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• Surveying is defined as the science of making measurements of the earth specifically the surface of the earth. • This is being carried out by finding the spatial location (relative / absolute) of points on or near the surface of the earth.
The primary aims of field surveying are : • To measure the Horizontal Distance between points. • To measure the Vertical elevation between points. • To find out the Relative direction of lines by measuring horizontal angles with reference to any arbitrary direction and • To find out Absolute direction by measuring horizontal angles with reference to a fixed direction.
Objectives of Surveying
• To collect field data; • To prepare plan or map of the area surveyed; • To analyse and to calculate the field parameters for setting out operation of actual engineering works. • To set out field parameters at the site for further engineering works.
Classification of Surveying
• Based on Accuracy Desired:1. Plane Survey2. Geodetic Survey-
5. Engineering survey Defence survey Geological survey Geographical survey Mine survey Route survey . 3. 4. 6. 2.Based on Purpose of survey 1.
Aerial Survey-used for large scale map . . streams.Based on place of survey 1. Land survey 2. Underground Survey 4. used where ground survey will be slow or difficult. 3. Hydrographical Survey :.Determine shape of area under water surface like Lakes.
Based on Instrument used 1. Tacheometry – using transit equipped with special telescope having stadia wires and analytical lens. 4. Levelling 5. Plane Table Surveying 6. Chain Survey – linear measurement 2. Triangulation . Traverse Survey – Direction or angle measure 3.
lines. • Mine surveys : To carry out surveying specific for opencast and under ground mining purposes. and for staking out engineering works (after the plans have been prepared and the structural design has been done). and laying out of route such as highways.• Geographical survey : To prepare a plan/ map of a region which includes natural as well as and man-made features including elevation. • Construction surveys : Surveys which are required for establishment of points. canals. • Route survey : To plan. grades. pipelines. and other linear projects. railways. . design.
3) Location survey : To set out work on the ground for actual construction / execution of the project. Three broad steps are 1) Reconnaissance survey : To explore site conditions and availability of infrastructures. design and execution of engineering projects.• Route survey : To collect data for planning. 2) Preliminary survey : To collect adequate data to prepare plan / map of area to be used for planning and design. .
Working from “ WHOLE TO THE PART “ To localise the errors and To control the accumulation of errors. 2. .SURVEYING • GENERAL PRINCIPLE : 1. To locate a New Point by at least two reference known measurements.
Divisions of Surveying Based upon the consideration of the Accuracy and shape of the earth. surveying is broadly divided into two types. • Geodetic Surveying • Plane Surveying .
. • This type of surveying is being carried out for highly precise work and is adopted for surveying of large area. the true shape of the earth is taken into consideration.Geodetic Surveying • In this branch of surveying.
This type of survey is applicable for small area (less than 200 square kilometer). . • Thus for most of the Civil Engineering projects.Plane Surveying • In this method of surveying. methods of plane surveying are valid. the mean surface of the earth is considered to be a plane surface.
Accessories for linear measurement Pegs Arrows Ranging Rods Offset Rods Plumb Bob Chains Tapes .
tallies are fixed at every five meter length and small brass rings at every meter length.To enable the reading of a chain.Chains • Metric chain. • Steel band chain-It is 20 or 30long and 16 mm wide. • Revenue Chain-used for measuring fields in cadastral survey • Engineers chain-It is 100 ft long divided into 100 links. . • Gunter’s Chain-It is 66 fit long and is divided into 100 links.
. made of an alloy of steel and nickel. It is 6 mm wide and may be length of 30m and 100m.made of glass fibre.used for highest precision work.Tapes • • • • Cloth or linen Tape Metric Woven Metallic Tape Metric steel Tape Invar tape. • Synthetic Tape.
Indirect Method:-used for regular or even slope.used for Irregular slope. Direct Method:.Linear measurement on sloping ground • Two methods for getting the horizontal distance b/w two points:1. 2. a) Angle measured b) Difference in level measured c) Hypotenusal allowance .
Called engineering scale. 1. .SCALES • Scale fixed ratio that every distance on the map bears with corresponding distance on the ground. One cm on the plan represents some whole number of meters on the ground .ratio of map distance to ground distance ie units less measurement. 2. Representative fraction:.
enlargements and reductions do not affect the accuracy of the scales .3. Graphical scale:-Typically referred to as bar scales have the advantage of accurately representing scale.
