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Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster sa Pilipinas (KBP) Technical Standards And Operating Requirements For Broadcast Stations In the Philippines

General Index I. II. III. Technical Standards and Operating Requirements for Medium Frequency Broadcast Stations in the Philippines Technical Standards and Operating Requirements for FM Broadcast Stations in the Philippines Technical Standards and Operating Requirements for Television in the Philippines Technical Standards and Operating Requirements for Medium Frequency Broadcasting Stations in the Philippines (1991 Revised Edition) By: Technical Standards Committee of the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster sa Pilipinas Arcadio Carandang, Jr. --- Chairman Leoncio Galang --- Vice-Chairman Carlos Saliuan, Jr. --- NTC Representative Alfredo Ceralde --- Member Romualdo Lintag --- Member Salvador Castillo --- Member Filomeno Babas --- Member

Ernesto Claudio --- Member Pete Lagusay --- Member Endorsed by: MIGUEL C. ENRIQUEZ Chairman Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas ANDRE S. KAHN President Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas Approved by: MARIANO E. BENEDICTO II Commissioner National Telecommunication Commission

Table of Contents

Section 1. Introduction 2. Definition of Terms 3. Technical Requirements 4. Broadcast Auxiliary Services 5. Operating Requirements 6. Allocation Rules and Regulations 7. AM Stereophonic Standard 8. Public Information File 9. Annexes

Medium Frequency Broadcast Standards I. Introduction Ever since the advent of radio, there have been progressive efforts in regulating this medium of communication. At the turn of the 20th century, international conferences were convened to

discuss problems in radio communications primarily, to minimize mutual interferences among the growing number of stations. The use of radio in mass communications, or broadcasting, eventually compelled governments of nations to take over the regulation of radio in their respective nations in response to the peoples needs. Thus, controlling agencies, organized by governments, took the avowed task of formulating rules, regulations and technical standards which are mostly so designed for the benefit of the listening public. In the formulation of Technical Standards for domestic broadcasting, the more important considerations must include: 1. The prevention of harmful signal interferences; 2. The provision for better signal quality, so that the listerner may enjoy a clear and more realistic sound reproduction, and 3. The proper utilization of the broadcast spectrum. The Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster sa Pilipinas and the National Telecomunications Commision, cognizant of these criteria, have designated professionals directly involved with the broadcast industry and representatives of the government to revise existing local standards, or formulate new standards, which shall be applicable to the countrys broadcast industry. 2. Definition of Terms 2.1 Medium Frequency Broadcast Station An AM Broadcast Station licensed for aural or sound transmissions intended for direct reception by the general public and operated on a channel in the Medium Frequency band. 2.2 Medium Frequency Broadcast Band The band of frequencies from 526.5 to 1705 kilohertz. 2.3 Medium Frequency Broadcast Channel

The band of frequencies occupied by the carrier and two (2) sidebands of an AM Broadcast signal with the carrier frequency at the center. Channels shall be designated by the assigned carrier frequencies starting from 531 kHz in increments of 9 kHz. 2.4 Carrier Wave A sinusoidal voltage or current generated in a transmitter and subsequently modulated by a modulating wave. 2.5 Carrier Frequency The frequency of the carrier wave. 2.6 Operating Frequency The carrier frequency at any particular time. 2.7 Authorized Frequency The carrier frequency authorized by the Authority. 2.8 Hertz The term "Hertz" abbreviated "Hz", is used as a unit of frequency, supplanting the term "cycle per second" (cps). 2.9 Percentage Modulation (Amplitude) In a positive direction:
M=(MAX-C)100C

In a negative direction:
M=(MIN-C)100C

Where: M modulation level in percent MAX instantaneous maximum level of the modulated radio frequency envelope MIN instantaneous minimum level of the modulated radio frequency envelope 2.10 Maximum Percentage of Modulation "Maximum percentage of modulation" means the greatest percentage of modulation that may be obtained by a transmitter without producing, in its output, harmonics of the modulating frequency in excess of those permitted by these regulations.

2.11 High-Level Modulation "High-level modulation" is modulation produced in the last radio stage of the system, 2.12 Low-Level Modulation "Low-level modulation" is modulation produced in an earlier stage than the final. 2.13 Operating Power "Operating power" is the transmitter output power. 2.14 Maximum Rated Carrier Power "Maximum rated carrier power" is the maximum power at which the transmitter can be operated satisfactorily and is deter-mined by the design of the transmitter. 2.15 Authorized Operating Power "Authorized operating power" is the power authorized by the Authority. 2.16 Input Power "Input power" is the product of the voltage and current at the output of the last radio stage, measured without modulation.

Channe l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Frequency (kHz) 531 540 549 558 567 576 585 594 603 612 621

Channel 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76

Frequency (kHz) 1116 1125 1134 1143 1152 1161 1170 1179 1188 1197 1206

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

630 639 648 657 666 675 684 693 702 711 720 729 738 747 756 765 774 783 792 801 810 819 828 837 846 855 864 873 882 891 900 909 918 927 936 945 954

77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113

1215 1224 1233 1242 1251 1260 1269 1278 1287 1296 1305 1314 1323 1332 1341 1350 1359 1368 1377 1386 1395 1404 1413 1422 1431 1440 1449 1458 1467 1476 1485 1494 1503 1512 1521 1530 1539

49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

963 972 981 990 999 1008 1017 1026 1035 1044 1053 1062 1071 1080 1089 1098 1107

114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131

1548 1557 1566 1575 1584 1593 1602 1611 1620 1629 1638 1647 1656 1665 1674 1683 1692 1701

2.17 Antenna Input Power "Antenna input power" is the product of the square of the antenna current and the antenna resistance at the point where the current is measured. 2.18 Antenna Current "Antenna current" is the radio-frequency current in the antenna with no modulation. 2.19 Antenna Resistance "Antenna resistance" means the total resistance of the transmitting antenna system at the operating frequency and at the point at which the antenna current is measured. 2.20 Modulator Stage

"Modulator stage" means the last audio amplifier stage of the modulating wave which modulates a radio-frequency stage. 2.21 Modulated Stage "Modulated stage" means the radio-frequency stage to which the modulator is coupled and in which the continuous wave (carrier wave) is modulated in accordance with the system of modulation and the characteristics of the modulating wave. 2.22 Daytime The term "daytime" refers to that period of time between 2200 Universal Time Coordinates (UTC) to 1000 Universal Time Coordinates (UTC) (6:00 AM-6:00 PM lo-cal standard time). 2.23 Nighttime The term "nighttime" refers to that period of time between 1000 Universal Time Coordinates (UTC) to 2200 Universal Time Coordinates (UTC) (6:00 PM-6:00 AM local standard time). 2.24 Experimental Period The term "experimental period" means that time between 12 midnight to 5:00 AM local standard time (1600-2100 Universal Time Coordinates). (UTC). This period may be used for experimental purposes in testing and maintaining apparatus by the licensee of any medium frequency broadcast station on its assigned frequency and with its authorized power, provided no interference is caused to other stations maintaining a regular operating schedule within such period. 2.25 Field Strength The root-mean-square (RMS) value of the voltage stress produced in space by the electric field or a radio wave, and is ex-pressed in volts per meter or in decibels (dB) relative to it. 2.26 Effective Field The term "effective field" or "effective field intensity" is the rootmean-square (RMS) value of the inverse distance field at 1.6 km. from the antenna in all directions in the horizontal plane.

2.27 Service Areas 2.27.1 The term "primary service area" of a broadcast station means the area in which the groundwave field of 1 mV/m (60 dBu) is not subject to objectionable interference or objectionable fading. 2.27.2 The term "secondary service area" of a broadcast station means the area served by the save and not subject to objectionable interference. The signal is subject to intermittent variations in intensity. 2.27.3 The term "intermittent service area" of a broadcast station means the area receiving service from the groundwave but beyond the primary service area and subject to some interference and fading. 2.28 Audio- Frequency (af) Signal -to - Interference Ratio Is the ratio (expressed in dB) between the values of the voltage of the wanted signal and the voltage of the interference, measured under specified conditions, at the audio-frequency output of the receiver. 2.29 Audio-Frequency (af) Protection Ratio Is the agreed minimum value of the audio-frequency signal-tointerference ratio considered necessary to achieve a subjectively defined reception quality. 2.30 Radio- Frequency (rf) Wanted -to- Interference Signal Ratio Is the ratio (expressed in dB), between the values of the radiofrequency voltage of the wanted signal and the interfering signal, measured at the input of the receiver under specified conditions. 2.31 Radio-Frequency (rf) Protection Ratio Is the value of the radio-frequency wan to-interference signal ratio that enables, under specified conditions, the audio-frequency protection ratio to be obtained at the output of a receiver. 2.32 Attended Transmitter Attended transmitter means a transmitter where a qualified technician is in attendance during all periods of its operation.

2.33 Carrier Shift The variation of the mean carrier amplitude resulting from the process of amplitude modulation; carrier shift is expressed in terms of variations produced at a given percentage modulation by a sinusoidal test signal, the variation being expressed as a percentage of the unmodulated carrier amplitude. 2.34 Total Harmonic Distortion The effective value of the harmonic voltages present in the audio frequency output of the equipment under test. It is expressed as a percentage of the effective value of the fundamental audio frequency voltage and the harmonic voltages present in the output. 2.35 Noise Level 2.35.1 "Noise level" means the rootmean-square (RMS) value of the voltage of spurious origin present in the audio frequency output of the equipment under test, ex-pressed in decibels relative to a specified root-mean-square (RMS) value of sinusoidal audio frequency voltage. 2.35.2 "Unweighted noise level" in a specified band means the noise level in that band measured by an instrument, the frequency response of which is uniform over that band. 2.36 Frequency Response The variation, over a specified audio frequency range of the transmission efficiency of the equipment under test; the variation is expressed in decibels relative to the transmission efficiency at a specific frequency, such as 1,000 Hertz. 2.37 Gain of an Audio Frequency Amplifier The gain of an audio-frequency amplifier or a chain of audiofrequency equipment incorporating one or more such amplifiers, means the ratio, expressed in decibels of the power delivered to the load at a specific frequency (usually 1,000 Hertz) to The power which would be delivered to the same load if the amplifier or chain of equipment were replaced by an ideal transformer matching the nominal load and source impedances.

