Pancreas

• It is a soft. • Connected by a duct to the duodenum of the small intestines. . oblong gland found beneath the great curvature of the stomach.

k.a pancreatic islets. form the endocrine portion of the gland  Alpha Cells.Parts of the Pancreas • Head.main part • Tail  Internally.a.  Clusters:  Islets of Langerhans. it is made up of clusters of glandular epithelial cells.part closest to the duodenum • Body.secrete the hormone insulin .secrete the hormone glucagon  Beta Cells.

Releases digestive enzymes (lipases. carbohydrases and proteases) called pancreatic juice.other masses of cells.• Acini. • Ampulla of Vater/ Hepatopancreatic ampullacommon duct where the pancreatic duct unites with the common bile duct of liver and enter the duodenum. • Pancreatic juice. .leaves the pancreas through a large main tube called pancreatic duct or duct of Wirsung. which are the exocrine glands of the organs .

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Liver .

which is separated from one another by falciform ligament. • Lobules.numerous functional unit of the lobes of liver .• It is one of the largest organs of the digestive system • Two lobes: Right lobe and Left lobe.

• It contains various enzymes that either break down poisons or transform them into less harmful substances.Major Functions • It manufactures the anticoagulant heparin and most of the blood plasma proteins. worn-out white and RBC.phagocytose certain bacteria and old.It converts ammonia to urea that is excreted by the kidneys or sweat glands. . • Kupffer cells. such as prothrombin and thrombin which are involved in the blood clotting mechanism. .

stored excess glucose and monosaccharides. K. .Bile salts are sent to the duodenum of the small intestine for the emulsification and absorption of fats. • It produces bile salts that break down fats. D. • It stores glycogen. copper and iron as well as vitamins A. .Glycogen. E.• It collects excessive newly absorbed nutrients .

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