Hans D ieter Betz

The “Mithras Liturgy”
Text, Translation, and C om m entary

M o h r Siebeck

born 1931; student o f Protestant theology at Bethel and Mainz (Germany), and Cambridge (England); 1957 Dr. theol., 1966 Habilitation at Mainz; 1963— 1978 Professor o f N e w Testament at Claremont, California; 1978— 2000 Shailer Mathews Professor o f N e w Testament, University o f Chicago; emeritus since 2000.
H a n s D ie te r B e tz ,

ISBN 3-16-148128-3 ISSN 1436-3003 (Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum) D ie Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliographie; detailed bibliographic data is available in the Internet at http://dnb.ddb.de.

© 2003 J.C.B. M ohr (Paul Siebeck), P.O. B ox 2040, D -7 2 0 1 0 Tubingen.

This book may not be reproduced, in w hole or in part, in any form (beyond that permitted by copyright law) w ithout the publishers written permission. This applies particularly to reproductions, translations, microfilms and storage and processing in electronic systems. The book was typeset by Martin Fischer in Tubingen using Bem bo typeface, printed by Gulde-Druck in Tubingen on non-aging paper and bound by Buchbinderei Spinner in Ottersweier. Printed in Germany.

Table of Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................. Abbreviations and Short T i t l e s .................................................................... Critical Signs used in the Papyrus T e x t ................................................. VII IX


In tro d u c tio n .................................................................................................
I. The “Mithras Liturgy”: A Provocative Title ............................................ II. The Papyrus ...............................................................................................

1 1 5 5 11 14 26 26 27 28 31 32 39 50 60 88 88 88 91 101

1. O rigin and Provenance .................................................................... 2. E d itio n s ................................................................................................. III. Albrecht Dieterich (1866-1908): Life and Scholarship ........................... I V Genre and Composition .............................................................................. 1. Delimitation . ...................................................................................... 2. T he literary genre .............................................................................. 3. C o m p o sitio n ............................................................... ....................... 4. R e d a c tio n ............................................................................................ V. The Religio-historical Context .................................................................. G re ek T ext .................................................................................................... T ranslation ............................................................................................ ..

L iterary Analysis ( C o n s p e c tu s )............................................................... C o m m e n ta ry ...............................................................................................

I. The Exordium (II. 4 7 5 - 8 5 ) ......................................................................

A. The Invocation (1. 475) .................................................................... B. Presentation o f a Petition (11. 475— 5 ) ............................................ 8 II. The Main body o f the ritual (11. 485—7 3 2 ) ..............................................

........... III.......................................................................................... 544— 732) ........................ IV................................... Third ritual: the phylacteries (11............................ 257 I............... B............... 8 1 9 ..... 101 130 132 134 198 198 204 206 214 218 223 225 Plates ........ Optional rituals for including a fellow-initiate in the consultation (И........................... 227 B ib lio g rap h y . 273 .......................... .................... The opening (first) prayer (11..................... Supplemental rituals (11.................... 792-813) .......... Introduction to the ascension narrative (11................. 732-50) .... B.... Additional instruction (11.............. First ritual: the sun-scarab ointment (11......................... 813-19) ................... 778— 92) ..................VI Abbreviations and Short Titles A... 750— 819) ................ 751-78) ............................................ ............................ C........ 539-44) ............8 1 9 ) ..... 537-38) ................. Greek W o rd s ............................... 4 8 5 -5 3 7 ). 4....................................... 245 Indices ................................................. Epilogue (11........ Further items o f information (11.2 0 ) .................... Prescription o f the breathing ritual (11........................... 3........ 2......... ... A..... 7 3 2 .................... 257 II........................ D...................................................................................... Voces magicae ..... Second ritual: the plant kentritis (11................... .................... 1................................... Ascension narrative in seven scenarios (11...................

should be named. Zu schauen wie vor uns ein weiser Mann gedacht. Substantial assistance was rendered by graduate stu­ dents. Several persons. Calhoun for their checking o f the manuscript. G o e t h e . It is simply impossible to sort out the generous contributions made by so many colleagues and students who attended seminars and lectures over a good num ber o f years. Sich in den Geist der Zeiten zu versetzen. examined the new photographs o f the papyrus and perm itted me to include their readings. has re­ mained unfinished and his achievements have been recognized only partly. M atthew Dickie. Johnston. however. Special acknowledgements are due to the participants o f seminars at Claremont. David Martinez and David Jordan. Fritz Graf. among them Thomas Dusa for suggesting egyptological references. and making the text and its interpretation accessible to an English-speaking readership has been the aim o f the present writer. institutions provided support o f various kinds.Verzeiht! es ist ein groB Ergetzen. Janet Spittler and M atthew R . Chicago. Und wie wir’s dann zuletzt so herrlich weit gebracht. and annual meetings o f the Society o f Biblical Literature. May 2. Faust 1 . W herever needed. Cristiano Grottanelli. 1903. Interest and encouragement by many colleagues and students in several countries helped speed up the com pletion o f the commentary. T he present commentary appearing a century later is deeply indebted to this ground breaking work which has remained in print through several re-editions w ith updated notes. Responding to the challenge o f carrying further D ieterich’ investigations in s the light o f new evidence. Thanks are due to Walter Burkert and David Martinez for reading and commenting on the completed manuscript. 11. and the latter also for compiling the Greek word index. Specific contributions were made by Christopher Faraone. Sarah I. both experienced papyrologists. and Ithamar Gruenwald. Tel Aviv. Jerusalem. Thanks are due to Deans Clark Gilpin and Richard Rosengarten o f the Divinity . D ieterich’s main achievement was to elevate a seemingly obscure papyrus text to one o f the most important original documents reflecting an insiders perspective o f Graeco-Egyptian religion in the late Hellenistic period. however. 570-73 Preface T he Preface to Albrecht D ieterich’s Eine Mithrasliturgie is dated Heidelberg. D ieterich’s work.

and the Institute for Advanced Study at the Hebrew University for generous fellowships. for their pleasant and efficient cooperation. I am exceedingly grateful to Georg Siebeck. and the Bibliotheque nationale de France in Paris for permission to publish the photographic plates o f the text. the administra­ tions o f the Hebrew University o f Jerusalem. for making it possible that such a specialized study can see the light o f day.VIII Preface School o f the University o f Chicago for continuous support. the Sackler Institute for Ad­ vanced Study at Tel Aviv University. my pub­ lisher. May 2003 Hans Dieter Betz . to the editors o f the series “Studies and Texts in Antiquity and Christian­ ity” for accepting the volume. Chicago. especially Henning Ziebritzki and Matthias Spitzner. the Universitatsbibliothek in Bonn for the permission to quote from the unpublished correspondence o f Albrecht Dieterich and H erm ann Usener. and to the team o f M ohr Siebeck. Last but not least.

Philologisch-historische Klasse Jan Assmann. Planetary Gods Bibliotheque copte de Nag Hammadi.PH Assmann. Die Apologie des Apuleius von Madaura Abt. A Greek-English Lexicon of the N ew Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (3rd ed. Defixionum Tabellae David Aune. Agyptologische Abteilung Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums Abhandlungen der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften Abhandlungen der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften.PC ASAW. Planetary Gods and Planetary Orders . Egypt in Late Antiquity BAK Beitrage zur Altertumskunde BCH Bulletin de correspondence hellenique B C N H . Revelation David Aune. A Greek Grammar of the N ew Testament Friedrich BlaB. Beiheft Abhandlungen der Rheinisch-Westfalischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.. Beiheft Archivfur Religionswissenschaft ARWB ARWAW.PH AIVi ANRW APF American Classical Studies Abhandlungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts Kairo. 2000) Friedrich BlaB & Albert Debrunner. Revelation BAH Bibliotheque archeologique et historique Bagnall. Philosophisch-historische Klasse Albae Vigiliae Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt Archivftir Papyrusforschung APF.T BDAG BDF BDR BEAT Beck. Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch Beitrage zur Erforschung des Alten Testaments und des antiken Judentums Roger Beck. Die Apologie ACSt ADAI. Section textes Walter Bauer.B ARW Archiv fur Papyrusforschung. Liturgische Lieder an den Sonnengott Antike und Christentum Audollent. Prophecy in Early Christianity Aune. Egypt R oger Bagnall. Dejixionum Tabellae Auguste Audollent. Albert Debrunner & Friedrich Rehkopf.Abbreviations and Short Titles ABG Archivfur Begriffsgeschichte Adam Abt. Liturgische Lieder AuC Archiv fur Religionswissenschaft.A AGJU AHAW AHAW. Sonderreihe Papyrologica Coloniensia Abhandlungen der sachsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Prophecy Aune.

Kyrios Christos (5th ed. D ie Himmelsreise der Seele Wilhelm Bousset. Antike und Christentum Betz. Wilhelm Gundel. Galatians Betz. Gottesbegegnung BHTh BiTeu BJ BKP Boll. Kyrios Christos Wilhelm Bousset. Origen CIL Clauss. Gundel. The Philo Index Borgen. Greek Religion Burkert. Proclus’ Hymns Hans Dieter Betz. van den Berg. Origen: Contra Celsum Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum Manfred Clauss. Galatians Hans Dieter Betz. R A R G Hans Bonnet. Greek Religion Burkert. “Greek Magical Papyri” Bude William Brashear. Reallexikon der agyptischen Religionsgeschichte Peder Borgen. Series apocryphorum Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries Chronique d ’Egypte Corpus Hermeticum CEg CH Chadwick. Hellenismus und Urchristentum Hans Dieter Betz. Gottesbegegnung und Menschwerdung Beitrage zur historischen Theologie Bibliotheca Teubneriana Bonner Jahrbiicher Betz. Lukian von Samosata und das Neue Testament Hans Dieter Betz. Hellenismus und Urchristentum Abbreviations and Short Tides R . Antike und Christentum Hans Dieter Betz. Carl Bezold. “The Greek Magical Papyri” BzA BZNW CChr.X Berg. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien Collection des Universites de France. Ancient Mystery Cults B yZ Byzantinische Zeitschrift Brashear. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien Bousset. The Sermon on the Mount Hans Dieter Betz. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation Hans Dieter Betz. publiee sous la patronage de 1’Association Guillaume Bude Bultmann. Philo Index Bousset. Studies in Magical Amulets Bonner. History of the Synoptic Tradition Walter Burkert. Kleine Schriften Franz Boll. Sphaera Franz Boll. Hauptprobleme der Gnosis Bousset. Himmelsreise der Seele Wilhelm Bousset. M. Lukian Betz. Bezold. Mithras Henry Chadwick. H S T R udolf Bultmann. Ancient Mystery Cults Walter Burkert. Sermon on the Mount Betz. Paulinische Studien Hans Dieter Betz. Sphaera Boll. Beihefte Corpus Christianorum. Hauptprobleme Wilhelm Bousset. Aus der Offenbarung Johannis Beitrage zur Klassischen Philologie Franz Boll. Proclus’ Hymns Betz. G M P T Betz. Kleine Schriften zu r Sternkunde des Altertums Bollingen Series BollS Campbell Bonner. Studies Bonnet. Paulinische Studien Betz. The Roman Cult of Mithras The Classical Review CIR CMG Corpus Medicorum Graecorum .SA CCTC Beitrage zur Altertumskunde Zeitschrift fur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft. Sternglaube und Sterndeutung Boll. Aus der Offenbarung Johannis Franz Boll.) Bousset. Sternglaube Boll.

Collins & Michael Fishbane. Licht vom Osten Deissmann.. Sol Salutis Dornseiff. Les Intailles Denniston..-hist. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker Albrecht Dieterich. Hermetica CRAI John J.. Ecstasy and Other Worldly Journeys Brian Copenhaver. Abraxas Albrecht Dieterich. The Greek Particles Hermann Diels. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der griechischen Sprache Der Neue Pauly Eric R . Worterbuch A dolf Erman & Hermann Grapow. Dieterich. Sol Salutis Franz Dornseiff. Denniston.PH Dolger. Hermetica Comptes rendus des seances de VAcademie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres CSLP Cumont. Herbarius Armand Delattes & Philippe Derchain. Lux Perpetua Daniel & Maltomini. DNP Abraxas Nekyia Mithrasliturgie Kleine Schriften Untersuchungen John D. Kleine Schriften Karl Dieterich.-K.. Worterbuch . Herbarius Delatte & Derchain. Nekyia Albrecht Dieterich. Philos. Doxographi D. Death Copenhaver. Dieterich. Textes et Monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra Franz Cumont. After Life in Roman Paganism Franz Cumont. Supplementum Magicum Karel van der Toorn et al. Eine Mithrasliturgie Albrecht Dieterich. The Greeks and the Irrational DOAW. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Deines & Grapow. Dieterich. Worterbuch Hildegard von Deines and Hermann Grapow.(eds. Dodds. Doxographi Graeci Hermann Diels & Walther Kranz. After Life Cumont. Light from the Ancient East Armand Delatte. eds. eds.) EKK EPRO Eranos ERE ErfB der agyptischen Sprache EVO Denkschriften der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. eds. Light from the Ancient East Adolf Deissmann. Supplementum Magicum DDD Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum Paravianum Franz Cumont. Lux Perpetua Robert Daniel & Franco Maltomini.. Textes et Monuments Cumont.Abbreviations and Short Titles XI Collins & Fishbane. Dieterich. Les Intailles magiques greco-egyptiennes Delatte. Das Alphabet ed. eds. The Greeks and the Irrational Dodds. der agyptischen Drogennamen Worterbuch der agyptischen Drogennamen Deissmann. Greek Particles Diels. Das Alphabet in M ystik und Magie editor (editors) Evangelisch-Katholischer Kommentar zum N euen Testament Etudes preliminaires aux religions orientales dans 1’empire romain Eranos Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Eranos-Jahrbuch der agyptischen Sprache Egitto e vicino oriente Erman & Grapow. Death. Klasse Franz Joseph Dolger. Dieterich.. eds. Licht vom Osten Adolf Deissmann.

Demotic Magical Papyri Griffith & Thompson. Das Corpus Hermeticum John R . Apuleius of Madaurus: The Isis-Book Gruenwald. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation Fritz Graf. ed. Guthrie. Astrologumena Gundel. ed.. Magic Griffith & Thompson. Hinnells. Astrologumena Wilhelm & Hans Georg Gundel. From Apocalypticism to Gnosticism Ithamar Gruenwald. Magika Hiera Fauth. ed. Furley & Jan Maarten Bremer.. A Grammar o f the Greek Papyri Hans Dieter Betz. Plutarch: D e Iside et Osiride John Gwyn Griffiths. Apuleius Gruenwald. LI. Ansichten griechischer Rituale Francis T. Dekane und Dekansternbilder Gundel.. Thessalos Abbreviations and Short Titles Christopher A. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism Ithamar Gruenwald. Weltbild und Astrologie in den Guthrie. Robert Helbing. Griffith & Herbert Thompson. C.. La Revelation d ’Hermes Trismegiste Felix Jacoby. Griechische Palaographie Viktor E. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism John Gwyn Griffiths. Gignac. Gottesnahe und Schadenzauber Fritz Graf. From Apocalypticism to Gnosticism Gundel. ed. Grammar GM PT Graf. Faraone & Dirk Obbink. The Leiden Papyrus Griffiths. K. Helios Megistos Andre-Jean Festugiere. Thessalos von Tralles Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des FRLANT Alten und Neuen Testaments Furley & Bremer. Plutarch Griffiths. Magika Hiera Wolfgang Fauth. eds. Greek Hymns FZPhTh Freiburger Zeitschriftfu r Philosophie und Theologie Gardthausen. Helios Megistos Festugiere. Griffith & Herbert Thompson. Weltbild und Astrologie Hans Georg Gundel. Das Corpus Hermeticum Deutsch . A History of Greek Philosophy Harrauer. History of Greek Philosophy griechischen Zauberpapyri W. Religion in Roman Egypt Hans-Veit Friedrich. La Revelation FGH Fowden. Gardthausen. The Egyptian Hermes David Frankfurter. Greek Hymns William D. The Egyptian Hermes Frankfurter. Grammatik Hesp. ed. Griechische Palaographie D ie griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen GCS GGA Gignac. Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker Garth Fowden.XII Faraone & Obbink. LI. The Leiden Papyrus F. Magic in the Ancient World F.. Studies HLV HNT Holzhausen. Religion Friedrich. eds. Studies in Mithraism Hans Lietzmann-Vorlesungen Handbuch zum Neuen Testament Jens Holzhausen. Grammatik der L X X Hesperia Hinnells. The Demotic Magical Papyri of London and Leiden Graf. Meliouchos Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft Hessische Blatterfur Volkskunde Helbing. Dekane Wilhelm Gundel.. Ansichten griechischer Rituale Fritz Graf. Meliouchos HAW HBVK Christine Harrauer.. Gottesnahe Graf.

Conceptions of God Erik Hornung. Das esoterische Agypten Hubert Cancik et al. Pisciculi R oy D.. Supplementband Journal of Egyptian Archaeology Journal of Mithraic Studies Jordan Jordan. Wei. The Verb in Greek Non-Literary Papyri David G. Weihegrade und Seelenlehre der Mithrasmysterien Reinhold Merkelbach. The Hellenistic Philosophers Lohr. Die Kyraniden Kingsley. Erganzungsband Werner Jaeger. Jordan. Ancient Philosophy.. Robert Scott. eds. P. Ancient Philosophy Kirk & Raven Klauser & Rucker. Hermes en Haute-Egypte Basil G. comments by letter David R .Abbreviations and Short Titles XIII Hopfner. Amulets Kropp. Hermes en Haute-Egypte Mandilaras. S. Baptized Martinez MBPF Merkelbach. Long & David N. Verherrlichung Long & Sedley LSJ Mach. Baptized for Our Sakes David G. The World of Ancient Magic JR S David Jordan. Mithras Reinhold Merkelbach. Agypten HRWG H ThR Theodor Hopfner. eds. Kotansky.S JE A JM iS Jahrbiicher fur classische Philologie. Handbuch religionswissenschaftlicher Grundbegriffe Harvard Theological Review HThSt HUTh IG S I JA C Harvard Theological Studies Hermeneutische Untersuchungen zur Theologie Inscriptiones Graecae Siciliae et infimae Italiae Jahrbuchfur Antike und Christentum JAC.. Kirk & J. by communication Miinchner Beitrage zur Papyrusforschung und antiken Rechtsgeschichte Reinhold Merkelbach. Martinez. et al.. A Greek-English Lexicon Michael Mach. Isis Regina Henry George Liddell. The Presocratic Philosophers Theodor Klauser & Adolf Rucker. The Verb Martinez. Conceptions Hornung. The World o f Ancient Magic Journal of Roman Studies JSHRZ Kaimakis. E. Ausgewahlte koptische Zaubertexte LA Jiidische Schriften aus hellenistisch-romischer Zeit Dimitris Kaimakis. Michigan X V I David G. Merkelbach. eds. Pisciculi Kotansky. Entwicklungsstadien des jtidischen Engelglaubens Jean-Pierre Mahe. et al. Mystery and Magic G. P Michigan X V I Martinez. Martinez.. Verherrlichung Gottes durch Philosophie Anthony A. Ausgewahlte koptische Zaubertexte Lexikon der Agyptologie LCL Lewy. Sedley. Griechisch-agyptischer Ojfenbarungszauber Erik Hornung. Raven. Greek Magical Amulets Angelicus Kropp.. Mandilaras. Theology of the Early Greek Philosophers Jahrbiicherfur classische Philologie JCPH.E Jaeger. Henry Stewart Jones. Chaldean Oracles L IM C Loeb Classical Library Hans Lewy. Isis regina —Zeus Sarapis . Entwicklungsstadien Mahe. eds. O Z Hornung. Theology JCPh Jahrbuch fur Antike und Christentum. Martinez. Chaldean Oracles and Theurgy Lexicon iconographicum mythologiae classicae Gebhard Lohr.. Die Kyraniden Peter Kingsley. Mithras Merkelbach.

Merkelbach & Totti, Abrasax Meyer, “Mithras Liturgy” Meyer & Smith, Ancient
Christian Magic MH Michel, Gemmen Moulton, Grammar Muller, Agypten Naveh & Shaked, Amulets

Abbreviations and Short Titles

Reinhold Merkelbach & Maria Totti, eds., Abrasax Marvin Meyer, “Mithras Liturgy” Marvin Meyer & Richard Smith, eds.,

Ancient Christian Magic Museum Helveticum Simone Michel, Die magischen Gemmen James H. Moulton, A Grammar of N ew Testament Greek Dieter Muller, Agypten und die griechischen Isis-Aretalogien Joseph Naveh & Shaul Shaked, Amulets and Magic Bowls; Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity Naveh & Shaked, Magic Spells Joseph Naveh & Shaul Shaked, Magic Spells and Formulae Novum Testamentum Graece (post Eberhard et Erwin Nestle-Aland

NF Nilsson, G G R NHC NHS

Nestle ed. Barbara et Kurt Aland, et al.; 27th ed. rev.; Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993) N eue Folge Martin P. Nilsson, Geschichte der griechischen Religion Nag Hammadi Codex Nag Hammadi Studies
Neue Jahrbucherfur Klassische Philologie

N ock, Essays N ock & Festugiere Norden, Agnostos Theos
N ovT

Arthur Darby N ock, Essays on Religion and the
Ancient World

Arthur Darby N ock & Andre-Jean Festugiere, eds.,
Hermes Trismegiste

Eduard Norden, Agnostos Theos
Novum Testamentum


N ovum Testamentum, Supplements
The Holy Bible containing the Old and N ew Testaments, N ew Revised Standard Version (Oxford: Oxford University

NTApoc N TApok NTFi

Press, 1989) Edgar Hennecke et al., eds. N ew Testament Apocrypha Edgar Hennecke & Wilhelm Schneemelcher, eds.,
Neutestamentliche Apokryphen Nordisk Tijdskriftfor Filologi

OEAE Orph. Frag.

Oxford Classical Texts
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt Orphicorum Fragmenta, ed. Otto Kern


Old Testament Library James H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament

Pap. Parker, Miasma PDM Pease, Cicero PG

Papyrus Robert Parker, Miasma Papyri Demoticae Magicae Arthur Stanley Pease, ed., M . Tulli Ciceronis D e natura

Patrologia Graeca
Patristic Greek Lexicon, ed. G. W. H. Lampe Papyri Graecae Magicae Philologus



Philosophia antiqua

Abbreviations and Short Titles Phoe. Phron.


Phoenix. Bulletin uitg. door het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch

Genootschap ‘Ex oriente lux’

PL Pohlenz, Die Stoa Pradel, Gebete PRE PRE.S Preisendanz & Henrichs Preisendanz, vol. 3 (index)

Patrologia Latina Max Pohlenz, D ie Stoa Fritz Pradel, ed., Griechische und suditalienische Gebete Paulys Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft Paulys Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Supplementband Karl Preisendanz & Albert Henrichs, eds., Papyri Graecae

Preisigke, Worterbuch PTS

Karl Preisendanz, ed., Papyri Graecae Magicae. Die griechischen Zauberpapyri, vol. 3 (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner, 1941 [unpublished galleyproofs]) Friedrich Preisigke & Emil KieBling, eds., Worterbuch der
griechischen Papyrusurkunden

Patristische Texte und Studien
Reallexikon fu r Antike und Christentum Reallexikon fu r Antike und Christentum, Supplementband Ludwig Radermacher, Neutestamentliche Grammatik Revue archeologique Richard Reitzenstein, Poimandres Richard Reitzenstein, Das iranische Erlosungsmysterium

Radermacher, Grammatik

Reitzenstein, Poimandres Reitzenstein, Erlosungsmysterium

Reitzenstein, H M R


Richard Reitzenstein, Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen Hans Dieter Betz, et al., eds., Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (4th ed.; Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1998— ) Religions in the Graeco-Roman World
Revue de I’histoire des religions

Ritner, Mechanics
R hM

Robert K. Ritner, The Mechanics of Egyptian Magical Practice
Rheinische Museum fur Philologie

Robinson, Library Roeder, Kulte Rohde, Psyche Roscher, Lexikon RW SAWW.PH SAOC SBA SBL.TT SBW SC Schafer, Ubersetzung Schafer & Kippenberg,
Envisioning Magic

James Robinson, ed., The Nag Hammadi Library in

Gunther Roeder, Kulte Erwin Rohde, Psyche Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher, Ausfuhrliches Lexikon der
griechischen und romischen Mythologie

Religionsgeschichdiche Versuche und Vorarbeiten Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in W ien, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilizations Schweizerische Beitrage zur Altertumswissenschaft Society o f Biblical Literature: Texts and Translations Studien der Bibliothek Warburg Sources chretiennes Peter Schafer, ed., Ubersetzung der Hekhalot-Literatur Peter Schafer & Hans Kippenberg, eds., Envisioning Magic

Schafer & Shaked,
Magische Texte Schenke, Nag Hammadi Deutsch Schmekel, Die Philosophic Schreckenberg, Ananke Schroder, Plutarchs Schrift Schiirer, History Schweitzer, Geschichte Schwyzer, Grammatik Scott, Hermetica Sethe, Pyramidentexte Sethe, Ubersetzung

Abbreviations and Short Titles

Peter Schafer & Shaul Shaked, eds., Magische Texte aus
der Kairoer Geniza

Hans-Martin Schenke, Nag Hammadi Deutsch August Schmekel, Die Philosophie der mittleren Stoa Heinz Schreckenberg, Ananke Stephan Schroder, Plutarchs Schrift D e Pythiae Oraculis Emil Schiirer, The History of the Jewish People Albert Schweitzer, Geschichte der Paulinischen Forschung Eduard Schwyzer, Griechische Grammatik Walter Scott, ed., Hermetica Kurt Sethe, Die altagyptischen Pyramidentexte Kurt Sethe, Ubersetzung und Kommentar zu den
altagyptischen Pyramidentexten


Sudhoffs Archiv fur Geschichte der Medizin und Naturwissenschaft Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Altertums Studies in Greek and Roman Religion Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse Morton Smith, Studies in the Cult of Yahweh
Symbolae Osloenses

Speyer, Frtihes

Wolfgang Speyer, Fruhes Christentum im
antiken Strahlungsfeld

SSIA Stengel, Kultusalterttimer StPP SubEpi

Skrifter utgivna av Svenska Institutet i Athen Paul Stengel, Die griechischen Kultusalterttimer Studien zur Palaographie und Papyruskunde Subsidia Epigraphica Hans von Arnim, ed., Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta
Theological Dictionary of the N ew Testament

TDSA Theiler, Poseidonios

Testi e documenti per lo studio dell’ antichita Willy Theiler, Poseidonios: Die Fragmente
Theologisches Worterbuch zum Alten Testament Theologisches Worterbuch zum Neuen Testament


Texte und Kommentare
Thesaurus Linguae Graecae

Totti, Texte Tran Tam Tinh, Essai

Maria Totti, ed., Ausgewahlte Texte der Isis- und

Vincent Tran Tam Tinh, Essai sur le culte d’Isis a Pompei
Theologische Realenzyklopadie

TSAJ TU UM S.H Velde, Seth Vermaseren, C IM R M Vermaseren, Mithriaca I Vermaseren, Mithriaca II

Texte und Studien zum antiken Judentum Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchrisdichen Literatur University o f Michigan Studies, Humanistic Series Henk de Velde, Seth, God of Confusion Maarten J. Vermaseren, Corpus Inscriptionum et
Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae Maarten J. Vermaseren, Mithriaca I: The Mithraeum at S. Maria Capua Vetere Maarten J. Vermaseren, Mithriaca II: The Mithraeum at Ponza

Abbreviations and Short Titles


Vermaseren, Mithriaca III Vermaseren, Mithriaca I V Vermaseren & Van Essen,
The Excavations

Maarten J. Vermaseren, Mithriaca III: The Mithraeum at

Maarten J. Vermaseren, Mithriaca IV: Le monument
d’Ottaviano Zeno et le culte de Mithra sur le Celius

Maarten J. Vermaseren & C. C. van Essen,
The Excavations in the Mithraeum of the Church of Santa Prisca in Rome Henk S. Versnel, Inconsistencies in Greek and Roman Religion Visible Religion Cornelia J. de Vogel, Greek Philosophy Paul Volz, D ie Eschatologie der judischen Gemeinde Theodor Wachter, Reinheitsvorschriften im griechischen Kult Otto Weinreich, Religionsgeschichtliche Studien Carl Wessely, Griechische Zauberpapyrus

Versnel, Inconsistencies

de Vogel, Greek Philosophy Volz, Eschatologie Wachter, Reinheitsvorschriften Weinreich, Studien Wessely, Zauberpapyrus Wessely, “Zu den griechischen Papyri” Wiedemann, Herodot

Karl Wessely, “Zu den griechischen Papyri des Louvre” Alfred Wiedemann, Herodots zweites Buch
Wurzburger Jahrbticherfiir die Altertumswissenschaft Wochenschrift fu r klassische Philologie Wiener Studien


Wiener Studien, Beiheft Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament
Zeitschriftfu r Papyrologie und Epigraphik

Zuntz, Persephone

Gunther Zuntz, Persephone

Critical Signs used in the Papyrus Text
[] < > [] () { } аЈЗ^б Lacuna Omission in the original Deletion in the original Resolution o f a symbol or abbreviation Cancelled by the editor o f the text Interlinear addition Uncertain letters Illegible letters

Leipzig & Berlin.3 w hom he greatly admired but whose fundamental theories about Mithras he wished to challenge. 1903. 1911). 2nd ed. 1966). 4 On this point. 647— 741. 2 (1999) 504— 5. 48. Suppl. AI1A 0A N A TI2M O 2 ([Ritual of] Immortalization). after considerable preparatory work had been done. followed by Text und Ubersetzung der Mithras­ liturgie (“Text and Translation o f the Mithras Liturgy”). The title announces two basic assumptions.).2 the subtitle o f his work (p. First o f all. “Cumont.” Hieros 2 (1997) 11— 20. Corinne Bonnet. Richard Wiinsch. which calls for explanation. 2 See the commentary infra. by Otto Weinreich. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. The provocation turned out to be greater than Dieterich had anticipated.Introduction I. XI). Eine Mithrasliturgie (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. at lines 477. Secondly. the famous Belgian scholar on Mithraism.4 Instead o f C um ont s attribution o f the text to an Egyptian magician engaged with Hermeticism. 3 On Cumont see Robert Turcan.” B J 108— (1902) 9 26— reprinted in his Kleine Schriften (ed. decided to call the segment o f text taken from the long magical papyrus o f Paris (Bibliotheque Nationale. so he made that title.” R G G (4th ed. Fondateur. The “Mithras Liturgy A Provocative Title T he title o f the present book is borrowed from Albrecht Dieterich s Eine Mithrasliturgie. 1923. 771. 747. see Albrecht Dieterich. Franz. 3rd ed. a fact proved subsequently by the reception o f the book. 252-71. Moreover.1 H e intended this title to be provocative. by Richard Wiinsch. Dieterich dedicated his book to Franz C um ont (1868— 1947). grec 574) by the name Eine Mithrasliturgie. Dieterich s proposed to take the text’ reference to Mithras s 1 Albrecht Dieterich. “D ie Religion des Mithras. the approach to the text is indirectly through Dieterich s commentary. Dieterich realized that a different descriptive title is found in the text itself. the provocative title “Mithras Liturgy” (which o f course does not occur in the papyrus itself) became a kind o f trigger to evoke controversies going straight to the heart and substance o f classical scholarship. . we thus recognize that it was D ieterich who. 41. 1910. After publication. “Franz Cumont.

192) and I have given my reasons in Rev. Stuttgart: Teubner. pp. T he name o f Mithra. D ieterich answered briefly in Archivf.7 He did not take the name Mithras that occurs in the text seriously. publ. p. and that Mithra acted as a guide to his votaries in their ascension to the realm o f the blessed. “U n livre nouveau sur la liturgie s pa'fenne. it should be understood that Dieterich had walked into another highly 5 Cumont’ major review o f Dieterich is entitled. D ieterich’ other s suggestion. 7 Cf. de Vinstr. helped to circulate an Egyptian forgery . Dieterich advanced further arguments to persuade Cumont (in Mithrasliturgie.f. 1896). speculative in view of the fact that the Paris Magical Papyrus is meant to be just such an esoteric text. Religionsms. see also the German edition. August Burckhardt-Brandenberg. W hile these issues will have to be discussed further in the present com m en­ tary. 1905. according to which the text contained a “liturgy. These objections are.. but Cumont remained uncon­ vinced and repeated his criticism in the 4th edition (Paris: Geuthner. 1906). The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism (Chicago: Open Court Publishing. H e has endeavored with some ingenuity to show that a mystical passage inserted in a magical papyrus preserved at Paris is in reality a fragment o f a Mithraic liturgy. the most important is that o f Albrecht Dieterich. das class.” Revue de Vinstruction publique en Belgique 46 (1904) 1— see also his Les Religions 10. however. idem.” C um ont found it utterly incredible that an Egyptian magician should have had access to a Mithraic liturgy.41.2 Introduction seriously and to interpret it in the context o f syncretistic forms o f Mithraism. 502. Besides the problem o f defining the term “liturgy. but here I share the skepticism o f Reitzenstein (NeueJahrb. 234— 36). 1959).5 C um ont’ basic objections are the following: s “A m ong the learned researches w hich w e cannot enumerate here.” was equally unacceptable to Cum ont.. for instance. VIII. 1899. 1911. through positive testimony that they taught the dogma o f the passage o f the soul through the seven planetary spheres. Altertum. 6 Franz Cumont. such an esoteric text. is found in the fantastic uranography o f the magician. 260— 61. reprinted N ew York: Dover. as elsewhere that o f the magi Zoroaster and Hostanes. . en Belg. Die orientalischen Religionen im romischen Heidentum (trans. 1. p. would have been highly secret.”6 C um ont based his views regarding Mithraism on the evidence o f inscriptions and literary texts. Bruxelles: Maertin.. 1904. Iff. which. 279-80. . as he correctly pointed out. 1903. Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra (2 vols. had it existed. but w ithout convincing me. orientates dans le paganisme romain (Paris: Leroux. XLVII. 1904. 272. 300. however.. contained nothing comparable to D ieterich’s Mithras Liturgy. T he author o f the passage in question may have been more or less accurate in giving his god the external appearance o f Mithra. N either the former nor the latter doctrine. but no trace o f it has survived. 1929). We know. Eine Mithrasliturgie. 1956). but attributed it to the stereotypical cleverness w ith which Egyptian magicians dressed up their forgeries. but he certainly did not know the eschatology o f the Persian mysteries.

1982). In Berlin.” in Goethes Werke (Hamburger Ausgabe. 263-305. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. O n the one hand. Theodor Lindken. daB die Papyri gefunden waren. The “Mithras Liturgy”: A Provocative Title 3 contentious territory. w ie ein bedeutender Gelehrter beklagte. “Albrecht Dieterich. der Herr der Erden.273— with the commentary. 1902]. Wilamowitz and 8 Instructive is the correspondence between Usener and Wilamowitz. On the Usener school see Hans Joachim Mette. —soli er strafen. his father-in-law and close collaborator. the schools o f Hermann Usener (1834-1905) in Bonn8 and Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff in Berlin (1848-1931). esp. In Part IV he wished to treat the subject o f “Formen der Vereinigung des Menschen mit Gott. damit ich sie gerecht beurteilen kann. Arnaldo Momigliano. 280. 1 12 Dieterich made known his future plans that seem to confirm Wilamowitz’s suspicions: a multi-volume work. 1985). xxx. ‘“Der Glaube der Hellenen’: Religionsgeschichte als Glaubensbekenntnis und Kulturkritik. 33— 48. 1. Only Part I was published: Mutter Erde: Ein Versuch tiber Volksreligion (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. especially 55-58. he saw in D ieterich’s scholarship a tendency toward disinte­ gration o f the discipline o f classical philology.” in Wilamowitz nach 50 Jahren (eds.. 9 See. ed. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken. and magic. William M. that o f the methodological debate between the two most influential schools o f classical scholarship at the time. . 254-55: “Ich habe einmal gehort. Calder III. “Der Gott und die Bajadere: Indische Legende. Calder III. Miinchen: Beck. Usener und Wilamowitz: Ein Briefwechsel 1 8 7 0 -1 9 0 5 (2nd ed. 10 See the remarkable conclusion o f his lecture. ist unbestreitbar. where both articulate their basic premises regarding ancient religion. folklore (“Volkskunde”).9 Dieterich represented the methodological approaches developed by Usener. ed. Stuttgart & Leipzig: Teubner. superstition (“Aberglaube”). xxxvi. Kleine Schriften. sondern verstehn. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken.” The final sentence reflects Goethe s ballad o f 1797.I. 1 Reported by Pfister.” in N ew Paths of Classicism in the Nineteenth Century (Middletown. given 1893 at Gottingen. “Nekrolog einer Epoche: Hermann Usener und seine Schule: Ein wirkungsgeschichtlicher Riickblick auf die Jahre 1856-1979. he sensed the danger that classical philology could be neglecting the great Hellenic tradition by bogging down in what he contemptuously named “Botokudenphilologie.” 183. 1994).” in Dieterich. ix— xlii.. especially.. see William M. See Richard Wiinsch. CT: Wesleyan University. Hellmut Flashar. entitled “Aus agyptischen Grabern” (Reden und Vortrage [2nd ed. Und selbst Mahadoh. “Her­ mann Usener. soli er schonen. W ilamowitz-M oellendorff was deeply divided about the Usener school’ s extension o f classical scholarship into the areas of popular religion (“Volksreligion”). Pfister. aber ich freue mich dessen. muB den Menschen menschlich sehn. esp. Albert Henrichs. 664— 76. Berlin: Weidmann. Wilamowitz confirmed that the study o f antiquity must include all o f antiquity. Erich Trunz. weil sie dem Altertum den vornehmen Schimmer der Klassizitat nehmen. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken in der Religionswissenschaft.” and in it he planned to complete the commentary work on the second part o f the Mithras Liturgy. 66. entitled Volksreligion: Versuche tiber die Grundformen religiosen Denkens.”11 Although he respected Usener. 1905).” 182-83.” Lustrum 22 (1979— 1980) 5-106. DaB sie das tun.12 As a result. 287-88. 1989).” A R W 35 (1938) 180— 85. Friedrich Pfister. Denn ich will meine Hellenen nicht bewundern. 224— 55). 283-84.10 on the other hand.

die Worte des Titels formuliren. he took them knowingly and courageously. 1901. The deeper s reason. weil in dem Papyrus nachher diese Partie so genannt wird in einer Stelle. whatever the risks were. 2.iKj$cwa. scholars distinguished between D ieterich s pro­ vocative claim that the Mithras Liturgy actually came from the liturgy o f the cult o f Mithras and the plethora o f materials and suggestive ideas assembled in the book. Although even present-day scholars repeat C um ont s rejection o f the title and the major hypothesis o f D ieterich s book.. to be sure. William Calder III. Hellmut Flashar. he discussed matters beforehand w ith him. Thanking his friends Siegfried Sudhaus. 280-84. 82.14 H e also gave lectures about his work before publica­ tion. 1901. Theodor Lindken. and Richard Wiinsch for their suggestions and warnings means that he shared manuscripts and galley-proofs w ith friends. 1961). esp. in particular the title o f the book.15 these responses did not diminish the continuous stimulation exerted by it. die ich noch anhangsweise herausgebe: es schien mir die Bezeichnung zu sein. In his authoritative work. dated May 3.2). die diese Leute fur den Kultakt wirklich brauchten. replying to Useners suggestions (non-extant) in the letter o f December 8..4 Introduction his school consistently treated D ieterich’ work as marginal. he mentions his previous lectures on the Mithras Liturgy in the Preface. had to do not so much with differences in philological m ethod but w ith deeper competing conceptions o f what constitutes the discipline o f “classical philology. Geschichte der griechischen Religion (vol. 1986). The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Egyptian Mind (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nilsson summed up the com m on view about Dieterich s book in this way. Regarding the main thesis.Tia\xoq hatte ich zuvorgesetzt. Wiirde Dir gefallen: EINE M ITHRASLITURGIE Text Ubersetzung Einleitung von . although he may have got more than he had bargained for. der Zusatz sollte nur eben die Zugehorigkeit zum M ithraskvlt [sic] gleich vorn hervorheben. M artin P. 1985). From early on. oder die Mittelreihe weglassen? D ie Fragen haben aber gar keine Eile! ” Quoted with permission from the Nachlafl o f Usener and Dieterich in the University Library in Bonn (Signature: S 2102. he decides on “Eine Mithras­ liturgie”: l‘b.” . he brings up the “Mithrasweihe” and raises the question o f the title in a letter o f October 29. Wiirdest Du ‘Mithrasliturgie’ oder ‘Mithrasweihe’ auf die Seite drucken? Ich muB auch. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 1901. 14 In his letter to Usener.”13 Dieterich was aware o f the kind o f risks he was taking. 33: “The section that mainly concerns us here (475— 750) is what Dieterich misleadingly dubbed “eine Mithrasliturgie” in his book o f that name. The ongoing role Dieterich s book played in scholarship has been docum ented by the editors in the succes­ sive editions. As correspondence w ith Usener reveals. 15 So also Garth Fowden. da an einer Abbildung fur den Titel (eben der Rindschulterszene) probirt wird. Paul Wendland. Ich andere das. n. he says that “it should now be 13 See the studies included in Wilamowitz nach 5 0 Jahren (eds. Therefore.

. was criticized im me­ diately and can hardly be maintained.II. The text describes a private trip in a quest for oracular revelations. however. also Arthur Darby N ock who follows Cumont and Reitzenstein in his article o f 1929 (“Greek Magical Papyri. Mithraic. “T he significance o f D ieterich’ book does not depend on this s thesis. 2: “Diese These . 192): “We are here in the sphere o f individualist religion. was enacted in the mysteries o f Mithras..18 the name derives from its great length o f 36 16 Nilsson. Origin and Provenance T he text o f the Mithras Liturgy consists o f a segment o f what scholars call the “Great Magical Papyrus o f Paris. which in many ways have since become standard. see ibid.”17 Indeed. .. requires revision in the light o f more recent research in the areas o f hellenistic syncretism in GraecoEgypt and in Mithraism. that the fantastic voyage to heaven. diirfte nunmehr aufgegeben sein__ D ie Bedeutung des Dieterichschen Buches beruht nicht auf dieser These. still demand explanation: the appearance o f the name o f Mithras and the “liturgical” nature o f the text. he also explains the different description in Lenormant’ s auction catalogue (p.6<.176— esp. 18 Papyri Graecae Magicae. T he Papyrus 1. Cf. II. And this.” Yet. #1073)..670. therefore.” Essays.”16 This evaluation. The present assessment o f D ieterich’s work has been well stated by Walter Burkert: “The interest in magical papyri for the history o f religion was initiated by Albrecht Dieterich in his books Abraxas and Eine Mithrasliturgie. part o f the Anastasi collection.. That document is neither a liturgy nor. the success o f w hich was lasting and well-deserved. as contained in this magical book. G G R .64. 286-93. n. properly speaking. directions how one shall make oneself immortal and pass through the heavens__ ” 17 Burkert. Ancient Mystery Cults. It is an aTca&avaTtafji. The Papyrus 5 given up. According to Preisendanz. 1. die vielfach maBgebend geworden sind . The two implications o f Dieterich’s title. 20). but on the more general ideas he presented. 68. There remain puzzling problems in explaining this and similar texts.. is the key to the understanding o f the so-called Mithrasliturgie.” now housed in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris (Supplement grec #574.” For a more detailed discussion o f Dieterich. sondern auf den von ihm vorgetragenen allgemeinen Gesichtspunkten.. not a communal mystery rite. 94. 2. w ith special elaborations on a syncretistic background. as Reitzenstein has observed. Yet the thesis implied in the title Mithrasliturgie. n. this is the point where new investigations need to begin. 1. 87) as having 33 pages (see below.

Circumstances of Discovery Regarding the origin and provenance o f the papyrus book not m uch is known. Mr. and Harris and Their Papyri. “Anastasi. the small Coptic piece in fol. This division. formed the book cover. Fol. The delimitation o f the text segment. The creator o f the book had 18 double-leaves. 723-834). he divides the Mithras Liturgy into two parts. W hile he includes the quotations from H om er at the end (11. his naming o f the first part as “liturgy” (“Mithrasliturgie”) and second part as “Anwendung” (Application) seems artificial. needs reconsideration in the light o f a thoroughgoing compositional analysis. “Immortalization” (11. 16 and 34 recto. he remained undecided about its end.” 11. This son became wealthy and gained the favor o f the Pasha who appointed him in 1828 as Consul General in Egypt to the kingdoms o f Norway and Sweden. 1 verso seems to have been w ritten onto it as an addition. 36 recto verso.” JE A 35 (1949) 158-66. together w ith fol. Anastasi enjoyed great 19 See Warren R . W hile Dieterich was s right about the beginning. Dawson. 821— 34).19 The m an’ original name may s have been different. Moreover. he does not include those that stand before the beginning (11.. w ritten in Italian or French (Jean d ’Anastasy). 1 recto verso. . therefore. H e was the son o f an Armenian merchant from Damascus w ho had settled in Alexandria. and what little information we have seems to have come from the collector. 467— 74). esp. Besides business and politics. 2 recto onwards.” Dieterich s reason follows from his assumption o f a primary Mithraic source and its secondary magical application. called fcnoL&owixTioiioc. Sallier. however. 475— 723). and the “Anweisung zu magischer Verwendung der Mithrasliturgie” (“Instruction for the magical application of the Mithras Liturgy.6 Introduction leaves containing 3274 lines. 16 and 34 recto. is not based on a composition analysis and therefore creates more problems than it solves. w ritten on both sides and to be taken as the pages o f a papyrus codex. Giovanni Anastasi (1780— 1857). 158-60. sandwiched between the Hom eric quotations. for whatever reason. In his commentary. The delimitation o f the beginning and end o f the Mithras Liturgy was made first by Dieterich on the basis o f Wessely’ edition. the ritual proper. and fol. 1 recto. since he ignores the fact that both parts are “applications. M ore likely is that the Mithras Liturgy is. but he was known under the assumed name. which he folded in the middle like pages and on which he wrote from p. he served in this capacity until his death. Fol. a. verso are blank. 3 verso.

22 However. ed. and museums. 1857). Carl Wessely (W S t 8 [1886] 189) who opts for Heracleopolis at the time o f Tertullian. 23 This is Preisendanz’ conclusion. 20 The sizable catalogue o f 1129 items was compiled by Francois Lenormant.” was compiled from many sources. “Theban Magic. location and circumstances o f the discovery. there is no concrete evidence concerning the time. but they could just as well have been excerpted at other places in Egypt. dated March 18. Because o f the similarities between the pieces in the collection and the fact o f their relatively good condition. P. J. perhaps in a large box or terracotta vessel. n. Among the materials were 60 papyrus manuscripts. Papyrusfunde und Papyrusforschung (Leipzig: Hiersemann. 166— “Temples and priests.II. Anastasi was able to amass huge treasures. Fowden. 16982.21 probably because Anastasi had said so. cache” and refers to a letter by Anastasi. and shared materials with other magicians. see the essays and bibliographical materials in S. little was known at the time about the content o f the papyri. Mercredi 24.23 If the “great magical papyrus of Paris.” 68: . d’Anastasi. visited temple libraries. Most likely working through Egyptian agents. but the time was ripe for rich pickings. 1828 (now in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden. These sources may have existed in Theban temple libraries..” 95: Cf. 16. The Egyptian Hermes. Tait. Hundred-Gated Thebes: Acts of a Colloquium on Thebes and the Theban Area in the Graeco-Roman Period (Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava 27. The Papyrus 1 success as an enthusiastic dilletant and collector o f Egyptian antiquities. 91— “Bibliothek der Zauberpapyri von Theben. confirming the origin in Thebes (169. Vleeming. Koln: Brill. also Fowden.” 21 On this city in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. Leiden. it does not necessarily imply that the papyrus was also w ritten there. dans ses fouilles a Thebes avait decouvert la bibliotheque d’un gnostique egyptien du second siecle— ” Cf. les Mardi 23. which would presuppose that the author travelled. Vendredi 26 & Samedi 2 1 Juin 1851. serving a practicing magician as a “handbook. For the PGM.” and together w ith it the Mithras Liturgy.” ibid. see W. In the post-Napoleonic world a wave of interest in these antiquities developed on the part o f European dealers. The collection. 22 Lenormant s description is rather fanciful (p. 8 4 88: “Papyrus. Anastasi.Jeudi 25. He was o f course not the only collector. Leiden). but all sources agree that they came from Thebes. 1933). 48). sera vendue aux encheres publiques Rue de Clichy. 84): “M. 1995). o f which he sent several shipments to Europe for auctions in Paris and London. one o f w hich was the Great Magical Papyrus. Etc. Catalogue d ’ une collection RassembUe par M . where it is until today. N ew York. it is conceivable indeed that all or most o f them came from the library o f a learned priest and magician that was placed w ith him in his grave. scholars. No.20 As the printed auction catalogue reveals.. Consul general de Suede a Alexandrie. was indeed found in Thebes. especially pp. At the widely publicized auction in Paris in 1857 this papyrus was acquired by the Bibliotheque Nationale (#1073). a une heure. (Paris: Maulde et R enou. The Egyptian Hermes. see Karl Preisendanz. 169— speaks o f the Anastasi collection as “the Thebes 71.

denn von “Buchern”. formant 33 feuillets ecrits des deux cotes..8 Introduction The Mithras Liturgy explicitly refers to such sharing o f ritual texts among magicians. 1837). “Zum Pariser Zauberpapyrus der bibl. die aus iibereinandergelegten.”24 Some general information about the milieu of these collectors can be gleaned from one o f Anastasi’ acquaintances. Davy. About the “great magical papyrus” the catalogue has this to say: “M anu­ script sur feuilles de papyrus pliees en livre. at his house. daB man schon damals den Papyrus als eine Schicht von 33 (bzw. gr. the Property of Giovanni d ’Athanasi. on this passage Karl Preisendanz. Strand.26 D ’Athanasi s s own collection was auctioned off in London by Leigh Sotheby in 1837. or that the final copy resulted from a combination o f both these activities. a 60 lignes environ par page. engaged in hunting after objects o f antiquity. At the suggestion o f English travellers w ho m et him in Thebes. 1836).” who was a resident for eighteen years at Thebes.28 24 Lenormant. 3. and an enumeration o f those articles purchased for the British Museum (London: John Hearne. 36) Einzelblattern kannte. 1837. Jesus et tous les autres eons. made under the direction o f Henry Salt. where he worked as an interpreter to an English collector by the name o f H enry Salt. Ce fromage n ’est autre que la gnose. Papyrusbiicher in Codexform dagegen kennen wir.. which will be sold by auction by Mr. ix.” 25 Giovanni d’Athanasi. Esq. Giovanni d’Athanasi.. or that the sections were successively assembled before they were copied together into the handbook. ix. and his father was a merchant in Cairo. 151. 151. Cf. unzusammenhangenden Blattern bestanden..25 He was born on the island o f Lemnos. com­ s monly known as “Yanni. wissen wir nichts. together w ith a catalogue o f Mr. 151. qui debutant par l’histoire d’un fromage mystique pour la composition duquel s’associent Osiris. 575— “Aus dem 76: ganzen Passus geht hervor. 87 (Nr. A Brief Account of the Researches and Discoveries in Upper Egypt. En tete sont trois pages de copte. illustrated with twelve engravings o f some o f the s most interesting objects. 26 Ibid. 68 [1909] 575— 77). 1073). — Ecriture du second siecle de notre ere.27 These collectors speak o f the manuscript scrolls as having been found in terracotta urns in or near tombs. March 13th. suppl.. . Salt’ collection o f Egyptian Antiquities. he wrote up a personal account o f his activities. to which is added a detailed catalogue o f Mr. 28 Ibid. Salt’ collection o f antiquities. This assumption could mean either that the handbook was filled not at once but over a period o f time. 79. Sabaoth. This account was published in London in the year 1836. and the Six following Days (Sunday excepted). Iao. Das war natiirlich die urspriingliche Form des Buches nicht. on Monday. nat. at One o ’Clock precisely (London: J.. Wellington Street. Leigh Sotheby. 27 Catalogue of the Very Magnificent and Extraordinary Collection of Egyptian Antiquities. 574” (Ph.

however. 30 Dieterich. but does not conform to the textual evidence. 29 See Dieterich. but the text presupposes a longer process o f development. the origin occurring in the years 100— 150. Dieterich’s hypothesis is. These problems.: Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider. 46. 43— Preisendanz. do not render Dieterich s time frame invalid. . The Papyrus 9 b. he cannot clearly identify the au­ thor’ contributions in distinction from sources. 1907. Dieterich suggests that the development o f the composition took more than 200 years. as is a certain closeness . 1. Papyri Graecae Magicae.64) also refers to Wilhelm Schubart. 44 (emphasized). the subsequent adaptation and development by the magicians (200— 300). Preisendanz (1. however.II.”30 As Dieterich indicates. Mithrasliturgie. followed by the ritual function of the original text in the Egyptian Mithras cult (150— 200). Christian-gnostic. ante quem das Papyrusbuch abgefaBt sein muB: auf alle Falle ist die Liturgie in dieser Abschrift geschrieben zur Zeit hoher Bliite des Mithrasdienstes. Mithrasliturgie. with w hom all other papyrologists agree. It seems reasonable to estimate that it took about 200 years for the composition and its parts to come together. Date The question o f the date has been decided firmly on linguistic and palaeographical grounds by the Vienna papyrologist Carl Wessely (1860— 1931). (3) Dieterich s own hypo­ s thetical assumption o f an earlier stage as a Mithraic cultic text and subsequent adaptation by magicians determines how he sees the development. They date the script to the early fourth century. Internal criteria point to some older and some younger sources. (2) because he has no detailed compositional analysis on hand. to Hermeticism. beset w ith problems.64. the text is thoroughly Hellenistic-Egyptian w ithout any traces o f Christian. and concluded by the inclusion o f the final copy in the papyrus book. or Neoplatonic influences — although traditions o f Middle Stoicism are apparent. however. The fact that the text shows evidence o f the interpretation o f older traditions means that these traditions have a prehistory o f their own. who points out that the papyrus codex came into use just about this time.29 This. 1962). pertains to the w ritten papyrus as extant: “Die Zeit Diokletians ist also terminus. Considering the complexities. Das Buch bei den Griechen undRomern (Berlin: Reimer. Externally. 3rd ed. this date applies to the extant script. (1) He does not distinguish clearly enough between scribe and author.

Magic. 211 n. T he redactional comments. 2002): “Palaeographically. Even when he identifies himself by names in passages we call “self­ presentations. he would then be the author. 529— 32). 791— 98). W hat we see on the papyrus pages is the work o f a scribe who copied the text from a Vorlage into the codex.50. If scribe and author were the same person.” See below on 11. Finally.31 If the two were different persons.34 He adds learned theological commentary w ith explanations o f traditions (e.32 H e has carefully examined other versions o f the text and has noted textual variants: ev ocA to (1. 798— 813). he was an expert in the handling o f magical materials. XII. ol бѕ' cruvxAelcrca (1.731.201. 33 Cf. 7). 1277. 31 On the references to variants see below at n.29. 500) and срмто^ хтхсига.. n. Things get more complicated by the facts that the author s work is a highly developed redactional composition involving his own contributions. he begins his work with a fine literary preface (11. is his expertise as a literary scholar and writer. 819— 20). W hat is surprising. there is no evidence o f multiple authorship at the final level. however. imply that the scribe or author had available more than one version o f the Vorlage. one o f them had compared the versions and noted the textual variants. below. that final copy has only one author and redactor. IV. 478— and cross-references to the sup­ 81) plements. 33. and he adds supplementary informa­ tion before he ends w ith a note indicating completion (11.204. and supplements added at various stages o f the composition by subsequent copyists. As one m ight expect. 32 For the full evidence see the Conspectus o f the literary analysis.33 A He inserts a marginal com m ent (11. XIII. 236. or library research and consultation o f herbalist sources for information on the plant kentritis (11. 475— 85). Authorship Introduction T he question o f authorship is also complicated. 591). distinguish the scribe from the author. 34 David Jordans evaluation confirms this (letter o f December 17. the final text is the authors own autograph that included all the insertions and supplements. also PGM 11. Therefore. Redactional references in the text itself indicate that we must. The scribe is clearly conscious o f what he is doing: he leaves spaces within the line to mark punctuation and sometimes even to distinguish words. . While the final author remains anonymous. 60— 87. pp. 9. VII. he speaks in the first person throughout. And there are several previously unnoticed lectional signs over some o f the clusters o f vowels. 495— 98. and he corrects his own earlier practice (11.g. see also Graf. the papyrus is more interesting than I had thought. at least in principle. V51. Gottesndhe.” he leaves the place vacant by using the symbol A or magical names. if taken seriously. older sources adopted and adapted from tradition.10 c. while source materials excerpted from other contexts had their own authors before inclu­ sion in the final copy. while the scribe copied his autograph. 610— 17. 11.

“Zum Pariser Zauberpapyrus der bibl. but his German translation ends at 1. Petersburg: V S. did not change Dieterich s text. Novossadsky. because he did not regard 11. It includes the “GroBe Pariser Zauberpapyrus (P IV)”.64— 2. includes PGM IV 475— 834. “Ad papyrum magicam bibliothecae parisinae nationalis adnotationes palaeographicae. 40 Collations o f 1927. “Miszellen zu den Zauberpapyri. Mithrasliturgie. 129). K . 1. Papyri Graecae Magicae. Wien: Tempsky. placed the Paris magical papyrus in the first volume. 44 See Dieterich.v— 66. 12-19. Mithrasliturgie. 834 however. gr.” W St 42 (1920) 24— idem. 39 Karl Preisendanz. 1888). Mithrasliturgie.35 in 1888 he checked the papyrus again and published his corrections in 1889. 36 Idem. 53 (1894) 416— 28. iv: “Dieterichs Text blieb selbstverstandlich unverandert.39 Richard Ganszyniec. 41 See Preisendanz.”Journal of the Ministry of National Education.. p. ebenso die in der zweiten Auflage enthaltenen Nachtrage” [scil. 723— as belonging to the original Mithras Liturgy.36 All subsequent editions depend on Wessely. apparatus. 77. continue until the end. Novossadksy. “Adversaria graeca. 82— 87. although several papyrologists examined the papyri and proposed different readings: W ilhelm Kroll. in the preface to the third edition.40 and others. the section containing the Mithras Liturgy is found on pp. Greek text and notes. These editors.PH 36.” Ph. 1. and as part of 35 Carl Wessely.” in Fiinfzehnter Jahresbericht des K . December 1895 (St. however. nat.65). Balashev. appendix to the 3rd ed. 37 Wilhelm Kroll. Dieterichs]. edited and published in 1928 by Karl Preisendanz (1883— 1968). .II.” Ph. The Papyrus 11 2. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals (Wien: Verlag des K. 2. 27— 208. xvii.42 This supplementary material was added in appendices to the second edition (1910) by Richard Wiinsch. 33. the Greek text. supplemented by other evidence. Editions T he first edition o f the Paris Papyri was published by Wessely in 1888. 42 See Dieterich.64. 574. K.37 N. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals.43 In Dieterich s book. 43 So Weinreich.44 Although he paid careful attention to the textual evidence.41 In his own commentary Eine Mithrasliturgie o f 1903. The edition o f the Papyri graecae magicae. he himself was more interested in the religio-historical interpretation w hich comprises the main body o f his book. Part 302. 38 N. “Griechische Zauberpapyrus von Paris und London” (DOAW. based on his collation made in Paris in August o f 1883. “Zu den griechischen Papyri des Louvre und der Bibliotheque Nationale. 723. apparatus. with apparatus and notes. Richard Wiinsch also used the plates (see Dieterich. Papyri Graecae Magicae. D ieterich relied on Kroll s collations and on the photographic plates. included in Preisendanz’s edition o f 1928 (1. 56— 65. 1895). 16. Abteilung. 68 (1909) 575— idem. suppl.38 Karl Preisen­ danz. 1889). 2. and the third edition (1923) by O tto Weinreich.

For his work Henrichs was able to use Preisendanz’ NachlaJ] in Heidelberg. 3 (printed in the new edition. 1974). Meyers English translation was included in Betz.” 49 As Henrichs explains (l. Unfortunately. 1943. the Mithras Liturgy. 47 Ibid.” W St 41 (1919) 140-44. modified ac­ cording to the carefully noted suggestions made by earlier scholars. 88— 100. 2. 48— 54.47 O ne should realize that the edition was intended merely as a study edition. verbesserte Auflage mit Erganzungen von Karl Preisendanz. Stuttgart: Teubner. photo­ copies o f which have circulated among scholars. They were used also by Albert Henrichs for the new Preisendanz edition o f 1973 (1. 3. foremost among them D ieterich. The new edition o f vol. M arie Dieterich. 2. as Professor Ludwig Koenen reported. xliv.. Fortunately.XIII. durchgesehen und herausgegeben von Albert Henrichs [2 vols.50 Moreover. See Henrichs s Vorwort zu r Neuausgabe. his contributions consist o f the inclusion o f supple­ mentary notes by Preisendanz and his own textual emendations (Zweite. Meyer. The “Mithras Liturgy” (SBL. Michigan. had made available to him.. 1973. see also the citations in note 14 above.49 O ther study editions have been published more recently. allgemein lesbaren und verstandlichen Ausgabe der verstreut publizierten und teilweise hochst mangelhaft bearbeiteten Texte. 1 .12 Introduction it the Mithras Liturgy. 1976). 3 was not published because s the printing plates were destroyed when the Teubner publishing house in Leipzig was bombed on December 4.45 Preisendanz uses the text o f Wessely.64.VII— XVII). 48 Preisendanz’s Vorrede (l. a study edition was pub­ lished in 1992 by Reinhold Merkelbach in the third o f his four-volume collec- 45 Papyri Graecae Magicae: D ie griechischen Zauberpapyri.XIII).” which contains the text o f Preisendanz and an English translation. The photographs were deposited at the University Library in Heidelberg.VI): “Auch dieses Corpus der griechischen Zauberpapyri geht auf EinfluB und Anregung ALBBJECHT DIETERICHs zuriick. herausgegeben und iibersetzt von Karl Preisendanz (1st ed. a set o f the galley-proofs was saved.GRRS. 42 (1920) 24— 33. ibid. Preisendanz made use o f photographic plates which D ieterich had procured and which his widow. 1. also Betz.46 In addition. The comprehensive indices were not reprinted because they are now outdated. Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. Preisendanz’s vol. G M P T . where Preisendanz had taught. 2 includes those texts that were to be part o f vol. 50 Marvin M. and to Richard Wiinsch. until after World War II. 1928).12).. and also the reconstructed Hymns according to a new reconstruction by Ernst Heitsch. Preisendanz explains the contents in the Vorrede to vol. Missoula. G M PT . Meyer contributed a fascicle entitled The “Mithras Liturgy. . 1. “Miszellen zu den Zauberpapyri. paving the way for a standard critical edition which has not yet materialized. a former student o f Dieterich. 46 Preisendanz. Oft betonte er in jenen Heidelberger Seminariibungen des Sommers 1905 und im personlichen Gesprach als Hauptgrund ihrer verachtlichen Behandlung durch die philologischen und theologischen Forscher das Fehlen einer leicht zuganglichen.64— 180. MT: Scholars Press.. they were subsequently lost in the mail on the way to Ann Arbor. M arvin W.48 The second edition o f Preisendanz prepared by Albert Henrichs was intended as an improved republication. although they are still useful in the absence o f a newly compiled index verborum.TT. dedicated his edition to the memory o f his teacher. 2 vols. and Preisendanz.

95. entitled Abrasax . 58 O Z . 52 For his own explanation o f his work. contribution is his Introduction to both “Weihezeremonien” (PGM XIII. 53 “Adversaria graeca.” 421. see pp. 60 R eview o f Preisendanz s edition. He sees both the rituals as representative o f an Alexandrian theology involving the main gods o f the city.54 Ludwig Raderm acher. with notes pp. 29— with notes. 83— 239-40. 131— There is no clarity about text or translator. 212— (German 13 translation. 155— Text and translation o f 57. 58— 182. published in 1995 by a prestigious publishing house. by Wolfgang Schultz. on the Magical Papyri. esp. presents a French translation o f the Mithras Liturgy. but contributing his own notes as 9. The commented German translation follows Dieterich. 1-230. danz’s edition and Meyer’s translation in Betz. well. The Papyrus 13 tion. 62 Dokumente der Gnosis (Jena: Diederichs. 63 Manuel de magie egyptienne: Le papyrus magique de Paris (Paris: Les belles lettres. G M P T are known to the author.475— 824). 76 “Eingangund SchluB der Mithrasliturgie. and interpretative notes.” Ph. PGM IV. Die PschaiAion-Liturgie) (ARWAW. 57 “Varia. I I /l.59 Friedrich Zucker. Abrasax: Ausgewahlte Papyri religidsen und magischen Inhalts. 63 (1904) 4— 5. 55 “Griechischer Sprachbrauch. idem.63 51 Reinhold Merkelbach.57 Theodor Hopfner.” StPP 4 (1905) 84— 107.58 Richard Reitzenstein. vii.52 Partial texts. which he renames “Pschai-AionLiturgie. to which Merkelbach adds his own textual read­ ings. 1922).168-74.61 Somewhat idiosyncratic is the early translation and gnostic interpretation.55 W ilhelm C ronert. 56 “Zur Kritik der Papyrustexte. Sarapis-Aion-Iao-Abrasax and Pschai-Agathos Daimon (pp. 99-101.” C lR 10 (1896) 409— 13.60 and Andre-Jean Festugiere. Critical and Explanatory. text-critical notes and commentry on the exordium).3. 233— an especially valuable 49.56 Sam Eitrem . translations. based on his own readings o f the Greek text. 1992). 1995).62 Finally.475-824 are given on pp. 181— 19 92). 1-85). 1910). B y Z 31 (1931) 355— 63. . 33. introduction. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.303— following mostly Dieterich. and on Dieterich s notes for the commentary. 1. 169— (text. by Edvard Lehmann and Hans Haas. German translation. 61 La Revelation. 59 H M R . 343-71. following Dieterich). an anonymous work.” in Textbuch zur Religionsgeschichte (ed. and IV.” is based on Preisendanz s edition for the text. Band 3: Zwei griechisch-agyptische Weihezeremonien (Die Leidener Weltschdpfung. §§ 116— (pp. Erlangen: Scholl. although Preisen40. Leipzig: Deichert. and textual notes were contributed by W ilhelm Kroll.53 Ernst Riess.51 The Mithras Liturgy.PC 17.” N T F i 10 (1922) 102-16.II. 54 “Notes. 3.

D. Usener who died in 1905 entrusted the 2nd edition to Hans Lietzmann who published it in 1910. where his father was a teacher at the local Gymna­ sium and married to Henriette Miinscher. quam C. 68 Papyrus magica musei Lugdunensis Batavi. published by Conrad Leemans in 1885.68 which ventures to explore on a purely 64 For the following I am indebted to the essay “Albrecht Dieterich. prolegomena scripsit A. denuo edidit. Todestag. 67 Conrad Leemans. written in memory o f the 30th anniversary o f Dieterich’ death. denen du dein s Leben widmen muBt. Having first taken up theology. but he also studied classical archaeology and art with Reinhard Kekule von Stradonitz. Das Weihnachtsfest (Bonn: Bouvier.” 66 Hermann Usener. 1866 in Hersfeld (Hessen). O tto Ribbeck. O tto Crusius.67 Having won the two prizes. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken in der Religions­ s wissenschaft: Zu seinem 30. and after that Biicheler assigned to him the task o f working up textual and com­ mentary annotations to Papyrus Leiden J 384. Careful guidance by his father led to the baccalaureate (1884) and the beginning o f his university studies in Leipzig. 1885). 1911). The oldest son. which . xii: “Hier liegen die groBen Probleme. 1888). and R udolf Hirzel).. to which you must dedicate your life. the daughter o f the director who in turn was the son o f a theology professor in Marburg. Leemans edidit in papyrorum Graecarum tomo II (V).”65 His main teachers were Franz Biicheler and Herm ann Usener. for instance in his book Das Weihnachtsfest. Papyri Graeci Musei Antiquarii Publici Lugduni-Batavi (2 vols. In 1886 Dieterich went to Bonn. Justus Herm ann Lipsius. 21.” based upon a variety o f sources and personal witnesses. Albrecht. by Richard Wunsch. his teachers trained him to prove himself as a philologist o f the classical literature. For Dieterich’s continued influence see the essay by Friedrich Pfister. See also Betz.. 2. n.66 R ather than letting him drift into “the great problems.” however. xi— xlii. commentario critico instruxit. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 . 65 Cited from Wiinsch’ article. Usener advised him to write a “Preisarbeit” (an essay competing for a prize) on Aeschylus. Leiden: Brill. G M PT . grew up in a home o f liberal Protestant parents who were open to the delights o f culture and the arts. W hat mostly interested him was the way Usener combined classical philology and history o f religions. 1-li. where the first lecture by Herm ann Usener convinced him like by a strike of lightning that classical philology was to be his future: “Here lie the great problems.14 Introduction III. Dieterich expanded the second essay into his doctoral dissertation o f 1888. part I. he was soon drawn toward philosophy of religion and German literature. the 3rd edition o f 1969 is a reprint from Usener’s Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen.” A R W 35 (1938) 180— 85. J 384 andj 395 are in vol. but then he turned toward classical philology (represented by Ernst Curtius. 1843.64 He was born into a family o f teachers and theologians on May 2.1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship Albrecht D ieterich’ personal life was from the beginning destined to be that o f s a scholar. Kleine Schriften (Leipzig: Teubner. Dieterich’ former student s and editor o f Albrecht Dieterich.

After his Habilitation 1891 at Marburg.73 The work has two major parts. which was published in the same year. . Daniel see above. However. 57. he identifies it as a syncretistic text containing elements from ancient Egyptian religion. warned by the fact that the magical papyri. now on J 395.71 After he passed the state examination in 1889 and completed the required year o f teaching as an intern in a Gymnasium. Dieterich selected the O rphic Hymns as topic. he left teaching in a secondary school. 72 D e Hymnis Orphicis capitula quinque (Marburg: Elwert. these hymns had come to be recognized as cultic poetry. Festschrift H e r m a n n Usener zur Feier seiner 25jahrigen Lehrtatigkeit an der Bonner Universitat.PC 19. whose daughter M arie he m arried in 1898.69 T he Leiden Papyri J 384 and J 395 became PGM XII and XIII in the collection o f Preisendanz. but they also provided a way to show the link between “higher literature” and the magical papyri. however.III. Greek religion and Stoicism.70 they were again investigated by the papyrologist R o b ert ~W. 71. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 15 philological level the yet mostly unknown magical literature o f Hellenistic Egypt. 1891).” Importantly.72 he could use the other research material for his next work. Part I deals w ith the text and religio-historical interpretation o f J 395.57— 131. It is interesting. 70 See Preisendanz. this work raises a host o f new questions and provides impetus for further investigations. The work was presented to Usener at the celebration o f his 25th anniversary as a professor in Bonn. Highly suggestive. 1— 47. 1891). n. The title “Abraxas” comes from Goethe.” For a new publication o f J 395 by Robert W. it is an exemplary fruit o f the close cooperation between Dieterich and Usener. 69 As a good philologist would. that Dieterich spent several weeks appeared in JCPh. daB ich Abraxas bringe. astrological mysticism. 71 Robert W. esp. an extensive com men­ tary on J 395. Instead he went back to the Leiden Papyri for his Habilitationsschrift. 2. Westostlicher Diwan: “Sag’ ich euch absurde Dinge. Idem. Daniel who published them together w ith photographs in 1991. 1991). Papyri Graecae Magicae. Part II focuses on the “Eighth Book o f Moses” and explores the literary environment of “Jewish-O rphic-G nostic” cults and the magical literature. usually relegated to the area o f magic and superstition. Denkt. Daniel. 73 Abraxas: Studien zur Religionsgeschichte des spdtern Altertums.S 16 (1888) 749— 830. dargebracht vom Klassisch-philologischen Verein zu Bonn (Leipzig: Teubner. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. “Die griechischen Zauberpapyri. although he liked it and returned to it much later. were generally not accepted as qualification for a chair in Classics. Especially because o f the work o f Gottfried Herm ann. focusing on the so-called “cosmopoiia o f Leiden.” A P F 8 (1927) 120-23. The Prolegomena were reprinted in Kleine Schriften. Indeed. Two Magical Papyri in the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden: A Photographic Edition of J 3 8 4 and j 3 9 5 (= P G M X II and XIII) (ARWAW. he insisted undertaking a trip to Leiden personally to collate the papyrus.

including my own: “Eduard Norden und die friihchristliche Literatur. Muller. Kurt Rudolph and Jorg Riipke. D ieterich’ s work has three major chapters. see C.76 This fragmentary parchment codex was discovered in a tomb at Akhmim.. repr. but through the debates they also began profoundly to change scholars’ perception o f the field. Understandably. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. in order to m eet the great philologists representing a competing approach to classical studies: Carl Dilthey. See Wiinsch. 2nd ed. In his teaching as a Privatdozent in M arburg75 D ieterich treated a wide range o f subjects pertaining to Greek language and literature. NTApoc 2. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. M it den Briefen Eduard . In many ways. D etlef G. Herakles (3 vols. 77 For the editions. and the present state o f research.” xvi— xvii. Berlin: Weidmann. 1893). 1912. going as far as the decline o f ancient religions and the rise o f Christianity. 1969). In the Preface Dieterich thanks Hermann Usener and A dolf Jiilicher for their cooperation. and especially Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. On Norden see the essays and bibliographies in Eduard Norden (1868—1941): Ein deutscher Gelehrter judischer Herkunft (eds. 1924. W hile Christian in provenance. translations. Eduard N orden (1868— 1941). Der Altertumswissenschaftler Eduard Norden (1868— 1941): Das Schicksal eines deutschen Gelehrten judischer Abkunft. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. it also draws together sources from Jewish and Greek traditions about the netherworld. the first o f w hich outlines w hat he terms “Greek folk-religion concerning the realm o f the dead” (“Griechischer Volksglaube vom Totenreich”). 76 Nekyia: Beitrdge zur Erklarung der neuentdeckten Petrusapokalypse (Leipzig: Teubner. Herakles74 had greatly impressed Dieterich. 4th ed. 1913. Die Geburt des Kindes: Geschichte einer religiosen Idee (SBW 3. 1994). “Albrecht Dieterich.” 107— 27. Bernhard Kytzler. Wilt Aden Schroder.562-78. 1902.620-38. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 1958). Friedrich Leo. Leipzig: Teubner. 1895. whose edition and commentary o f Euripides. these topics quickly became controversial. his Agnostos Theos: Untersuchungen zur Formengeschichte religioser Rede (Stuttgart: Teubner. 1956). N TApok 2. the third chapter deals w ith “O rphicPythagorean Books on Hades” (“Orphisch-pythagoreische Hadesbiicher”). but he also lectured on Greek mythology and history o f religion.78 Richard Reitzenstein 74 Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. 1971). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 1889. 2nd ed. A second edition was prepared and provided with additions by Richard Wiinsch (1913. These explorations came to the fore in his next book dealing w ith the discovery o f what became known as the Apocalypse o f Peter. 78 See.16 Introduction at Gottingen. Palingenesia 49. the second chapter on “Mystery cult teach­ ings concerning blessedness and condem nation” (“M ysterienlehren iiber Seligkeit und Unseligkeit”) demonstrates how old elements o f folkreligion emerge in official literature and religion. 75 His colleague and friend at Marburg was Georg Wissowa. Euripides. who authored the magis­ terial Religion und Kultus derRomer (HAW 4:5. 1959).77 Besides a critical examination o f the text and a German translation.. especially. Miinchen: Beck.

2003). see the texts. Enzo Lucchesi & Henri D. 287-94. 1933.. and from there through the Corinthian G ulf to Athens. “Richard Reitzenstein.892— 93.” Dictionnaire de la Bible.79 Eric R obertson Dodds (1893-1979). see Karl Priimm. Cahiers d’Orientalisme 10. Geneve: Cramer. 79 On Reitzenstein. To continue w ith Dieterich s life. Reitzensteins Beitrage zur Mandaerforschung. D ieterich travelled to Triest. 82 O n Festugiere. .vi.. “Richard 96. travelling to the historical sites and monuments had become m uch easier than it had been for previous generations.80 A rthur Darby N ock (1902-1963). idem. Missing Persons (Oxford: Clarendon Press. but they were still far from what m odern tourists tend to take for granted. Philologie (1914— 1928). Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 1977). Karl Preisendanz who was one o f Dieterich s former students dedicated it to his memory. 1984). Eric Robertson. especially.” R G G (4th ed. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. The Greeks and the Irrational. 1999).” Zeitschrift fu r Religionsgeschichte 3 (1995) 49-80. Like many other projects. 84 See Preisendanz. Conversion: The Old and the N ew in Religion from Alexander the Great to Augustine of Hippo (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Blood for the Ghosts: Classical Influences in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (London: Duckworth. 10 (1985) 200— Wolfgang Fauth. 178— Carsten Koch. reprinted 1961). 6. Giuseppe Cambiano. 1989). H e took advantage Nordens an seinen Lehrer Hermann Usener aus denJahren 1891—1902 (Spudasmata 73. R G G (4th ed. On Dodds. Dieterich had originally suggested this work. Saffrey. Professor der klassischen 10. “Reitzenstein (Richard). Band 14. vingtcinq etudes reunies etpublies (eds. 81 See his main works. N ew discoveries o f texts and archaeological remains such as the Orphic-Dionysiac gold tablets and the Derveni Papyrus83 have moved classical studies in directions that would have delighted him. 80 See. In and around Athens he benefitted from resident scholars like W ilhelm Dorpfeld and Paul Wolters at the German Archaeological Institute. Helmut Koester. Carl Joachim Classen. The most impressive symbol o f Dieterich s con­ tinuing influence was the collaboration o f many scholars in producing the collection o f the Greek Magical Papyri. Gottinger Universitatsschriften. Serie A. with a bibliography pp. 83 For the present state o f research.III. By the middle o f the 19th century. s. 1999) 2. and bibliographies in Graf. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 17 (1862-1931).v.” in D ie Klassische Altertumswissenschaft an der Georg-August-Universitdt Gottingen (ed. From a present perspective. Hildesheim: Olms. Papyri Graecae Magicae. it is impressive to see how many of Dieterich s suggestive and provocative ideas have later been confirmed or at least gained in probability. 1 . Early Gentile Christianity and Its Hellenistic Background (New York: Harper. Suppl. where a boat took him to Korfu. 1964). Essays.81 and Andre-Jean Festugiere (1898-1982)82 became indicators o f the new direction o f classical studies.84 and its main editor. his autobiography is instructive. in March o f 1894 he set out on his long desired grand tour to Greece and Italy. also Hugh Lloyd-Jones. his Sather Lectures for 1951. articles. idem. 1982). “Dodds. xvii— xxxiv. see Memorial Andre-Jean Festugiere: Antiquite paienne et chretienne. See also.

From Constanti­ nople he travelled to Naples. His travel companions were terrified and suspected internal or head wounds. he unfor­ tunately hit against a branch of a tree. For the present state o f research. At the end o f May. Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner.86 His studies o f the Pompeian wall paintings and the comic figure o f Pulcinella were helpful for understanding the im portant role o f cult paintings. see Guntram Koch. lauer. R iding on a mule toward Olympia. “Aberkios. Cf. In Palermo his search for ancient manuscripts was rewarded by the discovery o f the Apokalypse o f Anastasia. der Schuler des reinen Hirten im Romischen R eich des 2. After R om e and a visit to Tuscany he returned to Marburg in the spring o f 1895. visiting Corinth. “Albrecht Dieterichs Wirken.18 Introduction o f the Institute’ guided tours to the Peloponnesos. in Constantinople he admired such treasures as the Alexander Sarcophagus and the colorful life o f the Bazaars. BiTeu. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff s stinging review appeared in G G A 159 (1897) 505-15. complet­ ing an enormously enriching tour that was not to be his last.). which he entrusted for an edition to his friend R u d o lf H om burg.” Historia 51 (2002) 359-82 (bibl. the s Argolis. Another boat trip took him to Delos. After his appointment to “auBerordentlicher professor” (associate professor) at Marburg in the summer semester o f 1895 his academic responsibilities changed and increased. in particular W ilamowitz-Moellendorff. Jahrhunderts. Dieterich travelled to Smyrna and from there to Pergamon. 1998) 1. His next publications reflected findings and impres­ sions in Italy. Wiinsch. “Aberkiosinschrift. whose immense treas­ ures and rich life overwhelmed him.85 T he m onth o f September saw Dieterich in R om e. “Albrecht Dieterich. as well as August M au and W ilhelm Helbig made sure he fully enjoyed his R om an days. Then he headed south to Sicily. R udolf Homburg.” R G G (4th ed. The scholars at the German Archaeo­ logical Institute. Eugen Petersen and Christian Hiilsen. H e showed that this inscription provides evidence o f pagan and Christian syncretism in Asia M i­ nor. His edition o f and commentary on the mysterious inscription o f Aberkios in the Lateran M useum brought into discussion this fragment o f a third century CE tomb inscription by a Phrygian bishop. Arcadia. Sardes.” xxi— xxii. where he was received and shown around by Theophile Homolle. but after he was transported to Olympia he recovered sufficiently and could continue on the journey. In Troja he met again w ith Dorpfeld during one o f the excavation seasons. 1903). Pfister. 86 Die Grabschrift des Aberkios (Leipzig: Teubner. and Olympia. Ephesus. although they generated severe criticism by leading scholars. 1897). 87 Pulcinella: Pompeianische Wandbilder und romische Satyrspiele (Leipzig: Teubner. 1896).” 182-83. . visited Pompei guided by August Mau. Dieterich himself lost hope that he would survive. which threw him down onto the stony road where he lay unconscious.87 Those who knew him well could not but notice 85 Apocalypsis Anastasiae (ed.62— Eckhard Wirbe63. and Magnesia..

und alien Tadel der verdient ist. it is noteworthy that about the same time the field o f N ew Testament studies changed in similar ways. O n the contrary. der erzieht und fordert. However. other scholars had also recognized the value o f folklore in bringing classics out o f its cultural isolation by showing its connection w ith the social context o f what people considered to be their own culture. were not as far removed from classical studies as it seemed at the time. kann kein Vorwort. Anticipating further hostile reactions. The fact that GieBen had only two classicists meant that his lectures had to appeal to a wider audience o f students. sehr wohl von dem zu unterscheiden. in w hich many o f the dissertations w ritten under him appeared.” Z N W 1 (1900) 336— reprinted in Kleine Schriften.88 In 1897 D ieterich accepted a call to the University o f GieBen.” 89 The journal A R W began in 1898. however. especially o f his hom e province o f Hessen. he made the point that he understood very well how to separate valid criticism from personal insult. 90 “ЕиаууѕХссттѓ^. Also. Denn ich weiB den Tadel. 95. Eine Mithrasliturgie. but he enjoyed having a great deal o f freedom in developing lecture courses.90 Dieterich s interest in the religion o f Mithras originated w ith C um ont s monumental work. je mehr die Sache dabei gewinnt. was verfehlt ward. D uring his years in GieBen he also moved closer to the developing field o f ethnography and folklore (“Volkskunde”). . vi: “Aber rechtfertigen. Dieterich served as co-editor. he was supplied w ith a new but still rare slide projector (“Lichtbilderapparat”) that enabled him to show photographic pic­ tures during lectures. Two im portant articles appeared in 1902 that express D ieterichs new interest. 193— 38. From volume 7 (1904) onwards.III. der beleidigt und im innersten verletzt. so much so that he took the unusual step o f responding firmly to these critics in the introduction to his next book. where he became a professor ordinarius and the successor o f Eduard Schwartz. Moreover.” These fields o f scholarship. its founder was Thomas Achelis. nehme ich umso lieber auf mich. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 19 his anger and disappointment. He became involved in the “Hessische Vereinigung flir Volkskunde” and published articles in the “Hessische Blatter fur Volkskunde. indicated by the creation in 1900 o f the Zeitschriftfur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der alteren Kirche. the journal Archiv fu r Religionswissenschafi89 and the m onograph series Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten (1903-). H e laid the groundwork by training an amazing num ber o f creative students and by helping to establish two publishing ven­ tures. Expressing his long-standing interest in the origins o f Christianity. The article “Die Weisen aus dem M orgenlande” 88 Mithrasliturgie. Dieterich understood that the contextual interpretation o f ancient religion would require long-term com­ mitments by others as well. he even published an article in the first volume o f the new journal.

the first study investigates the theme o f “The H um an Being in God and God in the Hum an Being. After a discussion of the terms “liturgy. pp.ov. the chapter includes a step by step review o f the entire text. Second. 272— 86. . “The 91 “Die Weisen aus dem Morgenlande: Ein Versuch. such a division makes little sense. As we m entioned above. in an appendix o f this book he collected other remnants o f liturgical fragments. 1.([xuaTTjpt-ov. which include a brief Introduction (pp. 213-18. richly docum ented by references and discussion. however. a collection that is still valuable today. das Essen des Gottes. Chapter II (92— 212) investigates “The Liturgical Images o f the Mithras Liturgy” (Die liturgischen Bilder des Mithrasmysteriums) in five thematic studies. 93 “Reste antiker Liturgien. a large section containing “Inter­ pretations” (Erlauterungen). 25— 30) and topically arranged chapters (pp. showing Dieterich’ s systematic interests. the three Magi are priests o f the Mithras religion. From our present perspective. 256-58.91 A later article on “Die Religion des Mithras” sums up his admiration for C um ont s work.” Mithrasliturgie.” Z N W 3 (1902) 1-14. 92 B J 108— 109 (1902) 26— reprinted in Kleine Schriften. 723). 252— 41. 723— 834) as “directions for the magical application o f the Mithras Liturgy” (A n weisung z u magischer Verwendung der Mithrasliturgie). pp. reprinted in Kleine Schriften. 95— 121). In fact. even after the German translation was concluded. 12) he had planned to complete the translation. where he worshiped Nero &< xod xov Mt&pav (Cassius Dio 63. In fact. Dieterich himself seems to have changed his mind later because in his future project (see above. and sacramentum as effecting a cultic unification with the deity. The second study specifies more narrowly.” [Aucmr]pt. with additions. 7). the Eating o f the D eity” (Der Mensch in Gott und Gott im Menschen. 30— 92). At any rate.93 The work contains two major parts: first. a critical edition o f the Greek text (PGM IV. He thus separated the nonmagical Mithraic liturgy from its secondary reworking as a magical ritual. he regarded the following section (11.92 but he differed from C um ont for the first time in seeing in a section o f the Paris Magical Papyrus a remnant o f a Mithraic ritual.1— he suggests that >. the learned apparatus o f the text continues to the end. This suggestion then led to the main thesis o f his book o f 1903 (Eine Mithrasliturgie). 225-26. stops after what Dieterich took to be the end o f the Mithras Liturgy proper . n. Chapter I deals w ith the “O ri­ gin and the Sources o f the Papyrus Text” (Herkunft und Quellen des Papyrustextes. 30-212). 71.20 Introduction connects the legend o f the Magi from the East paying homage to the child Jesus w ith the visit o f the Parthian king Tiridates to R om e in 66 CE. however.475— 834) and a German translation which. This division derives from his thesis o f the section’ origin as a ritual o f the cult o f s Mithras and the other as its later appropriation by a magician.

95 Geschichte der Paulinischen Forschung von der Reformation bis auf die Gegenwart (Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. The volume concludes with valuable indices. 93. 134-56).”97 and thinks the prayers were to be recited in the course o f the ascension.” Moreover. pp. Indeed. several reviews took up the issues with profound seriousness be­ cause they understood that not only the title and text o f the Mithras Liturgy but also the methodology o f interpretation were at stake.. the reviews focused on the title to the extent that little else was discussed.III. Albrecht Dieterich (1 8 6 6 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 21 Erotic U nion o f the Hum an Being w ith the G od” (Die Liebesvereinigung des Menschen mit dem Gotte. In fact. fifth on “The Soul’ Ascension to s Heaven” (Die Himmelfahrt der Seele z u Gott. in spite o f the negative reactions. 121— 34). wenn Dieterich dem Buche den unnotigen und umstrittenen Titel nicht gegeben hatte” (146. However. 213— has already been m entioned. pp. 141-84. Apart from C um ont. pp. . pp. 146-60. some im portant scholars came to D ieterich’s defense. which carries the 94 See above. n. several other reviewers took issue w ith the title o f the book. The fourth study is on “R ebirth” (Die Wiedergeburt. 1). The ensuing contro­ versy shows admiration as well as substantial criticism. n. 96 Ibid. 1911). 179— 212). as well as arguments against critical reviews.96 According to Schweitzer. D ieterich approaches the text “directly” as a “Mithras Liturgy. At least two reviews were substantial and are still worth reading. pp. including his own additions gathered from his papers by Richard Wiinsch. These s additions provide corrections. W iinsch’ additions.94 It is followed by rather confusing 18) sets o f additional notes in the second and third editions o f D ieterich’ work s (.”95 His presentation o f D ieterich’s thesis and m ethod is remarkably positive and to the point. and the final. W hile C um ont’s nega­ tive critique seemed to sway many in his direction.Nachtrage. so that his scholarly reputation. The appendix on “Remains o f Ancient Liturgies” (Reste antiker Liturgien. followed by a third on “Being a Child o f G od” (Die Gotteskindschaft. “Die religionsgeschichtliche Erkl'arung. the debates o f the next ten years coin­ cided w ith the formation o f the “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule. pp. references to ancient texts and secondary litera­ ture. the work was received with great anticipation. In his book Geschichte der Paulinischen Forschung. 97 Schweitzer also questions the title: “Jedenfalls ware es besser gewesen. Albert Schweitzer places D ieterich s work in the context o f chapter VII. 219— 58). Understandably. his appointment at Heidelberg attracted a growing num ber o f excellent stu­ dents. and Weinreich s additions. 157— 79).” in which he analyses critically the methodology o f the early “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule. was greatly enhanced by the debate.

12: “ .22 Introduction initiate out o f this world o f the four elements through the stars to the region o f the gods. collecting as many parallels and analogies as possible seems necessary. in order to explain the origins o f their theologies as derivatives o f mystery cults. or whether it took its regular place in the cult.. Reitzenstein agrees with C um ont that the Mithras Liturgy does not provide any information about the Mithras cult as Cum ont conceived o f it. “Religionsgeschichte und Eschatologie. In order to docum ent such a conceptuality. 152. nor can it be used to reconstruct any kind o f official Mithras religion.” Z N W 13 94 (1912) 1— (12— on Dieterich). daB wir hier eine religiose .” O ne must not forget. in Dieterich’ hands and for his purposes the papyrus segment he calls ‘Mithras s Liturgy’ has proven to be an immensely precious treasure. which the devotees experienced only once. 99 Ibid.. In fact.100 a second review in 1912 also benefited from Schweitzers o f 1911. Und doch hat sie sich in Dieterichs Hand und fur seine Zwecke als unschatzbares Kleinod erwiesen. If the ritual was performed as a sacramental drama. O ther substantial reviews came from Richard Reitzenstein who was more sympathetic to Dieterich than Schweitzer was. “Hellenistische Theologie in Agypten. Guided by the sun god through the heaven o f the fixed stars he reaches the supreme deity.98 T he main points o f Schweitzer’ criticism concern D ieterich’ m ethodol­ s s ogy o f comparing the Mithras Liturgy w ith the theology o f Paul and John’ s Gospel. In the course o f that comparison Dieterich employs concepts such as “sacramental.”99 Schweitzer’ discussion reaches beyond s D ieterich and is directed at the often unguarded assumptions o f the early “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule. however. but Dieterich himself warns against this kind o f “Analogienwut. idem. for Cum ont s aims it is unusable and totally irrelevant. archeological findings could point to such scenarios. Freilich der Seltsamheit und Bedeutsamkeit der Tatsache. D ieterich’ apparent goal s s is to get beyond the individual texts and develop a conceptuality for all ancient religion. The ancient initiates ritually performed this ascen­ sion in the Mithraic grottos. indeed.” “redeemer god... 98 Ibid. The Mithras Liturgy “is not a liturgy in the narrower sense o f the term. T he question remains whether this was the supreme mystery o f this religion..” which fit neither Paul’s nor John’ theology. In fact.” or “mystical union w ith the deity. sie ist weder eine Liturgie im engeren Sinne. that in all this Schweitzer has also his own axe to grind. 28 16 101 Ibid. noch kann sie zur Rekonstruktion irgendeiner anerkannten Form der Mithrasreligion verwertet werden. 146-47. sie ist fur Cumonts Zwecke wirklich unbenutzbar und vollkommen gleichgiiltig. the aim o f the ascension to heaven was that the soul would attain immortality. And yet.”101 Reitzenstein. 100 Richard Reitzenstein.” N JK A 1 (1904) 177— (192-94 on Dieterich).

