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( Reaffirmed 1997 )
METHODS OF TEST FOR AGGREGATES FOR CQNCRETE
PART Ill SPECIFIC GRAVITY, DENSITY, VOIDS‘, ABSORPTldN AND BULKING ( Eighth Reprint MARCH 1997 )
JJDC 691.322 : 531.75
0 Copyright 1963 BUREAU OF INDIAN MANAKBHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR Gr 5 STANPARDS
SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI 110002
NADIR. of N. SEN GUPTA ( Alfematc ) Institution of Engineers ( India )! Calcutta SHIU ERACH A. Bnmbay DR R. R. DAS ( Alkrnalr ) Pao~ S. NAM~IAR &pWS#?lling The Concrete Association of India. Bombav SHRI N. MuaERJt SRRI N. C.LAL SHRI B. Churk Directorate General of Supplres B Disposals ( Ministry of Economic & Defence Co-ordination ) BUREAU OF INDMN STANDARDS MANAK BHAVAN. B. MEHRA S. k. BIIC 2 K. Roorkee SHRI K. Bombay Members SHR~1. Bombay SARI N. Government Cement Factory. SIVA PRMAD ( Alturnafe ) ( Conhued on #age 2 ) &RI ‘P. PA1 ( &crn& ! STANDARDS Rexarc!. HATTIANoADI SHR~P.. C. Geological Survey of India. Calcutta SHRI K.:. M. K. N. DAFTARY Central Public Works Departmknt S~r. BHATNACAR ‘. b. ANTIA Bhakra Dam Designs Directorate. N. R. C.J Central Water 82 Power Commission ( Ministry Irrigation & Power ) SHRI Y. MOHILE Government Test House. v. DOS M. VOIDS. New Delhi The Concrete Association of India. PATEL National Buildings Organisatlon (Ministry of Works. B. F. N. Joshi &Co Private Ltd. MVRTHY ( Altemote) Khira Steel Works Private Ltd. 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHL 110002 . D.1 N. Housing & Rehabilitation ) Y&RI RABINDERSINGH ( AU17note) PROPG. MAJUUDAR SHRI StIRI ( Bz~~ DIRECTOR STAND ARDS ( B&S ) ( A&emote) 6 Standards ( Mnustry of Kailways ) . v. Calcutta S. TIXADAN~Y( Aiternate to Sbri K. K. S. ABSORPTION AND BULKING Cerhent and Concrete Chairman SHRI Sectional Committee. Nambiar ) M. DEWAN SUPERINTENDING ENGINE~~R.I!s:2386(Paq-III)-1963 Indian Standard METHODS OF TEST FOR AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE PART III SPECIFIC GRAVITY. RAMA~WAMY Central Building Research Institute ( CSXR j. New Delhi SHRI P. JOSHI M.SHAII sxku C.P.R I. L. DENSITY. G. Bombay U. ZNDCIRCLE ( Al&male ) The Associated Cement Companies Ltd. S. Calcutta SHRI S. PArS CUDDC. Designs Organization Central Road Research Institute ( CSIR ). Dastur & Co Private Ltd. HAZRA DIHI~CTOR JOINT SIiRI v.
Ym Altemnte ) Smr R. Kzsw~~l ( Afkra&) Director. PROP G. L. New Delhi I)r &. C. Hyderabad Maharashtra Public Works Department Sum V. fiNDA Irrigation & Power ) Geological Survey of India. MEHANDRU ( Alhrnal ) Indian Roads Congress.~IRENDING ENGINEER. Ministry of Transport & CommuSanr J. S. MAJ~~~AR ( Altemah ) Engineering Research Laboratory. L. S. Joshi & Co Private Ltd. Bombay Snm K.tarfeilding Research Institute ( CSIR ). T. Calcutta Sstsu Nmm Clurmlu ROY Central Board of Irrigation & Power (Ministry of f&CRETARY Irrigation & Power ) Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch. DUI DlREClDR Sum Y. IS1 Concrete Subcommittee. B. cations Braith$h. M. N. Tarsum nications Sum N. L. B.. ZND Central Public Works Department SHRI T. bWIWARAYA. d. R. New Delhi Cent. PINHEIR ( Altmrok ) Martin Burn Ltd. l&s M. HAPEEZ Housing & Rehabilitation ) Snttx B. N. H. NAM~IAR Sum C. PURI ( CSIR ). Pm Cunnou S~nr P. N. N.IS:Z386(PartIII)-1963 ( -fiamPw 1) Aidhnbers Rdnanring Gammon India Ltd. P.C. Bombay Research. Strmr~ SHRI R. HAZRA The Concrete Association of India. S. IYENGAR ( Alternate ) Road Research Institute Central ti M. P~NHEIRO Aftemate ) ( SIJPP. GGEL ( SHRI J. P. Calcutta Sum P. S. RAO Sum S. A. Army Headquarters Central Water & Power Commission ( Ministry of Irrigation & Power ) Directorate General of Supplies & Disposals ( Ministry of Economic & Defence Co-ordination ) Sn%“H BHAGWANANX DR I. Calcutta RxPuEusNTATtvz Dalmia Cement ( Bhatat ) Ltd. RAMA~~VAB~Y SHRI K. SHIVAYURTHY( A&mate ) Central Water & Power Commission (Ministry of SHRI G. SVBBARAJU Roads Wing. Army Headquarters Bmo G. RAO SHRI 0. IS1 ( Ex_odiicioMrmbcr ) DaH. S. R. BDC 2 : 2 cont*nff Sm S. Designs & Standards Organization ( Ministry of Railways ) Engineer-in-Cl&f’s Branch. Bombay SHU T. M. TREHAN SHRI H. Josut STANDARDS lutmbcrs Asstttv~~ DIRECTOR S. SIVA PRASAD ( Alternate ) Gammon India Ltd. K. K. Bombay SXRI S. N.Uw 2 Ministry of Transport & Communi- B Jessop cGnstructi0n CG La . S. L. GUNAJ~ National Buildings Organisation ( Ministry of Work Srrnt M. Deputy Director ( Bldg ) Secre#q Stint A. StttKA ( Alternate) Roads Wing. Parrtitvt RAJ Extra Assistant Director ( Bldg ). MURRIY ( Alkmatc ) St-ntr B.
IS : 2386 ( Part III ) .3 The Sectional Committee responsible for the preparation of this standard has taken into consideration the views of the concrete specialists. Density. VOIDS. Voids.and technologists and has related the standard to the practices followed in the country in this field.major contributing factors to the quality of concrete is the quality of aggregates used therein. the test methods are grouped into the following eight parts of Indian Standard Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete ( IS : 2386-1963 ): Part Part Part Part Part Part I II III IV v VI Particle Size and Shape Estimation Impurities of Deleterious Materials and Organic Specific Gravity. for a particular aggregate. FOREWORD 0. The test methods given in this standard are intended to assist in assessingthe quality of aggregates. after the draft finalized by the Cement and Concrete Sectional Committee had been approved by the Building Division Council.1This Indian Standard ( Part III ) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 22 August 1963. Absorption and Bulking Mechanical Properties Soundness Measuring Mortar Making Properties of Fine Aggregate Alkali Aggregate Reactivity Petrographic Examination Part VII Part VIII 0. consumers . testing authorities. the relevant test methods may be chosen from amongst the various tests covered in this standard. DENSITY. Accordingly. In a given situation. it may not be necessary to -assessall the qualities and therefore it is necessary to determine beforehand the purpose for which a concrete is being used and the qualities of the.2 One of the. For the convenience of the user. Further the need for international co-ordinatiod among standards prevailing in 3 . aggregate which require to be assessed.1963 Indian Standard METHODS OF TEST FOR AGGREGATES FOR CONCRETE PART III SPECIFIC GRAVITY. 0. ABSORPTION AND BULKING 0.
