3G Ericsson Radio Parameter

TELKOMSEL

Prepared by Adithya Yudha

Contents
Idle Mode  Handover  Power Control  Capacity Management  Channel Switching  HSDPA

Idle Mode and Common Channel behavior

Cell Selection 3G part
Criteria for Cell Selection Squal > 0 , Squal = Qqualmeas-qQualMin (only for WCDMA cells) and Srxlev > 0 , Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas-qRxLevMin - Pcompensation (for all cells) Pcompensation = max (maxTxPowerUl - P, 0)

Qqualmeas > qQualMin (-18dB) and Qrxlevmeas > qRxLevMin (-115dBm) - max (maxTxPowerUl (24dB) - P, 0)

qQualMin : indicates the minimum required quality value in the cell. It is sent in system information, in SIB3 for the serving cell, and in SIB11 for adjacent cells qRxLevMin : indicates the minimum required signal strength in the cell. It is sent in SIB3 for the serving cell and in SIB11 for adjacent cells maxTxPowerUl : indicates the maximum allowed transmission power when the UE accesses the system on RACH. It is broadcast in SIB3

0) (dB) Qrxlevmeas (dBm) CPICH RSCP Srxlev > 0 Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas .qRxLevMin – Pcompensation .Cell Selection 3G part Squal > 0 Qqualmeas (dB) (CPICH Ec/N0) Squal >0 AND Srxlev > 0 qQualMin (–18) Squal = Qqualmeas – qQualMin qRxLevMin (–115) suitabl e cell? Pcompensation Pcompensation = max(maxTxPowerUl – P.

n) qOffset2sn : Based on CPICH Ec/No (1 ) qHyst(s) and qOffset(sn) based on CPICH RSCP only (2 ) With this setting the UE first makes qHyst(s) and qOffset(sn) based on CPICH RSCP . a second ranking takes place. If a WCDMA neighbor is highest ranked. and excluding all GSM neighbors qualMeasQuantity =x . no more ranking is done.qOffset(s.Cell Reselection 3G part First according to S criteria Squal > 0 (only WCDMA cells) Srxlev > 0 The cells are ranked according to the R criteria: R(serving) = Qmeas(s) + qHyst(s) R(neighbor) = Qmeas(n) .n) qHyst1 : Based on CPICH RSCP qHyst(s) qHyst2 : Based on CPICH Ec/No qOffset1sn : Based on CPICH RSCP qOffset(s. If a GSM cell is highest ranked. this time according to CPICH Ec/No.

.qOffset(s. [CPICH RSCP] = [GSM RSSI] + 7 As an example a measured RSCP on a WCDMA CPICH of -100 dBm would be comparable to a GSM broadcast channel RSSI of -93 dBm.Cell Reselection 3G part R CRITERIA : R(serving) = Qmeas(s) + qHyst(s) R(neighbor) = Qmeas(n) . But the values of GSM RSSI and WCDMA CPICH RSCP are not of the same nature and therefore not directly comparable.n) Note that parameter qOffset1sn works identically for WCDMA-GSM and WCDMA-WCDMA neighbor relations. A parameter setting of a GSM neighbor to qOffset1sn = +7 will thus make the received signal strength in the WCDMA and the GSM cell comparable.

Cell Reselection 3G part
MEASUREMENT ON INTRA AND INTER-RAT NEIGHBOR
The decision about when intrafrequency measurements are performed is made using the sIntraSearch parameter in relation to Squal: • If the Squal > sIntraSearch, the UE does not need to perform intrafrequency measurements.
• If the Squal <= sIntraSearch value, the UE performs intrafrequency measurements. • If the sIntraSearch = 0 dB, is not sent to the serving cell, the UE performs intrafrequency measurements.

The decision about when GSM measurements are performed is made using the sRatSearch parameter in relation to Squal and the sHcsRat parameter in relation to Srxlev:
• If the Squal > sRatSearch and the Srxlev > sHcsRat, the UE does not need to perform measurements on GSM cells. • If the Squal <= sRatSearch value and/or the Srxlev <= sHcsRat value, the UE performs measurements on GSM cells.

Squal <= sRatSearch Qqualmeas-qQualMin <= sRatSearch Qqualmeas <= qQualMin (-18dB) + sRatSearch (4dB) Srxlev <= sHcsRat Qrxlevmeas-qRxLevMin – Pcompensation <= sHcsRat Qrxlevmeas <= qRxLevMin (-115dBm) + 0 + sHcsRat (3dB)

Cell Reselection 3G part
Measurements on GSM Neighbors

GSM cell measurements available If : CPICH Ec/No – qQualMin < SRatSearch

First ranking of all the cells based on CPICH RSCP (WCDMA) and RSSI (GSM)

qHyst1 = 4 dB qOffset1sn = 0 dB

Rs = Serving WCDMA cell calculation, with
hysteresis parameter Rn = Neighbour WCDMA or GSM cell calculation with offset parameter

qQualMin = -18 dB Rs = CPICH RSCP/GSM RSSI + Qhyst1 sRATsearch = 4 dB Rn= CPICH_RSCP(n) or RXLEV(n) - Qoffset1 qOffset1sn = 7 dB qRxlevMin = -115 dBm

Yes

Rn higher in GSM cell

No
Qhyst2 = 4 dB qOffset2sn = 0 dB

Cell re-selection to GSM If a TDD or GSM cell is ranked as the best cell, then the UE must perform cell re-selection to that TDD or GSM cell. If a FDD cell is ranked as the best cell and cell_selection_and_reselection-quality_measure is set to CPICH RSCP, the UE shall perform cell re-selection to that FDD cell. If a FDD cell is ranked as the best cell and cell_selection_and_reselection-quality_measure is set to CPICH Ec/No, the UE shall perform a second ranking of the FDD cells according to the R criteria using the measurement quantity CPICH Ec/No calculating the R values of the FDD cells. Second ranking only for WCDMA cells based on CPICH Ec/No Rs = CPICH Ec/No + Qhyst2 Rn= CPICH Ec/No -Qoffset2

