk & Raven. each o f them combining a Greek honorific title with non-G reek voces magicae. 14. Ancient Philosophy. Following the first epithet. 11.10]). Die ‘Tw3pt’ Szenen in den agyptischen Tempeln dergriechisch-romischen Epoche (Bruxelles: Fondation Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth. 376.20. the remainder o f the aretalogy comprises 20 epithets (11. 1— КХиОг. 65— Remarkably. water and earth as coming from one root (piC/x). 399.158 Commentary ever. Merkelbach refers to Dieter Kurth. 23:13 (xXelsts t t )v PaoxAelav t w v oupavwv ejATipocr&ev t w v av&pw7rwv). 3. “Den Himmel stutzen”. for commentary see Lewy.. were a key concept in the cosmology o f Empedocles who used the metaphor to explain the function o f the four elements:406 тесгстара yap tcocvtmv р^мЈлата rcpwTov axoue Z su q арут]^ 'Нрт] те (pepsaftioq т]б’ А1бшеи<. from Aetius 1. Cf. '/puarjVLS Titocv. See also Kingsley. the relationship to philosophical Aion theology is evident from many parallels.

refers to 7tuptTcoXo^ as associated w ith lightning (xepauvo?) in Euripides.35— 36]. V II. “Ein Berliner Chnubisamulett. 215. 3. Daniel and Maltomini. 328 (index). app. 42 -4 4 . there may be a connection with Pythagoras’ “ten opposite principles. # 328). Kirk & Raven.Ха[л фмтбс xxLorvjq (“creator o f light”) is unique in the PGM .230 (index) s. “Iao. 278-81).34. M ichel. TiupL&ujxe t-aw T he adjective Trupti%[j. however. XIII.220. ффЈл/О-. index.o^ (“fire-spirited”) occurs only here in the PGM. epou is attested in combina­ tion IV. Helios Megistos. Pap. Gemmen. Law names Iao. war T he adjective (“spirit-light.-K. 1589. wa'L may be a variation o f Law (palindrome?). David Aune. 28 A 34 [1.). cruyxXsteiv. Perhaps this gloss is motivated by хХтд&ра 1. assuming an exchange ocl/e. Merkelbach. 214. however. Les intailles.” R A C 17 (1996) 1-12.” or “shining spirit” [LSJ]) occurs only here. 640. 73.II. (oi бѕ' стиухХѕТстта) а£[лест(. Maria G. 264 (index). # # 310. 85. reads eXoupe and takes it to be a vocative iXoups (aiXoupe. 223) has doubts. Lancellotti. 1. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 159 TtupuroXe TCevTLTepouvi. but may be related to Parmenides’ idea that fire created light (D. 115. Gzixzai'AayL is a known Semitic epithet.209. 29. see Merkelbach. it is unexplained and not attested elsewhere in the PGM .4).v. see III. the pap. (“fire-breathing”) occurs also in IV. 672. according to the T L G it is a hapaxlegomenon.341.360. Fauth. 4. Bonner. redactional gloss: ol 8 z ‘ ouvx'Azloza (“others have: confiner”). frequently m entioned in the PGM. Main body of the ritual (11. 213. 2727. Preisendanz. “cat”). . reads eXoups. Helios Megistos. esp. 3.” one o f w hich is фм^-ахбтос (cf. 582. 575. cf. 3. 10. Abrasax. V. Studies. “SEM ES(E)IAAM .19. 35.2559. сратдд хтСаха. 176. U na messa a punto. crit. Suppl. according to the T L G it is a hapaxlegomenon. 311. a hapax.831. фир^фѕи appears only here in PGM.573. IV. Dieterich (8. TC U pLTC V O E ф и р ^ ф е и The adjective 7tupL7tvou<. 254). has auvxXL<rca.” Z P E 132 (2000) 2 4 8 -5 4 (bibl.27— (n. but Martinez considers epoupe. 7tupL7tveo5 1. LSJ (s. 589. 26— 27. rcupiTioAo^ (“fire-burning”) is found only here in the PGM . for passages in PGM see Preisendanz. 574.” A R W 28 (1930) 269— 85. Delatte and Derchain. 77. 7п>ги[лат6фм<. 7tupL^ap7] eXoupe T he adjective izupiyjxpf^ (“rejoicing in fire” [LSL]) occurs only here in the PGM.223.432 and may be related to the decan ’Epou or ’Epw (see below on 1. Cf.334— Interesting is the 37.v. for combinations w ith spou see Preisendanz.3— 29. 28 3. 312 and index. cf. XIII.). 257.. T he connection with atXoupo^ (“cat”) was seen already by Wessely and Dieterich (8. meaning “eternal sun”. 276-81.). LXXVII. Supplementum Magicum. 58. for further material see A d olf Jacoby. TtevTt-Tepoim is corrected by the scribe from Tievxsxspoim. Abrasax. Kirk & Raven.672. Fauth.

o f the 1887 ed. 13. IV. 3.29). Brashear (“Greek Magical Papyri.” LSJ: “lord o f light”) occurs only here. 1303. -r\ as a vocative ending is attested for Koine Greek (Gignac. 1. 30) explains as a combination o f Egyptian Ah (“Glanz”) Ba (“soul”). X V II. (“fire-bodied”) occurs only here. Meliouchos.o)£ тшрсстсо^атос. срмтобЅта Pap.137). G M P T . Hildesheim: Olms. Hadot). 5. Cf.l— 164. In Epict. 3.” 3578) calls attention to the Jewish angel named Azza. according to the TLG it is a hapaxlegomenon.819.3235: тгирсбмта (pap. xaXXicpw^ oXjxi The attribute occurs only here (“light-beauty”).846. takes it to be a scribal addition. Onomastica sacra (repr. XII.160 Commentary whether among all the voces magicae suddenly a Greek term should occur. therefore. 107.. .410 (ed. Grammar. Preisendanz reads ocj^a. reads oacov). alwv ax(3a altov is apparently used here as an epithet (the pap. 1966). Ep. V II. Jordan sees here an imperfect palindrome [хетг[хер7грв[хл£[л. ф(ОТОХраТ(Ор T CSTtTCep T C p e 7CSfJtfUTCt. 25 (cited in Abrasax. Preisendanz compares IV. Dieterich (66— 233) refers 67. for other com bi­ nations w ith oc^oc. Merkelbach (Abrasax.а&оа)а^. 2. in Betz.575 (cf. at PGM IV. See also III.o)£ is unexplained.” so also Harrauer.240: “D er Sonnengott ist der groBe Kater.see Preisendanz. “L’anguipede alectorocephale et le dieu LAO. ending w ith m m . <pvouir)vt.1984 -85. (N ew York: Jewish Theological Seminary. 120. referring to the cat-spells in III. D ieterich (8) reads ах(3а.9 -1 0 . the epithet occurs only here. has тгир^бмра). 3. The vox magica is missing. Tcupt-artofjiaTe <pvour)vi. 38. and is found only here. but o f course the name A ion is known from the ML elsewhere (see at 11. This epithet (“ruler o f light. 1648. Marc Philonenko. w hich Fauth (Helios Megistos.240— 41) w ho refers to Jerome. Greek in Jewish Palestine 2. the D em otic name o f the sun-god R e. the pseudo-reproduction o f the H ebrew tetragrammmaton ГПГР. Martinez observes that тсир^ар?) could be a vocative as well. T he attribute фсотоботт^ (“light-giver”) occurs also in Simplicius. IV. 520— 21). and Paul de Lagarde. 1942). 335).l— For the problem see Saul Lieberman. he. n. Merkelbach. тгѕтстсЕр Tcpe7Tepu7u is explained by Fauth (Helios Megistos. and to bibliography. to the images o f Aion-Kronos. but Preisendanz keeps фсотобмта. 228— 29. 30) as an anaphorical manipulation o f Pre. 2. 49. reads срмтоб&та. n ow affirmed by Martinez.a. а£а£ае(. but cf. Abrasax. VII. Meyer. n. corrected by D ieterich (9. n.” C R A I (1979) 291— 304.244 (index). unexplained. 223) to фслтобота. 85. according to the TLG it is a hapaxlegomenon. aXjxi is found only here.

and ev. corrected by Dieterich (8.a The pap.8lva Tiupiyi (3oocnr)t. so Cronert.) and Brashear (“Greek Magical Papyri. According to Dieterich (10).. there is indeed a space between сгоиачл/ефЕ.5) takes to be PoasyevvTjxe. X II. T he adjective TtuprxXovo<. s. 49: Ttupt-^Xove). 621: xXovo? and above TcupbcXove.(Ј)(У]сг(. app. reads Tiupi^Xovs. Pap. M ichel. line 1. t u t Martinez. see LSJ. reads [3eeyevY]Te.£7 is unexplained. “deriving light from the empyrean”). (3oo<T7)La are unexplained hapaxlegomena. е[Л7и)р1. a word inserted by an Egyptian magician-redactor. PreisendanzHenrichs to cpwro^at-e caw. found only here. xepauvoxXovE t. auo may be a variation o f taw see 1. Orph. . <тоисг^£ф!. crit.. 621: xXovoc. Preisendanz keeps [3eeyev/)Te.^!. ф ш г о х ^ т а (ravxepwp The attribute фсотох1л/7)тт)<. Jordan and T]. The attribute аи^-/]ст'Ѓфо^ (“light-increasing”). masc. D ieterich (223).v. reads фсото^а tmauo. corrected by Dieterich to «рсото^кѕ. cf. cf. 7tupt. (7<xv)(£pw[3 is found only here. reads TruptSet-va. idem. rcuplxXove уаХХа[ЗаХ[За T he pap. Dieterich (10) reads сгоистЕл/ѕфс as in IV. ф(ото? xXeo? PeeyevYjxe T he expression фсото? xXeo? (“light-famous”) is found only here. T he adjective nupiSivo^ (“fire-whirling”) is found only here. (“fire -thronging” [LSJ]) occurs only here.1. S tP P 4 (1905) 100.v.[. Abraxas. <7оист^£ф[. C yn. also Abraxas. 7tupt. Gemmen. 49. The vowel sequence vt] Ш ) is unexplained. 593.” “life-begotten or life-begetter” (from Egyptian par meaning “life” or “soul”). фмтоЈЗСа laiaico T he pap. уаХХофаХ(За is found only here. aiauo. Preisendanz suggests Trupt^Lfxwvj. B ook 4.. e'ixt-та are unexplained hapaxlegomena. appears only here. Jacoby (apud Preisendanz. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 161 7гир1ст7г6ре apei e'ixt-та T he adjective KupiaKopoq (“fire-sower”) occurs only here in the PGM . 1. 267. # # 1. 2. ad loc.602. with trema in the pap. 52. 471. cf. meaning “Lebengezeugter” oder “Lebenerzeuger.7] Ш] uo7)«*) T he adjective xepauvoxXovo? (“lightning-shaker”) occurs only here. but according to the TLG it is also attested as attribute o f Dionysus in H ym n.35: ]£ф(.II. аи^7](Т1ф(о<.293: (TO uaTjV c o c l XLI. (“powerful o f light”). (“Hght-mover”) is found only here.3.1. LXXII. w hich Dieterich (10. Martinez takes фсото(Зѓа as a vocative o f фсотојЗѓа? (first declension. 1. 304. Main body of the ritual (11. apec. Oppianus. s. 45. which suggests ev(for е(л)7сир1стхт)ст1ф<о? (as in LSJ.” 3589) suggest the interpretation <rav Xepou(3.фм£. 282.

eTtixaAelv. s. (“invoke”) is technical in prayer language and occurs in the PGM frequently. is whether this formula is to be recited here in an abbreviated version.414 The question.apev.отиру)ф1А(За. 624 (opening o f the eyes). 17. BDAG. IV. containing two statements. 313— Furthermore. 604— 10. 35).. whereupon fol­ lows the expansion aouat. 2. 565.v. 662 (opening o f doors).. 183— 201— Betz. 71 414 The pap. cannot be answered. 346— [tablet C]): t'lv Trocvxa бајластта. Orph. This tablet 47 C was re-edited by Alberto Bernabe and Ana Isabel Jimenez San Cristobal. fAapfjUxpevxeu For the attribute еутхиркЈ^асфм? see above. 601 for aoucuvscpi. 415 See Preisendanz. 27. X XX VI. combinations using [лар^лар. 583— 85). Persephone.-K. Cf. C ToucrLve<p(. crit. 413 Cf. .8pt. Frag. Thus ends the invocation.. Epimenides B 2 (D. apev[3apa^£L jjLapfxapevxsu: the voces magicae are found only here. The term £7 ихаХеТа&а!. 603— and the reason for the petition (11. 1.) the papyri often read 8 (or: oo) for the letter omicron (Jordan offers omega with underscoring). “Turoffnungswunder bei Zauber und Gebet. ”). Lukian. but see 1.411 The prayer to Aion leads to the presentation o f the petition (11. or whether the abbreviation is to be completed in accordance with one o f the longer versions (see above. referring to the closed doors o f the sun (11.youcnr)£ x al icixpai. 1180.18. esp. 312— LXII. 169— (with further bibliography). Las laminillas офсаѕ de oro (Madrid 2001). 273— тсаутобоцластта. The related statement 411 I accept this suggestion made orally by Fritz Graf. Persephone. Preisendanz (see also in D ieterich.415 The subsequent statement is another instance of the “ananke formula” (see 11 503— 526— 534— .6.413 Following the petition is a recitation o f the Tcpo7rpocp£yyY]-formula: тгротсросреуут) epLe&sipe Јл8р1ор. T he transition from the preceding aretalogy to the petition seems to be provided by the address o f the god as аатроба[ла (“subduer o f stars” ). and on it Zuntz. Instrucciones para el mas alia. C om ­ mands to open (avolyst-v) occur often in the PGM (see esp. T he reason for the petition is given in a long sentence in 11.v.o. The whole matter is related to the Hellenistic miracle topos o f door openings. 1968).)фа. on 11 562— .. 96. x al атсарас/гѓјтои avayxyjc. see also Tablet '77: A l— line 4.-K.95— (index) s. because o f the pressing and bitter and inexorable necessity . 1. 4.vecpt.162 Commentary e v T zv p ia jy ia l^ q aovo'Cvecpi apev(3apa^£i.” in his Religionsgeschichtliche Studien (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Kern. 47 (ed. 4. 223) prefers (TouaivscpLsv тгиркт^/јсгссро^ (“der Licht durch Feuer erhalt”). reads (j. . 1.968. the following attribute аотроба[ла. 31). XIII. D. introduced by: o tl ѕтахаАои^оа Ivsxa ттј? xaT£7 ist. 412 The attribute асттроба^ха^ appears only here in the PGM. w ithout a vox magica.27— 20. 65). Zuntz.4). 89.33. see Otto Weinreich. For тирт]ф(. .298.are found elsewhere. in the ML also 11. 604— 4) 6). Preisendanz reads the formula as [AopiojJioTup7]<piA[3a. given our present knowledge. see also 1. according to Preisendanz (app.327— 33. 3.412 The petition itself is brief: avoi^ov jjloc (“open [for] m e”). belongs to the following petition. (“for I invoke. which.

417 On the phrase 9-v7)Tr) фи(7(. 419 For the use o f ф$оууо^ see 11.421 Especially im portant is the parallel in 1 C or 2:9: 416 Cf. Texte. see XIII. Aristotle. s. 117 (# 45): in the description o f a visit with Asclepius. 23.241) points to the parallel in Thessalos o f Tralles (ed.775. 3. ed. c p p o ta o v t o ovo[xa t o 7tp«TOV evl TCveufJiaTi.. prooemium. Jan [BiTeu. 2.. however.fxa ovofxara occurs in the singular also IV3272. Accordingly..” R^4C 18 (1998) 329-65.” Antike und Christentum.763— to xpuTTTov ovofxa x a l appr)Tov (ev av&pwTtou стт6[латс. 3.91.). 53 [1894] 421) to бс. 1895]. K. the truly divine names o f the gods must be totally differ­ j). Leg. 431— 40.) xal aaufj^wvoc. Part. 776. 778. 1971. 420 The expression evT(.^ r\ypi$ (Musici scriptores Graeci. 610— 16). w hich have not yet passed into mortal nature nor have been declared in articulate speech by human tongue or mortal speech or mortal sound.963b.660a. For further material see Willy Theiler. where he says that the theurgists invoke the gods at-yfioT^ те xal тсотгтсистјлоТ^ xal avap&pon.” . уХмстатгј^ 7]бе 7] Q T O ф96ууаи 7] & -V JT U V7]TT^ ф У М Тј^ aQ-avaxa (^ovта x a l evTLjjia ovo[xaTa.640— ^eXxuaa^evoi.420 that is.? (“articulation”) is technical in discus­ sions o f language theory. LSJ.” in: Sprachgeschichte und Wortbedeutung. there are similar statements reflecting a background in prophecy or mystery-cult ideas.241.II. This strange statement. 502.арг)рсост£[. 945.393. IV 198-200. XIII.мтУ]. Leipzig: Teubner. see Plato. 41: TCveufxa K a a o L iq тац.v. 322a.418 mortal sound (<p&oyyo<. 11) and Kroll (Ph. p. For the use o f <ppaiC.). итсо av9pw7tLV7]<. CE). the officiating priest causes the god to appear by invoking him by his secret names: -rcpoayaywv бих tcov aixopprjTwv ovo^axwv tov Oeov. Merkelbach (Abrasax. атл]Х(. 277: Excerpta ex Nicomacho 6). IClaus Thraede. line 2.12. also VII. “Die Sprache des Geistes in der Antike. Festschriftfur Albert Debrunner (Bern: Francke. also 1. The term б^ар&роосп. Main body of the ritual (11. 418 The pap. See for discussion and further materials my article.641. c f 1. “bringing forth the god through his ineffable names. reads бст&рмсге!. “Inspiration. XXI. corrected by Usener (in Dieterich. (evapOpoi^ codd. Prot. however. living and honored. Outside o f the PGM. XII. 533. 745. the immortal names. also Totti. see 11.148) refers to a parallel in the mathematician Nicomachus o f Gerasa (2nd c. for фра£е!л/ cf.<. 1954). 319.. 545-46. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 163 regarding the deity called upon seems well-constructed and looks like a quotation from another context: та [Х7]бѓтс(о 5(a)p7]cravTa z i q Q-vyjtyjv cpuat-v £Л cppacr&evTa ev б^ар^рмсгЕЕ.253. ala97](je<n. mortal nature (cpuai^)417 corresponds to articulate speech (уХмаста). XIII. 152— 74. Friedrich).17. 64: XaArjVoa ou б^п/ата!.416 is formulated in parallel lines and contains a theory about the nature o f the divine vowel sequence to follow. pure sound as in the vowel sequences (11. XIII.eiv in connection with ovofxa. which is unique in the PG M .419 and mortal voice (cpcovY Therefore. 421 Merkelbach (Abrasax.. ent. “Secrecy in the Greek Magical Papyri. 12.

and in the human heart has not arisen (this is) what God has provided for those w h o love him. 424 David Jordans observation (letter o f December 17. this instruction refers to rhetorical enthusiasm. eo<.422 There are similar but not identical passages in the apocalyptic and gnostic Apocrypha. but no such scripture verse can be identified in extant texts. ad loc. jjlo u xa l t o xrjpuypia [xou oux ev 7tei.. 610— the prayer to Aion has come its 16) end. to SsuTepov apxpp-evo?. reads ". e. perhaps even added later by a second scribe. and comparable to Paul’s reference to атсобе^? TivsufAaxo^ x a l Suvajxeax. Untersuchungen zu r Verwendung und zum Verstandnis der Schrift bei Paulus (BHTh 69. 7— 9a). Der erste Brief an die Korinther (Evangelisch-Katholischer Kommentar zum NT. (“Recite all o f these with fire and spirit. 423 For a collection o f parallel passages and discussion o f the problems. 2002) is important at this point: “Several o f the clusters o f vowels have diacriticals. 1986). 2:1-4). Wolfgang Schrage.” 425 Cf. 617-20 is an interesting instruction-concerning performance o f recitation. The passage.”) Apparently. see DietrichAlex Koch. corre­ sponding to fire and spirit m entioned in the prayer. D ie Elia-Apokalypse (JSHRZ 5:3. is intro­ duced as a quotation from scripture. 195-96.) 422 Cf...” 1 C or 2:4). Perhaps they were unrecogniz­ able before the Paris conservators removed the shellac from the papyrus.423 W ith the vowel sequences (11. to rcpwTOV artOTeXwv.g. The origin o f the passage constitutes an unresolved problem. a^avaxoui. sage from the ML will have to be added to these collections.425 The second rule says that: . H ow is this to be understood? Preisendanz (app. 615 6t]£eo7] or 616 ш) ee ooo. Trveufxaxo? x a l Suvafxeox. ayairwaxv auxou. £ )< ехтеХѕат)^ toui. (“demonstration o f spirit and power. crit. Luke 3:16.] [Xoyot. 426 Pap.. 1991). еТта ofxol«<. Die Schrift als Zeuge des Evangeliums. W hat the eye has not seen and the ear has not heard. (* .. a •/jTolfxacrev o & xot<.238— The pas­ 46. again as if to show pronunciation.424 W hat follows in 11. also John the Baptist’s baptism with the holy spirit and fire (Matt 3:11. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag. the first o f which is: таита 7iavxa Аеуѕ [хета кирб^ x a l Tcveu[xaTo?. Giitersloh: Mohn. until you have gone through the seven immortal gods o f the universe”). It is sometimes hard to distinguish them from natural discolorations on the fibers. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck]. VII. then in the same way w hen you begin the second time. 1. C ootpioLq . the first time performing to the end. interpreting the revelation o f Gods wisdom (v.. Acts 1:5. 1980). Фѕои^ тои xoctjjlou426 (“ . 36— 41. Zurich: Benziger. These marks are faint in the photograph and were probably written in a lighter ink. Several items are stipulated.164 Commentary a ocp&aXfAo^ oux elSev xal об^ oux tjxouctev xal £7U xapStav av&pcoirou oux ave[3y). This does not mean that such a text could not have existed..^] aXX’ ev aTioSei^et. idem.& oT[<. also the contrasts in 1 Cor 2:4: o Xoyo<.

139. 20. the text announces its effect (11. (“W hen you have said these things. XIII. and LSJ. more likely. 428 The term t o n e p iejo v is technical in cosmologies (PGM VII. 571— for xXovoi.”) Claps o f shattering thun­ der427 figure prominently into events in the cosmic realm. x al xXovou tou n zp iijo v x o q . 648. 72. index s. бе cisauTov alcr&7]&Y]orsi. 573. (“Then open your eyes.g. below. 558— 60). Merkelbach (Abrasax. Mark 1:10 / / Matt 3:16 / / Luke 3:21. 10:11. gates o f”. see above on 1. x al tyjs Xa P^? TCveufAa aou auvTpsx£t-v xat.11. тос? &upa? x al tov xocjfxov tc5v &ewv.”) The opening o f the eyes ends their closing which had been ordered at 11 586-87. 432 Cf. has the symbol Л. As usual. reads avewyutai. r]SovY)i. the world o f the gods. w hich is within the doors. 599-600. 620-23): таита aou einovxoq axouaet. etc. 2. 1. 67. you will hear thunder and shaking in the surrounding realm. Main body of the ritual (11. 345. 44. KEpiiyti. 443— 474.II.b. Phaedr. The Open Heaven: .. W hich version should then be used? Most likely is the first complete form (11. but the wording is somewhat different. Crit.270. cf. X XIII. Tim. O T P 2. s. wctts arco ттј<. 597. 517. l. e. Its object is . 558-60. and you will see. so that 85. 582). 24. R ev 3:7. also Homer.431 6q ea xiv svto q twv Oupwv. on 11. the vowel sequence to be chanted seven times.428 It certainly will shake up the initiate: б{лосм<. especially in apocalyptic literature. C H Exc. 11. 698. 624— 28): еТта avot-^ov тои<.241) points to the description o f the u7tepoupavto? xonoq in Plato.v. 98. The opening o f the doors o f heaven is a topos o f vision accounts o f all kinds. T he doors in the sun. 118a. 246e. following the conclusion o f the prayer.ava(Salvetv. 246b-252c. tou ^eafxaTOi. бср&аХјлои? x al бфт). s. so that from the pleasure and joy o f the sight your spirit runs ahead and ascends”). o ta x iv утј xal oupavo^). John 1:51. T hen the practitioner is told to open his eyes and experience the vision (11. so that the seven gods o f the universe are addressed? W hatever the answer may be. 590— 605. 573.429 Confronting the terror. etc. “Heaven. 429 oc’(T 7]& T£i is a peculiar term. presented as a description o f an image: avecpyuta<. (3povT9j<. See also.v. 431 Pap. See BDAG. Christopher Rowland. 4:1.” The prayer so) called has been recited before (see 11.v. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 165 suggests that the 23 times 7 letters refer to 23 epithets in the list 11.508: t o izzpizyov. O r is. 2. See Plato. avorfw. (“You will see the doors opened and the world o f the gods. but this list has only 21 epithets. TapacraofAevov (“in the same way you will experience yourself being shaken” ). the initiate is to repeat the oxyr]-logos: cru 8z naAiv X sys' crt/yY Xo(yo?)” 430 (“But you say again: Silence (prayer). and Preisendanz. esp. reported as closed in 11. the vision is announced by офт). the initiate can take a look inside o f heaven.432 Viewing this image turns the previous 427 For PpovxY] see above. Acts 7:56.). 584— are now open. Grammatik i & rjC der L X X . 430 Pap. for which Preisendanz refers to Helbing.12ff. 31a. Od. 3. and the abbreviation &v with a stroke above for ftswv. 163 (&eol oixiveq t o v xocT[jtov Trepte^ouCTLv). 69.

1. 475. (“T hen w hen your soul has / been restored . but for the author these deities are. 524. 3. 482) as well as the sun disk (548 [тгаттѓјр]. while you gaze intently [at the god Helios]). to be taken in a non-Platonic sense as describing the spirit-self (rcveujxa). 537— 38). while you look intently”. attire a toi le souffle.” The sentence construction is awkward. . oux. in the final analysis. . 710. Preisendanz: “N un bleib stehn und ziehe gleich von dem gottlichen Wesen. 34-38. 53. o5v еи&ѓсо? eXxe атго tou Oelou атevt^cov eic.. 628) runs w ith him and carries him along on his ascent. 372. ”). but it should be clear that what is to be drawn in from the divine (Helios) is the spirit. 546. above. the gazing (атеvl'C. 80. 622— 23). blicke auf die Gottheit und ziehe ihren Lebenshauch in dich selbst”. His relationship with Aion and Mithras appears complicated. es unverwandt anblickend. Merkelbach (Abrasax. a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. 433 por see 1. 415. 628—61) The fifth scenario shows the initiate at a higher level o f the cosmos. 62829): сгта<. and what is to be gazed at is the deity (Helios). Meyer: “So stand still and at once draw breath from the divine into yourself. Merkelbach: “Stelle dich also auf.436 although not in 11 622— At any rate.166 Commentary fear into pleasure and joy. . 359.tiv) has been m entioned before (see above. (“N ow stand still and at once draw spirit from the divine into yourself. 579— 583).” 435 The standing still arrests the upward movement (11. in dich den Geisthauch”. 436 See 11. 627— 28). et aussitot. та? axTtva? auxou avxocp&aAjji^CTai. the fourth scenario has come to an end. experience o f aesthetic enthusiasm. so that his spirit that he had inhaled before (see 11 537. 551. 574.v sic. 389.10 about the inability o f humans to gaze into the sun rays: e^XercovTe*. 475. Festugiere: “Reste en place cependant. an additional inhalation o f the divine spirit will now restore his soul (ф и ^ ). on 1. 378. where the immortal soul is taken up by the rotation o f the cosmos. The concept o f the soul as an individual’s self has been m entioned before. 1982). 5. Aune. 78.279-82. 498. аи^тглса/ос. for a w zp e jzL v . For the concept o f world-soul see the discus­ sion on 1. 5. Revelation. 725. 23. 535. aeauTOV to Ttveufxa. the scenario begins with a spatial orientation and commands to perform rituals (11. 576. Fifth scenario: the encounter with Helios (11. 1. 435 Translations differ at this point: Dieterich: “Tritt nun hin sogleich und ziehe von dem G5ttlichen gerade hinblickend in dich den Geisthauch”.433 W ith this . 11. identical. as A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity (London: SPCK. This leads to the precondition for the next step: oxav ouv а-гсохатаата&тј aou •/) фи‘т) . the term needs . 248a.241) calls attention to the parallel in Plato’ s Phaedr. 434 See for a general discussion the Introduction. Barn. ict^uouct(. 369. le fixant du regard.434 As often. Cf. 556). cf. T he ritual drawing in from the divine refers to the sun as the source o f the spirit (cf. de ce monde divin. He is now ready to encounter the god Helios w ho has been m entioned before as Helios Mithras (1. W hile the initiates self had been shattered because o f the thunder (11..

Although the deities are different. come!” (fxapava Фа. 538. the epiphany o f Helios begins: тоито <aou> surovTO^ crrpacpYjcrovTat. 373.apa. 153. Riess reads ectlSe. next 7тир(.. 50. 130-32) proposes £а(3и&. 443 Preisendanz (app.II. 635— 37): &eov vewxepov. After this command. “H elios/Sol. Or should it perhaps be тшр(. also IY 634-35. s. 6:1-2 (1992). The sun-beams. 73. срораОг. фслст^а кирс [3eAt..v. “Mithras. on 1. on 1. &a. see also .. Alexander Grieve.444 The text then instructs: eaet-бг auxwv [xsctov (“look into the center o f them ” ). (1.438 A series o f voces magicae follows (631— 33). e. 27) and Hopfner w ho read z a z i бе and translate: “und du wirst mitten unter ihnen sein” (“and you will be in their midst”).441 exifjievfjiepo cpopaQirjv442 epu) rcpo^pt. below.” L IM C 4:1-2 (1988). 539..” ). Merkelbach. D id 10:6). 447 Jordan reads <у>Аа(либ(.448 437 As Reitzenstein (H M R. cf. Edinburgh: Clark. with the remaining jrupt-cpwra. c f 11. ”). 580.E Trjaou (Rev 22:20). Cf. w ith fiery hair. фи](ѓ) is not a prominent concept in the ML.. nvpivoxpiytx. 1431. Peabody. 623. срораОг.” ibid. Main body of the ritual (11.тсрбстЕА&е. MA: Hendrickson. there are also remarkable parallels between his and Mithras’ portrait (11.445 The ritual continues: oirav oOv тоито тсосујст^. 655— 57). 588. 696— 702). Dieterich. This event can perhaps relate to images in the Mithraic iconography.156. 446 For this phrase. 440 Cf. 1901. xupcs (“speak: come forward.. repr. . see above. you will see . fi. 438 For the command Aeye. the m om ent for calling forth the god has come: Xeye. ap^avSa^ap X II. where Mithras turns around to look at Helios as he slays the bull. beautiful in appearance. . cf. Preisendanz have уЛа(аибс. for бфт]. 1 Cor 16:22. Mithras. Adolf Deissmann (Bible Studies [trans. 136. most o f them unexplained: ap^avSapa439 фсота^ос440 7 тир1<роота^а(3и0г!. in a white tunic and a scarlet cloak. lord” ). 1.? 442 Cf.g. 757.446 W hat follows is an iconographic portrait of Helios (11. spxou xupt. eueiSy).123— 24). sv Aeuxw xal <Х>Аа|хибс. 132.) suggests adding cou. (“Then. crit.a ’law tao euw etc. The portrait is constructed o f adjectives and participles typical o f Helios.437 W hen this has taken place. see 1.фмта£а (?). fig. 1. w hen you do this. m entioned before in IV461. see Dieterich (67-68) who refers to Cumont (Textes et monuments.. and wearing a fiery crown”). 629-30. . 73) in that regard C H XIII is similar. # # 113. Martinez calls attention to the liturgical call “Lord. Dieterich (10. 1988]. 655.443 (“W hen you have spoken this. see above. the sun rays will turn themselves upon you . Jordan takes it as elctlSe. For the title xupt. ^avSapa V433. 71. 1. 376. See BDAG. 72— notes. 692. focus on the initiate like a search light. 135.o<. reads eoelSe. офу) .срмта(^а [ЗиЅгЈ. 116. 441 So the pap. the Mithras reliefs in Cesare Letta. 54. xoxxIvt] s^ovxa 7iupivov сттѓфavov447 (“a youthful god. snL az al axTLve? . 445 Pap. 962). for representations o f the god on Mithraic monuments. for тсростеА&г see also 11.. # # 368. Rainer Vollkommer. 444 See. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 167 having grown weak and in need o f another infusion o f the divine spirit.. 756 (on the departure see 11.va. 439 Cf. 569. 448 For the iconography o f Helios.

51.” R A C 16 (1991) 1— R u d olf Wachter 4. see Anton Baumstark. Merkelbach. see Henrik Zilliakus. 2242.60— 61. Helios Megistos. 688-91. 588. 670-72. 49. 73). 450 This scene may be compared to one o f the fresco paintings from the Isis temple in Herculaneum. “Hofzeremoniell. XII. 19 (ed.. 6.5— Betz. 451 There are no parallels known o f this greeting formula. 103. 452 See Karl Hoheisel.” M H 55 [1998] 65— connects the 75) greeting with the giving o f gifts and sacrifices. rel.71-100. XIII. also 666. The Sermon on the Mount. occurs also 1. 454 This greeting is actually an appeal (“be glad”). it occurs frequently in the ML. 677. 214. Essai. See Tran Tam Tinh.1052— 53. уХосџид xoxxlvyj are applied to Helios only. A black dancing figure emerges in the door o f the temple and is greeted by worshipers raising their hands or kneeling down. 8 uses entirely different terms.” R A C 2 (1954) 993— 1006).vo<. 201. Hymns. 666. in the ML. For the hymns to Helios see the reconstruc­ tions by Ernst Heitsch. new light!”). 202— 203. the iconography o f Christ in R ev 1:12— and the collection o f parallels in Aune. with note. discussed by Lewy. 111— 2. 89. Mithras. fasc. verbal portrait in Orph. Merkelbach. 453 See also 1. асгаааоа auxov xw . 33. Tcuplvco асгтгасттсхм’ (“At once greet him w ith the firey greeting” . fig.61— 2. see 11. with commentary. for comparative material on addressing persons..609.455 [jle <ya>Xo: Merkelbach. IV. “Griechisch )(oape. Ziegler): . S. 1. 12. 1345-46. . cf. 557.бѕ.. 449 Cf. 139. 554 (fig. 713-14. Proclus’ “Fire Song” (Hymn 1).454 and followed by an aretalogy o f three attributes using fxeya— fxeyaXoSuvajxe (“great power”). also. 100— 102 and plate XXIV. .” R A C . Cf.7-8. vetoxepog and ev Xeuxw are also used o f Mithras (11. Abrasax. 50.374— 75. 638) :451 еи&еах.117. Cesare Letta. and the presentation o f a petition (11. “Anredeformen. while ѕитјЅѓјд. 182. It is noteworthy that the 2. IV. VII. 145— For аатга^естО-аа in the 93. 12-13. also using the sistrum. “Chairetismos. IV1046. Dieterich.” L IM C 4:1— s. ааткхсгп. Isis Regina.168 Commentary The terms &ео<. XIII. 712. Beginning w ith the invocation.881.) The prayer so named is contained in 11 639-55. see on 1. it shows . 16. 25. 639— 42). '/caps vufjupe. 455 [xeyaXoSuva[xo<. Cf. Vorgeschichte eines GruBwortes.449 en lieu o f a rcupt-vo^ oreqxxvoQ Mithras is crowned w ith a ^ристо^ Gzecpocvoq.” M H 55 (1998) 65— Furley & Bremer. Cf. bridegroom! Greetings. Fauth. R udolf Wachter. “H elios/Sol. Chaldaean Oracles. the usual composition: the invocation (11. —On euQ-ewi. 2. At the appearance o f Helios. . Liturgische Lieder. 519. The prayer may even be influenced by court ceremo­ nial. 150— 62. 1048. which is apparently the name o f the following prayer. ML.87. (“Griechisch yjylpe. Firmicus Maternus.х6< (1. he is to be greeted at once450 w ith a special greeting called 7 iupc. 62. the classification o f greeting formulae as ^оаретктЈлб^ (11. Err. XII. 70. 678. Hymn. Vorgeschichte eines GruBwortes. see 11. See. “GruBformen. 642— 55). in Preisendanz. 491— van den Berg. Greetings. 673). prof. Henrik Zilliakus. nupivoS-piE.” R A C 12 (1983) 1204-32. Proclus’ Hymns.452 T he invocation is carefully composed.237— 46. 16b. '/cape veov (“ . o f Helios ev ттј TrupivT] ^XajxuSt. ^atpeTL^etv 1. 88. XIV. Greek 75. 1— Assmann. color plate V and descrip­ tion p.v. 1. 3 -4 (1985— 465— 86) 97. beginning with the address xvpie (“lord” )453 and yctipz (“Greetings!” “Hail”). Revelation. 697-98). Cf...

485— 732) 169 хратсор (ЗаспХеи (“great-mighty king”). 218.[i. tw ae yevvTjaavTt. s. IV243.v.” § 4: “Helios psychopompe. Aen. Acts 17:24).457 T hen comes the god’ name.456 piyiaTS (“greatest o f gods”). 609— 10). IV.133— 34. 93) 648. t. IV 180.28-29.53. 459 The pap. the question o f the Sibyll to Musaeus (Virgil. reads 9s (with superscripted e) &e«v.oSp6fj.v. 1048. “If you please. ayyetXov [xs tw [xeyicrrto &eto.. has 'iayjjzi. 233) notes that the visitor had to be announced and points to Seneca. Preisendanz. announce me to the greatest god. тараа. The presentation o f the petition (11. 642. corrected by Wessely to [леуаХохратмр. 11.v. 1598..v. Proclus. . see Preisigke. line 1: 7tupo<.Xeu.462 Helios functions here as a gate-keeper and messenger to announce visitors to Mithras.458 and &ге' &scov (“god o f gods” ).. 460 Pap. Main body of the ritual (11. s. 1 (1903) 142-48. Greek Hymns. Apoc.2. s. the one who begat and made you . both o f them are hapaxlegomena in the PGM. [лѕуа^. s. . 1. 642. The conclusion (1. 1. tou s oupavou x al ттј<. 18 and parr. and io yu zi ctou t) SuvafJtx?460 (“mighty is your power”). 233) s reference to R ene Dussaud. 641. бохѓсо. 1195.” Cf. reads [xeXoxpocxoip. 1200.” RAr. voepou (3a<Jt. 642— is equally elaborate and begins 55) w ith some formalities: sav aoi бо^у).oq.b. 1046. 499.b. II.Y]<TavTt. esp. and for further references. 987.. 639) repeats the address xupie. 1. 2. Jesus’ prayer in Gethsemane.zur Erklarung dieser Rolle dienen konnte.). 42. the second to last grade o f the Mithraic mysteries: “W ie weit der vorletzte Grad der Mithrasmysten. BDAG.” expresses submission to the divine will. For other parallels. see BDAG. 255. 687— ЈлеуаХохрахоргс.666— 71). N ock (Essays. &eoL Cf. 4:1 (1944).20. 457 The epithet occurs frequently in the PGM. Matt 26:39. 458 The epithet is found only here in the PGM. утј? (“the lord o f the heaven and the earth” ). See Anna di Bitonto. “Le petizioni al re. pocaiXeu [лѕуг-сЈтѕ. line 2: <paou<.461 The role of Helios as an announcer has an interesting parallel in Acts 12:14 (aTtayysXXeLv).” or “if you will. XXII. cf.oi —die Weihe des vorletzten Grades heiBt yjXiaxa (C[umont] I 317. Apoll. showing that it may belong to domestic practices.463 456 The pap. 3.192— refers to ML passages on the divine will: 11. 992.4. 6. Helios and two more attributes: o xupio*.b. parallels occur in the LXX and in the N T (Matt 11:25 / / Luke 10:21 [Q]. Worterbuch. here as a vocative.v.1019. 3) . 88: Hymn 1. XIII. See also Philostratus.” For further literature and discussion see Wunsch’ (Dieterich. laBt sich schwerlich sagen. &zoq.) begins with the polite phrase eocv ctol ббЕт). see van den Berg.” Aegyptus 47 (1967) 5— 57. Furley & Bremer.” The polite formula. xupt. 4eme serie. 462 Eduard Norden (in Dieterich. Vit. 152-56. Studio sul formulario. (“If it be your will. Proclus’ Hymns.. 463 Dieterich (67-68) raises the question whether this role o f Helios has any connection with the heliodromus. see 11. See BDAG. 2. Soxsw (cols. 5. 461 The petition (in Greek called ivzzu^ic. cf. x al 7iot. index.II.459 N ext come two parallel verbal forms: la jp z i ctou y] tcvoy] (“mighty is your breath”). s. der Y]Xt. See for this epithet Qee PGM 11.126. “Notes de mythologie archeologique syrienne. 17— on the “formule attentuative.

no longer a mortal.” Since there is no real evidence for Christian influences elsewhere in the ML. see Julien Ries. En. n. 20— also Betz.. Apoll.18:4 (1990) 2728-75. 2767-68: “Le Soleil. has begotten Helios..467 The section conforms to a synthema and has two parts.7. Dieterich’s skepticism is justified. that Helios will announce the visitor to Mithras who.. the parallel self-introduction and its implied anthropology in the Katharmoi o f Empedocles (D. Caes. Icarom. # 478 [p. L. because both are called “young gods. 9. (“ [Mithras] who begat and made you”). 4. .170 Commentary To call Mithras b [леу^сгтоq $zoc. D ieterich observes that “the idea o f the unio mystica o f father and son was not completely alien to ancient religious sentiment.. TCwAeufjwa [лета n a a i zexi[L£voq (“Friends. but o unzpfitxXhovTMC. "HAio? Ml&pac. 109. (1. 68.14-18]. he says emphatically. 6. There is no question. 2): “Im iibrigen denke ich gar nicht daran —auch hier sei das kurz betont — die M o g l i c h k e i t der Einwirkungen christlicher Anschauungen auf diejenigen unseres Textes in Abrede stellen zu wollen. see Merkelbach. 466 On the competition between Mithras and Helios. 135. 14:4— 7. n. 4..465 The contradiction seems to be the result o f the competition between the two gods. 22-23) argues against Dieterich that Mithras is not called the [леуктто<. 643-44): tw as YevvYjcravTL x al TcoujaavTi. see i En. Plotinus. and Julian. Rejoice! To you I am as an immortal god. jcnipex'1 eyw б’ ujxtv Q-eo? a[x(3p0T0i. going about honored among a ll.30. The epithet which follows clarifies the issue (11. nymph.. 13:4-6. For comparable messengers. 336c: tov тсатѓра M£9-pav. where the epithet belongs to Helios. notes 1— 3. 465 For the fatherhood o f Mithras. see the quotations o f Empedocles in later sources. 482) means that at least for the author father and son are one.466 In 11 644— the initiate asks Helios to pass on to Mithras the self-identifi.-K. however. See also Festugiere. but the title б [лѓуа? &eoc. 517— and 718— 37 24. Lukian.. 354]). Clemens Alex. Strom. see Porphyry.” ANRW 11. the idea does not result from Christian influence. Mt&pou. “Le culte de Mithra en Iran. These passages are cited by Dieterich.1. ' ouxetl 9-vt]t6<. (1. 643) apparently contradicts 1. Revelation.354. According to Dieterich (68). see Lucian. that is Agathos Daim on or the Iranian Ahura Mazdah. esp. Vit. Also. the Lord o f Heaven.468 On the heliodromus.3. D.” 464 In other words. . For the handing over o f a petition to 22. This self-identification contains im portant information about the anthropology o f the M L.220— 41. 1. г)го^. Philostratus. For the interpretation. Kirk & Raven. Empedocles addresses his friends: w cpiAoi. Mithras.62 and 66.. 1. 118-27.]).. ауа&о?. Mithra et le Feu. 464 Dieterich’s (68) detailed discussion rejects the idea that this relationship reflects Christian influence: “DaB eine Vorstellung von der unio mystica des Vaters und des Sohnes auch antikem religiosem Empfinden nicht ganz fremd w ar.” 467 Thus adding to the other self-identifications in the ML in 11. a kind o f passport. 31 B 112 [1. 8.ipzx\ еум б’ ufjuv .. Fauth (Helios Megistos.. Antr.” one can hardly be the father o f the other. Mithras is defined here as the father and Helios as the son. 640.10.. 6: tou ttocvtwv тсо(Л]тои xal ттатр6<. 468 Cf.” But he still considers it a possibility (n.38: ya. 49 cation o f the initiate. esp.” [my trans.

s. 523-24. 11.476 The term for “being reborn” (p. Indeed. reads an abbreviation 9u for 9eou. 190. reads jj-sysvv7]i)evTo^. 19:9.a&elf. on the synthema.” Dieterich (12) and Merkelbach (Abrasax. but with Dieterich (12).v. furthermore BDAG. See also Zuntz. see 11. there is no need for a comma either in 1. 485— 732) 171 First. Persephone. also the Orphic gold tablets (esp. corrected by Dieterich (12) and Preisendanz (app. 516. 8(e)T(va). ad loc. Furthermore. not identified by name.” used mostly with regard to blood. A human being must be from the mortal womb o f the mother. 477 For the concept o f rebirth. 533. in matrilinear descendence. 469 Pap. Riedweg. 9e£ov x a l ty]v npoq аитб б{д.) is almost technical in mystery-cult language. 104.eTayevvY)&7)va[. Preisendanz puts a comma after 9eou and translates “nach dem RatschluB des iiberschwanglich guten Gottes. See LSJ. see below. . w ho was born from the mortal womb o f N N and the fluid o f semen”). by the name o f the mother. Preisendanz points to a similar scribal error in 1. since he has been born again from you today. 2 Cor 6:2. differently Dieterich (Abraxas. 651. (“human being”). expresses it with the symbol A ттј? A. The reference to time (“and today”) implies that the rebirth has taken place on the same day.v. on 11. ad loc. w hich is the result o f his ritual rebirth (11. 392]). исттера? T .. 473 The symbol A is used again. p. ex toctoutmv fxupiaScov aiTa&avaTt..отг)та aTevlcra^. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 189— Cf. see above. 501. cf. 495. 508— 523— 9.242) regards the words cnfjfAepov t o u t o u uno aou fjis<Ta>yevv7)9evTO<. 24.II. 3. 2 in Graf. “fluid.469 yevojxevo< ex . C jfjiepov. at 1.472 again identified by her name. 1. see T jjX pov Luke 2:11. 639: {Л£<уа>Хохратмр. aYjpiepov toutou utto ctou pie<Ta> yevv7]0-evTO<. 471 See also 11. noted by Dieterich and Preisendanz. without change in the translation. ev таитт) ty} «ра х ата Soxyjctlv &(eo)u u7tep(3aXXovxo£ aya&ou475 (“and who. 487. eyw o 8(e)i(va) ty)<. 474 The phrase b/apoq сттг£р[Ј. 686. 517— 18. pap.477 Such rebirth cannot be enjoyed by every $eoq а[л(Зрото<. 535. 516— 29. the initiate identifies himself as an individual belonging to the human species: oxi av&pwuoc. the abbreviation 9v (9etov) above. 476 For C T E (“today”) see 11. crit. 23:43. 718-24. has becom e immortal out o f so many myriads in this hour according to the wish o f the exceedingly good god”).473 and the semen o f the father. 470 Different from Preisendanz.ат1 хои is hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. 648. 92. 475 Pap. 646— 49): x a l. n.. I am placing no comma after av9pw7io<. Selva xal ix“ P°? стсерЈлатсхои (“that a human being am I. see on 11. For the TY formula as a whole see above.о(. as a secondary addition. 8): x a l г/шрос GTTSpjaaTt-xou ijl£ yevvYjcjavToc. 3.470 His species is called av&pw7to<. 7)< whose mother is N N .. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. 625. Pelinna 1— [ed. s.474 Second. N N . 13:32. 646-48) .) to [is< т а > у evv7]9ivToc.471 the individual is identified by the personal name to be inserted as well as. to ал/офа<. below. 739-40.170) have no comma. Main body of the ritual (11. t^wp. vis a vis a divine being (11. the initiate identifies him self by his divine nature. 472 See also above. Also. For significant parallels in the NT.

478 The god Helios does this by making the initiate immortal (aTca&avaTt-atktc. 1423. 7.c. For further passages. 499. IV. Poseidonios.39 (762c) (ed. Acts 16:18. .481 The resulting rebirth and immortali­ zation is o f course a gift of divine beneficence. continuing in the descriptive style appropriate for the occasion (11. 246d: t o бе ftelov xaXov. Post.. 771. Scyth. Numenius. as Preisendanz (app.).. 133. Is it Helios. 2. Deor. Det. 484 My trans. 1. jenseitigen Gott Platons. see 1. 22:13. 544-45]). 3. 1.480 That this ritual has occurred “at this hour” and “in accordance with the divine will” seems part o f the traditional formulae. 9:14.1: tw бг бг] Kalaapt. 94. Eph 1:19.73-74 (ev ty) cjTjjxepov Y]fA£pa xal ev 7iacnf] copa). ciotpov. rather than direct assimilation o f his ideas to Plato’ s.v. see TLG . 2. 4. 1. but this tendency may reflect his Stoic orientation. xaxa Suvajjuv av&p(07uv7]v (“ .. 1. see BDAG. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. 2. frag. See BDAG. I l l . Cassius Dio.94. Theiler.2 (ed. Anab.). 24:33. 482 The formula is UTCepjSaAAovTW ауаОои (Феои). 741.3. and. more geneally.483 Following the self-presentation. Mithras. 527— 540. итсер[ЗоХѓ) in 2 Cor 4:7. 50: ae x al Seexat. 44. but only a few will be elected “out o f the many myriads” o f the massa perditionis.” The author’s tendency o f seeing the deity as totally transcendent is stated in the prooemium (the “great god Helios Mithras” [1. 45. from Strabo.212 (ev wpa avayxTji.114): б тсара тоТ^ Гѓта^ 0e6c.482 The question as to which god is meant remains unclear. Phaedr. 412. Augustus] аито xal aTr/j&avaTicrfjiivto xal sc. 480 For aTta&avaTurjxoi. a change from the third to the first person. from Strabo. s. Piet. 111. frag. 2:7. 85: 483 Merkelbach (Abrasax.242): “Angleichung an den e i n e n..1213 (ed. See Theophrastus. 3:19. similar expressions in 11.) does. from Diodorus Siculus 1. reads u7tepj3aXX0VT0<.115): тгара бе тоц wvofxar'ofxevot. 747.172 Commentary human being. there is no need to assume. but Jordan keeps U7tepP<xXX0VT0<.5. see also Theiler’s commentary.. Virt. through the ritual called aruaO-avart. This equals frag. Tcpoaxuvyjaat. 1. cf. QG 1. 46a. in Hellenistic philosophical and religious literature it is more frequent. 1. in the N T Luke 2:38. Somn. Opif. Гzxaic.. Aelianus.2. Abst. wpa..i. i.4— (298a— (ed. 479 The verb aTta&avaxL^eiv occurs only here in the ML. for the texts see Riedweg in Graf. the self-presentations on the Orphic gold tablets (A 1-3 and 5).14. 392— Betz. z. crit. Philo. 482]). corn. cf. 135. 16. Geogr. 28. where the initiate claims to be “a pure from the pure”. Posidonius..2 (ed. and supplicates w ith as m uch power a hum an being can have” ). 134. or a god even higher than Mithras? Merkelbach suggests that the expression belongs to the author s con­ ception o f one metaphysical deity and that it expresses assimilation to Plato. requests to worship you. 17. According to T L G and LSJ it is attested since Plato. 15.228. frag. The pap. especially in connection with heroization. Mos. Des Places). U7rep[3oXY]. Conf 149. frag. Theiler.543 (ev exelvY) wpa [cf. Theiler. 123.. B.284— (Beoc. ZocXijio^lv . tov twv acrupwv api&fxov eyxareiXeyjjievto avcTl&ecrav. 642. Potscher). see below 11. 2. 2. 649— . continuing in the descriptive mode. xolc ocTua&avaTL^ouat.v.36. Porphyry.2. Lucian.. 236. s.99). Geogr. XII. corrected by Dieterich and Preisendanz to UTrepPaXXovTto?.484 He first 478 Cf. ibid. 221.7. Spec. ayadov.115): тсара бе xolq 5 b) Ykxoiiq wvofxa^sxo 9-eoc. the initiate offers his petition. See also similar expression in the NT: 2 Cor 3:10. 481 For ev таитт) ty) wpa. 156d.CT^Oi. Charm. Vgl.v. 9. s.3. [sc. Antike und Christentum.) хтерЏаХке^ t t jv 7raaav б ш а р . Cf.51.479 that is. For хата бохт]спл/ &eou.. 12:7.

470. 24— See Preisigke.).v.10. 280 (# 129). 653-54): tva cpavel? xPY LaT^aY ^v та )H ] aya&al? wpac. 3.951.492 The request concludes w ith a sequence o f voces magicae (654— 55): ecopw рмре toppi topitop pcop ptot. Ausgewdhlte koptische Zaubertexte. 487 Cf.. Coptic thapsiorie. also 11.” So also Merkelbach (Abrasax. which occurs only here the ML. 246d. Weltbild und Astrologie. 7tpoaxuvew. that you take along with you the regent o f the present day and hour. so he can determine the gods o f the day and hour. thapsiorirar. edited by Naveh & Shaked. Preisendanz (in Dieterich. . 11.179: [j-opoLpw^ (Preisendanz: o^oafjLopoipw^). Heinrich 26.. 613b).).417. n.” 3586) refers to trpsdk in an Aramaic text..eiv and xp7]C T[xoig see 11.v. Kropp.486 commensurate with his limited human power. Main body of the ritual (11. <Xeye-> s copco etc. wpovopiov (“that you may take along w ith you the horoscope of the day and hour today” ). 487 In 11 651— the author sees the need to insert a redactional comment . 1.31. and translates: “petition. thapsiorsth. Cf.. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 351: ol SexaSap^at. IV. Brashear (“Greek Magical Papyri. 544— 47). 55 which interprets “human power” astrologically: —tva aujxrrapaXa^Y]? t o v ттј? cnrjfxepov 7][iipa<.. Resp.? (“that he may appear and give revelation during the good hours”). a£tow. The twelve hours are then designated by the voces magicae in 11. 724— 727. These words clearly state that the purpose and goal o f the ritual is to obtain an oracular session w ith the god. XXX. 3226.pox. BDAG. Ancient Christian Magic. see also 1.. the last word on f.v.3. 297. whose name is Thrapsiari. in Meyer & Smith.491 Finally. divider o f the hour” [LSJ]) is mentioned only here in the PGM.490 The name ®раф(. Sol Salutis. XIa. 8v o f the pap.. 686— The initiate is told to carry 87. see 1. xal хратас. беѕа&оа). 223) understands this to mean: tva аијлттарослофт]^ tov wpovofxov. also Damascius.118. Phaedr. 732. III. 68. VII.II. 488 Pap.pox cf. The secondary nature o f the insertion was seen by Dieterich (12. see Dolger. s. Cf. 35. He takes it to mean that the planets in their function as lords o f time are being asked to assist. (“marker.242) points out that the phrase хата Suvajjav av&poOTtvrjv is a Platonic echo (Theaet. note in the app.485 then his submission by supplication (oci'iouv.. 47. s.арс. the technical terms are 25.14. Worterbuch.v. Greeven. Amulets and Magic Bowls.191. tva .193. s. 491 It is otherwise unattested and unexplained. XIII. 486 For the terms ocEiouv x a l бѕесг&ас.арс [лорсрох occurs only here in the M L. 489 The astrological term wpovofxoi. (op petopcopi 485 For this gesture o f prostration. 3239. See moreover BDAG. thapsiorpsior. has'iva. [he notes what looks like fat letters for 0раф[..844.. ф ovojjia ®раф1 ар[. XII. 717. 252) who points out the importance o f the planetary deity governing the day o f the rebirth (cf.о1. T D N T 6 (1959).. For [xopi. the request is specified (11.b. xa l ^собѕ-охраторе? xal wpovofAot. 654-55. PGM 11. 477 and elsewhere in the PGM (1. the horoscope489 o f the day and the hour along w ith him. 176b.. LXII. 490 See on this Gundel. Princ.488 That the author interconnects the ritual w ith astrology can be see also in 11. s. On prostration as a Persian and Byzantine ritual. 606.e.368. 3. <Asye‘> [xopt.]. LXXVII. x al wpa<. 4 8 5 — 732) 173 expresses his devotion by prostration (7rpoaxuv7](7i<. 523— npoq 6/ayov 24: av&pcoTtivrjq jjiou фи^хтј^ Suvajxew^. frequent in the PGM.35-36).171. crit. 2. 492 For jpfi[nxxCC.

2327. where both sides occur. also the 99) Jewish shofar.495 T he fifth scenario concludes w ith the performance o f protective rituals. 496For this term. 1959. 560.497 to be perform ed xspaxost-Stoi. (Saaavl^wv tyjv Xayova. 1. divides these into twelve groups. avot. 1) wants to write. 712. 655— 57): таита <70u e I tcovto ? s X e u a s T o a sic. lines 15-16. 498 The term is attested only here. ed. TtpwTov sic. therefore: xal Xsye. see 1. see Preisendanz. he will come to the celestial pole.15. Jacoby. Sixth scenario: the encounter with the deities o f the Bear constellation (11. at 1. Preisendanz (W S t 41 [1919] 143. 14. 14. but c f 1. VIII. 47. bellow”).498 and oXov anoSiSovg to rcveu^a.496 then a strong bellowing sound (ptuxoofxa fxaxpov). but see Dieterich (41. you 493 Gundel. Does it perhaps consist o f variations on the term wpa? 494 On this term. . 642.493 After this the god leaves to carry the request to Mithras (11. n. 1305-6. 242) points to the ff/oq хѕратоѕс. material. See Dieterich.438. Bezold.1731. x al хатаср1Хѕс.” Cf. Gundel. Usher. IV. n. 661—92) The sixth scenario begins. Finally.676 тсоАохратсор. (“After you have said these things. P R O SY M E R I” ). 707— 813— Dieterich (13. n. 495 The cosmological technical term izokoc. 70.бтјѓ. First. ed. t o v tcoX o v . 463). 69.. 499 For kissing the phylacteries see also 11. 1026.93. 588. The name тгрости[Л )р1 У is unexplained. The sequence is attested only here in the PGM. 693. x a l бфу) a u T o v u e p t T r a x o u v T a ax. 661— 62): таита sirrtov офт] &ира<. first to the right: protect me.uxo3 (“by giving off your whole breath and squeezing your loins. around which the stars rotate. Commentary The pap. there is the familiar “gazing” (axsvl^siv). XIII. 179. crit.54. 705. see at 11. by the “road” (обо^)? Has the phrase anything to do with the heliodromusl See above. While the time indicator (“after you have said these things”) marks the progress in the ritual: the initiate will see (о ф т ))494 Helios on his way to the axis-pole of the world.yo(xsva<. 1280. 76. pt. (“like w ith a h o rn ” ). 35. 2480. rcpwTov__ For the command “protect m e” see also 1. 819 тгростЅи^р!.34. 556. with an orientation (11. 120. 2. app. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 2384. 711. to Ss^cov cpuXa^ov [xs upoaufXYjpt. occurs only herein theML. suggested by Preisendanz as representing the twelve hours o f the day. (“kiss the phylacteries and say. 6. Sternglaube. 228— 233) for further 29.butcf. Usener & Radermacher. see 11. т а сриХахттјрса x al Xsys. For the image cf. then to the left. 1307. For viokoq. 629.. described by Diony­ sius o f Halicarnassus (Comp.1302. Weltbild und Astrologie. s v o S w (“After you have said these things. like the others. ibidem.) notes 8. but Gundel questions it. V284. 707. and you will see him walking as if on a road”). see 11. 819. Weltbild und Astrologie. 45— —What is meant 48.98— as a strong nasal sound by making M and N. Boll. Gundel. 538.499 6. that an element is missing from the text: six a si q to apicrcov. 490. 539. 497 On this ritual.174 sto p sto p e w p ecop s c o p s .

x a X o u v T a i o u p a v o u T uj o li . 92-95. W ho are these seven virgins that occur only here in the PGM? Already Dieterich (69— had identified them as seven Hathors. the 500 Since there is no article before “doors. see Vermaseren. 625). 78. Aus der Offenbarung Johannis. Scavi di Ostia. Sphaera.” JM iS 1:2 (1978) 119-65. the world o f the gods). Weltbild und Astrologie.II. TcapQivoui. (with bibliography). т) 504 Origen. 663-65 an iconographic description o f the seven virgins follows: .” PRE 6 (1909) 2407— 31. and w ith the faces o f asps. Mithras. 1 Cor 2:10 (T Job 37:6): та (За& t o u ‘}eou. Dieterich s proposal that one should imagine seven gates finds support in the mosaic o f the Mitreo delle sette sfere at Ostia. See Becatti. 37. If one follows Dieterich. “Fixsterne. Roger 81. VII. the seven flaming altars in the top register o f some Mithraic reliefs. Mithriaca III. At any rate. plate XVI. “The Sacred Geography o f a Mithraeum: The Example o f Sette Sfere. Franz Boll & Wilhelm Gundel.687. plate XIX. and the next visionary episode can begin. 21. 111. e v (3 u c h tlv o [. See BDAG. XXII. Beck. “Arktos in den griechischen Zauberpapyri. 505 Pap.506 He argues against their being planetary gods because earlier in his ascension the initiate has passed the planets and has moved to the higher sphere o f the gods. 2. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac II.503 The idea is that they are stepping forward out o f the fiery gates. 502 (“and (you will see) seven virgins coming from the deep w ithin”). Merkelbach. dressed in linen garments.190. 628-29). esp. a a T u S tov тир6ст(071а e y o v o i x q . Lexikon 6 (1924-37). 25). а б т а с . Idem. 539. vol. 83. see at 1. 869— Gundel.” Dieterich (13. 1. and wield golden wands”). except that the gates o f the sun are now open (cf. the preceding protective rituals have ended. 69.146 (the demons coming from below). Mithriaca IV. x p a T o u a a t . combined with the 72) seven fixed stars o f the constellation o f the Great Bear. Main body of the ritual (11. ^ р и стеа (3 p a (3 e la 505 (“ . 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 175 will see [the] doors opening” ).500 In terms o f time. 38.b. .” in Roscher. idem. Weihegrade. idem.. fig. 1.£ .e. They are called the Fates o f heaven. Cels. Wolfgang Fauth. esp.” here meaning “from above. . X II.” Cf. taking its name from the mosaics and O rigen’ reference to the xXT[jt. C IM R M . [iaQoc.22. 82)..”JM iS 2:2 (1978) 87-147.” Z P E 57 (1984) 93— 99.501 The initiate is still at the same level as before (cf. H e sees that seven virgins emerge (11. X X X V I. 3) raises the question o f whether one should imagine seven doors to open.1293. 11 624— . s. 34. idem.” i. idem. Gordon.v. Mithriaca IV. . plates XII and XIII. 116-26. Richard L. See Franz Boll. 503 For the term pa&oc (“deep. The expression “from the deep” refers to the world o f the gods behind the gates o f the sun (cf. 501 For the stereotypical бфт]. has [Зрофкх.137 (fig.. 506 The constellation o f the Bear is prominent in the PGM (see IV. LXXII).a£ s ѕтгтатгиХо? (“seven-gated ladder” ). cf.26. 1. the translation should be: “you will see seven doors opening. Vermaseren. 662— 63): x al zpyoyAvaq e x t o u (За&оис. Cf. . has Z Ttap&svouq.504 In 11. 862. 11. 65. Sternglaube und Sternsymbolik bei Griechen und R om ern. 59-64. “Sternbilder. 6. 575 (from the astral sphere). 502 Pap. plates XII and XVII. n.

(Зистсто? may be “fine linen” (LSJ. 332. 145.47— for planets and Pleiads. IV. 338.2116. Zaubertexte.277. 508 Gundel.” 48. Das wird zur GewiBheit erhoben durch die sieben aufgerichteten Schlangen. plate 12.232]) reference to the . xal Tu^ai xal Molpat.176 Commentary figures are a syncretistic combination o f the Fates. “Planeten. n. eminenten Bedeutung.138.84. IV.5 [ed. 1936). Dekane.. . o f which the constellation o f the Great Bear is one. 509 See also 1. 1908).one may see in them either the personified Kentra or the stars in the square o f the Great Bear — can be explained from the eminent importance which in many places is attributed to the seven stars o f the Pleiads. is mine). 12— with frontispice and plates X XX VI— 13. sieben. On snake­ shaped deities. and the Egyptian Hathors. XIII. daimons. see Wolfgang Helck. 1. Fates. XII. although none has been identified w ith certainty.510 Their identification w ith the Fates is 507 See XII. “Hathoren. see W ilhelm Gundel. 1. (“the good emanations of the stars. 508. That the virgins are clothed in fine byssos garments may mean that the material was linen or even silk. XIII. This has been made certain by the seven erect asps. man hat sie mit R echt als die sieben Hathoren angesprochen. VIII.507 A somewhat different interpretation has been offered by Gundel: “The seven Fates w ith their asp faces are meant to be the seven stars o f the Pleiads. Abrasax. and Merkelbach. Preisendanz: “in Byssosgewandern”. Merkelbach: “in Seidengewandern”.208. BDAG). Gundel. VII. which appear on the tomb painting o f Athribis.780-82. 164. see Wilhelm and Hans Gundel. M. Flinders Petrie.30..” (Trans.15-16.159 (6<pe(mp6cra7toc. on the four pillars. die eng hintereinander zu einer Gruppe komponiert auf dem Grabgemalde von Athribis als Dekanmachte unter Orion erscheinen. XXXVII.768-69. 184.254-55. 9-eoi. see Kropp.249. the seven virgins are parallel to the pole lords described next. X XI. 3. On the seven Hathors. Further clues come from a formula attested several times in the PGM.” 508 T he iconography most certainly has a pictorial background o f some kind. DaB sie die Wachterinnen der vier Saulen sind — man darf in ihnen entweder die personifizierten Kentra oder die Sterne im Viereck des GroBen Baren sehen — erklart sich aus der . For the Kentra. Irenaeus’ (Haer. one has rightly called them the seven Hathors. 293. 1. For the tomb o f Athribis (Atrepe) see W. except on the tomb painting o f Athribis. and M oirae” ). 301-6. Neue astrologische Texte des Hermes Trismegistos (Miinchen: Beck. 17. Weltbild und Astrologie. die den sieben Sternen der Pleiaden vielerorts zugesprochen worden ist.” LA 2 (1977) 1033. Harvey. placed closely behind each other as a group o f decanic powers under O rio n __That they are the guards o f the four pillars . 58— “Unter den 7 Tychai mit den Schlangen59: gesichtern sind die sieben Sterne der Pleiaden gemeint.509 That they have faces (or carry masks) o f asps is not attested elsewhere. X II. which invokes various astral forces: al aya&al knoppoicni tcov acrcspwv elalv Sal[xove<. the sphere o f the fixed stars. PRE 20 (1950) 2017-2185. Athribis (London: School o f Archaeology in Egypt. 510 See above. see R om 1:23.). cf.

1. The m om ent o f the greeting is set: т а и т а LSwv асттга^ои обтал. Harris 7. n. cf. q). lepal x al ofAoSlat/rot. 72. Weltbild und Astrologie. s. . . ха Ф£ (“Hail!”). 1.5 (56. Gardiner. 80 (# 28). P G L. R . Pol.6[A op<po<. 78).. s. god o f the Ophite gnostics. Lukian.410 etc. Betz.515 and their magical names (cf. lepal x al opioScat-Toc.v. 512 See LSJ and BDAG. тои fjavt-^txppocpop. 513 Cf. twv Teaaaptov oruXlaxwv. o f which the sacred Fates are guardians.516 apapjxa^? pointing to ’Apapa. 585— 90]) is unclear. (1) This epithet. 989. (3pa(3eLov. (“W hen you see these things. 632: [xevfxspoipop. al ау ш т а та с. and Dieterich. cpuXaxlaaat. 514 The connection with Egypt was pointed out by Dieterich. 3.4).” D D D . avw xAy)(T£(0i. fxe^pav resem­ bling a decan by the name o f Ma^pajx. The magical names are mostly unex­ plained. 37. s. and three divine epithets. Robert Eisler. 1. O noble and good virgins. consisting o f the exclamatory wish.512 Following the epiphany. reprinted Hildesheim: Olms. 17:1.514 The individual greetings are also very formal and exactly parallel. ”). Ritner. Dekane. Atha­ nasius (Gent. <puXaxlcKrat. is followed by the name o f the seven Fates.' T v y a a tou oupavou.” E R E 8 (1915) 266a (referring to Pap. q. Merkelbach. a formal ritual o f greeting seems to conform to etiquette. whereupon the greeting is cited: j c c i p e r e . Orphisch-dionysische Mysteriengedanken in der christlichen Antike (Vortrage der Bibliothek Warburg 1922— 1923 II. Leyden 348 verso. O most holy guardians o f the four pillars”). in Betz.oxe<paAoq. GG^l 201 (1939) 141.5. 1966). Abrasax. idem.. Gundel. 1 Clem. BDAG. Preisendanz. identification by num ber. G M PT . greet in this manner . 51. оср^оѕсбт^ Epiphanius.3. See with further passages and bibliography. . 35-37. Mart. 666. Phil 3:14: (3pa[3e£ov r?j<. Kleine Schriften. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 177 certainly secondary. n. Main body of the ritual (11. . see 1 Cor 9:24. 48.15). Haer. y . appears to be one o f general politeness and has no parallel in the PGM. tcov Teaaaptov gtuXlctxwv (“Hail. 58-59. Stork. 515 Pap.511 Their possession o f golden wands ((ЗрофеТа) is a com­ m on cultic symbol. oyiq. In the NT. 11 677— . a e p /a l x al aya&al rcap&evoL. al а у ш т а та с. Z (with strokes overy.47— H ow this epithet is to be related to the four roots (тетраЛс^мјхата [see above. e. 511 See below. al Z. has the numbers as [3. O seven Fates o f heaven. Alan H. 1. tou [ixvifjiippocpop.v. “Magic. L. 92. Pap.513 (3) the third is special and also w ithout parallel in the PGM . 4. Hendel. O sacred ones and companions o f M IN IM IR R O P H O R . referring to the four pillars o f the Egyptian cosmology. but some o f them may reflect the names o f decans. 6<pt. 3. 71.v. first greeting all o f them as a group (665-69). e. mag. 104. 1Л (with a collection o f parallels). and then individually (670— 72). “Serpent. 6<pt? and compounds. The exclamatory “Hail” or “Greetings to you. 9) mentions Egyptian gods as 6<pt. 516 See Gundel. Egyptian. 316-28 (“Die Tiermaskenriten in den mithraischen und in den Kabirenmysterien”). 51— 70— 52. a s p /a l x al aya&al rcap&evoi. 8. 5:5.II. L A 5 (1984) 644-52. stands in the middle and has an unex­ plained vox magica attached.” a form o f wish. (2) the second. 744-47.

432. 106— Gundel. 86. 1.519 There is no parallel for this iconogra­ phy elsewhere in the PGM . Lexikon. 5. Mithras. Dieterich. plate II. the decan 'Ро(Јфро(харе.201: а1шо7тоЛохрат(ор.3023 o ev [xccty] apoupir]<.520 The figures wear linen aprons and hold golden diadems in their hands.. 22. 373. These deities ($eoi) come forward (irpoep^ovxat. PGM IV. Dekane.. 1 (1910:16): Das Kalendarium des Antiochos. idem. 77. See LSJ. a hapax in the PGM.701— 1358— 1372.963) . 518 For ’Epou see also IV 1589: V. The exclamatory wish is called out.” 3585. 2. 45. 79— 7. )<^ G G A 201 (1939) 141. Heidelberg: Winter 1910— 1920). Boll. 1. Ritner (in Betz. Cf. 670— are actually names.? Instead o f upoep^ovTai 1. For pofx(3pcY cf. Sphaera. 673-76): Tipoep^ovxai бе x al exepot. 72— 73. 80. 662 has ep^ofxeva?. G M PT .. see also idem. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac. Preisendanz.523 (“You must greet in the same manner each o f them w ith his own nam e”). 678— xvwSaxocpuAaxe^. Gundel. corrected by Dieterich to ovq. 520 Dieterich (72— confesses puzzlement. 72 The greeting therefore begins with that o f the group first.178 Commentary another decan. Brashear. cf. and in possession o f seven golden diadems”). “Greek Magical Papyri.243. Preisendanz. The faces o f black bulls are difficult to explain. Preisendanz considers or <oux>w<.(3pt. the fiery crowns in 11. 521 Cf. and Gundel. xvwSaxocpuXaH. the Tubingen . and attributes them to a syncretistic Egyptian Mithras cult. 58. (cf. Weihegrade. бе! сте асттгастаа^ас. s. Weltbild und Astrologie. 93) compares Egyptian harmachis (“Horus w ho is on the horizon”). 51. Griechische Kalender (5 vols. fig. plate 1/2. Abraxas. ibid. 666). Jordan prefers Preisendanz’s earlier suggestion (in Roscher. crit. vol.абѓ][лата ^ристеа (“There also come forth another seven gods who have faces o f black bulls. xaxe^ovxe? бг. Figures o f bulls stand among Egyptian imagery o f stars.PH 1910— 1920. 79 (# 25). ofjiolox. to be followed by three epithets: (1 ) ol xvooSaxocpuXaxe? (“O warders o f the pivot o f the celestial sphere” [LSJ]). See Dieterich (72— who relates 2. Roger Beck. 1. Dekane.v. 59. 19. 'Q' ■B xaupwv [xeAavwv тсростсотса e^ovxe<.522 The greetings must conform to the previous ritual: oioc.. cf. ev Tcep^Mfxaat-v -sol "kivotc.846: <тсо>Хохратмр.) through the same gates as the virgins.521 Their title is revealed: oOxol elaiv ol xaXoujxevot. 13-14. ттоХохраторе? xou oupavou (“These are the so-called Pole Lords o f heaven” ). N ow we learn that the voces magicae in 11. is a hapax. D o these figures represent the constellation 73) o f the Little Bear? —So Franz Boll.524 (2) ol lepol xal 517 Gundel. Bezold. 77— idem. Oeac. see Gundel.517 epou and ро[л(Зрпг]<. in linen loincloths. Merkelbach. p. ed. reads oiq. is the pin or pivot on which something turns (xvo^axl^eiv). 523 Pap. SHAW. ad loc. n. app.'apoup — : oji. idem. Cf.”JM iS 1:1 (1976) 1— esp.518 After the seven virgin seven male deities appear (11. 524 According to the T LG . See also IV. exaorov хм 1бѓ(о auxcov ovofxaxc. Sternglaube. хумба^. 521— Golden diadems are a rather common symbol. 3.r^. but also the initiates o f the Mithraic mysteries were under the tutelage o f planetary deities. 79: 74) them to the Amesha Spentas o f ancient Iran. xal yiovoq xal 519 Is there any significance to the fact that the virgins were not called 9eo L or rather. Abrasax . have also been taken to refer to decans: ’Epou and To[A(3pofAape. 522 The title occurs also in XIII.

XXXVI. 663). # 247. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 179 aXxip-OL veavtoa (“O sacred and brave youths” —the term aXxt. 2269. 528 On this topic. 529 The expression Suacrcpwv <puXa is found only here in the PGM.243.134-35. also in Dieterich. 621. VII.?531 (“but to me.v.a[xwv x al xepauvaiv (ЗоХас. also III.559— 627— 60. 2. W hile there is no list o f the punishments m eeted out. for more instances see Preisendanz. XXVII. lightning. 3.SLVir)T£ipa. wpat. [хеуаХои 7repi. 2778.480. IV136. 1358 (атрѕфтјАахато?.xtV7]T0V tyzic. are found also elsewhere in the PG M ..2918— 20: Tiupoi. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 87. Abrasax. 527 See also IV. . бХохХт)ро<.3.. VII. a personal note for the individual application o f the practice. VII.530 not as a fact but as a petition: ejxol бе euae^et xal &eoc7e(3si o v t l < б о т е > uyelav x al стсо^лато? oXoxXyjplav. However. итго sv xeXeuafxa t o v TtepiSlv/jTov t o u xuxXou a^ova t o u oupavou x al (3povTa<. see above at 11. Sam Eitrem (“Varia. and acuteness o f hearing and seeing. 3. Revelation.Stv7]TO(. Suaae^wv cpuXa526 (“who turn at one command the revolving axis o f the vault o f heaven.607. and cosmic quakes. IV. 52. TCsptStvea ^ap^av appY]XTOv. For 80 7iept. VII. a religious and godfearing . IV2997-3002. 574.1601. for xuxXo? (“heavenly circle”) III.527 Second. reading o f <ev> evxeXEUcrfxa is dittography.. ахот)? т е x al opacreto? suTOvlav.223 (in lists). the pap. s.577. 10.evTe<. IV1015. IV1364: ocXxijx6ppt. as in 11. 651— 55. aTapa^lav ev тац : sveaTwcTat. crit. First.172. Main body of the ritual (11. a<pc.[Ao<. concerning the axis o f a sphere: хихХотѕрт)? iar\ xe хата a<psTepov xvcoSaxa.6. 243) adds <ботѕ> before uyetav. a concern o f a num ber o f passages in the P G M . 1. (“spin around”) see III.. for the same reason. Orph. such as himself (683— 87). zic.528 The third task is distributing punishments to the godless529 and rewards to the godly.686— 832. man. 28. Merkelbach.51— 93.. R ev 6:12.688. The oeio[ioi in this case are not earthquakes but cosmic quakes.532 Theosophy.525 (3) the final epithet is in fact a longer and detailed aretalogy describing the work o f the pole lords: ol a x p iy o v x z c . as the individual benefits.260.1279. 16:18. since the area is in the upper spheres o f the cosmos.v. reading o f ctlctijlwv is to be corrected to ctslctjjicov. 532 For uycta (“health”) see III. 3. “spindle-turner”). 223) suggests that 11. and often. 526 In 1.590. IV. for a£ci)v (“axis”) III.333. and calmness in the present good hours o f this day”). oxpicpziv.^ T7)< cr/jfjiepov Y][xepa<.967. w ho send out thunder and lightning and jolts o f earthquakes and thunderbolts against the nations o f impious tribes”). the lines 683— as well as 651— can be applied to any 87 55 practitioner who should o f course be on the side o f the pious. XIII.802.179— (index). cf. Such lists of benefits. The young men correspond to the virgins (1.” NTFi.II. Sextus Empiricus. they send out thunder. 2936.572. ad loc. see Preisendanz. see Aune. 531 Pap. [give] health and soundness o f body. 3. 680 the pap. 525 See IV. the initiate carefully details the benefits for the pious. Frag. (Hymn 2.&o?. Cf. For oXoxXyjpsLv. occurs in hymnic language). 53° preiseri(Ianz (app. 683— may be 87 an addition by the magician. The cosmic tasks performed by the pole lords cover three areas. tj tov ast. aya&al<. 571.60— 61. s. they are in charge o f turning the axis mundi. Math.124 (index). 11:19. 1697. reads uyiav. VIII..vouXav7jTa<. 7). 31: aXxrj. terms often m entioned in the PG M .557: TtepLSt. XII. XIII. x al асттратса^ x al a£t. 10 [1922]) 112) emends Ttspt-StvYjTO? to TcepiSsivYjTO? (“terrifying”) because o f itacism. 4th ser.26. 111. бХохХт^ос.

MA: Harvard University Press. in their order . 76.536 This kind o f arrangement appears to have been somewhat typical o f worship services. see Acts 3:16.” T he idea is that the two groups o f seven form a kind o f chorus facing each other. 535 On the textual questions concerning evcttwcjlv. axapa^la. .112— 69. 533 See the parallel in 678— for [лгуаАохратмр 1. 2. 536 So Dieterich. see also Ebr.69 (атара^о<. These greetings also follow the previous pattern o f the exclamatory wish (^агре). . which he says is patterned on the Bacchic rituals.535 (“N ow when they take their place.538 it begins w ith a community prayer. section 7. 72. see Preisendanz. “they take their stand in a regular line in an orderly way. Abrasax.180 Commentary The last phrase in the clause “in the present good hours o f this day” should be read in connection w ith the horoscope (see 11. for xuptot t)eot III.. 1 Thess 5:23. 3. D uring the initial prayer. occurs also in IV. 671— see above. s s 69.534 and the secret names (ovofjta). Finally (1. Her. 542). s. 7. 146. So standing they pray to God that their feasting may be acceptable and proceed as The terms play a significant role in the NT.). hands in token that they are clean from gain-taking and not defiled through any cause o f the profit-making kind. the pole lords are again hailed: ol xupc.v. eyes because they have been trained to fix their gaze on things worthy o f contemplation. 534 Pap. 692-732) The sixth scenario passes over to the seventh w ith the usual orientation concerning time and place: oxav бе evcTTtoaiv ev&a x a l ev&a ty) r a ^ s t. 9.171— Cf. 79. Cambridge.. cited according to the edition and trans­ lation by F.537 He describes their festival o f Pentecost. followed by a symposium and an all-night Pannychis. Seventh scenario: the encounter with Mithras (11. 538 See Contemp. their eyes and hands lifted up to Heaven. 687— 88). 639. 88-89 (cited below. 651— 52).205.. a technical term in Greek ethics. [лои. LCL: London: Heinemann. also 12. all o f them unex­ plained hapaxlegomena in the PGM. and that all are taking their assigned places.).. but it does 64 include comments on X enophon’ and Plato’ Symposia (57-60). 537 Philo o f Alexandria. Philo (10 vols. Somn. the highly polemical description o f pagan banquets in 40— does not explicitly focus on the Bacchic ones. Colson. reads the numbers as in 11. For euxovla there is no other reference in the PGM. 72. Merkelbach. and BDAG..ol [xou x al [леуаХохраторе? 9sol (“O my lords and powerfully ruling gods. H. on the one side and on the other.” )533 T he sixth scenario ends with the recitation o f the individual greetings (688— 92).243. the num ber. 1929— 62). John 20:28: o Y. 123. D e vita contemplativa. n. Two parallels are especially informative. O ne parallel is part o f the description o f the community o f the Therapeutae by Philo o f Alexandria.vpioq jxou x a l б th:6<. W St 42 (1920— 21) 24.

the command is given: b. Tcpotpaasax.11. [xl[j. w ith the choir master directing in the middle.. 9— 13] and Augustine. Then they sing hymns to God composed o f many measures and set to many melodies__ ” 541 At dawn they reunite on the beach to conclude the celebra­ tions with a greeting o f the rising sun. but not as one o f the four elements. facing each other.” 539 D uring the symposium540 and the Pannychis. at 11.543 To return to the text. 541.. having drunk as in the Bacchic rites o f the strong w ine o f G od’ love they m ix and s both together becom e a single choir.. 553 (plate 72) and color plate IV. x a l x a x a vouv a7iavx7iCTai xriv eutoxlav. 543 See for plates M erkelbach..aveve{AY)Tat. ха9дагер ev таТ? (BaxxelaL? ахратои ci7tacjavTe<. x a l xa9-’ eauxov ѓсгсхаОтј. elq tov &eov izoXkolq [xexpot? x a l [xeXeat. Sol Salutis. see also section 27. 556. Main body of the ritual (11. (“T hen w h en each choir has separately done its ow n part in the feast. See Dolger. For the Stoic doctrine. 711. a copy o f the choir set up o f old beside the R e d Sea in honour o f the wonders there w rought” [LCL 9.1 5 2 -5 5 ).j. at 1.бт) та? &ea? a£t.. x a l xaxa fxeaov to crufXTroat-ov био ylvovxat xo 7tpwT0V X°P0^ ® a^p w v. twv e lq Kopic\Lov Ltt.a xa&opav eTtaiSeuSirjaav. 542 Ibid.a tou 7taXai crucrcavTO? х а т а ty]v epu&pav ftaXaaaav evexa tou &аи[Ј. the initiate will see 539 Contemp. xe x a l г(А[лгХѓатато<..544 Air has been m entioned before. crravTe?'kZjjq х а т а cjtol^ov ev xoajjuo x a l та? те бфес. Х^Р^? ^e P< ? yuvai^lv £тг' euwvu[i. They rise up all together and standing in the middle o f the refectory form themselves first into two choirs. тои О-еоф^Хои?. 100— 102. (LCL 9.[xoxaxo<.. Tipocjeuyovxai xw 9-ew О -ирппртп yevea&at. pp.. ujavouc. avapdyvuvTat.? x a l xouq jzipciLq ziq oupavov avaTclvavTe?.evou<. A chorus o f two groups is standing on the steps o f the temple. 540 Ibid. xcm [xev £7гес. 541 Ibid.r]fjt. the leader and precentor chosen for each being the most honored amongst them and also the most musical.164— 65]). 657.542 The other parallel is pictorial and part o f the frescoes from the Isis temple in Herculaneum showing scenes from worship performed there.v6u.xkviQe tw ocepi (“gaze in the air” ). Tte7tot.evat.7][jt. 324— 25. 83— 84: М еха бе xo беТ^оу r/)v lepav ayoucrt. Isis Regina. 66: . ха&’ exaxepov evxt. For the reverence toward the sun.а<.a. 301— 20: “Sursum corda und der Aufblick zum H im m el.” “stare”) see above.3 [GCS O rig. elxa абоиск.l [PL 35.II. Tractatus in Ioannem X .а.. also Tran Tam Tinh.118. w ith plate X X III. . б бе yuvatxw v Tjyejxwv бе x a l e^apxo? alpetxat. 629.a.1 6 4 -6 5 ). one o f m en and one o f women. see above. 1467]). Essai. rcavvux^a.. 69: St. presumably it is identical w ith •rcveufxa. 85: elx a oxav ехатеро? twv yop&v t-бѓ-су. the community is separated in two choir groups: “After the supper they hold the sacred vigil which is conducted in the following way.545 As a result. V I. ayexat. (“T he order o f reclining is so apportioned that the m en sit by themselves on the right and the w om en by themselves on the left” [LCL 9.at. (LCL 9 . 544 For aTevL^eiv (“gaze.. бе rj 7tavvi>xl? tov xpoTcov xouxov avlaxavxai mxvxeq a&poot. q та? бе o n xa&apal XrjfAfxaTwv etalv итс’ оибе[лс. 508.154— 55]). бе yj хатахХкл? XW 'L tx^v avSpaat-v z n l бе£(. 582. x a l ylvovTai x°po? e£ afxqjoLV.” D olger (1— also refers 2) to important Christian polem ics against the ritual by O rigen (In Genes. Horn. 485— 732) 181 He would have it.атоируу]&evт wv exec. 545 Air appears here w ithout clarification o f h ow it is related to 7tveu. X III.

Kern). see Gershom Scholem. 668: [хссрјлараиут] (cf. For the epithet o f Apollo.ф£уут). see Aune. 407 with further references). Cf. vearrepov.761— 94). which is unreachable even for other deities.ey£97)<. see Peter Schafer. ed. 195. the flashing lamp in the temple at Jerusalem. with a shining face. # 168. youthful. 693— :546 xal оф 96) -у] xarep^ofiivai. 681-82). 1. golden­ haired. Frag. 547 Cf..550just as 546 Cf. n. line 13 (ed. 550 In the PGM the immense size o f the deity conforms to the attribute o f Aion (cf. The “flashing lights” are preferred language in the PG M . It is. 3069-70 (see Betz.325. and a god descending. Pet. . see also C H 1. immensely great.1221 (fjwcpjxaipwv). 39-40.490. in Christian literature the cosmic dimensions o f Christ (the ттАтјрш Јла. Ep. Apos. Kern): acrxpcov fxapfxapecov). (“you will see lightening bolts going down.. Ubersetzung der HekhalotLiteratur I V (TSAJ 29. 1995). eds. 16 (27). 2.547 The god emerges out o f the interior of the temple and. w ith a white tunic and a golden crown and trousers. Orph.1 regarding the epiphany o f Poimandres: Ѕбо£а xiva бтсЕрЈЛЕуеОт] [лехрм arcept-opicrxio... like the figure on the painting from Herculaneum. Eph 1:10. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. 1991). walks down the stairs. Gruenwald. Cf.68— 100. G M P T . Col 1:15-20. Ubersetzung der Hekhalot-Literatur I (TSAJ 46. 188— regarding the 89 epiphany o f Demeter: Y б’ ар’ brz ouSov e(3y] txoctI x a l pa [леАаФрои xupe харт). итсѓрјлѕуа^. (“there seemed to appear to me a gigantic figure o f immense size. That the highest god is o f immense size549 is part o f the style o f the epiphany. ev yixu>vi Xeuxw xal ХРиаФ are<pava) x al ava^uplax..260— [Аар[ларс. 22-23. PDM xiv. 1. also X III.. Amos 4:13. 536.238— 44. see Furley & 61: Bremer. XII. also the enormous measurements o f the figure o f Metatron in Hekhalot mysticism. 203. reads the abbreviation &v.” A R W 17 (1914) 347-48. 29— (§§ 12— 33 13). 11. 1. n..”). ”). Xpucroxofjiav. This god is certainly Mithras.. 549 The term U7tepfjt. is peculiar. 681— 82. 4:10.. hXt]0 £v бе ) &upa? Beioio (“But she stepped on the threshold and her head reached the roof. IV. 11. Cf. for such phenomena in connection with the pole lords. also Karl Preisendanz. R ev 1:12-16.. 94. IV.Frag. Peter Schafer & Klaus Herrmann. LSJ calls it a Ionic form and notes итггрјЛЕуаЅтј^. cpamv/jv e^ovxa ttjv бф ^. Von der mystischen Gestalt der Gottheit (Zurich: Rhein.. асттратга? xal cpwxa fxapfjiaipovTa xal aeiojxevYjv tyjv yvjv xal xaxep%o[iivov t>(eo)v. Greek Hymns. 548 Pap. and descends to the seventh below. the sterotypical picture overlooks that the author has left behind the earth some time ago. In the LXX cf. .. 204. for the detailed description o f the immense size o f God in Shi'ur Qomah. attested in the PGM only here.182 Commentary spectacular cosmic phenomena (11.531: jxapfxapuyr). “Zum groBen Pariser Zauberpapyrus.I ll. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism. N ock & Festugiere. the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. and she filled the door with divine splendor”). 696— 704): xaxep^ofjievov &(eo)v штер^еуѓ&т]. Orph.”). W hile lightnings and earthquakes have been mentioned before (1. although it is peculiar that his name is not m entioned.8. a topos.13). (“and a god descending. 97. XIII. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. Corpus Hermeticum. however. Revelation.548 His portrait can be confirmed by representational art (11. # # 168 and 169 (ed. and the earth shaking. 214.. Gos. symbolically this means that he leaves the highest sphere. 136-65 (§§ 939— 950). 3 list further instances o f the topos. 1962). and lights flashing.

This statement has given rise to extended controversies past and present. symbolically interpreted as astronomical phenom ena (11. esp. VIII. 27. his work on Mithras. 96. 1. pp. The Mithraeum at Ponza. 75). “Interpreting the 78.” ANRW 11.49. however. 1958.557 A symbolic interpretation of this detail is on the one hand in accord with the author s interest. it is attested since Herodotus (1. 635).” ibid. 7.II. 9:7.87. Philostratus. and often. “Die Stier5. in the N T R ev 4:4. 22a and b (Mon. remarkably Merkelbach ignores the newly discovered frescoes. furthermore. the N T in Mark 16:15. 2049. Phoe. fig. 554 This garment worn by eastern peoples is mentioned only here in the PGM. The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2 Cor 4:6. The Leiden Papyrus. Weihegrade. Revelation. 76). 553 For the golden crown. but on the other hand astronomical interpretations have been 551 The shining face o f the deity is a common element o f epiphanies. “Mithraism since Franz Cumont. 10:1. G M PT . and golden crown (cf. Mithras. for its attribution to Apollo see Furley & Bremer. 552 The epithet ^puaox6|i. s..552 white tunic (cf. idem. ava^upL8eq. 1. 1. 9:1-9.” R A C 11 (1981) 895-930.” JM iS 2:2 (1978) 87— 147. idem. 86— Betz.556 others denied or belittled it. and San M arino (Italy). 310. 26 (Mon. with note. 636). 40. Vit. 104— Ingeborg Huld-Zetsche. Mithras. n.” Antike Welt 30:2 (1999) 97-104. 2050. 19. Ponza Zodiac II. 2. Also. W hile Dieterich rightly saw this to be evidence o f Mithraism. 555 See Vermaseren. 699-702): xaxe^ovxa ттј џбохоо wfxov xpuaeov (“and holding in his right hand a golden shoulder o f a young calf”). esp. special traits: w ith the Persian or Phrygian cap missing he looks like a Greek god. 28. totung als Sternenkarte. 636). 89.207. 22:4. cons. V. 52. esp. 556 See Dieterich. see Roger Beck. 34 with plate 2. now confirmed by subsequently discovered fres­ coes. David Ulansey. IV437. and 17. 14:14. n. 120— Richard Gordon & John R . color plate IV. namely Helios-Mithras. 1. has no comment about the Mithras Liturgy. idem. also figures 16a and b.555 After the description o f the figure attention turns to the mythological insignia.551 His youth is analogous to Helios (1.172— 75. 213-19 (with plates XV— XVII) on “Mithras’ Rindsschulter” .71. Ponza. Cf.v. Aune.25). Griffith and Thompson. 76— 234— On the evidence. Mithriaca III. 1.17:4 (1984) 2002— 2115. The Mithraeum at Marino. 5. Hist.61. 234— s 40. 1. Luke 9:29. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 637).243-44) admits that the god is Mithras.75.485. but he does wear the Persian trousers called ava^uplSs?.554 This last feature is also present on paintings from Dura Europus (Syria). IV1027— Cf. Merkelbach.553 There are. 1. Capua Vetere. review o f Merkelbach. 181). Seth. 910-12: “Gold in der Magie”. See Hans-Jiirgen Horn. 3. Roger Beck. . esp. 52 (Mon. R ev 1:14. See also LSJ. See Roger Beck. plates 3— 9— 7. “Some N ew Photographs o f Well-Known Mithraic Monuments. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 183 his shining face. col. see Dieterich. Mithriaca I. Acts 6:15. Main body of the ritual (11. plate 25. 79. Lucian. vol. 41 (1987) 296— 316. 44). whether in texts or artistic representations. C IM R M . as is his golden hair (cf. 557 For a careful analysis o f Cumont’ position.av is standard for Helios in III. Apoll. van de Velde. 10. but for him he is Helios-Mithras. “Gold. 27 (Mon. 1989). Greek Hymns. Matt 17:2. in the tradition o f Cumont. 325. Astralmythologische Hmtergriinde im Mithraskult. Hinnells. see also III. God of Confusion.

559 According to Plutarch. but identifications with other deities are made as well. For the identification o f the shoulder o f the bull with the constellation o f the north pole Merkel­ bach refers to the zodiac o f Tentyra and to lids o f coffins. the Little Bear (Ursus minor) or the Great Bear (Ursus maior)? Griffiths opts for the Great Bear.559 while Merkelbach for the Little Bear.1275— See Beck. The conceptuality is technical but has problems. ‘Bulls Foreleg’.18. because the idea is joined with the image. 1.. 59— esp. but оотсгтреттто?.” J R S 88 (1998) 115-28. 121-22.. Hopfner. 137-38. Os. pi. 700— goes.560 A decision is difficult to make. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac II.561 As far as 11. pi. 21. the Bear charm VII. if the same idea is expressed by two images” (my trans. Plutarch. the Great Bear was identified with Typhon/ Seth: tt]v бе [фи/^v] Tucpwvo? apxTov. II. 861. identifying the constellation with Artemis.243— 44): “The Little Bear is therefore represented in two images. 2 (Tentyra). ecrriv ’’ рхто? yj xtvoucra xal avxxorpecpoucra 1): А t o oupavov. w ith its upward and downward seasonal revolutions” [as translated by M arti­ nez]).10. х ата wpav avarcoXeuouaa x al хататсоХеиоиста (“this is the Bear which moves and turns the heavenly vault around in the opposite direction. O Z 2 /1 .687: y] схтресроиста tov a£ova. 76-79. 80. Bezold & Gundel.563 Also unclear is the 558 See Beck. and to secondary sources such as Dieterich. 686-702. Boll. 60. W hich Bear does the author have in mind. in the seven bull-headed young men and here by the shoulder o f the bull.558 The text itself presupposes such a connection (11.” So also Gundel. Beck. X II.” JM iS 1:1 (1976).700). LVII. idem. referring to t-C T . The Bear constellations play an im portant role in the PGM . and a 20th Dynasty text speaks o f ‘this Mshtyw o f Seth’ as existing in the northern sky. Boll.v tov Ispov ttoXov. 12328. Cf. VII. O ne possibility is that the god turns the heavenly vault contrariwise to the m otion o f the planets. Planetary Gods. Griffith and Thompson. 563 avTLaxpsqjet-v is found only here in the PGM.ата (?). G M PT .686— 702. See Betz. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac II. esp. nn. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac.” 120-27. IV. “The Mysteries o f Mithras: A N ew Account o f Their Genesis. 359D.). IV. Planetary Gods. Sternglaube. 59— He refers to 64. Sphaera. but this does not necessarily mean that all references point to 1 the same constellation.562 That the Bear “moves and turns the heavenly vault around in the opposite direction” is confirmed in part by parallel references in the PGM . 1307: crcpecp£t. 56° Merkelbach (Abrasax. 89. 2. lib (coffin lid o f Idy.. idem. § 208. fig. perhaps “bull-like” (VII. and one does not see this as a contradiction. 700— be. 373: “The equation o f Seth and the Great Bear is well established. 2. but it is not clear what is meant by avTcorpecpeiv. 79. the Egyptian term was Mshtyw. pi. Dekane. fig.633. Such pleonasms occur often in cults. 1331— VII.184 Commentary connected with the Mithras cult much earlier. Weltbild. in Tubingen). 561 For other passages on Bear constellations.64. тосир(. identification w ith Artemis as well as comparison o f the zodiacs from Ponza and Tentyra point to the Great Bear. LSJ does not list ocvT T pecpw as a mechanical term. XXIII. 562 Cf. Is. 3. Demotic Magical Papyri. See Beck. Gundel.190-92. see IV1275— 1330. I. which is interpreted by Griffiths.

straining your belly. The punctuation follows Dieterich (14).942. Abrasax.41-42. 568 Eitrem adds a verb <(jluxm> before auxoijxa.175: “indem es [das Barengestirn] stimdlich auf und niedersteigt”. 8. 576. 557. 570 See for this reference 11. 544— 676— 62) 47. 569 It occurs elsewhere in the ML at 11. crit. . Exc. Hermetica. see also XIII. n. N ot only must the initiate perform it “at once. 567 Cf. Greek Hymns. 3. Preisendanz has a different punctuation: alcj97)(jeL<. the initiate is ordered at once to perform rituals.567 The author could have seen this feature on representational portraits o f Mithras. Nock & Festugiere..” Cf. X X IV . see his commentary 3. 51. 13 564 Dieterich (61— has in mind the 7toXeuovxe<. 566 For the eyes emitting lightning. that you may excite the five senses. 638. Lohr. ги&ем? 7): < [ x u x w > [ x u x t o p ia j x a x p o v . б^еТа ехтсореиојлет/] xal 7 бф^ аитои ) б ^Xto? cpaIvzi ev ттј SuvajxeL аитои. bellow long until out o f breath. 26-44. [xaxpov ziq knoQ zaiv.340.ll. 585. whose open mantle shows stars on the inside. the gods o f the day. 724. that is. 14. app. рос^. 60. 27.” a stereotypical prescription in the M L. VI.569 but further intensity is added at this point. 755-57. sec.X c 5 v 7 t a ) a v т а c p u X a x x T j p i a . V.564 but according to Gundel the text refers to the Bear w ho moves the gods o f the days and hours. 659) until total exhala“machines that move on a pivot or swivel” (Diodorus Siculus 20. 84: with the commentary by Furley & Bremer. 92: “the wandering.91). Jordan considers cjuyxLvrjciyj^ but keeps cruvxt-vrjcr/]*. Acts 6:15. 579. idem. 945. [xuxw__ See Preisendanz. Jordan agrees. the text returns to the description o f the figure o f Mithras (11. ad loc. 59. mentioned in 11. Rev 1:14 about the epiphany of the heavenly Christ: xal ol ocp&aXjxol аитои w? срХ тш бг. Weltbild und Astrologie. 1283— б^Јлоста боаетоа.”) This bellowing sound has been m entioned before. W St 42 (1920-21) 24.243 with parallels (also 3. 1. 3. achieved by pressing the belly (cf.” W ho is causing this revolving? Dieterich suggests the pole lords.axpov). ( S a c r a v l^ w v ty)v уасттера.4.7.о<.565 Following the interpretative lines 701-2. аитои pofxcpala '1 б1атор1.566 Since the references to time and vision are stereotypical in the ML. 702— етсеста бф-] auxou ex xaiv ojx|xax&)v 4): / aaxparca? xal ex тои осоџатод асттера? aXXo[xevou<. Phaen. See also Aratus. (“Then you will see lightning bolts leaping from his eyes and stars from his body” ). 628. 490. 11.II. causing them to wander up and down along the pole. the commen­ tary by Scott. W hen confronted w ith this awesome vision. o c T to & e a x v (jluxco. &eol. Luke 24:4. the cosmic features seem to reflect dramatic representations. Main body of the ritual (11.570 the roaring or bellowing sound is to be loud (p. CHII. 3. 1:16: xal e^wv бг^а хг1Р аитои асттера? етста xal ex тои сгт6[лато<. 657— 712. cf. for epiphanies Matt 17:2 / / Luke 9:28. E v a ( r u v x t v / j a n r )? та? nsvzs a lcT rh rjcre L^ . Lys. [ x a x p o v tic . the planets in control o f the days. n.363— 86). 110— (bibliography).13 (ed. 565 Gundel. Matt 28:3. Verherrlichung. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 185 astrological com m ent o f “w ith its upward and downward seasonal revolu­ tions. cf. Aristophanes.. The first one is the bellowing sound (704— сти бѓ.150— 230. also Merkelbach. he therefore imagines that those stars jum p out o f his body. 238). 59— 80. 2. and again kiss the phylacteries. x a x a < p t .. 568 (“And at once make a long bellowing sound.