1.. 4 .1 Object-i This test covers the procedures for determining the specific gravity. SCOPE 1. 0. DETERMINATION ABSGRPTION of surface moisture in fine aggregate fine (field OF SPECIFIC GRAVPPY AND WATER 2. c) Determination of necessary adjustment for bulking of aggregate ( field method ).30 permitted. shall be rounded off in accordance with IS : 2-1960 Rules for Rounding Off Numerical Values ( Revised ). and it does not include all the necessary provisions of a contract. in these 0. Nor~ 1 -Threl main methods are specified for use according to whc&r he &e of the aggregate is large than 10 mm ( Method I ) between 40 mm and 10 mm (Method I or II may be used ). b) Determination of bulk density and voids. it shall be taken as a reference to its latest version. apparent specific gravity and water absorption of aggregates.6 This standard is intended chiefly to cover the technical provisions relating to testing of aggregates for concrete. 2. An alternate method ( Method IV ) is al. Wherever a reference to any Indian Standard appears methods. expressing the result of ‘a test or analysis. and d) Determination method ). the final value. These considerations led the Sectional Committee to derive assistance from the published standards and publications of the following organizations: British Standards Institution American Society for Testing and Materials 0.ISt2386(PartIII)L1963 different countries of the world has also been recognized. Nora 2 -The C&r absorption willnot alwaysbe reproducible test withaggregatu OfiLigh paccmity.5 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with. or smaller than 10 mm ( Method III). observed or calculated.1 This standard concrete: ( Part III ) covers the following tests for aggregates for a) Determination of specific gravity and water absorption. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.4.
Aggregate Larger than 10 mm 2. after immersion the entrapped air shall be removed from the sample by lifting the basket containing it 25 mm above the base of the tank and allowing it to drop 25 times at the rate of about one drop per second.mat@xl is used the fact shall be stated in the report. 23.2 Sample . 4 A stout watertight container in which the basket may be freely 4 Two dry soft absorbent cloths each not less than 75 x 45 cm. If such . aggregate shall be gently emptied from the basket on to one of the dry clothes. they shall be jolted 25 times as described above in the new tank before weighing ( weight A. and it is recommended that the two samples should not be tested concurrently.3. 2. drained and then placed in the wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between 22°C and 32°C with a cover of at least 5 cm of water above the top of the basket.The sample shall be thoroughly washed to remove and dust. f > A shallow tray of area not less than 650 ems. 5. g> An airtight container of capacity similar to that of the basket. ). The basket and aggregate shall remain completely immersed during the operation and for a period of 24 f l/2 hours afterwards.1 Immediately. preferably chromium plated and polished. suspended. controlled. jolted 25 times and weighed in tiater ( weight 4 ). . and the empty basket shall be returned to the water. to balance readable and accurate to permit the basket the beam and weighed b! Oven - A well ventilated oven. to O-5 g and of such a type and shape as containing the sample to be suspended from in water. 2.2. thermostatically maintain a temperature of 100 to 110%. Two tests shall be made.2 Method I . 2.2. finerparticles Test Procedure .Is:2386(PartIll)-1963 2.1 Apparatus 4 Balance -A The apparatus shall consist of the following: or scale of capacity not less than 3 kg. with wire hangers not thicker than one millimetre for suspending it from the balance. after which the.3 The basket and the aggregate shall then be removed from the water and allowed to drain for a few minutes. 4 A wire basket of not more than 6-3 mm mesh or a perforated container of convenient size.2.2.233 The basket and the sample shall then be jolted and weighed in water at a temperature of 22 to 32% If it is necessary for them to be transferred to a different tank for weighing.3.3 2.’ Aggregates which have been artificially heated shall not normally be used.A sample of not less than 2 000 g of the aggregate shall be tested.