2.38 Spurious Emission The emission on any frequency outside of the assigned channel or authorized band of frequencies and tolerances allowed by these regulations. Emissions outside of the assigned channel, as a result of the modulation process, is not considered spurious, unless it is due to overmodulation. 2.39 Authority The National Telecommunications Commission. 2.40 Licensee The holder of a license for a broadcasting station issued by the Authority. 2.41 Qualified Technician A person who is a holder of a radio operator's license or its equivalent, as required by these regulations, issued by the Authority. 3. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS 3.1 General Technical Requirements Equipment shall be constructed according to good engineering practice, such as mechanical soundness, neatness of wiring and accessibility for maintenance. Ad-equate testing and monitoring points shall be provided to permit the isolation and testing of individual items of the equipment. 3.1.1 Adequacy of components The quality of all component parts shall be in accordance with good engineering practice. Where appropriate, the specifications of these components shall comply with standards set by the Authority, or, in the absence of such standards, the components shall comply with CCIR standards. 3.1.2 Compliance with Electrical Wiring Rules All equipment using electrical power shall comply with the rules of the Philippine Electronics Code and the Philippine Electrical Code. 3.1.3 Regulation of Supply Voltage

Adequate voltage regulation shall be provided, where necessary, to ensure that equipment performance is not affected by variations in supply voltage. 3.1.4 Protection 3.1.4.1 Protection of Persons Having regard for the high voltage employed in transmitting apparatus, adequate provision shall be made in the construction of all equipment and in the protective enclosure. Warning signs and safety switches shall be provided, in accordance with good engineering practice, to ensure, as far as practicable, the safety of all persons. 3.1.4.2 It shall be the responsibility of the management or the licensee operating a broadcasting station, to ensure that protective devices are installed and appropriate safety rules are observed. 3.1.4.3 Protection of equipment Equipment shall be protected, in accordance with good engineering practice, against unsafe conditions and damage that may otherwise result under faulty conditions. 3.2 Detailed Technical Requirements 3.2.1 Consideration of the Antenna System The chief purpose of the medium-wave radio broadcasting antenna is to radiate efficiently the energy supplied by the transmitter, more so, towards the horizon or along the ground and least to-wards the sky. It is usually the vertical tower radiator that meets these requirements successfully over most other models because of its superior groundwave propagation characteristics and simplicity of antenna design. The antenna, being the take-off point of radio waves, is the last element of the system under the control of the radio broadcasting station. Radio waves radiated from the transmitting antenna are propagated through space to the receiving antenna. The

only control over these propagated waves is in the selection of the antenna site, the polarization, and the strength of the signal leaving the transmitting antenna. Further consideration must be given to directional antenna systems which concentrate the amount of radiation in the direction(s) where it is wanted and restricts the radiation in the direction(s) where it is not wanted. Since both the intensity and direction of all electromagnetic transmissions are regulated by the Authority for all classes of stations, due consideration must also be given to: 3.2.1.1 Location of Antenna Site 3.2.1.1.1 The main considerations in the selection of an antenna site are:
a)Location in relation to the population to be served and to other

communication installations and airports;


b)Conductivity of the soil at and immediately adjacent to the site;

c)Conductivity of the path between the site and the target area. 3.2.1.1.2 Before the approval is given for any site, the Authority shall refer to existing local and national regulations governing antenna construction. Restrictions may be imposed on the height and location of masts in certain areas and obstruction painting and/or lighting may be necessary. Except in the area now officially designated as an antenna farm, masts or towers less than 150 feet from the ground in height may be erected and are exempted from this provision. Masts or towers with heights above 150 feet from the ground are normally required to put up the standard obstruction lighting and painting. 3.2.1.2 Antenna Design 3.2.1.2.1 The transmitting antenna system shall be vertically polarized and shall radiate an effective field of not less than that of a 60-degree vertical radiator.

3.2.1.2.2 For economic reasons, a single vertical tower radiator as mentioned above may be employed to serve as a common antenna (multiple frequency antennas) for two or more stations. 3.2.1.2.3 In the case of a directional antenna system, its composition shall be of the same vertical tower radiators as mentioned above, arranged to conform to a design configuration that would emit the desired radiation pattern. 3.2.1.2.4 The antenna, antenna lead-in, and counter-poise (if used), shall be installed so as not to present a hazard. The antenna may be located close by or at a distance from the transmitter the antenna. 3.2.1.2.5 The antenna radio frequency current meters (both regular and re-mote or any other radio frequency instrument which is necessary for the operator to read) shall be so installed permanently as to be easily and accurately read without the opera-tor having to risk contact with circuits carrying high potential radio frequency energy. 3.2.1.2.6 It is not necessary to protect the equipment in the antenna tuning house and the base of the antenna with screens and interlocks, provided, the door to the tuning house and antenna base are fenced and locked at all times, to ensure that no unauthorized person can gain access; thus, providing maximum safety to lives. Ungrounded fencing or wires must be effectively grounded, either directly or through proper static leaks. Lightning protection for the antenna system must be installed. 3.2.2 Transmitting Equipment building. A properly designed and terminated transmission line should be used between the transmitter and

The transmitting equipment and facilities shall be laid outin accordance with good engineering practice, thereby providing ease of maintenance and operation, and safety to personnel. a) Location and Layout The building shall be of a design and type of construction suitable to the area in which it is located and it shall comply with relevant building regulations.
1) Adequate space shall be provided in the building to facilitate

access to all equipment for operation and maintenance purposes. Adequate s pace for staff facilities shall also be provided.
2) Adequate ventilation and, where necessary, air-conditioning shall

be provided to ensure satisfactory working conditions for staff and equipment. 3) Adequate lighting shall be provided in all equipment rooms to facilitate operation and maintenance of the equipment. Design, Construction, and Safety to Life:
1)