15:4— etc. a prayer for protection must be recited (xal Aeywv. 576 For passages. however. the text says..186 Commentary tion. R ather than postulating an inconsistency on the part o f the author. cf. Bleiben. The first request has many parallels in the P G M . see Preisendanz. sometimes called 84. 529-30.. 44. For £wv as a divine epithet see Martinez. 577 Pap. E I2 0 E O 2 . 2. and so are translations. “and saying”). 81 14:6 (see BDAG. 2000).i^ie. one may conclude that he views the five senses not to be a part o f the mortal body.575 The reading o f 11 709— is contested. it is unexplained. 575 On this symbol. 708— begins w ith what may be a divine name: fxoxpifxo 9) cpspifxo cpspepi. 8). 10 commands are presented: (jive au. 572 See 659-60. request. vspie ev ттј ф и ^ [Jt-ou.255— 56. since the mortal body must be left behind (11. 1967).). see Erik Peterson.574 W ith the symbol A (xou Selva) a space is indicated. in fact agreeing with the Stoic position o f the “deity within”). in PGM £шј occurs also at XII. For vejxe . Kroll to [xeve. we follow a suggestion by Martinez. 7. 177— 709..261 (xupie £ш]<.135 (index). 12-15. The concept. but o f the reconstituted perceptions o f the intellect. Preisendanz: “bis zum Nachlassen”. 1-2 (with important passages from Origen and Augustine. This prayer has the usual structure o f invocation. Wiinsch (in Dieterich.B (bibliography). there are special features that make this prayer different from others (11.576 The second is read by Preisendanz. 574 Pap. Menein in den johanneischen Schriften (H UTh 8. 708— 11).v. Freiburg: Herder. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.” is important especially in the Fourth Gospel (John 6:56. for Jesus as £ш] see John 11:25. see above. which Dieterich (14) reads as jxeve cruv ejjie.573 This divine name is followed by an epithet: £to<Y]> jjiou (“my life” ).v. 53334).ш]. Die Sprache der Immanenz in den johanneischen Schriften (HBS 21. This idea is interesting because the various vocal sounds in the ML may be regarded as a kind o f music. 573 The name occurs only here in the PGM. £wy)). 107) emends to auva. [л [ле хатаХе1фт]? тѓј (“Stay! Dwell in my soul! D o not abandon me!”). cf. Klaus Scholtissek.a. Epigraphische. See Karl ^v Preisendanz. Sol Salutis. 26. see Dolger. Revelation. s. Reitzenstein. 707— which.572 Together w ith this ritual. sharpened up by the spirit (11. “mystical. 3. self-identification o f the orant. 1. identification o f the authority. el q kizo^eaiv means “Ruhepunkt. but Jordan prefers Dieterich. l. formgeschichtliche und religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen (FRLANT 41. for in magical inscriptions. The invocation (11. The second ritual is kissing the pylacteries (11. 3.571 The purpose o f the exercise is to arouse the five senses together. [xevw. a strange remark. XIII. According to Merkelbach (Abrasax. BDAG. also 789. but < w may be a scribal error for 'С. reading jjl u o.244). “(DEPEPIZQN. reads cpepspt. H M R . According to Preisendanz three . Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. 495. Jurgen Heise. s. 14:10.a). 3.). s. 520-28). However. into which the orant must insert his name.” W K P 32 (1915) 763.577 but the use o f 571 The expression zlq kizodzaiv is unclear. reads [xevecruvefxe. 880— (yevou [aol. “again” ). In ihm sein und bleiben. Jordan prefers the pap. Baptized. has been m entioned before (iraAiv. 1926). ^cov [xouxouA.172-73. Festugiere.” derived from the language o f music. 502-13. 73.v. fjivco.

Das entspricht der Auffassung vom Wohnen des Gottes im Menschen und seiner evaxjiq mit dem Glaubigen durchaus. Betz. 971) als vefAecr&at. Ps 21:1-2 (еухатаАеиш) is recited by Jesus in Mark 15:34 / / Matt 27:46). 50. For the N T see John 10:38.582 but in many other Hellenistic Weinreich (in Dieterich. and mine is yours. 1 Cor 3:16. III. 7rveu[i.” On vefxw act.” 581 Dieterich (96— 97. 245— Bousset. also the hymn to Eros IV1763— б ѕт угџлџлчос Tz6. unten S.v. Vielleicht darf man auch weitergehen und das Bild der [sic! des] vejxeiv unterstreichen. xupie 3: 'Epjja]. reads хата?афт)£. 110. s formula o f reciprocal identity (“reziproke Identitatsformel”): “Religiose Stimmen der Volker. if one realizes the fundamental importance o f inhaling the divine spirit (rcv£U[jia) for generating “enthusiasm. For the indwelling o f the divine TtvsujjLa. spirit does not dwell (olxew. to ctov ovofxa Ifxov x a l to sijlov ctov eyw yap eljjn to elScoAov crou (“For you are I. 20.2. t% ev&eov ev ттј сѓ?) харб1а. see LSJ. 2. VIII.238— cf.20-21: xa l carat. The formula o f mutual identity occurs several times in this papyrus: cru yap eyw xal eyw au.II. The erotic 37.aa.g.” 580 For the background he refers to parallels in the PGM and elsewhere. see XIII. Main body of the ritual (11. as med. 96— Reitzenstein.oikia. 485— 732) 187 the term vefjito in PGM elsewhere is different. 20. Eum. vgl. dann ist das Gleichnis vom Hirten und dem Gotte da.” the idea is not strange at all.795]). R om 5:5.2— еА[&]ѓ jaol. where the 57. 46. s. 48— 111— 343. 134— 240) refers to Otto Weinreich’ essay on the 37. XII. 224) has an important comment: “Man hat dann vejxeiv (wie Pind. 116— 31.. Ol.a vefjir)<. However. 50. 14:10-11. 15-16.578 The final request states the matter with a different term. 582 See 1. та (Зресрт) el q та<?> y. as fetuses come into the wombs o f wom en” [my trans.13. 118:8. 17:21. s. the NT. For parallels. VII. 8:9..36— see also 11. .]). ѕухатаЛѕатш. See Dieterich. a play on words may be intended: jxeve / vejxe.v.761-805. zu fassen mit dem Sinn des Wohnens: ‘bleibe du. 70:18. 2 Tim 1:14). a case o f itacism. For other instances o f this prayer language see LXX Ps 26:10.761-63: £va.. idem. 578 Cf. evot-xeco) in the soul but in the heart or body (e. connections should be obvious.. We find it not only in the PG M .iq '\iuycdq (“the one w ho dwells in all 64: souls”). 2.a. Aisch.632. wohne in meiner Seele’. Poimandres. If Preisendanz is correct. 11. for which parallels can be adduced as well.579 Dieterich has recognized that this prayer is “mystical” and seems to come from a tradition different from the views presented so far in the ML: “We recognize in the background the most massive and ancient concept o f the union o f the hum an being and the god: the god comes into the human being physically. 37:22. 49— XIII. 579 Pap.581 It is true that up to now the initiate did not ask for this indwell­ ing o f a god.247: тсаспл/ vefxeu. See BDAG. хата Хе17ш. for I am your image” [VIII..” A R W 19 (1916-1919) 165-68. see III. Urchristentum. Kyrios Christos. XII. 242— 98. 165— 69. your name is mine. H M R . 580 Dieterich (96— 97): “Wir erkennen im Hintergrunde deutlich die massivste urspriinglichste Vorstellung von der Vereinigung des Menschen und des Gottes: der Gott kommt korperlich in den Menschen hinein.. lord Hermes.q tmv yuvat-xwv (“Come to me. Cf.26. Hellenismus und 52. and I am you. Eph 3:17. XI.

evtco VII.” Ph. 718B. 693. 84. consisting o f the exclamation “Hail!” and a divine attribute: yoCipz. XIX. the necessary rituals have to be performed. Pyth. which are 583 See Johannes Haussleiter. XIII. 505. the nature o f the request is stated. Cf. (“and gaze at the god while bellowing loudly. adds: “ ‘Sonnenglanz. Glanzender. First. “Pythia 2. 8. Plutarchs in D e Pythiae oraculis. “Inspiration. See Preisendanz.583 Also the ancient theories about the inspiration o f the Delphic Pythia are especially im portant for comparison.556.589 This is comple­ m ented by two further attributes: Aafjucpocpeyyyj and тгротгросрѕуу^. 520. 524— Stephan Schroder. 86. Betz. 665-92).a. however. “Zur Inspirationslehre 56. The god is called upon as the ruler o f the elements o f water. 658-59. This greeting follows in 11 712— showing the same pattern as . conv. ССЛ 1934. beginning w ith the address “Lord” (xupis). s. 162— idem.253 (index). Schmidt. s. 95: o ji mtap^wv. the previous greeting before: invocation. It is an order. 175— Klaus Thraede.1. xal шго yv}v Secttc ty . “Deus internus.585 which. 627. 506. 482— 710) and xsAsujxa (1. the god needs to be greeted appropriately. 629. 587 See 11. O master o f the water! Hail.119 (index). Num.2194— б штѕр ут)<. VIII. “Glanzender” (?). and unexplained. 589 For TtVEUfxa see 11. They include the gazing (see at 1.” 3584) who points to evto (IV 711. 588 See 11. Then the prayer itself is to be recited (713— 17). has the divine authority to enforce.” R G G 4 (2001) 167-75. the PGM in connection with issuing orders to deities.188 Commentary texts. 492-93. 4. 25— 183— idem. бесттгоха ибахо^. orac. (“Hail. the refer­ ence is by K.7.4. Brashear (“The Greek Magical Papyri. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 65. The various theories regarding the inspiration o f the Pythia at Delphi are discussed by Wolfgang Fauth.1: evOl svtm) as representing Egyptian 'ndw. 1990). impregnate a goddess cf. 39. Chrysipp? Zur Inspirationstheorie in Plutarchs Schrift ‘D e Pythiae oraculis’.331. 9. Stuttgart: Teubner. Plutarchs Schrift 47. “Inspiration/Theopneustie.” R A C 3 (1957) 794— 842. 513. 70. 586 The magical names are found only here in the PGM. 812-14 (with references). however.. 556) and the loud roaring or bellowing sound (see 11.3. 489. 183. 800. 3. Def. 585 The terms xeAeuelv (11.v. 584 See Plutarch.” Wiirzburger Jahrbucher 20 (1994— 95) 233— arguing against Jens Holzhausen. 589. 20— 404B-405A. . o n xsXeuet. self-presentation. 17. хахар^а X<xZpe. esp. бшастха ixvsupiaxof. Dietrich-Alex Koch. arjp 508. Voller’ (Hermes/Thoth)”. 680) occur also elsewhere in 83. O founder o f the earth! Hail. Antike und Christentum. F. 137 (1993) 72— 91. and greet in this m anner”). as indicated by the magical names ev&o cpevev Фротиоог). cf. 617-18. 3. and petition (see 639-55. 582. 510. for a human man to 21. 641.” R A C 18 (1998) 329— Barbel Beinhauer-Kohler. Already Preisendanz. Cf. O ruler o f the wind!”). 538. “Platon oder 72. 543.586 Before making his appearance. D e Pythia Oraculis (BAK 8. 414E.588 and w ind/air/spirit. W. 541. aoi (“for the [magical name] commands you” ). 695.587 earth.584 Finally. orac. Werner Brandle.” PRJE 47th Halbband (1963) 515— esp. 494. ycdpe. IV.v. 704— 7): xal axevi^e xto &ew jxaxpov jxuxtofjievo? xal асттса^ои ouxax. and followed by three greetings. Quaest.

996. XII. 4):591 ejxeOtpt. 592 Weinreich (in Dieterich. similar to those found in 11. according to the T L G . daB die aufwendige Zeremonie uspriinglich nur zu wenigen. 2502. Gottheiten auf einem Altar aus Cordova. daB der Orakelsucher iiber jedes beliebige Thema einen Wahrspruch des Gottes erbitten konnte. E. (“Give revelation.297. it is more likely that the long-winding ceremony was used originally on only a few issues o f great importance. Weber & O. see Alexandra von Lieven.951. For oracle divination in Egypt and rich bibliography. Germanus I o f Constantinople [died 733].248. Weinreich. 591 See the comparative table above. rcepl xou Sscva 71рау[латос. 3. The term is technical and means “to grant an oracular re­ sponse.” Altorientalische Forschungen 26 (1999) 77-126. “Divination in Egypt. 11 642— . Or. there is no 65. 562— 603— 65.II.113. O lord. Addressing the god again as “lord” (xupie). “Syrische . 595 Merkelbach. After the long and arduous ascension. However. 253. Littmann. also suggests that Фртј}фа may have been expanded by the last three letters o f the wellknown palindrome a(3Aava9-avaA(3a.” . 593 See for this title at 1. ganz besonderen Anlassen beniitzt worden ist und erst sekundar zu verschiedenen Zwecken herangezogen wurde. 562— 603-4. 55). LXXVII. with proximity o f фсАЈЗа. it is o f course not m entioned in the text because every petitioner will want to have his or her own business to present. 3.593 the initiate requests an oracular session with the god: ^pYjfxaTiaov. Preisendanz 32. 653.” A R W 22 [1923] 117— esp.1 [PG 98. O ne would then cer­ tainly also have to assume that the question would have been submitted in w ritten form the evening or night before. W. daB die Anfrage schon am Vorabend oder in der Vornacht schriftlich eingereicht worden ist. 224) comments that Preisendanz (ad loc.292C]). furthermore 1.a. 562. Abrasax. the term is attested in patristic and Byzantine literature (Gregory o f Nazianzus. Weinreich also calls attention to the name Фр/jv on an inscription from Cordoba (see F Freiherr Hiller von Gaertringen. see 11.386. 588 (with references). VII. X X X . which —not uncommonly in magical materials —reflects the name o f Ammon R e. and that it was only secondarily applied to all kinds o f pur­ poses. apxevxeTU fjiiVEto usvapw (рируеум фтјрг. 150-51.” 594 The subject matter o f the inquiry has to be filled in by the petitioner. Sapito сррт) срртјТфос.724.20. according to P G L and T L G . see the logos in 11. Main body of the ritual (II 485— 732) 189 both associated w ith fire. Man wird doch eher vermuten. at 1.) writes Фртј Фр?)?фа. 594 For this request. for тгротгрофѕуу?]. Man muBte dann sicherlich auBerdem annehmen. Christus patiens [PG 38.” 595 An ordinary oracular inquiry would indeed proceed as Merkelbach suggests. Merkelbach comments at this point: “This would mean that the oracle inquirer could ask the god for a revelation concerning any subject m atter whatsoever. the actual petition is surprisingly b rief (cf.e. concerning the N N m atter”). IV. IV. W hy is such an extensive ascension 590 For Ха(Л7гро<реуу7]с cf. xupt.2-4. but then the question arises. 727. the petition to Helios. 732.590 The conclusion consists o f the string o f voces magicae.208].592 The final step is the presentation o f the petition (717— 24).244: “Dies wiirde bedeuten. other attestation. 122).

” 597 N ote also PDM xiv. the inquirer needs to present himself and his credentials as an initiate. Merkelbach. 598 Cf.th e gods 74 never go away without you having questioned them about everything so that they say to you the answer about heaven.597 Before the gods grant the request (11. he cites the tripartite password needed to enter into the inner chambers o f the temple: ex tujxtoxvou (3e(3pwxa. prof. See. 11— 15). aber da ich nicht einmal Sicherheit geben kann. just to give greater status to what in reality could be done in a less spectacular way. in Betz. and to Helios (11.” N obody can o f course say what portion o f the text he may have excised.23. I have drunk from the cymbal. a distant inquiry. It would be odd to assume that the inquirer who exhibits a philosophical interest in cosmological and anthropological questions would approach this god with mundane banalities. also what Firmicus Maternus (Err.190 Commentary ritual necessary. Johnson. I have become an initiate of Attis”). 719-24 appears to be a citation. yeyova [j. ed. kann natiirlich niemand sagen. that the reference to the subject matter (тсрауЈха) of the inquiry was not ordinary but extraordinary. so kommt hier der umarbeitende Magier zu Wort. 11. . earth. Ziegler) reports about ои[л(ЗоАос (symbola) in a mystery cult. however. also for other parallels. the magician would go through a lot o f ritualistic pom p and circumstance.84— 85. water and fields.” Cf. was etwa noch folgte nach dem von uns Herausgehobenen.” Consequently. This suggestion takes up ideas o f D ieterich who sees the redactor as having caused the problem. including the nature o f the cosmos and his own self. one should remember the highflying aims stated already in the exordium (483— of “walking (into) heaven and looking 84) over all things. (“I have jc eaten from the kettle-drum. the underworld. 3. 11. Abrasax... 216-17). He “uses the liturgy for obtaining oracular responses. 516— 37). 232): “. rel. Note that the Greek formula and the Latin translation do not conform (De tympano manducavi. This synthema has close parallels in the Orphic-Dionysiac gold-tablets. Ix xufx(3aAou тсѓтшха. see above. that there are other versions as well (see Dieterich. or what may have been the content o f the omission. d a 6 etwas fehlt. In other words. the physician Thessalos who has a session with the god Asclepius to learn from him the most effective healing plants. et religionis secreta perdidict). the practitioner is seeking a personal interview with the highest god Helios-MithrasAion. Ich habe wohl diese undjene Vermutung.. cf. der die Liturgie benutzt zur Erlangung von Wahrsagungen. 644-49). Was er etwa abgeschnitten hat an dem Texte.670— (Janet H. 170. 294— 308) dis­ cusses the passage in connection with the famous synthema in Metam. Griffiths (Apuleius. Rather. 596 Dieterich (82): “ . O f interest are also his comparisons with analogous Christian formulas.598 T he great synthema in 11. the previous self-presentations to the elements (11. 599 For the concept o f synthema. de cymbalo bibi. if no more than a simple answer is expected? Merkelbach concludes that the ascension ritual must have been put to a secondary usage. 724— 27). 18. however. After all. G M PT . p. lasse ich sie unausgesprochen. one should assume that the inquirer will seek answers to questions of ultimate concern.uciTY ’'Аттеах.599 by repeating it from an earlier initiation ritual the present inquirer demonstrates his qualifica­ tions..596 It seems more likely.

released to death. you jum ped into milk. Masks of Dionysus (Ithaca. and n ow you have been born. the inter­ 98 pretation.av. a ’ oxi BaХ< Х>[-0? «uto? eXucre.. 718-22): 7taXt.601 600 Cited according to Christoph Riedweg.ai. 234— 35). kn o yevecrew? ^woyovou yevojAevo?. Betz.. has so far not been conclusively explained. сг’ итго yyjv xeXea аст<а>ал:гр oX[3(. olvov e^et? euSal^i-ova xt. eds. Ram . 601 Scholars are divided on the translation o f the phrase el? cotoyeveaiav avaXu&el?.e.fji. avaXu&ei? . The translation follows. au^ofjtevo? x a l au£r)&el? xeXeuxw.). aTroyevecjLa is the opposite ofyevecrt. xaupo? si? yaXa e&ope?’ а1фа el? y< a> X a e&ope?" xpio? el? yaXa етгесте<?>. BCE):600 The tripartite formula. Clearly. Fritz Graf. 370— 75). To return to the synthema in 11 718— Mithras is addressed again as “lord” . yevofAevo?. with some variation. Beobachtungen zur Kommunikationssituation und narrativen Technik der orphisch-bakchischen Goldblattchen. Bull. 241-50). w hile growing and having grown. vuv 19-avs? x a l vuv eysvou.vyev6fxevo? a7ioylyvo^. el? a7toyevecilav av aX u $el? rcopeuo[JLat. and TtaXt-vyevsaia.” in Graf. elrtetv <J>epa’e<p6vat. ајлатЕ. you fell into milk. I am dying.” in Thomas H.?.o<. Main body of the ritual (11. after w hich the initiate offers three fundamental statements o f selfunderstanding: First. Carpenter & Christo­ pher A. you jum ped into milk.ot. 485— 732) 191 especially the one from the Thessalian Pelinna (end of the 4th c.” ibid. Kid.II. (xupc. 359— (the citation. I am passing away. “Dionysian and Orphic Eschatology: N ew Texts and Old Questions. 1993). т т б е . Having been born from a life-generating birth. xa7Ufxevet. O thrice blessed one. Tpi<76X(3t. on this very day. 23958 (the citation and interpretation. N o w you have died. “Zur Lehre vom Menschen. he affirms his hum an and divine self-understanding by three state­ ments (11. And below the earth there are ready for you the same prizes [or: rites] as for the other blessed ones. Tell Persephone that Bakchios him self has set you free. 392.. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. You have w ine as your fortuitous honor. Faraone. “Initiation —Tod —Unterwelt. NY: Cornell University Press. aXXot. 24.. I am passing on. 411 (also Antike und Christen­ tum. referring in cryptic abbreviations to decisive ritual acts. Having been born again.

3. such as that o f a formula recited before the initiate’ natural death. 1.. 603 The text is cited according to Nestle-Aland. wc < evofxo&exYjcrat. so then.12 (eiq xo auxo ayr^xa eXQelv [xexa xt)v arcoyevecrt-v). man is reborn” [my trans.244) refers to the Christian formu­ lation in Firmicus Maternus. eav xe a7tot)v7)cTX(*)fi. his newly achieved divine status or his human status? Since he states his achievement o f rebirth and regeneration as past experiences.602 Although the formula is now part o f the greeting o f Mithras. o yevvtov x a l ajtoyevvwv) and Plotinus. 261— 71. “Transferring a Ritual: 12. the verbs in the present tense must define his imminent condition.4.cra<. Merkelbach (Abrasax. xS xuptto aTcoQ-vfjaxofxev. 1. rev. and if w e die.603 Second. 3. the words seem to point to a different context. Err. We do not live to ourselves and w e do not die to ourselves. Festugiere (Revelation.155 (eyw eljxt. the translation is that o f NRSV. rel. Paul’s Interpretation o f Baptism in Romans 6. Meyer: “I am passing on. happier. from that same man at once another. 2. If w e live. released to death”.ev. 27th ed.307): “je me dissous pour entrer dans la mort”.]). For a discussion o f arcoyeveala see Festugiere (Revelation. 22 (ed.” 602 As an important parallel. III. “as you have founded. although the meaning can only be guessed. 6) w ho points to the parallels in PGM V. Merkelbach (Abrasax. En.192 Commentary The structure o f polarity is apparent. w e die to the Lord.” Paulinische Studien. also for baptismal formulae R om 6:1— and my essay. Reitzenstein (G G A 185 [1923] 51) renders it as “entferne ich mich” (“I remove myself”). 240— esp. 70): ut sepultoprima homine ex eodem statim homine homo aliusfelicius <re>nascatur (“that when the first man is buried. Dieterich (15): “werde ich in den Tod erlost”. . If the inquirer speaks as an initiate. what do the self-definitions define.” corresponds to xeXeuxw. 7U x a l ercotajcxa? [AucrryjpLOV. w e are the Lord’ s. xto xuplw ^wfxev. 1953]. as you have decreed. a kind o f “Sterbeformel” comparable to s R o m 14:7-9: ouSel? yap rj^uov eauxto ^ x a l оибѕ1<. which seems an obvious conclu­ sion.307. and have authored (the) mystery. Erwin Rohde (Psyche.175): “ins Ablegen des Lebens aufgelost werde(n). Konrat Ziegler [Miinchen: Huber. 70. prof. w e live to the Lord. eav xe o5v i^ojAev eav xe a7to^v7]CTXw[xev. xou xuplou eafxev.. n. Cf. whether w e live or whether w e die. three further statements affirm the divine authority which supports the initiate’ present self-understanding: s a u exxt. eauxfij атсогКлрахег eav xe yap (^wjxev.421— 22).6. Preisendanz: “zum Sterben aufgelost”.

its purpose being the rebirth. P. Festugiere. that has repeated it. Antike und Christentum.II. 794 show. Col 1:26— 2:2-3.) ends at this point. 3.608 “We feel in these last words a kind o f conclusion o f the consecration. 607 The name is found only here. O Z 2 /1 . the Eleusinian mysteries were instituted by Demeter (Horn. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 72— 73. it is not I who have repeated it.ov. “I am P H E R O U R A M IO U R I. 170.606 identified by his secret name. (М л & р а ? ) . this is the statement by the magician who is reworking the liturgy for the purpose of 604 Martinez rightly proposes the sense o f a recusatio: “not I but y o u .. Main body of the ritual (11. 170. Hymn to Demeter 473— 76: SprjafAocjuv/jv 9-’ Lepwv xal IrcecppaSev opyia na. as refering to the mystery ritual as divinely authored (ttolouv).ov (1. 224. 608 According to Dieterich (16)..” One wonders why Dieterich stops translating. 258. . when he con­ tinues carefully to annotate the text from here on (16— 21). and unexplained. refer also to things other than the ritual as such (1. “I am t. in the papyrus the sentence follows: таита стои s I tcovto ? eu&eooc.604 The object [xuCTTY]pt.605 Third. Dieterich believes that the immortalization ritual (атса&аvaTLa[xo<. the new section. Meyer.ai (“She showed the conduct o f her rites and taught them all her mysteries”). Preisendanz. The decisive insight gained from his initiation is that he has come to understand himself as an individual self (eyto elpa).607 sy to slfju cpepoupa fjaoupi. and that a new section dealing w ith the granting o f an oracular response begins.” He refers to a parallel in an Egyptian charm translated by Borghouts: “it is not I who have said it. For more 0 material see Hopfner. may refer to all three lines..” Cited and discussed in Martinez. the article (the) may fit in English. W hen.g. та jAucror)pt. Frag. 178). which he calls “Anweisung zu magischer Verwendung der Mithrasliturgie” (“Instruction for the magical application o f the Mithras Liturgy”). It is this magic that comes for N N born o f N N that has said it. w ithout article. PH ER O U R A M IO U R I. 75.. 605 See also Betz. 746. the mysteries o f Isis and Osiris were revealed by the v0 [A &eat. 11..ov. ^ртјстриабујаес. Michigan X V I. Cf. That object seems to be the ritual as a w hole. 527.” R ather arbitrarily. XXIII (Kore Kosmou). n. 27.u<rcr]pt. and Merkelbach (Abrasax . According to C H . That the mystery cult has been instituted by the deity is a common doctrine. see also Dieterich (14— 15). It appears originally to belong to a different hymnic context unknown to us. the resultant self-definition o f the initiate is summed up in a very concise statement. Chapter 1.175— 244). 724 with the words eyw eljjL cpspoupa [jaoupt. 6°6 por jjjjg formulaj see above at 1. the immortali­ zation o f the initiate after the needs o f the bodily life. § 68.. fjt. This aim is stated in the text time and again w ith great clarity. For the term [xucTT7]pt. as instances in 76. therefore. E. 485— 732) 193 The precise meaning o f this part o f the formula seems unclear. without article. 723) can. since it names an object known to the practicioner. begins in 1.a).ai o f Hermes. 476: plural.

see Merkelbach. t h e p u r p o s e a n d a i m o f t h e r i t u a l is to b r i n g th e in q u ir e r u p to th e p o in t o f m e e t in g th e g o d in p e r s o n . 614 Actually. 1 6 ) . ^ргјЈлатс^со 1. 84— 85. corrected by Dieterich (16). 732. 3. Abrasax. 7 1 7 — 1 8 ) h a v e th e t w o c o o r d in a t e s e c t i o n s ( 1 5 . 613 A pertinent example o f such conversations are the consultations o f the god Trophonius in the underground cave in Lebadeia. 2: the verb ^раст&ац 1. Cf. 1. т а и т а a o u ei7r6 vTO <. 614 609 Dieterich (82): “Wir fiihlen in den letzten Worten eine Art AbschluB der Weihe.46. S e v e r a l p a r a l l e l p a s s a g e s c o n f i r m th a t t h is is th e t y p ic a l c o n d itio n o f a p e rso n in e csta sy or t h e r e a f t e r . (“at once”). see at 21.194 Commentary o b t a i n i n g a n o r a c u l a r r e s p o n s e .86— 90. 610 T h e r e is n o t h i n g i n t h e t e x t . w h e n h e a n s w e r s y o u ” ). 117 [# 45]). “not being in (or: by) yourself” defines ecstasy (ѕхатаа^).” See also ibid. see also VI. 620— 633. 613 T h e v e r y n e x t ste p c o m m e n t s o n th e c o n d i t i o n o f th e in q u ir e r d u r i n g th e c o n s u l t a t i o n (11. The terminology and concept o f oracular inquiry is frequent in the PGM. i n T tp a y jx a x o ? o rd e r to (11. Merkelbach (Abrasax.54. VIII.240) points to Thessalos’s encounter with Asclepius 38. Wenn darum nun im Papyrus der Satz folgt: таита aou eiuovToc. h e a s s u m e s t h a t t h e w o r d s cpprj cpprjXfia. (“ n o w y o u w i l l g r o w w e a k i n y o u r s o u l. 3. 737— Merkelbach (Abrasax. also Totti. 727. 3. Dies Ziel ist immer wieder mit groBter Deutlichkeit im Texte ausgesprochen. die Unsterblichmachung des Mysten nach der N ot des Leibeslebens ist. 612 Pap. T h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e p h r a s e . ed. On хртјстјлб^ (“oracular response”). W hen the god appeared. For euQiwi. reads y_p7]aij. For this term.w87]a£t. 184— 209. 610 On the methods o f collating sources used by ancient scribes. ѕи&ѓм^ ^ру]С [хсоб7)С £[. 655-56. t h e t e x t d o e s n o t r e p o r t a n y m a t e r i a l c o n t e n t o f q u e s t i o n s a n d a n s w e r s . der die Liturgie Т Т benutzt zur Erlangung von Wahrsagungen. see especially the ’А-гсоАА&тахт) iTzivSkqaic. p. cf.263— 347. x u p i s .. 14. h e w i l l i m m e d i a t e l y r e s p o n d w i t h a r e v e l a t i o n ” ). 7 2 5 — 2 6 ) : ш г е х Х и т о ? б г e a s e т т ј ф и ^ тј x a l o u x e v а ѕ а и т а ј E a s t. ” 609 C o n s e q u e n t l y . h a v e a p p e a r e d b e f o r e i n d if fe r e n t s it u a t io n s t o in d ic a t e p r o g r e s s i n t h e n a r r a ­ t iv e . &e6<. 740. Texte. II. see 11. (MtQ-pa?). see below. Friedrich. 611 See the parallels in 11. so kommt hier der umarbeitende Magier zu Wort. h o w e v e r . 7 i e p l t o u A been s e c o n d a r ily in s e r t e d b y t h e r e d a c to r . 1. 53. probably together with the birth constellation (ykveatq).' ^ p y j f x a T t a o v .” Hellenismus und Urchristentum. R a t h e r . 576.. 11. I.157) who believes that the specific issue regarding which the oracular response was sought had been submitted in written form on the evening before.. e u & e co ? x P y]CTtX(P^1 QCTEt' ( “ a f t e r y o u h a v e s a i d t h e s e t h i n g s . See my article. “The Problem o f Apocalyp­ tic Genre in Greek and Hellenistic Literature: The Case o f the Oracle o f Trophonius.101— xpYjajJiwSoi. t o s u g g e s t s u c h a r e d a c t i o n a l s e a m . le a v in g a sp a ce fo r th e c o n s u lt a t io n to ta k e p la c e and fo r th e is s u e (тс р а у [х а ) t o be s u b m i t t e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . deren Zweck ja die Neugeburt. Thessalos almost lost his mind: xa&c^ofxevou бе [xou xal sxAuojjlevou tou асојлато^ . a n d y o u w i l l n o t b e i n y o u r s e l f . (Prooem. 717.. o x a v a o i a r c o x p lv ^ x a ! . 24. 611 T h e te rm ^ p Y ja p u o S s T v is t e c h n i c a l a n d d e s ig n a t e s th e o r a c u la r re ­ s p o n s e . 557. 612 A s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d a b o v e .

kann ich ebenfalls nicht ausmachen__ Wahrscheinlich ist es mir nicht. Primarily it is meant to be physically possessed by the god. So I fell upon my face. while my bodily senses were held down. хаФаттер xaiv (mvw (3e(3ap7][jiivo[. that the ML xal TTjs фи/9}<. 8. that the human being. and after speaking he will depart”).. 83): “Ob irgendwie der Abstieg des Mysten liturgisch angegeben war.” (“Whether somehow the descent o f the initiate was liturgically presented. this would be in conflict with all analogies o f similar sacramental actions. “Inspiration. and my thinking was lifted up high. 28: the gods’ presence was not supposed to make humans better than themselves. 11. 617 Dieterich (82. thus. Sloc to 7rapaSo^ov тгј<. 186). the reading elrcwv by Dieterich (16) is correct..27— “as if.. “Ekstase.1) presents a kind o f classic statement: ’Evvolac. 2. speaks the < oracle to you in verses. Es ist urspriinglich gemeint als ganz korperliches Erfulltsein vom Gotte. 1 En. хатаа^е&есаш [лои тcov (JwfxaxLxwv alaihqarewv.” Apuleius. described in Acts 9:3— 22:6— 9. &ea<. стфобра.II.]). which in turn supports D ieterich’ ideas concerning the composi­ s tion. 1898). (“Once when thought came to me about the things that are.” R A C 5 (1962) 455— Klaus Thraede. entstammt dieser Anschauung. ey. das widersprache aller Analogie ahnlicher sakramentaler Aktionen.а ох1 јш t o v jpy\a\xbv x a l ec7ta)(v) а 7геХеистгта[616 (“he. 240). for the oracle o f Trophonius see Pausanias 39. Metam. 87.. 727— 28): Aeyec. Hellenismus und Urchristentum.18ff.” R A C 4 (1959) 944— idem. sed debiles ejfici uel aegrott).. D ieterich’ (82— s 83) astute observation that the session ends rather abruptly is one o f the reasons why he assumes that a section at the end may have been excised by the redactor. daB die Ruckkehr des Geweihten in der echten Liturgie irgendwie vorkam.. 615 Dieterich (97— 98): “D ie Erscheinung des evQouaiacrjxoc im eigentlichen Sinne ist uns wohlbekannt.axa. ex xopou троср?]<. Psyche (2nd ed. however. indeed. 7] ex хотсои сгцхато^. see also C H X . Wiinsch (in Dieterich.5.40): “(Then) a great trembling and fear seized me and my loins and kidneys lost control.uic. I am unable to make out. 60:3 (O T P 1. sein Geist in den Gott korperlich eingeht. “Enthusiasmos.. but rather weak or sick” (prorsus quasi deum praesentia soleant homines non suifieri meliores. This idea changes time and again with the other. 329— (with bibliography). “when I took my seat and my body and soul grew weak because o f the miracle o f the vision. [ioi тготѕ yevojiivT^ ruspl twv ovtmv xal [летѕмрс-а&Ехсттјс.”) . the soul. H e perceives the absence o f a narrative o f a ritual dealing with the inquirer s return from heaven to earth.” [my trans.. Mit dieser Vorstellung wechselt immer und immer wieder die.” Paul’s vision o f Christ on the road to Damascus causes his physical collapse. for the OT and Judaism see Saul’ weakness s after the consultation with the dead prophet Samuel in the story o f the “witch o f Endor” (1 Sam 28:20-24). бе croi б[.. like those who are heavy with sleep from a fill o f food or fatigue o f the b o d y . daB der Mensch oder seine Seele. ecstasy”] in the proper sense is well-known to us. 485— 732) 195 D ieterich’ com m ent is to the point: “The phenom enon o f ev^ouaiaa^o? s [“enthusiasm. ехсгтаог? [‘ecstasy’] is derived from this viewpoint. reads et-тш with the v expressed by a supralinear stroke..617 It is the case. [mi ттјс Siavolai. The opening paragraph o f the “Poimandres” (C H 1. O n the topic o f ecstasy see Friedrich Pfister. or the spirit ascends to the sphere o f the god.” Dieterich (98) refers to Rohde. To me it is not probable that the return o f the initiate occurred somehow in the liturgy itself. Main body of the ritual (11. 65 616 Pap.13 (see Betz.” 615 The session w ith the god then concludes (11.” R A C 18 (1998) 57. to be sure.