The aggregate shall be turned over at least once during this period and a gentle current of unheated air may be used after the first ten minutes to accelerate the drying of difficult aggregates.2. . .lst23as(P#la)-1963 233. transferring it to the second dry cloth when the first will remove no further moisture.4 may be omit&d. It shall then be removed from the oven.readable and accurate to @5 g. and whether it has heen artificially heated.4 Cizlc&tions .Specific gravity. at a temperature of IO0 to 110°C and maintained at this temperature for 24 f l/2 hours. The aggregate shall then be weighed ( weight B). or until it appears to be completely surface dry ( which with some aggregates may take an hour or more ).1 a) A#rmtus -The &tupecn4O~WdlO~ apparatus shall consist of the following: Balartce. cooled in the airtight container and weighed ( weight C). and C = the weight in g of ovendried aggregate in aggregate in air.sl&reported. and lest exposed to the atmosphere away from direct sunlight or any other source of heat for not less than 10 minutes.4 The aggregate placed on the dry cloth shall be gently surface dried with the cloth.3. The size of the aggregate tested shall be stated. 2. 2. apparent specihc gravity and water absorption shall be calculated as follows: speciiic gravity= Bc_A = lO(B-C) C Apparent specificgravity = & Water absorption ( percent of dry weight) where B = ihe weight in g of the saturated surkedry air. The individual and mean results shall be 2. and of such a type as to permit the weighing of the vessel containing the aggregate and water. It shall then be spread out not more than one stone deep on the second cloth. NO%% -If the spparcnt spcci6c gravity onIy ia rcquimd the opaztiom described in 2.A balance or scale of capacity not less than 3 kg.2. 23 MethodlI-Aggq+e 23.235 The aggregate shall then be placed in the oven in the shallow tray.23 R6pWting of Re.
Refill the uessel with distilled water. the fact shall be stated in the report. air entrapped in or bubbles on the surface of the aggregate shall be removed by gentle agitation. sample shall be screened on a IO-mm IS 23. Aggregates which have been artificially heated shall not normally be used.Two dry soft absorbent cloths. The vessel shall be dried on the outside and weighed ( weight B ). 4 Glass Vcssd or Jar -A wide-mouthed glass vessel such as a jar of about 1.33. if such material is used. Slide the glass disc in position as before. and immersed in distilled water in the glass vessel. and left exposed to the atmosphere away from direct sunlight or any other source of heat for not less than 10 minutes or until it appears to be completely surface dry (which with some aggregates may take an hour or more) The aggregate 7 .2 samf.1 The vessel shall be overfilled by adding distilled water and the plane ground-glass disc slid over the mouth so as to ensure that no air is trapped in the vessel.\ lst2386(Partlu)-1963 A well ventilated oven. It sh 11then be spread out not more than one stone deep on the second cloth. ‘Guy . The vessel shall be dried on the outside and weighed ( weight A ). transferring it t a second dry cloth when 1 the first will remove no further moisture. it shall remain immersed at a temperature of 22 to 32°C for 24 f l/2 hours. goon after immersion and again at the end of the soaking period. Two testsshall be made and it is recommended that the two samples should not be tested concurrently. 4 f) Coat&~An airtight container large enough to take the sample. This may be achieved by rapid clockwii and anti-clockwise rotation of the vessel between the operator’s hands. each not less than 4 75 x 45 cm.&!c.5 litres capacity. Clotlrs.A sample of about one kilogram of the aggregate shall be used. with. 2333 The difference in the temperature of water in the vessel during the first and second weighings shall not exceed 2°C.A shallow tray of area not less than 325 ems.4 The aggregate shall be placed on a dry cloth and gently surihce dried with the cloth. 233. thoroughly washed to remove fine particles of dust. a flat ground lip and a plane ground disc of plate glass to cover it. giving a virtually watertight fit. W Okn- 23. thermostatically controlled to maintain a temperature of 100 to 1 10°C.2 The vessel shall be emptied and the aggregate allowed to drain. 2.3 Test Procedue -The sieve. 233.
