Presented to the

LIBRARY of the
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
from the

ARTHUR PLETTNER
ISAMcILWRATTH

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" "Choral Studies.125 net The BOSTON ARTHUR P. Oberlin Conservatory of Music. Sc*m ImrrmatiomJ Copyright 120 Boylston St. SCHMIDT Co. NEW YORK 8 West 40th Tk Artkmr P. St. Professor of Theory." PART I." Ear Training. " in Harmony.SCHMIDTS EMOTIONAL SERIES KEYBOARD TRAINING IN HARMONY 725 Exercises Graded and Designed to Lead from the Easiest First Year Key-Board Harmony Up to the Difficult Sight- Playing Tests Set for Advanced Students. HEACOX PART II. by uatnd . Copyright 1917. Co. eaehi $1. By ARTHUR Author of "Lessons E. Price.

Vincent D'Indy's beautiful MS given in facsimile at the end of the book. and pass annual sight-playing examinations before a committee of Theory teachers. Through this training alone. Oberlin. but an infernal scraping and bawling. this is to The object of book The material was prepared and arranged in the course of several years of harmony teaching. Ohio. while the right adds in consonances or dissonances the result being an agreeable harmony to the glory of God and justifia/ble gratification of the senses. Johann Sebastian Bach. The Author's request for these materials. Those from examination papers are so indicated. Warren R. with both hands in such a manner that the left hand plays the notes written down. with permission to print them. The subjects are taken up in the usual order. handy manual for systematic daily practice at the key-board (preferably in short periods). was met with a most generous response. contribution to the subject of "Sevenths". In order to include some representative French examinations. should be nothing else than God's glory and pleasant recreations. Where this object is not kept in view there can be no true music. and of M. is that familiar to most American and European musicians. so arranged that the pupil is led gradually from the easiest first-year work up to the difficult sight playing tests set for advanced students. and he wishes here to express the keenest appreciation of the beautiful examples and the courtesy which accords their use. 1917. The greater part of the first 680 were written expressly for this book. and the key-board work may parallel any standard work in harmony. like that ff all music. The sources of the exercises are various. covering the years 'O7 to '16. Full credit is indicated with each exercise. many students have been enabled to pass the harmony sight-playing tests required for membership in the American Guild of Organists. of Mr. Figured-bass is the whole foundation of the music^and is flayed . Hedden of the American Guild of Organists. together with an important list of the problems set by the American Guild of Organists. Nearly is one hundred (from 642 on) are typical examination questions from the sight-playing tests and paper work of many of the finest music schools and universities in both America and Europe. a short chapter of the material is that of a The arrangement devoted to the peculiarities of the French system. where pupils are required to "realize" each problem at the key-board. in the figured bass. Ward's. The figuring. .Preface furnish a graded series of exercises for practice in harmonizing melodies and figured basses at the key-board. for the sole end and aim of generalbass. Especial mention should be made of the cooperation of Mr. Frank E.

The National Conservatory of Music. 75.92- itself. to harmonize a bass. 69- Page 12 means of triads.Modulation through the Dom. 12. 417th. 83. Sequences by way of the dim. Chapuis. 7ths by alteration. of the secondary sevenths.Use of Dom. 95Significance of special figures and signs. . 678-79.Significance of the Cad. 7th. deceptive resolutions of the Dom 7th.7. Resolution of Dom. 17.80.Triad on Leading Tone. Review primary triads. _ Cadences. Chap.Rules for. London.Augmented sixth chords "not of the key". 40Table of all the primary dissonant chords 42.Table of Contents (N.Leading-Tone seventh. 35. Triad (vu) not independent. 55Supertonic ninth.Tendency of IV. Augmented in- Inversions of secondary triads. cross-relation. it. Moscow. 6. 64.28. 67. 2. 10.?.Rule for n-l|.The Preparation. Modulation from key to key. 5V Supertonic seventh. New England Conservatory of Music. 9th.Passing-tone and 93.Dominant Seventh.Modulation by the Dim. th. Gabriel Faure.Secondary triads in major. Knox Conservatory of Music. 58Various resolutions. The numbers refer in every instance to the paragraphs) PART Chap. Page 44 (In this list the A bass from Bach's "Thorough Bass" made "for his scholars1 841. 84. 700703. 45. 79. Passing by the Dom. 94Anticipation.Removes in the key-circle. 69- PARTII Chap. 68.Introduction of sevenths. 47.Royal College of Music. Harvard University. 4. 14. Columbia University. sight-playing examinations from 1907 to 1816. VI.Other resolution*.Secondary triads in minor. Non-harmonic Tones The Suspension. 50. enharmonic notation. 27.Rule for no common tone.Oxford University. 7-Guilmant. 51.Three successive chords of the sixth. 26.Permitterval. The figuring (5 ). IV. Chap.Successive Chords of the Sixth. The French System of Figured oass Examinations by eminent Frenchmen.The soprano Change of chord. 18. 717-18Paris. 60. usage. res. 37. sixth chords. 74. 70. The Suspension embellishments. 7th on raised fourth. triads. 77. 2. 681-98. 71. 63. 28.Rule for n-V. 22. 7th. 82. Alterations Page 3 Alteration presented. sixth chords in harmonizing a melody. Resolution. 96- Page 41 Chap. 32- General review. Licenses in resolution. V. 64S American Guild of Organists. 18. 62. Modulatory inflection. 697 -99. 78- Chap. 43.Similar motion of all the voices.Special alterations in major. 63Dim. 704-14. Page 62. 8. Examination Papers from Various Sources numbers refer to the exercises. Eight different basses on one choral. Facsimile of M.Harmonizing first six tones of scale.Application and exceptions. 33- II.Reaching a new tonic. 24.7t6.7tt.Secondary sevenths.Mod. Lavignac.Suggestions for harmonizing a choral. 49. 20ted Consecutive Fifths.The Resolution.Augmented Sixth. 85. III. 81. 715-16Cambridge University. 78.719-tt.No limit to resolution. (Tbfc Schola Cantorum). six-five chord. 80- Phrygian cadence.Tendency of scale steps. Oberlin Conservatory of Music. 44.Modulation by the Din.The Sequence. 86. Kitte] (Bach's last pupil). 90. Introduction of Dom. 39. 31. Sequence in mior. To harmonize a soprano. I. Special rules for minor key. 7th. 38. Bass repeats.Half and deceptive cadence. 46. fig. 725-t7.First inversion. 34. 29.Sequences. 687-90. 67. 21. not to pages) '. 91- Page 28 Appoggiatura.Modulation by the Aug. 10. 38. pivot chords. 680-81. 19. 61. 48Cadencing sevenths in fundamental position. Cadencing progression.Cornell Conservatory of Music.Inversion of Dom.Comparing the unornamented harmony. 89.Second inversion. 644-677.Sequence design. London. 8- triads in Fundamental Position.Thirds of sec. 5_ Aug. D'lndyt solution of No.Special intervals. 9. 7th to next-related keys. I Triads Page 4 The Primary leaps. 88. I. doubling. 72Modulation by The tendency chords of a key. 87. and use of any form of the Aug. The Dom. 56of the sevenths. 682-841.. Rule for common tone. (Ex. Royal Conservatory of Music.Doubled third in successive chords of the sixth. 7th on the raised fourth degree.Diminished seventh.Double function of Leading-Tone seventh. 15. 7th. Chords of the Seventh Page 36 Chords of seventh formed.Modulation by the Neapolitan chord. Trinity College of Music. 694-90.B.724Vincent D'lndy.65).66Progressions compared. 26.Freer use Mastery of conservative Chap.VII. Russia.

I. (b) The common tone is always kept. bass note. (c) The soprano will begin on the root. the other voices progressing to the nearest chord-tones.) Ex.1 C 1. Triads Primary Triads in Fundamental Position 1. (In review.HEACOX Chap. IV. according to the figure over the first (d) The alto and tenor.Keyboard Training in Harmony PARTI ARTHUR E. with the soprano. third. I IV I V I F I V I IV I e i I iv 5 . these basses (at the key-board) observe the following rules: (a) The bass must be the root of I. orV. or fifth. will form a complete triad in close position. To harmonize solutions in open position are recommended.

frequent at the bar. 17. 18. The change from one chord to another is most.2.2). Here the upper 'three parts must always present the complete triad. J J | J0J If the | ii r s p V 3. A. and then harmonize the following sopranos Model of a chord-skip melody with chord repetition Ex. In chord repetition above same bass note. f* F IF .8 16. the the 4. the inner parts may follow above a stationary bass as in Ex. the first appearance of the chord should be on an accent if possible^ except at first accent of a phrase which brains on a weak beat (Ex. Transpose the model to other keys. This kind of movement adds much to the very limited resources.2 (a) 19. it soprano leaps from one note to another of trie same chord.

remain the ty same but change its position. (a). The leap of an octave is equivalent to a repeated note. to 24.2. This When a given bass repeats a nole the chord will. and is illustrated in Ex.2. Harmonize the following basses taking advantage of repeated bass notes make the soprano more interesting . Ex. if the bass be considered the given part.6 5. is the converse of 3.

note in the soprano.4. is formed by arranging the primary triads as last in Ex. then Imperfect ^> harmonize the basses Imperf-rt A Perfect Ex. the Cadences are Perfect or Imperfect according to the last two chords are V-I. Play the following Cadences Perfect f\ in every key. and Plagal when IV-I.4 . or Cadence.7. Authentic when The progression V-I is the typical so-called Cadencing Resolution or Progression. A closing Formula.

8 a __ . \ PHI 44. t gj P -o-5- V ffj } ^ 43 8. fe r r ..

6 .5 10. Thus far strict ciple. in both major and minor. The unme'lodic character of the bass. but if not kept. however. the upper three voices progress In contrary motion to the bass. but to a less degree. The first six tones of the diatonic scale may new be harmonized with 1. conduce to greater flexibility in Jhe movement of the voices if the rule is now expanded to read as follows- RULE FOR THK COMMON TONE A tone common to two successive chords is usually kept in the same voice. in both mind and fingers. 9. the down- ward tendency of the Subdominant (four in the scale) in below if it is to ascend.5). to the nearest chord-toneh. prohibits Ex. IV. the strong tendency of the Leading-tone in the soprano to progress to the key-note. and V. asr ending or descending (Ex. Transpose to other keys Ex. Not rule in all positions of the chords arc equally good for the contrary motion allowed under the in f 8. (a) the soprano. in fun- damental position as before. In like manner. the progression V-I. (d). occasioned by leaping from root to root. For example. the habit of observing this prin- 8. It will. Flay and compare (b). 6 (a).adherence to the rule of keeping a common tonefll) has been justified cause of the importance of establishing. makes it best to reach it from (b) (c) (d) 7*r si Ex. (c). may be excused until inversion is introduced.

Mr [rir~r i A.10 55. g 56. .

11 73. I V I IV I V I V I- .

I 6 . *>:ft . First Inversion.Chords of the Sixth IV..8 Ex. V.9 86. and V 6 The - following examples contain essentially all the typical progressions: Ex. The vocabulary is now I. IV.Primary Triads in their .

