Hans D ieter Betz

The “Mithras Liturgy”
Text, Translation, and C om m entary

M o h r Siebeck

born 1931; student o f Protestant theology at Bethel and Mainz (Germany), and Cambridge (England); 1957 Dr. theol., 1966 Habilitation at Mainz; 1963— 1978 Professor o f N e w Testament at Claremont, California; 1978— 2000 Shailer Mathews Professor o f N e w Testament, University o f Chicago; emeritus since 2000.
H a n s D ie te r B e tz ,

ISBN 3-16-148128-3 ISSN 1436-3003 (Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum) D ie Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliographie; detailed bibliographic data is available in the Internet at http://dnb.ddb.de.

© 2003 J.C.B. M ohr (Paul Siebeck), P.O. B ox 2040, D -7 2 0 1 0 Tubingen.

This book may not be reproduced, in w hole or in part, in any form (beyond that permitted by copyright law) w ithout the publishers written permission. This applies particularly to reproductions, translations, microfilms and storage and processing in electronic systems. The book was typeset by Martin Fischer in Tubingen using Bem bo typeface, printed by Gulde-Druck in Tubingen on non-aging paper and bound by Buchbinderei Spinner in Ottersweier. Printed in Germany.

Table of Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................. Abbreviations and Short T i t l e s .................................................................... Critical Signs used in the Papyrus T e x t ................................................. VII IX


In tro d u c tio n .................................................................................................
I. The “Mithras Liturgy”: A Provocative Title ............................................ II. The Papyrus ...............................................................................................

1 1 5 5 11 14 26 26 27 28 31 32 39 50 60 88 88 88 91 101

1. O rigin and Provenance .................................................................... 2. E d itio n s ................................................................................................. III. Albrecht Dieterich (1866-1908): Life and Scholarship ........................... I V Genre and Composition .............................................................................. 1. Delimitation . ...................................................................................... 2. T he literary genre .............................................................................. 3. C o m p o sitio n ............................................................... ....................... 4. R e d a c tio n ............................................................................................ V. The Religio-historical Context .................................................................. G re ek T ext .................................................................................................... T ranslation ............................................................................................ ..

L iterary Analysis ( C o n s p e c tu s )............................................................... C o m m e n ta ry ...............................................................................................

I. The Exordium (II. 4 7 5 - 8 5 ) ......................................................................

A. The Invocation (1. 475) .................................................................... B. Presentation o f a Petition (11. 475— 5 ) ............................................ 8 II. The Main body o f the ritual (11. 485—7 3 2 ) ..............................................

................................... C........ B.......... .. 2.... 751-78) .2 0 ) ......... 732-50) ................................ 7 3 2 ............................................... ... Ascension narrative in seven scenarios (11....................... 8 1 9 ..................... Optional rituals for including a fellow-initiate in the consultation (И................ 792-813) .......................... Supplemental rituals (11.......................... 539-44) ..................................................... 101 130 132 134 198 198 204 206 214 218 223 225 Plates ............... B..... Further items o f information (11......... 537-38) ............ D................................. 3............ Prescription o f the breathing ritual (11.... First ritual: the sun-scarab ointment (11............... A................................................... 1............... Second ritual: the plant kentritis (11.................................................................... 750— 819) .................................. .. IV..8 1 9 ) ........... 4 8 5 -5 3 7 ).............................. 257 II............................................... . Voces magicae .. 227 B ib lio g rap h y ................. Additional instruction (11......... Epilogue (11...................... 245 Indices ....... The opening (first) prayer (11.. 813-19) .................... 273 ................................................................................................ 544— 732) ..... III. 778— 92) ..VI Abbreviations and Short Titles A............. 4... Greek W o rd s ...................... 257 I....................... Third ritual: the phylacteries (11.............................................. Introduction to the ascension narrative (11...............................................

Thanks are due to Deans Clark Gilpin and Richard Rosengarten o f the Divinity . Janet Spittler and M atthew R . Special acknowledgements are due to the participants o f seminars at Claremont. both experienced papyrologists. and the latter also for compiling the Greek word index. however. 1903. Fritz Graf. should be named. Chicago. David Martinez and David Jordan. Zu schauen wie vor uns ein weiser Mann gedacht. however. D ieterich’s work. It is simply impossible to sort out the generous contributions made by so many colleagues and students who attended seminars and lectures over a good num ber o f years. Interest and encouragement by many colleagues and students in several countries helped speed up the com pletion o f the commentary. G o e t h e . Jerusalem. among them Thomas Dusa for suggesting egyptological references. institutions provided support o f various kinds. May 2. Responding to the challenge o f carrying further D ieterich’ investigations in s the light o f new evidence. Tel Aviv. and annual meetings o f the Society o f Biblical Literature. Sich in den Geist der Zeiten zu versetzen. 570-73 Preface T he Preface to Albrecht D ieterich’s Eine Mithrasliturgie is dated Heidelberg. Sarah I. Faust 1 . Thanks are due to Walter Burkert and David Martinez for reading and commenting on the completed manuscript. and making the text and its interpretation accessible to an English-speaking readership has been the aim o f the present writer. Several persons. Johnston. Calhoun for their checking o f the manuscript. W herever needed. Cristiano Grottanelli. has re­ mained unfinished and his achievements have been recognized only partly. T he present commentary appearing a century later is deeply indebted to this ground breaking work which has remained in print through several re-editions w ith updated notes. Specific contributions were made by Christopher Faraone. D ieterich’s main achievement was to elevate a seemingly obscure papyrus text to one o f the most important original documents reflecting an insiders perspective o f Graeco-Egyptian religion in the late Hellenistic period. M atthew Dickie. 11. examined the new photographs o f the papyrus and perm itted me to include their readings.Verzeiht! es ist ein groB Ergetzen. Und wie wir’s dann zuletzt so herrlich weit gebracht. and Ithamar Gruenwald. Substantial assistance was rendered by graduate stu­ dents.

the Sackler Institute for Ad­ vanced Study at Tel Aviv University. Last but not least. May 2003 Hans Dieter Betz . the Universitatsbibliothek in Bonn for the permission to quote from the unpublished correspondence o f Albrecht Dieterich and H erm ann Usener. and to the team o f M ohr Siebeck. to the editors o f the series “Studies and Texts in Antiquity and Christian­ ity” for accepting the volume. and the Bibliotheque nationale de France in Paris for permission to publish the photographic plates o f the text. my pub­ lisher. the administra­ tions o f the Hebrew University o f Jerusalem. for their pleasant and efficient cooperation.VIII Preface School o f the University o f Chicago for continuous support. for making it possible that such a specialized study can see the light o f day. especially Henning Ziebritzki and Matthias Spitzner. Chicago. I am exceedingly grateful to Georg Siebeck. and the Institute for Advanced Study at the Hebrew University for generous fellowships.

A Greek Grammar of the N ew Testament Friedrich BlaB. Revelation BAH Bibliotheque archeologique et historique Bagnall. Beiheft Archivfur Religionswissenschaft ARWB ARWAW. Liturgische Lieder an den Sonnengott Antike und Christentum Audollent.PH AIVi ANRW APF American Classical Studies Abhandlungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts Kairo..A AGJU AHAW AHAW. Die Apologie ACSt ADAI. Prophecy Aune. Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch Beitrage zur Erforschung des Alten Testaments und des antiken Judentums Roger Beck. Philosophisch-historische Klasse Albae Vigiliae Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt Archivftir Papyrusforschung APF. Albert Debrunner & Friedrich Rehkopf. Planetary Gods and Planetary Orders . Sonderreihe Papyrologica Coloniensia Abhandlungen der sachsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Egypt R oger Bagnall. Egypt in Late Antiquity BAK Beitrage zur Altertumskunde BCH Bulletin de correspondence hellenique B C N H . Philologisch-historische Klasse Jan Assmann.PH Assmann.PC ASAW. Section textes Walter Bauer. 2000) Friedrich BlaB & Albert Debrunner.T BDAG BDF BDR BEAT Beck.B ARW Archiv fur Papyrusforschung. Prophecy in Early Christianity Aune.Abbreviations and Short Titles ABG Archivfur Begriffsgeschichte Adam Abt. Die Apologie des Apuleius von Madaura Abt. Defixionum Tabellae David Aune. A Greek-English Lexicon of the N ew Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (3rd ed. Liturgische Lieder AuC Archiv fur Religionswissenschaft. Revelation David Aune. Dejixionum Tabellae Auguste Audollent. Planetary Gods Bibliotheque copte de Nag Hammadi. Beiheft Abhandlungen der Rheinisch-Westfalischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Agyptologische Abteilung Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums Abhandlungen der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften Abhandlungen der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Carl Bezold. The Roman Cult of Mithras The Classical Review CIR CMG Corpus Medicorum Graecorum . Studies in Magical Amulets Bonner. Sternglaube Boll. Sphaera Franz Boll. Lukian von Samosata und das Neue Testament Hans Dieter Betz. Himmelsreise der Seele Wilhelm Bousset. “Greek Magical Papyri” Bude William Brashear. M. Sphaera Boll. Mithras Henry Chadwick. “The Greek Magical Papyri” BzA BZNW CChr. publiee sous la patronage de 1’Association Guillaume Bude Bultmann. Antike und Christentum Hans Dieter Betz. Kleine Schriften Franz Boll. Kyrios Christos (5th ed. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation Hans Dieter Betz. Paulinische Studien Hans Dieter Betz. D ie Himmelsreise der Seele Wilhelm Bousset. Sternglaube und Sterndeutung Boll. Gundel. Galatians Betz. van den Berg.X Berg. Origen: Contra Celsum Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum Manfred Clauss. Reallexikon der agyptischen Religionsgeschichte Peder Borgen. Sermon on the Mount Betz. Hauptprobleme der Gnosis Bousset. Ancient Mystery Cults Walter Burkert. Wilhelm Gundel. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien Collection des Universites de France. Gottesbegegnung und Menschwerdung Beitrage zur historischen Theologie Bibliotheca Teubneriana Bonner Jahrbiicher Betz. Galatians Hans Dieter Betz. Paulinische Studien Betz. Hellenismus und Urchristentum Hans Dieter Betz. H S T R udolf Bultmann. Lukian Betz. Hellenismus und Urchristentum Abbreviations and Short Tides R . Greek Religion Burkert.) Bousset. Proclus’ Hymns Betz. The Philo Index Borgen. Gottesbegegnung BHTh BiTeu BJ BKP Boll. Kyrios Christos Wilhelm Bousset. Aus der Offenbarung Johannis Beitrage zur Klassischen Philologie Franz Boll. Bezold. Series apocryphorum Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries Chronique d ’Egypte Corpus Hermeticum CEg CH Chadwick. Beihefte Corpus Christianorum. R A R G Hans Bonnet. Aus der Offenbarung Johannis Franz Boll. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien Bousset. Philo Index Bousset. Hauptprobleme Wilhelm Bousset. G M P T Betz.SA CCTC Beitrage zur Altertumskunde Zeitschrift fur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft. The Sermon on the Mount Hans Dieter Betz. History of the Synoptic Tradition Walter Burkert. Studies Bonnet. Greek Religion Burkert. Origen CIL Clauss. Ancient Mystery Cults B yZ Byzantinische Zeitschrift Brashear. Proclus’ Hymns Hans Dieter Betz. Antike und Christentum Betz. Kleine Schriften zu r Sternkunde des Altertums Bollingen Series BollS Campbell Bonner.

Death. Worterbuch Hildegard von Deines and Hermann Grapow. Dieterich.. Light from the Ancient East Adolf Deissmann. eds. Licht vom Osten Adolf Deissmann. Doxographi Graeci Hermann Diels & Walther Kranz. Worterbuch . DNP Abraxas Nekyia Mithrasliturgie Kleine Schriften Untersuchungen John D. After Life Cumont.-K. Supplementum Magicum Karel van der Toorn et al. Doxographi D.-hist.Abbreviations and Short Titles XI Collins & Fishbane. Textes et Monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra Franz Cumont. Sol Salutis Dornseiff.. eds. Kleine Schriften Karl Dieterich..(eds. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der griechischen Sprache Der Neue Pauly Eric R . Nekyia Albrecht Dieterich. Light from the Ancient East Armand Delatte. Abraxas Albrecht Dieterich. The Greeks and the Irrational DOAW. Herbarius Armand Delattes & Philippe Derchain.. Dieterich. Les Intailles Denniston. Lux Perpetua Robert Daniel & Franco Maltomini.) EKK EPRO Eranos ERE ErfB der agyptischen Sprache EVO Denkschriften der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Licht vom Osten Deissmann. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Deines & Grapow. Supplementum Magicum DDD Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum Paravianum Franz Cumont. Les Intailles magiques greco-egyptiennes Delatte. eds. Dieterich. Dieterich. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker Albrecht Dieterich. Philos. Lux Perpetua Daniel & Maltomini. Das Alphabet ed. Herbarius Delatte & Derchain. After Life in Roman Paganism Franz Cumont. Das Alphabet in M ystik und Magie editor (editors) Evangelisch-Katholischer Kommentar zum N euen Testament Etudes preliminaires aux religions orientales dans 1’empire romain Eranos Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Eranos-Jahrbuch der agyptischen Sprache Egitto e vicino oriente Erman & Grapow. Dodds. Textes et Monuments Cumont. Hermetica Comptes rendus des seances de VAcademie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres CSLP Cumont. Sol Salutis Franz Dornseiff. Denniston. eds. Eine Mithrasliturgie Albrecht Dieterich. Worterbuch A dolf Erman & Hermann Grapow. Klasse Franz Joseph Dolger. The Greek Particles Hermann Diels. Death Copenhaver. Dieterich.. Ecstasy and Other Worldly Journeys Brian Copenhaver.PH Dolger. der agyptischen Drogennamen Worterbuch der agyptischen Drogennamen Deissmann. eds. Hermetica CRAI John J. Greek Particles Diels.. Collins & Michael Fishbane. The Greeks and the Irrational Dodds.

Demotic Magical Papyri Griffith & Thompson. Greek Hymns FZPhTh Freiburger Zeitschriftfu r Philosophie und Theologie Gardthausen. Gignac. The Leiden Papyrus Griffiths. Griechische Palaographie D ie griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen GCS GGA Gignac. Dekane und Dekansternbilder Gundel. Robert Helbing. History of Greek Philosophy griechischen Zauberpapyri W. Griffith & Herbert Thompson. Astrologumena Gundel. ed. ed. Apuleius Gruenwald. Magika Hiera Wolfgang Fauth. Ansichten griechischer Rituale Fritz Graf. Helios Megistos Andre-Jean Festugiere.XII Faraone & Obbink. Das Corpus Hermeticum Deutsch .. Griechische Palaographie Viktor E. Astrologumena Wilhelm & Hans Georg Gundel.. Guthrie. Religion in Roman Egypt Hans-Veit Friedrich. Magika Hiera Fauth.. ed. Apuleius of Madaurus: The Isis-Book Gruenwald. Studies in Mithraism Hans Lietzmann-Vorlesungen Handbuch zum Neuen Testament Jens Holzhausen. Das Corpus Hermeticum John R . The Egyptian Hermes Frankfurter. Magic Griffith & Thompson. Magic in the Ancient World F.. Greek Hymns William D. Dekane Wilhelm Gundel. Gottesnahe und Schadenzauber Fritz Graf. A Grammar o f the Greek Papyri Hans Dieter Betz. Grammar GM PT Graf. Meliouchos Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft Hessische Blatterfur Volkskunde Helbing. The Egyptian Hermes David Frankfurter.. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism Ithamar Gruenwald. C. K. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism John Gwyn Griffiths. Plutarch: D e Iside et Osiride John Gwyn Griffiths. Weltbild und Astrologie in den Guthrie. From Apocalypticism to Gnosticism Ithamar Gruenwald. La Revelation d ’Hermes Trismegiste Felix Jacoby. Thessalos von Tralles Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des FRLANT Alten und Neuen Testaments Furley & Bremer. Ansichten griechischer Rituale Francis T. Religion Friedrich. eds. LI. Weltbild und Astrologie Hans Georg Gundel. Faraone & Dirk Obbink. Gardthausen. Grammatik Hesp. Gottesnahe Graf. A History of Greek Philosophy Harrauer. From Apocalypticism to Gnosticism Gundel. Thessalos Abbreviations and Short Titles Christopher A. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation Fritz Graf. ed. Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker Garth Fowden. The Demotic Magical Papyri of London and Leiden Graf. eds. The Leiden Papyrus F. Plutarch Griffiths. Helios Megistos Festugiere.. Hinnells. LI. Grammatik der L X X Hesperia Hinnells. Furley & Jan Maarten Bremer.. ed. La Revelation FGH Fowden. Studies HLV HNT Holzhausen. Griffith & Herbert Thompson. Meliouchos HAW HBVK Christine Harrauer.

. Sedley. Mithras Reinhold Merkelbach. eds. Conceptions of God Erik Hornung. Martinez. Ausgewahlte koptische Zaubertexte LA Jiidische Schriften aus hellenistisch-romischer Zeit Dimitris Kaimakis. E. Pisciculi Kotansky.S JE A JM iS Jahrbiicher fur classische Philologie. comments by letter David R . Wei. Verherrlichung Long & Sedley LSJ Mach. Supplementband Journal of Egyptian Archaeology Journal of Mithraic Studies Jordan Jordan. P. Die Kyraniden Peter Kingsley. Theology JCPh Jahrbuch fur Antike und Christentum. Mystery and Magic G. Amulets Kropp. Robert Scott. Die Kyraniden Kingsley.. Ancient Philosophy Kirk & Raven Klauser & Rucker. Ausgewahlte koptische Zaubertexte Lexikon der Agyptologie LCL Lewy.Abbreviations and Short Titles XIII Hopfner.. The World of Ancient Magic JR S David Jordan. Michigan X V I David G. Agypten HRWG H ThR Theodor Hopfner. Mandilaras. Isis regina —Zeus Sarapis . The Verb in Greek Non-Literary Papyri David G. Theology of the Early Greek Philosophers Jahrbiicherfur classische Philologie JCPH. eds. A Greek-English Lexicon Michael Mach. Chaldean Oracles L IM C Loeb Classical Library Hans Lewy. Baptized Martinez MBPF Merkelbach. Weihegrade und Seelenlehre der Mithrasmysterien Reinhold Merkelbach.. The Hellenistic Philosophers Lohr. Verherrlichung Gottes durch Philosophie Anthony A. Griechisch-agyptischer Ojfenbarungszauber Erik Hornung. Conceptions Hornung. Jordan. Entwicklungsstadien des jtidischen Engelglaubens Jean-Pierre Mahe. O Z Hornung. Isis Regina Henry George Liddell. Das esoterische Agypten Hubert Cancik et al. Greek Magical Amulets Angelicus Kropp. et al. Henry Stewart Jones. Kirk & J. P Michigan X V I Martinez. et al. Raven..E Jaeger. Long & David N. Hermes en Haute-Egypte Basil G. Martinez. Chaldean Oracles and Theurgy Lexicon iconographicum mythologiae classicae Gebhard Lohr. Baptized for Our Sakes David G. Pisciculi R oy D. The World o f Ancient Magic Journal of Roman Studies JSHRZ Kaimakis. The Verb Martinez. S. Merkelbach. Mithras Merkelbach. Kotansky. Hermes en Haute-Egypte Mandilaras.. eds. by communication Miinchner Beitrage zur Papyrusforschung und antiken Rechtsgeschichte Reinhold Merkelbach. Ancient Philosophy. eds.. Martinez. Erganzungsband Werner Jaeger. Entwicklungsstadien Mahe. Handbuch religionswissenschaftlicher Grundbegriffe Harvard Theological Review HThSt HUTh IG S I JA C Harvard Theological Studies Hermeneutische Untersuchungen zur Theologie Inscriptiones Graecae Siciliae et infimae Italiae Jahrbuchfur Antike und Christentum JAC. The Presocratic Philosophers Theodor Klauser & Adolf Rucker.

Merkelbach & Totti, Abrasax Meyer, “Mithras Liturgy” Meyer & Smith, Ancient
Christian Magic MH Michel, Gemmen Moulton, Grammar Muller, Agypten Naveh & Shaked, Amulets

Abbreviations and Short Titles

Reinhold Merkelbach & Maria Totti, eds., Abrasax Marvin Meyer, “Mithras Liturgy” Marvin Meyer & Richard Smith, eds.,

Ancient Christian Magic Museum Helveticum Simone Michel, Die magischen Gemmen James H. Moulton, A Grammar of N ew Testament Greek Dieter Muller, Agypten und die griechischen Isis-Aretalogien Joseph Naveh & Shaul Shaked, Amulets and Magic Bowls; Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity Naveh & Shaked, Magic Spells Joseph Naveh & Shaul Shaked, Magic Spells and Formulae Novum Testamentum Graece (post Eberhard et Erwin Nestle-Aland

NF Nilsson, G G R NHC NHS

Nestle ed. Barbara et Kurt Aland, et al.; 27th ed. rev.; Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993) N eue Folge Martin P. Nilsson, Geschichte der griechischen Religion Nag Hammadi Codex Nag Hammadi Studies
Neue Jahrbucherfur Klassische Philologie

N ock, Essays N ock & Festugiere Norden, Agnostos Theos
N ovT

Arthur Darby N ock, Essays on Religion and the
Ancient World

Arthur Darby N ock & Andre-Jean Festugiere, eds.,
Hermes Trismegiste

Eduard Norden, Agnostos Theos
Novum Testamentum


N ovum Testamentum, Supplements
The Holy Bible containing the Old and N ew Testaments, N ew Revised Standard Version (Oxford: Oxford University

NTApoc N TApok NTFi

Press, 1989) Edgar Hennecke et al., eds. N ew Testament Apocrypha Edgar Hennecke & Wilhelm Schneemelcher, eds.,
Neutestamentliche Apokryphen Nordisk Tijdskriftfor Filologi

OEAE Orph. Frag.

Oxford Classical Texts
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt Orphicorum Fragmenta, ed. Otto Kern


Old Testament Library James H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament

Pap. Parker, Miasma PDM Pease, Cicero PG

Papyrus Robert Parker, Miasma Papyri Demoticae Magicae Arthur Stanley Pease, ed., M . Tulli Ciceronis D e natura

Patrologia Graeca
Patristic Greek Lexicon, ed. G. W. H. Lampe Papyri Graecae Magicae Philologus



Philosophia antiqua

Abbreviations and Short Titles Phoe. Phron.


Phoenix. Bulletin uitg. door het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch

Genootschap ‘Ex oriente lux’

PL Pohlenz, Die Stoa Pradel, Gebete PRE PRE.S Preisendanz & Henrichs Preisendanz, vol. 3 (index)

Patrologia Latina Max Pohlenz, D ie Stoa Fritz Pradel, ed., Griechische und suditalienische Gebete Paulys Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft Paulys Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Supplementband Karl Preisendanz & Albert Henrichs, eds., Papyri Graecae

Preisigke, Worterbuch PTS

Karl Preisendanz, ed., Papyri Graecae Magicae. Die griechischen Zauberpapyri, vol. 3 (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner, 1941 [unpublished galleyproofs]) Friedrich Preisigke & Emil KieBling, eds., Worterbuch der
griechischen Papyrusurkunden

Patristische Texte und Studien
Reallexikon fu r Antike und Christentum Reallexikon fu r Antike und Christentum, Supplementband Ludwig Radermacher, Neutestamentliche Grammatik Revue archeologique Richard Reitzenstein, Poimandres Richard Reitzenstein, Das iranische Erlosungsmysterium

Radermacher, Grammatik

Reitzenstein, Poimandres Reitzenstein, Erlosungsmysterium

Reitzenstein, H M R


Richard Reitzenstein, Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen Hans Dieter Betz, et al., eds., Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (4th ed.; Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1998— ) Religions in the Graeco-Roman World
Revue de I’histoire des religions

Ritner, Mechanics
R hM

Robert K. Ritner, The Mechanics of Egyptian Magical Practice
Rheinische Museum fur Philologie

Robinson, Library Roeder, Kulte Rohde, Psyche Roscher, Lexikon RW SAWW.PH SAOC SBA SBL.TT SBW SC Schafer, Ubersetzung Schafer & Kippenberg,
Envisioning Magic

James Robinson, ed., The Nag Hammadi Library in

Gunther Roeder, Kulte Erwin Rohde, Psyche Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher, Ausfuhrliches Lexikon der
griechischen und romischen Mythologie

Religionsgeschichdiche Versuche und Vorarbeiten Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in W ien, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilizations Schweizerische Beitrage zur Altertumswissenschaft Society o f Biblical Literature: Texts and Translations Studien der Bibliothek Warburg Sources chretiennes Peter Schafer, ed., Ubersetzung der Hekhalot-Literatur Peter Schafer & Hans Kippenberg, eds., Envisioning Magic

Schafer & Shaked,
Magische Texte Schenke, Nag Hammadi Deutsch Schmekel, Die Philosophic Schreckenberg, Ananke Schroder, Plutarchs Schrift Schiirer, History Schweitzer, Geschichte Schwyzer, Grammatik Scott, Hermetica Sethe, Pyramidentexte Sethe, Ubersetzung

Abbreviations and Short Titles

Peter Schafer & Shaul Shaked, eds., Magische Texte aus
der Kairoer Geniza

Hans-Martin Schenke, Nag Hammadi Deutsch August Schmekel, Die Philosophie der mittleren Stoa Heinz Schreckenberg, Ananke Stephan Schroder, Plutarchs Schrift D e Pythiae Oraculis Emil Schiirer, The History of the Jewish People Albert Schweitzer, Geschichte der Paulinischen Forschung Eduard Schwyzer, Griechische Grammatik Walter Scott, ed., Hermetica Kurt Sethe, Die altagyptischen Pyramidentexte Kurt Sethe, Ubersetzung und Kommentar zu den
altagyptischen Pyramidentexten


Sudhoffs Archiv fur Geschichte der Medizin und Naturwissenschaft Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Altertums Studies in Greek and Roman Religion Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse Morton Smith, Studies in the Cult of Yahweh
Symbolae Osloenses

Speyer, Frtihes

Wolfgang Speyer, Fruhes Christentum im
antiken Strahlungsfeld

SSIA Stengel, Kultusalterttimer StPP SubEpi

Skrifter utgivna av Svenska Institutet i Athen Paul Stengel, Die griechischen Kultusalterttimer Studien zur Palaographie und Papyruskunde Subsidia Epigraphica Hans von Arnim, ed., Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta
Theological Dictionary of the N ew Testament

TDSA Theiler, Poseidonios

Testi e documenti per lo studio dell’ antichita Willy Theiler, Poseidonios: Die Fragmente
Theologisches Worterbuch zum Alten Testament Theologisches Worterbuch zum Neuen Testament


Texte und Kommentare
Thesaurus Linguae Graecae

Totti, Texte Tran Tam Tinh, Essai

Maria Totti, ed., Ausgewahlte Texte der Isis- und

Vincent Tran Tam Tinh, Essai sur le culte d’Isis a Pompei
Theologische Realenzyklopadie

TSAJ TU UM S.H Velde, Seth Vermaseren, C IM R M Vermaseren, Mithriaca I Vermaseren, Mithriaca II

Texte und Studien zum antiken Judentum Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchrisdichen Literatur University o f Michigan Studies, Humanistic Series Henk de Velde, Seth, God of Confusion Maarten J. Vermaseren, Corpus Inscriptionum et
Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae Maarten J. Vermaseren, Mithriaca I: The Mithraeum at S. Maria Capua Vetere Maarten J. Vermaseren, Mithriaca II: The Mithraeum at Ponza

Abbreviations and Short Titles


Vermaseren, Mithriaca III Vermaseren, Mithriaca I V Vermaseren & Van Essen,
The Excavations

Maarten J. Vermaseren, Mithriaca III: The Mithraeum at

Maarten J. Vermaseren, Mithriaca IV: Le monument
d’Ottaviano Zeno et le culte de Mithra sur le Celius

Maarten J. Vermaseren & C. C. van Essen,
The Excavations in the Mithraeum of the Church of Santa Prisca in Rome Henk S. Versnel, Inconsistencies in Greek and Roman Religion Visible Religion Cornelia J. de Vogel, Greek Philosophy Paul Volz, D ie Eschatologie der judischen Gemeinde Theodor Wachter, Reinheitsvorschriften im griechischen Kult Otto Weinreich, Religionsgeschichtliche Studien Carl Wessely, Griechische Zauberpapyrus

Versnel, Inconsistencies

de Vogel, Greek Philosophy Volz, Eschatologie Wachter, Reinheitsvorschriften Weinreich, Studien Wessely, Zauberpapyrus Wessely, “Zu den griechischen Papyri” Wiedemann, Herodot

Karl Wessely, “Zu den griechischen Papyri des Louvre” Alfred Wiedemann, Herodots zweites Buch
Wurzburger Jahrbticherfiir die Altertumswissenschaft Wochenschrift fu r klassische Philologie Wiener Studien


Wiener Studien, Beiheft Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament
Zeitschriftfu r Papyrologie und Epigraphik

Zuntz, Persephone

Gunther Zuntz, Persephone

Critical Signs used in the Papyrus Text
[] < > [] () { } аЈЗ^б Lacuna Omission in the original Deletion in the original Resolution o f a symbol or abbreviation Cancelled by the editor o f the text Interlinear addition Uncertain letters Illegible letters

” Hieros 2 (1997) 11— 20. after considerable preparatory work had been done. by Richard Wiinsch. the famous Belgian scholar on Mithraism. Dieterich dedicated his book to Franz C um ont (1868— 1947). The title announces two basic assumptions.4 Instead o f C um ont s attribution o f the text to an Egyptian magician engaged with Hermeticism. decided to call the segment o f text taken from the long magical papyrus o f Paris (Bibliotheque Nationale. “D ie Religion des Mithras. Leipzig & Berlin. which calls for explanation.2 the subtitle o f his work (p. we thus recognize that it was D ieterich who. The provocation turned out to be greater than Dieterich had anticipated. XI).Introduction I. The “Mithras Liturgy A Provocative Title T he title o f the present book is borrowed from Albrecht Dieterich s Eine Mithrasliturgie. Moreover.” B J 108— (1902) 9 26— reprinted in his Kleine Schriften (ed. “Cumont. Fondateur. the approach to the text is indirectly through Dieterich s commentary. 1911). reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. a fact proved subsequently by the reception o f the book. Eine Mithrasliturgie (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. AI1A 0A N A TI2M O 2 ([Ritual of] Immortalization). 48. 1923. at lines 477. see Albrecht Dieterich. 2 (1999) 504— 5. Dieterich realized that a different descriptive title is found in the text itself. 41. 4 On this point. the provocative title “Mithras Liturgy” (which o f course does not occur in the papyrus itself) became a kind o f trigger to evoke controversies going straight to the heart and substance o f classical scholarship. 747. 1910. . First o f all. 647— 741. 1903. Dieterich s proposed to take the text’ reference to Mithras s 1 Albrecht Dieterich. “Franz Cumont. 1966). so he made that title.1 H e intended this title to be provocative. by Otto Weinreich. 3 On Cumont see Robert Turcan. 771. 3rd ed.). 2nd ed. grec 574) by the name Eine Mithrasliturgie. Franz. Secondly.” R G G (4th ed. followed by Text und Ubersetzung der Mithras­ liturgie (“Text and Translation o f the Mithras Liturgy”). Richard Wiinsch. 252-71. 2 See the commentary infra. Corinne Bonnet. After publication. Suppl.3 w hom he greatly admired but whose fundamental theories about Mithras he wished to challenge.

speculative in view of the fact that the Paris Magical Papyrus is meant to be just such an esoteric text. which. W hile these issues will have to be discussed further in the present com m en­ tary. but attributed it to the stereotypical cleverness w ith which Egyptian magicians dressed up their forgeries. helped to circulate an Egyptian forgery .2 Introduction seriously and to interpret it in the context o f syncretistic forms o f Mithraism. das class. but here I share the skepticism o f Reitzenstein (NeueJahrb. XLVII.” was equally unacceptable to Cum ont. 6 Franz Cumont. p. 272. 1911.41. . but Cumont remained uncon­ vinced and repeated his criticism in the 4th edition (Paris: Geuthner. de Vinstr. Dieterich advanced further arguments to persuade Cumont (in Mithrasliturgie. The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism (Chicago: Open Court Publishing.. N either the former nor the latter doctrine. 1956). pp. 7 Cf. see also the German edition.” C um ont found it utterly incredible that an Egyptian magician should have had access to a Mithraic liturgy. Altertum. Stuttgart: Teubner. had it existed. T he author o f the passage in question may have been more or less accurate in giving his god the external appearance o f Mithra. Die orientalischen Religionen im romischen Heidentum (trans. Besides the problem o f defining the term “liturgy. 192) and I have given my reasons in Rev. D ieterich’ other s suggestion. en Belg. 300. 1903. T he name o f Mithra. Religionsms. 1904.7 He did not take the name Mithras that occurs in the text seriously. however. D ieterich answered briefly in Archivf. 234— 36). 1906). VIII. 1. Iff.5 C um ont’ basic objections are the following: s “A m ong the learned researches w hich w e cannot enumerate here. but no trace o f it has survived. We know. as he correctly pointed out. however. Bruxelles: Maertin.. 260— 61... publ. 502. but w ithout convincing me.f. idem. These objections are. . 1896). for instance.”6 C um ont based his views regarding Mithraism on the evidence o f inscriptions and literary texts. is found in the fantastic uranography o f the magician. “U n livre nouveau sur la liturgie s pa'fenne.” Revue de Vinstruction publique en Belgique 46 (1904) 1— see also his Les Religions 10. 1899. it should be understood that Dieterich had walked into another highly 5 Cumont’ major review o f Dieterich is entitled. and that Mithra acted as a guide to his votaries in their ascension to the realm o f the blessed. through positive testimony that they taught the dogma o f the passage o f the soul through the seven planetary spheres. Eine Mithrasliturgie. 1905. contained nothing comparable to D ieterich’s Mithras Liturgy. reprinted N ew York: Dover. but he certainly did not know the eschatology o f the Persian mysteries. p. the most important is that o f Albrecht Dieterich. 1929). Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra (2 vols. such an esoteric text. 1904. 279-80. orientates dans le paganisme romain (Paris: Leroux. according to which the text contained a “liturgy. August Burckhardt-Brandenberg. as elsewhere that o f the magi Zoroaster and Hostanes. H e has endeavored with some ingenuity to show that a mystical passage inserted in a magical papyrus preserved at Paris is in reality a fragment o f a Mithraic liturgy. would have been highly secret. 1959).

W ilamowitz-M oellendorff was deeply divided about the Usener school’ s extension o f classical scholarship into the areas of popular religion (“Volksreligion”). his father-in-law and close collaborator. especially.” Lustrum 22 (1979— 1980) 5-106. aber ich freue mich dessen. Wilamowitz confirmed that the study o f antiquity must include all o f antiquity. and magic. 1 Reported by Pfister. that o f the methodological debate between the two most influential schools o f classical scholarship at the time. he sensed the danger that classical philology could be neglecting the great Hellenic tradition by bogging down in what he contemptuously named “Botokudenphilologie.9 Dieterich represented the methodological approaches developed by Usener. ix— xlii. entitled Volksreligion: Versuche tiber die Grundformen religiosen Denkens. Friedrich Pfister. 9 See. ed. On the Usener school see Hans Joachim Mette. Stuttgart & Leipzig: Teubner. 1.” 183. DaB sie das tun. esp. “Albrecht Dieterich. 1985).273— with the commentary. In Berlin. 1994). 1982). see William M. entitled “Aus agyptischen Grabern” (Reden und Vortrage [2nd ed. Erich Trunz. muB den Menschen menschlich sehn.. where both articulate their basic premises regarding ancient religion. 664— 76. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken. he saw in D ieterich’s scholarship a tendency toward disinte­ gration o f the discipline o f classical philology. In Part IV he wished to treat the subject o f “Formen der Vereinigung des Menschen mit Gott.” A R W 35 (1938) 180— 85. xxx. See Richard Wiinsch. Kleine Schriften. Theodor Lindken.”11 Although he respected Usener.” 182-83. weil sie dem Altertum den vornehmen Schimmer der Klassizitat nehmen. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken. Calder III.” and in it he planned to complete the commentary work on the second part o f the Mithras Liturgy.10 on the other hand..” in N ew Paths of Classicism in the Nineteenth Century (Middletown. the schools o f Hermann Usener (1834-1905) in Bonn8 and Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff in Berlin (1848-1931). given 1893 at Gottingen. daB die Papyri gefunden waren.I. 263-305. superstition (“Aberglaube”). Miinchen: Beck.” The final sentence reflects Goethe s ballad o f 1797. folklore (“Volkskunde”). “Nekrolog einer Epoche: Hermann Usener und seine Schule: Ein wirkungsgeschichtlicher Riickblick auf die Jahre 1856-1979. O n the one hand. CT: Wesleyan University. damit ich sie gerecht beurteilen kann. especially 55-58. Albert Henrichs. 287-88. 66. “Der Gott und die Bajadere: Indische Legende.. 1905). xxxvi. Pfister. Berlin: Weidmann. w ie ein bedeutender Gelehrter beklagte.” in Wilamowitz nach 50 Jahren (eds. soli er schonen. Und selbst Mahadoh. William M. Only Part I was published: Mutter Erde: Ein Versuch tiber Volksreligion (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. Usener und Wilamowitz: Ein Briefwechsel 1 8 7 0 -1 9 0 5 (2nd ed. “Her­ mann Usener. 224— 55). ed. Denn ich will meine Hellenen nicht bewundern. The “Mithras Liturgy”: A Provocative Title 3 contentious territory. 33— 48. 280. Hellmut Flashar. 283-84. Arnaldo Momigliano.” in Goethes Werke (Hamburger Ausgabe. Wilamowitz and 8 Instructive is the correspondence between Usener and Wilamowitz. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Calder III. . 1 12 Dieterich made known his future plans that seem to confirm Wilamowitz’s suspicions: a multi-volume work. 1989). —soli er strafen. sondern verstehn. 1902].” in Dieterich. 254-55: “Ich habe einmal gehort. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken in der Religionswissenschaft.12 As a result. ist unbestreitbar. 10 See the remarkable conclusion o f his lecture. ‘“Der Glaube der Hellenen’: Religionsgeschichte als Glaubensbekenntnis und Kulturkritik. der Herr der Erden. esp.

William Calder III. Regarding the main thesis. 1901. 82. he took them knowingly and courageously. die diese Leute fur den Kultakt wirklich brauchten. whatever the risks were.” . Although even present-day scholars repeat C um ont s rejection o f the title and the major hypothesis o f D ieterich s book. oder die Mittelreihe weglassen? D ie Fragen haben aber gar keine Eile! ” Quoted with permission from the Nachlafl o f Usener and Dieterich in the University Library in Bonn (Signature: S 2102. weil in dem Papyrus nachher diese Partie so genannt wird in einer Stelle. and Richard Wiinsch for their suggestions and warnings means that he shared manuscripts and galley-proofs w ith friends. Geschichte der griechischen Religion (vol. 280-84.. In his authoritative work. scholars distinguished between D ieterich s pro­ vocative claim that the Mithras Liturgy actually came from the liturgy o f the cult o f Mithras and the plethora o f materials and suggestive ideas assembled in the book. replying to Useners suggestions (non-extant) in the letter o f December 8. Paul Wendland. he says that “it should now be 13 See the studies included in Wilamowitz nach 5 0 Jahren (eds. he decides on “Eine Mithras­ liturgie”: l‘b. esp. he discussed matters beforehand w ith him. 1961). 2. 1985). dated May 3. 14 In his letter to Usener. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 1901. Therefore. Ich andere das. The ongoing role Dieterich s book played in scholarship has been docum ented by the editors in the succes­ sive editions. die Worte des Titels formuliren. Theodor Lindken. 15 So also Garth Fowden. 33: “The section that mainly concerns us here (475— 750) is what Dieterich misleadingly dubbed “eine Mithrasliturgie” in his book o f that name. 1986). From early on. in particular the title o f the book. Wiirdest Du ‘Mithrasliturgie’ oder ‘Mithrasweihe’ auf die Seite drucken? Ich muB auch. Wiirde Dir gefallen: EINE M ITHRASLITURGIE Text Ubersetzung Einleitung von . to be sure.iKj$cwa.Tia\xoq hatte ich zuvorgesetzt.2). da an einer Abbildung fur den Titel (eben der Rindschulterszene) probirt wird.”13 Dieterich was aware o f the kind o f risks he was taking. The deeper s reason. had to do not so much with differences in philological m ethod but w ith deeper competing conceptions o f what constitutes the discipline o f “classical philology. die ich noch anhangsweise herausgebe: es schien mir die Bezeichnung zu sein. der Zusatz sollte nur eben die Zugehorigkeit zum M ithraskvlt [sic] gleich vorn hervorheben. although he may have got more than he had bargained for. 1901. he mentions his previous lectures on the Mithras Liturgy in the Preface.15 these responses did not diminish the continuous stimulation exerted by it.. n. he brings up the “Mithrasweihe” and raises the question o f the title in a letter o f October 29. Thanking his friends Siegfried Sudhaus. As correspondence w ith Usener reveals. M artin P.4 Introduction his school consistently treated D ieterich’ work as marginal.14 H e also gave lectures about his work before publica­ tion. Nilsson summed up the com m on view about Dieterich s book in this way. Hellmut Flashar. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Egyptian Mind (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

see ibid.” Essays. as Reitzenstein has observed. but on the more general ideas he presented. part o f the Anastasi collection. also Arthur Darby N ock who follows Cumont and Reitzenstein in his article o f 1929 (“Greek Magical Papyri. 1.. 192): “We are here in the sphere o f individualist religion. And this. n.18 the name derives from its great length o f 36 16 Nilsson. was criticized im me­ diately and can hardly be maintained. 94. 286-93. 68. 2: “Diese These . this is the point where new investigations need to begin.176— esp. Origin and Provenance T he text o f the Mithras Liturgy consists o f a segment o f what scholars call the “Great Magical Papyrus o f Paris. die vielfach maBgebend geworden sind . 2. It is an aTca&avaTtafji.64. w ith special elaborations on a syncretistic background. The two implications o f Dieterich’s title. still demand explanation: the appearance o f the name o f Mithras and the “liturgical” nature o f the text. however. 1.” now housed in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris (Supplement grec #574. Ancient Mystery Cults. That document is neither a liturgy nor. not a communal mystery rite.. requires revision in the light o f more recent research in the areas o f hellenistic syncretism in GraecoEgypt and in Mithraism.670. G G R . n. which in many ways have since become standard. sondern auf den von ihm vorgetragenen allgemeinen Gesichtspunkten. directions how one shall make oneself immortal and pass through the heavens__ ” 17 Burkert. #1073).”17 Indeed. that the fantastic voyage to heaven. According to Preisendanz. was enacted in the mysteries o f Mithras.6<.” For a more detailed discussion o f Dieterich... 87) as having 33 pages (see below. 18 Papyri Graecae Magicae.. is the key to the understanding o f the so-called Mithrasliturgie. properly speaking. There remain puzzling problems in explaining this and similar texts. . “T he significance o f D ieterich’ book does not depend on this s thesis. Yet the thesis implied in the title Mithrasliturgie.II. the success o f w hich was lasting and well-deserved. as contained in this magical book.” Yet. diirfte nunmehr aufgegeben sein__ D ie Bedeutung des Dieterichschen Buches beruht nicht auf dieser These. T he Papyrus 1. The present assessment o f D ieterich’s work has been well stated by Walter Burkert: “The interest in magical papyri for the history o f religion was initiated by Albrecht Dieterich in his books Abraxas and Eine Mithrasliturgie. therefore. The text describes a private trip in a quest for oracular revelations. he also explains the different description in Lenormant’ s auction catalogue (p. 20).”16 This evaluation.. II. Cf.. The Papyrus 5 given up. Mithraic.

Fol. needs reconsideration in the light o f a thoroughgoing compositional analysis. In his commentary. therefore. M ore likely is that the Mithras Liturgy is..” 11. however. w ritten on both sides and to be taken as the pages o f a papyrus codex. The delimitation o f the beginning and end o f the Mithras Liturgy was made first by Dieterich on the basis o f Wessely’ edition. 723-834). Dawson.6 Introduction leaves containing 3274 lines. and the “Anweisung zu magischer Verwendung der Mithrasliturgie” (“Instruction for the magical application of the Mithras Liturgy. The delimitation o f the text segment. Fol. W hile Dieterich was s right about the beginning. and Harris and Their Papyri. the ritual proper.” Dieterich s reason follows from his assumption o f a primary Mithraic source and its secondary magical application. W hile he includes the quotations from H om er at the end (11. Circumstances of Discovery Regarding the origin and provenance o f the papyrus book not m uch is known. called fcnoL&owixTioiioc. 158-60. esp. 2 recto onwards. The creator o f the book had 18 double-leaves. 16 and 34 recto. H e was the son o f an Armenian merchant from Damascus w ho had settled in Alexandria. verso are blank. 821— 34). he served in this capacity until his death. 16 and 34 recto. Besides business and politics. Sallier. . This son became wealthy and gained the favor o f the Pasha who appointed him in 1828 as Consul General in Egypt to the kingdoms o f Norway and Sweden. Moreover. 3 verso. he does not include those that stand before the beginning (11. and fol. 467— 74). 475— 723). he remained undecided about its end. Giovanni Anastasi (1780— 1857). 1 recto verso. since he ignores the fact that both parts are “applications. This division. a. the small Coptic piece in fol. which he folded in the middle like pages and on which he wrote from p. his naming o f the first part as “liturgy” (“Mithrasliturgie”) and second part as “Anwendung” (Application) seems artificial. “Anastasi. he divides the Mithras Liturgy into two parts.19 The m an’ original name may s have been different. sandwiched between the Hom eric quotations. and what little information we have seems to have come from the collector. Mr.” JE A 35 (1949) 158-66. 1 verso seems to have been w ritten onto it as an addition. “Immortalization” (11. 36 recto verso. Anastasi enjoyed great 19 See Warren R . 1 recto. together w ith fol. formed the book cover. for whatever reason. w ritten in Italian or French (Jean d ’Anastasy). is not based on a composition analysis and therefore creates more problems than it solves. but he was known under the assumed name.

especially pp. there is no concrete evidence concerning the time. Vleeming. 22 Lenormant s description is rather fanciful (p. “Theban Magic. No.20 As the printed auction catalogue reveals. The Papyrus 1 success as an enthusiastic dilletant and collector o f Egyptian antiquities. one o f w hich was the Great Magical Papyrus. Fowden. it does not necessarily imply that the papyrus was also w ritten there. 23 This is Preisendanz’ conclusion. ed. o f which he sent several shipments to Europe for auctions in Paris and London. 16. Anastasi was able to amass huge treasures. was indeed found in Thebes. Koln: Brill. dans ses fouilles a Thebes avait decouvert la bibliotheque d’un gnostique egyptien du second siecle— ” Cf. N ew York. location and circumstances o f the discovery. Anastasi. d’Anastasi. 166— “Temples and priests. which would presuppose that the author travelled. scholars. 20 The sizable catalogue o f 1129 items was compiled by Francois Lenormant. Etc. (Paris: Maulde et R enou. cache” and refers to a letter by Anastasi.22 However. Leiden). Among the materials were 60 papyrus manuscripts. Most likely working through Egyptian agents. n.” ibid.” 95: Cf. The Egyptian Hermes. These sources may have existed in Theban temple libraries. where it is until today.. Papyrusfunde und Papyrusforschung (Leipzig: Hiersemann. see the essays and bibliographical materials in S.” was compiled from many sources. sera vendue aux encheres publiques Rue de Clichy. it is conceivable indeed that all or most o f them came from the library o f a learned priest and magician that was placed w ith him in his grave. He was o f course not the only collector. 1933). Carl Wessely (W S t 8 [1886] 189) who opts for Heracleopolis at the time o f Tertullian.21 probably because Anastasi had said so.” 68: . confirming the origin in Thebes (169. 91— “Bibliothek der Zauberpapyri von Theben. Vendredi 26 & Samedi 2 1 Juin 1851.Jeudi 25. 1828 (now in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden. visited temple libraries. see Karl Preisendanz.II. 1995). 48). 16982. a une heure. For the PGM. perhaps in a large box or terracotta vessel. The Egyptian Hermes. and museums. Mercredi 24. les Mardi 23.” and together w ith it the Mithras Liturgy.23 If the “great magical papyrus of Paris. 169— speaks o f the Anastasi collection as “the Thebes 71. Leiden. At the widely publicized auction in Paris in 1857 this papyrus was acquired by the Bibliotheque Nationale (#1073). Catalogue d ’ une collection RassembUe par M . Hundred-Gated Thebes: Acts of a Colloquium on Thebes and the Theban Area in the Graeco-Roman Period (Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava 27. but the time was ripe for rich pickings. J. Tait.” 21 On this city in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. also Fowden. 1857). serving a practicing magician as a “handbook. The collection. and shared materials with other magicians. 8 4 88: “Papyrus. Because o f the similarities between the pieces in the collection and the fact o f their relatively good condition. but they could just as well have been excerpted at other places in Egypt. In the post-Napoleonic world a wave of interest in these antiquities developed on the part o f European dealers. 84): “M. but all sources agree that they came from Thebes. P. Consul general de Suede a Alexandrie.. dated March 18. little was known at the time about the content o f the papyri. see W.

suppl. a 60 lignes environ par page. Davy. Cf. Leigh Sotheby. 1073). com­ s monly known as “Yanni. and an enumeration o f those articles purchased for the British Museum (London: John Hearne. illustrated with twelve engravings o f some o f the s most interesting objects. at One o ’Clock precisely (London: J. at his house. Papyrusbiicher in Codexform dagegen kennen wir.28 24 Lenormant. March 13th. 151. Strand. 28 Ibid. 575— “Aus dem 76: ganzen Passus geht hervor.. nat..26 D ’Athanasi s s own collection was auctioned off in London by Leigh Sotheby in 1837. Salt’ collection o f Egyptian Antiquities. to which is added a detailed catalogue o f Mr.”24 Some general information about the milieu of these collectors can be gleaned from one o f Anastasi’ acquaintances. daB man schon damals den Papyrus als eine Schicht von 33 (bzw. 574” (Ph.. ix. together w ith a catalogue o f Mr.8 Introduction The Mithras Liturgy explicitly refers to such sharing o f ritual texts among magicians.. 1837). Giovanni d’Athanasi. 27 Catalogue of the Very Magnificent and Extraordinary Collection of Egyptian Antiquities. and his father was a merchant in Cairo. or that the sections were successively assembled before they were copied together into the handbook. denn von “Buchern”. A Brief Account of the Researches and Discoveries in Upper Egypt.27 These collectors speak o f the manuscript scrolls as having been found in terracotta urns in or near tombs.” 25 Giovanni d’Athanasi. Esq. which will be sold by auction by Mr.. 151. En tete sont trois pages de copte. Wellington Street. Sabaoth. “Zum Pariser Zauberpapyrus der bibl.” who was a resident for eighteen years at Thebes. die aus iibereinandergelegten. — Ecriture du second siecle de notre ere. 1836). and the Six following Days (Sunday excepted). . 26 Ibid. 79. where he worked as an interpreter to an English collector by the name o f H enry Salt. This account was published in London in the year 1836. This assumption could mean either that the handbook was filled not at once but over a period o f time. Ce fromage n ’est autre que la gnose. At the suggestion o f English travellers w ho m et him in Thebes. 68 [1909] 575— 77). qui debutant par l’histoire d’un fromage mystique pour la composition duquel s’associent Osiris. 3. 1837. the Property of Giovanni d ’Athanasi. gr. formant 33 feuillets ecrits des deux cotes. wissen wir nichts. ix. Salt’ collection o f antiquities. or that the final copy resulted from a combination o f both these activities. on Monday. About the “great magical papyrus” the catalogue has this to say: “M anu­ script sur feuilles de papyrus pliees en livre. 36) Einzelblattern kannte..25 He was born on the island o f Lemnos. 87 (Nr. unzusammenhangenden Blattern bestanden. he wrote up a personal account o f his activities. Jesus et tous les autres eons. Das war natiirlich die urspriingliche Form des Buches nicht. made under the direction o f Henry Salt. 151. on this passage Karl Preisendanz. engaged in hunting after objects o f antiquity. Iao.

30 Dieterich. however. the text is thoroughly Hellenistic-Egyptian w ithout any traces o f Christian. 43— Preisendanz. Dieterich suggests that the development o f the composition took more than 200 years. to Hermeticism.64.II. Internal criteria point to some older and some younger sources. he cannot clearly identify the au­ thor’ contributions in distinction from sources. Considering the complexities. Preisendanz (1. It seems reasonable to estimate that it took about 200 years for the composition and its parts to come together. however. 1962). do not render Dieterich s time frame invalid. (2) because he has no detailed compositional analysis on hand. followed by the ritual function of the original text in the Egyptian Mithras cult (150— 200). but does not conform to the textual evidence. and concluded by the inclusion o f the final copy in the papyrus book. beset w ith problems.29 This. Dieterich’s hypothesis is. the origin occurring in the years 100— 150.64) also refers to Wilhelm Schubart. pertains to the w ritten papyrus as extant: “Die Zeit Diokletians ist also terminus. Externally. Das Buch bei den Griechen undRomern (Berlin: Reimer. These problems.”30 As Dieterich indicates. but the text presupposes a longer process o f development. 1907. (3) Dieterich s own hypo­ s thetical assumption o f an earlier stage as a Mithraic cultic text and subsequent adaptation by magicians determines how he sees the development. 3rd ed. ante quem das Papyrusbuch abgefaBt sein muB: auf alle Falle ist die Liturgie in dieser Abschrift geschrieben zur Zeit hoher Bliite des Mithrasdienstes. 46. They date the script to the early fourth century. Date The question o f the date has been decided firmly on linguistic and palaeographical grounds by the Vienna papyrologist Carl Wessely (1860— 1931). (1) He does not distinguish clearly enough between scribe and author. as is a certain closeness . The Papyrus 9 b. Christian-gnostic. who points out that the papyrus codex came into use just about this time. this date applies to the extant script. the subsequent adaptation and development by the magicians (200— 300). Mithrasliturgie. 29 See Dieterich. 44 (emphasized). Papyri Graecae Magicae.: Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider. . 1. The fact that the text shows evidence o f the interpretation o f older traditions means that these traditions have a prehistory o f their own. however. or Neoplatonic influences — although traditions o f Middle Stoicism are apparent. with w hom all other papyrologists agree. Mithrasliturgie.

529— 32). the final text is the authors own autograph that included all the insertions and supplements. one o f them had compared the versions and noted the textual variants. 11. the papyrus is more interesting than I had thought. 2002): “Palaeographically. XII.31 If the two were different persons. 495— 98. Therefore.” See below on 11. 211 n. V51.” he leaves the place vacant by using the symbol A or magical names. XIII.32 H e has carefully examined other versions o f the text and has noted textual variants: ev ocA to (1. . 1277. see also Graf. older sources adopted and adapted from tradition. he was an expert in the handling o f magical materials. and supplements added at various stages o f the composition by subsequent copyists. is his expertise as a literary scholar and writer. Even when he identifies himself by names in passages we call “self­ presentations. 9. 819— 20). As one m ight expect. below.50. ol бѕ' cruvxAelcrca (1. n. distinguish the scribe from the author. And there are several previously unnoticed lectional signs over some o f the clusters o f vowels.10 c. Magic. 591).33 A He inserts a marginal com m ent (11. 475— 85).731. he speaks in the first person throughout. If scribe and author were the same person. that final copy has only one author and redactor. W hat we see on the papyrus pages is the work o f a scribe who copied the text from a Vorlage into the codex. he begins his work with a fine literary preface (11. 478— and cross-references to the sup­ 81) plements. Things get more complicated by the facts that the author s work is a highly developed redactional composition involving his own contributions.g. if taken seriously. 34 David Jordans evaluation confirms this (letter o f December 17. 33 Cf. The scribe is clearly conscious o f what he is doing: he leaves spaces within the line to mark punctuation and sometimes even to distinguish words. Authorship Introduction T he question o f authorship is also complicated. however. T he redactional comments. 7). 791— 98). and he corrects his own earlier practice (11. there is no evidence o f multiple authorship at the final level. 60— 87. Redactional references in the text itself indicate that we must.201. W hat is surprising.. IV. while source materials excerpted from other contexts had their own authors before inclu­ sion in the final copy.34 He adds learned theological commentary w ith explanations o f traditions (e. Finally.29. also PGM 11. 31 On the references to variants see below at n. VII. 798— 813).204. 33. imply that the scribe or author had available more than one version o f the Vorlage. or library research and consultation o f herbalist sources for information on the plant kentritis (11. at least in principle. pp. he would then be the author. 610— 17. while the scribe copied his autograph. Gottesndhe. 236. and he adds supplementary informa­ tion before he ends w ith a note indicating completion (11. 32 For the full evidence see the Conspectus o f the literary analysis. 500) and срмто^ хтхсига. While the final author remains anonymous.

“Zu den griechischen Papyri des Louvre und der Bibliotheque Nationale. 1. 16. 33.39 Richard Ganszyniec. Wien: Tempsky. 27— 208. did not change Dieterich s text. because he did not regard 11. “Miszellen zu den Zauberpapyri. 12-19. gr. edited and published in 1928 by Karl Preisendanz (1883— 1968). 44 See Dieterich. 574.64. Mithrasliturgie. p.37 N. “Griechische Zauberpapyrus von Paris und London” (DOAW. appendix to the 3rd ed. placed the Paris magical papyrus in the first volume. apparatus.PH 36. iv: “Dieterichs Text blieb selbstverstandlich unverandert. 1. 36 Idem. with apparatus and notes. The edition o f the Papyri graecae magicae. Greek text and notes. K. Mithrasliturgie. Petersburg: V S. D ieterich relied on Kroll s collations and on the photographic plates. Editions T he first edition o f the Paris Papyri was published by Wessely in 1888.” Ph. 40 Collations o f 1927. ebenso die in der zweiten Auflage enthaltenen Nachtrage” [scil. These editors.41 In his own commentary Eine Mithrasliturgie o f 1903. Part 302. 77. apparatus. 723— as belonging to the original Mithras Liturgy. included in Preisendanz’s edition o f 1928 (1. 723. K . “Ad papyrum magicam bibliothecae parisinae nationalis adnotationes palaeographicae.64— 2.v— 66. The Papyrus 11 2. 2. 1888). 68 (1909) 575— idem.35 in 1888 he checked the papyrus again and published his corrections in 1889. continue until the end. the section containing the Mithras Liturgy is found on pp. 39 Karl Preisendanz.” W St 42 (1920) 24— idem. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals. Novossadsky. 42 See Dieterich. .42 This supplementary material was added in appendices to the second edition (1910) by Richard Wiinsch. Papyri Graecae Magicae.36 All subsequent editions depend on Wessely. 2. the Greek text. but his German translation ends at 1. It includes the “GroBe Pariser Zauberpapyrus (P IV)”. Richard Wiinsch also used the plates (see Dieterich. Papyri Graecae Magicae.43 In Dieterich s book. Novossadksy. 1889). 56— 65.40 and others. however. “Adversaria graeca. although several papyrologists examined the papyri and proposed different readings: W ilhelm Kroll.65). 53 (1894) 416— 28. and as part of 35 Carl Wessely. and the third edition (1923) by O tto Weinreich. includes PGM IV 475— 834.38 Karl Preisen­ danz. suppl.. based on his collation made in Paris in August o f 1883.” Ph. 1895). supplemented by other evidence. 41 See Preisendanz. Dieterichs].”Journal of the Ministry of National Education. 82— 87.44 Although he paid careful attention to the textual evidence. Balashev. Mithrasliturgie.II. nat. 37 Wilhelm Kroll. Abteilung. in the preface to the third edition. December 1895 (St. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals (Wien: Verlag des K.” in Fiinfzehnter Jahresbericht des K . “Zum Pariser Zauberpapyrus der bibl. he himself was more interested in the religio-historical interpretation w hich comprises the main body o f his book. 834 however. 129). xvii. 43 So Weinreich. 38 N.

1 . paving the way for a standard critical edition which has not yet materialized. Meyers English translation was included in Betz. See Henrichs s Vorwort zu r Neuausgabe. Fortunately. a set o f the galley-proofs was saved. Michigan. 48 Preisendanz’s Vorrede (l.TT.VII— XVII). allgemein lesbaren und verstandlichen Ausgabe der verstreut publizierten und teilweise hochst mangelhaft bearbeiteten Texte. a study edition was pub­ lished in 1992 by Reinhold Merkelbach in the third o f his four-volume collec- 45 Papyri Graecae Magicae: D ie griechischen Zauberpapyri. 1943. they were subsequently lost in the mail on the way to Ann Arbor. until after World War II. photo­ copies o f which have circulated among scholars. modified ac­ cording to the carefully noted suggestions made by earlier scholars. 1973. . 3 (printed in the new edition.XIII. Preisendanz explains the contents in the Vorrede to vol.” which contains the text o f Preisendanz and an English translation.. The photographs were deposited at the University Library in Heidelberg. M arvin W. “Miszellen zu den Zauberpapyri. 48— 54. MT: Scholars Press. 2.46 In addition. Missoula. 46 Preisendanz. as Professor Ludwig Koenen reported. Meyer. foremost among them D ieterich. the Mithras Liturgy. 1974).VI): “Auch dieses Corpus der griechischen Zauberpapyri geht auf EinfluB und Anregung ALBBJECHT DIETERICHs zuriick. They were used also by Albert Henrichs for the new Preisendanz edition o f 1973 (1. verbesserte Auflage mit Erganzungen von Karl Preisendanz. had made available to him. Preisendanz made use o f photographic plates which D ieterich had procured and which his widow.47 O ne should realize that the edition was intended merely as a study edition. 47 Ibid. ibid.” 49 As Henrichs explains (l. The “Mithras Liturgy” (SBL. and to Richard Wiinsch. 2.. 50 Marvin M.48 The second edition o f Preisendanz prepared by Albert Henrichs was intended as an improved republication. 1976). 3 was not published because s the printing plates were destroyed when the Teubner publishing house in Leipzig was bombed on December 4. Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. 1.XIII). and Preisendanz. 2 vols.64— 180. 3. Meyer contributed a fascicle entitled The “Mithras Liturgy. 2 includes those texts that were to be part o f vol. where Preisendanz had taught..12). durchgesehen und herausgegeben von Albert Henrichs [2 vols.64. also Betz. 88— 100. dedicated his edition to the memory o f his teacher. 1928). M arie Dieterich. Stuttgart: Teubner. a former student o f Dieterich.45 Preisendanz uses the text o f Wessely. The comprehensive indices were not reprinted because they are now outdated.49 O ther study editions have been published more recently. For his work Henrichs was able to use Preisendanz’ NachlaJ] in Heidelberg.12 Introduction it the Mithras Liturgy.GRRS.” W St 41 (1919) 140-44.. herausgegeben und iibersetzt von Karl Preisendanz (1st ed. his contributions consist o f the inclusion o f supple­ mentary notes by Preisendanz and his own textual emendations (Zweite. 1.50 Moreover. G M P T . The new edition o f vol. Oft betonte er in jenen Heidelberger Seminariibungen des Sommers 1905 und im personlichen Gesprach als Hauptgrund ihrer verachtlichen Behandlung durch die philologischen und theologischen Forscher das Fehlen einer leicht zuganglichen. Unfortunately. and also the reconstructed Hymns according to a new reconstruction by Ernst Heitsch. xliv. see also the citations in note 14 above. 42 (1920) 24— 33. although they are still useful in the absence o f a newly compiled index verborum. G M PT . Preisendanz’s vol.

He sees both the rituals as representative o f an Alexandrian theology involving the main gods o f the city. published in 1995 by a prestigious publishing house. on the Magical Papyri.54 Ludwig Raderm acher. G M P T are known to the author. .63 51 Reinhold Merkelbach.58 Richard Reitzenstein.” StPP 4 (1905) 84— 107. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 61 La Revelation. 99-101. based on his own readings o f the Greek text. by Edvard Lehmann and Hans Haas.57 Theodor Hopfner. an anonymous work. PGM IV.II. 58— 182. and interpretative notes. well. 56 “Zur Kritik der Papyrustexte. 59 H M R .60 and Andre-Jean Festugiere.” N T F i 10 (1922) 102-16. 95. although Preisen40. 57 “Varia. and on Dieterich s notes for the commentary. 76 “Eingangund SchluB der Mithrasliturgie.56 Sam Eitrem . but contributing his own notes as 9. 62 Dokumente der Gnosis (Jena: Diederichs.475-824 are given on pp.61 Somewhat idiosyncratic is the early translation and gnostic interpretation.51 The Mithras Liturgy. 1922). 155— Text and translation o f 57. following Dieterich). Leipzig: Deichert. esp. and textual notes were contributed by W ilhelm Kroll. German translation.PC 17. 53 “Adversaria graeca. 343-71. The Papyrus 13 tion. 55 “Griechischer Sprachbrauch.” 421.168-74. The commented German translation follows Dieterich. 63 (1904) 4— 5. 33. 54 “Notes. see pp. 1995). and IV. Critical and Explanatory. 212— (German 13 translation. I I /l. Die PschaiAion-Liturgie) (ARWAW. B y Z 31 (1931) 355— 63. entitled Abrasax . 1910). which he renames “Pschai-AionLiturgie. idem. 1992). 58 O Z . danz’s edition and Meyer’s translation in Betz. 1-85).3.52 Partial texts.59 Friedrich Zucker. 63 Manuel de magie egyptienne: Le papyrus magique de Paris (Paris: Les belles lettres. with notes pp. 181— 19 92). 1-230.475— 824).” in Textbuch zur Religionsgeschichte (ed. to which Merkelbach adds his own textual read­ ings. 1.303— following mostly Dieterich. 83— 239-40. vii. Abrasax: Ausgewahlte Papyri religidsen und magischen Inhalts.53 Ernst Riess. 29— with notes. text-critical notes and commentry on the exordium). translations. introduction. 233— an especially valuable 49. 52 For his own explanation o f his work. Band 3: Zwei griechisch-agyptische Weihezeremonien (Die Leidener Weltschdpfung. presents a French translation o f the Mithras Liturgy.62 Finally.” is based on Preisendanz s edition for the text.” Ph.” C lR 10 (1896) 409— 13. contribution is his Introduction to both “Weihezeremonien” (PGM XIII. §§ 116— (pp. Erlangen: Scholl. 60 R eview o f Preisendanz s edition. 169— (text.55 W ilhelm C ronert. Sarapis-Aion-Iao-Abrasax and Pschai-Agathos Daimon (pp. by Wolfgang Schultz. 3. 131— There is no clarity about text or translator.

published by Conrad Leemans in 1885.67 Having won the two prizes. the daughter o f the director who in turn was the son o f a theology professor in Marburg. Kleine Schriften (Leipzig: Teubner. 2. but then he turned toward classical philology (represented by Ernst Curtius. 1888). 1-li.14 Introduction III.64 He was born into a family o f teachers and theologians on May 2. denuo edidit. his teachers trained him to prove himself as a philologist o f the classical literature. The oldest son. Justus Herm ann Lipsius.” however. Dieterich expanded the second essay into his doctoral dissertation o f 1888. where his father was a teacher at the local Gymna­ sium and married to Henriette Miinscher. and after that Biicheler assigned to him the task o f working up textual and com­ mentary annotations to Papyrus Leiden J 384. commentario critico instruxit. 68 Papyrus magica musei Lugdunensis Batavi.. quam C. which . 1885). where the first lecture by Herm ann Usener convinced him like by a strike of lightning that classical philology was to be his future: “Here lie the great problems. grew up in a home o f liberal Protestant parents who were open to the delights o f culture and the arts.” based upon a variety o f sources and personal witnesses.. Having first taken up theology. Leiden: Brill. written in memory o f the 30th anniversary o f Dieterich’ death.” A R W 35 (1938) 180— 85.” 66 Hermann Usener. Careful guidance by his father led to the baccalaureate (1884) and the beginning o f his university studies in Leipzig.”65 His main teachers were Franz Biicheler and Herm ann Usener. to which you must dedicate your life. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken in der Religions­ s wissenschaft: Zu seinem 30.66 R ather than letting him drift into “the great problems. xii: “Hier liegen die groBen Probleme. Usener advised him to write a “Preisarbeit” (an essay competing for a prize) on Aeschylus. xi— xlii. by Richard Wunsch.1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship Albrecht D ieterich’ personal life was from the beginning destined to be that o f s a scholar. 21. Papyri Graeci Musei Antiquarii Publici Lugduni-Batavi (2 vols. n. Dieterich’ former student s and editor o f Albrecht Dieterich. Usener who died in 1905 entrusted the 2nd edition to Hans Lietzmann who published it in 1910.68 which ventures to explore on a purely 64 For the following I am indebted to the essay “Albrecht Dieterich. For Dieterich’s continued influence see the essay by Friedrich Pfister. W hat mostly interested him was the way Usener combined classical philology and history o f religions. D. for instance in his book Das Weihnachtsfest. denen du dein s Leben widmen muBt. 65 Cited from Wiinsch’ article. Albrecht. Das Weihnachtsfest (Bonn: Bouvier. J 384 andj 395 are in vol. 67 Conrad Leemans. 1866 in Hersfeld (Hessen). prolegomena scripsit A. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 . Leemans edidit in papyrorum Graecarum tomo II (V). Todestag. he was soon drawn toward philosophy of religion and German literature. G M PT . 1843. O tto Ribbeck. See also Betz. In 1886 Dieterich went to Bonn. part I. O tto Crusius. and R udolf Hirzel). 1911). but he also studied classical archaeology and art with Reinhard Kekule von Stradonitz. the 3rd edition o f 1969 is a reprint from Usener’s Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen.

1891). these hymns had come to be recognized as cultic poetry.69 T he Leiden Papyri J 384 and J 395 became PGM XII and XIII in the collection o f Preisendanz. The title “Abraxas” comes from Goethe.71 After he passed the state examination in 1889 and completed the required year o f teaching as an intern in a Gymnasium. 2. 72 D e Hymnis Orphicis capitula quinque (Marburg: Elwert. 1891).73 The work has two major parts. Denkt. Dieterich selected the O rphic Hymns as topic. an extensive com men­ tary on J 395. Instead he went back to the Leiden Papyri for his Habilitationsschrift. The work was presented to Usener at the celebration o f his 25th anniversary as a professor in Bonn. he insisted undertaking a trip to Leiden personally to collate the papyrus. this work raises a host o f new questions and provides impetus for further investigations. whose daughter M arie he m arried in 1898. dargebracht vom Klassisch-philologischen Verein zu Bonn (Leipzig: Teubner. Daniel see above. daB ich Abraxas bringe. The Prolegomena were reprinted in Kleine Schriften. although he liked it and returned to it much later. Westostlicher Diwan: “Sag’ ich euch absurde Dinge.S 16 (1888) 749— 830.” For a new publication o f J 395 by Robert W. now on J 395. Highly suggestive.” Importantly. esp. Part II focuses on the “Eighth Book o f Moses” and explores the literary environment of “Jewish-O rphic-G nostic” cults and the magical literature. 1991).72 he could use the other research material for his next work. Idem. However.” A P F 8 (1927) 120-23. Part I deals w ith the text and religio-historical interpretation o f J 395. Two Magical Papyri in the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden: A Photographic Edition of J 3 8 4 and j 3 9 5 (= P G M X II and XIII) (ARWAW. 73 Abraxas: Studien zur Religionsgeschichte des spdtern Altertums. were generally not accepted as qualification for a chair in Classics. 69 As a good philologist would. 57. he left teaching in a secondary school. n. Festschrift H e r m a n n Usener zur Feier seiner 25jahrigen Lehrtatigkeit an der Bonner Universitat. It is interesting. which was published in the same year. Daniel.70 they were again investigated by the papyrologist R o b ert ~W. 71 Robert W. focusing on the so-called “cosmopoiia o f Leiden. warned by the fact that the magical papyri. 71. Daniel who published them together w ith photographs in 1991. Indeed. it is an exemplary fruit o f the close cooperation between Dieterich and Usener. . Papyri Graecae Magicae. usually relegated to the area o f magic and superstition. After his Habilitation 1891 at Marburg.PC 19. astrological mysticism. however. Greek religion and Stoicism.57— 131. 70 See Preisendanz. that Dieterich spent several weeks appeared in JCPh. he identifies it as a syncretistic text containing elements from ancient Egyptian religion.III. Especially because o f the work o f Gottfried Herm ann. but they also provided a way to show the link between “higher literature” and the magical papyri. “Die griechischen Zauberpapyri. 1— 47. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 15 philological level the yet mostly unknown magical literature o f Hellenistic Egypt.

1958). Herakles74 had greatly impressed Dieterich. who authored the magis­ terial Religion und Kultus derRomer (HAW 4:5. Herakles (3 vols. Kurt Rudolph and Jorg Riipke. going as far as the decline o f ancient religions and the rise o f Christianity. Muller. 78 See. These explorations came to the fore in his next book dealing w ith the discovery o f what became known as the Apocalypse o f Peter. On Norden see the essays and bibliographies in Eduard Norden (1868—1941): Ein deutscher Gelehrter judischer Herkunft (eds. 1889. 4th ed.562-78. the third chapter deals w ith “O rphicPythagorean Books on Hades” (“Orphisch-pythagoreische Hadesbiicher”). 76 Nekyia: Beitrdge zur Erklarung der neuentdeckten Petrusapokalypse (Leipzig: Teubner. 77 For the editions.77 Besides a critical examination o f the text and a German translation. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.620-38. Euripides.76 This fragmentary parchment codex was discovered in a tomb at Akhmim..16 Introduction at Gottingen. 75 His colleague and friend at Marburg was Georg Wissowa. 1969). reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 1956).” 107— 27. Understandably. but through the debates they also began profoundly to change scholars’ perception o f the field. his Agnostos Theos: Untersuchungen zur Formengeschichte religioser Rede (Stuttgart: Teubner. Berlin: Weidmann. Bernhard Kytzler. Die Geburt des Kindes: Geschichte einer religiosen Idee (SBW 3. the second chapter on “Mystery cult teach­ ings concerning blessedness and condem nation” (“M ysterienlehren iiber Seligkeit und Unseligkeit”) demonstrates how old elements o f folkreligion emerge in official literature and religion. Der Altertumswissenschaftler Eduard Norden (1868— 1941): Das Schicksal eines deutschen Gelehrten judischer Abkunft. 1959). the first o f w hich outlines w hat he terms “Greek folk-religion concerning the realm o f the dead” (“Griechischer Volksglaube vom Totenreich”). W hile Christian in provenance. NTApoc 2. Leipzig: Teubner. but he also lectured on Greek mythology and history o f religion. A second edition was prepared and provided with additions by Richard Wiinsch (1913. and especially Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. and the present state o f research. 1893). see C. “Albrecht Dieterich. repr. 1912. Wilt Aden Schroder. Eduard N orden (1868— 1941). it also draws together sources from Jewish and Greek traditions about the netherworld. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 2nd ed. D etlef G. Miinchen: Beck. especially. 1924. N TApok 2. 1895.. D ieterich’ s work has three major chapters. See Wiinsch. In his teaching as a Privatdozent in M arburg75 D ieterich treated a wide range o f subjects pertaining to Greek language and literature. In the Preface Dieterich thanks Hermann Usener and A dolf Jiilicher for their cooperation. In many ways. M it den Briefen Eduard . translations. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. these topics quickly became controversial. 1971). Friedrich Leo. 1913. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 1994).78 Richard Reitzenstein 74 Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. in order to m eet the great philologists representing a competing approach to classical studies: Carl Dilthey. including my own: “Eduard Norden und die friihchristliche Literatur.” xvi— xvii. 1902. 2nd ed. Palingenesia 49. whose edition and commentary o f Euripides.

81 See his main works. see the texts. Band 14. Essays. 10 (1985) 200— Wolfgang Fauth.. Enzo Lucchesi & Henri D. R G G (4th ed. Serie A. Professor der klassischen 10. The Greeks and the Irrational. Helmut Koester. articles. idem. “Richard 96. To continue w ith Dieterich s life. reprinted 1961). 178— Carsten Koch. 1989). vingtcinq etudes reunies etpublies (eds.79 Eric R obertson Dodds (1893-1979).vi. but they were still far from what m odern tourists tend to take for granted. 1933. 83 For the present state o f research. 1999). . D ieterich travelled to Triest. Dieterich had originally suggested this work. Geneve: Cramer. From a present perspective. Reitzensteins Beitrage zur Mandaerforschung. his Sather Lectures for 1951. The most impressive symbol o f Dieterich s con­ tinuing influence was the collaboration o f many scholars in producing the collection o f the Greek Magical Papyri. “Dodds. By the middle o f the 19th century. travelling to the historical sites and monuments had become m uch easier than it had been for previous generations. Philologie (1914— 1928). Missing Persons (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 6. Karl Preisendanz who was one o f Dieterich s former students dedicated it to his memory. his autobiography is instructive.892— 93.. idem. N ew discoveries o f texts and archaeological remains such as the Orphic-Dionysiac gold tablets and the Derveni Papyrus83 have moved classical studies in directions that would have delighted him.v. Early Gentile Christianity and Its Hellenistic Background (New York: Harper. Gottinger Universitatsschriften. On Dodds. 80 See. see Karl Priimm. Cahiers d’Orientalisme 10. Blood for the Ghosts: Classical Influences in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (London: Duckworth. Papyri Graecae Magicae. H e took advantage Nordens an seinen Lehrer Hermann Usener aus denJahren 1891—1902 (Spudasmata 73. Suppl. 287-94. 1964). and bibliographies in Graf. 1984). Saffrey.81 and Andre-Jean Festugiere (1898-1982)82 became indicators o f the new direction o f classical studies. “Richard Reitzenstein. xvii— xxxiv. especially. Like many other projects. Conversion: The Old and the N ew in Religion from Alexander the Great to Augustine of Hippo (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 17 (1862-1931). with a bibliography pp. in March o f 1894 he set out on his long desired grand tour to Greece and Italy. 1977). 82 O n Festugiere. 84 See Preisendanz. In and around Athens he benefitted from resident scholars like W ilhelm Dorpfeld and Paul Wolters at the German Archaeological Institute. 79 On Reitzenstein. see Memorial Andre-Jean Festugiere: Antiquite paienne et chretienne.” R G G (4th ed.84 and its main editor. Giuseppe Cambiano. s.III. 1982). 2003). Hildesheim: Olms. Ansichten griechischer Rituale.” Dictionnaire de la Bible.80 A rthur Darby N ock (1902-1963). 1 .” in D ie Klassische Altertumswissenschaft an der Georg-August-Universitdt Gottingen (ed. where a boat took him to Korfu. also Hugh Lloyd-Jones. and from there through the Corinthian G ulf to Athens. Carl Joachim Classen. Eric Robertson. “Reitzenstein (Richard). Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.” Zeitschrift fu r Religionsgeschichte 3 (1995) 49-80. See also. 1999) 2. it is impressive to see how many of Dieterich s suggestive and provocative ideas have later been confirmed or at least gained in probability.

. Jahrhunderts. which he entrusted for an edition to his friend R u d o lf H om burg. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff s stinging review appeared in G G A 159 (1897) 505-15. R iding on a mule toward Olympia. Wiinsch.87 Those who knew him well could not but notice 85 Apocalypsis Anastasiae (ed. lauer. . 1896). but after he was transported to Olympia he recovered sufficiently and could continue on the journey. visited Pompei guided by August Mau.” R G G (4th ed.” xxi— xxii. 87 Pulcinella: Pompeianische Wandbilder und romische Satyrspiele (Leipzig: Teubner. “Aberkiosinschrift. see Guntram Koch. “Albrecht Dieterich. as well as August M au and W ilhelm Helbig made sure he fully enjoyed his R om an days. complet­ ing an enormously enriching tour that was not to be his last. Dieterich himself lost hope that he would survive. 1903). which threw him down onto the stony road where he lay unconscious. Then he headed south to Sicily. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken. visiting Corinth. although they generated severe criticism by leading scholars. and Magnesia. where he was received and shown around by Theophile Homolle.18 Introduction o f the Institute’ guided tours to the Peloponnesos. H e showed that this inscription provides evidence o f pagan and Christian syncretism in Asia M i­ nor. in Constantinople he admired such treasures as the Alexander Sarcophagus and the colorful life o f the Bazaars. whose immense treas­ ures and rich life overwhelmed him. For the present state o f research. the s Argolis. The scholars at the German Archaeo­ logical Institute. 86 Die Grabschrift des Aberkios (Leipzig: Teubner. His edition o f and commentary on the mysterious inscription o f Aberkios in the Lateran M useum brought into discussion this fragment o f a third century CE tomb inscription by a Phrygian bishop. he unfor­ tunately hit against a branch of a tree. Another boat trip took him to Delos. In Troja he met again w ith Dorpfeld during one o f the excavation seasons. 1998) 1. After his appointment to “auBerordentlicher professor” (associate professor) at Marburg in the summer semester o f 1895 his academic responsibilities changed and increased. His travel companions were terrified and suspected internal or head wounds.” 182-83. in particular W ilamowitz-Moellendorff. In Palermo his search for ancient manuscripts was rewarded by the discovery o f the Apokalypse o f Anastasia. From Constanti­ nople he travelled to Naples.85 T he m onth o f September saw Dieterich in R om e. Ephesus. Eugen Petersen and Christian Hiilsen.62— Eckhard Wirbe63. Arcadia. Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner.). After R om e and a visit to Tuscany he returned to Marburg in the spring o f 1895. At the end o f May.86 His studies o f the Pompeian wall paintings and the comic figure o f Pulcinella were helpful for understanding the im portant role o f cult paintings. R udolf Homburg. His next publications reflected findings and impres­ sions in Italy. and Olympia. Cf. 1897).” Historia 51 (2002) 359-82 (bibl. Dieterich travelled to Smyrna and from there to Pergamon. der Schuler des reinen Hirten im Romischen R eich des 2. BiTeu. “Aberkios. Sardes. Pfister.

90 “ЕиаууѕХссттѓ^.90 Dieterich s interest in the religion o f Mithras originated w ith C um ont s monumental work.” These fields o f scholarship.” Z N W 1 (1900) 336— reprinted in Kleine Schriften. der beleidigt und im innersten verletzt.III. He became involved in the “Hessische Vereinigung flir Volkskunde” and published articles in the “Hessische Blatter fur Volkskunde. sehr wohl von dem zu unterscheiden. other scholars had also recognized the value o f folklore in bringing classics out o f its cultural isolation by showing its connection w ith the social context o f what people considered to be their own culture. nehme ich umso lieber auf mich. Also. Denn ich weiB den Tadel. Dieterich served as co-editor. he made the point that he understood very well how to separate valid criticism from personal insult.” 89 The journal A R W began in 1898.88 In 1897 D ieterich accepted a call to the University o f GieBen. 193— 38. The article “Die Weisen aus dem M orgenlande” 88 Mithrasliturgie. so much so that he took the unusual step o f responding firmly to these critics in the introduction to his next book. je mehr die Sache dabei gewinnt. was verfehlt ward. Expressing his long-standing interest in the origins o f Christianity. but he enjoyed having a great deal o f freedom in developing lecture courses. D uring his years in GieBen he also moved closer to the developing field o f ethnography and folklore (“Volkskunde”). From volume 7 (1904) onwards. he even published an article in the first volume o f the new journal. in w hich many o f the dissertations w ritten under him appeared. 95. where he became a professor ordinarius and the successor o f Eduard Schwartz. Dieterich understood that the contextual interpretation o f ancient religion would require long-term com­ mitments by others as well. were not as far removed from classical studies as it seemed at the time. however. H e laid the groundwork by training an amazing num ber o f creative students and by helping to establish two publishing ven­ tures. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 19 his anger and disappointment. Moreover. especially o f his hom e province o f Hessen. kann kein Vorwort. . O n the contrary. it is noteworthy that about the same time the field o f N ew Testament studies changed in similar ways. Anticipating further hostile reactions. und alien Tadel der verdient ist. The fact that GieBen had only two classicists meant that his lectures had to appeal to a wider audience o f students. der erzieht und fordert. Two im portant articles appeared in 1902 that express D ieterichs new interest. vi: “Aber rechtfertigen. Eine Mithrasliturgie. its founder was Thomas Achelis. he was supplied w ith a new but still rare slide projector (“Lichtbilderapparat”) that enabled him to show photographic pic­ tures during lectures. However. indicated by the creation in 1900 o f the Zeitschriftfur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der alteren Kirche. the journal Archiv fu r Religionswissenschafi89 and the m onograph series Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten (1903-).

93 “Reste antiker Liturgien. . “The 91 “Die Weisen aus dem Morgenlande: Ein Versuch. showing Dieterich’ s systematic interests. the three Magi are priests o f the Mithras religion.92 but he differed from C um ont for the first time in seeing in a section o f the Paris Magical Papyrus a remnant o f a Mithraic ritual. The second study specifies more narrowly. the Eating o f the D eity” (Der Mensch in Gott und Gott im Menschen. das Essen des Gottes. 256-58.” Mithrasliturgie. Second.93 The work contains two major parts: first. He thus separated the nonmagical Mithraic liturgy from its secondary reworking as a magical ritual. 252— 41.1— he suggests that >.ov.([xuaTTjpt-ov. After a discussion of the terms “liturgy.475— 834) and a German translation which. 225-26. 25— 30) and topically arranged chapters (pp. This suggestion then led to the main thesis o f his book o f 1903 (Eine Mithrasliturgie). In fact. a collection that is still valuable today.” [Aucmr]pt. the chapter includes a step by step review o f the entire text. pp. reprinted in Kleine Schriften. in an appendix o f this book he collected other remnants o f liturgical fragments. 723— 834) as “directions for the magical application o f the Mithras Liturgy” (A n weisung z u magischer Verwendung der Mithrasliturgie). 1. 30— 92). stops after what Dieterich took to be the end o f the Mithras Liturgy proper . n. Chapter I deals w ith the “O ri­ gin and the Sources o f the Papyrus Text” (Herkunft und Quellen des Papyrustextes.20 Introduction connects the legend o f the Magi from the East paying homage to the child Jesus w ith the visit o f the Parthian king Tiridates to R om e in 66 CE.” Z N W 3 (1902) 1-14. the first study investigates the theme o f “The H um an Being in God and God in the Hum an Being. he regarded the following section (11. pp. which include a brief Introduction (pp. where he worshiped Nero &< xod xov Mt&pav (Cassius Dio 63. As we m entioned above. This division derives from his thesis o f the section’ origin as a ritual o f the cult o f s Mithras and the other as its later appropriation by a magician. 12) he had planned to complete the translation. even after the German translation was concluded. Chapter II (92— 212) investigates “The Liturgical Images o f the Mithras Liturgy” (Die liturgischen Bilder des Mithrasmysteriums) in five thematic studies. such a division makes little sense. From our present perspective. and sacramentum as effecting a cultic unification with the deity. 723). Dieterich himself seems to have changed his mind later because in his future project (see above. however. 272— 86. a critical edition o f the Greek text (PGM IV. with additions. however. 92 B J 108— 109 (1902) 26— reprinted in Kleine Schriften. At any rate. 213-18. 95— 121). 30-212). 71. a large section containing “Inter­ pretations” (Erlauterungen).91 A later article on “Die Religion des Mithras” sums up his admiration for C um ont s work. richly docum ented by references and discussion. 7). In fact. the learned apparatus o f the text continues to the end.

which carries the 94 See above.”95 His presentation o f D ieterich’s thesis and m ethod is remarkably positive and to the point. the work was received with great anticipation. several other reviewers took issue w ith the title o f the book. At least two reviews were substantial and are still worth reading. 93. so that his scholarly reputation. Understandably.” Moreover. 179— 212). D ieterich approaches the text “directly” as a “Mithras Liturgy. Apart from C um ont. references to ancient texts and secondary litera­ ture.”97 and thinks the prayers were to be recited in the course o f the ascension. In fact. 95 Geschichte der Paulinischen Forschung von der Reformation bis auf die Gegenwart (Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck.III. The fourth study is on “R ebirth” (Die Wiedergeburt. 134-56). wenn Dieterich dem Buche den unnotigen und umstrittenen Titel nicht gegeben hatte” (146. his appointment at Heidelberg attracted a growing num ber o f excellent stu­ dents. was greatly enhanced by the debate. n. W iinsch’ additions. including his own additions gathered from his papers by Richard Wiinsch. 157— 79). as well as arguments against critical reviews.. several reviews took up the issues with profound seriousness be­ cause they understood that not only the title and text o f the Mithras Liturgy but also the methodology o f interpretation were at stake. W hile C um ont’s nega­ tive critique seemed to sway many in his direction. “Die religionsgeschichtliche Erkl'arung. However. The appendix on “Remains o f Ancient Liturgies” (Reste antiker Liturgien. These s additions provide corrections. and the final.” in which he analyses critically the methodology o f the early “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule. 96 Ibid. the reviews focused on the title to the extent that little else was discussed. 97 Schweitzer also questions the title: “Jedenfalls ware es besser gewesen.Nachtrage. The ensuing contro­ versy shows admiration as well as substantial criticism. pp. 121— 34). pp. pp. .94 It is followed by rather confusing 18) sets o f additional notes in the second and third editions o f D ieterich’ work s (. and Weinreich s additions. in spite o f the negative reactions. 141-84. Albert Schweitzer places D ieterich s work in the context o f chapter VII. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 21 Erotic U nion o f the Hum an Being w ith the G od” (Die Liebesvereinigung des Menschen mit dem Gotte. n. 1). pp. 1911). the debates o f the next ten years coin­ cided w ith the formation o f the “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule. some im portant scholars came to D ieterich’s defense. followed by a third on “Being a Child o f G od” (Die Gotteskindschaft.96 According to Schweitzer. The volume concludes with valuable indices. pp. 219— 58). pp. In his book Geschichte der Paulinischen Forschung. Indeed. fifth on “The Soul’ Ascension to s Heaven” (Die Himmelfahrt der Seele z u Gott. 213— has already been m entioned. 146-60.

for Cum ont s aims it is unusable and totally irrelevant. Guided by the sun god through the heaven o f the fixed stars he reaches the supreme deity. archeological findings could point to such scenarios.”99 Schweitzer’ discussion reaches beyond s D ieterich and is directed at the often unguarded assumptions o f the early “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule.” or “mystical union w ith the deity. the aim o f the ascension to heaven was that the soul would attain immortality.98 T he main points o f Schweitzer’ criticism concern D ieterich’ m ethodol­ s s ogy o f comparing the Mithras Liturgy w ith the theology o f Paul and John’ s Gospel. sie ist fur Cumonts Zwecke wirklich unbenutzbar und vollkommen gleichgiiltig. or whether it took its regular place in the cult. daB wir hier eine religiose . however. In order to docum ent such a conceptuality. sie ist weder eine Liturgie im engeren Sinne.. O ther substantial reviews came from Richard Reitzenstein who was more sympathetic to Dieterich than Schweitzer was. in Dieterich’ hands and for his purposes the papyrus segment he calls ‘Mithras s Liturgy’ has proven to be an immensely precious treasure. Und doch hat sie sich in Dieterichs Hand und fur seine Zwecke als unschatzbares Kleinod erwiesen. 28 16 101 Ibid. indeed. In the course o f that comparison Dieterich employs concepts such as “sacramental.. 146-47.” N JK A 1 (1904) 177— (192-94 on Dieterich). 12: “ . “Religionsgeschichte und Eschatologie. 99 Ibid. In fact. And yet. In fact.100 a second review in 1912 also benefited from Schweitzers o f 1911.22 Introduction initiate out o f this world o f the four elements through the stars to the region o f the gods.” which fit neither Paul’s nor John’ theology. that in all this Schweitzer has also his own axe to grind. The ancient initiates ritually performed this ascen­ sion in the Mithraic grottos. 100 Richard Reitzenstein.”101 Reitzenstein.. in order to explain the origins o f their theologies as derivatives o f mystery cults. 152.” Z N W 13 94 (1912) 1— (12— on Dieterich). which the devotees experienced only once. D ieterich’ apparent goal s s is to get beyond the individual texts and develop a conceptuality for all ancient religion. The Mithras Liturgy “is not a liturgy in the narrower sense o f the term. nor can it be used to reconstruct any kind o f official Mithras religion.. collecting as many parallels and analogies as possible seems necessary.” “redeemer god.. idem.” O ne must not forget. noch kann sie zur Rekonstruktion irgendeiner anerkannten Form der Mithrasreligion verwertet werden. “Hellenistische Theologie in Agypten. T he question remains whether this was the supreme mystery o f this religion. 98 Ibid. but Dieterich himself warns against this kind o f “Analogienwut. If the ritual was performed as a sacramental drama. Reitzenstein agrees with C um ont that the Mithras Liturgy does not provide any information about the Mithras cult as Cum ont conceived o f it. Freilich der Seltsamheit und Bedeutsamkeit der Tatsache.

auf die Sehnsucht des Menschen nach Vereinigung mit Gott.. die sich doch keiner uns bekannten Religionsform eingliedern laBt. even while they served as priests in the Egyptian temples. er iibertrug sie von der Bildung des Gotterbegriffes oder Mythos auf das tiefste Innere aller Religion. full o f individual life and deep intensity. In fact. Conceivably... ist Dieterich sich nie klar bewuBt geworden__ ” 102 Ibid. “Cum ont s way o f looking at the evidence. weil sie die Fiille der Denkmaler individuellen religiosen Lebens unerklart beiseite lassen muB. justified as it is in and o f itself.. “Dieterich took over from his teacher Usener the great task of studying the formal language o f religious thinking. to the longing o f humans for unification w ith the divine. but he did have some valid information about the cult o f Mithras. The authors intense devotion to Mithras should not be denied its own integrity.” . claims that Dieterich did not fully realize that we have here a religious document o f large size. individuellstem Leben und tiefster Innerlichkeit haben. because o f the newly develUrkunde von groBtem Umfang. Egyptian learned priests such as the author o f the Mithras liturgy became devoted to Mithras.” 103 Ibid. die er von Usener ubernommen hatte. but also in Egypt. because it leaves out o f consideration the numerous monuments o f individual religious life that are extant from the period of syncretism. nicht die einzig zulassige sein kann. Today. daB Cumonts Betrachtungsweise. 13: “D ie Formensprache religiosen Denkens zu erkennen. Albrecht Dieterich (1866 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 23 however. so berechtigt sie an sich ist. 13: “ . which simply does not conform to any religion known to us. cannot be the only one admissible. die uns aus der Zeit des Synkretismus erhalten sind. because o f the large increase in data.III.”102 In other words. Dieterich did recognize the unique as well as syncretistic character o f the Mithras Liturgy. Each time Dieterich s former students. Mithraism has been shown to be a religion which experienced several reconfigurations in its history.”103 Today. there was plenty o f room in the Egyptian temples for Egyptian as well as Greek deities.. As it spread over the R om an empire through the military and the administration. he transposed it from the formation o f the notion o f deity or myth to the deepest ground o f all religion.. evidenced by the two further editions o f 1910 and 1923.. until it was reprinted w ithout change in 1966. Richard W iinsch (1869— 1915) and O tto Weinreich (1886— 1972). why not for Mithras? Therefore... the book remained in discussion. Given the syncretistic aura o f Hellenistic Egypt. local adaptations were a normal phe­ nom enon. in particular in R om e. edited and expanded the notes while leaving the main text intact. That the author was a m em ber o f a Mithraic community is less likely.. contrary to the early criticisms. but he did not make enough use o f it in his defense against C um ont s view that there is only one kind of Mithraism. so why not Mithras? If the priests were charged with developing the liturgies appro­ priate for worshiping so many other deities. das war die groBe Aufgabe.

section V o f this Introduction. Manfred Clauss. “The Mysteries o f Mithras: A N ew Account o f Their Genesis. See above.. 3. kennzeichnet das ‘Rezept der Unsterblichkeit’ (PGM IV 475-732. Turcan does not mention the ML in his work..” 1989. Mithr..111 As Dieterich m entioned in his letters to Usener (October 29 104 Merkelbach. 106 Ibid. 111 For discussion. 2000). . in modified forms still have present-day representatives. p. 3: Zwei griechisch-agyptische Weihezeremonien (Die Leidener Weltschopfung. “Mithraism since Franz Cumont. The Roman Cult of Mithras: The God and His Mysteries (trans. das geistige Milieu aE. 2nd ed.24 Introduction oping interest in the phenom ena and literature o f magic as well as Mithraism. “Initiation. La Reve­ lation 1. 193. “Merkelbach’s Mithras. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. The older positions. 1992). Jh. Les cultes orientaux dans le monde romain (Paris: Societe d’edition “Les belles lettres. 126. 109 For surveys o f the history o f research.”107 Thus. 51. see the commentary infra. D ie Pschai-Aion-Liturgie).” ANRW II.” Turcan con­ tinues C um ont s denial that the Mithras liturgy has anything to do with Mithraism. inscriptions. and other archaeological findings have in­ creased the evidence pointing to syncretistic forms o f M ithraism. 91. Antonia Nevill.” which he groups together w ith the Leiden Papyrus (PGM XIII).” he simply equates it w ith “ceremony. 17:4 (1984) 2002-2115. idem. mosaics.”106 or “Die Pariser Unsterblichkeits-Liturgie. calling them by various terms: “Weihezeremonien. vol. 1996). showing clearly Mithras’ raising up o f the shoulder of a bull which is m entioned also in the Mithras Liturgy as a ritual act o f central importance. have arisen in recent years that fundamentally challenge both Merkelbach s and Turcan s position. 169/74). das Dieterich. esp. See also Graf. however. v. Merkelbach’ commentary104 is based on Dieterich s s work.” Phoe. ET: The Cults of the Roman Empire (trans. 1058. idem. he sees it marginally related to theurgical Neoplatonism . 119— 126-27: “Am 20. Richard Gordon. on 1. C um ont s basic position is maintained emphatically by R einhold Merkel­ bach and R obert Turcan. des 3. see Roger Beck. in dem der Vollzug innerer Mysterien empfohlen wurde.110 Im por­ tant in this respect is a newly discovered fresco painting from a m ithraeum in Ponza (Italy). Abrasax. esp. see below. 108 Robert Turcan. Oxford: Blackwell. 303/8.109 Discoveries o f fresco paintings. 17. 110 For further discussion. however. 13 n. but he rejects Dieterich s title and proposes his own: “Die Pschai-AionLiturgie. 6-7. 699.108 N ew developments.” R A C 18 (1998) 87-159. doch vom gleichen Geist durchtrankt. while retai­ ning the term “liturgy. Festugiere.”105 “Einweihungszerem onien. Gottesndhe. unpassend ‘Mithrasliturgie’ genannt hat.. 90— 95. Rande des theurgischen Neuplatonismus stehend. 41 (1987) 294-316. 1.” Consequently. nC. the book has moved from the margins into the mainstream o f the increasing study o f Hellenistic religious syncretism. 2050-51. 105 Ibid. 25. 107 Ibid.”J R S 88 (1998) 115-28.

