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1

apIpfw
Fkv .Fkv .F.kn.
]T\klmbn
2011--2012

2
sNbam : s{]m^: sI.F.kcf
{]knU-v, Pnm ]mbv, Iq
sshkv sNbam : {io.Sn.-IrjvW
sshkv {]knU-v, Pnm ]mb-v,Iq
{ioa-Xn.]n.tdmk
sNbam
BtcmK-yhnZ-ym`ymk mnwKv Inn
Pnm ]mb-v,Iq
Iho\ : {io. F.AcpIp-am
Un.-Un.-C., Iq
AmZ-anIv Iho\ : {io.sI.{]`m-Ic
{]nknm, Ub-v,Iq
o
Zo\- Zbm_m_p
]pXnb-mSn Pam Av sslkvIq, amSmbn
t^m : 9447371451
`mkvIc XntmSn
Kh: tKkv lb skdn kvIq, \ncphmSv
t^m : 9400395736
B\-.]n
Kh: lbsk-dn kvIq, amq
t^m : 9495901411
t{]acm- P
SmtKm satmdnb sslkvIq,shtmd
t^m: 9847652035
cmPo-h kn.Fw.
Kh: lbsk-dn kvIq, aptcn
t^m: 9447548348
cP\n.sI
sI.-B.-F-v.-F-kv.-]mXncnbmSv
{]koX
Pn.-F- v.-F-kv.-Fkv.,s]c- f-tcn
t^m : 99495871011
s_n ]o
Kh: lbsk-dn kvIq,]npv
t^m : 9447438237
Fw.hn.am-Xyp
skv tXmakv sslkvIq, tIfIw
t^m : 9447689895
at\m-l-c Fw.sI.
hn.-]n.-Hmdnb sslkvIq, sNmn
t^m : 9447739633
kPo-h. ]n.
Kh: lbsk-dn kvIq, samdmg
t^m : 9497287778
hnt\m-Z.sI.
Kh: apkn lbsk-dn kvIq
(kvt]mSvkv)Iq
t^m : 9497431561
{]Zo- ] s\tcmv
B.- hn.-F-v.-F-kv.- sNmn
3
BapJw
Fm-hcpw ]Tn--Ww, Fm-hcpw Pbn--Ww. CXm-Wtm Cv Fm hnZ-ym-e-b--fpsSbpw
{]h\e-yw, Cu eyw kmm- Xv- cn-p-Xn\v ]c-ym]vX- amb coXn- bn \psS \mnse
Hmtcm hnZym- e- b-sbpw kzbw kq- amt-Xpv. Ghpw B[p\n-Iamb `uXnI kuI-
c-y \ho\hpw Imtem-Nn-X-hpamb ]mTy]-Xn, NSpehpw {Inbm--I-hpamb aqe-y\nb
coXn, hnZ-ym-e-b-sf in-s-Spm DX-Ip A[-ym-]I--c-IXr Iqm-bva-I, imkv{Xo
bhpw ka-b-_-n-X-hpambn \S-p A[-ym-]I ]cn-ioe\ ]cn-]m-Sn-I Fnh hnZ-ym-`-ym-k-
ns KpW-ta-sb kzm-[o\n-p LS-I--fn {][m-\-am-Wv. Ign Iptd hj--fmbn
tIc-f-n kvIq hnZ-ym-`-ym-k-ns \hoI-cWw eyw shv \S-n-emn hcp \nc-h[n
{]h\- IqSpX {i sNeppXv Ccw Imc-y-fn Xs-bm-Wv. km{Xn-
Ihpw KpW- ta- - bp-- Xpamb hnZ- ym- `-ymkw \psS kwm- \v Dd- m-p-- Xn tI{
kwm\ KhsapIv ]pdsa Xti kz-bw-`-c-W-m-]\-fpw hf-sc-b-[nIw ]ph
lnp hcpp. Cm-c-yn tIcfw anI amXr-I-bm-Wv.
tIc-f- nse Xti kz-bw-`- c-W- m-]-\- kvIq hnZ-ym-`- ymkw sa-s-Spphm
sshhn-[-yam \nc-h[n ]-Xn-I Bhn-jvI-cnv \S-n-emn hcpp. Chbn Ghpw
{in--s-Xpw hnPbw I-XpamWv Iq Pnm ]m-bv \S-n-emn hcp apIpfw
]-Xn. Pn-bnse sslkvIqfpI-fnepw lbsk-dn kvIqfpI-fnepw Ipn-I-fpsS ]T\
\ne-hmcw Dbm klm-b-I-amb ssI]pkvX-I- Xm-dmn hnX-cWw sNpI, sa
s mkv dqw A\p`-h Ipn-Iv ]Iv \Im A[-ym-]Isc imoI-cn-p-
Xn\v DX-Ip ]cn-ioe-\ ]cn-]m-Sn- I kwLSn-n-pI, imkv{Xobamb aqe-y\nWb coXn hnZ-ym-
eb- fn \SnempI XpSnbhbmWv apIpfw ]XnbpsS {][m\ {]h\. apIpfw
]Xn \S-n-em-pXn Bmamb klI-c-Whpw ]nXpW-bpamWv A[-ym-]I--c-m-
IXr kaql-fn \nv Iq Pnm ]m-b-n\v e`n-psIm-n-cn-p-Xv Fv Cu
Ahk-c-n ktm-j-]qw Adn-bn--s.
apIpfw ]-Xn-bpsS `mKambn Fm hnj-b- -fnepw Ipn-bpsS At\-z-j-Wm-I ]T\s
t{]mm- lnnm DXIp {]h\- - f- S- nb ssIpkvX- I- Hmtcm Am- ZanI hj
nepw Xm-dmn hnZ-ym-e-b--fn kuP\-yambn hnX-cWw sNbvXp hcpp. s]mXp]co
I-fn Db hnPbw t\Sm Cu ssIpkvX-I- Ipn-Iv hf-sc-b-[nIw {]tbm-P\-
s-Spps-mWv Pn-bnse Am-Z-anI kaqlns hne-bn-cp. {]K-cmb A[-ym-
]Isc Ds-Spn kwLSn-n-p in]im-e-I-fn-eqsSbmWv Cu ssIpkvX-I- Xm-
dmsSpXv. ssIpkvXI IqSpX IqSpX anIhpXmm R Hmtcm hjhpw
{in-pp. Ipn-Iv anI hnPbw t\Sm apIpfw ]-Xn-bpsS `mKambn Cu hjw
Xm-dm-nb hnhn[ hnj-b--fnse ssIpkvX-I- klm-b-I-am-Is Fv Biw-kn-p
sImv
kvt\l]qw
s{]m^.-sI.-F.-kcf
Iq Pnm ]m-bv {]kn-Uv
s{]m^: sI.-F.- k- cf
{]knU-v,
Iq Pnm ]mbv, Iq
4
""apIpfw'' ka{K hnZ-ym-`ymk ]cn]m-SnbneqsS Iq Pn tIcf hnZ-ym-
`ymk Ncn{Xn B[nIm-cnI-amb hnPbhpw m\hpw t\Sn-gnp.
\psS IpnIfpw A[ym-]-Icpw cnXm-fpw hnZ-ym-`ymk Hm^okamcpw
P\-{]- Xn\n[nIfpw Hsm-cpan-Xns ^ew IqSnbmWv Cu t\w.
ss{]adn apX lbsk-dn Xew hsc KpW-\nehm-c-ap hnZ-ym-`ym-k
n\mbn {]h\ ]XnI "apIpfw' ]XnbneqsS hn`m-h\w sNbvXn
pv. 201112 hj-n Ad-_n, DdpZp DssS Fm hnj-b-pw
{]tXyI ]T\ kma-{KnI \nnp Ignp. IpnI-fpsS Adnhv, \nm-
W-ti-jnsb {]tNm-Znnp ]T\ X{-v {]mapJyw \Inbnpv.
lbskdn Xen Cwojv, C-tWm-anIvkv DssS ^nknIvkv
sIankv {Sn, _tbm- f- Pn, Au- kn Fo hnjb- pw ]T\
kma{KnI \nnp Ignp. ssZ\wZn\ Bkq-{XW-n\pw ]T-\-{]-
h\ IspXn\pw A[ym]- Isc {]m]vXcmp anIhp ]T\
klmbn F \nebnemWv "apIpfw' hn`m-h\w sNbvXnpXv. apIpf-
nse Fm {]h\-fpw Ghcpw ^e{]-Z-ambn {]tbm-P\-sSpp
sav {]Xonpp.
]T\ anI- hnt\m-sSmw Db kmaq-ly t_m[hpw {]h\ k
Xbpw hfp hnZ-ym-`ym-kam-Is \psS e-yw. "apIpfw' ka{K hnZ-ym-
`ymk ]Xn AXn\p NmeI-i-nbmbn amd-s.
kvt\l]qw
]n.- tdmk
sNbt]gvk
Btcm-Ky-hn-Z-ym-`-ymk mnwKv Inn
Pnm ]m-b-v, Iq
]n.-tdmk
sNbt]gvk
Btcm-Ky-hn-Z-ym-`-ymk mnwKv Inn
Pnm ]m-b-v, Iq
5
apIpf- ns
DmgvN
]pXnb ]T- \- coXnpw kao]\n\pw CW- p ]mT- ]pkvXIw ]mw
mknepw Fngn- tm. Ign Imes "apIpfw' {]h\ ]pkvX
I- t\Snsb-Sp kzoIm-c-yX ]pXnb-Xns IrXyXtbbpw kqva-X
tbbpw kw_- n HmsSp IqSnbmbncpp. `n\nehm- c- m- cmb
Fm IpnI- sfbpw ]T-\-e-yns ]c-am-h[nbnsenpI F shp
hnfn XsbmWv "apIpfw' Gs-SppXv. ]T-\-{]-h\- Nn-sSp
pXnse Dm-gvNbpw \n-b-fpw sImv Cu shphnfnIsf apdn
pI-Sm-\m-Ipw. kKm--Ihpw ^e{]-Z-hpamb ]T\ {]h\-fpsS
cq]-I-ev]\m t\cv A[ym-]-Isc ]npW-bvp A[nI kma-{KnI
A\p_-ambn \Inbnpv. {]h\-fnse XpSbpw hfbpw
\ne\ndpnsmv Xs A[ym]Ipw, A[ym]- IcpsS klm- btmsS
IpnIpw kzoI- cnmhp kzX{ LS\ Hmtcm ]T\ {]h\n\pw
AhIm-i-sSm-\m- Ipsav IcpXpp. ]p\-c-\p`hn\pXIp {]h
\- Db t{KUv e-yanSp IpnI-fpsS {ia-v thKX Iqp
tXmsSmw ]T\thKX Ipd IpnIsf anI t{KUntep \bnpsapw
{]Xym-inpp. ]mTy]-XnbpsS e-y ka{KXtbmsS Fm- hcnepsa-
nm-\p "apIpf"ns {ia- ^e{]m-]vXnbnsepsa {]Xo-
tbmsS Cu {]h\ ]pkvXIw Pnbnse A[ym-]-Ipw IpnIpw
cnXm- pambn ssIamdpp.
6
7
BapJw
tIcfw Ie-Ifm k--amb {]tZ-iamWv. Cu Ie-Iv hyamb
Nne thXncnhp-Ifp-v. mknv hn`mK-n s]-h, \mtSmSn ]mc--c-y
ap-h Fnh. IY-Ifn, IqSnbmw, Iqv, tamln\nbmw Fnh mknv
Ie-Ifn s]Sp--hbmsWn sXw, Xnd, ]SbWn BZnbmbh \mSI
e-IfpsS ]mXbn s]Sp--hbmWv. Chbvsmw Xs iamb kmln
Xycq]fpapv. BY Hcp {]m\ambn Xs hnIknnpv. Fm
h- am\ Ime- ns Iemho- - Whpw BkzmZ- \coXnbpw Gsd amn\p
hnt[b-amb-hp-Ibpw kn\na t]mep B[p-\oI Ie-Iv {]m[m\yw e`n
p-Ibpw sNbvXtm ]c--cmKX Ie-I th{X {ins-SmXmbn.
CXv \psS Iem]mc--c-ysbpw `mjmkmlnXysbpw Xfp--Xn\v
Imc-Wambnp-v. \psS almb Iem]mc--c-yns Ddh hntm
ImsX kqntXv \fmWv.
mkv apdnbn \Sp NIfneqsSbpw mknv IeI Dsm
p tIc-fob Iem]mc--c-ys-dnv Adnbp--Xn\pw IY-Ifn, IqSnbm
w, Iqv XpSnb Ie-Isf-p-dnv s]mXp-hmbn ]cnNb-s-Sp--Xn\pw Cu
Ie-IfpsS kmlnXycq]- khntijw Dsmp--Xn\pw CSw e`n
Ww. IqSmsX ]pXnb Ime-ns amdnb IemkzmZ-\ioew Xncndnbp--
Xn\pw mknv Ie-I Ipw tIpw Bkz-Znp--Xn\pw Ahkc-samcp-
p hn[nemWv Hmw bqWnnse ]mT-`mK- {Iao-Icnncnp--Xv.
Cu Ie-Isf-p-dnv Bgnep [mc-Wbpw A\p-`hhpw IpnIv e`n
p Xc-n \psS mkv apdnbnse ]T\ {]h-\ Bkq{XWw
sNt- Xp-v.
tIcf ]mTm- hen
bqWnv 1
Imenemtemew Nnep-ambv
]mT
1. sNdpXm-bn sNdpw
2. apcn--tcow tNmdpw
3. Bv Amv
8
{]th-iIw
IY-Ifnbnse ], In, XmSn, Icn, an\pv thj
fpsS hWNn{Xw A[ym]nI IpnIsf ImWnp-p.
Ch
k hnm\tIminep-v.
Isn
ImWnp-atm
r Iemcq]-taXv ?
r GsXms thjfmWv ?
r AhbpsS khntijX FsmsbmWv ?
Cu tNmZ-yfneqsS tIcfob Ie-Ifntev IpnIfpsS {isb \apv \bnmhp--XmWv.
XpSv Ie-Isf-p-dnp Hcp s]mXp-N mkn \Spw. B Nbn Dbp-hcmhp Imcy
.
n IpnI I Iemcq]-
n Ahv CjvSap Ie-I
n Ah CjvSs-Sm\p ImcWw
n Ahbvv \psS kmaqly PohnXnep {]kn
n Ah kwc-ns-tSXns BhiyIX
tIcf-ns almb Iem]mc-c-ys- p-dnpw {][m\Iemcq]sfp- dnpw IpnIv
[mcW e`n-hn[n N \bnp-Ibpw t{ImUo-Icnp-Ibpw sNp-atm
{]h\w 1
IY-Ifn Ipdnp-I cNnmw
Nn-{]-[m\amWtm IY-Ifn. ZoL-Imew imkv{Xo-b-
ambn A`yknm am{Xta Cu Ie kzmb--amm\m
hq. \apv kp]-cnNnXam Ccw LSIfntev
shfnw hoip-IbmWv Cu {]h-\fneqsS
GsXms hnjb-fnemWv Ipdnp-I XmdmtXv ?
NSv
thjw
A`n-\-b-coXn
kwKoXw
ckm-hnjvmcw
]mT-`mKs ]Z-fnse ckw
9
Chbp-ambn _-sv Fsms klmb- A[ym]-I F \ne-bn \apv sNm
\mhpw ?
r Ccw hnhcf-Snb kn.-Un.-{]-Zinnmw
r hni-z-hn-m\tImiw, hniz-kmlnXyhn-m\-tImiw,
kmlnXyNcn{Xw {]m\fneqsS XpSnb {K- IpnIv e`yammw
Ccw {]h-\ IpnI {Kqnencpv sNp--Xt \-Xv. Fn \psS mnse
IpnI 6 {Kqp-Ifnembn Ccns. Hmtcm {Kqpw Hmtcm taJ-esb kw_-nv hnhc- tiJ-
cnp--Xt DNnXw ?
hnhc-tiJ-c- Wn\p- tijw {Kqp-I Xm-dm-nb Ipdnp-I mn AhXcnns.
Hmtcm {Kqnsbpw AhXc-Wn\p-tijw B taJ-e-sb-p-dnv Hcp s]mXp-Nbmhmw, A[ym]n
IbpsS t{ImUo-Ic-Whpw. sasSp-nb Ipdnp-I ap IpnIp IqSn e`n hn[n
hyamsb-gpXn Bhiyamb Nn{X tNv t\mokv t_mUn {]Zinnmhp--XmWv.
Bhiyamb CSs]-Sepw
ssImpw \psS `mKp
\np-mhWw. B[nImcnI {K-
fn \nv tiJ-cnp hnhc-
kzw `mjbnse-gp-Xm
\nt-inp-atm
mn Hcp t\mokv t_mUv
Dmhp-Xv \-XmWv.
AXn IpnIfpsS anI cN\I,
kKmI krjvSnI, ]T-\hp-ambn
_-s s]mXp-hnhc- Fnh
{]Zin- nmw.
A[ym]-IcpsS cN\Ifpw Bhmw.
10
{]h\w 2 \mSIcN\
Fv, H]Xv mp-Ifn ]e ]mT-`mK-hp-ambn _-sv IpnI \mSIc-N\ \S
nbnp-mhp-atm. Ahsbmw Xs ]q hnP-b-fmbncp-pthm? Ipd-hp-
I Dmbncp-s-n Ah ]cnlcnp-sImv Fs\ Hcp anI \mSI cN\
km[yammw F At\z-jWamWv Cu {]h-\neqsS sNp--Xv.
IpnItfmSv "sNdpXmbn sNdpw' F ]mT`mKw \mSIamnsb- gpXm \ntinmw. Fm
AXn\p apv Fsms {]h-\ mn \StXp-v.
Xobmbpw "\tfm]mJ-ym\w' IY IpnI \mbn ]cnNb-s-np-tm
]mT-`mK-fnse ]Z-fp-sSbpw tmIfp-sSbpw Bib- hyambn IpnI {Klntm
\mSIsa kmlnXycq]-ns khntijXI IpnI Xncndntm
\mSI cN\bntes- Sp IpnI-fn Xow(hnjbw), IYm]m{X, cwK-, kw`mj-W
Chsb-p-dnv hyamb [mcW cq]-s-tSXnt?
CXv Hcp s]mXp-NbneqsS km[yammw.
o Xow
\f-NcnXnse Cu `mKw \mSIcq]-ntep amnsb-gp-Xp-tm
FmbncnWw AXns Xow ?
o IYm-]m{X
Cu ]mT-`mKv lwkhpw Zab-nbpw tXmgnamcpw Dv. CXn tXmgnamsc Ipd-p-IqSn Icp-
p IYm]m{Xfmbn hnIknnsSp-tXptm ?
o cwK-
]mT-`mK-nse IY \Sp-Xv DZ-ym\n am{XamWv. Fm CXv \mSIcq]-nte-p
amp-tm Fsms hyXnbm\ Bhmw
Xs \mSIneqsS t{]-Icntev Fnm \mSIIrv Dtinp hnj
b-amWv Xow. ChnsS \f-Z-ab-namcpsS {]Wb-nse kp{]-[m\amb ]p-hln
p-IbmWv lwkw. AXp-sImp Xs lwkns ZuXy]mShamWv t{]-
Is hmb-\mcs khntij {ibmIjnp--Xv. Atm "ZqXv' Cu ]mT-
`mK-ns tI{ Bib-ambn \ne-sImp-p.
tXmgnamv t]cv, kw`mjWnse sshhn[yw Ch ]cnK-Wnmw. IqSp-X
IYm]m{X Bhiysan Bhmw.
lwkhpw Zab-nbpw Ip-ap-p--Xns app Hcp cwKw BbnqsS?(BIm
iw) \mSImyn cmP-sImmc-nse k`bn Zabn Xs A`ojvSw Xpd-
p-]-d-bp-Xv Bbmtem? (cmP-kZ-kv) CXp-t]mse ap-cw-K-fpw Bhmw.
11
o kw`m-jWw
kw`mjW cN\bntes-Sp-tm IYm-]m{Xns {]mbw, m\w, ]Z-hn, am\-ko- Im
h Ch ]cnK-WntXnt ?
\mSIns Poh kwL--\amWv. CXv kw`mjWneqsSbmWv A\mhrXam
thXv. ChnsS ss`an lwks ]nSnp-sap ]d-bp-Xpw lwkw ]nSn Xcn
Fp ]d-bp-Xpw Hcp kwL--\amWv. Ccw DZmlc-W ]dv kw`mj
WneqsS P\np kwL--\s-p-dnv IpnIv [mcW hcp-p-atm
Krl]mTw
Cu NbpsS shfnn IpnI Ahv ]Tnm\p ]mT-`mKw \mSIcq]-nem
s. A\p-tbmP-yamb t]cpw Ahv \ntinmhp--XmWv.
IpnI hyn]-c-ambn Fgp-Xnhcp
\mSIw {Kqn hne-bncp-mhp--XmWv.
Ahbn anIh Htm ctm hoXw
mn Dds hmbnp--Xn\pw
s]mXp-hne-bncp--pXn\pw Ahkcw \IWw.
Ghpw anI Hv mn
Ah-X-cnn-p- - Xn-\p
km[yXbpw ]co-np-atm
{]h\w 3
eLp D]\ymkw Xmdmmw
F.Un. 10-mw \qmn\p app Xs tIc-f-n Dmbncp Iemcq]-amWv
Iqpw IqSnbm-hpw. Hcp ]s ]no-Sp mknv Ie-Isfmw Chbn
\nv ]e Awifpw kzo-Icnp-sImmWv hf-Xv. As\ hcp-tm
\psS Iem]mc--c-yn kp{]-[m\ m\ap-hbmWv Iqpw IqSnbm-
hpw. Chsb-p-dnv s]mXp-[mcW Dmnsb- Sp-tXv BhiyhpamWv. AXn
\p {iaamWv Cu {]h-\neqsS.
Hcp s]mXp-NbneqsSbmhmw IpnIsf Iqpw IqSnbmhpw ]cnNb-s-Sp-p--Xv. AXn\v
XpSw Ipdnp-Xv Nne Nmp-I {]Zinnp-sImmbmtem?
a\pjycminbpsS A\izc ss]XrIns almb IemkrjvSnbmbn
IqSnbms 2001 sabv 8 \v bpsWkvsIm {]J-ym]np
Nmv 1
12
IqSnbmw ]mc--c-ym[njvTnXamb Hcp mknv Ie-bmWv
Nmv 2
tIc- f-n \ne-\n Htc-sbmcp kwkvIrX \mSImhXcW coXnbmWv
Iqpw Iqnbmhpw
Nmv 3
Xpe-Sap ae-bmf lmkymhXcW ssienbpsS Dd-hnSw Iqpw
IqSnbm-hp-amWv
Nmv 4
IpnI au\ambn hmbnp-p. XpSv Htm ctm t] Dds hmbnp-p. "Iqpw
IqSnbmhpw Ih mneptm ?' F tNmZ-ytmsS \apv Nbvv XpSw Ipdnmw.
Ihcp-sn AhcpsS A\p-`hw ]d-b-s.
{]mtbW Ccw A\p-`hap
IpnI Ipd-hmbncnpw
XpSv "Nmn \nv Innb hnhc- FsmsbmWv Fv A[ym]nI tNmZnp-p.
Nmv t\mn IpnI ]d-bp-p.
m hfsc ]gb Hcp Ie-bmWv
m ]mc--cy Ie-bmWv
m mknv Ie-bmWv
m kwkvIrX \mSImhXc-WamWv
m lmkym-IamWv
Ipn-I {Kqp-Ifmbn Xncnv Iqpw IqSnbm-hp-ambn _-s ]c-amh[n hnhc-
tiJ-cnp-p. Xmsg]-d-bp ]pkvXI IpnIv e`yamWw
1. k hnm\ tImiw
2. AJne hnm\ tImiw
3. hniz-kmlnXy hnm\ tImiw
4. tIc-fob Ie-ItUm.-iin[c mcn (av ]pkvXIfpw D]-tbmK-s-Sp-mw)
Iq p w Iq Sn - bm- hp w
ImWp- - Xn\pw Ah- sb-
p- dnv ]Tn - p- - Xn\v
IpnIv Xmev]cyapm
IpXn\pw Ahkc- samcp-
p- - Xn\pw eLp- N-
bmhmw
13
hnhc-tiJc-W-n hcm-hp Imc-y- ;
r t{XIe-I
r NmIymIqv
r tXmmhIqv
r \ymIqv
r \nnX thj
r NXphn[m-`n\bw
r Iq-ew
r
r
r
IpnI tiJ-cn hnhc-sf-p-dnv hyamb [mc-Wbp-mIp--Xn\v "Iqpw IqSnbm-
hpw' hnhc-Whpw AhXc-Whp-aSnb kn.-Un.-{]-Zinnatm.
D]-tbm-Ks-Spm-hph
* www.malayalamsrg.blogspot.com F ae-bmfw A[ym]-IcpsS kzw tmKv
* IqSmfn sslkvIqfnse hnZ-ymcwKw IemkmlnXythZn Xmdmnb kn.-Un.
Nne s]mXp hnhc- ;
m ]mT-Ihpw Iqpw Xpepw ]c-kv]c _-ap Ie-IfmWv. lmkyn\pw
hnai\n\pw {]m[m\yap-hbp-amWv. CXn Iqn am{XamWv kz-X{
amb Bt-]-lmkyw IemImc\v B\p-ImenI kw`hsf tNv ]d-bm
km[n-p--Xv. kZ- kysc IYm-]m{Xfmbn k-ev ]nv Nqn ]cn-lkn-m
\p kzmX{yhpw NmIymp-v.
m hnZqjIs thjw : Xe-bn apIp-Sp-a, hmknIw, sNhnqhv, Ac-bn aSnb
amv, s]mbvap-Jw, ISnkq{Xw, ssIhf-bmbn ISIw, Ac-bn sIp-Ibpw ]ngnbp-
Ibpw sNp ]pSh tap-Sh
m sFXo-lyw : ISen \nv Dbp-h Hcp cq]w F \ne-bvmWv \pc-qw
t]mse tXmnp "aSvamv' Ac-bn [cnp-Xpw "tap-Sh' ]ngnbp-Xpw
m hnZqjIIqv F {]tbmKw icnb-sv A`n{]mb-apv
({io ss]pfw \mcmbW NmIymcp-ambp A`nap-J-neqsS tiJ-cnXv)
XpSv IpnI tiJ- cn hnh-c- {]tbm-P-\- s-Sp- n- smv "Iqpw IqSnbm-hpw
tIcfob mknIv Iem]mc--c-yn' F hnjb-n eLp D]-\ymkw Xmdms. CXv hy
n]-chpw Krl]mT-hp-ambncnp--XmWv \-Xv. hne-bncp-epw sas-Spepw s]mXp AhXc-
Whpw XpS {]h-\fmbn \Sp-atm.
hnhn[ taJ-e-Ifp-ambn
_-s hnhc-
IpnI tiJ-cnp--Xn
\mbn th klmbw
\Ipatm
14
{]h\w 4
inhcm-at\m Kncn-cmtPm N
Bv Amv F IY ]Tnp-tm inhcma\pw KncncmPpw cv PohnX amXrII
fpsS {]Xn\n[nIfmWtm. ]pXnb Xe-ap-dbvpw ]gb Xe-ap-dbvpw Ie-tbmSp
at\m`mhw Xs-bmWv Cu IYbneqsS hyamp-Xv. ChnsS Rm FhnsS \np-
p; Fs at\m`mhsamWv FXv Hmtcm Ipnsb kw_-nnStmfhpw hfsc
{][m\s--XmWv. AXv Xncndnbp--Xn\p-thnbmWv Cu N kwL-Snnp--Xv.
r inhcma tdmUns shfnw Ipd Acp-IneqsS ]Xps hon
tev \Sp.
r Kymkv eov sNbvXv tISmb {^nUvPv
r ]gam sdanMvS ssSvssd-
r Xm `mj Xs adp t]mhp-IbmtWm As-n `mj Xs
ssIshSnbp-IbmtWm ?
inhcmas PohnXamWtm Ccw hmNI hcp ImWnp--Xv. CXp-
t]mse Xs KncncmPnsbpw chn`qjsbpw kz-`mhhpw \apv Ism\mIpw.
r GXv konepw R Iw^-_nfmWv
r tl, a\p-jym, t]\bvv in thWsan
Cdow ao\pw XnWw
r \n^vnse Ahkm\ hj hnZ-ymnIfpsS
^mj tjm dntmv sNWw
IY-bnse Ccw hkvXp-XI kqNnnp Bib-Xew hyamIp {]h-\ mkv apdn
bn \Snp-mhp-atm ?
IY hmbn \ inhcmas ]v \np-tmgpw KncncmPnstbm chn`qjstbm
Omb \fn Hfnp InSpp Fv IpnIv t_m[ys-tSXnt. AXn\mbn Fsmw
{]h-\ mkv apdnbn sNbvXnp-v.
r IY-Ifn, kn\na, \mS Ie-I XpSnb taJ-e-bnse {]K--cpsS Nn{X
{]Zinnv Ahv {]nb-s IemImc- mcpsS Nn{X Xnc- s-Sp-m
Bh-iys-Smw.
r \mSIw, anan{In, tamtWm BIvSv, kn\na, IY-Ifn, Iqv, IqSnbmw XpSnb 15
Hmfw Ie-IfpsS t]cv Nmn tcJ-s-Spn IpnI ImWp-Ibpw CjvSs-Sp-
Ibpw sNp Iemcq]- Xnc-sSp-m Bhiys-Smw.
IYm\ncq]Ww IYm]m{X \ncq]Ww
IYmkzmZ\pdnv
IYmk`fpsS hniIe\pdnv
Ccw {]h-\fmhmw
hyn]-c-amb XmXv]-cyw Xncndntijw Ie-ItfmSp mnse
IpnIfpsS s]mXp-at\m`mhw Xncndnbm Ahkc-samcp-p-atm
15
{]h\w 5 skan\m
Cu bqWnnse aqv ]mT-`mK-sfbpw ka{K-ambn Ip-sImp thWw skan\m
kwLSnnm. \ apv IY-Ifnp-dnp- I Xmdmp Hcp {]h\w sNbvXn
p-v. AXp-t]mse Iqv, IqSnbmw FnhbpsS khntijXI hniZ-amp eLp-
{]-_ cN\bpw \Snbnp-v. "Bv Amv' F IY hniIe\w sNbvXXneqsS
]pXnb Ime-L--ns {]hWXI Xncndnnp-v. Chsbms {]tbmP-\s-Sp-
nsmp-thWw skan\m {]_-- Xmdmm. amdnh-cp BkzmZ-\io-
ehpw Ie hnev]-\Nc-mp {]hWXbpw skan\mdn N sN-s-tSXp-v.
FmbncnWw skan\mdns hnjbw ? tIc-f-ns Iem]mc--c-yhpw ]pXnb Ime-
L--nse amdnb BkzmZ-\co-Xnbpw N sNbvXv \psS almb Ie-Isf-Ip-dndnbp-
-Xn\pw AhtbmSv IpnIfn Xmev]-cyw P\nnp--Xn\pw klmbnp- Xc-nem
bncnWw hnjbw kzo-Icnm.
hnjbw
\psS Iem]mc--cyw
\apv \jvSs-Sp-IbmtWm ?
XpSv mkv NbneqsS D]-hnjb- kzo-Icnmhp--XmWv. Av D]-hnjb-
Av {Kqp-Ifn-embn N sNbvXv hnh-c-ti-J-cWw \Sn skan\m {]_- -
Xmdms.
D]-hn- j-b
m tIc-fob mknIv Iem]mc--cyw
m tIc-f-ns {KmaoW Iem]mc--cyw
m ae-bmfnbpw B[p-\oI Ie-Ifpw
m Ie-Ifpw am[yafpw
m ae-bmfnbpsS amdnb BkzmZ\ coXn
skan\m \Snp-ambn _sv \ km[mcW sNmdp {]h-\fpw apsm
cp-fpw mn \S-Ww. t\mo-kv, Wv, t]m XpSnbh
skan\m {]_-- tNp-shv Hcp ]Xnmmw. skan\m dntmv XnIpw hy
n-]-c-amhWw.
{]_-mhXc-Wn\p apv skan\m dntmv XmdmtXns\p-dn
pw AhX-cW ka-bv hnhc- Ipdns-Sp-tXns\p-dnpw Ipn
Isf t_m[ys-Sp-p-atm
16
A\p- _w 1
D]- \ymkw
Iqpw IqSn- bm- hpw tIc- f- ns mknIv ]mc- c- y- n
tIc-f-ns Ghpw {]mNo-\amb Ie Fv temIw AwKo-Icn tIc-f-ns kzw mkn
Iemcq]-. ]gangnse {]mNo\ IrXnbmb, Cf-tmhSnI cNn "Nne--XnImc"n
Iqns\-nbpw NmIymsc--nbpw ]cmainp-p-v. Cu kqN\ Iqns ]gw F{Xtb-sd-bm
sWv sXfnbnp-p. Iqpw IqSnbmhpw XnIpw ]mccym[njvTnXamWv. Hcp Imev Iqpw
IqSnbmhpw Hmbncpp. kwkvIrX \mSImhXc-WfmWv IqSnbmw. Fm km[mc-Wmv
thZ-`mjbmb kwkvIrXw Adnbnmbncp-p. Cu {]iv\w ]cnlcnm\mbn \mSImhXc-Wn\p
apv NmIym hnZqjIthjw sIn hv IqSnbm-n AhXcnnp \mSIw ^enXw IqSn hym
J-ym\npXmWv Iqv. Fm IqSnbm-t-m {]ikvXn t\Snb Iqv ]nImev IqSnbm
-n \nv thXncns-p. Cmc-Wm Xs Iqpw IqSnbmhpw cv Ie-IfmsWnepw
Ahsb Hmbn Nne k`fn ]cnK-Wnmdp-v. IqSnbm-ns Imc-yn CXn\p {]tXyI
cwK-\nb-ahpw ]tZ-ymOmcW k{-Zmbhpw Dv. CXnse ]Z-fpsS Bh\w Ipdhpw kabw
IqSp-Xep-amWv. `c-Xap-\nbpsS \mSy\nti IqSnbm-n ]mens-Sp-p-v. `mcX cmamb-
W`mK-hX IY-IfmWv Iqnbm-ns CXnhrw. Ccw IY-Isf hyXykvX coXnbn AhXcn
n `mk, ImfnZmk FnhcpsS kwkvIrX \mSIfmWv IqSnbm-n D]-tbmKnp--Xv.
], Icn, In, XmSn, an\pv Fns\ IqSnbm-n 5 Xcw thjfmWp-Xv. kv{Xo IYm
]m{XfpsS ]Imw \Sp--Xv NmIymkv{Xo-Ifmb \ymmcmWv. IYm]m{Xn\\p-k
cnv thjfpw amdpp. kwkvIrX \mSIfpsS Iqm`n\b- amb IqSnbmns kzm[o\w ]nme
Ie-Ifn ImWm km[npw.
Iqns Poh lmkyw BWv. AYhm lmkymhXc-I\mb hnZqjI(NmIym) BWv.
Iqns hnhn[ hIt`Z- Cp-v. NmIymIqn\p tijw ]nmev cq]-s--hbmImw
CXv. {]_-e- ambn NmIymIq-v , tXmmh-Iqv FnhbmWv \ne- hnep- sX-nepw ]dpw
Iqv, ssihIqv, A- Iqv Fns\ Nne Iqp-I Xangv\mSv, B{, IWmSI Fo
kwm\fn \ne-hnep-v. Iqns Xangvae-bmf kccq]-amWv tXmmhIqv. CXn
]Zy sNmn tXmmh \ngep-I sImv \mSIo-b-ambn AhXcnnp-p. km[mc-Wbmbn
ta-q cNn {]_--fmbmWv Iqns hmNI D]-tbmKnp--Xv. ]pcmW IYtbm
Ncn{X{]-[m\amb IY-Itfm kmaqlykw-_-nbmb Imc-ytfm hnhcnm NmIymv A[nImc-
ap-v. ]s FhXcnnmepw AXns AXynIe-yw \ambncnpw. ]cnlmkw, ^enXw
XpSnb-hbneqsS kwkvIrX tmIfpw KZ-yfpw sNmn hnhcnp k{-Zmbw Cpw Iqn
\ne-\np-p-v. Bsc thWsanepw ]cnlknm\p kzmX{yw NmIymp-v. Iqns
Poh t]mepw ]cnlmk cqt]-Wbp kwkmcw BWv. ]mc--c-yambn NmIymam AhXcnnp
hcp Cu Ie-bn ]Z-yfpw Ah Xs-bmWp-]-tbmKnp--Xv. Iqn\pw IqSnbm-n\pw Npn
Ipm\p-]-tbmKnp-Xv {]IrXnZ hkvXp-fmWv. ]\tbme, Nmbne-yw, \oew, Acn, Icn,
a, B`w, sXnqhv Fnh D]-tbmKnp-p. hkv{Xfp-mm ]mf, hmg\mcv, RmW
qhv, apf-b-v Fnh D]-tbmKnp-p. Iqn\v {]tXyInv hmZ-yfmhiyan. IqSnbm-n
angmhv, CS, Ipgnmfw, iwJv, Ipg Fo hmZ-y D]-tbmKnp-p. NmIym s\n Acn
smSn sImpw asmpw A{`w sImpw Npn Ipp-p. apJv Icn, Nmbne-yw, Acnsm
Sn, a Fnh NpnIp-n\p-]-tbmKnp-p. Iqn NmIym hnZqjI\mWv. GXv hnt[\tbm
GXp cq]-n thWsantem IY hnhcnm NmIymv A[nImc-ap-v. Cu {]tXyIX NmIym
Iqns\ ap Ie-Ifn \npw hyXykvXamp-p. Xp-imkv{X hn[n {]Imcw \nn Iq--
e-fnemWv Iqns thZn. Iqn\p apv Ipcp-tme, Ipe-hmg, Cf-\o Ipe, \ne-hnf-v, \nd-]d
Fnh sImv thZn Ae-cnp-p. tIc-f-n BsI 19 NmIym IpSpw-_-fmWv Ahtijnp-
-Xv. Aq, Ip-t-cn, s]mXnbnaWnbn, Ibv-bn Fnh Chbn Nne-XmWv. Iqv
17
F hmns Aw {IoV FmWv. efnXhpw kc-khp-amb Cu Iemcq]w Cv A\yw \np-
sImncnp-p. XIsb A`nap-Jo-IcnpsImncnp-tmgpw bp\kvtImbpsS AwKoImcw ssIh
Xv Iqns Poh \on\nntb-mw. ]nImev cq]-s IY-Ifnsemw Iqns {]IS
amb kzm[o\w hyamWv. IY- Ifn, Xp XpSnb thjhn[m\fn mknIv Ie-Ifn
\apv ImWmhp {]tXyIXI Iqn\v kz-amWv. Iqns thjhn[m\ ckIc-amWv.
apIp-Sp-a, hmknIw, sNhnqhv, s]mbvap-Jw, ISnkq{Xw, ISIw, aSv, amv, tap-Sh FnhbmWv
Iqns thjhn[m\. Iqp-ambn _-s sFXnlyns shfnn NmIym ISen
\nv Dbp-h-XmsWv hniz-knp-p. tIc-f-ns Ncn{Xnse Aaqe-yamb GSmWv Iqv.
Iqn\v Innb AwKo-Imcw ae-bmfnIv A`nam\am t\-amWv tIc-f-ns IemNcn{X ]mc-
-cyw Dsmp Hcp ss]XrI Ie-bmWv Iqv. Ie-Isf AwKo-Icnm ae-bmfnI ]Tnp-
tm am{Xta Iqn\v im]-tamw Inp-Ibp-q. \psS kmwkvImcnI ]mc--c-yns Ncn{Xw
a\knemm \s klmbnp--hbmWv \psS mknIv Ie-I. Fm Chsb kwc-n
m _m[yXbnm-hcmtWm \mw ? Nnnp-I.
