What is direct selling ?

— Definition, perspectives, and research agenda
Peterson, Robert A Wotruba, Thomas R

 直銷通路管理報告

 指導教授﹕陳得發教授
 學生:王昭雄  學號﹕8941812

中華民國九十一年三月六日

•Content 1. 3. 4. Conclusions . 5. 2. A Definition of Direct Selling Operational Perspective Tactical Perspective Strategic Perspective A research Agenda for Direct Selling Scope of Direct Selling Practice of Direct Selling 6.

the workplace of the customer during breaks or other places away from shops – Federation of European Direct Selling Association (FEDSA) . The location can also be a friend’s home.A Definition of Direct Selling • A Method of distribution of consumer goods and services through personal (sell to buyer) contract away from fixed business locations. distributors. wholesalers or any type of middlemen.-.Industry Trade Association in Washington DC • A form of selling without retail outlets. ---.Baker (1984) • The marketing of consumer goods and services directly to consumers in their homes by way of explanation and/or demonstration through a salesperson. primarily in a home.

direct response advertising. Away from a fixed retail location Direct selling is distinct from direct marketing in that at an operational level it does not involve mailed catalogs. . or the like. Face-to-face selling 2. infomercials. telemarketing.Operational Perspective 1.

• Whether personification is used. • Whether selling agents are part-time or fulltime. • Whether the selling effort occurs in a home or elsewhere. • Whether it follows a party plan format. • Whether selling agents take physical possession of products • The manner in which purchases are delivered and payment is obtained. • Whether it is transaction-oriented or relationshiporiented. • The extent to which selling agents are customers. Direct Selling can be characterized by .Tactical Perspective • The type of salesperson used. • Whether it is multi-level.

Strategic Perspective •Direct Selling as a Distribution Channel .

There are no products on shelves that competitors can monitor. especially capital for marketing and distribution purposes.Strategic Perspective •Direct Selling as a Means of Gaining Access to a Market ◆ Direct selling is a push marketing strategy •Direct Selling as a Way of Doing Business ◆ Direct selling is the preferred channel of distribution because it is “ invisible” . . ◆ Direct selling can be undertaken by a firm with relatively little start-up capital.

•What can be sold through Direct Selling ? Vacuum cleaners Encyclopedias Cosmetics Nutritional items Kitchenware •Who buys from Direct Sellers ? In the United States are more likely to be female. and possess more education and higher incomes than individuals who have not purchased from a direct selling company . . younger.

an individual must be a good communicator and be highly motivated. 8%are under age 25. . To be a successful direct selling agent.• What are the characteristics of Direct Sellers ? 72% of direct salespeople are married 90% are women. Sales performance and job satisfaction were independent but higher levels of effort led to higher levels of performance and satisfaction. 63% between 25 and 44 and 24%between 45 and 64. Persistence and initiative are major characteristics of success in direct selling.

International and Comparative Analyses of Direct Selling. The motivations of direct salespeople and customers would appear to be a fertile area for research. 3.Selling revenues is probably significantly underestimated. 4. There is a need for basis research on direct selling salespeople and consumers who purchase through direct selling.• A research Agenda for Direct Selling Scope of Direct Selling: 1. . 2.

3. trust-building.Tactical Perspective Under what condition (e. catalogs. electron merchandising. competitive conditions faced) are the various tactical combinations most effective ?— telemarketing . 2. Hypotheses involving adapt ability.• A research Agenda for Direct Selling Scope of Direct Selling: 1.Operational Perspective Research should focus on direct selling as a communication process.g. market targeted. products or services sold. and various rhetorical and persuasive device could be tested in a direct selling setting. negotiation.Strategic Perspective What about with direct selling in the future ? Is direct selling emerging as the marketing strategy best suited to succeed with micro-market segmentation ? . listening.

. infrastructure.Are there some principles regarding direct selling that have universal application? 2. economic.Is there a relationship between a country’s extent of economic development and the relative success of direct selling vis-à-vis other distribution method ? 3.Success in such operations would be aided by research in the macro conditions (i. cultural) that foster or inhibit direct selling success at both the industry and business unit level.. political.• A research Agenda for Direct Selling Issues: 1.e. 4.Direct selling firms are expanding internationally at an increasing place.

• This research should address issues relating to motivations of direct salespeople and their customers as well as the macro conditions conducive to direct selling success. • Useful research issues 1.Conclusions • Even though widely discussed. and the term itself is often abused and misused. Communication effectiveness in the direct selling process 2. Direct selling as an effective market entry strategy 3. direct selling is not well understood. Blends involving direct selling and other marketing methods . strategy choices 4.

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