Sixth Edition, last update July 25, 2007
2
Lessons In Electric Circuits, Volume II – AC
By Tony R. Kuphaldt Sixth Edition, last update July 25, 2007
i c 20002009, Tony R. Kuphaldt This book is published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. These terms and conditions allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modiﬁcation of this document by the general public. The full Design Science License text is included in the last chapter. As an open and collaboratively developed text, this book is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the Design Science License for more details. Available in its entirety as part of the Open Book Project collection at: www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits
PRINTING HISTORY • First Edition: Printed in June of 2000. PlainASCII illustrations for universal computer readability. • Second Edition: Printed in September of 2000. Illustrations reworked in standard graphic (eps and jpeg) format. Source ﬁles translated to Texinfo format for easy online and printed publication. • Third Edition: Equations and tables reworked as graphic images rather than plainASCII text. • Fourth Edition: Printed in November 2001. Source ﬁles translated to SubML format. SubML is a simple markup language designed to easily convert to other markups like A LTEX, HTML, or DocBook using nothing but searchandreplace substitutions. • Fifth Edition: Printed in November 2002. New sections added, and error corrections made, since the fourth edition. • Sixth Edition: Printed in June 2006. Added CH 13, sections added, and error corrections made, ﬁgure numbering and captions added, since the ﬁfth edition.
ii
Contents
1 BASIC AC THEORY 1.1 What is alternating current (AC)? 1.2 AC waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Measurements of AC magnitude . 1.4 Simple AC circuit calculations . . 1.5 AC phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Principles of radio . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 COMPLEX NUMBERS 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Vectors and AC waveforms . . . 2.3 Simple vector addition . . . . . . 2.4 Complex vector addition . . . . . 2.5 Polar and rectangular notation . 2.6 Complex number arithmetic . . 2.7 More on AC ”polarity” . . . . . . 2.8 Some examples with AC circuits 2.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 6 12 19 20 23 25 27 27 30 32 35 37 42 44 49 55 57 57 59 64 71 74 77 79 81 81 83 87 92
3 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE 3.1 AC resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 AC inductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Series resistorinductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Parallel resistorinductor circuits . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Inductor quirks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 More on the “skin effect” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE 4.1 AC resistor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 AC capacitor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Series resistorcapacitor circuits . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits . . . . . . . . iii
iv 4.5 4.6
CONTENTS
Capacitor quirks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 97 99 99 101 106 110 119 120 120 121 121 126 131 135 136 145 151 153 153 158 168 174 185 188 189 189 190 196 199 202 204 215 215 217 218 232 237 239 243 248
5 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R, L, AND C 5.1 Review of R, X, and Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Series R, L, and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Parallel R, L, and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Seriesparallel R, L, and C . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Susceptance and Admittance . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 RESONANCE 6.1 An electric pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance 6.3 Simple series resonance . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Applications of resonance . . . . . . . . 6.5 Resonance in seriesparallel circuits . . 6.6 Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit 6.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Square wave signals . . . . . . . . 7.3 Other waveshapes . . . . . . . . . 7.4 More on spectrum analysis . . . . 7.5 Circuit effects . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 FILTERS 8.1 What is a ﬁlter? . 8.2 Lowpass ﬁlters . 8.3 Highpass ﬁlters 8.4 Bandpass ﬁlters 8.5 Bandstop ﬁlters 8.6 Resonant ﬁlters . 8.7 Summary . . . . 8.8 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 TRANSFORMERS 9.1 Mutual inductance and basic operation 9.2 Stepup and stepdown transformers . 9.3 Electrical isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Phasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Winding conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Voltage regulation . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS
9.7 Special transformers and applications 9.8 Practical considerations . . . . . . . . 9.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v 251 268 281 281 283 283 289 296 300 306 313 318 343 345 347 347 352 355 360 365 367 367 374 382 385 387 396 406 406 407 408 412 420 421 426 438 442 460 464 469 471 479
10 POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS 10.1 Singlephase power systems . . . . . . . . 10.2 Threephase power systems . . . . . . . . 10.3 Phase rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Polyphase motor design . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Threephase Y and Delta conﬁgurations . 10.6 Threephase transformer circuits . . . . . 10.7 Harmonics in polyphase power systems . 10.8 Harmonic phase sequences . . . . . . . . 10.9 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 POWER FACTOR 11.1 Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits 11.2 True, Reactive, and Apparent power . . . . 11.3 Calculating power factor . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Practical power factor correction . . . . . . 11.5 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 AC METERING CIRCUITS 12.1 AC voltmeters and ammeters . . . . 12.2 Frequency and phase measurement 12.3 Power measurement . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Power quality measurement . . . . 12.5 AC bridge circuits . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6 AC instrumentation transducers . . 12.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 AC MOTORS 13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . 13.3 Synchronous condenser . . . . . . 13.4 Reluctance motor . . . . . . . . . . 13.5 Stepper motors . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 Brushless DC motor . . . . . . . . 13.7 Tesla polyphase induction motors 13.8 Wound rotor induction motors . . 13.9 Singlephase induction motors . . 13.10 Other specialized motors . . . . . 13.11 Selsyn (synchro) motors . . . . . 13.12 AC commutator motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vi
CONTENTS
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
14 TRANSMISSION LINES 14.1 A 50ohm cable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Circuits and the speed of light . . . . 14.3 Characteristic impedance . . . . . . . 14.4 Finitelength transmission lines . . . 14.5 “Long” and “short” transmission lines 14.6 Standing waves and resonance . . . . 14.7 Impedance transformation . . . . . . 14.8 Waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1 ABOUT THIS BOOK A2 CONTRIBUTOR LIST A3 DESIGN SCIENCE LICENSE INDEX
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483 483 484 486 493 499 502 522 529 537 541 547 550
Chapter 1
BASIC AC THEORY
Contents
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 What is alternating current (AC)? AC waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements of AC magnitude . Simple AC circuit calculations . . AC phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles of radio . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 12 19 20 23 25
1.1
What is alternating current (AC)?
Most students of electricity begin their study with what is known as direct current (DC), which is electricity ﬂowing in a constant direction, and/or possessing a voltage with constant polarity. DC is the kind of electricity made by a battery (with deﬁnite positive and negative terminals), or the kind of charge generated by rubbing certain types of materials against each other. As useful and as easy to understand as DC is, it is not the only “kind” of electricity in use. Certain sources of electricity (most notably, rotary electromechanical generators) naturally produce voltages alternating in polarity, reversing positive and negative over time. Either as a voltage switching polarity or as a current switching direction back and forth, this “kind” of electricity is known as Alternating Current (AC): Figure 1.1 Whereas the familiar battery symbol is used as a generic symbol for any DC voltage source, the circle with the wavy line inside is the generic symbol for any AC voltage source. One might wonder why anyone would bother with such a thing as AC. It is true that in some cases AC holds no practical advantage over DC. In applications where electricity is used to dissipate energy in the form of heat, the polarity or direction of current is irrelevant, so long as there is enough voltage and current to the load to produce the desired heat (power dissipation). However, with AC it is possible to build electric generators, motors and power 1
2
CHAPTER 1. BASIC AC THEORY
DIRECT CURRENT (DC) I
ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) I
I
I
Figure 1.1: Direct vs alternating current
distribution systems that are far more efﬁcient than DC, and so we ﬁnd AC used predominately across the world in high power applications. To explain the details of why this is so, a bit of background knowledge about AC is necessary. If a machine is constructed to rotate a magnetic ﬁeld around a set of stationary wire coils with the turning of a shaft, AC voltage will be produced across the wire coils as that shaft is rotated, in accordance with Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction. This is the basic operating principle of an AC generator, also known as an alternator: Figure 1.2
Step #1 S N N + no current! Load I Load I S Step #2
Step #3 N S S I
Step #4
N
no current! Load
+ I Load
Figure 1.2: Alternator operation
In order for a DC generator to produce constant voltage.1. resulting in an alternating voltage and current that switches directions more often in a given amount of time. The diagram shown above is a bit more simpliﬁed than what you would see in real life. All this is necessary to switch the coil’s changing output polarity to the external circuit so the external circuit sees a constant polarity: Figure 1. this reversing voltage polarity will create a reversing current direction in the circuit. there are multiple sets of coils making intermittent contact with the brushes. While DC generators work on the same general principle of electromagnetic induction. If the atmosphere surrounding the machine contains ﬂammable or explosive
.3
Step #1 N S N S N S I Load Step #3 N S N S N S I Load
Step #2 N S + +
Load Step #4 N S + +
Load
Figure 1. the coil of wire is mounted in the shaft where the magnet is on the AC alternator. the faster the magnet will spin.3: DC generator operation The generator shown above will produce two pulses of voltage per revolution of the shaft. The problems involved with making and breaking electrical contact with a moving coil should be obvious (sparking and heat).1. rather than brief pulses of voltage once every 1/2 revolution. With a DC generator. their construction is not as simple as their AC counterparts. Connected to a load. The faster the alternator’s shaft is turned. especially if the shaft of the generator is revolving at high speed. and electrical connections are made to this spinning coil via stationary carbon “brushes” contacting copper strips on the rotating shaft. WHAT IS ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)?
3
Notice how the polarity of the voltage across the wire coils reverses as the opposite poles of the rotating magnet pass by. both pulses in the same direction (polarity).
An AC generator (alternator) does not require brushes and commutators to work. we will create an AC voltage in the other coil. AC and DC motor designs are very similar to their generator counterparts (identical for the sake of this tutorial). respectively: Figure 1. So we know that AC generators and AC motors tend to be simpler than DC generators and DC motors.4
Transformer AC voltage source
Induced AC voltage
Figure 1. whereby two or more coils of wire placed so that the changing magnetic ﬁeld created by one induces a voltage in the other. the practical problems of sparkproducing brush contacts are even greater.5 If the winding ratio is reversed so that the primary coil has less turns than the secondary coil.6 The transformer’s ability to step AC voltage up or down with ease gives AC an advantage unmatched by DC in the realm of power distribution in ﬁgure 1. Transformer technology has made longrange electric power distribution practical.7. There is an effect of electromagnetism known as mutual induction. When used as such. The AC voltage induced in the unpowered (“secondary”) coil is equal to the AC voltage across the powered (“primary”) coil multiplied by the ratio of secondary coil turns to primary coil turns. business. and the DC motor being dependent on the brush contacts making and breaking connections to reverse current through the rotating coil every 1/2 rotation (180 degrees). This relationship has a very close mechanical analogy. But what else is AC good for? Surely there must be more to it than design details of generators and motors! Indeed there is. then step the voltage back down and the current back up for industry. If the secondary coil is powering a load. it is far more efﬁcient to do so with steppedup voltages and steppeddown currents (smallerdiameter wire with less resistive power losses). or consumer use. The fundamental signiﬁcance of a transformer is its ability to step voltage up or down from the powered coil to the unpowered coil. BASIC AC THEORY
vapors. the current through the secondary coil is just the opposite: primary coil current multiplied by the ratio of primary to secondary turns. this device is known as a transformer: Figure 1.4
CHAPTER 1. Without
. and so is immune to these problems experienced by DC generators. When transmitting electrical power over long distances. The beneﬁts of AC over DC with regard to generator design is also reﬂected in electric motors. AC motors do not. the AC motor being dependent upon the reversing magnetic ﬁeld produced by alternating current through its stationary coils of wire to rotate the rotating magnet around on its shaft. If we have two mutually inductive coils and we energize one coil with AC. using torque and speed to represent voltage and current.4: Transformer “transforms” AC voltage and current. This relative simplicity translates into greater reliability and lower cost of manufacture. While DC motors require the use of brushes to make electrical contact with moving coils of wire. In fact. the transformer “steps up” the voltage from the source level to a higher level at the load: Figure 1.
1. . Stepdown transformer steps voltage down and current up.1. to other customers low voltage Stepdown
Home or Business
low voltage
Figure 1.
high voltage Power Plant Stepup .6: Speed reduction gear train steps torque up and speed down.
.7: Transformers enable efﬁcient long distance high voltage transmission of electric energy.5: Speed multiplication gear train steps torque down and speed up. Stepup transformer steps voltage up and current down.
Speed reduction geartrain Large gear (many teeth) Small gear (few teeth) + AC voltage source low voltage few turns high current many turns Load + "Stepup" transformer high voltage
low torque high speed
high torque low speed
low current
Figure 1. . WHAT IS ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)?
Speed multiplication geartrain Large gear (many teeth) Small gear (few teeth) + high voltage AC voltage source low voltage many turns few turns high current Load
5
"Stepdown" transformer
+
high torque low speed
low torque high speed
low current
Figure 1.
8 In the voltage plot from an electromechanical alternator. known as a sine wave: Figure 1. the change from one polarity to the other is a smooth one. • AC electromechanical generators. not DC. respectively. When graphed over time. That rate is greatest when the magnet poles are closest to the coils. The reason why an electromechanical alternator outputs sinewave AC is due to the physics of its operation. Often. respectively.” meaning voltage or current that maintains constant polarity or direction. If we were to graph the trigonometric function of “sine” over a horizontal range of 0 to 360 degrees. • REVIEW: • DC stands for “Direct Current.
. this is why AC ﬁnds such widespread application in power systems. • AC stands for “Alternating Current. over time. over time. the voltage level changing most rapidly at the zero (“crossover”) point and most slowly at its peak. direct current may be interrupted (pulsed) through the primary winding of a transformer to create a changing magnetic ﬁeld (as is done in automotive ignition systems to produce highvoltage spark plug power from a lowvoltage DC battery). Because the phenomenon of mutual inductance relies on changing magnetic ﬁelds. • A transformer is a pair of mutuallyinductive coils used to convey AC power from one coil to the other. the voltage switches polarity over time. Perhaps more than any other reason. transformers simply will not work with direct current. As useful as transformers are. Of course.6
CHAPTER 1.” meaning voltage or current that changes polarity or direction.2
AC waveforms
When an alternator produces AC voltage. but pulsed DC is not that different from AC. they only work with AC. BASIC AC THEORY
the ability to efﬁciently step voltage up and down. but does so in a very particular manner. The voltage produced by the stationary coils by the motion of the rotating magnet is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic ﬂux is changing perpendicular to the coils (Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction). • AC and DC motor design follows respective generator design principles very closely. • Secondary voltage = Primary voltage (secondary turns / primary turns) • Secondary current = Primary current (primary turns / secondary turns)
1. known as alternators. and direct current (DC) can only produce steady magnetic ﬁelds. it would be costprohibitive to construct power systems for anything but closerange (within a few miles at most) use. and least when the magnet poles are furthest away from the coils.1. we would ﬁnd the exact same pattern as in Table 1. the number of turns in each coil is set to create a voltage increase or decrease from the powered (primary) coil to the unpowered (secondary) coil. the “wave” traced by this voltage of alternating polarity from an alternator takes on a distinct shape. are of simpler construction than DC electromechanical generators.
9659 1.8660 + 240 0.0000 zero 180 0.2588 + 345 0.
Angle (o ) 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180
Table 1.9659 0.0000
wave zero peak zero
.8660 0. AC WAVEFORMS
7
(the sine wave) +
Time
Figure 1.7071 + 225 0.2588 + 195 0.9659 + 255 0.5000 + 330 0.7071 0.1: Trigonometric “sine” function.8: Graph of AC voltage over time (the sine wave).5000 0.8660 0.7071 0.0000 zero 360 0.7071 + 315 0.9659 + 285 0.0000 0.0000 +peak 270 1.1.5000 + 210 0.2588 0.2.2588 0. sin(angle) wave Angle (o ) sin(angle) 0.0000 0.8660 + 300 0.5000 0.
A similar change occurred when the unit of “Celsius” replaced that of “Centigrade” for metric temperature measurement.” Older meters and electronic equipment often bore frequency units of “CPS” (Cycles Per Second) instead of Hz. but may be measured between any corresponding points on the graph. the standard powerline frequency is 60 Hz. and also the angular position of our simple twopole alternator shaft as it rotates: Figure 1.9
one wave cycle
0
90
180
270
360 90 180 (0) one wave cycle
270
360 (0)
Alternator shaft position (degrees)
Figure 1. most often seconds or fractions of a second. In the United States of America. which represents the number of wave cycles completed during one second of time. If we were to follow the changing voltage produced by a coil in an alternator from any point on the sine wave graph to that point when the wave shape begins to repeat itself. The period of a wave in degrees is always 360. This is called frequency. A more popular measure for describing the alternating rate of an AC voltage or current wave than period is the rate of that backandforth oscillation.
. In Europe. The degree marks on the horizontal axis of the graph represent the domain of the trigonometric sine function. The name Celsius. Prior to the canonization of the Hertz unit. When expressed as a measurement. BASIC AC THEORY
Mathematically. the rate of magnetic ﬂux change due to a rotating magnet follows that of a sine function. meaning that the AC voltage oscillates at a rate of 60 complete backandforth cycles every second.9: Alternator voltage as function of shaft position (time). where the power system frequency is 50 Hz. The modern unit for frequency is the Hertz (abbreviated Hz).8
CHAPTER 1. frequency was simply expressed as “cycles per second. but the amount of time one period occupies depends on the rate voltage oscillates back and forth. on the other hand. A radio station transmitter broadcasting at a frequency of 100 MHz generates an AC voltage oscillating at a rate of 100 million cycles every second. we would have marked exactly one cycle of that wave. the AC voltage only completes 50 cycles every second. respectively. so the voltage produced by the coils follows that same function. Many people believe the change from selfexplanatory units like CPS to Hertz constitutes a step backward in clarity. The name Centigrade was based on a 100count (“Centi”) scale (“grade”) representing the melting and boiling points of H2 O. the dimension marked for one cycle is often measured in a unit of time. gives no hint as to the unit’s origin or meaning. this is often called the period of a wave. This is most easily shown by spanning the distance between identical peaks. Since the horizontal axis of this graph can mark the passage of time as well as shaft position in degrees.
5 Hz period 16 ms
Figure 1.1 Hz. frequency is equivalent to pitch. AC WAVEFORMS
9
Period and frequency are mathematical reciprocals of one another. The relationship between period and frequency is very useful to know when displaying an AC voltage or current waveform on an oscilloscope screen. you can determine the frequency in Hertz. Generalpurpose oscilloscopes have the ability to display voltage from virtually any voltage source. interpreted by our ears as a physical sensation. Because alternating current is a wave phenomenon. Lowpitch notes such as those produced by a tuba or bassoon consist of air molecule vibrations that are relatively slow (low frequency). it shares many of the properties of other wave phenomena. sound (especially structured music) provides an excellent analogy for relating AC concepts. which is nothing more than the alternating compression and decompression (pressure waves) of air molecules. is used to display a changing voltage over time on a graphical screen.1. For this reason.2.10: Time period of sinewave is shown on oscilloscope.
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger 16 divisions @ 1ms/div = a period of 16 ms
DC GND AC
timebase
1m
X s/div
DC GND AC
Frequency =
1 1 = = 62. In musical terms.10. That is to say. or 1/10 of a cycle per second:
Frequency in Hertz =
1 Period in seconds
An instrument called an oscilloscope. The ECG is a specialpurpose oscilloscope expressly designed for medical use. plotted as a graph with time as the independent variable. used by physicians to graph the oscillations of a patient’s heart over time.
. if a wave has a period of 10 seconds. By measuring the period of the wave on the horizontal axis of the oscilloscope screen and reciprocating that time value (in seconds). You may be familiar with the appearance of an ECG or EKG (electrocardiograph) machine. Much more common to our everyday experience is sound. Figure 1. Voltage and current are by no means the only physical variables subject to variation over time. its frequency will be 0. like sound.
Astute observers will notice that all notes on the table bearing the same letter designation are related by a frequency ratio of 2:1.
Note A A sharp (or B flat) B C (middle) C sharp (or D flat) D D sharp (or E flat) E F F sharp (or G flat) G G sharp (or A flat) A A sharp (or B flat) B C
# # # #
Musical designation A1 A or B B1 C C# or Db D D or E E F F# or Gb G G or A A A or B B C
1 b b b b
Frequency (in hertz) 220.08 246. For example. Following this rule. Audibly. the same pattern immortalized in the whimsical Rodgers and Hammerstein song sung in The Sound of Music – covers one octave from C to C.88 523.00 415.11: The frequency in Hertz (Hz) is shown for various musical notes.99 392. The familiar musical mnemonic (doeraymeefahsolahtee) – yes.00 233. Other “waveforms” of AC are commonly produced within electronic circuitry. Figure 1. the next highest “A” note (one octave above 440 Hz) will be 880 Hz.18 293.30 440.16 Hz). The next highest “A” note has a frequency of 440 Hz – exactly twice as many sound wave cycles per second. The same 2:1 ratio holds true for the ﬁrst A sharp (233.94 261.63 349. only vibrating at a much faster rate (higher frequency).63 277. the ﬁrst frequency shown (designated with the letter “A”) is 220 Hz. While electromechanical alternators and many other physical phenomena naturally produce sine waves.13
. and for all note pairs found in the table.13 329.66 311.23 369. this is not the only kind of alternating wave in existence.25
Figure 1. one octave is equal to seven white keys’ worth of distance on a piano keyboard. two notes whose frequencies are exactly double each other sound remarkably similar.08 Hz) and the next A sharp (466.10
CHAPTER 1.00 466.12 As you can see. Here are but a few sample waveforms and their common designations in ﬁgure 1. BASIC AC THEORY
Highpitch notes such as those produced by a ﬂute or whistle consist of the same type of vibrations in the air. A view of a piano keyboard helps to put this scale into perspective: Figure 1. This similarity in sound is musically recognized.16 493. the shortest span on a musical scale separating such note pairs being called an octave.11 is a table showing the actual frequencies for a range of common musical notes. the next lowest “A” (one octave below 220 Hz) will be 110 Hz.
2.1.
Square wave
Triangle wave
one wave cycle Sawtooth wave
one wave cycle
Figure 1.
. AC WAVEFORMS
11
C# D# Db Eb
F# G# A# Gb Ab Bb
C# D# Db Eb
F# G# A# Gb Ab Bb
C# D# Db Eb
F# G# A# Gb Ab Bb
C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B one octave
Figure 1.13: Some common waveshapes (waveforms).12: An octave is shown on a musical keyboard.
This is known as the peaktopeak (PP) value of an AC waveform: Figure 1. Usually measured in Hertz (Hz). They’re simply a few that are common enough to have been given distinct names. BASIC AC THEORY
These waveforms are by no means the only kinds of waveforms in existence.12
CHAPTER 1.15 Unfortunately. • Frequency = 1/(period in seconds)
1. For example. a square wave peaking at 10 volts is obviously a greater amount of voltage for a greater amount of time than a triangle wave
. we have little trouble expressing how much voltage or current we have in any part of a circuit. • Frequency is the number of complete cycles that a wave completes in a given amount of time. which is the essential property distinguishing one note from another. or sawtooth voltage/current waveforms. This is known as the peak or crest value of an AC waveform: Figure 1. anything different being labeled as nonsinusoidal. or “frequency. square. However. Being that the waveform of an AC voltage or current is crucial to its impact in a circuit. where quantities of voltage and current are generally stable. With DC. frequency is the same as pitch. We also know that AC can alternate in a variety of different ways.3
Measurements of AC magnitude
So far we know that AC voltage alternates in polarity and AC current alternates in direction. of an AC quantity is to measure its peak height on a waveform graph. and by tracing the alternation over time we can plot it as a “waveform. any waveshape bearing close resemblance to a perfect sine wave is termed sinusoidal. and express this as cycles per unit time.” We can measure the rate of alternation by measuring the time it takes for a wave to evolve before it repeats itself (the “period”). Even in circuits that are supposed to manifest “pure” sine.” In music. Some waveforms are so complex that they defy classiﬁcation as a particular “type” (including waveforms associated with many kinds of musical instruments). we encounter a measurement problem if we try to express how large or small an AC quantity is. But how do you grant a single measurement of magnitude to something that is constantly changing? One way to express the intensity. triangle. 1 Hz being equal to one complete wave cycle per second. Generally speaking. • REVIEW: • AC produced by an electromechanical alternator follows the graphical shape of a sine wave. the reallife result is often a distorted version of the intended waveshape. • The period of a wave is the amount of time it takes to complete one cycle.14 Another way is to measure the total height between opposite peaks. either one of these expressions of waveform amplitude can be misleading when comparing two different types of waves. • One cycle of a wave is one complete evolution of its shape until the point that it is ready to repeat itself. or magnitude (also called the amplitude). we need to be aware of the fact that AC waves come in a variety of shapes.
MEASUREMENTS OF AC MAGNITUDE
13
Peak
Time
Figure 1.16: A square wave produces a greater heating effect than the same peak voltage triangle wave.14: Peak voltage of a waveform.
PeaktoPeak Time
Figure 1.1.15: Peaktopeak voltage of a waveform.
10 V
Time (same load resistance)
10 V (peak) more heat energy dissipated
10 V (peak) less heat energy dissipated
Figure 1.
.3.
polaritysensitive meter movements vibrate uselessly if exposed to AC voltage or current. If we average all the points on the waveform algebraically (that is. to consider their sign.14
CHAPTER 1. When the “average” value of a waveform is referenced in this text. “average” is usually deﬁned as the mathematical mean of all the points’ absolute values over a cycle.18: Waveform seen by AC “average responding” meter. because the inertia of the pointer against the tension of the spring naturally averages the force produced by the varying voltage/current values over time. BASIC AC THEORY
peaking at 10 volts.17
+
+
+
+ ++
+
+
+ 
. the average value for most waveforms is technically zero. as if the waveform looked like this: Figure 1. their needles oscillating rapidly about the zero mark. This amplitude measure is known simply as the average value of the waveform.. will be true for any waveform having equalarea portions above and below the “zero” line of a plot. we calculate the practical average value of the waveform by considering all points on the wave as positive quantities. because all the positive points cancel out all the negative points over a full cycle: Figure 1. it will be assumed that the “practical” deﬁnition of average
. indicating the true (algebraic) average value of zero for a symmetrical waveform. all values assumed to be positive.True average value of all points (considering their signs) is zero!
Figure 1. However. either positive or negative).18
+ +
+
+ ++
+
+ + ++
+
+ ++
+
+ +
Practical average of points. Polarityinsensitive mechanical meter movements (meters designed to respond equally to the positive and negative halfcycles of an alternating voltage or current) register in proportion to the waveform’s (practical) average value. The effects of these two AC voltages powering a load would be quite different: Figure 1.17: The average value of a sinewave is zero. In other words. of course.16 One way of expressing the amplitude of different waveshapes in a more equivalent fashion is to mathematically average the values of all the points on a waveform’s graph to a single. aggregate number. This. as a practical measure of a waveform’s aggregate value. Conversely.
Figure 1.
19: Bandsawjigsaw analogy of DC vs AC. and a quantitative comparison of this common function can serve as a common basis for which to rate blade speed. depending on the mechanical design of the saws. Consider a bandsaw and a jigsaw. its blade speed constantly changing. equipped with identical blades (same tooth pitch. etc. because the power dissipated by a given load (work performed per unit time) is not directly proportional to the magnitude of either the voltage or current impressed upon it.
.). on the other hand. the backandforth motion of any two jigsaws may not be of the same type. toothed. Both types of saws cut with a thin. angle. The problem of trying to describe the changing quantities of AC voltage or current in a single. they are equal in one respect: they all cut wood. The comparison of alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) may be likened to the comparison of these two saw types: Figure 1. But while the bandsaw uses a continuous motion of the blade to cut. an AC measurement based on work performed by a waveform is not the same as that waveform’s “average” value. the utility of it is. Despite the fact that these different saws move their blades in different manners. Rather.19
Bandsaw Jigsaw
blade motion
wood
wood
blade motion
(analogous to DC)
(analogous to AC)
Figure 1.1. and P = I2 R). two pieces of modern woodworking equipment. moves back and forth. Another method of deriving an aggregate value for waveform amplitude is based on the waveform’s ability to do useful work when applied to a load resistance. Although the mathematics of such an amplitude measurement might not be straightforward. We might say that the two saws were equivalent or equal in their cutting capacity. while another with a trianglewave motion. Picture a jigsaw and bandsaw sidebyside.3. motorpowered metal blade to cut wood. To rate a jigsaw based on its peak blade speed would be quite misleading when comparing one jigsaw to another (or a jigsaw with a bandsaw!). equally capable of cutting the same thickness of the same type of wood at the same rate. What is more. power is proportional to the square of the voltage or current applied to a resistance (P = E2 /R. MEASUREMENTS OF AC MAGNITUDE
15
is intended unless otherwise speciﬁed. Unfortunately. similar to the way DC voltage pushes or DC current moves with a constant magnitude. aggregate measurement is also present in this saw analogy: how might we express the speed of a jigsaw blade? A bandsaw blade moves with a constant speed. One jigsaw might move its blade with a sinewave motion. A jigsaw blade. the jigsaw uses a backandforth motion.
RMS current measurement is the best to use. when rating insulators for service in highvoltage AC applications. Because the mechanical inertia and dampening effects of an electromechanical meter movement makes the deﬂection of the needle naturally proportional to the average value of the AC. to relate the woodcutting effectiveness of one to the other? This is the general idea used to assign a “DC equivalent” measurement to any AC voltage or current: whatever magnitude of DC voltage or current would produce the same amount of heat energy dissipation through an equal resistance:Figure 1. not the true RMS value. iron vane. For other considerations. we would call this a “10 volt” AC source. which is a function of power dissipation caused by current through the resistance of the wire. RMS amplitude measurement is the best way to relate AC quantities to DC quantities. Weston. we would denote its voltage value as being 10 volts RMS. because the principal concern with current is overheating of the wire. analog meter movements (D’Arsonval.” but the quantity and principle are both the same. depending on how you look at it) to indicate voltage
.20: An RMS voltage produces the same heating effect as a the same DC voltage In the two circuits above. irrespective of time. electrodynamometer) will work so long as they have been calibrated in RMS ﬁgures.20
5A RMS 10 V RMS 2Ω 5A RMS 10 V 50 W power dissipated 5A 2Ω 5A 50 W power dissipated
Equal power dissipated through equal resistance loads
Figure 1. BASIC AC THEORY
Might this comparison be used to assign a “bandsaw equivalent” blade speed to the jigsaw’s backandforth blade motion. Sometimes the alternative terms equivalent or DC equivalent are used instead of “RMS. The qualiﬁer “RMS” stands for Root Mean Square. when dealing with measurements of electric power. However. More speciﬁcally. one powered by AC and the other by DC. when determining the proper size of wire (ampacity) to conduct electric power from a source to a load. peak or peaktopeak measurements may be the best to employ. Peak and peaktopeak measurements are best performed with an oscilloscope. For instance. which can capture the crests of the waveform with a high degree of accuracy due to the fast action of the cathoderaytube in response to changes in voltage. or other AC quantities of differing waveform shapes. because the principal concern here is insulator “ﬂashover” caused by brief spikes of voltage. Because the AC voltage source pictured above is equivalent (in terms of power delivered to a load) to a 10 volt DC battery. peak voltage measurements are the most appropriate. analog meters must be speciﬁcally calibrated (or miscalibrated. averaging those squared values.16
CHAPTER 1. we have the same amount of load resistance (2 Ω) dissipating the same amount of power in the form of heat (50 watts). the algorithm used to obtain the DC equivalent value from points on a graph (essentially. then taking the square root of that average to obtain the ﬁnal answer). the procedure consists of squaring all the positive and negative points on a waveform graph. For RMS measurements.
577 (the reciprocal of square root of 3) and form factors of 1. Some instrument manufacturers have designed ingenious methods for determining the RMS value of any waveform. for instance.22: Arbitrary waveforms have no simple conversions.22
RMS = ??? AVG = ??? PP = 2 (Peak)
Figure 1. Electronic meters speciﬁcally designed for RMS measurement are best for the task. just the laws of physics in action in fulﬁllment of the deﬁnition of RMS. One such manufacturer produces “TrueRMS” meters with a tiny resistive heating element powered by a voltage proportional to that being measured. not algebraic).21: Conversion factors for common waveforms. and average amplitudes of sine waves. For “pure” waveforms. Bear in mind that the conversion constants shown here for peak. average.577/0.577 (Peak) AVG = 0. MEASUREMENTS OF AC MAGNITUDE
17
or current in RMS units. is the ratio of its peak (crest) value divided by its RMS value.1. Average (practical. there are ratios expressing the proportionality between some of these fundamental measurements.15 (0.707/0. The accuracy of this type of RMS measurement is independent of waveshape. and peaktopeak measures of an AC waveform.707 (the reciprocal of the square root of 2) and a form factor of 1. The crest factor of an AC waveform. The accuracy of this calibration depends on an assumed waveshape.21
RMS = 0. and RMS measurements to one another: Figure 1.636). usually a sine wave. Triangle. The form factor of an AC waveform is the ratio of its RMS value divided by its average value. simple conversion coefﬁcients exist for equating Peak. The RMS and average values of distorted waveshapes are not related by the same ratios: Figure 1. RMS. Squareshaped waveforms always have crest and form factors equal to 1. Sinusoidal waveforms have an RMS value of 0.and sawtoothshaped waveforms have RMS values of 0. and triangle waves hold true only for pure forms of these waveshapes. peak (crest).5).11 (0. square waves.3. This is a very important concept to understand when using an analog meter movement
.5 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak)
Figure 1.637 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak)
RMS = Peak AVG = Peak PP = 2 (Peak)
RMS = 0. In addition to RMS.707 (Peak) AVG = 0. since the peak is the same as the RMS and average values. The heating effect of that resistance element is measured thermally to give a true RMS value with no mathematical calculations whatsoever. PeaktoPeak.