The authors intense devotion to Mithras should not be denied its own integrity. die uns aus der Zeit des Synkretismus erhalten sind. evidenced by the two further editions o f 1910 and 1923. “Cum ont s way o f looking at the evidence. but also in Egypt.. even while they served as priests in the Egyptian temples.III.. justified as it is in and o f itself. Albrecht Dieterich (1866 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 23 however. because it leaves out o f consideration the numerous monuments o f individual religious life that are extant from the period of syncretism. individuellstem Leben und tiefster Innerlichkeit haben. because o f the newly develUrkunde von groBtem Umfang. In fact. until it was reprinted w ithout change in 1966. Each time Dieterich s former students.”103 Today.. so berechtigt sie an sich ist. local adaptations were a normal phe­ nom enon. cannot be the only one admissible.. Conceivably. That the author was a m em ber o f a Mithraic community is less likely. ist Dieterich sich nie klar bewuBt geworden__ ” 102 Ibid. why not for Mithras? Therefore. “Dieterich took over from his teacher Usener the great task of studying the formal language o f religious thinking... Given the syncretistic aura o f Hellenistic Egypt. claims that Dieterich did not fully realize that we have here a religious document o f large size. As it spread over the R om an empire through the military and the administration.. daB Cumonts Betrachtungsweise.. Richard W iinsch (1869— 1915) and O tto Weinreich (1886— 1972).. das war die groBe Aufgabe. Egyptian learned priests such as the author o f the Mithras liturgy became devoted to Mithras. he transposed it from the formation o f the notion o f deity or myth to the deepest ground o f all religion. die sich doch keiner uns bekannten Religionsform eingliedern laBt. er iibertrug sie von der Bildung des Gotterbegriffes oder Mythos auf das tiefste Innere aller Religion.”102 In other words. because o f the large increase in data. full o f individual life and deep intensity. but he did have some valid information about the cult o f Mithras.” 103 Ibid. so why not Mithras? If the priests were charged with developing the liturgies appro­ priate for worshiping so many other deities. which simply does not conform to any religion known to us. 13: “ . in particular in R om e. there was plenty o f room in the Egyptian temples for Egyptian as well as Greek deities. Today. die er von Usener ubernommen hatte. weil sie die Fiille der Denkmaler individuellen religiosen Lebens unerklart beiseite lassen muB. 13: “D ie Formensprache religiosen Denkens zu erkennen. auf die Sehnsucht des Menschen nach Vereinigung mit Gott. the book remained in discussion. contrary to the early criticisms. Dieterich did recognize the unique as well as syncretistic character o f the Mithras Liturgy. to the longing o f humans for unification w ith the divine. edited and expanded the notes while leaving the main text intact..” . Mithraism has been shown to be a religion which experienced several reconfigurations in its history. nicht die einzig zulassige sein kann. but he did not make enough use o f it in his defense against C um ont s view that there is only one kind of Mithraism.

des 3. 91. Jh. The older positions. 13 n. in modified forms still have present-day representatives. the book has moved from the margins into the mainstream o f the increasing study o f Hellenistic religious syncretism.” Turcan con­ tinues C um ont s denial that the Mithras liturgy has anything to do with Mithraism. das Dieterich.” Phoe. 105 Ibid. “Merkelbach’s Mithras. 169/74).” he simply equates it w ith “ceremony. The Roman Cult of Mithras: The God and His Mysteries (trans. 109 For surveys o f the history o f research. he sees it marginally related to theurgical Neoplatonism . 111 For discussion. showing clearly Mithras’ raising up o f the shoulder of a bull which is m entioned also in the Mithras Liturgy as a ritual act o f central importance. 193. see the commentary infra. inscriptions. 119— 126-27: “Am 20.” ANRW II. calling them by various terms: “Weihezeremonien. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. das geistige Milieu aE. idem.110 Im por­ tant in this respect is a newly discovered fresco painting from a m ithraeum in Ponza (Italy). 110 For further discussion. p. Manfred Clauss. Gottesndhe. C um ont s basic position is maintained emphatically by R einhold Merkel­ bach and R obert Turcan. Rande des theurgischen Neuplatonismus stehend.24 Introduction oping interest in the phenom ena and literature o f magic as well as Mithraism. nC.. See also Graf. D ie Pschai-Aion-Liturgie). v. 17:4 (1984) 2002-2115. 6-7. 90— 95. 1058. 106 Ibid. 107 Ibid.” which he groups together w ith the Leiden Papyrus (PGM XIII).109 Discoveries o f fresco paintings. “Initiation. 1992). “The Mysteries o f Mithras: A N ew Account o f Their Genesis. see Roger Beck. 41 (1987) 294-316. unpassend ‘Mithrasliturgie’ genannt hat. esp.. in dem der Vollzug innerer Mysterien empfohlen wurde. Oxford: Blackwell. Mithr. 2nd ed. 126.” R A C 18 (1998) 87-159. 17.111 As Dieterich m entioned in his letters to Usener (October 29 104 Merkelbach. Turcan does not mention the ML in his work. esp. 1. ET: The Cults of the Roman Empire (trans. See above.” 1989. 25. doch vom gleichen Geist durchtrankt. Richard Gordon. vol. “Mithraism since Franz Cumont. 699. La Reve­ lation 1. 108 Robert Turcan. Abrasax. however. Les cultes orientaux dans le monde romain (Paris: Societe d’edition “Les belles lettres.. .108 N ew developments. on 1.”106 or “Die Pariser Unsterblichkeits-Liturgie. 2050-51. while retai­ ning the term “liturgy. mosaics.”107 Thus. Festugiere. Antonia Nevill. see below. and other archaeological findings have in­ creased the evidence pointing to syncretistic forms o f M ithraism. 3. 1996). but he rejects Dieterich s title and proposes his own: “Die Pschai-AionLiturgie. however. 303/8. 3: Zwei griechisch-agyptische Weihezeremonien (Die Leidener Weltschopfung.. 2000). section V o f this Introduction. have arisen in recent years that fundamentally challenge both Merkelbach s and Turcan s position. idem. kennzeichnet das ‘Rezept der Unsterblichkeit’ (PGM IV 475-732. Merkelbach’ commentary104 is based on Dieterich s s work.”105 “Einweihungszerem onien.”J R S 88 (1998) 115-28. 51.” Consequently.

daB ein so feinsinniger Gelehrter wie Cumont bis in seine neusten Veroffentlichungen hinein Dieterichs Verdienst verkennt. 449— 539. 4. his wife and his former students took the necessary steps to secure it. the year 1903 brought another major event: the move to Heidelberg where he accepted the prestigious chair for­ merly occupied by Erwin R ohde and O tto Crusius. 1): “Ich bedauere.116 D ieterich’s major books were reprinted after World War II by the Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. H e began working on a biography of Usener which he never completed. 114 “Der Untergang der antiken R eligion. He died w ithout regaining consciousness on May 6. today C um ont’ criticism s o f Dieterich has become far less impressive than it first sounded and should not stand in the way o f a positive assessment o f the latter’ accomplish­ s ments.”117 His commentary demonstrated his five major discoveries: (1) that the text segment in question differs significantly from the other segments o f the larger Paris Magical Papyrus. H e had reached the peak o f his career w hen on May 5 he went into the lecture hall to begin a new semester.112 To return to Dieterichs biography. on the subject o f M other Earth. his activi­ ties shifted by necessity to lecturing. 1901). Therefore. 2004).113 but the ever increasing commitments that come w ith success and authority collided with the sudden death o f H erm ann Usener (October 1905) which hit him especially hard and disrupted his plans. O ne book appeared. In Heidelberg. D uring a journey to Hamburg to lecture on “The End o f Ancient R eligion”114 he contracted influenza but refused to take time out for recovery. published by Richard W iinsch. 1 n. As a result. As far as his legacy is concerned. traveling as well as editorial and adminis­ trative tasks. 117 See the forthcoming article by Friedhelm Hartenstein and Hans Dieter Betz. 1908. 116 See above. where it still is today.III. it was this point that caused him to attribute the PGM text to Mithraism.. 1905). “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule.115 His essays were collected in Kleine Schriften. 4 n. p. but after the first few sentences he suddenly stumbled and collapsed because o f a fatal stroke. there are many scholars today w ho insist that the Mithras Liturgy rightly carries the provocative name given it by Dieterich and that it should be attributed to syncretistic developments of Mithraic mysteries in Hellenistic Egypt. . 170.” R G G (4th ed.” 113 Mutter Erde (Leipzig: Teubner. 14. D ieterich’ “Mithras Liturgy” became known as a landmark of s the “Religionsgeschichtliche Schule. 115 See above. Albrecht Dieterich (1866 -1 9 0 8 ): Life and Scholarship 25 and Decem ber 8. p. (2) that one must 112 This was recognized already by Reitzenstein (H M R . Marie Dieterich contributed his papers and research materials to the Usener-Archiv at the University Library in Bonn. n.” in his Kleine Schriften. To sum up.

Koln.1560.” R G G (4th 14. 119 So Dieterich. daB zwischen die Homerverse der groBe Wahrsagezauber eingeschoben ist. <p£A ou<. “Epiphanie. The charm 11. so daB vor und nach ihm noch deren gesprengte Stiicke erscheinen..118 As a result o f new discoveries and more refined methodologies o f interpretation. entitling it again Про? (11. Roman World: Studies in Mithraism and the Religious A rt (Aldershot. D ieterich’s book thus in no way resembles an outdated experiment. Leiden. Kultbild. 1. “Bild.26 Introduction interpret this segment in the syncretistic context o f the mystery cults of Hellenistic Egypt and beyond.119 These Hom eric verses 74. with bibl. 470— 74.” VisRel 7 33.” . Delimitation As stated before. 833— 34). called Прос. “The Intention o f Biographical Narration on Mithraic Cult Images. Baumgarten.” Word & Image 5 (1989) 2— Richard Gordon. today these five discoveries can be far better appreciated than in D ieterich’ own s days. 1998) 1. the papyrus continues in 11 835— with an untitled section on .” ibid. Mithrasliturgie. (“To get friends”).” VisRel 4— (1985— 5 86) 114— idem. followed by 11. After the conclusion o f the Mithras Liturgy. verse o f the section (11. Statuette. Representation in Religion: Studies in Honor of Moshe Barasch (Numen Book Series: Studies in the History o f Religions. 469— After this. 11 821— contain four more lines o f H om er verses without a separate . Hampshire: Variorum. I V Genre and Composition 1. 89. 24 section title. “Bilderkult. 831 suprisingly repeats the thtfioxaxo/ov of 11. followed by a historiola.. Burckhardt Gladigow. ed. but rather continues to stimulate the discussion about this fascinating text and the larger issues o f the interpretation o f ancient religion. 1562— Jan Assmann & Albert I. 825— 29). 118 This discovery by Dieterich can be newly appreciated in the light o f current studies on the significance o f images. the section o f the Paris Magical Papyrus we call Mithras Liturgy is sandwiched between a series o f Hom eric verses which have been interrupted by this insertion (11. Boston. (5) that cultic images play a significant role in the procedures. “Kultbild. have section titles designating their function as charms. At this point. 49 favorable and unfavorable times attributed to the Greek planetary deities. 468— 821-34). an untitled short story serving magical functions (11.. idem et al. (3) that the text is influenced by Stoic philoso­ phy and is close to Hermeticism.” H R W G 4 (1998) 9— idem. see Burckhardt Gladigow. (4) that this text involves a kind o f “liturgy” . 2001). 830). (1990) 98-121. and the first Hom er 70). Zwirn. 20-21: “Es scheint. eds. Stephen R . 74. “Prasenz der Bilder —Prasenz der Gotter. 468--69. 468— 69 is called ^ujjioxaTO^ov (“Charm to restrain anger”). Image and Value in the Graeco18. and another Homeric verse (1. 1996).

20— regards 11. 831-34 must then . 821-24. 475). The literary genre a. it does. G M PT . “Divine assistence from three Homeric verses. 54). while the isolated H om er verse in 1. 831 but also at the end o f the sequence in 11.2145— 2240. including the section titles. Martin also points to the parallel in PGM IV. 74. By contrast. T he following conclusions can be drawn from this evidence:120 (1) The Mithras Liturgy is originally independent from the H om er verses. 821— 34). 471— and 51 73 821-23. in 11. there seems to be no paragraphos sign before the beginning o f the Mithras Liturgy. the Qo^oxaxo^ov o f 11. which are therefore not part o f its internal composition. Perhaps. 821— to be a part o f the 21) 34 Mithras Liturgy.100-1 [apparatus]) reports on the problem as unresolved. 820 there is a vacant space. Dieterich (Mithrasliturgie. 475-820). in most cases a section title can be supplied on the basis o f parallels. 468— 74).I V Genre and Composition 27 Since there are no detectable reasons for breaking up the sequence of Hom eric verses and sandwiching the Mithras Liturgy between the parts. 47. 121 Differently. some kind o f confusion on the part o f the copyist must have occurred. how­ ever. 3. which does carry a section title indicating function (Тр^сттг/ГјОС 'Ојхѓјрои тгаребро^.121 (2) For no detectable reason. the copyist became confused about what he had copied already and what he still had to do. He does not give a reason why he omits the Homer verses preceding the beginning (11. verses.” The three Homer verses in 11. 468— 69 reappears not only in 1. Whereas the PG M corpus contains many spells w ithout section titles. External genre designations Since there is no external designation o f the literary genre o f the Mithras Liturgy. no such confusion appears elsewhere in the papyrus. and neither the author/redactor nor the copyist inserted one. and resumed the H om er charms afterwards (11. 249) follows Dieterich. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 2. after 1. The Mithras Liturgy has no parallel in the PGM or anywhere else from which an external title could be derived. also be the result o f that confusion. However. begin w ith a new line (1. Apparently. Preisendanz (1. (3) The problem remains unresolved. . Moreover. the question o f its genre requires a complex answer.182. 120 See the explanations given by Hubert Martin and Marvin Meyer (Betz. 2145— correspond to 11. 830 occurs previously at the end o f the sequence 11 469— The papyrus has paragraphos signs between the Hom eric . the Vorlage had no section title. The repetition o f 11 468-70. the copyist interrupted the charms containing the Hom eric verses. inserted the Mithras Liturgy in its entirety (11.

123 See the commentary on 11. Most important is атса&оо/атгсЈ^б^. 741.28 b. beginning with “the invocational prayer” (11. 573. 747. Second (o (3' Xoyoc. Composition In spite o f its complexity. 638 kontxGTiytoq (Xoyo??). however. The term auvxayfjia points to the text as a “composition” out o f subordinate parts.басгхаХ(а ттј? (1. was sent to a “daughter. occurs only in the supplemental rituals o f Part III (11. . 741— 42).122 The terms аштау[ла (11. Part II (11. The section title o f бг. 479— leads us to conclude. however. 558-59. serves as the head title expressing the literary genre o f the whole composition. N one o f these terms. 771). but so far a detailed literary analysis has 122 Cf. that this name at one time served as the head title and was omitted by the redaction. and 82) both refer to the text as a whole. the literary composition o f the Mithras Liturgy is clear and well executed. Prayers are called Xoyoi. but it is unclear how these three are to be related to the citations o f the ai'fri-logos (11. 485— 537). 3. as the insertion o f 1 . Considerable agreement exists in the scholarly litera­ ture about the separate sections. These linguistic markers are important for the determination o f the compositional parts. the name for “the ritual o f immortaliza­ tion. Internal genre designations Introduction The text o f the Mithras Liturgy uses several terms o f literary self-reference. Merkelbach s suggestion (Abrasax. 479-82 and 820. also called тсрсато^ Xoyo? (“first prayer” in 11. In m odern descrip­ tive terminology we might label it a “Ritual to obtain an ascension and consultation with the god Mithras. 623).” This name.) and third (o y ' Xoyoc) prayers are enumerated in 11. tou Xoyou >]бе 7] хХујсте. (тбџугцш (“m em orandum ”) comes from legal language and states the completion o f the docum ent which.? (1. The contributions by Dieterich as well as Merkelbach represent significant steps. There is no evidence.249) that some portion at the beginning o f the Vorlage may have been omitted.”123 1 82 Subsidiary parts are also marked by appropriate terms. 577 and 587. 577-78. 481— and итт:6^7][ла (1. 486).” 3. however. 485732) as “becoming immortalized” (атса&о^ат^еаФоа [11. 820) are technical. 750) points to “instruction pertaining to the ritual” as the purpose o f the composition. 647— 48]). describing the function o f the main body. A greeting prayer can be named in 1.

760. Merkelbach is certainly right about the necessity o f preparatory rituals. 125 See the Conspectus. This prayer involves a petition for pardon in view o f what is described as risky and potentially inappropiate transmission in writing o f the secret tradition of mysteries to a fellow-initiate. as it takes place in the ascension ritual itself. 475— contains a well-constructed exordium which takes the 85) form o f a prayer to the divinity o f Providence and World-Soul. 128 Terms designating purity are relatively infrequent in ML. which need to be perform ed prior to the ascension ritual.127 (4) For the philosophically-minded author purifi­ cation by the spirit. 83. By contrast. but he does not provide a detailed literary analysis (Abrasax. 60— for detailed discussions.I V Genre and Composition 29 not been undertaken. especially. 668— ayveuw 1. 126 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 3. als man die Zeremonien auch an andere Personen weitergegeben und zu anderen Zwecken als den urspriinglichen verwendet hat.) is central. 771. 124 Merkelbach describes sections by way o f their content. If such rituals appeared in the source material ( Vorlage).155— 59). especially 155— “D ie Einleitung zu dem Text 56: ist sekundar.124 O ur own literary analysis125 shows four distinguish­ able parts. . Therefore. 733— 36). see the respective 87. Merkelbach calls the exordium “secondary. H e assumes that a text segment containing preparatory rituals. This applies also to the preparation o f the special amulets (11. Diese Einleitung gehort nicht zum urspriinglichen Text. 732— 819). the fact that no such preparatory rituals are found at the beginning o f the Mithras Liturgy needs to be explained. 69.26— 52— begins with preparatory rituals which may suffice 51.” 127 N ot self-evident are the insertions o f 11. 3. 569. (3) T he author may regard the performance of the preparations as selfevident and adds only matters that are not self-evident (see. see ха&аро^ 1. the notion o f “spirit” (7tv£U[xa) in association with fire (тгир хтА. may have greater importance than the conventional purification rituals. 85) for the following rituals. ayioq 11. (2) The author presupposes that he and his addressee are already initiated ([листтоа) and have thus learned to observe the prepara­ tions. ха&ареи»)? 11. rituals o f Part III (11. no evidence exists for an excision o f a text segment from the Vorlage which would have the present exordium as its replacement. ayiai^w 522. 81). sondern ist hinzugefugt worden. 19. Part I (11. 40.”126 which he means not only in the literary sense that every introduction is secondary to whatever is being introduced.128 W hile separately or in combination any o f these reasons could have caused the omission. the redactor may have excised them for several reasons: (l)T he Paris Magical Papyrus (IV. ayraapia 522. especially because they are required for the magician and the fellow-initiate (11. 784. 522. 651— and the supplemental 55.28— 159— 233-49). but also in the sense o f replace­ ment. 479-81. the insertion o f 11 479— . 813— mentioned before at 11. 708). sections o f the commentary. 659-61. has been excised and replaced by the present exordium. below pp.

Abrasax. 485— 732) includes the main body o f the ritual. 34: “Man kann sich auch vorstellen.28— especially 32: “Man stelle sich ein dunkles Zimmer 40. Third scenario (11. Fourth scenario (11. The candidate stands on a pedestal that at some point can be lifted by ropes or by hydraulic machinery into the air. das die Sonnenscheibe reprasentiert. The subsec­ tions are partly prescriptive recitations. 569— 85): vision o f the sun-disk. it is both “realistic” in terms o f the performance of ritual acts. Subsection B (11.”129 But o f course one can also imagine that for a spirit-inspired Stoic machine-made “virtual reality” would be redundant. 544— 55): encounter w ith the planetary deities.30 Introduction Part II (11. which carries the name aTca&avocTt. 129 Merkelbach. . in which one corner is illuminated by a light reflecting the sun disk. Second scenario (11. das spater entweder durch Seile oder durch eine hydraulische Konstruktion in die Luft gehoben wird. partly narrative descriptions o f the ritual process. Merkelbach considers the possibility that the “realism” would consist o f a kind o f theatrical production. Subsection D (544-731) narrates in carefully described scenarios the seven stages o f the ascension culminating at the seventh stage in an encounter w ith the god Mithras. well-composed and highly complex prayer o f invocation o f the four elements which consti­ tute the universe as well as the creation and recreation o f the hum an body. including special effects. Subsection C (11. 556— 69): overcoming the threat by the planetary deities. Subsection A (11. and imaginary in terms of a journey through the seven spheres of the universe. (“ritual o f immortalization”). 539— 44) provides religio-philosophical explanations o f the concept o f ascension through the spirit. “O ne may imagine a dark room.afx6<.. daB dieses Podest gar nicht erforderlich war und daB der Initiand sich die Reise in die Luft nur meditierend suggerieren sollte. 628— 61): encounter w ith Helios. 39.” See also ibid. Included in the narrative are prayers o f invocation and greetings o f the deities encountered as well as ritual acts to be performed at critical moments o f the ascension. (5) Fifth scenario (11. Der Kandidat steht auf einem Podest.” 130 Ibid.. W hile the ascension takes place in the mind o f the acting magician. vor. 485-537) sets forth for recitation a long. 3. He points as evidence to G raeco-Rom an authors who describe the use o f “Sacred Theater” in a cultic context. 585— 628): vision o f the opening o f the doors to the world o f the gods. This part subdivides into four subsections which deal with the major phases o f the ritual. 537-38) prescribes a breathing ritual for inhaling “spirit” (7ivsu[xa) carried downwards by the rays o f the sun.130 (1) (2) (3) (4) First scenario (11. in welchem an einer Stelle ein helles Licht leuchtet.

(c) Botanical information about the plant kentritis (11. 778— 92). (7) Seventh scenario (11. 11. 819). Additional stipulations (11. This competence lies also behind the internal cross-references (e. 736— 38). This knowledge is also presupposed in Part III which contains supplemental information. 732-819) contains supplemental rituals. 750— 92): (a) Preparation o f the sun-scarab ointm ent (11. Subsection B (11. 661-92): encounter w ith the deities o f the Bear constellations. Consultation working w ith showing o f symbols (11. 813— 19). (b) Preparation o f the plant kentritis (11.. Consultation w ithout a medium (11. These redactional activities presuppose literary skills.g. These rituals need to be performed in conjunction with the preceding formula. (2) Three items o f information (11.I V Genre and Composition 31 (6) Sixth scenario (11. 792— 813): (a) Change o f the ritual o f the ointment (11. 487— 81). They include the following: Subsection A (11. Redaction Regarding redaction. 11 750— . knowledge o f rituals determines the required components as well as the sequence o f the ritual acts. perhaps modified. 746— 50). . However. the composition as a whole involves redaction w ith regard to the traditions that have been included.g. (3) Third preparatory ritual: the phylacteries (11. 751— 78). several levels o f redaction need to be distinguished. as indicated by crossreferences. 750— 819): contains additional instructions: (1) Two preparatory rituals (11. W hat is supplemented are procedures considered necessary. 792— 96). w hich enable the author to determine what is appropriate in literary terms. ritual knowledge that is primarily unw ritten determines what is to be inserted at which place and in which order in the w ritten account. 796— 98). Secondly. In other words. desirable or optional within the parameters o f ritual competence (e. the Mithras Liturgy in its entirety is the result o f redaction on the part o f the author/redactor. (b) Change o f the ritual concerning times o f performance (11. Part IV (11. 732— 35). Part III (11. and arranged in the way shown by the document. Firstly. 693— 732): encounter w ith Mithras.. 738— 46). 732-50) provides three optional rituals for including an associate: (1) (2) (3) (4) Consultation by using a medium (11. 819— 20): concluding epilogue 4. 798— 813).

Betz..g. Seen in this context. they certainly played some role in the ritual. and he has annotated textual variants (11. 2000). The Excavations in the Mithraeum of the Church of Santa Prisca on the Aventine (Leiden: Brill 1965). “Kultstatten der Mithrasmysterien in Doliche. 500.” N o v T 10 (1968) 62— reprinted in 80. 127— idem. therefore. cf. 28. it stands out like an intruder from a different world.” in Gottkonige am Euphrat. also 11. Myth. N ew Account o f Their Mysteries.201. 93— 99.32 Introduction Thirdly. However. C. which has been inserted into a section using Hom eric verses. XII. 133 It is hard to keep track o f the discoveries.49.131 V The Religio-historical C ontext . Clearly.132 Evidence o f syncretistic Mithraism is increasing as a result o f archaeological discoveries. but w hich role it was is unknow n. We may approach the question from several angles. van Essen. 72— Roger Beck. V. XIII. W ithin certain parameters these texts display a considerable degree o f diver­ sity. The immediate context is the Great Magical Papyrus o f Paris. a magical handbook in which the Mithras Liturgy appears along with many other texts.133 A Mithras sanctuary existed in Alexan­ 131 For further discussion. what we know about the liturgy o f the Mithraic mysteries is very limited.” Anatolian Studies 44 (1994) 65— 76. Fourthly. Neue Ausgrabungen und Forschungen in Kommagene (ed. IV. P. there are a few redactional flaws that may be attributed to the copyist rather than the author (e. Hans Dieter Betz. 132 See Maarten J. 28. it is necessary for the interpretation to go beyond its immediate context. see N. for the association o f Helios and Mithras.731).51. “N ew Votive Reliefs from Oinoanda. . the Mithras Liturgy is not like any o f the other texts even in the larger corpus called Papyri Graecae Magicae. As C um ont and others have seen. in fact. The inscriptions painted on walls o f the m ithraeum o f Santa Prisca in R om e are equally puzzling. To obtain valid comparisons. Miinchen: Von Zabern. Anke Schiitte-Maischatz and Engelbert Winter. 814-19). 660-61.” JRS 90 (2000) 145-80. VII. Milner. the Mithras Liturgy does not seem to fit in the context o f Mithraism as we know it. Doctrine. “The Mysteries o f Mithras: A 91. the omissions in 11. “Ritual. see the commentry ad loc.” J R S 88 (1998) 115— esp. even though what we have before us is anything but self-evident. Vermaseren & C. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. Determ ining in a more precise way the place where the Mithras Liturgy fits in its religio-historical context requires careful methodological considerations. the point of departure should be the text as we have it. 591.29. “The Mithras Inscriptions o f Santa Prisca and the N ew Testament. 1277. and Initiation in the Mysteries o f Mithras: N ew Evidence from a Cult Vessel. Jorg Wagner.204. the author/redactor has compared his Vorlage w ith one or more other versions.

“Magic and Mystery in the Greek Magical Papyri. e. 243. 2001). 21196) (Wien: Holzhausens.25: complexus Mithram sacerdotem et meum iam parentem. while further procedures could be called “rituals” with specifications.138 Yet the practitioners claim to be initiated [листтоа. 134 See the collection o f evidence by Manfred Clauss. idem. Cultores Mithrae: Die Anhdngerschaft des Mithraskultes (Heidelberger althistorische Beitrage und epigraphische Studien 10. Helios Megistos. Munster: Aschendorff. on 1.” Bulletin of the Asia Institute. Gnomon 67 (1995) 260— 62. “Initiation” should be used for a first introduction into a mystery-cult.” Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 10 (1999) 197— 204. Michal Gawlikowski. XI.134 W hat does it mean that the initiating priest in Apuleius’ Metamorphoses has the name Mithras?135 If William Brashear is right. “Hawarti: Preliminary Report. cf. 281-82. published under the tide Gottesbegegnung und Menschwerdung: Zur religionsgeschichtlichen und theologischen . a fragmentary GraecoEgyptian papyrus could be a Mithraic catechism in dialogue form . 1992). 3.22: ipsumque Mithram ilium suum sacerdotem principuum.” “Weihezeremonie” 85) and “Initiation. 135 Apuleius.141 Already Dieterich had noted the syncreAlbert D e Jong. 84— speaks o f “Einweihung. 96— 117). also Graf. 245-52. Metam. 475— 84.139 and among the formulae are some that seem like quotations o f a preceding ritual.” in Hellenismus und Urchristentum.137 It would be misleading to call it an “initiation ritual. 209— 29. 137 For the evidence see my essay. Munster: Aschendorff. See Griffiths. See the commentary below. 105— 126. 140 N o other traditional names o f gods are mentioned in the ML. XI. Ingeborg Huld-Zetsche. see also my Hans Lietzmann Lecture o f 2000. the Mithras Liturgy wishes to be taken as a secret mystery-cult text. 11 (1997) 53-63. Martin Wallraff.” in Magic. 89-107 (ET: “Magic and Mystery Cults. Stuttgart: Steiner.” Antike Welt 30 (1999) 97— 104. 136 William M. ed. Cf. Sol Salutis. Apuleius.136 The wider context o f Hellenistic mystery cults poses similar problems because the Mithras Liturgy. However. is not as such a mystery-cult text. while using mystery-cult language and concepts. 141 For the following.E 32. there are no agreed definitions o f what qualifies as a mystery-cult text. N ew series. there is no indication which mystery initiation is assumed. an initiation ritual is assumed as a precondition for the present ritual. “Magie und Mysterienkulte. The Roman Cult of Mithras.” but without clearly defining these terms. Christus Verus Sol: Sonnenverehrung und Christentum in der Spdtantike (JAC. 1925).” 139 See the commentary below on 11. O n its own terms at least. “A N ew Syrian Mithraic Tauroctony. 8. except Helios-AionMithras. M it besonderer Rticksicht auf die Ostung in Gebet und Liturgie (Liturgiegeschichtliche Forschungen 4— 2nd 5.” in Gottesnahe. Fauth. For the later solar cult o f Christ. therefore. 33 dria.6-7. however. Brashear. To be sure. 1992). Berol.g. thus. “D ie Stiertotung als Sternenkunde: Astral-mythologische Hintergriinde im Mithraskult.140 T he best way to proceed.V The Religio-historical Context . A Mithraic Catechism from Egypt (P.. is to examine the religio-historical presuppositions internal to the text as well as close analogies elsewhere in contemporary ancient literature. 138 Merkelbach (Abrasax. “rituals o f sanctification” or “rituals o f oracular consultation.. see Franz Joseph Dolger.” if this refers to a first initiation. 482. the review by Roger Beck. Gebet und Gesang im christlichen Altertum.

Given its monotheistic tendency. Mechanics.” R A C 15 (1989) 83— 103.142 The names o f the ingredients are Greek.” ANRW 11. Les pretres de I’ancienne Egypte (Paris: Persea. “Magic and Theology in 36. Weisheit und 18. for the Hellenistic and Roman world.144 the author was a learned priest/magician serving in a temple in Thebes. is that not much appears in the Mithras Liturgy regarding Egyptian religion. “Mithrasreligion.” The Oxford 79. . Sternberg-El Hatabi. 145 For learned magicians see my essay. Dickie. Religion in Roman Egypt. “The learned magician and the collection and transmission o f magical lore. If. Ritner. although they refer to Egyptian places.34 Introduction tistic character o f the Mithras Liturgy and identified main contributors.” in Schafer & Kippenberg. however.. “The Formation o f Authoritative Tradition in the Greek Magical Papyri. 163-93. The World of Ancient Magic. 198— 237. Envisioning Magic. 173-83. see Erich Winter. Agypten. “Magic. especially.” CEg 69 (1994) 218-45. Berlin: de Gruyter. 2000). Religion in Roman Egypt.18:5 (1995) 2894-3049 (3023— 49: on magic.” R G G (2002) 5. Encycopledia of Ancient Egypt 3 (2001) 321— Jan Assmann. David Frankfurter. “Der Untergang der Hieroglyphenschrift: Schriftverfall und Schrifttod im Agypten der griechischromischen Zeit. “Hieroglyphen. Hornung. idem. involving older Egyptian. 732-820).1344— 47. FI. Bagnall.143 W hat is astonishing.’ ” ibid.. The country was strongly influ­ enced by Greek language and the religious ideas coming with it. as is assumed. 115-35. and the same is true o f Greek gods. animals. plants. 62-98. 3044: on the Mithras Liturgy).” in Jordan. and then Roman traditions. but in addition there are deified abstracts such as Ilpovora. That the text as a whole is situated in Hellenistic Egypt is evident especially from the final Supplemental Rituals (11. Helios-Mithras-Aion is the only deity named. idem. 143 On the vanishing ability to understand the hieroglyphs in Graeco-Egypt. see above. “Egyptian Magical Practice under the Roman Empire: The Demotic Spells and Their Religious Context. for Egypt. 142 Religion in Graeco-Roman Egypt was diversified.” in Hellenismus und Urchristentum. but these influences differed from place to place. 2000). Mysterium: Das Bild der Griechen von Agypten (Miinchen: Beck. see Matthew W. whether the author knew Egyptian script or language cannot be determined. 144 For assumptions regarding the author. Overall there was a growing tendency toward syncretism. Greek. NY: Cornell University Press.” ANRW 11. Laszlo Kakosy. “Probleme der R eligion im romerzeitlichen Agypten. see Serge Sauneron. Egypt. 2001). 1— idem. 1988). etc. N one o f the traditional Egyptian deities are m entioned by name. H ow to assess these religious developments is the subject o f present scholarly discussions.18:5 (1995) 3333— idem. Although the non-G reek voces magicae may be intended to be “Egyptian” in Greek transcription. and various astral divinities and powers. ET: The Priests of Ancient Egypt (Ithaca. See. idem. The authors handling o f the voces magicae does not provide evidence for his knowledge o f that language to the extent he under­ stands and writes Greek. Frankfurter. Ancient Egypt. 10. 'Fu/r).145 it is Bedeutungder ‘ Mithrasliturgie’ (P G M I V 475— 820) (HLV 6. “Ritual Expertise in Roman Egypt and the Problem o f the Category ‘Magician. and m iner­ als.

134 (pointing out that Hermes Trismegistos is mentioned in PGM IV. n. o f course. 56. 80— 155— 86. noch einmal betonen. 133.886. know Dieterich’s Abraxas (2. 35 surprising that he does not seem to be interested in utililizing the Egyptian pantheon and its concomitant myths. 55. it is puzzling that he does not point out the many parallels to the Herm etic literature. 2. he articulates ideas o f the philosophy o f religion typical o f Middle Stoicism.151 This situation has changed radically in R eitzen­ stein s Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen nach ihren Grundgedanken und Wirkungen. His Abraxas shows. even if dependency on Neoplatonism or Christianity could be demonstrated. durch Erfahrungen gewarnt.” ANRW 11. VII. 15.150 This book appeared in 1904 and shows no awareness yet o f Dieterich s Mithrasliturgie. 150 On Reitzenstein. 82. He does. “Chairemon. 61. ich habe in ihr. 31. and passim). daB es meinen Ausfiihrungen gar nichts nehmen wiirde.” In a defensive footnote (n. 152 This work began as a lecture delivered in 1909 and published a year later (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. G M P T . n. with explanatory notes (EPR. n. see above. (“Ich will auch hier. his aim is to give interpretations o f religious themes such as recreation/rebirth and ascension into heaven that are philosophical rather than m ythico-theological. This fact and his concentration on the Herm etic literature may have prevented him from even considering the Mithras Liturgy passage. 151 Reitzenstein (Poimandres. Leiden: Brill. wenn Abhangigkeit vom Neuplatonismus sich nachweisen lieBe.146 These Stoic ideas were already discussed by C um ont and D ieterich. Abraxas.152 The third edition o f 1927 takes into account the 146 A similar figure seems to have been the first century CE Isis priest and Stoic philosopher Chaeremon o f Alexandria. soweit ich erkennen konnte..149 The omission o f the Herm etic literature in D ieterichs Mithrasliturgie may be caused by the fact that he is focused on M ithraism and that Hermeticism was brought first to the forefront by Richard Reitzenstein in his book Poimandres.148 Since Dieterich displays an enormous range o f source materials in his Mithrasliturgie. 61. 83— Mithrasliturgie. 87. 148 Dieterich. 67. who became N ero’ teacher in 49 CE and who s wrote a work called AiyuTcxtaxT) iaxopia which described the Egyptian priest’s life as a fulfilment o f Stoic ideals. 1. See Pieter W.. 55. that he is familiar w ith the Herm etica and refers to them .V The Religio-historical Context .36:3 (1989) 2067-2103. n. 44. By comparison. 1984). Chaeremon: Egyptian Priest and Stoic Philosopher. Mithrasliturgie.550. 1910). Rather. . however. 208: “ . die eine direkte Einwirkung neuplatonischer Lehren und ihrer Formulierungen auch nur wahrscheinlich machen konnte. see Betz. the Mithras Liturgy does not show any evidence of Neoplatonic influence. The Fragments collected and translated. the work is deeply influenced by him . Dedicated to the m em ory o f Albrecht Dieterich.147 As the author himself shows. 15) mentions “das von Anz erkannte Mithrasmysterium” without further comment. 79. Michael Frede. 147 Dieterich.”) 149 Dieterich. 2) Dieterich emphasizes that it would make no difference to his argument. so wenig wie ein etwaiger Nachweis der Abhangigkeit vom Christlichen.O 103. 93). van der Horst. nirgends eine Spur entdeckt. Abraxas.

82— 53. his comparison o f C H XIII and the Mithras Liturgy places the latter into the context of the former and points out the many close parallels. Der Fiihrer aber fur diese Erganzung ist Wilhelm Bousset gewesen. but not in the strict sense o f the term. the latter drop the ritual and fully internalize and spiritualize the religion. Agreeing w ith D ieterich s critics he calls the Mithras Liturgy a “pseudo -Liturgie. 1979). sans l’aide d’aucun sacrement.” 156 See the programmatic chapter “Orientalischer und hellenistischer Kult” (ibid. H M R . rite ou representation symbolique exterieure. 161 Ibid. Grese. Ill): “Weg und Ziel haben jedem Forscher auf diesen Gebieten Hermann Usener und Albrecht Dieterich gewiesen.. n. in ihrem Sinn. 169— 191: “Dieterichs Hauptfund. 4. and passim. besteht also durchaus zu Recht. wie ich von beiden weiB. 157 Ibid.” . Corpus Hermeticum XIII and Early Christian Literature (Leiden: Brill... 4. entre Xsyojxeva et Spwjxsva dans les mysteres. H. 81.159 His im portant analysis o f C H X III carries the title “La mystique par introversion. et npd^iq dans la magie. 81. 160 Ibid. daB es sich um die Schrift 70. 168— has rightly emphasized the connections between the Mithras Liturgy and the 72. a point he explains in the Preface (p. meinen Dank. More recently.156 emphasizing its similarities w ith the Herm etic litera­ ture. XIII consiste dans une experience tout interieure.158 This turn to spiritualization enabled Festugiere to interpret the entire Herm etic literature in terms of a mystical Platonism. 46-67. Wenn wir hier erganzen und nacharbeiten. 87. n. So zolle auch die neue Ausgabe dieses Biichleins den verstorbenen Freunden. 46— 167-91. 82. Reitzenstein supports Dieterich s idea o f the Mithraic character o f the Mithras Liturgy. Hermetica as well as the Nag Hammadi texts. The Egyptian Hermes. eines Mithrasglaubigen handelt. its liturgy is rather an 153 Reitzenstein. Nur diirfen wir sie mit dem iepoq Xoyo? eines bestimmten Mysteriums so wenig identifizieren wie das poetische Gebet in dem Nephotes-Zauber oder bei Petosiris-Nechepso mit dem izpoq Аоуо^ eines agyptischen Mysteriums.154 O n the whole. Fowden.161 Accordingly.”160 It is intended to distinguish sharply between the philosophical mysticism o f the Hermetica and magical rituals. see above. 159 On Festugiere.200— 57. aber die engere Fiihlung mit der Orientalistik blieb ihnen versagt. 154 In the third edition o f 1927 Reitzenstein adds the name o f Wilhelm Bousset to the dedication.”153 cautiously affirming his major hypotheses and expanding the study o f oriental litera­ ture. 137— 191)..” W hat does Festugiere mean by this expression? It is a liturgy. H M R . und doch ist das Christentum eine orientalische Religion.” 155 Idem. 1: “Meme distinction entre Xoyo<.155 He further integrates it into the orientalhellenistic syncretism.203. mais avec cette difference essentielle que l’operation de C. 158 Ibid. 47— 58.. La revelation.36 Introduction controversies about Dieterich s “classic book Eine Mithrasliturgie.157 The differences between the Mithras Liturgy and the Herm etica are also clear: whereas the former maintains the actual practice o f the ritual. See on this point Wilham C. dem Philologen und Theologen. so geschieht es.

l’experience est tout interieure. Washington. mais. 37 exercise in “virtual reality” comparable to apocalyptic narratives. 170: “II ne s’agit pas d’une liturgie: outre d’autre raisons. Debus. on the religious side there is no evidence o f Jewish or Christian influences in the entire passage. The entire ritual o f rebirth is justified and believed effective because it is constituted in “natural” processes o f generation and regeneration integrated in the cosmos. 1— w ho refers to Christian parallels in Origen and Augus­ 2. Festugiere overlooks that the ritual o f the Mithras Liturgy is supposed to be perform ed realistically. II s’en rapproche aussi par la fait que la montee est symbolique: c’est en esprit que Ton s’eleve. He went as far as virtually ignoring the traditional Egyptian gods. In this way they created an intellectual religion. and so forth. Therefore. 164 See on this William C. The fact that the composition separates the more philosophical main body (11. le style ne s’y prete aucunement. tine. Sol Salutis.” in Hermeticism and the Renaissance: Intellectual History and the Occult in Early Modern Europe (eds. because otherwise the author would not consider it necessary to provide apologetic explanations. the Mithras Liturgy seems to reflect an early or nascent Hermeticism o f the first and second century CE. The religion o f the Mithras Liturgy is strictly pagan. The cosmological worldview is Greek in origin. That philosophy is Stoic. This approach implies a certain skepticism w ith regard to traditional Egyptian religion. At stake is the entire complex o f problems concerning immanence and transcendence. plus precisement. . Grese. the Mithras Liturgy occupies a precarious place between various ancient traditions.164 Moreover. differently from the Corpus Herm eticum . its development took place in an Egyptian religious milieu under the influence o f Hellenistic philosophy.” 163 See Dolger.” R A C 17 (1996) 1041— 92. II ne s’agit pas non plus. DC: The Folger Shakespeare Library. d’un recit de montee au ciel comme la litterature apocalyptique. “Magic in Hellenistic Hermeticism. the performance o f the ritual magic in the Mithras Liturgy goes hand in hand with the imaginary journey to heaven. while magical proce­ dures were relegated to the “scientific” areas o f alchemy. “Immanenz und Transzendenz. substituting for them deified philosophical concepts. analogous to gnosticism.163 The Hermetists sepa­ rated the intellectual treatises from the ritual performances. rather than old Egyptian. not Neoplatonic: the Mithras Liturgy originated in a milieu prior to Neoplatonism. Stoic ideas enabled the author to give “rational” explanations for magical practices...”162 However. Clearly. 1988). Abraham P. d’un ‘livre de devotion’ d’une maniere geneerique et vague. Bos.V The Religio-historical Context . To sum up. 484— 732) from the supplemental and mostly 162 Ibid.. Ingrid Merkel & Allen G. 45— 58. so that the whole journey is merely “symbolic. Given these contributing factors. as its persistent emphasis on magical procedures shows. a mon sense. astrology.

and Nag Hammadi Codex VI. Preisendanz. to Nephotes (IV. 92). with two tiny illegible letters w ritten over it and vacant spaces before and after it. passim. 895-96]).” ibid.. 487— 495— 90. 591-609 in Ps. 179. 500 Hermes is also given the magical name Semesilamps. 175. Brinkmann.-Apuleius. Asclepius 41. 219-29. 167 See Preisendanz.219— (index). In the piece called “Charm o f Solomon” (IV. XIII. 11. 6. “R ing” (XII.g. The papyrus reads EPM AI. p. 173. in Betz.38 Introduction magical instructions (11. Unfortunately. the refer­ ence to an Herm etic prayer in XIII. “Stele” (IV. O high-minded god. s.. n. 20 168 See.Ill5— 66). 206-21. 172 n. with nn.494— 611. (“I speak your name which thrice-greatest Hermes wrote in Heliopolis with hieroglyphic letters” [11. “The Delphic Maxim TNH 0I DAYTON in Her­ metic Interpretation. G M PT.850— 929). 33-34. “Stele o f leu” (V. ad loc.5 (“from this book Hermes plagiarized w hen he named the seven kinds o f incense [in] his sacred book called Wing” [trans. Hellenismus und Urchristentum.540-78).15 quotes from an otherwise unattested “Herm etic” book: ex бе таиту]? ттј<. 114-122). хХѓфас. see also Betz. “Hermes’ R ing” (V.154-205). M orton Smith]). 38-39 (with apparatus.165 O ther passages in the PGM . e. however. G M P T .96171). and “Hermeticism and Gnosticism: The Question o f the Poimandres” in Antike und Christentum. 'Ep|i%. {ЗфХои 'Ер(луј<.. 551]). 732— 819) shows the way Hermeticism is going.).270-350). For the interpretation. the god is called: cpavYjtK ev ттј (xavTela.166 In XIII. furthermore. “Hidden Stele” (IV . 1167-1226). with parallel versions to 11. the episdes o f Pnouthis (1. Besides the frequently occurring name o f Hermes. The closeness is evidenced by terms and concepts found also in the Herm etica. m ention the name o f Hermes Trismegistos. and to Pitys (IV.42-195). who stands for the Egyptian T hot as well as for the Greek god.” in Hellenismus und Urchristentum. xptapieyai. see “Schopfung und Erlosung im hermetischen Fragment ‘Kore Kosmou’. Hermes thricegreat” [1.v. 'Epfxyji. For these articles. б [леуаХофрш $eoq. та ета&ијлата TcpoorecptovY]aev <ev> еаитои Lepa (ЗфХсо eTUxaXou^evY) 'Птериус. In a “Lamp divination” spell (VII. 22— 51. 1596-1715). a list o f names for Egyptian divinities is introduced by the words: xoc ovo^axa. A passage in XIII. 166 See the photographic edition by Daniel.212-302). 3. o тркт^еукЈто? 'Ерјлт)? lepoyAiKpixoi^ урајЈЦластс.2006-2125). 92— 111. and a comment by A.167 there are a num ber o f spells that are in many ways close to the Mithras Liturgy. with apparatus. Two Greek Magical Papyri. but it has not yet reached the Gnostic stage o f the Corpus H erm eticum . 443ff.168 165 Several o f my earlier articles on the Hermetica show that the writings reflect various stages o f development and thus diversity within the Corpus Hermeticum. 138 is textually dubious and the name 'EpfxaCxo? is Preisendanz s conjecture. Spell to establish a relationship with Helios (III. “Consecration” addressed to Helios (IV. (“Appear to me in the divination. 174-80. 25 (who notes the omission in the parallel version B. Morton Smith. a eypa^iev ev 'HXiorcoXet. for the literature see Betz. .

n(6iXTcuCTov xpi?). тсарабоха [хиогтѓјрса. ибсор ибахо^. 7 verso 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 7iv£U[xa 7r:veu[Aaxo<. 7 recto 475 476 477 478/9 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 "IXo iK [xot.vxtov ev ejjtol xpacreoov Феобсорујхоу. 1. np&rov Y rjta cy]. хт)? ev epiol оиаѓа? уембои? тсрсохт) u ] utoT]. utco xou ap^ayyeXou auxou. бтсо)^ £y< ^ovo? alexo? oupavov p al*> vw x al хахотсхгисо icavxa. c xa <а>тт:рата.oi ^ехабо&т^а^. Ха^јфаveiv yvkobc..Y]v xpacxt. ripovota x al ЧРихУ). <[X7]vu^Y](jeCT^aL> ev xw x zk zi xou lepou jaou auvxaу[хахо? — Y o (xeya? 0 (eo)c.88100. For details see the commentary. ^ u tx j хт^ У]|лехѓра<. xou ev sptol TcvsufAaxo? 7tpc5xov —[x(uxwaov xpl?) —тсир. °ФХ*) 0C *)<?> тсрмхт. but different readings based on the photographic plates by David Jordan and David Martinez have been considered and adopted. Papyri Graecae Magicae. "HXc. xou ev ]u ejxol ибахо<. . f.ou(o. хаихт]? o3v сте. w 9-иуахгр.. хабе ypa<povxc. стс5[ла xeXecov е[лои xou б(е)1^а) хтј? б(г)!^а). ouata уембтјс.o<. xo etc. ’'Eaxiv бг xou Xoyou 7]бе r\ хХтја^' [rjeveat-i. infra.. (3oxav«v x al ѕ1бс5у xwv [x[eX]Xovxwv aot.Greek Text* f. б т/а jl c y fiewc. cf(upoaov PX xpt?). upwxov cototo a a a eee. Mi&pa? гхѓХги. ep. бсаy uercXaCTjjLevov итсо fiptxyiovoq cvxljxou x al бе- * The text given here on the whole follows Preisendanz. [xovto бе xexvw a&avaoxav a£uo. тсрсохт) xr\q е^тј? y e v e ^ ^ " aer]t. jv ctsv ^. Фр[*]. xou ev spiol rcupoc.

’Eyw o 8(e)i(va. eyto elfjtx p..fJieV ) [A U cpU TSt/ tva Y TC X Y O C [хета tyjv evecrxwaav x al стсробра хатетtel— youaav [xe ^petav еттотстеиаа) tyjv a&avaTov ap5(y]v r a a^avaxw TtveujxaTt. aa> e’ au ] i i tua ieco. ’Eav бе ujxtv бо^т) јхетгрта p j <ра&' [ле&ар&а <. epovout rcapaxouvY)^. a vyp scppevecroucptpLy^.). xal nvevari ev ejxol to lepov 7iveu}xa v e ^ e v атготои vey&w арти Y .tw aO-avaxw ибатс. tva O-eaaw^xaL to a(3uacrov ттј? avaTo)aj? cppixTov ибсор vuto &eaw s'/M ovyisyoitx. a&avarw 7iveufj.evo? al&Yjp apvojxYjtkp.а1 [хета ty]v eveaTwaav x al xaTC7ielyouaav pie 7uxpav avayxYjv axpeox67rY]Tov. x al axoucnr) [xou o (^cooyovo? x al 7iept.]v x .? 6[x[xaat.? ayiaa&el? ayiaajxaat.Y —ev aXXto. x al airclxa <avaXa(3e> pie иуиј [лета ttqv аттара1тт]тоу xal хате7т:е[с]— youcrav xP ^av. (Be^eXTitojiivo? што хратои? ЈлеуаХобша(хои x al бг£Ј.ае ттј a&avaTw yevecrei. ev те афизд) x al ефихм[л. ’Ercel fjiXXw хатотстеиесл/ cnrjfjiepov toc? a&avaTot.фо^. х ата боу^ха &eou ajj-eTa^erov euY u’ a evjc.. tpS-apTY] (BpoTtov cpuai.а? yeipoq acp&aptou. 'ѓгре(^а& — [хѕтатгарабо^а^ .40 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 Greek Text ? y z ip o c. tva ^aufxaato )& to lepov uup xucpe. ov yj б(е)1^а).aTi tov a&avaTov Alto­ va x al беатиоту^ tcov rcuplvwv бсабујЈха— tmv. tw сттересотата) aspc e'ioaY] феуаЈЗсог)' tva voY)p. SJOyLSVMQ T ) U O et.aTL јлетаy ev <v >y]9'W xpao^pa!. ay la? и<рестт(осту]? [jlou тсро? oXlyov ty)? avt)pw7rl— vy)? fxou фи^хт)? Suvocjjlcm?. &vy)to? yevvY)&el? ex &vy)tyj? иатера?./]pt.’Eyw yot-p el^-L o ulo? фи^м^] бе[хои npo’ oi тсрма. ’Ercel oux Icttlv [jlol e<pixTov 9-vy]tov уеумта auva<v>t. Y eyw TiaXiv jv [Ј.ѓу« uyji aut eutoLe.a^ap<p[. ay lot.xe^u(j.етатгараХу]^.evat ^риаоесбест^ [xap^xapuyal? т?ј? a&avarou XaptY^o— vo? c y aeco Y]ua cw j uae coiae. аф&артои ev а<роот1ат(о x al б^аиуе! xoajjuo. p ot(A evap^o^at. o ju y есттаОг.

<жтхе сте б о х е ф jx]— s o ov xou aepo? elvat. aXXou? бе xaxa(3alvovxa?. Kal xoxe офу] xou? &eou? aoL eujxevw? e^XcTiovxa? x a l jxv]— xext. OuSevo? бе axoucrec. aXXa rcopeuofjti— . [o]uxe av&pwrcou outs £co u aXX<ou>. rravxa бе офу] a&avaxa. cpavqcrexai. б[ло1(о? бе x a l б xaXoujxevo? аи— Хо?. ’'Erceixa crupiorov [xaxpov a(upK70v био). асучѓ) v z y & e ip &av[zeXou.а xou битхои. тгахро? [лои. x a l б exepo? б[ло1со? el? ха [хе— ру] xa exelvou.. f'EXxe ал:6 xtov | axxlvoov 7T:veu[Jia y' avaCT7rcov. euetxa tiotcuucrov Xeycov Протсросреууу) (xopio? n p o — cpup тсрофеуу^ vepiexhpe apфevxev tcix7]x [ [xetou evap& cpupxe^w фи— al рс.Greek Text 41 537 538 539 540 541 542 [лои тсрсофих^ тгрме. xou? rcoXeuovxa? ava(3alvovxa? el? oupavov &eou?. x a l бфт] creauxov avaxoucpc-^ofxevov [x]al uuep(3aivovxa el? ифо?. &еои. бфу) xyjv arcocpopav xou бра^лахо?.v. o Suva[a]at.барк«) хирт] cpLX(3a.. 'H бе тсореса xaiv opcode— vtov &ewv б(. OuXa^ov [хе. ’Офт] yap exelvY)? хтје? Yjfiipa? x a l хтј? wpa? &elav 0-eat. У Офт] {сти} бе axevl^ovxa? аос. ’’Офт] ] yap атсб xou б1ахои w? auXov xpejxap-evov el? бе xa fJtipy] ха тсрб? Хфа arcepavxov olov кпи]— Xccotiqv. 8 recto 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 xtov sttI утј? &vt]xc5v ev exelvT) xyj copa. CTUfj-^oXov &еои ^(ovxo? аф&архои. оибе офт) ouSev o f. ercl as бppuo|Aѓvou?. 2и бе еиФѓа)? елхв-е? бe^tбv бaxxuXov етг1 хб ахо[ха x a l Хеуе’ St-yvj. xou? &eou? x a l i n i сте 6pfju*)[xevou?. Y ap)(Y] xou Xet-xoupyouvxo? avefxou. | агутѓ].сохои. eav 9) xexXyjptofjiivo? el? xa [херт] xou атпг)Хс. стсу/).

атсХсо— tHjcrexat.pov xuxXw^xa x a l &upa<. тсростбоха (3povx?. стгрѓ).42 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 Greek Text vouc. ercl xyjv iSlav xa£c. a x o u a e a & a i xxutcov. | yaXXa(3aX(3a.a(ou<.v tw v Ttpay[Jt. x a l ex xou (За&оис. бфт) a 7 tet. 7 tveupiax6< (o ..Ха(А. 6 а^бтјаа? 7 iveu[xaxt. Tauxa crou e l n ovxo? eu&eax.yevxo<. axou— aov [xou. w axe a e e x - 7cXay7)voa. xou б(е)с^а) хтј? б(е)Т^а). otcou ac/yr] (3' x a l xa axoXou&a. Alwv ax(3a. . x a l eu&eto<.xXove e r x ix a .axc<)(v). 2u бе uocXlv XeyeIk y Y]. TrupLTrvoe фирп/среи. Tcupt&ufjie | Iato. U oX <pwx6< xxlcrxa —ol бе’ auyxXelaxa —2е[Аестс. срсохобмха. o Егр&гиФ. xaXXtcpco^ a^a’ i.). Ttuplva? атгохе— xXeu7[jtiva<. xov avto x6ct[aov xa$apov x a l Sovoufjievov x a l (X7]Ssva xwv &e«v t) ayyeXtov 6p<[x>(0[xevov.yv). xupie. M exa бе xo elrcelv ae xov (3' Xoyov. . "Oxav oOv 1бт]<. 595 596 597 598 тси | pLCTcofxaxe qjvouTjvio^. 7 iXcIctxou<. war p< тгир^ар?] | eXoupe. ги n upt. ’Eyw elfxc <o> a u p iX a v o ? ufxlv aaxY]p. Aoyo? y ' ercaxouaov ptou. б битхо<. бфт] атсо xou бСстхои aaxepa? TCpocrep^ojjiivouc. Hu бе TraXiv Xeye.2t. xa nupivcn xXyj&pa xou (xexpa)— Xt^wfAaxo?. aupicrov (3' x a l 7V(otctcuctov) [3'. (nevxa^axxu— Xt.<. TC ptTC e uevxLxepouvL. Ѕ ш х е xov v t z o — xelfxevov Xoyov xapi[AUcov ctou xou? ocp&aX— [AOU?. 2u бе eu&eax. x a l TtLKXtovxa? oXov xov aepa. CTiyr] Xo(yo<. avaXajxutov б Eu. 7 | pLCT7rope apet. [xeyaXY]<. x a l xou б£ахои avot.. «pwxoxpaxtop п е п п е р тсретсеЈАтата.

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<.[X£V[X£pO (popa&YJV SptY) 7ipO— &pt. x a l T to n q a a v T i.?. ev j ix o i v i X eu x w x a l < ^ > X a — x o x x I vy] e ^ o v T a ic u p iv o v a x e q ^ a v o v . t v a cp a v el? ^p-/]jjlocxѓ-стт^ ev z a X q a y a — &al<. (3 a a a v t^ to v X a y o v a . х а Ф £ > [ х е у а Х о б ш а ј х е .o<. ov O u X a ^ o v [xe 7ipoau[X7]pc.v av& p(07u v/)v — tv a аи[Х7сараХа^У)<. tou oupa— &ее' 0-ecov. ф ovo^xa f. copat. б xupc. a p ^ a v S a p a срсота^а тсиркроота Xjx— (Зи9г£ £TC. l a ^ u e i a o u Y tcvoyj. та cpuXaxTYjpta x a l Xeye. ) la ^ u e t.?. 634 635 636 637 638 639 6 40 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 en L a e a l a x r iv e Q ' ’' Е а ѕ с б е auToov [x e a o v . xal ep/ofxeva? ex to u Pa- T cap ^ evou ? e v (3uaalvo[. | x u p i e . tyjv oXov атгобс-боид t o 7iveu— бе^ 1— fxa. t w a s yevvT jaavT t. T o u t o < a o u > s L t t o v t o q aT p acp yjaovT ai. 2 u б е a T e v ^ c o v x a l fxuxco^xa fxaxpov хер атое^ бсо?.X eu . eu£t. v o u x a l тгјд утјс. e x t}v7)TY}£ и а т ѕ р а ? ттј<. e l q t o v tco X o v . [3aai. e y w o S ( e ) i ( v a ) ттј<. cpopaO t. " O x a v oOv t o u t o [xu S l rcotTjayji. a y a & o u T c p o a x u v v ja a l a s a ^ t o l x a l S e e r a t х а т а Suva[jn.aSwv a 7 ia — S'avaxt-aO -eli. ’E a v aoc. y ev o fx ev o c.. a7][xepov t o u t o u u tco aou fjie<Ta>y£VVY]&£VTO<. top pECOpCOpt. бо^У]. атгерјхатс-хои x a l... S e l v a x a l lx & — poc. бфт) 0-eov veavrepov.o p t. £w p £C0p £w p £(0p£.p ox.H Xc... n u p L v o x p f/jx . 662 663 Таита & ou? el7Tcbv офт] | &upa<. f.44 631 632 633 Greek Text тсроаеХО-е. — Т аи та aou e l 656 657 658 659 tto v to ^ еХеиаетас. a o u r\ Suvajju. a a r c ^ c o v . a y - yeiXov [xe tm (х е у 1 а т м &eqj. oti .e. p i y i a T e & etov. ecopoo pcope coppi сориор pcop pcot. avot-yojxevac. x u p i e .. tw Е и & ѓм ^ а а т г а а а с a u T o v rcu p lvw а а т с а а т и ш ' K u p ie .— бтј. av^pc*)7io<.— 7r:aTouvTa ev ббсо. [xuxw x a l х а т а — rcpcoTov e i q t o 660 661 cptXet. x a l tdpocq tov t t ? j avj^xepov Yjfxepa? © раф ^арг wpovojxov. ev т а и т т ] ттј w p a х а т а бохтЈап^ & (eo )u UTcep(3aXX0VT0<. S ( e ) I ( v a ) . x a l офт] a u T o v Ttept. e x T o a o u T w v [xupt. [ х е < у а > Х о х р а т « р . 9 recto 653 654 655 fi.

pLE^pav. cpuXaxLaaai xtov xecrcxapwv axuXlcrxwv. | x^vovSaY)?. xpaxouaat. | Xoxpaxope? & eoL 689 690 691 692 693 694 Xatpe.axr Xalpexe. a x a p a — a v e v x a T ? e v e a x w a a c .'. Y Tcpwxvj. . &XPlXl0UPXaipe. Auxai xaXouvxat. u y e l a v x a l стсо^хахо? o X o x X y j — p la v .£(o— jxaaLV Xivol? xaxe^ovxe? бсабтѓ)[лаха xpu— стеа. oupavou Tu)(oa. (Зрофесос. o l l e p o l x a l a X x L [j. o l x u p t o t [jlou x a l f x e y a X a l p e . | apappia^Y]?.v ol xaXoujjievot. lepal x al ofxoStaLxoL xou [ji(.7]?. Xalpe. e^ovxe? ev 7tept. ol xv&^a— x o c p u X a x e ? . 7] (3'.. S^OfJLJXLY]. a x o ? ) ? x e x a l o p a c re w ? e u x o v la v . XlXP(01*Xl9-co. o e ' . ] XalpE. ] XaZpe. o y '. o l c r x p e — cp o vx e ? u tto ev хеХеист[ха x o v 7 ie p i^ iv Y ) x o v x o u x u x X o u a ^ o v a x o u o u p a v o u x a l (3 p o v x a ? x a l аахра7та? xa l x a l a e i a j j iM V x a l x e p a u v w v (ЗоХа? acpt. ] Xalpe. Y б'. Xalpe. ерЈЛ[-х^а^мФ Xalpe. Ilposp^ovxat. [хестарусХхм.jAt. eopaaL^Y]. o [S'. xou oupa— vou. o ?'.epxet. -/риаеа. бе x a l Ixepot &eol xaupwv pieXavtov проампа. ou? беТ ere асттсастаа&ас opioca)? exa— axov xaj 1б6со auxwv ov6p. Xaipe.vc. a c e p t o v t k . 6721 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 TcpoawTta eyovaoLC.. | ^vea^eY)?. v e a v l a t .. Обхоѓ. | o Z. elat. 7ioXoxpaxope? xou oupavou. Y] s ' . e fx o l б е e u a e P e i &еоае(Зг1 ovxt.[xepo?. Xaipe. Y ] epoupo[x(3pt. ] Xalpe.Greek Text 45 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672. x a l оф/) xaxep^ofjiva^ aaxparca? x a l cptoxa [xap— . axevc^e xto aept.ppo<pop.o t. Y ?".— e v x e ? e l ? б и а с т е јЗ а ^ cp u X a . (isjxvocl x a l aya&al TCap&evoi. Y y '. al Tu^at. Xaipe. хрѕф^&атг)?. Xalpe. "Oxav бе evaxakriv ev&a x a l ev&a xyj xa^et. 6 S'. al ayicoxa— xat. o T t p a ix o ? . Tauxa ISwv асттса^ои оихсо?" Xalpexe. p. ? x y j ? a Y jfjie p o v Y ] ^ e — p a ? a y a & a t ? w p a t ? .

K a l axevt^ e xw &eco | fxaxpov [xuxwjxevo? x a l aarca^ou оихм?" K upte. x a x e ^ o v x a x?) cSjaov ypuoeov.. TcaXt. sfxsakpt. ^w<Y]> [xou.. x u p ie . crot. vefxe ev хт) | ф и ^ p-ou.aov. K upte. jxr] [jie хахаХѕсфт]?. au£6[Ji£Vo? x a l a u ^ & e l ? | x e X euxco. xou S e lv a . vew xepov. eI? a7ioy£V £atav avaXu&sl? тсорѕио | \lvli. w? ctu £vo[xo^£XY]aa? . x a x a wpav avarcoX suouaa x a l хахатгоХвиоиаа. ’'E rcetxa бфу] auxou e x xwv ofAjxaxcov acrxparca? x a l e x xou ст(ор. xaxacpt-Xwv rcaXiv x a cpuXaxxY]pia x a l X eyw v [XOXpt-jJLO (pep[. aTuoQ-eaiv [xuxw. apx£vx£7tc. ptivs au . x a ^P£ > беатсоха ибахо?.ахо? a a x sp a ? aXXofiivou?. Xpy)fjiax[. iv a ctuvxlvyjctt]^ x a ? Ttevxe o c i a d r j a s i g .'1 46 695 696 Greek Text f x a tp o v x a x a l crstofjiivYjv xy]V yvjv x a l x a x s p x o [A £ v o v & (s o )v U K epfxeyeO iq.а X^p'1 № aX0U yj ’’ Apxxo? xivouaa x a l avxt-axpscpouaa xov oupavov. S u бе eu&eco? <[xuxw > [xuxwfxa [xaxpov. ф а т vy)v 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 I^ o v x a t t ] v бф[л/. j3a<ravl£(ov xyjv y acrxsp a. 721 722 атсо yeveaefax. [xa— xpov zic. Ха[А7грофеу |утј. 6xi x eX eu et. sv y i x w i X eu x w x a l ХРи(ТФ ax£<pavtp x a l a v a ^ u p i a t . 9 verso 709 710 tpepepL.vyev6[xs | vo? aTioytyvo^at. 7iepl xou SsTva тсрау^лахо?. w? cru sxxt-aa?. 9т]гк jxt. Ха Ф £ ’ *°c™ pxa I Y?]?> X alp s. тгротгрофЕуугј. e c tx lv бе£с. xpucroxofxav.[Ji£(o uevapco cpupX£XW Ф^Р^SapLW Фрт) Фрт)Х(За.[JLO— f. (^cooyovou y£vo[A£ |vo?. 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 sv&o cpevev &po7Ufa)t). 6c. S u v a a x a Tuvsujjiaxo?.

x a l x oxe [AVY)[A0Vcuaet. T ou— xov aveX6[Aevo<. T a u x a aou e in o v x o c . x a l eyxet.. rcptoxT] хтј<. A eyet. (3aXe tic .. ’E a v бе x a l [a o v o ? тјс.P^<7[aoi. x a v -?)v [Auplwv a x t x wv o x.? wc. ’Eyco e l [A <pepoupa | [At-oupi. x a u t c o xou [AeyaXou &eou pyjOivxa..a[A(o. w? [AuaxTjc. e l a i'io ? eaxt. e|A )<. aruoxplvYjxat. oxav aot. au vayveu exw aot.a[A6<. Xeye auxou ercl хтјс. UTcap^et. axouet-v. tv a [ay] axouav]. < x w > ouxext. П — V yvexat.Greek Text 47 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 x a l | inoLriacnq [Auaxrjpiov. Y T a бе tZjic. aeXr]V7)<. ттј фи/тј x a t oux ev aeauxw e a e t. ’E a v бе ОеХт)? x a l аи[А[АиaxY] xpyjaaa&at.a a x lx wv T° v XPylC L v x a ' e^<5)(v ) I[J° L arceXeuaexat. xp^^°c[Aevo? xw xotcco. Xeyet.. oarapaf3ax(o<.^ auxojAaxa)?. fhqalov xaXXaivov (3a&u ev артсаутј хтј<. ev xw aTca&av<ax>t. еи&ем? XP7)CT[A(oSif]aet... обхо? xpl? xou evcauxou.? eveo?. Xet-waa? Tcolirjaov [Aa^cov. ’E a v бе (3ouXt)$t] r i g .. yeveaeto? aeyjt-ouw. xov Tcpai— xov итсо[ЗаХе auxaj Xoyov.p7)<. a y y e lo v ueXouv [Aupou р о б ^ о и xaX X laxou. бе o aua&avaxt. w? < a u > итсер auxou xpt. ТтсѓхХихо? бе eaei. au бе axyjxet.v aacpaXw? «<. ЈЗХтгјОт^ас. [Aexa xo 7capayyeX[Aa {хм } T capaxouaai. w x ex v o v . xplvac. XP^W a uxou T7)v о ф ^ ТФ [AuaxTjptto.. oaov ^ouXet. xetpaXyj? a{u }xovto cp&oyyto. av — 9-ptorcoi. St. тсра^еа)?Aaf3«v | xavQ-apov 7)Xt. бе aot.. ’E a v бе x a l Sel^aL auxto &e— Xt)?. x a l еи&ѓ— to? auxov офу] Tipoaep^ofAevov x a l е а $ ѓ — o v x a . t.v6[Aevo<. euO-eto? Ovrjaxet..<. ev ex a x a a e t.pto[Aevo<. x a l . w? x a u — x a rcavxa ^copYjcret. x a l oxav <pay7]. a7tocpot. ДсбаахаХСа тг\<.. x a l arcoaxeaJko e ^ u x « v x a l (3aXa— v elou . ou Y apx*]' T eve— ] gic . x a utco xou 0-eou elpy][Aeva.axov xov x a q ф ' axxTva? e^ovxa Tcolirjaov tic . w axs x a Xeyo[Aeva ex elv o v [aovov auv aot. auve[A(3aXtov auxw X wxopqxpa? атс ѓр [А а x a l [AeXt. 7)[Aepa<.

а? to v xav& apo(v).v. x a — XoUfXEVY)? (BoTaVY)? XEVTpiTlSo. x a l ev обтм<. — Tyj Se 7][x(e)p(a) (ЗаатаЅ. e y e туј<. &афа<. to u t o u [xsl^ov’ ou^ sOpov ev tw xoajxw rcpa— yjxaT slav. об [ЗоиХец [Х£та poSivou.— £aa?. e i q to v aTca&avaTt-afjLov. ’E yw y a p £t[ix cptop cpop a cpwq cp oT t^aa? — o l S s ‘ cpcop <pa>p ocpoS'Ei.ov Ispav en id-ec. 7] Se to u {лѕуаХои &sou сгиатааѓ? e a x i v Y]Ss‘ Ваата^а? xsv'a'TpiTiv ttjv 7tpoxs(. tv a [xot y\ ctou o u a ia ysvY] j p r \ o i — f.1 48 760 761 762 763 Greek Text сттрмаа? xa&apu**. t o ayysT ov x a l X sye t o (ovojjia) e n l to u a y y o u ? hui Y)jiipa<. a (ЗоиХѕц to v Oeov. 10 recto 764 [A £. ’'Ap^ou Se auTov ттј Xeovti . (^[xupva x a l olvto MevStqctIw x a l (3ua— ctlvo) a n o & o v ev xua[xc5vt. a{A[i.|AEV7](v) (3oT<XVY)V T7] C V TU oSw TY) yEVOJJLEVY] XsOVTL apov to v x^Xov x a l a? [xeXiTi x a l £[xup— vy] ypa^ov etc l фиХХои n ep a eo u q t o бхтаура^х— jjuxtov ovofjia.? -/ukoV TCEpixp^wv ty]v бфп>. тгро? avaToXa?. x a l Sa>ctec a o i . x a l оф ѕтас SrjXauyco? wctte cte &aup. teXelco?. x a l 7ipo y ' t^ae— 771 772 773 774 775 776 111 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 pwv ayvsuaa? eX&e 7ipwla<. arcoXst-xs t e XeTv cpuXXov Sstxvuwv YjXtto. ’E av Se aXXw ФеХтд? Selxvueiv. tw S(e)T(va) [xovw 0 te la Y ev] ou e i o c ] 765 766 767 768 769 770 EfJtol [XO tO | ^ Т Ј Ј Ј в С У^ V р ГССХи Г Ј . A lx o u Se. х а т а & so v vou |X 7]vla.a(![£t. ?)Xlou [xeaoupavouvTo?’E yw | as ETsXsaa. ETcaxouasTat. ѕстткхаа? x a l auvEUtoxTQOel? a7rot)ou xa&apslax. . 788 T o Se ovojxa ecttlv t o u t o * l EE 00 car. t o Se -/pZoyLa. a q u 7toxeiT ai. ^ (oo^ u tou vti.

Т оито тои xu p lou и тсобе1£^ то? еиреОт) ev tw M e v e — Хаѓтт) ev ty} ФаХаури тсро? таТ? avajSoXal? tc y t ov X jc I < ty}?> tou BY ]<cra>a(^o? (Sotocvyj?.avT l тои х а т а ето? y \ х а т а 7tavoeX7]vov. x a l т а cpuXXa оиХотера x a l tov xaprcov e^ovTa 6 [aoiov tw xopufx(3w a<T7iapayw a y p lw . xpacr^at. ПоХХахс.a e^et.iov y p ^ o v el? u[xe— v a тсро^атои f/iX avo? (^xupvofjiiXavt-.’'E gtlv бе 7Tapa7rX-y]CTtov tw xaXoujxevw таХатг/].? ^OTavY] <pu— етас атсо [xy]Vo? Ilauvt. ev tol? Repeat. x a l t o cpuXXov eXl^a? ерфаХе e l? to poSt-vov.<ov t > ou Tcpoa&ufXTjpL. .Greek Text 49 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 Т оито | e x k i y e . 'H бе y v w a i? аит?}? outw? y ly v e T a r ’'IfBew? Trcepov -/pLexon t o a x p o — [xeXav x<*Xaa&ev tw xaL ТФ y e lv аттотитстес. aXXa p ^ a v T a el? TtoTajJiov < XP^1> XP^a ^ a t ф ороиута to jjtiya pLuaTYjptov tou xav& apou tou ava^wTiupTj&evTO? бкх twv x e ' £wwv opvewv. Euwvup. ’'Еатсл/ бе | [aovoxXwvov x a l 7iuppov c ty p i ty}? pO^qc. 'H бе xevTptTt.? тои аитои £wou тсер1афа1. w? to a y p to v a eu — t Xov. тсХт]реата— tov x a l to итсорлг^а e^ et. бота!. tov Tporcov t o u t o v t o ptiv 8eE. ty}? fxeXavY)? у?}?. т а 7ттера.. tou |ay]vo?.? бе ty] 7грау[хате1а xpTQ^afxevo? ш гере& аи[xaaa. to бе euwvupiov el? ujxeva Xeuxou тгроЈЗатои x a l xp& ™ auTw f. . ojjiola бе ccttlv tw op&w TcepujTepewvc. T a бе <puXaxTYjpt. to бе аито бтѓјаа? veupot.. 10 verso 819 820 Tpouw. tv a сриХахттјрЕ-астОт]?. E lu e v бе { xol 6 &eo?‘ M tjxctl xpw | стиу/р1ст{лат[.

This is the invocation o f the prayer: 490 495 500 “First origin o f my origin. . to take | the juices o f herbs and drugs. O daughter. based on the commentary infra. whose m other is N N . spirit o f spirit. 48-54. and for an only child I ask for immortality. which will be [made known] to you at the end o f my sacred treatise). YEI AYI EYOIE. it is necessary for you. not for gain. w ho writes these mysteries handed down. to my underlying nature. the first o f the spirit | in me. first beginning o f my beginning. PPP SSS P H R [. AEEIOYO. transfer me to the immortal birth and next. EY EIA EE. the first o f the earthy material in me | YE YOE. if it seems right to you. earth material. in order that. water o f water. the first o f the fire in me.]. which. O Providence and Psyche. after the present and * The translation is a revision o f Marvin W. M M M fire god-given for my mixture o f the mixtures in me. N N . now. w ithout soul and yet alive w ith soul. G M P T (1996). in another place) IEREZATH . which the great god Helios Mithras ordered to be handed over to me by his archangel so that I alone may go to heaven as an “eagle” | and behold [the] all. M ETERTA | P H O T H (M ETH ARTHA PH ER IE.Translation* 475 480 485 Be gracious to me. O O O AAA EEE. a perfect body o f me. Meyer’s in Betz. because o f its fashioning by a noble arm and an incorruptible right hand in a world w ithout light and yet radiant. for an initiate o f this our power (furthermore. the first o f the water in me.

nor in that hour will you see anything o f mortal affairs on earth. so that you seem to be in midair. K R A O C H R A X R O IM E N A R C H O M A I | and the sacred spirit may breathe in me. For you will see the divine constellation on that day | and hour. For today I am going to envision w ith immortal eyes — I. w hom N N bore. [Then] you will see yourself being lifted up and | ascending to the height.” Draw in breath from the rays three times.]N M O Y P R O P S Y C H O N P R O E . EIOAE PSENABOTH. and at once <take me back> safe after the inexorable and pressing | need. drawing in as much as you can. in order that I may marvel at the sacred fire. OEY AEO EUA EO E YAE OIAE. For I am the son PSY CH O [N] DEM OY P R O C H O PR O A . according to the immutable decree o f god. sanctified through holy consecrations —which holy [power] supports for a short while my human soul-power. stand. w ith the firmest air. EYE YIA EEI AO E'lAY IYA IEO. O perishable nature o f mortals. N E C H T H E N A PO TO Y N E C H T H IN A R PI ETH. E R O N O Y I PA R A K O U N ETH .Translation 51 exceedingly pressing need. being | mortal. and that the life-giving | and encompassing ether hear me. [to envision] the immortal Aion and lord o f the fiery diadems —I. in order that I may gaze upon the unfathomable. I am M A C H A R PH [. a mortal born from a mortal womb. You will hear nothing either o f hum an or o f another living being. N Y O TH ESO E C H O O Y C H IEC H O A . and others setting. it is out o f reach to ascend together w ith the golden radiances o f the immortal brilliance. N N . which I will again | receive after the present bitter and relentless necessity 525 530 535 540 545 which is pressing down on me —I. . in order that I may be born again in thought. I may envision the immortal | 505 beginning with the immortal spirit. frightful water o f the dawn. with the immortal water. 515 520 ARNOM ETH PH . but improved through the exceedingly powerful m ight and the imperishable right hand | and w ith the immortal spirit. 510 A N C H R E P H R E N E S O U P H IR IG C H . Since for me. the presiding gods arising into heaven. but rather you will see all immortal things. KYPHE.

for you will see it hanging from the sun-disk like a pipe. and shining forth out o f the | deep. and say: “PR O PR O PH EG G E M O R IO S P R O P H Y R PRO PH EG G E N E M E T H IR E A R PSEN TEN PITETM I M EO Y E N A R T H P H Y R K E C H O PSY RID A R IO | T Y R E PHILBA. you will see the boundless circle and its fiery doors shut tight.” And then you will see the gods looking graciously upon you and no longer rushing at you. the XY.. next make a popping sound. But you at once put your right finger on your m outh and say: “Silence! Silence! Silence! Symbol o f the living imperishable god | Guard me.52 Translation 550 555 560 565 570 N ow the course o f the visible gods will appear through the disk o f god. Toward the region o f the west [it is the source of] the unending east wind. and in a similar way the so-called pipe. w ith the result that you are shocked. the east]. | At once close your eyes and recite the following prayer. the X E R T H E U T H . But you say again: “Silence! Silence!” And w hen the sun-disk has opened. and in the same way the other [west wind going] toward the regions o f that one [scil. T hen you will see the turn-about o f the image [scil. and immediately you will see | a multitude o f five-pronged stars proceeding from the sun-disk and filling all the air. After you have said the second formula.. | the origin o f the ministering wind. expect a great crash o f thunder to be heard. make the hissing sound twice and the popping sound twice. and that none o f the gods or angels is threatening you. Thus w hen you see that the world above is pure | but agitated. . | And you will see the gods intently staring at you and rushing at you. the pipe]. where there is “Silence! Silence!” and what follows. w hen it is assigned to the region o f the east. but rather going about in their own order o f affairs. But you say again: “Silence! Silence! (the formula) I am a star.” 575 580 585 Immediately after you have said this the sun-disk will be expanded. wandering about w ith you. my father. Silence! N E C H T H E IR T H A N M ELO U !” Then make a long hissing sound.

PE N T IT E R O U N I. SEMESILAM. because | o f the pressing and bitter and inexorable necessity. O Fire-burner. Light-creator (others: Confiner). For I invoke.Translation 53 The third prayer: 590 595 600 605 610 615 “Give ear to me. [ IE OE IO EIO . Light-beauty. Fire-light-maintainer.. which have not yet passed into mortal nature nor declared in articulate speech by human tongue or mortal speech or mortal sound: | EEO O E EO IO O OE EEO EEO E O O E E O IO O OEEE OEE O O E IE EO O O O E IEO OE O O E IEO OE IEEO EE IO OE IOE O E O EO E O E O OIE OIE E O O I III EOE OYE EO O E E EO EIA AEA EEA | E EE EEE EEE IEO EEO OEEEOE . the immortal names. open for me. Light-increaser. PY R IC H IB O O SEIA . Light-giver. P H N O U E N IO C H . Light-mover. Subduer o f stars. Fire-whirler. AKBA. . ELO U R E. GALLABALBA. PEPPER PREPEM PIPI. PSY RIN PH EU . SO U SIN EPH I A R EN B A R A ZEI M A R M A R EN TEU . Spirit-light. Fire-body. Fire-delighter. | Light-ruler. Fire-sower. SA N C H ER O B . you who have bound together w ith your spirit the fiery bars o f the fourfold | root. Fire-breather. SOUSINEPHI. Fire-spirited. AZAI. hearken to me. whose m other is N N . AREI EIKITA Fire-thronger. Light-forcer. AIO.. OAI. Aion. O lord. Light-famous. IAO. Lightning-shaker. living and honored. PR O PR O PH EG G E EM ETH EIR E M ORIOM OTYP^EPHILBA. BEEGENETE. N N .

announce me to the greatest god. great might. T hen open your eyes. then in the same way w hen you begin the second time. and who. that he may appear and give revelation during the good hours. until you have gone through the | seven immortal gods o f the universe. w ith fiery hair. which is within the doors. the one who begat and made you: that a hum an being am I. and supplicates w ith as much power as a hum an being can have (in order that you may take along with you the horoscope o f the day and hour today. which has the name TH R A PSIA R I M O R IR O K . in a white tunic and a scarlet cloak. since he has been born again from you today. N ow stand still and at once draw spirit from the divine into yourself. A R C H A N D A R A PH O TA ZA PY R IPH O TA ZA BY TH IX E TIM EN M ER O PH O R A T E N ER IE P R O T H R I P H O R A T I. and in the same way you will experience yourself being shaken. | king. greatest o f gods: mighty is your breath. and you will see the doors opened | and the world o f the gods. you will hear thundering and shaking in the surrounding realm. whose m other is N N . O lord. | who was born from the mortal womb o f N N and from the fluid o f semen. lord. Then w hen | your soul has been restored. so that from the pleasure and joy o f the sight your spirit runs ahead and ascends. has become immortal out o f so many myriads in this hour according to the wish o f the exceedingly good god . If it be your will.” W hen you have spoken this.54 Translation 620 625 630 635 640 645 650 EEO EY O OE EIO EO OE OE EE O O O Y IO E . speak: “Com e forward. and wearing a fiery crown. great power. the sun rays will turn themselves upon you. O lord. Then. you will see a youthful god. mighty is your power. N N .requests to worship | you. At once great him w ith the fire greeting: “Hail. beautiful in appearance. W hen you have said these things. w hen | you do this. look into the center o f them.” Recite all these things w ith fire and spirit. But you say again: “Silence!” (the prayer). E O R O R O R E . the first time performing to the end. while you gaze intently.

giving off your whole breath and squeezing your loins. w ho am a religious and godfearing man. TICHNO NDAES! Hail to you. but to me. w hom you must greet in the same manner. O seven Fates o f heaven. They are called the Fates | o f heaven. and wield golden wands. A IE R O N TH I! . each o f them w ith his own name: “Hail. and make a strong bellowing sound. O sacred Ones and companions o f M IN IM IR R O P H O R . ECHOM M IE! Hail to you. the fifth. M EC H R A N ! Hail to you. O my lords and powerfully ruling gods! Hail to you. Gaze intently. the fourth. CHREPSENTHAES! Hail to you. the first. W hen you see these things. the sixth. ARARM ACHES! Hail to you.Translation 55 655 660 665 670 675 680 685 O R R I O R IO R R O R R O I O R R E O R O R I E O R E O R E O R E ). O most holy guardians o f the four pillars! Hail to you. who have the faces o f black bulls. and you will see him walking as if on a road. the seventh. like with a horn. ” After you have said these things. and with the faces o f asps. O sacred and brave youths. These are the so-called Pole Lords o f heaven. dressed in linen garments. E R O U R O M B RIES!” There also come forth another seven gods. w ho turn | at one command the revolving axis of-the vault o f heaven. the third. first toward the right: “Protect me. the first. MENESCHEES! Hail to you. you will see the doors opening and seven virgins coming from deep within. and kiss | the phylacteries and say. you [give] health and soundness o f body | and acuteness o f hearing and seeing. O warders o f the pivot o f the celestial sphere. PRO SY M ER I!” After have said these things. | he will come to the celestial pole. the second. and calmness in the present good hours o f this day. and in possession o f seven golden diadems. bellow. who send out thunder and lightning and jolts of earthquakes and thunderbolts against the nations o f impious tribes. in linen | loincloths. O noble and good virgins. greet in this manner: | “Hail.

the fourth. that you may excite the five senses. bellow long until total exhalation. | and the earth shaking. O lord. w ith a white tunic and a golden crown and trousers. the sixth. w ith a shining face. the third.” And gaze at the god while bellowing loudly. and greet in this manner: “Hail. N N . in their order. and a god descending. O founder o f the earth! Hail. O lord. in the opposite direction. straining your belly. the fifth. youthful. O ruler o f the wind! O bright lightener! | 715 PRO PR O PH EG G E E M E T H IR IA R T E N T E P I T H E T H M IM EO Y E N A R O P H Y R C H E C H O PSERI DARIE P H R E PHRELBA! Give revelation. Having been born again. as you have decreed and authored (the) mystery I am P H E R O U R A M IO U R I. 720 while growing and having grown.56 Translation Hail to you. life o f me. and say: “M O K R IM O P H E R IM O PH E R E R I. I am passing away. the seventh. on the one side and the other. the second. M ERCH EIM ERO S! Hail to you. and again kiss the phylacteries. ER M IC H TH A TH O PS! Hail to you. gaze in the air and you will see lightning 695 bolts going down. w ith its upward and downward seasonal revolutions.” After you have said these things. I am passing on. O master o f the water! Hail. O lord. concerning the N N matter. 710 Stay! Dwell in my | soul! D o not abandon me! For E N T H O P H E N E N T H R O P IO T H commands you. golden-haired. EO R A SIC H E!” N ow w hen they take their place. C H IC H R O A L IT H O ! Hail to you. and lights flashing. released to death — as you have founded. he will immediately respond . Having been born from a life-generating birth. immensely great. MESARGILTO! Hail to you. J I am dying. 705 And at once | make a long bellowing sound. and holding in his right hand 700 a golden | shoulder o f a young calf. Then you will see lightning bolts leaping from his eyes and stars from his body. A C H R IC H IO U R ! | 690 Hail to you. This is the Bear which moves and turns the heavenly vault around.

that you may prove useful to me | alone. let him be pure together with you for [seven] | days. recite for him the first prayer. as you are anointing his face w ith the mystery. Instruction for the performance: 755 760 765 Take a sun scarab which has twelve rays. the scarab] moving forward and eating. pronounces the oracle to you in verses. and abstain from meat and bath.” And say the successive things as an initiate. in a soft voice. then say the name over the vessel for seven days.Translation 57 725 730 735 740 745 750 w ith a revelation. so that he may not hear. But if you want to consult the oracle by using a fellow initiate. This immortalization takes place three times a year. and you will not be in yourself. it immediately dies. put in together with it the seed o f the fruit pulp o f the lotus. after you judge whether his w orth as a man is secure. IE IA EEE OY EIA. [wondering] how you will by yourself comprehend all these things. | N ow you will grow weak in your soul. And at once you will see it [viz. even if the oracle contains myriads o f verses. B ut again if you wish to show him. that your substance may be useful to me. N N alone. and | spreading sacred sand in a pure manner. so that he hears only the things spoken together w ith you. over | his head. B ut you stand speechless. you speak as inspired in ecstasy. and set the vessel on it. O child. and when it has consumed it. and you are [directly] engaged w ith the pronouncements o f the god. while the sun is in midheaven: “It is I w ho have consecrated you. | and after grinding it w ith honey. prepare a cake. And if anyone. for I am P H O R P H O R A PH O S . o f which the beginning is “First origin o f my origin. for at a later time | you will remember infallibly the things spoken by the great god. | handling the occasion as though in the immortalization ritual you yourself were being judged in his place. Pick it up and throw it into a glass vessel o f excellent rose oil. But if you are alone. and make it fall into a deep. at a time w hen the m oon is invisible. as m uch as you wish. He. after the instruction wishes to disobey.. when he answers you. A EEIO Y O . then for him it will no longer | be in effect. turquoise cup. and after speaking he will depart. however.

and smear it.” The Kentritis plant grows from the m onth o f Pauni. and w hen the feathers are touched. The name is: “I EE O O IAI. come at m orning to face the sunrise. | throw it into the rose oil.58 Translation 770 775 780 785 PH O TIZA A S” (others: “P H O R P H O R O PH O TH EIX A A S”). take the juice and. and deposit it in a flourishing bean field. deposit the ointment. | and he will see so clearly that you will be amazed. write on a leaf o f the persea tree the eight -letter name. I have not found a greater procedure than this in the world. after mixing it w ith honey and myrrh. at the conjunction [of the sun and the moon] occurring in the Lion. | Then. after casting it into the river. and is similar to the erect verbena. But the god spoke to me: “Use the ointm ent no longer. for the immortalization. in the regions o f the | black earth.” Lick this up. O n the seventh day pick up the scarab. but. it [the plant] was found in the 805 . Ask the god what you want. they fall off. according to the god[‘s reckoning]. This is how to recognize it: the wing o f an ibis is smeared. and thus he [the sun god] will listen attentively. along with the rose oil. | lick off the leaf while you show it to the sun. and he will give it to you. As the lord | demonstrated to me. 790 795 800 Many times I have used the spell. instead o f three times a year. get the juice of the herb called Kentritis. and rolling up the leaf. Begin to consecrate him on the new m oon in the lion. in a pure way. the black edge weakend by the juice. If you want to show this to someone else. so that you may be protected. [you must] consult while wearing the great mystery | o f the scarab revitalized through the twenty-five living birds. Consult once a m onth. after you have entertained and feasted together. around the eyes o f whomever you wish. at full moon. The encounter w ith the great god is like this: Having acquired the above m entioned herb | Kentritis. And having kept yourself pure for three days in advance. and have been absolutely amazed. and bury it w ith myrrh and Mendesian wine and fine linen. as given below.

like the wild beet. at the river banks. and reddish down to the root. and [copy] that for the left [arm] onto the skin o f a white sheep. and the leaves are rather crinkled and have fruit | like the tip o f wild asparagus. and after tying it w ith the sinews o f the same animal. put it on. It is similar to the so-called Talapes. The [magical name] for the left [arm] is: “PR O ST H Y M E R I” . T hen the phylacteries are o f this kind: Copy the [amulet] for the right [arm] onto the skin | o f a black sheep. | [With this] the m em orandum has [finally] reached its completion.Translation 59 810 815 820 Menelaitis area near Phalagry. and use the same method. . It is o f a single stem. near the Besas plant. with myrrh ink.

nature o f offense a. presentation o f petition 1. Suvafxew^) c. Exordium: a prayer A. act constituting offense: putting into writing b. Providence 2. Psyche (world-soul) B.а b) specifications (play on words?) (1)та <a>7tpaxa 477 (2) тиаработа 4.) b) action: a^iouv . identification o f the author 1) as owner 2) as mediator 3) as w riter (ypacpovTi) b. transmission o f the tradition a. invocation o f the deity by epithets 1. category: petition for mercy in view o f offense 3. object affected by offense 1)regarding the text to follow (табѕ) 2) regarding the content: sacred (oral) tradition a) technical term: та [лиат7]рс. formula: tXa(K jxot 2. statement o f petition 1)category: intercessory 2) identity o f the petitioner a) the author (1st person sing.Literary Analysis (Conspectus) 475— 85 475 476 I. identification o f the recipient 1) as apprentice a) status: “the only” (p-ovw) b) designation: “child” (xexvw) 2) as “initiate” (jjluctty] ттј^ 'гцлгтѓрсис.

v) 3) names o f ingredients a) juices o f plants b) other ingredients (г’ бт)) ѓ c. b) status: “alone. introductory prayer 1. purpose and goal a. m ethod o f transmission 1) command by Helios Mithras 2) technical term: [летабоЅт^ас. secondary insertion by the author a.Literary Analysis 61 478 478-81 478/79 480 481-82 482 482-83 484-85 3) identity o f the recipient: the “initiate” 4) object: immortality (a&avacua) 5.(3avet. 476) c) position: grade o f “eagle” b. identifying reference a.” ap^ayyeAo? b) name: unnamed 3) the author o f the present writing a) 1st person sing. cts) 2) as apprentice (daughter. vision o f the universe: хатотстеиг^ uavTa . conjunction: бтш? b.: (A ot.” o [iiya? b) name: Helios Mithras 2) divine intermediary a) attribute: “archangel. address o f recipient 1) identity (2nd person sing. reference to full information 1) place: end o f the present text (750— 819) 2) name for the present composition ( t o fxou lepov auvTayjxa. instruction for ritual 1) need for application (xp^) 2) term for application (Xa[j. heavenly journey: oupavov fiatveiv c. 7. &иуатт]р) b. chain o f tradition o f the ritual a. 820) 6.M ain body o f the ritual (атгаФ^атсстЈло?) A.” |xovo? (cf. cf. authoritative hierarchy 1) the highest deity a) attribute: “the great god.. quotation formula: ecrnv бѕ 485-732 485-537 485-86 .