18
A\p- _w 2 sNv env
1. tIc-f-ns almb Iem]mc--c-ys-p-dnv F\nv t_m[yapv
2. tIcfw Hcp Iemae-amsWv IpnIv Xncndnhv \In
3. "\tfm]mJ-ym\w' IY IpnIsf ]dp tInp
4. IYIfnbpambn _ d^dkv {K IpnIv Fnp sImSpp
5. "sNdp- Xmbn sNdp-w' F ]mT-`mK-ns IY-Ifn Zriyw Ipn-Isf
ImWnp
6. IY-IfnbpsS thjw, NSv, A`n\b-co-Xn, \hc-k, 24 ap{Z-I, IY-I
fn kwKo-Xw, hmtZ-ym]-Ic-W Ch Idnbp--Xn\v IpnIv Ah
kcw e`np
7. mkv NIv apv th{X Hcpw Rm \Sn
8. mkv apdnbn t\mokv t_mUv Dv
9. {]tXyI ]cnK-W\ Alnp IpnI mknep-mbncp-p. Ahsc
]cnK-Wnp
10. \mSIsa kmlnXycq]-ns khntijXI IpnI Xncndnp
11. Xow FmsWv hyX hcp-nb-Xn\v tijamWv \mSIc-N\bntes-
Xv
12. \mSIn\v Zriymhnjvmcw \Sn
13. "ap-cntcow tNmdpw' IpnI Zriyw Ip
14. ae-bmfw A[ym]-Imbp tmKv IpnIsf ]cnNb-s-Sp-n(Xnn
XmXn-ss-bv )
15. Iqpw IqSnbmhpw Xnep hyXymkw IpnI Xncndnp
16. hnZqjIs thjhp-ambn _-s sFXnlyw IpnItfmSv ]dp
17. mknse IpnIfpsS Ie-ItfmSp s]mXp-hmb kao-]\w Isn
18. IpnI kz-ambn Iqv Fgp-Xnbp-mn
19. IpnI FgpXn Xmdmnb Iqn anIh mn AhXcnnp
20. Iqns ]ghpw {]m[m\yhpw IpnIv a\nembn
21. skan\m hnP-b-Ic-ambncpp
22. skan\mdn\p aptmSnbmbn t]m cN\(ICTkm[yX D]tbmKnv)\Sn.
23. skan\mdns DZvLmS\w mkn\p ]pd-p HcmfmWv \nlnXv
24. asmcp mknse/hnZymcwKw kmlnXythZnbnse apgph IpnIpw skan
\m tIm Ahkcw \In
25. skan\m {]_-- ]Xnmn {]kno-Icnp
25. ]Xnv hmb-\map-dnbn/aqe-bn e`yamWv
Dv C`mKnIw
19
BapJw
BtcmK-yIc-amb P\m[n]-Xy kaqlw sIn]-Sp-p--Xn kv{Xopw
]pcp-j\pw Xpe-yamb D-c-hmZn-amWp-Xv. Ncn{Xn kw`hn Nne
]nXncnb-ep-I kv{XoIfpsS apt-s {]XnIqe-ambn _m[np. Ah
apJ-y[mc-bn \nv AI-s-p. kaqlns ]ptcmK-XnnXv XSambn
op. kv{Xo\oXn Xncnp ]nSntp Hch h- am\Ime bmYm
yamWv. hoSp-Ifn, sXmgnenSfn, hnZ-yme-b-fn XpSn \psS s]mXp-
kaqlns Fm Xpd-Ifnepw kv{Xo hnthN\w A\p-`hntn hcp-p-v.
kaqln kv{Xo A\p-`hnp hnthN\w kmlnXynepw {]Xn
^-ennp-v. kv{XoI ]miz-hXvIcns-Sp--Xns Ncn{X]-c-amb Imc-W
Xncndnbm\pw ]cnlcnm\p-ap at\m`mhw Cu bqWnns hn\nab
t\cv cq]-s-tSXmWv.
bqWnv 2
CcpNnd- IpIsfmcp- a- bnes\
20
1. Nn{Xhmb\ \Sn Ipdnv Xmdmpp
kv{Xo A\p-`hnp hnthN\w {]tab-amn cNns Nn{Xns GXm\pw tImn mkv apdn
bn hnXcWw sNp-p. eLp-hmb tNmZ-yfneqsS A[ym]nI Nn{Xns {]tab-ntev Ipn
Isf \bnp-p.
m Cu Nn{Xw \Ip hnjb-samWv ?
m Ccw {]iv\ Cv kaqln \ne-\np-ptm?
m Dsn GsXmw taJ-e-IfnemWv AXv \ne-\np-Xv ?
IpnIfpsS A`n{]mb- {]m[m\ytmsS ]cnK-Wnv A[ym]nI N t{ImUo-Icnp-p.
Cs kaqln "kv{Xo-b-\p-`hnp hnth]-N\' F hnjb-n IpnI hyn]-
c-amb Ipdnv Xmdms.
GXm\pw Ipdnp-I s]mXp-hmbn AhXcnnp-p. sas-Sp-m\pw Ahkcw \Ipp
2. IYmhmb\A\p`hpdnv Xmdm
b{w
]pXnb hontev Xmakw amm\bm Hcp temdn \ndsb kma{Knbp-ambmWv Fnb-Xv.
"CXp Ae-p-b-{w'
hmjnvsajo hoSnssbmcp aqe-bn Abm Cd-nshnp.
"CXv {^nUvPv'
kzo-IcW apdnbpsS Hc-v Fmhcpw ImWp Hcp `mKp Xs henb {^nUvPpw sImp
shn-p.
Ahkm\w Abm temdnbn \nnd-nbXv Hcp s]ns\.
tPmenmtcmSv Abm ]d-p.
"ASp-f-bpsS Hcp aqe-bn tISp-IqSmsX sImp-shp-I'. ]mNIw sNp-Ibpw ]m{X
Igp-Ip-Ibpw sNp ]pXnb b{s Ah Icp-XtemsS tISp-IqSmsX ASp-fp-bpsS Hcp aqe-
bn sImp-shp.
an\nY-bpsS tImn IpnI {itbmsS hmbns
Cu IY-bnse IYm]m{X BscmsbmWv?
IY-bn kqNnnp kv{Xo IYm]m{Xns khntijX FsmsbmWv ?
21
IpSpw-_-nepw s]mXp-kaqlnepw kv{Xob-\p-`hnp {]iv\fntev hncNqp
cobn N \bnp-atm
CXn\p kam\amb A\p-`h (kzw/ asmcm ]d-p-tItXm hmbntXm) \np-
ap-mbnptm?
Nbn cq]-s [mc-WIfpsS shfnn IpnI kzw A\p-`hp-dnp-I Xmdm
s.
"s]\p-`h" F ]Xnv Xmdms.
3. ]m\ N dntmv
t\cs FgpXn Xmdmnb Nne tNmZ-ymhenI IpnIv \Ip-p. Hcp hmntem
hmIyntem tNmZ-yv D-c-sagp-XWsav \ntinpp
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
IpnI Fgp-Xnb tNmZ-yhpw D-chpw mn hmbnp-p. {]XnIcW kz-`mha\p-kcnv
IpnIsf \mev ]m\ep-Ifmn Xncnp-p. Hmtcm ]m\en\pw kv{Xo {]iv\ sshhn[ytfmsS
{]tab-hXvIcnp kma{KnI sImSp-p-p.
]m\-1 ]mZ-kcw, X (an\nY-]n.-sI.-]md-Shv)
]m\- 2 s]Ip-v"90 (F-Unv sNbvXXv), kw{IaWw (F-Unv sNbvXXv)
]m\- 3 Hcp cm{XnbpsS Hmbvv(kdnb),
Ah Hcp IWn {]tbmKw(Iev] \mcmb-W)
]m\- 4 kv{Xo {]Xnmb Av Cv, Zriam[yafnse kv{Xo
(B.-]mXo-tZ- hn)
(kma{KnI A\p-_--ambn sImSp-np-v)
]m\ep-Iv \Inb kma{KnI kqva hmb-\bvv hnt[b-amn ]T\ e-yfntev
IpnIsf \bnpw-hn[w Nm kqNI hnIknnv {Kqn \tIXp-v. Nm kqNI
4 ]m\en\pw Hcp t]mse-bmm {inp-atm. CXv NbpsS NSp-e-Xsb \ne-\nm klm
bnpw.
Nm kqNI-
s]mXp-bnSfn Cpw kv{Xo Akz-X{bmWv
22
kv{Xosb-p-dnp s]mXp-kaqlns ImgvNmSp-I hnIe-amWv
kv{Xov kzw ico-chpw kuc-yhpw amc-Iambn amdpp
kv{Xo hnthN\w IWp-I km-ys-Sp-pp
Zriyam[yafn kv{XoIp-thnbp ]cn]mSnI ]cnanXamWv
A[nImc tI{fn kv{XobpsS {]mXn\n[yw Cpw ]cnanXamWv
]m\ Nm {]h-\s kw_-n hyX IpnIv \Ip--Xn\v Bhiyamb apIcp-X
ep-I A[ym]nI \tIXp-v.
hnjbw (kma{KnI ]cntim[nv hnjbw Xocp-am\np-atm)
{Kqv Xncnb
tamUtd-sd \n-bn-Np-aXe
tIhnm-tNmZ-yap--bnp--h-adp-]Sn ]d-bp--h
]m\ Nbvp- tijw IpnI hynK-Xambn Nm dntmv Xmdmp-p. dntmns
LS\, DSw Fnhsb kw_-n Imc-yfn hyamb \nti \tIXp-v.
4. IYm]m{X \ncq]Ww, A`napJ tNmZ-ymhen
Fo {]h\-fntev IpnIsf \bnmtem ?
* \n ]pcmWIY-I CjvSs-Sp-ptm?
* ]pcmWIY-Ifn CjvSs IYm]m{X Bsc-mamWv?
* GsXms ]pcmW kv{Xo IYm]m{Xsf-bmWv \ndnbpI ?
Cu tNmZ-yn\v {]m[m\yw sImSpv hnhc- Bcmbp-Ibpw
BB bn t]cp-I Fgp-Xp-Ibpw thWw.
{][m\s 4 kv{Xo IYm]m{XfpsS t]cn\Snbn hcnb-Spp
]mT-]p-kvXIn ISp-hnp-Xpw hcm\p-Xp-amb IYm]m{Xfn tI{o-IcnWw
DZm: koX, iIp-f, Zab-n, Kmmcn
Cu IYm]m{Xsf \apv mknse-nmtem?
_pnap-mWv At ?
Fm mnse 4 t]v IYm]m{Xfmbn amdm\p Ahkcw \Imw.
B \mep-t]sc Ism Fp-sNWw ?
AXn\p klmb-Iamb Hcp {]h\w sNbvXmtem?
\n koX, iIp-f, Zab-n, Kmmcn Fo IYm]m{Xsf Ipdnv
]c-amh[n hnhc- tiJ- cnWw.
AXn\mbn Cu IYm]m{XfpsS t]cnep 4 {Kqp-Ifmbn amdmw.
IpnIsf 4 {Kqp-Ifmbn Xncnp-p. Hmtcm {Kqnt\mSpw Ahc-hcpsS IYm]m{Xsf Ipdnv
hnhc-tiJ-cWw \Sm Bhiys-Sp-p.
23
IYm]m{X \ncq]-Ww, IYm]m{X ]T-\w, \nco--Wp-dnv, kzm`n{]mb-p-dnv, {]XnI
c-Wp-dnv Fns\ hyXykvX hyhlmc coXnbn sNbvXp-hcm {]tXyIw \nt
in- Ww.
Xmdmn h hnhc- {Kqp-Ifn hmbnp-p. {Kqp N kPo-hamm A[ym]-
I\v/A[ym]nIbvv CSs]-Smw.
Hmtcm {Kqn \npw \mbn AhXcnnm Ignhp Hmtcm Ipnsb sXc-sSp-Ww.
AhtcmSv hniZ-amb IYm]m{X]-T\w Xmdmm ]d-bp-p.
av IpnItfmSv AXmXv {Kqnse IYm]m{XtfmSv A`napJw \Sm\mhiyamb tNmZ-ym
hen Xmdmm\mhiys-Smw.
5. mn \ Xn ]cn- ]mSn kwLSn- n- mtem?
AXn\mbn apv \Snb {]h-\nse hn`h Xs {]tbmP-\s-Sp-p-Ibp-amhm
atm?
* hniZ-amb IYm]m{X]-T\w Xmdmnb 4 IpnIsf Xs IYm]m{Xfmbn
cwK- p-sIm-p-hcmw.
\ AhXc-Wtijnbp Hcp Ipnsb Xs tamUtd--dmbn \n-bnp-atm? B Ipnv
Bhiyamb [mc-WI BZ-yta Xs \Ip-Ibpw thWw.
Xmsg sImSp coXn-bn tamU-td-v \nti \Imw.
m IYm]m{Xv kzbw ]cnNb-s-Sp-m Ahkcw \IWw.
ChnsS IYm]m{X AhcpsS IY Npcpn AhXcnnWw.
m \nfpsS PohnXnse Ghpw {]bmkap-mnb A\p-`h ]d-bmtam?
m BcmWv Ccw Ah-I \nfpsS PohnXnep-mm Imc-Wm?
m AhtcmSp {]Xntj[w tcJ-s-Sp-m Amev \nv km[nncptm ?
m Ccw A\p-`h CmsWn Fs\bmbncnpw \n {]XnIcnpI?
m abp-sSbpw kl\nsbpw XymK-nsbpw ]mXn{hXynsbpw D-aamXrIIfmbn
\nsf temIw(]p-cp-jtemIw) hmgvp--Xn A`nam\hpw ktmjhpw tXmp-nt
m AXv kaqln\v \ntfmSp kvt\l_lpam\ sImmsWv \n IcpXpptm?
m Cu B[p-\nI Ime-L--n kv{XoIfpsS PohnX \ne-hmchpw Ahv e`np
kmaqlymw-Ko-Imchpw F{Xtmfw Dbnp-v.
Ccw tNmZ-yfneqsS IYm]m{Xsf \ne-bnepw hnZ-ymn F \ne-bnep-ap ]cm
amh[n A`n{]mb- Xpd--hXcnnm\p Ahkcw \IWw.
s]mXphn ]gb- Ime-L-- nse kv{Xob-h-I a\nemm AmeL--nse kmln
Xyw(]u-cmWnI kmlnXyw) hmbnpI hgn km[npw Fv kqNnnp-sImv tamUtd- t{ImUo-
Icnp-p. ]cn]mSnbpsS dntmv Xmdmm IpnItfmSv \ntinp-p.
* "kmlnXynse kv{Xo" au\hmb-\bvv \Ip-p.
24
6. eLpPohNcn{Xpdnv, ImtemKv , \ncoWpdnv, Nm kqNI
Fo {]h\ {Kqv {]h\neqsS sNbvXmtem?
"kmlnXynse kv{Xo' au\hmb-\bvv tijw IpnIsf 4 {Kqp-Ifmbn Xncnp-p.
{Kqv 1 aptcnsb- Ip-dnv hnhc-tiJ-cWw
{Kqv 2 teJ-\n ]cmainp IrXnI IYm]m{X, Fgp-p-Im Fnh
Ds-Spn {]tXyI Im-temKv Xmdm
{Kqv 3 kmlnX-ynse kv{Xob-h-Iap-tcnbpsS \nco- -W
tiJ-cnp-p. AhtbmSp kzw \nco--W tcJ-s-Sp-pp
{Kqv 4 "kv{XoI]pw Cpw' ]m\ N \Sm\p kqNI Is
{Kqp N \Snb tijw Isn h Imc-y Ipdnp-Ifmbn AhXcnnm Ah
kcw \Ip-p.
7. kwhmZw
""-cmaw ZicYw hnn
amw hnn P\-Im-Pmw
Atbm--ym-aShnw hnn
K-XmX bYm-kpJw''
r CXv GXv IrXnbnse-XmsW-dnbmtam?
r k`w ]d-bmtam ?
cmamb-Wn cma\pw koXbpw h\hmkn\p-t]mIp-tm Ahsmw t]mIp e-
aWt\mSv Abmb kpan{X,
cmas\ Zic-Y\p ka\mbpw
koXsb Abmb Xs-tmsebpw
ImSns\ Atbmybmbpw Iv
kpJ- ambn bm{Xbmbnsmm D]tZ- inp k`n \npw Nne tNmZy Dbm
hp- -XmWv.
r amXmhns\bpw, ktlmZ-cntbbpw _lp-am\tmsS ImWp
Hcp kaqlamtWm Cp-Xv ?
IpnIfpsS A`n{]mb- {]ISnnp--Xn\v Ahkc-samcp-mw.
]{XamknIIfnse-bpw, Nm\ep-Ifnsebpw hmmiIefn {]Xy- s-Sp kaqla\v
hniIe\w sNmw. sImfmjv, hoUntbm nnv Fnh {]tbmP-\s-Sp-mw.
ta Bib-fn \nv hyXykvX A`n{]mb {]IS\w \Sp IpnIv Hcp kwhmZw
kwL- Sn-nmw.
cmambWw F CXnlmk Imhyn\v ]e BJ-ym\ Dmbnp-v.
25
t]cp ]d-bmtam?
* cma- NcnXw
* I--cmam-bWw
* amn-f- cm-am-bWw
bpn\v {]m[m\yap Ime-L--n bp]-Se-n\v {]m[m\yw \In "cmaNcnXw' cNn
s-p. Hmtcm Ime-L--nepw Hmtcm ImgvNmSn\p {]m[m\yw \InbmWv cmamb-Wn\v BJym
\-fp-mbnp-Xv.
koXbpsS IneqsS cmamb-Ws t\mnmWp ae-bmf-nse IrXn ? Imhv ?
m NnmhnjvSbmb koX
At\zjWmI {]h\w
kzw PohnXw sImv Ncn{Xn CSw t\Snb h\nXm cXv\
* \apv apt ISp-t]mb-h
* \tmsSmw \Sp--h
A\p_w
]mZkcw
hnhmlkabv cnXm s]n\v sImSp-Xv aqqdv]-h
Igp-nepw ImXnepw Acbnepw \ndsb B`c-W.
Ahscmv ad-p-t]mbncp-p.
]mZ- kcw
\amb Im-I t\mn hc tNmZnp.
"ImenenSm Hpw Xnt?'
\mWn hncn Hcp NncntbmsS AhtfmXn "C-'.
Abm ]dp "kmc-e-y'
Fnv Abm Icp-Xnsh henb Ne-bnv Ahsf Xf-p.
X
X AhtfmSv ]dp
"\obpw Fs-tmse Xs'
Atm ]mepw ]ghp-ambn `mshn
"B-cmWnhnsS \nv kwkmcnXv? Abm tNmZnp.
"X' Ah ]dp
Av cm{Xn Abm Xbvv Nnd-Ip-I \In attXm temIntev ]d-nhnp.
Ctm X-qn AhfmWv.
]n.-sI.-]md-Shv
26
C-y Sn.-hn.-N-cn{Xw
Sn.cm[m-aWn
1991 Cy Sn.-hn.-Ncn{Xnse \mgnImWv. AXp-hsc HutZ-ymKnI km Nm\emb Zqc-
Zi am{XamWv Cymv e`nncp--Xv. 1959 bpsWkvtImbpsS {Kmp-]-tbmKnv hnZ-ym
`ymk {]Nmc-Wn\mbmWv ]co--WmSnm\n Cybn Zqc- Zi XpSnb-Xv. XpSp
apXv sIm-mew Zqc-Zis hfbpw hnIk\hpw hfsc aK-Xnbnembncp-p. Fm 1991
BWv Cu cwKv am-ns hnkvt^mS\w Xs \S-Xv. K^v bpw Xkabw {]t-]Ww
sNbvXp- sImv kn.- F.- F.BWv CybpsS kzo- IcW apdnbn Fnb BZys kz- Imcy Nm\.
XpSv m Sn.-hn. Cy t{]-Iv {]nb-s--Xmbn amdn. AtXmsS Cy sSenhnjs kz-
`mhnepw e-ynepw \mSIo-b-amb am-n\v XpSambn. hfsc s]sv hnt\mZhpw em`hpw
am{Xw e-yamp hyhkmb m]-\ F ]Z-hnbntev Zqc-Zi t]mepw amdp-Ibmbn
cpp. Cu L-n Cybn km-nI cwK-v ]pXnb ]cnjvImc- XpSngnncpp.
1991 Xs-bmWv \c-knw-ldmhp km ]p km-nI \bw AwKo-Icnp \Smn XpS
nb-Xv. 1991 BWv Cu cp Imc-yfpw Bcw-`nsXp-Xv bmZrnIa. BtKmf-hc-
Whpw DZmhc-Whpw hnP-b-Ic-ambn \SmWsan BtKmf am[yafpsS klmbw Bh
iyamsWv `c-WhK-n\v Adnbmw. BtKmf-Ip--IIfpsS Xmev]-cyw kwc-nm _m[yX
s am[ya hyhkmbw As\ kaqlns ]ptcmKXn F eyw ]msS Dt]-nm \n_-
ns-Sp-p. km{amP-yXz-ns B[n]-Xyw, Zcn{Zhpw AhnIknXhp-amb cmP-yfn m]ns
Sp-p--Xn\p D]m[nbmbn Ce-Ivt{SmWnIv am[ya hfsc s]sv amdn. dh\yq hcp-am\w
F \ymbo-IcWw ]dv ]c-kyI-\nIfpsS Xmev]-cy kwc--Icmb apJ-y[mcmam[y IqSp-
X em`w Dmp {]h-\ Bkq{XWw sNbvXp, kaqln Cp \ne-\np
A\o-Xnbpw AkaXzhpw IqSp-X cq-amtIXv. AhcpsS kp-NnX Xm]-c-y kwc-np-
-Xn\v Bhiyambp-cp. kmaqly cmjv{Sob cwK-fn CSs]-tS {]Xyb-imkv{X D]-Ic-W
fmb am[ya- hfsc hnZ- Kv[-ambn CXn-\p-thn s]mXp- t_m-[n kzm-[o\w sNep-p-p.
A`ncp- NnIfpw Xmev]-cyfpw CjvSm\njvSfpw cq]sSp-p- -Xn CeIvt{SmWnIv am[yp
]v hnZ-Kv[ Nqnmp-p-v.
Cu ]m-en kv{XoIfpw Ce-Ivt{SmWnIv am[yafpw F hnjbw ssIImcyw sNp-
tm Hpw {]Xo \Ip Nn{Xa \app e`np--Xv. 1991 Sn.-hn. ]cn]mSnIfnep-mb amw
Hcp ]s Ghpw IqSp-X tZmjIc-ambn _m[nncnp-Xv kv{XoIsf-bmWv. 20-mw \qmn
temIs-mSp-ap kv{Xo {]m\ hn coXnbnep apt-amWv \Snbncp-- Xv. tZiob
{]m\ns\mw \n Cy kv{Xobpw Gsd Zqcw aptmp-t]mbn. hnZ-ym`ymknsbpw
sXmgnensbpw cwKv Ahv FSp-p-]-d-bm ]p t\-ap-mbn. Fm Ign Hcp ]Xn
mn Cu t\- ]eXpw Cybnse kv{XoIv ssItamiw hp-sImncnp-IbmWv. tIc-
f-amIs kv{Xo hntamN\ cwK-s t\-fn Hcp Ime-L--n Gsd A`nam\nncp-p. GsXmcp
kaqlnsbpw ]ptcmKXn hnebncpp LSIfmb kv{Xo kmc- X, inip-ac- W\nc- v, kv{Xo
]p-cp-jm\p-]mXw Fnh-bn tIcfw hnIknX cmP-y-smw Fn-bnp-v. ]s tIc-f-
nse kv{XoIfpsS t\Xrcw-K-p AZriyXbpw AhcpsS kmc kzmX{yns\Xnsc-bp
hne-p-Ifpw Cpw \ne-\np-p-v. Ign Hcp ]Xnmn\nSbn h[np h ssewKnI
]oV-\fpw kv{Xo[\ac-Wfpw Iq-_-emkw-K-fpw tIc-f-nse kv{Xo hntamN\ {]h-\
t I\ Xncn-SnbmWv. Cu ]ntm-Snbvv Ce-Ivt{SmWnIv am[ya- sNdp- Xm
]mWv hlnncnp--Xv. t\cs kqNnnXp-t]mse XfpsS hyhkmbs Fs\ em`I
c-ammw Fp Nnnp-tm AhnsS kaqls aptmp \bnpI F e-yn\v Xopw
m\anmXmIp-p. kaqlw kv{Xosb Ipdnv hp ]pep hnIe-ab [mc-WI Dunbp-d-n
27
m am{Xta em`ap-mm\p {]h-\ kpK-aambn \Sp-Ibp-q. XfpsS kz-Xzw Xncn
dnbmXncnp-Ibpw Ae-mc hkvXp- F ]Zhn \ne-\np-Ibpw sNp kv{XoIsf-bmWv
Sn.-hn.-mhiyw. ASna-s-Sp--hcpsS katcmp-IXsb XIp-sImv kzmX{ys-p-
dnv kz]v\w ImWm\p CSw-t]mepw \ImsXbpamWv sSenhnj XfpsS clky AP \S
mnsmncnp--Xv. BtKmf-hcWns kmnI \bw hnP-bnnp--Xn\p-thn
D]-t`mK kwkvImcs t{]mmlnnpI F-XmWv ChcpsS \bw. icoc tI{o-IrXamb D]-
t`mK kwkvImcw kv{Xosb D]-t`mK hkvXp-hmbn Dbnmp-p. am{Xa Hmtcm hynbpw D]-
t`mK-kw-kvImc-ns hmv D]-t`mmhmWv. P\m[n]-Xy]-c-amb AhImifpw A[n
Imc-fpw D ]ucs m\v, X\nv \nXyPo-hnXn Bhiyanm km[\ hmn
qp D]-t`mmhv Ibdn Ccnp-p. Cu Ah krjvSnp--Xn Hmw m\mWv Ce-
Ivt{SmWnIv am[ya. kv{Xo=-icocw F kv{Xo hncp-amb Bib-s-bmWv Ch ]p\cp]mZn
np--Xv. AXp-sImp Xs Sn.-hn.-Ds-sSbp am[yasf ]c-amh[n Cu Bib {]Nc-W
n\mbn D]-tbmK-s-Sp-p-p. BtKmf-hc-Wns ^e-ambn kmwkvImcnI cwK-p-mbn
smncnp A]-ISIc-amb ]pXnb {]hWXIsXnsc-bp-mIp kv{Xo apt-s hnZ-
Kv[ambn XSs-Sp-p-Xpw Sn.-hn.-bpsS klmb-tmsSbmWv. Xpd-n BImineqsS kzo-I
cW apdnIfntev Hgp-Insb-p \qdntesd Nm\ep-Ismw GXmv Htc cq]hpw `mhhpw
BsWp ImWmw. Ah \psS apn Fnp temIw hWi-fhpw i_vZ-b-am\hp-amb
A]- cnNnXamb attXm temIamWv. Cu temIs bph-Xe-apd Htc Xcw hkv {Xw (Pokpw
jpw) [cnp-Ibpw Htc `Ww (s]-]vknbpw ^nwK Nn]vkpw) Ignp-Ibpw sNp-p. ChnsS
{]mtZ-inI kwkvImchpw PohnX coXnbpw A{]-Xy-amhp-IbmWv. BtKmf-{Kmans GIapJ
kwkvImcw km{amP-yXz-tbpw kv{Xo hncp-amb D]-t`mK-kw-kvImc-tbpw hfnsmp-hcn
IbmWv. P\m[n]-Xy kaqls Xmn\np \mep XqWp-Ifn Hs ]Zhn Dt]-nv D]-
t`m- K- kw- kv Im- c- ns ]Xm- Im- hm- l- I F Ah- - bn- tev apJ- y- [mcm am[- y- a- Fn
\npp.
DSw
hmbpw hmm[njvTnX ]cn]mSnIfpw, hnt\mZ-]-cn]mSnI Cu coXnbn Sn.-hn.-]-cn]m
SnIsf cmbn Xncnmw. Cu Hmtcm hn`mKhpw kv{XoIfpsS {]iv\fpw kv{XoIsf kw_-n
p hm-Ifpw Fs\ ssIImcyw sNpp Fp {]tXyIambn ]cntim[ntXp-v.
hmbpw hmm-[n-jvTnX ]cn-]m-Sn-Ifpw
hm : H hmNIn ]d-m hm-Ifn kv{Xo GXmv ]qWambpw AZriybmsWv]
]d-bmw. hmsb kw_-n \psS s]mXp-[mcW kv{Xobvv CSw \Im klmbnp--X.
hf- sctbsd cmjv{Sob- hcns kaqlamb tIcf- n {]tXyInpw cmjv{Sob hmImWv
{]map-J-yw. ]{Xambmepw Sn.-hn.-bmbmepw Ghpw {][m\ hm-Ifmbn IWmp-Xv cmjv{Sob
InIfpsS {Kqp-hgpw cmjv{Sob t\XmmcpsS AgnaXnbpw A{Iahp-amWv. cmjv{Soh {]h-
I kmaqly hncp-cmsW Acmjv{Sob ktiamWv apJ-y[mcm am[ya CXp-hgn \Ip--Xv.
hfsc {]XntemaIc-amb coXnbnep cmjv{Sob hm-Iv AanX {]m[m\yw \In {]kno-I
cnp-tm kv{XohnsS CSanmsX hcp-p. ImcWw cmjv{Sob cwKv kv{Xo kmnyw \maam
{XamWv. AXp-sImp Xs hm-bnepw Ah ISp-hcp-n.
A{IafpsS Cc F coXnbn am{XamWv IqSp-Xepw hm-Ifn kv{Xo ISp-hcp--Xv.
]oU\ kw`h am{XamWv dntmv sNmdp-Xv. ]{X sNdnb coXnbnse-nepw kv{Xo[\
ac-Wfpw kv{Xo ]oU\fpw dntmv sNmdp-sp ImWmw. Fm Sn.-hn.-bpsS "sktk
jW tPWenkw' ssewKnI ]oU\fn HXp-p-p. Ccw hm-I dntmp sNp--
XneqsS kaql a\:-kmnsb DWm Ignbp-pv (D-Zm: kqc-ys\n, hnXp-c, ]fw) FXp
bmYm-yambncnp-tms Cu hm-I Fs\ sImSp-pp F-XmWv ]cntim[n
tXv. ss]nfnhcns-Sp Ccw hm-I bYm kw`hns ]nnse kmaq
28
ly bmYmyw Insp \Snp-p. Sn.-hn.-]np-Wbvp D]-t`mK kwkvImc-n\\v A\p-
tbmP- yamb coXn-bn kv {Xo, icocw am{XamsWpw AhfpsS imcocnI "_-e-lo-\X-I' aqew
]oUnns-Sp-Xv "kzm`mhnIw' am{XamsWp ktiamWv Ccw ]cn]mSnI \Ip--Xv.
"]o-Unns-Sp kv{XoXzw' Sn.-hn.-bpsS {]nb-{]-tab-ambn amdnbncnp-Xp Xs AXns ss]n
fnhcW km[yXI aqe-amWv.
hmsb hm-bmp Hcp ]mSv LSIfp-v. GsXnepw Hcp kw`hw dntmp
sNbvXp F-Xp-sImp am{Xw AXn\v Alnp {]m[m\yw DmIp-n. ]{Xs kw_-n
nStmfw Hcp hm GXp t]Pn hcpp F-XmWv {][m\w. Fm sSenhnj\nemIs
GXp _pn\n hcpp F-XmWv IWnse-Sp-tXv. ae-bmfw Nm\ep-Isf kw_-nnS
tmfw Ggp aWnp hm-bmWv Ghpw {][m\s--Xv. (Cu Ggp aWn FXv ssIc-fnv 6.30
Dw Gjyms\n\v 6.55, kqc-ybvv 6.50 Dw BWv) CXmWv "ss{]w _pn'. Ghpw IqSp-X t]
ImWp _pn CXmsWmWv IWmp--Xv. AXp-sImp Xs {][m\hm-Isfmw
"ss{]w _pn\n" Ds-Sp-p-p. ap ]e _pn\p-Ifpw ]e Nm\ep-Ip-ap-v. ssIc-fn
bn cmhnse 7.30 \pw Dbvv 1 \v, sshIov 6 \v, cm{Xn 9 \v, 10.30 \v, Acm{Xn 12 aWnv Fn
s\bmWv _pn\p-I DXv. Gjyms\v tm_-en Hmtcm aWnq IqSp-tmgpw hmm
_pn\p-I Dv. Fm cm{Xn 7 \v ap _pn\nse Ghpw {][m\s hm-Ip
]pdsa "F-Ivkvqko-hv' Fpw "kvIqv' Fpw apw ]d-bmhp hm-Ifpw Dmhpw. AXmXv
Nm\en\p am{Xambn Innb hm-I BWh. Cu hm-I Hcp ]s cmhnse Innbmepw
AXv cm{Xn Ggp aWnv ImWnm\mbn amnshp-p. ImcWw Cu _pn\mWv Nm\ens A`n
am\w. ss{]w _pn\n Xs Ftm ImWnbvpp FXpw {][m\amWv. ae-bmfw Sn.-hn.
hm-Ismw GXmv Htc kz-`mhamsWp ImWmw. \yqkv doU hncpv sSent{]mw-]v-
dn sXfnbp hm-I t\mn hmbnp-IbmWv ]Xnhv. Ch hmm hmb-\mcmWv. m
Sn.-hn.-bnepw apw hmm AhXmc-IcmWpXv. \psS Nm\ep-Ifnse hmm hmb-\mv
henb NpaXe-sbmpw C. acW hmtbm Zpc- hmtbm hmbnp-tm i_v Z-n
Zp:Jw IepI am{Xw sNbvXm aXn. ap hm-I Fmw Hcp Xcw \nhn-ImcXtbmsS
hmbnp Xomw.
hm-IfpsS m\w \nbnp--Xnepw aqp Nm\ep-Ipw kam\XI Dv. BZ-y
`mKw Xe-sp-I, cmaXv {][m\ hm-I, AXmbXv ]{Xnse Hmw t]Pnt\mSmWnXn\v
kmayw. Cu `mKv Amcmjv{Sw, tIc-fw, tZiobw XpSn A]q k`fn kvt]mSvkpw
Ds-Sp-p. CXv _pn\nse BZ-ys 57 an\p-n\Iw Xocpw. ]no-SmWv Hmtcm {]tXyI
hn`mKw hcp--Xv. tIc-fw, tZio-bw, hntZ-iw, hopw tIc-fw, kvt]mSvkv Fns\bmWv kmam
\- y- amb hn`- P- \- co- Xn. ]{Xnse {]mtZ- inI t]Pns ]Z- hn- bmWv "hopw tIc- f"- n\p- - Xv .
tkm^vv\yqkv AYhm arZp-hm-bmWv CXn IqSp-Xepw Dmhp-I. {][m\ hmm `mK-mWv
lmUv \yqkv AYhm ITn\ hm Ds-Sp-p--Xv.
Cu hn`mK-fpw hn`P\ coXnbpw ]cntim[np-tmgmWv hm-Ifnse kv{XoIfpsS AZr
iyX a\nemIp-I. Ip{]-knamb ]oU\A{Ia kw`hfp-ambn _-s--hbmmsX (]-fw
tIkv hnNmc-W, kqc-ys\n tIkv) Xe-hmNIfn kv{Xo ISp-hcpp FXv AXy]qamWv.
{][m\ hmm cwKpw kv{XoIsf-p-dnp hm-Iv CSw e`nmdn. "hopw tIc-f"
nse arZp-hm-Ifmbn kv{Xohm-I Npcp-p-p. AXpw Fm Znhkhpw DmIWsap-an
. ]e-tmgpw kv{XoIfpsS apt--fpw t\-fpw cmhnsetbm Dbvtm D A{]-[m\ _p
n\ntev amnshbvp-IbmWv ]Xnhv. Cs\ t\mp-tm kv{XoIsf kw_-nv Fp sImSp-
pp F-Xn\p ]Icw Fp-sImSp-p-nm F-XmWv \mw ]cntim[ntXv.
am[yafneqsS am{Xw tIc-fs Adnbp Hcmv ChnSps kv{Xosb-p-dnv Inp
Nn{Xw "]o-U\ns Cc' F coXnbn am{Xambncnpw. {Inbm-Iamb Fsnepw CSs]-Sep-
I tIc-f-nse kv{XoI Cu kaqln \Snb-Xmbn \psS Sn.-hn.-hm-Ifn ]d-bp-n
. kaqlns ]ptcmK-a\]-c-amb hfbn kv{XoIfpsS ]v \psS am[yafneqsS a\n
29
emm Ignbn F-XmWv bmYm-yw. tIc-fs aptmp \bnp--Xnepw BtKmf-hc-
Whpw ]p km-nI \b-fpw krjvSnp {]XnknIfn iamb sNdp-p-\n]v
Dbp--Xnepw kv{XoI hlnp ]v sNdp-X. (D-Zm; Abqw, IpSpw-_-{io, kaX) am{X
a, CSXp-] P\m[n]-Xy apWn kmcns `c-WImep XpSnsh P\Io-bmkq{XW
]XnbpsS \Snp-ambn _-sv ]Xn\mbnc-Wn\p kv{XoI {]hnncp-p. ]mb-
o-cmPv \nb-aneqsS 33 iXam\w kwhcWw {XnXe ]mb-p-Ifn kv{XoImbn \Smn
b-tXmsS cmjv {Sob kmaqly taJ-e-I-fn hn-h-Ic-amb am- amWp-mb-Xv. {]mK-- ytmsS
]mb-p-`cWw Imc-y-aambn aptmp-sImp-t]mb F{Xtbm kv{XoIp-v. C-c-n kv{Xo
apt--ns taJ-e-bn h IpXnp-Nmw Cgn 510 hjfn Dmbnp-v. adp-hiv
Ccw apt--fpw \Sp-pv FXv ImWmXncnm\mhn. IqSp-X kv{XoI ASp-f hnn
dn kaqlns D]mZ\ {]{Inb-bn ]sSp-m XpSnb-tXmsS ASna-ep-Ifpw cq-
amhp-Ibmbncp-p. Fm Ccw kmaqly am- Sn.-hn.-hm-Iv km[mcW \ne-bn
hnjb-amhp-n. kmaqly bmYmyw {]Xn^-ennp--Xn Sn.-hn.-]-cmP-b-amsWp hyam
p--XmWv Ccw DZmlc-W. ]miz-hcns hn`mK-sf aptmp \bnp--Xn
Nme-Iin BIp-nsp am{Xa, AhcpsS bYm ]Zhn hyamp--Xn\pw sSenhnj\p
Ignbp-n Fp kmcw.
hmm-[n-jvTnX ]cn-]m-Sn-I : aq {][m\ ae-bmfw Nm\e-Ifpw hmm[njvTnX ]cn
]mSnIv {]tXyI kabhpw m\hpw \Inbnp-v. CXn kv{XoIfpsS {]iv\p am{X
ambp ssIc-fnbnse s]ae-bmfhpw Gjyms\nse AI-fhpw {itb-amWv. CXn\p ]pdsa
ap Nne ]wnIfn A]qhambn kv{XoIfpsS {]iv\ ISp hcmdp-sp am{Xw. Cu
]wnI Xmc-Xtay\ sas coXnbn Xs-bmWv enwK-kaXz-ns {]iv\ ssIImcyw
sNp-Xpw A]-{K-Ynp--Xpw. ]s Chbvmbn amnshncnp kabw t{]-I Sn.-hn.-Im
Wp kab-a F-XmWv Zp:-J-Ic-amb kXyw. ss{]wssSw AYhm Ghpw IqSp-X t] Sn.-hn.p
apn Ccnp kabw As-nqSn Iptd-qSn sas kabw Ccw ]cn]mSnImbn
amnshtXmWv. s]ae- bmfhpw AI- fhpw Hgnp hmm[njvTnX ]cn]mSnIfn kv{XoI
fpsS Zb-\o-b-amb apJw am{XamWv ]e-tmgpw ImWm Ignbp-I. ImSn, AWnb-d, kaImenIw
XpSnb ]cn]mSnIfn ]oUnns-Sp kv{XoXz-ns Nn{X \mSIo-b-ambn Xs AhX
cnnp-sImv P\{i ]nSnp ]mdp-sXv bmYm-yamWv.
hnt\mZ ]cn- ]mSn- I
hm-Ifn kv{XobpsS AZriyXbmWv {]iv\san hnt\mZ ]cn]mSnIfn AanXamb
ZriyXbmWv ]T-\hnjb-amtXv. Cv ae-bmfnIfpsS kmwkvImcnI {]h\w {][m\ambpw
]c--c-I ImWp--Xn HXpn \np nXnbmWp-Xv. sshIov 7.30 apX 10.30 hsc Nm\
ep-Ifn XpSbmbn hcp ]c--c-I IqSp-Xepw kv{XoIfmb t{]-Isc Dtinnp-XmWv.
""10 aWn hsc Ic-bp-Ibpw AXn\p-tijw t{]Xambn hv t]Snnp-Ibpw sNp \mbnI'"am
\psS Sn.-hn.-ssI-Snbncnp-p. ]c--c-IfpsS t]cp-I t]mepw ]qWambpw kvss{XWh
cn-n-cnp- IbmWv. tIc-f- nse kmwkv ImcnI Ncn-{X-nse Xs {]tXyI {]Xn`mkam-bmWv
Gjyms\nse "kv{Xo' ]c--csb IWmtXv. kv{Xo Fm A-nepw "kv{Xo' hncp-am
sWp \mw m]np-tm Xs Fp-sImn{Xtbsd P\{]nb ]c--c-bmbn CXv amdn FXv
Kuc-hamb ]T\w Alnp tNmZ-yamWv . khw-klbpw amio- ebpw hn\-bm-\znXbp-amb
\mbnI am{Xa CXn\p Imc-Ww, ]bmb Po-hnXns NqSpw Nqcpw CmsX, Iemcq]w F
\ne-bn bmsXmcp kuc-ym-IXbpw AhImis-Sm\nmsX ae-bmfn kaqlw Cu ]c--c-bpsS
ASnaIfmbn amdnsb hkvXpX \nmc-ambn Xm Ignbn. kmwkvImcnI Aht_m[n
Gsd apnemsWv A`nam\np ae-bmfnI hK,-hW, enwK-t`Z-anmsXbmWv "kv{Xo' Bkz-
Znncp--Xv. Cu ]c--c-tbmsS {]tXyIXcw "Sn.-hn.-A`ncp-Nn' krjvSns-Sp-Ibmbncp-p. ]c-c
\mIWsan "kv{Xo"bnse Iqp-I A\nhmc-yamsWp hp. F{X Zp:Jw A\p-`hnp-tmgpw
AXoh {itbmsS at\mlc-ambn AWnsmcp-p \mbnIam Cs D]-t`mK kwkvImc-
30
n\v A\p-tbmP-ycmWv. {]tab FmwXs IpSpw-_-ssiYneysf tI{o- IcnpXpw kv{Xo
hncp-hp-amWv. ]e ]c--c-Ifpw Xncndnbm Ignbm-hn[w kam\XIfp-XmsWXpw {in
tXmWv. Chbnse kv{Xo IYm]m{X ]pcp-jm[n]-Xya kwlnXIv hnt[b-cmbncnp-
-hcmWv. Dds kwkmcnp-Ibpw A`n{]mb- inbmbn ]d-bp-Ibpw sNp--h ZpjvS
IYm]m{XfmWv. Ic-p-sImsmw klnp--hcpw anp--hcpw \-hcpw BWv. CXmWv
]c--c-IfpsS Hcp s]mXp-kz-`mhw, sXmgnenSfnse kv{XoIfpsS PohnXw t]mepw ss]nfnh
cnp-IbmWv sNp--Xv. IpSpw-_n\n AYhm ho F tdm ]e `mhnepw coXnbnepw Xncnpw
adnpw ImWnpXmsX kmaqly{]{Inb- bn Chv ]mfn- apXmbn ]c- c- IfneqsS ImWm
\mhn. hnhml_mly _-fnemIs "`mc-y' ZpjvSbpw ImapIn \nlmb-bmb \-hfp-amsW
-XWv hnNn{Xw. hfsc A]-ISIc-amb aqe-yfpw [mc-WIfpw hnZ-Kv[ambn kaql t_m[n
tev Fnp Cu ]c--c-Iv ]ptcmK-a\]-c-amb Hpw-Xs AhImis-Sm\n. AanX
amb Ao-ehpw A{Iahpw Cs--Xp-sImp-am{Xw kmwkvImcnI t_m[n hnjw Iep--
Xn Chbvv ]nsp ]d-bm\mhn.
]c--c-Isf am{Xw {]Xnm\p \np--Xn AY-an. Hcp ]s, Ghpw A]-ISIm
cnI lmky]-cn]mSnIfmWv. GXp Nm\enepw Ghpw IqSp-X P\sf BIjnp-Xv lmky
]- cn]mSn-IfmWv. lmk-yambm Fpw ]d- bm\p ssekkp-smWv Cu ]cn-]m-SnIfpsS
]nWn {]h- I- cpsS [mc- W. Aoe kw`m- j- Wfpw BwK- y- fpw ae- bmfnsb t\mn
sIm\w Ipp-p. kv{XoIsfbpw ZfnXscbpw hnIemw-K-tcbpw \yq\]--sfbpw A]-am\np-
-Xn lmky]-cn]mSnI apnp-\np-p.
]c-k-y-
sSenhnj\n Hcp ]s, ]cn]mSnItf-m IqSp-X kabw A]-lcnp-Xv ]c-kyfm
Wv. ]c-ky I-\nIfpsS Xm]-c-yn \npw hnp-\np Sn.-hn.-{]-h\w Cp tIc-f-n
C. ]c-k-yfn \np hcp-am\s B{ibnp \np Nm\-ep-Iv Ah-cpsS ta
bmsXmcp \nb-{Whpw km[ya. hyhkmb-fmIs ]c-kyfneqsS kv{Xo ico-cs NqjWw
sNbvXp-sImmWv AhcpsS D]-- hn-gnp--Xv. ]pcp-jmcpsS ASnhkv{XfpsS PpKp-
]vkmhlamb Nn{X(]-c-ky) \psS {]apJ Nm\ep-Ifnse hm-InSbn Hcp L-
n Dmbncp-p. Hcp ]pcpj hkv{Xw amdp-Xv Hfnp \np t\mp bphXnI, Abm
]pdp hcp-tm Ifnbmp--XmWv ]c-kyns {]tabw. A] hkv{X[mcnIfmb bphXnI
fpsS BwK-yfpw Ne-\fpw kv{Xo kaqls BsI Ahtlfnp--XmWv. kv{Xosb hkvXp-
hcnp-sImv tImSnWn\v cq]-bpsS D]-- hn-gns-Spp. CXp-hsc enwK-kaXz-
ns Imc- yn tIcfw t\Snsb-Sp t\- fmWv CmXmbnsmncnp-Xv. hmjnwKv sajo
e`np--tXmsS kz-X{bmIp kv{Xotbbpw kvt\lap `mhv {]tXyI {_mv {]jIp-
hmnsmSp-p--tXmsS kwXr]vXbmIp `mc-ytbbpw \mw ]c-kyfn [mcmfw ImWmdp-v.
CubnsSbmbn ae- bmfw Nm\epIfn B`cWSI \ndp \np- p. IntemWn\v kzw
[cnp \np bphXnI ae-bmfnIfpsS kwkvImc-s-s tNmZyw sNp-p. BImip
\npw s]bv Xnd-p B`c-W ssIsb-nnSnp s]Ip-nI BWv ]pXnb Xe-ap-d-
bpsS amXrI. km-nI {]Xnkn aqew \w Xncnbp tIc-f-n hnhml [qv \mp-
\m IqSnhcp--Xn\p ]nn Cu B`cW tem_nbmsWp hyw. IntemWn\v kzw
tZlw apgp-h AWnp \np \psS \h h[p-v {]tNmZ\w ]c-kyfmsW-Xn\v
Xan.
am[y-afnse kv{XoI
sSenhnj\pw kv{Xobpw F hnjbw N sNptm sSenhnj m]\fnse kv{XoI
fpsS ]nd-hnIqSn IWnse-Sp-tXp-v.
s]mXp-hn tIcf-n am[ya {]hIcmb kv{XoIfpsS Fw ap kwm\sf At]-
nv hfsc Ipd-hmWv. GItZiw Hcp iXam\w t]mepw kv{XoIfnsv IWp-I hyamp-
31
p. Fm Ce- Ivt{SmWnIv am[yacw-KmWv kv{XoIfpsS kmnyw Aev]- sanep-ap-Xv. ASn
am[yacw-Ks nXn ]cnXm]-Ic-amWv. hmm hn`mK-nte-Xnt\m IqSp-X kv{XoI av
taJ-e-Ifn BsWnepw s]mXp-hn kv{Xo {]mXn\n[yw Ipd-hmsWp ]d-bm\mhn.
Cu FqSp-X AwKo-Icnp-tms asmcp {]iv\w ImWmXncnm Ignbn.
kv{XoIfpsS ]mfnw ]ptcmK-a\]-c-amb ImgvNmSn \nmtWm DmIp--sXv kwibnt
nbncnp-p. kv{XoIfpsS kmnyw Nm\ep-Iv "\ndw' ]Icp HmbmWv IWmp--Xv.
kv{XoI Gsdbpw AhXmc- -I BbmWv Sn.-hn. m]-\fn tPmen sNp--Xv. ]cn]mSnIv
angnhp e`nm kv{XoI AhXcnnWw F [mcW kv{Xo ico-cs NqjWw sNp--Xns
`mKw Xs-bmWv kv {Xo ico-cs Kuc-hap ]cn]mSnI Kuc-h-tmsS AhXcnnp--h
Nm\ep-Ifn hfsc Npcp-amWv. As-n kv{Xo {]iv\ AhXcnnp--Xn am{Xambn
CXp Npcp-p-p. ]e Kuc-hap NIfnepw kwhmZ-fnepw t]mepw s]mXp {]iv\sf-p-dnp
kwkmcnp-hm ]pcpj t\XmfmWv hcp--Xv. kv{XoIfp-ambn _-ap {]iv\p am{Xta
kv{Xo t\Xmsf hnfnmdp-q. AhXmc-I F-Xn\p-dv s{]mUyqkamcmtbm, Xocp-am\w
FSp-p thZnIfn {]hnp--hcmtbm Dh hnc-en Fmhp--h am{Xtabp-q. AXp-
sImp Xs Nm\ens \b-]-c-amb Imc-yfn kv{Xo ]-amb CSs]-S \Sm\p Ahk
chpw Xosc Ipd-hmsWp ImWmw. hmmhn`mK-n {]hnp kv{XoIfpsS kmnyw
Xobmbpw _pn\p-Iv hyXykvXamb am\w ]cnanXamsb-nepw \Im klmbnnp-v.
Fm ap cwK-fn Ccw CSs]-S th{X \Sp-n.
Sn.-hn.-Nm\ep-Ifn {]hnp kv{XoIfpsS kpc-nXXzw kw_-npw Bimhlamb
hnhc-f e`np--Xv. cm{Xnbpw ]Iepw jn^v-\p-kcnp tPmen sNtn hcp-Xp sImpw
kv{XoI Fn Ipd-hmb- Xp-sImpw ssewKnI ]oU\w hsc \Sp- -Xmbn Btcm]Ww
Dbnp-v. ssIc-fnbn am{XamWv ssewKnI ]oU\ hncp kanXn cq]o-Icnnp-Xv. am{Xa
, ]ecpw XmmenI Poh\m (AhXmc-I DssS) Bb-Xp-sImv ]e \nb-afpw Chv
XpWbmIp-p-an. Iymad Aknp-am apX s{]mUyp-khsc-bp hensbmcp kwL- ns\mw
{]hnp-tm kv{Xo F ]cnK-W\tbm kwc--Wtam e`nmXncnp-Xv AhcpsS B-
hnizmkw Xfm CSbmp--Xmbn ]ecpw kz-Imcy kw`mjWfn ]d-bmdp-v.
32
]cn-lmc \nti
kaqls Ghpw A[nIw kzm[o-\np am[yaw F \ne-bn Sn.-hn.-]- cn]mSn-Iv
kmaqly \nb- {Ww Gs-Sp- p--Xn\v kwhn[m\w DmIWw. AXnthK- n t{]- I\p
apneqsS ISp-t]mIp Zriy AmsS a\p-jyakvXnjvn Fp-Ibpw Ah Bib-
fmbn cq]sSp-Ibpw sNp-p. Zriyam[yafpsS Cu kz-`mhhntijXbmWv CXns inbpw
Zu_-e-yhpw. Cu khntijX kaqlns s]mXp-t_m[n KpW]-c-amb amw hcp-pXn\v
{]tbmP-\s-Sp-p-IbmWv Ime-L--ns Bhiyw. AXym[p-\nI imkv{X kmtXnIhnZy D]-
tbmKnp sSenhnjs\ \apv amn \nm Ignbn. Xmc-Xtay\ Ipd sNe-hn hnt\m
Zhpw hnm\hpw \psS kzo-IcW apdnbn Fnp sSenhnj Nm\ep-Iv enwK-kaXz-
n A[njvTnXamsbmcp ImgvNmSv Dmp-Xn\v kv{Xo {]m\ {iantXp-v. Fm
am[yapw CXv BhiyamsWnepw Sn.-hn.v {]tXyInpw C-c-samcp CSs]-S AXymhiy
amWv. ]ptcmK-a\]-c-amb kv{Xo kev]w kaqln cq]-s-Sp-p--Xn\v Sn.-hn.sb {]tbmP-\s-
Sp-m Ignb-Ww. CXv s]s-v Hcp kp{]`mXn Ignp Fp hcn. Fnepw \nc-c-amb
{]h-\fneqsS hensbmc-fhp hsc CXv km[npw. CXn\v HmaXmbn sNt-Xv hnthN\
_pntbmsS Sn.-hn.-ImWm ]TnpI F-XmWv. Bhiyamb t_m[hc-WneqsS t{]-
Isc ImgvNInSbneqsS ImWm ]cnio-ennp-I. Nnnm Ahkcw XcmsX kzw akvXn
jvIs ab-nnSp ImgvNIsf-p- dnp Xncn-dnhp-I t_m[-]qhamb {]h-\n
eqsS \Im km[npw.
cmaXmbn, Sn.-hn.-{]-h-Icp-ambn kv{Xo {]m\ \nc-c-amb Bib-hn\nabw \S
nsmncnWw. CXp-hgn Sn.-hn.-{]-h-Icp-ambn nc-amb Bib kwthZ-\n\v thZnI
Dmm Ignbpw.
aqmaXmbn, Sn.-hn.-]-cn]mSnI hnai\m-Iambn hne-bncp-m kwhn[m\ Dm
Ww. Sn.-hn.-bnse kv{Xo hncp-amb LSIsXnsc ]cmXn sImSp-p--Xn\pw \ne-hnep \nb-
a D]-tbmKnv A[nIrXsc-smv \S]-Snsb-Sp-np--Xn\pw Ignb-Ww. Cu aoUnbm tamWn
-dnwKv {Kqn\v Ime-{ItaW A[nImc AhImi e`yamp--Xn\pw Igntb-XmWv.
C-c- n \nc--c-amb {]h-\ Cu taJ-e-bn \Sm tIc-f-n ]p
am[ya kwkvImcw cq]-s-p-hcm henb Ime-Xmakw Dmhn. kv{Xo apt--n\v Ghpw henb
{]Xn_w krjvSnp-Xv am[yafmWv. CXns\Xncmb sNdp-p-\n]v FXv kv{Xo {]m
\fpsS AP-bn Hmw m\v htc-XmWv.
33
kv{Xo {]Xn-mb : Av.....-Cv
CybpsS {]Ya {][m\a{n Phlem s\{lp ]d-np-v.
"\nsfmcp P\Xsb Dcnm\m{K-lnp-s-n, BZyw AhnSps kv{XoIsf Dcnp-
I. kv{Xo \mbm IpSpw_w \mbn. IpSpw_w \mbm kaqlw \mbn. \mSp \mbn,
cmjv{S ]p\\nmWn CXmbncns \nfpsS e-yw'
{]ikvX {^p kmlnXyImc-\mb hnIvS lyqtKm(1802-1885) Fgp-Xn.
"\nfpsS kwkvImc-s-n RtfmSv {]kw-Knt. \nfpsS \mnse kv{XoIsfbpw
Ipp-sfbpw BZnhmknIsfbpw Rv ImWnp XcnI. AhtcmSv \n Fs\ s]cp-
amdpp Fp-Iv \nfpsS kwkvImc-s-n Rm hne-bncp-mw.'
kv {XoIv BZ-c-Wo- b- amb m\w \Insmv D]-\njn Ipdn-np hcnI
t\mpI.
"b{X \mc-ykvXp ]qP-yt
cmat X{X tZhXm:
bss{XZmkvXp \ ]qP-yt
k kvX{Xm ^em:-{Inb'
(kv{Xo FhnsSbmtWm am\ns-Sp-Xv AhnsS tZhXI ktmjtmsS hknp-p.
kv{Xo FhnsS am\ns-Sp-n-tbm, AhnsS \S-s-Sp--sXmw \njv^-e-amIp-p.)
kv{XoIfpsS Cs Ah-sb-n C\n Nnnmw. Cv Hmtcm Bdp an\nnepw Hcp
kv{Xo _emwKw sN-s-Sp-p. Hmtcm 44 an\nnepw Hcp kv{Xo `mhn\mtem _p-fmtem
ans-Sp-p. Hmtcm H-c-aWnqdnepw kv{Xo[\ns t]cn Hcp kv{Xo sIm-s-Sp-p.
BtKmf- hym]-Iambn \S hyXykvX ]T-\dntmp-If-\p- kcnv, hnIknX cmP-yfn aqp-
iXam\w kv{XoI IpSpw-_-fn A{Ian\nc-bmIp-tm, CybneXv 30 iXam\amWv.
ss{Iw sdtmUvkv _yqtdmbpsS IW\p-kcnv 1983-93 Ime-b-f-hn GItZiw 2200 kv{Xo
]oU\ tIkp-IfmWv cPn sN-s--Xv. 2002 Bb-tm tIkp-IfpsS Fw GXmv \menc-n
bmbn7298 tIkp-I. 2002 `mhns {Iqc-IsXnsc IpSpw-_-tImSXnbn 2705 tIkp-I
h-tm, 2003 AXv 3400 Hmf-ambn.
tIc-f-n Hcp Znhkw 14 kv{Xo ]oU\tp-I cPn sN-s-Sp-p. AXmbXv, {]Xn
hjw 5110 Fw.
tIc-f-nse 22.7 iXam\w kv{XoI hnhn[Xcw AXn{Iav Cc-bmIp--Xmbn tIc-f-
h\nXm Io-j 2003 \Snb ]T\w ]d-bp-p. AXn{IasXnsc ]cmXn \Ip--h 10.3
iXam\w am{XamWv.
s]{`qWlXy
P\npw-apt h[ns-Sm hn[ns-ncnp-IbmWv Cybn s]Ip-p-. tIc-
f-n {]Xnhjw 50000 s]{`qWlXy \Sp-p-smWv dntmv.
sFIycmjv{Sk`bpsS t]mp-te-j ^ns ]T-\a\p-kcnv Bdp-hb-p-hsc-bp IpnI
fpsS Bs] A\p-]mXn Ign ]p-hjn\p-n `oXnZ-amb CSnhmWp-mbncn
p--Xv. 1991 1000 BIp-nIv 945 s]Ip-nI Dmbncp-s-n 2001 AXv 927 Bbn
Ipdp.
34
Btfmlcn hcp-am\n cmP-yv ap-\mb Ulnbn B s] A\p-]mXw 900
XmsgbmWv. Xe-m\w nXn sNp sXp ]Snmd {]tZ-iv 1000 BIp-nIv 845
s]IpnI am{XamWp-Xv. apwss_-bneXv 898 BWv. ]m_nse Hcp Pn-bnepw 850 s]Ip-
nIfn A[nIan.
tIc-f-n Bs] A\p-]mXw Ghpw Ipdhv Xriq Pn-bnemWv. 948. Ghpw IqSp-
X ImktKmUv Pn-bnepw 984. tIc-f-nse anI kv{Xo ]pcpj A\p-]mXw Hcp Imev sImn
tLmjns- ncp-pshn, kwm\v BimP-\Iamw-hn[w Ctm s] A\p- ]mXw Xmgvp-
t]mbn-sm-n-cnp-p.
K`[mc-Wn\p-tijhpw inip-]nd-hnp app-ap enwK-\nb-\ntcm[\ \nbaw 2003
{]m_-e-yn hs-nepw, AXv Ii\ambn \Snem-msX "ISemkp-]p-en"bmbn \ne-\np-
p. enwK \nWb ]cntim[\ \Sp 21000 ntesd A{Smkuv skdp-I Cybn
Ctm {]hnp-p-v. hntcm[m`mksap ]d-b-s. Hcp kv{Xo \mSp `cnp _olmdn
163200 s]{`qWlXyIfmWv 2002 \S-Xv!
kv{Xo hnthN\w
temInse Azm\ns aqn cp-`mKw \nlnp-Xv kv{XoIfmWv. Fm
hcp-am\ns ]nsemp-am{XamWv kv{XoIv e`np--Xv.
temIs \nc--c-cn aqn cpw kv{XoIfmWv. temIv Ghpw IqSp-X amXracWw
\Sp cmP-yamWv Cy. temIs 20 iXam\w amXrac-Wfpw ChnsSbmWv.
temIk`bn Bdp iX-am\hpw \nb-ak-`bn \mep iXam\hp-amWv Ign Ac- \qm
mbn kv{XoIfpsS {]mXn\n[yw. tIcf \nb-ak`bn 141 8 kv{XoIfpw temIk`bn 20 Hcp
kv{Xobp-am-Wp-Xv.
`c-WL-S\bnse 73 Dw 74 Dw t`Z-K-XnbneqsS 33 iXam\w kop-I, tmv, PnmXe-fn
35
kv{XoImbn kwhcWw sNbvXnp-snepw, ]me-
sanepw kwm\ Akw-nIfnepw kv{Xo {]mXn\n
[yw 33 iXam\amn Dbp 84maXp `c-WL-S\
t`Z-KXn _n ISp FXnp-aqew Dt]-nt
Xmbn hp.
lnp- h- yn \nb- a- {]-Imcw ]mc- - c- y- am- bp
IqpIpSpw_nse kzn\hIminI IpSpw_- nse
]pcpj AwK- am{XamWv. 1956 se lnp ]nXp-
SmhImi \nb-a{]-Imchpw Cy kv{Xobvv IpSpw-
_-kz-n\hmIian. tIcfw, B{, Xangv\mSv, alm
cmjv{S Fo kwm\fn am{XamWv kv{XoIsf-
qSn AhIminIfmm Xhn[w t`Z-KXn hcp-n
bnp-Xv. 1956 se \nb-aa\p-kcnv Xmaknp hoSv
`mKw hbvm kv{Xo AhIminIv ]pcpj Ah
IminI Xocp-am\np-nStmfw AhImiap-mbn
cnnsv hyambncnp-p.
1986 kp{]ow tImSXn tacn tdmbn tIkneqsS
Xncp-hnXmw-Iq {InkvXy \nbaw Akm[p-hmnb-tXm
sSbmWv, {InkvXy kv{XoIv ]nXmhns kz-n
ep AhImiw AwKo-Icns--Xv.
bqtdmnse Ghpw anI bqWnthgvknnbmb
tIw{_nUvPv kIemime-bpsS 800 hs Ncn{X
n BZ-yambn 2003 Hcp h\nX sshkv Nmke-
dmbn. \c-hw-iimkv{X-bmb Aenk dnmUv
BWv 2003 HIvtSm_ 1 \v 344-mas sshkv Nmk
e-dmbn \nb-anXbmb-Xv.
tIc-f-nse Hcp kIemime-bnepw h\nXm
sshkv Nmkneamsc \nb-annn. sshkv Nmk
e, t{]msshkv Nmke, cPnkv{Sm, ^n\mkv
Hm^o-k, It{Smf Hm^v FIvkmant\jkv Fns\ Av {][m\ m\fnep-hcmWv
bqWnthgvknnbpsS `cWw \nb-{n
p- Xv. tUm. hn.- F.jmsev alm
mKmn kIemime- bnse t{]m
sshkv Nmke Bbncp- -sXmgn
m tIc-f-nse Ggp kIem
imeIfnepw IqSnbp Cu 35 m\
fn Hnt]mepw CXp-hsc h\n
XIsf \nb-annnmsb-Xv em
Ic-at ?
Pohn- X- ns ka- kv X- ta- J- e- I-
fnepw kwm\n\Ipw AJnte
ym-e-nepw {]mK- yw sXfn-bn
H-\h[n alXnIv Pw \Inb
kwm\amWv tIc-fw. Cybnse
BZ- ys h\nXm ssltm- SXn
36
PUvPn tIcf ssltmSXnbn tkh\a
\p-jvTn Pnkv Am Nmnbmbncp-p.
kp{]ow tImSXnbnse BZ-ys h\nXm
PUvPnbpw ae-bmfnbmb Pnkv ^mna
_ohnbmbncp- p. Acp- Xn tdmbn apX
ARv Pp t_m_n tPmv hsc hnhn[
taJ-e-Ifn BtKmf {i ]nSnp ]nb
ae- bmfn h\n- X- I D- tm, kzw
\mn AlXbp kv{XoIsf AhKWn
p-Xv ]pcp-jm[n]-Xyns {]ISamb
{]Xn^-e-\at ?
tIc- f-t-m hnZ- ym`ymknepw
kmaq-lnI ]Z- hn-bnepw kv{XoI _lp-
ImXw ]nn \np ap kwm\fn h\nXm sshkv Nmkneamcpw h\nXm kIem
ime-Ifp-ap-v. kmaqlnI ]cnjvImhmb aljn tIihv Imsh 1916 ]qs\bn m]n
Cy hnsakv bqWnthgvknnbmWv cmP-ys BZ-ys h\nXm kIemime. ]noSv apws_-
bntev amn m]n Cu bqWnthgvknn {ioaXn \o-`mbv ZmtamZ Xmsd (SNDT) F t]cn
{]ikvXamWv. 1935 cmP-m\n Bcw-`n `\en hnZ-ym]o-T-amWv t]cp-tI asmcp h\nXm
kIemime.
SNDT kIemime-bnse {ioaXn cq]m jmbvp ]pdsa Zo\Z-bm D]m[ymb tKmc-Jv]q
bqWnthgvknn, Kmn {Kmw dqd Cn-yqv, Cnc Iemkw-Ko-X]mTw, c_o-{`mcXn bqWnth
gvknn XpSnb kIemime-Ifn Ctm sshkv Nmke m\w hlnp-Xv h\nXIfm
Wv . tIc- f- nse ap No^v
sk{Idn ]-cmaN{ Fw.-F-
kv . - _- tdmU bq Wn - th- gv kn n
sshkv Nmk-e- dmbn tkh\w
A\p-jvTnnp-v.
temIk`bn 544 AwK
fmWpXv. Chcn kv{XoIfpsS
Fw 44(8.8 iXam\w). cmPyk
`bnse 245 AwK-fn h\nXI
fpsS Fw 18 am{XamWv.
_n.-sP.-]n.-bpsS D-Xm[n
Imc kan- Xn- bmb ]me- sadn
t_mUn 9 AwK-fmWp-Xv.
AXn Hcp kv{Xobvp am{Xta
{]mXn\n[yapq. 73 AwKfp
\mjW FIvknIyqohn h\n
XIfpsS Fw 9.
19 AwK-fp tIm{K-ns hnwKv Innbn cv kv{XoItf-bp-q. 15 AwK-
fp kn.-]n.Fw t]mfnv _yqtdmbn Hcp h\nX t]mep-an. 70 AwK-fp kn.-]n.-Fw. sk{S
Innbn Av kv{XoI am{Xw. kn.-]n.-sF.-bpsS 9 AwK-fp sk{I-dntb-n kv{XoIv
{]mXn\n-[-y-an.
Ct^mknkv ^utjs sNbt]-gvk kp[maqn Cy Cn-yqn \npw
I-yq kbkn _ncpZw t\SnbXn\p-tijw SmmbpsS Fn\o-b-dnwKv hn`mK-amb sStImbn
37
emWv BZyw tN-Xv. sStIm
tPmenmbn At] Wn--
tm kv{XoI At]-nt
Xnsv ImWnncp-p. ]c-kyw
hmbn kp[maqn C-c-n
ep kv{Xo hnthN\ns\Xnsc
Xs { ]Xn tj[w Bdn - bn - p -
sImv t]mv ImUn sP.- B.-
Un.- m-bvsgp-Xn. sStImbnse
BZ- ys h\nXm sSIv \n-
Hm^o- kdmbn kp[sb \nb-anp-
sImv Xs sXp Xncp- nb
Smm kv{XoIsf "A_e"Ifsp
ap{Z- Ip-n Ah-K-Wn-p--hv
A\p-Ic-Wob amXrIbmWv
tPmhm Hm^v BIv, sle sI, amUw Iyqdn, CncmKmn, amK-cv Xm, tKmUm
tab, kncnamthm _mc \mbnsI, _oKw JmenZv Aknb, N{nIm Ipamc-Xpw-K, aZ sXtc-k,
Inc t_[n, ta[m]-SvI, Acp-Xn tdmbn, I\m Nuf Chscmw kv{Xo A_-e-b "kp-_-
e"bmsWv sXfnbn-hcm-Wv.
kv{Xo[\-]oU\w
1961 {]m_-e-yn h-XmWv kv{Xo[\ \ntcm[\nb-aw, hnhmlw Ignv Ggp-hjn
\p-n ZpcqlkmlNc-yn kv{Xo acnm `mhns\bpw, AbmfpsS hop-Imscbpw At\z-j
Wn\p tijw Adv sNm A[nImcw \Ip--Xmbncpp Cu \nb-aw, `mc-ysb B-lXybn
tev \bnsv sXfnm `mhn\pw hop-Impw aqp-hjw hsc ITn\XShv \Im\pw
CXn hyh-bp-mbncp-p.
]s, \nb-akw-c--Wap-mbnpw cmP-yv kv{Xo[\ ac-W s]cp-In. 1990 cmP-yv
kv{Xo[\hp-ambn _-s 4836 Bbncp-p. 1996 AXv 5250 Bbn hnp. tIc-f-n 2000
25 Dw 2001 27 Dw 2002 16 Dw
t]cmWv kv{Xo[\hp-ambn _-sv
ZpcqlkmlNc-yfn acnXv.
tIc- f-nse Fp- Ip- Spw-_tImSXn
Ifn \ne-hnep hnhmltamlN\
tIkp-Ifn, 24 iXam\hpw kv{Xo[
\hp-ambn _-s--hbmWv.
kv{XoIv IqSp- X kwc- Ww
\Im 1984 Cy inm\nb-
a- n 498 F F hIpp IqSn
Ds-Sp-n, {Iqc-ambn s]cp-amdp
`mhns\bpw hopImscbpw Adv
sNnm\p A[nImcw kv {Xov
\Inbnp-v. CXv Pmayanm Ip-am
Wv. C{X Ii\amb \nb-afp-m
bnpw \psS cmP-yv kv{Xo ]oU\
Znhtk\ s]cp-Ip-IbmWv.
`oa- amb kv {Xo[\w \tI- -
38
tXmv Akz--cmbncnp bphXnIfpw
amXm]nXmfpw FpsNWw ? \njmi
sbbpw hnZ-ysbbpw A\p-]-asbbpw ^km
\sbbpw amXrIbmp-I.
2003 sabv 11 \mbncpp \njmi
bpsS hnhmlw. a\ojv Zemepambn \Sm
\n- bn- n- cp- - Xv . AXn- \mbn {^nUv Pv ,
hmjnwKv sajo, ayqknIv knw, sSenhnj
Fnh csw hoXhpw Hcp amcpXn Fow
Imdpw kv{Xo[\ambn Ah \In. Hcp skv
Ce- Iv t{Sm- WnIv D]- I- c- W- a\o- jns
ktlmZ- c-\p-thnbmbn-cp-p. CXns\mw
]pdsa hnhmln\v GXm\pw an\np-Iv
apv 12 ew cq] ]Wambn \IWsa\v
a\o- jns A Unam v hp. CX-dn
\nj t]meo-kn\v t^m sNbvXp. hnhml
N- S- n ]s- Sp- m- s\- nb cm- bn- c-
tmfw t]sc kmn \nn t]meokv a\o-jns\bpw IpSpw-_-sbpw Adv sNbvXp.
hnhmln\v aWnqdp-Iv apmWv h\nXm t]meokv tj\n A`bw tXSnb hnZy
IqSp-X kv{Xo[\w tNmZn {]Xn{ip-Xhc-s\bpw amXm]n
Xmsfbpw 2003 Pq 4 \v Cc--gnp-nemnb-Xv.
Ulnbn tkm^vvshb hnZ-ymnbmb \nj D]-
cnhK IpSpw_-nse AwK-amsWn, sNss-bnse CS
cw IpSpw-_-n P\n hnZy Hcp kz-Imcy I-\nbnse
Poh-\mcnbmWv.
Ulnmcn-bmb A\p-]am knv hnhmlw Ignv
\nan- j- p- n IqSp- X kv {Xo[\w Bh- i- y- s
`mhns\ thsv shp. Nmn\n Nun Xmakn
p ^km\ kmnb F apow bphXn, hnhml\n
-b-thf-bn Xs Hcp hoSp IqSn tNmZn hcs\ Xnc-
kvIcnp.
D{]-tZ-ivUln AXnnbnep t\mbnUbnse
Kp kap-Zmb-nep 20000 IpSpw-_- 2003 Pq
Hn\v kv{Xo[\w kzo-Icnp-Itbm \Ip-Itbm sNp
IpSpw_sf kapZmbn \npw _lnjvIcnm Xocp
am\saSp-Xv hnZ-ym`ymkn CXc kwm\v amXrIbmbn \ne-sImp tIc-f-nse
A`y-kvXhnZ-ysc ennp-nt?
taapv kacw
kv{Xo hnthN\ns\Xnsc tIc-f-n \S kv{Xo apt--fn Ghpw {inbvs-
Xv sX Xncp-hnXmw-Iqdn hjtfmfw \op \n Nmm Iem](taapv kacw) ambn
cp-p. amdp-ad-bvm\p Nmm(\mSm) kv{XoIfpsS AhImin\p-thnbmbncpp kacw.
IogvPmXnbnep Cughkv{Xo-I, ]peb kv{XoI, AXn\pw Xmsgbp kv{XoI Fn
hv apn\v Xmsg app-Sp-mt\m amdp-ad-bvmt\m ]v AhImianmbncp-p. \mb kv{Xobvv
aptmfhpw AXnepw Db PmXnbse kv{XoIv apn\p Xmsg hscbpw app-Sp-msan, \p-
39
Xncn kv{XoIv IWm hsc
\on app-Sp-m\pw ]pd-t-bvn
dptm hkv {Xw sImv Ac-
bvp-ta ad-bvphm\pw A\p-hmZ-
ap-mbn-cp-p.
CXn - s\- Xn - sc, Nmm
kv{XoI amdp-adv s]mXp-\nc-p-
Ifnepw Nbnepw h- tm, \q
Xn- cn- amcpw \mbam- cp- amb ]pcp-
jam Ahsc B{Ianp. ]Icw
hom\mbn Nmm kv{XoI \mb kv{XoIsf A{Ianp.
1928 dh\yq Ckvs]-IvS Cuiz-c ]nbpsS t\XrXz-n Nmm IpnIsf kvIqfn
\nv ]pd- mp- Ibpw kv{XoIfpsS Pmv henp- Iodp- Ibpw sNbvXp. CXns\ XpSp- mb Iem]w
ASnam sImp \nv ]mf-san. kacw iamb- tm, Xncph\]pcw Znhm tIW
atdm Nmm kv{XoIv Pmv [cnmsapw, taapv [cn
p-IqsSpw D-c-hnp. ]noSv 1829 Pqsse-bnemWv Fm Nmm
kv{XoIpw Pmpw taappw [cnm\p A\p-hmZw e`n
Xv.
Ipame kacw
hkv{X[mcWw t]mse B`c-W [cnp--Xns\p-dnpw
apSn sIp coXnsb-p-dnpw kv{XoIfpsS ta khm[nImc-
imk\I ]v {]_-e-ambncp-p. PmXnhyh-{]-Imcw IogvPmXn
mcpsS B`cWw Idp NcSpw Ip-ame-bp-ambncp-p. s]m-c-
mWw, ]me-bv mtamXncw, \mK-]-Smen, ]-S-men, ]qm
en, Hgp-hf, ImXne, tXmS XpSnbh kh kv{XoI am{Xw
[cnp B`cWfmbncpp. ]pe- b- kv{XoI Ip- sImpw Ipn
np-sImp-ap `mc-ap ame-I [cnWsaXv Iiamb
\nb-a-ambncp-p.
CXns\Xnsc 1905 AImfnbpsS t\XrXzn sImp \S
{]Xntj[ ktf\n Bbnc-Wn\v ]pe-b-kv{Xo-I ]sSp-p. ]sSp kv{XoIsfmw
Ah Igp-n [cnncp Ip-ame-I s]mnsdnp. Cu kw`hamWv "Ip-ame kac"sa
t]cne- dnb-s-Sp- -Xv.
192425 Imev Cughkv{XoIfpsSbpw IogvPmXnmcp-sSbpw ]cnjvIc- W{]-m\n kPo-
hambn {]hnncp Imfnpn Bimn, Ap kv{XoI A\p-`hn bmX\Isf-n hnhcnp-
p- v.
"kv{Xo-I ASnaIfmbncp-p. Ahv hnZ-ym`ymkap-mbncp-n. \nc-p-IfnIqSn \S
m Ignbp-ambncp-n. ]pcp-jmcpsS apJv t\mmt\m AhtcmSv kwkmcnmt\m AlX
bp-mbncp- n. Ipp-sf- bp-mp b{ am{Xam-bn-cpp kv{XoI. ]pcp-jam
kv{Xobvv kaXzmhImi A\p-hZnm Xs Hcp kv{XobpsS ]Wn acmav hIpv a{nbp-tS
Xmbncnpw. `mhn\p-thn Ah hop-Imc-y t\mp-Ibpw IpnIsf hfp-Ibpw IpSpw-
_-nse hchp sNe-hp-I {Iao-Icnp-Ibpw sNWw'
kzm-X{y-k-ac-nse kv{Xo ]m-fnw
"kzmX{y kac-n kv{XoI hln ]v kzen]nIfn tcJ-s-Sp-t-XmWv Fv
cmjv{S]nXmhmb almmKmn ]d-np-v.