Also known as the “equivalent” or “DC equivalent” value of an AC voltage or current. An analog movement. the meter’s calibration
. When RMS indication is desired. • REVIEW: • The amplitude of an AC waveform is its height as depicted on a graph over time. as a practical measure of amplitude. and thus a meter calibrated for sinewave voltage or current will not indicate true RMS when reading a nonsinusoidal wave. • Peak amplitude is the height of an AC waveform as measured from the zero mark to the highest positive or lowest negative point on a graph. the RMS value is approximately 0. peaktopeak. Also known as the crest amplitude of a wave. An amplitude measurement can take the form of peak. which will be equal to be the RMS value for a particular waveshape and a particular waveshape only. will only be accurate when measuring pure sine waves.637 of its peak value. electromechanical meter movements respond proportionally to the average value of an AC voltage or current. For example. the average amplitude of any waveform with equalarea portions above and below the “zero” line on a graph is zero. • “RMS” stands for Root Mean Square. RMS meter calibration is obtained by “skewing” the span of the meter so that it displays a small multiple of the average value. average. or RMS quantity. Since the sinewave shape is most common in electrical measurements. not the RMS. For a sine wave. the average value so calculated is approximately 0. For a sine wave. Bear in mind that this limitation applies only to simple. • The form factor of an AC waveform is the ratio of its RMS value to its average value.707/0. calibrated to indicate sinewave RMS amplitude. Often abbreviated as “PP”.18
CHAPTER 1. • The crest factor of an AC waveform is the ratio of its peak (crest) to its RMS value. and is a way of expressing an AC quantity of voltage or current in terms functionally equivalent to DC. BASIC AC THEORY
to measure AC voltage or current. Technically.707 of its peak value. the indication given by the meter will not be the true RMS value of the waveform.1107 (the form factor: 0. • Average amplitude is the mathematical “mean” of all a waveform’s points over the period of one cycle. However. because the degree of needle deﬂection in an analog meter movement is proportional to the average value of the waveform. analog AC meters not employing “TrueRMS” technology. If the waveform of the voltage or current being measured is anything but a pure sine wave. Any waveshape other than a pure sine wave will have a different ratio of RMS and average values. it is the waveshape assumed for analog meter calibration. 10 volts AC RMS is the amount of voltage that would produce the same amount of heat dissipation across a resistor of given value as a 10 volt DC power supply. • Analog.636: the ratio of RMS divided by average for a sinusoidal waveform). and the small multiple used in the calibration of the meter is 1. • Peaktopeak amplitude is the total height of an AC waveform as measured from maximum positive to maximum negative peaks on a graph. a waveform’s average value is often calculated as the mathematical mean of all the points’ absolute values (taking all the negative values and considering them as positive).
23) involving nothing more than an AC power source and resistance. these rules and laws always hold true.
R1 100 Ω 10 V R3 400 Ω
Figure 1. However.4. current. as we will discover later on. these complexities of AC are of no practical consequence. you will learn that AC circuit measurements and calculations can get very complicated due to the complex nature of alternating current in circuits with inductance and capacitance.23: AC circuit calculations for resistive circuits are the same as for DC. and opposition to current in more advanced mathematical forms.4
Simple AC circuit calculations
Over the course of the next few chapters. however. and so we can treat the numbers as though we were dealing with simple DC quantities. and the Laws of Kirchhoff and Ohm still hold true.
1. the same laws and rules of DC apply simply and directly. Actually.1. parallel resistances still diminish. With purely resistive circuits. its just that we have to express the quantities of voltage. with simple circuits (ﬁgure 1.
.
R2
500 Ω
Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3 Rtotal = 1 kΩ Etotal Rtotal 10 V 1 kΩ
Itotal =
Itotal =
Itotal = 10 mA ER3 = ItotalR3 ER3 = 4 V
ER1 = ItotalR1 ER1 = 1 V
ER2 = ItotalR2 ER2 = 5 V
Series resistances still add. SIMPLE AC CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
19
must be “skewed” accordingly. This means that the accuracy of an electromechanical meter’s RMS indication is dependent on the purity of the waveform: whether it is the exact same waveshape as the waveform used in calibrating.
we can make use of our familiar “table” method of organizing circuit values just as with DC:
R1 E I R 1 10m 100
R2 5 10m 500
R3 4 10m 400
Total 10 10m 1k Volts Amps Ohms
One major caveat needs to be given here: all measurements of AC voltage and current must be expressed in the same terms (peak.” I mean that the two waveforms are not synchronized: that their peaks and zero points do not match up at the same points in time. etc. with more complex circuits. but they are out of step with each other. In technical terms. but in most applications (especially industrial electronics) the assumption is RMS. However. BASIC AC THEORY
Because all these mathematical relationships still hold true. then all currents and voltages subsequently calculated are cast in terms of peak units. If the source voltage is given in AC RMS volts. Unless otherwise stated. peaktopeak. or peaktopeak. By “out of step. I promise! • The “table” method of organizing circuit values is still a valid analysis tool for AC circuits.24 illustrates an example of this. Kirchhoff ’s Laws.5
AC phase
Things start to get complicated when we need to relate two or more AC voltages or currents that are out of step with each other. More on this later. Earlier
A B
. In some areas of electronics. The graph in ﬁgure 1. this is called a phase shift. This holds true for any calculation based on Ohm’s Laws. peak measurements are assumed. average. • REVIEW: • All the old rules and laws of DC (Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws. or RMS).
1. we may need to represent the AC quantities in more complex form. Ohm’s Law) still hold true for AC.20
CHAPTER 1.
A B
A B A B
A B A B
Figure 1.24: Out of phase waveforms The two waves shown above (A versus B) are of the same amplitude and frequency. If the source voltage is given in peak AC volts. all values of voltage and current in AC circuits are generally assumed to be RMS rather than peak. average. then all calculated currents and voltages are cast in AC RMS units as well.
a full circle. “voltage ’A’ is 45 degrees out of phase with voltage ’B’.5. and division must operate on these quantities of phase shift as well as amplitude. that voltage stated as “xxx volts at 0 degrees. is always a measurement relative between two things.25
degrees A 0 90 180 270 (0) 360 90 180 270 (0) 360
A B
B
0
90
180
270
360 (0) degrees
90
180
270
360 (0)
Figure 1. For this reason. multiplication. they will be out of step by the same angular amount at every point in time. We can use this angle scale along the horizontal axis of our waveform plot to express just how far out of step one wave is with another: Figure 1. This is what makes AC circuit calculations more complicated than DC. progressing to full positive amplitude at 90 degrees. the voltage waveform of the power supply is used as a reference for phase. like voltage.” Whichever waveform is ahead in its evolution is said to be leading and the one behind is said to be lagging. full negative at 270 degrees. and back to the starting point of zero at 360 degrees. The starting point of a sine wave was zero amplitude at zero degrees. When applying Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff ’s Laws. quantities of AC voltage and current must reﬂect phase shift as well as amplitude.
. Typically in the analysis of AC circuits. the “A” wave being ahead of the “B” wave. Mathematical operations of addition.” Any other AC voltage or current in that circuit will have its phase shift expressed in terms relative to that source voltage. A sampling of different phase shifts is given in the following graphs to better illustrate this concept: Figure 1. subtraction. it is safe to say something like.1. AC PHASE
21
we saw how we could plot a “sine wave” by calculating the trigonometric sine function for angles ranging from 0 to 360 degrees. zero at 180 degrees. and not just an expression of shift between any two particular points along the waves. Fortunately. There’s really no such thing as a waveform with an absolute phase measurement because there’s no known universal reference for phase.25: Wave A leads wave B by 45o The shift between these two waveforms is about 45 degrees.26 Because the waveforms in the above examples are at the same frequency. Phase shift. we can express phase shift for two or more waveforms of the same frequency as a constant quantity for the entire wave. That is.
BASIC AC THEORY
Phase shift = 90 degrees A B A is ahead of B (A "leads" B)
Phase shift = 90 degrees B A B is ahead of A (B "leads" A)
A
Phase shift = 180 degrees A and B waveforms are mirrorimages of each other
B
Phase shift = 0 degrees A B A and B waveforms are in perfect step with each other
Figure 1.22
CHAPTER 1.
.26: Examples of phase shifts.
PRINCIPLES OF RADIO
23
there is a mathematical system of quantities called complex numbers ideally suited for this task of representing amplitude and phase. So far. Likewise. with or without the presence of a conductive path for electrons to ﬂow.1. who “uniﬁed” the study of electricity and magnetism in four relatively tidy equations. a major discovery lay hidden just beneath this seemingly simple concept of related perpendicularity. The man responsible for this conceptual revolution was the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (18311879). The limited scope of this lesson on alternating current does not permit full exploration of the concept. This requires the use of a mathematical system called complex numbers. • A leading waveform is deﬁned as one waveform that is ahead of another in its evolution.
1. the next chapter will be devoted to that subject alone. In essence.6
Principles of radio
One of the more fascinating applications of electricity is in the generation of invisible ripples of energy called radio waves. scientists knew that electricity and magnetism always seemed to affect each other at right angles. This breakthrough in physics is hard to overstate. and its unveiling was one of the pivotal moments in modern science. some of the basic principles will be covered. Stated more formally. Maxwell’s discovery was this:
. it was realized that electricity and magnetism were related to each other. • REVIEW: • Phase shift is where two or more waveforms are out of step with each other.6. However. B lags A
• • Calculations for AC circuit analysis must take into consideration both amplitude and phase shift of voltage and current waveforms to be completely accurate. as deﬁned by the degree units on the horizontal axis of the waveform graph used in plotting the trigonometric sine function. if a conductor was exposed to a change in magnetic ﬂux perpendicular to the conductor. When an electric current was passed through a conductor. Because the subject of complex numbers is so essential to the understanding of AC circuits. a magnetic ﬁeld was generated perpendicular to the axis of ﬂow. Example:
Phase shift = 90 degrees A B A leads B. With Oersted’s accidental discovery of electromagnetism. A lagging waveform is one that is behind another. what he discovered was that electric and magnetic ﬁelds were intrinsically related to one another. • The amount of phase shift between two waves can be expressed in terms of degrees. a voltage was produced along the length of that conductor.
the alternating electric and magnetic ﬁelds supporting each other as they travel through space at the speed of light.27: Dipole and loop antennae While the dipole looks like nothing more than an open circuit. This dynamic structure of electric and magnetic ﬁelds propagating through space is better known as an electromagnetic wave. BASIC AC THEORY
A changing electric ﬁeld produces a perpendicular magnetic ﬁeld. Antennas also have the ability to intercept electromagnetic waves and convert their energy into AC voltage and current. converting AC voltage and current into electromagnetic wave energy. a changing magnetic ﬁeld is produced at right angles. Either antenna achieves the same basic task: the controlled production of an electromagnetic ﬁeld. The two open wires of the dipole act as a sort of capacitor (two conductors separated by a dielectric). As the powered loop antenna radiates its changing magnetic ﬁeld into space.27
Basic antenna designs DIPOLE LOOP
Figure 1. an antenna acts as a receiving device: Figure 1. and the loop a short circuit. So are Xrays and “gamma” ray radiation. and so on as the wave propagates at the speed of light. The closed wire path of the loop antenna acts like an inductor with a large air core. thus sustaining the electric ﬁeld further into space. an antenna acts as a transmitting device. and A changing magnetic ﬁeld produces a perpendicular electric ﬁeld. a changing electric ﬁeld is produced at right angles. with the same endresult of a continuous electromagnetic wave sent away from the antenna. As the powered dipole radiates its changing electric ﬁeld into space.
All of this can take place in open space.24
CHAPTER 1. Even light is electromagnetic in nature. By using a source of AC voltage and a special device called an antenna. There are many kinds of natural radiative energy composed of electromagnetic waves. An antenna is nothing more than a device built to produce a dispersing electric or magnetic ﬁeld. we can create electromagnetic waves (of a much lower frequency than that of light) with ease. In this mode.28
. again providing ample opportunity for the ﬁeld to disperse away from the antenna instead of being concentrated and contained as in a normal inductor. these pieces of wire are effective radiators of electromagnetic ﬁelds when connected to AC sources of the proper frequency. Two fundamental types of antennae are the dipole and the loop: Figure 1. with the electric ﬁeld open to dispersal instead of being concentrated between two closelyspaced plates. When attached to a source of highfrequency AC power. The only difference between these kinds of electromagnetic radiation is the frequency of their oscillation (alternation of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds back and forth in polarity).
and secondarily producing an electric ﬁeld in space. CONTRIBUTORS
AC voltage produced Radio receivers AC current produced
25
electromagnetic radiation
electromagnetic radiation
Radio transmitters
Figure 1. and secondarily producing a magnetic ﬁeld in space. Harvey Lew (February 7.1. even in empty space.
. • REVIEW: • James Maxwell discovered that changing electric ﬁelds produce perpendicular magnetic ﬁelds. constitutes an electromagnetic wave.
1. or intercept an electromagnetic ﬁeld and convert it to an AC voltage or current. and vice versa.7. • A twin set of electric and magnetic ﬁelds.28: Basic radio transmitter and receiver While there is much more that may be said about antenna technology. designed to radiate a changing electric ﬁeld or changing magnetic ﬁeld when powered by a highfrequency AC source. 2004): Corrected typographical error: “circuit” should have been “circle”. • An antenna is a device made of wire.7
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. from most recent to ﬁrst. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. primarily generating a magnetic ﬁeld when energized. • The loop antenna consists of a loop of wire. primarily generating an electric ﬁeld when energized. this brief introduction is enough to give you the general idea of what’s going on (and perhaps enough information to provoke a few experiments). oscillating at right angles to each other and traveling at the speed of light. • The dipole antenna consists of two pieces of wire (not touching).
2002): Suggestion for improving explanation of “average” waveform amplitude.” Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. BASIC AC THEORY
Duane Damiano (February 25. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. Zarella (April 28.26
CHAPTER 1. 2003): Pointed out magnetic polarity error in DC generator illustration. John Symonds (March 28. 2002): Suggestion for improving explanation of the unit “Hertz.
. Mark D.
. . . . . is a scalar quantity. . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . Simple vector addition . . . . I would also have to provide information about the direction to travel. possess other dimensions that 27
. if I were to describe how to travel from one city to another.Chapter 2
COMPLEX NUMBERS
Contents
2. . . . However. . . . . . . when we begin to analyze alternating current circuits.1 2. . is called a scalar quantity in mathematics. . Scalar numbers are the kind of numbers you’ve used in most all of your mathematical applications so far. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Introduction
If I needed to describe the distance between two cities. 27 30 32 35 37 42 44 49 55
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . as well. . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . Rather. . . . . . . . . . Complex number arithmetic . . .5 2. . . . . . . these quantities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . So is the resistance of a piece of wire (ohms). . . . I would have to provide more information than just the distance between those two cities. or the current through it (amps). . . . . . . . Vectors and AC waveforms . . . . Some examples with AC circuits Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . More on AC ”polarity” . . . . . .6 2. . Polar and rectangular notation . . for example. . . . .8 2. . . . . . . . current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The kind of information that expresses a single dimension. . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . and even resistance (called impedance in AC) are not the familiar onedimensional quantities we’re used to measuring in DC circuits. The voltage produced by a battery. . . . . . . .2 2. . I could provide an answer consisting of a single number in miles. . . . Complex vector addition . . . . . . . . . . . we ﬁnd that quantities of voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . such as linear distance. . because they’re dynamic (alternating in direction and amplitude). . . . .9 Introduction . kilometers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . However. . . . or some other unit of linear measurement. . . .
66 angle = 45 degrees
length = 9. In order to successfully analyze AC circuits.28
CHAPTER 2.2) The idea of representing a number in graphical form is nothing new. A complex number is a single mathematical quantity able to express these two dimensions of amplitude and phase shift at once. Even with relatively simple AC circuits. If I draw a line with a certain length (magnitude) and angle (direction). In this case. Just like the example of giving directions from one city to another. Like distances and directions on a map. and angles are counted in a positive direction going counterclockwise: (Figure 2. Frequency and phase shift are two of these dimensions that come into play. COMPLEX NUMBERS
must be taken into account.4) Later.01 degrees (57.3) We even learned how addition and subtraction works by seeing how lengths (magnitudes) stacked up to give a ﬁnal answer: (Figure 2.1: A vector has both magnitude and direction. Complex numbers are easier to grasp when they’re represented graphically. where we’re only dealing with a single frequency. we learned that there were ways to designate the values between the whole numbers marked on the line. we still have the dimension of phase shift to contend with in addition to the amplitude. there must be some common frame of reference for angle ﬁgures to have any meaning. directly right is considered to be 0o . AC quantities in a singlefrequency circuit have both amplitude (analogy: distance) and phase shift (analogy: direction). We all learned this in grade school with the “number line:” (Figure 2.5) Later yet we learned that the number line could extend to the left of zero as well: (Figure 2. Here is where we need to abandon scalar numbers for something better suited: complex numbers.43 angle = 302.1)
length = 7 angle = 0 degrees
length = 10 angle = 180 degrees
length = 5 angle = 90 degrees
length = 4 angle = 270 degrees (90 degrees)
length = 5. These were fractional or decimal quantities: (Figure 2.99 degrees)
Figure 2.6)
. I have a graphic representation of a complex number which is commonly known in physics as a vector: (Figure 2. we need to work with mathematical objects and techniques capable of representing these multidimensional quantities.
Figure 2.5: Locating a fraction on the “number line”
.
5+3=8 8 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 7 8 9 10 .3: Number line. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Figure 2.. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Figure 2..2.2: The vector compass
.4: Addition on a “number line”. INTRODUCTION
29
The vector "compass" 90o
180o
0o
270o (90o)
Figure 2.5 .....1.
31/2 or 3.
Being a relative measurement. represents the phase shift in degrees between the waveform in question and another waveform acting as a “reference” in time. representing weight. and that’s exactly what a vector is. • A vector is a graphical representation of a complex number.2
Vectors and AC waveforms
OK. real.
Figure 2.8) (Figure 2. or measuring DC battery voltage. a deﬁnite length. Usually.. length. Remember that phase is always a relative measurement between two waveforms rather than an absolute property. but all “motion” along that line is restricted to a single axis (horizontal). when the phase of a waveform in a circuit is expressed. integer. we need a number line that can point in different directions. It looks like an arrow. etc.) learned in grade school share a common trait: they’re all onedimensional.. The angle of the vector.7) The greater the amplitude of the waveform.9) The greater the phase shift in degrees between two waveforms. it is referenced to the power supply voltage waveform (arbitrarily stated to be “at” 0o ).. however. These ﬁelds of numbers (whole. COMPLEX NUMBERS
.
2. The straightness of the number line illustrates this graphically.6: “Number line” shows both positive and negative numbers. a tip. scalar numbers are perfectly adequate for counting beads. Onedimensional. rational. • REVIEW: • A scalar number is the type of mathematical object that people are used to using in everyday life: a onedimensional quantity like temperature. Generally this “reference” waveform is the main AC power supply voltage in the circuit. but they fall short of being able to represent something more complex like the distance and direction between two cities. If there is more than
. • A complex number is a mathematical quantity representing two dimensions of magnitude and direction. You can move up or down the number line. (Figure 2.. we need multidimensional representations. phase shift (vector angle) only has meaning in reference to some standard waveform. with a starting point. like this: (Figure 2. or the amplitude and phase of an AC waveform. weight. the greater the length of its corresponding vector. etc.30
CHAPTER 2. irrational. In other words. and a deﬁnite direction. so how exactly can we represent AC quantities of voltage or current in the form of a vector? The length of the vector represents the magnitude (or amplitude) of the waveform. 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
. To represent these kinds of quantities. the greater the angle difference between the corresponding vectors. like voltage. Sometimes the word phasor is used in electrical applications where the angle of the vector represents phase shift between waveforms.
8: Vector angle is the phase with respect to another waveform.
.2.
Waveforms Phase relations Vector representations (of "A" waveform with reference to "B" waveform) Phase shift = 0 degrees A B A and B waveforms are in perfect step with each other A B
Phase shift = 90 degrees A B A is ahead of B (A "leads" B)
A 90 degrees B
Phase shift = 90 degrees B A B is ahead of A (B "leads" A) A B Phase shift = 180 degrees A and B waveforms are A mirrorimages of each other A 180 degrees
B 90 degrees
B
Figure 2.2. VECTORS AND AC WAVEFORMS
Waveform Vector representation
31
Amplitude
Length
Figure 2.7: Vector length represents AC voltage magnitude.
usually assumed to be the main source voltage waveform. multiplied. Addition is perhaps the easiest vector operation to visualize. their magnitudes (lengths) add up just like regular scalar quantities: (Figure 2. being understood that those voltages (always relative between two points) are referenced to “ground. and it lags 64o behind the reference waveform. This concept of a reference point is not unlike that of the “ground” point in a circuit for the beneﬁt of voltage reference.3 milliamps at 64 degrees.3
Simple vector addition
Remember that vectors are mathematical objects just like numbers on a number line: they can be added. so we’ll begin with that.9: Phase shift between waves and vector phase angle one AC voltage source. COMPLEX NUMBERS
A
B
A angle B
phase shift
Figure 2. with a clearly deﬁned point of reference for phase it becomes possible to speak of voltages and currents in an AC circuit having deﬁnite phase angles. if the current in an AC circuit is described as “24.” Correspondingly. For example. their voltages add just as you might expect with DC batteries: (Figure 2. If vectors with common angles are added. and divided. if AC voltage sources with the same phase angle are connected together in series.3 mA. then one of those sources is arbitrarily chosen to be the phase reference for all other measurements in the circuit. the length of a vector represents the amplitude of the wave while the angle of a vector represents the phase angle of the wave relative to some other (reference) waveform. these marks are
.” it means that the current waveform has an amplitude of 24.” it becomes possible to talk about voltage “on” or “at” single points in a circuit.10: Vector magnitudes add like scalars for a common angle. • REVIEW: • When used to describe an AC quantity.
2.32
CHAPTER 2. Similarly. With a clearly deﬁned point in the circuit declared to be “ground.10)
length = 6 angle = 0 degrees length = 8 angle = 0 degrees total length = 6 + 8 = 14 angle = 0 degrees
Figure 2. subtracted.11) Please note the (+) and () polarity marks next to the leads of the two AC sources. Even though we know AC doesn’t have “polarity” in the same sense that DC does.
Even though these polarity markings would normally indicate an additive effect in a DC circuit (the two voltages working together to produce a greater total voltage). we see . of course.12: Directly opposing vector magnitudes subtract. if opposing AC voltage sources are connected in series. essential to knowing how to reference the given phase angles of the voltages. their voltages subtract as you might expect with DC batteries connected in an opposing fashion: (Figure 2. their magnitudes (lengths) subtract just like positive and negative scalar quantities subtract when added: (Figure 2.12)
length = 6 angle = 0 degrees length = 8 angle = 180 degrees total length = 6 . We could have just as well shown the opposing voltages subtracting in series like this: (Figure 2. SIMPLE VECTOR ADDITION
33
6V 0 deg + 
8V 0 deg + +

6V
+

8V
+
14 V 0 deg

14 V
+
Figure 2.14) Note how the polarities appear to be opposed to each other now. Similarly.11: “In phase” AC voltages add like DC battery voltages.and + on the 6 volt source. If vectors directly opposing each other (180o out of phase) are added together. The result.8 = 2 at 0 degrees or 2 at 180 degrees
Figure 2.3. due to the reversal of wire connections on the 8 volt source. Notice how the polarity markings in the above diagram seem to indicate additive voltages (from left to right. Since both sources are described as having equal phase
.and + on the 8 volt source). is a total voltage of 2 volts. in this AC circuit they’re actually pushing in opposite directions because one of those voltages has a phase angle of 0o and the other a phase angle of 180o .13) Determining whether or not these voltage sources are opposing each other requires an examination of their polarity markings and their phase angles. This will become more apparent in the next example.2. .
34
CHAPTER 2.
6V 0 deg + 
8V 0 deg + 6V + 
8V + 
+ 2V 180 deg
+
2V
Figure 2.13: Opposing AC voltages subtract like opposing battery voltages.14: Opposing voltages in spite of equal phase angles.
. COMPLEX NUMBERS
6V 0 deg + 
8V 180 deg +

6V
+
+
8V

2V + 180 deg
+
2V

Figure 2.
2. respectively. Instead.16)
8V 180 deg +
These voltage sources are equivalent!
8V 0 deg + 
Figure 2.13o : (Figure 2. across the two AC voltage sources. their magnitudes (lengths) add up quite differently than that of scalar magnitudes: (Figure 2.15: Just as there are two ways to express the phase of the sources. a 6 volt source at 0o added to an 8 volt source at 90o results in 10 volts at a phase angle of 53. The resultant voltage can be expressed in two different ways: 2 volts at 180o with the () symbol on the left and the (+) symbol on the right. or 2 volts at 0o with the (+) symbol on the left and the () symbol on the right. which add up in a trigonometric fashion.4
Complex vector addition
If vectors with uncommon angles are added. (Figure 2.16: Example of equivalent voltage sources.4.15)
6V 0 deg + 
8V 0 deg + 
+ 2V 180 deg 
+
2V 0 deg
Figure 2. they truly are opposed to one another. yet only
. and just like the above vectors. there are two ways to express the resultant their sum.
2.17) If two AC voltages – 90o out of phase – are added together by being connected in series. (Figure 2. this is very strange indeed. Note that its possible to obtain voltmeter indications of 6 and 8 volts.18) Compared to DC circuit analysis. these voltage quantities are complex quantities. A reversal of wires from an AC voltage source is the same as phaseshifting that source by 180o . COMPLEX VECTOR ADDITION
35
angles (0o ). and the overall effect is the same as the former scenario with “additive” polarities and differing phase angles: a total voltage of only 2 volts. their voltage magnitudes do not directly add or subtract as with scalar voltages in DC.
18: The 6V and 8V sources add to 10V with the help of trigonometry. COMPLEX NUMBERS
Vector addition
length = 10 angle = 53.17: Vector magnitudes do not directly add for unequal angles.13 degrees
length = 6 angle = 0 degrees
Figure 2.
6V 0 deg + 
8V 90 deg + +
10 V 53.
.13 degrees
6 at 0 degrees length = 8 angle = 90 degrees + 8 at 90 degrees 10 at 53.13 deg
Figure 2.36
CHAPTER 2.
2. southwest. With AC.49 ∠ 45o
Note: the proper notation for designating a vector’s angle is this symbol: ∠ 5. AC voltages may aid or oppose to any degree depending on the phase shift between them.5
Polar and rectangular notation
In order to work with these complex numbers without drawing vectors. To use the map analogy.19o (7. Vector and triangle diagrams sufﬁce to illustrate the general concept. Without the use of vector (complex number) notation to describe AC quantities.06 ∠ 330.39 ∠ 158.06 ∠ 29. DC voltages can only directly aid or directly oppose. Polar form is where a complex number is denoted by the length (otherwise known as the magnitude. we ﬁrst need some kind of standard mathematical notation.19)
8.81o)
Figure 2.” Here are two examples of vectors and their polar notations: (Figure 2. POLAR AND RECTANGULAR NOTATION
37
read 10 volts for a total voltage! There is no suitable DC analogy for what we’re seeing here with two AC voltages slightly out of phase.74o (8.19: Vectors with polar notations.26o) 8. inclusive. with nothing in between. but more precise methods of symbolism must be used if any serious calculations are to be performed on these quantities.
. or modulus) and the angle of its vector (usually denoted by an angle symbol that looks like this: ). • REVIEW: • DC voltages can only either directly aid or directly oppose each other when connected in series. polar notation for the vector from New York City to San Diego would be something like “2400 miles.2o 7.5. we’ll learn how to represent vector quantities in symbolic rather than graphical form. two voltages can be aiding or opposing one another to any degree between fullyaiding and fullyopposing. absolute value. In the next section.81 ∠ 230. There are two basic forms of complex number notation: polar and rectangular. it would be very difﬁcult to perform mathematical calculations for AC circuit analysis.
2.81 ∠ 129.
In order to distinguish the horizontal and vertical dimensions from each other. since that dimension lies in a different direction. the angled vector is taken to be the hypotenuse of a right triangle. or negative numbers less than 180. These lowercase letters do not represent a physical variable (such as instantaneous current. on the other hand. it is described in terms of “how far left/right” and “how far up/down. Rather than describing a vector’s length and direction by denoting magnitude and angle. For example.21) The horizontal component is referred to as the real component. scalar (“real”) numbers. Vectors being twodimensional things. is where a complex number is denoted by its respective horizontal and vertical components.
. described by the lengths of the adjacent and opposite sides. since that dimension is compatible with normal.20) The above vector on the right (7. COMPLEX NUMBERS
Standard orientation for vector angles in AC circuit calculations deﬁnes 0o as being to the right (horizontal). but rather are mathematical operators used to distinguish the vector’s vertical component from its horizontal component. The “imaginary” axis of the graph corresponds to another number line situated at 90o to the “real” one.19o ) can also be denoted as 7.38
CHAPTER 2. The vertical component is referred to as the imaginary component.22) The “real” axis of the graph corresponds to the familiar number line we saw earlier: the one with both positive and negative values on it. the vertical is preﬁxed with a lowercase “i” (in pure mathematics) or “j” (in electronics). (Figure 2. and 270o straight down. As a complete complex number.81 129. totally alien to the scale of the real numbers.” These two dimensional ﬁgures (horizontal and vertical) are symbolized by two numerical ﬁgures.81 230. Please note that vectors angled “down” can have angles represented in polar form as positive numbers in excess of 180. (Figure 2. a vector angled 270o (straight down) can also be said to have an angle of 90o . In essence.20: The vector compass Rectangular form. the horizontal and vertical quantities are written as a sum: (Figure 2. 180o to the left.81o .
The vector "compass" 90o
180o
0o
270o (90o)
Figure 2. making 90o straight up. also symbolized by a lowercase letter “i”).
2."real"
+ "real"
j .5.
+ "imaginary" +j
.j4 "4 right and 4 down"
4 + j0 "4 left and 0 up/down"
4 j4 "4 left and 4 down"
Figure 2.22: Vector compass showing real and imaginary axes
.21: In “rectangular” form the vector’s length and direction are denoted in terms of its horizontal and vertical span."imaginary"
Figure 2. the ﬁrst number representing the the horizontal (“real”) and the second number (with the “j” preﬁx) representing the vertical (“imaginary”) dimensions. POLAR AND RECTANGULAR NOTATION
39
4 + j4 "4 right and 4 up"
4 + j0 "4 right and 0 up/down"
4 + j4 "4 left and 4 up"
4 .
Conversion between the two notational forms involves simple trigonometry. ﬁnd the real component by multiplying the polar magnitude by the cosine of the angle.
Either method of notation is valid for complex numbers. respectively: (Figure 2.
Figure 2. This may be understood more readily by drawing the quantities as sides of a right triangle.23: Vector compass with real and imaginary (“j”) number lines..23)
5 4 3 "imaginary" number line 2 1 .. thus the two number lines perpendicular to each other: (Figure 2. To convert from polar to rectangular.40
CHAPTER 2.. rectangular form lending itself to addition and subtraction. 5 4 3 2 1 "real" number line 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 . the horizontal and vertical sides representing the “real” and “imaginary” rectangular components. and polar form lending itself to multiplication and division. the hypotenuse of the triangle representing the vector itself (its length and angle with respect to the horizontal constituting the polar form). The primary reason for having two methods of notation is for ease of longhand calculation. COMPLEX NUMBERS
we must have a twodimensional “map” upon which to express them.. and the imaginary component by multiplying the polar magnitude by the sine of the angle.24)
.
ﬁnd the polar magnitude through the use of the Pythagorean Theorem (the polar magnitude is the hypotenuse of a right triangle.87o (5)(cos 36.24: Magnitude vector in terms of real (4) and imaginary (j3) components.87o) = 4 (5)(sin 36.87o +4 +j3
Figure 2. and the angle by taking the arctangent of the imaginary component divided by the real component:
4 + j3
(rectangular form)
c=
a2 + b2
(pythagorean theorem)
polar magnitude = polar magnitude = 5 polar angle = arctan polar angle = 36.87 ) = 3 4 + j3
o
(polar form) (real component) (imaginary component) (rectangular form)
To convert from rectangular to polar.5.87o 5 ∠ 36. Example: ﬂy 45 miles 203o (West by Southwest).
.2.