у ѕ с о б о и ^ тсроотт] c) v o c e s m a g ic a e 495— 98 c. 3 t i m e s ) 490— 92 2 ) s e c o n d e l e m e n t : f i r e (т т и р ) a ) a d d r e s s : тс и р b ) a t t r ib u t e s . 3 times) 5 ) m a g i c a l n a m e (?) 489— 95 489— 90 b. 3 t i m e s ) sjxy]<. invocation o f the four elements 1 ) f i r s t e l e m e n t : s p i r i t / b r e a t h (r c v e u jjia ) a ) a d d r e s s : r c v e u p u x 7 T v e u [x a T O ^ b ) a t t r ib u t e : tou e v e fjio u T c v e u j x a x o ^ u p a i T o v c ) m a g i c a l s o u n d : b e l l o w i n g s o u n d ([ x u x w ^ x a .62 Literary Analysis b. T t p w x o v c) v o c e s m a g ic a e 492— 93 3 ) t h i r d e l e m e n t : w a t e r (и б со р ) a) a d d r e s s : и б м р и б а т о с . invocation o f the primordial sources 1 ) a d d r e s s o f y e v e c n . t e rm s id e n t if y in g th e g e n re 1 ) t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a s a w h o l e : 'ko yo c. 7 4 1 — 4 2 ) a. t h r e e ( 1 ) t o t ic . b ) a t t r ib u t e : tou __ e v e p io l и б а т о ? T rp w x o v c) v o c e s m a g ic a e 493— 95 4 ) f o u r t h e l e m e n t : e a r t h (y y j) a ) a d d r e s s : o u o Lol у е о о б т ) ? b ) a t t r i b u t e : т r\c.. ? (y e v e c T L ? т с р ш г т ] т т ј ? е[А7Ј<. a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s 1 ) c o n c e r n i n g t h e b o d y : “ p e r f e c t b o d y ” ( a w j x a x e X e c . a p x % тсрсотт]) b) whistle sound (aupt-yjAoc. y e v e o e a q ) 2 ) v o c e s m a g ic a e 3 ) a d d r e s s o f a p y j] fa p y j] 4 ) m a g ic a l s o u n d s a ) p o p . recitation o f the “first prayer” (cf. e(jt.o v e p io u ) 2) c o n c e rn in g p e rso n a l n am e : N N 3 ) r e c o u r s e to c r e a t io n m y t h o l o g y 496— 97 a) t e c h n ic a l t e r m f o r c r e a t io n : “ f o r m e d ” ^ L a 7 te 7 tX a a [x e vo v ) b) h y m n ic m e t a p h o rs d e s c r ib in g w o r k o f d iv in e c re a to r .s o u n d ( n o n n \> G ii6 q . e v e j x o i o u g Lolc. 2 ) th e p ra y e r o f in v o c a t io n : 487— 537 487-88 2.Y]v x p a o x v t w v e v e f x o l x p a c r e w v (2) 8-eoSwpY]TOV ( 3 ) т о и e v e fjio l л :ир6<.

ou сристѕс) b) in detail: 4 tva-clauses (1) first Lva-clause: vision (a) defective condition: Ananke formula ([xexa xy)v svsaxwaav x al асробра xaxeusLyouaav fxe ypeLoiv) (b) restitution: етготсхеисо (c) process: vision o f the immortal beginning (excoTcxeustv x t ] v a&avaxov apxV [cf. immortal water (иб(ор) dd. voces magicae cc.Literary Analysis 63 (1) the honored arm (\жо Ppa^ovo? evxlfxou) (2) the imperishable right hand (итсо б е ^ а ? x e iP ^ аср&архои) c) cosmic polarities (1) light and darkness: ev acporrrcruw xal бсаиуѕХ xoapuo (2) soulless and ensouled: ev xe афидо xal e^uxw[xevto 4) voces magicae d. voces magicae ee. petition 1) appeal to the divine will o f the elements (eav бе updv бо^т]) 2) voces magicae 3) secondary gloss citing a textual variant from another source 4) request a) in general (1) technical term: [леха7гараб1ба)^л (“hand over in return”) (2) recipient: petitioner (fxe) (3) main concern: rebirth (4) sources (a) immortal birth (хтј a&avaxw yevscrei) (b) restitution o f primordial nature (гуоџѓчмс. ff. 487]) (d) sources o f change aa. firm air (атјр). immortal spirit (7rveu[xa) bb. xy) UTroxstjxevY) p. voces magicae (2) second Cva-clause: thought (a) defective condition .

jJLeTayevvaa&oa) (c) voces magicae (d) source o f change: spirit (xal TiveuaT] ev ejxol to lepov uveujxa) (e) voces magicae (3) third Cva-clause: amazement (a) defective condition (b) restitution: & aup.? .” toI c a&avaTot. 2) self-identification a) according to human nature (1) condition o f mortality by human birth (2) restitution: relative improvement (3) recourse to work o f divine creator (4) divine attributes (a) utco хратои? fxeyaXoSuvafxou xal (b) Se^ta? аф&артои .теиеп/ (2) process: “with immortal eyes. self-presentation o f the initiate 1) intention o f the self-presentation a) recourse to the promise o f salvation b) realisation o f the promise c) reference to time: “today.Literary Analysis (b) restitution: rebirth o f thinking (voY)p. xal rcepixs^upivo? altWjp (3) voces magicae .aTt. ofxfxaac.oc^£LV (c) source o f change: fire (to lepov тсир) (d) vox magica (4) fourth tva-clause: vision (a) defective condition (b) restitution: Феаа&оа (c) source o f change: water (to a(3ucxaov ттј^ avaToAy)? ippiXTOV uStop) (d) voces magicae c) final petition (1) request to listen: axoueiv (2) address to ether: o ^cooyovoc.” aYjjxepov d) aim: ecstatic vision (1) technical term: “envision.” хатол.

attributes (aa) a&avaxoi. Name: Aion bb. IcpLxxov.[3av£t. (3) implications (a) temporary strengthening o f human soul-power (фи^хт) Suvapxg) (b) reference to eschatological restitution aa.бе<У [хар[хариуаТ<. quality: “complete. (bb) беатготт)? xwv Ttuptvcov SiaSYjfxaxtov (2) condition o f sanctity (a) source: consecration rituals (ayLot.v cc. comparison: “again. reference to time: the Ananke formula (see 503-4) dd. technical term: |xexa7rapaXafji.” t o Xiv cc bb. N N . .? aytaafxaat.” а/реохбтх/јхоу c) by name (1) formula o f self-identity: I.) (b) resultant sanctity: a y ia o& eic.auvavt-evoa (3) poetic description o f heavenly splendor: Христо£1.Literary Analysis 65 b) according to initiation (1) condition o f immortality (a) source: immortal spirit (oc&avaxov Tuveufxa) (b) resultant vision (c) object: the god aa.. a&avaxou 1л/ ХаЈА7П)б6уо? (4) voces magicae e) resultant command (1) address o f mortal nature: cp&apxr] [3poxc5v cpuai (2) imperatives . son o f N N (2) reference to divine law: хаха ббуЈла a^exa&exov (3) voces magicae d) didactic explanation regarding the relationship o f the hum an and the divine (1) concerning human mortality: &vy]x6v yeywvoxa (2) citation o f principle o f incompatibility: oux saxt-v [лос. хт]<.

ocvaoruav) 3. 555. u7tep(3oavet.66 Literary Analysis (a) concerning ascent: “stand” (есттаЅг) (b) concerning return: “take me back” (avocXa[3e fxe) (c) condition: “healthy” (uytvj) (3) references to time (a) “at once” (atm xa) (b) Ananke formula (see 503-4.. prescription o f breathing ritual 1. 549.: бфт) 2. type o f narrative: vision report in the prophetic future tense (бфтз. reality status: imaginative 4. 635. cf.. address: 2nd person sing.. ифо? 6. action: vision (“you will see”) 3. avaxoucpi^ea&oa b. 624. o uLo?. 693. medium: sun rays 5.. physical sense-perception during ascent a. actions: inhalation (eXxeiv. 565. reference to time: ev execvY] t?) wpa 543— 44 c. 2. also 544. first scenario: encounter w ith the planetary deities .) (4) voces magicae 537— 38 B.v zic. explanatory introduction to the ascent ritual 44 539— 40 1. 702) 5. physical: rcveupia as breath b. repetition: 3 times 6. 656. metaphysical: ruveufjia as spirit c.. location: in midair 541 7. ascension narrative in seven scenarios 544— 55 1. 525— 26) 535— 37 f) concluding formulae o f self-identity (1) first formula: “I am the son. object: TCveufxa a. (syto eljxt. quantity: o Suvaaoa 539— C. address: 2nd person sing. positive: seeing of things immortal (тиал/та бе бфт] a&avaxa) 544— 732 D. negative 1) hearing: no hearing o f hum an or animal sounds 542— 43 2) seeing: no seeing o f anything earthly b. terms for imagined actions a. transmission: by the rays o f the sun 4.) (2) voces magicae (3)second formula: “I am” (eyw elfjtx..

for winds from west to east (c) explanation: regulation o f the winds 2. auXo? (b) description 556-68 556 aa. action: бфт) c.Literary Analysis 67 544 544-45 545-47 547-55 547-49 a. 558 e. location: midair d. action: vision (бфтј) d. objects seen 1) the planetary gods: ol &eo£ 557 2) their hostile response a) stare: axevt^ovTe? trot. objects seen 1) planetary constellation 2) function: gods o f days and hours 3) movements o f the deities in heaven a) ascending b) descending 4) appearance o f two pictures a) first picture: the way o f the planetary gods (1) description: way o f the gods shown by the sun-disk (2) explanations 549-55 (a) visibility o f the gods (b) illumination by Helios aa. reference to location: in midair (540) b. conjunction: бе b. b) agressive approach: i n i a z oppuojjievoc. turnable pipe hanging from the sun bb. reference to time: ev exetvY) ттј wpa (543) c. prescription o f protective ritual 1) address: a u бе 2) performance o f ritual . for winds from east to west cc. second scenario: threat by the planetary gods a. name: Helios bb. attribute: father god (тгатт)р Oso?) b) second picture (o[aouo?): the windpipe (1) action: бфт] (2) object (a) name: o xocAoup.evo<.

forewarning 1) o f hearing a loud thunder 2) o f being terrified . c) conforming to cosmic order d) each performing assigned function 3. reference to time: oxav ouv b. result 1) reference to time: tote 2) action: офт] 3) object: the planetary gods 4) their response: now friendly a) looks: eufxsva)? £{jt. cf.(3Xe7tovTe£ b) approach: [xyjxext i n i as opfjuojxsvot. third scenario: the sun disk a. ѓ c.yr] (three times) (2) epithet: au[x[3oXov &eou аср&артои c) request for protection: cpuXa^ov (xe d) invocation (1)name: at-yir] (2) voces magicae 4) performance of magical sounds a) first sound (1) reference to time: ineizcc (2) name o f sound: aupiyjjio^ b) second sound (1) reference to time: luet-xa (2) name o f sound: nonnuGyiog c) voces magicae f."1 68 Literary Analysis 559-60 560 561 562-65 565-69 565 566— 69 569-85 569 570-73 a) reference to time: euQiw? b) ritual action: putting the right index— finger on the mouth 3) recitation o f prayer a) type o f prayer: petition (“second prayer” [oiy^-logos?]. 623) b) invocation (1)name: at. action: “seeing. 2) none of the gods or angels threatening d. 578. 582-85. 573-75.” ’бт)<. objects 1)the cosmos xa&apo? x al Sovoufxevoc.

624) . (2) the opening o f the sun-disk: o Siaxoq атсХсо&ѓјагтоа 577 2) second image a) preliminary rituals ( 1 ) time reference: [хета to elrceTv ae 578 578-79 (2) recitation o f the “second prayer”: t o v (3' Xoyov (3) redactional comment. explaining that the c i yr]-logos is meant (573— 75) (4) performance o f two sounds (a) aupiyfxo? twice (b) TcouTtuafjioi. u[xlv acmqp (2) ex tou (Sa&ou? avaXafx/rctov c) voces magicae f. 559) 2) self-identification a) formula eyco cLj l jl b) attributes (1)cru[jLTcXavo<. twice b) description 579 579-82 582-85 (1)time reference: еи&емѕ (2) action: “seeing. 585-87 b.Literary Analysis 69 573-75 576-85 576 e.” бфт) b) description o f the open disk (cf. command to recite protective formulae 1) the C tyy] crtyy]— T logos (twice? cf. time reference: euOiox. fourth scenario: the opening o f the doors to the world o f the gods a. 576) as a fireless circle with fiery doors closed 585-628 4. appearance o f three images 1) first image a) time reference: таита aoi sinovzoq b) description (1) reference to time: еи&ѓах. command to close the eyes (cf.” бфт] (3) emergence o f many five-pronged stars from the sun-disk and filling the air 3) third image a) preliminary ritual (1) reference to repetition (2) recitation o f the criyr)-logos (573-75) (3) action: “seeing.

582.vecpt. 577. 484-5. TtvsufxaTt. naming the primary function o f the god: б агп/бт](га<. aoua(.xa хХтј&ра tou 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603-4 T£TpaXi£(op. apev(3apa£et.1 70 Literary Analysis 587 c. 623) 587— 620 587— 88 e.aiauo 7tup^ va K u pu yi [Зоост7]с.та (14 (15 (16 (17 (18 (19 rtuptxXove yaXXa(3aX[3a cpwTo^ca (.£ (21 svTcuptCTXTjorLtpwi. redactional reference to the liturgical order: the “third prayer” (koyoc. y '. aoua'ivecpt. та 7iupt. T U 7U O фрир^ф£и C pL V £ 7TUpi&U|A£ law Tcv£U[xaTO<pw? war nUpiJOLp7) £X0Up£ xaXXttpw? c/X jxi Alwv axpa cpwTOxparwp тс£тс1Х£р к р г к г џ л и т TtUpt.а <pwToxt.<7W [XaT£ <pV U L X O 7]V O <^тобауга TcupLcjTTopE apet ѕ'ѓхс. 559-60. (2 7tUpC7toXe 7C TC (3 (4 (5 (6 (7 (8 (9 (10 (11 (12 (13 срмтб^ хт£ата (variant: аиухХеТстта) HcjjLsaiXajj. recitation o f a prayer to A ion 1) invocation a) formula: e7taxoua6v [xou. 573-75. c) voces magicae d) reason for the petition: бтг .VY]Ta aav^epwJS xepauvoxXove vr\ wtj twrjtw cpwTo? xXeo? (SeeyevYjTe (20 au£/)<ncpwi. axoucrov [jlou 589-602 589 b) self-identification o f the orant by name (NN) c) prim ary attribute o f the god: xupie d) aretalogy o f 21 attributes and voces magicae (1 first.aTO? £V .T£pO V U [. recitation o f the following prayer d. cf. 605— 6 piapfxapevTeu 2) petition a) address: асгтробајла b) request: avot-^ov piot.

559. 503-504. 2) actions . 573-75. fifth scenario: encounter w ith Helios a. command to recite the aiyr]-logos (cf. praiseworthy b) list o f 7 lines o f vowel sequences f. effect preference to the recited prayer: таита аои einovzoc. twice from beginning to end 3) explanation: each line contains the name o f one o f “the seven immortal gods o f the universe” g. instruction concerning performance 1) reference to previous list: таита Travxa 2) kind o f performance a) ЈХЕта тсиро^ x al Tcveupt-aTO^ b) line by line. 582-85) i.Literary Analysis 71 606-16 606-10 610-16 617-20 620-23 623 624-28 626-28 628-61 628-30 (1) action: e7uxaAou[xai (2) Ananke formula: evsxa ттј? xax£7E£t. 586— 87) 2) action: офт) 3) object: the open doors 4) description o f the image: the doors are open and behind them appears the world o f the gods 5) response a) experience o f 7]Sovy] x al yapa b) the initiate s Tiveufxa running w ith the gods and moving upwards (a u vxp ijziv x al ava^atvetv) 5. 525-526. living. appearance o f the image 1) command to open the eyes (cf. command to perform rituals 1) time reference: eu&etoi.youcry]£ xal Tctxpa? x al атгарастѓјтои avayxy)? (cf. 534) 3) recitation o f the secret names o f the seven gods o f the cosmos a) description (1) as by nature non-hum an (2) as not pronounced in articulate speech (3) as speaking a non-hum an language (4) as divine: immortal. 2) announcement a) in the cosmos: tremendous thunder b) for the petitioner: experience o f terror h.

Y]cnr]? 2) action: бфу) 3) object: Helios 4) iconographical description o f Helios a) age: Феб? vewxepo? b) beauty: ѕшјбѓ)? c) hair: 7iupt. epiphany o f Helios 1) time reference: oxav oOv xouxo 7tot.£ d) clothing (1) white chiton (2) scarlet chlamys e) wreath: 7i:up!<vo<. 655) b) address: xupc. d.бс) 1) address a) title: xupie b) appeal: jpCCpe c) three attributes (using jxsyaq) (1) [xeyaXoSuvajxe (2) [xeyaXtoxpaxwp (3acriXeu (3) [xeytcfxe Sswv d) name: Helios e) aretalogy .622— to ] 23) 3) prayer formula a) command: rcpoaeX&e (cf.e c) voces magicae 4) predicted result a) time reference: xouxo einovcoq b) focusing o f the sun rays 5) response: look (axevi£et.v) into the sun rays c. command to issue an order 1) time reference: oxav 2) condition o f the soul: oxav oOv aTtoxaxaaxac u Y фихЃ) (c^. performance o f the ritual o f greeting 1) reference to time: suQito? 2) type o f greeting: тсирп/о? acnraoxxxo? e. recitation o f the greeting prayer ('/оиргткзџ.v6xpt. are<pavo<.Literary Analysis a) stand b) draw in from the divine spirit c) look intently: axsv^eiv b.

m other (aa) origin: mortal uterus (bb) name: N N bb. c) self-identification o f the petitioner (1)rank (attribute): av&pomo? (2) person: eyw (3)name: N N (4) recitation o f synthema (cultic formula o f self-definition (a) concerning human birth aa. father (aa) origin: sperm (bb) no name (b) concerning divine rebirth aa. 747. immortalisation: aTca&avaxl^sLV (cf. 741. ут}<. 771) ee. time reference: CTjfxepov bb. x al Tconrjaavxt.Literary Analysis 73 642 642-55 642-43 643 644-49 645-49 (1) two attributes (titles) (a) o xupto? t o o oupavou x al т9)<. reference to ritual (aa) subject: god (Mithras) (bb) term: (ASTayevvacr&at. cc. election dd. time reference: ev таиттј ттј copa . (b) &еѕ 9-ewv (2) two attributes (verbs) (a) iayuei стои rj nvor) (b) iayuei aou rj Sovayag (3) address: xupte 2) presentation o f petition a) formalities o f protocol (1) submission to the divine will (2) technical term for announcing the arrival o f a visitor: ayyeXXstv b) request for an audience (1) person (a) name: Mithras (not named) (b) title: o [леусстто? (2) kin relationship between Helios and Mithras: xw ae ysvvyjaavTt.

attitude: a£t.oc b) vox magica c) turning first to the right [ d) turning to the left side] 6. expressing humility: xaxa Suvajxiv aV&p(07UVY]V d) secondary insertion (1) command to keep at hand the horoscope for day and hour (2) secret name o f the regent (3) purpose: identifying opportune times for epiphany and divination (4) voces magicae (variations on vowels) f. sixth scenario: encounter with the deities o f the Bear constellations . 2) action: бфт) 3) object: departure o f the god 4) description o f the image a) motif: move to the pole (eXeucrexat. the departure o f Helios 1) time reference: хаиха aou zlnovxoc. performance o f protective rituals 1) staring intently: axevi^ecv 2) doing the bellowing sound: (лихсо[ла 3) intensity a) loud: jxaxpov b) as through a horn: xepaxoet-Sto? c) special effort (1) giving out all breath: лл/еи^а (2) squeezing the stomach 4) kissing the phylacteries 5) recitation o f formula a) request: cpuXa^ov pt.74 Literary Analysis 649-55 651-55 655-57 657-61 659-60 660-61 661-92 ff.ouv x a l беест&ас bb. authorisation (aa) divine will: xaxa Soxyjchv {teou (bb) divine goodness (5) expression o f devotion (a) proskynesis (b) formulas o f devotion aa.) b) image detail: wandering as on a road g.

) d) face masks: asps e) name: oupavou Tu^at.) b) number: seven c) dress: fine linen (ev (3uomvot. performance o f the greeting 1) time reference: хаиха LScov 2) recitation o f greeting to all a) appeal: jjxipezz b) name: al C Tu^at. cpuXaxicraai xwv xeacraptov crxuXlaxoov 3) recitation o f individual greetings a) first greeting (1) appeal: ^alpe (2) address: y тсрсохт] j (3) magical name b) second greeting (1) appeal: ха Ф£ (2) address: 7) [3' (3) magical name c) third greeting (1) appeal: ха Ф£ (2) address: rj y ' (3) magical name d) fourth greeting (1) appeal: x°^Pz (2) address: rj б' (3) magical name . action: бфт) c.Literary Analysis 75 a.^ои oupavou c) three attributes (1) first: CT£[xval x al aya&al rtap&evoi (2) second: lepal xal б[лоб1а1хо[. o f N N (secret name) (3) third: al ayt-wxaxat. time reference: xauxa elrcwv b. description o f the appearance o f the seven virgins (stars o f the Great Bear) 1) location: the doors o f the heaven are open 2) arrival: ер^еа&оа 3) origin: ex xou [За&ои^ 4) iconography o f the goddesses a) figures: virgins (rcapQ-evot.c. f) symbols: holding golden wands: ^риаеа (Зра[ЗеТа d.

. (2) second: ol crcpe<povTe<..fi..? ty]c . 2) iconography a) figures: male gods (QzoL) b) number: seven c) dress: linen loincloths d) face masks: black bulls e) name: ol тсоХохраторе? tou oupavou f) symbols: golden diademes f. <боте> uyelav.Literary Analysis e) fifth greetings (1) appeal: x a^P£ (2) address: 7] s' (3) magical name f) sixth greeting (1) appeal: х а Ф£ (2) address: Y q ] (3) magical name g) seventh greeting (1) appeal: х а Ф£ (2) address: Y C ] (3) magical name e..ot. (d) time reference: ev таТ? evecrтсотаг. prescription o f performance o f greeting 1) recitation o f greeting to all a) appeal: x°^P£T£ b) name: ol xvtoSaxocpuXaxe? c) three attributes (1) first: ol lepol x a l aXxc. u t c o ev xeXeuafxa t o v 7iepcStvY]Tov t o u xuxXou a^ova t o u oupavou (3) third: (ol). aY][i. &eol .? d) address by title: xupt-ol jaou x a l [леуаХохраторес. veaviac. aya&alc.evTS? (a) cosmic phenomena: (SpovTa? x a l аатратса? x a l asLCTfxaiv x a l xepauvwv (ЗоХа? (b) punishment o f the godless aliens: ziq Su<xae(3c5v <puXa (c) reward for the pious orant: ejxol бе euae(3el ovTt. wpat. a<pt.epov Y]jxepa<. description o f the appearance o f the seven black bull-headed gods (stars o f the Little Bear) 1) arrival: Tcpoepxecr&at.

time reference 1) completion o f the gods’ procession 2) arrangement in two groups on opposite sides b.Literary Analysis 2) recitation o f individual greetings a) first greeting (1) appeal: ха Ф£ (2) address: б крмтос. description o f cosmic phenomena 1) lightning bolts coming down 2) lights flashing 3) earth shaking . action: бфт] d. (3) vox magica b) second greeting (1) appeal: ^аТре (2) address: o (3' (3) vox magica c) third greeting (1) appeal: jpdpe (2) address: o y ' (3) vox magica d) fourth greeting (1) appeal: ха Ф£ (2) address: б б' (3) vox magica e) fifth greeting (1) appeal: ха Фе (2) address: o s ' (3) vox magica f) sixth greeting (1) appeal: x<xipe (2) address: o g' (3) vox magica g) seventh greeting (1) appeal: (2) address: o (3) vox magica 7.v tw aept c. seventh scenario: encounter w ith Mithras a. performance o f ritual: axevL^£t.

-4 704. iconography 1) figure: 2) size: итсер^еуеЅ?]? 3) face: cpomvYjv zjovtol ttjv бфп/ 4) age: vetoxspo? 5) hair: xpucxoxoprj? 6) dress a) white chiton b) Persian-style trousers: ava^upiSs? c) golden crown 7) insignia a) mythological (Mithraic): xaxe^MV ттј бг^са J_z l9l џоауои tojjiov xp^creov b) astrological (1) identification o f the bull’s shoulder with the Bear constellation (2) function (a) m oving and turning the heavenly vault (b) as m oving upward and downward seasonal revolutions 8) cosmic features a) time reference: гтсеслга b) action: офт] c) reference to eyes: giving off lightnings d) reference to body: giving off shooting stars g. epiphany o f Mithras 1) location: higher sphere 2) appearance by descent (xaxsp^sa^ai) f.78 696.-7 707.-11 704 705.-11 707 708 e.-702 702.-704 696 Literary Analysis 697 698 699. performance o f rituals 1) reference to time: eu&ew? 2) first ritual: bellowing sound a) name: [xuxw^xa jxaxpov b) intensity (1)long and loud (2) straining the belly: (Sacravi^ziv ttjv уаатѓра (3) arousing the five senses (4) until total exhalation: zlq ocTro&soxv 3) second ritual: protective a) kissing the phylacteria b) recitation o f a prayer .

-17 713 714 715 715.-24 719 719.-17 712 713.vyev6[xevo(. presentation o f petition 1) address by title: xupce 2) request for an oracle response: 3) naming o f the issue: N N 4) self-presentation o f the petitioner a) address by title: xupt.Literary Analysis 79 709 710.oa .-24 719.-17 717.-22 (1) invocation (a) voces magicae (b) address: ^ т [jlo со ѓ) u (2) self-identification by name: N N (3) requests (three) (a) [live ctu (b) ve[xe ev хтј jjl u o (c) рѓ) [xe хатаХесфт]? (4) appeal to divine authority (a) command: oxt.-11 712.e b) recitation o f the synthema o f initiation. greeting o f Mithras 1) preliminary rituals a) intense look: ocxev^etv xw b) bellowing sound: [xaxpov [xuxw^xevo? 2) recitation o f the greeting prayer a) address by title: xupie b) formula o f three greetings (1) first greeting (a) appeal: y c d p z (b) address by attribute: бесттгоха ибахо? (2) second greeting (a) appeal: joCCpe (b) address by attribute: хахар^а утј? (3) third greeting (a) appeal: jo u ipe (b) address by attribute: бшастха Tiveufxaxo? (4) attributes/voces magicae: Аарлтросреуут). in three parts (1) first part: rebirth and death (three statements o f polarity) (a) first: TcaXt. тгрсжросреууу) 3) voces magicae i.-24 717 718 719. xeXeuet crot (b) voces magicae h. a7ioytyvop.

(c) third: x a l етиослѓјаа? pLUcrx7]pt. promises concerning the revelation 1) concerning comprehension: at once (аитоЈлатоо?) 2) concerning memory: flawless (атгараЈЗатах. (2) second part: divine legitimacy (three statements concerning compliance) (a) first: w? сти ехтпсга? (b) second: w? au evo{jio9iT7]<7a<. axouetv . x a l au^YjO-el? теХеитм (c) third: arco yevsasw? i^woyovou eic.) as medium c. modus 1)role o f associate as medium: аи[Х[лиатг] xp^aaa&ai. (b) secret name j.) 3) reliability a) words o f the god: та итсо тои [лѕуаХоо &ѕои pTj&evxa b) regardless o f the size o f the oracle: xav jxupltov o X P W 6? 732— 819 III.ov (3) third part: self-identification (a) formula: eyco eljxt. auoyevealav avaXu&el? rcopeuofxat.a g t Lj j j m ) k. type: fellow-initiate (сти[Х[лиат7]<. 2) m edium hears only what is spoken: та Xeyofxeva exelvov [xovov auv aoc. three optional rituals for including an associate 732— 35 1. granting o f oracular consultation 1) time references a) end o f previous ritual: таита аои ec7i0VT0? b) continuation: su&eto? 2) kind o f audience: 3) recipient’s condition during the consultation a) weakness o f the soul: итсехХито? т?) ф и ^ b) ecstasy: oux ev aeauxto east 4) form o f response: in verses (St.1 80 Literary Analysis 722— 23 723 724 724— 27 724 725 725— 26 727 727— 28 728 728— 32 730— 32 (b) second: au£6[xevo<. 1. end o f the session 1) conclusion o f the god’s revelatory speech: e i -к ш 2) the god’s departure: атсеХеистетаг. prophecy with m edium a.) -sX b. condition after the audience: standing speechless (аи бе axTjxsi? evso?) m. status: optional (sav S s Q yjc. Supplemental rituals 732— 50 A.

status: optional (eocv бе .) b. type: fellow-initiate present.а) 2) role o f associate: interpreter of symbol d. conditions 1) evaluation by the mystagogue: xplva? 2) criteria a) worthiness as initiate: el o^ioc. ritual preconditions: prior sanctification 1) both together: cruvayveueiv 2) duration: seven days 3) abstentions a) from meat: xa е^лфи^а b) from bath: (3aXaveTov 2. 3. status: optional (eav бе . modus 1) direct handling o f the god’ response: iy y zip e iv xa s итсо rou 9-eou elpy)[xeva 2) as in ecstasy: w? ev excrxacret.v b) genuineness as hum an being: астсраХм? ax.. 650. modus 1) showing o f symbols: беТ^оа (sc. av&pfa)7to£ 3) standard: same as applied in the immortalisation ritual (атта&ал>атк7[л6<.. 0OTO<pot. but not medium c.(3wfi...) b. second option: prophecy w ithout m edium a.evo<. ritual performance 1) prayer a) recitation b) name: “first origin o f my origin” (486-537) 2) other formulae: ха бе е£т]<. a) standard: w? [лиатт]^ b) modus (1) over the head: S7il тт)<.) b)nam e o f the anointment: [xuaxYjpiov (see 751-78) . 771) e. third option: prophecy by showing cultic symbols a.. cf. 747.Literary Analysis 81 d. ха бесла/и[Ј^л. type: mystagogue alone: fxovo? 9)? c. хесраХ^? (2) sotto voce: axovto cp&oyyto (3) inaudible for the associate: tva [x j axouarj y 3) anointment a) type: eye-salve (ypUiv xtjv офп. eaxt.

xw оихетг imapl^st. name o f the ritual: oara&avaTiajJioi. frequency: three times a year c. section title: бсбастхаХѓ. 771) b.82 746— 50 746— 48 Literary Analysis 4. additional instruction 1. warning against misuse 748— 50 1) address: di tsxvov 2) situation envisaged a) time: after the instruction ([x s ii t o TiapayyeXfjia) b) technical term: 7iapaxouet. 793 74.v 750— 819 750 751— 819 751— 78 3) solution: exclusion from the ritual. (cf.Lov 755— 57 c) application (1) putting cake before scarab (2) feeding it (3) result: killing it instantly 3) second stage a) acquiring ingredients 757— 71 (1) dead scarab (2) glass vessel (3) quantity o f excellent rose-oil (4) “sacred sand” b) preparation (1) picking up dead scarab . new m oon (2) dropping ingredients into cup 751— 57 753— 55 (3) grinding it all up (4) making small cake: \i<xC.а ттјc. 2. прѓи^гмс. n ep iyp iziv 773— oxiy/piGyLCf. first ritual: the sun-scarab ointment preference: 746. B. cf. 646-47. 650. xpccrfxa 770. 741.ax6? (2) a deep turquoise cup: (Bratov xaXXaivov (3a&u (3) seed o f the fruitpulp o f the lotus: Ха)то[ХУ]тра? CTTiepfxa (4) honey b) preparation (1)time: darkness. 2) first stage a) acquiring ingredients: Xa(3tov (1)a sun-scarab: xavQ-apo? 7]Xt. two preparatory rituals a. additional stipulations a.

r\ aou оиаѓа (e) self-identification: N N (tw Setva [aovw) (f) voces magicae (g) purpose: ejxol jaovw (h) self-identification aa.. 761-71 761-62 763-67 (2) dropping into glass vessel (3) spreading “sacred sand” “in a pure way” (4) placing vessel on the sand c) consecration (1) time: high noon (2) duration: seven days (3) modus: pronouncing formula “over the vessel” (4) recitation o f formula (a) name: ovojaoc (761) (b) addressing the scarab (c) action: eyw сге етѓХеста (d) purpose: Eva [лос. formula eyw elpa bb ..) 4) supplemental ritual a) status: optional (eav бе aXXw ЈШаг]?. deposition in field o f bloom ing bean plants (3) ointment (a) time: after dining (есттсаота? x a l avvzuor/y}$zLc. 756— 57) (b) deposition in pure manner: а7тогк>и xa&apelw? (c) purpose: for use in the main ritual (a7ra9-avaTLCT[x6i. secret name cc. wrapping in linen cc. embalming with myrrh and Mendesian w ine bb..) b) modus: to show it (Sclxvuclv) to som eone else c) preparation o f eye-salve 772-75 . redactional comment noting a variant reading 767-71 d) preservation (1)time: on the seventh day (2)scarab (a) removal (b) burial ritual aa.Literary Analysis 83.

{xev7]v (1. a (SouXei. 778-86.84 Literary Analysis 776-78 776-77 777-78 778-92 778-79 780 781-82 782-83 783-85 786-92 786-87 (1) substance: juice o f the plant kentritis (cf. tov fteov.et^ov’ ou^ eOpov ev xw xocxfjuo 7tpayfj. second ritual: the plant kentritis 1) section title: yj tou [леуаХои &eou auaxonaiq 2) acquisition o f ingredient a) plant name: kentritis b) reference: tyjv 7ipoxe(. 773) c) time: zodiac conjunction o f sun and m oon in Lion (cf.) f) amazement: ахтте g z Oaupwc^eiv 5) conclusion a) “commercial” : toutou ^.aTe(av b) theological maxim: астои бе. теХесах. 798-810) (2) mixing it w ith rose oil (cf. b.) 5) additional instructions a) time references (1) reference: 780 (2) beginning o f preparation . croc. x al бактес. 786-87) 3) preparations a) ink (1)juice o f kentritis plant (2) mixture with honey and myrrh b) leaf o f the persea plant (1) acquisition o f a leaf (2) writing the eight-letter vox magica on it (3) reference: 788 4) application a) preliminary ritual (1) sanctification (ayveueiv) (2) duration: three days b) time: early m orning at sunrise c) action (1) licking off the Persea (2) showing the leaf to the sun (Helios) d) effect: the god (Helios) will listen attentively (xal оитсо? етгахоисгетас. 790) d) application: around the eyes (?) e) result: clear sight (бфетоа бу]Хаиус5<.

(4) concerning the newmoon: Iv vou[XY]Vca (5) according to the divine will: xaxa &eov b) concerning the ovofxa (1) reference: ovo^Jia (783) (2) citation formula: t o бе ovopia ectxlv xouxo (3) the eight-letter formula c) concerning the Persea leaf (1) reference: 785 (2) action: licking off o f the name (3) purpose: self-protection (4) disposal o f the leaf after licking off (a) rolling it up (b) throwing it in w ith the rose-oil (cf. Further items o f information a. 774) concluding testimony: a “commercial” d) (1) testifying to frequent usage (2) expressing great amazement 3. o &so?) 3) instructions a) prohibition to keep the ointm ent for later usage (overruling 768-71) b) substitutional disposal: ointm ent to be cast into the Nile (before the consultation?) c) appropriate use of the scarab jxeya (auaxYjpiov xou xav&apou (1) reference: 745. 751— 78 (2) name: [xeya [xuaxyjpLov xou xav&apou (3) reference to a ritual (?): xou ava^wTtupTj&evxoi. at full m oon . second item: change o f ritual concerning times for consultation preference: 746— 48 2) inappropriate: three times a year 3) appropriate: once a month. first item: change o f ritual concerning the ointm ent preference: с\)у-/р1аџ. бс-a xwv xe £wwv opvetov (4) wearing it during the consultation b.(х 751— '78 2) authorisation: personal revelation (eI tesv бе [xot.Literary Analysis 85 788 789-90 790-92 792-813 792-96 796-98 (3) zodiacal conjunction o f Helios in Lion: xeXeiv ty] ev Xeovxt.

cf. Third ritual: the phylacteries a. modus: тротсо? c. w hen touched. for the left arm 1) material a) skin o f the white sheep b) ink: same as above (?) 2) preparation a) inscription: Ttpocr&upiepL b) to be w orn on on left arm . 778-86 2) earlier data a) seasonal growth: from the m onth o f Pauni b) geographical occurrence: region o f the “black earth” c) comparable other plant: erect verbena d) identification (1) formula: r\ бе yvwat? аиттј? outw? (2) method: the wing o f an ibis smeared w ith the black juice o f the plant will. 792) b) geographical occurrence: region o f Menelaitis in Phalagry c) environment: river banks. third item: botanical information about the kentritis plant 1) reference: 773.) b) tying with sinews o f the same sheep c) to be w orn on right arm d. a kind o f wild beet 4. near the Besas plant d) description in detail (1) single stem (2) reddish to the root (3) leaves crinkled (4) fruit looking like that o f wild asparagus (5) comparable other plant: talapes. cf. lose its feathers at once 3) new information a) authorisation: divine revelation (touto tou xupiou итсобеС^оа/то?. b. 661: irpoaufjiepc. reference: 659— 708 61.1 86 798— 813 798— 804 Literary Analysis 804— 13 813— 19 813 814— 17 817— 19 c. for the right arm 1) material a) skin o f a black sheep b) ink: black myrrh ink 2) preparation a) inscription (?) (missing.

Epilogue: statements concerning the document A. technical name for the document: uu6[jLV7][xa (cf. auvxaypia 480— 81) B.Literary Analysis 87 819-20 IV. paragraphos sign after 820 . statement o f completion: тсХтЈрѓотатоу C.

1 This exordium has a remarkably close parallel in the epistolary preface o f the Apocryphon o f James from Nag Hammadi:2 [James] writes to [.1— (according to the translation in Robinson. 1. But since you are a minister o f the salvation o f the saints. Schenke. endeavor earnestly and take care not to rehearse this text to many —this that the Savior did not wish to tell to all o f us. the prayer begins w ith an invocation: ТАагК jxot. Composed w ith some rhetorical care. N T Apok (5th ed. 169— 78. 3 For the invocation generally and further bibliography.8 5 ) Although not indicated by a line separator in the papyrus itself.Commentary I. The Invocation (I. But blessed will they be w ho will be saved through the faith o f this discourse.. 475) Appropriately. I could not turn you away or gainsay (?) you.3 however.238 (with further parallels). [love from] Love. life from H oly Life! Since you asked that I send you a secret book w hich was revealed to me and Peter by the Lord. followed by Dieterich. 56. but [I have written] it in the Hebrew alphabet and sent it to you. the 28 translations by Dankwart Kirchner. H M R . he sets forth the exordium as a prayer o f petition. . Wessely. the exordium shows evidence o f the authors literary interests and abilities as well as his religious sensitivities. [grace from] Grace. 475 w ith an exordium comprising the 11. (1) The second o f the two divine names invoked is disputed textually. poses several problems. The latter argue for the gnostic Cerinthus as addressee. A . [faith] from Faith. Nag Hammadi Deutsch. 47585.2. Ilpovota x al lFu)(7] (“Be gracious to me. Zauberpapyrus. read Tu)(7). the text o f the “Mithras Liturgy” begins at 1. Because there is a religious reason for it. and you alone. Library.. Dieterich (1. his twelve disciples.52-53. O Providence and Psyche”). 30). see Reitzenstein. cf. 4 Wessely.thos]: Peace [be w ith you from] Peace. 1. 219). see Furley & Bremer.4 but 1 For a text and commentary regarding this section. 1. This invocation. 2 N H C 1. Greek Hymns. 4 7 5 .) 1. The Exordium (U.18.

192. 1925). 1738-39. XIII. Abrasax. XXI. Tim. 1935. Both names occur elsewhere in the PG M . x a l p. These three problems can be solved in conjunction. MA: Harvard University Press.158.36: |леуаХобо£е IIpovoLa (Isis). In his diplomatically crafted statement Tiridates told Nero what tickled his ears. 1741-43. and he combined Roman and Persian imperial ideology. 8. бѓсигота/Арогахои jxev exyovo^.5 Although the s first letter is somewhat uncertain. my god. t o u t o o ti av au e7T(..PH 10.506. the question is w hether the two names refer to two different deities. 57— 97: “The World-Soul. 1733-34. 48— 49.” 8 See Plato. Martin.158. or to one deity identified by two epithets consisting o f hypostatized abstractions. die alle beseelt. Phaedr. Mithras and Tyche are associated in Cassius D io 62. crit.6 but none o f the passages attest the two names together. 3167. 7 So following Merkelbach (Abraxas. also 34a-36d.. idem.”) Cited according to the LCL edition by Earnest Cary (Cambridge. The Exordium (11.” A R W 21 (1922) 360— Merkelbach. where a black Tuyj] may be mentioned.5. 4 7 5 -8 5 ) 89 Preisendanz’ reading o f Tu^Y] has generally been accepted. IV. in which both ripovoia and play an important role. Arthur Allgeier.”7 Based on Plato’ Timaeus.2.51. London: Heinemann. 6 For npovot-a see LVII. see also Richard Reitzenstein. and thy slave. 41c.665-66 (the seven Tychai are Hathors). 1997).142-43. so one will have to look for parallels outside the corpus. D ie Gottin Psyche in der hellenistischen undfruhchristlichen Literatur (SHAW. app. 96. 30b:. .1724-25. 3. XII. seems surprising only at first sight.' сти yap jxot. 3000. See Francis M.254. 233): “Es ist die Weltseele gemeint. ooc. (3) T he fact that at no other place the ML refers again to the two names raises the question how the author intended to relate the invocation to the rest o f the ML. VIII. where the Persian Tiridates on a visit in R om e presents himself to Nero with these words: eyca. 170-74.” D D D 877-78 (Lit). XIII.s the concept o f the world-soul was developed especially by s 5 Preisendanz’s edition. VII. хата Xoyov tov slxora Ss'l Xeystv rovSs tov xoafAov £wov е[лфи)(ОУ evvouv х г ттј aXrj&eta бих ttjv tou 9-sou yevEa&at. 5.d: tj tou rcavTOc.18 (cf. (“Master. repr.oEpa el x a l т и ^ . History of Greek Philosophy. Ти^тѓ) occurs mostly together with Eros: IV. The destiny thou spinnest for me shall be mine.781. brother o f the kings Vologaesus and Pacorus. and Luther H. it is also supported by contextual evidence. H M R . (2) If one opts for Flpovoia xal Wvyyi.xX«ar]<. a decision in favor o f is fairly secure. Plato’ Cosmology: The s Timaeus of Plato (London: Routledge.. x a l eaofjiat. to worship thee as I do Mithras.” Guthrie. 1917). XII. LVII. OuoXoyaiaou бе xal Пахорои to o v (BaatXewv абѕХфоq. фи/jj. Cornford. cf. бе боиХо? elfxt. “Ein syrischer Memra tiber die Seele in religionsgeschichtlichem Rahmen. Influences o f Stoicism elsewhere in the beginning sections o f the ML make it most likely that the author refers to the “world-soul. 11.2601. л р о о х и ч т ј о ш az xal t o v MtQ-pav. 17 and 30. 3. Heidelberg: Winter. elsewhere it is often identified with Isis.16.. 2665. The context. ad loc. Cf. I am the descendent o f Arsaces. 1730-31. ForTujr\ see IV. xal ■?jX$ov xe T x p o q as t o v ejxov &eov. for thou art my Fortune and my Fate. “Tyche. And I have come to thee. 30).292— The tradition continues in later Platonism 99.I. 233. 254e. cf.20. TCpovoiav.

” . “Divine Providence in the Philosophy o f the Empire. was als Logos. 2094— 95..31). Pneuma. if the invocation is influenced by Stoic ideas.4.1 The author makes the connection between the exordium and the main 1 body o f the ML through the element o f fire/spirit.). 84— 94. бе тои xocjfxou .. W. section A. from Plutarch. esp.9 Therefore. Cicero. Aet. Philo. lettres. Already Chrysippus defined the deity thus: “Chrysippus asserts that Zeus.: Knecht.. lat. “Chairemon. also 50— 84: 51. etc. 12. 4. Gordon. “Die Stoa. Michael Frede. Philo. 1997). als gestaltende Natur. Die Allseele in Platons ‘Timaios’ (BAK 96. Abrasax. Епп. t y ) б е ф и ^ т ј t y ] v rcpovotav). providentia. the relationship between the invocation and the re­ mainder o f the ML can be explained with the help o f Merkelbach s observa­ tion that the exordium is a secondary feature prefixed to the received tradi­ tion. 9 See S V F I § 172 (44.19— about the association o f mens mundi. not. 4424. § 1064 (312.90 Commentary Chrysippus and later Stoics. that is the universe. 36 (1077D). T D N T 9 (1973).M. das ist die Weltseele (mens mundi. 606— 610.10 Moreover.12 (see e. 2.50-51. is like a human being. is addressed in this way. “The Origins o f Pronoia: A Mystery.3. C.” D D D 664— 67. ohne dass Pneuma schon ein fester Terminus ware . Marcus Aurelius.g. Leipzig: Teubner.” ANRW 11. Aet.9.13). For the passages dealing with the world-soul see also Pease. s. “Pronoia. 11 Merkelbach. FZPhTh 24 (1977) 60-87.539. W. Paul’s School..13).v. Divine 90.36:3 (1989) 20 6 72103. Comm.24. and it is here that the combination o f the two concepts frequently occurs.” in Apodosis: Essays Presented to Dr. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. als Pronoia.” ANRW 11. Prov.” in Die Philosophic der Antike (Basel: Schwabe. Parker. 8. was die Welt beseelt. it means that only one deity.9. 12 See Steinmetz (“D ie Stoa. Richard L.3— Hermann Dorrie. Myrto Dragona-Monachou. 47 (with reference to Chrysippus): ty) Tcpovoia —фи^-/] 8’ earl tou x6<7fxou.35). Apoll. 1. 2. § 933 (268.36:7 (1994) 4417— esp.319— Albrecht Dihle. 1992). 4. 3.” 539): “Das aber. Robert T. L ’Am e du monde de Platon a stoiciens (Paris: “Les belles 87. 1993). 47— 48. фи/Yj. Tipovoia. spiritus. 51. Weltseele: Geschichte und Hermeneutik (Frankfurt a.686— Joseph Moreau. als Heimarmene. 2. Cruickshank (London: St. 10 SKFII § 1064 (312. б Plotinus. Peter Frick. 1999). Providence in Philo of Alexandria (TSAJ 77. kurz.9. Vit. Philostratus. 950— 8. and his providence is like its soul” (eoLxevoa t w [xev av^ptorcco t o v Ala x al t o v xoajxov.55. § 613 (187. Mischa von Perger.” 5. 20.35). 1994).. which is the substance o f the world-soul.16. gelegentlich nennt Zenon diese feurige Weltseele auch rcveujj-a.” 1939). Peter Steinmetz.5. “Der Begriff ‘Pronoia’ in Stoa und Platonismus. the highest deity in fact. Long & Sedley. See Heinz Robert Schlette. was als aktives Prinzip nach Hervorbringung der Welt aus dem ‘Feuer’ als die ganze Welt durchdringendes ‘Feuer’ weiterwirkt. 3. 21) SV F II.

1988. IV.17 13 The expression iXa&t [aol occurs also 1. 948. [. 689.169A): “And shall I write about things not to be spoken o f and divulge what ought not to be divulged? Shall I utter the unutterable?” (xal urtep xwv appTjxwv ypatpojxev xal та ave^oLCTxa e^oraofjiev xa l та avexAaAyjxa. 41 [OCT. 1. 69:9-10. the offense consists of having written down (ypacpovxi) the text to follow (хабе) because it contains the secret tradition. xa <a>7ipaxa. See lEn. daB табѕ y p a q j o v x t . IV. 183. 68:1— Test. my Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 2. 1. See.16 However. 10 . C. sxAaXrjaofXEv. lAaaxofjiai. Anthol. 3. 13:6. these parallels indicate that the god is asked to smile with kindness at the orant.oi llpovoia XTA.g.pal.. and also Reitzenstein. tXsco?. 48:6— 50:1.155— 56. 213. nicht mehr der echte Wortlaut der Liturgie sein kann: das Wort ypacpovxc.357. Lucian. For a collection o f passages from apocalyptic writings. 2:17. Dieterich recognized a discrepancy between “w riting down” the mysteries. den Beginn der rituellen Aktion selbst ausmachten und zur Eroffnung der Kulthandlung selbst g e s p r o c h e n wurden. III. daB die Worte ТлагК \i. Luke 18:13). T D N T 3 (1938) 300-1.. muB es fur hochst wahrscheinlich gelten.. More common is the Attic £Aewq. Epigr. Abrasax. тсарабоха [лиахтјр.15 This secret tradition is named by technical ex­ pressions. 8. 82:1-3. Abr. . Parallel is Diew<.. Wright. daraus folgt dann. s. Schwyzer. cf. Cf. 2826. 186 (on Pausanias 39. occurring also in the N T (Heb 8:12 Qer 31:34 LXX]). Das athiopische Henochbuch (JSHRZ 5:6. avai. not in written form.. 12:4.3124. V. . see Siegbert Uhlig. Jacobitz 22].567. and that therefore the entire exordium cannot be part o f the mystery ritual to be perform ed.165.420. 475— 85) 91 B.206. 33:6-12. .<x. 22:1-23:6. the question o f writing is a literary topos. V. The Exordium (11. but he explicitly observes the rule o f secrecy regarding the mystery rituals known only to the “theurgists” (173A-B). e. 14 See LSJ. s. Presentation of a Petition (11. cf. he does not seem to realize that the act o f w riting down the sacred tradition is the offensive act precipitating the prayer. 1.13— 14). not for gain”). 12. ” 17 Pointed out by Merkelbach.v. the opening questions in the emperor Julian’s Hymn to the Mother of the Gods (Or. 3. while in others he is prohibited. H M R .304. cf. 92:1-5. LCL edition and translation by W.143.442— 43). and the original form o f oral transmis­ sion. 2En. 53:2— 54:1. 475—78) T he formula ЕХалК jaol introduces the prayer. As Merkelbach has noticed.I. Since the apocalyptic literature is on the whole not secret but intends to be public. 19:3-5. where in some texts the prophet is ordered to write the things down he has seen. 1984).АаагНгјтѓ. the apocalyptic literature. ware die ganz auBerlich eingetragene Anderung dessen.158 [Meleager] (iAoc&’. Matt 16:22.v. 709 n.. cf. [j l o l . 36:1.13 it seems to be conventional even in its archaizing form . Julian summarizes main points o f myths and festivals.са (“as I write these mysteries handed down. Since it occurs also elsewhere in the P G M . 667 n.341.14 The reason for the petition is that the author confesses the commission o f a specific offense: табе ypacpovxt. 35:2. constituting a secondary act. which mentions Theocritus 15.. See Friedrich Biichsel. not all o f which are textually beyond doubt: ха <а>ттрата тгарабоха fxucror]pt. BDAG. der den heiligen Text a b s c h r i e b . Giitersloh: Mohn. tAao<. 16 Dieterich (50): “. see III. 551 n. Darjtk).457. 15 The secret tradition is to be handed down orally. [xol yevou.. Grammatik. 11.

v. 26 Dieterich (3) reads та тгрмта ттаработа.) w ho render it as “unsold. 22 Cf.. XIII. xa fjiucmr)pt. 331. app. 20 Wessely.22-23: б тсатрсжаработо<. 4. тсаработа is found only here. 1. Cf.22 Differently. “La theurgie chez les neo-pythagoriciens et dans les papyrus magiques. ф 7гарѓбмха<. according to the app. W hile these terms belong to the familiar mystery-cult language. Iamblichus.. crit.132c. 93b. 2. Diogenes Laertius 4.a crou ra (TUVTEAou^-eva ’1сттра7]Х).. 802e. Rhet. Friedrich. 71р«татс6урасрос. On the subject matter. Protr. Cf. ad loc. but there are ambiguities here as well. ad loc. 1. 89— 27.бм[ЈЛ. Men.54. Betz. 170. Philodemus.92 Commentary Rather. 158. that is by implication. For parallels and bibliography. none seems compelling. X X X V I. s. Lg. s. the author could have intended a contrasting pun.: Plato. to the ritual as a whole (11.ov.26 In theory. the prayer o f the exordium is a different level o f ritual act performed in w riting by the author o f the exordium. see BDAG. 56. 25 See Preisendanz. See also 1 Pet 1:18 and BDAG. see Betz.109-11 (Moses. The words p.а are “handed over” (тгарабоха) as “sacred tradition” (иарабоак . Sam Eitrem.369 S. O Z 2 /1 . The term “mysteries” (pjanrjpt-a) refers to the text o f the ML. V.933. 685. 129. Preisendanz and Eitrem21 emend as < а > т с р а х а . Ernst Riess. in a supplemen­ tal section (11. 24. VII. XII. 107 (Magic..v. For further parallels see Dieterich. 333. crit. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 173— 83. Wendland prefers тсрмтсжаработа. s. XIII. Abrasax. gives as references for 7гаработо<. тсарабосп^.v. W hile all o f these emendations are possible. ad loc.322. see also BDAG.). IV2477. 2. 45): тгарабоС^оа тгоХХа тсарабо^а. 21 See Preisendanz..v.ov in the PGM see also 1. app. differently.192. XIX. the parallel in Thessalos o f Tralles (ed. in a papyrus from Egypt (3rd c. 794). 24 See Dieterich.306.131.52. H M R . 1. Suppl.. For the related тсаработео<.448. unsal­ able. crit. with references.23 following Usener24 and Riess.25 contracts the words into тгатротгаработа (“handed down by the father”). 53-54. § 27. 128. “The Formation o f Authoritative Tradition in the Greek Magical Papyri.).” SO 22 (1942) 49— 79. 746. Gottesnahe. Merkelbach. . "Oti тгаработт) yj арѕттѓ) a').v.. o f course. For parallels in early Christian literature. s. LSJ.” Hellenismus und Urchristentum. crit. 180. plausible would also be 7гра)татсаработа (“handed down first” or “handed down as most im portant”). 52. CIR 10 (1896) 411.110. LSJ.” If атсраха were accepted as correct..18 The |хиатт]р[. V. 18 For pj(TT7)pt. Ale. app.a. translated as “unverkauflich. 19 For 7тараб£бсо[Ја in the PGM see 1.. тграха could simply be the result o f an error by the scribe who forgot to erase it after he had corrected himself by writing тгаработа. 723). Reitzenstein.ovw бѕ xexvto (“for an only child”) point to the person to whom the tradition is going to be handed over. TtapaSoaii. if one wants to contract. esp. тгараб(. 476. 2592. 219— Graf. s. See Hopfner. 23 Merkelbach. the term refers to an ointment used in the ritual.v.12 (Xenocrates. [xu<rr/)pt. X XXIII. LSJ lists: Plato. but.” in Greek a rare term according to LSJ (s. 176..19 the words т а тхраха in the papyrus20 have been emended by scholars in different ways. 96-117).

g. Schenke.b. 290— 94. qualifying [лиатт) (“initiate”). §§ 36— cf. 290— Boll. Pitys to Ostanes (IV. Lichtheim. 33 Dieterich (3). the author is male. Dankwart Kirchner. earlier. 38.Е. 1. he read [лиеТст& тт}^ . which Preisendanz reads as a&avacxiav a£t. ptovco бѕ tsxvm formulates an exception which can be taken as absolutely exclusive (“only this child ever”). the epilogue to Instr. See BDAG. Since the author later includes an instruction for a fellow-initiate (11.2. 478 may either be a supplementary specification o f xexvov or a substitute address.” e. Friedrich. 734. such as the Orphic Gold Tablets.31 At any rate. Library. 41. see the letters o f Pnouthis to Keryx (1.2006-2125). While the phrase [xovto 8s texvco is neuter. however. s.58-63. the formulae contained in the text. 28 1. VIII. The papyrus has а£см[листтоа. 3.144— Also C H V . w ith its object being a&avaaiav (“immortality”). 475— 85) 93 The question is whether one should understand the expression as the author s self-reference. more material. 45). While the language is again familiar from the mystery-cults and attested elsewhere in the PGM . Aus der Offenbarungjohannis. and rzcdq. Cornutus (addressed to атсоа^). N T Apok (5th ed. 185. The question is whether a Е. 732— 50). with references. 30 See Betz. 32 A close parallel is the exordium to the Apocryphon o f James from Nag Hammadi (N H C 1. PGM also uses ulo<. H M R . to Any.1. 748). 230. 1. For 45.2 .18). 343. Nephotes to Psammetichos (IV. 644— 719— 55. but the reading o f the last two letters (-av or .. el [ay] [xovw [cto]u Icr^t-vw uujj ctou a^t-ouvxL та [тсар’] Tjfxwv pYj& svToc £Уѕру[т]](Л(хта. cf.238 (with further parallels). 154-285). speaks o f тгарабо^ос.42— 195). 136. 30. or as a reference to someone else as recipient of the text. it is meant to function as a memorandum sent to an addressee. xexvov.) 1. (Abraxas. see Norden. Egyptian instructional literature con­ tains addresses like “my child.w. His later reading оа was accepted by Norden. O Z 2 /1 .7.18. Agnostos Theos. The Exordium (11. (IV535. X.192: таита o5v [xtjSsv'l 7гараб£бои. Lichtheim 2.32 The verb indicating petition appears to be а.ш (“I ask”). not o f [листттјркх.2519: хријЗе. а (“worthy”). For other epistolary pre­ scripts.30 As an address. 231. 31 Cf. while the exordium is not formally a letter. So much is clear also from the close parallel in PGM 1. 478 addresses the recipient as “daughter” (& ^иуатвр). would have to be secondarily applied to a female.214. Antike und Christentum. ule. 29 At any rate. 755. also Thessalos o f Tralles (ed. the “daughter” in 1. 76. 24). 93. presupposing a male initiate.27 parallels in the immediate context prove that the recipient of the document is addressed.olq) are quite uncertain (Martinez).ш functions as a verbal or adjectival form. 163). Јлиотоа тт)? 'гцхетѓрад Suvafxea)? таитт)?. This text. 226. or as relatively exclusive (“only this child at this tim e”). the parallels in Hopfner. a ulo<. Dieterich reads it as an adjective.192. IV. Agnostos Theos.33 The 27 For xexvov see XIII. an inconsistency known also from other mystery-cult texts. Cf. Nag Hammadi Deutsch.v. it is done in a secondary insertion (see below). or to the fellow-initiate later mentioned as rexvov (1. W hen the comment in 1. 225. 742..I.28 but the identity o f the person is still in doubt. the term jjlovo? points to the magicians’ common practice o f having only one apprentice at a time. . see Robinson. 1. See Reitzenstein.29 In either case.

The intern.233) has it indented and enclosed in brackets. O Z 2 /1 . 2. terms such as [лауѕха. 24. 741. see also Hopfiier. 501. 3. the adjective would require the genitive a&avaaLtx? (“worthy o f immortality”). a fact that causes Merkelbach to change the accusative to the genitive.686-88) distinguishes rightly between perma­ nent and temporary immortality. 482 by connecting yjv with таитт)? (1. 36 The term oc9-avaa(. see Preisendanz. with note) who treats it as a marginal gloss. 620). cannot be accepted. “Power (Suvocfxt. Antike und Christentum.173— 190-96. 37 So Dieterich (49). 11 n. a7ia9-avaTi£eiv. CIR 10 (1896) 411. Erich Fascher.94 Commentary problem is that the papyrus reads the iota adscript indicating the dative ending for the noun. (11. Cf. 1920). 13 (Magic. See Dieterich. [xayo? are not found in the Mithras Liturgy. Friedrich Preisigke. 1 (both with important parallels). ттј? тјЈлѕтера? Suvocfxew? таит iqc. 4 -5 n. as does the verb c a^t-ouv. So also Betz. ai-touv 1. < 11. 175— 86. The phrase concluding the sentence. 3. IV.” R A C 4 (1959) 415— 74. 38 Frequent in the PGM. 478— interrupt the sentence 81 which continues in 1. s. 58. but not for the adjective.81 (index). Riess. XI. 504-6. 642. idem. The adjective o^ lo? refers to ritual in a few places. however.?). 419— also Betz. As scholars have pointed out repeatedly. a term occurring often in magical texts. etc. § 35.” D D D . Preisendanz (1. O Z 2 /1 . 477) and indicates the purpose o f the ritual called arcai)avaTicr[x6<. 516-17. adducing the parallel in 1. related is svepyet-a xtA. 4.192 as support. 49. For further references in the PGM.. Also. it does imply. 11. elsewhere in PGM.35 As a result. 2. 609. however. 39 See Dieterich (2-3.37 If so.34 c Another reason for Merkelbach s change is that otherwise the adjective leaves the sentence w ithout a verb. 544. 35. if one accepts the letters as they stand in the papyrus. cf. that Preisendanz s reading o f [листтах as referring to the deities (“ihr Mysten dieser unserer M acht”). furthermore see 78. the ML presupposes temporary immortality or deification. immortality is o f course the prim ary benefit derived from the mysteries ([xucTYjpia). 3. Graf. 520.233). also W ilhelm Kroll (by letter to Preisendanz): [jlovov бе rexvov a&avaoxav aEiw fAwjaai. Hopfner. §§ 32— with references. 531. Merkelbach (Abrasax. prefering [литјтѓ]^. see Dieterich.38 It is conspicuous that for all the magic.36 w ho as an initiate ([листтт]?) is entitled to it.739. Revelation.a occurs only here in the PGM (1.51 (index). a&avamoc? a £ l o [лиатт] r/)? .192. 46— 48. 771.v. Gottesnahe.. Die Gotteskraft der fruhchristlichen Zeit (Berlin: de Gruyter.88— 89) puts it in brackets and small print. 477— 524. 3. Nilsson (G G R . Preisendanz s reading seems to make sense.177. For references to restrictions about passing on the secrets only to a son or a daughter. awkward as it would be anyway. Festugiere. 34 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 11). jxayixo?. 478). Graf’s assumption that the 8th Book o f Moses is dedicated to a daughter seems. 650. 647— aQ-avaxc>. 48. “Dynamis.. The lack o f useful parallels also hampers a clear decision. 747.15.3911. Preisendanz. esp. (“o f this our power”) refers to the divine power (SuvajJtx?) energizing the ritual as a whole. 35 к^шс. 1922). . Vom gottlichen Fluidum nach agyptischer Anschauung (Berlin: de Gruyter. The author asks Providence and Psyche to grant (a^tw) immortality (a&avaata) to his addressee.a. incorrect. for the ML see 11.

reflecting an afterthought and self-correction on his part. O daughter. which in itself is a complete sentence: XP-] °^v * “ ftuyaxep. 475— 85) 95 ruption can best be explained as caused by an secondary insertion. is used in other passages. Since the same author is responsible for both additions in 11.I. as a “treatise” (auvxay[j. may have inserted the sentence and thereby readdressed the docum ent to a person different from the one originally intended. That author or redactor would also identify the whole text he composed. (3) A later redactor. 478— functions as a reminder saying which ingredients must (XP82 /))40 be used in an initial ritual. otherwise well-written. (Soxavwv x al slSwv xtov fjifsXjXovxtov croc. which then was slipped into the text by a scribe who copied the text. The content o f the insertion specifies only some ingredients to be used at the beginning.v. prior to the insertion. III. however. composition. the insertion in 11. the insertion would have to have been made as a secondary supple­ m ent to that exordium. This case would presuppose that the author did not himself inscribe the present papyrus. Since additional teachings are appended as well in 11 750— . the first person singular piou (1. but that a scribe mechanically copied it from the author s document. the reason for putting the insertion into the exordium must have been compelling. (2) The insertion could have originated as a mar­ ginal gloss by the author. the conclusion should be that this author worked w ith an earlier document that he himself regarded as incomplete. 481) would refer either to the original author or to a later redactor. to take the juices o f herbs and spices. 772— 813). why did the author not include the insertion among the addenda at the end o f his composition? Because he himself refers to the full information at the end (11. raises interesting questions. The Exordium (11. but no ritual is described in the text.a [11.v jukobc. 819. here a reconstruction.> ev xw xeXst xou lepou [jlou auvxay[xaxo<. That earlier docum ent must have included the exor­ dium (minus the insertion 478— 82) as well as the main body o f the text 40 The term. <[X7]vu07ja£a^at. There are three options for explaining what may have happened. This insertion. Since the whole exordium secondarily introduces a text o f sacred tradition. 481— 82]). (“furthermore. which will be made known to you at the end o f my sacred composition”). who used an older document. (1) The author o f the exordium could have made the insertion. the author assumes that it needs to be performed. 977.177: [j^pyj as e7t]i&ueL. In this case the author himself would have rather clumsily messed up his own. H e would have added the insertion because without it the ritual would be incomplete and would not work.913. Although such a ritual is not described fully in the text. it is necessary for you. . 478-81 and 772-813. indicating instruction. Therefore. Correspondingly. see IV. Xapi[Sav£t.

. von Deines and W. 1982).” or “children” signify pupils or apprentices.v. Leiden: Brill. see the Metternich Stele. Halfte (GrundriB der Medizin der alten Agypter.10. Isis is educated by Hermes (1. J. Agypten.41 T he person in question. T he transmission o f esoteric knowledge from father to daughter also re­ flects older Egyptian practice42 which continues in Greco-Egyptian and H er­ metic sources.2. A. such usage should not be excluded as a possibility.2.. according to which “sons. therefore. where Harpokration o f Alexandria addresses his natural histories to 41 For 9г>уатт)р cf. X X X IV 18-19. however. 1952). is not treated as an apprentice but as a fully initiated magician ((лиаттј^). If the author calls her “daughter” in the metaphorical sense. Borghouts. Les Papyrus medicaux de VEgyptepharaonique (Paris: Fayard. IV. §35.96 Commentary (11. 43 See Muller. but she is now treated as a colleague. LI. 76. See also Hopfher. she is his biological daughter. 15. Worterbuch der medizinischen Texte. 690. 478-82. n. Westendorf. 5). he would regard her as his heir to w hom he hands over a piece of sacred tradition. Both possibilities could be documented by parallels from ancient religions. if. Klasens. Al­ though there is no other instance o f a female apprentice m entioned in the PGM . In the second instance. 2. F. In the M emphitic tradition contained in the aretalogy o f Kyme. p. Demaree andj. “Divine Intervention in Ancient Egypt and Its Manifestation (bzw). s.” in Gleanings from Deir el-Medma (eds. 26— 27. 39. J. Such an address would conform to instructional language and practice. “daughter” would be a metaphor. but is called the daughter o f Kronos/Geb (1. 123. the magician as father would pass on a piece o f sacred tradition to his daughter who is also a magician. VII. lines 57— 58 (saying VI). XL. 1995). who in some texts is regarded as her father. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. 1961). see H. Janssen.” “daughters. 2— 3.v. 484— 720). s. on the other hand. The author. she may at one time have been an apprentice. 819— 20). R . A Magical Statue Base (Socle Behague) in the Museum of Antiquities at Leiden (Leiden: Brill. p. 1%уостт]р. Egyptologische Uitgaven 1. BDAG. The fact that some o f the supplementary rituals are needed at the beginning caused him to insert the reminder in 11. O Z 2 /1 . A most important example is Isis being instructed by T h ot/ Hermes. which also explains why he ended by declaring the document (u7tofxvY][jia) to be now complete (11. In the first instance.732— 820). with the translation by J. furthermore. 21. Addressing the recipient as “daughter” (&иуатт]р) can mean two things: she could be his own kin. In these texts Isis is the most important example.43 A Herm etic source for father-daughter transmission is found in the prologue o f the Kyranides. added the supplements (11. 704. or his apprentice. 42 I am indebted for this information to Thomas Dousa who mentioned ancient Egyptian medical texts but criticizes that scholars sometimes have a tendency to explain away the female gender. 3). Thierry Bordinet. 232. while in other sources she is regarded as the daughter o f T hoth/H erm es.

I. The Exordium (II. 4 7 5 -8 5 )


his daughter.44 Female magicians are o f course known from many quarters o f Greek and Hellenistic45 as well as from Jewish religion.46 The language o f the instruction is technical. The often occurring verb Xa[x(3av£t.v (“take”) indicates the acquiring and using o f ingredients, one o f which is “plant ju ice” (xyXol ^oxavwv), specified further in the supplement (11. 773 and 781).47 The term elScov, from to ѕХбос; (pi. slStj) seems strange as compared w ith other occurrences in the PGM ;48 here it refers either to drugs or to utensils.49 Since in the supplement (11. 772— 813)50 only ingredients and no utensils are detailed, the translation should be accordingly (“drugs”).51 The term pqvu&Yjaea&oa (“be inform ed”) is supplied by Preisendanz who argues for it on the basis o f the parallels in PGM IV.2016, 2046— 2069.52 The 47, information is to be found ev tw tsXei (“at the end”), where the crossreference is indicated (ttjv 7ipoxsL[xevY]v [1. 779]). Concluding his statement (1. 482), the author refers to his composition as a whole by the phrase tou lepou [xou ctuvtocy[хосто^. The term auvTocyfxa is literary, com bining the compositional w ith the functional (“composition”): the text is put together from sources, and it serves as a prescription for the performance o f the ritual.53 In 1. 482, the text o f the exordium continues, w ith the relative pronoun 7]v connecting with таитт]? (1. 479). The section (11. 482— sets forth the hier­ 85)
44 For the passing on o f tradition within the family, see Dieterich, Abraxas, 160-63; Norden, Agnostos Theos, 290— Festugiere, Revelation, 1.332— Dimitris Kaimakis, Die 91; 36; Kyraniden (BKP 76; Meisenheim am Gian: Hain, 1976), 14, lines 4-5: ex tou 'Артсохрат^шос; tou ’AXe^avSpew^ тиро^ ttjv olxelocv Suyaxepav; 15, lines 30— 31: [ЗфАо<; што 2upux<; &ер<х7геитЈ.х7), ттј olxera &иуатр1 'Apuoxpaxcwv уеурафе табе. See also the chain o f tradition involving the theurgists Nestor, Plutarch and his daughter Asclepigeneia, and Proclus (Marinus, Vit. Procli 28, ed. Rita Masullo, Marino di Neapoli, Vita di Proclo [Napoli: D ’Auria, 1985]). The note in Graf ( Gottesnahe, 212, n. 13; ET: Magic, 237, n. 11), men­ tioning PGM XIII.341— is unclear because the term there is xexvov. 43, 45 For the evidence o f female magicians, see Matthew W. Dickie, Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World (London: Routledge, 2001). 46 The “witch o f Endor” is, o f course, the most famous example (1 Sam 28). See Klaus Thraede, “H exe,” R A C 14 (1988) 1269— Giuseppe Veltri, Magie und Halakha. Ansatze 76; z u einem empirischen Wissenschaftsbegriff im spatantiken undfrtihmittelalterlichenJudentum (TSAJ 62; Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1997), 26, 29, 65-72, 79-81. 47 For further references, see below on 1. 773. 48 For е!бо? see also IH.190-91; VIII.5, 18; XIII.1077; 21.47-48. 49 Preisendanz renders “Spezereien,” Merkelbach (159) “Arten,” Hopfner (according to Preisendanz, app. crit., ad loc.) “Utensilien,” Meyer (Betz, G M PT , 48) “spices.” 50 The term т ш {x[eX]X6vTtov (11. 480— 81) refers to the supplement. The correction follows Dieterich (p. 3: fx[e]A6vT«v), Preisendanz (app. crit.), and Merkelbach (158). 51 See for references LSJ, s.v. еТбо^, IV. 52 The term refers to matters “to be informed about.” Wilhelm Cronert (“Zur Kritik,” 100) supplies -гсарабогНЃЈстѕтоа. 53 Cf. 1.45— та TCocvxa xaTaX£(,[7i6[xeva t][xlv ev] рфХос? |лирѓоа<; стиутау|л.ата. 47:



archy o f authority and the transmission o f the tradition: ffj o fxeya? 'HAio? Ml&pa? sxsAsuasv fjiot, pieTa8o&Y)vai. што тои ap^ayyeXou аитои, бтсоо? eyw [xovo? al<x>Y]TY]? oupavov (3alva> xal хатотгтѕисо rcavxa (“which the great god Helios Mithras ordered to be handed over to me by the his archangel, so that I alone may walk heaven as an ‘eagle’ and behold the all”). At the top stands the highest deity, defined by his names and epithets. Clearly, the god is monotheis­ tic, indicated by his epithet o [хеуа? &e6<; (“the great god”), which occurs only here in the ML.54 The god has, however, two names: Helios and Mithras.55 For the author, therefore, the two gods, originally separate, have become united. This is all the more remarkable because in the main body o f the ML, the author’ source material, the two gods are not identical. In 1. 640 Helios occurs s alone, named as the highest god but in fact subordinate to Mithras; in 1. 643 another god is spoken o f as o fAsytcrro? &eoc;, and in 11. 696— 704 this greatest god is described without naming him; he clearly is, however, Mithras. The authors sources, on the one hand, presuppose two different gods, but on the other hand the authors intention is to merge them into “one god.” As Wolfgang Fauth has pointed out, while the ambiguity o f the relationship between Helios and Mithras reflects Hellenistic syncretism (theocrasy),56 the author of the ML had philosophical interests as well. The fact that only Helios (and not Mithras) is named in 1. 640, in spite o f what no doubt is a description o f him, may perhaps result from the author’ interest in presenting the highest god as Aion s (see 11 520— 587— . 23, 616). The double-name Helios-Mithras means that the author must have read the name o f Mithras in the source. Did the author purposefully omit the name Mithras at 1. 696? Why did he let the name of Helios stand? The reason for keeping Helios may have been that the god is needed for the ritual o f ascent through the seven astral spheres.57 Fauth also
The epithet is frequent elsewhere in the PGM (see Preisendanz, 3.133— [index], s.v.). 34 See also III.80: М£9-ра; 100-1: vat, (леу1 стте Мѓ&ра; 462: ^aipe, "HXt,e M£9-pa; V.4: Zeu "ГОаѕ Мѓ&ра Иаратп; Ostracon 2.8— Mi&peu Mi&pa. The name Helios occurs in 9: the PGM also in many other combinations. 56 For a discussion o f the relationship between Helios and Mithras, and a review o f the current literature see Fauth, Helios Megistos, esp. 11— Manfred Clauss, “Sol Invictus 33; Mithras,” Athendum 78 (1990) 423— idem, Mithras, 146— 50; 55: “Mithras and the SunGod”; N. P. Milner & Martin F. Smith (“N ew Votive Reliefs from Oinoanda,” Anatolian Studies 44 [1994] 65-76), discussing a bust o f a youthful god with a crown o f rays, addressed as M I0PA НЛШ. Cf. IV.1596— 1715, an invocation o f Helios, with the epithet zlq Zzuq Ѕаратт ic, (1715). See also Albert de Jong, Traditions of the Magi: Zoroastrianism in Greek and Latin Literature (Religions o f the Graeco-Roman World, 133; Leiden, N ew York, Koln: Brill, 1997), 157-204, 284-96. 57 Actually, this was Dieterich s (89-90) suggestion, commenting on Origen’ descrip­ s tion o f the mysteries o f Mithras and the yJaixocc; ѕтгтостгиЛо^ (Cels. 6.22). Cf. Fauth’ s critique, Helios Megistos, 22— 23.
54 55

I. The Exordium (11. 475— 85)


points to the Neoplatonist Julians doctrine o f the three suns in three worlds: the transcendental Helios in the intelligible world (xoafxo? voyjto?), HeliosMithras in the middle (voepoq), and the sun-disk in the visible world (брато^); accordingly, Helios is the deity uniting and holding the three worlds to­ gether.58 Compared w ith Julian, the ML is clearly pre-Neoplatonic and shows the problems Julian s theory tried to solve. The great god Helios-Mithras gave the order to “hand over” ([летаб£б(0[л(,)59 the tradition through his “archangel” (ар^ауугХос), a term used also in pagan sources, esp. in Neoplatonism.60 This mediator figure remains unnamed.61 To w hom was the tradition handed over? Apparently to the author: бтс«<; eyw [xovog. Naming the author as the exclusive recipient, however, is a rather com m on feature in similar texts.62 As indicated by the exordium, the text is just another instance in the passing on o f the tradition. T he next word (1. 484) is controversial. T he papyrus contains оатјту)?, w hich has been em ended and interpreted in various ways. Preisendanz emends to cd<x>v]Tr]c, (“petitioner”),63 rejecting D ieterich’s reading as ocIyjtoc;

58 Fauth (151— 54), discussing Julians Hymn to Helios, Or. IV.149A-D. Accordingly, Helios provides for unity between the gods, but “without confusion into unity” (бѓ/а ow f/uoeuq sic, evcoctlv); cf. 157A. At 155 A Julian mentions worshiping Mithras as a novelty and with some ambuigity concerning his relationship to Helios. 59 The term is technical in this context, a synomym оѓтгарабсбмЈлл; see for parallels 1.130 ([a ^ evI [аАЛсо [лејтабм^, аААа нри(3ѕ, ...); IV.853; VII.457; XII.93. Cf. y BDAG, s.v. [летабѓбмјлс.. 60 The occurrences in Neoplatonism seem to go back to the Egyptian Anebo; see Porphyry, Aneb. 1.4: yap, xi to yvwpiCTfjta &sou 7iapoiKjr.ai; 7] ayyeXou y ] ap^ayyeXou 7] Sai[Aovoq y\ xivoq ap^ovxo^ фи^г^. The passage in Iamblichus, Myst. 2.3 seems to depend on this (see also 2.4). See Franz Cumont, “Les anges du paganisme,” R H R 72 (1915) 159-82, esp. 175-80; Edouard des Places, Jamblique, Les mysteres d ’Egypt (Paris: Les belles lettres, 1966), 79 n. 1. 61 Depending on the religious context, the names differ. In PGM XIII, the archangel, subordinated to Aion, is named Helios (XIII.257, 334— cf. III.339 without name) or 37; Michael (XIII.928-29; IV.2356-57; VII.257); in XIV.a.5 Helios is asked to send his archangel. Other places speak o f a plurality o f archangels (1.208— IV 1203— 3051— 9; 4, 52; XIII.328-29, 744; XXII.b.3,7; 15.a; 21.9-10). For further sources, see Dieterich, 47; Reitzenstein, H M R , 171— n. 2; Merkelbach & Totti, Abrasax 1.200, 219; ibid., 2.79, 81 72, (XIV.a.5); Daniel & Maltomini, Supplementum Magicum, #29.3-4; #93.4; Kotansky, Amulets, #57.12. See BDAG, s.v.; Johann Michl, “Engel,” R A C 5 (1965) 56— 57; Mach, Entwicklungsstadien, 56, 142— 43, 177, 225, 230; J. W. van Henten, “Archangel,” D D D 80— 82. 62 Cf. 1.188; IV. 1520-21, 2961; differently XII.37; LXII.25-26. See also Thessalos o f Tralles, prooemium; furthermore i En. 19:3 ( O T P 1.23): “(So) I, Enoch, I saw the vision o f the end o f everything alone; and none among human beings will see as I have seen.” 63 Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.158, 233) follows Preisendanz, and translates: “der ich darum gebeten habe.”



(“eagle”).64 Preisendanz’s correction is attested in papyri,65 but it would be unique in the PG M .66 Dieterich argued (50, 220— against C um ont67 and 21) ; Reitzenstein68 that afojxo< is philologically not impossible69; in addition, in a new reading o f the papyrus Martinez favors the letter e instead o f Y so that the ), interpretation as the Mithraic title o f “eagle” (alero q) claimed by the author is highly likely.70 That this title could easily be connected w ith the following statement o f purpose was pointed out by Weinreich.71 The language describing the goals of the author (11. 483— is also rare in the 85) PGM. First, there is oupavov (3oav« (“going to heaven”),72 which is not different in meaning from the usual zic, oupavov [3a£vto (“going into heaven”).73 Second, there is хатотстеим tzolvxol (“overviewing all things’), a topos in literature regarding ascension and view of the cosmos.74 Indeed, these words sum up what the author understands to happen during the performance o f the ritual.
64 For other proposed corrections see Preisendanz, app. crit., ad l o c idem, WSt. 41 (1919) 140. 65 See LSJ, Suppl., s.v.; Preisigke-KieBling, s.v. 66 Cf. XII.144: ocEttjctis; XIII.287: yjttjcjw alTTplav ; IV.434, 1290, 1930; XXII.b.30: e^atrrjat.?; IV.462, 1294; VI.29: &,< £ xitz Zo &oli. More frequent in the PGM is Ixstt]? (11.87; XIII.637). 67 Franz Cumont, Etudes syriennes (Paris: Picard, 1917), 57 n.: “correction douteuse”; c f 89. 68 Reitzenstein (H M R , 172, 174) reads аАтјтг^ (“wanderer”). 69 For Doric cdri)xbc, see LSJ, s.v.: “Dor. for aexo<;, aiexoq.” 70 Dieterich (54, 151, 220— 21) has further material supplied by Weinreich. For the Mithraic material see Cumont, Textes et monuments, 1.314 n. 8 ; Theodor Schneider and Eduard Stemplinger, “Adler,” R A C 1 (1950) 87— (with references to Porphyry, Abst. 94 4.16, and Lucian, Icarom. 14); Wolfgang Speyer, “Geier,” R A C 9 (1976) 430-69, esp. 439— 41; Carsten Colpe et al., “Jenseitsfahrt I (Himmelsreise),” R A C 17 (1996), esp. 439— 41; Merkelbach, Mithras, 105-6 (with photos from the Heddernheim mithraeum), 240, 242 (in connection with the ascension o f the soul). Betz (Lukian, 39, 97 n. 6 , 175) points to the eagle as a symbol o f Helios and Zeus. 71 In Dieterich, 220— 21. 72 Merkelbach (Abrasax , 3.159) translates: “auf die Himmel(s-Schale) trete(n).” 73 1.67 (cf 184: ситеибм yap eiq oupavov). For instances o f this terminology, see Lucian, Peregr. 39: IXlttov yav, (Salvoa ec ’'OXuptov; similarly Philostratus, Vit. Apoll. 8.30. See Betz, Lukian, 38ff., 123, 128ff., 167— Cf. Vettius Valens, A nth. VI.1.9 (ed. Pingree [BiTeu, 69. 1986] 231, 6— 7):... та etcl утјс xaxaXL7i 6 vTa? oupavo(3aTeiv a^avaToit; фи^аТ<; xal QzL lic,. o Cf. also Lucian, Sacr. 9; Timon 49; Astr. 13; Philo, Opif. 69— а1&еро(Затем, oupavo(3aT£w, 71: C U 7repL7roXew. For the terminology, see Abraham P. Bos, “Immanenz und Transzendenz,” T [i. R A C 17 (1996) 1041-92, esp. 1045-46. 74 For хатотстѕиѕ[л/ see IV516— 17; 504: sn on xzveiv; Lucian, Icar. 12— see Betz, 16; Lukian, 39 n. 1 (with parallels). Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.233) points to the Platonic idea (Plato, Phaedr. 247b— o f the immortal souls w hen they travel to heaven on the chariot and c) break through the astral sphere to behold the heavenly world (cf. Ps.-Plato [Philip o f Opus], Epin. 978c— 986b— d, 987d). Closer to the ML is C H III.3: eiq xaxoTixelav oupavou;

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 )


II. The M ain body o f the ritual (11. 4 8 5 —732)

As indicated in the papyrus by a space after 1. 486, the main body o f the composition sets forth the ritual called отос&осуссгшџбд (“immortalization”; see the Analysis infra, part II, 11 485-732). This ritual has several clearly . distinguishable sections, beginning w ith a lengthy petitionary prayer (section A, 11 485-537), a prescription for a breathing ritual (section B, 11. 537-38), . the introduction to the ascent narrative (section C, 11. 539— 44), the narrative o f the ascent itself, consisting o f seven scenarios (section D, 11. 544-732). This main body is then followed by supplemental rituals (part III, 11. 732— 819), and a concluding statement (11. 819-20).


The opening (first) prayer (11. 485— 537)

The importance o f prayer for the ML as a whole is shown by the long prayer (11. 485-537) to be recited at the beginning o f the ritual. According to the internal num bering o f the prayers (see 11. 741— 42), it is the first,75 a petitionary prayer by genre, consisting o f the traditional parts o f invocation (11. 486— 99) and petition (11. 499-537).76 1. Before the prayer begins, a statement o f identification (11. 485— sepa­ 86) rates it from the preceding exordium and defines the prayer by the proper terms: laxxv бе тои Xoyou т)бе Y ] (“This is the invocation o f the prayer”). Xoyo<;77 refers to the prayer as a whole, хХтјст^ to the invocation.78 2. The invocation is in two parts, first calling on “O rigin” (11. 486— 87), and second on the four elements which in effect constitute “O rigin” (11. 489— 95).79 This kind o f invocation o f cosmic powers by abstract, personified

1.3 (jta&slv QiAw та ovtoc xal vo7)am ttjv toutwv cpucnv xal yvwvoa tov 9-sov. For further references see Norden, Agnostos Theos, 24— 99— 27, 109; N ock & Festugiere, 1.46, n. 10. 75 In 11. 741-42, the prayer is identified as б Trpwxoi; ’ oyoq. k 64. Since 76 On the composition o f prayers, see Furley & Bremer, Greek Hymns, 1.50— the prayer shows influences o f Hellenistic philosophy, it will have to be classified among the philosophical prayers; see with further material van den Berg, Proclus’ Hymns, 13— “The 34: Philosopher’s Hym n.” 77 The Xoyoq contains the things to be spoken (та Xeyofjieva). 78 For the term хАтјспс;, see 11.81; V I.1; VII.878; XII.310. See also Lewy, Chaldean Oracles, 467-71: “The Caller and the Call.” 79 For the elemental origins see also the prayers addressed to Aion-Helios 1.195-222; 1.263-327; III.494-632; IV.l 115-66; IV.l 167-1226. For the а т о ^ а tou x 6 (J[xou, see III.568; IV.440, 1126, 1303, 1961; VIII.78; X II.250-51; XVII.b.15; 'X X X IX .18-20; LXII.15.

Dornseiff. Franz Boll.206— Furley & Bremer. “Hebdomas. Antiquity and Humanity: Essays on Ancient Religion and Philoso­ phy Presented to Hans Dieter B etz on His 70th Birthday (Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. XIII. “Cleanthes’ Hymn to Zeus and Early Christian Literature. however. O C T reading (atjtk. DeiBmann. 3. 486. 1749. instead o f traditional names o f deities. < T For the Presocratics. Brashear. 610-16. see Dieterich.). Das Alphabet. 453-60). general invocation is a parallelismus membrorum. 32— 33.612. however. 1. Mitchell. 788.” yeveat. see below.84 where it is indicative o f the cosmological foundation in a more general sense. 393-99 (Light from the Ancient East. but it does not appear to be a concern in 1. an interpretation that has some support in the the ML. “Planeten. Lva [X] tk.185.5). The connection o f the seven vowels with the seven planets seems obvious. X II. 498-99. 492. 501. 1. at notes 87— 88).” in Adela Y. refers to birth and rebirth (see on 11. C.47. the term yevsm*. 80 The phenomenon is typical o f philosophical prayers. Collins & Margaret M. this cosmic origin defines what the ML means by “rebirth” : it is the underlying cpuaic. the ML is directed by philosophical cosmology.). 635— 36). also XIII. see 11. s The first line (486) reads [TJeveat. 81 See Merkelbach (Abrasax. 477-99. 35— (lit. At this point o f the prayer.82 In principle. 41e. еАаттоТто (Tim. 764. 266. XXII. The term ysveat. Wilhelm and Hans Georg Gundel. 501. 600. 7. 82 Within the ML. Thom. one finds this lan­ guage in Plato’ Timaeus. 532. Cf. 544. Licht vom Osten (4th ed. Since seven-vowel sequences are frequent in all sorts o f magical literature. pointing to Plato’s first birth o f human beings which is the same for all. so that all can have the same chances in life: oxt.720.” 3431 (with further literature). 3. 493. Outside o f the ML. it originated.234) who relates the reference to the astrological birth constellation. Merkelbach (Abrasax .80 As Merkelbach has pointed out.” PRE 20 (1950) 2017-2185.81 s The first. 495.” 84 For vowel sequences and variations in the ML. 6 3 5 36. 3. Greek Hymns. cf.” implying that the human birth o f the individual has its direct source in the primordial origin o f the universe..234). that needs to be “regenerated.612.Each line declares a primordial origin to be the source o f the present suppliant’ personal natural birth. cf. “The Greek Magical Papyri.b. Johan 15. yeveaic.”83 The first line ends with the magical vowel sequence aerjiouw.102 Commentary concepts.? can mean both “origin” and “birth. 620. see Nilsson. 528-29.? тирмтт] ттј? ep j? yeveaew? (“First origin o f my origin”). 620. VIII. is clear evidence o f influence o f Greek philosophy. G G R .812— 2. тгрооттј jjlsv ectolto тѕтосу[xsvy] [lLx nixaiv. 83 See 11.” PRE 7 (1912) 2547— 68 78.742). while astrology is a secondary overlay for the sake o f “verification. the term is used differently in reference to “creation” as understood in Egyptian and Jewish creation myths (IV1040. The authors objective is to combine cosmology and anthropology with astrology (see below on 1. earlier w ith the Presocratics. an occurrence in the ML is not surprising. eds. On vowel series generally.). 2001). beginning in the fourth century BCE.? and apx?]. 720. using two Greek terms denoting “origin. Merkelbach’ comment s (Abrasax.234) is unclear: “Offensichtlich sollte hier fur jeden Planeten seine Stelle bei der .43.

ad loc.86 The oldest parallels to this notion o f primordial apx*] are found in pre-Socratic philosophy. earth (. 1499-1566. Accordingly.” R A C 4 45. 1995). 88 For the texts. ftiaiq. Theology. This sound is known ‘ersten’ Geburt des Initianden angegeben werden. Vgl. apxr]v T£ x al oroi-x^ov ••• ovtwv to aTcetpov .. 17b. de Vogel. # # 21 (with parallels to the cosmogonic myth.1639— 37. Eine Vorarbeit zum lateinischen Thesaurus (Leipzig: Teubner. 1. 488) addresses the other cosmological concept: apx?] ттј? ер)? ap yy\<g> тсршгг) (“first beginning o f my beginning”). Jaeger. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien (Hildesheim: Olms.” A B G 1 (1955) / 104-7. and Simplicius indicate. app.130— 687. 141-51.” Phron. For the frequent omission o f the final -q see Gignac. 164. 2836— XIII. whole. “Kosmische Machte im Bibelepos des Dracontius. welche zur Bezeichung der Planeten dienen. 11— 8. 35. Gerhard Delling. T D N T 7 (1971). the problems o f later Christian adaptation are discussed by Wolfgang Speyer. esp.124-25. m oon. the term ocpxh ге^егѕ to both the primordial beginnings o f the cosmos and the individual beginning o f the initiate. the sound. equalling n o n n vo o v rpLg.89 Parallel to the vowel sequence in 1. Aristotle. See Adolf Lumpe. Frag. 505. 298. s. (ed. 85 The pap. the formulation is unique. 43. 41).88 As the sources o f Plato. 18 (1973) 240— On the 78. 1. Anaximander used the terms y ivzoic.pyjyl and axoi'/eia: A Problem in Stoic Cosmology. Greek Philosophy. Die Konstellation bei seiner heutigen. ‘zweiten’ Geburt steht unten in der in 544 exeivYjq xr^q yjfxepa^ xal xrtq wpaq tteLcr. 31. 87 See Orph. See Preisendanz. 11.. # # 11a.v. (“smacking the lips”). ap^rj xal теАеитт) IV. these ideas were handed down in philosophical traditions dealing w ith the origins o f the universe.. 610— is expressly connected with the 16 planets (617— 20).. 742 (differently 1. 550). 86 Again. while the vowel composition in 11.-K. 89 See Hermann Diels.. обог).e^w vyj 'fivealc. 168.II.” PRE. 104-18. “Weltschopfung. 35— A dolf Lumpe. pp. 487 also ends w ith magical sounds to be performed by the suppliant. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 103 The second line (1. called 7ro7T7cu<7[x6i. Kirk & Raven.S 9 (1962) 1433-1589. and apx>Q together in referring to the origin of the universe. is to be performed three times. “a. Main body of the ritual (11. 35). the parallels in the ML. Michael Lapidge. (1959) 1073— 1100.. B 1 (I. 4— 89.” in idem. 486. according to which apx?) <(?> is Wendland’ correction. crit. esp. These sounds are indicated in the text by abbreviated symbols. the sun. including the hum an being (o av^pwrco?) w ho originated from the same apxat. Elementum. this is not done in 1. 9 0 93). 12 A 9. 83.85 Again. esp. Grammar. 15). Interesting is the citation o f the formula ocpX ] xal xeXoq. 486. 1899). Kern). a x o ijzio v .6-8. stars.” However. see D. see Hans Schwabl. s 1. the first o f which are three letters w ith dots over them: n n n . “beginning T and end” (IV1125. the O rphic Frag­ ments87 and Anaximander. . “Der Terminus Prinzip (ap‘rj) von den Vorsokratikern bis auf Aristoteles. ea ri toT<. but cf. reads apxri . auch die Vokalreihen in 610— 616. 297 (1. # 9 6 and pp. “Elementum.

ocia exei [AayeueLv уеуратсхоа. 561. It is called аир(/у[л6? (“hissing”) and occurs elsewhere in the PGM and in other magical marterials. 94 See Preisendanz. The emperor Julian (Ep.” Conceivably. several conjectures were proposed by scholars.323. der in 635 erscheinende &soi.14. 42.94 Martinez points to the three dots over the letters and raises the question whether they indicate sounds rather than a word. 12.40. Les Intailles. ed. 92 For aupiy[x6 < in the ML.767-68.. Willy Theiler is right in an important article that the magical sounds are indicative o f the “language o f the spirit” (“Die Sprache des Geistes in der Antike. the seven planets. Der Gott wird auch mit Harpokrates und Eros gleichgesetzt. 579. 2733. 418-19. 90 See for the abbreviation Preisendanz. 19) refers to the Christian ritual o f “hissing at the demons and making the sign o f the cross on the forehead” (auplxTst.” A R W 18 (1915) 589— 93. §§ 150— 51.<.6— to a number o f magical hissing sounds: [xeXy] xal rf/ouq 8) xal TCpocnTveuar£[. Musici Scriptores Graeci [BiTeu. 531. 93 Differently. mentions theurgical wor­ ship in which ol rkoupyot. all remaining tentative. 6. 186— 87.” 3431. 1995]. 1895.4 1 3 . 1954]. Delatte and Derchain. xal avap&poi<.у[лои? tyjs < vyj<. 769. 3. equalling auptaov xptq. Brashear. 138. 28. 561. 946.” in: Sprachgeschichte und Wortbedeutung.9. X X X V I. again with dots over them: ctctct. Bonner. n. about which the Pythagoreans had more to say. n. in: Carolus Janus. in discussing the cosmic dimensions o f music. тсотстсистјхбѕ in the ML see 11. Richard Lasch. ф The sound o f “hissing” or “whistling” is mentioned by Xenophon (Symp.v xe npoq xouq Saljjiovac. 34.” here reflecting cosmic music. 3 8 5 . Festschrift fu r Albert Debrunner [Bern: Francke. 561-62.xw? sTCixaXouvxat. W St 41 [1919] 140-41) conjectured 9 p[t[xa^atj. O Z I. 780. According to Preisen­ danz.91 The second.5 2 7 -2 8 . 48. also VII. 221. Merkelbach (Abrasax.48— . see 1. crit. 421. See also Janus’ note ad loc.5) as similar to a pipe tune (аиХтЈјла). 49. 602. 361. 44. 578. 2.92 The ritual sounds belong to the field o f “music. (jupt^etv in the ML 11. Pliny (Nat. 40— 41. 80. XIII.93 Line 488 concludes w ith unexplained letters: <pp[. 193. Eitrem suggested cpp[u].6 0 1 . xal axt. See pw also below. 203-4. xal ст(. IV 1902-3.368: see тф г) X' a ' a ' a W ' . Studies. 50. 228. 277).]. Lipsiae: Teubner. a hissing sound is indicated by the three letters. 91 For further material see Dieterich. 107. app. concerning the connection between the seven vowels. CE philosopher Nicomachus o f Gerasa (Harmonicum enchiridium 6 . 292. also VII. G M PT . Related is a refer­ ence by Plotinus (Enn. call upon the deities aiy[XOiq xe xal тсотстсист[лос<.234) considers a special application for the sounds: “Mit dem dreimaligen P und S(ch) wird Pschai-Agathos Daimon angerufen. vswxspo<. Preisendanz himself (Dieterich.. Betz.8 8 .. “Das Pfeifen und seine Beziehung zu Damonenglauben und Zauberei.3 9 1 -9 2 . 431-40). Hopfner. Wiinsch saw here the name o f the god Фртј. aypacpetv etcI xou [лѕхмтсои tov axaupov). “The Greek Magical Pa­ pyri. 6. 602. The onomatopoeic term poppysma is mentioned by Juvenal (Sat. xal aau[jL(pcI)voi^ Tjjoiq cru[i. . 48-50.j3oX!. W St 41 (1919) 140— 41..25) reports as a consensus among all peoples that lightning should be prayed to by clucking o f the tongue (fulgetras poppysmis adorare consensus gentium est). XIII. and the musical sounds. The 2nd c.. XIII. 193. repr.584) in connection with fortune telling. xal xa aXXa. on tcotctcu^eiv. ad loc.104 Commentary from the PG M 90 as well as from other magical sources.