40
1920 apX C- y \mj-
W tIm{Kkv _lp-P-\-]mn
bmb-tXmsS, kv{XoIfpw kzmX{y
k- a- c- n ]s- Sp - - W- sav
KmnPn Blzm\w sNbvXp 1920 se
\nlIcW {]m\n ]s
Spv kzm- `- c- W- apgp- h
kw`hm\ sNbvX tcWpIm dmbv, k
X-ym-{K-l- nSbn \ntcm- [n
]pkvXI hnp- Ibpw \nbaw
ewLn v Adv hcn - p - Ibp w
sNbvX IaemtZhn NtXm]-ymb,
tIm{Kkv kv{Xo hn`mKw Dmp-
Ibpw 1930 Km\v[nPnbpsS Ad-
n\p-tijw Dp-kXym{Klw \bn
p-Ibpw sNbvX ktcmPn\n \mbn
Up, AarXvIu, arZpe kmcm`mbn,
kptNXm Ir]men\n, ]Pm \mbn
Up. ZpKm_mbv tZivap-Jv, AcpWm
Ak^v Aen XpSnb Bbnc-
Wn\v kv{XoIfpsS t\XrXz- n
tZiob kzmX{y{]-m\w apt-
dn. 1930-31 Imev 20000 kv{XoIsf-bmWv {_nojv ]mfw Pbne-gnIp-ne-SXv.
tIc-f-n ae-_m tI{ambn hfp-h knhn \nb-aew-L\ {]m\w kv{XoIfpsS
kPoh kac-]-mfnw sImv {itb-ambn, _me-`mcXvkw-Lw, _menIkwLw, alnfm kwLw,
pUvkv eoKv XpSnb kv{XoIfpsS kwL-, 1931 ]-qcn \S Dp kXym{K-ln
]sSp-p-Ibpw \nbaw ewLnp-Ibpw Adv hcnp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
1931 s^{_p-hcn 2 \v Dp-\nIpXn \nbaw ewLnXn\v kv{Xo t\Xmfmbncp Cuiz-cnb-
bpw, Fw.-sI.-Pm\Inb-bpw Hcp hjs XShv kzo-Icnp. Fw.-hn.-Ip-namfp A, Ipnmh
, A sNdnbm, sanU I, Iaew, B\n akv{Io,
Imym\nb-, sImp-Ip-nb Fnh Bdp amktam
Hcp hjtam XShp-in A\p-`hnhcmWv.
1932 hntZi hkv{XS-Iv apnse ]n-n\nS
bn, kX- ym- {Kl ]cn- ]m- Sn- I- fn ]s- Sp- - Xn\v cp-
hjs XShn\v inns Fw.-hn.-Ip-namfp A Bdp-
amkw {]mb- ap ssIp- n-t\mSp IqSnbmWv Pbn-en
t]mb-Xv.
Cybvv kzmX{yw e`nXv ]pcp-jmcpsS am{Xamb
{]bXv\w sIm. ]pcp-jmsc-tmse Xs kv{XoIfpw
imco-cnIamb a\ta-hcmWv.....-tXmn\nc-bmb-hcmWv.....-X
Shn Ign-hcmWv......-kzm`m-hnIambpw cmw-Xcw ]uc-
Xz-a kv{Xov e`ntXv.
"Nm-]-e-yta, \ns t]cmWv kv{Xo (Frailty, thy naMe is
woman) Fp ]d tjIvkv]nb-tdmSv F\nv klXm]-
amWv. kv{Xo N]-e-tb-m A_-etbm A, kv{Xo kp_-e-
41
bmWv.
ssIn- cn- bmbv
1972 Cybnse BZ-ys h\nXm
sF.-]n.-F-kv.-Hm^o-kdmbn sXc-sSp-s
Inct_Zn Cs s]IpnIpw bph
XnIpw kv{XoIpw D-aamXrIbmWv.
Cybnse Ghpw henb ImcmKrl
amb Xolm Pbnens sF.-Pn.-bmbn 1990
Inct_Zn \nb-anXbmbn. AhnsS ]Xn\m
bnc-tmfw ]pcpj XShp-Imcpw apqdntesd
kv{Xo XShp-Imcpw Dmbncp-p. Inc h-
tXmsS Imcm-Krlw "\ho-I-cW tI{"-ambn.
Pbn Xpd kvIqfmbn. CncmKmn \mj
W bqWn-thgvknnbpw \mjW Hm
kv Iqfpw Hmtcmtcm imJ-I Pbnen Xpd-
p. XShp- Imsc sXmgne-[njvTnX tImgvkp-
I ]Tnnp. tPmen sNbvXp Inp ]Ww
kqn- m Pbn- en- \p- n XS- hp- Imv
t_v XpSn. "hn]mk\' F [ym\]-cn]m
Sn- bn- eqsS XS- hp- Im ]pXnb a\p- j- y- cm- bn.
As\ Pbn ]pnIv ImcmKrlw kzw hoSp t]mse-bmbn. hjtfmfw ]pcp-jt]meokv
ta[mhnIv Ignbm-Xv, {lkz-Ime-L--n\p-n Xs t\Snsb-Sp Inc t_Znv 1994
^nenskv Bm\amb cma aKvksk ^utj km ko-knse anI tkh\n
\p aKvksk AhmUv km\np. 2003 sFIycmjv{S kwL-S\bpsS kam[m\tk\bnse
t]meokv hn`mK-ns D]-tZ-iIbmbn sk{Idn
P\-d tIm^n A, Inc t_Znsb-bmWv
\nb-an-Xv.
tIcfn \npw GXm\pw DZmlcW. 2000
01 kwm\s Ghpw anI ]mb-n
\p kz-cmPv t{Sm^n IcamnbXv kn.-F-kv.-
kp-Pm-X-bpsS t\XrX-z-n-ep Be-pg Pnm
]m-b-mbn-cp- p.
17-mw hb-n Ccp-Imep-Ifpw Xfp-t]m-b-Xn
\m ae-pdw Pn-bnse shne-mSv {Kmanse dm_nbbvv Fkv.-F-kv.-F.-kn.bvv tijw
]T\w XpScm\mbn. honencpv ]pkvXI hcp-nv Ah ]Tnp. tIcf km km-
cXm anj XpSp--Xn\v apv Xs dm_nb \mp-Imsc Acw ]Tnnp. 1994 \mjW en-
dkn anjs AhmUv e`n dm_nbsb A`n\np-sImv Kpcp \nXyssNX\y bXn Fgp-Xnb
In\v \Inb adp-]Sn Bcp-sSbpw lrZbw Ihcpw.
"P-\\"sa ap--c-n \nv "ac-W"sa aq--c-ntev ISp--Xn\p apv "Po-hn
X' sa aq-cw Bibm-n kaqln\v D]-Imc-{]-Z-amb coXnbn Pohnp acnWsa
mWv Fs B{K-lw'.
1994 P\o-hbn sFIycmjv{S kwL-S\ \Snb AtZ-iob ktf-\n tIc-f-
ns {]Xn\n[nbmbn ]sSpv BZnhmknIfpsS {]iv\ AhXcnn sI.-Pm\p Ap-h
bp apX apXemfnamcpsS hon ]Wnp- t]mhp- Ibpw, ]{mw hbp apX IqenWn sNbvXn
42
cp--hfp-ambncp-p. {]mY-anI hnZ-ym`ymkw t]mepw e`nm kn.sI. Pm\p ]noSv km-cXm
mkneqsSbmWv Fgppw hmb-\bpw ]TnXv. kmaqly{]-h\w XpSnbXv kn.-]n.-F-ns
IjsXmgnemfn bqWnb\n tNpsImv.
BZnhmkn {]iv\fn ]mnbpsS \ne-]mSv icnb-sp ]dv 1991 ]mn hn Pm\p
1992 BZnhmkn hnIk\ {]hI kanXnbvv cq]w sImSp-p. Pm\p-hns t\XrXz-n 1992
HIvtSm_-dn kwL-Snn ZnWmtaJem BZnhmkn kwK-an ]Xn\mbnc-tmfw BZnhmkn
IfmWv ]sSp--Xv. 1994 se Ghpw \ kmaqly {]h-Ip kwm\ kmcns
AhmUv hIp-p-a{nbpsS apn hensdnp-sImmWv kmcns {]oW\ X{sf Pm\p
FXn-Xv.
Pm\p-hns \n-b-ZmV-yhpw a\:-inbpw {]ikvX Ihnbn{Xn kpK-XIp-amcn AhcpsS k
ev]-nse ae-bmfns-ns\p-dnv Ipdn hcnImWv \s Hmnnp--Xv.
""ae-bmfs kvt\lnp--h
Xe-bp- bn-nSn-p- - h
[ocm-`nam\n
kzw Imen \nv the-sNbvXp Pohnm Ignhp--h
kvt\ls apdpsI ]nSnp-p, Fnepw
A]-am\w s]mdp-m-h
Ahv s]-\mSns ssNX\yhpw Icp-p-ap-v''
kv {Xo- in
\s-nt\mSv _-s-ncnp Ggv N{IfnemWv a\p-jya\ns A[njvTm\sav tbmK-
imkv{Xw ]d-bp-p. Hmtcm N{In\pw \nb-Xamb m\hpw KpWhp-ap-v.
\s-ns Ghpw ASnbn nXn sNp aqe-[mc-N{Iw lrZ-b-nsXpw ap-amb ASn
m\ imco-cnI{]-h-\ \nb-{np-p. AXn\p-ap-Ifnse kzm[njvTm\N{Iw ssewKnItNm
Z-\sb \nb-{np-p. sXmp-ap-Ifnse aWn]qc-IN{Iw Zl\{]-{Inb, Xocp-am\np-d {]h-\
n\p tijn Fnhsb-bmWv \nb-{np--Xv.
A\mlXN{Iw hnImc-fp-sSbpw A\p-`qXnIfp-sSbpw \nb-{Wm\amWv. Igp-nse
hnip-nN{Iw D]-t_m[NnIfnepw C.-F.-Sn.-hyh-bntepw \nb-{Ww sNep-p-p. Ip-
InSbnse BmN{Iw bpn]qap euInI {]h-\ns tijnsb-bmWv \nb-{n
p--Xv. inc-nse kl{kmNmc-N{Iw BymnI inIfpsS tI{amWv.
kv {XoIpw ]pcp-j-mpw Cu N{I s]mXp-hmWv, ]s, ChbpsS inI
Bt]-nIambn hyXykvX Af-hp-IfnemWp-Xv.
kv{XoIfn kz-Xth hnImc-sfbpw A\p-`qXnIsfbpw \nb-{np "A\mlXN{Iw' i
ambncnpw. kv{XoI hnImc-]-c-ambpw A\p-`qXn]-c-ambpw apnemhp-- Xns Imc-WanXmWv. injy
cp-ambn A\mbmkw _w ]pem Ignbp--Xn\memWv Xm{nIKp-cp-tf-sdbpw kv{XoIfmb-
sXv ]d-b-s-Sp-p.
bpnhnNmc-tijnbp-sSbpw euInI {]h-\fp-sSbpw tI{amb "B-mN{Iw' ]pcp-
jmcn iambn ImWs-Sp-p. bpn_ {]h-\fnepw `uXnIimkv{Xcw-Kpw ]pcp-
j s]mXpsh hnP-bnp--Xns Imc-WanXmWv. sNv IfnmnSbnepw KWnXimkv{XtaJ-e-
bnepw kv{XoI {]mtbW Ipd-bm\pw CXp-Xs-bmWv Imc-Ww.
kv{Xo ]pcp-jmnSbnse Cu hy-Xymkw auenIhpw ASnm\-]-c-hp-amWv. AsXmcp
imco-cn-I-ssP-hbmYm-y-amWv.
Cu temIw `uXnIXbn Dunb-XmWv. AXmWv ]pcp-jtI{o-IrX hyhnXnbvp Imc-
Ww. kv{XobpsS sshImcnIhpw A\p-`qXn]-c-hp-amb Ignhp-I th{X hne-aXns-SmXncnp--
43
Xns Imc-Whpw CXp Xs.
ebnse bp`qanbn hv Xs ssIhiw {_mkv{Xap-sv ad-p-t]mb {iocmas
Ah-bnemWv Cv kv{Xo. Ah kzw knn a\nemmsX X A_-e-IfmsWv Icp-
Xp-tmgmWv NqjWn\pw hnthN\n\pw hnt[b-amhp--Xv.
D]-kwlmcw
amv 8 \mWv BtKmf-h\nXmZn\w, Rm ]pcp-jt\m, bphmthm, BIp-ntbm BsWn
a\p-kvarXn ]d-bp-Xv Dsmp-I.
"kv{Xo BZ-cns-Sp-nSv ssZhw hknp-p'
Rm kv{Xotbm bphXntbm s]Ip-ntbm BsWn almmKmn ]d-Xv Hmn
pI.
"]p-cp-js\ A\p-Icnp--XneqsStbm, Aht\mSv a-cnp--XneqsStbm, XtXmb kw`m
h\ temIn\v \Im kv{Xobvmhn. Ahv a-cnmw. Fm ]pcp-js\ A\p-Icnp-
-XneqsS, X\nv {]m]-yfmb HunXy Ahv \jvSs-Sp-p. Ah ]pcp-js ]qc-Iam
bncnWw.'
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
o Kmmcn- hn- em]w
o ]mfmc
o Ap\ hnjmZ- tbmKw
shpI apdnbvpI
]p-hbvpI {Kmaw
]-\w, P\]-Z
samsbpw ! sImpw Xnpw
hmgpI ]penIfmbv
knwlfmbpw ! ay
cmhpI am{Xw h, PpX Pbnpp
BapJw
temI almbp, km{amP-yXz-ns AXn{]-kcw, ]mmXy ]uc-kvXy
\mSp-Ifn \S almhn-h, Gjybntebpw B{^nbntebpw kzm
X{ykac- , temIsmSpap Xo{hhmZ hn[zwkI {]h\.....
B[p-\nI a\p-jymhsb amn adnncnp-p. bpw Fns
t]cnembmepw AXv \minte Ieminnp-q. AwK-`wKw hv Pohh
amb-h, PohnXns Xmfw sXnb-h, bpw hcp-nb A\mY-Xzw t]dp-
-h, Zpc-aqv ]c-kv]cw ]gn Nmcp--h......-As\ \op t]mIpp B
]nI.
Bbp[w sImv Fmw ]cnlcnmsa [mcW sXmsW Xncn
dnhp-mhWw. kvt\lhpw klIc-Whp-amWv B\Ic-amb PohnXn
\mhiyw F at\m`mhw cq]-s-SWw. a\p-jys\ sImm\p Bbp-[
f Pohnnm\p A-amWv thXv. ]pcmWfpw CXnlmkfpw
aX{K--fpw DZvtLmjnp-Xpw AXp Xs.
mkp apdnbn \ap-ssms sNm Ignbpw.
bqWnv 3
Aimn]h- pdw
51
* Imq hni- Ie\w, ]m\ N
52
Imq \nco--Wn \npw IpnI Bibw Isp-atm
o bpn sIm-s-Sp-Xv ktlmZ-c Xs.
o Hcp ]mf-mc\pw a\tmsSb bpn ]sSp-p-Xv
o A[nImc-nsbpw A[n\nthinsbpw kzmX
Bfp-Isf bpntev \bnpp
o
o
o
o
Nmv {]Zi\w
o hniIe\w sNbvXv A`n{]mb cq]o-IcWw Ipdnmatm. CXn \npw
Inp Bib-fn \npw bps-p-dnp hyXykvX A`n{]mb-
Dbp-hcp-atm. bpntep \bnp kaImenI kmlNcy
AhtemI\w sNbvXv bpw Bhiyap-v, bpw Bhiyan F
hmZ-ap-J-fp-hsc thXncnv ]m\ N \Smw
""Fm cmPypw {]Xntcm[a{nbpv. Fm Hcp cmPyn\pw
B{IaW a{nbn.''
Fw.- F.-hnP-bam
"" Hcp Ic-W-Snm adp-Ic-Whpw ImnsmSp-p-I''
tbip-{InkvXp
53
A[n\nthi hy{K-Xbn \nc-]-cm[nIfpsS chpw, \nlmb-hcpsS \ne-hnfnbpw, FmIm
epw Db-cmdp-v. kmlnXy cN\Ifn Ch CSw-]nSnmdp-v. A-c-nsemcp IhnXbmWv.
shs- cn sImp_m- enI
CXp Rm\mWv
\nfpsS hmXnen hp \np-Xv
F{Xtbm hmXnenembv appp Rm
Bp-sas ImWm Ignbn
acnhsc{X AZriycmWv
Rm lntcmjnabn acnp
Hcp kwhcw apv
]s F\nnpw Ggp-hb-mWv
acn IpnI hf-cntm
AZriysa apSnp XonSnp
]ns-sb IqI shscnp
Rms\mcp ssIp-n Nmc-ambv
Imn Nnd-In ]dp
F\nmbv Rms\mpw tNmZnn
Binm\n-s-\n-smp-sampw
shscn _menIbvv
anTmbn Xnm t]mep-amhntm?
CXp Rm\mWv
\nfpsS hmXnen app-Xv
F\nv \nfpsS Hp-am{Xw aXn
C\nsbmcnepw Ipp- shscnbmXncns
Ahspw anTmbn Xnm\mIs
\knw-lnIvav
]me-kvXo Ihn
IhnXbnse "F-\nv \nfpsS Hp-am{Xw aXn, C\nsbmcnepw Ipp- shscnbm
Xncns' F-Xnse Bibw IpnI Isn Ipdnv Xmdmmw.
* IhnX hnieI\w sNbvXv {]Xn-IcWpdnv Xmdmmw
AbpsS ]mv
\obp-d-p-sItmate, Poh
hmbp-hsmco ad-bvp-n!
Ian-gn- cp-Xnp-Xp-temIw
aad-bp \mhsc--w!
Ap \nsbpw Iqp-Imscbpw
anemgvnb shnhnam\w
hopw hp hnfnnSpw \ns
hne-amao `qhnte-sm
kpcamw angnI Xpd-m
\p-t]mep-samcp-cp- tXma!
s]mtmsSm IXnIfn aqp
54
h-Wbm ]mSs-bmsI
Ime-Snbmhp-nb-c-bv m
Imp-]-npw i tXmoSmw
a-ycminX ]np-ap-f-I
sm-\n-sf-b-smcp \mfn
Npp-Npp Icnp-hm\mbn
a-ylkvXw aSnn sXpw!
A ]pevIp-nXmfpw Ic-fn
aat`Z-ItamaIfnpw:
IpnssIfnp-kvXItan,
aRvPp-t\{Xn kz-]v\tf-n,
hon \np \o ]mT-imebvp
Iq-scmp Kansmcm bm{X......
aqfnsmp hnam\tfsd
tase hp ]d-smcp t\cw
"shn{]mhp"Isf-mp \n
XpnmSnfnsmcm am{X......
ImsRmSnbncm-famw \mi
Imf-kw han hnjm
]mSnbmSnb \nfpw hoSpw
\mSp-amsI-Ismcp hm....
a-ys\mT ad-p-t]mbv-w,
"]p- kwkvImcw' Xopw Xnc-n!
hnkv acnp- hsX-s\,- sb- m,
hn{iaasmc-am R
s]p-Iqn, ape-Ifmeqn
krjvSnsNbvhm ]Tnh R?
` Nn-nenp-ao-tbma
bn]hXw \mis- tmse
Imp-t]mcp-nXam R,
]m- e-n\ntmp Nncnm
Cp \nfp-d-mhp an
ant\m almb hnn
iyma`qanbn hopw Ifnm
t\ma-emnp-amibp- s-n
]mnse-q ]dnm
sImp-X-n-n--bp-s-n
Imncnp-I, Imc-Whm
Immf-m, Xncnsp-thmfw;
ImSn\o-nb Iq ]gb
ImSIfnmSnSp-thmfw!
]n.-`mkvIc
(lntcmjna-bnse A)
55
""Iangncp-Xnp-Xp-temIw
aad-bp \mh\s-sc-w!''
""Imncnp-I, Imc-Wham
Immfam, Xncnsp-thmfw''
o bpsmXn]q B[p-\nI a\v PohnXw Akmyamp kmlNcyw
o ]gb-a\p-jys \
IhnXbnse Ccw Bib-fneqsS ISp-t]mIm ]mInep
Hcp {]XnIc-Wp-dnv IpnI Xmdms
bpw Ftmgpw kv{XoIsfbpw IpnIsf-bp-amWv G-hp-a[nIw _m[np-I. hn\miIc-amb
bpn\v \psS cmPyw Hcnepw t\XrXzw sImSp-p-Itbm, Iqp \np-Itbm sN-cp-Xv.
]Icw temIkam[m\n\p-thn \ne-sImWw. Cu Bibw ap\ndpn tI{ {]Xntcm[
a{n {io.-F.-sI.-BWnv Hcp \nthZ\w Xmdms.
Nen{X tUmI- yp- sadn {]Zi\w
(ss\v Bv t^mKvAe-st\ ({^mkv)
Snkv Im^vssf-_m sJm_mZn (C-dm)
XpSnb Nn{X {]tbmP-\s-Spmw
tNmZ-y-
Ghpa[nIw a\n ]Xn Zriyw
{][m\hnjbw Fv ?
\nfnep-Wnb NnI
Fsms
A`n- apJw
o ]m-fm-c-\pambn A`n-apJw \S-pXn-\p tNmZym-hen
amXrI :
bpap-Jv \np-tm XmfpsS NnI FsmsbmWv?
a\n hoSv, IpSpw_w Fnh ISp-hcmdptm?
IqsSbp-h shSnbp-I Gp-hmp-tm Xm Fs\bmWv
AXns\ adnISmdv?

56
Cu A`nap-J-neqsS ]mf-mcpsS PohnXs-p-dnp Bib- cq]-sSpw
Bscbpw sImm\p XmXv]-cyw sIm Bfp-I ]mf-n tNcp-Xv
]c-kv]cw sImp--hcpsS XmXv]-c-ya bpw
bpw ]ns BcpsS XmXv]-c-yamWv
Nmv {]Zi\w
sshw aplZv _jo-dns "bpw Ahkm\nWsan' F IY-bnse
"" Xs ImWm h ]{X{]-Xn\n[nbmb bphmhns tNmZ-yn\p adp-]-Snsb-tmWw
tNmZnp. "bpw Ahkm\nWsan, Rm Fp-sN-WsamWp
Xm ]d-bp-Xv ?$
"Av Hpw sN-Wsa-'. ]{X{]-Xn\n[n hyamn.
"AbpsS A`n{]mb-amWp Rdntb-Xv'
{]k`mKw Nmp-{]-Zi\w
o N
Bib-cq]o-Ic-Wn\v Bhiyamb A`n{]mb-v t{]mml\w \Ip-atm ?
kmlnXyImcamcpsS A`n{]mb-{]-IS\w sImp-
am{Xw bpw Ahkm\nptam?
Bbp-[fmtWm Ip-m?
Bbp[ hyhkmbs B{ibnp hnIknX cmP-y
Imc-WmcmIp-ptm ?
eLp D]- \ymk cN\
apIfn sImSp {]h-\fn \nv e`nnp Adnhp-IfpsS shfnn eLp- -
D]-\ymkw XmdmpI
D]-\ymkw IpnI hynK-Xambn Ipdns
Bibw
kzw \ne-]mSv
DNnX`mj
FnhbneqsS {]h\w ISp-t]mbnp-sv hne-bncp-p-atm
kqN\I
bpw a\p-jyhw-ins \ne- \n]n\v `ojWnbmWv
Bbp[w sImv Fm {]iv\hpw ]cnlcnmsa [mcW sXmWv
kvt\lhpw klIc-Whp-amWv B\Ic-amb PohnXn\v Bhiyw
57
\nco-Wpdnv
"" Nne-cpsS XrjvW Ipd-bvp-hm Ippp
]e-cpsS Ip Xo-cn\mbn''
]YnIs ]mv Pn.-ic-p-dpv
""hmf-s kacmbp-[w, QWQ-W[z\w apgo-Sphm
\mf-s Ic-hmfp hnsmcp aWn
smhoW hmnp Rm'' k-kw-KoXw hb-em
* cp IhnXmiIe-fpw {inp-htm ?
Hn kvt\lnsbpw asmn kvt\lcmlnXynsbpw apJ- ImWmw.
CXn Cs kaqls {Kknp \np apJw GXmWv ?
\nco-nv Ipdnp XmdmpI
Bk- zmZ\p- dnv XmdmpI
]mT-]p-kvXIn \nv khntijXbp hcnI IspI
""ho-WnXtm InSpp [c-Wnbn
timWnXhp-aWntm inh! inh!
\ ac-X-Int\msSmsmcp
I-ymWcq] Ipamc at\mlc''
* Bibw Isnb tijw bpn]qIamb hniIe\w \SWw. BkzmZ-\mw-i
Is-Ww. kzw \nco--W Ds-Spn DNnXamb `mjm{]-tbmK-neqsS BkzmZ-\
ntev ISWw.
Bk- zmZ\p- dnv cN\
* Bibw
* Bk-zmZ-\mw- i
* kzw \nco-Ww
* kmaq-l-y{]-kn
* DNnX `mj, LS\
tiJ- cWw
bphp-ambn _-s ]{XInp-I, hm, Nn{Xw, hcnI
t]m cN\
bphncp Bib-fn \nv t]m cq]-s-Sp-pI
* BIjIw
* efnXw
* Bibw kqNnnp-Xv
* te Huv
* eLp-hmb ktihmIyw
58
hm
]mT-]p-kvXInse k`n \npw hm XmdmpI
IpnI hynK-Xambn Ipdns
* A\p-tbmP-yamb k`w sXc-sSp-npv
* DNnXamb Xe-sv
* {]Xn]mZ- \-coXn
* A\p-tbmP-yamb `mj
apIfn ]d {]h-\fn \nv
{]`mjW- n- tev {]th- inmw
{]`mjW hnjbw amXrI
* "bpw Fns t]cnembmepw AXv k\minte Ieminq'
* bpw a\p-jyhw-ins \ne-\nn\v `ojWnbmWv
*
*
kqNI
* Bibw IsWw
* ka{K-amb BhnjvImcw
* ImenI {]kn
* kzw \nco-Ww
* LS\
* DNnXamb `mjmhnjvImcw
* IYm-]m{X \ncq]Ww (lmv _pv t]Pv 124-125)
IYm]m-{X
* Kmmcn
* {ioIrjvW
* cma \mb
* \mWn
* Ap-\
* Zpf
* A`na\yp
Ap-\ F IYm]m{Xs \ncq]Ww sNbvXv Ipdnv XmdmpI
""GsXmcp a\p-jy\pw XtXnt\m Ffnb nXnbnembntmb Hcp ktlmZ-cnsbm, AXpw
kv{XoXz-ns GI`qjWamb Hcnfw Ipnt\msSmw IqSn Ip-ap-tn hcnI FXv lrZ-b-t`
Z-IamWv...........................................................-Ap-\s\ Cu hnjmZ-b-n \npw Ic-tIp-hm ]p-
tI `K-hZvKo-tXm]-\njnse h kqfpw klmbnncnptam ? C. KoXmImhns
]cmPb m\amWnXv. AXp-t]mse-s CXv KoXmImhns hnP-b-m\hp-amWv.
IpnIrjvWamcm hnhcnncnp khntijXIfpsS shfnn Ap- \ F
IYm]m{Xs \ncq]Ww sNbvXv Ipdnv XmdmpI
IYm]m{Xsf \ncq]Ww sNp--Xn\v Xmsg ]d-bp Imc-y {]tbmP-\s-Spmw
59
* IYm]m{Xs Xncndnp
* kz-`mhkhn-tijXI Nqnmn
* kaImenI ]m-e-n hniIe\w sNbvXv AhXcnnWw.
khn-tij k` Is-
* ]mT`mK-n \npw khntijXbp k` Is
* eLpIpdnv
bp- hn- cp hnjbn
* mUv
* t\mokv
* Nmpdnv
skan-\m
hnjbw : bpw
D]-hnjbw : "kmlnXyIrXnIfpw-bp-hpw'
"bpw A-n\pw shn\pw aqmw-temIbp-w'
"]-mf-m-c'
"Kmm-cnhnem-]w'
"Ap\ hnjmZ-tbmKw'
"A-'
cN\
_me-]w-nIfnse cN\I tiJ-cWw
bpw hnjb-amb IY/IhnX/Nn{Xw-kz-X{c-N\
o ]Z- Iqntv D]-tbmKnp Imc-yn IpnIv {ibp-mhp--Xn\v
]Z- amnsb-gp-Xm \ntinmw
amXrI :
kzm-temIw-kzm-XbphcpsS temIw
bp-{`mv
lrZ-b- t`ZIw

ChnsS ]Z- Iqntv hmbnp-Xv t_mys-Sp-atm. Cs\ ]Z- tNp


hmbnp--XmtWm ]ncnp-hmbnp--XmtWm IqSp-X kuIcyw F-Xns\p-dnv IpnIv A`n
{]mbw \Sm\hkcw sImSp-mw.
(Ip-nIv ]Z-fpsS Iqnten\pw, H-]-Z-amp--Xn\pw {Kq-Snm\n a-c-]-cn
]mSn \Smhp-- XmWv)
t{ImUo-Ic- Wn ]Z- fpsS HXp-w, in, A hyX Fnhbvv ]Z- tNp-
]-tbmKnp--Xns HuNnXyw t_mamIp-atm.
* kamkn\v ]mT-`mK-p-\npw DZmlc-W Isnsb-gp-Xmw.
kaqlw t\cnSp {][m\`o-jWnIsf Xncndnbm\pw, {]XnIcnm\pw, kK-{]-Xn
tcm[w Xom\pw \apv km[nWsa ImgvNmSv ]mT-k`fneqsS ISp-
t]mIp-tm e`np-atm
60
61
tUm: ]n.sI.Xn- eIv
62
sNv env/aqe- y\nbw
o bp-n sIm-s-Sp-Xv ktlmZ-camcmsWpw, bp-ap- m
Ip- Xv kzmcmb- hcpsS A[n\nthi{`an \nmsWpw Xncn
dnhp- mIpXn\p {]h\ \Snbnp- v(Imq \nco
-Ww, IhnX hne-bncp-, {]XnIcWpdnv FnhbneqsS)
o Ccw Bib-fp Nn{X, IhnXI, Ne-n{X Fnh
]cnNb-s-npv
o Cu Bibw t\cnv hyXs-Sp-p--Xn\v bpm\p-`hfp-h
cp-ambn A`napJw \Snbnpv
o kmlnXyIrXnI hmbnv BkzmZ-\p-dnv, IYm]m{X\ncq]Ww
Fnh \Snbnpv
o e`n Bib- \nthZ-\w, t]m cN\, hm, {]XnIc-W
p-dnv, D]-\ymkw XpSnb hyhlmc cq]-fneqsS {]ISnnn
pv
o ham-s-p-dnv Isnbnpv
o kz-X{c-N\-bntes-Sp--Xn\v Ahkcw e`nnpv
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
o s]mm\n \qXncn (tcJ- I- Nn- {X- Imcs BIY)
o XIw- tImhn- e (X- - Iw- t\mh)
o IS\n- - IS\n- (IS\n- - bpsS Ihn- X- I- IS\n- )
o Dcpfn- Ip- ns epo- \nb kJ- dnb
BapJw
]pXnb Ime-ns thK-XbpsS Ipsmgp-n \psS \ne-\nns
thcp-I Ap-t]mhp-IbmtWm? "C-hnsSsb-\nsmcp hoSpv' (H.-F.-hn.-
ho-Sp-I) Fv ]mSnb Ihnsb \mw HmWw. thcp-I tXSn \mw \S
p-tm antmgpw Imen Ipcp-p-Xv Hc-c-bm-d-tbm, Hcp Ia
]- tam Hcp {K- imetbm HsbmWv . AXns ]nmp- d- fn-te-
sn t\mnbm a\p-jy a\ns\ ]nSnp-henp-sImp-t]mbn hn{`an
np Hcp sFXnlyhpw, AXns Nnd-Iv]n ]dv ]dv `oamImc-amb
Hcp cq]-ambn hfv B kaqln AXv hnebw {]m]np-Itbm Hcp-
Xvkhambn cq]mcsSp- Itbm sNbvXnpmhmw. "P\\o P`qan kzKm
Z-]nK-co-b-kn' (s]--bpw ]nd \mSpw kzK-s-m al-cw) Fv
hmevao-IncmambWw DZvtLmjnp-p. kz-Xzs At\z-jnp GXp a\p-
jy\nepw kzw tZins Ccw amlmyw IpSnsImp-p-mIpw.
AXns\ Xs kKm-IXbneqsS BhnjvIcn-p-- hcmWtm kmln
XyImc-m. hmp-IfneqsSbpw hc-IfneqsSbpw XfpsS t]m-bmb
tZis BhnjvIcn-htcmsSmw \appw bm{X sNmw.....-tZ-ins
Dujvaf-XI \pIp-sImv.......
bqWnv 5
tZis- cpa
83
{]h\w 1
{]mtZinI Ncn{Xw Xmdm
* \apv hyXykvXamb Hcp Iznkv acw \Snbmtem? Bcpw tNmZ-yn\v Dcw
]d-tb-Xn. Adnbp--h ssIs]mnbm aXn.
1. Atacn {]knUns t]cv ?
D-cw Adnbp--h ssIs]mp-p. Fw A[ym]-I t_mUn Ipdnp-p.
(Hmtcm tNmZ-yn\p-tijhpw)
2. temIs Ghpw henb sImSp-apSn ?
3. Cy {]knUns t]cv ?
4. BZ-ys tIcf kwm\ apJ-ya{n ?
5. \nfpsS ]mbv {]knUns t]cv ?
6. F{Xmw hmUnemWv \n Xmaknp-Xv ?
7. \nfpsS {]tZ-iv (\mn) P\hmkw XpSnbnv F{X hjambn ?
8. \nfpsS {]tZ-is BZ-ys hoSv Bcp-tSXmWv?
9. \nfpsS kvIqfnse BZ-ys slUvam BcmWv ?
10. \nfpsS aps As t]sc-mWv ?
C\n Dcw ]d-hcpsS Fw kqNnnp Hcp ]nI Xmdmnbmtem?
DZm-l- cWw
tNmZyw
Dcw ]d
IpnIfpsS
Fw
BsI
tNmZyw 10
BsI
IpnI
40
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
38 35 30 28 18 15 12 2 8 0
Cu ]nIbn \nv \ap-sntcm km[np \nK-a\ FsmamWv?
* AXn {][m\s Imcyw temIImc-y Adnbmw.
\psS kzw Imc-y Adnbn FmtWm ?
* \sf \fmnb-Xn {][m\]-p-hlnh BcmWv ?
* hoSv, hop-Im
* \mSv, \mp-Im, Iqp-Im
* kvIq, A[ym]-I, kl]mTnI
\s cq]-s-Sp-nb tZis-p-dnpw AXns `qXIme-s-p-dnpw, kwkvImc-s-p-
dnpw A[nIsampw Adnhp-I \ap-n F-Xt bmYmyw ?
Cs\ aXntbm ?
84
{]h\w
kt tNmZ-ymhen Xmdmmw
takqNnn ]cnanXnsb adnISm\p Hcp {iaw \apv \SnqsS ? As\sb-n
\psS kzw tZis-Ip-dnv, AXns kwkvImc-s-p-dnv Hc-t\z-jWw \Smatm ?
Fsms tNmZ-yfmWv Ds-Sp-t-Xv ?
Fsms hnhc-fmWv tiJ-cntXv ?
kqNI-
* \mSv, t]cv, Ncn{Xw
* a\p-jyhmkw, Ncn{Xw
* Bcm[\m-e-b- --sF-Xnlyw{]-tXyIXI
* hnZ-ym`ymk m]-\ kzm[o\w
* Irjn-kw- kvImcwhcp-am-\amK-
* s]mXp-m]-\-, {][m\hynIkzm[o\w
* hnIk\ {]h-\Lw
* tXmSp-I, Ipf-, B-d-I, hmb-\ime-I, CShgnI,
ac-p-hSp-IKrlmXp-c-amb HmI
* e-y{Kqv
Chsbmw Ds-Sp-nsmv \nfpsS {]tZ-is-p-dnv Hcp eLp-Ncn{X kwkvImc
kw{Klw Xmdmp-atm........
GsXnepw i\n, Rmb Znhk ^e-{]-Z-ambn D]-tbmK-s-Sp-p-sav {]Xyminp-p.
{]h\w
teJ\w Xm-dmmw
tZis-cpa F bqWnnse Nn{X {inp \nco-np-t\mq.......
BsI F{X Nn{X Dv ? IpnI \nco-ns.......
85
86
87
88
Ahbvv s]mXp-hmbn Nne khntijXI DXmbn tXmp-ptm ?
N sNbvXv Isn {Iao-Icnp-p.
* hc-IfneqsS Bib-kw-thZ\w
* Npcpw hc-IIqSp-X Bib-
* tZitbpw AXns X\natbbpw BhnjvIcnpp
* {Kmao-WX
* kmwkvImcnI-amb Awi
* KrlmXp- cX
* ]mT-`mK-fp-ambp _w
*
CXp-t]mse hyXymkfpw Ismatm.
* {]Xn]mZ-\co-Xn, BJ-ym\co-Xn-hyXymkw
* {]tab-hp-ambn _-sv hcp hyXymkw
* hc-IfpsS coXn
* XpSbp-Xv, CmXv
* ]mT-`mK- Xnep hyXymkw
*
t{ImUo-Icn tijw Nn{Xhmb-\bntev Nne chnhNn{X {]Zinnp-p(ICT)
Imhyk` Isp-p. eLp-NbneqsS "Nn{Xfpw kmlnXyIrXnIfpw' F
hnjb-nep teJ\ cN\bntev \bnmw.
chn-h-Nn{X--Imh-y-k-`-
Bims 10 IhnXI10 Nn{X
_jo-]mp-bpsS BSvNn{X
\p-Xncn-bpsS Nn{X--c-m-aqgw
Fnh {]tbmP-\s-Sp-mw.
ASnp-dnvXmc-Xayp-dnv Fo {]h\p km[yXbpw Isp-atm.
{]h\w
Bk-zm-Z\w
kmlnXyIm-cam kzw t]cns\mw ap \ma- IqSn tNp-Xv \nfpsS {i
bns-np- tm.
as-smsbmWv t]cns IqsS tNmdp-Xv ?
* IpSpw-_- \ma
* ]nXmhns t]cv
* PmXnbpsS t]cv
* e-ns t]cv
89
t]cns\mw e-tcv tNp kmlnXyImcam BscmsbmWv ?
IpnI ]d-bp-p. A[ym]-I BB bn Fgp-Xp-p.
sshw aplZv _jo
s]mIpw hn
XIgn inhi-c-n
Dq Fkv ]c-taizc A
Ipco-pg {ioIp-am
hb-em cmah
ssIX{]w ZmtamZ-c \qXncn
kpIp-am Ago-tmSv
Aw_nImkp-X ammSv
inlm_p-o s]mbvpw-IShv
Xml amSmbn
ktmjv Gnm\w
Ajvd^v BSqcv
ae-bm-q cmaIrjvW
AIv_ In
IS\n cmaIrjvW "IS\n' F t]cn {]kn\mb Cu Ihn AtX t]cn Xs
Fgp-Xnb IhnX ]cnNb-s-p-htm......
Cu IhnXbvv HcmkzmZ\w Xmdmnbmtem ?
AXn\p apmbn IhnXbpsS {]tXyIXIsfpdnv ]Tnm ]c-ym]vXamb hn[n Hcp
hvjov XmdmnqsS ?
* Ipw tIpw kv]inpw aWpw Ihn Adnbp-Xv FsmsbmWv?
* tZis Ipdnp a[p-c-ap-Xpw Ibvp-Xp-amb kvac-WI ]nIs-Sp-nqsS ?
* ChnsS HmaIfneqsS IhnX BhnjvIcnp-tm IqSp-X at\mlc-amIp-p.
Cu {]kvXm-h\ m]n-sSpm Ihn-Xbn \nv DZm-l-c-W- Is-mtam?
* {Kmao-WXsb BhnjvIcnp-tm IS\n F Ihn IqSp-X Icp-p-Imp-p.
Imc-Wsamhmw ?
* tZis BhnjvIcnp-tm kJ-dnbbpw IS\nbpw IsSp-p ImgvNIfnse
kmayhyXymk Ismtam ?
