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use a LENGTH statement to set the desired length of a character variable use the concatenation operator (| |) to join two or more character strings use the COMPBL function to convert multiple blanks in a character string to a single blank use the COMPRESS function to remove characters from a string use the VERIFY function to check that certain values are present in a character variable use the TRIM function to remove the trailing blanks from a character string use the SUBSTR function to select a subset of consecutive characters from a larger string use the SUBSTR function on the left-hand side of an equal sign use the SUBSTR function to unpack a string of characters into its individual characters use the INPUT function to convert a character variable to a numeric variable use the PUT function to convert a numeric variable to a character variable use the SCAN function to parse a string and/or extract part of a string use the INDEX and INDEXC functions to locate a position of one string within another string use the UPCASE function to change lowercase letters to uppercase letters, and use the LOWCASE function to change uppercase letters to lowercase letters use the PROPCASE function to capitalize the first letter of each word use the TRANWRD function to translate a word use the CATS function to strip leading and trailing blanks before joining two or more strings use the CATX function to strip leading and trailing blanks, and then join two or more strings with a specified character inserted between the strings use the LENGTHC function to return the storage length of a character variable use the LENGTH and/or LENGTHN functions to determine the length of a character variable not counting trailing blanks use the COUNT function to count the number of times a particular substring appears in a string use the COUNTC function to count the number of times one or more characters appear in a string