Cell re-selection to WCDMA cell of highest R value

RSSI

RSCP

Cell Reselection 3G part

Cell Reselection 2G part
Measurements on 3G Neighbors
The parameters QSI and QSC define thresholds and also indicate whether these measurements shall be performed when the signal strength (SS) of the serving cell is below or above the threshold. QSI is used for idle and packet switched modes and broadcast on BCCH and PBCCH (if enabled), while QSC is used for active mode, sent on SACCH
There are 4 different scenarios to choose from. Parameters QSI and QSC are set per GSM cell and define both the scenario and the necessary threshold, at the same time: • UTRAN neighboring cells are measured only when the signal strength of the GSM serving cell is above the threshold set by QSI and QSC • UTRAN neighbor cells are measured only when the signal strength of the GSM serving cell is below the threshold set by QSI and QSC . • UTRAN neighbor cells are always measured. • UTRAN neighbor cells are never measured. This can be used to turn off the cell reselection/handover to UMTS, per cell, even if COEXUMTS is ON for the BSC.

Value

0

1

6

7

8

9

10

14

15

dBm

-98

-94

-74

Always

-78

-74

-70

-54

Never

If RLA_C < -94 UE starts 3G measurements

UE always measures 3G cells

If RLA_C > -70 UE starts 3G measurements

UE never measures 3G cells

Cell Reselection 2G part Example 1: If an UTRAN cell should serve purely to extend the coverage for MultiRAT MSs in GSM. . since it's only needed to make cell reselection and handovers to UMTS when the GSM coverage falls low. it is logical to set QSI /QSC values from 0-6.

If the GSM is for example using 900MHz band it is very probable that the GSM signal strength will always be higher than the UTRAN signal. there is no point in measuring UTRAN cells in low GSM signal conditions and values 8-14 can be selected accordingly. there is a certain correlation between signal strengths of the two systems.Cell Reselection 2G part Example 2: If an UTRAN cell is co-sited with a GSM cell. . Therefore. for a number of dBs.

Cell Reselection 2G part Criteria : CPICH Ec/No > FDDQMIN (-13dB) and CPICH RSCP > RLA(s+n) + FDDQOFF (-infinite) FDDQMIN Value dBm 0 -20 1 -6 2 -18 3 -8 4 -16 5 -10 6 -14 7 -12 FDDQOFF Value dBm 0 -32 (infinity) 1 -28 2 -24 3 -20 … … 8 0 … … 14 24 15 28 Always select irrespective of RSCP value Reselect in case RSCP > GSM RXLev (RLA_C) +28dB .

Cell Reselection 2G part Cell Reselection List BCCH: FDDQMIN. FDDQOFF DEFAULT: fdd cell reselect offset: select always (value is -infinity) minimum fdd threshold = -8 dB QSI = 7(always) Check levels every 5s from serving GSM cell and best 6 GSM neighbour cells UE starts WCDMA measurements if Rxlev running average (RLA_C) is below or above certain threshold: RLA_C  QSI or QSC FDDQOFF = -32 dB 05.08:This may take up to 30s Compare levels of all GSM cells to WCDMA neighbour UE can select WCDMA cell if the level of the serving GSM and non-serving GSM cells has been exceeded by certain offset for a period of 5 s: CPICH RSCP > RLA_C + FDDQOFF RSCP > (aveRxLev) + -32 Check quality of neighbour WCDMA cells. no priorities between WCDMA neighbours FDDQMIN = -8 dB UE will re-select WCDMA cell in case it's quality is acceptable: CPICH Ec/No  FDDQMIN EcNo  -8 dB WCDMA cell reselectio n .

12 not used. bandIndicator bcchFrequency cellReserved fachMeasOccaCycLenCoeff BCCH frequency code in the GSM cell. 4 : used when inter freqency or GSM neighbours.... then the band indicator is not needed and may be set to "Not applicable". 0 : not barred 1 : barred Start from least significatant bit: bit 0 : class 0 bit 1 : class 1 bit 2 : class 2 . Fach Measurement Occasion Cycle Length coefficient. The UE uses this parameter to calculate the interval length in order to determine the repeating cycle of the measurement. FALSE = No TRUE = Yes . The BCCH frequency is unique for all GSM bands except the two GSM bands DCS1800 and PCS1900. there will be no service to the UEs.. interFreqFddMeasIndicator Inter-frequency FDD measurement indicator. 2 : not used. A factor used when the UE performs inter-frequency and inter-system measurements.. If it is reserved. bit 15 : class 15 Indicates the frequency band of the external GSM cell.Idle Mode Parameter Summary Cell Selection and Reselection accessClassNBarred Indicates whether or not access class N is barred ( N = 0 to 15). 0 : not broadcasted in SIB 11. 5 . so the band indicator is needed to discriminate between the two.. When the ExternalGsmCell has a BCCH frequency indicating some other frequency band. 3 : used when inter frequency and GSM neighbours. Indicates if this cell shall be reserved for operator use. 1 : not used. Contains the absolute radio frequency channel number of the BCCH channel for the GSM cell. It uniquely identifies the BCCH.

nmo primaryScramblingCode Network operation mode that indicates whether the Gs interface between the SGSN and MSC/VLR is installed. maxTxPowerUl (serving cell. Also used by UTRAN to control the maximum TX power level an UE may use. MNC. Value launched by System information (SIB11) for each intrafrequency measurement object corresponding to adjacent cells of serving cell. The parameter is not sent in SIB11 and the UE will use the maximum output power for this GSM cell. The PLMN identity consists of two parts: 1. Used in UE functions for cell selection/reselection in idle mode and connected mode. 3 digits 2. the UE shall decrease the power to a level below the power value..Idle Mode Parameter Summary maxTxPowerUl The maximum UE transmission power on the RACH when accessing the system. MobileCountryCode. MCC. 2 or 3 digits Example: If MCC=125 and MNC=46 then plmnId=12546. according to its radio access capability. . mnc The MNC part of the PLMN identity used in the radio network. MobileCountryCode. MobileNetworkCode. MobileNetworkCode.. If the current UE uplink transmit power is above the indicated power value. The PLMN identity consists of two parts: 1. MNC. 3 digits 2. The primary downlink scrambling code to be used in the external cell. Unit: 1 dBm Resolution: 1 -50: -50 dBm . MCC. 2 or 3 digits Example: If MCC=125 and MNC=46 then plmnId=12546. WCDMA neighbor within same RNC) maxTxPowerUl (WCDMA neighbor belonging to another RNC) maxTxPowerUl (GSM neighbor) mcc The MCC part of the PLMN identity used in the GSM radio network. 33: 33 dBm 100 : Default value.