"]p-nend-nb Ipiap-\bqcn-nS Ipn aWv'
"\ocn aq{Xsamgnp hnfp-saenp'
Cu hcnI hmbntm Fp-tXmn ?
"s\nXp aWpw hgnI
Fn \mp-Ip-cppw hb-ep-I'
"Hme-men-nfn-bpsS hmen
H]-Xp-io-e-smSnIfp sIn'
Fp hyXymkamWv Cu hcnI hmbnp-tm A\p-`hs-Xv ?
90
Ccw tNmZ-yfneqsS IhnXbpsS Bmhnte-nd-m IpnIv Ahkcw \Im\m
hptam ?
NI t{ImUo-Icnv IhnXbvv BkzmZ\w Xmdmp {]h-\ntev \bnp-a
tm. apv Xmdmnb kqNI (B-kzmZ-\p-dnv) ]cnK-Wnmw.....
{]h\w
tUmI-ypsadn Xm-dm-
\n Dcp-fnIp-s CjvSs-Sp-pthm ?
kam\amb Hcp {Kma]-m-es AhXcnnp-sImv Hcp tUmIyp-sadn
Xmdmmtam ? AXn\mbn Fsms Hcp- \SWw ?
- - {Kmaki\w \Spp
{][m\s {]tXyIXI Ispp
kv{In]vv Xmdmpp
FUnv sNp-Xv
i_vZw dntmUnv \nlnpp
(D-NnXamb BJ-ym\w \In sdtmUv sNp-p)
{]h\w
hmb\m-pdnv Xm-dmmw
e_-t-cnbnse epn\nb-IF.-F-kv.-am[h
kvamc-Iine-I ]p\n
ae-ap-Ifnse A_vZp ]p\n
Xrtmqscpa bp.-F.-JmZ
HtdmX Im\mS
Jkmns CXnlmkw H.-hn.-hnP-b
a-gnp-gbpsS Xoc-fn apIp-
XIw tImhne
FaIsP Aw_nImkp-X ammSv
Ggp {Kqp-Ifnembn ]pkvXI \Ip-p ]pkvXIw ]cnNb-s--tijw hmb-\mp-dnv
Xmdmm\mbn {Kqv eoUsd NpaXe-s-Sp-p-p.
D_pp 10.04 se Open Short Video
Editor F tkm^vv shb CXn
\mbn {]tbmP-\s-Sp-p-atm
91
kqNI- \Ipp
Fgp-pImcs\pdnv
{]tabw
IY Npcpw
IYm]m{X {]tXyI-XI
tZis ]cmainp `mK-
tZiw sNep-nb kzm[o-\s-p-dnv
D]- kw- lmcw
(F-mWv Ccw IrXnIfp-mp Xncndnhv Fv hyamnsmv)
eoUam Xmdmnsmp h hmb-\mp-dnv {Kqn N sNp-p.
{]kvXpX ]pkvXIw {]tbmP-\s-Sp-nsmv Bhiyamb sas-Sp--ep-I \Sp-p.
{Kqnse Hmtcmcp--cmbn AhXcnnp-p-N sNp-p.
92
{]h\w
km- I cN\
"Fw.-Sn.-tb-m ]Xns\mv hb-n\v Cf--amb F\nv Htsd IqSq IY-IfpsS Npcp-f-gn
m Ignbpw. Nne IY-I RfpsS IpSpw-_mw-K-fpsS PohnXntepw A\p-`hfntepw
D Ncn{Xmt\z-jWambn tXmmw. Ncn{Xn\v kKmI kuc-yhp-ambn Hcp _hpw thW
san. Fw.-Sn.-IY-Ifn Hcp tZi Ncn{Xnsbpw IpSpw-_-Ncn{Xnsbpw tNcp-hI DmIm
sanepw AXns\ms Fgp-p-Imc kKm-IXbpsS kznfw ]I-Xp-sImmWv IY-
IfpsS s]mcpfpw IYm]m{Xtfbpw tXSn Fpw hmb-\mcpw Bcm[Icpw IqSqcn hcp--Xv''
Fw.-Sn.bpw IqSqcpw Fw.-Sn.-c-ho-{
(Fw.-Sn.-bpsS sNdnb-bpsS aI\mWv cNbnXmhv)
* ""aqnentcnbpw ]ntcnbpw ISv shp-ImSpw ISv ckw ]dv NmXnam \Sp.
anw shfppw apt tItcnpg ISv s]cp-aebpw tImtScnppw adnv Ah t]mbn. \mSmb
\msSmw \Sv ImSmb ImsSms ISv Ah cp hmenb-m Nbvv t]mbn. Ahsmcp
`b-an. Ahsmcp ibp-an-. Hcp--s\m-cp- appw ]npw XpW\np-tm GXp
sImnepw Ah t]mbn hcpw. ]d-naebpw Ibdn hcpw''
X-Iw tImhne
* ""]-In\mhn\v ]nb e-ambncpp Dcp-fnp-w. AhnsS t\cnv shbne-Snv Xnf-p
CS Npcp-amWv. hop-ap--fpw tdmUp- Ifpw ]md- spIfpsamgnm DcpfnIpw apgp- h ac
fpsS XWen Ccppw \ngepw ]qp-InSp Hcp {]tZ- iamWv. dtXm--fnse Ccp-fns
{]tXyIX. Ccp-fnt\msSmw kqc-y\pw Hcp he tXm-n\p-n hoinbncnpw F-XmWv. ]ns
IyqWnv ]bp-sSbpw s]cne-nsbpw CSXq s]mIfp-mbncp-p. ]ip-, ]n
I, BSp-I XpSnb RfpsS klPo-hnI Ahbvp-neqsS \Sp-mnb KplIfpsS
AIp-Ib-dp-tm Fm {]IrXn \nb-atfbpw ewLnv hnP-bnXp-t]mep Hcp almkpJw
Rm A\p-`hnncp-p.
Dcp-fnIp--ns epo-\nb-kJ-dnb
* ""-Xr-tmq-cnse Hcp JmZ-dpsS ImgvNbn ImWp-Xv Fs\ Xrtmqcns bYm
Nn{X-ambno-cpw! bp.-F.-JmZ av ae-bmf kmlnXyc-NbnXmfn \nv hyXykvXamIp k`
amWnXv. X\np-Np-p-ap temIw C{Xam{Xw IuXpIw P\nnpwhn[w ImgvNbmb JmZv A\p-
`hs--Xns ImcWw C\nbpw At\z-jntXmWv. Fmbmepw ChnsS Dbp-hcp kwibw
FhnsS \ntm Fnt JmZ-dn\v Xrtmqcns\ C{Xam{Xw kqvaambn BhnjvIcnm
Fs\ Ignp F-XmWv. Fp Xs-bmbmepw ae-_mdnse ae-bmfhpw ae-bmf-nse Pohn
XXmfhpw hcpw Xe-ap-dbvpw ssIamdm Ignbpw-hn[w bp.-F.-JmZ BhnjvIcnnp-v.
Xrtmq s\msh-Iv Fgp-Xnb AhXmcnIbn \nv
tUm. ]n.-sI.-t]m
93
GtXm
F\np acnWsa \mn
Aenb-Wsa\np \nf-bpsS
injvS-\o-b- fn
F hnc-ep-I Immbv
Xw_pcp hmbnt
\n ]\Ifn Npp
apcfn apf-mSn
F sNhnIfn
apgo-s- b-hncmaw
\nISe-e-IX
\oebmw tIImchw
F angnIfn
s\nq-X
\oemImiw
knZm\
Hmp-dnp-Ifnepw t\mhenepw B-IY-\nepw ]T-\nepw IhnXbnepw Fmw \nd-
bp tZins kv]\ Ip-htm.....
kzw tZis Ipdnv Fgp-XWsav tXmp-nt.....-IhnXbmbpw IY-bmbpw Nn{Xambpw
Hmp-dnmbpw Bhnjvcnm\p Ahkcw \mbn D]-tbmKnp-sav Icp-Xs.
{]h\w
]Xnv Xm-dmmw
tImhnes "X-Iw' F t\mhens Hma[ymbw hmbnmw Fv kqNnnp-sImv ]mT-
`mKw au\hmb-\bvv \Ip-p.
GItZiw Av an\nv Ignbp-tm hmb\ \nm Bhiys-Sp-p.
Hp-IqSn HmSnp-hmbntijw ]mT-]p-kvXIw ASp-shm \ntinp-p.
XpSv tNmZ-yfneqsS IpnI ]mT-`mKw F{Xtmfw {Klnnpv F-dn-bm {ian
pp.
Ipn- I- tfmSv
GIm- {K- X- tbmsS I- Sn- n- cpv hmbn `mK-
HmnsSp-m ]d-bpp
A[- ym- ]- I- t\mSv
]mT-`mK-ntev {]thinm ]c-ym]vXamb tNmZy
- Xmdmp-atm
94
DZm:
* ]mT-`mK-ns t]cv ?
* cNbnXmhns t]cv ?
* AtX hmIyw Xs cmaXv Bhnp-tm hcp-nb amw {inncptm ?
Fv tXmn?
* ISp-hcp IYm]m{X BscmsbmWv ?
* Ahv Fsnepw {]tXyIX DXmbn tXmntbm ?
* Cu IY GXv Imev \S-XmsWqlnmtam ?
* {]tXyI {iblnp ]Z-tfm hmIytfm Hmanp-ptm ?
* IY-mIY\ coXn AXnitbmn]c-amtWm ?
* "hgnb--e-n sXcpw hScpw Hp-IqSn'
AhcpsS hnt\mZ- Fsmsbmbncpp ?
Cu coXnb tNmZ-y tNmZnv IpnIfpsS {KlWtijn Xncndnbp-p.
hmb\ a\\w hmb\ ]T\w
Cu coXnbn Kuc-hnep ]T\w km[yamIpw Fv kqNnnp-sImv "X-Iw' F ]mT-
`mK-t-p-dnp {]tXyI]-Xnv Xmdmm\p {]h-\ntev ISmw.
IpnIsf 4 {Kqp-Ifmbn Xncnp-p.
1) ]mT-`m-Khpambn _-s Nn{X tiJcn-
DZm: ]mf-smXn, I-d, Hme-p-S, If-cn, tImfn, hgnb--ew, ]InSIfn, t]mp-I,
Imf-I, Bepw B-d-bpw, InWdpw Ismnbpw, hnv, Av, s\bvhnfv, ssIX, Imne-
v, hm.
2) "X-I"-nse `mj-bpsS {]tXy-I-XI Is-
]Z-
-{]- tbmK-k-hntijXI
{]ISamIp {Kmao-Wkw-kvImcw
{]ISamIp ImjnIkw-kvImcw
3) {]Ir-Xn, tZiw, IYm-]m-{X Chsb kw_nv ]mT-`m-Kp h-\-I
tiJcn-pI Hw kam-\-amb av IrXn-I-fn-tetbm Km\-fn-tetbm h-\-Ifpw
tiJcn-m-\m-hiy-s-Smw.
DZm : "s\bvhnfns kpKw t]mse ssIXp-smSn ]md-nb-t]mse,
Icnbne-Ifn Imne-smen Xnb-t]mse....(]mT-`mKp \nv)
"Ifcn hnfp sXfnXmtWm
sIm-acw ]qp-e-XmtWm
am\p- s-m\pw h- XmtWm'
Ipp kqc-y DZnXmtWm (kn\namKm\w)
95
4) sFXol-y- tiJcWw
{]tZ-ihp-ambn _-s ]pcmhr- tiJ-cnWw.
Cu coXn-bn hnh-c-tiJ- cWw \Sm {Kqp- Iv NpaXe \Ip- p AhX-c-Whpw
XpSv ]Xnp-mepw \Smatm (X-I-Xnv Fv t]cv \Imw)
hniIe\-Ipdnv
""GXp-b-{hIrXtemIn ]pemepw
GXp-[qkckev ]-\n hfmepw
a\knep-mhs {Kman hnip-nbpw
aWhpw aaXbpw CncnsIm-qhpw''
hnjpWn sshtemnfn
""D-cp-fnIp-s a\p-jy Fs Nncnm\pw ktmjnm\pw ]Tnnp. BSbm`c-Wfn
m Hcp `mj F\nv Xp. B `mjbpsS ]nn Hcp PohnXemfnXyap-mbncp-p. ]noSv
Rm Fs PohnXs koamn he-p-shnepw, B emfnXyns Hcp kz--amb Awiw
Fn \ne-\n-Xp-sImmWv Rm Cpw ]qWambpw _pn{`wiw hcmsX Pohnp--Xv''
PohnXw F{Xam{Xw ]Sp-]-enmepw thcp-I \psS P\mn Xs-bmWv. apIfn
sImSp-h Cu {]kvXmh\sb km[qIcnp-ptm ?'' hniIe\w sNbvXv Ipdnv Xmdmp-I.
2. Bk-zm-Z\w Xm-dm-pI
Fhn-sStmsbs Zn\-
Fhn-sStmsbs InSm-
tX IqSp-I tXSntmtbm
cmIp-nIsfs InSm
]qqS\nd-bvm t]mtbm
sc IpnI s]ss]-X
Anp- smnsbm
cmqsamp-Isf-hnsS
th-mc-hcpsS ssIp-I
shpw Rm Iagp-thmn
ae-Xo-nb-ipw sNbvXh
Xe-bn-m-sXmgp-IWamn
ac-samsb-cnhscpsS
Ipe-sams apSnhc-hcpsS
IpSame-I sImp PK-n
\nd-ame-I Xqpw Rm
(IncmXhrw--IS\n)
{]Xn- IcW- p- dnv
"" Dcp-fnIpw F\nv hnhcnm\mhm-hn[ap Hc-Spw {]IrXntbmSv Xp. Hmtcm Ce-
bp-sSbpw taL-nsbpw Insbpw Nne-nbp-sSbpw Fdp-nsbpw agp-nbp-sSbpw ap-am-
F\nv ]cnio-ennp Xp'' k-dnb
tImpw jqkp-anv ssSbpw sIn FSp-m s]mm _mKpw apXp-In Ibn hon \nv
hml\n Ibdn, kvIq ]Snbn Cd-p- Cs IpnIv A\yw \np-t]mIp A\p-`
hfm-Wnh.
Cu coXntbmSp \nfpsS kao-]\w hniZ-amn Hcp {]XnIc-Wp-dnv Xmdmp-I.
96
4. ""F-\nv KZ-yw, ]Z-yw F thXncnhn. hS ]mv hocyw Xnp-v. hS ]mp-am
bp _w hfsc sNdnb {]mb-n Xs Dmbncp-p. "tXm-fpw' "X--I"hpw hmkvXh
n ]mSnbmWv Rms\gp-Xnbnp-Xv'' (tImhne Iebpw PohnXhpw t]Pv 94 )
Xs IrXnsb-p-dnp tImhnes A`n{]mb-amWnXv. "X-Iw' F ]mT-`mKs ASn
m\amn `mjmco-Xnsb-n Hcp eLp-p-dnv Xmdmp-I.
5. ImjnIhrnbne-[njvTnXamb tIc-f-ns Nn{Xap ap IhnXI tiJ-cnpI
sshtem-nn-]- Sbm-fnI-In-smbv v
{]`mjWw
* "" Rm A{X kc-f-ambnv Hpw Fgp-Xnbnn-tm. Cu hmbnp--h\pw sNdp-Xmbnsmv
Az-m\nWsa Zpc-`n{]mbw F\np-v. hmb\ Cs\ ]-kmc-ap-mbn Ignp amXncn
Ignm\p-X. Abmfpw kz-b-samv Azm\nWw. AXn\\p-kcnmWv Rm Fgp-Xnbnp-
Xv ''
(2006 \h 19-amXr`qan BgvN-Xnnse A`nap-J-n \nv)
tImhnes ap-IrXnIfp-sS(tXm-, GgmsaS, Xmgvhc-I, `c-X XpSnb-h) ASn
m\n tImhne IrXnIfnse `mjsb-p-dnv tImhne A\p-kvac-Wn AhXcnnm
Hcp {]`mjWw Xmdmp-I)
* Ime-ns Xnc-n-t]mn \fn \n \jvSs-p-t]mb ]e BNmc-fpw Iemcq]-
fp-ap-v. (D-Zm: ]p-cn, s\v s]cp-, tIfo-]m{Xw, thS]mv, BSnmv) Ah IpnI {]mbw
sN-hcn \nv At\z-jnv Is-s.
A\p- _w
sI.-knZm\ ae-bmf-nse Ihnbpw \mSIIrpw KZ-yImc-\p-amWv. Xriqcnse sImSp-
qcn P\np. Chs\qSn, hoSpanw, ]oU\Imew, aebmfw, Ihn_p- , tZimS\w, A]qw,
knZm\s IhnXI, XpSnb ImhyIrXnIfpw aplq-, ]e-temIw ]e-Imew XpS
nb bm{Xm hnhc-Wfpw, IhnXbpw P\Xbpw F KZ-yIrXnbpw, Kmn F \mSIhpw
cNnnp-v. tIcf kmlnXy AmZan AhmUv, HmSp-g AhmUv XpSn \nc-h[n ]pc-
kvImc- e`nnp-v.
\mhcnbm h hmfns\ hmns temlZmV-y-nse-Xncnp \nh tNmc \nem
hn angnI Ie-nb hoYnbn t_m[nI \p-\\h
GtXm
F\np acnWsa \mn
Aenb-Wsa\np \nf-bpsS
injvS-\o-b- fn
F hnc-ep-I Immbv
Xw_pcp hmbns
\n ]\Ifn Npp
apcfn apf-mn
F sNhnIfn
apgo-s- b-hncmaw
\nISe-e-IX
\oebmw tIImchw
F angnIfn
97
tImhne\pam- bp A`napJ- n \nv
lnamebw Xmsf Fs\bmWv kzm[o-\nXv ?
lname-b-nepw Npp-hpw Pohnp-hm IgnXv henb Imc-yamWv. sFiz-cyamb Hu-
Z-yw, A`ua kucyw Fsms ]d-bmw. inhint_m[hpw ImfnZmk\pw a\n DWnp-
v. XWp-n Imep-IfpsS ASnbn cw In ]mSp-I Ctmgp-ap-v. tUmIvSsd ImWnn.
AhnSv ]d-b-p-atm Fp Icp-Xn. CytbmSp Fs sshImcnIX kmmXvIcn \mfp-
Ifmbncpp AXv. "lname-bw' F t\mh cNnp-hm IgnXpw Hcp ku`mK-yamWv. lname-
b-n Imaw Cs--XmhWw k\ymknam AhnsS t]mIm Imc-Ww. an cn\p-m
Ip Hcp {]tXyIXbmhWw. C{nb- an Dd-bp-p. F\nv Bo-b-XbpsS _mly{]-IS
\fn Apw B`nap-Jyw Dmbncp-n.
\psS t\mh inev]-ns\mcp Agnp-]-Wnbmbncp-tm "F ssa\kv _n'. Fgp-Xp-hm\n
SbmbXv Fns\ ?
sNdpw sXmt hmb-\mio-e-ap-mbncp-p. Fgp-Xm\pw s]mXpsh Xev]-c-\mbncp-p. apXp
hb-mb-tmtgpw ae-bmf-n I amXrIbn Fgp-Xnbnp Imc-yansv Adnbm Ignp.
Hcp ZrV-\nbw \Sn, ]q amXrIbn Fgp-Xn. ko-kn ]mw \ Fw sk-\n
sam\nmbncpp Rm. AhnsS Idn \nc-h[n Imc-y t\c-s-sbmpw IXmbncp-
n. Atm Xocp-am\np Fgp-XWw. CXn\Iw bpk`hp-ambn _-s H-\h[n t\mh
ep-I Rm hmbnncp-p. slanMvth Ds-sS. cmw temIalmbp-mco--n P
\nsb ]m-e-amnbp FdnIv adnb dnamIns 'A time to love and a time to die' Iq-n Fs
BIp-e-\mnb cN-\bmbncp-p. ]mmXyIrXnI hmbn-XneqsS ae-bmf- n \np-hnp
]e amXrIIfpw Idnp. CXpw sImp \Sp-Ibmbncp-p. Ipsd-mew. Ah[nmew \mn
se-n. _jo Ipsd ]pkvXI hmbnp-hm D]-tZ-inp. sshIp-t-c-fn hbhc-n
eqsS \S-p ioe-ap- mbncp-p. Hcp Znhkw \S-n\nS-bn t\mhen-s\p-dnmbn Nn.
Xow Dnep-v. ]pXnb Hcp BJ-ym\amWtm thXv. Cp-te-J-bvp-tijw \psS t\mh
kmlnXyw Ne ]Wnbp-Ibmbncp--tm. \ IrXnI [mcmfw hnp-snepw Fmw _tbm
s\nq-X
\oemImiw
F \mkm]p-Sfn
Inam X aWw
F \mhn hmgt-\n
Nhpw a[p-chpw
F s\nse-gp--
In
kZm-kqc-y
F\np acnW
sa \mn, ]s
\mn
se\np Pohnphm
t\tXm
XpWbm-Ipw' knZm\
98
{K-^n BWv. tXmp-hc-n shv F\np tXmn, Ne hnv Fp-sImv Hcp he s\bvXp-
IqSm. h-nbn \nv Npp-]mSntep hnIknp Hcp he. hoip-he Fdnbp-IbmsWn
]pgbn ]cp hogpw. "F ssa\kv _n' irwJem cq]-nep ae-bmf t\mh inev]s he-t]m
se-bp kwK-Xnbp-mn, inev]-]-c-amb km[qIc-Ww \Snb-Xmbn F\np tXmn. t\mh
Fgp-Xnb-]msS \ncq]- Icmscbpw ImWnn. kplrp- hmbnp Ignm ASnp-hm
sImSp-p ioew am{Xta F\np-mbncp-p-q. "F ssa\kv _n' Bcpw {inns--XmWv
hmkv Xhw.
"X-I"ns cN\ XmfpsS PohnXnse hensbmcp kw`hamWtm. B IrXnsb-p-
dnv?
Fgp-]-smmw hb-nemWv Rm "X-Iw' Fgp-Xnb-Xv. XIgnv FtmSv henb Xmev]-cy
amWv. Atlw ImWntcnbn hnp-v. XIgnbpsS ]nipv {]knamWtm. Fs kw_-
nnStmfw XIgn Hcp [q-\mWv. Imiv Nne-hgnp--Xn Hcp ]nippw ImWnXmbn A\p-
`han.
km\p-amjv {]knUmb Imew, Hcp Bhiyn\v Rm kmlnXy AmZ-anbn sNp.
Av AhnsS Hcp A\p-kvac-WtbmKw \Sp-p-mbncp-p. sN-tm XIgn lmfnep-v. Fs
XIgnbpsS AcnInencp-n, tamt\z-jWnSbn XIgnbpsS tNmZ-yw. "A\nb\v hb-sk
{X' "Adp-]-s-v' Rm ]d-p. "Adp-]-s-nemWv Rm Ib Fgp-Xnb-Xv. ' XIgn C{Xtb ]d-
p-q. Rm sRn. A{Xbpw almb Hcp kqw F\np Innbncp-n. Ftm F\n
smcp Duhpw hminbpw ssIhp. Fgp-]-smmw hb-kn "X-Iw' Fgp-Xnb-tm henb
ku`mK-yamWv Rm A\p-`-hnXv. ZoLmbp-kns t\-fmWv bmZrnIXI-fmWv "B-bncw
bmZrivNnIXIfmW Ac-Po-hnXambn ' FmWv Rm Xs ]d-p-mnb B]vXhmIyw.
hfsc app Xs "X-Iw' Fn cq]-s-ncp-p. hn{`m-Iamb A\p-`h [mcmfw
s]mnqp-Ifpw Icn-\Ifpw a-Xn-Snbpw Hs \ndp \n Imew. \mbmp sXmgnemb Hcp
ap--\p-mbncp-p. A--p-n. {`mp-]nSntm Ne-np. Ap IpnIsf t]Snnp-
hm ap-s\ hnfnpw Fp ]d-bpw. Nne-tm Ne s]mnp \mbmv IqhtemsS Aedn \S
pw. _enjvT-Imb-\mbncp-p. Hcp k-ybvv ap- hontep hp. A Fs-sb-Spv
AIp-t]mbn. ap- shSnsh ]nsb At\z-jnsnb-XmWv. A AXns\sb-Spv
AIp-t]msbp IcpXn "Ahs ]cnv Rms\Sp-pw' Hbpw hnfnbpw. Aev]w Ignv hmXn
Xpd-p-t\mnb-tm ap--\n. bm{X, Ifw, `qXw, Hs \nd temIp-\nmbncpp XIw
DWp-h-Xv. ]mf-nse-nbnpw Xd-hmp-Imc-y, ImWntcn, A\p-jvTm\ Hpw
ad-m\mbn. ImWnivticn Hcp {]tXyI e-amWv. Hcp InIpv Imc-yamsWp hnNmcn
p-I. Ipnb-hs s]tfm, Atbm atm Bbncnpw hmkvXhn hnjaw A\p-`hnp-
Ibpw ip{iqjnp-Ibpw sNp-I. hyn_--nse ]mc-kv]-cyw Bgtadnb-XmWv. "X-I"n
h-hscmw ]gb Xe-ap-d-mcmbncp-p. hmsamgn kwkvIrXnsb-bmbncpp apJ-yambpw B{ibn
Xv. AXp \nXyhrntbmSv _-s--XmWtm. C\nsbmcp ]Xn\p-`mK- IqSn Fgp-Xnbm
am{Xta "X-Iw' ]qnbmhp-Ibp-q. AXn ]pXnb Xe-ap-d-mcpw hcpw. "]-mbw s]dpw Nn
Ippw A acnp-t]mbn' FmWv XpSw.
"X-I"n \ndp \np tKm{Xkw-kvIrXntbmSp B`nap-J-ys-p-dnv Hp hni
Zo-Icnmtam ?
P\fpsS Iqmb PohnXw Xs-bmWv {][m\w. BZnaP-\Xbmcv F-Xn\pdw kwL-SnX
t_m[amWv {intXv. tKm{X kwkvIrXnbpsS Ghpw henb {]tXyIX AXmWv. "X-I"
nepw "tXm"fnepw Rm\Xp hyambn AhXcnnnp-v. amtIknt\mSv F\np ISmSp-
v. emn\tacn IrXnI hmbnp-tm kzw X-Intep aSm tXmmdp-v. A\p-
jvTm\fpw BNmc-fpw kzo-Icnp--Xn Hcp sXp-an. \psS Ipg hmZ-yfpw pw tKm{X
t_m[ns AKm[XIfn \np-Wp hcp--XmWv. ap-\pw ap \mp-ssZ-hfpw Hs Cu
99
t_m[n \nmWv hcp--Xv. km kaqlnepw \p-tSXp-t]mse tKm{X BtLmj
Dv. AhcpsS kwKoXw sN t]mse-bp-Xpw(]-d-s) Ipgep-Ifp-amWv. Ipghnfn Ic ]dn
sSp-p i_vZw t]mse tXmpw. \jvSku-`mK-ysf-p-dntmp Ic-n. CXv BZ-ys
cmK-amWv. XS XcnInS FmWp \ap-v. Hcp hn[w ]d-b-hmZ-yamWv Ahcp-tSXv. "Xpw ]npw
XmWn ]npw' Fsmcp CuWw. thZ-\tbmsSbp `mhw BtLmjamhp-p. {]uVnbn
Pohn Hcp P\X amdnadnp hcp-p. Irjnbn Fsnepw sNp Hcmfp-sn ]pe-b
BWnhnsS. ]pep--h FmWv ]pe-b/]pe-h F-Xns s]mcp. ChcpsS m\w
Hs F{X A\mbmtk\bmWv kabw ImWp--Xv. {_mWm[n]-Xyw h-tm ]pe-b-cpsS
A[nImcw \jvSs-p. ]Ss shdpw Iqen]-Wnmcmbn Ah. XIgnbpsS t\mhen ImWp-,
hc-v amSw sIn Xmaknp Bmcmbn Ah amdnbncnp-p.
"tXm-fn'sebpw "X-I'nsebpw `mjbn hS ]mp-IfpsS {]ISamb kzm[o-\ap-
tm....?
F\np KZyw ]Zyw thXncnhv C. hS ]mv hocyw Xnp-v. ]s Hcp \mev]-
p hjtmfw AXp Xosc ]b-m\mbn. ]mfw Xnc-p-IfpsS temIambncp-p. Hcp IY-sb-
gp-Xm t]mepw kmhImiw Inm Ah-bp-mbncp-p. Cmev sdbnth tj mp-
t^md-n Ccp-p IY-sb-gp-Xnbnp-v. Av Iem`ncp-NnIsfmpw tNm\mbn. hS ]mp-
ambp _w hfsc sNdnb {]mb-n Xs-bp-mbn.
100
Im-\mSs "HtdmX'bn \nv
sNt-cnp-gbpsS Xocp R Ccp-p. HtdmXsb Hm-tm R Ic-p.
HtdmXsb Hmm Ic-bmXncnm\mhn. HtdmXsb HmmXncnm A{Xtmfw IqSn
Bhn.
RfpsS Nmc-qsS sNt-cnpg Hgp-Ip-p-mbncp-p. \nd-smgp-Ip ]pgbpsS Xoc-
fn hnf-`qanIfpsS karn ]\nd-n sImgp-p-\np. hnf-`qanIp-dv Cpw h\yarK-
tap \Sp sImSpw-ImSv ae-Ifn adp InSp. Rp Npnepw ASp-Sp-mbn
sInshamXncn ae-\nc-I Nqgvp-\np. ]pghs karnbpsS ]bn a\p-jymzm\ns
ihpw ZoLhpw kw`h_-lp-e-hp-amb Hcp Ncn{Xw Hfnp InSncp-p. B Ncn{Xns Xmfp-
Ifn FhnSsbmstbm HtdmX sXfnp \nncp-p. ]pghs Hmtcm ]-epw Hmtcm
]psmSnppw HtdmXbpsS Hmp-dnp-IfmsWv Hm-tm R hopw Ic-p.
sNtcnpgbpsS Xoc{]-tZ- ifnep {Kmasfms Cp karnbpsSbpw knsbpw
B-f-fmWv. \qdpw Ccp-qdpw ta\n ^ew Xcp Irjn`qanIfmWv. {KmafpsS Xe-m\amb
tNtcn F {Kmaw Cv Hcp sNdnb ]Ww t]mep-amWv.
sNt-cn-bn ]n-bp- v, ]nqS-ap- v, Bip-]-{Xn-bp- v, In-]m-em^o-kp-v , sSen
t^mWp-v, ISItmf-fp-v, aZ-yime-Ifp-v, s]cp--fp-Ifp-v, D-hfp-v, A`ykvXhnZ-ycm
b anWw sXn, tImtf-Pn t]mbnh sNdp--mcp-v, lnnIfp-v, ]mmXykwKo-Xap-v,
sblqZnsa\p-ln\p-v, chnidp-v, DjmD- Xp-p-v, Ambp-v, t_mWn Fw Dv, Imhp-v,
_p-v. Imdp-v, temdnbp-v, Imf-hnbp-v, apXemfnamcp-v, duUnIfp-v, thiyIfp-v, ]np-
Ifp-v, t]m-Snmcp-v, ]nSnp-]-dnmcp-v, Ihmp-Imcp-v, Fn\v, B[p-\nI kwkvImc-
ns a\p-jys kmwkvImcnIamb hfbpsS Fm apJ-fp-ap-v. sdbntht-j\pw hnam\
mhfhpw F-b tv _nUnwKpw IqSn hm sNtcn \yqtbmmhpw. sXwkv \Zn Hp
I\nw Cu hgn Hgp-Inbm sNtcn e\mhpw. eqhv ]mekv AmsS s]mnsb-Spv B
]nqSn\Spv FhnsSsb-nepw m]nm sNtcn ]mco-kmhpw. sdUv kvIz-bdpw s{Iwen
sImmchpw Dsn tamkvtImbmhpw. Pmm\okv `mj ]dv sKbvjm s]Ip-nI Npn\S
m tSmntbm Bhpw. Fn\v, temInse Ghpw ]cnjvIrXamb \K-c-fpw sNt-cnbpw
Xnep Zqcw hfsc \nmc-amsWp kmcw.
ASp--Imev sNtcn kin Hcp kmbnv, sNt-cnbn kiIcpsS A`n{]mbw
tcJ- s- Sp- m- \p \mhgn ]pkv XIw kqn- n- n- m- bv I- bm Cwojv hmp- I- fn kzw
i_vZn C{]-Imcw tcJ-s-Sp-n. ""\nfpsS sNtcn AXnat\mlc-amWv, Rm Cu e-hp-
ambn t{]anemWv. F\nnhnsS Pohnm Ignncp-s-n Fp Rm Binp-p'' ]d-
Xv kmbnmsWtmptm \apv, Cymv, Imcyns Kuchhpw {]m[m\yhpw hmkvX
hnIXbpw Gsd-psd t_myamhp-atm. Imc-Ww, kmbnv kmbnmsWXp Xs.
sNtcn Npcp-n, Hcp ]cnjvIrX {]tZ-iamWv.
CXv sNt-cnbpsS Cs apJw, app IY Cs\bmbncp-n. Av sNt-cnv Hcp
apJw Xs Dmbncp-n. sNtcn {]tZ-ip a\p-jycp-mbncp-n. Irjn`qanI Dmbncp-
n. ISItmf-tfm \nc-p-Itfm Dmbncp-n. sNt-cnbpsS ]c-kc {]tZ-i ImSmbn
cp-p. aqSans ]pXnIo-gn ae-IfpsS ASnhmc-n, ]pgbpsS Xoc-{]-tZ-ifn, h\yar
K- Cc-tXSn Aep\Sncp sImSpw-ImSv, sNt-cn, Imnte-p {][m\ IhmShpw. Av
Ctmp ISp-hcm a\p-jy `b-s-ncp-p. ]cnjvImcw `b-s-ncp-p. ssZht]mepw `b-
s-ncp-p. As-n A-e-tfm ]nItfm Fnepw Dmhp-ambncp-tm
]noSv a\p-jy ISp-hnpw, Ah h\yarK-tfmSpw hgm ant\mSpw h\hr-
tfmSpw anv, ChnsS X-Snp Ignnpw hfsc Ime-tv sNt-cnbntep IS-phcm
101
ssZhfpw ]cn-jvImchpw aSn-p- \nn-cp-p. Av sNt-cnhmkn- I km[- \ hmm\pw
ssZhsf Ip sXmgpXp kSw DWnm\pw Xfn-dp hsc bm{X sNbvXncp-p. sNt-cn
bnse IpnI ]Tnm thn {ioIWvTm]p-chpw Xfn-dpw hsc Im\Sbmbn k-cnncp-p.
AXn\p tijw {ItaWbmWv sNt-cnbnse IpSntb--m ssZhsf sImp hv sNt-cnbn
IpSnbncp-p-Ibpw ]cnjvImcw sImp-hv sNt-cnbn te]\w sNp-Ibp-ap-mb-Xv.
A-s\, sNtcn {]tZ- ifp- sS, t]mb Ipsd ZiIfnse, hfbpsS Ncn-{Xw, Hcp
henb am-ns, As-n At\Iw am-fpsS Hcp CXnlmkamWv, Cu CXnlmkw H-\h[n
XymK-fp-sS, H-\h[n kac-fp-sS, H-\h[n kvt\lfp-sS, H-\h[n kv]Ifp-sS, H-\h[n
Zp:-J-fp-sS, H-\h[n kwL--\fp-sS, H-\h[n th]mSp-IfpsS hnImc-km{amb \nc-h[n sImp-
sImp IY-I sImp \ndp hnXp-p-p. Cu IY-Iv Fmehpw kmyw hlnXv hj
Im-ep ]hop ]qWK`n-Wn-bmbpw th\en hc aWens Rc- p-Iam-Xncnbp
t\ sXfn\nm-ep-Ifmbpw Hgp-Insmncnp sNt-cnpg am{XamWv. sNt-cnp-gh
ncp-v, Xoc-fnse ]bpsS karnbpw AXn\p-ds Iq ae-\nc-IfpsS `oIc-Xbpw \nco-
np--Xn\nSbn R B ]gb IY-I Ab-hnd-n. Atm B IY-Ifn \nv HtdmX
Cdn hp.
AXp-sImp Xs-bmWv sNt-cnp-gbpsS Xoc-ncp-v, HtdmXsb Hmp R Ic-
Xv.
HtdmX Zp:-J-ambncp-p. HtdmX XymK-ambncp-p. HtdmX Icp-mbncp-p. Pohnncns
s HtdmX Hcp sFXnlyambncp-p.
Htdm-Xsb Hmm Ic- bm-Xn-cnm\mhn-. HtdmXsb HmmXn-cn-m A{Xtmfw
IqSn Bhn.
hcbpw hmb-\bpw
Bnv \q- Xn- cn- bp- am- bp A`n- apJw
F. ]n. hnP-b-IrjvW
hc-bvpI F-XmWv Nn{XImcs Iem[n\pw {]tbmK-n\pw ]d-bp t]cv. Nn{Xw
hc-bvm\p-XmWv. B\p-ImenI {]kno-Ic-W A[nIamb-tXmsS Fgp-n\v Ae-mc-ambpw
]noSv A\nhmcyambpw Nn{X amdn. Nn{Xs Fgp-n\v Xpeyhpw ]e-tmgpw AXn\p-d-hp-
amn Dbn \nn \qXncn. sI. kn. Fkv. ]WncpsS injy. Icp-hmv hmkp-tZ-h \q
Xncn BSnv \qXncnbmbn t]sc-Sp--Xn\p ]nn ae-bmf-nse kKmI IrXnIv
Ce-kvt{Sj \nlnXns Iem -k]cybpv.
IYbvpw t\mhen\pw hcp-sImmbncpp \qXncnbpsS XpSw. Nn{Xw hc Hcp tPmen
bmbn ]cnanXs-Sp-m \qXncn {iann. Inepw anepw ac-nepw temInepw Xs
in] ssh`hw Atlw {]ISnnp XnI in]-ssh`hap-snepw \qXncnbnse Nn{XIm
c-s\bmWv ae- bmfn Adn-Xv. hc-bpsS A]-Xp-sIm--n\n-Sbv \qXncn hmbn IY-Ifpw
t\mhepIfpw \qXncn`mjbn AkwJyw. ae- bmf kmlnXyns A]- Xp- sIms hfbvv
kmnIqSnbmWv Atlw. hc-bvm thn hmbn IrXnItfbpw Fgp-p-Imtcbpw hne-bncp-
p-IbmWv \qXncn Cu h-am\n.
102
Nn{Xw hc-bvm\mbn \qXncn hmbnp-p. hmb-\bvp-tijw hc-bvp-p. hmb-\bvnS
bn Nn{Xw cq]-s-Sptam? B aplqw Fs\bmWv?
hmb-\bvnSbn Hcp {]tXyI \nanjn Hcp `mhw hcpw. IY-bmsWn AXp-ambn
_-s Hv. A_vkv{SmIvSv BWXv. IYm]m{Xns `mhw, \n]v Fmw sXfnbpw. IY-bn
\n- e-ambn tXmp Hns\ Ne-\m-Iamp- IbmWv Nn{XneqsS sNpI. IYhmbnm\ncnp-
tm AXv hc-bvm\pXmWv F t_m[w \appw DmbncnWw. Fnte IYm`mhw Nn{X
ambn hcnIbp-q. apJv am{Xa Nn{Xns `mhw thXv. kmwtKm]mwKw Fp ]d-bmw. Nn{X
ns ]cnkcw hsc {][m\amWv. Ne\m-IX krjvSnemWv Ie. hc-bvt Nn{Xns
Ne-\s-]n IY-hmbnp-tmtg cq]w hcmdp-v. Hw \psS Hcp `mh\bpw {]hnpw. Nne-
Iqntep-I \Sm tXmpw. AXv Bkz-Znp hcp-hbvt ]q. hn. sI. F. IY-Ifn
emWv Cu km[yX A[nIw {]tbmP\s-Sp-nbnp-Xv. hn. sI. F. Fgp--n sImp-hcm
Xv Nn{Xn sImp-hcm Ignbpw. Nne kv{Xo IYm]m{XfpsS {]tXyInpw B apJ-`mh
sams As\ Iqntm kzmXyap Fgp-mbncnpw hn. sI. FntXv.