The transmitter must be capable of delivering its rated

carrier power, with the provision for varying the same to compensate for variations in line voltage and other factors which may affect the power output.
2)

The transmitter must be capable of delivering and

maintaining its carrier power within the required limits of + 10 percent, whether to be at full power daytime mode or at reduced power nighttime mode. The power shall be determined by the direct methods, i.e., the square of the transmission line current measured at the input of the antenna matching network multiplied by the resistance at this same point. [The indirect method (Ep x Ip x Efficiency of the last radio frequency stage) may also be used.]
3)

The transmitter must be capable of satisfactory operation

at the authorized operating power with modulation of at least 90 percent with no more distortion than given in Sub-section 3.2.2.b (7).

4) frequency.
5)

The transmitter must be capable of maintaining the

operating frequency within the limits of 10 Hertz of the assigned The carrier shift (current) at any percentage of modulation The carrier hum and extraneous noise level, (unweighted

shall not exceed 5 percent.


6)

r.s.s.) exclusive of microphone and studio noises over the frequency band 30 to 20,000 Hz is, at least, 45 dB below the level of a sinusoidal tone of a 400 Hz, producing 90 percent modulation of the carrier.
7)

The total. audio frequency distortion from microphone

terminals, including micro-phone amplifier, to antenna output, must not exceed 5 percent harmonics (voltage measurements of arithmetical sum or r.s.s.) when modulated from 0 to 84 percent, and not over 7.5 percent harmonics when modulating from 85 percent to 95 percent. Distortion shall be measured with modulating frequencies of 50, 100, 400, 1000, 5000, and 7,500 Hertz up to the tenth harmonic or 16,000 Hz or any intermediate frequency that readings on these frequencies indicate is desirable.
8)

The audio frequency transmitting characteristics of the from the microphone terminals (including microphone

equipment

amplifier, unless microphone frequency correction is included, in which event proper allowance shall be made accordingly) to the antenna output, does not depart more than 2 decibels (dB) from that at 1, 000 Hertz between 80 and 7,500 Hz.
9)

The

transmitter

must

be

equipped

with

indicating

instruments to continuously measure the DC plate cur-rent and voltage and any other indicating instruments necessary for proper operation.
10)

The transmitter shall be equipped with an adequate Adequate allowances shall be provided for all component

control system for the application and removal of power.


11)

parts to avoid over-heating at the maximum rated power output.

12) Any emission appearing on a frequency removed from the carrier by between 15 kHz and 30 kHz inclusive, shall be attenuated at least 35 decibels below the level of the unmodulated carrier. 13) Any emission appearing on a frequency removed from the carrier by more than 30 kHz and up to and including 75 kHz, inclusive, shall be attenuated at least 35 decibels below the level of the unmodulated carrier.
14)

Any emission appearing on a frequency removed from the

carrier by more than 75 kHz shall be attenuated at least 43 10 log10 (Power in watts) decibels below the level of the unmodulated carrier or 80 decibels which-ever is the lesser attenuation. 15) The transmitter shall be operated, tuned, and adjusted so that emissions outside of the authorized channel do not cause harmful interference to the reception of other stations. In any case, should harmful interference to the reception of other radio stations occur, the licensee may be required to take further steps as may be necessary in accordance with Sec. 3.2.2.b) (14).
16)

In general, the transmitter shall be constructed either on

racks and panels or in totally enclosed frames protected as required by the Philippine Electronics Code.
17)

Means shall be provided for making all tuning adjustments

of any circuit involving the application of voltages in excess of 110 volts AC or DC from the front panel with all access doors closed.
18)

Bleeder resistors or such other automatic means shall be

installed across all the condenser banks to re-move any charge which may remain after the high volt-age circuit is opened.
19)

Plate supply and other high voltage devices, including

transformers, filters, rectifiers, and motor generators, shall be provided with protective circuits so as to prevent injury to operating personnel.
20)

In case the voltmeter is located on the low potential side of

the multiplier resistor with one terminal of the instrument at or less than 1,000 volts above ground, no protective case is required. However, it is a good practice to protect voltmeters that are subject to more than 5,000 volts with suitable protective de-vice across the instrument terminals in case the winding opens.
21)

Wiring between units of the transmitter shall be in-stalled

in conduits or approved fiber or metal raceways to protect it from mechanical injury.


22)

Circuits carrying low level radio frequency energy between

units of the transmitter shall be properly wired and shielded to prevent the pick-up of modulated radio frequency energy from the output circuits.
23)

Each

stage

(including

the

oscillator)

preceding

the

modulated stage shall be properly shielded and filtered to prevent feedback from any circuit following the modulated stage. 24)
25)

An oscilloscope or a type approved meter indicator type A frequency monitor or a type approved frequency meter

modulation monitor is required for monitoring transmitter modulation. indicator is required for monitoring transmitter carrier frequency. 3.2.3 Metering Equipment a) Linear scale instruments indicating the plate current or plate voltage of the last radio stage shall meet the following specifications: 1) 2)
3)

Length of scale shall not be less than 6 cm. Accuracy shall be at least 2 percent of the full reading. The maximum rating of the meter shall be such that it Full scale reading shall not be greater than five times the

does not read off scale during normal operation.