5 ∠ 36. and the real and imaginary components are the adjacent and opposite sides.87o
• REVIEW:
42 + 32
3 4
(polar form)
• Polar notation denotes a complex number in terms of its vector’s length and angular direction from the starting point. POLAR AND RECTANGULAR NOTATION
41
length = 5 angle = 36. respectively).
simply add up the real components of the complex numbers to determine the real component of the sum. The imaginary component is preceded by a lowercase “j.j15 255 .42
CHAPTER 2.j3 6 + j2
175 . the ﬁrst quantity is the “real” component (horizontal dimension of vector) and the second quantity is the “imaginary” component (vertical dimension of vector). the horizontal side representing the rectangular “real” component. and add the angles of the complex numbers to determine the angle of the product:
. Example: drive 41 miles West.6
Complex number arithmetic
Since complex numbers are legitimate mathematical entities. with the hypotenuse representing the vector itself (polar form: hypotenuse length = magnitude. subtracted.(20 + j82) 56 .” sometimes called the j operator. It is highly recommended that you equip yourself with a scientiﬁc calculator capable of performing arithmetic functions easily on complex numbers. polar is the favored notation to work with.j15) 95 . inverted. COMPLEX NUMBERS
• Rectangular notation denotes a complex number in terms of its horizontal and vertical dimensions. It will make your study of AC circuit much more pleasant than if you’re forced to do all calculations the longer way.
2.(80 . Addition and subtraction with complex numbers in rectangular form is easy.” This section will show you how the basic operations are performed. but these operations can also be done “by hand. divided. they can be added. multiplied.j3) 2 + j8
175 . Some scientiﬁc calculators are programmed to directly perform these operations on two or more complex numbers.j49
36 + j10 + 20 + j82 16 + j92
When subtracting complex numbers in rectangular form.j34 . simply subtract the real component of the second complex number from the real component of the ﬁrst to arrive at the real component of the difference. and add up the imaginary components of the complex numbers to determine the imaginary component of the sum:
2 + j5 + 4 . then turn and drive 18 miles South. and such. For addition. When multiplying complex numbers in polar form. and subtract the imaginary component of the second complex number from the imaginary component of the ﬁrst to arrive the imaginary component of the difference:
2 + j5 .(4 . just like any other kind of number. and the vertical side representing the rectangular “imaginary” component. just like scalar numbers.j19
36 + j1 0 . • In rectangular notation.j34 + 80 . simply multiply the polar magnitudes of the complex numbers to determine the polar magnitude of the product. • Both polar and rectangular forms of notation for a complex number can be related graphically in the form of a right triangle. squared. angle with respect to horizontal side = angle).j72
For longhand multiplication and division.
multiplication. and you’ll have little trouble with AC circuit analysis.273 ∠ 150o
= 0.2. Virtually any arithmetic operation that can be done with scalar numbers can be done with complex numbers. subtraction. and inversion. and inversion. including powers. multiplication. • REVIEW:
.0032 ∠ 10o = 312. a complex number. and even trigonometric functions (although this involves a whole new perspective in trigonometry called hyperbolic functions which is well beyond the scope of this discussion). or “invert” (1/x).6 ∠ 60o
To obtain the reciprocal.6. and subtract the angle of the second complex number from the angle of the ﬁrst complex number to arrive at the angle of the quotient:
35 ∠ 65o 10 ∠ 12o 124 ∠ 250o 11 ∠ 100o 3 ∠ 30o 5 ∠ 30o
= 3. COMPLEX NUMBER ARITHMETIC
43
(35 ∠ 65o)(10 ∠ 12o) = 350 ∠ 53o (124 ∠ 250o)(11 ∠ 100o) = 1364 ∠ 10o or 1364 ∠ 350o (3 ∠ 30o)(5 ∠ 30o) = 15 ∠ 0o
Division of polarform complex numbers is also easy: simply divide the polar magnitude of the ﬁrst complex number by the polar magnitude of the second complex number to arrive at the polar magnitude of the quotient. division. which is nothing more than a complex number with no imaginary component (angle = 0):
1 1 ∠ 0o = = 0.1 ∠ 12o 10 ∠ 12o 10 ∠ 12o 1 0. Be sure that you’re familiar with the basic arithmetic operations of addition.5 ∠ 77o
= 11. roots. however.0032 ∠ 10o = 1 ∠ 0o 0.02857 ∠ 65o o o 35 ∠ 65 35 ∠ 65 1 1 ∠ 0o = = 0. solving simultaneous equations with complex coefﬁcients.5 ∠ 10o
These are the basic operations you will need to know in order to manipulate complex numbers in the analysis of AC circuits. Operations with complex numbers are by no means limited just to addition. subtraction. simply divide the number (in polar form) into a scalar value of 1. division.
divide the magnitudes and subtract one angle from the other.7
More on AC ”polarity”
Complex numbers are useful for AC circuit analysis because they provide a convenient method of symbolically denoting phase shift between AC quantities like voltage and current. and use colorcoded meter test leads (red and black). we denote the polarity of voltage sources and voltage drops explicitly. it would be decidedly unconventional: (Figure 2. add the real components and add the imaginary components. When we measure a voltage. multiply the magnitudes and add the angles. and two test leads on the instrument with which to make connection. for most people the equivalence between abstract vectors and real circuit quantities is not an easy one to grasp. as well as polarity markings. we know that its test leads are connected “backward” to the voltage (red lead connected to the “” and black lead to the “+”). using “+” and “” symbols.26: Decidedly unconventional polarity marking. we have a choice in how we connect a voltmeter or other voltagemeasuring instrument to the source of voltage. However.25)
+ 6V Figure 2. • To multiply complex numbers in polar form. Although it would be mathematically correct to represent a battery’s voltage as a negative ﬁgure with reversed polarity markings. Being that alternating current has no set “polarity” as direct current does. as there are two points between which the voltage exists.26)
6 V +
Figure 2. To divide. Voltage is an inherently relative quantity. Batteries have their polarity designated by way of intrinsic symbology: the shortline side of a battery is always the negative () side and the longline side always the positive (+): (Figure 2.44
CHAPTER 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
• To add complex numbers in rectangular form.
. Subtraction is similar. these polarity markings and their relationship to phase angle tends to be confusing. If a digital voltmeter indicates a negative DC voltage.25: Conventional battery polarity. In DC circuits. Earlier in this chapter we saw how AC voltage sources are given voltage ﬁgures in complex form (magnitude and phase angle). This section is written in the attempt to clarify some of these issues.
2.
however. labeled with the exact voltage ﬁgures obtained by the voltmeter.” A voltmeter connected to the above battery with red lead to the bottom terminal and black lead to the top terminal would indeed indicate a negative voltage (6 volts).30) This second voltmeter reading.31) It should be obvious to any experienced student of DC electricity that these two batteries are opposing one another. draw the two sources as nondescript boxes. In AC circuits. MORE ON AC ”POLARITY”
45
Interpreting such notation might be easier if the “+” and “” polarity markings were viewed as reference points for voltmeter test leads. aiding voltage sources add with one another to form the total voltage. the “+” meaning “red” and the “” meaning “black. Because of this fact. this form of notation and interpretation is not as unusual as you might think: its commonly encountered in problems of DC network analysis where “+” and “” polarity marks are initially drawn according to educated guess.2. the phase angle of an AC voltage has meaning only in the context of knowing which of the two points is considered the “reference” point. The mathematical sign of a DC voltmeter’s reading has meaning only in the context of its test lead connections: which terminal the red lead is touching. We never describe an AC voltage as being negative in sign. assuming that both sources are unlabeled as to their polarities. is a negative () 17 volts. so we subtract 17 volts from 24 volts to obtain the total voltage across the two: 7 volts. Thus. “+” and “” polarity marks are often placed by the terminals of an AC voltage in schematic diagrams to give the stated phase angle a frame of reference. voltage is relative between two points. Instead. which tells us that the black test lead is actually touching the positive side of voltage source #2. we know source #1 is a battery facing in this orientation: (Figure 2. First. and the red lead of the meter really is touching the positive. By deﬁnition. we simply say that one is 180o out of phase with the other.32) According to this diagram.28) This ﬁrst measurement of +24 across the lefthand voltage source tells us that the black lead of the meter really is touching the negative side of voltage source #1. we don’t deal with “negative” quantities of voltage. Thus. By deﬁnition. the polarity marks (which indicate meter test lead placement) indicate the sources aiding each other.27) The mathematical sign of a digital DC voltmeter’s display has meaning only in the context of its test lead connections. If one AC voltage directly opposes another AC voltage. Actually. we describe to what degree one voltage aids or opposes another by phase: the timeshift between two waveforms. we know that source #2 is a battery facing in the opposite direction: (Figure 2. Let’s review these principles with some graphical aids. because the facility of polar notation allows for vectors pointing in an opposite direction. and later interpreted as correct or “backward” according to the mathematical sign of the ﬁgure calculated. and we have a choice in how we might connect a voltagemeasuring instrument between those two points. opposing voltages subtract from one another. while the red test lead is actually touching the negative. though. and which terminal the black lead is touching. the principle of relating test lead connections to the mathematical sign of a DC voltmeter indication: (Figure 2. We could. Using the voltmeter to measure across the ﬁrst source: (Figure 2. Consider the use of a DC voltmeter in determining whether or not two DC voltage sources are aiding or opposing each other. Still.29) Measuring the other unknown voltage source: (Figure 2. however.7. so we add 24 volts to 17 volts to obtain 7 volts: still the correct
. the polarity marks indicating voltmeter test lead placement: (Figure 2. Likewise.
28: (+) Reading indicates black is (). COMPLEX NUMBERS
V V
OFF
A A
V V
OFF
A A
A
COM
A
COM
6V
6V
Figure 2.27: Test lead colors provide a frame of reference for interpreting the sign (+ or ) of the meter’s indication. red is (+).
.46
CHAPTER 2.
The meter tells us +24 volts
V V
OFF
A A
A
COM
Source 1
Source 2
Total voltage?
Figure 2.
7.31: 17V source is polarized (+) to ()
24 V Source 1
17 V + Source 2
+
Figure 2.32: Voltmeter readings as read from meters.
. red is ().29: 24V source is polarized () to (+). MORE ON AC ”POLARITY”
47
24 V
Source 1
Source 2
Total voltage?
Figure 2.2.
24 V
Source 1
17 V
Source 2

Total voltage = 7 V
+
Figure 2.30: () Reading indicates black is (+).
The meter tells us 17 volts
V V
OFF
A A
A
COM
Source 1
Source 2
Total voltage?
Figure 2.
59o . the result will always be correct.33: Phase angle substitutes for ± sign.861 V ∠ 16. correlate with the given phase angle to represent the true phase relationship of that voltage with other voltages in the circuit. except that phase angle substitutes for mathematical sign.861 V ∠ 16. whose symbols intrinsically deﬁne polarity by means of short and long lines. However. we need polarity markings to provide frames of reference for those voltages’ phase angles. the polarity markings serve as frames of reference to place the voltage ﬁgures’ mathematical signs in proper context. any polarity marks must be included as additional symbols on the diagram. Therefore. AC voltage symbols have no intrinsic polarity marking. it would be perfectly acceptable to represent the 6 volt source as 6 V 225o .33) Take for example the following circuit:
10 V ∠ 0o +
6 V ∠ 45o +
14. and still arrive at the same total voltage: (Figure 2. If we let the polarity markings guide our decision to either add or subtract voltage ﬁgures – whether those polarity markings represent the true polarity or just the meter test lead orientation – and include the mathematical signs of those voltage ﬁgures in our calculations.34)
10 V ∠ 0o +
6 V ∠ 225o + 
14. (Figure 2. with a reversed set of polarity markings. Again. so to determine the total voltage across the resistor we must add the voltage ﬁgures of 10 V 0o and 6 V 45o together to obtain 14.
. 6 V 45o with negative on the left and positive on the right is exactly the same as 6 V 225o with positive on the left and negative on the right: the reversal of polarity markings perfectly complements the addition of 180o to the phase angle designation: (Figure 2.59o
Figure 2. They must. COMPLEX NUMBERS
answer. In order to relate multiple AC voltages at different phase angles to each other.59o
Figure 2. and there is no one “correct” way in which to place them.861 V 16.34: Reversing the voltmeter leads on the 6V source changes the phase angle by 180o . The same is true for AC voltages. however. The polarity markings show these two voltage sources aiding each other.48
CHAPTER 2.35) Unlike DC voltage sources.
taking into account phase as well as magnitude. no frequency value is speciﬁed. with the exception of power calculations (Joule’s Law). The only qualiﬁcation is that all variables must be expressed in complex form. All the rules and laws learned in the study of DC circuits apply to AC circuits as well (Ohm’s Law. If this is the case. is equivalent to .36)
22 V ∠ 64
+ E1 + E2 + E3 load
o
12 V ∠ 35o 15 V ∠ 0o
Figure 2. .8
Some examples with AC circuits
Let’s connect three AC voltage sources in series and use complex numbers to determine additive voltages.36: KVL allows addition of complex voltages.
2. thus meeting our qualiﬁcations for applying DC rules to an AC circuit (all ﬁgures given in complex form. all of the same frequency). Notice that although magnitude and phase angle is given for each AC voltage source. network analysis methods). 6 V ∠ 225o + 
Figure 2. Kirchhoff ’s Laws. . The setup of our equation to ﬁnd total voltage appears as such:
. The polarity marks for all three voltage sources are oriented in such a way that their stated voltages should add to make the total voltage across the load resistor.35: Reversing polarity adds 180o to phase angle • REVIEW: • Polarity markings are sometimes given to AC voltages in circuit schematics in order to provide a frame of reference for their phase angles. and all voltages and currents must be of the same frequency (in order that their phase relationships remain constant). .8. . SOME EXAMPLES WITH AC CIRCUITS
49
6 V ∠ 45o + . (Figure 2.2. it is assumed that all frequencies are equal.
In order to determine what the resultant vector’s magnitude and angle are without resorting to graphic images.37: Graphic addition of vector voltages.38: Resultant is equivalent to the vector sum of the three original voltages. the vectors add up as shown in Figure 2. Remember.50
CHAPTER 2. we can convert each one of these polarform complex numbers into rectangular form and add.37. we’re adding these ﬁgures together because the polarity marks for the three voltage sources are oriented in an additive manner:
.38)
resultant vector
22 ∠ 64o 15 ∠ 0o
12 ∠ 35o
Figure 2.
22 ∠ 64o 15 ∠ 0o
12 ∠ 35o
Figure 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
Etotal = E1 + E2 + E3 Etotal = (22 V ∠ 64o) + (12 V ∠ 35o) + (15 V ∠ 0o)
Graphically. The sum of these vectors will be a resultant vector originating at the starting point for the 22 volt vector (dot at upperleft of diagram) and terminating at the ending point for the 15 volt vector (arrow tip at the middleright of the diagram): (Figure 2.
4740 .2.5o (with reference to the 15 volt source.8052 volts 20.j12. and was indeed the ﬁnal step in our sample problem here. whose phase angle was arbitrarily stated at zero degrees so as to be the “reference”
.5018o .000E+01 v(3) 3. we get a total voltage of 36. There are other components (notably capacitors and inductors) which do not respond uniformly to different frequencies. SOME EXAMPLES WITH AC CIRCUITS
51
15 V ∠ 0o = 15 + j0 V 12 V ∠ 35o = 9.8298 + j6. Although rectangular notation is convenient for addition and subtraction.39) ac voltage addition v1 1 0 ac 15 0 sin v2 2 1 ac 12 35 sin v3 3 2 ac 22 64 sin r1 3 0 10k . it is not very applicable to practical measurements.7735 V 15 + j0 V
9. Rectangular ﬁgures must be converted to polar ﬁgures (speciﬁcally polar magnitude) before they can be related to actual circuit measurements. the choice of frequencies for the simulation (60 Hz) is quite arbitrary. the 10 kΩ resistor value is quite arbitrary.681E+01
I’m using a frequency of 60 Hz as a default value
vp(3) 2.end freq 6. We can use SPICE to verify the accuracy of our results.8298 + j6. Also.8052 volts).8052 volts. but that is another subject! (Figure 2. lagging the 15 volt (0o phase reference) by 20. but not a voltmeter.6442 .050E+01
Sure enough. The same principle holds true for AC ammeters: they indicate the polar magnitude of the current.j19. An oscilloscope could be used to display two voltage waveforms and thus provide a phase shift measurement.5018o . not the phase angle.ac lin 1 60 60 .8.81 volts 20.8829 V 22 V ∠ 64o = 9. this equates to 36.6442 .7735 V 34. A voltmeter connected across these points in a real circuit would only indicate the polar magnitude of the voltage (36. It’s there so that SPICE does not declare an opencircuit error and abort analysis. This is extremely important in relating calculated ﬁgures of voltage and current to real circuits.8829 V + 9.0) vp(3.j19.print ac v(3. because resistors respond uniformly for all frequencies of AC voltage and current.0) . What this means in real terms is that the voltage measured across these three voltage sources will be 36. In this test circuit. not the angle.8906 V
In polar form.
40)
22 V ∠ 64o
Polarity reversed on source E2 !
+ E1 E2 + + E3 load
12 V ∠ 35o 15 V ∠ 0o
Figure 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
3 22 V ∠ 64o 2 12 V ∠ 35o 1 15 V ∠ 0o 0 + V3 + V2 R1 + V1 
3
10 kΩ
0
Figure 2.40: Polarity of E2 (12V) is reversed. But with AC. this is counterintuitive. and 22 volt supplies connected in series? With DC.39: Spice circuit schematic. the vector will be drawn 180o opposite of what it was before: (Figure 2. even though the leads have been reversed. How is it possible to obtain a total voltage of just over 36 volts with 15 volt. Note how the 12 volt supply’s phase angle is still referred to as 35o . Remember that the phase angle of any voltage drop is stated in reference to its noted polarity. Even though the angle is still written as 35o . waveform).41) The resultant (sum) vector should begin at the upperleft point (origin of the 22 volt vector)
.52
CHAPTER 2. as voltage ﬁgures will either directly add or subtract. depending on polarity. our “polarity” (phase shift) can vary anywhere in between fullaiding and fullopposing. 12 volt. this would be impossible. At ﬁrst glance. What if we took the same circuit and reversed one of the supply’s connections? Its contribution to the total voltage would then be the opposite of what it was before: (Figure 2. and this allows for such paradoxical summing.
SOME EXAMPLES WITH AC CIRCUITS
53
22 ∠ 64o
12 ∠ 35o (reversed) = 12 ∠ 215o or 12 ∠ 35o 15 ∠ 0o
Figure 2.42: Resultant is vector sum of voltage sources.41: Direction of E2 is reversed.2. The connection reversal on the 12 volt supply can be represented in two different ways in
. and terminate at the right arrow tip of the 15 volt vector: (Figure 2.8.42)
22 ∠ 64o
resultant vector
12 ∠ 35o (reversed) = 12 ∠ 215o or 12 ∠ 35ο
15 ∠ 0o
Figure 2.
or a reversal of sign on the magnitude (making it 12 volts 35o ).print ac v(3.000E+01
v(3) 3.8829 V or 12 V ∠ 35o = 9.end
freq 6.050E+01
vp(3) 6.9368o .j6.7735 V 14.8143 .j6.4964 V verify the results of our calculations: 60. it can be expressed in either of two different ways: adding 180o to the angle. conversion to rectangular form yields the same result:
12 V ∠ 35o (reversed) = 12 V ∠ 215o = 9. Once again. • When reversing the direction of a vector (equivalent to reversing the polarity of an AC voltage source in relation to other voltage sources).j19.j26. with the exception of power calculations (Joule’s Law).8298 .0) . this equates to 30.094E+01
• REVIEW: • All the laws and rules of DC circuits apply to AC circuits. • Meter measurements in an AC circuit correspond to the polar magnitudes of calculated values. Rectangular expressions of complex quantities in an AC circuit have no direct.j6.
.54
CHAPTER 2.8829 V + 9. and all voltages and currents are at the same frequency.0) vp(3. empirical equivalent. so long as all values are expressed and manipulated in complex form.ac lin 1 60 60 .6442 .8298 . then:
15
+ j0
V
9. or reversing the sign of the magnitude. COMPLEX NUMBERS
polar form: by an addition of 180o to its vector angle (making it 12 volts 215o ). we will use SPICE to
ac voltage addition v1 1 0 ac 15 0 sin v2 1 2 ac 12 35 sin Note the reversal of node numbers 2 and 1 v3 3 2 ac 22 64 sin to simulate the swapping of connections r1 3 0 10k . although they are convenient for performing addition and subtraction.6564 V
In polar form. Either way.8829 V
The resulting addition of voltages in rectangular form.8298 . as Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws require.
See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.9. CONTRIBUTORS
55
2.9
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.2.
. from most recent to ﬁrst. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.
56
CHAPTER 2. COMPLEX NUMBERS
.
. . Parallel resistorinductor circuits Inductor quirks . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . it would look something like this: (Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Series resistorinductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . More on the “skin effect” .1). . .2) 57
.Chapter 3
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
Contents
3. . . . . . . . . AC inductor circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1: Pure resistive AC circuit: resistor voltage and current are in phase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 3. . . . . . . .1 3. .2 3.4 3. . 57 59 64 71 74 77 79
3. .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . .1
AC resistor circuits
ET I ER IR ET = ER I = IR R 0° IR ET
Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If we were to plot the current and voltage for a very simple AC circuit consisting of a source and a resistor (Figure 3. . . .7 AC resistor circuits . . . .
Because the resistor simply and directly resists the ﬂow of electrons at all periods of time.2: Voltage and current “in phase” for resistive circuit. This consistent “polarity” of power tells us that the resistor is always dissipating power. Likewise. the voltage is also positive. Whether the
. which results in a positive value for power (a negative number multiplied by a negative number equals a positive number). the voltage is also negative. the instantaneous voltage across the resistor is also zero. the voltage across the resistor is also at its positive peak. Conversely. at the moment in time where the current through the resistor is at its positive peak. When the instantaneous value for current is zero. the waveform for the voltage drop across the resistor is exactly in phase with the waveform for the current through it. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
e= i= + Time 
Figure 3. when the current is negative (below the line). Note that the power is never a negative value. At any given point in time along the waves. and plot those values on the same graph: (Figure 3. When the current is positive (above the line). Ohm’s Law holds true for the instantaneous values of voltage and current. We can look at any point in time along the horizontal axis of the plot and compare those values of current and voltage with each other (any “snapshot” look at the values of a wave are referred to as instantaneous values. We can also calculate the power dissipated by this resistor. and so on. meaning the values at that instant in time).3)
e= i= p= + Time 
Figure 3.3: Instantaneous AC power in a pure resistive circuit is always positive.58
CHAPTER 3. taking it from the source and releasing it in the form of heat energy. resulting in a power (p=ie) of a positive value.
or level slope. the polarity will reverse and “push with” the electron ﬂow to oppose the decrease. a resistor still dissipates energy.6) Things get even more interesting when we plot the power for this circuit: (Figure 3. the induced voltage will “push against” the electron ﬂow. rather than resistance. meaning the rate of change of instantaneous current (i) over time. but it means the exact same thing. and the instantaneous voltage is at a peak wherever the instantaneous current is at maximum change (the points of steepest slope on the current wave. by dropping a voltage directly proportional to the rate of change of current. it would look something like this: (Figure 3. The inductance (L) is in Henrys. in amps per second. In accordance with Lenz’s Law. let’s analyze a simple inductor circuit: (Figure 3.4)
ET
I EL IL ET = EL I = IL L
EL IL
90°
Figure 3.
59
3. Whereas resistors simply oppose the ﬂow of electrons through them (by dropping a voltage directly proportional to the current). the relationship between the voltage dropped across the inductor and rate of current change through the inductor is as such:
e = L di dt
The expression di/dt is one from calculus. the voltage “leads” the current. AC INDUCTOR CIRCUITS
current is positive or negative. This results in a voltage wave that is 90o out of phase with the current wave. and the instantaneous voltage (e).2. If we were to plot the current and voltage for this very simple circuit.3. Therefore. inductors oppose changes in current through them. To show what happens with alternating current. if current is increasing in magnitude. the power equals zero whenever the instantaneous current or voltage is
. Looking at the graph. this induced voltage is always of such a polarity as to try to maintain current at its present value. (Figure 3. That is.5) Remember. if current is decreasing. is in volts. This opposition to current change is called reactance. and the current “lags” behind the voltage. Sometimes you will ﬁnd the rate of instantaneous voltage expressed as “v” instead of “e” (v = L di/dt). the instantaneous voltage is zero whenever the instantaneous current is at a peak (zero change.4: Pure inductive circuit: Inductor current lags inductor voltage by 90o .7) Because instantaneous power is the product of the instantaneous voltage and the instantaneous current (p=ie). where it crosses the zero line).2
AC inductor circuits
Inductors do not behave the same as resistors. the voltage dropped across an inductor is a reaction against the change in current through it. on the current sine wave). of course. Expressed mathematically. the voltage wave seems to have a “head start” on the current wave.
() voltage = max. instantaneous power may be positive or negative
.6: Current lags voltage by 90o in a pure inductive circuit.5: Pure inductive circuit. ()
Figure 3.
current slope = 0 voltage = 0
current slope = max. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
+
e= i= Time
Figure 3. (+) voltage = max.7: In a pure inductive circuit. waveforms.
+
e= i= p= Time
Figure 3. (+) e= i= Time
+
current slope = 0 voltage = 0 current slope = max.60
CHAPTER 3.
The exact formula for determining reactance is as follows:
XL = 2πfL
If we expose a 10 mH inductor to frequencies of 60. because the current and voltage waves are 90o out of phase. known as the angular velocity of the AC system. But what does negative power mean? It means that the inductor is releasing power back to the circuit. Whenever the instantaneous current and voltage are both positive (above the line).0796 In the reactance equation.3. it will produce one cycle for every full turn of shaft rotation. Mind you. if you imagine one cycle of AC to represent a full circle’s rotation. which dissipates energy in the form of heat.1: Reactance of a 10 mH inductor: Frequency (Hertz) Reactance (Ohms) 60 3. the lowercase Greek letter Omega. the reactance formula XL = 2πfL could also be written as XL = ωL. Since the positive and negative power cycles are equal in magnitude and duration over time. reactance associate with an inductor is usually symbolized by the capital letter X with a letter L as a subscript. A radian is a unit of angular measurement: there are 2π radians in one full circle. resulting in equally frequent occurrences of negative instantaneous power.1. It is the number of radians per second that the alternating current is “rotating” at. it has a different name: reactance. which have no wire resistance. Because of the differences. this is for perfect inductors only. but different in that it always results in a phase shift between current and voltage. quite unlike the resistance of a resistor. the power is positive.7699 120 7. AC INDUCTOR CIRCUITS
61
zero. What this means in a practical sense is that the reactance of an inductor dissipates a net energy of zero. If this constant of 2π is multiplied by frequency in Hertz (cycles per second). the power is also positive when the instantaneous current and voltage are both negative (below the line). If the alternator producing the AC is a doublepole unit. 120. Table 3.5398 2500 157. the term “2πf ” (everything on the righthand side except the L) has a special meaning unto itself. To be speciﬁc. it will manifest the reactances in Table Figure 3. Since inductors drop voltage in proportion to the rate of current change. like this: XL . An inductor’s opposition to change in current translates to an opposition to alternating current in general. the inductor releases just as much power back to the circuit as it absorbs over the span of a complete cycle. which is by deﬁnition always changing in instantaneous magnitude and direction.
. Angular velocity may be represented by the expression 2πf. which appears similar to our Roman lowercase “w”: ω. which is every 2π radians. What this means is that reactance in ohms for any inductor is directly proportional to the frequency of the alternating current.2. while a positive power means that it is absorbing power from the circuit. there are times when one is positive while the other is negative. Thus. or 360o . the result will be a ﬁgure in radians per second. As with the resistor example. However. This opposition to alternating current is similar to resistance. except that its mathematical symbol is X instead of R. and less voltage for slowerchanging currents. they will drop more voltage for fasterchanging currents. or it may be represented by its own symbol. just like resistance is. Reactance to AC is expressed in ohms. and it dissipates zero power. and 2500 Hz. just as there are 360o in a full circle.
it is apparent that it is directly proportional to reactance in an inductor. An example circuit is shown here: (Figure 3. an inductor will offer greater opposition to the passage of current. Any way we express the angular velocity of the system. It is not necessarily representative of the actual shaft speed of the alternator producing the AC. the angular velocity will be a multiple of the shaft speed. Alternating current in a simple inductive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the inductive reactance (in ohms). REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
It must be understood that this “angular velocity” is an expression of how rapidly the AC waveforms are cycling.8)
10 V 60 Hz
L
10 mH
Figure 3. the voltage has a phase shift of +90o with respect to the current. too:
. As was shown earlier. we need to keep in mind that voltage and current are not in phase here.6526 A
However. For this reason.8: Inductive reactance
(inductive reactance of 10 mH inductor at 60 Hz) XL = 3. just as either alternating or direct current in a simple resistive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the resistance (in ohms). ω is sometimes expressed in units of electrical radians per second rather than (plain) radians per second.9) If we represent these phase angles of voltage and current mathematically in the form of complex numbers.7699 Ω E X 10 V 3. If the alternator has more than two poles. so as to distinguish it from mechanical motion. and vice versa. As the frequency (or alternator shaft speed) is increased in an AC system.7699 Ω
I= I=
I = 2. we ﬁnd that an inductor’s opposition to current has a phase angle. (Figure 3.62
CHAPTER 3. a full cycle being equal to 2π radians.
9: Current lags voltage by 90o in an inductor. It is symbolized by the lowercase Greek letter “omega.” or ω. Reactance is symbolized by the capital letter “X” and is measured in ohms just like resistance (R).7699 Ω
For an inductor: 90o 90o
E 0o I Opposition (XL)
Figure 3.6526 A ∠ 0ο
Opposition =
Opposition = 3. meaning that an inductor’s opposition to current is a positive imaginary quantity.2. especially for complex AC circuits where reactance and resistance interact. • REVIEW: • Inductive reactance is the opposition that an inductor offers to alternating current due to its phaseshifted storage and release of energy in its magnetic ﬁeld.
. This phase angle of reactive opposition to current becomes critically important in circuit analysis.3. Mathematically. we say that the phase angle of an inductor’s opposition to current is 90o . AC INDUCTOR CIRCUITS
63
Opposition =
Voltage Current 10 V ∠ 90o 2. in units of electrical radians per second instead of cycles per second. It will prove beneﬁcial to represent any component’s opposition to current in terms of complex numbers rather than scalar quantities of resistance and reactance.7699 Ω ∠ 90o or 0 + j3. • Inductive reactance can be calculated using this formula: XL = 2πfL • The angular velocity of an AC circuit is another way of expressing its frequency.
or 5 + j0 Ω).7699 Ω (XL) Ztotal = (5 Ω ∠ 0o) + (3. just like resistance and reactance.7699 Ω ∠ 900) or (5 + j0 Ω) + (0 + j3. The resistor will offer 5 Ω of resistance to AC current regardless of frequency.10: Series resistor inductor circuit: Current lags applied voltage by 0o to 90o . the more it opposes the AC ﬂow of electrons.7699 Ω inductive reactance) Ztotal = 5 Ω (R) + 3.016o
. the total circuit impedance is:
Ztotal = (5 Ω resistance) + (3. the higher the frequency. Take this circuit as an example to work with: (Figure 3. This term is called impedance. In the above example. Because the resistor’s resistance is a real number (5 Ω 0o .10)
R ET I IR EL IL ET = ER+ EL I = IR = IL L EL 37° I ER ET 10 V 60 Hz
R 5Ω L 10 mH
Figure 3. while the inductor will offer 3.3
Series resistorinductor circuits
In the previous section. the combined effect of the two components will be an opposition to current equal to the complex sum of the two numbers. In other words. or 0 + j3.64
CHAPTER 3. its symbol is Z.7699 Ω 90o .7699 Ω) Ztotal = 5 + j3.262 Ω ∠ 37. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
• Inductive reactance increases with increasing frequency. and the inductor’s reactance is an imaginary number (3. we explored what would happen in simple resistoronly and inductoronly AC circuits. In order to express this opposition succinctly. Now we will mix the two components together in series form and investigate the effects.7699 Ω or 6.7699 Ω of reactance to AC current at 60 Hz. This combined opposition will be a vector combination of resistance and reactance.7699 Ω). and it is also expressed in the unit of ohms. we need a more comprehensive term for opposition to current than either resistance or reactance alone.
3.
this is a far more comprehensive form of Ohm’s Law than what was taught in DC electronics (E=IR).016o as opposed to a full 90o as was the case in the purely inductive circuit.3. respectively.262 Ω ∠ 37.