6 if 92.91. vin | 93. * r i r 94. 3 6 r if u .. *} .

no need of a doubled third. and if in doubt double the third in one of the chords.e. but for this some experience is necessary. 6 yy ~f* ' J f . consecutive octaves with the bass would result. if (g) All the voices progressing in similar motion while the chord remains the same. Certain positions permit doubling the root and fifth alternately. The fifth doubled in IV. 27. permissible consecutives are avoided. 366 5 105. have the roots progress in parallel sixths with the bass. the same lines 104. which is the Leading.14 13. Test at the Piano. Ve in V 6 .tone.with a stepwise bass. furthermore. For exceptions. double the third In successive chords of the sixth in close position. + (b) <- Ex. A ( B <f> .10 i i 6 6 6 (5 6 m 6 6 6 (a) (b) The The third doubled in fifth IV. -Jt 6 6 ft 106. then harmonize the following figured basses and sopranos along. the root. In genearal. Consecutive fifths. and octaves corrected at (a).28. Transpose Ex. the root in (c) (d) (e) doubled in IV. Leading-tone doubled . produces a disappointing effect. in V (poor). tendency to the Tonic.10 (A) to other major keys. when its strong tendency upward is so evident. If the Leading-tone in the soprano followed its (f) Successive chords of the sixth without a stepwise bass. the leap downward in the soprano. it is correct to in one of the chords to avoid consecutive fifths and octaves. but never the third of V 6 .

for if preceded by V. VJ. (f) The figures (J.e. and the V which must be relatively unaccented. V. it it is evident that the introduction of a six-four chord demands more than ordinary care.The Authentic Cadence with I!i on an accent. Under these restrictions the six-four is chord largely shorn of its power to promise a full close. (f) Ex. IV. The bass-note of the six-four must be doubled.The Six-four Chord k The most important Six-four Chord is the Tonic Six-four in the authentic cadence. or the accented fraction of a beat. gives it a weak and halting character. 11 and 12 to other keys. virtual chord repetition a poor progression. seldom or never accented. in the authentic (b) The close partial when the phrase ends with a V preceded by an accented I|. IV.. par. phrase. . (Weak) the second of three notes belonging to the The bass same chord. It must be on an accented part of the measure. then harmonize the following exercises with vocabulary: MtfciUM* I. the six-four chord is shown on unaccented beats. By cadence. require first a six-four chord. 1. IV. if admitted at an unsuitable place in the phrase. 4. (c) Secondary value_the root prepared. rather than an independent harmony. _ (a) far the most important six-four chord a full or complete close.11 m (a) I ff> HE l A An eight-measure sentence 3 or Period 11 * 8 Ex. and in this subordinate relation becomes a medium through which the voices pass. (d) (e) till The bass the second of three repeated notes.12. from weak to strong beats results- From the above. it should be preceded by some form of the subdominant or it fifth of the chord. is is the Ij on an accent. I8 .. In Ex. Test these phrases at the piano. phrase Full Close 4-meas.12 a i 7dT First I (0 Partial Close [[Second 4-meas. Closing Formulas. the So strong is this formula that any six-four chord on an accent tends' to declare itself a tonic chord and promise a closing cadence which. the bass progressing stepwise in one direction.) or (\^) over one bass note. then a chord in fundamental position _ usually the progression IJ-V. (Little value the bass is treated somewhat contrapuntally. i. Transpose Exs. Since this accented tonic six-four chord resolves so emphatically to the V (and in fact is a V with its third and fifth delayed). studying them thoroughly through the medium of both eye and ear. Ve .10 Primary Triads in follows their Second Inversion. tonic harmony. or may spoil the phrase which contains it. introduced in special ways.

6 S 4_ 4 113. 6 4 3 TTT 114. 8.. 4 8 Oi IT' g TT . fi 5 6 ^ 116L 3 117.16 112. E. /rJ ^ 6 4 ^ . 8.

As connecting chords. / (c) weak. I" IS 128.B. As independent n substitute for IV: (a) A The the vi for lithe in for i. Vt '* 129 UnfitTUrcd * Seek ' to use suitable inversions in the following 130. in thirds are leaps of a third to successive^rpots. Yl ) < is ! IV IS u .1 TT. otht-rwisp treat as N. in. r r ir J Use a % correctly at each+. are subordinate chords used in the following three ways: (b) As substitutes for the primary triads (u for IV etc.13 PPP (IV) m (IV) (I) m m mm (b) ^ (P) Strong nV nV (C) Vvi ImlV *=$ T in VI II! m in (IV) m vi II m .K thesis on the second brat.17 126. j 131. n? 127. J M r r - Secondary Triads in Fundamental Position 15. The triads on (a) u.). Ex. r r ir i P 132. In meas. in Major keys and vi. preferably with the bass descending by Roots ascending chords.

study the various progressions (a)(b) from u to V. the introduction of the secondary triads and the resulting increase in the number of possible progressions ranging in value from good. This pected instead of the VI. ll) Impossible on account of the consecutive fifths. (Does not kept.H.15. The inversion of V and the ultimate downward resolution of the (F) in the soprano are excellent. In Ex.18 thirds of the secondary triads are the principal tones of the key and may be doubled rather freely for the sake of a better melodic outline. (g) (h) Freer treatment of the voices. 16 The must more or less determine the chojd to be used and the tone to be doubled. to fair. If used these are among the few fair progressions. Transpose (f) to every major key. compelled to ascend. Ex. especially when in the soprano. Its third. (a) (b) An excellent substitute for IV-If in the closing cadence. This is the best position of VI. or poor. and avoid having the fifths of the The common tone is given up between IV. (e) i ^-^ (f> (g) . the student must depend largely on With the study of models compared and tested by ear at the keyboard. (f) (Tonic function). is best doubled. nevertheless. Here dependence on rules. The upward tendency of the leading tone and the downward tendency of the fourth and sixth degrees of the scale. (f) Good. but good. In Ex. in order to keep the rule for n-I|. (c) (Compare with Ex. (d) n-l| to^an ascending bass. will not at all suffice. study the various progressions from u to I|. (e) Bad on account of the objectionable Covered Octaves.15 ii 18. Possible here for the apply in inversions) (c) The common tone sake of the melody. and with the same treatment. Not recommended. Complete descending scale harmonized by the use of in-FV beneath its seventh and sixth degrees. (e) VI as a substitute for the key-note (root of I). (i)(j) The n after V. . GENERAL RULE FOR Lead the upper three voices contrary chords above the roots. (d). is called a deceptive cadence because the I is exin major.e. GENERAL RULE FuR Give up the n^ common tone and lead the upper three voices contrary to an ascending bass. contrary motion to an ascending tftiss. Here the commpn tone is best kept. These in the outer ie) voices are especially bad because the soprano tone (F) has a downward tendenrv ($ and is. I immediately following.. or eye memory. i.14 Bad. Improved at. The n an excellent substitute for IV. (h) (i> (j) Ex. Use seldom.14.

and vi in major keys) 133. 8 4 134.T9 Harmonize (he following exercises (The 11. m. . III 135.

I II II * r r 148. AL. * J <r r -O- ir vi In f s V IV . vi IV II I 6 IV V 147.146.

Bad.: ^P . proached. The subordinate in major. ^ % fe^Jg r i ^r 11838* 1 r iJ r j i APS .g iJ r ' ^ r r ir -- V^ii T* I ylliU 163. Rule 2: In the progression. irrir" 161. III'. double the third voices iri VI and do not omit the fifth. In Mrirt writing no voice may progress an augmentod interval. with difficulty on account of the augmented interval (fi-7) in nor scale. In the progression ir-V. The ii" a* a substitute for the subdominant. and while this restriction quite properly disregarded under certain circumstances. & n (a) V VI m'vr F as -*nVI Special rules violated. best resolved to the VI (the cadencing resolution). HT and VI 156. The III' as a simple triad.. V-VI or VI-V. .Secondary Triads in Fundamental Position in Minor keys 19. is TWO SPECIAL RULES FOR THE MINOR KEY Ffule r. (Far oftc-ner used in its first inversion. >: r irriNi" f i . 20. $2l). or left. give up the common tone and lead the upper three voices in contrary motion to an -ascend ing bass. as for example. ^ ^ ir 160. (b) & Ex. ill (b). the student should rigidly adhere to the following-. Two move contrary to the bass (d). v 159. 2. in chord repetition. VI) are used in the same three III' with far less freedom. The n. but triads in minor (n*. The most used progressions are shown in the following example which should be stu- ways as those sometimes apthe Harmonic mi- died and transposed to other keys. V V (b) (c) The VI as a connecting chord. The u^> and are both dissonant chords. ii H -*- Bad.16 -tv t AUK. Ex. P 8 P . * r ir r * ^ s. in \ minor keys 8 _J 158.

164. .

m. 8 |jjr fa .170.

The consecutive which result from the proper treatment of this chord are unobjectionable. except that the deceptive resolution is best restricted to major only.18 m . The Triad on the Leading-Tone is a dissonant. All the progressions in Ex.24 The Triad on the Leading Tone . 18 are equally good in both major and niinor. rarely GENERAL RULE FOR THE LEADING TONE TRIAD Use the Leading Tone Triad all parts siepwise to a in the first inversion only. or it tendency. double the third. one of them being diminished and not appearing with the bass (outer part). is derived (fl-36) it resolves regularly to the Tonic. may be left by a leap. (c) (d) (e) (h) (i) Ex. chord and like the Dom- inant Seventh Chord from which to the VI. fifth progresses and resolve fifths complete I or I6 The up or down. Sometimes the third. or fifth. and more rarely the fifth.

6 6 * . 5.25 Advanced Exercises in Triads 180. 6 U.H lisas- .

are in order to obtain the required symmetry. and usual rules for chord progressions. and chord progressions. =z p r= (b J I J p r IP rJ The Sequence The Sequence is a succession of similar harmonies resulting from a symmetrical pro- gression of the given part. or pattern. in all the frequently disregarded keys.26 V r r r n vn- P r T ^ ^ 199. m F p 202. LiHtf. doubling. is usually repeated twice. Cadence I 7 . - V P IV 6 V6 TT~ 3t ^ 2 2' Unfigured ^ 2 ^ i J I ^^ f vn I- vn6 p n<5 je iPP 201. Practice in both writing and playing sequences is strongly urged as one of the practical ways of gaining freedom at the keyboard. Pa 203. and familiarity with the vocabulary of chords. etc..or more. 4. in an ascending or descending series. The initial design.

l bars and add 204 A* ft. uaaH .21 Transpose to every major key ' * a cadence ''"^ e " end ^ ^^ throu ^ -ever.(a) I Design Ex.

28 209. 3 m .

29 Phrygian Cadences.(a) (b) (d) o Ex. Transpose. 3 213. f TT if* 2 212.23 51. rfr . 3 I I 214.

rv 221. the soprano. ^ . 3H -- A triad in fundamental position is 5 may precede or follow a chord of the sixth on the same bass note. must not be doubled and should appear in succession in one voice. usually.). as such is In most cases one of the two intervals (the 5 or 6) is a passing tone and usually both taken and left stepwise (Ex. but not necessarily. The figuring 6 or 6 5 according to the ord'erof the two chords.ao 220. The intervals. I7k7h n . 6 and 5.24.

Walter R. Ll J 666 241. Basses. ^ { | y j r " if r i'J-p-u-i 6 8 4 I M 233 J r j rr j 224. 238. sound and facile technique in the treatment of triads. according to their character* and the grade of advancement expected. selected from examination papers. Nothing will give him such a good foundation for future development when he comes to free chromatic writing. Thus the first set of sopranos can be used as review before any inversions are reachedi-while the last list." In the following review exercises the problems are grouped under four general headings.31 General Review in the use of Triads 33.easy 228. demands a comprehensive grasp of all that has been presented in the foregoing pages. 231- 36 J r r ii iv . ^^ m . suaded to acquire a Mr. "So let the stud ant be per. 2 J J 239. Spalding in his treatise on Counterpoint says. 230. f " r 66 6 6 r 6 6 m i4' U ni . ^ 3 if 6 u J i i CJ s ^ B B 4 5 6 B 4 11 237. . to moderately difficult 229. 6 e 4 ii 8 240. {.

all the triads (except vn. i " 65 (i r r . . n 11338 J . < I 256. 6 [A 6 c: 6 4 247.vrwjabulary. 'J [* Ifg 6 6 6 246. 6 ^ j14 ^| n f ' <Q 1* G i f r [^ J iJ r J U J i" r 6 6 Tr 6 249. * li r ->- Sopranos. irr iJ -e- Tff" 8 o. ' it "i 6. r j r i "i i I . r 844l A 245. -e- e . Q 1 i r^ fr -<0 ^ 254. 251.. . 8 6 .. RS33: -e- 253. rJ ? 8. .) in fundamental position only 252. ft* J r J u J r r 255.32 243. 6 E 250.

VJJlrJJJI 266.33 857. including vii- ' r 261. i.All the triads and their inversions. |J J I .j ir ir r' r i ii 'r 1 1 'r 1 288. r 263. I* IV Sequence ^i-v^uriiuc . r 267. I i I 9m f f J M' IU l^ > |rJ J [J . J 259.^ fe 269. |J J J | rrr Sopranos. Ji r rr J i r r J 264. -e- r 265.ii i J ijjjjij . r^ J r \\ .. 258. 1 262.