of about 8 .IS:23S6(PartIU)-1963 shall be turned over at least once during this period and a gentle current of unheated air may be used after the first ten minutes to accelerate the fTi. The grading of aggregate tested shall be stated. thermostatically controlled. The aggregate shall then be weighed NOTE-If the apparentspecificgravityonly is in 233.4 Calculations .3.4 Method III Aggregate Smaller Than 10 mm 2. referred to later as a pycnometer. and D = weight in g of oven-dry sample. to maintain a temperature of 100 to 110°C.Spe. 2. B = weight in g of vessel filled with distilled water only.the operations described 2.3. and whether it has been artificially heated.ctic gravity. 23. required. and of such a type as to permit the weighing of the vessel containing the aggregate and water.(A-B) D Apparent specific gravity = D-(A-B) Water absorption ( percent _lOO(C-D) of dry weight ) D where A = weight in g of vessel containing sample and filled with distilled water. readable and accurate to 0.5 Re#ortiQ of Results . C = weight in g of saturated surface-dry sample. apparent specific gravity and water absorption shall be calculated as follows: D Specific gravity = c.5 g.5 The aggregate shall be placed in the oven in the shallow tray.1 Apparatw T The apparatus shall consist of the following: 4 Balatue .htoi )difficult aggregates.Any form of vessel capable of holding 0.5 to 1 kg of material up to 10 mm in size and capable of being filled with water to a constant volume with an accuracy of f @5 ml..A balance or scale of capacity not less than 3 kg.3. It shall then be cooled in airtight container and weighed ( weight D ). 2.The individual and’ mein results shall be reported. 4 Vessel .4. b) Oven .A well ventilated oven. at a temperature of 100 to 110°C for 24 f l/2 hours. Fither of the two following vessels is suitable: 1) A glass vessel.4 may be omitted.
The aggregate shall then be placed in the pycnometer which shall &?‘filled with distilled water.49 Test Procedure container of warm air.1 Using the pycnometer . a mark shall be made on the jar to correspond with a mark on the screw top so that the screw is tightened to the same position every time and the volume contained by the jar is constant throughout the test. Any trapped air shall be eliminated hy rota&g the pycnometer on its side. and. shall be placed in the tray and covered with distilled water at a temperature of 22 to 32°C. aggregate shall be removed by gentle agitation with a rod. Soon air entrapped in or bubbles on the surface of the after immersion. such as a hair drier. The screw top shall be watertight when it is screwed on to the jar. the operations If the apparent NoTed&bed in this paragraph may he omitted.75 mm.25 litres capacity. A suitable vessel can be made from a l-kg fruit preserving jar in which the glass lid normally used is replaced by a sheet metal cone as shown in Fig.4. large enough to take the sample. if necessary. 1. or 2) A wide-mouthed glass vessel. e) A tray of area not less than 325 cm2. such as a gas jar. of about 1. although for materml finer & 475 mm some surface drying may be desirable to facilitate handling. The water shall then be carefully drained from the sample. any material retained being return& to the sample. If such a washer is used.A sample of about 1 kg for 10 mm to 4-75 mm or 500 g if finer than 4. d) A means of supplying a current f) An airtight 2. a rubber or fibre washer shall be inserted in the joint. The sample shall remain immersed for 24 f l/2 hours. shall be weighed ( weight A ). The aggregate including any solid matter retained on the filter paper shall be exposed to a gentle current of warm air to evaporate surface moisture and shall be stirred at frequent intervals to ensure uniform drying until no free surface moisture can be seen and the material just attains a ‘ free-running ’ condition. by decantation through a filter paper. 2.2. the hole in the apex of 9 .Is:2386(r~m)-1%3 one litre capacity having a metal conical screw top with a 6-mm diameter hole at its apex. Care shall be taken to The saturated and surface-dry sample ensure that this stage is not passed. giving a virtually watertight fit. g) Filter papers and funnel. specific gravity only is required. with a flat ground lip and a plane ground disc of plate glass to cover it.
dried on the outside and weighed ( weight C). The pycnometer shall be refilled with distilled water to the same level as before. The pycnometer shall be topped up with distilled water to remove any froth from the surface and so that the surface of the water in the hole is flat. The contents of the pycnometer shall be emptied into the tray. The pycnometer shall be dried on the outside and weighed ( weight B ). The difference in the temperature of the water in the pycnometer during the first and second weighings shall not exceed 2°C. 1 SECTION OF PYCNO~TER FROM FRUIT JAR MADE the cone being covered with a finger. 10 .lsr2386(Partlll)-1963 Fro. care being taken to ensure that all the aggregate is transferred.