Fgp-p-Imcsbpnepw Hcp Zriyt_m[w Dmhp-atm? \qXncn hmbnp-tm CXns\
asmmbn ImWpp FmtWm?
Ah ImWp-p-v. hn. sI. F. Fw. Sn. hmkp-tZ-h\mb, H. hn. hnP-b, kn. hn. {iocm
a, ]p\n Ip_vZp ChcpsS Fgp-nemWv Cu Zriyt_m[w A[nIw Inp-Xv. ImgvN
bnm Fgp-p-Ipw hc-np-v. Ahv hmp-IfmWv {]-[m\w. ]d-Xn\pdw Hcp am\an
. Ans\bp Fgp-n\v hcbvp-tm hc-bnse BkzmZ\w km[nn.
hc-bn `mhw krjvSnp--Xns\p-dnv ]d- lyqa hcp IYm]m{XamsWn F
s\bmWv `mhw \I.?
cq]-n lyqa Dmmw. aqhvsanepw Dmmw. hn. sI. Fns Hcp IY-bn ho-
emb Hcp kzman hcp-p-v. CenPmb ]-mcp-tm ho-e-mcmbnv. Ahsc ImWp-tm
\apv tXmp hne-bncp- Dtm. AXv Nn{Xntev sImp-hcmw. {]tXyInpw apJ-
smsbp Nne-k{-Zmb- AhcpsS `mhlmhmZnI Nn{Xs Ne-\mIampw.
IYmIrns\ Nn{XImc ]qcnnpp Fp ]d-bmtam?
]qcnne-. thsdmcp am\w As-n hymJym\w DmemWXv. B Fgp-n\v Nn{X
ns `mjywsImSp-pI F-XmWv Fs coXn. IYbvv hc-bvp-Ib IYbvv hnjz-emb
hymJym\w \IemWXv. AXv IYmImcs hymJym\a. \ap-p-mbnp BkzmZ\w Fp-
]dbmw. (F-\nv Fv ]d-bp-hm aSnbpv AXp-sImmWv \apv Fp]-d-bp--Xv) Nn{XImcs
BkzmZ-\amWv Nn{XneqsS ImtWXv. AXmWv kw`hnp--Xpw. Nne-tm IY-bn ]d-bp
hkvXp-XIsfmpw hc-bvp-tm Hmn. {]ka Fp-tXmnbm hnp-If-bpw. Idp
jmWnncnp-Xv Fv IY-bnep-mhpw. hc-bn Idp jv BIWsan. ]e-IY-Ifnepw
hkvXp-XI Dmhn. thjsnsbmpw ]dbn. BfpIfpsS kz`mhw ]mew Chsbmpw
IY- bn ImWn. eIme- tf Dmhn Fw. AXv Nn{XImc krjvSnpIbmWv. Atm
Nn{Xo-IcWw FXv B IY Cs\bp-amhmw F hymJym\amWv.
\qXncn Fgpns\, Nn{Xw sImv amnF- gpXp- p. Cekvt{Sj ChnsS \tcj\mbn amdpp
At?
hmbnp-mb \tc-j Xs AXn\mWv {ianmdv.
IYbvpw t\mhen\pw hc-bvp-tm cv am\knImh A\p-`hs-Smdptm? t\mh
en IYm]m{Xsf Bhnp-hc-bvtn hcp-atm?
An- s\-sbmp- an. hn. sI. F. IY-Ipw t\mh- ep-Ipw hc-bv p-tm Cu
hyXymkanmbva A\p-`hs-Spw. ]e hn.-sI. F. IY-Ifnepw Iymc-IvS Hp-Xs-bmhpw. hn. sI.
103
F. Dtin Hcm AXnep-mhpw. ssSv IYm]m{X, \mWphpw shfnmSp-samss-
bmWv cma\qXncnbmbnv hcnI. Bfp-Isf Nn{Xo-Icnp--Xn hn. sI. Fn\pw anSp-p-v.
Nne-IYm]m{XfpsS kn_-nIfmbn hcp--hsc ]e IY-Ifnepw \ Ip-ap-nbnp-mIpw.
Hcm Xs ]e- cmbn ]ImSp ]Im-- n coXn- bmWv hn. sI. F. IYm-
]m{Xfn FmtWm Dtinp-Xv?
As\-s. IYm]m{XfpsS kwkvImc-s-p-dnpw \ Adnb-Ww. \qXncnbpw
kn_-nbpw Hcp hgnv t]mhp-IbmWv. Xrqsc-nb-tm \qXncn Imcy-t\mSv ]d-p.
Dymbn. Rm {_mkzw aT-n Dm t]mhzmWv. Xm Hcp Imcyw sNzm. B Cen-d-
bv tafw tIvcvym. CXv hn. sI. F. IY-bnse Hcp kzntz-j\mWv. Xrqcns Nn{Xhpw
kwkvImchpw apgp-h Cu Ub-temKn hp. Hw \qXncn Idpw. CXv ae-bmf-n hn.
sI. Fn\p-am{Xta km[nq. hn. sI. tKmhn \mb-cpsS {]knamb hmINmn\p h-h
hpw Fp XpSp tmIw sNmn Kpcp-hmbqc--e-n {]ZnWw shbvp Hcmsf Hc-
co-s krjvSnm hn. sI. Fnt\ Ignbq.
hn. sI. Fns Nne-IYm]m{X ImqWn\pw hgnt?
tIc-fo-bv ImqWns\m-ap XamibmWv {][m\w. Nn{Xnse Xamib-. Fgp-n
se- n- lmky- an- . Nn{Xw Xs Imq- Wm- hp Ah- bp- v . Nnev Imq- Wn- s\mw
hfscb[nIw Fgp-XnnSnnWw. Hcp JnIsbms hnhcWw Dmhp-Xv ImqW. ae-bm
f-n tKm]o-IrjvW\mWv hc-bnepw Fgpnepw anXXzw ]menp--Xv. aZ\n aps Bkv]{Xn
cnbn \nv aSn Fv hm. tImSntb-cnbpw t]meokv Hm^o-kdpw mUn MUKKAM
apmw Fv ImqWnns Iapw. Cu anXXz-amWv tKm]o-IrjvWs\ thdnp \n-p--Xv.
hn. sI. Fns ]nXmal, A[nImcw Fo t\mhep-Iv cp-Ime-fnembn \q
Xncn hc-p. Hn Ncn{Xhpw asmn cmjv{Sobhpw {]tab-amhp-p. Ch cpw A\mbmkw ^en
nm hn. sI. Fn\p km[np. AXns hc-b-\p-`h ]dbq?
hn. sI. Fns Db lmkyw cnepw Dv. ]nXmal\n kw`hnmhp--kw-K-XnI
fmWv lmkyamnbnp-Xv. Hmtcmcp--cp-tSbpw am\knImh-Isfms hcbvv hgp--XmWv.
]e-tmgpw hn. sI. F. Xs t\mhen hcp--Xmbn tXmpw. Hcp-Xcw \mb-Im\w kNmp
F IYm]m{Xw Xs ]e tN-XmWv. B Imev Pohnhcp-sSsbmtbm Awi Nmp-
hn ImWmw. ]e IYm]m{Xfnepw Ipd-sms hn. sI. F. Dv Fp tXmnnpw. Nne-I
Ym]m{Xsfsmv NneXv sNnp-Xv hn. sI. F. Xs-bmWv.
cmjv{Sob t\mhep-Ifnepw hn. sI. F. kmn[yw A\p-`hs-nptm?
s]mfnnIvkns\ Ifnbmn, AXnse A]mIsf hnainp-IbmWv "A[n-Im-c- n'
A[nImc-t-m "Imhn'bnet CXp-hcp-Xv?
"Imhn' Rm hmbnnn. hn. sI. Fn\p s]mfnnIvkv a\]mT-amWv. ImqWnp-Ipw
cmjv{Sob-a\p-mhWw. Ahtc-m apnb skknemWv hn. sI. F. Fgp-XpI. temIho--
Wap-mbncpp Atln\v. GXp-Imcynepw AXv IY-Ifnbmhs, sSo-kmIs, ae-bmf-Ihn
XbmIs, cmjv{So-b-amIs-A]vSp-tUmbncp-p. Fgp-n apImgvN. {ImZinXzw CsXmw
Dm-bncp-p.
hn. sI. Fns Fgp-n\p-hc-Xn\p-apdw \qXncnbn Hcp hn. sI. F. \ncq]-I\pw
Dtm?
Fs hc-bp-ambn _-s-Spn Rm hn. sI. Fns\ Bhnmdp-v. Rm Bkz-
Znp hc-Xpw Fs BIjnXpw hn. sI. F. IY-IfmWv. B \nebvv hn. sI. F. kmln
Xys-n F\n-smcp [mc-Wbp-v. Atlw ip`m]vXn hnizmknbmbncp-p. t\cpw \\abpw
104
]pe-cp Hcp temIs-p-dnp kz]v\w Atln\p-mbncp-p. AXp-sImmWv sImcp-Xm
bvaIsf kZm FXn-Xv. \ \mtf-p ip`m]vXn ]e IY-Ifnepw ImWmw. "Aw' F IY-
bn ]nWnsb-p-dnp NnIfp-v. hyhnXn amdm-Xns\p-dnp hnem]w IqSnbmWv
B IY-bn tIp--Xv. lmkyn Xs hn. sI. Fns Db ^ntemk^n {]hn
p-p- v. kaqls Ifnbmp-tmsS `mcw Hgnp Fsmcp kao-]-\ambn-cp-n hn. sI.
FntXv. ImqWnp-I ip`m]vXn hnizmkw eyw shm\mhn. hn. sI. F. IrXnI
{inm Atlw ]penbncp am\hnIXmt_m[w IrXyambpw t_m[ys-Spw. Cu am\hnIX
bmWv Fs BIjnXv.
bYm- n hn. sI. F. lmkyamtWm Fgp-XnbXv? Kuc- hkmlnXyat? ae-bmf-nse
Kuc-hkmlnXyImc-\mbncp-nt hn. sI. F?
AXp-Xs-bmWv ]d-tb-Xv. NmIym ^enXns XpSbmbmWv hn. sI. FntXv.
Fsmsbp ]T-\ hnp-v. AXv icnbmsWp tXmp-n. AXn\pw F{Xtbm Ap-
d-tv hn. sI. F. Dbnp-v. hn. sI. F. kmlnXyw th hn[w ]Tns-n. Fv ]e-
tmgpw tXmnbnp-v. ae-bmfnv hn. sI. Fns\ a\nemm Ignnn.
hn. sI. Fns kv{Xo Nn{Xo-IcWw hfsc sXncns-np-v. hn. sI. F. IY-Ifnse
kv{XoIsf hc \qXncnbpsS A`n{]mbw FmWv?
kv{XoXz-tmSp am\yX Dn shp-sImmWv hn. sI. F. Fgp-Xnbnp-Xv. ]pcp-j
\nm Hcp BIjWw kv{Xopv F Hcp hnizmkw Cu IY-Ifn \nd-p-\np-p-v.
kv{XoXzs AXns am\yXbnemWv hn. sI. F. Nn{Xo-IcnXv. kucys Fgp-n BtLm
jnpw Dv. Imaw F A-n A AXv. Fm skIvkns\ \ntj[nnpw C. As\
\ntj[np--Xnepw A-an. AXns\ PohnXns `mK-ambn Ip. I]S kZmNcs ]cnl
knp-IbmWv hn. sI. F. sNbvXXv.
Hcp hn. sI. F. IYbvv \qXncn hc kv{XoIYm]m{Xns kucyw Iv AhfpsS
AhImiw X\nmsWpw Ab-p-Xc-Wsapw hn. sI. F. \qXncnv Is-gp-Xnbnp-
tm. \n Xnep InS]mSp-Ifn Nn{Xw hnjb-ambn hcppw Dv. Ccw hn\nab-
Cptm?
hn. sI. Fn\v hc-I A{Xbvv CjvSambncpp Fv ]ecpw ]d-p-tInp-v. hn. sI.
F. t\cn ]e-tmgpw ]d-npw Dv. "A\cw' F t\mh hc-bpsS ]c-ainh hmtkh
\qXncnv hc-bvm thnbmWv A\cw F t\mh Fgp-Xnb-sXv hn. sI. F. ]d-
Xmbpw tInp-v.
"A\c'n\v hc HmaI FsmsbmWv?
Bkz-Znp hc-p. tIc-f-ns apgp-h \mp-p-d-fpsSbpw Nn{Xw hn. sI. Fns Dn
ep-mbncpp tZi{]-IrXn, Bfp-I, `mj, PohnXcoXn Chsb-p-dnsms \ [mcW Xs.
A\c-n CXv {]tbmP-\s-Sp-nbnp-v. \K-c-n Ulnbn PohnbmfmWv hn. sI.
F. BZyIY-bmb hnhmlnt-n \mn]p-ds \njvIf-XbmWv ImWp--Xv. {Kmao-WX
bpsS \njvIfXbmWv hnhmlnt-n.
hn. sI. F.. IY-Iv ap Nn{XImc-m hc-Xv {innnt? B IYbvv \qXncn
hc-bp-IbmsWn ...-As\ tXmnbnptm?
IY-bvp-d-ap asmv krjvSnm Ahv Ignbmdn. Ah AXn\v {ianp-n.
lmkys BIrXns-Sp-p anep Nn{X, \ hc-bvp-tm As\ BtemNn
npw C. IY-bpsS `mhw Dmm\mWv {iantXv. ]pXnb Nn{XImc-mcn Cmcyn
t`Zw sI. ]n. apc-fo-[c-\mWv. B Nn{Xfn `mhw Dmm\p {]hWXI ImWmw. Uokv
BWv FptXmn. tkXp- hns t\mhen\p hc Nne Nn{X I-tm tXmnb-XmWv.
105
Nne Uokv Bhpw ]t AX Fp tXmnnbvp coXnbn hcbvpw Fn\mWn
s\ sNpXv.
A\p-`hamhn-tm Im\mSs IYbvv IY-bnse B[p-\nIX \qXncn hymJym\n\v
hgm kab-saSp-pthm?
Cs B[p-\nIsctmseb apIp-s\ms Ds-Sp B[p-\nIX. \ Fgp-p-ImcpsS IY-
It\mhepIfpw hmbnpIXs- bmWv. hc-bvm thn hmbnp- Ib Fw. B \nebvv
B[p-\nI IY-bnse {]tabtam `mjtbm hcbvv XSamhp-n.
_wKmfn hnh-\pw hc-np-tm?
_wKmfn IrXnI hmbnm ckamWv. {]tXyInpw chnhbpsS ]cn`mj. AXv ae-
bmfw hmbnp--Xp-t]mse-Xs-bmWv. _wKmfn IY-Ifnse Iymc-IvtSgvkv icnpw _wKm-fnI
Xs-bmWv. kXyPnXvtd-bpsS kn\naI ImWp-tm _wKmfn thjw kwkvmcw Fmw {in
Xv hc-bvm KpWambn. aZncminbn ]Tnp Imev _wKmfnIfpw Dmbncp-p. Cy
t^kn \nv Ahv hyXymkw Dv. ^otgvkn\p-apv hyXymkw. _wKmfnIv ae-bmfp-I
tfmS ASpw Fpw tXmnbnp-v.
]pXnb Fgp-n h ams Fs\ ImWpp?
Cu Imepw hc-bvp-IbmWtm. hc-bvp--Xp-am{Xta Ctm hmbnmdp-q. As\
Hcp ]cnanXn Dv Ctm.
Hcp IY Innbm BthitmsS hc-bvm tXmp {]Xn]-n, Bcp-sSsbms IY-
I As\ hc-bvpp?
Bthiw tXmnbncp-Xv hn. sI. F. IY-I Inp-tmgmbncp-p. Ctmgpw hmkp-tZ-h
\mbp-thnbmWv hc-bvpp-v. AXnepw {]tXyI Xm]-cyamWv. Fw. SnbpsS Nne hmNI
, LS\, Fgp-nse knwnknn CXv hmsX BIjnnp-v.
hc-bvm\msX CubnsS hmbnv a\n Ipdnn ]pkvXIs Ipdnv ]d-bq.
sshZyaTw sNdnb \mcmb-W \qXncnbpsS B-IY. B_-nse HmaI. \ `mj
kwkvImc-ap `mj hn. Sn. bpsS sbms XpSbmbn hcpw Fp tXmn. Cu Hcp Gdnb-bpsS
KpWamWnXv. Bcv Fp-]-d-npw Imcyan. hf-p-sInm `mj. Fw. Sn. bpsSsbms KpWw
AXmWv. IY-b-dnbm\ AsXms hmbnp--Xv. sshZyaT-ns ]pkvXInse `mj \mbn
tXmn. AXp-t]mse CubnsS AmSnp-dv \\m A\p-kvac-Wn\v t]mbn. \\mcpsS
`mjbvpw Cu kXykX Dmbncp-p. \\mv Rm hc-np-v.
hc-bvp-tm \qXncn `mjbn {inp-p-v At? efnX`mj hcbvv A\mbmkX
\Ip-ptm?
`mjmkpJw {][m\amWv.
hp-h\mS `mjtbmSv {]tXyI aaXbptm?
As\sbmn, emfnXy{]-[m\amb `mjtbmSv {]Xn]-nbp-v. Fw.-Sn. Ip_vZp ,
apIp- Hs efnXambn Fgp-Xp-p. Zp{K-lX krjvSnp--hcpw Dv.
hc-bvm\msX hmbnp-tm shdpsX CXns\mp hcbvmw FptXmnbnptm?
As\bn. ]pXnb A- Ip-]nSnp coXnbnep hmb-\b FtXv. ]p\hm
b\ Fsms ]d-bp-Xv FmWv? ]p\hmb-\bn asmv hcnI F Hn. IrXn amdp-n
tm amw \ap-mWv. hmb-\mcs am-amWv. ]p\hmb-\bn sXfnbpI. BZyhmb-\ icnbmbn
n FmWv ]p\hmb-\bpsS Aw.
106
]p\Nn{Xo-XcWw km[yamtWm?
C km[ya.
IhnXbvv hc A\p-`hfp-mhp-atm ]d-bm?
amXr`qanbnep-tm IrjvWhmcnb IhnXI Xcp-ambncp-p. t]Pn\v Ae-mcw Dm
p-Iam{Xta sNbvXnp-p. t]Pv Utd-j am{Xw. IhnXbn IY-bnte-Xp-t]mse Iymc-IvS hcp-
ntm? Pn. ic- p-dp-ns IhnXIv hc-np-v. sI. Pn. ic-nbpsS IrjvWIhnXbvpw
hc-p. CubnsS H. F. hnbpsS kvt\lnp-Xo-cm-hv hc-bp-Ibp-mbn.
s]mXpsh IhnXbvv Nn{Xw hc-bvp--Xnt\mSv \qXncnv henb {]Xn]-nbn Fp
tXmpp?
`mhKm\w Fsms ]d-bmw. ]t hcbvp ]mIn hnjz Bhp-n. ]e-IhnX
Ifpw Hcp sNdnb IhnXbnepw `mhw hcmw. aq-amb Hv Cm-Xn\m Nn{Xw hc-bpI {]bm
kam-Wv.
IhnX hmbnm CjvSat?
CjvSamWv. hn. sI. tKmhn \mb-cp-sS tmIsfms hmbnm aXnbmhm-XmWv.
* hn. sI. Pn.sb p-dnp ]dp
Acp-hnc-bn-semc-cmbm-d-bp
c-hnm--acm
ad-hnh-cm-dn-cp-W-- hnsS
Ipp-aIpw`w sNmcnbm
Cu hcnI hcbvp hgnt?
hc-bv mw.
\mSIpw hc-nptm?
\mSIw cwKp- hcp- XmWtm. IY-I \mSIambnmWv Nn{Xn hcp- -Xv. Imhme-ns
\mSIn\v hc-np-v. IhnXbvpw. AXn s\ntbmSv hmkp-tZ-h \qXncnsb hc-p. Nph
XmSntbbpw Ienthjn\v.
IY-Ifn \qXncnbpsS hnjb-amWtm. ]n. hn. {io\nhmks IY-Ifn t\mhen\v hc-p-
htm? IYm]m{Xfn IY-IfnmcpsS apJ-mb-bptm? B \ne-bvmtWm hc-Xv?
hnjz BWXv. thjw, Acv Hs ckIc-ambn hc-bvmw. thjn \S Bcv Fv
{]iv\an. hmZymcmsWn a\n Hmbp-hsc tXmpw. cmaIp-n\mb, tKm]n Hs
Xncndnbpw. sNbn IrjvWIpn s]mXp-hm. af-n A-pn s]mXp-hm Fnh a\
n hcnI kz`mhnIamWv.
Zp{K-lXbp IY-Iv hc-bvp-tmgp am\ko-Imh FmWv?
Zp{K-lX Fp-]-d-bp-Xv IY-]-d-bp coXnbpsS am-amWv. hmbnp-tm Fn\mWns\ hf-
smSnp-Xv Fp-tXmnbnp-v. IYmIrv DtinXv Fv Fv \apv a\nembnp-mhpw
Hpw \nhrnbnm-hbvv Iymc-IvtSgvkns\ hc-bvpw.
hmbn DSs\ hc-bvp k{Zmb-amtWm?
hc-bvmhp cwK- a\nep-mhpw. Hmbn \nv hc-bvpw.
Fgp-p-Imsc hc-np-tm? Atm AhcpsS Fgpv Hmnmdptm? ]cnNbw LS
107
IamtWm?
Nnesc hc-bvm Ffp--amWv. Ac-hns\ hc-bvm\mWv Ghpw Ffp- w. hn. sI. Fns\
hc-np-v. hmkp-tZ-h\mbsc hc-v hcv Ctm Ffpambn. XntmSnbs\ hc-bvm _pn
ap-mWv. Fw. ]n. \mcmb-W-nsb hc- bvWsav Pb-N{ \mb ]d-p. Hmahcp-n.
]ns hc-p.
{]Wbw, Imaw XpSnbh `mhm-Iambn hc-npv \qXncn. skIvkn\p {]m[m\ya
IY-Ip-hc-bvp-tm B- \nb-{Ww ]menmdptm? ssewKnIXsb GXf-hn hsc Nn{Xo-
Icnmw. hc-bnse kZmNmc-ns ]cn[n GXmWv?
NneXv apgp-h hc-bvm ]n. Hcp ]cn[n hsc hc-bvmw. ITn\ambn Fgp-Xp--hcp-v.
AXv hc-m kwKXn amdpw. kmlnXyhpw Nn{Xhpw Xnep hyXymkamW-Xv . ape-ImWnp
Fs-gp-Xnbm hmb-\bvv A{X Ipgw hcn. hc-m asmmIpw hymJym\w.
\qXncn ae-bmf- nse Fgp-p-Imv thn [mcmfw hc-p. Fgp-p-Im \qXncn
Nn{Xsf ka{K-ambn hne-bncp-nbnptm?
]ecpw ]d-bmdp.v F]-n\memw ]nd-m kabv Fw. Sn. Fgp-Xn. hon hp. sI.
Pn. Fv. Hcn Aembn {]kw-Knp. Bpw kXtSp-mb-Xmbn Adnhn.
ae-bmf-kmlnXyn\v Nn{XneqsS \qXncn \Inb aqeyw Fv F coXnbnep
Hcp ka{K ]T-\ns BhiyIX tXmp-p. tIc-f-nse Nn{XIem \ncq]-I Cmcyn
au\nIfmhp-Xv {iannptm?
AsXmsm Ime-n\p hnp-sImSp-p-I.
* * * * * * * *
]mT`mKns XpS (X- Iw)
IpS FSp-s?
IpS FSp-s?
IfqnbpsS Npp- I hnXp- n. InaI ]nSp. \n \n]n tImcn- cnv Ifqn hnbp.
hnbn icocw IpXn-tm Ifqn hnbp. hnbn icocw IpXn-tm Ifqn
samgnp FSp-mw.
IpSsb-Sp-p-tm Do-cnp-nbpsS ssI-bn IpSs-Sp-mhp Icp-p-mbncp-
p. s]cp-hnc-ep-Ip Xmsg B-dnb hn hogp-p-mbncp-p.
P]nsdn ]pjv]w t]mse Iqhf-ne-t]mse Xmacq t]mse Hme-p-SssIhp. IpS
tXmfnse-Spv Docn B-d-bnd-n.
]mWtm hoin Docn \Sp.
\mImenI \Sp.
\mImenIp ]ntm Ifqn \Sp.
Hbn, sN-an, anm-an
cmhdn. ]Ie-dnn agb-dnn adnn \mSdnn-, ImSdnn tXmSdnn
]pgb-dnn hgnb-dnn. hc--dnn tItScnppw s]cp-aebpw tItcnp-gbpw shp-ImSpw
ISv AkvXa\n\pw {Xnkybvpw apv IrXyw a-Xn-Snv Ah tZiaWv tNme-p-
f-n Cd-n.
Ipnt\bpw _meymtcbpw hc-thm tZimcpw hop-Imcpw hp tNme-p-f-n
108
Cdn apn. Docn IpStbmsS Xpnb-dn.
Ipw Ifqnbpw Ipf-c-bn Anp \np.
A\pw Abpw Ipns-fpw hp. Do-cnpn Xpn \np.
Cf-\o shn Icnp-sImSp-p. Docn ssIsmn.
Do-cnpn Xpn\np.
Ind-Ingtmtv Bsf hnp. Docn ASnbn.
BSv shn IpcpXn sImSpp, Docn ssIsmn.
Imp-amStpw ISa-tpw Bf-b-p. Docn ]mn.
sNs\ shn Icp-Xnsbmgp-Xn, Do-c-pn ssIsmn. Imc-sb-shn Ipcp-Xnsbmgp-In, ]psb
shn ssaesb shn, Iv \mepw IpcpXn Dunpw Docn GinbtX C.
Ggp-Znhkw Docn GinbtX C.
Ggp-Znhkw Do-cnpn Xpn \np.
Ggmw Znhkw IrXyw a-Xn-Snv Ifqn Ipfnp-hp. hmc--d-n Do-cnp-nbpsS apmsI
sNp-InSmcw IfqSn sXmgp-Xp-\np.
DWyqn {]kmZnn.
Cp-hmcp IpSp-abn Aan XShn Ifqn tNmZnp.
Fm Fs \ NmXn
Iqnv IWvT-aSp.
Fm Fs \ NmXo
Iqnv IWvT-aSp.
Do-p-o
t]cv sXn hnfnp-t]mbtm Fv Ifqn sRmSnbnS kvXw`np \np.
Do- cnp-n
Fs shn IcpXn Xnm \ NmXn ASptam? tZhX Xr]vXnsSptam?
Atm am{Xw Do-cnp-n-lmkw s]mn
lotb....
BZys A-lmkw \ne-n. Ac-hm henqcn Ifqn kzbw shn adnp. Hp hndpw
]ns sXdnp Ifqn DZnc-aq-tm tNme-p-fhpw Ipf-cbpw Ipep-nnav tNme-p-f-
c `K-hXn apnetcnbn BZys Ifw sImp.
lotb.....-lzlz
* * * * *
109
\m-p]m-XbneqsS
{]mtZ-inI Ncn{X ]T\w
lcnXC-tmv CSt]pdw
e\ma- nse {]mtZ- inI Ncn{Xw
e-n\v t]cp-hcm Fsnep-samcp ImcWw Dmbncnpw. Nne-tm sFXylyambn
cnpw. As-n kw`hambncnpw. e-\mans Dhw At\z-jnp-Xv ckIc-amWv. Hw
hnm-\{]-Z- hpw.
sNdpIpv : \psS {]tZ-iv Iptd sNdnb Ipp-Ifp-v. \cnpv (Ip-n aXne-Iw), NSn
Ipv (I]pcw t]meokv tj\v aphiw), ]mSnbn Ipv, hp-h IShv Ipv, I-gnsam
(skv amn tlmkn]n nXnsNp Ipv), Iogd Ipv DZmlc-WfmWv. sNdnb Ipp-
I D {]tZiamb-Xn\m sNdp-Ipv F t]cp-mbn.
I-]pcw : sNdp-Ipv A-]qtizcn t{Xn A{K-ime \mY-\mbn {ioIrjvWs {]Xn
jvT-bp-v. AXv nXnsNp-Xv Cs I]pcw hnt-PnemWv. Is ]pc-amb-Xn\m I
]pcw F \maap-mbn Fp ]d-b-s-Sp-p.
Xpm-d-sam : sNdp-Ip-v, I]pcw {]tZ-ifn Ipp-I [mcmf-ap-v. Xcnimbnp Db
es sam FmWv hnfnp--Xv. sam-Isf IrXyambn kqNnnm Nne hntijW
tNpw. C-c-n shw Xn\np ]md-Ifp sam Xomdsam-bmbn. Dmc-W
n Xp-md-sam-bp-ambn. ChnsS ISp th\me-p-t]mepw Pemib-ap-mbncnpw.
s]mn-_km : CStpdw hSp e-amWv s]mn_-km. Cu t]cn\v Hcp cmjvScob Ncn{X
amWv ]d-bm\p-Xv. 1947-48 Ime-L--n Fw. Fkv. ]n.-m IyqWnp-Imsc th-bmSp--Xn\v
I]p-cv Iymv sNbvXncp-p. Cs tZiob bphP-\kwLw hmb-\imev kao]w Hcp IS
bp-v. AhnsS Hcp apo-amWv IhSw \Snbncp--Xv. t]meokp-Im Atls arKo-b-ambn
anp. IyqWnv A\p-`mhnbmsWv Btcm]nmWv a\w. a\n\nsS Atlns IpS
ep-s]mn. ]ns ew "IpSep-s]mn _km' F-dnb-s-p-Xp-Sn. ]nImev "s]m-n_-km'
Fp am{Xambn t]cv.
Bbncw sXv: sNdp-Ipv A-]q Bcydv \mn \npw I-ep-Ibdn tIme-p-\mntev
Xncnp. sNdp-Ip-n\v ]Snmdv I-end-n. A Cd-nb ew "Bgn Xocw Xn' F-dnb-s-
p. AXmWv DmcWn "Bbncw sXv' Bbn Npcp-nb-Xv.
amm-o : sNdpIpv A-]qtizcn t{Xn cmw Znhks Dhw Fgp--fnv ]v
Xrtmv hnjvWp t{Xnte-mbncp-p. Cv Cu t{Xw AhnsSbn. ]nImev Fgp--
nv ammo tNmbn A-e-ntev Bbn. amnb-In ammn Fmbn. A[nIc-Wmnem
bncnWw "I' F {]tbmKw.
Nnd- : hf--Ww apX [Sw hsc-bp {]tZiw sNd-tcnv FmWv Adnb-s-ncp--Xv.
sNd-tcnns \mSp-\mSmWv Im\q. sNd-tcnv Npcpn sNd--Nnd- Bbn. Nne
e-\mn ImWp Iv F {]tbmKw ssP\aXhp-ambn _-s--XmsWv ]d-bp-p.
110
\q-XncnbpsS tcJI F BI-Y-bn \nv
hn. sI. F. ImemImefmbn F\n- b IpI.
hmkp-tZ-h \qXncn
se jns{XmtIhv
amXr`qan honen
Imenv 1
20- 10- 72
BZn {_mW kplrs,
adp-]Sn Ab-bvm Iq-nemWv AhnSp-v. AXp-sImv Is-gp-Xm AkvJnXbp-v. Nn{X
n I{X tIanbmWv Nn-p-shn AhfpsS Imhmb F\nv AhImis--Xt IpeS?
Ahsf Ctmv Ab-p-Xcptam? Cu In\v adp-]Snbns-n C\n Rm Fgp-Xp-n. hninjvS
\mb Hcp {_mW\p-ambp kplrZv_w F\np sImSp--shnnsp kam[m\npw.
hn. sI. F.
........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
\q- Xncn
]nmtm
IemIu-apZn
Xncp-h\]pcw 985 024
{]nb-s m
shfn]mSnse Nn{X Dt{Km{Kw.
XSnnI sSw]-Snv
kzw hn. sI. F.
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Xncp-hvemae
7683
m t\m Akmcw Znhkw /amkw/ XnYn apv Hcp I-b-ncp-p. t]m-s--n. ChnsS
{Km^amcn. Hcp ]Sw hnSp-p. Ch\n \nv Hcp kvsIv Ab-p-Xcptam? tmv krjvSnv
\nh[n tImnI kwL-Snntmfmw. Slightly widly handsome km[\amWv thXv t\ms\ In
nt? A{X tamisamz-.
AtcmK-ZrV, \mPm\_mlp \o
hrbu-h\, FmWv Anw A\p{K-lnncnp-Xv.
Hv Xcmn Xtczm?
Wd-ns-w.
kzw hn. sI. F.
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
111
Ce-kvt{Sjkv \qXncn
(C-sXp \q-Xn-cn?)
C/o. tIcf IuapZn
tImgntmSv 673 018
Ce-kvt{Sjkv \qXncn k,
IemIu-ap-Znv Hcp \oIY Ab-np-v. hcp XIm I\nb-Ww. Iq-n t\ms Hcp
kvsIpw. Cmcyw Rm Pb-N{ \mb-tcmSv ]d-np-v.
ymbn Fgp-XWp. CXp sNbvXp Xns-n total war, Nambu-Nair hundred years war.
kzw hn. sI. F.
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
hmkp-tZ-h \qXncn
12- 03- 84
kplrt,
]sgp-Xnb IY-I Xncnv amjz F XqenIm\man hopw Imp-IbmsWv
`nv A-smmas Ipw Inn.
Cgn Hcp en h Bhmlw Hcp ] IY-bpsS {]ISamb A\p-Ic-amWv, C\n
Fgp-Xp Imcy kwib-amWv. Demoralised. IemIu-ap-ZnmtcmSv ]d-tq.
kpJw?
kzw hn. sI. F
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
{iohmkp-tZ-h \qXncn ({_-) -
tIcf IuapZn
Imenv 16
10287
{]nb-s m
Incntv hc-Xv XIp. cmPo-hns ]m`ntjIn\v tijw \mWzmcv CsensPkv No^mbn
hcp-p-v. (]-s apXn ]Xnv)
IY-IfmbnmWv Dtiyw. BZytXv Ab-np-v. skIyqcnn C{{]w Xs.
kv t\l]qw
hn. sI. F.
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
{io \qXncn
tIcf IuapZn
Imenv 16
3287
{]nb-s \qXncn
CXn\p-ap--b Iv Innbncnp-atm
IY-bn \mWzmcm cma \qXncnbmWv. \qcnv "cmPm"hns\ i Fp hnfnm Igo-bq.
\qXncn ]v "]-'\mbncp-p. kvac-WIfn CXp-hcp-p-v.
BZyIY "skIyqcnn' Ab-np-v. 10000 Xcmm 6\v Ulnv ]d-p-p.
kv t\l]qw
hn. sI. F.
112
{io hmkp-tZ-h \qXncn
tIcf IuapZn, Imenv 16
Hmw hmkp-tZ-hmb \ax
"IemIu-ap-Zn"v Hcp t\mh "A[nImcw' AhnsSbp "skIyqcnn' F IY BZymymbw ]ns
"Zcn{Z-tcJ' "t^mdn Nm' XpSn... Npcp-nbXv 30 Aymbw k Nmp-hns\ amXncn Hc-Xn
Imb-\mhpw \qXncn. _p, ]qm\w XpSn Csmcmsf hcq Fn. Pb-N{ \mbv Fgp-
Xnbnp-v. {]Xn^ew Aymb-n\v 500-I. InWw Hpw A[nIa.
kzw
hn.sI.F
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
\qXncn, Icp-hmv a\
_nemnIpfw
tImgntmSv
hn. sI. F./ Xncp-hnezmae ]n.-H.
Xrq Pn 680 558
17- 89
t\ms kaioj\v
Cv Pb-N{\mb-cpsS Ip-mbncp-p. t\mh Xcmbn A\cw \me-ymbw Fgp-Xn. a\
nap-bva\pw.
k Nmp-hns Xncnp-hc-hmWv. \mhpw F tXm AYhm Zpc-klnn Fw. ]m
aybw Ignm AXp ]In 15-07\v tImgntmSv Inpw.
HmWtmsSmw ]qim\mWv ]Xn. Xncnp hc-hmhmw. 02-07 apX hymghpw i\nbpw Av
GXv IodmSemn hc-bvp-p-thm, GXns\ [\yamp-p-thm, Fs t\mh AXn\v A\p-{K-
ln-mepw
kzw
hn. sI. F.
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
\q- Xncn
Icp-hmv a\, _nemnIpfw
tImgntmSv
]maymbw C-bnnp-v. "A\cw' ]p Znhkw Ignv cmas XhW Innb hnhc-
n\v Hcp hcn.
kzw
hn. sI. F.
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
{io hmkp-tZ-h \qXncn
Icp-hmv a\, _nemnIpfw
tImgntmSv
220789
m
]maymbw Xncnb-Ww.
Akmcw Xncp-p-v.
kzw
hn. sI. F.
\q- Xncn
113
-tImgntmSv
Xncp- hnezmae
250789
]maymbw Xncnp-InmsX IjvSnemWv. AXv Hp-t\mn thWw _mn JWvUix Ab-
m.
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
\q- Xncn
Xncp- hnezmae
270789
]-hW Inn. enJnXw N. IqSp-X \ntIiz-c-m hgnsb.
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
{io Icp-hmv a\bv
hmkp-tZ-h \qXncn
Icp-hmv a\
_nmnpfw
Ntmc-p-Ipgw tXmb-Xn\p kao]w
-tImgntmSv 673 005
\mWz-qcn
Xncv em-ae
680 588
18- 08- 95
{]nb-s Icp-hmv
Icp- hmv
al kcnXsb thfnIgnp--Xn ktmjw
\mWp \qXncnbpsS awK-fmiw-kI
Xcmbm hcmw. AkpJw AhK-Wnpw,
m AImbnep-htcbpw Iqn Ipfnm X....
kzw
Iqme a\ \mWp \qXncnmSv
Icp-hmv a\bv hmtkZ-h \w.
\]q, \qXncn
tImgntmmm As\
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
sNv env
1. {]mtZ-inI Ncn{X \nmWn\v klmb-Iamb tNmZymhenv IpnI \Inb {]XnIc-
Ww.
anIXv icmicn Xosc-bn
114
2. {]mtZ-inI eLp-Ncn{XtcJ kwkvImc kw{Klw Xmdmp--Xn\v th tijnI Ipn
I t\Snbnp-v.
Dv / C/ `mKnIambn
3. \Inbnp Nn{Xfn \nv Bib-fpsS kmay hyXymk Ism Ignn
pv.
Dv/C/`mKnIambn
4. _nw_-I]-\, hmMvab Nn{Xw XpSnb BkzmZ-\mw-i Xncndnv BkzmZ-\p-dnv
Xmdm Ipnv Ignnptm?
Dv/ C/ `mKnIambn
5. kmtXnI anIthmSp-IqSn tUmIypsadn {]h-\n\v Npm ]nSnm A[ym]nIv
Ign-nptm?
Dv/ C/`mKnIambn
6. A[ym]nIbpsS Bib- kmtXnInIthmSp-IqSn Gs-Sp-m IpnIv Ignn
ptm?
Dv/C/`mKnIambn
7. ]T\{]-h\fn IpnIfpsS ]mfnw Dd- phcpm A[ym]nIbvv Ignbp- ptm?