4)

minimum normal indication.


a)

Instruments indicating antenna current, common point current,

and base currents shall meet the following specifications:

1) Instruments having logarithmic or square law scales: (a) Shall meet the requirements of paragraph 3.2.3.1 a(1), a(2), and a(3) of this section for linear scale instruments. (b) Full scale readingshall not be greater than three times the minimum normal indication. (c)No scale division above one-fifth scale reading (in amperes) shall be greater than one-fiftieth of the full scale reading. (Ex: An ammeter meeting requirement (1) is acceptable for indicating currents from 1 to 5 amperes, provided no division between 1 and 5 amperes is greater than one-fiftieth of 5 amperes, 0.1 ampere).
c) A radio frequency ammeter meeting the requirements of paragraph (b) of

this section shall be permanently installed in the antenna circuit and a suitable arrangement may be made to protect it from damage by lightning. Where this arrangement is used, contacts shall be protected against corrosion. Since the meter is permanently connected in the antenna circuit, provision may be made to short the meter when it is not being used. Such switching shall be accomplished without interrupting the transmission of the station.
d)Remote reading antenna ammeter(s) may be employed and the indications

logged as the antenna current, or in the case of a directional antenna, the common point current and base currents, in accordance win the following: 1) Remote reading antenna common point or base am-meters maybe provided by:
(a) A factory-calibrated cur-rent transformer connected to a metering

instrument for RF antenna current indication. (b) Using indications of phase monitor for deter-mining the antenna base currents or their ratio in the case of directional antennas, provided:
(1)

the base current readings are logged in accordance with the pro vision of the station license;

(2)

that the indicating instruments in the unit are connected directly in the current sampling circuit with no other shunt circuits of any nature.

(3)

all sampling fines have equal total lengths and identical electrical characteristics. Portions of sampling lines between towers and transmitter building, prefer-ably, should be buried, if run above ground, the lines should be rigidly supported and positioned with the outer conductors grounded, where necessary, to ensure that fields from the array will not induce error currents in the line.

(c) Using indications of re-mote control instruments, provided that such

indicating instruments are capable of being connected directly into the antenna circuit at the same point as the antenna ammeter. 2) Remote ammeters shall be connected into the antenna circuit at the same point as, but below (transmitter side) the antenna ammeter(s), and shall be calibrated to indicate within 2 percent of the regular meter over the entire range above one-third or one-fifth full-scale. 3) All remote meters shall meet the same requirement as the regular antenna ammeter with respect to scale accuracy, etc. 4) Calibration shall be checked against the regular meter at least once a week. 5) All remote meters shall be provided with shielding or filters as necessary to pre-vent any feed-back from the antenna to the transmitter.
6) In the case of shunt-excited antenna, the transmission line current meter

at the transmitter may be considered as the remote antenna ammeter, provided the transmission line is terminated directly into the excitation circuit feed-line, which shall employ series tuning only (no shunt circuits of any type shall be employed) and, inasmuch as is practicable, the type and scale of the transmission line meter shall be the same as those of the excitation circuit feed-line meter (meter in slant wire feed line or its equivalent).

7) In the event that there is any question as to the method of providing the

re-mote indication, or the ac-curacy of the remote meter, the burden of proof of satisfactory performance shall be upon the licensee and the manufacturer of the equipment.
e) The function of each instrument shall be clearly and permanently

shown on the instrument itself or on the panel immediately adjacent thereto.


f) Digital meters, printers, or other numerical read-out devices may be

used in addition to or in lieu of indicating instruments meeting the specifications of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. If a single digital device is used at the transmitter for reading and logging of operating parameters, either (1) indicating instruments meeting the above-mentioned specifications shall be installed in the transmitter and antenna circuit, or (2) a spare digital device shall be maintained at the transmitter with the provision for its rapid substitution for the main device, should that device malfunction. The readout of the device shall include at least three digits and shall indicate the value or a decimal multiple of the value of the parameter being read to an accuracy of at least 2 percent. The multiplier to be applied to the reading of each parameter shall be indicated at the operating position of a switch used to select the parameter for display, or on the face of an automatically printed log at least once for each calendar day.
g) The antenna ammeters (both regular and remote) and any other radio

frequency instrument which are necessary for the operator to read shall be so installed as to be easily and accurately read without the operator having to risk contact with circuits carrying high potential radio frequency energy.
h) Frequency Monitor Specifications:

1) The unit shall have an accuracy of at least 5 parts per million under ordinary conditions of temperature and humidity encountered in standard broadcast stations throughout the Philip-pines.