23 M&hod Iv Attemate Method 25. 25. during which period It shall be cooled in it shall be stirred occasionally to facilitate drying.4.4.3 When testing aggregate smaller than IO mm the apparatus shall be used in the same way as above.2 When testing aggregate between 40 mm and IO mm the procedure shall be as described in 2. B = weight in g of pycnometer or gas jar containing sample and filled with distilled water. 25. The sample shall be placed in the oven in the tray at a temperature of 100 to 110°C for 24 f l/2 hours. the air-tight container and weighed ( weight D ).4. 2. but distilled water shall be used in place of tap water.1 The specific gravity and water absorption of aggregate smaller than 40 mm may be determined by using the apparatus described in IS: 1199-1959 Methods of Sampling and Analysis of Concrete. Two tests shall be made. apparent water &sorption shall be calculated as follows: Specific gravity Apparent specific gravity = = Dwate&aw~. 2.$n where (DB-C) A-(L) specific gravity and ( percent Of = 100 ( A _ D ) D A = weight in g of saturated surface-dry sample.4 Reprting of Results . 2.lsr2386(PartllI)-1963 The water shall then be carefully drained from the sample by deeantation through a filter paper and any material retained returned to the sample. C = weight in g of pycnometer or gas jar filled with distilled water only. but the.sequence of operations shall be 11 .The individual and mean results shall be reported and the grading of the aggregate shall be stated.3 CaIculations. the procedure shall be the same except that in filling the jar with water it shall be tilled just to overflowing and the glass plate slid over it to exclude any air bubbles.2 substituting the bucket for the wire basket and stirring with a rod instead of jolting to remove air from the sample.4.2 Using the second ( gas jar ) apparatus described in 2.1 (c).Specific gravity.2. and D = weight in g of oven-dried sample.
and for the purpose of this standard it is measured in kilograms per litre.2 (b) ] SE OF LARal?sT PARTroLes NOMINAL CAPACITY r-B DUXRTRR INQDE HRmiT TmasNlsal OF MRTAL Min litre 475 mm and under over475mmto4Omm over4omm 3 15 30 cm 15 25 35 cm 17 30 31 mm $15 400 500 12 . as far as possible. The bucket shall then be filled with water and the level of water in the tank raised slowly to avoid. including the amount of moisture present and the amount of effort introduced in filling the measures.2 Apparatus . and should be protected against corrosion. 4 Tamping Rodsection TABLB I A straight metal tamping rod of cylindrical cross16 mm in diameter and 60 cm long.4. It shall also be watertight.IS: 2386(Part III)as given in 2. NOTE 2 -It is emphasized that this is a laboratory test intended fbr comparing properties of different aggregates. NOTE 1 . water shall be added to cover the aggregate by at least 25 mm and the sample stirred to remove air. The bulk density of an aggregate is affected by several factors. according to the maximum nominal size of the coarsest particles of aggregate and shall comply pith the requirements given in Table I. NOTE 3.A balance sensitive to O-5 percent of the weight sample to be weighed. SIZE OF CONTAINER FOR BULK DBN&TY TFBT [ Cluase 3. of the b) Measure-The measure shall preferably be machined to accurate internal dimensions and shall be provided with handles. It is not generally suitable for use as a basis for quoting mix design conversion factors. and hence the valuer for bulk density and voids are different. DETERMINATION OF BULK DENSITY AND VOIDS for determining 3. rounded at one end.The apparatus shall consist of the following: 4 Balance ..The bulk density is the weight of material in a given volume. Cylindrical Metal The measure shall be of 3j 15 or 30 litres capacity.Considerably more compactive effort is used in the determination of angularity number [ see IS : 2336 ( Part I )-1963 ] than in this test. the loss of fine particles from the sample in the bucket to the tank.1 Object - This method of test covers the procedure unit weight or bulk density and void of aggregates. 1963 After transferring the sample to the bucket. and of sufficient rigidity to retain its form under rough usage. 3.. 3.
1 Condition of Specimen-The test shall normally be carried.4 Procedure 3. voids shall of the aggregate.4. the aggregate being discharged from a height not exceeding 5 cm above the top of the measure.3 Loose Weight .4.The measure shall be filled about one-third full with thoroughly mixed aggregate and tamped with 25 strokes of the rounded end of the tamping rod. tamped 25 times and the surplus aggregate struck off. The number.m23&(Partm)a63 3. with a straightedge. segregation of the particle sizes of which the The surface of the aggregate shall then be levelled sample is composed. (bj saturated and surface’ drv.3 Calibration . The net weight of the aggregate in the measure shall be determined and the bulk density calculated in kilograms per litre. or (cj with a given percentage of moisture. The net weight of the aggregate in the measure shall then be determined and the bulk density calculated in kilogram per litre. be reported as a percentage to the nearest whole The condition of aggregate at the time of test shall be stated. 3. The bulk density and shall be reported in = bulk density in kg/litre. as far as possible.3 Calculation as follows: of Voids The percentage X 100 of voids shall be calculated Percentage where of voids = 7 Ge-Y I G. 3. by 3. = specific gravity Y 3.6 Reporting of Resulh kg/litre to the nearest O-Ok kg. 3.2 Rodded or Compacted Weight .4. The measure shall finally be filled to over-flowing. using the tamping rod as a straightedge. out on dyy material when determining the voids. but when bulking tests are required material with a given percentage of moisture may be used. Care shall be taken to prevent. which may be taken as one kilogram. The capacity in litres shall be obtained by dividing the weight of water in kilograms required to fill the container at 27°C by the weight of water in one litre at 27”C. A further similar quantity of aggregate shall be added and a further tamping of 25 strokes given.The measure shall be calibrated by determining the weight of water at 27°C required to fill it such that no meniscus is present above the rim of the container.The measure shill be filled to overflbwing means of a shovel or scoop. 13 . that is (a) oven dry.
is only a rough approximation.2.1 Objectthe necessary This method of test covers the field method adjustment for the bulking of fine aggregate. Put back about half the sand and rod it with a steel rod. Suppose this the sand loosely into a container.Ir2386(PartHI)-1963 4. pour the damp dated by shaking) until it reaches the 200-ml mark.3. If the sand is measured by loose volume. Suppose the surface is at 14 . Then add the remainder of the sand and rod it in the same way.2 and 4. 4.3. it is necessary in such a case to increase the measured volume of the sand.1 The procedure to be adopted may be varied. but a correction of the right order can easily be determined and should be applied in order to keep the concrete uniform. 4. because the system of measurement by loose volume is a rough method at the best. but two methods are suggested in 4. so that its volume is reduced to a minimum.3. Suppose this is h’ cm. Half fill the first container with water. ) It will be seen that the now below its original level.2 Put sufficient quantity of Level it is about two-thirds full. shall = ($. for determining 4. is h cm.3.3. DETERMINATION OF NECESSARY ADJUSTMENT FOR BULKING OF FINE ‘AGGREGATE ( FIELD METHOD ) 4.3.3 In a 250-ml measuring cylinder.1 Empty the sand out of the container into another container where none of it will be lost. in order that the amount of sand. put into the concrete may be the amount intended for the nomingl It will be necessary to increase the mix used ( based on dry sand ) The correction to be made volume of sand by the ‘ percentage ’ bulking.. ( The water shall submerge the sand completely. Then with water and stir the sand well. steel rule vertically down through measure the height.3. Both depend on the fact that the volume of inundated sand is the same as if the sand were dry. when loosely filled into a container. 43 Srocednre 4.2 The percentage of bulking be calculated from the formula: Percentage bulking of the sand due to moisture X 100 sand ( consolifill the cylinder be sufficient to sand surface’is the mark y ml. about 6 mm in diameter. until off the top of the sand and pushing a the sand at the middle to the bottom.2.-I) 4.Sand brought on to a building site or other works may contain an amount of moisture which will cause it.3. to occupy a larger volume than it would occupy if dry.2 General . 4. Smooth and level the top surface of the inundated sand and measure its depth at the middle with the steel rule.