115 See above. today C um ont’ criticism s o f Dieterich has become far less impressive than it first sounded and should not stand in the way o f a positive assessment o f the latter’ accomplish­ s ments. He died w ithout regaining consciousness on May 6. but after the first few sentences he suddenly stumbled and collapsed because o f a fatal stroke. (2) that one must 112 This was recognized already by Reitzenstein (H M R . H e had reached the peak o f his career w hen on May 5 he went into the lecture hall to begin a new semester. H e began working on a biography of Usener which he never completed. 4 n.112 To return to Dieterichs biography.III. D ieterich’ “Mithras Liturgy” became known as a landmark of s the “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule. there are many scholars today w ho insist that the Mithras Liturgy rightly carries the provocative name given it by Dieterich and that it should be attributed to syncretistic developments of Mithraic mysteries in Hellenistic Egypt. daB ein so feinsinniger Gelehrter wie Cumont bis in seine neusten Veroffentlichungen hinein Dieterichs Verdienst verkennt. the year 1903 brought another major event: the move to Heidelberg where he accepted the prestigious chair for­ merly occupied by Erwin R ohde and O tto Crusius. 1901). O ne book appeared. on the subject o f M other Earth. 4. Marie Dieterich contributed his papers and research materials to the Usener-Archiv at the University Library in Bonn..113 but the ever increasing commitments that come w ith success and authority collided with the sudden death o f H erm ann Usener (October 1905) which hit him especially hard and disrupted his plans. 170. p. n.” in his Kleine Schriften. Therefore. 116 See above. his activi­ ties shifted by necessity to lecturing. published by Richard W iinsch. D uring a journey to Hamburg to lecture on “The End o f Ancient R eligion”114 he contracted influenza but refused to take time out for recovery. Albrecht Dieterich (1866 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 25 and Decem ber 8. 449— 539. As far as his legacy is concerned. 2004). “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule.116 D ieterich’s major books were reprinted after World War II by the Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. In Heidelberg. 1): “Ich bedauere. To sum up. 117 See the forthcoming article by Friedhelm Hartenstein and Hans Dieter Betz. 114 “Der Untergang der antiken R eligion. 1 n. As a result. traveling as well as editorial and adminis­ trative tasks. 1908. 14. . 1905). it was this point that caused him to attribute the PGM text to Mithraism.”117 His commentary demonstrated his five major discoveries: (1) that the text segment in question differs significantly from the other segments o f the larger Paris Magical Papyrus.” R G G (4th ed.” 113 Mutter Erde (Leipzig: Teubner. p. where it still is today. his wife and his former students took the necessary steps to secure it.115 His essays were collected in Kleine Schriften.

Delimitation As stated before. At this point. idem et al. 1996). 833— 34). (5) that cultic images play a significant role in the procedures. Mithrasliturgie.” . Burckhardt Gladigow. so daB vor und nach ihm noch deren gesprengte Stiicke erscheinen. Zwirn. 825— 29). <p£A ou<. and another Homeric verse (1. 468— 69 is called ^ujjioxaTO^ov (“Charm to restrain anger”). Baumgarten. entitling it again Про? (11. 468--69.” R G G (4th 14. After the conclusion o f the Mithras Liturgy.” H R W G 4 (1998) 9— idem. verse o f the section (11. Representation in Religion: Studies in Honor of Moshe Barasch (Numen Book Series: Studies in the History o f Religions. 11 821— contain four more lines o f H om er verses without a separate . 831 suprisingly repeats the thtfioxaxo/ov of 11. 1. but rather continues to stimulate the discussion about this fascinating text and the larger issues o f the interpretation o f ancient religion. followed by 11. 89.” ibid. 49 favorable and unfavorable times attributed to the Greek planetary deities.118 As a result o f new discoveries and more refined methodologies o f interpretation. 1562— Jan Assmann & Albert I. daB zwischen die Homerverse der groBe Wahrsagezauber eingeschoben ist.” Word & Image 5 (1989) 2— Richard Gordon. Koln. followed by a historiola. Image and Value in the Graeco18. Roman World: Studies in Mithraism and the Religious A rt (Aldershot. today these five discoveries can be far better appreciated than in D ieterich’ own s days. eds. “The Intention o f Biographical Narration on Mithraic Cult Images. 830).” VisRel 4— (1985— 5 86) 114— idem. 2001).. (4) that this text involves a kind o f “liturgy” . “Prasenz der Bilder —Prasenz der Gotter. The charm 11. Leiden. Statuette.” VisRel 7 33. “Bilderkult. Kultbild. “Bild. the papyrus continues in 11 835— with an untitled section on . see Burckhardt Gladigow.119 These Hom eric verses 74. ed. Boston..1560. “Kultbild. (“To get friends”). 20-21: “Es scheint. an untitled short story serving magical functions (11. (3) that the text is influenced by Stoic philoso­ phy and is close to Hermeticism. Hampshire: Variorum. I V Genre and Composition 1. the section o f the Paris Magical Papyrus we call Mithras Liturgy is sandwiched between a series o f Hom eric verses which have been interrupted by this insertion (11. 468— 821-34). and the first Hom er 70). 119 So Dieterich. 470— 74. called Прос. 24 section title. 118 This discovery by Dieterich can be newly appreciated in the light o f current studies on the significance o f images. D ieterich’s book thus in no way resembles an outdated experiment. 74. 1998) 1. 469— After this.26 Introduction interpret this segment in the syncretistic context o f the mystery cults of Hellenistic Egypt and beyond. (1990) 98-121.. “Epiphanie. have section titles designating their function as charms. Stephen R . with bibl.

821-24.121 (2) For no detectable reason. Whereas the PG M corpus contains many spells w ithout section titles. G M PT . The repetition o f 11 468-70. By contrast. He does not give a reason why he omits the Homer verses preceding the beginning (11. the Vorlage had no section title. 821— to be a part o f the 21) 34 Mithras Liturgy. External genre designations Since there is no external designation o f the literary genre o f the Mithras Liturgy. “Divine assistence from three Homeric verses. T he following conclusions can be drawn from this evidence:120 (1) The Mithras Liturgy is originally independent from the H om er verses. 475-820). 120 See the explanations given by Hubert Martin and Marvin Meyer (Betz. (3) The problem remains unresolved. there seems to be no paragraphos sign before the beginning o f the Mithras Liturgy. no such confusion appears elsewhere in the papyrus. in 11. while the isolated H om er verse in 1. 820 there is a vacant space. 831 but also at the end o f the sequence in 11. and resumed the H om er charms afterwards (11. Perhaps. inserted the Mithras Liturgy in its entirety (11. 2145— correspond to 11. 831-34 must then .I V Genre and Composition 27 Since there are no detectable reasons for breaking up the sequence of Hom eric verses and sandwiching the Mithras Liturgy between the parts. .182. some kind o f confusion on the part o f the copyist must have occurred. Preisendanz (1. verses. the copyist interrupted the charms containing the Hom eric verses. 471— and 51 73 821-23. Apparently. Martin also points to the parallel in PGM IV. which are therefore not part o f its internal composition. 475). The Mithras Liturgy has no parallel in the PGM or anywhere else from which an external title could be derived. including the section titles. after 1. 821— 34). how­ ever.100-1 [apparatus]) reports on the problem as unresolved. The literary genre a. Merkelbach (Abrasax. However.2145— 2240. and neither the author/redactor nor the copyist inserted one. Moreover. 54). 121 Differently. Dieterich (Mithrasliturgie. 468— 74).” The three Homer verses in 11. 47. which does carry a section title indicating function (Тр^сттг/ГјОС 'Ојхѓјрои тгаребро^. 830 occurs previously at the end o f the sequence 11 469— The papyrus has paragraphos signs between the Hom eric . it does. the question o f its genre requires a complex answer. the copyist became confused about what he had copied already and what he still had to do. 2. 468— 69 reappears not only in 1. begin w ith a new line (1. 20— regards 11. the Qo^oxaxo^ov o f 11. 3. also be the result o f that confusion. in most cases a section title can be supplied on the basis o f parallels. 249) follows Dieterich. 74.

249) that some portion at the beginning o f the Vorlage may have been omitted.” 3. tou Xoyou >]бе 7] хХујсте. 577-78. 820) are technical. 479-82 and 820. 638 kontxGTiytoq (Xoyo??). 750) points to “instruction pertaining to the ritual” as the purpose o f the composition. . 573. also called тсрсато^ Xoyo? (“first prayer” in 11. Most important is атса&оо/атгсЈ^б^. however. The term auvxayfjia points to the text as a “composition” out o f subordinate parts. but it is unclear how these three are to be related to the citations o f the ai'fri-logos (11. A greeting prayer can be named in 1. the literary composition o f the Mithras Liturgy is clear and well executed. was sent to a “daughter. 3. The contributions by Dieterich as well as Merkelbach represent significant steps. 741— 42). 623). as the insertion o f 1 . Considerable agreement exists in the scholarly litera­ ture about the separate sections. Prayers are called Xoyoi. however. 771).28 b. 558-59. 481— and итт:6^7][ла (1. 485— 537). The section title o f бг. There is no evidence.? (1. Part II (11. These linguistic markers are important for the determination o f the compositional parts. Second (o (3' Xoyoc.” This name. and 82) both refer to the text as a whole.122 The terms аштау[ла (11. 577 and 587. 741. 747. that this name at one time served as the head title and was omitted by the redaction. Composition In spite o f its complexity. Merkelbach s suggestion (Abrasax. 647— 48]). occurs only in the supplemental rituals o f Part III (11.) and third (o y ' Xoyoc) prayers are enumerated in 11. 485732) as “becoming immortalized” (атса&о^ат^еаФоа [11. beginning with “the invocational prayer” (11. the name for “the ritual o f immortaliza­ tion. In m odern descrip­ tive terminology we might label it a “Ritual to obtain an ascension and consultation with the god Mithras.”123 1 82 Subsidiary parts are also marked by appropriate terms. but so far a detailed literary analysis has 122 Cf. N one o f these terms. 486). however. serves as the head title expressing the literary genre o f the whole composition. 123 See the commentary on 11. 479— leads us to conclude. Internal genre designations Introduction The text o f the Mithras Liturgy uses several terms o f literary self-reference. (тбџугцш (“m em orandum ”) comes from legal language and states the completion o f the docum ent which. describing the function o f the main body.басгхаХ(а ттј? (1.

may have greater importance than the conventional purification rituals. ха&ареи»)? 11. 771. 475— contains a well-constructed exordium which takes the 85) form o f a prayer to the divinity o f Providence and World-Soul. especially.”126 which he means not only in the literary sense that every introduction is secondary to whatever is being introduced. 659-61. 128 Terms designating purity are relatively infrequent in ML. This applies also to the preparation o f the special amulets (11. sondern ist hinzugefugt worden. 85) for the following rituals. below pp.124 O ur own literary analysis125 shows four distinguish­ able parts. but he does not provide a detailed literary analysis (Abrasax. (3) T he author may regard the performance of the preparations as selfevident and adds only matters that are not self-evident (see. which need to be perform ed prior to the ascension ritual. 733— 36). has been excised and replaced by the present exordium. the fact that no such preparatory rituals are found at the beginning o f the Mithras Liturgy needs to be explained. 784. H e assumes that a text segment containing preparatory rituals. 124 Merkelbach describes sections by way o f their content. 3. 708). 813— mentioned before at 11. 569. Part I (11. see ха&аро^ 1.28— 159— 233-49). especially 155— “D ie Einleitung zu dem Text 56: ist sekundar. This prayer involves a petition for pardon in view o f what is described as risky and potentially inappropiate transmission in writing o f the secret tradition of mysteries to a fellow-initiate. 125 See the Conspectus. Merkelbach calls the exordium “secondary. 760. 19. 60— for detailed discussions.128 W hile separately or in combination any o f these reasons could have caused the omission.) is central. but also in the sense o f replace­ ment. 83. rituals o f Part III (11. no evidence exists for an excision o f a text segment from the Vorlage which would have the present exordium as its replacement. . ayraapia 522. the redactor may have excised them for several reasons: (l)T he Paris Magical Papyrus (IV. 479-81.I V Genre and Composition 29 not been undertaken. 40.127 (4) For the philosophically-minded author purifi­ cation by the spirit. especially because they are required for the magician and the fellow-initiate (11. als man die Zeremonien auch an andere Personen weitergegeben und zu anderen Zwecken als den urspriinglichen verwendet hat. If such rituals appeared in the source material ( Vorlage).155— 59). the notion o f “spirit” (7tv£U[xa) in association with fire (тгир хтА. 126 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 732— 819). sections o f the commentary. 668— ayveuw 1. 69. 522. ayiai^w 522. ayioq 11.26— 52— begins with preparatory rituals which may suffice 51. see the respective 87. Therefore. By contrast. 3. as it takes place in the ascension ritual itself. the insertion o f 11 479— . Diese Einleitung gehort nicht zum urspriinglichen Text.” 127 N ot self-evident are the insertions o f 11. (2) The author presupposes that he and his addressee are already initiated ([листтоа) and have thus learned to observe the prepara­ tions. 651— and the supplemental 55. 81). Merkelbach is certainly right about the necessity o f preparatory rituals.

30 Introduction Part II (11. das spater entweder durch Seile oder durch eine hydraulische Konstruktion in die Luft gehoben wird. 537-38) prescribes a breathing ritual for inhaling “spirit” (7ivsu[xa) carried downwards by the rays o f the sun. Third scenario (11. Subsection C (11. W hile the ascension takes place in the mind o f the acting magician. 539— 44) provides religio-philosophical explanations o f the concept o f ascension through the spirit. The subsec­ tions are partly prescriptive recitations. 34: “Man kann sich auch vorstellen.. which carries the name aTca&avocTt. in which one corner is illuminated by a light reflecting the sun disk. 569— 85): vision o f the sun-disk.”129 But o f course one can also imagine that for a spirit-inspired Stoic machine-made “virtual reality” would be redundant. in welchem an einer Stelle ein helles Licht leuchtet. 129 Merkelbach. Subsection A (11.” 130 Ibid.afx6<. 585— 628): vision o f the opening o f the doors to the world o f the gods. Der Kandidat steht auf einem Podest. 556— 69): overcoming the threat by the planetary deities. 485— 732) includes the main body o f the ritual. Merkelbach considers the possibility that the “realism” would consist o f a kind o f theatrical production. He points as evidence to G raeco-Rom an authors who describe the use o f “Sacred Theater” in a cultic context. Second scenario (11. it is both “realistic” in terms o f the performance of ritual acts. Subsection D (544-731) narrates in carefully described scenarios the seven stages o f the ascension culminating at the seventh stage in an encounter w ith the god Mithras. Subsection B (11. 3. Fourth scenario (11. well-composed and highly complex prayer o f invocation o f the four elements which consti­ tute the universe as well as the creation and recreation o f the hum an body. 628— 61): encounter w ith Helios. and imaginary in terms of a journey through the seven spheres of the universe.28— especially 32: “Man stelle sich ein dunkles Zimmer 40. partly narrative descriptions o f the ritual process. (5) Fifth scenario (11.130 (1) (2) (3) (4) First scenario (11. ..” See also ibid. Abrasax. 485-537) sets forth for recitation a long. “O ne may imagine a dark room. vor. daB dieses Podest gar nicht erforderlich war und daB der Initiand sich die Reise in die Luft nur meditierend suggerieren sollte. including special effects. Included in the narrative are prayers o f invocation and greetings o f the deities encountered as well as ritual acts to be performed at critical moments o f the ascension. 39. (“ritual o f immortalization”). This part subdivides into four subsections which deal with the major phases o f the ritual. das die Sonnenscheibe reprasentiert. 544— 55): encounter w ith the planetary deities. The candidate stands on a pedestal that at some point can be lifted by ropes or by hydraulic machinery into the air.

819). . 796— 98). 11 750— . 732-819) contains supplemental rituals. 693— 732): encounter w ith Mithras. 487— 81). However. This knowledge is also presupposed in Part III which contains supplemental information. knowledge o f rituals determines the required components as well as the sequence o f the ritual acts. 732— 35). 813— 19). Secondly. 11. 738— 46).I V Genre and Composition 31 (6) Sixth scenario (11. 792— 96). (b) Change o f the ritual concerning times o f performance (11.g. perhaps modified. 661-92): encounter w ith the deities o f the Bear constellations. the composition as a whole involves redaction w ith regard to the traditions that have been included. 736— 38). 792— 813): (a) Change o f the ritual o f the ointment (11. as indicated by crossreferences. (c) Botanical information about the plant kentritis (11. Part III (11. W hat is supplemented are procedures considered necessary. (7) Seventh scenario (11.. Consultation w ithout a medium (11. Consultation working w ith showing o f symbols (11. and arranged in the way shown by the document.g. 751— 78). These rituals need to be performed in conjunction with the preceding formula. 798— 813). Firstly. several levels o f redaction need to be distinguished. (2) Three items o f information (11. 750— 819): contains additional instructions: (1) Two preparatory rituals (11. 778— 92). 750— 92): (a) Preparation o f the sun-scarab ointm ent (11. In other words. They include the following: Subsection A (11. 819— 20): concluding epilogue 4. ritual knowledge that is primarily unw ritten determines what is to be inserted at which place and in which order in the w ritten account. 732-50) provides three optional rituals for including an associate: (1) (2) (3) (4) Consultation by using a medium (11. Subsection B (11. This competence lies also behind the internal cross-references (e. w hich enable the author to determine what is appropriate in literary terms. the Mithras Liturgy in its entirety is the result o f redaction on the part o f the author/redactor. desirable or optional within the parameters o f ritual competence (e. 746— 50). These redactional activities presuppose literary skills. (b) Preparation o f the plant kentritis (11. Part IV (11. Redaction Regarding redaction.. (3) Third preparatory ritual: the phylacteries (11. Additional stipulations (11.

and he has annotated textual variants (11. Seen in this context. XIII. As C um ont and others have seen. 127— idem. Betz. Anke Schiitte-Maischatz and Engelbert Winter. the Mithras Liturgy does not seem to fit in the context o f Mithraism as we know it.133 A Mithras sanctuary existed in Alexan­ 131 For further discussion. Hans Dieter Betz. which has been inserted into a section using Hom eric verses.” in Gottkonige am Euphrat.g. 1277. the omissions in 11. a magical handbook in which the Mithras Liturgy appears along with many other texts.32 Introduction Thirdly. it stands out like an intruder from a different world. . P. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. the point of departure should be the text as we have it.” N o v T 10 (1968) 62— reprinted in 80.731). Doctrine. “Ritual. but w hich role it was is unknow n. also 11. 28. XII. Clearly. even though what we have before us is anything but self-evident.” Anatolian Studies 44 (1994) 65— 76. 591. it is necessary for the interpretation to go beyond its immediate context. Myth. there are a few redactional flaws that may be attributed to the copyist rather than the author (e.” JRS 90 (2000) 145-80. 133 It is hard to keep track o f the discoveries. The immediate context is the Great Magical Papyrus o f Paris. The Excavations in the Mithraeum of the Church of Santa Prisca on the Aventine (Leiden: Brill 1965). Vermaseren & C. therefore. 814-19). Neue Ausgrabungen und Forschungen in Kommagene (ed.51.. W ithin certain parameters these texts display a considerable degree o f diver­ sity. “The Mysteries o f Mithras: A 91. N ew Account o f Their Mysteries. However. To obtain valid comparisons. C. and Initiation in the Mysteries o f Mithras: N ew Evidence from a Cult Vessel.29. 72— Roger Beck. 93— 99. Determ ining in a more precise way the place where the Mithras Liturgy fits in its religio-historical context requires careful methodological considerations. the author/redactor has compared his Vorlage w ith one or more other versions. what we know about the liturgy o f the Mithraic mysteries is very limited.” J R S 88 (1998) 115— esp. 2000).204. 500. 660-61. “The Mithras Inscriptions o f Santa Prisca and the N ew Testament. The inscriptions painted on walls o f the m ithraeum o f Santa Prisca in R om e are equally puzzling. 132 See Maarten J. “N ew Votive Reliefs from Oinoanda.201.132 Evidence o f syncretistic Mithraism is increasing as a result o f archaeological discoveries. “Kultstatten der Mithrasmysterien in Doliche. cf. VII. Miinchen: Von Zabern. 28. Jorg Wagner. they certainly played some role in the ritual. for the association o f Helios and Mithras.49. van Essen. in fact. Fourthly. We may approach the question from several angles. V. the Mithras Liturgy is not like any o f the other texts even in the larger corpus called Papyri Graecae Magicae. see N. Milner. see the commentry ad loc.131 V The Religio-historical C ontext . IV.

“rituals o f sanctification” or “rituals o f oracular consultation. XI. 21196) (Wien: Holzhausens.V The Religio-historical Context .” in Gottesnahe. “Initiation” should be used for a first introduction into a mystery-cult. See Griffiths. The Roman Cult of Mithras. Sol Salutis.139 and among the formulae are some that seem like quotations o f a preceding ritual. 475— 84. 8. there is no indication which mystery initiation is assumed. Michal Gawlikowski. Brashear. 137 For the evidence see my essay.134 W hat does it mean that the initiating priest in Apuleius’ Metamorphoses has the name Mithras?135 If William Brashear is right. idem. Berol.” “Weihezeremonie” 85) and “Initiation. also Graf. O n its own terms at least. Metam. 1992). XI. Ingeborg Huld-Zetsche. “Hawarti: Preliminary Report. the Mithras Liturgy wishes to be taken as a secret mystery-cult text. Christus Verus Sol: Sonnenverehrung und Christentum in der Spdtantike (JAC. 245-52. Apuleius..22: ipsumque Mithram ilium suum sacerdotem principuum. see Franz Joseph Dolger. Stuttgart: Steiner. To be sure. M it besonderer Rticksicht auf die Ostung in Gebet und Liturgie (Liturgiegeschichtliche Forschungen 4— 2nd 5.” in Magic.g. e. 140 N o other traditional names o f gods are mentioned in the ML. 1992). therefore. 209— 29. “D ie Stiertotung als Sternenkunde: Astral-mythologische Hintergriinde im Mithraskult. 84— speaks o f “Einweihung.E 32. However. Helios Megistos.138 Yet the practitioners claim to be initiated [листтоа. Munster: Aschendorff. “Magic and Mystery in the Greek Magical Papyri. Fauth. 105— 126. cf. while using mystery-cult language and concepts.141 Already Dieterich had noted the syncreAlbert D e Jong. “A N ew Syrian Mithraic Tauroctony. 96— 117). 33 dria. N ew series. For the later solar cult o f Christ. 3. however.” but without clearly defining these terms.” in Hellenismus und Urchristentum.” if this refers to a first initiation.140 T he best way to proceed.6-7. 136 William M.” Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 10 (1999) 197— 204. “Magie und Mysterienkulte. A Mithraic Catechism from Egypt (P. 281-82. 135 Apuleius. Munster: Aschendorff. the review by Roger Beck. 141 For the following.” Antike Welt 30 (1999) 97— 104. 2001).. Cultores Mithrae: Die Anhdngerschaft des Mithraskultes (Heidelberger althistorische Beitrage und epigraphische Studien 10. 1925). is to examine the religio-historical presuppositions internal to the text as well as close analogies elsewhere in contemporary ancient literature. Gnomon 67 (1995) 260— 62.136 The wider context o f Hellenistic mystery cults poses similar problems because the Mithras Liturgy. there are no agreed definitions o f what qualifies as a mystery-cult text. Martin Wallraff. 138 Merkelbach (Abrasax.” 139 See the commentary below on 11. a fragmentary GraecoEgyptian papyrus could be a Mithraic catechism in dialogue form . See the commentary below. 243. is not as such a mystery-cult text. thus. published under the tide Gottesbegegnung und Menschwerdung: Zur religionsgeschichtlichen und theologischen . while further procedures could be called “rituals” with specifications. see also my Hans Lietzmann Lecture o f 2000. ed. on 1. 11 (1997) 53-63. except Helios-AionMithras. an initiation ritual is assumed as a precondition for the present ritual. 134 See the collection o f evidence by Manfred Clauss.137 It would be misleading to call it an “initiation ritual. 89-107 (ET: “Magic and Mystery Cults. Gebet und Gesang im christlichen Altertum.” Bulletin of the Asia Institute.25: complexus Mithram sacerdotem et meum iam parentem. Cf. 482.

If.” in Jordan. ET: The Priests of Ancient Egypt (Ithaca.” R G G (2002) 5. Mechanics.” in Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 173-83.1344— 47. 1— idem. “Magic and Theology in 36. 115-35. Religion in Roman Egypt. and the same is true o f Greek gods. 'Fu/r). Berlin: de Gruyter. “Mithrasreligion. Helios-Mithras-Aion is the only deity named. etc. Frankfurter. Dickie. “Probleme der R eligion im romerzeitlichen Agypten. Envisioning Magic. see Erich Winter. see Serge Sauneron. although they refer to Egyptian places. Egypt. idem.’ ” ibid.144 the author was a learned priest/magician serving in a temple in Thebes. 732-820). whether the author knew Egyptian script or language cannot be determined. Although the non-G reek voces magicae may be intended to be “Egyptian” in Greek transcription. “The Formation o f Authoritative Tradition in the Greek Magical Papyri. 144 For assumptions regarding the author. Given its monotheistic tendency.34 Introduction tistic character o f the Mithras Liturgy and identified main contributors. for Egypt. as is assumed. 145 For learned magicians see my essay.. is that not much appears in the Mithras Liturgy regarding Egyptian religion. and various astral divinities and powers. 62-98. but these influences differed from place to place. involving older Egyptian. Ancient Egypt. Encycopledia of Ancient Egypt 3 (2001) 321— Jan Assmann.145 it is Bedeutungder ‘ Mithrasliturgie’ (P G M I V 475— 820) (HLV 6. “Magic. “Egyptian Magical Practice under the Roman Empire: The Demotic Spells and Their Religious Context. David Frankfurter. “Der Untergang der Hieroglyphenschrift: Schriftverfall und Schrifttod im Agypten der griechischromischen Zeit. The authors handling o f the voces magicae does not provide evidence for his knowledge o f that language to the extent he under­ stands and writes Greek.. “Hieroglyphen. 1988). 198— 237. 2000). Mysterium: Das Bild der Griechen von Agypten (Miinchen: Beck. especially. 10. “Ritual Expertise in Roman Egypt and the Problem o f the Category ‘Magician. 2000). NY: Cornell University Press. 142 Religion in Graeco-Roman Egypt was diversified. H ow to assess these religious developments is the subject o f present scholarly discussions. 3044: on the Mithras Liturgy).143 W hat is astonishing.18:5 (1995) 2894-3049 (3023— 49: on magic. idem. for the Hellenistic and Roman world. See. Les pretres de I’ancienne Egypte (Paris: Persea. FI. Weisheit und 18. animals. see above.18:5 (1995) 3333— idem. That the text as a whole is situated in Hellenistic Egypt is evident especially from the final Supplemental Rituals (11. plants.” R A C 15 (1989) 83— 103.” The Oxford 79.” ANRW 11. 2001).142 The names o f the ingredients are Greek. “The learned magician and the collection and transmission o f magical lore. idem. N one o f the traditional Egyptian deities are m entioned by name. Agypten.” ANRW 11.” in Schafer & Kippenberg. Overall there was a growing tendency toward syncretism. The country was strongly influ­ enced by Greek language and the religious ideas coming with it. and m iner­ als. . Laszlo Kakosy. 163-93. Ritner. see Matthew W. and then Roman traditions. however. Hornung.” CEg 69 (1994) 218-45. but in addition there are deified abstracts such as Ilpovora. Religion in Roman Egypt. Sternberg-El Hatabi. Bagnall. 143 On the vanishing ability to understand the hieroglyphs in Graeco-Egypt. Greek. The World of Ancient Magic.

886.147 As the author himself shows. Abraxas. o f course. Michael Frede. so wenig wie ein etwaiger Nachweis der Abhangigkeit vom Christlichen. 67. the work is deeply influenced by him .150 This book appeared in 1904 and shows no awareness yet o f Dieterich s Mithrasliturgie..O 103. daB es meinen Ausfiihrungen gar nichts nehmen wiirde.152 The third edition o f 1927 takes into account the 146 A similar figure seems to have been the first century CE Isis priest and Stoic philosopher Chaeremon o f Alexandria. 80— 155— 86. Chaeremon: Egyptian Priest and Stoic Philosopher. his aim is to give interpretations o f religious themes such as recreation/rebirth and ascension into heaven that are philosophical rather than m ythico-theological. 134 (pointing out that Hermes Trismegistos is mentioned in PGM IV. it is puzzling that he does not point out the many parallels to the Herm etic literature. that he is familiar w ith the Herm etica and refers to them . 148 Dieterich. see Betz. VII. (“Ich will auch hier. 55. 79. wenn Abhangigkeit vom Neuplatonismus sich nachweisen lieBe. with explanatory notes (EPR. 147 Dieterich. n. even if dependency on Neoplatonism or Christianity could be demonstrated. He does.146 These Stoic ideas were already discussed by C um ont and D ieterich. 152 This work began as a lecture delivered in 1909 and published a year later (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. Mithrasliturgie. he articulates ideas o f the philosophy o f religion typical o f Middle Stoicism. 61. n. 15.V The Religio-historical Context . The Fragments collected and translated. His Abraxas shows. 208: “ . 151 Reitzenstein (Poimandres. know Dieterich’s Abraxas (2. the Mithras Liturgy does not show any evidence of Neoplatonic influence.149 The omission o f the Herm etic literature in D ieterichs Mithrasliturgie may be caused by the fact that he is focused on M ithraism and that Hermeticism was brought first to the forefront by Richard Reitzenstein in his book Poimandres. 2. 55. however. 1984). 1910). durch Erfahrungen gewarnt. ich habe in ihr. Dedicated to the m em ory o f Albrecht Dieterich. 87. G M P T .550.151 This situation has changed radically in R eitzen­ stein s Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen nach ihren Grundgedanken und Wirkungen. Leiden: Brill. Rather. 61. n. nirgends eine Spur entdeckt. 1. . die eine direkte Einwirkung neuplatonischer Lehren und ihrer Formulierungen auch nur wahrscheinlich machen konnte. 82. n. This fact and his concentration on the Herm etic literature may have prevented him from even considering the Mithras Liturgy passage. 133.” ANRW 11. By comparison. 56. van der Horst. soweit ich erkennen konnte. 15) mentions “das von Anz erkannte Mithrasmysterium” without further comment.” In a defensive footnote (n. 35 surprising that he does not seem to be interested in utililizing the Egyptian pantheon and its concomitant myths.36:3 (1989) 2067-2103.”) 149 Dieterich. Abraxas. “Chairemon. 2) Dieterich emphasizes that it would make no difference to his argument. 150 On Reitzenstein.. who became N ero’ teacher in 49 CE and who s wrote a work called AiyuTcxtaxT) iaxopia which described the Egyptian priest’s life as a fulfilment o f Stoic ideals.148 Since Dieterich displays an enormous range o f source materials in his Mithrasliturgie. 93). see above. 44. 83— Mithrasliturgie. noch einmal betonen. 31. See Pieter W. and passim).

4. Corpus Hermeticum XIII and Early Christian Literature (Leiden: Brill. See on this point Wilham C. the latter drop the ritual and fully internalize and spiritualize the religion.156 emphasizing its similarities w ith the Herm etic litera­ ture.200— 57. 87. n.161 Accordingly.. besteht also durchaus zu Recht. Agreeing w ith D ieterich s critics he calls the Mithras Liturgy a “pseudo -Liturgie. The Egyptian Hermes.155 He further integrates it into the orientalhellenistic syncretism. 137— 191). et npd^iq dans la magie. wie ich von beiden weiB. his comparison o f C H XIII and the Mithras Liturgy places the latter into the context of the former and points out the many close parallels. 1: “Meme distinction entre Xoyo<.”153 cautiously affirming his major hypotheses and expanding the study o f oriental litera­ ture. entre Xsyojxeva et Spwjxsva dans les mysteres. aber die engere Fiihlung mit der Orientalistik blieb ihnen versagt. 81..” 156 See the programmatic chapter “Orientalischer und hellenistischer Kult” (ibid. n. so geschieht es. XIII consiste dans une experience tout interieure.”160 It is intended to distinguish sharply between the philosophical mysticism o f the Hermetica and magical rituals. und doch ist das Christentum eine orientalische Religion. 4.159 His im portant analysis o f C H X III carries the title “La mystique par introversion. 1979). 82— 53. 160 Ibid. Fowden. 168— has rightly emphasized the connections between the Mithras Liturgy and the 72. 47— 58. in ihrem Sinn.157 The differences between the Mithras Liturgy and the Herm etica are also clear: whereas the former maintains the actual practice o f the ritual. H.158 This turn to spiritualization enabled Festugiere to interpret the entire Herm etic literature in terms of a mystical Platonism. Der Fiihrer aber fur diese Erganzung ist Wilhelm Bousset gewesen. Hermetica as well as the Nag Hammadi texts.36 Introduction controversies about Dieterich s “classic book Eine Mithrasliturgie.203. but not in the strict sense o f the term. see above. 161 Ibid. Ill): “Weg und Ziel haben jedem Forscher auf diesen Gebieten Hermann Usener und Albrecht Dieterich gewiesen.” 155 Idem. dem Philologen und Theologen.154 O n the whole. Reitzenstein supports Dieterich s idea o f the Mithraic character o f the Mithras Liturgy. a point he explains in the Preface (p. its liturgy is rather an 153 Reitzenstein.. mais avec cette difference essentielle que l’operation de C.” . 169— 191: “Dieterichs Hauptfund. daB es sich um die Schrift 70. and passim. rite ou representation symbolique exterieure. sans l’aide d’aucun sacrement. Wenn wir hier erganzen und nacharbeiten. Nur diirfen wir sie mit dem iepoq Xoyo? eines bestimmten Mysteriums so wenig identifizieren wie das poetische Gebet in dem Nephotes-Zauber oder bei Petosiris-Nechepso mit dem izpoq Аоуо^ eines agyptischen Mysteriums. So zolle auch die neue Ausgabe dieses Biichleins den verstorbenen Freunden. meinen Dank. 81. 46— 167-91. eines Mithrasglaubigen handelt. 82. 46-67.. H M R . Grese.” W hat does Festugiere mean by this expression? It is a liturgy. 154 In the third edition o f 1927 Reitzenstein adds the name o f Wilhelm Bousset to the dedication.. 158 Ibid. La revelation. H M R . 157 Ibid. 159 On Festugiere. More recently.

the Mithras Liturgy seems to reflect an early or nascent Hermeticism o f the first and second century CE. its development took place in an Egyptian religious milieu under the influence o f Hellenistic philosophy. substituting for them deified philosophical concepts. analogous to gnosticism. Abraham P. le style ne s’y prete aucunement. plus precisement. Ingrid Merkel & Allen G. Washington. 37 exercise in “virtual reality” comparable to apocalyptic narratives. so that the whole journey is merely “symbolic. This approach implies a certain skepticism w ith regard to traditional Egyptian religion.V The Religio-historical Context . d’un recit de montee au ciel comme la litterature apocalyptique. At stake is the entire complex o f problems concerning immanence and transcendence. mais. while magical proce­ dures were relegated to the “scientific” areas o f alchemy. 164 See on this William C. 1988). not Neoplatonic: the Mithras Liturgy originated in a milieu prior to Neoplatonism. rather than old Egyptian.. Stoic ideas enabled the author to give “rational” explanations for magical practices.” in Hermeticism and the Renaissance: Intellectual History and the Occult in Early Modern Europe (eds. because otherwise the author would not consider it necessary to provide apologetic explanations. a mon sense.” R A C 17 (1996) 1041— 92. In this way they created an intellectual religion. The entire ritual o f rebirth is justified and believed effective because it is constituted in “natural” processes o f generation and regeneration integrated in the cosmos. The fact that the composition separates the more philosophical main body (11. d’un ‘livre de devotion’ d’une maniere geneerique et vague. and so forth. 170: “II ne s’agit pas d’une liturgie: outre d’autre raisons. as its persistent emphasis on magical procedures shows. That philosophy is Stoic.163 The Hermetists sepa­ rated the intellectual treatises from the ritual performances. II ne s’agit pas non plus. Therefore. . l’experience est tout interieure. Bos.”162 However. 1— w ho refers to Christian parallels in Origen and Augus­ 2. Festugiere overlooks that the ritual o f the Mithras Liturgy is supposed to be perform ed realistically. “Magic in Hellenistic Hermeticism. Debus. Sol Salutis. astrology. differently from the Corpus Herm eticum . II s’en rapproche aussi par la fait que la montee est symbolique: c’est en esprit que Ton s’eleve. on the religious side there is no evidence o f Jewish or Christian influences in the entire passage. the performance o f the ritual magic in the Mithras Liturgy goes hand in hand with the imaginary journey to heaven. DC: The Folger Shakespeare Library... To sum up. The cosmological worldview is Greek in origin. 45— 58. tine. 484— 732) from the supplemental and mostly 162 Ibid.164 Moreover. Grese. Clearly. Given these contributing factors. “Immanenz und Transzendenz.” 163 See Dolger. the Mithras Liturgy occupies a precarious place between various ancient traditions. The religion o f the Mithras Liturgy is strictly pagan. He went as far as virtually ignoring the traditional Egyptian gods.

174-80. 11. 551]). with apparatus. A passage in XIII.219— (index). 38-39 (with apparatus. passim.212-302). 219-29. “Stele” (IV. 500 Hermes is also given the magical name Semesilamps.154-205). ad loc. In the piece called “Charm o f Solomon” (IV.. to Nephotes (IV. In a “Lamp divination” spell (VII. the god is called: cpavYjtK ev ттј (xavTela. however.g. 3. e. 443ff.” in Hellenismus und Urchristentum. Morton Smith. 'Epfxyji. xptapieyai. 25 (who notes the omission in the parallel version B. “Hermes’ R ing” (V. Unfortunately. 1596-1715). The closeness is evidenced by terms and concepts found also in the Herm etica. Brinkmann. For these articles. 179.-Apuleius. 1167-1226). Preisendanz. 92— 111. o тркт^еукЈто? 'Ерјлт)? lepoyAiKpixoi^ урајЈЦластс. “Stele o f leu” (V.).540-78).42-195).38 Introduction magical instructions (11. 206-21. Two Greek Magical Papyri. “The Delphic Maxim TNH 0I DAYTON in Her­ metic Interpretation. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 172 n. and to Pitys (IV. 591-609 in Ps. “Consecration” addressed to Helios (IV. 167 See Preisendanz. but it has not yet reached the Gnostic stage o f the Corpus H erm eticum . 33-34.” ibid. 487— 495— 90. 175. M orton Smith]). та ета&ијлата TcpoorecptovY]aev <ev> еаитои Lepa (ЗфХсо eTUxaXou^evY) 'Птериус. 92).. and “Hermeticism and Gnosticism: The Question o f the Poimandres” in Antike und Christentum. and a comment by A. 114-122). 6. 138 is textually dubious and the name 'EpfxaCxo? is Preisendanz s conjecture. a eypa^iev ev 'HXiorcoXet. For the interpretation. 22— 51.Ill5— 66).96171). G M PT. б [леуаХофрш $eoq. 732— 819) shows the way Hermeticism is going.167 there are a num ber o f spells that are in many ways close to the Mithras Liturgy. the refer­ ence to an Herm etic prayer in XIII.850— 929). Hermes thricegreat” [1. (“I speak your name which thrice-greatest Hermes wrote in Heliopolis with hieroglyphic letters” [11. 'Ep|i%. G M P T . XIII. for the literature see Betz.5 (“from this book Hermes plagiarized w hen he named the seven kinds o f incense [in] his sacred book called Wing” [trans. {ЗфХои 'Ер(луј<. the episdes o f Pnouthis (1.15 quotes from an otherwise unattested “Herm etic” book: ex бе таиту]? ттј<. p. The papyrus reads EPM AI. O high-minded god. Asclepius 41. with nn. with two tiny illegible letters w ritten over it and vacant spaces before and after it. 166 See the photographic edition by Daniel. 20 168 See.166 In XIII. . (“Appear to me in the divination. Besides the frequently occurring name o f Hermes.494— 611. who stands for the Egyptian T hot as well as for the Greek god. 895-96]).168 165 Several o f my earlier articles on the Hermetica show that the writings reflect various stages o f development and thus diversity within the Corpus Hermeticum. “R ing” (XII. s. see also Betz. see “Schopfung und Erlosung im hermetischen Fragment ‘Kore Kosmou’.v. and Nag Hammadi Codex VI. with parallel versions to 11.2006-2125). Spell to establish a relationship with Helios (III. “Hidden Stele” (IV . a list o f names for Egyptian divinities is introduced by the words: xoc ovo^axa. 173. furthermore.270-350).165 O ther passages in the PGM . n.. хХѓфас. m ention the name o f Hermes Trismegistos. in Betz.

. 1. xo etc.ou(o. (3oxav«v x al ѕ1бс5у xwv [x[eX]Xovxwv aot. w 9-иуахгр. upwxov cototo a a a eee.Greek Text* f. <[X7]vu^Y](jeCT^aL> ev xw x zk zi xou lepou jaou auvxaу[хахо? — Y o (xeya? 0 (eo)c. "HXc. n(6iXTcuCTov xpi?). Ха^јфаveiv yvkobc. ’'Eaxiv бг xou Xoyou 7]бе r\ хХтја^' [rjeveat-i. Фр[*]. xou ev spiol rcupoc.oi ^ехабо&т^а^. but different readings based on the photographic plates by David Jordan and David Martinez have been considered and adopted. стс5[ла xeXecov е[лои xou б(е)1^а) хтј? б(г)!^а).. c xa <а>тт:рата. ибсор ибахо^. utco xou ap^ayyeXou auxou. 7 verso 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 7iv£U[xa 7r:veu[Aaxo<.vxtov ev ejjtol xpacreoov Феобсорујхоу. хт)? ev epiol оиаѓа? уембои? тсрсохт) u ] utoT]. f. °ФХ*) 0C *)<?> тсрмхт. jv ctsv ^. xou ev sptol TcvsufAaxo? 7tpc5xov —[x(uxwaov xpl?) —тсир. For details see the commentary. Papyri Graecae Magicae. 7 recto 475 476 477 478/9 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 "IXo iK [xot.o<. тсарабоха [хиогтѓјрса. cf(upoaov PX xpt?). бтсо)^ £y< ^ovo? alexo? oupavov p al*> vw x al хахотсхгисо icavxa. infra. Mi&pa? гхѓХги.88100. [xovto бе xexvw a&avaoxav a£uo. ouata уембтјс. ^ u tx j хт^ У]|лехѓра<. хаихт]? o3v сте.. тсрсохт) xr\q е^тј? y e v e ^ ^ " aer]t. хабе ypa<povxc. б т/а jl c y fiewc. xou ev ]u ejxol ибахо<. бсаy uercXaCTjjLevov итсо fiptxyiovoq cvxljxou x al бе- * The text given here on the whole follows Preisendanz. ep.Y]v xpacxt. np&rov Y rjta cy]. ripovota x al ЧРихУ). .

&vy)to? yevvY)&el? ex &vy)tyj? иатера?. ev те афизд) x al ефихм[л./]pt. Y eyw TiaXiv jv [Ј. (Be^eXTitojiivo? што хратои? ЈлеуаХобша(хои x al бг£Ј.’Eyw o 8(e)i(va.aTL јлетаy ev <v >y]9'W xpao^pa!.).’Eyw yot-p el^-L o ulo? фи^м^] бе[хои npo’ oi тсрма. tva ^aufxaato )& to lepov uup xucpe.Y —ev aXXto.aTi tov a&avaTov Alto­ va x al беатиоту^ tcov rcuplvwv бсабујЈха— tmv.фо^. х ата боу^ха &eou ajj-eTa^erov euY u’ a evjc.40 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 Greek Text ? y z ip o c. ’Eav бе ujxtv бо^т) јхетгрта p j <ра&' [ле&ар&а <. xal nvevari ev ejxol to lepov 7iveu}xa v e ^ e v атготои vey&w арти Y .a^ap<p[. x al airclxa <avaXa(3e> pie иуиј [лета ttqv аттара1тт]тоу xal хате7т:е[с]— youcrav xP ^av. tpS-apTY] (BpoTtov cpuai.ѓу« uyji aut eutoLe. a&avarw 7iveufj. ’Ercel oux Icttlv [jlol e<pixTov 9-vy]tov уеумта auva<v>t. ’Ercel fjiXXw хатотстеиесл/ cnrjfjiepov toc? a&avaTot. eyto elfjtx p. o ju y есттаОг. ov yj б(е)1^а). epovout rcapaxouvY)^. aa> e’ au ] i i tua ieco.fJieV ) [A U cpU TSt/ tva Y TC X Y O C [хета tyjv evecrxwaav x al стсробра хатетtel— youaav [xe ^petav еттотстеиаа) tyjv a&avaTov ap5(y]v r a a^avaxw TtveujxaTt.ае ттј a&avaTw yevecrei. ay lot.а? yeipoq acp&aptou. x al axoucnr) [xou o (^cooyovo? x al 7iept.. 'ѓгре(^а& — [хѕтатгарабо^а^ .evat ^риаоесбест^ [xap^xapuyal? т?ј? a&avarou XaptY^o— vo? c y aeco Y]ua cw j uae coiae.evo? al&Yjp apvojxYjtkp.а1 [хета ty]v eveaTwaav x al xaTC7ielyouaav pie 7uxpav avayxYjv axpeox67rY]Tov. ay la? и<рестт(осту]? [jlou тсро? oXlyov ty)? avt)pw7rl— vy)? fxou фи^хт)? Suvocjjlcm?. a vyp scppevecroucptpLy^. tva O-eaaw^xaL to a(3uacrov ттј? avaTo)aj? cppixTov ибсор vuto &eaw s'/M ovyisyoitx.? ayiaa&el? ayiaajxaat.]v x ..tw aO-avaxw ибатс. p ot(A evap^o^at.? 6[x[xaat.етатгараХу]^.xe^u(j. tw сттересотата) aspc e'ioaY] феуаЈЗсог)' tva voY)p. SJOyLSVMQ T ) U O et. аф&артои ev а<роот1ат(о x al б^аиуе! xoajjuo.

x a l бфт] creauxov avaxoucpc-^ofxevov [x]al uuep(3aivovxa el? ифо?. б[ло1(о? бе x a l б xaXoujxevo? аи— Хо?. xou? &eou? x a l i n i сте 6pfju*)[xevou?. Kal xoxe офу] xou? &eou? aoL eujxevw? e^XcTiovxa? x a l jxv]— xext. eav 9) xexXyjptofjiivo? el? xa [херт] xou атпг)Хс.барк«) хирт] cpLX(3a. бфу) xyjv arcocpopav xou бра^лахо?. ’'Erceixa crupiorov [xaxpov a(upK70v био). aXXa rcopeuofjti— . стсу/).. ’’Офт] ] yap атсб xou б1ахои w? auXov xpejxap-evov el? бе xa fJtipy] ха тсрб? Хфа arcepavxov olov кпи]— Xccotiqv.сохои. f'EXxe ал:6 xtov | axxlvoov 7T:veu[Jia y' avaCT7rcov. тгахро? [лои.. [o]uxe av&pwrcou outs £co u aXX<ou>. rravxa бе офу] a&avaxa. Y ap)(Y] xou Xet-xoupyouvxo? avefxou. xou? rcoXeuovxa? ava(3alvovxa? el? oupavov &eou?. <жтхе сте б о х е ф jx]— s o ov xou aepo? elvat. ercl as бppuo|Aѓvou?. aXXou? бе xaxa(3alvovxa?. OuSevo? бе axoucrec. euetxa tiotcuucrov Xeycov Протсросреууу) (xopio? n p o — cpup тсрофеуу^ vepiexhpe apфevxev tcix7]x [ [xetou evap& cpupxe^w фи— al рс. оибе офт) ouSev o f. OuXa^ov [хе. o Suva[a]at.Greek Text 41 537 538 539 540 541 542 [лои тсрсофих^ тгрме. cpavqcrexai.а xou битхои. У Офт] {сти} бе axevl^ovxa? аос. CTUfj-^oXov &еои ^(ovxo? аф&архои. ’Офт] yap exelvY)? хтје? Yjfiipa? x a l хтј? wpa? &elav 0-eat. 8 recto 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 xtov sttI утј? &vt]xc5v ev exelvT) xyj copa. 'H бе тсореса xaiv opcode— vtov &ewv б(. x a l б exepo? б[ло1со? el? ха [хе— ру] xa exelvou. &еои. асучѓ) v z y & e ip &av[zeXou.v. | агутѓ]. 2и бе еиФѓа)? елхв-е? бe^tбv бaxxuXov етг1 хб ахо[ха x a l Хеуе’ St-yvj.

Aoyo? y ' ercaxouaov ptou.xXove e r x ix a .Ха(А. x a l TtLKXtovxa? oXov xov aepa. xaXXtcpco^ a^a’ i. TrupLTrvoe фирп/среи.<.v tw v Ttpay[Jt. 7 | pLCT7rope apet. U oX <pwx6< xxlcrxa —ol бе’ auyxXelaxa —2е[Аестс. 2u бе eu&eax. o Егр&гиФ.. атсХсо— tHjcrexat. war p< тгир^ар?] | eXoupe. axou— aov [xou. Ѕ ш х е xov v t z o — xelfxevov Xoyov xapi[AUcov ctou xou? ocp&aX— [AOU?. срсохобмха. w axe a e e x - 7cXay7)voa.). Hu бе TraXiv Xeye.42 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 Greek Text vouc. a x o u a e a & a i xxutcov. тсростбоха (3povx?. xov avto x6ct[aov xa$apov x a l Sovoufjievov x a l (X7]Ssva xwv &e«v t) ayyeXtov 6p<[x>(0[xevov. otcou ac/yr] (3' x a l xa axoXou&a. M exa бе xo elrcelv ae xov (3' Xoyov. | yaXXa(3aX(3a. [xeyaXY]<. xa nupivcn xXyj&pa xou (xexpa)— Xt^wfAaxo?. . Tauxa crou e l n ovxo? eu&eax. Alwv ax(3a.pov xuxXw^xa x a l &upa<. x a l eu&eto<. 595 596 597 598 тси | pLCTcofxaxe qjvouTjvio^. avaXajxutov б Eu. ’Eyw elfxc <o> a u p iX a v o ? ufxlv aaxY]p. «pwxoxpaxtop п е п п е р тсретсеЈАтата. б битхо<. 6 а^бтјаа? 7 iveu[xaxt. Ttuplva? атгохе— xXeu7[jtiva<.a(ou<. TC ptTC e uevxLxepouvL. бфт] атсо xou бСстхои aaxepa? TCpocrep^ojjiivouc. Tcupt&ufjie | Iato. (nevxa^axxu— Xt. xou б(е)с^а) хтј? б(е)Т^а). "Oxav oOv 1бт]<. бфт) a 7 tet. 7 iXcIctxou<. aupicrov (3' x a l 7V(otctcuctov) [3'. x a l ex xou (За&оис. ercl xyjv iSlav xa£c.yv). CTiyr] Xo(yo<..yevxo<. x a l xou б£ахои avot. стгрѓ). xupie.2t. 2u бе uocXlv XeyeIk y Y]. .axc<)(v). ги n upt. 7 tveupiax6< (o .

<7 )(7 ]< l<p«? | aoucrtvecpi. u n o a v ^ p o o m v T ]? уХооаат)? 7] & V 7]xou cp&oyyou 7] 0 V7]X7]? <ptov7]? a & a v a x a ^tovxa x a l evxLfJia o v o fx a x a 7]£(0 07]7](0 (. oxt.7] (01. T a u x a a o u z l — tcovxo ? axoucTEt. T a u x a r ca v x a X£y£ jxexoc 7tup o? x a l 7tv£upia— x o ? x o Tcpwxov octcoxeX m v .£(0 07] £7] KO 07] LOT] (07](0 £07] 0£(0 (0(. 7 tu p t . (BpovxT)? x a l xX ovou x ou n z p i — 'Ojxouo? 8 e aE au xov а 1 а $ 7 ]9 т]а£С. 600 x s p a u v o |x X o v e ir\ m \ u o t ju o .8 t v a n u p c ^ t.7] £(0 07] t-tt. vtj? wctxe xw v 9 -( e (o) v .7) 7](0 0(0 07] C£(0 07] (007] (. apsv(3apa£et.a . 2 u б е TcaXtv X £ y e ‘ асут ] X o (yo?). ’Асттроба^ха. X s y s - . x a — e^ ovxo?. cpooxoxLVTjxa a a v ^ s p ( o [ 3 .££(0 £ lx a ojao I m ? x o бeu x £ p o v a p 5( 6 {JL£vo?.Хра. 2 x a ? oOv eu 9-£(o? IX x e атсб xou 629 630 &£tou axsvL^wv sc? a s a u x o v x o 7tV£U£Aa. ет и х а Х о и — 605 606 607 608 609 610 (jwa evexa хтј? хахетгесуоистт)? x a l m xpa? x a l атсарасхтјхои avayxT ]? x a (лтјбетсм ^ w p yjaavxa e l ? S'VYjxYjv cpucrcv [лт]бе cppaaO evxa ev б с а р — ^pcociet. 8 verso 598 599 cptoxo^ta toaoaa). | (3 o o a 7 ]i.(0(0 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 07) 7]£(0 7)C(0 O ] 60) 1 (0(0 07]7]C (07]£ Y (007] (. £[леftet-pe [х8 рс. cpwxo? xX eo? f^eeyevTjxe. 601 602 603 604 аи^тјсгЃсроо? aouaive<pc. 624 625 626 627 628 E l x a | avot-^ov xou ? бф& аХ^ои? x a l офт] a v s w y u t— a? x a ? &upa? x a l x o v xoa [x o v x o ? xcov Dupwv. 7 ev 7tup[. (. ixapjxapevxeu.о[хотир 7]ф 1. 'O x a v o5v атгохахааха& тј a o u 7] фи^т]. a v o t^ o v [лос. 7]07] (OUT] 7](007]£ £(07]La ат]а£7]а 7]££7] ££7] ££7] l £(0 7]£(0 07]££07] 7]£(0 7]U(0 07] £C(0 7](0 (07] (07] ££ 0 0 0 UU07]. loo? exxeX ectt)? xou? 11' a& a v a x o u ? &£ou? x o u хост[лои. o ? e o T iv e v — атсо хтј? x o u О-ѕа^хахо? 7]бо— 7ivE U [xa a o u au v x p s^ E C -v x a l хтј? x a P ^ ? x a l a v a (3 a lv £ iv .Greek Text 43 f. p a a a o fx e v o v . 7тротсро<рѕуу 7].

a o u r\ Suvajju.o<. [xuxw x a l х а т а — rcpcoTov e i q t o 660 661 cptXet. бо^У].aSwv a 7 ia — S'avaxt-aO -eli..[X£V[X£pO (popa&YJV SptY) 7ipO— &pt. ’E a v aoc... p i y i a T e & etov. х а Ф £ > [ х е у а Х о б ш а ј х е . t v a cp a v el? ^p-/]jjlocxѓ-стт^ ev z a X q a y a — &al<. " O x a v oOv t o u t o [xu S l rcotTjayji. ) la ^ u e t. f. e y w o S ( e ) i ( v a ) ттј<. tw Е и & ѓм ^ а а т г а а а с a u T o v rcu p lvw а а т с а а т и ш ' K u p ie . cpopaO t.X eu . T o u t o < a o u > s L t t o v t o q aT p acp yjaovT ai. tou oupa— &ее' 0-ecov.<. x a l T to n q a a v T i.v av& p(07u v/)v — tv a аи[Х7сараХа^У)<. ev т а и т т ] ттј w p a х а т а бохтЈап^ & (eo )u UTcep(3aXX0VT0<.?. (3 a a a v t^ to v X a y o v a .?. ecopoo pcope coppi сориор pcop pcot. б xupc. l a ^ u e i a o u Y tcvoyj. a7][xepov t o u t o u u tco aou fjie<Ta>y£VVY]&£VTO<.p ox. t w a s yevvT jaavT t. avot-yojxevac. £w p £C0p £w p £(0p£. x a l офт] a u T o v Ttept. S e l v a x a l lx & — poc. x a l tdpocq tov t t ? j avj^xepov Yjfxepa? © раф ^арг wpovojxov.. y ev o fx ev o c. ev j ix o i v i X eu x w x a l < ^ > X a — x o x x I vy] e ^ o v T a ic u p iv o v a x e q ^ a v o v . 634 635 636 637 638 639 6 40 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 en L a e a l a x r iv e Q ' ’' Е а ѕ с б е auToov [x e a o v . eu£t. x u p i e . бфт) 0-eov veavrepov. copat.o p t. a a r c ^ c o v . ф ovo^xa f. | x u p i e . атгерјхатс-хои x a l. [3aai. av^pc*)7io<.. tyjv oXov атгобс-боид t o 7iveu— бе^ 1— fxa. S ( e ) I ( v a ) .44 631 632 633 Greek Text тсроаеХО-е. n u p L v o x p f/jx . ov O u X a ^ o v [xe 7ipoau[X7]pc.— бтј. 662 663 Таита & ou? el7Tcbv офт] | &upa<.H Xc.— 7r:aTouvTa ev ббсо. a p ^ a v S a p a срсота^а тсиркроота Xjx— (Зи9г£ £TC. a y - yeiXov [xe tm (х е у 1 а т м &eqj. 2 u б е a T e v ^ c o v x a l fxuxco^xa fxaxpov хер атое^ бсо?. — Т аи та aou e l 656 657 658 659 tto v to ^ еХеиаетас. xal ep/ofxeva? ex to u Pa- T cap ^ evou ? e v (3uaalvo[. [ х е < у а > Х о х р а т « р . e l q t o v tco X o v .e. e x t}v7)TY}£ и а т ѕ р а ? ттј<. 9 recto 653 654 655 fi. a y a & o u T c p o a x u v v ja a l a s a ^ t o l x a l S e e r a t х а т а Suva[jn. oti . v o u x a l тгјд утјс.. top pECOpCOpt. та cpuXaxTYjpta x a l Xeye. e x T o a o u T w v [xupt.

x a l оф/) xaxep^ofjiva^ aaxparca? x a l cptoxa [xap— . ] Xalpe. [хестарусХхм. | x^vovSaY)?. | ^vea^eY)?. | o Z. o l c r x p e — cp o vx e ? u tto ev хеХеист[ха x o v 7 ie p i^ iv Y ) x o v x o u x u x X o u a ^ o v a x o u o u p a v o u x a l (3 p o v x a ? x a l аахра7та? xa l x a l a e i a j j iM V x a l x e p a u v w v (ЗоХа? acpt.vc. . Y б'. ] XalpE. a c e p t o v t k . Xaipe. Xalpe.'. al Tu^at. e fx o l б е e u a e P e i &еоае(Зг1 ovxt. xou oupa— vou. o l l e p o l x a l a X x L [j. Y ?". | apappia^Y]?. cpuXaxLaaai xtov xecrcxapwv axuXlcrxwv. ou? беТ ere асттсастаа&ас opioca)? exa— axov xaj 1б6со auxwv ov6p.. o l x u p t o t [jlou x a l f x e y a X a l p e . e^ovxe? ev 7tept. Xalpe. p.o t. Xaipe. ] XaZpe. хрѕф^&атг)?. 7ioXoxpaxope? xou oupavou.axr Xalpexe. Ilposp^ovxat. a x a p a — a v e v x a T ? e v e a x w a a c . ol xv&^a— x o c p u X a x e ? . Tauxa ISwv асттса^ои оихсо?" Xalpexe. Auxai xaXouvxat. Xaipe. Y ] epoupo[x(3pt. "Oxav бе evaxakriv ev&a x a l ev&a xyj xa^et. v e a v l a t . axevc^e xto aept. Y] s ' . o ?'.[xepo?. (Зрофесос. XlXP(01*Xl9-co.jAt. xpaxouaat.7]?. Xalpe. &XPlXl0UPXaipe.. 6 S'. Y Tcpwxvj. Y y '. 6721 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 TcpoawTta eyovaoLC. a x o ? ) ? x e x a l o p a c re w ? e u x o v la v . o e ' . ] Xalpe. o y '. | Xoxpaxope? & eoL 689 690 691 692 693 694 Xatpe. Обхоѓ.£(o— jxaaLV Xivol? xaxe^ovxe? бсабтѓ)[лаха xpu— стеа.. eopaaL^Y]. (isjxvocl x a l aya&al TCap&evoi. o [S'. al ayicoxa— xat. o T t p a ix o ? .Greek Text 45 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672.— e v x e ? e l ? б и а с т е јЗ а ^ cp u X a . ? x y j ? a Y jfjie p o v Y ] ^ e — p a ? a y a & a t ? w p a t ? . lepal x al ofxoStaLxoL xou [ji(.v ol xaXoujjievot.epxet.ppo<pop. S^OfJLJXLY]. u y e l a v x a l стсо^хахо? o X o x X y j — p la v . elat. -/риаеа. 7] (3'. ерЈЛ[-х^а^мФ Xalpe. pLE^pav. oupavou Tu)(oa. бе x a l Ixepot &eol xaupwv pieXavtov проампа.

9т]гк jxt. ф а т vy)v 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 I^ o v x a t t ] v бф[л/. e c tx lv бе£с.а X^p'1 № aX0U yj ’’ Apxxo? xivouaa x a l avxt-axpscpouaa xov oupavov. ptivs au . 6xi x eX eu et. (^cooyovou y£vo[A£ |vo?. 7iepl xou SsTva тсрау^лахо?. 6c. apx£vx£7tc. iv a ctuvxlvyjctt]^ x a ? Ttevxe o c i a d r j a s i g . x a x e ^ o v x a x?) cSjaov ypuoeov. xaxacpt-Xwv rcaXiv x a cpuXaxxY]pia x a l X eyw v [XOXpt-jJLO (pep[. 721 722 атсо yeveaefax. x a x a wpav avarcoX suouaa x a l хахатгоХвиоиаа.vyev6[xs | vo? aTioytyvo^at. 9 verso 709 710 tpepepL. 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 sv&o cpevev &po7Ufa)t). [xa— xpov zic. K upte. TcaXt. Xpy)fjiax[.. тгротгрофЕуугј. K a l axevt^ e xw &eco | fxaxpov [xuxwjxevo? x a l aarca^ou оихм?" K upte. vew xepov. j3a<ravl£(ov xyjv y acrxsp a. crot. ’'E rcetxa бфу] auxou e x xwv ofAjxaxcov acrxparca? x a l e x xou ст(ор. w? ctu £vo[xo^£XY]aa? . xou S e lv a . sfxsakpt.[JLO— f. Ха Ф £ ’ *°c™ pxa I Y?]?> X alp s.ахо? a a x sp a ? aXXofiivou?. Ха[А7грофеу |утј. ^w<Y]> [xou. S u v a a x a Tuvsujjiaxo?. w? cru sxxt-aa?. jxr] [jie хахаХѕсфт]?.[Ji£(o uevapco cpupX£XW Ф^Р^SapLW Фрт) Фрт)Х(За. x u p ie . S u бе eu&eco? <[xuxw > [xuxwfxa [xaxpov. eI? a7ioy£V £atav avaXu&sl? тсорѕио | \lvli. x a ^P£ > беатсоха ибахо?.aov.. vefxe ev хт) | ф и ^ p-ou.'1 46 695 696 Greek Text f x a tp o v x a x a l crstofjiivYjv xy]V yvjv x a l x a x s p x o [A £ v o v & (s o )v U K epfxeyeO iq. sv y i x w i X eu x w x a l ХРи(ТФ ax£<pavtp x a l a v a ^ u p i a t . au£6[Ji£Vo? x a l a u ^ & e l ? | x e X euxco. aTuoQ-eaiv [xuxw. xpucroxofxav.

au бе axyjxet. t.. rcptoxT] хтј<. ou Y apx*]' T eve— ] gic .<.v aacpaXw? «<. tv a [ay] axouav]. Xeye auxou ercl хтјс. x a l .^ auxojAaxa)?. e l a i'io ? eaxt. UTcap^et.. x a l x oxe [AVY)[A0Vcuaet. < x w > ouxext. ЈЗХтгјОт^ас. тсра^еа)?Aaf3«v | xavQ-apov 7)Xt. oarapaf3ax(o<. ттј фи/тј x a t oux ev aeauxw e a e t. ДсбаахаХСа тг\<. w? x a u — x a rcavxa ^copYjcret. T a u x a aou e in o v x o c . ’E a v бе ОеХт)? x a l аи[А[АиaxY] xpyjaaa&at. A eyet. a y y e lo v ueXouv [Aupou р о б ^ о и xaX X laxou. ev xw aTca&av<ax>t. ’E a v бе x a l Sel^aL auxto &e— Xt)?.? wc. бе aot.p7)<. ’E a v бе (3ouXt)$t] r i g .Greek Text 47 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 x a l | inoLriacnq [Auaxrjpiov. w axs x a Xeyo[Aeva ex elv o v [aovov auv aot. St. П — V yvexat. euO-eto? Ovrjaxet. Y T a бе tZjic. a7tocpot.. бе o aua&avaxt. xov Tcpai— xov итсо[ЗаХе auxaj Xoyov.. ’Eyco e l [A <pepoupa | [At-oupi. x a u t c o xou [AeyaXou &eou pyjOivxa.. ev ex a x a a e t... Xet-waa? Tcolirjaov [Aa^cov. aeXr]V7)<. oxav aot.v6[Aevo<. e|A )<.. (3aXe tic . x a l oxav <pay7]. w? [AuaxTjc. w? < a u > итсер auxou xpt.P^<7[aoi. xp^^°c[Aevo? xw xotcco. XP^W a uxou T7)v о ф ^ ТФ [AuaxTjptto. x a utco xou 0-eou elpy][Aeva. T ou— xov aveX6[Aevo<.a[A6<. oaov ^ouXet. ’E a v бе x a l [a o v o ? тјс.? eveo?. aruoxplvYjxat. [Aexa xo 7capayyeX[Aa {хм } T capaxouaai.. xetpaXyj? a{u }xovto cp&oyyto. auve[A(3aXtov auxw X wxopqxpa? атс ѓр [А а x a l [AeXt. au vayveu exw aot.pto[Aevo<. x a l arcoaxeaJko e ^ u x « v x a l (3aXa— v elou .axov xov x a q ф ' axxTva? e^ovxa Tcolirjaov tic . x a l еи&ѓ— to? auxov офу] Tipoaep^ofAevov x a l е а $ ѓ — o v x a . xplvac.. yeveaeto? aeyjt-ouw. fhqalov xaXXaivov (3a&u ev артсаутј хтј<. 7)[Aepa<. обхо? xpl? xou evcauxou. axouet-v. Xeyet. ТтсѓхХихо? бе eaei. w x ex v o v .. x a v -?)v [Auplwv a x t x wv o x.a a x lx wv T° v XPylC L v x a ' e^<5)(v ) I[J° L arceXeuaexat. еи&ем? XP7)CT[A(oSif]aet. x a l eyxet. av — 9-ptorcoi.a[A(o.

? -/ukoV TCEpixp^wv ty]v бфп>. x a l оф ѕтас SrjXauyco? wctte cte &aup. ?)Xlou [xeaoupavouvTo?’E yw | as ETsXsaa. x a l Sa>ctec a o i . t o ayysT ov x a l X sye t o (ovojjia) e n l to u a y y o u ? hui Y)jiipa<.|AEV7](v) (3oT<XVY)V T7] C V TU oSw TY) yEVOJJLEVY] XsOVTL apov to v x^Xov x a l a? [xeXiTi x a l £[xup— vy] ypa^ov etc l фиХХои n ep a eo u q t o бхтаура^х— jjuxtov ovofjia.1 48 760 761 762 763 Greek Text сттрмаа? xa&apu**. &афа<. х а т а & so v vou |X 7]vla. a (ЗоиХѕц to v Oeov. A lx o u Se.а? to v xav& apo(v). ѕстткхаа? x a l auvEUtoxTQOel? a7rot)ou xa&apslax. tv a [xot y\ ctou o u a ia ysvY] j p r \ o i — f. to u t o u [xsl^ov’ ou^ sOpov ev tw xoajxw rcpa— yjxaT slav. 10 recto 764 [A £. a{A[i.— £aa?. ^ (oo^ u tou vti.v. teXelco?. ’E av Se aXXw ФеХтд? Selxvueiv. (^[xupva x a l olvto MevStqctIw x a l (3ua— ctlvo) a n o & o v ev xua[xc5vt. e i q to v aTca&avaTt-afjLov. об [ЗоиХец [Х£та poSivou. a q u 7toxeiT ai. тгро? avaToXa?. tw S(e)T(va) [xovw 0 te la Y ev] ou e i o c ] 765 766 767 768 769 770 EfJtol [XO tO | ^ Т Ј Ј Ј в С У^ V р ГССХи Г Ј .a(![£t. ’E yw y a p £t[ix cptop cpop a cpwq cp oT t^aa? — o l S s ‘ cpcop <pa>p ocpoS'Ei. x a l ev обтм<. e y e туј<. ’'Ap^ou Se auTov ттј Xeovti . x a l 7ipo y ' t^ae— 771 772 773 774 775 776 111 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 pwv ayvsuaa? eX&e 7ipwla<. 7] Se to u {лѕуаХои &sou сгиатааѓ? e a x i v Y]Ss‘ Ваата^а? xsv'a'TpiTiv ttjv 7tpoxs(.ov Ispav en id-ec. 788 T o Se ovojxa ecttlv t o u t o * l EE 00 car. t o Se -/pZoyLa. x a — XoUfXEVY)? (BoTaVY)? XEVTpiTlSo. ETcaxouasTat. arcoXst-xs t e XeTv cpuXXov Sstxvuwv YjXtto. — Tyj Se 7][x(e)p(a) (ЗаатаЅ. .

? ^OTavY] <pu— етас атсо [xy]Vo? Ilauvt. x a l t o cpuXXov eXl^a? ерфаХе e l? to poSt-vov. .Greek Text 49 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 Т оито | e x k i y e .. бота!. т а 7ттера. tou |ay]vo?. to бе аито бтѓјаа? veupot. x a l т а cpuXXa оиХотера x a l tov xaprcov e^ovTa 6 [aoiov tw xopufx(3w a<T7iapayw a y p lw . Т оито тои xu p lou и тсобе1£^ то? еиреОт) ev tw M e v e — Хаѓтт) ev ty} ФаХаури тсро? таТ? avajSoXal? tc y t ov X jc I < ty}?> tou BY ]<cra>a(^o? (Sotocvyj?. ’'Еатсл/ бе | [aovoxXwvov x a l 7iuppov c ty p i ty}? pO^qc. Euwvup. xpacr^at.<ov t > ou Tcpoa&ufXTjpL. 10 verso 819 820 Tpouw. ty}? fxeXavY)? у?}?. . tv a сриХахттјрЕ-астОт]?. to бе euwvupiov el? ujxeva Xeuxou тгроЈЗатои x a l xp& ™ auTw f.? тои аитои £wou тсер1афа1. T a бе <puXaxTYjpt.avT l тои х а т а ето? y \ х а т а 7tavoeX7]vov. 'H бе y v w a i? аит?}? outw? y ly v e T a r ’'IfBew? Trcepov -/pLexon t o a x p o — [xeXav x<*Xaa&ev tw xaL ТФ y e lv аттотитстес. тсХт]реата— tov x a l to итсорлг^а e^ et. ojjiola бе ccttlv tw op&w TcepujTepewvc. aXXa p ^ a v T a el? TtoTajJiov < XP^1> XP^a ^ a t ф ороиута to jjtiya pLuaTYjptov tou xav& apou tou ava^wTiupTj&evTO? бкх twv x e ' £wwv opvewv..? бе ty] 7грау[хате1а xpTQ^afxevo? ш гере& аи[xaaa. 'H бе xevTptTt.iov y p ^ o v el? u[xe— v a тсро^атои f/iX avo? (^xupvofjiiXavt-. tov Tporcov t o u t o v t o ptiv 8eE. ev tol? Repeat.a e^et. E lu e v бе { xol 6 &eo?‘ M tjxctl xpw | стиу/р1ст{лат[. w? to a y p to v a eu — t Xov. ПоХХахс.’'E gtlv бе 7Tapa7rX-y]CTtov tw xaXoujxevw таХатг/].

G M P T (1996). EY EIA EE. This is the invocation o f the prayer: 490 495 500 “First origin o f my origin. the first o f the spirit | in me. spirit o f spirit. and for an only child I ask for immortality. 48-54. whose m other is N N .Translation* 475 480 485 Be gracious to me. earth material. first beginning o f my beginning. the first o f the water in me. the first o f the fire in me. O Providence and Psyche. M M M fire god-given for my mixture o f the mixtures in me. for an initiate o f this our power (furthermore. w ithout soul and yet alive w ith soul. . it is necessary for you.]. which the great god Helios Mithras ordered to be handed over to me by his archangel so that I alone may go to heaven as an “eagle” | and behold [the] all. in order that. O O O AAA EEE. N N . Meyer’s in Betz. after the present and * The translation is a revision o f Marvin W. not for gain. transfer me to the immortal birth and next. w ho writes these mysteries handed down. a perfect body o f me. O daughter. to take | the juices o f herbs and drugs. water o f water. based on the commentary infra. M ETERTA | P H O T H (M ETH ARTHA PH ER IE. YEI AYI EYOIE. if it seems right to you. AEEIOYO. to my underlying nature. now. the first o f the earthy material in me | YE YOE. because o f its fashioning by a noble arm and an incorruptible right hand in a world w ithout light and yet radiant. PPP SSS P H R [. in another place) IEREZATH . which will be [made known] to you at the end o f my sacred treatise). which.

I may envision the immortal | 505 beginning with the immortal spirit. O perishable nature o f mortals. drawing in as much as you can. but rather you will see all immortal things. but improved through the exceedingly powerful m ight and the imperishable right hand | and w ith the immortal spirit. stand. a mortal born from a mortal womb. and that the life-giving | and encompassing ether hear me. it is out o f reach to ascend together w ith the golden radiances o f the immortal brilliance. For I am the son PSY CH O [N] DEM OY P R O C H O PR O A . sanctified through holy consecrations —which holy [power] supports for a short while my human soul-power. and at once <take me back> safe after the inexorable and pressing | need. K R A O C H R A X R O IM E N A R C H O M A I | and the sacred spirit may breathe in me.” Draw in breath from the rays three times. [to envision] the immortal Aion and lord o f the fiery diadems —I. You will hear nothing either o f hum an or o f another living being. in order that I may gaze upon the unfathomable. and others setting.]N M O Y P R O P S Y C H O N P R O E . OEY AEO EUA EO E YAE OIAE. w ith the firmest air. so that you seem to be in midair. in order that I may be born again in thought. For you will see the divine constellation on that day | and hour. being | mortal. EIOAE PSENABOTH. in order that I may marvel at the sacred fire. according to the immutable decree o f god. with the immortal water. w hom N N bore. Since for me. the presiding gods arising into heaven. . E R O N O Y I PA R A K O U N ETH .Translation 51 exceedingly pressing need. N Y O TH ESO E C H O O Y C H IEC H O A . 515 520 ARNOM ETH PH . frightful water o f the dawn. N E C H T H E N A PO TO Y N E C H T H IN A R PI ETH. 510 A N C H R E P H R E N E S O U P H IR IG C H . N N . EYE YIA EEI AO E'lAY IYA IEO. KYPHE. [Then] you will see yourself being lifted up and | ascending to the height. which I will again | receive after the present bitter and relentless necessity 525 530 535 540 545 which is pressing down on me —I. For today I am going to envision w ith immortal eyes — I. I am M A C H A R PH [. nor in that hour will you see anything o f mortal affairs on earth.

for you will see it hanging from the sun-disk like a pipe. and immediately you will see | a multitude o f five-pronged stars proceeding from the sun-disk and filling all the air. the X E R T H E U T H . But you at once put your right finger on your m outh and say: “Silence! Silence! Silence! Symbol o f the living imperishable god | Guard me. my father. w ith the result that you are shocked.52 Translation 550 555 560 565 570 N ow the course o f the visible gods will appear through the disk o f god. | At once close your eyes and recite the following prayer. Silence! N E C H T H E IR T H A N M ELO U !” Then make a long hissing sound.” 575 580 585 Immediately after you have said this the sun-disk will be expanded. expect a great crash o f thunder to be heard. make the hissing sound twice and the popping sound twice. | And you will see the gods intently staring at you and rushing at you. but rather going about in their own order o f affairs. w hen it is assigned to the region o f the east. wandering about w ith you. the XY. But you say again: “Silence! Silence! (the formula) I am a star. the pipe].” And then you will see the gods looking graciously upon you and no longer rushing at you. and that none o f the gods or angels is threatening you. . Toward the region o f the west [it is the source of] the unending east wind. and in the same way the other [west wind going] toward the regions o f that one [scil. Thus w hen you see that the world above is pure | but agitated. But you say again: “Silence! Silence!” And w hen the sun-disk has opened. | the origin o f the ministering wind. where there is “Silence! Silence!” and what follows. and shining forth out o f the | deep. and in a similar way the so-called pipe. After you have said the second formula.. and say: “PR O PR O PH EG G E M O R IO S P R O P H Y R PRO PH EG G E N E M E T H IR E A R PSEN TEN PITETM I M EO Y E N A R T H P H Y R K E C H O PSY RID A R IO | T Y R E PHILBA. T hen you will see the turn-about o f the image [scil. next make a popping sound. the east].. you will see the boundless circle and its fiery doors shut tight.

O lord. Light-mover. Light-creator (others: Confiner). PR O PR O PH EG G E EM ETH EIR E M ORIOM OTYP^EPHILBA. Fire-light-maintainer. Light-beauty. N N . GALLABALBA. Fire-breather. ELO U R E. Light-forcer. living and honored.. Light-increaser. SA N C H ER O B . AKBA. Aion. which have not yet passed into mortal nature nor declared in articulate speech by human tongue or mortal speech or mortal sound: | EEO O E EO IO O OE EEO EEO E O O E E O IO O OEEE OEE O O E IE EO O O O E IEO OE O O E IEO OE IEEO EE IO OE IOE O E O EO E O E O OIE OIE E O O I III EOE OYE EO O E E EO EIA AEA EEA | E EE EEE EEE IEO EEO OEEEOE . AZAI. the immortal names.Translation 53 The third prayer: 590 595 600 605 610 615 “Give ear to me. BEEGENETE. O Fire-burner. Spirit-light. Fire-whirler. For I invoke. SEMESILAM. IAO. Light-giver. PSY RIN PH EU . Subduer o f stars. you who have bound together w ith your spirit the fiery bars o f the fourfold | root. Lightning-shaker. . | Light-ruler. P H N O U E N IO C H . SOUSINEPHI. OAI. whose m other is N N . Fire-sower. hearken to me. PY R IC H IB O O SEIA . Fire-body. PE N T IT E R O U N I. [ IE OE IO EIO . open for me. SO U SIN EPH I A R EN B A R A ZEI M A R M A R EN TEU . AIO. AREI EIKITA Fire-thronger. because | o f the pressing and bitter and inexorable necessity. Light-famous. Fire-spirited.. Fire-delighter. PEPPER PREPEM PIPI.

At once great him w ith the fire greeting: “Hail.” Recite all these things w ith fire and spirit. beautiful in appearance.54 Translation 620 625 630 635 640 645 650 EEO EY O OE EIO EO OE OE EE O O O Y IO E . whose m other is N N . look into the center o f them. w hen | you do this. while you gaze intently. the first time performing to the end. since he has been born again from you today. N N . in a white tunic and a scarlet cloak. N ow stand still and at once draw spirit from the divine into yourself. W hen you have said these things. then in the same way w hen you begin the second time. | who was born from the mortal womb o f N N and from the fluid o f semen. E O R O R O R E . and who. which is within the doors. Then w hen | your soul has been restored. and you will see the doors opened | and the world o f the gods. the sun rays will turn themselves upon you. greatest o f gods: mighty is your breath. lord. and in the same way you will experience yourself being shaken. you will hear thundering and shaking in the surrounding realm. that he may appear and give revelation during the good hours. the one who begat and made you: that a hum an being am I. Then.requests to worship | you. But you say again: “Silence!” (the prayer). O lord. until you have gone through the | seven immortal gods o f the universe. you will see a youthful god.” W hen you have spoken this. great power. If it be your will. w ith fiery hair. | king. so that from the pleasure and joy o f the sight your spirit runs ahead and ascends. and supplicates w ith as much power as a hum an being can have (in order that you may take along with you the horoscope o f the day and hour today. announce me to the greatest god. which has the name TH R A PSIA R I M O R IR O K . O lord. A R C H A N D A R A PH O TA ZA PY R IPH O TA ZA BY TH IX E TIM EN M ER O PH O R A T E N ER IE P R O T H R I P H O R A T I. mighty is your power. has become immortal out o f so many myriads in this hour according to the wish o f the exceedingly good god . T hen open your eyes. and wearing a fiery crown. speak: “Com e forward. great might.

O sacred and brave youths. dressed in linen garments. you will see the doors opening and seven virgins coming from deep within. the third. MENESCHEES! Hail to you. W hen you see these things. and in possession o f seven golden diadems. w hom you must greet in the same manner. They are called the Fates | o f heaven. in linen | loincloths. the fifth. and wield golden wands. but to me. the first. like with a horn. PRO SY M ER I!” After have said these things. w ho am a religious and godfearing man. bellow. ARARM ACHES! Hail to you. O warders o f the pivot o f the celestial sphere. who have the faces o f black bulls. E R O U R O M B RIES!” There also come forth another seven gods. M EC H R A N ! Hail to you. TICHNO NDAES! Hail to you. ECHOM M IE! Hail to you. A IE R O N TH I! . O noble and good virgins. each o f them w ith his own name: “Hail.Translation 55 655 660 665 670 675 680 685 O R R I O R IO R R O R R O I O R R E O R O R I E O R E O R E O R E ). giving off your whole breath and squeezing your loins. and make a strong bellowing sound. and you will see him walking as if on a road. O seven Fates o f heaven. the second. O most holy guardians o f the four pillars! Hail to you. O my lords and powerfully ruling gods! Hail to you. w ho turn | at one command the revolving axis of-the vault o f heaven. and calmness in the present good hours o f this day. you [give] health and soundness o f body | and acuteness o f hearing and seeing. These are the so-called Pole Lords o f heaven. the first. the seventh. greet in this manner: | “Hail. O sacred Ones and companions o f M IN IM IR R O P H O R . the sixth. first toward the right: “Protect me. CHREPSENTHAES! Hail to you. | he will come to the celestial pole. and with the faces o f asps. Gaze intently. ” After you have said these things. and kiss | the phylacteries and say. who send out thunder and lightning and jolts of earthquakes and thunderbolts against the nations o f impious tribes. the fourth.

and say: “M O K R IM O P H E R IM O PH E R E R I. Having been born from a life-generating birth. O lord. released to death — as you have founded. O ruler o f the wind! O bright lightener! | 715 PRO PR O PH EG G E E M E T H IR IA R T E N T E P I T H E T H M IM EO Y E N A R O P H Y R C H E C H O PSERI DARIE P H R E PHRELBA! Give revelation. in the opposite direction. 710 Stay! Dwell in my | soul! D o not abandon me! For E N T H O P H E N E N T H R O P IO T H commands you.56 Translation Hail to you. bellow long until total exhalation. the second. in their order. and holding in his right hand 700 a golden | shoulder o f a young calf. golden-haired. that you may excite the five senses. I am passing away. EO R A SIC H E!” N ow w hen they take their place. This is the Bear which moves and turns the heavenly vault around. C H IC H R O A L IT H O ! Hail to you. and lights flashing. MESARGILTO! Hail to you. A C H R IC H IO U R ! | 690 Hail to you. the third. Having been born again. and again kiss the phylacteries.” After you have said these things. ER M IC H TH A TH O PS! Hail to you. O founder o f the earth! Hail. 705 And at once | make a long bellowing sound. w ith its upward and downward seasonal revolutions. 720 while growing and having grown. the fifth. gaze in the air and you will see lightning 695 bolts going down. I am passing on. youthful. N N . O lord. w ith a shining face. the sixth. | and the earth shaking. on the one side and the other. life o f me. and greet in this manner: “Hail. concerning the N N matter.” And gaze at the god while bellowing loudly. M ERCH EIM ERO S! Hail to you. the seventh. Then you will see lightning bolts leaping from his eyes and stars from his body. O lord. immensely great. he will immediately respond . w ith a white tunic and a golden crown and trousers. the fourth. and a god descending. J I am dying. O master o f the water! Hail. straining your belly. as you have decreed and authored (the) mystery I am P H E R O U R A M IO U R I.

so that he may not hear. and after speaking he will depart. that you may prove useful to me | alone. He. it immediately dies. Instruction for the performance: 755 760 765 Take a sun scarab which has twelve rays. But if you want to consult the oracle by using a fellow initiate. recite for him the first prayer. B ut you stand speechless. you speak as inspired in ecstasy. put in together with it the seed o f the fruit pulp o f the lotus. after you judge whether his w orth as a man is secure. | handling the occasion as though in the immortalization ritual you yourself were being judged in his place. O child. and you will not be in yourself. at a time w hen the m oon is invisible. as you are anointing his face w ith the mystery. for I am P H O R P H O R A PH O S . o f which the beginning is “First origin o f my origin. and | spreading sacred sand in a pure manner. and when it has consumed it. pronounces the oracle to you in verses. while the sun is in midheaven: “It is I w ho have consecrated you. however. for at a later time | you will remember infallibly the things spoken by the great god. B ut again if you wish to show him. This immortalization takes place three times a year. after the instruction wishes to disobey. And if anyone. and abstain from meat and bath. | and after grinding it w ith honey. that your substance may be useful to me. when he answers you. [wondering] how you will by yourself comprehend all these things. the scarab] moving forward and eating. Pick it up and throw it into a glass vessel o f excellent rose oil.” And say the successive things as an initiate. and make it fall into a deep. IE IA EEE OY EIA. as m uch as you wish. and you are [directly] engaged w ith the pronouncements o f the god.Translation 57 725 730 735 740 745 750 w ith a revelation. | N ow you will grow weak in your soul. And at once you will see it [viz. A EEIO Y O . But if you are alone. even if the oracle contains myriads o f verses. and set the vessel on it. let him be pure together with you for [seven] | days. then for him it will no longer | be in effect. in a soft voice. so that he hears only the things spoken together w ith you. prepare a cake. N N alone. then say the name over the vessel for seven days. over | his head. turquoise cup..

and he will give it to you. write on a leaf o f the persea tree the eight -letter name. in the regions o f the | black earth. at full moon. This is how to recognize it: the wing o f an ibis is smeared. the black edge weakend by the juice.” The Kentritis plant grows from the m onth o f Pauni. and have been absolutely amazed. at the conjunction [of the sun and the moon] occurring in the Lion. 790 795 800 Many times I have used the spell. Consult once a m onth. and rolling up the leaf. and smear it. and is similar to the erect verbena. in a pure way. and bury it w ith myrrh and Mendesian wine and fine linen. [you must] consult while wearing the great mystery | o f the scarab revitalized through the twenty-five living birds. Ask the god what you want. | and he will see so clearly that you will be amazed. I have not found a greater procedure than this in the world. The encounter w ith the great god is like this: Having acquired the above m entioned herb | Kentritis. it [the plant] was found in the 805 . along with the rose oil. and thus he [the sun god] will listen attentively. instead o f three times a year. as given below. But the god spoke to me: “Use the ointm ent no longer. after you have entertained and feasted together. and w hen the feathers are touched. but. after mixing it w ith honey and myrrh. and deposit it in a flourishing bean field. so that you may be protected. As the lord | demonstrated to me. O n the seventh day pick up the scarab.58 Translation 770 775 780 785 PH O TIZA A S” (others: “P H O R P H O R O PH O TH EIX A A S”). | lick off the leaf while you show it to the sun. come at m orning to face the sunrise. according to the god[‘s reckoning]. And having kept yourself pure for three days in advance. | throw it into the rose oil.” Lick this up. If you want to show this to someone else. deposit the ointment. after casting it into the river. for the immortalization. they fall off. | Then. The name is: “I EE O O IAI. around the eyes o f whomever you wish. get the juice of the herb called Kentritis. Begin to consecrate him on the new m oon in the lion. take the juice and.

and [copy] that for the left [arm] onto the skin o f a white sheep. near the Besas plant. at the river banks. . and reddish down to the root. and the leaves are rather crinkled and have fruit | like the tip o f wild asparagus. | [With this] the m em orandum has [finally] reached its completion. with myrrh ink. The [magical name] for the left [arm] is: “PR O ST H Y M E R I” . and use the same method. It is similar to the so-called Talapes. T hen the phylacteries are o f this kind: Copy the [amulet] for the right [arm] onto the skin | o f a black sheep. put it on. like the wild beet. and after tying it w ith the sinews o f the same animal.Translation 59 810 815 820 Menelaitis area near Phalagry. It is o f a single stem.

Suvafxew^) c.) b) action: a^iouv . identification o f the author 1) as owner 2) as mediator 3) as w riter (ypacpovTi) b. invocation o f the deity by epithets 1. Psyche (world-soul) B. identification o f the recipient 1) as apprentice a) status: “the only” (p-ovw) b) designation: “child” (xexvw) 2) as “initiate” (jjluctty] ттј^ 'гцлгтѓрсис. act constituting offense: putting into writing b. presentation o f petition 1.а b) specifications (play on words?) (1)та <a>7tpaxa 477 (2) тиаработа 4. statement o f petition 1)category: intercessory 2) identity o f the petitioner a) the author (1st person sing. Providence 2. nature o f offense a. object affected by offense 1)regarding the text to follow (табѕ) 2) regarding the content: sacred (oral) tradition a) technical term: та [лиат7]рс. category: petition for mercy in view o f offense 3. formula: tXa(K jxot 2. Exordium: a prayer A.Literary Analysis (Conspectus) 475— 85 475 476 I. transmission o f the tradition a.