Old French Noel. -jfr .34 270.

root in soprano. . 6 !_ v4 y? IV* IH n u I J I'' Unfigured P r-rr At the 4- r use" chords. (Not usual marking) Supply alto and tenor 2HH. r^ i . otherwise this is an unfigurcd problem.280. ti (5 B i 6 These 6'8 mean first inversion. m 283. " t I ? * 5 I t 6 r rr r r I l 282.

since the interval of the seventh is a dissonance. that is- they must progress (sooner or consonant chords.2(> (c) 36. <5r tendency chords. The Chord of the Dominant Seventh Dominant triad This chord is (Primary Dissonant Chords) of the Dominant Seventh consists of the to which is added the next (upper) third. 20 (a) jor and minor yet different from all other seventh chords.36 Chap. The seventh of is in V 7 however enters with almost the freedom of a consonance. Ex.26 See also par. Containing as it does the most important tones of the scale except the tonic it may be said to hold a strategic position in the key as Its third is Primary Chord of the Seventh. may be seen at Ex. chords of repose. it When the seventh the pre- ceding chord >(a) is usually kept as a (b) common (c) | tone and then said to be introduced by preparation. while its flanked by the dominant as root. as an ultimate goal. its fifth is perfect. The as triad VII is not an independent chord but an in incomplete dominant seventh chord (d). a major third. The dissonant chord which most conclusively resolves to the tonic. and its seventh. a minor seventh from the root. Ex. The charm of many a passage depends chiefly upon an artistic treatment of these dissonant elements as they emerge from and disappear in the stream of the music. II. the same in both ma- always the leading tone. the Dominant Seventh. The chord of most complete repose is the final tonic triad and toward this. . is The Chord 35. 22. Tonic (d) VII Introduction of the Dominant Seventh 37. (d) | | (e) (f. (b). as seventh. . requiring resolution. all the dissonant elements of a musical phrase tend to progress. Chords of the Seventh 34r. the leading tone. This added third all chords of the seventh are dissonant later) to a seventh above the root and. unmistakably defines the key by its tendency It is toward the keynote. minor. A Chord of the Seventh is is formed by adding another (upper) third to any triad. the In general dissonances require careful introduction as well as resolution. by the subdominant third.

Jng upward or downward to the root of. at (b). common tone - -.28 ff* * H 7 n m -*- ff BFSF il -*>^ O * Distinguish carefully the interpretations of * and 87.only ZEE Ex. the upper root becomes a I.3i) at all) the seventh may be found stationary (delayed resolution or none or it may even ascend. equally good in minor. or less usual resolutions. m n -firri r Ex. but sometimes ascending for special melodi( reasons.29 . the third ascending to the tonic. .resolution of the V? it> to I. In funda- The following examples mental position as are representative and.37 Resolution of the Dominant Seventh The regular. the seventh descending a degree. fifth omitted and root doubled. except (h). very good since this provides a complete triad on the (c) / (f) Foor (h )po98ib]o. the tonicj and the fifth usually descending a degree. Among the many irregular. or leaping downward a third if in an inner voice with the bass ascending. the root le.maj. shown later (Kx. solve to vi If 38 the V is complete it may re- (deceptive).

38 295. 3 n G I fr .

39 Inversions of the Dominant Seventh 39. Regular resolution to the tonic triad is by far the most usual. In this resolution the voices usually progress as when in the fundamental position except the root itself which is generally retained as a common tone. all of which are useful. <f> . Complete figuring is seldom used unless needed to indicate certain intervals altered. There are three inversions of the V7 . >(a) <b)_ (c) (d) (e) . Unless the seventh is in the bass two figures are indispensable. as the raised seven in the minor scale. those in- dicating the root and seventh.

4v ft 8532 6 6 _ 6 7 6. . 6 3 662 487 6 e 8 6 6 4 7 -O- 309.40 4 308.

U ^ '^ r ir J c/ i^ LT j if '^ 324. 322.41 321. A. s r IT J M c/ |rj ^ m P J 323. .

| 7 8 6 4_ .42 Exercises containing some irregular resolutions of the Dominant Seventh Chord 326. *V.

43 334. .

whether present or not.* 1 Dom. in both content and tendency. 36 f me rs Bad positions 9th V9 (f rt (f V 9 P n 9th . is omitted. as for example the VH. seventh V7 Introduction and Resolution of the Dominant Ninth (a) I (b) . solve regularly to their tonic triad. (c) (d) (e) i Ex. major ninth (Never used in minor) __ A3. does not take a cadencing resolution (ty 44)' is additional proof that the always the dominant. show themselves to be more or less com3 7 plete foi'ms of the V (orV ). That an incomplete form whose apparent root is the leading tone. seventh Dom. Before going further it will be well to examine a table of the primary dissonant chords. is the dominant and they all re- In major Leading tone triad In minor ) fl8 V*** Leading tone triad Leading tone seventh chord im seven th chord - (? qtim* (Frequently borrowed for use in major) Dom. which is Table of the Family of Primary Dissonant Chords The root of all these chords. minor ninth (Sometimes appears in major by chromatic inflection) Dom. real root. words the pri- mary dissonant chords.44 In the dominant ninth and its resolution to the tonic triad is found the basis of conIn other struction and resolution of all the Primary Dissonant Chords.

Ex. Exactly as with (e) Keep the ninth a full ninth above the root V an inversion is best kept as a common tone. Note in addition to these points the apparent resolution to 1$ and to the III" in (-|). 3 the use of the Dominant Ninth Chord the ninth. (The ninth below the root can be found in modern works). being a primary dissonance. Here the ninth in the alto is a suspension. (d) (a) (b) (c) This excludes contraction to a second and also makes the ninth below the root impossible. At (*) the ninth is in the tenor clearly a passing tone. requires no presmoothness of entry. otherwise a second will appear between the root and ninth. it is a suggestion of the required interval for each voice respectively. paration. These are (j) . especially in minor. It is Interchange of chord members. The 7 (1) Giv-n to illustrate above th'e e-.. (i) important to study these figurings (b) (i) is likely to be confronted with similar problems. the root in < (f) (g) In four-part writing. When (j)(k) for in higher examinations the student the figures are given in full as here. but preparation of either ninth or root conduces to When neither ninth nor root is prepared they should be approached in contrary motion. ively between two forms of the dominant harmony. ' They ' lie pass*_ * (It Models to be transposed to other keys is important to study closely every full figuring) (.37 . only two inversions are possible. Not a good practice but sometimes unavoidable. like the seventh. (k) Passive resolution as with V must be in the octave a necessary procedure with this figuring. In Ex. Compare with (P).On 43. 7 There is usually ultimate resolution but this is not necessary. the other voices following their tendency. The descending (MA scale usinff vr U .) . (h) Conservative treatment places the ninth in the highest voice. scarcely more than accidental chord formationsorcasioned by the flowing parts.

.46 Exercises containing the Dominant Ninth Chord 4 337.

The resolution to some inversion of the Vi and the passive resolution are natural derivatives of the regular V progressions. Ss u\ ear as well as eye. may be explained free to leap. except as at () where It the fifths in the inner voices come under f 23. Ex. of the Seventh on the Leading-Tone in (Also called the Leading. except where The typical resolution of the root position is to a tonic triad with double third. and as such should be complete. In 38 (-X-X-) the vn } is such to the eye only. skillfully handled.Tone Seventh). The omission of the generator (the dominant) does not affect the char- acter of the remaining chord members which are introduced and resolved essentially as in V. 38 (e) below.47 The Chord 44. this chord can not resolve to a minor tonic. The best positions keep the seventh (original ninth) in the soprano. see Ex. The seventh Ex. Arensky in his "1000 Exercises" and Tschaikovsky in his For a typical example "Harmony" use this third inversion.The consecutive fifths which result in this resolution when the third of the tonic is not doubled are objectionable and must be avoided. always resolving it to a lH chord. Learn the best ones and transpose (original ninth) in soprano: these positions are best.38 . The third inversion is rarely used since the original ninth is too harsh in the bass. Like the complete major ninth. or at least above the leading tone. or if that the b and d are in passing tones and therefore the bass (root of IV> vir| leaps a fourth is preferred that the bass downward to the root of the tonic. For simplicity this chord is figured as a chord of the seventh. of the Major The Chord Seventh on the Leading Tone In Major is a dominant major ninth chord with root omitted. in Study the progressions them to other keys.

-vi .48 Exercises containing the Leading Tone Seventh 351.

this chord presents no perfect interval in any position or inversion. Passive resolution.39 ^^ (J) *V -- tt O ' ffll-fcV TT > TT *> -*- (m) (n) (o) f Pass. place the leading tone of the key at the bottom and spell three minor it.40 to other minor keys Ex.1) (e) <f) (g) <h) *- ^ff ti 11 i> *> 1 .gl not a minor third. the diminished seventh chord of the key of c is minor b-d-f-a!>. Because chord thirds of can be spelled piano (enharmonic notation) see also f 64.49 The Diminished Seventh Chord 45.40 I ! ti ris - . is its used with great freedom peculiar construction. succession above Thus for example. (f) (%) not up. The Chord.its regular re>olution in to it the tonic minor triad. rrs. it in fundamental position. chord of the seventh on the leading-tone Dim.Diminished Seventh is Like the dominant minor ninth chord from which thtt derivcd. enriched by the may use of passing-tones and embellishments. ir 4> Not u Possible *V Ex. though sounding the same on the To be sure of the correct notation of the for in is any given key. Introduction and Resolution of the Diminished Seventh Chord (b) (c) (. (By alteration is It i* often used major*. several ways.. to J <9 > *s o Passive res to 6 ** t 31: 4 5 vnj. The F major triad alternates with the dim. (m) May be analyzed chord. to the root. avoiding thus the fifths- augmented 4th. 7th-chord in it minor is is called th. (e) (j ) Various consecutive (k). 7th.VJ ^ -fl S a 5 B^B 4 4 " i IE 6 4 -e- -4- 4 a (a) (c) (b) Typical approach and resolution to the tonic. or Transpose Ex. and in in all three of its inversions. and requires care to obtain a good melody. The main point for the student to grasp here is that figuring of this kind is not infrequent. Composed as of three minor thirds. (I) Augmented it Intervals are permissible in chord -repetition. not gS because f. in more than one way. be called an F major triad as long as the F continues. resolution to the dominant seventh. Leap down.

4. '-' "I j ji| j r t i r rr 6 j ir^r 65 ir^iiJ-'ir 8 7 6 frirr 'rP "6" J B ^ i 3 566.S 4 6 f^W -4- 56 6 7 5 B /? 3 -5 ep5 366. Z. . o rr . 'J TJ "[ ' . 6 2t|4 -+ 3 6 4 -5 6 371. S -t . |f j ^ I . Supply th'e Alto and Tfenor PPi * 7 6 4 -S- n 6 P^P 365. 5 3 3 2q 6 (5 4.50 Exercises containing the Diminished Seventh Chord 364. 370. M tf. J/ . fj i ^ . P 3 P -- 3 6 ^ 8 -4-565 6 5 ^-tf- 6 4 4 2 7 (5 6 ^p "~ ^^JJIJnJ JJI^^ i 6 -w I_ (5 fl 8 7 367.

