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IB Diploma Programme guide: Mathematics HL, September 2001

Core: number and algebra

Teaching time: 20 hours

The aims of this section are to introduce important results and methods of proof in algebra, and to extend the concept of number to include complex numbers. CONTENT 1.1 Arithmetic sequences and series; sum of finite arithmetic series; geometric sequences and series; sum of finite and infinite geometric series. Applications of the above. 1.2 Exponents and logarithms: laws of exponents; laws of logarithms.
1.3 The binomial theorem: expansion of

AMPLIFICATIONS /EXCLUSIONS
n

Included: sigma notation, ie

ai .
i 1

Included: applications of sequences and series to compound interest and population growth. Included: change of base, ie log b a Included: the formulae
n r

TEACHING NOTES Generation of terms and partial sums by iterating on a calculator can be useful. Link with limits and convergence in 8.1.

log c a . log c b

This topic is developed further in 2.9.

a b ,n N .

n! . r! n r !

Although only the notation

n will be used in r

1.4 Proof by mathematical induction.

Forming conjectures to be proved by mathematical induction.


1.5 Complex numbers: the number i

Included: proofs of standard results for sums of squares and cubes of natural numbers. 1; Included: cartesian and polar forms of a complex number.

examination papers, candidates will need to be aware of alternative notation used in textbooks and on calculators, eg nCr , nCr, Crn . Link with mathematical induction in 1.4. Link with De Moivres theorem in 1.7. Link with counting principles in 7.5. Link with binomial distribution in 7.7. Link with limits and convergence in 8.1. Link with binomial theorem in 1.3 and De Moivres theorem in 1.7.

SYLLABUS DETAILS: CORE

the terms real part, imaginary part, conjugate, modulus and argument; the forms z a ib and z r cos i sin . The complex plane.

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IB Diploma Programme guide: Mathematics HL, September 2001

SYLLABUS DETAILS: CORE

Core: number and algebra (continued)


CONTENT AMPLIFICATIONS /EXCLUSIONS Included: multiplication by i as a rotation of 90 in the complex plane. TEACHING NOTES Link with transformation of vectors in 5.5. Link with binomial theorem in 1.3. Link with proof by induction in 1.4. Not required: equations with complex coefficients.

1.6 Sums, products and quotients of complex

numbers.
1.7 De Moivres theorem (proof by

mathematical induction). Powers and roots of a complex number. 1.8 Conjugate roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients.