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Published by rodge_88

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: rodge_88 on Feb 10, 2009
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Message - The message is the symbols

and signs which are actually transmitted. All messages are carried by a channel (such as face-to-face, over the phone, email, etc).

The receiver must decode the symbols and signs of the message sent through the channel. Decoding involves working through one's own perceptual filters to arrive at thoughts which approximate the sender's original intent.

Receiver - The receiver is the listener.

Feedback - Feedback is the signs the receivers projects while the sender is sending a message. Feedback allows the sender to know how his or her message is being received. Sender - The sender is the speaker. A sender starts with
an impulse he or she wishes to express and then must encode that idea into symbols (words) and signs (facial expressions, tone of voice, etc).

Environment - Environment is the physical, social and emotional context the communication takes place in. Environments can place expectation and contraints on communication.
we all have (psycho-linguistically) in translating our own thoughts into words or other symbols and in deciphering the words or symbols of others into terms we ourselves can understand. .c Weaknesses: .i Tends to stress the manipulation of the message —the encoding and decoding processes .ii it implies that human communication is like machine communication, like signal-sending in telephone, television, computer, and radar systems. .iii It even seems to stress that most problems in human communication can be solved by technical accuracy-by choosing the “right” symbols, preventing interference, and sending efficient messages.

.1 Berlo’s S-M-C-R, 1960 .a Background

.i Ehninger, Gronbeck and Monroe: “The
simplest and most influential messagecentered model of our time came from David Berlo (Simplified from David K. Berlo, The Process of Communication (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1960)):” .ii Essentially an adaptation of the Shannon-Weaver model. .b Significant after World War II because: .i The idea of “source” was flexible enough to include oral, written, electronic, or any other kind of “symbolic” generator-of-messages. .ii “Message” was made the central element, stressing the transmission of ideas. .iii The model recognized that receivers were important to communication, for they were the targets. .iv The notions of “encoding” and “decoding” emphasized the problems

.iv But even with the “right” symbols, people
misunderstand each other. “Problems in “meaning” or “meaningfulness” often aren’t a matter of comprehension, but of reaction, of agreement, of shared concepts, beliefs, attitudes, values. To put the com- back into communication, we need a meaning-centered theory of communication.”

.2 Aristotle’s model of proof. Kinnevay also sees a model of communication in Aristotle’s description of proof: .a Logos, inheres in the content or the message itself .b Pathos, inheres in the audience .c Ethos, inheres in the speaker

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