Computer is a Latin word which mean to compute or in other words we can say that it’s a machine which can

perform computations millions and billions time faster than a human.  It a device which can process data into useful information.  The things which make computer different from other electronic device are;  Accuracy; e.g. password  High processing speed; e.g. card reader  Versatility  Input and output (which other devices don’t have)


It was a wooden rack holding wires with beads strung on them when these beads moved around according to programming rules memorized by the users all arithmetic problems can be done .  it was look like the in figure:  2nd scientist that used same ideas but with different concept was Napier bones created a Logarithm tables to facilitate calculation and perform arithmetic calculations.The history of the computers starts out about 2000 yrs ago with the birth of abacus.  2 .

Charles Babbage: • In 1822 Charles Babbage (English mathematician. philosopher).Pascal's Pascaline Calculator : • Pascal a French mathematician invented a machine that had a system of gears a one tooth gear engages with another and than system of calculator was abolished in which +. sometimes called the “father of computing” built the Difference Engine • Machine designed to automate the computation (tabulation) of polynomial functions (which are known to be good approximations of many useful functions) • Based on the “method of finite difference” • Implements some storage • In 1833 Babbage designed the Analytical Engine. powered by steam.-. but he died before he could build it • It was built after his death. 3 .* were been made and these were the refinements on design of Pascal and Leibniz./.

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• Computer generation are divided into 5 types : • First Generation (Vacuum Tubes) • Second Generation(Transistors) • Third Generation(Integrated Circuit) • Fourth Generation(Microprocessors) • Fifth Generation(Artificial Intelligence) 5 .

6 .UNIVAC – 1 (UNIVERSIAL AUTOMATIC COMPUTER). Vacuum tubes get hot and burn out computers of this generation were very large machines. The most important computers of this generation were  ENIAC-1(ELECTRONIC NUMERICAL INTERGATOR AND COMPUTER).Computers of this generation used vacuum tubes to perform calculations vacuum tubes were expensive because of the amount of material and skill needed to manufacture them.  Special rooms with air conditioning were needed to house them because of the heat generated by the vacuum tubes.

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The air inside the tubes is removed by a vacuum. Vacuum tubes are used for: amplification of a weak current.A vacuum tube also called a electron tubes is a sealed glass or metalceramic enclosure used in electronic circuitry to control the flow of electrons between the metal electrodes sealed inside the tubes. 8 . rectification of an alternating current to direct current (AC to DC).

A transistor can work 40 times faster than a vacuum tube.Second Generation(Transistors) Transistors were invented in 1947 by William Shockley.IBM 1400 SERIES . and William Brattain . john Bardeen. CDC 164 etc. Much less expensive than a vacuum tube. They fill the half the room and were small in size but very efficient . Do not get hot & burn like a vacuum tube. Typical example of this generation are as follow :IBM 7094 SERIES . Advantages : 200 transistors are about same size as one vacuum tube in a computer. 9   1) 2) 3) 4)   .

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An ic was about ¼ inch square and contain thousands of transistors. 1st ic was invented and used in 1961 .faster.Third Generation(Integrated Circuit) (IC) or integrated circuits The third generation was the major invention the concept of ic. These computer used magnetic core memory as internal storage. more reliable and lower price and also became common medium to large scale in business.8 others were Univac Ac 9000 and IBM 370 etc . The concept of ic was developed by jack st. The most successful computers of this generation were IBM system/360 and PDP . Clair kilby in 1958. A single ic chip contains thousands of transistors now the computer became smaller in size . 11  1)    .

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It led. however. Because electricity travels about a foot in a billionth of a second. The microprocessor was made to be used in calculators. to the invention of personal computers. or microcomputers.  13 . the smaller the distance the greater the speed of computers. By putting millions of transistors onto one single chip more calculation and faster speeds could be reached by computers. employed by Intel invented a chip named 4004 the size of a pencil eraser that could do all the computing and logic work of a computer. not computers.Fourth Generation(Microprocessors) The invention of the microprocessor (a single chip that could do all the processing of a full-scale computer). Ted Hoff.  However what really triggered the tremendous growth of computers and its significant impact on our lives is the invention of the microprocessor. And microprocessor are based on very large scale integration (VLSI).

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and computers will be more powerful than those under central processing. 15 . These computers will be under Artificial Intelligence(AI). They will be able to take commands in a audio visual way and carry out instructions. Many of the operations which requires low human intelligence will be performed by these computers. Parallel Processing is coming and showing the possibility that the power of many CPU's can be used side by side.  The Fifth generations computers are only in the minds of advance research scientists still to be developed and being tested out in the laboratories.

expert systems  -virtual reality generation  Satellite links 16 . micro-miniaturization  -voice/data integration.  Characteristics: Combinations of some or all of the following technologies:  -extremely large scale integration  -parallel processing  -high speed logic and memory chips  -high performance. knowledge-based platforms  -artificial intelligence.

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