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Pressure Measurement

# Pressure Measurement

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11/09/2015

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# PRESENATTION ON PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

BY : RUSHIN SHAH

WHAT IS PRESSURE
Pressure may be defined as the action of a force against an opposing force. Pressure is usually measured as a force per unit area.

P = F/A
Where,P = Pressure F = Force acting on surface A = Area of the surface

Pressure is considered the basic process variable in that it is utilized for measurement of flow (difference of two pressure), level (head or back pressure), and even temperature (fluid pressure in a filled thermal system ).

TERMINOLOGY IN PRESSURE
• Absolute Pressure : Measured above total vacuum or zero absolute. • Atmospheric Pressure : The pressure exerted by the earth’s atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.696 psia. • Barometric Pressure : Same as Atmospheric pressure.

TERMINOLOGY IN PRESSURE
• Gauge Pressure : The pressure above atmospheric. Represents positive difference between measured pressure and existing atmospheric pressure. • Hydrostatic Pressure : The pressure below a liquid surface exerted by the liquid above. • Line Pressure : Force per unit area exerted on the surface of the pipe by a fluid flowing parallel to a pipe wall.

TERMINOLOGY IN PRESSURE
• Vacuum : Pressure below atmospheric pressure.

TYPES OF PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

TYPES OF PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

Manometer

Elastic Type Devices

Electronic type

U Tube Manometer

Bellows Type

Strain gauge

Well Type Manometer

Burdon Type

Capacitive

Inclined Tube Manometer

Diaphragm Type

Piezoelectric

MANOMETERS
Manometers are used for low range pressure measurement. It is the simplest and the most accurate device. It is generally used within the range of 30 psi. U Tube Manometers : It consists of an U tube. The difference between the two columns of liquid is an indication of the pressure differential. Advantages : 1) No moving parts. 2) No friction or inertia involved in the measurement. 3) Economical and accurate.

MANOMETERS
Disadvantages : 1) Mechanically fragile nature of the tube. 2) Accuracy limited by visibility of the scale. Well Type Manometer : In the well type manometer, one of the legs of the U tube is substituted by a large well such that the variations in the level of the well will be negligible. Instead of measuring the differential height, a single height in the existing column is measured. Advantages over U-tube: It is easy to read the pressure.

MANOMETERS
Inclined Tube Manometer :
The Inclined Tube Manometer is having its measuring leg inclined to the vertical axis. This is done to expand the scale and thereby to increase the sensitivity.

Elastic Type
Bellows Type : Bellows are formed from seamless tubes hydraulically or mechanically roll formed and used for measurement of low to intermediate pressure and vacuums. Bellows expansion is then used with either Motion balance or Force balance mechanism for pressure indication.

Elastic Type
Bourdon Type : Bourdon is a curved or twisted tube which is held and pressurized at its open end, produces movement at its closed end. It is used for the measurement of medium to high pressures. It can be of ‘C Type’,’Spiral Type’ or ‘Helical Type’.

Elastic Type
Diaphragm Type Sensors : Diaphragm is a flexible disc, either flat or with concentric corrugations. The motion to the diaphragm is transmitted and amplified by a suitable linkage and gears to operate a pointer.

Electronic Type

Strain Gauge: Strain gauge is used for the measurement of weight in terms of pressure. As load applied on it, its resistance changes by changing its length and/or cross sectional area.

Electronic Type

Capacitive Transducers : The operating principle consists of the measurement of the change in capacitance resulting from the movement of an elastic element which in this case will be one of the capacitor plate.
C =EA/d Where, C is Capacitance E is Diaelectric constant A is Plate area d is Distance between two plates

This is the most common type of pr. transducer used in industries.

SuperModule Outputs: 4-20 mA/HART High Speed Data Bus

Electronic Type

PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS: It works on the piezoelectric effect which states that “when you applied a force on piezo crystal it will give electrical output” This electrical signal is then used for indication of force in terms of pressure.

Selection Features

UNITS OF PRESSURE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP
• • • • • • • 1 Kg / Cm 2 = 14.2223 PSI =0.980665 bar. 1mm H2O = 10-4Kg/Cm2 1Atm =14.6959 PSI =1.03323 kg/cm2=760mmHG 1mm Hg = 13.6mm H2O 1Inch H2O = 25.4 mmH2O 1Kg/Cm2 = 10032mmH2O  1 Bar = 1.01972 Kg/Cm2 .

SCHEMATIC OF PNEUMATIC PRESSURE TRANSMITTER

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MICROPROCESSOR BASED PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
SENSOR
Analog PV

A/D

µ

D/A Communications HART
Analog Output 4-20 mA

Regardless of sensor used, all transmitters have the same basic block diagram Sensor measures analog pressure signal  Analog to digital conversion is made Digital signal is conditioned in Micro-processor Digital output signal is delivered (HART or other) Digital to analog conversion is made(4-20 mA output)

SIGNAL TRANSMISSION FROM FIELD TO CONTROL ROOM
BRANCH CABLE MULTICORE CABLE

JUNCTION BOX IN FIELD
OTHER TX. SIGNALS

SIGNAL CONDITION IN CONTROL ROOM

DISTRIBUTD CONTROL SYSTEM IN C/R

SIGNAL TRANSMISSION FROM CONTROL ROOM TO FIELD
BRANCH CABLE MULTICORE CABLE

I/P CONVERTER OTHER CONTROL VALVE SIGNALS

JUNCTION BOX IN FIELD

SIGNAL CONDITION IN CONTROL ROOM

DISTRIBUTD CONTROL SYSTEM IN C/R

Any Questions?

THANK YOU

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