61. 13-68. Greek Philosophy. 117. nicht agyptisch (E. 1. to the Hermetica (esp. see also pp.-K. 1. Abrasax. 26. 108..” 99 Kingsley. and to the Turba philosophorum.. ибмр.71-72. # 105. 218 n. тгир.II.311. 100 Ibid. Dieterich. 11. 81. 348-50. 83-86. 54. 15 For (“root”).-K. 101 See the sources in SVF: Zeno. an initial prayer to the four elements as immortal. 454. 327— esp. For discussion. # # 426. personified beings.351. 97 D. see Pohlenz. water with water. 90. and a description o f the divine elements as existing simultaneously out in the universe and inside one which takes us to the heart o f Empedocles’ theory o f perception. 74-75. 374-75. 903a. Hornung. 927. 354-62. Chrysippus. 14-22).12 and 16). overlooks the fact that from Zeno forward. with air bright air. IV. de Vogel. 357 (# 484): “For with earth do we see earth.. 2. 20-23).205. 505— and 713-14. de Vogel. Main body of the ritual (II.).. 3 0 0-1. 374.101 Therefore.. Reitzenstein. 82. present a virtual summary o f Empedoclean themes and concerns. 31 B 109 (1. 71). 432. II # 309 (112. ibid. Kore Kosmou § 63).contains a num ber o f features each o f which points separately to Empedocles but which. On the interconnectedness 31.4-5). # 499 (112. 3. to the ML. Cleanthes.97 The connection with Empedoclean and Stoic philosophy was seen already by C um ont and Dieterich. Textes et monuments.100 This line o f transmission. together. 53. Abraxas. H M R .29-30).234: “D ie Lehre von den vier oder fiinf Elementen ist griechisch. Strife with dread Strife. The passage is followed by a quotation o f IV. with fire consuming fire. 485— 732) 105 T he next section (11. “OrphischesbeiEmpedokles. 28). Greek Philosophy. in 11. 31 B 109 (1. Mithrasliturgie. 58— 60.1189— cf. # # 899b.. 912b. “The Stoics and Their Cosmology in the First 95 96 . 484. I # 85 (24. see esp. and it is affirmed by Merkelbach.” 98 Cumont. Todd.156.103.” Archaologischer Anzeiger 41 (1995) 3 4 59.95 There can be no doubt that also this part o f the invocation is indebted to pre-Socratic philosophy. the connection between the ML and Empedocles was pointed out by Peter Kingsley: “And it is no coincidence. oucaa уесабт]<. # 102 (28. in particular Empedocles’ doctrine o f the four elements as constituting the cosmos (тестаара tcocvtcov pt^wfxara)96 and held together by храогс. however. 1. 120-24. 224— Merkelbach.108. 901c. the appearance o f the philo­ The four elements are listed also. # 444 (146. with Love do we see Love.. 219. either.98 Most recently. 433. 183-84. Die Stoa. xexpaX^wfxa below. Stoicism as well affirmed the doctrine o f the four elements. Ancient Philosophy. 15). see 1.”99 Kingsley constructs a line o f transmission o f this Empedoclean doctrine from Southern Italy and Sicily to Egypt. Christoph Riedweg. somewhat varied. 913.25).351. Here we have a ritual for regeneration and immortalization that has significant analogies both with Empedocles and w ith the ‘O rphic’ gold plates. 55. 31 B 6 (1. 3. 489— contains the specific invocations o f the four 95) elements (uveujxa.589— See 90. Der Eine.476— 95 and a reference to D. that a section o f the Paris magical papyrus —another docum ent showing the profoundest affinities with basic aspects o f Empedocles’ teaching . Robert B. 58— 79.. esp. idem. Kirk & Raven.

162— 63.D. Line 490 orders another magical sound. LXII. Bousset. 13— with the commentary by van den Berg. Griffiths. also the combinations o f rcveujjia and odihqp IV. indicated in the text by the three letters fJL fA again w ith dots over them. This abbreviation refers to the sound fX . tou ev s [aoI Ttvsufjuxxoc.” ibid. 211— 8 . cf. fire is the highest element. 66) prayer to Aion (1.103 This doctrine seems consistent w ith Stoicism. e. 658-59.” Erjb 34 (1966) 219-57. here to be performed three times by blowing air (representing and Second Centuries A. for possible Stoic influence cf. 489— is unique in the ML. 301-3. (to 7iav cruaxTjjxa tou aepou 7iveufxaTO<. 59. also Proclus’ Hymn 1 (To Helios). Abrasax. 11. see Jan Hendrik Waszink. 43. 510-12.).. Lumpe. 14.1— and Michael Lapidge. 1379— 1429. the first o f the spirit in m e”). Poimandres. 60). however. 200. the concept o f Tcveupta is 90 highly important within the ML as well as in the PGM generally. although in the ML od&yjp does not receive special m ention. 104 See odQ irjp 1. H M R . 617-18. for which. H M R .323-50.. thereby rooting anthropology in cosmology in a way that corresponds both to Empedoclean and Stoic doc­ trines. . 105 See in the ML also 11. 208-10. First to 88. esp.” ANRW 11. 12:1. 1. esp. 1116 (to Tcveujxa to Sajxov arco oupavou en l yv}v). “Elementum.. “Stoic Cosmology and Roman Literature. 9:17. 505.. 223-37.106 Commentary sophical tradition o f the elements in a syncretistic text such as the ML reflects a still broader tradition. 2. 1. weihe. shows that it is a concept functioning like a divine name. 490) confirms that it is virtually identical w ith rcup (“fire”).36:3 (1989) 2067-2103. Proclus’ Hymns. “Chairemon. for the Romans see Ovid. Lapidge. See Reitzenstein. 592— 97. XIII. 538. furthermore. Although the text names the element o f uveufxa first.. Second Centuries A. Michael Frede. Cf.43-44. The genitive is explained in the following clause as analogous to a divine epithet. 166. 233-34. 2087-92.ov. Ttpwxov (“spirit o f spirit. der Mithrasmysterien. 103 For the connection o f 7tv£U|i.553— IV1115 58.a and 7tup in the ML see 11. the next line (1. In turn.ov).104 At any rate.105 The genitive expression rcveupia 7iveufxaxo<. Hauptprobleme. who also refer to Chairemon o f Alexandria and Wis 1:7.96 (б uvsujxa ecrnv aepc. is addressed in 11. “Ather. 179-80: rcveujxa aipt. 489— jiveufxa 90: 7iveujjLaTO<. Apuleius.36:3 (1989) 1365-78. Reitzenstein.1115— consists o f a 16. Merkelbach & Totti. 627.24. fire can be identified with “ether” (odOirjp). while the formulation o f 11. See Reitzenstein. 144 (cf. by linking the primordial icveufxa Tipwxov and the rtveujjia which inhabits the hum an being.l 115— 1137— The entire ottjAy] anoxpucpo? (IV.” ANRW 11. Boll. 714. called fxuxMjjia. “ap’cd and axoiyelcf. Cf.97. 1 Religionsgeschichtliche Studien. D.” S O 4 (1926) 39— 5 (1927) 39— Reinhold Merkelbach.102 T he first element.” R A C 1 (1950) 150-58. 111. 1163) using Stoic language. 515. 102 On the veneration o f the elements in Hellenistic syncretism see Bousset. 617. 223— Sam Eitrem.g. 2094. 153-54. XII.” / 254. 310-11.” 1078-79. “spirit” (rcveupia). 510. 635-38.. 477. On the concept. esp. “Die Kosmogonie 59. “Elemente und Hypostasen”. “Die vier Elemente in der Mysterien26. Aus der Offenbarungjohannis. for a non-philosophical expression 1. Metam. 589— 90.

) thought o f “Briillen (wie mit einem Horn)” and refers as parallels to the “bull-roarers” in the cults o f Mithras and Dionysus.II. Conf 184. 364.” In this context.109 Going back ulti­ mately to Empedocles. Dionysius speaks also o f cptovr^ aupiyim q. but it contains interesting variations. 487 (159. and producing rapid gasps from deep down in his chest as though he had been filled with the divine spirit o f some deity” (velut numinis divino spiritu repletus). see LSJ. awfxaxo? блои Si’ oXou tlvo q етерои б(. 8. Apuleius’ (Metam. 4. in regard to the suppliant.14 Usener-Radermacher) та б(. 221. Abrasax. s.a7iTecTtka.uxaofj.100-101. Крастк.19). For discussion see Dieterich. 69. 471 153. 110 Willem Johannes den Dulk.8.. 107 Dieterich (41— 42. Philo.4).942. s. gemeint. 485— 732) 107 spirit).108 Fire is first simply named.а twv pwQ -covwv auvs'/ouijieva t o те M xal t o N хератоѕхбе!? arcoTeAouvTa тои^ rijovq.242): “Es ist der tf/oc хератое 1 бт]<. Cf.? plays a special role in forging coherence among the elements in the cosmos. Lines 490— sum this up by saying that.7. 109 See SV F I. 1985).v. 472 (154.10. De compositione verborum 14 (p. functions in both ways: it links the xpa aeiq o f the elements to one 106 See also for the verb (jluxocv in the ML 11. Main body of the ritual (11. See also PGM XIII. esp. or as a hard blowing through the nose. 659. MA: Harvard University Press.c. 108 Dieterich (3) und Reitzenstein consider this to be a later interpolation (see Preisen­ danz. (“m ixture”) is technical in Stoic cosmology.еру_о[Ј.12).107 T he second element o f fire (rcup) is named next separately from spirit (11. 490— 92). see the LCL edition by Stephen Usher. 3. 236. Transmission to later authors took place through Alexander o f Aphrodisias. . бе тои kipoq тсир ei. D e mixtione. 657. Plotinus.ѓуои. and then ex­ plained by two defining statements. crit. 2. (Leiden: Brill.ai. 705. # 102 (from Arius Didymus) on Zeno’ concept o f б 1 ах 6 а(Ј. 1934).). 228 with lit.110 the concept of храстс. ij. for the noun fxuxw^a 11. where it explains how the elements work together coherently in what Zeno calls бсахоа^тјас?. n. 54. 74. Merkelbach.ГјС s Т^.18-30). app. ad loc. Weinreich. 481 (158. London: Heinemann. Dionysios von Halikarnass.234. tyjv бе [pa^tv] xpaaxv ytvea&ai tt] el q аХХт]Ха twv crTo^elwv (аетароЛгј. 228-29. 41— 48. depending on how one interprets the adverb хератоесбм? in 1. Nub. Merkelbach comments (Abrasax. O ne should understand the sentence as parallel to the first. 292) or thunder. as befitting irrational beasts rather than rational beings. 416. describing how the elements come together through conversion (тротгѓј): ex tivck. 217— 22. The term xpa aic.27— description o f ecstasy: “One [of the effeminates (cinaedi)] started to rave 28) more wildly than the rest (bacchatur effusius). 945. Regarding Chrysippus’ doctrine "of xpacjL? see SV F II # # 470 (152.14). £|ay]V xpactlv twv ev efxol xpaaetov &eoS(op7]Tov (“god-given fire to my mixture o f the mixtures in m e”). Religionsgeschichtliche Studien.20). 252. the excessive use o f sigma. 92 храас. Aristophanes. Dionysius of Halicar­ nassus: The Critical Essays (Cambridge. Erin. 49— 51. as Willem den Dulk has shown. The term is onomatopoeic and was compared to the bellowing o f oxen (IV. 712. wenn man durch die Nase “M mm” und ‘N nn’ spricht. der entsteht. 657. Differently. 707.2802 [t] таирш [лихтјјла]. 3. 799 (221.106 The sound was meant to be either a roaring or bellowing. The first o f these sums up cosmological definitions: to el c.

89. Tcpwxov (“the first o f the water in m e”). cf. 135. Leg. Cf.-Clem. 493— as оисќа 95 уесобт)? ev efjiol ouaLctc. 114 Cf. Given the divine origin o f the elements constituting his body. 2. Especially interesting are the expressions ибатмбѕ^ and иуротгир^офи'/роу TCveufxa in IV. 610— 16. the parallels in Iamblichus. p. 113 Vowel combinations express sounds similar to other magical sounds. Ps.31. the suppliant moves without transi­ tion to the next section.. The fourth element is addressed somewhat differently in 11. Alch. уеообои? тгршгт] (“earthy material. Pyth.117 Since he had mentioned his own body throughout the preceding invocation. Greek Hymns. Vit.. the first o f the earthy material in m e”). o Q 6 < арбт]. The expression ouoxa уесобт)^ is found in Stoic texts dealing w ith the four elements. Cher. Furley & Bremer. .5 (ed. 1. esp. ysvvaxa!. Zosimus. 506: a&avaxw ибатх. Decal. this application simply draws out the consequences from what has gone before. Cf. а<р’ ехаатои т ш a x oije tav. 117 For this part. also 1 Thess 5:23.. he can claim it to be perfect: ас5[ха xeXet-ov s[xou (“my perfect body”). 31: eyw [iiv ouaictq 8oL'jziaa[izvoc. For the hapaxlegomena. and by the attribute tou ev efjiol ибатос. Horn. which explains also why at this point there is no m ention o f the “soul” (ф и^)-118 The term 1 1 1 The term is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM.112 parallels what has been said about the rtvsujxa in 11. the text addresses it by name. Philo. The term ouctloc is equivalent to uay]. 112 The phrase is also a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. Opif. 116 See. та тсро^ ty]v £[xr]V crucrracav аитархѓсттата. W hile this doctrine is unique in the PGM. I l l .?. After the completion o f the invocation. xeXet-a xal oAoxAvjpa xal ttocvtwv apt.114 but water is m entioned in other connections frequently..108 Commentary another in the initiate s body as well as to the primordial fire. Migr.. 492-93. Berthelot). in the ML 1.6.67. 495-98).113 )u T he third element o f water is treated in analogous fashion in 11. утј? xal > ибато? xal аѓро^ x a l тсиро<. 33: бста av . See the parallels in the vowel sequence in 1 1 .. an application to the initiates body (11. The invocation o f water ends w ith a vowel combination: toww а а а see.v. The statement again ends w ith a vowel combination: Y Y]ta syj. tou sv e[xol rcupo? Tcpcoxov (“the first of the fire in m e”). 1 1 2 . 489--90. 1142. s especially Philo.60— 64. 11. 118 This differs from Philo’s doctrine o f God’ perfect benefits bestowed on the soul. 115 See for this expression S V F II # 438 (144. 114. see. 15. 1146.18): elvoa уембт] ty)v oucrtav. as a result o f Stoic influence. The two previous hapaxlegomena were referred to in notes already. &v атгѕтеАеагФт) ббе б хост[хо<. making it clear that as “matter” earth differs from the other elements. it has close parallels in Stoic philosophy. See P G L . ибсор ибато? (“water o f water”). This linkage receives the attribute “god-given” (t)soSwpY]Tov). a declaration o f its nature as a divine gift. s.crra -e .35: &гобмрт]то^ avaysvvYjat.115 and also has parallels in Philo. see above.116 This address again concludes with a vowel combination: ut] ucoy] .111 The second definition. 1.. nn.

ut in parvo corpore omnem elementorum vim atque substantiam naturae cogente conferret. 4th half-vol. the pap. For he composed the human body. At this point. made in imitation o f the macrocosm. not an entity separate from it. n. P. aeris et terrae. is governed by a substance similar to the deity. water. w hich de­ scended from the heavenly intelligence for the sustenance o f the mortal body. (1994) 2279-2815. abbreviating the formula тои бѕТуа ттј? Sslva. so that the well-balanced mixture o f all these elements became a living being. Monat (Firmicus Maternus. For this reason the five planetary stars. ” 119 The suppliant identifies himself by name. 1. Moreover. rather than by the Platonic concept o f фихЃ) (see also below. Mathesis [Paris: Les belles lettres. so that it. (Trans. also 2. ignis scilicet et aquae. Friedrich Bilabel. from a mixture o f the four elements. guided by nature. 119 The citation is according to the edition by W ilhelm Kroll and Franz Skutsch. 120 On this symbol see Preisendanz. ut omnium istorum coniunctio temperata animal ad formam divinae imitationis ornaret et ita hominem artificio divinae fabricationis composuit. BiTeu. quod ad imitationem mundi factum est.II. ut divino illi spiritui. is mine) The editor o f the Collection Bude edition. 1. 1897). esp. Through that divine spirit. This cosmology is summarized by Firmicus Maternus in the prooemium to Book 3 o f his Mathesis: “T he god w ho created the human being. “Siglae. 498). the ML can be seen here as influenced by Stoicism. from fire.xii. 485— 732) 109 стм[ла is to be taken as referring to the avO-pcoruo?. the Prooemium § 4 mentions the names o f Petosiris and Nechepso. the human being as a whole. ignita ac sempiterna agitatione sustentant. Iulii Firmici Materni Matheseos libri VIII (2 vols. just like the body o f the universe. Festugiere (La revelation. this passage is quoted by Dieterich (57). X son o f m other Y (abbreviated w ith N N in G M P T )} 20 The suppliant thereby establishes the identity o f the preceding first-person pronouns. maintain the human being in fiery and eternal m otion like a microcosm.. 1994].90— Scire 91: itaque nos principe in loco oportet. Therefore. and Merkelbach (Abrasax. nam corpus hominis ut mundi ex quattuor elementorum commixtione composuit.28). uses the symbol A. . In fact. and thus he composed the human being as a divinely artistic creation. licet fragile sed tamen simile mundo pararet hospitium. simili divinitatis substantia gubernetur.” PRE 2nd ser. position and the w hole substance o f man. Lollianus decus nostrum quod ad imaginem speciemque mundi formam hominis ac statum totamque substantiam deus ille fabricator hominis natura monstrante perfecerit. Sol etiam et Luna. Main body of the ritual (11. 2. 13.269. The invocation o f the elements implies that much. so that he conferred by force o f nature to the small body all power o f the elements and their substance. Lipsiae: Teubner. 1) attributes the statement to Hermetism. together with sun and m oon. 2. Stoic doctrine re­ gards the soul as part o f the 7tveu{jta. qui ad sustentationem mortalis corporis ex caelesti mente descendit.126). air. Hac ex causa hominem quasi minorem quendam mundum stellae quinque. since it is constituted as a microcosm reflecting the macrocosmic universe. 3. ut animal. 1. determined the shape. 2301. ordered in imitation o f the divine model. and earth. because the same elements constitute the universe and the human being. he provided a hom e though fragile yet similar to the world..

194. 19. 43 (4... хатајЗатсо стои б аууеХо^. IV. s. Philo interprets the ctuiaPoXov in Spec. See also Bousset. Philo-Index... xal eLCTxpt-vexco tov Ttept-Ttxafxevov SocLytova tou TiXacifxaTOi. 4. 45: xiq бе eupe xeXeuQ-ou.” T hW A T 3 (1980) 421-55. but usage does not include the adjective evziyioq. XXV..9 (4. аср&артои)127 which follows comes from the same language background. 2514.1177— 80: .opcpa<.125 In the O T and Judaism the arm o f God is a frequently used symbol o f his power. “T jad.12).124 The “noble arm ” refers to the right arm. see the passages in LSJ. J. referring to Jewish angelic names).).128 Merkelbach has suggested the LXX as 121 For the term бсостгХаастм. the same applies to the LXX. LXII. With the question/answer format in 8. see J. 50. cf. 39 (4. 9-sou tou ev oupavco 7Г Xaajxa xaXXt. Akroyd. for the left arm IV.133-37. cf. where the forming (kXkgoeiv) o f a wax figurine is described. атсе&емаа? ттј аеаитои yvwcjet.244-45 cf. 30 (4.2379. 16 (referring to idols): оибе1^ yap аитм opiot. For Hermetic parallels see CH . al­ though there are similar expressions elsewhere. section V.5 (4. бтс ev 7tXaa|zacav тјјлЉ ovxa? . Fragment X XIII. Helfmeyer. IV610. moreover.2. The human body came about “because o f fashioning by a noble arm ” (St-aTueTtAaafjiivov utco (3pa^lovo<.298. LXX Gen 2:7— 15.69).ov av&pwTro? l a jy z i TrXaaat. 50). also the Christian exorcism PGM 17. especially v. 19 (ibid. which the LXX 16.126 The expression “o f his incorruptible right hand” (бѕ£1ас.145— Leg.6— .7-8). 3. 23 (4.23. BDAG. N ock & Festugiere. IV.б9} twv б^ѓтгХасге. not uncommon in Hellenistic Greek. Acts 13:17.). 98. 124 See IV.4 (4.81).244— t i c p. хеФ60. and in . 136:12. P. IV. 519.3. etc. 98:1.14). e-rceu^ofxat. 125 For the right arm cf. § 18: o f the god’ s creation o f the zodiacal signs in human form: та ал/г}роул:оѕ!.55). XXII. renders as ev X£t-pl xpaxat-a xal ev ифу]Х« (LXX Ps 135:12). 3272.15 (Kore Kosmu. 2388. the adjective cvxijjio^ is not used in this connection (for evxLfAOi.. 60.80.286. Wisdom chapter 15.26. Luke 1:51. yzipoc. and C H Frag. тоитои.14.6). tov (3[p]a[^Jlova tou a & vox fou Oeou xal xyjv т]9ј? 7: a бе^а? аитои -/[ejipa. The hand o f God appears in the synagogue paintings o f Dura Europos. Plant. Berg­ man. evxlfAou). III. 128 While frequent in OT and Judaism.. 123 Cf. o n aeauTOV yjfjuv ебес^а^. For the OT evidence see F. 127 See also in the ML 1. esp. yevofxevov ex 7rveu[xaxo<. see 1.v. XIII. s. von Soden.9-10). ay tov &eov sizi ” A[X(Xmv. References to the right hand are frequent in the PGM.122 these pas­ sages are close to H erm etic123 or Jewish language. 126 In the OT the metaphor o f God’s “mighty hand and outstretched arm” (vel sim.” T hW A T 2 (1975) 650— section III. бтс.<rtrov. XXV I. the metaphor o f the hand o f God appears with special explanations in Philo because o f anthropomorphic implications (see.21)..312 (part o f wax тгХастЈлата).3024— 28: . Ps 93:9 (MT 94:9). 77:15— 89:9-11. 1. xal брбсгои xal утј<. av9 -p«7ioi.121 That the hum an body is a 7тХаст[ха the PG M states in passages defining the human being. In the PGM it is the arm on which to affix the charms.110 Commentary The following statement (11. &eov.. XXIII (Kore Kosmou). Hauptprobleme. Borgen.. XXIV. 1 Clem 28. Ps 118:73 (MT 119:73): al xetpes <xou eTcoLYjcrav jae xal ercXacrav jxe. ppa^lwv. zeroa. ed.v.. 2899.599-600: ^aipojjiev. esp.) is found frequently (Ps 44:3. o tl eyw eljju. 18 (4. The phrase is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM . On the metaphor. 67 (4. XII. £«cov ETtXaasv. б £7tXacjev б &е6 < ev тсо ay ш еаитм .5). PGM XII. 495-97) legitimates the claim that the body has been created perfectly w ith metaphors from creation mythology. Cf. 122 Cf. б атгараиггЈто^. For the NT.. but not combined with аср&арто^. тсарабеиш.a. John 12:38. W. Conf.

de Vogel. p j< 6 132 For sources and bibliography.35-46).235). See Eduard Lohse. aui eucote (11. B 6 (1. Philo uses the terms афиу^о^. Cf. 251.v. 131 See IV.130 The first (11. see Pythagoras.3. 14 A 9 (1. Greek Philosophy. 31 A 48 (1. eax.стхбхо^. similarly C H II.11— 14).3. 3. esp. not Plato.10— Numenius. That is. Kirk & Raven. 277. in PGM 1. p< 58 B 5 (1. Lieselotte Kotzsche.12. as it is found in ancient religious texts. 247b. X I. 4b (ed.135 The first part o f the prayer then concludes with voces magicae: uy]c. but the individual terms occur elsewhere in the PG M . fr. “Hand II (ikonographisch). VII. 498) refers to opposites w ithin the cosmos. Ps 43 [44]:4) which. IV 735 (of meat). 257.20-21). об yjfxepa Siauyacnr) xal < o)< p poi. referring to food. 497— 98) pertains to the cosmos: ev аф&тсгтсо x al SiauyeT xoafjuo (“in a world w ithout light and yet radiant”). y elp .211. Verherrlichung. but it seems that Stoic ideas. 498— 99). Presocratic Philosophy. see D.II. D. cpw^. Conzelmann.453. # # 31 and 42. 1.” R A C 13 (1986) 402-82. this phrase is unique in the PGM . Again. T D N T 9 (1973).5— for Plato. the phrase is unique in the PGM . XIII. 9). are the sources here.2 (text uncertain). 123-26. the hum an being exists in a world made up o f “soulless and ensouled” entities. 130 Merkelbach (Abrasax . occurs with a different meaning.ѕл/а>? Cf. ![јл|лг/о^.235) thinks o f the uTtepoupavio^ totzoq.459.134 and in Greek cosmological philosophy. X. x a l Snquyacjev xa со<.-K. in Greek philo­ sophical thought. but the evidence shows that a wider context o f ancient metaphors is more likely. 403— 45. 134 The term афи^о<. an appeal is made for approval by the divine Jewish magic it is a major symbol.292.452.101. and in Gnostic sources. 135 por terminology o f афи^о? —£[афи^ос. among them < w .132 particularly also in Pythagoreanism. to which the initiate wants to ascend.3). T D N T 9 (1973). 238. афи^а and £[хфи/_а. LXVII.v. s. Des Places. according to Plato. Again. 6:14 may also be related. The next section o f the prayer (11.1766.-K. 8 — 9. s.11-15). Tim. Empedocles. rcavxa). 2 Pet 1:19: w? Xu^vw cpalvovxt ev au/[Aiqpw Х 0 7 Ш . section B.441.129 N ext come two statements defining the place o f the human being in a universe o f opposites. listing some examples (Exod 6:1. е[лфи^1а.__ 2 Cor 4:6.133 The second contrast (1. Should ефи^мuivw be understood as the perfect form eve(]ju%wpivco or the present £[Ј. . 129 Merkelbach (Abrasax. See Lohr. фи^от/ in discussing cosmology... cf. n. 280-84.фи-/ои[Ј. Main body of the ritual (11.23. cf. T D N T 9 (1973) 306-7. are textually different. 24 A 3 (1. 47. B 27 (1. but the verb Siauya^eiv occurs in other cosmological contexts. 74e (£[лфиу_охаха and афи^охаха). however.990— 92 (cpwxli^ovxa xal Si-auya^ovxa). 133 On the Pythagorean auaxoiytoL o f ap^al бѓха. # 7 1 4 (205. esp. 36). 132. 3. see Hans Conzelmann.165 (Ф .131 This contrast points to the cosmic dualism o f light and darkness. Prior to the request itself. харбсак. 321. Phaedr.4) and # 988 (287-88): '(ш. for the Stoa SFFIII. C. . 240-41. ха £[лфи)га which occurs in a cosmological context in IV. ev те афихФ x a '1 ^uxwfxevw (“w ithout soul and yet alive w ith soul”).34— 11. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 111 the background for this language in the PGM . 499— 537) contains the petition proper. avaxelXT] ev xau.

refers to cpcoou& (IV. B D R .226) as a parallel. ing to Preisendanz.а 9-ewv [хета-п:араб(. Jas 4:15.143 The translation o f the term is disputed. § 389. 14:36 par. 181— Martinez..исттѓ]р(. 2) adduces Iamblichus ( Vit. crit. Grammatik. 144 LSJ (s. see Preisendanz. is rare. app. Moulton. 48. in Betz. but it is prefaced by the humble phrase eav бе u[ Z v j (1. 221) presents a rather fanciful explanation o f the formula: “so zu schreiben und zu verstehen: [летерта<рм& ([xsdap&acp-rjpiY] ev aXXw) '£ере£а&. the voces magicae are cited: ptexepxa <pco& ‘ epe^aS-. For the imperatival infinitive in Koine Greek see Mandilaras. § 116.5. The Verb..141 so only the present version o f the text has survived.138 but i then after < pco& an inserted gloss comments that in a different version o f the text (ev aXXto) another form o f the magical words occurs: fJie&ap&a cpvjpw]. with their differences indicated by forms o f aXkoc. who in an additional note supplied by Weinreich (Dieterich.26. noting the discrepancies. there are no other instances o f these magical words. 143 Cf.б6 '^т£^.144 Usener reads eav бт). the N T at Matt 8:2.v. Brashear (“Greek Magical Papyri.112 Commentary elements: eav бе ujilv бб^т] (“if it deems right to you”). Grammar. G M P T . [xexaTrapaXafJiPaveLv (1. |лета7гарабѓ. 642. For more material see Furley & Bremer. The Sermon on the Mount. but the author seems to like such com posita. s.. and the Lord’s Prayer in Matt 6:10. ad loc. хата бохтјаи Феои. See also eav croi боЕјт). 1. 141 Cf. 525). 136 137 . discusses five parallel фсХтрохатабесЈјАОЕ.Zur Entstehung dieser voces: асроог) ist genommen aus аср&гсѓатм in 4.11 av^pe a/peoxo 7n)Tov 4.g. P. 4.” 142 The aorist infinitive has the force o f request. the interpolated gloss shows that either the author or the final redactor had at least two versions o f the text at his disposal.. so auch oft sonst.лѕ ty) a&avaxw yzveaei (“give me over to immortal birth”). meaning in Egyptian “groBe Schlange. 392-96. Grammatik.v.1683) as a parallel. W. see Morton Smith.140 However. Mark 1:40.78.” 139 Jordan (by letter). The gloss shows evidence o f a concern not only for magical but also for literary precision in collating ver­ sions o f the text.4 (with references). B D R . (for further examples see pp. LSJ translates as “hand down” or “transfer.. n. the “Eighth Book o f Moses” (PGM XIII) contains several versions o f the book.” which would make it the equivalent o f TtapaSiSovat. The reason is that the citation formula usually precedes the citation. z. Greek Hymns. 6— 82. 6 -7 . 140 E.5. Pyth. Schmidt ('G G A 193 [1931] 449). 138 So following the reading o f Dieterich. Accord­ . it refers to the Pythagoreans’ preservation o f the mysteries: they left their main doctrines unwritten and passed them on to their successors атгер [Ј.” 3601) who. 2. 32. A different reading is proposed by Jordan who takes the ev aAXcp to refer to 'ѓере^агК139 At any rate.47— Betz. which he carefully compared. §§ 756-57. 648. 31).137 In 11 499-500 an important literary phenomenon requires mention.389. 1 Cor 4:19. Michigan X V I.B. Cf. 2. Grammar.. The request itself is generally stated first (1. 499).142 The term fAexarcapaSiSovat. 501) as an infinitive clause: (Астатгарабошаѓ . 11:27. 1. 20. Cf. Фар&аср aus аср9-артои in 4.136 Such appeals are part o f Hellenistic prayer language. following Karl F. 3.. See Moulton. BDAG.бм[л[.

190— Nilsson.. § C.147 the 145 See also VII. cpucret. Justin. in his H M R .145 T he following words (1. 1. der ich noch festgehalten bin”). 60. It should therefore be translated.” Accordingly. e^opievo?. Reitzenstein proposes to connect £)(6 (j. eyo[ASvaq reflecting the common interchange eo/to (Gignac.. XXIII. it could be construed with [хѕтатсарабшоа.13. is textually emended from pap.) notes that the text makes sense. 8 . Merkelbach (Abrasax. the term may be more specific. 1.” 147 See Preisendanz (app. 40. Reitzenstein. 166 nn. 1..160): “mich wiederum zu iibergeben der Neugeburt in die U nsterblichkeit. 25. als Zusatz des Magiers betrachtet. N ock. 2. to transfer me to an immortal birth. puram ac pudicam sorte mortis eximens in templa duds ac famulam divis dicas (ed. Apol. If it is an adverb. avayevvaw shows up only in a variant reading o f the prologue o f Ben Sira. Graf. 8 ) proposes s^opievov.” Weinreich (in Dieterich. but interesting is also R eitzensteins suggestion that the words are an inserted com m ent meaning something like: “that means by implication. bis cpuasf. Dessau # 4152. crit.. C IL VI 510): in aeternum renatus.b.275) and t/o iie v o v reflecting the interchange o f final silent letters (Gignac. literature. Cults. the Roman tomb inscription in which a Paulina addresses her husband Vettius Agorius Praetextatus: tu me marite.1... 502) are difficult to interpret: t/o[xe\ioiq xfi urcoxetfJisvY) [xou cpuasi. s. Ancient Mystery 94. (and cognates) do not appear in LXX. Carmina latina epigraphica (ed. n. Dessau. Taking the preposition [лета—seriously.. III.. 6 . etc. Exc.evov with the preceding [ЈЛ (“mich. see Dieterich (137— 157-61). &e«9 7 )voa.” For this meaning o f see LSJ.): “Reitzfenstein]. Tit 3:5. Buecheler).3.1-4. 517— 27).26: t o u t o e c t t i t o aya&ov тѕХо^ тоТ^ yvcoaiv io yrp io o i. H M R .evoc. X III. Essays. ad loc. Grammar.653.” Differently.. Cf. which would result in: “to transfer me —subsequently to my underlying mortal nature —to the immortal birth. yevvaw.” a synonym o f ecpe^Y)?. Matthew Calhoun observes that na. if the following tva-clause constitutes the beginning o f a new sentence (see below. however. with a lengthened “o ”. “transfer me to the immortal birth. entsprechend meiner vorhandenen Natur. W hatever they mean. crit. TCaXt-yysveaia.II.XiyyevzGia. avayevvaw. 23. # 1 1 1 .v. 3.41. The word e^ofxevwc.v.. Calhoun agrees and translates: “ . ттј U7coxeL[Aevy) jxou cpuCTst intend to clarify what is meant by y zv za iq .” Thus. CIL VI 1779). 70. 1. der e%.146 LSJ (s. 5. 262-65. 153)..235) adduces as parallels the Taurobolium inscription from R om e (ed. Gottesndhe. l.687— Burkert. Ivon. the author would have mistakenly used the nominative. On rebirth generally.” meaning rebirth. 97. 146 With the pap.7. Auovo?. the words seem to clarify “immortal birth” in the preceding line.. 2.. 485— 732) 113 In the ML. 22. Preisendanz (app. the ML seems to connote transformation and rebirth (11. ibid. C H 1. and thus the translation is uncertain. 1 Pet 1:3. 75. see John 1:12— 3:3. lines 22— 24). 3. 88. instead o f the accusative. 3. 175 n. Arnobius.66. 99— 101. 13. Martinez comments that both emendations make good sense phonetically.62: deo esse se gnatos necfati obnoxios legibus.10. 7. which Preisendanz accepts and translates: “und gleich darauf wieder meiner eigentlichen Natur. Main body of the ritual (11. since I hold tightly to my underly­ ing nature. zjpijAvoiQ) renders “next after.510: cm el б гохттјр тои izoChivyzvouc. if the words гЈоџѓммс. 105— For early Christian 7.16-20.v. For further references see BDAG. reading s^o[i.. G G R . Dieterich (4. 50. s. 39. 131— 32). Merkelbach’ s translation (Abrasax. . 221) reports Preisendanz’s suggestion to read yeveasr eyo\ieyoq. ad loc.. Sudhaus ejo[±bj(x>c.

). H.31— 32): та u-rcoxerjjiEva x a l 7ioux xal TC& sy_ovTa xa l 7tpoi. e. 11 n. On the Nature of the World and the Soul [SBL. 514— 15). etc.152 The following passage (11. Frag.6 .. XXIII. Grammatik (2nd ed. 148 149 .153 The following doctrine about sense-perception and recognition agrees with that o f the Hermetica. 170 (1). The Verb. crit. e. also Ethelbert Stauffer. while the three others specify the resultant changes in recognition.”148 that is. XXIII. see the summary in C H III.9— 10.v. W St 41 (1919) 141— to which should be added B D R . avavEOUfXEvrj' ev yap tm 9-elw xa l 7] cpvaiq xa&ECTTrjxEv (“ . 155 For a discussion o f the “salvific Eva.7. This meaning occurs several times in the Hermetica (CHX. 154 For the Hermetic doctrines. # # 314.6-7. # 369 (124. XI. 783: uTcoxeixoa. It can be taken in two ways: (1) in conformity w ith the ML elsewhere UTcoxe£[xsvo? can mean: “cited below.2: tyj twv u7ioxet[xevwv cpuasi (versus ettlxeljaevov). and Timaeus o f Locri. Exc. XII. 3. P. Chico. the four Eva-clauses contain an entire doctrine o f salvation pertaining to visual percep­ tion.” (2) The expression could be philosophical in origin.. Tobin. T. T D N T 3 (1938). See LSJ. as pointing forward to Ovtjty] <puaic. s... 97e (ed.4: . For the divine is the entire cosmic combination renewed by nature.22. As evidence for independent sentences beginning with an imperatival Eva he refers to Radermacher. Martinez.1. the parallels in Stoicism and Herm etism would favor speaking o f “underlying nature. 26. resulting in the translation: “ (the immortal birth) subsequent to my (mortal) nature. итсох£с. 403). see.”150 Because o f the Stoic influences elsewhere in the ML. X . &e«v x a l < и со< xuxAou svapL&fiXou бро^хатс. 32. 150 As in Plato. renewed by necessity and by the renewal that comes from the gods and by the course o f nature s configured cycle. g.v.” see BDAG.154 Together. Mandilaras..114 Commentary expression ттј urtoxet-fiivY] [лои cpucrsi is also difficult.. 1.|лац 8 (1) and (2) with references.? as meaning “rebirth” in the sense o f a return to the underlying nature which consists o f the divine elements. Timaios of Locri. p.v. The first clause focuses on seeing. 27. 151 See concerning the categories SFFII. What is meant is referred to as uay] (II. 21..155 A final clause. 502-15) restates the general request. 6 . to р стЕ .. 22. 762). q 373-74. (11.) 153 preiSendanz. XVI. Eva. § 387 (3a). t l ncoq sjovtol. Michigan X V I.6 . avavswOTjaexaL avayxT] xal avavEcoast. Aristotle. 533. C H I. the phrase would interpret yeveat. 607).”) (my trans.). 46. but now details it by way o f four Eva-clauses dealing with sense-perception.18. 1985]. Exc. s. CA: Scholars Press. Preisendanz seems right in taking the first Eva-clause as the beginning o f an independent sentence. X I. # # 405. yap Q-eIov r] тсаста xoafjax-/] стиухрастс^ <puast. app. 152 This doctrine agrees with Hermetism. ad loc. XIII.”149 or even to the “presupposed no­ tion. Preisendanz. Similar are the concepts in CH. s.g.2. shifts to the subject of hearing (11. pointing to the “underlying nature. 48). Cf. This interpretation would support Reitzenstein s suggestion o f a gloss. §§ 585-89.TT 26. as m entioned below. 42.”151 If this is the preferred meaning.2. For nature is constituted in the divine. Eva. which does not begin with Eva but is connected to the previous Eva by xat. see. or the four a x o v /z ia (II.

3. 1049. by Griffiths. ‘no longer burdened by astral compulsion. For literature see Erich 36. parallels are found in language dealing with the liberation from the oppression by avayxT]. but ever on sea and land thou art guarding men.. “Epoptie.v. 7tov7)pou.160 The object o f vision. T he “present” condition. 100— 101.25): “ .. and avocyxT]. 163 n. 2. 485— 732) 115 T he first tva-clause comprises 11 502-8 and concerns the change in the . 1 Cor 7:26: Sex t t jv evecjTwaav avayxTjv. 91— 83. 157 See the parallel in 11. 7. The term етг:<жтеиеп/ (“envision”) occurs only here in the PGM. 605). 69. 59. it is known from the mystery-cults as referring to the final vision o f the initiate. now overcome. . XII.. 572.158 An impressive example from the Latin literature is the prayer o f Lucius to Isis in Apuleius (. 516. For ѕтсбтгттјс see VII. el(xap[xev7). For XP£^ (“need”) 96. 11. with the commentary pp.95. 503— 526. Dieterich (51-52) points to the role Ananke plays in the mysteries o f Mithras. also 527 ахреохбтгујто^.237. 525 and 6 8 6 . The term is attested since Homer. 320— 23.159 Given this present condition. ztzoktoq 1. 43.156 Parallels occur also elsewhere in the M L. tyjv a&avarov apx/jv (“the immortal beginning”) points back to 1. see LSJ.64. 136 n. thou dost pacify the gales o f Fortune and keep in check the baleful movements o f the stars” (. and w hen thou hast stilled the storms o f life thou dost stretch out thy saving hand.. s. tu^y] and ^рѕса. qua fatorum etiam inextricabiliter contorta retractas licia et Fortunae tempestates mitigas et stellarum noxios meatus cohibes).157 the term xaTS7te£ysiv (“pressing down”) appears repeatedly in formulaic passages. used only in the ML (11. Abrasax.Metam. w ith which thou unravelest even those threads o f fate which are inextricably woven together. 92.235— referring also to the ritual breathing o f the rcvsu^a. 533— for the meaning o f та evecrTtora (“the present 35.’ and jp so q is a debt one must pay Cf.. especially 160— 63. Ananke. 159 Text and trans.’ ” For further references and bibliography see BDAG. the spirit accom­ plishes the change in the faculty o f vision by enabling the suppliant to have a 156 For a collection o f material see Schreckenberg. 35. Ancient Mystery Cults. IV.II. is described as that o f oppression: јлета ty)v sveaxtocav x al стсробра xaxsTtsiyouaav [A ypsloiv s (“after the present and very pressing need”). 525— 27. also V. XII. the synonym xaxorcTeueiv which occurs in 11.259. 157 n. the change needed comes next: (tvа) Етсотстгист tyjv a&avaxov aPX7)V (“ [in order that] I may envision the immortal beginning”). Merkelbach (Abrasax.2975.351. Apuleius.v.295— VII. See Merkelbach. Cf.506— XIII. jpeLoc. suggesting they mean the same in this context: “/рт] can mean ‘one must. Cf. also C H 1. 35. faculty o f vision. 157 n. 14. 158 It is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. quin mari terraque protegas homines et depulsis vitae procellis salutarem porrigas dexteram.2. 487. 3.3.” R A C 5 (1962) 973— Burkert. 18. IV. s. 261. This kind o f formulaic statement seems to be liturgical in nature. a see also 11. 485. Main body of the ritual (11.235) compares the terms jp zia . 160 Cf. Fascher. In other words. Gal 1:4: ex xou alwvo^ t o u eveaTMTOi. situation”) see 11. 534— 4.

For the relationship between spirit and air.5— . Cf.7. epovui' 7cocpaxouvY)£h164 The third dative (11. this element is not m entioned in 11. Weinreich (in Dieterich. G M PT . 56) explained on the basis o f Orphic formulae. 28. see C H 1. in an invocation o f Seth. IX. however. three o f which are named. ср&архт] Ppoxwv <puC i).. earth) in Д. fire. 163 The vox magica sounds as if derived from Egyptian. 693: a x m aepi.4-7 (projecting terror and ecstasy). Reitzenstein assumes. water. X . IV.169 Earth may be om itted because it plays no positive role in rebirth. the omission o f fire still remains unresolved.47.1-3. it is followed by another vox magica. 4) wants to read as стхѕрѕм xal tm. “son o f the”.1. however. Ascl. n. 1.162 pointing back to the rcveupia rcveufxaxo? o f 1. “spirit” and “air” are closely related. .335— which 50. VII. it is followed by a vox magica: avxpscppsvoaoucpipt-yx-163 The second dative refers to tw a&avaxw и бап (“the immortal water” [506— 7]). (“the firmest air”). 33 (on the cosmic origin o f air: spiritu tamen et a ’ re uacuum esse non possit).2.116 Commentary vision o f the primordial beginning. 489— As . a[3ox “month. axepecofjLa. 505]. XIII.265. According to the Hermetica. See Morton Smith in Betz. The first is tw a&ocvocTw Tuvsufxaxc.e. IV10. (“the immortal spirit”). 95.14 (axepewjxa хтј? y ijs).. air) are named in 11 504— instead o f the four (spirit.1 7 — 22.” 169 Cf. 347: (Xv.p^. 161 The vision o f the primordial cosmos was an important part o f the Hermetist’s concerns. C H 1.12. III. but the interpolator misunderstood it and in effect wanted to insert what Dieterich (p. 29 [i. 8. 164 A hapaxlegomenon. but “air” plays a role elsewhere in the M L.3 -5 . 1. the list o f Egyptian voces magicae. 18. has in 1. III. BDAG. 489— 93. which Dieterich (p.166 The adjective атерео? occurs in astronomical/astrological contexts in the PGM.961: o ev xw axepew 7xveu[xaxt. water.161 The following passage confirms this interpretation. 162 This concept is attested also in C H X . 1 . etc. T 8 19. See also C H I.217.168 T he question is why different elements (spirit. pointing to the “firmament. s. X II. 533: during the ascent mortal nature must be left behind (еаха9г. the dative expresses both origin and appeal to the ele­ ments.Y)£. 1. 165 The pap. 1) explains as Egyptian: фгу.” 166 See 1. 1210-11. the difference can be either the result o f error or o f intention.11. but it has not been explained.v. LXII. pointing back to the element o f water (11. V. unexplained. 37. cf. 221) reports that Preisendanz and Reitzenstein keep та ахгрсмхахм aspi. 11. Exc. 1.170 If so. 12. 165. reads crxepeoxaxw. Wiedemann (in Dieterich. 507-8) addresses xw атерѕсотатсо aept. 15— Ascl. cf. 167 See 1. called “The Invocation to Uphor” in XII.^epeфpeveфouфt. Cf. but Reitzenstein puts tm a&avaxw uSaxi and tw ахересохахш aepi in brackets. 168 An unexplained hapaxlegomenon in the PGM.”167 T he accompanying vox magica is eioccq феуофооО'. 489. e 170 Cf. 492— 93).5. saying that “correct is only 7tv£Ufjuxxt. Lines 504-8 make the resource o f the enabling explicit by naming the primordial elements. 540— 41: jjiiaov xou kepoq.165 Notably.

355— and on a Mithras inscription in Santa 52. 47— 82. Cf. see S V F ll. Phil 4:7). 7). o f inspiration. will find out for you whatever anyone is thinking about you”). 308. VIII. Post. 127-28. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 56) Prisca (see Betz. 210a.172 The term voYjfxa occurs only here in the PG M .v(ocret. a key concept in the mystery-cults. аАХа аф&артои боа Xoyou ^joivxoq &еои xal \xeyovxoq (“begotten anew not from perishable but from imperishable seed.6 . cva evap^topiat. 78.a.g. n. 10:5. voeiv in a gnostic prayer. avavewat. 236 (77.446. 104. For Stoic parallels.596— 97: ^apt. See BDAG. cf. 175 LSJ. The term voYjjxa occurs frequently in the Hermetica (see VIII. Cf. ayt-ov 7rveu[i. Philo’s usage is related to philosophical theory about speech and music (D et. s. avaveow. 40.v. 35 The Latin renatus occurs in Apuleius (Metam. Main body of the ritual (11. According to Weinreich (in Dieterich. Paul’ s doctrine o f intellectual renewal uses the term as well (2 Cor 2:11. G M P T . 221). XIII.v. 317. R om 12:2: [лета[Аорфоисг&е хтј avaxat. Migr. Josephus. 517-27. s. 11:3. 173 See.aa(i. t o u vooq. Reitzenstein (H M R. . s.40. also Eph 4:23: avaveouci&at.1. Xoy<ov>. # # 164 (47. 174. p oijx evap^ojxat. above. 150— 51. mentions the ML (11. however..). Dieterich (4-5) proposes храо^ра^о. 211c) and Paul (Gal 3:3). See Paul Achtemeier. which remains unexplained. Cf. See also infra on 11.174 The idea o f rebirth is stated by the verb fxexayevvav. Preisendanz (W S t 41 [1919]. 3:14. yvfckrcv vouv ( c< v>.38-48. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. with o^pa and <xpjo palindromic. see Griffiths.1011).a XII. 452) and 2. Apuleius. 174 See LSJ. 11.176 Line 510 names the source for the change: x al ttvsuot] ev eptol to lepov Tiveufxa (“and [in order that] the sacred spirit may breathe in m e”).171 T he choice o f the term ptexayevvav indicates transformational change. 99— 79. 80— Reitzenstein. 48. 142) takes the whole as one vox magica. see the notes in the editions by Scott. the quite different concept o f salvation in 1 Pet 1:3. 175) wants to correct to ev<x. 3.175 The concluding vox magica reads храо^раЕ. N ock & Festugiere (3. Hermetica (3.19— 25). J A 11. n. in comparison with Plato (Symp. 1. 4:4. 3. n. Frequent are passages in the Hermetica (e. 172 The choice is intended.1). see Betz. although the specific word occurs rarely. where it means the act o f thinking or the resulting thought.. 508— 647). on avayevvav 9. 59. Merkelbach. etc. 176 This seems to be the reading in the pap. considering the mysterycult term apxecjtka (versus xeXeuxav)..25 (Apollonius o f Tyanas old jl serving woman): voiqaei croi (“she.2. H M R . 15. 1996). XVII.p-/6[ievoq. 1 Peter: A Commentary on First Peter (Hermeneia. so also Reitzenstein. 485— 732) 117 The second tva-clause (11. 94. 51— 258— 289.v. ova ere vorjcrcofxev__ In XI. 520) and contains a doctrine . rather than a new begetting (avayevvav). XVIII.. reads fAexayevTj&w which Dieterich corrects to fAexayevvYj&to. 101).II.). 1. In the NT. X IX . 139-40.. 378 (126.8 . 111. 177— 262— Burkert.CIV.16 and 21.l— 4). 65. 23: avay ey evvy)[iivoi oux ex сттгора^ ср&артуј?. Exc. 106-8. etc.ev°? y)[x£v vouv. 177 For lepov TCveujxa see also III.. the word o f the living and abiding God”). avayevvav does not occur in the ML.?. Ancient Mystery Cults. tw rcveujxaxt xou vooq..177 T he statement refers back to 11 489 and 505 (cf.173 it is im portant in Hellenistic philosophy and religion. 508-11) notes where the effect o f change is to take place: Eva voYj^axt [izxayev <v >y]$w (“so that I may be reborn in thought”). according to which the primordial spirit inspires the human 171 The pap.



spirit.178 T he concluding voces magicae (11. 510— read чгуЏгч атготои vsy&iv 11) aprctv y]O'.179 T he third tva-clause (11. 511— refers to fire: t v а 9т>|ласт(о t o lepov rcup 12) (“in order that I may marvel at the sacred fire”). The change is indicated by the suppliant s desire to be able to “marvel” (&aup.a^£t,v) about the ritual efficacy, a key term in Greek religion.180 The expression o f “sacred fire” is m entioned only here in the PGM, but elsewhere the element o f fire occurs frequently in ML (11. 490, 617, 636— 38).181 In the ML, spirit and fire are closely related, but not identical; it is not completely clear which is higher in the astral hierarchy. The statement concludes (1. 512) w ith the vox magica: xucpe. The term seems to be related to a type o f incense called xucpi (or xoccpt).182 T he fourth tva (11. 512— focuses on the primordial water: tva OcaacojAax 13) t o a(3uacrov туј^ ал/атоХт)? cppixxov б б м р (“that I may gaze at the unfathom ­ able, frightful water o f the dawn”). The verb &еаст&оа indicates the suppliant’ s desired ability to “behold” the primordial water. W hat kind o f image the suppliant has in mind is difficult to say The adjective а(Зиаао? occurs only here in the PGM, while the noun is more common; it keeps showing up in lists o f primordial elements.183 To an Egyptian, the “frightful water o f the
178 See also XII.324-34; XIII.762. Cf. Paul’s doctrine in R om 8:15— 16: аито t o Tcveu}i.a (scil., the spirit o f God) аијЛјлартирѕТ tw v:vtu[iaxi tjjjiwv. For the interpretation, see Betz, Antike und Christentum, 240. Hippolytus (Haer. 6.34) quotes as Valentinian doctrine based on Gen 2:7 LXX: xal evetpucnqorev el q to 7tp 6 ato7rov аитои tcvotjv Martinez also points to Homer, II. 15.262; John 20:22; Ign. Eph. 17:1. 179 A hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. The pap. reads vey&sv, cf. v e jp iv . Dieterich (Abraxas, 58,2) had read Te)£&ev, but rejected it because o f vejQ iv; in Mithrasliturgie (5) he suggests eve^Siv. Also Reitzenstein takes а т г о t o u (“derived from”) as part o f the voces magicae, as does Preisendanz (in Dieterich, 221) who suggests two variants o f the same formula. Jordan (by letter) suggests that ano t o u ve/&tv may be a gloss by the copyist indicating that the veyQsv o f 1. 510 has been corrected from vs^tkv. 180 The term &auji.a£et.v occurs frequently in the PGM (in ML 1. 775). See Georg Bertram, “&аи[ха хтЛ.,” T D N T 3 (1938), section A. 181 See Dieterich, Abraxas, 48— 52; id., Mithrasliturgie, 64— Friedrich Lang, “7rup,” 47; T D N T 6 (1959) 928-52, sections A.II-III. 182 For xuipt., see IV.1313; 2971; the incense in association with Helios VII.537— 98; IV 1275-1322, 2981; V 213-303 (хоТф1 V 221, 227-28); VII.538; See for further materials, Richard Gansziniec, “Kucpt.,” PRE 23. Halbband (1924) 52— Merkelbach (Abrasax, 57. 3.236) points to Manetho’s work: Mave&wi;, ттј<; А1уитстои, ар^ереи^. еурафе кер1 хатаахешј? xucplwv. £rjTet. т I to xutpt, (Suda, s.v. Mave&w?; F G H [ed. Jacoby] 609, T 1 and F 16; Plutarch, Is. Os. 52, 80; Athenaeus, Deipn. (ed. Kaibel), 2.73 (LCL 2.66— 67); Aelius Aristides 47.26 [p. 382.30 Keil]). 183 See VII.261— 62: km ттј<; офистстои nplv yevea&ai. oupavov 7] yyjv 7} Q-aXaaaav...; 1.343; III.554; IV.1120, 1148, 1350, 2835, 3064; VII.517; XIII.169, 482; XXXV.l; X X X V I.217; LXII.29, 31. On the subject see Kathe Schneider, “Abyssos,” R A C 1 (1950) 60— BDAG, s.v. а[Зист(то<;. 62;

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 485— 732)


dawn” brings to m ind the god N u n ,184 or the Greek waters o f Styx.185 The final voces magicae vuw $sato z~/u ouyizyoia. are unexplained.186 The final petition (11. 514— differs in three ways. (1) There is no iva.187 15) (2) The petition introduces the element o f ether, not m entioned previously: x al axoucr/] [jlou o ^cooyovo<; x al nzpixzjutxzvoq alQirjp (“and may the lifegiving and encompassing ether hear m e”). (3) The subject changes again (cf. tcveuctt) 1. 510): instead o f asking for his improved hearing, the suppliant expresses the hope that the ether may hear his prayer. As far as speech is concerned, the voces magicae empower it to make sure the prayer is being heard. The element o f ether (altWjp), located above the sphere o f атѓјр, is found only here in the ML, but in the PGM corpus it is attested more often.188 The two attributes which are attached to al&rjp, ^cooyovo? and nzpiyizjoyAvoc,,189 point to cosmology; they show up only here in the M L.190 T he final vox magica apvo(jLY)Ocp is an unexplained hapaxlegomenon. A new section begins in 1. 516, introducing the final part o f the prayer (11. 516— 37). Unusual for a prayer, it contains a detailed self-presentation o f the suppliant.191 The nature and function o f this self-presentation is partly ritual and partly didactic.
184 So Merkelbach, Abrasax, 3.236. On N un see Reinhard GrieBhammer, “N un,” LA 4 (1982) 534-35. 185 Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.236) adduces the parallel in Apuleius, Metam. 6.13— 14: rorem rigentem and fontes horridos. For the primordial waters, see C H 1.4; III. 1; for а(Зиа<то<;, see C H III. 1; XVI.5. For further references, see Leonhard Goppelt, “ибшр хтX.”, T D N T 8 (1969) 314-33, esp. sections A.I— III. 186 Various scholars have tried to restore corrupted Greek. Wessely reads еусл; Dieterich (5, n.) o eyw '£-/&(?); Sam Eitrem (“Varia,” NTF i, 4th series, 10 [1922] 112) eyto « £-/w, ou^l iyoi a(?). Jordan (by letter) wonders whether the words 'ѓуш, ouyl £'/w (“I have, I don’t have”) may come from a formula o f the kind cited in LXI.7: “you are oil, you are not oil.” 187 Translators often supply another “in order that” (Merkelbach: “damit”), or, better, make it part o f the preceding tva-clause (Dieterich, Reitzenstein, Preisendanz, Meyer); Festugiere changes the sentence: “ ... l’eau eflrayante, et que m ’entende Tether...” 188 Apparently, for the ML it is not identical with “fire.” For alOvjp, al9ipio<; see above, 1. 489-90. Cf. the references in CHI. 17; XI. 19; Exc. VI. 12; XXIII. 11, 34; XXIV. 1; XXV.7. 189 Martinez observes that in the N T “life-giving” and “pouring out” is connected with the 7rveu[xa; for references see BDAG, s.v. ex^ew, zxyvGiq; ^омпоСеш, l.a (Joh 6:63; 2 Cor 3:6; 15:45; 1 Tim 6:13: ^woyovew, with v.l.). 190 For ^woyovo<; see IV.720, 1754; ^woyovEtv IV.1162,1282,1597 (тсро<д "HXlov), 1614; VII.529 (Helios); Ti£ptx£^u[Jt£VO(; has no parallel in the PGM. Cf. also C H IX .6 (^woyovstv); XVI.10 (^ooyovwc); for тгѕрсхем *tA. see X:18; Exc. XXIII.34; XXVI.27. 191 Self-presentations are important in the ML; see below, 11. 644— 49, 719— Cf. also the 24. self-presentations on the Orphic Gold Tablets, and my article, “ ‘Der Erde Kind bin ich und des gestirnten Himmels’. Zur Lehre vom Menschen in den orphischen Goldplattchen,” in Graf, Ansichten griechischer Rituale, 222-43; reprinted in my Antike und Christentum, 244-66.



The beginning sums up what the suppliant considers the promise which the god will next fulfill: en ei [jlsXXw kolxotctsuziv ayjjxepov xolc, a&avarot.<; (“for today I am going to envision w ith immortal eyes”). This announcement recalls the transformation of vision that was the subject o f the previous petition (11. 502— 13); the author also presupposes that the prayer has been heard by the deity (11. 514— 15). The time reference oyjfAspov (“today”) occurs elsewhere in magical and ritual contexts as almost a technical term .192 The verb xaxoTtTsuetv (“envision”), found also in the exordium (1. 485), is a synonym o f stcotctsuelv (see on 1. 504). The phrase xoXc, a&avaxot,? o^jjuxat. explains that the new vision has come about through the transformation o f the mortal eyes into immortal ones (see 11 504— . 5).193 Further information is to be gained from the following section. The section 11. 517-37 defines the suppliant as an initiate. The subsections o f this self-definition form the basis for the following ascension narrative. The summary contains the anthropology o f the ML, detailing the relationship between the hum an and the divine. Regarding human nature, the initiate defines himself as 9ллг)то<; ysvvyj&sL; ex 9ллг]т9ј<; uorepa c, (“a mortal born from a mortal w om b”). H e thereby defines human nature by two criteria: mortality and birth from a human mother. This definition appears several times in the ML and elsewhere in the PG M ;194 it conforms to com m on ideas o f ancient anthropology.195 T he benefits o f initiation are generally summarized in 11. 518— and by a 19, kind o f synthema in 11. 520— The general benefit is characterized as “bet­ 27. term ent” : (3e(3eXTt,(0[iivo<; итсо хратои? pteyaXoSuvajAou x a l бе^са? yzipbq аф&артои (“improved through the exceedingly powerful might and the im­ perishable right hand”). T he verb (SsXtxouv (“improve”), found only here in the PGM , often relates to Hellenistic ethics.196 The reference to divine power
192 See also below 1. 646, 651, 6 8 6 , and 1.165-66 III.265; IV.1455, 1618-19, 2911, and for further references, Preisendanz, 3.176 (index), s.v. Cf. Luke 2:11; 4:21; 13:32— 19:5, 33; 9; 23:43; 2 Cor 3:14; 6:2: 1бои vuv хасро<; ешгрбстбехто*;, 1бои vuv yjpiipa аооттјрѓоа;. See BDAG, s.v. cnrjfxspov. 193 Cf. III.215: ојајш. tsA[siov] IV543— 44 uavxa бѕ бфт) aQ-avara. The concept is similar to the Hermetic expression o ocpdaXpLo^ tou vou (C H V .2; X .4-6; XIII. 14, 17; Def. (Armenian) 7.3; 9.2 (ed. Mahe, L ’Hermes en Haute-Egypte, 2.379— 391 [German trans. 80, in Holzhausen, 2.495, 497]). In the N T and early Christian literature cf. Eph 1:18: 7re<pwTt.C T[xevou(; Touq dcpQ jjLou? ттј<; харб£ас;; Justin, Dial. 134.5. See BDAG, s.v. ocpOaXjAoc;, -aA 2; Hans Conzelmann, “фај^,” T D N T 9 (1973) 310— sections A.3; D .l— ; E .III.l— 58, 8 2. 194 See 1. 645: yevofxevo? ex 9-vt]ty]<; исттЕра?, and 11. 529— 30, 543, 607, 608— Cf. 9. 1. 533: ср&артт) (Зротш cpuai; furthermore IV.2537; V.409, 413; V I.ll; VII.674, 677; X X .2-3; LXXII.17. 195 Cf. Gal 4:4— for references and bibliography see Betz, Galatians, 206— 5; 8. 196 For j3sATt,ouv, (Зелтсмсп^ see, e.g., Plutarch, Virt. prof. 85C-D; Philo, Decal. 17; Fug.


II. Main body of the ritual (11. 485— 732)


is couched in metaphors similar to those above (11. 496-97). The divine attribute xpaxo? occurs only here in the ML, but is more frequent elsewhere in the PG M .197 The attribute jxeyaXoSuva^o? (“exceedingly powerful”) be­ longs to hymnic language,198 just as the attribute бе£их<; jetpoq acp&apxou (“ [by] the imperishable right hand”).199 The rather elaborate statement in 11 520— seems formulaic in nature and . 27 resembles a synthema, comparable to formulae in mystery-cult texts.200 The passage defines the benefits o f transformation, o f which the first is the quali­ fication o f immortality: a&avaxw Tcveujxart. [xaxoTtxeueiv] xov a&avaxov Alaiva (“by the immortal spirit [envision] the immortal Aion”). W hile the “immortal spirit” has been dealt w ith before (11. 489— 505, 510), it reap­ 90, pears here as the force bringing about the vision (xaxoTtxeuetv [1. 516; cf. 504]) and immortality. Having acquired immortality, the initiate is able to have a vision o f the immortal Aion,201 w hom the author mentions here for the first time (1. 520).202 This god, whose name means “long period o f time,” “eon,” “eternity,” plays an important role in Hellenistic and R om an religions. In the

30; Det. 56; Sacr. 42; Mos. 2.66; and often (see Borgen, Philo Index, s.v.). See Reitzenstein, H M R , 262-65.
197 See VII.1020; XII.134; XIII.629, 803, 881; XXXV.21; it occurs frequently in biblical literature as well (LXX Deut 8:17; Wis 11.21; Sir 47:5; Acts 19:20; Col 1:11; etc.; see BDAG, s.v., l.a. 198 See also 11. 639, 687— 88 ([лѕуаЛохраторѕ^ Deot); IV. 1345— (in an invocation: 46 [jLsyaXoSuvajjLo^, [xeyaXoSo^oi;, fxeya&evT]?); VII.881; XII.374— 75. 199 See above on 11. 496— 97. 200 On this type o f formula, see also 11. 644— 49, and Dieterich, 213— 256— for 18, 58; further references see Betz, Antike und Christentum, 238— 243. 39, 201 The principle is that o f ojxoloi; tm ofioic^. Cf. 1 Cor 2:10— 15, esp. 13. 202 The god o f eternity, Aion, plays an important role in the PGM; in the ML he is identical with Helios-Mithras (594— cf. 111.70— 100— 95; 95, 101, 462; V.4). Cf. also 1.164, 200— (attributes: alwvaio?, alwvax<T>t,voxpaT(op, alwvoTioXoxpaTwp), 309; IV1163, 1 1169, 1206, 2198, 2314, 3168; V156, 468; VII.510 (av yap si б тсаттјр тои mxXivyevovQ AlGvo?), 584; X II.246-47; XIII.71, 299, 329, 582, 996-97. For literature see Arthur Darby N ock, “A Vision o f Mandulis A ion,” H T h R T1 (1934) 53-104; repr. in Essays, 1.357— 400, esp. 377-396; Festugiere, Revelation, 4.152— 75,184— Nilsson, G G R , 2.348, 85; 498— 505, 536, 682, 6 8 6 ; Betz, G M PT , 331— 332; Bousset, Religionsgeschichtliche Studien, 192— 230; Merkelbach & Totti, Abrasax, 2.168-169; 3.56— and passim; Daniel & Malto58 mini, Supplementum Magicum, 2.227-228; Kotansky, Amulets, 115— Michel, Gemmen, 16; #114; H. J. W. Drijvers, “A ion,” D D D 13— Gunther Zuntz, “Aion Plutonios (Eine 14; Griindungslegende von Alexandria),” Hermes 116 (1988) 291— 303; idem, Aion. Gott des Romerreiches (AHAW.PH 1989:2; Heidelberg: Winter, 1989); idem, AION im Rom erreich. D ie archaologischen Zeugnisse (AHAWPH 1991:3; Heidelberg: Winter, 1991); idem, Alwv in der Literatur der Kaiserzeit (WSt.B 17; Wien: Verlag der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1992). Zuntz does not discuss the PGM, however, but considers a special investigation for it to be necessary (44, n. 6 6 ).



ML, Aion is m entioned again in the “third prayer” as the heavenly gatekeeper (1. 594).203 His attribute is беатготтј^ xtov Trupivwv бсабт^атш (“lord o f the fiery diadems”).204 W hile бѕсттсотт)? is attested only here in the ML (1. 521), seven golden diadems are m entioned in 1. 675.205 T he second qualification bestowed by the spirit is sanctification (1. 522), crfioic, ayt-aarO-el? ayiaafAatrc, (“sanctified through holy consecrations”). The expression is unique in the PGM, a fact that caused commentators to assume influence o f the LXX. The translations diverge, because o f divergent inter­ pretations o f the term ау£аст[ла, w ith most interpreters taking it to mean “holy consecration.”206 W hile it is true that the terminology o f aytoc^w, cbfioq, аусастјла occurs most frequently in the LXX, the PGM do not neces­ sarily depend on the LXX.207 In Hellenistic-Jewish and early Christian texts the term is mostly used in the singular, referring to “sanctuary,” “temple.” E.g., Philo (Plant. 50; LCL edition by Colson, 3.239) interprets ay laapia (Exod 15:17— olov ayuov атсаиуаст^ха, [лл[л7)[ла ар^ѕтитгои, ercei xa alcFtW 18): joret, xaXa t w v voTjcrsi. xaXwv elxovsc;, t o Yjxoifxacr&ai wto ^etpcov &eou, xwv xoajxoTiot-wv auxou б ^аЈлѕш (“It is a ‘sanctuary,’ an outshining o f sanctity, so to speak, a copy o f the original; since the objects that are beautiful to the eye o f sense are images o f those in which the understanding recognizes beauty. Lastly, it has been prepared by the ‘hands’ o f god, his world-creating powers”). In the
203 Some o f the hymns in the PGM addressed to Aion are theologically and conceptu­ ally similar to the ML: e.g., the yoLipzxia\xbc, 1.1115-66 (cttyjXt] атсбхрисро?); IV.1167— 1226 (cttyjXy)); IV.850-929 (2oAo[j.wvo^ хататстма^); IV.1596— 1715 (теАетуј); XII.323-50; more­ over, the теХеттѓ] 1.26— the prayer called puaxiyd] (1.195— 37; 222) the prayer to Apollo II.l— 15; the cat ritual III.1— 164; the axrfkr] tou ’Ieou V.96— 172. 204 According to Jordan (by letter), the pap. seems to read Ttupsivwv instead o f nuptvwv. 205 See also IV.675, 1337, 2840; V.483; VII.619; cf. XXXV.26, 40: б[,аб7 )[лато<р6 ро<;. For TcupLvo?, see 11. 584, 589, 637— (nvpivoq axi(pa.voQ); III.211; IV.1024— (фауѓ)9ѓ 38 25 [xol, xupte, o ev Tcupl ttjv Suva[xt.v xal tt]v la^uv e^cov), 2959; VII.801; XIII.165 (eyevero бе б &ео? Ircl tou xoafxou xal тои тсиро?); XIV.8 ; furthermore C H 1.9 ($ebq tou 7tup6 i; xal TiveufxaToi; civ); X.18; Hippolytus, Haer. 5.7, referring to the demiurge o f the Naassenes (see Dieterich, Abraxas, 48-62; Bousset, Religionsgeschichtliche Studien, 118-19, 164). Cf. for б(.абу][ла R ev 12:3; 13:1; 19:12; nvpivoq 9:17. See also BDAG, s.v. б(.абг)[ла; on the whole topic Marcell Resde, “Herrschaftszeichen,” R A C 14 (1988) 937-66, esp. 951-56. 206 So Dieterich: “durch heilige Weihen gereinigt”; Preisendanz: “rein gesiihnt durch heilige Reinigungen”; Reitzenstein: “durch heilige Weihen geheiligt”; Festugiere: “saintement sanctifie par les purifications saintes”; Meyer: “sanctified through holy consecra­ tions.” Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.236) speculates about influence by the LXX, takes the ау^астјлата as referring to the trishagion (Isa 6:3), and translates (3.161): “nachdem ich zum Heiligen geweiht wurde durch ‘Heilig’-R ufe.” Martinez points to his collection o f liturgical formulations naming the acclamations o f the trishagion ayt,aa[xol (Baptized, 70). 207 For aylacj[i.a see LXX Amos 7:13: el q бе (За!,97 ]Аouxrct. fi.Y 7tpocr97 ji; тои тсросртјтеиааг., ] oTt. aytacj[i.a [ЗаспАѓах; eaTiv xa l o!xo<; $OLaikzia.c, Icttiv. For references see BDAG, s.v. aylaafxa.

240. Irenaeus (Haer.II. 209 Comparable is the application to Christian baptism.8. Reitzenstein (H M R. Clement o f Alexandria. 4.209 The following part o f the convoluted sentence construction is even more difficult (11. Meyer: “while there subsists within me . has ayiaq итгеогмст*^. in his Platonica Minora (Miinchen: Fink. esp. pour un peu de temps.t.22-42). 98.3. Albrecht Dihle. 12— 69. 4. XI.14-37). 212 See LSJ. instead the soul shares human weakness and mortality This is why the soul is in need o f support by divine power which by way of consecration injects holiness into the soul. referring to SiaxoCT^ot?. Dieterich (Abra­ xas.4-24). 1. referring also to Eduard Williger. Harvey. Untersuchungen zu r Terminologie des Heiligen in den hellenisch-hellenistischen Religionen (RVV 19:1. Metam.” T D N T 8 (1969) 572— 89. s.24-29). Reitzenstein: “wahrend unversehrt mir bleibt auf ein kleines die menschliche und natiirliche (seelische) Kraft”. “Heilig. a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. III. “итгосттастс^. but only for a 208 See P G L . with references to Aristotle. 210 Pap. GieBen: Topelmann. Trcocrraait. where it plays a significant role. Preisendanz and Henrichs keep ayt-a^.585— xal [лета t yjv t o u u A i x o u асо[хато<. in order to clarify the question o f how the consecration affects the human soul.. 317 (114.211 The term иср1атт][Л(. 11 [ed.IV. 1.i. B. A. idem. that state cannot last forever. XI. listing Gregory o f Nyssa. ]fj. Stoics. s. Sacr. etc. Mithrasliturgie.und Bedeutungsgeschichte. once the initiate has reached the state of holiness. which may be due to the comment having been inserted after the preceding formulaic statement.o<. I. it is almost technical in physics. also 187 (61. my human soul-might”. Dieterich: “da unter mir steht auf ein kleines rein die menschliche Seelenkraft”.v. # # 599 (185. Hagios. Wort. lasts only for a short while. however. Nilsson. исреатсоат]^ [лои тгро? oXtyov тт]<.ата refers most likely to “consecrations. Therefore. see Chrysippus. 38. 1922). SV F II. Main body of the ritual (11. That sup­ portive power. Hermann Dorrie. s. 518-19 (165. 113. Preisendanz: “wobei in Reinheit auf nur kurze Zeit verharrt meine mensch­ liche Seelenkraft”. ma nature psychique humaine”..” R A C 14 (1988) 1-63. He apparently does not share the Platonic doctrine o f the immortal soul incorporated in the mortal body. шге^ѕсттохту]^.астр.16. n. Thus far. aytaofjia. appears to come from philosophy. 1976). Eitrem corrects to ayt. after which it wanes and must receive another charge by new consecrations.3. the verb may be related to the concept o f vkogtoloic. av&p«7UVY]^ [xou Suvajjiso)?210 (“which holy [power] supports for a short while my human soul-power”).. B. 5) to итсереатмаг^. Thus. Philo. Merkelbach: “wahrend mich auf kurze Zeit die Kraft der menschlichen Seele verlassen hat.6). the author has not mentioned the soul (фи^ѓј) in connection with anthropology. 509 (164. for which see Helmut Koester.32-43). Leg.55]) in speaking about the Gnostics refers to their notion o f 7iv£U[xaTix7] итгбатастсс. Epicurus.a. G G R .30-186. holy for a short time. 226) refers to Apuleius. 522-24): brftoLC. 2. Cf. n. . D. (“support”). Festugiere: “tandis que se retire un peu de moi .212 Constructing ucpi<xrY with a genitive object is unusual. 3./ substantia. 485— 732) 123 PGM the rare plural аус.” Cf.v. ucpiaTYjfjii.v. eu^evpj атсохЈатаатаапл 86: 211 Translations differ. 24: perfectis solemnibus processi duodecim sacratus stolis. especially Stoicism. so that it makes sense that he wishes to bring it in at this point.686. For the Stoics.”208 here specifically to the initiation ritual. 202a (65. C H 1. for references see P G L .2.

s.-Plato. see 1. The term (j.exa.217 The second (1. A x. хрѕшхотгѕТтас. i.120.124 Commentary finite period.302. see Merkelbach (Abrasax .v.? remains. 2606.. 501 ([xexaTcapaSLSovat. 504). death”. crit. Plutarch. Alciphron. al. Tusc. 502— and V 4 534— but there are some new terms as well. furthermore IV. Schepers) and translates. 3. Hershbell (in his edition.v. 5 (829C). esp. and with other passages in the ML. y jp io c ) has references attesting the metaphorical meaning as “the debt that all must pay. Ananke. in 1 . Gundel. 367b: xav {jlt) xic. This “necessity. “without cancellation o f debt?” Cf.v. 9-octtov jpzoq аттоб^бм to £5jv. 605.342.236). xpeotto^eTv. Dieterich (p. a personified demonic force. 502— moreover 1. “Heimarmene. 2. 2669. 11. X X X V I. 11. the expression ^лѕха xy]v evsaxwcrav x a l xaxsTtelyouaav fxe rcixpav avayxrjv a)(p£OX° 7ry]TO parallels 11. the sense o f the preposition p.” P R E 7 (1912) 2622— 45..213 The soul needs strength especially in view o f the impending ascension. IX. In 1. list only IV. 630 the ML speaks o f a “recovery o f the soul” (атсохахастха&т) r\ фиХ7)) from its being shaken up (11. 4. for the “bitter Ananke” see also VII. “For a short time the avQ-pwruvT] фи^хт] Suvajjac leaves the candidate [scil. one common. “Fatum 74. (Heimarmene). 9. n.eTaSiS6 vai). Weltbild und Astrologie. 2.art. See Schreckenberg. XV. 3. (otocv) атсохатаата&тј стои rj фи/j]. s.506— Heinrich Otto Schroder. be explainable.. and the other unfamiliar: тихро? (“bitter”)216 and ахреохотгујхо?. LSJ (s. fate.” 1. 217 T L G and LSJ.). 725 the soul is closed down during the oracular ecstasy. see above on 11. G G R .215 Ananke is here distinguished by two attributes.4 (ed. 524-27)..” R A C 7 (1967) 524-626. The initiate expresses his confidence that he will regain his soulpower after he has been liberated from the oppressive force o f necessity.302. 160— 63. with the rendering “free o f debt. 503-4) the formulaic rela­ tive clause (11.v. 215 For the ML. 508— 647 ([xsTayevvav). III. for initiation]. but cf. 564-68.214 we must appreciate.. on the other.10.527. cessity”).. 606. associated w ith avay xy) (“ne­ 35. Vit.£TarcapaXal l3av£LV provides another instance o f the authors prefer­ u ence for verbs w ith double prefixes.” 214 The term occurs only here in the PGM. however. VII.215 (index VI and index I. 70— Nilsson. 1. 5. and in 1. s. 7.). aer. etc. has preemi­ ш nence in the magical texts throughout as Ananke. 7]v syw rcaAiv {АехатшраХЃЈЈлфоЈлас fxexa xtjv Eveaxwaav x a l xaxeTreiyouaav jjis 7 tixpav avay xy]v a/peoxoTTiqxov (“which I will again receive after the present bitter and relentless necessity which is pressing down on m e”). 622-23).x7) Suvafxc.39. 60. 35) refers as a parallel to Cicero. on the one hand. This situation is confirmed by repeating (cf.93: life is a loan. . app. 218 See ps. 527) attribute may.e. 483 ((j. This interpretation agrees with Stoic doctrine.) adduces Suda.” identical with ХРг ' (“need. without . 709-10 the suppliant prays that the deity may remain in the 1 soul.218 213 For a different interpretation. In 630 it says that the soul has returned to its former condition. w ho thinks.13. however.1406. undimin­ ished”. 216 See 1. ad loc. Wilhelm Gundel. As a whole. and only the Trvsufj. See Preisendanz. p.

eds. Vettius Valens.6: avsu i^uyou avayxr^ wv. For parallels. By comparison. 1. 210— 20. 224 See Preisendanz. undamaged”). in the ML may have originated in a Stoic background. ov y j Ssiva. ^psoxoTceiv (“cancel debt”).14). apud Eusebius.”221 Merkelbach seems to agree w ith this interpretation only in part. crit. 5]. 3. Cf.110— 29. repr. ev. Meyer: “relendess”. Festugiere: “apres la contrainte douloureuse de l’imminente Fatalite” (“after the painful constraint o f imminent Fate”). Anthol. according to the immutable decree o f god”).1. See also Alciphron 1. (“The curiosity o f their souls shall be frustrated by desires.219 If. ungeschadigt” (“uncurtailed. XXIII. to erct-JSaXXov xal xa$ 7)xov хата ttjv elfjwcpjiivirjv. 5. in his Studies. which included the experience o f death and rebirth. N ext (11. at this point the initiate leaves his mortal nature behind during the ascent (see below.237): “Nicht mehr von jener ‘Schuld’ beschwert. but 27) there is no evidence for such. 220 See SKFII.223 Rather. 263c: outm бе xal to xpswv elp^cr9-at. N N . 527— 29) comes the identification by name: eyw o Setva. n.lat. app. esp. Main body of the ritual (11. A distinction has to be made be­ tween the ascension presently in view and the presupposed earlier initiation ritual. 126— who assumes that a ritual death and transformation are presupposed here. 221 Translations vary widely: Dieterich (p. 9. see CH.II. The initiate has left behind his earlier existence. fears.220 and should thus be translated as “unfor­ giving.8: rcoXXwv Zavarov k. Barn. ritual death is part o f the ritual in IV 154-285. because the practitioner expects a return into this life. 2. troubles. no longer burdened by death. that is. 4. . 222 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 176. w hom N N bore.’ which one must pay back to avayxY). originally a commercial term .6Tty]asv бсргсАтјЈлата. Praep. Diogenianus. by the symbol A. х ата боу^ла &sou ajxeTa&eTOV (“I. 219 See Diodorus Siculus 38/39.”222 The text o f the ML. xal Xunat? x a l z k n ia i izkctvoic. the term а/рѕох6тгг)то<. as according to Diogenianus. w hen he says: “N o longer burdened by that ‘debt. indicated in the pap. N ock & Festugiere.161) translates: “nach dem mir jetzt bevorstehenden und mich sehr bedrangenden bitteren Zwang” (“after the now impending and me strongly oppressing compulsion”).17: otzoxz el q tov aipa avaSpafjq) to XP^01^ LXX Wis 15:8: to туј? фих^? a^at-TY^el? jp io q . 485— 732) 125 accordingly. Reitzenstein (H M R.” Eranos 52 [1983] 87— 112. 11. relentless.25: oux zo x i x b jp e o q cpuyelv. does not indicate that the “debt” equals “death..16): xpswxoTrelatko twv фих^ auTwv to Ttcplepyov £7it.9 u[i.” or that the initiate is beyond death altogether. 533— 35).jpeoy. esp. welche man der avayxr] zuriickzahlen muB = nicht mehr vom Tode beschwert. however.” 223 For a different interpretation see also Morton Smith (“Transformation by Burial [1 Cor 15:35— R om 6:3— 49. 6 . and misguided hopes”). at least at this point. Preisendanz: “ohne Verkurzung” (“without curtailment”). 26): “schuldentriickt” (“removed from debt”).^ xal <poPoL<. p. Exc. # 914 (265. 2. Merkelbach (Abrasax. the term to /pswv played a role for Chrysippus.224 The expression хата боу[ла г)еои ajJisTa&£Tov (“accor­ ding to the immutable decree o f god”) represents another formula important the day for repayment being fixed (»usuram »vitae tamquam pecuniae nulla praestituta die). ad loc. can be used as a metaphor. Der Initiierte hat seine friihere Existenz hinter sich gelassen. The statement is formulaic.46 (Kore Kosmou. 3. 2) connects with ijls and translates: “unverkiirzt.

ecpyjv. третстсп/ xaxov. XI.apjj. 55. 25. 5. xpU T C 0£!^e<Tiv (juxpfAapyupal? x9)<.aac.” R A C 1 [1969] 569— 70) names Isis as capable o f breaking the law o f fate: Aretalogy o f Kyme. See Reitzenstein. 169— Richard Reitzenstein & Hans Heinrich 70. Cambridge.evov a x o u ei (“I am victorious over Fate.64): ’AvayxT] еат1 ycpLatq [3e[3ala xal а[летатрет1 то<. Fate is obedient to me. with the commentary by Griffiths. 227 Schroder (“Fatum. 221— 22). e£ oclSlwv у р о уш . 286-87.exa&exov.. Nr. Bos.). 2 for further references). Ttpovoux. Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner.26). Apuleius. following Dieterich (5. X I. H M R . Suvafxis rcpovoiac (with n. the author sees the need at this point to add a comment of clarification concerning the anthropological presuppositions for the ascent (11. Isis Regina. The pap. aTpCTtxov ayaQ-ov. yeywxa oruva<v>ievac. Hoffleit. 288-89. item 25: Tiav <xo> ev oupavw a[i. as if its policies w ith respect to types o f competition were as undeviating and immutable as fate. the Hellenistic aretalogies o f Isis claim her victory over Heim arm ene or Fatum. esp. # 914 (265.’”228 This section ends w ith voces magicae (11. crit. Texte. 19. [jiexaQ-eTov. Lachesis.) opts for elau. w hen he reports from his table-talks: ‘“ N o r should we. from Chrysippus (Defato [rcepl s'ljj-ap^svrjc]) concern­ ing the three Moirai. doing the Sioixouv in the cosmos. Quaest. a&avaxou XapnrjSovoc.227 Plutarch seems to reflect the com m on opinion o f the time. line 10. Apparently. takes to be a corrupted palin­ drome (oe'iau | — | uaiew. and Atropos: ’'AxpoTiov бе oxi а[хета&ето<. 21. 1969). II. 59 (To the Moirai).18-19). xal а{лет6фЛ7)то5 ecmv б xad’ ехастта SiopLC[x6 i. Plutarch’ Moralia (London: Heinemann. corn. reads ajxexa&exou. which he. Exc. 8.xevov vixw .15. avayxT). 225 226 . # 913 (264. # 48: xlq &eo?. Orph. 1.’ I continued.230 It begins with stating what appears to be an accepted principle: excel oux eaxt. See SKFII. 57 ( # 46): 7ipovoia 9-ela Toc^iq. Schaeder. 320-23. ad loc. Studien zum antiken Synkretismus (Studien zur Bibliothek Warburg 7. 54.”) See on this Muller. Preisendanz (app. See also Apuleius. (“since it is for me. Text and translation cited according to the LCL edition by Paul A. being mortal. Merkelbach. 1.388-89.” R A C 17 (1996) 1041— 92.xxov t)v/]x6<. t l av&pwrco?.2 (Nock & Festugiere. ‘be overawed by Olympia. Abraham P. 1047-48.64 (3. 3. 113— 75. “Immanenz und Transzendenz. 'i 230 The problem behind the discussion is that o f “immanence/transcendence” and human identity. MA: Harvard University s Press.126 Commentary in Greek religious philosophy. 530— 32). Heimarmene is explained as the divine Logos divided into the three Moirai.v iy-TzenArf/Jdat. 228 Plutarch. Ibid. Hymn. Agypten. Clement & Herbert B. where Isis speaks: eyw to elfjiap. reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. reads ecau or e'iav.2 (675 B): ou [xtjv оибе r/]v ’OAufjimav. Exc. 5. also the interpretation o f оцаетагкто^ in CH. Cf. 1926.55). 74— Totti. Ifxou to eLjj. aEiov k a x i v мсттгер el[xapfxev7)v ajJicTaoTaxov x a l afJieTa&eTov ev t o l c a9Xrj[j.226 By contrast. 1965). Similarly. шг/јрѓт^. Clotho. Trav to k m yv]<. 283. 528-29): euy) u'ia eyji aw z'C lu o OQ O iua tew. Metam. 74— 76. 253— 277.225 The formula conforms to the Stoic concept known since Zeno and Chrysippus.v |xot ecpt. 229 It is not certain whether the pap. XIII. corrected by Dieterich (4— n.

can only be achieved by the separation and liberation o f the soul from the body. The statement looks like a principle quoted from a different context with approval. esp. ) 235 with an astral phe­ nom enon demonstrate the impossibility further. 166). 535.. xal aljAa PaaiXetav Феои x)or]povo[X7)(jai ou Suvaxai оибѕ r) cp&opa xy)v acp&apcaav xArjpovofxei (“Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom o f God. reads cruvaievai. and Franz Boll’ essay o f 1894. but similar terms occur elsewhere.231 Dieterich s punctuation connects it by a comma with the previous sentence.”234 Meta­ phors describing “ascending together” (auvoc<v>t. Frag. Phaed. (АарЈларкреуут) 1. See for a discussion o f these two principles. [лар[Ј.” reprinted in his Kleine Schriften. Grammar.260-61 ([ларјхарсашО-). 1922). cruvaveijxt. Main body of the ritual (11. see LSJ. s “Das Epigramm des Ptolemaeus. a vox magica. s. 238 Cf. 13 (107F-108D). 9. ^&хроѕхбеа пѓпХоу.577).v. if the principle is accepted. the parallel in Plato.” Preisendanz: “Da ich es nicht erreichen kann. in Rom. 104— 110. D e princ.evat.I ll. asl Nuxxcx. 614. 669.” 234 The term squxxo q is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. cf. 200 (§ 704b) treats this form as a poetic second perfect participle.y] o u 9-efjaxov fj (“For that the impure touch the pure is not at all permissible”). 4 (352D).236 The metaphors seem to reflect poetic. Sept. 228. 100 (ed. 123. Plutarch cites and interprets the principle in Is. Os. 54. 517— 18. s. 235 The pap.” Riess (CIR 10 [1896] 411) points to au[X7iXavoc астхтјр (1. Smyth.j.8 he discusses the issue in connection with the deification o f Romulus. The first is the suppliants present condition of mortality. 348. Apoll. Kern. Socrates cites this principle to demonstrate the impossibility for a human being to pass into the afterlife. The verb yeyoaxa is part. which Dieterich (4— corrects to cruvavisvai. 16 (160C). 313. idem. . purity. . Betz. “go up together. 195. Antike und Christentum. Indeed.II. A related principle is cited by Paul in a similar context in 1 Cor 15:50: accpE. |лар[лараиуѓ). perf. See also the references in LSJ. 67b: jxyj xa&apw yap xa&apou ефатихестОт . the previous proposition to obtain immortality appears preposterous and requires special explanation. referring to Pindar and mystery cult initiations. Hymn. perhaps hymnic language. 485— 732) 127 out o f reach to ascend together with the golden radiances o f the immortal brilliance”). and therefore passage to the afterlife.6 8 scpt/xsa&oa with a different meaning. and rare in Greek literature. Antike und Christentum. IV. 213.3-28. see 11. 242.. 147.v.237 The term fxapfxapuyy] is found only here in the PGM . conv. ax£X[3ovTes). the epigram o f Ptolemaeus (A nth.. 143-55.” PRE 21st Halbband (1921) 1143— 93. nor will perishability inherit imperishability”). while Preisendanz begins a new sentence.238 The adjective 231 Cf. 1150— 53. Cons.аруе£с. 237 Cf. Sterne und Sternbilder im Glauben des Altertums und der N euzeit (Bonn & Leipzig: Schroeder. calling it a vox Orphica and referring to Orph. ” 233 For &v7]xo<. “Kometen. . Orph. 27. Damascius. “contracted from yeyawc. in X III. 253— 5. 574) as confirmation.10-11 (auya£ovxe<. The term is 5) a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. 7. 236 On ideas concerning becoming a star see Wilhelm Gundel. contracted yeycoc for yeyovo')^.232 Either way. The argument involves two admissions.233 The second is that a mortals ascension to heaven is “out o f reach. Betz. pal. the comment is didactic and offers an answer to an implied question. 222) translates after a comma: “denn es ist mir nicht erreichbar als dem sterblich geborenen mit dem goldenen Flammenglanz der unsterblichen Leuchte in die Hohe zu steigen. . 232 Dieterich (4. 543. sap.

nor can he move his body in any way. O perishable nature o f mortals. 16-17.243 The section on self-presentation concludes (11. срОартт] [BpoTtov cpuai.) as the verb.2. pap. Cf. all bodily 239 Cf. w e are not yet strong enough to open our m ind’s eyes and look on the incorruptible.” Most other translators see the reference in regard to the reentering into the body.v. Preisen­ danz ш/аАафг. 1027. In the m om ent w hen you have nothing to say about it. on 11. 20 (To the Moirai). s.486.246 W hat the author seems to say closely resembles an explanation in C H X.11. III. cf. reading ср&рату) must be corrected to cpQapxr]. however. IV. The context (cf. 243 Preisendanz (app. 11.15 (To Helios). Hymn.244 translators differ in restoring and translating the text. 7. See BDAG.2. which. Reitzenstein emends kizoSkyou. 246 Dieterich (6 ) interprets this to mean: “und sogleich laB mich lo s ..” Cf. Merkelbach: “nach dieser unabdingbaren und mich bedrangenden N ot sollst du mich wieder gesund in dir aufnehmen. for the knowledge o f it is divine silence and suppression o f all the senses. Reitzenstein: “und bald nimm mich wieder heil in Empfang”.4. Festugiere: “et reprends-moi sur-le-champ sain et sauf”. Because o f some textual problems.409. reads AafxmrjSwvo?. 9. 607. ocuxixa \iz uytr] is uncertain because a verb is missing. V I. x al auxlxa <avaAa(3s> иустј [хета ttjv a7iapalxY]TOV x al xaT£Tce[l]you(jav XP£^av (“Stand.674. is inconsistent with the departure from “the inexorable and pressing need. 533— w ith the suppliant 35) addressing his human nature: есттаОг.” including the reminder that such a transition is not without danger. 59. 244 The pap. 502.10.128 Commentary -/ростоѕсбт]? (“golden bright”) is related to crowns. Wessely conjectures uyly) < ха 9 ѓат 7)>. [6 ] O ne w h o has understood it can understand nothing else. Xap. Sim.7t7]S«v. VII. Hermas. 242 See below. Dieterich (6 ) takes urdei (utptet. Plato’s (Phzed. and at once <take me back> safe after the inexorable and pressing need”). 240 Pap. Meyer: “and at once receive me safe and sound”. Preisendanz: “<ubernimm> mich sofort <wieder> wohlbehalten nach der unerbittlichen und bedrangenden N o t”. you w ill see it. 110c) use o f the term in a fantastic description o f the earth seen from above. 11.239 and XaptYjSwv (“bril­ liance”)240 is another hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. corrected by Dieterich (4). Jordan sees in the pap. W here does this language come from? It has some close parallels in the Orphic Hymns.5— 6: “But w e are still too weak now for this sight. 245 For the expression ср&артт) f3poxwv cputrt. Eitrem avaXa(3e.638. incomprehensible beauty o f that good. crit. 677. so that he orders his mortal nature245 to “stand. 11 (To the Stars) 8. 537— 38.. 241 Orph. which ancient sources thought o f as vehicles for the ascension of the souls into heaven. nor can one w h o has looked on it look on anything else or hear o f anything else. ad loc. 52526) requires a verb describing the ascent and addressing mortal nature. H e stays still.6-7.241 Merkelbach points to the sun rays and the dust particles glimmering in it. 413. for j3poxol see V. C H X ..) sees a repeating sequence: w tjuocsw rjuaew rjuasw yjuastd iae.242 The comment concludes with voces magicae: ш)и asw Yjua ear/) uae toLas. [xa instead o f the editors’ jxe.” .