3 Sample . within 0.4 Reporting of Resdts - to the nearest whole number. The container shall be so designed that it can be filled up to the mark. with appropriate changes in the size of sample and dimensions of the container. the amount of surface moisture in fine aggregates by displacement in water.A balance having sensitive to 0. 5.5 ml or less. container shall then be filled to the original mark and the weight in grams 15 .1 The surface or by volume. 200 g. The volume of the container shall be from 2 to 3 times the loose volume of the sample. Enough water shall be placed in the container to shall be emptied. b) FlaskA suitable container or flask preferably of glass or noncorrosive metal. Larger samples will yield more accurate results.4. cover the sample. after which the sample of fine aggregate shall be The introduced into the container and the entrained air removed. a volumetric flask.The percentage of bulking from the formula: Percentage of the sand due to moisture bulking = the percentage shall be calculated 4. The accuracy of the method depends upon accurate information on the specific gravity of the material in a saturated surfacedry condition.A representative sample of the fine aggregate to be tested It shall weigh not less than for surface moisture content shall be selected. The container may be a pycnometer. in the field.1 Object Apparatus - The apparatus shall consist of the following: a capacity of 2 kg or more and a) Balance . or the volume of its contents read. The same procedure. 55 5. 5. a graduated volumetric flask or other suitable measuring device. container shall be filled up to 5.4.5 g or less.4 Procedure water content may be determined either by weight each case the test shall be made at a temperature 5. 5. In range of 22 to 32°C. may be applied to coarse aggregates. DETERMINATION Report bulking of the sand FINE AGGREGATE OF SURFACE MOISTURE (FIELD METHOD) lN -This method of test covers the procedure for determining.2 Determination by Weight -The The container the mark with water and the weight in grams determined.
1 The percentage of surface moisture in terms of the saturated surface-dry fine aggregate and in terms of the weight of wet fine aggregate shall be calculated as follows: x 100 x 100 where P. = weight in g of the sample. - volume in ml of water displaced V. filled to the mark 5. V.3 Determination by Volume. = combined volume in ml of the sample and water. and VI = volume in ml of water required to cover the sample. = weight in g of container filled up to the mark with water. by the sample. = weight in g of water displaced. and M = weight in g of the sample and container with water.-M V’ = weight in g of water displaced’ by the sample. M. Where a pycnometer or volumetric flask of known volume is used. M. calculated as follows: where of water displaced by the sample shall be VS =M. The amount of water displaced by the sample shall be calculated as follows: v. = where vs v. 53 cialculation 5. moisture in terms of saturated surface- V. = percentage surface dry fine aggregate. The combined volume into the container and the entrained air removed.A volume of water sufficient to cover the sample shall be measured in millilitres and placed in the The weighed sample of fine aggregate shall then be admitted container.4. 16 .+M. the combined volume of the sample and the water shall be determined by filling up to the mark with a measured volume of water and subtracting this volume from the volume of the container.5.IS:2386(PartIII)-1963 The amount determined. of the sample and the water shall be determined by direct reading when a graduated flask is used.
. . . . express surface moisture to that: readily derived from basic relationships. . For of the ratio r. . in equation - M* “Mb* The formula for Ps. . . . . either by weight or by volume. ( 1 ) If C is the specific gravity Vs=+++ of the saturated ( then . . . . (2) surface-dry fine where the first term gives the water displaced by the saturated aggregate. . . . . . .. . . . + r and M. . . . .=V&x G 1. . . . . . . M. . (6) 5. . and simplifying Vs. . .6 Reporting of Results - The surface moisture in the fine aggregate shall be reported to the nearest one percent and also the method of determination. . . .2 ) divided by the specific gravity on saturated and surface-dry basis. (4) Substituting for . since for vs by vd . . .4. = weight in g of the sample. . . . . From equation 2. the ratio of the weight of of the saturated surface-dry sample.. . . . that is.. . determined as prescribed. . and the second that displaced by the surface moisture. . .. .. .. . . PI M* 1+r By definition. . .. (5) reasoning. .. . M. . in 5. . or directly from that Ps may be derived similar vd V8 Pi E I+*. . . . . Mb-_Vav s x 100 . . that is. . . . . . . . .. . . (3) .I6t2366(PartIlI)-1963 Vd = the weight of the sample ( it4. . and Ps = percentage surface moisture in terms of the weight of wet fine aggregate. . . .*. . . It follows I== M*-__3_ I+7 MS 1+r surface-dry MC+&) fine aggregate. 1 ----1 G . are J’r in terms the weight NOTE - These formulae convenience. . .M. . . . . .. . .
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