While the modern tendency is toward an increasing freedom in the use of all dissonances the student should prepare and resolve every dissonance that needs it. chords. See again f 31. in a sequence of cadencing.51 The Secondary Seventh Chords (Secondary Dissonant Chords) are called SecAll chords of the seventh other than those on the decrees V and Seventh Chords. tt When the student's technic in the handling of dissonant sevenths it is established along con- rule study the possibilities under a broad general like the one laid down by Frank E. as fncompletc V* progressing to the tonic. N. Ward (Columbia University) as follows: "The seventh or the root must be prepared in every instance. Let him prepare all secondary dissonances at first directly if possible. especially when major. The quences tonic. Cadencing chords of the seventh fundamental position omit the fifth in alternate The third of one chord prepares the seventh of the next. 3 On account of the sequence the IV 7 to vir is tolerated.B. Sequences using inversions ft) (ei 'flfg) also consist of the cadencing resolution. in ' ' many other keys VT ' II <b> Nn -o- (c) In minor LJ -*>- o o . and resolves like the other seventh chords. The Cadencing Progression 47. seventh chords the vu .41 ' ' (a)." This is excellent doctrine for every earnest student.'b). 41. -tOrig. later by substitution where the effect is not too harsh and the passage gains by it. Ex. In though in itself a poor progression. 49.(c). nCT Har. See Ex. sc. sc.1 " "**"**"" o V7 7 I o o "o -oHar. and still later judge every dissonance on its own merits and use it as In it best serves a musical purpose. requiring preparation or entry stepwise from above. Double function of the Leading Tone Seventh. as in the Cadence. advanced work 1 am guided more by my own musical experience and a decided taste for the rich dissonances of modern music than by what is set down in text books. etc. Being for the most part more dissonant than primary sevenths these ondary chords are generally introduced with greater care.41 *:EL: oo -*7 7 v7 -*v 1 -- *> IMIIV t> rv7 viMipvi (e) IF v I 7 V7 (K) (f) 6 8 B i i I f ! 4 3 4 . sc. the seventh.1 48. roots bear the same relationship is the u 1I338* . loses its character. that in (aj(b) and (c).although many of the preparations are by substi- servative lines will be well for him to tution. In such first of all Chords of the Seventh to the triad (or of the sevenths step toward an understanding of all the seventh chords is to construct sebased on the cadencing resolution of the dominant seventh chord to its sequences every seventh chord will be led seventh chord) situ- ated a fifth lower (fourth higher) just as V 7 resolves to I. The seventh of seventh chord will be prepared and resolve stepwise downward. every secondary rK Play Ex.. 46. 41 (b) In minor keys the original form of the scale is used except where the leading tone is needed. Ex.

52

The cadencing
**'* 3

resolution of all Chords of the Seventh
'*>

7,7

77

3

3

7,

3,

7

53

Significance of the Cadeneing Resolution
50. Before examining other aspects of-the secondary seventh chords it will be profitable to read again $34 and study more closely the significance of the cadencing progression of chords. Mr. Benjamin Cutter in his "Harmonic Analysis" says: "The succession in, vi,u,V, with or without sevenths, and in whatever form, is one which confirms the ultimate tonic; it is one in which -the total impression is that of pushing on to the close in that final tonic harmony which rounds out the whole." Now the roots of these chords are the successive fifths reckoned upward from the keynote, and the chord farthest removed .tonally from its ultimate tonic is the one built on the most distant
namely the in"). The cadencing resolution is therefore a progression downward toward the tonic by stages of fifths. Thus the resolution of V' 7) is direct. Between 11 '> and I is the V* 7> Between vi'3 and I are both the u (7) and V">; while iu'', farthest removed and least used, must touch three intervening chords on Its way (cadencing) to the ultimate tonic. This will be made deafer, perhaps, by the following table.
fifth in the series,
.

Table of Secondary Seventh Chords in their Relation to the Ultimate Tonic Triad
I "
1

remove.

Chart
f\

A*

<Ji>

'i^

remove.

1*J

remove

Ultimate Tonic.

Ex.

54

The

Supertonic Seventh Chord

55. The most important secondary seventh is that on the supertonic. It is almost as valuable as the dominant seventh and is introduced with nearly the same freedom. The fundamental position may omit the fifth, the inversions should be complete. The finest form of this chord is the first inversion (Rameau's "Chord of the Added Sixth"). All inversions are possible, but the second inversion is rather

weak

in the

major

key.

The chord

is

treated the

same

in

both major and minor.

Ex.43

5 V"L9 -3- . 1 6 6 5.390. 7. 391. 3 6 6 7 4.

or succeeding chord. Ex. This is frequently a rriere delay of the downward resolution. \. prepared. one degree to the root. ceases to demand The seventh IS led Upward one degree it the bass drops a third to the note of re- solution (resolution by substitution).56 Various Resolutions of the Secondary Sevenths principles regarding resolution of the seventh stated as follows (under three heads): 57.c> ^ c* ^. third. It is not then a true seventh. This is the true (active) resolution of a genuine seventh. fl va> (a) v*1 ' (a) iu. nor can its progression be called "resolution of a seventh". or taken by a leap. see Ex.c. passing. The seventh fifth of the (passive resolution) becoming the root. B. or fifth. third. C. The-general (ft 52) may now be concisely A.32(g). it remains Stationary when the seventh has become passive. t. but a root. by becoming resolution. The seventh resolves downward. third. or (rarely) sevof the succeeding chord.45 . The major seventh may ascend whenever it functions as a retardation. fifth. but lists of secondary sevenths usually include it. otherwise bad covered octaves would result. whether enth.

II i] 8 7 87 /1*J1 ^ 41 - 3. i ->- rr 6 w I if 7 7 y ^ 413. ^^s^ 7 -ft- 78 -*v 5 - fl 420. i 4 ES^E^ ^ IP 6 P *v 1 412. 76 "5 i . 7 7.. 7.1 7 8 7. 78 2 a. 5 75 a 766 fl 423. 414.. 1 7 u jin 7 S i.-.. J 'I 6 76 / f) 72 / ^ B ft * B "l r R if r ir r T 7 8 r if r 'r 8 7 Mr 7 fl ==P^ r ' . 85 87 **=f 1. s >i y 425.57 Various Resolutions of the Seventh 408. H 7 f ? 8 _6.IX " i 44 i 5 X 7 B 5 44 a 2 ** ** Ji. If 415. 78 rtFMJrUM 8 7 F=] i U'-O I I 1 I 87 41G.. 4 4 3 2 424. i 7 4 ' 41IS. r 5 rV 7. "57 4 4 . 4 S - I 4 \ ^ . n 87 8 . 7 8 * * 7 . 7 / 4 7 422. 8 7 m^T P .. 8 7 =z n 87 -*- 87 77 410.. . r M J ir i n . 87 IP j 7 ' 409. 87 . " 7 419. ? ^ 7 g 5 . v* 6 6. R Jt a _7 : _ 5 :> 7 _ *: 7 i S i .

58 426 .

MO-A.Ravel.IO A. Ex.D .47 Huchaldu.

thus the movement of the alto and tenor parts.. First Year Counterpoint.50 1. DOROTHY Exercises in Progressive Sight Reading. (First Year Music Biography). Following introductory chapters on the elements of form (Motive. thus avoiding the use of manuPrice $1. Questions at the end of each chapter outline the principal topics discussed N* .25 1. A . and a set of six "test papers. leading composers of the Classical and Romantic Schools. . analysis.) Beginning with intervals and advancing >to secondary sevenths. and to indicate the natural relationship of persons. (Schmidt's Educational Series No. chords. with a chapter on suspensions and passing tones.. 1. sonata and fugue forms." Harmony and Melody. pitch. though direct and concise.60 Critical and Historical Essays.00 JOHNS.75 FAELTEN. and contains numerous illustrations as well as practical exercises. 412) many CUMBERLAND. With additional exercises. WALTER R.50 to First Year Harmony. Both soprano and bass parts are given. (Revised and Augmented Edition) Musical Form and Analysis. - A SHORT OUTLINE OF MUSIC HISTORY From Ancient Times by A fundamental course A brief account of the growth of CUTHBERT HARRIS to the Present Day music up to the present time.75 pany each chapter First Year Melody Writing. A book that every student and young composer should study . One hundred questions and answers. It contains twenty-one chapters in which Mr..00 . which can be written in the ibook itself. This method of teaching harmony makes the subject more interesting and enjoyable to many pupils than the 1. for reference purposes. Presents the 1. intervals. binary. 181a~b) HILL. voice leading. Includes the five orders of counterpoint in two and three parts. The narrative. causes and events. The idea is to teach students to love and understand music by making music. THOMAS ing the musical sounds (Schmidt's Educational Series No. simple. just as one learns drawing by drawing and not "by reading about it in a book. . 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16. cross-relation. 44.Rule for n-V.Mod.7MVincent D'lndy. 14. 59- PABTH Alterations Chap.Cadencing progression. 76.Second inversion.Secondary triads in minor. 72Modulation by means of triads. Page 44 numbers refer to the exercises. 725-27.Modulation by the Chap. 43. Lavignac.Leading-Tone seventh. Sequence General review. 81_ The figuring (5 e). 61.Tendency of IV. Harvard University. Examination Papers from Various Sources (in this list the to .To harmonize a soprano. 7ths by alteration. 89.Modulation by the Aug. 94- Chap. 39. 38. Passing by the Dom. 88. 79. 48Cadencing sevenths in. 77. Gabriel Faure. or. Moscow. 37_ Resolution of Dom. and use of any form of the Aug. 13. 86. 28. Change of chord.Introduction of sevenths. to harmonize a bass.Passing-tone and Anticipation. 7th. 11. 56Various resolutions. 7th. 30- Phrygian cadence.Secondary sevenths. Kittel (Bach's last pupil).73. Knox Conservatory of Music. 722.Triad on Leading Tone. A. 85. Dominant Seventh. 42.Application and exceptions.14.Introduction of Dom.Inversions of secondary triads. 29.Modulation by the Dim.V*.Sequences.Augmented Sixth. 47. 728-Gnflmant. fundamental position. Chords of the Seventh Page 36 Chords of seventh formed. n.The Preparation. Facsimile of M. 7th on raised fourth. A 644-677. 24. 26.The soprano leaps. 45. 63.Supertonic seventh. The French System of Figured Bass Examinations by eminent Frenchmen. 81. 83. V. 25. 91- --- Page 28 Appoggiatura. 87.Special intervals.Dim. 18.. 5.Special alterations in major. 648. Page 41 Chap. Russia.Rule for n-I|. (The Schola Cantorum). enharmonic notation. 726.80. 76.First inversion. 74.Modulation by the Neapolitan chord. The National Conservatory of Music. 65.Rule for no common tone. 46. doubling. 7OO703.Modulatory inflection. 69- Page 12 a choral. 84_ Sequences byway of the dim.The Sequence in mi design. 678-79. Non -harmonic Tones The Suspension. III.Significance of the Cad. 7O.Successive Chords of the Sixth. 7th. 16.VII. 64. 697-99. 7th. Royal Conservatory of Music. io_ Review primary triads. D'lndy's solution of No. 92- itself. London.Modulation through the Dom.Triad (vu) not independent.Aug. Trinity College of Music. deceptive resolutions of the Dom. 717-18Paris. 9th. I. 8.Cadences.Removes in the key-circle. B.Reaching a new tonic.Acgmented interval. 55Supertonic ninth. IV. I Triads Page 4 The Primary triads in Fundamental Position. 40Table of all the primary dissonant chords.VI.Other resolutions. six.Half and deceptive cadence.Licenses in resolution. 7th to next-related keys. 680-81. Bass repeats. 61. Chap. 17. 49. 687-90. 23. 78 from key to key. Special rules for minor key.Cornell Conservatory of Music. 694-96. 642.The Resolution.Freer use of the sevenths.Three successive chords of the sixth.Eight different basses on one choral. sixth chords in harmonizing a melody.Inversion of Dom. 32- Sequence.22. 35. sight-playing examinations from 19O7 to 1916. 715-16Cambridge University. London. 68. 21. (Ex. res.The Suspension embellishments. 6.Comparing the unornamented harmony. Modulation for Dim. 18. 60. 71. 52. 3.Diminished seventh. 58Mastery of conservative usage. 53. sixth chords.Secondary triads in major.Use of Dom.Oxford University. 67.Suggestions harmonizing The tendency chords of a key. 36. 719-21.No limit to resolution.Double function of Leading-Tone seventh. 417th. 67. 4.Rules for. The Dom. of the secondary sevenths. 9th.five chord. 12.Resolution.Royal College of Music. 50.Doubled third in successive chords of the 27sixth. 95Significance of special figures and signs. 62. fig.Tendency of scale steps.Similar motion of all the voices. 11888* . 90. 20.Thirds of sec. 82. triads. 704. Paged Alteration presented. 64. 7th on the raised fourth degree.65). 682-86-. i. 7th.Oberlin Conservatory of Music. Columbia University.Permitfed Consecutive Fifths. New England Conservatory of Music. 34.Augmented sixth chords "not of the key". 96- .American Guild of Organists. The numbers refer in every instance to the paragraphs) PART Chap. 83- Chap.*. 691-93. pivot chords.Harmonizing first six tones of scale. Chapuis. 9.Table of Contents (N. 7_ Rale for common tone. not pages) bass from Bachs "Thorough Bass" made "for his scholars". Page 62. 93.66Progressions compared.