”). crit. Mos. IV. esp. this beauty kindles his w hole soul and by means o f body draws it upward. Koln: Brill. “Isangelie.(3. Cf. and often. 535-536... 1787. .637.1 and XIII. 484-537). See Dieterich (6 ). Hartwig Thyen. 2.37. ” 247 The description o f the “inexorable and pressing need” is similar to the preceding parallels (see 11.317. 537.1— and Peder Borgen.. Preisendanz has as vox magica as in 1. Reitzenstein (Poimandres. 248 For this term see also 11. 205-209.... For w hen soul has looked on < th e> beauty o f the good.” R A C 17 (1994) 147-213. see also Carsten Colpe. Pradel. perhaps a doublet or variant o f the preceding: syw eqai [xa^apcp^jv [XOU т г р м ф и ^ ^ n p o i z . Having illuminated all his mind.II.]v.3. 484. Abrasax. s. 672: <xp)a. BDAG. 309— idem. while this may be true o f the Hermetica. app.7. 2 2 2 ). III.<x. “Gottessohn. Philo of Alexandria: A n Exegetefor His Time (NovT. 1. reads [лог/арср[. XXXVI. (1998) 945-76. 502— 525— 4. Cf.). Cf. believes that no divine name is required. Gebete. 8 6 . has oulo^ фи^со[. 222). Karl Preisigke. For Philo s similar teaching at this point.” Hopfner takes фиум as “deeply I draw in breath” (“tief atme ich ein”). Philo Index. 111.6 -9 . Hermetica. Preisendanz (app. Agnostos Theos. uL6 ?. and so also in the PGM. Dieterich. leg. 3. фиу^м бѕ (cf. cited in Dieterich. 251 The pap. 31. 1996). and beauty changes his w hole person into essence.v. Although beset w ith textual uncertainties. also C H XVI. see IV. N ew York. 517— 37) conclude the first prayer (11. IV.253 The latter seems most 247 Translation by Copenhaver.1075-77.145— 146. crit. Early Christianity and Hellenistic Judaism (Edin­ 3. also 11. however. 3. 253 So Merkelbach.): “son (of Helios). it cannot be deified w hile in a human body .4. For interesting demonological parallels see LSJ. 249 This formula occurs frequently in ancient texts.251 A nother formula then follows. (“For I am the son o f. Spec. for conjec­ tures. 59. 31. 177-201.267: [хетофаХш та axoi'/eia repo t o xaTeuetyov TTfi jpsLoLq. 485— 732) 129 senses and motions forgotten. Leiden. the edition o f N ock & Festugiere. Martinez raises the question whether the words could be a Greek translation o f an Egyptian epithet “son o f souls” (cf. 25 refers to the parallels in C H 1. Die Gotteskraft in der fruhchristlichen Zeit (Leipzig & Berlin: de Gruyter.v. 225-42. 1997). 2032-33. 26). Main body of the ritual (11. Cf. 250 For divine sonship. XII.].237. n. 252 Pap.92.oiyft]q.250 but that name is secret and only voces magicae are given: фи^м[у] бѕ[лоо тсро^со тгрсоа. my child. s. Wis 16:16 (LXX). “Ich-Bin-Worte. XXXVI. s. 18. d. see Vit. burgh: Clark. “soul o f souls”). 3025. ad loc. for the ML see 11. 574-75.” R A C 18 58. 214-20. 762-63. or whether he inserted two (defective?) variants o f the same formula.248 T he final words o f the self-presentation (11. 194-205.v.249 Some kind o f divine name should be expected. 105. w ith the adjective атсароаттјто^ (“inexorable”) providing variety.11771180.342.. or whether the magician by intention obscured his divine name. 525-27. Philo often (see Borgen. 605-6.935. which Dieterich (6 ) makes out as ulo^.. 1922).c. XIII. XIII. cf.124. it is not necessarily true o f the magical texts.” R A C 12 (1983) 19— Otto Betz.p[j. 2. See Norden. there is again a well-known formula: еум yap elpx o ulo<.126-128.S 20.252 The problem is whether the w riter has simply muddled up his Vorlage.

84. 724 (lyto elptx w ith vox magica). These general presuppositions and traditions cannot be discussed at this point. 1991).256 R elated to these issues is an enormous body o f materials connected with ideas on journeys to the heavenly world. Death. Ernst Dassmann. 2. Leiden: Brill. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 128.” A R W 4 (1901) 136-69. Antike und Christentum. Karl Hoheisel. 1993). 1960). Culianu. Lukian. Prescription o f the breathing ritual (11. 1994).” ibid. and “Jenseitsreise. the text moves directly to the ritual. 258 See the parallel in 11. idem. 152— 74.257 First.. Out of this World: Otherworldly fourneys from Gilgamesh to Einstein (Boston: Shambhala. 504— on the ML. Verherrlichung. Wolfson. 537— 38) Following the conclusion o f the prayer and anticipating the ascension narra­ tive. From Apocalypticism to Gnosticism. 167— Gruenwald. 1983). Through a Speculum That Shines: Vision and Imagination in Medieval fewish Mysticism (Princeton: Princeton University Press.130 Commentary likely not only because o f the parallel in 1. comes the prescription o f a breathing ritual (11. “Ascent into Heaven and the Beginning o f Christianity. drawing in as m uch as you can. 29. 256 On general cosmology see the comprehensive surveys and bibliographies by Carsten Colpe. “D ie Himmels5 reise der Seele. but at the same time he hides that name behind voces magicae. Peter Habermehl.47— esp. in his Studies. furthermore Cumont. Psychanodia I: A Survey of the Evidence Concerning the 67. including the world o f the gods and the place o f the human being in relation to it.” R A C 17 (1996) 246-407. Ascent to Heaven in fewish and Christian Apocalypses (New York: Oxford University Press. idem. esp. Betz. 255 See on these issues.258 As is shown by the preceding 254 For this formula. but com petent survey litera­ ture w ith bibliographies is available. Elliot R .”) W hat is drawn in with the breath o f air is the divine “spirit” (rcveujjia).” Eranos 50 (1981) 403— repr. 52— loan P. 628— 29: сттас oOv eu9-£w<. then. “Jenseits. iXxe остш тои Qstou.. Collins & Fishbane. 54. Apocalyptic and 69.254 but also because o f the magicians’ practice generally to keep their divine names secret.” R A C 17 (1996) 407-66. 257 See the comprehensive articles by Carsten Colpe and Peter Habermehl. Betz. 537— 38): eAxs o ltzo t w v ocxTLvtov icveufxa y ' avaarcwv. Lux Perpetua.27) description o f a similar ecstatic ritual: “In the midst o f all this one o f them started to rave more wildly than the rest. 229-73. Martha Himmelfarb. repr. Lohr. Antike und Christentum. “Jenseitsfahrt I (Himmelfahrt). o Suva[cr]ac. Morton Smith. 8. Merkahah Mysticism. For the breathing ritual see Apuleius’s (Metam . 165— idem. B.255 N o doubt. Josef Engemann. 105— 13. Ascension of the Soul and Its Relevance (EPRO 99. This narrative presupposes an ancient worldview which involves specific ideas about cosmology and anthropology. Still informative is the article by Wilhelm Bousset. see the passages and literature in Betz. 175— 86. 38— 40. idem. as D ie Himmelsreise der Seek (Libelli 71. and producing rapid gasps . 490-543. (“Draw in breath from the rays three times. 178. 179— 70. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. w ith his final words he reveals himself as a son o f a god. After Life.

a cpatvcTai ev xorlc. 1. by Willard R . 1129. early shamanism. he simulated a fit o f madness” (Inter haec unus ex illis bacchatur effusius ac de imis praecordiis anhelitus crebros referens.-K. See also the gem in Hopfner. “Greek Magical Papyri. sending them down to earth by glittering sun-dust.” 3581). 25: “Ich steige auf zum Himmel. For the ML. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien. 110— 412— 44.2286: ky.262 Greek philosophers called the particles ^ист[лата. see Mircea Eliade.. On this passage see Reitzenstein. Johnston.. 1970]). 73— Cf. see Klaus Thraede. Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy (trans. regarding them as souls floating upwards in the air. On Pindar’s 9th Paian. 751. Cf. 487— 94. “D id the Mithraists Inhale? A 83. Main body of the ritual (11. Der Konig als Sonnenpriester (ADAI. Sia twv QuplSwv axTlcriv. 44: “I am in the rays o f Helios” (’Eyw si[ii ev таТс tou tjXlou odjyaXq). 260 O n fcxTLves see in the ML 11. X II. On inspiration as a whole and with further literature. their role as transmitters o f divine spirit and its inhalation is affirmed several times. 1115— 66.263 However. 142. who inspires by the spirit elcrep/o^evov . 10. O Z I. 2. 189-90. Greek Hymns.1110: o. The god appears as surrounded by sun-rays (1129). Franz- . on 11. 181— Radcliffe Edmonds. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Hymn 17. simulabat sauciam vecordiam . Technique for Theurgic Ascent in the Mithras Liturgy.II. Track. 1. Envisioning Magic.).” There are also monumental representations showing rays proceeding from the sun.78. BollS 76. Psyche. addressed to ’AxtI? kzkLou (“Keen-eyed ray o f the Sun”). 1114. MA: Harvard University Press. W hile the sun rays are im portant in several ways in the PGM . 590 [axej3uxpwv]) may come from the Egyptian for “splendor o f the sun” (see Fauth. 98. and Some Mithraic Frescoes.260 Related are ancient speculations about the role o f the “sun dust. See Muller.-K. 9.199— 205. 906. 262 See Eliade. 74. Apuleius.176: ocxtlvott<ol>wv. velut numinis divino spiritu repletus. 261 See the close parallel in IV.37 (Preisendanz. Arthur Hanson. Helios Megistos. IV. see Sarah I.” the spirit is to be drawn in with the breath. Fauth.112-13. 277— Bousset. 2. Shamanism. Agypten. 1964).” R A C 18 (1998) 329-65. D e an. XIV.150— 60. Helios Megistos. 200. 4 4 7 48. 634.3. 2. Ich klimme empor auf den Sonnenstrahlen. § 733.16— 29]). 48. small dust particles hovering in the air and glittering in the sun. Also in accordance with ancient teachings is the idea that the spirit is transmit­ ted by the rays o f the sun (al axTtve?). o f Isis in the aretalogy o f Cyme. Heb 1:3: Christ as атсаиуааЈха ттј? б 6 £г^. quoting Leucippus (D.251). in: Schafer & Kippenberg.xtivmt6 v &eov. the spirit is a fundamental concept in the M L. 489— 90. 67 A 28 [11.261 In ancient Egypt they were regarded as means for the soul to climb up to heaven. “the whole system o f the aerial spirit” (1115— 16).259 Since 7iveu[xa can mean both “spirit” and “breath. Metamorphoses (2 vols.ле xa l ocvtictttw^ulsvov [jlou (“entering into me and drawing me to it” [1121— 22]).27-30]). 263 Aristotle. IV. 208— 78. Cambridge. 2. Poimandres. Cf. та xaXoujxeva 5и(Х[л.2 (404a): olov ev tw aept. which greets the god Aion-Helios as to ttocv стиат7](лос tou aeplou TivsujxaTo^. 58 B 40 [1. n.” Ancient World 32 (2000) 10— Breathing rituals seem to go back to 24. also IV461.” that is. referring to Jan Assmann. 13.ата. at this point from deep down in his chest. London: Heinemann. Cited according to the LCL edition and translation b y j. and Pythagoreans (D.462. 259 See above. The epithet o f Helios as ехфихрм^л (XIII. as though he had been filled with the heavenly inspiration o f some deity. 333. XIII. see Furley & Bremer. “Inspiration. See Rohde. 7 [Gliickstadt: Augustin..162.78. Brashear. 1989). 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 131 prayer.zivoycdxi.A. the Chaldaean Oracles. 446— 47.

for the phrase o Suvaooa. 1933). 311. Festschrift fur Hermann Dorrie (JAC. John F. Resp. wie e i g e n t l i c h die Erhebung durch das ttvsujjlcz. Augustin (Louvain: Editions de l’lnstitut Superieur. see XIII. “Bemerkungen zum Aufstiegs89 weg der Seele in Jamblichs D e mysteriis. and the air in him have a vision o f the sacred fire. Ep.” in Platonismus und Christentum.. Finamore. daB das unsterbliche Tcveujxa in ihm. Lewy. p. Paderborn: Schoningh. y zv za iq wiedergegeben werden und die a&avaxo^ apx*] schauen soli. 747. 40 Library. Weltbild und Astrologie. 13. that in him blows t o lepov Ttveufxa.237. also 232— refers to Rohde. 6.27. the immortal water. Abrasax. on levitation). 29— (Trans. Das Seelenpneuma.44. the author includes an instruction about what is going to happen after the performance o f the breathing ritual (539— 44). 197.a). see also Plutarch.264 T he ritual is to be performed three times by drawing in the air as hard as possible. 487— (esp. das unsterbliche Wasser.132 Commentary the ML does not speak of “souls” (фи^оа). 1. 1945). Schmekel. vind. This section reveals the authors own understanding Joseph Dolger. V.E 10 [1983]. Seine Entwicklung von der Hauchseele zu r Geistseele. Tusc. 264 Dieterich (58— 59): “If he [scil.3.”) Dieterich (59-61. 55).1. then he can accomplish this only in this way that the immortal Ttveujxa in him. so kann er das eben nur dadurch.l 122. 539—44) Before the beginning o f the actual ascent narrative. 5. 312— 28). the firm.5. 1. Chico.322. . gemeint ist: er muB von den Strahlen rcveujxa einziehen.42. Later prescriptions show how this elevation by the Ttveufjta is really to be understood: he must draw in from the sun rays’ Tcveufxa. Introduction to the ascension narrative (11.9-29 (esp.945: oarov Suvaaoa.114. 45. 6. Chaldaean Oracles. 265 For avacjTiav and avxt-arcav see IV. 93. Somn. Tusc. 2498. Julian. esp. the Nag Hammadi “Treatise on the Resurrection” (Epistula ad Rheginum). Paris: Desclee de Brouwer. For ritual acts to be performed three times. Or. Cicero. L ’Evolution de la doctrine du pneuma dans stoicisme a S. Iamblichus and the Theory of the Vehicle of the Soul (ACSt 4. N H C 1.105— 47. Seneca. das Feste und die Luft in ihm schaut das heilige Feuer. the s holy spirit. Clemens Zintzen.172C. Man sieht aus einigen nachfolgenden Vorschriften. but o f “you” and the element o f “spirit” as bringing about the ascension. then he gets lifted up toward the light and enters into the upper region o f the air.4. 101— 159-64) pointing to Diogenes Laertius 8. CA: Scholars Press.” A u C 6 (1950) 30— Cumont 51. Die Philosophie der 33) mittleren Stoa. 177— 226. see Franz Riische. 43.2. the dawn’ abysmal flood. Scip. see below. dann erhebt er sich zum Licht und kommt mitten in die Luftsphare. in Robinson. Marc.301— 31. 1. Cicero. Gerard Verbeke. 565E-566A. “Die Apostel als Strahlen der Sonne Jesu. This point was already made by Dieterich who explains it as evidence o f Stoic influence. Psyche. furthermore Gundel.26— on the 29 spirit). 25. 563F.” (“Wenn er der a&avaxo<. ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der antiken Pneumalehre (SGKA 18.99— 1. and to the Neoplatonists’ concept o f “soul-vehicle” (6)(rjfi.265 C. Rohde (2. the human person] is to be returned to the aQ-avaxoc y zv za tq and have a vision o f the ocQocvczto^ ap^yj. For the whole subject. daB in ihm weht xo Lepov TtveufAoc. 1985). Merkelbach. 319— 24) names as the most important passages. der heilige Geist. des Aufgangs abgrundtiefe Flut. (After Life. chapter 3 and Excursus 37: 8 . 3. sera num.104. 321— “Les papyrus magiques”.

Both forms are frequent in contemporary Koine texts. 27 n. 2509.. For avaxoucpl^eiv see Lucian. Lukian. аеројЗатем in Lucian. 3. Vit. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 133 o f the ritual as a whole.” By “extracting fire from the sun rays” (arco т?ј? axxlvo c. on p. 635. Apoll. for the prophetic future see also 485 [хатотхтеим]. and Kroll as Soxet[v (j. аитб x al aaAeuov ev xw al&spt. 21. cf. Soren Podemanns Sorensen.7. Apoll. so that you seem to be in midair”). Tage Petersen. danz. “Mental Faculties and Cosmic Levels in the Eighth and the Ninth (N H VI. the ascending person is addressed w ith a term often occurring in the following narrative: бфт] (“you will see”).21.480. for piaoi. app. (“and you will see yourself being lifted up and ascending to the height. “the fire is then seen raised aloft in the air and dancing in the ether” (ouxw [xexewpov те браст&ас.. Porphyry. 73.4. Chaldean Oracles (above. 267 Cf. Leuc. s. 268 Pap. Frtihes Christentum.268 The text interestingly predicts that he will be able to see himself: бфт) aeauxov avaxoucpt-^ojjievov [x]al uueppalvovxa el? ифо?. 54. s. based on Robert Helbing ( Grammatik der Septuaginta [Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 702. nn. eds.3. Philo uses the term in describing intellectual ecstasy (Spec. the seven men in C H 1.10. 270 For u7iep[3 odv£t. 6. 13. Vit. Historisk-filosofiske Skrifter 26 [2002]). Jean-Pierre Mahe.. . Icar.4). Achilles Tatius. 512-13).357— Preisen­ 58.ѓрод cf. reads офе[. 4. tou ѓ/.).16 who are [летараин. Enn. 76. 269 Pap. which he interprets as levitation. LSJ.II.v. Grammar.15— reporting about the levitation among the Brah­ 16. Betz.1. Clit. гт апш т ои). September 19— 24.]scrov. Regarding Soxelv [iiaov xou aepoc si w. 222 he points to parallels in early Christian literature. keeps офт] (see also 11. 1. 73-83. 61). in thus quitting the earth and walking w ith the sun” (tw 'HAlw £uva7r:o(3acvovTe? ty}? утј? Spakriv) “as acts o f homage acceptable to the god.171 (comparing CHXIII). reads бохеи. a phenom enon described by several ancient authors.v et? ифо^ cf. 3. where the claim is made that levitation is typical for Indians. however.20. Agr. 565. has офтј. 1.270 W hat consequences does this ascension have for sense-perception? —Leav­ ing behind the body means that there will be no physical hearing or seeing 266 See Reitzenstein. 693. but not for Greeks (cf. avaxoucpl^et-v is found only here in the PGM. 3.v. 484— 85.22. 544. also Deus 85. but frequently else­ where. 3. The Nag Hammadi Texts in the History of Religions: Pro­ ceedings of the International Conference at the Royal Academy of Sciences and Letters in Copenhagen. 6.266 An especially close parallel is Philostratus. Festugiere. 13). Hermot.269 The terminology is known from elsewhere in the PGM..6 ) and Related Hermetic Writings. cf. 1907].). which Wessely emends as Soxst afcrjaov. 42. 3. 68. allowing the Indian sages to levitate (jJisTscopExv) two cubits in the air. 656. 539). IV971. 1995 (Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. Revelation... 263). 3. H M R .359-60. Abst. Main body of the ritual (11. 90— 99. 11.267 First (1.е | crov. also III. 634.c. 624. 2.” in: Soren Giversen. For further evidence see TLG . On levitation see also Lewy. mans in India: “they regard any rites they perform. but Dieterich (6 ). noting that both sound the same when read aloud. 555. see Gignac. 167— Speyer.5. aiaxe сте SoxeT[v [л]еаоу тои аеро? elvat. See Dieterich (6 . Plotinus. 1. crit.

The term a & W a forms a kind o f conclusion in 11. Mayr. the narrative is de­ scriptive. 11. o f course. the focus is on vision o f the divine world. on the correct perform­ ance o f the ritual acts. 572. 14). 484-85. at each o f the stages he narrates what the practitioner sees. representing seven stages in the ascension. XIII.23. 541-42.393-94. conditional. Nat. Tiavra 8г офу] aO-avaxa.a. 501. on the one hand. # # 863— 72 (232. O n the other hand. 621.52. 544—731) As Dieterich has observed.30— 234. . 544-45 (see also on the textual problem. Cicero. 531.” R A C 15 (1991) 1023— 1111. For an improvement o f sight during Menippus’ ascension. 544— Calhoun suggests that the problem 45. The ritual elements are prescriptive. like the way the gods hear and see.26). оибв офу] ouSev Taiv i n i y r\q &vy)tmv sv exelvY) tyj wpa. 17. For ev exetvy] ty] wpa see similar expressions in 1.274 in the ML. 620. 514. see SFFII.471— 72. 274 For the enabling o f higher yv&aiq by itveujj-a/vou^ and the formula vou<.272 The ancients understood that during an ecstatic seizure (“in that hour”)273 normal sense-perception ceases. 504. see Lucian. above n. 1023-57. Martinez points to the parallel in Mark 13:11 (Luke 12:12). the stages o f the ascension in the future tense (бфт). the reference to time in 11. ascend and experience noetic sensory impressions. 2. 609. “you will see”).271 (“You will hear nothing either o f a hum an or o f another living being. D.83 and Pease. koyoq yvtoGiq. there will be higher forms o f perception (11.134 Commentary (11. VII. the similarity to Herm etic doctrines is striking (cf. on the Platonic and Stoic views. nor in that hour will you see any o f the mortal affairs on earth. 272 Cf. Ascension narrative in seven scenarios (11. 734. Icarom. effected by Empedocles. so that the author shows the entire journey in terms o f a predicted future. the phrase is repeated in the following line.585-611. 587-88. but rather you will see all immortal things. III. specifically. 516— 539-44.”) Instead of hum an sense-perception.757 with notes. Cicero. stated in the present tense. “H oren. esp. 275 See 11. 273 Cf. IV510. the uses o f axou eiv at 11. Their presentation combines ritual elements of prayer and actions w ith a narrative structure. 13— 14. 2. like descriptions o f pictorial panels. Franz K. the m o f wpa corrected from yj (гцхера?). C H 1. It describes. pap. O n the material as a whole.1). so that room was made for higher forms o f recogni­ tion.275 Regarding the suppression o f the physical senses so that the inner self can detach. The precise relationship between the distinct elements o f 271 Pap. 541— 43): ouSevo? бе axouaet [ o ] u t e av&pwTcou оите ^фои aXX<ou>. has тт]«ра not tt)l (Wessely). 745. reads a Xk\ corrected by Preisendanz to aAAou. d. the preparatory sections lead up to a narrative o f a ritual consisting o f seven scenarios. may be the result o f a scribal error: ev cxexvy) tq 7][[xepqc xa l xfj w]pa. XI. 543— 44). 652. cf. see 111. For Stoic teaching on the subject. 516-17.

containing also influences o f Stoicism as well as traces o f ancient Iranian religion. waren Mithrasglaubige mit griechischen Grundanschauungen. wenn wir die Schichtung der einzelnen Elemente in unserem Texte erkannt haben.. Two scholars have so far proposed detailed analyses o f the composition. Based on literary and archaeological evidence collected by C um ont in his collection (Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra). o f course.II. pp. what can be reconstructed is the world view which results from a confluence o f Greek ideas o f a “Stoic-Peripatetic provenience.” the cult o f Mithras. no longer able to trace. wie z. which he calls a “liturgy. he also repeatedly asked whether there 276 por problem o f using this technical term.. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 135 ritual and narrative constitutes the major problem for the analysis. die so ahnlich in der Stoa. Das Weltbild in dieser Ausdehnung und Spezialisierung wurde zur Konstituierung des sakramentalen Aktes eines Aufstieges der Mysten von der Erde zum hochsten Gott gebraucht.278 “From where and in which form it came into the Mithras mysteries thus developed. кбппеп wir natiirlich nicht mehr erschlieBen.” .” 278 Dieterich (82): “ . D ieterich assumed some kind o f Egyptianization o f Mithraism in Egypt as part o f the general hellenization o f the native religion. B. he thus regarded this “liturgy” as syncretistic in nature. The world view was needed to this extent and in this specialized application for the construction o f a sacramental act o f an ascen­ sion o f the initiates from the earth to the highest god. Diete­ rich also resisted committing himself to determining precise ritual sections which the magician may have omitted. 32-37. we are.” “W ie die teilweise Agyptisierung des Mithrasdienstes vor sich gegangen ist. Main body of the ritual (11. and Egyptian instructional wisdom. Those w ho created this liturgy were Mithras devotees who held fundamentally Greek ideas. in agyptischer Weisheit vorhanden sind. daB wir schon mehrfach gerade stoische Termini in dem Texte feststellen muBten. and thereby effects the understanding o f the text as a whole. die Elementenlehre. which need to be considered first. im Mithrasdienst. Aber ein gut Stuck Geschichte des Mithraskultes erfassen wir doch. 2. since it determines the reconstruction o f the ascension ritual. Dieterich argues for a formulary o f a ritual.”276 belonging to the mystery cult o f Mithras. und uberall ziehen sich die beiderseits parallel vorhandenen Lehren an. werden wir im einzelnen schwerlich noch nachweisen konnen. Der EinfluB der Stoa auf die religiosen Gebilde hellenistischer Zeit in Agypten wird immer haufiger und deutlicher erkannt.. 277 Dieterich (80— 81): “Es wird uns jetzt noch begreiflicher. 28— 31. see the Introduction above.”279 Dieterich (82— cautiously distinguished between the original “liturgy” 85) itself that can be extracted from the formula.277 At any rate. hineingestellt in das griechische Weltbild stoisch-peripatetischer Provenienz. and its secondary reworking by the author who uses the older Mithraic liturgy for his own construction o f a magical ritual (“Zauberritual”) designed to obtain oracular revelations..” 279 Dieterich (82): “Von wo und in welcher Form sie zuerst in das so ausgebildete Mithrasmysterium kam.. D ie diese Liturgie schufen.

fig. Cels. 313— idem. together with the seven planets. nymph. 65— 68.22: tolovSe to сшЈЈфоЛспг хл1 [Ј. ibid. 13— (fig. Religions­ 14. 1975). Richard 21 Reitzenstein. vol. and Julian. Recherches de VHellenisation philosophique de Mithra (EPRO 47. . geschichtliche Studien. 2. Mithras Platonicus. 22. Merkelbach. Leiden: Brill. so sind die .” 281 For the seven stages in Mithraism. 22) shows a ladder-type arrangement o f seven squares with the symbols o f the grades o f initiates. Weihegrade. Therefore. 5. ibid. Mithras.. Or.244. Porphyry. Cels. ein a. 58-59. Textes et monuments. Scavi di Ostia. plates XIX— XXV. regard it as certain “that a genuine Mithras liturgy o f an ascension o f the soul and its immortalization.39— 40). figure 77 [2.. 284 Origen. 6. 333— 36.136 Commentary ever was a ritual o f descension at the end. See Chadwick. 2. cup. Cf. has been inserted into a magical ritual for the exploration o f the future. 283 For the figures and explanations. an атга&ал/атг. 235-36. Лтј оуббт). see Giovanni Becatti. Hauptprobleme. cf. 25). 6. 1954). O n the side walls o f the room stand the images o f the seven planetary gods: Iupiter. idem. c. Zuweisungen einzelner Satze von verhaltnismaBig geringer Wichtigkeit. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Luna. Venus. 24. he sees seven stages in the ritual o f the ML.282 Thus. Weihegrade. 64-65 (fig. the symbols o f the zodiac.7ra&a.63]).31). 1. етс1 б’ аиттј тш . from which he excerpted parts.”280 Dieterich (88— also points to literary and archaeological 92) evidence which testifies that a seven-stage ascension o f the soul through the astral world281 was part o f the Mithraic ritual. Celsus (Origen. whether the whole was merely a sacramental formula to be used repeatedly. 22.. Antr. daB in die zur Erforschung der Zukunft ausgestaltete Zauberhandlung eine echte Mithrasliturgie der Himmelfahrt der Seele und ihrer U n s t e r b l i c h m a c h u n g . 172d (Cumont. 25). 295 (fig. heralds 280 Dieterich (85): “Wenn das sicher ist. Cels. one cannot offer more than subjective speculations. 2: I Mitrei (Roma: Libreria dello Stato. the attribution o f subsidiary sentences or components to one or the other is relatively unimportant. frame the seven gates. Uber die Hauptstiicke der Liturgie wird dann ein Zweifel nicht aufkommen.22):284 (1) Corax (raven). 24.20). perhaps Sol on the back wall..<Tfji6 < eingelegt ist. see Robert Turcan. six on each side. 2.vaTi. The problem with this part o f Dieterich s interpretation is that the seven stages in the ML only partly conform to the R om an Mithraic mosaics from Ostia (Mitreo delle sette sfere). 282 Dieterich (89-92) refers to the floor mosaic in the Mithraeum in Ostia (Cumont. Saturnus. Another mosaic (Becatti.283 O n one mosaic (Merkelbach. Hellenistische Wundererzahlungen (2nd ed. 6. 114— 25. and whether the author had a real “Ritualbuch” at his disposal. XXIV— XXV. p. About the major parts o f the liturgy there cannot be any doubt.стЈлб^. Merkelbach. Most important are the represensations o f the seven gates. 5— (Cumont. known also to Celsus (Origen. Mercurius. 38). fig.аЕ ѕтстатгиЛо^. however. Dieterich did.. Cumont. pi. 24). Important as these questions are. See also Bousset. Mars. each introduced by a prayer.21-22. 62— 63. Merkelbach. 1963). 6 ibid. Origen.

wreath rays o f the sun-god. (6) Heliodromus. the image o f Jupiter with his thunderbolt.” Mainzer Archaologische Zeitschrift 1 (1994) 21-66.” J R S 90 (2000) 145-80. sickle o f Luna. and the spear o f Mars. corresponding to the fourth scenario o f the ML. veiled. unfortunately destroyed. it could indeed have been an Egyptian adapta­ 285 The question o f the relationship between images and cultic functions. while three gates on each side are divided by columns. Since he was initiated in a mystery cult. however: the sixth grade is that o f the “sun-runner” (heliodromus). (5) Perses (Persian). Notably. surrounded by branches and the donors inscription: Felicissimus ex votof(ecit). just as ML shows Egyptian influences w hen it identifies Helios and Mithras.” Z P E 108 (1995) 1— Roger 6. The large middle field shows a mixing-bowl. 25) shows a front portal w ith seven gates. . therefore. and the pater is identified with Saturn. the middle gate is higher and wider. The upper field shows a mixing-bowl (xpar/jp). short-sword. cap of the Persian priest. and the whip for leading the horses. Doctrine. An identifi­ cation o f Mithras and Saturn reflects R om an adaptation. Myth. sistrum. The seven spheres are. the main difference is that the ML does not parallel the seven scenarios w ith the seven grades o f initiates. the three mosaics have been designed considerably differently. Also. “Ritual. and the seven planets. 485— 732) 137 wand o f Mercurius. on its left side a raven (corax). for description and color representations see Heinz Gunter Horn. diadem o f Venus. (2) Nymphus (destroyed). The iconography o f these mosaics clearly reflects R om an Mithraism with its synchronization o f the seven grades and the astrological signs. To conclude. Further upwards are what may be water basins. and Initiation in the Mysteries o f Mithras: N ew Evidence from a Cult Vessel. “Das Mainzer MithrasgefaB. torch. Dieterich was right in assuming that at this point there is evidence o f some kind o f connection between the ML and the Mithras cult. a small sickle o f Luna. for the interpre­ tation Reinhold Merkelbach. which does not need to be discussed here in detail. “Das Mainzer MithrasgefaB. Mithras is not represented. Persian cap. helmet. on the right side a serpent (nymphus) and a lion (leo). Perhaps Helios/ Mithras occupied the eighth field which is. To be sure.285 At least one agreement stands out. has been reopened by the discovery o f the Mithraic cult vessel in Mainz. thunderbolt o f Jupiter. with a hanging lamp in the center.II. lamp. T he author must have had some knowledge about Mithraic rituals. and the symbol o f the sun-god is at a lower level as compared with a supreme god who may perhaps be Helios/Mithras. (7) Pater. however. bowl and wand of the magos. especially figures o f the seven grades. different from those in the ML. and on top the head of Saturn. and holding his sickle. another mosaic (fig. Beck. (3) Miles (soldier). The side walls contain images o f a torchbearer on each side. Finally. sickle o f Saturnus. fire shovel. (4) Leo (lion). The red-colored krater shows several cult symbols. Main body of the ritual (11. spear o f Mars.

the appearance o f Mithras. 6 . 178. introduced by the “second” prayer. 544-55). Hans Bietenhard and A dolf Lumpe. cf. 16. introduced by the (sixth) prayer to the pole lords. The identification of the significance o f these 286 For literature and passages. 184— 202.” ANRW 11.138 Commentary tion o f Mithraism. 164 (ed. Collins. MA: Harvard University Press. see Franz Boll.” in Alexander Altman. . 693— 732). For further literature see Gruenwald. 19. 1992). Biblical and Other Studies [Cambridge. On the importance o f the number seven in philosophy. 82— for Philo see Karl 83. 50-52. “The Seven Heavens in Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. 26. n. Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism.” PRE 7 (1912) 2547— 78.287 According to Dieterich. but it could have been just as well some other mystery cult which had appropriated Mithraic elements. 628— 61). introduced by the “third” prayer to keyholding Aion and the seven planetary gods. 120. introduced by the (fifth) prayer to the Tu^oa.” passim. While a dependency o f these texts upon each other is unlikely. and vision o f the world o f the planetary gods. Bousset. the seven stages o f the ascension in the ML are set forth in the following manner: (1) First stage (11. At each stage the ascending initiate is shown what Dieterich calls “liturgical pictures” (“liturgische Bilder”). The apocalyptic and gnostic 85. parallels have been collected by Adela Y. 39— 50. “Hebdomas. 2552.” R A C 15 (1989) 173— 212. introduced by the (first) prayer to the gods and winds in charge o f the day. esp. (2) Second stage (11. “Himmelsreise der Seele. 142— 60). 33— 35. 59-93. the appearance o f the pole lords. esp. frag. introduced by the (seventh) prayer to Mithras. 662— 92). 1931). Stoicismo. (3) Third stage (11. the initiate rising to midair. a cosmology o f seven spheres or seven heavens was shared by many cosmologies in the GrecoR om an world. see C H I. (6) Sixth stage (11. see Alberto Grilli.. (4) Fourth stage (11. See Dornseiff. (7) Seventh stage (11. Staehle. the appearance o f Helios.286 wherein the num ber seven as such possessed sacred and magical potency. introduced by the (fourth) prayer to Helios. 556— 69). It should be noted that Morton Smith was one o f the first to connect the ascension through six (or seven) heavens in the Hekhalot literature with the Mithras Liturgy (“Ob­ servations on Hekhalot Rabbati. the appearance o f the Tu^oa. 585— 628). the initi­ ate rising to before the gates. Das Alphabet. the opening o f the sun disk. Death. Die Zahlenmystik bei Philon von Alexandreia (Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner. 25— Ascl. 287 Frequent in the PGM. “Numerical Sym­ bolism in Jewish and Early Christian Apocalyptic Literature. 569— 85). 58. Des Places). 152. 1963]. the connection between them may have come through Hellenistic syncretism or Neoplatonism. ed.” in Collins & Fishbane. eadem. Chald. opening o f the gates. For Hermetism. (5) Fifth stage (11. Orac. epicureismo e letteratura (Brescia: Paideia. “Himmel.21:2 (1984) 1221— 87. Beyond this.

Nichts ist konservativer. mich in dem zu widerlegen. auch des religiosen Denkens. mag es noch so sehr nur als Bild in seiner Umgebung erscheinen. intertwined with words and actions.. They are genuine but stylized repre­ sentations o f cultic scenarios. such pictures played a major role in ancient cultic procedures. da кбппеп wir am ersten erwarten. however. um die Aufmerksam der Leser auf diese Bilder zu lenken — jedes Bild. alongside words and actions. Basically. was ich unter liturgischen Bildern verstehe. At this point (94— D ieterich’ discussion offers no more than 95) s a cautious and suggestive sketch. in effect freezing the major parts o f a ritual. Jedes solche Bild ist einmal fur eine Zeit voile Wahrheit und Wirklichkeit gewesen. was ich nie habe beweisen wollen. in denen die Mithrasliturgie die Vereinigung des Menschen mit Gott gestaltet und aufgefaBt zeigt. als es die Formeln und Handlungen des Kultus sind: der Kultus bewahrt so viel reiner und urspriinglicher die Tatsachen der wirklichen Religiositat als der Mythus.288 Today.” 291 Ibid.” Ibid. die Miihe. not to m ention the cultic program depicted on the Mithraic reliefs and frescoes. 95: “Man macht sich ja trotz meiner deutlichen Erklarungen vermutlich wieder. Nur im Bilde ihm bekannter Vorgange kann er das Unbekannte erschauen.” Cf. echte und treu bewahrte Formen religiosen Denkens anzutreffen.” Cf. Correctly. 290 Ibid. 485— 732) 139 pictures was one o f the major contributions of Dieterichs work (92-95). so muB ich nochmals ausdriicklich bemerken.289 (2) the conservative function o f such pictures.. 74) 289 Dieterich (94): “Es wird klar sein. daB durch Anfiihrung von Analogien und Parallelen keinerlei Abhangigkeitsverhaltnis zwischen dem einen und dem anderen Kulte auch nur prajudiziert werden soli. Dieterich’s bitter complaint (29— 30). wie schon ofter. In this sense one may compare the scenarios w ith the gallery o f pictorial symbols in the mosaics from Ostia. 94: “Menschliches Denken kann das Verhaltnis des Menschen zur Gottheit nicht anders auffassen denn nach der Analogie menschlicher Verhaltnisse. According to him. zu erlautern und zwar hauptsachlich durch Analogien in der eigentlichen Bedeutung und dem urspriinglichen Zusammenhang verstandlich zu machen versuche. In other words.. these ideas can be substantiated by a wealth o f material unearthed by archaeologists and interpreted by historians o f art and religion. through which the initiate will remember the actual performances he or she participated in. the seven scenarios constitute a gallery o f pictures which together contain the complete program o f an ascension for the initiated reader o f the text.. Reitzenstein (HMR.II. nur nach dem Bilde der Formen irdischer Beziehung der Wesen und Dinge zueinander kann er das ersehnte Unwirkliche gestalten.290 (3) the analogical nature of the pictures showing the unknown through the medium of the known. 26. Main body of the ritual (11. 95: “Wo uns solche Bilder in einem Denkmale einer festen und immer wiederholten Kultaktion vorliegen. 95: “Wenn ich nun die R eihe der Bilder. Und jedes solche Bild —das habe ich bereits am Anfang meiner Untersuchungen betont.” .291 (4) the significance o f sequences or 288 Ibid. four ideas deserve to be singled out: (1) the constitutive role o f paintings in the performance o f rituals. his remarks at p. 173— praises Dieterich’s idea concerning cult images as one o f his major achievements. as he expected forthcoming negative criti­ cism o f his daring ideas. war einmal der Ausdruck eigentlichster religioser Anschauung. So geschieht aller Fortschritt des Denkens.

the ML and PGM XIII. 56-58.296 Merkel­ bach obtains a broad comparative basis for his construction o f an Alexandrian “synthetic” deity named Abrasax.. In other words. to be sure. 3) provides in his commentary a rather different analysis. ihren religiosen Gedankengehalt gedeckt haben. 25-28. Treating the “Pschai-Aion-Liturgie” in the same volume295 alongside the god-of-nine-forms (svvsajjiopcpo^) .. 95: “Es kommt mir nur darauf an..6 8 . 28: “Diese Gedanken sind in ein Ritual transponiert.292 In short. 297 Ibid. he argues. Already Reitzenstein (H M R. 25-28. has been “transposed into a ritual. Merkelbach accepts D ieterich’s idea o f a “ritual. Also. G M PT .298 This world view. Dieterich conceives o f the liturgy as an imaginative performance. 60-65. 330. Although he calls the text a “liturgy. . 28-29...59— 68: “Pschai-Agathos-Daimon und der Neungestaltige. Merkelbach (Abrasax . 34— 35. soweit die moglichst vollstandig herangezogenen Fragmente dieser anderen erkennen lassen. in which the practitioner ritually produces ecstatic experiences of a visionary nature.” See also the Introduction.293 Consequently. Abrasax.300 292 Ibid.156. both texts.140 Commentary galleries o f pictures interpreting each other and the whole.. 295 Ibid.” 300 For examples o f such tricks. . In der Zeremonie wird ein Gedanke der stoischen Philosophen ubernommen und in ein Kultspiel umgesetzt. including theatri­ cal tricks to bring about “magical” effects. die die einzelnen Gruppen der Bilder stellen. 299 Ibid. The name occurs in XIII. O ther problems concern Merkelbach s theory o f the origin o f the ML.”299 which was performed m uch like a drama in a theater.. See the glossary in Betz. 3. although Dieterich s influence is obvious enough.294 He then identifies the god Pschai-Aion o f this liturgy w ith Sarapis-Aion. . eine Bilderreihe in ihren Zusammenhangen aufzuweisen. 298 Ibid. mit denen diese und andere antike Liturgien. stemming from hellenized Egypt and influenced by Platonic and Stoic ideas. see Merkelbach. 29-32. 173) compares the performance with theatrical and cinematic special effects. are rather different and cannot be harmonized as Merkelbach does.” but he postulates a realistic performance. He describes at length the basic world view o f late antique astral religion. vol. habe ich weder losen konnen noch w o lle n __ ” 293 On this god. 6 6 . another great god o f Alexandria. 294 Ibid. what he names the “Pschai-Aion-Liturgie” is interpreted throughout as a text of Egyptian religion.. above. D ie Probleme. 466. see ibid. ” See also 39-40: “D ie religiosen Gedanken werden in heiligem Spiel dargestellt .297 The problem with this combination is that o f the divine names assembled only Aion occurs in the ML. predominant in the Leiden cosmogony (PGM XIII)..” he denies any connection with the Mithras cult and associates it w ith the Alexandrian god Pschai-Aion. 296 Ibid. which reflects mainly Stoicizing ideas about cosmology and astrology..

. They were not satisfied by expressing their ideas through words. “Planeten. 47. remain entirely speculative. “Even a pious Stoic w ould not have needed a special ceremony to demonstrate the immortalization o f the breath o f life. crit. they transposed their ideas into per­ formances. Gundel. however. First scenario: the planetary deities (11. Main body of the ritual (11.атро$га1<х. Astrologumena. only this was to them clear enough. $el<xv &ectlv (“for you will see the divine constellation on that day and hour”). geneis. W hat was put before their eyes in a sacred play became a reality to be grasped w ith one’s ow n hands. Wilhelm and Hans Georg Gundel. Pap. esp. 303 Dieterich (7.303 identifying the constellation o f the stars o f the day and the hour.. 516. identifying with y evzaiq.” Merkelbach (Abrasax . 39— The translation o f the quotations is mine. 304 On the gods o f the days and the hours. for which see 1. esp. B. Nilsson. this constellation is to rule over his rebirth and further life.” PRE 7 (1912) 2547-78. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 141 W ho then produced this “sacred drama”? Merkelbach offers some sugges­ tive ideas which. G G R 2.” PRE 20 (1950) 2017-2185. 2151. Die Tagesgotter in Rom und in den 62. 3. 26. philosophically speaking the immortality o f the rcveufxa existed w ithout ceremony. Thus. Greek Horoscopes (Princeton: Princeton University Press. 40. “Zwei griechische Texte iiber 98. app.II.” PRE 8 (1913) 2411-14.304 301 302 Ibid. x al тује? topac. app. The fortuitous day and hour have been determined (11.” For w hom was the drama performed? “The drama must have been conceived and composed for a person o f high rank__ ” Originally it was “a ceremony o f consecration for a priest o f high rank or even a king. Franz Boll. 5 4 4 -5 5 ) The first scenario assumes that the ascent has reached its first stage: ’Офт) yap £xetv/)<. 540). ty)<. 2560.” H B V K 12 (1913) 100— Idem. IV. and what occurred visibly in the play was to them as good as reality. “star constella­ tion. w from wpa may be corrected from 7) (= 7]({jii)pa). 266-74. so that it could be used for initiations o f lower ranks. Provinzen: Aus der Kultur des Niederganges der antiken Welt (Berlin: Weidmann. see III. “Stundengotter. Words only w ould have been to them something merely theoretical and incomprehensible. Yjfjtipai. 543) by a horoscope. For discussion see Dieterich. which in Egypt was often the same. But primitive people had an immense need o f bringing their thoughts and hopes to expression by play. Weltbild und Astrologie. so Preisendanz. “Horo72. 1959).497— Wolfgang Hiibner. van Hoesen. 651— t o v 52: cry]p.”301 1.) mentions the technical term а. idem. 61— Ernst Maass.1648— X X X V II.epov Yjfxepai. Otto Neugebauer and H. “Hebdomas. Later the ritual will have been adapted.18— 96. 271— Wilhelm Gundel. crit.401— 611.302 The practitioner has now been el­ evated to midair (1. has TY](opa.237) takes this to be the new birth constellation o f the initiate. 1902). because they have no basis in the text themselves. 31. x a l wpa q wpovofxov. 37— 41.

та Trocvxa asplwv elSwAwv тсуеијлата..21. 6:1. Epin.308 unless the author describes a pictorial representation in which the sun illuminates the course o f the stars. Exc. XIII.821b.142. ) &eou. 846: тгоЛохратмр. 547— 49): Y бе nopetoi twv optofjtivoov &eo5v Sia тои б1стхои. for further literature Wilhelm Michaelis. R om 1:20.” Z P E 49 (1982) 53— Merkelbach. 1954) 368— 70. Abst. 2.. d. 5:2.213.676. брато^.2. 3°5 por term mc)stly introducing other stages. aXXou? 8e xaTa(3alvovxa<. 536. s. cf. Gundel. 44. See also Wis 13:1-9. 535. 539.656). 576. Dieterich (62) refers to Plato. Potscher. 13 (ed. 702. Trail. in 11 579— the sun serves as a kind o f gate. 1134: jaLipexz. See Boll. 722. 984d.2. 238.34— 7)Xl6Slctxo(J. 579-80. Uhlig. IV. and I saw there open gates o f heaven.26-28). 308 Differently. 61. 557. cf. In Philo the terminology is frequent. Piet.306 M ore specifically.. 567. 82 тои бсахои). JSHRZ 5:6. 6— 7.) alternative suggestion to read op (?) in light o f 11. “Hebdomas. these are the gods who control and fix the days and the hours. XIV.142 Commentary At this point. Smyrn. 35: 310 For this epithet o f Helios see also 11. 309 For the Slcjxo? see 11. 216. he is told that he will have his first vision (otprj. . 3. “Vater Helios. 40d: &eol opaxoi. in the direction o f the east. 556. with small gates above them. 461. T he sun-disk is o f course Helios. cf. XXIII. 635. 1866). 36 ( O T P 1.”). 41. also Leg. s. man sieht.-Plato (Philip o f Opus). тсатро? jjlou. 551. h. oupavov &eou<. 569-71. 306 See also XIII. see Jacob Bernays. Through one o f these small gates pass the stars o f heaven and travel westward on the path which is shown to them. from Porphyry. “Horoskop. for the Hermetica.29): .. 571. 252. and Karl Kerenyi. through which the stars appear (атго . In the planetary week. 152. VII. (“the presiding gods arising into heaven.v. see 11.” PRE 7 (1912) 2560. Hans Georg Gundel and Alois Kehl.307 That these gods will appear through the sun-disk is a strange com m ent.. see C H IV 1. 1. Frag.” See also 1 En. Abrasax. Theophrastos’ Schrift tiber die Frommigkeit (Berlin: Hertz. “you will see”). Ps. The first o f these describes the way o f the gods through the sun-disk (11. 718. for Christian literature. 307 Cf. Tim.931a. 1 En.” R A C 16 (1994) 597-662. According to philosophical cosmology the “visible gods” (ol optojjievot. T D N T 5 (orig.v. 83. 11. Der Weg der Planeten erscheint durch die Sonne. XIII. 515. also IV.309 addressed here by the epithet “my father” (тсатѓјр jjlou). Cf.305 T he objects o f his vision are described first in a general way: xou? TtoAeuovxa? ava(3odvovTa? el c. IV. V10.und Stundenherrscher. cpavYjCTsxai (“N ow the course o f the visible gods will appear through the disk o f the god.77— 66. Weltbild und Astrologie. &eoL) are the stars.” Erjb 10 (1943) 81— 124. Col 1:16. 7. Ignatius. аорато<. Fauth. der dem Aufsteigenden werden soli. 693. Theophrastus. 583. the reader is shown a verbal picture which focuses on two ele­ ments. and others setting”). Helios Megistos. my father. Preisendanz’s (app. wie er durch die Sonne geht__ ” Cf. crit. 33:3 and the references in the notes by S. izokoq occurs often in the PGM (see IV. 624. BDAG. 656.3.310 die Tages. Dieterich (62): “Unmittelbar danach erwahnt der Papyrus einen merkwiirdigen Anblick.

14) report about 24 the Indians that they let out the winds from ajar (o tmv avefjiwv nLQ-oc.”313 This pipe is also the source of thunderstorms and winds.eH7rvo7]< ocTcoxXeiofxevou (D. Beitrage zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Denkens [Leipzig & Wien: Deuticke. the doxographical summary o f„Anaximanders cosmology by Aetius contains an expression. 62. 367). Main body of the ritual (11. Cf.7. 549— is also strange: ојј.”) This part o f the vision has given rise to much discussion.b. 2. the “pipe” became part o f the image that the author o f the ML describes. analogous to the bag (астхо^) o f Aeolus. this expression comes from the cosmology o f Anaximander which contained a description o f the sun as being full o f fire.аиХо<. cf. (“And in a similar way the so-called pipe. is the origin o f the mysterious s “pipe” in the ML.a cttojjllou to тгир wcrrcep 8: бих тсру]сгтгјро<. III. Philostratus’ ( Vit.b.238) w ho refers to parallel texts in Lucian. By implication.2 (354.. аиЛои.l9— 22). 312 Dieterich.24-36]).TOupyouvTO<. also Seneca.-K. 26. and a hanging wind-bag__ ” Fantastic is Carl Gustav Jung ( Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido. 3): “One sees ‘pipe’ or ‘flute’.1 (Diels. Also.). 3.” He refers to Diels. even to adventurous speculations. Nat.II. auAov (D. Regarding (1). 355. durch welche das Feuer strome w ie durch einen осиЛо^ тгртјатгјро?.).оЃ бе x al o 55) ц xaXoupi£vo<.1). 348.311 D ieterich’s interpretation (62-64).87.87.87.a.21— 22): exovTa [xiav extcvoyjv olov тгрујстт^рос. 12 A 23 [1. it is obvious that the beginning lines o f the hymn to Helios shares some language with the ML: aepocpot/nrjTwv avqacov гпоуоиџ. Doxographi. Doxographi. better still a double-flute (бс. 12 A 23— [1. in particular the winds on Mithraic monuments. the added comment “so-called” (xaXoufxevoi. Doxographi. Regarding (2).a. a passage already mentioned by Dieterich (62. . II.-K. translating it “Glutwindrohre.” 313 Aetius. is most careful and contains im portant clues.-K. for whom the hanging pipe is —what else? —a phallus.1 (Diels. Nat.ou т?ј<. tou ctto[ju. idem. Before getting to these monuments. however. 93— 95). tou тсиро<. H e recognizes that some sort o f image is being described.20. Icar. 348.1 (374.. idem.20— 21]). auXo?. 2: “Anaximander nahm an der Sonne und dem Monde eine Offnung an.87.90. 3.25. Placitis. 2...a. 12 B 4 (1. аирац.10— . Placitis III.. and (2) some lines in a hymn to Helios (PGM IV. 12 A 22 [1.7— .”312 According to Aetius.3— 4): . St. St.314 There can hardly be any doubt that Anaximan­ der’ cosmology. the origin o f the ministering wind. Y apx?) тои Xet. 3 11 So Merkelbach (Abrasax . “heat pipe. 1912]. he points to two texts: (1) a fragment o f Anaximander. n. аиХо^ тгртјсттујрск. Seneca. transmitted by Stoic sources. See also D.24.3. 11.1 (355.гчос. 12 A 21 [1.436-66). 11. 485— 732) 143 T he second focus o f the picture (11. Apoll. for you will see it hanging from the disk like a pipe.18 (D.21-22: e'/rrjxoi jxlocv ex 7tvot)v oiov тгртјстттјро^ auAov.-K. avejxou.28-34]).) seems to indicate that “the pipe” has become a kind o f traditional image among those familiar w ith this material. “which in part appears through an opening like through a heat pipe.-K. офг] yap arco tou ] Slctxou w? auXov xpsfxafxevov. for which he refers to monuments o f ancient art. 314 See Aetius.18 (D. n. 17]).

320 Dieterich (63): “ . which he adduces. nymph. w ho wield the flame s unresting fire. Winds. Franz Cumont’ comprehensive essay. Lexikon 6 (1924— 508— H. 133. 319 This view was common in antiquity and the European Middle Ages. 318 See Merkelbach. 206— 228— 7. (“Borne on the breezes o f the wand ring winds. 381. 342— 43). 1. 90 (p. 75. On Helios sending out the winds... Preisendanzs reference (app. Paris: Geuthner.” PRE 2. Mithras. gewohnlich blasen diese Kopfe in ein Rohr. 323 The work named is by Konrad Miller.. OTP. 118. “W inde..v. 457. 322 Cumont (Textes et monuments.321 Perhaps. Dieterich s starting point.JSH R Z 5:6 [1984] 547. 337). gotter. hominumformae sunt bucinarum animantes tortus intestinis et domesticis jlatibus. see S.. 1942). entonnoir. “Les vents et les anges psychopompes.. also the interest by the apocalypticists in the origin o f the winds (e.) to old world maps showing the windpipes turns out to be inconclusive.. 13— Robert Boke. A uf der Stele von Carnuntum (mon. with parallels. 10. Adv. Die altesten Weltkarten (6 vols.316 Vermaseren. Welthild und Astrologie. 58. 2. it is evident from the collections by C um ont.. “W ind37) 11. Pisciculi. 146-76: “Les vents dans la sculpture funeraire”. 1895— 98). 653-56.. index.”315 As for the Mithraic monuments. eine Art Trichter. see the articles by G. because the monuments themselves do not show evidence o f heads blowing into pipes. and figures 74 (pp. 2387. wie es Cumont mehrfach bezeichnet (I 95). s. “wind”). Cumont adduces Arnobius. 354— 55). Ils y etaint representes par quatre personnages nos . 101 (p.322 Finally.74— X II. CIM R M . 3. die une trompe allongee blasen. 316 Dieterich (63— 64) relied on Cumont (Textes et monuments. Gundel. Antr. аШ ? XXXVI. for the musical instrument o f 7. 8 (1958) 2211— 14. n..” In his notes (94. Recherches sur le symbolismefuneraire des Remains (BAH 35. and Porphyry.. Mappae mundi. in Betz. 75. Reihe. 511— Franz Cumont. Roeder. etc.323 315 Trans.. n. . where he sees the heads o f the wind gods blowing into pipes. 76:1-14. et soufflant dans dans une trompe allongee. s. w ho turn in lofty paths around the great p o le . does not offer evidence o f the pipes. “W inde.. 26. 228bis c) sind es Rundfiguren. Cf. 238.”).” in Roscher. 18:2. by Edward N. fig.” ibid. 6 8 .319 but none o f the reliefs shows a pipe. Sienwv <pKoyoq axajxaxov 7iup. golden-haired Helios. 6. puzzling. nat.. see also his Isis Regina. 116 (pp.1606— 1957— VIII.94— 95): “Le caractere particulier de chacun des Vents est rendu avec une certaines precision. This is true especially o f the stele of Carnuntum . 159. U hlig. & Rucker.. 34:1. vol. G M P T 46.10: Venti. n. but neither this nor other hymn fragments speak about “pipes. he relied on a quotation from Arnobius.144 Commentary "HXls ^риаохбрлх. Stuttgart: Roth.87. 317 Vermaseren. The hymn states com m on tradition. For the winds see also IV. 91 (p. 29.v. Cf.94— 95). al&epLouai трф оад fjtiyav noXov a^t-sXiaawv .320 The nature o f C um ont s explanation is. however.g. Steuding. 324— 25). 356.. crit. O ’N eil.317 and Merkelbach318 that the four winds are repre­ sented as heads o f deities blowing air from the four corners o f the world. 336). ad loc. 10).. 70— idem. 41:4.419 (index. i En. 319).” in Klauser 17. “Les vents dans la sculpture funeraire” s (see above.” 321 Also. 197. 1. 95.

T he meaning o f the concluding statement (11.9][ла. eav fj xexXY]pwfjtivoq el q xa [Аерт] xou а7ст]Хиотои.b. 827. 837. 326 Translators differ considerably at this point..214. a l’infini. 3. the east]. who punctuates o?ov. axoiysicov ахотшхтои Xei/roupyla? This term occurs only here in the ML. XIII. for the east wind (ата)Х«от7]?. also 1 En. 860.9 XIII. VII. see 11. en tant que vent d’Est. there is. 330 So Merkelbach (Abrasax. Latin Africus) see PGM. XXXVI. dirigee en fait du cote de l’Ouest. 1127: “Hail.29): “There (also) I saw 3 three open gates o f heaven. Meyer: “you will see the reverse o f the sight” (9. n.325 (“Toward the regions o f the west [it is the source of] the unending east wind. 34:2— (O T P 1. where twelve winds and their gates are described.26..” . you will see the turn-about o f the image [scil.28. V. The verb 7 xXrjpouv points to the “assigned” station. 823. 113. Main body of the ritual (11. I En. thus they omit ou. and in the same way the other [west wind going] toward the regions o f that one [scil.552— 54.642. 552. XXII.58. E. 111. Latin subsolanus). dew. 137. my translation follows Festugiere: ".332— kn eveyaaq аито si q awpou р. 556 pap. “taking it [the package] 33: away to the grave o f someone untimely dead. 1605.329 or to the “removal” o f the sight altogether. 76 (O T P 1.xa 7rveu|JiaTa eiq Siaxovlav a 7ioGTeXX6 [X£va.330 ycdpe. In Heb 1:14 angels are described as Xst. 3183. 327 For the southwest wind (Х1ф. however. snow. 55 which serves as “the origin o f the ministering w ind.327 the one pipe is their sole source. 485— 732) 145 In 11 550— the author moves on to explain the functions o f “the pipe. Through one gate they blow good things. Riess. n. 105.” Cf. 2436.105.642. IV. the pipe].” referring to the change o f direction o f the image. and rain. they blow violence and sorrow upon the earth. VIII. especially.10. frost. 326).” JE A 26 (1940) 53. 3175. Critical and Explanatory on the Greek Magical Papyri. 325 Cf.).” It is im portant to note that there is only one wind.Toupyt.” 324 . “Notes. Festugiere (see above.. through each one o f the (gates) the winds proceed in the northwesterly direction.541 (&m)Xiurixou). 328 In 1. wie diese Vision wieder entschwindet. VIII. 329 So Dieterich: “so wirst du in ahnlicher Weise die Umdrehung (Fortbewegung) des Gesichtes sehen”. 1603.304— 5). but when they blow with force through the (two) other gates.55— 56). 555-56) is especially controversial. which Dieterich (7) and Preisendanz take to be a possible dittography o f 1.324 The following lines provide more details o f that service: el q 8s та ^ерт) та npoq Хфа artepavTOV olov aiTYjXiwryjv. and changes in the direction o f the pipe produces changes in the wind. its function being “service” (XeiToupyeiv). en ce cas le vent oppose (le vent d’Ouest) se portera semblablement vers cette region: tu verras le mouvement tournant de l’image. not the usual four. w hen it is assigned to the regions o f the east. бфу) tyjv arcocpopav тои брајлато?.. Preisendanz: “das Bild (der Aulosrohre) gewendet sehen”. III.” (1. 557. hail. 855.” Cf. IV. 994 (& cy)Xiw[tix<x]).163): “dann wirst du sehen. when it blows cold. x al o етероq opoLcbq el q t a [херт] та exelvou. revolution o f untiring service by (the) elements” (my translation). Cf.”)326 In view o f the importance o f the directions o f these winds elsewhere in the PG M . a close parallel in IV.328 The term атсофора can mean “turn­ ing about. si la direction assignee est du cote de l”Est. reads офт] сти бѕ. aTCYjAuonrjv eav.II.

I was carried through all the elements. Schafer ( Ubersetzung. Wilson. 3222.6. 11. 150— 89 52. the second scenario presumes the same location as previously: бфт] бе axevL^ovxai. 33— 37 (on 1 Enoch 14-15: passing through fiery flames). (“I approached the boundary o f death and treading on Proserpine’ threshold. Hans Dieter Betz. 58 87— (on Hekhalot Zutrati. lines 7— B 11. 3.146 Commentary 2. 1977). ed. Sogleich schreckte ich zuriick. also IV3218.”). 148. 92. 11.333 Hellenistic mystery cults334 and Gnostic litera­ ture. 334 See Apuleius. David 80. T h W N T 4 58. . see Gruenwald. in Antike und Christentum. esp. Gnosis: The Nature and History of Gnosticism (trans.268.1. lines 5— B 10. 1. 2.220— 48 22). “Initiation . Kurt Rudolph. after which I returned.” D D D 82— 85. Metam.. the “archons” attack Jesus and the redeemed on their ascension.Unterwelt. x al i n i a t 6p[xto[Ji.” See § 39 and Hekhalot Rabbati.336 331 This term is almost technical in the PGM. referring to underworld “guards” attempting to hold up and prevent initiates from entering into the Fields o f the Blessed (Texts B 1. hist. 171— 244.. 335 In Gnosticism.332 The scenario s brief description o f the threatening nature o f the planetary deities during ascension refers to a m otif known in a variety o f forms from ancient Greek religion. CChr. 392— 98. If the authors vision is informed by iconography. “Als die Fiirsten der Merkava und die Serafim der Feuerflamme mich sahen. Lucian. 11).335 (Greek version).7. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. Enrico Norelli. (1942) 818-20 with notes. Ver..: threat by angels). aoc. s cf. 163. 547-48.. Isa. 9.449— (commentary. 51 10.23— mentions “passwords” for passing through. 332 See for this term 11. the second scenario takes place at the same cosmic stage o f the planetary deities (cf. 567.. 55 6 -6 8 ) Connected by бе and the reference to vision (бфтј). Zur Lehre vom Menschen in den orphischen Goldplattchen. the Orphic-Dionysiac gold tablets. esp. 6. 296— 303. For the texts see Christoph Riedweg. 657. “Archon.335 and Jewish apocalypticism and mysticism. 712. Beobachtungen zur Kommunikationssituation und narrativen Technik der orphisch-bakchischen Goldblattchen. 544-47). 9— Gunther Bornkamm. erzitterte.Tod . Robert McL. Griffiths. fiel lang h in . (“And you will see the gods intently staring at you and rushing at you”).. esp. also Hellenismus und Urchristentum.23: accessi confinium mortis et calcato Proserpinae limine per omnia vectus elementa remeavi. 571. Ascensio Isaiae (2 vols. X XX VI. 402— repr.. Asc. Hauptprobleme. bibliography). Isa. Apocalyptic and Merkabah Mysticism. San Francisco: Harper & Row.. he would merely shift his focus to another part o f the picture. W hat is in focus now is the hostile nature of the planetary gods which are “staring at him ” (axsvl^eiv)331 and “moving against him ” (бр[хаст^ас). 2. See in the ML 11. 1. ‘“ Der Erde Kind bin ich und des gestirnten Himmels’. §§ 1— p. Ubersetzung. Second scenario: the threat o f the planetary gods (II. Cf. 359— 98. 53— (on Asc. 399— 419. On the whole motif. § 247— (Schafer. richteten sie ihre Augen auf mich. lines 5— B 2. 557. Brepols. 333 See. 185— 86. In other words.” ibid. For passages and literature see Bousset. 1995). Isa. where avxcorcr\ai \xoi ([the god] “looked at m e”) results in an ecstatic vision. Apuleius.” in: Fritz Graf.. Aune. 226— 27. C H 1.£vou<. 556. 693. 191— (on 3 99 Enoch). 629.SA 7— Turnhout: 8. 4): 27 2. 9. 336 For texts and interpretation. 2. especially. and my Lukian. lines 9— 11. ed. Asc. Hekhalot Rabbati). tou? &eou<.

This ritual occurs only here in the PGM. G M PT . 6 . Lat. Os. Har­ pocrates. 724. eu&ui. 755— 57. Karl GroB. 157. x a l аштсг^ au[x(3oAov (“For this reason does he hold his finger fixed on his mouth. which suggests a different meaning. 339 Griffiths (Plutarch. Dimitri Meeks. 16). 484-537. Pyramidentexte. Veteres philo75. Abrasax. 579. the initiate is ordered to perform a protective ritual (11. 1214c. Damascius (Vit.57]). 340 Merkelbach (Abrasax. It is Egyptian in origin. ed.6 бе tw cjTOfxaxt tov SocxtuXov sy e i rcepixeLjxevov e^efjiuQlac.” L A 2 (1977) 1003— Tran Tam Tinh. 2. Apuleius. n. s. Betz.v. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 147 Faced w ith the threat. nn. inLQzc. Is. acp&apxoir <puXa£ov jxs. The finger had to be separated by surgery. 238) suggests that the initiate wants to imitate Harpocrates. but a mark was left for the rest o f his life.ioq. it occurs also. Odo . o f course. This and other attesta­ tions show the common understanding o f the sign (Varro. Zintzen.122.341 that it has to be perform ed immediately is typical o f many other rituals as well. 558-60) comes the recitation o f the спут}-Logos. 74. Cf. Se^iov SocxxuXov £7il to ctxojjloc (“but you at once put your right finger on your m outh”). 146— reports the story that the theurgist Heraiskos was born with his finger 49) grown into his lip. see Johann Maier. “Das Gefahrdungsmotiv bei der Himmelsreise in der jiidischen Apokalyptik und ‘Gnosis’. H ST . 557. 224— see also his comments. in 11. 275. Metam. William Brashear. esp. the question is which ritual the text envisions. 1907). Plutarch. 3— BDAG. o f Harpocrates having his finger on the mouth ('ApnoxpaxYjv e^ovxa STtl axo[xaxo? [xo Saxxu]Xt.II. see Sethe. 623. 1320c. 327) comments critically on a theory advocated by Maspero who took this ritual to symbolize adoption. R A R G . Bonnet.338 According to Plutarch (Is. Metam. 573— 578.57 [LCL 5. 535— 25. 4. as a symbol o f reserve and silence”. 576.” Kairos 5 (1963) 18— 40.707— speaks. “Finger. however. 582. in the present context the gesture symbolizes silence. 342 See 11. GieBen: Topelmann. Serge Poulin. 11. 4. in slightly different form. 4:2 (1988) 242-66. # # 104— (Bibl. Does the child have the finger in or on the mouth? Is the gesture suggesting silence or adoption? The evidence is far from clear. in an 8 Egyptian context. Ling. Ovid. Studies. 225. Os. sophi quomodo iudicaverint de precibus (R W 4.” L IM C 4:1 (1988) 415-45.342 N ext (11. Trans. 107. Lukian. for the signifance in miracle stories Bultmann.v. See Heinrich Schmidt. 49. Gemmen. Griffiths. £u9-ew<. Michel. 9. 338 See for representations Betz. §§ 663c. Lukian. ctu£x(3oAov &eou £tovxo<. n. 929— 930 (with references). Isis gave him the finger instead o f her breast.” R A C 16 (1992) 579.” R A C 7 (1969) 909-46.343 a prayer cited in full: aiyr\ спутѓ] crrpr).10. Main body of the ritual (11.337 As told in the ML. however.v. 8eE. Catullus. index. supposedly putting the finger into his m outh. Betz.. 36). 341 See for the preference o f the right side. s. 38.4.ov). s. 628. Merkelbach. 35 “Harpokrates. as with Horos and Helios before him. 64-65. Isid.. 337 The child Harpocrates/Horus with the finger in the mouth is shown already in the Pyramid texts.1. having an analogy in the m otif o f the child Harpocrates with his finger in the m outh. 343 The CTtyTj-Logos seems to be the second prayer after 11.28). BDAG. PGM III. “Harpokrates.692. 6 8 (378B-C): St. involving first a gesture: сти бе su&eto<. 557— 58). Cf.339 W hatever the “original” meaning may be. to be preferred. For Harpocrates’ finger on the mouth as a sign o f silence see Plutarch. 5.).340 The right finger is. 83. “Horos. 638. Bertrand Jaeger. Bonner.

6. 1. The Epistles of Ignatius (Hermeneia. 98. For gnostic parallels.und sachgeschichtliche Studie.87. $5v а<р&осрто<. IV. but this is by no means evident. Betz. 347). 16 (Tjauxacrov. xal EixprjfAYicFov). His translation. Mich. 3.12. 786. Silence is to be thus addressed. стгрѓ). 150— idem. ](7ov. 1— Griffiths.). Wort. 294— 44. 204.56. 58. appended by схср&арто^. Gustav Stahlin. Pieter W van der Horst.2. see Heinrich Schlier. Baptized. rather than a name. see Thomas Gelzer et al. 2311.228. 233. See Dieterich. because it is the manifestation o f the deity’ presence.1782. 22. esp. n. (“the living imperishable god”). 1553. Ancient Mysteries. Silence! N E C H T H E IR TH A N M E L O U . Ein spatantikes Goldamulett mit christlichem Exorzismus und verwandte Texte (Beitrage zur Altertumskunde 124. N H C VI. Burkert.. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. cf. 1929). 3. Martinez. Wis 12:1: to yap a<p&apTov crou 7tVEup. 198. 19:1. the first o f which is “silence. 25.10). BCE [?]). GieBen: Topelmann. 308. 345 For silence as a deity. 90. crit. 8:2.823. the epithet aufxpoXov (“you are a symbol”) indicates the status o f silence as that o f a “symbol. see IV959. 344 In commenting on this translation. Stuttgart & Leipzig: Teubner.a ecttlv ev ttoccjlv). so as to explain what “living” means (see below. however. The term au[j.766.10-15. 799 [BzA 120. 18. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.. the second is a theological formula using two attributes: (o) &eo<. ѓто сл-угј? npoe'AQwv. see Riedweg.2. Cf. 243.238) believes that the epithet comes from the LXX (Tobit 13:2. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 883. for silence generating silence IV. Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zu den Ignatiusbriefen (BZNW 8 . Antike und 53.30— XIII. Ascl.102. 8 (Xoltcov cxu»>7tY 31. 38). (jufi. 18.701. Christentum. See also the peculiar passages in Ignatius. oStexvov. Actually. 64 n..31 (and passim). LXX. turns into a relative clause what is a common epithet (o) deoq £wv. Eph.6oAov and auvQTjfxa. 347 For the epithet o £wv Szoq. Guard me. see Dieterich.609. 2304. 9-sou гкрау& г]. David G. SBA 15.” Numen 41 (1994) 1— (with 15 bibl. n. the epithet occurs in the N T as well. 2292. 16. 238-39. VII. “Beteuerungsformeln im N euen Testament. GieBen: Topelmann. because there are two invocations. mentions the трса s |листѓ)рс.”)344 The threefold invocation calls forth a deity by that name. 6— 24— William Schoedel. III. Stuttgart & Leipzig: Teubner. 67-68. 1999).” W hile the conventional invocation o f a deity uses “symbols” and “names. Lamella Bernensis. “Silent Prayer in Antiquity.79. IX. IV. 32.(3oAa and ovofxaxa are needed in invocations (see III.” N o v T 5 (1962) 115— 43. 1999).945.347 Casel. 22. 1038. D e philosophorum graecorum silentio mystico (R W 16. “SYMBOAON. for commanding silence III.345 For exactly this s reason.а храиутј^. 346 According to Preisendanz (app.” in his Griechische Studien (ed. 13— n. 1919). 14.” B 11 (397. 100. Magn.[3oAa is now attested on the gold tablet from Western Sicily (3rd c. Apuleius.560. Eduard Vischer. 1976). In the PGM. Dieterich and Hopfner treat the state­ ment as a gloss.” classified as “symbol”. 142. the matter is more complicated. Martinez proposes instead: “symbol o f the god who lives incorruptible” (Baptizedfor Our Sakes: A Leather Trishagionfrom Egypt (P. see VII. 105-6. ad loc. XII. 12— 15. (“Silence! Silence! Silence! Symbol o f the living imperish­ able god. VII. 45— 47. line 19).148 Commentary v ty fiz i p i)av[JLsXou.v. Aune. where Christ is called God’ Xoyoq. s.”346 this first invocation is different in that there is no name but only two epithets. 2322. Revelation. 213— 256— Walter Miiri.. 120— BDAG. axiva ev У]аиу1а. Basel: Reinhardt. 28. Hymn 5. oStexvov). see also 1.). “Initiation. . 2. 1. C H 1. 1985). On aufj. Since in the first invoca­ tion no other name is given.

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 )


The invocation is followed (1. 560) by the petition, cpuXa^ov [ле (“guard m e”),348 and concludes with second address, arpr] (“silence”), and voces magicae, vex&et-p ^avjxeXou,349 w hich may be intended as the secret name o f the deity.350 Further ritual acts in 11 561-65 mark the climax o f the protective ritual and . the transition to the next scenario. The practitioner is ordered: zneiTCf. crupiaov [xaxpov a ' o ' , ѕтсе^та jcorcrcuaov.351 (“Then make the long hissing sound, next make the popping sound.”) As discussed above, these sounds were part o f the magical repertoire (see on 1. 487). The first is called aupiyfxoi;, its performance CTupl^stv, a hissing or whistling.352 The second sound is named тсотслистр-б?, its performance 7t07i7tu(^eiv, a pop-pop sound.353 Finally, a special formula o f voces magicae is to be recited (11. 562— 65): Aeywv тсротсросрѕуу?) jjLoptoi; тсрофир тсрофѕуу?) vefAE&ipe a^ev x ev 7UTY]Tfxt, [xewu svap& supxe^o) фир^барко тирв cpt,X(3a.354 Peculiar is that in the ML there are three formulae beginning with тгротгросреуут], but otherwise different (see also 11. 603-4, 714-17). Apparently, the author cites three different formulae, rather than variations o f the same formula.355 If so, what then is the function o f beginning w ith тгротгросреуут]?356 W hy are there at least some similar
BDAG, s.v. l.a.s. Cf. also C H 1.9, 21; C l.17; CVIII.14; Ascl. 41. - For ар&арто?, see on 11. 497, 519-20. For the Egyptian background o f the epithet “living god” see Martinez, P. Mich. XIX , 12-15, esp. p. 13, n. 38, and on the ML passage p. 14, n. 38. 348 For this petition, see also 1. 661: cpuAod;6 v (лѕ, with the vox magica тсросшЈг/јрс. Petitions or orders for protection are, o f course, frequent in the PGM. See Preisendanz, 3.198 [index], s.v. срилосстстоЈ. Cf. 2 Thess 3:3; 1 John 5:21. 349 The vox magica is found only here; it is unexplained. 350 See on this point, Betz, Antike und Christentum, 159— 62. 351 According to Dieterich (6 ), the pap. reads a 'a ', obviously indicating a long hissing sound. Cf. the doubling o f the sound see 1. 578: aupt-aov [3'. See also Preisendanz, “Miszellen,” W St 41 (1919) 141-42: “Kiirzungen.” 352 There is disagreement: Dieterich (7) and Preisendanz (see his app. crit., ad loc.) translate it as “pfeifen” (whistle), but others (Meyer, Merkelbach) as “zischen” (hissing); Festugiere: “pousse deux longs sifflements.” Merkelbach’ (Abrasax, 3.60) hypothesis that s TrollTruest,v and aupr^siv allude to the name Pschai appears to be rather speculative, especially in the light o f the order in 1. 561. 353 Dieterich (7), Preisendanz, Merkelbach translate “schnalzen” (“smack”), Festugiere: “fais claquer ta langue,” Meyer: “a popping sound.” 354 Cf. Preisendanz, app. crit., ad loc., who suggests that locrrtpocpup may be тгорсрирсо^. 355 So rightly Martinez. 356 The term 7tpon;po<peyyY) has been translated by Preisendanz as “the one who shines before” (“Voranleuchtender”), but Eitrem (“Die vier Elemente in der Mysterienweihe,” S O 4 [1926] 39-59, esp. 51) prefers “the one who existed prior to light.” Fauth (Helios Megistos, 27) sees here a possible connection with Mithras the god o f fire, for which he cites Vermaseren, Mithras, 104; Mary Boyce, “O n Mithra, Lord o f Fire,” Acta Iranica 4 (1975)



(sound-)words, w ith their spelling and place in the sequences different? W hy is the author not concerned about consistency in spelling and order? Is the main concern the chanting o f similar sounds? So far nobody seems to have found answers to these questions or, assuming that the word division is correct, to the meaning o f the individual words. For the purpose o f compari­ son, the three formulae are put side by side below: 357 562-65 тсротсрофѕуут] jxopux;

603-4 ттротсрофеууу) epie&eipE

714-17 Ха[Л7гроф£ууг) 'геротхрофѕуут)


$7]*) uevapco
Ѕосрш (ppr)

арф ѕут^

7 tt/rr)TjA(.
SVOCpd<pvpxs](h) tyvpiSoCplb) TvprjcpiXfia.

x a l тоте


бфу) aXXa 7topeuo[jL£Vou? s t t I t t ] v l $ l a v x a ^ t v x w v 7 ip a y [x a T (o (v ). (“And then you will see the gods looking graciously upon you and no longer rushing at you, but rather going about in their own order o f affairs.”) The gods’ gracious look (su(jl£vw^ £[x{3X£7T£t,v) is an obvious contrast to their hostile staring (ax£vl^£c,v, 1. 556). They return to their normal affairs and to their normal course in accordance with the cosmic order.358 W ith this change, the second scenario comes to its end.
9-eou ? aoi evyLevag eyi^Xinovrag x a l j x t j x e t l i n i

The result o f the various procedures is narrated in 11. 565— 68:

op^xcofxevou q,

69— Julien Ries, “Le culte de Mithra en Iran,” ANRW 11.18:4 (1984) 2002— 75; 2115, esp. 2767-68. 357 The word division follows Preisendanz. 358 For as a cosmological term see also IV693; VII.829. This meaning seems to be rooted in Plato, Tim. 30a (cf. Gorg. 504a); it became technical in Hellenistic cosmology, for which see Ps.-Aristotle, Mundo 3 9 1 b ll; C H 1.26; V.3-5; IX. 8 ; XI.7; XII.14,21; XVIII.8 ; Exc. X X . 1; XXIII.16; XXIV.2; XXV.8,14; XXVI.29; Philo, Leg. 2.73; and often (see Borgen, Philo-Index, s.v.). See Lohr, Verherrlichung, 107-8; PGL, s.v. 3.e. Also the apocalyp­ tic literature shows interest in the stability and order o f the planetary world (see, esp. t En. 2.1, and the passages in Uhlig, JSHRZ 5:6 [1984] 510— 11).

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 485— 732)


3. Third scenario: the sun disk (11. 569— 85)

After the planetary gods have been pacified, the third scenario begins with the usual orientation (11. 569— 71): oxav o5v 1бт]£ tov avto xocrfxov xa&apov xal Sovoujjlsvov x a l prjSeva twv &£mv y) ayyeXwv op<{j.>(0fx£vov... (“Thus w hen you see that the world above is pure and agitated, and that none o f the gods and angels is threatening__ ”) The references to time and vision o f the objects seen lead to the conclusion that the ascending initiate has moved up to a higher stage above the planetary deities. That stage is called by a strange name: o avco x 6(7{aoc; xa&apo? x a l Sovoujaevo? (“the world above, pure and agi­ tated”). Understandably, the higher cosmos is clear o f impurities,359 but the meaning o f Sovoufxevo? is puzzling.360 In parallel passages, Sovelv refers to cosmic shaking and agitating, but this meaning does not seem to fit here,361 unless it is related to the following warning that thunder is to occur. If this is assumed, the question arises how it is connected with the preceding xa&apo? (“pure”), and w ith the following statement, x a l [xrjSiva. tcov {}eo5v yj ayysXcov op<(A>to[ji£vov (“and none o f the gods or angels threatening”).362 In the former instance, Sovoujjlsvo^ seems unrelated, unless one adjusts it by translat­ ing x a l SovoufAevoi; as “but agitated.” The latter instance stands in anticipation o f 11. 556-5 7 , speaking o f the attack by the planetary gods, except that the angels were not previously m entioned.363 Therefore, the entire comment, xal pqSeva twv &ewv t) ayyeAwv op<[x>co(x£vov, because it interrupts the continu359 The expression xoa[ioq xa&apoq is hapax in the PGM; for коаџос, in the ML, see 11. also 498, 620, 625, 776. In the context o f Hellenistic cosmology, “purity” could mean either that the higher regions o f the universe are pure because they consist o f ether or fire, or, more specifically, that the higher cosmos is free from the threatening planetary gods. See 5 F F II # 327 (116.36), # 440 (145.1-14); # 558-573 (176-79); D io Chrysostom 3 6 .4244; Philo, Plant. 20; Mos. 1.113; C H 1Л0; VI.4; XI.19; Proclus, Theol. Plat. 5.34 (ed. Saffrey & Westerink, 5.125,5— 10); Plat. Tim. 3.142d (ed. Diehl, 2.11.18— 24); cf. already Plato, Phaed. 111b. See Lohr, Verherrlichung, 108-10. 360 The pap. reads Sovoujasvov. Dieterich (8— proposed [xovoujxevov, “einsam” (“soli­ 9) tary”), Cronert (StPP 4 [1905] 100): Stvoujxevov (“sich im Kreis bewegend”), Preisendanz keeps SovoujJtevov, “sich im Kreise bewegen” (“moving in a circle”). Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.165) translates “rauschen” (“rustle”); I am adopting Martinez’ proposal o f “agitated” (in s anticipation o f the thunderclap). 361 Cf. IV.2533— 34, in a prayer to Selene, whose terrifying shout lets the cosmos tremble: xa xocrfxt-xa rcavra SoveLToa. In a prayer to Aphrodite (IV2936-37) the reference is to sexual arousal: атреср^е^ т ’ oux eX(,aa6[xev6<; те SoveiTaa. In the context o f cosmic thunder the term occurs also in Orph. Frag. 248a5 (265, ed. Kern): tkijxw 7tocvxa SovsLxoa. 362 The pap. reads opto[xevov, the correction to opfxcofxevov is by Wessely, Dieterich (8), and Preisendanz (app. crit., ad loc.) in accordance with 11. 557, 567. 363 Angels (ayyeXot,) are mentioned only here in the ML, but they can be compared with hostile angels in Jewish apocalyptic and Hekhalot literature (see above, on 1. 556).



ation from Sovoujxevov to the warning o f thunder (1. 570), may be a redactional gloss that has been inserted as a reminder o f the change which has taken place since 11 556— . 57. Given this situation, the initiate is forewarned (11. 571-73), тгроабоха (3povTY ]<; [хеуаХт]? ахоиаесгО-оа xtutcov, мате сте ex7tXayY)vat,. (“Expect a crash o f great thunder to be heard, w ith the result that you are shocked.”). The thunder indicates that the initiate now stands in the sphere where the weather, especially thunderstorms, occur.364 The subject o f thunder has fascinated antiquity in many quarters and led to brontology, a department o f astrology/astronomy.365 Certainly, therefore, the terror caused by the thunder indicates new dan­ ger,366 and a new ritual o f protection is required. The formula is set forth in 1 . 573-75. First, the atyr]-logos appears again: сти бе n a k iv Xeye- агут] стсуѓ) 1 Xo(yo<;).367 (“But you, say again: ‘Silence! Silence!’ [formula].”) Second, and different from 1. 558, a statement o f self-identification follows (11. 574-75): eyco s i\Li <o> ctu[atcXocvoc, ujjllv acmqp, x al ex tou (ЗаФои^ avaXafATttov o Su, o Eep&sut). (“I am [the] star, wandering about w ith you, and shining forth out o f the deep, the XY, the X E R T H E U T H .”)368 Using the formula o f selfidentification,369 the initiate presents himself as one o f the wandering stars o f the firmament.370 The idea o f becoming a star after death was, however, popular in many quarters o f ancient religions, especially ancient Egypt,371
364 For references to thunder (PpovxYj) see below, 11. 621, 681; X X X V I.356; cf. [Bpovxato V151; VII.366, 994; XII.60; Ppovxa&> IV.1039, 1160; VII.235; VIII.93; ppovxaywyog IV.182; (3povToxepauvoTcaT(op IV.3102. 365 See Franz Boll, “Finsternisse,” PRE 6 (1909) 2329-64, esp. section 5; Wolfgang Speyer, “Gewitter,” R A C 10 (1978) 1107— (1120— on the PGM, 1120 on Mithraism, 72 21 1150— on apocalypticism); cf. on apocalypticism Friedrich Wilhelm Horn, “Die sieben 53 Donner. Erwagungen zu Offb 10,” S N T U A -l 7 (1992) 215— OTP, index, s.v. Thunder. 29; 366 For the term ехтсХаут^оа and its significance for the miraculous, see also VII.921; BDAG, s.v. ехгсХѓ)(тстм. See moreover Dieterich, Abraxas, 53— Mithrasliturgie, 64-65. 54; 367 Pap. reads the symbol A, meaning Aoyoq. The question is whether there is impor­ tance in the fact that the call to Silence happens twice instead o f thrice, as in 1. 558. 368 This reading according to Preisendanz supported by Jordan w ho points to the parallel in XII.297— xov ЕерсО-мФ, ... xov Sept-qjcovap. 98: 369 See for parallels in the ML, above on 11. 535. 370 The term crufi.7cAavo<; is unique in the PGM, and rare in Greek (see LSJ, s.v.). See Paul Capelle, D e luna stellis lacteo orbe animarum sedibus (Diss. Halle; Halae Saxorum: Karras, 1917), 19-36 (especially 32, n. 3; 33-36), who refers to important passages in S V F II # 817 (224— 25): in modurn siderum vagari in aere; Cicero, Resp. 6.16 (Somn. Scip.); CHX.7; Meleager, Anthol. pal. 5.191.2 (LCL, ed. Paton, 1.222— 23); Philostratus, Ep. 56; aufjutAavaojjioa, “roam­ ing around with (erotic),” Plutarch, Amat. 3 (750B); Ant. 29.2. For acrnrjp cf. also PGM IV.580, 764 (?). 371 The technical term is synastria; see Franz Boll, Kleine Schriften zur Sternkunde des Altertums (ed. Viktor Stegemann; Leipzig: Kohler & Amelang, 1950), 115-24; also Merkel­ bach, Abrasax, 3.239.

II. Main body of the ritual (11. 485— 732)


Greek religions,372 and Jewish apocalypticism.373 Dieterich (65) has raised the question about the more precise nature o f the stars envisaged. Because they cannot be the planets, he suggests shooting stars, and this may well be cor­ rect.374 If so, they would emerge as lights375 out o f the depth o f the cosmos.376 As a result o f performing the preceding formula, the initiate is told that he will view three images related to the sun-disk (576-77): тосита aou einovxoq eu&ew? o S ta x oq атсАсогНЃЈаетоа. (“Immediately after you have said this, the sundisk will be expanded.”) This first image is the sun-disk in its fully expanded form. The meaning o f атсЛоиа&оа, a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM , can be established on the basis o f the parallel avotyet-v (“open”) in 11. 583— 85.377
372 See, in particular, the Orphic gold tablets, which assume that the initiate, “a child o f starry heaven,” will after death become a star. See Riedweg, “Initiation —Tod —Unterwelt,” in Graf, Ansichten griechischer Rituale, 395 (text B 2, line 9: ’Асттерс-о^ ovojaoc [“Asterios is my name”]); Betz, ibid., 405; idem, Antike und Christentum, 228. Furthermore, see Dieterich, 65; Rohde, Psyche, 2.131; Cumont, After Life, 160; idem, Lux Perpetua, 171— 88, 209— 18; Martin P. Nilsson, “Die astrale Unsterblichkeit und die kosmische Mystik,” Opuscula selecta (SSIA, 3; Lund: Gleerup, 1960), 250— 65; Erwin Pfeiffer, Studien zum antiken Sternglauben (2T0IXEIA 2; Leipzig & Berlin: Teubner, 1916), 113, 129; Wilhelm Gundel, “Kometen,” P R E 21. Halbbd. (1921) 1143— esp. 1150-53; Franz Boll and 93, Wilhelm Gundel, “Sternbilder, Sternglaube und Sternsymbolik bei Griechen und Romern,” in Roscher, Lexikon 6 (1924-37) 867-1071, esp. 1062-65; Nilsson, G G R 1.692, n. 2; 2.490— 494-96; Furley & Bremer, Greek Hymns, 2.369. 91, 373 See Dan 12:1-3; 1 En. 104:2; As. Mos. 10:9; Ps.-Philo, L .A .B . 33:5 (O T P 2.348); Wis 3:7; 4 Macc 17:5 (O T P 2.562); R ev 1:16, 20; 2:1; 3:1. See Volz, Eschatologie, 396-401: “Die Lichtnatur der Heiligen”; Boll, Aus der Offenbarungjohannis, 143; George W Nickelsburg, Resurrection, Immortality, and Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism (HThS 26; Cam­ bridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972), 144— 69; Gruenwald, Apocalypticism and Gnosticism, 128— Tzvi Abush, “Ascent to the Stars in a Mesopotamian Ritual: Social 30; Metaphor and Religious Experience,” in Collins & Fishbane, Death, 15— John J. 39; Collins, Jewish Wisdom in the Hellenistic Age (OTL; Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997), 184— Mach, Entwicklungsstadien, 183— 85; 84. 374 For a discussion o f the options o f planets, fixed stars, and shooting stars, see Dieterich, 65; cf. Merkelbach (Abrasax, 3.239) who seems to think o f fixed stars. On fixed stars, see the comprehensive articles by Franz Boll, “Fixsterne,” PRE 6 (1909) 2407— on 31; shooting stars, Wilhelm Gundel, “Kometen,” PFJE 11 (1921) 1143— 93. 375 avaXapLKet-v occurs only here in the PGM. The terms avaXapt-rcw, ал/аАаЈлфс^ are known from cosmological contexts (shining o f the sun), also as metaphor (light o f the mind). See, e.g., Plutarch, Alex. 30.3; Ps.-Heraclitus, Ep. 6.3; T. Levi 18.4; Philo, Opif. 33; Deus 32; Agr. 162; Plant. 40; Migr. 123; Somn. 1.11; Mos. 1.212; 2.27; Spec. 1.90; 2.140; 4.52; Origen, Cels. 5.33. 376 Comparable to the emergence o f the seven virgins, see 11. 575, 662— Elsewhere 63. in the PGM, [6ct3}oc refers to the subterranean sphere, possibly the depth o f the sea; see IV 1211; XXXVI. 146. See BDAG, s.v. 1. 377 Translations, therefore, vary: Dieterich, Preisendanz: “sich entfalten”; Festugiere: “le disque se sera ouvert”; Meyer: “will be expanded”; Merkelbach: “sich offnen.” LSJ (s.v. остгХбм, 2) gives some instances for the meaning “to be expanded.” For the sun-disk see 11. 548, 551, 579— 583. See Gundel, Weltbild und Astrologie, 12. 80,

1957). Ph. 15— 35. cf. 384 For the air. 383 See W. 488. is typical o f redactional commentary. 573— 75. x al crupt.” PRE 8 (1913) 2411— esp. n. See Gundel. is identical with the one in 11. the pronouncement o f a iy . reads e' SaxxuXtatoix. Ttuplva? a7roxexXec. esp.381 (“And immediately you will see a multitude o f five-pronged stars proceeding from the sun-disk and filling all the air.378 (“After you have said the second formula. 380 The pap. which has artyr) <т(. Vergote. “Horogeneis T heoi. to be done twice. Kingsley. Francesco Sbordone. or number five.13 (ed. the discussion by Wilhelm Kroll.crov ft' xal 7i(o7t7iucrov) [3'.154 Commentary The second image is preceded by a reference to time and the performance o f rituals (11.385 (“And when the sun-disk has opened. 87: x al tou Staxou avoLyevTog Бфу] oimipoy xuxXco[xa x al &upa<. 487. Worterbuch der agyptischen Sprache. you will see the 378 Pap. el^..358. 515]) is unclear.” CEg 18 (1943) 39— 89. “Traduction des Hieroglyphica d’Horapollon. See Alan Gardiner. 2742— 43.379 at the beginning comes the formula elsewhere called the “second logos. Lexikon. —Eitrem proposes Tiposp^ojjLevou^. 561— 62). see Horapollo. p. reads the abbreviation? (3 and n 'n 'ft" [stroke over (3j.уѓј twice.. 558— 59). 55. but why Preisendanz keeps avuyevxoq is unclear because ot/u is one o f the most common phonetic exchanges . reads aiyyj ft'. “Horogeneis.ap[iiv7]. Cf. 381 Pap.yr] three times. Then the vision occurs (11. also to be done twice (see 11.384 The third image follows in 11 582-85. The symbol o f the five-pronged stars has been used since ancient Egypt382 and has become part o f the cosmology of the ancient world.”) As the redactional com m ent clarifies. again preceded by rituals: oru 8e . 54 (1895) 562— 63. Wilhelm Gundel. 379 The wording.”) The adverbial su&ecoc is a reminder that the vision is miraculous. H ow the air is related to “ether” (aLOvjp [1. eyxoorfjuo?. For a later interpretation o f the star as Oeoc. 693. Hori Apollinis Hieroglyphica [Napoli: LofFredo. tcXs Icttouc.380 The second ritual is the cnjpiyfxoi. x al 7U7rXwvTa? oXov tov aepa. The instant result is the vision o f the second image (11. make the hissing twice and the popping sound twice. Erman and Grapow.. бфт) атсо tou б(ахои асттѓра^ Trpoo-sp^o^evoui. 382 The five-fingered star has the phonetic value sbz (“star”) or ntr (“god”). 1/2. Ancient Philosophy. 577-79): [лета бе to elicslv ere tov ft' Xoyov. Oxford: Griffith Institute. Hier. 1. (“But you say again ‘Silence! Silence!’”) Apparently. 541. and third the nomx\>a[i6q. 1. has avotyevxoi. 14. (т^та)бахтиХ(<а£ои<. f] crtyr] at. vol.” in Roscher. бтсои c iy r jft' xal та ахоАои&а. тсаХсл/ Хеуе' aiyr] асуу). Egyptian Grammar (3rd ed. where there is ‘silence’ twice and what follows..” that is.a[A£va<. 54— I am indebted for these references to Thomas Dousa. onou <yiyr\ (3' x al та axoXou&a. filling the air. 385 Pap. Dieterich (8) assumes that the “second formula” (11. the агуѓј-logos o f 11 573-75 is to be repeated. Drexler. see also B. 573-75. see 11. w hen from the sun-disk a plethora o f five-pronged stars comes forth. 1940].383 The air is the sphere above the planetary realm in which the shooting stars are flying about. 35— 36). van de Walle and J. 2412. which Dieterich (8) reads as avoiysvTo^. 579— 82): x al eu&sooc. 583. Weltbild und Astrologie.. the ortyr] ахут)-logos cited in 1. 89. 14. 2. 508.