Ps. аиторихтоо*. (“for at a later time you will remember 618 For such narratives o f return. Cato Min. 334— 47. 8. after Paul’s vision o f Christ.252-53. 2. IV. < таита Tcavxa yapricziq' xal to t s (xvrj^oveucjEti.b. 16. 22. n. because o f amaze­ ment incapacitated to comprehend all o f these things. 620 Dieterich reads (16): oru б’ естттјхѕ^ cveo q &q. [wondering] how you will by yourself compre­ hend all these things”). Gen. see Dieterich (16. 11.620 (“but you stand speechless. Acts 9:7: ol бе &v8peq. The first o f these involves his resulting condition (11.-. “but you stand there. crit. 53 [1894] 420. аитбјлато^. s.26.. auTOfxaTwi. 621 Cf.v. app.” 100) reads сти бе axi]Keiq eveoq w .-Phoc. since you will be able to compre­ hend all these matters by yourself”.. Matt 19:11. 622 Translations differ at this point because eveoq can be taken in two ways. 670.110. and that it may be borrowed from a source. the concern in 1 En. Sacr. Kroll (Ph. dies alles von selbst zu begreifen). either as “speechless and wondering how . III. 619 For such ritual dismissals. XI. 623 For the term /copslv (“comprehend”). crit. Lucian. Merkelbach: “aber du wirst stumm dastehen und dariiber staunen. ^wpeco. 83). 2 Cor 12:2-4.. The first assures him that he will indeed comprehend everything аситоуАтмс. elcmr)X£t. and I heard from them everything and I understood.g. атгараРатм. . Icarom. spontane­ ously” ). which would require a considerably longer time. ” (“Du aber stehst da. recollection. Hippolytus. 54 [1895] 561) refers to parallels for the meaning o f y apeiv (“comprehend”): Philo. (Demotic) xiv. the men accompanying him stand speechless.. ox. ” or “stand in amazement that you will by yourself comprehend all these things” (Preisendanz: “Du aber steh stumm. 3. H ow then can the missing return o f the inquirer be explained? The conclusion o f the ritual again looks at the inquirer and provides several instructions (11. .258.13): “(This is) a holy vision from the heavens which the angels showed me.. was der groBe Gott gesagt hat”).(jav sveo L.” . there is no indication o f how long the session would last. s. an important term in miracle stories. see. crit. and the other. also referring to the parallel in IV. (“by himself.) that this looks like a hexametric half-verse. e. 170..621 It appears that after having received the response. 505. BDAG. daB Du alles von selbst behaltst. Socr. denn du wirst das alles von selbst verstehen”. 592E.) cites Hopfner’ read­ s ing: (wctts) ум рујвем . Cf. 728— 29): au бѕ cmrjxet.v. 184— 86. n. app.” This reading Preisendanz adopts. 5.? hvzbq. Differently. Preisendanz (app. unfahig vor Staunen. the epilogue even presupposes that the revelation could include thousands o f verses.4. Plutarch.619 Also. the inquirer is faced w ith two questions. та итгб тои [леуаХои 9-sou pY]Q-£vxa. see BDAG.623 The other promise assures him unfailing remembrance (11.a.6. Haer. Wilhelm Cronert (“Zur Kritik. Meyer: “But you remain silent.35. 6. xauxa uavxa ^мрѓјстец. 729— 30): x al t o t e pt-VYjfAoveuaet.94— 95. 728-32). agreeing with Usener (in Dieterich. one being comprehension. 1. is a hapax in the PGM. 64. 89. see Plutarch. R ather than being short..196 Commentary says nothing about a ritual o f return618 or o f the god s dismissal. xav [xuptwv c f t l y m o у^оџбс. 923. 1:2 (O T P 1.622 Two promises deal w ith them. 34. 623. . For yoipeiv (“comprehend”) see also below.B.176— 83.

(“mouth to mouth he was a companion o f the god”). this means that the initiate “left the earth” in a state o f trance. III. 55. Thespesius is touched with a glowing-hot rod. . 467— etc. they are given in verse. he confesses “whether in the body I don’t know.424— 66. 8. 78. which for him is physical.b. whether out o f the body I don’t. a m outh-to-m outh (axo[xa repo? crxofxa) or face-to-face (npooamov npoQ npooconov) revelation. this fact only reveals our lack o f understanding o f what is implied in an ecstatic experience. Regarding this last point. 1. so as to preserve the memory (see Betz. s.625 Several things are made known here about the nature o f the revelation. God knows.8-14.II. whole is experienced in ecstasy. 11. Therefore. 314. imaginative.626 the m om ent w hen he finds himself “standing speechless” (11. 1. 568A): At his return from the journey to the afterlife. in non-literary papyri and the N T see Gignac. into the third heaven. O ne must be cautious at this point. 53— 67 n. 625 For xav -?jv as a common 3rd pers. the oracular response envisaged is called “the words o f the great god. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 728— Second. however. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. and Plutarch. The experience is. 11 725-26 lead to the conclusion that the journey to heaven as a . 7Tpom«mov. 1. Main body of the ritual (11.v. and not only a mental experience. in which he discusses current theories o f decline o f the Greek oracles because they are turning to prose. 2. these oracles had the highest value. also 1 Cor 13:12. 185-86. as such oracles should be. and Betz.624 even if the oracle contains myriads o f verses” ). one wonders whether the author has oracle collections.627 Furthermore. w hen the god departs the initiate comes out o f his trance.” revealed directly w ithout a mediating interpreter. they add up to a collection o f myriads o f verses. Grammar. Cf. Plutarchs Schrift. According to the worldview expressed in the text. it appears to us as outsiders that the initiate does not move an inch off the ground and that there is no account o f a return. also the charms in PGM called “memory spells” ([xvtq^xovlxt]). 204). but it is nonetheless “real” in the sense that the initiate s physical as well as mental state is participat­ ing.405 with n. l.2— to ато[ла тсро? to стто[ха ctuv6[xlXo< tm 3: . and BDAG. o f Moses LXX N um 12:6— Deut 5:4. this is 29). 628 See Plutarch’s essay “W hy oracles are no longer given in verse” (D e Pythiae oraculis).” 627 See 1. 485— 732) 197 infallibly the things spoken by the great god. 626 Cf. o f course. Cf. See Schroder.628 Surpris­ ingly. If. also Paul’s intended ambiguity in 2 Cor 12:2— Regarding the man snatched up 4. First. According to ancient views. sing.40— 42. subj. perhaps even a 624 That the problem o f remembering the revelation was an important concern is shown by parallels in connection with the oracle o f Trophonius (see Pausanias 39. Sera 33.232— 47.

These rituals are not to be confused w ith initiations.. 3. 305. so that he hears only the things spoken together w ith y o u .629 At any rate. when he reappears from the cave with a book containing the teachings o f Pythagoras (Philostratus. 732—50) The three optional rituals.) see Denniston.”). Parke & D. 732— 36). the situation is more complicated. Herbert W. (“But if you want to consult the oracle by using a fellow-initiate [as medium]... 732— 50).631 A . 1. The phrase “if you wish” (eav бе ФеХт]?). 8. second.156-57) assumes that all the additional rituals refer to passages that were part o f the preparatory rituals which the redactor omitted from the beginning o f the text. 77— 79. he names a problem that no doubt has led to such collections. 732— 819) contains supplemental rituals. There are two kinds o f those supplements: first. Hellenismus und Urchristentum.632 concern the oracular consultation presented above (11. 20. W. stating 629 Such as the “Chaldean Oracles” (see Edouard Des Places. 750— 819). 724— 28). the fellow-initiate is to serve as a medium in the consultation: eav бе OiXTji. Greek Particles.. 1856). 732 the ritual o f immortalization (атга&оп/аткЈЈАо?) concludes. E. “Les Oracles Chaldaiques. however. As will be shown below. The Delphic Oracle (2 vols. three options for including a fellowinitiate in the oracular consultation (11. Optional rituals for including afellow-initiate in the consultation (11. Supplemental rituals (11. V Apoll. Porphyry. D e philosophia ex oraculis exhaurienda librorum reliquiae (ed. part III (11. x al сти^иоту} ^p-rjcxaa&ai соахе xa Xeyofxeva exetvov p. because the additional person to be included in the consultation must be someone who.. See Nilsson. eav бе x a l ... G G R 2. In the first option (11..198 Commentary specific one.630 W ith 1. just as the first inquirer.478-85. 632 For xod almost equalling a0 (“again. in m ind. 732— 819) As the analysis shows. .. 631 Merkelbach (Abrasax . III.. 187— 88). Betz...” A N R W 11A l A [1984] 2299-2335). eav бе x a l . Early Christian Prophecy.6vov auv trot axoueiv. the initiations o f both con­ sultants are therefore presupposed as having occurred prior to the present ritual text. coordinated by sav бе x a l . 1966). is already an initiate (сти[л[лиату]^).. Oxford: Blackwell. Berlin: Springer. also Apollonius’ consultation o f Trophonius. three additional in­ structions for preparing ingredients to be used in the ritual (11. Wormell. Gustav Wolff.19— see . 630 Cf. Aune..” “once more” vel sim. W hat follows are supplementary instructions.

XXXVI. 815-20. as well as in the language o f the mystery cults. The 11.v).5-10. VII.” in Gesammelte Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt (2nd ed. PDM xiv. 285-90. 732— 819) 199 options. 149 n. but perhaps at a lower rank or as child m edium . 515-20.86-87. 76. For discussion and parallels see Herbert Braun.210— cf. a limit is imposed on that role: “so that he hears only the things spoken together with you” (ware xa Xeyop-eva exelvov fxovov auv croc.633 The term aujjifjiucrxTjc. 480-85.v. Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries (Prince­ ton: Princeton University Press.a$oii appears often in the magical literature.2593. see PDM xiv.526-27. IV246-47: бтсер ovo^jia pT]9iv fteoui.114. km. 490-95. IV. s.163. is technical and indicates that the adept has been initiated. obscure. at first sight. 637 For the term та Xeyofxsva. [лиахт^. 856. 26. Jordan considers articulating cruv [auctxy] or haplography <auv> <tuv[xucjty]. V. for the unassimilated spelling see Gignac.l-53 W (title: [xavxetov Sapamaxov [ercl] тсоабо^. П. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. 695. cf.636 In the PGM . T he following statement specifies the conditions the medium has to meet before performing his role: auvayvsuexco aot. but here it seems to have the more specific meaning o f “to make use o f a m edium .32. 671.124. 52-53.. 572.) and about the witnesses o f Paul’s vision o f Jesus on the road to Damascus (Acts 9:7: axouovxec. “Die Kindermedien in den griechisch-agyptischen Zauber75. xal SatfJiova^ етс’ аито [31а феpet. 737).56. is attested elsewhere in the P G M . 636 For such selective participation in revelation. 410-15. BDAG. LXII. 738. 1720.348-58 (title: fxavxetov en i izaiSoq). 33-71. 32 0 9 10. and abstain from meat and bath”). and Burkert. for бе^и[Х(.42-43.151. 815— Cf. 11.285— 420— 5 2 5 95.710. 65— 74. Kondakov (Prague: Seminarium Kondakovianum. but appears to become clearer w hen compared w ith the two other options. Zum rituellen Selbstverstandnis der Griechen. 870— see Theodor Hopfner. 544. 2252. cpwvf^.41 (ev у ^ р И ? £']). 1.89. For the term.425-39. IV767. 460-65. Ancient Mystery Cults. “Entscheidende Motive in den Berichten iiber die Taufe Jesu von Markus bis Justin. 168— 72. P. 634 Pap. 11 par.1442.634 The verb ypcf.638 These conditions are typical for prelimi­ 633 See 1.III. 44.10. 3125. IV. III. axouet.495.” in Recueil d ’etudes dediees a la memoire de N. [x^Ssva бе ftewpouvxe?). 1967). see also 1. Supplemental rituals (11. XCIV. XIII. 261— Albert Henrichs.1040-45.17. 1961).141-44. <i^> У][лера? x al атсоахѓст&со x al (SaAavelou (“let him be pure together w ith you for [seven] days. X II. “Dromena und Legomena. below 11.52.244-45. see also 1. 850-51. PDM xiv. Xu/vou x a l <pt. See George E. 785. 1926). For child mediums see 1. Mylonas. this term usually refers to the words to be spoken by the practitioner o f the ritual. IV. 150-55. . 375— a<. 74. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. term Spwjxeva does not occur in the PGM. 638 Dieterich adds pQ (“seven”) because o f the parallel in IV. 193-94.” 635 T he meaning o f the waxe-sentence is. III. 635 For the verb referring to a substance see IV. 695-97. Ш . V . 772. [xev xyj<. the differing versions o f the reports about Jesus’ baptism (Mark 1:9— 25. XIII. XIII. 11. see also XII. 2655.94. If the role o f the fellow-initiate is that o f a medium.168.792— sZtzsv бе puu o т)ѕ6с' pqxe n yp5> 93: T auyxptd^xT!. reads auvfAuaxu) (equalling сти[х[хиат7]). браса IV. 75.aX xal (3[a]&pou). 530.). papyri. but in this context it is more likely that it signifies the utterances o f the god (see 11 731. 30. 2301.749. 2257.” in Graf. but cf. VII. For the importance o f seven days.637 . Grammar.

113. Parker. 645 According to Weinreich (in Dieterich. Reinheitsvorschriften. 736— 38): eav 8e x al { iovoq x al xa O tto t o u &eou elp-yjjjiiva. 70.).245) notes that no such requirements are reported at the beginning o f the ML. 1.52. IV3209.644 s 2.2. is not m entioned. The second option applies to prophecy w ithout a medium (11.2997-98 (for other readings. Trpoayvsuexv. 145— 765— 815— O n the subject see Eugen Fehrle. D ie kultische Keuschheit im 50. 151. ev exaxaast. 99.53. 76— 102. Preisendanz apparently later proposed the reading Asys laaq. 3. 224). Ancient Magic and Ritual Power (RGRW 129. 107— 29 8. Kultusaltertumer. Det.” R A C 10 (1978) 812— (bibliography). Profane’: Notes Towards a Terminological ‘Genealogy’. ax. VII. eds. bathing does not effect purification. Plot. 3079— LXVII. “ ‘May she neither eat nor drink’: Love Magic and Vows o f Abstinence. and 1141-42. 640 For ѕ[хфихо?. Burkert.27.. 1766. XXII. a third typical requirement. 1995).41-42. 9— esp.334. 52. cruvayvLCT^xi snev'/rj. for this and other parallels see David Martinez. 20. sexual intercourse. Porphyry. and that o f the fellowinitiate as being o f lower status. see also IV. Ancient Mystery Cults. Leiden: Brill. 644 Merkelbach (Abrasax. XIII..” IV. you speak as inspired in 639 The term auvayveusiv is rare and found only here in the PGM.200 Commentary nary purifications or sanctifications. 846. 155-70. Miasma. XXXVII.640 that is meat. a7co<pot<(3w[jLevo£645 (“B ut if you are alone.347. crit. see Wachter.441. 643 On abstention from sex.65-70. Amulets. 642 See Wachter.” in Graf.498. “be sanctified together by prayer. IV.” Martinez suggests that Preisendanz may be right because also in the other two sav-clauses the protasis is followed by an imperative apodosis. 19. ad loc. whole.298— See Julius Jiithner.643 These requirements o f purity are preconditional for the per­ son’ function as a m edium . see also IV. Paul’ enemies swear that they will neither eat s nor drink until they have killed the apostle. This conclusion leaves three possible ways o f understanding the matter: Did the redactor omit the requirements as they apply to the author himself from the written source material? Or did he regard them as unwritten preconditions for the practitioner/teacher because they are self-evident and do not need to be written out? Or did he spell them out as precondi­ tions for the medium? A decision is difficult.” in: Marvin Meyer and Paul Mirecki. GieBen: Topelmann. VII. Parker. According to Acts 23:21. Kotansky. Cf.642 however. 1136 (referring to Philo. “ ‘R e­ ligion’. 43. афихо? 1. app. 24-31. Stengel.639 The emphasis on “together w ith you” indicates the role o f the m entor/teacher as supervisor...b. “Geschlechtsverkehr. LXVII. Miasma. Abstention from “ensouled” food (г^лфи^о^). The simplex ayveueiv (“sanctify”) occurs 11. and he concludes that the redactor must have omitted them. Aeyei. 349 n. 1-2. 357— 65. “Bad. but the latter option seems to be the more likely answer. IV. see Preisendanz. 32. XIII. passim. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. PDM xiv. 1910). cf.149. and you are [directly] engaged w ith the pronouncements o f the god. “speak in the same way as. Vit. Abstention from bath ((BaXaveLov) is mentioned only here in the PGM. 641 Strangely. cf. as well as from bath641 are the com m on requirements for sancti­ fication. Reinheitsvorschriften. cf. passim. ‘Ritual’ and the Opposition ‘Sacred vs. 2). IV897-98.23. see 1. .2. Absten­ tion from meat was widespread in antiquity. On the 80. See Jan Bremmer. 671. Altertum (R W 6. Gerhard Delling.” R A C 1 (1950) 1134— esp.

(I am indebted for these passages to Cristiano GrottanelH.2. Diodorus Siculus 34/35.” Meyer: “And even if you are alone.. n.. M ore complex are the theories concerning the Delphic Pythias ecstatic inspiration by Apollo. like Trophonius. the similar phrase eav бе aXXw О т)? Set-xvueiv (1. but it shows that this type o f prophecy has become part o f common religious parlance. 7. Alex. 772). 614. G M PT .9— 10: xivouvTat... also Dodds. “Ekstase. 815-25. Merkelbach: “Aber wenn du es ihm mitteilen willst. 47— 52. Henrichs.. 65° preisendanz. . . “having a Python spirit. Cf. Friedrich Pfister. translations differ. and you undertake the things communicated by the god. ev excnraaei.). and Merkelbach keep uq. ”. The Greeks and the Irrational. Metam. 1947). above. Zurich: Rhein-Verlag.what? Judging from the context (11.27— velut numinis divino 28: spiritu repletus. 132— 819) 201 ecstasy” ). 1). the present option is different from the previous one.648 3. Origen. Meyer: “And if you also wish to show him . Hartmut Zinser. 64— 101.. Supplemental rituals (11. (“ecstasy”) and атгофофаојлоа (“inspired by Phoebus”) occur only here in the PG M . 738— 40): eav бе x al Sel^aL auxw &ѓАт]<. ” ). ехата(Г1 < 2. . see above. 648 For ехатаа^ (“ecstasy”).709-10. “Ekstase. you speak as if prophecying in ecstasy”. 58 Ansichtengriechischer Rituale. see also PDM xiv. The rare 57: . and Sam Eitrem.262— 347 (Betz. Lucian. wie in Ekstase voll prophetischer Begeisterung. cf.646 The absence o f a medium means that. 8. Conceivable if unlikely in the present passage is that the expression & .v.. “Apollon in der Magie. term алтосрофаојала (“inspired by Phoebus”) is found only here (LSJ. For dispensing with a medium.. BDAG.” in Graf. als warest du in Ekstase. For further bibliography. The third option is most difficult to understand because the formulation is ambiguous (11.) 647 See also the “Apollonian invocation. Preisendanz: “Wenn du aber auch allein bist und an dem vom Gott mitgeteilten Zauber dich versuchst. eaxxv аасраХоЗ^ w? av&pwrco^ .v. 12. also Cronert s discussion (“Zur Kritik.649 (“But again if you wish to show him. Merkelbach: “Wenn du aber allein bist und ihm das vom Gott Gesagte mitteilen willst. ‘W illst du es aber auch ihm (dem Miteingeweihten) zeigen. > < could be taken as faking the ecstasy (see Apuleius.” 100— but Preisendanz. 420-26.9. 741-46). dann wirst du es in prophetischer Begeisterung sagen. Acts 16:16: e /e iv uveufxa тси9ш/а. ” 651 Cf. s.285-95. 637).” 1.” R A C 4 (1959) 944-87.” in his Orakel und Mysterien am Ausgang der Antike (AIVi 5.. but there the meaning is -еХ clear (cf.647 T he terms ехсттасгк. xplva?. 16) regards as dittography and proposes o. . 525-30.III. . S^Q-ev wq ftea-rci^ovTei. sprich. (so tue das) . “Dromena und Legomena. the prophet receives the utterances o f the god directly. el a^t-oc. the most likely object would be a revelatory symbol belonging to what in mystery-cult language is called та Seixvu^eva (“things shown”). Cels.5— x a l outm т а [xeXXovTa 7: ocrcecpolj^a^ev). s. after you judge whether his w orth as a man is secure . see above at 11.651 Before this optional 646 The translations differ at this point because o f what appear to be misunderstandings o f the options. n. 10— with notes). 55— “Rituelle Ekstase”.” H R W G 2 (1990) 253— (bibliography). . . . Meyer. “to show him ” . 12.” 649 Wxinsch (in Dieterich.650 Depending on the interpretation. the problem is the missing object o f беТ^ас аит&ј.” In other words.

3. which was common in the mystery cults. 749 ттараууеХ[хаум. However. or even to the Golden R ule.655 At the beginning. 1. 539— 731). it is to be recited to the fellow-initiate. 653 Pap.. Proclus. XI.afjuo is ob­ viously a scribal error.226— 27. furthermore 11. The terms are insider language: та бе seems to refer to what comes after the “first prayer. Preisendanz: “vorsprechen”.a. 1. 2. Others differ: Preisendanz: “lege dabei den MaBstab an. tva [л-] ахоистт] . reading <x7ta&av[. als ob du an seiner Statt bei der Unsterblichkeitsweihe gepriift wurdest”. 53 (1894) 421. 145-52.” like a prompter (cf.245) concludes. Nat.v. X XX . 740— 41): w? <au> итсер аитои xpt-vofjievo? ev tw arcaO-av <aT>LCT[xw653 (“handling the occasion as though in the immortalization ritual you yourself were being judged in his place”). 741-44): tov rcpwTOV итсоЈЗаХе аитф Xoyov. Martinez convincingly emends <cju>. III. See also Burkert.3.1 202 Commentary ritual can be performed. for the term.658 The procedure is further specified as 652 For this kind o f test o f one’s worthiness. see my The Sermon on the Mount. a^ioc.477. Ancient Mystery Cults. . the fellow-initiate has to be evaluated w hether he is worthy as a hum an being. 508— 19. the name for the immor­ talization ritual as a whole (see 11.177. 657 The pap. also 647— 48). BDAG. ‘First origin o f my origin. 298. Kroll). als wiirdest du selbst bei der Verewigung an seiner Statt gepriift”. 747. Merkelbach: “vorsagen”). o f which the beginning is. corrected to axovco by Dieterich (17). Grammar. . considering this emendation redundant. See LSJ. (“And say / the successive things as an initiate. it means “inform” or “instigate. and below on 1. Ph. 31. This “first prayer” is the one fully set out in 11 486— .e.15. least likely since what follows is to be spoken in a special way. [лиатг^ Xeye аитои i n i ty)^ хесраХт]<. corrected by Wessely to kiz aQav атla[xw. see also 1. ” 655 See Gal 6:1. 654 Following the translation by Martinez. <x{u}tovw657 cp&oyyw. 77. s. it is clearly explained by the following remark. it may include the entire ritual o f ascension (11.654 This m ethod conforms to the moral standard o f fairness.131.” but it is not clear what exactly is included. over his head. Plat. AEEIOYO’”). see also Cornutus. s. for the Golden Rule (Matt 7:12//Luke 6:31). so that he may not hear . Merkelbach: “tue das in der Weise. 656 The verb итсораЛАѕ'-\/ has the prayer as object.152. Merkelbach (Abrasax. reads aurovw. Kroll. CIR 10 (1896) 411. 30-65. however. об rj Scp/r}' крмтг) ryjq еџгјд yeveaew? aerjiouw (“recite for him the first prayer.652 If he passes the test. c f Gignac.a. the following procedure should be followed (11. “therefore silently” (“also schweigend”). and the interpretation in my Galatians. 771.11 (ed. Meyer: “treat him just as if in his place you were judged in the matter o f immortalization. 658 Cf. the great “first prayer” should be recited (11. ”). reads romo. rem publ. in a soft voice. this is. BDAG.176— IV.v.. so that he can repeat it 656 w h a t follows after that is to be handled differently: т а бе wc. RieB. emended by Dieterich to т<р>6тгсо. The pap. 537. There are three possibilities for understanding it: First.

Err. 476. a few stipulations bring the section to its conclusion (11.64— VII. 746— 50). Wolfgang Helck. N ew York: Jewish Theological Seminary o f America. rel. 212.662 The name o f the ointm ent is [xucmrjpiov (“mystery”). 567. below. For further literature. esp. 40. “xoXXupLov.. 58. Die Apologie.. Cf. s. In other words.” R A C 1 (1950) 972-75. the recitation sotto voce includes the second and third prayers (11. (“Then all who lamented have their throats anointed. 121— 224. After the additional rituals for the participation o f a fellow-initiate in the oracular consultation have been presented. see Wolfgang Westendorf. 796-98 is not clear (see below). 559— 65. 663 For this name.203 (index). flebantfauces unguentur.. 723. 732— 819) 203 “over the head” o f the fellow-initiate. s.1: lento murmure susurrat. Second. Err. 2.1: Tunc a sacerdote omnium qui 60. but oral and secret. Jewish Gnosticism. prof rel. At any rate. For further references to anointing. 1. and further literature). [леха 659 For parallels. apparently by someone who wishes to discontinue the practice (11.335— PDM xiv. 746— 48): ytyvexat 8e o aTca&avaxLCTfAO? ouxo? xpl<.”659 so that he cannot make out the actual words. 741. Ernst Kind. and most probable. Halbbd. 3.. See Wilhelm Kroll. 36. “Alte Taufgebrauche.”). 69. 746): X P ^ ocuxou 'rfjv бфп/ xw pt. jp ie iv . The anointing (jpieiv) refers to the iatromagical tradition dealing with salves and ointments o f all sorts. . B 8 (1905) 42— Abt. 4. 75).III. The first stipulation concerns the frequency of usage (11. while the formulae are murmured.3.661 This particular ointment is intended to improve vision (cf. the formula] with a soft murmur”. “Augenheilkunde.v.” A R W .u<7T7)p£co660 (“as you are anointing his face w ith the mystery”). 352— Gershom Scholem. Metam. 794). 751— 78.255— Firmicus Maternus. §§ 28.” PRE 21. 748— 50): eav бе (ЗоиХтјЅтј n q . Merkabah M ysti­ 22. Hopfner.. 11 772— .115— 820-25. Apuleius. “he whispers [sc. 1. see Firmicus Maternus. The final option is that the words are not in the written text at all. one may conclude. 587— 616). “Augensalbe (collyrium). to enable the eyes to see the mystery that is shown (1.. the ritual called “immortalization”663 may be performed three times a year. there seems to be no other such attribution o f this name. Another stipulation concerns defection. 16. 1965). 11. 661 See. 22. the healing miracles o f Jesus in Mark 8:23. reads / jdcicov (itacism). but not more. see above. 1. the practitioner is told (1. see Preisendanz. W hile the term [AuaxTjpiov can refer to different matters (cf. H ow this relates to the stipulation in 11. Joh 9:6.” L A 1 (1975) 560-62. O Z 2 /1 43. the purpose of which is. 662 On anointing the eyes. 660 The pap. xoXXoupiov (with reference to R ev 3:18. its preparation is described in 11. and Talmudic Tradition (2nd ed. Supplemental rituals (11. prof. 22. “in a m urm uring voice.v. урХаџси. see also V. 11. “Augenschminke. 53.” ibid. this is unlikely in a w ritten instruction.. 738). Friedrich Wilhelm Bayer. tou eviauxou (“This immortalization takes place three times a year”). (1921) 1100— BDAG. 15. cism. 6. & xsxvov.