Plain Scale:- .TYPES OF SCALES 1.
2. Diagonal Scale • • • • • 1-1 represent 1/10 PQ 2-2 represent 2/10 PQ ………………………………… ………………………………… 9-9 represent 9/10 PQ .
• The scale has been especially useful for the so very fine angle scales of a theodolite. THE VERNIER SCALE • The vernier scale is a clever way of improving the precision of a reading on an instrument scale.3. .
• Least count of the vernier = the difference between smallest division on the main division and smallest division on the vernier scale. .
V= ((n-1)/n)*s .• Direct virnier:least count = s/n S = value of one smallest division on main scale V= value of one smallest division on the vernier N= number of divisions on the vernier.
SHRUNK SCALE “Shrunk scale = shrinkage factor * original scale” shrinkage factor is equal to ratio of shrunk length to the actual length. .
Correction for measured length .
• They are classified as follows: • Positive error • Negative error .ERRORS • Cumulative errors :.These errors always accumulate in one direction and are serious in nature. • Compensative errors • These errors occur in either direction and are likely to compensate. They affect the survey work considerably.
• Positive error • These errors make the measured length more than the actual length which results into wrong calculations by the Surveyor. • Negative errors • These errors make the measured length less than the actual length. .
-) Personal mistake.-) Bad Straightening (Cumulative +) Non-horizontality (Cumulative +) Sag in chain(Cumulative +) Variation in temperature (Cumulative + . 6. 9. +) Care less holding and marking(Cumulative. Erroneous length of chain or tape (Cumulative +.Errors in chains 1. 3. -) Variation in pull (Compensating & cumulative +. +. 2. 7. . 8. 4.-) Bad Ranging (Cumulative . 5.
Cumulative errors are more important than compensating errors. .• NOTE:.
CORRECTIONS IN TAPE OR CHAIN Correction for absolute length Correction for pull Correction for sag Correction for temperature Correction for Slope .
C/l • Where.Correction for absolute length • Absolute length of tape is its actual length under specified condition • Ca = L. Ca = correction for absolute length ‘m’ • L = measured length in ‘m’ • l = Designed or nominal length of tape in ‘m’ • C = correction per tape length. .
Ct = α. Then the temperature correction Ct is given by.(Tm – T0).• Correction for Temperature Let T0 = Temperature at which tape is standardized Tm = Mean temperature during measurement α = Coefficient of thermal expansion of the material of the tape and L = Measured length.L .
Corrections for Pull • If pull applied while standardizing the length of tape and pull applied in the field are different. P0 = Standard pull P = Pull applied in the field (N) A = Cross-sectional area of the tape(cm2) L = Measured length of line(m) E = Young’s modulus of the material of tape (N/cm2). then correction is required. Let. then • Cp = [(P-P0)L] / AE .
• Correction for Sag • When the tape is suspended from two ends in air. • Sag correction. A tape not supported along its length will sag and form a catenary between supports.L1 • P = Pull applied in N • w = wt. Cs1 = L1(W1)2/24P2 • Where. of tape per unit length (N/m) . L1 = horizontal distance between supports in meters • W1 = weight of tape in N = w.
• Correction for Slope If the length measured is ‘L’ and the difference in the levels of first and the last point is ‘h’. then slope correction .
OBSTACLES IN CHAINING 3.OBSTACLES IN CHAINING 1. OBSTACLES IN BOTH CHAINING AND RANGING . OBSTACLES IN RANGING 2.
Both ends of line may be visible from intermediate points 2.OBSTACLES IN RANGING • Two cases:1. Both ends point may not be visible from intermediate point .
. Possible to chain round the obstacle like pond. Not possible to chain round the obstacle like river. 2.OBSTACLES IN CHAINING • Two cases:1.
.OBSTACLES IN BOTH CHAINING AND RANGING • This problem lies in prolonging line beyond the obstacle and determine the distance across it.
• It is also used for setting out lines at right angle to the main chain line. so that when it is set up it is at normal eye level.Cross Staff • This consists of two pairs of vanes set at right angle to each other with a wide and narrow slit in each vane. . • The instrument is mounted upon a pole.