: (A ot. quotation formula: ecrnv бѕ 485-732 485-537 485-86 . cf. authoritative hierarchy 1) the highest deity a) attribute: “the great god.M ain body o f the ritual (атгаФ^атсстЈло?) A. b) status: “alone. 7. conjunction: бтш? b. 476) c) position: grade o f “eagle” b.” ap^ayyeAo? b) name: unnamed 3) the author o f the present writing a) 1st person sing. 820) 6.” |xovo? (cf. secondary insertion by the author a. address o f recipient 1) identity (2nd person sing.. purpose and goal a. vision o f the universe: хатотстеиг^ uavTa . identifying reference a. instruction for ritual 1) need for application (xp^) 2) term for application (Xa[j. heavenly journey: oupavov fiatveiv c. m ethod o f transmission 1) command by Helios Mithras 2) technical term: [летабоЅт^ас.” o [iiya? b) name: Helios Mithras 2) divine intermediary a) attribute: “archangel.(3avet. &иуатт]р) b. reference to full information 1) place: end o f the present text (750— 819) 2) name for the present composition ( t o fxou lepov auvTayjxa.Literary Analysis 61 478 478-81 478/79 480 481-82 482 482-83 484-85 3) identity o f the recipient: the “initiate” 4) object: immortality (a&avacua) 5. cts) 2) as apprentice (daughter. introductory prayer 1. chain o f tradition o f the ritual a.v) 3) names o f ingredients a) juices o f plants b) other ingredients (г’ бт)) ѓ c.

o v e p io u ) 2) c o n c e rn in g p e rso n a l n am e : N N 3 ) r e c o u r s e to c r e a t io n m y t h o l o g y 496— 97 a) t e c h n ic a l t e r m f o r c r e a t io n : “ f o r m e d ” ^ L a 7 te 7 tX a a [x e vo v ) b) h y m n ic m e t a p h o rs d e s c r ib in g w o r k o f d iv in e c re a to r . invocation o f the four elements 1 ) f i r s t e l e m e n t : s p i r i t / b r e a t h (r c v e u jjia ) a ) a d d r e s s : r c v e u p u x 7 T v e u [x a T O ^ b ) a t t r ib u t e : tou e v e fjio u T c v e u j x a x o ^ u p a i T o v c ) m a g i c a l s o u n d : b e l l o w i n g s o u n d ([ x u x w ^ x a . recitation o f the “first prayer” (cf. 3 times) 5 ) m a g i c a l n a m e (?) 489— 95 489— 90 b.s o u n d ( n o n n \> G ii6 q . T t p w x o v c) v o c e s m a g ic a e 492— 93 3 ) t h i r d e l e m e n t : w a t e r (и б со р ) a) a d d r e s s : и б м р и б а т о с . 7 4 1 — 4 2 ) a. 3 t i m e s ) 490— 92 2 ) s e c o n d e l e m e n t : f i r e (т т и р ) a ) a d d r e s s : тс и р b ) a t t r ib u t e s .62 Literary Analysis b. t h r e e ( 1 ) t o t ic . a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s 1 ) c o n c e r n i n g t h e b o d y : “ p e r f e c t b o d y ” ( a w j x a x e X e c . e v e j x o i o u g Lolc.Y]v x p a o x v t w v e v e f x o l x p a c r e w v (2) 8-eoSwpY]TOV ( 3 ) т о и e v e fjio l л :ир6<. t e rm s id e n t if y in g th e g e n re 1 ) t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a s a w h o l e : 'ko yo c. 3 t i m e s ) sjxy]<. e(jt.. y e v e o e a q ) 2 ) v o c e s m a g ic a e 3 ) a d d r e s s o f a p y j] fa p y j] 4 ) m a g ic a l s o u n d s a ) p o p . 2 ) th e p ra y e r o f in v o c a t io n : 487— 537 487-88 2. invocation o f the primordial sources 1 ) a d d r e s s o f y e v e c n . у ѕ с о б о и ^ тсроотт] c) v o c e s m a g ic a e 495— 98 c. b ) a t t r ib u t e : tou __ e v e p io l и б а т о ? T rp w x o v c) v o c e s m a g ic a e 493— 95 4 ) f o u r t h e l e m e n t : e a r t h (y y j) a ) a d d r e s s : o u o Lol у е о о б т ) ? b ) a t t r i b u t e : т r\c. ? (y e v e c T L ? т с р ш г т ] т т ј ? е[А7Ј<. a p x % тсрсотт]) b) whistle sound (aupt-yjAoc.

firm air (атјр). voces magicae ee.ou сристѕс) b) in detail: 4 tva-clauses (1) first Lva-clause: vision (a) defective condition: Ananke formula ([xexa xy)v svsaxwaav x al асробра xaxeusLyouaav fxe ypeLoiv) (b) restitution: етготсхеисо (c) process: vision o f the immortal beginning (excoTcxeustv x t ] v a&avaxov apxV [cf. immortal spirit (7rveu[xa) bb. voces magicae (2) second Cva-clause: thought (a) defective condition . petition 1) appeal to the divine will o f the elements (eav бе updv бо^т]) 2) voces magicae 3) secondary gloss citing a textual variant from another source 4) request a) in general (1) technical term: [леха7гараб1ба)^л (“hand over in return”) (2) recipient: petitioner (fxe) (3) main concern: rebirth (4) sources (a) immortal birth (хтј a&avaxw yevscrei) (b) restitution o f primordial nature (гуоџѓчмс.Literary Analysis 63 (1) the honored arm (\жо Ppa^ovo? evxlfxou) (2) the imperishable right hand (итсо б е ^ а ? x e iP ^ аср&архои) c) cosmic polarities (1) light and darkness: ev acporrrcruw xal бсаиуѕХ xoapuo (2) soulless and ensouled: ev xe афидо xal e^uxw[xevto 4) voces magicae d. 487]) (d) sources o f change aa. ff. voces magicae cc. xy) UTroxstjxevY) p. immortal water (иб(ор) dd.

Literary Analysis (b) restitution: rebirth o f thinking (voY)p.aTt.oc^£LV (c) source o f change: fire (to lepov тсир) (d) vox magica (4) fourth tva-clause: vision (a) defective condition (b) restitution: Феаа&оа (c) source o f change: water (to a(3ucxaov ттј^ avaToAy)? ippiXTOV uStop) (d) voces magicae c) final petition (1) request to listen: axoueiv (2) address to ether: o ^cooyovoc.? .” хатол. 2) self-identification a) according to human nature (1) condition o f mortality by human birth (2) restitution: relative improvement (3) recourse to work o f divine creator (4) divine attributes (a) utco хратои? fxeyaXoSuvafxou xal (b) Se^ta? аф&артои . ofxfxaac. jJLeTayevvaa&oa) (c) voces magicae (d) source o f change: spirit (xal TiveuaT] ev ejxol to lepov uveujxa) (e) voces magicae (3) third Cva-clause: amazement (a) defective condition (b) restitution: & aup. xal rcepixs^upivo? altWjp (3) voces magicae .теиеп/ (2) process: “with immortal eyes. self-presentation o f the initiate 1) intention o f the self-presentation a) recourse to the promise o f salvation b) realisation o f the promise c) reference to time: “today.” toI c a&avaTot.” aYjjxepov d) aim: ecstatic vision (1) technical term: “envision.

a&avaxou 1л/ ХаЈА7П)б6уо? (4) voces magicae e) resultant command (1) address o f mortal nature: cp&apxr] [3poxc5v cpuai (2) imperatives .Literary Analysis 65 b) according to initiation (1) condition o f immortality (a) source: immortal spirit (oc&avaxov Tuveufxa) (b) resultant vision (c) object: the god aa. comparison: “again. (bb) беатготт)? xwv Ttuptvcov SiaSYjfxaxtov (2) condition o f sanctity (a) source: consecration rituals (ayLot.бе<У [хар[хариуаТ<. technical term: |xexa7rapaXafji. Name: Aion bb.” t o Xiv cc bb.auvavt-evoa (3) poetic description o f heavenly splendor: Христо£1. . quality: “complete..[3av£t.v cc.” а/реохбтх/јхоу c) by name (1) formula o f self-identity: I.) (b) resultant sanctity: a y ia o& eic. хт]<. IcpLxxov. N N . attributes (aa) a&avaxoi.? aytaafxaat. reference to time: the Ananke formula (see 503-4) dd. son o f N N (2) reference to divine law: хаха ббуЈла a^exa&exov (3) voces magicae d) didactic explanation regarding the relationship o f the hum an and the divine (1) concerning human mortality: &vy]x6v yeywvoxa (2) citation o f principle o f incompatibility: oux saxt-v [лос. (3) implications (a) temporary strengthening o f human soul-power (фи^хт) Suvapxg) (b) reference to eschatological restitution aa.

reference to time: ev execvY] t?) wpa 543— 44 c. address: 2nd person sing. quantity: o Suvaaoa 539— C.. physical sense-perception during ascent a. object: TCveufxa a. avaxoucpi^ea&oa b. transmission: by the rays o f the sun 4. reality status: imaginative 4. medium: sun rays 5. (syto eljxt. cf. negative 1) hearing: no hearing o f hum an or animal sounds 542— 43 2) seeing: no seeing o f anything earthly b. location: in midair 541 7. 525— 26) 535— 37 f) concluding formulae o f self-identity (1) first formula: “I am the son. o uLo?.. ascension narrative in seven scenarios 544— 55 1. also 544. 635. 656. first scenario: encounter w ith the planetary deities . 565. action: vision (“you will see”) 3. type o f narrative: vision report in the prophetic future tense (бфтз.. 549. positive: seeing of things immortal (тиал/та бе бфт] a&avaxa) 544— 732 D. 555. ифо? 6.66 Literary Analysis (a) concerning ascent: “stand” (есттаЅг) (b) concerning return: “take me back” (avocXa[3e fxe) (c) condition: “healthy” (uytvj) (3) references to time (a) “at once” (atm xa) (b) Ananke formula (see 503-4.) (4) voces magicae 537— 38 B. metaphysical: ruveufjia as spirit c. terms for imagined actions a. explanatory introduction to the ascent ritual 44 539— 40 1. prescription o f breathing ritual 1.v zic... 702) 5. repetition: 3 times 6. 624. actions: inhalation (eXxeiv. ocvaoruav) 3. address: 2nd person sing.. u7tep(3oavet. physical: rcveupia as breath b.) (2) voces magicae (3)second formula: “I am” (eyw elfjtx.: бфт) 2. 693. 2.

objects seen 1) the planetary gods: ol &eo£ 557 2) their hostile response a) stare: axevt^ovTe? trot. b) agressive approach: i n i a z oppuojjievoc. second scenario: threat by the planetary gods a. reference to location: in midair (540) b.Literary Analysis 67 544 544-45 545-47 547-55 547-49 a. for winds from west to east (c) explanation: regulation o f the winds 2. objects seen 1) planetary constellation 2) function: gods o f days and hours 3) movements o f the deities in heaven a) ascending b) descending 4) appearance o f two pictures a) first picture: the way o f the planetary gods (1) description: way o f the gods shown by the sun-disk (2) explanations 549-55 (a) visibility o f the gods (b) illumination by Helios aa. name: Helios bb.evo<. reference to time: ev exetvY) ттј wpa (543) c. action: vision (бфтј) d. action: бфт) c. conjunction: бе b. prescription o f protective ritual 1) address: a u бе 2) performance o f ritual . attribute: father god (тгатт)р Oso?) b) second picture (o[aouo?): the windpipe (1) action: бфт] (2) object (a) name: o xocAoup. turnable pipe hanging from the sun bb. location: midair d. 558 e. auXo? (b) description 556-68 556 aa. for winds from east to west cc.

c) conforming to cosmic order d) each performing assigned function 3. reference to time: oxav ouv b. forewarning 1) o f hearing a loud thunder 2) o f being terrified . ѓ c.yr] (three times) (2) epithet: au[x[3oXov &eou аср&артои c) request for protection: cpuXa^ov (xe d) invocation (1)name: at-yir] (2) voces magicae 4) performance of magical sounds a) first sound (1) reference to time: ineizcc (2) name o f sound: aupiyjjio^ b) second sound (1) reference to time: luet-xa (2) name o f sound: nonnuGyiog c) voces magicae f. 623) b) invocation (1)name: at. action: “seeing.” ’бт)<. 573-75. result 1) reference to time: tote 2) action: офт] 3) object: the planetary gods 4) their response: now friendly a) looks: eufxsva)? £{jt. third scenario: the sun disk a. 582-85. objects 1)the cosmos xa&apo? x al Sovoufxevoc. 578. 2) none of the gods or angels threatening d. cf.(3Xe7tovTe£ b) approach: [xyjxext i n i as opfjuojxsvot."1 68 Literary Analysis 559-60 560 561 562-65 565-69 565 566— 69 569-85 569 570-73 a) reference to time: euQiw? b) ritual action: putting the right index— finger on the mouth 3) recitation o f prayer a) type o f prayer: petition (“second prayer” [oiy^-logos?].

” бфт) b) description o f the open disk (cf. time reference: euOiox. 576) as a fireless circle with fiery doors closed 585-628 4.” бфт] (3) emergence o f many five-pronged stars from the sun-disk and filling the air 3) third image a) preliminary ritual (1) reference to repetition (2) recitation o f the criyr)-logos (573-75) (3) action: “seeing. explaining that the c i yr]-logos is meant (573— 75) (4) performance o f two sounds (a) aupiyfxo? twice (b) TcouTtuafjioi.Literary Analysis 69 573-75 576-85 576 e. 585-87 b. command to recite protective formulae 1) the C tyy] crtyy]— T logos (twice? cf. fourth scenario: the opening o f the doors to the world o f the gods a. u[xlv acmqp (2) ex tou (Sa&ou? avaXafx/rctov c) voces magicae f. twice b) description 579 579-82 582-85 (1)time reference: еи&емѕ (2) action: “seeing. appearance o f three images 1) first image a) time reference: таита aoi sinovzoq b) description (1) reference to time: еи&ѓах. 559) 2) self-identification a) formula eyco cLj l jl b) attributes (1)cru[jLTcXavo<. (2) the opening o f the sun-disk: o Siaxoq атсХсо&ѓјагтоа 577 2) second image a) preliminary rituals ( 1 ) time reference: [хета to elrceTv ae 578 578-79 (2) recitation o f the “second prayer”: t o v (3' Xoyov (3) redactional comment. command to close the eyes (cf. 624) .

484-5. 582. (2 7tUpC7toXe 7C TC (3 (4 (5 (6 (7 (8 (9 (10 (11 (12 (13 срмтб^ хт£ата (variant: аиухХеТстта) HcjjLsaiXajj.1 70 Literary Analysis 587 c.xa хХтј&ра tou 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603-4 T£TpaXi£(op. aoua'ivecpt. recitation o f a prayer to A ion 1) invocation a) formula: e7taxoua6v [xou.aiauo 7tup^ va K u pu yi [Зоост7]с. naming the primary function o f the god: б агп/бт](га<. 605— 6 piapfxapevTeu 2) petition a) address: асгтробајла b) request: avot-^ov piot. y '. 559-60.vecpt.<7W [XaT£ <pV U L X O 7]V O <^тобауга TcupLcjTTopE apet ѕ'ѓхс. T U 7U O фрир^ф£и C pL V £ 7TUpi&U|A£ law Tcv£U[xaTO<pw? war nUpiJOLp7) £X0Up£ xaXXttpw? c/X jxi Alwv axpa cpwTOxparwp тс£тс1Х£р к р г к г џ л и т TtUpt.а <pwToxt.aTO? £V . c) voces magicae d) reason for the petition: бтг .T£pO V U [.VY]Ta aav^epwJS xepauvoxXove vr\ wtj twrjtw cpwTo? xXeo? (SeeyevYjTe (20 au£/)<ncpwi. axoucrov [jlou 589-602 589 b) self-identification o f the orant by name (NN) c) prim ary attribute o f the god: xupie d) aretalogy o f 21 attributes and voces magicae (1 first. apev(3apa£et. 573-75. redactional reference to the liturgical order: the “third prayer” (koyoc.£ (21 svTcuptCTXTjorLtpwi. 623) 587— 620 587— 88 e. TtvsufxaTt. aoua(. 577. та 7iupt.та (14 (15 (16 (17 (18 (19 rtuptxXove yaXXa(3aX[3a cpwTo^ca (. recitation o f the following prayer d. cf.

2) announcement a) in the cosmos: tremendous thunder b) for the petitioner: experience o f terror h. command to recite the aiyr]-logos (cf. praiseworthy b) list o f 7 lines o f vowel sequences f. 586— 87) 2) action: офт) 3) object: the open doors 4) description o f the image: the doors are open and behind them appears the world o f the gods 5) response a) experience o f 7]Sovy] x al yapa b) the initiate s Tiveufxa running w ith the gods and moving upwards (a u vxp ijziv x al ava^atvetv) 5. living. 2) actions . 582-85) i.Literary Analysis 71 606-16 606-10 610-16 617-20 620-23 623 624-28 626-28 628-61 628-30 (1) action: e7uxaAou[xai (2) Ananke formula: evsxa ттј? xax£7E£t. appearance o f the image 1) command to open the eyes (cf. 525-526. 573-75. 534) 3) recitation o f the secret names o f the seven gods o f the cosmos a) description (1) as by nature non-hum an (2) as not pronounced in articulate speech (3) as speaking a non-hum an language (4) as divine: immortal. 559.youcry]£ xal Tctxpa? x al атгарастѓјтои avayxy)? (cf. command to perform rituals 1) time reference: eu&etoi. fifth scenario: encounter w ith Helios a. 503-504. effect preference to the recited prayer: таита аои einovzoc. instruction concerning performance 1) reference to previous list: таита Travxa 2) kind o f performance a) ЈХЕта тсиро^ x al Tcveupt-aTO^ b) line by line. twice from beginning to end 3) explanation: each line contains the name o f one o f “the seven immortal gods o f the universe” g.

d. 655) b) address: xupc.v6xpt. command to issue an order 1) time reference: oxav 2) condition o f the soul: oxav oOv aTtoxaxaaxac u Y фихЃ) (c^. performance o f the ritual o f greeting 1) reference to time: suQito? 2) type o f greeting: тсирп/о? acnraoxxxo? e.v) into the sun rays c.бс) 1) address a) title: xupie b) appeal: jpCCpe c) three attributes (using jxsyaq) (1) [xeyaXoSuvajxe (2) [xeyaXtoxpaxwp (3acriXeu (3) [xeytcfxe Sswv d) name: Helios e) aretalogy .£ d) clothing (1) white chiton (2) scarlet chlamys e) wreath: 7i:up!<vo<. recitation o f the greeting prayer ('/оиргткзџ.e c) voces magicae 4) predicted result a) time reference: xouxo einovcoq b) focusing o f the sun rays 5) response: look (axevi£et.Literary Analysis a) stand b) draw in from the divine spirit c) look intently: axsv^eiv b. epiphany o f Helios 1) time reference: oxav oOv xouxo 7tot.622— to ] 23) 3) prayer formula a) command: rcpoaeX&e (cf.Y]cnr]? 2) action: бфу) 3) object: Helios 4) iconographical description o f Helios a) age: Феб? vewxepo? b) beauty: ѕшјбѓ)? c) hair: 7iupt. are<pavo<.

Literary Analysis 73 642 642-55 642-43 643 644-49 645-49 (1) two attributes (titles) (a) o xupto? t o o oupavou x al т9)<. m other (aa) origin: mortal uterus (bb) name: N N bb. c) self-identification o f the petitioner (1)rank (attribute): av&pomo? (2) person: eyw (3)name: N N (4) recitation o f synthema (cultic formula o f self-definition (a) concerning human birth aa. 747. time reference: CTjfxepov bb. ут}<. election dd. reference to ritual (aa) subject: god (Mithras) (bb) term: (ASTayevvacr&at. father (aa) origin: sperm (bb) no name (b) concerning divine rebirth aa. cc. 771) ee. x al Tconrjaavxt. (b) &еѕ 9-ewv (2) two attributes (verbs) (a) iayuei стои rj nvor) (b) iayuei aou rj Sovayag (3) address: xupte 2) presentation o f petition a) formalities o f protocol (1) submission to the divine will (2) technical term for announcing the arrival o f a visitor: ayyeXXstv b) request for an audience (1) person (a) name: Mithras (not named) (b) title: o [леусстто? (2) kin relationship between Helios and Mithras: xw ae ysvvyjaavTt. time reference: ev таиттј ттј copa . 741. immortalisation: aTca&avaxl^sLV (cf.

oc b) vox magica c) turning first to the right [ d) turning to the left side] 6. performance o f protective rituals 1) staring intently: axevi^ecv 2) doing the bellowing sound: (лихсо[ла 3) intensity a) loud: jxaxpov b) as through a horn: xepaxoet-Sto? c) special effort (1) giving out all breath: лл/еи^а (2) squeezing the stomach 4) kissing the phylacteries 5) recitation o f formula a) request: cpuXa^ov pt.ouv x a l беест&ас bb.74 Literary Analysis 649-55 651-55 655-57 657-61 659-60 660-61 661-92 ff. 2) action: бфт) 3) object: departure o f the god 4) description o f the image a) motif: move to the pole (eXeucrexat.) b) image detail: wandering as on a road g. authorisation (aa) divine will: xaxa Soxyjchv {teou (bb) divine goodness (5) expression o f devotion (a) proskynesis (b) formulas o f devotion aa. attitude: a£t. expressing humility: xaxa Suvajxiv aV&p(07UVY]V d) secondary insertion (1) command to keep at hand the horoscope for day and hour (2) secret name o f the regent (3) purpose: identifying opportune times for epiphany and divination (4) voces magicae (variations on vowels) f. sixth scenario: encounter with the deities o f the Bear constellations . the departure o f Helios 1) time reference: хаиха aou zlnovxoc.

) b) number: seven c) dress: fine linen (ev (3uomvot. action: бфт) c. performance o f the greeting 1) time reference: хаиха LScov 2) recitation o f greeting to all a) appeal: jjxipezz b) name: al C Tu^at.Literary Analysis 75 a. o f N N (secret name) (3) third: al ayt-wxaxat.c.) d) face masks: asps e) name: oupavou Tu^at.^ои oupavou c) three attributes (1) first: CT£[xval x al aya&al rtap&evoi (2) second: lepal xal б[лоб1а1хо[. cpuXaxicraai xwv xeacraptov crxuXlaxoov 3) recitation o f individual greetings a) first greeting (1) appeal: ^alpe (2) address: y тсрсохт] j (3) magical name b) second greeting (1) appeal: ха Ф£ (2) address: 7) [3' (3) magical name c) third greeting (1) appeal: ха Ф£ (2) address: rj y ' (3) magical name d) fourth greeting (1) appeal: x°^Pz (2) address: rj б' (3) magical name . f) symbols: holding golden wands: ^риаеа (Зра[ЗеТа d. time reference: xauxa elrcwv b. description o f the appearance o f the seven virgins (stars o f the Great Bear) 1) location: the doors o f the heaven are open 2) arrival: ер^еа&оа 3) origin: ex xou [За&ои^ 4) iconography o f the goddesses a) figures: virgins (rcapQ-evot.

2) iconography a) figures: male gods (QzoL) b) number: seven c) dress: linen loincloths d) face masks: black bulls e) name: ol тсоХохраторе? tou oupavou f) symbols: golden diademes f. prescription o f performance o f greeting 1) recitation o f greeting to all a) appeal: x°^P£T£ b) name: ol xvtoSaxocpuXaxe? c) three attributes (1) first: ol lepol x a l aXxc.. (2) second: ol crcpe<povTe<. a<pt.ot.? d) address by title: xupt-ol jaou x a l [леуаХохраторес. <боте> uyelav. description o f the appearance o f the seven black bull-headed gods (stars o f the Little Bear) 1) arrival: Tcpoepxecr&at. veaviac. wpat. aY][i.? ty]c . u t c o ev xeXeuafxa t o v 7iepcStvY]Tov t o u xuxXou a^ova t o u oupavou (3) third: (ol).epov Y]jxepa<..evTS? (a) cosmic phenomena: (SpovTa? x a l аатратса? x a l asLCTfxaiv x a l xepauvwv (ЗоХа? (b) punishment o f the godless aliens: ziq Su<xae(3c5v <puXa (c) reward for the pious orant: ejxol бе euae(3el ovTt. &eol . (d) time reference: ev таТ? evecrтсотаг.Literary Analysis e) fifth greetings (1) appeal: x a^P£ (2) address: 7] s' (3) magical name f) sixth greeting (1) appeal: х а Ф£ (2) address: Y q ] (3) magical name g) seventh greeting (1) appeal: х а Ф£ (2) address: Y C ] (3) magical name e..fi.. aya&alc.

action: бфт] d. performance o f ritual: axevL^£t.v tw aept c. time reference 1) completion o f the gods’ procession 2) arrangement in two groups on opposite sides b. seventh scenario: encounter w ith Mithras a. (3) vox magica b) second greeting (1) appeal: ^аТре (2) address: o (3' (3) vox magica c) third greeting (1) appeal: jpdpe (2) address: o y ' (3) vox magica d) fourth greeting (1) appeal: ха Ф£ (2) address: б б' (3) vox magica e) fifth greeting (1) appeal: ха Фе (2) address: o s ' (3) vox magica f) sixth greeting (1) appeal: x<xipe (2) address: o g' (3) vox magica g) seventh greeting (1) appeal: (2) address: o (3) vox magica 7. description o f cosmic phenomena 1) lightning bolts coming down 2) lights flashing 3) earth shaking .Literary Analysis 2) recitation o f individual greetings a) first greeting (1) appeal: ха Ф£ (2) address: б крмтос.

78 696. epiphany o f Mithras 1) location: higher sphere 2) appearance by descent (xaxsp^sa^ai) f. iconography 1) figure: 2) size: итсер^еуеЅ?]? 3) face: cpomvYjv zjovtol ttjv бфп/ 4) age: vetoxspo? 5) hair: xpucxoxoprj? 6) dress a) white chiton b) Persian-style trousers: ava^upiSs? c) golden crown 7) insignia a) mythological (Mithraic): xaxe^MV ттј бг^са J_z l9l џоауои tojjiov xp^creov b) astrological (1) identification o f the bull’s shoulder with the Bear constellation (2) function (a) m oving and turning the heavenly vault (b) as m oving upward and downward seasonal revolutions 8) cosmic features a) time reference: гтсеслга b) action: офт] c) reference to eyes: giving off lightnings d) reference to body: giving off shooting stars g.-704 696 Literary Analysis 697 698 699.-4 704. performance o f rituals 1) reference to time: eu&ew? 2) first ritual: bellowing sound a) name: [xuxw^xa jxaxpov b) intensity (1)long and loud (2) straining the belly: (Sacravi^ziv ttjv уаатѓра (3) arousing the five senses (4) until total exhalation: zlq ocTro&soxv 3) second ritual: protective a) kissing the phylacteria b) recitation o f a prayer .-11 707 708 e.-11 704 705.-7 707.-702 702.

-24 719.oa .-17 712 713. тгрсжросреууу) 3) voces magicae i.-22 (1) invocation (a) voces magicae (b) address: ^ т [jlo со ѓ) u (2) self-identification by name: N N (3) requests (three) (a) [live ctu (b) ve[xe ev хтј jjl u o (c) рѓ) [xe хатаХесфт]? (4) appeal to divine authority (a) command: oxt. greeting o f Mithras 1) preliminary rituals a) intense look: ocxev^etv xw b) bellowing sound: [xaxpov [xuxw^xevo? 2) recitation o f the greeting prayer a) address by title: xupie b) formula o f three greetings (1) first greeting (a) appeal: y c d p z (b) address by attribute: бесттгоха ибахо? (2) second greeting (a) appeal: joCCpe (b) address by attribute: хахар^а утј? (3) third greeting (a) appeal: jo u ipe (b) address by attribute: бшастха Tiveufxaxo? (4) attributes/voces magicae: Аарлтросреуут). in three parts (1) first part: rebirth and death (three statements o f polarity) (a) first: TcaXt.-17 717. a7ioytyvop.e b) recitation o f the synthema o f initiation.-17 713 714 715 715.-24 719 719.Literary Analysis 79 709 710. presentation o f petition 1) address by title: xupce 2) request for an oracle response: 3) naming o f the issue: N N 4) self-presentation o f the petitioner a) address by title: xupt.-24 717 718 719.-11 712.vyev6[xevo(. xeXeuet crot (b) voces magicae h.

) -sX b. x a l au^YjO-el? теХеитм (c) third: arco yevsasw? i^woyovou eic.1 80 Literary Analysis 722— 23 723 724 724— 27 724 725 725— 26 727 727— 28 728 728— 32 730— 32 (b) second: au£6[xevo<. Supplemental rituals 732— 50 A. condition after the audience: standing speechless (аи бе axTjxsi? evso?) m. 2) m edium hears only what is spoken: та Xeyofxeva exelvov [xovov auv aoc. (2) second part: divine legitimacy (three statements concerning compliance) (a) first: w? сти ехтпсга? (b) second: w? au evo{jio9iT7]<7a<. type: fellow-initiate (сти[Х[лиат7]<.) 3) reliability a) words o f the god: та итсо тои [лѕуаХоо &ѕои pTj&evxa b) regardless o f the size o f the oracle: xav jxupltov o X P W 6? 732— 819 III. axouetv . 1. (b) secret name j.a g t Lj j j m ) k. three optional rituals for including an associate 732— 35 1. granting o f oracular consultation 1) time references a) end o f previous ritual: таита аои ec7i0VT0? b) continuation: su&eto? 2) kind o f audience: 3) recipient’s condition during the consultation a) weakness o f the soul: итсехХито? т?) ф и ^ b) ecstasy: oux ev aeauxto east 4) form o f response: in verses (St. end o f the session 1) conclusion o f the god’s revelatory speech: e i -к ш 2) the god’s departure: атсеХеистетаг. promises concerning the revelation 1) concerning comprehension: at once (аитоЈлатоо?) 2) concerning memory: flawless (атгараЈЗатах.ov (3) third part: self-identification (a) formula: eyco eljxt.) as medium c. status: optional (sav S s Q yjc. (c) third: x a l етиослѓјаа? pLUcrx7]pt. modus 1)role o f associate as medium: аи[Х[лиатг] xp^aaa&ai. auoyevealav avaXu&el? rcopeuofxat. prophecy with m edium a.

а) 2) role o f associate: interpreter of symbol d. type: mystagogue alone: fxovo? 9)? c.) b)nam e o f the anointment: [xuaxYjpiov (see 751-78) . av&pfa)7to£ 3) standard: same as applied in the immortalisation ritual (атта&ал>атк7[л6<. a) standard: w? [лиатт]^ b) modus (1) over the head: S7il тт)<. хесраХ^? (2) sotto voce: axovto cp&oyyto (3) inaudible for the associate: tva [x j axouarj y 3) anointment a) type: eye-salve (ypUiv xtjv офп. status: optional (eocv бе .v b) genuineness as hum an being: астсраХм? ax.. but not medium c. status: optional (eav бе .. ritual preconditions: prior sanctification 1) both together: cruvayveueiv 2) duration: seven days 3) abstentions a) from meat: xa е^лфи^а b) from bath: (3aXaveTov 2. ха бесла/и[Ј^л. conditions 1) evaluation by the mystagogue: xplva? 2) criteria a) worthiness as initiate: el o^ioc.Literary Analysis 81 d. modus 1) showing o f symbols: беТ^оа (sc. cf. eaxt. type: fellow-initiate present. second option: prophecy w ithout m edium a. 747. 0OTO<pot. modus 1) direct handling o f the god’ response: iy y zip e iv xa s итсо rou 9-eou elpy)[xeva 2) as in ecstasy: w? ev excrxacret..(3wfi. 771) e.) b. third option: prophecy by showing cultic symbols a. 3... 650.evo<. ritual performance 1) prayer a) recitation b) name: “first origin o f my origin” (486-537) 2) other formulae: ха бе е£т]<.) b.

xw оихетг imapl^st. two preparatory rituals a. 793 74. additional stipulations a. first ritual: the sun-scarab ointment preference: 746. 650. B.ax6? (2) a deep turquoise cup: (Bratov xaXXaivov (3a&u (3) seed o f the fruitpulp o f the lotus: Ха)то[ХУ]тра? CTTiepfxa (4) honey b) preparation (1)time: darkness. xpccrfxa 770. прѓи^гмс. (cf. new m oon (2) dropping ingredients into cup 751— 57 753— 55 (3) grinding it all up (4) making small cake: \i<xC. 2. 741. n ep iyp iziv 773— oxiy/piGyLCf. name o f the ritual: oara&avaTiajJioi. section title: бсбастхаХѓ. additional instruction 1.а ттјc.Lov 755— 57 c) application (1) putting cake before scarab (2) feeding it (3) result: killing it instantly 3) second stage a) acquiring ingredients 757— 71 (1) dead scarab (2) glass vessel (3) quantity o f excellent rose-oil (4) “sacred sand” b) preparation (1) picking up dead scarab . 2) first stage a) acquiring ingredients: Xa(3tov (1)a sun-scarab: xavQ-apo? 7]Xt. warning against misuse 748— 50 1) address: di tsxvov 2) situation envisaged a) time: after the instruction ([x s ii t o TiapayyeXfjia) b) technical term: 7iapaxouet. frequency: three times a year c.v 750— 819 750 751— 819 751— 78 3) solution: exclusion from the ritual.82 746— 50 746— 48 Literary Analysis 4. 646-47. 771) b. cf.

756— 57) (b) deposition in pure manner: а7тогк>и xa&apelw? (c) purpose: for use in the main ritual (a7ra9-avaTLCT[x6i.Literary Analysis 83. formula eyw elpa bb . r\ aou оиаѓа (e) self-identification: N N (tw Setva [aovw) (f) voces magicae (g) purpose: ejxol jaovw (h) self-identification aa.. secret name cc..) 4) supplemental ritual a) status: optional (eav бе aXXw ЈШаг]?. redactional comment noting a variant reading 767-71 d) preservation (1)time: on the seventh day (2)scarab (a) removal (b) burial ritual aa. embalming with myrrh and Mendesian w ine bb. wrapping in linen cc.) b) modus: to show it (Sclxvuclv) to som eone else c) preparation o f eye-salve 772-75 .. 761-71 761-62 763-67 (2) dropping into glass vessel (3) spreading “sacred sand” “in a pure way” (4) placing vessel on the sand c) consecration (1) time: high noon (2) duration: seven days (3) modus: pronouncing formula “over the vessel” (4) recitation o f formula (a) name: ovojaoc (761) (b) addressing the scarab (c) action: eyw сге етѓХеста (d) purpose: Eva [лос. deposition in field o f bloom ing bean plants (3) ointment (a) time: after dining (есттсаота? x a l avvzuor/y}$zLc.

84 Literary Analysis 776-78 776-77 777-78 778-92 778-79 780 781-82 782-83 783-85 786-92 786-87 (1) substance: juice o f the plant kentritis (cf. 778-86. 786-87) 3) preparations a) ink (1)juice o f kentritis plant (2) mixture with honey and myrrh b) leaf o f the persea plant (1) acquisition o f a leaf (2) writing the eight-letter vox magica on it (3) reference: 788 4) application a) preliminary ritual (1) sanctification (ayveueiv) (2) duration: three days b) time: early m orning at sunrise c) action (1) licking off the Persea (2) showing the leaf to the sun (Helios) d) effect: the god (Helios) will listen attentively (xal оитсо? етгахоисгетас. 798-810) (2) mixing it w ith rose oil (cf.et^ov’ ou^ eOpov ev xw xocxfjuo 7tpayfj.aTe(av b) theological maxim: астои бе.) f) amazement: ахтте g z Oaupwc^eiv 5) conclusion a) “commercial” : toutou ^. теХесах. 773) c) time: zodiac conjunction o f sun and m oon in Lion (cf. b.{xev7]v (1. second ritual: the plant kentritis 1) section title: yj tou [леуаХои &eou auaxonaiq 2) acquisition o f ingredient a) plant name: kentritis b) reference: tyjv 7ipoxe(. x al бактес. tov fteov. a (SouXei. 790) d) application: around the eyes (?) e) result: clear sight (бфетоа бу]Хаиус5<.) 5) additional instructions a) time references (1) reference: 780 (2) beginning o f preparation . croc.

Further items o f information a. (4) concerning the newmoon: Iv vou[XY]Vca (5) according to the divine will: xaxa &eov b) concerning the ovofxa (1) reference: ovo^Jia (783) (2) citation formula: t o бе ovopia ectxlv xouxo (3) the eight-letter formula c) concerning the Persea leaf (1) reference: 785 (2) action: licking off o f the name (3) purpose: self-protection (4) disposal o f the leaf after licking off (a) rolling it up (b) throwing it in w ith the rose-oil (cf. first item: change o f ritual concerning the ointm ent preference: с\)у-/р1аџ.Literary Analysis 85 788 789-90 790-92 792-813 792-96 796-98 (3) zodiacal conjunction o f Helios in Lion: xeXeiv ty] ev Xeovxt. o &so?) 3) instructions a) prohibition to keep the ointm ent for later usage (overruling 768-71) b) substitutional disposal: ointm ent to be cast into the Nile (before the consultation?) c) appropriate use of the scarab jxeya (auaxYjpiov xou xav&apou (1) reference: 745. at full m oon . second item: change o f ritual concerning times for consultation preference: 746— 48 2) inappropriate: three times a year 3) appropriate: once a month. 751— 78 (2) name: [xeya [xuaxyjpLov xou xav&apou (3) reference to a ritual (?): xou ava^wTtupTj&evxoi. 774) concluding testimony: a “commercial” d) (1) testifying to frequent usage (2) expressing great amazement 3. бс-a xwv xe £wwv opvetov (4) wearing it during the consultation b.(х 751— '78 2) authorisation: personal revelation (eI tesv бе [xot.

a kind o f wild beet 4. reference: 659— 708 61. third item: botanical information about the kentritis plant 1) reference: 773. cf. 778-86 2) earlier data a) seasonal growth: from the m onth o f Pauni b) geographical occurrence: region o f the “black earth” c) comparable other plant: erect verbena d) identification (1) formula: r\ бе yvwat? аиттј? outw? (2) method: the wing o f an ibis smeared w ith the black juice o f the plant will.) b) tying with sinews o f the same sheep c) to be w orn on right arm d. b. cf. modus: тротсо? c. 661: irpoaufjiepc.1 86 798— 813 798— 804 Literary Analysis 804— 13 813— 19 813 814— 17 817— 19 c. near the Besas plant d) description in detail (1) single stem (2) reddish to the root (3) leaves crinkled (4) fruit looking like that o f wild asparagus (5) comparable other plant: talapes. 792) b) geographical occurrence: region o f Menelaitis in Phalagry c) environment: river banks. w hen touched. Third ritual: the phylacteries a. for the right arm 1) material a) skin o f a black sheep b) ink: black myrrh ink 2) preparation a) inscription (?) (missing. for the left arm 1) material a) skin o f the white sheep b) ink: same as above (?) 2) preparation a) inscription: Ttpocr&upiepL b) to be w orn on on left arm . lose its feathers at once 3) new information a) authorisation: divine revelation (touto tou xupiou итсобеС^оа/то?.

paragraphos sign after 820 . statement o f completion: тсХтЈрѓотатоу C. Epilogue: statements concerning the document A. auvxaypia 480— 81) B. technical name for the document: uu6[jLV7][xa (cf.Literary Analysis 87 819-20 IV.

[love from] Love. [grace from] Grace. 2 N H C 1. A . Zauberpapyrus. 56. 1. Dieterich (1. O Providence and Psyche”). cf. N T Apok (5th ed. . 1. Greek Hymns. the prayer begins w ith an invocation: ТАагК jxot. The Exordium (U. the text o f the “Mithras Liturgy” begins at 1.8 5 ) Although not indicated by a line separator in the papyrus itself. (1) The second o f the two divine names invoked is disputed textually. Schenke. 475) Appropriately. Ilpovota x al lFu)(7] (“Be gracious to me... he sets forth the exordium as a prayer o f petition. Library. H M R . This invocation. the exordium shows evidence o f the authors literary interests and abilities as well as his religious sensitivities.2.238 (with further parallels). 219). see Reitzenstein. poses several problems. his twelve disciples. but [I have written] it in the Hebrew alphabet and sent it to you. life from H oly Life! Since you asked that I send you a secret book w hich was revealed to me and Peter by the Lord. The Invocation (I. Wessely. Because there is a religious reason for it. The latter argue for the gnostic Cerinthus as addressee. 1. read Tu)(7). 3 For the invocation generally and further bibliography. 169— 78.1— (according to the translation in Robinson.) 1. the 28 translations by Dankwart Kirchner. I could not turn you away or gainsay (?) you. Nag Hammadi Deutsch. [faith] from Faith. endeavor earnestly and take care not to rehearse this text to many —this that the Savior did not wish to tell to all o f us.52-53.18.thos]: Peace [be w ith you from] Peace.1 This exordium has a remarkably close parallel in the epistolary preface o f the Apocryphon o f James from Nag Hammadi:2 [James] writes to [. 475 w ith an exordium comprising the 11. Composed w ith some rhetorical care. followed by Dieterich. see Furley & Bremer. 4 Wessely. 47585.4 but 1 For a text and commentary regarding this section. But since you are a minister o f the salvation o f the saints. But blessed will they be w ho will be saved through the faith o f this discourse.Commentary I. and you alone. 4 7 5 . 30).3 however.

96.2. (2) If one opts for Flpovoia xal Wvyyi. “Tyche. Influences o f Stoicism elsewhere in the beginning sections o f the ML make it most likely that the author refers to the “world-soul. бѓсигота/Арогахои jxev exyovo^. л р о о х и ч т ј о ш az xal t o v MtQ-pav. XIII. Mithras and Tyche are associated in Cassius D io 62.18 (cf. Abrasax. Martin. 30b:.142-43. Both names occur elsewhere in the PG M . it is also supported by contextual evidence.” D D D 877-78 (Lit).”7 Based on Plato’ Timaeus.I. ForTujr\ see IV. H M R .292— The tradition continues in later Platonism 99. 1925). cf. idem. 41c. 8.. app.s the concept o f the world-soul was developed especially by s 5 Preisendanz’s edition. x a l p.781. Tim.”) Cited according to the LCL edition by Earnest Cary (Cambridge. VII. (3) T he fact that at no other place the ML refers again to the two names raises the question how the author intended to relate the invocation to the rest o f the ML. die alle beseelt. 1917). x a l eaofjiat.. ooc. Ти^тѓ) occurs mostly together with Eros: IV. 57— 97: “The World-Soul. 254e. repr. 17 and 30. 1935. .' сти yap jxot. 7 So following Merkelbach (Abraxas. ad loc.. Cornford. XXI. 170-74. IV. 1733-34.158.xX«ar]<. elsewhere it is often identified with Isis. бе боиХо? elfxt. seems surprising only at first sight. XII. in which both ripovoia and play an important role. VIII. 2665. also 34a-36d. 3.51. MA: Harvard University Press. 48— 49. 11.” Guthrie. I am the descendent o f Arsaces.. t o u t o o ti av au e7T(. London: Heinemann. TCpovoiav. and thy slave. 6 For npovot-a see LVII. хата Xoyov tov slxora Ss'l Xeystv rovSs tov xoafAov £wov е[лфи)(ОУ evvouv х г ттј aXrj&eta бих ttjv tou 9-sou yevEa&at. 1730-31. LVII.oEpa el x a l т и ^ .d: tj tou rcavTOc.” 8 See Plato. 5.20.5 Although the s first letter is somewhat uncertain. where a black Tuyj] may be mentioned.158. my god. The Exordium (11. 3. and Luther H. These three problems can be solved in conjunction.5.665-66 (the seven Tychai are Hathors).254. 233): “Es ist die Weltseele gemeint. 30). 3167. xal ■?jX$ov xe T x p o q as t o v ejxov &eov. so one will have to look for parallels outside the corpus. The context. see also Richard Reitzenstein. “Ein syrischer Memra tiber die Seele in religionsgeschichtlichem Rahmen. In his diplomatically crafted statement Tiridates told Nero what tickled his ears. OuoXoyaiaou бе xal Пахорои to o v (BaatXewv абѕХфоq. XII. for thou art my Fortune and my Fate. See Francis M. 1738-39.2601. where the Persian Tiridates on a visit in R om e presents himself to Nero with these words: eyca. The destiny thou spinnest for me shall be mine. 4 7 5 -8 5 ) 89 Preisendanz’ reading o f Tu^Y] has generally been accepted. XIII.36: |леуаХобо£е IIpovoLa (Isis).192. 1997). фи/jj. And I have come to thee. Plato’ Cosmology: The s Timaeus of Plato (London: Routledge.1724-25. Heidelberg: Winter.6 but none o f the passages attest the two names together. D ie Gottin Psyche in der hellenistischen undfruhchristlichen Literatur (SHAW. a decision in favor o f is fairly secure. to worship thee as I do Mithras. Phaedr.506. History of Greek Philosophy. 233. Arthur Allgeier. the question is w hether the two names refer to two different deities. and he combined Roman and Persian imperial ideology. cf. 3000. or to one deity identified by two epithets consisting o f hypostatized abstractions. 1741-43.PH 10. Cf. brother o f the kings Vologaesus and Pacorus. crit.16. (“Master.” A R W 21 (1922) 360— Merkelbach.

2.. Philostratus. 2. 84— 94. 11 Merkelbach. 4.. 8. Епп. which is the substance o f the world-soul.v. 3.36:3 (1989) 20 6 72103. Myrto Dragona-Monachou.” 539): “Das aber.” ANRW 11. 3. L ’Am e du monde de Platon a stoiciens (Paris: “Les belles 87.9. 12.36:7 (1994) 4417— esp. “Divine Providence in the Philosophy o f the Empire. 4424.” 1939). t y ) б е ф и ^ т ј t y ] v rcpovotav).539. Richard L. 1994). Aet. also 50— 84: 51. the highest deity in fact. spiritus. Gordon. it means that only one deity. 21) SV F II. Pneuma. 10 SKFII § 1064 (312. Peter Steinmetz.1 The author makes the connection between the exordium and the main 1 body o f the ML through the element o f fire/spirit. 1993). 606— 610.10 Moreover.9 Therefore. and it is here that the combination o f the two concepts frequently occurs. 51. Die Allseele in Platons ‘Timaios’ (BAK 96.). Mischa von Perger. etc. Divine 90.13). als Pronoia. was die Welt beseelt. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. 2. “Chairemon. and his providence is like its soul” (eoLxevoa t w [xev av^ptorcco t o v Ala x al t o v xoajxov.24.90 Commentary Chrysippus and later Stoics. FZPhTh 24 (1977) 60-87. from Plutarch. Philo.686— Joseph Moreau. “The Origins o f Pronoia: A Mystery. 950— 8. § 1064 (312.4.” ANRW 11. that is the universe. 47 (with reference to Chrysippus): ty) Tcpovoia —фи^-/] 8’ earl tou x6<7fxou. For the passages dealing with the world-soul see also Pease. Philo. б Plotinus. Providence in Philo of Alexandria (TSAJ 77. gelegentlich nennt Zenon diese feurige Weltseele auch rcveujj-a. 4. Paul’s School.. Robert T.319— Albrecht Dihle.50-51. is like a human being. § 933 (268. C. фи/Yj.3. als gestaltende Natur. Leipzig: Teubner. 12 See Steinmetz (“D ie Stoa. § 613 (187. 36 (1077D).9. Already Chrysippus defined the deity thus: “Chrysippus asserts that Zeus.31). 1997). if the invocation is influenced by Stoic ideas. Cruickshank (London: St. “Der Begriff ‘Pronoia’ in Stoa und Platonismus. Vit. Long & Sedley. 9 See S V F I § 172 (44.55. T D N T 9 (1973). Apoll. 2094— 95. section A. providentia. Cicero. not.5.” D D D 664— 67. das ist die Weltseele (mens mundi.16. “Pronoia.12 (see e.13). was als aktives Prinzip nach Hervorbringung der Welt aus dem ‘Feuer’ als die ganze Welt durchdringendes ‘Feuer’ weiterwirkt. W. бе тои xocjfxou .35). 20. ohne dass Pneuma schon ein fester Terminus ware .” in Die Philosophic der Antike (Basel: Schwabe.M.. lat. kurz.9. Tipovoia. Prov.” .3— Hermann Dorrie. Abrasax.g. See Heinz Robert Schlette. the relationship between the invocation and the re­ mainder o f the ML can be explained with the help o f Merkelbach s observa­ tion that the exordium is a secondary feature prefixed to the received tradi­ tion. 1. esp. Michael Frede. is addressed in this way.” 5. Marcus Aurelius. Comm. s. 1999). Aet.: Knecht. als Heimarmene. “Die Stoa. 1992).. Parker. 47— 48. was als Logos.35). Peter Frick.” in Apodosis: Essays Presented to Dr. lettres. W.19— about the association o f mens mundi. Weltseele: Geschichte und Hermeneutik (Frankfurt a.

3124. daraus folgt dann. 2826. . 186 (on Pausanias 39. e. Giitersloh: Mohn. IV. 10 . avai. Matt 16:22. 12.oi llpovoia XTA. 12:4.I. not all o f which are textually beyond doubt: ха <а>ттрата тгарабоха fxucror]pt.14 The reason for the petition is that the author confesses the commission o f a specific offense: табе ypacpovxt. [xol yevou. 2:17. III. see Siegbert Uhlig. 14 See LSJ.158 [Meleager] (iAoc&’. 1. lAaaxofjiai. LCL edition and translation by W..442— 43). 16 Dieterich (50): “. Presentation of a Petition (11. muB es fur hochst wahrscheinlich gelten. For a collection o f passages from apocalyptic writings.. he does not seem to realize that the act o f w riting down the sacred tradition is the offensive act precipitating the prayer. 13:6. cf. the opening questions in the emperor Julian’s Hymn to the Mother of the Gods (Or. the question o f writing is a literary topos.g. Schwyzer. 33:6-12. ware die ganz auBerlich eingetragene Anderung dessen.17 13 The expression iXa&t [aol occurs also 1. V. More common is the Attic £Aewq. which mentions Theocritus 15. 92:1-5. T D N T 3 (1938) 300-1. and the original form o f oral transmis­ sion. where in some texts the prophet is ordered to write the things down he has seen.v. nicht mehr der echte Wortlaut der Liturgie sein kann: das Wort ypacpovxc. The Exordium (11. 19:3-5. тсарабоха [лиахтјр. 48:6— 50:1. but he explicitly observes the rule o f secrecy regarding the mystery rituals known only to the “theurgists” (173A-B). .165.v. See. Grammatik. 2. cf. Abrasax. daB табѕ y p a q j o v x t .357. Lucian. H M R . 183. 22:1-23:6. cf.13— 14). See Friedrich Biichsel. 709 n. and also Reitzenstein. see III.<x. As Merkelbach has noticed. and that therefore the entire exordium cannot be part o f the mystery ritual to be perform ed.АаагНгјтѓ. not in written form. the apocalyptic literature. Jacobitz 22]. s. V. Since it occurs also elsewhere in the P G M . 2En. C.457. occurring also in the N T (Heb 8:12 Qer 31:34 LXX]). Darjtk).16 However. 213. 1984). 36:1. 11. daB die Worte ТлагК \i.. 3. while in others he is prohibited.206. Julian summarizes main points o f myths and festivals. 53:2— 54:1.13 it seems to be conventional even in its archaizing form . 69:9-10.са (“as I write these mysteries handed down. xa <a>7ipaxa. 1. Abr.. 689. 35:2.. 1988. 3.420. IV.15 This secret tradition is named by technical ex­ pressions. Das athiopische Henochbuch (JSHRZ 5:6. 1. tAao<.. 82:1-3. den Beginn der rituellen Aktion selbst ausmachten und zur Eroffnung der Kulthandlung selbst g e s p r o c h e n wurden. constituting a secondary act. 551 n. my Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 667 n.304. tXsco?. der den heiligen Text a b s c h r i e b . s.169A): “And shall I write about things not to be spoken o f and divulge what ought not to be divulged? Shall I utter the unutterable?” (xal urtep xwv appTjxwv ypatpojxev xal та ave^oLCTxa e^oraofjiev xa l та avexAaAyjxa. . ” 17 Pointed out by Merkelbach. Epigr. Luke 18:13).155— 56. Parallel is Diew<. 41 [OCT.341.143. Cf. See lEn.. Dieterich recognized a discrepancy between “w riting down” the mysteries. Wright.567. BDAG. [. cf. 68:1— Test. [j l o l . the offense consists of having written down (ypacpovxi) the text to follow (хабе) because it contains the secret tradition. 15 The secret tradition is to be handed down orally. sxAaXrjaofXEv. Since the apocalyptic literature is on the whole not secret but intends to be public. 475— 85) 91 B. 8. 948. these parallels indicate that the god is asked to smile with kindness at the orant. Anthol.pal. 475—78) T he formula ЕХалК jaol introduces the prayer.. not for gain”).

Gottesnahe. see BDAG.131. app. IV2477. LSJ lists: Plato. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. Cf. Wendland prefers тсрмтсжаработа.v.23 following Usener24 and Riess.: Plato. 723). On the subject matter.. Sam Eitrem. 685. O Z 2 /1 . Ernst Riess. ad loc. but. see Betz. See Hopfner. Iamblichus.). s. Men. differently. For parallels and bibliography. to the ritual as a whole (11. 45): тгарабоС^оа тгоХХа тсарабо^а.бм[ЈЛ.ov in the PGM see also 1. тграха could simply be the result o f an error by the scribe who forgot to erase it after he had corrected himself by writing тгаработа. 2. XIII. crit.369 S. The term “mysteries” (pjanrjpt-a) refers to the text o f the ML. 53-54. 331. LSJ.132c.v. 1.v. 18 For pj(TT7)pt. crit. . “The Formation o f Authoritative Tradition in the Greek Magical Papyri. 96-117). 128. Merkelbach.25 contracts the words into тгатротгаработа (“handed down by the father”). 1. W hile these terms belong to the familiar mystery-cult language.19 the words т а тхраха in the papyrus20 have been emended by scholars in different ways.. in a supplemen­ tal section (11.26 In theory. тсарабосп^. X XXIII. Betz. ф 7гарѓбмха<.a. if one wants to contract. XII.110. 71р«татс6урасрос.92 Commentary Rather. 93b. V.” in Greek a rare term according to LSJ (s. 4. o f course.12 (Xenocrates. § 27.448. 19 For 7тараб£бсо[Ја in the PGM see 1.. 24. X X X V I. with references. 176. Preisendanz and Eitrem21 emend as < а > т с р а х а . 1. app. see also BDAG.18 The |хиатт]р[.) w ho render it as “unsold. Reitzenstein. gives as references for 7гаработо<. H M R . the author could have intended a contrasting pun. XIII. crit. 794). тгараб(.. 89— 27.22 Differently. тсаработа is found only here.” Hellenismus und Urchristentum.v. TtapaSoaii. 746.” SO 22 (1942) 49— 79..v. 476. [xu<rr/)pt. Philodemus. 129. translated as “unverkauflich.).. Ale. Diogenes Laertius 4.. none seems compelling. Lg. "Oti тгаработт) yj арѕттѓ) a'). ad loc. but there are ambiguities here as well. W hile all o f these emendations are possible. 22 Cf. 2. crit. xa fjiucmr)pt. s. plausible would also be 7гра)татсаработа (“handed down first” or “handed down as most im portant”). 25 See Preisendanz.. For further parallels see Dieterich. ad loc.ovw бѕ xexvto (“for an only child”) point to the person to whom the tradition is going to be handed over. 333.v. 21 See Preisendanz. that is by implication. Abrasax. according to the app. Cf. “La theurgie chez les neo-pythagoriciens et dans les papyrus magiques. in a papyrus from Egypt (3rd c. 23 Merkelbach. The words p. XIX. the prayer o f the exordium is a different level o f ritual act performed in w riting by the author o f the exordium. V.52. 52.a crou ra (TUVTEAou^-eva ’1сттра7]Х). 158. LSJ. unsal­ able.. 20 Wessely. For parallels in early Christian literature. 180. Protr. 173— 83. s. VII.а are “handed over” (тгарабоха) as “sacred tradition” (иарабоак . CIR 10 (1896) 411. s. Rhet.. app.54. 2592.ov. Friedrich. 24 See Dieterich.192. See also 1 Pet 1:18 and BDAG. 219— Graf. 26 Dieterich (3) reads та тгрмта ттаработа.” If атсраха were accepted as correct.109-11 (Moses. esp. 802e.933. s. the parallel in Thessalos o f Tralles (ed.322. 170. the term refers to an ointment used in the ritual. For the related тсаработео<.306. 56. Suppl. 107 (Magic.22-23: б тсатрсжаработо<.

58-63. he read [лиеТст& тт}^ . а (“worthy”).w. The papyrus has а£см[листтоа. 742. While the language is again familiar from the mystery-cults and attested elsewhere in the PGM . 290— 94. qualifying [лиатт) (“initiate”). with references. see the letters o f Pnouthis to Keryx (1. So much is clear also from the close parallel in PGM 1. 32 A close parallel is the exordium to the Apocryphon o f James from Nag Hammadi (N H C 1. 30 See Betz. the formulae contained in the text.32 The verb indicating petition appears to be а. . X. Since the author later includes an instruction for a fellow-initiate (11. The question is whether a Е.” e. O Z 2 /1 .ш functions as a verbal or adjectival form. 31 Cf.214. For 45. 732— 50). 185. 475— 85) 93 The question is whether one should understand the expression as the author s self-reference. or as relatively exclusive (“only this child at this tim e”). would have to be secondarily applied to a female. 154-285). 231. see Norden.. the term jjlovo? points to the magicians’ common practice o f having only one apprentice at a time. the parallels in Hopfner. 230.33 The 27 For xexvov see XIII. ptovco бѕ tsxvm formulates an exception which can be taken as absolutely exclusive (“only this child ever”). a ulo<. His later reading оа was accepted by Norden. VIII. Library. Nephotes to Psammetichos (IV.27 parallels in the immediate context prove that the recipient of the document is addressed. 290— Boll.29 In either case. or as a reference to someone else as recipient of the text. it is meant to function as a memorandum sent to an addressee. an inconsistency known also from other mystery-cult texts.2006-2125). w ith its object being a&avaaiav (“immortality”). While the phrase [xovto 8s texvco is neuter. (Abraxas.30 As an address. H M R .238 (with further parallels). The Exordium (11. 478 addresses the recipient as “daughter” (& ^иуатвр). the author is male. 45).28 but the identity o f the person is still in doubt. 30.1. cf.18.18). or to the fellow-initiate later mentioned as rexvov (1. (IV535. Schenke.olq) are quite uncertain (Martinez). 24). but the reading o f the last two letters (-av or . not o f [листттјркх.192. 226. 343. the “daughter” in 1. 28 1. Agnostos Theos. to Any. 734.31 At any rate.. ule. speaks o f тгарабо^ос. however. 478 may either be a supplementary specification o f xexvov or a substitute address.2.g. 644— 719— 55. 755. Cornutus (addressed to атсоа^). Dankwart Kirchner. Aus der Offenbarungjohannis. 93. §§ 36— cf. it is done in a secondary insertion (see below). IV. Nag Hammadi Deutsch. more material.) 1.144— Also C H V . Dieterich reads it as an adjective.7. Cf. See Reitzenstein. Јлиотоа тт)? 'гцхетѓрад Suvafxea)? таитт)?.v. while the exordium is not formally a letter. see Robinson. the epilogue to Instr. xexvov.b. earlier. Egyptian instructional literature con­ tains addresses like “my child. W hen the comment in 1. 41. 29 At any rate. 1. See BDAG. Lichtheim.2519: хријЗе. 163). such as the Orphic Gold Tablets. s. Antike und Christentum.42— 195). Pitys to Ostanes (IV. also Thessalos o f Tralles (ed. PGM also uses ulo<. presupposing a male initiate.ш (“I ask”). 76. 1.192: таита o5v [xtjSsv'l 7гараб£бои. which Preisendanz reads as a&avacxiav a£t. N T Apok (5th ed.I. 1. and rzcdq.Е. For other epistolary pre­ scripts. el [ay] [xovw [cto]u Icr^t-vw uujj ctou a^t-ouvxL та [тсар’] Tjfxwv pYj& svToc £Уѕру[т]](Л(хта. 225.2 . This text. 748). 38. 33 Dieterich (3). Friedrich. Lichtheim 2. 3. Agnostos Theos. 136.

v. For references to restrictions about passing on the secrets only to a son or a daughter. 175— 86. Riess. immortality is o f course the prim ary benefit derived from the mysteries ([xucTYjpia).192. Nilsson (G G R . 11). 36 The term oc9-avaa(. the ML presupposes temporary immortality or deification. The author asks Providence and Psyche to grant (a^tw) immortality (a&avaata) to his addressee. idem. 58. (“o f this our power”) refers to the divine power (SuvajJtx?) energizing the ritual as a whole. see Preisendanz. XI. Cf. 49. adducing the parallel in 1. Festugiere.173— 190-96.?). 650.51 (index). related is svepyet-a xtA.233) has it indented and enclosed in brackets. incorrect.37 If so. a term occurring often in magical texts. 419— also Betz. 531. IV. s. Erich Fascher.36 w ho as an initiate ([листтт]?) is entitled to it. 2. 4. 642. 504-6. Graf. 3.15. Die Gotteskraft der fruhchristlichen Zeit (Berlin: de Gruyter. but not for the adjective. As scholars have pointed out repeatedly. 771.” D D D .a occurs only here in the PGM (1.34 c Another reason for Merkelbach s change is that otherwise the adjective leaves the sentence w ithout a verb.38 It is conspicuous that for all the magic. The adjective o^ lo? refers to ritual in a few places.a. elsewhere in PGM. [xayo? are not found in the Mithras Liturgy. awkward as it would be anyway. “Power (Suvocfxt. The intern. with note) who treats it as a marginal gloss. 477— 524.94 Commentary problem is that the papyrus reads the iota adscript indicating the dative ending for the noun. cannot be accepted. 24. for the ML see 11. etc.233). cf. < 11. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 3. 478— interrupt the sentence 81 which continues in 1. as does the verb c a^t-ouv.. For further references in the PGM.192 as support. 609. 520. “Dynamis. jxayixo?. Antike und Christentum. Also. 544. ттј? тјЈлѕтера? Suvocfxew? таит iqc. O Z 2 /1 . 1922). 38 Frequent in the PGM. . 37 So Dieterich (49). O Z 2 /1 . 516-17. 478). §§ 32— with references. the adjective would require the genitive a&avaaLtx? (“worthy o f immortality”). a7ia9-avaTi£eiv. 482 by connecting yjv with таитт)? (1. 35. 34 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 2. that Preisendanz s reading o f [листтах as referring to the deities (“ihr Mysten dieser unserer M acht”). See Dieterich. Friedrich Preisigke. 501. 647— aQ-avaxc>.686-88) distinguishes rightly between perma­ nent and temporary immortality. prefering [литјтѓ]^. 11 n. 11. esp.. § 35. So also Betz. Preisendanz (1. if one accepts the letters as they stand in the papyrus. terms such as [лауѕха. 3.88— 89) puts it in brackets and small print. Preisendanz. Vom gottlichen Fluidum nach agyptischer Anschauung (Berlin: de Gruyter. CIR 10 (1896) 411.” R A C 4 (1959) 415— 74. 35 к^шс. 620). however. Hopfner. see Dieterich. 39 See Dieterich (2-3. see also Hopfiier. 741. also W ilhelm Kroll (by letter to Preisendanz): [jlovov бе rexvov a&avaoxav aEiw fAwjaai. 48. a&avamoc? a £ l o [лиатт] r/)? .739. Revelation. a fact that causes Merkelbach to change the accusative to the genitive. 747. 477) and indicates the purpose o f the ritual called arcai)avaTicr[x6<.3911. it does imply. 1 (both with important parallels). The phrase concluding the sentence.35 As a result.81 (index). (11. Gottesnahe.177. furthermore see 78. 1920).. 13 (Magic. The lack o f useful parallels also hampers a clear decision. Graf’s assumption that the 8th Book o f Moses is dedicated to a daughter seems. Preisendanz s reading seems to make sense. 4 -5 n. 46— 48. 3. ai-touv 1. however.

478— functions as a reminder saying which ingredients must (XP82 /))40 be used in an initial ritual. There are three options for explaining what may have happened. the insertion would have to have been made as a secondary supple­ m ent to that exordium. (2) The insertion could have originated as a mar­ ginal gloss by the author. prior to the insertion. The Exordium (11. Since the whole exordium secondarily introduces a text o f sacred tradition. 481— 82]). Correspondingly.> ev xw xeXst xou lepou [jlou auvxay[xaxo<. That author or redactor would also identify the whole text he composed. (3) A later redactor. but no ritual is described in the text. Since the same author is responsible for both additions in 11. The content o f the insertion specifies only some ingredients to be used at the beginning.I. III. otherwise well-written. why did the author not include the insertion among the addenda at the end o f his composition? Because he himself refers to the full information at the end (11. which then was slipped into the text by a scribe who copied the text. H e would have added the insertion because without it the ritual would be incomplete and would not work. Xapi[Sav£t. may have inserted the sentence and thereby readdressed the docum ent to a person different from the one originally intended. here a reconstruction. (Soxavwv x al slSwv xtov fjifsXjXovxtov croc. as a “treatise” (auvxay[j. to take the juices o f herbs and spices. see IV. the first person singular piou (1. Since additional teachings are appended as well in 11 750— . 977. 475— 85) 95 ruption can best be explained as caused by an secondary insertion. but that a scribe mechanically copied it from the author s document. the insertion in 11. indicating instruction.a [11.v jukobc. This insertion. This case would presuppose that the author did not himself inscribe the present papyrus. 481) would refer either to the original author or to a later redactor.177: [j^pyj as e7t]i&ueL. That earlier docum ent must have included the exor­ dium (minus the insertion 478— 82) as well as the main body o f the text 40 The term. 819. (1) The author o f the exordium could have made the insertion. Although such a ritual is not described fully in the text. (“furthermore.913. the conclusion should be that this author worked w ith an earlier document that he himself regarded as incomplete. Therefore. is used in other passages. raises interesting questions. 772— 813). the reason for putting the insertion into the exordium must have been compelling. In this case the author himself would have rather clumsily messed up his own. however. 478-81 and 772-813. which will be made known to you at the end o f my sacred composition”). . which in itself is a complete sentence: XP-] °^v * “ ftuyaxep. reflecting an afterthought and self-correction on his part. <[X7]vu07ja£a^at. it is necessary for you. O daughter.v. who used an older document. composition. the author assumes that it needs to be performed.

who in some texts is regarded as her father. The fact that some o f the supplementary rituals are needed at the beginning caused him to insert the reminder in 11. O Z 2 /1 . according to which “sons. X X X IV 18-19. 43 See Muller. In these texts Isis is the most important example. added the supplements (11. Westendorf. she may at one time have been an apprentice.96 Commentary (11. is not treated as an apprentice but as a fully initiated magician ((лиаттј^). while in other sources she is regarded as the daughter o f T hoth/H erm es. XL.” in Gleanings from Deir el-Medma (eds. which also explains why he ended by declaring the document (u7tofxvY][jia) to be now complete (11. von Deines and W. A Magical Statue Base (Socle Behague) in the Museum of Antiquities at Leiden (Leiden: Brill. §35. 484— 720). 2. A. s. lines 57— 58 (saying VI). or his apprentice.732— 820). see the Metternich Stele. see H. where Harpokration o f Alexandria addresses his natural histories to 41 For 9г>уатт)р cf. LI. If the author calls her “daughter” in the metaphorical sense. Al­ though there is no other instance o f a female apprentice m entioned in the PGM . 1%уостт]р. 2— 3. The author. Agypten. J. 478-82. Both possibilities could be documented by parallels from ancient religions.2.v.41 T he person in question. 819— 20). 1982). Janssen. T he transmission o f esoteric knowledge from father to daughter also re­ flects older Egyptian practice42 which continues in Greco-Egyptian and H er­ metic sources.. . 1995). Egyptologische Uitgaven 1. Addressing the recipient as “daughter” (&иуатт]р) can mean two things: she could be his own kin. 123. with the translation by J. 5). s. See also Hopfher. 42 I am indebted for this information to Thomas Dousa who mentioned ancient Egyptian medical texts but criticizes that scholars sometimes have a tendency to explain away the female gender. 232. Thierry Bordinet. In the M emphitic tradition contained in the aretalogy o f Kyme. A most important example is Isis being instructed by T h ot/ Hermes. p. Klasens. F. R . Isis is educated by Hermes (1.” or “children” signify pupils or apprentices. VII. “Divine Intervention in Ancient Egypt and Its Manifestation (bzw). n. J. but she is now treated as a colleague. if. BDAG. Worterbuch der medizinischen Texte. IV. Les Papyrus medicaux de VEgyptepharaonique (Paris: Fayard. the magician as father would pass on a piece o f sacred tradition to his daughter who is also a magician. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. 26— 27.” “daughters. “daughter” would be a metaphor. on the other hand. Halfte (GrundriB der Medizin der alten Agypter.43 A Herm etic source for father-daughter transmission is found in the prologue o f the Kyranides. 15. In the first instance. 1961). 3). but is called the daughter o f Kronos/Geb (1. Such an address would conform to instructional language and practice. however. 76. In the second instance. 1952). Demaree andj.10. therefore. furthermore. 690. she is his biological daughter. 39. p.v. Leiden: Brill.2. such usage should not be excluded as a possibility. 21. he would regard her as his heir to w hom he hands over a piece of sacred tradition. Borghouts. 704.

I. The Exordium (II. 4 7 5 -8 5 )


his daughter.44 Female magicians are o f course known from many quarters o f Greek and Hellenistic45 as well as from Jewish religion.46 The language o f the instruction is technical. The often occurring verb Xa[x(3av£t.v (“take”) indicates the acquiring and using o f ingredients, one o f which is “plant ju ice” (xyXol ^oxavwv), specified further in the supplement (11. 773 and 781).47 The term elScov, from to ѕХбос; (pi. slStj) seems strange as compared w ith other occurrences in the PGM ;48 here it refers either to drugs or to utensils.49 Since in the supplement (11. 772— 813)50 only ingredients and no utensils are detailed, the translation should be accordingly (“drugs”).51 The term pqvu&Yjaea&oa (“be inform ed”) is supplied by Preisendanz who argues for it on the basis o f the parallels in PGM IV.2016, 2046— 2069.52 The 47, information is to be found ev tw tsXei (“at the end”), where the crossreference is indicated (ttjv 7ipoxsL[xevY]v [1. 779]). Concluding his statement (1. 482), the author refers to his composition as a whole by the phrase tou lepou [xou ctuvtocy[хосто^. The term auvTocyfxa is literary, com bining the compositional w ith the functional (“composition”): the text is put together from sources, and it serves as a prescription for the performance o f the ritual.53 In 1. 482, the text o f the exordium continues, w ith the relative pronoun 7]v connecting with таитт]? (1. 479). The section (11. 482— sets forth the hier­ 85)
44 For the passing on o f tradition within the family, see Dieterich, Abraxas, 160-63; Norden, Agnostos Theos, 290— Festugiere, Revelation, 1.332— Dimitris Kaimakis, Die 91; 36; Kyraniden (BKP 76; Meisenheim am Gian: Hain, 1976), 14, lines 4-5: ex tou 'Артсохрат^шос; tou ’AXe^avSpew^ тиро^ ttjv olxelocv Suyaxepav; 15, lines 30— 31: [ЗфАо<; што 2upux<; &ер<х7геитЈ.х7), ттј olxera &иуатр1 'Apuoxpaxcwv уеурафе табе. See also the chain o f tradition involving the theurgists Nestor, Plutarch and his daughter Asclepigeneia, and Proclus (Marinus, Vit. Procli 28, ed. Rita Masullo, Marino di Neapoli, Vita di Proclo [Napoli: D ’Auria, 1985]). The note in Graf ( Gottesnahe, 212, n. 13; ET: Magic, 237, n. 11), men­ tioning PGM XIII.341— is unclear because the term there is xexvov. 43, 45 For the evidence o f female magicians, see Matthew W. Dickie, Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World (London: Routledge, 2001). 46 The “witch o f Endor” is, o f course, the most famous example (1 Sam 28). See Klaus Thraede, “H exe,” R A C 14 (1988) 1269— Giuseppe Veltri, Magie und Halakha. Ansatze 76; z u einem empirischen Wissenschaftsbegriff im spatantiken undfrtihmittelalterlichenJudentum (TSAJ 62; Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1997), 26, 29, 65-72, 79-81. 47 For further references, see below on 1. 773. 48 For е!бо? see also IH.190-91; VIII.5, 18; XIII.1077; 21.47-48. 49 Preisendanz renders “Spezereien,” Merkelbach (159) “Arten,” Hopfner (according to Preisendanz, app. crit., ad loc.) “Utensilien,” Meyer (Betz, G M PT , 48) “spices.” 50 The term т ш {x[eX]X6vTtov (11. 480— 81) refers to the supplement. The correction follows Dieterich (p. 3: fx[e]A6vT«v), Preisendanz (app. crit.), and Merkelbach (158). 51 See for references LSJ, s.v. еТбо^, IV. 52 The term refers to matters “to be informed about.” Wilhelm Cronert (“Zur Kritik,” 100) supplies -гсарабогНЃЈстѕтоа. 53 Cf. 1.45— та TCocvxa xaTaX£(,[7i6[xeva t][xlv ev] рфХос? |лирѓоа<; стиутау|л.ата. 47:



archy o f authority and the transmission o f the tradition: ffj o fxeya? 'HAio? Ml&pa? sxsAsuasv fjiot, pieTa8o&Y)vai. што тои ap^ayyeXou аитои, бтсоо? eyw [xovo? al<x>Y]TY]? oupavov (3alva> xal хатотгтѕисо rcavxa (“which the great god Helios Mithras ordered to be handed over to me by the his archangel, so that I alone may walk heaven as an ‘eagle’ and behold the all”). At the top stands the highest deity, defined by his names and epithets. Clearly, the god is monotheis­ tic, indicated by his epithet o [хеуа? &e6<; (“the great god”), which occurs only here in the ML.54 The god has, however, two names: Helios and Mithras.55 For the author, therefore, the two gods, originally separate, have become united. This is all the more remarkable because in the main body o f the ML, the author’ source material, the two gods are not identical. In 1. 640 Helios occurs s alone, named as the highest god but in fact subordinate to Mithras; in 1. 643 another god is spoken o f as o fAsytcrro? &eoc;, and in 11. 696— 704 this greatest god is described without naming him; he clearly is, however, Mithras. The authors sources, on the one hand, presuppose two different gods, but on the other hand the authors intention is to merge them into “one god.” As Wolfgang Fauth has pointed out, while the ambiguity o f the relationship between Helios and Mithras reflects Hellenistic syncretism (theocrasy),56 the author of the ML had philosophical interests as well. The fact that only Helios (and not Mithras) is named in 1. 640, in spite o f what no doubt is a description o f him, may perhaps result from the author’ interest in presenting the highest god as Aion s (see 11 520— 587— . 23, 616). The double-name Helios-Mithras means that the author must have read the name o f Mithras in the source. Did the author purposefully omit the name Mithras at 1. 696? Why did he let the name of Helios stand? The reason for keeping Helios may have been that the god is needed for the ritual o f ascent through the seven astral spheres.57 Fauth also
The epithet is frequent elsewhere in the PGM (see Preisendanz, 3.133— [index], s.v.). 34 See also III.80: М£9-ра; 100-1: vat, (леу1 стте Мѓ&ра; 462: ^aipe, "HXt,e M£9-pa; V.4: Zeu "ГОаѕ Мѓ&ра Иаратп; Ostracon 2.8— Mi&peu Mi&pa. The name Helios occurs in 9: the PGM also in many other combinations. 56 For a discussion o f the relationship between Helios and Mithras, and a review o f the current literature see Fauth, Helios Megistos, esp. 11— Manfred Clauss, “Sol Invictus 33; Mithras,” Athendum 78 (1990) 423— idem, Mithras, 146— 50; 55: “Mithras and the SunGod”; N. P. Milner & Martin F. Smith (“N ew Votive Reliefs from Oinoanda,” Anatolian Studies 44 [1994] 65-76), discussing a bust o f a youthful god with a crown o f rays, addressed as M I0PA НЛШ. Cf. IV.1596— 1715, an invocation o f Helios, with the epithet zlq Zzuq Ѕаратт ic, (1715). See also Albert de Jong, Traditions of the Magi: Zoroastrianism in Greek and Latin Literature (Religions o f the Graeco-Roman World, 133; Leiden, N ew York, Koln: Brill, 1997), 157-204, 284-96. 57 Actually, this was Dieterich s (89-90) suggestion, commenting on Origen’ descrip­ s tion o f the mysteries o f Mithras and the yJaixocc; ѕтгтостгиЛо^ (Cels. 6.22). Cf. Fauth’ s critique, Helios Megistos, 22— 23.
54 55

I. The Exordium (11. 475— 85)


points to the Neoplatonist Julians doctrine o f the three suns in three worlds: the transcendental Helios in the intelligible world (xoafxo? voyjto?), HeliosMithras in the middle (voepoq), and the sun-disk in the visible world (брато^); accordingly, Helios is the deity uniting and holding the three worlds to­ gether.58 Compared w ith Julian, the ML is clearly pre-Neoplatonic and shows the problems Julian s theory tried to solve. The great god Helios-Mithras gave the order to “hand over” ([летаб£б(0[л(,)59 the tradition through his “archangel” (ар^ауугХос), a term used also in pagan sources, esp. in Neoplatonism.60 This mediator figure remains unnamed.61 To w hom was the tradition handed over? Apparently to the author: бтс«<; eyw [xovog. Naming the author as the exclusive recipient, however, is a rather com m on feature in similar texts.62 As indicated by the exordium, the text is just another instance in the passing on o f the tradition. T he next word (1. 484) is controversial. T he papyrus contains оатјту)?, w hich has been em ended and interpreted in various ways. Preisendanz emends to cd<x>v]Tr]c, (“petitioner”),63 rejecting D ieterich’s reading as ocIyjtoc;

58 Fauth (151— 54), discussing Julians Hymn to Helios, Or. IV.149A-D. Accordingly, Helios provides for unity between the gods, but “without confusion into unity” (бѓ/а ow f/uoeuq sic, evcoctlv); cf. 157A. At 155 A Julian mentions worshiping Mithras as a novelty and with some ambuigity concerning his relationship to Helios. 59 The term is technical in this context, a synomym оѓтгарабсбмЈлл; see for parallels 1.130 ([a ^ evI [аАЛсо [лејтабм^, аААа нри(3ѕ, ...); IV.853; VII.457; XII.93. Cf. y BDAG, s.v. [летабѓбмјлс.. 60 The occurrences in Neoplatonism seem to go back to the Egyptian Anebo; see Porphyry, Aneb. 1.4: yap, xi to yvwpiCTfjta &sou 7iapoiKjr.ai; 7] ayyeXou y ] ap^ayyeXou 7] Sai[Aovoq y\ xivoq ap^ovxo^ фи^г^. The passage in Iamblichus, Myst. 2.3 seems to depend on this (see also 2.4). See Franz Cumont, “Les anges du paganisme,” R H R 72 (1915) 159-82, esp. 175-80; Edouard des Places, Jamblique, Les mysteres d ’Egypt (Paris: Les belles lettres, 1966), 79 n. 1. 61 Depending on the religious context, the names differ. In PGM XIII, the archangel, subordinated to Aion, is named Helios (XIII.257, 334— cf. III.339 without name) or 37; Michael (XIII.928-29; IV.2356-57; VII.257); in XIV.a.5 Helios is asked to send his archangel. Other places speak o f a plurality o f archangels (1.208— IV 1203— 3051— 9; 4, 52; XIII.328-29, 744; XXII.b.3,7; 15.a; 21.9-10). For further sources, see Dieterich, 47; Reitzenstein, H M R , 171— n. 2; Merkelbach & Totti, Abrasax 1.200, 219; ibid., 2.79, 81 72, (XIV.a.5); Daniel & Maltomini, Supplementum Magicum, #29.3-4; #93.4; Kotansky, Amulets, #57.12. See BDAG, s.v.; Johann Michl, “Engel,” R A C 5 (1965) 56— 57; Mach, Entwicklungsstadien, 56, 142— 43, 177, 225, 230; J. W. van Henten, “Archangel,” D D D 80— 82. 62 Cf. 1.188; IV. 1520-21, 2961; differently XII.37; LXII.25-26. See also Thessalos o f Tralles, prooemium; furthermore i En. 19:3 ( O T P 1.23): “(So) I, Enoch, I saw the vision o f the end o f everything alone; and none among human beings will see as I have seen.” 63 Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.158, 233) follows Preisendanz, and translates: “der ich darum gebeten habe.”



(“eagle”).64 Preisendanz’s correction is attested in papyri,65 but it would be unique in the PG M .66 Dieterich argued (50, 220— against C um ont67 and 21) ; Reitzenstein68 that afojxo< is philologically not impossible69; in addition, in a new reading o f the papyrus Martinez favors the letter e instead o f Y so that the ), interpretation as the Mithraic title o f “eagle” (alero q) claimed by the author is highly likely.70 That this title could easily be connected w ith the following statement o f purpose was pointed out by Weinreich.71 The language describing the goals of the author (11. 483— is also rare in the 85) PGM. First, there is oupavov (3oav« (“going to heaven”),72 which is not different in meaning from the usual zic, oupavov [3a£vto (“going into heaven”).73 Second, there is хатотстеим tzolvxol (“overviewing all things’), a topos in literature regarding ascension and view of the cosmos.74 Indeed, these words sum up what the author understands to happen during the performance o f the ritual.
64 For other proposed corrections see Preisendanz, app. crit., ad l o c idem, WSt. 41 (1919) 140. 65 See LSJ, Suppl., s.v.; Preisigke-KieBling, s.v. 66 Cf. XII.144: ocEttjctis; XIII.287: yjttjcjw alTTplav ; IV.434, 1290, 1930; XXII.b.30: e^atrrjat.?; IV.462, 1294; VI.29: &,< £ xitz Zo &oli. More frequent in the PGM is Ixstt]? (11.87; XIII.637). 67 Franz Cumont, Etudes syriennes (Paris: Picard, 1917), 57 n.: “correction douteuse”; c f 89. 68 Reitzenstein (H M R , 172, 174) reads аАтјтг^ (“wanderer”). 69 For Doric cdri)xbc, see LSJ, s.v.: “Dor. for aexo<;, aiexoq.” 70 Dieterich (54, 151, 220— 21) has further material supplied by Weinreich. For the Mithraic material see Cumont, Textes et monuments, 1.314 n. 8 ; Theodor Schneider and Eduard Stemplinger, “Adler,” R A C 1 (1950) 87— (with references to Porphyry, Abst. 94 4.16, and Lucian, Icarom. 14); Wolfgang Speyer, “Geier,” R A C 9 (1976) 430-69, esp. 439— 41; Carsten Colpe et al., “Jenseitsfahrt I (Himmelsreise),” R A C 17 (1996), esp. 439— 41; Merkelbach, Mithras, 105-6 (with photos from the Heddernheim mithraeum), 240, 242 (in connection with the ascension o f the soul). Betz (Lukian, 39, 97 n. 6 , 175) points to the eagle as a symbol o f Helios and Zeus. 71 In Dieterich, 220— 21. 72 Merkelbach (Abrasax , 3.159) translates: “auf die Himmel(s-Schale) trete(n).” 73 1.67 (cf 184: ситеибм yap eiq oupavov). For instances o f this terminology, see Lucian, Peregr. 39: IXlttov yav, (Salvoa ec ’'OXuptov; similarly Philostratus, Vit. Apoll. 8.30. See Betz, Lukian, 38ff., 123, 128ff., 167— Cf. Vettius Valens, A nth. VI.1.9 (ed. Pingree [BiTeu, 69. 1986] 231, 6— 7):... та etcl утјс xaxaXL7i 6 vTa? oupavo(3aTeiv a^avaToit; фи^аТ<; xal QzL lic,. o Cf. also Lucian, Sacr. 9; Timon 49; Astr. 13; Philo, Opif. 69— а1&еро(Затем, oupavo(3aT£w, 71: C U 7repL7roXew. For the terminology, see Abraham P. Bos, “Immanenz und Transzendenz,” T [i. R A C 17 (1996) 1041-92, esp. 1045-46. 74 For хатотстѕиѕ[л/ see IV516— 17; 504: sn on xzveiv; Lucian, Icar. 12— see Betz, 16; Lukian, 39 n. 1 (with parallels). Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.233) points to the Platonic idea (Plato, Phaedr. 247b— o f the immortal souls w hen they travel to heaven on the chariot and c) break through the astral sphere to behold the heavenly world (cf. Ps.-Plato [Philip o f Opus], Epin. 978c— 986b— d, 987d). Closer to the ML is C H III.3: eiq xaxoTixelav oupavou;

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 )


II. The M ain body o f the ritual (11. 4 8 5 —732)

As indicated in the papyrus by a space after 1. 486, the main body o f the composition sets forth the ritual called отос&осуссгшџбд (“immortalization”; see the Analysis infra, part II, 11 485-732). This ritual has several clearly . distinguishable sections, beginning w ith a lengthy petitionary prayer (section A, 11 485-537), a prescription for a breathing ritual (section B, 11. 537-38), . the introduction to the ascent narrative (section C, 11. 539— 44), the narrative o f the ascent itself, consisting o f seven scenarios (section D, 11. 544-732). This main body is then followed by supplemental rituals (part III, 11. 732— 819), and a concluding statement (11. 819-20).


The opening (first) prayer (11. 485— 537)

The importance o f prayer for the ML as a whole is shown by the long prayer (11. 485-537) to be recited at the beginning o f the ritual. According to the internal num bering o f the prayers (see 11. 741— 42), it is the first,75 a petitionary prayer by genre, consisting o f the traditional parts o f invocation (11. 486— 99) and petition (11. 499-537).76 1. Before the prayer begins, a statement o f identification (11. 485— sepa­ 86) rates it from the preceding exordium and defines the prayer by the proper terms: laxxv бе тои Xoyou т)бе Y ] (“This is the invocation o f the prayer”). Xoyo<;77 refers to the prayer as a whole, хХтјст^ to the invocation.78 2. The invocation is in two parts, first calling on “O rigin” (11. 486— 87), and second on the four elements which in effect constitute “O rigin” (11. 489— 95).79 This kind o f invocation o f cosmic powers by abstract, personified

1.3 (jta&slv QiAw та ovtoc xal vo7)am ttjv toutwv cpucnv xal yvwvoa tov 9-sov. For further references see Norden, Agnostos Theos, 24— 99— 27, 109; N ock & Festugiere, 1.46, n. 10. 75 In 11. 741-42, the prayer is identified as б Trpwxoi; ’ oyoq. k 64. Since 76 On the composition o f prayers, see Furley & Bremer, Greek Hymns, 1.50— the prayer shows influences o f Hellenistic philosophy, it will have to be classified among the philosophical prayers; see with further material van den Berg, Proclus’ Hymns, 13— “The 34: Philosopher’s Hym n.” 77 The Xoyoq contains the things to be spoken (та Xeyofjieva). 78 For the term хАтјспс;, see 11.81; V I.1; VII.878; XII.310. See also Lewy, Chaldean Oracles, 467-71: “The Caller and the Call.” 79 For the elemental origins see also the prayers addressed to Aion-Helios 1.195-222; 1.263-327; III.494-632; IV.l 115-66; IV.l 167-1226. For the а т о ^ а tou x 6 (J[xou, see III.568; IV.440, 1126, 1303, 1961; VIII.78; X II.250-51; XVII.b.15; 'X X X IX .18-20; LXII.15.

620. “Hebdomas. see 11. cf.81 s The first. 82 Within the ML. At this point o f the prayer. is clear evidence o f influence o f Greek philosophy. 788. 528-29. 501. Das Alphabet. 635— 36). XIII. 720. DeiBmann. 492. Antiquity and Humanity: Essays on Ancient Religion and Philoso­ phy Presented to Hans Dieter B etz on His 70th Birthday (Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. 453-60). VIII. Dornseiff. 80 The phenomenon is typical o f philosophical prayers.102 Commentary concepts.206— Furley & Bremer. 393-99 (Light from the Ancient East. 6 3 5 36. “Planeten. On vowel series generally. 544.812— 2.612. that needs to be “regenerated. Since seven-vowel sequences are frequent in all sorts o f magical literature. 3.). The authors objective is to combine cosmology and anthropology with astrology (see below on 1. 493.). Mitchell. < T For the Presocratics. 532. 495.234). 764. instead o f traditional names o f deities. Licht vom Osten (4th ed.720. 620. Merkelbach’ comment s (Abrasax.84 where it is indicative o f the cosmological foundation in a more general sense. 3. using two Greek terms denoting “origin. eds. it originated. 32— 33. the term yevsm*.Each line declares a primordial origin to be the source o f the present suppliant’ personal natural birth. general invocation is a parallelismus membrorum.” 84 For vowel sequences and variations in the ML.? can mean both “origin” and “birth. 35— (lit. Lva [X] tk.” PRE 7 (1912) 2547— 68 78. 477-99. C. 41e. 83 See 11.b. 7. “Cleanthes’ Hymn to Zeus and Early Christian Literature. 81 See Merkelbach (Abrasax. Franz Boll.”83 The first line ends with the magical vowel sequence aerjiouw. 1749. Johan 15.5).” implying that the human birth o f the individual has its direct source in the primordial origin o f the universe. the ML is directed by philosophical cosmology.80 As Merkelbach has pointed out. s The first line (486) reads [TJeveat. an interpretation that has some support in the the ML. Outside o f the ML.” PRE 20 (1950) 2017-2185. pointing to Plato’s first birth o f human beings which is the same for all. at notes 87— 88). refers to birth and rebirth (see on 11. 498-99.234) who relates the reference to the astrological birth constellation. The connection o f the seven vowels with the seven planets seems obvious. XXII.). 1. but it does not appear to be a concern in 1. however. 266. see below. see Dieterich. Wilhelm and Hans Georg Gundel.82 In principle. cf.” 3431 (with further literature). еАаттоТто (Tim.185. also XIII. Merkelbach (Abrasax . yeveaic. 3. an occurrence in the ML is not surprising. Collins & Margaret M.612. this cosmic origin defines what the ML means by “rebirth” : it is the underlying cpuaic. beginning in the fourth century BCE.” in Adela Y. while astrology is a secondary overlay for the sake o f “verification. 600. “The Greek Magical Papyri. 2001).. the term is used differently in reference to “creation” as understood in Egyptian and Jewish creation myths (IV1040. Thom.? and apx?].43. one finds this lan­ guage in Plato’ Timaeus. Cf. 501.” yeveat. тгрооттј jjlsv ectolto тѕтосу[xsvy] [lLx nixaiv. 486.742). X II. O C T reading (atjtk.47. 1.234) is unclear: “Offensichtlich sollte hier fur jeden Planeten seine Stelle bei der . however. 610-16. G G R . Greek Hymns. so that all can have the same chances in life: oxt. Brashear.? тирмтт] ттј? ep j? yeveaew? (“First origin o f my origin”). see Nilsson. earlier w ith the Presocratics. The term ysveat.

ap^rj xal теАеитт) IV. 87 See Orph. esp. Anaximander used the terms y ivzoic. ea ri toT<. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 103 The second line (1. 43. the term ocpxh ге^егѕ to both the primordial beginnings o f the cosmos and the individual beginning o f the initiate.. This sound is known ‘ersten’ Geburt des Initianden angegeben werden.86 The oldest parallels to this notion o f primordial apx*] are found in pre-Socratic philosophy. 2836— XIII. see Hans Schwabl. earth (. 15). 1..v. but cf.6-8. including the hum an being (o av^pwrco?) w ho originated from the same apxat. the sound. ‘zweiten’ Geburt steht unten in der in 544 exeivYjq xr^q yjfxepa^ xal xrtq wpaq tteLcr. 1899). ftiaiq. reads apxri . “a. s. (“smacking the lips”). 12 A 9. 505. 298. . and apx>Q together in referring to the origin of the universe. Jaeger. Interesting is the citation o f the formula ocpX ] xal xeXoq. this is not done in 1. 9 0 93). 35). These sounds are indicated in the text by abbreviated symbols.” Phron. whole. Accordingly.. 35. For the frequent omission o f the final -q see Gignac.. stars. app.85 Again. 86 Again. m oon. 297 (1. Gerhard Delling. Vgl. “beginning T and end” (IV1125. Greek Philosophy. 89 See Hermann Diels. (ed. 104-18. Kern). # # 11a. # # 21 (with parallels to the cosmogonic myth. ad loc. 11— 8. # 9 6 and pp. and Simplicius indicate. See Preisendanz.130— 687. 168. the problems o f later Christian adaptation are discussed by Wolfgang Speyer. the parallels in the ML. 17b. these ideas were handed down in philosophical traditions dealing w ith the origins o f the universe. Aristotle. 164.89 Parallel to the vowel sequence in 1. 486. Theology.pyjyl and axoi'/eia: A Problem in Stoic Cosmology. Die Konstellation bei seiner heutigen. Elementum. See Adolf Lumpe. while the vowel composition in 11.” PRE. Grammar. esp. Michael Lapidge. is to be performed three times. 35— A dolf Lumpe. 4— 89. 742 (differently 1. s 1.e^w vyj 'fivealc. Eine Vorarbeit zum lateinischen Thesaurus (Leipzig: Teubner. 610— is expressly connected with the 16 planets (617— 20). crit. 141-51.” However. 550). welche zur Bezeichung der Planeten dienen.” R A C 4 45.1639— 37. a x o ijzio v . 487 also ends w ith magical sounds to be performed by the suppliant. de Vogel. the formulation is unique. “Kosmische Machte im Bibelepos des Dracontius. “Der Terminus Prinzip (ap‘rj) von den Vorsokratikern bis auf Aristoteles. обог). 1499-1566. the sun. the first o f which are three letters w ith dots over them: n n n . 18 (1973) 240— On the 78. “Weltschopfung. “Elementum.124-25. Kirk & Raven. Main body of the ritual (11. (1959) 1073— 1100.” A B G 1 (1955) / 104-7. 1. 85 The pap. apxr]v T£ x al oroi-x^ov ••• ovtwv to aTcetpov . 486. the O rphic Frag­ ments87 and Anaximander. Frag. see D. 1995). according to which apx?) <(?> is Wendland’ correction.-K.. 488) addresses the other cosmological concept: apx?] ттј? ер)? ap yy\<g> тсршгг) (“first beginning o f my beginning”). auch die Vokalreihen in 610— 616. called 7ro7T7cu<7[x6i. equalling n o n n vo o v rpLg.. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien (Hildesheim: Olms. 41).88 As the sources o f Plato. T D N T 7 (1971).S 9 (1962) 1433-1589. 11.” in idem. B 1 (I.II. esp. 83. pp. 88 For the texts. 31.

Bonner. about which the Pythagoreans had more to say. all remaining tentative.v xe npoq xouq Saljjiovac. 12. Lipsiae: Teubner. Les Intailles. 361.234) considers a special application for the sounds: “Mit dem dreimaligen P und S(ch) wird Pschai-Agathos Daimon angerufen.94 Martinez points to the three dots over the letters and raises the question whether they indicate sounds rather than a word. xal xa aXXa. §§ 150— 51. 49. 50. 138. 561. Related is a refer­ ence by Plotinus (Enn. Eitrem suggested cpp[u].40. 92 For aupiy[x6 < in the ML.. der in 635 erscheinende &soi. XIII.584) in connection with fortune telling.3 9 1 -9 2 . It is called аир(/у[л6? (“hissing”) and occurs elsewhere in the PGM and in other magical marterials. repr.8 8 . 602. Wiinsch saw here the name o f the god Фртј. also VII. 44. 6. W St 41 (1919) 140— 41. 193. call upon the deities aiy[XOiq xe xal тсотстсист[лос<. in: Carolus Janus. ф The sound o f “hissing” or “whistling” is mentioned by Xenophon (Symp. 578. 90 See for the abbreviation Preisendanz. 1995]. 34. 42. again with dots over them: ctctct. Musici Scriptores Graeci [BiTeu. The emperor Julian (Ep. several conjectures were proposed by scholars. in discussing the cosmic dimensions o f music. Delatte and Derchain. also VII. aypacpetv etcI xou [лѕхмтсои tov axaupov). 2733. XIII. xal aau[jL(pcI)voi^ Tjjoiq cru[i. 780. ed. Studies.25) reports as a consensus among all peoples that lightning should be prayed to by clucking o f the tongue (fulgetras poppysmis adorare consensus gentium est).5) as similar to a pipe tune (аиХтЈјла). mentions theurgical wor­ ship in which ol rkoupyot. 40— 41. See also Janus’ note ad loc. 1895. 561-62. a hissing sound is indicated by the three letters. W St 41 [1919] 140-41) conjectured 9 p[t[xa^atj. app.92 The ritual sounds belong to the field o f “music. 769. According to Preisen­ danz.93 Line 488 concludes w ith unexplained letters: <pp[... vswxspo<. concerning the connection between the seven vowels. 2. 602. ocia exei [AayeueLv уеуратсхоа.” 3431.6— to a number o f magical hissing sounds: [xeXy] xal rf/ouq 8) xal TCpocnTveuar£[. Hopfner.14. Betz. n. ad loc. 277). 48.5 2 7 -2 8 . 228. on tcotctcu^eiv.” A R W 18 (1915) 589— 93. “The Greek Magical Pa­ pyri.6 0 1 . 186— 87. 418-19. Preisendanz himself (Dieterich. G M PT .]. equalling auptaov xptq. Der Gott wird auch mit Harpokrates und Eros gleichgesetzt. 203-4. 107. 431-40).48— .” in: Sprachgeschichte und Wortbedeutung. xal ст(.. The onomatopoeic term poppysma is mentioned by Juvenal (Sat. XIII.368: see тф г) X' a ' a ' a W ' .104 Commentary from the PG M 90 as well as from other magical sources. 48-50. 946.767-68.4 1 3 . 1954]. 579.9. Willy Theiler is right in an important article that the magical sounds are indicative o f the “language o f the spirit” (“Die Sprache des Geistes in der Antike. 292. n. Pliny (Nat. тсотстсистјхбѕ in the ML see 11. O Z I. crit. “Das Pfeifen und seine Beziehung zu Damonenglauben und Zauberei. 91 For further material see Dieterich..<. 28. 80.xw? sTCixaXouvxat. 19) refers to the Christian ritual o f “hissing at the demons and making the sign o f the cross on the forehead” (auplxTst. 94 See Preisendanz. The 2nd c. 193. See pw also below. . xal axt. Brashear. 6.j3oX!. 93 Differently. (jupt^etv in the ML 11. 531. xal avap&poi<.” here reflecting cosmic music. Richard Lasch. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 561. 3 8 5 . and the musical sounds. see 1.323. Festschrift fu r Albert Debrunner [Bern: Francke.91 The second. CE philosopher Nicomachus o f Gerasa (Harmonicum enchiridium 6 .” Conceivably. the seven planets. 421. 221.у[лои? tyjs < vyj<. X X X V I. IV 1902-3. 3.

81. and a description o f the divine elements as existing simultaneously out in the universe and inside one which takes us to the heart o f Empedocles’ theory o f perception. the connection between the ML and Empedocles was pointed out by Peter Kingsley: “And it is no coincidence.234: “D ie Lehre von den vier oder fiinf Elementen ist griechisch.. overlooks the fact that from Zeno forward. either. in 11. and it is affirmed by Merkelbach. 31 B 6 (1. with Love do we see Love.156. 74-75. see also pp. Cleanthes. ибмр. 3 0 0-1.95 There can be no doubt that also this part o f the invocation is indebted to pre-Socratic philosophy. 927. 82. 14-22). I # 85 (24. see Pohlenz. 11.). 912b. II # 309 (112.25). together. 484. Chrysippus. 100 Ibid.29-30).contains a num ber o f features each o f which points separately to Empedocles but which. 903a.. Christoph Riedweg. Hornung. see 1. 454.351. with fire consuming fire. that a section o f the Paris magical papyrus —another docum ent showing the profoundest affinities with basic aspects o f Empedocles’ teaching . 101 See the sources in SVF: Zeno. present a virtual summary o f Empedoclean themes and concerns.. Stoicism as well affirmed the doctrine o f the four elements. in particular Empedocles’ doctrine o f the four elements as constituting the cosmos (тестаара tcocvtcov pt^wfxara)96 and held together by храогс. 13-68. Die Stoa.1189— cf.. # 499 (112. 54. somewhat varied. Mithrasliturgie. тгир. the appearance o f the philo­ The four elements are listed also. and to the Turba philosophorum.98 Most recently. For discussion.589— See 90. Der Eine. to the Hermetica (esp. The passage is followed by a quotation o f IV. Greek Philosophy. 224— Merkelbach.351..” 98 Cumont. 108. 489— contains the specific invocations o f the four 95) elements (uveujxa.” 99 Kingsley. 348-50. an initial prayer to the four elements as immortal. xexpaX^wfxa below. 58— 60. 485— 732) 105 T he next section (11.. oucaa уесабт]<. “The Stoics and Their Cosmology in the First 95 96 .-K. 28). esp. with air bright air. 58— 79. 26.-K. idem. IV. On the interconnectedness 31.97 The connection with Empedoclean and Stoic philosophy was seen already by C um ont and Dieterich. Textes et monuments. 97 D. Robert B. to the ML. 354-62. 20-23).71-72.103. 433. Greek Philosophy. 432. 219.101 Therefore. 2. 55. “OrphischesbeiEmpedokles. H M R .. 218 n. Abrasax. nicht agyptisch (E. Kirk & Raven. 3. 1. 505— and 713-14. 31 B 109 (1. 1. Here we have a ritual for regeneration and immortalization that has significant analogies both with Empedocles and w ith the ‘O rphic’ gold plates.205. # 105. # 102 (28.”99 Kingsley constructs a line o f transmission o f this Empedoclean doctrine from Southern Italy and Sicily to Egypt.108. 117. 183-84. 913. 327— esp. # 444 (146. Abraxas. see esp. 15 For (“root”). 83-86.4-5). # # 426. 374. 31 B 109 (1. 71). 901c. 1.100 This line o f transmission. water with water.. Kore Kosmou § 63). 3. 53. Ancient Philosophy. Dieterich.12 and 16). 357 (# 484): “For with earth do we see earth.476— 95 and a reference to D. Main body of the ritual (II. de Vogel. # # 899b. 61. Reitzenstein. de Vogel. 374-75. personified beings. ibid.” Archaologischer Anzeiger 41 (1995) 3 4 59.311. 90. 15).II. Todd. Strife with dread Strife. however. 120-24.

See Reitzenstein. On the concept. H M R .. In turn. called fxuxMjjia. Ttpwxov (“spirit o f spirit. 233-34. 2087-92. 11. (to 7iav cruaxTjjxa tou aepou 7iveufxaTO<. for possible Stoic influence cf. fire can be identified with “ether” (odOirjp)... Aus der Offenbarungjohannis. 223-37. 310-11.103 This doctrine seems consistent w ith Stoicism.” ibid. 592— 97. Cf.. 13— with the commentary by van den Berg. the next line (1. 102 On the veneration o f the elements in Hellenistic syncretism see Bousset. 43. Boll. H M R . 714. “Chairemon. 1163) using Stoic language. 1. Second Centuries A. 166. 1. Abrasax.553— IV1115 58. Although the text names the element o f uveufxa first. 9:17. 589— 90.1115— consists o f a 16.a and 7tup in the ML see 11. Proclus’ Hymns. 179-80: rcveujxa aipt. also the combinations o f rcveujjia and odihqp IV.102 T he first element. e. “spirit” (rcveupia).ov. der Mithrasmysterien. 153-54. Cf. 162— 63. thereby rooting anthropology in cosmology in a way that corresponds both to Empedoclean and Stoic doc­ trines. 2094. 489— jiveufxa 90: 7iveujjLaTO<. 477. Griffiths.ov). “ap’cd and axoiyelcf. Merkelbach & Totti.323-50. 489— is unique in the ML. 490) confirms that it is virtually identical w ith rcup (“fire”).36:3 (1989) 2067-2103. 12:1. by linking the primordial icveufxa Tipwxov and the rtveujjia which inhabits the hum an being. however. Poimandres. 14. 144 (cf. for a non-philosophical expression 1. weihe. 1116 (to Tcveujxa to Sajxov arco oupavou en l yv}v).l 115— 1137— The entire ottjAy] anoxpucpo? (IV. “Stoic Cosmology and Roman Literature. Apuleius.” ANRW 11. First to 88. . This abbreviation refers to the sound fX . 658-59. 105 See in the ML also 11. 617-18. 538. 301-3.” / 254. 59.” 1078-79.97. 223— Sam Eitrem. 2.1— and Michael Lapidge. see Jan Hendrik Waszink. cf.” Erjb 34 (1966) 219-57. “Die vier Elemente in der Mysterien26. Metam. while the formulation o f 11. esp. 211— 8 . 104 See odQ irjp 1.). 66) prayer to Aion (1. the concept o f Tcveupta is 90 highly important within the ML as well as in the PGM generally. esp. 200. Line 490 orders another magical sound.g. 510.” ANRW 11. fire is the highest element.105 The genitive expression rcveupia 7iveufxaxo<.106 Commentary sophical tradition o f the elements in a syncretistic text such as the ML reflects a still broader tradition. 510-12. “Elemente und Hypostasen”.104 At any rate.24.” R A C 1 (1950) 150-58. tou ev s [aoI Ttvsufjuxxoc.. Michael Frede. 103 For the connection o f 7tv£U|i. 60).” S O 4 (1926) 39— 5 (1927) 39— Reinhold Merkelbach. 208-10. is addressed in 11. See Reitzenstein. “Elementum.36:3 (1989) 1365-78. XII. Lapidge. Hauptprobleme. 505. 1 Religionsgeschichtliche Studien. furthermore. LXII. “Ather. 627. although in the ML od&yjp does not receive special m ention. here to be performed three times by blowing air (representing and Second Centuries A. 617.96 (б uvsujxa ecrnv aepc. Lumpe. who also refer to Chairemon o f Alexandria and Wis 1:7.D. Reitzenstein. also Proclus’ Hymn 1 (To Helios). D.. The genitive is explained in the following clause as analogous to a divine epithet. 111. Bousset. XIII. shows that it is a concept functioning like a divine name. for the Romans see Ovid. for which. 1379— 1429. esp. indicated in the text by the three letters fJL fA again w ith dots over them. 635-38. “Die Kosmogonie 59. the first o f the spirit in m e”). 515.43-44.

657. app.242): “Es ist der tf/oc хератое 1 бт]<.uxaofj.? plays a special role in forging coherence among the elements in the cosmos. The term xpa aic. 1934). Main body of the ritual (11. (Leiden: Brill.10. Transmission to later authors took place through Alexander o f Aphrodisias. 712. 41— 48. ad loc. 471 153.27— description o f ecstasy: “One [of the effeminates (cinaedi)] started to rave 28) more wildly than the rest (bacchatur effusius). 252. but it contains interesting variations. in regard to the suppliant. Plotinus. and producing rapid gasps from deep down in his chest as though he had been filled with the divine spirit o f some deity” (velut numinis divino spiritu repletus). 110 Willem Johannes den Dulk. 69. London: Heinemann. 657.ѓуои.v.942. for the noun fxuxw^a 11. 292) or thunder. £|ay]V xpactlv twv ev efxol xpaaetov &eoS(op7]Tov (“god-given fire to my mixture o f the mixtures in m e”).4). Religionsgeschichtliche Studien.ai. De compositione verborum 14 (p. 217— 22.19). crit. n.2802 [t] таирш [лихтјјла]. 107 Dieterich (41— 42. 109 See SV F I.) thought o f “Briillen (wie mit einem Horn)” and refers as parallels to the “bull-roarers” in the cults o f Mithras and Dionysus. and then ex­ plained by two defining statements. 54. ij. O ne should understand the sentence as parallel to the first. Philo.20). Aristophanes. бе тои kipoq тсир ei. 416. 8. The term is onomatopoeic and was compared to the bellowing o f oxen (IV. 228-29. Крастк. 108 Dieterich (3) und Reitzenstein consider this to be a later interpolation (see Preisen­ danz.” In this context. 4. der entsteht. D e mixtione. # 102 (from Arius Didymus) on Zeno’ concept o f б 1 ах 6 а(Ј. s. 2. 490— 92). 92 храас. the excessive use o f sigma.7.109 Going back ulti­ mately to Empedocles. 472 (154.). functions in both ways: it links the xpa aeiq o f the elements to one 106 See also for the verb (jluxocv in the ML 11. 3.ГјС s Т^.. tyjv бе [pa^tv] xpaaxv ytvea&ai tt] el q аХХт]Ха twv crTo^elwv (аетароЛгј.II. as Willem den Dulk has shown. 481 (158. Dionysius of Halicar­ nassus: The Critical Essays (Cambridge. Differently. 228 with lit.18-30). 364. 799 (221. Conf 184. Regarding Chrysippus’ doctrine "of xpacjL? see SV F II # # 470 (152. s. Nub. Cf. See also PGM XIII. depending on how one interprets the adverb хератоесбм? in 1.a7iTecTtka.а twv pwQ -covwv auvs'/ouijieva t o те M xal t o N хератоѕхбе!? arcoTeAouvTa тои^ rijovq.234.12).c. describing how the elements come together through conversion (тротгѓј): ex tivck.100-101. 945. 487 (159. 236. where it explains how the elements work together coherently in what Zeno calls бсахоа^тјас?.107 T he second element o f fire (rcup) is named next separately from spirit (11. For discussion see Dieterich. Dionysius speaks also o f cptovr^ aupiyim q. MA: Harvard University Press.14 Usener-Radermacher) та б(. Merkelbach comments (Abrasax. . (“m ixture”) is technical in Stoic cosmology. 74. Dionysios von Halikarnass. as befitting irrational beasts rather than rational beings. 485— 732) 107 spirit). Apuleius’ (Metam. Erin. wenn man durch die Nase “M mm” und ‘N nn’ spricht.8. Lines 490— sum this up by saying that. see the LCL edition by Stephen Usher. esp. Merkelbach.14). The first o f these sums up cosmological definitions: to el c. awfxaxo? блои Si’ oXou tlvo q етерои б(. gemeint. 659. see LSJ. 705.108 Fire is first simply named. 49— 51. or as a hard blowing through the nose.106 The sound was meant to be either a roaring or bellowing.еру_о[Ј. 1985).110 the concept of храстс. 3. Weinreich. 221. 707. Abrasax.

15. For the hapaxlegomena. the first o f the earthy material in m e”). 506: a&avaxw ибатх. Vit. Horn.114 but water is m entioned in other connections frequently. an application to the initiates body (11. Philo. which explains also why at this point there is no m ention o f the “soul” (ф и^)-118 The term 1 1 1 The term is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. утј? xal > ибато? xal аѓро^ x a l тсиро<.112 parallels what has been said about the rtvsujxa in 11. s. . 33: бста av .6. this application simply draws out the consequences from what has gone before. 116 See. Migr. 117 For this part. 493— as оисќа 95 уесобт)? ev efjiol ouaLctc.115 and also has parallels in Philo. the parallels in Iamblichus.. The fourth element is addressed somewhat differently in 11. The term ouctloc is equivalent to uay]. The invocation o f water ends w ith a vowel combination: toww а а а see.. 489--90. &v атгѕтеАеагФт) ббе б хост[хо<. This linkage receives the attribute “god-given” (t)soSwpY]Tov). tou sv e[xol rcupo? Tcpcoxov (“the first of the fire in m e”).35: &гобмрт]то^ avaysvvYjat. 112 The phrase is also a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. Ps. See P G L .. I l l . Greek Hymns.60— 64. 89. o Q 6 < арбт]. ysvvaxa!.. Decal. Given the divine origin o f the elements constituting his body. 610— 16. W hile this doctrine is unique in the PGM.-Clem. it has close parallels in Stoic philosophy. Pyth. 492-93. а<р’ ехаатои т ш a x oije tav. 11. Zosimus. Opif. Furley & Bremer. 114 Cf. Cher. 1 1 2 . ибсор ибато? (“water o f water”).117 Since he had mentioned his own body throughout the preceding invocation. 1142. the suppliant moves without transi­ tion to the next section. 1. also 1 Thess 5:23.31.. Tcpwxov (“the first o f the water in m e”). 1. See the parallels in the vowel sequence in 1 1 . cf. the text addresses it by name. 113 Vowel combinations express sounds similar to other magical sounds.116 This address again concludes with a vowel combination: ut] ucoy] .v. 31: eyw [iiv ouaictq 8oL'jziaa[izvoc. 115 See for this expression S V F II # 438 (144. Alch.. he can claim it to be perfect: ас5[ха xeXet-ov s[xou (“my perfect body”). making it clear that as “matter” earth differs from the other elements.108 Commentary another in the initiate s body as well as to the primordial fire. Cf.5 (ed.113 )u T he third element o f water is treated in analogous fashion in 11. 495-98).?. in the ML 1.111 The second definition. a declaration o f its nature as a divine gift. 2. esp. xeXet-a xal oAoxAvjpa xal ttocvtwv apt. The expression ouoxa уесобт)^ is found in Stoic texts dealing w ith the four elements.. 135. та тсро^ ty]v £[xr]V crucrracav аитархѓсттата. 118 This differs from Philo’s doctrine o f God’ perfect benefits bestowed on the soul. уеообои? тгршгт] (“earthy material. The two previous hapaxlegomena were referred to in notes already. Especially interesting are the expressions ибатмбѕ^ and иуротгир^офи'/роу TCveufxa in IV. s especially Philo. nn. The statement again ends w ith a vowel combination: Y Y]ta syj. see. 1146. as a result o f Stoic influence.crra -e . 114. and by the attribute tou ev efjiol ибатос.18): elvoa уембт] ty)v oucrtav.67. p. Cf. After the completion o f the invocation. see above. Berthelot). Leg.

485— 732) 109 стм[ла is to be taken as referring to the avO-pcoruo?. Hac ex causa hominem quasi minorem quendam mundum stellae quinque. simili divinitatis substantia gubernetur. 1) attributes the statement to Hermetism. the human being as a whole. . is governed by a substance similar to the deity. Moreover. this passage is quoted by Dieterich (57). Sol etiam et Luna. Lipsiae: Teubner. 2. For he composed the human body. also 2. position and the w hole substance o f man. ut omnium istorum coniunctio temperata animal ad formam divinae imitationis ornaret et ita hominem artificio divinae fabricationis composuit. determined the shape. Monat (Firmicus Maternus. maintain the human being in fiery and eternal m otion like a microcosm. ut in parvo corpore omnem elementorum vim atque substantiam naturae cogente conferret. 498). not an entity separate from it. (1994) 2279-2815. rather than by the Platonic concept o f фихЃ) (see also below. 3. P. 2. made in imitation o f the macrocosm. is mine) The editor o f the Collection Bude edition. 4th half-vol.28). from a mixture o f the four elements. Main body of the ritual (11. just like the body o f the universe. In fact. aeris et terrae. air. water.. 120 On this symbol see Preisendanz. because the same elements constitute the universe and the human being. “Siglae. so that the well-balanced mixture o f all these elements became a living being. n. Through that divine spirit. and earth. he provided a hom e though fragile yet similar to the world.” PRE 2nd ser. so that it. ordered in imitation o f the divine model. Festugiere (La revelation. ignita ac sempiterna agitatione sustentant. together with sun and m oon. w hich de­ scended from the heavenly intelligence for the sustenance o f the mortal body. X son o f m other Y (abbreviated w ith N N in G M P T )} 20 The suppliant thereby establishes the identity o f the preceding first-person pronouns. 2301.xii.90— Scire 91: itaque nos principe in loco oportet. 1897). Friedrich Bilabel. the ML can be seen here as influenced by Stoicism. The invocation o f the elements implies that much. BiTeu. Therefore. guided by nature. uses the symbol A. Mathesis [Paris: Les belles lettres. (Trans. Lollianus decus nostrum quod ad imaginem speciemque mundi formam hominis ac statum totamque substantiam deus ille fabricator hominis natura monstrante perfecerit.II. abbreviating the formula тои бѕТуа ттј? Sslva. the Prooemium § 4 mentions the names o f Petosiris and Nechepso. 119 The citation is according to the edition by W ilhelm Kroll and Franz Skutsch. 1.269. 1.. At this point. from fire. so that he conferred by force o f nature to the small body all power o f the elements and their substance. ut animal. qui ad sustentationem mortalis corporis ex caelesti mente descendit. quod ad imitationem mundi factum est. 1. 13. 1994]. For this reason the five planetary stars. since it is constituted as a microcosm reflecting the macrocosmic universe. licet fragile sed tamen simile mundo pararet hospitium. ignis scilicet et aquae. and Merkelbach (Abrasax. ut divino illi spiritui. Stoic doctrine re­ gards the soul as part o f the 7tveu{jta. Iulii Firmici Materni Matheseos libri VIII (2 vols.126). This cosmology is summarized by Firmicus Maternus in the prooemium to Book 3 o f his Mathesis: “T he god w ho created the human being. nam corpus hominis ut mundi ex quattuor elementorum commixtione composuit. ” 119 The suppliant identifies himself by name. esp. and thus he composed the human being as a divinely artistic creation. the pap.

50). 519. б атгараиггЈто^. but usage does not include the adjective evziyioq. al­ though there are similar expressions elsewhere. 124 See IV. s. XIII. yevofxevov ex 7rveu[xaxo<. On the metaphor. § 18: o f the god’ s creation o f the zodiacal signs in human form: та ал/г}роул:оѕ!. IV. John 12:38. References to the right hand are frequent in the PGM. LXX Gen 2:7— 15. Philo interprets the ctuiaPoXov in Spec. cf.5)... Luke 1:51. IV610.12). 2514..1177— 80: .3024— 28: . evxlfAou). 194. III. The phrase is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM .244— t i c p. 50. e-rceu^ofxat. In the PGM it is the arm on which to affix the charms.128 Merkelbach has suggested the LXX as 121 For the term бсостгХаастм. the same applies to the LXX. бтс ev 7tXaa|zacav тјјлЉ ovxa? . 125 For the right arm cf. 3. yzipoc. the metaphor o f the hand o f God appears with special explanations in Philo because o f anthropomorphic implications (see. ay tov &eov sizi ” A[X(Xmv. 1 Clem 28. б £7tXacjev б &е6 < ev тсо ay ш еаитм .” T hW A T 2 (1975) 650— section III. бтс. Berg­ man. The human body came about “because o f fashioning by a noble arm ” (St-aTueTtAaafjiivov utco (3pa^lovo<. 9-sou tou ev oupavco 7Г Xaajxa xaXXt.244-45 cf.. 3272.286. o n aeauTOV yjfjuv ебес^а^. ed. 123 Cf. Philo-Index. xal брбсгои xal утј<. 77:15— 89:9-11. Wisdom chapter 15. 67 (4.a. Plant.v. See also Bousset. for the left arm IV. 2388. P.133-37. 1. moreover. referring to Jewish angelic names). XXII. XXIV. атсе&емаа? ттј аеаитои yvwcjet. For the OT evidence see F. LXII. not uncommon in Hellenistic Greek..9-10).ov av&pwTro? l a jy z i TrXaaat. 127 See also in the ML 1. XII.124 The “noble arm ” refers to the right arm. IV. 30 (4. Borgen. av9 -p«7ioi. 19. For the NT.23.). BDAG. With the question/answer format in 8.5 (4. 136:12. 495-97) legitimates the claim that the body has been created perfectly w ith metaphors from creation mythology.4 (4.14). XXIII (Kore Kosmou). 39 (4.69). XXV I.312 (part o f wax тгХастЈлата).121 That the hum an body is a 7тХаст[ха the PG M states in passages defining the human being. s. see J.). XXV. хеФ60. see 1. cf. Akroyd. xal eLCTxpt-vexco tov Ttept-Ttxafxevov SocLytova tou TiXacifxaTOi. Conf.<rtrov.21). The hand o f God appears in the synagogue paintings o f Dura Europos. 98. &eov. also the Christian exorcism PGM 17.110 Commentary The following statement (11.125 In the O T and Judaism the arm o f God is a frequently used symbol o f his power.122 these pas­ sages are close to H erm etic123 or Jewish language. “T jad. section V.. 16 (referring to idols): оибе1^ yap аитм opiot.599-600: ^aipojjiev.9 (4. PGM XII.55).. W.298. Hauptprobleme. tov (3[p]a[^Jlova tou a & vox fou Oeou xal xyjv т]9ј? 7: a бе^а? аитои -/[ejipa. тоитои. 45: xiq бе eupe xeXeuQ-ou. 43 (4.2. the adjective cvxijjio^ is not used in this connection (for evxLfAOi. o tl eyw eljju.opcpa<. 128 While frequent in OT and Judaism.2379.6). Acts 13:17. IV. especially v.б9} twv б^ѓтгХасге.145— Leg. 4. Ps 118:73 (MT 119:73): al xetpes <xou eTcoLYjcrav jae xal ercXacrav jxe. zeroa. and C H Frag. and in . 2899.. £«cov ETtXaasv.3. 23 (4. von Soden.. тсарабеиш. хатајЗатсо стои б аууеХо^. 126 In the OT the metaphor o f God’s “mighty hand and outstretched arm” (vel sim. Fragment X XIII.” T hW A T 3 (1980) 421-55.7-8). аср&артои)127 which follows comes from the same language background. but not combined with аср&арто^. where the forming (kXkgoeiv) o f a wax figurine is described.15 (Kore Kosmu. 122 Cf. esp. Ps 93:9 (MT 94:9). Helfmeyer.80.) is found frequently (Ps 44:3.v. 18 (4. J. see the passages in LSJ. Cf.126 The expression “o f his incorruptible right hand” (бѕ£1ас. which the LXX 16. esp.14. For Hermetic parallels see CH . etc. renders as ev X£t-pl xpaxat-a xal ev ифу]Х« (LXX Ps 135:12). ppa^lwv. 19 (ibid...81).6— . 98:1. 60..26. N ock & Festugiere.

240-41.20-21). but the verb Siauya^eiv occurs in other cosmological contexts.-K. B 6 (1. . not Plato. see D. 3. 134 The term афи^о<. see Pythagoras. VII.101. but the evidence shows that a wider context o f ancient metaphors is more likely. The next section o f the prayer (11.34— 11.165 (Ф . cpw^. 4b (ed.10— Numenius.453. de Vogel. Cf. Des Places. Empedocles. cf. See Eduard Lohse. p< 58 B 5 (1.35-46). 499— 537) contains the petition proper. IV 735 (of meat). 74e (£[лфиу_охаха and афи^охаха). among them < w .” R A C 13 (1986) 402-82. T D N T 9 (1973). фи^от/ in discussing cosmology. афи^а and £[хфи/_а. an appeal is made for approval by the divine Jewish magic it is a major symbol. Again. 257. 1. occurs with a different meaning.фи-/ои[Ј. the hum an being exists in a world made up o f “soulless and ensouled” entities. 129 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 111 the background for this language in the PGM .23. s. listing some examples (Exod 6:1.235) thinks o f the uTtepoupavio^ totzoq. 277. referring to food. however. .131 This contrast points to the cosmic dualism o f light and darkness.стхбхо^. this phrase is unique in the PGM . 132.441. ev те афихФ x a '1 ^uxwfxevw (“w ithout soul and yet alive w ith soul”)..12. x a l Snquyacjev xa со<. cf.__ 2 Cor 4:6. are textually different. to which the initiate wants to ascend. 403— 45.3. but it seems that Stoic ideas.. Conzelmann. see Hans Conzelmann. 251. Main body of the ritual (11.130 The first (11. 24 A 3 (1.129 N ext come two statements defining the place o f the human being in a universe o f opposites. the phrase is unique in the PGM . 497— 98) pertains to the cosmos: ev аф&тсгтсо x al SiauyeT xoafjuo (“in a world w ithout light and yet radiant”).ѕл/а>? Cf.1766. 247b.5— for Plato.135 The first part o f the prayer then concludes with voces magicae: uy]c. esp. Phaedr. ха £[лфи)га which occurs in a cosmological context in IV.11— 14). as it is found in ancient religious texts. T D N T 9 (1973). е[лфи^1а. Again. but the individual terms occur elsewhere in the PG M .235). That is.292.3.11-15). are the sources here. 321.4) and # 988 (287-88): '(ш. 31 A 48 (1. esp. B 27 (1. and in Gnostic sources. X I. p j< 6 132 For sources and bibliography. Prior to the request itself. C. eax. section B. similarly C H II. # 7 1 4 (205. X. y elp . Verherrlichung. aui eucote (11. 6:14 may also be related. 133 On the Pythagorean auaxoiytoL o f ap^al бѓха. Kirk & Raven.211. Lieselotte Kotzsche. n. 9). 36).134 and in Greek cosmological philosophy. 8 — 9. rcavxa).990— 92 (cpwxli^ovxa xal Si-auya^ovxa).3). fr.v. 2 Pet 1:19: w? Xu^vw cpalvovxt ev au/[Aiqpw Х 0 7 Ш . 131 See IV. in Greek philo­ sophical thought. Tim. Philo uses the terms афиу^о^. Ps 43 [44]:4) which. ![јл|лг/о^. avaxelXT] ev xau. for the Stoa SFFIII. 130 Merkelbach (Abrasax .459.132 particularly also in Pythagoreanism. Presocratic Philosophy.II. Should ефи^мuivw be understood as the perfect form eve(]ju%wpivco or the present £[Ј. T D N T 9 (1973) 306-7. D.452.2 (text uncertain). See Lohr. in PGM 1. 3.133 The second contrast (1. 135 por terminology o f афи^о? —£[афи^ос.-K. 123-26. об yjfxepa Siauyacnr) xal < o)< p poi.v. 498) refers to opposites w ithin the cosmos. 280-84. according to Plato. Greek Philosophy. 47. 498— 99). харбсак. “Hand II (ikonographisch). LXVII. XIII. 14 A 9 (1. 238. # # 31 and 42. s.

а 9-ewv [хета-п:араб(. 501) as an infinitive clause: (Астатгарабошаѓ . LSJ translates as “hand down” or “transfer. with their differences indicated by forms o f aXkoc.26. is rare. P. See also eav croi боЕјт). The Verb. 392-96. 525).5. Moulton. G M P T . [xexaTrapaXafJiPaveLv (1.138 but i then after < pco& an inserted gloss comments that in a different version o f the text (ev aXXto) another form o f the magical words occurs: fJie&ap&a cpvjpw].226) as a parallel. Michigan X V I. See Moulton. 181— Martinez. Cf.5.4 (with references).47— Betz. it refers to the Pythagoreans’ preservation o f the mysteries: they left their main doctrines unwritten and passed them on to their successors атгер [Ј. 141 Cf. The reason is that the citation formula usually precedes the citation.б6 '^т£^. crit. 20.78. s. z.11 av^pe a/peoxo 7n)Tov 4..бм[л[.” 142 The aorist infinitive has the force o f request. and the Lord’s Prayer in Matt 6:10.B. хата бохтјаи Феои. but the author seems to like such com posita.v.144 Usener reads eav бт).Zur Entstehung dieser voces: асроог) ist genommen aus аср&гсѓатм in 4. the “Eighth Book o f Moses” (PGM XIII) contains several versions o f the book. 32. The request itself is generally stated first (1. Cf.141 so only the present version o f the text has survived. the voces magicae are cited: ptexepxa <pco& ‘ epe^aS-. Greek Hymns. Jas 4:15. app.лѕ ty) a&avaxw yzveaei (“give me over to immortal birth”). 14:36 par.v. 2) adduces Iamblichus ( Vit.. Grammar. who in an additional note supplied by Weinreich (Dieterich. § 389. Accord­ . see Preisendanz.143 The translation o f the term is disputed. n. 6— 82. refers to cpcoou& (IV.. 3. 4. B D R . 499). Brashear (“Greek Magical Papyri. 642. 136 137 .136 Such appeals are part o f Hellenistic prayer language. ing to Preisendanz. 2. |лета7гарабѓ. § 116.” 3601) who.140 However.” which would make it the equivalent o f TtapaSiSovat.389. For the imperatival infinitive in Koine Greek see Mandilaras. 140 E. 138 So following the reading o f Dieterich. Grammatik. 31).142 The term fAexarcapaSiSovat. but it is prefaced by the humble phrase eav бе u[ Z v j (1. the N T at Matt 8:2. ad loc. which he carefully compared. 1 Cor 4:19. see Morton Smith.. 48.1683) as a parallel. Grammatik. there are no other instances o f these magical words.” 139 Jordan (by letter). noting the discrepancies. For more material see Furley & Bremer.g. Pyth. 144 LSJ (s. 2. so auch oft sonst. 648. 143 Cf. discusses five parallel фсХтрохатабесЈјАОЕ. meaning in Egyptian “groBe Schlange. the interpolated gloss shows that either the author or the final redactor had at least two versions o f the text at his disposal... The Sermon on the Mount. BDAG. W. 221) presents a rather fanciful explanation o f the formula: “so zu schreiben und zu verstehen: [летерта<рм& ([xsdap&acp-rjpiY] ev aXXw) '£ере£а&.112 Commentary elements: eav бе ujilv бб^т] (“if it deems right to you”).137 In 11 499-500 an important literary phenomenon requires mention. §§ 756-57.. following Karl F. in Betz.исттѓ]р(. 11:27. Mark 1:40. 1. Grammar. 6 -7 . The gloss shows evidence o f a concern not only for magical but also for literary precision in collating ver­ sions o f the text. Schmidt ('G G A 193 [1931] 449). (for further examples see pp. 1. A different reading is proposed by Jordan who takes the ev aAXcp to refer to 'ѓере^агК139 At any rate. Фар&аср aus аср9-артои in 4. B D R .

l. C IL VI 510): in aeternum renatus. For further references see BDAG. 3. the words seem to clarify “immortal birth” in the preceding line.” Differently. e^opievo?.. The word e^ofxevwc. Dessau # 4152. Dessau. 40. instead o f the accusative.190— Nilsson. 23.. 50.66. zjpijAvoiQ) renders “next after.16-20. since I hold tightly to my underly­ ing nature. 8 . s. it could be construed with [хѕтатсарабшоа. 166 nn.XiyyevzGia. avayevvaw shows up only in a variant reading o f the prologue o f Ben Sira.235) adduces as parallels the Taurobolium inscription from R om e (ed.. Cults. entsprechend meiner vorhandenen Natur.” a synonym o f ecpe^Y)?. Essays. Martinez comments that both emendations make good sense phonetically.” 147 See Preisendanz (app.) notes that the text makes sense. Preisendanz (app. Main body of the ritual (11. X III.. if the words гЈоџѓммс. 60.. 146 With the pap. 3. If it is an adverb. 262-65. 70. (and cognates) do not appear in LXX. # 1 1 1 .653.62: deo esse se gnatos necfati obnoxios legibus. Matthew Calhoun observes that na. 1. 221) reports Preisendanz’s suggestion to read yeveasr eyo\ieyoq. Apol.” For this meaning o f see LSJ. see John 1:12— 3:3.v.275) and t/o iie v o v reflecting the interchange o f final silent letters (Gignac.v. s. &e«9 7 )voa. avayevvaw.. 25.” Weinreich (in Dieterich. III.510: cm el б гохттјр тои izoChivyzvouc. Ivon. crit.146 LSJ (s. Grammar. 39. which Preisendanz accepts and translates: “und gleich darauf wieder meiner eigentlichen Natur.1..II..1-4. puram ac pudicam sorte mortis eximens in templa duds ac famulam divis dicas (ed. 3. 8 ) proposes s^opievov. Buecheler). with a lengthened “o ”. see Dieterich (137— 157-61). Cf. 99— 101. ibid.7.. G G R . . yevvaw.26: t o u t o e c t t i t o aya&ov тѕХо^ тоТ^ yvcoaiv io yrp io o i.147 the 145 See also VII. “transfer me to the immortal birth. and thus the translation is uncertain. 131— 32). 7. ттј U7coxeL[Aevy) jxou cpuCTst intend to clarify what is meant by y zv za iq . which would result in: “to transfer me —subsequently to my underlying mortal nature —to the immortal birth.” Thus. ad loc. C H 1. der ich noch festgehalten bin”). als Zusatz des Magiers betrachtet. however. the ML seems to connote transformation and rebirth (11. Ancient Mystery 94. Dieterich (4.10.. 1 Pet 1:3.41.3. 88. n.. Auovo?. Graf.687— Burkert. Reitzenstein proposes to connect £)(6 (j. 6 . the author would have mistakenly used the nominative. 2. the term may be more specific. 153). 75.. in his H M R .b. 22. N ock. Taking the preposition [лета—seriously.evoc. H M R . It should therefore be translated.. Arnobius. etc. reading s^o[i. lines 22— 24). 105— For early Christian 7. bis cpuasf. but interesting is also R eitzensteins suggestion that the words are an inserted com m ent meaning something like: “that means by implication.160): “mich wiederum zu iibergeben der Neugeburt in die U nsterblichkeit.13. 13.v. § C. Justin. Gottesndhe. 517— 27).evov with the preceding [ЈЛ (“mich. Merkelbach (Abrasax. W hatever they mean. Reitzenstein. 1. cpucret. literature. Sudhaus ejo[±bj(x>c. is textually emended from pap. the Roman tomb inscription in which a Paulina addresses her husband Vettius Agorius Praetextatus: tu me marite. Calhoun agrees and translates: “ . Carmina latina epigraphica (ed. 485— 732) 113 In the ML.. On rebirth generally.” Accordingly. XXIII. 97. Merkelbach’ s translation (Abrasax.): “Reitzfenstein]. Tit 3:5. TCaXt-yysveaia. CIL VI 1779). 5. ad loc.” meaning rebirth. 1. 2. eyo[ASvaq reflecting the common interchange eo/to (Gignac. 1. Exc. to transfer me to an immortal birth. if the following tva-clause constitutes the beginning o f a new sentence (see below.145 T he following words (1. 502) are difficult to interpret: t/o[xe\ioiq xfi urcoxetfJisvY) [xou cpuasi.. crit. der e%. 175 n.

18. This meaning occurs several times in the Hermetica (CHX. On the Nature of the World and the Soul [SBL.”151 If this is the preferred meaning. 32. the phrase would interpret yeveat. g. T. t l ncoq sjovtol. XXIII.1. 42. XII. # # 405. The first clause focuses on seeing.”150 Because o f the Stoic influences elsewhere in the ML. 1985].4: .”148 that is. For the divine is the entire cosmic combination renewed by nature. the parallels in Stoicism and Herm etism would favor speaking o f “underlying nature. Martinez. Chico. 1. 783: uTcoxeixoa. pointing to the “underlying nature. &e«v x a l < и со< xuxAou svapL&fiXou бро^хатс. (11.2: tyj twv u7ioxet[xevwv cpuasi (versus ettlxeljaevov). §§ 585-89.” see BDAG. 21.152 The following passage (11.. The Verb. or the four a x o v /z ia (II..|лац 8 (1) and (2) with references. 150 As in Plato. 6 . which does not begin with Eva but is connected to the previous Eva by xat. also Ethelbert Stauffer. Frag. # 369 (124. § 387 (3a). Timaios of Locri. 26. Preisendanz.22. It can be taken in two ways: (1) in conformity w ith the ML elsewhere UTcoxe£[xsvo? can mean: “cited below. s. avavswOTjaexaL avayxT] xal avavEcoast. 170 (1). as m entioned below.31— 32): та u-rcoxerjjiEva x a l 7ioux xal TC& sy_ovTa xa l 7tpoi.153 The following doctrine about sense-perception and recognition agrees with that o f the Hermetica. as pointing forward to Ovtjty] <puaic. 48).9— 10. What is meant is referred to as uay] (II. the four Eva-clauses contain an entire doctrine o f salvation pertaining to visual percep­ tion.114 Commentary expression ттј urtoxet-fiivY] [лои cpucrsi is also difficult. Cf. 533.154 Together.. CA: Scholars Press.. This interpretation would support Reitzenstein s suggestion o f a gloss. shifts to the subject of hearing (11.v. and Timaeus o f Locri.? as meaning “rebirth” in the sense o f a return to the underlying nature which consists o f the divine elements. P. XI. X . s. 403).2. ad loc.).v. crit. 151 See concerning the categories SFFII. 152 This doctrine agrees with Hermetism. For nature is constituted in the divine.)..v. Michigan X V I. Eva. Exc. resulting in the translation: “ (the immortal birth) subsequent to my (mortal) nature. 502-15) restates the general request. 155 For a discussion o f the “salvific Eva.7.”) (my trans. Similar are the concepts in CH. H. 27. while the three others specify the resultant changes in recognition.”149 or even to the “presupposed no­ tion. yap Q-eIov r] тсаста xoafjax-/] стиухрастс^ <puast. 11 n. etc..g.) 153 preiSendanz. C H I. T D N T 3 (1938). Grammatik (2nd ed. to р стЕ . p. Aristotle. 22. XIII. See LSJ. 154 For the Hermetic doctrines.” (2) The expression could be philosophical in origin. see the summary in C H III.. avavEOUfXEvrj' ev yap tm 9-elw xa l 7] cpvaiq xa&ECTTrjxEv (“ ..TT 26. q 373-74.2. 97e (ed. but now details it by way o f four Eva-clauses dealing with sense-perception. Exc.6 . 762). app. e. see. see. 148 149 . 46.6 . renewed by necessity and by the renewal that comes from the gods and by the course o f nature s configured cycle. s. e. As evidence for independent sentences beginning with an imperatival Eva he refers to Radermacher. XVI. Preisendanz seems right in taking the first Eva-clause as the beginning o f an independent sentence. итсох£с. 514— 15). Eva. Mandilaras. # # 314.6-7. Tobin. W St 41 (1919) 141— to which should be added B D R . XXIII. 607). X I. 3.155 A final clause.

parallels are found in language dealing with the liberation from the oppression by avayxT].’ and jp so q is a debt one must pay Cf. 35.II. Main body of the ritual (11. XII. Cf.” R A C 5 (1962) 973— Burkert. The term is attested since Homer.Metam.158 An impressive example from the Latin literature is the prayer o f Lucius to Isis in Apuleius (. jpeLoc. qua fatorum etiam inextricabiliter contorta retractas licia et Fortunae tempestates mitigas et stellarum noxios meatus cohibes). . For ѕтсбтгттјс see VII.351. and w hen thou hast stilled the storms o f life thou dost stretch out thy saving hand. 69. XII. s. also 527 ахреохбтгујто^.95. and avocyxT]. 100— 101. also V. thou dost pacify the gales o f Fortune and keep in check the baleful movements o f the stars” (.v. 59. Ananke. IV. by Griffiths. it is known from the mystery-cults as referring to the final vision o f the initiate. suggesting they mean the same in this context: “/рт] can mean ‘one must. Abrasax. 14. 605). 516.. 92. 533— for the meaning o f та evecrTtora (“the present 35.. 525 and 6 8 6 . “Epoptie.64. tyjv a&avarov apx/jv (“the immortal beginning”) points back to 1. Apuleius. 572. 159 Text and trans. quin mari terraque protegas homines et depulsis vitae procellis salutarem porrigas dexteram. ztzoktoq 1.v.259. the spirit accom­ plishes the change in the faculty o f vision by enabling the suppliant to have a 156 For a collection o f material see Schreckenberg. tu^y] and ^рѕса. Cf. 91— 83. also C H 1. the synonym xaxorcTeueiv which occurs in 11. w ith which thou unravelest even those threads o f fate which are inextricably woven together. 1049. 7. Gal 1:4: ex xou alwvo^ t o u eveaTMTOi. see LSJ. a see also 11. See Merkelbach.’ ” For further references and bibliography see BDAG. 11.. T he “present” condition. 261. s.295— VII. faculty o f vision. 158 It is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. Ancient Mystery Cults. 1 Cor 7:26: Sex t t jv evecjTwaav avayxTjv. 525— 27. Fascher. 18. 157 n. 485. ‘no longer burdened by astral compulsion.235) compares the terms jp zia . 7tov7)pou. 35. 43. For literature see Erich 36.3.506— XIII.160 The object o f vision. For XP£^ (“need”) 96. situation”) see 11. 485— 732) 115 T he first tva-clause comprises 11 502-8 and concerns the change in the .2... 136 n. 163 n. Dieterich (51-52) points to the role Ananke plays in the mysteries o f Mithras. but ever on sea and land thou art guarding men. 160 Cf. Merkelbach (Abrasax.237.156 Parallels occur also elsewhere in the M L. especially 160— 63. 3. IV.25): “ . In other words. 534— 4.2975. This kind o f formulaic statement seems to be liturgical in nature. 320— 23.157 the term xaTS7te£ysiv (“pressing down”) appears repeatedly in formulaic passages. 3. el(xap[xev7). is described as that o f oppression: јлета ty)v sveaxtocav x al стсробра xaxsTtsiyouaav [A ypsloiv s (“after the present and very pressing need”). used only in the ML (11. now overcome. 2. with the commentary pp.235— referring also to the ritual breathing o f the rcvsu^a. 487.159 Given this present condition. 503— 526. 157 n. The term етг:<жтеиеп/ (“envision”) occurs only here in the PGM. 157 See the parallel in 11. the change needed comes next: (tvа) Етсотстгист tyjv a&avaxov aPX7)V (“ [in order that] I may envision the immortal beginning”).

Reitzenstein assumes.4-7 (projecting terror and ecstasy).p^.” 169 Cf.1-3. 8. 56) explained on the basis o f Orphic formulae. but it has not been explained. axepecofjLa. called “The Invocation to Uphor” in XII. See also C H I. etc. IX. but Reitzenstein puts tm a&avaxw uSaxi and tw ахересохахш aepi in brackets. 1) explains as Egyptian: фгу. 167 See 1. LXII. 507-8) addresses xw атерѕсотатсо aept. 505].^epeфpeveфouфt.116 Commentary vision o f the primordial beginning. 489— As . but the interpolator misunderstood it and in effect wanted to insert what Dieterich (p. 533: during the ascent mortal nature must be left behind (еаха9г. 15— Ascl. 28.. Lines 504-8 make the resource o f the enabling explicit by naming the primordial elements. ср&архт] Ppoxwv <puC i).Y)£. see C H 1. According to the Hermetica. IV. 1210-11. BDAG. the dative expresses both origin and appeal to the ele­ ments. 221) reports that Preisendanz and Reitzenstein keep та ахгрсмхахм aspi. V. 1. Weinreich (in Dieterich. 162 This concept is attested also in C H X .7.162 pointing back to the rcveupia rcveufxaxo? o f 1. it is followed by a vox magica: avxpscppsvoaoucpipt-yx-163 The second dative refers to tw a&avaxw и бап (“the immortal water” [506— 7]). Cf. earth) in Д. but “air” plays a role elsewhere in the M L. 489— 93. fire. 163 The vox magica sounds as if derived from Egyptian. 489. the list o f Egyptian voces magicae. this element is not m entioned in 11.e. Wiedemann (in Dieterich. water. e 170 Cf. 347: (Xv. however.12. unexplained.5. X . 1. three o f which are named.1 7 — 22.v. 12. (“the firmest air”). however.217. it is followed by another vox magica.11.161 The following passage confirms this interpretation. epovui' 7cocpaxouvY)£h164 The third dative (11.2. 4) wants to read as стхѕрѕм xal tm.47.”167 T he accompanying vox magica is eioccq феуофооО'. XIII. pointing to the “firmament. “spirit” and “air” are closely related.1. pointing back to the element o f water (11.166 The adjective атерео? occurs in astronomical/astrological contexts in the PGM. 165. 164 A hapaxlegomenon. VII. 37. 1 . 168 An unexplained hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. 11. C H 1. Ascl. IV10. See Morton Smith in Betz. The first is tw a&ocvocTw Tuvsufxaxc. which Dieterich (p. Cf. cf. 540— 41: jjiiaov xou kepoq. s. 95. the difference can be either the result o f error or o f intention..335— which 50. cf. reads crxepeoxaxw. 1.961: o ev xw axepew 7xveu[xaxt. Exc. . the omission o f fire still remains unresolved.170 If so.3 -5 . a[3ox “month.14 (axepewjxa хтј? y ijs). (“the immortal spirit”). 492— 93).” 166 See 1.169 Earth may be om itted because it plays no positive role in rebirth. III. has in 1. III. water. G M PT .5— . 33 (on the cosmic origin o f air: spiritu tamen et a ’ re uacuum esse non possit). “son o f the”. 165 The pap. air) are named in 11 504— instead o f the four (spirit. 29 [i. 18. 161 The vision o f the primordial cosmos was an important part o f the Hermetist’s concerns.265. n. 1. in an invocation o f Seth. For the relationship between spirit and air. saying that “correct is only 7tv£Ufjuxxt.165 Notably.168 T he question is why different elements (spirit. 693: a x m aepi. X II. T 8 19.

Preisendanz (W S t 41 [1919]. see Griffiths.).?.. 173 See.177 T he statement refers back to 11 489 and 505 (cf. 111.l— 4). Ancient Mystery Cults. 174. see the notes in the editions by Scott. s. 3:14. however. Exc. see Betz.v. in comparison with Plato (Symp. reads fAexayevTj&w which Dieterich corrects to fAexayevvYj&to.40. also Eph 4:23: avaveouci&at. 236 (77. see S V F ll. Phil 4:7). Hellenismus und Urchristentum. Apuleius. 176 This seems to be the reading in the pap.174 The idea o f rebirth is stated by the verb fxexayevvav.CIV. 172 The choice is intended. t o u vooq. 127-28. yvfckrcv vouv ( c< v>. See BDAG. Post. s. above. 177 For lepov TCveujxa see also III. X IX ..38-48. 1996). 139-40. For Stoic parallels.2. 508-11) notes where the effect o f change is to take place: Eva voYj^axt [izxayev <v >y]$w (“so that I may be reborn in thought”). p oijx evap^ojxat. 78. . N ock & Festugiere (3.175 The concluding vox magica reads храо^раЕ. n. 1 Peter: A Commentary on First Peter (Hermeneia. 3. 56) Prisca (see Betz. 11:3. 210a.596— 97: ^apt.).19— 25).173 it is im portant in Hellenistic philosophy and religion. will find out for you whatever anyone is thinking about you”). 51— 258— 289. 221). 508— 647). Migr. 80— Reitzenstein.1). 48. VIII. 99— 79. voeiv in a gnostic prayer. the word o f the living and abiding God”).8 . 65. 520) and contains a doctrine .g. 104. n.ev°? y)[x£v vouv. according to which the primordial spirit inspires the human 171 The pap. ayt-ov 7rveu[i. tw rcveujxaxt xou vooq. XVII. Paul’ s doctrine o f intellectual renewal uses the term as well (2 Cor 2:11. аАХа аф&артои боа Xoyou ^joivxoq &еои xal \xeyovxoq (“begotten anew not from perishable but from imperishable seed. avaveow.446. XIII. R om 12:2: [лета[Аорфоисг&е хтј avaxat. considering the mysterycult term apxecjtka (versus xeXeuxav). According to Weinreich (in Dieterich. 40. Hermetica (3. 175 LSJ. 211c) and Paul (Gal 3:3). 10:5. cf. Cf. 452) and 2. cva evap^topiat. rather than a new begetting (avayevvav). In the NT. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. Xoy<ov>. the quite different concept o f salvation in 1 Pet 1:3. 142) takes the whole as one vox magica. Dieterich (4-5) proposes храо^ра^о. with o^pa and <xpjo palindromic.. o f inspiration. 1.. See also infra on 11. Reitzenstein (H M R. Frequent are passages in the Hermetica (e. # # 164 (47. s. 517-27. 355— and on a Mithras inscription in Santa 52. 94.a. etc. J A 11. 101). avayevvav does not occur in the ML.v. 175) wants to correct to ev<x.v(ocret.II. 317.1.172 The term voYjfxa occurs only here in the PG M . 4:4. Cf.25 (Apollonius o f Tyanas old jl serving woman): voiqaei croi (“she. Main body of the ritual (11. 59. 150— 51. mentions the ML (11.aa(i. 378 (126.v. n. ova ere vorjcrcofxev__ In XI. 7). 106-8. XVIII. 11. so also Reitzenstein. a key concept in the mystery-cults.. 47— 82.176 Line 510 names the source for the change: x al ttvsuot] ev eptol to lepov Tiveufxa (“and [in order that] the sacred spirit may breathe in m e”). 23: avay ey evvy)[iivoi oux ex сттгора^ ср&артуј?. Philo’s usage is related to philosophical theory about speech and music (D et. 3. 177— 262— Burkert. although the specific word occurs rarely.16 and 21. Josephus. 1. See Paul Achtemeier..p-/6[ievoq. 308. on avayevvav 9. 15..6 . avavewat. which remains unexplained. G M P T .171 T he choice o f the term ptexayevvav indicates transformational change. The term voYjjxa occurs frequently in the Hermetica (see VIII. Cf. H M R . Merkelbach. etc. where it means the act o f thinking or the resulting thought.a XII. 485— 732) 117 The second tva-clause (11. 35 The Latin renatus occurs in Apuleius (Metam. 174 See LSJ.1011).



spirit.178 T he concluding voces magicae (11. 510— read чгуЏгч атготои vsy&iv 11) aprctv y]O'.179 T he third tva-clause (11. 511— refers to fire: t v а 9т>|ласт(о t o lepov rcup 12) (“in order that I may marvel at the sacred fire”). The change is indicated by the suppliant s desire to be able to “marvel” (&aup.a^£t,v) about the ritual efficacy, a key term in Greek religion.180 The expression o f “sacred fire” is m entioned only here in the PGM, but elsewhere the element o f fire occurs frequently in ML (11. 490, 617, 636— 38).181 In the ML, spirit and fire are closely related, but not identical; it is not completely clear which is higher in the astral hierarchy. The statement concludes (1. 512) w ith the vox magica: xucpe. The term seems to be related to a type o f incense called xucpi (or xoccpt).182 T he fourth tva (11. 512— focuses on the primordial water: tva OcaacojAax 13) t o a(3uacrov туј^ ал/атоХт)? cppixxov б б м р (“that I may gaze at the unfathom ­ able, frightful water o f the dawn”). The verb &еаст&оа indicates the suppliant’ s desired ability to “behold” the primordial water. W hat kind o f image the suppliant has in mind is difficult to say The adjective а(Зиаао? occurs only here in the PGM, while the noun is more common; it keeps showing up in lists o f primordial elements.183 To an Egyptian, the “frightful water o f the
178 See also XII.324-34; XIII.762. Cf. Paul’s doctrine in R om 8:15— 16: аито t o Tcveu}i.a (scil., the spirit o f God) аијЛјлартирѕТ tw v:vtu[iaxi tjjjiwv. For the interpretation, see Betz, Antike und Christentum, 240. Hippolytus (Haer. 6.34) quotes as Valentinian doctrine based on Gen 2:7 LXX: xal evetpucnqorev el q to 7tp 6 ato7rov аитои tcvotjv Martinez also points to Homer, II. 15.262; John 20:22; Ign. Eph. 17:1. 179 A hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. The pap. reads vey&sv, cf. v e jp iv . Dieterich (Abraxas, 58,2) had read Te)£&ev, but rejected it because o f vejQ iv; in Mithrasliturgie (5) he suggests eve^Siv. Also Reitzenstein takes а т г о t o u (“derived from”) as part o f the voces magicae, as does Preisendanz (in Dieterich, 221) who suggests two variants o f the same formula. Jordan (by letter) suggests that ano t o u ve/&tv may be a gloss by the copyist indicating that the veyQsv o f 1. 510 has been corrected from vs^tkv. 180 The term &auji.a£et.v occurs frequently in the PGM (in ML 1. 775). See Georg Bertram, “&аи[ха хтЛ.,” T D N T 3 (1938), section A. 181 See Dieterich, Abraxas, 48— 52; id., Mithrasliturgie, 64— Friedrich Lang, “7rup,” 47; T D N T 6 (1959) 928-52, sections A.II-III. 182 For xuipt., see IV.1313; 2971; the incense in association with Helios VII.537— 98; IV 1275-1322, 2981; V 213-303 (хоТф1 V 221, 227-28); VII.538; See for further materials, Richard Gansziniec, “Kucpt.,” PRE 23. Halbband (1924) 52— Merkelbach (Abrasax, 57. 3.236) points to Manetho’s work: Mave&wi;, ттј<; А1уитстои, ар^ереи^. еурафе кер1 хатаахешј? xucplwv. £rjTet. т I to xutpt, (Suda, s.v. Mave&w?; F G H [ed. Jacoby] 609, T 1 and F 16; Plutarch, Is. Os. 52, 80; Athenaeus, Deipn. (ed. Kaibel), 2.73 (LCL 2.66— 67); Aelius Aristides 47.26 [p. 382.30 Keil]). 183 See VII.261— 62: km ттј<; офистстои nplv yevea&ai. oupavov 7] yyjv 7} Q-aXaaaav...; 1.343; III.554; IV.1120, 1148, 1350, 2835, 3064; VII.517; XIII.169, 482; XXXV.l; X X X V I.217; LXII.29, 31. On the subject see Kathe Schneider, “Abyssos,” R A C 1 (1950) 60— BDAG, s.v. а[Зист(то<;. 62;

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 485— 732)


dawn” brings to m ind the god N u n ,184 or the Greek waters o f Styx.185 The final voces magicae vuw $sato z~/u ouyizyoia. are unexplained.186 The final petition (11. 514— differs in three ways. (1) There is no iva.187 15) (2) The petition introduces the element o f ether, not m entioned previously: x al axoucr/] [jlou o ^cooyovo<; x al nzpixzjutxzvoq alQirjp (“and may the lifegiving and encompassing ether hear m e”). (3) The subject changes again (cf. tcveuctt) 1. 510): instead o f asking for his improved hearing, the suppliant expresses the hope that the ether may hear his prayer. As far as speech is concerned, the voces magicae empower it to make sure the prayer is being heard. The element o f ether (altWjp), located above the sphere o f атѓјр, is found only here in the ML, but in the PGM corpus it is attested more often.188 The two attributes which are attached to al&rjp, ^cooyovo? and nzpiyizjoyAvoc,,189 point to cosmology; they show up only here in the M L.190 T he final vox magica apvo(jLY)Ocp is an unexplained hapaxlegomenon. A new section begins in 1. 516, introducing the final part o f the prayer (11. 516— 37). Unusual for a prayer, it contains a detailed self-presentation o f the suppliant.191 The nature and function o f this self-presentation is partly ritual and partly didactic.
184 So Merkelbach, Abrasax, 3.236. On N un see Reinhard GrieBhammer, “N un,” LA 4 (1982) 534-35. 185 Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.236) adduces the parallel in Apuleius, Metam. 6.13— 14: rorem rigentem and fontes horridos. For the primordial waters, see C H 1.4; III. 1; for а(Зиа<то<;, see C H III. 1; XVI.5. For further references, see Leonhard Goppelt, “ибшр хтX.”, T D N T 8 (1969) 314-33, esp. sections A.I— III. 186 Various scholars have tried to restore corrupted Greek. Wessely reads еусл; Dieterich (5, n.) o eyw '£-/&(?); Sam Eitrem (“Varia,” NTF i, 4th series, 10 [1922] 112) eyto « £-/w, ou^l iyoi a(?). Jordan (by letter) wonders whether the words 'ѓуш, ouyl £'/w (“I have, I don’t have”) may come from a formula o f the kind cited in LXI.7: “you are oil, you are not oil.” 187 Translators often supply another “in order that” (Merkelbach: “damit”), or, better, make it part o f the preceding tva-clause (Dieterich, Reitzenstein, Preisendanz, Meyer); Festugiere changes the sentence: “ ... l’eau eflrayante, et que m ’entende Tether...” 188 Apparently, for the ML it is not identical with “fire.” For alOvjp, al9ipio<; see above, 1. 489-90. Cf. the references in CHI. 17; XI. 19; Exc. VI. 12; XXIII. 11, 34; XXIV. 1; XXV.7. 189 Martinez observes that in the N T “life-giving” and “pouring out” is connected with the 7rveu[xa; for references see BDAG, s.v. ex^ew, zxyvGiq; ^омпоСеш, l.a (Joh 6:63; 2 Cor 3:6; 15:45; 1 Tim 6:13: ^woyovew, with v.l.). 190 For ^woyovo<; see IV.720, 1754; ^woyovEtv IV.1162,1282,1597 (тсро<д "HXlov), 1614; VII.529 (Helios); Ti£ptx£^u[Jt£VO(; has no parallel in the PGM. Cf. also C H IX .6 (^woyovstv); XVI.10 (^ooyovwc); for тгѕрсхем *tA. see X:18; Exc. XXIII.34; XXVI.27. 191 Self-presentations are important in the ML; see below, 11. 644— 49, 719— Cf. also the 24. self-presentations on the Orphic Gold Tablets, and my article, “ ‘Der Erde Kind bin ich und des gestirnten Himmels’. Zur Lehre vom Menschen in den orphischen Goldplattchen,” in Graf, Ansichten griechischer Rituale, 222-43; reprinted in my Antike und Christentum, 244-66.



The beginning sums up what the suppliant considers the promise which the god will next fulfill: en ei [jlsXXw kolxotctsuziv ayjjxepov xolc, a&avarot.<; (“for today I am going to envision w ith immortal eyes”). This announcement recalls the transformation of vision that was the subject o f the previous petition (11. 502— 13); the author also presupposes that the prayer has been heard by the deity (11. 514— 15). The time reference oyjfAspov (“today”) occurs elsewhere in magical and ritual contexts as almost a technical term .192 The verb xaxoTtTsuetv (“envision”), found also in the exordium (1. 485), is a synonym o f stcotctsuelv (see on 1. 504). The phrase xoXc, a&avaxot,? o^jjuxat. explains that the new vision has come about through the transformation o f the mortal eyes into immortal ones (see 11 504— . 5).193 Further information is to be gained from the following section. The section 11. 517-37 defines the suppliant as an initiate. The subsections o f this self-definition form the basis for the following ascension narrative. The summary contains the anthropology o f the ML, detailing the relationship between the hum an and the divine. Regarding human nature, the initiate defines himself as 9ллг)то<; ysvvyj&sL; ex 9ллг]т9ј<; uorepa c, (“a mortal born from a mortal w om b”). H e thereby defines human nature by two criteria: mortality and birth from a human mother. This definition appears several times in the ML and elsewhere in the PG M ;194 it conforms to com m on ideas o f ancient anthropology.195 T he benefits o f initiation are generally summarized in 11. 518— and by a 19, kind o f synthema in 11. 520— The general benefit is characterized as “bet­ 27. term ent” : (3e(3eXTt,(0[iivo<; итсо хратои? pteyaXoSuvajAou x a l бе^са? yzipbq аф&артои (“improved through the exceedingly powerful might and the im­ perishable right hand”). T he verb (SsXtxouv (“improve”), found only here in the PGM , often relates to Hellenistic ethics.196 The reference to divine power
192 See also below 1. 646, 651, 6 8 6 , and 1.165-66 III.265; IV.1455, 1618-19, 2911, and for further references, Preisendanz, 3.176 (index), s.v. Cf. Luke 2:11; 4:21; 13:32— 19:5, 33; 9; 23:43; 2 Cor 3:14; 6:2: 1бои vuv хасро<; ешгрбстбехто*;, 1бои vuv yjpiipa аооттјрѓоа;. See BDAG, s.v. cnrjfxspov. 193 Cf. III.215: ојајш. tsA[siov] IV543— 44 uavxa бѕ бфт) aQ-avara. The concept is similar to the Hermetic expression o ocpdaXpLo^ tou vou (C H V .2; X .4-6; XIII. 14, 17; Def. (Armenian) 7.3; 9.2 (ed. Mahe, L ’Hermes en Haute-Egypte, 2.379— 391 [German trans. 80, in Holzhausen, 2.495, 497]). In the N T and early Christian literature cf. Eph 1:18: 7re<pwTt.C T[xevou(; Touq dcpQ jjLou? ттј<; харб£ас;; Justin, Dial. 134.5. See BDAG, s.v. ocpOaXjAoc;, -aA 2; Hans Conzelmann, “фај^,” T D N T 9 (1973) 310— sections A.3; D .l— ; E .III.l— 58, 8 2. 194 See 1. 645: yevofxevo? ex 9-vt]ty]<; исттЕра?, and 11. 529— 30, 543, 607, 608— Cf. 9. 1. 533: ср&артт) (Зротш cpuai; furthermore IV.2537; V.409, 413; V I.ll; VII.674, 677; X X .2-3; LXXII.17. 195 Cf. Gal 4:4— for references and bibliography see Betz, Galatians, 206— 5; 8. 196 For j3sATt,ouv, (Зелтсмсп^ see, e.g., Plutarch, Virt. prof. 85C-D; Philo, Decal. 17; Fug.


II. Main body of the ritual (11. 485— 732)


is couched in metaphors similar to those above (11. 496-97). The divine attribute xpaxo? occurs only here in the ML, but is more frequent elsewhere in the PG M .197 The attribute jxeyaXoSuva^o? (“exceedingly powerful”) be­ longs to hymnic language,198 just as the attribute бе£их<; jetpoq acp&apxou (“ [by] the imperishable right hand”).199 The rather elaborate statement in 11 520— seems formulaic in nature and . 27 resembles a synthema, comparable to formulae in mystery-cult texts.200 The passage defines the benefits o f transformation, o f which the first is the quali­ fication o f immortality: a&avaxw Tcveujxart. [xaxoTtxeueiv] xov a&avaxov Alaiva (“by the immortal spirit [envision] the immortal Aion”). W hile the “immortal spirit” has been dealt w ith before (11. 489— 505, 510), it reap­ 90, pears here as the force bringing about the vision (xaxoTtxeuetv [1. 516; cf. 504]) and immortality. Having acquired immortality, the initiate is able to have a vision o f the immortal Aion,201 w hom the author mentions here for the first time (1. 520).202 This god, whose name means “long period o f time,” “eon,” “eternity,” plays an important role in Hellenistic and R om an religions. In the

30; Det. 56; Sacr. 42; Mos. 2.66; and often (see Borgen, Philo Index, s.v.). See Reitzenstein, H M R , 262-65.
197 See VII.1020; XII.134; XIII.629, 803, 881; XXXV.21; it occurs frequently in biblical literature as well (LXX Deut 8:17; Wis 11.21; Sir 47:5; Acts 19:20; Col 1:11; etc.; see BDAG, s.v., l.a. 198 See also 11. 639, 687— 88 ([лѕуаЛохраторѕ^ Deot); IV. 1345— (in an invocation: 46 [jLsyaXoSuvajjLo^, [xeyaXoSo^oi;, fxeya&evT]?); VII.881; XII.374— 75. 199 See above on 11. 496— 97. 200 On this type o f formula, see also 11. 644— 49, and Dieterich, 213— 256— for 18, 58; further references see Betz, Antike und Christentum, 238— 243. 39, 201 The principle is that o f ojxoloi; tm ofioic^. Cf. 1 Cor 2:10— 15, esp. 13. 202 The god o f eternity, Aion, plays an important role in the PGM; in the ML he is identical with Helios-Mithras (594— cf. 111.70— 100— 95; 95, 101, 462; V.4). Cf. also 1.164, 200— (attributes: alwvaio?, alwvax<T>t,voxpaT(op, alwvoTioXoxpaTwp), 309; IV1163, 1 1169, 1206, 2198, 2314, 3168; V156, 468; VII.510 (av yap si б тсаттјр тои mxXivyevovQ AlGvo?), 584; X II.246-47; XIII.71, 299, 329, 582, 996-97. For literature see Arthur Darby N ock, “A Vision o f Mandulis A ion,” H T h R T1 (1934) 53-104; repr. in Essays, 1.357— 400, esp. 377-396; Festugiere, Revelation, 4.152— 75,184— Nilsson, G G R , 2.348, 85; 498— 505, 536, 682, 6 8 6 ; Betz, G M PT , 331— 332; Bousset, Religionsgeschichtliche Studien, 192— 230; Merkelbach & Totti, Abrasax, 2.168-169; 3.56— and passim; Daniel & Malto58 mini, Supplementum Magicum, 2.227-228; Kotansky, Amulets, 115— Michel, Gemmen, 16; #114; H. J. W. Drijvers, “A ion,” D D D 13— Gunther Zuntz, “Aion Plutonios (Eine 14; Griindungslegende von Alexandria),” Hermes 116 (1988) 291— 303; idem, Aion. Gott des Romerreiches (AHAW.PH 1989:2; Heidelberg: Winter, 1989); idem, AION im Rom erreich. D ie archaologischen Zeugnisse (AHAWPH 1991:3; Heidelberg: Winter, 1991); idem, Alwv in der Literatur der Kaiserzeit (WSt.B 17; Wien: Verlag der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1992). Zuntz does not discuss the PGM, however, but considers a special investigation for it to be necessary (44, n. 6 6 ).



ML, Aion is m entioned again in the “third prayer” as the heavenly gatekeeper (1. 594).203 His attribute is беатготтј^ xtov Trupivwv бсабт^атш (“lord o f the fiery diadems”).204 W hile бѕсттсотт)? is attested only here in the ML (1. 521), seven golden diadems are m entioned in 1. 675.205 T he second qualification bestowed by the spirit is sanctification (1. 522), crfioic, ayt-aarO-el? ayiaafAatrc, (“sanctified through holy consecrations”). The expression is unique in the PGM, a fact that caused commentators to assume influence o f the LXX. The translations diverge, because o f divergent inter­ pretations o f the term ау£аст[ла, w ith most interpreters taking it to mean “holy consecration.”206 W hile it is true that the terminology o f aytoc^w, cbfioq, аусастјла occurs most frequently in the LXX, the PGM do not neces­ sarily depend on the LXX.207 In Hellenistic-Jewish and early Christian texts the term is mostly used in the singular, referring to “sanctuary,” “temple.” E.g., Philo (Plant. 50; LCL edition by Colson, 3.239) interprets ay laapia (Exod 15:17— olov ayuov атсаиуаст^ха, [лл[л7)[ла ар^ѕтитгои, ercei xa alcFtW 18): joret, xaXa t w v voTjcrsi. xaXwv elxovsc;, t o Yjxoifxacr&ai wto ^etpcov &eou, xwv xoajxoTiot-wv auxou б ^аЈлѕш (“It is a ‘sanctuary,’ an outshining o f sanctity, so to speak, a copy o f the original; since the objects that are beautiful to the eye o f sense are images o f those in which the understanding recognizes beauty. Lastly, it has been prepared by the ‘hands’ o f god, his world-creating powers”). In the
203 Some o f the hymns in the PGM addressed to Aion are theologically and conceptu­ ally similar to the ML: e.g., the yoLipzxia\xbc, 1.1115-66 (cttyjXt] атсбхрисро?); IV.1167— 1226 (cttyjXy)); IV.850-929 (2oAo[j.wvo^ хататстма^); IV.1596— 1715 (теАетуј); XII.323-50; more­ over, the теХеттѓ] 1.26— the prayer called puaxiyd] (1.195— 37; 222) the prayer to Apollo II.l— 15; the cat ritual III.1— 164; the axrfkr] tou ’Ieou V.96— 172. 204 According to Jordan (by letter), the pap. seems to read Ttupsivwv instead o f nuptvwv. 205 See also IV.675, 1337, 2840; V.483; VII.619; cf. XXXV.26, 40: б[,аб7 )[лато<р6 ро<;. For TcupLvo?, see 11. 584, 589, 637— (nvpivoq axi(pa.voQ); III.211; IV.1024— (фауѓ)9ѓ 38 25 [xol, xupte, o ev Tcupl ttjv Suva[xt.v xal tt]v la^uv e^cov), 2959; VII.801; XIII.165 (eyevero бе б &ео? Ircl tou xoafxou xal тои тсиро?); XIV.8 ; furthermore C H 1.9 ($ebq tou 7tup6 i; xal TiveufxaToi; civ); X.18; Hippolytus, Haer. 5.7, referring to the demiurge o f the Naassenes (see Dieterich, Abraxas, 48-62; Bousset, Religionsgeschichtliche Studien, 118-19, 164). Cf. for б(.абу][ла R ev 12:3; 13:1; 19:12; nvpivoq 9:17. See also BDAG, s.v. б(.абг)[ла; on the whole topic Marcell Resde, “Herrschaftszeichen,” R A C 14 (1988) 937-66, esp. 951-56. 206 So Dieterich: “durch heilige Weihen gereinigt”; Preisendanz: “rein gesiihnt durch heilige Reinigungen”; Reitzenstein: “durch heilige Weihen geheiligt”; Festugiere: “saintement sanctifie par les purifications saintes”; Meyer: “sanctified through holy consecra­ tions.” Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.236) speculates about influence by the LXX, takes the ау^астјлата as referring to the trishagion (Isa 6:3), and translates (3.161): “nachdem ich zum Heiligen geweiht wurde durch ‘Heilig’-R ufe.” Martinez points to his collection o f liturgical formulations naming the acclamations o f the trishagion ayt,aa[xol (Baptized, 70). 207 For aylacj[i.a see LXX Amos 7:13: el q бе (За!,97 ]Аouxrct. fi.Y 7tpocr97 ji; тои тсросртјтеиааг., ] oTt. aytacj[i.a [ЗаспАѓах; eaTiv xa l o!xo<; $OLaikzia.c, Icttiv. For references see BDAG, s.v. aylaafxa.

GieBen: Topelmann.. that state cannot last forever. 226) refers to Apuleius. the verb may be related to the concept o f vkogtoloic. 98.v. my human soul-might”. where it plays a significant role. in order to clarify the question o f how the consecration affects the human soul. has ayiaq итгеогмст*^.55]) in speaking about the Gnostics refers to their notion o f 7iv£U[xaTix7] итгбатастсс. . n.v. исреатсоат]^ [лои тгро? oXtyov тт]<.22-42).IV. “Heilig.211 The term иср1атт][Л(./ substantia. 3. 113. 1976).. 24: perfectis solemnibus processi duodecim sacratus stolis. holy for a short time.II.8.v. Dieterich: “da unter mir steht auf ein kleines rein die menschliche Seelenkraft”. Leg. Hagios. Metam. s. Festugiere: “tandis que se retire un peu de moi . Trcocrraait. in his Platonica Minora (Miinchen: Fink. Irenaeus (Haer. Thus far. That sup­ portive power.30-186. Reitzenstein: “wahrend unversehrt mir bleibt auf ein kleines die menschliche und natiirliche (seelische) Kraft”. (“support”). Philo. instead the soul shares human weakness and mortality This is why the soul is in need o f support by divine power which by way of consecration injects holiness into the soul.” Cf. especially Stoicism. for which see Helmut Koester. Nilsson. av&p«7UVY]^ [xou Suvajjiso)?210 (“which holy [power] supports for a short while my human soul-power”).3. however. lasts only for a short while. the author has not mentioned the soul (фи^ѓј) in connection with anthropology.686. A.3. Untersuchungen zu r Terminologie des Heiligen in den hellenisch-hellenistischen Religionen (RVV 19:1. Preisendanz: “wobei in Reinheit auf nur kurze Zeit verharrt meine mensch­ liche Seelenkraft”. ucpiaTYjfjii. Merkelbach: “wahrend mich auf kurze Zeit die Kraft der menschlichen Seele verlassen hat. шге^ѕсттохту]^.6). 11 [ed. appears to come from philosophy.ата refers most likely to “consecrations. “итгосттастс^. idem. listing Gregory o f Nyssa.a.209 The following part o f the convoluted sentence construction is even more difficult (11.2. SV F II. n. Main body of the ritual (11. XI. 4.und Bedeutungsgeschichte. but only for a 208 See P G L . # # 599 (185. B.4-24). 485— 732) 123 PGM the rare plural аус.” R A C 14 (1988) 1-63. a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. Preisendanz and Henrichs keep ayt-a^. Mithrasliturgie. after which it wanes and must receive another charge by new consecrations. Meyer: “while there subsists within me . with references to Aristotle. Harvey.32-43). 509 (164. 1922). for references see P G L . C H 1. Cf. referring to SiaxoCT^ot?. ]fj. Hermann Dorrie.212 Constructing ucpi<xrY with a genitive object is unusual. 209 Comparable is the application to Christian baptism. referring also to Eduard Williger. III. 2. eu^evpj атсохЈатаатаапл 86: 211 Translations differ. 522-24): brftoLC. Clement o f Alexandria. Stoics. 12— 69.i. For the Stoics. Eitrem corrects to ayt. I. 5) to итсереатмаг^. He apparently does not share the Platonic doctrine o f the immortal soul incorporated in the mortal body.14-37).24-29). Wort. Albrecht Dihle. G G R . 4. once the initiate has reached the state of holiness.астр. Sacr. s. Epicurus. Thus. 212 See LSJ. Therefore. 1. 202a (65. so that it makes sense that he wishes to bring it in at this point. B. also 187 (61. etc. s.”208 here specifically to the initiation ritual. aytaofjia. XI.t.585— xal [лета t yjv t o u u A i x o u асо[хато<. 210 Pap. 317 (114. 38. 1. ma nature psychique humaine”.16. Dieterich (Abra­ xas. see Chrysippus. it is almost technical in physics. 518-19 (165.o<. Reitzenstein (H M R.240. which may be due to the comment having been inserted after the preceding formulaic statement.” T D N T 8 (1969) 572— 89. esp. pour un peu de temps. D..

The initiate expresses his confidence that he will regain his soulpower after he has been liberated from the oppressive force o f necessity. esp. 70— Nilsson.” R A C 7 (1967) 524-626. 503-4) the formulaic rela­ tive clause (11. 527) attribute may. 217 T L G and LSJ. 502— moreover 1. Alciphron. .? remains.). (Heimarmene). 2669. in 1 . “without cancellation o f debt?” Cf. and in 1. 3.” 1. 5. undimin­ ished”. death”. furthermore IV.eTaSiS6 vai).” P R E 7 (1912) 2622— 45.213 The soul needs strength especially in view o f the impending ascension. хрѕшхотгѕТтас. 5 (829C). etc. Hershbell (in his edition. Dieterich (p.” identical with ХРг ' (“need. See Schreckenberg. Wilhelm Gundel. The term (j. on the one hand. This “necessity. aer. y jp io c ) has references attesting the metaphorical meaning as “the debt that all must pay.v. s. with the rendering “free o f debt. 502— and V 4 534— but there are some new terms as well.527..217 The second (1. IX. Tusc. 1. 605. 504). “Heimarmene. 524-27). s. 564-68. 630 the ML speaks o f a “recovery o f the soul” (атсохахастха&т) r\ фиХ7)) from its being shaken up (11. 501 ([xexaTcapaSLSovat. a personified demonic force. see 1. 11. s. and the other unfamiliar: тихро? (“bitter”)216 and ахреохотгујхо?.. VII. This interpretation agrees with Stoic doctrine. list only IV.1406. 508— 647 ([xsTayevvav).e. 709-10 the suppliant prays that the deity may remain in the 1 soul. III. This situation is confirmed by repeating (cf. Ananke. 9. but cf. n. xpeotto^eTv. 2. See Preisendanz. see above on 11.506— Heinrich Otto Schroder.214 we must appreciate. In 630 it says that the soul has returned to its former condition. 35) refers as a parallel to Cicero. X X X V I.124 Commentary finite period.39. (otocv) атсохатаата&тј стои rj фи/j]. 216 See 1.” 214 The term occurs only here in the PGM. 367b: xav {jlt) xic.120.218 213 For a different interpretation.342. the expression ^лѕха xy]v evsaxwcrav x a l xaxsTtelyouaav fxe rcixpav avayxrjv a)(p£OX° 7ry]TO parallels 11.13.v.4 (ed.exa. Gundel.art. on the other. Plutarch.236). LSJ (s. In 1.215 Ananke is here distinguished by two attributes. 725 the soul is closed down during the oracular ecstasy. 60. and only the Trvsufj. cessity”).-Plato. for initiation]. however. for the “bitter Ananke” see also VII. i. 2.£TarcapaXal l3av£LV provides another instance o f the authors prefer­ u ence for verbs w ith double prefixes. fate. one common.93: life is a loan.) adduces Suda. crit. has preemi­ ш nence in the magical texts throughout as Ananke. and with other passages in the ML. p.v. 7]v syw rcaAiv {АехатшраХЃЈЈлфоЈлас fxexa xtjv Eveaxwaav x a l xaxeTreiyouaav jjis 7 tixpav avay xy]v a/peoxoTTiqxov (“which I will again receive after the present bitter and relentless necessity which is pressing down on m e”). A x. ad loc. “Fatum 74.10. Vit. 622-23).302. see Merkelbach (Abrasax . Schepers) and translates. app. 4. however. 215 For the ML.302.. associated w ith avay xy) (“ne­ 35. without . “For a short time the avQ-pwruvT] фи^хт] Suvajjac leaves the candidate [scil. 606.x7) Suvafxc.215 (index VI and index I. 2606. 3. XV.. 160— 63.v. 218 See ps. al. the sense o f the preposition p. be explainable. G G R . 483 ((j..).. 9-octtov jpzoq аттоб^бм to £5jv. Weltbild und Astrologie. w ho thinks. 7. 11. As a whole.

6 .110— 29. 1. N ock & Festugiere. but 27) there is no evidence for such.14). 2) connects with ijls and translates: “unverkiirzt..”222 The text o f the ML. ritual death is part o f the ritual in IV 154-285. no longer burdened by death. 527— 29) comes the identification by name: eyw o Setva. 3. app. 221 Translations vary widely: Dieterich (p. however. 210— 20. repr.lat. 11. 4. ungeschadigt” (“uncurtailed. according to the immutable decree o f god”). Reitzenstein (H M R.’ which one must pay back to avayxY). ad loc. at least at this point. A distinction has to be made be­ tween the ascension presently in view and the presupposed earlier initiation ritual. 220 See SKFII. By comparison. n. relentless. ^psoxoTceiv (“cancel debt”). welche man der avayxr] zuriickzahlen muB = nicht mehr vom Tode beschwert. Cf.16): xpswxoTrelatko twv фих^ auTwv to Ttcplepyov £7it. 263c: outm бе xal to xpswv elp^cr9-at. Praep. the term а/рѕох6тгг)то<. N ext (11. undamaged”). 2. 2.” or that the initiate is beyond death altogether.jpeoy. p. See also Alciphron 1. that is. and misguided hopes”). at this point the initiate leaves his mortal nature behind during the ascent (see below.” 223 For a different interpretation see also Morton Smith (“Transformation by Burial [1 Cor 15:35— R om 6:3— 49. 533— 35). does not indicate that the “debt” equals “death. (“The curiosity o f their souls shall be frustrated by desires. to erct-JSaXXov xal xa$ 7)xov хата ttjv elfjwcpjiivirjv. 26): “schuldentriickt” (“removed from debt”). Meyer: “relendess”. the term to /pswv played a role for Chrysippus. 485— 732) 125 accordingly. Main body of the ritual (11. Preisendanz: “ohne Verkurzung” (“without curtailment”).9 u[i. The initiate has left behind his earlier existence. # 914 (265. N N . w hom N N bore.^ xal <poPoL<. Barn.1. eds.17: otzoxz el q tov aipa avaSpafjq) to XP^01^ LXX Wis 15:8: to туј? фих^? a^at-TY^el? jp io q . can be used as a metaphor. The statement is formulaic. in the ML may have originated in a Stoic background. 5].6: avsu i^uyou avayxr^ wv. х ата боу^ла &sou ajxeTa&eTOV (“I. 5. 126— who assumes that a ritual death and transformation are presupposed here. troubles. For parallels. because the practitioner expects a return into this life. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 224 See Preisendanz. 9.”221 Merkelbach seems to agree w ith this interpretation only in part. XXIII. apud Eusebius.25: oux zo x i x b jp e o q cpuyelv. indicated in the pap. in his Studies. by the symbol A. ev. .161) translates: “nach dem mir jetzt bevorstehenden und mich sehr bedrangenden bitteren Zwang” (“after the now impending and me strongly oppressing compulsion”). 176. Vettius Valens.224 The expression хата боу[ла г)еои ajJisTa&£Tov (“accor­ ding to the immutable decree o f god”) represents another formula important the day for repayment being fixed (»usuram »vitae tamquam pecuniae nulla praestituta die).” Eranos 52 [1983] 87— 112. crit. xal Xunat? x a l z k n ia i izkctvoic.219 If. esp. originally a commercial term . which included the experience o f death and rebirth. w hen he says: “N o longer burdened by that ‘debt. fears. 219 See Diodorus Siculus 38/39. esp.220 and should thus be translated as “unfor­ giving.46 (Kore Kosmou. 3. Festugiere: “apres la contrainte douloureuse de l’imminente Fatalite” (“after the painful constraint o f imminent Fate”).6Tty]asv бсргсАтјЈлата. ov y j Ssiva. Diogenianus. as according to Diogenianus. see CH.8: rcoXXwv Zavarov k. Anthol. Der Initiierte hat seine friihere Existenz hinter sich gelassen.II. Exc. 222 Merkelbach (Abrasax.237): “Nicht mehr von jener ‘Schuld’ beschwert.223 Rather.

See also Apuleius. corn. the author sees the need at this point to add a comment of clarification concerning the anthropological presuppositions for the ascent (11.226 By contrast. II.xevov vixw . xal а{лет6фЛ7)то5 ecmv б xad’ ехастта SiopLC[x6 i.26). # 914 (265. Apparently. Trav to k m yv]<. 530— 32). esp. Texte. (“since it is for me. item 25: Tiav <xo> ev oupavw a[i. 225 226 . being mortal. 253— 277. Ibid. Clement & Herbert B. 528-29): euy) u'ia eyji aw z'C lu o OQ O iua tew. 1926. XIII. 1. line 10. where Isis speaks: eyw to elfjiap. See SKFII. Cambridge. Apuleius. 57 ( # 46): 7ipovoia 9-ela Toc^iq. aTpCTtxov ayaQ-ov. and Atropos: ’'AxpoTiov бе oxi а[хета&ето<. 2 for further references).”) See on this Muller.18-19). Schaeder. 320-23.aac.230 It begins with stating what appears to be an accepted principle: excel oux eaxt. 288-89. Plutarch’ Moralia (London: Heinemann. 283.’”228 This section ends w ith voces magicae (11. 59 (To the Moirai).64 (3. 169— Richard Reitzenstein & Hans Heinrich 70. Ttpovoux. 228 Plutarch. H M R . The pap. ad loc. 74— Totti. XI. xpU T C 0£!^e<Tiv (juxpfAapyupal? x9)<. 3. Nr. шг/јрѓт^. 5.v iy-TzenArf/Jdat. Hoffleit.15. also the interpretation o f оцаетагкто^ in CH. 1965). # 48: xlq &eo?. Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. Similarly. Lachesis.64): ’AvayxT] еат1 ycpLatq [3e[3ala xal а[летатрет1 то<. the Hellenistic aretalogies o f Isis claim her victory over Heim arm ene or Fatum. Merkelbach. 'i 230 The problem behind the discussion is that o f “immanence/transcendence” and human identity. # 913 (264. 8.xxov t)v/]x6<. Hymn. Ifxou to eLjj. третстсп/ xaxov. 19. 286-87. Agypten. Abraham P. Quaest. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.225 The formula conforms to the Stoic concept known since Zeno and Chrysippus.evov a x o u ei (“I am victorious over Fate.. [jiexaQ-eTov. reads ajxexa&exou. 1.’ I continued. 74— 76. MA: Harvard University s Press. from Chrysippus (Defato [rcepl s'ljj-ap^svrjc]) concern­ ing the three Moirai. See Reitzenstein. following Dieterich (5.) opts for elau. with the commentary by Griffiths. Preisendanz (app. Cf. 221— 22). 25.2 (Nock & Festugiere. Isis Regina. Suvafxis rcpovoiac (with n.2 (675 B): ou [xtjv оибе r/]v ’OAufjimav. 55. 113— 75. “Immanenz und Transzendenz. w hen he reports from his table-talks: ‘“ N o r should we. reads ecau or e'iav.126 Commentary in Greek religious philosophy. 1047-48. Studien zum antiken Synkretismus (Studien zur Bibliothek Warburg 7.v |xot ecpt. takes to be a corrupted palin­ drome (oe'iau | — | uaiew. 227 Schroder (“Fatum. Orph. Exc.apjj.55). 54. 229 It is not certain whether the pap.). Clotho.388-89.227 Plutarch seems to reflect the com m on opinion o f the time.” R A C 17 (1996) 1041— 92. Bos. Text and translation cited according to the LCL edition by Paul A. corrected by Dieterich (4— n. aEiov k a x i v мсттгер el[xapfxev7)v ajJicTaoTaxov x a l afJieTa&eTov ev t o l c a9Xrj[j. Heimarmene is explained as the divine Logos divided into the three Moirai. e£ oclSlwv у р о уш . Exc. as if its policies w ith respect to types o f competition were as undeviating and immutable as fate. Metam. crit. 1969).” R A C 1 [1969] 569— 70) names Isis as capable o f breaking the law o f fate: Aretalogy o f Kyme. ecpyjv. t l av&pwrco?. 21. Fate is obedient to me.exa&exov. ‘be overawed by Olympia. doing the Sioixouv in the cosmos. X I. which he. avayxT). yeywxa oruva<v>ievac. a&avaxou XapnrjSovoc. 5.

Phaed. 27. nor will perishability inherit imperishability”).v. Hymn. [лар[Ј. 237 Cf. . “Kometen. 1150— 53. .231 Dieterich s punctuation connects it by a comma with the previous sentence. Sterne und Sternbilder im Glauben des Altertums und der N euzeit (Bonn & Leipzig: Schroeder. 67b: jxyj xa&apw yap xa&apou ефатихестОт . idem. 253— 5. ax£X[3ovTes).237 The term fxapfxapuyy] is found only here in the PGM . 535. 614.3-28.I ll. see 11. See also the references in LSJ. referring to Pindar and mystery cult initiations. Plutarch cites and interprets the principle in Is.10-11 (auya£ovxe<.” 234 The term squxxo q is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. 123.. . The term is 5) a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM.” reprinted in his Kleine Schriften. Frag. Smyth. Betz. pal. and Franz Boll’ essay o f 1894. Indeed. 100 (ed.238 The adjective 231 Cf.233 The second is that a mortals ascension to heaven is “out o f reach.j. Betz.”234 Meta­ phors describing “ascending together” (auvoc<v>t. ” 233 For &v7]xo<. D e princ.577). 1922). 195. Kern. cruvaveijxt. A related principle is cited by Paul in a similar context in 1 Cor 15:50: accpE. but similar terms occur elsewhere.6 8 scpt/xsa&oa with a different meaning. in X III. Orph. “contracted from yeyawc. the comment is didactic and offers an answer to an implied question. (АарЈларкреуут) 1.232 Either way.8 he discusses the issue in connection with the deification o f Romulus. 147.. Cons. cf. ) 235 with an astral phe­ nom enon demonstrate the impossibility further. The argument involves two admissions. which Dieterich (4— corrects to cruvavisvai. 517— 18. 242. Antike und Christentum. See for a discussion o f these two principles. Socrates cites this principle to demonstrate the impossibility for a human being to pass into the afterlife. 166). s. The verb yeyoaxa is part. and therefore passage to the afterlife. 4 (352D). 222) translates after a comma: “denn es ist mir nicht erreichbar als dem sterblich geborenen mit dem goldenen Flammenglanz der unsterblichen Leuchte in die Hohe zu steigen. 213. 574) as confirmation. purity.” Riess (CIR 10 [1896] 411) points to au[X7iXavoc астхтјр (1. IV. 54. 232 Dieterich (4. reads cruvaievai. Os. perhaps hymnic language. esp. while Preisendanz begins a new sentence. 13 (107F-108D). in Rom. Antike und Christentum. if the principle is accepted. 7. 669.y] o u 9-efjaxov fj (“For that the impure touch the pure is not at all permissible”). the epigram o f Ptolemaeus (A nth.evat. 485— 732) 127 out o f reach to ascend together with the golden radiances o f the immortal brilliance”). The first is the suppliants present condition of mortality. s. and rare in Greek literature.v.” PRE 21st Halbband (1921) 1143— 93. ^&хроѕхбеа пѓпХоу. asl Nuxxcx. 200 (§ 704b) treats this form as a poetic second perfect participle.260-61 ([ларјхарсашО-). The statement looks like a principle quoted from a different context with approval. a vox magica. “go up together. 236 On ideas concerning becoming a star see Wilhelm Gundel.аруе£с. s “Das Epigramm des Ptolemaeus.236 The metaphors seem to reflect poetic. conv. Main body of the ritual (11. Sept.” Preisendanz: “Da ich es nicht erreichen kann. . 228. 235 The pap. 104— 110.II. 348. perf. Apoll. see LSJ. |лар[лараиуѓ). 16 (160C). 543. calling it a vox Orphica and referring to Orph. 238 Cf. sap. Grammar. 313. contracted yeycoc for yeyovo')^. Damascius. the previous proposition to obtain immortality appears preposterous and requires special explanation. 9. can only be achieved by the separation and liberation o f the soul from the body. xal aljAa PaaiXetav Феои x)or]povo[X7)(jai ou Suvaxai оибѕ r) cp&opa xy)v acp&apcaav xArjpovofxei (“Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom o f God.. the parallel in Plato. 143-55.

Festugiere: “et reprends-moi sur-le-champ sain et sauf”. x al auxlxa <avaAa(3s> иустј [хета ttjv a7iapalxY]TOV x al xaT£Tce[l]you(jav XP£^av (“Stand. reads AafxmrjSwvo?. 502. 677. cf. Reitzenstein emends kizoSkyou.” . you w ill see it. 413. срОартт] [BpoTtov cpuai.) as the verb. nor can he move his body in any way. Xap. 242 See below. 607. Plato’s (Phzed.” including the reminder that such a transition is not without danger.) sees a repeating sequence: w tjuocsw rjuaew rjuasw yjuastd iae. which. The context (cf.7t7]S«v. 11 (To the Stars) 8. See BDAG.11. 244 The pap. on 11. and at once <take me back> safe after the inexorable and pressing need”). 52526) requires a verb describing the ascent and addressing mortal nature. ocuxixa \iz uytr] is uncertain because a verb is missing. for the knowledge o f it is divine silence and suppression o f all the senses. 533— w ith the suppliant 35) addressing his human nature: есттаОг. 1027. Sim.4.239 and XaptYjSwv (“bril­ liance”)240 is another hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. s..” Cf. Hymn. VII. 240 Pap. crit.243 The section on self-presentation concludes (11.638. Meyer: “and at once receive me safe and sound”. 246 Dieterich (6 ) interprets this to mean: “und sogleich laB mich lo s . Eitrem avaXa(3e. H e stays still. Preisen­ danz ш/аАафг. IV. ad loc.246 W hat the author seems to say closely resembles an explanation in C H X. 241 Orph. incomprehensible beauty o f that good.674.409.486. is inconsistent with the departure from “the inexorable and pressing need.” Most other translators see the reference in regard to the reentering into the body. In the m om ent w hen you have nothing to say about it.. so that he orders his mortal nature245 to “stand.v.. pap. 243 Preisendanz (app. 110c) use o f the term in a fantastic description o f the earth seen from above.244 translators differ in restoring and translating the text. nor can one w h o has looked on it look on anything else or hear o f anything else. Hermas. O perishable nature o f mortals.241 Merkelbach points to the sun rays and the dust particles glimmering in it. Preisendanz: “<ubernimm> mich sofort <wieder> wohlbehalten nach der unerbittlichen und bedrangenden N o t”. V I. corrected by Dieterich (4). Because o f some textual problems. C H X .5— 6: “But w e are still too weak now for this sight. Reitzenstein: “und bald nimm mich wieder heil in Empfang”. Wessely conjectures uyly) < ха 9 ѓат 7)>.6-7. all bodily 239 Cf. however. 7. Dieterich (6 ) takes urdei (utptet. for j3poxol see V. Cf. III. Jordan sees in the pap. reading ср&рату) must be corrected to cpQapxr]. [xa instead o f the editors’ jxe. 11.15 (To Helios). 16-17. which ancient sources thought o f as vehicles for the ascension of the souls into heaven. 245 For the expression ср&артт) f3poxwv cputrt.10. W here does this language come from? It has some close parallels in the Orphic Hymns. 20 (To the Moirai). 9. 59. w e are not yet strong enough to open our m ind’s eyes and look on the incorruptible.242 The comment concludes with voces magicae: ш)и asw Yjua ear/) uae toLas.2. Merkelbach: “nach dieser unabdingbaren und mich bedrangenden N ot sollst du mich wieder gesund in dir aufnehmen.128 Commentary -/ростоѕсбт]? (“golden bright”) is related to crowns. 537— 38. 11.2. [6 ] O ne w h o has understood it can understand nothing else.

for conjec­ tures.v. Hermetica. 31. and often. Philo of Alexandria: A n Exegetefor His Time (NovT. reads [лог/арср[.” R A C 12 (1983) 19— Otto Betz. 574-75.p[j.c.. see IV.11771180. XII.317. “Gottessohn. 111. “Ich-Bin-Worte. n. while this may be true o f the Hermetica.92. and so also in the PGM. III. 502— 525— 4. for the ML see 11. 1922). Pradel. For w hen soul has looked on < th e> beauty o f the good.6 -9 .” R A C 18 58. perhaps a doublet or variant o f the preceding: syw eqai [xa^apcp^jv [XOU т г р м ф и ^ ^ n p o i z .” Hopfner takes фиум as “deeply I draw in breath” (“tief atme ich ein”). Although beset w ith textual uncertainties.3.342. burgh: Clark. however. 251 The pap. 205-209. 8 6 ..v. w ith the adjective атсароаттјто^ (“inexorable”) providing variety. there is again a well-known formula: еум yap elpx o ulo<.]. Martinez raises the question whether the words could be a Greek translation o f an Egyptian epithet “son o f souls” (cf.. Die Gotteskraft in der fruhchristlichen Zeit (Leipzig & Berlin: de Gruyter.248 T he final words o f the self-presentation (11. see Vit.. crit. Spec.267: [хетофаХш та axoi'/eia repo t o xaTeuetyov TTfi jpsLoLq. 1787. For interesting demonological parallels see LSJ. XXXVI.4.249 Some kind o f divine name should be expected. 525-27. Koln: Brill.”). Main body of the ritual (11. Leiden. 252 Pap. 485— 732) 129 senses and motions forgotten.250 but that name is secret and only voces magicae are given: фи^м[у] бѕ[лоо тсро^со тгрсоа. IV. esp. See Dieterich (6 ). uL6 ?. 249 This formula occurs frequently in ancient texts. 31.): “son (of Helios). cf. crit. Abrasax.1075-77.253 The latter seems most 247 Translation by Copenhaver.1 and XIII.II. 605-6.” R A C 17 (1994) 147-213. also C H XVI.935. 484-537)..v. Early Christianity and Hellenistic Judaism (Edin­ 3. 25 refers to the parallels in C H 1.7. Reitzenstein (Poimandres. Dieterich. See Norden. 225-42.(3. 214-20.237. 26). 248 For this term see also 11.251 A nother formula then follows. Cf.1— and Peder Borgen. leg. 2. XIII. 1. the edition o f N ock & Festugiere. XIII. For Philo s similar teaching at this point. Agnostos Theos.. which Dieterich (6 ) makes out as ulo^.). or whether the magician by intention obscured his divine name. Cf. or whether he inserted two (defective?) variants o f the same formula. s. (1998) 945-76. it cannot be deified w hile in a human body . Philo often (see Borgen. Philo Index. ad loc. N ew York. Cf.145— 146. Karl Preisigke. “Isangelie. 535-536. . 1997).124. Cf.37. cited in Dieterich. Gebete. 537. фиу^м бѕ (cf. this beauty kindles his w hole soul and by means o f body draws it upward. “soul o f souls”). has oulo^ фи^со[. it is not necessarily true o f the magical texts. Having illuminated all his mind. 3025. see also Carsten Colpe. 222). 250 For divine sonship. 2.. 177-201. 484. 18. Preisendanz has as vox magica as in 1.126-128.. 105. also 11. ” 247 The description o f the “inexorable and pressing need” is similar to the preceding parallels (see 11. 762-63. 3. BDAG. 1996). XXXVI. 672: <xp)a.oiyft]q.]v. believes that no divine name is required.<x. s. Wis 16:16 (LXX). 517— 37) conclude the first prayer (11.S 20. s. (“For I am the son o f. 309— idem. Hartwig Thyen. Mos. 59. 2032-33. app. Preisendanz (app.252 The problem is whether the w riter has simply muddled up his Vorlage. IV. d.637. 253 So Merkelbach. 194-205. 2 2 2 ). and beauty changes his w hole person into essence. 3. my child.