-ft- i te. Good J Bad crotB. * Thu it mot the only form of chromatic scale in use. This not avoided by an intervening chord as at (1). The alteration is never doubled.48 ' (b. another is popularly known so on.relation rules observed:. while all others are raised in ascending and lowered In descending. HMD Hchll Oo. 2. While this change of view point does not essentially change the altered notes it does simplify the subject of alteration it in general.48.. One or more tones of a chord may be chromatically altered without producing a modulation or essentially affecting its original relation to the key. Raised notes continue to ascend. (A good rule but frequently ignored. Ex. introduction diatonic. The alteration may be introduced chromatically or diatonically. In playing alterations from a figured bass there are exceptions to them all. Chromatic alterations usually follow the chromatic scale* which always lowers the seventh degree and raises the fourth degree. lowered notes.) 4. which are obviously offensive. (b) Fifth lowered. to descend. (e) (f) (g) rule t broken. Furthermore all such alterations are essentially melodic and the tone combinations resulting therefrom should be considered ornamental variants of the original chord. usually termed Chords of the Augmented Sixth. and ient and are used in practically all the older treatises on harmony. 1917 by The Arthur P.(d) Altered ton. in. (c) The note that is to be altered. but with the development of modern harmony along chromatic and horizontal lines and the resulting broader conception of the character of alteration in general these chords seem to have less claim to independence than was formthe treatment of erly accorded them. Legitimate exceptions to the rules:. is best to observe the following general rules Rules for Alterations t. Alterations 60. very little attention is now paid to cross -relation. opposite direction. s i: w -e- g = * o Poor -*- o CIV -e- I' (i) N V* (D (j) C(k) xc XE e jg e e v: 62. although 61. C. introduction chromatic. The JdJ: Ex.doubled in (so called) Neapolitan Sixth -exception to rule 1. alteration is made in one and the same voice." Certain combinations containing the interval of the augmented sixth are as Neapolitan Sixth. Wrurrd .Keyboard Training in Harmony PART II ARTHUR E. A. correctly doubled (rule X). (i) (j) Altered note not kept in the same voice (rule 4). but poor only as indicated. but aside from such open contradictions. HEACOX Chap. especially in modulatory or chromatic The passages. that Is the unaltered form of the chord may or may not precede the alteration.(a) Third lowered. In this sense only is it well to use the term "altered chord. 6. (h) Raited note does not continue upward (rule 3). Cross -relation (or false -relation). B. The note which Is to be altered is not doubled unless one of these progresses stepwise in the 5. These terms are convenanother the Diminished Seventh on the Raised Fourth degree.

5 - 4 2 in the Major keys vi. 437. H. 9 7 1 7 67 5 | m 367 -e- 6 6 5 _ 4 7 440. Other alterations frequent enough to justify special mention. (See also ft 77). which functions as a dominant seventh. o 4 3 8 7 i p bp i r< /r 6 ^ Some Special Alteration 63. 6 5*- 6 6 . the ii7 with lowered fifth (np. the cadencing resoludominant tion (^50). In the major. '[/I. etc.. C*^ eb 39 e 4 7 442 ITU E " <& -o- i 6 -n~ 45. (apparently in the subdominant key). Ex. or as apparent seventh chords. 6 3 ii 443.Exercises in Alterations (General) 435. may appear by alteration as major triads.49 4U>S. are V in major with minor ninth (V 9 ''). . n'. and the I 7 with lowered seventh (pt). taking most frequently but not necessarily.5 E 439. 8 5sl .11338t . 8 . The usual indication is n-. 1 2 438. with inversions the* being m> and placed in brackets to distinguish it from other figures (11! ). 3 31 S 6- 8 7 436. e-e-e -e441..

Inversions as desired. . Alterations in Major keys. All the tones are chord-tones. Supply the alto and tenor.Some Special 446.

The Diminished Seventh Chord (by Alteration) on Various Degrees n i .6 448 /Lit.

but the third is admissible.Exercises in the Augmented Sixth Chords T In the following exercises the fched third or tenth. a diminNo new principle . by inversion. 454 augmented sixth sometimes becomes. 463 u The dim. involved.the altered tones follow their tendency. tenth is the better.

or c min. This In C maj. Resolve as indicated in the example. Then. The four forms of Angm. or dominant harmony. for the fourth voice doable the third (above the bass) in a 6+> use an aug- mented sixth above the bass in in any upper fourth in 4-H-> and a perfect fifth in 5 8 process is illustrated in Ex.) and resolving to piano proceed as follows: 1. . it Strike the keynote) add the major third for the bass. whose bass is a major third be"chord of the key" having subdominant function tonic. 52 . to these two add the aug- (These three notes are the same in all four forms). To use the augmented is in Harmonizing a Melody sixth chords in harmonizing a melody (or in modulation. ^83 ) it be able to think their spelling and resolution accurately and readily. Learn first to construct the augmented sixth chord low the keynote. ftth chord of the key) Their regular resolution in the key Xk Ex. mented fourth 6+ 4+ a doubly augmented S 6+ 04. Here the support of figured bass is lacking and the problem demands mental concentration and more necessary to than ordinary care in leading the voices. Sixth Chord (The ang. To build the chord at the below part. St. This is the legitimate (derived from IV or H.8 The Augmented Sixth Chords 66.

The following simple sopranos Sixth chords "of the key". ff) Fifth* now written freely. progressions invite regular use of the Augmented There is no need of any bat the smoothest !* ^ 469. the true resolution to If the sus- pension improves the progression.four Is better led stepwise. progressions better avoided i Some exceptional progressions permitted <b> _ _ I <c> <<U 67. 53 C. ujivocal but possible. smoother in an inner voice.approach outer parts in resolving to V (now freely written with is elided. (e) Bad fifths in Unnecessary cross. (c) and ak chromatically. 8+ 84-8 + ft P tt 8 S rr irrr irrr'r 6+ ^^ Mr nr 1 J ' 6+ r FT e-*- ir "r irrr^ it* 8 r r ir r r T r J ' J> ' ^ ^fe AMMMtl ^ m 6+ ^ . (g) Regular resolution. op. in outer voices. but by substitution. Beethoven. fl Ex. an inner part. 57 (transposed). (h) For instruments any altered tone may be taken by a leap of an augmented interval. .relation.Some (a) . (a) The bass bad (d) In a weak six. (b) Consecutive fifths In reaching the chord.

tfn " .

11

479.

666+
480.

tt
481.

r
3

'rr

J
'r

69.

Finally, there

is

no limit to the ways these augmented sixthchords

may be

resolved exaddition

cept that set by the taste of the composer.
to following its conventional tendency

The

interval of the

augmented sixth

itself, in

outward

to the octave,

may

also be found in the

works of

the great composers progressing in all the

ways shown

at 55 (a).

Here contrary, oblique and simi-

lar motion may be found, and either part may leap.
illustrating this variety of treatment.

In 55 (b) note excerpts from the masters

(b)

Wanner

The
(This

alto

and tenor may be added to the following:

482.

may be omitted by the student who has not studied modulation, on account of the obvious inflection to related keys.)

Chap. IV; Modulation
Modulation by means of Triads
TO.
This means of modulation
is

best illustrated in the Choral

where the melody leads simply

and naturally to cadences in nearly related keys, thus providing an interesting variety in the harThe succeeding monic setting. Keys so reached are usually points of but momentary repose. line of the choral may resume the original key directly if desired. That is, such modulations as we are considering are more in the nature of mere inflections to one side or another of the principal key. In the following models from Bach's Chorals note the brackets which indicate how one may consider the two keys as in a sense overlapping. The triad which seems to belong to either key and thus falls within both brackets is sometimes termed a pivot-chord. In Ex.56 (e) a pivot-chord is
lacking, but the modulation
is

quite satisfactory.

Let the pupil solve
strongly
it

this using

a pivot-chord.
(fl-14).

In 66 (g) note the accented six-four and

how

declares itself a tonic chord

Ex.56

CN

<f>

I

c min.

r-

rrr
J^u
mod. by
thefchd.

Harmonize the following choral lines simply and modulate in each one by means of triads. It is assumed that V87, n| etc., will be used
,

as desired.
483.
484.
485.

J|
487.

nr'r'r'

i"
488.
From a
to

r'riTr

G

also

C

to-

G

13
489.

490.

J
491.

I'J

II

J

I

if

From K

to B!, then to F, then

back

to g.

^
493.
cf.

492.

Ex. 10

A

494.

HP y
49?..

P

T *

~

d

J

i

r

t>
Phrygian cadence (see again f 3l) is now added the half cadence, usually and the deceptive cadence, usually V^-vij we shall have sufficient vocabulary to harmonize many chorals. Note the following cadences and transpose them to other keys.

71.

If to the
ii-V-,

I-V, IV-V, or

Half Cadence

Ha)f Cadence

Deceptive Cadence

Ex.57

V

I

IVI

API. tlt8"

i r J j j O u meine j r ij j j j ij J P j i r rr r r r r | Freu dich sehr. 5.e. unless beginning a line. j 497. eele v J - i J u j . line may have 2.57 (a) (b). 496. Errett mich.. Ex. Since the hold marks a point of repose more or less complete. The parts may cross occasionally. the triad at the hold may appear as the V in a half cadence. or as the final major triad in the Phrygian cadence (fl'Sl). Compare 57 (d) 1 and 2. Avoid many of any one form of cadence. as the vi (really a tonic) in the deceptive cadence (c). second time. I I mein Leben I I I J Ji J J 498.' . 4. j. and (e) 1 and 2..general do not introduce a chord on a weak beat and carry it over to the succeeding There may be strong beat. If not tonic in function.14 Suggestions for Harmonizing a Choral The following suggestions will be found in line with the best general usage. led. or as tonic in the related key to which the '. occassional valid exceptions. key.The V in the half cadence may be reached through the 11 or IV as well as through the I. 3. In . list In the following the more difficult chorals are mostly placed toward the end. O mein lieber Herre fdtt j rr iJ j Ji r Jjji Es ist gewisslich an der Zeit r 600. but is less usual. The triad at each hold is usually in fundamental position and has tonic function. 7. a chord of the seventh is obviously inappropriate at this point and is very rare. but do not cross the soprano. Avoid many six-four cadences. 1. The last two chords of a line may be I-IV. Christus der ist r i rr rnrrr . but let the student find how many in one hundred lines of the Bach chorals. jt can be figured as a tonic chord in the key of the choral. . It is generally hi better taste to harmonize a repeated line in a different manner the (f). 57 6. i. Ach Qott und Herr . but this again is a cadencing formula explainable as V-I in the subdom.

. r a Ach wie nichtig 1 &^$ ' J3_ r r r r ir S09 HanHct tkvt mich verlangen ! ' 'r A I'hry^i.1 r l.tn MI ijji melody . Erqnicke mich.16 801. Oott Act Hinmels and der Erden 602. ick hab miagehandelt ^ ^^ ' irrrrirr J i y~ BOS. dn Heil der Sander 1 JJ|J It 'j I l I 1. an Gottea Segi-n g04 Ermuntre dich. Oott dich loben allr wir B03. mein achwacher Geiat 1 JIJJJJU 605.JJJJl Oottes Sohn iit kommen too jj Herr.

16 510. Frohlieh soil mein Herxe springen E a i I .r J rr 517. i rrr J a true Lydian melody) 514. Qott. nach deiner Gut jNl. i m JJ I . Ann's (With - f H as signature this is &1 5 '. ich dank dir schon durch deinen Sohn Machs mit mir. r 'r J r ir r ir r ^ 4 \4 J |ZM ^W Hannover 1648 . Dundee (Scotch Psalter) au J & *-e i Ein feste Burg " ist 1 1B46 ' unser Qott r r .j|JJJJ|JJ?J| f |||l r Heine Hoffnnng stehet feste 513. St.