2) The range of the indicating device shall be, at least, from 20 Hertz below to 20 Hertz above the assigned frequency. 3) The scale of the indicating device shall be so calibrated as to be accurately read within at least 1 Hertz. 3.2.4. Monitoring Equipment a. Frequency Monitor 1) The licensee of each station shall have in operation, either at the transmitter or at the place where the transmitter is controlled, a frequency monitor of a type approved by the Authority which shall be independent of the frequency control of the transmitter.
2)

In

the

event

that

the

frequency

monitor

becomes

defective, the station may be operated without such equipment pending its repair or replacement for a period not in excess of 60 days without further permission of the Authority: Provided, That: a) Appropriate entries shall be made in the operation log of the station to show the date and time the monitor was removed from and restored to service.
b) The Engineer in Charge of the Region in which the station is located

shall be notified both immediately after the monitor is found to be defective and immediately after the repaired or re-placement monitor has been installed and is functioning properly.
c) The frequency of the station shall be compared with an external

frequency source of known accuracy at sufficiently frequent intervals to insure that the frequency is maintained within the tolerance. An entry shall be made in the station log as to the method used and the results thereof.
3)

If conditions beyond the control of the licensee or

permittee prevent the restoration of the monitor to service within the above allowed period, informal request may be filed with the Engineer in Charge of the Region in which the station is located for such

additional time as may be required to complete re-pairs of the defective instrument or equipment. b. Modulation Monitor
1)

The licensee of each station shall have in operation, either at the

transmitter or at the place where the transmitter is control-led, an oscilloscope or a modulation monitor of a type approved by the Authority.
2)

In the event that the modulation monitor becomes defective, the

station may be operated without such equipment pending its re-pair or replacement for a period not in excess of 60 days without further authority of the Commission: Provided that: a) Appropriate entries shall be made in the operation log of the station to show the date and time the monitor was removed from and restored to service.
b) The Engineer in Charge of the Region in which the station is located shall

be notified both immediately after the monitor is found to be defective and immediately after the repaired or re-placement monitor has been installed and is functioning properly.
c) The degree of modulation of the station shall be monitored with a cathode

ray oscilloscope or other means.


3)

If conditions beyond the control of the licensee or permittee prevent the restoration of the monitor to service within the above allowed period, informal request may be filed with the Engineer in Charge of the region in which the station is located for such additional time as may be required to complete repairs of the defective instrument or equipment.

3.2.5 Studio, Equipment, and Allied Facilities The studio, being the source of programs, must be provided with such control room, equipment and other accommodation as are necessary to ensure the provision of a satisfactory service by the station. a) Studio Location and Layout

1) The building that will contain the studio shall satisfy the provisions

given in Section 3.2.2.a. of these standards.


2) Each studio shall be associated with a control room from which

the operational area of the studio may be viewed with ease. The Authority may, however, approve an operation whereby the studio and control rooms are integrated into one and that responsible personnel shall perform simple front panel type functions like level adjustments and switchings during his/her board hours, provided, a licensed radio technician with a 1st, 2nd, or 3rd Crass radiotelephone license is employed to perform all the more complicated pre-and post-sign-on adjustments of a more technical nature including maintenance jobs which are necessary for the proper operation of technical studio equipment. Provided further, that for this kind of operation, an automatic program level control is employed to ensure that a proper program level is fed to the transmitter.
3) Studios and control rooms shall be so constructed that they are

adequately insulated from sources of extraneous noise and vibration, and the acoustic treatment of such studios and control rooms shall be in accordance with good engineering practice. 3.2.6 Emergency Equipment and Facilities a) Alternate Main Transmitter 1) The regular and the optional main transmitter are co-located in a single place.
2) The external effects from both regular and alternate main

transmitters shall substantially be the same as to frequency stability. b) Auxiliary Transmitter 1) An auxiliary transmitter may be provided and may be installed in the same location as the regular main transmitter or in an-other location.

2) its operating power shall not be less than 10% or never greater

than the authorized operating power of the main transmitter. 3) A licensed operator shall be in control whenever an auxiliary transmitter is placed in operation.
4) When installed in a location different from that of the regular

main transmitter, a type-approved modulation monitor and a frequency monitor are required to be installed along with it.
b)

Emergency Electric Power Generating Unit An electric power generating unit with sufficient electrical capability to sustain the station's emergency or regular operations shall be maintained to ensure an uninterrupted operation. Should this generating unit, however, in the course of its operation, cause or emit radio frequency energy and/or harmonics that may prove harmful to the purity of the station's signal, such interference shall be contained sufficiently as to satisfy the provisions of sections 3.2.2.b) 12) through 3.2.2.b) 15) of these standards.

c)

Emergency Announce Equipment Complement

Where the need exists, an emergency announce equipment complement shall be maintained in the transmitter side for emergencies, to en-sure uninterrupted programming during the station's authorized hours of operations. d) Spare Component Parts I n order to cut down-times during scheduled on-air operations, a reasonable variety and number of spare components appropriate to the equipment installed at the site, shall be kept on hand at each studio and transmitter sites in the most convenient location therein. e) Fire Fighting Facilities

Appropriate areas therein.


f)

and

adequate

fire-fighting

facilities

shall

be

maintained within the establishment, especially in fire-prone All stations, whether operating by remote control or direct control,

shall be so equipped as to be able to follow the prescribed EBS alerting procedures set forth in the EBS Manual for Broadcast Stations. 1. BROADCAST AUXILIARY SERVICES Broadcast transmission auxiliary services fall under these three categories: 1) 2) 3) 4.1 Studio-to-Transmitter Link (STL) Remote Pick-Up Broadcast Station Communications, Coordination and Control Link The frequency band allocation for STUDIO-TO-TRANSMITTER

LINK/REMOTE CONTROL SYTEM shall be: Band A 300-315 MHz Band B 734-752 MHz Band C 942-952 MHz The maximum power allowable for STL's shall be 15 watts. 4.2 The frequency band allocation for REMOTE PICK-UP STATION shall be: Band A 315-325 MHz Band B 450-451 MHz Band C 455-456 MHz The maximum power allowable for Remote Pick-up Stations shall be 35 watts. 4.3 The frequency band allocation for COMMUNICATIONS, COORDINATION AND CONTROL LINK shall be: Band A 412 MHz (nonexclusive) Band B 25.67 - 26.1. MHz Band C 162.235 162.615 MHz 166.250 and 170.150 MHz