Apocalyptic and 69. but at the same time he hides that name behind voces magicae. Psychanodia I: A Survey of the Evidence Concerning the 67. Through a Speculum That Shines: Vision and Imagination in Medieval fewish Mysticism (Princeton: Princeton University Press. 152— 74. Betz. 1983). Collins & Fishbane. 1960). esp. Merkahah Mysticism.47— esp.27) description o f a similar ecstatic ritual: “In the midst o f all this one o f them started to rave more wildly than the rest. 105— 13. Lohr. 38— 40. comes the prescription o f a breathing ritual (11. 628— 29: сттас oOv eu9-£w<. After Life.255 N o doubt. iXxe остш тои Qstou. the text moves directly to the ritual.130 Commentary likely not only because o f the parallel in 1. Betz. These general presuppositions and traditions cannot be discussed at this point. Still informative is the article by Wilhelm Bousset. Antike und Christentum.” ibid. Prescription o f the breathing ritual (11. Verherrlichung. 54. From Apocalypticism to Gnosticism. 52— loan P.” Eranos 50 (1981) 403— repr. 257 See the comprehensive articles by Carsten Colpe and Peter Habermehl. 165— idem. (“Draw in breath from the rays three times. Antike und Christentum. “Jenseitsfahrt I (Himmelfahrt). 8. see the passages and literature in Betz. Ernst Dassmann. repr. 1991). and producing rapid gasps . idem. including the world o f the gods and the place o f the human being in relation to it. “Jenseits. Josef Engemann. Karl Hoheisel. 255 See on these issues. o Suva[cr]ac.” R A C 17 (1996) 407-66. 504— on the ML. B. 179— 70. 256 On general cosmology see the comprehensive surveys and bibliographies by Carsten Colpe. 1993). Elliot R . idem.258 As is shown by the preceding 254 For this formula. 537— 38) Following the conclusion o f the prayer and anticipating the ascension narra­ tive. “D ie Himmels5 reise der Seele. as D ie Himmelsreise der Seek (Libelli 71. Morton Smith. Lux Perpetua. 29. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. and “Jenseitsreise. Martha Himmelfarb. drawing in as m uch as you can. but com petent survey litera­ ture w ith bibliographies is available.254 but also because o f the magicians’ practice generally to keep their divine names secret. Ascent to Heaven in fewish and Christian Apocalypses (New York: Oxford University Press.. w ith his final words he reveals himself as a son o f a god. 178.. 537— 38): eAxs o ltzo t w v ocxTLvtov icveufxa y ' avaarcwv. 258 See the parallel in 11. 229-73. 128. Ascension of the Soul and Its Relevance (EPRO 99. Culianu. Death. in his Studies.”) W hat is drawn in with the breath o f air is the divine “spirit” (rcveujjia). Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 2. then. Leiden: Brill. idem. 167— Gruenwald.” R A C 17 (1996) 246-407. Out of this World: Otherworldly fourneys from Gilgamesh to Einstein (Boston: Shambhala. For the breathing ritual see Apuleius’s (Metam .” A R W 4 (1901) 136-69. Lukian. 84. 724 (lyto elptx w ith vox magica).257 First. This narrative presupposes an ancient worldview which involves specific ideas about cosmology and anthropology. furthermore Cumont. “Ascent into Heaven and the Beginning o f Christianity.256 R elated to these issues is an enormous body o f materials connected with ideas on journeys to the heavenly world. Peter Habermehl. 490-543. Wolfson. 175— 86. 1994).

The god appears as surrounded by sun-rays (1129).260 Related are ancient speculations about the role o f the “sun dust. D e an. see Furley & Bremer. Main body of the ritual (11. 110— 412— 44. 277— Bousset..zivoycdxi. sending them down to earth by glittering sun-dust.3. 208— 78. “D id the Mithraists Inhale? A 83. 333.150— 60. Shamanism. 1. MA: Harvard University Press. See also the gem in Hopfner.78. 10. On this passage see Reitzenstein.ата. on 11. velut numinis divino spiritu repletus. Heb 1:3: Christ as атсаиуааЈха ттј? б 6 £г^. IV.). 2. 1964). 261 See the close parallel in IV. Helios Megistos. IV. 262 See Eliade. Greek Hymns.261 In ancient Egypt they were regarded as means for the soul to climb up to heaven. 73— Cf.” Ancient World 32 (2000) 10— Breathing rituals seem to go back to 24. 489— 90.462. Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy (trans. Metamorphoses (2 vols. Helios Megistos. 200. he simulated a fit o f madness” (Inter haec unus ex illis bacchatur effusius ac de imis praecordiis anhelitus crebros referens. Brashear. early shamanism. 487— 94. “the whole system o f the aerial spirit” (1115— 16). as though he had been filled with the heavenly inspiration o f some deity. Franz- . 751.262 Greek philosophers called the particles ^ист[лата.2286: ky. Envisioning Magic. London: Heinemann.ле xa l ocvtictttw^ulsvov [jlou (“entering into me and drawing me to it” [1121— 22]).” There are also monumental representations showing rays proceeding from the sun.176: ocxtlvott<ol>wv.” 3581). 181— Radcliffe Edmonds.. 260 O n fcxTLves see in the ML 11. a cpatvcTai ev xorlc. 1970]).” that is. Apuleius. 44: “I am in the rays o f Helios” (’Eyw si[ii ev таТс tou tjXlou odjyaXq).259 Since 7iveu[xa can mean both “spirit” and “breath. XIII. by Willard R . Hymn 17. 1.251). “Greek Magical Papyri. Sia twv QuplSwv axTlcriv. 9.78. 446— 47. XIV. “Inspiration. Der Konig als Sonnenpriester (ADAI. 58 B 40 [1. 2. Track. Agypten. see Sarah I.-K. and Some Mithraic Frescoes. 1989). which greets the god Aion-Helios as to ttocv стиат7](лос tou aeplou TivsujxaTo^.” the spirit is to be drawn in with the breath.” R A C 18 (1998) 329-65.199— 205.-K. O Z I. On inspiration as a whole and with further literature.. See Muller. small dust particles hovering in the air and glittering in the sun. Technique for Theurgic Ascent in the Mithras Liturgy. the Chaldaean Oracles. see Klaus Thraede.162. the spirit is a fundamental concept in the M L. See Rohde.A. 1115— 66. Poimandres. Fauth. § 733. For the ML. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien.112-13. 67 A 28 [11. 4 4 7 48. 74. 142. 98. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 131 prayer. Cambridge.27-30]). o f Isis in the aretalogy o f Cyme. regarding them as souls floating upwards in the air. their role as transmitters o f divine spirit and its inhalation is affirmed several times.37 (Preisendanz. Psyche. addressed to ’AxtI? kzkLou (“Keen-eyed ray o f the Sun”). Also in accordance with ancient teachings is the idea that the spirit is transmit­ ted by the rays o f the sun (al axTtve?). 189-90. see Mircea Eliade. Ich klimme empor auf den Sonnenstrahlen. X II.16— 29]). who inspires by the spirit elcrep/o^evov . Cf. Johnston. 1129. quoting Leucippus (D. та xaXoujxeva 5и(Х[л. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 906. Cited according to the LCL edition and translation b y j.1110: o. Arthur Hanson. 2. and Pythagoreans (D. The epithet o f Helios as ехфихрм^л (XIII.xtivmt6 v &eov. 259 See above. also IV461. simulabat sauciam vecordiam .263 However. W hile the sun rays are im portant in several ways in the PGM . On Pindar’s 9th Paian. in: Schafer & Kippenberg. 2. at this point from deep down in his chest. 634. Cf. 590 [axej3uxpwv]) may come from the Egyptian for “splendor o f the sun” (see Fauth. referring to Jan Assmann. 48. 7 [Gliickstadt: Augustin. 25: “Ich steige auf zum Himmel.2 (404a): olov ev tw aept. n. 13.II. 263 Aristotle. BollS 76. 1114.

Iamblichus and the Theory of the Vehicle of the Soul (ACSt 4. 487— (esp. Tusc.” in Platonismus und Christentum. vind.264 T he ritual is to be performed three times by drawing in the air as hard as possible. Lewy.1. Augustin (Louvain: Editions de l’lnstitut Superieur. for the phrase o Suvaooa. chapter 3 and Excursus 37: 8 .3. 319— 24) names as the most important passages. the Nag Hammadi “Treatise on the Resurrection” (Epistula ad Rheginum). 1985). Ep. “Bemerkungen zum Aufstiegs89 weg der Seele in Jamblichs D e mysteriis. the s holy spirit. 6. 5. Finamore. see also Plutarch.945: oarov Suvaaoa.5. 43. Festschrift fur Hermann Dorrie (JAC. 311. Resp.132 Commentary the ML does not speak of “souls” (фи^оа). Introduction to the ascension narrative (11. Weltbild und Astrologie. 177— 226. das unsterbliche Wasser. 101— 159-64) pointing to Diogenes Laertius 8. This point was already made by Dieterich who explains it as evidence o f Stoic influence. Die Philosophie der 33) mittleren Stoa. 6. Schmekel. For the whole subject. Later prescriptions show how this elevation by the Ttveufjta is really to be understood: he must draw in from the sun rays’ Tcveufxa.”) Dieterich (59-61.. Or. “Die Apostel als Strahlen der Sonne Jesu.104. in Robinson. 1945). 747. see XIII. also 232— refers to Rohde.” (“Wenn er der a&avaxo<. the firm. N H C 1.237. 2498. Clemens Zintzen. Tusc.26— on the 29 spirit). so kann er das eben nur dadurch. the dawn’ abysmal flood. 563F. Abrasax. 1.322. 565E-566A. der heilige Geist. 197. 1. ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der antiken Pneumalehre (SGKA 18. see below. p. but o f “you” and the element o f “spirit” as bringing about the ascension.” A u C 6 (1950) 30— Cumont 51.4. see Franz Riische.172C. Julian. daB das unsterbliche Tcveujxa in ihm. Cicero. Cicero. 1. then he gets lifted up toward the light and enters into the upper region o f the air. 29— (Trans. Paderborn: Schoningh. This section reveals the authors own understanding Joseph Dolger.l 122. gemeint ist: er muB von den Strahlen rcveujxa einziehen. 25.114.301— 31. the immortal water. Scip. das Feste und die Luft in ihm schaut das heilige Feuer. and to the Neoplatonists’ concept o f “soul-vehicle” (6)(rjfi. Chaldaean Oracles.E 10 [1983].27. the author includes an instruction about what is going to happen after the performance o f the breathing ritual (539— 44). Merkelbach. des Aufgangs abgrundtiefe Flut. 55). esp. 321— “Les papyrus magiques”.42. Marc. (After Life.44. . furthermore Gundel. For ritual acts to be performed three times. dann erhebt er sich zum Licht und kommt mitten in die Luftsphare. 40 Library. Psyche. 45. daB in ihm weht xo Lepov TtveufAoc. CA: Scholars Press. on levitation). then he can accomplish this only in this way that the immortal Ttveujxa in him. 13.105— 47. Rohde (2. 3. 93. Paris: Desclee de Brouwer. y zv za iq wiedergegeben werden und die a&avaxo^ apx*] schauen soli. Somn. that in him blows t o lepov Ttveufxa. Seine Entwicklung von der Hauchseele zu r Geistseele. sera num. 539—44) Before the beginning o f the actual ascent narrative. wie e i g e n t l i c h die Erhebung durch das ttvsujjlcz. Das Seelenpneuma. Chico. John F. 1933). 312— 28). Gerard Verbeke. 264 Dieterich (58— 59): “If he [scil. the human person] is to be returned to the aQ-avaxoc y zv za tq and have a vision o f the ocQocvczto^ ap^yj. Man sieht aus einigen nachfolgenden Vorschriften. 265 For avacjTiav and avxt-arcav see IV.9-29 (esp.99— 1.a).2. and the air in him have a vision o f the sacred fire.265 C. Seneca. V. L ’Evolution de la doctrine du pneuma dans stoicisme a S.

Regarding Soxelv [iiaov xou aepoc si w.. Frtihes Christentum. 6. Clit. 73. 555.20. based on Robert Helbing ( Grammatik der Septuaginta [Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. aiaxe сте SoxeT[v [л]еаоу тои аеро? elvat. Icar. Jean-Pierre Mahe. 3. in thus quitting the earth and walking w ith the sun” (tw 'HAlw £uva7r:o(3acvovTe? ty}? утј? Spakriv) “as acts o f homage acceptable to the god. 544.266 An especially close parallel is Philostratus. 512-13). 269 Pap. Hermot.359-60. 54. 268 Pap.). Porphyry. on p. avaxoucpl^et-v is found only here in the PGM.267 First (1. Soren Podemanns Sorensen. where the claim is made that levitation is typical for Indians.е | crov. nn. Apoll. 27 n. 61). 13).1. 3. H M R .270 W hat consequences does this ascension have for sense-perception? —Leav­ ing behind the body means that there will be no physical hearing or seeing 266 See Reitzenstein. 1. “Mental Faculties and Cosmic Levels in the Eighth and the Ninth (N H VI. Main body of the ritual (11. Vit.6 ) and Related Hermetic Writings.16 who are [летараин. 484— 85. 73-83. 3. 222 he points to parallels in early Christian literature. and Kroll as Soxet[v (j. 267 Cf. but Dieterich (6 ). so that you seem to be in midair”). See Dieterich (6 .. the ascending person is addressed w ith a term often occurring in the following narrative: бфт] (“you will see”). mans in India: “they regard any rites they perform. 539). 565.22. Philo uses the term in describing intellectual ecstasy (Spec.. Apoll. 3. crit. 656. Vit. 90— 99.3.]scrov.268 The text interestingly predicts that he will be able to see himself: бфт) aeauxov avaxoucpt-^ojjievov [x]al uueppalvovxa el? ифо?. however. for the prophetic future see also 485 [хатотхтеим]. Achilles Tatius. cf. also III. 167— Speyer. (“and you will see yourself being lifted up and ascending to the height. Enn. which he interprets as levitation. Lukian. allowing the Indian sages to levitate (jJisTscopExv) two cubits in the air. For avaxoucpl^eiv see Lucian. 270 For u7iep[3 odv£t. 76. Betz.. Agr. 1.ѓрод cf. Historisk-filosofiske Skrifter 26 [2002]). 3. Leuc. tou ѓ/. 1907]. Festugiere. аитб x al aaAeuov ev xw al&spt. 635. Both forms are frequent in contemporary Koine texts.10. 68. Chaldean Oracles (above.21. 6. 2. 13. reads бохеи. For further evidence see TLG . Grammar.v et? ифо^ cf. the seven men in C H 1.v. Tage Petersen. 3.4). 263). which Wessely emends as Soxst afcrjaov. 42. reads офе[. “the fire is then seen raised aloft in the air and dancing in the ether” (ouxw [xexewpov те браст&ас. has офтј. 1. 2509.7. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 133 o f the ritual as a whole. keeps офт] (see also 11. cf. The Nag Hammadi Texts in the History of Religions: Pro­ ceedings of the International Conference at the Royal Academy of Sciences and Letters in Copenhagen.480.269 The terminology is known from elsewhere in the PGM. On levitation see also Lewy.357— Preisen­ 58. Abst. danz.5.15— reporting about the levitation among the Brah­ 16.).c. noting that both sound the same when read aloud. 11.” By “extracting fire from the sun rays” (arco т?ј? axxlvo c. eds. s. Plotinus. 634. but not for Greeks (cf. . also Deus 85. IV971.171 (comparing CHXIII). 693.” in: Soren Giversen.v. аеројЗатем in Lucian. 1995 (Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. 21. 702..II. September 19— 24. s. 624. see Gignac. app.. a phenom enon described by several ancient authors. 4. for piaoi. гт апш т ои). but frequently else­ where. Revelation.4. LSJ.

543— 44). 484-85. the reference to time in 11. 13— 14. O n the other hand. Cicero. o f course.134 Commentary (11. 501. 11. XIII. 621. оибв офу] ouSev Taiv i n i y r\q &vy)tmv sv exelvY) tyj wpa. 274 For the enabling o f higher yv&aiq by itveujj-a/vou^ and the formula vou<. koyoq yvtoGiq. 544—731) As Dieterich has observed. the uses o f axou eiv at 11. nor in that hour will you see any o f the mortal affairs on earth. ascend and experience noetic sensory impressions. like descriptions o f pictorial panels. reads a Xk\ corrected by Preisendanz to aAAou. For ev exetvy] ty] wpa see similar expressions in 1. C H 1. 272 Cf. 514. 516— 539-44. esp. Ascension narrative in seven scenarios (11. 745. has тт]«ра not tt)l (Wessely). on the Platonic and Stoic views.275 Regarding the suppression o f the physical senses so that the inner self can detach.271 (“You will hear nothing either o f a hum an or o f another living being. “H oren. conditional. 541-42. Mayr. 516-17.a. the preparatory sections lead up to a narrative o f a ritual consisting o f seven scenarios.272 The ancients understood that during an ecstatic seizure (“in that hour”)273 normal sense-perception ceases. cf. The term a & W a forms a kind o f conclusion in 11. so that room was made for higher forms o f recogni­ tion. stated in the present tense. The ritual elements are prescriptive. representing seven stages in the ascension.26).1). 1023-57. Cicero. Their presentation combines ritual elements of prayer and actions w ith a narrative structure. may be the result o f a scribal error: ev cxexvy) tq 7][[xepqc xa l xfj w]pa. XI. 544— Calhoun suggests that the problem 45. III.393-94. It describes. # # 863— 72 (232. VII. 544-45 (see also on the textual problem.83 and Pease. IV510. but rather you will see all immortal things. For Stoic teaching on the subject. 273 Cf.274 in the ML. The precise relationship between the distinct elements o f 271 Pap. see 111. so that the author shows the entire journey in terms o f a predicted future. Tiavra 8г офу] aO-avaxa. O n the material as a whole. pap.471— 72. the phrase is repeated in the following line. the m o f wpa corrected from yj (гцхера?).585-611. at each o f the stages he narrates what the practitioner sees. 587-88. there will be higher forms o f perception (11. 14). Nat. Icarom. 275 See 11. Franz K. like the way the gods hear and see. the stages o f the ascension in the future tense (бфт).”) Instead of hum an sense-perception. the similarity to Herm etic doctrines is striking (cf. on the one hand. 541— 43): ouSevo? бе axouaet [ o ] u t e av&pwTcou оите ^фои aXX<ou>. d. D.757 with notes. see SFFII. . above n.23. 17. 531. the narrative is de­ scriptive. specifically.52. effected by Empedocles. Martinez points to the parallel in Mark 13:11 (Luke 12:12). 2. For an improvement o f sight during Menippus’ ascension. 652. 609. “you will see”). 620. the focus is on vision o f the divine world. see Lucian. 2. 504. on the correct perform­ ance o f the ritual acts. 734. 572.” R A C 15 (1991) 1023— 1111.30— 234.

Aber ein gut Stuck Geschichte des Mithraskultes erfassen wir doch.. o f course.278 “From where and in which form it came into the Mithras mysteries thus developed.” 278 Dieterich (82): “ . D ie diese Liturgie schufen. Diete­ rich also resisted committing himself to determining precise ritual sections which the magician may have omitted. Main body of the ritual (11.”276 belonging to the mystery cult o f Mithras. Dieterich argues for a formulary o f a ritual. we are. Der EinfluB der Stoa auf die religiosen Gebilde hellenistischer Zeit in Agypten wird immer haufiger und deutlicher erkannt. and thereby effects the understanding o f the text as a whole.. кбппеп wir natiirlich nicht mehr erschlieBen. wenn wir die Schichtung der einzelnen Elemente in unserem Texte erkannt haben. 32-37. which he calls a “liturgy. hineingestellt in das griechische Weltbild stoisch-peripatetischer Provenienz. Those w ho created this liturgy were Mithras devotees who held fundamentally Greek ideas. see the Introduction above. und uberall ziehen sich die beiderseits parallel vorhandenen Lehren an. which need to be considered first. werden wir im einzelnen schwerlich noch nachweisen konnen. die Elementenlehre. im Mithrasdienst. he also repeatedly asked whether there 276 por problem o f using this technical term. Das Weltbild in dieser Ausdehnung und Spezialisierung wurde zur Konstituierung des sakramentalen Aktes eines Aufstieges der Mysten von der Erde zum hochsten Gott gebraucht. in agyptischer Weisheit vorhanden sind..277 At any rate. B.”279 Dieterich (82— cautiously distinguished between the original “liturgy” 85) itself that can be extracted from the formula. D ieterich assumed some kind o f Egyptianization o f Mithraism in Egypt as part o f the general hellenization o f the native religion. pp. 2. die so ahnlich in der Stoa.. no longer able to trace.” 279 Dieterich (82): “Von wo und in welcher Form sie zuerst in das so ausgebildete Mithrasmysterium kam. The world view was needed to this extent and in this specialized application for the construction o f a sacramental act o f an ascen­ sion o f the initiates from the earth to the highest god. since it determines the reconstruction o f the ascension ritual. containing also influences o f Stoicism as well as traces o f ancient Iranian religion.” the cult o f Mithras. and its secondary reworking by the author who uses the older Mithraic liturgy for his own construction o f a magical ritual (“Zauberritual”) designed to obtain oracular revelations.” “W ie die teilweise Agyptisierung des Mithrasdienstes vor sich gegangen ist. he thus regarded this “liturgy” as syncretistic in nature. and Egyptian instructional wisdom. Two scholars have so far proposed detailed analyses o f the composition. 277 Dieterich (80— 81): “Es wird uns jetzt noch begreiflicher.. waren Mithrasglaubige mit griechischen Grundanschauungen. what can be reconstructed is the world view which results from a confluence o f Greek ideas o f a “Stoic-Peripatetic provenience. daB wir schon mehrfach gerade stoische Termini in dem Texte feststellen muBten. Based on literary and archaeological evidence collected by C um ont in his collection (Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra).” .II. wie z. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 135 ritual and narrative constitutes the major problem for the analysis. 28— 31.

31). Antr.”280 Dieterich (88— also points to literary and archaeological 92) evidence which testifies that a seven-stage ascension o f the soul through the astral world281 was part o f the Mithraic ritual.. Most important are the represensations o f the seven gates. 2. Mithras Platonicus. 6.21-22. six on each side.39— 40). Hauptprobleme. Therefore. 22. 5. Merkelbach.. Cels. and whether the author had a real “Ritualbuch” at his disposal. 65— 68.. p. Scavi di Ostia. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. About the major parts o f the liturgy there cannot be any doubt. Weihegrade. and Julian. has been inserted into a magical ritual for the exploration o f the future. 6 ibid. ibid. Hellenistische Wundererzahlungen (2nd ed. an атга&ал/атг. 1. vol. Uber die Hauptstiicke der Liturgie wird dann ein Zweifel nicht aufkommen. 6. See Chadwick.vaTi. see Giovanni Becatti. known also to Celsus (Origen.стЈлб^. plates XIX— XXV. Cels. Merkelbach. 172d (Cumont. Zuweisungen einzelner Satze von verhaltnismaBig geringer Wichtigkeit. Cumont.22):284 (1) Corax (raven). ibid. 6. perhaps Sol on the back wall. 284 Origen.136 Commentary ever was a ritual o f descension at the end. 2.. . 13— (fig.63]). cf. O n the side walls o f the room stand the images o f the seven planetary gods: Iupiter. fig. 2. from which he excerpted parts. 25). 22) shows a ladder-type arrangement o f seven squares with the symbols o f the grades o f initiates. Origen. 24.282 Thus.. one cannot offer more than subjective speculations. Porphyry. geschichtliche Studien. see Robert Turcan. he sees seven stages in the ritual o f the ML. Celsus (Origen. nymph. XXIV— XXV. figure 77 [2. 283 For the figures and explanations. the symbols o f the zodiac. 313— idem.аЕ ѕтстатгиЛо^. The problem with this part o f Dieterich s interpretation is that the seven stages in the ML only partly conform to the R om an Mithraic mosaics from Ostia (Mitreo delle sette sfere). 38). 1954). Another mosaic (Becatti. Richard 21 Reitzenstein. Or. Mercurius. Cf. heralds 280 Dieterich (85): “Wenn das sicher ist. 235-36. 22. c.244. Mithras. together with the seven planets. daB in die zur Erforschung der Zukunft ausgestaltete Zauberhandlung eine echte Mithrasliturgie der Himmelfahrt der Seele und ihrer U n s t e r b l i c h m a c h u n g . 1963). 24. 282 Dieterich (89-92) refers to the floor mosaic in the Mithraeum in Ostia (Cumont. idem. 2: I Mitrei (Roma: Libreria dello Stato. 62— 63. Religions­ 14. 5— (Cumont. regard it as certain “that a genuine Mithras liturgy o f an ascension o f the soul and its immortalization. Venus.7ra&a. Luna. Leiden: Brill. whether the whole was merely a sacramental formula to be used repeatedly. 58-59. Mars. етс1 б’ аиттј тш .” 281 For the seven stages in Mithraism.283 O n one mosaic (Merkelbach. each introduced by a prayer.22: tolovSe to сшЈЈфоЛспг хл1 [Ј. 25). 295 (fig. Important as these questions are.<Tfji6 < eingelegt ist. the attribution o f subsidiary sentences or components to one or the other is relatively unimportant. Лтј оуббт). Cels. however. 1975). so sind die . pi. Dieterich did. frame the seven gates. 64-65 (fig. Recherches de VHellenisation philosophique de Mithra (EPRO 47. cup. Weihegrade. ein a. 24). fig. See also Bousset. Textes et monuments. Merkelbach. Saturnus. 114— 25.20). 333— 36.

(4) Leo (lion). sistrum. the middle gate is higher and wider. 485— 732) 137 wand o f Mercurius. surrounded by branches and the donors inscription: Felicissimus ex votof(ecit). and Initiation in the Mysteries o f Mithras: N ew Evidence from a Cult Vessel. on the right side a serpent (nymphus) and a lion (leo).” Z P E 108 (1995) 1— Roger 6. The side walls contain images o f a torchbearer on each side.II. fire shovel. Further upwards are what may be water basins. especially figures o f the seven grades. Main body of the ritual (11. the image o f Jupiter with his thunderbolt. T he author must have had some knowledge about Mithraic rituals. sickle o f Luna. The iconography o f these mosaics clearly reflects R om an Mithraism with its synchronization o f the seven grades and the astrological signs. (3) Miles (soldier). To conclude. Dieterich was right in assuming that at this point there is evidence o f some kind o f connection between the ML and the Mithras cult. for description and color representations see Heinz Gunter Horn. unfortunately destroyed. has been reopened by the discovery o f the Mithraic cult vessel in Mainz. . (6) Heliodromus. sickle o f Saturnus. spear o f Mars. which does not need to be discussed here in detail. To be sure. torch. Doctrine. therefore.” Mainzer Archaologische Zeitschrift 1 (1994) 21-66. Finally. and holding his sickle. (5) Perses (Persian). Also. and the spear o f Mars. wreath rays o f the sun-god. thunderbolt o f Jupiter. Since he was initiated in a mystery cult. short-sword. different from those in the ML. and the whip for leading the horses. bowl and wand of the magos.285 At least one agreement stands out. a small sickle o f Luna. “Das Mainzer MithrasgefaB. lamp. helmet. “Das Mainzer MithrasgefaB. Mithras is not represented. diadem o f Venus. Notably. veiled. An identifi­ cation o f Mithras and Saturn reflects R om an adaptation. The seven spheres are. Beck. Persian cap. The red-colored krater shows several cult symbols. Myth. the main difference is that the ML does not parallel the seven scenarios w ith the seven grades o f initiates. with a hanging lamp in the center. Perhaps Helios/ Mithras occupied the eighth field which is. however: the sixth grade is that o f the “sun-runner” (heliodromus). corresponding to the fourth scenario o f the ML. however. (2) Nymphus (destroyed). and the seven planets. another mosaic (fig. and the symbol o f the sun-god is at a lower level as compared with a supreme god who may perhaps be Helios/Mithras. just as ML shows Egyptian influences w hen it identifies Helios and Mithras. 25) shows a front portal w ith seven gates. “Ritual. it could indeed have been an Egyptian adapta­ 285 The question o f the relationship between images and cultic functions. for the interpre­ tation Reinhold Merkelbach. The upper field shows a mixing-bowl (xpar/jp). and on top the head of Saturn. on its left side a raven (corax). cap of the Persian priest. while three gates on each side are divided by columns. the three mosaics have been designed considerably differently.” J R S 90 (2000) 145-80. and the pater is identified with Saturn. (7) Pater. The large middle field shows a mixing-bowl.

Des Places). See Dornseiff. 693— 732). introduced by the “third” prayer to keyholding Aion and the seven planetary gods. introduced by the (fourth) prayer to Helios. but it could have been just as well some other mystery cult which had appropriated Mithraic elements. “Numerical Sym­ bolism in Jewish and Early Christian Apocalyptic Literature. “Himmel.” in Collins & Fishbane. 1992). Biblical and Other Studies [Cambridge. and vision o f the world o f the planetary gods. The identification of the significance o f these 286 For literature and passages. 1931). 662— 92). ed.” R A C 15 (1989) 173— 212. 33— 35. The apocalyptic and gnostic 85. frag. 556— 69). (7) Seventh stage (11. 2552. “The Seven Heavens in Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. Staehle. On the importance o f the number seven in philosophy. 19. 184— 202. 25— Ascl. 164 (ed. Beyond this. For Hermetism. Hans Bietenhard and A dolf Lumpe. 26. see Alberto Grilli. introduced by the (first) prayer to the gods and winds in charge o f the day. . For further literature see Gruenwald. 544-55). 585— 628). a cosmology o f seven spheres or seven heavens was shared by many cosmologies in the GrecoR om an world. epicureismo e letteratura (Brescia: Paideia. 16.287 According to Dieterich.. introduced by the (seventh) prayer to Mithras. “Himmelsreise der Seele. 58. 1963]. Die Zahlenmystik bei Philon von Alexandreia (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. Chald.” passim. the appearance o f Helios. introduced by the (fifth) prayer to the Tu^oa. (3) Third stage (11. Death. 59-93. 120. 39— 50. 6 . see Franz Boll. 142— 60). “Hebdomas. MA: Harvard University Press.” ANRW 11. opening o f the gates. 287 Frequent in the PGM.21:2 (1984) 1221— 87. While a dependency o f these texts upon each other is unlikely. Stoicismo. (4) Fourth stage (11.286 wherein the num ber seven as such possessed sacred and magical potency. the connection between them may have come through Hellenistic syncretism or Neoplatonism. Bousset. 82— for Philo see Karl 83. Das Alphabet.138 Commentary tion o f Mithraism. the appearance o f the Tu^oa. the seven stages o f the ascension in the ML are set forth in the following manner: (1) First stage (11. At each stage the ascending initiate is shown what Dieterich calls “liturgical pictures” (“liturgische Bilder”). parallels have been collected by Adela Y. n. cf. 178. the initi­ ate rising to before the gates. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism. eadem. 569— 85). Collins. 50-52. It should be noted that Morton Smith was one o f the first to connect the ascension through six (or seven) heavens in the Hekhalot literature with the Mithras Liturgy (“Ob­ servations on Hekhalot Rabbati. introduced by the (sixth) prayer to the pole lords. 628— 61).” in Alexander Altman. (5) Fifth stage (11. the appearance o f Mithras. (6) Sixth stage (11. the appearance o f the pole lords. (2) Second stage (11. esp. the opening o f the sun disk.” PRE 7 (1912) 2547— 78. 152. esp. see C H I. introduced by the “second” prayer. Orac. the initiate rising to midair.

94: “Menschliches Denken kann das Verhaltnis des Menschen zur Gottheit nicht anders auffassen denn nach der Analogie menschlicher Verhaltnisse. um die Aufmerksam der Leser auf diese Bilder zu lenken — jedes Bild. die Miihe. these ideas can be substantiated by a wealth o f material unearthed by archaeologists and interpreted by historians o f art and religion. in denen die Mithrasliturgie die Vereinigung des Menschen mit Gott gestaltet und aufgefaBt zeigt. 95: “Wenn ich nun die R eihe der Bilder.” Ibid. his remarks at p. Reitzenstein (HMR. such pictures played a major role in ancient cultic procedures. als es die Formeln und Handlungen des Kultus sind: der Kultus bewahrt so viel reiner und urspriinglicher die Tatsachen der wirklichen Religiositat als der Mythus.288 Today. auch des religiosen Denkens. 485— 732) 139 pictures was one o f the major contributions of Dieterichs work (92-95). According to him. Correctly. the seven scenarios constitute a gallery o f pictures which together contain the complete program o f an ascension for the initiated reader o f the text.” . 95: “Wo uns solche Bilder in einem Denkmale einer festen und immer wiederholten Kultaktion vorliegen. 95: “Man macht sich ja trotz meiner deutlichen Erklarungen vermutlich wieder... Basically. was ich nie habe beweisen wollen.. alongside words and actions. echte und treu bewahrte Formen religiosen Denkens anzutreffen. In other words. daB durch Anfiihrung von Analogien und Parallelen keinerlei Abhangigkeitsverhaltnis zwischen dem einen und dem anderen Kulte auch nur prajudiziert werden soli.” Cf. Main body of the ritual (11. four ideas deserve to be singled out: (1) the constitutive role o f paintings in the performance o f rituals. as he expected forthcoming negative criti­ cism o f his daring ideas. Jedes solche Bild ist einmal fur eine Zeit voile Wahrheit und Wirklichkeit gewesen.” 291 Ibid. wie schon ofter. mag es noch so sehr nur als Bild in seiner Umgebung erscheinen. intertwined with words and actions. 173— praises Dieterich’s idea concerning cult images as one o f his major achievements.291 (4) the significance o f sequences or 288 Ibid. zu erlautern und zwar hauptsachlich durch Analogien in der eigentlichen Bedeutung und dem urspriinglichen Zusammenhang verstandlich zu machen versuche. in effect freezing the major parts o f a ritual.” Cf. not to m ention the cultic program depicted on the Mithraic reliefs and frescoes. through which the initiate will remember the actual performances he or she participated in.. however. Und jedes solche Bild —das habe ich bereits am Anfang meiner Untersuchungen betont. war einmal der Ausdruck eigentlichster religioser Anschauung. 290 Ibid.II. was ich unter liturgischen Bildern verstehe. Dieterich’s bitter complaint (29— 30). 74) 289 Dieterich (94): “Es wird klar sein. da кбппеп wir am ersten erwarten. So geschieht aller Fortschritt des Denkens. mich in dem zu widerlegen.290 (3) the analogical nature of the pictures showing the unknown through the medium of the known. so muB ich nochmals ausdriicklich bemerken. Nichts ist konservativer.289 (2) the conservative function o f such pictures. In this sense one may compare the scenarios w ith the gallery o f pictorial symbols in the mosaics from Ostia. nur nach dem Bilde der Formen irdischer Beziehung der Wesen und Dinge zueinander kann er das ersehnte Unwirkliche gestalten. At this point (94— D ieterich’ discussion offers no more than 95) s a cautious and suggestive sketch. Nur im Bilde ihm bekannter Vorgange kann er das Unbekannte erschauen. 26. They are genuine but stylized repre­ sentations o f cultic scenarios.

25-28.292 In short. . although Dieterich s influence is obvious enough. habe ich weder losen konnen noch w o lle n __ ” 293 On this god. 34— 35. 295 Ibid. 25-28. soweit die moglichst vollstandig herangezogenen Fragmente dieser anderen erkennen lassen. See the glossary in Betz. see Merkelbach. . Merkelbach (Abrasax . both texts. the ML and PGM XIII. In other words.294 He then identifies the god Pschai-Aion o f this liturgy w ith Sarapis-Aion. O ther problems concern Merkelbach s theory o f the origin o f the ML. 173) compares the performance with theatrical and cinematic special effects. G M PT . 56-58. Already Reitzenstein (H M R. 95: “Es kommt mir nur darauf an.6 8 . Abrasax.296 Merkel­ bach obtains a broad comparative basis for his construction o f an Alexandrian “synthetic” deity named Abrasax. 28: “Diese Gedanken sind in ein Ritual transponiert. mit denen diese und andere antike Liturgien. Also.” he denies any connection with the Mithras cult and associates it w ith the Alexandrian god Pschai-Aion.. including theatri­ cal tricks to bring about “magical” effects. D ie Probleme.300 292 Ibid. 296 Ibid. 330.298 This world view.293 Consequently. another great god o f Alexandria... 298 Ibid.” 300 For examples o f such tricks.. stemming from hellenized Egypt and influenced by Platonic and Stoic ideas. vol. In der Zeremonie wird ein Gedanke der stoischen Philosophen ubernommen und in ein Kultspiel umgesetzt.. 297 Ibid.. . see ibid.156..”299 which was performed m uch like a drama in a theater.” See also the Introduction. Dieterich conceives o f the liturgy as an imaginative performance. 29-32. He describes at length the basic world view o f late antique astral religion. Although he calls the text a “liturgy.59— 68: “Pschai-Agathos-Daimon und der Neungestaltige..” but he postulates a realistic performance... Treating the “Pschai-Aion-Liturgie” in the same volume295 alongside the god-of-nine-forms (svvsajjiopcpo^) . ” See also 39-40: “D ie religiosen Gedanken werden in heiligem Spiel dargestellt .140 Commentary galleries o f pictures interpreting each other and the whole. 3) provides in his commentary a rather different analysis. has been “transposed into a ritual. eine Bilderreihe in ihren Zusammenhangen aufzuweisen. 294 Ibid. ihren religiosen Gedankengehalt gedeckt haben. die die einzelnen Gruppen der Bilder stellen. The name occurs in XIII. 6 6 .297 The problem with this combination is that o f the divine names assembled only Aion occurs in the ML. what he names the “Pschai-Aion-Liturgie” is interpreted throughout as a text of Egyptian religion. 28-29. 299 Ibid. in which the practitioner ritually produces ecstatic experiences of a visionary nature. above. which reflects mainly Stoicizing ideas about cosmology and astrology. Merkelbach accepts D ieterich’s idea o f a “ritual. 3. 466. he argues. are rather different and cannot be harmonized as Merkelbach does. predominant in the Leiden cosmogony (PGM XIII). to be sure. 60-65.

remain entirely speculative.237) takes this to be the new birth constellation o f the initiate. Provinzen: Aus der Kultur des Niederganges der antiken Welt (Berlin: Weidmann. 1959). Pap. has TY](opa. G G R 2. Thus. $el<xv &ectlv (“for you will see the divine constellation on that day and hour”). 61— Ernst Maass. They were not satisfied by expressing their ideas through words. 47. 304 On the gods o f the days and the hours.”301 1. esp. esp. 3. Otto Neugebauer and H. 37— 41. Wilhelm and Hans Georg Gundel. . “Hebdomas. philosophically speaking the immortality o f the rcveufxa existed w ithout ceremony.1648— X X X V II. Greek Horoscopes (Princeton: Princeton University Press.” For w hom was the drama performed? “The drama must have been conceived and composed for a person o f high rank__ ” Originally it was “a ceremony o f consecration for a priest o f high rank or even a king. Nilsson. ty)<. “Zwei griechische Texte iiber 98. 5 4 4 -5 5 ) The first scenario assumes that the ascent has reached its first stage: ’Офт) yap £xetv/)<. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 141 W ho then produced this “sacred drama”? Merkelbach offers some sugges­ tive ideas which. 1902). for which see 1. see III. they transposed their ideas into per­ formances. 40. Astrologumena. 39— The translation o f the quotations is mine. and what occurred visibly in the play was to them as good as reality.” Merkelbach (Abrasax .18— 96. First scenario: the planetary deities (11. “Horo72. which in Egypt was often the same. 303 Dieterich (7. IV. “Stundengotter. Gundel.304 301 302 Ibid. w from wpa may be corrected from 7) (= 7]({jii)pa).” PRE 8 (1913) 2411-14. Weltbild und Astrologie. only this was to them clear enough. however. 31.497— Wolfgang Hiibner.epov Yjfxepai. 2151.II. app. so that it could be used for initiations o f lower ranks. 651— t o v 52: cry]p. B.401— 611. “Even a pious Stoic w ould not have needed a special ceremony to demonstrate the immortalization o f the breath o f life. “star constella­ tion. Franz Boll.” PRE 7 (1912) 2547-78. 540). 266-74. Words only w ould have been to them something merely theoretical and incomprehensible. crit.” PRE 20 (1950) 2017-2185. because they have no basis in the text themselves. x a l wpa q wpovofxov. geneis.302 The practitioner has now been el­ evated to midair (1. 2560.) mentions the technical term а. Die Tagesgotter in Rom und in den 62. so Preisendanz. But primitive people had an immense need o f bringing their thoughts and hopes to expression by play. idem. identifying with y evzaiq. this constellation is to rule over his rebirth and further life. Main body of the ritual (11. x al тује? topac. The fortuitous day and hour have been determined (11. Yjfjtipai.атро$га1<х. Later the ritual will have been adapted.. app.” H B V K 12 (1913) 100— Idem.303 identifying the constellation o f the stars o f the day and the hour. 26. 516. For discussion see Dieterich. van Hoesen. W hat was put before their eyes in a sacred play became a reality to be grasped w ith one’s ow n hands. 543) by a horoscope. 271— Wilhelm Gundel. “Planeten. crit.

T he sun-disk is o f course Helios. cf. 40d: &eol opaxoi. JSHRZ 5:6. 984d.305 T he objects o f his vision are described first in a general way: xou? TtoAeuovxa? ava(3odvovTa? el c. Hans Georg Gundel and Alois Kehl.821b. See also Wis 13:1-9.306 M ore specifically. VII.” R A C 16 (1994) 597-662. 1954) 368— 70. 306 See also XIII. XXIII. Ignatius. man sieht. Through one o f these small gates pass the stars o f heaven and travel westward on the path which is shown to them. 238. 309 For the Slcjxo? see 11. aXXou? 8e xaTa(3alvovxa<. The first o f these describes the way o f the gods through the sun-disk (11. Epin. 3.. see 11. Ps. Frag. 536. Fauth.. 1866). 635. In Philo the terminology is frequent. Piet. see C H IV 1. and others setting”).und Stundenherrscher. V10. 13 (ed.” Erjb 10 (1943) 81— 124. 551. 1 En. XIV.931a. 656.26-28). аорато<.) alternative suggestion to read op (?) in light o f 11. T D N T 5 (orig.. XIII. Dieterich (62) refers to Plato.309 addressed here by the epithet “my father” (тсатѓјр jjlou).” Z P E 49 (1982) 53— Merkelbach. 571. izokoq occurs often in the PGM (see IV.”). 539. also Leg. “you will see”). 1. with small gates above them. 82 тои бсахои). 11. Abrasax. 33:3 and the references in the notes by S. 308 Differently. 693. Smyrn. In the planetary week. Uhlig. h. Tim. d. 252. (“the presiding gods arising into heaven. through which the stars appear (атго . 7.v. Potscher. 547— 49): Y бе nopetoi twv optofjtivoov &eo5v Sia тои б1стхои. 535. 569-71.310 die Tages. 83. 722. see Jacob Bernays. these are the gods who control and fix the days and the hours. 35: 310 For this epithet o f Helios see also 11.34— 7)Xl6Slctxo(J.307 That these gods will appear through the sun-disk is a strange com m ent. Cf. . According to philosophical cosmology the “visible gods” (ol optojjievot.21. 515. Der Weg der Planeten erscheint durch die Sonne. 1134: jaLipexz.142 Commentary At this point. cf..656).77— 66. Theophrastus. 567. See Boll. s. BDAG.2. Preisendanz’s (app. Dieterich (62): “Unmittelbar danach erwahnt der Papyrus einen merkwiirdigen Anblick. &eoL) are the stars. der dem Aufsteigenden werden soli. 6:1. 5:2. та Trocvxa asplwv elSwAwv тсуеијлата.213. “Horoskop. IV. 216. 61. also IV. 6— 7. 583. Helios Megistos.2. 702. crit.29): . wie er durch die Sonne geht__ ” Cf. s. 44. 579-80. Col 1:16. “Hebdomas.3. cpavYjCTsxai (“N ow the course o f the visible gods will appear through the disk o f the god. and I saw there open gates o f heaven. 36 ( O T P 1. 307 Cf. брато^. in 11 579— the sun serves as a kind o f gate. IV. 718. in the direction o f the east.-Plato (Philip o f Opus). 557. the reader is shown a verbal picture which focuses on two ele­ ments.. for further literature Wilhelm Michaelis.v.142. 576. 556. 152. and Karl Kerenyi. for Christian literature. 846: тгоЛохратмр. Abst. from Porphyry. XIII.” PRE 7 (1912) 2560.676. Gundel. he is told that he will have his first vision (otprj. 624. Exc. cf. Theophrastos’ Schrift tiber die Frommigkeit (Berlin: Hertz.308 unless the author describes a pictorial representation in which the sun illuminates the course o f the stars. oupavov &eou<. 41. тсатро? jjlou. for the Hermetica. Weltbild und Astrologie. R om 1:20. “Vater Helios. 2. 3°5 por term mc)stly introducing other stages. Trail. 461. ) &eou.” See also 1 En. my father.

tou тсиро<. 12 A 21 [1.1 (Diels. in particular the winds on Mithraic monuments.314 There can hardly be any doubt that Anaximan­ der’ cosmology. Placitis. Doxographi. Seneca. the added comment “so-called” (xaXoufxevoi. Philostratus’ ( Vit. 355. аиХо^ тгртјсттујрск. Also. H e recognizes that some sort o f image is being described.. See also D.87. Doxographi.-K. transmitted by Stoic sources. Beitrage zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Denkens [Leipzig & Wien: Deuticke. 93— 95). “heat pipe. the origin o f the ministering wind.436-66). аиЛои. n. is most careful and contains im portant clues. Nat. Regarding (2).90. Before getting to these monuments.II.-K.аиХо<.24.TOupyouvTO<. Regarding (1). Y apx?) тои Xet.-K. n. St.20. Placitis III. 12 A 23 [1.1 (Diels. the doxographical summary o f„Anaximanders cosmology by Aetius contains an expression.1 (355.28-34]). 1912].l9— 22).-K.ou т?ј<. 2. 62. офг] yap arco tou ] Slctxou w? auXov xpsfxafxevov.1).21— 22): exovTa [xiav extcvoyjv olov тгрујстт^рос. even to adventurous speculations. translating it “Glutwindrohre.eH7rvo7]< ocTcoxXeiofxevou (D. 2.” 313 Aetius.7— .b. also Seneca. 549— is also strange: ојј.3. for you will see it hanging from the disk like a pipe. 3.a cttojjllou to тгир wcrrcep 8: бих тсру]сгтгјро<. 485— 732) 143 T he second focus o f the picture (11. tou ctto[ju. 11. 312 Dieterich.3— 4): . a passage already mentioned by Dieterich (62. 314 See Aetius. 12 A 22 [1.a... 11.87. and (2) some lines in a hymn to Helios (PGM IV. 17]).87. for which he refers to monuments o f ancient art. 348. By implication. аирац.-K. this expression comes from the cosmology o f Anaximander which contained a description o f the sun as being full o f fire. cf. 2: “Anaximander nahm an der Sonne und dem Monde eine Offnung an. 3): “One sees ‘pipe’ or ‘flute’. for whom the hanging pipe is —what else? —a phallus.20— 21]).1 (374. “which in part appears through an opening like through a heat pipe. 12 A 23— [ D ieterich’s interpretation (62-64).. 26. (“And in a similar way the so-called pipe.”312 According to Aetius. idem. II.” He refers to Diels. the “pipe” became part o f the image that the author o f the ML describes. 12 B 4 (1.18 (D. 3 11 So Merkelbach (Abrasax . it is obvious that the beginning lines o f the hymn to Helios shares some language with the ML: aepocpot/nrjTwv avqacov гпоуоиџ.a.18 (D. 367).14) report about 24 the Indians that they let out the winds from ajar (o tmv avefjiwv nLQ-oc. he points to two texts: (1) a fragment o f Anaximander. however. Main body of the ritual (11.. better still a double-flute (бс.) seems to indicate that “the pipe” has become a kind o f traditional image among those familiar w ith this material. 348. avejxou.24-36]). III.).21-22: e'/rrjxoi jxlocv ex 7tvot)v oiov тгртјстттјро^ auAov.87.). St.”313 This pipe is also the source of thunderstorms and winds. auXo?. Icar.2 (354. idem. 3. Doxographi. Nat.10— .b.238) w ho refers to parallel texts in Lucian.”) This part o f the vision has given rise to much discussion. is the origin o f the mysterious s “pipe” in the ML.a. analogous to the bag (астхо^) o f Aeolus. Apoll. auAov (D.оЃ бе x al o 55) ц xaXoupi£vo<. Cf.гчос. durch welche das Feuer strome w ie durch einen осиЛо^ тгртјатгјро?. . and a hanging wind-bag__ ” Fantastic is Carl Gustav Jung ( Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido.

381.” in Klauser 17. (“Borne on the breezes o f the wand ring winds. Recherches sur le symbolismefuneraire des Remains (BAH 35. Reihe. entonnoir.74— X II.323 315 Trans. which he adduces.. Mithras. 319 This view was common in antiquity and the European Middle Ages.. O ’N eil. 116 (pp.. CIM R M . Franz Cumont’ comprehensive essay. Paris: Geuthner. U hlig. Sienwv <pKoyoq axajxaxov 7iup. hominumformae sunt bucinarum animantes tortus intestinis et domesticis jlatibus. 2.. al&epLouai трф оад fjtiyav noXov a^t-sXiaawv .” in Roscher. 319). 342— 43)... 10). puzzling.94— 95): “Le caractere particulier de chacun des Vents est rendu avec une certaines precision. G M P T 46.” 321 Also. 26. 457. n. however.320 The nature o f C um ont s explanation is. Steuding. but neither this nor other hymn fragments speak about “pipes. index. see the articles by G. 13— Robert Boke.316 Vermaseren. “W ind37) 11. Mappae mundi. golden-haired Helios. 317 Vermaseren.” PRE 2. & Rucker. Pisciculi. Antr. Ils y etaint representes par quatre personnages nos . 1895— 98). Adv.317 and Merkelbach318 that the four winds are repre­ sented as heads o f deities blowing air from the four corners o f the world. 75. “Les vents et les anges psychopompes.. w ho turn in lofty paths around the great p o le .” In his notes (94.” ibid. Cf. “wind”). On Helios sending out the winds.319 but none o f the reliefs shows a pipe. 324— 25). 76:1-14. 75. 29. 1.94— 95). 6 8 .v. 197. etc. also the interest by the apocalypticists in the origin o f the winds (e. he relied on a quotation from Arnobius. “Les vents dans la sculpture funeraire” s (see above.. 1. 653-56. 320 Dieterich (63): “ . nymph.144 Commentary "HXls ^риаохбрлх. Cumont adduces Arnobius. 6. Stuttgart: Roth. 41:4. “W inde.321 Perhaps. OTP. with parallels.) to old world maps showing the windpipes turns out to be inconclusive. 228bis c) sind es Rundfiguren. 238. 322 Cumont (Textes et monuments. This is true especially o f the stele of Carnuntum .10: Venti. 8 (1958) 2211— 14. eine Art Trichter. 10. w ho wield the flame s unresting fire. i En.419 (index. wie es Cumont mehrfach bezeichnet (I 95). 323 The work named is by Konrad Miller. 91 (p.. n.. vol. Cf. 354— 55). does not offer evidence o f the pipes. for the musical instrument o f 7.. by Edward N.”315 As for the Mithraic monuments.. 3. 101 (p. Die altesten Weltkarten (6 vols. die une trompe allongee blasen. Preisendanzs reference (app.1606— 1957— VIII. . 118. see S. s. and Porphyry.87. 336). n.”)..JSH R Z 5:6 [1984] 547. in Betz. s. 58. 70— idem. A uf der Stele von Carnuntum (mon. “W inde. crit. 511— Franz Cumont. 1942). 159. Gundel. Lexikon 6 (1924— 508— H. аШ ? XXXVI. Roeder. 356. 337).v. 316 Dieterich (63— 64) relied on Cumont (Textes et monuments. gewohnlich blasen diese Kopfe in ein Rohr. et soufflant dans dans une trompe allongee. Welthild und Astrologie.. 18:2.g. 90 (p. gotter.. fig. where he sees the heads o f the wind gods blowing into pipes. 146-76: “Les vents dans la sculpture funeraire”. For the winds see also IV. 34:1. nat. 133. ad loc. 206— 228— 7.322 Finally. The hymn states com m on tradition. it is evident from the collections by C um ont. 95. Dieterich s starting point. Winds.. 318 See Merkelbach.. see also his Isis Regina. and figures 74 (pp. because the monuments themselves do not show evidence o f heads blowing into pipes. 2387.

58. 330 So Merkelbach (Abrasax. VIII. dirigee en fait du cote de l’Ouest. thus they omit ou. a l’infini.55— 56). for the east wind (ата)Х«от7]?. w hen it is assigned to the regions o f the east.105. 3183. and in the same way the other [west wind going] toward the regions o f that one [scil. through each one o f the (gates) the winds proceed in the northwesterly direction. Critical and Explanatory on the Greek Magical Papyri. T he meaning o f the concluding statement (11.” JE A 26 (1940) 53. 556 pap. 1127: “Hail. especially.328 The term атсофора can mean “turn­ ing about. they blow violence and sorrow upon the earth.642.325 (“Toward the regions o f the west [it is the source of] the unending east wind. XIII. 855. snow. 1603. “taking it [the package] 33: away to the grave o f someone untimely dead. 837. x al o етероq opoLcbq el q t a [херт] та exelvou. Latin Africus) see PGM.163): “dann wirst du sehen.330 ycdpe.” 324 . not the usual four. 555-56) is especially controversial. where twelve winds and their gates are described. n. XXXVI. Latin subsolanus).II.214.” referring to the change o f direction o f the image. 113. revolution o f untiring service by (the) elements” (my translation).541 (&m)Xiurixou). I En.327 the one pipe is their sole source. the pipe]. si la direction assignee est du cote de l”Est. there is.). en ce cas le vent oppose (le vent d’Ouest) se portera semblablement vers cette region: tu verras le mouvement tournant de l’image. 327 For the southwest wind (Х1ф. Through one gate they blow good things.” Cf.332— kn eveyaaq аито si q awpou р. E. see 11. hail. wie diese Vision wieder entschwindet.29): “There (also) I saw 3 three open gates o f heaven. which Dieterich (7) and Preisendanz take to be a possible dittography o f 1. the east].” . V. 325 Cf.552— 54.. Riess. also 1 En. Festugiere (see above. 55 which serves as “the origin o f the ministering w ind. eav fj xexXY]pwfjtivoq el q xa [Аерт] xou а7ст]Хиотои. you will see the turn-about o f the image [scil.26. who punctuates o?ov.Toupyt. 3175. but when they blow with force through the (two) other gates. a close parallel in IV.. 2436. frost.” It is im portant to note that there is only one wind.”)326 In view o f the importance o f the directions o f these winds elsewhere in the PG M .28. VII.10. In Heb 1:14 angels are described as Xst.304— 5). its function being “service” (XeiToupyeiv). 557. 34:2— (O T P 1. IV. 329 So Dieterich: “so wirst du in ahnlicher Weise die Umdrehung (Fortbewegung) des Gesichtes sehen”. 860. 76 (O T P 1. Main body of the ritual (11.. aTCYjAuonrjv eav. 111.9 XIII. 137.329 or to the “removal” o f the sight altogether. The verb 7 xXrjpouv points to the “assigned” station. axoiysicov ахотшхтои Xei/roupyla? This term occurs only here in the ML. n. IV. 823. бфу) tyjv arcocpopav тои брајлато?. 1605.” Cf. reads офт] сти бѕ. Meyer: “you will see the reverse o f the sight” (9. and changes in the direction o f the pipe produces changes in the wind. XXII. 328 In 1. dew.b. 485— 732) 145 In 11 550— the author moves on to explain the functions o f “the pipe. 827. VIII. III. “Notes. 326 Translators differ considerably at this point. 105. Preisendanz: “das Bild (der Aulosrohre) gewendet sehen”. 3.xa 7rveu|JiaTa eiq Siaxovlav a 7ioGTeXX6 [X£va.9][ла.324 The following lines provide more details o f that service: el q 8s та ^ерт) та npoq Хфа artepavTOV olov aiTYjXiwryjv. however. 552.” (1. 326).642. when it blows cold. my translation follows Festugiere: ".. Cf. and rain. en tant que vent d’Est. 994 (& cy)Xiw[tix<x]).

220— 48 22). For the texts see Christoph Riedweg. 1995). Beobachtungen zur Kommunikationssituation und narrativen Technik der orphisch-bakchischen Goldblattchen. the second scenario takes place at the same cosmic stage o f the planetary deities (cf. 402— repr. San Francisco: Harper & Row. “Archon. 712. 226— 27. 693. Isa. the “archons” attack Jesus and the redeemed on their ascension. Zur Lehre vom Menschen in den orphischen Goldplattchen. T h W N T 4 58. 58 87— (on Hekhalot Zutrati. 11).” See § 39 and Hekhalot Rabbati. especially. Gnosis: The Nature and History of Gnosticism (trans. ed. (“And you will see the gods intently staring at you and rushing at you”). 557. Asc. 4): 27 2. §§ 1— p. 332 See for this term 11. and my Lukian. 2. X XX VI. W hat is in focus now is the hostile nature of the planetary gods which are “staring at him ” (axsvl^eiv)331 and “moving against him ” (бр[хаст^ас). 657. 2. 392— 98. 53— (on Asc. s cf. fiel lang h in . esp. richteten sie ihre Augen auf mich.” in: Fritz Graf. “Als die Fiirsten der Merkava und die Serafim der Feuerflamme mich sahen. lines 5— B 10.. tou? &eou<. 11. 2.146 Commentary 2. Ubersetzung.268. Schafer ( Ubersetzung.. On the whole motif. See in the ML 11. Wilson. ‘“ Der Erde Kind bin ich und des gestirnten Himmels’.332 The scenario s brief description o f the threatening nature o f the planetary deities during ascension refers to a m otif known in a variety o f forms from ancient Greek religion. 3222. where avxcorcr\ai \xoi ([the god] “looked at m e”) results in an ecstatic vision.335 (Greek version). Ver. 334 See Apuleius. 9— Gunther Bornkamm. 335 In Gnosticism. 1. 150— 89 52. Cf. the second scenario presumes the same location as previously: бфт] бе axevL^ovxai.23— mentions “passwords” for passing through.23: accessi confinium mortis et calcato Proserpinae limine per omnia vectus elementa remeavi.6. 336 For texts and interpretation. see Gruenwald. 9. also IV3218. 33— 37 (on 1 Enoch 14-15: passing through fiery flames). Lucian.. 55 6 -6 8 ) Connected by бе and the reference to vision (бфтј). If the authors vision is informed by iconography. Sogleich schreckte ich zuriick. aoc. 9. § 247— (Schafer.. Isa. 191— (on 3 99 Enoch). 359— 98. 185— 86. erzitterte. 1. hist. (“I approached the boundary o f death and treading on Proserpine’ threshold. lines 7— B 11. x al i n i a t 6p[xto[Ji. 571. 567.335 and Jewish apocalypticism and mysticism.” ibid. Ascensio Isaiae (2 vols. David 80. lines 5— B 2.£vou<. 296— 303. In other words.SA 7— Turnhout: 8. after which I returned. CChr. 11. Isa. 148. in Antike und Christentum. Apocalyptic and Merkabah Mysticism. Hans Dieter Betz.”). 163. esp. lines 9— 11. 547-48. 399— 419. 51 10. he would merely shift his focus to another part o f the picture. Hekhalot Rabbati).. I was carried through all the elements.333 Hellenistic mystery cults334 and Gnostic litera­ ture. Enrico Norelli. 1977). C H 1. 3. 171— 244.1. Metam. Hauptprobleme. bibliography). (1942) 818-20 with notes. also Hellenismus und Urchristentum. Aune.: threat by angels).. 556. Kurt Rudolph. Asc. Griffiths. the Orphic-Dionysiac gold tablets. Second scenario: the threat o f the planetary gods (II.” D D D 82— 85. 6. . 333 See. referring to underworld “guards” attempting to hold up and prevent initiates from entering into the Fields o f the Blessed (Texts B 1.449— (commentary. 629. 92.. Robert McL.. “Initiation . esp. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. Apuleius. For passages and literature see Bousset.Tod . Brepols.7.336 331 This term is almost technical in the PGM. 544-47).Unterwelt. ed..

see Sethe.. as with Horos and Helios before him. in an 8 Egyptian context. 6 . 576. 4. Ovid. 1214c. 929— 930 (with references). Lukian.338 According to Plutarch (Is. 557— 58). 2. 558-60) comes the recitation o f the спут}-Logos. 3— BDAG. Odo . 5. For Harpocrates’ finger on the mouth as a sign o f silence see Plutarch. Dimitri Meeks. H ST . “Das Gefahrdungsmotiv bei der Himmelsreise in der jiidischen Apokalyptik und ‘Gnosis’. 724. Isis gave him the finger instead o f her breast. 35 “Harpokrates.122. 8eE. supposedly putting the finger into his m outh.343 a prayer cited in full: aiyr\ спутѓ] crrpr).341 that it has to be perform ed immediately is typical o f many other rituals as well.v. Zintzen. 275. Catullus. This and other attesta­ tions show the common understanding o f the sign (Varro. 628. in the present context the gesture symbolizes silence. inLQzc. Abrasax. It is Egyptian in origin. Merkelbach. 157. Karl GroB. Lat. Is. o f course. Gemmen. 224— see also his comments. ctu£x(3oAov &eou £tovxo<. 535— 25. 16). Cf. 341 See for the preference o f the right side.” L IM C 4:1 (1988) 415-45.707— speaks. ed. 340 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 9. 225. 238) suggests that the initiate wants to imitate Harpocrates. William Brashear. 4:2 (1988) 242-66. GieBen: Topelmann. 4. “Finger. 11. Betz. 146— reports the story that the theurgist Heraiskos was born with his finger 49) grown into his lip. see Johann Maier.337 As told in the ML. 64-65. 1907). “Horos.ioq. Bonnet. 83. 338 See for representations Betz. but a mark was left for the rest o f his life. 107. in 11. The finger had to be separated by surgery. Betz. involving first a gesture: сти бе su&eto<. however. 342 See 11. 557. 339 Griffiths (Plutarch.28).1. Isid.ov). Lukian. 74. however.” R A C 7 (1969) 909-46. 573— 578. This ritual occurs only here in the PGM. s. See Heinrich Schmidt. PGM III. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 147 Faced w ith the threat. Serge Poulin. which suggests a different meaning. Plutarch. s. Os.4. acp&apxoir <puXa£ov jxs. nn. Trans. Damascius (Vit. 343 The CTtyTj-Logos seems to be the second prayer after 11. Bonner. sophi quomodo iudicaverint de precibus (R W 4. Apuleius. Os. Pyramidentexte. index.692. Ling. it occurs also. the initiate is ordered to perform a protective ritual (11. Studies.6 бе tw cjTOfxaxt tov SocxtuXov sy e i rcepixeLjxevov e^efjiuQlac.57]).). in slightly different form. x a l аштсг^ au[x(3oAov (“For this reason does he hold his finger fixed on his mouth. Cf. £u9-ew<. 337 The child Harpocrates/Horus with the finger in the mouth is shown already in the Pyramid texts. Metam.v.” Kairos 5 (1963) 18— 40.” L A 2 (1977) 1003— Tran Tam Tinh. Har­ pocrates. s. for the signifance in miracle stories Bultmann. 638. eu&ui. n. R A R G . 36). esp.v. n. 755— 57. # # 104— (Bibl. 582. Veteres philo75. o f Harpocrates having his finger on the mouth ('ApnoxpaxYjv e^ovxa STtl axo[xaxo? [xo Saxxu]Xt.. 579. Bertrand Jaeger. 38. 49. §§ 663c.342 N ext (11. Se^iov SocxxuXov £7il to ctxojjloc (“but you at once put your right finger on your m outh”). 6 8 (378B-C): St. Metam. BDAG. Michel. 484-537. having an analogy in the m otif o f the child Harpocrates with his finger in the m outh.10. to be preferred.340 The right finger is. 327) comments critically on a theory advocated by Maspero who took this ritual to symbolize adoption. Griffiths. as a symbol o f reserve and silence”. “Harpokrates. G M PT . Main body of the ritual (11.339 W hatever the “original” meaning may be. Does the child have the finger in or on the mouth? Is the gesture suggesting silence or adoption? The evidence is far from clear.” R A C 16 (1992) 579.II.57 [LCL 5. the question is which ritual the text envisions. 623. 1320c.

Cf. Burkert. Ancient Mysteries. 150— idem. 1. however. Stuttgart & Leipzig: Teubner. n. 3.823.. 32. 347 For the epithet o £wv Szoq. see VII. For gnostic parallels. 98. 120— BDAG. 8 (Xoltcov cxu»>7tY 31. see Thomas Gelzer et al. See Dieterich. 786. 344 In commenting on this translation. 14. Silence! N E C H T H E IR TH A N M E L O U . 213— 256— Walter Miiri. GieBen: Topelmann. 346 According to Preisendanz (app.347 Casel. see IV959. Merkelbach (Abrasax. Pieter W van der Horst. GieBen: Topelmann. 1553. 16. Magn. Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zu den Ignatiusbriefen (BZNW 8 . 308. 1976). ѓто сл-угј? npoe'AQwv. so as to explain what “living” means (see below. VII.31 (and passim). appended by схср&арто^. Betz.766. (jufi. . SBA 15. 19:1.609. BCE [?]). Gustav Stahlin.). Baptized. (“the living imperishable god”). 243.. Since in the first invoca­ tion no other name is given. III. the matter is more complicated. esp.6. D e philosophorum graecorum silentio mystico (R W 16. Ein spatantikes Goldamulett mit christlichem Exorzismus und verwandte Texte (Beitrage zur Altertumskunde 124. His translation. Martinez proposes instead: “symbol o f the god who lives incorruptible” (Baptizedfor Our Sakes: A Leather Trishagionfrom Egypt (P. crit. Ascl.238) believes that the epithet comes from the LXX (Tobit 13:2. turns into a relative clause what is a common epithet (o) deoq £wv. 18.” N o v T 5 (1962) 115— 43. oStexvov). for silence generating silence IV. 18. 198. 1999). 2292. Actually. On aufj. C H 1.”346 this first invocation is different in that there is no name but only two epithets. David G.102. cf.228.”)344 The threefold invocation calls forth a deity by that name. 142. see also 1. ad loc. Guard me. IV.2. 13— n. 8:2. 64 n.” in his Griechische Studien (ed.” Numen 41 (1994) 1— (with 15 bibl.1782. rather than a name.148 Commentary v ty fiz i p i)av[JLsXou. 2311.” B 11 (397. (“Silence! Silence! Silence! Symbol o f the living imperish­ able god. 204. In the PGM. Aune. стгрѓ). 1— Griffiths. where Christ is called God’ Xoyoq.). see Heinrich Schlier. IX. 22. Stuttgart & Leipzig: Teubner.10). XII. but this is by no means evident. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. line 19). 233. IV. 1038. The Epistles of Ignatius (Hermeneia. for commanding silence III.. The term au[j. the epithet aufxpoXov (“you are a symbol”) indicates the status o f silence as that o f a “symbol. See also the peculiar passages in Ignatius. 45— 47.a ecttlv ev ttoccjlv). Antike und 53. Apuleius. “Initiation.345 For exactly this s reason. the second is a theological formula using two attributes: (o) &eo<. 799 [BzA 120. Basel: Reinhardt. “Silent Prayer in Antiquity.[3oAa is now attested on the gold tablet from Western Sicily (3rd c. 9-sou гкрау& г]. 345 For silence as a deity. Eduard Vischer. Silence is to be thus addressed. 1919). 16 (Tjauxacrov.10-15.v.945. mentions the трса s |листѓ)рс. n. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. Dieterich and Hopfner treat the state­ ment as a gloss. 28. “Beteuerungsformeln im N euen Testament. 347). 1929).560. Hymn 5.56. ](7ov. 3. 105-6. Christentum. 38). Wort. 67-68. s. xal EixprjfAYicFov)..12. 6— 24— William Schoedel. Mich. Revelation. because there are two invocations. VII. Lamella Bernensis.30— XIII. Martinez. see Dieterich.79. 1. 90. $5v а<р&осрто<. 22.” W hile the conventional invocation o f a deity uses “symbols” and “names. 2322. oStexvov.2. axiva ev У]аиу1а. 12— 15. 25.701.а храиутј^. 100. LXX. 1999). 294— 44. 883. the first o f which is “silence. 2. because it is the manifestation o f the deity’ presence.6oAov and auvQTjfxa. 2304.und sachgeschichtliche Studie. the epithet occurs in the N T as well.” classified as “symbol”. 238-39. Wis 12:1: to yap a<p&apTov crou 7tVEup. Eph. 58. “SYMBOAON. see Riedweg.(3oAa and ovofxaxa are needed in invocations (see III. 1985). N H C VI.87.

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 )


The invocation is followed (1. 560) by the petition, cpuXa^ov [ле (“guard m e”),348 and concludes with second address, arpr] (“silence”), and voces magicae, vex&et-p ^avjxeXou,349 w hich may be intended as the secret name o f the deity.350 Further ritual acts in 11 561-65 mark the climax o f the protective ritual and . the transition to the next scenario. The practitioner is ordered: zneiTCf. crupiaov [xaxpov a ' o ' , ѕтсе^та jcorcrcuaov.351 (“Then make the long hissing sound, next make the popping sound.”) As discussed above, these sounds were part o f the magical repertoire (see on 1. 487). The first is called aupiyfxoi;, its performance CTupl^stv, a hissing or whistling.352 The second sound is named тсотслистр-б?, its performance 7t07i7tu(^eiv, a pop-pop sound.353 Finally, a special formula o f voces magicae is to be recited (11. 562— 65): Aeywv тсротсросрѕуу?) jjLoptoi; тсрофир тсрофѕуу?) vefAE&ipe a^ev x ev 7UTY]Tfxt, [xewu svap& supxe^o) фир^барко тирв cpt,X(3a.354 Peculiar is that in the ML there are three formulae beginning with тгротгросреуут], but otherwise different (see also 11. 603-4, 714-17). Apparently, the author cites three different formulae, rather than variations o f the same formula.355 If so, what then is the function o f beginning w ith тгротгросреуут]?356 W hy are there at least some similar
BDAG, s.v. l.a.s. Cf. also C H 1.9, 21; C l.17; CVIII.14; Ascl. 41. - For ар&арто?, see on 11. 497, 519-20. For the Egyptian background o f the epithet “living god” see Martinez, P. Mich. XIX , 12-15, esp. p. 13, n. 38, and on the ML passage p. 14, n. 38. 348 For this petition, see also 1. 661: cpuAod;6 v (лѕ, with the vox magica тсросшЈг/јрс. Petitions or orders for protection are, o f course, frequent in the PGM. See Preisendanz, 3.198 [index], s.v. срилосстстоЈ. Cf. 2 Thess 3:3; 1 John 5:21. 349 The vox magica is found only here; it is unexplained. 350 See on this point, Betz, Antike und Christentum, 159— 62. 351 According to Dieterich (6 ), the pap. reads a 'a ', obviously indicating a long hissing sound. Cf. the doubling o f the sound see 1. 578: aupt-aov [3'. See also Preisendanz, “Miszellen,” W St 41 (1919) 141-42: “Kiirzungen.” 352 There is disagreement: Dieterich (7) and Preisendanz (see his app. crit., ad loc.) translate it as “pfeifen” (whistle), but others (Meyer, Merkelbach) as “zischen” (hissing); Festugiere: “pousse deux longs sifflements.” Merkelbach’ (Abrasax, 3.60) hypothesis that s TrollTruest,v and aupr^siv allude to the name Pschai appears to be rather speculative, especially in the light o f the order in 1. 561. 353 Dieterich (7), Preisendanz, Merkelbach translate “schnalzen” (“smack”), Festugiere: “fais claquer ta langue,” Meyer: “a popping sound.” 354 Cf. Preisendanz, app. crit., ad loc., who suggests that locrrtpocpup may be тгорсрирсо^. 355 So rightly Martinez. 356 The term 7tpon;po<peyyY) has been translated by Preisendanz as “the one who shines before” (“Voranleuchtender”), but Eitrem (“Die vier Elemente in der Mysterienweihe,” S O 4 [1926] 39-59, esp. 51) prefers “the one who existed prior to light.” Fauth (Helios Megistos, 27) sees here a possible connection with Mithras the god o f fire, for which he cites Vermaseren, Mithras, 104; Mary Boyce, “O n Mithra, Lord o f Fire,” Acta Iranica 4 (1975)



(sound-)words, w ith their spelling and place in the sequences different? W hy is the author not concerned about consistency in spelling and order? Is the main concern the chanting o f similar sounds? So far nobody seems to have found answers to these questions or, assuming that the word division is correct, to the meaning o f the individual words. For the purpose o f compari­ son, the three formulae are put side by side below: 357 562-65 тсротсрофѕуут] jxopux;

603-4 ттротсрофеууу) epie&eipE

714-17 Ха[Л7гроф£ууг) 'геротхрофѕуут)


$7]*) uevapco
Ѕосрш (ppr)

арф ѕут^

7 tt/rr)TjA(.
SVOCpd<pvpxs](h) tyvpiSoCplb) TvprjcpiXfia.

x a l тоте


бфу) aXXa 7topeuo[jL£Vou? s t t I t t ] v l $ l a v x a ^ t v x w v 7 ip a y [x a T (o (v ). (“And then you will see the gods looking graciously upon you and no longer rushing at you, but rather going about in their own order o f affairs.”) The gods’ gracious look (su(jl£vw^ £[x{3X£7T£t,v) is an obvious contrast to their hostile staring (ax£vl^£c,v, 1. 556). They return to their normal affairs and to their normal course in accordance with the cosmic order.358 W ith this change, the second scenario comes to its end.
9-eou ? aoi evyLevag eyi^Xinovrag x a l j x t j x e t l i n i

The result o f the various procedures is narrated in 11. 565— 68:

op^xcofxevou q,

69— Julien Ries, “Le culte de Mithra en Iran,” ANRW 11.18:4 (1984) 2002— 75; 2115, esp. 2767-68. 357 The word division follows Preisendanz. 358 For as a cosmological term see also IV693; VII.829. This meaning seems to be rooted in Plato, Tim. 30a (cf. Gorg. 504a); it became technical in Hellenistic cosmology, for which see Ps.-Aristotle, Mundo 3 9 1 b ll; C H 1.26; V.3-5; IX. 8 ; XI.7; XII.14,21; XVIII.8 ; Exc. X X . 1; XXIII.16; XXIV.2; XXV.8,14; XXVI.29; Philo, Leg. 2.73; and often (see Borgen, Philo-Index, s.v.). See Lohr, Verherrlichung, 107-8; PGL, s.v. 3.e. Also the apocalyp­ tic literature shows interest in the stability and order o f the planetary world (see, esp. t En. 2.1, and the passages in Uhlig, JSHRZ 5:6 [1984] 510— 11).

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 485— 732)


3. Third scenario: the sun disk (11. 569— 85)

After the planetary gods have been pacified, the third scenario begins with the usual orientation (11. 569— 71): oxav o5v 1бт]£ tov avto xocrfxov xa&apov xal Sovoujjlsvov x a l prjSeva twv &£mv y) ayyeXwv op<{j.>(0fx£vov... (“Thus w hen you see that the world above is pure and agitated, and that none o f the gods and angels is threatening__ ”) The references to time and vision o f the objects seen lead to the conclusion that the ascending initiate has moved up to a higher stage above the planetary deities. That stage is called by a strange name: o avco x 6(7{aoc; xa&apo? x a l Sovoujaevo? (“the world above, pure and agi­ tated”). Understandably, the higher cosmos is clear o f impurities,359 but the meaning o f Sovoufxevo? is puzzling.360 In parallel passages, Sovelv refers to cosmic shaking and agitating, but this meaning does not seem to fit here,361 unless it is related to the following warning that thunder is to occur. If this is assumed, the question arises how it is connected with the preceding xa&apo? (“pure”), and w ith the following statement, x a l [xrjSiva. tcov {}eo5v yj ayysXcov op<(A>to[ji£vov (“and none o f the gods or angels threatening”).362 In the former instance, Sovoujjlsvo^ seems unrelated, unless one adjusts it by translat­ ing x a l SovoufAevoi; as “but agitated.” The latter instance stands in anticipation o f 11. 556-5 7 , speaking o f the attack by the planetary gods, except that the angels were not previously m entioned.363 Therefore, the entire comment, xal pqSeva twv &ewv t) ayyeAwv op<[x>co(x£vov, because it interrupts the continu359 The expression xoa[ioq xa&apoq is hapax in the PGM; for коаџос, in the ML, see 11. also 498, 620, 625, 776. In the context o f Hellenistic cosmology, “purity” could mean either that the higher regions o f the universe are pure because they consist o f ether or fire, or, more specifically, that the higher cosmos is free from the threatening planetary gods. See 5 F F II # 327 (116.36), # 440 (145.1-14); # 558-573 (176-79); D io Chrysostom 3 6 .4244; Philo, Plant. 20; Mos. 1.113; C H 1Л0; VI.4; XI.19; Proclus, Theol. Plat. 5.34 (ed. Saffrey & Westerink, 5.125,5— 10); Plat. Tim. 3.142d (ed. Diehl, 2.11.18— 24); cf. already Plato, Phaed. 111b. See Lohr, Verherrlichung, 108-10. 360 The pap. reads Sovoujasvov. Dieterich (8— proposed [xovoujxevov, “einsam” (“soli­ 9) tary”), Cronert (StPP 4 [1905] 100): Stvoujxevov (“sich im Kreis bewegend”), Preisendanz keeps SovoujJtevov, “sich im Kreise bewegen” (“moving in a circle”). Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.165) translates “rauschen” (“rustle”); I am adopting Martinez’ proposal o f “agitated” (in s anticipation o f the thunderclap). 361 Cf. IV.2533— 34, in a prayer to Selene, whose terrifying shout lets the cosmos tremble: xa xocrfxt-xa rcavra SoveLToa. In a prayer to Aphrodite (IV2936-37) the reference is to sexual arousal: атреср^е^ т ’ oux eX(,aa6[xev6<; те SoveiTaa. In the context o f cosmic thunder the term occurs also in Orph. Frag. 248a5 (265, ed. Kern): tkijxw 7tocvxa SovsLxoa. 362 The pap. reads opto[xevov, the correction to opfxcofxevov is by Wessely, Dieterich (8), and Preisendanz (app. crit., ad loc.) in accordance with 11. 557, 567. 363 Angels (ayyeXot,) are mentioned only here in the ML, but they can be compared with hostile angels in Jewish apocalyptic and Hekhalot literature (see above, on 1. 556).



ation from Sovoujxevov to the warning o f thunder (1. 570), may be a redactional gloss that has been inserted as a reminder o f the change which has taken place since 11 556— . 57. Given this situation, the initiate is forewarned (11. 571-73), тгроабоха (3povTY ]<; [хеуаХт]? ахоиаесгО-оа xtutcov, мате сте ex7tXayY)vat,. (“Expect a crash o f great thunder to be heard, w ith the result that you are shocked.”). The thunder indicates that the initiate now stands in the sphere where the weather, especially thunderstorms, occur.364 The subject o f thunder has fascinated antiquity in many quarters and led to brontology, a department o f astrology/astronomy.365 Certainly, therefore, the terror caused by the thunder indicates new dan­ ger,366 and a new ritual o f protection is required. The formula is set forth in 1 . 573-75. First, the atyr]-logos appears again: сти бе n a k iv Xeye- агут] стсуѓ) 1 Xo(yo<;).367 (“But you, say again: ‘Silence! Silence!’ [formula].”) Second, and different from 1. 558, a statement o f self-identification follows (11. 574-75): eyco s i\Li <o> ctu[atcXocvoc, ujjllv acmqp, x al ex tou (ЗаФои^ avaXafATttov o Su, o Eep&sut). (“I am [the] star, wandering about w ith you, and shining forth out o f the deep, the XY, the X E R T H E U T H .”)368 Using the formula o f selfidentification,369 the initiate presents himself as one o f the wandering stars o f the firmament.370 The idea o f becoming a star after death was, however, popular in many quarters o f ancient religions, especially ancient Egypt,371
364 For references to thunder (PpovxYj) see below, 11. 621, 681; X X X V I.356; cf. [Bpovxato V151; VII.366, 994; XII.60; Ppovxa&> IV.1039, 1160; VII.235; VIII.93; ppovxaywyog IV.182; (3povToxepauvoTcaT(op IV.3102. 365 See Franz Boll, “Finsternisse,” PRE 6 (1909) 2329-64, esp. section 5; Wolfgang Speyer, “Gewitter,” R A C 10 (1978) 1107— (1120— on the PGM, 1120 on Mithraism, 72 21 1150— on apocalypticism); cf. on apocalypticism Friedrich Wilhelm Horn, “Die sieben 53 Donner. Erwagungen zu Offb 10,” S N T U A -l 7 (1992) 215— OTP, index, s.v. Thunder. 29; 366 For the term ехтсХаут^оа and its significance for the miraculous, see also VII.921; BDAG, s.v. ехгсХѓ)(тстм. See moreover Dieterich, Abraxas, 53— Mithrasliturgie, 64-65. 54; 367 Pap. reads the symbol A, meaning Aoyoq. The question is whether there is impor­ tance in the fact that the call to Silence happens twice instead o f thrice, as in 1. 558. 368 This reading according to Preisendanz supported by Jordan w ho points to the parallel in XII.297— xov ЕерсО-мФ, ... xov Sept-qjcovap. 98: 369 See for parallels in the ML, above on 11. 535. 370 The term crufi.7cAavo<; is unique in the PGM, and rare in Greek (see LSJ, s.v.). See Paul Capelle, D e luna stellis lacteo orbe animarum sedibus (Diss. Halle; Halae Saxorum: Karras, 1917), 19-36 (especially 32, n. 3; 33-36), who refers to important passages in S V F II # 817 (224— 25): in modurn siderum vagari in aere; Cicero, Resp. 6.16 (Somn. Scip.); CHX.7; Meleager, Anthol. pal. 5.191.2 (LCL, ed. Paton, 1.222— 23); Philostratus, Ep. 56; aufjutAavaojjioa, “roam­ ing around with (erotic),” Plutarch, Amat. 3 (750B); Ant. 29.2. For acrnrjp cf. also PGM IV.580, 764 (?). 371 The technical term is synastria; see Franz Boll, Kleine Schriften zur Sternkunde des Altertums (ed. Viktor Stegemann; Leipzig: Kohler & Amelang, 1950), 115-24; also Merkel­ bach, Abrasax, 3.239.

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 485— 732)


Greek religions,372 and Jewish apocalypticism.373 Dieterich (65) has raised the question about the more precise nature o f the stars envisaged. Because they cannot be the planets, he suggests shooting stars, and this may well be cor­ rect.374 If so, they would emerge as lights375 out o f the depth o f the cosmos.376 As a result o f performing the preceding formula, the initiate is told that he will view three images related to the sun-disk (576-77): тосита aou einovxoq eu&ew? o S ta x oq атсАсогНЃЈаетоа. (“Immediately after you have said this, the sundisk will be expanded.”) This first image is the sun-disk in its fully expanded form. The meaning o f атсЛоиа&оа, a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM , can be established on the basis o f the parallel avotyet-v (“open”) in 11. 583— 85.377
372 See, in particular, the Orphic gold tablets, which assume that the initiate, “a child o f starry heaven,” will after death become a star. See Riedweg, “Initiation —Tod —Unterwelt,” in Graf, Ansichten griechischer Rituale, 395 (text B 2, line 9: ’Асттерс-о^ ovojaoc [“Asterios is my name”]); Betz, ibid., 405; idem, Antike und Christentum, 228. Furthermore, see Dieterich, 65; Rohde, Psyche, 2.131; Cumont, After Life, 160; idem, Lux Perpetua, 171— 88, 209— 18; Martin P. Nilsson, “Die astrale Unsterblichkeit und die kosmische Mystik,” Opuscula selecta (SSIA, 3; Lund: Gleerup, 1960), 250— 65; Erwin Pfeiffer, Studien zum antiken Sternglauben (2T0IXEIA 2; Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner, 1916), 113, 129; Wilhelm Gundel, “Kometen,” P R E 21. Halbbd. (1921) 1143— esp. 1150-53; Franz Boll and 93, Wilhelm Gundel, “Sternbilder, Sternglaube und Sternsymbolik bei Griechen und Romern,” in Roscher, Lexikon 6 (1924-37) 867-1071, esp. 1062-65; Nilsson, G G R 1.692, n. 2; 2.490— 494-96; Furley & Bremer, Greek Hymns, 2.369. 91, 373 See Dan 12:1-3; 1 En. 104:2; As. Mos. 10:9; Ps.-Philo, L .A .B . 33:5 (O T P 2.348); Wis 3:7; 4 Macc 17:5 (O T P 2.562); R ev 1:16, 20; 2:1; 3:1. See Volz, Eschatologie, 396-401: “Die Lichtnatur der Heiligen”; Boll, Aus der Offenbarungjohannis, 143; George W Nickelsburg, Resurrection, Immortality, and Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism (HThS 26; Cam­ bridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972), 144— 69; Gruenwald, Apocalypticism and Gnosticism, 128— Tzvi Abush, “Ascent to the Stars in a Mesopotamian Ritual: Social 30; Metaphor and Religious Experience,” in Collins & Fishbane, Death, 15— John J. 39; Collins, Jewish Wisdom in the Hellenistic Age (OTL; Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997), 184— Mach, Entwicklungsstadien, 183— 85; 84. 374 For a discussion o f the options o f planets, fixed stars, and shooting stars, see Dieterich, 65; cf. Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.239) who seems to think o f fixed stars. On fixed stars, see the comprehensive articles by Franz Boll, “Fixsterne,” PRE 6 (1909) 2407— on 31; shooting stars, Wilhelm Gundel, “Kometen,” PFJE 11 (1921) 1143— 93. 375 avaXapLKet-v occurs only here in the PGM. The terms avaXapt-rcw, ал/аАаЈлфс^ are known from cosmological contexts (shining o f the sun), also as metaphor (light o f the mind). See, e.g., Plutarch, Alex. 30.3; Ps.-Heraclitus, Ep. 6.3; T. Levi 18.4; Philo, Opif. 33; Deus 32; Agr. 162; Plant. 40; Migr. 123; Somn. 1.11; Mos. 1.212; 2.27; Spec. 1.90; 2.140; 4.52; Origen, Cels. 5.33. 376 Comparable to the emergence o f the seven virgins, see 11. 575, 662— Elsewhere 63. in the PGM, [6ct3}oc refers to the subterranean sphere, possibly the depth o f the sea; see IV 1211; XXXVI. 146. See BDAG, s.v. 1. 377 Translations, therefore, vary: Dieterich, Preisendanz: “sich entfalten”; Festugiere: “le disque se sera ouvert”; Meyer: “will be expanded”; Merkelbach: “sich offnen.” LSJ (s.v. остгХбм, 2) gives some instances for the meaning “to be expanded.” For the sun-disk see 11. 548, 551, 579— 583. See Gundel, Weltbild und Astrologie, 12. 80,

p. Ph. 2.379 at the beginning comes the formula elsewhere called the “second logos. 488.yr] three times.” CEg 18 (1943) 39— 89. Oxford: Griffith Institute. 577-79): [лета бе to elicslv ere tov ft' Xoyov. van de Walle and J. Francesco Sbordone. esp. again preceded by rituals: oru 8e .358. 579— 82): x al eu&sooc. where there is ‘silence’ twice and what follows. the pronouncement o f a iy .154 Commentary The second image is preceded by a reference to time and the performance o f rituals (11. reads e' SaxxuXtatoix. “Traduction des Hieroglyphica d’Horapollon. Wilhelm Gundel. the ortyr] ахут)-logos cited in 1. бтсои c iy r jft' xal та ахоАои&а. Weltbild und Astrologie. 541. x al crupt.380 The second ritual is the cnjpiyfxoi. 89. 1. 383 See W. Hori Apollinis Hieroglyphica [Napoli: LofFredo. 2412. you will see the 378 Pap. has avotyevxoi.” PRE 8 (1913) 2411— esp. vol. 55. 87: x al tou Staxou avoLyevTog Бфу] oimipoy xuxXco[xa x al &upa<. Kingsley. For a later interpretation o f the star as Oeoc. Drexler. “Horogeneis. see Horapollo. Ancient Philosophy. 583. is typical o f redactional commentary. тсаХсл/ Хеуе' aiyr] асуу).381 (“And immediately you will see a multitude o f five-pronged stars proceeding from the sun-disk and filling all the air.378 (“After you have said the second formula. 561— 62). 15— 35. 1940]. (т^та)бахтиХ(<а£ои<.384 The third image follows in 11 582-85. to be done twice. 693. 385 Pap. 35— 36).383 The air is the sphere above the planetary realm in which the shooting stars are flying about. 380 The pap. cf... tcXs Icttouc. f] crtyr] at..” that is. Hier. 382 The five-fingered star has the phonetic value sbz (“star”) or ntr (“god”). reads the abbreviation? (3 and n 'n 'ft" [stroke over (3j. which has artyr) <т(.уѓј twice. бфт) атсо tou б(ахои асттѓра^ Trpoo-sp^o^evoui. Then the vision occurs (11. 54 (1895) 562— 63.. See Alan Gardiner. reads aiyyj ft'. onou <yiyr\ (3' x al та axoXou&a. 515]) is unclear. 384 For the air. and third the nomx\>a[i6q. make the hissing twice and the popping sound twice. The symbol o f the five-pronged stars has been used since ancient Egypt382 and has become part o f the cosmology of the ancient world.a[A£va<. 14. filling the air. 1957). “Horogeneis T heoi. also to be done twice (see 11. but why Preisendanz keeps avuyevxoq is unclear because ot/u is one o f the most common phonetic exchanges . Vergote. 379 The wording. which Dieterich (8) reads as avoiysvTo^. x al 7U7rXwvTa? oXov tov aepa. 573-75. Lexikon. is identical with the one in 11. H ow the air is related to “ether” (aLOvjp [1. or number five. See Gundel.”) The adverbial su&ecoc is a reminder that the vision is miraculous. n. Erman and Grapow. Worterbuch der agyptischen Sprache. 2742— 43. the агуѓј-logos o f 11 573-75 is to be repeated. The instant result is the vision o f the second image (11.385 (“And when the sun-disk has opened. 54— I am indebted for these references to Thomas Dousa.” in Roscher. 1/2. Cf.crov ft' xal 7i(o7t7iucrov) [3'. Egyptian Grammar (3rd ed..ap[iiv7]. 381 Pap.13 (ed. the discussion by Wilhelm Kroll. —Eitrem proposes Tiposp^ojjLevou^. Ttuplva? a7roxexXec. 14. 487. 558— 59). 1. (“But you say again ‘Silence! Silence!’”) Apparently. eyxoorfjuo?. el^. see also B.”) As the redactional com m ent clarifies. 573— 75. Dieterich (8) assumes that the “second formula” (11. see 11. w hen from the sun-disk a plethora o f five-pronged stars comes forth. 508.