Singen wir aus Hercensgrund t ^^^_ & "- IJ J IJ J J IJ J 'l 1 * Mit Ftied and Rrend ich fahr dahln fV> lit* j J?L j r i r j r JJr 524. ich> ^ nr pp 519 Der liensch hat nichU to eigen JJJ ir 521. Oott Schopfer.17 518. Lydian (The d lower than the old rale permitted. Op. Abont 14tO 522.J J . ia.) "J I. 520.111 in i|l|M| Beethoven. heiliger Oeitt Fr - ij is rr rirrr 11. M7JUJJJM. Not. !-_^ I m A. HJJjT nijjiij Ji r irr r 1 A Myxolydian melody Komm. >-v rr JiJ. Verlieh on* Prieden gnadiglich Aeolian melody IMO -<O Von Oott will ich nicht lassen ? Dorian melody.

C to f (minor) four re- 75. 7th. Six-five. especially when made through the Dom. to another. but some modulations are much smoother than others and some 7th. do not differ by more than one sharp or flat.7th of the nev key i. (a) its its Tendency. minor. major or minor. Subdominant. The Dom.. Next-related keys to to whose signatures any given major key are to those for any given minor its Dom- triads of these keys can be and descending original C major Next -related keys to a minor Ex. The relation of keys. Keys whose moves. (c) its Aug. using the ascending major. Brackets inclose enharmonic . (a) Modulation through the Dom. From C to D is therefore two removes. and (d) the Dim. and The tonic inant. C to P| six removes. 7th. all the keys maybe seen in the following chart. and their three relative minors. (b) its are too abrupt to be satisfactory. The arms will always inclose the next-related keys of any to which the arrow points. 58. 7th on its raised fourth means of anyone of these chords one may modulate from any key major or minor to degree. This modulation will be used first to next-related keys.58 di * ei *EE* FI TT al I t ei GI ar GI FI *=t CI di signatures differ by but one sharp or flat are said to be one remove the difference in the signatures expressing exactly the number of removes from one key apart. Subdominant. Ex.e. By any other key. formed from the scale of the given key. and their three relative majors.chords tendency-chords of a key which resolve most emphatically to its tonic triad are Dim. The next-related keys its Dominant.18 Modulation to a key through one of 73.

(A rather abrupt modulation. Common tones are best kept. 7th.. e. a fine road for this particular modulation.60 . the third of the old tonic must be doubled to avoid an augmented second. Modulation from (a) I C major to its five next-related keys: tb) Modnlation 1 Icioiing cadence (c) t i GV (e) (a) (b) tt Ex. through an and re.76. 7th conduces to greater plasticity. Modulation from any key to its five next-related keys may be made by progressing from the old tonic to the new Dom. Modulate by the Dom. serves the Vft for the closing cadence. chromatic soprano. made smoother by using a pivot chord. C I-vnV V7 and Cad. (e) No common tone. 0) Begin with a I*. On reaching the new tonic it should be established by adding a closing cadence. In general modulation =E CI* dV* * ^ ndC *d m CI tt I inversion of the Dom. the other voices going to the nearest chord-tones.59 6 m (d> CI f IV IS I y I d FV> ! c dence M rv/' \>& It Cad Modulation through V*. 7th from every major key Modulation from a to its five next-related keys minor to its five next related keys: HSn $ ok~ Ex. (c) Modulation by Vj.g.

- -* 3 6 & ? 6. _ i 6 5 6 7 4 JL 544. it may be questioned whether these are modulations at all. In any case the impression of the successive (apparent) to- 78. 5 4 6 6 4 7 540. See fl 63 under which the following exercises could may also be placed.61 aV* i GVf I CV 2 e FV| I dV| I CVg I . Ex. 6 e 4 6 i aSiEg 538.. 3 . J r r |J 541 g^ -6- ^* 4 542 5 h 543. Exercises Which Contain Modulatory Inflections 536. P 6 6 4 3 -e- 4 o' W -.... can not be said to produce other than a fleeting impression of modulation.. 8 3 6 6 * 1t O^O: =r. As has ajready been shown. Through some each+ inversion of the nics is fleeting. . 4. 3 8 T 645 6 6 4-3-2. 7th resolving to its apparent tonic. 2 6 6 . 7. 3 6 f 2 6 7 It -6- 537. r' V7 '0ffri j j ii r tonic at (or fundamental position if necessary) reach a new as in the following model. -e- 65* -6- 4 6 3 6 5 ^ 6 5 66 5. 5. Such progressions be termed modulatory inflections.20 Modulatory Inflections Through Apparent Dominant Sevenths . R 6 6 6 5.. In the following exercises the apparent Dom.

The model Ex. -y^-t .21 The bass is practically "unfiguredr Use inversions and supply is the needed accidentals as needed. 546.61.

6. 4 67 it o 6 5. 7th chords. by way of tbeir Dim.n rt 81.7th chord of the new key (<| 45). 4 tt 6. 3. . -4- 65 6 ^ 2. 7J> 4 64-%-fr 8.22 (b) Modulation through the Dim. | _ 5l> 6 6 i r r r <r r 33 i 562. f r 557. 7 n if * t 6 g i r 4 3 6 8 558. 3 m -6- si ir * 7 T ir T I i 7 559. H J 7_ 7 6l| 5 W 4 * 6 7 -6-6 O Tr I -e- J & . 7. Pass from key 11888? to key in exercises 550 to 555. 6. m 8 8J 6 a. u 5 661. 560. Exercises which modulate by the Diminished Seventh Chord 6 556. 3 2 -e 3 7 e 48. 6 ^ 6 i 6l| -6- 4 5 6 * 4 6 4 745 6 6 6 * JL J n r r r ir r 6 564.

One should avoid (e) 9)(g)(h) con. 6 4 * I 688 r ic r i- . i 1 " ^ e-*- l r (V r l|- J l n an through 3 . Six-five. Six-five chord of the new key . I i T s 588. The new tonic is reached as an accented six-four. Other positions are sometimes used. ^^ ^ Modulator? unrction T . . but may disregard augmented intervals and cross-relation in any modulation by alter(t)($(d) .at (b) from a I* an Aug. i H e Jl. (d) the Aug.I. Free yet quite permissible approaches to the Aug.five:..re) Modulation through the Aug. 3 6-*- 62 ^ CI (a) K 9+ ft 8+ ft 4+ _| 3 -te i D I II Some of the smoothest ways of reaching the Aug. Six.four-three to avoid con. Kths. Bths. or a cross -relation. Six. Six-five first in other than (c) through conventional form to escape con.() (b) (c) 3E Ex. ed chords. Bins. to which is added V? .

. The chord is often indicated by accent. Sequences of modulations by the use of |"t j 571. Resolve it to the new tonic six. 572 - 866 r r fi Exercises which modulate by the Dim. J . which sometimes spelled as a Dim. This chord is (g) Compare this modulation with (b. This and similar sequences from F. The old tonic taken in first inversion avoids an augmented second.63 rr f3? CI J=J: % -o- fT" ibt f (e) _ -o-0- " Jo *i ITp '^JL^ r r o 3=4 ?^r -* * r. 83. good. Sixth chords are also available for these modulations. on any and add V?. Finally modulate from any key to every other in the circle. 4 573. major keys (f 64). r 8 A y* r -4 2. 7th on the raised second of identical in sound. (f) The augmented second. but the Doubly Aug.four chord. CI Dg* II V7 I E|* II V7 invent and play sequences similar to 570-1. 7th on the raised fourth . it 84:. Use (b) (c) Ex.relation ^^ (d) (e) Typical models. 7th on the raised fourth degree of the new key this and reach chord preferably in its fundamental position (permissible in first inversion) through the nearest chord -tones. f 75.I. Fourth leads to major only). ascending by half steps. The modulating chord taken in its first inversion. j I CI * II V 7 DJ* II a V ' j * I Extend through the octave.24 570. 11888^ . is unobjectionable as in practically all progression to modulatory is (altered) chords. i r 574. Also (d) Modulation through the Dim. (The other Aug. see under Ex. t 6 -e- i 25 -e- 4 4 67 1 AP*. Lehmann/by permission) 7 Ascending by whole steps. r ci t P (d) ^ f -&- # Gng =Jt J=tt r=i BHVJ (a)(b) (c) * Cross. J. 6Z.

exercises 660 to 666 by way of the Dim.IIete to B78-9 ascending or descending Also invent and play sequences similar by other intervals.| 575. the enharmonic equivalent of the Neapolitan (Vo) (Knharmonir) chord may be used.64 r : =^ (c) T V ^ N" with or without. a tendency chord although produced its characteristic resolutions to the tonic six -four or to the dominant of own key entitle it to a place among the musician's modulating materials. in same manner modulate from any key in the circle Of 76) to every other key. <b) (c. V7 I EiV7. . Beethoven vj^jitj 85. r * 576. ascending by major seconds. Z (A) simpler to notate. 7th on the raised fourth J J J J i Extend through the octave. ascending by half steps. 7 Extend through the octave. Modulation through the Neapolitan Chord of the new key 86. BN FlN V te ?-8- 1 fa) MI* Typical modulations using the Its passing seventh. .|. properly speaking. The Neapolitan Chord by alteration: but its rs not. * * e 5. Sequence of modulations by the use of the Dim. The N'' The N* doubles If resolves to its its accented it root and reaches the new tonic through V* . In the |J>^^ Pass from key to key fourth degree of the new key. -o- g g> Ex. (here e-gf-b for fV-aV-ct). 7th on the raised Add to each new Ij a V 7 -I cadence.

(EN 6) * I 3 a 582 & 5 6 7^ 56 56 387 - i 7 5* if 583. y-ti 581. -e- 6+ 5 6+ 5 N8 ? *fr Analyze fully and transpose J j P N 8 Sequence of modulations by the use of the of the new key Extend through the octave ascending by half steps through major keys. 586 CI V| I DN8"VJ J letc. P 587. Also modulate from any key in the circle (f 75) to every other key by 8 or N*.< 8 IV J JCI Jr> 1SJ8 V BN V* v f^^ Extend through the octave descending by half steps through major keys. ascending or descending by other intervals. ir j rrir NB . Unfigured bass. N . Invent and play sequences similar to 585-7.Exercises which modulate by the Neapolitan chord of the new key 8 6 580. r IT (B>N 8 i' J j 1 ) i 8 7 s (gN6 ) A U * 2 $ P | ^ 6 P 2 4 "eb ! 5 fa . Introduce an a fj and modulate through the 984. letc L etc Extend this ascending by minor thirds through major keys. r rrif r'r |"*~. fcy 5 f^ /3 . sl J si Supply -the alto and tenor P i 6 .

8ix-five(enhannonicaHy notated) The old tonic is N in the new key (a pivot. obviously too abrupt. Add a closing cadence to each of these except (e) which needs a V?- I only. 7th is the Aug. or too abrupt. contradiction of the old key.of the new. Pivot Chords (t) o i Ex. C to aV (or pi) is poor.jd (or dim. Good because the third of the new tonic does not produce any unpleasant. at (1).chord).Lessons in Harmony. is good.. of the old key (a pivot -chord. may be In minor key* the notation of either the original or used. Not a pure modulation. one. pivot -chord quitted as V in the new key.virr. Deceptive Resolution. i* contained in the old key. to which is added Note that is Ok) is same way from every major key. Enharmonic Notation. 39 Ex. enharmonic e. bent in the third inversion. The rale includes all the next related keys.27 Modulation to more or less distant keys. par. modulation is * Note. 7th to rather distant keys. the seventh.65 ** i per 4* h Up a half -step Down a half -stop (e) (f) (8) 00 u >-J o P Down two min. 3*? Up a min. 5th) (k) 0) Too abrupt Down a maj. The N* of the old key is the V in the new. old the Dom. Special Intervals up or down. 7th Aug. J. The (f) (ft) Deceptive resolutions. With scarcely an exception those modulations by Vi which come within Mr.of the old a pivot - key a pivot-chord usable in both minor and major keys. Lehmann. see (a) above. By this means one reaches those keys is Modulations by the Dom. dulate all 65. 45. (h) (1) enharmonically vn-i<. A pivot -chord. Six-five (enharmonicatty notated) of the new. harmonic fo . (e) the enharmonic equivalent of avoid fifths as The chord and must always be complete. LehmannV rule for pure modulation 4' are sufficiently smooth for most purposes. 4* Down a half -step Dp a mln. (d). On the other hand C to f breaks the rule but (j). However within the rule. 84* e o Up an ang. and mo- these distances In the (a) (b) (c) (d) The old tonic is a The new Dora. RULE: A pare in mode when the third of the new tonio triad or its qaivalent. F. two x or three minor thirds distant (or enharmonic equivalent).