I= I=
E Z 10 V ∠ 0o 6. form
In fact.597 A ∠ 37. although this time the lag is not as great: only 37. SERIES RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS
65
Impedance is related to voltage and current just as you might expect. To calculate current in the above circuit.11)
phase shift = 37. (The phase angles of resistive and inductive impedance are always 0o and +90o . not scalar. (Figure 3. in a manner similar to resistance in Ohm’s Law:
Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ I= E Z Z= E I
All quantities expressed in complex.016o + e= i= Time Figure 3. the phase relationships between voltage and current haven’t changed. can be and should be represented as a single impedance in an AC circuit. which is generally assumed to be zero. just as impedance is a far more comprehensive expression of opposition to the ﬂow of electrons than resistance is.3. separately or in combination (series/parallel). Any resistance and any reactance.11: Current lags voltage in a series LR circuit. Voltage across the resistor is in phase (0o shift) with the current through
.016o
I = 1. For the resistor and the inductor. the current wave lags behind the voltage wave (of the source). regardless of the given phase angles for voltage or current). we ﬁrst need to give a phase angle reference for the voltage source.016o
As with the purely inductive circuit.
This tells us that E and I are still 90o out of phase (for the inductor only).016o)(3. while the current through the inductor has a phase angle of 37. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
it.66
CHAPTER 3.597 A ∠ 37.984o) Etotal = 10 V ∠ 0o
Let’s check the validity of our calculations with SPICE: (Figure 3. a difference of exactly 90o between the two. and the voltage across the inductor is +90o out of phase with the current going through it.7699 Ω ∠ 90o) EL = 6.984o .12)
.
E = IZ EL = ILZL EL = (1.
The voltage across the resistor has the exact same phase angle as the current through it.597 A ∠ 37.016o . We can also mathematically prove that these complex values add together to make the total voltage.0203 V ∠ 52.016o) + (6.984o Notice that the phase angle of EL is exactly 90o more than the phase angle of the current.016o)(5 Ω ∠ 0o) ER = 7. telling us that E and I are in phase (for the resistor only).
The voltage across the inductor has a phase angle of 52. just as Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law would predict:
Etotal = ER + EL Etotal = (7. We can verify this mathematically:
E = IZ ER = IRZR ER = (1.9847 V ∠ 37.0203 V ∠ 52.016o Notice that the phase angle of ER is equal to the phase angle of the current.9847 V ∠ 37.
print ac vp(1. This is merely an idiosyncrasy of SPICE and does not represent anything signiﬁcant in the circuit simulation itself. it would be beneﬁcial for us to use the “table” method. First.597 A ∠ 143. into the table.016o .02o and 52.12: Spice circuit: RL. convert them into complex ﬁgures of impedance and write those in):
.98o I = 1.020 V ∠ 52.98o . we get a current phase angle of 143o (37o + 180o ). rather.597E+00 ip(v1) 1.020E+00 vp(2) 5.end freq 6.430E+02
Interpreted SPICE results ER = 7.0) ip(v1) .3.0o
Note that just as with DC circuits. Note how both the resistor and inductor voltage phase readings match our calculations (37.985 V ∠ 37.2) v(2.000E+01 freq 6. Applying a table to this simple series resistorinductor circuit would proceed as such.2) vp(2.3. With all these ﬁgures to keep track of for even such a simple circuit as this. don’t insert actual resistance or inductance values in Ohms and Henrys. SPICE outputs current ﬁgures as though they were negative (180o out of phase) with the supply voltage. ac rl circuit v1 1 0 ac 10 sin r1 1 2 5 l1 2 0 10m .ac lin 1 60 60 . Instead of a phase angle of 37.02o EL = 6. draw up a table for E/I/Z ﬁgures and insert all component values in these terms (in other words.2) 7. SERIES RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS
67
1 10 V 60 Hz 0
R 5Ω L
2 10 mH 0
Figure 3.print ac v(1.000E+01 v(1.702E+01 v(2) 6. respectively. respectively).0) i(v1) .2) 3.298E+01 i(v1) 1.985E+00 vp(1. just as we expected them to.
then this extra documentation is completely unnecessary. However. Since this is a series circuit.68
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
CHAPTER 3. if you are forced to perform complex arithmetic “longhand” (addition and subtraction in rectangular form. we know that opposition to electron ﬂow (resistance or impedance) adds to form the total opposition:
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
L
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps
0 + j3. we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) to determine total current:
.
Now that our “given” ﬁgures are inserted into their respective locations in the table.7699 6. writing each quantity in both forms will be useful indeed.016o
Ohms
Now that we know total voltage and total impedance. and multiplication and division in polar form).262 ∠ 37. I ﬁnd it helpful to write both the rectangular and polar forms of each quantity in the table.7699 3.7699 ∠ 90o Ohms
Although it isn’t necessary.7699 3.7699 ∠ 90o Rule of series circuits Ztotal = ZR + ZL
5 + j3. If you are using a calculator that has the ability to perform complex arithmetic without the need for conversion between rectangular and polar forms. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps 0 + j3. we can proceed just as with DC: determine the total impedance from the individual impedances.
597 ∠ 37.j0. respectively. This is done through the use of Ohm’s Law (E=IZ).7699 6. SERIES RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 0 + j3.016o 5 + j3.016o
Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IR = IL
Now all that’s left to ﬁgure is the voltage drop across the resistor and inductor.3. applied vertically in each column of the table:
.7699 ∠ 90o
1. therefore the rate of their ﬂow must uniform throughout.j0.016o 5 + j3. we can transfer the ﬁgures for current into the columns for the resistor and inductor alike:
R E I Z 1.j0.597 ∠ 37. the total current in a series AC circuit is shared equally by all components.7699 ∠ 90o L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 1.597 ∠ 37.3.7699 3.016o Volts Amps Ohms
69
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Just as with DC.016o 0 + j3.2751 .262 ∠ 37.9614 1.9614 1.2751 .2751 .016o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
L
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
1.j0.597 ∠ 37.262 ∠ 37. Consequently.9614 1.2751 .9614 1.7699 3.7699 6. This is still true because in a series circuit there is only a single path for electrons to ﬂow.
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
L 3. Thus.016o 0 + j3. our table is complete.597 ∠ 37.3756 (real rectangular) or 4. XL XL XL Z Z = = = = = 2πfL 2π·60·79. while convenient for arithmetical addition and subtraction. I will indicate both polar and rectangular forms of each quantity in my AC circuit tables simply for convenience of mathematical calculation.597 ∠ 37. Find the impedance at 60 hertz. there is no fundamental difference in how we approach basic AC circuit analysis versus DC. is a more abstract form of notation than polar in relation to realworld measurements.6244 + j4.58×10−3 30 Ω R + jXL 40 + j30
. Now is a good time to review the relationship between these calculated ﬁgures and readings given by actual instrument measurements of voltage and current.016o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
And with that.7699 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 1.984o 1. measurement instruments simply tell you how long the vector is for that particular quantity (voltage or current).9847 volts. it would indicate 7.j0. Rectangular notation. This is not absolutely necessary.2751 .j0. (Figure 3. E=IXL .262 ∠ 37.0203 ∠ 52. because it is the only one that can be directly correlated to real measurements.9614 1.70
R E I Z 6.13) Example: Given: A 40 Ω resistor in series with a 79. given the resistance (R) and the inductive reactance (XL ). the best choice would be polar.2751 .58 millihenry inductor. but may be helpful for those following along without the beneﬁt of an advanced calculator.016o 5 + j3. the voltage phasor diagram can be replaced by a similar impedance diagram. respectively. not rectangular! In other words. and E=IZ. with the caveat that all quantities must be represented and calculated in complex rather than scalar form.016o 1.9614 1. The exact same rules we applied in the analysis of DC circuits apply to AC circuits as well. Impedance (Z) of a series RL circuit may be calculated.j4. if you were to connect a voltmeter across the resistor in this circuit. If we were to restrict ourselves to the use of only one form of notation. and impedance are proportional to voltage.016o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
CHAPTER 3.2751 .8071 (imaginary rectangular) volts. The ﬁgures here that directly relate to reallife measurements are those in polar notation. So long as phase shift is properly represented in our calculations.3756 . Since E=IR. As I stated before.9847 ∠ 37. To describe this in graphical terms.8071 7.597 ∠ 37.7699 6.7699 3.j0. resistance.9614 1. not 6.8071 6. reactance.
the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o . Z = sqrt(402 + 302 ) = 50 Ω Z = arctangent(30/40) = 36. It is symbolized by the letter “Z” and measured in ohms.3. just like resistance (R) and reactance (X).4
Parallel resistorinductor circuits
Let’s take the same components for our series example circuit and connect them in parallel: (Figure 3.4. PARALLEL RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS
71
R ET I IR EL IL XL
EL 37° I Voltage
ET
XL 37°
Z
ER Impedance
R
Figure 3. • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in series circuit analysis: series impedances add to form the total impedance. respectively. .14) Because the power source has the same frequency as the series example circuit. The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o . and the resistor and inductor both have the same values of resistance and inductance.13: Series: RL circuit Impedance phasor diagram. Zn • A purely resistive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly 0o (ZR = R Ω 0o ). Z = E/I • When resistors and inductors are mixed together in circuits. voltage drops add to form the total voltage.87o Z = 40 + j30 = 50 36.87o
• REVIEW: • Impedance is the total measure of opposition to electric current and is the complex (vector) sum of (“real”) resistance and (“imaginary”) reactance.
3. • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ . . Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = Z1 + Z2 + .
. and impedances add to form the total impedance. • Series AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as series DC circuits: current is uniform throughout the circuit. • A purely inductive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly +90o (ZL = XL Ω 90o ). I = E/Z .
they must also have the same values of impedance.7699 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Etotal = ER = EL 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Now we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically to two columns of the table. So. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
E
I R
53°
E I R 10 V 60 Hz R 5Ω L 10 mH
IR
IL
L IL I
I = IR+ IL E = ER = EL
Figure 3.7699 3. calculating current through the resistor and current through the inductor:
. we can begin our analysis table with the same “given” values:
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 0 + j3. We know that voltage is shared uniformly by all components in a parallel circuit.72
CHAPTER 3.7699 3. The approach is fundamentally the same as for DC.7699 ∠ 90o L Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
The only difference in our analysis technique this time is that we will apply the rules of parallel circuits instead of the rules for series circuits. so we can transfer the ﬁgure of total voltage (10 volts 0o ) to all components columns:
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 0 + j3.14: Parallel RL circuit.
3221 ∠ 52.7699 3. No matter which way you calculate total impedance (Ohm’s Law or the reciprocal formula).
Zparallel =
1 1 1 1 + + .7699 3. Z1 Z2 Zn
The only problem with using this formula is that it typically involves a lot of calculator keystrokes to carry out. just as with DC circuits.4.. parallel impedance can also be calculated by using a reciprocal formula identical to that used in calculating parallel resistances. Incidentally. branch currents in a parallel AC circuit add to form the total current (Kirchhoff ’s Current Law still holds true for AC as it did for DC):
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 .6526 3.” be prepared for a very large amount of work! But.j2.7699 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
73
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Just as with DC circuits. and this example is no different.6526 ∠ 90o 0 + j3.7699 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Itotal = IR + IL Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 . you will arrive at the same ﬁgure:
. total impedance can be calculated by using Ohm’s Law (Z=E/I) vertically in the “Total” column.6526 ∠ 90o 0 + j3.984o Volts Amps Ohms
Finally. PARALLEL RESISTORINDUCTOR CIRCUITS
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 .j2.6526 2. we often have multiple options in calculating the quantities in our analysis tables..3. And if you’re determined to run through a formula like this “longhand.6526 2.j2.
an inductor acts as a purely reactive device.6526 3.7699 3. Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = 1/(1/Z1 + 1/Z2 + . the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o . branch currents add to form the total current. 1/Zn ) • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ . However. • Parallel AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as parallel DC circuits: voltage is uniform throughout the circuit.6526 ∠ 90o 0 + j3.4035 3. I = E/Z .15) Consequently. which is AC’s tendency to ﬂow through the outer areas of a conductor’s crosssection rather than through the middle. its opposition to AC current is strictly based on inductive reaction to changes in current. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
L 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 . inductors are not quite so pure in their reactive behavior.j2. and we know that all wire possesses some measurable amount of resistance (unless its superconducting wire).6526 2.
3.74
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
CHAPTER 3. using the reciprocal formula.984o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law Z= E I
or
Rule of parallel circuits: 1 Ztotal = 1 1 + ZR ZL
• REVIEW: • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in parallel circuit analysis: parallel impedances diminish to form the total impedance. Compounding this problem is something called the skin effect. and not electron friction as is the case with resistive components. the impedance of any real inductor will always be a complex combination of resistance and inductive reactance.5
Inductor quirks
In an ideal case.0102 ∠ 52. That is.7699 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 . and impedances diminish (through the reciprocal formula) to form the total impedance. This builtin resistance acts as though it were connected in series with the perfect inductance of the coil. Z = E/I • When resistors and inductors are mixed together in parallel circuits (just as in series circuits).322 ∠ 52.984o 1. The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o .8122 + j2.
. they’re made of wire. .j2. . To begin with. like this: (Figure 3.
With the crosssection of the core divided up into many electrically isolated sections.15: Inductor Equivalent circuit of a real inductor. where metallic elements and alloys must be heated in a vacuum environment to avoid contamination by air. and thus where standard combustion heating technology would be useless. The skin effect becomes more pronounced as frequency increases. Electrons switching directions of ﬂow. and can be so extreme that it is sometimes exploited in manufacturing processes to heat metal objects! In fact. this process of “inductive heating” is often used in highpurity metal foundry operations. INDUCTOR QUIRKS
75
Equivalent circuit for a real inductor
Wire resistance R Ideal inductor L
Figure 3. In highfrequency service. eddy current losses in metallic inductor cores manifest themselves in the form of heat. on the other hand. When electrons ﬂow in a single direction (DC). When an inductor is energized with AC. there are other effects at work in ironcore inductors which manifest themselves as additional resistance between the leads.3. special
. It is a “noncontact” technology. contributing to additional resistive effects. eddy currents can even develop within the crosssection of the wire itself. As you might have expected. These electric currents in the iron core have to overcome the electrical resistance offered by the iron. Also. This radiated energy does not return to the inductor. each one separated from the other by a thin layer of electrically insulating varnish. and so it manifests itself as resistance (power dissipation) in the circuit. which is not as good a conductor as copper. The effect is more pronounced at higher frequencies. To counteract this tendency. the alternating magnetic ﬁelds produced tend to induce circulating currents within the iron core known as eddy currents. they use the entire crosssectional area of the conductor to move. the heated substance not having to touch the coil(s) producing the magnetic ﬁeld. Eddy current losses are primarily counteracted by dividing the iron core up into many thin sheets (laminations). current cannot circulate within that crosssectional area and there will be no (or very little) resistive losses from that effect. the alternating magnetic ﬁeld of an inductor energized with AC may radiate off into space as part of an electromagnetic wave.5. especially if the AC is of high frequency. limiting the effective crosssectional area available. Added to the resistive losses of wire and radiation. tend to avoid travel through the very middle of a conductor.
for example. another value exists called the Q factor. radiation. The higher the value for “Q. individually insulated strands called Litz wire (short for Litzendraht) can be used. and hysteresis losses) are expressed under the single term of “effective resistance:” (Figure 3. Some core materials (such as ferrite) are particularly notorious for their hysteretic effect. For some reason.76
CHAPTER 3. eddy current. The insulation separating strands from each other prevent eddy currents from circulating through the whole wire’s crosssectional area. Altogether. Effective resistance in an inductor can be a serious consideration for the AC circuit designer. is designed with the express purpose of dissipating the greatest amount of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. radiation losses. which tends to be confusing. It is worthy to note that the skin effect and radiation losses apply just as well to straight lengths of wire in an AC circuit as they do a coiled wire. Usually their combined effect is too small to notice. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
wire made of very ﬁne.16)
Equivalent circuit for a real inductor
"Effective" resistance R Ideal inductor L
Figure 3. any magnetic hysteresis that needs to be overcome with every reversal of the inductor’s magnetic ﬁeld constitutes an expenditure of energy that manifests itself as resistance in the circuit. the stray resistive properties of a real inductor (wire resistance. eddy currents. a highQ inductor is better than a lowQ inductor for design
.16: Equivalent circuit of a real inductor with skineffect. Counteracting this effect is best done by means of proper core material selection and limits on the peak magnetic ﬁeld intensity generated with each cycle. or “quality factor” which is calculated as follows:
Q=
XL R
The symbol “Q” has nothing to do with electric charge (coulombs). To help quantify the relative amount of effective resistance in an inductor. the Powers That Be decided to use the same letter of the alphabet to denote a totally different quantity. Additionally. but at radio frequencies they can be quite large. Because its so easy to add additional resistance if needed. A radio transmitter antenna.” the “purer” the inductor is. and hysteresis losses.
17: Skin effect: skin depth decreases with increasing frequency.17)
Crosssectional area of a round conductor available for conducting DC current "DC resistance"
Crosssectional area of the same conductor available for conducting lowfrequency AC "AC resistance"
Crosssectional area of the same conductor available for conducting highfrequency AC "AC resistance"
Figure 3. In order for a Q value to have precise meaning. increasing the resistance of that conductor above what it would normally be for direct current: (Figure 3. Because inductive reactance (X) varies with frequency.6
More on the “skin effect”
As previously mentioned. An ideal inductor would have a Q of inﬁnity. Due to the fact that the multiple turns of wire comprising inductors are separated from each other by an insulating gap (air. This effectively limits the crosssectional conductor area available to carry alternating electron ﬂow. but it sufﬁces to say at this point that it behaves very differently from AC inductance.
. However. Stray resistance isn’t the only inductor quirk we need to be aware of. radiation losses. AC capacitance will be explored in the next chapter. since the resistive effects of inductors (wire skin effect. limiting itself to conduction near the surface. varnish. Q does not vary proportionally with reactance. and therefore further “taints” the reactive purity of real inductors. with zero effective resistance.3. or some other kind of electrical insulation). the skin effect is where alternating current tends to avoid travel through the center of a solid conductor.
3. we have the potential for capacitance to develop between turns. MORE ON THE “SKIN EFFECT”
77
purposes. so will Q. it must be speciﬁed at a particular test frequency. eddy current.6. and hysteresis) also vary with frequency.
for excellent conductivity at the “skin” of the tube:
Figure 3. at high frequencies the AC current avoids travel through most of the conductor’s crosssectional area.18) Most antenna structures and RF power conductors are made of hollow metal tubes for this reason.18: High power inductors formed from hollow tubes. As a rule. the wire might as well be hollow! In some radio applications (antennas.78
CHAPTER 3. In the following photograph you can see some large inductors used in a 50 kW radio transmitting circuit. why not just use hollow metal rods instead of solid metal wires and save both weight and cost? (Figure 3.” the “AC resistance” of the same conductor referring to a higher ﬁgure resulting from the skin effect. largegauge wires exhibit a more pronounced
. As you can see. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
The electrical resistance of the conductor with all its crosssectional area in use is known as the “DC resistance. The inductors are hollow copper tubes coated with silver. The degree to which frequency affects the effective resistance of a solid wire conductor is impacted by the gauge of that wire. For the purpose of conducting current. most notably) this effect is exploited. Since radiofrequency (“RF”) AC currents wouldn’t travel through the middle of a conductor anyway.
This is simply an estimated ﬁgure of pure resistance for the conductor (that opposition to the AC ﬂow of electrons which does dissipate power in the form of heat).8 18 10. and it does not consider any reactive effects. CONTRIBUTORS
79
skin effect (change in resistance from DC) than smallgauge wires at any given frequency.8 2/0 99. from most recent to ﬁrst. Table 3.3.9 4 55.7
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.7.2 gives approximate values of “k” factor for various round wire sizes. The equation for approximating skin effect at high frequencies (greater than 1 MHz) is as follows:
RAC = (RDC)(k) Where.86 6 47. are entirely different matters. inductive or capacitive. corrected for the skin effect.0 14 17.5 8 34. and the combined effects of reactance and resistance (impedance).182 kΩ
f 10
Please remember that this ﬁgure is not impedance.6 2 69. a length of number 10gauge wire with a DC endtoend resistance of 25 Ω would have an AC (effective) resistance of 2.
f
RAC = AC resistance at given frequency "f" RDC = Resistance at zero frequency (DC) k = Wire gage factor (see table below) f = Frequency of AC in MHz (MegaHertz)
Table 3.
3.9 
For example. Reactance.6) RAC = 2.5 22 6.182 kΩ at a frequency of 10 MHz:
RAC = (RDC)(k) RAC = (25 Ω)(27. gage size k factor gage size k factor 4/0 124.0 10 27. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.2: “k” factor for various AWG wire sizes.
.6 1/0 88.
.80
CHAPTER 3. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE
Jim Palmer (June 2001): Identiﬁed and offered correction for typographical error in complex number calculation.
. . . If we were to plot the current and voltage for a very simple AC circuit consisting of a source and a resistor.2) Because the resistor allows an amount of current directly proportional to the voltage across it at all periods of time. . . . . . . . . . . (Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contributors . . . . . . . Series resistorcapacitor circuits . . . . . . AC capacitor circuits .1
AC resistor circuits
ET I ER IR ET = ER I = IR R 0° IR ET
Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4.3 4. . . . .1 4. . .1) it would look something like this: (Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 4
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
Contents
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 83 87 92 95 97
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits Capacitor quirks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1: Pure resistive AC circuit: voltage and current are in phase.5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . the waveform for the current is exactly in phase with the waveform for 81
. . . .6 AC resistor circuits . .
. which results in a positive value for power (a negative number multiplied by a negative number equals a positive number). the current through the resistor is also at its positive peak. at the moment in time where the voltage across the resistor is at its positive peak. the voltage is also negative.2: Voltage and current “in phase” for resistive circuit.82
CHAPTER 4. when the current is negative (below the line). When the instantaneous value for voltage is zero. a resistor still dissipates energy. Whether the current is positive or negative. Conversely. Ohm’s Law holds true for the instantaneous values of voltage and current. We can also calculate the power dissipated by this resistor.3: Instantaneous AC power in a resistive circuit is always positive.3)
e= i= p= + Time 
Figure 4. We can look at any point in time along the horizontal axis of the plot and compare those values of current and voltage with each other (any “snapshot” look at the values of a wave are referred to as instantaneous values. the instantaneous current through the resistor is also zero. When the current is positive (above the line). Note that the power is never a negative value. resulting in a power (p=ie) of a positive value. and so on.
the voltage. meaning the values at that instant in time). REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
e= i= + Time 
Figure 4. and plot those values on the same graph: (Figure 4. This consistent “polarity” of power tells us that the resistor is always dissipating power. Likewise. taking it from the source and releasing it in the form of heat energy. the voltage is also positive. At any given point in time along the waves.
in volts per second. is in amps. of course. but it means the exact same thing. the relationship between the current “through” the capacitor and rate of voltage change across the capacitor is as such:
i=C
de dt
The expression de/dt is one from calculus. The capacitance (C) is in Farads. the instantaneous current is zero whenever the instantaneous voltage is
. meaning the rate of change of instantaneous voltage (e) over time. but one that is precisely opposite to the kind exhibited by inductors. This opposition to voltage change is another form of reactance. it would look something like this: (Figure 4. Remember. Expressed mathematically.4: Pure capacitive circuit: capacitor voltage lags capacitor current by 90o If we were to plot the current and voltage for this very simple circuit. the current through a capacitor is a reaction against the change in voltage across it. Therefore. Sometimes you will ﬁnd the rate of instantaneous voltage change over time expressed as dv/dt instead of de/dt: using the lowercase letter “v” instead or “e” to represent voltage. To show what happens with alternating current.2. The ﬂow of electrons “through” a capacitor is directly proportional to the rate of change of voltage across the capacitor.5: Pure capacitive circuit waveforms.5)
+
e= i= Time
Figure 4.4. let’s analyze a simple capacitor circuit: (Figure 4. and the instantaneous current (i).4)
ET
I VC IC EC ET = EC I = IC C 90°
IC
Figure 4.2
AC capacitor circuits
Capacitors do not behave the same as resistors. Whereas resistors allow a ﬂow of electrons through them directly proportional to the voltage drop. capacitors oppose changes in voltage by drawing or supplying current as they charge or discharge to the new voltage level. AC CAPACITOR CIRCUITS
83
4.
7)
+
e= i= p= Time
Figure 4. (Figure 4. ()
Figure 4.
.6)
voltage slope = 0 current = 0
voltage slope = max.84
CHAPTER 4. the instantaneous power may be positive or negative. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
at a peak (zero change. the current “leads” the voltage. where it crosses the zero line). it merely absorbs and releases power.7: In a pure capacitive circuit. (+) e= i= Time
+
voltage slope = 0 current = 0 voltage slope = max. () current = max. too: (Figure 4. This results in a voltage wave that is 90o out of phase with the current wave. (+) current = max. and the voltage “lags” behind the current. the current wave seems to have a “head start” on the voltage wave.6: Voltage lags current by 90o in a pure capacitive circuit. This means that a capacitor does not dissipate power as it reacts against changes in voltage. As with the simple inductor circuit. the 90 degree phase shift between voltage and current results in a power wave that alternates equally between positive and negative. As you might have guessed. Looking at the graph. on the voltage sine wave). or level slope. alternately. and the instantaneous current is at a peak wherever the instantaneous voltage is at maximum change (the points of steepest slope on the voltage wave. the same unusual power wave that we saw with the simple inductor circuit is present in the simple capacitor circuit.
capacitors oppose faster changing voltage drops by allowing greater currents.8)
10 V 60 Hz
C
100 µF
Figure 4. Conversely.8: Capacitive reactance.
. (Table 4. Thus.2.5258 120 13. which is by deﬁnition always changing in instantaneous magnitude and direction. they will pass more current for fasterchanging voltages (as they charge and discharge to the same voltage peaks in less time). Capacitive reactance (in ohms) decreases with increasing AC frequency. the reactance of a capacitor is expressed in ohms and symbolized by the letter X (or XC to be more speciﬁc). As with inductors. just as either alternating or direct current in a simple resistive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the resistance (in ohms). the equation XC = 1/(2πfC) could also be written as XC = 1/(ωC). a capacitor of given size will “conduct” a certain magnitude of AC current. and the reactance offered by the capacitor. and less current for slowerchanging voltages. What this means is that reactance in ohms for any capacitor is inversely proportional to the frequency of the alternating current.2629 2500 0. which is referred to as the angular velocity of the AC circuit.6366
Please note that the relationship of capacitive reactance to frequency is exactly opposite from that of inductive reactance. AC CAPACITOR CIRCUITS
85
A capacitor’s opposition to change in voltage translates to an opposition to alternating voltage in general. Since capacitors “conduct” current in proportion to the rate of voltage change.4. the AC current through a capacitor is a function of the AC voltage across it. As with inductors. inductive reactance (in ohms) increases with increasing AC frequency. The following circuit illustrates this mathematical relationship by example: (Figure 4. Inductors oppose faster changing currents by producing greater voltage drops. Just as the current through a resistor is a function of the voltage across the resistor and the resistance offered by the resistor. with ω cast in units of radians per second. the reactance equation’s 2πf term may be replaced by the lowercase Greek letter Omega (ω). Alternating current in a simple capacitive circuit is equal to the voltage (in volts) divided by the capacitive reactance (in ohms).1: Reactance of a 100 uF capacitor: Frequency (Hertz) Reactance (Ohms) 60 26. For any given magnitude of AC voltage at a given frequency.1)
XC =
1 2πfC
Table 4.
we say that the phase angle of a capacitor’s opposition to current is 90o .9) This phase angle of reactive opposition to current becomes critically important in circuit analysis.86
CHAPTER 4.
.5258 Ω I= I= E X 10 V 26.5258 Ω
I = 0. we need to keep in mind that voltage and current are not in phase here. the current has a phase shift of +90o with respect to the voltage. Mathematically. If we represent these phase angles of voltage and current mathematically. (Figure 4. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
XC = 26. As was shown earlier. meaning that a capacitor’s opposition to current is a negative imaginary quantity.9: Voltage lags current by 90o in an inductor. It will prove beneﬁcial to represent any component’s opposition to current in terms of complex numbers.
Opposition =
Voltage Current 10 V ∠ 0o 0.5258 Ω ∠ 90o
For a capacitor: 90o 90o
I 0o
E
Opposition (XC)
Figure 4.3770 A
However. especially for complex AC circuits where reactance and resistance interact. and not just scalar quantities of resistance and reactance. we can calculate the phase angle of the capacitor’s reactive opposition to current.3770 A ∠ 90o
Opposition =
Opposition = 26.
we learned what would happen in simple resistoronly and capacitoronly AC circuits.5258 Ω). while the capacitor will offer 26.5258 Ω of reactance to AC current at 60 Hz. the less it opposes (the more it “conducts”) the AC ﬂow of electrons. Reactance is symbolized by the capital letter “X” and is measured in ohms just like resistance (R). or 0 . the higher the frequency.
4. Because the resistor’s resistance is a real number (5 Ω 0o . the combined effect of the two components will be an opposition to current equal to the complex sum of the two numbers.3.j26. and it is also expressed in the unit of ohms. The resistor will offer 5 Ω of resistance to AC current regardless of frequency.10: Series capacitor inductor circuit: voltage lags current by 0o to 90o .3
Series resistorcapacitor circuits
In the last section.
• Capacitive reactance can be calculated using this formula: XC = 1/(2πfC)
• Capacitive reactance decreases with increasing frequency. or 5 + j0 Ω). SERIES RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS
• REVIEW:
87
• Capacitive reactance is the opposition that a capacitor offers to alternating current due to its phaseshifted storage and release of energy in its electric ﬁeld. In the above example. and the capacitor’s reactance is an imaginary number (26. (Figure 4. In other words. the total circuit impedance is:
.3°
R 10 V 60 Hz
5Ω
C
100 µF
ET
Figure 4. its symbol is Z. just like resistance and reactance. The term for this complex opposition to current is impedance.4.5258 Ω 90o .10)
R ET I IR VC IC ET = ER+ EC I = IR = IC EC C
I ER
79. Now we will combine the two components together in series form and investigate the effects.
325o instead of a full 90o . form
In fact. Any resistance and any reactance.325o
As with the purely capacitive circuit. this is a far more comprehensive form of Ohm’s Law than what was taught in DC electronics (E=IR).j26.5258 Ω ∠ 90o) or (5 + j0 Ω) + (0 .5258 Ω or 26. just as impedance is a far more comprehensive expression of opposition to the ﬂow of electrons than simple resistance is.5258 Ω) Ztotal = 5 . regardless of the given phase angles for voltage or current).933 Ω ∠ 79. can be and should be represented as a single impedance. respectively.5258 Ω capacitive reactance) Ztotal = 5 Ω (R) + 26. the current wave is leading the voltage wave (of the source). REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
Ztotal = (5 Ω resistance) + (26.
I= I=
E Z 10 V ∠ 0o 26. separately or in combination (series/parallel).5 mA ∠ 79. although this time the difference is 79. To calculate current in the above circuit.5258 Ω (XC) Ztotal = (5 Ω ∠ 0o) + (26. Let’s place out known ﬁgures for this series circuit into a table and continue the analysis using this tool:
.993 Ω ∠ 79.88
CHAPTER 4. (Figure 4. (The phase angles of resistive and capacitive impedance are always 0o and 90o . in a manner similar to resistance in Ohm’s Law:
Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ I= E Z Z= E I
All quantities expressed in complex. the “table” method of organizing circuit quantities is a very useful tool for AC analysis just as it is for DC analysis.11) As we learned in the AC inductance chapter.j26.325o
I = 370.325o
Impedance is related to voltage and current just as you might expect. we ﬁrst need to give a phase angle reference for the voltage source. which is generally assumed to be zero. not scalar.
325o Volts Amps Ohms
Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IR = IC
Continuing with our analysis. so the ﬁgures placed in the “Total” column for current can be distributed to all other columns as well:
R E I Z 68.325o 5 .5258 26. we can apply Ohm’s Law (E=IR) vertically to determine voltage across the resistor and capacitor:
.06m 370.5258 26.j26.j26.06m 370.
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
C
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 68.325o
Current in a series circuit is shared equally by all components.993 ∠ 79.993 ∠ 79.5m ∠ 79.623m + j364.623m + j364.5m ∠ 79.623m + j364.j26.325 degrees + e= i= Time Figure 4.5258 26.5258 26.325o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 68.4.5258 ∠ 90o
5 .3.5m ∠ 79.11: Voltage lags current (current leads voltage)in a series RC circuit.623m + j364.325o 0 .06m 370.5m ∠ 79.5258 ∠ 90o C Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 68.06m 370.325o Volts Amps Ohms
0 .j26. SERIES RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS
89
phase shift = 79.
ac rc circuit v1 1 0 ac 10 sin r1 1 2 5 c1 2 0 100u .06m 370.12)
1 10 V 60 Hz 0
R 5Ω C
2 100 µF 0
Figure 4.j26. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
C 9.5m ∠ 79.06m 370. Let’s check our calculations with SPICE: (Figure 4.0) i(v1) .print ac v(1.8269 ∠ 10.993 ∠ 79.325o 0 . The voltage across the capacitor has a phase angle of 10.8523 ∠ 79.325o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
CHAPTER 4.675o .0) ip(v1) .325o 5 .print ac vp(1.325o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Notice how the voltage across the resistor has the exact same phase angle as the current through it.90
R E I Z 343.675o 68.end
.623m + j364. This tells us that the capacitor’s voltage and current are still 90o out of phase with each other.8203 1.12: Spice circuit: RC.8203 9.ac lin 1 60 60 .2) vp(2.623m + j364.j1.325o 68.5258 26. exactly 90o less than the phase angle of the circuit current.5m ∠ 79.06m 370. telling us that E and I are in phase (for the resistor only).11m + j1.5258 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 68.j26.623m + j364.5m ∠ 79.2) v(2.6569 .5258 26.