. Resolution: 2 qHyst2 The hysteresis value of the serving cell. qQualMin (serving cell. Used to perform cell ranking for the serving cell. Used when the IE "cell_selection_and_reselection_quality_measure" in SIB 11/12 is set to "CPICH RSCP". The parameter is then not present in SIB11 for this neighbour.Idle Mode Parameter Summary qHyst1 Cell reselection hysteresis used in UE functions in idle and connected mode... Minimum required (acceptable) quality level in the cell (dB)... Unit: 1 dB Resolution: 1 -50 : -50dB -49 : -49dB -48 : -48dB . This is configured through UtranCell::qualMeasQuantity. The UE will use the serving cell value (UtranCell MO value) instead... 0 : 0dB 100 : Indicates that the minimum quality level has not been specified by the operator. Resolution: 2 qOffset1sn Signal stength offset between source and target cells.. Used to set cell border between two cells. Value launched by System information (SIB3). WCDMA neighbor within same RNC) qQualMin (WCDMA neighbor belonging to another RNC) .. 50 : 50dB qOffset1sn (WCDMA neighbor relation) qOffset1sn (GSM neighbor relation) qOffset2sn (WCDMA neighbor relation) qQualMin Used in UE functions for cell selection/reselection in idle mode and connected mode. Unit: 1 dB Resolution: 1 -24 : -24dB ..

sHcsRat RAT specific threshold in the serving cell used in the inter-RAT measurement rules. The UE will use the serving cell value (UtranCell MO value) instead. Unit: 1 dBm Resolution: 2 -115 : -115dBm -113 : -113dBm -111 : -111dBm -109 : -109dBm .Idle Mode Parameter Summary qRxLevMin Used in UE functions for cell selection/reselection in idle mode and connected mode. Value launched by System information (SIB3. Minimum required (acceptable) RX level in the cell. if the serving cell is indicated to belong to a Hiearachical Cell Structure (HCS) GSM measurements in idle mode and state CELL_FACH are started by the UE when RSCP <= qRxLevMin + sHscRat. (dBm). qRxLevMin (serving cell. -25 : -25 dBm 100 : Indicates that the minimum Rx level has not been specified by the operator. SIB11 and SIB12).331). The parameter is then not present in SIB11 for this neighbour.. this will be interpreted as 0 by the UE (according to 3GPP TS 25. Cell selection and reselection quality measure. Unit: 1 dB Resolution: 2 .. If sHcsRat is set to a negative value.. This parameter is used by the UE to decide when to start GSM measurements for cell reselection.. WCDMA neighbor belonging to same RNC) qRxLevMin (WCDMA neighbor belonging to another RNC) qRxLevMin (GSM neighbor) Used in UE functions for cell selection/reselection in idle and qualMeasQuantity connected mode. Value launched by System information (SIB11) for each intrafrequency measurement object corresponding to adjacent cells of serving cell.

Unit: 1dB Resolution: 2 -32 : -32dB -30 : -30dB .. UE shall perform measurment on GSM cells.Idle Mode Parameter Summary sInterSearch The decision on when measurements on inter frequencies shall be performed.. If S_qual <= this paramter. Unit: 2 dB Resolution: 1 0 : not sent 1 : -32 dB 2 : -30 dB .. If a negative dB value is configured... UE need not perform measurements on GSM cells. 27 : 20 dB sRatSearch The decision on when measurements on GSM frequencies shall be performed is made using this parameter in relation with Squal.. If a negative dB value is configured the UE interprets the negative value as 0 dB. If S_qual > this parameter... 27 : 20 dB sIntraSearch The decision on when measurements on intra frequencies shall be performed. the UE interprets the negative value as 0 dB. . Unit: 2 dB Resolution: 1 0 : not sent 1 : -32 dB 2 : -30 dB .. If a negative value is configured the UE interprets the negative value as 0.

Idle Mode Parameter Summary treSelection Control of cell selection/reselection. Specifies the channel number for the central DL frequency. Time-to-trigger for cell reselection in seconds. Value launched by System information (SIB3). Unit: Channel number Resolution: N/A uarfcnUl Uplink Utra Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number.104. Unit: Channel number Resolution: N/A . Specifies the channel number for the central UL frequency.104. The mapping from channel number to physical frequency is described in 3GPP specification TS 25. uarfcnDl Downlink Utra Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number. The mapping from channel number to physical frequency is described in 3GPP specification TS 25.

i. (Some IMSIs are not allowed in some LAs. Old name: lAC rAC Routing Area Code of a routing area. not . FALSE: IMSI attach not allowed TRUE: IMSI attach allowed lAC The Location Area Code of the external GSM cell.) This helps to facilitate the avoidance of unnecessary paging attempts.Idle Mode Parameter Summary Location and Routing Area Updating att Indicates to the UE whether IMSI attach/detach is allowed. An RA is used by UTRAN to page mobiles on request from the PS CN. The value is sent on the BCCH. Unit: 0.e. Old name: rAC t3212 Periodic update timer for LA update. Note: the values 0000 and FFFE are reserved for special cases where no valid LAI exists in the MS. When the parameter is changed.1 hours (= 1 decihour = 6 minutes = 360 seconds) Resolution: 1 0 means infinite time. UTRAN shall update system information and notity UEs.

where k = 6. The area identity part of PLMN scope value tages for SIB1 noOfMibValueTagRetrans sib1PlmnScopeValueTag sib1RepPeriod sib3RepPeriod sib5RepPeriod sib7RepPeriod sib11RepPeriod sib12RepPeriod sib1StartPos sib3StartPos sib5StartPos sib7StartPos sib11StartPos sib12StartPos sib7ExpirationTimeFactor updateCellReattsNo SIB7 use expiration time as re-read mechanism.Idle Mode Parameter Summary Paging cnDrxCycleLengthCs Core Network DRX cycle length coefficient (k) for UEs in idle mode.. Number of update reattempts when an update of system information parameters in a cell failed. For example. the RNC sends a paging message on the PCH at every page occasion of a number of maximum DRX cycles. . For example. where k = 6. 7 corresponds to cycle length 1280 ms.9.9. The expiration time is sib7RepPeriod times sib7ExpirationTimeFactor. The cycle length is calculated as the k'th potential of 2. The cycle length is calculated as the k'th potential of 2. etc. cnDrxCycleLengthPs Core Network DRX cycle length coefficient (k) for UEs in idle mode. To notify UEs in IDLE mode about a system information update. noOfPagingRecordTransm System Information Number of preconfigured subsequent transmissions of the same Paging Record. 6 corresponds to cycle length 640 ms. etc. packet switched. Number of MIB value tag retransmissions on the FACH.. 6 corresponds to cycle length 640 ms. noOfMaxDrxCycles Paging notification duration. 7 corresponds to cycle length 1280 ms. circuit switched.

Idle Mode Behaviour UE States  Idle mode  No connection to radio network (No RRC connection established)  This minimizes resource utilization in UE and the network CELL_FACH mode  User Equipment (UE) in Connected Mode (has an RRC Connection to radio network)  UE uses the common transport channels RACH or FACH  If the parameter interFreqFDDMeasIndicator = 1. the UE will evaluate cell reselection criteria on inter-frequency cells (0) CELL_DCH mode  User Equipment (UE) in Connected Mode (has an RRC Connection to radio network)  UE uses dedicated channels for transmitting data and signalling   .

Power .

while MCPA is 20W) The pilot power is designed to be equal in all cells at the Reference Point.Pilot Channel Power       primary CPICH power should be 8 to 10% (~ 1 Watt) of the nominal RBS power at the reference point (~10W.  primaryCpichPower = 30 dBm  TopOfRack = primaryCpichPower + dlAttenuation System will adjust the TopOfRack to meet the required value. setting value) The feeder loss parameters ulAttenuation & dlAttenuation and electrical delay parameters ulElectricalDelay & dlElectricalDelay must be entered properly in the system (actual VSWR). Consistency check on MaximumTransmissionPowerDL (Calculated vs. More CPICH – less capacity trade off P-CPICH dl/ulAttenuation dl/ElectDelay TopOfRack MaxTxPowerDL .

6 28.5 26.07 0.42 0.00 Avg Power(W) 1 0.2 26.30 0.5 31.5 1.8 31.53  MaximumTransmissionPowerDL is design to be equal with Nominal RBS Power .38 Peak Power(W) 1 0.45 1.49 0.04 0.03 0.20 0.51 1.89 Typical AF 1 0.90 0.8 1.66 0.1 -6 -7 Cumm(dBm) 30 29.4 -1.44 0.18 0. the common channel will be configured as follow: Parameter Name primaryCpichPower pchPower primarySchPower secondarySchPower maxFach1Power maxFach2Power bchPower aichPower pichPower MO Type UtranCell Pch UtranCell UtranCell Fach Fach UtranCell Rach Pch Value -0.41 0.10 0.10 0.15 0.91 0.10 0.20 6.5 -3.20 2.Common Control Channel Power   With increasing CPICH power – capacity directly decreasis.8 -3.9 24 23 38.10 1.25 0. but common channels and power per each dedicated channel is calculated from CPICH At CPICH 30 dBm.

CCCH. relative to the primaryCpichPower value. and DCCH control signaling. relative to the primaryCpichPower value. relative to the primaryCpichPower value. is the power used for transmitting on the Primary SCH. relative to the primaryCpichPower value.Downlink aichPower is the power used for transmitting on AICH. relative to the primaryCpichPower value.Common Channel on Downlink Cell Setup and Reconfiguration . pOffset3Fach is the offset between downlink DPDCH and DPCCH pilot field on FACH. relative to the primaryCpichPower value. maxFach2Power defines the Maximum power used for transmitting the second FACH channel. is the power used for transmitting on the Secondary SCH. maxFach1Power defines the maximum power used for transmitting the first FACH channel. The second FACH is used for logical channel DTCH traffic signaling. pchPower is the power used for transmitting on the PCH. pichPower is the power used for transmitting on the PICH. pOffset1Fach is the offset between downlink DPDCH and DPCCH TFCI field on FACH. is the power used for transmitting on the BCH. relative to the primaryCpichPower value. relative to the primaryCpichPower value.Downlink is the power used for transmitting the PCPICH. Common Transport Channel Setup and Reconfiguration . The first FACH is used for logical channels BCCH. primaryCpichPower bchPower primarySchPower secondarySchPower .

Common Channel on Uplink Common Transport Channel Setup and Reconfiguration .Uplink is a constant value in dB used by the UE to calculate the initial power on the PRACH according to the Open Loop Power Control procedure. powerOffsetPpm is the Power offset between the last transmitted preamble and the control part of the random access message. constantValueCprach . powerOffsetP0 is the Power ramp step for the preamble when no acquisition indicator is received. maxPreambleCycle is the maximum number of preamble ramping cycle. preambleRetransMax is the maximum number of preambles sent in one RACH preamble ramping cycle.

: is the Received Total Wideband Power (uplink interference) level measured by the RBS.Common Channel on Uplink P_RACH The initial power on the PRACH . constantValueCprach : is used by the UE to calculate the initial power on the PRACH .is determined according to equation P_PRACH = L_PCPICH + RTWP + constantValueCprach (-27dB) L_PCPICH RTWP : is the path loss estimated by the UE based on knowing the transmitted and received PCPICH power. This parameter is configurable and decides at which level below RTWP preamble ramping will start .the power of the first preamble .

Common Channel on Uplink POWER RAMP ON RACH To reach an appropriate received power level at the RBS.(. This procedure consists of the following steps: • The UE transmits a preamble. • As soon as the RBS properly detects the preamble. The power of the control part of the random access message is determined by the power of the last transmitted preamble and by a configurable offset powerOffsetPpm. it sends an Acknowledgement Indicator (AI) on the AICH. which is included in System Information. .4dB) The power of the data part of the PRACH message is determined by the gain factors for PRACH. the UE transmits a new preamble.(3dB) • As soon as the UE receives an AI. increasing the transmission power with respect to the previous one by the configurable parameter powerOffsetP0. it sends the PRACH message part. the UE uses preamble ramping. • While not receiving any AI.

Common Channel on Uplink POWER RAMP ON RACH  preambleRetransMax (8) parameter determines how many times PRACH preamble can be sent within one preamble ramping cycle (SIB5&6) maxPreambleCycle (4) defines how many times the PRACH preamble ramping cycle procedure can be repeated before UE MAC reports a failure on RACH transmission to higher layers (SIB5&6)  .

Common Channel on Uplink   In average coverage conditions the RRC Connection Setup performance can be improved by tuning the open loop power control parameters These parameters are  preambleRetransMax and & maxPreambleCycle  powerOffsetPpm  powerOffsetP0 L1 ACK / AICH Downlink Not detected BS MaxTXPowerUl powerOffsetP0 Initial preamble power …… Preamble …… powerOffsetPpm Uplink Preamble MS Preamble 2 1 preambleRetransMax Message part # PRACH preambles transmitted during one PRACH cycle without receiving AICH response maxPreambleCycle # preamble power ramping cycles that can be done before RACH transmission failure is reported .

Handover .

Soft/Softer Handover  Inter-Frequency Handover  Inter-RAT Handover  Inter-RAT Cell Change  HSDPA Mobility  .

inter-RNC  Network Evaluated HandOver (NEHO) Inter-RAT (Inter-system) Handover  Handovers between GSM and WCDMA (NEHO)   . intra-RNC. more channel cards are needed  Mobile Evaluated HandOver (MEHO)  DL/UE: MRC  UL/RNC: Frame selection combining  HARD HANDOVER  Arises when inter-RNC SHO is not possible (Iur not supported or Iur congestion)  Decision procedure is the same as SHO (MEHO)  Causes temporary disconnection Inter-Frequency Handover  Can be intra-BS. Intra-Frequency Handover  SOFTER HANDOVER  MS simultaneously connected to multiple cells (handled by same BTS)  No extra transmissions across Iub interface  Mobile Evaluated HandOver (MEHO)  Both UL and DL: Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) is occurring in rake receiver  SOFT HANDOVER  MS simultaneously connected to multiple cells (from different BTSs)  Extra transmission across Iub.

Thus. The concept of event-triggered reporting as specified in 3GPP is used by handover evaluation and allows the UE to do some part of the evaluation. Evaluation. and Execution of Handover-Related Functions. when a monitored cell is measured and the measurement result for a monitored cell fulfills certain criteria. and Execution of Handover-Related Functions. When the conditions for triggering a certain handover are fulfilled. .Entities Involved in Reporting. Entities Involved in Reporting. Evaluation. the UE is configured to evaluate and send measurement reports to the system only when certain events occur. the handover evaluation part triggers the corresponding handover execution part. that is.

Inter-Frequency and Inter-RAT cells Detected Set •The intra frequency cells(P-CPICH scrambling codes) detected by the UE but not part of Active Set or monitored set . The monitored set can consist of intra-frequency.3GPP-defined UE Associated Cell sets for Measurement Active Set •The cells involved in soft handover and measured by the UE Virtual Active Set •The Active Set associated with a non-used frequency for support of Inter-Frequency evaluation Monitored Set •The cells only measured by the UE and not part of the Active Set.

event 1a occurs. however one cell is always kept in the Active Set for maintaining the connection. only the one with highest Ec/No is considered and retained. The UE sends a MEASUREMENT REPORT message for event 1a to the SRNC. A primary CPICH leaves the Reporting Range (measured P-CPICH Ec/No) < (P-CPICH Ec/No of the best cell in the Active Set) reportingRange1b . included in the Active Set. not included in the Active Set. If the report contains more than one cell fulfilling 1a criteria. A primary CPICH enters the Reporting Range (measured P-CPICH Ec/No) > (P-CPICH Ec/No of the Best Cell in the Active Set) reportingRange1a + hysteresis1a /2 When a P-CPICH. The UE sends a MEASUREMENT REPORT message for event 1b to the SRNC.Soft/Softer Handover Event 1a. If the retained cell is a valid cell and Active Set is not full (present cells in the Active Set is less than maxActiveSet parameter). Event 1b. . the cell is proposed as a replacement of the worst cell in the Active Set provided that the reported cell has a better quality than the worst cell in the Active Set. and the measured value is outside reportingRange1b .hysteresis1b /2 during a time at least equal to timeToTrigger1b. and the measured value remains in reportingRange1a + hysteresis1a/2 at least a time equal to timeToTrigger1a (Time to Trigger 1a). event 1b occurs. the cell is proposed to be added to the Active Set. The handover algorithms will remove the reported cells one by one from the Active Set. enters reportingRange1a + hysteresis1a/2.hysteresis1b /2. leaves reportingRange1b . If the Active Set is full.hysteresis1b /2 When a P-CPICH.

Soft/Softer Handover Event 1a and Event 1b 3dB 5dB 320 ms 640 ms Cell (P_CPICH2) Would be proposed to be included in Active Set List Cell (P_CPICH2) Would be proposed to be excluded from Active Set List .

becomes stronger than the weakest P-CPICH+hysteresis1c /2 in the Active Set during a time at least equal to timeToTrigger1c. and the Active Set is full. not included in the Active Set.and the Active Set is full (present cells in the Active Set is equal to maxActiveSet parameter) event 1c occurs. If the retained cell is a valid cell. The UE sends a MEASUREMENT REPORT message for event 1c to the SRNC. A non-active primary CPICH becomes better than an Active Primary CPICH (measured P-CPICH Ec/No) > (P-CPICH Ec/No of the Best Cell in the Active Set) + hysteresis1c /2 When a P-CPICH. the cell is proposed as a replacement for the weakest cell in the Active Set Hysteresis1c (1dB) Cell (P_CPICH4) Would be replaced P_CPICH3 in active set list 320 ms .Soft/Softer Handover Event 1c.

Soft/Softer Handover Parameter Summary Setting Value reportingRange1a reportingRange1b timeToTrigger1a 6 10 11 Remark 3 dB 5 dB 320ms timeToTrigger1b timeToTrigger1c timeToTrigger1d hysteresis1a hysteresis1b hysteresis1c hysteresis1d maxActiveSet 12 11 14 0 0 2 15 3 640ms 320ms 2560ms 0 0 1dB 7dB 3 .

during a time at least equal to timeToTrigger2dEcno. during a time at least equal to timeToTrigger2fEcno. AND the estimated quality of the current WCDMA RAN used frequency is above the relative threshold usedFreqRelThresh2fRscp+usedFreqThresh2dRscp + hysteresis2f/2.hysteresis2d/2. measurements for IRATHO_eval event 3a or IFHO_eval event 2b and associated compressed mode usage is stopped. The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is above a certain threshold When the estimated quality of the current WCDMA RAN used frequency is above the relative threshold usedFreqRelThresh2fEcno+usedFreqThresh2dEcno + hysteresis2f/2. The UE sends a MEASUREMENT REPORT message for event 2f to the SRNC. When SRNC receives the MEASUREMENT REPORT message for event 2f from the UE.Inter-RAT Handover Event 2d. Event 2f. during a time at least equal to timeToTrigger2dRscp.hysteresis2d/2. during a time at least equal to timeToTrigger2fRscp event 2f occurs. The Estimated Quality of the Currently Used frequency is below a Certain Threshold When the estimated quality of the current WCDMA RAN used frequency is below the absolute threshold usedFreqThresh2dEcno . OR the estimated quality of the current WCDMA RAN used frequency is below the absolute threshold usedFreqThresh2dRscp . event 2d occurs. .

Inter-RAT Handover Compressed Mode and de-Compressed Mode 1 + (-12 dB) UE stop compressed mode -12 dB 640 ms 2560 ms UE start compressed mode to measure GSM or Interfreq Neighbors usedFreqThresh2dRscp : 100 dBm usedFreqRelThresh2fEcno : 3 dB timeToTrigger2dRscp : 640 ms timeToTrigger2fRscp : 2560 ms .

The Estimated Quality of the Currently Used UTRAN Frequency is below a Certain Threshold and the Estimated Quality of the Other System is above a Certain Threshold The event 3a occurs according to the following points: • When the estimated quality of the WCDMA RAN used frequency is below the threshold usedFreqThresh2dEcno+utranRelThresh3aEcno .hysteresis3a/2 and the measured GSM carrier RSSI of a GSM/GPRS cell is above the absolute threshold gsmThresh3a. .hysteresis3a/2 and the measured GSM carrier RSSI of a GSM/GPRS cell is above the absolute threshold gsmThresh3a .hysteresis3a/2 and the measured GSM carrier RSSI of a GSM/GPRS cell is above the absolute threshold gsmThresh3a.Inter-RAT Handover Event 3a. the event 3a is triggered when the estimated quality of the WCDMA RAN used frequency is below the threshold usedFreqThresh2dRscp+utranRelThresh3aRscp+utranRelThreshRscp . during a time at least equal to TimeToTrigger3a. see Event 6a. during a time at least equal to TimeToTrigger3a • when the estimated quality of the WCDMA RAN used frequency is below the threshold usedFreqThresh2dRscp+utranRelThresh3aRscp . The UE Tx Power becomes larger than an Absolute Threshold). during a time at least equal to TimeToTrigger3a • in case of the connection quality has been triggered in UL for UE TX power (event 6a.

3 dB .Inter-RAT Handover (-12 dB) + (-1dB) RSSI -95dB 320 ms usedFreqThresh2dRscp : 100 dBm utranRelThresh3aRscp : .

IFHO & IRAT Parameter Summary .

Capacity Management .

Admission Control The Admission Control function is responsible for controlling the utilization of dedicated monitored resources by accepting or refusing requests for usage of these resources. Dedicated Monitored Resource Handling The Dedicated Monitored Resource Handling function is responsible for keeping track of the utilization of critical resources in the system. The utilization of these resources provides information that is used by Admission and Congestion Control functions to control the cell load.Capacity Management The Capacity Management solution consists of three main functions: 1. 2. Congestion Control The Congestion Control function is responsible for detecting and resolving overload situations on certain dedicated monitored resources. 3. .

Downlink Channelization Code Admission Policy Total Downlink Channelization code usage are calculated as follow : Sum user (1/SFuser) + Sum CCH (1/SFCCH)+Sum code(1/SFcode HS-DSCH ) Where: (5%) (80%) .

Downlink Channelization Code Admission Policy To reserve codes for users in handover. while requests for handover are not blocked by the downlink channelization code admission policy. 2. (Guaranteed. non-handover) admission requests are blocked when the resource usage exceeds dlCodeAdm . . It should be noted that handover requests can fail on the allocation of the downlink code and this is detected when allocating the downlink code. non-handover) admission requests are blocked when the resource usage exceeds dlCodeAdm.beMarginDlCode. non-handover) and (guaranteed-hs. there is code blocking for non-handover requests.(Non-guaranteed. Downlink code allocation policy for the non-handover requests is shown in 1.

The monitor of this dedicated resource is obtained by tracking the number HS-serving radio links in a cell. It adds information about downlink channelization code usage.Histogram Admission Policy The Histogram Monitor keeps track of the following resources: Spreading Factor usage in downlink. Spreading Factor usage in uplink. This includes both PS64/HS and PS384/HS radio connection types. . The histogram monitor gives information per spreading factor. This measurement aims at avoiding overload of uplink RTWP due to the usage of the (optional) PS384/HS radio connection type. Number of HSDPA users allocated to the HS-DSCH. Number of Compressed Mode radio links. This measurement provides the HSDPA usage in a cell. It should be noted that the monitor does not count the codes (spreading factor = 16) reserved for HSDPA connections. This measurement is used to avoid too much interference from the compressed mode radio users. The histogram monitor gives information per spreading factor. This is achieved by keeping track of the number of connections that are using certain code lengths.

Non-Guaranteed Service Class Limits in Downlink (32) (16) (8) .Histogram Admission Policy 1.

3. <any>) admission requests demanding spreading factor 16 in downlink (streaming PS16/128 radio connection type) when the usage of this spreading factor exceeds sf16gAdm (16).Histogram Admission Policy 2. Number of Simultaneous HS-Serving Links Limits Admission Control blocks new radio link admission requests which involve the allocation to HS-PDSCH/HS-SCCH when the number of users assigned to the HSDSCH in the cell exceeds hsdpaUsersAdm (10). 4. Compressed Mode Radio Links Limits Admission Control blocks admission requests for a radio link in compressed mode when the current number of radio links exceeds the parameter compModeAdm (15). . Guaranteed Service Class Limits in Downlink Admission Control blocks (guaranteed. 5. Guaranteed-hs Service Class Limits in Uplink Admission Control blocks (guaranteed-hs. <any>a) admission requests demanding spreading factor 4 in uplink (PS384/HS radio connection type) when the usage of this spreading factor exceeds sf4AdmUl (0).

The Downlink Transmitted Carrier Power Admission Policy (10%) (10%) (75%) .

WCDMA to GPRS (PS) Gi GGSN Gn External Networks Gn 3G-SGSN Iu 2G-SGSN Gb SRNC Iub BSC Abis RBS RBS RBS RBS RBS RBS .

DCCH (AM):CELL_DCH Cell Change Order from UTRAN 8. ”SRNS Context Response” 12. Evaluation of MR 3.A successful IRATCC from WCDMA to GPRS SRNC CN/SGSN Target BSS CELL_DCH 1. Stop DL Transmission 11. GSM: RA Update 9. Dedicated Radio Link Release 14. Evaluation of MR 7. ”Iu Release Command” 13. DCCH (AM) ”Measurement Report” (Event 3a) 6. DCCH (AM) ”Measurement Control” 5. Compressed Mode Control 4. ”SRNS Context Request” 10. ”Iu Release Complete” . DCCH (AM) ”Measurement Report” (Event 2d) 2.

WCDMA RAN neighbor cells are always measured. WCDMA RAN neighbor cells are never measured.    . This can be used to turn off the cell reselection/handover to WCDMA. even if COEXUMTS (parameter used to activate the functionality of making handovers and cell reselections between GSM and WCDMA) is on for the BSC.GSM to WCDMA (voice) : Measurements on WCDMA Cells Four different scenarios:  WCDMA RAN neighbor cells are measured only when the signal strength of the GSM serving cell is above the threshold set by QSI and QSC. WCDMA RAN neighbor cells are measured only when the signal strength of the GSM serving cell is below the threshold set by QSI and QSC. per cell.

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Load sharing .

This is achieved by rejecting RAB establishment requests with ‘directed retry’ as a cause. calls are targeted to be offloaded to GSM.Load sharing • Load sharing to 2nd carrier at RRC establishment Least loaded cell (Highest difference between power and pwradm) is chosen by sending RRC connection reject with redirection info to 2nd carrier. . • Directed Retry to GSM at RAB establishment When Dl power reaches ‘loadSharingGsmThreshold’ percentage of pwradm.

Load sharing capabilities available in the WCDMA RAN .

RRC Connection Establishment for all RABs by Downlink Transmitted Carrier Power* (load on source > 50% and load on target less than source by a 10 % margin)  The feature is activated in an RNC by setting the parameter loadSharingRrcEnabled to TRUE f2 f2  The attribute loadSharingCandidate TRUE/FALSE specifies whether the target cell is a load-sharing neighbor of the source cell  Triggered f1 f1 f1 f1 .Inter-Frequency Load Sharing  Inter-Frequency Load Sharing  At * Not operator configurable call set-up .

Inter-Frequency Load Sharing (RRC redirection) (Extra Slide) RNC Idle Mode ”RRC Connection Request” CCCH/RACH F1 ”RRC Connection Reject” CCCH/FACH Cell selection on designated UTRA carrier ”RRC Connection Request” CCCH/RACH Includes ‘Frequency Info’ IE F2 ”RRC Connection Setup” CCCH/FACH 2nd will not be redirected but may be successful or rejected due to congestion .

Directed retry to GSM Applicable for voice in P3 GSM Admission Control WCDMA .

RAB Establishment for voice  Triggered by Downlink Transmitted Carrier Power  The feature is activated in an RNC by setting the parameter loadSharingDirRetryEnabled to TRUE One GSM target can be defined for each WCDMA cell via the cell parameter directedRetryTarget loadSharingGsmThreshold specifies the minimum load at which offloading to GSM begins: ex 80% of pwrAdm loadSharingGsmFraction specifies the percentage of Directed Retry candidates to be diverted to GSM while the cell load is above the specified load threshold    .Directed retry to GSM  Directed retry to GSM  At call set-up .

try in WCDMA again! .Directed Retry to GSM UE RBS/RNC RAB Assignment Request Directed Retry decision to send CN RAB Assignment Response (failed. cause=directed retry) Relocation Required Contacts GSM cell and orders relocation HO from UTRAN command Successful access to GSM Relocation Command Iu release Command Iu release Complete Voice calls can be relocated to GSM due to high load in WCDMA If the call is not accepted in GSM .

Directed Retry (P3) to GSM . voice calls can be handed over to WCDMA Dual Mode UE GSM terminal GSM coverage Load based handover to GSM during call set up.Load balancing for voice between WCDMA-GSM When out of coverage. the WCDMA voice call is handed over to GSM WCDMA coverage Features & Roadmap Introduction When GSM load reaches a customizable threshold.

Channel Switching .

Channel Switching Channel Switching Parameter Summary .

Dedicated to Common Evaluation Monitors if a switch from a Cell_DCH to Cell_FACH is required due to a decrease in transmitted user data. Dedicated to Dedicated Up-Switch Evaluation Monitors if the throughput becomes close to the max user bandwidth and switch to the next higher bitrate radio bearer is required. 3. Common to Dedicated Evaluation Monitors if the UE shall be switched from a common to a dedicated transport channel due to large amount of user data buffered in the RNC or the UE. 2a.Channel Switching 1. 4. 2. Common to Idle Evaluation Monitors if a switch from Cell_FACH to Idle mode is required due to a complete lack of user data transmission. Dedicated to Dedicated Coverage triggered Down-Switch Evaluation Monitors if a switch to a lower rate radio bearer is required due to coverage. .

resulting in a single speech 12. . Multi-RAB Up-switch Evaluation Monitors if an upswitch from multi-RAB SP0 to multi-RAB SP64 shall be initiated due to data buffered in either RNC or UE.Channel Switching Multi-RAB Down-switch Evaluation Monitors if a release (or downswitch) of PS I/B RAB shall be initiated due to lack of PS data throughput (zero).2 kbps (or speech + PS 0/0) or CS64 RAB.

Channel Switching Futureinteractive RAB releases stand-alone HS 384/HS speech + interactive RAB speech + 384/HS DCH 128/128 64/384 speech + 64/HS 64/HS speech + 64/64 64/128 64/64 speech + 0/0 Low/No throughput Measurement for down Switch timer period FACH PS RAB Establishment activity/inactivity-based switching UL and/or DL UL throughputbased upswitch coverage-triggered downswitch (DL only) choice based on UEand cell-capability Low/No RLC buffer load for Inactivity timer period IDLE DL throughputbased upswitch .

Capacity Management .

then accept No Check if the requested DL Pwr + estimated Pwr > pwrAdm Check if the requested + estimated # compressed mode RL > compModeAdm 15* 75* Yes. then block No Yes.Admission control workflow * Current default values Yes. then block •X = 8 or X = 32 •X = 16 240* . then block Resource request Is admission blocked by Congestion Control? Yes. then block No. then block Yes. then SF8adm= 8* block SF16adm= 16* SF32adm= 32* Only checked if No BE-service requests Check if the requested Check if the requested DL SF + estimated DL SF ASE DL + estimated DL ASE > > No sfXAdm * aseDlAdm No 160* Yes. then block Check if the requested code usage + estimated code usage > dLCodeAdm No Check if the requested ASE UL + estimated ASE UL > aseUlAdm 70* Yes.

ng 64/64 or g access Admission Control blocks the new request An existing ng user of 64/384 will be switched down to 64/128 or an existing ng user of 64/128 will be switched down to 64/64 .Soft Congestion mechanism New request for ng 64/128.

Spreading Factor (SF) limits used in Admission Control 8* 16* 32* * Current default values .

Non-guaranteed service class connections 2. CS/streaming service class connections Speech users 4. . 6.ASE release order Core Network Iu Iu SRNC & DRNC SRNC Iur over Iu: 1. CS /streaming service class connections Speech users 5. over Iur: Non-guaranteed service class connections 3.

HSDPA .

HSDPA Parameter Summary Parameter Name Default Value Initial Setting TELKOMSEL HSPATHLOSSTHRESHOLD CQIERRORSABSENT HSPOWERMARGIN HSSCCHMAXCODEPOWER QUEUESELECTALGORITHM SUPPORTOF16QAM MAXHSRATE HSONLYBESTCELL HSHYSTERESIS1D HSQUALITYESTIMATE HSTIMETOTRIGGER1D 170 10 2 -20 ROUND_ROBIN FALSE 15 1 10 CPICH_RSCP 640 170 10 2 -20 ROUND_ROBIN TRUE 30 1 10 CPICH_RSCP 640 .

which is available for the AAL2 path or paths carrying HSDPA traffic to the RBS in question. In this case. it is based on having 10 MAC-d PDUs (336 bits) per HS-DSCH data frame in average. The parameter may be set to a MAC-d PDU bit rate of 1.5 Mbps (the default value).    . sharing with AAL2 class A and B.MAXHSRATE  The HSDPA Iub flow control algorithm adjusts the available bit rate over Iub based mainly on the maximum possible air interface bitrate received from the scheduler. It depends on how the ATM VCs etc are configured. if ATM VC Cross Connect is used or if AAL2 switching is used.92 Mbps.g. e. The RBS uses the parameter maxHsRate to determine the maximum bit rate to be used for HS-DSCH data frame traffic in one aggregated bit pipe over Iub. for HS traffic only. the default value of this parameter has been obtained by multiplying the HSDPA available ATM bandwidth (excluding IMA overhead). several AAL2 paths for HS etc. The parameter maxHsRate should be configured for each RBS to represent the maximum MAC-d PDU bitrate of HS-DSCH data frames. It should be noted that assuming a lower number of PDUs per data frame gives a lower factor and vice versa. 1. the number of users in a cell and Iub congestion indications. This factor is dependent on the average number of MAC-d PDUs per HS-DSCH data frame. The parameter value of maxHsRate also depends on how the transport network is configured. e. e.g. Therefore it is recommended to follow the guidelines given by Ericsson regarding transport network dimensioning before setting a value for this parameter. This maximum bitrate level is the same as the bitrate expressed by the CAPACITY ALLOCATION control frames. when one dedicated physical E1 link is used for HSDPA traffic.g. As an example. with a factor of 0.79.

Maximum Achievable User Bit Rate at the RLC Level As a Function of the UE HS-DSCH Category and Modulation Type . The available modulation type impacts the maximum achievable bit rate in the cell. However. support of 16QAM is an optional feature which can be configured on cell level using the parameter supportOf16qam.16QAM Modulation  The RBS hardware supports both QPSK and 16QAM modulation.

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