14. . xuxXwjxoc as a cosmological term occurs only here in the PGM.273-73). 388 The term cotupov occurs elsewhere in the PGM. O Z 2 /1 . Martinez agrees: “fireless does not make sense here. in the Greek o f this period sounded like our long e and were exchanged (not nearly so frequently as o i/v . On the important cosmological term oaieipov see Walter Burkert. For the “fiery doors” (&upoa Trupivoa). IV2378. 386 Homer.387 thus it is invisible.295. Parmenides.12: т]бе reap’ ’HeXtot.” W hile the com­ (so Martinez. 584. VII. flammend”).”) The opening o f the sun-disk means the same as аттАм&^стетоа (1. II.. philosophy since the Presocratics (Anaximenes. as we prefer. Burkert (see previous note). cf. 3. is disputed. esp.” addressed to the god Aion: <7u бе ѕб&ѓах. it would point to the boundlessness o f the xuxAmjaoc. 184). Religionsgeschichtliche Studien. 625-26.168.846-60 Hopfner.-K. reads aTcoxexXifxevoc^. For nupivoc.240) o f the stage in the theater. 12. Weltbild und Astrologie. see D.272— 73). LSJ. See 4 Schwyzer. “At once close your eyes and recite the following prayer. has arcoxs/xXt-CTfj-sva^. 343— 70. corrected by Dieterich (8) to ajroxexAsijjivoc^. Icar. o f two doors. 14:15— 71:5— 75:4. in Kleine Schriften II: Orientalia (Gottin­ gen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. suggests a possible Indo-Iranean background.1326. Empedocles). see 11.v. read by the pap. see III. s. Fourth scenario: the opening of the doors to the world of the gods (11.300. 4. one would have to conclude that the fire is behind the closed doors. ocTcetpov is correct. For the concept o f heavenly doors. 638. following a ritual o f closing the eyes. 585—628) Compared w ith the previous scenarios the fourth one is distinguished by several extraordinary features. 1. 24. 637.II.” R h M 106 (1963) 97— 134. 227. for xuxXoc as “sun-disk” see IV. however (see Gignac. XII. 368.o uuXa^.386 If arrupov is to be read.29).44. Cf. the Pythagorean image o f the eyes as t)Xlou тшХоа (Diogenes Laertius 8. repr. Also arcupov. 387 Pap. At the beginning. and Diels’ to 8ux7iupov.613. 662. 203— with n. 207— 213— 220. W ith this. II. for the former. cf. Merkelbach (Abrasax. The image suggests the latter which has a parallel even in H om er. the third scenario is concluded. 576-77) and must not be confused with the opening o f the sun’s doors which is to occur later (11. 192— 229. as referring to the sun-beetle XII.56. 521. 589. but it could just as well a pictorial representation o f some kind. index s. LSJ. The pap. 625-26). see 11. and u and et. 2003). esp. That the sun consists o f fire was the teaching o f 22. The question is w hether we are to think o f two doors or o f two wings o f one door.e. 11. 204. but not with reference to the sundisk.v.168) follows Dieterich. Main body of the ritual (11. but Preisendanz (W S t 41 [1919] 143) defends it against Dieterich’ (8) correction s to aTTSLpov. See Gundel. 7. 3. r^'Aioc. §§ 141-42.v. тшХт]. however. F.. I En. 44— 45. XXXVI. VII. Janet Spittler’ question (in a s seminar) whether the image may be related to the phenomena o f solar eclipses (see also PGM VII. 1. 239. Grammar. stands the recitation o f the “third prayer. s. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 155 boundless circle and its fiery doors shut tight. i. Zucker (B yZ 31 [1931] 362) ejAKupov (“feurig. Cf. see Lucian. 3. refering to Gignac. Grammatik.. “Iranisches bei Anaximander.. as referring to the highest sphere o f the deity. and the sun-disk appears as fireless. бссохе tov imoxziyLevo v Xoyov xa[x[xuwv aou хоид 6ф&аА[лои<. Grammar.384. Od. 22— and the rich collection o f material in 27 Weinreich. That the sun-disk has doors reminds Merkelbach (Abrasax . 33.388 If.

Cronert (StPP 4 [1905] 100) hasтѕтросбссјлосто^.393 Also.а(^м[лато<. but the order to close the eyes is new. in the ML it occurs 11.. n. which Dieterich (8) reads as xAst&pa (followed by Merkelbach. s. s. For this gesture see IV. 1903. further instances in Preisendanz. xafAfAuw. 1064. Cf.” [“o f the heaven. to ттј? фи^уј^ o[xjxa (note the context o f mystery-cult language). 713. and he saw.126 (index).. Especially difficult has been the reading o f the pap. first read by Wessely as AAIZQMATOS. 1948). See Preisendanz. I. 687. 44) . 3.92 (index).” See BDAG. and a list o f secret names (11. 101. 60. axouaov [aou. See also Wilhelm Cronert. while his eyes were open. as in the previous prayers. no name is used. 603-4). 558— 573— 582— (second prayer). 1963). The invocation uses the formula: h taxouaov [xou. 3. 39.” D D D 492— (bibliography). has A ttjc. 44. the number is significant: 3 X 7 .177. connected with TETpaytovou. 804. бестттотт]^. s. (“you w ho have bound together with your spirit the fiery bars o f the fourfold root”).v.. 394 Pap. Dieterich (Abraxas.. 586. 1787. етгахоим (with bibliography).” 394 The aretalogy (11. Kroll and Diels (in Dieterich [8]) read б[. etc. 631. 75. Cf.786 (ML). repr. 8) reads tou oupavou б(. 188— 90. 3. 85 391 On Aion see above. s.” The terms are technical in prayer formulae. Die Gebetsgebarden der Volkerund das Christentum (Leiden: Brill. 588— 602) takes the form o f 21 epithets. Mithrasliturgie. “N . 639. A. 624). 48. (Abrasax. 84]). reads хАт]&ра. Hildesheim: Olms.ам[лато^ (“des Himmels. 495.395 the first being a participle clause revealing the reason for calling this deity: o auvSyjaa^ TivsupLaxi xa 7iuptva хАтј&ра тои (тетра)Х[. 1 En. 11. 395 Perhaps. 97 IV.v. Disputed readings o f the papyrus have produced controversy regarding the meaning. Somn. 3227. 3268. Zweileibiger.v. 640. 594). 587— 88). 392 See for other instances. 1948. 486— 537 (first).156 Commentary mand to perform a ritual at once at the beginning o f a scenario'is familiar from earlier instances. Memoria Graeca Herculanensis (Leipzig: Teubner.389 The prayer to be recited is called “third” (Хоуо? y '). 396 Pap. 520— 21.v. followed by an aretalogical list o f epithets (11. the NT.v. a petition (11. 390 Pap. See on this formula above. see II. at 1. 617-20 (cf. 3. 3064. 717. BDAG. “Give ear to me. 65.396 The problem 389 Further instruction is given below. 587— 616) shows the usual composition. IV. It is attested in the LXX. TOTA'AIZQMATOS. opening w ith an invocation (11. also in Philo. for the opening o f the eyes 1.391 The prayer (11.521. see Dieterich. has y . Preisendanz (W S t 41 [1919] 143— reads тетраА^мЈлатос. s. ѓтаххouslv. 642. 605-6). 718. 588.164-65: xafxpLucravTSi.£(о|лато<. the self-identification o f the petitioner is offered by way o f the symbol A . a statement o f need (11.o? is frequent in the PGM. Thomas Ohm. 49. 606— 16). 2. O lord. “Kyrios.392 and.b (bibliography).. The comment belongs to the redactional numbering o f the prayers.N . xupie. 11. signifying xou Secva ty)? Setva. 588— 603). G M PT . but only the divine title xupio q (“lord” ). 958. BDAG. Dieter Zeller. xupio?.390 It is a petitionary prayer addressed to the god Aion whose name is m entioned in the prayer (1. 1:2: “ . hearken to me.166). o f two bodies”]). 393 The title xupt. (agreed by Burkert [in Betz. n. 713.

10. but the con­ nection w ith TTV [xa is not attested.921c.19). onrAaveTi. the terminol­ ogy should be related to this possible background. the city Leg. 1959).405 The four roots. XXIII. 1.317 [cf. 9— the binding 10 agent is the "koyoq. XXVI.240 (with reference to Gignac.-K.400. ad loc. note 407. 207 (68. 402 C H 1. 397 See S V F ll. 31b— 41b. n. 1926). how­ and translates “des viermal gebunden Giirtels” (similarly Weinreich [in Dieterich. 403 Col 2:19. according to Plant.403 The term xa uupt«va нХу)&ра (“the fiery bars”) refers to the bars locking the doors o f the sun (1. “viermal gewundener Giirtel” [“belt wound fourfold”]. The expression o auvSr]aa<.102-7). Helios Megistos. 6. Democritus (D. Resp. (1953) 588-826. Eitrem and Merkelbach correct the spelling to тетрар^м^атсх. 223]. # 22 (247. see Karl Reinhardt. асттѓра? CTuvSeSeaOai. 97— 105.. 174 (50. cf.22). 11. occurs in the cosmology o f Chrysippus. the expression might not be EU only Stoic. Epin. Resp.402 and the N T .axc. 945 (272— 73). 396). Merkelbach. Eph 4:3— See BDAG.36).. Or.293.6). 31 A 54 [1. Exc. . cf. 28— and below. 404 Elsewhere in the PGM. See also Fauth. 208 (69. 68 A 135 [II. 659-61. 314]).2). 3.-K.24).II.6). Main body of the ritual (11.10). the term xAeT&pov is connected with underworld figures like Tartarus.404 The hardest problem for interpretation is the term тои хехраХс£м[лахо<. T D N T 7 (1964) 856-59.520a. where Aion has the epithet хХѕсбосриХа^ ѕ1рхттј^ јлѕуаАтј^. if that is the right reading. 584). app. 122.399 the Stoics. 608-11. Since this theology shows influences o f Stoic cosmology. Basel: Reinhardt. As Eitrem and Merkelbach affirm.42— 43. Ps. Antipater Tarsensis. 8:122. 7 rvsu[jt..” 12. 29.401 the H erm e­ tica.26-27]): xou<. 3:14. esp. Tim. 411— idem. the change from the letter p to X can happen easily. Philo. Die Stoa. 2. Gottfried Fitzer. 2 1 6 17 (71. # 22 (214. Walter Spoerri. with reference to c. V 4 (cf.-Plato. Halbbd.39. 405 Eitrem. “Poseidonios. 401 Philo (Her. symbolically representing the four elements. (see above. 7. Neue Untersuchungen z u Poseidonios (Miinchen: Beck. whereas Hopfner has “des vierfach gestiitzten Himmels” [“o f the heaven supported fourfold”]).398 Plato. 485— 732) 157 may be solved. also for definitions III. Kosmos und Sympathie.1465. 238) reference to s Sib. so that xexpapt^cofjiaxo? is a strong possibility. Kultur und Gotter (SBA 9.v. 197— 200) discusses the composition o f frankincense out o f four ingredi­ ents.18. 400 For the Stoic doctrine o f auvSeojao^.7]) concerning the auvSsait. auvSsw. # # 147 (45. in Preisendanz.616c. but translate differently: “the roots o f the four elements” (Eitrem). Interesting is Reitzenstein’ (Das iranische Erlosungsmysterium. but he prefers тетра?а£м|лато<. xAetcTxpov XXXVI. Abrasax. 2294. III. PRE 43. ouvSeajxo?. Spathellenistische Berichte iiber Welt.1— Diogenes Baby2).3.. s. lonius. 984b-c. since the question o f which bond holds the cosmos together was discussed by the Presocratics. tw xpuaxaXAw. 2337. and Hades (IV.22. 399 Plato. could be derived from a stoicizing cosmology: auvSeapioc.74-75. 2261. “des auf den vier Wurzeln (Saulen) ruhenden Alls” (“o f the universe standing on the four roots [pillars]”) (Merkelbach).16. V. Grammar. o f the atoms. Pohlenz. 398 See Empedocles (D. 1.397 However. Cerberus. crit. 148 (45. if the readings relate to the Aion theology in other parts o f the ML.

407 See Kirk & Raven. and even the xArfiouyoc.229. 2. Proclus’ Hymns. 23:13 (xXelsts t t )v PaoxAelav t w v oupavwv ejATipocr&ev t w v av&pw7rwv). in which the fiery sun. 152— 56. As for the Egyptian sources. Abrasax.311. Die ‘Tw3pt’ Szenen in den agyptischen Tempeln dergriechisch-romischen Epoche (Bruxelles: Fondation Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth. 58 B 15 [1. 1975). 3. all o f them relating to fire (тсир). 14. а[лофои<. t w v oupavwv). # 417. 327— “The Four Roots and Love and Strife. 18. &’ y) бахри о ^ тѕуувЕ. 31 B 6 (1. xpouvwjxa (3poT£(. and these are rooted in four р^со^ата.9]. For Dike and Ananke as хХтјбоиуо^ see 81.410 406 Empedocles. Merkelbach refers to Dieter Kurth.408 Accepting the reading тетраЛ^мЈлато? as equalling тетрар^(0[хато<.-K. light (<pw?) and spirit (7 iveufjia).15— 312. Hear first the four roots o f all things. water and earth as coming from one root (piC/x). cttuAictxoi) in 1. # 359): t w v бе Alxy] 7ioXu7ioivo<. 590— 602). van den Berg. 65— Remarkably.4 refers to fire.158 Commentary ever. 380— 383. 13— 355.2). from Aetius 1.240. w hen discussed one by one. each o f them combining a Greek honorific title with non-G reek voces magicae.455. and furthermore 370.. 385. '/puarjVLS Titocv. especially the formula in v. 323.3. Chaldean Oracles. 7:22— (LXX) contains 20 epithets describing the spirit (TTV 23 EUjxa). “According to the Egyptian view­ point the world rests on four pillars. Aidoneus and Nestis w h o w ith her tears fills the springs o f mortal m en w ith water. C H X V I. W hat appears here in a poetic form became part o f Hellenistic cosmologies.c.. furthermore Proclus’ Hymn 1 (to Helios). хХи9г. 15. the relationship to philosophical Aion theology is evident from many parallels. 1— КХиОг. 408 Merkelbach. were a key concept in the cosmology o f Empedocles who used the metaphor to explain the function o f the four elements:406 тесгстара yap tcocvtmv р^мЈлата rcpwTov axoue Z su q арут]^ 'Нрт] те (pepsaftioq т]б’ А1бшеи<. the combination o f the older Egyptian worldview with a Hellenistic cosmology would fit as part o f the syncretistic Aion-theology o f the ML. 399. shining Zeus.ov. throw further light on the syncretistic Aion-theology o f the M L. Cf. 410 See Dieterich. e yzi хХтјТбa. 99. 11. 376. the remainder o f the aretalogy comprises 20 epithets (11. the term auvSelv. N9)crri<. cited according to Kirk & Raven.10]).. 90— See also Fauth.” also 332— 30: 34. 491— 93. Following the first epithet. D. 669. Parmenides (D.407 Merkelbachs com m ent calls attention to their syncretistic nature. 284. life-bringing Hera. Helios Megistos.” 409 Indeed. тгиро^ voepou [ЗаагХеи.20. for commentary see Lewy.. “Den Himmel stutzen”. 432. 409 Ibid. Cf. . Cf. (“keyholder”) have their place.-K. Kirk & Raven. the great encomium to Wisdom (a ocpta) in Wis 67. These epithets. 28 B 1 [1. Matt 16:19 (бмста) aoi xaq хХеѓба? ттј? ЏсиаСке1сис.-K. Ancient Philosophy. Pythagoras: aevaou cpuaew^ p^w[xa (D. сраои? та[лѓа. he bases an Egyptian interpretation on the reference to the four pillars (хеаоаргс.. See also Kingsley.

10.2559. crit.230 (index) s. “cat”).. frequently m entioned in the PGM.” R A C 17 (1996) 1-12. 589. 176. (“fire-breathing”) occurs also in IV. Supplementum Magicum. rcupiTioAo^ (“fire-burning”) is found only here in the PGM .II. 276-81. “Ein Berliner Chnubisamulett. 77. 85. for passages in PGM see Preisendanz. V.-K. 582. Helios Megistos. according to the T L G it is a hapaxlegomenon. refers to 7tuptTcoXo^ as associated w ith lightning (xepauvo?) in Euripides.” one o f w hich is фм^-ахбтос (cf. 42 -4 4 .). cruyxXsteiv. 311. U na messa a punto. Daniel and Maltomini. 312 and index. 58. however. app. 73. 574. Maria G. LSJ (s. 35. 7tupL^ap7] eXoupe T he adjective izupiyjxpf^ (“rejoicing in fire” [LSL]) occurs only here in the PGM.). Helios Megistos. IV. (oi бѕ' стиухХѕТстта) а£[лест(. Law names Iao. Abrasax. Merkelbach. Gemmen. сратдд хтСаха. Delatte and Derchain. 257. but Martinez considers epoupe. 7п>ги[лат6фм<.432 and may be related to the decan ’Epou or ’Epw (see below on 1. however.v.Ха[л фмтбс xxLorvjq (“creator o f light”) is unique in the PGM . ффЈл/О-. see III.209. “SEM ES(E)IAAM . Les intailles. wa'L may be a variation o f Law (palindrome?). Kirk & Raven. the pap.” Z P E 132 (2000) 2 4 8 -5 4 (bibl. Pap. reads eXoupe and takes it to be a vocative iXoups (aiXoupe.334— Interesting is the 37. TC U pLTC V O E ф и р ^ ф е и The adjective 7tupL7tvou<. see Merkelbach. 1. 3. meaning “eternal sun”. 28 A 34 [1. Studies. 29.573. Gzixzai'AayL is a known Semitic epithet. 3. LXXVII. has auvxXL<rca. Fauth. M ichel.672. 640. # # 310. it is unexplained and not attested elsewhere in the PGM .341. # 328). Dieterich (8. TtevTt-Tepoim is corrected by the scribe from Tievxsxspoim. Kirk & Raven. index. V II. XIII. 115. Abrasax. 254). redactional gloss: ol 8 z ‘ ouvx'Azloza (“others have: confiner”).v. epou is attested in combina­ tion IV. Bonner. but may be related to Parmenides’ idea that fire created light (D. 26— 27. according to the T L G it is a hapaxlegomenon. there may be a connection with Pythagoras’ “ten opposite principles.220. David Aune. Preisendanz. XIII. 3. T he connection with atXoupo^ (“cat”) was seen already by Wessely and Dieterich (8.” or “shining spirit” [LSJ]) occurs only here. Suppl. cf. 215. 4.360.27— (n. 223) has doubts.). reads eXoups. 2727. 1589. esp.35— 36].34.223. 278-81). 575.19. Perhaps this gloss is motivated by хХтд&ра 1. 7tupL7tveo5 1. 214.831.3— 29. Lancellotti. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 159 TtupuroXe TCevTLTepouvi. war T he adjective (“spirit-light. Cf.4). 672. for further material see A d olf Jacoby. assuming an exchange ocl/e. 328 (index). 28 3. 264 (index).” A R W 28 (1930) 269— 85.o^ (“fire-spirited”) occurs only here in the PGM. фир^фѕи appears only here in PGM. TiupL&ujxe t-aw T he adjective Trupti%[j. Main body of the ritual (11. Fauth. cf. a hapax. 213. “Iao. for combinations w ith spou see Preisendanz. .

reads срмтоб&та. X V II.819. Jordan sees here an imperfect palindrome [хетг[хер7грв[хл£[л. 1303. а£а£ае(. 3.240: “D er Sonnengott ist der groBe Kater. D ieterich (8) reads ах(3а. XII. срмтобЅта Pap. alwv ax(3a altov is apparently used here as an epithet (the pap.” LSJ: “lord o f light”) occurs only here. .o)£ тшрсстсо^атос. n. 107. reads oacov). and to bibliography. 228— 29. xaXXicpw^ oXjxi The attribute occurs only here (“light-beauty”). 1966). The vox magica is missing. Merkelbach. Preisendanz reads ocj^a. 5. 1648. Brashear (“Greek Magical Papyri. aXjxi is found only here. n ow affirmed by Martinez. IV. Abrasax. unexplained.29).” C R A I (1979) 291— 304. Preisendanz compares IV. “L’anguipede alectorocephale et le dieu LAO. ф(ОТОХраТ(Ор T CSTtTCep T C p e 7CSfJtfUTCt.3235: тгирсбмта (pap.846. 1942).410 (ed.a.244 (index)..1984 -85. the epithet occurs only here. 3. 2.575 (cf. 520— 21). but Preisendanz keeps фсотобмта.l— 164. 13. he. Grammar.” so also Harrauer.240— 41) w ho refers to Jerome. VII. 85. to the images o f Aion-Kronos. 335). n. -r\ as a vocative ending is attested for Koine Greek (Gignac.see Preisendanz.137). but o f course the name A ion is known from the ML elsewhere (see at 11. G M P T . IV. according to the TLG it is a hapaxlegomenon. Greek in Jewish Palestine 2. 3. T he attribute фсотоботт^ (“light-giver”) occurs also in Simplicius. the D em otic name o f the sun-god R e. 38. according to the TLG it is a hapaxlegomenon.” 3578) calls attention to the Jewish angel named Azza. Ep. corrected by D ieterich (9. n. o f the 1887 ed. This epithet (“ruler o f light. in Betz. referring to the cat-spells in III.o)£ is unexplained. Hadot). 2. for other com bi­ nations w ith oc^oc. 30) as an anaphorical manipulation o f Pre. 120.а&оа)а^. 223) to фслтобота. Dieterich (66— 233) refers 67. therefore. Onomastica sacra (repr. тгѕтстсЕр Tcpe7Tepu7u is explained by Fauth (Helios Megistos. Meliouchos. ending w ith m m . (N ew York: Jewish Theological Seminary. Martinez observes that тсир^ар?) could be a vocative as well. and is found only here. See also III.160 Commentary whether among all the voces magicae suddenly a Greek term should occur. takes it to be a scribal addition. 1. (“fire-bodied”) occurs only here. Merkelbach (Abrasax. In Epict. w hich Fauth (Helios Megistos. the pseudo-reproduction o f the H ebrew tetragrammmaton ГПГР. 49. at PGM IV. Cf. Hildesheim: Olms. has тгир^бмра). and Paul de Lagarde.l— For the problem see Saul Lieberman. V II.9 -1 0 . 30) explains as a combination o f Egyptian Ah (“Glanz”) Ba (“soul”). Tcupt-artofjiaTe <pvour)vi. Meyer. but cf. 25 (cited in Abrasax. Marc Philonenko. <pvouir)vt.

45.фм£. (7<xv)(£pw[3 is found only here. “deriving light from the empyrean”). Oppianus. reads Tiupi^Xovs.(Ј)(У]сг(. Gemmen. and ev. Pap. corrected by Dieterich to «рсото^кѕ. 1. cf. 2. аи^7](Т1ф(о<. apec..35: ]£ф(. Dieterich (10) reads сгоистЕл/ѕфс as in IV. cf. w hich Dieterich (10. M ichel. Preisendanz keeps [3eeyev/)Te. with trema in the pap. t u t Martinez. Martinez takes фсото(Зѓа as a vocative o f фсотојЗѓа? (first declension. Jacoby (apud Preisendanz. 621: xXovo? and above TcupbcXove. ad loc.8lva Tiupiyi (3oocnr)t. e'ixt-та are unexplained hapaxlegomena. уаХХофаХ(За is found only here. crit. 267. but according to the TLG it is also attested as attribute o f Dionysus in H ym n. which suggests ev(for е(л)7сир1стхт)ст1ф<о? (as in LSJ. (3oo<T7)La are unexplained hapaxlegomena. C yn. 52. reads TruptSet-va. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 161 7гир1ст7г6ре apei e'ixt-та T he adjective KupiaKopoq (“fire-sower”) occurs only here in the PGM .293: (TO uaTjV c o c l XLI.. line 1. 49. rcuplxXove уаХХа[ЗаХ[За T he pap. 1. PreisendanzHenrichs to cpwro^at-e caw. ф(ото? xXeo? PeeyevYjxe T he expression фсото? xXeo? (“light-famous”) is found only here. (“Hght-mover”) is found only here. 7tupt.£7 is unexplained. Jordan and T]. also Abraxas. Preisendanz suggests Trupt^Lfxwvj. 49: Ttupt-^Xove). (“fire -thronging” [LSJ]) occurs only here.^!.[. B ook 4.5) takes to be PoasyevvTjxe. reads фсото^а tmauo. ф ш г о х ^ т а (ravxepwp The attribute фсотох1л/7)тт)<. so Cronert.1. aiauo.3. S tP P 4 (1905) 100. 471. # # 1. <7оист^£ф[.v. Main body of the ritual (11. 304. .” “life-begotten or life-begetter” (from Egyptian par meaning “life” or “soul”). reads [3eeyevY]Te. corrected by Dieterich (8. s. see LSJ. фмтоЈЗСа laiaico T he pap. appears only here. cf. there is indeed a space between сгоиачл/ефЕ. Orph. The attribute аи^-/]ст'Ѓфо^ (“light-increasing”). xepauvoxXovE t. a word inserted by an Egyptian magician-redactor. auo may be a variation o f taw see 1. 621: xXovoc. 282. idem. 7tupt. X II.II.” 3589) suggest the interpretation <rav Xepou(3.a The pap. According to Dieterich (10). T he adjective TtuprxXovo<. (“powerful o f light”). masc. app. The vowel sequence vt] Ш ) is unexplained. T he adjective nupiSivo^ (“fire-whirling”) is found only here.1. meaning “Lebengezeugter” oder “Lebenerzeuger. е[Л7и)р1. <тоисг^£ф!. found only here. D ieterich (223). 593. s. LXXII.7] Ш] uo7)«*) T he adjective xepauvoxXovo? (“lightning-shaker”) occurs only here..602.) and Brashear (“Greek Magical Papyri. Abraxas.v.

introduced by: o tl ѕтахаАои^оа Ivsxa ттј? xaT£7 ist. 412 The attribute асттроба^ха^ appears only here in the PGM. Kern. s. 601 for aoucuvscpi.27— 20. 47 (ed.. 96. (“invoke”) is technical in prayer language and occurs in the PGM frequently.-K. 1. 35). 3.411 The prayer to Aion leads to the presentation o f the petition (11.apev.968.are found elsewhere.youcnr)£ x al icixpai. or whether the abbreviation is to be completed in accordance with one o f the longer versions (see above. on 11 562— . . BDAG. 604— 10. Persephone.298. Persephone.o. 346— [tablet C]): t'lv Trocvxa бајластта. w ithout a vox magica.412 The petition itself is brief: avoi^ov jjloc (“open [for] m e”). combinations using [лар^лар. 2. 223) prefers (TouaivscpLsv тгиркт^/јсгссро^ (“der Licht durch Feuer erhalt”).. fAapfjUxpevxeu For the attribute еутхиркЈ^асфм? see above.-K.” in his Religionsgeschichtliche Studien (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 89.162 Commentary e v T zv p ia jy ia l^ q aovo'Cvecpi apev(3apa^£i. Orph. 31). 312— LXII. 65). (“for I invoke. reads (j. cannot be answered.414 The question. This tablet 47 C was re-edited by Alberto Bernabe and Ana Isabel Jimenez San Cristobal. see also Tablet '77: A l— line 4.) the papyri often read 8 (or: oo) for the letter omicron (Jordan offers omega with underscoring). apev[3apa^£L jjLapfxapevxsu: the voces magicae are found only here. Las laminillas офсаѕ de oro (Madrid 2001). referring to the closed doors o f the sun (11. 1180. . Epimenides B 2 (D. 662 (opening o f doors).)фа. 583— 85).vecpt.отиру)ф1А(За.v. Zuntz. 169— (with further bibliography). T he transition from the preceding aretalogy to the petition seems to be provided by the address o f the god as аатроба[ла (“subduer o f stars” ). 624 (opening o f the eyes). crit. 1. 604— 4) 6). 71 414 The pap. 17. but see 1. 4. T he reason for the petition is given in a long sentence in 11. X XX VI. Frag. see also 1. belongs to the following petition.v.413 Following the petition is a recitation o f the Tcpo7rpocp£yyY]-formula: тгротсросреуут) epLe&sipe Јл8р1ор. according to Preisendanz (app. “Turoffnungswunder bei Zauber und Gebet. For тирт]ф(.415 The subsequent statement is another instance of the “ananke formula” (see 11 503— 526— 534— . 413 Cf.33. because o f the pressing and bitter and inexorable necessity . which.4).18. 183— 201— Betz. whereupon fol­ lows the expansion aouat. Thus ends the invocation. D. Instrucciones para el mas alia. is whether this formula is to be recited here in an abbreviated version. The whole matter is related to the Hellenistic miracle topos o f door openings. ”). the following attribute аотроба[ла. Cf.8pt. C ToucrLve<p(. Lukian. IV. The related statement 411 I accept this suggestion made orally by Fritz Graf. esp. . 1. 603— and the reason for the petition (11.327— 33.. 4. 313— Furthermore. The term £7 ихаХеТа&а!. and on it Zuntz. 565. Preisendanz (see also in D ieterich. 1968).. Preisendanz reads the formula as [AopiojJioTup7]<piA[3a.95— (index) s. C om ­ mands to open (avolyst-v) occur often in the PGM (see esp. 27. see Otto Weinreich. eTtixaAelv. XIII. x al атсарас/гѓјтои avayxyjc. 415 See Preisendanz. 273— тсаутобоцластта.6. given our present knowledge. containing two statements. in the ML also 11.

however. атл]Х(. the officiating priest causes the god to appear by invoking him by his secret names: -rcpoayaywv бих tcov aixopprjTwv ovo^axwv tov Oeov. prooemium.660a. w hich have not yet passed into mortal nature nor have been declared in articulate speech by human tongue or mortal speech or mortal sound.641. уХмстатгј^ 7]бе 7] Q T O ф96ууаи 7] & -V JT U V7]TT^ ф У М Тј^ aQ-avaxa (^ovта x a l evTLjjia ovo[xaTa. See for discussion and further materials my article. 421 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 420 The expression evT(. 1954).91. where he says that the theurgists invoke the gods at-yfioT^ те xal тсотгтсистјлоТ^ xal avap&pon.241. 545-46. which is unique in the PG M .v. 502.419 and mortal voice (cpcovY Therefore. mortal nature (cpuai^)417 corresponds to articulate speech (уХмаста). 418 The pap.арг)рсост£[. 3. Part.420 that is. 431— 40. K. IV 198-200. the truly divine names o f the gods must be totally differ­ j). reads бст&рмсге!. 1971. 610— 16). 12. ala97](je<n.^ r\ypi$ (Musici scriptores Graeci.” .17. For the use o f <ppaiC. (evapOpoi^ codd. line 2. 533. 41: TCveufxa K a a o L iq тац. Leipzig: Teubner.” R^4C 18 (1998) 329-65. also 1.640— ^eXxuaa^evoi. see XIII. 152— 74. 277: Excerpta ex Nicomacho 6)..fxa ovofxara occurs in the singular also IV3272.. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 163 regarding the deity called upon seems well-constructed and looks like a quotation from another context: та [Х7]бѓтс(о 5(a)p7]cravTa z i q Q-vyjtyjv cpuat-v £Л cppacr&evTa ev б^ар^рмсгЕЕ. итсо av9pw7tLV7]<. living and honored. This strange statement.418 mortal sound (<p&oyyo<. 419 For the use o f ф$оууо^ see 11. c p p o ta o v t o ovo[xa t o 7tp«TOV evl TCveufJiaTi.? (“articulation”) is technical in discus­ sions o f language theory. LSJ. p.148) refers to a parallel in the mathematician Nicomachus o f Gerasa (2nd c. also VII. XIII. Friedrich). 3.763— to xpuTTTov ovofxa x a l appr)Tov (ev av&pwTtou стт6[латс. 64: XaArjVoa ou б^п/ата!.. Merkelbach (Abrasax. XIII. Aristotle. Texte.” Antike und Christentum. there are similar statements reflecting a background in prophecy or mystery-cult ideas. 1895]. c f 1. XII. “Inspiration. corrected by Usener (in Dieterich. 776. 53 [1894] 421) to бс. 23. 2. s. for фра£е!л/ cf.<.393. see 11. 322a.) xal aaufj^wvoc. Jan [BiTeu. Festschriftfur Albert Debrunner (Bern: Francke. “Die Sprache des Geistes in der Antike. 117 (# 45): in the description o f a visit with Asclepius. ent.775.416 is formulated in parallel lines and contains a theory about the nature o f the divine vowel sequence to follow. pure sound as in the vowel sequences (11. Main body of the ritual (11. 417 On the phrase 9-v7)Tr) фи(7(. CE). 319..253. the immortal names.. Accordingly. however. XIII. see Plato.eiv in connection with ovofxa. ed. “Secrecy in the Greek Magical Papyri.” in: Sprachgeschichte und Wortbedeutung. 745.). Outside o f the PGM. 11) and Kroll (Ph.241) points to the parallel in Thessalos o f Tralles (ed.12. For further material see Willy Theiler. also Totti. XXI.421 Especially im portant is the parallel in 1 C or 2:9: 416 Cf. 945. 778. IClaus Thraede.).мтУ]. Leg.II. Prot. The term б^ар&роосп. “bringing forth the god through his ineffable names.963b.

The origin o f the passage constitutes an unresolved problem. Der erste Brief an die Korinther (Evangelisch-Katholischer Kommentar zum NT. 617-20 is an interesting instruction-concerning performance o f recitation. Acts 1:5. The passage. еТта ofxol«<.422 There are similar but not identical passages in the apocalyptic and gnostic Apocrypha. (“demonstration o f spirit and power. to rcpwTOV artOTeXwv. VII. to SsuTepov apxpp-evo?. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag. It is sometimes hard to distinguish them from natural discolorations on the fibers.. 1980).238— The pas­ 46. This does not mean that such a text could not have existed. also the contrasts in 1 Cor 2:4: o Xoyo<. perhaps even added later by a second scribe. 1986). H ow is this to be understood? Preisendanz (app. idem. 195-96. and in the human heart has not arisen (this is) what God has provided for those w h o love him.^] aXX’ ev aTioSei^et. crit. Zurich: Benziger. see DietrichAlex Koch. (“Recite all o f these with fire and spirit.164 Commentary a ocp&aXfAo^ oux elSev xal об^ oux tjxouctev xal £7U xapStav av&pcoirou oux ave[3y). until you have gone through the seven immortal gods o f the universe”).& oT[<. e. D ie Elia-Apokalypse (JSHRZ 5:3. 424 David Jordans observation (letter o f December 17.423 W ith the vowel sequences (11. a •/jTolfxacrev o & xot<. Wolfgang Schrage.425 The second rule says that: . 610— the prayer to Aion has come its 16) end. Trveufxaxo? x a l Suvafxeox. 7— 9a).. £ )< ехтеХѕат)^ toui. Luke 3:16. eo<. Perhaps they were unrecogniz­ able before the Paris conservators removed the shellac from the papyrus. Several items are stipulated.” 425 Cf. 2002) is important at this point: “Several o f the clusters o f vowels have diacriticals. then in the same way w hen you begin the second time. this instruction refers to rhetorical enthusiasm. is intro­ duced as a quotation from scripture... again as if to show pronunciation. the first o f which is: таита 7iavxa Аеуѕ [хета кирб^ x a l Tcveu[xaTo?. W hat the eye has not seen and the ear has not heard.424 W hat follows in 11. Giitersloh: Mohn. ayairwaxv auxou. C ootpioLq . 1991). ad loc. 426 Pap.) 422 Cf. 615 6t]£eo7] or 616 ш) ee ooo. sage from the ML will have to be added to these collections. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck]. also John the Baptist’s baptism with the holy spirit and fire (Matt 3:11. corre­ sponding to fire and spirit m entioned in the prayer. and comparable to Paul’s reference to атсобе^? TivsufAaxo^ x a l Suvajxeax. 2:1-4). Die Schrift als Zeuge des Evangeliums. Untersuchungen zu r Verwendung und zum Verstandnis der Schrift bei Paulus (BHTh 69. (* .” 1 C or 2:4). interpreting the revelation o f Gods wisdom (v.g..] [Xoyot. Фѕои^ тои xoctjjlou426 (“ . but no such scripture verse can be identified in extant texts. 423 For a collection o f parallel passages and discussion o f the problems. 36— 41. a^avaxoui. jjlo u xa l t o xrjpuypia [xou oux ev 7tei. These marks are faint in the photograph and were probably written in a lighter ink... the first time performing to the end.”) Apparently. reads ". 1.

698. 558— 60). o ta x iv утј xal oupavo^). on 11. and you will see. 98.139. the text announces its effect (11. John 1:51. tou ^eafxaTOi. (3povT9j<.v. Merkelbach (Abrasax. O r is. 573. C H Exc. T he doors in the sun. O T P 2. (“You will see the doors opened and the world o f the gods. Phaedr. 571— for xXovoi. R ev 3:7. especially in apocalyptic literature. esp. 345. x al xXovou tou n zp iijo v x o q .v.” The prayer so) called has been recited before (see 11.431 6q ea xiv svto q twv Oupwv. 429 oc’(T 7]& T£i is a peculiar term. so that the seven gods o f the universe are addressed? W hatever the answer may be. following the conclusion o f the prayer. 597. 3.v. reads avewyutai. T hen the practitioner is told to open his eyes and experience the vision (11. 10:11. See also. W hich version should then be used? Most likely is the first complete form (11. KEpiiyti. for which Preisendanz refers to Helbing. 11. The opening o f the doors o f heaven is a topos o f vision accounts o f all kinds. Od. тос? &upa? x al tov xocjfxov tc5v &ewv.270. 624— 28): еТта avot-^ov тои<.II. but the wording is somewhat different. Tim. see above on 1. See Plato. the initiate can take a look inside o f heaven. 44. but this list has only 21 epithets. has the symbol Л. “Heaven. 432 Cf. 163 (&eol oixiveq t o v xocT[jtov Trepte^ouCTLv). wctts arco ттј<.429 Confronting the terror.508: t o izzpizyov. Grammatik i & rjC der L X X . 2. 67.”) The opening o f the eyes ends their closing which had been ordered at 11 586-87. 20. so that 85. the initiate is to repeat the oxyr]-logos: cru 8z naAiv X sys' crt/yY Xo(yo?)” 430 (“But you say again: Silence (prayer). w hich is within the doors. 584— are now open.432 Viewing this image turns the previous 427 For PpovxY] see above. reported as closed in 11.ava(Salvetv. you will hear thunder and shaking in the surrounding realm. TapacraofAevov (“in the same way you will experience yourself being shaken” ). Main body of the ritual (11. and LSJ.). (“W hen you have said these things. the vision is announced by офт).12ff. 4:1. 246e.g. 558-60. presented as a description o f an image: avecpyuta<. 430 Pap. l. Acts 7:56.428 It certainly will shake up the initiate: б{лосм<.241) points to the description o f the u7tepoupavto? xonoq in Plato. index s. 428 The term t o n e p iejo v is technical in cosmologies (PGM VII. r]SovY)i. See BDAG. Crit. s. avorfw. Mark 1:10 / / Matt 3:16 / / Luke 3:21. cf. e. бср&аХјлои? x al бфт). 431 Pap. etc. As usual. 69. 1. Christopher Rowland. 599-600. also Homer. more likely.b. 31a. below. so that from the pleasure and joy o f the sight your spirit runs ahead and ascends”). the vowel sequence to be chanted seven times. (“Then open your eyes. gates o f”.. 582). 517. бе cisauTov alcr&7]&Y]orsi. X XIII. 2. 620-23): таита aou einovxoq axouaet. 246b-252c. the world o f the gods. 590— 605. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 165 suggests that the 23 times 7 letters refer to 23 epithets in the list 11. x al tyjs Xa P^? TCveufAa aou auvTpsx£t-v xat.11. and the abbreviation &v with a stroke above for ftswv.”) Claps o f shattering thun­ der427 figure prominently into events in the cosmic realm. 573. Its object is . 648. XIII. 24. 443— 474. 72. The Open Heaven: . s. etc. and Preisendanz. 118a.

23. 710. 3. and what is to be gazed at is the deity (Helios). 372. Barn. ”). 53.v sic. 628) runs w ith him and carries him along on his ascent. 482) as well as the sun disk (548 [тгаттѓјр].” 435 The standing still arrests the upward movement (11. This leads to the precondition for the next step: oxav ouv а-гсохатаата&тј aou •/) фи‘т) . aeauTOV to Ttveufxa. 34-38. His relationship with Aion and Mithras appears complicated. 11. attire a toi le souffle. blicke auf die Gottheit und ziehe ihren Lebenshauch in dich selbst”. 80. the fourth scenario has come to an end. 433 por see 1.241) calls attention to the parallel in Plato’ s Phaedr. et aussitot. 475. He is now ready to encounter the god Helios w ho has been m entioned before as Helios Mithras (1. but for the author these deities are. 475. 359. on 1. Merkelbach: “Stelle dich also auf. (“N ow stand still and at once draw spirit from the divine into yourself. 378. 248a. as A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity (London: SPCK. above. in dich den Geisthauch”.” The sentence construction is awkward. the gazing (атеvl'C. 627— 28). 537— 38). 5. Preisendanz: “N un bleib stehn und ziehe gleich von dem gottlichen Wesen. Aune.436 although not in 11 622— At any rate. 1. for a w zp e jzL v . 1. Revelation. For the concept o f world-soul see the discus­ sion on 1. 574. an additional inhalation o f the divine spirit will now restore his soul (ф и ^ ). 546. T he ritual drawing in from the divine refers to the sun as the source o f the spirit (cf. 579— 583). . 1982). 78. identical. . та? axTtva? auxou avxocp&aAjji^CTai.. 5. аи^тглса/ос. but it should be clear that what is to be drawn in from the divine (Helios) is the spirit. 62829): сгта<. . Fifth scenario: the encounter with Helios (11. 551. 535. 725. The concept o f the soul as an individual’s self has been m entioned before. 389. (“T hen w hen your soul has / been restored . ict^uouct(. cf. where the immortal soul is taken up by the rotation o f the cosmos. 622— 23).. Merkelbach (Abrasax. le fixant du regard.10 about the inability o f humans to gaze into the sun rays: e^XercovTe*. while you look intently”. oux. 434 See for a general discussion the Introduction.433 W ith this . 576.tiv) has been m entioned before (see above. W hile the initiates self had been shattered because o f the thunder (11. experience o f aesthetic enthusiasm. the scenario begins with a spatial orientation and commands to perform rituals (11. in the final analysis. Festugiere: “Reste en place cependant. to be taken in a non-Platonic sense as describing the spirit-self (rcveujxa). a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. 369. es unverwandt anblickend. Meyer: “So stand still and at once draw breath from the divine into yourself. so that his spirit that he had inhaled before (see 11 537. 436 See 11.166 Commentary fear into pleasure and joy. Cf.279-82. o5v еи&ѓсо? eXxe атго tou Oelou атevt^cov eic. 498. 435 Translations differ at this point: Dieterich: “Tritt nun hin sogleich und ziehe von dem G5ttlichen gerade hinblickend in dich den Geisthauch”. 524. 556). 628—61) The fifth scenario shows the initiate at a higher level o f the cosmos. the term needs . while you gaze intently [at the god Helios]). 415.434 As often. de ce monde divin.

w ith fiery hair. repr. see Dieterich (67-68) who refers to Cumont (Textes et monuments. 27) and Hopfner w ho read z a z i бе and translate: “und du wirst mitten unter ihnen sein” (“and you will be in their midst”).” ibid. 538. e.va. срораОг. Main body of the ritual (11. lord” ).) suggests adding cou.o<.448 437 As Reitzenstein (H M R. for тсростеА&г see also 11. Jordan takes it as elctlSe. ap^avSa^ap X II. 446 For this phrase. 373.” ). there are also remarkable parallels between his and Mithras’ portrait (11. s. офу) . 629-30. next 7тир(.438 A series o f voces magicae follows (631— 33).a ’law tao euw etc. xoxxIvt] s^ovxa 7iupivov сттѓфavov447 (“a youthful god. Merkelbach. for representations o f the god on Mithraic monuments. Preisendanz have уЛа(аибс.. 1901. crit.E Trjaou (Rev 22:20). 72— notes. See BDAG. 1431. Cf. 962). Riess reads ectlSe. reads eoelSe. Martinez calls attention to the liturgical call “Lord. 635— 37): &eov vewxepov. 580.apa. 116. nvpivoxpiytx. 1. 50. see also . MA: Hendrickson. w hen you do this. on 1. c f 11. 376. Alexander Grieve.123— 24). 569.фмта£а (?). 448 For the iconography o f Helios. see 1.. the Mithras reliefs in Cesare Letta.срмта(^а [ЗиЅгЈ. for бфт]. 438 For the command Aeye.441 exifjievfjiepo cpopaQirjv442 epu) rcpo^pt.444 The text then instructs: eaet-бг auxwv [xsctov (“look into the center o f them ” ). see above. ^avSapa V433. (“Then.II.. 1 Cor 16:22. 588. the sun rays will turn themselves upon you . Mithras.. (1. where Mithras turns around to look at Helios as he slays the bull. cf.437 W hen this has taken place. Although the deities are different. Dieterich (10. cf. eueiSy).v.тсрбстЕА&е.445 The ritual continues: oirav oOv тоито тсосујст^.” L IM C 4:1-2 (1988). . 136.. 439 Cf.446 W hat follows is an iconographic portrait of Helios (11.. . 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 167 having grown weak and in need o f another infusion o f the divine spirit. 1988]. фслст^а кирс [3eAt. 757. . This event can perhaps relate to images in the Mithraic iconography. Or should it perhaps be тшр(. see above. ”). After this command. The sun-beams. below. with the remaining jrupt-cpwra. 655— 57). 696— 702). The portrait is constructed o f adjectives and participles typical o f Helios. the epiphany o f Helios begins: тоито <aou> surovTO^ crrpacpYjcrovTat. 71. фи](ѓ) is not a prominent concept in the ML.g.? 442 Cf.. Dieterich. # # 368. 153. 756 (on the departure see 11. snL az al axTLve? . срораОг. 623.443 (“W hen you have spoken this. For the title xupt. and wearing a fiery crown”).. 444 See. sv Aeuxw xal <Х>Аа|хибс. 73) in that regard C H XIII is similar. fi. 447 Jordan reads <у>Аа(либ(. you will see . D id 10:6). also IY 634-35.. # # 113. 445 Pap. Rainer Vollkommer. most o f them unexplained: ap^avSapa439 фсота^ос440 7 тир1<роота^а(3и0г!. 692. 1. fig. beautiful in appearance. 6:1-2 (1992). 54. 441 So the pap. Edinburgh: Clark. Adolf Deissmann (Bible Studies [trans. 1. “Mithras. on 1. come!” (fxapava Фа. &a. in a white tunic and a scarlet cloak. focus on the initiate like a search light. 443 Preisendanz (app. xupcs (“speak: come forward. 135. 132. m entioned before in IV461. spxou xupt. 539.156. Peabody. “H elios/Sol. 73. 655. 440 Cf. the m om ent for calling forth the god has come: Xeye. 130-32) proposes £а(3и&.

Hymn. 49.881. 673). 697-98).” R A C 16 (1991) 1— R u d olf Wachter 4. 2. 666. it occurs frequently in the ML..71-100.х6< (1. 12. IV. Hymns. 670-72. 1.87. 712. It is noteworthy that the 2. nupivoS-piE. 139. 111— 2. Cesare Letta. 449 Cf. occurs also 1. 639— 42). 150— 62. Vorgeschichte eines GruBwortes. At the appearance o f Helios.60— 61. 8 uses entirely different terms.” R A C . see 11.449 en lieu o f a rcupt-vo^ oreqxxvoQ Mithras is crowned w ith a ^ристо^ Gzecpocvoq. S. . See Tran Tam Tinh. also 666. Cf. fig.vo<. XII. see Henrik Zilliakus.455 [jle <ya>Xo: Merkelbach. o f Helios ev ттј TrupivT] ^XajxuSt. “Griechisch )(oape. ^atpeTL^etv 1. 450 This scene may be compared to one o f the fresco paintings from the Isis temple in Herculaneum.v.117. with note. 642— 55). VII. IV. XII. for comparative material on addressing persons.” M H 55 [1998] 65— connects the 75) greeting with the giving o f gifts and sacrifices. The prayer may even be influenced by court ceremo­ nial. 1345-46. 677. rel. Henrik Zilliakus. 454 This greeting is actually an appeal (“be glad”). 3 -4 (1985— 465— 86) 97. 638) :451 еи&еах. Mithras.61— 2. Isis Regina. Proclus’ “Fire Song” (Hymn 1). 100— 102 and plate XXIV. 455 [xeyaXoSuva[xo<. уХосџид xoxxlvyj are applied to Helios only. vetoxepog and ev Xeuxw are also used o f Mithras (11. 202— 203. XIV. Tcuplvco асгтгасттсхм’ (“At once greet him w ith the firey greeting” . prof. in Preisendanz. which is apparently the name o f the following prayer. Firmicus Maternus. see 11. 16b. 70. it shows . “H elios/Sol. 491— van den Berg.1052— 53. 62. 1048. Cf. ааткхсгп. Merkelbach.) The prayer so named is contained in 11 639-55. XIII. 453 See also 1. Beginning w ith the invocation. Dieterich. 16. 451 There are no parallels known o f this greeting formula.5— Betz. Fauth. with commentary. . verbal portrait in Orph.бѕ. 2242. also. 201. “Hofzeremoniell. 12-13.” R A C 12 (1983) 1204-32. “Anredeformen. 25. 88..609. A black dancing figure emerges in the door o f the temple and is greeted by worshipers raising their hands or kneeling down. 1. in the ML. the iconography o f Christ in R ev 1:12— and the collection o f parallels in Aune. 452 See Karl Hoheisel. Liturgische Lieder. 214. (“Griechisch yjylpe. 519. new light!”). Err. the usual composition: the invocation (11. Ziegler): . while ѕитјЅѓјд. '/cape veov (“ .237— 46. Cf. Vorgeschichte eines GruBwortes. fasc.454 and followed by an aretalogy o f three attributes using fxeya— fxeyaXoSuvajxe (“great power”). “GruBformen. and the presentation o f a petition (11. For the hymns to Helios see the reconstruc­ tions by Ernst Heitsch. —On euQ-ewi. the classification o f greeting formulae as ^оаретктЈлб^ (11. 19 (ed. 688-91. beginning with the address xvpie (“lord” )453 and yctipz (“Greetings!” “Hail”). 1— Assmann..168 Commentary The terms &ео<. IV1046. cf.” L IM C 4:1— s. Greetings. 554 (fig. color plate V and descrip­ tion p. 145— For аатга^естО-аа in the 93. Cf. see on 1.7-8. Abrasax. 588.. “Chairetismos. 33. ML. R udolf Wachter. '/caps vufjupe. The Sermon on the Mount. See. 713-14.” R A C 2 (1954) 993— 1006). Helios Megistos. bridegroom! Greetings. 557. 89. 103. Chaldaean Oracles. see Anton Baumstark. discussed by Lewy. 73). . асгаааоа auxov xw . Proclus’ Hymns. 6. XIII. Essai.452 T he invocation is carefully composed. 50. 182.” M H 55 (1998) 65— Furley & Bremer. he is to be greeted at once450 w ith a special greeting called 7 iupc. also using the sistrum. 51. Revelation. Merkelbach.374— 75.. 678. Greek 75.

). 218. s.666— 71). &zoq.) begins with the polite phrase eocv ctol ббЕт).” Cf.457 T hen comes the god’ name. See BDAG. Greek Hymns. Jesus’ prayer in Gethsemane.” For further literature and discussion see Wunsch’ (Dieterich.” The polite formula. “If you please. 255. line 2: <paou<.b. the question o f the Sibyll to Musaeus (Virgil. Acts 17:24). IV243. 642. 1195. and for further references. 233) s reference to R ene Dussaud.oq.v.zur Erklarung dieser Rolle dienen konnte.53. 609— 10).192— refers to ML passages on the divine will: 11. Proclus’ Hymns.. 1048. . тараа. Helios and two more attributes: o xupio*.463 456 The pap. Aen. 4:1 (1944). N ock (Essays. voepou (3a<Jt. s.II. Apoll. See also Philostratus. 4eme serie. 460 Pap. The conclusion (1.459 N ext come two parallel verbal forms: la jp z i ctou y] tcvoy] (“mighty is your breath”). see 11. 18 and parr.462 Helios functions here as a gate-keeper and messenger to announce visitors to Mithras. 3) . Vit. 88: Hymn 1. &eoL Cf. 642. has 'iayjjzi.v. XIII. 5. 2.” § 4: “Helios psychopompe. (“If it be your will. 152-56. reads [xeXoxpocxoip.20. Apoc. esp.. BDAG. утј? (“the lord o f the heaven and the earth” ). 642— is equally elaborate and begins 55) w ith some formalities: sav aoi бо^у).Xeu. s.. laBt sich schwerlich sagen. . For other parallels. 463 Dieterich (67-68) raises the question whether this role o f Helios has any connection with the heliodromus. Soxsw (cols. index. see Preisigke. ayyetXov [xs tw [xeyicrrto &eto. tou s oupavou x al ттј<. Furley & Bremer. pocaiXeu [лѕуг-сЈтѕ. IV 180. der Y]Xt.1019. t.. 457 The epithet occurs frequently in the PGM. 485— 732) 169 хратсор (ЗаспХеи (“great-mighty king”). showing that it may belong to domestic practices. IV. 3.461 The role of Helios as an announcer has an interesting parallel in Acts 12:14 (aTtayysXXeLv). See Anna di Bitonto.Y]<TavTt.oSp6fj.[i. 499. 1. 459 The pap. the second to last grade o f the Mithraic mysteries: “W ie weit der vorletzte Grad der Mithrasmysten. 42. “Le petizioni al re. 461 The petition (in Greek called ivzzu^ic. 1200. 639) repeats the address xupie. see BDAG.v. cf. both o f them are hapaxlegomena in the PGM. the one who begat and made you . 1046. and io yu zi ctou t) SuvafJtx?460 (“mighty is your power”). 641. cf. 687— ЈлеуаХохрахоргс. Worterbuch. Main body of the ritual (11.b. 6. tw ae yevvTjaavTt. See for this epithet Qee PGM 11. 93) 648. II. 992. Matt 26:39. 233) notes that the visitor had to be announced and points to Seneca.v. 17— on the “formule attentuative. Proclus. see van den Berg.” or “if you will.v. reads 9s (with superscripted e) &e«v.133— 34.. бохѓсо.2.126. XXII. 1598. Preisendanz. line 1: 7tupo<. corrected by Wessely to [леуаХохратмр. 987. xupt. 2. 1 (1903) 142-48.b. 462 Eduard Norden (in Dieterich. x al 7iot.458 and &ге' &scov (“god o f gods” ). 458 The epithet is found only here in the PGM.” Aegyptus 47 (1967) 5— 57. here as a vocative.” expresses submission to the divine will. The presentation o f the petition (11. [лѕуа^. s. 1.oi —die Weihe des vorletzten Grades heiBt yjXiaxa (C[umont] I 317.” RAr.28-29. parallels occur in the LXX and in the N T (Matt 11:25 / / Luke 10:21 [Q]. s.4. 11. Studio sul formulario. 1.456 piyiaTS (“greatest o f gods”). “Notes de mythologie archeologique syrienne. announce me to the greatest god.

(1..7. 49 cation o f the initiate. Revelation.38: ya. 468 Cf. . 643) apparently contradicts 1. 9. a kind o f passport. esp. see i En. Lukian. 8.170 Commentary To call Mithras b [леу^сгтоq $zoc. see Porphyry. Also. n. the parallel self-introduction and its implied anthropology in the Katharmoi o f Empedocles (D. D ieterich observes that “the idea o f the unio mystica o f father and son was not completely alien to ancient religious sentiment.. has begotten Helios. ауа&о?. Plotinus. however. the Lord o f Heaven.” one can hardly be the father o f the other. Icarom. “Le culte de Mithra en Iran. see Lucian.])...ipzx\ еум б’ ufjuv . Dieterich’s skepticism is justified.. Empedocles addresses his friends: w cpiAoi. Philostratus. Kirk & Raven. 1. For the interpretation. See also Festugiere.466 In 11 644— the initiate asks Helios to pass on to Mithras the self-identifi. 2767-68: “Le Soleil. 354]). Mithras. 643-44): tw as YevvYjcravTL x al TcoujaavTi.-K. 6. This self-identification contains im portant information about the anthropology o f the M L. the idea does not result from Christian influence..30. jcnipex'1 eyw б’ ujxtv Q-eo? a[x(3p0T0i. There is no question. Caes.3.” 464 In other words.. The epithet which follows clarifies the issue (11. esp. and Julian. Mithra et le Feu. going about honored among a ll.14-18]. 464 Dieterich’s (68) detailed discussion rejects the idea that this relationship reflects Christian influence: “DaB eine Vorstellung von der unio mystica des Vaters und des Sohnes auch antikem religiosem Empfinden nicht ganz fremd w ar.467 The section conforms to a synthema and has two parts. Apoll. TCwAeufjwa [лета n a a i zexi[L£voq (“Friends. see Merkelbach. 118-27. Strom.. see the quotations o f Empedocles in later sources. Antr. These passages are cited by Dieterich.” ANRW 11.465 The contradiction seems to be the result o f the competition between the two gods. Clemens Alex.. 4.. see Julien Ries. 4. 13:4-6.10. Mithras is defined here as the father and Helios as the son. 640. 336c: tov тсатѓра M£9-pav. En. 109.62 and 66. 14:4— 7. no longer a mortal. 135.. Fauth (Helios Megistos. For the handing over o f a petition to 22.. 1. # 478 [p. but the title б [лѓуа? &eoc. 20— also Betz. г)го^. 2): “Im iibrigen denke ich gar nicht daran —auch hier sei das kurz betont — die M o g l i c h k e i t der Einwirkungen christlicher Anschauungen auf diejenigen unseres Textes in Abrede stellen zu wollen. he says emphatically. (“ [Mithras] who begat and made you”).” 467 Thus adding to the other self-identifications in the ML in 11. 465 For the fatherhood o f Mithras. 6: tou ttocvtwv тсо(Л]тои xal ттатр6<. 466 On the competition between Mithras and Helios. 31 B 112 [1. 68.” Since there is no real evidence for Christian influences elsewhere in the ML. ' ouxetl 9-vt]t6<. notes 1— 3.354. L. n. that is Agathos Daim on or the Iranian Ahura Mazdah. nymph. where the epithet belongs to Helios. that Helios will announce the visitor to Mithras who. 482) means that at least for the author father and son are one.220— 41.18:4 (1990) 2728-75.468 On the heliodromus. 22-23) argues against Dieterich that Mithras is not called the [леуктто<. . (1. but o unzpfitxXhovTMC. D.1. According to Dieterich (68). Rejoice! To you I am as an immortal god. 517— and 718— 37 24. because both are called “young gods. For comparable messengers. "HAio? Ml&pac. Vit. Mt&pou.” [my trans.” But he still considers it a possibility (n.

24. but with Dieterich (12). 535. A human being must be from the mortal womb o f the mother. has becom e immortal out o f so many myriads in this hour according to the wish o f the exceedingly good god”). expresses it with the symbol A ттј? A. Persephone. to ал/офа<. 495. as a secondary addition. 1. 470 Different from Preisendanz. 718-24. 477 For the concept o f rebirth. Indeed. 739-40. 472 See also above.. 3.. the abbreviation 9v (9etov) above. 646-48) . 516— 29. N N .170) have no comma. 516. ad loc. 23:43. w ho was born from the mortal womb o f N N and the fluid o f semen”). not identified by name. For significant parallels in the NT.477 Such rebirth cannot be enjoyed by every $eoq а[л(Зрото<.” used mostly with regard to blood. since he has been born again from you today. w hich is the result o f his ritual rebirth (11. исттера? T . 189— Cf. at 1. see below. 475 Pap. reads jj-sysvv7]i)evTo^. Preisendanz points to a similar scribal error in 1. pap. see on 11. differently Dieterich (Abraxas.v. 8(e)T(va). vis a vis a divine being (11. reads an abbreviation 9u for 9eou.” Dieterich (12) and Merkelbach (Abrasax. on 11. see 11.ат1 хои is hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. 8): x a l г/шрос GTTSpjaaTt-xou ijl£ yevvYjcjavToc. 3. in matrilinear descendence. t^wp. Furthermore. corrected by Dieterich (12) and Preisendanz (app. 533. 517— 18.о(. Pelinna 1— [ed. 651. 648. 13:32. eyw o 8(e)i(va) ty)<. 19:9.) is almost technical in mystery-cult language. noted by Dieterich and Preisendanz. See LSJ. see above. 487. ex toctoutmv fxupiaScov aiTa&avaTt.470 His species is called av&pw7to<. see T jjX pov Luke 2:11. 2 Cor 6:2. cf. ev таитт) ty} «ра х ата Soxyjctlv &(eo)u u7tep(3aXXovxo£ aya&ou475 (“and who.242) regards the words cnfjfAepov t o u t o u uno aou fjis<Ta>yevv7)9evTO<. See also Zuntz. 646— 49): x a l. Selva xal ix“ P°? стсерЈлатсхои (“that a human being am I. Preisendanz puts a comma after 9eou and translates “nach dem RatschluB des iiberschwanglich guten Gottes. Riedweg. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. 469 Pap. 92. 392]). 474 The phrase b/apoq сттг£р[Ј. on the synthema. Main body of the ritual (11. For the TY formula as a whole see above.. below.469 yevojxevo< ex . 9e£ov x a l ty]v npoq аитб б{д.eTayevvY)&7)va[. there is no need for a comma either in 1. I am placing no comma after av9pw7io<. the initiate identifies him self by his divine nature. by the name o f the mother.v. 104. Merkelbach (Abrasax. C jfjiepov. Also. furthermore BDAG. 508— 523— 9. n. without change in the translation. 485— 732) 171 First.a&elf. 190.471 the individual is identified by the personal name to be inserted as well as. 639: {Л£<уа>Хохратмр. crit.. 686. ad loc.476 The term for “being reborn” (p.) to [is< т а > у evv7]9ivToc. (“human being”). also the Orphic gold tablets (esp. 625. 473 The symbol A is used again. 11. the initiate identifies himself as an individual belonging to the human species: oxi av&pwuoc. p. 2 in Graf. 471 See also 11. 7)< whose mother is N N . “fluid. The reference to time (“and today”) implies that the rebirth has taken place on the same day.473 and the semen o f the father.отг)та aTevlcra^. s. . aYjpiepov toutou utto ctou pie<Ta> yevv7]0-evTO<.474 Second.II. 476 For C T E (“today”) see 11. 523-24. 501. s.472 again identified by her name.

. 45.3. 111. 2. See Theophrastus. corn. Des Places).484 He first 478 Cf. Deor. in Hellenistic philosophical and religious literature it is more frequent. 1. s.115): тгара бе тоц wvofxar'ofxevot. xolc ocTua&avaTL^ouat. Piet. Posidonius.480 That this ritual has occurred “at this hour” and “in accordance with the divine will” seems part o f the traditional formulae.479 that is. Is it Helios.CT^Oi. 9. 412. 134.99). jenseitigen Gott Platons. IV. 481 For ev таитт) ty) wpa. 747.. frag. B. 482]). Mos. 94. Anab.7. Scyth.v. see 1. 2. 649— .2 (ed. 4. Theiler. see below 11. the initiate offers his petition. This equals frag. see also Theiler’s commentary. Potscher).5.284— (Beoc. Theiler.. 1. through the ritual called aruaO-avart. 771. 1. Lucian. frag. cf.” The author’s tendency o f seeing the deity as totally transcendent is stated in the prooemium (the “great god Helios Mithras” [1. requests to worship you. corrected by Dieterich and Preisendanz to UTrepPaXXovTto?.51. XII. ibid. frag. 2. Det.. Phaedr. 1. QG 1. xaxa Suvajjuv av&p(07uv7]v (“ . 123.v. 499. in the N T Luke 2:38. Acts 16:18. For further passages. 9:14. Theiler. there is no need to assume. 28. Abst. 22:13.c. For хата бохт]спл/ &eou. Eph 1:19. U7rep[3oXY].). see BDAG. Spec. more geneally. but only a few will be elected “out o f the many myriads” o f the massa perditionis. Charm. Mithras. Cf. 221. 392— Betz. continuing in the descriptive style appropriate for the occasion (11. Geogr. The pap.) does.1: tw бг бг] Kalaapt. 50: ae x al Seexat.1213 (ed. and supplicates w ith as m uch power a hum an being can have” ).v. 236. Augustus] аито xal aTr/j&avaTicrfjiivto xal sc.). tov twv acrupwv api&fxov eyxareiXeyjjievto avcTl&ecrav. 1. Antike und Christentum.. Tcpoaxuvyjaat. 2:7.36. 1. especially in connection with heroization. 46a.14. 85: 483 Merkelbach (Abrasax. ciotpov. 17.172 Commentary human being.543 (ev exelvY) wpa [cf. 480 For aTta&avaTurjxoi. [sc.39 (762c) (ed. 1423.2. 544-45]). 133.114): б тсара тоТ^ Гѓта^ 0e6c. Cassius Dio. i. Philo. but this tendency may reflect his Stoic orientation. 15. Vgl.212 (ev wpa avayxTji.73-74 (ev ty) cjTjjxepov Y]fA£pa xal ev 7iacnf] copa). for the texts see Riedweg in Graf. crit. Virt. 642. continuing in the descriptive mode. According to T L G and LSJ it is attested since Plato.. 2. or a god even higher than Mithras? Merkelbach suggests that the expression belongs to the author s con­ ception o f one metaphysical deity and that it expresses assimilation to Plato. 527— 540. 741. a change from the third to the first person. Porphyry. frag. 246d: t o бе ftelov xaXov. 484 My trans. 156d.481 The resulting rebirth and immortali­ zation is o f course a gift of divine beneficence.. 482 The formula is UTCepjSaAAovTW ауаОои (Феои). ayadov. from Diodorus Siculus 1.482 The question as to which god is meant remains unclear. Aelianus. Geogr..) хтерЏаХке^ t t jv 7raaav б ш а р . the self-presentations on the Orphic gold tablets (A 1-3 and 5). . See BDAG. similar expressions in 11.2 (ed.94.4— (298a— (ed.483 Following the self-presentation. 44. s. s.115): тсара бе xolq 5 b) Ykxoiiq wvofxa^sxo 9-eoc. I l l . z..2. Opif. Гzxaic.3. Somn. but Jordan keeps U7tepP<xXX0VT0<. 7. 2. Conf 149. cf. 3. Poseidonios. 24:33. 16. as Preisendanz (app.478 The god Helios does this by making the initiate immortal (aTca&avaTt-atktc. rather than direct assimilation o f his ideas to Plato’ s. See also similar expression in the NT: 2 Cor 3:10. from Strabo. 479 The verb aTta&avaxL^eiv occurs only here in the ML. 3:19. from Strabo. 135.. итсер[ЗоХѓ) in 2 Cor 4:7.i. Numenius. ZocXijio^lv . wpa. reads u7tepj3aXX0VT0<.. 12:7.228. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. where the initiate claims to be “a pure from the pure”. Post. see TLG . and.242): “Angleichung an den e i n e n.

IV. 223) understands this to mean: tva аијлттарослофт]^ tov wpovofxov. <Xeye-> s copco etc. (“marker. xa l ^собѕ-охраторе? xal wpovofAot. Merkelbach (Abrasax.417.3.10.368. edited by Naveh & Shaked. 654-55. XIa.. 606. which occurs only here the ML.о1. and translates: “petition. XIII. 2.. 68. see 1. 7tpoaxuvew. Amulets and Magic Bowls. 4 8 5 — 732) 173 expresses his devotion by prostration (7rpoaxuv7](7i<.? (“that he may appear and give revelation during the good hours”). so he can determine the gods o f the day and hour.179: [j-opoLpw^ (Preisendanz: o^oafjLopoipw^). (op petopcopi 485 For this gesture o f prostration. For [xopi. divider o f the hour” [LSJ]) is mentioned only here in the PGM. 246d.). crit. Princ. 544— 47). T D N T 6 (1959).193. 297. 3. 490 See on this Gundel. also Damascius.]. also 11. the last word on f. see also 1. 477 and elsewhere in the PGM (1. III. see Dolger. Ancient Christian Magic.” 3586) refers to trpsdk in an Aramaic text. the request is specified (11.31. The twelve hours are then designated by the voces magicae in 11. Cf. Worterbuch. Main body of the ritual (11. On prostration as a Persian and Byzantine ritual. in Meyer & Smith.491 Finally. беѕа&оа). 613b).. 3226. note in the app. 489 The astrological term wpovofxoi. 176b. 11. the technical terms are 25. 732. Brashear (“Greek Magical Papyri.191. See moreover BDAG.pox cf. 653-54): tva cpavel? xPY LaT^aY ^v та )H ] aya&al? wpac.. 487 Cf. These words clearly state that the purpose and goal o f the ritual is to obtain an oracular session w ith the god. LXXVII. s. 488 Pap. Weltbild und Astrologie. VII. LXII.. 486 For the terms ocEiouv x a l бѕесг&ас. xal хратас. .v. 3. thapsiorpsior.951.242) points out that the phrase хата Suvajjav av&poOTtvrjv is a Platonic echo (Theaet. has'iva.eiv and xp7]C T[xoig see 11. PGM 11. Phaedr.118.арс.. 47.486 commensurate with his limited human power.488 That the author interconnects the ritual w ith astrology can be see also in 11. Resp.. Ausgewdhlte koptische Zaubertexte. 470.арс [лорсрох occurs only here in the M L..). x al wpa<. 686— The initiate is told to carry 87.. n. 35. thapsiorsth. XXX. a£tow. Kropp.171. 24— See Preisigke. XII. whose name is Thrapsiari.485 then his submission by supplication (oci'iouv.v.b.II. Coptic thapsiorie. 8v o f the pap. BDAG. 3239.” So also Merkelbach (Abrasax.35-36). the horoscope489 o f the day and the hour along w ith him. wpovopiov (“that you may take along w ith you the horoscope of the day and hour today” ). 1. Preisendanz (in Dieterich.v. frequent in the PGM. s.pox. 724— 727. Heinrich 26. 523— npoq 6/ayov 24: av&pcoTtivrjq jjiou фи^хтј^ Suvajxew^. that you take along with you the regent o f the present day and hour..844. He takes it to mean that the planets in their function as lords o f time are being asked to assist. 55 which interprets “human power” astrologically: —tva aujxrrapaXa^Y]? t o v ттј? cnrjfxepov 7][iipa<.v. [he notes what looks like fat letters for 0раф[. tva . Greeven. 351: ol SexaSap^at.492 The request concludes w ith a sequence o f voces magicae (654— 55): ecopw рмре toppi topitop pcop ptot.. s.14. Sol Salutis.. ф ovojjia ®раф1 ар[. 717. Cf. 252) who points out the importance o f the planetary deity governing the day o f the rebirth (cf. 492 For jpfi[nxxCC. The secondary nature o f the insertion was seen by Dieterich (12. thapsiorirar. 487 In 11 651— the author sees the need to insert a redactional comment . 280 (# 129). 491 It is otherwise unattested and unexplained. s.490 The name ®раф(.e. <Asye‘> [xopt.

Jacoby. then to the left. Finally. 556. Boll. 498 The term is attested only here. 490. 2384. (“like w ith a h o rn ” ). . (“After you have said these things. The sequence is attested only here in the PGM. IV. s v o S w (“After you have said these things. 495 The cosmological technical term izokoc. 47. but c f 1. 2327. 1305-6.98— as a strong nasal sound by making M and N. 661— 62): таита sirrtov офт] &ира<.” Cf. 2480. you 493 Gundel.498 and oXov anoSiSovg to rcveu^a. x a l бфу) a u T o v u e p t T r a x o u v T a ax. but see Dieterich (41.495 T he fifth scenario concludes w ith the performance o f protective rituals. n. where both sides occur. XIII. 819. Commentary The pap. 242) points to the ff/oq хѕратоѕс. Weltbild und Astrologie.15. that an element is missing from the text: six a si q to apicrcov. 14. bellow”). ibidem.yo(xsva<. there is the familiar “gazing” (axsvl^siv). see 11. 707. 69. Sixth scenario: the encounter with the deities o f the Bear constellation (11. see at 11. 655— 57): таита <70u e I tcovto ? s X e u a s T o a sic. 819 тгростЅи^р!. While the time indicator (“after you have said these things”) marks the progress in the ritual: the initiate will see (о ф т ))494 Helios on his way to the axis-pole of the world. т а сриХахттјрса x al Xsys. Gundel. but Gundel questions it.. t o v tcoX o v .438. 463). 179.93. 35.1731. by the “road” (обо^)? Has the phrase anything to do with the heliodromusl See above. Usener & Radermacher. he will come to the celestial pole. (“kiss the phylacteries and say. pt. 1307. 705.493 After this the god leaves to carry the request to Mithras (11. 14. n. Usher. Does it perhaps consist o f variations on the term wpa? 494 On this term. See Dieterich. (Saaavl^wv tyjv Xayova. also the 99) Jewish shofar. see Preisendanz. 6.бтјѓ. 1280.676 тсоАохратсор. 228— 233) for further 29. and you will see him walking as if on a road”). 629.. 120. 496For this term. occurs only herein theML. to Ss^cov cpuXa^ov [xs upoaufXYjpt.497 to be perform ed xspaxost-Stoi. Merkelbach (Abrasax. first to the right: protect me. 539. 707— 813— Dieterich (13. First. suggested by Preisendanz as representing the twelve hours o f the day. V284. 2. 76. 712. at 1. like the others. VIII. with an orientation (11. 1026.uxo3 (“by giving off your whole breath and squeezing your loins. 661—92) The sixth scenario begins.34. ed. P R O SY M E R I” ).butcf. Gundel. 1959. divides these into twelve groups. 693. Weltbild und Astrologie. 642. x al хатаср1Хѕс. 499 For kissing the phylacteries see also 11. lines 15-16. 70. For viokoq. The name тгрости[Л )р1 У is unexplained.496 then a strong bellowing sound (ptuxoofxa fxaxpov). n. avot. app. ed.1302. Sternglaube.54. see 11. rcpwTov__ For the command “protect m e” see also 1.499 6. 45— —What is meant 48. described by Diony­ sius o f Halicarnassus (Comp. therefore: xal Xsye.) notes 8. 588. 711. material. 538. Preisendanz (W S t 41 [1919] 143. 1) wants to write. see 1.174 sto p sto p e w p ecop s c o p s . around which the stars rotate. 560. 497 On this ritual. crit. Bezold. For the image cf. 1. TtpwTov sic.

“Arktos in den griechischen Zauberpapyri. taking its name from the mosaics and O rigen’ reference to the xXT[jt. “The Sacred Geography o f a Mithraeum: The Example o f Sette Sfere. 869— Gundel. s. Sternglaube und Sternsymbolik bei Griechen und R om ern. ^ р и стеа (3 p a (3 e la 505 (“ . 862. 628-29). Sphaera. except that the gates o f the sun are now open (cf. 663-65 an iconographic description o f the seven virgins follows: . 34. Vermaseren. Idem.” JM iS 1:2 (1978) 119-65. 501 For the stereotypical бфт]. The expression “from the deep” refers to the world o f the gods behind the gates o f the sun (cf. 502 Pap. and w ith the faces o f asps. plate XIX. “Fixsterne. vol. If one follows Dieterich.506 He argues against their being planetary gods because earlier in his ascension the initiate has passed the planets and has moved to the higher sphere o f the gods.a£ s ѕтгтатгиХо? (“seven-gated ladder” ).146 (the demons coming from below). 69.” Z P E 57 (1984) 93— 99. x a X o u v T a i o u p a v o u T uj o li . idem. plates XII and XIII.504 In 11. and the next visionary episode can begin. the preceding protective rituals have ended. 11. Weihegrade. the world o f the gods). Dieterich s proposal that one should imagine seven gates finds support in the mosaic o f the Mitreo delle sette sfere at Ostia.1293.II..” Cf. see at 1. esp.e. Cf. 25).137 (fig. . LXXII). 1 Cor 2:10 (T Job 37:6): та (За& t o u ‘}eou. has Z Ttap&svouq. dressed in linen garments. X II. has [Зрофкх.b. Lexikon 6 (1924-37). Beck.” here meaning “from above. 37. .” i. 1. 21. combined with the 72) seven fixed stars o f the constellation o f the Great Bear. the seven flaming altars in the top register o f some Mithraic reliefs. Richard L.” PRE 6 (1909) 2407— 31.687.500 In terms o f time.” Dieterich (13. Mithriaca IV. See Becatti.. esp. see Vermaseren. the translation should be: “you will see seven doors opening. Franz Boll & Wilhelm Gundel. the 500 Since there is no article before “doors. 505 Pap. . 92-95. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac II. Gordon. . See BDAG. TcapQivoui. [iaQoc. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 175 will see [the] doors opening” ). 116-26. 625). Scavi di Ostia. 506 The constellation o f the Bear is prominent in the PGM (see IV. “Sternbilder. 539. 2. and wield golden wands”).190. Mithriaca III. Cels. 65. They are called the Fates o f heaven.501 The initiate is still at the same level as before (cf.”JM iS 2:2 (1978) 87-147. 3) raises the question o f whether one should imagine seven doors to open. 503 For the term pa&oc (“deep. а б т а с . plate XVI. idem. Aus der Offenbarung Johannis. x p a T o u a a t . 78. 662— 63): x al zpyoyAvaq e x t o u (За&оис.. Merkelbach.£ . n. e v (3 u c h tlv o [. 575 (from the astral sphere). Mithras. 59-64. 83. idem. 6. cf. fig.503 The idea is that they are stepping forward out o f the fiery gates. 111. VII. 82).” in Roscher. plates XII and XVII. Wolfgang Fauth. (with bibliography). Roger 81.26. XXII. At any rate. 1. H e sees that seven virgins emerge (11. 11 624— . X X X V I. a a T u S tov тир6ст(071а e y o v o i x q .v. т) 504 Origen. C IM R M . Main body of the ritual (11. 502 (“and (you will see) seven virgins coming from the deep w ithin”). W ho are these seven virgins that occur only here in the PGM? Already Dieterich (69— had identified them as seven Hathors. See Franz Boll. 38.22. Weltbild und Astrologie. 1. Mithriaca IV. idem.

293. DaB sie die Wachterinnen der vier Saulen sind — man darf in ihnen entweder die personifizierten Kentra oder die Sterne im Viereck des GroBen Baren sehen — erklart sich aus der .208..” LA 2 (1977) 1033. Athribis (London: School o f Archaeology in Egypt.780-82. Further clues come from a formula attested several times in the PGM. plate 12.15-16. and the Egyptian Hathors. and M oirae” ).254-55.30.2116. 3. Das wird zur GewiBheit erhoben durch die sieben aufgerichteten Schlangen.507 A somewhat different interpretation has been offered by Gundel: “The seven Fates w ith their asp faces are meant to be the seven stars o f the Pleiads. 164. 1908).768-69. XII. 17. That the virgins are clothed in fine byssos garments may mean that the material was linen or even silk.159 (6<pe(mp6cra7toc.249. 1936). die den sieben Sternen der Pleiaden vielerorts zugesprochen worden ist.” 508 T he iconography most certainly has a pictorial background o f some kind.510 Their identification w ith the Fates is 507 See XII. daimons. (“the good emanations of the stars. Zaubertexte. “Hathoren. VII. IV. 301-6. the seven virgins are parallel to the pole lords described next. XIII.. is mine). Irenaeus’ (Haer. Merkelbach: “in Seidengewandern”. see R om 1:23. see Wolfgang Helck. For the Kentra. (Зистсто? may be “fine linen” (LSJ. XIII.). .176 Commentary figures are a syncretistic combination o f the Fates.138.47— for planets and Pleiads. the sphere o f the fixed stars. 9-eoi. Fates. X XI. 338. IV. on the four pillars. Dekane. 145. BDAG). 1. 508 Gundel. “Planeten. eminenten Bedeutung. 332. On snake­ shaped deities. o f which the constellation o f the Great Bear is one. and Merkelbach.” (Trans. although none has been identified w ith certainty. 510 See above. which appear on the tomb painting o f Athribis. This has been made certain by the seven erect asps. cf. 1. see W ilhelm Gundel.232]) reference to the . Harvey. VIII. 12— with frontispice and plates X XX VI— 13.84.one may see in them either the personified Kentra or the stars in the square o f the Great Bear — can be explained from the eminent importance which in many places is attributed to the seven stars o f the Pleiads. see Wilhelm and Hans Gundel. XXXVII.277. Abrasax. 509 See also 1. 508. For the tomb o f Athribis (Atrepe) see W. 184. 1. die eng hintereinander zu einer Gruppe komponiert auf dem Grabgemalde von Athribis als Dekanmachte unter Orion erscheinen. which invokes various astral forces: al aya&al knoppoicni tcov acrcspwv elalv Sal[xove<. xal Tu^ai xal Molpat.509 That they have faces (or carry masks) o f asps is not attested elsewhere. X II. sieben. placed closely behind each other as a group o f decanic powers under O rio n __That they are the guards o f the four pillars . PRE 20 (1950) 2017-2185. Flinders Petrie. n. see Kropp. Gundel. Preisendanz: “in Byssosgewandern”. Weltbild und Astrologie. one has rightly called them the seven Hathors. man hat sie mit R echt als die sieben Hathoren angesprochen. Neue astrologische Texte des Hermes Trismegistos (Miinchen: Beck. except on the tomb painting o f Athribis. 58— “Unter den 7 Tychai mit den Schlangen59: gesichtern sind die sieben Sterne der Pleiaden gemeint. M. On the seven Hathors.5 [ed.” 48.

v. 744-47.410 etc. 72. first greeting all o f them as a group (665-69).515 and their magical names (cf. BDAG.516 apapjxa^? pointing to ’Apapa. “Serpent. 11 677— . . 92. GG^l 201 (1939) 141.. 78). Main body of the ritual (11. 8. reprinted Hildesheim: Olms. 316-28 (“Die Tiermaskenriten in den mithraischen und in den Kabirenmysterien”). ха Ф£ (“Hail!”).511 Their possession o f golden wands ((ЗрофеТа) is a com­ m on cultic symbol. The magical names are mostly unex­ plained. 71. Harris 7. appears to be one o f general politeness and has no parallel in the PGM. Gundel.v. 511 See below..II. O most holy guardians o f the four pillars”). Ritner. al Z. O sacred ones and companions o f M IN IM IR R O P H O R . Betz. . 516 See Gundel. (2) the second. fxe^pav resem­ bling a decan by the name o f Ma^pajx. twv Teaaaptov oruXlaxwv. 9) mentions Egyptian gods as 6<pt.5 (56. G M PT . a e p /a l x al aya&al rcap&evoL.47— H ow this epithet is to be related to the four roots (тетраЛс^мјхата [see above.3. n. Pol. 37.' T v y a a tou oupavou. Egyptian. P G L. and then individually (670— 72). a s p /a l x al aya&al rcap&evoi. y . o f which the sacred Fates are guardians. 1Л (with a collection o f parallels). Orphisch-dionysische Mysteriengedanken in der christlichen Antike (Vortrage der Bibliothek Warburg 1922— 1923 II. and three divine epithets. Alan H. Leyden 348 verso. 17:1. Stork. Dekane.v. 632: [xevfxspoipop. тои fjavt-^txppocpop. identification by num ber. mag. lepal x al ofAoSlat/rot. See with further passages and bibliography. tou [ixvifjiippocpop. al а у ш т а та с.” a form o f wish. s. Hendel. Robert Eisler. but some o f them may reflect the names o f decans.15). whereupon the greeting is cited: j c c i p e r e . 48. 5:5. idem. 51. 6<pt. 512 See LSJ and BDAG. The m om ent o f the greeting is set: т а и т а LSwv асттга^ои обтал. (1) This epithet. Kleine Schriften. q. a formal ritual o f greeting seems to conform to etiquette. has the numbers as [3. 514 The connection with Egypt was pointed out by Dieterich. al ау ш т а та с.oxe<paAoq. referring to the four pillars o f the Egyptian cosmology. tcov Teaaaptov gtuXlctxwv (“Hail. in Betz. consisting o f the exclamatory wish. Weltbild und Astrologie. L A 5 (1984) 644-52. оср^оѕсбт^ Epiphanius. <puXaxlcKrat. cpuXaxlaaat. R . 989. 104. In the NT. Preisendanz. L. (“W hen you see these things. e. The exclamatory “Hail” or “Greetings to you. 1966).” E R E 8 (1915) 266a (referring to Pap.513 (3) the third is special and also w ithout parallel in the PGM . 35-37. “Magic. Phil 3:14: (3pa[3e£ov r?j<. greet in this manner . O seven Fates o f heaven. 1. s. and Dieterich. 513 Cf. 1. 1 Clem. 6<pt? and compounds. lepal x al opioScat-Toc. e. O noble and good virgins. ”). 80 (# 28). avw xAy)(T£(0i. 58-59. Abrasax. 51— 70— 52. 4. 666. Merkelbach. 515 Pap.6[A op<po<. 3.” D D D .5. n.512 Following the epiphany. Z (with strokes overy.4). Lukian. 1. Pap. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 177 certainly secondary. god o f the Ophite gnostics. cf. Atha­ nasius (Gent. is followed by the name o f the seven Fates. oyiq. . (3pa(3eLov. Gardiner. 585— 90]) is unclear. see 1 Cor 9:24. s.514 The individual greetings are also very formal and exactly parallel. stands in the middle and has an unex­ plained vox magica attached. q). . 3. Mart. Haer. 1.

idem. 1. Brashear. 2. Sphaera.521 Their title is revealed: oOxol elaiv ol xaXoujxevot. app.518 After the seven virgin seven male deities appear (11. Boll. 86. Cf.201: а1шо7тоЛохрат(ор.PH 1910— 1920. in linen loincloths. 1. 662 has ep^ofxeva?. G M PT . Jordan prefers Preisendanz’s earlier suggestion (in Roscher. Griechische Kalender (5 vols.. a hapax in the PGM.”JM iS 1:1 (1976) 1— esp. cf.. )<^ G G A 201 (1939) 141.432. See LSJ. to be followed by three epithets: (1 ) ol xvooSaxocpuXaxe? (“O warders o f the pivot o f the celestial sphere” [LSJ]). Cf. Preisendanz. 80. plate 1/2.846: <тсо>Хохратмр. 72 The greeting therefore begins with that o f the group first.3023 o ev [xccty] apoupir]<. and in possession o f seven golden diadems”). (cf.524 (2) ol lepol xal 517 Gundel. ev Tcep^Mfxaat-v -sol "kivotc.(3pt. ibid. The exclamatory wish is called out. Preisendanz considers or <oux>w<. ofjiolox. “Greek Magical Papyri. idem. Heidelberg: Winter 1910— 1920). 3. PGM IV. cf.243. D o these figures represent the constellation 73) o f the Little Bear? —So Franz Boll. is the pin or pivot on which something turns (xvo^axl^eiv).v. Weltbild und Astrologie. 1. ad loc. 93) compares Egyptian harmachis (“Horus w ho is on the horizon”).. see also idem. exaorov хм 1бѓ(о auxcov ovofxaxc. 45.178 Commentary another decan. These deities ($eoi) come forward (irpoep^ovxat.абѓ][лата ^ристеа (“There also come forth another seven gods who have faces o f black bulls. хумба^. ттоХохраторе? xou oupavou (“These are the so-called Pole Lords o f heaven” ). 518 For ’Epou see also IV 1589: V. 666). reads oiq. N ow we learn that the voces magicae in 11. Roger Beck.r^. 79— 7.'apoup — : oji. see Gundel. 678— xvwSaxocpuAaxe^. xaxe^ovxe? бг. and Gundel. 77— idem. and attributes them to a syncretistic Egyptian Mithras cult. Dieterich. Gundel. Ritner (in Betz.523 (“You must greet in the same manner each o f them w ith his own nam e”). but also the initiates o f the Mithraic mysteries were under the tutelage o f planetary deities. Dekane. 79: 74) them to the Amesha Spentas o f ancient Iran. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac. fig.? Instead o f upoep^ovTai 1. Abraxas.517 epou and ро[л(Зрпг]<. 522 The title occurs also in XIII. xal yiovoq xal 519 Is there any significance to the fact that the virgins were not called 9eo L or rather. 77. s.522 The greetings must conform to the previous ritual: oioc. 670— are actually names. Sternglaube. crit. 13-14. p. corrected by Dieterich to ovq. 521— Golden diadems are a rather common symbol. 'Q' ■B xaupwv [xeAavwv тсростсотса e^ovxe<. Lexikon. xvwSaxocpuXaH. 19. SHAW. 673-76): Tipoep^ovxai бе x al exepot. Oeac.519 There is no parallel for this iconogra­ phy elsewhere in the PGM . 51.963) . the decan 'Ро(Јфро(харе. Merkelbach. Weihegrade. бе! сте асттгастаа^ас. the Tubingen . 373. have also been taken to refer to decans: ’Epou and To[A(3pofAape.520 The figures wear linen aprons and hold golden diadems in their hands. 1 (1910:16): Das Kalendarium des Antiochos. vol. For pofx(3pcY cf. is a hapax. plate II. 79 (# 25).701— 1358— 1372. 22. 523 Pap.. 106— Gundel. Figures o f bulls stand among Egyptian imagery o f stars.) through the same gates as the virgins. See Dieterich (72— who relates 2. 72— 73. ed. 521 Cf. the fiery crowns in 11. 5. n. 59.” 3585. Abrasax . Mithras. 524 According to the T LG . 58. See also IV. Dekane. The faces o f black bulls are difficult to explain. Preisendanz. Bezold. 520 Dieterich (72— confesses puzzlement.

574. 528 On this topic. a<pc.686— 832. 16:18. 2. (Hymn 2. 1697.260. IV1015. Orph.. they send out thunder. XIII. 527 See also IV. For 80 7iept. man. reading o f ctlctijlwv is to be corrected to ctslctjjicov.528 The third task is distributing punishments to the godless529 and rewards to the godly. R ev 6:12.3. 571. Math.527 Second.134-35. since the area is in the upper spheres o f the cosmos. 529 The expression Suacrcpwv <puXa is found only here in the PGM. The cosmic tasks performed by the pole lords cover three areas.vouXav7jTa<. 111. Abrasax.223 (in lists). [хеуаХои 7repi. the initiate carefully details the benefits for the pious. Sextus Empiricus. and calmness in the present good hours o f this day”). However.525 (3) the final epithet is in fact a longer and detailed aretalogy describing the work o f the pole lords: ol a x p iy o v x z c . a religious and godfearing .. 663). VIII. 10 [1922]) 112) emends Ttspt-StvYjTO? to TcepiSsivYjTO? (“terrifying”) because o f itacism. The oeio[ioi in this case are not earthquakes but cosmic quakes. they are in charge o f turning the axis mundi. a personal note for the individual application o f the practice. W hile there is no list o f the punishments m eeted out.v.II.559— 627— 60. 2936.^ T7)< cr/jfjiepov Y][xepa<.a[xwv x al xepauvaiv (ЗоХас. see Preisendanz.Stv7]TO(. a concern o f a num ber o f passages in the P G M .v.[Ao<.172. 28. lightning.179— (index). 1358 (атрѕфтјАахато?. see Aune. XXVII.60— 61. such as himself (683— 87). IV1364: ocXxijx6ppt.. as in 11. crit..590. бХохХт^ос. reading o f <ev> evxeXEUcrfxa is dittography. 531 Pap. tj tov ast. also III.xtV7]T0V tyzic. IV. Sam Eitrem (“Varia. ахот)? т е x al opacreto? suTOvlav. Suaae^wv cpuXa526 (“who turn at one command the revolving axis o f the vault o f heaven. aTapa^lav ev тац : sveaTwcTat. 651— 55. Revelation. and often. IV.51— 93. 2778. oxpicpziv. VII. 621. Cf. 243) adds <ботѕ> before uyetav.243. бХохХт)ро<.530 not as a fact but as a petition: ejxol бе euae^et xal &eoc7e(3si o v t l < б о т е > uyelav x al стсо^лато? oXoxXyjplav. are found also elsewhere in the PG M .26. 53° preiseri(Ianz (app. XIII.2918— 20: Tiupoi. Merkelbach. 3. The young men correspond to the virgins (1. 3. VII. VII. First. 683— may be 87 an addition by the magician. for a£ci)v (“axis”) III. 11:19. 87.1279.1601. for the same reason. 31: aXxrj.967.” NTFi. .. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 179 aXxip-OL veavtoa (“O sacred and brave youths” —the term aXxt. aya&al<. also in Dieterich. 532 For uycta (“health”) see III. For oXoxXyjpsLv.?531 (“but to me. for more instances see Preisendanz.333. 3. Merkelbach (Abrasax. s. for xuxXo? (“heavenly circle”) III. (“spin around”) see III. terms often m entioned in the PG M . the pap.532 Theosophy. 2269. XII. and cosmic quakes. 7). s. 52. XXXVI. occurs in hymnic language). VII. TCsptStvea ^ap^av appY]XTOv. and acuteness o f hearing and seeing.802.SLVir)T£ipa.688. x al асттратса^ x al a£t.577. # 247. wpat. reads uyiav. “spindle-turner”). Such lists of benefits.124 (index). the lines 683— as well as 651— can be applied to any 87 55 practitioner who should o f course be on the side o f the pious.572. итго sv xeXeuafxa t o v TtepiSlv/jTov t o u xuxXou a^ova t o u oupavou x al (3povTa<. 680 the pap.480. see above at 11.6. 10. IV136. 525 See IV.evTe<. Frag. [give] health and soundness o f body. 223) suggests that 11. 3. zic.607. ad loc. cf.. Main body of the ritual (11. concerning the axis o f a sphere: хихХотѕрт)? iar\ xe хата a<psTepov xvcoSaxa. 1. as the individual benefits.&o?. IV2997-3002.557: TtepLSt. w ho send out thunder and lightning and jolts o f earthquakes and thunderbolts against the nations o f impious tribes”). 4th ser. 526 In 1.

Merkelbach. “they take their stand in a regular line in an orderly way. Colson. 7. 3.112— 69. s.. followed by a symposium and an all-night Pannychis. n.171— Cf. on the one side and on the other. O ne parallel is part o f the description o f the community o f the Therapeutae by Philo o f Alexandria. 671— see above. Two parallels are especially informative. 639. 542). So standing they pray to God that their feasting may be acceptable and proceed as The terms play a significant role in the NT. D e vita contemplativa. 538 See Contemp. which he says is patterned on the Bacchic rituals. LCL: London: Heinemann. MA: Harvard University Press. the highly polemical description o f pagan banquets in 40— does not explicitly focus on the Bacchic ones. 534 Pap.536 This kind o f arrangement appears to have been somewhat typical o f worship services. . 72. 146. 1 Thess 5:23. section 7.537 He describes their festival o f Pentecost. 9. reads the numbers as in 11.243. see Preisendanz.205. 79.” T he idea is that the two groups o f seven form a kind o f chorus facing each other. For euxovla there is no other reference in the PGM. [лои. John 20:28: o Y. 692-732) The sixth scenario passes over to the seventh w ith the usual orientation concerning time and place: oxav бе evcTTtoaiv ev&a x a l ev&a ty) r a ^ s t.. axapa^la. 537 Philo o f Alexandria. also 12. 533 See the parallel in 678— for [лгуаАохратмр 1.). . the num ber. 88-89 (cited below. W St 42 (1920— 21) 24. see also Ebr. Cambridge. their eyes and hands lifted up to Heaven.69 (атара^о<. 535 On the textual questions concerning evcttwcjlv. s s 69.v. 536 So Dieterich.538 it begins w ith a community prayer. 123.. hands in token that they are clean from gain-taking and not defiled through any cause o f the profit-making kind. occurs also in IV.. Seventh scenario: the encounter with Mithras (11. Finally (1. in their order . 651— 52). for xuptot t)eot III.vpioq jxou x a l б th:6<. These greetings also follow the previous pattern o f the exclamatory wish (^агре). but it does 64 include comments on X enophon’ and Plato’ Symposia (57-60).ol [xou x al [леуаХохраторе? 9sol (“O my lords and powerfully ruling gods. 72.180 Commentary The last phrase in the clause “in the present good hours o f this day” should be read in connection w ith the horoscope (see 11. Philo (10 vols. 687— 88). and that all are taking their assigned places. cited according to the edition and trans­ lation by F. H. 76. the pole lords are again hailed: ol xupc. Somn.535 (“N ow when they take their place.. see Acts 3:16.).” )533 T he sixth scenario ends with the recitation o f the individual greetings (688— 92). Her. eyes because they have been trained to fix their gaze on things worthy o f contemplation. 1929— 62). Abrasax. D uring the initial prayer. and BDAG. 2.534 and the secret names (ovofjta). all o f them unex­ plained hapaxlegomena in the PGM. a technical term in Greek ethics.