Zucker (B yZ 31 [1931] 362) ejAKupov (“feurig. Merkelbach (Abrasax. and the sun-disk appears as fireless. See 4 Schwyzer. 521. see 11. reads aTcoxexXifxevoc^. see 11. XII. Fourth scenario: the opening of the doors to the world of the gods (11.29).. Cf. 625-26. 227. 207— 213— 220. Also arcupov. see D. Burkert (see previous note). flammend”). but it could just as well a pictorial representation o f some kind.e. IV2378. Grammar.273-73). 2003). O Z 2 /1 . 368. . index s. 33. 388 The term cotupov occurs elsewhere in the PGM. cf. esp. 625-26). xuxXwjxoc as a cosmological term occurs only here in the PGM. suggests a possible Indo-Iranean background. as referring to the highest sphere o f the deity. repr. Icar. F. XXXVI. 1. however (see Gignac. 3.300. 637. the third scenario is concluded. but Preisendanz (W S t 41 [1919] 143) defends it against Dieterich’ (8) correction s to aTTSLpov. and u and et.v. 3. following a ritual o f closing the eyes. and Diels’ to 8ux7iupov.1326. VII. I En. 4. o f two doors. For nupivoc. in the Greek o f this period sounded like our long e and were exchanged (not nearly so frequently as o i/v . cf. 239. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 155 boundless circle and its fiery doors shut tight. Grammatik. II. is disputed.” R h M 106 (1963) 97— 134. has arcoxs/xXt-CTfj-sva^. For the “fiery doors” (&upoa Trupivoa). 576-77) and must not be confused with the opening o f the sun’s doors which is to occur later (11. Main body of the ritual (11. 204. LSJ. corrected by Dieterich (8) to ajroxexAsijjivoc^. That the sun-disk has doors reminds Merkelbach (Abrasax . II.613.o uuXa^. Martinez agrees: “fireless does not make sense here. as referring to the sun-beetle XII. the Pythagorean image o f the eyes as t)Xlou тшХоа (Diogenes Laertius 8. see III. it would point to the boundlessness o f the xuxAmjaoc. 24. See Gundel.” W hile the com­ (so Martinez. 12. 192— 229. i.v. The image suggests the latter which has a parallel even in H om er. in Kleine Schriften II: Orientalia (Gottin­ gen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.II. one would have to conclude that the fire is behind the closed doors. Od. however.295. 589. 662.384. 184). s. VII. Grammar. “At once close your eyes and recite the following prayer. r^'Aioc.. see Lucian. philosophy since the Presocratics (Anaximenes. тшХт]. 638.”) The opening o f the sun-disk means the same as аттАм&^стетоа (1. for xuxXoc as “sun-disk” see IV. W ith this. Empedocles). 44— 45.846-60 Hopfner. 11.168. 1. The pap.168) follows Dieterich. 386 Homer. s.. refering to Gignac. At the beginning. On the important cosmological term oaieipov see Walter Burkert. 14. as we prefer.v.44. 22— and the rich collection o f material in 27 Weinreich. Cf. stands the recitation o f the “third prayer.” addressed to the god Aion: <7u бе ѕб&ѓах. That the sun consists o f fire was the teaching o f 22. 7.56. 584.386 If arrupov is to be read. ocTcetpov is correct. 203— with n. бссохе tov imoxziyLevo v Xoyov xa[x[xuwv aou хоид 6ф&аА[лои<. §§ 141-42.12: т]бе reap’ ’HeXtot. 343— 70. read by the pap.. 387 Pap.-K. 585—628) Compared w ith the previous scenarios the fourth one is distinguished by several extraordinary features. Weltbild und Astrologie.388 If. 14:15— 71:5— 75:4. The question is w hether we are to think o f two doors or o f two wings o f one door. 3. Parmenides. For the concept o f heavenly doors.272— 73). esp. Religionsgeschichtliche Studien. but not with reference to the sundisk. Janet Spittler’ question (in a s seminar) whether the image may be related to the phenomena o f solar eclipses (see also PGM VII. “Iranisches bei Anaximander. for the former.240) o f the stage in the theater.387 thus it is invisible. LSJ.

713. at 1. 558— 573— 582— (second prayer). see II. “Give ear to me. Thomas Ohm. I... 3. For this gesture see IV. xupio?. 588— 603). 642.389 The prayer to be recited is called “third” (Хоуо? y '). Cronert (StPP 4 [1905] 100) hasтѕтросбссјлосто^. as in the previous prayers. 3268.521. 3. (Abrasax. Dieterich (Abraxas. See also Wilhelm Cronert.v. 587— 88). 1:2: “ . which Dieterich (8) reads as xAst&pa (followed by Merkelbach.92 (index). 718. the number is significant: 3 X 7 .v. 393 The title xupt. 588— 602) takes the form o f 21 epithets.” The terms are technical in prayer formulae.b (bibliography). 8) reads tou oupavou б(. etc. for the opening o f the eyes 1.” See BDAG. 84]). the NT. s. 586. a statement o f need (11. 594). Especially difficult has been the reading o f the pap. 396 Pap. 97 IV. 65.166). n. A. 624). 60. 804.396 The problem 389 Further instruction is given below.” 394 The aretalogy (11. followed by an aretalogical list o f epithets (11. G M PT . reads хАт]&ра. 1064. Cf. a petition (11.395 the first being a participle clause revealing the reason for calling this deity: o auvSyjaa^ TivsupLaxi xa 7iuptva хАтј&ра тои (тетра)Х[. 390 Pap. further instances in Preisendanz. Die Gebetsgebarden der Volkerund das Christentum (Leiden: Brill. 588.391 The prayer (11. 1948). 486— 537 (first). hearken to me. See Preisendanz. 44. Zweileibiger. “Kyrios. бестттотт]^. 717. етгахоим (with bibliography). and he saw.177. 3. Somn..156 Commentary mand to perform a ritual at once at the beginning o f a scenario'is familiar from earlier instances. 3. 392 See for other instances. Mithrasliturgie. xafAfAuw.v. axouaov [aou. 1948. 39. while his eyes were open.. signifying xou Secva ty)? Setva. 605-6). 188— 90. no name is used. opening w ith an invocation (11. the self-identification o f the petitioner is offered by way o f the symbol A . (“you w ho have bound together with your spirit the fiery bars o f the fourfold root”).126 (index). 1903. 2. The comment belongs to the redactional numbering o f the prayers. to ттј? фи^уј^ o[xjxa (note the context o f mystery-cult language). 394 Pap.а(^м[лато<.” [“o f the heaven.” D D D 492— (bibliography). (agreed by Burkert [in Betz. 495. 11.390 It is a petitionary prayer addressed to the god Aion whose name is m entioned in the prayer (1. has y .. repr. 48. Dieter Zeller. 75. also in Philo. s. 713. Hildesheim: Olms. see Dieterich. The invocation uses the formula: h taxouaov [xou. but only the divine title xupio q (“lord” ). 1787. BDAG.£(о|лато<. See on this formula above. 85 391 On Aion see above. 1963). Cf. Kroll and Diels (in Dieterich [8]) read б[. s. but the order to close the eyes is new. s. O lord. n. in the ML it occurs 11. xupie.786 (ML).164-65: xafxpLucravTSi. 11. Preisendanz (W S t 41 [1919] 143— reads тетраА^мЈлатос. 587— 616) shows the usual composition. 640.o? is frequent in the PGM. It is attested in the LXX. Disputed readings o f the papyrus have produced controversy regarding the meaning. 631.ам[лато^ (“des Himmels. 606— 16). has A ttjc. 395 Perhaps.N . BDAG. IV.393 Also. o f two bodies”]). first read by Wessely as AAIZQMATOS. 958. 617-20 (cf. 603-4). 687. and a list o f secret names (11. 3227. ѓтаххouslv. 101.392 and.v. s. TOTA'AIZQMATOS. Memoria Graeca Herculanensis (Leipzig: Teubner. 520— 21. 49. 3064.v. 44) . 639. 1 En. “N . connected with TETpaytovou.

240 (with reference to Gignac.-K. Eph 4:3— See BDAG. 238) reference to s Sib. 1959). how­ and translates “des viermal gebunden Giirtels” (similarly Weinreich [in Dieterich. 608-11. III.403 The term xa uupt«va нХу)&ра (“the fiery bars”) refers to the bars locking the doors o f the sun (1. 401 Philo (Her.921c. 396). 68 A 135 [II. in Preisendanz. Neue Untersuchungen z u Poseidonios (Miinchen: Beck. 402 C H 1. so that xexpapt^cofjiaxo? is a strong possibility. and Hades (IV. 208 (69. Spathellenistische Berichte iiber Welt. Gottfried Fitzer. 28— and below.. 659-61.18.39. The expression o auvSr]aa<. As Eitrem and Merkelbach affirm. see Karl Reinhardt. 399 Plato. 584). onrAaveTi. 8:122. XXVI. 29.36).1— Diogenes Baby2). if the readings relate to the Aion theology in other parts o f the ML. 485— 732) 157 may be solved. auvSsw. app. Halbbd. Tim.” 12. асттѓра? CTuvSeSeaOai. (see above. 7. (1953) 588-826.3. ad loc. could be derived from a stoicizing cosmology: auvSeapioc.. whereas Hopfner has “des vierfach gestiitzten Himmels” [“o f the heaven supported fourfold”]). “Poseidonios. Resp. 7 rvsu[jt.2). if that is the right reading.398 Plato. 397 See S V F ll. 1.24). 10.401 the H erm e­ tica. 2294.399 the Stoics. 223]. 2. esp. according to Plant.397 However. Kultur und Gotter (SBA 9.19). 2337. 207 (68.1465. V. 31b— 41b. cf. # 22 (214. XXIII. . 400 For the Stoic doctrine o f auvSeojao^. # 22 (247. Walter Spoerri. Abrasax. but he prefers тетра?а£м|лато<.293. Pohlenz.v.16. Main body of the ritual (11. Epin. crit. “viermal gewundener Giirtel” [“belt wound fourfold”]. 411— idem. Basel: Reinhardt. T D N T 7 (1964) 856-59. symbolically representing the four elements. Philo.22.axc. the terminol­ ogy should be related to this possible background. 405 Eitrem. lonius.. 984b-c. Eitrem and Merkelbach correct the spelling to тетрар^м^атсх. 3:14. note 407. V 4 (cf. 11. the term xAeT&pov is connected with underworld figures like Tartarus. tw xpuaxaXAw.7]) concerning the auvSsait. but the con­ nection w ith TTV [xa is not attested. Interesting is Reitzenstein’ (Das iranische Erlosungsmysterium. 9— the binding 10 agent is the "koyoq. 174 (50. with reference to c. 2 1 6 17 (71.-K. where Aion has the epithet хХѕсбосриХа^ ѕ1рхттј^ јлѕуаАтј^. the change from the letter p to X can happen easily. Grammar. See also Fauth.26-27]): xou<. 1. the city Leg. the expression might not be EU only Stoic.22). Helios Megistos. 403 Col 2:19. n. since the question o f which bond holds the cosmos together was discussed by the Presocratics.402 and the N T .400.405 The four roots. but translate differently: “the roots o f the four elements” (Eitrem). 31 A 54 [1. also for definitions III. Die Stoa. “des auf den vier Wurzeln (Saulen) ruhenden Alls” (“o f the universe standing on the four roots [pillars]”) (Merkelbach). s.6). # # 147 (45. Cerberus. o f the atoms. Ps. 945 (272— 73). 197— 200) discusses the composition o f frankincense out o f four ingredi­ ents. 314]). ouvSeajxo?.520a. Exc. Democritus (D. cf. 3. Kosmos und Sympathie. Since this theology shows influences o f Stoic cosmology.-Plato. Or. occurs in the cosmology o f Chrysippus.42— 43. 148 (45. 6. 122. Merkelbach. Antipater Tarsensis. 398 See Empedocles (D.10).II. Resp. xAetcTxpov XXXVI. 97— 105.102-7).317 [cf. PRE 43. 2261.74-75. 1926). 404 Elsewhere in the PGM.6).404 The hardest problem for interpretation is the term тои хехраХс£м[лахо<..616c.

van den Berg. # 417. cited according to Kirk & Raven.455. t w v oupavwv). Abrasax. W hat appears here in a poetic form became part o f Hellenistic cosmologies.. Parmenides (D.10]). хХи9г. the combination o f the older Egyptian worldview with a Hellenistic cosmology would fit as part o f the syncretistic Aion-theology o f the ML. 380— 383. all o f them relating to fire (тсир). а[лофои<. 410 See Dieterich.. 491— 93.” 409 Indeed. water and earth as coming from one root (piC/x). Matt 16:19 (бмста) aoi xaq хХеѓба? ттј? ЏсиаСке1сис.410 406 Empedocles. “According to the Egyptian view­ point the world rests on four pillars. Proclus’ Hymns.-K. w hen discussed one by one. 376.407 Merkelbachs com m ent calls attention to their syncretistic nature. Ancient Philosophy. throw further light on the syncretistic Aion-theology o f the M L. 590— 602). life-bringing Hera.3.158 Commentary ever.-K. # 359): t w v бе Alxy] 7ioXu7ioivo<.. Aidoneus and Nestis w h o w ith her tears fills the springs o f mortal m en w ith water. 284. Pythagoras: aevaou cpuaew^ p^w[xa (D. 58 B 15 [1.15— 312. 323. &’ y) бахри о ^ тѕуувЕ. Following the first epithet. 11. in which the fiery sun. and furthermore 370. and even the xArfiouyoc. the remainder o f the aretalogy comprises 20 epithets (11. 2. These epithets. 669. . and these are rooted in four р^со^ата. 3. 99.4 refers to fire. 15. Helios Megistos. 1975). furthermore Proclus’ Hymn 1 (to Helios). '/puarjVLS Titocv. were a key concept in the cosmology o f Empedocles who used the metaphor to explain the function o f the four elements:406 тесгстара yap tcocvtmv р^мЈлата rcpwTov axoue Z su q арут]^ 'Нрт] те (pepsaftioq т]б’ А1бшеи<.20. See also Kingsley. light (<pw?) and spirit (7 iveufjia). 432. 7:22— (LXX) contains 20 epithets describing the spirit (TTV 23 EUjxa). D. C H X V I. 31 B 6 (1. cttuAictxoi) in 1.408 Accepting the reading тетраЛ^мЈлато? as equalling тетрар^(0[хато<. Cf. Die ‘Tw3pt’ Szenen in den agyptischen Tempeln dergriechisch-romischen Epoche (Bruxelles: Fondation Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth. xpouvwjxa (3poT£(.311.229. 399.. Hear first the four roots o f all things. (“keyholder”) have their place.9].2). each o f them combining a Greek honorific title with non-G reek voces magicae.ov.240. 13— 355. 1— КХиОг. from Aetius 1. 385. Cf. For Dike and Ananke as хХтјбоиуо^ see 81. “Den Himmel stutzen”. especially the formula in v.. As for the Egyptian sources. Cf. Kirk & Raven. N9)crri<. 408 Merkelbach. 409 Ibid. 14. 90— See also Fauth. the term auvSelv. тгиро^ voepou [ЗаагХеи. shining Zeus.-K. 28 B 1 [1. 407 See Kirk & Raven. the relationship to philosophical Aion theology is evident from many parallels. сраои? та[лѓа. 23:13 (xXelsts t t )v PaoxAelav t w v oupavwv ejATipocr&ev t w v av&pw7rwv). Merkelbach refers to Dieter Kurth.” also 332— 30: 34. e yzi хХтјТбa. Chaldean Oracles. he bases an Egyptian interpretation on the reference to the four pillars (хеаоаргс. 65— Remarkably. 18. 152— 56. 327— “The Four Roots and Love and Strife. the great encomium to Wisdom (a ocpta) in Wis 67.c. for commentary see Lewy.

Ха[л фмтбс xxLorvjq (“creator o f light”) is unique in the PGM . it is unexplained and not attested elsewhere in the PGM . 58.). Helios Megistos. 257. сратдд хтСаха.” or “shining spirit” [LSJ]) occurs only here. Bonner.360.27— (n. 3.o^ (“fire-spirited”) occurs only here in the PGM. Les intailles. assuming an exchange ocl/e. 35. 213. 276-81. Perhaps this gloss is motivated by хХтд&ра 1. “cat”). Preisendanz.” one o f w hich is фм^-ахбтос (cf. 29. for combinations w ith spou see Preisendanz. Studies.35— 36]. index. for further material see A d olf Jacoby.4). according to the T L G it is a hapaxlegomenon. 215. Gzixzai'AayL is a known Semitic epithet. Kirk & Raven. 26— 27. Maria G. ффЈл/О-. T he connection with atXoupo^ (“cat”) was seen already by Wessely and Dieterich (8.3— 29. wa'L may be a variation o f Law (palindrome?). 575. epou is attested in combina­ tion IV. crit. 7п>ги[лат6фм<. IV. 10. war T he adjective (“spirit-light. Suppl. 7tupL^ap7] eXoupe T he adjective izupiyjxpf^ (“rejoicing in fire” [LSL]) occurs only here in the PGM. # 328). “Ein Berliner Chnubisamulett.-K. Supplementum Magicum. see Merkelbach.334— Interesting is the 37.672.220. 77.” Z P E 132 (2000) 2 4 8 -5 4 (bibl. 672. rcupiTioAo^ (“fire-burning”) is found only here in the PGM .432 and may be related to the decan ’Epou or ’Epw (see below on 1. however. XIII.19. “Iao. TtevTt-Tepoim is corrected by the scribe from Tievxsxspoim. 42 -4 4 . cf. Law names Iao. M ichel. Helios Megistos. 640. 311. refers to 7tuptTcoXo^ as associated w ith lightning (xepauvo?) in Euripides. 574. 2727. LXXVII.573. Dieterich (8. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 159 TtupuroXe TCevTLTepouvi. Kirk & Raven. 4. but Martinez considers epoupe. 264 (index). 73. “SEM ES(E)IAAM . Gemmen. 1. 85. Delatte and Derchain. a hapax.II.. 223) has doubts. TiupL&ujxe t-aw T he adjective Trupti%[j. 278-81). 28 3. Pap. meaning “eternal sun”. 589. 312 and index.). the pap. Abrasax. (“fire-breathing”) occurs also in IV. Daniel and Maltomini. there may be a connection with Pythagoras’ “ten opposite principles. Fauth. according to the T L G it is a hapaxlegomenon. 115.” A R W 28 (1930) 269— 85. however. Main body of the ritual (11. LSJ (s. U na messa a punto. 3. Abrasax. (oi бѕ' стиухХѕТстта) а£[лест(.34.831. redactional gloss: ol 8 z ‘ ouvx'Azloza (“others have: confiner”). Merkelbach. 214. 7tupL7tveo5 1. Fauth. but may be related to Parmenides’ idea that fire created light (D. # # 310. 582. Lancellotti. 254). 328 (index). Cf. XIII. 176.v. for passages in PGM see Preisendanz. David Aune.” R A C 17 (1996) 1-12.v.223. 3. reads eXoups. V II. esp. frequently m entioned in the PGM.209. cf. 1589. see III.). V.2559.341. 28 A 34 [1. . reads eXoupe and takes it to be a vocative iXoups (aiXoupe. has auvxXL<rca.230 (index) s. cruyxXsteiv. фир^фѕи appears only here in PGM. TC U pLTC V O E ф и р ^ ф е и The adjective 7tupL7tvou<. app.

228— 29. IV. IV. In Epict. Preisendanz compares IV. 520— 21). 3. Abrasax.а&оа)а^. Preisendanz reads ocj^a. ф(ОТОХраТ(Ор T CSTtTCep T C p e 7CSfJtfUTCt. XII.819.a. 1303. 335). he. unexplained. 49. but o f course the name A ion is known from the ML elsewhere (see at 11. Jordan sees here an imperfect palindrome [хетг[хер7грв[хл£[л.240: “D er Sonnengott ist der groBe Kater. o f the 1887 ed. n ow affirmed by Martinez. but Preisendanz keeps фсотобмта. 38.” C R A I (1979) 291— 304. n. Merkelbach. the D em otic name o f the sun-god R e. Onomastica sacra (repr. but cf. X V II.o)£ is unexplained. 107. “L’anguipede alectorocephale et le dieu LAO. This epithet (“ruler o f light. for other com bi­ nations w ith oc^oc. takes it to be a scribal addition. in Betz. 3.575 (cf. . and Paul de Lagarde. G M P T . <pvouir)vt..see Preisendanz. (“fire-bodied”) occurs only here. according to the TLG it is a hapaxlegomenon. alwv ax(3a altov is apparently used here as an epithet (the pap. 30) as an anaphorical manipulation o f Pre. therefore.l— For the problem see Saul Lieberman. Grammar. 13. Dieterich (66— 233) refers 67. а£а£ае(. xaXXicpw^ oXjxi The attribute occurs only here (“light-beauty”). aXjxi is found only here. n. 1942).o)£ тшрсстсо^атос. T he attribute фсотоботт^ (“light-giver”) occurs also in Simplicius. n. according to the TLG it is a hapaxlegomenon. 3. Hildesheim: Olms. 5. at PGM IV. Hadot). and to bibliography. See also III. referring to the cat-spells in III. w hich Fauth (Helios Megistos. 85.846. 1648. 223) to фслтобота. 1. 120. Tcupt-artofjiaTe <pvour)vi.244 (index). the epithet occurs only here. 2. Meliouchos. 2.240— 41) w ho refers to Jerome. (N ew York: Jewish Theological Seminary.137). The vox magica is missing.” 3578) calls attention to the Jewish angel named Azza. has тгир^бмра). and is found only here. Cf.1984 -85.29). Merkelbach (Abrasax.l— 164. Ep.” LSJ: “lord o f light”) occurs only here. Brashear (“Greek Magical Papyri. ending w ith m m . тгѕтстсЕр Tcpe7Tepu7u is explained by Fauth (Helios Megistos. Meyer.3235: тгирсбмта (pap. the pseudo-reproduction o f the H ebrew tetragrammmaton ГПГР. corrected by D ieterich (9.410 (ed. D ieterich (8) reads ах(3а. reads oacov). V II. to the images o f Aion-Kronos. 1966). reads срмтоб&та. Marc Philonenko.” so also Harrauer. -r\ as a vocative ending is attested for Koine Greek (Gignac. срмтобЅта Pap.160 Commentary whether among all the voces magicae suddenly a Greek term should occur. VII. 30) explains as a combination o f Egyptian Ah (“Glanz”) Ba (“soul”).9 -1 0 . Greek in Jewish Palestine 2. 25 (cited in Abrasax. Martinez observes that тсир^ар?) could be a vocative as well.

Martinez takes фсото(Зѓа as a vocative o f фсотојЗѓа? (first declension.v. C yn.[. cf. xepauvoxXovE t. X II. (7<xv)(£pw[3 is found only here.8lva Tiupiyi (3oocnr)t. Preisendanz suggests Trupt^Lfxwvj. meaning “Lebengezeugter” oder “Lebenerzeuger. a word inserted by an Egyptian magician-redactor.1. е[Л7и)р1. # # 1. LXXII.^!.5) takes to be PoasyevvTjxe. apec. and ev.. 49. idem. auo may be a variation o f taw see 1. 471. see LSJ. s.v. The attribute аи^-/]ст'Ѓфо^ (“light-increasing”). so Cronert. (“fire -thronging” [LSJ]) occurs only here. 267. Orph. T he adjective nupiSivo^ (“fire-whirling”) is found only here. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 161 7гир1ст7г6ре apei e'ixt-та T he adjective KupiaKopoq (“fire-sower”) occurs only here in the PGM . 1.) and Brashear (“Greek Magical Papyri. The vowel sequence vt] Ш ) is unexplained. B ook 4. found only here. Main body of the ritual (11. PreisendanzHenrichs to cpwro^at-e caw.293: (TO uaTjV c o c l XLI.II. (“Hght-mover”) is found only here. 593.1. аи^7](Т1ф(о<. but according to the TLG it is also attested as attribute o f Dionysus in H ym n. Gemmen. cf. reads TruptSet-va. w hich Dieterich (10. Jacoby (apud Preisendanz. e'ixt-та are unexplained hapaxlegomena. crit. reads фсото^а tmauo. ad loc. Preisendanz keeps [3eeyev/)Te.” “life-begotten or life-begetter” (from Egyptian par meaning “life” or “soul”).7] Ш] uo7)«*) T he adjective xepauvoxXovo? (“lightning-shaker”) occurs only here. “deriving light from the empyrean”). <7оист^£ф[. rcuplxXove уаХХа[ЗаХ[За T he pap. фмтоЈЗСа laiaico T he pap. also Abraxas. уаХХофаХ(За is found only here. 2. reads [3eeyevY]Te.(Ј)(У]сг(. Abraxas.3. . aiauo. there is indeed a space between сгоиачл/ефЕ. S tP P 4 (1905) 100. t u t Martinez.фм£. s. Oppianus. T he adjective TtuprxXovo<. 45. reads Tiupi^Xovs. (3oo<T7)La are unexplained hapaxlegomena. 621: xXovo? and above TcupbcXove. 49: Ttupt-^Xove). 7tupt.602. app. corrected by Dieterich to «рсото^кѕ.£7 is unexplained. 7tupt. cf. ф ш г о х ^ т а (ravxepwp The attribute фсотох1л/7)тт)<. 1.a The pap. 304. ф(ото? xXeo? PeeyevYjxe T he expression фсото? xXeo? (“light-famous”) is found only here. Pap. line 1. Dieterich (10) reads сгоистЕл/ѕфс as in IV.35: ]£ф(. masc. M ichel. 52.. with trema in the pap.” 3589) suggest the interpretation <rav Xepou(3. According to Dieterich (10). Jordan and T]. 282. 621: xXovoc.. appears only here. (“powerful o f light”). corrected by Dieterich (8. which suggests ev(for е(л)7сир1стхт)ст1ф<о? (as in LSJ. D ieterich (223). <тоисг^£ф!.

415 See Preisendanz.o. Instrucciones para el mas alia. Zuntz. 169— (with further bibliography). 27. see Otto Weinreich. 47 (ed. according to Preisendanz (app. x al атсарас/гѓјтои avayxyjc.. 412 The attribute асттроба^ха^ appears only here in the PGM. cannot be answered. Orph. crit.18. w ithout a vox magica. Cf. 1. The related statement 411 I accept this suggestion made orally by Fritz Graf. T he reason for the petition is given in a long sentence in 11. 4. or whether the abbreviation is to be completed in accordance with one o f the longer versions (see above. and on it Zuntz. C om ­ mands to open (avolyst-v) occur often in the PGM (see esp.411 The prayer to Aion leads to the presentation o f the petition (11. T he transition from the preceding aretalogy to the petition seems to be provided by the address o f the god as аатроба[ла (“subduer o f stars” ). 96. see also 1. fAapfjUxpevxeu For the attribute еутхиркЈ^асфм? see above. but see 1. Lukian. Thus ends the invocation.” in his Religionsgeschichtliche Studien (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. reads (j. IV. the following attribute аотроба[ла. 1968). 1. introduced by: o tl ѕтахаАои^оа Ivsxa ттј? xaT£7 ist. 565. ”).414 The question. 3.-K. 31).v.) the papyri often read 8 (or: oo) for the letter omicron (Jordan offers omega with underscoring). 1180.youcnr)£ x al icixpai. 2. Persephone.298. Persephone. 662 (opening o f doors).33. 601 for aoucuvscpi. given our present knowledge.6. D. Frag.4). 1.-K. . Las laminillas офсаѕ de oro (Madrid 2001).. 17. in the ML also 11. s.95— (index) s.)фа.v.162 Commentary e v T zv p ia jy ia l^ q aovo'Cvecpi apev(3apa^£i. on 11 562— . This tablet 47 C was re-edited by Alberto Bernabe and Ana Isabel Jimenez San Cristobal. is whether this formula is to be recited here in an abbreviated version.413 Following the petition is a recitation o f the Tcpo7rpocp£yyY]-formula: тгротсросреуут) epLe&sipe Јл8р1ор.327— 33. 65). 604— 4) 6).отиру)ф1А(За. 89. (“for I invoke. referring to the closed doors o f the sun (11. Epimenides B 2 (D. Preisendanz reads the formula as [AopiojJioTup7]<piA[3a.8pt. 35). 346— [tablet C]): t'lv Trocvxa бајластта. 603— and the reason for the petition (11.. 583— 85). BDAG. eTtixaAelv. Preisendanz (see also in D ieterich. 604— 10. 183— 201— Betz. which.apev.27— 20.415 The subsequent statement is another instance of the “ananke formula” (see 11 503— 526— 534— . The whole matter is related to the Hellenistic miracle topos o f door openings. because o f the pressing and bitter and inexorable necessity .412 The petition itself is brief: avoi^ov jjloc (“open [for] m e”). 313— Furthermore. The term £7 ихаХеТа&а!. 71 414 The pap. belongs to the following petition. XIII. containing two statements. see also Tablet '77: A l— line 4.968. . 223) prefers (TouaivscpLsv тгиркт^/јсгссро^ (“der Licht durch Feuer erhalt”). whereupon fol­ lows the expansion aouat.. 624 (opening o f the eyes). X XX VI. Kern. 312— LXII.vecpt. esp. 4. combinations using [лар^лар. For тирт]ф(. (“invoke”) is technical in prayer language and occurs in the PGM frequently. 413 Cf.are found elsewhere. 273— тсаутобоцластта. . C ToucrLve<p(. “Turoffnungswunder bei Zauber und Gebet. apev[3apa^£L jjLapfxapevxsu: the voces magicae are found only here.

for фра£е!л/ cf. however.418 mortal sound (<p&oyyo<. IClaus Thraede. K. there are similar statements reflecting a background in prophecy or mystery-cult ideas. 776.. Leipzig: Teubner. 419 For the use o f ф$оууо^ see 11. c p p o ta o v t o ovo[xa t o 7tp«TOV evl TCveufJiaTi. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 163 regarding the deity called upon seems well-constructed and looks like a quotation from another context: та [Х7]бѓтс(о 5(a)p7]cravTa z i q Q-vyjtyjv cpuat-v £Л cppacr&evTa ev б^ар^рмсгЕЕ. 41: TCveufxa K a a o L iq тац.v. ala97](je<n. 431— 40. 1954). Prot. 3. Jan [BiTeu. reads бст&рмсге!. 610— 16). “Secrecy in the Greek Magical Papyri. the truly divine names o f the gods must be totally differ­ j).393.963b. 319. 11) and Kroll (Ph. 533. (evapOpoi^ codd. the officiating priest causes the god to appear by invoking him by his secret names: -rcpoayaywv бих tcov aixopprjTwv ovo^axwv tov Oeov.) xal aaufj^wvoc.420 that is.? (“articulation”) is technical in discus­ sions o f language theory.мтУ]. see Plato. For the use o f <ppaiC. 945. XIII. See for discussion and further materials my article. атл]Х(. p.641. 417 On the phrase 9-v7)Tr) фи(7(.. c f 1. “bringing forth the god through his ineffable names.17. 3.II. Outside o f the PGM. Merkelbach (Abrasax. see 11. 421 Merkelbach (Abrasax. Accordingly. the immortal names. 117 (# 45): in the description o f a visit with Asclepius. where he says that the theurgists invoke the gods at-yfioT^ те xal тсотгтсистјлоТ^ xal avap&pon. Aristotle. “Die Sprache des Geistes in der Antike. living and honored. 2.fxa ovofxara occurs in the singular also IV3272. mortal nature (cpuai^)417 corresponds to articulate speech (уХмаста).416 is formulated in parallel lines and contains a theory about the nature o f the divine vowel sequence to follow.640— ^eXxuaa^evoi.<.. 1895]. This strange statement. Leg. IV 198-200. however. prooemium. 12. XIII.775.).^ r\ypi$ (Musici scriptores Graeci. уХмстатгј^ 7]бе 7] Q T O ф96ууаи 7] & -V JT U V7]TT^ ф У М Тј^ aQ-avaxa (^ovта x a l evTLjjia ovo[xaTa. 322a. which is unique in the PG M . also Totti. see XIII. ed.12.” Antike und Christentum.). line 2. 745. also 1.660a. 778. 23. XIII. итсо av9pw7tLV7]<. 64: XaArjVoa ou б^п/ата!. Main body of the ritual (11. XII.419 and mortal voice (cpcovY Therefore. CE). s.241) points to the parallel in Thessalos o f Tralles (ed.148) refers to a parallel in the mathematician Nicomachus o f Gerasa (2nd c. 545-46.арг)рсост£[. 1971.” in: Sprachgeschichte und Wortbedeutung. pure sound as in the vowel sequences (11. 53 [1894] 421) to бс. Part. The term б^ар&роосп.421 Especially im portant is the parallel in 1 C or 2:9: 416 Cf. 152— 74. ent.91. w hich have not yet passed into mortal nature nor have been declared in articulate speech by human tongue or mortal speech or mortal sound. 277: Excerpta ex Nicomacho 6).253. Friedrich). 502. 418 The pap. XXI. For further material see Willy Theiler. “Inspiration. LSJ.241.eiv in connection with ovofxa. Festschriftfur Albert Debrunner (Bern: Francke.. 420 The expression evT(.” . also VII.763— to xpuTTTov ovofxa x a l appr)Tov (ev av&pwTtou стт6[латс. Texte.” R^4C 18 (1998) 329-65.. corrected by Usener (in Dieterich.

Zurich: Benziger..] [Xoyot.^] aXX’ ev aTioSei^et. Untersuchungen zu r Verwendung und zum Verstandnis der Schrift bei Paulus (BHTh 69. W hat the eye has not seen and the ear has not heard. a^avaxoui. the first o f which is: таита 7iavxa Аеуѕ [хета кирб^ x a l Tcveu[xaTo?. this instruction refers to rhetorical enthusiasm. 424 David Jordans observation (letter o f December 17. to rcpwTOV artOTeXwv. Фѕои^ тои xoctjjlou426 (“ . 617-20 is an interesting instruction-concerning performance o f recitation. 1. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag. sage from the ML will have to be added to these collections. but no such scripture verse can be identified in extant texts. crit. ayairwaxv auxou. 1980). also John the Baptist’s baptism with the holy spirit and fire (Matt 3:11. еТта ofxol«<. Acts 1:5. (* .g. Trveufxaxo? x a l Suvafxeox. 1991). H ow is this to be understood? Preisendanz (app. 423 For a collection o f parallel passages and discussion o f the problems. the first time performing to the end. also the contrasts in 1 Cor 2:4: o Xoyo<.423 W ith the vowel sequences (11. reads ". It is sometimes hard to distinguish them from natural discolorations on the fibers. ad loc. 2002) is important at this point: “Several o f the clusters o f vowels have diacriticals. is intro­ duced as a quotation from scripture. 615 6t]£eo7] or 616 ш) ee ooo. 1986). The passage. 36— 41.422 There are similar but not identical passages in the apocalyptic and gnostic Apocrypha.& oT[<. Der erste Brief an die Korinther (Evangelisch-Katholischer Kommentar zum NT. a •/jTolfxacrev o & xot<.238— The pas­ 46. see DietrichAlex Koch. Perhaps they were unrecogniz­ able before the Paris conservators removed the shellac from the papyrus.” 1 C or 2:4). then in the same way w hen you begin the second time. 426 Pap. corre­ sponding to fire and spirit m entioned in the prayer. idem. interpreting the revelation o f Gods wisdom (v. jjlo u xa l t o xrjpuypia [xou oux ev 7tei. e.424 W hat follows in 11.. (“demonstration o f spirit and power. 2:1-4).) 422 Cf. Die Schrift als Zeuge des Evangeliums.425 The second rule says that: . £ )< ехтеХѕат)^ toui. and comparable to Paul’s reference to атсобе^? TivsufAaxo^ x a l Suvajxeax.. D ie Elia-Apokalypse (JSHRZ 5:3.. Several items are stipulated. perhaps even added later by a second scribe. Giitersloh: Mohn. and in the human heart has not arisen (this is) what God has provided for those w h o love him. until you have gone through the seven immortal gods o f the universe”). eo<.. again as if to show pronunciation. Luke 3:16.. These marks are faint in the photograph and were probably written in a lighter ink. C ootpioLq . This does not mean that such a text could not have existed.”) Apparently. The origin o f the passage constitutes an unresolved problem. 610— the prayer to Aion has come its 16) end. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck]. to SsuTepov apxpp-evo?. VII.164 Commentary a ocp&aXfAo^ oux elSev xal об^ oux tjxouctev xal £7U xapStav av&pcoirou oux ave[3y). 195-96.. Wolfgang Schrage. (“Recite all o f these with fire and spirit. 7— 9a).” 425 Cf.

241) points to the description o f the u7tepoupavto? xonoq in Plato. тос? &upa? x al tov xocjfxov tc5v &ewv. but this list has only 21 epithets.139. 597. (“You will see the doors opened and the world o f the gods.431 6q ea xiv svto q twv Oupwv. W hich version should then be used? Most likely is the first complete form (11. Acts 7:56.. 620-23): таита aou einovxoq axouaet. etc. 20. l. (“W hen you have said these things. x al tyjs Xa P^? TCveufAa aou auvTpsx£t-v xat. you will hear thunder and shaking in the surrounding realm. x al xXovou tou n zp iijo v x o q .12ff. 573. Main body of the ritual (11.”) The opening o f the eyes ends their closing which had been ordered at 11 586-87. s. 11. See also.II. 118a. s. Its object is . cf. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 165 suggests that the 23 times 7 letters refer to 23 epithets in the list 11. Od. Tim. 698. and LSJ. gates o f”. T hen the practitioner is told to open his eyes and experience the vision (11. 345. Phaedr. O r is. the vowel sequence to be chanted seven times. 431 Pap.429 Confronting the terror. See BDAG. O T P 2. The opening o f the doors o f heaven is a topos o f vision accounts o f all kinds.v. Christopher Rowland. 517. 571— for xXovoi. 1. on 11. so that from the pleasure and joy o f the sight your spirit runs ahead and ascends”).v. reads avewyutai. the vision is announced by офт). 69. Grammatik i & rjC der L X X . 163 (&eol oixiveq t o v xocT[jtov Trepte^ouCTLv). r]SovY)i. “Heaven. w hich is within the doors. John 1:51. C H Exc. tou ^eafxaTOi. 624— 28): еТта avot-^ov тои<.508: t o izzpizyov. 599-600. 558— 60). 3. etc. The Open Heaven: . for which Preisendanz refers to Helbing. 98.428 It certainly will shake up the initiate: б{лосм<. XIII. 10:11. also Homer. and the abbreviation &v with a stroke above for ftswv. TapacraofAevov (“in the same way you will experience yourself being shaken” ). бе cisauTov alcr&7]&Y]orsi.).432 Viewing this image turns the previous 427 For PpovxY] see above.11. 67. (3povT9j<. 584— are now open. but the wording is somewhat different. avorfw. presented as a description o f an image: avecpyuta<. 246e. the world o f the gods. especially in apocalyptic literature. 429 oc’(T 7]& T£i is a peculiar term. T he doors in the sun. 430 Pap. Merkelbach (Abrasax.v.”) Claps o f shattering thun­ der427 figure prominently into events in the cosmic realm. index s. 590— 605.b. so that 85. wctts arco ттј<. Crit.ava(Salvetv. see above on 1. 558-60. following the conclusion o f the prayer. R ev 3:7.270. the initiate can take a look inside o f heaven. 246b-252c. 443— 474. 573. so that the seven gods o f the universe are addressed? W hatever the answer may be. X XIII. and Preisendanz.” The prayer so) called has been recited before (see 11. 648. 24. As usual. 2. 72. 4:1. Mark 1:10 / / Matt 3:16 / / Luke 3:21.g. esp. reported as closed in 11. бср&аХјлои? x al бфт). 2. 432 Cf. 428 The term t o n e p iejo v is technical in cosmologies (PGM VII. the text announces its effect (11. has the symbol Л. the initiate is to repeat the oxyr]-logos: cru 8z naAiv X sys' crt/yY Xo(yo?)” 430 (“But you say again: Silence (prayer). 44. o ta x iv утј xal oupavo^). more likely. below. 31a. e. and you will see. (“Then open your eyes. See Plato. KEpiiyti. 582).

in the final analysis. an additional inhalation o f the divine spirit will now restore his soul (ф и ^ ). aeauTOV to Ttveufxa. 415. 248a. 378. 372. ”). 475. (“T hen w hen your soul has / been restored . 1. 627— 28). 11. et aussitot. above. 62829): сгта<.tiv) has been m entioned before (see above. This leads to the precondition for the next step: oxav ouv а-гсохатаата&тј aou •/) фи‘т) . to be taken in a non-Platonic sense as describing the spirit-self (rcveujxa). Revelation. 576. 537— 38). .” The sentence construction is awkward. 436 See 11. 710. For the concept o f world-soul see the discus­ sion on 1. аи^тглса/ос. but for the author these deities are. T he ritual drawing in from the divine refers to the sun as the source o f the spirit (cf. His relationship with Aion and Mithras appears complicated. 434 See for a general discussion the Introduction. 628) runs w ith him and carries him along on his ascent. 1982). oux. 628—61) The fifth scenario shows the initiate at a higher level o f the cosmos. 725. Preisendanz: “N un bleib stehn und ziehe gleich von dem gottlichen Wesen.166 Commentary fear into pleasure and joy. while you gaze intently [at the god Helios]). . 1. Cf.279-82. blicke auf die Gottheit und ziehe ihren Lebenshauch in dich selbst”. 5. the gazing (атеvl'C. the fourth scenario has come to an end. identical. 389.433 W ith this . 546. where the immortal soul is taken up by the rotation o f the cosmos. Merkelbach (Abrasax. та? axTtva? auxou avxocp&aAjji^CTai. Meyer: “So stand still and at once draw breath from the divine into yourself. ict^uouct(. Aune.436 although not in 11 622— At any rate. 535. Merkelbach: “Stelle dich also auf.10 about the inability o f humans to gaze into the sun rays: e^XercovTe*. 80.. 556). but it should be clear that what is to be drawn in from the divine (Helios) is the spirit. the term needs . 551. so that his spirit that he had inhaled before (see 11 537. es unverwandt anblickend. as A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity (London: SPCK.” 435 The standing still arrests the upward movement (11. a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM. 359. 475. 369. 3. 524.241) calls attention to the parallel in Plato’ s Phaedr. on 1. 78. and what is to be gazed at is the deity (Helios). 574. 5. experience o f aesthetic enthusiasm. He is now ready to encounter the god Helios w ho has been m entioned before as Helios Mithras (1. (“N ow stand still and at once draw spirit from the divine into yourself. 34-38. Fifth scenario: the encounter with Helios (11. 23. 433 por see 1. o5v еи&ѓсо? eXxe атго tou Oelou атevt^cov eic. 579— 583). the scenario begins with a spatial orientation and commands to perform rituals (11. in dich den Geisthauch”. 53. The concept o f the soul as an individual’s self has been m entioned before. W hile the initiates self had been shattered because o f the thunder (11. Barn.v sic. for a w zp e jzL v . . 435 Translations differ at this point: Dieterich: “Tritt nun hin sogleich und ziehe von dem G5ttlichen gerade hinblickend in dich den Geisthauch”. attire a toi le souffle. 622— 23).. le fixant du regard. while you look intently”. cf.434 As often. Festugiere: “Reste en place cependant. 498. 482) as well as the sun disk (548 [тгаттѓјр]. de ce monde divin.

1. 50. 72— notes. next 7тир(. 623. &a. Adolf Deissmann (Bible Studies [trans.фмта£а (?).443 (“W hen you have spoken this. see also . snL az al axTLve? .тсрбстЕА&е. Preisendanz have уЛа(аибс... in a white tunic and a scarlet cloak. w hen you do this. 438 For the command Aeye. 130-32) proposes £а(3и&. срораОг. 1 Cor 16:22.156. 655. 439 Cf. fi. 443 Preisendanz (app.445 The ritual continues: oirav oOv тоито тсосујст^. 447 Jordan reads <у>Аа(либ(.. # # 113. 132. 153. The portrait is constructed o f adjectives and participles typical o f Helios. Peabody. офу) . crit. Alexander Grieve. for representations o f the god on Mithraic monuments. The sun-beams.123— 24).) suggests adding cou. 116. 73.. xoxxIvt] s^ovxa 7iupivov сттѓфavov447 (“a youthful god.” ). фи](ѓ) is not a prominent concept in the ML. focus on the initiate like a search light. 588. фслст^а кирс [3eAt. fig.” ibid. the epiphany o f Helios begins: тоито <aou> surovTO^ crrpacpYjcrovTat. w ith fiery hair. 962). 1..E Trjaou (Rev 22:20). 538. 1901.va.apa..437 W hen this has taken place.444 The text then instructs: eaet-бг auxwv [xsctov (“look into the center o f them ” ). . repr. Dieterich (10. Merkelbach. the Mithras reliefs in Cesare Letta. (“Then. spxou xupt. 756 (on the departure see 11. срораОг. See BDAG. where Mithras turns around to look at Helios as he slays the bull. on 1. see 1. reads eoelSe. Rainer Vollkommer. 376.” L IM C 4:1-2 (1988). 1988]. Jordan takes it as elctlSe. cf. there are also remarkable parallels between his and Mithras’ portrait (11. and wearing a fiery crown”).o<. 73) in that regard C H XIII is similar. 696— 702). 444 See. 445 Pap. 629-30. Or should it perhaps be тшр(. # # 368. see Dieterich (67-68) who refers to Cumont (Textes et monuments. also IY 634-35. beautiful in appearance. . with the remaining jrupt-cpwra. 440 Cf.a ’law tao euw etc. e. Dieterich. c f 11.448 437 As Reitzenstein (H M R. 1431. Although the deities are different. 635— 37): &eov vewxepov. 757. lord” ). 655— 57). Cf. . 569.срмта(^а [ЗиЅгЈ. sv Aeuxw xal <Х>Аа|хибс. “Mithras. come!” (fxapava Фа. 448 For the iconography o f Helios. D id 10:6). 446 For this phrase.v. 136. “H elios/Sol. the m om ent for calling forth the god has come: Xeye. m entioned before in IV461..II. for бфт].g.. 27) and Hopfner w ho read z a z i бе and translate: “und du wirst mitten unter ihnen sein” (“and you will be in their midst”). Martinez calls attention to the liturgical call “Lord. cf. MA: Hendrickson. After this command. ap^avSa^ap X II. nvpivoxpiytx.446 W hat follows is an iconographic portrait of Helios (11.438 A series o f voces magicae follows (631— 33). For the title xupt. 6:1-2 (1992). you will see . the sun rays will turn themselves upon you . This event can perhaps relate to images in the Mithraic iconography. Main body of the ritual (11. ”). Riess reads ectlSe. 539. 54. see above. Edinburgh: Clark.? 442 Cf. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 167 having grown weak and in need o f another infusion o f the divine spirit. see above. on 1. 441 So the pap. below. eueiSy). 580. most o f them unexplained: ap^avSapa439 фсота^ос440 7 тир1<роота^а(3и0г!. xupcs (“speak: come forward. 1.441 exifjievfjiepo cpopaQirjv442 epu) rcpo^pt. ^avSapa V433. for тсростеА&г see also 11. 692. s. 135.. 373. (1. 71. Mithras.

49. verbal portrait in Orph. also using the sistrum.237— 46. Cf.” M H 55 [1998] 65— connects the 75) greeting with the giving o f gifts and sacrifices. Merkelbach. 62. Cf. A black dancing figure emerges in the door o f the temple and is greeted by worshipers raising their hands or kneeling down. fig. see on 1. 16. 2242. 712.449 en lieu o f a rcupt-vo^ oreqxxvoQ Mithras is crowned w ith a ^ристо^ Gzecpocvoq.609. prof. Mithras. Fauth. R udolf Wachter. occurs also 1. ^atpeTL^etv 1. 1— Assmann. 678. XII. —On euQ-ewi.60— 61. the classification o f greeting formulae as ^оаретктЈлб^ (11.” R A C 16 (1991) 1— R u d olf Wachter 4.. “Chairetismos. XIII. the iconography o f Christ in R ev 1:12— and the collection o f parallels in Aune. new light!”).бѕ. 25. Abrasax. 89. 1048. 638) :451 еи&еах. Dieterich. At the appearance o f Helios. 670-72. Greetings. See. 673). see 11. 19 (ed. discussed by Lewy.1052— 53. 451 There are no parallels known o f this greeting formula. It is noteworthy that the 2. 139. 588.881. 12-13.7-8. 50. Beginning w ith the invocation. 201.” R A C 12 (1983) 1204-32. 103. Cf. . 1345-46. XII.71-100. . XIV. 12. vetoxepog and ev Xeuxw are also used o f Mithras (11. Proclus’ “Fire Song” (Hymn 1). VII.. See Tran Tam Tinh. which is apparently the name o f the following prayer. with note. 88.. '/cape veov (“ . 452 See Karl Hoheisel. 214. and the presentation o f a petition (11. Greek 75. Helios Megistos.” L IM C 4:1— s. “GruBformen. see Anton Baumstark. 453 See also 1. 454 This greeting is actually an appeal (“be glad”). 1. Revelation.. 713-14. “H elios/Sol. 145— For аатга^естО-аа in the 93. Henrik Zilliakus. 642— 55). Hymn. 491— van den Berg. Tcuplvco асгтгасттсхм’ (“At once greet him w ith the firey greeting” . 100— 102 and plate XXIV. . 182. 639— 42). beginning with the address xvpie (“lord” )453 and yctipz (“Greetings!” “Hail”). “Hofzeremoniell.) The prayer so named is contained in 11 639-55.” R A C . while ѕитјЅѓјд. Chaldaean Oracles. 150— 62.х6< (1. it occurs frequently in the ML. 554 (fig. The Sermon on the Mount. the usual composition: the invocation (11. 519. color plate V and descrip­ tion p.” M H 55 (1998) 65— Furley & Bremer. Proclus’ Hymns. Cesare Letta. 450 This scene may be compared to one o f the fresco paintings from the Isis temple in Herculaneum. For the hymns to Helios see the reconstruc­ tions by Ernst Heitsch. cf. Vorgeschichte eines GruBwortes. Cf. ааткхсгп. 70. Merkelbach. see 11. also. 16b. with commentary. S. nupivoS-piE.374— 75. 33. 51. IV.168 Commentary The terms &ео<. 666. 449 Cf. 2. see Henrik Zilliakus. Vorgeschichte eines GruBwortes. Liturgische Lieder.v. also 666. 111— 2. IV1046. 557. he is to be greeted at once450 w ith a special greeting called 7 iupc.. Ziegler): .5— Betz. 455 [xeyaXoSuva[xo<. Essai. XIII. “Anredeformen. '/caps vufjupe. for comparative material on addressing persons. (“Griechisch yjylpe.87. уХосџид xoxxlvyj are applied to Helios only. in Preisendanz.454 and followed by an aretalogy o f three attributes using fxeya— fxeyaXoSuvajxe (“great power”). Err. rel. it shows . Hymns.vo<. 697-98). The prayer may even be influenced by court ceremo­ nial.455 [jle <ya>Xo: Merkelbach. 677.61— 2. 8 uses entirely different terms. 3 -4 (1985— 465— 86) 97. “Griechisch )(oape. 6. fasc.452 T he invocation is carefully composed. in the ML. 202— 203. Isis Regina. 688-91. 1.” R A C 2 (1954) 993— 1006). Firmicus Maternus.117. o f Helios ev ттј TrupivT] ^XajxuSt. bridegroom! Greetings. ML. IV. асгаааоа auxov xw . 73).

Worterbuch. . 459 The pap. cf. cf.b. and for further references. See BDAG. 233) notes that the visitor had to be announced and points to Seneca. parallels occur in the LXX and in the N T (Matt 11:25 / / Luke 10:21 [Q]. 1195. Helios and two more attributes: o xupio*.v. both o f them are hapaxlegomena in the PGM. 11. Vit.. 152-56. tou s oupavou x al ттј<. s. Studio sul formulario.b. 1048. тараа. IV. For other parallels. see van den Berg. 641. 2. See for this epithet Qee PGM 11. Acts 17:24). and io yu zi ctou t) SuvafJtx?460 (“mighty is your power”). reads [xeXoxpocxoip. 642— is equally elaborate and begins 55) w ith some formalities: sav aoi бо^у). 499.” or “if you will. corrected by Wessely to [леуаХохратмр. 642. Greek Hymns. esp. 255. 458 The epithet is found only here in the PGM. s.4. the question o f the Sibyll to Musaeus (Virgil. Proclus. 218.zur Erklarung dieser Rolle dienen konnte.[i.” Aegyptus 47 (1967) 5— 57.oi —die Weihe des vorletzten Grades heiBt yjXiaxa (C[umont] I 317.456 piyiaTS (“greatest o f gods”). Apoc. Furley & Bremer. 1200. 642. 88: Hymn 1.126. 4:1 (1944). s. 1. Preisendanz. voepou (3a<Jt. index.2. x al 7iot. 6. (“If it be your will. IV 180. N ock (Essays. see BDAG.v. &eoL Cf. Matt 26:39. “If you please.v.457 T hen comes the god’ name.463 456 The pap. ayyetXov [xs tw [xeyicrrto &eto. “Notes de mythologie archeologique syrienne. The conclusion (1.) begins with the polite phrase eocv ctol ббЕт).Xeu. Apoll. 5. 639) repeats the address xupie. . Main body of the ritual (11. Proclus’ Hymns. The presentation o f the petition (11. 460 Pap. has 'iayjjzi.v. 457 The epithet occurs frequently in the PGM. бохѓсо. 1046. here as a vocative. 42.20.461 The role of Helios as an announcer has an interesting parallel in Acts 12:14 (aTtayysXXeLv). line 2: <paou<. 4eme serie. 987. BDAG.b. See also Philostratus. 1... IV243. s. Jesus’ prayer in Gethsemane. der Y]Xt.459 N ext come two parallel verbal forms: la jp z i ctou y] tcvoy] (“mighty is your breath”). see 11.666— 71). see Preisigke.).v. showing that it may belong to domestic practices. 93) 648. 17— on the “formule attentuative. 1598. the second to last grade o f the Mithraic mysteries: “W ie weit der vorletzte Grad der Mithrasmysten. 2. 687— ЈлеуаХохрахоргс.” § 4: “Helios psychopompe. 992.133— 34. s. [лѕуа^.Y]<TavTt..” expresses submission to the divine will. 3. 609— 10). t. 461 The petition (in Greek called ivzzu^ic. 233) s reference to R ene Dussaud. Aen.458 and &ге' &scov (“god o f gods” ). II. 463 Dieterich (67-68) raises the question whether this role o f Helios has any connection with the heliodromus. the one who begat and made you . 18 and parr. 3) .” The polite formula.oSp6fj.1019.II. reads 9s (with superscripted e) &e«v. Soxsw (cols.53.192— refers to ML passages on the divine will: 11. XIII. &zoq. pocaiXeu [лѕуг-сЈтѕ.28-29. See Anna di Bitonto. 462 Eduard Norden (in Dieterich. laBt sich schwerlich sagen. announce me to the greatest god. 1 (1903) 142-48. tw ae yevvTjaavTt. xupt.. line 1: 7tupo<. 485— 732) 169 хратсор (ЗаспХеи (“great-mighty king”). утј? (“the lord o f the heaven and the earth” ).” Cf.462 Helios functions here as a gate-keeper and messenger to announce visitors to Mithras. “Le petizioni al re.oq. XXII. 1.” RAr.” For further literature and discussion see Wunsch’ (Dieterich.

Also. 68. 466 On the competition between Mithras and Helios. esp. esp.170 Commentary To call Mithras b [леу^сгтоq $zoc. D ieterich observes that “the idea o f the unio mystica o f father and son was not completely alien to ancient religious sentiment. 643-44): tw as YevvYjcravTL x al TcoujaavTi. Apoll. 354]). see Merkelbach.1. Empedocles addresses his friends: w cpiAoi. jcnipex'1 eyw б’ ujxtv Q-eo? a[x(3p0T0i. The epithet which follows clarifies the issue (11. 9.. 465 For the fatherhood o f Mithras. however. 49 cation o f the initiate. notes 1— 3.]). 6.” one can hardly be the father o f the other. According to Dieterich (68). 643) apparently contradicts 1. 135. L.. TCwAeufjwa [лета n a a i zexi[L£voq (“Friends.” [my trans. because both are called “young gods. n.18:4 (1990) 2728-75. Caes. 8. 2): “Im iibrigen denke ich gar nicht daran —auch hier sei das kurz betont — die M o g l i c h k e i t der Einwirkungen christlicher Anschauungen auf diejenigen unseres Textes in Abrede stellen zu wollen. This self-identification contains im portant information about the anthropology o f the M L. 2767-68: “Le Soleil. Philostratus. 31 B 112 [1. "HAio? Ml&pac. see i En.. 464 Dieterich’s (68) detailed discussion rejects the idea that this relationship reflects Christian influence: “DaB eine Vorstellung von der unio mystica des Vaters und des Sohnes auch antikem religiosem Empfinden nicht ganz fremd w ar. For comparable messengers. D. ауа&о?..” ANRW 11.220— 41. 4. Plotinus. the Lord o f Heaven.” 467 Thus adding to the other self-identifications in the ML in 11. see the quotations o f Empedocles in later sources. 336c: tov тсатѓра M£9-pav. There is no question. n. 1.-K. no longer a mortal. Mithras is defined here as the father and Helios as the son. 6: tou ttocvtwv тсо(Л]тои xal ттатр6<. . see Porphyry. 13:4-6. Revelation.” Since there is no real evidence for Christian influences elsewhere in the ML. nymph. For the handing over o f a petition to 22. where the epithet belongs to Helios. These passages are cited by Dieterich. but the title б [лѓуа? &eoc. (1.14-18]. Strom. 4. the parallel self-introduction and its implied anthropology in the Katharmoi o f Empedocles (D. 118-27.” 464 In other words. Dieterich’s skepticism is justified. En.354.. # 478 [p. 482) means that at least for the author father and son are one.” But he still considers it a possibility (n. Clemens Alex. has begotten Helios. 20— also Betz..468 On the heliodromus. going about honored among a ll. 14:4— 7. but o unzpfitxXhovTMC. Lukian. Rejoice! To you I am as an immortal god.62 and 66. Kirk & Raven. Antr. г)го^.10. Icarom. (1.. Fauth (Helios Megistos.7. .. a kind o f passport. see Julien Ries. 22-23) argues against Dieterich that Mithras is not called the [леуктто<. Vit. the idea does not result from Christian influence...467 The section conforms to a synthema and has two parts. For the interpretation.38: ya.466 In 11 644— the initiate asks Helios to pass on to Mithras the self-identifi. see Lucian..465 The contradiction seems to be the result o f the competition between the two gods.3. Mithras. and Julian. ' ouxetl 9-vt]t6<. 109. 640. he says emphatically.. See also Festugiere. Mt&pou. that Helios will announce the visitor to Mithras who. “Le culte de Mithra en Iran.30. Mithra et le Feu. 1.ipzx\ еум б’ ufjuv . that is Agathos Daim on or the Iranian Ahura Mazdah. 517— and 718— 37 24. (“ [Mithras] who begat and made you”). 468 Cf.

v. исттера? T .242) regards the words cnfjfAepov t o u t o u uno aou fjis<Ta>yevv7)9evTO<. 190. t^wp. ev таитт) ty} «ра х ата Soxyjctlv &(eo)u u7tep(3aXXovxo£ aya&ou475 (“and who. without change in the translation. corrected by Dieterich (12) and Preisendanz (app.” used mostly with regard to blood. Preisendanz points to a similar scribal error in 1. A human being must be from the mortal womb o f the mother.a&elf. 739-40. reads an abbreviation 9u for 9eou. furthermore BDAG. vis a vis a divine being (11. ex toctoutmv fxupiaScov aiTa&avaTt. eyw o 8(e)i(va) ty)<. not identified by name. .477 Such rebirth cannot be enjoyed by every $eoq а[л(Зрото<. 501.. “fluid.) is almost technical in mystery-cult language. see below. see on 11. crit. noted by Dieterich and Preisendanz. Furthermore. 508— 523— 9. For the TY formula as a whole see above. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. 104.II. 651. pap. 473 The symbol A is used again. 470 Different from Preisendanz. p. below. at 1.eTayevvY)&7)va[. 475 Pap.. 477 For the concept o f rebirth.отг)та aTevlcra^. as a secondary addition. I am placing no comma after av9pw7io<. 625. see 11. Selva xal ix“ P°? стсерЈлатсхои (“that a human being am I. 535. Persephone. on the synthema. Main body of the ritual (11. w ho was born from the mortal womb o f N N and the fluid o f semen”). in matrilinear descendence. 469 Pap. 3. 2 in Graf. see above. the initiate identifies himself as an individual belonging to the human species: oxi av&pwuoc. 24. Also.470 His species is called av&pw7to<. n. to ал/офа<. 8(e)T(va). 7)< whose mother is N N . 392]). Merkelbach (Abrasax. 686. also the Orphic gold tablets (esp.. 485— 732) 171 First. 1. Pelinna 1— [ed.474 Second. N N . 3. see T jjX pov Luke 2:11. differently Dieterich (Abraxas. ad loc. but with Dieterich (12). aYjpiepov toutou utto ctou pie<Ta> yevv7]0-evTO<. 487. 476 For C T E (“today”) see 11. w hich is the result o f his ritual rebirth (11. See LSJ. 516— 29.170) have no comma. 189— Cf. 648. Riedweg. 472 See also above. 471 See also 11. 92. 523-24. there is no need for a comma either in 1.. 19:9.v.) to [is< т а > у evv7]9ivToc. 13:32. reads jj-sysvv7]i)evTo^. The reference to time (“and today”) implies that the rebirth has taken place on the same day. the initiate identifies him self by his divine nature.473 and the semen o f the father. ad loc. 2 Cor 6:2. s. 495. 8): x a l г/шрос GTTSpjaaTt-xou ijl£ yevvYjcjavToc. 533. expresses it with the symbol A ттј? A. since he has been born again from you today. has becom e immortal out o f so many myriads in this hour according to the wish o f the exceedingly good god”). 9e£ov x a l ty]v npoq аитб б{д.о(. 646— 49): x a l. Indeed.ат1 хои is hapaxlegomenon in the PGM.469 yevojxevo< ex . on 11. s. Preisendanz puts a comma after 9eou and translates “nach dem RatschluB des iiberschwanglich guten Gottes.” Dieterich (12) and Merkelbach (Abrasax. For significant parallels in the NT. 646-48) .476 The term for “being reborn” (p. 639: {Л£<уа>Хохратмр. the abbreviation 9v (9etov) above. by the name o f the mother.471 the individual is identified by the personal name to be inserted as well as. 11. (“human being”). cf.472 again identified by her name. See also Zuntz. 516. C jfjiepov. 23:43. 474 The phrase b/apoq сттг£р[Ј. 718-24. 517— 18.

1.479 that is.. from Strabo. 649— . see BDAG. see 1. rather than direct assimilation o f his ideas to Plato’ s.3.1213 (ed. in the N T Luke 2:38. jenseitigen Gott Platons. According to T L G and LSJ it is attested since Plato. For further passages. 94. 17.39 (762c) (ed. Conf 149.284— (Beoc.3. Geogr. 1. where the initiate claims to be “a pure from the pure”. Abst. corn. 412. Charm. there is no need to assume. . 24:33. Phaedr. 527— 540. 771. Cf. z.115): тгара бе тоц wvofxar'ofxevot. s. U7rep[3oXY]. but Jordan keeps U7tepP<xXX0VT0<..94. 221.CT^Oi. in Hellenistic philosophical and religious literature it is more frequent. Acts 16:18.v. crit. Piet. Opif. 2.4— (298a— (ed. see also Theiler’s commentary. corrected by Dieterich and Preisendanz to UTrepPaXXovTto?. 22:13. 1423. XII. Virt. Augustus] аито xal aTr/j&avaTicrfjiivto xal sc. IV. ciotpov.7. Det. frag. 642.2. see below 11.36. Theiler. Anab. xolc ocTua&avaTL^ouat. xaxa Suvajjuv av&p(07uv7]v (“ .. See BDAG. wpa. Numenius. but this tendency may reflect his Stoic orientation. 3:19. See Theophrastus.73-74 (ev ty) cjTjjxepov Y]fA£pa xal ev 7iacnf] copa). 236. [sc. Des Places).212 (ev wpa avayxTji. Cassius Dio. Poseidonios. 15. 46a.242): “Angleichung an den e i n e n. The pap. Tcpoaxuvyjaat.. Antike und Christentum.2 (ed. 479 The verb aTta&avaxL^eiv occurs only here in the ML. Potscher). frag. Theiler.i. a change from the third to the first person.228. for the texts see Riedweg in Graf. 44. 484 My trans. but only a few will be elected “out o f the many myriads” o f the massa perditionis. i. 246d: t o бе ftelov xaXov. from Strabo. 1. 28.482 The question as to which god is meant remains unclear. Spec. 123. 2.115): тсара бе xolq 5 b) Ykxoiiq wvofxa^sxo 9-eoc. 111. 544-45]). s.481 The resulting rebirth and immortali­ zation is o f course a gift of divine beneficence. more geneally. see TLG . frag. 480 For aTta&avaTurjxoi. 2:7.. 741. ayadov. Mos.484 He first 478 Cf. Post. 2. continuing in the descriptive mode. continuing in the descriptive style appropriate for the occasion (11. Deor.v.c. or a god even higher than Mithras? Merkelbach suggests that the expression belongs to the author s con­ ception o f one metaphysical deity and that it expresses assimilation to Plato. requests to worship you. 4. 7. tov twv acrupwv api&fxov eyxareiXeyjjievto avcTl&ecrav.5. 3. and supplicates w ith as m uch power a hum an being can have” ).483 Following the self-presentation.. 1. 85: 483 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 12:7. B. as Preisendanz (app. through the ritual called aruaO-avart. frag.. Is it Helios.543 (ev exelvY) wpa [cf.” The author’s tendency o f seeing the deity as totally transcendent is stated in the prooemium (the “great god Helios Mithras” [1. especially in connection with heroization. 133. ibid. 482 The formula is UTCepjSaAAovTW ауаОои (Феои). from Diodorus Siculus 1. Posidonius. Vgl.172 Commentary human being. 1. cf. 392— Betz.1: tw бг бг] Kalaapt.114): б тсара тоТ^ Гѓта^ 0e6c. Lucian. cf. 45. 1.. Somn. итсер[ЗоХѓ) in 2 Cor 4:7.51. 9:14..478 The god Helios does this by making the initiate immortal (aTca&avaTt-atktc. 2. Philo. 481 For ev таитт) ty) wpa. 2. the self-presentations on the Orphic gold tablets (A 1-3 and 5). Ansichten griechischer Rituale.) does. 135. Scyth.14.v. 482]). similar expressions in 11. reads u7tepj3aXX0VT0<. Eph 1:19. Aelianus. 156d.480 That this ritual has occurred “at this hour” and “in accordance with the divine will” seems part o f the traditional formulae. Theiler. Geogr..) хтерЏаХке^ t t jv 7raaav б ш а р .). the initiate offers his petition. See also similar expression in the NT: 2 Cor 3:10. 134.. 499. For хата бохт]спл/ &eou. and.2 (ed.99). Porphyry. s. QG 1. 747. This equals frag. ZocXijio^lv . 9. Mithras. 16.). Гzxaic.2. I l l . 50: ae x al Seexat.

Coptic thapsiorie. Greeven.v. 8v o f the pap. BDAG. Preisendanz (in Dieterich. 3.v.488 That the author interconnects the ritual w ith astrology can be see also in 11. 724— 727.242) points out that the phrase хата Suvajjav av&poOTtvrjv is a Platonic echo (Theaet. Princ. 613b).. <Xeye-> s copco etc. thapsiorsth. also 11. in Meyer & Smith. frequent in the PGM. x al wpa<. 477 and elsewhere in the PGM (1. 3. 55 which interprets “human power” astrologically: —tva aujxrrapaXa^Y]? t o v ттј? cnrjfxepov 7][iipa<. <Asye‘> [xopt. III. These words clearly state that the purpose and goal o f the ritual is to obtain an oracular session w ith the god. wpovopiov (“that you may take along w ith you the horoscope of the day and hour today” ).951. the horoscope489 o f the day and the hour along w ith him. PGM 11. 68..179: [j-opoLpw^ (Preisendanz: o^oafjLopoipw^). has'iva. XIa. which occurs only here the ML. 3226.14.491 Finally.. Brashear (“Greek Magical Papyri. 280 (# 129). the technical terms are 25.118. 3239. 544— 47). 487 In 11 651— the author sees the need to insert a redactional comment . whose name is Thrapsiari. 11.. 1. XXX.490 The name ®раф(. Amulets and Magic Bowls. Main body of the ritual (11. 176b. so he can determine the gods o f the day and hour. Sol Salutis. 491 It is otherwise unattested and unexplained. s.485 then his submission by supplication (oci'iouv.). [he notes what looks like fat letters for 0раф[. that you take along with you the regent o f the present day and hour. 246d. s. 2..368. .pox cf. thapsiorirar. XII. note in the app. (op petopcopi 485 For this gesture o f prostration. T D N T 6 (1959). Heinrich 26. 252) who points out the importance o f the planetary deity governing the day o f the rebirth (cf. LXXVII. s.? (“that he may appear and give revelation during the good hours”). 653-54): tva cpavel? xPY LaT^aY ^v та )H ] aya&al? wpac.II. XIII. Cf. 297...v. 486 For the terms ocEiouv x a l бѕесг&ас. Merkelbach (Abrasax.844.417..” 3586) refers to trpsdk in an Aramaic text. The secondary nature o f the insertion was seen by Dieterich (12. Phaedr. ф ovojjia ®раф1 ар[.eiv and xp7]C T[xoig see 11. thapsiorpsior. 223) understands this to mean: tva аијлттарослофт]^ tov wpovofxov. xa l ^собѕ-охраторе? xal wpovofAot. Cf.e. 490 See on this Gundel.. and translates: “petition. Ausgewdhlte koptische Zaubertexte. 488 Pap.3.171.10. 351: ol SexaSap^at. 489 The astrological term wpovofxoi. On prostration as a Persian and Byzantine ritual. s.486 commensurate with his limited human power. VII. For [xopi. also Damascius. see also 1. 686— The initiate is told to carry 87. Kropp.191.” So also Merkelbach (Abrasax.35-36).pox. tva .). 470. see Dolger. (“marker. Resp. n. the last word on f. 487 Cf. 732.193. 4 8 5 — 732) 173 expresses his devotion by prostration (7rpoaxuv7](7i<.. LXII. 492 For jpfi[nxxCC.арс [лорсрох occurs only here in the M L. 24— See Preisigke. беѕа&оа). xal хратас.]. 606. 7tpoaxuvew.b. See moreover BDAG. divider o f the hour” [LSJ]) is mentioned only here in the PGM.арс. crit.492 The request concludes w ith a sequence o f voces magicae (654— 55): ecopw рмре toppi topitop pcop ptot..31. 654-55.. 523— npoq 6/ayov 24: av&pcoTtivrjq jjiou фи^хтј^ Suvajxew^. Weltbild und Astrologie. see 1. Worterbuch. The twelve hours are then designated by the voces magicae in 11. 47.v. a£tow.о1. IV. edited by Naveh & Shaked. 717. the request is specified (11. 35. Ancient Christian Magic. He takes it to mean that the planets in their function as lords o f time are being asked to assist.

Usener & Radermacher. (Saaavl^wv tyjv Xayova. 1) wants to write. The name тгрости[Л )р1 У is unexplained. 556. IV. (“After you have said these things. 711. (“like w ith a h o rn ” ). rcpwTov__ For the command “protect m e” see also 1.34. 490. 1305-6. 242) points to the ff/oq хѕратоѕс. and you will see him walking as if on a road”). you 493 Gundel. see 11. 2.499 6. x a l бфу) a u T o v u e p t T r a x o u v T a ax.) notes 8. 495 The cosmological technical term izokoc. first to the right: protect me. there is the familiar “gazing” (axsvl^siv). 819. therefore: xal Xsye. 1. suggested by Preisendanz as representing the twelve hours o f the day. 45— —What is meant 48. 1026.. 498 The term is attested only here.54. 538. 642. s v o S w (“After you have said these things. 2327. but see Dieterich (41. (“kiss the phylacteries and say. then to the left. 1307.” Cf. 707— 813— Dieterich (13. but Gundel questions it. 629. ibidem. x al хатаср1Хѕс. divides these into twelve groups. т а сриХахттјрса x al Xsys. Gundel. avot. 14.498 and oXov anoSiSovg to rcveu^a. but c f 1. ed. 70. 497 On this ritual. see 11. 1280. VIII. See Dieterich. 588. Bezold. 496For this term. t o v tcoX o v .. 14. n. with an orientation (11. Does it perhaps consist o f variations on the term wpa? 494 On this term.butcf. that an element is missing from the text: six a si q to apicrcov.438. bellow”). ed. P R O SY M E R I” ). For the image cf. 76. For viokoq. crit.1731.676 тсоАохратсор. Weltbild und Astrologie.93. 228— 233) for further 29.98— as a strong nasal sound by making M and N. Gundel.174 sto p sto p e w p ecop s c o p s . see Preisendanz. 560. 661—92) The sixth scenario begins. 705. 661— 62): таита sirrtov офт] &ира<. Usher. 499 For kissing the phylacteries see also 11. While the time indicator (“after you have said these things”) marks the progress in the ritual: the initiate will see (о ф т ))494 Helios on his way to the axis-pole of the world.uxo3 (“by giving off your whole breath and squeezing your loins. also the 99) Jewish shofar. see 1.бтјѓ. 1959. 539. by the “road” (обо^)? Has the phrase anything to do with the heliodromusl See above. Sixth scenario: the encounter with the deities o f the Bear constellation (11. 463). 47. 6.1302.496 then a strong bellowing sound (ptuxoofxa fxaxpov). 69. around which the stars rotate. where both sides occur. pt. First. 655— 57): таита <70u e I tcovto ? s X e u a s T o a sic. Commentary The pap. V284. Weltbild und Astrologie. 179. occurs only herein theML. Sternglaube. 35.497 to be perform ed xspaxost-Stoi. Boll. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 712.495 T he fifth scenario concludes w ith the performance o f protective rituals.15. 2480. 819 тгростЅи^р!. . Finally. Jacoby.493 After this the god leaves to carry the request to Mithras (11. like the others. 693. lines 15-16. TtpwTov sic. app. n. he will come to the celestial pole. n. 2384. Preisendanz (W S t 41 [1919] 143. The sequence is attested only here in the PGM. material. XIII. 707.yo(xsva<. see at 11. at 1. 120. to Ss^cov cpuXa^ov [xs upoaufXYjpt. described by Diony­ sius o f Halicarnassus (Comp.

a£ s ѕтгтатгиХо? (“seven-gated ladder” ). 1 Cor 2:10 (T Job 37:6): та (За& t o u ‘}eou. x p a T o u a a t .687.£ . Cf. 503 For the term pa&oc (“deep.” Dieterich (13.”JM iS 2:2 (1978) 87-147. e v (3 u c h tlv o [. 11. 59-64. s. Dieterich s proposal that one should imagine seven gates finds support in the mosaic o f the Mitreo delle sette sfere at Ostia. plates XII and XIII. 575 (from the astral sphere). except that the gates o f the sun are now open (cf. XXII. X X X V I. C IM R M . Mithriaca IV.26. Roger 81. taking its name from the mosaics and O rigen’ reference to the xXT[jt. 83. plates XII and XVII. Merkelbach. the seven flaming altars in the top register o f some Mithraic reliefs. see Vermaseren. idem. has Z Ttap&svouq. They are called the Fates o f heaven. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 175 will see [the] doors opening” )..” here meaning “from above. 501 For the stereotypical бфт]. The expression “from the deep” refers to the world o f the gods behind the gates o f the sun (cf.b. and the next visionary episode can begin. 21. the translation should be: “you will see seven doors opening. VII.” i. 628-29).500 In terms o f time.” Z P E 57 (1984) 93— 99. 662— 63): x al zpyoyAvaq e x t o u (За&оис. [iaQoc.” in Roscher.” JM iS 1:2 (1978) 119-65. If one follows Dieterich. Richard L.146 (the demons coming from below). 111. idem. TcapQivoui.. 502 (“and (you will see) seven virgins coming from the deep w ithin”).22. X II.v.II. See Becatti. cf. Vermaseren. . dressed in linen garments. idem. Beck. . Sphaera. 69. vol. and w ith the faces o f asps. LXXII). 1. fig. Wolfgang Fauth. Gordon. x a X o u v T a i o u p a v o u T uj o li . the world o f the gods). 869— Gundel. 2. See BDAG. 65. Mithras. 25). 82). Cels. H e sees that seven virgins emerge (11. 539. the 500 Since there is no article before “doors.1293. 862. 38. 3) raises the question o f whether one should imagine seven doors to open. Scavi di Ostia. esp.” PRE 6 (1909) 2407— 31. 11 624— . 34. Aus der Offenbarung Johannis. 1. Weltbild und Astrologie. 506 The constellation o f the Bear is prominent in the PGM (see IV. n. plate XVI. Mithriaca III. “Arktos in den griechischen Zauberpapyri. “The Sacred Geography o f a Mithraeum: The Example o f Sette Sfere. idem.137 (fig. Franz Boll & Wilhelm Gundel. Sternglaube und Sternsymbolik bei Griechen und R om ern. Main body of the ritual (11.506 He argues against their being planetary gods because earlier in his ascension the initiate has passed the planets and has moved to the higher sphere o f the gods. Mithriaca IV. a a T u S tov тир6ст(071а e y o v o i x q . Lexikon 6 (1924-37). т) 504 Origen. “Fixsterne. the preceding protective rituals have ended. а б т а с . has [Зрофкх. 6. At any rate. plate XIX. W ho are these seven virgins that occur only here in the PGM? Already Dieterich (69— had identified them as seven Hathors. 1. ^ р и стеа (3 p a (3 e la 505 (“ .503 The idea is that they are stepping forward out o f the fiery gates. 502 Pap. combined with the 72) seven fixed stars o f the constellation o f the Great Bear.190. esp.e. 505 Pap. “Sternbilder. See Franz Boll. and wield golden wands”).501 The initiate is still at the same level as before (cf. . “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac II. 92-95. 625). Idem.504 In 11. 78. see at 1. 116-26.” Cf. Weihegrade. (with bibliography). 663-65 an iconographic description o f the seven virgins follows: . . 37..

Gundel. Das wird zur GewiBheit erhoben durch die sieben aufgerichteten Schlangen. 301-6. die den sieben Sternen der Pleiaden vielerorts zugesprochen worden ist.780-82. M.232]) reference to the .277. XIII. Neue astrologische Texte des Hermes Trismegistos (Miinchen: Beck. Weltbild und Astrologie. xal Tu^ai xal Molpat. X XI. 58— “Unter den 7 Tychai mit den Schlangen59: gesichtern sind die sieben Sterne der Pleiaden gemeint. 1. although none has been identified w ith certainty.2116.208. IV.” (Trans.84.507 A somewhat different interpretation has been offered by Gundel: “The seven Fates w ith their asp faces are meant to be the seven stars o f the Pleiads. Irenaeus’ (Haer. On snake­ shaped deities. placed closely behind each other as a group o f decanic powers under O rio n __That they are the guards o f the four pillars . 338. daimons. see Kropp. Flinders Petrie. For the Kentra.). 145. Zaubertexte. is mine). IV. Merkelbach: “in Seidengewandern”. one has rightly called them the seven Hathors. Further clues come from a formula attested several times in the PGM. and Merkelbach. 3. which appear on the tomb painting o f Athribis. 164. 184. PRE 20 (1950) 2017-2185. BDAG). Abrasax. see Wolfgang Helck. 12— with frontispice and plates X XX VI— 13. DaB sie die Wachterinnen der vier Saulen sind — man darf in ihnen entweder die personifizierten Kentra oder die Sterne im Viereck des GroBen Baren sehen — erklart sich aus der . sieben. X II. 17. see W ilhelm Gundel. the sphere o f the fixed stars. 508 Gundel. . XXXVII.509 That they have faces (or carry masks) o f asps is not attested elsewhere. and M oirae” ). except on the tomb painting o f Athribis.254-55. on the four pillars. die eng hintereinander zu einer Gruppe komponiert auf dem Grabgemalde von Athribis als Dekanmachte unter Orion erscheinen. which invokes various astral forces: al aya&al knoppoicni tcov acrcspwv elalv Sal[xove<. 332..15-16.510 Their identification w ith the Fates is 507 See XII.768-69. 510 See above. 293.176 Commentary figures are a syncretistic combination o f the Fates. see Wilhelm and Hans Gundel. 1936). cf. man hat sie mit R echt als die sieben Hathoren angesprochen. 9-eoi.” 48. Athribis (London: School o f Archaeology in Egypt. Harvey. 1908). This has been made certain by the seven erect asps. Preisendanz: “in Byssosgewandern”. “Hathoren. see R om 1:23. XII. 1. Dekane. the seven virgins are parallel to the pole lords described next.30.47— for planets and Pleiads.one may see in them either the personified Kentra or the stars in the square o f the Great Bear — can be explained from the eminent importance which in many places is attributed to the seven stars o f the Pleiads. plate 12. That the virgins are clothed in fine byssos garments may mean that the material was linen or even silk. VIII. (Зистсто? may be “fine linen” (LSJ.” 508 T he iconography most certainly has a pictorial background o f some kind. On the seven Hathors. 509 See also 1. “Planeten. Fates.138. n. eminenten Bedeutung.5 [ed.249. and the Egyptian Hathors. (“the good emanations of the stars. VII.” LA 2 (1977) 1033. 1.159 (6<pe(mp6cra7toc. XIII.. For the tomb o f Athribis (Atrepe) see W. 508. o f which the constellation o f the Great Bear is one.

Weltbild und Astrologie. P G L. reprinted Hildesheim: Olms. (“W hen you see these things. tcov Teaaaptov gtuXlctxwv (“Hail. a s p /a l x al aya&al rcap&evoi. 513 Cf. L. 72. cpuXaxlaaat.oxe<paAoq. The m om ent o f the greeting is set: т а и т а LSwv асттга^ои обтал.II. 1.3. (1) This epithet. 632: [xevfxspoipop.' T v y a a tou oupavou.47— H ow this epithet is to be related to the four roots (тетраЛс^мјхата [see above.. Hendel. a e p /a l x al aya&al rcap&evoL. In the NT. See with further passages and bibliography. a formal ritual o f greeting seems to conform to etiquette. Orphisch-dionysische Mysteriengedanken in der christlichen Antike (Vortrage der Bibliothek Warburg 1922— 1923 II. Leyden 348 verso. The magical names are mostly unex­ plained. but some o f them may reflect the names o f decans. appears to be one o f general politeness and has no parallel in the PGM. 71. 515 Pap. oyiq. 9) mentions Egyptian gods as 6<pt. 1966). whereupon the greeting is cited: j c c i p e r e .. and then individually (670— 72).v. god o f the Ophite gnostics. Haer.v. 511 See below. Preisendanz. q). twv Teaaaptov oruXlaxwv. 3.511 Their possession o f golden wands ((ЗрофеТа) is a com­ m on cultic symbol. L A 5 (1984) 644-52. The exclamatory “Hail” or “Greetings to you. e. referring to the four pillars o f the Egyptian cosmology. 316-28 (“Die Tiermaskenriten in den mithraischen und in den Kabirenmysterien”).515 and their magical names (cf. Alan H. 92. 58-59. 51. q. 1. greet in this manner . 11 677— . 104. s. 1. identification by num ber. lepal x al opioScat-Toc. 514 The connection with Egypt was pointed out by Dieterich. ха Ф£ (“Hail!”). Z (with strokes overy. n. cf. and three divine epithets. 4. . fxe^pav resem­ bling a decan by the name o f Ma^pajx. ”). 3. тои fjavt-^txppocpop. al ау ш т а та с. stands in the middle and has an unex­ plained vox magica attached. and Dieterich. 512 See LSJ and BDAG.513 (3) the third is special and also w ithout parallel in the PGM .5. Dekane. O sacred ones and companions o f M IN IM IR R O P H O R . O most holy guardians o f the four pillars”). Mart. 666.4). . Gundel. idem. R . Merkelbach. Abrasax. Main body of the ritual (11. see 1 Cor 9:24.” a form o f wish. (2) the second. <puXaxlcKrat. (3pa(3eLov. 585— 90]) is unclear. tou [ixvifjiippocpop. al Z. G M PT . is followed by the name o f the seven Fates. Betz. GG^l 201 (1939) 141. n. Kleine Schriften. “Magic. 1Л (with a collection o f parallels). 80 (# 28). in Betz. “Serpent. has the numbers as [3. Stork.514 The individual greetings are also very formal and exactly parallel. Pap. 1. оср^оѕсбт^ Epiphanius.” D D D . Harris 7. mag. Atha­ nasius (Gent. avw xAy)(T£(0i. 989. Robert Eisler. 48. Lukian.15). s. Pol.512 Following the epiphany. 78). 37. al а у ш т а та с. .5 (56. Gardiner. Egyptian.” E R E 8 (1915) 266a (referring to Pap. 744-47. o f which the sacred Fates are guardians. O noble and good virgins. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 177 certainly secondary. 516 See Gundel. s.410 etc. 5:5. first greeting all o f them as a group (665-69). lepal x al ofAoSlat/rot. 6<pt? and compounds. 17:1.516 apapjxa^? pointing to ’Apapa. 51— 70— 52. O seven Fates o f heaven.v. 1 Clem. BDAG. consisting o f the exclamatory wish.6[A op<po<. 6<pt. 8. . 35-37. Phil 3:14: (3pa[3e£ov r?j<. y . e. Ritner.

xal yiovoq xal 519 Is there any significance to the fact that the virgins were not called 9eo L or rather. 2. Brashear.(3pt. ad loc. n. 1. Preisendanz. 77. 'Q' ■B xaupwv [xeAavwv тсростсотса e^ovxe<. xaxe^ovxe? бг. Ritner (in Betz. N ow we learn that the voces magicae in 11. 19. app. Weihegrade.243. exaorov хм 1бѓ(о auxcov ovofxaxc. and in possession o f seven golden diadems”).522 The greetings must conform to the previous ritual: oioc. SHAW. 373.абѓ][лата ^ристеа (“There also come forth another seven gods who have faces o f black bulls. is a hapax. Preisendanz. s. 72— 73. See Dieterich (72— who relates 2.”JM iS 1:1 (1976) 1— esp. 13-14. 662 has ep^ofxeva?. Oeac.” 3585. to be followed by three epithets: (1 ) ol xvooSaxocpuXaxe? (“O warders o f the pivot o f the celestial sphere” [LSJ]). 670— are actually names.523 (“You must greet in the same manner each o f them w ith his own nam e”).v.518 After the seven virgin seven male deities appear (11. 521— Golden diadems are a rather common symbol. is the pin or pivot on which something turns (xvo^axl^eiv). 673-76): Tipoep^ovxai бе x al exepot. reads oiq. G M PT . Lexikon. 58. 678— xvwSaxocpuAaxe^. These deities ($eoi) come forward (irpoep^ovxat. хумба^. idem. Bezold.r^. 518 For ’Epou see also IV 1589: V. the fiery crowns in 11. 5.701— 1358— 1372.520 The figures wear linen aprons and hold golden diadems in their hands. ibid. Abraxas. (cf. 1. Sternglaube.) through the same gates as the virgins. 521 Cf. 79 (# 25). 86.? Instead o f upoep^ovTai 1. Preisendanz considers or <oux>w<. see also idem.517 epou and ро[л(Зрпг]<. Griechische Kalender (5 vols. Jordan prefers Preisendanz’s earlier suggestion (in Roscher. Sphaera. a hapax in the PGM. 59.521 Their title is revealed: oOxol elaiv ol xaXoujxevot.524 (2) ol lepol xal 517 Gundel. 77— idem. 524 According to the T LG . plate 1/2. ттоХохраторе? xou oupavou (“These are the so-called Pole Lords o f heaven” ). have also been taken to refer to decans: ’Epou and To[A(3pofAape.'apoup — : oji.. ofjiolox. 1 (1910:16): Das Kalendarium des Antiochos. the decan 'Ро(Јфро(харе. бе! сте асттгастаа^ас. 106— Gundel.963) . 45. but also the initiates o f the Mithraic mysteries were under the tutelage o f planetary deities. The faces o f black bulls are difficult to explain. see Gundel. Merkelbach. 80. in linen loincloths.. crit.846: <тсо>Хохратмр. Weltbild und Astrologie. Heidelberg: Winter 1910— 1920). 51. idem. Roger Beck. 72 The greeting therefore begins with that o f the group first. 22. 3. 1. 520 Dieterich (72— confesses puzzlement. PGM IV.432. the Tubingen . cf. fig. See also IV.. 523 Pap. 79— 7. 79: 74) them to the Amesha Spentas o f ancient Iran. See LSJ. Cf. ed. )<^ G G A 201 (1939) 141. xvwSaxocpuXaH. ev Tcep^Mfxaat-v -sol "kivotc.201: а1шо7тоЛохрат(ор. Gundel. p. cf. “Greek Magical Papyri. Boll. The exclamatory wish is called out. 522 The title occurs also in XIII.178 Commentary another decan.3023 o ev [xccty] apoupir]<.519 There is no parallel for this iconogra­ phy elsewhere in the PGM . D o these figures represent the constellation 73) o f the Little Bear? —So Franz Boll. Dekane.PH 1910— 1920. Cf. and attributes them to a syncretistic Egyptian Mithras cult. Dekane. plate II. vol. 93) compares Egyptian harmachis (“Horus w ho is on the horizon”). 666). Abrasax . Dieterich.. Figures o f bulls stand among Egyptian imagery o f stars. Mithras. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac. corrected by Dieterich to ovq. and Gundel. For pofx(3pcY cf.