We could also interpret the form as a genitive (ou > w(t). nach Empfang der Vorschrift ihr nicht Folge leisten. 1. according to Wein­ reich (in Dieterich. for him the ritual is no longer at his disposal or loses its efficaciousness. npo^eaq (“instruction for the performance”). a prescription is provided 664 Pap. 745 au > a. U7T:api. 3. then for him it will no longer be in effect”.). Grammar. Merkelbach: “Mein Kind.g. 224). (aTca&avaTt-crjxoi. but Preisendanz rearranges and puts tw before ouxstl (so also Jordan). 367. 7 5 0 . <тЅ> оихет^. they will not hear you. Martinez comments: “I think that Wiinsch’s reading is closest to the truth. Ludwig Radermacher (Ph. my child. Preisendanz (ibid. See also BDAG. then for him it will no longer be in effect. Dieterich omits too. XIII. Wiinsch reads тгарбсууѕЛјла atnrw. “if someone wants to bend the prescript by disobedience” (“wollte einer die Vorschrift beugen durch Ungehorsam”).боссгхаХ1а ty)<. (“For if you do not invoke them [sc. 80: el (ju) yap аитои^ хаХестт]^.665 Apparently. As to what аитф is doing here is another issue. The instruction includes prescriptions for three items to be used in the main ritual. U7tapxw. and Preisendanz.664 (“And if anyone. wishes after the instruction to disobey. 667 It may be related to similar quasi-legal rules. 1.. are very frequently written ато? etc. Meyer: “And if anyone. In that case the translation would be: ‘If anyone wishes after his instruction to disobey. the case envisages a person w ho has received the instruction o f the initiation but wishes to quit. The Sermon on the Mount.).”) The meaning o f the statement is disputed.’” 665 Preisendanz: “Wollte aber jemand. P. oux е7гахоиоиаг w? аршаттјрсастта) aoi mtap^ovTt. idem.v.. Martinez. Neutestamentliche Grammatik. in documentary papyri аито? etc. disobey or deviate from the received tradition.158 (index). after the teaching.204 to Commentary тсосраууеХ^а {tw} тозсрахоисгои. (see Gignac.8 I 9) A special section o f further instructions follows after the “supplemental ritu­ als. noting exam­ ples in defixiones. see also IV290. cf.667 W ith this. as being uninitiated”). 1.226-27 with 227 n. 67). den Anweisungen nicht folgen (und die Weihe versaumen) sollte. Grammar. .379— 89.v.. s. Preisendanz later proposed to read: fxeTa&SLvac. 63 [1904] 4-5. dem wird sie nicht mehr zu Gebote stehn”. der sich dazu gemeldet. Additional instruction (11. First. wishes to disobey. the section ends. 184— Cf. 10). The тсараууеЛрзс seems to refer to the instruction as a whole. and connects uTcap^st. B. Matt 5:19.et.” 666 pQr jjjg term Tcapaxoueiv. rcapaxouet-v. s. to 7tapayyeAfjux tw 7iapaxouaoa. above 1. see. Dieterich (17) reads ouxert. 56) prefers јлета to TcapayyeAjxaTov. O child.666 A statement such as this assures the teacher and warns the student.” This new section carries an explicit title: б(. and hence the translations vary. and for further material and discussion my commentary. 1. wenn jemand. mein Kind. Displacement is possible (as Preisendanz supposes with tw). fur den gibt es keine Moglichkeit mehr. Michigan X V I. reads rcapayyeXfjiayo.208ff. fairly frequent either for phonetic reasons or syntactic confusion between genitive and dative (see Gignac. e.) also withdrew his proposal o f тсараууеАјла тш ( IVSt 42 [1920-21] 27 no. the gods o f the hours]. So I would write тгараууеАјл’ a<u>Tw.

so that their identifications by Greek names become difficult to verify. 671 Thus. 11.156-57. the terminology.4.” PRE 19. 1961). see the parallels in Thessalos o f Tralles. is Greek. The fact that the author supplements information from Greek plant books shows that even he had difficulties in identifying the Egyptian plants and that he does not seem to know their Egyptian names. 1.бастхе^. ed. Memoires. for б(. which is m entioned in the main ritual. for the text see also Totti. T he preparation o f the rituals should precede the actual performance o f the main ritual. Also D ieterich sepa­ rates the additions as secondary from the “liturgy” proper. Academie Royale de Belgique. W hile alchemical ingredients are often common.669 The difficulties arise from the fact that the papyrus originated in Egypt and describes Egyptian materials and plants. тсра^ѕсо? (“instruction for the performance”). Herbarius. “Der Zauber der Heilkrauter in der Antike und Neuzeit. the information and preparation o f the plant called kentritis (11. 430. 7 3 2 -8 1 9 ) 205 for making the sun-scarab ointment (11. however. The technical terminology used is Greek in origin and often difficult to identify. The title St-SaaxocAia ттјс. the prepara­ tion o f phylacteries (11. 3. 475-84) that the overall purpose o f the text o f the Mithras Liturgy is intended to be didactic. 245). 813— 19). and third. idem. because they have to be ready to be used w hen their place and time o f performance has come. 26-27.670 Hence. See the Introduction. “Pflanzenaberglaube. passim).” S A G M 29 (1936) 3— 26. however. Heinrich Marzell. Recherches sur le ceremonial usite chez les anciens pour la cueilettes des simples et desplantes magiques (3rd. but were omitted from the text by the redactor. plants are geo­ graphically specific. see IV. above pp. for бсбофѓ).. second. Dieterich (17— omits translating the additions.668 2. Armand Delatte.59. 751— 78). Classe des lettres et des sciences morales et politiques. He attributes them to the final redactor w ho uses the earlier “liturgy” as a source for an altogether different magical procedure.671 However. # 45. 670 A different view has been stated by Merkelbach (Abrasax. the additional instruction does not imply a criticism by the redactor w ho regards his Vorlage to be deficient. to assume such an omission because references point to places in the extant text before us. pace Merkelbach. There is no need. 778— 813). the review by Friedrich Pfister. when he sees the “instruction” to refer to passages that were originally placed at the beginning o f the Mithras Liturgy. most likely given to this section by the final author/redactor may appear surpris­ ing.2 (1938) 1446-56. B y Z 37 (1937) 381— 90. б^басткаХѓа is hapax in the PGM. but he provides valuable 22) notes on the text. 54. see XIII. Friedrich.1872 (|г/]бѓ»/а бѓбаахе). but it should be remembered from the exordium (11. . cf. All three items involve rituals as well as alchemical and biological infor­ mation.III. 669 For plant biology in connection with rituals and astrology. Bruxelles: Palais des Academies. this infrequency cannot obscure the fact that much o f its content is for instruction. Texte. D e virtutibus herbarum (ed. Supplemental rituals (11. a distinction has to be kept in mind 668 While the terminology o f teaching is not frequent in the PGM.

11. Is. 746). {3Xr]$7jvat<674 (“Take a sun scarab which has twelve rays. see 11. .50 (107). nzpiypL ew . Hier.673 The section shows careful composi­ tion and has its own little epilogue (11.497d (ed..” LA 1 (1975) 934— (bibl. cf.672 1. 584). 674 Pap. Deipn. 751—78) The first item involves a sun-scarab ointment. 1982).52): Втјааа TroTrjptov тсар’ ’AXe^txvSpeuai TiXaxuTepov ex twv xa-ra ij-epwv. e^ovxa TColyjorov el. See for commentary Griffiths. 770. Plutarch. 11. The textual sequences are what is w ritten down. features indicating that it was taken from a source. above p. YjXiaxo. 1.41. 99): атгбЅои ev ueAivco аууеш.218) about a drinking vessel (rhyton) in the temple o f Arsinoe that has the shape o f the Egyptian god Besas and gives off a shrill tone when the spout is opened. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 773-74. like the image o f the sun in rain-drops. 2. translations o f the vessel differ at this point. Kulte.677 The Greeks were fascinated by the symbolism.”678 Apparently. Gulick.34. 1960). 776— 78). Cf. Miinchen: Saur.” 1.. First ritual: the sun-scarab ointment (11.274 (ѕстш бѕ evxo^ tou Spaxovxo? xavQapo^ ocxtlvwto? Lspoc). Jordan prefers (Bwctlov (“vessel”). Dieterich (17) compares Hesychius (ed. (S tjoxov xaXXoavov (3a&u ev артсаутј xrj. reads (Bwctlov. Orakel und Naturverehrung im Alten Agypten (Zurich & Stuttgart: Artemis. Horapollo. ф ' axxlva. Preisendanz: “GefaB aus Goldstein”. 5. at time w hen the m oon is invisible”). The preparation o f the ointment has two stages. vol. Meyer: “turquoise cup”. 381A: . 3. Џ -qalov ' TtoTTjpt-ov.784b (ed. emended by Wessely to prjcrcrtov. 8-10 (# 10). and make it fall into a deep. aeXyjVT]. 1. 40 678 Plutarch. 793.21. eCTTsvwfiivov avco&ev.206 Commentary between textual and ritual sequences.974— 75. 673 For the terms. Cyranides 1. 2001). etc. 31. Athenaeus. Kaimakis. “Chepre. XII. Jan Assmann. the c “sun scarab” (xav&apo. LCL.115 (ed. see Heinz-Josef Thissen. Die Kyraniden. B.).675 The term Xo(3mv (“take!”) is technical and common. most likely the same as the one called [xuaxirjpLov (“mystery. Cf. 57) The first item is a sun-scarab (11. 751— begins w ith the procurement o f the ingredients. 384-88 (with figure 32). 5.” 676 The term is found also in VII. 554— he mentions Manetho and 56. 74. 117. turquoise cup. Gulick.23. 751— 53): XafBwv xav&apov YjXiaxov t o v xa. 677 See Erik Hornung. BiTeu. [3. Kaibel. also Gunther Roeder. Des Niloten Horapollon Hieroglyphenbuch. which is reflected by Plutarch who theorizes that the beetle is an image (elxcov) o f “the power o f the gods. & ons p ev aTayoaiv TjAlou tt)^ twv &ewv Suvajjiso^ xoctiSovtsi. John Baines.. As the name indicates.Os. ed. whereas the ritual sequences are known to the practitioner from practice.)676 represents the old solar deity Khepry. s. Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many (Trans.B 6. LXI. 1 (APF.96. The first stage (11. C.v. with plate IV. 675 As a result o f the uncertainties in identifying the technical language. Latte. 11. Merkelbach: “blaugriines GefaB. the scarab w ith the 672 For the difference between ritual text sequence and performance sequence see the Introduction.

furthermore 1. VII. 24.245) suggests that the scarab is drowned in order to be deified by making it into Osiris.l 109-14. V.15. an.v. 10. A u C 6 (1950) 49— Raphael Giveon. 1. 51. 681 The term {iak'Keiv ((ЗАтјОтјуоа) serves the purpose o f ritual killing.S 27 (1902) 114. For sun-rays on gemstone amulets see Maryse Waegeman. Suppl. 11. it is attested also in Horapollo. 85. 780. cf. see IV. V 212-303. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 1 (1975) 720-24. 679 What is precisely meant. 68. Gemmen. see Hopfner.” LA.628: lizard.159. 3. For xaXXaivo? see also IV.680 T he preparation involves the killing o f the scarab by letting it drop681 into a deep vessel ((3y](7lov)682 made from a natron and sulphur concoction (xaXAaivov). see IV.1 (1986) 98-108. III. Michel. 1987). Amulet and Alphabet: Magical Amulets in the First Book of Cyranides (Amsterdam: Gieben. ’АКЕФ АЛ02 @ EO£.223— 11.184.127. IV.1066.45. XIII. XIII. there are twelve horns on the head o f the beetle. 973-80. “Bes.2668.d. 98-99: falcon.” L IM C 3. Cf. chpt. Hartwig Altenmiiller.” PRE 2. 198. 1. see Tran Tam Tinh. “when the moon is invisible” (LSJ. XXXVIII. p. s. is unclear: H ow are twelve sun-rays connected with a living beetle? Perhaps grooves on the wings were seen as sun-rays.” . IV. V. 683 So Hopfner. zur Zeit des Neumonds ist Selene gestorben.” in Klauser & Rucker.1: cat. XXXVI. 3. Aelianus.245) suggests that this time reference is connected with the notion o f rebirth: “Mit diesem Zeitpunkt ist vermutlich eine Vorstellung von der Wiedergeburt verbunden. but 1. Pisciculi. esp.III. Heinz Josef Thissen.a-e. only here.21..98-110. for the mythological explanation. see 1. Bes. 3:2. Supplemental rituals (11. 2688. 57.183. 86.2455-57: mouse and scarab. XIII. Sam Eitrem. 2598.” O E A E 3 (2001) 179-81. Kroll). “Skarabaen. 1. Auch der Tod des Sonnenkafers wird nicht ewig sein. 563-84 (with bibl. 7 8 (1. 943. 758— 59. ed. 732— 819) 207 twelve sun-rays679 is a special kind which is attested.4-5 (falcon). 94— 101. For vases in the form o f Bes. 2001].a-d. III. § 122). Hier. 2660-61. For this god.207— (xavf&apej).430. the vox magica cravxav&apa. XIX. Helios Megistos. esp. 682 Merkelbach (Abrasax.33.” Meyer has in mind a turquoise-colored glass vessel. 437. Bianchi. Beiheft 6 [Munich & Leipzig: Saur. 680 Cf.12. 2456-57. 81. 684 The phrase ev артгаутј ттјс аѕлѓртј^.245) thinks o f a vessel that looks like the god Besas. Die Kyraniden. “Bes.684 Hecataeus o f Abdera (according to Diogenes Laertius. Kaimakis. 44-45. “Scarabs. 82— Merkelbach. See Richard Wiinsch. as far as I can see. 2 / 1. 1659. 71. Mag. 3. # 24. Robert S. “Sonnenkafer und Falke in der synkretistischen Magie. Abrasax.v.222. Franz Joseph Dolger.21 (?). Anth. 71. 2. VII. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 19. 246-48: “Le [xuaxyjpt-ov du Scarabee”. “Skarabaus.683 This should take place at the time o f the new m oon. V.118— with comments at 121). Cf. see Vettius Valens. R eihe 5 (1927) 447-59. 245. OZ.1090. 218. VII. The scarab is important in the PGM. 338 (with bibliography). Max Pieper. Nat. 38 (ed. 8 78. 8— (Chapter 10). prooemium 10).203. # 81. Armand Delatte. 115. Fauth. G M PT . 333. Cyranides 1. 69.924-25. §§ 121-22. For the twelve sun-rays. n. 3. # 81.425-26. 767. 1 (AFP.a. VIII. 73. V.807. aber sie wird nach drei Tagen wieder aufleben. s. Des Niloten Horapollon Hieroglyphenbuch. # # 99— 10 103.14.14. § 121: “aus Natron und Schwefelmasse. and these constitute the relationship to the sun.520.973— 80. See Betz. артеауу]) is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. below. XII. vol.65.64-65. the preparation o f a scarabaeus amulet. at # 99). According to Hopfner (O Z 2 / 1. # 38. XII. G M PT . 274-77. IV. 212— 303 (“Hermes’ ring”).” B C H 38:2 (1914) 189-249. 757 says it dies from the eating o f the ingredients. O Z 2 /1 .1068— Cf. VII. “Etudes sur la magie grecque. XIII. fC P h .” L A 5 (1984) 968— Betz. For literature.

See Hopfner. cf.686 Honey is a substance often used in magical practices. 1520-21. Friedrich.” PRE 26. the costly perfume used by the woman in Mark 14:3 par. also VII.25. O Z 2/1. o c to v јЗоиХгх691 (“Pick it up and throw it into a glass vessel o f excellent rose oil. reads xa&apio^ and ayyiov. 453. section 38 and often (ed. 688 A technical procedure in ancient pharmacy and alchemy. 209— Otto Bocher and Adelheid Sallinger. 789-90. also the role o f cakes in sacrifice. LXI. XIII.1683. reads ocyyt-ov as in 1.225.v. a7r£p[xa xal [jiiXt Хекосга<. IV 1880. 11. 693 Pap. Merkelbach. also Thessalos. 3. as much as you wish”).” in Perennitas: Studi in onore di Angelo Brelich (Rome: Edizioni dell’ Ateneo.692 The vessel needs then to be placed properly (11. and rose oil certainly is an expensive perfume. 64). t o ayyelov .690 The second stage also begins with the acquisition o f the ingredients (11. “H onig. See Delatte. see Fritz Graf.320. 32.v. W hat this “sacred sand” is and how one spreads it in a 685 Pap. 1. O ne will notice that the ingredients are now becoming more expensive. and w hen it has consumed it. (1927) 1515— esp. . § 216. it immediately dies”).”). [xeXtXtoxo? IV. ptiXt. 687 See Preisendanz.102— IV. Therefore.32. prooemium. but not by drowning. Zum Verstandnis der Libation im griechischen Ritual.337-38. See also III. prooemium.693 ajxfxov lepav kizL&zc. 689 The term [iofZ.. and set the vessel on it . ayysloc ueXivoc. Friedrich. On honey. H onig und Wein. 692 For the rose oil. The name Хсото^лтјтра refers to the lotus plant. Abrasax.689 T he purpose o f the cake is to cause the death o f the scarab (11. Thessalos 1.246) who argues that the scarab gets stuck in the honey and thus suffocates and drowns (“erstickt = ertrinkt”). For (ЗаХе. esp. VIII. s. The glass vessel seems more valuable.687 The mixture is then ground up688 and formed into a small cake. 752..с. Halbbd. 3. 1980). B C H 38 (1914) 246.208 Commentary The next ingredients are from plants and serve to make a kind o f small cake (11. (“and spreading sacred sand in a pure manner. 691 Pap. 759-61): x al атреоста. section 38 (ed. 355. see 11. 189. VII.333. 754— 55): auve^aXwv auxw XwTo^xpa.. but it is technical in the language o f pharmacy and alchemy. ayyslov ueXouv jxupou poSlvou xaXXlorou. 761. Awtlvo? XIII.87.. 75759): t o u t o v aveXofxevo^ ^aXe el c. tcoItjctov [xa^lov685 (“put in together w ith it the seed o f the fruit pulp o f the lotus. 3. 755— 57): x al euSito? auxov бфт) Trpoasp^ofxevov x al eatKovxa.). see 1. 686 Амтојг/јтрас cntepfxa is the name for the fruitpulp o f the lotus plant (LSJ. “Milch. the sudden death o f the scarab is caused by eating from the cake. VIII. 3. (“and at once you will see it [viz. and after grinding it w ith honey prepare a cake”). 64): [ЗаХХѕ et<. 1. see below. See also III. eu$iw<. .Lov (“amalgam”) occurs only here in the PGM. cf. 21. to be used here in quantity.134 (index).. August Steier. reads 'кшаа. 690 Pace Merkelbach (Abrasax. XII..87. For Xwt6<. OvTjaxet. cf. s. cf. the scarab] moving forward and eating.” R A C 16 (1994) 433-73. 753.108-9. x al oxav cpayy]. xaQ-apelw.941. “Lotos.245. IV3009. corrected by Wessely to XeLoiacaq.

ат) ouata. 198. proposes convincingly to take the form ysvtj just as “the second person sing. see also Ernst Kuhnert. 171.. 1902). 753) becomes deified and related to the sun. section 39 (ed. “name. that you may prove useful to me alone. Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch (2nd ed. D e sermone graeco volgari Pisidiae Phrygiaeque meridionalis (Dissertation Bonn. Wessely changed to ysvy][тоа]. . one must assume that it is alive. 2.696 and the formula has to be spoken over the vessel. The formulaic eyw EifJtx (“I am”)700 secures emphatically ownership and use of divine beetle. tva fxot. 1894— 1898). 2992.” See Preisendanz. that your substance may be useful to me. and Martinez. an ingressive or durative aorist.III. 331. 698 For Wessely’ reading o f т. 694 At any rate...197-212.£аас. Martinez. ‘your essence’ becomes in the scribe’s mind simply a collocation for ‘you.5-6. 11. again reads the symbol A.’” The same second person sing. XII. as often in rituals. 1895). P. eyw az ѕтеХеаа. The formula has to be pronounced (11. V.45. 46. 210. is used in the following repetition o f the formula. IE IA E EE OY EIA. 2 695 Pap.173.' YjXlou [xsaoupavouvTo?. o f the normal deponant form. reads the symbol □ for ovofxa.” R h M 49 (1894) 37-58.699 T he scarab which at its death became associated w ith the invisible m oon (1.698 (“It is I who have consecrated you. presupposes. Dieterich (17) points to parallels listed by Georgios Chatzidakis [Hatzidakis]. 92— 95.” 700 On this formula see above at 1. tm S(e)I(va) fxovw le ia 7 ] £7] ou £t. §§ 130. written mistakenly because ч\ стои ouala. w ith all done. Johann CompernaB. 260. 1892). III. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 7 3 2 -8 1 9 ) 209 pure manner.410— 13. Pap. O Z 2 /1 — . occasioned by suspicion over the attributive s position o f ctou in the pap. 219. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.“and say the name over the vessel for seven days. 257.697 T he formula (ovofxa) itself is cited in full in 11. Since the beetle is being addressed as a person. £yw yap фмр cpop a cpto< фотс. r\ aou oucrla yevY] xp^crifjio^. 64).223-30. albeit in a divine way. prooemium. Friedrich. see Dieterich (17) who refers to Georg Benedikt Winer and Paul W Schmiedel. Friedrich Blass. while the sun is in midheaven”). seems to have a mythological background known to the magicians. Supplemental rituals (11. бе' cpwp cpwp офо&есДаа^. N N alone. 699 The form yev/] needs explanation. for I am P H O R P H O R A PH O S PH O TIZA A S” [others: “P H O R P H O R O PH O TH EIX A A S”]).269— 70. see IV. “that you may be useful to me alone.a* £{xol [xovo) xp?]tf t-fAEuarjc. “Feuerzauber. 696 On this point. esp.701 W hat the scarab has thus become is called 694 See the discussions in Hopfner. also Thessalos. Einleitung in die neugriechische Grammatik (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel. —ol . 697 For Asyet-v t o ovojxa stt I t o u ayyou?. LXI. 701 SeeBDF §§ 318. Martinez proposes convincingly to read офо&£[Даас to correspond with срот^аа^. The time is during seven days at high noon. 761-62): x al Xeye to (ovofxa)695 i n i tou ayyou? i n I rjpipa? Z. Michigan X V I.762— addressing the scarab: 67. IV. 1. T he verb form irsXeoa. however. 535. the consecration can take place. Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Sprachidioms (8th ed. cf.

The term (Застта^еп/ (“acquire”) appears to be technical. the authors primary concern is w ith the handling o f sacred substance in the vessel. that is.709 referring to handling o f ingredients. See for the larger field. and deposit it in a flourishing bean field”).704 he inserts his name twice (1. ^toocpuTOUVTt708 (“O n the seventh day pick up the scarab. or to s M erkelbachs rendering as “inner being”?703 Although all three possibilities play some role. Merkelbach. Hopfner. (I). Does it refer to the scarab’ immaterial divine nature. pap. the process o f w hich is briefly described. translates ouaia as “innerstes Wesen”). 711 below).” 704 The formula o f exclusivity is found elsewhere in the ML. the sun. O Z 1.705 together with a vowel sequence. P. Preisendanz reads C T[i. 484. etc. s. 765— 67). XII.37-38. 767— 69): ty ] бе у][л(е)р(а) (Заата^а с. Abrasax. or to the materia magica in the vessel.upv7). idem. “Miszellen zu den Zauberpapyri. Jordan prefers crjjiupva (see n. see also 1. 707 For another such insertion see 1. determ ination o f the mean­ ing o f оисќа in the present context is more difficult. 3. which means materia magica. 991-93. Michigan X V I. however. 708 Pap. оиаѓа.710 T he ingredients o f 702 For the many parallels in the PGM.v. 764). 9 n. 476.” For discussion. see 11. equalling еЈЗббјхт] гцхеpa (see Preisendanz. Therefore. once by inserting his ordinary name N N . 495. in the present context оисгѓа is rather specialized w hen compared w ith the usual “property” o f a person (such as hair. and bury it w ith m yrrh and Mendesian wine and fine linen. the materia magica is still called “scarab. ^[xupva x al olvw MevSyjcaw x al (Suaalvfa) атсб&ои ev xuajxwvt. on 1. Preservation o f the material happens by burial o f the scarab. G M PT .” R A C 16 (1994) 367-73.702 However. НГ0. See on this above. 3. Divine Substance (Oxford: Clarendon. reads the symbol A. he has carefully compared the names and inserts a variant reading that “others” (plural!) have. “Material. C also reads xav9-apo (corrected by Dieterich [18]) and&i^a? (changed by Dieterich [18] to (Зосфас). In order to make sure that this substance is useful to the practitioner alone. a technical term frequent in magical contexts. 779. 736. and once by repeating the purpose clause (хр^а^еиспд?) and by self-identification through divine names (11. 500. 2. it must be properly preserved and stored (11. a substance o f divine power. see Preisendanz.706 As a redactional com m ent by the final author/ redactor shows. 705 The pap.269). magical. 38. see the index below. hpr (“come into being”) is o f influence and points to “manifestation.v. Betz. §§ 667-77.” .” W St 40 (1918) 1-8. 709 For јЗастта^е(. Preisendanz keeps &афа?. meaning t w S s iv o c . t o v xav&apo(v). Martinez. “Homousios.у.154 (index). 1977).246 (who.210 Commentary оистса. The latter are obviously related to cpw^ (“light”). 710 Interestingly. s. reads the symbol ". ■9-афоц. 336. Christopher Stead.707 Once the divine substance has been procured. 703 Martinez raises the question whether the Egyptian name for the scarab. clothing) affixed to spells. 706 For other such names in the ML. see Preisendanz. 56.

sic. For other instances o f preserva­ 2..S 15 (1978) 700-77. medic. VIII. T L G . Hopfner. s.v. LSJ. 773— 793).246): “Der Myste soli den toten Sonnenkafer symbolisch bewirten und auch selbst mit ihm eine Mahlzeit einnehmen (was fast auf eine Kommunion . xov aTta&avaTiafjLov (“then. 4 (12. 3.715 M erkelbach’ s suggestion that хиа[ло<. On myrrh generally..7(?). see VII. II. tritt hier der xuapiwv einfacher Bohnen vermoge des gleichlautenden Namens an die Stelle der heiligen Lotusblume. 20. 716 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 22. N ew York.” PRE 31st Halbband (1933) 1134— 46.717 Merkelbach con­ cludes: “The initiate should entertain the dead scarab in a symbolic fashion. and then he should carefully store the oil and the scarab for later use in the consecration. 332. 712 Wine from Mendes in the N ile delta is mentioned in 1. Puschmann. but its place in the ritual is unclear (11. IV 941 und XIII 22). 3. 875. see V. XII.714 W hy such a place is chosen can only be guessed. olvoc.. 713 Linen cloth (^ucjctivw [рахм]) is mentioned in 1. Da mit xua(i. after you have entertained and feasted together.. s. “Mendes.102.”718 711 Myrrh occurs often in the PGM. Kuhn 12. (“Egyptian bean”) is another name for the Lotus flower may be right. (ed. 714 The aorist imperative form атго&ои from kixozidevai (“deposit”) is almost technical in the PGM.246): “In einem Bohnenbeet. and eat himself a meal together w ith him (which almost leads to a sacramental communion).84-85. Alexander o f Tralles.228-29. 715 Dieterich (18) refers to Richard Wunsch. see August Steier. for references to the medical writers. А1уитстго<. Photius.444). 17— XXXVII. 3.v. Cf.v. ziq тги^ба [лоАфтр. “Myrrha.277. xua[xo<. VII.CTio^. m ent is concerned with the ointment. this com­ 74. deposit the ointm ent in a pure way for the immortaliza­ tion”). s. остсотѓат]^. s. Darby. 1 (ed.85. (aupva.20. 2.145. 1.2. dealing with therapy o f the eyes). wine was famous in antiquity. 770— 71): to 8 s хрХаџа. saxla (“wining and dining”). San Francisco: Academic Press. s. Gignac.III. Muller. esp. afxupva. 293. tion.” See also LSJ.v. 338. 717 For SCTxtav. 177 (index). 770. XV. William J. for ашеим^еТстОт (“feasting together with”) see IV3150— 51. 16. 751— but the situation envisaged in 11 770— appears out o f context 78. but why would another name be preferred?716 A nother com m ent relates to proper storage. Galen.” PRE. Paed.713 Thus embalmed the scarab is deposited in a sprouting bean field. ѕатгааа? x al a u v e u w ^ ^ k атсо&ои xa&apel«<.315. MevSr). Grammar. London. Lex. See Hermann Kees.1315. O Z 2 /1 — §§ 121— 214— 219. 2681— The 82. Comp.. MsvSr. 175. Das Fruhlingsfest der Insel Malta. see Clement o f Alexandria. VII. XII. 2. 3. Ther. AlyurcTt-o^ die Lotusblume bezeichnet wird (vgl. IV.oi. . Food: The Gift of Osiris (2 vols. crpupva.2465-66: a7io&ejxevo<.3.754). 139. see IV.12ff. 732— 819) 211 m yrrh711 and Mendesian wine712 are used for the embalming and wrapping in linen cloth.600. 718 Merkelbach (Abrasax. Walter W. 2. 915. Supplemental rituals (11.17.v. Because o f the ocurrence o f хр1сг[ла (11.208. 71 in that no com m on dining has been m entioned before. 1977). ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der antiken Religion (Leipzig: Teubner.225. “Weihrauch. 1902).172. See Preisendanz. the preparation o f which is described in 11. 41 (31-46: “Die Bohnenbliite”).” PRE 29th Halbband (1931) 780-84. spelled in different ways: ^[xupva.

svoc (“he will be your [companion and] will eat and sleep with you”). 1. At any rate. see Mark 8:25 and BDAG.v721 (“If you want to show this to someone else. reads бтјАаиуах. VII.212 Commentary This interpretation is derived from other PGM parallels which mention such meals. 11.644— consumption o f a magical potion.22— on dining with an immortalized falcon.(TTtov carat. 3: with a familial spirit (тгаребро^ Salfxwv): [auvofJxAo^ xal cru]vapt. for the exchange o f б /т see Gignac.424— eating the heart o f 24 30: a kakkouphat bird (cf. Grammar. ^uXov rcepi^pltov TY бфс-v.[XMfj. Rather. This earlier Vorlage may have presupposed a ritual context o f a sacramental meal. еуг xr\c. get the juice o f the hinauslauft) und dann das O l und den Kafer sorgfaltig aufbewahren. 772— and . and by copying from it he transposed the passage into the new context o f his own practices in the M L. fxexa 'oScvou. xaAoufjtivYj? (3oxav7)^ xevTpr. now also called ointm ent (xpicrpia).719 According to the text. the scarab is to be entertained. as Merkelbach does. A further optional ritual concerning an eye ointment follows in 11. therefore.2— a meal 20. “Sopra uno scarabeo con iscrizione greca. however. 721 Pap. it must be the scarab. which is most likely. sub vocibus. finally in 1.Tt. O Z 51: 2 /2 . one should not automatically assume a complete homogeneity between literary and ritual sequences. the case may be that the author/redactor has copied from a Vorlage which comprised a broader spectrum o f prescriptions. For a similar vacillation in the manuscripts between бтјАаиуо^ and ттјАаиус^. zur spateren B eniitzung bei der Weihe. but in 1.” 101.720 This assumption could find support in the author/redactor s later correction to the effect that the scarab ointm ent is no longer to be used (see below.” 719 See 1. the passage may have been copied from an earlier Vorlage. x al офета^. 772— 75: eav бе aXXw гШо]? Sst-xvustv. Preisendanz retains бт]Ааиу6Ѕ<. the materia magica is to be safely stored to be ready for future use in the main ritual o f immortalization. emended by Dieterich (18.80ff. If. бт)Лаиусо? ахтте сте jv 0au[xa^£t. cf. “Zur Kritik. on 11. . aoi xal (juvxot. III. 1033. 792— 96). 75. the question is also whether one should speak. IG S I 99 2413. this ointm ent is the materia magica. within which the ointm ent for the eyes was to be used.85— 89: a meal with an angel. об (SouXei. Thus. Another possibility would be to allow for a metatextual reference.. 46. 767 it is also called the scarab. 720 As an example o f this Dieterich (18) refers to a scarab amulet o f stone with an inscription which contains voces magicae and these words: /_?•/][jLoctlctov jjloi ev tt] vuxxl таиту) i n ’ aAirj&ela Јлета jjlvy^jjly]^ (see Richard Wiinsch. See also Hopfner. Since the presumed meal is w ithout a precedent in the ML. §§ 264-66. 793.412). The latter is m entioned first in 11 738— then in 11. ed. Meals with deities are mentioned 1. because o f the parallel in IV.17— VII.” Bulletino della Commissione archeologica commuale di Roma 27 (1899) 294— (cf. 16. 1. o f “the dead scarab” after it has become immortalized. 224) to ттјХаиусо?. so also Cronert. the object to be wined and dined remains unclear.So<. Kaibel).

Cf. 738— 46). the present proce­ dure is explained by the information about the plant kentritis (11. The relationship o f this procedure to the one m entioned before (11.722 It is this improvement o f eye-sight that provides the link w ith the main ritual’ concern for the transformation o f visual sense-perception (see 11.III.64. 732— 819) 213 herb called kentritis. 738— 39). 248. see following note. 738— is unclear. 790).. the ointm ent is called to [хисттѓ]р!. for km yfiiei'j. around the eyes of whomever you wish. VII. PRE 21st Halbband (1921) 1105. V. and sav бе aXXto бе1^ и е п . the meaning can simply be an emphatic jp lz iv . SyjXauywi. 785. 3. and often in PGM. see for references in the medical writers the T L G . auxw & еЛу)<. the ointm ent is ex­ plained by the procedure involving the scarab (11. The phrase stating the success o f seeing clearly (xal бфетас. with references to Selxvufja as a mystery cult term.726 W ho or w hat is bringing about the amazement (ware ae 722 For Selxvujja see 11.725 R ose-oil was m entioned before (1. 725 For the meaning o f бф^. 805. s. W hile in the earlier instance. 501— s 15.156. (“lid salve”). 773— 74). and he [or: she] will see so clearly that you will be amazed”). (1. however. 751— 78). (11. According to John 9:1-7. 798) is a hapaxlegomenon in Greek literature.. . uses similar terms. 772). бтјХаиум?) may explain w hat is m eant by б£[ло/и£[л/. and Kind.v. Both are introduced in a similar manner as optional: 46) eav бе x al Sel^at. 6). He then explained the preparation o f these ointments by drawing on additional iatromagical information. in the course o f which 26. Jesus prepares a kind o f eye-salve from his own spittle (v. also 2. 803. along with the rose oil. гстист[Ј.274.v. 773. s. R ev 3:18 for e v jp ie iv xouc 6cp9-aXp. tttuw. 772— 75). Mark 8:22— the story o f Jesus’ healing o f a blind man.. 779. while in the second instance the plant kentritis is the major ingredient (11. see BDAG.246. s 164). 724 For other passages. Merkelbach’ (Abrasax. both are dealing w ith eye ointments for the improvement o f vi­ sion. 516-27). 778— 813). XIII. (v. xal e7te^pt.ou<. 726 Cf. since it is parallel to the previous one (11. -aevxpixiq as a plant name (11. 770).. see also above 1. or a description o f the application o f the ointm ent (“around.CTev аитои tov Tf/jXov eni xouq ocpO-aXfJiouc. Jesus makes a paste from earth and his spittle: ercTucrev xoqom xal е к о Irjcrev 7i7]X6v ex tou 7гтистЈлато<. T he preparation of the eye ointm ent (11. The restoration o f the eye­ sight is stated in this way: еуѓЈЗХефеу ттјХаиусо^ (v. 738.” 1. and smear it. 23). em^puo.” or “covering”) the face or the eyes (оф^). For the terms m p i j p i t i v and тгсрс^рктта. 746. see below at 1. 723 According to the T LG .724 T he expression m p ijp ie iv is found only here in the PGM .а. T he use o f “juices” (jpkoq) is of course frequent in the PG M .337. 775).) omavTa (cf. above on 1.723 The most likely explanation for what appears to be a conflict is that the author/redactor excerpted two procedures for the preparation o f eye-salve from his Vorlage.l. Supplemental rituals (11..оу (“mys­ tery. For further discussion and literature. In the first instance. 746) and involves the sun scarab (1.