Three factors are involved:. The Suspension is a prepared discord a degree higher (or lower) than the chord-tone which temporarily displaces. 8- a $ # Ex.66 " (f } . The Suspension itself. In the following suspensions. it The Suspension 87.the Preparation. and the Resolution.Chap.V Non-harmonic Tones 1. and to which it logically resolves. locate the part to which each figure refers.

68 .67 (f) (g) * a a triad in first inversion with delayed root. with the Six-four Chord. through a retardation. (b) In no case The figures(-) indicate what is here shown. the analysts depending on environment. a retardation. Sat. Ex. Either Interval may be doubled. (e) ft) Add no intervals to those indicated. Suspensions in the bass . (a) The figures (7 G) or(J ) indicate to be considered a chord of the seventh. 6. Compare with the next example. and . Three figures are here required to indicate the chord. I (c) (d) (e) Ex. Or a six-five chord with delayed root. (g)(b) Chords of the seventh with suspensions in the bass. i. two complete chords of the seventh.29 The Suspension 7 Su. (d) A Triads with suspension In the bass. . Note the figures.e._ v tx Sui. The Suspension with Change Double Suspensions () l^ f of Harmony. that analysis as a chord of the seventh is illogical triad in first inversion with delayed root. The context makes this so obvi(c) A triad in first inversion with a suspension and ously a tonic with delayed root. xl I <b) . Ret.

Reduplication of the Resolution (a) (b).30 The Suspension 6 5. (c) (d) (e). (f) j Ex.69 fe Ex.70 .

Suspensions In the soprano only . ' ' yur JL. 57 43 78 54 I 43 I J I I 77 6 98 t .J r irrr J iy i i . 1 t 7 4 - r B92. " ir 8 5 ' . =B r *. .> T r i. ' r r if j u . A 898 i A 780ft 7 5443 8 O. Rft9 ' .8.. J rJ r M r 595. s rrrn i" . . r 7 * j iJ 7 4 J ft iJ J 597.8. 988 I I 9 8 l| 589 5 ft J "J " i^ 8 I " . i 78 o i* ft ___ 4 43 7 i 76 ' 3 u Beftia in J _u u _ u 76 7 ft 7 8 7 6 48 9 8 6 j j u B--43 ip 75 open position Suspensions 7.D. 5 4 8 7 6 Z ^ 43 43 I 7 596. in any voice except the bass 6 08 438 98 4398 . ^ ft * 9 8 f t _ 8 5 04 5 4 8 S 3 ft 7 4 1 O. 43 43 M ft 48 i 98 __ . s r if 988 ir 7 1 .S.A" J 8 y r [ j I I " * 3 I I I II I " 4 3 9 8 I I 4 B1 I I 5 7 1 I >ixr 590.D. 11..

T^ [f 6 rp 5 p 2 ^ 5 3 600.5 o _ Suspensions in the bass only 5 _ 599. " 5 5 s I y J 5 T^ r . -fcfH 32 5 2 r ir r if r r r i" ir n .

one the lower 4 987 765 -IS- APltMU* . 7 One solution upper figures. * 7 .33 610. < ^65 5663 4356 Ij6 :i _ 8 _ 7 H 6 6 -6 4 7 8 . In many paprB thetf it placed before the figure as in those from the Guild examinations. 611.6 4 _ 6-6 3 Note.

(b) (c)(d)(e) (f) Some common faults and their correction. Ex. "Let each voice respect its neighbor's / territory" 1133S is a good general rule. Passing tones and an embellishment. . Unaccented passing -tone. Par. Generally forbidden in the books though be found rather often. (c) This resolution into a unison may be jus(d) Bach here reduces the suspension. afford a very flexible bass..71 5 6 6 4 _ 9 Bad Correction p 8 * 7 T r~i A 7 '5 A 4 the dash continues the chord while the bass moves. 72 the fragments are from Bach's solution of the chorals which follow. These ornaments. fifths if either Good. 1 ? .Bach. The passing seventh temporarily crosses the bass. to e) Oblique motion of a passing tone into a unison. 72. as will be seen in the following chorals from J. When Passing-tones and embellishments are to be used in a figured bass. Not recommended when 9 8 is available.S. to 2 1. To avoid it makes for clarity. (616-619) (a) (b) Passing tones in two voices. (E) Embellishment. 5 =? T_ (+) <8 2_ (a) The chords are indicated as usual and Signs. .34 . tified between the tenor and bass by assuming that the latter will be played on a iC-foot stop. thus sounding an octave lower than written. (a) It . (o) Accented passing-tone. 9 8. Here also a passing tone prepares a suspension in the tenor. Let the student consider this exceptional. dashes are used after the usual figuring as in the following example. No fault can be found with consecutive perfect member of the sec- ond fifth is not a chord-tone. together with the passing sevenths. (a) I . Passing Tones and Embellishments (b) (c) 91. (b) + (P) J J ill In Ex.

Der Tag. passing alto and tenor.Bach Chorals containing Supply the 616. der iit suspensions. tones and embellishments. to freadenreich * r* f^PP 8 7 3 < 5 m "T 8 4 5-7 8_ P * 326 5- 78 587 5 8 it 3 2 31 565 1 r .J .

An Wasserflussen Babylon *- A_ .36 618.

A1 non-harmonic tones must be passing tones or embellishments. Play an accompaniment to this. ' .37 3 - .t * 8 u 5 - -.6 4 _. a "~ Ol' L_J P f Hp HP tm ti^rz^ra r 1 i I * 5 6 tf g . Harmonize simply in four parts 622. * m sl l 65766 i Bach 620. one harmony to a measure except in the final cadence.

S 8. especially as regards consecutive fifths and cross-relation. augmented and diminished intervals. (d) Simultaneous anticipations. melody which contains appoggiaturas or other non-harmonic tones.38 3. Simultaneous appoggiaturas. commonest in the highest voice. 74 and B. and on the second half of the beat respectively. e. choosing a harmonization that is clear and logical. taken by a leap of an augmented second or more- 93.Ap. the resumption of the ornamental tones should seem a simple matter. The Appoggiatura is briefly defined as an unprepared suspension. leaps of a major seventh..73 (a)(b) (c) Appoggiaturas on the accent. apparent cross. 11838 b . The anticipation is unaccented. If the unornamented harmony is correct the appoggiaturas to enrich it may enter with great freedom.relation. Anticipation It is ive 92. This accomplished. consecutive perfect fifths^if the second one con- A tains an appoggiatura) are permissible. In harmonizing a it first A. The Anticipation is the opposite of a suspension in that it becomes a discord by taka tone of the following chord before that chord enters. Ex. ing It usually enters stepwise but need not do so. but unlike the suspension it may appear on the unaccented beat. (e. Sign. This general principle applies to the use of all ornaThe appoggiatura should ments. Compare Ex. g. with a decided predominance of the primary chords. Anticipation in the soprano. used 9-4. not resolve obliquely into a unison. think without any ornaments. A. Appoggiatura. It is most expressIt is when on the accent. Sign.

. c. passing tone and embellishment The suspension ornamentally resolved.. sign: s. anticipation or passing tune at the +. .. oma. *<> (. *" IEJ . S. appoggiatura.Exercises containing the Appoggiatara and the Anticipation An appoggiatura. Ornamental Resolutions of the suspension..

40 The 628. s oma .

some chord member.root. in our own method. vn7. afford such a wealth of material for advanced study and sight playing that it has seemed best to give here a brief explanation of the French system of figured bass. 8. (the French the +7. that For instance the use of 6 to represent a first inversion. as Albert Lavlgnac. indicated by 5. above or below other figures. as with 6 us. as will be seen a little later in the examples to be The French figuring (a) A A stroke / a diminished fifth-. Vincent D'Indy. to designate the leading tone (unless already present in the bass). but or more tones. and many others. 7th chord over the Tonic. is major or minor triad some authors placed over every triad. (f) A + before 7 (thus +7) denotes the Dom. + denotes our V) not vn. Caesar Franck. through a figure indicates a diminished interval. But the figures used to denote the V. the suppression of e. M. It is not Is reserved for chords of four . English and German figured basses.Guilmant. In sequential modulatory passages. The figuring of all secondary seventh chords that contain a per- we fect fifth is the same in all systems. a (f) to refer to the third above the bass.. 3 or 8. Alez. find in the American. vur> (that is the whole family of primary dissonances) and the n ? in minor are peculiar to the French system and must be committed to memory if any facility in their use is desired. Auguste Chapuis. In general the French system employs the same characters to indicate inversions. 0th chord over the Tonic. etc. B. alterations.g. the perfect fifth is always understood.Dubois. 5. When a f. 96. are universal. Wider. V?.g. The inversions of these triads (with any necessary signs of alteration) are expressed in the same manner as in our figuring. (e) The special arrangement of chord members. The Ben The French System of Figured Bass and Harmony Lessons Examinations prepared by such eminent French- Theo. t or ^ is used to indicate the third. (4} is accord de 7me sur-tonique). (g) Note carefully that the plus sign always used in connection with primary dis- sonant chords however used to denote the leading tone in the triad on vu. the special signs used by the French obviate the necessity of numerous signs of alterations impossible to avoid given. e. N. Gabriel Faure. suspensions. the figure 3 being then omitted.. is sometimes suggested by unusual groupings. most often by the B which is by Some reserve the S for minor triads. the (4) alone applies to the third above the bass.41 Part VI. Ch. (d) O denotes a triad with the third omitted. the Dom. % means (b) plus sign (+) before a figure denotes the leading tone. For example standing alone it means a diminished triad. (c) A A zero (O) alone indicates silence. and anywhere that the primary dissonant chords are used. 95..

. 7th. [ This when 1I7 in minor. Alterations if necessary. The $. A few Suspensions. TheV 9 The V7 and V9 over-tonic. V The V? - The Leading Tone 7th. VH7 and Dim. The Dim. or 8 Ex. Simplicity in denoting primary dissonant Let the student figure this by the usual method and compare. 7 over tonic.Examples of French figuring The/ The + The O The.77 + 7 7 4-6 -6- + O 5 Suggested arr.5. 5. chords.

Exercises in French figuring 6 *- + 7 i> *' 1 * _ I I * I * I * 835. 5 flrt J . O S +63 5 4 3 ft 78 7 6 4 3 7 J + 4 5 7 4 + -O- 637.

and Other Sources Prom "Rules and Thorough-bass or for his Instructions for Playing Scholars t Accompaniment in Pour Parts. .VH. Examination Papers From the A. in music by Johann Sebastian Bach" 5 5 ** 4 * | 4 8 5. * 8 4 3 4 3 4 3 . 6. ..44 Chap. Noted made MS! - Conservatories.O. G. .

NjlffJ fl 5 IT 9 ^ ft 4 8 8 7 6 6 8-7 8. g=TrJ=) g 9 .(643 con. 3 5 PP 87879 7 ^^ 87 . 8 7 ^ 7 gr a ^^ 4398 7 9 7 P 43 8-7 7898 78*87 8 88 P ^ O| O ^l 588 o o i* 8 4 5_ 3 87 1-jl. >*AP*.) 8 4 i S 8 7 8 7 zfft I- J u J ir J 8 3- 5_ 6.

O. 7 r ii A. Fellowship. G. G.O. . Redden. jj J r -^ m _ ' A.O. isos J r 647. Chairman of the Examination Committee of the American Guild of Organists.O. Assoc. jo - j if" r i r JiJ j ir *r i*r r r r ^J > i rp ' A. 644.O. Fellowship. A. Warren R.G. i J.O. Assoc.G. contained no sight-playing from figured bass. 1907 A. G. The papers for '07. 1909 rr '" r 649. Assoc. and '09. 1910 r r r 'r rrr J < |J [> A. dfc 650. Given Melodies A.'08.O. 1907 646. Fellowship. 1908 r 648.O. permission is given to present the following sight-playing tests from the years 1907 to 191C inclusive. Assoc.G. Fellowship. G.46 Through the courtesey of Mr. 1910 . - A.G.thirty-four examples.