1467]).3 [GCS O rig. xcm [xev £7гес. x a l xaxa fxeaov to crufXTroat-ov био ylvovxat xo 7tpwT0V X°P0^ ® a^p w v. Х^Р^? ^e P< ? yuvai^lv £тг' euwvu[i. V I.evou<. 85: elx a oxav ехатеро? twv yop&v t-бѓ-су. ха9дагер ev таТ? (BaxxelaL? ахратои ci7tacjavTe<. 582. Essai. the community is separated in two choir groups: “After the supper they hold the sacred vigil which is conducted in the following way. (LCL 9. Main body of the ritual (11. тои О-еоф^Хои?. [xl[j. 301— 20: “Sursum corda und der Aufblick zum H im m el. Sol Salutis. having drunk as in the Bacchic rites o f the strong w ine o f G od’ love they m ix and s both together becom e a single choir. Tractatus in Ioannem X . x a l ylvovTai x°po? e£ afxqjoLV. (LCL 9 ..[xoxaxo<. w ith plate X X III. For the reverence toward the sun.a xa&opav eTtaiSeuSirjaav.a. X III.118.aveve{AY)Tat.. бе yj хатахХкл? XW 'L tx^v avSpaat-v z n l бе£(. Tte7tot. 69: St. 324— 25. presumably it is identical w ith •rcveufxa.154— 55]). avapdyvuvTat. the leader and precentor chosen for each being the most honored amongst them and also the most musical. the command is given: b. 9— 13] and Augustine. crravTe?'kZjjq х а т а cjtol^ov ev xoajjuo x a l та? те бфес. 657. elxa абоиск.. 541 Ibid.. w ith the choir master directing in the middle.. 629.” 539 D uring the symposium540 and the Pannychis. Horn. a copy o f the choir set up o f old beside the R e d Sea in honour o f the wonders there w rought” [LCL 9. бе rj 7tavvi>xl? tov xpoTcov xouxov avlaxavxai mxvxeq a&poot. Isis Regina. They rise up all together and standing in the middle o f the refectory form themselves first into two choirs.j. ха&’ exaxepov evxt.544 Air has been m entioned before.1 5 2 -5 5 ).. ayexat. but not as one o f the four elements.542 The other parallel is pictorial and part o f the frescoes from the Isis temple in Herculaneum showing scenes from worship performed there. at 11. (“T hen w h en each choir has separately done its ow n part in the feast. 541. 83— 84: М еха бе xo беТ^оу r/)v lepav ayoucrt. elq tov &eov izoXkolq [xexpot? x a l [xeXeat.атоируу]&evт wv exec.а. 556.бт) та? &ea? a£t.a.r]fjt.at. Tipocjeuyovxai xw 9-ew О -ирппртп yevea&at.evat. also Tran Tam Tinh. see also section 27. see above. at 1. 542 Ibid..l [PL 35..v6u. pp. 711. . б бе yuvatxw v Tjyejxwv бе x a l e^apxo? alpetxat. A chorus o f two groups is standing on the steps o f the temple.545 As a result. See Dolger. (“T he order o f reclining is so apportioned that the m en sit by themselves on the right and the w om en by themselves on the left” [LCL 9.? x a l xouq jzipciLq ziq oupavov avaTclvavTe?.” “stare”) see above..а<. xe x a l г(А[лгХѓатато<. x a l xa9-’ eauxov ѓсгсхаОтј.II. 508.7][jt. x a l x a x a vouv a7iavx7iCTai xriv eutoxlav. rcavvux^a. 100— 102. 485— 732) 181 He would have it.. 553 (plate 72) and color plate IV.11. Then they sing hymns to God composed o f many measures and set to many melodies__ ” 541 At dawn they reunite on the beach to conclude the celebra­ tions with a greeting o f the rising sun. 66: .164— 65]). 543 See for plates M erkelbach.1 6 4 -6 5 ).. q та? бе o n xa&apal XrjfAfxaTwv etalv итс’ оибе[лс.” D olger (1— also refers 2) to important Christian polem ics against the ritual by O rigen (In Genes. ujavouc.xkviQe tw ocepi (“gaze in the air” ). the initiate will see 539 Contemp. twv e lq Kopic\Lov Ltt. Tcpotpaasax.543 To return to the text. 540 Ibid. 544 For aTevL^eiv (“gaze. facing each other. 545 Air appears here w ithout clarification o f h ow it is related to 7tveu. one o f m en and one o f women. For the Stoic doctrine.a tou 7taXai crucrcavTO? х а т а ty]v epu&pav ftaXaaaav evexa tou &аи[Ј.

Ubersetzung der HekhalotLiteratur I V (TSAJ 29. 94. although it is peculiar that his name is not m entioned. Apos. walks down the stairs.531: jxapfxapuyr).325. the flashing lamp in the temple at Jerusalem. 11.761— 94). n. # # 168 and 169 (ed. PDM xiv.8. Ep.. G M P T . 214. 1. 1995). like the figure on the painting from Herculaneum. is peculiar. асттратга? xal cpwxa fxapfjiaipovTa xal aeiojxevYjv tyjv yvjv xal xaxep%o[iivov t>(eo)v. . reads the abbreviation &v. Corpus Hermeticum. 1. Gos. Peter Schafer & Klaus Herrmann. 681— 82. 188— regarding the 89 epiphany o f Demeter: Y б’ ар’ brz ouSov e(3y] txoctI x a l pa [леАаФрои xupe харт). the sterotypical picture overlooks that the author has left behind the earth some time ago. (“you will see lightening bolts going down. 3069-70 (see Betz. 39-40. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. n. golden­ haired. Eph 1:10. Pet. hXt]0 £v бе ) &upa? Beioio (“But she stepped on the threshold and her head reached the roof.. see Peter Schafer. XII. 11. 693— :546 xal оф 96) -у] xarep^ofiivai. ev yixu>vi Xeuxw xal ХРиаФ are<pava) x al ava^uplax. 1991). For the epithet o f Apollo. . Col 1:15-20.ф£уут). 549 The term U7tepfjt. eds. The “flashing lights” are preferred language in the PG M . 550 In the PGM the immense size o f the deity conforms to the attribute o f Aion (cf. IV. Orph.. ”). in Christian literature the cosmic dimensions o f Christ (the ттАтјрш Јла. 548 Pap. 2. and she filled the door with divine splendor”).13).ey£97)<. also the enormous measurements o f the figure o f Metatron in Hekhalot mysticism. see Furley & 61: Bremer. 4:10. w ith a white tunic and a golden crown and trousers. “Zum groBen Pariser Zauberpapyrus. and a god descending. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism.182 Commentary spectacular cosmic phenomena (11. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. 681-82).548 His portrait can be confirmed by representational art (11. with a shining face. (“there seemed to appear to me a gigantic figure o f immense size.. 22-23.1 regarding the epiphany o f Poimandres: Ѕбо£а xiva бтсЕрЈЛЕуеОт] [лехрм arcept-opicrxio. XIII. which is unreachable even for other deities.. youthful. line 13 (ed. Cf. attested in the PGM only here. Amos 4:13...”). symbolically this means that he leaves the highest sphere. 16 (27). Cf. That the highest god is o f immense size549 is part o f the style o f the epiphany. Von der mystischen Gestalt der Gottheit (Zurich: Rhein. and the earth shaking. 195. Kern). Ubersetzung der Hekhalot-Literatur I (TSAJ 46. 136-65 (§§ 939— 950).. 203. for the detailed description o f the immense size o f God in Shi'ur Qomah. see Aune.” A R W 17 (1914) 347-48..550just as 546 Cf. # 168. Frag. cpamv/jv e^ovxa ttjv бф ^. 1. Orph. ed. 97. Greek Hymns. IV.68— 100. see also C H 1. vearrepov.. 668: [хссрјлараиут] (cf.I ll. Gruenwald. W hile lightnings and earthquakes have been mentioned before (1. the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. 1962). R ev 1:12-16. This god is certainly Mithras. (“and a god descending.1221 (fjwcpjxaipwv). In the LXX cf.547 The god emerges out o f the interior of the temple and.Frag. also Karl Preisendanz.”). Cf. 29— (§§ 12— 33 13). 204.490. 3 list further instances o f the topos. Revelation..260— [Аар[ларс. also X III.238— 44. immensely great. Xpucroxofjiav. 407 with further references). LSJ calls it a Ionic form and notes итггрјЛЕуаЅтј^. see Gershom Scholem. and lights flashing. Kern): acrxpcov fxapfxapecov). 547 Cf.. 536.. and descends to the seventh below. It is. 696— 704): xaxep^ofjievov &(eo)v штер^еуѓ&т]. итсѓрјлѕуа^. for such phenomena in connection with the pole lords. N ock & Festugiere. a topos. however.

ava^upL8eq. and 17. 9:1-9. and often. “Interpreting the 78. 910-12: “Gold in der Magie”. cons. 1958. special traits: w ith the Persian or Phrygian cap missing he looks like a Greek god. remarkably Merkelbach ignores the newly discovered frescoes. “Die Stier5. but he does wear the Persian trousers called ava^uplSs?. esp. 310. totung als Sternenkarte. See Roger Beck. See also LSJ. see Roger Beck. in the tradition o f Cumont. 636). 699-702): xaxe^ovxa ттј џбохоо wfxov xpuaeov (“and holding in his right hand a golden shoulder o f a young calf”).557 A symbolic interpretation of this detail is on the one hand in accord with the author s interest.49. . 2.243-44) admits that the god is Mithras. 27. 104— Ingeborg Huld-Zetsche. furthermore. 89. Hist. Mithriaca I. 76— 234— On the evidence. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 183 his shining face. 181). 1. see also III. Revelation. 556 See Dieterich. 637). 22a and b (Mon. it is attested since Herodotus (1.” JM iS 2:2 (1978) 87— 147. color plate IV. 26 (Mon. 52 (Mon. Lucian.” ANRW 11.17:4 (1984) 2002— 2115. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 2 Cor 4:6. but for him he is Helios-Mithras. The Mithraeum at Marino.552 white tunic (cf. Roger Beck. review o f Merkelbach. The Leiden Papyrus. V. Ponza. 22:4. his work on Mithras. IV1027— Cf. 19. plates 3— 9— 7. Weihegrade. W hile Dieterich rightly saw this to be evidence o f Mithraism.87. “Gold. 555 See Vermaseren. but on the other hand astronomical interpretations have been 551 The shining face o f the deity is a common element o f epiphanies.61. see Dieterich. idem. Seth. 10:1. God of Confusion. IV437. 213-19 (with plates XV— XVII) on “Mithras’ Rindsschulter” . as is his golden hair (cf. 34 with plate 2. Greek Hymns. 75). Cf. symbolically interpreted as astronomical phenom ena (11.554 This last feature is also present on paintings from Dura Europus (Syria). whether in texts or artistic representations. Acts 6:15. in the N T R ev 4:4. for its attribution to Apollo see Furley & Bremer. Mithras. 5. Also. 325.172— 75. 234— s 40. 7. vol. Hinnells. 557 For a careful analysis o f Cumont’ position. 44). Vit. however. C IM R M . 554 This garment worn by eastern peoples is mentioned only here in the PGM. 1. Matt 17:2.553 There are. the N T in Mark 16:15. “Mithraism since Franz Cumont. esp. 1989). 552 The epithet ^puaox6|i. Main body of the ritual (11.555 After the description o f the figure attention turns to the mythological insignia. 76). also figures 16a and b. G M PT . van de Velde.71. n. 52.. 553 For the golden crown. and golden crown (cf. Aune.II. fig. and San M arino (Italy). Ponza Zodiac II. esp. idem. Griffith and Thompson. 635). “Some N ew Photographs o f Well-Known Mithraic Monuments. Merkelbach.551 His youth is analogous to Helios (1.485.207. Phoe. 1. Capua Vetere. Luke 9:29. plate 25. 41 (1987) 296— 316. This statement has given rise to extended controversies past and present. 86— Betz. now confirmed by subsequently discovered fres­ coes. 2050. R ev 1:14. 28. 10. VIII. namely Helios-Mithras. has no comment about the Mithras Liturgy. See Hans-Jiirgen Horn. with note. Philostratus.25). 2049. 40. Apoll. 9:7. 1. 96. esp. 1.av is standard for Helios in III. David Ulansey. Astralmythologische Hmtergriinde im Mithraskult.75. 79. 1.v. n. idem. pp.” R A C 11 (1981) 895-930. 14:14. 636). Mithriaca III. 120— Richard Gordon & John R .” Antike Welt 30:2 (1999) 97-104.556 others denied or belittled it. The Mithraeum at Ponza. s.” ibid. 3. Mithras. The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries (Oxford: Oxford University Press. col. 27 (Mon. 1.

Such pleonasms occur often in cults. esp. in the seven bull-headed young men and here by the shoulder o f the bull. X II. 3. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac. identification w ith Artemis as well as comparison o f the zodiacs from Ponza and Tentyra point to the Great Bear. 56° Merkelbach (Abrasax. 1307: crcpecp£t. because the idea is joined with the image.560 A decision is difficult to make.” 120-27. Planetary Gods. idem. w ith its upward and downward seasonal revolutions” [as translated by M arti­ nez]). 59— esp. O ne possibility is that the god turns the heavenly vault contrariwise to the m otion o f the planets. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac II. O Z 2 /1 . 121-22. IV. 2. but identifications with other deities are made as well.190-92.. the Egyptian term was Mshtyw. fig.v tov Ispov ttoXov.1275— See Beck. 563 avTLaxpsqjet-v is found only here in the PGM. х ата wpav avarcoXeuouaa x al хататсоХеиоиста (“this is the Bear which moves and turns the heavenly vault around in the opposite direction. if the same idea is expressed by two images” (my trans. IV. and a 20th Dynasty text speaks o f ‘this Mshtyw o f Seth’ as existing in the northern sky.10. Boll. 561 For other passages on Bear constellations.” So also Gundel.). LSJ does not list ocvT T pecpw as a mechanical term. G M PT . LVII. Planetary Gods. 59— He refers to 64. Bezold & Gundel. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac II. nn. ecrriv ’’ рхто? yj xtvoucra xal avxxorpecpoucra 1): А t o oupavov.18. 60. 2 (Tentyra). 1331— VII.687: y] схтресроиста tov a£ova.. the Little Bear (Ursus minor) or the Great Bear (Ursus maior)? Griffiths opts for the Great Bear. Griffith and Thompson. and one does not see this as a contradiction. 359D. lib (coffin lid o f Idy. 559 According to Plutarch. Sphaera. XXIII. 89. 700— goes.562 That the Bear “moves and turns the heavenly vault around in the opposite direction” is confirmed in part by parallel references in the PGM . Gundel. W hich Bear does the author have in mind. see IV1275— 1330.. 2. For the identification o f the shoulder o f the bull with the constellation o f the north pole Merkel­ bach refers to the zodiac o f Tentyra and to lids o f coffins. pi. Os. 373: “The equation o f Seth and the Great Bear is well established. 686-702. § 208. and to secondary sources such as Dieterich. 21.ата (?). pi.633. “The Mysteries o f Mithras: A N ew Account o f Their Genesis. in Tubingen). тосир(. Hopfner. ‘Bulls Foreleg’. 700— be. 80.” J R S 88 (1998) 115-28. Sternglaube. 76-79. but this does not necessarily mean that all references point to 1 the same constellation. 79. 137-38. idem.700). pi.559 while Merkelbach for the Little Bear. Beck. I. the Bear charm VII. 562 Cf. The conceptuality is technical but has problems. identifying the constellation with Artemis. Cf. Dekane. Boll. See Betz.686— 702. VII.” JM iS 1:1 (1976). which is interpreted by Griffiths. Plutarch.563 Also unclear is the 558 See Beck. Demotic Magical Papyri.558 The text itself presupposes such a connection (11. See Beck. but оотсгтреттто?.243— 44): “The Little Bear is therefore represented in two images. 12328.561 As far as 11. II. perhaps “bull-like” (VII. Weltbild. but it is not clear what is meant by avTcorpecpeiv.64. The Bear constellations play an im portant role in the PGM . referring to t-C T . fig. 1. Is. the Great Bear was identified with Typhon/ Seth: tt]v бе [фи/^v] Tucpwvo? apxTov.184 Commentary connected with the Mithras cult much earlier. 861.

CHII. and again kiss the phylacteries. Main body of the ritual (11. аитои pofxcpala '1 б1атор1. 628. cf. the gods o f the day. Rev 1:14 about the epiphany of the heavenly Christ: xal ol ocp&aXjxol аитои w? срХ тш бг. 576. E v a ( r u v x t v / j a n r )? та? nsvzs a lcT rh rjcre L^ . 570 See for this reference 11. crit. 11. Hermetica. . V. Weltbild und Astrologie. 755-57. Preisendanz has a different punctuation: alcj97)(jeL<. n. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 185 astrological com m ent o f “w ith its upward and downward seasonal revolu­ tions.243 with parallels (also 3. the planets in control o f the days. [ x a x p o v tic .564 but according to Gundel the text refers to the Bear w ho moves the gods o f the days and hours. 2. [xaxpov ziq knoQ zaiv. W hen confronted w ith this awesome vision. Matt 28:3.X c 5 v 7 t a ) a v т а c p u X a x x T j p i a . Phaen.. bellow long until out o f breath. see his commentary 3. n. (“Then you will see lightning bolts leaping from his eyes and stars from his body” ). Nock & Festugiere. sec. 60.91). for epiphanies Matt 17:2 / / Luke 9:28. 557. 1. see also XIII. VI.570 the roaring or bellowing sound is to be loud (p. рос^. Jordan agrees. 1283— б^Јлоста боаетоа. 1:16: xal e^wv бг^а хг1Р аитои асттера? етста xal ex тои сгт6[лато<. cf. the initiate is ordered at once to perform rituals. mentioned in 11. 84: with the commentary by Furley & Bremer. N ot only must the initiate perform it “at once. 13 564 Dieterich (61— has in mind the 7toXeuovxe<. The punctuation follows Dieterich (14). 659) until total exhala“machines that move on a pivot or swivel” (Diodorus Siculus 20.569 but further intensity is added at this point. 568 (“And at once make a long bellowing sound. The first one is the bellowing sound (704— сти бѓ. 14. 490.566 Since the references to time and vision are stereotypical in the ML. 51. idem. that is. Lys. Greek Hymns. 3.” a stereotypical prescription in the M L. Abrasax.363— 86). 238).565 Following the interpretative lines 701-2. 59. Aristophanes.13 (ed.о<. Luke 24:4. Lohr. 8. W St 42 (1920-21) 24.axpov). 3.” Cf. straining your belly. 569 It occurs elsewhere in the ML at 11. &eol. 638. 92: “the wandering. 657— 712. 579. Verherrlichung. ги&ем? 7): < [ x u x w > [ x u x t o p ia j x a x p o v . causing them to wander up and down along the pole. ( S a c r a v l^ w v ty)v уасттера. Acts 6:15. also Merkelbach.340. o c T to & e a x v (jluxco. б^еТа ехтсореиојлет/] xal 7 бф^ аитои ) б ^Xto? cpaIvzi ev ттј SuvajxeL аитои. that you may excite the five senses. the text returns to the description o f the figure o f Mithras (11.”) This bellowing sound has been m entioned before. Jordan considers cjuyxLvrjciyj^ but keeps cruvxt-vrjcr/]*. See also Aratus. [xuxw__ See Preisendanz. he therefore imagines that those stars jum p out o f his body.175: “indem es [das Barengestirn] stimdlich auf und niedersteigt”. 565 Gundel. 945.” W ho is causing this revolving? Dieterich suggests the pole lords.. 544— 676— 62) 47. 585. 566 For the eyes emitting lightning. X X IV . 26-44.942.. 59— 80. whose open mantle shows stars on the inside.ll. 568 Eitrem adds a verb <(jluxm> before auxoijxa.II. ad loc.41-42. the cosmic features seem to reflect dramatic representations. x a x a < p t . app. 110— (bibliography). the commen­ tary by Scott. 724. 702— етсеста бф-] auxou ex xaiv ojx|xax&)v 4): / aaxparca? xal ex тои осоџатод асттера? aXXo[xevou<.567 The author could have seen this feature on representational portraits o f Mithras.4.150— 230. 27.7. achieved by pressing the belly (cf. 3. 567 Cf. Exc.

3.261 (xupie £ш]<. 1.573 This divine name is followed by an epithet: £to<Y]> jjiou (“my life” ). it is unexplained. l. 574 Pap. and so are translations. cf. The second ritual is kissing the pylacteries (11.. “(DEPEPIZQN. According to Merkelbach (Abrasax.244).i^ie. there are special features that make this prayer different from others (11. This prayer has the usual structure o f invocation. Epigraphische. According to Preisendanz three . However. 576 For passages. sharpened up by the spirit (11. one may conclude that he views the five senses not to be a part o f the mortal body. Preisendanz: “bis zum Nachlassen”. but o f the reconstituted perceptions o f the intellect. 14:10. for in magical inscriptions. See Karl ^v Preisendanz. 520-28). 708— 11). In ihm sein und bleiben. H M R . sometimes called 84.172-73. 7.. s. 707— which. vspie ev ттј ф и ^ [Jt-ou. XIII. Reitzenstein. which Dieterich (14) reads as jxeve cruv ejjie. 73. for Jesus as £ш] see John 11:25. £wy)). el q kizo^eaiv means “Ruhepunkt. has been m entioned before (iraAiv. The invocation (11. 577 Pap. 177— 709. the text says. also 789.571 The purpose o f the exercise is to arouse the five senses together. For £wv as a divine epithet see Martinez.a). see Dolger. 573 The name occurs only here in the PGM. Die Sprache der Immanenz in den johanneischen Schriften (HBS 21. 1967). 8). Menein in den johanneischen Schriften (H UTh 8.576 The second is read by Preisendanz. 2.” is important especially in the Fourth Gospel (John 6:56. R ather than postulating an inconsistency on the part o f the author. 495. Wiinsch (in Dieterich. “again” ). ^cov [xouxouA. Kroll to [xeve. but Jordan prefers Dieterich. 15:4— etc. cf. [л [ле хатаХе1фт]? тѓј (“Stay! Dwell in my soul! D o not abandon me!”).135 (index). reading jjl u o.). “and saying”). s. a strange remark.v. reads [xevecruvefxe. Bleiben. 44.186 Commentary tion. 10 commands are presented: (jive au. see Preisendanz. since the mortal body must be left behind (11. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. fjivco. [xevw. Jordan prefers the pap. Festugiere. in PGM £шј occurs also at XII. Jurgen Heise. 502-13. 53334). 1926). however. Klaus Scholtissek. see Erik Peterson. The first request has many parallels in the P G M .ш].574 W ith the symbol A (xou Selva) a space is indicated.255— 56.572 Together w ith this ritual. For vejxe . see above. 3. Sol Salutis.. “mystical. Freiburg: Herder. in fact agreeing with the Stoic position o f the “deity within”). 575 On this symbol. identification o f the authority.” W K P 32 (1915) 763. E I2 0 E O 2 . This idea is interesting because the various vocal sounds in the ML may be regarded as a kind o f music.a.575 The reading o f 11 709— is contested. 107) emends to auva. formgeschichtliche und religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen (FRLANT 41.). reads cpepspt.B (bibliography).v. 81 14:6 (see BDAG. 3. 1-2 (with important passages from Origen and Augustine. BDAG. 572 See 659-60. The concept. request. s. Revelation. 2000). 12-15. 880— (yevou [aol.577 but the use o f 571 The expression zlq kizodzaiv is unclear.” derived from the language o f music. 529-30.v. 708— begins w ith what may be a divine name: fxoxpifxo 9) cpspifxo cpspepi. 26. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. we follow a suggestion by Martinez. into which the orant must insert his name. a prayer for protection must be recited (xal Aeywv. but < w may be a scribal error for 'С. self-identification o f the orant. Baptized.

2. reads хата?афт)£.” A R W 19 (1916-1919) 165-68.oikia. 20. See BDAG.. Vielleicht darf man auch weitergehen und das Bild der [sic! des] vejxeiv unterstreichen. 578 Cf. 2 Tim 1:14). 96— Reitzenstein. see LSJ. to ctov ovofxa Ifxov x a l to sijlov ctov eyw yap eljjn to elScoAov crou (“For you are I. for which parallels can be adduced as well. See Dieterich.” 580 For the background he refers to parallels in the PGM and elsewhere. 582 See 1. 485— 732) 187 the term vefjito in PGM elsewhere is different. 15-16.. III. 37:22. zu fassen mit dem Sinn des Wohnens: ‘bleibe du. vgl.581 It is true that up to now the initiate did not ask for this indwell­ ing o f a god. For the indwelling o f the divine TtvsujjLa. 8:9. 116— 31. 134— 240) refers to Otto Weinreich’ essay on the 37. The erotic 37. s. dann ist das Gleichnis vom Hirten und dem Gotte da.20-21: xa l carat. 118:8. H M R .2— еА[&]ѓ jaol.g. 70:18. idem. see XIII. xupie 3: 'Epjja]. R om 5:5. if one realizes the fundamental importance o f inhaling the divine spirit (rcv£U[jia) for generating “enthusiasm.aa.” On vefxw act.. also the hymn to Eros IV1763— б ѕт угџлџлчос Tz6. lord Hermes. where the 57.578 The final request states the matter with a different term. ѕухатаЛѕатш. XII. Main body of the ritual (11.761-63: £va. and mine is yours.582 but in many other Hellenistic Weinreich (in Dieterich. If Preisendanz is correct. 14:10-11.26. 580 Dieterich (96— 97): “Wir erkennen im Hintergrunde deutlich die massivste urspriinglichste Vorstellung von der Vereinigung des Menschen und des Gottes: der Gott kommt korperlich in den Menschen hinein..a. Eum.” 581 Dieterich (96— 97. For other instances o f this prayer language see LXX Ps 26:10. 242— 98.761-805.2. XI. 20. . Ps 21:1-2 (еухатаАеиш) is recited by Jesus in Mark 15:34 / / Matt 27:46). The formula o f mutual identity occurs several times in this papyrus: cru yap eyw xal eyw au. your name is mine. a play on words may be intended: jxeve / vejxe. Urchristentum. Eph 3:17. хата Хе17ш. 971) als vefAecr&at. the NT. 110. Betz. 50.q tmv yuvat-xwv (“Come to me. Ol. VII. s. XII. for I am your image” [VIII. Kyrios Christos.632.36— see also 11. 46. unten S.795]). wohne in meiner Seele’. see III. Aisch. та (Зресрт) el q та<?> y. VIII.579 Dieterich has recognized that this prayer is “mystical” and seems to come from a tradition different from the views presented so far in the ML: “We recognize in the background the most massive and ancient concept o f the union o f the hum an being and the god: the god comes into the human being physically. 50. We find it not only in the PG M . 165— 69.v. However.v. spirit does not dwell (olxew.247: тсаспл/ vefxeu. and I am you. 579 Pap. Hellenismus und 52. Poimandres.238— cf. as med. connections should be obvious.. s formula o f reciprocal identity (“reziproke Identitatsformel”): “Religiose Stimmen der Volker.” the idea is not strange at all. 7rveu[i. For parallels.]). Cf. 49— XIII.II. t% ev&eov ev ттј сѓ?) харб1а. 224) has an important comment: “Man hat dann vejxeiv (wie Pind. For the N T see John 10:38.. 17:21. evot-xeco) in the soul but in the heart or body (e. 1 Cor 3:16. 245— Bousset. 11.13. 2.a vefjir)<. 48— 111— 343. Das entspricht der Auffassung vom Wohnen des Gottes im Menschen und seiner evaxjiq mit dem Glaubigen durchaus. as fetuses come into the wombs o f wom en” [my trans. a case o f itacism.iq '\iuycdq (“the one w ho dwells in all 64: souls”).

Cf. Then the prayer itself is to be recited (713— 17). “Platon oder 72. 513. 520. however. the nature o f the request is stated. consisting o f the exclamation “Hail!” and a divine attribute: yoCipz. 70. Def. Antike und Christentum. First. and greet in this m anner”). бшастха ixvsupiaxof.” R A C 3 (1957) 794— 842. 510. 695. self-presentation. 587 See 11. 175— Klaus Thraede. The god is called upon as the ruler o f the elements o f water. 39. It is an order. Chrysipp? Zur Inspirationstheorie in Plutarchs Schrift ‘D e Pythiae oraculis’.2194— б штѕр ут)<.587 earth.v. “Inspiration. 524— Stephan Schroder. 800. 543. Cf. 693. 627. 589. 494. ССЛ 1934. aoi (“for the [magical name] commands you” ).586 Before making his appearance. s. which are 583 See Johannes Haussleiter. and unexplained. 489. 586 The magical names are found only here in the PGM. 17. xal шго yv}v Secttc ty . 680) occur also elsewhere in 83. 86. impregnate a goddess cf.588 and w ind/air/spirit. the god needs to be greeted appropriately. 617-18. ycdpe.” PRJE 47th Halbband (1963) 515— esp.a. VIII. Stuttgart: Teubner. 183. 506.589 This is comple­ m ented by two further attributes: Aafjucpocpeyyyj and тгротгросрѕуу^. Schmidt. evtco VII. O master o f the water! Hail.7.” R A C 18 (1998) 329— Barbel Beinhauer-Kohler. 589 For TtVEUfxa see 11. Dietrich-Alex Koch. See Preisendanz. O founder o f the earth! Hail. 582. s. cf. This greeting follows in 11 712— showing the same pattern as . Plutarchs Schrift 47. 162— idem. Voller’ (Hermes/Thoth)”.” Ph. 1990). o n xsXeuet.119 (index).v. 8. the previous greeting before: invocation. adds: “ ‘Sonnenglanz. 641. Quaest. Glanzender.584 Finally. the necessary rituals have to be performed. esp. 20— 404B-405A. arjp 508. Betz. 505. хахар^а X<xZpe. “Pythia 2.253 (index).556. Plutarchs in D e Pythiae oraculis. for a human man to 21. 25— 183— idem. IV. Pyth. Brashear (“The Greek Magical Papyri. 556) and the loud roaring or bellowing sound (see 11. Already Preisendanz. The various theories regarding the inspiration o f the Pythia at Delphi are discussed by Wolfgang Fauth.188 Commentary texts. “Glanzender” (?). the refer­ ence is by K. 492-93. 482— 710) and xsAsujxa (1. 812-14 (with references). has the divine authority to enforce.1. (“Hail. 65. D e Pythia Oraculis (BAK 8. 588 See 11. 718B. conv.3. .” Wiirzburger Jahrbucher 20 (1994— 95) 233— arguing against Jens Holzhausen. Werner Brandle. They include the gazing (see at 1. orac. 95: o ji mtap^wv.583 Also the ancient theories about the inspiration o f the Delphic Pythia are especially im portant for comparison. 137 (1993) 72— 91. O ruler o f the wind!”). however. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 541. 9.1: evOl svtm) as representing Egyptian 'ndw. beginning w ith the address “Lord” (xupis). and followed by three greetings. 3. 585 The terms xeAeuelv (11. “Inspiration/Theopneustie. 658-59. Num. (“and gaze at the god while bellowing loudly. F. 629. W. “Zur Inspirationslehre 56.. orac. 414E.4. 84. and petition (see 639-55. бесттгоха ибахо^. 584 See Plutarch. “Deus internus. 3.” 3584) who points to evto (IV 711. 665-92). XIX.585 which. 704— 7): xal axevi^e xto &ew jxaxpov jxuxtofjievo? xal асттса^ои ouxax. the PGM in connection with issuing orders to deities. 538. 4.” R G G 4 (2001) 167-75. as indicated by the magical names ev&o cpevev Фротиоог). XIII.331.

595 Merkelbach. furthermore 1. O ne would then cer­ tainly also have to assume that the question would have been submitted in w ritten form the evening or night before. 55).292C]). 122). Preisendanz 32. also suggests that Фртј}фа may have been expanded by the last three letters o f the wellknown palindrome a(3Aava9-avaA(3a. 3.20. X X X .” 594 The subject matter o f the inquiry has to be filled in by the petitioner. For oracle divination in Egypt and rich bibliography. Abrasax. 562. ganz besonderen Anlassen beniitzt worden ist und erst sekundar zu verschiedenen Zwecken herangezogen wurde. xupt. see the logos in 11. 592 Weinreich (in Dieterich.” 595 An ordinary oracular inquiry would indeed proceed as Merkelbach suggests.297. 2502. other attestation. it is more likely that the long-winding ceremony was used originally on only a few issues o f great importance. the term is attested in patristic and Byzantine literature (Gregory o f Nazianzus. 653. according to the T L G .244: “Dies wiirde bedeuten. “Divination in Egypt. O lord. there is no 65.208].e. IV. 3.1 [PG 98. 253.” Altorientalische Forschungen 26 (1999) 77-126. at 1. 594 For this request. Weinreich also calls attention to the name Фр/jv on an inscription from Cordoba (see F Freiherr Hiller von Gaertringen. 562— 603— 65. daB die aufwendige Zeremonie uspriinglich nur zu wenigen. the actual petition is surprisingly b rief (cf. Or. After the long and arduous ascension. IV.) writes Фртј Фр?)?фа. concerning the N N m atter”). Christus patiens [PG 38. for тгротгрофѕуу?]. Man wird doch eher vermuten.590 The conclusion consists o f the string o f voces magicae.113.386. The term is technical and means “to grant an oracular re­ sponse. VII.” .” A R W 22 [1923] 117— esp. E. 588 (with references). which —not uncommonly in magical materials —reflects the name o f Ammon R e.248. 562— 603-4. 996.724. Main body of the ritual (II 485— 732) 189 both associated w ith fire. XII.592 The final step is the presentation o f the petition (717— 24).2-4. see Alexandra von Lieven. “Syrische .a. However. with proximity o f фсАЈЗа. W hy is such an extensive ascension 590 For Ха(Л7гро<реуу7]с cf. 727. and that it was only secondarily applied to all kinds o f pur­ poses. rcepl xou Sscva 71рау[латос. Sapito сррт) срртјТфос. Man muBte dann sicherlich auBerdem annehmen. Weber & O. Littmann. 593 See for this title at 1. Germanus I o f Constantinople [died 733]. 591 See the comparative table above. see 11.951. the petition to Helios. 4):591 ejxeOtpt. 732. daB der Orakelsucher iiber jedes beliebige Thema einen Wahrspruch des Gottes erbitten konnte. apxevxeTU fjiiVEto usvapw (рируеум фтјрг. according to P G L and T L G . Addressing the god again as “lord” (xupie). Merkelbach comments at this point: “This would mean that the oracle inquirer could ask the god for a revelation concerning any subject m atter whatsoever. Gottheiten auf einem Altar aus Cordova.II. but then the question arises. Weinreich. 11 642— . it is o f course not m entioned in the text because every petitioner will want to have his or her own business to present. (“Give revelation. 150-51. LXXVII. similar to those found in 11. 224) comments that Preisendanz (ad loc.593 the initiate requests an oracular session with the god: ^pYjfxaTiaov. daB die Anfrage schon am Vorabend oder in der Vornacht schriftlich eingereicht worden ist. W.

170. Ix xufx(3aAou тсѓтшха. one should assume that the inquirer will seek answers to questions of ultimate concern. See. This suggestion takes up ideas o f D ieterich who sees the redactor as having caused the problem. G M PT . one should remember the highflying aims stated already in the exordium (483— of “walking (into) heaven and looking 84) over all things. 719-24 appears to be a citation. Johnson. also what Firmicus Maternus (Err. the physician Thessalos who has a session with the god Asclepius to learn from him the most effective healing plants. Griffiths (Apuleius. de cymbalo bibi. prof. see above. 599 For the concept o f synthema. In other words. 516— 37). cf. Merkelbach. the previous self-presentations to the elements (11. kann natiirlich niemand sagen. also for other parallels.uciTY ’'Аттеах. . 232): “. the underworld.. 11.th e gods 74 never go away without you having questioned them about everything so that they say to you the answer about heaven. so kommt hier der umarbeitende Magier zu Wort. p. 18. the inquirer needs to present himself and his credentials as an initiate.” Consequently.599 by repeating it from an earlier initiation ritual the present inquirer demonstrates his qualifica­ tions. et religionis secreta perdidict). the magician would go through a lot o f ritualistic pom p and circumstance.597 Before the gods grant the request (11. 11— 15). or what may have been the content o f the omission. Ziegler) reports about ои[л(ЗоАос (symbola) in a mystery cult.190 Commentary ritual necessary. Was er etwa abgeschnitten hat an dem Texte. He “uses the liturgy for obtaining oracular responses. earth. It would be odd to assume that the inquirer who exhibits a philosophical interest in cosmological and anthropological questions would approach this god with mundane banalities. if no more than a simple answer is expected? Merkelbach concludes that the ascension ritual must have been put to a secondary usage..84— 85. 294— 308) dis­ cusses the passage in connection with the famous synthema in Metam. just to give greater status to what in reality could be done in a less spectacular way. 216-17). water and fields. I have drunk from the cymbal. I have become an initiate of Attis”). (“I have jc eaten from the kettle-drum. aber da ich nicht einmal Sicherheit geben kann. however. d a 6 etwas fehlt.” N obody can o f course say what portion o f the text he may have excised. 724— 27). was etwa noch folgte nach dem von uns Herausgehobenen.596 It seems more likely. 11.598 T he great synthema in 11. This synthema has close parallels in the Orphic-Dionysiac gold-tablets. ed. 596 Dieterich (82): “ . and to Helios (11. yeyova [j. lasse ich sie unausgesprochen. including the nature o f the cosmos and his own self. however.670— (Janet H.23. a distant inquiry. Ich habe wohl diese undjene Vermutung. Rather. After all. 3.. O f interest are also his comparisons with analogous Christian formulas. 644-49). Abrasax. 598 Cf.. rel. that there are other versions as well (see Dieterich. that the reference to the subject matter (тсрауЈха) of the inquiry was not ordinary but extraordinary.” Cf.” 597 N ote also PDM xiv. he cites the tripartite password needed to enter into the inner chambers o f the temple: ex tujxtoxvou (3e(3pwxa. Note that the Greek formula and the Latin translation do not conform (De tympano manducavi. the practitioner is seeking a personal interview with the highest god Helios-MithrasAion. in Betz. der die Liturgie benutzt zur Erlangung von Wahrsagungen.

av. avaXu&ei? . NY: Cornell University Press.II. т т б е . 359— (the citation. elrtetv <J>epa’e<p6vat. “Zur Lehre vom Menschen. and TtaXt-vyevsaia. Betz. BCE):600 The tripartite formula. olvov e^et? euSal^i-ova xt.vyev6fxevo? a7ioylyvo^. 485— 732) 191 especially the one from the Thessalian Pelinna (end of the 4th c. (xupc. au^ofjtevo? x a l au£r)&el? xeXeuxw. yevofAevo?.” in Graf. Masks of Dionysus (Ithaca. “Initiation —Tod —Unterwelt. 241-50). the inter­ 98 pretation. with some variation. Ram . Ansichten griechischer Rituale. 718-22): 7taXt. 234— 35). el? a7toyevecilav av aX u $el? rcopeuo[JLat.” ibid. kn o yevecrew? ^woyovou yevojAevo?. I am passing on. сг’ итго yyjv xeXea аст<а>ал:гр oX[3(.ai. O thrice blessed one. xaupo? si? yaXa e&ope?’ а1фа el? y< a> X a e&ope?" xpio? el? yaXa етгесте<?>. I am passing away. I am dying. To return to the synthema in 11 718— Mithras is addressed again as “lord” .fji. N o w you have died. has so far not been conclusively explained. 392. 1993)..601 600 Cited according to Christoph Riedweg. ајлатЕ. he affirms his hum an and divine self-understanding by three state­ ments (11. Kid.. aXXot.?.ot. Main body of the ritual (11.. Clearly. Bull.e. eds. Faraone. 411 (also Antike und Christen­ tum. 23958 (the citation and interpretation. you jum ped into milk. Tell Persephone that Bakchios him self has set you free. you jum ped into milk.). w hile growing and having grown. “Dionysian and Orphic Eschatology: N ew Texts and Old Questions. 24. you fell into milk. Fritz Graf. vuv 19-avs? x a l vuv eysvou. 601 Scholars are divided on the translation o f the phrase el? cotoyeveaiav avaXu&el?. The translation follows. Tpi<76X(3t.” in Thomas H. And below the earth there are ready for you the same prizes [or: rites] as for the other blessed ones. referring in cryptic abbreviations to decisive ritual acts. released to death. a ’ oxi BaХ< Х>[-0? «uto? eXucre. xa7Ufxevet.o<. Having been born from a life-generating birth. Having been born again. You have w ine as your fortuitous honor. Carpenter & Christo­ pher A. on this very day. after w hich the initiate offers three fundamental statements o f selfunderstanding: First. and n ow you have been born.. Beobachtungen zur Kommunikationssituation und narrativen Technik der orphisch-bakchischen Goldblattchen. 370— 75). aTroyevecjLa is the opposite ofyevecrt.

from that same man at once another. released to death”. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 1953]. although the meaning can only be guessed. eav xe a7tot)v7)cTX(*)fi. so then. the verbs in the present tense must define his imminent condition. Erwin Rohde (Psyche.192 Commentary The structure o f polarity is apparent.” Paulinische Studien. Merkelbach (Abrasax.155 (eyw eljxt. We do not live to ourselves and w e do not die to ourselves. 1.244) refers to the Christian formu­ lation in Firmicus Maternus. 22 (ed. the translation is that o f NRSV.]). Preisendanz: “zum Sterben aufgelost”.cra<. which seems an obvious conclu­ sion.6. n. wc < evofxo&exYjcrat. prof. . a kind o f “Sterbeformel” comparable to s R o m 14:7-9: ouSel? yap rj^uov eauxto ^ x a l оибѕ1<. 603 The text is cited according to Nestle-Aland. If w e live.602 Although the formula is now part o f the greeting o f Mithras. such as that o f a formula recited before the initiate’ natural death. the words seem to point to a different context. III. Err. “Transferring a Ritual: 12. w e live to the Lord. 70): ut sepultoprima homine ex eodem statim homine homo aliusfelicius <re>nascatur (“that when the first man is buried. 2. also for baptismal formulae R om 6:1— and my essay.” corresponds to xeXeuxw. man is reborn” [my trans.307. rev. “as you have founded.4. eauxfij атсогКлрахег eav xe yap (^wjxev.. xou xuplou eafxev. For a discussion o f arcoyeveala see Festugiere (Revelation. as you have decreed. 3.175): “ins Ablegen des Lebens aufgelost werde(n). three further statements affirm the divine authority which supports the initiate’ present self-understanding: s a u exxt. Meyer: “I am passing on. 240— esp.603 Second. Reitzenstein (G G A 185 [1923] 51) renders it as “entferne ich mich” (“I remove myself”). xto xuplw ^wfxev. w e are the Lord’ s. Konrat Ziegler [Miinchen: Huber. En. Cf.307): “je me dissous pour entrer dans la mort”.421— 22). 27th ed. whether w e live or whether w e die. o yevvtov x a l ajtoyevvwv) and Plotinus. Dieterich (15): “werde ich in den Tod erlost”.” 602 As an important parallel. 1.12 (eiq xo auxo ayr^xa eXQelv [xexa xt)v arcoyevecrt-v). Paul’s Interpretation o f Baptism in Romans 6. and if w e die. rel. happier.. Festugiere (Revelation. 3. what do the self-definitions define. eav xe o5v i^ojAev eav xe a7to^v7]CTXw[xev. his newly achieved divine status or his human status? Since he states his achievement o f rebirth and regeneration as past experiences. 70. 6) w ho points to the parallels in PGM V. and have authored (the) mystery. w e die to the Lord.ev. 261— 71. 7U x a l ercotajcxa? [AucrryjpLOV. xS xuptto aTcoQ-vfjaxofxev. If the inquirer speaks as an initiate.

” He refers to a parallel in an Egyptian charm translated by Borghouts: “it is not I who have said it. It appears originally to belong to a different hymnic context unknown to us. in the papyrus the sentence follows: таита стои s I tcovto ? eu&eooc.ov. see also Dieterich (14— 15). as instances in 76. O Z 2 /1 .” R ather arbitrarily.. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 75. 746.. fjt.175— 244). the new section. Festugiere.) ends at this point. since it names an object known to the practicioner. (М л & р а ? ) . Meyer. The decisive insight gained from his initiation is that he has come to understand himself as an individual self (eyto elpa). For the term [xucTT7]pt. Cf. “I am P H E R O U R A M IO U R I. may refer to all three lines.II. w ithout article. the Eleusinian mysteries were instituted by Demeter (Horn. Dieterich believes that the immortalization ritual (атса&аvaTLa[xo<.ai o f Hermes. 170. 724 with the words eyw eljjL cpspoupa [jaoupt. § 68. 723) can. E. Preisendanz. therefore. PH ER O U R A M IO U R I.u<rcr]pt. Chapter 1. 794 show. this is the statement by the magician who is reworking the liturgy for the purpose of 604 Martinez rightly proposes the sense o f a recusatio: “not I but y o u . This aim is stated in the text time and again w ith great clarity.. Main body of the ritual (11. begins in 1.. 3. and that a new section dealing w ith the granting o f an oracular response begins.ov.607 sy to slfju cpepoupa fjaoupi. That the mystery cult has been instituted by the deity is a common doctrine. 72— 73. XXIII (Kore Kosmou). refer also to things other than the ritual as such (1. and Merkelbach (Abrasax . That object seems to be the ritual as a w hole. Col 1:26— 2:2-3. 605 See also Betz. it is not I who have repeated it.ov (1.. та jAucror)pt. P. the resultant self-definition o f the initiate is summed up in a very concise statement. 27.608 “We feel in these last words a kind o f conclusion o f the consecration. the immortali­ zation o f the initiate after the needs o f the bodily life.605 Third. 258. . the mysteries o f Isis and Osiris were revealed by the v0 [A &eat. W hen. which he calls “Anweisung zu magischer Verwendung der Mithrasliturgie” (“Instruction for the magical application o f the Mithras Liturgy”). without article. 476: plural. 607 The name is found only here. Antike und Christentum. Frag. ^ртјстриабујаес. as refering to the mystery ritual as divinely authored (ttolouv). 608 According to Dieterich (16). that has repeated it. 485— 732) 193 The precise meaning o f this part o f the formula seems unclear. and unexplained. 224. 170. 178).606 identified by his secret name.” Cited and discussed in Martinez.. According to C H .ai (“She showed the conduct o f her rites and taught them all her mysteries”). when he con­ tinues carefully to annotate the text from here on (16— 21).604 The object [xuCTTY]pt. 11. n.g. 6°6 por jjjjg formulaj see above at 1. It is this magic that comes for N N born o f N N that has said it. its purpose being the rebirth. Hymn to Demeter 473— 76: SprjafAocjuv/jv 9-’ Lepwv xal IrcecppaSev opyia na. “I am t. For more 0 material see Hopfner.a).” One wonders why Dieterich stops translating. 527. Michigan X V I. the article (the) may fit in English.

611 See the parallels in 11. 24. 184— 209. For euQiwi. e u & e co ? x P y]CTtX(P^1 QCTEt' ( “ a f t e r y o u h a v e s a i d t h e s e t h i n g s . le a v in g a sp a ce fo r th e c o n s u lt a t io n to ta k e p la c e and fo r th e is s u e (тс р а у [х а ) t o be s u b m i t t e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . Thessalos almost lost his mind: xa&c^ofxevou бе [xou xal sxAuojjlevou tou асојлато^ . 610 T h e r e is n o t h i n g i n t h e t e x t . deren Zweck ja die Neugeburt. &e6<. 3.101— xpYjajJiwSoi. 612 A s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . ed. For this term. see especially the ’А-гсоАА&тахт) iTzivSkqaic.263— 347. 7 1 7 — 1 8 ) h a v e th e t w o c o o r d in a t e s e c t i o n s ( 1 5 . 14.. x u p i s . (“at once”). 3.w87]a£t. o x a v a o i a r c o x p lv ^ x a ! . a n d y o u w i l l n o t b e i n y o u r s e l f . 1. 576. II.46. h e w i l l i m m e d i a t e l y r e s p o n d w i t h a r e v e l a t i o n ” ). h o w e v e r . corrected by Dieterich (16). 610 On the methods o f collating sources used by ancient scribes. Cf. Friedrich. reads y_p7]aij.240) points to Thessalos’s encounter with Asclepius 38. ” 609 C o n s e q u e n t l y . 117 [# 45]). see 11. so kommt hier der umarbeitende Magier zu Wort. 11.” See also ibid. Texte. t o s u g g e s t s u c h a r e d a c t i o n a l s e a m . t h e p u r p o s e a n d a i m o f t h e r i t u a l is to b r i n g th e in q u ir e r u p to th e p o in t o f m e e t in g th e g o d in p e r s o n . I. 7 i e p l t o u A been s e c o n d a r ily in s e r t e d b y t h e r e d a c to r . R a t h e r . 613 A pertinent example o f such conversations are the consultations o f the god Trophonius in the underground cave in Lebadeia. 717. 614 609 Dieterich (82): “Wir fiihlen in den letzten Worten eine Art AbschluB der Weihe. p.' ^ p y j f x a T t a o v . VIII. probably together with the birth constellation (ykveatq). (Prooem. (MtQ-pa?). t h e t e x t d o e s n o t r e p o r t a n y m a t e r i a l c o n t e n t o f q u e s t i o n s a n d a n s w e r s . W hen the god appeared. Dies Ziel ist immer wieder mit groBter Deutlichkeit im Texte ausgesprochen. ^ргјЈлатс^со 1. 740. 1 6 ) . ѕи&ѓм^ ^ру]С [хсоб7)С £[. see below. 611 T h e te rm ^ p Y ja p u o S s T v is t e c h n i c a l a n d d e s ig n a t e s th e o r a c u la r re ­ s p o n s e . 614 Actually. die Unsterblichmachung des Mysten nach der N ot des Leibeslebens ist..” Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 53. 557. 732. h e a s s u m e s t h a t t h e w o r d s cpprj cpprjXfia. 613 T h e v e r y n e x t ste p c o m m e n t s o n th e c o n d i t i o n o f th e in q u ir e r d u r i n g th e c o n s u l t a t i o n (11. “not being in (or: by) yourself” defines ecstasy (ѕхатаа^). 612 Pap. Abrasax. T h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e p h r a s e . i n T tp a y jx a x o ? o rd e r to (11.. h a v e a p p e a r e d b e f o r e i n d if fe r e n t s it u a t io n s t o in d ic a t e p r o g r e s s i n t h e n a r r a ­ t iv e . der die Liturgie Т Т benutzt zur Erlangung von Wahrsagungen. т а и т а a o u ei7r6 vTO <. See my article.86— 90.194 Commentary o b t a i n i n g a n o r a c u l a r r e s p o n s e . 84— 85. see at 21. 727. Wenn darum nun im Papyrus der Satz folgt: таита aou eiuovToc. 655-56. 620— 633. 7 2 5 — 2 6 ) : ш г е х Х и т о ? б г e a s e т т ј ф и ^ тј x a l o u x e v а ѕ а и т а ј E a s t. also Totti. The terminology and concept o f oracular inquiry is frequent in the PGM. 2: the verb ^раст&ац 1.. cf. “The Problem o f Apocalyp­ tic Genre in Greek and Hellenistic Literature: The Case o f the Oracle o f Trophonius. see Merkelbach. 1. S e v e r a l p a r a l l e l p a s s a g e s c o n f i r m th a t t h is is th e t y p ic a l c o n d itio n o f a p e rso n in e csta sy or t h e r e a f t e r . see also VI.54. 3. On хртјстјлб^ (“oracular response”).157) who believes that the specific issue regarding which the oracular response was sought had been submitted in written form on the evening before. (“ n o w y o u w i l l g r o w w e a k i n y o u r s o u l. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 737— Merkelbach (Abrasax. w h e n h e a n s w e r s y o u ” ).

das widersprache aller Analogie ahnlicher sakramentaler Aktionen.” (“Whether somehow the descent o f the initiate was liturgically presented..” Paul’s vision o f Christ on the road to Damascus causes his physical collapse.axa. 1898).1) presents a kind o f classic statement: ’Evvolac.. бе croi б[.” R A C 4 (1959) 944— idem. I am unable to make out.617 It is the case. for the OT and Judaism see Saul’ weakness s after the consultation with the dead prophet Samuel in the story o f the “witch o f Endor” (1 Sam 28:20-24). and my thinking was lifted up high. ey. Psyche (2nd ed. H e perceives the absence o f a narrative o f a ritual dealing with the inquirer s return from heaven to earth. [ioi тготѕ yevojiivT^ ruspl twv ovtmv xal [летѕмрс-а&Ехсттјс. 1 En. To me it is not probable that the return o f the initiate occurred somehow in the liturgy itself. &ea<. [mi ттјс Siavolai. to be sure.])..а ох1 јш t o v jpy\a\xbv x a l ec7ta)(v) а 7геХеистгта[616 (“he. стфобра. while my bodily senses were held down. the soul.II. ecstasy”] in the proper sense is well-known to us.uic. хатаа^е&есаш [лои тcov (JwfxaxLxwv alaihqarewv. that the ML xal TTjs фи/9}<. sein Geist in den Gott korperlich eingeht. speaks the < oracle to you in verses. 11. that the human being. Mit dieser Vorstellung wechselt immer und immer wieder die. 8. or the spirit ascends to the sphere o f the god. “when I took my seat and my body and soul grew weak because o f the miracle o f the vision. (“Once when thought came to me about the things that are. the reading elrcwv by Dieterich (16) is correct. 240). Wiinsch (in Dieterich.” Dieterich (98) refers to Rohde..5.13 (see Betz. daB die Ruckkehr des Geweihten in der echten Liturgie irgendwie vorkam.” R A C 18 (1998) 57. Metam.40): “(Then) a great trembling and fear seized me and my loins and kidneys lost control. see also C H X . 83): “Ob irgendwie der Abstieg des Mysten liturgisch angegeben war. O n the topic o f ecstasy see Friedrich Pfister. Main body of the ritual (11. which in turn supports D ieterich’ ideas concerning the composi­ s tion. and after speaking he will depart”). Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 615 Dieterich (97— 98): “D ie Erscheinung des evQouaiacrjxoc im eigentlichen Sinne ist uns wohlbekannt.” 615 The session w ith the god then concludes (11. like those who are heavy with sleep from a fill o f food or fatigue o f the b o d y .27— “as if. this would be in conflict with all analogies o f similar sacramental actions. 28: the gods’ presence was not supposed to make humans better than themselves. sed debiles ejfici uel aegrott). Primarily it is meant to be physically possessed by the god. ехсгтаог? [‘ecstasy’] is derived from this viewpoint. 617 Dieterich (82. “Ekstase.. 186). “Enthusiasmos. 2. 329— (with bibliography). daB der Mensch oder seine Seele. 60:3 (O T P 1. D ieterich’ (82— s 83) astute observation that the session ends rather abruptly is one o f the reasons why he assumes that a section at the end may have been excised by the redactor. Es ist urspriinglich gemeint als ganz korperliches Erfulltsein vom Gotte.”) . 485— 732) 195 D ieterich’ com m ent is to the point: “The phenom enon o f ev^ouaiaa^o? s [“enthusiasm. хаФаттер xaiv (mvw (3e(3ap7][jiivo[.” Apuleius... This idea changes time and again with the other.. for the oracle o f Trophonius see Pausanias 39. described in Acts 9:3— 22:6— 9. entstammt dieser Anschauung. 65 616 Pap. 87. “Inspiration.18ff. So I fell upon my face. Sloc to 7rapaSo^ov тгј<..” R A C 5 (1962) 455— Klaus Thraede. thus. 727— 28): Aeyec.” [my trans. ex xopou троср?]<. indeed. The opening paragraph o f the “Poimandres” (C H 1. but rather weak or sick” (prorsus quasi deum praesentia soleant homines non suifieri meliores.. kann ich ebenfalls nicht ausmachen__ Wahrscheinlich ist es mir nicht. 7] ex хотсои сгцхато^. however. reads et-тш with the v expressed by a supralinear stroke.

-Phoc.176— 83. For yoipeiv (“comprehend”) see also below. Plutarch. Sacr.g. app. 89.” . 670..252-53.196 Commentary says nothing about a ritual o f return618 or o f the god s dismissal. which would require a considerably longer time. the concern in 1 En. ox. xav [xuptwv c f t l y m o у^оџбс. (“by himself. ” (“Du aber stehst da. 3.a.622 Two promises deal w ith them.. and that it may be borrowed from a source.621 It appears that after having received the response. 22. 621 Cf. 184— 86. . agreeing with Usener (in Dieterich. аитбјлато^. recollection.v. Matt 19:11.b.” 100) reads сти бе axi]Keiq eveoq w . Differently. Haer. auTOfxaTwi. Wilhelm Cronert (“Zur Kritik. s. Icarom. ^wpeco. n. crit.” This reading Preisendanz adopts.. see Dieterich (16. see BDAG. та итгб тои [леуаХои 9-sou pY]Q-£vxa. the epilogue even presupposes that the revelation could include thousands o f verses. see. Acts 9:7: ol бе &v8peq. one being comprehension.v. there is no indication o f how long the session would last. the men accompanying him stand speechless.. and I heard from them everything and I understood.-. crit. 623 For the term /copslv (“comprehend”). s. 1:2 (O T P 1. 505.623 The other promise assures him unfailing remembrance (11. 83). spontane­ ously” ).. Merkelbach: “aber du wirst stumm dastehen und dariiber staunen. 923. Gen.110. xauxa uavxa ^мрѓјстец. атгараРатм.6. denn du wirst das alles von selbst verstehen”. 2 Cor 12:2-4. elcmr)X£t. 11.? hvzbq. BDAG. an important term in miracle stories. 170. ” or “stand in amazement that you will by yourself comprehend all these things” (Preisendanz: “Du aber steh stumm. 8.620 (“but you stand speechless.26. 728-32). 2. Cato Min. 1. R ather than being short. 5.(jav sveo L. the inquirer is faced w ith two questions. after Paul’s vision o f Christ.) cites Hopfner’ read­ s ing: (wctts) ум рујвем . (“for at a later time you will remember 618 For such narratives o f return. Hippolytus. < таита Tcavxa yapricziq' xal to t s (xvrj^oveucjEti. app. 592E.258. 334— 47. Meyer: “But you remain silent. is a hapax in the PGM. The first assures him that he will indeed comprehend everything аситоуАтмс. 622 Translations differ at this point because eveoq can be taken in two ways.35. The first o f these involves his resulting condition (11. Preisendanz (app. crit. see Plutarch. daB Du alles von selbst behaltst. 728— 29): au бѕ cmrjxet. 619 For such ritual dismissals. because o f amaze­ ment incapacitated to comprehend all o f these things. 620 Dieterich reads (16): oru б’ естттјхѕ^ cveo q &q. 729— 30): x al t o t e pt-VYjfAoveuaet.619 Also. n. (Demotic) xiv. either as “speechless and wondering how . H ow then can the missing return o f the inquirer be explained? The conclusion o f the ritual again looks at the inquirer and provides several instructions (11. 623. also referring to the parallel in IV.94— 95. IV. 54 [1895] 561) refers to parallels for the meaning o f y apeiv (“comprehend”): Philo. . . Socr.B.13): “(This is) a holy vision from the heavens which the angels showed me. since you will be able to compre­ hend all these matters by yourself”. III. and the other. dies alles von selbst zu begreifen). аиторихтоо*. XI. Kroll (Ph. Cf. Lucian. was der groBe Gott gesagt hat”). “but you stand there.. 53 [1894] 420. 64.) that this looks like a hexametric half-verse. 34. 6. e..4. unfahig vor Staunen. [wondering] how you will by yourself compre­ hend all these things”). Ps. 16.

whole is experienced in ecstasy. as such oracles should be. 185-86. The experience is. Regarding this last point. this is 29).628 Surpris­ ingly. Therefore. 55. 8. 1. which for him is physical.405 with n.626 the m om ent w hen he finds himself “standing speechless” (11. 7Tpom«mov.” 627 See 1. also the charms in PGM called “memory spells” ([xvtq^xovlxt]). 11 725-26 lead to the conclusion that the journey to heaven as a . O ne must be cautious at this point. 1. 53— 67 n. this means that the initiate “left the earth” in a state o f trance. 625 For xav -?jv as a common 3rd pers. Plutarchs Schrift. 2. 11. and not only a mental experience. in non-literary papyri and the N T see Gignac. 314. 626 Cf.v. so as to preserve the memory (see Betz. one wonders whether the author has oracle collections. w hen the god departs the initiate comes out o f his trance. subj. 467— etc. sing. they add up to a collection o f myriads o f verses. and Plutarch. in which he discusses current theories o f decline o f the Greek oracles because they are turning to prose. (“mouth to mouth he was a companion o f the god”). If. 78. the oracular response envisaged is called “the words o f the great god. imaginative. Thespesius is touched with a glowing-hot rod. also Paul’s intended ambiguity in 2 Cor 12:2— Regarding the man snatched up 4. l. a m outh-to-m outh (axo[xa repo? crxofxa) or face-to-face (npooamov npoQ npooconov) revelation. 728— Second. 204). these oracles had the highest value. perhaps even a 624 That the problem o f remembering the revelation was an important concern is shown by parallels in connection with the oracle o f Trophonius (see Pausanias 39. God knows.40— 42. 1.” revealed directly w ithout a mediating interpreter.8-14. whether out o f the body I don’t. o f Moses LXX N um 12:6— Deut 5:4. this fact only reveals our lack o f understanding o f what is implied in an ecstatic experience. o f course. they are given in verse. Main body of the ritual (11.b. Grammar.624 even if the oracle contains myriads o f verses” ). Cf. According to the worldview expressed in the text. . Sera 33.627 Furthermore. but it is nonetheless “real” in the sense that the initiate s physical as well as mental state is participat­ ing. and Betz. he confesses “whether in the body I don’t know. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. First. III. 628 See Plutarch’s essay “W hy oracles are no longer given in verse” (D e Pythiae oraculis). Hellenismus und Urchristentum. and BDAG. into the third heaven. s.625 Several things are made known here about the nature o f the revelation.232— 47. 568A): At his return from the journey to the afterlife. According to ancient views. however.II. Cf. also 1 Cor 13:12. See Schroder. 485— 732) 197 infallibly the things spoken by the great god.2— to ато[ла тсро? to стто[ха ctuv6[xlXo< tm 3: . it appears to us as outsiders that the initiate does not move an inch off the ground and that there is no account o f a return.424— 66.

Porphyry.. There are two kinds o f those supplements: first.631 A . W. V Apoll. 732— 819) As the analysis shows. 631 Merkelbach (Abrasax . three additional in­ structions for preparing ingredients to be used in the ritual (11... stating 629 Such as the “Chaldean Oracles” (see Edouard Des Places. (“But if you want to consult the oracle by using a fellow-initiate [as medium]. eav бе x a l .. 20.. Greek Particles. 732 the ritual o f immortalization (атга&оп/аткЈЈАо?) concludes. As will be shown below.” A N R W 11A l A [1984] 2299-2335). G G R 2. 724— 28). Supplemental rituals (11. The phrase “if you wish” (eav бе ФеХт]?). 187— 88). Aune.478-85. so that he hears only the things spoken together w ith y o u .156-57) assumes that all the additional rituals refer to passages that were part o f the preparatory rituals which the redactor omitted from the beginning o f the text. 750— 819). second. coordinated by sav бе x a l . Berlin: Springer. when he reappears from the cave with a book containing the teachings o f Pythagoras (Philostratus.6vov auv trot axoueiv. W hat follows are supplementary instructions. just as the first inquirer. also Apollonius’ consultation o f Trophonius. Wormell... 3. the initiations o f both con­ sultants are therefore presupposed as having occurred prior to the present ritual text. 305. 732—50) The three optional rituals. See Nilsson. part III (11. 732— 819) contains supplemental rituals. In the first option (11. however. eav бе x a l . three options for including a fellowinitiate in the oracular consultation (11. Gustav Wolff. The Delphic Oracle (2 vols.632 concern the oracular consultation presented above (11.630 W ith 1. These rituals are not to be confused w ith initiations. 8. 77— 79.19— see . 732— 36).. is already an initiate (сти[л[лиату]^). Oxford: Blackwell.. Parke & D.198 Commentary specific one.” “once more” vel sim. Herbert W. D e philosophia ex oraculis exhaurienda librorum reliquiae (ed. the fellow-initiate is to serve as a medium in the consultation: eav бе OiXTji. “Les Oracles Chaldaiques.. E. Early Christian Prophecy.”). 632 For xod almost equalling a0 (“again. III.629 At any rate. x al сти^иоту} ^p-rjcxaa&ai соахе xa Xeyofxeva exetvov p. 630 Cf. 1856). Optional rituals for including afellow-initiate in the consultation (11. .. in m ind. because the additional person to be included in the consultation must be someone who.... 1966). he names a problem that no doubt has led to such collections. 1. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. the situation is more complicated. Betz. 732— 50).) see Denniston.

30. [лиахт^.” 635 T he meaning o f the waxe-sentence is.” in Gesammelte Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt (2nd ed. <i^> У][лера? x al атсоахѓст&со x al (SaAavelou (“let him be pure together w ith you for [seven] days. axouet. XIII.141-44. cpwvf^.285— 420— 5 2 5 95. 572. 870— see Theodor Hopfner. at first sight. xal SatfJiova^ етс’ аито [31а феpet.636 In the PGM . this term usually refers to the words to be spoken by the practitioner o f the ritual. but in this context it is more likely that it signifies the utterances o f the god (see 11 731. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. see also 1. 480-85.52. 26. 3125. “Dromena und Legomena.94.1040-45. the differing versions o f the reports about Jesus’ baptism (Mark 1:9— 25. 637 For the term та Xeyofxsva. Supplemental rituals (11. 11. браса IV. Ш . 52-53. V . 815-20. Mylonas. cf. IV.210— cf. X II.168.348-58 (title: fxavxetov en i izaiSoq). VII.32. See George E. 261— Albert Henrichs. for the unassimilated spelling see Gignac. VII. 193-94. see PDM xiv. as well as in the language o f the mystery cults.638 These conditions are typical for prelimi­ 633 See 1.” in Recueil d ’etudes dediees a la memoire de N.633 The term aujjifjiucrxTjc. but here it seems to have the more specific meaning o f “to make use o f a m edium .III. 460-65. Kondakov (Prague: Seminarium Kondakovianum. V. 1. 74. 285-90. 375— a<. 785. but appears to become clearer w hen compared w ith the two other options. 168— 72. For the term. 772. 695. Zum rituellen Selbstverstandnis der Griechen. XCIV. 856.) and about the witnesses o f Paul’s vision o f Jesus on the road to Damascus (Acts 9:7: axouovxec. 32 0 9 10.1442. 11 par.151..749. XXXVI. 490-95.124.42-43. Grammar. and Burkert. 65— 74.). 1926). Ancient Mystery Cults. see also XII. IV767. BDAG. XIII.41 (ev у ^ р И ? £']).526-27. [xev xyj<. . P. a limit is imposed on that role: “so that he hears only the things spoken together with you” (ware xa Xeyop-eva exelvov fxovov auv croc. 634 Pap.56.710. Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries (Prince­ ton: Princeton University Press.5-10.244-45.” in Graf. 671. 530. For the importance o f seven days. 638 Dieterich adds pQ (“seven”) because o f the parallel in IV. 2301.v. IV. 815— Cf. For discussion and parallels see Herbert Braun.792— sZtzsv бе puu o т)ѕ6с' pqxe n yp5> 93: T auyxptd^xT!. 44. П. term Spwjxeva does not occur in the PGM. “Die Kindermedien in den griechisch-agyptischen Zauber75. 1720. 738. 150-55. for бе^и[Х(.86-87.114. 737). XIII. 410-15. 11. The 11. III. 695-97.aX xal (3[a]&pou). For child mediums see 1.637 . but perhaps at a lower rank or as child m edium . 636 For such selective participation in revelation. 76. below 11.495. “Entscheidende Motive in den Berichten iiber die Taufe Jesu von Markus bis Justin. but cf. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. see also 1.163. 544. III. 2257. PDM xiv. 732— 819) 199 options.425-39. 2655. IV246-47: бтсер ovo^jia pT]9iv fteoui. 850-51. 1961).17.a$oii appears often in the magical literature. Jordan considers articulating cruv [auctxy] or haplography <auv> <tuv[xucjty]. IV.v). and abstain from meat and bath”). LXII. is technical and indicates that the adept has been initiated. 33-71.89. obscure. Xu/vou x a l <pt. T he following statement specifies the conditions the medium has to meet before performing his role: auvayvsuexco aot. is attested elsewhere in the P G M . 149 n. 1967). PDM xiv. [x^Ssva бе ftewpouvxe?).10. 2252. km.l-53 W (title: [xavxetov Sapamaxov [ercl] тсоабо^. papyri.2593. 635 For the verb referring to a substance see IV. 515-20. reads auvfAuaxu) (equalling сти[х[хиат7]). If the role o f the fellow-initiate is that o f a medium. 75.634 The verb ypcf. s.

“speak in the same way as.” R A C 10 (1978) 812— (bibliography). Kultusaltertumer.298— See Julius Jiithner.2. passim. 349 n. 99.. XXII. 641 Strangely. ax. ‘Ritual’ and the Opposition ‘Sacred vs. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. LXVII.27. 76— 102.334. 644 Merkelbach (Abrasax. Leiden: Brill. Porphyry.” R A C 1 (1950) 1134— esp.639 The emphasis on “together w ith you” indicates the role o f the m entor/teacher as supervisor.441. “ ‘R e­ ligion’. cruvayvLCT^xi snev'/rj. Reinheitsvorschriften.347. 1910).498. ad loc. XIII.” IV.41-42. cf. Gerhard Delling.65-70.. and you are [directly] engaged w ith the pronouncements o f the god. you speak as inspired in 639 The term auvayveusiv is rare and found only here in the PGM.53. but the latter option seems to be the more likely answer. app. and that o f the fellowinitiate as being o f lower status. cf. Absten­ tion from meat was widespread in antiquity. Altertum (R W 6. 640 For ѕ[хфихо?. is not m entioned. for this and other parallels see David Martinez. passim.2997-98 (for other readings. and he concludes that the redactor must have omitted them. The simplex ayveueiv (“sanctify”) occurs 11. Abstention from bath ((BaXaveLov) is mentioned only here in the PGM.200 Commentary nary purifications or sanctifications. Amulets. 357— 65.” Martinez suggests that Preisendanz may be right because also in the other two sav-clauses the protasis is followed by an imperative apodosis. cf. 107— 29 8. Kotansky.” in Graf. 19. 32. 3. According to Acts 23:21. VII. bathing does not effect purification. 151. 70. Miasma. IV. and 1141-42. Ancient Mystery Cults. see Wachter.642 however. VII. . Det. See Jan Bremmer. Preisendanz apparently later proposed the reading Asys laaq. IV897-98. IV3209. 1995). Cf.2. “be sanctified together by prayer. 846. 43.52. Reinheitsvorschriften. a7co<pot<(3w[jLevo£645 (“B ut if you are alone. 20. Ancient Magic and Ritual Power (RGRW 129. This conclusion leaves three possible ways o f understanding the matter: Did the redactor omit the requirements as they apply to the author himself from the written source material? Or did he regard them as unwritten preconditions for the practitioner/teacher because they are self-evident and do not need to be written out? Or did he spell them out as precondi­ tions for the medium? A decision is difficult. XXXVII. 145— 765— 815— O n the subject see Eugen Fehrle. 645 According to Weinreich (in Dieterich. Parker.245) notes that no such requirements are reported at the beginning o f the ML.. 736— 38): eav 8e x al { iovoq x al xa O tto t o u &eou elp-yjjjiiva.23. whole. 1136 (referring to Philo. eds. The second option applies to prophecy w ithout a medium (11.149. 2).. see 1. a third typical requirement. D ie kultische Keuschheit im 50. see Preisendanz. “ ‘May she neither eat nor drink’: Love Magic and Vows o f Abstinence. 642 See Wachter. 9— esp. On the 80. Trpoayvsuexv. Vit. Plot. as well as from bath641 are the com m on requirements for sancti­ fication. Abstention from “ensouled” food (г^лфи^о^). Paul’ enemies swear that they will neither eat s nor drink until they have killed the apostle. 24-31. ev exaxaast. PDM xiv. see also IV. Profane’: Notes Towards a Terminological ‘Genealogy’. 3079— LXVII. 643 On abstention from sex. Burkert. IV.644 s 2.113. 1766. 155-70. 1-2. Stengel. see also IV.643 These requirements o f purity are preconditional for the per­ son’ function as a m edium . 224). Miasma. 52. 1. афихо? 1. “Bad. Parker.” in: Marvin Meyer and Paul Mirecki. sexual intercourse.640 that is meat. Aeyei. 671. XIII.b. crit. GieBen: Topelmann. “Geschlechtsverkehr.).

738— 40): eav бе x al Sel^aL auxw &ѓАт]<. . als warest du in Ekstase. 12.285-95. Diodorus Siculus 34/35. 64— 101. term алтосрофаојала (“inspired by Phoebus”) is found only here (LSJ. ” 651 Cf.9— 10: xivouvTat. .” 100— but Preisendanz.v. The Greeks and the Irrational.) 647 See also the “Apollonian invocation. ev excnraaei. ” ). cf. translations differ.” H R W G 2 (1990) 253— (bibliography). > < could be taken as faking the ecstasy (see Apuleius. and you undertake the things communicated by the god. el a^t-oc. Cf.262— 347 (Betz. G M PT .” R A C 4 (1959) 944-87. ‘W illst du es aber auch ihm (dem Miteingeweihten) zeigen. 815-25. n. wie in Ekstase voll prophetischer Begeisterung.646 The absence o f a medium means that. 614. “Dromena und Legomena. Acts 16:16: e /e iv uveufxa тси9ш/а. 637). 55— “Rituelle Ekstase”..III. . eaxxv аасраХоЗ^ w? av&pwrco^ . Henrichs. s. ехата(Г1 < 2. the present option is different from the previous one. . xplva?. but there the meaning is -еХ clear (cf. the prophet receives the utterances o f the god directly. BDAG. M ore complex are the theories concerning the Delphic Pythias ecstatic inspiration by Apollo. Hartmut Zinser.648 3. 741-46). Preisendanz: “Wenn du aber auch allein bist und an dem vom Gott mitgeteilten Zauber dich versuchst..2. 8. and Merkelbach keep uq.9. Meyer: “And if you also wish to show him . “Ekstase.what? Judging from the context (11. 16) regards as dittography and proposes o. Cels. .649 (“But again if you wish to show him. Merkelbach: “Aber wenn du es ihm mitteilen willst.” in his Orakel und Mysterien am Ausgang der Antike (AIVi 5. 132— 819) 201 ecstasy” ). Alex. 65° preisendanz. 525-30. “having a Python spirit. see also PDM xiv. The third option is most difficult to understand because the formulation is ambiguous (11.. 47— 52. Conceivable if unlikely in the present passage is that the expression & . ”. 7. Metam. the similar phrase eav бе aXXw О т)? Set-xvueiv (1. the most likely object would be a revelatory symbol belonging to what in mystery-cult language is called та Seixvu^eva (“things shown”).650 Depending on the interpretation. For further bibliography. (I am indebted for these passages to Cristiano GrottanelH..709-10.5— x a l outm т а [xeXXovTa 7: ocrcecpolj^a^ev). “Ekstase.” Meyer: “And even if you are alone.). 12.27— velut numinis divino 28: spiritu repletus. Lucian. S^Q-ev wq ftea-rci^ovTei. Zurich: Rhein-Verlag.” 649 Wxinsch (in Dieterich. . . after you judge whether his w orth as a man is secure . above. 58 Ansichtengriechischer Rituale. “Apollon in der Magie. the problem is the missing object o f беТ^ас аит&ј. Friedrich Pfister. sprich. Origen. (“ecstasy”) and атгофофаојлоа (“inspired by Phoebus”) occur only here in the PG M . also Dodds. n.” in Graf. 1). see above at 11. 772). but it shows that this type o f prophecy has become part o f common religious parlance. Supplemental rituals (11. and Sam Eitrem.. 1947).. 10— with notes). For dispensing with a medium.651 Before this optional 646 The translations differ at this point because o f what appear to be misunderstandings o f the options. “to show him ” . see above. 648 For ехатаа^ (“ecstasy”).v.. 420-26... Meyer. The rare 57: . like Trophonius.” In other words. . (so tue das) . you speak as if prophecying in ecstasy”. also Cronert s discussion (“Zur Kritik.647 T he terms ехсттасгк. s. dann wirst du es in prophetischer Begeisterung sagen. Merkelbach: “Wenn du aber allein bist und ihm das vom Gott Gesagte mitteilen willst.” 1.

III. Others differ: Preisendanz: “lege dabei den MaBstab an.e.” like a prompter (cf. and the interpretation in my Galatians. 31. 749 ттараууеХ[хаум. the name for the immor­ talization ritual as a whole (see 11. c f Gignac.226— 27. 539— 731). considering this emendation redundant.15. 740— 41): w? <au> итсер аитои xpt-vofjievo? ev tw arcaO-av <aT>LCT[xw653 (“handling the occasion as though in the immortalization ritual you yourself were being judged in his place”). AEEIOYO’”). об rj Scp/r}' крмтг) ryjq еџгјд yeveaew? aerjiouw (“recite for him the first prayer. a^ioc. least likely since what follows is to be spoken in a special way. XI.v. RieB.3. 298. Merkelbach (Abrasax. see my The Sermon on the Mount. Kroll. in a soft voice. Meyer: “treat him just as if in his place you were judged in the matter o f immortalization. 508— 19. . the great “first prayer” should be recited (11. Kroll). 653 Pap. reads aurovw. the fellow-initiate has to be evaluated w hether he is worthy as a hum an being.a. BDAG. it is to be recited to the fellow-initiate. [лиатг^ Xeye аитои i n i ty)^ хесраХт]<.. 1. 77. 658 Cf. Preisendanz: “vorsprechen”. als wiirdest du selbst bei der Verewigung an seiner Statt gepriift”. 771. ” 655 See Gal 6:1.477. rem publ. so that he can repeat it 656 w h a t follows after that is to be handled differently: т а бе wc.131. or even to the Golden R ule. reads romo.v. 30-65. reading <x7ta&av[. Merkelbach: “vorsagen”).245) concludes. see also Cornutus. This “first prayer” is the one fully set out in 11 486— .152. Nat. Grammar. als ob du an seiner Statt bei der Unsterblichkeitsweihe gepriift wurdest”.1 202 Commentary ritual can be performed.. emended by Dieterich to т<р>6тгсо. so that he may not hear . it is clearly explained by the following remark. also 647— 48). furthermore 11. CIR 10 (1896) 411. See also Burkert. . for the term. 657 The pap. s. Martinez convincingly emends <cju>. this is. 747. However.177. 741-44): tov rcpwTOV итсоЈЗаХе аитф Xoyov. The pap.176— IV. Proclus.a. X XX .” but it is not clear what exactly is included.afjuo is ob­ viously a scribal error. 537. 2. (“And say / the successive things as an initiate. corrected by Wessely to kiz aQav атla[xw. o f which the beginning is. ”). “therefore silently” (“also schweigend”). it may include the entire ritual o f ascension (11. tva [л-] ахоистт] . which was common in the mystery cults.654 This m ethod conforms to the moral standard o f fairness. 656 The verb итсораЛАѕ'-\/ has the prayer as object. see also 1. The terms are insider language: та бе seems to refer to what comes after the “first prayer. 145-52. <x{u}tovw657 cp&oyyw. There are three possibilities for understanding it: First. BDAG. the following procedure should be followed (11. corrected to axovco by Dieterich (17). Plat. Ancient Mystery Cults.11 (ed.655 At the beginning. however. for the Golden Rule (Matt 7:12//Luke 6:31). over his head. s. ‘First origin o f my origin. See LSJ. and below on 1. 1. 3. Merkelbach: “tue das in der Weise. Ph. 53 (1894) 421.658 The procedure is further specified as 652 For this kind o f test o f one’s worthiness. it means “inform” or “instigate. 654 Following the translation by Martinez.652 If he passes the test.

660 The pap. & xsxvov.” R A C 1 (1950) 972-75. Joh 9:6. the recitation sotto voce includes the second and third prayers (11. 40. Err. 3.203 (index).335— PDM xiv. 662 On anointing the eyes. but not more. 11 772— . 4. B 8 (1905) 42— Abt.255— Firmicus Maternus.3. and most probable. reads / jdcicov (itacism). O Z 2 /1 43. the purpose of which is. s. and Talmudic Tradition (2nd ed. Wolfgang Helck. prof rel.. H ow this relates to the stipulation in 11. 476. 723. cism. [леха 659 For parallels. урХаџси. 75). Friedrich Wilhelm Bayer. 6. 559— 65. jp ie iv . Die Apologie. (1921) 1100— BDAG. 16. 352— Gershom Scholem... see Wolfgang Westendorf.u<7T7)p£co660 (“as you are anointing his face w ith the mystery”)... but oral and secret. xoXXoupiov (with reference to R ev 3:18. see also V. its preparation is described in 11. 796-98 is not clear (see below). Halbbd. 36. 53. 661 See. 58.661 This particular ointment is intended to improve vision (cf. 746): X P ^ ocuxou 'rfjv бфп/ xw pt. 11. see Preisendanz. to enable the eyes to see the mystery that is shown (1. 69. one may conclude. the ritual called “immortalization”663 may be performed three times a year. 15. “xoXXupLov. Ernst Kind. flebantfauces unguentur. Second.115— 820-25. Supplemental rituals (11.662 The name o f the ointm ent is [xucmrjpiov (“mystery”). 1. Err.v. Another stipulation concerns defection. In other words. . Metam. 567. 663 For this name.”659 so that he cannot make out the actual words. s. tou eviauxou (“This immortalization takes place three times a year”). 2. The first stipulation concerns the frequency of usage (11. 751— 78.” ibid. 22. and further literature). a few stipulations bring the section to its conclusion (11. Cf. 794). “Alte Taufgebrauche. (“Then all who lamented have their throats anointed. For further literature. esp.1: Tunc a sacerdote omnium qui 60. prof. 11. the practitioner is told (1. the healing miracles o f Jesus in Mark 8:23. N ew York: Jewish Theological Seminary o f America. 746— 50).1: lento murmure susurrat.”). The anointing (jpieiv) refers to the iatromagical tradition dealing with salves and ointments o f all sorts. §§ 28. “Augenheilkunde. the formula] with a soft murmur”. 587— 616). “in a m urm uring voice. this is unlikely in a w ritten instruction. 746— 48): ytyvexat 8e o aTca&avaxLCTfAO? ouxo? xpl<. Jewish Gnosticism. 748— 50): eav бе (ЗоиХтјЅтј n q .. see Firmicus Maternus. Merkabah M ysti­ 22. 22. Hopfner. The final option is that the words are not in the written text at all. “he whispers [sc.III.” L A 1 (1975) 560-62.v. see above. while the formulae are murmured.” PRE 21. 121— 224. 732— 819) 203 “over the head” o f the fellow-initiate. 738). 1965). After the additional rituals for the participation o f a fellow-initiate in the oracular consultation have been presented. below. 741. “Augensalbe (collyrium). 212. apparently by someone who wishes to discontinue the practice (11.” A R W . At any rate. there seems to be no other such attribution o f this name. 1. “Augenschminke. See Wilhelm Kroll. W hile the term [AuaxTjpiov can refer to different matters (cf. For further references to anointing. Apuleius.. rel.64— VII. 1.

See also BDAG. s.g. 184— Cf. P. for him the ritual is no longer at his disposal or loses its efficaciousness. den Anweisungen nicht folgen (und die Weihe versaumen) sollte.. 7 5 0 . then for him it will no longer be in effect”.et. (see Gignac. dem wird sie nicht mehr zu Gebote stehn”.8 I 9) A special section o f further instructions follows after the “supplemental ritu­ als. Additional instruction (11. Preisendanz later proposed to read: fxeTa&SLvac.) also withdrew his proposal o f тсараууеАјла тш ( IVSt 42 [1920-21] 27 no. Dieterich omits too. 1. O child. idem. 667 It may be related to similar quasi-legal rules. the case envisages a person w ho has received the instruction o f the initiation but wishes to quit. then for him it will no longer be in effect. Matt 5:19. 63 [1904] 4-5. (“For if you do not invoke them [sc. Wiinsch reads тгарбсууѕЛјла atnrw. Displacement is possible (as Preisendanz supposes with tw). noting exam­ ples in defixiones. The instruction includes prescriptions for three items to be used in the main ritual. mein Kind. The Sermon on the Mount.664 (“And if anyone. 1. Meyer: “And if anyone. wishes to disobey.666 A statement such as this assures the teacher and warns the student.204 to Commentary тсосраууеХ^а {tw} тозсрахоисгои. “if someone wants to bend the prescript by disobedience” (“wollte einer die Vorschrift beugen durch Ungehorsam”). 745 au > a. Preisendanz (ibid. 10). 1.667 W ith this. the section ends. to 7tapayyeAfjux tw 7iapaxouaoa. fairly frequent either for phonetic reasons or syntactic confusion between genitive and dative (see Gignac. Michigan X V I. the gods o f the hours]. 56) prefers јлета to TcapayyeAjxaTov.” 666 pQr jjjg term Tcapaxoueiv. npo^eaq (“instruction for the performance”). (aTca&avaTt-crjxoi. <тЅ> оихет^. . 1. 224). Grammar. according to Wein­ reich (in Dieterich. 67). and hence the translations vary. 3.v. U7T:api. B. e.. wishes after the instruction to disobey.379— 89. as being uninitiated”). a prescription is provided 664 Pap. 80: el (ju) yap аитои^ хаХестт]^. We could also interpret the form as a genitive (ou > w(t). above 1.боссгхаХ1а ty)<. U7tapxw. Merkelbach: “Mein Kind. disobey or deviate from the received tradition. cf. der sich dazu gemeldet. As to what аитф is doing here is another issue. and connects uTcap^st. oux е7гахоиоиаг w? аршаттјрсастта) aoi mtap^ovTt.v.” This new section carries an explicit title: б(. Grammar.’” 665 Preisendanz: “Wollte aber jemand. after the teaching. and Preisendanz. but Preisendanz rearranges and puts tw before ouxstl (so also Jordan).208ff. Martinez. In that case the translation would be: ‘If anyone wishes after his instruction to disobey. nach Empfang der Vorschrift ihr nicht Folge leisten. are very frequently written ато? etc. XIII. The тсараууеЛрзс seems to refer to the instruction as a whole.158 (index). wenn jemand. see also IV290. see. 367.”) The meaning o f the statement is disputed. in documentary papyri аито? etc. Martinez comments: “I think that Wiinsch’s reading is closest to the truth. rcapaxouet-v. Neutestamentliche Grammatik. First.). my child..). Ludwig Radermacher (Ph. and for further material and discussion my commentary. reads rcapayyeXfjiayo. s. fur den gibt es keine Moglichkeit mehr. Dieterich (17) reads ouxert.226-27 with 227 n.665 Apparently. So I would write тгараууеАјл’ a<u>Tw. they will not hear you.

when he sees the “instruction” to refer to passages that were originally placed at the beginning o f the Mithras Liturgy. The technical terminology used is Greek in origin and often difficult to identify. Heinrich Marzell. 245). Bruxelles: Palais des Academies. for б(.III. 813— 19). .” S A G M 29 (1936) 3— 26.1872 (|г/]бѓ»/а бѓбаахе). the additional instruction does not imply a criticism by the redactor w ho regards his Vorlage to be deficient. this infrequency cannot obscure the fact that much o f its content is for instruction. “Der Zauber der Heilkrauter in der Antike und Neuzeit. a distinction has to be kept in mind 668 While the terminology o f teaching is not frequent in the PGM. Classe des lettres et des sciences morales et politiques. ed. for the text see also Totti. the prepara­ tion o f phylacteries (11. Dieterich (17— omits translating the additions. most likely given to this section by the final author/redactor may appear surpris­ ing. He attributes them to the final redactor w ho uses the earlier “liturgy” as a source for an altogether different magical procedure. T he preparation o f the rituals should precede the actual performance o f the main ritual. Memoires. second. 54. 11. passim). 671 Thus. see IV.670 Hence. 1961). is Greek. 670 A different view has been stated by Merkelbach (Abrasax. see XIII. “Pflanzenaberglaube. тсра^ѕсо? (“instruction for the performance”). Recherches sur le ceremonial usite chez les anciens pour la cueilettes des simples et desplantes magiques (3rd. but he provides valuable 22) notes on the text. to assume such an omission because references point to places in the extant text before us.671 However. 751— 78). б^басткаХѓа is hapax in the PGM. Herbarius.” PRE 19. idem. 26-27. however.156-57. but it should be remembered from the exordium (11. see the parallels in Thessalos o f Tralles. and third. however. which is m entioned in the main ritual.59.4.668 2. pace Merkelbach. 7 3 2 -8 1 9 ) 205 for making the sun-scarab ointment (11. The fact that the author supplements information from Greek plant books shows that even he had difficulties in identifying the Egyptian plants and that he does not seem to know their Egyptian names. 430. because they have to be ready to be used w hen their place and time o f performance has come. plants are geo­ graphically specific.бастхе^. 1. 778— 813). See the Introduction. the information and preparation o f the plant called kentritis (11. All three items involve rituals as well as alchemical and biological infor­ mation. the terminology. for бсбофѓ). Texte. Armand Delatte. cf. above pp. Friedrich. so that their identifications by Greek names become difficult to verify. W hile alchemical ingredients are often common. D e virtutibus herbarum (ed. Academie Royale de Belgique. 3. There is no need.669 The difficulties arise from the fact that the papyrus originated in Egypt and describes Egyptian materials and plants..2 (1938) 1446-56. B y Z 37 (1937) 381— 90. 669 For plant biology in connection with rituals and astrology. 475-84) that the overall purpose o f the text o f the Mithras Liturgy is intended to be didactic. # 45. The title St-SaaxocAia ттјс. Also D ieterich sepa­ rates the additions as secondary from the “liturgy” proper. Supplemental rituals (11. the review by Friedrich Pfister. but were omitted from the text by the redactor.

584). 1982). Jan Assmann. whereas the ritual sequences are known to the practitioner from practice. 384-88 (with figure 32). eCTTsvwfiivov avco&ev. 40 678 Plutarch.. 11. 773-74. Kulte. 99): атгбЅои ev ueAivco аууеш. 381A: .23.675 The term Xo(3mv (“take!”) is technical and common. Jordan prefers (Bwctlov (“vessel”). 1960). s. 751— begins w ith the procurement o f the ingredients. 770. see Heinz-Josef Thissen.)676 represents the old solar deity Khepry. which is reflected by Plutarch who theorizes that the beetle is an image (elxcov) o f “the power o f the gods. e^ovxa TColyjorov el. .672 1. Cyranides 1. most likely the same as the one called [xuaxirjpLov (“mystery. 117. Orakel und Naturverehrung im Alten Agypten (Zurich & Stuttgart: Artemis. at time w hen the m oon is invisible”).B 6. cf. 8-10 (# 10).” LA 1 (1975) 934— (bibl. The first stage (11.274 (ѕстш бѕ evxo^ tou Spaxovxo? xavQapo^ ocxtlvwto? Lspoc). nzpiypL ew .34. the c “sun scarab” (xav&apo. also Gunther Roeder. See for commentary Griffiths.677 The Greeks were fascinated by the symbolism. ed. above p. Gulick. the scarab w ith the 672 For the difference between ritual text sequence and performance sequence see the Introduction. 3. [3. Athenaeus. Horapollo. 1. Is. 1. As the name indicates. 677 See Erik Hornung. 11.497d (ed. The textual sequences are what is w ritten down. (S tjoxov xaXXoavov (3a&u ev артсаутј xrj. 1 (APF. 74.21. YjXiaxo. 751—78) The first item involves a sun-scarab ointment. and make it fall into a deep.115 (ed. etc. Kaimakis. LCL. Cf. 673 For the terms. Meyer: “turquoise cup”. {3Xr]$7jvat<674 (“Take a sun scarab which has twelve rays. 793. 751— 53): XafBwv xav&apov YjXiaxov t o v xa.” 1. turquoise cup. 5. 2001). First ritual: the sun-scarab ointment (11.v. Cf. Plutarch. Des Niloten Horapollon Hieroglyphenbuch.218) about a drinking vessel (rhyton) in the temple o f Arsinoe that has the shape o f the Egyptian god Besas and gives off a shrill tone when the spout is opened. Hier. B.” 676 The term is found also in VII. Latte. 674 Pap. LXI. 554— he mentions Manetho and 56. 2.52): Втјааа TroTrjptov тсар’ ’AXe^txvSpeuai TiXaxuTepov ex twv xa-ra ij-epwv. Die Kyraniden.784b (ed.. 675 As a result o f the uncertainties in identifying the technical language. “Chepre. 5. emended by Wessely to prjcrcrtov.). John Baines. BiTeu. 31. ф ' axxlva.673 The section shows careful composi­ tion and has its own little epilogue (11. 746). see 11. Kaibel.41. like the image o f the sun in rain-drops. 776— 78).Os. reads (Bwctlov.50 (107). translations o f the vessel differ at this point. C.”678 Apparently.. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. with plate IV. 11. Preisendanz: “GefaB aus Goldstein”. & ons p ev aTayoaiv TjAlou tt)^ twv &ewv Suvajjiso^ xoctiSovtsi. XII. aeXyjVT]. Dieterich (17) compares Hesychius (ed. vol. Deipn. Merkelbach: “blaugriines GefaB.96. features indicating that it was taken from a source. Џ -qalov ' TtoTTjpt-ov. Gulick.974— 75. The preparation o f the ointment has two stages. Miinchen: Saur. 57) The first item is a sun-scarab (11. Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many (Trans.206 Commentary between textual and ritual sequences.

fC P h . Cf. See Betz. ed. VII. Aelianus. 8 78. V. For the twelve sun-rays. and these constitute the relationship to the sun. IV. 85. 2598. 7 8 (1. “when the moon is invisible” (LSJ.924-25. n. esp. Merkelbach (Abrasax. O Z 2 /1 . it is attested also in Horapollo. For literature. s. § 121: “aus Natron und Schwefelmasse.14.21 (?). 1987). is unclear: H ow are twelve sun-rays connected with a living beetle? Perhaps grooves on the wings were seen as sun-rays.683 This should take place at the time o f the new m oon. 1.v. 38 (ed. Heinz Josef Thissen. Beiheft 6 [Munich & Leipzig: Saur.118— with comments at 121). 1. 73. 69. Hier. “Etudes sur la magie grecque. 767. only here. # 24.1090. the vox magica cravxav&apa. vol. For vases in the form o f Bes. Armand Delatte. V. see Tran Tam Tinh. Pisciculi. 683 So Hopfner.d. Suppl.127. as far as I can see.520. XXXVI.2455-57: mouse and scarab. 2456-57. 2660-61. 3. According to Hopfner (O Z 2 / 1. but 1. 98-99: falcon. XIII. XII. 732— 819) 207 twelve sun-rays679 is a special kind which is attested. see Vettius Valens. XIII. furthermore 1. 333. esp.a-e. Helios Megistos. XIX. Supplemental rituals (11. 71. III. Gemmen. Kroll).a-d. XXXVIII. 86. 24.” Meyer has in mind a turquoise-colored glass vessel. V. 3. 218. XIII. see IV. p. G M PT . “Skarabaen. 437.807. 94— 101. 757 says it dies from the eating o f the ingredients. III. # # 99— 10 103. 563-84 (with bibl.” PRE 2. the preparation o f a scarabaeus amulet.S 27 (1902) 114. 2001]. 19. XIII. VIII. Die Kyraniden. 338 (with bibliography).430. IV.680 T he preparation involves the killing o f the scarab by letting it drop681 into a deep vessel ((3y](7lov)682 made from a natron and sulphur concoction (xaXAaivov).12.” LA. 44-45.98-110.203. s. Cyranides 1. Franz Joseph Dolger. # 81.33. 246-48: “Le [xuaxyjpt-ov du Scarabee”.1066. an.21. 3. For xaXXaivo? see also IV.a. Bianchi. 2688. XII. Merkelbach (Abrasax.45. 71. Cf. 68. VII.” O E A E 3 (2001) 179-81. G M PT . 679 What is precisely meant. Nat. # 81. 115.425-26. at # 99).684 Hecataeus o f Abdera (according to Diogenes Laertius. see IV. Robert S. 3:2. zur Zeit des Neumonds ist Selene gestorben.223— 11. 8— (Chapter 10).2668. 11. Abrasax. prooemium 10). 758— 59. see Hopfner.1: cat. A u C 6 (1950) 49— Raphael Giveon. 682 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 2.” L IM C 3. Anth.14. 82— Merkelbach.4-5 (falcon). below.245) thinks o f a vessel that looks like the god Besas. 81. Sam Eitrem. see 1. 1 (AFP. Auch der Tod des Sonnenkafers wird nicht ewig sein. артеауу]) is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM.” in Klauser & Rucker.973— 80. Max Pieper. OZ. 780. chpt. 1. Michel.1068— Cf. For this god. 684 The phrase ev артгаутј ттјс аѕлѓртј^. VII.245) suggests that the scarab is drowned in order to be deified by making it into Osiris. 245. 973-80.207— (xavf&apej). Mag. aber sie wird nach drei Tagen wieder aufleben. Kaimakis. 3.l 109-14. ’АКЕФ АЛ02 @ EO£. there are twelve horns on the head o f the beetle. 10. 51. See Richard Wiinsch. 57. 943.” B C H 38:2 (1914) 189-249. V. For sun-rays on gemstone amulets see Maryse Waegeman. “Skarabaus.15. 274-77. R eihe 5 (1927) 447-59.” L A 5 (1984) 968— Betz. 212— 303 (“Hermes’ ring”). 1 (1975) 720-24. “Bes. Bes.183.v.159. Hartwig Altenmiiller. “Bes. VII. 2 / 1. 680 Cf.628: lizard. “Scarabs. V 212-303. § 122). cf.. 681 The term {iak'Keiv ((ЗАтјОтјуоа) serves the purpose o f ritual killing.245) suggests that this time reference is connected with the notion o f rebirth: “Mit diesem Zeitpunkt ist vermutlich eine Vorstellung von der Wiedergeburt verbunden. Des Niloten Horapollon Hieroglyphenbuch.1 (1986) 98-108.65. §§ 121-22. for the mythological explanation.222.” .64-65. # 38. Amulet and Alphabet: Magical Amulets in the First Book of Cyranides (Amsterdam: Gieben. IV. Fauth. “Sonnenkafer und Falke in der synkretistischen Magie.III. 198.184. The scarab is important in the PGM. 1659.

108-9. 759-61): x al атреоста. t o ayyelov .Lov (“amalgam”) occurs only here in the PGM.. see Fritz Graf. 189.87. the scarab] moving forward and eating. cf.” PRE 26.225. a7r£p[xa xal [jiiXt Хекосга<. cf. ptiXt.” in Perennitas: Studi in onore di Angelo Brelich (Rome: Edizioni dell’ Ateneo. 693 Pap. and rose oil certainly is an expensive perfume. Zum Verstandnis der Libation im griechischen Ritual. see below. See Delatte. and after grinding it w ith honey prepare a cake”)..”).337-38. On honey.687 The mixture is then ground up688 and formed into a small cake.1683. 1. 64): [ЗаХХѕ et<. section 38 (ed.245. 3. XII. (“and spreading sacred sand in a pure manner.333. Thessalos 1. also VII. also Thessalos. 692 For the rose oil. § 216.. reads ocyyt-ov as in 1. IV 1880. LXI. W hat this “sacred sand” is and how one spreads it in a 685 Pap. and w hen it has consumed it. 21.25.. 761. ayysloc ueXivoc. XIII.689 T he purpose o f the cake is to cause the death o f the scarab (11. prooemium. prooemium. section 38 and often (ed. also the role o f cakes in sacrifice.32. IV3009. 1980). 355. see 11. O ne will notice that the ingredients are now becoming more expensive. See also III. reads 'кшаа.87. corrected by Wessely to XeLoiacaq.102— IV. reads xa&apio^ and ayyiov. 691 Pap. “Milch. 752. o c to v јЗоиХгх691 (“Pick it up and throw it into a glass vessel o f excellent rose oil. 75759): t o u t o v aveXofxevo^ ^aXe el c. Friedrich. tcoItjctov [xa^lov685 (“put in together w ith it the seed o f the fruit pulp o f the lotus. . VIII. ayyslov ueXouv jxupou poSlvou xaXXlorou. H onig und Wein. For (ЗаХе. 687 See Preisendanz. 753. see 1. For Xwt6<.134 (index). the sudden death o f the scarab is caused by eating from the cake.692 The vessel needs then to be placed properly (11.320. it immediately dies”). O Z 2/1. 32. [xeXtXtoxo? IV.690 The second stage also begins with the acquisition o f the ingredients (11. Therefore.941. s. 686 Амтојг/јтрас cntepfxa is the name for the fruitpulp o f the lotus plant (LSJ. and set the vessel on it . 64). The name Хсото^лтјтра refers to the lotus plant. cf. eu$iw<. Awtlvo? XIII. but not by drowning. “Lotos.. See also III..” R A C 16 (1994) 433-73. 689 The term [iofZ. 3. (1927) 1515— esp. xaQ-apelw. 1. but it is technical in the language o f pharmacy and alchemy. “H onig. VIII. August Steier. 3.v. Merkelbach. 11. 688 A technical procedure in ancient pharmacy and alchemy.246) who argues that the scarab gets stuck in the honey and thus suffocates and drowns (“erstickt = ertrinkt”). esp. 453. 209— Otto Bocher and Adelheid Sallinger. B C H 38 (1914) 246. OvTjaxet. 3. See Hopfner. 789-90.с. Friedrich.v. as much as you wish”). (“and at once you will see it [viz. 690 Pace Merkelbach (Abrasax. . Halbbd.).208 Commentary The next ingredients are from plants and serve to make a kind o f small cake (11.693 ajxfxov lepav kizL&zc. cf. to be used here in quantity. 755— 57): x al euSito? auxov бфт) Trpoasp^ofxevov x al eatKovxa. The glass vessel seems more valuable. 754— 55): auve^aXwv auxw XwTo^xpa. the costly perfume used by the woman in Mark 14:3 par. Abrasax. x al oxav cpayy].686 Honey is a substance often used in magical practices. VII. s. 1520-21.

“name. Johann CompernaB. 257. presupposes. written mistakenly because ч\ стои ouala.’” The same second person sing.269— 70. is used in the following repetition o f the formula.a* £{xol [xovo) xp?]tf t-fAEuarjc. LXI. 535. ‘your essence’ becomes in the scribe’s mind simply a collocation for ‘you. section 39 (ed. 260. tm S(e)I(va) fxovw le ia 7 ] £7] ou £t. r\ aou oucrla yevY] xp^crifjio^. for I am P H O R P H O R A PH O S PH O TIZA A S” [others: “P H O R P H O R O PH O TH EIX A A S”]). O Z 2 /1 — . the consecration can take place.45. 2 695 Pap. —ol .762— addressing the scarab: 67. occasioned by suspicion over the attributive s position o f ctou in the pap. 696 On this point.” 700 On this formula see above at 1. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 11.. §§ 130. The time is during seven days at high noon. D e sermone graeco volgari Pisidiae Phrygiaeque meridionalis (Dissertation Bonn.III. however. Einleitung in die neugriechische Grammatik (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel.5-6. while the sun is in midheaven”). ат) ouata.173.697 T he formula (ovofxa) itself is cited in full in 11. 701 SeeBDF §§ 318.701 W hat the scarab has thus become is called 694 See the discussions in Hopfner. IE IA E EE OY EIA. N N alone. “that you may be useful to me alone. one must assume that it is alive. see IV. w ith all done. 1902). Since the beetle is being addressed as a person.' YjXlou [xsaoupavouvTo?. see Dieterich (17) who refers to Georg Benedikt Winer and Paul W Schmiedel. cf. also Thessalos.197-212.410— 13. Friedrich Blass.223-30. £yw yap фмр cpop a cpto< фотс.. 698 For Wessely’ reading o f т. V. Friedrich. 7 3 2 -8 1 9 ) 209 pure manner. 1. 697 For Asyet-v t o ovojxa stt I t o u ayyou?. proposes convincingly to take the form ysvtj just as “the second person sing. 761-62): x al Xeye to (ovofxa)695 i n i tou ayyou? i n I rjpipa? Z.” R h M 49 (1894) 37-58. III. again reads the symbol A. . Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Sprachidioms (8th ed. as often in rituals. “Feuerzauber. 2992. Martinez. see also Ernst Kuhnert. The formulaic eyw EifJtx (“I am”)700 secures emphatically ownership and use of divine beetle. 210. that your substance may be useful to me. Pap. 699 The form yev/] needs explanation. 171. o f the normal deponant form.696 and the formula has to be spoken over the vessel.698 (“It is I who have consecrated you. 1894— 1898). XII. 1895). IV. T he verb form irsXeoa. albeit in a divine way. tva fxot.” See Preisendanz. P. eyw az ѕтеХеаа. 694 At any rate. seems to have a mythological background known to the magicians. prooemium. 1892).“and say the name over the vessel for seven days. 331. Michigan X V I.699 T he scarab which at its death became associated w ith the invisible m oon (1.£аас. Wessely changed to ysvy][тоа]. Supplemental rituals (11. Martinez proposes convincingly to read офо&£[Даас to correspond with срот^аа^.. The formula has to be pronounced (11. бе' cpwp cpwp офо&есДаа^. reads the symbol □ for ovofxa. 46. that you may prove useful to me alone. 753) becomes deified and related to the sun. 198. an ingressive or durative aorist. 64). 92— 95. 219. Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch (2nd ed. and Martinez. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 2. Dieterich (17) points to parallels listed by Georgios Chatzidakis [Hatzidakis]. esp.

the process o f w hich is briefly described. a technical term frequent in magical contexts. it must be properly preserved and stored (11. 56. 764). Does it refer to the scarab’ immaterial divine nature. 9 n.” 704 The formula o f exclusivity is found elsewhere in the ML. and once by repeating the purpose clause (хр^а^еиспд?) and by self-identification through divine names (11.269). etc. Betz. 710 Interestingly. Preisendanz keeps &афа?. 779. 336.” W St 40 (1918) 1-8. Hopfner.upv7).v. G M PT . idem. t o v xav&apo(v). that is.707 Once the divine substance has been procured. reads the symbol A. Therefore. O Z 1. s. meaning t w S s iv o c . C also reads xav9-apo (corrected by Dieterich [18]) and&i^a? (changed by Dieterich [18] to (Зосфас). a substance o f divine power. XII. translates ouaia as “innerstes Wesen”).” R A C 16 (1994) 367-73. the materia magica is still called “scarab. ^[xupva x al olvw MevSyjcaw x al (Suaalvfa) атсб&ои ev xuajxwvt. See for the larger field.704 he inserts his name twice (1. “Material. “Homousios.709 referring to handling o f ingredients. 495.706 As a redactional com m ent by the final author/ redactor shows. pap. 705 The pap. Preisendanz reads C T[i. Christopher Stead. determ ination o f the mean­ ing o f оисќа in the present context is more difficult. 38. the authors primary concern is w ith the handling o f sacred substance in the vessel. magical. 765— 67). 484. 476. See on this above. НГ0.710 T he ingredients o f 702 For the many parallels in the PGM. clothing) affixed to spells. ^toocpuTOUVTt708 (“O n the seventh day pick up the scarab. 709 For јЗастта^е(.37-38. see also 1. 3. P. 500. The latter are obviously related to cpw^ (“light”). reads the symbol ". and bury it w ith m yrrh and Mendesian wine and fine linen. once by inserting his ordinary name N N . Abrasax.у. 1977). he has carefully compared the names and inserts a variant reading that “others” (plural!) have. Merkelbach. Michigan X V I. or to the materia magica in the vessel. see 11. “Miszellen zu den Zauberpapyri.154 (index). 711 below). or to s M erkelbachs rendering as “inner being”?703 Although all three possibilities play some role. 3. see Preisendanz. The term (Застта^еп/ (“acquire”) appears to be technical. equalling еЈЗббјхт] гцхеpa (see Preisendanz. 2. Preservation o f the material happens by burial o f the scarab.” . ■9-афоц. In order to make sure that this substance is useful to the practitioner alone. 991-93.” For discussion. (I). 706 For other such names in the ML. 703 Martinez raises the question whether the Egyptian name for the scarab. in the present context оисгѓа is rather specialized w hen compared w ith the usual “property” o f a person (such as hair. however. Divine Substance (Oxford: Clarendon.705 together with a vowel sequence. s. which means materia magica. 736. see Preisendanz. §§ 667-77. 707 For another such insertion see 1. 767— 69): ty ] бе у][л(е)р(а) (Заата^а с. hpr (“come into being”) is o f influence and points to “manifestation.246 (who. Martinez. see the index below. the sun. Jordan prefers crjjiupva (see n.v. оиаѓа. on 1. 708 Pap.210 Commentary оистса. and deposit it in a flourishing bean field”).702 However.

Muller. see Clement o f Alexandria. On myrrh generally. 1902). А1уитстго<. MsvSr.20. see VII. (“Egyptian bean”) is another name for the Lotus flower may be right.S 15 (1978) 700-77. Cf. (aupva. AlyurcTt-o^ die Lotusblume bezeichnet wird (vgl. dealing with therapy o f the eyes). 2. XII.17.v. Gignac.” PRE. for references to the medical writers. London. Comp. 713 Linen cloth (^ucjctivw [рахм]) is mentioned in 1. ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der antiken Religion (Leipzig: Teubner.v.7(?). Supplemental rituals (11. XV. VII. Paed.717 Merkelbach con­ cludes: “The initiate should entertain the dead scarab in a symbolic fashion.. 41 (31-46: “Die Bohnenbliite”). “Myrrha. see August Steier.. tion. 3. Da mit xua(i.2. For other instances o f preserva­ 2. 3.145. Darby.713 Thus embalmed the scarab is deposited in a sprouting bean field. MevSr). Walter W.2465-66: a7io&ejxevo<. s. 714 The aorist imperative form атго&ои from kixozidevai (“deposit”) is almost technical in the PGM. 22. xua[xo<. XII. 875. T L G . William J. . 139.III.246): “In einem Bohnenbeet. Das Fruhlingsfest der Insel Malta.228-29. 2. but its place in the ritual is unclear (11.v.172.277.1315. 177 (index). 1.600. Because o f the ocurrence o f хр1сг[ла (11. olvoc.715 M erkelbach’ s suggestion that хиа[ло<. Hopfner. tritt hier der xuapiwv einfacher Bohnen vermoge des gleichlautenden Namens an die Stelle der heiligen Lotusblume. for ашеим^еТстОт (“feasting together with”) see IV3150— 51. s. Puschmann.v.CTio^.84-85. the preparation o f which is described in 11. wine was famous in antiquity. Food: The Gift of Osiris (2 vols.v. 2681— The 82. 20. Galen. 1977). “Mendes. Grammar. 3. 712 Wine from Mendes in the N ile delta is mentioned in 1.225. 332. 716 Merkelbach (Abrasax. II. 293. crpupva. (ed. IV. see IV. sic.102. s. 1 (ed. s. ziq тги^ба [лоАфтр. 773— 793).” PRE 29th Halbband (1931) 780-84. medic.3. 751— but the situation envisaged in 11 770— appears out o f context 78. m ent is concerned with the ointment. IV 941 und XIII 22). 718 Merkelbach (Abrasax.714 W hy such a place is chosen can only be guessed. Photius. 3. and eat himself a meal together w ith him (which almost leads to a sacramental communion). остсотѓат]^. See Hermann Kees. VIII. ѕатгааа? x al a u v e u w ^ ^ k атсо&ои xa&apel«<.” See also LSJ. VII. see V.444). and then he should carefully store the oil and the scarab for later use in the consecration. 2. spelled in different ways: ^[xupva. after you have entertained and feasted together. 770.208. 915. LSJ. Kuhn 12. 16.. s. afxupva. 71 in that no com m on dining has been m entioned before..754).” PRE 31st Halbband (1933) 1134— 46.85. this com­ 74. but why would another name be preferred?716 A nother com m ent relates to proper storage.12ff.. 770— 71): to 8 s хрХаџа. See Preisendanz. N ew York. San Francisco: Academic Press. xov aTta&avaTiafjLov (“then. saxla (“wining and dining”). Alexander o f Tralles.”718 711 Myrrh occurs often in the PGM.315. Lex. esp. 17— XXXVII. 715 Dieterich (18) refers to Richard Wunsch. 717 For SCTxtav. 175. Ther.oi. 732— 819) 211 m yrrh711 and Mendesian wine712 are used for the embalming and wrapping in linen cloth. “Weihrauch.246): “Der Myste soli den toten Sonnenkafer symbolisch bewirten und auch selbst mit ihm eine Mahlzeit einnehmen (was fast auf eine Kommunion . O Z 2 /1 — §§ 121— 214— 219. deposit the ointm ent in a pure way for the immortaliza­ tion”). 4 (12. 338.

o f “the dead scarab” after it has become immortalized. 1033. aoi xal (juvxot. finally in 1. this ointm ent is the materia magica. on 11. the question is also whether one should speak.80ff. 793. A further optional ritual concerning an eye ointment follows in 11. Preisendanz retains бт]Ааиу6Ѕ<. for the exchange o f б /т see Gignac. 11. . however. об (SouXei. 772— 75: eav бе aXXw гШо]? Sst-xvustv. “Zur Kritik. IG S I 99 2413. get the juice o f the hinauslauft) und dann das O l und den Kafer sorgfaltig aufbewahren. the scarab is to be entertained. 767 it is also called the scarab.” 101. III. At any rate. reads бтјАаиуах. Rather. 792— 96).[XMfj. 1.2— a meal 20.Tt. but in 1. cf. 1. еуг xr\c. 16. the case may be that the author/redactor has copied from a Vorlage which comprised a broader spectrum o f prescriptions. бт)Лаиусо? ахтте сте jv 0au[xa^£t. which is most likely. the materia magica is to be safely stored to be ready for future use in the main ritual o f immortalization. one should not automatically assume a complete homogeneity between literary and ritual sequences.719 According to the text. “Sopra uno scarabeo con iscrizione greca. 721 Pap. because o f the parallel in IV. it must be the scarab. Grammar.17— VII.22— on dining with an immortalized falcon. the passage may have been copied from an earlier Vorlage. O Z 51: 2 /2 . xaAoufjtivYj? (3oxav7)^ xevTpr. This earlier Vorlage may have presupposed a ritual context o f a sacramental meal. Another possibility would be to allow for a metatextual reference. x al офета^. 224) to ттјХаиусо?. §§ 264-66. within which the ointm ent for the eyes was to be used.212 Commentary This interpretation is derived from other PGM parallels which mention such meals. see Mark 8:25 and BDAG. See also Hopfner.So<. ^uXov rcepi^pltov TY бфс-v. If. 46. 720 As an example o f this Dieterich (18) refers to a scarab amulet o f stone with an inscription which contains voces magicae and these words: /_?•/][jLoctlctov jjloi ev tt] vuxxl таиту) i n ’ aAirj&ela Јлета jjlvy^jjly]^ (see Richard Wiinsch. Since the presumed meal is w ithout a precedent in the ML. so also Cronert. 772— and . The latter is m entioned first in 11 738— then in 11.(TTtov carat. and by copying from it he transposed the passage into the new context o f his own practices in the M L.svoc (“he will be your [companion and] will eat and sleep with you”). 3: with a familial spirit (тгаребро^ Salfxwv): [auvofJxAo^ xal cru]vapt. the object to be wined and dined remains unclear.412).424— eating the heart o f 24 30: a kakkouphat bird (cf. emended by Dieterich (18. sub vocibus. now also called ointm ent (xpicrpia).85— 89: a meal with an angel. 75.” Bulletino della Commissione archeologica commuale di Roma 27 (1899) 294— (cf. VII. Thus. Meals with deities are mentioned 1. fxexa 'oScvou. ed.v721 (“If you want to show this to someone else.. zur spateren B eniitzung bei der Weihe. therefore.644— consumption o f a magical potion.” 719 See 1.720 This assumption could find support in the author/redactor s later correction to the effect that the scarab ointm ent is no longer to be used (see below. For a similar vacillation in the manuscripts between бтјАаиуо^ and ттјАаиус^. Kaibel). as Merkelbach does.

725 For the meaning o f бф^.l. with references to Selxvufja as a mystery cult term. For the terms m p i j p i t i v and тгсрс^рктта.а. For further discussion and literature. W hile in the earlier instance. R ev 3:18 for e v jp ie iv xouc 6cp9-aXp. 248. the meaning can simply be an emphatic jp lz iv . 775).) omavTa (cf. гстист[Ј. 723 According to the T LG . and sav бе aXXto бе1^ и е п .246. T he use o f “juices” (jpkoq) is of course frequent in the PG M . however.722 It is this improvement o f eye-sight that provides the link w ith the main ritual’ concern for the transformation o f visual sense-perception (see 11. above on 1. uses similar terms. 746) and involves the sun scarab (1.337. 732— 819) 213 herb called kentritis. xal e7te^pt. and he [or: she] will see so clearly that you will be amazed”). or a description o f the application o f the ointm ent (“around.. Both are introduced in a similar manner as optional: 46) eav бе x al Sel^at. (“lid salve”). Cf. since it is parallel to the previous one (11. 738— 39). 724 For other passages. 770). PRE 21st Halbband (1921) 1105. in the course o f which 26.723 The most likely explanation for what appears to be a conflict is that the author/redactor excerpted two procedures for the preparation o f eye-salve from his Vorlage. The restoration o f the eye­ sight is stated in this way: еуѓЈЗХефеу ттјХаиусо^ (v. Supplemental rituals (11. бтјХаиум?) may explain w hat is m eant by б£[ло/и£[л/.III. 798) is a hapaxlegomenon in Greek literature. both are dealing w ith eye ointments for the improvement o f vi­ sion. 738. 779. (11. -aevxpixiq as a plant name (11.. the ointm ent is ex­ plained by the procedure involving the scarab (11.725 R ose-oil was m entioned before (1. 803. 772— 75).274. see BDAG.156. 738— is unclear. and Kind.724 T he expression m p ijp ie iv is found only here in the PGM . 751— 78). also 2. 805. em^puo. He then explained the preparation o f these ointments by drawing on additional iatromagical information.64. Mark 8:22— the story o f Jesus’ healing o f a blind man.726 W ho or w hat is bringing about the amazement (ware ae 722 For Selxvujja see 11. 785. (1. auxw & еЛу)<. see following note. 726 Cf. s. 738— 46). Jesus prepares a kind o f eye-salve from his own spittle (v.v. 516-27)..v. and smear it. 773.ou<. s 164). 773— 74). The phrase stating the success o f seeing clearly (xal бфетас.” 1. Jesus makes a paste from earth and his spittle: ercTucrev xoqom xal е к о Irjcrev 7i7]X6v ex tou 7гтистЈлато<. XIII. According to John 9:1-7.. see below at 1. T he preparation of the eye ointm ent (11. for km yfiiei'j. VII. see also above 1. s. V. 501— s 15. around the eyes of whomever you wish. 3. tttuw. . 23). 778— 813). In the first instance. while in the second instance the plant kentritis is the major ingredient (11. and often in PGM. Merkelbach’ (Abrasax. see for references in the medical writers the T L G . the present proce­ dure is explained by the information about the plant kentritis (11. (v. 790).оу (“mys­ tery.CTev аитои tov Tf/jXov eni xouq ocpO-aXfJiouc. the ointm ent is called to [хисттѓ]р!. 746.. along with the rose oil. SyjXauywi. The relationship o f this procedure to the one m entioned before (11. 6). 772).” or “covering”) the face or the eyes (оф^).

729 The redactional comment in 1. G M P T . tov &eov.730 appar­ ently had section titles which identified and classified the separate items. 728 The maxim is well-attested also in the NT.” W hich “procedure” (тсрауЈлахе^а) is meant here specifically.247) who assumes that the procedure was derived in a section o f text that was omitted from the beginning o f the ML: “Diese vorbereitenden Zeremonie bei Sonnenaufgang muB in einer Partie zu Anfang des Textes erwahnt worden sein. а (ЗоиЛес. The maxim has a parallel in IV2172: а^ттјсха. from which the kentritis ritual was derived. It appears that while reading in his excerpt (11. see Merkelbach (Abrasax . saxiv 79: 727 For other instances o f such “commercials” see. 798). III. 813 must therefore be the fruit o f his investiga­ tions in other sources.Jas 1:5. most likely.”728 2. 1. 778—92) T he second ritual is most probably excerpted from a source and included because o f the previous m ention o f the plant kentritis. Second ritual: the plant kentritis (11. but is seems to belong to the previous ointment. 772— he came upon the plant name 75) kentritis (11. It has been tested by Manethon [who] reveived [it] as a gift from god Osiris the greatest” (trans. 779. this hypothesis is rather unlikely because o f the reference in 1. see Betz. 778— ѓ) тои [леуаАои &eou auaxonaic. Grese in Betz. This section provides an excellent opportunity to study how the author/redactor worked. John 11:22. however. “I have not found a greater procedure than this in the world. 16:23-24. 776— 77): toutou [A ^ov5ou% sOpov el ev x« xoafxw repay jxaxeiav. T he improvement in vision is clearly related to the doctrine discussed at 1. 11 13 Mark 6:22-25.”727 typical o f many magical procedures in the PGM (11. T he final sentence is a maxim that shows no connection w ith the context and seems to be o f a general nature (1. 31). 14:13-14.. 26. 1 John 3:22. 773. АујЈлфес. e. is not entirely clear. 500— 8. For parallel passages and bibliography.. W. The material assembled in 11 778— . 4:2-3. “W hen you ask. He did not know.439: tt^] 7гра£есо£ таи[т7]<. you will receive. 511. is left open. xyjv Tipox£i[X£vrjv (“the afore mentioned”) distinguishes between the author/redactor and his source. see Matt 7:7— / / Luke 11:9— (Q). H e included from these sources excerpts together with his own interpretative comments. aoi (“Ask the god what you want. 778): alxou 8s. This ritual has the section title in 11. welche in der uns vorliegenden Redaktion des Textes weggelassen worden ist. what plant it was.214 Commentary 9-aupux^eiv). 779 to the kentritis plant in 1. The Sermon on the Mount. ” As has been pointed out earlier.262: e y e < i> Atav xaAw<.] jxet&*)v oux Sctti-v (“A procedure greater than this one does not exist. etc. 16.g. 773. x al Swaet. 3. it is the ointment.729 T he earlier context. 15:7. (“This works very well”). 730 For a different interpretation. T he concluding statement takes the form o f a “commercial. 779. . and he will give it to you”).

Herbarius. 3. 14) the pap. 438. 117. 779— 80): (Засгта^ос. 102). Merkelbach (Abrasax. and moon) are positioned at about the same line. Robert Boker. VII.734 (“Having acquired the above m entioned herb kentritis. 247) reads <sv> Xeovtl.fA£V7).2: “communication between a man and a god”. The term gugtolgic. 67..” W St 40 (1918) 2-5. Gegen das Ende des Monats setzt die Nilflut . Merkelbach. Mithras. V I. reads xevtpltlv with the letter c written above the first v. 147.5 (ed.95. 42— 92. 220-21.209. s. 1922). Boll. 14. cjuvo o*.” Funfzehnter Jahresbericht des K . Supplemental rituals (11. Friedrich. 39. has 7ipox£c. 43. 177-81. 191 (“Zusammenstehen.5. 339. Halbbd. xeva'TpTTt-v xr)v 7tpoxei[A£VY](v) (3oxavY]v т?ј auvoSw ттј yevofxevT] Asovxt. 65— Gundel. 494.) is to be correlated with the “conjunction” (auvoSoi. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals [Wien: Verlag des K. IV. 89 n. however.732 The connection with “the great god” does not identify him expressly w ith Helios-Mithras. Des Places. Merkelbach: “ Zusammentreffen.. Dieterich (18. Bezold. Abrasax. 482). is technical in the magical and astrological literature. it refers to the day o f new m oon o f that m onth in which the sun comes to stand in the zodiac s sign of the Lion.737 It “takes place at every day o f new m oon and full m oon.” PRE 24.. “Systasis”.3— Wilhelm Gundel.III.247): “Am Neumondstag desjenigen Monats.735 The “encounter” (стиатаак. 1889]. 773. “Miszellen. Cf. See also Orac. not the least because o f the undisputed xzvxpixic. As Merkelbach points out. 695. VII. 111. “Zodiakos. XIII. Studies in Mithraism. II.v.l. Betz. 16. at the conjunction [of the sun and the moon] occurring in the L ion. 473. 21— 22). when sun.”738 731 See 1. 29— Clauss. in his discussion questions a possible xeaxptxiq. Hans Gundel and 66. idem. According to Karl Wessely (“Zu den griechischen Papyri des Louvre und der Bibliotheque nationale. Thessalos 1. 48 n. (1925) 1973— Delatte. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals. Das trifft ziemlich genau auf diejenige Zeit. see also V379. 162— 50. 692. 113 and plates II. 116. which emphasizes the conjunction taking place in the zodiac sign. . p. 672. 736 This astronomical term occurs also in III. A. 127 n. III. Gundel. 346. S 737 For the sign o f the Lion. The procedure itself begins w ith the acquisition733 o f the ingredients (11. XIII. 286— 87. but this identity can certainly be assumed as the view o f the present author (see 1. in welchem die Sonne im Zodiakalzeichen des Lowen steht.731 but translators differ how they interpret and render it into m odern languages. Sterne und Sternbilder im Glauben des 4.” “Audienz”). esp. “In the Place o f the Lion: Mithras in the Tauroctony.v as in 1. K.v. 108— 15).57. 43. zu welcher die Sonne am hochsten steht. 773 and 798.299. Hopfner: “Erscheinung”.178. 104. 734 Pap. and earth (or sun.38.' Sternglaube. 9) Sternbild des Tierkreises. Chald. ” 733 The term (3<xaTa£et. “Leo. LSJ. 2. in 11. 735 There has been a problem with the plant kentritis. 3.197. Astrologumena. 156. Karl Preisendanz.” in Hinnells. 185. R oger Beck. 260.v. G M PT . Altertums und der N euzeit (Bonn & Leipzig: Schroeder.1 (ed. 738 Merkelbach (Abrasax. earth. 950. s. 732— 819) 215 т]бе (“The encounter w ith the great god is as follows”).)736 between sun and moon. K . 732 Preisendanz: “Empfehlung an den groBen Gott”. 690. m oon.482. s. 3.505. See LSJ.” PRJ3 2nd series. Meyer: “encounter”. 19th Halbband (1972) 462— 709.”).

740 Pap. sie fallt zusammen mit dem Aufgang des Sothis-Sterns (des Sirius). 3248. Gertrud Herzog-Hauser.” has parallels in III. “as (written) below. s. 809. VII.. Erde und Mond) ungefahr auf derselben Linie stehen. 409. 94 (2.р.69-76.741 and so is the persea tree. 103. s.211-21). 1. butN .”). see Gardthausen. Apparently. cf. итгохеТа&оа. and Merkel­ bach (Abrasax . 194. Mat. VII. §§ 214.. 1): t o tj' ура^цлатш ovofAoc.” L A 4 (1982) 942— 43. 788. not cpuXAov (Wessely. reads бхтаурајл^латоу.216 The next ingredient to be prepared is the ink (11. IV304ff. 119) P 9 Mixture with honey and myrrh was also m entioned before (see 1. Hist. VII.” L A 64. Novossadsky wanted охтмуроси. 2. (“take the juice and.2205-6. but Preisendanz. 3213.S 7 (1940) 1574— esp. Thoth des Sothis-Jahres). see 1. “which are tied to the heart o f Helios. reads охтмураЈЛЈлатоу. 371.” Cf. XIII.2. 18). . XXXVIII. 785. # # 71 (2. “Tinte..130— 33).v.g. “Zu den griechischen Papyri. XXXVI. see August Steier. 768.743 ein. XIII.742 The eight-letter name is cited below. Ancient Egyptian Materials and 79.202— Hopfner. however. Petersburg: V.194 (index). IV. ML 11. Wessely (“Griechische Zauberpapyrus. the author found this recipe for the making o f ink and took it up here because o f the m entioning o f the kentritis plant (1. fruit o f the persea). Mond und Erde (oder Sonne. as given below”).атгл ovojjia (“Ad papyrum magicam bibliothecae parisinae nationalis additiones palaeographicae.. See Preisendanz. and Merkelbach. 6 (1986) 595. 1575-78.269-70.192. 83).” 14).187 (v.178) prefer the regular oxTaypafjifjiaTov. Renate Germer. There was some discussion. 782— ypt^ov етиI 83): cpuAAou тсѕраеа? to oxTaypafAfxaTov ovojxa. . 265-66. 741 See 1.2. 1. Balashev. A. For the eightletter name. 1962).” See also 11. structed).” 64). 786-87.v.” PRE 37th Halbband (1937) 940— 44.5. see also PGM LXII. Preisendanz. December 1895 [St. Also.5 (with the commentary by K.” Journal of the Ministry of National Education [in Russian]. 739 For ink and recipes o f its preparation. 468.233— 243-46. Lucas. On ink. 1. Griechische Palaeographie.). 219. [xsXt 1.. IV815. med. 3199-3204. III. “Persea.95-105). plant. 3. “Tinte. шгохгига!. 755). W riting on leaves is m entioned as part o f other procedures in the PG M . 68 (378C). 536— for Greek passages. reads cpuXAou correctly (cf. “Persea. 3.. 224).504. app. see Theophrastus. London: Arnold. und der Tag dieses Aufgangs ist der sakrale Neujahrstag der Agypter (der 1.822. —Eine cjuvoSo^ von Sonne und M ond findet an jedem Neumondstag und Vollmondstag statt. 743 The redactional comment ok utzoxslzocl.. S. in n. 742 See III. 1. persea tree generally. 940-41. sawoxToypafjifxaTov. l. & Maltomini. 362— Rosemarie Drenkhahn. Sprengel. 1 he questions whether oxxw ура[Л[латш ovojxa should be read in light o f Dieterich.” PRE.9: та бхтса урајл^ата SsXyjvy]?. pap.315. see LSJ. Plutarch. 3. 3. 521. N ext the leaf from the persea tree must be prepared (11. Supplementum Magicum. Os. 11. Dieterich (Mithrasliturgie. Industries (4th ed. with the commentary by Griffiths. however. 4. O Z 2 /2 . 1895.724. 781— 82): dpov tov % Aov u x al [xeXm x al ^[xupvv] . Is.740 (“write on a leaf o f the persea tree the eight-letter name. 257-58. 222. Plutarch’ D e Iside et Osiride. p. TTspCTEiov. 2. Dioscorides. Wiinsch (in Dieterich. (Abraxas. 81— 87].385— IV408. 178 (mostly recon­ 34.32. crit. On the s 37. 2237. 244. also Daniel 86.3. Meyer. part 302. wenn Sonne. e. For information about this tree. 17. cf. after mixing it w ith honey and myrrh . 1044..

Kendrick Pritchett. For the rituals o f purification and sanctification. the reference is stated: хата &eov vou[X7]vtav.III. their application follows (11. 724-28)? O r does it originally apply to a source and only secondarily to the present context? It can be taken for granted. 746 For further references. 789— XIII. 749 The terminology is common not only in the PGM: for sTcaxoueLV (“listen”). 90. XII. Supplemental rituals (11.b.27. crit.3209.347 (41 days). .746 It consists o f licking the inscription off from the leaf. XIII..749 Three additional instructions regarding this procedure follow in 11. 732— 819) 217 W ith these preparations completed.”)750 The instruction supplements 1. ”). in IV.744 (“and having kept yourself pure for for three days in advance. according to the god[‘s reckoning]. IV. see also II.247) refers to R ev 10:9. 587. 780. 915.149. Mechanics. 34. XIII. see 1. come at m orning to face the sunrise. Prior to the application there has to be a three-day period o f sanctification.131— 434— 690). 51). Herbarius. 745 Cf.34. upoocyvsueLv III. The expression хата &eov is technical in calendrical procedures.1045. 671 (7 days).26. 734). prooemium. The question here relates to the possible context o f this assurance: Does it refer to the consulta­ tion w ith Helios-Mithras (11. cf.747 after or while showing it to the sun (Helios). XXII.” Z P E 128 (1999) 79-93. see (with further literature) W.748 T he result is that the god Helios will listen (11. 39— (“Temps 72 propice a la recolte”).524 (rzpbq avaxoAa?). 786— 92. 73-87 (“Preparation de l’herboliste”). 783— 85): x al Ttpo y ' ^{л-epwv ayveuaa? sX&e rcpcolaq n p o q avaxoXa?. see Thessalos 1. xaxa &eov voufjiTjvla (“Begin to consecrate him on the new T m oon in the Lion. because o f the new moon the goddess Selene is meant. 1. airoXei^e xo cpuXXov Selxvuwv v]Xlw . For ritual sanctification. 748 For parallels. 35. see. but no name is given there either. Cf. First. . IV 1099-1100 (3 days).. V. 114. 88-107 (“Rites cathartiques et apotropai'ques”). IV. 1. where the prophet is ordered to eat the holy book. 786— 87): ap^ou S t auxov xz'Azlv X ] sv Xeovxt. 744 Pap.282. lick off the leaf while you show it to the sun . XIII. what this consists o f can be seen from the parallels. 750 Preisendanz (app.304. 52. 779).54-55. Merkelbach (Abrasax .2389. but also elsewhere in ancient religions.. VII. however. for the importance o f ayveuct-v in the PGM. but what is meant by auxov xsXelv? Preisendanz. see 1. 334 (3 days). Meyer. VII.226. 747 The licking off o f the sacred eight-letter word has parallels not only in the PGM (see 11. see PGM VII. cruvayvsuw (1.151. “Postscript: The Athenian Calendars. that for the present author/redactor the god to listen is none other than Helios-Mithras. 92— 102. especially. Friedrich. in order to face the sun rising in the east. See Ritner. 785— 86): x al ouxco? euaxouasxat. .) raises the question whether. 3. and Merkelbach believe it to be the sun-scarab to be consecrated (cf. Ezek 2:8-3:3. xeXeiw? (“then he will listen attentively”). sec­ tions 18 and 21 (ed. Delatte.745 T he application begins early in the m orning. regarding the specification o f time (11. reads y for the number three. 846. ad loc.524.

1. ^auixa^eiv.105 (index). hist. Lucian. 790— 92) 92): TcoXXaxL? 8e т?ј тсраујхатг^а xpiQffoc^evoc. T LG . the leaf is to be rolled up754 and thrown into the rose-oil (1. but it is rather frequent in Hellenistic and Roman period literature. OxxXacraav).1. 753 The peculiar term cpula. 15.ov751 (“Lick this up. see also VII. £va сриАахттјр^аа&тј^. Ver. “Gartenbau. Athenaeus. Macrob.”). m entioned in 11. VIII. 11. 1. Zeux. The purpose o f the licking off752 is now explained as a phylacterion. 1. PGM IV.218 Second. Cf. the main ritual o f the consultation o f Mithras. 757 Cf.108— (jxupov).”). so that you may be protected. 1. 774— 76.2626— IcrSk бе TTscpuXaxTyjpcaapivoi. 7.16. 756 u7rsp9au[xa^£!. XIII. doubtless it was taken over from the source. is: I EE O O IAI.2. 2099. 1.v is found only here in the PGM. see above. VIII. 782— is revealed. see 59.v.49.234.v. consisting o f three pieces o f “inform ation” pertaining to the sun-scarab. 788-90): to u to exX eije. Franz Olck. 2628.acn:6^. a specification o f the leaf (cf.753 After having licked it off.254-55. for a parallel. 792— 813). 5. see 1.250. Anth. . 898. 67: 758 For parallels. and Preisendanz.a. 853-54. reads eySKiye iva and <puXXo(v) (the final v is written with a supralinear stroke). Am . 757— 774.67. xal to cpuXAo(v) eXl^a^. Third. VII. 3271.v. pal.). etc. see XIII. 785) is added (11.34.xrlpi(/. 755 The rose-oil is simply called t o poStvov. 775 and XIII. 24. 2630. 785 knoXeijeiv . intro­ 83 duced by a citation formula (1. esp. XIII. Var. (see also LSJ.278 (sXaiov).889-90. Further items o f information (11. s. O Z 2 /1 . 9mi{i. Deipn. 3. 27: 99. Regarding composition. see also VII.266— тсоХХахс.y. e[x(3aXe eiq to po8t.755 The conclusion to the passage (778— takes to the form o f another “commercial” (11.adfiv a i (“to be furnished with an amulet” [LSJ]) occurs also in IV. see Hopfner.5. snotYjcja ty)v 7rpa^t. итсгре&аирзсста (“Many times I have used the spell. For rose-oil. a substantive adjective (“made from roses”). 413.897— Horapollo. X X X V I.62.23 (285d). the eight-letter name.756 T he “commercial” combines two topoi: frequent use as evidence o f effective­ ness. 1051 (cpuXXov).230. 788): to Se ovojxa eaziv to u to ' I es oo loC C (“The name.758 3. throw it into the rose-oil. see 1. for тсрау[лате1а. s. 1954. i)au[i. see Aelian.523 (ovofxa). 776— 77. VII.с. A similar commercial has occurred before (see on 1. also 1.337— 38. and the plant kentritis. 754 For kX iaaziv. 18. for the adjective poSivo^. 463 (eXt^ov xal (ЗаХе zic. and rolling up the leaf. VII. the three items were appended by the author/redactor who derived them 751 Pap. Aeth. a measure o f protection. Heliodorus. 1018. however.” PRE 13th Halbband (1910).8.757 and great amazement on the part o f the practitioner. 52. 12. hist. 9 §§ 121-22. 752 For the term ехХе^есл». 776).. Hier. and have been absolutely amazed”). 792—813) A nother supplement is added to the previous rituals (11. 4. Qauuiamo^. 759). Pro imag. 2079. 3.360.24.

VII. 3. 751— 78: [лтјхетг jpS> тм стиу^р^а^атс. the number 25 is written in the pap. which supersedes the previous tradition.. Olivieri. 5).40.247): “Da die Sonnenkafer-Salbe nun doch einmal bereitet war. in which the god appeared to order the change. Mat. 770 the auy^piaiaoc761 which is no longer to be used. The term is technical in ancient medicine and pharmacy.69. N othing is said about what kind o f revelation it was. validated by divine revelation.”.411. Preisendanz assumes the object o f рѓ-фаутос to be to cpuAAov. see Dioscorides. See LSJ. 732— 819) 219 from personal revelation as well as source materials different from the Vorlage o f the preceding rituals. 1. 760 Cf. Several points are controversial. Forming a kind o f appendix. The revelation concerns the preparation o f the ointm ent as stated in 11. and that he was careful to preserve the excerpts as they were copied. ttcvtc).. sondern <du muBt> befragen. Galen. presumably the Nile. Damit erleidet das dasselbe Schicksal wie Osiris. as xe (meaning etxoat.III.75. Preisendanz: “Verwende die Salbe nicht mehr..1. sollte sie in den N il geworfen werden. ”) This formula presupposes the author has received a personal revelation from the god (no doubt. auy^pt-crjxa. so that the translations also differ. This correction is needed because o f a personal revelation o f the author (11.762 Such a disposal. o f course. der das groBe Mysterium des durch die 25 Vogel (?) wiederbelebten Skarabaus mit sich tragt. den Seth-Typhon in den FluB geworfen hatte. In IV 876 heiBt Osiris . nachdem du sie in den FluB geworfen hast. med.412. 450. . 792— 96): elrtsv бе [xot. The first item concerns a correction to be made in the previously recorded ritual.760 W hich object is to be thrown into the river? Is it the persea leaf (Preisendanz). 1.” 761 The noun occurs only here in the PGM.45 (1. but is to be disposed of by throwing it into the river. med. 12. 763 So Merkelbach (Abrasax . 17). it could have been a dream or a vision. 1 (ed. etc. X X X V I. Supplemental rituals (11.ov to u xav& apou to u ava^coTcupYj^evTOi. бса tcov x e ' <^w(ov opvetov759 (“Use the ointm ent no longer.389. 1).136 (ed.v.1. the pap. the new informa­ tion contains the results o f further research. or the ointm ent o f the sun scarab (Merkelbach)? Most likely the text refers to the ointment in 1. Compos. but. s. 1. 8. 762 For things thrown into the river. reads Tcoxapto with a supralinear stroke indicating final v. Iatr.285.2.763 The term ^раст&оа refers to the oracular 759 The word < XP^> has been supplied by Eitrem. 1. lines 13. Kuhn. turns it over to Osiris w ho is identical w ith the Nile. after casting it into the river [you must] consult while wearing the great mystery o f the scarab revital­ ized through the 25 living birds”). This shows that w hen he added the information he had the complete text before him. also IV. аХХа p ^ a v x a eic. o ^eo?' (“But the god spoke to me: . TTOxafxov <yj?Y\> ураа&ои cpopouvxa t o f i iy a ^uaxr]pc. . in which he noted differences as well as his own judgm ent. Aetius o f Amida. sondern wirf (den Sonnenkafer) in den FluB und trage an dir die groBartige mystische Salbe des Sonnenkafers.420. Helios-Mithfas). Merkelbach: “Gebrauche die Salbe nicht mehr (zum Einreiben).16. 4. dem der Lebensfunke wieder verliehen worden ist durch die 29 Lebens-Vogel (?). 12. cf. but see for the verb 11.

” This strange reference seems to allude to an otherwise unattested ritual. 289-90. 270). 747-48) to once a month. For another change from a seasonal to an astrological calender. 750— as an amulet. o ecrriv xav&apoi. Quaest.767 (“ Consult once a m onth. Henrichs. Defixionum tabellae. during which the ointm ent o f the sun-scarab was to be used (11. Plutarchs Schrift.220 Commentary consultation described in 11. ocvtI tou х ата ѕто. 54.”)768 In other words. атса^ tou prjvo. 773. index. see the conflict about the Bacchanalia. 1 Clem 27:3. perhaps influenced by < jp ri> .7]£ x a l 7тота[лоср6рт)то<. Bacchanalia. х ата TcavaeAiqvov. Da Osiris regeneriert wurde. s. revitalize”). 160-61. s. “Etudes sur la magie grecque. 87. хата 7tavasXy]vov may come from a marginal note (Jordan).13. 9.770 T he third item (11. 8. 717. 260. cf. it may be related to the hours. 767 Pap. 770 The phrase ocvtI tou . 3. Ancient Mystery Cults.” in Graf. reads y for three.. 773-74). O Z 2 / 1-2.248) proposes to read the number as which would increase the birds to 29 and relate them to the 29 days o f the lunar month.8-10. see also XIII.ov тои &eou. so all explanations are necessarily speculative. This б Yeva{Aevo<. Ign Eph 1:1. supplementing earlier instructions in 11. IV.739: a magical name gives vital power to magical books (to ava^omupouv xaq tzoloocq [ЗфАои^ aou).52— 53. “Dromena. 770..According to Plutarch. unfortunately. 753) to full m oon. 398A. 128: to {i. 294.766 The second item is also a correction regarding the times o f consultation (11. XII. Versnel. 53. 778-86. 292E-F. 724-28 (cf. so that the scarab Khepri is reborn in the first hour o f a new day. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. Instead o f this ointment. there is no other extant attestation o f it. instead of three times a year. G M PT . §§ 130.. on this. 187.v. 105) suggests: “The allusion to the twenty-five birds is obscure.'Ear(. . 732-34).” B C H 38 (1914) 246.” See also Hopfner. ’АКЕФАА02 0 E O 2 .. auf der Bleitafel von Hadrumentum droht eine Magierin mittam ut a flumine feratur (Audollent. which is a scarab” (or: “which is ‘Scarab’”). see Schroder.” Merkelbach (Abrasax. 183-84. at full m oon. after the passage o f twelve hours o f day and twelve hours o f night during the previous day. and BDAG. Pyth. XIII. Inconsistencies 1.765 so well known to the author that he does not consider further information to be necessary. 798— 804) contains botanical information about the kentritis plant. 225) refers to Armand Delatte. 78) living birds.uaT/]pt. one should wear “the great mystery o f the sun-scarab”764 (see 11 746. Graec.769 and from new m oon (1. orac. y '. n. described in Livy. the consultation o f the Pythia should occur during the month o f Bysos. at the gods order the time schedule stated in the preceding text is to be changed from three times a year (11. 764 Cf.. 768 The infinitive has imperatival force. that scarab has been “revitalized through the 25 . 796— 98): ^paorQ-at. 766 Meyer (Betz. 39. 765 For the term ava^wTiupetv (“rekindle. V. “the mystery o f the god.318: i^oTtupeCv. 224.v. wird dasselbe auch mit dem Kafer geschehen. 769 Weinreich (in Dieterich. For the term ava^wTcupew see also 1 Tim 1:6. see Burkert. cf. The question is whether there is a relationship between these rituals. It seems that the performances are shifted from a seasonal to an astrological calender.

with reference to Wiedemann. The description follows the estab­ lished pattern o f identifying the species ((Soxav/j. “Zur Kritik.775 The m ethod for identifying the plant (yvcocrc. Os. falls off w hen touched.” 775 See LSJ (s. 33. commenting on Plutarch’ Is.3 (ed. 19. 804— xouxo xou xuplou U7to8ei^avxo<. 484. the first part (798-804) concerns a tradition which likely originates in a herbalist s text:771 rj Sz xevxplxiq (SoxavY) cpuетоа атсо [A 7]v6<. yj бе yvcoat. 425-26). Supplemental rituals (11.281. derived from a personal .. 13. 7 6 77. is thereby weakened and . also 65 and 492). Worterhuch der agyptischen Drogennamen.. ” 776 On the ibis-wing. 364C: “. Hopfner. Dieterich. 774 See Hopfner (O Z 1. 362F) discussion o f the festivals o f the months o f Pauni and Phaophi in Busiris and Lycopolis. the tenth m onth o f the year (May 26 to June 24). Untersuchungen. 773 See Hopfner. TrEpicjrepewv). CE). the ‘black edge’ weakened by the juice. reads 'r(3ew For a discussion o f the text see Cronert.773 and the geographical area: the region called “the black earth” is the arable land o f Egypt. б[лоѓ. the seasonal growth: “from the m onth o f Pauni on. “plant”).” that is.. O Z 1. Herodots zweites Buch. O Z 1. s.59— as a “holy plant” (Ispa [Зотал>7]). see Deines & Grapow. since it is mostly black. 1. and when the feathers are touched. . ouxw<. 93— 97). and is similar to the erect verbena. 4.а бѕ eaxiv xw оргНо n z p io r z p z m i.^) is then described. Griffiths (Plutarch.” 101. avY cites Dieterich. eups$7} ev 7): xco MsveXatxT) ev хтј ФаХаури тсро. Friedrich.v. 76. commenting on Plutarch’s (Is. called TtepKTxepewv (“upright verbena. Wiedemann. revelation by the god (11. 74) mentions the PGM passage as “chiaramente tratta da un erbario. The black tip o f a wing feather o f an ibis. § 500: 60 “Taubenkraut. in contrast to the “red land” o f the desert. like the black part o f the eye. xa q ava(3oXat<. The month o f Pauni is mentioned also in VII.III. M. 772 Pap.774 T he next step is a comparison w ith a similar plant. p. y lyvexar Efieto? rcxepov ^ptexou xo axpopiiXav yotk<xa$zv xco хос'1 <[xa ^ Otyetv атсотатгхе^ xa тсхера772 (“T he kentritis plant grows from the m onth of Pauni. see also. cf. LSJ. 178. # 1127. §§ 464— 551: “D ie sympathisch-symbolischen Pflanzen”. 8 (2nd cent.. 732— 819) 221 information is divided into two parts. 30. 412.” I owe this last reference to Thomas Dusa. § 500). in the regions of the black earth. Os. Mat. TcspicnrEpLov mentioned in Dioscorides. Carmela Betro (“Erbarie nell’ antico Egitto. 781). with references to Pap. [xeXac. Griffiths (Plutarch. see Dieterich (19) who 21. Khemia. § 500. they fall off”). O Z 2 /1 . med. утј?.> xou 771 See Hopfner. esp.” Egitta e Vicino Oriente 11 [1988] 71— 110. Ilauvl sv r o l q fiipeai fjL£X avy]<. Herodots zweites Buch. Oxy. §§ 120— For jjLeX ]? instead o f (xeXatvYj^. this is how to recognize it: the wing o f an ibis is smeared. 7iXt]ctlov <xy}<. <. O Z 1. BDAG.? aux?)<.v. So far the information gleened from the herbalist source.” or “dovecote”). Hopfner.776 when smeared with the juice o f the plant (cf. Thessalos. they call s Egypt. 11 773. In 11 804— the author adds new information.

reads ал/офоЛоас.222 Commentary Вт]<аа>аабо<.65-66. Jordan prefers <т^?> тои Вт]<аа>(7або<.” that is. (Зктааа. occur as well (according to Max Wellmann [in Dieterich.v. emended by Dieterich (20) to асттгарауои ayptou.44.779 Phalagry is the likely name o f a place in the R om an province o f Cyrenaica between Kainopolis and Marabina.19): o MeveXa'iTY)? vojjlo?. 1999). 4. 19].18 (801.781 related to the god Bes (Втјста?). “Menelaos (Menelaites). According to Kees and Calderini. See also Dieterich (19. Pap. The main source is Stephanus o f Byzantium. reads тои ргјстабос (4отал/т]с. See LSJ. “Deiche des Nils” (Abrasax . David R . Dieterich (19) proposes avaroXaic. and reddish down to the root. 1980).181. “Phalakra(i). Mat. 3. med. the Afrians Churma. the Cappadocians Moly. Puschmann. Calderini (Dizionario 5 [1987]. Jordan. “an den Wallen (des Nils). O Z 1. [the plant] is found in the Menelaitis area near Phalagry. as the name says. ФаХахраг ѕсгтс. Dieterich consid­ ers [5г)о-абабо<. 134). see also VII.778 the author has actually found the plant at an identifiable place. According to Dioscorides the Syrian name was (Зтѓ]аааста.592.782 A more detailed description defines the plant further (11. wc. see Dioscorides. 1117.v. LXII. “Syrian rue. but Preisendanz keeps avapoXai?.46. 808— 13): scttiv бѕ fxovoxXwvov x a l Ttoppov a^ptp££/]? x a l т а cpuXXa оиХотгра x a l to v xapTiov s^ o v x a o^ o io v tw xopup.1— Hopfner. near the Besas plant”).780 The Besas plant is. Falacro and Phalagry.46.” 782 For the identification. Dieterich (19) refers to Dios­ corides.. § 500: 2. derini. Meineke.1.777 (“As the lord demonstrated to me. et al. Dieterich also reads ФаХаурт) (Jordan retains ФаХаури). Cf. Se xa l xcopr] Лфш)? ФаХахроа.2: (Зтјаасста.” Merkel­ bach: “an den Dammen. 777 Accepting Jordan s reading. 225). Jordan retains the pap.(?). the area called Menelaos (Menelaites) was situated in the northwestern Nile Delta. {Зтјаааа is read by the best Dioscorides manuscripts). agrestis ruta. 781. [3oTavy)<. s. 3/2. the Egyptians Epnubu. t o a y p io v creuTXov783 (“It is o f a single stem. 1. јЗтгјсгастбс. Phalakre 2). It is similar to the so-called talapes.267 (with reference to Ptolemaeus.5. ed. 783 Pap.” PRE 15 (1931) 807— Aristide Cal­ 8. Bergen: Norwegian Institute at Athens.” PRE 19/2 (1938) 1614— 15. 779 Hermann Kees. and the leaves are rather crinkled and have fruit like the tip o f wild asparagus. 3. some called it Tirjyavov aypiov. s. Dizionario dei nomi geografici e topografici dell’ Egitto greco-romano (Milano: Istituto Editoriale Cisalpino-La Goliardica. like the wild beet”). east o f Alexandria. Geogr. 205— 26. but different names were used in different locali­ ties. 3. see below. at the river banks. reads астараум ay pew.9: MeveXaiTou [Гѓјтрбтсо/лс Kavw^oc). an unnoticed Greek name for Egypt: N ew evidence for the origin and etymology o f al­ chemy?” in: The World of Ancient Magic: Papers from the first International Samson Eitrem Seminar at the Norwegian Institute at Athens (eds. 752. 54) points to two possible places. [Зсстааста. but the forms ртјстстосаа. “MeXaviTt. See also David Bain. 248). The major source is Strabo. Alexander o f Tralles 2 (ed. VIII. (Зотоплг)?. 781 Pap. med.? y?j. 780 So according to Hermann Kees. Geogr.. 778 For the term mroSet-xvueLV. ecttiv Se TrapairXyjaxov tw xaXoujjiivw таХа7гг). reading. .[3w aaT iapayw ay p lw . Mat. “plant o f Besas”. 17. Thanks to divine guidance.

III. med. 4. plant.173. plant. 280. XI.2899.125. See for surveys and bibliographies Charles W. “Amulett. (“reddish”).18. Mat. names. 813—19) The third ritual concerns the phylacteries to be used during the main ritual.l.4. 789).127.2. XLVII.63-66). VII. 784 See IV.1 3 3 5 -3 6 .) refers to Theophrastus. 6.66-67). cf.275 (cf. 28 (1.79. papyrus. 2705. 1. XII. idem.6 (beta maritima L . 7.15. with references from the papyri.a. plant. Reitzenstein. LSJ list reuxXov.. The Gnostics and Their Remains: Ancient and Medieval (2nd ed. 3.890.vov 1.1661. 3201. 317. plant.med. III. 790 See also III. 7 0 8 .1 2 6 4 . They must o f course be prepared before the ritual begins.204-8). 3. 2694. 291-303.1 0 7 1 . See the comments by Dieterich and Wellmann (in Dieterich. D e amuletorum apud antiquos usu capita duo (Gryphiae: Abel. 1907). Supplemental rituals (11. Hist. 787 See LSJ.99-101). 9.4. 579.. Gerhard Kropatscheck. Theophrastus. Nat. 2630.. LXX. VII. Hist.” R A C 1 (1950) 397— 411. 792 The literature on phylacteries and amulets is vast and widely dispersed.10-11 (vecpt-Xaxxr^ov).309. 6.. implying that таХатггј is an error. LXII. Eckstein &Jan H. they were —and still are —widely used in every religious configuration. 1887). Mat. 3127. or metal lamellae. xoZq Лфш]£ zotcoiq xal ev aXXoi^ бе japtoic. 257. “wild sea beet.5.1685-86. 857.” or “beet”). 311.1. 159.218. London: Nutt. (reconstructed) VII.2689.37. 20-21) who point to a plant called aXurcov (Dioscorides. Mat. 2897. 86. 298.5 (jxovoxXovo?). 92 (2.97. XXXVI. notably in IV Preisendanz.4. Waszink. 660.790 4. Usually w orn on the body o f a person. King. or pictorial representations. 786 LSJ (s. LXI. 111.9.248) have no explanation to offer.1 3 1 6 -1 7 .23. XIII.v. Hopfner (O Z 1. 791 Phylacteries play an important role in the PGM.76-77). 788 See Theophrastus. 4.791 Phylacteries are . plant. symbols. 94 .1 6 1 9 -2 0 . § 500) and Merkelbach (Abrasax. 3094. 486.Hist. cpuXaxTt. LXXII. med.1703.8. Hist. so that they are ready for use whenever needed (see 11 659— 708. Poimandres.614. Third ritual: the phylacteries (11.197— 98 (index) notes the following occurrances o f cpuXaxxrjpLov: 1.792 which is why specific regulations for their prepara­ tions must be followed. Caus. 64 (2. 34 (1. XIII.796. 2.1670.787 The plant names cannot all be identified: аштарауо^ (“asparagus”).3. 785 See also IV. x-6pi>fx(3o<.784 тшрро<.2.272). F. w ith engravings o f letters. (“cluster of fruit” or “flowers”). Dioscorides. 3014. 2.788 хаХатг/}.22). 2510-11. Theophrastus. cf. 732— 819) 223 As one would expect. Daniel & Maltomini. \ioCkiaxa. o5Xo<.4: оиЛо^иХХо^. voces magicae. cf. the language o f this passage contains terms from botany: [AovoxXwvo? (“with a single stem”). s. 789 According to the TLG the name o f the plant is a hapaxlegomenon..785 xa cpuXXa ouXoxepa (“crinkled leaves”). Dioscorides. IV. 27.789 and aeuxXov (“wild beet”). 7iXeicrTov. 61. 2358.23.v. 844. 2508. 1653-54. Supplementum Magicum # # 23 (1.6.178: yevvaxai бе ev тбтео^ тсара&аХаа<т1оц.786 xopu(x(3o<. cf. 899.13. LXXI.1 2 5 3 .1675. Pliny. protective amulets on stone.

Les intailles. Kotansky. 214. 80 (2. .190 (index).” R G G (4th ed. The hide o f the black sheep is contrasted to that o f the white sheep (1. Gnomon 68 [1996] 447— 53). . 3. 94 (2.274.442— TDNT. the amulet for the right arm is treated (11.224 Commentary The text begins w ith a kind o f section title (11. Supplementum Magicum.796 The same procedure is to be followed for the left arm (11. w ith myrrh ink”). and use the same m ethod”).? тои аитои ^фои тгер1афоа (“and after tying it with the sinews o f the same animal. 5 (1. the term m pionnxeiv (“attach [around the arm]”) is technical and occurs elsewhere in the PG M . Daniel & Maltomini. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. idem. Magika Hiera. Jean Marques-Raviere.” in Faraone & Obbink.26. Merkelbach. pointing to the occur­ 44.342— 79). Apparently. 1938). 1994). 32.v. BDAG. Talismans et Pantacles dans la tradition orientales et occidentales (Paris: Payot. put it on”).161— 62). “Incantations and Prayers for Salvation on Inscribed Greek Amulets.211— 21). First. either by accident. 60. the preparation o f myrrh ink has been described before (11. Studies (cf. History. Magische Amulette und andere Gemmen des Instituts ftir Altertumskunde der Universitat zu Koln (ARWAW. Gnomon 24 [1952] 340— 45).1252. as also what material one should use. s.211-21).795 The preparation distinguishes between what one should wear on the right and on the left arm. Walter Beltz and Christoph Uehlinger. “Amulets Chiefly in the British Museum. 3016. # # 78 (2. Bonner.797 (“ [the magical name] o f the left [arm] is PR O ST H Y M E R I”). rence o f Jewish phylacteries in Matt 23:5 (see Schiirer. 2. Scholars differ (2. 207. 2155. ”. see IV. the pap. 817— 19): to 8s euwvujxov si q ujxsva Xeuxou тгројЗатоо x al ^рсо тб аитЅ тротш (“and that for the left [arm copy] onto the skin o f a white sheep. Carol Andrews. 797 Pap. Amulettes.. the review by Karl Preisendanz.v.1318. 818).740. Erika Zwierlein-Diehl. with the review and additional bibliography by William Brashear. 29. “A Miscellany o f Engraved Stones. Meyer: “N ow the phylacteries require this procedure: . Abrasax 1-4. now supported by . cf.197. 65. reads тротго with a supralinear stroke. 819. 66. XXX VI.PC 20.” Hesperia 20 (1951) 301— idem. indices. LXIII. Amulets of Ancient Egypt (London: British Museum Press. Then the vox magica for the left arm is given: eucovu[A<ov т>ои тсроа&иргјрг. 57. Also. “Amulett.794 The term тротсо^ refers to a particular type o f amulet as well as the m ethod for making it. 3. or because it is the same for both arms.278.. Then follows the applica­ tion: to 8s аито бтѓјста? vsupot. VII. 1992. 780-81). 814-17): to fjtiv бе£(.479-81. and Preisendanz. Merkelbach: “D ie Amulette (die man beniitzen soli) sehen so aus. reads $ufry)pi. (“Copy the [amulet] for the right [arm] onto the skin o f a black sheep. 794 The translations differ at this point: Preisendanz: “Die Amulete sind so beschaffen”. §§ 18.16). emended by Wessely to £uwvu{x<ov t > o u TrpocrOujj-epL. 796 For nspidwtTw see IV . 1998) 1.” ibid. 107— 37. 793 Pap. & Derchain. 23 (1954) 138— Delatte 45. reads eucovufAou. XII.ov ypav^ov eiq ujiiva тсро(Затои ptiXavo? Qiupvo^EXavc. 813-14): та бѕ сриХахтујрса e js i tov TpoTtov toutov793 (“Then the phylacteries are o f this kind”). 330.” 795 For the term трбтго^. cpuXaxTYjpLov. s. recognized by Dieterich (20) and Preisen­ danz. which Dieterich (20) emends to tkifAYjpeu. the formula to be inscribed has been omitted. Amulets.151— 54). idem.

In his edition and translation. Thus. 798 Preisendanz: “Das linke is ganz gefullt mit ‘Prosthymeri’ und hat die Aufschrift.. cf. however. IV2078— 79: таита ecjtlv. and that uTr6p.800 Stating that the docum ent is now complete uses the superlative form тсХтјрѓсттатоу be­ cause o f the many supplements and additions. Preisendanz considered to punctuate: cucovujjlou' “upocrtk>[xepi”.799 the final clause should be taken as a separate statement by the author/redactor: TrXyjpsaxaTov x a l to tmofAVTrjpia 'ijz i ([With this] the memorandum has [finally] reached its completion”). 799 According to Weinreich (in Dieterich.17. The change to the genitive is only needed because Wessely connects it with with 7tA7]pe<jToc. TiXyjpeoTaxov x a l to ш гбјдллгјЈла z y z i.a z j z i ' . та e-rciTcXel Y [aov/] ] тирау|лате1а. This reading keeps what the pap. comparison w ith the phylactery at 11.798 However. has. also Preisendanz. if it were the same as for the right arm.a III. and has this memorandum Merkelbach: “Das linke mit dem ‘Konig STHYMERI hat auch die vollstandigste Erinnerungskraft in sich. 40).. see Preisendanz...<. For similar conclusions. while the corre­ sponding one for the right arm is omitted.248) comments that the left amulet strengthens the memory.v. 659-61 shows that for the right arm there is only one vox magica (PROSYM ERI). Preisendanz follows Wessely’s emen­ dation: suwvu[xo<v t>ou “-TtpocjthjfAept.I V Epilogue (11. see LSJ. 467. vary at this point.. The term шгоЈлллгјЈла (“m em o­ randum ”) refers to legal and literary documents.a). итсор^Јла (5). there is no reason to assume a longer inscription for the left arm.v/](j. 1.” 7rXy)pecrTaTov xal to U7t6p. (1. Meyer (translating Preisendanz): “The left one is very full o f ‘PROSTHYM ERI’. A further question is whether the inscription for the right arm can be restored on the basis o f Ttpoaupiept.2 0 ) Contrary to most scholars.v7][i.” Merkelbach (Abrasax. ad loc. Finally. although accepted by Preisendanz.667-69. the text would have indicated it. crit.801 it refers most likely to the Jordan. 661). Meyer. I V Epilogue (U. 3. For one. “Das linke ist ganz gefullt mit ‘Prosthymeri’ und hat die Aufschrift — ” 800 According to Wiinsch.g. Worterbuch.vrh refers to spells called [xvTjpLovtxir] (e... also 11. and P G L .232. u. however. 819— are “a poorly copied marginal gloss to the Vorlage. which corre­ sponds to the other (PROSTHYM ERI) for the left arm. this emendation.Tov {m6fxvY]fi.” (The Homer verses are taken to be the content o f the U7r6jj. seems to be unconvincing. see III. 11. app. s. Preisigke. “Beitrage zur antiken Urkunden- .161: xal aunr] ecrclv yj TCpa£t. and Merkelbach. 8 1 9 -2 0 ) 225 widely in regard to the text and its interpretation. there is the problem that the vox magica is given only for the left arm. Elias Bickermann. For references.725. therefore. 801 The term is used also XIII.424. 225). W S t 41 (1919) 142-43. Cf. should the following phrase тсХтјрѓататоу x a l to UTiofxvYjfxa z j z i be part o f the sentence or not? Should the following H om er verses be taken as the content o f the im6fxv7)(Jia? Translations.. 2.a." 20 For this and other speculations. 8 1 9 .

803 signifying the end o f the section and implying that the H om er verses (11. so daB vor und nach ihm noch deren gesprengte Stiicke erscheinen.” D N P 5 (1998) 65. less likely.). 15 802 Cf.400. Therefore.804 forschung. 814— (with lit. 804 So the evidence o f the pap. 467-75 and 821-43: “Es scheint. he observes correctly that the Mithras Liturgy is interpolated between the Homer verses o f 11. on the other hand (21). 402— 3..) begins (11. Griechische Palaeographie..802 After 1. to the supplements alone (11.” meaning the Homer verses (11. apparatus criticus). noted by Wessely (“Zu den griechischen Papyri. 750— 819). the Mithras Liturgy in its entirety functions as a memorandum in the same way. but since they are mere additions to the whole composition. the term cruvxayfjia in the exordium (11.226 Commentary text as a whole. 750. 820 there also occurs a colon (:) and a paragraphos sign.шс. 821— are not to be 34) taken as a part o f the Mithras Liturgy. 821— 34). where the additional instruction (бсбастнослѓа ттј? пра£. or. he takes и7г6рлг)[ла as the category o f “quotation. 803 See on this Gardthausen.” . 750-819). Dieterich (20. daB zwischen die Homerverse der groBe Wahrsagezauber eingeschoben ist. 225) is indecisive: on the one hand (20). III. 481-82).” 14) and Preisendanz (ad loc. 2. apparently refers to the text up to 1. “Hypomnema. Differently.” A P F 9 (1930) 164— Franco Montanari. the U7t6[xv7][xa could simply refer to these additional instructions.

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W ilhelm Duprez. zehnter Jahresbericht des K . “Hieroglyphen.. Franz A.661— 79 Winter. Martin WallrafF. U lrich Kopf. R eim und Leicht. 1971) . Giuseppe Veltri. “M agie. 1888) — “Zu den griechischen Papyri des Louvre und der Bibliotheque nationale.Bibliography 255 Wessely. and Toufic Fahd. Gunther.. Erich. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals (Wien: Staatsgymnasium in Hernals. Wien: Kempski. 1889) W iedemann. H einz Streib. Dorothea Baudy. 2002) 5.PH 36. M . Alfred. Marco Frenschkowski. Hans D ieter Betz.” R G G (4th ed. Persephone: Three Essays on Religion and Thought (Oxford: Clarendon.2. 1890) W iggermann. K . Griechische Zauberpapyrus von Paris und London (DOAW .” R A C 15 (1989) 8 3 -1 0 3 Zuntz.” Ftinf. Herodots zweites Buck (Leipzig: Teubner.


to ayyou? 761 ayia^a) ayiacr&eii. 522 ayLtxq 522 ayiwTaroi.. 761 ayycXo*. ov ayiwTocToa 668— 669 ayveuw ayveuaa? 784 aypto<. -a . -ov axoXou&a 578 axouw o x u ty 514. -ov ayptco 811 aypt.. 693 kkpoq 541 aepa 582 ocQavocaiix. atcr9T)&7](TeL 622 оаа&тјстц. -7). to ayiacjpLaCTL 522 ayioc. ) axoY]<. -a .yj. -ov aXxt-fJioi 679 .. 745 coc ] axoucret 541.ov aya&ou 649 aya$ocXq 653— 654. 522 aytaafxa. to aPuCTcrov 512— 513 aya&o<.Indices The Indices refer to the line numbers o f the papyrus containing the “ Mithras Liturgy” I. Greek Words aj3uacrov. -oava. 609 aOavaTou^ 620 cdexoq 484 alQ-yjp. . 621 axouCTsa&aa 572 axou|cr6v [лои 587— 588 axouetv 734 ахројлеХа?... 520 a&avaroLq 5 1 6 -5 1 7 aQ-avocTOU 531 aQavaxa 544. 520 a&avaTOV 504. 506. Y ] axTtvwv 538 axtlve<. to ayyeEov 758.ov 812 arjp. -ov aytoi<. 634 axTivac 751 aXxLjJio^. 706 oL c tew оатои 111 Atwv. 594 OX Y Y C O ]. o aepi 508.. Y ] a&avacrtav A l l aOavaTo^. 687 aya&od 667 ayyelov. 505. o ayyeXwv 571 ayyeXXw ayysiXov 642— 643 ayyo?. o Altova 520— 521 Alcov axpa etc. -ov a9-avaTw 501. . 685 axoXou9-oi. -av axpopiXav 8 0 2 -8 0 3 aXTL?.. Y ] т а q rcevTE ala& YjCTELi. o 515 odpw dcpov 781 ala9-avo[xat.

ov <x£coq 739 a^Low a^aj 477 a£t. 576— 577 атсо 537.TzoayeGxtu s^ u ^ w v x a l [3aXa|vslou 735 arcYjXt-wxY]?. 624 ava^omupsM ava^wTCUpYj&svxo? 795 avat-pew o v Xojasvo? 758 ce avaxoucpt^w avaxou9t. 628.. 730 an:apalxY)xo<. -ov aTCapalxv]xov 534 arcapaLXYjxou 606 aneipoq.evov 539 avEwyuta? 624— 25 avoLyopLsva? 662 avxl 797 avxLaxpEcpco Y X L V o u a a | x a l avxt-axpecpouaa xov ) oupavov 701 avw 569 a. 720. -ov av&pa)7UVY)(. aXXofxsvou? 704 aXXo?.. 579. Y ] avayxrjv 526 avayxY]? 606 Indices avolyto || avolyvufja avoLysvxoi. 728 O T Z 'l L Z yu b.. 523— 524. 799 aTToysvsola. o aTTY cw jv 552— jX xY 553 a7r/]Xi. Y ] avajSoXat? 806 avayxY). o avEfxou 550 av&pwrct-vo?. . -7]. 719 a7ioSlSw[i. -ov l aXXco 500.t. -ov a[A£xa&Exov 528 a[X[j.o . aTtoylyvo[xat. 626..cT{xw 741 aTCa^avaxKJjj..6? 747 ana&avocxlct[xov 771 атта^ 797 a7rapaf3axw<. 739— 740 атгѓрхојАоа хжгХѕбаѕхаг. t. 772 aXX<ou> 542 aXXou? 546 a}Aa 803 afA£xa&exo<. 546 avaf^alvEiv 628 ava(3oXir]. 793 aXXofxat. o aTca&av<ax>t. 551.258 aXXa 567. -ov auEtpov 583 aTtEpavxo?. -ov a7iEpavxov 552 avaXafXpavco <avaXaj3s> 533 avaXa[A7iw avaXaptwv 575 avaXuw avaXu&sli.oi 650 a^cov. 608 av&pcoTclvY)v 650 czv&pconoq. -la . rj avaxoX?]? 513 avaxoXa? 784 avefxoi. 721 kvixEppLq. o av&pw7iou 542 avO-pamo? 644. 583 ocvol ^ o v 603.ov 760 ava^aLvw ava(3alvovxac. акобг-бои? 658 .oi. Y ) a[Xfi.i'ioq. Y ] ava^uplai 699 ava7ToX£uw avaTcoXsuoucra 702 ava(J7iaco avaarcwv 538 avaxoXYj.^6p. Y ] aTtoyEVECTtav 721 aTToylyvoijLat. o xov 7t£piSlvY]xov | xou xuxXou a^ova xou oupavou 681 aTra9-av ax l^w a-rca&avaxia&El? 647— 648 a7Ta9-avaxL<j[x6<.wxou 554 агсХом aTrXw& YjcjExat.

689 (3a&o<. -ov acp&apxou 497. 579.. 657 o cxevl^e 693. 559 асрСгци acpt-Evxsc. -ov аатсасгсгхм 638 a^pEoxoKYjxov 527 &Xpi 808 афи^о<. 756. 619 apjfou 786 a(T7ta^o(ji. 720 auxlxa 533 атсбВт) 769. 804 octtoteXew otoe m cc xX v OCTCOTlxtojfXl 618 auXoi.oa асг7гааш 638 аатга^ои 666. 818 аихтј? 801 auxo 816 &<p9apxoq. 738 EV а7то<рора.. б асптараум 810 acjTiaCTTLXoi.. xo (SaXavEiou 735— 736 [ЗаХХм асттси. o 259 аатроба[ха 603 a7io^£(jLv 707 O T O a& (7T L C T X L 7][X атсохахаотаОт] 630 атгоx XeIm aTcoxexX£Lcr[i.[3a>{A o<. 550. -ov афи^со 498 Р' 577. Y ) j3XY]97]vai 753 paXE 758 асттратга? 682. 682— 683 acpcoxicrxo^. o auXo? 549— 550 auXov 551 au^Yjalcpw^ 601 au£w. a7tocpoi.. 746. 704 аатратпѓ).eva<. Y ] a7io<popav 555 daipaxo? xa <а>7грата 476 ?ApxTOi.хатмс 729 аихб^. Y ] acjTpoSa}X Y )<. x a l a6£y)$sd<. 662-663 (За9ѓ><. o apxayyeXou 482 apxY). 740.. 742 ) apxY)v ap^ofxai ap^ofJiEvoi. 816 auxwv 634. 656. 744.Evoi. 754. 578.. (3a9sla. -тѓ). аихтѓ]. б ’Apxxoq 700 а р т с а у у ]. 771 атсофофаојлас. au^avw au^6[i. 786 auxw 738. 519-520. 703. 584-585 arcoxptvo[xaL a7ioxplvY)xai 726 aatpaXw? 739 axapa^ta. 556 axsv^tov 629. 694. 678 auxov 638. 703 . -ov артсауѓј 753 ap^ayysXoi. Y ] аито.Y) ocp^<?> 488 ocpxY 488. auxo auxou 484. 711 axovo? octovm атсоХе^м o t o ei/ e 785 ct X 0CTCO7TLTCTO) ср&оуук» 745 атсолхтттЕЈ. 670. 712 а(77гастаа&оа 677 астларауо?.. Y ] axapa^tav 685-686 O TE C vl^fc) ax£v^ovxa<. 742.. 578.. -ov acpwxlaxw 497 а^р£0Х07Г7]Х0^.. o 663 aciTYjp 574 аатѕра? 580. to [За&ои? 575. Y ] o c t Sio ctu v acTTYjp.Indices 0C7l6&£CTL<. [3a&u pa&u 753 (3alvw ^alvw 484-485 (3aXav£iov.

725.6 9 0 801 7 4 6 —7 4 7 . 6 6 0 -6 6 1 . 663 l (rSufralvw 768— 769 y' 538. 798. 551. 811. 499. . 765 уааттјр. o . 494 уембои^ 494 Set o u i. 587. 747. 744. 720. б е £ a e а а т г а а а а г ^ а S e lx v u jix S sT ^aL 738 772 785 677 S e t-x v u e tv S elxvuw v Szlv l. 7] у Х ш а а т )? y v c o a ic . 541.? 487 yev£(jew<. 772. 779 (S Xtlom e f3e(3eXTt. 517 tw as yevvTjtravTt. (3oXa<.260 jSacxavl^w Paaav^wv 659.6 4 1 . 777. 807 poxavYjv 780 [3oTav7] 798 (SouXofAai. to [ 3paf3eTa 665 Ppa^lwv. 732. 657. 518 Ртѓ]ста<. 792..o PpoTwv 533 (3ucTat. -£<.o ftptxyiovoq 496 PpOVTT]. 736.. 778. 7] [yjeveat.a . Indices у т ј . 544. 571. 743 yeveaei 501 y ev za iq 742-743 yevvaw yevvTjQ-eLi. 591. 766. 582. . o S ecttt6 t 7]v бѓатсота 521 713 б е и т е р о ^ . 588 527 t o u б е ^ а т т јѕ S e l v a e y w o б е ^ а . 817 (ЗоиХтј& 748 т) (ЗоиХес 759. 786. -o v б£ U T £ p O V 619 . 487. 807. 573.T ov xaXXaivov 752 r]C L (ЗоХ 7] тѓ). 585. 683. 7] tou py]<aa>oraSoi. 549. 689. 791. 692. 738. 485. 623. ysvT ] 763 y s v o jx e v T ] y X c o a a a . . 813. -o v бе& а? б е ^ ттј 4 9 6 -4 9 7 . 682 (3otocv7) . б S ax ru X o v 558 8z 476. 621 JBpovTa^ 681 (Зрото?. 777 Ppa[3eTov. 7] у т ј? y 7 ]v 5 4 3 . 622. 767. 704.. 788. б е (Ј 7 г 6 т 7 ) £ . уембт)*. 783. (3t](jlov [to [3iqamov?] el q (3. 814 699 hz^ia. o (ЗаспХси 640 [Застта^м Ј3аата1. (3 < 7]c 807 ot xv . 816.7 1 4 . 814 бахтиХ о^. 547. 705 (3aat. 671. 673.Xeu<. 800. t o 495. 7] PoTavwv 480 (Зотау/Јс. -7). | xal Tcot-TjaavTi 643 yeojSr]^. o v 7] б е ^ а б б е !л > а ex Tr\q беТ л^а 6 4 4 &V7]T7ji.a . 7 2 0 —7 2 1 yzvo^ievoq y ly v e T a t.а<.?. 770. 7] уаатера 705 ysveat. 7] y v w a i? ypacpw ypacpovT t y p a tjjo v б' 6 7 1 . 773. 797 yap 535. 727. 544. 8 0 2 780 608 475 782.vo<. tw 718 б е ^ о ^ . 7] PpovTTji. 519 557. o 7]. 801. 556.wfj(ivo<. -ov ^uctctlvo i. 728. 748. 552. 547. 577. baxipixq ттј<.8 0 0 695 y ly v o jx a t уеум та 530 6 4 5 . 774. 557. 709 S e T v a [jlovw 7 6 4 б е^ а 645 to u S e tv a T ie p l t o u S e T v a ттр ау р ш ст о с. 767.

7) ЈС Ј-< бохтјст^ 648 боуем бovou[xevov 570 б{п/а[хоа бтхх[а]оа 538 бша[Х[. 493. 736.баахаХ1а тт)<.ap&p<>>ai£. 723. 502. 737 ехтеХем ехтеХесту]? 619 eXlcjow eXi^a? 790 eXxw eXxe 537. 7] exaTaaet.<. 726 r\v 731 fiq 736 d q 490.Indices 261 бе« бѓетоа 650 бѓ]аас. 811 elfxt 535. 491. 647. 536. -sq Suaaefiav 683 е' 580. 546. 524. 800. то боу[ла 527 бохесо бо^7] 499. -ov I x a c i T o v 677— 678 exe!vo<. 709. 475. 660. 732. 656. 775 бкх 548. 534. 758. 642 б{п/а[Х1л/ 650 SuvcxaT7]q. 662. 723. 796 бкхбтјјха. 763. 710 d 739 е!бо<. 807. [xla.аиуе1 497 бс. 523. 583 б б1стхо<. t o бкхбтјрихтом 521— 522 б(. 703 exotaxoq. -rj. 683..T a. б бшасгта 714 бисгае(3ѓ)?. 771. 790. 738. 814. -o exelvv) 543 sxeivrjq 544 exelvou 555 exelvov 733 kyXziju) [xot. 483. 672а.6 б1ахои 548. 588. eya> 484.aaio iX Sia7te7tXacT[xevov 495— 496 Si. 752. 816 бт)Хаиум<. т) Suv6cyL £(>)q 477— 478.. 504. 540. 494. 574. 526. 710 exXt. 643. 727. 529. 793. U a e i 777-778 бѓстхо^. 703. t o dSav 480 el [X L gartv 485. 629. 792 [xou 481. 536. 721. 687.абт)[хата 675 SLtx. 514. 491. 574. 587. 625. 603. 524. 683. -rj. 762. 764 ejxou 495 fxe 501. 772 ey^eipew ey^eip^? 736 SytO || Y)(JLSt<. 788.басгхаХ1а. 574. 551. 554. 628 .5. 560. 529. 510. 750 б1б(0[Х(. 551.^e 789 ехлХѓјстсга exTcXay^vat. 707. 579-580. 642. 7] б(. 817 elq. 690 eav 499. 553.. 644.642 бохѕ!^] 540 б6хУ Г д. 765 elvoa 541 t 553 elcilv 676 o v t l 684 eaei 725. 623 ex 517. 7 ] Ѕсскр&рмаа 607— 608 б^аиуу]?. ev ev 680 elaopaw eaeiSe 634 еТтос 618. 778. 524 б{пдх[х(. 527. 572— 573 ехатастк. 739. 7tpa£e(o<. 607. 645. 576 бсМ О Х) б1оохѕ 585 боујха. 535. 661. 537. 548. 700. 765 e[xol 489. 748. 553. -eq бс.

tz 770 exspoi. 820 sw<. 488. -a. 653. 510. 744 £7raxouw E T c a x o u c ro v 587 E 7 i a x o u c j £ T a [ . 805.. 487. 762. 686. 769. xo zxoq 797 ■eue!. 782 ETCLXaXsW E 7 n . 704. . C & O 673 EpO EL exo<. -zq euge^eT 683 EUXO VLa. 741. 636. 806 E v a p ^ o fx a t. 491. 502 e^ovxa 637. 500.753. 744. 554 EX t. 489. -O V e ^ u ^ w v 735 E 481. V 498. 619 C 620. 673. -ov eveo< 728 . £<pt. 752. 709. 494. 568.674. 815 £(07).6 q. sv&a lv$a | xal sv&a 692— 693 svt.q 566 e ji.Sy)< ..x a A o u ji. 497. 672b. xo ^[xupvojxsXavt.262 ѕ[л(ЗаХХм Indices е^ЈфаХѕ 790 e(j. 663. 634.. 698.a i S T C lxltbjfA t. 799. 585. 767 <C> 734 ^ам £wvxo<. 810 Е^оиста? 664 zyovxzq 674 e^e 772 e^ei 813. 559 <^5vxa 609 ^fjiupva. 776. 657. 492. 724. EU ^E C £TC07TX£U(0 E7tOTCX£U(J(i) 604-605 557.aux6<. -a. 648. 702 zkL 543. SU C X pL T M sOpov 776 ѕирѕОт] 805 suasprji.... 755-756. 663. 556. 638. 576. 692. 761.6 v spw pfj&Evxa 731 EtrO-lovxa 756-757 cpay/) 757 t a x i aw saxia. 787.. 625-626 e£9j<. -O VL O V EVXlfAOU 496 EVTL^jia 610 evtoi. 525 evzoxaoaiq 686 e v c j x w c r v 692 E T pL J^T T i. 558. 697. 666.pX£Ttw k[xp/\iKovxor. 675.xx6v 529 £X W £XO[xevw(. -ov o sxspoi. 529 z n z ix a 561. 567. EE U t-буј 635— 636 eu^ ew? 557. 757 E jJ E tO 566 U L V i.. svocp-/_o[jLaL 509 (vox magica) Evsxa 605 eve6<. 579. 786 z k z l 516. 607. o Evt-аитои 748 E U T jfja VTY E V EC Txw oav 503. -7 ). 7] axo?)? xe xal bpaozaq suxovtav 685 E W U O . -ov C X i. 760 504 656 662 ZpyO[LOLl sX £U C 7SX ai s p ^ o ijiE v a ^ eX & e 784 .oa.e? . 726. Y ] tw<7)> 709 spjc. 628. -ov 601 V IU C jC ^W E T JX ^. 7 ] (^upva 768 ^Aupv-fl 781-782 ^[jiupvofjteXav. 743 £{J17]V 490 ЕЈлфи^О^. 737. -ov U V [JL ^ £u(ovu[xo? 817 E W U L U or £UtO [i. 561. 491.<O x>ou 819 U V fJ O VO V E pt-X O -Y).543.

510. 762 Tjjjtipa. 503. 514. -O С. 512 Ispat 667 Upot 679 Ispav 760 £Х 1 т)[А tXaQI [xol 475 tva 502. 706. 7] фе«<. 686-687. 626 Q^aofjiat.. 7] V epa? 544.. &ea<T(o[jwa 512 9-£lo<.6 0 8 . 508. -ov IStav 568 1бц> 678 LEpo<. 735. o. 745. 640. 737. o l^topo? 645— 646 хаФарешс. -7]. 731. 625. to £coou 542. 548. 771 xa&apoc. 802 tSioc. -ov TjfjLETepa^ 477 $а7гтм дафа^ 768 г)аи[ла'(()ј &аи[ха0м 511 •S-auf/a^siv 775 &sa|Aa. 519. 651. 662 tkipwv 626 ’law. 760. o S eoc. 767 7][xepwv 783— 784 7)[хетеро<.y£Lv 803— 804 & 7](JX V (i) 9-v7](tx£(. 556. 498.. 521. 772 $£0Swp7)T0<. -ov xav&apov 7]Xt.o^ Mr&pa<. 641 &sov 635. 789 CcrcTjfju ѕатаОг 533 стта^ 628 tcr^uw ia ju z i 641. -ov i)eoSwp7]TOV 491 9-eo?. 642 tx«p. 497. 696. 9л/7)тт)с. 480.6 0 9 1 Y T . 711 &£oL 673. 533. 620 &ewv 548. 570. 651.792 $sou 528. 757 аКг/јТО -7]. 526. 515. 816 ^ ЈО -7]. 738-739. 7] Qicxv 545 ikyyavw 9't. 7] 9-иуатЕр 478 &upa. 763. to &ѕа^.. -ov 9-siav 545 9-eiou 629 QiXco &£Xt]? 732. -a. 517— 518.axov 751 трао^. -a. 566. 559. -a.ато<.. 481 "HXte 640 t]Xlou 762 7]\it$ 785 7]|X£pa. 688 9-£Od£[37](. -ov (^woyovoc 514— 515 i^woyovou 720 (Joov. 609. 7] $upa<. 787 $££ 641 $£w 643. 7] jSoV Q 7]8ov?]^ 626— 627 траахо^. -ov xa&apov 569 xa i 475.. -eq &£оаф££ 684 9-e<JL£. -a. 645 i) vt)t 6v 529— 530 9-vt]twv 543 & 7]T V 7]V 607 & 7]T U 608 V O &иуатт)р. ^wwv 796 ^соосритѓсо ^«O pU O V L 769 C TUT Г 5 7 1 . 648. 653. 496. "HXlo<. -a.. o 593 ф' 751 tpi?. 777. 511. -ov О ^. V & )to< 517 vt . . -ov t£pou 481 lepov 510. 584. 482. 512. o "HXt. 778 &eou? 546. 625. 485.Indices 263 ^W OyOVO?.

o xav&apov 751.ov xaXXtCTTou 759 xaXXicpto? xaXXicp«<. 687. 7] xpaaiv 490 . 768. 627. 761. 684.. 684. 797. 781. [x]oct 539. 776 xoapiov 569. 594 xafAfxuw xafAp-uwv 586 xav 731 xav&apo*. 678— 679 xoxxtvoi. 693. 695. 570. 694. 0 xopufx(3« 810 X C fJtO 0 O T ^. 702. 657. 617. 797 xaxa^aLvw xaxa[3aLvovxa? 547 хатаХеСтсм хатаХѕѓфт^ 710 хататсоХѕим хататсоХеиоиста 702 xaxap^Y]?. 738. 682.. 798 XEpaTost-Swi. 701.. 768. 636. 785. to xeXeuapta 680 xeXeuw exeX euctev [ xol 482— 483 xeXeust. -ov xspauvoxXovE 599— 600 xspauvoi. 667. 660. 656.. 610. 641. 698. to xXeo^ 600 хХтјросо xsxX7]pcofjiivo£ 553 хХт^а^. 570. 579. 581. 556. 775. 712. 621. 679. 698. 667. 648. 0 xXovou 621 xvwSaxoqjuXa^. 578. 526 хатетге [Ijyouaav 534— 535 хатЕТСЅ1уоист7)<. 681. 725. 783. 757. 818. -7). 735. 605 xaxep^ojjiat. 625. 565. 682. (STjcaov xaXXarvov 752 хаХХктто^. 558. 781. 767 xav&apou 795 xaprco?. 755. 729. 681. 658 xepauv6xXovo<. xaxep^ojxeva? 694 X Ep^O EV V 696 aX fJL O хатѕ^со xaxe^ovxe? 675 xaxe^ovxa 699 xaxoTixsuw хатотстѕим 485 хатотетеиеп/ 516 xe' 796 хеХеисЈЈла. 659— 660 xaxacpiXwv 707 хат£тгес. 545. 584. 736. 809. 703. 735. 646. б хатар^а 713 хатасрсХѓсо xaTacplXst. 7) XEVTpLTtSofJ 773 xev'c'tpltiv 779 t xsvTptTi*. 755. o xspauvfiv 682 xetpaXr). -7]. 770.264 Indices 534. to хХтј&ра 589 xXeo?. r] хесраХтјѓ. 708. 772-773 xaXoujjiivw 812 xaXXaivo?. 736. 625 xocjfxou 620 храсгк. 605. 685. -ov X X LV 637 O X 7] x6pU{A(3o?. 756. 711. 554. 701. 695. 710 XEVXpLXL^. 549 xaAouvxoa 664 xaXoufxsvoi 676 xaXoufxsv7]<. 645. 789. 574. 650. 605. 650. 808. 7 ] хХтјстк. 673. 745 X EW IV xLvouaa 700 xX^Q-pov.ум xaxE7teLyoucTav 503— 504. xocjpLto 498. 549. 662. 628. -ov elc. 659. 566. 759. 732.. 539. 727. 486 xXovoq. 722. -Y). 777. o xaprcov 809 xaxa 527. 693. 583. 624. 809. 652. 719. o xvtoSaxoqjuXaxsi. 803. 644. 787. . 579. 820 xaXsco xaXoupisvoi.

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9 William D. VII. . 411 pages. 4 Hans Forster Die Feier der Geburt Christi in der Alten Kirche 2000. 2 Katharina Bracht Vollkommenheit und Vollendung 1999. 120 pages. XVI. 206 pages. Paper.Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum Edited by Christoph Markschies 1 Der Tractatus Tripartus aus Nag Hammadi Codex I (Codex Jung) N ew translation by Peter Nagel 1998. 7 Mark W. 438 pages. 443 pages. 385 pages. Paper. 3 John Granger Cook The Interpretation of the New Testament in Greco-Roman Paganism 2000. X. 257 pages. Elliott The Song of Songs and Christology in the Early Church 2000. 5 Jutta Henner Fragmenta Liturgica Coptica 2000. Paper. VIII. Paper. X . Paper and cloth. Furley and Jan Maarten Bremer Greek Hymns I 2001. Paper. XXII. X. 273 pages. 10 William D. Paper. 8 Barbara Conring Hieronymus als Briefschreiber 2001. XIV. 218 pages. 6 Claudia Tiersch Johannes Chrysostomus in Konstantinopel (398-404) Weltsicht und Wirken eines Bischofs in der Hauptstadt des Ostromischen Reiches 2002. Paper. X. 475 pages. XIII. Paper and cloth. Paper. Furley and Jan Maarten Bremer Greek Hym ns II 2001.

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