Real instruments connected to real circuits provide indications corresponding to the vector length (magnitude) of the calculated ﬁgures.13)
ER ET I R IR EC IC C
37°
I ER
37°
I R XC
ET Voltage
EC
Z Impedance
Figure 4. Example: Given: A 40 Ω resistor in series with a 88.067E+01 i(v1) 3.
.8203 volts (imaginary rectangular).852E+00 vp(1. not 343. Find the impedance at 60 hertz.5 mA ∠ 100.33o EC = 9.8523 volts.325o . not rectangular form! For example.4. and impedance are proportional to voltage. SPICE confusingly prints the current phase angle at a value equal to the real phase angle plus 180o (or minus 180o ).852 V ∠ 79.3o . given the resistance (R) and the capacitive reactance (XC ). Thus. reactance. Again.705E01 ip(v1) 1. However. which does correspond to our previously calculated ﬁgure of 79. Impedance (Z) of a series RC circuit may be calculated.7o output by SPICE for current phase angle equates to a positive 79. SERIES RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS
freq 6.827E+00 vp(2) 1.000E+01 v(1. our voltmeter would indicate 1. Since E=IR. it is a more abstract form of notation than polar.13: Series: RC circuit Impedance phasor diagram.2) 7.42 microfarad capacitor. it must be emphasized that the calculated ﬁgures corresponding to reallife voltage and current measurements are those in polar form.007E+02
91
Interpreted SPICE results ER = 1. In this case.7o
Once again. E=IXC . the 100.000E+01 freq 6. respectively.3. if we were to actually build this series resistorcapacitor circuit and measure voltage across the resistor. (Figure 4.2) 1. which alone has direct correspondence to true measurements. and E=IZ. resistance. its a simple matter to correct this ﬁgure and check to see if our work is correct.11 millivolts (real rectangular) or 1. While the rectangular form of complex number notation is useful for performing addition and subtraction.827 V ∠ 10.67o I = 370. the voltage phasor diagram can be replaced by a similar impedance diagram.933E+01 v(2) 9.
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
XC = 1/2πfC) XC = 1/(2π·60·88. we can begin our analysis table with the same “given” values:
.42×10−6 XC = 30 Ω Z = R .87o
• REVIEW: • Impedance is the total measure of opposition to electric current and is the complex (vector) sum of (“real”) resistance and (“imaginary”) reactance. inductive impedance.j30 Z = sqrt(402 + (30)2 ) = 50 Ω Z = arctangent(30/40) = 36.14) Because the power source has the same frequency as the series example circuit. resistive impedance.4
Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits
Using the same value components in our series example circuit.87o Z = 40 . • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ .92
CHAPTER 4. Z = E/I • When resistors and capacitors are mixed together in circuits. Zn • Please note that impedances always add in series. Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = Z1 + Z2 + . respectively. • A purely resistive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly 0o (ZR = R Ω 0o ). and capacitive impedance are to be treated the same way mathematically. they must also have the same values of impedance. • A purely capacitive impedance will always have a phase angle of exactly 90o (ZC = XC Ω 90o ). . I = E/Z . So. the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o . voltage drops add to form the total voltage. . That is. we will connect them in parallel and see what happens: (Figure 4. • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in series circuit analysis: series impedances add to form the total impedance. • Series AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as series DC circuits: current is uniform throughout the circuit.
4.j30 = 50 36. regardless of what type of components comprise the impedances. and impedances add to form the total impedance. and the resistor and capacitor both have the same values of resistance and capacitance.jXC Z = 40 .
j26. PARALLEL RESISTORCAPACITOR CIRCUITS
93
E
I R
IR IC C
IC
10.5258 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Etotal = ER = EC
Ohms
Now we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically to two columns in the table.4. calculating current through the resistor and current through the capacitor:
. so we can place the ﬁgure for total voltage (10 volts 0o ) in all the columns:
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o
C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps
0 .j26.5258 26.7°
I 10 V 60 Hz E IR R 5Ω 100 µF C
I = IR+ IL E = ER = EC
Figure 4.5258 26. we know that voltage is shared equally by all components.
R E I Z 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
C
Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps
0 .4.5258 ∠ 90o
Ohms
This being a parallel circuit now.14: Parallel RC circuit.
It is noteworthy to mention that this parallel impedance rule holds true regardless of the kind of impedances placed in parallel.99m ∠ 90o 0 .5258 ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Itotal = IR + IC Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j376.99m 376. all the terms are common and can be applied uniformly to the same formula. or some combination thereof: in the form of impedances (Z). Regardless of how we calculate total impedance for our parallel circuit (either Ohm’s Law or the reciprocal formula). it doesn’t matter if we’re calculating a circuit composed of parallel resistors.j26. parallel capacitors. especially without the assistance of a calculator capable of manipulating complex quantities. parallel inductors.5258 26. In other words. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 + j376.99m 376. + Z1 Z2 Zn
The only drawback to using this equation is the signiﬁcant amount of work required to work it out.j26. the parallel impedance formula looks like this:
Zparallel =
1 1 1 1 + .675o Volts Amps Ohms
Finally. branch currents in a parallel AC circuit add up to form the total current (Kirchhoff ’s Current Law again):
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 + j376.99m 2.5258 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Just as with DC circuits. parallel impedance can also be calculated by using a reciprocal formula identical to that used in calculating parallel resistances.99m ∠ 90o 0 . Once again.5258 26.94
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o
CHAPTER 4..0352 ∠ 10. total impedance can be calculated by using Ohm’s Law (Z=E/I) vertically in the “Total” column. we will arrive at the same ﬁgure:
.. As we saw in the AC inductance chapter.
and since their electric ﬁelds are almost totally contained between their plates (unlike inductors. However. the ideal capacitor is a purely reactive device. .8284 .5
Capacitor quirks
As with inductors.99m ∠ 90o 0 .99m 2. Consequently.j26.0352 ∠ 10. The practical result of this is that real capacitors typically have impedance phase angles more closely approaching 90o (actually. they will tend to dissipate less power than an equivalent inductor. and impedances diminish (through the reciprocal formula) to form the total impedance.675o Volts Amps Ohms
95
Ohm’s Law E Z= I
or
Rule of parallel circuits: Ztotal = 1 1 1 + ZR ZC
• REVIEW: • Impedances (Z) are managed just like resistances (R) in parallel circuit analysis: parallel impedances diminish to form the total impedance. nothing is so perfect. 1/Zn ) • Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ . capacitors have the virtue of generally being purer reactive components than inductors. Z = E/I • When resistors and capacitors are mixed together in parallel circuits (just as in series circuits). 90o ) than inductors.99m 376. of course. . the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and 90o . I = E/Z .9135 ∠ 10.5. Capacitors also tend to be smaller and lighter weight than their equivalent inductor counterparts. In the real world. Just be sure to perform all calculations in complex (not scalar) form! ZT otal = 1/(1/Z1 + 1/Z2 + . It is a lot easier to design and construct a capacitor with low internal series resistance than it is to do the same with an inductor.4.
4. • Parallel AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as parallel DC circuits: voltage is uniform throughout the circuit.14m 4.
.5258 26.5258 ∠ 90o Total 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j376. whose magnetic ﬁelds naturally tend to extend beyond the dimensions of the core). The circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o .j910. branch currents add to form the total current. CAPACITOR QUIRKS
R E I Z 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 2 + j0 2 ∠ 0o 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o C 10 + j0 10 ∠ 0o 0 + j376. containing absolutely zero resistive (power dissipative) effects.675o 4. using the reciprocal formula.
One of the ways to mitigate the effect of dielectric “loss” is to choose a dielectric material less susceptible to the effect. and the plates never have to contact the object being heated. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
they are less prone to transmitting or receiving electromagnetic “noise” to/from other components.” A relative scale of dielectric loss from least to greatest is given in Table 4. For these reasons. and is equivalent to resistance in the circuit. Not all dielectric materials are equally “lossy. This effect is undesirable for capacitors where we expect the component to behave as a purely reactive circuit element. Unless specially made for AC service. their resistive characteristics may be too severe a shortcoming for the application anyway. much less signiﬁcant than the stray resistances present in an average inductor. due to both the characteristics of the microscopically thin dielectric ﬁlm and the electrolyte paste.
. Dielectric materials tend to react to changing electric ﬁelds by producing heat. Capacitors with signiﬁcant resistive effects are said to be lossy. The source of capacitor loss is usually the dielectric material rather than any wire resistance. Table 4. are also known for their notorious lossiness. known for their relatively high capacitance and low working voltage. electrolytic capacitors should never be used with AC unless it is mixed (biased) with a constant DC voltage preventing the capacitor from ever being subjected to reverse voltage. Electrolytic capacitors. in reference to their tendency to dissipate (“lose”) power like a resistor. Temperature is controlled by varying the voltage or frequency of the source.96
CHAPTER 4. these stray resistances are usually of modest impact (low series resistance and high parallel resistance). This heating effect represents a loss in power. Even then. as wire length in a capacitor is very minimal.2. connected to a source of highfrequency AC voltage. circuit designers tend to favor capacitors over inductors wherever a design permits either alternative.15) Fortunately. The effect is more pronounced at higher frequencies and in fact can be so extreme that it is sometimes exploited in manufacturing processes to heat insulating materials like plastic! The plastic object to be heated is placed between two metal plates.2: Dielectric loss Material Loss Vacuum Low Air Polystyrene Mica Glass LowK ceramic Plastic ﬁlm (Mylar) Paper HighK ceramic Aluminum oxide Tantalum pentoxide high Dielectric resistivity manifests itself both as a series and a parallel resistance with the pure capacitance: (Figure 4.
6
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.
.6.
4. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.4. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.15: Real capacitor has both series and parallel resistance. from most recent to ﬁrst. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. CONTRIBUTORS
97
Equivalent circuit for a real capacitor
Rseries
Ideal capacitor
Rparallel
Figure 4.
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
.98
CHAPTER 4.
. . . . . . but most notably in capacitors and inductors. . . . Resistance is mathematically symbolized by the letter “R” and is measured in the unit of ohms (Ω). inductors. . . . . . . . . . . . respectively. . . When alternating current goes through a resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X. . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . L. . . . . . . . a voltage drop is produced that is inphase with the current. X.7 Review of R. 110 Susceptance and Admittance . . . . . . . . . a voltage drop is produced that is 90o out of phase with the current. . . and C . . Reactance is essentially inertia against the motion of electrons. . . . . . . 120 Contributors . . . and C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L. .1
Review of R. . . . and Z
Before we begin to explore the effects of resistors. . . . . . . . . Resistance is essentially friction against the motion of electrons. . When alternating current goes through a pure reactance. . . . . It is present anywhere electric or magnetic ﬁelds are developed in proportion to applied voltage or current. . L. . . . . . . . . L. . . . . most notably in resistors. . . . .Chapter 5
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.6 5. . . . . . . 106 Seriesparallel R. . .2 5. . . . . . . . . 99 Series R. . 119 Summary . . . . .4 5. . let’s brieﬂy review some basic terms and facts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. and capacitors connected together in the same AC circuits. . 120
5. . . . . It is present in all conductors to some extent (except superconductors!). . . . . . . . . . . Reactance is mathematically symbolized by the letter “X” and is measured in the unit of ohms (Ω). and C . . . . . .5 5. . 99
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Parallel R. . . . . . . and Z . . . . . AND C
Contents
5. . . . .
and because of this universal quality. Because reactance doesn’t dissipate power as resistance does. For an perfect inductor. and so an inductor’s impedance phase angle is said to be +90o . inductance.15 Hz R=0Ω X = 100 Ω Z = 100 Ω ∠ 90
o
Capacitor 10 µF 159. so long as quantities are represented in complex rather than scalar form. a voltage drop is produced that is somewhere between 0o and 90o out of phase with the current. L. AND C
Impedance is a comprehensive expression of any and all forms of opposition to electron ﬂow. and so a capacitor’s impedance phase angle is said to be 90o . Impedances in AC behave analogously to resistances in DC circuits: they add in series. While this qualiﬁed equivalence may be arithmetically challenging. including both resistance and reactance.1: Perfect resistor.1) possess resistance. Perfect resistors (Figure 5. voltage drop always lags current by 90o . and capacitor. Perfect inductors and perfect capacitors (Figure 5. A revised version of Ohm’s Law. Impedance is mathematically symbolized by the letter “Z” and is measured in the unit of ohms (Ω). in complex form. More on this subject in a later chapter!
. The only real difference between DC and AC circuit calculations is in regard to power. and so the impedance angle of a resistor is said to be 0o . it is conceptually simple and elegant.
Resistor
100 Ω
Inductor
R = 100 Ω X=0Ω Z = 100 Ω ∠ 0
o
100 mH 159. and in all components. it makes sense to translate all component values (resistance. the voltage drop and current are always in phase with each other. and they diminish in parallel. inductor. capacitance) into common terms of impedance as the ﬁrst step in analyzing an AC circuit. The impedance phase angle for any component is the phase shift between voltage across that component and current through that component. not scalar.100
CHAPTER 5. the concept of power in AC circuits is radically different from that of DC circuits. All components possess impedance. based on impedance rather than resistance. It is present in all circuits. For a perfect capacitor. form
Kirchhoff ’s Laws and all network analysis methods and theorems are true for AC circuits as well. For a perfect resistor.1) possess reactance but no resistance. looks like this:
Ohm’s Law for AC circuits: E = IZ I= E Z Z= E I
All quantities expressed in complex. When alternating current goes through an impedance. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.15 Hz R=0Ω X = 100 Ω Z = 100 Ω ∠ 90o
Figure 5. voltage drop always leads current by 90o . but not reactance.
SERIES R.2.04 Ω ∠ 90o ZC = 0 . L. (Figure 5. of course. The ﬁrst step is to determine the reactances (in ohms) for the inductor and the capacitor. and C circuit. Resistance. L.5 µF)
XC = XC =
XC = 1.04 Ω 1 2πfC 1 (2)(π)(60 Hz)(1.j1.7684 kΩ
The next step is to express all resistances and reactances in a mathematically common form: impedance.7684 kΩ ∠ 90o
.04 Ω or 245. while a capacitive reactance translates into a negative imaginary impedance (impedance at 90o ).5. L.2)
R 250 Ω 120 V 60 Hz C 1.3) Remember that an inductive reactance translates into a positive imaginary impedance (or an impedance at +90o ).
L
650 mH
XL = 2πfL XL = (2)(π)(60 Hz)(650 mH) XL = 245.7684k Ω or 1.2: Example series R. AND C
101
5. and C
Let’s take the following example circuit and analyze it: (Figure 5.2
Series R. is still regarded as a purely “real” impedance (polar angle of 0o ):
ZR = 250 + j0 Ω or 250 Ω ∠ 0o ZL = 0 + j245.5 µF
Figure 5.
j1. L. they can be handled in the same way as plain resistances in a DC circuit. I’ll assume perfectly reactive inductors and capacitors from now on in my example calculations except where noted otherwise.04 ∠ 90o 0 . however (like those of the resistor. For simplicity.
R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245. respectively. AND C
ZR 250 Ω ∠ 0o 120 V 60 Hz ZC 1. L. inductor.3: Example series R. inductor.04 Ω) + (0 .680o
Inserting this ﬁgure for total impedance into our table:
. and not as resistances or reactances). and the impedances of the resistor. This is an ideal time to draw up an analysis table for this circuit and insert all the “given” ﬁgures (total voltage. Remember that there is no such thing as an “absolute” angle of phase shift for a voltage or current. Since the above example circuit is a series circuit.5233k Ω or 1.j1. Phase angles for impedance.04 Ω ∠ 90o
Now.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Unless otherwise speciﬁed. they should be fairly close. with all quantities of opposition to electric current expressed in a common.j1. since its always a quantity relative to another waveform. and so will be written at an angle of 0o . complex number format (as impedances. and capacitor). and C circuit with component values replaced by impedances. so:
Ztotal = ZR + ZL + ZC Ztotal = (250 + j0 Ω) + (0 + j245.5437 kΩ ∠ 80. Although real components won’t be perfect in this regard.7684k Ω) Ztotal = 250 . the source voltage will be our reference for phase shift. Notice that I’m assuming a perfectly reactive inductor and capacitor. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.102
CHAPTER 5. we know that the total circuit impedance is equal to the sum of the individuals. because the phase relationships between voltage and current at each component are absolutely deﬁned. and capacitor).7684 kΩ ∠ 90o
Figure 5.04 245.7684k 1. are known absolutely.
ZL
245. with impedance phase angles of exactly +90 and 90o .
589m + 76.5437k ∠ 80.708m 77.708m 77.5233k 1.7684k 1. current must be equal through all components.680o 0 .04 245. we can take the ﬁgure obtained for total current and distribute it to each of the other columns:
R E I Z 12.04 ∠ 90o 0 .734m ∠ 80.j1.04 245.j1.7684k ∠ 90o Rule of series circuits: Ztotal = ZR + ZL + ZC 250 .680o 0 + j245.734m ∠ 80.04 ∠ 90o 12.04 ∠ 90o 0 . Thus.708m 77.589m + 76. L.5233k 1. SERIES R.680o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 12.734m ∠ 80.5437k ∠ 80.680o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Being a series circuit. to determine voltage drops:
.708m 77. AND C
R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 12.680o 250 .734m ∠ 80.589m + 76.j1.680o 250 .2.680o Volts Amps Ohms
Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IR = IL = IC
Now we’re prepared to apply Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) to each of the individual component columns in the table.04 245.708m 77.j1.5233k 1.734m ∠ 80.7684k 1.7684k 1.j1.7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 12.5.5437k ∠ 80.589m + 76.j1.589m + 76.680o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
103
We can now apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/R) vertically in the “Total” column to ﬁnd total current for this series circuit:
R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.
j1. To demonstrate Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law in an AC circuit.5437k ∠ 80. Expressed as impedances.46 ∠ 9.708m 77. we can look at the answers we derived for component voltage drops in the last circuit.708m 77. a bit of complex number addition proves otherwise:
.680o 250 .680o 0 + j245.797 + j3.734m ∠ 80. they tend to cancel each other out! Although they’re still added together to produce a sum. and capacitor should equal the applied voltage from the source.0848 19.04 ∠ 90o
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Notice something strange here: although our supply voltage is only 120 volts. KVL tells us that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops across the resistor. equations in AC circuits are the same as those in DC circuits.708m 77. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.680o 0 .3199o 12.589m + 76. AND C
C 135.708m 77. If the total impedance in a series circuit with both inductive and capacitive elements is less than the impedance of either element separately. the inductor’s impedance has a positive imaginary term and the capacitor has a negative imaginary term. With this abnormally high current through each of the components.j22. and so do Kirchhoff ’s Voltage and Current Laws.j1.04 245.1472 + j19. voltages greater than the source voltage may be obtained across some of the individual components! Further consequences of inductors’ and capacitors’ opposite reactances in the same circuit will be explored in the next chapter. inductor.5233k 1.589m + 76. It is analogous to adding together a positive and a negative (scalar) number: the sum is a quantity less than either one’s individual absolute value.65 . Once you’ve mastered the technique of reducing all component values to impedances (Z). except that the quantities dealt with are vector instead of scalar. analyzing any AC circuit is only about as difﬁcult as analyzing any DC circuit.680o Volts Amps Ohms
18.434 ∠ 80.589m + 76. Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) still holds true. then the total current in that circuit must be greater than what it would be with only the inductive or only the capacitive elements there.589m + 76. that sum is actually less than either of the individual (capacitive or inductive) impedances alone.177 19. Expressed in rectangular form.734m ∠ 80.262 137.7684k ∠ 90o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 12.68o 12.680o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o L
CHAPTER 5. we can see that the inductor opposes current in a manner precisely opposite that of the capacitor.048 ∠ 170.46 volts! How can this be? The answer lies in the interaction between the inductive and capacitive reactances.734m ∠ 80. With the exception of equations dealing with power (P).734m ∠ 80.680o 12. the voltage across the capacitor is 137. Even though this may not look like it is true at ﬁrst sight.7684k 1. L. using impedances (Z) instead of resistances (R). When these two contrary impedances are added (in series).104
R E I Z 3.
5. We can also use SPICE to verify our ﬁgures for this circuit: (Figure 5.068E+01
v(2.2) v(2.2) 8.
ac rlc circuit v1 1 0 ac 120 sin r1 1 2 250 l1 2 3 650m c1 3 0 1.3) 1.2.773E02 ip(v1) 9.000E+01
v(1.0) ip(v1) .0) i(v1) .262 V 120 + j0 V EL EC Etotal
Aside from a bit of rounding error.905E+01 vp(2.943E+01 vp(1.4: Example series R.177 V ER 18. the answer you will receive should be exactly 120 + j0 volts.2) 1.4)
1 120 V 60 Hz
R 250 Ω L C
2 650 mH
0
1.797 + j3. L.5u .0848 V + 135.707E+02
v(3) 1.000E+01 freq 6.print ac vp(1.932E+01
.2) vp(2. the sum of these voltage drops does equal 120 volts. Performed on a calculator (preserving all digits).3) vp(3.3) 1.5 µF
3
Figure 5. SERIES R.ac lin 1 60 60 . AND C
105
ER + EL + EC should equal Etotal 3. L.j22.end
freq 6.375E+02 vp(3) 9.1472 + j19.320E+00
i(v1) 7.65 .print ac v(1. and C SPICE circuit.3) v(3.
The fact that these components are connected in parallel instead of series now has absolutely no effect on their individual impedances. So long as the power supply is the same
. As you can see. Zn • Although impedances add in series. .106
CHAPTER 5. current. because series inductive and capacitive impedances tend to cancel each other out. L.7o EC = 137.3
Parallel R.320o I = 77. except that all quantities of voltage.73 mA ∠ 99.68o EL = 19.05 V ∠ 170. which is very different for AC. This may lead to voltage drops across components exceeding the supply voltage! • All rules and laws of DC circuits apply to AC circuits. L. impedance) must be handled in complex rather than scalar form so as to account for phase angle.5 µF
Figure 5. there is little difference between AC circuit analysis and DC circuit analysis. the total impedance for a circuit containing both inductance and capacitance may be less than one or more of the individual impedances. which is so unique that it deserves a chapter devoted to that subject alone.43 V ∠ 80.
5.5 V ∠ 9.5)
120 V 60 Hz
R
250 Ω
L
650 mH
C
1.32o (actual phase angle = 80. AND C
Interpreted SPICE results ER = 19. The only exception to this principle is the calculation of power. so long as values are expressed in complex form rather than scalar. and C
We can take the same components from the series circuit and rearrange them into a parallel conﬁguration for an easy example circuit: (Figure 5. The only exception to this consistency is the calculation of power. and C parallel circuit. .68o)
The SPICE simulation shows our handcalculated results to be accurate. since it means all you’ve learned about DC electric circuits applies to what you’re learning here. • REVIEW: • Impedances of any kind add in series: ZT otal = Z1 + Z2 + . REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. This is good. and resistance (actually.5: Example R. L.
L.04 ∠ 90o 0 .7684k ∠ 90o L C Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Knowing that voltage is shared equally by all components in a parallel circuit.7684k ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: Etotal = ER = EL = EC 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o L 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o C 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Now.3.6: Example R.j1.04 ∠ 90o 0 . L.
frequency as before. we can set up an analysis table and proceed as in the last example problem. PARALLEL R. we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically in each column to determine current through each component:
. and C parallel circuit with impedances replacing component values.04 Ω ∠ 90o
Figure 5. the inductive and capacitive reactances will not have changed at all: (Figure 5.04 245. AND C
107
120 V 60 Hz
ZR 250 Ω ∠ 0o
ZL
ZC 1.04 245. we can transfer the ﬁgure for total voltage to all component columns in the table:
R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.7684k 1.j1.5. except this time following the rules of parallel circuits instead of series:
R E I Z 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o 0 + j245.6) With all component values expressed as impedances (Z).7684 kΩ ∠ 90o
245.7684k 1.
04 ∠ 90o C 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 + j67.04 ∠ 90o
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
There are two strategies for calculating total current and total impedance. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.7684k 1.04 245.71m 489.71m ∠ 90o 0 + j245. This is especially true if you’re unfortunate enough not to have a calculator that handles complex numbers and are forced to do it all by hand (reciprocate the individual impedances in polar form.04 245. with all the reciprocations (1/Z). then use Ohm’s Law to determine total impedance from total voltage and total current (Z=E/I).
R E I Z 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 480m + j0 480 ∠ 0o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o L 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 .858m ∠ 90o 0 . First.96 187.858m ∠ 90o 0 . Let’s try analyzing this circuit with SPICE and see what happens: (Figure 5. and then calculate total current by dividing source voltage by total impedance (I=E/Z). working through the parallel impedance equation with complex numbers is no easy task. will provide the correct answers. we could calculate total impedance from all the individual impedances in parallel (ZT otal = 1/(1/ZR + 1/ZL + 1/ZC ). then convert them all to rectangular form for addition.71m 489.05 + j123.03m ∠ 41.7684k ∠ 90o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 480m .j1.j489. L.7684k ∠ 90o Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 .108
R E I Z 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 480m + j0 480 ∠ 0o 250 + j0 250 ∠ 0o L
CHAPTER 5. However.j489.7)
.858m 67.j421.79 ∠ 41. performed properly.311o 141.7684k 1.j1.71m ∠ 90o 0 + j245.858m 67. The second way to calculate total current and total impedance is to add up all the branch currents to arrive at total current (total current in a parallel circuit – AC or DC – is equal to the sum of the branch currents). then convert back to polar form for the ﬁnal inversion. AND C
C 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 0 + j67.85m 639. then invert).311o Volts Amps Ohms
Either method.
131E+01
i(vir) 4.800E01 ip(vir) 0.print ac i(vi) i(vir) i(vil) i(vic) .5 µF 0
0
Figure 5.ac lin 1 60 60 .000E+01
i(vic) 6. L.print ac ip(vi) ip(vir) ip(vil) ip(vic) . and C SPICE circuit. Battery symbols are “dummy” voltage sources for SPICE to use as current measurement points.5.786E02 ip(vic) 9.end
freq 6.000E+00
i(vil) 4.897E01 ip(vil) 9.000E+01
. All are set to 0 volts. AND C
109
2 Vir Vi 3 1 120 V 60 Hz 0 R
2 Vil 4
2 Vic Rbogus 5 250 Ω L 650 mH 0 C
2
6
1.
ac rlc circuit v1 1 0 ac 120 sin vi 1 2 ac 0 vir 2 3 ac 0 vil 2 4 ac 0 rbogus 4 5 1e12 vic 2 6 ac 0 r1 3 0 250 l1 5 0 650m c1 6 0 1.7: Example parallel R. PARALLEL R. L.000E+01
i(vi) 6.5u .3.000E+01 freq 6.390E01 ip(vi) 4.
AND C
Interpreted SPICE results Itotal = 639.7 mA ∠ 90o IC = 67. L. we were able to avoid that idiosyncrasy of SPICE of printing current ﬁgures 180o out of phase. is to determine values of impedance (Z) for all components based on the frequency of the AC power source. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. current. our current phase readings came out to exactly match our hand calculations. as usual. L. The ﬁrst order of business. just using complex numbers instead of scalar to represent voltage.110
CHAPTER 5.
5.5 µF R 470 Ω
Figure 5.7 µF 120 V 60 Hz
L C2
650 mH 1. but we did get the proper readings. This way.86 mA ∠ 90o
It took a little bit of trickery to get SPICE working as we would like on this circuit (installing “dummy” voltage sources in each branch to obtain current ﬁgures and installing the “dummy” resistor in the inductor branch to prevent a direct inductortovoltage source loop. it should come as no surprise that seriesparallel analysis would be the same as well.4
Seriesparallel R. Even more than that. L.8)
C1 4.31o IR = 480 mA ∠ 0o IL = 489. by installing the dummy voltage sources (current meters) in the proper directions. To do this. and C
Now that we’ve seen how series and parallel AC circuit analysis is not fundamentally different than DC circuit analysis. and impedance.0 mA ∠ 41. then convert reactance (X) and resistance (R) ﬁgures into proper impedance (Z) form:
. Take this seriesparallel circuit for example: (Figure 5. and C circuit.8: Example seriesparallel R. which SPICE cannot tolerate). we need to ﬁrst determine values of reactance (X) for all inductors and capacitors.
j1.38 Ω 1 2πfC2 1 (2)(π)(60 Hz)(1.04 Ω or 245. Then.j564.7684 kΩ ∠ 90o ZR = 470 + j0 Ω or 470 Ω ∠ 0o
Now we can set up the initial values in our table:
C1 E I Z 0 .38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.38 564.7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o L C2 R Total 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Being a seriesparallel combination circuit.38 Ω or 564.4. that quantity will be added to the impedance of C1 to arrive at the total impedance. each column designated by its respective component combination:
.7684k 1.7 µF) XL = 2πfL XL = (2)(π)(60 Hz)(650 mH) XL = 245.04 Ω
111
XC1 = 564. In order that our table may follow all these steps.5.04 ∠ 90o 0 . we must reduce it to a total impedance in more than one step. to arrive at another combination of impedances. by adding their impedances together.04 Ω ∠ 90o ZC2 = 0 . so I will place a new row of columns underneath. SERIESPARALLEL R. AND C
Reactances and Resistances: XC1 = XC1 = 1 2πfC1 1 (2)(π)(60 Hz)(4. that impedance will be combined in parallel with the impedance of the resistor. The ﬁrst step is to combine L and C2 as a series combination of impedances.5 µF)
XC2 = XC2 =
R = 470 Ω
XC2 = 1.j564.04 245. Adding more columns horizontally to the table shown above would be impractical for formatting reasons.7684 kΩ
ZC1 = 0 .38 Ω ∠ 90o ZL = 0 + j245.j1. L. Finally.7684k Ω or 1. it will be necessary to add additional columns to it so that each step may be represented.
L.371o
Ohms
Rule of series circuits: ZLC2 = ZL + ZC2 Rule of parallel circuits: 1 ZR//(LC2) = 1 1 + ZR ZLC2
Rule of series circuits: Ztotal = ZC1 + ZR//(LC2)
Seeing as how our second table contains a column for “Total.147o
429.j1.34 ∠ 58.
Now that we know the total impedance (818. This time.371o ) and the total voltage (120 volts 0o ).j696.79 818.5233k ∠ 90o
R // (L .C2)
Calculating these new (combination) impedances will require complex addition for series combinations.112
CHAPTER 5.C2 E I Z
R // (L . and the “reciprocal” formula for complex impedances in parallel.C2 E I Z 0 . REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. we can apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically in the “Total” column to arrive at a ﬁgure for total current:
.C2)] Volts Amps Ohms
L . This gives us one table with four columns and another table with three columns.41 449.” we can safely discard that column from the ﬁrst table.5233k 1.34 Ω 58.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps
429.[R // (L . AND C
Total C1 .11 ∠ 17. there is no avoidance of the reciprocal formula: the required ﬁgures can be arrived at no other way!
L .15 .15 .j132.[R // (L .C2)
Total C1 .
899m + j124.79 818.79 818.j696.7684k 1.86m 146.[R // (L .15 .15 .147o
76.j1.38 564. L.04 ∠ 90o 0 .371o Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IC1 = IR//(LC2)
Now.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.86m 146.147o 429.[R // (L .34 ∠ 58.5233k ∠ 90o
R // (L .371o 0 .34 ∠ 58.C2 E I Z
R // (L .5.371o Volts Amps Ohms
113
L .C2)
Total C1 .11 ∠ 17.64m ∠ 58. we can transfer the ﬁgure for total current into both columns:
C1 E I Z 76.j132.C2)
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
At this point we ask ourselves the question: are there any components or component combinations which share either the total voltage or the total current? In this case.371o 429.15 .899m + j124.5233k 1.86m 146. both C1 and the parallel combination R//(L−−C2 ) share the same (total) current.41 449.j564.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
76.899m + j124.j1.04 245.C2 E I Z 0 .4.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.j132. SERIESPARALLEL R. since the total impedance is composed of the two sets of impedances in series.15 .5233k 1.64m ∠ 58.j1.41 449. AND C
Total C1 .7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o L C2 R Volts Amps Ohms
Rule of series circuits: Itotal = IC1 = IR//(LC2)
L .371o 0 .64m ∠ 58.371o 429. we can calculate voltage drops across C1 and the seriesparallel combination of R//(L−−C2 ) using Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) vertically in those table columns:
.899m + j124.5233k ∠ 90o 429. Thus.j696.86m 146.64m ∠ 58.11 ∠ 17.
7684k 1.j132. it is!
That last step was merely a precaution.899m + j124.400 65.225o 76.147o
Total C1 .899m + j124.04 245.15 .j43.5233k 1. After having solved for voltage drops across C1 and the combination R//(L−−C2 ).899m + j124.[R // (L . AND C
C2 R Volts Amps 0 + j245.467 .86m 146.629o 76. they should!