439: tt^] 7гра£есо£ таи[т7]<. 1 John 3:22. xyjv Tipox£i[X£vrjv (“the afore mentioned”) distinguishes between the author/redactor and his source. T he improvement in vision is clearly related to the doctrine discussed at 1. saxiv 79: 727 For other instances o f such “commercials” see. “W hen you ask. what plant it was. The Sermon on the Mount. most likely. is left open. 1.g. Second ritual: the plant kentritis (11. it is the ointment. For parallel passages and bibliography. 730 For a different interpretation. The maxim has a parallel in IV2172: а^ттјсха. is not entirely clear.729 T he earlier context.. and he will give it to you”). He did not know. 511. T he concluding statement takes the form o f a “commercial. welche in der uns vorliegenden Redaktion des Textes weggelassen worden ist. W. from which the kentritis ritual was derived. 11 13 Mark 6:22-25. 729 The redactional comment in 1. T he final sentence is a maxim that shows no connection w ith the context and seems to be o f a general nature (1. “I have not found a greater procedure than this in the world.] jxet&*)v oux Sctti-v (“A procedure greater than this one does not exist. 728 The maxim is well-attested also in the NT. III. 778—92) T he second ritual is most probably excerpted from a source and included because o f the previous m ention o f the plant kentritis..”728 2. 779. 16:23-24. 779 to the kentritis plant in 1. 4:2-3. however. This ritual has the section title in 11. 776— 77): toutou [A ^ov5ou% sOpov el ev x« xoafxw repay jxaxeiav. 14:13-14.214 Commentary 9-aupux^eiv). 3. (“This works very well”).247) who assumes that the procedure was derived in a section o f text that was omitted from the beginning o f the ML: “Diese vorbereitenden Zeremonie bei Sonnenaufgang muB in einer Partie zu Anfang des Textes erwahnt worden sein. ” As has been pointed out earlier. this hypothesis is rather unlikely because o f the reference in 1. but is seems to belong to the previous ointment. e. а (ЗоиЛес. It appears that while reading in his excerpt (11. H e included from these sources excerpts together with his own interpretative comments. 772— he came upon the plant name 75) kentritis (11. 31). 15:7. 16. 778): alxou 8s. This section provides an excellent opportunity to study how the author/redactor worked. . John 11:22. 773. see Betz. tov &eov. 778— ѓ) тои [леуаАои &eou auaxonaic. see Matt 7:7— / / Luke 11:9— (Q). see Merkelbach (Abrasax . you will receive. АујЈлфес. aoi (“Ask the god what you want.” W hich “procedure” (тсрауЈлахе^а) is meant here specifically. G M P T . 798). 773. Grese in Betz. It has been tested by Manethon [who] reveived [it] as a gift from god Osiris the greatest” (trans. The material assembled in 11 778— . etc. x al Swaet.730 appar­ ently had section titles which identified and classified the separate items. 813 must therefore be the fruit o f his investiga­ tions in other sources. 500— 8.262: e y e < i> Atav xaAw<. 779.Jas 1:5. 26.”727 typical o f many magical procedures in the PGM (11.

Dieterich (18. 9) Sternbild des Tierkreises.v.38. 473. See also Orac. 16. cjuvo o*. According to Karl Wessely (“Zu den griechischen Papyri des Louvre und der Bibliotheque nationale. K .505.197.5. Thessalos 1.” Funfzehnter Jahresbericht des K . 108— 15). 494. 950. 3.247): “Am Neumondstag desjenigen Monats. 102). Karl Preisendanz. As Merkelbach points out. Mithras. Hopfner: “Erscheinung”. not the least because o f the undisputed xzvxpixic. 779— 80): (Засгта^ос. zu welcher die Sonne am hochsten steht. Bezold.v as in 1.l. II. xeva'TpTTt-v xr)v 7tpoxei[A£VY](v) (3oxavY]v т?ј auvoSw ттј yevofxevT] Asovxt.”738 731 See 1. p. 113 and plates II. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 1889]. 21— 22). “Zodiakos. 732 Preisendanz: “Empfehlung an den groBen Gott”. 692. 116. in welchem die Sonne im Zodiakalzeichen des Lowen steht.” W St 40 (1918) 2-5. VII. (1925) 1973— Delatte.731 but translators differ how they interpret and render it into m odern languages. 104. Boll. Betz. 346. esp. G M PT . Chald. 48 n.3— Wilhelm Gundel. Halbbd. 191 (“Zusammenstehen.fA£V7).95. 39.732 The connection with “the great god” does not identify him expressly w ith Helios-Mithras. Des Places. 177-81. A. 672. 286— 87. XIII. “Systasis”.1 (ed.” “Audienz”). . Cf. Astrologumena. Hans Gundel and 66. 732— 819) 215 т]бе (“The encounter w ith the great god is as follows”). 695. Gegen das Ende des Monats setzt die Nilflut . Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals [Wien: Verlag des K. VII.178. but this identity can certainly be assumed as the view o f the present author (see 1. See LSJ. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals. Friedrich.' Sternglaube. s.v. 3. 260. 734 Pap. 736 This astronomical term occurs also in III. s. 43. ” 733 The term (3<xaTa£et. Studies in Mithraism.. however. idem.)736 between sun and moon. S 737 For the sign o f the Lion. “Miszellen. 247) reads <sv> Xeovtl. Meyer: “encounter”. 738 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 438. 127 n.734 (“Having acquired the above m entioned herb kentritis. 65— Gundel.v. Herbarius.57.299. 220-21. 89 n. Das trifft ziemlich genau auf diejenige Zeit. Gundel.735 The “encounter” (стиатаак. 156. 1922). Abrasax. is technical in the magical and astrological literature. has 7ipox£c. which emphasizes the conjunction taking place in the zodiac sign..209. 43.2: “communication between a man and a god”.5 (ed. at the conjunction [of the sun and the moon] occurring in the L ion. 690. 3. Supplemental rituals (11.” PRJ3 2nd series. m oon. XIII. The procedure itself begins w ith the acquisition733 o f the ingredients (11. Altertums und der N euzeit (Bonn & Leipzig: Schroeder. Sterne und Sternbilder im Glauben des 4.III. earth. 14) the pap. V I. s.”). 735 There has been a problem with the plant kentritis. “In the Place o f the Lion: Mithras in the Tauroctony. reads xevtpltlv with the letter c written above the first v. III. 2.) is to be correlated with the “conjunction” (auvoSoi. 339. 185. 19th Halbband (1972) 462— 709. IV.482. 117. Robert Boker. 773 and 798.. LSJ. in 11. and moon) are positioned at about the same line. 42— 92. 29— Clauss. it refers to the day o f new m oon o f that m onth in which the sun comes to stand in the zodiac s sign of the Lion. K. 147. “Leo.” in Hinnells. 162— 50. 111. and earth (or sun. Merkelbach: “ Zusammentreffen. The term gugtolgic. in his discussion questions a possible xeaxptxiq. 482).” PRE 24. when sun. 14. R oger Beck. 67. see also V379. 773. Merkelbach.737 It “takes place at every day o f new m oon and full m oon.

81— 87]. 1. Mat. 83). reads cpuXAou correctly (cf. Meyer. Novossadsky wanted охтмуроси. 755).3.2. 1. but Preisendanz. as given below”). 1): t o tj' ура^цлатш ovofAoc. 18). 1895. 742 See III.2205-6. 17. app. London: Arnold.9: та бхтса урајл^ата SsXyjvy]?.”).” Journal of the Ministry of National Education [in Russian]. cf. III.5. Also.. the author found this recipe for the making o f ink and took it up here because o f the m entioning o f the kentritis plant (1. and Merkelbach. S. pap. “Zu den griechischen Papyri. plant. 809. 521. N ext the leaf from the persea tree must be prepared (11.” PRE 37th Halbband (1937) 940— 44.” has parallels in III.742 The eight-letter name is cited below..” See also 11. 740 Pap. 224). sawoxToypafjifxaTov. Dieterich (Mithrasliturgie. 244. Preisendanz. see August Steier. XIII. “Persea. 2237. Lucas. . l... see also PGM LXII.v. Apparently. 741 See 1.741 and so is the persea tree. W riting on leaves is m entioned as part o f other procedures in the PG M .202— Hopfner. [xsXt 1. 3. VII. see LSJ. 3.5 (with the commentary by K.130— 33). 11. §§ 214. 3. Renate Germer.211-21). 782— ypt^ov етиI 83): cpuAAou тсѕраеа? to oxTaypafAfxaTov ovojxa.743 ein. 785. 3213. 119) P 9 Mixture with honey and myrrh was also m entioned before (see 1. sie fallt zusammen mit dem Aufgang des Sothis-Sterns (des Sirius). Hist. “Tinte. Mond und Erde (oder Sonne.g.v. 265-66. See Preisendanz. Supplementum Magicum.740 (“write on a leaf o f the persea tree the eight-letter name. Plutarch. however.822. TTspCTEiov. 786-87. 1. after mixing it w ith honey and myrrh . Plutarch’ D e Iside et Osiride.р. 6 (1986) 595. VII. VII. 536— for Greek passages. Gertrud Herzog-Hauser. 1962).2. A. with the commentary by Griffiths. O Z 2 /2 . persea tree generally. (“take the juice and. s.32. (Abraxas. ML 11.).724.178) prefer the regular oxTaypafjifjiaTov. For the eightletter name.69-76.” Cf. 1575-78.. Griechische Palaeographie. 219. & Maltomini. 103. 1. and Merkel­ bach (Abrasax .315. 768. butN . Thoth des Sothis-Jahres). On the s 37. IV. crit. “Tinte.” PRE. XXXVIII. Wessely (“Griechische Zauberpapyrus. fruit o f the persea).. Wiinsch (in Dieterich. med. —Eine cjuvoSo^ von Sonne und M ond findet an jedem Neumondstag und Vollmondstag statt. see 1. 222. “Persea. 1 he questions whether oxxw ура[Л[латш ovojxa should be read in light o f Dieterich. not cpuXAov (Wessely. “which are tied to the heart o f Helios. also Daniel 86. итгохеТа&оа. s. Petersburg: V. Dioscorides.504. part 302. Industries (4th ed. 257-58. 468. see Gardthausen.216 The next ingredient to be prepared is the ink (11. Is.S 7 (1940) 1574— esp.194 (index).192. There was some discussion. 3248. For information about this tree. p.233— 243-46.атгл ovojjia (“Ad papyrum magicam bibliothecae parisinae nationalis additiones palaeographicae. 4. 409. 1044. IV304ff.187 (v.269-70. und der Tag dieses Aufgangs ist der sakrale Neujahrstag der Agypter (der 1. reads охтмураЈЛЈлатоу.” 64). see Theophrastus. 2. 743 The redactional comment ok utzoxslzocl. 194. 362— Rosemarie Drenkhahn. reads бхтаурајл^латоу. Balashev.” 14). IV815. On ink. 2. Ancient Egyptian Materials and 79. 3199-3204. December 1895 [St. XXXVI. wenn Sonne. 3. шгохгига!. . “as (written) below.” L A 64. structed). Sprengel. XIII. e..95-105). cf.385— IV408. 68 (378C). 788.. 940-41. Erde und Mond) ungefahr auf derselben Linie stehen. 739 For ink and recipes o f its preparation. 781— 82): dpov tov % Aov u x al [xeXm x al ^[xupvv] . # # 71 (2. 371. in n. 94 (2. 178 (mostly recon­ 34.” L A 4 (1982) 942— 43. Os. however.

747 after or while showing it to the sun (Helios). regarding the specification o f time (11. For the rituals o f purification and sanctification. First. 334 (3 days). cf. see Thessalos 1. 1. 52. because o f the new moon the goddess Selene is meant. 786— 92. IV. see. 734). where the prophet is ordered to eat the holy book. Kendrick Pritchett. 90.347 (41 days).3209. 783— 85): x al Ttpo y ' ^{л-epwv ayveuaa? sX&e rcpcolaq n p o q avaxoXa?. 785— 86): x al ouxco? euaxouasxat. 587.27. according to the god[‘s reckoning]. XIII. especially. IV. 780.26.749 Three additional instructions regarding this procedure follow in 11. but also elsewhere in ancient religions. and Merkelbach believe it to be the sun-scarab to be consecrated (cf. in IV.226.524 (rzpbq avaxoAa?). 73-87 (“Preparation de l’herboliste”). xeXeiw? (“then he will listen attentively”). 747 The licking off o f the sacred eight-letter word has parallels not only in the PGM (see 11.745 T he application begins early in the m orning. 732— 819) 217 W ith these preparations completed. 744 Pap. 750 Preisendanz (app. see 1. . 746 For further references. Meyer. 88-107 (“Rites cathartiques et apotropai'ques”). Prior to the application there has to be a three-day period o f sanctification. come at m orning to face the sunrise. 671 (7 days). the reference is stated: хата &eov vou[X7]vtav. in order to face the sun rising in the east. Herbarius.247) refers to R ev 10:9. 748 For parallels. but no name is given there either.748 T he result is that the god Helios will listen (11. reads y for the number three. see PGM VII. .1045.” Z P E 128 (1999) 79-93. what this consists o f can be seen from the parallels. see (with further literature) W.524. sec­ tions 18 and 21 (ed. 92— 102.) raises the question whether.”)750 The instruction supplements 1. lick off the leaf while you show it to the sun .III. 1. cruvayvsuw (1. 846.. however. ”). 35.304. See Ritner. 51). 745 Cf.b. ad loc.. Ezek 2:8-3:3. XII.. The expression хата &eov is technical in calendrical procedures. 915. For ritual sanctification. 39— (“Temps 72 propice a la recolte”).744 (“and having kept yourself pure for for three days in advance. Cf. Delatte. XIII. VII. see also II. 786— 87): ap^ou S t auxov xz'Azlv X ] sv Xeovxt. but what is meant by auxov xsXelv? Preisendanz. Friedrich. V. 34. see 1. airoXei^e xo cpuXXov Selxvuwv v]Xlw .746 It consists o f licking the inscription off from the leaf.151. 3. Mechanics. xaxa &eov voufjiTjvla (“Begin to consecrate him on the new T m oon in the Lion.54-55. XXII. XIII. 779). 749 The terminology is common not only in the PGM: for sTcaxoueLV (“listen”). 724-28)? O r does it originally apply to a source and only secondarily to the present context? It can be taken for granted.131— 434— 690). for the importance o f ayveuct-v in the PGM.149. 114. The question here relates to the possible context o f this assurance: Does it refer to the consulta­ tion w ith Helios-Mithras (11. that for the present author/redactor the god to listen is none other than Helios-Mithras. “Postscript: The Athenian Calendars.2389. upoocyvsueLv III. IV 1099-1100 (3 days). Supplemental rituals (11. Merkelbach (Abrasax . 789— XIII. their application follows (11.282.34. prooemium. . VII. crit.

see also VII. 1954. however. Anth. see 1. but it is rather frequent in Hellenistic and Roman period literature. 788-90): to u to exX eije.234. 776— 77. 413. the eight-letter name. 1018. see 59. 11. 3. m entioned in 11.250.8. etc. a specification o f the leaf (cf. xal to cpuXAo(v) eXl^a^.105 (index).” PRE 13th Halbband (1910). 2079. 853-54.758 3.ov751 (“Lick this up. T LG .266— тсоХХахс.218 Second. Cf.49. 5. Pro imag. 754 For kX iaaziv. (see also LSJ. is: I EE O O IAI. 788): to Se ovojxa eaziv to u to ' I es oo loC C (“The name. for a parallel..”). 1. 792—813) A nother supplement is added to the previous rituals (11. Qauuiamo^. Heliodorus. 898. the three items were appended by the author/redactor who derived them 751 Pap.v.24. snotYjcja ty)v 7rpa^t. 756 u7rsp9au[xa^£!. esp. £va сриАахттјр^аа&тј^. for the adjective poSivo^.acn:6^. Lucian. i)au[i.16. 757 Cf. Third. s. s. for тсрау[лате1а. 52. Zeux. Var.67. also 1.897— Horapollo. OxxXacraav). For rose-oil. e[x(3aXe eiq to po8t.62. Aeth. doubtless it was taken over from the source. the main ritual o f the consultation o f Mithras. 9mi{i. 792— 813).”). 3271.23 (285d). Macrob. 3. 753 The peculiar term cpula.a. Further items o f information (11. 755 The rose-oil is simply called t o poStvov. 2628. 790— 92) 92): TcoXXaxL? 8e т?ј тсраујхатг^а xpiQffoc^evoc.230. Regarding composition. O Z 2 /1 . a measure o f protection.adfiv a i (“to be furnished with an amulet” [LSJ]) occurs also in IV. 27: 99. “Gartenbau. 18. throw it into the rose-oil. ^auixa^eiv.523 (ovofxa). 24. A similar commercial has occurred before (see on 1. 67: 758 For parallels. 12. 757— 774. see Aelian. 1.889-90. VIII.v is found only here in the PGM. 15.2. 1.34. 782— is revealed.756 T he “commercial” combines two topoi: frequent use as evidence o f effective­ ness. 785) is added (11.755 The conclusion to the passage (778— takes to the form o f another “commercial” (11. VIII. see 1. XIII. and rolling up the leaf. Hier.278 (sXaiov). 1. . VII.y. 4. 2630. 463 (eXt^ov xal (ЗаХе zic. Am . and the plant kentritis.xrlpi(/. hist. the leaf is to be rolled up754 and thrown into the rose-oil (1. see Hopfner.5. so that you may be protected. 7.254-55. intro­ 83 duced by a citation formula (1. 785 knoXeijeiv .1.). hist. X X X V I. pal.2626— IcrSk бе TTscpuXaxTyjpcaapivoi. consisting o f three pieces o f “inform ation” pertaining to the sun-scarab.v. 1051 (cpuXXov). 776). XIII. 1. reads eySKiye iva and <puXXo(v) (the final v is written with a supralinear stroke). 752 For the term ехХе^есл». Deipn.с. Franz Olck.360. 774— 76. Athenaeus. The purpose o f the licking off752 is now explained as a phylacterion. VII.757 and great amazement on the part o f the practitioner.108— (jxupov). VII. and have been absolutely amazed”). see above.753 After having licked it off. see XIII. 9 §§ 121-22. 2099. 775 and XIII. итсгре&аирзсста (“Many times I have used the spell. see also VII. and Preisendanz. PGM IV. 759). Ver. a substantive adjective (“made from roses”).v.337— 38.

1. but see for the verb 11. der das groBe Mysterium des durch die 25 Vogel (?) wiederbelebten Skarabaus mit sich tragt. In IV 876 heiBt Osiris .69. s.1. 3. 1). sollte sie in den N il geworfen werden. X X X V I. which supersedes the previous tradition. Several points are controversial. validated by divine revelation. Compos. 1. Kuhn. ”) This formula presupposes the author has received a personal revelation from the god (no doubt.762 Such a disposal.. but is to be disposed of by throwing it into the river. but. see Dioscorides. 4. med.389. also IV. Mat. the pap.411.760 W hich object is to be thrown into the river? Is it the persea leaf (Preisendanz).” 761 The noun occurs only here in the PGM. nachdem du sie in den FluB geworfen hast. 763 So Merkelbach (Abrasax . it could have been a dream or a vision. in which he noted differences as well as his own judgm ent. 1. Olivieri. 792— 96): elrtsv бе [xot. Supplemental rituals (11. etc. The first item concerns a correction to be made in the previously recorded ritual. Damit erleidet das dasselbe Schicksal wie Osiris. 770 the auy^piaiaoc761 which is no longer to be used. so that the translations also differ. lines 13. o ^eo?' (“But the god spoke to me: . See LSJ. 751— 78: [лтјхетг jpS> тм стиу^р^а^атс. This correction is needed because o f a personal revelation o f the author (11. 8. бса tcov x e ' <^w(ov opvetov759 (“Use the ointm ent no longer.. Iatr. as xe (meaning etxoat. 1 (ed.763 The term ^раст&оа refers to the oracular 759 The word < XP^> has been supplied by Eitrem. 17). med. 450. 760 Cf.247): “Da die Sonnenkafer-Salbe nun doch einmal bereitet war.ov to u xav& apou to u ava^coTcupYj^evTOi. N othing is said about what kind o f revelation it was. This shows that w hen he added the information he had the complete text before him. аХХа p ^ a v x a eic. o f course.45 (1. the number 25 is written in the pap. 12. 12. cf. Preisendanz assumes the object o f рѓ-фаутос to be to cpuAAov. TTOxafxov <yj?Y\> ураа&ои cpopouvxa t o f i iy a ^uaxr]pc. auy^pt-crjxa. The revelation concerns the preparation o f the ointm ent as stated in 11. or the ointm ent o f the sun scarab (Merkelbach)? Most likely the text refers to the ointment in 1. in which the god appeared to order the change.75.1.2. the new informa­ tion contains the results o f further research. .136 (ed. reads Tcoxapto with a supralinear stroke indicating final v. sondern wirf (den Sonnenkafer) in den FluB und trage an dir die groBartige mystische Salbe des Sonnenkafers. 1. 732— 819) 219 from personal revelation as well as source materials different from the Vorlage o f the preceding rituals. Forming a kind o f appendix. Preisendanz: “Verwende die Salbe nicht mehr. Galen. The term is technical in ancient medicine and pharmacy. turns it over to Osiris w ho is identical w ith the Nile. Aetius o f Amida. and that he was careful to preserve the excerpts as they were copied.285.412. Merkelbach: “Gebrauche die Salbe nicht mehr (zum Einreiben). presumably the Nile.v.40. Helios-Mithfas). den Seth-Typhon in den FluB geworfen hatte.”.420.16.III. dem der Lebensfunke wieder verliehen worden ist durch die 29 Lebens-Vogel (?). ttcvtc). after casting it into the river [you must] consult while wearing the great mystery o f the scarab revital­ ized through the 25 living birds”). sondern <du muBt> befragen.. . VII. 5). 762 For things thrown into the river.

see Burkert. Ign Eph 1:1. during which the ointm ent o f the sun-scarab was to be used (11. 54. ocvtI tou х ата ѕто. For another change from a seasonal to an astrological calender. 798— 804) contains botanical information about the kentritis plant. at the gods order the time schedule stated in the preceding text is to be changed from three times a year (11. 289-90. orac. 770 The phrase ocvtI tou .765 so well known to the author that he does not consider further information to be necessary. 747-48) to once a month. supplementing earlier instructions in 11. 87.uaT/]pt. XIII. G M PT . see the conflict about the Bacchanalia. IV. s.” This strange reference seems to allude to an otherwise unattested ritual. 9. wird dasselbe auch mit dem Kafer geschehen. cf. n. 766 Meyer (Betz. “Dromena. see Schroder. so that the scarab Khepri is reborn in the first hour o f a new day. it may be related to the hours. 732-34). 773-74).766 The second item is also a correction regarding the times o f consultation (11. 796— 98): ^paorQ-at. index.” Merkelbach (Abrasax.” in Graf. 225) refers to Armand Delatte. 78) living birds. 292E-F. reads y for three. 753) to full m oon. so all explanations are necessarily speculative. unfortunately.318: i^oTtupeCv. 294. and BDAG. Graec. Inconsistencies 1. It seems that the performances are shifted from a seasonal to an astrological calender. 717.8-10. that scarab has been “revitalized through the 25 . 8.. instead of three times a year. y '.52— 53. there is no other extant attestation o f it. Defixionum tabellae. see also XIII. 224. which is a scarab” (or: “which is ‘Scarab’”).” B C H 38 (1914) 246. O Z 2 / 1-2. This б Yeva{Aevo<.ov тои &eou.. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. s.248) proposes to read the number as which would increase the birds to 29 and relate them to the 29 days o f the lunar month. х ата TcavaeAiqvov. 398A. 53. auf der Bleitafel von Hadrumentum droht eine Magierin mittam ut a flumine feratur (Audollent.7]£ x a l 7тота[лоср6рт)то<. For the term ava^wTcupew see also 1 Tim 1:6. 270). 187.. 767 Pap. Plutarchs Schrift. 1 Clem 27:3. 160-61. 183-84. 765 For the term ava^wTiupetv (“rekindle. Ancient Mystery Cults. . Pyth. 764 Cf. the consultation o f the Pythia should occur during the month o f Bysos.. perhaps influenced by < jp ri> . 773.v.739: a magical name gives vital power to magical books (to ava^omupouv xaq tzoloocq [ЗфАои^ aou).. хата 7tavasXy]vov may come from a marginal note (Jordan).13.'Ear(. 724-28 (cf. cf.”)768 In other words.770 T he third item (11. 750— as an amulet.769 and from new m oon (1. 128: to {i. Bacchanalia. 770. Versnel. o ecrriv xav&apoi. Quaest.v. “the mystery o f the god. Da Osiris regeneriert wurde.767 (“ Consult once a m onth. XII. V. 778-86.” See also Hopfner. described in Livy. “Etudes sur la magie grecque.According to Plutarch.220 Commentary consultation described in 11. on this. at full m oon. after the passage o f twelve hours o f day and twelve hours o f night during the previous day. revitalize”). one should wear “the great mystery o f the sun-scarab”764 (see 11 746. 768 The infinitive has imperatival force. 769 Weinreich (in Dieterich. §§ 130. The question is whether there is a relationship between these rituals. 39. Instead o f this ointment. 260. 105) suggests: “The allusion to the twenty-five birds is obscure. ’АКЕФАА02 0 E O 2 . атса^ tou prjvo. Henrichs. 3.

484. In 11 804— the author adds new information.III. 93— 97).” I owe this last reference to Thomas Dusa. Griffiths (Plutarch. y lyvexar Efieto? rcxepov ^ptexou xo axpopiiXav yotk<xa$zv xco хос'1 <[xa ^ Otyetv атсотатгхе^ xa тсхера772 (“T he kentritis plant grows from the m onth of Pauni. ouxw<. [xeXac. Herodots zweites Buch. they fall off”). yj бе yvcoat. with reference to Wiedemann. esp. in contrast to the “red land” o f the desert. LSJ. eups$7} ev 7): xco MsveXatxT) ev хтј ФаХаури тсро. the tenth m onth o f the year (May 26 to June 24). Carmela Betro (“Erbarie nell’ antico Egitto.773 and the geographical area: the region called “the black earth” is the arable land o f Egypt. CE). Wiedemann. Mat.. derived from a personal . O Z 2 /1 .775 The m ethod for identifying the plant (yvcocrc. 19. see also.776 when smeared with the juice o f the plant (cf. 178. §§ 120— For jjLeX ]? instead o f (xeXatvYj^. So far the information gleened from the herbalist source. § 500: 60 “Taubenkraut. Thessalos. Os. Khemia.? aux?)<. M. they call s Egypt. The month o f Pauni is mentioned also in VII. is thereby weakened and . p. and when the feathers are touched. O Z 1.” Egitta e Vicino Oriente 11 [1988] 71— 110. §§ 464— 551: “D ie sympathisch-symbolischen Pflanzen”. The black tip o f a wing feather o f an ibis. Os. 781). 362F) discussion o f the festivals o f the months o f Pauni and Phaophi in Busiris and Lycopolis. reads 'r(3ew For a discussion o f the text see Cronert.281. cf. 30.59— as a “holy plant” (Ispa [Зотал>7]). 732— 819) 221 information is divided into two parts.^) is then described.3 (ed. 804— xouxo xou xuplou U7to8ei^avxo<. <. . б[лоѓ. BDAG.” 101. TcspicnrEpLov mentioned in Dioscorides.” or “dovecote”). Herodots zweites Buch. 74) mentions the PGM passage as “chiaramente tratta da un erbario. 774 See Hopfner (O Z 1. see Deines & Grapow. Supplemental rituals (11. revelation by the god (11. Oxy. Hopfner. commenting on Plutarch’ Is. in the regions of the black earth. s. Ilauvl sv r o l q fiipeai fjL£X avy]<. see Dieterich (19) who 21. # 1127.а бѕ eaxiv xw оргНо n z p io r z p z m i.> xou 771 See Hopfner. Hopfner.v. Griffiths (Plutarch.. 11 773. 7iXt]ctlov <xy}<. 13. Untersuchungen. Worterhuch der agyptischen Drogennamen. the seasonal growth: “from the m onth o f Pauni on. 364C: “.. O Z 1. 4. 772 Pap. “plant”). Dieterich. O Z 1. “Zur Kritik. § 500). med. avY cites Dieterich. since it is mostly black.v.. xa q ava(3oXat<. the first part (798-804) concerns a tradition which likely originates in a herbalist s text:771 rj Sz xevxplxiq (SoxavY) cpuетоа атсо [A 7]v6<. утј?. 425-26).” 775 See LSJ (s. 412. § 500. and is similar to the erect verbena. commenting on Plutarch’s (Is. also 65 and 492). 1. the ‘black edge’ weakened by the juice.” that is. The description follows the estab­ lished pattern o f identifying the species ((Soxav/j. TrEpicjrepewv). ” 776 On the ibis-wing. falls off w hen touched. Friedrich. like the black part o f the eye.774 T he next step is a comparison w ith a similar plant. 76. this is how to recognize it: the wing o f an ibis is smeared. with references to Pap. 8 (2nd cent. called TtepKTxepewv (“upright verbena. 773 See Hopfner. 33. 7 6 77.

see Dioscorides. reads астараум ay pew. the Cappadocians Moly. 54) points to two possible places. Mat. Mat.1— Hopfner. 752.267 (with reference to Ptolemaeus. Dieterich (19) refers to Dios­ corides. as the name says.” 782 For the identification. “Syrian rue. “Phalakra(i).181.. The main source is Stephanus o f Byzantium. 1117. VIII. 3/2. reads тои ргјстабос (4отал/т]с. near the Besas plant”). ФаХахраг ѕсгтс. “MeXaviTt. derini. 779 Hermann Kees. Phalakre 2). Bergen: Norwegian Institute at Athens. јЗтгјсгастбс. Jordan retains the pap. 781.” Merkel­ bach: “an den Dammen. reads ал/офоЛоас.781 related to the god Bes (Втјста?). at the river banks.592.2: (Зтјаасста.v. [the plant] is found in the Menelaitis area near Phalagry.779 Phalagry is the likely name o f a place in the R om an province o f Cyrenaica between Kainopolis and Marabina. ed. “plant o f Besas”.46. an unnoticed Greek name for Egypt: N ew evidence for the origin and etymology o f al­ chemy?” in: The World of Ancient Magic: Papers from the first International Samson Eitrem Seminar at the Norwegian Institute at Athens (eds.v.. reading. ecttiv Se TrapairXyjaxov tw xaXoujjiivw таХа7гг).65-66. med. Dieterich (19) proposes avaroXaic. the Egyptians Epnubu. 225). east o f Alexandria. LXII. s. Jordan. {Зтјаааа is read by the best Dioscorides manuscripts). med. 778 For the term mroSet-xvueLV. (Зотоплг)?. Dizionario dei nomi geografici e topografici dell’ Egitto greco-romano (Milano: Istituto Editoriale Cisalpino-La Goliardica. occur as well (according to Max Wellmann [in Dieterich. 3. 780 So according to Hermann Kees. See LSJ.” PRE 19/2 (1938) 1614— 15. and reddish down to the root. Cf.? y?j. but different names were used in different locali­ ties.19): o MeveXa'iTY)? vojjlo?. 3. the area called Menelaos (Menelaites) was situated in the northwestern Nile Delta. 248). 1999). 205— 26. 3. but the forms ртјстстосаа. et al.” that is. Geogr.778 the author has actually found the plant at an identifiable place. See also David Bain. David R . “Menelaos (Menelaites). see below. According to Dioscorides the Syrian name was (Зтѓ]аааста. [3oTavy)<. and the leaves are rather crinkled and have fruit like the tip o f wild asparagus. Alexander o f Tralles 2 (ed. “an den Wallen (des Nils).5. Dieterich also reads ФаХаурт) (Jordan retains ФаХаури).44. “Deiche des Nils” (Abrasax . Puschmann.” PRE 15 (1931) 807— Aristide Cal­ 8. Pap. O Z 1. It is similar to the so-called talapes. t o a y p io v creuTXov783 (“It is o f a single stem.9: MeveXaiTou [Гѓјтрбтсо/лс Kavw^oc). Falacro and Phalagry.46. 134).[3w aaT iapayw ay p lw .18 (801. [Зсстааста. Calderini (Dizionario 5 [1987].(?). but Preisendanz keeps avapoXai?. 17. Meineke. 1. § 500: 2.222 Commentary Вт]<аа>аабо<. 781 Pap. some called it Tirjyavov aypiov. s. 808— 13): scttiv бѕ fxovoxXwvov x a l Ttoppov a^ptp££/]? x a l т а cpuXXa оиХотгра x a l to v xapTiov s^ o v x a o^ o io v tw xopup.1. Se xa l xcopr] Лфш)? ФаХахроа. agrestis ruta.780 The Besas plant is. 4. like the wild beet”). 1980). the Afrians Churma. Jordan prefers <т^?> тои Вт]<аа>(7або<. wc. The major source is Strabo. (Зктааа. 19]. Geogr. Thanks to divine guidance. emended by Dieterich (20) to асттгарауои ayptou. Dieterich consid­ ers [5г)о-абабо<. see also VII. . 777 Accepting Jordan s reading.782 A more detailed description defines the plant further (11. According to Kees and Calderini. See also Dieterich (19. 783 Pap.777 (“As the lord demonstrated to me.