Band D 432.5 433 MHz 437.5 438 MHz The maximum power allowable for Communications, Coordination and Control Link shall be: Band A - 100 watts (SBS) B - 160 watts (ERP) C - 160 watts (ERP) D - 200 watts (for repeater) The Authority shall authorize the employment of any one or all of these broadcast transmission services to a station depending on the necessity and availability of frequencies for the purpose. Any AM or FM station authorized to operate is entitled to use any broad cast transmission service relevant to the efficient operation of the station where the use of physical lines arcades is not feasible. 5. OPERATING REQUIREMENTS 5.1 Hours of Operation 5.1.1 Minimum Operating Schedule The licensee of each medium-frequency broadcast station shall maintain a minimum operating schedule of two-thirds of the total hours that it is authorized to operate except that in emergencies when, due to causes beyond the control of the licensee, it becomes impossible to continue operating, the station may cease operations for a period not exceeding 10 days. 5.1.2 Broadcast(s) outside of the authorized regular operating schedules (as before regular sign-on schedules and/or beyond the regular sign-off schedules) may be aired without prior authorization from the Authority provided the program falls under an emergency category or of very important relevance to the station's existence. The

information shall be entered in the program and operating logs at the time the broadcast was aired. 5.1.3 if a permanent discontinuance of operations is being contemplated, then the licensee shall notify in writing the Authority or regional office where the station is located at least two (2) days before the actual discontinuance is effected. 5.2 Other Operating Practices The percentage of modulation shall be maintained as high as possible, consistent with good quality transmission and, in no case, more than 125 percent on positive peaks nor more than 100 percent on negative peaks of frequent recurrence during any selection which is transmitted at the highest level of the program under consideration. 5.3 Posting of Station and Operator Licenses 5.3.1 The station license and other instruments) of station authorization shall be posted in a conspicuous place in such a manner that all terms are visible, at the place the licensee considers to be the principal control point of the transmitter. At all other control points listed on the station authorization, a photocopy of the station license and other instruments of station authorization shall be posted. 5.3.2 The original copy of the operator's license shall be posted at the place where he is on duty as an operator. 5.4 Operator Requirements 5.4.1 A radio operator holding a valid radio telephone first class operator's license shall be in actual charge of the transmitting apparatus and shall be on duty either at the transmitter location or remote control point. 5.4.2. The licensee of a station shall employ at least one (1) full time licensed first-class radiotelephone operator whose primary duty shall be to effect and in-sure the proper functioning of the transmitting equipment. 5.5 Station identification Announcements

5.5.1 A licensee of a medium-frequency broadcast station shall make station identification announcements (call letters, frequency, and location) at the beginning and ending of each time of operation and during operation on the hour and either on the half hour or at the quarter hour preceding the next hour: Provided, 5.5.2 Such identification announcement need not be made on the half hour or quarter hour when, to make such announcement, would interrupt a single consecutive speech, play, religious service, symphony concert, or operatic production. In such cases, an identification announcement shall be made at the first interruption of the entertainment continuity and at the conclusion of. the program: Provided, that an announcement within five minutes of either on the half hour or at the quarter hour preceding the next hour will satisfy the requirements of identification announcements. In the case of variety show programs, basketball game broadcasts, or similar programs of longer duration than 30 minutes, the identification announcement shall be made within 5 minutes of the times specified in Section 4.5.1. 5.5.3 In the case of all other pro-grams, the identification announcement shall be made within 2 minutes of the times specified in Section 4.5.1. 5.6 Logs The licensee or permittee of each medium frequency broadcast station shall maintain program and operating logs and shall require entries to be made as follows: a) In the Program Log: I) An entry of the time each station identification announcement (call letters, frequency, and location) is made.
2)

An entry briefly describing each program broadcast, such as

"music", "drama", "speech", etc. together with the name or title thereof, and the sponsor's name, with the time of the be-ginning and

ending of the complete program. If a mechanical record is used, the entry shall show the exact nature thereof, such as "record", "transcription", etc., and the time it is announced as a mechanical record. if a speech is made by a political candidate, the name and political affiliations of such speaker shall be entered.
3)

An entry showing that each sponsored program broadcast has

been announced as sponsored, paid for, or furnished by the sponsor. 4) 5) An entry showing, for each pro-gram of network origin, the name of the network originating the program. An entry of the time the program begins and ends. b) In the Operating Log (Transmitter Log) 1) An entry of the time the station begins to supply power to the antenna, and the time it stops. 2) An entry of each interruption to the carrier wave, its cause, and duration. 3) An entry of the following every 30 minutes: a) Operating constants of the last radio frequency stage plate current and plate volt-age b) Antenna current 4) Any other entries required by the instrument of authorization. 5) A log of all operations must be kept during the experimental period. if the entries required above are not applicable thereto, then the entries shall be made so as to fully describe the operation.
6) Logs of medium frequency broadcast stations shall be retained by the