Etotal should be equal to EC1 + ER//(LC2) 70. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. we again ask ourselves the question: what other components share the same voltage or current? In this case.114
C1 E I Z 70. L. there is much opportunity for error.38 564.760 ∠ 31.15 .371o 0 .38 ∠ 90o L
CHAPTER 5.5233k ∠ 90o
R // (L .400 V 120 + j0 V Indeed.86m 146.64m ∠ 58.857 ∠ 41. Therefore.371o 429.j43.400 V + 49. the resistor (R) and the combination of the inductor and the second capacitor (L−−C2 ) share the same voltage.400 82.64m ∠ 58.7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Ohms
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
L .04 ∠ 90o 0 . Occasional crosschecks like that one can save a person a lot of work and unnecessary frustration by identifying problems prior to the ﬁnal step of the problem.j564.371o 429.C2 E I Z 0 .C2) 49.11 ∠ 17.34 ∠ 58.64m ∠ 58.j696.79 818.371o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
A quick doublecheck of our work at this point would be to see whether or not the voltage drops across C1 and the seriesparallel combination of R//(L−−C2 ) indeed add up to the total.j1.86m 146. According to Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76. we can transfer the voltage ﬁgure just solved for into the columns for R and L−−C2 :
.41 449. because those sets of impedances are in parallel with each other.533 + j43.533 + j43. In a problem with as many steps as this one has.467 .j1.
C2) 49.899m + j124.225o Volts Amps Ohms
115
L .760 ∠ 31.j43.857 ∠ 41.5.j43. All we need to do is apply Ohm’s Law (I=E/Z) vertically in both of those columns:
C1 E I Z 70.j132.86m 146.899m + j124.341m 140.371o 0 .629o 76.400 65.[R // (L .5233k 1.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.j564.857 ∠ 41.64m ∠ 58.38 564.86m 146.400 82. L.64m ∠ 58.400 65.371o 0 .34 ∠ 58.j564.86m 146.899m + j124.7684k 1.04 ∠ 90o 0 .7684k 1.04 245.760 ∠ 31.j1.04 ∠ 90o 0 .64m ∠ 58.64m ∠ 58.467 .41 449.857 ∠ 41.j1.225o 76.7684k ∠ 90o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Rule of parallel circuits: ER//(LC2) = ER = ELC2 L C2 R 49.400 82. SERIESPARALLEL R.467 .225o 105.4.629o 76.C2 E I Z 0 .899m + j124.12m ∠ 41.533 + j43.11 ∠ 17.j696.400 65.15 .79 818.5233k ∠ 90o Rule of parallel circuits: ER//(LC2) = ER = ELC2 49.533 + j43.400 65.j1.857 ∠ 41.04 245.15 .38 564.371o 429.38 ∠ 90o 0 + j245.533 + j43.39m + j92.371o Volts Amps Ohms
Now we’re all set for calculating current through the resistor and through the series combination L−−C2 . AND C
C1 E I Z 70.225o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
.147o
Total C1 .7684k ∠ 90o L C2 R 49.86m 146.371o 429.225o
R // (L .533 + j43.
490m + j32.C2)] 120 + j0 120 ∠ 0o 76.22o 43.490m + j32.j132.5233k ∠ 90o 429.04 ∠ 90o 0 .5233k 1.j43.899m + j124.760 ∠ 31.232m ∠ 131. two calculations). all we have to do is apply Ohm’s Law (E=IZ) vertically in those two columns to calculate voltage drops.7684k 1.371o 429.j1. AND C
Total C1 .371o Volts Amps Ohms
L .
.86m
Indeed.225o
28.[R // (L .400 82.225o 105.516m 28.22o 0 + j245.64m ∠ 58.79 818.C2) 49.86m 43.490m + j32.533 + j43.15 . they should:
IR//(LC2) should be equal to IR + I(LC2) 105.j1.400 65.34 ∠ 58.232m ∠ 131.516m 43.12m ∠ 41.j564.232m ∠ 131.899m + j124.400 65.22o 146.516m 76.04 245.533 + j43.857 ∠ 41. and since we know the current through their series combination impedance.490m + j32.86m 146.41 449. L.225o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
Rule of series circuits: ILC2 = IL = IC2
With one last step (actually.86m 146. we can complete our analysis table for this circuit.899m + j124.64m ∠ 58.15 . According to Kirchhoff ’s Current Law.341m 140.629o 76.400 65. we can distribute that current ﬁgure to the L and C2 columns following the rule of series circuits whereby series components share the same current:
C1 E I Z 70.899m + j124.116
CHAPTER 5.39m + j92.38 564.11 ∠ 17.467 .147o
Ohm’s Law E I= Z
Another quick doublecheck of our work at this point would be to see if the current ﬁgures for L−−C2 and R add up to the total current.371o 0 .857 ∠ 41.516m 76.7684k ∠ 90o L C2 R 49. it is!
Since the L and C2 are connected in series.341m + 28. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.533 + j43.857 ∠ 41.39m + j92.225o
R // (L .j696.C2 E I Z 49.64m ∠ 58. With impedance and current ﬁgures in place for L and C2 .38 ∠ 90o 28.371o 0 .
371o 0 .22o 43. L.629o 76.7 µF
more "dummy" voltage sources to act as current measurement points in the SPICE analysis (all set to 0 volts).
.12m ∠ 41.04 ∠ 90o 0 . While there is more potential for human error in carrying out the necessary complex number calculations.5. and R.5 µF 0
0
0
Figure 5.22o C2 57.899m + j124. AND C
C1 E I Z 70.400 65.501 + j50. in that order.490m + j32.7684k 1. it must be emphasized that there is nothing really new going on here besides the use of complex numbers.516m 43.225o 105.225 R 49.9: Example seriesparallel R. current.400 82. L. Each line of the SPICE output listing gives the voltage. Ohm’s Law (in its new form of E=IZ) still holds true. SERIESPARALLEL R.86m 146.j1.38 564.467 . these ﬁgures do concur with our handcalculated ﬁgures in the circuit analysis table.38 ∠ 90o L 7.516m 28. as do the voltage and current Laws of Kirchhoff.22o 0 + j245.981 10.232m ∠ 131. C2 .594 ∠ 221.225o 470 + j0 470 ∠ 0o Volts Amps Ohms
117
28. C SPICE circuit.382 76.7684k ∠ 90o
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Ohm’s Law E = IZ
Now.4.490m + j32.04 245.39m + j92.232m ∠ 131.j43.451 ∠ 41. L.857 ∠ 41.j6.64m ∠ 58.533 + j43. let’s turn to SPICE for a computer veriﬁcation of our work:
2
C1 4. voltage phase angle.968 . As daunting a task as seriesparallel AC circuit analysis may appear.341m 140. 3 Vir 4 6 R 470 Ω 3
Vit 1 120 V 60 Hz
Vilc
L 5 C2
650 mH 1.j564. and current phase angle for C1 .760 ∠ 31. the basic principles and techniques of seriesparallel circuit reduction are exactly the same. As you can see.
5) 1.0) .323E02
ip(vilc) 1. and capacitor.5u r 6 0 470 .000E+01
v(5) 7. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R.5) 1.000E+01
v(4.print ac v(5. inductor.0) vp(6.5) .118
CHAPTER 5.276E+01
vp(2.323E02
ip(vilc) 1.0) vp(5.ac lin 1 60 60 .059E+01
vp(4.837E+01
C1
freq 6. and capacitance (C). L.122E+01
R
• REVIEW: • Analysis of seriesparallel AC circuits is much the same as seriesparallel DC circuits.000E+01
v(6) 6.
.3) vp(2.586E+01
vp(6) 4.3) 8.end
circuit
i(vit) ip(vit) i(vilc) ip(vilc) i(vilc) ip(vilc) i(vir) ip(vir)
freq 6.401E01
ip(vir) 4.0) .388E+02
i(vilc) 4. • It is important to remember that before seriesparallel reduction (simpliﬁcation) can begin.122E+01
i(vilc) 4. That way.163E+01
i(vit) 1. you must determine the impedance (Z) of every resistor.000E+01
v(2.3) 3.466E01
ip(vit) 5.122E+01
i(vir) 1.5) vp(4. The only substantive difference is that all ﬁgures and calculations are in complex (not scalar) form.print ac v(6.7u l 4 5 650m c2 5 0 1.312E+02
L
freq 6.312E+02
C2
freq 6. inductance (L).print ac v(4. all component values will be expressed in common terms (Z) instead of an incompatible mix of resistance (R).3) .645E+01
vp(5) 4. AND C
ac seriesparallel rlc v1 1 0 ac 120 sin vit 1 2 ac 0 vilc 3 4 ac 0 vir 3 6 ac 0 c1 2 3 4.print ac v(2.
5. we need a complementary measure representing the reciprocal of impedance. the proper unit of measurement is Siemens. ﬁgures of conductance (G) and susceptance (B) are most useful in circuits where the two types of opposition are not mixed. Whereas the term “resistance” denotes the amount of opposition to ﬂowing electrons in a circuit. we see a certain logic to the naming of this new term: while impedance is a measure of how much alternating current is impeded in a circuit. “conductance” represents the ease of which electrons may ﬂow. just like resistance and conductance. Reactive components such as inductors and capacitors oppose the ﬂow of electrons with respect to time. The name for this measure is admittance. It is a useful term when exploring the mathematical formula for parallel resistances: Rparallel = 1 / (1/R1 + 1/R2 + . the student of electricity comes across a term meaning the opposite of resistance: conductance. Also like conductance. and each 1/R term in the “parallel resistance formula” is actually a conductance. their combined effects can no longer be analyzed with scalar quantities of resistance (R) and reactance (X). Admittance is measured in (guess what?) the unit of Siemens. To be consistent. and like resistance we also measure it in the unit of ohms. there is also a complementary expression of reactance. it is equal to 1/X. admittance is a complex quantity rather than scalar. unchanging friction as resistors do.e. If one were tasked with determining the total effect of several parallelconnected. We call this timebased opposition. Conductance used to be measured in the unit of mhos. 1/Rn ). Given a scientiﬁc calculator capable of handling complex number arithmetic in both polar and rectangular forms. or a purely reactive (susceptive) circuit. conductance is the reciprocal of resistance. called susceptance. the reciprocal of reactance. .5
Susceptance and Admittance
In the study of DC circuits. measured in ohms and symbolized by the letter “Z”. When symbolized in a mathematical formula. one could convert each reactance (X) to a susceptance (B). which diminishes as more parallel components are included in the circuit. In order to express and quantify the effects of mixed resistive and reactive components. . unfortunately the same symbol used to represent magnetic ﬂux density. While reactance is the measure of how much a circuit reacts against change in current over time. rather than with a constant. susceptances (B) add in parallel and diminish in series. Mathematically. pure reactances. When resistive and reactive components are interconnected. and its symbol is “Y”. then add susceptances rather than diminish reactances: Xparallel = 1/(1/X1 + 1/X2 + . Resistance is the measure of how much a circuit resists current. admittance is a measure of how much current is admitted. Again. 1/Xn ). or “ohms” spelled backward. . reactance. As conductance is the complement of resistance. conductance simply adds. Like impedance. . we had to have a new term: impedance. but now is measured in Siemens. Its mathematical symbol is “B”. Like conductance.5. you may never have to work with ﬁgures of susceptance (B) or admit
. Likewise. Like conductances (G). the proper letter to use for conductance is “G”. it used to be measured in the unit of mhos. SUSCEPTANCE AND ADMITTANCE
119
5. susceptance is the measure of how much a circuit is susceptible to conducting a changing current. Unlike resistance. The terms “reactance” and “susceptance” have a certain linguistic logic to them. i. Mathematically. susceptance is a scalar quantity. either a purely resistive (conductive) circuit. Now. while conductance is the measure of how much a circuit conducts current.
7
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. the ﬁrst step in analysis is to convert all resistor. When faced with analyzing an AC circuit. The only signiﬁcant difference is that fact that AC calculations use complex quantities while DC calculations use scalar quantities. though. I=E/Z . based on the frequency of the power source.6
Summary
With the notable exception of calculations for power (P). Polar notation. although AC can certainly be more difﬁcult to work with due to phase angles which aren’t registered by a handheld multimeter. L. and even the network theorems learned in DC still hold true for AC when voltage.
5. where the magnitude (length of vector) directly relates to the magnitude of the voltage or current measured. and will be covered in its own chapter in this book. Kirchhoff ’s Laws. Rectangular notation is merely a useful tool for us to add and subtract complex quantities together. REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. Be aware. of their existence and their meanings. The same troubleshooting strategies applied toward DC circuits also hold for AC. AND C
tance (Y). from most recent to ﬁrst. Power is another subject altogether. and impedance are all expressed with complex numbers. using the “new” form of Ohm’s Law: E=IZ . proceed with the same steps and strategies learned for analyzing DC circuits. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. all AC circuit calculations are based on the same general principles as calculations for DC circuits. inductor. Ohm’s Law. and the angle directly relates to the phase shift in degrees. current.120
CHAPTER 5. After that. Because power in a reactive circuit is both absorbed and released – not just dissipated as it is with resistors – its mathematical handling requires a more direct application of trigonometry to solve. is the most practical way to express complex quantities for circuit analysis. and capacitor component values into impedances (Z).
. and Z=E/I Remember that only the calculated ﬁgures expressed in polar form apply directly to empirical measurements of voltage and current. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2) 121
. . . . . . . and electrically manifest that stored energy as a potential: static voltage. . . . . . . . its voltage decreasing. . . . .1 Series resonant circuits . . . . 6. . . . Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit . . . Capacitors and inductors are ﬂipsides of the same reactive coin. . . . . . . . . .Chapter 6
RESONANCE
Contents
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 126 131 135 136 145 146 148 151
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . storing and releasing energy in complementary modes. . . . . . . . . .6. the two components will exchange energy between them. . . . . . . . . creating their own AC voltage and current cycles. . Resonance in seriesparallel circuits . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6.1) The capacitor will begin to discharge. . .6 An electric pendulum . . . . .6. . .5 6. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . their complementary tendencies to store energy will produce an unusual result.1
An electric pendulum
Capacitors store energy in the form of an electric ﬁeld. back and forth. 6.7 Contributors . . . .2 Parallel resonant circuits . Meanwhile. . . . . . . . . . . If we assume that both components are subjected to a sudden application of voltage (say. . . from a momentarily connected battery). . . . . . . . . . . leaving the capacitor in the charged state and the inductor in the discharged state: (Figure 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . and electrically manifest that stored energy as a kinetic motion of electrons: current. . . . . . the capacitor will very quickly charge and the inductor will oppose change in current. . Applications of resonance . Inductors store energy in the form of a magnetic ﬁeld. . If either the capacitor or inductor starts out in a charged state. . . . Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance Simple series resonance . . the inductor will begin to build up a “charge” in the form of a magnetic ﬁeld as current increases in the circuit: (Figure 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When these two types of reactive components are directly connected together. . . .
3)
e= i= Time
capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage inductor fully charged: maximum current
Figure 6. will begin to accumulate a charge in the opposite polarity as before: (Figure 6.4) When the inductor is ﬁnally depleted of its energy reserve and the electrons come to a halt.5) Now we’re at a condition very similar to where we started: the capacitor at full charge and zero current in the circuit.122
Battery momentarily connected to start the cycle + i
CHAPTER 6.6) Eventually the capacitor will discharge to zero volts. the capacitor will have reached full (voltage) charge in the opposite polarity as when it started: (Figure 6. still charging. inductor discharged: zero current.2: Capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing. will keep electrons ﬂowing in the circuit until the capacitor has been completely discharged. leaving the inductor fully charged with
. causing an increase in current (in the opposite direction as before) and a decrease in voltage as it depletes its own energy reserve: (Figure 6.1: Capacitor charged: voltage at (+) peak. The inductor will maintain current ﬂow even with no voltage applied. In fact. it will generate a voltage (like a battery) in order to keep current in the same direction. RESONANCE
e= i=
e Time
capacitor charged: voltage at (+) peak inductor discharged: zero current
Figure 6. The inductor. The capacitor. being the recipient of this current. The capacitor. will begin to discharge through the inductor. inductor fully charged: maximum current. as before.
e= i= + capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing inductor charging: current increasing Time
Figure 6. leaving zero voltage across it: (Figure 6.3: Capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage. Inductor charging: current increasing.
AN ELECTRIC PENDULUM
123
e= i= + capacitor charging: voltage increasing (in opposite polarity) inductor discharging: current decreasing Time
Figure 6.
.1. inductor fully discharged: zero current.4: Capacitor charging: voltage increasing (in opposite polarity).6.
e= i= + capacitor fully charged: voltage at () peak inductor fully discharged: zero current Time
Figure 6.
e= i= + capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing inductor charging: current increasing Time
Figure 6. inductor discharging: current decreasing.5: Capacitor fully charged: voltage at () peak.6: Capacitor discharging: voltage decreasing. inductor charging: current increasing.
This completes one full cycle of the energy exchange between the capacitor and inductor: (Figure 6.9: Capacitor fully charged: voltage at (+) peak.8)
e= i= + capacitor charging: voltage increasing inductor discharging: current decreasing Time
Figure 6.9)
e= i= + capacitor fully charged: voltage at (+) peak inductor fully discharged: zero current Time
Figure 6. In doing so. the capacitor will begin to charge up and the current will decrease in magnitude: (Figure 6. Eventually the capacitor will become fully charged again as the inductor expends all of its energy reserves trying to maintain current. The voltage will once again be at its positive peak and the current at zero.7: Capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage. there is a transformation
. inductor discharging: current decreasing. RESONANCE
Time
capacitor fully discharged: zero voltage inductor fully charged: current at () peak
Figure 6.7)
e= i=
CHAPTER 6. This oscillation will continue with steadily decreasing amplitude due to power losses from stray resistances in the circuit. inductor fully discharged: zero current. inductor fully charged: current at () peak. Overall.8: Capacitor charging: voltage increasing. generating a voltage like a battery to continue the ﬂow. until the process stops altogether. this behavior is akin to that of a pendulum: as the pendulum mass swings back and forth. will act like a source again.124 full current through it: (Figure 6. The inductor. desiring to maintain current in the same direction.
and not the weight of the mass itself.6. the pendulum’s position and velocity measurements trace two sine waves (90 degrees out of phase) over time: (Figure 6.1. it passes quickly through a point where the string is pointed straight down.10)
maximum potential energy. Like the circuit. in a similar fashion to the way energy is transferred in the capacitor/inductor circuit back and forth in the alternating forms of current (kinetic motion of electrons) and voltage (potential electric energy).10: Pendelum transfers energy between kinetic and potential energy as it swings low to high. At this point. zero kinetic energy mass
zero potential energy. hence the similarity in effect. It is at this point that potential energy (height) is at a maximum and kinetic energy (motion) is at zero. It is an interesting property of any pendulum that its periodic time is governed by the length of the string holding the mass. maximum kinetic energy
potential energy = kinetic energy =
Figure 6. As the mass swings back the other way. At the peak height of each swing of a pendulum. not on the amount of voltage (or current) at each respective peak in the waves. The same underlying principles govern both the oscillation of a capacitor/inductor circuit and the action of a pendulum. In physics. The oscillation rate is independent of the amount of energy stored in it. this kind of natural sinewave oscillation for a mechanical system is called Simple Harmonic Motion (often abbreviated as “SHM”). AN ELECTRIC PENDULUM
125
of energy taking place from kinetic (motion) to potential (height). Also like the circuit. the mass brieﬂy stops and switches directions. That is why a pendulum will keep swinging at the same frequency as the oscillations decrease in amplitude. a pendulum’s backandforth oscillation will continue with a steadily dampened amplitude. the result of air friction (resistance) dissipating energy. The rate of oscillation is strictly dependent on the sizes of the capacitor and inductor. potential energy (height) is at zero and kinetic energy (motion) is at maximum. The same is true for the capacitor/inductor circuit. The ability for such a circuit to store energy in the form of
.
Since we know the equations for determining the reactance of each at a given frequency. The unusual effects will reach maximum in this condition of resonance.2
Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance
A condition of resonance will be experienced in a tank circuit (Figure 6. we have a 10 µF capacitor and a 100 mH inductor.11: Simple parallel resonant circuit (tank circuit). which oscillates (or resonates) at one particular frequency. or resonate. Because inductive reactance increases with increasing frequency and capacitive reactance decreases with increasing frequency. energy is alternately shufﬂed between the capacitor and the inductor in the form of alternating voltage and current 90 degrees out of phase with each other.11) when the reactances of the capacitor and inductor are equal to each other. and be aware of what the effects of resonance are. If the power supply frequency for a circuit exactly matches the natural frequency of the circuit’s LC combination. there will only be one frequency where these two reactances will be equal.
6. Its property of maintaining a single. • When the power supply frequency for an AC circuit exactly matches that circuit’s natural oscillation frequency as set by the L and C components. a condition of resonance will have been reached. and we’re looking for that
. In fact. we need to be able to predict what the resonant frequency will be for various combinations of L and C. nearly any AC circuit with a combination of capacitance and inductance (commonly called an “LC circuit”) will tend to manifest unusual effects when the AC power source frequency approaches that natural frequency. However. • REVIEW: • A capacitor and inductor directly connected together form something called a tank circuit. natural frequency regardless of how much or little energy is actually being stored in it gives it special signiﬁcance in electric circuit design. this tendency to oscillate. RESONANCE
oscillating voltage and current has earned it the name tank circuit. This is true regardless of the circuit’s intended purpose. at a particular frequency is not limited to circuits exclusively designed for that purpose. the circuit is said to be in a state of resonance.
10 µF
100 mH
Figure 6. At that frequency. For this reason.126
CHAPTER 6. In the above circuit.
. SIMPLE PARALLEL (TANK CIRCUIT) RESONANCE
127
point where the two reactances are equal to each other. f= 2π 1 LC
So there we have it: a formula to tell us the resonant frequency of a tank circuit. we can set the two reactance formulae equal to each other and solve for frequency algebraically:
XL = 2πfL
XC =
1 2πfC
. meaning that the tank circuit draws no current from the AC power source! We can calculate the individual impedances of the 10 µF capacitor and the 100 mH inductor and work through the parallel impedance formula to demonstrate this mathematically:
. 2πf2L = 1 2πC
Dividing both sides by 2πL leaves f2 by itself on the lefthand side of the equation . . given the values of inductance (L) in Henrys and capacitance (C) in Farads. representing a condition of equal reactance (resonance) .6. 2πfL = 1 2πfC
Multiplying both sides by f eliminates the f term in the denominator of the fraction . . . . .2. . setting the two equal to each other. f2 = 1 2π2πLC
Taking the square root of both sides of the equation leaves f by itself on the left side . we arrive at a resonant frequency of 159. . . . simplifying . . f= 1 2π2πLC . With capacitive and inductive reactances equal to each other. . . the total impedance increases to inﬁnity.155 Hz. .
What happens at resonance is quite interesting. Plugging in the values of L and C in our example circuit.
155 Hz)(100 mH) XL = 100 Ω
XC = XC =
1 2πfC 1 (2)(π)(159. What this means in practical terms is that.128
CHAPTER 6. Now. we use the parallel impedance formula to see what happens to total Z:
Zparallel =
1 1 1 + ZL ZC 1 1 100 Ω ∠ 90o + 1 100 Ω ∠ 90o
Zparallel =
Zparallel =
0. (Figure 6. Current magnitude on the graph increases from
. but we can say that the result approaches a value of inﬁnity as the two parallel impedances get closer to each other. We can plot the consequences of this over a wide power supply frequency range with a short SPICE simulation: (Figure 6.12) A very low resistance value was chosen so as to have minimal effect on circuit behavior. the total impedance of a tank circuit is inﬁnite (behaving as an open circuit) at resonance.155 Hz)(10 µF)
XC = 100 Ω
As you might have guessed. This SPICE simulation plots circuit current over a frequency range of 100 to 200 Hz in twenty even steps (100 and 200 Hz inclusive). RESONANCE
XL = 2πfL XL = (2)(π)(159. I chose these component values to give resonance impedances that were easy to work with (100 Ω even).01 ∠ 90o
Zparallel =
Undefined!
We can’t divide any number by zero and arrive at a meaningful result.01 ∠ 90 1 0
o
1 + 0.12) The 1 picoohm (1 pΩ) resistor is placed in this SPICE analysis to overcome a limitation of SPICE: namely. that it cannot analyze a circuit containing a direct inductorvoltage source loop.
526E+02 8. .* .789E+02 2. * .... . * 1. 1. 1. 1.. 1. . . 1. SIMPLE PARALLEL (TANK CIRCUIT) RESONANCE
129
1 1 Rbogus 2 C1 0 0 0 10 uF L1 0 100 mH 1 1 pΩ
Figure 6.6.263E+02 4. .632E+02 4.... . . . .350E03 ... . 1...053E+02 8. 1.000E03 . ......316E+02 3..842E+02 2... 1. * .. . * . * . . . 2. ..033E03 . .. .421E+02 2.. .. ..... ... . .. ..663E03 . . * .934E03 . . .. * .
3.162E04 1. . 1. .590E04 . 1.271E03 .2. * .132E03 . . 1.. .063E03 . .
freq i(v1) 3.1. .000E+02 4.455E03 .474E+02 1.506E03 . . .12: Resonant circuit sutitable for SPICE simulation.* . 1. . * .895E+02 3. . * . . . .632E03 . .609E03 .684E+02 1... . .470E03 .542E03 .579E+02 1.828E03 ...969E04 . . 1.749E03 ..000E+02 9.. . . * . . ..540E03 . * . ..105E+02 7.. * . .373E04 .. * 1. 1. . .947E+02 4. * .. . . * ..737E+02 1.368E+02 3. .. . ... ....211E+02 5.. .505E03 .162E03 1.
. . ..158E+02 6.. 1.0E02 . * ... . 1. * .. ..
r raw file. the command (.13) spice b r resonant.cir) nutmeg resonant. A better looking plot is produced by the “nutmeg” graphical postprocessor.plot) command.cir).155 Hz.plot) in the last line producing the text plot on any printer or terminal.” or how sensitive it is to changes in frequency. which is the closest analysis point to our predicted resonance frequency of 159.raw From the nutmeg prompt: >setplot ac1 (setplot {enter} for list of plots) >display (for list of signals) >plot mag(v1#branch) (magnitude of complex current vector v1#branch) Incidentally. which SPICE can’t handle rbogus 1 2 1e12 l1 2 0 100m . the graph output produced by this SPICE computer analysis is more generally known as a Bode plot.end
CHAPTER 6. The current in this circuit takes a sharp dip around the analysis point of 157. input is resonant.9 Hz.cir) does not require the plot (. RESONANCE
left to right. • For a tank circuit with no resistance (R). The above spice ( *. part of the spice package.raw resonant.ac lin 20 100 200 . The plot above is produced from the above spice circuit ﬁle ( *.plot ac i(v1) . The steepness of a Bode plot curve characterizes a circuit’s “frequency response. It is at this point that total current from the power source falls to zero.130 tank circuit frequency sweep v1 1 0 ac 1 sin c1 1 0 10u * rbogus is necessary to eliminate a direct loop * between v1 and l1. while frequency increases from top to bottom. The following commands produce the plot below: (Figure 6. • REVIEW: • Resonance occurs when capacitive and inductive reactances are equal to each other. Such graphs plot amplitude or phase shift on one axis and frequency on the other. resonant frequency can be calculated with the following formula:
fresonant =
•
1 2π LC
• The total impedance of a parallel LC circuit approaches inﬁnity as the power supply frequency approaches resonance.
.cir ( b batch mode. though it does no harm.
(Figure 6.
.
6.14: Simple series resonant circuit. the two impedances cancel each other out and the total impedance drops to zero!
10 µF 100 mH
Figure 6.3.14) When a state of resonance is reached (capacitive and inductive reactances equal).
• A Bode plot is a graph plotting waveform amplitude or phase on one axis and frequency on the other.6. SIMPLE SERIES RESONANCE
131
Figure 6.13: Nutmeg produces plot of current I(v1) for parallel resonant circuit.3
Simple series resonance
A similar effect happens in series inductive/capacitive circuits.
end As before.plot ac i(v1) .j100 Ω) Zseries = 0 Ω
With the total series impedance equal to 0 Ω at the resonant frequency of 159.j100 Ω
1
R1 1Ω C1 3 L1
2 10 µF 100 mH 0
1V
0
Figure 6. circuit current amplitude increases from bottom to top. This would suggest that our resonant frequency formula holds as true for simple series LC circuits as it does for simple parallel LC circuits. and perform another SPICE analysis over the same range of frequencies: (Figure 6. I’ll add a small resistor (Figure 6.155 Hz.155 Hz.16) The peak is still seen to be at the plotted frequency point of 157.132
CHAPTER 6. which is the case:
. while frequency increases from left to right.ac lin 20 100 200 .155 Hz: ZL = 0 + j100 Ω Zseries = ZL + ZC Zseries = (0 + j100 Ω) + (0 . (Figure 6. the closest analyzed point to our predicted resonance point of 159. RESONANCE
At 159.9 Hz.16)
ZC = 0 .15) in series along with the capacitor and the inductor to keep the maximum circuit current somewhat limited. In the circuit drawn above.15: Series resonant circuit suitable for SPICE. this would not be good.
series lc circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m . the result is a short circuit across the AC power source at resonance.
17) series lc circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m .155)(10µF)) = j100Ω
.155 Hz. as each component possesses signiﬁcant impedance. L = 100mH.3) v(3) .3. Needless to say.plot ac i(v1) v(2. caution is in order when experimenting with circuits such as this.ac lin 20 100 200 . We can edit the SPICE netlist in the above example to include a plot of voltage across the capacitor and inductor to demonstrate what happens: (Figure 6. What is the expected value? Given: fr = 159. This SPICE voltage is lower than the expected value due to the small (20) number of steps in the AC analysis statement (.ac lin 20 100 200). voltage across the capacitor and inductor reach a peak somewhere around 70 volts! This is quite impressive for a power supply that only generates 1 volt. R = 1 XL = 2πfL = 2π(159.end According to SPICE.
fresonant =
1 2π LC
A word of caution is in order with series LC resonant circuits: because of the high currents which may be present in a series LC circuit at resonance.16: Series resonant circuit plot of current I(v1).6.155)(100mH)=j100Ω XC = 1/(2πfC) = 1/(2π(159. it is possible to produce dangerously high voltage drops across the capacitor and the inductor. SIMPLE SERIES RESONANCE
133
Figure 6.
these voltages are out of phase and cancel yielding a total voltage across all three components of only 1 V. I=I(V1#branch) 0. due to high current ﬂows and substantial individual component impedances.532 A peak Z = 1 +j100 j100 = 1 Ω I = V/Z = (1 V)/(1 Ω) = 1 A VL = IZ = (1 A)(j100) = j100 V VC = IZ = (1 A)(j100) = j100 V VR = IR = (1 A)(1)= 1 V Vtotal = VL + VC + VR Vtotal = j100 j100 +1 = 1 V The expected values for capacitor and inductor voltage are 100 V. VL =v(3) 70 V peak. The ratio of the capacitor (or inductor) voltage to the applied voltage is the “Q” factor. the applied voltage. • Extremely high voltages can be formed across the individual components of series LC circuits at resonance.17: Plot of Vc=V(2. However. This voltage will stress these components to that level and they must be rated accordingly.134
CHAPTER 6. • The same formula for determining resonant frequency in a simple tank circuit applies to simple series circuits as well. RESONANCE
Figure 6.3) 70 V peak. Q = VL /VR = VC /VR • REVIEW: • The total impedance of a series LC circuit approaches zero as the power supply frequency approaches resonance.
.
this is not the case. In fact. so can a tank circuit be used to stabilize the electrical frequency of an AC oscillator circuit. Usually. • REVIEW:
. blocking them from getting to the load
load
Figure 6.6. with the capacitor and inductor directly connected together. or at most a nuisance to be avoided (especially if series resonance makes for a shortcircuit across our AC voltage source!). exchanging energy between each other. One use for resonance is to establish a condition of stable frequency in circuits designed to produce AC signals. this is how analog radio receiver tuner circuits work to ﬁlter..19)
the natural frequency of the "tank circuit" helps to stabilize oscillations
AC source of mixed frequencies
Tank circuit presents a high impedance to a narrow range of frequencies.18: Resonant circuit serves as stable frequency source..4
Applications of resonance
So far.. APPLICATIONS OF RESONANCE
135
6. and their design constitutes a discipline of study all by itself: (Figure 6. Resonance is a very valuable property of reactive AC circuits. a parallel (tank) circuit is used for this purpose. or select.