Asioc. * =* A. O. 1911 r J|JJj |J J r |.J A. Fellowhip.0.O.O.ini 654.O. Fellowihip. f A. A. G.O. O. Fellowthip. liii J 653. 0.nu tr 668. J J r T iJ J A. tm A.ttM JuJ) r i i r i j^iJr i 660.O. AMOC. GO. J l. I 656. i nit i J ii J J r r . _.O l 0. G. in 655. AMOC.J J |JJ3 r A . 0. iti4 I 659. rr A.O. Assoc.O. Assoc. A.47 52. Fellowship.

O.O.48 661. Fellowship.G.G..1912 -** .O.O.G. Fellowship.. 663.G.Q. Assoc. A. A. o -O(5) o 6 5 4 3 " "Pf 3 H A.O.1911 6 6 ' 8 7 i 5 6 6 8 I 6 * HT 5 7678 * I* 88 ^B 7 ^ I 6 9 6 8 5 J 56 5 6 4 7 t A. me J J r J j LI JJ A. O. mo 655 63 3 T r 6 r '6 5 T '7 55 r S r 4 [ 7 r 4 666.1916.. Assoc. Assoc. (3) 6 6 5 6 6 5 665. Assoc. A.i8io Figured Basses 3 664. Fellowship..O.O. IJ Jt6 J 6 " I I I 98 9 8 7 4 3 #6 6 |)6 6 6 5 A. 19 6 662. iti 7 6 4 2 6 8 5 r_ r IA '6 5 i r I * 5 6 '6 '87 5 4 |)3 668.G. A. Fellowship.O.O.

ir 5 -41 i S 5 '875 .49 669.. J 4 r 5 r ' r IT 'H r I r ir S r ' i IT 677. lent. 4S8 672. ii J 42 6 4 8 1 r> :< n I r . Fellowship.. mix. 670.O. A. 6 6 688 l|3 ' '7 lH 4 671..G. Fellowship. R r a la c 58 r J a 2^ A.O.O. B 87 673. Assoc. Assor. -I A. 78'8 i 6 "5" 7 4 8 7 4 7 5 A. Assoc. 4 8 8 4 7 J <8 4 887 4 ft 675.G. A & 5 4 3 fa 4 - 7 t 3 6 7 L"! A. A. Fellowship. Fellowship f J IJ J 18 5 6 ' r !< r e 1 ' 5 r r i r ^7 I .. ma. itM* 8 5 '7 8 8 : ! fl !i r7 8 '87 i- 8 1 4 8 * 3 S I (l 674.i9ie. Anoc. i>&.G.G.O.G.G.1 7 '.: 8 5 iPPP 8 7 8 7 tl A. 0. O. Fellowship.G.O.O.G. A. ii P* 676. iJ r i r IT r "if^ 768 9887 78 4 4 ' fl "re 3 "r 1 u A.O. .O.

r 3 r ^T^ r r <4^ ' "" 3 7 6 -e- 4-9- -4- -8- 7 3 tJL * 6 5 2 P 3 3 ( -o- 764 681. Horace A. freer treatment of the seventh. 7th chords 7 U i 7c Geo. by per. similar from Cornell. S. by per. 5' 2 678. Dim. S. Thompson.KNOX CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC Examinations -6- in Harmony John W. Miller. 6 5 9 5 *8 fl 6 -*-_ 8b 2 3 6 3 3 6 6 65 L 79- 6 "t 5l. Dickinson Various Alterations Inversions as desired . Swindler (Cornell) 3-8- 84 5 6 5 2 4 2 5 9 -5-65 3 7 43 87 87 6 4 3 -6- $ 2 5 8 3 98 93 7 4 3 5 OHERLIN CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC 682. 6 54 ^ Q -8- fi A R ft e 3 6 -5 3 4376 4 S Ivadell A. Dickinson J u j Inversions as desired rnt n Geo. 6 5*4 4 S 7- P 679.) 680. H' j I I P CORNELL CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC Examinations (See ty in Advanced Harmony tendency in these 58.

Kx. papers. C. M.jtOA Unflgured Add alto and tenor using seven Aug. (Written) 4+ 4+ 3 3 6 + 6+ P=P Parentheses indicate unconventional positions- p^Mp =*= . 6th chords as follows-. ^ From O.

Ward. by per. Frank E. Secondary seventh chords . .52 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Examination papers (written work) "i.

Moscow r 3 g . ROYAL CONSERVATORY CF MUSIC. Suspensions i A. Modulations S r r r r J . Arensky r 6 B . 6 '98 '9898 rj 3 43 i r r > 98 699. i n Waltz time N K fun Write (or play) an accompaniment to this melody. J^ J U j a j r ti A. MOSCOW. RUSSIA Aug. Arensky H ! . Jurgenson. . 6fh Chords fc Three figured basses zr: with the permission of P.3 Arensky 3 B 4 6 698.'I 4 3 t 26 A.53 696.

A . (Associate in Music) Trinity Col.Mus. -+\. LONDON Higher Examinations. and crossing of inner parts permitted.64 TRINITY COLLEGE OF MUSIC. by per. (Written. Passing tones (sth notes).6 l|6 #4 1-7 6 4 6 5 4323 fi 5 4 5 701.Mus. 702. Four parts.1. jan. r .) ^o j > r r i ^^ (Associate in Music) P 6 5 S ^ by per. Trinity Col." 986 J 6 6 IJ 6 J O Jj u t .ms. (Written.1 J I i 6 6 6 f 6545 4323 By per. 86 5 .) (Licentiate in Music. Five parts.

' R. London 3 707.C..M. "i London J ^ r 3 nrrrri' fUJuj'riry J J J.M. M. 4_- i^^.RC. M.. j r " i 6 P ^6 4 - 5 3 6 6 4 5 3 ^ Vf w\4 V tl R.. Mi ="% |e 4 cJ MHf-r *V He '4 L- J j - |J rrr |4 *3 8 4 5 R.C. 6 5 r ir |4 5 r !Tl.C. M.: 'Uli ' ! '# 1(6 >8 7 708 R.C.M. London in 4 5 f ^4 85 i 7 Jj ^ . J J 1 788 Irr T 8 I r 43588 88 1 J |J 7 I r u..f>5 Eleven figured basses by permission ot the ROYAL COLLEGE OF MUSIC.C._.C. ".. LONDON 704.. 4 t u. R. London r TT^ 710. 7 a r H_T H 8 6-| i "a .) in the practical work at the organ?' *g 705. M. r" w * * M T "' f 708. London 8 5 1 ^ ' r c r 76 4 1 ^ R. London 1 - > * fW i 711.C. London f 709.M. c c: T '[ 'c ? s ^ 8 '7 ll R. f 6 i 1 e 6 |p '8 a J P "8 J 7^ |J 4 S J J IJ" J ^g I 7^ ^ 11 ^ 712. M. examinations for Associatehhip (A..M.C.. "Figured bass tests which have been used in the organ division of the R.. ir V R. London " r ' Nr^Tfi 6 4 7-4 I |3 ( 8 fl |l 7 4 S 2 .C.

n ^ J 98 j u 67 ij d * 6 ij ? r if ^6^ r >T T t ' -i 7 *^ '-J-^ ' L R..C. London J.56 713.M. .

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60 From "1^90118 . Gabriel Faure j fcllft.. - ..0 d' Modere Harmonie". Lavignac.

to H y i' pyp D'lndys own solution of this melody (facsimile from his pen. the themes being merely indicated. fVi fci:)|A a - h . PARIS Three final examinations in advanced harmony. 719 and 723) are of this nature. leio. The following problems from the Schola Cantorum (also Nos. M. p. Theme B. Such possibilities however are intended to be discovered by the candidate. and both A and B appear entire unposed der the tonic pedal.Vincent D'Indy. transmade to serve as bass in the first six bars.2). demanding a high degree of skill and some good trainIn M.61 THE SCHOLA CANTORUM. to Eb. Vincent D Indy. is ing in counterpoint. by permission of the composer.

is his own solution of N2 725.. By permission._- . 1 1 . . Vincent D' Indy. following beautiful manuscript from the hand of the composer..62 The M.

^ i/ii-g^ ILI tt / IJiiKJ .-- ^ j .j- ^'ii:7 *.63 - *t ^g r ' ^ J J 3: A --.

Price 60 cents net touch.00 STANDARD BOOKS ON HISTORY AND APPRECIATION JOHNS.25 net especial value. The idea is to teach students to love and understand music by making music. given in the volume are from standard classical works. Art and a Language. A SOME PRACTICAL THINGS IN PIANO PLAYING by ARTHUR FOOTE P. voice leading.00 net the growth of music up to the present time. Both melodies and basses are given for harmonization Key to "Elements of Harmony" . ternary. $ .00 1. pitch. 12S) 1. America's great composer has furnished one of the outstanding books on the history and development of the art of music.25 Musical Form and Analysis. 181a-b) HILL.00 net (Schmidt's Educational Series No. (Revised and Augmented Edition. of Music.material so that anyone with average talent can use it.) Beginning with intervals and advancing to secondary sevenths. chapter devoted to the de/eiopment of the pianoforte and instruments of the orchestra is of Price $1. STEPHEN STANDARD BOOKS ON THEORY AND HARMONY Net SPALDING. designed to teach the student to think before touching the keys.50 MAXWELL. EDWARD Valuable hints. DOROTHY Sight Reading. pedalling.75 First Year Musical Theory. A thorough survey of all that pertains to modulation. and contains numerous illustrations as well as practical exercises. though direct and concise.76 From SPALDING. concerto. Melodies and figured basses are given for har1.60 MacDOWELL.25 monizing Second Year Harmony. THOMAS 75 sight reading book for students of any age. This method of teaching harmony makes the subject more interesting and enjoyable to many pupils than the Book Book 1. WALTER R. Phrase. "Instead of every composer having to rediscover all the ways of writing. TAPPER. Questions at the end of each chapter outline the principal topics discussed Net Critical and Historical Essays. 1.50 An Year Music Biography). and to hear mentally before producing the musical sounds (Schmidt's Educational Series No. chords.50 I II Keyboard Training in Harmony. Both soprano and bass parts are given.. FOOTE AND SPALDING Modern Harmony its Modulation and Related Harmonic Questions. opera. thoughts and facts about music $ TAPPER. Supplementary Exercises to "Elements of Harmony". MacDowell outlines somewhat the technical side of music. and gives a general idea of the history and aesthetics of the art 2. HARMONY by CUTHBERT HARRIS of the faults usually found in a student's early exercises. and a set of six "test papers. observations. or struction and enjoyment. Deals with rhythm. THOMAS First Year Music History. nevertheless includes enough detail to render the story human and interesting. Unique in first 1. etc. just as one learns drawing by drawing and not by reading about it in a book. THOMAS all 1. Discusses the mechanism of the piano. 412) many CUMBERLAND.50 quired for analysis in the preceding book (Schmidt's Educational Series No. analysis. may be read for general in1.. A continuation of the subject as presented in "First Year Harmony. Includes discussion cf early sacred and secular music.26 125 1. simple. CUTHBERT in Progressive Order. Period) the smaller forms are taken up for detailed analysis.00 Key First to First Year Harmony. intervals.25 1. relaxation. which can be written in the book itself." (Augmented Edition) . A first ** First Steps in Ear Training. (Schmidt's Educational Series No. Presents the first principles of melodic invention. causes and events. An easy and practical method of ear training up to a stage sufficiently advanced to meet the needs of the average music student. Includes the five orders of counterpoint in two and three parts. rondo. 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One hundred questions and answers. thus the movement of the alto and tenor parts. in its AKTKUR LOO pany each chapter First Year Melody Writing. CLAYTON Do yon Know That Net ? . The book may be used for class work. (Schmidt's Educational Series No. with a chapter on suspensions and passing tones. REINHOLD One Hundred Ear Training Exercises Nt AND EAR TRAINING HARRIS. The principles of free part-writing and their practical application. If) practical handbook giving musical precepts and principles of artistic playing. THE ARTHUR BOSTON: 120 Boylston Street SCHMIDT CO. SS7) 76 the course (Schmidt's Educational Series No. leading composers of the Classical and Romantic Schools.. and simplifies sight reading First Year Harmony. readable text upon the matter that is generally included in Rudiments of music. S59) Sight Reading and Memory Lessons.50 1..

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