licensee or permitee for a period of two (2) years: Provided, however, that logs involving communications incident to a disaster or which include communications incident to or involved in an investigation by the Authority and concerning which the licensee or permittee has been notified, shall be retained by the licensee or permittee until he is specifically authorized in writing by the Authority to destroy them: Provided, further, that log s incident to or involved in any claim or

complaint of which the licensee or permittee has notice shall be retained by the licensee or permittee until such claim or complaint has been fully satisfied or until the same has been barred by the statute limiting the time for filing of suits upon such claims.
7) Each log shall be maintained and signed by the radio operator during

his tour of duty. The logs shall be made available upon request by an authorized representative of the Authority.
8) The log shall be kept in an orderly manner, in suitable form, and in

such detail that the data required for the particular class of station concerned are readily available. Key letters or abbreviations may be used if proper meaning or explanation is contained elsewhere in the log.
9) No log or portion thereof shall be erased, obliterated, or willfully

destroyed within the period of retention provided by the rules. Any necessary correction may be made only by the person originating the entry who shall strike out the erroneous portion, initial the correction made, and indicate the date of correction.
10)Rough log may be transcribed into condensed form, but in such cases

the original rough log or memoranda and all par-dons thereof shall be preserved and made a part of the complete log.
5.7

Remote Control Operation Operation by remote control shall be subject to the following conditions: 5.7.1 The equipment at the operating and transmitting positions

shall be so installed and protected that it is not accessible to or capable of operation by per-sons other than those duly authorized by the licensee. 5.7.2 The control circuits from the operating positions to the transmitter shall provide positive on and off control and shall be such that open circuits, short circuits, grounds or other line faults will not

actuate the transmitter and any fault causing loss of such control will automatically place the transmitter in an inoperative position. 5.7.3 A malfunction of any part of the remote control equipment and associated line circuits resulting in improper control or inaccurate meter readings shall be cause for the immediate cessation of operation by remote control 5.7.4 Control and monitoring equipment shall be installed so as to allow the licensed operator at the remote control point to per-form all the functions in a manner required by the rules. Control point of the antenna current meter for directional antenna, the common point current meter and remote base current meters shall be read and entered in the operating log each half hour. 5.7.5 The indications at the remote control point of the antenna current meter for directional antenna, the common point cur-rent meter and remote base current meters shall be read and entered in the operating log each half hour. 5.7.6 The indications at the transmitter, if a directional antenna station, of the common point cur-rent, base currents, phase monitor sample loop currents and phase indications shall be read and entered in the operating log once each day for each pattern. These readings must be made within two hours after the commencement of operation for each pattern. 5.7.7 Stations with authorized operating power in excess of 10 kilowatts employing directional antenna and operated by remote control, shall make a skeleton proof of performance each year, consisting of three or four measurements on each radial used in the original application and must submit the results of these measurements, plus the monitoring point readings with the renewal application. 6. ALLOCATION RULES AND REGULATION 6.1 Maximum Power Allocation AREA MAXIMUM POWER IN KW

Metro Manila* All other areas

50kw 10kw

* NOTE: Transmitters of Existing Metro Manila Stations may be located outside of Metro Manila. Provided, Metro Manila remains within the 80 dBu contour of the transmitter. a) The station shall not operate more than 5% and not lower than 10% of its authorized operating power.
b) The Authority may grant a permit to operate a non- commercial

AM

broadcast

station

exceeding

these

Maximum

Power

Allocations on a case-to-case basis; Provided, such pro posed station shall conform with the Frequency Allocation Rules and Regulations. c) For new stations and increase of power applications, the maximum power allowed must conform to protection ratios embodied in the medium-wave band and therefore, shall be acted upon on a case to case basis. 6.2 Radio Frequency Protection Ratio a) The following radio frequency protection ratios provide for the minimum physical separation of AM stations and their protection from interference. R.F. Protection Ratio Frequency Co-channel (same frequency) 1st Adjacency (9kHz away) 2nd Adjacency R.F. Signal Ratio 73 dBu:43 dBu (4.47mV/m:141.25uV /m) 73 dBu:64 dBu (4.47mV/m:1.6mV/m ) 73 dBu:97 dBu (4.47mV/m:70.8mV/ -24 9 (dB) 30

(18kHz away) m) a) Frequency Separation

The minimum frequency separation in any service area is 36 kHz. c) Number of AM Radio Stations Per Commercial Broadcast Entity in Each Service Area. Each commercial broadcast entity may be allowed to operate not more than one AM radio station in any broadcast service area.
7.

AM STEREOPHONIC STANDARD The AM stereophonic standard is the C-QUAM AM stereophonic system.

8. PUBLIC INFORMATION FILE An updated Public information File at each broadcast station shall be made available to the NTC inspector or to any interested parry. The Public Information File shall contain the following: a) A copy of the station license. b) Documents as to mode of ownership whether partnerships, corporation or single proprietorship including trade name as registered in the Department of Trade.
c) A list of changes in transmitting facilities arranged chronologically).

Annex to this list, the corresponding licenses and permits supporting the changes.
d) Copies of the Program Standards, the Technical Standards, the NTC

compilation of laws, regulations, circulars and memoranda. e) Evidence of membership in the KBP. 6. ANNEXES: Fig.1. FCC Graphs - Ground Wave Field Intensity Vs. Distance, for different frequencies from 540 KHz to 1640 KHz. Fig. 2. Effective Field At One Mile for CO2 kilowatt. Fig.3. Sample forms for frequency/interference studies.