Figure 6.4.. . However. the phenomenon of resonance appears to be a useless curiosity. one station frequency out of the mix of different radio station frequency signals intercepted by the antenna.. In essence.. and not on the magnitudes of voltage or current present in the oscillations: (Figure 6. As was noted before. A resonant circuit can be used to “block” (present high impedance toward) a frequency or range of frequencies. these particular circuits are called ﬁlters. to the rest of the "oscillator" circuit . Just as a pendulum can be used to stabilize the frequency of a clock mechanism’s oscillations. thus acting as a sort of frequency “ﬁlter” to strain certain frequencies out of a mix of others.18)
. the frequency set by the tank circuit is solely dependent upon the values of L and C. employed in a variety of applications. Another use for resonance is in applications where the effects of greatly increased or decreased impedance at a particular frequency is desired.19: Resonant circuit serves as ﬁlter.
• Resonance can be exploited for its impedance properties: either dramatically increasing or decreasing impedance for certain frequencies. respectively.22)is necessary to prevent SPICE from encountering trouble in analysis. Here.
6. an extra resistor (Rbogus ) (Figure 6.5
Resonance in seriesparallel circuits
In simple reactive circuits with little or no resistance. using the same values for capacitance and inductance as before: 10 µF and 100 mH. it means zero impedance at resonance:
fresonant =
1 2π LC
However.155 Hz. this simple calculation for resonance becomes invalid. the resonant frequency should be 159. though. Watch. Circuits designed to screen certain frequencies out of a mix of different frequencies are called ﬁlters. In a series LC circuit. In a parallel (tank) LC circuit. this means inﬁnite impedance at resonance. as soon as signiﬁcant levels of resistance are introduced into most LC circuits.20: Parallel LC circuit with resistance in series with L.136
CHAPTER 6. so the addition of a series resistor is necessary to “break
. where current reaches maximum or minimum in the following SPICE analyses:
Parallel LC with resistance in series with L 1 1 R1 V1 1V C1 0 0 0 10 µF 2 L1 0 100 mH 1 100 Ω
Figure 6. We’ll take a look at several LC circuits with added resistance. just as a pendulum can be used to maintain constant oscillation speed in a timekeeping mechanism. According to our simple equation. the effects of radically altered impedance will manifest at the resonance frequency predicted by the equation given earlier. RESONANCE
• Resonance can be employed to maintain AC circuit oscillations at a constant frequency. SPICE can’t handle an inductor connected directly in parallel with any voltage source or any other inductor.
ac lin 20 100 200 .6.8 Hz instead of 159.21: Resistance in series with L produces minimum current at 136.2 Hz!
.8 Hz instead of calculated 159. RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS
137
resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin c1 1 0 10u r1 1 2 100 l1 2 0 100m .end
Figure 6.plot ac i(v1) .2 Hz
Minimum current at 136.5.
plot ac i(v1) .2 Hz!
Switching our attention to series LC circuits. RESONANCE
Parallel LC with resistance in series with C 1 1 R1 V1 1V C1 0 0 0 2 100 Ω 3 10 µF L1 0 100 mH 1 Rbogus
Figure 6. up” the voltage source/inductor loop that would otherwise be formed. R2 . a 1 Ω resistor (R1 ) is placed in series with the inductor and capacitor to limit total current at resonance. resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 100 c1 2 0 10u rbogus 1 3 1e12 l1 3 0 100m . The astute observer will notice a pattern between the four SPICE examples given above.24) we experiment with placing signiﬁcant resistances in parallel with either L or C. a series LC circuit with the signiﬁcant resistance in parallel with the capacitor.26) The shifted resonance is shown in (Figure 6. This resistor is chosen to be a very low value for minimum impact on the circuit’s behavior. in terms of how resistance affects the resonant peak of a circuit:
.ac lin 20 100 400 .end Minimum current at roughly 180 Hz instead of 159. And ﬁnally. The “extra” resistance inserted to inﬂuence resonant frequency effects is the 100 Ω resistor. (Figure 6. The results are shown in (Figure 6.27) The tendency for added resistance to skew the point at which impedance reaches a maximum or minimum in an LC circuit is called antiresonance. In the following series circuit examples.138
CHAPTER 6.22: Parallel LC with resistance in serieis with C. (Figure 6.25).
RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS
139
Figure 6.24: Series LC resonant circuit with resistance in parallel with L.
.2 Hz to roughly 180 Hz.6.5.
Series LC with resistance in parallel with L 1 R1 1Ω C1 V1 1V 3 L1 0 0 100 mH R2 10 µF 3 100 Ω 0 2
Figure 6.23: Resistance in series with C shifts minimum current from calculated 159.
ac lin 20 100 200 .25: Series resonant circuit with resistance in parallel with L shifts maximum current from 159.9 Hz instead of 159.2 Hz!
.2 Hz to roughly 180 Hz.140 resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m r2 3 0 100 .ac lin 20 100 400 .plot ac i(v1) . resonant circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 10u r2 2 3 100 l1 3 0 100m .8 Hz instead of 159. RESONANCE
Maximum current at roughly 178.end
CHAPTER 6.plot ac i(v1) .end Maximum current at 136.2 Hz!
Figure 6.
8 Hz.2 Hz to about 136.26: Series LC resonant circuit with rsistance in parallel with C.
.5.6.
Figure 6. RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS
141
Series LC with resistance in parallel with C 1 R1 1Ω C1 V1 1V 3 L1 0 0 100 mH 2 2 10 µF R2 100 Ω 3
Figure 6.27: Resistance in parallel with C in series resonant circuit shifts curreent maximum from calculated 159.
142 • Parallel (“tank”) LC circuit: • R in series with L: resonant frequency shifted down • R in series with C: resonant frequency shifted up
CHAPTER 6. which manifest themselves as added resistance in the circuit. The equations for determining antiresonance “shift” are complex. RESONANCE
• Series LC circuit: • R in parallel with L: resonant frequency shifted up • R in parallel with C: resonant frequency shifted down Again.2 Hz once again! Note that the peak of the current graph (Figure 6. This effect can be thought of as though the iron core of the transformer were a sort of secondary transformer coil powering a resistive load: the lessthanperfect conductivity of the iron metal. but changing. inductors not only have resistance. this illustrates the complementary nature of capacitors and inductors: how resistance in series with one creates an antiresonance effect equivalent to resistance in parallel with the other. inductors are typically plagued with substantial amounts of resistance due to the long lengths of wire used in their construction. This effects can be minimized with laminated cores. the resistance of wire tends to increase as frequency goes up.29) has not changed from the earlier series LC circuit (the one with the 1 Ω token resistance in it). Added resistance in an LC circuit is no academic matter. As if the resistance of an inductor’s wire weren’t enough to cause problems. good core design and highgrade materials. the resonant frequency of the circuit will be unaffected by the resistance. and will not be covered in this brief lesson. frequencydependent resistance at that. this circuit does not resonate as strongly as one with less series resistance (it is said to be “less selective”).28) The resulting plot is shown in (Figure 6. Thus. Since iron is a conductor of electricity as well as a conductor of magnetic ﬂux. (Figure 6. and that the shape of the complementary graphs are mirrorimages of each other! Antiresonance is an effect that resonant circuit designers must be aware of. So long as all components are connected in series with each other. If you look even closer to the four SPICE examples given. Obviously. we also have to contend with the “core losses” of ironcore inductors. One notable exception to the rule of circuit resistance causing a resonant frequency shift is the case of series resistorinductorcapacitor (“RLC”) circuits. but at least it has the same natural frequency!
. and what its general tendencies are.29). thereby reducing the wire’s effective crosssectional area. due to a strange phenomenon known as the skin effect where AC current tends to be excluded from travel through the very center of a wire. but never completely eliminated. even though the resistance is now 100 times greater. changing ﬂux produced by alternating current through the coil will tend to induce electric currents in the core itself (eddy currents). What is more. It should sufﬁce the beginning student of electronics to understand that the effect exists. The only thing that has changed is the “sharpness” of the curve. While it is possible to manufacture capacitors with negligible unwanted resistances. Maximum current at 159. you’ll see that the frequencies are shifted by the same amount.
2 Hz.ac lin 20 100 200 .
.5.28: Series LC with resistance in series. RESONANCE IN SERIESPARALLEL CIRCUITS
143
Series LC with resistance in series 1 R1 100 Ω C1 V1 1V 3 L1 0 0 100 mH 2 10 µF
Figure 6.end
Figure 6.29: Resistance in series resonant circuit leaves current maximum at calculated 159. series rlc circuit v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 100 c1 2 3 10u l1 3 0 100m .plot ac i(v1) .6. broadening the curve.
and so are lossless tank circuits. where any moving object with mass is a potential resonator. resistor. Without shock absorbers.31) Why is this? There’s no capacitor in the circuit. which is the time constant of the circuit in seconds. The shock absorber’s job is to introduce a strong antiresonant effect by dissipating energy hydraulically (in the same way that a resistor dissi
. there will always be some that you cannot eliminate. RESONANCE
It is noteworthy that antiresonance has the effect of dampening the oscillations of freerunning LC circuits such as tank circuits. Energy lost through resistance (or inductor core losses or radiated electromagnetic waves or . it will fail to resonate at all. A very common application of this is the use of shock absorbers in automobiles.30)
switch
R
L
Figure 6. If enough energy losses are present in a tank circuit. In a perfect tank circuit (no resistance). Interestingly enough. The rate of inductor charging will be set by the ratio L/R. so how can we have resonant oscillation with just an inductor. this oscillation would continue forever.) in a tank circuit will cause the oscillations to decay in amplitude until they are no more. cars would bounce wildly at their resonant frequency after hitting any bump in the road. it will cause a condition of antiresonance. Antiresonance’s dampening effect is more than just a curiosity: it can be used quite effectively to eliminate unwanted oscillations in circuits containing stray inductances and/or capacitances. (Figure 6. you might ﬁnd unexpected oscillations (AC) of voltage across the inductor when the switch is closed. But frictionless machines are difﬁcult to ﬁnd in the real world. and battery? All inductors contain a certain amount of stray capacitance due to turntoturn and turntocore insulation gaps. just as a frictionless pendulum would continue to swing at its resonant frequency forever. In the beginning of this chapter we saw how a capacitor and inductor connected directly together would act something like a pendulum. If resistor R is large enough. exchanging voltage and current peaks just like a pendulum exchanges kinetic and potential energy. . as almost all circuits do. the principle of employing resistance to eliminate unwanted resonance is one frequently used in the design of mechanical systems. If this causes resonant problems (unwanted AC oscillations).30: L/R time delay circuit The idea of this circuit is simple: to “charge” the inductor when the switch is closed. dissipating enough energy to prohibit the inductance and stray capacitance from sustaining oscillations for very long. Take note of the following L/R time delay circuit: (Figure 6.144
CHAPTER 6. . However. if you were to build such a circuit. Also. added resistance may be a way to combat it. While clean circuit layout is important in eliminating much of this stray capacitance. the placement of circuit conductors may create stray capacitance.
This is the case in practical applications. caused by the exclusion of AC current from the center of conductors. This formula is applicable to series resonant circuits. respectively: Q = Pstored /Pdissipated = I2 X/I2 R Q = X/R where: X = Capacitive or Inductive reactance at resonance R = Series resistance.6. as we
. • In a simple series LC circuit containing resistance (an “RLC” circuit). • REVIEW: • Added resistance to an LC circuit can cause a condition known as antiresonance. pates energy electrically). A higher value for this ﬁgure of merit correspondes to a more narrow bandwith.
6. Q AND BANDWIDTH OF A RESONANT CIRCUIT
145
ideal L/R voltage curve = actual L/R voltage curve =
Figure 6. which is desirable in many applications. resistance does not produce antiresonance. Q is the ration of power stored to power dissipated in the circuit reactance and resistance. More formally. of a resonant circuit is a measure of the “goodness” or quality of a resonant circuit. • Resistance inherent in realworld inductors can contribute greatly to conditions of antiresonance.6. One source of such resistance is the skin effect.31: Inductor ringing due to resonance with stray capacitance. and also parallel resonant ciruits if the resistance is in series with the inductor. where the peak impedance effects happen at frequencies other than that which gives equal capacitive and inductive reactances. Another source is that of core losses in ironcore inductors.6
Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit
The Q. Resonance still occurs when capacitive and inductive reactances are equal. quality factor.
32) Since the deﬁnition of resonance is XL =XC . Above resonance it appears inductive. (Figure 6. the series resonant circuit looks capacitive since the impedance of the capacitor increases to a value greater than the decreasing inducitve reactance. the reactive components cancel. low Q circuit. (Figure 6. A practical application of “Q” is that voltage across L or C in a series resonant circuit is Q times total applied voltage.33) Below the resonant frequency. The impedance is also at a minimum at resonance. Note: Some text may show X and R interchanged in the “Q” formula for a parallel resonant circuit. The resonant current peak may be changed by varying the series resistor. impedance increases.34) This also affects the broadness of the curve. as compared to a high resistance. Below resonance it looks capacitive. Above or below resonance. current through L or C is Q times the total applied current.6. capacitive reactance decreases. (Figure 6.
Figure 6. In a parallel resonant circuit. Current is maximum at resonance. Our formula is correct for a small R in series with L. the inductive rectance increases. This is correct for a large value of R in parallel with C and L. RESONANCE
are mostly concerned with the resistance of the inductor limiting the Q. leaving a net inductive component. leaving a net capacitive value. Bandwidth in terms of Q and resonant frequency:
. high Q circuit has a narrow bandwidth. leaving only the resistance to contribute to the impedance. Current is set by the value of the resistance.
6. impedance at a minumum.1
Series resonant circuits
A series resonant circuit looks like a resistance at the resonant frequency. Above resonance. which changes the Q. A low resistance.146
CHAPTER 6.32: At resonance the series resonant circuit appears purely resistive.
Q AND BANDWIDTH OF A RESONANT CIRCUIT
147
Figure 6.
BW = fc /Q Where fc = resonant frquency Q = quality factor
Figure 6.34: A high Q resonant circuit has a narrow bandwidth as compared to a low Q
.33: Impedance is at a minumum at resonance in a series resonant circuit.6.6.
The bandwidth is 64 Hz. (Figure 6. and the half power points are ± 32 Hz of the center resonant frequency: BW = ∆f = fh fl = 355291 = 64 fl = fc .6. The upper and lower band edges read from the curve are 291 Hz for fl and 355 Hz for fh .36) At resonance XL =XC . (0.∆f/2 fh = fc + ∆f/2 Where fc = center frequency (resonant frequency) In Figure 6.35. ∆f is measured between the 70.707)2 = (0.7% amplitude points of series resonant circuit.35: Bandwidth. The impedance is maximum at resonance. The 0.∆f/2 = 32332 = 291 fh = fc + ∆f/2 = 323+32 = 355 Since BW = fc /Q: Q = fc /BW = (323 Hz)/(64 Hz) = 5
6.148
CHAPTER 6. (Figure 6.7% level is 0707(50 mA)=35.35)
Figure 6.707 current amplitude points. RESONANCE
Bandwidth is measured between the 0.2
Parallel resonant circuits
A parallel resonant circuit is resistive at the resonant frequency. the 100% current point is 50 mA. (Fig
.4 mA. BW = ∆f = fh fl = fc /Q Where fh = high band edge.707 current points correspond to the half power points since P = I2 R.5).
fl = low band edge
fl = fc . The 70. the reactive components cancel.
capacitive above resonance. The 70. This produces a higher peak in the narrower response curve.38) conversely. we may use the impedance curve.6. Impedance is maximum at resonance in a parallel resonant circuit.37) A low Q due to a high resistance in series with the inductor prodces a low peak on a broad response curve for a parallel resonant circuit. drawing the larger proportion of current. the capacitive rectance decreases. (Figure 6. thus.707)2 =0. drawing the larger current. The bandwidth of the parallel resonant response curve is measured between the half power points. lower resistance wire. Voltage is at a peak at resonance since voltage is proportional to impedance (E=IZ).39) In Figure 6. the 100% impedance point is 500 Ω. This corresponds to the 70. but decreases above or below resonance.36: A parallel resonant circuit is resistive at resonance. The high Q is achieved by winding the inductor with larger diameter (smaller gague). Q AND BANDWIDTH OF A RESONANT CIRCUIT
149
ure 6. The upper and lower band edges read from the curve are 281 Hz for fl and 343 Hz for fh . (Figure 6. taking on a capacitive characteristic. inductive below resonance. The bandwidth is 62 Hz. a high Q is due to a low resistance in series with the inductor.
Figure 6.37) Below the resonant frequency.39.∆f/2 = 31231 = 281 fh = fc + ∆f/2 = 312+31 = 343 Q = fc /BW = (312 Hz)/(62 Hz) = 5
.7% level is 0707(500)=354 Ω. (Figure 6.6. the series resonant circuit looks inductive since the impedance of the inductor is lower.7% voltage points since power is proportional to E2 .50) Since voltage is proportional to impedance. ((0. and the half power points are ± 31 Hz of the center resonant frequency: BW = ∆f = fh fl = 343281 = 62 fl = fc . Above resonance.
150
CHAPTER 6.
.37: Parallel resonant circuit: Impedance peaks at resonance.
Figure 6.38: Parallel resonant response varies with Q. RESONANCE
Figure 6.
7
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.
6. from most recent to ﬁrst.39: Bandwidth. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. ∆f is measured between the 70. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.
. CONTRIBUTORS
151
Figure 6.6.7% impedance points of a parallel resonant circuit.7.
RESONANCE
.152
CHAPTER 6.
. we’ve explored circuits powered by a singlefrequency sine voltage waveform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In many applications of electronics. . Additionally. . . . . Also. . . . . . . . . . . Quite often we may encounter circuits where multiple frequencies of voltage coexist simultaneously. . . . . . . .4 7. . singlefrequency signals are the exception rather than the rule. . . . . . . . . . .5 7. . . . . . . . . . . in which case we call them nonsinusoidal waveforms. . . . . . This may be the result of unintended connections between circuits – called coupling – made possible by 153
. 153 158 168 174 185 188
7. its “frequency” is said to be zero. . we may encounter situations where DC is mixed with AC: where a waveform is superimposed on a steady (DC) signal. . . . . . for example). though. Other waveshapes . . . . . . . . .Chapter 7
MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Contents
7. . . . and any signal containing DC along with a signal of varying intensity (AC) may be rightly called a mixedfrequency signal as well. . . . In any of these cases where there is a mix of frequencies in the same circuit. .2 7. . . . . . . . . . . but never changing polarity. . . . The result of such a mix is a signal varying in intensity. or changing polarity asymmetrically (spending more time positive than negative. . .3 7. .6 Introduction . .1 7. . . . . . . . Since DC does not alternate as AC does. circuit waveforms may be something other than sinewave shaped. . Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Introduction
In our study of AC circuits thus far. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . analysis is more complex than what we’ve seen up to this point. . . . . . . Sometimes mixedfrequency voltage and current signals are created accidentally. . . . . . . . . . . Square wave signals . More on spectrum analysis Circuit effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A classic example of coupling phenomenon is seen frequently in industry where DC signal wiring is placed in close proximity to AC power wiring. and signals should be conducted via 2conductor “twisted pair” cable rather than through a single wire and ground connection: (Figure 7.1: Stray inductance and capacitance couple stray AC into desired DC signal. while stray inductance formed by parallel runs of wire in conduit may cause current from the power conductors to electromagnetically induce voltage along the signal conductors. The following schematic shows how an AC “noise” source may “couple” to a DC circuit through mutual inductance (Mstray ) and capacitance (Cstray ) along the length of the conductors.154
CHAPTER 7. Coupling may also occur between two sets of conductors carrying AC signals. the results are usually undesirable. while the parallal proximity of the two conductors effectively cancels any electromagnetic (mutually inductive) coupling because any induced noise voltage will be approximately equal in magnitude and opposite in phase along both conductors. (Figure 7. Stray capacitance formed by the electrical insulation separating power conductors from signal conductors may cause voltage (with respect to earth ground) from the power conductors to be impressed upon the signal conductors. dedicated metal conduit. When stray AC voltages from a “noise” source mix with DC signals conducted along signal wiring.2) The grounded cable shield – a wire braid or metal foil wrapped around the two insulated conductors – isolates both conductors from electrostatic (capacitive) coupling by blocking any external electric ﬁelds. The nearby presence of high AC voltages and currents may cause “foreign” voltages to be impressed upon the length of the signal wiring. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
stray capacitance and/or inductance between the conductors of those circuits.3)
.1)
"Noise" source
Mstray Zwire
Cstray Zwire
Zwire
"Clean" DC voltage
DC voltage + AC "noise"
Figure 7. Polarity marks placed near each inductive portion of signal conductor length shows how the induced voltages are phased in such a way as to cancel one another. The result is a mix of DC and AC at the signal load. in which case both signals may become “mixed” with each other: (Figure 7. For this reason. power wiring and lowlevel signal wiring should always be routed through separated. canceling each other at the receiving end for a net (differential) noise voltage of almost zero.
INTRODUCTION
155
"Noise" source
Mstray
Cstray

+ Shielded cable +
Figure 7.7.1.2: Shielded twisted pair minimized noise.
Signal A
Zwire
Zwire
Zwire
A+B
Mstray Zwire Zwire
Cstray Zwire
Signal B
B+A
Figure 7.
.3: Coupling of AC signals between parallel conductors.
In some cases.1 with a fundamental frequency of 1000 Hz (an arbitrary ﬁgure chosen for this example). If we had an instrument producing the entire range of harmonic frequencies shown in the table above. each frequency a wholenumber multiple of the ﬁrst (called harmonics. pure note or tone. The particular mix of frequencies in the voltage signal output by the microphone is dependent on the sound being reproduced. the voltage waveform will likewise be a sine wave at a single frequency. This technique has been used for years in electric power distribution networks to communicate load data along highvoltage power lines. Musical chords are produced by blending one frequency with other frequencies of particular fractional multiples of the ﬁrst.4)
60 Hz AC + DC voltage 90 Hz mixedfrequency AC voltage
Figure 7. If the sound waves consist of a single. Sometimes the term “overtone” is used to describe the a harmonic frequency produced by a musical instrument. while the ﬁrst frequency is called the fundamental). However. It is generally quite easy to create mixedfrequency signal sources. this application of the term “overtone” is speciﬁc to particular instruments. If the sound wave is a chord or other harmony of several notes. while the second overtone would be 3000 Hz (the 3rd harmonic). signal coupling via stray inductance and capacitance is usually accidental and undesired. the ﬁrst overtone would be 2000 Hz (the 2nd harmonic). etc. or two AC signals mixing with each other. so as to convey computer data along existing lengths of power cabling. the resulting voltage waveform produced by the microphone will consist of those frequencies mixed together.156
CHAPTER 7. investigating a little further. Some computer communications networks operate on the principle of superimposing highfrequency voltage signals along 60 Hz powerline conductors. Very few natural sounds consist of single. which convert audiofrequency air pressure waves into corresponding voltage waveforms.4: Series connection of voltage sources mixes signals. mixedfrequency signals may be produced by a single voltage source. Such is the case with microphones.
. However. under conditions that are deliberately established. An illustration of these terms is shown in Table 7. pure sine wave vibrations but rather are a mix of different frequency vibrations at different amplitudes. Perhaps the easiest way is to simply connect voltage sources in series: (Figure 7. Whether it be AC mixed with DC. The “ﬁrst” overtone is the ﬁrst harmonic frequency greater than the fundamental. In other cases. we ﬁnd that even a single piano note (produced by a plucked string) consists of one predominant frequency mixed with several other frequencies. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Coupling is but one example of how signals of different frequencies may become mixed. mixedfrequency signals are the result of intentional design or they may be an intrinsic quality of a signal. Certainly these are examples of mixedfrequency AC voltages.
) or of a column of air in a tube (trumpet. 6000 Hz.) tend to produce sounds composed of a single frequency (the “fundamental”) and a mix of harmonics. A distinctive blend of frequencies is what gives a musical instrument its characteristic tone. sounds very “ﬂat” and “featureless” to the human ear. steel strings have a different sound than nylon strings. banjo. tuba. 7000 Hz. For example. the measure of a tone’s harmonic content is called timbre or color. but would not produce 2000 Hz. etc. etc.
. Instruments based on the vibration of a string (guitar. etc. All these instruments produce harmonic frequencies (wholenumber multiples of the fundamental frequency) when a single note is played. Musical tones become even more complex when the resonating element of an instrument is a twodimensional surface rather than a onedimensional string. an instrument made from a tube that is open on one end and closed on the other (such as a bottle.1: For a “base” frequency of 1000 Hz: Frequency (Hz) Term 1000 1st harmonic. or fundamental 2000 2nd harmonic 3000 3rd harmonic 4000 4th harmonic 5000 5th harmonic 6000 6th harmonic 7000 7th harmonic
157
It so happens that certain instruments are incapable of producing certain types of harmonic frequencies. and some types of bells). as well. which produces sound when air is blown across the opening) is incapable of producing evennumbered harmonics. and so on. but the relative amplitudes of those harmonic frequencies are different for different instruments. we would say that the ﬁrst overtone (the ﬁrst frequency greater than the fundamental) in such an instrument would be 3000 Hz (the 3rd harmonic). Brass instruments do not possess the same “harmonic content” as woodwind instruments. described by the physics of motion for each unique object producing the sound. clarinet. piano. As anyone who has played guitar can tell you. dulcimer. are a result of different harmonic content produced by differences in the mechanical vibrations of an instrument’s parts. however. not limited to wholenumber multiples of the fundamental. Most musical instruments are incapable of producing sounds this simple. INTRODUCTION
Table 7. 4000 Hz.7. As such. Instruments based on the vibration of a ﬂat plate (steel drums. These differences in tone. pipe organ. Such an instrument set up to produce a fundamental frequency of 1000 Hz would also produce frequencies of 3000 Hz. In musical terms. being entirely devoid of any harmonics. or any other evenmultiple frequencies of the fundamental. A pure sine wave (single frequency). produce a much broader range of frequencies. ﬂute. Also. the tone produced by a guitar string changes depending on where along its length it is plucked. What gives each instrument its distinctive tone is the same phenomenon that gives each person a distinctive voice: the unique blending of harmonic waveforms with each fundamental note. 5000 Hz.1. while the second overtone would be 5000 Hz (the 5th harmonic). The result is a distinctive tone that some people ﬁnd acoustically offensive. lute. and neither produce the same harmonic content as stringed instruments.
7. purposely created. Some devices and systems do not permit the establishment of certain harmonics. and/or cosine waves (sine waves with a 90 degree phase shift) at various amplitudes and frequencies. but are rich blends of different frequencies. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
As you can see. The “ﬁrst” overtone is the ﬁrst frequency greater than the fundamental.
• Mixedfrequency waveforms can be accidently created. plus an inﬁnite series of oddmultiple frequency sine waves at diminishing amplitude:
. it is reducible to this series of sinusoidal waves. In particular. Later sections of this chapter will refer to musical instruments as sources of waveforms for analysis in more detail. This is true no matter how strange or convoluted the waveform in question may be. are not composed of a single frequency sinewave.158
CHAPTER 7. or simply exist out of necessity.2
Square wave signals
It has been found that any repeating. for instance. sine waves. and so their overtones would only include some (not all) harmonic frequencies. Most musical tones. Successive overtones may or may not correspond to incremental harmonics. depending on the device producing the mixed frequencies. and the other sinewaves whose frequencies are wholenumber multiples of the fundamental wave are called harmonics. So long as it repeats itself regularly over time. nonsinusoidal waveform can be equated to a combination of DC voltage.
• An overtone is a harmonic produced by a particular device. the lowest frequency sinewave is called the fundamental. while the “second” overtone is the next greater frequency produced. music provides a rich ﬁeld of study for mixed frequencies and their effects.
• A nonsinusoidal waveform can be anything from a distorted sinewave shape to something completely different like a square wave.
• When multiple sine waveforms are mixed together (as is often the case in music).
• REVIEW:
• A sinusoidal waveform is one shaped exactly like a sine wave. it has been found that square waves are mathematically equivalent to the sum of a sine wave at that same frequency.
The circuit we’ll be simulating is nothing more than several sine wave AC voltage sources of the proper amplitudes and frequencies connected together in series. and 9th harmonic
. . if a square wave is actually an inﬁnite series of sine wave harmonics added together. .27V 50Hz V3=424mV 150Hz V5=255mV 250Hz V7=182mV 350Hz V9=141mV 450Hz
plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform plot voltage waveform
Figure 7. 5th.7. . In this particular SPICE simulation. 7th. it stands to reason that we should be able to prove this by adding together several sine wave harmonics to produce a close approximation of a square wave.
This truth about waveforms at ﬁrst may seem too strange to believe. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS
159
1 V (peak) repeating square wave at 50 Hz is equivalent to: 4 (1 V peak sine wave at 50 Hz) π + + 4 (1/3 V peak sine wave at 150 Hz) π 4 (1/5 V peak sine wave at 250 Hz) π 4 (1/7 V peak sine wave at 350 Hz) π 4 (1/9 V peak sine wave at 450 Hz) π
+ +
+ . ad infinitum . 3rd. We’ll use SPICE to plot the voltage waveforms across successive additions of voltage sources.5)
V1=1. but easily demonstrated with SPICE.5: A square wave is approximated by the sum of harmonics. I’ve summed the 1st. like this: (Figure 7. This reasoning is not only sound. . However.2.
of course. we see the fundamentalfrequency sinewave of 50 Hz by itself. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
voltage sources in series for a total of ﬁve AC voltage sources.0) Plot 1st + 3rd harmonics . . with no additional harmonic content.27324 50 0 0) 1st harmonic (50 Hz) v3 2 1 sin (0 424. + 9th harmonics .0) Plot 1st harmonic .471m 450 0 0) 9th harmonic r1 5 0 10k . 1/3.0) Plot 1st + 3rd + 5th + 7th harmonics .plot tran v(2. In this ﬁrst plot.plot tran v(4. we see what happens when this clean and simple waveform is combined with the
. This is the kind of waveform produced by an ideal AC power source: (Figure 7. The amplitude (voltage) ﬁgures are not random numbers. It is nothing but a pure sine shape. 1/7.plot tran v(1. The fundamental frequency is 50 Hz and each harmonic is.648m 250 0 0) 5th harmonic v7 4 3 sin (0 181. etc.0) Plot 1st + .6)
Figure 7.6: Pure 50 Hz sinewave.413m 150 0 0) 3rd harmonic v5 3 2 sin (0 254. building a squarewave v1 1 0 sin (0 1. explaining what it is we’re looking at.tran 1m 20m . 1/5.891m 350 0 0) 7th harmonic v9 5 4 sin (0 141.end I’ll narrate the analysis step by step from here. for each of the increasing odd harmonics).plot tran v(5.160
CHAPTER 7. . rather. an integer multiple of that frequency. they have been arrived at through the equations shown in the frequency series (the fraction 4/π multiplied by 1. Next.plot tran v(3.0) Plot 1st + 3rd + 5th harmonics .
8: Sum of 1st. and the crests of the wave are closer to becoming ﬂat like a squarewave.8)
Figure 7. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS
161
third harmonic (three times 50 Hz. The rise and fall times between positive and negative cycles are much steeper now.7.7)
Figure 7. it doesn’t look like a clean sine wave any more: (Figure 7.
. 3rd and 5th harmonics approximates square wave.2. Watch what happens as we add the next odd harmonic frequency: (Figure 7. Suddenly. or 150 Hz).7: Sum of 1st (50 Hz) and 3rd (150 Hz) harmonics approximates a 50 Hz square wave.
and 7th harmonics approximates square wave. Watch again as we add the next odd harmonic waveform to the mix: (Figure 7. the ﬁfth sine wave voltage source in our circuit. to prove that a pure square wave is actually equivalent to a series of sine waves. adding the 9th harmonic. but those dips and crests are smaller in amplitude than they were before. Finally. which in fact they are. which we already know is composed of oddharmonic sine waves: The pulse option in the netlist line describing voltage source v1 instructs SPICE to simulate
. There are more several dips and crests at each end of the wave. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
The most noticeable change here is how the crests of the wave have ﬂattened even more. and/or cosine waves is a consequence of how waves work: a fundamental property of all waverelated phenomena. SPICE has the ability to sample a waveform and reduce it into its constituent sine wave harmonics by way of a Fourier Transform algorithm. sine waves. the details of which are well beyond the scope of this text. However. of course) is a close approximation of a square wave. nonsinusoidal waves are equivalent to a deﬁnite series of additive DC voltage. computer algorithms have been created to perform this analysis at high speeds on real waveforms.9)
Figure 7. Let’s try this on a square wave. 5th. 3rd. The fact that repeating. and its application in AC power quality and signal analysis is widespread. electrical or otherwise. The point in doing this is to illustrate how we can build a square wave up from multiple sine waves at different frequencies. we obtain this result: (Figure 7. outputting the frequency analysis as a table of numbers.10) The end result of adding the ﬁrst ﬁve odd harmonic waveforms together (all at the proper amplitudes.162
CHAPTER 7. The mathematical process of reducing a nonsinusoidal wave into these constituent frequencies is called Fourier analysis. those components react as if they were being exposed to several sine wave voltages of different frequencies. When a square wave AC voltage is applied to a circuit with reactive components (capacitors and inductors). Here we can see the wave becoming ﬂatter at each peak.9: Sum of 1st.
end
.7. 7th and 9th harmonics approximates square wave.tran 1m 40m .plot tran v(1.0) .1m 10m 20m) r1 1 0 10k . 3rd.1m .
squarewave analysis netlist v1 1 0 pulse (1 1 0 .10: Sum of 1st. 5th. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS
163
Figure 7.four 50 v(1.0) .2.