1907). 257. notably in IV Preisendanz. IV. Third ritual: the phylacteries (11.1703. they were —and still are —widely used in every religious configuration. LXII.a. D e amuletorum apud antiquos usu capita duo (Gryphiae: Abel.III. cf.1670.5 (jxovoxXovo?). Daniel & Maltomini. (“reddish”).1 0 7 1 .13. 844. LXX. 34 (1. 1887). 298.790 4. 3094. 311.784 тшрро<. 92 (2.1 3 3 5 -3 6 . 857. Supplemental rituals (11. plant. 899. 3127. plant. med.614.272). so that they are ready for use whenever needed (see 11 659— 708. plant. 660. LXXII. 7iXeicrTov.18. 3201.1685-86.37.v.4. “Amulett. XIII.218. cf.9..248) have no explanation to offer.1661. cf. (“cluster of fruit” or “flowers”). VII. papyrus..97. 291-303. Caus.796. voces magicae. Supplementum Magicum # # 23 (1. 20-21) who point to a plant called aXurcov (Dioscorides. Reitzenstein. 1653-54.15. 2897. 4. Dioscorides.1 2 5 3 . 7 0 8 . Usually w orn on the body o f a person. 61. 579. Eckstein &Jan H. 4.787 The plant names cannot all be identified: аштарауо^ (“asparagus”). 64 (2. King.890. 2508. 792 The literature on phylacteries and amulets is vast and widely dispersed. 784 See IV.785 xa cpuXXa ouXoxepa (“crinkled leaves”).2689. Theophrastus.197— 98 (index) notes the following occurrances o f cpuXaxxrjpLov: 1.3. protective amulets on stone..178: yevvaxai бе ev тбтео^ тсара&аХаа<т1оц. III. plant. 486. XIII. cpuXaxTt. 2705. 2.309. 791 Phylacteries play an important role in the PGM.v. “wild sea beet. LXXI. names.173. Poimandres.99-101). Hist.1 3 1 6 -1 7 . Hist. o5Xo<.6 (beta maritima L .. 3. 732— 819) 223 As one would expect.” R A C 1 (1950) 397— 411. 2510-11.1 6 1 9 -2 0 . Hist. Mat.127. See the comments by Dieterich and Wellmann (in Dieterich. 785 See also IV.791 Phylacteries are .med. 2358. x-6pi>fx(3o<. the language o f this passage contains terms from botany: [AovoxXwvo? (“with a single stem”). 790 See also III. 6. Nat. implying that таХатггј is an error.204-8). 787 See LSJ.2899.125.5.) refers to Theophrastus.6. 9. LSJ list reuxXov.66-67).788 хаХатг/}.. 3. § 500) and Merkelbach (Abrasax. symbols.10-11 (vecpt-Xaxxr^ov). 28 (1. The Gnostics and Their Remains: Ancient and Medieval (2nd ed. XII. 789). 2630. 94 .vov 1.789 and aeuxXov (“wild beet”). cf. 786 LSJ (s. They must o f course be prepared before the ritual begins. Dioscorides. VII. 27. LXI.4.2. xoZq Лфш]£ zotcoiq xal ev aXXoi^ бе japtoic.4: оиЛо^иХХо^. 2.786 xopu(x(3o<.4. 7.23. or metal lamellae.79. Waszink. 789 According to the TLG the name o f the plant is a hapaxlegomenon.792 which is why specific regulations for their prepara­ tions must be followed. XI. or pictorial representations. w ith engravings o f letters. 788 See Theophrastus. 111.2. plant.1 2 6 4 .Hist.22). F. med. Pliny. 280. 317. London: Nutt. Mat.1.23. Theophrastus.275 (cf. with references from the papyri. 813—19) The third ritual concerns the phylacteries to be used during the main ritual.1675. 1.63-66). 159. 2694.” or “beet”). idem. XXXVI.8. See for surveys and bibliographies Charles W. XLVII.l.76-77). Hopfner (O Z 1. Mat. \ioCkiaxa. (reconstructed) VII. 6. s. 3014. Gerhard Kropatscheck. 86.

now supported by . (“Copy the [amulet] for the right [arm] onto the skin o f a black sheep. and use the same m ethod”). “Incantations and Prayers for Salvation on Inscribed Greek Amulets. Les intailles. Jean Marques-Raviere. Magische Amulette und andere Gemmen des Instituts ftir Altertumskunde der Universitat zu Koln (ARWAW. Gnomon 24 [1952] 340— 45). 780-81). s. Talismans et Pantacles dans la tradition orientales et occidentales (Paris: Payot.211-21).797 (“ [the magical name] o f the left [arm] is PR O ST H Y M E R I”). LXIII. Merkelbach.796 The same procedure is to be followed for the left arm (11. & Derchain.” Hesperia 20 (1951) 301— idem. 66. 817— 19): to 8s euwvujxov si q ujxsva Xeuxou тгројЗатоо x al ^рсо тб аитЅ тротш (“and that for the left [arm copy] onto the skin o f a white sheep. see IV. the term m pionnxeiv (“attach [around the arm]”) is technical and occurs elsewhere in the PG M . 819.” 795 For the term трбтго^. 94 (2. Amulettes. 29.740.1318. 214. . s. recognized by Dieterich (20) and Preisen­ danz. put it on”). Erika Zwierlein-Diehl. XXX VI.197.224 Commentary The text begins w ith a kind o f section title (11. “A Miscellany o f Engraved Stones. Then follows the applica­ tion: to 8s аито бтѓјста? vsupot.? тои аитои ^фои тгер1афоа (“and after tying it with the sinews o f the same animal. or because it is the same for both arms. VII. Scholars differ (2. 814-17): to fjtiv бе£(. 207. Daniel & Maltomini. 793 Pap. BDAG. Merkelbach: “D ie Amulette (die man beniitzen soli) sehen so aus. Gnomon 68 [1996] 447— 53). the formula to be inscribed has been omitted. “Amulets Chiefly in the British Museum. 3. emended by Wessely to £uwvu{x<ov t > o u TrpocrOujj-epL. §§ 18.. History. 1998) 1. Supplementum Magicum. 813-14): та бѕ сриХахтујрса e js i tov TpoTtov toutov793 (“Then the phylacteries are o f this kind”). cpuXaxTYjpLov.v. Kotansky. either by accident. Amulets of Ancient Egypt (London: British Museum Press.342— 79). 1938). . the review by Karl Preisendanz. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Carol Andrews. reads $ufry)pi. XII.795 The preparation distinguishes between what one should wear on the right and on the left arm. # # 78 (2.1252. 2155.479-81. 3.442— TDNT. and Preisendanz.190 (index). “Amulett. indices. as also what material one should use. Walter Beltz and Christoph Uehlinger. 1994). the preparation o f myrrh ink has been described before (11.” ibid. 60.794 The term тротсо^ refers to a particular type o f amulet as well as the m ethod for making it. 794 The translations differ at this point: Preisendanz: “Die Amulete sind so beschaffen”. Magika Hiera. 57. ”. reads eucovufAou. reads тротго with a supralinear stroke. 107— 37. Also.151— 54). 330. 32.v. 3016. First.161— 62). 23 (1954) 138— Delatte 45. w ith myrrh ink”). 796 For nspidwtTw see IV . 797 Pap.” in Faraone & Obbink. Amulets.. Apparently. the amulet for the right arm is treated (11. Then the vox magica for the left arm is given: eucovu[A<ov т>ои тсроа&иргјрг.211— 21).ov ypav^ov eiq ujiiva тсро(Затои ptiXavo? Qiupvo^EXavc.26. 818). Meyer: “N ow the phylacteries require this procedure: . 5 (1.274.” R G G (4th ed. rence o f Jewish phylacteries in Matt 23:5 (see Schiirer.16). 80 (2. with the review and additional bibliography by William Brashear. 65. Abrasax 1-4. idem. 2. cf. 1992. Bonner.PC 20. which Dieterich (20) emends to tkifAYjpeu. idem. pointing to the occur­ 44. the pap.278. Studies (cf. The hide o f the black sheep is contrasted to that o f the white sheep (1.

seems to be unconvincing. however. For references.v.Tov {m6fxvY]fi.. Thus. 801 The term is used also XIII. there is no reason to assume a longer inscription for the left arm.. which corre­ sponds to the other (PROSTHYM ERI) for the left arm. A further question is whether the inscription for the right arm can be restored on the basis o f Ttpoaupiept.725. comparison w ith the phylactery at 11.. 661). 2. if it were the same as for the right arm.a III. 40).800 Stating that the docum ent is now complete uses the superlative form тсХтјрѓсттатоу be­ cause o f the many supplements and additions.17. this emendation. та e-rciTcXel Y [aov/] ] тирау|лате1а. Cf. 8 1 9 .. 11. the text would have indicated it.I V Epilogue (11.a z j z i ' .g. For one. has. 799 According to Weinreich (in Dieterich. Worterbuch. also 11. итсор^Јла (5).” (The Homer verses are taken to be the content o f the U7r6jj. while the corre­ sponding one for the right arm is omitted.799 the final clause should be taken as a separate statement by the author/redactor: TrXyjpsaxaTov x a l to tmofAVTrjpia 'ijz i ([With this] the memorandum has [finally] reached its completion”). “Beitrage zur antiken Urkunden- . u. 798 Preisendanz: “Das linke is ganz gefullt mit ‘Prosthymeri’ und hat die Aufschrift. s.vrh refers to spells called [xvTjpLovtxir] (e. vary at this point. 8 1 9 -2 0 ) 225 widely in regard to the text and its interpretation.. “Das linke ist ganz gefullt mit ‘Prosthymeri’ und hat die Aufschrift — ” 800 According to Wiinsch.” Merkelbach (Abrasax. and that uTr6p.a). The term шгоЈлллгјЈла (“m em o­ randum ”) refers to legal and literary documents. 659-61 shows that for the right arm there is only one vox magica (PROSYM ERI). Preisendanz considered to punctuate: cucovujjlou' “upocrtk>[xepi”. should the following phrase тсХтјрѓататоу x a l to UTiofxvYjfxa z j z i be part o f the sentence or not? Should the following H om er verses be taken as the content o f the im6fxv7)(Jia? Translations. although accepted by Preisendanz. (1." 20 For this and other speculations. IV2078— 79: таита ecjtlv.667-69.424. Preisigke.” 7rXy)pecrTaTov xal to U7t6p. Finally. cf.. Preisendanz follows Wessely’s emen­ dation: suwvu[xo<v t>ou “-TtpocjthjfAept.248) comments that the left amulet strengthens the memory. The change to the genitive is only needed because Wessely connects it with with 7tA7]pe<jToc. Meyer (translating Preisendanz): “The left one is very full o f ‘PROSTHYM ERI’.a. This reading keeps what the pap.2 0 ) Contrary to most scholars. see III. app. there is the problem that the vox magica is given only for the left arm. 225). crit. W S t 41 (1919) 142-43. 467. ad loc. 819— are “a poorly copied marginal gloss to the Vorlage. and Merkelbach. 1. also Preisendanz. and P G L .798 However. I V Epilogue (U.v/](j.<. see Preisendanz. Meyer. TiXyjpeoTaxov x a l to ш гбјдллгјЈла z y z i. see LSJ.161: xal aunr] ecrclv yj TCpa£t.232.. For similar conclusions. Elias Bickermann. In his edition and translation..v7][i. and has this memorandum Merkelbach: “Das linke mit dem ‘Konig STHYMERI hat auch die vollstandigste Erinnerungskraft in sich. therefore.801 it refers most likely to the Jordan. however. 3.

apparently refers to the text up to 1. less likely. 467-75 and 821-43: “Es scheint. noted by Wessely (“Zu den griechischen Papyri.) begins (11. but since they are mere additions to the whole composition. Differently.803 signifying the end o f the section and implying that the H om er verses (11. Griechische Palaeographie.” .” 14) and Preisendanz (ad loc. 481-82).804 forschung.802 After 1. 750— 819).400.). he observes correctly that the Mithras Liturgy is interpolated between the Homer verses o f 11. 750. on the other hand (21). 750-819).. 2. 402— 3. Dieterich (20. 803 See on this Gardthausen.” meaning the Homer verses (11. 814— (with lit.” A P F 9 (1930) 164— Franco Montanari. or. apparatus criticus).. to the supplements alone (11. the U7t6[xv7][xa could simply refer to these additional instructions. the Mithras Liturgy in its entirety functions as a memorandum in the same way. so daB vor und nach ihm noch deren gesprengte Stiicke erscheinen. 804 So the evidence o f the pap. he takes и7г6рлг)[ла as the category o f “quotation. III. daB zwischen die Homerverse der groBe Wahrsagezauber eingeschoben ist.226 Commentary text as a whole. “Hypomnema. the term cruvxayfjia in the exordium (11.” D N P 5 (1998) 65. 821— 34). 820 there also occurs a colon (:) and a paragraphos sign.шс. Therefore. 821— are not to be 34) taken as a part o f the Mithras Liturgy. where the additional instruction (бсбастнослѓа ттј? пра£. 225) is indecisive: on the one hand (20). 15 802 Cf.

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.

Y ] т а q rcevTE ala& YjCTELi. -a . -oava.. 685 axoXou9-oi. ) axoY]<. -ov aXxt-fJioi 679 . 621 axouCTsa&aa 572 axou|cr6v [лои 587— 588 axouetv 734 ахројлеХа?. Greek Words aj3uacrov.. o 515 odpw dcpov 781 ala9-avo[xat. 745 coc ] axoucret 541. 761 ayycXo*. ov ayiwTocToa 668— 669 ayveuw ayveuaa? 784 aypto<. to ayyeEov 758. .ov 812 arjp. to aPuCTcrov 512— 513 aya&o<..ov aya&ou 649 aya$ocXq 653— 654. o ayyeXwv 571 ayyeXXw ayysiXov 642— 643 ayyo?. 522 aytaafxa.. -a .. -ov aytoi<. atcr9T)&7](TeL 622 оаа&тјстц. 594 OX Y Y C O ]. -7). . o aepi 508.Indices The Indices refer to the line numbers o f the papyrus containing the “ Mithras Liturgy” I. -av axpopiXav 8 0 2 -8 0 3 aXTL?. 520 a&avaroLq 5 1 6 -5 1 7 aQ-avocTOU 531 aQavaxa 544. -ov a9-avaTw 501. to ayyou? 761 ayia^a) ayiacr&eii.. 522 ayLtxq 522 ayiwTaroi. Y ] axTtvwv 538 axtlve<. 687 aya&od 667 ayyelov. 693 kkpoq 541 aepa 582 ocQavocaiix. Y ] a&avacrtav A l l aOavaTo^. 706 oL c tew оатои 111 Atwv.yj. 506. 520 a&avaTOV 504. -ov ayptco 811 aypt. 609 aOavaTou^ 620 cdexoq 484 alQ-yjp. to ayiacjpLaCTL 522 ayioc. o Altova 520— 521 Alcov axpa etc. 634 axTivac 751 aXxLjJio^. 505.. -ov axoXou&a 578 axouw o x u ty 514.

Y ] avayxrjv 526 avayxY]? 606 Indices avolyto || avolyvufja avoLysvxoi.^6p.258 aXXa 567. o aTTY cw jv 552— jX xY 553 a7r/]Xi.ov <x£coq 739 a^Low a^aj 477 a£t. Y ] ava^uplai 699 ava7ToX£uw avaTcoXsuoucra 702 ava(J7iaco avaarcwv 538 avaxoXYj. -ov a7iEpavxov 552 avaXafXpavco <avaXaj3s> 533 avaXa[A7iw avaXaptwv 575 avaXuw avaXu&sli. 728 O T Z 'l L Z yu b. rj avaxoX?]? 513 avaxoXa? 784 avefxoi. 583 ocvol ^ o v 603.i'ioq. 579. -la . o av&pw7iou 542 avO-pamo? 644. t. Y ) a[Xfi. 576— 577 атсо 537. 546 avaf^alvEiv 628 ava(3oXir].oi.ov 760 ava^aLvw ava(3alvovxac. 624 ava^omupsM ava^wTCUpYj&svxo? 795 avat-pew o v Xojasvo? 758 ce avaxoucpt^w avaxou9t. -ov a[A£xa&Exov 528 a[X[j. aTtoylyvo[xat. 739— 740 атгѓрхојАоа хжгХѕбаѕхаг.6? 747 ana&avocxlct[xov 771 атта^ 797 a7rapaf3axw<.oi 650 a^cov. 721 kvixEppLq. Y ] avajSoXat? 806 avayxY). o avEfxou 550 av&pwrct-vo?. 551. 720. .TzoayeGxtu s^ u ^ w v x a l [3aXa|vslou 735 arcYjXt-wxY]?.. -ov l aXXco 500.. 608 av&pcoTclvY)v 650 czv&pconoq.. 730 an:apalxY)xo<. -7]. 793 aXXofxat. 523— 524. 772 aXX<ou> 542 aXXou? 546 a}Aa 803 afA£xa&exo<. -ov aTCapalxv]xov 534 arcapaLXYjxou 606 aneipoq.cT{xw 741 aTCa^avaxKJjj. 628. o aTca&av<ax>t..o .t. -ov av&pa)7UVY)(. акобг-бои? 658 . Y ] aTtoyEVECTtav 721 aTToylyvoijLat. -ov auEtpov 583 aTtEpavxo?. aXXofxsvou? 704 aXXo?. 799 aTToysvsola.evov 539 avEwyuta? 624— 25 avoLyopLsva? 662 avxl 797 avxLaxpEcpco Y X L V o u a a | x a l avxt-axpecpouaa xov ) oupavov 701 avw 569 a.wxou 554 агсХом aTrXw& YjcjExat. 626. 719 a7ioSlSw[i.. o xov 7t£piSlvY]xov | xou xuxXou a^ova xou oupavou 681 aTra9-av ax l^w a-rca&avaxia&El? 647— 648 a7Ta9-avaxL<j[x6<.

. 703 .[3a>{A o<. 519-520. 579.. 678 auxov 638. 746. Y ] o c t Sio ctu v acTTYjp.oa асг7гааш 638 аатга^ои 666. o 259 аатроба[ха 603 a7io^£(jLv 707 O T O a& (7T L C T X L 7][X атсохахаотаОт] 630 атгоx XeIm aTcoxexX£Lcr[i. 703. (3a9sla. -тѓ).хатмс 729 аихб^.. 670. -ov acpwxlaxw 497 а^р£0Х07Г7]Х0^.. 738 EV а7то<рора. 578. Y ] a7io<popav 555 daipaxo? xa <а>7грата 476 ?ApxTOi. 720 auxlxa 533 атсбВт) 769. 804 octtoteXew otoe m cc xX v OCTCOTlxtojfXl 618 auXoi.eva<. Y ] acjTpoSa}X Y )<. a7tocpoi. 619 apjfou 786 a(T7ta^o(ji. Y ) j3XY]97]vai 753 paXE 758 асттратга? 682.. 656. to [За&ои? 575. 816 auxwv 634. x a l a6£y)$sd<. 550. 754.. xo (SaXavEiou 735— 736 [ЗаХХм асттси. 740. 578. -ov acp&apxou 497. 744. 786 auxw 738.Evoi. [3a&u pa&u 753 (3alvw ^alvw 484-485 (3aXav£iov.. 682— 683 acpcoxicrxo^. -ov артсауѓј 753 ap^ayysXoi. аихтѓ]. 818 аихтј? 801 auxo 816 &<p9apxoq. auxo auxou 484. 556 axsv^tov 629. 662-663 (За9ѓ><. б асптараум 810 acjTiaCTTLXoi. o auXo? 549— 550 auXov 551 au^Yjalcpw^ 601 au£w. 711 axovo? octovm атсоХе^м o t o ei/ e 785 ct X 0CTCO7TLTCTO) ср&оуук» 745 атсолхтттЕЈ. 771 атсофофаојлас. au^avw au^6[i. 704 аатратпѓ). 694. 689 (3a&o<. o apxayyeXou 482 apxY). 559 асрСгци acpt-Evxsc.. 742 ) apxY)v ap^ofxai ap^ofJiEvoi. Y ] axapa^tav 685-686 O TE C vl^fc) ax£v^ovxa<.. б ’Apxxoq 700 а р т с а у у ]. Y ] аито. 584-585 arcoxptvo[xaL a7ioxplvY)xai 726 aatpaXw? 739 axapa^ta. 712 а(77гастаа&оа 677 астларауо?. 657 o cxevl^e 693.Y) ocp^<?> 488 ocpxY 488.Indices 0C7l6&£CTL<. -ov афи^со 498 Р' 577. o 663 aciTYjp 574 аатѕра? 580. -ov аатсасгсгхм 638 a^pEoxoKYjxov 527 &Xpi 808 афи^о<. 756.. 742.

a . o v 7] б е ^ а б б е !л > а ex Tr\q беТ л^а 6 4 4 &V7]T7ji. 801. (3t](jlov [to [3iqamov?] el q (3. 747. baxipixq ттј<. 744.o ftptxyiovoq 496 PpOVTT]. 487. 582. 547. -ov ^uctctlvo i. 797 yap 535. (3oXa<.260 jSacxavl^w Paaav^wv 659. . 485. 544. 547. ysvT ] 763 y s v o jx e v T ] y X c o a a a . 748. -7). 811. 807.T ov xaXXaivov 752 r]C L (ЗоХ 7] тѓ)..?. . 792. 689. 692. -o v б£ U T £ p O V 619 . 766. б е £ a e а а т г а а а а г ^ а S e lx v u jix S sT ^aL 738 772 785 677 S e t-x v u e tv S elxvuw v Szlv l. 7] y v w a i? ypacpw ypacpovT t y p a tjjo v б' 6 7 1 . 544. 7] tou py]<aa>oraSoi.. 767. 657. 7] PoTavwv 480 (Зотау/Јс. -£<. 765 уааттјр. 709 S e T v a [jlovw 7 6 4 б е^ а 645 to u S e tv a T ie p l t o u S e T v a ттр ау р ш ст о с. 774. 573. 767. 798. 621 JBpovTa^ 681 (Зрото?. 7] уаатера 705 ysveat. 779 (S Xtlom e f3e(3eXTt. 577. 519 557. б е (Ј 7 г 6 т 7 ) £ . 773. 587.o PpoTwv 533 (3ucTat.Xeu<. 673. 588 527 t o u б е ^ а т т јѕ S e l v a e y w o б е ^ а . 518 Ртѓ]ста<.7 1 4 . 623. 704. 557. 783. 549. 499. 552.6 9 0 801 7 4 6 —7 4 7 . o S ecttt6 t 7]v бѓатсота 521 713 б е и т е р о ^ . 7] PpovTTji.? 487 yev£(jew<. 517 tw as yevvTjtravTt.а<.a . 622. 571. 541. -o v бе& а? б е ^ ттј 4 9 6 -4 9 7 . o (ЗаспХси 640 [Застта^м Ј3аата1. 705 (3aat. 813. 743 yeveaei 501 y ev za iq 742-743 yevvaw yevvTjQ-eLi. уембт)*.8 0 0 695 y ly v o jx a t уеум та 530 6 4 5 . 720. 6 6 0 -6 6 1 . 816. 807 poxavYjv 780 [3oTav7] 798 (SouXofAai. 727. 786. 791. 7] [yjeveat. 7] у т ј? y 7 ]v 5 4 3 .vo<. 738. 725. 778.wfj(ivo<. (3 < 7]c 807 ot xv .6 4 1 . 772. tw 718 б е ^ о ^ . 800. 683. 7 2 0 —7 2 1 yzvo^ievoq y ly v e T a t. o . 551. 817 (ЗоиХтј& 748 т) (ЗоиХес 759. Indices у т ј . б S ax ru X o v 558 8z 476. 777 Ppa[3eTov. 671.. 814 699 hz^ia. t o 495. 494 уембои^ 494 Set o u i. 788. 732. 770. 591. to [ 3paf3eTa 665 Ppa^lwv. 585. 8 0 2 780 608 475 782. 736. o 7]. 556. 728. | xal Tcot-TjaavTi 643 yeojSr]^. . 663 l (rSufralvw 768— 769 y' 538. 814 бахтиХ о^. 682 (3otocv7) . 7] у Х ш а а т )? y v c o a ic . 777.

683. 514. 737 ехтеХем ехтеХесту]? 619 eXlcjow eXi^a? 790 eXxw eXxe 537..aaio iX Sia7te7tXacT[xevov 495— 496 Si. 758. 504. 814. 703. 683. 642. 551. t o dSav 480 el [X L gartv 485. 732. 778. 750 б1б(0[Х(. 662. 554. 788. 726 r\v 731 fiq 736 d q 490. 771. 572— 573 ехатастк. 603. 710 d 739 е!бо<. 574. 748. 536. 560. 551. -rj. 816 бт)Хаиум<. 510. 775 бкх 548. 537. 647. -sq Suaaefiav 683 е' 580. 703 exotaxoq. 700. eya> 484. 574. 762. 807.ap&p<>>ai£. 493.Indices 261 бе« бѓетоа 650 бѓ]аас. 579-580. 765 e[xol 489.басгхаХ1а. 483.^e 789 ехлХѓјстсга exTcXay^vat. 625. 643.642 бохѕ!^] 540 б6хУ Г д.. 529. -rj. 553. 534. 583 б б1стхо<. 527. 494. 553.. 765 elvoa 541 t 553 elcilv 676 o v t l 684 eaei 725. 642 б{п/а[Х1л/ 650 SuvcxaT7]q. 790. 690 eav 499. 736. 723. 772 ey^eipew ey^eip^? 736 SytO || Y)(JLSt<.T a. 817 elq. 793. 811 elfxt 535. 800. 576 бсМ О Х) б1оохѕ 585 боујха. 656. 524. 644. 764 ejxou 495 fxe 501. 535. 710 exXt. 548. 574. 607. 526.баахаХ1а тт)<. 587. 7] exaTaaet. 628 . -eq бс. 739. 502. -o exelvv) 543 sxeivrjq 544 exelvou 555 exelvov 733 kyXziju) [xot. ev ev 680 elaopaw eaeiSe 634 еТтос 618. 540. 727. 661. 623 ex 517. т) Suv6cyL £(>)q 477— 478. 7] б(. 536. 723. 709. 524 б{пдх[х(.6 б1ахои 548.абт)[хата 675 SLtx. 546. [xla. б бшасгта 714 бисгае(3ѓ)?. 687. 792 [xou 481.5. 529. 523. 588. 707. t o бкхбтјрихтом 521— 522 б(. 752. 491. 491. 645. 7) ЈС Ј-< бохтјст^ 648 боуем бovou[xevov 570 б{п/а[хоа бтхх[а]оа 538 бша[Х[. 738.<. 660. 524. 7tpa£e(o<. 721. 475. 763. 629. -ov I x a c i T o v 677— 678 exe!vo<. U a e i 777-778 бѓстхо^.аиуе1 497 бс. то боу[ла 527 бохесо бо^7] 499. 796 бкхбтјјха. 672а. 7 ] Ѕсскр&рмаа 607— 608 б^аиуу]?.

aux6<. 576. 554 EX t. -O VL O V EVXlfAOU 496 EVTL^jia 610 evtoi. V 498. 628. 492.543. 663. 815 £(07). 737. 769. 556.. 744. 744 £7raxouw E T c a x o u c ro v 587 E 7 i a x o u c j £ T a [ .. -7 ). 724. £<pt.e? . EU ^E C £TC07TX£U(0 E7tOTCX£U(J(i) 604-605 557. svocp-/_o[jLaL 509 (vox magica) Evsxa 605 eve6<. 7 ] (^upva 768 ^Aupv-fl 781-782 ^[jiupvofjteXav. 491.. 666. 672b. 558. 686. 757 E jJ E tO 566 U L V i. -zq euge^eT 683 EUXO VLa. SU C X pL T M sOpov 776 ѕирѕОт] 805 suasprji. xo zxoq 797 ■eue!. 782 ETCLXaXsW E 7 n . 698.. 525 evzoxaoaiq 686 e v c j x w c r v 692 E T pL J^T T i. 653. 491. -ov o sxspoi.. -O V e ^ u ^ w v 735 E 481. 760 504 656 662 ZpyO[LOLl sX £U C 7SX ai s p ^ o ijiE v a ^ eX & e 784 . 487. 663. Y ] tw<7)> 709 spjc. 568. . 741. 697. 510. -ov C X i.6 v spw pfj&Evxa 731 EtrO-lovxa 756-757 cpay/) 757 t a x i aw saxia. sv&a lv$a | xal sv&a 692— 693 svt.<O x>ou 819 U V fJ O VO V E pt-X O -Y). 799. 489. 755-756.674. 648. 743 £{J17]V 490 ЕЈлфи^О^.. 786 z k z l 516. 607.q 566 e ji.753. -a. 619 C 620. 806 E v a p ^ o fx a t.. 752. 810 Е^оиста? 664 zyovxzq 674 e^e 772 e^ei 813. 488. 787.. 692. 762. 673. 709.Sy)< . 634. 726. -ov eveo< 728 .oa. 636. 767 <C> 734 ^ам £wvxo<. C & O 673 EpO EL exo<. 657.x a A o u ji. 585. 500. 561.6 q. 761. 579. 497. xo ^[xupvojxsXavt. 529 z n z ix a 561.pX£Ttw k[xp/\iKovxor. EE U t-буј 635— 636 eu^ ew? 557. 820 sw<. 704.tz 770 exspoi. -ov U V [JL ^ £u(ovu[xo? 817 E W U L U or £UtO [i. 7] axo?)? xe xal bpaozaq suxovtav 685 E W U O . 502 e^ovxa 637. 638. 776. -a. 805.a i S T C lxltbjfA t.262 ѕ[л(ЗаХХм Indices е^ЈфаХѕ 790 e(j. 675. 559 <^5vxa 609 ^fjiupva.xx6v 529 £X W £XO[xevw(. 625-626 e£9j<. o Evt-аитои 748 E U T jfja VTY E V EC Txw oav 503. 702 zkL 543. -ov 601 V IU C jC ^W E T JX ^. 567. 494.

496. 497. ^wwv 796 ^соосритѓсо ^«O pU O V L 769 C TUT Г 5 7 1 . 731. 789 CcrcTjfju ѕатаОг 533 стта^ 628 tcr^uw ia ju z i 641.. 510. 533. o "HXt. -ov xav&apov 7]Xt.axov 751 трао^.. 609. 584. 519. 686-687. 771 xa&apoc. 653. o. o S eoc. 651. -a. 480. -a. 566. -a. 738-739. 559. 570. "HXlo<. 772 $£0Swp7)T0<. 651. 688 9-£Od£[37](. 625. 711 &£oL 673. .Indices 263 ^W OyOVO?. 696. 482. 642 tx«p. 503. -ov IStav 568 1бц> 678 LEpo<. 767 7][xepwv 783— 784 7)[хетеро<. -ov 9-siav 545 9-eiou 629 QiXco &£Xt]? 732. 548. 515. 481 "HXte 640 t]Xlou 762 7]\it$ 785 7]|X£pa. 7] jSoV Q 7]8ov?]^ 626— 627 траахо^. 498. 556. 648.ато<. -eq &£оаф££ 684 9-e<JL£. 620 &ewv 548. 706. -ov xa&apov 569 xa i 475. &ea<T(o[jwa 512 9-£lo<. 526. 737.. 508. 816 ^ ЈО -7]. 757 аКг/јТО -7]. 517— 518. 745. 787 $££ 641 $£w 643.y£Lv 803— 804 & 7](JX V (i) 9-v7](tx£(. -ov О ^. to £coou 542.. 802 tSioc. V & )to< 517 vt .. 645 i) vt)t 6v 529— 530 9-vt]twv 543 & 7]T V 7]V 607 & 7]T U 608 V O &иуатт)р. 777. -ov (^woyovoc 514— 515 i^woyovou 720 (Joov. 7] фе«<. 7] $upa<. 735. o 593 ф' 751 tpi?. 512. 7] 9-иуатЕр 478 &upa. 762 Tjjjtipa. 511. 7] Qicxv 545 ikyyavw 9't.o^ Mr&pa<. 7] V epa? 544.. -ov TjfjLETepa^ 477 $а7гтм дафа^ 768 г)аи[ла'(()ј &аи[ха0м 511 •S-auf/a^siv 775 &sa|Aa. 485. -a. -ov t£pou 481 lepov 510. 640.6 0 8 .. -a. 778 &eou? 546. -O С. 512 Ispat 667 Upot 679 Ispav 760 £Х 1 т)[А tXaQI [xol 475 tva 502. 626 Q^aofjiat. 521. 760. -ov i)eoSwp7]TOV 491 9-eo?.792 $sou 528. 9л/7)тт)с. 514. 625. 641 &sov 635. o l^topo? 645— 646 хаФарешс. -7].6 0 9 1 Y T . 763. to &ѕа^. 662 tkipwv 626 ’law.

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XIII. 3 John Granger Cook The Interpretation of the New Testament in Greco-Roman Paganism 2000. XVI. 5 Jutta Henner Fragmenta Liturgica Coptica 2000. Furley and Jan Maarten Bremer Greek Hym ns II 2001. 120 pages. 443 pages. Paper. Paper and cloth. 9 William D. X. Furley and Jan Maarten Bremer Greek Hymns I 2001. Paper. 385 pages. Paper. 411 pages. X. 206 pages. Paper. 273 pages. Paper. Elliott The Song of Songs and Christology in the Early Church 2000.Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum Edited by Christoph Markschies 1 Der Tractatus Tripartus aus Nag Hammadi Codex I (Codex Jung) N ew translation by Peter Nagel 1998. 4 Hans Forster Die Feier der Geburt Christi in der Alten Kirche 2000. X . VIII. XXII. . Paper and cloth. VII. 7 Mark W. 257 pages. 10 William D. 475 pages. 6 Claudia Tiersch Johannes Chrysostomus in Konstantinopel (398-404) Weltsicht und Wirken eines Bischofs in der Hauptstadt des Ostromischen Reiches 2002. XIV. 438 pages. 8 Barbara Conring Hieronymus als Briefschreiber 2001. X. 218 pages. Paper. 2 Katharina Bracht Vollkommenheit und Vollendung 1999. Paper. Paper.

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