. reading o f ctlctijlwv is to be corrected to ctslctjjicov.590. a religious and godfearing . For 80 7iept. 3. # 247. 532 For uycta (“health”) see III. бХохХт^ос. 529 The expression Suacrcpwv <puXa is found only here in the PGM. Main body of the ritual (11. a personal note for the individual application o f the practice.” NTFi. as in 11. R ev 6:12.572. The oeio[ioi in this case are not earthquakes but cosmic quakes. 7). 527 See also IV.vouXav7jTa<. 683— may be 87 an addition by the magician.688. as the individual benefits. IV1364: ocXxijx6ppt. for the same reason. W hile there is no list o f the punishments m eeted out.525 (3) the final epithet is in fact a longer and detailed aretalogy describing the work o f the pole lords: ol a x p iy o v x z c . 28. 3.260. XII. итго sv xeXeuafxa t o v TtepiSlv/jTov t o u xuxXou a^ova t o u oupavou x al (3povTa<. wpat.3.686— 832. 526 In 1. man. for a£ci)v (“axis”) III. reading o f <ev> evxeXEUcrfxa is dittography.v. a<pc. VII. 10. 663). The cosmic tasks performed by the pole lords cover three areas.1601.528 The third task is distributing punishments to the godless529 and rewards to the godly. 10 [1922]) 112) emends Ttspt-StvYjTO? to TcepiSsivYjTO? (“terrifying”) because o f itacism. see above at 11.v. aya&al<. Frag.527 Second. IV. 53° preiseri(Ianz (app. Revelation. VII. crit. see Preisendanz.Stv7]TO(. zic.60— 61.?531 (“but to me.&o?. are found also elsewhere in the PG M . First.[Ao<. occurs in hymnic language).967.. for more instances see Preisendanz. since the area is in the upper spheres o f the cosmos. VII. 525 See IV.223 (in lists). ахот)? т е x al opacreto? suTOvlav. concerning the axis o f a sphere: хихХотѕрт)? iar\ xe хата a<psTepov xvcoSaxa. 3. tj tov ast. 1. they are in charge o f turning the axis mundi. “spindle-turner”). 2778. such as himself (683— 87).SLVir)T£ipa.2918— 20: Tiupoi. also III. Abrasax. IV.530 not as a fact but as a petition: ejxol бе euae^et xal &eoc7e(3si o v t l < б о т е > uyelav x al стсо^лато? oXoxXyjplav.607.333. 3. Sam Eitrem (“Varia. and cosmic quakes. 4th ser.. and often.802. [give] health and soundness o f body.577. For oXoxXyjpsLv. and acuteness o f hearing and seeing. 1358 (атрѕфтјАахато?.II..243. TCsptStvea ^ap^av appY]XTOv.480. VII.. 621. 528 On this topic. cf. XXXVI. 531 Pap. Suaae^wv cpuXa526 (“who turn at one command the revolving axis o f the vault o f heaven. see Aune.557: TtepLSt.1279. 2. oxpicpziv.172..evTe<. 243) adds <ботѕ> before uyetav. The young men correspond to the virgins (1. IV1015. Such lists of benefits. s. 52.124 (index). the pap. and calmness in the present good hours o f this day”).. w ho send out thunder and lightning and jolts o f earthquakes and thunderbolts against the nations o f impious tribes”).^ T7)< cr/jfjiepov Y][xepa<.26. Math. terms often m entioned in the PG M . 31: aXxrj.179— (index). the lines 683— as well as 651— can be applied to any 87 55 practitioner who should o f course be on the side o f the pious. 87. the initiate carefully details the benefits for the pious. (“spin around”) see III. Merkelbach (Abrasax. they send out thunder.559— 627— 60. XIII. (Hymn 2.532 Theosophy. 571. VIII. 574. XXVII. [хеуаХои 7repi. lightning. Orph. 16:18. reads uyiav. 1697.a[xwv x al xepauvaiv (ЗоХас. However. 11:19. x al асттратса^ x al a£t. бХохХт)ро<. Cf. IV2997-3002. 2936. 111.6. 2269. IV136. s. Sextus Empiricus. 680 the pap.134-35. a concern o f a num ber o f passages in the P G M . aTapa^lav ev тац : sveaTwcTat. 223) suggests that 11. XIII. Merkelbach. also in Dieterich. for xuxXo? (“heavenly circle”) III.51— 93. ad loc. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 179 aXxip-OL veavtoa (“O sacred and brave youths” —the term aXxt. 651— 55.xtV7]T0V tyzic.

for xuptot t)eot III. in their order . These greetings also follow the previous pattern o f the exclamatory wish (^агре). the num ber. and BDAG. all o f them unex­ plained hapaxlegomena in the PGM. 7.180 Commentary The last phrase in the clause “in the present good hours o f this day” should be read in connection w ith the horoscope (see 11. the pole lords are again hailed: ol xupc. and that all are taking their assigned places.. “they take their stand in a regular line in an orderly way. hands in token that they are clean from gain-taking and not defiled through any cause o f the profit-making kind.537 He describes their festival o f Pentecost. 88-89 (cited below.243. but it does 64 include comments on X enophon’ and Plato’ Symposia (57-60).vpioq jxou x a l б th:6<. . see also Ebr.. occurs also in IV. 1 Thess 5:23. H. LCL: London: Heinemann. eyes because they have been trained to fix their gaze on things worthy o f contemplation. W St 42 (1920— 21) 24. which he says is patterned on the Bacchic rituals. 542). followed by a symposium and an all-night Pannychis.171— Cf. see Preisendanz. O ne parallel is part o f the description o f the community o f the Therapeutae by Philo o f Alexandria. 671— see above. Philo (10 vols. 537 Philo o f Alexandria. 538 See Contemp. John 20:28: o Y. reads the numbers as in 11..). on the one side and on the other. 123. D e vita contemplativa. 2.v. see Acts 3:16. Merkelbach.538 it begins w ith a community prayer. . 536 So Dieterich. 3. 146.ol [xou x al [леуаХохраторе? 9sol (“O my lords and powerfully ruling gods.534 and the secret names (ovofjta). Abrasax.). n. Colson. 639. Finally (1. 533 See the parallel in 678— for [лгуаАохратмр 1. also 12. MA: Harvard University Press. cited according to the edition and trans­ lation by F. Somn.535 (“N ow when they take their place. the highly polemical description o f pagan banquets in 40— does not explicitly focus on the Bacchic ones.. s. 9.536 This kind o f arrangement appears to have been somewhat typical o f worship services. [лои. Two parallels are especially informative. section 7.” )533 T he sixth scenario ends with the recitation o f the individual greetings (688— 92). 692-732) The sixth scenario passes over to the seventh w ith the usual orientation concerning time and place: oxav бе evcTTtoaiv ev&a x a l ev&a ty) r a ^ s t. 79.” T he idea is that the two groups o f seven form a kind o f chorus facing each other. Cambridge. Her.112— 69. s s 69. 76. Seventh scenario: the encounter with Mithras (11. 72. their eyes and hands lifted up to Heaven. 72.205.. axapa^la. D uring the initial prayer. a technical term in Greek ethics. 687— 88). 651— 52). 535 On the textual questions concerning evcttwcjlv. So standing they pray to God that their feasting may be acceptable and proceed as The terms play a significant role in the NT. 534 Pap.69 (атара^о<. 1929— 62). For euxovla there is no other reference in the PGM.

544 For aTevL^eiv (“gaze.. facing each other. 545 Air appears here w ithout clarification o f h ow it is related to 7tveu. crravTe?'kZjjq х а т а cjtol^ov ev xoajjuo x a l та? те бфес.1 5 2 -5 5 ). бе yj хатахХкл? XW 'L tx^v avSpaat-v z n l бе£(. xe x a l г(А[лгХѓатато<. They rise up all together and standing in the middle o f the refectory form themselves first into two choirs.545 As a result. 582. see above. Tractatus in Ioannem X . the command is given: b. 9— 13] and Augustine. A chorus o f two groups is standing on the steps o f the temple. 553 (plate 72) and color plate IV. 543 See for plates M erkelbach.at. x a l xaxa fxeaov to crufXTroat-ov био ylvovxat xo 7tpwT0V X°P0^ ® a^p w v.evat.r]fjt.. ха9дагер ev таТ? (BaxxelaL? ахратои ci7tacjavTe<. (“T hen w h en each choir has separately done its ow n part in the feast.aveve{AY)Tat. having drunk as in the Bacchic rites o f the strong w ine o f G od’ love they m ix and s both together becom e a single choir. 542 Ibid. 540 Ibid. 69: St. the leader and precentor chosen for each being the most honored amongst them and also the most musical. 485— 732) 181 He would have it. q та? бе o n xa&apal XrjfAfxaTwv etalv итс’ оибе[лс. 85: elx a oxav ехатеро? twv yop&v t-бѓ-су. Sol Salutis. 556.xkviQe tw ocepi (“gaze in the air” ).a.? x a l xouq jzipciLq ziq oupavov avaTclvavTe?. 1467]). 541. тои О-еоф^Хои?. ayexat..543 To return to the text... See Dolger. 711. 657.118. Horn.а<.164— 65]). 629. Then they sing hymns to God composed o f many measures and set to many melodies__ ” 541 At dawn they reunite on the beach to conclude the celebra­ tions with a greeting o f the rising sun.v6u. a copy o f the choir set up o f old beside the R e d Sea in honour o f the wonders there w rought” [LCL 9. Tcpotpaasax. Essai. 508. but not as one o f the four elements.evou<.. 100— 102. Х^Р^? ^e P< ? yuvai^lv £тг' euwvu[i. Tte7tot.154— 55]). (LCL 9 . Tipocjeuyovxai xw 9-ew О -ирппртп yevea&at.1 6 4 -6 5 ).j.” “stare”) see above. 541 Ibid.. x a l ylvovTai x°po? e£ afxqjoLV. rcavvux^a.3 [GCS O rig. Isis Regina. xcm [xev £7гес.” 539 D uring the symposium540 and the Pannychis.a xa&opav eTtaiSeuSirjaav. at 1. see also section 27. elxa абоиск. [xl[j. pp..атоируу]&evт wv exec. twv e lq Kopic\Lov Ltt. also Tran Tam Tinh. w ith the choir master directing in the middle. б бе yuvatxw v Tjyejxwv бе x a l e^apxo? alpetxat.а. x a l xa9-’ eauxov ѓсгсхаОтј..544 Air has been m entioned before. one o f m en and one o f women. 301— 20: “Sursum corda und der Aufblick zum H im m el. avapdyvuvTat.542 The other parallel is pictorial and part o f the frescoes from the Isis temple in Herculaneum showing scenes from worship performed there. the initiate will see 539 Contemp..l [PL 35. For the Stoic doctrine. . at 11. Main body of the ritual (11. V I. (“T he order o f reclining is so apportioned that the m en sit by themselves on the right and the w om en by themselves on the left” [LCL 9. 83— 84: М еха бе xo беТ^оу r/)v lepav ayoucrt. X III. x a l x a x a vouv a7iavx7iCTai xriv eutoxlav. ujavouc. For the reverence toward the sun. w ith plate X X III. presumably it is identical w ith •rcveufxa.” D olger (1— also refers 2) to important Christian polem ics against the ritual by O rigen (In Genes. ха&’ exaxepov evxt.II. 66: .. (LCL 9.бт) та? &ea? a£t.7][jt.11. бе rj 7tavvi>xl? tov xpoTcov xouxov avlaxavxai mxvxeq a&poot.[xoxaxo<.a. 324— 25. elq tov &eov izoXkolq [xexpot? x a l [xeXeat. the community is separated in two choir groups: “After the supper they hold the sacred vigil which is conducted in the following way.a tou 7taXai crucrcavTO? х а т а ty]v epu&pav ftaXaaaav evexa tou &аи[Ј.

Pet. 547 Cf. 203. see also C H 1. (“there seemed to appear to me a gigantic figure o f immense size. and a god descending.548 His portrait can be confirmed by representational art (11. attested in the PGM only here. ”). Cf.”). Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism. with a shining face.1221 (fjwcpjxaipwv). 214. walks down the stairs.. For the epithet o f Apollo. Kern). 195. and the earth shaking.”). and descends to the seventh below. hXt]0 £v бе ) &upa? Beioio (“But she stepped on the threshold and her head reached the roof. 1991). Frag. in Christian literature the cosmic dimensions o f Christ (the ттАтјрш Јла.490. Amos 4:13. w ith a white tunic and a golden crown and trousers. and lights flashing. 11.531: jxapfxapuyr). for such phenomena in connection with the pole lords. also Karl Preisendanz. ev yixu>vi Xeuxw xal ХРиаФ are<pava) x al ava^uplax.ey£97)<. W hile lightnings and earthquakes have been mentioned before (1. 1995). Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. 2. 3069-70 (see Betz. # 168. 549 The term U7tepfjt. Cf. 536. 1. In the LXX cf.I ll... see Aune. 22-23.ф£уут). also the enormous measurements o f the figure o f Metatron in Hekhalot mysticism. 16 (27). Eph 1:10. vearrepov. R ev 1:12-16. youthful. 39-40.Frag. like the figure on the painting from Herculaneum.. see Gershom Scholem. Ubersetzung der Hekhalot-Literatur I (TSAJ 46. immensely great. however. 681-82). 693— :546 xal оф 96) -у] xarep^ofiivai. 668: [хссрјлараиут] (cf.13). 3 list further instances o f the topos. the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. 550 In the PGM the immense size o f the deity conforms to the attribute o f Aion (cf. see Furley & 61: Bremer.182 Commentary spectacular cosmic phenomena (11. 204..761— 94). Col 1:15-20. Ep. Apos. That the highest god is o f immense size549 is part o f the style o f the epiphany. Gos. 94. is peculiar. cpamv/jv e^ovxa ttjv бф ^. It is.. see Peter Schafer. . “Zum groBen Pariser Zauberpapyrus. # # 168 and 169 (ed.. 97. Cf. асттратга? xal cpwxa fxapfjiaipovTa xal aeiojxevYjv tyjv yvjv xal xaxep%o[iivov t>(eo)v.8. The “flashing lights” are preferred language in the PG M .238— 44.1 regarding the epiphany o f Poimandres: Ѕбо£а xiva бтсЕрЈЛЕуеОт] [лехрм arcept-opicrxio. N ock & Festugiere. Kern): acrxpcov fxapfxapecov).. IV. PDM xiv. 1. Revelation. G M P T . also X III. golden­ haired.547 The god emerges out o f the interior of the temple and. reads the abbreviation &v. Orph. 548 Pap.” A R W 17 (1914) 347-48.. (“and a god descending. a topos. .550just as 546 Cf.. 1. XIII. 29— (§§ 12— 33 13). the sterotypical picture overlooks that the author has left behind the earth some time ago.260— [Аар[ларс. Xpucroxofjiav. which is unreachable even for other deities. although it is peculiar that his name is not m entioned. 136-65 (§§ 939— 950).. Corpus Hermeticum.325. This god is certainly Mithras. (“you will see lightening bolts going down. LSJ calls it a Ionic form and notes итггрјЛЕуаЅтј^. 4:10. n.68— 100. and she filled the door with divine splendor”). n. 188— regarding the 89 epiphany o f Demeter: Y б’ ар’ brz ouSov e(3y] txoctI x a l pa [леАаФрои xupe харт). Orph. 1962). symbolically this means that he leaves the highest sphere. line 13 (ed. 11. Greek Hymns.. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. ed. Von der mystischen Gestalt der Gottheit (Zurich: Rhein. eds.. XII. Gruenwald. 681— 82. Peter Schafer & Klaus Herrmann. итсѓрјлѕуа^. 407 with further references). for the detailed description o f the immense size o f God in Shi'ur Qomah. Ubersetzung der HekhalotLiteratur I V (TSAJ 29. 696— 704): xaxep^ofjievov &(eo)v штер^еуѓ&т]. the flashing lamp in the temple at Jerusalem. IV.

idem. and often.71. Merkelbach (Abrasax. see Roger Beck. Capua Vetere. 96. 636). however. IV437. pp. 325.61. his work on Mithras.av is standard for Helios in III. and golden crown (cf. 10. 1. 910-12: “Gold in der Magie”. Main body of the ritual (11. now confirmed by subsequently discovered fres­ coes. Hist. 9:7. furthermore. Also. 86— Betz. 234— s 40. 5. C IM R M . The Mithraeum at Marino. Apoll. the N T in Mark 16:15. 28.553 There are. “Gold. 310. 89. n. and 17. 635). Seth. God of Confusion. W hile Dieterich rightly saw this to be evidence o f Mithraism.” Antike Welt 30:2 (1999) 97-104. 79.49. See Roger Beck. 2050. color plate IV. but on the other hand astronomical interpretations have been 551 The shining face o f the deity is a common element o f epiphanies. 557 For a careful analysis o f Cumont’ position. whether in texts or artistic representations. Cf. symbolically interpreted as astronomical phenom ena (11. 104— Ingeborg Huld-Zetsche. n.557 A symbolic interpretation of this detail is on the one hand in accord with the author s interest. 9:1-9. Matt 17:2. in the tradition o f Cumont. 19. Hinnells. 1. 555 See Vermaseren. 27. see Dieterich.485. Acts 6:15. 7. 1989). Ponza Zodiac II. van de Velde. “Interpreting the 78. 10:1. namely Helios-Mithras. for its attribution to Apollo see Furley & Bremer. Weihegrade. 1. ava^upL8eq. VIII. esp. This statement has given rise to extended controversies past and present. plate 25. 1958. also figures 16a and b. 556 See Dieterich. 26 (Mon. totung als Sternenkarte.243-44) admits that the god is Mithras.75.552 white tunic (cf. remarkably Merkelbach ignores the newly discovered frescoes. Merkelbach. as is his golden hair (cf.554 This last feature is also present on paintings from Dura Europus (Syria). see also III. 181).II. 76). Vit.” JM iS 2:2 (1978) 87— 147. See Hans-Jiirgen Horn. special traits: w ith the Persian or Phrygian cap missing he looks like a Greek god.” ANRW 11. 120— Richard Gordon & John R . 22:4. 1. Luke 9:29. Revelation. 40. 22a and b (Mon.25). .” R A C 11 (1981) 895-930. esp. 554 This garment worn by eastern peoples is mentioned only here in the PGM. 27 (Mon.87. plates 3— 9— 7. 2049. and San M arino (Italy). review o f Merkelbach. 52. Mithras. “Some N ew Photographs o f Well-Known Mithraic Monuments. Greek Hymns. 553 For the golden crown. V. Aune. cons. Ponza. 552 The epithet ^puaox6|i. The Mithraeum at Ponza. 636). but for him he is Helios-Mithras. 213-19 (with plates XV— XVII) on “Mithras’ Rindsschulter” . in the N T R ev 4:4. it is attested since Herodotus (1. 44).555 After the description o f the figure attention turns to the mythological insignia.” ibid. 76— 234— On the evidence. Griffith and Thompson.551 His youth is analogous to Helios (1. 14:14. The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries (Oxford: Oxford University Press.17:4 (1984) 2002— 2115. Lucian. 637). 699-702): xaxe^ovxa ттј џбохоо wfxov xpuaeov (“and holding in his right hand a golden shoulder o f a young calf”). 41 (1987) 296— 316. The Leiden Papyrus. Mithriaca I. esp. Philostratus.v. 34 with plate 2. 75). Phoe. See also LSJ.207. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 183 his shining face. 52 (Mon.172— 75. but he does wear the Persian trousers called ava^uplSs?. vol. “Mithraism since Franz Cumont. s. 1.556 others denied or belittled it. col. 3. has no comment about the Mithras Liturgy.. idem. David Ulansey. G M PT . 1. Mithriaca III. idem. 1. esp. fig. Astralmythologische Hmtergriinde im Mithraskult. with note. 2. 2 Cor 4:6. “Die Stier5. R ev 1:14. Mithras. IV1027— Cf. Roger Beck.

The conceptuality is technical but has problems. Beck.v tov Ispov ttoXov. referring to t-C T . but this does not necessarily mean that all references point to 1 the same constellation. 700— goes. Is. but identifications with other deities are made as well. Such pleonasms occur often in cults.” JM iS 1:1 (1976). See Beck. 563 avTLaxpsqjet-v is found only here in the PGM. 562 Cf. identification w ith Artemis as well as comparison o f the zodiacs from Ponza and Tentyra point to the Great Bear. LVII. 3.64.ата (?). Dekane.563 Also unclear is the 558 See Beck. idem. 12328. idem.” 120-27. the Great Bear was identified with Typhon/ Seth: tt]v бе [фи/^v] Tucpwvo? apxTov. because the idea is joined with the image. but оотсгтреттто?. identifying the constellation with Artemis.561 As far as 11.184 Commentary connected with the Mithras cult much earlier. 2. II. See Betz. and one does not see this as a contradiction. IV.700).1275— See Beck. w ith its upward and downward seasonal revolutions” [as translated by M arti­ nez]). Boll. Sternglaube. For the identification o f the shoulder o f the bull with the constellation o f the north pole Merkel­ bach refers to the zodiac o f Tentyra and to lids o f coffins. 1307: crcpecp£t. in the seven bull-headed young men and here by the shoulder o f the bull.633.).558 The text itself presupposes such a connection (11.243— 44): “The Little Bear is therefore represented in two images. 1331— VII. 2 (Tentyra). perhaps “bull-like” (VII. X II. “The Mysteries o f Mithras: A N ew Account o f Their Genesis. The Bear constellations play an im portant role in the PGM . ecrriv ’’ рхто? yj xtvoucra xal avxxorpecpoucra 1): А t o oupavov.190-92. 80. 559 According to Plutarch. Planetary Gods. 1. 561 For other passages on Bear constellations. IV. XXIII. Hopfner. O Z 2 /1 . 60. Os. 89. which is interpreted by Griffiths. pi. Griffith and Thompson. Plutarch. 59— esp. 359D.” So also Gundel.” J R S 88 (1998) 115-28. Planetary Gods.560 A decision is difficult to make. G M PT . the Little Bear (Ursus minor) or the Great Bear (Ursus maior)? Griffiths opts for the Great Bear. Demotic Magical Papyri. 137-38. esp. 79. lib (coffin lid o f Idy. Sphaera. тосир(. 700— be. in Tubingen). Weltbild. 373: “The equation o f Seth and the Great Bear is well established. Boll. VII. 59— He refers to 64. § 208.687: y] схтресроиста tov a£ova.686— 702. fig. 76-79. W hich Bear does the author have in mind. see IV1275— 1330. 21. LSJ does not list ocvT T pecpw as a mechanical term. Bezold & Gundel.. and a 20th Dynasty text speaks o f ‘this Mshtyw o f Seth’ as existing in the northern sky. Cf. 56° Merkelbach (Abrasax.18. 861. 686-702.. Gundel.10. nn. 2. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac II. х ата wpav avarcoXeuouaa x al хататсоХеиоиста (“this is the Bear which moves and turns the heavenly vault around in the opposite direction. 121-22. the Bear charm VII. “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac. but it is not clear what is meant by avTcorpecpeiv. pi. O ne possibility is that the god turns the heavenly vault contrariwise to the m otion o f the planets. pi. if the same idea is expressed by two images” (my trans. the Egyptian term was Mshtyw.562 That the Bear “moves and turns the heavenly vault around in the opposite direction” is confirmed in part by parallel references in the PGM . “Interpreting the Ponza Zodiac II. ‘Bulls Foreleg’. and to secondary sources such as Dieterich. I. fig.559 while Merkelbach for the Little Bear..

Matt 28:3.” W ho is causing this revolving? Dieterich suggests the pole lords. Phaen. Jordan agrees. 567 Cf. See also Aratus. [ x a x p o v tic . N ot only must the initiate perform it “at once. 544— 676— 62) 47. 238).91). 724. o c T to & e a x v (jluxco. that is.13 (ed. [xaxpov ziq knoQ zaiv. 1283— б^Јлоста боаетоа. 638.”) This bellowing sound has been m entioned before. 8.175: “indem es [das Barengestirn] stimdlich auf und niedersteigt”. 579. E v a ( r u v x t v / j a n r )? та? nsvzs a lcT rh rjcre L^ . n.X c 5 v 7 t a ) a v т а c p u X a x x T j p i a . and again kiss the phylacteries. 4 8 5 -7 3 2 ) 185 astrological com m ent o f “w ith its upward and downward seasonal revolu­ tions. 27. causing them to wander up and down along the pole. mentioned in 11. Luke 24:4. 945.. 755-57. x a x a < p t . Acts 6:15. &eol.4.” a stereotypical prescription in the M L. VI.363— 86). Exc. for epiphanies Matt 17:2 / / Luke 9:28. Lys. cf. 1. Lohr.243 with parallels (also 3. 565 Gundel.ll.. Nock & Festugiere. рос^. Preisendanz has a different punctuation: alcj97)(jeL<. also Merkelbach. Greek Hymns.567 The author could have seen this feature on representational portraits o f Mithras. (“Then you will see lightning bolts leaping from his eyes and stars from his body” ). Jordan considers cjuyxLvrjciyj^ but keeps cruvxt-vrjcr/]*.564 but according to Gundel the text refers to the Bear w ho moves the gods o f the days and hours. straining your belly. idem.о<. 576.. the cosmic features seem to reflect dramatic representations.41-42. 14. crit. 13 564 Dieterich (61— has in mind the 7toXeuovxe<. W St 42 (1920-21) 24. 566 For the eyes emitting lightning. 659) until total exhala“machines that move on a pivot or swivel” (Diodorus Siculus 20. the gods o f the day. 51.569 but further intensity is added at this point. the commen­ tary by Scott. Main body of the ritual (11. 3. 110— (bibliography). Hermetica.II. 2. 702— етсеста бф-] auxou ex xaiv ojx|xax&)v 4): / aaxparca? xal ex тои осоџатод асттера? aXXo[xevou<. Weltbild und Astrologie. 568 (“And at once make a long bellowing sound. 84: with the commentary by Furley & Bremer. 585. .942. 59. the planets in control o f the days. Abrasax. whose open mantle shows stars on the inside. The punctuation follows Dieterich (14). the text returns to the description o f the figure o f Mithras (11.340. app. 3. 657— 712. see also XIII. V. 3.” Cf. 569 It occurs elsewhere in the ML at 11. Rev 1:14 about the epiphany of the heavenly Christ: xal ol ocp&aXjxol аитои w? срХ тш бг. 568 Eitrem adds a verb <(jluxm> before auxoijxa. bellow long until out o f breath. 60. Verherrlichung. n. 557. 26-44.7. CHII. аитои pofxcpala '1 б1атор1. W hen confronted w ith this awesome vision. X X IV . that you may excite the five senses. ги&ем? 7): < [ x u x w > [ x u x t o p ia j x a x p o v . 628.axpov). 570 See for this reference 11. 92: “the wandering.565 Following the interpretative lines 701-2. sec. the initiate is ordered at once to perform rituals. 1:16: xal e^wv бг^а хг1Р аитои асттера? етста xal ex тои сгт6[лато<. he therefore imagines that those stars jum p out o f his body. cf. б^еТа ехтсореиојлет/] xal 7 бф^ аитои ) б ^Xto? cpaIvzi ev ттј SuvajxeL аитои. The first one is the bellowing sound (704— сти бѓ. 11. see his commentary 3.570 the roaring or bellowing sound is to be loud (p.566 Since the references to time and vision are stereotypical in the ML. Aristophanes. ad loc. ( S a c r a v l^ w v ty)v уасттера. 490.150— 230. achieved by pressing the belly (cf. 59— 80. [xuxw__ See Preisendanz.

cf.135 (index). [л [ле хатаХе1фт]? тѓј (“Stay! Dwell in my soul! D o not abandon me!”). sometimes called 84. and so are translations. but o f the reconstituted perceptions o f the intellect. 2000). “mystical. a prayer for protection must be recited (xal Aeywv. 177— 709. request.261 (xupie £ш]<. 1. for in magical inscriptions. see Dolger. 44. 529-30. identification o f the authority.i^ie. See Karl ^v Preisendanz. 708— 11). The second ritual is kissing the pylacteries (11. 10 commands are presented: (jive au. we follow a suggestion by Martinez.. 81 14:6 (see BDAG.v. see above.575 The reading o f 11 709— is contested. vspie ev ттј ф и ^ [Jt-ou. 708— begins w ith what may be a divine name: fxoxpifxo 9) cpspifxo cpspepi. a strange remark. however. for Jesus as £ш] see John 11:25.B (bibliography). 520-28). self-identification o f the orant. reads [xevecruvefxe. £wy)).” derived from the language o f music. see Preisendanz. [xevw. 12-15. Die Sprache der Immanenz in den johanneischen Schriften (HBS 21. s.a. it is unexplained. also 789. Klaus Scholtissek. Festugiere. in PGM £шј occurs also at XII. Baptized. 15:4— etc. The invocation (11. 7. 107) emends to auva. 14:10. s. According to Merkelbach (Abrasax. cf. one may conclude that he views the five senses not to be a part o f the mortal body.574 W ith the symbol A (xou Selva) a space is indicated. Revelation. “(DEPEPIZQN. “and saying”). has been m entioned before (iraAiv. 3. s. This prayer has the usual structure o f invocation. E I2 0 E O 2 .).255— 56.172-73. see Erik Peterson.244).v. Preisendanz: “bis zum Nachlassen”. fjivco. Sol Salutis. in fact agreeing with the Stoic position o f the “deity within”). 2. BDAG. Wiinsch (in Dieterich. 707— which. 53334).a). 495..v.. 502-13. but < w may be a scribal error for 'С. The concept. This idea is interesting because the various vocal sounds in the ML may be regarded as a kind o f music.572 Together w ith this ritual. 26. In ihm sein und bleiben. Bleiben. For £wv as a divine epithet see Martinez. 573 The name occurs only here in the PGM. Jordan prefers the pap. 73. 8). Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. 576 For passages. “again” ). 3. Menein in den johanneischen Schriften (H UTh 8. However. 3.573 This divine name is followed by an epithet: £to<Y]> jjiou (“my life” ). 1967). formgeschichtliche und religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen (FRLANT 41. the text says. H M R . sharpened up by the spirit (11. 575 On this symbol. R ather than postulating an inconsistency on the part o f the author. Kroll to [xeve. 574 Pap.576 The second is read by Preisendanz.” is important especially in the Fourth Gospel (John 6:56. el q kizo^eaiv means “Ruhepunkt. According to Preisendanz three .ш]. ^cov [xouxouA.” W K P 32 (1915) 763.). Freiburg: Herder. Reitzenstein.186 Commentary tion. 880— (yevou [aol. reading jjl u o. l. XIII.571 The purpose o f the exercise is to arouse the five senses together. Jurgen Heise. reads cpepspt. since the mortal body must be left behind (11. 1926). 572 See 659-60. into which the orant must insert his name. which Dieterich (14) reads as jxeve cruv ejjie. there are special features that make this prayer different from others (11. 1-2 (with important passages from Origen and Augustine.577 but the use o f 571 The expression zlq kizodzaiv is unclear. 577 Pap. but Jordan prefers Dieterich. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. The first request has many parallels in the P G M . For vejxe . Epigraphische.

if one realizes the fundamental importance o f inhaling the divine spirit (rcv£U[jia) for generating “enthusiasm. 70:18. see XIII.578 The final request states the matter with a different term. 224) has an important comment: “Man hat dann vejxeiv (wie Pind. Kyrios Christos. connections should be obvious.. wohne in meiner Seele’. 2. a case o f itacism. 2. lord Hermes.v. Eph 3:17. 49— XIII. 50.582 but in many other Hellenistic Weinreich (in Dieterich.579 Dieterich has recognized that this prayer is “mystical” and seems to come from a tradition different from the views presented so far in the ML: “We recognize in the background the most massive and ancient concept o f the union o f the hum an being and the god: the god comes into the human being physically.iq '\iuycdq (“the one w ho dwells in all 64: souls”).20-21: xa l carat. Ol. 17:21. see LSJ. 1 Cor 3:16. as med. 118:8.. for which parallels can be adduced as well. H M R .]). s. 165— 69. 582 See 1.” 581 Dieterich (96— 97. the NT. See BDAG. 8:9. dann ist das Gleichnis vom Hirten und dem Gotte da. Urchristentum. R om 5:5. Betz. 46. 48— 111— 343. хата Хе17ш.” the idea is not strange at all. vgl.795]). Aisch.247: тсаспл/ vefxeu.26.632. For parallels. For the indwelling o f the divine TtvsujjLa. If Preisendanz is correct. 110. 485— 732) 187 the term vefjito in PGM elsewhere is different. 11. We find it not only in the PG M .oikia.aa. The erotic 37. ѕухатаЛѕатш.. 580 Dieterich (96— 97): “Wir erkennen im Hintergrunde deutlich die massivste urspriinglichste Vorstellung von der Vereinigung des Menschen und des Gottes: der Gott kommt korperlich in den Menschen hinein. The formula o f mutual identity occurs several times in this papyrus: cru yap eyw xal eyw au. zu fassen mit dem Sinn des Wohnens: ‘bleibe du. 578 Cf. XI. 116— 31. 579 Pap. a play on words may be intended: jxeve / vejxe. and mine is yours. 15-16.2— еА[&]ѓ jaol.761-805. Main body of the ritual (11. your name is mine.II. s formula o f reciprocal identity (“reziproke Identitatsformel”): “Religiose Stimmen der Volker. 50. 2 Tim 1:14). as fetuses come into the wombs o f wom en” [my trans. See Dieterich. xupie 3: 'Epjja]..238— cf. 245— Bousset. and I am you.13.a vefjir)<. 242— 98. Eum.2. . Das entspricht der Auffassung vom Wohnen des Gottes im Menschen und seiner evaxjiq mit dem Glaubigen durchaus.761-63: £va. 37:22. Vielleicht darf man auch weitergehen und das Bild der [sic! des] vejxeiv unterstreichen. Poimandres. 96— Reitzenstein.a. 971) als vefAecr&at. However. Cf. unten S. XII. spirit does not dwell (olxew.” 580 For the background he refers to parallels in the PGM and elsewhere. evot-xeco) in the soul but in the heart or body (e. reads хата?афт)£. 134— 240) refers to Otto Weinreich’ essay on the 37.36— see also 11. 7rveu[i.” On vefxw act. та (Зресрт) el q та<?> y. where the 57. 14:10-11. Hellenismus und 52. to ctov ovofxa Ifxov x a l to sijlov ctov eyw yap eljjn to elScoAov crou (“For you are I. VII. For other instances o f this prayer language see LXX Ps 26:10.581 It is true that up to now the initiate did not ask for this indwell­ ing o f a god. Ps 21:1-2 (еухатаАеиш) is recited by Jesus in Mark 15:34 / / Matt 27:46).g. XII. 20. VIII.v. s.q tmv yuvat-xwv (“Come to me... idem. For the N T see John 10:38. t% ev&eov ev ттј сѓ?) харб1а. for I am your image” [VIII. III. see III. also the hymn to Eros IV1763— б ѕт угџлџлчос Tz6.” A R W 19 (1916-1919) 165-68. 20.

“Glanzender” (?). the previous greeting before: invocation. 175— Klaus Thraede. 137 (1993) 72— 91. and followed by three greetings.7. 617-18. 543. 524— Stephan Schroder. has the divine authority to enforce. adds: “ ‘Sonnenglanz. Already Preisendanz. 506.588 and w ind/air/spirit.a. which are 583 See Johannes Haussleiter.583 Also the ancient theories about the inspiration o f the Delphic Pythia are especially im portant for comparison. 582. arjp 508.584 Finally. conv. “Inspiration. and greet in this m anner”). F. 695. O founder o f the earth! Hail. 1990). Antike und Christentum.1: evOl svtm) as representing Egyptian 'ndw. the PGM in connection with issuing orders to deities. the refer­ ence is by K. O ruler o f the wind!”).. and petition (see 639-55. 3. orac. aoi (“for the [magical name] commands you” ). 556) and the loud roaring or bellowing sound (see 11. O master o f the water! Hail. 587 See 11. (“Hail. impregnate a goddess cf. 510. 588 See 11. They include the gazing (see at 1. 414E. 494. This greeting follows in 11 712— showing the same pattern as . ycdpe.587 earth. Voller’ (Hermes/Thoth)”. evtco VII. 492-93. s. Def.556. 513.253 (index). Chrysipp? Zur Inspirationstheorie in Plutarchs Schrift ‘D e Pythiae oraculis’. 3. 70. 589 For TtVEUfxa see 11. beginning w ith the address “Lord” (xupis).188 Commentary texts. бшастха ixvsupiaxof. 585 The terms xeAeuelv (11. however. o n xsXeuet.1.589 This is comple­ m ented by two further attributes: Aafjucpocpeyyyj and тгротгросрѕуу^.v. 86. for a human man to 21. 627. “Inspiration/Theopneustie.4.586 Before making his appearance. 65. 9. Quaest. D e Pythia Oraculis (BAK 8. First. 520. 680) occur also elsewhere in 83. Betz. 505. 584 See Plutarch.” PRJE 47th Halbband (1963) 515— esp. Dietrich-Alex Koch. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. 95: o ji mtap^wv. 658-59. 39. 586 The magical names are found only here in the PGM.331. ССЛ 1934. “Pythia 2. orac.v. (“and gaze at the god while bellowing loudly. IV. however. Glanzender. 8. “Platon oder 72. the god needs to be greeted appropriately. See Preisendanz. 693. 718B. s. . The god is called upon as the ruler o f the elements o f water. 183.2194— б штѕр ут)<. Then the prayer itself is to be recited (713— 17). Brashear (“The Greek Magical Papyri. W. Plutarchs in D e Pythiae oraculis.” Ph. Num. VIII. 482— 710) and xsAsujxa (1. 541. 17. “Zur Inspirationslehre 56. Cf. and unexplained. Cf. XIX. as indicated by the magical names ev&o cpevev Фротиоог). the nature o f the request is stated. 629. cf. 162— idem. 25— 183— idem. consisting o f the exclamation “Hail!” and a divine attribute: yoCipz. Werner Brandle. 538.” R G G 4 (2001) 167-75. 704— 7): xal axevi^e xto &ew jxaxpov jxuxtofjievo? xal асттса^ои ouxax. хахар^а X<xZpe. XIII. 589. Pyth. “Deus internus. бесттгоха ибахо^. 641.” R A C 3 (1957) 794— 842. 84. Plutarchs Schrift 47.” 3584) who points to evto (IV 711. 812-14 (with references). It is an order. xal шго yv}v Secttc ty .3. 665-92). The various theories regarding the inspiration o f the Pythia at Delphi are discussed by Wolfgang Fauth. 489. Stuttgart: Teubner. self-presentation. 800. 4. the necessary rituals have to be performed. Schmidt. 20— 404B-405A.119 (index).585 which.” R A C 18 (1998) 329— Barbel Beinhauer-Kohler.” Wiirzburger Jahrbucher 20 (1994— 95) 233— arguing against Jens Holzhausen. esp.

a. the actual petition is surprisingly b rief (cf. “Divination in Egypt.292C]). Weinreich. LXXVII. Main body of the ritual (II 485— 732) 189 both associated w ith fire. 11 642— . rcepl xou Sscva 71рау[латос. Christus patiens [PG 38. concerning the N N m atter”).386. 55). 594 For this request.” 595 An ordinary oracular inquiry would indeed proceed as Merkelbach suggests. xupt. also suggests that Фртј}фа may have been expanded by the last three letters o f the wellknown palindrome a(3Aava9-avaA(3a. X X X . 122).) writes Фртј Фр?)?фа. Or. for тгротгрофѕуу?]. according to the T L G . with proximity o f фсАЈЗа. IV. 150-51. see 11. daB der Orakelsucher iiber jedes beliebige Thema einen Wahrspruch des Gottes erbitten konnte.113. 562— 603-4. W hy is such an extensive ascension 590 For Ха(Л7гро<реуу7]с cf. 3. 653. Man muBte dann sicherlich auBerdem annehmen. daB die Anfrage schon am Vorabend oder in der Vornacht schriftlich eingereicht worden ist. 3. 595 Merkelbach.593 the initiate requests an oracular session with the god: ^pYjfxaTiaov. 562. and that it was only secondarily applied to all kinds o f pur­ poses. 591 See the comparative table above. Abrasax.592 The final step is the presentation o f the petition (717— 24). O ne would then cer­ tainly also have to assume that the question would have been submitted in w ritten form the evening or night before. VII.e. ganz besonderen Anlassen beniitzt worden ist und erst sekundar zu verschiedenen Zwecken herangezogen wurde. see Alexandra von Lieven.II.1 [PG 98. similar to those found in 11. but then the question arises. 253.248. Man wird doch eher vermuten.724. IV. 588 (with references). Preisendanz 32.244: “Dies wiirde bedeuten.208]. The term is technical and means “to grant an oracular re­ sponse.” 594 The subject matter o f the inquiry has to be filled in by the petitioner. see the logos in 11. Weber & O. 592 Weinreich (in Dieterich. there is no 65. For oracle divination in Egypt and rich bibliography. other attestation. apxevxeTU fjiiVEto usvapw (рируеум фтјрг. it is o f course not m entioned in the text because every petitioner will want to have his or her own business to present. W. according to P G L and T L G . Merkelbach comments at this point: “This would mean that the oracle inquirer could ask the god for a revelation concerning any subject m atter whatsoever.951. 996. Sapito сррт) срртјТфос.” Altorientalische Forschungen 26 (1999) 77-126. which —not uncommonly in magical materials —reflects the name o f Ammon R e.2-4. the petition to Helios. 4):591 ejxeOtpt. Littmann. However. 727.” . Germanus I o f Constantinople [died 733].” A R W 22 [1923] 117— esp. O lord. the term is attested in patristic and Byzantine literature (Gregory o f Nazianzus. 2502. 224) comments that Preisendanz (ad loc. After the long and arduous ascension. 593 See for this title at 1. Addressing the god again as “lord” (xupie). at 1. (“Give revelation. it is more likely that the long-winding ceremony was used originally on only a few issues o f great importance.297. XII. Gottheiten auf einem Altar aus Cordova. 732. E.20. furthermore 1. “Syrische .590 The conclusion consists o f the string o f voces magicae. Weinreich also calls attention to the name Фр/jv on an inscription from Cordoba (see F Freiherr Hiller von Gaertringen. daB die aufwendige Zeremonie uspriinglich nur zu wenigen. 562— 603— 65.

After all.. . p. was etwa noch folgte nach dem von uns Herausgehobenen.” 597 N ote also PDM xiv.596 It seems more likely.uciTY ’'Аттеах. et religionis secreta perdidict). 596 Dieterich (82): “ . yeyova [j. 232): “. I have become an initiate of Attis”). O f interest are also his comparisons with analogous Christian formulas. It would be odd to assume that the inquirer who exhibits a philosophical interest in cosmological and anthropological questions would approach this god with mundane banalities.84— 85. however. rel. In other words. the magician would go through a lot o f ritualistic pom p and circumstance.” Consequently. so kommt hier der umarbeitende Magier zu Wort. also for other parallels. der die Liturgie benutzt zur Erlangung von Wahrsagungen. he cites the tripartite password needed to enter into the inner chambers o f the temple: ex tujxtoxvou (3e(3pwxa. Griffiths (Apuleius. Ich habe wohl diese undjene Vermutung. 724— 27).” N obody can o f course say what portion o f the text he may have excised. kann natiirlich niemand sagen.597 Before the gods grant the request (11. cf. that the reference to the subject matter (тсрауЈха) of the inquiry was not ordinary but extraordinary.190 Commentary ritual necessary. 3.. This synthema has close parallels in the Orphic-Dionysiac gold-tablets. Johnson. the physician Thessalos who has a session with the god Asclepius to learn from him the most effective healing plants. 644-49). a distant inquiry.. water and fields. 11— 15). the practitioner is seeking a personal interview with the highest god Helios-MithrasAion. 516— 37). lasse ich sie unausgesprochen. Ix xufx(3aAou тсѓтшха.23. 598 Cf. 18.” Cf. ed. 11. Rather. aber da ich nicht einmal Sicherheit geben kann. see above. also what Firmicus Maternus (Err. (“I have jc eaten from the kettle-drum. 719-24 appears to be a citation. the inquirer needs to present himself and his credentials as an initiate.599 by repeating it from an earlier initiation ritual the present inquirer demonstrates his qualifica­ tions. d a 6 etwas fehlt. that there are other versions as well (see Dieterich. Merkelbach.th e gods 74 never go away without you having questioned them about everything so that they say to you the answer about heaven. Ziegler) reports about ои[л(ЗоАос (symbola) in a mystery cult.670— (Janet H. 294— 308) dis­ cusses the passage in connection with the famous synthema in Metam. This suggestion takes up ideas o f D ieterich who sees the redactor as having caused the problem. See. Note that the Greek formula and the Latin translation do not conform (De tympano manducavi. one should remember the highflying aims stated already in the exordium (483— of “walking (into) heaven and looking 84) over all things. G M PT . just to give greater status to what in reality could be done in a less spectacular way. the previous self-presentations to the elements (11. however. if no more than a simple answer is expected? Merkelbach concludes that the ascension ritual must have been put to a secondary usage. prof. 11. de cymbalo bibi. in Betz. including the nature o f the cosmos and his own self. and to Helios (11. Was er etwa abgeschnitten hat an dem Texte. Abrasax. 170.598 T he great synthema in 11. 216-17). 599 For the concept o f synthema. earth. He “uses the liturgy for obtaining oracular responses.. or what may have been the content o f the omission. one should assume that the inquirer will seek answers to questions of ultimate concern. I have drunk from the cymbal. the underworld.

you jum ped into milk. сг’ итго yyjv xeXea аст<а>ал:гр oX[3(.).fji. yevofAevo?.av. ајлатЕ. 23958 (the citation and interpretation. Ram . Main body of the ritual (11. you fell into milk. I am passing on. 359— (the citation... Bull. vuv 19-avs? x a l vuv eysvou. NY: Cornell University Press. (xupc. “Initiation —Tod —Unterwelt. т т б е . xa7Ufxevet. and TtaXt-vyevsaia. 1993). To return to the synthema in 11 718— Mithras is addressed again as “lord” .?. referring in cryptic abbreviations to decisive ritual acts. w hile growing and having grown.. Tell Persephone that Bakchios him self has set you free.ot. el? a7toyevecilav av aX u $el? rcopeuo[JLat.” in Graf. and n ow you have been born. he affirms his hum an and divine self-understanding by three state­ ments (11. Clearly.vyev6fxevo? a7ioylyvo^.o<. I am dying. Masks of Dionysus (Ithaca.ai. Fritz Graf. Having been born from a life-generating birth. Faraone. Kid. The translation follows. xaupo? si? yaXa e&ope?’ а1фа el? y< a> X a e&ope?" xpio? el? yaXa етгесте<?>. Tpi<76X(3t. released to death.e. the inter­ 98 pretation. kn o yevecrew? ^woyovou yevojAevo?. And below the earth there are ready for you the same prizes [or: rites] as for the other blessed ones. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. N o w you have died.. BCE):600 The tripartite formula. on this very day. Having been born again.601 600 Cited according to Christoph Riedweg. olvov e^et? euSal^i-ova xt. 234— 35). aXXot. 411 (also Antike und Christen­ tum. O thrice blessed one. has so far not been conclusively explained. I am passing away. 241-50).” in Thomas H. with some variation. after w hich the initiate offers three fundamental statements o f selfunderstanding: First. 392. au^ofjtevo? x a l au£r)&el? xeXeuxw. you jum ped into milk. “Zur Lehre vom Menschen. eds. avaXu&ei? . 370— 75). Betz.” ibid. 24. Carpenter & Christo­ pher A.II. a ’ oxi BaХ< Х>[-0? «uto? eXucre. 485— 732) 191 especially the one from the Thessalian Pelinna (end of the 4th c. You have w ine as your fortuitous honor. “Dionysian and Orphic Eschatology: N ew Texts and Old Questions. elrtetv <J>epa’e<p6vat. Beobachtungen zur Kommunikationssituation und narrativen Technik der orphisch-bakchischen Goldblattchen. aTroyevecjLa is the opposite ofyevecrt. 718-22): 7taXt. 601 Scholars are divided on the translation o f the phrase el? cotoyeveaiav avaXu&el?.

from that same man at once another.ev.244) refers to the Christian formu­ lation in Firmicus Maternus. .12 (eiq xo auxo ayr^xa eXQelv [xexa xt)v arcoyevecrt-v). which seems an obvious conclu­ sion. also for baptismal formulae R om 6:1— and my essay. 22 (ed. 7U x a l ercotajcxa? [AucrryjpLOV.175): “ins Ablegen des Lebens aufgelost werde(n)..155 (eyw eljxt. 6) w ho points to the parallels in PGM V. Preisendanz: “zum Sterben aufgelost”. 240— esp. 1. xS xuptto aTcoQ-vfjaxofxev. 70): ut sepultoprima homine ex eodem statim homine homo aliusfelicius <re>nascatur (“that when the first man is buried. eav xe a7tot)v7)cTX(*)fi. Konrat Ziegler [Miinchen: Huber. prof. Erwin Rohde (Psyche. “Transferring a Ritual: 12. 603 The text is cited according to Nestle-Aland. Merkelbach (Abrasax. 70. released to death”. wc < evofxo&exYjcrat.cra<. Cf. and have authored (the) mystery.. 3.603 Second. Merkelbach (Abrasax. so then. If the inquirer speaks as an initiate. 1953]. and if w e die. w e die to the Lord.307): “je me dissous pour entrer dans la mort”. three further statements affirm the divine authority which supports the initiate’ present self-understanding: s a u exxt.” 602 As an important parallel. Dieterich (15): “werde ich in den Tod erlost”. Paul’s Interpretation o f Baptism in Romans 6. w e live to the Lord. what do the self-definitions define. xou xuplou eafxev. 3.” corresponds to xeXeuxw. If w e live. w e are the Lord’ s.421— 22).307. 2. For a discussion o f arcoyeveala see Festugiere (Revelation. o yevvtov x a l ajtoyevvwv) and Plotinus.4.]).602 Although the formula is now part o f the greeting o f Mithras. rev. such as that o f a formula recited before the initiate’ natural death. Err. Meyer: “I am passing on. En. Festugiere (Revelation. eauxfij атсогКлрахег eav xe yap (^wjxev. 27th ed. eav xe o5v i^ojAev eav xe a7to^v7]CTXw[xev. his newly achieved divine status or his human status? Since he states his achievement o f rebirth and regeneration as past experiences. Reitzenstein (G G A 185 [1923] 51) renders it as “entferne ich mich” (“I remove myself”). happier. although the meaning can only be guessed.192 Commentary The structure o f polarity is apparent. man is reborn” [my trans. rel. We do not live to ourselves and w e do not die to ourselves. as you have decreed. n. “as you have founded. 1. III. the verbs in the present tense must define his imminent condition. the translation is that o f NRSV. whether w e live or whether w e die.6. 261— 71.” Paulinische Studien. the words seem to point to a different context. a kind o f “Sterbeformel” comparable to s R o m 14:7-9: ouSel? yap rj^uov eauxto ^ x a l оибѕ1<. xto xuplw ^wfxev.

Festugiere. 605 See also Betz.” He refers to a parallel in an Egyptian charm translated by Borghouts: “it is not I who have said it. Antike und Christentum. 527. 723) can.) ends at this point. and that a new section dealing w ith the granting o f an oracular response begins. fjt. XXIII (Kore Kosmou).606 identified by his secret name. That object seems to be the ritual as a w hole. the article (the) may fit in English. O Z 2 /1 . 724 with the words eyw eljjL cpspoupa [jaoupt. 746..175— 244). n. 224. as refering to the mystery ritual as divinely authored (ttolouv). According to C H . “I am P H E R O U R A M IO U R I..” One wonders why Dieterich stops translating.607 sy to slfju cpepoupa fjaoupi. its purpose being the rebirth. Preisendanz.ov (1.ai (“She showed the conduct o f her rites and taught them all her mysteries”). 178). Cf.608 “We feel in these last words a kind o f conclusion o f the consecration.ai o f Hermes. 258.ov. 608 According to Dieterich (16). 170. For more 0 material see Hopfner. and unexplained. therefore.II. in the papyrus the sentence follows: таита стои s I tcovto ? eu&eooc. the resultant self-definition o f the initiate is summed up in a very concise statement. 794 show. 170. Michigan X V I. ^ртјстриабујаес.u<rcr]pt..605 Third. see also Dieterich (14— 15). Frag. 75.. it is not I who have repeated it. and Merkelbach (Abrasax . . P. та jAucror)pt.a). PH ER O U R A M IO U R I. That the mystery cult has been instituted by the deity is a common doctrine. Meyer.” Cited and discussed in Martinez. 485— 732) 193 The precise meaning o f this part o f the formula seems unclear. the immortali­ zation o f the initiate after the needs o f the bodily life. Chapter 1.. For the term [xucTT7]pt. (М л & р а ? ) . Col 1:26— 2:2-3. This aim is stated in the text time and again w ith great clarity. 3. may refer to all three lines. the mysteries o f Isis and Osiris were revealed by the v0 [A &eat. Hymn to Demeter 473— 76: SprjafAocjuv/jv 9-’ Lepwv xal IrcecppaSev opyia na. 27. the new section. begins in 1. It is this magic that comes for N N born o f N N that has said it. w ithout article. which he calls “Anweisung zu magischer Verwendung der Mithrasliturgie” (“Instruction for the magical application o f the Mithras Liturgy”). as instances in 76. this is the statement by the magician who is reworking the liturgy for the purpose of 604 Martinez rightly proposes the sense o f a recusatio: “not I but y o u .ov. Dieterich believes that the immortalization ritual (атса&аvaTLa[xo<.604 The object [xuCTTY]pt. 6°6 por jjjjg formulaj see above at 1. E. § 68. 11. “I am t.g. 72— 73. 607 The name is found only here. Main body of the ritual (11.” R ather arbitrarily. without article. W hen. that has repeated it. when he con­ tinues carefully to annotate the text from here on (16— 21). The decisive insight gained from his initiation is that he has come to understand himself as an individual self (eyto elpa). Hellenismus und Urchristentum. the Eleusinian mysteries were instituted by Demeter (Horn. 476: plural. refer also to things other than the ritual as such (1. It appears originally to belong to a different hymnic context unknown to us.. since it names an object known to the practicioner.

“The Problem o f Apocalyp­ tic Genre in Greek and Hellenistic Literature: The Case o f the Oracle o f Trophonius. i n T tp a y jx a x o ? o rd e r to (11. 655-56. T h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e p h r a s e . 620— 633. o x a v a o i a r c o x p lv ^ x a ! . II. 610 On the methods o f collating sources used by ancient scribes. w h e n h e a n s w e r s y o u ” ). 7 2 5 — 2 6 ) : ш г е х Х и т о ? б г e a s e т т ј ф и ^ тј x a l o u x e v а ѕ а и т а ј E a s t. 14. 3. 11. 611 T h e te rm ^ p Y ja p u o S s T v is t e c h n i c a l a n d d e s ig n a t e s th e o r a c u la r re ­ s p o n s e .” See also ibid. t o s u g g e s t s u c h a r e d a c t i o n a l s e a m . a n d y o u w i l l n o t b e i n y o u r s e l f . 1. 727. R a t h e r . e u & e co ? x P y]CTtX(P^1 QCTEt' ( “ a f t e r y o u h a v e s a i d t h e s e t h i n g s . see especially the ’А-гсоАА&тахт) iTzivSkqaic. 117 [# 45]).194 Commentary o b t a i n i n g a n o r a c u l a r r e s p o n s e .. 732.157) who believes that the specific issue regarding which the oracular response was sought had been submitted in written form on the evening before. 53. 7 i e p l t o u A been s e c o n d a r ily in s e r t e d b y t h e r e d a c to r . (“ n o w y o u w i l l g r o w w e a k i n y o u r s o u l. see below. x u p i s . (MtQ-pa?). 24. 557. 614 Actually.46. 611 See the parallels in 11. On хртјстјлб^ (“oracular response”). 610 T h e r e is n o t h i n g i n t h e t e x t . ed. die Unsterblichmachung des Mysten nach der N ot des Leibeslebens ist. т а и т а a o u ei7r6 vTO <. le a v in g a sp a ce fo r th e c o n s u lt a t io n to ta k e p la c e and fo r th e is s u e (тс р а у [х а ) t o be s u b m i t t e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . 576. see 11. 613 T h e v e r y n e x t ste p c o m m e n t s o n th e c o n d i t i o n o f th e in q u ir e r d u r i n g th e c o n s u l t a t i o n (11. ѕи&ѓм^ ^ру]С [хсоб7)С £[. 1 6 ) .. 612 Pap. probably together with the birth constellation (ykveatq). 2: the verb ^раст&ац 1. (“at once”). h a v e a p p e a r e d b e f o r e i n d if fe r e n t s it u a t io n s t o in d ic a t e p r o g r e s s i n t h e n a r r a ­ t iv e . Friedrich. (Prooem. 3. deren Zweck ja die Neugeburt.w87]a£t. See my article. &e6<.' ^ p y j f x a T t a o v . Abrasax. t h e t e x t d o e s n o t r e p o r t a n y m a t e r i a l c o n t e n t o f q u e s t i o n s a n d a n s w e r s . der die Liturgie Т Т benutzt zur Erlangung von Wahrsagungen..54. 717. Merkelbach (Abrasax. VIII. S e v e r a l p a r a l l e l p a s s a g e s c o n f i r m th a t t h is is th e t y p ic a l c o n d itio n o f a p e rso n in e csta sy or t h e r e a f t e r . cf.86— 90. p. Wenn darum nun im Papyrus der Satz folgt: таита aou eiuovToc. Dies Ziel ist immer wieder mit groBter Deutlichkeit im Texte ausgesprochen. 740. 84— 85. 3.101— xpYjajJiwSoi. see also VI. Thessalos almost lost his mind: xa&c^ofxevou бе [xou xal sxAuojjlevou tou асојлато^ . Cf.” Hellenismus und Urchristentum.. 1. reads y_p7]aij. see Merkelbach. ^ргјЈлатс^со 1. 612 A s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . h o w e v e r . t h e p u r p o s e a n d a i m o f t h e r i t u a l is to b r i n g th e in q u ir e r u p to th e p o in t o f m e e t in g th e g o d in p e r s o n . so kommt hier der umarbeitende Magier zu Wort. 614 609 Dieterich (82): “Wir fiihlen in den letzten Worten eine Art AbschluB der Weihe. W hen the god appeared. 184— 209. h e w i l l i m m e d i a t e l y r e s p o n d w i t h a r e v e l a t i o n ” ).240) points to Thessalos’s encounter with Asclepius 38. “not being in (or: by) yourself” defines ecstasy (ѕхатаа^). For this term. 7 1 7 — 1 8 ) h a v e th e t w o c o o r d in a t e s e c t i o n s ( 1 5 . 613 A pertinent example o f such conversations are the consultations o f the god Trophonius in the underground cave in Lebadeia.263— 347. The terminology and concept o f oracular inquiry is frequent in the PGM. I. corrected by Dieterich (16). also Totti. Texte. see at 21. For euQiwi. 737— Merkelbach (Abrasax. h e a s s u m e s t h a t t h e w o r d s cpprj cpprjXfia. ” 609 C o n s e q u e n t l y .

11.13 (see Betz. ecstasy”] in the proper sense is well-known to us. “Inspiration.” Dieterich (98) refers to Rohde. 87. 8. 28: the gods’ presence was not supposed to make humans better than themselves.” 615 The session w ith the god then concludes (11. see also C H X ..” R A C 18 (1998) 57. &ea<. Hellenismus und Urchristentum.” R A C 4 (1959) 944— idem.1) presents a kind o f classic statement: ’Evvolac. however. [ioi тготѕ yevojiivT^ ruspl twv ovtmv xal [летѕмрс-а&Ехсттјс. хаФаттер xaiv (mvw (3e(3ap7][jiivo[. kann ich ebenfalls nicht ausmachen__ Wahrscheinlich ist es mir nicht. 186)..” Apuleius. this would be in conflict with all analogies o f similar sacramental actions. sein Geist in den Gott korperlich eingeht. 485— 732) 195 D ieterich’ com m ent is to the point: “The phenom enon o f ev^ouaiaa^o? s [“enthusiasm. that the human being.. while my bodily senses were held down. indeed. the reading elrcwv by Dieterich (16) is correct.II. that the ML xal TTjs фи/9}<. 615 Dieterich (97— 98): “D ie Erscheinung des evQouaiacrjxoc im eigentlichen Sinne ist uns wohlbekannt.]). To me it is not probable that the return o f the initiate occurred somehow in the liturgy itself. This idea changes time and again with the other. thus. but rather weak or sick” (prorsus quasi deum praesentia soleant homines non suifieri meliores. das widersprache aller Analogie ahnlicher sakramentaler Aktionen.. 7] ex хотсои сгцхато^. daB die Ruckkehr des Geweihten in der echten Liturgie irgendwie vorkam. Metam. I am unable to make out. [mi ттјс Siavolai.5. 1 En. Wiinsch (in Dieterich. “Ekstase. бе croi б[. described in Acts 9:3— 22:6— 9.а ох1 јш t o v jpy\a\xbv x a l ec7ta)(v) а 7геХеистгта[616 (“he. the soul... “Enthusiasmos. Psyche (2nd ed. ex xopou троср?]<. D ieterich’ (82— s 83) astute observation that the session ends rather abruptly is one o f the reasons why he assumes that a section at the end may have been excised by the redactor. or the spirit ascends to the sphere o f the god. 1898). 617 Dieterich (82. “when I took my seat and my body and soul grew weak because o f the miracle o f the vision. 83): “Ob irgendwie der Abstieg des Mysten liturgisch angegeben war. (“Once when thought came to me about the things that are. The opening paragraph o f the “Poimandres” (C H 1.. for the oracle o f Trophonius see Pausanias 39. 727— 28): Aeyec.. speaks the < oracle to you in verses. for the OT and Judaism see Saul’ weakness s after the consultation with the dead prophet Samuel in the story o f the “witch o f Endor” (1 Sam 28:20-24). to be sure. entstammt dieser Anschauung. 329— (with bibliography). хатаа^е&есаш [лои тcov (JwfxaxLxwv alaihqarewv. So I fell upon my face. Sloc to 7rapaSo^ov тгј<.27— “as if. ехсгтаог? [‘ecstasy’] is derived from this viewpoint.40): “(Then) a great trembling and fear seized me and my loins and kidneys lost control. Es ist urspriinglich gemeint als ganz korperliches Erfulltsein vom Gotte.axa. 60:3 (O T P 1.” (“Whether somehow the descent o f the initiate was liturgically presented.” [my trans. 240).18ff. like those who are heavy with sleep from a fill o f food or fatigue o f the b o d y . sed debiles ejfici uel aegrott). daB der Mensch oder seine Seele.. Main body of the ritual (11. reads et-тш with the v expressed by a supralinear stroke. which in turn supports D ieterich’ ideas concerning the composi­ s tion. 2. ey.. 65 616 Pap.”) .” R A C 5 (1962) 455— Klaus Thraede. and my thinking was lifted up high. стфобра. Mit dieser Vorstellung wechselt immer und immer wieder die. Primarily it is meant to be physically possessed by the god.617 It is the case. H e perceives the absence o f a narrative o f a ritual dealing with the inquirer s return from heaven to earth. and after speaking he will depart”).” Paul’s vision o f Christ on the road to Damascus causes his physical collapse.uic. O n the topic o f ecstasy see Friedrich Pfister.

auTOfxaTwi.196 Commentary says nothing about a ritual o f return618 or o f the god s dismissal.4. Matt 19:11. see Dieterich (16. 334— 47.” .v. [wondering] how you will by yourself compre­ hend all these things”). 170..621 It appears that after having received the response. was der groBe Gott gesagt hat”).? hvzbq. either as “speechless and wondering how .620 (“but you stand speechless. app. the men accompanying him stand speechless. Socr.35. after Paul’s vision o f Christ. spontane­ ously” ). < таита Tcavxa yapricziq' xal to t s (xvrj^oveucjEti. . BDAG. Wilhelm Cronert (“Zur Kritik. 16. . Lucian. Hippolytus. Acts 9:7: ol бе &v8peq. and I heard from them everything and I understood. H ow then can the missing return o f the inquirer be explained? The conclusion o f the ritual again looks at the inquirer and provides several instructions (11. Cato Min. 592E. xauxa uavxa ^мрѓјстец.. agreeing with Usener (in Dieterich. 1. 22.B. 728— 29): au бѕ cmrjxet. Plutarch. e.619 Also.g. ^wpeco.-.252-53.622 Two promises deal w ith them. 622 Translations differ at this point because eveoq can be taken in two ways. XI. crit. 89.a. (Demotic) xiv.. the concern in 1 En. 6. Haer. 2.176— 83. is a hapax in the PGM.” 100) reads сти бе axi]Keiq eveoq w . n. s. 184— 86.258. Meyer: “But you remain silent. 54 [1895] 561) refers to parallels for the meaning o f y apeiv (“comprehend”): Philo. Preisendanz (app. 670. one being comprehension. s. daB Du alles von selbst behaltst. Ps. denn du wirst das alles von selbst verstehen”. which would require a considerably longer time. 5. R ather than being short. elcmr)X£t.) that this looks like a hexametric half-verse. IV. 505. 728-32). 8. 83).(jav sveo L. also referring to the parallel in IV.. (“for at a later time you will remember 618 For such narratives o f return.110. and that it may be borrowed from a source. Gen.623 The other promise assures him unfailing remembrance (11. 619 For such ritual dismissals. unfahig vor Staunen. For yoipeiv (“comprehend”) see also below. ox.26. xav [xuptwv c f t l y m o у^оџбс. 923. there is no indication o f how long the session would last. 1:2 (O T P 1.13): “(This is) a holy vision from the heavens which the angels showed me. 11. because o f amaze­ ment incapacitated to comprehend all o f these things. III. . n. crit. an important term in miracle stories.6. 34. Cf.b. recollection. 3. 64. 623. Sacr. the epilogue even presupposes that the revelation could include thousands o f verses.) cites Hopfner’ read­ s ing: (wctts) ум рујвем .” This reading Preisendanz adopts. “but you stand there. see BDAG. атгараРатм.v.. 729— 30): x al t o t e pt-VYjfAoveuaet. Differently. ” (“Du aber stehst da. 623 For the term /copslv (“comprehend”). Kroll (Ph. dies alles von selbst zu begreifen).. ” or “stand in amazement that you will by yourself comprehend all these things” (Preisendanz: “Du aber steh stumm. Icarom.-Phoc. 53 [1894] 420. The first assures him that he will indeed comprehend everything аситоуАтмс. 620 Dieterich reads (16): oru б’ естттјхѕ^ cveo q &q. (“by himself. since you will be able to compre­ hend all these matters by yourself”. та итгб тои [леуаХои 9-sou pY]Q-£vxa. The first o f these involves his resulting condition (11. the inquirer is faced w ith two questions. Merkelbach: “aber du wirst stumm dastehen und dariiber staunen. see. 621 Cf. see Plutarch. 2 Cor 12:2-4. app.. аитбјлато^. аиторихтоо*.94— 95. crit. and the other.

s. 78.625 Several things are made known here about the nature o f the revelation. Sera 33. O ne must be cautious at this point. a m outh-to-m outh (axo[xa repo? crxofxa) or face-to-face (npooamov npoQ npooconov) revelation. Main body of the ritual (11.424— 66. . this means that the initiate “left the earth” in a state o f trance. one wonders whether the author has oracle collections. w hen the god departs the initiate comes out o f his trance. 53— 67 n. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. See Schroder. Regarding this last point. they add up to a collection o f myriads o f verses.v. 1. Thespesius is touched with a glowing-hot rod. 626 Cf.” 627 See 1. 1. 728— Second. 11. whole is experienced in ecstasy. also 1 Cor 13:12. these oracles had the highest value. he confesses “whether in the body I don’t know. 185-86.8-14. in which he discusses current theories o f decline o f the Greek oracles because they are turning to prose. also Paul’s intended ambiguity in 2 Cor 12:2— Regarding the man snatched up 4. According to ancient views. 625 For xav -?jv as a common 3rd pers. 2. 568A): At his return from the journey to the afterlife. this is 29). 467— etc. 55. it appears to us as outsiders that the initiate does not move an inch off the ground and that there is no account o f a return.II. III. Cf.b. o f Moses LXX N um 12:6— Deut 5:4. sing. Cf. 204). and Plutarch. and Betz. they are given in verse. as such oracles should be. If. into the third heaven.628 Surpris­ ingly. According to the worldview expressed in the text. which for him is physical.405 with n. and not only a mental experience.626 the m om ent w hen he finds himself “standing speechless” (11.232— 47. (“mouth to mouth he was a companion o f the god”). l. 1. imaginative. so as to preserve the memory (see Betz. 628 See Plutarch’s essay “W hy oracles are no longer given in verse” (D e Pythiae oraculis).624 even if the oracle contains myriads o f verses” ). o f course. perhaps even a 624 That the problem o f remembering the revelation was an important concern is shown by parallels in connection with the oracle o f Trophonius (see Pausanias 39. in non-literary papyri and the N T see Gignac. also the charms in PGM called “memory spells” ([xvtq^xovlxt]). 7Tpom«mov. 8. but it is nonetheless “real” in the sense that the initiate s physical as well as mental state is participat­ ing. 485— 732) 197 infallibly the things spoken by the great god. Plutarchs Schrift. The experience is. 314. and BDAG. this fact only reveals our lack o f understanding o f what is implied in an ecstatic experience. subj. 11 725-26 lead to the conclusion that the journey to heaven as a . however. First. Hellenismus und Urchristentum. whether out o f the body I don’t.2— to ато[ла тсро? to стто[ха ctuv6[xlXo< tm 3: . Grammar. God knows. the oracular response envisaged is called “the words o f the great god. Therefore.627 Furthermore.40— 42.” revealed directly w ithout a mediating interpreter.

however. 20. part III (11. 732 the ritual o f immortalization (атга&оп/аткЈЈАо?) concludes. Early Christian Prophecy. Greek Particles. 750— 819).. 732— 819) As the analysis shows. There are two kinds o f those supplements: first. Oxford: Blackwell. Supplemental rituals (11..198 Commentary specific one. 631 Merkelbach (Abrasax . “Les Oracles Chaldaiques. is already an initiate (сти[л[лиату]^).. eav бе x a l . 3. he names a problem that no doubt has led to such collections. 724— 28). x al сти^иоту} ^p-rjcxaa&ai соахе xa Xeyofxeva exetvov p. the initiations o f both con­ sultants are therefore presupposed as having occurred prior to the present ritual text. Optional rituals for including afellow-initiate in the consultation (11.” “once more” vel sim. so that he hears only the things spoken together w ith y o u . three options for including a fellowinitiate in the oracular consultation (11. III. 1856). 187— 88).632 concern the oracular consultation presented above (11. stating 629 Such as the “Chaldean Oracles” (see Edouard Des Places.”). As will be shown below. These rituals are not to be confused w ith initiations. 77— 79.156-57) assumes that all the additional rituals refer to passages that were part o f the preparatory rituals which the redactor omitted from the beginning o f the text..630 W ith 1. Porphyry. second. . Herbert W.. 732— 36). Hellenismus und Urchristentum. also Apollonius’ consultation o f Trophonius.. 630 Cf. 305... the situation is more complicated. E.478-85. three additional in­ structions for preparing ingredients to be used in the ritual (11. the fellow-initiate is to serve as a medium in the consultation: eav бе OiXTji. Betz. The phrase “if you wish” (eav бе ФеХт]?).) see Denniston. (“But if you want to consult the oracle by using a fellow-initiate [as medium]. eav бе x a l . Berlin: Springer.. in m ind. 732— 50).631 A . V Apoll..19— see . Gustav Wolff. G G R 2. Wormell. because the additional person to be included in the consultation must be someone who.629 At any rate. 8. Aune. 732—50) The three optional rituals.” A N R W 11A l A [1984] 2299-2335). 1966). See Nilsson. coordinated by sav бе x a l . 632 For xod almost equalling a0 (“again. In the first option (11. D e philosophia ex oraculis exhaurienda librorum reliquiae (ed. when he reappears from the cave with a book containing the teachings o f Pythagoras (Philostratus.. W hat follows are supplementary instructions. W.. The Delphic Oracle (2 vols. 1. just as the first inquirer.6vov auv trot axoueiv... 732— 819) contains supplemental rituals. Parke & D.

749.1442.32. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. 149 n. for the unassimilated spelling see Gignac.42-43. Mylonas.348-58 (title: fxavxetov en i izaiSoq).163.. 11. XIII. 2257. [лиахт^. 65— 74. 44.” 635 T he meaning o f the waxe-sentence is. IV.89. 1720.633 The term aujjifjiucrxTjc. XXXVI. “Die Kindermedien in den griechisch-agyptischen Zauber75. term Spwjxeva does not occur in the PGM. IV767.425-39.710.94. 74.” in Graf. XIII.168. and abstain from meat and bath”). 285-90. 637 For the term та Xeyofxsva.” in Gesammelte Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt (2nd ed. and Burkert. 636 For such selective participation in revelation.526-27. but in this context it is more likely that it signifies the utterances o f the god (see 11 731. see also 1. 634 Pap. for бе^и[Х(. 2252. 1. “Dromena und Legomena. 732— 819) 199 options. papyri. See George E. For child mediums see 1. cf. 30.56. For the importance o f seven days.285— 420— 5 2 5 95.634 The verb ypcf. 3125. see also 1.244-45.III. xal SatfJiova^ етс’ аито [31а феpet. 11. Supplemental rituals (11. 530. 26. 193-94. km. Ш . but here it seems to have the more specific meaning o f “to make use o f a m edium . V .86-87. 785.124. 695-97. 1961). П.) and about the witnesses o f Paul’s vision o f Jesus on the road to Damascus (Acts 9:7: axouovxec.210— cf. браса IV. 870— see Theodor Hopfner. 737). 635 For the verb referring to a substance see IV. 75. P. [xev xyj<. XIII. a limit is imposed on that role: “so that he hears only the things spoken together with you” (ware xa Xeyop-eva exelvov fxovov auv croc. cpwvf^.151.a$oii appears often in the magical literature. III. 1926).638 These conditions are typical for prelimi­ 633 See 1. IV. at first sight. X II. VII. Jordan considers articulating cruv [auctxy] or haplography <auv> <tuv[xucjty]. For discussion and parallels see Herbert Braun. 480-85. IV246-47: бтсер ovo^jia pT]9iv fteoui.1040-45.17. 32 0 9 10. Grammar. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck.114. see PDM xiv. XCIV. VII. this term usually refers to the words to be spoken by the practitioner o f the ritual. Xu/vou x a l <pt. The 11.10. PDM xiv.). If the role o f the fellow-initiate is that o f a medium.5-10. 490-95. 460-65.141-44. 150-55. [x^Ssva бе ftewpouvxe?). 738. LXII. 52-53. 2301.aX xal (3[a]&pou). obscure. . 33-71. III. 850-51.v). 261— Albert Henrichs. 815— Cf. 1967). PDM xiv. as well as in the language o f the mystery cults. 375— a<.636 In the PGM . see also XII. For the term. Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries (Prince­ ton: Princeton University Press.52.2593. axouet.637 . 671. 11 par.792— sZtzsv бе puu o т)ѕ6с' pqxe n yp5> 93: T auyxptd^xT!. 515-20. 815-20. 168— 72. is technical and indicates that the adept has been initiated. V. 856.” in Recueil d ’etudes dediees a la memoire de N. 695. reads auvfAuaxu) (equalling сти[х[хиат7]). Kondakov (Prague: Seminarium Kondakovianum. T he following statement specifies the conditions the medium has to meet before performing his role: auvayvsuexco aot. is attested elsewhere in the P G M . BDAG.v. below 11. the differing versions o f the reports about Jesus’ baptism (Mark 1:9— 25. but perhaps at a lower rank or as child m edium . 76. but cf. 572. Ancient Mystery Cults. <i^> У][лера? x al атсоахѓст&со x al (SaAavelou (“let him be pure together w ith you for [seven] days.l-53 W (title: [xavxetov Sapamaxov [ercl] тсоабо^. 2655. Zum rituellen Selbstverstandnis der Griechen. s. but appears to become clearer w hen compared w ith the two other options. 544.495. “Entscheidende Motive in den Berichten iiber die Taufe Jesu von Markus bis Justin. 772. 410-15.41 (ev у ^ р И ? £']). IV. 638 Dieterich adds pQ (“seven”) because o f the parallel in IV.

and you are [directly] engaged w ith the pronouncements o f the god. 9— esp. a third typical requirement. Aeyei. XXII. афихо? 1.52. 3.” R A C 10 (1978) 812— (bibliography). 155-70. “be sanctified together by prayer. VII.298— See Julius Jiithner.” Martinez suggests that Preisendanz may be right because also in the other two sav-clauses the protasis is followed by an imperative apodosis. 52. and he concludes that the redactor must have omitted them.113. IV. 642 See Wachter. passim. XIII.245) notes that no such requirements are reported at the beginning o f the ML. 846. IV. 349 n. 1. cf. 1766. Reinheitsvorschriften. ‘Ritual’ and the Opposition ‘Sacred vs.” in Graf. Amulets. Absten­ tion from meat was widespread in antiquity. Gerhard Delling. Ancient Magic and Ritual Power (RGRW 129. see 1.644 s 2. and 1141-42. 224).2997-98 (for other readings. Burkert. 671. you speak as inspired in 639 The term auvayveusiv is rare and found only here in the PGM. Leiden: Brill. Parker. VII. “Bad.639 The emphasis on “together w ith you” indicates the role o f the m entor/teacher as supervisor. See Jan Bremmer. 2). The second option applies to prophecy w ithout a medium (11.640 that is meat. 20. 1136 (referring to Philo.. 3079— LXVII. 70.643 These requirements o f purity are preconditional for the per­ son’ function as a m edium . a7co<pot<(3w[jLevo£645 (“B ut if you are alone. 1-2. 643 On abstention from sex.149.. 641 Strangely.642 however. 32. Miasma. 99. Abstention from bath ((BaXaveLov) is mentioned only here in the PGM. ev exaxaast. cf. 145— 765— 815— O n the subject see Eugen Fehrle. ax. Plot. bathing does not effect purification. 736— 38): eav 8e x al { iovoq x al xa O tto t o u &eou elp-yjjjiiva. as well as from bath641 are the com m on requirements for sancti­ fication. IV3209. XXXVII.2.334. “Geschlechtsverkehr. and that o f the fellowinitiate as being o f lower status. eds. Porphyry. 1995). The simplex ayveueiv (“sanctify”) occurs 11. Miasma. Ancient Mystery Cults.347. 151. ad loc. Abstention from “ensouled” food (г^лфи^о^). On the 80. Trpoayvsuexv. D ie kultische Keuschheit im 50. app.” IV. Det. Stengel. According to Acts 23:21. GieBen: Topelmann. passim. “ ‘May she neither eat nor drink’: Love Magic and Vows o f Abstinence.65-70.200 Commentary nary purifications or sanctifications.41-42.. 76— 102. see Preisendanz. crit.” in: Marvin Meyer and Paul Mirecki.” R A C 1 (1950) 1134— esp. whole. PDM xiv. see Wachter.53. LXVII. is not m entioned. Paul’ enemies swear that they will neither eat s nor drink until they have killed the apostle. 644 Merkelbach (Abrasax. but the latter option seems to be the more likely answer. 1910).2.441. 107— 29 8. 24-31. Reinheitsvorschriften. Parker. cf. Altertum (R W 6. cruvayvLCT^xi snev'/rj. Vit. sexual intercourse. Profane’: Notes Towards a Terminological ‘Genealogy’. XIII. . Kultusaltertumer. 43. see also IV.23. 19.). 357— 65. IV897-98. “speak in the same way as. This conclusion leaves three possible ways o f understanding the matter: Did the redactor omit the requirements as they apply to the author himself from the written source material? Or did he regard them as unwritten preconditions for the practitioner/teacher because they are self-evident and do not need to be written out? Or did he spell them out as precondi­ tions for the medium? A decision is difficult. see also IV. Kotansky. for this and other parallels see David Martinez. Cf. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. “ ‘R e­ ligion’.b. Preisendanz apparently later proposed the reading Asys laaq.27. 645 According to Weinreich (in Dieterich.498. 640 For ѕ[хфихо?..

” in Graf.” in his Orakel und Mysterien am Ausgang der Antike (AIVi 5. and Merkelbach keep uq. 741-46). Meyer: “And if you also wish to show him . 525-30. 738— 40): eav бе x al Sel^aL auxw &ѓАт]<. Conceivable if unlikely in the present passage is that the expression & . . 637). 58 Ansichtengriechischer Rituale.648 3.what? Judging from the context (11. ‘W illst du es aber auch ihm (dem Miteingeweihten) zeigen.9. 47— 52.).) 647 See also the “Apollonian invocation. 64— 101.” R A C 4 (1959) 944-87. . S^Q-ev wq ftea-rci^ovTei. Lucian. the most likely object would be a revelatory symbol belonging to what in mystery-cult language is called та Seixvu^eva (“things shown”).. The third option is most difficult to understand because the formulation is ambiguous (11. see above. but there the meaning is -еХ clear (cf. (so tue das) . cf. 7. n. also Cronert s discussion (“Zur Kritik. . Meyer. Alex. also Dodds. Zurich: Rhein-Verlag. “Ekstase. but it shows that this type o f prophecy has become part o f common religious parlance. 132— 819) 201 ecstasy” ). term алтосрофаојала (“inspired by Phoebus”) is found only here (LSJ. 1). G M PT . sprich. 65° preisendanz.2. eaxxv аасраХоЗ^ w? av&pwrco^ .” Meyer: “And even if you are alone.. xplva?. . s. after you judge whether his w orth as a man is secure . 815-25. Metam. like Trophonius. the problem is the missing object o f беТ^ас аит&ј. The Greeks and the Irrational. . the prophet receives the utterances o f the god directly. M ore complex are the theories concerning the Delphic Pythias ecstatic inspiration by Apollo.650 Depending on the interpretation. see above at 11. n.649 (“But again if you wish to show him. Origen. “Dromena und Legomena. 1947). Supplemental rituals (11..” 649 Wxinsch (in Dieterich. Merkelbach: “Wenn du aber allein bist und ihm das vom Gott Gesagte mitteilen willst.262— 347 (Betz. 12. the present option is different from the previous one.v. .. Diodorus Siculus 34/35. Hartmut Zinser. For dispensing with a medium. 420-26. el a^t-oc. The rare 57: . For further bibliography.285-95.9— 10: xivouvTat. Merkelbach: “Aber wenn du es ihm mitteilen willst. “Ekstase.” In other words.646 The absence o f a medium means that. translations differ. . “Apollon in der Magie. and Sam Eitrem.. BDAG.27— velut numinis divino 28: spiritu repletus. 55— “Rituelle Ekstase”. ev excnraaei.” 100— but Preisendanz. “having a Python spirit.” H R W G 2 (1990) 253— (bibliography). 648 For ехатаа^ (“ecstasy”). (“ecstasy”) and атгофофаојлоа (“inspired by Phoebus”) occur only here in the PG M . 614.647 T he terms ехсттасгк. ”. and you undertake the things communicated by the god. Friedrich Pfister. Cels. als warest du in Ekstase. 16) regards as dittography and proposes o..” 1. dann wirst du es in prophetischer Begeisterung sagen. (I am indebted for these passages to Cristiano GrottanelH. Henrichs.651 Before this optional 646 The translations differ at this point because o f what appear to be misunderstandings o f the options.. 772). see also PDM xiv. ” 651 Cf. s. ехата(Г1 < 2. above. you speak as if prophecying in ecstasy”. 10— with notes). . the similar phrase eav бе aXXw О т)? Set-xvueiv (1. 12.. wie in Ekstase voll prophetischer Begeisterung. Preisendanz: “Wenn du aber auch allein bist und an dem vom Gott mitgeteilten Zauber dich versuchst. ” ). “to show him ” ..709-10.III. Cf. 8.v.5— x a l outm т а [xeXXovTa 7: ocrcecpolj^a^ev). Acts 16:16: e /e iv uveufxa тси9ш/а. > < could be taken as faking the ecstasy (see Apuleius.

s.477. it is clearly explained by the following remark. and the interpretation in my Galatians. see also 1. so that he can repeat it 656 w h a t follows after that is to be handled differently: т а бе wc. 653 Pap.652 If he passes the test. 77.” like a prompter (cf.a. .3. Meyer: “treat him just as if in his place you were judged in the matter o f immortalization. rem publ. Preisendanz: “vorsprechen”. However. Ph. the following procedure should be followed (11. This “first prayer” is the one fully set out in 11 486— . Martinez convincingly emends <cju>. so that he may not hear . however..v. or even to the Golden R ule.v. ‘First origin o f my origin. reading <x7ta&av[.658 The procedure is further specified as 652 For this kind o f test o f one’s worthiness. Merkelbach (Abrasax. <x{u}tovw657 cp&oyyw. als ob du an seiner Statt bei der Unsterblichkeitsweihe gepriift wurdest”. 654 Following the translation by Martinez. which was common in the mystery cults. also 647— 48). reads aurovw. RieB. Nat. 658 Cf. it is to be recited to the fellow-initiate. 2. (“And say / the successive things as an initiate. Merkelbach: “vorsagen”). XI.afjuo is ob­ viously a scribal error. emended by Dieterich to т<р>6тгсо. for the term.176— IV. CIR 10 (1896) 411. Kroll). 771. 539— 731). ”). 741-44): tov rcpwTOV итсоЈЗаХе аитф Xoyov. Ancient Mystery Cults. 30-65.177.” but it is not clear what exactly is included. see also Cornutus. Proclus. 53 (1894) 421. 1. o f which the beginning is. tva [л-] ахоистт] .. 749 ттараууеХ[хаум. the fellow-initiate has to be evaluated w hether he is worthy as a hum an being. c f Gignac.11 (ed. corrected to axovco by Dieterich (17). the great “first prayer” should be recited (11. ” 655 See Gal 6:1. Others differ: Preisendanz: “lege dabei den MaBstab an. reads romo. considering this emendation redundant.226— 27. als wiirdest du selbst bei der Verewigung an seiner Statt gepriift”.a. .245) concludes. “therefore silently” (“also schweigend”). There are three possibilities for understanding it: First. 31. об rj Scp/r}' крмтг) ryjq еџгјд yeveaew? aerjiouw (“recite for him the first prayer. it may include the entire ritual o f ascension (11. in a soft voice. See also Burkert. Merkelbach: “tue das in der Weise. 145-52. X XX . corrected by Wessely to kiz aQav атla[xw. a^ioc. 1.654 This m ethod conforms to the moral standard o f fairness.655 At the beginning. it means “inform” or “instigate. BDAG. 298. 537. 747.152.1 202 Commentary ritual can be performed. for the Golden Rule (Matt 7:12//Luke 6:31). 740— 41): w? <au> итсер аитои xpt-vofjievo? ev tw arcaO-av <aT>LCT[xw653 (“handling the occasion as though in the immortalization ritual you yourself were being judged in his place”). Kroll. least likely since what follows is to be spoken in a special way. Grammar. See LSJ. The pap. the name for the immor­ talization ritual as a whole (see 11. [лиатг^ Xeye аитои i n i ty)^ хесраХт]<.131. over his head. this is. 3. Plat. 508— 19. 657 The pap.e. furthermore 11. BDAG. AEEIOYO’”).15. s. 656 The verb итсораЛАѕ'-\/ has the prayer as object. see my The Sermon on the Mount. The terms are insider language: та бе seems to refer to what comes after the “first prayer. and below on 1. III.

738). Jewish Gnosticism. reads / jdcicov (itacism). and most probable. 746): X P ^ ocuxou 'rfjv бфп/ xw pt. 559— 65. “Alte Taufgebrauche. prof. [леха 659 For parallels. the healing miracles o f Jesus in Mark 8:23. 662 On anointing the eyes. In other words.”659 so that he cannot make out the actual words. the recitation sotto voce includes the second and third prayers (11. 11. For further references to anointing. Metam. . 723. 53.64— VII. 663 For this name. 567. tou eviauxou (“This immortalization takes place three times a year”). 352— Gershom Scholem. 11. Friedrich Wilhelm Bayer.v. W hile the term [AuaxTjpiov can refer to different matters (cf.III.”). 476. Die Apologie. & xsxvov. 741. s. the practitioner is told (1. See Wilhelm Kroll. 746— 48): ytyvexat 8e o aTca&avaxLCTfAO? ouxo? xpl<. “in a m urm uring voice. 15. The anointing (jpieiv) refers to the iatromagical tradition dealing with salves and ointments o f all sorts. the purpose of which is. the formula] with a soft murmur”. while the formulae are murmured. 6. xoXXoupiov (with reference to R ev 3:18. Joh 9:6. but not more. “Augensalbe (collyrium). Err. to enable the eyes to see the mystery that is shown (1.. §§ 28.335— PDM xiv. Hopfner. Err. Ernst Kind. and Talmudic Tradition (2nd ed. The first stipulation concerns the frequency of usage (11.” A R W .. below. 36. 4. “Augenheilkunde.. 16.. 587— 616). 69. but oral and secret. apparently by someone who wishes to discontinue the practice (11.” PRE 21.203 (index).3. 11 772— . Supplemental rituals (11. At any rate. a few stipulations bring the section to its conclusion (11. 1. 748— 50): eav бе (ЗоиХтјЅтј n q . 794). 75).661 This particular ointment is intended to improve vision (cf.. (“Then all who lamented have their throats anointed. H ow this relates to the stipulation in 11.662 The name o f the ointm ent is [xucmrjpiov (“mystery”). урХаџси. 732— 819) 203 “over the head” o f the fellow-initiate. jp ie iv . (1921) 1100— BDAG. Wolfgang Helck. “Augenschminke. 660 The pap. Apuleius. there seems to be no other such attribution o f this name. this is unlikely in a w ritten instruction. prof rel. and further literature). 22..1: lento murmure susurrat. see Firmicus Maternus. 746— 50). see also V. 212. Another stipulation concerns defection.1: Tunc a sacerdote omnium qui 60. Cf. esp. 796-98 is not clear (see below). flebantfauces unguentur. s. its preparation is described in 11. The final option is that the words are not in the written text at all. 3.” R A C 1 (1950) 972-75. 1.115— 820-25. 661 See.255— Firmicus Maternus. see Wolfgang Westendorf. 58. B 8 (1905) 42— Abt. 40. 1. Halbbd.u<7T7)p£co660 (“as you are anointing his face w ith the mystery”). After the additional rituals for the participation o f a fellow-initiate in the oracular consultation have been presented. 121— 224. 2.” L A 1 (1975) 560-62. 751— 78. For further literature. Second. see Preisendanz.” ibid. rel. “he whispers [sc. O Z 2 /1 43. one may conclude. the ritual called “immortalization”663 may be performed three times a year. 22.. “xoXXupLov. 1965). Merkabah M ysti­ 22. cism. N ew York: Jewish Theological Seminary o f America.v. see above.

We could also interpret the form as a genitive (ou > w(t). Michigan X V I. are very frequently written ато? etc. s. (“For if you do not invoke them [sc. XIII. Wiinsch reads тгарбсууѕЛјла atnrw. 745 au > a. cf. 184— Cf.g. 63 [1904] 4-5. 67).158 (index). 3. der sich dazu gemeldet. for him the ritual is no longer at his disposal or loses its efficaciousness.”) The meaning o f the statement is disputed. 1.226-27 with 227 n. The Sermon on the Mount. they will not hear you. as being uninitiated”). nach Empfang der Vorschrift ihr nicht Folge leisten. U7tapxw. wishes to disobey. see also IV290.. “if someone wants to bend the prescript by disobedience” (“wollte einer die Vorschrift beugen durch Ungehorsam”). O child. according to Wein­ reich (in Dieterich. Merkelbach: “Mein Kind. The instruction includes prescriptions for three items to be used in the main ritual. See also BDAG. 7 5 0 . U7T:api. reads rcapayyeXfjiayo.664 (“And if anyone. 667 It may be related to similar quasi-legal rules. . dem wird sie nicht mehr zu Gebote stehn”. wishes after the instruction to disobey. 224). a prescription is provided 664 Pap. 1.).) also withdrew his proposal o f тсараууеАјла тш ( IVSt 42 [1920-21] 27 no. the section ends. In that case the translation would be: ‘If anyone wishes after his instruction to disobey. after the teaching. Martinez.” 666 pQr jjjg term Tcapaxoueiv. P.379— 89. and hence the translations vary..’” 665 Preisendanz: “Wollte aber jemand.v. Displacement is possible (as Preisendanz supposes with tw). B. then for him it will no longer be in effect. First. (aTca&avaTt-crjxoi. disobey or deviate from the received tradition. So I would write тгараууеАјл’ a<u>Tw. wenn jemand. then for him it will no longer be in effect”.666 A statement such as this assures the teacher and warns the student. 1. Additional instruction (11. my child. the case envisages a person w ho has received the instruction o f the initiation but wishes to quit.667 W ith this. see. Dieterich omits too. 80: el (ju) yap аитои^ хаХестт]^. and for further material and discussion my commentary. The тсараууеЛрзс seems to refer to the instruction as a whole. above 1.. (see Gignac. to 7tapayyeAfjux tw 7iapaxouaoa.v. npo^eaq (“instruction for the performance”). Grammar. mein Kind. in documentary papyri аито? etc. 56) prefers јлета to TcapayyeAjxaTov.208ff.” This new section carries an explicit title: б(. oux е7гахоиоиаг w? аршаттјрсастта) aoi mtap^ovTt. fur den gibt es keine Moglichkeit mehr.8 I 9) A special section o f further instructions follows after the “supplemental ritu­ als. and Preisendanz. fairly frequent either for phonetic reasons or syntactic confusion between genitive and dative (see Gignac. Meyer: “And if anyone. Dieterich (17) reads ouxert. Preisendanz (ibid. Ludwig Radermacher (Ph. Neutestamentliche Grammatik. <тЅ> оихет^. Preisendanz later proposed to read: fxeTa&SLvac. 10).665 Apparently. rcapaxouet-v.204 to Commentary тсосраууеХ^а {tw} тозсрахоисгои.боссгхаХ1а ty)<.et. Martinez comments: “I think that Wiinsch’s reading is closest to the truth. e. noting exam­ ples in defixiones. den Anweisungen nicht folgen (und die Weihe versaumen) sollte.). s. the gods o f the hours]. but Preisendanz rearranges and puts tw before ouxstl (so also Jordan). idem. As to what аитф is doing here is another issue. Grammar. Matt 5:19. and connects uTcap^st. 367. 1.

this infrequency cannot obscure the fact that much o f its content is for instruction. 3. a distinction has to be kept in mind 668 While the terminology o f teaching is not frequent in the PGM. 11. He attributes them to the final redactor w ho uses the earlier “liturgy” as a source for an altogether different magical procedure. when he sees the “instruction” to refer to passages that were originally placed at the beginning o f the Mithras Liturgy. second. the review by Friedrich Pfister..” PRE 19.1872 (|г/]бѓ»/а бѓбаахе).669 The difficulties arise from the fact that the papyrus originated in Egypt and describes Egyptian materials and plants. 670 A different view has been stated by Merkelbach (Abrasax. The technical terminology used is Greek in origin and often difficult to identify. T he preparation o f the rituals should precede the actual performance o f the main ritual. 54. 245).670 Hence. so that their identifications by Greek names become difficult to verify. Supplemental rituals (11. # 45. ed. and third. to assume such an omission because references point to places in the extant text before us. above pp. B y Z 37 (1937) 381— 90. Friedrich. Academie Royale de Belgique.156-57. passim). however. D e virtutibus herbarum (ed. . Armand Delatte. see XIII. for the text see also Totti. 430. however. plants are geo­ graphically specific. the additional instruction does not imply a criticism by the redactor w ho regards his Vorlage to be deficient. but he provides valuable 22) notes on the text. but were omitted from the text by the redactor. 751— 78). which is m entioned in the main ritual.668 2. Heinrich Marzell. 1. 778— 813). the terminology.4. 1961).59. The title St-SaaxocAia ттјс. for бсбофѓ). 7 3 2 -8 1 9 ) 205 for making the sun-scarab ointment (11. All three items involve rituals as well as alchemical and biological infor­ mation. idem. 671 Thus. Memoires. for б(. б^басткаХѓа is hapax in the PGM. 26-27. 813— 19). Also D ieterich sepa­ rates the additions as secondary from the “liturgy” proper. Dieterich (17— omits translating the additions. Classe des lettres et des sciences morales et politiques. “Der Zauber der Heilkrauter in der Antike und Neuzeit. Recherches sur le ceremonial usite chez les anciens pour la cueilettes des simples et desplantes magiques (3rd.2 (1938) 1446-56. “Pflanzenaberglaube. Texte. because they have to be ready to be used w hen their place and time o f performance has come. See the Introduction. The fact that the author supplements information from Greek plant books shows that even he had difficulties in identifying the Egyptian plants and that he does not seem to know their Egyptian names.” S A G M 29 (1936) 3— 26.III. the prepara­ tion o f phylacteries (11. 475-84) that the overall purpose o f the text o f the Mithras Liturgy is intended to be didactic. see the parallels in Thessalos o f Tralles. тсра^ѕсо? (“instruction for the performance”). most likely given to this section by the final author/redactor may appear surpris­ ing. There is no need. the information and preparation o f the plant called kentritis (11. Bruxelles: Palais des Academies. see IV.671 However. pace Merkelbach. W hile alchemical ingredients are often common.бастхе^. but it should be remembered from the exordium (11. Herbarius. cf. is Greek. 669 For plant biology in connection with rituals and astrology.

Cyranides 1. 770. First ritual: the sun-scarab ointment (11. Orakel und Naturverehrung im Alten Agypten (Zurich & Stuttgart: Artemis. 2001). cf. 57) The first item is a sun-scarab (11. Deipn. 5.. Kaimakis. see Heinz-Josef Thissen. Merkelbach: “blaugriines GefaB. at time w hen the m oon is invisible”). Is. also Gunther Roeder.21. 11. 1982).677 The Greeks were fascinated by the symbolism. 3. 554— he mentions Manetho and 56. above p. 11.675 The term Xo(3mv (“take!”) is technical and common. Des Niloten Horapollon Hieroglyphenbuch. the c “sun scarab” (xav&apo.497d (ed. Gulick. 773-74. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. eCTTsvwfiivov avco&ev. Horapollo. 673 For the terms. 5. John Baines. 384-88 (with figure 32).52): Втјааа TroTrjptov тсар’ ’AXe^txvSpeuai TiXaxuTepov ex twv xa-ra ij-epwv. the scarab w ith the 672 For the difference between ritual text sequence and performance sequence see the Introduction. See for commentary Griffiths. C. Preisendanz: “GefaB aus Goldstein”. 381A: .41.96. see 11. “Chepre. 11. reads (Bwctlov. nzpiypL ew . The preparation o f the ointment has two stages. Cf.. Џ -qalov ' TtoTTjpt-ov. Die Kyraniden. and make it fall into a deep. Athenaeus. features indicating that it was taken from a source.B 6. with plate IV. Meyer: “turquoise cup”. whereas the ritual sequences are known to the practitioner from practice. BiTeu.50 (107). s. . 117. which is reflected by Plutarch who theorizes that the beetle is an image (elxcov) o f “the power o f the gods. [3.” 1. 675 As a result o f the uncertainties in identifying the technical language. 776— 78). 746). Miinchen: Saur. translations o f the vessel differ at this point. 793. 1960). turquoise cup. vol. Gulick.672 1. The first stage (11. Dieterich (17) compares Hesychius (ed. e^ovxa TColyjorov el. B. emended by Wessely to prjcrcrtov. aeXyjVT].). 74.”678 Apparently. XII. etc. Kaibel. The textual sequences are what is w ritten down. 751— begins w ith the procurement o f the ingredients.23. ф ' axxlva. {3Xr]$7jvat<674 (“Take a sun scarab which has twelve rays. Jordan prefers (Bwctlov (“vessel”).Os.v. Plutarch. ed. 751—78) The first item involves a sun-scarab ointment. & ons p ev aTayoaiv TjAlou tt)^ twv &ewv Suvajjiso^ xoctiSovtsi. 1. LXI. Cf. (S tjoxov xaXXoavov (3a&u ev артсаутј xrj.206 Commentary between textual and ritual sequences. 674 Pap. 1. 99): атгбЅои ev ueAivco аууеш. like the image o f the sun in rain-drops. 40 678 Plutarch. most likely the same as the one called [xuaxirjpLov (“mystery. 584). 2. Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many (Trans. Jan Assmann.115 (ed. Hier.673 The section shows careful composi­ tion and has its own little epilogue (11. Latte.” 676 The term is found also in VII.274 (ѕстш бѕ evxo^ tou Spaxovxo? xavQapo^ ocxtlvwto? Lspoc). 1 (APF. 751— 53): XafBwv xav&apov YjXiaxov t o v xa. 677 See Erik Hornung.974— 75.784b (ed. 31. 8-10 (# 10). Kulte.)676 represents the old solar deity Khepry. YjXiaxo. LCL.34.218) about a drinking vessel (rhyton) in the temple o f Arsinoe that has the shape o f the Egyptian god Besas and gives off a shrill tone when the spout is opened.” LA 1 (1975) 934— (bibl.. As the name indicates.

vol. Cf. 24.” .” L A 5 (1984) 968— Betz. артеауу]) is a hapaxlegomenon in the PGM.207— (xavf&apej). Die Kyraniden. 86. Pisciculi. G M PT . Helios Megistos.. # 38. “Bes. 98-99: falcon. Nat. VIII. For literature. zur Zeit des Neumonds ist Selene gestorben. it is attested also in Horapollo. ed.a. “Skarabaus. Gemmen. 2. esp. 757 says it dies from the eating o f the ingredients.l 109-14.1068— Cf. Bianchi.183. see IV. For vases in the form o f Bes.245) suggests that this time reference is connected with the notion o f rebirth: “Mit diesem Zeitpunkt ist vermutlich eine Vorstellung von der Wiedergeburt verbunden. 44-45. 246-48: “Le [xuaxyjpt-ov du Scarabee”. 11. esp. only here.33. Heinz Josef Thissen. “Skarabaen. aber sie wird nach drei Tagen wieder aufleben. 198. The scarab is important in the PGM.a-e. See Betz. see Hopfner. For xaXXaivo? see also IV. 1987). 758— 59.807. 57.d. Aelianus. 2598. § 121: “aus Natron und Schwefelmasse.222. prooemium 10).2455-57: mouse and scarab.65. A u C 6 (1950) 49— Raphael Giveon.S 27 (1902) 114. an. 1. For sun-rays on gemstone amulets see Maryse Waegeman.628: lizard.” PRE 2. G M PT . See Richard Wiinsch. 19. see Tran Tam Tinh. # 81. IV. 3. 338 (with bibliography). but 1. XIII. Kaimakis. chpt.430. V 212-303. 3. there are twelve horns on the head o f the beetle.684 Hecataeus o f Abdera (according to Diogenes Laertius. Armand Delatte.973— 80.683 This should take place at the time o f the new m oon. “Etudes sur la magie grecque. 2688. 680 Cf. n.14. furthermore 1. 10. Cf. 85. V.” LA.1 (1986) 98-108. OZ. 218. XII. XIX. the vox magica cravxav&apa. VII. Suppl. 68.14. see 1. § 122). III. see IV. 563-84 (with bibl.21. 71.425-26. Max Pieper. XIII. 2660-61. 274-77. Merkelbach (Abrasax.21 (?). p. Hier.924-25.45.15. see Vettius Valens. 437. IV.III. VII. is unclear: H ow are twelve sun-rays connected with a living beetle? Perhaps grooves on the wings were seen as sun-rays. 212— 303 (“Hermes’ ring”). Abrasax. “Bes. 8— (Chapter 10). 767. as far as I can see. Beiheft 6 [Munich & Leipzig: Saur. Bes. Robert S. 681 The term {iak'Keiv ((ЗАтјОтјуоа) serves the purpose o f ritual killing. “when the moon is invisible” (LSJ. V.” L IM C 3. VII. at # 99). Merkelbach (Abrasax.a-d.203. fC P h . XIII. 69.2668. V. “Sonnenkafer und Falke in der synkretistischen Magie.127. XII. V. s. # 24. 51. Supplemental rituals (11. Hartwig Altenmiiller.12. 1. 1659. 684 The phrase ev артгаутј ттјс аѕлѓртј^. Sam Eitrem. III. 1 (1975) 720-24. “Scarabs. 943. s.v. 73.1: cat. For this god. For the twelve sun-rays. 732— 819) 207 twelve sun-rays679 is a special kind which is attested. 2456-57. 94— 101. Mag.245) thinks o f a vessel that looks like the god Besas. 1. 3. Michel.v. 3. Anth. below.245) suggests that the scarab is drowned in order to be deified by making it into Osiris. 2 / 1. XXXVI. the preparation o f a scarabaeus amulet. Des Niloten Horapollon Hieroglyphenbuch. Kroll).520. 7 8 (1. # 81. O Z 2 /1 . IV. 245.118— with comments at 121). Fauth. 38 (ed. 679 What is precisely meant. 3:2. and these constitute the relationship to the sun. 780. 71.680 T he preparation involves the killing o f the scarab by letting it drop681 into a deep vessel ((3y](7lov)682 made from a natron and sulphur concoction (xaXAaivov).184.” in Klauser & Rucker. 333. VII. According to Hopfner (O Z 2 / 1.98-110.223— 11. XIII.” O E A E 3 (2001) 179-81. cf. 8 78. 973-80. §§ 121-22. R eihe 5 (1927) 447-59. XXXVIII. 82— Merkelbach. Auch der Tod des Sonnenkafers wird nicht ewig sein. 683 So Hopfner. 115. ’АКЕФ АЛ02 @ EO£. 81.159. Franz Joseph Dolger. # # 99— 10 103. Amulet and Alphabet: Magical Amulets in the First Book of Cyranides (Amsterdam: Gieben. for the mythological explanation.1090.64-65.1066. 2001]. 682 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 1 (AFP. Cyranides 1.” Meyer has in mind a turquoise-colored glass vessel.4-5 (falcon).” B C H 38:2 (1914) 189-249.

Merkelbach.Lov (“amalgam”) occurs only here in the PGM. 1. 1980).337-38.102— IV. the scarab] moving forward and eating. a7r£p[xa xal [jiiXt Хекосга<. and after grinding it w ith honey prepare a cake”). ayysloc ueXivoc. 691 Pap.225. XIII.246) who argues that the scarab gets stuck in the honey and thus suffocates and drowns (“erstickt = ertrinkt”). section 38 (ed.690 The second stage also begins with the acquisition o f the ingredients (11. LXI. corrected by Wessely to XeLoiacaq. eu$iw<.).” PRE 26. For Xwt6<. 355. 453.87. . 1.. Thessalos 1. 3.. See also III. See Delatte.686 Honey is a substance often used in magical practices. but it is technical in the language o f pharmacy and alchemy. cf.. also VII. it immediately dies”). cf. and set the vessel on it .108-9. t o ayyelov . and rose oil certainly is an expensive perfume. 688 A technical procedure in ancient pharmacy and alchemy.693 ajxfxov lepav kizL&zc. [xeXtXtoxo? IV.687 The mixture is then ground up688 and formed into a small cake. section 38 and often (ed.v. 789-90. see below. to be used here in quantity. 64).320. as much as you wish”). the costly perfume used by the woman in Mark 14:3 par. xaQ-apelw. Friedrich. ayyslov ueXouv jxupou poSlvou xaXXlorou. B C H 38 (1914) 246. Abrasax. “Milch. H onig und Wein. IV3009. 3.с. 1520-21. prooemium. see 11. O ne will notice that the ingredients are now becoming more expensive. 189.689 T he purpose o f the cake is to cause the death o f the scarab (11. See Hopfner. 692 For the rose oil. On honey. cf. (“and at once you will see it [viz. Zum Verstandnis der Libation im griechischen Ritual. reads 'кшаа. Friedrich. VII.245. s.134 (index). tcoItjctov [xa^lov685 (“put in together w ith it the seed o f the fruit pulp o f the lotus. 755— 57): x al euSito? auxov бфт) Trpoasp^ofxevov x al eatKovxa. 11. W hat this “sacred sand” is and how one spreads it in a 685 Pap. See also III.. esp.1683.” R A C 16 (1994) 433-73. ptiXt.”). § 216. VIII. also Thessalos. (“and spreading sacred sand in a pure manner. prooemium. The name Хсото^лтјтра refers to the lotus plant..208 Commentary The next ingredients are from plants and serve to make a kind o f small cake (11. reads xa&apio^ and ayyiov. IV 1880. the sudden death o f the scarab is caused by eating from the cake. 21. reads ocyyt-ov as in 1. O Z 2/1.v. 752. (1927) 1515— esp. 75759): t o u t o v aveXofxevo^ ^aXe el c. x al oxav cpayy]. VIII. 761. 753. “H onig. Therefore.32. 3. see Fritz Graf.25. 759-61): x al атреоста. For (ЗаХе.333. August Steier. o c to v јЗоиХгх691 (“Pick it up and throw it into a glass vessel o f excellent rose oil. and w hen it has consumed it. 690 Pace Merkelbach (Abrasax. The glass vessel seems more valuable. see 1. XII. “Lotos. 32.. 754— 55): auve^aXwv auxw XwTo^xpa. Halbbd. cf. 687 See Preisendanz. 209— Otto Bocher and Adelheid Sallinger.” in Perennitas: Studi in onore di Angelo Brelich (Rome: Edizioni dell’ Ateneo. s. 3. 686 Амтојг/јтрас cntepfxa is the name for the fruitpulp o f the lotus plant (LSJ. Awtlvo? XIII. 64): [ЗаХХѕ et<. 693 Pap. also the role o f cakes in sacrifice. OvTjaxet.87. .941.692 The vessel needs then to be placed properly (11. 689 The term [iofZ. but not by drowning.

Dieterich (17) points to parallels listed by Georgios Chatzidakis [Hatzidakis].269— 70. as often in rituals. N N alone. LXI. 535. albeit in a divine way.“and say the name over the vessel for seven days. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. proposes convincingly to take the form ysvtj just as “the second person sing. again reads the symbol A. ат) ouata. Pap. ‘your essence’ becomes in the scribe’s mind simply a collocation for ‘you.a* £{xol [xovo) xp?]tf t-fAEuarjc. 1895). 92— 95. 701 SeeBDF §§ 318. see IV. and Martinez. the consecration can take place. that you may prove useful to me alone. T he verb form irsXeoa. Martinez. Friedrich Blass. 2 695 Pap. £yw yap фмр cpop a cpto< фотс. III. §§ 130. 198. presupposes. prooemium.762— addressing the scarab: 67..698 (“It is I who have consecrated you.” 700 On this formula see above at 1. 7 3 2 -8 1 9 ) 209 pure manner. also Thessalos. V.III. 260. eyw az ѕтеХеаа. 694 At any rate. XII. 761-62): x al Xeye to (ovofxa)695 i n i tou ayyou? i n I rjpipa? Z. 1. 46. 2992. 753) becomes deified and related to the sun. The time is during seven days at high noon. .197-212. IE IA E EE OY EIA. tva fxot.' YjXlou [xsaoupavouvTo?.45. Johann CompernaB.5-6.223-30. is used in the following repetition o f the formula. 331. esp. 697 For Asyet-v t o ovojxa stt I t o u ayyou?.” R h M 49 (1894) 37-58. The formula has to be pronounced (11. 2. 1892). seems to have a mythological background known to the magicians. бе' cpwp cpwp офо&есДаа^. 699 The form yev/] needs explanation. 64). written mistakenly because ч\ стои ouala. Martinez proposes convincingly to read офо&£[Даас to correspond with срот^аа^. 698 For Wessely’ reading o f т. 257. occasioned by suspicion over the attributive s position o f ctou in the pap. Supplemental rituals (11. r\ aou oucrla yevY] xp^crifjio^.. reads the symbol □ for ovofxa.£аас. tm S(e)I(va) fxovw le ia 7 ] £7] ou £t. Wessely changed to ysvy][тоа].. however. D e sermone graeco volgari Pisidiae Phrygiaeque meridionalis (Dissertation Bonn. see also Ernst Kuhnert. 11. 171.697 T he formula (ovofxa) itself is cited in full in 11.699 T he scarab which at its death became associated w ith the invisible m oon (1. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.410— 13. Friedrich. 1894— 1898).701 W hat the scarab has thus become is called 694 See the discussions in Hopfner. while the sun is in midheaven”). “that you may be useful to me alone. for I am P H O R P H O R A PH O S PH O TIZA A S” [others: “P H O R P H O R O PH O TH EIX A A S”]). Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Sprachidioms (8th ed. one must assume that it is alive. IV. “name. section 39 (ed.696 and the formula has to be spoken over the vessel. The formulaic eyw EifJtx (“I am”)700 secures emphatically ownership and use of divine beetle. P. Einleitung in die neugriechische Grammatik (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel. o f the normal deponant form. 210. cf. Since the beetle is being addressed as a person. an ingressive or durative aorist. w ith all done. O Z 2 /1 — .” See Preisendanz. Michigan X V I.173. —ol . “Feuerzauber. 1902). Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch (2nd ed. see Dieterich (17) who refers to Georg Benedikt Winer and Paul W Schmiedel. that your substance may be useful to me. 219.’” The same second person sing. 696 On this point.

” . Merkelbach. Abrasax. 484. 56. clothing) affixed to spells. “Material. equalling еЈЗббјхт] гцхеpa (see Preisendanz. pap. or to the materia magica in the vessel. and deposit it in a flourishing bean field”). Preisendanz reads C T[i. see also 1.710 T he ingredients o f 702 For the many parallels in the PGM. Divine Substance (Oxford: Clarendon. Jordan prefers crjjiupva (see n.v. in the present context оисгѓа is rather specialized w hen compared w ith the usual “property” o f a person (such as hair. Martinez. Christopher Stead. idem. which means materia magica. reads the symbol ".246 (who.v. 991-93. 779. the process o f w hich is briefly described.37-38. it must be properly preserved and stored (11. (I). The latter are obviously related to cpw^ (“light”). The term (Застта^еп/ (“acquire”) appears to be technical. Hopfner. XII. however.709 referring to handling o f ingredients.” W St 40 (1918) 1-8. 703 Martinez raises the question whether the Egyptian name for the scarab. See on this above. magical. O Z 1. see the index below. determ ination o f the mean­ ing o f оисќа in the present context is more difficult. a substance o f divine power. reads the symbol A. 709 For јЗастта^е(.upv7). and bury it w ith m yrrh and Mendesian wine and fine linen. 3. 710 Interestingly. 736. 3. ^[xupva x al olvw MevSyjcaw x al (Suaalvfa) атсб&ои ev xuajxwvt.210 Commentary оистса. 711 below).707 Once the divine substance has been procured. s. 708 Pap. see Preisendanz. and once by repeating the purpose clause (хр^а^еиспд?) and by self-identification through divine names (11. s. “Miszellen zu den Zauberpapyri. 706 For other such names in the ML. the materia magica is still called “scarab. “Homousios. НГ0. he has carefully compared the names and inserts a variant reading that “others” (plural!) have. 476. C also reads xav9-apo (corrected by Dieterich [18]) and&i^a? (changed by Dieterich [18] to (Зосфас). t o v xav&apo(v). Does it refer to the scarab’ immaterial divine nature. 707 For another such insertion see 1. or to s M erkelbachs rendering as “inner being”?703 Although all three possibilities play some role. 500. see 11. See for the larger field. etc. 1977).” For discussion. 2. оиаѓа. 9 n. 705 The pap. translates ouaia as “innerstes Wesen”).у. 495.704 he inserts his name twice (1.269). hpr (“come into being”) is o f influence and points to “manifestation. P. that is. Preisendanz keeps &афа?.705 together with a vowel sequence. §§ 667-77. the sun. meaning t w S s iv o c . the authors primary concern is w ith the handling o f sacred substance in the vessel. on 1.” R A C 16 (1994) 367-73. 764).702 However. G M PT . ^toocpuTOUVTt708 (“O n the seventh day pick up the scarab. once by inserting his ordinary name N N . Therefore. 765— 67). Betz. 767— 69): ty ] бе у][л(е)р(а) (Заата^а с. 38. In order to make sure that this substance is useful to the practitioner alone. see Preisendanz. Preservation o f the material happens by burial o f the scarab. ■9-афоц.” 704 The formula o f exclusivity is found elsewhere in the ML.706 As a redactional com m ent by the final author/ redactor shows.154 (index). a technical term frequent in magical contexts. Michigan X V I. 336.

712 Wine from Mendes in the N ile delta is mentioned in 1. See Preisendanz. А1уитстго<. 338.. medic. AlyurcTt-o^ die Lotusblume bezeichnet wird (vgl. San Francisco: Academic Press. 332. see IV. Grammar.. 1902).228-29.7(?).20. Da mit xua(i. “Myrrha.v. 2. 715 Dieterich (18) refers to Richard Wunsch. 175. II. and then he should carefully store the oil and the scarab for later use in the consecration. Walter W. (“Egyptian bean”) is another name for the Lotus flower may be right.717 Merkelbach con­ cludes: “The initiate should entertain the dead scarab in a symbolic fashion.S 15 (1978) 700-77. wine was famous in antiquity.” PRE 31st Halbband (1933) 1134— 46.oi.246): “Der Myste soli den toten Sonnenkafer symbolisch bewirten und auch selbst mit ihm eine Mahlzeit einnehmen (was fast auf eine Kommunion .208.754).v.145. deposit the ointm ent in a pure way for the immortaliza­ tion”).102. Cf. for references to the medical writers.85. 3. MevSr). tritt hier der xuapiwv einfacher Bohnen vermoge des gleichlautenden Namens an die Stelle der heiligen Lotusblume. VIII. 2. but why would another name be preferred?716 A nother com m ent relates to proper storage. 2. see August Steier. Puschmann.III. but its place in the ritual is unclear (11.172. 71 in that no com m on dining has been m entioned before. 915.2465-66: a7io&ejxevo<. Paed. crpupva. 2681— The 82.v.2. XII. XV.444). Lex.277. Photius. 773— 793).v. 4 (12. Das Fruhlingsfest der Insel Malta. 1977). MsvSr.84-85.”718 711 Myrrh occurs often in the PGM.600. Food: The Gift of Osiris (2 vols. Hopfner. 3.v. 717 For SCTxtav. ziq тги^ба [лоАфтр. ѕатгааа? x al a u v e u w ^ ^ k атсо&ои xa&apel«<. 17— XXXVII. Supplemental rituals (11.CTio^. the preparation o f which is described in 11. Muller.715 M erkelbach’ s suggestion that хиа[ло<. O Z 2 /1 — §§ 121— 214— 219. see V.” PRE 29th Halbband (1931) 780-84. s. Ther. остсотѓат]^. dealing with therapy o f the eyes). IV. See Hermann Kees. IV 941 und XIII 22). Darby. 16. 177 (index). 20. after you have entertained and feasted together. Comp.” PRE. T L G . (ed.315. N ew York. and eat himself a meal together w ith him (which almost leads to a sacramental communion). 716 Merkelbach (Abrasax. xov aTta&avaTiafjLov (“then. esp. 732— 819) 211 m yrrh711 and Mendesian wine712 are used for the embalming and wrapping in linen cloth. see VII.1315. “Mendes. tion. s. Alexander o f Tralles.714 W hy such a place is chosen can only be guessed. 751— but the situation envisaged in 11 770— appears out o f context 78. sic. Because o f the ocurrence o f хр1сг[ла (11. for ашеим^еТстОт (“feasting together with”) see IV3150— 51. s. “Weihrauch. Gignac. VII. 41 (31-46: “Die Bohnenbliite”). s. 770— 71): to 8 s хрХаџа.17. 3. 714 The aorist imperative form атго&ои from kixozidevai (“deposit”) is almost technical in the PGM. afxupva. xua[xo<. XII.225. olvoc. 713 Linen cloth (^ucjctivw [рахм]) is mentioned in 1. For other instances o f preserva­ 2. 22. ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der antiken Religion (Leipzig: Teubner. see Clement o f Alexandria. 1. spelled in different ways: ^[xupva.” See also LSJ..713 Thus embalmed the scarab is deposited in a sprouting bean field. 3. Kuhn 12. LSJ. William J. London. VII. 875. 293. Galen. (aupva. . m ent is concerned with the ointment.. 770. On myrrh generally. s.3. saxla (“wining and dining”).12ff.246): “In einem Bohnenbeet. 1 (ed. this com­ 74.. 718 Merkelbach (Abrasax. 139.

80ff. Rather. At any rate. get the juice o f the hinauslauft) und dann das O l und den Kafer sorgfaltig aufbewahren. ^uXov rcepi^pltov TY бфс-v. for the exchange o f б /т see Gignac. which is most likely. .So<. The latter is m entioned first in 11 738— then in 11. III.” 101. the scarab is to be entertained.412). 721 Pap. O Z 51: 2 /2 . see Mark 8:25 and BDAG. cf. 46.17— VII. however. 772— 75: eav бе aXXw гШо]? Sst-xvustv. because o f the parallel in IV. 1033. this ointm ent is the materia magica. within which the ointm ent for the eyes was to be used. Thus. the passage may have been copied from an earlier Vorlage. now also called ointm ent (xpicrpia). 16. therefore. §§ 264-66. This earlier Vorlage may have presupposed a ritual context o f a sacramental meal. еуг xr\c. Meals with deities are mentioned 1. 11. finally in 1. See also Hopfner. but in 1.85— 89: a meal with an angel. Since the presumed meal is w ithout a precedent in the ML. ed.” Bulletino della Commissione archeologica commuale di Roma 27 (1899) 294— (cf.(TTtov carat. the materia magica is to be safely stored to be ready for future use in the main ritual o f immortalization.212 Commentary This interpretation is derived from other PGM parallels which mention such meals. emended by Dieterich (18.2— a meal 20. If. For a similar vacillation in the manuscripts between бтјАаиуо^ and ттјАаиус^. x al офета^. the object to be wined and dined remains unclear. reads бтјАаиуах. “Zur Kritik. Kaibel). Grammar. IG S I 99 2413. A further optional ritual concerning an eye ointment follows in 11. it must be the scarab.424— eating the heart o f 24 30: a kakkouphat bird (cf. as Merkelbach does.v721 (“If you want to show this to someone else.” 719 See 1. 75. and by copying from it he transposed the passage into the new context o f his own practices in the M L.719 According to the text. 1.644— consumption o f a magical potion. the question is also whether one should speak. zur spateren B eniitzung bei der Weihe. “Sopra uno scarabeo con iscrizione greca. 3: with a familial spirit (тгаребро^ Salfxwv): [auvofJxAo^ xal cru]vapt. 793.720 This assumption could find support in the author/redactor s later correction to the effect that the scarab ointm ent is no longer to be used (see below. o f “the dead scarab” after it has become immortalized. one should not automatically assume a complete homogeneity between literary and ritual sequences. sub vocibus. 1.. 224) to ттјХаиусо?. бт)Лаиусо? ахтте сте jv 0au[xa^£t. 767 it is also called the scarab. aoi xal (juvxot. об (SouXei.[XMfj.22— on dining with an immortalized falcon. fxexa 'oScvou. so also Cronert. on 11. 772— and . Another possibility would be to allow for a metatextual reference. VII.Tt. xaAoufjtivYj? (3oxav7)^ xevTpr. the case may be that the author/redactor has copied from a Vorlage which comprised a broader spectrum o f prescriptions.svoc (“he will be your [companion and] will eat and sleep with you”). Preisendanz retains бт]Ааиу6Ѕ<. 720 As an example o f this Dieterich (18) refers to a scarab amulet o f stone with an inscription which contains voces magicae and these words: /_?•/][jLoctlctov jjloi ev tt] vuxxl таиту) i n ’ aAirj&ela Јлета jjlvy^jjly]^ (see Richard Wiinsch. 792— 96).

tttuw. s 164). see below at 1. Cf. see also above 1. -aevxpixiq as a plant name (11. For further discussion and literature. 725 For the meaning o f бф^. 516-27).. гстист[Ј. For the terms m p i j p i t i v and тгсрс^рктта. with references to Selxvufja as a mystery cult term. since it is parallel to the previous one (11. 746) and involves the sun scarab (1. and often in PGM. the meaning can simply be an emphatic jp lz iv . .оу (“mys­ tery. along with the rose oil. and smear it. 772). both are dealing w ith eye ointments for the improvement o f vi­ sion. Merkelbach’ (Abrasax. Mark 8:22— the story o f Jesus’ healing o f a blind man. auxw & еЛу)<.а. 738— is unclear. em^puo. 790). the ointm ent is ex­ plained by the procedure involving the scarab (11.ou<. 726 Cf. see for references in the medical writers the T L G . and Kind. In the first instance. Jesus prepares a kind o f eye-salve from his own spittle (v. The restoration o f the eye­ sight is stated in this way: еуѓЈЗХефеу ттјХаиусо^ (v.726 W ho or w hat is bringing about the amazement (ware ae 722 For Selxvujja see 11..337. XIII. around the eyes of whomever you wish. s. PRE 21st Halbband (1921) 1105. uses similar terms. The phrase stating the success o f seeing clearly (xal бфетас.64. 724 For other passages. бтјХаиум?) may explain w hat is m eant by б£[ло/и£[л/. 501— s 15. 803. (1. 775). and he [or: she] will see so clearly that you will be amazed”). 785. or a description o f the application o f the ointm ent (“around. Supplemental rituals (11. 805. 778— 813).” or “covering”) the face or the eyes (оф^). the present proce­ dure is explained by the information about the plant kentritis (11. 770). The relationship o f this procedure to the one m entioned before (11.722 It is this improvement o f eye-sight that provides the link w ith the main ritual’ concern for the transformation o f visual sense-perception (see 11. 779. T he preparation of the eye ointm ent (11.723 The most likely explanation for what appears to be a conflict is that the author/redactor excerpted two procedures for the preparation o f eye-salve from his Vorlage. 746. 732— 819) 213 herb called kentritis. 3. He then explained the preparation o f these ointments by drawing on additional iatromagical information.) omavTa (cf. R ev 3:18 for e v jp ie iv xouc 6cp9-aXp. VII. in the course o f which 26. also 2. W hile in the earlier instance.725 R ose-oil was m entioned before (1. According to John 9:1-7. 773. s. see BDAG. V.156.v.v. see following note.274. (“lid salve”). 738— 46).246. 751— 78). Both are introduced in a similar manner as optional: 46) eav бе x al Sel^at. xal e7te^pt.l. 773— 74). 248. and sav бе aXXto бе1^ и е п . 772— 75). T he use o f “juices” (jpkoq) is of course frequent in the PG M . however.CTev аитои tov Tf/jXov eni xouq ocpO-aXfJiouc.” 1. 798) is a hapaxlegomenon in Greek literature. 6). above on 1. while in the second instance the plant kentritis is the major ingredient (11.III. for km yfiiei'j. 723 According to the T LG . Jesus makes a paste from earth and his spittle: ercTucrev xoqom xal е к о Irjcrev 7i7]X6v ex tou 7гтистЈлато<.724 T he expression m p ijp ie iv is found only here in the PGM . (11. SyjXauywi. (v. the ointm ent is called to [хисттѓ]р!. 738.... 738— 39). 23).

Grese in Betz. He did not know. The material assembled in 11 778— . 26. T he improvement in vision is clearly related to the doctrine discussed at 1. 779. what plant it was. e. see Matt 7:7— / / Luke 11:9— (Q).. xyjv Tipox£i[X£vrjv (“the afore mentioned”) distinguishes between the author/redactor and his source. and he will give it to you”). T he final sentence is a maxim that shows no connection w ith the context and seems to be o f a general nature (1. 500— 8.] jxet&*)v oux Sctti-v (“A procedure greater than this one does not exist. 14:13-14. 778): alxou 8s. The Sermon on the Mount. а (ЗоиЛес. however. 729 The redactional comment in 1. 4:2-3. 1 John 3:22. see Betz.g. ” As has been pointed out earlier. saxiv 79: 727 For other instances o f such “commercials” see.730 appar­ ently had section titles which identified and classified the separate items.439: tt^] 7гра£есо£ таи[т7]<. x al Swaet. АујЈлфес. etc. aoi (“Ask the god what you want. tov &eov. This section provides an excellent opportunity to study how the author/redactor worked.262: e y e < i> Atav xaAw<. (“This works very well”).729 T he earlier context. from which the kentritis ritual was derived.” W hich “procedure” (тсрауЈлахе^а) is meant here specifically. this hypothesis is rather unlikely because o f the reference in 1. G M P T . 772— he came upon the plant name 75) kentritis (11. 11 13 Mark 6:22-25. 773. 511. For parallel passages and bibliography. 3. 728 The maxim is well-attested also in the NT. 798). see Merkelbach (Abrasax . 813 must therefore be the fruit o f his investiga­ tions in other sources. “I have not found a greater procedure than this in the world. 779 to the kentritis plant in 1. you will receive.247) who assumes that the procedure was derived in a section o f text that was omitted from the beginning o f the ML: “Diese vorbereitenden Zeremonie bei Sonnenaufgang muB in einer Partie zu Anfang des Textes erwahnt worden sein.Jas 1:5. This ritual has the section title in 11. but is seems to belong to the previous ointment. It appears that while reading in his excerpt (11. H e included from these sources excerpts together with his own interpretative comments.”728 2.214 Commentary 9-aupux^eiv). The maxim has a parallel in IV2172: а^ттјсха. Second ritual: the plant kentritis (11. most likely. 776— 77): toutou [A ^ov5ou% sOpov el ev x« xoafxw repay jxaxeiav. 773. 16. 778— ѓ) тои [леуаАои &eou auaxonaic. 778—92) T he second ritual is most probably excerpted from a source and included because o f the previous m ention o f the plant kentritis. 1. “W hen you ask.. welche in der uns vorliegenden Redaktion des Textes weggelassen worden ist. John 11:22. W. . it is the ointment. III. 31). It has been tested by Manethon [who] reveived [it] as a gift from god Osiris the greatest” (trans. is not entirely clear.”727 typical o f many magical procedures in the PGM (11. T he concluding statement takes the form o f a “commercial. 779. 730 For a different interpretation. is left open. 15:7. 16:23-24.

127 n.”738 731 See 1. See LSJ. As Merkelbach points out. but this identity can certainly be assumed as the view o f the present author (see 1. 690.38. xeva'TpTTt-v xr)v 7tpoxei[A£VY](v) (3oxavY]v т?ј auvoSw ттј yevofxevT] Asovxt. “Zodiakos. in his discussion questions a possible xeaxptxiq. 156. 185.178. Gundel. Abrasax. II. is technical in the magical and astrological literature. 260. Merkelbach. 14. esp. 147. 117. reads xevtpltlv with the letter c written above the first v. 779— 80): (Засгта^ос. 102). 738 Merkelbach (Abrasax. IV. 14) the pap. 43. however. 736 This astronomical term occurs also in III.” W St 40 (1918) 2-5.v. 1889]. 3.fA£V7).l. K . and moon) are positioned at about the same line. s.197. 191 (“Zusammenstehen. 473. 950.505.5. Chald. earth.v. K. 65— Gundel. and earth (or sun. not the least because o f the undisputed xzvxpixic. Karl Preisendanz. VII.” PRE 24. Friedrich. Bezold. “Leo. V I. 3. Astrologumena.247): “Am Neumondstag desjenigen Monats. Cf. in 11. (1925) 1973— Delatte. see also V379. when sun. 177-81. 494. has 7ipox£c.” “Audienz”). 773. 3.731 but translators differ how they interpret and render it into m odern languages.” Funfzehnter Jahresbericht des K . 346. XIII. See also Orac.”). 692. m oon. 773 and 798. Des Places. 482).' Sternglaube. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals. 732— 819) 215 т]бе (“The encounter w ith the great god is as follows”). in welchem die Sonne im Zodiakalzeichen des Lowen steht. 113 and plates II. Supplemental rituals (11.735 The “encounter” (стиатаак. The term gugtolgic. 734 Pap.. p. idem. 67. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals [Wien: Verlag des K. Thessalos 1.v.209.)736 between sun and moon. 220-21. Boll. ” 733 The term (3<xaTa£et. 438. Dieterich (18. XIII. Das trifft ziemlich genau auf diejenige Zeit. s. 39. 42— 92. 672.3— Wilhelm Gundel. Merkelbach: “ Zusammentreffen.III. 116. 162— 50.. 108— 15).. LSJ.” PRJ3 2nd series. 19th Halbband (1972) 462— 709. Sterne und Sternbilder im Glauben des 4. Herbarius. Studies in Mithraism. Robert Boker. R oger Beck. 104.) is to be correlated with the “conjunction” (auvoSoi. The procedure itself begins w ith the acquisition733 o f the ingredients (11. 16. “In the Place o f the Lion: Mithras in the Tauroctony. 247) reads <sv> Xeovtl. 111. 21— 22). Halbbd. 695. . Hans Gundel and 66.1 (ed. Gegen das Ende des Monats setzt die Nilflut . zu welcher die Sonne am hochsten steht. Hopfner: “Erscheinung”. Meyer: “encounter”. 48 n.5 (ed. 732 Preisendanz: “Empfehlung an den groBen Gott”.v as in 1. Mithras. 43.482. A.737 It “takes place at every day o f new m oon and full m oon.95.734 (“Having acquired the above m entioned herb kentritis.299.” in Hinnells. 339. S 737 For the sign o f the Lion. Altertums und der N euzeit (Bonn & Leipzig: Schroeder.2: “communication between a man and a god”. “Miszellen. 286— 87. which emphasizes the conjunction taking place in the zodiac sign. According to Karl Wessely (“Zu den griechischen Papyri des Louvre und der Bibliotheque nationale. it refers to the day o f new m oon o f that m onth in which the sun comes to stand in the zodiac s sign of the Lion. s.57. 29— Clauss. “Systasis”. Betz. G M PT . Merkelbach (Abrasax. VII. 89 n. 735 There has been a problem with the plant kentritis. III. 1922). 2. at the conjunction [of the sun and the moon] occurring in the L ion. 9) Sternbild des Tierkreises. cjuvo o*.732 The connection with “the great god” does not identify him expressly w ith Helios-Mithras.

There was some discussion.” PRE 37th Halbband (1937) 940— 44. persea tree generally. see Gardthausen. 224). not cpuXAov (Wessely. 809. 768.269-70. “Tinte. sie fallt zusammen mit dem Aufgang des Sothis-Sterns (des Sirius).741 and so is the persea tree. med. W riting on leaves is m entioned as part o f other procedures in the PG M .2205-6. A. Dioscorides. 103.742 The eight-letter name is cited below. IV. the author found this recipe for the making o f ink and took it up here because o f the m entioning o f the kentritis plant (1. app. Plutarch.192. (“take the juice and. 741 See 1. 521. —Eine cjuvoSo^ von Sonne und M ond findet an jedem Neumondstag und Vollmondstag statt.. 2237.”). 940-41. sawoxToypafjifxaTov. Apparently. 1): t o tj' ура^цлатш ovofAoc. For information about this tree. 3248. On ink. 2. Dieterich (Mithrasliturgie. Mond und Erde (oder Sonne. plant.” PRE. TTspCTEiov. reads бхтаурајл^латоу. Novossadsky wanted охтмуроси. 219. 3199-3204.95-105). reads охтмураЈЛЈлатоу. For the eightletter name. On the s 37. 3. cf. Ancient Egyptian Materials and 79. s. шгохгига!.. 244. p. IV815. 6 (1986) 595. 17.9: та бхтса урајл^ата SsXyjvy]?. 257-58. fruit o f the persea).743 ein. Supplementum Magicum. “as (written) below. . Renate Germer. but Preisendanz. Mat. XIII. with the commentary by Griffiths. 742 See III. Sprengel.g. l. Is. 362— Rosemarie Drenkhahn.атгл ovojjia (“Ad papyrum magicam bibliothecae parisinae nationalis additiones palaeographicae. 739 For ink and recipes o f its preparation.2.5 (with the commentary by K.233— 243-46. however. S. Thoth des Sothis-Jahres). . Lucas.385— IV408.216 The next ingredient to be prepared is the ink (11. Wiinsch (in Dieterich. 1. Griechische Palaeographie. 1 he questions whether oxxw ура[Л[латш ovojxa should be read in light o f Dieterich. VII. 1044. 3.” has parallels in III.2. N ext the leaf from the persea tree must be prepared (11. cf. IV304ff. structed). London: Arnold. however.. 1.194 (index). 743 The redactional comment ok utzoxslzocl.740 (“write on a leaf o f the persea tree the eight-letter name.211-21).724. XXXVI. see August Steier. XIII. crit. see Theophrastus.202— Hopfner.” Cf. XXXVIII. Petersburg: V. 222. §§ 214. (Abraxas. 2. and Merkel­ bach (Abrasax .504. 83).32. # # 71 (2. also Daniel 86. 265-66. as given below”). 4.5.” L A 64.. VII. part 302. Also. 371. O Z 2 /2 .р. 68 (378C). 94 (2. 1575-78. 3. 468. Preisendanz. 755). 1.. “Persea. after mixing it w ith honey and myrrh . “Persea. 1962). 1.” Journal of the Ministry of National Education [in Russian]. and Merkelbach. e.v.v. s. III. see LSJ. [xsXt 1.. 3. Plutarch’ D e Iside et Osiride..). in n. 11. see also PGM LXII. 81— 87].” 14). “Zu den griechischen Papyri.” L A 4 (1982) 942— 43.315. “Tinte.178) prefer the regular oxTaypafjifjiaTov. VII. wenn Sonne. butN . Os. Balashev.187 (v.130— 33). 788. reads cpuXAou correctly (cf.. итгохеТа&оа. “which are tied to the heart o f Helios. ML 11.S 7 (1940) 1574— esp. see 1. pap. 740 Pap.822. 781— 82): dpov tov % Aov u x al [xeXm x al ^[xupvv] . 409.” 64).69-76.3. & Maltomini. 119) P 9 Mixture with honey and myrrh was also m entioned before (see 1. und der Tag dieses Aufgangs ist der sakrale Neujahrstag der Agypter (der 1. Meyer. 178 (mostly recon­ 34. 194. 3213. 782— ypt^ov етиI 83): cpuAAou тсѕраеа? to oxTaypafAfxaTov ovojxa. Gertrud Herzog-Hauser. 536— for Greek passages. 18). Wessely (“Griechische Zauberpapyrus.” See also 11. 785. 786-87. Erde und Mond) ungefahr auf derselben Linie stehen. 1895. Industries (4th ed. See Preisendanz. December 1895 [St. Hist.

according to the god[‘s reckoning]. For the rituals o f purification and sanctification.149. 786— 92. See Ritner.282. IV. 744 Pap.747 after or while showing it to the sun (Helios).”)750 The instruction supplements 1. 114. Ezek 2:8-3:3. 73-87 (“Preparation de l’herboliste”). especially. xeXeiw? (“then he will listen attentively”). because o f the new moon the goddess Selene is meant. . lick off the leaf while you show it to the sun . in order to face the sun rising in the east. that for the present author/redactor the god to listen is none other than Helios-Mithras. the reference is stated: хата &eov vou[X7]vtav. come at m orning to face the sunrise. see also II. see. The question here relates to the possible context o f this assurance: Does it refer to the consulta­ tion w ith Helios-Mithras (11. sec­ tions 18 and 21 (ed.151.3209. 846... 915.347 (41 days). XIII.2389. 783— 85): x al Ttpo y ' ^{л-epwv ayveuaa? sX&e rcpcolaq n p o q avaxoXa?. 749 The terminology is common not only in the PGM: for sTcaxoueLV (“listen”). cf. 724-28)? O r does it originally apply to a source and only secondarily to the present context? It can be taken for granted. 750 Preisendanz (app. 587.524 (rzpbq avaxoAa?). Herbarius. for the importance o f ayveuct-v in the PGM. Meyer. and Merkelbach believe it to be the sun-scarab to be consecrated (cf. 779). 52. crit. upoocyvsueLv III. ad loc. 671 (7 days). First. what this consists o f can be seen from the parallels. For ritual sanctification. Kendrick Pritchett. 51). ”).) raises the question whether. Merkelbach (Abrasax . prooemium. 748 For parallels. where the prophet is ordered to eat the holy book. VII. Friedrich.1045. 92— 102.746 It consists o f licking the inscription off from the leaf. see 1. 39— (“Temps 72 propice a la recolte”). but also elsewhere in ancient religions. cruvayvsuw (1. IV 1099-1100 (3 days). 3.744 (“and having kept yourself pure for for three days in advance. Prior to the application there has to be a three-day period o f sanctification. XIII. regarding the specification o f time (11.749 Three additional instructions regarding this procedure follow in 11. Mechanics. 334 (3 days). xaxa &eov voufjiTjvla (“Begin to consecrate him on the new T m oon in the Lion. reads y for the number three. 786— 87): ap^ou S t auxov xz'Azlv X ] sv Xeovxt. 1. see (with further literature) W..524. 88-107 (“Rites cathartiques et apotropai'ques”).226. see Thessalos 1. Delatte. XXII. The expression хата &eov is technical in calendrical procedures.34.26. Cf. but what is meant by auxov xsXelv? Preisendanz.54-55. in IV. VII. 732— 819) 217 W ith these preparations completed. 35. but no name is given there either.745 T he application begins early in the m orning. see 1. Supplemental rituals (11. “Postscript: The Athenian Calendars. airoXei^e xo cpuXXov Selxvuwv v]Xlw . XII. however. their application follows (11.247) refers to R ev 10:9. 746 For further references. 90. see PGM VII. 789— XIII. 34. 780. 734).” Z P E 128 (1999) 79-93.748 T he result is that the god Helios will listen (11.131— 434— 690).304. 745 Cf. 785— 86): x al ouxco? euaxouasxat. . 747 The licking off o f the sacred eight-letter word has parallels not only in the PGM (see 11. . 1.27. XIII. V.b.III. IV.

v. a specification o f the leaf (cf. esp.753 After having licked it off. 776). see 59. see XIII. T LG . but it is rather frequent in Hellenistic and Roman period literature.250. see 1.34. £va сриАахттјр^аа&тј^.v. 792—813) A nother supplement is added to the previous rituals (11. 2099. and the plant kentritis. 1. 3. 1. 67: 758 For parallels.105 (index). a measure o f protection.y. 3271. 15. 898. Hier.v. etc. 18.1. 755 The rose-oil is simply called t o poStvov. 792— 813). 9 §§ 121-22. the three items were appended by the author/redactor who derived them 751 Pap.2. Var. 27: 99. VII. so that you may be protected. Zeux. see 1.с.230. 776— 77. 463 (eXt^ov xal (ЗаХе zic. Pro imag.62. 1. For rose-oil. Further items o f information (11.” PRE 13th Halbband (1910).108— (jxupov). 4. 3. The purpose o f the licking off752 is now explained as a phylacterion. XIII. X X X V I. 752 For the term ехХе^есл». however. s. throw it into the rose-oil. 790— 92) 92): TcoXXaxL? 8e т?ј тсраујхатг^а xpiQffoc^evoc. 12.8.2626— IcrSk бе TTscpuXaxTyjpcaapivoi. hist. VII. 774— 76. 782— is revealed.a. 11. 775 and XIII. O Z 2 /1 . 756 u7rsp9au[xa^£!.67. VIII. Regarding composition. pal. and have been absolutely amazed”). 1018. Macrob.”). 757 Cf.xrlpi(/. consisting o f three pieces o f “inform ation” pertaining to the sun-scarab.acn:6^. Cf.ov751 (“Lick this up.. 1. 757— 774.755 The conclusion to the passage (778— takes to the form o f another “commercial” (11.v is found only here in the PGM. and Preisendanz. 7. 2628.”). e[x(3aXe eiq to po8t.757 and great amazement on the part o f the practitioner. Third. 9mi{i. 2079. see Hopfner. snotYjcja ty)v 7rpa^t. 785 knoXeijeiv .5. Franz Olck. see Aelian.234. 759). Aeth. xal to cpuXAo(v) eXl^a^. VIII. ^auixa^eiv. 1051 (cpuXXov).266— тсоХХахс. s. . a substantive adjective (“made from roses”). for the adjective poSivo^. and rolling up the leaf. (see also LSJ.16. doubtless it was taken over from the source. 52.adfiv a i (“to be furnished with an amulet” [LSJ]) occurs also in IV. see also VII. m entioned in 11. for a parallel. Ver. see above. Qauuiamo^. for тсрау[лате1а. Lucian. 2630.889-90. is: I EE O O IAI. the leaf is to be rolled up754 and thrown into the rose-oil (1. Am .49. 853-54. intro­ 83 duced by a citation formula (1. Deipn.758 3. 5. see also VII.523 (ovofxa). 413.337— 38. hist.897— Horapollo. Anth. 753 The peculiar term cpula. Athenaeus. Heliodorus.23 (285d). VII. the eight-letter name. XIII.24. “Gartenbau. OxxXacraav). reads eySKiye iva and <puXXo(v) (the final v is written with a supralinear stroke). 788): to Se ovojxa eaziv to u to ' I es oo loC C (“The name.360. 788-90): to u to exX eije. i)au[i. итсгре&аирзсста (“Many times I have used the spell. 785) is added (11.756 T he “commercial” combines two topoi: frequent use as evidence o f effective­ ness.254-55. PGM IV. also 1. 24. the main ritual o f the consultation o f Mithras.). 1954.218 Second.278 (sXaiov). 754 For kX iaaziv. 1. A similar commercial has occurred before (see on 1.

The first item concerns a correction to be made in the previously recorded ritual. . in which the god appeared to order the change. med. validated by divine revelation. ttcvtc). X X X V I. бса tcov x e ' <^w(ov opvetov759 (“Use the ointm ent no longer. cf. etc. Mat. but. der das groBe Mysterium des durch die 25 Vogel (?) wiederbelebten Skarabaus mit sich tragt.v. 3. Preisendanz: “Verwende die Salbe nicht mehr. after casting it into the river [you must] consult while wearing the great mystery o f the scarab revital­ ized through the 25 living birds”). in which he noted differences as well as his own judgm ent. auy^pt-crjxa. also IV. This correction is needed because o f a personal revelation o f the author (11. аХХа p ^ a v x a eic. sondern <du muBt> befragen.389.762 Such a disposal.136 (ed. Compos. Galen. so that the translations also differ. Olivieri. 1. 1. but is to be disposed of by throwing it into the river. 12. 12. Iatr. dem der Lebensfunke wieder verliehen worden ist durch die 29 Lebens-Vogel (?). Kuhn. Forming a kind o f appendix. the pap. as xe (meaning etxoat.69. nachdem du sie in den FluB geworfen hast. o f course. Preisendanz assumes the object o f рѓ-фаутос to be to cpuAAov.45 (1.412. o ^eo?' (“But the god spoke to me: . See LSJ. 770 the auy^piaiaoc761 which is no longer to be used. or the ointm ent o f the sun scarab (Merkelbach)? Most likely the text refers to the ointment in 1. Several points are controversial. This shows that w hen he added the information he had the complete text before him. The revelation concerns the preparation o f the ointm ent as stated in 11. Aetius o f Amida.763 The term ^раст&оа refers to the oracular 759 The word < XP^> has been supplied by Eitrem. the number 25 is written in the pap. 760 Cf.420. sondern wirf (den Sonnenkafer) in den FluB und trage an dir die groBartige mystische Salbe des Sonnenkafers. Helios-Mithfas). 763 So Merkelbach (Abrasax . reads Tcoxapto with a supralinear stroke indicating final v. . TTOxafxov <yj?Y\> ураа&ои cpopouvxa t o f i iy a ^uaxr]pc. lines 13. s. 1. see Dioscorides. which supersedes the previous tradition.16. 450.. 1. 1 (ed. 732— 819) 219 from personal revelation as well as source materials different from the Vorlage o f the preceding rituals.247): “Da die Sonnenkafer-Salbe nun doch einmal bereitet war.. 1). 762 For things thrown into the river. 751— 78: [лтјхетг jpS> тм стиу^р^а^атс. Supplemental rituals (11. N othing is said about what kind o f revelation it was. 792— 96): elrtsv бе [xot.411. In IV 876 heiBt Osiris . 4. 17). 8.75. presumably the Nile. ”) This formula presupposes the author has received a personal revelation from the god (no doubt.ov to u xav& apou to u ava^coTcupYj^evTOi.. Damit erleidet das dasselbe Schicksal wie Osiris. turns it over to Osiris w ho is identical w ith the Nile.” 761 The noun occurs only here in the PGM.1.40. VII. the new informa­ tion contains the results o f further research. and that he was careful to preserve the excerpts as they were copied. it could have been a dream or a vision.III.2.285.”.1. 5).760 W hich object is to be thrown into the river? Is it the persea leaf (Preisendanz). med. sollte sie in den N il geworfen werden. den Seth-Typhon in den FluB geworfen hatte. The term is technical in ancient medicine and pharmacy. Merkelbach: “Gebrauche die Salbe nicht mehr (zum Einreiben). but see for the verb 11.

Ancient Mystery Cults. see the conflict about the Bacchanalia.769 and from new m oon (1. O Z 2 / 1-2. supplementing earlier instructions in 11.767 (“ Consult once a m onth. 753) to full m oon. хата 7tavasXy]vov may come from a marginal note (Jordan). 289-90. х ата TcavaeAiqvov. 225) refers to Armand Delatte. 769 Weinreich (in Dieterich. s. Plutarchs Schrift. 53. IV. Da Osiris regeneriert wurde. 717. For another change from a seasonal to an astrological calender. that scarab has been “revitalized through the 25 . 796— 98): ^paorQ-at. Graec. Pyth. revitalize”). y '.8-10.766 The second item is also a correction regarding the times o f consultation (11. Defixionum tabellae. 54. “Dromena. see Schroder.765 so well known to the author that he does not consider further information to be necessary. 260. 750— as an amulet. the consultation o f the Pythia should occur during the month o f Bysos. ocvtI tou х ата ѕто. s.52— 53. “Etudes sur la magie grecque. 773-74). 3. 187.” See also Hopfner. 294. XII.uaT/]pt.v. perhaps influenced by < jp ri> . 768 The infinitive has imperatival force. at the gods order the time schedule stated in the preceding text is to be changed from three times a year (11. 767 Pap. 724-28 (cf. o ecrriv xav&apoi.. It seems that the performances are shifted from a seasonal to an astrological calender.318: i^oTtupeCv. index. 1 Clem 27:3. Ign Eph 1:1. For the term ava^wTcupew see also 1 Tim 1:6.” in Graf. it may be related to the hours. 78) living birds. 160-61. during which the ointm ent o f the sun-scarab was to be used (11. 128: to {i. one should wear “the great mystery o f the sun-scarab”764 (see 11 746.739: a magical name gives vital power to magical books (to ava^omupouv xaq tzoloocq [ЗфАои^ aou). 747-48) to once a month. Inconsistencies 1. 105) suggests: “The allusion to the twenty-five birds is obscure. 770. 224. 765 For the term ava^wTiupetv (“rekindle. . unfortunately. Bacchanalia. 778-86. This б Yeva{Aevo<. described in Livy. cf.” Merkelbach (Abrasax.”)768 In other words. Versnel..7]£ x a l 7тота[лоср6рт)то<. 87.” This strange reference seems to allude to an otherwise unattested ritual.. XIII. 292E-F. 8. Instead o f this ointment..248) proposes to read the number as which would increase the birds to 29 and relate them to the 29 days o f the lunar month.v. 732-34). see also XIII. 39. 398A. 270). 764 Cf. reads y for three. §§ 130. cf. V. instead of three times a year. 9. orac. атса^ tou prjvo. 766 Meyer (Betz. 770 The phrase ocvtI tou . 773.220 Commentary consultation described in 11. n. 798— 804) contains botanical information about the kentritis plant.770 T he third item (11.. wird dasselbe auch mit dem Kafer geschehen.13. Henrichs. so all explanations are necessarily speculative. ’АКЕФАА02 0 E O 2 . at full m oon. Ansichten griechischer Rituale. which is a scarab” (or: “which is ‘Scarab’”). G M PT . “the mystery o f the god.'Ear(. see Burkert. Quaest. The question is whether there is a relationship between these rituals. so that the scarab Khepri is reborn in the first hour o f a new day. on this.ov тои &eou. and BDAG.According to Plutarch. 183-84.” B C H 38 (1914) 246. after the passage o f twelve hours o f day and twelve hours o f night during the previous day. there is no other extant attestation o f it. auf der Bleitafel von Hadrumentum droht eine Magierin mittam ut a flumine feratur (Audollent.

commenting on Plutarch’s (Is. 412.v. TcspicnrEpLov mentioned in Dioscorides. 33. Friedrich. 773 See Hopfner. 484.v. see Deines & Grapow. §§ 464— 551: “D ie sympathisch-symbolischen Pflanzen”. cf.. the ‘black edge’ weakened by the juice.” Egitta e Vicino Oriente 11 [1988] 71— 110. Herodots zweites Buch. also 65 and 492). Untersuchungen. they call s Egypt. In 11 804— the author adds new information. Oxy. The description follows the estab­ lished pattern o f identifying the species ((Soxav/j. in the regions of the black earth.III. The month o f Pauni is mentioned also in VII.. Thessalos. since it is mostly black. M. ouxw<. “plant”). утј?. # 1127. . Herodots zweites Buch. LSJ.281. 425-26).776 when smeared with the juice o f the plant (cf.^) is then described. § 500. O Z 1.? aux?)<. Wiedemann. 1.” that is.3 (ed. 8 (2nd cent. O Z 1. 13. esp. xa q ava(3oXat<. O Z 2 /1 . and when the feathers are touched. ” 776 On the ibis-wing. Khemia. Supplemental rituals (11. 7iXt]ctlov <xy}<. 30.” I owe this last reference to Thomas Dusa. BDAG. 781). б[лоѓ. commenting on Plutarch’ Is. 7 6 77. see Dieterich (19) who 21. 4. p. eups$7} ev 7): xco MsveXatxT) ev хтј ФаХаури тсро. with reference to Wiedemann.. and is similar to the erect verbena. Mat.773 and the geographical area: the region called “the black earth” is the arable land o f Egypt. So far the information gleened from the herbalist source. avY cites Dieterich. Os. 11 773. 804— xouxo xou xuplou U7to8ei^avxo<. like the black part o f the eye. the tenth m onth o f the year (May 26 to June 24). the first part (798-804) concerns a tradition which likely originates in a herbalist s text:771 rj Sz xevxplxiq (SoxavY) cpuетоа атсо [A 7]v6<. 178. y lyvexar Efieto? rcxepov ^ptexou xo axpopiiXav yotk<xa$zv xco хос'1 <[xa ^ Otyetv атсотатгхе^ xa тсхера772 (“T he kentritis plant grows from the m onth of Pauni.774 T he next step is a comparison w ith a similar plant. 19. Dieterich. [xeXac. 774 See Hopfner (O Z 1. see also. <. with references to Pap. called TtepKTxepewv (“upright verbena. Worterhuch der agyptischen Drogennamen. § 500: 60 “Taubenkraut. 732— 819) 221 information is divided into two parts. O Z 1. Hopfner.> xou 771 See Hopfner. is thereby weakened and .а бѕ eaxiv xw оргНо n z p io r z p z m i. reads 'r(3ew For a discussion o f the text see Cronert. The black tip o f a wing feather o f an ibis. Griffiths (Plutarch. Ilauvl sv r o l q fiipeai fjL£X avy]<. the seasonal growth: “from the m onth o f Pauni on.. med.775 The m ethod for identifying the plant (yvcocrc. derived from a personal . 74) mentions the PGM passage as “chiaramente tratta da un erbario. 364C: “.” 101. Os. §§ 120— For jjLeX ]? instead o f (xeXatvYj^. falls off w hen touched. Hopfner. 76. Carmela Betro (“Erbarie nell’ antico Egitto. s. 362F) discussion o f the festivals o f the months o f Pauni and Phaophi in Busiris and Lycopolis. this is how to recognize it: the wing o f an ibis is smeared.” or “dovecote”). TrEpicjrepewv). § 500). Griffiths (Plutarch. they fall off”). 772 Pap. yj бе yvcoat.59— as a “holy plant” (Ispa [Зотал>7]). in contrast to the “red land” o f the desert.” 775 See LSJ (s. CE). 93— 97). “Zur Kritik. revelation by the god (11.

See also Dieterich (19.1. see below. and reddish down to the root.46.778 the author has actually found the plant at an identifiable place. Geogr. VIII. 3. (Зотоплг)?. 781. It is similar to the so-called talapes.[3w aaT iapayw ay p lw . Pap.181. s. but Preisendanz keeps avapoXai?.” PRE 15 (1931) 807— Aristide Cal­ 8. Dieterich consid­ ers [5г)о-абабо<. [3oTavy)<. 3/2. “MeXaviTt. § 500: 2. јЗтгјсгастбс. 134). at the river banks. med.65-66.44.267 (with reference to Ptolemaeus. Jordan prefers <т^?> тои Вт]<аа>(7або<. an unnoticed Greek name for Egypt: N ew evidence for the origin and etymology o f al­ chemy?” in: The World of Ancient Magic: Papers from the first International Samson Eitrem Seminar at the Norwegian Institute at Athens (eds. (Зктааа. occur as well (according to Max Wellmann [in Dieterich. 1999). the Egyptians Epnubu.18 (801. Alexander o f Tralles 2 (ed. See also David Bain. like the wild beet”).19): o MeveXa'iTY)? vojjlo?. 783 Pap. 19]. O Z 1. Phalakre 2). agrestis ruta. “an den Wallen (des Nils). the Cappadocians Moly. Dieterich (19) proposes avaroXaic. and the leaves are rather crinkled and have fruit like the tip o f wild asparagus. “plant o f Besas”. the area called Menelaos (Menelaites) was situated in the northwestern Nile Delta. 781 Pap. Dieterich also reads ФаХаурт) (Jordan retains ФаХаури). see Dioscorides. The major source is Strabo.5.” that is.” PRE 19/2 (1938) 1614— 15. 1. 3.9: MeveXaiTou [Гѓјтрбтсо/лс Kavw^oc). derini. .781 related to the god Bes (Втјста?). ed. reads астараум ay pew. emended by Dieterich (20) to асттгарауои ayptou.777 (“As the lord demonstrated to me. Calderini (Dizionario 5 [1987].1— Hopfner. Mat. Se xa l xcopr] Лфш)? ФаХахроа. reads ал/офоЛоас. as the name says. Falacro and Phalagry. wc.46.v. “Phalakra(i). 779 Hermann Kees. According to Dioscorides the Syrian name was (Зтѓ]аааста.(?). The main source is Stephanus o f Byzantium. reads тои ргјстабос (4отал/т]с. Jordan retains the pap. 248). 752. See LSJ.? y?j. 225). “Menelaos (Menelaites). et al. but different names were used in different locali­ ties. Bergen: Norwegian Institute at Athens. Geogr. 205— 26. but the forms ртјстстосаа. 4. [the plant] is found in the Menelaitis area near Phalagry. Dieterich (19) refers to Dios­ corides. ФаХахраг ѕсгтс. 3.” Merkel­ bach: “an den Dammen. the Afrians Churma. 54) points to two possible places. David R . ecttiv Se TrapairXyjaxov tw xaXoujjiivw таХа7гг). see also VII. east o f Alexandria. med. “Syrian rue.780 The Besas plant is.. Thanks to divine guidance. “Deiche des Nils” (Abrasax .592. some called it Tirjyavov aypiov. 777 Accepting Jordan s reading. Cf.v. s.. Puschmann. Dizionario dei nomi geografici e topografici dell’ Egitto greco-romano (Milano: Istituto Editoriale Cisalpino-La Goliardica. Meineke. near the Besas plant”). According to Kees and Calderini. Jordan.779 Phalagry is the likely name o f a place in the R om an province o f Cyrenaica between Kainopolis and Marabina.222 Commentary Вт]<аа>аабо<. {Зтјаааа is read by the best Dioscorides manuscripts). [Зсстааста.2: (Зтјаасста. 778 For the term mroSet-xvueLV. Mat. 17.” 782 For the identification. 1117. 1980). 808— 13): scttiv бѕ fxovoxXwvov x a l Ttoppov a^ptp££/]? x a l т а cpuXXa оиХотгра x a l to v xapTiov s^ o v x a o^ o io v tw xopup. t o a y p io v creuTXov783 (“It is o f a single stem. 780 So according to Hermann Kees. LXII. reading.782 A more detailed description defines the plant further (11.

37.1670. 2508. 28 (1. 579. 311. xoZq Лфш]£ zotcoiq xal ev aXXoi^ бе japtoic. so that they are ready for use whenever needed (see 11 659— 708. LXXII. 298. F. VII. papyrus.vov 1. Mat.2. XI.1 6 1 9 -2 0 . 2510-11. 787 See LSJ. XII.785 xa cpuXXa ouXoxepa (“crinkled leaves”). 788 See Theophrastus. 3. 786 LSJ (s. 20-21) who point to a plant called aXurcov (Dioscorides. 86. 4. plant. 486. 3201. 1887). 844. 789). Reitzenstein.23. § 500) and Merkelbach (Abrasax. 732— 819) 223 As one would expect. London: Nutt. LXX.796.4: оиЛо^иХХо^. 813—19) The third ritual concerns the phylacteries to be used during the main ritual.. 27.1 3 3 5 -3 6 . XXXVI.792 which is why specific regulations for their prepara­ tions must be followed. implying that таХатггј is an error.l. Hist.5 (jxovoxXovo?). 2897. plant. See for surveys and bibliographies Charles W.2689.614. with references from the papyri. x-6pi>fx(3o<.23.1 2 6 4 . plant.173. 92 (2.10-11 (vecpt-Xaxxr^ov). cf. the language o f this passage contains terms from botany: [AovoxXwvo? (“with a single stem”). Gerhard Kropatscheck. symbols. cf. Hist.15.1 0 7 1 .med.1. cf.1703. (“cluster of fruit” or “flowers”).” R A C 1 (1950) 397— 411.a. Mat.4. 9. 94 . XLVII. 257.4.66-67). LSJ list reuxXov. 784 See IV. 660..76-77).248) have no explanation to offer.6 (beta maritima L . voces magicae. Hopfner (O Z 1. 2694.13. LXII. 791 Phylacteries play an important role in the PGM..1675.2899.309. cpuXaxTt. 111. Supplementum Magicum # # 23 (1. 1907). The Gnostics and Their Remains: Ancient and Medieval (2nd ed.791 Phylacteries are . 899.97. Poimandres. VII. “Amulett. King. Theophrastus. Theophrastus. “wild sea beet.197— 98 (index) notes the following occurrances o f cpuXaxxrjpLov: 1.178: yevvaxai бе ev тбтео^ тсара&аХаа<т1оц.v.127. 3014. 159. III. 1653-54. 34 (1. Waszink.1 3 1 6 -1 7 . 61. 7.125.275 (cf. XIII. \ioCkiaxa. 2705. Hist.) refers to Theophrastus. cf. XIII.788 хаХатг/}.789 and aeuxXov (“wild beet”).Hist.3. Nat.890. 2.6.9. 2630.63-66). 785 See also IV. LXI. 64 (2. Supplemental rituals (11. 790 See also III. LXXI. plant.5. (“reddish”). 792 The literature on phylacteries and amulets is vast and widely dispersed.v.18. Dioscorides. Mat. 7iXeicrTov. They must o f course be prepared before the ritual begins.204-8).1661. idem. s.. o5Xo<. Daniel & Maltomini.272). Eckstein &Jan H. protective amulets on stone. Caus.784 тшрро<. 280. D e amuletorum apud antiquos usu capita duo (Gryphiae: Abel. (reconstructed) VII.2. med. 6. 317. Dioscorides.. 1. or pictorial representations.” or “beet”). or metal lamellae. 2358.787 The plant names cannot all be identified: аштарауо^ (“asparagus”).22). 3.786 xopu(x(3o<. Third ritual: the phylacteries (11. 857. 3094.1685-86.4. 789 According to the TLG the name o f the plant is a hapaxlegomenon. 2.218.99-101). See the comments by Dieterich and Wellmann (in Dieterich.79. med.790 4.1 2 5 3 . 4. 291-303. Usually w orn on the body o f a person.III. 6. 3127. IV. w ith engravings o f letters. 7 0 8 . Pliny. names. notably in IV Preisendanz. plant.8. they were —and still are —widely used in every religious configuration.

VII.342— 79). Studies (cf. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 65. Scholars differ (2. Also. XXX VI. as also what material one should use.” 795 For the term трбтго^. First. 23 (1954) 138— Delatte 45. with the review and additional bibliography by William Brashear. which Dieterich (20) emends to tkifAYjpeu. 5 (1.224 Commentary The text begins w ith a kind o f section title (11. pointing to the occur­ 44. 2155. w ith myrrh ink”). (“Copy the [amulet] for the right [arm] onto the skin o f a black sheep. 32. emended by Wessely to £uwvu{x<ov t > o u TrpocrOujj-epL. .1252. cf. Meyer: “N ow the phylacteries require this procedure: . 3016. “Amulets Chiefly in the British Museum. and use the same m ethod”). “A Miscellany o f Engraved Stones.” Hesperia 20 (1951) 301— idem.26. 814-17): to fjtiv бе£(. Talismans et Pantacles dans la tradition orientales et occidentales (Paris: Payot. §§ 18. the review by Karl Preisendanz. and Preisendanz. Erika Zwierlein-Diehl.PC 20. recognized by Dieterich (20) and Preisen­ danz. 214. cpuXaxTYjpLov. Amulets. “Incantations and Prayers for Salvation on Inscribed Greek Amulets.v.797 (“ [the magical name] o f the left [arm] is PR O ST H Y M E R I”). the preparation o f myrrh ink has been described before (11.211-21). Magika Hiera. Supplementum Magicum. indices. # # 78 (2. Bonner.794 The term тротсо^ refers to a particular type o f amulet as well as the m ethod for making it. either by accident. Magische Amulette und andere Gemmen des Instituts ftir Altertumskunde der Universitat zu Koln (ARWAW. idem.161— 62).479-81. 797 Pap. 1998) 1. Les intailles. see IV.795 The preparation distinguishes between what one should wear on the right and on the left arm. Daniel & Maltomini. Gnomon 68 [1996] 447— 53). “Amulett. 3.151— 54). Apparently. 207.. The hide o f the black sheep is contrasted to that o f the white sheep (1. 94 (2. 57. s. rence o f Jewish phylacteries in Matt 23:5 (see Schiirer. reads тротго with a supralinear stroke. 80 (2. 813-14): та бѕ сриХахтујрса e js i tov TpoTtov toutov793 (“Then the phylacteries are o f this kind”).442— TDNT. 66. . 793 Pap. the pap. Abrasax 1-4. 1938). Walter Beltz and Christoph Uehlinger. Merkelbach: “D ie Amulette (die man beniitzen soli) sehen so aus. 60. 794 The translations differ at this point: Preisendanz: “Die Amulete sind so beschaffen”. now supported by . XII. 2.190 (index). 1992.v. or because it is the same for both arms.1318. the term m pionnxeiv (“attach [around the arm]”) is technical and occurs elsewhere in the PG M .796 The same procedure is to be followed for the left arm (11.” R G G (4th ed. Jean Marques-Raviere. 796 For nspidwtTw see IV . Amulets of Ancient Egypt (London: British Museum Press. LXIII.740. 1994).274. 107— 37. Kotansky. & Derchain. Amulettes.? тои аитои ^фои тгер1афоа (“and after tying it with the sinews o f the same animal..” ibid. reads $ufry)pi. 780-81). 818).ov ypav^ov eiq ujiiva тсро(Затои ptiXavo? Qiupvo^EXavc. Merkelbach. idem. Then the vox magica for the left arm is given: eucovu[A<ov т>ои тсроа&иргјрг. 819. the formula to be inscribed has been omitted. BDAG.” in Faraone & Obbink. 330. s. ”. the amulet for the right arm is treated (11. 817— 19): to 8s euwvujxov si q ujxsva Xeuxou тгројЗатоо x al ^рсо тб аитЅ тротш (“and that for the left [arm copy] onto the skin o f a white sheep.278.211— 21).16).197. History. Gnomon 24 [1952] 340— 45). 3. reads eucovufAou. put it on”). Then follows the applica­ tion: to 8s аито бтѓјста? vsupot. Carol Andrews. 29.

Finally. For similar conclusions. IV2078— 79: таита ecjtlv.v.798 However. 467.g. 799 According to Weinreich (in Dieterich." 20 For this and other speculations. For references. Worterbuch. 1. although accepted by Preisendanz.” (The Homer verses are taken to be the content o f the U7r6jj. “Das linke ist ganz gefullt mit ‘Prosthymeri’ und hat die Aufschrift — ” 800 According to Wiinsch.. 801 The term is used also XIII. u. итсор^Јла (5). which corre­ sponds to the other (PROSTHYM ERI) for the left arm. there is the problem that the vox magica is given only for the left arm. however. Elias Bickermann.a). app.. and P G L .” 7rXy)pecrTaTov xal to U7t6p. This reading keeps what the pap.799 the final clause should be taken as a separate statement by the author/redactor: TrXyjpsaxaTov x a l to tmofAVTrjpia 'ijz i ([With this] the memorandum has [finally] reached its completion”).2 0 ) Contrary to most scholars. if it were the same as for the right arm. 225).667-69..248) comments that the left amulet strengthens the memory. (1. Cf.a III. also Preisendanz.v/](j.. the text would have indicated it. W S t 41 (1919) 142-43. see Preisendanz.801 it refers most likely to the Jordan. Preisigke. Preisendanz follows Wessely’s emen­ dation: suwvu[xo<v t>ou “-TtpocjthjfAept.424. Meyer. “Beitrage zur antiken Urkunden- . Meyer (translating Preisendanz): “The left one is very full o f ‘PROSTHYM ERI’. crit.725. this emendation. The change to the genitive is only needed because Wessely connects it with with 7tA7]pe<jToc. should the following phrase тсХтјрѓататоу x a l to UTiofxvYjfxa z j z i be part o f the sentence or not? Should the following H om er verses be taken as the content o f the im6fxv7)(Jia? Translations. TiXyjpeoTaxov x a l to ш гбјдллгјЈла z y z i. see III.<.a. 8 1 9 -2 0 ) 225 widely in regard to the text and its interpretation.Tov {m6fxvY]fi. 2.. For one. The term шгоЈлллгјЈла (“m em o­ randum ”) refers to legal and literary documents. I V Epilogue (U. and has this memorandum Merkelbach: “Das linke mit dem ‘Konig STHYMERI hat auch die vollstandigste Erinnerungskraft in sich.. Preisendanz considered to punctuate: cucovujjlou' “upocrtk>[xepi”.. vary at this point. In his edition and translation.I V Epilogue (11.vrh refers to spells called [xvTjpLovtxir] (e. ad loc. also 11. comparison w ith the phylactery at 11. Thus. cf. A further question is whether the inscription for the right arm can be restored on the basis o f Ttpoaupiept.232.161: xal aunr] ecrclv yj TCpa£t. and Merkelbach.a z j z i ' .17. see LSJ. 3. 11. therefore. and that uTr6p. there is no reason to assume a longer inscription for the left arm. 798 Preisendanz: “Das linke is ganz gefullt mit ‘Prosthymeri’ und hat die Aufschrift. 8 1 9 . while the corre­ sponding one for the right arm is omitted.v7][i. 661). s.800 Stating that the docum ent is now complete uses the superlative form тсХтјрѓсттатоу be­ cause o f the many supplements and additions. has. 659-61 shows that for the right arm there is only one vox magica (PROSYM ERI). та e-rciTcXel Y [aov/] ] тирау|лате1а. seems to be unconvincing. 40).” Merkelbach (Abrasax. however.. 819— are “a poorly copied marginal gloss to the Vorlage.

on the other hand (21). 820 there also occurs a colon (:) and a paragraphos sign.226 Commentary text as a whole. 821— are not to be 34) taken as a part o f the Mithras Liturgy. noted by Wessely (“Zu den griechischen Papyri. 225) is indecisive: on the one hand (20). Griechische Palaeographie. the term cruvxayfjia in the exordium (11.шс.804 forschung.” D N P 5 (1998) 65. so daB vor und nach ihm noch deren gesprengte Stiicke erscheinen. 821— 34).802 After 1.” . 481-82). apparatus criticus). 402— 3. 15 802 Cf. the Mithras Liturgy in its entirety functions as a memorandum in the same way.) begins (11. 750— 819). 750-819).400. he takes и7г6рлг)[ла as the category o f “quotation.). 804 So the evidence o f the pap. but since they are mere additions to the whole composition.. where the additional instruction (бсбастнослѓа ттј? пра£. or. 467-75 and 821-43: “Es scheint.803 signifying the end o f the section and implying that the H om er verses (11. 750. 2. Therefore. to the supplements alone (11. he observes correctly that the Mithras Liturgy is interpolated between the Homer verses o f 11. daB zwischen die Homerverse der groBe Wahrsagezauber eingeschoben ist. III. “Hypomnema. the U7t6[xv7][xa could simply refer to these additional instructions. 803 See on this Gardthausen. Differently.” meaning the Homer verses (11. less likely. 814— (with lit. apparently refers to the text up to 1..” 14) and Preisendanz (ad loc. Dieterich (20.” A P F 9 (1930) 164— Franco Montanari.

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“Hieroglyphen. “M agie. U lrich Kopf.” Ftinf. 1890) W iggermann. Marco Frenschkowski. Franz A. and Toufic Fahd. Staatsgymnasiums in Hernals (Wien: Staatsgymnasium in Hernals. Erich. R eim und Leicht.PH 36. Griechische Zauberpapyrus von Paris und London (DOAW .” R A C 15 (1989) 8 3 -1 0 3 Zuntz. 1889) W iedemann. K .661— 79 Winter. Gunther. 1888) — “Zu den griechischen Papyri des Louvre und der Bibliotheque nationale. Martin WallrafF. Persephone: Three Essays on Religion and Thought (Oxford: Clarendon. H einz Streib. zehnter Jahresbericht des K . Dorothea Baudy. M .Bibliography 255 Wessely.” R G G (4th ed.. 2002) 5. Giuseppe Veltri. W ilhelm Duprez. Hans D ieter Betz.2. Wien: Kempski. Herodots zweites Buck (Leipzig: Teubner. 1971) .. Alfred.


-a . to ayiacjpLaCTL 522 ayioc.. Y ] a&avacrtav A l l aOavaTo^.. 594 OX Y Y C O ]. o Altova 520— 521 Alcov axpa etc. o 515 odpw dcpov 781 ala9-avo[xat. -oava. -7). ) axoY]<. -a . 520 a&avaTOV 504. Y ] axTtvwv 538 axtlve<. -ov axoXou&a 578 axouw o x u ty 514. 745 coc ] axoucret 541... -av axpopiXav 8 0 2 -8 0 3 aXTL?.Indices The Indices refer to the line numbers o f the papyrus containing the “ Mithras Liturgy” I. o aepi 508..ov 812 arjp. -ov aXxt-fJioi 679 . . 685 axoXou9-oi. atcr9T)&7](TeL 622 оаа&тјстц. 693 kkpoq 541 aepa 582 ocQavocaiix. 522 ayLtxq 522 ayiwTaroi. 522 aytaafxa.. 621 axouCTsa&aa 572 axou|cr6v [лои 587— 588 axouetv 734 ахројлеХа?. 506. to ayyou? 761 ayia^a) ayiacr&eii. ov ayiwTocToa 668— 669 ayveuw ayveuaa? 784 aypto<..ov aya&ou 649 aya$ocXq 653— 654. . o ayyeXwv 571 ayyeXXw ayysiXov 642— 643 ayyo?. 634 axTivac 751 aXxLjJio^. to ayyeEov 758. 706 oL c tew оатои 111 Atwv. -ov aytoi<. Greek Words aj3uacrov. 520 a&avaroLq 5 1 6 -5 1 7 aQ-avocTOU 531 aQavaxa 544. -ov a9-avaTw 501. -ov ayptco 811 aypt. 761 ayycXo*. to aPuCTcrov 512— 513 aya&o<. 687 aya&od 667 ayyelov.yj. 609 aOavaTou^ 620 cdexoq 484 alQ-yjp. Y ] т а q rcevTE ala& YjCTELi. 505.

. 721 kvixEppLq. 626. 719 a7ioSlSw[i.evov 539 avEwyuta? 624— 25 avoLyopLsva? 662 avxl 797 avxLaxpEcpco Y X L V o u a a | x a l avxt-axpecpouaa xov ) oupavov 701 avw 569 a. 799 aTToysvsola. aTtoylyvo[xat. 523— 524. 546 avaf^alvEiv 628 ava(3oXir]. 793 aXXofxat. 728 O T Z 'l L Z yu b. Y ) a[Xfi.i'ioq. -ov auEtpov 583 aTtEpavxo?. o aTca&av<ax>t. -ov l aXXco 500.wxou 554 агсХом aTrXw& YjcjExat.^6p.. 772 aXX<ou> 542 aXXou? 546 a}Aa 803 afA£xa&exo<. 739— 740 атгѓрхојАоа хжгХѕбаѕхаг. 720..t. o av&pw7iou 542 avO-pamo? 644. -ov a7iEpavxov 552 avaXafXpavco <avaXaj3s> 533 avaXa[A7iw avaXaptwv 575 avaXuw avaXu&sli. Y ] avajSoXat? 806 avayxY). -ov aTCapalxv]xov 534 arcapaLXYjxou 606 aneipoq. 551.TzoayeGxtu s^ u ^ w v x a l [3aXa|vslou 735 arcYjXt-wxY]?.ov 760 ava^aLvw ava(3alvovxac. акобг-бои? 658 .. -ov av&pa)7UVY)(.cT{xw 741 aTCa^avaxKJjj. Y ] aTtoyEVECTtav 721 aTToylyvoijLat. -7]. rj avaxoX?]? 513 avaxoXa? 784 avefxoi. -la .oi 650 a^cov. -ov a[A£xa&Exov 528 a[X[j..oi. 583 ocvol ^ o v 603.ov <x£coq 739 a^Low a^aj 477 a£t. Y ] ava^uplai 699 ava7ToX£uw avaTcoXsuoucra 702 ava(J7iaco avaarcwv 538 avaxoXYj.. 624 ava^omupsM ava^wTCUpYj&svxo? 795 avat-pew o v Xojasvo? 758 ce avaxoucpt^w avaxou9t. o xov 7t£piSlvY]xov | xou xuxXou a^ova xou oupavou 681 aTra9-av ax l^w a-rca&avaxia&El? 647— 648 a7Ta9-avaxL<j[x6<. 730 an:apalxY)xo<.o .6? 747 ana&avocxlct[xov 771 атта^ 797 a7rapaf3axw<. t. 579. o aTTY cw jv 552— jX xY 553 a7r/]Xi. 576— 577 атсо 537. 608 av&pcoTclvY)v 650 czv&pconoq. 628.258 aXXa 567. aXXofxsvou? 704 aXXo?. Y ] avayxrjv 526 avayxY]? 606 Indices avolyto || avolyvufja avoLysvxoi. o avEfxou 550 av&pwrct-vo?.

712 а(77гастаа&оа 677 астларауо?.. 656. o auXo? 549— 550 auXov 551 au^Yjalcpw^ 601 au£w. au^avw au^6[i. 738 EV а7то<рора. 744.. 579. o 663 aciTYjp 574 аатѕра? 580. x a l a6£y)$sd<.Y) ocp^<?> 488 ocpxY 488. 678 auxov 638. o 259 аатроба[ха 603 a7io^£(jLv 707 O T O a& (7T L C T X L 7][X атсохахаотаОт] 630 атгоx XeIm aTcoxexX£Lcr[i. -ov артсауѓј 753 ap^ayysXoi.Evoi.. 682— 683 acpcoxicrxo^. 689 (3a&o<. 670.Indices 0C7l6&£CTL<.хатмс 729 аихб^. 740. 662-663 (За9ѓ><. [3a&u pa&u 753 (3alvw ^alvw 484-485 (3aXav£iov. 742 ) apxY)v ap^ofxai ap^ofJiEvoi. 519-520.. 578. Y ] a7io<popav 555 daipaxo? xa <а>7грата 476 ?ApxTOi. Y ] acjTpoSa}X Y )<.. xo (SaXavEiou 735— 736 [ЗаХХм асттси. Y ) j3XY]97]vai 753 paXE 758 асттратга? 682. auxo auxou 484. 756.oa асг7гааш 638 аатга^ои 666. 703 . -ov acp&apxou 497.. 711 axovo? octovm атсоХе^м o t o ei/ e 785 ct X 0CTCO7TLTCTO) ср&оуук» 745 атсолхтттЕЈ. 771 атсофофаојлас. 550. 619 apjfou 786 a(T7ta^o(ji. 578. 818 аихтј? 801 auxo 816 &<p9apxoq.eva<. 746. -тѓ).. 804 octtoteXew otoe m cc xX v OCTCOTlxtojfXl 618 auXoi. -ov афи^со 498 Р' 577. 559 асрСгци acpt-Evxsc. 754. (3a9sla. a7tocpoi. 694..[3a>{A o<. 786 auxw 738. Y ] аито. 742. б асптараум 810 acjTiaCTTLXoi. 657 o cxevl^e 693. 704 аатратпѓ).. Y ] o c t Sio ctu v acTTYjp. 720 auxlxa 533 атсбВт) 769. 556 axsv^tov 629. Y ] axapa^tav 685-686 O TE C vl^fc) ax£v^ovxa<. 703. б ’Apxxoq 700 а р т с а у у ]. аихтѓ]. -ov acpwxlaxw 497 а^р£0Х07Г7]Х0^. o apxayyeXou 482 apxY).. 584-585 arcoxptvo[xaL a7ioxplvY)xai 726 aatpaXw? 739 axapa^ta. -ov аатсасгсгхм 638 a^pEoxoKYjxov 527 &Xpi 808 афи^о<. 816 auxwv 634. to [За&ои? 575.

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775 бкх 548. 683.абт)[хата 675 SLtx. 721. 814.басгхаХ1а. 7 ] Ѕсскр&рмаа 607— 608 б^аиуу]?. 7] б(. 800. 765 e[xol 489. 703. 752. 574. 660. 645. 475.. 536. 534. 7] exaTaaet. 778. 554. 546. 551. 579-580. 536. б бшасгта 714 бисгае(3ѓ)?. 811 elfxt 535. 583 б б1стхо<. 690 eav 499. 700. 526. 710 exXt. 644. 574. 817 elq. 548.T a. 524.баахаХ1а тт)<. 683. 523. то боу[ла 527 бохесо бо^7] 499.aaio iX Sia7te7tXacT[xevov 495— 496 Si. 736. 762. 710 d 739 е!бо<. 576 бсМ О Х) б1оохѕ 585 боујха. 502. 703 exotaxoq. 623 ex 517. т) Suv6cyL £(>)q 477— 478. 656. 739. 587. 629. 537. 493. 764 ejxou 495 fxe 501. 527. -rj. 763. 647. t o dSav 480 el [X L gartv 485. 727. 529. 510.^e 789 ехлХѓјстсга exTcXay^vat. 607.6 б1ахои 548. 7tpa£e(o<. 732. 709. -sq Suaaefiav 683 е' 580. 687. 748. 572— 573 ехатастк. 483.. 738. 535. 662. 672а. -eq бс. 560. 807. 788. 628 . 642 б{п/а[Х1л/ 650 SuvcxaT7]q. 796 бкхбтјјха. 529. 524. 553. -rj. 723. 758. 504. 661. 574. 524 б{пдх[х(. 737 ехтеХем ехтеХесту]? 619 eXlcjow eXi^a? 790 eXxw eXxe 537. 642. 643. U a e i 777-778 бѓстхо^. 771. 707. 540. 494.5. 553. [xla.642 бохѕ!^] 540 б6хУ Г д. 750 б1б(0[Х(. t o бкхбтјрихтом 521— 522 б(.аиуе1 497 бс.<. ev ev 680 elaopaw eaeiSe 634 еТтос 618.ap&p<>>ai£. -o exelvv) 543 sxeivrjq 544 exelvou 555 exelvov 733 kyXziju) [xot. 790. 765 elvoa 541 t 553 elcilv 676 o v t l 684 eaei 725. 772 ey^eipew ey^eip^? 736 SytO || Y)(JLSt<. 792 [xou 481. 551. 491. 625. 7) ЈС Ј-< бохтјст^ 648 боуем бovou[xevov 570 б{п/а[хоа бтхх[а]оа 538 бша[Х[. 793. 816 бт)Хаиум<. 514.Indices 261 бе« бѓетоа 650 бѓ]аас. eya> 484.. 723. 491. 603. 588. 726 r\v 731 fiq 736 d q 490. -ov I x a c i T o v 677— 678 exe!vo<.

769. 741. 525 evzoxaoaiq 686 e v c j x w c r v 692 E T pL J^T T i.tz 770 exspoi.. 634. 529 z n z ix a 561. 619 C 620. 787. V 498. 743 £{J17]V 490 ЕЈлфи^О^. 755-756. 556.xx6v 529 £X W £XO[xevw(. 488. 636. 492.753. -7 ). .e? . sv&a lv$a | xal sv&a 692— 693 svt. 666.. Y ] tw<7)> 709 spjc. 638. 799. £<pt. 702 zkL 543. 810 Е^оиста? 664 zyovxzq 674 e^e 772 e^ei 813. -zq euge^eT 683 EUXO VLa. 663. -ov o sxspoi. 767 <C> 734 ^ам £wvxo<. 760 504 656 662 ZpyO[LOLl sX £U C 7SX ai s p ^ o ijiE v a ^ eX & e 784 . 737. xo ^[xupvojxsXavt. C & O 673 EpO EL exo<. 744 £7raxouw E T c a x o u c ro v 587 E 7 i a x o u c j £ T a [ . 491. 805. 559 <^5vxa 609 ^fjiupva. -ov eveo< 728 .674. 786 z k z l 516. 815 £(07). 776.aux6<. 497. 820 sw<. EU ^E C £TC07TX£U(0 E7tOTCX£U(J(i) 604-605 557. -a. -ov C X i. 567. svocp-/_o[jLaL 509 (vox magica) Evsxa 605 eve6<. EE U t-буј 635— 636 eu^ ew? 557.. 7] axo?)? xe xal bpaozaq suxovtav 685 E W U O . 726. 579. 744. 752. 657. 494.. 757 E jJ E tO 566 U L V i. 585. 568. 7 ] (^upva 768 ^Aupv-fl 781-782 ^[jiupvofjteXav. 697.Sy)< .a i S T C lxltbjfA t.6 q. 692. -a.oa. 653. 625-626 e£9j<. 806 E v a p ^ o fx a t. 648. 782 ETCLXaXsW E 7 n ..262 ѕ[л(ЗаХХм Indices е^ЈфаХѕ 790 e(j. -ov U V [JL ^ £u(ovu[xo? 817 E W U L U or £UtO [i. 724. 576. 675. 704. 487. 500.6 v spw pfj&Evxa 731 EtrO-lovxa 756-757 cpay/) 757 t a x i aw saxia. 673. 491. -ov 601 V IU C jC ^W E T JX ^.<O x>ou 819 U V fJ O VO V E pt-X O -Y). xo zxoq 797 ■eue!.pX£Ttw k[xp/\iKovxor. 698.. 554 EX t. 709. o Evt-аитои 748 E U T jfja VTY E V EC Txw oav 503. 607. SU C X pL T M sOpov 776 ѕирѕОт] 805 suasprji. 761..q 566 e ji. 762. 628. 672b. -O VL O V EVXlfAOU 496 EVTL^jia 610 evtoi.. 686. 663. 502 e^ovxa 637. 558. 489.x a A o u ji.543. 510. 561. -O V e ^ u ^ w v 735 E 481.

517— 518. -ov i)eoSwp7]TOV 491 9-eo?. 789 CcrcTjfju ѕатаОг 533 стта^ 628 tcr^uw ia ju z i 641. 620 &ewv 548.. 662 tkipwv 626 ’law. 787 $££ 641 $£w 643.o^ Mr&pa<. -a. -ov IStav 568 1бц> 678 LEpo<. 480. 526. 584. 738-739. 711 &£oL 673.792 $sou 528. 519. 777. o "HXt. -a.. 640. 772 $£0Swp7)T0<. 482. 626 Q^aofjiat. 510. -a. to &ѕа^.axov 751 трао^. 559. 763. 625. 548. 498. -ov TjfjLETepa^ 477 $а7гтм дафа^ 768 г)аи[ла'(()ј &аи[ха0м 511 •S-auf/a^siv 775 &sa|Aa. 7] V epa? 544. V & )to< 517 vt . -ov (^woyovoc 514— 515 i^woyovou 720 (Joov.6 0 9 1 Y T ..6 0 8 . -ov xa&apov 569 xa i 475. 496. 7] фе«<. o. 745. 735. 533. 481 "HXte 640 t]Xlou 762 7]\it$ 785 7]|X£pa. 521. 566. 778 &eou? 546. 512. &ea<T(o[jwa 512 9-£lo<.. -ov О ^. 762 Tjjjtipa. 556. -O С. 767 7][xepwv 783— 784 7)[хетеро<. 625. 641 &sov 635. -ov xav&apov 7]Xt. 771 xa&apoc. 511. 686-687.y£Lv 803— 804 & 7](JX V (i) 9-v7](tx£(. 645 i) vt)t 6v 529— 530 9-vt]twv 543 & 7]T V 7]V 607 & 7]T U 608 V O &иуатт)р. -ov 9-siav 545 9-eiou 629 QiXco &£Xt]? 732. 515.ато<. 609. o l^topo? 645— 646 хаФарешс. o S eoc. 737. 512 Ispat 667 Upot 679 Ispav 760 £Х 1 т)[А tXaQI [xol 475 tva 502. -eq &£оаф££ 684 9-e<JL£.Indices 263 ^W OyOVO?. 508. o 593 ф' 751 tpi?. 653. 731. 706. 688 9-£Od£[37](.. 642 tx«p. 485. 757 аКг/јТО -7]. -ov t£pou 481 lepov 510. -a. 651. -7]. 7] jSoV Q 7]8ov?]^ 626— 627 траахо^. ^wwv 796 ^соосритѓсо ^«O pU O V L 769 C TUT Г 5 7 1 . 570. 9л/7)тт)с. 7] $upa<. 648. . 7] Qicxv 545 ikyyavw 9't. 497. 514. 651. 503. 802 tSioc. 7] 9-иуатЕр 478 &upa. 696.. "HXlo<. -a. to £coou 542.. 816 ^ ЈО -7]. 760.

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438 pages. 9 William D. Paper. Paper. Paper. XVI. Paper and cloth. 4 Hans Forster Die Feier der Geburt Christi in der Alten Kirche 2000. Paper. X. 273 pages. 7 Mark W. X. Furley and Jan Maarten Bremer Greek Hym ns II 2001. 6 Claudia Tiersch Johannes Chrysostomus in Konstantinopel (398-404) Weltsicht und Wirken eines Bischofs in der Hauptstadt des Ostromischen Reiches 2002. 411 pages. Paper and cloth.Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum Edited by Christoph Markschies 1 Der Tractatus Tripartus aus Nag Hammadi Codex I (Codex Jung) N ew translation by Peter Nagel 1998. 475 pages. 2 Katharina Bracht Vollkommenheit und Vollendung 1999. 8 Barbara Conring Hieronymus als Briefschreiber 2001. 206 pages. Elliott The Song of Songs and Christology in the Early Church 2000. 120 pages. XXII. XIII. X . 3 John Granger Cook The Interpretation of the New Testament in Greco-Roman Paganism 2000. 443 pages. XIV. . Paper. 385 pages. VII. Paper. X. Paper. VIII. 257 pages. 5 Jutta Henner Fragmenta Liturgica Coptica 2000. Paper. 10 William D. 218 pages. Furley and Jan Maarten Bremer Greek Hymns I 2001.

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