Dv/C/`mKnIambn
8. ]T-\{]-h-\ Bkq{XWw sNp-tm A\p-tbmPyamb k`fn sF. kn. Sn.
km[y-XI {]tbmP-\-s-Sp- nbnptm?
Dv/C/`mKnIambn
9. khntij ]cnK-W\blnp IpnIv ]T-\{]-h-\ {]tbmP-\Iamb coXbn
eLqIcnv \Ip-hmA[ym]nIbvv km[nnp-v.
Dv/C/`mKnIambn
115
ASnm\ ]mTmhen
bqWnv 1
hmmw hWpS NqSn
116
o Fs `mjhtm
o hmns IqsScn- bppKqKn- hmXn HmwtKm
o kucy- ]qP ]n. Ipn- cma \mb
o aebmfw kn- Zm\
amXr`mjbpsS \bpw tabpw ae-bmfn sshInsb-nepw BthitmsS N sNp-I
bmWv. temI-mSpw \nc-h[n sNdp`mjI ad-p-t]mbn. `mjbpsS acWw AXp kwkmcn
p P\XbpsS kwkvImc-ntXp-IqSnbmWv. Hcp `mj Hcp kwkvImcw FXv A[n\nthiw
DmZnn Bib-amWv. `mj kwkvImcw Xs-bmWv. Hcp P\X Adnhv \nnp-Xpw ssIam
dpXpw AhcpsS amXr`mjbneqsSbmWv. hynkzXzw \nns-Sp-Xpw hnIknpXpw km
-IamIp-Xpw kzw `mjbnepw kwkvImc-nepw thcnd-nbmWv. kzw `mj Hcp P\XbpsS
AhImiamWv. amXr`mjbpsS \ntj[w Adnbm\p AhImins\XncmWv. Adnhns hym]-\
ns\Xnsc Db-cp shp-hnfnbmWv. kzbw Bhnjvcnm\p a\p-jys AhImiamWXv.
BcnIhpw _mlyhpamb Fm ISvIb- sbpw {]Xntcm[nm\p tijn amXr`mjbvps
DmgvN Cu bpWnns hn\nab thf-bn Hmp-atm.
Nmp- dnv Xmdmw
A-md--c-a
Asm---c-hp-ass ae-bmfw
ae-bmf-sa \me-chpa
Ip- pn
ae- bm-f- ns sNdn-b- h-enb IhnbpsS IhnXm `mK-n- eqsS Cu bq\nn- tev {]th-inmw.
]nsmWv ae-bmfw? Cu IhnXbpsS Bib-ambn \n hmbnsSp-p Imcy Fsm
sbmWv. Fns\ eLp-hmb tNmZyfneqsS amXr`mjbpsS khntijXIfntepw {]m[m
\yntepw IpnIsf \bnmw. amXr`mj kzw `mjbmWv. Abn \np e`np `mjbm
Wv. honse `mjbmWv. ape-mep-t]mse Ipns hfbn {][m\amWv. kz]v\w ImWp-Xv
kzw `mjbnemWv Cs\bp Bib- N-bn cq]-s-Sp-p. IpnI ]d-bp khnti
jXIfpw {][m\yfpw A[ym]nI BB bn tcJ-s-Sp-p-p.
A[ym]nI t{ImUo-Icnp-p. BB/bn tcJ-s-Sp-nb kqNI hnIknnv IpnI
"amXr`mjbpsS {]m[m\yhpw khntijXIfpw' F hnjbs ap \ndpn eLp Ipdnv Xm -dm
pp.
hmmw hWpS NqSn
117
D]- \ymkw Fgp- Xmw.
IhnI]-\Ifn ]qp-e amXr`mjm kvt\lhpw BZ-chpw amXr-`mjmsb-Ip-dnp
IhnbpsS k]- kzw `mjtbbpw kwkvImctbpw ad-p-sImp ae-bmfnbpsS kao]-
Ime \mSy kzw kzXzs ae-bmfn Xn-dXns A]-IS Fns\ amXr`mjm
kvt\lw sshhn[ytfmsS Bhnjvcns GXm\pw IhnXI IpnIsf ]cnNb-s-Sp-mw.
{Kqp-Ifn \Imhp IhnXI
ae-bmfw Hm. F. hn.
Aae-bmfw Ipcopg {ioIp-am
ae-bmfw bqk^en tIcn
acnbmtWm ae-bmfta \o? bqkp-^en tItcn
hmv a[p-kqZ-\ \mb
Hcp Znhkw knZm\
(IhnXI A\p-_--ambn \Inbnp-v)
kzw `mjtbbpw kwkvImc-tbpw Ipdnv Ihn kqnp k-, Ipns hf
bn amXr`mj sNep-p kzm[o-\w, amXr`mjbpw kwkvImchpw Xnc-kvIcns-Sp--Xnse A]-
IS Fnhbn-eqn A[ym]nI Nm kqNI hnIknnv IhnXm hniIe\ t\cp
{Kqn \Ip-atm. Hmtcm IhnXbnepw Bhnjvcns-np `mjm kvt\lns sshhn
[yw F [mc-Wbntev IpnIsf \bnm\p-XIpw-hn[w A[ym]nI {Kqn CSs]-Sp-atm. {Kqn
e`n IhnXbn Bhnjvcns `mjm kvt\lw F hnjb-n hynK-Xambn Ipdnp
Xmdmn AhXcnnp-p. sas-h s]mXp-hmbn AhXcnnp-p. Hmtcm {Kqpw AhXcnn
p--Xnse {][m\ Imcy A[ym]nI BBbn tcJ-s-Sp-p-p. A[ym]nIbpsS t{ImUo-Ic-W
n\p-tijw ae-bmf IhnXbn Bhnjvcns `mjmkvt\lw F hnjbs ap \ndpn
Hcp D]-\ymkw hynK-Xambn IpnI Xmdms.
Bkzm- Z\p- dnv Xm- dm- mw.
`mjbpsS emhWyw IpnI A\p-`hndnbp-Xv BkzmZ-\nse At\z-jWfneqsSbm
Wv. kmam\yamb Hcp Bib-Xew khntijamb Bhnjvmc-Xe-ntev hf-cp-Xpw hnIknp-
Xpw, {]tXyInv IhnXIfn. IhnXsb BIjIamn amp L- Cg]ncnsSp-m\pw
Xncndnbm\p-ap {]m]vXn IpnI t\tSXp-v.
]mT-`mKs "Fs `mj' F IhnX mkn AhXcnnp-p. IpnIfn Nne IhnX
CuWn sNmpp. IhnX hyXykvX CuWn sNmm\p km[yXIqSn Cu kabv ]cn
K-Wnp-atm. IhnXbnse CjvSs hcnI IpnI Is-s. Cu hcnI CjvSs-Sm\p
Imc-W ]d-b-s. IpnI ]d-bp Imcy Nmn tcJ-s-Sp-mw.
hcnI CjvSs-Sm Fsmbmhmw Imc-W? CuWw, Xmfw, hmMvab Nn{X
Ae-mc I]-\I, Bib-`wKn Fnh Imhy LSIfmbn ]cnK-Wnmhp--XmWv. Nbn
cq]-s-Sp kqvahpw hyXykvXhp-amb A`n{]mb- Icp-XtemsS ]cnK-WntXt? N
bn cq]-s kqNIfpsS ASnm\n Fs `mj F IhnXbvv Hcp BkzmZ-\p-dnv
hynK-Xambn Xmdms. GXm\pw Ipdnp-I s]mXp-hmbn AhXcnnp-p. hyXy-ambh
]cnK-Wnv A[ym]nI N t{ImUo-Icnp-p. NbpsS ta cq]-s [mc-WbpsS shfnn
IpnI BkzmZ-\p-dnv sas-Spn Fgp-Xs.
118
Nn{X-hmb\
\ncoW Ipdnv
hyXykvX hyhlmc cq]- \nco-nm\pw Bib-Xew IsSpv `mjbn Bhnjv
cnm\p-ap tijn Cu {]h\w eyanSp-p. Ffpw {i Wnm\p Nn{XfpsS khn
tijX Cu {]h-\ns NSp-eX hnnp LSIambn FSp-mw.
n amXr`mjm ]T\w Cv t\cnSp shp-hnfnI {]tab-ambn hcp kn.-sI.-amSmbn hc
\mev Nn{Xf-Sp Hcp jons t^mtm tImn {Kqp-Ifn \Ipp. eLp-hmb GXm\pw
tNmZyfneqsS {Kqp-IfpsS {i Nn{Xntev Wnp-p.
Nn{Xn {]Xn^-enp Bib-samWv.
Cu Nn{Xfnse Bib-tmSv \n tbmPnp-pthm?
\nfpsS A`n{]mbw FmWv?
ap-`mjIfpsS B{IaWw, ]{X`mj \nn sshIey, Nm\ `mjbn tNmp-t]m
Ip emhWyXew, `mjsb kw_-nv amdnhcp ae-bmfnbpsS at\m`mhw, {]tbmP-\hmZ-neq
119
nbp Ccw at\m`mhw hcp-nshp \jvS, kzw `mj AhImiamsW Xncndn
hnmbva Fnh Nbn cq]-s-Smhp Bib-fmWv.
{]`mjWw Xmdmmw
hS sFbep-Imc\mb tUhnUv {In Xs {itb- ]pkvXIamb `mjbpsS acWw
(Language death) ]pd-nd-p-Xv 2000-nemWv. AXn\v F{Xtbm apv ae-bmf-n amXr`mj
AhK-Wns-Sp--Xns thZ-\bpw DXvIWvTbpw {]tab-ambn [mcmfw teJ-\fpw ]T-\fpw
Fgp-Xs-ncp-p. Cu bqWnv IpnI ]cnNb-s-Sp-tm Cu taJ-e-bnep teJ-\fpw Adnbm
\p Ahkcw IqSn Ahp-e-`ntXp-v. Cu hn`mK-ns-Sp GXm\pw teJ-\`mK-fpw
teJ-\fpw {Kqp-Ifn \Imw.
ae-bmfw ad-p--h Fw.-Sn.
Xe-tmdn Hcp Gp-sIvkdnb
ae-tbmfw Db-c-nse ae-bmfw A_vZp kaZv kaZm\n
amXr`mjsb ]pd-mp--sXs\ hn. \ntXjv
teJ-\ Dsmp Bib-Xew Isp--Xn\v Bhiyamb kqNI hnIkn
nv {Kqn \Im A[ym]nI {ianp-atm.
teJ-\ns hmb\, amXr`mjm ]T\w t\cnSp shp-hnfnI, BscmsbmWv Cu Ahbvv
D-c-hmZnI, CXp-sImv kaqln\v DmIp \jvS, Fnh kqNIfmbn hcpw hn[w
teJ\w ]cntim[nmw.
{Kqp-I Ahp e`nte-J-\fnse DSw kqNIfpsS ]npWtbmsS ]cntim
[nv Ipdnp-I hynK-Xambn Xmdms. s]mXp-hmbn AhXcnns. {][m\ Bib-
t_mUn A[ym]nI tcJ-s-Sp--s. t{ImUo-Ic-Wn\p-tijw Nbn Dcp-ncn [mc-WI
fpsS shfnn amXr`mjmZn\n kvIq Akw-nbn \Smhp Hcp {]`mjWw Xm
dmmhpXmWv (hy-nK- Xw)
Bibw Xmc-Xayw sNbvXv Ipdn-s-gpXpp
hnZym`ymk {]{Inb-bn amXr`mjm]-T\w IpnbpsS AhImiamWv. Hcp ]Xnsb \ne-
bn AXv cq]-s-Sp-p--hcpsS D-c-hmZn-hp-amWv. kKm-Iambn hf-cm\pw hnIknm\pw
Ipnv Ignsn am{Xta Ah\v/Ahv kaqln\v kw`mh\ sNm Ignbq. amXr`mjm
\ntj[w hnZym`ymk ]Xn aptmp shp kmaqlnI eyns ]qo-Ic-Wn\v FXn
cmWv. Cu Nn DWp-Ibt sI\nb Fgp-p-Imc\mb KqKnhmXo-Hmw-tKmbpsS "hmns
IqsScnbpp' F B-IYmkv]iap teJ-\w.
hmns IqsScnbpp F teJ\w {Kqp-Ifn \Ip-p. teJ-\ns Bib-
Xew IspXn\v A[ym]nI t\cs hnIknnsSp kqNIfpsS Hcp
hv jop-IqSn \Ip-p.
hvjo- n DstS- p Imcy-
KnInbp `mjXn HmwtKmbpsS ap-amcpw ap-namcpw IpnIv ]d-p-sImSp-
-Xp-t]mep IY-I \psS `mjbnepw Ct? Hcp IY Hms-Spv Htm
ctm hmIyn IY ]cnNb-s-Sp-mtam?
120
Ccn Hcp IY \npw AhXcnnm\mhptam? apXnh ]dp
HmwtKm tI IY- Ifnse {][m\ {]tabw FsmsbmWv? IYmhXcWns
Fsmw km[yXIfmWv HmwtKmhyamp-Xv?
"]ns Rm kvIqfn tNp Hcp tImtfmWnb kvIqfn' Fsms
bmWv am-? amXr`mj kwkmcn ]ng CuSmnb- -sXs\bmbn
cpp? Cwojv `mjbn tXmp--hv Fsms \ntj[ns-p.
{Kqn teJ-\ns hmb\ \Ss. \Inb hv jov hynK-Xambn ]qcnnp-p.
{Kqn NsNbvXp hyX ssIhcnp-p. sas-Sp-nb Hv s]mXp-hmbn AhXcnnp-p.
hv joneqsS t\Snb Bib-[mc-WbpsS shfnn Xmsg tN ]{Xhmbpw teJ-\`m
Khpw Xmc-Xayw sNbvXv Ipdnp-XmdmIs.
aebmfw kwkmcn- Xn\v Cwojv aoUnbw kvIqfn
IpnbpsS Xe sam- bnp
tImgntmSv: mkv apdnbn ae-bmfw kwkmcnXn\v kvIq A[nImcnI
\memw mkp-Imcs Xe sam-b-Snp. mkn \npw Ipnsb hnfnndn
m^v dqan\Sp-p Hgn mkv apdnbn sImp-t]mbmWv sam-b-SnsXv
cnXmhv \Inb ]cmXnbn ]d-bp-p. mkv apdnbnepw kvIq Im-knepw
ae-bmfw ]d-Xn\v IpnIv ASnbpw iImchpw \nXykw-`hamsWv
cnXm ]d-bp-p. tImgntmSv Sut]meokv kvIq A[nIrXcpsS t]cn
tIkv Nmv sNbvXv At\z-jWw XpSn.
Poh- Ncn- {X- Ip- dnv Xmdmmw
{]mtZ-inIamb `mjbvpw kwkvImc-n\pw t\tc \Sp ISp-Ib- - temIs-
mSpw \S-p Hcp {]h-W-X-bmWv . Pohn-X-ns ka-kvX-taJ- e- bnepw Ch \ne- \n-dp- p
m\hpw kwkvImchpw A[n\nthins\Xnsc Db-cp ISp {]Xntcm[amWv. cmjv{Sn\
Ipw ]pd-p-ambn Db-cp ISpIb--ns\Xnsc temIs- mSp-ap-b-cp {]Xntcm[ i_vZ-
ns ss[jWnIap-J-amWv KpKnhmXo HmwtKm. Cu bqWnns hn\nab eyfnsemmbn
Cu {]Xntcm[ i_vZw IpnI Xncn-dnb-s. KqKn-hmXn HmwtKmsb kw_- nv sh_vskn
\npw Uu temUp sNbvsXSpv FUnvsNbvX hnhc-aWv Xmsg tNp--Xv.
Born January 5, 1938 is a Kenyan author, formerly working
in English and now working in Gikuyu. His work includes nov-
els, plays, short stories, and essays, ranging from literary
and social criticism to children's literature. He is the founder
and editor of the Gikuyu-language journal Mutiri
In 1977, Ngugi embarked upon a novel form of theater in his
native Kenya which sought to liberate the theatrical process
from what he held to be " the general bourgeois education
system" by encouraging spontaneity and audience participa-
tion i n the performances. Ngugi's project sought to
"demystify" the theatrical process, and to avoid the "pro-
cess of alienation produces a gallery of active stars and an
undifferentiated mass of grateful admirers" which according
Ngugi wa Thiong'o :
121
Cwo-jn e`yamb hnhc-fpw teJ-\hpw ]cnK-Wnv IpnI XnHmwtKmbpsS hniZ-amb PohN
cn{Xp-dnv Xmdms.
_nw_ Iev]- \I Isn Ipdnp Xmdmmw
""Ip-smtc-gp-XncnI Nqgpw
Ipp-hnf-ns Iqp-t]mse
F-gp-s]mmf-am \Sp-hn
Ghp-abmbv IptSn ''
IptSn (H.-F.-hn)
{]Xn- IcW- p- dnv FgpXmw
kzw Ncn{Xnepw kwkvImc-nepw thcnd- nsmp- -am{Xta Hcp-a\p-jy\v, Ah/Ah
Dsmp kaqln\v, hf- cm\mhp- Ibp-q. temItmfw hfhcp-sSbpw kzw taJ-e-
bn ]c-amh[n hnP-bnhcp-sSbpw Xpdv ]d-nep-I CXv kmys-Sp-p-p.
kzw kzXz-tbpw kwkvImc-tbpw Xn-d-bp-tm kw`hnp-Xv kmI Pohn
Xns apc-Snpw A\yhc-Whp-amsWXn\v Gsd DZmlc-Wfp-v.
\-Inbpw Ne-n{X \Snbpw kwhn[mbnIbp-amb Ipamcn tim`\bp-ambn a[p sI. at\mPv
\Snb A`napJ `mKw {inq.. (Krlevan 2011 BKkvXv ew)
tNmZyw : sNss-bn Xmakn-p-p. Xangpw Cwojpw IqSp-Xembn kwkmcn-pp Fnpw
FSpp kn\na ae-bmf-n!
Dcw: Fs amXr`mjbmWv ae-bmfw. F\nv ae-bmf-t-m \mbn Xangv kwkmcn
m\dnbmw. ]t Fs kwkvImcw ae-bmfnbp-tSXmWv. sF Im kv]ov Cwojv s_ _v
sF Imv Xnv C Cwo-jv. Rm lnn kzbw Uv sNp-p. ]s Hcp lnnImcnbmIm
F\nv Ignbn. F\nv Nnnm Ignbp `mj ae-bmf-amWv . Rm kz]v\w ImWp--Xp-
t]mepw ae-bmf-nemWv. Fs tam kwkmcnp-Xpw ae-bmf-amWv. asmcp `mjbpw Ah
dnbn.- tamsf ae-bmfw ]Tnnm thnbnv a\qw Rms\mcp {iahpw \Snbnn. Fnpw
Ah ae-bmfw CjvSs-Sp-p. AXmWv amXr`mjbpsS {]tXyIX.
ae-bmf-t-m \mbn Xangv kwkmcnm\dnbmw. ]t Fs kwkvImcw ae-bmfn
bp-tSXmWv.
sF Im kv]ov Cwojv s_ _v sF Imv Xnv C Cwo-jv.
Rm lnn kzbw Uv sNp-p. ]s Hcp lnnmcnbmIm F\nv Ignbn.
tamsf ae-bmfw ]Tnnm thnbnv a\:-qw Rms\mcp {iahpw \Snbnn.
Fnpw Ah ae-bmfw CjvSs-Sp-p.
tim`\bpsS A`n{]mb-tmSv \n tbmPnp-ptm? Hcp {]XnIc-Wp-dnv Xmdmp-I.
to Ngugi, encourages passivity in "ordinary people" Although Ngaahika Ndeenda was a commercial
success, it was shut down by the authoritarian Kenyan regime six weeks after its opening. Ngugi was
subsequently imprisoned for over a year.
Adopted as an Amnesty Prisoner of Conscience, the artist was released from prison, and fled Kenya.
In the United STates, he taught at Yale University for some years, and has since also taught at New
York University, with a dual professorship in Comparative Literature and Performance Studies, and
the University of California, Irvine, Ngugi has frequently been regarded as a likely candidate for the
Nobel Prize in Literature. His son is the author Mukoma wa Ngugi
122
`mjm skan- \m
amXr`mjm kvt\lw tIhew CXc `mjItfmSp AklnjvWp-Xbmhcp-Xv. amXr`mjbvv
t\tc Db-cp ISp-Ib--n\v Nne ZpjvS eyfp-v. amXr`mjm kwc-Ww AhImit_m
[ap P\XbpsS cmjv{Sob D-c-hmZn-amWv. amXr`mjm AhKW\bvsXnsc-bp Ncn{X]-
chpw cmjv{So- b-hp-amb At\z-jWv IpnIsf klmbnpw hn[amIWw `mjm skan\m kwL-
SnntXv. Bdv {Kqp-Ifmbn D]-hnjb- Xnc-sSp-s. "ae-bmfhpw ae-bmfnIfpw' F
s]mXp-hnjb-n\p-Io-gn AhXcnns-tS D]-hnjb- N sN-s. hmns IqsScn
bpp F bqWnns hn\nab tijw t\Snb [mc-WIfpsS shfnn D] hnjb- Is
p- p.
aebmfhpw aebmfnIfpw
D]- hn- j- b
o tIc-fw kwm\cq]o-Ic-Ww-`mjbvp m\w
o ae-bmfhpw \mtSmSn kmlnXyhpw
o ae-bmfhpw am[ya`mjbpw
o amdp ae-bmfw
o `mjbpw kaqlhpw
A\p- _w
hmv
A\p-abpw hmsp tIp Rm
A-c-n \Sq \nemhnse
\oe-hm\w t]mse Rm\qdnhsmcm
\mZ-aqImNe-sane-enp-t]mbv
"asf'sbp ]meqdp-smc]v, F\n
smsbpw Xp Xncppw hb-v, hn
s]mnse-s-sb-Sp-p-bppw h]v
sNmfnmw, Ifn- Npnepw
hmv aWp-n\nbvpp hmss
t\mnncnm hnfp Inpp
Innfnbmpp, \mZ-ambv hss
bsc-b-sc-smp-t]m-bo- Sp-p.
Fsbpd-m InSp-tmgpw, sas
sas-bncp-np-apdw {]f-b-n
semmb-ensSp-p-tmgp, ]ns
Rm\dnbmsX hnfnp-Wptmpw
Fns\-nm-sXbp-Z-b-K-Xnhn-e-b-
-sf-neq-sS-p-amhnn-Sptmgpw
hmssb-bpa\p-amIpp
hmn hnc Xqnbtm \Sp-p. (a[p-kqZ-\ \mb)
123
aebmfw
F{X kpcsa{X kpc
sas ae-bmfw
app ]hng sImcp-smcp
s]mp- \qt]mse!
an hoWp Ipcpp s\Wn
hnp-ap- f-s]mn
anp-ao-cne hoioSpw t]m
se{X-bo- c- Sn-I
anthqhn- XhX
oWambv hp!
Ap-]mSn-b- ]mneqm
emSn ae-bmfw
sImepw Ipdp-samgnIfpw t]mbv
IY-I ]e-tXmXn,
s\-Wsmcp Kpcp hfnb
InfnaI ]mSo
tZhssZ-Xy-a\p-jyh
alm-N- cn- {X-
tX In\nbpw hmntemXn
hfp ae-bmfw
F{X kpc-sa{X kp-c-sas ae-bmfw
app-]-hng sImcp-smcp
kzamenI t]m
(H. F. hn.)
aebmfw
ASp--ho-nse Nc-ai-bn
A\at{X InSp apn
hnhcw tIp Rm\hnsSsb-n,-sb
hntZ-in-bmsamcp kplr-ns\msSmw
hncp ZoL-ambv izknq ap-n,
Xcnp \nbmw P\ Npnepw
acpp hmbnte-smgnm\m-ImsX
]cppw ]p{XnsbSsmcp hr
]Xp-stbmXn\m: ""A\-eu-InIw
aXnbn\n; Duzwhen XpSntmbv''
AhnsSbsmgp-XJn-epw In
AIme-Xmakw `b-anb--th,
Xe-\c asmcp htbm hr
\ne- hnf-nsb-cn-In hn-cp
smcp Po{Kw ]Ipp ssIqn
nc-]-cnNnXIhnX ]mSp-hm
XpSn; sas-thbncp-f-Iep-q,
XpSp-shfnn Xfnc-f-Ipq.
124
Acnb Iqc-p-Ip-cpt]mep
smcp Iocw an ]d-p-]mSp-q
Icnw-K-\mkp-jabmIp-p,
Inco-SXrjvW shscnSp-q,
\nimNc-{KkvXw \cXzw apnX
{]imna{ambv arXnsb shpp!
hncmKamw s]mcp, kcmKhmMvabw
]pcmWao-hn[samgpIn \nth,
\nd Nn{Z-kiaIWw apI
\Xbnt-enp ap-n.
Agenems X\qP tXn\m;
AgpXp Iqp-Im arZp-hmbv apn
Nncnms\tmWw hnSsmcm Npn
kv^pcnp Ibmw eLp-cmambWw!
acn- bmtWm aebmfta \o?
ambp-nXm tNjvSI aw-aw
acnbmtWm ae-bmfta \o?
]mTme-b-n, sXcp-hn kz`mjm
{]tbm-K- an-m-n-se-\m-cy-sambv,
Anbp-p InSmhnt\bpw
"an'p-dp-n XSbp aqew
Rns a kzP-\n{Xsb-tm
sXmmn \mw \psS `mjtbbpw
satmsf X layaSnp-hmcm
taemf-sc-mWp-hWn aqIw
hcw Xtc-p he-c-n
Nqten \n]p ae-bmf `mj
ew almhr-sagpw h\n
]nXn tNacw {][m\w
htc-Wyamw Xmbvsamgn P\mn
hknp-thmsm-sbp- a{]-[m\w.
`mjbvWsmcp hn]-p-Xs
_m[np- t]m kmlnXntb- bp-samw
sXmenp-d-t \J-Xw Xm
Xpe-nSmw {]mWt\bpw Nne-tm
hyXz-tamepw apIname-t]mse
hmbvpp ImthyXc-hmMvab-
]Zyw kzbw thjaWnp h
KZyw, \ndw tN hnNmc-Zmkyw.
Ffp--amtWmbn \nXyZo]w
sImfp-p-hm i-sbgpw \n_w
ad-ntSpw IhnXbvp ap
p cmkXz-cIw IWmw.
Nw ISw hmnb ]v t\dmw,
125
kzw ]cp-npWn tamiamImw.
Bhs, b\y[ac-m
Xmhp--Xt IhnIp Imayw.
cmPymc {]uVn-bneq-amo
cmPys \nn-XhnZy-bt{X
tNte-sd-bp-tmcp aZmbmbm
tmepw kzamXmhn\p Xpeybmtam?
]tbm[c-ns ]pIgvNtbbpw
]Wn\mbn {]`p-hcyt\bpw
hmt\mf-tapw ae-bmf-Imhy
hym]mchpw ]p \Sncnmw.
Fme-]qhmib- ku- jv T-h-m
-sepw at\mPvR-{]-`bmp-anpw
kmln-Xy-c-Xv \fp-ap- sXmw
kmc--tc-pp inc-nen-pw,
Cnte \msf-Isfms an
hs-nbm t]mhp-IXs sNpw
Fm \inm \hXz-ap-
sXsp NnnnsXm-cp-Xnjv Wp:
anYym\p-am\ aYnp \nXy
kXymartXo Ihn ImfnZmk
""]pcmWantXyh \ km[p khw
\ Nm]o Imhyw \hanXyhZyw''.
Imeo\ Imhyw WnIw, kakvX
Imeo-\ambmeXp \nXy\hyw
Cy Ihnsm-antX hn[n
Nnnp ]mmXya\o-jnamcpw
hcyw kz\mSo X\Xmb ]mc
cyns\s \hoIcn
AXmWp \nXym[p-\nIXz-taIpw
]qh-{]-hrn{]-Z- k-knn.
CmnemIs,-sb-gp- p-Imc
hymJy\Imcs hc-n hmgvhq.
kmm Ih\np-p-]-hnjvS\mIm
knwlmk\w `mhp-Iam\kn
Xs-p-Igvm kvXpXn]mT-Im
XIo-gnenmsmcp ImhyImc
kmm-\y\evs#-p, hcm-Xncn-m
kwLs \nnp Ipem[n\mY
Xmcmp-]mSm a[p-a-hrw,
Xmfw- ]nSnm\p-]-Pm-]- hw,
Dd-o-Spp Ihn, \n{Z-bn
\pc-nSpw hmp-I hmMvab-,
Ejnp-t]mepw {iaknamb
IhnXz-ta,-\n\n-e-XmWp-XmWv
Imh-Sntm\psS tXmfnep
knIs-nl hp-tNp.
126
CXn]cw \oNX thsd-sb-p
o amXrcmPyn\[x]Xnm!
tamlm-ImcmhcWw Xpcp
tam- {]-Zo]w sXfnbp-sXtm!
am\-b-{]mW`b-m \odn
acnoSpw ap-arXmb-am\w
acpp amXmhn\p \evInSmsX
ab-amtWm ae-\mp-a? (bqk^en tItcn)
A aem-bmfw
Imhycp-fn Xmcmp-]mns
CuWXnte-dnp Nncnsm-cm
sRns-dnp XIp tNmZnpp
hnpthm \o Fs PohnX`mjsb?
Hmebpw \mcmbhpw Imnc-ns
tNme-bn hp \anp Xncnsmcm
BZnXy t\{Xw Xpdp tNmZnpp
FXp ISen Fdnp \o `mjsb?
Nnnew \np Nne-Ifp-con
s\p ssIhp tNmZnbmsWmcm
Nppthm \o Fs tIc-f-`mjsb?
hoW]qhns incp tNmZnpp
t{]akw-Ko-XX]p tNmZnpp
Nn{XtbmK-n \`p tNmZnpp
aWn\mZ-am a\p tNmZnpp
]mSpw ]nimNv i]np tNmZnpp
] t]dpw Ic- tNmZnpp
Ifnb-s\bvX In\mhp tNmZnpp
Imhnse-mn Icpp tNmZnpp
]p-cnp-bmbv tKmhnNnI
]pkvXIw hnp Xgp tNmZnp-p.
FhnsS FhnsS
kly]p{Xn ae-bmfw
FhnsS FhnsS
kv t\l-]q-ae- bmfw?
aen\hkv{Xw [cnv, HmSbn\ns-Wov
Acp-XcpXv atf Fp tIgpp
ic-WK-XnbnmsX A ae-bmfw
lrZ-b-n\npw ]nd ae-bmfw.
127
BcpsS ap{Z?
CXmcpsS tNmc?
BcpsS A\mYamw apd-hnfn ?
BcpsS \ne-bvm \ne-hnfn?
As Xosamgn
AbpsS tXsamgn
BtcmattIms Ancp-samgn
BbpsS Ddp-ansamgn
sNdp-as I\samgn
]gns- cp-- Stm-cn \nd-samgn
Ipmenhmsamgn
Xtm-fn-p-Snsamgn
tXmcmsX s]p amdns-dnsamgn
tXIp-hm, DumenemSp-hm
]q\p-p-tbmSp-hm
hnf-sImbvXp tIdp-hm, hnnSm
km]-ktm-jsamsb-dnbnp-hm
Xn ]nWp-hm
]ns-bp-anWp-hm
]mSp-hm
]mc- vbv t]-sd-bn-jvS-satmXp-hm
Ic-bp-hm s]mcp-Xp-hm tNcp-hm
Npncpp Nqn-
\-bmW-ae-bmfw
Pae-bmfw
A\yambv t]mIp Pohae-bmfw
Hmp-I,
A\pw Abpw {]Wbn
`mj ae-bmfw
Ipnfn In hni-mp-hm
hmp X ae-bmfw.
s]tfmsSmw ]dp Xfnp-hm
h ae-bmfw
Iqent]msc--Xdnp ]nWp-hm
Bbp[w X ae-bmfw,
Dp Iqcw Dancn Dtcn
sXmp-ImWn ae-bmfw
]pp-hho-W, ]pmp-g, \pWn
smp tIn ae-bmfw,
s]mnc-p-sImtmSn hogpp
IjvSIme-n Ib-n
cnntS ssI Is-Sp-p-tm
innp Xr]vX-cmhp-tm
Hma\p-nSmhp tNmZnpp
128
HmWae-bmfs Fp-sNbvXp?
Hmaae-bmfs Fp-sNbvXp? (Ip-co-pg {ioIp-am)
Hcp Znhkw
knZm-\
\K-c-ambn amdnb \mn ]pds tdmUv
tI_nfp-I \mm Ipgntm
]Wnmc\v Hcp tp IjvWw Inn
AXn "I' Fs-gp-Xnb-ncnpp
Fgp-s-s-dnbm Abm
\K-c-nsetbhpw {]mbw sN
Imc-Whsc ImWnp.
FtmHm-t]mse Abm
]gsbmcp s]nSbn InS
Aym-cmambWw s]mSnXnsb-Sp-p.
]dp ""honp Xd-sb-Sp-m Ipgntm
ap-\p Innb ]pkvXIn
Cs\sbtm Inp-v.
F\nXphmbn\-dnbn''
Bfp-I hw IqSnbncpv
cmamb-Wn ]cXn
AXn ]e-bnSpw Ah B Acw Ip
Iq-nep-mbncp Hc-[ym]-I
]dp ]v ]v
"ae-bmfw' F Hcp hs-gp-p-`mj Dmbncpp
B `mjbnse "K' BWv CXv.
]nsns B `mj
Bcpw Fgp-XmXmbn kwkmcnmsXbmbn
AXp-]-Tn Nne ]nWnbn acnp.
Hcp Imev B `mjbn
PmXIhpw ]mw-Khpw am{Xa
IYbpw IhnXbp-samsbp-mbncp--s{X.
Ctm AXv hmbnm\dnbmhp--hcmcp-an.
]\tbme-Ifn A-c-fpsS Imcp-Incp-p-Wn,
Hcp Imp-hmin
]nb-a \nf-bpsS aXcnI
Ftm Hmv Xcnp.
agam{Xw "IrjvWKmY' ]mSnsmtbncp-p.
129
aebmfw adp--h
Fw.Sn.
tIc-f-nd-hnbpsS Znhkamb \hw-_ Hn\v ae-bmfs kwc-nm\p BtemN\Ifpw
ktf- \fpw Xncp-h\]p-cpw Fd-WmIp-fpw \Sp. ae-bmfs kwc-nm tIc-f-
n kwL-S\bp-mtXmbn hp Fv tIm ap-`mjmv ApXw tXmmw.
ae-bmfw ]TnmsX Xs ChnsS IpnIv _ncp-Z-[mcnIfmhmw. {Ian ae-bmfw Fgp-
Xm\pw hmbnm\p-adnbmsX Xs ChnsS A`ykvXhnZycmhmw. Acw Hcp kaqlw Xs `mhn
bn cq]sSmw. ae-bmfs cnm thn Fgp-Xp-Ibpw kwkmcnp-Ibpw sNbvXhscmw
Dun- d--Xm-WnXv.
ae-bmfs cmw `mjbmnb-Xns\ ChnsS BZyambn hnainXv asmcp `mjbnse
Fgp-p-Imc-\mbncp-p. ASp Imew hsc KmnPn kIemime-bpsS sshkvNmkemdmbn
cp tUmIvS bp. B. A\aqn. cmw `mjbmbn lnn kzoIcntm kmWnbpsS
]nbnembn ae-bmf-n\p m\w.
Cwojpw lnnbpw ]Tnmte ]pdv tPmen t\Sm km[nq. Atm ae-bmf-n\v ]Icw
lnn ]Tnmse-mWv sXv ? ae- bm-f- n\v Iq-Sp-X-sempw th Fv tIp- - hsms
tXmpw, A`ykv XhnZycpsS sXmgn-enmbva Fpw tIc- f-ns cq-amb {]iv \ambn \ne-
\np-tm.
Cwojv ]Tnp- -Xp- sImv Hc-]- IShp-an Fv hniz- knp BfmWv Rm. Cybn
tev cv Cwv ISp-hp. A[nImchpw ssk\nI inbpw D]-tbmKnv Hcp P\Xsb ASna
-n _nnSp-Ibpw hn`hsf sImb-Snp-Ibpw sNbvX Hcp Idp Cw-v. sjbvvkv
]nb-dp-tSbpw an-sbpw mknp-IfpsS kwkvImc-ap Hcp shfp Cwpw hfsc apv Ph
lem s\lvdp ]dXmWnXv.
kmbv]pw aebm-fhpw
kmbv]v ASn`cnncp Imev kmbv]n\v ae-bmf-nt\mSv Ah-bp-mbncp-n F-
XmWv kXyw. tIm {_qv k hneyw tPmkv dnnkv XpSnb-hcmWv Cy mknp-I
sf--nbp ]T-\ BZyambn temIns apmsI AhXcnnXv. ae-bmf-nse BZys
kmaqly t\mh kmbv]ns `c-Wn Iogn tkhI\mbncnp Hcm Fgp-Xnb-Xn Ahv
]cnlmkw tXmnbn-n-. ae-bmfw ]Tn kmbv]v Ie-Iv S Uyqhokv, CpteJ hnh\w
sNm Dp-I\mbn F Ncn{Xw Ahtijnp-p.
ae-bmfw cmw `mjbmtWm aqmw `mjbmtWm GXp mkp-hsc ae-bmfw \n_--
amWw F-sXmp-a {]iv\w kzw `mjtbmSp kao-]-\nemWv amw htc-Xv.
Cub-Sp--Imev {^v FgppImcpsS Hcp kwLw Zlnbn hncp-p. aqv t\mhen
p-Ifpw Hcp \ncq]-I\pw. Cybntebpw {^mkntebpw Fgp-p-Im tNv t\mh ktX
sf-n NsNm kmlnXyAmZ-anbpw {^v Fw_-knbpw tNv Hcp-nb ktf-\w. N
bpsS `mK-ambn-msX, {io. KwKm[ ssKUvKn Hcp tNmZyw tNmZnp. {^v kmlnXytmSpw
{^v `mjtbmSpw AhnSps hf-cp Xe-apdbpsS kao-]-\samWv? adp]Sn ]d t\mhenv
aZmw tImkvXm hniZo-Icnp. F\nv cmIp-nIfp-v. ]smXv hb-mb Cf-b-h Fn\o-
b- dnwKv ]Tnp-p. Ccp-]smp hb-mb aq- h ^ntemk^n ]Tnp- p. Fn\o- b-dnwKmbmepw
saUnkn\mbmepw Fmbmepw {^p`mjbpw kmlnXyhpw ]TnmsX AhnsS _ncp-Z-saSp-m
]n-.
\oN`mjIv temIimkv{Xfpw hnm\fpw Dsmm\mhn Fp Xpdv ]c-
XmWtm samtf ChnsS Cwojv hnZym`ymkw Bcw`nXv. ]t _pnammcmb \psS
130
]qnI Cu hntZ-i-`mj \mbn {]tbmP-\-s-Sp- n. kzw `mj-Isf hfm Cwojv
hnm\w Ahcp-]-tbmK-s-Sp- n. Cwo-jn At\Iw t\mh _pp-I hcp-p. AXp-t]m
semv ae-bmf-nepw DmhWsav tXmnbmWtm {io. Np-tat\m Cp-teJ Fgp-Xnb-Xv.
hntZi `mjIfnse hninjvS kmlnXycq]-fpsS amXrIbn kzw `mjbn krjvSn \Snb-
Xns ^e- ambn ChnsS KoXI, hnem-]-Imhy- As\ ]e-Xp- ap-mbn. k--amb
\psS sNdp-IYm kmlnXyw ]mXy amXrIIfn \nv [mcmfw {]tNmZ\w Dsmnp-v.
_wKm-fnbpw Cojpw
Cojv ]Tnp- tmgpw kzw `mjtbmSv BZ-chpmbncpp FXmWv kzmX{y\p app
Ah. kzmX{yn\v -tijhpw CXv XpSp. tIc-f-nsemgnsI, _wKmfnse CS-c-mcpw
k kaqlhpw Fpw Cwojv hnZym`ymkn\v {]m[m\yw Inhcmbncpp Cw-ntev
IpnIsf Abp ]TnnpI F-Xv. `{Z-temIns mkv knw_-fmbncp-p.
]t hntZ-iv t]mbn ]Tnmepw henb _ncp-Z-sf-Sp-mepw _wKmfn `mjtbmSv c
_w ]pepXn Ahscpw \njvj ImWnp. _wKmfn kmlnXyhpw Ipdv cho{
kwKo-Xhpw Adnbp-Xv F{X ]Tn s]Ip-nbmbmbepw IeymWmtemN\bpsS kabv Ah
fpsS apXqambn Apw IWms-p, Cpw
ChnsStbm? ""Ah tImshn ]TnhfmWv ae-bmfw Adnbn'' Fp ]d-bp--XmWv
tIaw F ]ecpw [cnp-p.
Cu \ne-hptNXv kzmX-{yn-\p-ti-jamWv. ae- bmfnIXs `cnm XpSnb-
tmgmWv ae- bmf- tmSv Ah tXmnn-p kwhn[m\w Dmb- Xv. Hmw `mjbpsStbm
cmw `mjbp-tStbm {]iv\a ChnsS. ae-bmf-`mjtbmSp \psS at\m`mhnemWv amw htc-
Xv.
Fs Ipnp Xangdnbn, admnb-dnbn, sXep-dnbn _wKmfnb-dnbn Fv s]m
tmsS ]d-bp cnXmsf Xangv \mntem almcmjv{Sntem, B{-bntem, _wKmfntem
ImWptam? C.
`cW`mjbpw tImSXn`mjbpw t_m[\`mjbpw (B[mc- `mjbpw) aebmfamnbXpw sImm
bn. kaqlnse Nne anYym[mc-WIfmWv BZyw amt-Xv.
]{XtaJebpsS hmgvN
Zqc- Zi {]N-cn--tmsS lnn ta[m- hnXzw hnphcpp FXpw kXy-am-Wv. Hcp
`mjbvpw ae-bmfnI FXnc. ae-bmfnI `mj]-Tnp--Xn hnZ-Kv[cp-amWv. lnnp-dpw
CymcmPyns Nne-`mjIfp-sv -Cy `cnp--hv [mc-Wbptm FXmWv {]iv\w.
apimbnc-Ifpw lmkyIhnktf-\fpw av `mjmcpsS ta Zqc-Zi ASntnp {Iqc-
Xbvv \mw Fpw aqIkmnbmbn \ntnhcp-p. sX kwm\fnse apgp-h `mj
admTnbmsWv hniz-knp henb Hcp P\hn`mKw Ctmgpw D-tc-ybnep-v.
ae-bmfn-Ifmb \ a\ns hmXnep-Ifpw Pme-Ifpw Xpd-nSp--hcmWv. km
m]-\fpw BZm {]Zm\p-sams hcp--Xn\p-appXs ChnsS hynI Xangpw lnnbpw
_wKmfnbpw admTnbp-sams ]T-ncp-p. B `mjIfnse IrXnI hnh\w sNbvXncp-p. AXn
hnsS BkzmZ-I kzoIcnp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
Hcp hgn]mSpt]mse \mjW _pv {Spw kmlnXyAmZ-anbpw apw aebmf- n \npw
lnnbntepw D-tc-y `mjIfntepw hnh\w sNmdp-v. Cu ]pkvXI hnm
dn. kmcns tKmUu-Wp-Ifn InSv NnXecnpw.
kmwkvImcnI cwKv lnn ta[mhnXzw DsXv kXyamWv. Cybnse {]apJ kwKo-X
-msc-n tUmIyp-sadnI \nnm \mjW ^nenw Uhe-]vsav tIm-td-j Xocp-
131
am\-saSp- -tm D-tc-y DkvXm-Zp-amcn AXv HXp-n-\np. Fw. Un. cma\m-Y-s\tmse
ZntWy kwKo-Xamsc-n Ahc-cmbnmtWm?
Cwo-jp-Imc `cntm kzw `mj {]Ncnnncp-Xv \mp-`mjIsf sImnmbncp-n
. lnnmc `cnm XpSnb-tm kw`hnXv AXmWv.
Cybnse tdUntbmZqc-Zi {]t-]W kab-n lnnv F{XiXam\w Inpp?
Bsc-nepw IWsSp-tXmWv. Fm `mjIfpw hc-Wsav hnNmcnp--hcmsWn Fp-
sImv ae-bmf-IhnXIfpw sXep-p-IhnXIfpw Zqc-Zi\nepw tdUntbmbnepw hp-IqSm! Aw
a\nembns- -nepw Cs\bpw Nne-`mjI ChnsSbp-sv Hcp {ihW ]cnNb-sanepw \S
s. lnnmcs lkyIhnXbpw, apimcnbmtcbpw IemImcnItfbpw _lp-am\nnmWv. taemf-
mtcbpw DSaItfbpw In-., ho-SnnSnv ImtW, Ahsc Rm BZ-c-]qw t\mnm
Wp-p.- s\mSnbnSsImv b{ns `mK- t]mse cwK-ko-Ic-W amp dnvt_mbvkv
ASw anI IemImc-mcmWv \nv a\nembmepw Cs-nepw A]w m\w ]d-b-s.
imco-cnIamb ]qXbmWv knse IemImc {]Zinnp-Xv. ]cnio-e\wsImv
B ]qX t\Snsb-Sp-p-p.- \nc-c-amb ITn\amb ]cnio-e\w sImv B ]qX t\Sn -bmte
ASp "Ifn'v Abmv {]Xy-s-Sm Ignbq. Ah Pohnq, am\knI {]]--nse Iem
Imc-m Hcnepw ]qX t\Sp-n. "^nkn s]^-', "Ce-Iv s]^' Fn
hsb Xcw-Xncnv BUkv lIvknen Fgp-Xnbnp-v. ]t F{X ]cnio-e-\w-sImv ]qX
t\Sm\mhm a\ns If-cnbnse Ifnm Fpw ]qX t\Snb ImbnI cwKs hnZ-Kv[tc-
m kwkvImc Ncn{Xn apnbnembncnp-sap ]d-bp-p. Rm\ BUkv lIvknen.
Intb-dp-Imc-tbpw `mcybp-tSbpw B {]ikvXamb sNdp-IY Hmnp-I. Xs hnp-
psh- dnbp `mcy t_mUn \np-tm InIfp-ambn Fdnbm Abm Ip- sIn \np-
p. Htc-dn\v AhfpsS lrZbw Xpf-bvWsap-v. AXn\bm {ianpp Fpw. AXhp-adn
bmw. Fnepw AdnbmsX Fpw InI hjfmbn Fdn _np-fnte sNp-Xd-bvp-p-
f-fq. AbmfpsS \nlmbX Ie tcmjhpw AhfpsS \n kv^pcnp apJs Nncnbpw
Hmtcm cm{Xnbnepw cp-XhW Gp-ap-p-p.
hntZ-ip-shv kv s]mfnv DSaI ew hn-tm tIc-fo-b tNv ]Ww
]ncnpmn A\mY-cmbn ]mnShpw `Whpw aSntmIm hgnsehpw ImWmsX {]-
b-p-\S IemImc-mcpsS kwLs \mnte-b hm Cy ]{Xfn apgp-h hXv
ad-m-dmbnn.
\psS kp-I hf- c-Ww. DSbmSIfpsS `wKnbpw kwhn[m\hpw {]thi\nepw ]nhm
enep-ap \mSIo-b-Xbpw amn\nnbm ae-bmfnI Imp {]IS\ {]knamb djy
knt\m F{Xtbm Db-XmWv. ]Xn\mbncw t]ncnmhp ncw kkv ku[
n Snn\p-thn tamkvtIm \nhmknI BgvNp-apt Iyq \nWw. ImgvNmv Chn
sSbpw \psS \mnepw HcnSpw Ipd-hn.
aqp kvXw`fp IqSmc. aqp dnpI, kv ssepI, Ccpqdp arK, Aqdp
a\p-jy-\Xv kplrt \-Xv. ]nnse Xp-Ifnse-p-tm I-\nbp-Sp-p-I amn \np
a\p-jysc ad-cptX Fp-am{Xta ]d-p-q.
\n Fgp- Xnb hnemknep BfmsW-n B ]cnk-c-nsem- t\zjnq. aps-
tgm _mdn \ntm s{So-kn \ntm hoWv Ifnp ]m-Xp-sImv IsUw sNbvXb Nne
PohnX AhnsSsb-m Npcp-p-IqSn InSp-mhpw. sUUvsse- Hm^o-kn \nv h Ip-
I t]mse. AsXmp Itijw aXnbmbncpp Btm thn ISw hmn Dsm Cu
tcmjw.
132
ap `mK-m klnp-Xv Aw a\nemnbnmtWm? Cy Fm ]ip-taJe (Cow
belt) am{Xa Fv t_m[w hcp-t-Xp-v.
Fs `mj temtIm-c-amWv. Fmw ChnsS Bcw-`np-p. Ahkm\npp F s]m
bmb Zpc-`nam\w ae-bmfnn. ]t hnime lrZ-b-\mb ae-bmfnbpw lnnhncp {]tm`n\v
Xmdmtb-mw, Cs D-tc-y ta[mhnXzw XpSp-t]mbm. Cwojpw lnnbpw Hs
Ipn-I ]Tns. A]mIXbn-. Fgp- -ttbm Bimttbm htmfnttbm IhnXI
\mep-hcn sNmm\dnbpw FXv A`nam\ambn IWmp Hcp at\m`mhw IqSn AtXmsSmw
hfp-hcm\p kmlNcyap-sn CsXms \-Xp-Xs.
ic-XvN{ IrXnhmbnp _wKmfn bphXntbbpw bp-hmhnt\bpw ]pXnb _wKmfn IrXnI
fn ImWw. Pm\Incmas t\mh N sNbvXp sImmWv Hcp ]pXnb Xangv t\mhense IYm
\mb-I\pw \mbnIbpw ]cnNb-s-Sp--Xv. _wKmfn bphXnp c_o-{kw-KoXw Adnbp-p-shn
Ah kwkvIrXNn-bmbn IWms-Sp--Xp-t]mse Xncp-p-d-fnse \mep-hcnI Dcnm
Ignm XangIv Hcp s]Ip-nv AXv henb tbmKyXXs-bmWv.
ChnsS Bims cp-hcnI Hcp Ipn Dcnm Aht\m Ahtfm \mS, I{Sn, A]-cn
jvIrX hkvXp!
B at\m`mhn\v FXncmbnmWv Hcp kPoh {]m\w ChnsS cq]w sImtXv.
Xetmdnsemcp Gp-sIv
k-dnb
ae-bmfnp ae-bmf-tmSv FmWn{X ]pw?
a ae-bmfw ]Tncp-sXv ae-bmfn amXm]nXmv FmWn{X \n_-w.
aI lcn{io Fv Cwo- jn Fgp- Xn- bmte Ah- km\w GsX- n- ep- samcp sshZypXn
t_mUnse AgnaXn ]pc Fn\o-b-dmIq F tXm \ap-ss\ Dmbn? Fp-sIm
mWp \mw \psS asf aqmw hbknepw \memw hb-knepw Hcp Cwojv Ipcnin Xd-bvp--
Xv ?
temInsemcp cmjv{Shpw kzt_m[ap Hcp kwkvImchpw sNm Cu lnameb A_w
tIc-fo-b Fp-sImpsNpp?
Cs temInse km-nIkmtXnI taJ-e-IfpsS DtImSnbn \np Pm
t\bpw P\ntbbpw t]mse-bp cmPyfn \np kiI \psS aqpw \mepw hb-
p Ipnkmbv]-msc-p kvX_v[cmbn \np-Xp Rm Inp-v. AhcpsS Sznn,
Sznn tIp AXnibw sIm; {]_p-sap kzbw hnhcnp Hcp kap-Zmbw C{X \njv
cp-Wambn kzw `mhnXe-ap-d-bpsS hynXz-ns \mcmb-thcp-I apdnp-If-bp-Xp ImWp-tm
gp sRsmv.
AdnhnmbvabmemtWm \manXp sNp-Xv? Fne-sXmc-Zv`pXw Xs.
Imc-Ww, hntZi am[yaSn. hn.bpw ]{XamknIIfpw kn\nabpw-\psS kwkvImcs
Xmdp-amdmp-sap ssZ\w-Zn\w {]kw-Knp--hcmWv \. Ahsb-n kzw IpnIfpsS kz`mh
cq]-hc-Wns ]m-e-n ]cmainm amXm]nXmfn. ]e hoSp-Ifnepw IpnI
f-p-sS taep Cu "sshtZ-inI Zpkzm[o-\w' `bp tI_n Sn. hn. FSp-mdn. ]t AtX hoSp-
Ifnse ]np-Ip-p- Hcp hntZi am[yan-eqsSbmWv XfpsS kz`mh cq]-hc-W
133
ns ASnp-Ifnsemmb hnZym`ymkw Xs Bcw-`np--Xv. \psS I]-S\mSyfpsS hnNn
{Xamb Hcp apJ-am-WnXv. Iymkdns P\nX-Isf Ad- p-c-bvp-n hfn-smp hntZ-
is ss{^Uv Nns\ i]np--Xp-t]mse-bp Hcp Zpc-h.
CsXmw Ignp \psS IpnIv \tmSp kvt\lan, BtcmSpw kvt\lan, Ah
ab-p-acpv tXSp-p. Ahv BtcmSpw D-c-hmZn-an. Imins Iem]-cn]mSnIfnsemgnsI
asmcp-Ie-bnepw Ahv Xm]-cyan Fp \mw ]cmXns-Sp-Ibpw sNpw.
Fp-sImmWp Cu ISpwssI sNp-Xv? Ncn{Xw \ap-smcp-cw Xcp-p-sv Rm
Icp-Xp-p.
Ctmgp Cwojv {`mv ChnsS Bcw-`np-Xv Fgp-]-Xp-IfnemWv. kzmX{yw t\Sn Im
\qmv Igntm. AXn\p-tijw B {`mv IqtcmK-ambn amdn. kaqlnse intb-dnb
m]-\ AXns\ Gs-Sp-p. Hw ]WsmXnb-mcpw I\mSymcpw hnlcnp Itm
f-ambn AXp Xop.
tIcf kaqls _m[n Cu _unIIbpsS kq D-c-hmZnw Rm Is
p-Xv Cu \mSv `cnhcnemWv. Ah tIc-fo-b-c-tmse Hcp hn[w kmam\y_p-nbp Hcp kap-
Zm-b-s-tmepw XfpsS `mhnbnepw kwkvIm-c-ns B[mc-in-e- Ifnepw hnizmkanm- h
cmn Xop.
kzmX{yns Im\qmn\p-tijhpw BsI _mn \nXv BIam\amb A]-IjXm
t_m-[hpw ]cmP- b-t_m[hpw Hpw-sImpw c- bn F hnizm-khp-ambncp-p. Cp-as\
Xs.
\psS IpnIv ChnsSmcp `mhnbn, CXp Pohnm sImp \mS Fsmcp \ncm
im]qamb hnizmkw \ap-p-mbn. IpnIsf Fsnepw tImtamfnthjw sInv te_
Hnv kmbv]ns `mj ]d-bnnv ChnSpp \mSp-ISpI am{XamWv cmamsap \mw hniz-kn
tnh-cp- p.
AXp-sImmWp {]_p-cpw ka-cp-amb \ C{XZ-b-\o-bhpw `oIc-hp-amb coXnb-n
(]p lnve blqZ-Ip-p-fpsS Xe-tmdp-I Xpdp \Snb Gp-sIp-I t]mse) \psS
kzw Ipp-tfmSp alm{Ip-cX ImWnp--Xv. Hw \psS `c-Wh-fpsS I]S ckmn
Xz-fpw AhcpsS {]XnaIfpsS hwihpw s]cp-Ip-p.
Cuiztcm cXp!
aetbmfw Dbcn-se aebmfw
Fw. ]n. A_vZp-aZv kaZm\n
temIs-hntSbpw amXr`mjbvv am\hkw-kvImc-hp-ambp s]mnsImSn _w kphn
ZnXamWv. amXmhpw amXmhns`mjbpw a\p-jykz-`mhns cq]-I]-\bn hlnp AXn{]-
[m\amb ]n\p-]-Icw asmn.- amXrXzw am\hXz-ns BZnaamb B-hnZyme-b-IamIbm
amXr`mj Bmhns `mjbpw kzXns Bhnjvc-hp-ambncnp-p.
Fm DbpsS ASn-m-\n \nv Dbnsmp GXv thcpw ]ngp- sXdnbm
[rjvS\mbnXo ]pXnb- Ime-ns ]p{Xm Asb \ntj[np- -Xpt]mse AbpsS `mjsb
XakvIcnm\pw XpSnbncnp-p. hrkZ-\fn amXmsh-t]mse Cs Nne hnZyme-b-
fn amXr`mjbpw ti klnm hn[ns-ncnp-p. Fm temIsapw CXmWv
134
nXnsbv ]d-bp-Xv sXmbncnpw. amXr`mjsb amtdmSv tNp-shv kvt\lnp P\k-
b- ]e-bnSp-apv.
amXr`mjsb ssIshSnbp-- Xp-sImv kzw `mj am{Xa \jvSamIp-- Xv. kzw kwkvIm
c-tbpw AXv inYne- amp- p. PohnX-ntbpw s]cp-am--n-tbpw coXn-imkv{X-sf-sbmw
Nn-s-Sp-p--Xn amXr`mjbvv A\ev]-amb ]p-v. ae-bmfs AhK-Wnp-Xn\v henb
hne sImSp-tnhcp-sa ]mTw A`n\hae-bmfn kaqls ]TnntXp-v. \psS ss]Xr
Ihpw HmaIfpw ae-bmf-n NmenXmWv. Krlhp-ambn lrZ-b-_w ]pep--hv am{Xta
KrlmXp-c-Xz-n\v t]mepw AhImiap-q.
ASp-Ime-mbn ae-bmfnInSbn ae-bmf-tmSp A\m`napJyw hf-p-hcp-Xv
BimP-\IamWv. Cfw Xe- ap-dsb amXr`mjbn \n-Ip-Xn Zriyam[ya hlnp ]pw
DXvIWvT-bp-mp-p. ae-bmfw hnIrXamn kwkmcnp coXn an\nkv{Io-\n krjvSnp
sshIrX \mSn\p Xs A]-am\Ic-amWv. ae-bmfnbmsWnepw Nnev "ae-bmfn sFUn
bmkv FIvkv{]v sNm hey Un^nn' BWv. Nne-cmIs ae-bmfw "Ipcp Ipcp Acnbp-
-'Xn A`nam\w sImp-h-cmWv. tIgpI ae-bmf-\mtS Fp hne-]nt Ah-bnemWv
`mjm kvt\lnI. GXp hntZ-ip-hmepw kzw `mjsb Xd-hm-bmbpw A\y`mjIsf hncp-
p-Imcnbmbpw IWmWsav htm HmnnXv Cv Gsd A\z-ambncnp-p.
(ssN\-m amXr`mjsb Gsd kvt\lnXp- sImmWv ssN\okv temIv Ghpw IqSp-X
t] kwkmcnp `mjbmbn Xo-Xv. ap-h \psS `mjbvv \Ip ]cnK-W\t]mepw
Nne -ae-bmfnI ae-bmf-n\v \ImXncnp-Xv A]-IjXmt_m[w sImp-am{XamWv. ]e
K^v cmPyfnepw ae-bmf-n t_mUp-I m]nm AhnSs kmcp-I Xmdmbn
cnp-p. J-dn ]e--epw KXmK-XkqN\m t_mUp-I ae-bmf-nemWv.
ae-bmfw kpc-amsW kXyw ]pXnb Xe-ap-dsb ]TnntXp-v. cmPyk`bn ae-
bmf-n {]Xn sNbvXtm ae-bmfw tIm ckap `mjbm-sWv ]d-p-sImv
D-tc-y Fw. ]n. am {]ISnn A`n{]mb- a\n Ap-Xhpw A`nam\hpw krjvSn
tXmp-p. ae-bmf-n\v CXc `mjmtcbpw BmZnnm Ignbp-sa ]mTw Ap ]Tnp-I
bmbncp- p.
\psS NnXs ae-bmf-nemIbm Nne-Imcy \apv CXc-`mjIfn ]d-bm\pw
{]bmkamWv. amXr`mj A{Xtmfw lrZ-b-tmSv tNp-InSp-p. A, AXp lrZ-b-n
\np-Xs \nK-fnp-p.
Fm A`nam\hpw amXrXz-nse-p-p. amXmhv cv AarXmWv \Inb-Xv. Anmepw
amXr`mjbpw ape-mens cpNn Fspw Hmnnp-IbmsWs ae-bmfw. GXv PohnXbm{Xbpw
AhnsSXp-Sp-Ibpw AhnsSs-hkm\npIbpw sNp-p.
amXr`mjsb ]pd-mp-sX-s\
hn.\n-tXjv
ae-bmfn ae-bmfw ad-pp F bmYmys Xncndnp-sImv henb coXnbnep
kwhmZ-fpw IqmbvaIfpw cq]-s-p-sImncnp Ime-L--nemWv ae-bmfw tI{o-IrXamb
Hcp kIemime \nnWsa Bhiyw Dbv h-Xv. Hmtcm tIc-fo-b\pw ae-bmfw ad-
m\pw Cwojv `mjsb tNp-]nSnm\pw a-cnp-IbmWv. \psS amXr`mj ae-bmfw BWv.
temIn Ccp-]n Bdmas m\amWv ae-bmf-`mjbvp-Xv. Fm tIc-f-ns s]mXp-
ae-n aebmfw Ah-K-Wns-Sp-p. Hcp `mKv ]mmXy`m-jbmb Cwojns\ Bth
135
itmsS kzoIcnm Xmdmhp-tmm adp-`mKv \mSns ss]XrItbpw amXr`mjtbbpw
A]-am\nm Xp\nbp-p. 1969 apX tIc-f-ns `c-W`mj ae-bmfw BWv. km m]-\
fnse tcJ-I, ^b-ep-I km m]- \fpsS t]cp-I Fnh Fgp-tXXv ae-bmf-
n BsWmWv \nbaw. Fm Chsbmpw ]mensSp- n FXmWv bmYmyw. kz]v\w
ImWp-Ibpw Nnnp-Ibpw sNp-Xv amXr`mjbnemWv FXv t_m[]qw \mw ad-p-IbmWv.
\psS \mn]pds ISIfpsS t]cp-Ifpw m]-\fpsS t]cp-Ifpw Fgp-Xp-Xv Cwo-jnemWv.
km[mc-Wmcmb Bfp-IfpsS hnhml-Wp-I t]mepw BwK-te-b-`mjbn Xmdmp-p.
\mn]p- ds ae- bmfw aoUnbw kvIqfn \npw henb coXnbn hnZymnI sImgnp-
t]mIp-pv. Cu A[yb-\hjw cp-e--n IqSp-X hnZymnI km kvIqfnt\mSv
hnS]-d-p, Cwo-jvao-Unbw kvIqfn tNtdn. ae-bmfw kvIqfp-Ifn ]Tnm Hn\pw sImm
-hcmsWv {]Ncnnp-p. Cv cmjv{So-b-cw-Kpw kmwkvImcnIcw-Kpw, sXmgn taJ-e-I
fnepw Ghpw henb m\ hlnp Bfp-I ]TnXv ae-bmfw aoUnbw kvIqfn BsWv
bmYmyw \mw t_m[]qw ad-p-IbmWv. ae-bmfw aoUnbw kvIqfpIfnse hym]-Iamb sImgn
p-t]mv s]mXp-hnZym`ymk m]-\ ASp-]qp Ah-bntev sNspw F-Xn
Xan. Hcp {]tZ-is s]mXp-hnZymebw CmXmhpI Fp ]d-bp-Xv B {]tZ-ins Ncn
{Xhpw ss]Xrhpw CmXmhp- -Xn\v Xpey-amWv . amXr-`mjsb adv tIc- f-ns s]mXp-hnZym
`ymk taJ-e-bn Cwo-jn\v AanX{]m[m\yw sImSp-m `c-WIqShpw ]mT-]p-kvXIkanXnbpw
Xmdmhp-Xv ImWmw. Cu A[yb-\hjs 9mw mknse lnn ]mT-]p-kvXIn lnn ]Z-
fpsS Aw Cwo-jnemWv sImSp-ncnp--Xv. Fn\mWv t_m[]qw ae-bmf-`mjsb
A]-am\np-sImv ]mT-]p-kvXIfn Cwo-jns\ Xncp-InIb-m Xmdmhp--Xv. ImSI
kwm\v saUn Fn\o-b-dnwKv tImgvkp-Ifn amXr`mj \n_--amnbncnp-IbmWv.
tIc-f-n \nv ImSIbn t]mbn ]Tnp hnZymnI AhnSps amXr`mj ]Tnt
n-bncnp-p. Fm DX hnZym`ymk taJebn tIc- f-n amXr`mjm ]T\w Fp-
sImv \n_--ambnqSm FXv N sNt-XmWv tIc-fob hnZym`ymk taJ-e-bn ae-bmf
`mjm]-T\w \n_--amt-Xp-v. -aqeyt_m[ap Hcp ]pXp-Xe-ap-dsb hms- Sp-p--Xn\p-
thn amXr`mjsb \mw kwc-ntXp-v. tIc-fob s]mXp-hnZy`ymk taJe XIp hn[
nep Cwojv IhS hnZym`ymk m]-\sf \nb-{nm kmXe-n CSs]-S
ep-I \SWw. Ncn{Xt_m[hpw ]uc-t_m[hp-ap Hcp ]pXnb Xe-ap-d-bmbn hf-cm \psS
IpnI aebmfw am[yaambp kvIqfp-Ifn ]Tns. tIc-fob hnZym`ymk taJ-e-bn ae-bm
fs AIn \nm\p t_m[]qamb {iasf sNdp-p-tXmntXp-v. tIc-f-ns
k ae-fnepw ae-bmfs AhK-Wnm\mWv \ tIc-fo-b Xmdmhp--Xv. ae-bmfn
I ImWp ae-bmfw Nm\ep-Ifn ae-bmfhpw Cwojpw Iqnen Hcp Xcw kc-`mjbmWv
D]-tbmKnp--Xv. "ae-bmfnbpsS kzw Nm\' Fv Nm\ Xs hntijnnp Gjyms\
n kwt{]-Ww sNp "sFUnb m knwK' F kwKoX ac ]cn]mSnbpsS AhXmcI
D]-tbmKnp `mj GXmWv Fv Xncndnbm {]bmkamWv. ae-bmfnI ImWp ]cn]mSn
bn Fn\mWv ISnm s]mm Cwojv hmp-I D]-tbmKnp--Xv. XnIpw ae-bmfnIfmb
Ne-Nn{X ]n-WnKmb-Icpw kwKoX kwhn[mb-Icpw hn[nImfmbn Fp-, ae-bmfnIfmb
a-cmn-I ]sSp-p ]cn]mSnbn ae-bmfnbmb AhXmcI Bpw a\knemIm
ssienbn Cwojv kwkmcnp-Xv Bp-thnbmWv? Zriyam[yacw-Ks ]mmXyh
cWw {]Xntcm[ntXp-v. almb krjvSnIfpw, cN\Ifpw ]nd-hnsIm ae-bmfs
Fn\mWv \mw Cs\ A]-am\np--Xv. `c-Whpw, hnZym`ymkhpw ae-bmf-`mjbn \Spp
Fp Dd-p-hcp--Ww. tIc-f-n ae-bmf-`mjsb hn]p-eo-Icnm\pw ]T\w \Sm\pw Ignbp
hn[n Hcp aebmfw kIemime \ne-hn hc-Ww. Fm hnjb-fpw ae-bmf-n ]Tn
m Ahkcw DmWw. ae-bmf-`mjbpsS Ncn{Xhpw hym]vXnbpw kIemime-bn ]T-\hn
jb- am-Ww. ae-bmfw k-Iem-ime-bvs-Xnsc hnai\w Dbp- -h amXr-`mj-tbbpw
kwkvImc-tbpw BWv hnainp-Xv Fv \mw a\nemtXp-v. \mw t\Snsb-Sp Fm
\-Ifpw Ihs- Sp--s-Sp ham-\Im-ev \psS amXr-`mjsb kwc- nm\pw \ne-
136
\nm\pw thn tIc-f- -n Hcp ae-bmfw kIemime \ne-hn htc-Xv Ncn{X]c-amb
A\p-hmcyXbmsW XncndnthmsS `mjm]-nXcpw `mjm kvt\lnIfpw _lp-P-\fpw henb
coXnbnep CSs]SepIv t\XrXzw \tIXp-v.
aebmfn-I-fpsS amXr`qan
\hw-_ 1 ae-bmfnIfpsS Gsd \mfs B{K-ln\v km^eyw \Insmv sFIy
tIcfw bmYmyambn. Xncp-hnXmw-Iqdpw sImnbpw ae-_mdpw Iqntv ae-bmfw kwkmcnp-
-hmbn tIcf kwm\w \ne-hn hp.
kwm\ `mjmSnm\n ]p\hn`PnWsa A`n{]mbw 1927 Cy \mj
W tIm{Kv D-bnncp-p. 1928 Fd-WmIp-fv \S \mp-cmPy {]Pmktf-\hpw AJne-
tIcf IpSnbm ktf-\hpw ]-q cmjv{Sob ktf-\hpw sFIytIc-f-sa Bhiyw D-bn
p. 1938 Xncp-h\]p-cv Xncp-hnXmw-Iq tIm{Kv InnbpsS B`nap-Jyn ]m`n
koXmc-a-cpsS A[y-Xbn \S ktf\w Xncp-hnXmw-Iq, sImn, ae-_m Fnh tN
Hcp D]-s^Ud kwm\w hn`mh\w sNbvXp-sImp {]tabw AwKo-Icnp.
sFIytIcf {]m\w iamp--Xn\mbn 1946 sI. ]n. kn. kn. D]-kanXnv cq]w
\In. CXns Hcp tbmKw sI. ]n. tIihtat\ms A[y-Xbn sNdp-Xp-cp-nb \Sp.
almIhn htm Ds-sS {]apJ hynI ]sSp tbmK Xocp-am\w A\p-kcnv 1947
Xrqcn shv sI. tIf-s Ay-Xbn sFIytIcf almktf\w \Sp. kmwkvImcnI
kwL-S\Itfbpw cmjv{Sob InItfbpw {]Xn\n[m\w sNbvXv tIc-f-ns hnhn[ `mK-fn\n
mbn \qdp-IWn\mm ]sSp Cu ktf-\n shv sImn almcmPmhv tIc-f-h
sFIy tIc-f-n\v ]npW {]Jym]np. sFIy tIcfw F{Xbpw thKw m]nWsa {]tabw
AhXcnnXv C. sambvXp aue- hnbmWv. {]tabw sFIIWvtT\ AwKo-Icnp. {]h\mbn
\qdwK kanXnsb sXc-sSp-p.
1948-se sFIytIcf {]Xn\n[n ktf\w Bep-hmbnemWv \S-Xv. {]h-IkanXnbpsS
sIp-d-p {]h-\n\mbn AwK-fpsS Fw \qdn \nv 15 Bn Ipd-p. {]knUv
sI. tIf-, sk{Idn sI. F. ZmtamZ-ctat\m Cy `c-WL-S\m \namW kanXn kwm\
]p\ hn`P\ {]iv\w ]Tnm \ntbmKn [m Io-j\p apmsI sFIytIc-f-kanXn kan
\nthZ-\n ae-_m, Xncp-hnXmw-Iq, sImn, IqKv, \oe-Kncn KpUeq ZnWIm-\d, a-gn,
e-Zzo]v Fo {]tZ-i tN tIcf kwm\ cq]-hcWw Bhiys-p. ]w XmWp-
]nbpsS t\XrXz-nep Xncp-hnXmwIq km [m Io-j\p-ambn klIcnn. [m Io-
js ip]miI ]cymtemNnp--Xn\mbn tIm{K-ns Pbv]q ktf\w (1948) Phlem
s\lvdp, h-`mbn ]t, ]m`n koXmcma FnhcSnb D-XXe kanXnv (tPm. hn. ]n. In
n) cq]w \In. `mjmSnm\-nep hn`P\ \niw hfsc kqnp thWsav Inn
dntmv \In.
1949 Pqsse 1 Cy bqWnb-\nse ]mv _n. kwm\ambn XncpsImn cq]w sImp
tIcf kwm\ cq]o-Ic-Wnte-p Imshbv]mbncpp Cu ktbmP-\w. kwm\-e-h
AYhm cmP-{]-ap-J-\mbn Hcp cmPmhns\ \nb-anp-sImp Xncp-sImn cq]-hXvcWw P\Iob
tIcf kwm\ns ]nd-hnv klmb-Iamhns \ne-]mtSmsS sI. tIf- sFIy tIcf
kanXnbpsS {]knUv m\w cmPnshp. sI. ]n. tIihtat\m {]knUmbn {]h\w
XpSp. 1949 \hw-_-dn ]me-mv \S sFIytIcf ktf\w cmP-{]-apJs\ Hgnhmnsm
p tIcf kwm\w m]nWsa {]tabw AwKo-Icnp. Fm Xncp-sImnsb a{Zmkv
{]hiybn ebnnv Hcp ZnWkw-m\w cq]-hXvcnWsav ae-_m {]tZiv tIm{Kv
137
Innbpw Xncp-sImn kmcpw sFIy tIc-fs A\p-Iqenp. ZnWkw-m\ Bibs
\ncmIcnp.
`mjmSnm\n kwm\ ]p\kw-L-S\m{]iv\w ssIImcyw sNp--Xn\v \nb-an (1953-
Unkw-_) kZv ^k Ben Ay-\mb Io-j Fm hmZ-fpw hniZ-ambn ]Tn tijw
ZnWkw-m-\hmZw \ncmIcnp. Io-js \nti{]-Imcw Xncp-hnXmw- Iqdns sXXm-eq
p-Ifmb tXmhmf, AK-kvXo-iz-cw, Ipfw hnf-htImSv Fnhbpw sNtmbpsS Iptd `mKhpw
Xangv\mSnt\mSv (a{Zmkv) kwm\w tNp-sImpw ZnW Im\d-bnse ImktKmUv Xmeqv
ae-bmf-tZ-itv Iqntp-sImpw ]pXnb tIcf kwm\w cq]-hXvcnp. sFIy tIcf
kanXn ap]v Bhiys-ncp KpUqcpw IqKpw a-gnbpw e-Z-zo]pw tIcfns `mK-ambn.
sX tIc-f-ns s\-d-bmb \mn\mSv ssIhnp-t]mbn. tKmIWw apX I\ymIp-amcnhsc
ISamdnbp-mb Ic-bmWv tIc-f-sa ]c-ip-cma IY amdn I\ymIp-amcnbnm tIcfw cq]w
sImp.
\tSmSn kmln-Xyhpw aebmfhpw
sI. A---Wn
\mtSmSnkmlnXyw apJyambpw ]c--cmK-Xamb AenJnX cN\IfmWv. AmXIp-Itam
kaqlns s]mXp krjvSntbm Bbncnpw AXv. Xe-ap-d-Ifmbn sNmntmp \ne-\np-t]m
cp Cu IrXnIv ae-bmf-n ZoLhpw sshNn{Xyanb--Xp-amb Hcp Ncn{Xap-v. ImemIm
e-fn CXnhr-nepw `mjbnepw hrnepw amw hnp Cu IrXnIfpsS Ime-\nWbw
Xptemw hnjaamWv. Chbn Nne- Xn\v tZit`Z-a-\p-kcnv hn`n cq]- \ne- hnep- v. B
\nebvv B[nImcnIamb ]mTw Isp--Xn\pw Ffp-a. AXp-sImv kmK-Iamb ]T-\\ncq
]Ww sNm hnjaap-v. kn. ]n. tKmhn]n, tNe-\mv ANyp-Xtat\m, sI. ]n. Idp- apX
emb AnXa\kvIcmb KthjIt\XmfpsS {ia^- e-ambn \mtSmSnIrXnIfn ]eXpw kq
Xntcm[m\n \np c t\Snbnp-v. \mtSmSn kmlnXy KthjWn Kuch]qw aptmp
t]mbnp-hcpsS Iqn Imnc-pfw sImp-IrjvW \mSm, Pn. in, Fkv. sI. \mb,
Nnd- _me-IrjvW \mb Fnhtcbpw FSp-p-]-d-tb-Xmbnp-v. Pn. `m-h ]n, Infn
am\q hnizw-`c, hn. B\p- \mb Fnhcpw \mtSmSnIhnXIfpw \mSIfpw kw`cnp
{]kns-Sp-nbnp-hcmWv. \mtSmSn kmlnXykw-`cWw Bcw-`np--Xn\p aps Ign \qm
p-Ifn \jvSs IrXnIfpsS IWv Xn-s-Sp-m km[ya. Fa ]mp-Ifpw IY-Ifpw
hoc-KmY-Ifpw Cpw kamlcns-SmsX \mn ]pds P\fpsS CSbn {]tXyInpw BZn
hmknIfpsS CSbn {]Ncnp-p-mhpw. HmWw-tIdmaqe-Ifn \nc--c-cmb km[cmWmcpsS
CSbn \mtSmSn kmlnXyw C\nbpw cNns-p-sImncnpw. AXp-sImv GsXnepw Hcp
{]tXyI Ncn{XL--ns am{Xw krjvSnbmWv. \mtSmSnkmlnXyw Fp ]d-bmhp--X. AXp-
sImv Xmsg tNnp \nco--W HSp-hn {K-kqNnIbn sImSp-np-, Cp e`y
amb kamlmc-sf B{ibnp-hbmWv Fp-IqSn ]d-tb-nbncnp-p. ]T-\ku-Icymw Cu
IrXnIsf Nne hIp-p-Ifmbn hn`Pnncnp-p. (1) IYmKm\ (2) \mtSmSnmp-I (3) IY-I
(4) \mSI (5) ]gsmp-Ifpw kqfpw (6) ISw-IY-Ifpw \tamnIfpw
IYmKm\
]Zynep \mS IY-IfmWv IYmKm\. ae-bmf-n Ah apJyambn \men\n
s]Sp-mw. (1) ]pcmWIY-I (2) hoc-KmY-I, (3) I]-\nIKmY-I (4) sXcp-hp-KmY-I
]pcm-WI-YI
]pcmWIY-I ]p\cmJym\w sNp ]ZyIrXnIfmWh. t{Xfntem aX]-c-amb D-
138
hmhkc-fntem Iqp-tNv ]mSp--Xn\v Ch D]-tbmKnmdp-v. tZhmcp-tStbm hoc-\mb-Im
cp-tStbm kmlknIm\p-`hfmWv {]mtbW Ch BJym\w sNmdpXv. BJym\ssienbn
CXnlmkfptSbpw kwkvIrX]pcmWfptSbpw kzm[o\w ImWmw. inhsbpw ]mhXnbptSbpw
hnhn[ thjfnep ]cyS\m\p-`hsf hnp--hbmWv Ghpw {]Nmc-ap IYI.
Ahbn Nne-Xn KW]-Xnbp-tSbpw kp{_-Wytbpw P\\ IY-I BJym\w sN-s-np-v.
CXnlmkt-m Kuchw Ipd-e-fn-Xssienbn cmamb-W-`mc-XmXnIfnse IY-I ]p\cm
Jym\w sNp IrXnIfp-ap-v. IrXyambn ]d-m Chsb IYmKm\fn s]Sp-mtam Fp
kwib-amWv. ]t IYmKm\fpsS kmam\ykz-`mhsamw Chbn ImWmw.