000000 2. we’ll print the Fourier analysis generated by SPICE for this square wave: fourier components of transient response v(1) dc component = 2.171 100.040175 107.000E+02 4.780 6 3. 9th is smallest). 4th.274E+00 1.366 13.12) SPICE has broken the waveform down into a spectrum of sinusoidal frequencies up to the ninth harmonic. this frequency is 50 Hz).144549 15.841E01 0.892E02 0. 8th).756 17.976 7 3. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
a squareshaped “pulse” waveform.201179 10.
.000E+02 4.561 total harmonic distortion = 43.390 4 2.000E+01 1.333987 6.171 8 4. in this case one that is symmetrical (equal time for each halfcycle) and has a peak amplitude of 1 volt. and how the amplitudes of the odd harmonics diminish (1st is largest.500E+02 2.366 9 4. so it knew how to classify the harmonics.780 96.000E+02 5.936E02 0.164
CHAPTER 7. I had to inform SPICE of the fundamental frequency (for a square wave with a 20 millisecond period.805747 percent Here. 6th.585 5 2.11)
Figure 7.038415 94.561 105.113316 19.000 2 1. (Figure 7.500E+02 1.500E+02 4.11: Squarewave for SPICE Fourier analysis Next. plus a small DC voltage labelled DC component.039337 103. First we’ll plot the square wave to be analyzed: (Figure 7.038757 98.195 3 1.010E02 0.195 0. Note how small the ﬁgures are for all the even harmonics (2nd.116E02 0.253E01 0.562E01 0.500E+02 1.976 8.439E02 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase normalized no (hz) component component (deg) phase (deg) 1 5.390 92.000E+02 5.585 4.443E01 0.
7. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS
165
Figure 7.
This same technique of “Fourier Transformation” is often used in computerized power instrumentation. the equalizer is able to selectively attenuate (reduce) the amplitude of certain frequencies present in music. (Figure 7. to “customize” the sound for the listener’s beneﬁt.5 kHz 5 7. displaying the amplitude of each particular frequency.
. This same mathematical technique used in SPICE to analyze the harmonic content of waves can be applied to the technical analysis of music: breaking up any particular sound into its constituent sinewave frequencies. there will be a “bar graph” display next to each control lever.13)
Graphic Equalizer
Bargraph displays the amplitude of each frequency Control levers set the attenuation factor for each frequency
50 Hz 150 300 Hz Hz 500 Hz 750 Hz 1 1.2.13: HiFi audio graphic equalizer. sampling the AC waveform(s) and determining the harmonic content thereof.5 kHz kHz
Figure 7. You need not be concerned with exactly how these computer routines work. you may have already seen a device designed to do just that without realizing what it was! A graphic equalizer is a piece of highﬁdelity stereo equipment that controls (and sometimes displays) the nature of music’s harmonic content. In fact. Typically.12: Plot of Fourier analysis esults. Equipped with several knobs or slide levers.5 kHz kHz 3.5 kHz kHz 10 12. but be aware of their existence and application. A common computer algorithm (sequence of program steps to perform a task) for this is the Fast Fourier Transform or FFT function.
Again. this plot is amplitude over frequency rather than amplitude over time. such as those produced by radio transmitters and computer network hardware. whereas a spectrum analyzer’s plot of amplitude (vertical) over frequency (horizontal) is a “frequencydomain” analysis. When we use SPICE to plot signal amplitude (either voltage or current amplitude) over a range of frequencies.14)
Spectrum Analyzer
amplitude
frequency
Figure 7.” Ideally. the less precise the analysis. but the less cycles available to the computer for analysis. we are performing frequencydomain analysis. they often have an appearance like that of an oscilloscope: (Figure 7. a frequency analyzer gives the operator a Bode plot of the signal: something an engineer might call a frequencydomain rather than a timedomain analysis. an oscilloscope’s plot of amplitude (vertical) over time (horizontal) is a “timedomain” analysis. It is only when we have an equation describing a waveform in its entirety that
. and so should the DC component. The design of spectrum analyzers may be as simple as a set of “ﬁlter” circuits (see the next chapter for details) designed to separate the different frequencies from each other. In that form.166
CHAPTER 7. this is not so much a quirk of SPICE as it is a property of waveforms in general. Thus. the amplitudes of all the even harmonics should be absolutely zero. A waveform of inﬁnite duration (inﬁnite number of cycles) can be analyzed with absolute precision. Spectrum analyzers are often designed to analyze extremely highfrequency signals. or as complex as a specialpurpose digital computer running an FFT algorithm to mathematically split the signal into its harmonic components. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
A device built strictly to display – not control – the amplitudes of each frequency range for a mixedfrequency signal is typically called a spectrum analyzer. the spectrum analyzer uses a CRT (or a computer display mimicking a CRT) to display a plot of the signal. Please take note of how the Fourier analysis from the last SPICE simulation isn’t “perfect.14: Spectrum analyzer shows amplitude as a function of frequency. In essence. Unlike an oscilloscope. The term “domain” is mathematical: a sophisticated word to describe the horizontal axis of a graph. Like an oscilloscope.
273E+00 1. Sufﬁce it to say that the number of cycles and the certainty of a waveform’s frequency component(s) are directly related.1m . a short pulse – a waveform that doesn’t even complete a cycle – actually has no frequency.536E01 0.000E+02 1.994E02 0.015704 3 1.000E+01 1.1m 10m 20m) r1 1 0 10k . and the result would be a spectrum analysis more consistent with the ideal.564 9. not just AC voltages and currents.989E02 0.7. In the following analysis.four 50 v(1.600 82.529 77.400 3.500E+02 2.000E+02 1.997E02 0.800 75.141737 8 4.0) . the imprecision of the ﬁrst analysis is not so much a ﬂaw in SPICE as it is a fundamental property of waves and of signal analysis.804E01 0.0) .000E+02 1. The Fourier Transform algorithm (particularly the
.329 16.332897 4 2.146 80.500E+02 1.option limpts=1001 . This principle is common to all wavebased phenomena. but rather acts as an inﬁnite range of frequencies. all because we let the computer sample more cycles of the wave.15) shows less of a DC component voltage and lower amplitudes for each of the even harmonic frequency sine waves.015627 9 4.plot tran v(1.500E+02 1.500E+02 4.396E01 0. • REVIEW: • Square waves are equivalent to a sine wave at the same (fundamental) frequency added to an inﬁnite series of oddmultiple sinewave harmonics at decreasing amplitudes.382 88. • Computer algorithms exist which are able to sample waveshapes and determine their constituent sinusoidal components.946 12.000E+02 1.999E02 0.000 86. I’ve omitted the waveform plot for brevity’s sake – its just a really long square wave: squarewave v1 1 0 pulse (1 1 0 . the less certain its frequency is.200 79.tran 1m 1 . Taking this concept to its logical extreme.199 14.600 10.999E03 harmonic frequency fourier normalized no (hz) component component 1 5.238E01 0.182 5.end fourier components of transient response v(1) dc component = 9.399
Notice how this analysis (Figure 7. SQUARE WAVE SIGNALS
167
Fourier analysis can reduce it to a deﬁnite series of sinusoidal waveforms.764 84. The fewer times that a wave cycles. We could improve the precision of our analysis here by letting the wave oscillate on and on for many cycles.015663 7 3.109662
phase normalized (deg) phase (deg) 1.199215 6 3.000 7.800 0.015688 5 2.000000 2 1. Again.2.
these harmonic waveforms created by electronic switching components may cause erratic circuit behavior. Electronic power control devices such as transistors and siliconcontrolled rectiﬁers (SCRs) often produce voltage and current waveforms that are essentially choppedup versions of the otherwise “clean” (pure) sinewave AC from the power supply. are equivalent to a series of sinusoidal waveforms of higher (harmonic) frequencies. the waveshape distortions they introduce can cause problems. due to voltage drops created by the nonsinusoidal current through circuit impedances. producing current waveforms bearing little resemblance to the source voltage waveform powering the circuit. Fast Fourier Transform. nonsinusoidal waveform is actually equivalent to a series of sinusoidal waveforms of different amplitudes and frequencies added together. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7. These nonsinusoidal waveforms. Circuit components that distort the normal sinewave shape of AC voltage or current are called nonlinear. thus “turning on” or “turning off ” almost instantaneously.
7. These devices have the ability to suddenly change their resistance with the application of a control signal voltage or current. or FFT) is commonly used in computer circuit simulation programs such as SPICE and in electronic metering equipment for determining power quality. Square waves are a very common and wellunderstood case.3
Other waveshapes
As strange as it may seem. If not taken into consideration by the circuit designer. These current waveforms then produce changes in the voltage waveform to other circuit components. While this is an advantage from the perspective of energy efﬁciency. It is becoming increasingly common in the electric power industry to observe overheating of transformers and motors due to distortions in the sine
.168
CHAPTER 7. regardless of their actual shape.15: Improved fourier analysis. but not the only one. any repeating. Nonlinear components such as SCRs ﬁnd popular use in power electronics due to their ability to regulate large amounts of electrical power without dissipating much heat.
One very common way harmonics are generated in an AC power system is when AC is converted. where a single diode blocks half of the AC current (over time) from passing through the load. the conventional diode schematic symbol is drawn such that electrons ﬂow against the direction of the symbol’s arrowhead:
1
diode
2 + load 
0
0
The diode only allows electron flow in a counterclockwise direction.0) v(2. a pure sine wave voltage: (Figure 7. This is generally done with components called diodes.16: Halfwave rectiﬁer. I will investigate a few of the more common waveshapes and show their harmonic components by way of Fourier analysis using SPICE. Next.plot tran v(1.tran .0) v(2. we’ll compare this with the Fourier analysis of the halfwave
. we’ll see how SPICE analyzes the source waveform. OTHER WAVESHAPES
169
wave shape of the AC power line voltage stemming from “switching” loads such as computers and highefﬁciency lights. too small to show on the harmonic plot above. or “rectiﬁed” into DC.
Figure 7. but our Fourier analysis ﬁgures aren’t perfect because SPICE doesn’t have the luxury of sampling a waveform of inﬁnite duration. (Figure 7. though. The simplest type of AC/DC rectiﬁcation is halfwave. In this section.18) Notice the extremely small harmonic and DC components of this sinusoidal waveform in the table above.3.7. there would be nothing but the fundamental frequency showing (being a perfect sine wave).16) Oddly enough.model mod1 d .0) . Ideally.5m 17m .four 60 v(1. This is no theoretical exercise: it is very real and potentially very troublesome.
halfwave rectifier v1 1 0 sin(0 15 60 0 0) rload 2 0 10k d1 1 2 mod1 .end halfwave rectifier First.0) . which only allow the passage of current in one direction.
V(1)+0.660 52.016E04 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase normalized no (hz) component component (deg) phase (deg) 1 6.005 0.000000 0.492E03 0.000E+02 1.354E03 0.132E03 0.220E03 0.170
CHAPTER 7.342 3 1.000074 63. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7.4 shifts the sinewave input V(1) up for clarity.658 4 2.400E+02 1.000082 56.288 56.482E+01 1.324 61.200E+02 2.800E+02 6.669 54.467E03 0.000080 70.347 104.000091 54.655
.000076 61.185E03 0.092E03 0.663 86.200E+02 1.600E+02 1.283 8 4.607 63.000E+01 1.319 5 3.000168 104.086 6 3.17: Halfwave rectiﬁer waveforms.000099 52.000 2 1.800E+02 1.400E+02 1.091 70.465E04 0.
fourier components of transient response v(1) dc component = 8.602 7 4.000044 86. This is not part of the simulation.664 9 5.
085
normalized phase (deg) 0. OTHER WAVESHAPES
171
Figure 7.005787 115.000E+01 7.22) What a difference! According to SPICE’s Fourier transform.167 132. Also take note of the large DC component: 4.224 61.206E01 0.570 167.765 3 1. I won’t bore you with details of exactly how this is done. Another method of AC/DC conversion is called fullwave (Figure 7.18: Fourier analysis of the sine wave input.195 2 1.810 87.479 9 5. pure sinewave.016E+00 0. “rectiﬁed” voltage across the load resistor: (Figure 7. reversing the polarity of half the AC cycle to get electrons to ﬂow through the load the same direction all the time. cosine) waveforms into our circuit from the original.20).149E01 0.009117 152.006417 132.800E+02 7. we have a 2nd harmonic component to this waveform that’s over 85 times the amplitude of the original AC source frequency!
.21) and its harmonic analysis through SPICE: (Figure 7.7. By cutting out half of our AC wave.430849 89.595 79.000 89.3.200E+02 4. we’ve introduced the equivalent of several higherfrequency sinusoidal (actually.492E02 0.073556 87.727E01 0.456E+00 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6. which as you may have guessed utilizes the full cycle of AC power from the source.382E02 0.19) fourier components of transient response v(2) dc component = 4.362 7 4.790 6 3.420 8 4.889
Notice the relatively large evenmultiple harmonics in this analysis. but we can examine the waveform (Figure 7.000E+00 1.800E+02 1.010703 61.600E+02 1.005 4 2.295 5 3.400E+02 5.024676 79.000000 0. it behaves a lot more like DC.051E02 0.200E+02 3.284 114.017223 168.493E02 0. Because our AC voltage waveform has been “rectiﬁed” (only allowed to push in one direction across the load rather than backandforth).100 152.456 volts.000E+02 6.400E+02 4.
19: Fourier analysis halfwave output.end
. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7.
1 D1 V1 15 V 60 Hz 2 D2 0
1 D3 R + load 10 kΩ D4 0 3
Figure 7.plot tran v(1.
fullwave bridge rectifier v1 1 0 sin(0 15 60 0 0) rload 2 3 10k d1 1 2 mod1 d2 0 2 mod1 d3 3 1 mod1 d4 3 0 mod1 .0) v(2.5m 17m .tran .four 60 v(2.172
CHAPTER 7.20: Fullwave rectiﬁer circuit.3) .model mod1 d .3) .
496E02 1.839 25.013E+00 14.21: Waveforms for fullwave rectiﬁer
fourier components of transient response v(2.000000 93.457E02 1.070827 94.034465 93.7. OTHER WAVESHAPES
173
Figure 7.267 4 2.000 2 1.504 8 4.600E+02 3.364E02 1.052023 95.669415 90.907 2.026 1.000E+02 7.507 6 3.000E+01 7.200E+02 7.241E02 1.023 0.612
.492 1.400E+02 7.767350 100.465161 92.400E+02 1.519 0.006043 118.404E01 2.289 3 1.271 6.787 0.800E+02 1.752 7 4.230 3.065240 90.3.273E+00 harmonic frequency fourier normalized phase normalized no (hz) component component (deg) phase (deg) 1 6.000E02 1.319 9 5.200E+02 5.997E+00 85.027 5 3.337E01 4.3) dc component = 8.800E+02 7.
• REVIEW: • Any waveform at all. The practical effects of harmonic frequencies in circuits will be explored in the last section of this chapter. so long as it is repetitive. The odd harmonics are actually stronger at some of the higher frequencies than they are at the lower frequencies.273 volts (almost twice what is was for the halfwave rectiﬁer circuit) while the second harmonic is almost 6 volts in amplitude.fourier option is also programmed into a variety of electronic test instruments to perform realtime Fourier analysis on measured signals. While the complex mathematics behind all this Fourier transformation is not necessary for the beginning student of electric circuits to understand. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7. is a powerful tool for furthering our understanding of waveforms and their related spectral components. The DC component of this wave shows up as being 8.
. can be reduced to a series of sinusoidal waveforms added together. • Rectiﬁcation of AC to DC is a very common source of harmonics within industrial power systems. it is of the utmost importance to realize the principles at work and to grasp the practical effects that harmonic signals may have on circuits. This same mathematical routine programmed into the SPICE simulator as the . Different waveshapes consist of different blends of sinewave harmonics. This section is devoted to the use of such tools and the analysis of several different waveforms. As you can see. Notice all the other harmonics further on down the table. which is interesting. simple AC sinewave may end up as a complex mess of harmonics after passing through just a few electronic components.174
CHAPTER 7.22: Fourier analysis of fullwave rectiﬁer output.
7.4
More on spectrum analysis
Computerized Fourier analysis. but before we do that we’ll take a closer look at waveforms and their respective harmonics. particularly in the form of the FFT algorithm. what may begin as a neat.
” denoting the domain of this measurement. The plot below was taken from an oscilloscope display. represents the cyclic increase and decrease of voltage over time. you would see that this peak occurs at 523.25 Hz. Viewed with an oscilloscope. This particular frequency value is a “C” pitch on a piano keyboard. a C
. the result is quite different: (Figure 7. If we view this same AC voltage on a spectrum analyzer. of course. The height of the peak represents the signal amplitude (voltage). Actually.23)
Figure 7. This. The curve itself. Characteristics like these due to quirks of the test equipment are technically known as artifacts: phenomena existing solely because of a peculiarity in the equipment used to perform the experiment. The single peak on the curve represents the predominance of a single frequency within the range of frequencies covered by the width of the display.23: Oscilloscope display: voltage vs time.7. a sine wave looks like a wavy curve traced horizontally on the screen. is a result of the speciﬁc equipment used to analyze the waveform.24) As you can see. showing signal amplitude (voltage) over time: (Figure 7.25 Hz. The horizontal axis of this oscilloscope display is marked with the word “Time” and an arrow pointing in the direction of time’s progression. one octave above “middle C”.4. the closest instrument “voice” I could ﬁnd resembling a perfect sine wave. If the scale of this analyzer instrument were marked with numbers. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
175
First we have a simple sine wave at a frequency of 523. the signal measured for this demonstration was created by an electronic keyboard set to produce the tone of a panﬂute. If we mix three different sinewave tones together on the electronic keyboard (CEG. unfortunately. the horizontal axis of the display is marked with the word “Frequency. Close observation reveals imperfections in the sinewave shape.
and not a necessary characteristic of the musical chord itself. while others are lower.” The waveform itself is far from a pure and simple sinewave form. For example. The spectrum display (frequencydomain) is much easier to interpret: each pitch is represented by its own peak on the curve. Knowing that any repeating.24: Spectrum analyzer display: voltage vs frequency. major chord) and measure the result. Other musical instrument “voices” are not as simple as this one. As you will notice.27) The fundamental frequency of this tone is the same as in the ﬁrst panﬂute example: 523. nonsinusoidal waveform is equivalent to a series of sinusoidal waveforms at different amplitudes and frequencies. This is a result of the three different waveforms alternately reinforcing and canceling each other as their respective phase shifts change in time. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7. some of these peaks are higher than the peaks of the original singlepitch waveform. (Figure 7. let’s view the signal for a trumpet tone: (Figure 7.25 Hz. the unique tone produced by any instrument is a function of its waveshape (or spectrum of frequencies).176
CHAPTER 7.26) The difference in height between these three peaks is another artifact of the test equipment: a consequence of limitations within the equipment used to generate and analyze these waveforms. the device used to generate these waveforms is an electronic keyboard: a musical instrument designed to mimic the tones of many different instruments. both the oscilloscope display and the spectrum analyzer display reﬂect this increased complexity: (Figure 7. though. In fact. The panﬂute “voice” was chosen for the ﬁrst demonstrations because it most closely resembled a pure sine wave (a single frequency on the spectrum analyzer display). one octave above “middle C. As was stated before. we should expect to see multiple
.25) The oscilloscope display (timedomain) shows a waveform with many more peaks and valleys than before. a direct result of the mixing of these three frequencies.
7.4.
Figure 7.26: Spectrum analyzer display: three tones.
. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
177
Figure 7.25: Oscilloscape display: three tones.
peaks on the spectrum analyzer display: (Figure 7.
.28: Spectrum of a trumpet tone. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7.28)
Figure 7.27: Oscilloscope display: waveshape of a trumpet tone.178
CHAPTER 7.
75 Hz). The analytical power of the oscilloscope and spectrum analyzer permit us to derive general rules about waveforms and their harmonic spectra from real waveform examples. Note the differences in relative harmonic amplitudes (peak heights) on the spectrum displays for trumpet and accordion. The second harmonic is twice the frequency of the fundamental (1046.29) and spectrum analyzer (frequencydomain) display: (Figure 7. the third harmonic three times the fundamental (1569.29: Oscilloscope display: waveshape of accordion tone. Both instrument tones contain harmonics all the way from 1st (fundamental) to 6th (and beyond!). but the proportions aren’t the same.(Figure 7. would create a much more complex mixture of frequencies than what is seen here. the time. close observation allows us to be more speciﬁc than this. with each successive harmonic represented as its own peak along the width of the analyzer screen. and so on. we obtain a similarly complex oscilloscope (timedomain) plot (Figure 7.32) plots for a waveform approximating a square wave: According to the spectrum analysis.25 Hz is represented by the leftmost peak. for example. Although this display doesn’t show frequencies past the sixth harmonic. Note.30)
Figure 7.31) and frequencydomain (Figure 7. We already know that any deviation from a pure sinewave results in the equivalent of a mixture of multiple sinewave waveforms at different amplitudes and frequencies. this waveform contains no even harmonics. This display only shows the ﬁrst six harmonics. Bear in mind that all this complexity is in reference to a single note played with these two instrument “voices. for example.5 Hz). the pattern of oddonly
.4. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
179
Indeed we do! The fundamental frequency component of 523. Each instrument has a unique harmonic “signature” to its tone. only odd. but there are many more comprising this complex tone.7. However.” Multiple notes played on an accordion. Trying a different instrument voice (the accordion) on the keyboard.
30: Spectrum of accordion tone.31: Oscilloscope timedomain display of a square wave
. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7.
Figure 7.180
CHAPTER 7.
That difference is symmetry above and below the horizontal centerline of the wave. however. this one very similar to the triangle wave. contained both even and odd harmonics. except that its risetime is not the same as its falltime. It should be obvious from inspection that the harmonic spectrum of the triangle wave is not identical to the spectrum of the square wave: the respective harmonic peaks are of different heights. The trumpet and accordion tones. Let’s continue our investigation with an analysis of a triangle wave: (Figure 7. and sixth harmonics. A perfect triangle waveshape produces no even harmonics. This difference in harmonic content is noteworthy.32: Spectrum (frequencydomain) of a square wave.33) In this waveform there are practically no even harmonics: (Figure 7.35) When the spectrum analysis of this waveform is plotted. A waveform that is
. However. Tiny peaks can be seen for the second. just like a perfect square wave. we see a result that is quite different from that of the regular triangle wave. artifacts of the test equipment used in this analysis). as we’ve already seen with SPICE that a square wave is comprised of an inﬁnitude of odd harmonics. Known as a sawtooth wave. fourth. Let’s examine another waveform. for this analysis shows the strong presence of evennumbered harmonics (second and fourth): (Figure 7. harmonics in descending amplitude continues indeﬁnitely. the two different waveforms are common in their lack of even harmonics. its oscilloscope plot reveals it to be aptly named: (Figure 7. but this is due to imperfections in this particular triangle waveshape (once again.34) the only signiﬁcant frequency peaks on the spectrum analyzer display belong to oddnumbered multiples of the fundamental frequency.7.4. This should come as no surprise. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
181
Figure 7.36) The distinction between a waveform having even harmonics versus no even harmonics resides in the difference between a triangle waveshape and a sawtooth waveshape.
Figure 7.
. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Figure 7.182
CHAPTER 7.33: Oscilloscope timedomain display of a triangle wave.34: Spectrum of a triangle wave.
Figure 7.4.7. MORE ON SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
183
Figure 7.36: Frequencydomain display of a sawtooth wave.35: Timedomain display of a sawtooth wave.
.
In the examples shown. (Figure 7. the accordion tone.39)
Pure sine wave = 1st harmonic only
Figure 7.184
CHAPTER 7. This rule of harmonic content (even harmonics only with unsymmetrical waveforms) applies whether or not the waveform is shifted above or below zero volts with a “DC component. and note that their harmonic contents are unchanged.” For further clariﬁcation. triangle waves. and all are devoid of even harmonics. Again. but this has nothing to do with harmonic content. the amount of DC voltage present in a waveform has nothing to do with that waveform’s harmonic frequency content. I will show the same sets of waveforms.39: These waveforms are composed exclusively of odd harmonics. Square waves.40)
.38)
Figure 7. and the sawtooth wave are unsymmetrical around their centerlines and therefore do contain even harmonics. (Figure 7. Waveforms like the trumpet tone. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
symmetrical above and below its centerline (the shape on both sides mirror each other precisely) will contain no evennumbered harmonics.37)
Pure sine wave = 1st harmonic only
Figure 7. and pure sine waves all exhibit this symmetry.38: Asymmetric waveforms contain even harmonics.37: Waveforms symmetric about their xaxis center line contain only odd harmonics. (Figure 7. (Figure 7. This principle of centerline symmetry should not be confused with symmetry around the zero line. the horizontal centerline of the waveform happens to be zero volts on the timedomain graph. shifted with DC voltage.
CIRCUIT EFFECTS
185
Figure 7. regarding the multiplefrequency source as a set of singlefrequency voltage sources connected in series.5
Circuit effects
The principle of nonsinusoidal. Any reactive component such as a capacitor or an inductor will simultaneously present a unique amount of impedance to each and every frequency present in a circuit. Why is this harmonic ruleofthumb an important rule to know? It can help us comprehend the relationship between harmonics in AC circuits and speciﬁc circuit components.7. • REVIEW: • Waveforms that are symmetrical above and below their horizontal centerlines contain no evennumbered harmonics. there being no symmetry at all above and below center. • The amount of DC “bias” voltage present (a waveform’s “DC component”) has no impact on that wave’s harmonic frequency content. evennumbered harmonics are rarely seen in those applications. it makes more sense that a waveform like that produced by a rectiﬁer circuit should contain such strong even harmonics. if you happen to measure even harmonics in an AC circuit with a spectrum analyzer or frequency meter. Since most sources of sinewave distortion in AC power circuits tend to be symmetrical. you know that something in that circuit must be unsymmetrically distorting the sinewave voltage or current.5. It means that any time we have a waveform that isn’t perfectly sinewaveshaped. the circuit in question will react as though its having an array of different frequency voltages imposed on it at once. the components in that circuit respond to each constituent frequency in a different way. This is good to know if you’re a power system designer and are planning ahead for harmonic reduction: you only have to concern yourself with mitigating the odd harmonic frequencies. even harmonics being practically nonexistent. Also. Now that we have this rule to guide our interpretation of nonsinusoidal waveforms. repeating waveforms being equivalent to a series of sine waves at different frequencies is a fundamental property of waves in general and it has great practical import in the study of AC circuits. Thankfully. When an AC circuit is subjected to a source voltage consisting of a mixture of frequencies.
7.40: These waveforms contain even harmonics. and
. the analysis of such circuits is made relatively easy by applying the Superposition Theorem. and that clue may be helpful in locating the source of a problem (look for components or conditions more likely to distort one halfcycle of the AC waveform more than the other).
1168m 1.653k 2.768 kΩ 1 µF
Figure 7.2k ∠ 0o C 2.1168m 1.2 kΩ C 1 µF
R 2.2k + j0 2.41: Circuit driven by a combination of frequencies: 60 Hz and 90 Hz.328o 0 .9623 .
.2 kΩ C XC = 1.446k ∠ 50.42: Circuit for solving 60 Hz. Analyzing circuit for 60 Hz source alone:
2.4569 3.0377 + j2.653 kΩ 1 µF
Figure 7.22µ + j1.653k ∠ 90o Total 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 926.328o 926.4509m ∠ 50.8486 ∠ 39.j2.4569 3.1919 ∠ 50.4509m ∠ 50.j2.653k 3.
R E I Z 2.j2.186
CHAPTER 7.328o 2.6716o 926.2 kΩ 5V 60 Hz C XC = 2.4509m ∠ 50.1168m 1.328o Volts Amps Ohms
Analyzing the circuit for 90 Hz source alone:
R 5V 90 Hz 2. summing the results at the end to determine the aggregate total:
R 5V 60 Hz 5V 90 Hz
Figure 7.328o 2.43: Circuit of solving 90 Hz. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
analyzing the circuit for one source at a time.22µ + j1.2k .22µ + j1.
8971 ∠ 38.j1. we cannot consolidate them into a single voltage ﬁgure as we could if we were adding together two voltages of different amplitude and/or phase angle at the same frequency.9625 .1325 ∠ 51.j2.1325 V ∠ 51.6716o (60 Hz)] + [3. electromagnetic noise over broad ranges of the frequency spectrum.1098m 1.793o 1.4415 3.2k ∠ 0o C 1. citing the fact that computers’ high frequency squarewave “clock” voltage signals are capable of generating radio waves that could interfere with the operation of the aircraft’s electronic navigation equipment. but not frequency.j1.0375 + j2. frequencies.4415 3. due to the fact that clock signal voltages are squarewave in shape and not sinewave. This has been known to translate into unexpected circuit resonances.2k . transformer and inductor core overheating due to eddy currents. this can be a laborious task for some waveforms (an accurate squarewave Fourier Series is considered to be expressed out to the ninth harmonic.328o (60 Hz)] + [3.793o 0 . If we know the Fourier series (multiple sine/cosine wave equivalent) of that wave. we get:
ER = [3.793o 2.3807m + j1.8486 V ∠ 39.2k + j0 2. or ﬁve sine waves in all!).793o (90 Hz)] EC = [3. especially in light of the fact that the two source voltages are equal.793o 2. but worse yet is the fact that the harmonic multiples of those fundamental frequencies span an even larger range. but to inform you of the potential complexity lurking behind seemingly simple waveforms. A reallife circuit will respond just the same to being powered by a square wave as being powered by an inﬁnite series of sine waves of oddmultiple frequencies and diminishing amplitudes.1098m 1. It’s bad enough that typical microprocessor clock signal frequencies are within the range of aircraft radio frequency bands.823k ∠ 38.207o (90 Hz)]
Because the two voltages across each component are at different frequencies. What we can tell from this application of the superposition theorem is that there will be a greater 60 Hz voltage dropped across the capacitor than a 90 Hz voltage. Just the opposite is true for the resistor’s voltage drop. such as a square wave.768k ∠ 90o Total 5 + j0 5 ∠ 0o 1.207o 1.7714m ∠ 38.768k 2. Technicians and engineers need to be made aware of the potential effects of nonsinusoidal waveforms in reactive circuits. Studies have been performed on the potential hazards of using portable computers aboard passenger aircraft. This is worthy to note. We can also apply the superposition theorem to the analysis of a circuit powered by a nonsinusoidal voltage.1919 V ∠ 50.3807m + j1. Harmonics are known to manifest their effects in the form of electromagnetic radiation as well.7. and the like.7714m ∠ 38.8971 V ∠ 38.3807m + j1.793o Volts Amps Ohms
187
Superimposing the voltage drops across R and C. and phase shifts.1098m 1.
. It is this kind of unequal circuit response to signals of differing frequency that will be our speciﬁc focus in the next chapter. Needless to say. we can regard it as originating from a seriesconnected string of multiple sinusoidal voltage sources at the appropriate amplitudes. but it is possible. Complex number notation give us the ability to represent waveform amplitude (polar magnitude) and phase angle (polar angle).5.7714m ∠ 38. I mention this not to scare you.768k 1. CIRCUIT EFFECTS
R E I Z 3.
solidstate electronic motor controls providing greater energy efﬁciency. too. The mathematical process for determining the sinusoidal waveform equivalent for any waveform is called Fourier analysis.
7. with harmonics abounding in very large quantities due to (nonlinear) electronic control of motor and electric furnace power. not frequency! • Harmonics can cause problems by impressing unwanted (“noise”) voltage signals upon nearby circuits. because the old controls never generated harmonics. nonsinusoidal waveform is equivalent to a particular series of sine/cosine waves of different frequencies. or a combination thereof. Signal wiring nearby power wiring will tend to “pick up” harmonic interference from the power wiring to a far greater extent than pure sinewave interference. The fundamental power line frequency may only be 60 Hz. since complex numbers only account for amplitude and phase shift. which led to a much betterlooking second edition.
. electromagnetic radiation. but high frequencies do. Suddenly there may be weird electrical noise being impressed upon signal wiring that never used to be there. These unwanted signals may come by way of capacitive coupling. Also. NOTE: superimposed voltages and currents of different frequencies cannot be added together in complex number form. • Multiplefrequency voltage sources can be simulated for analysis by connecting several singlefrequency voltage sources in series. MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Electromagnetic “emissions” of this nature can be a problem in industrial applications.6
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. plus a DC offset voltage if necessary. Low frequency power line voltage and current doesn’t radiate into space very well as electromagnetic energy. Analysis of voltages and currents is accomplished by using the superposition theorem. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. capacitive and inductive “coupling” caused by closeproximity conductors is usually more severe at high frequencies. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. • REVIEW: • Any regular (repeating).188
CHAPTER 7. but those harmonic frequency multiples theoretically extend into inﬁnitely high frequency ranges. This problem can manifest itself in industry when old motor controls are replaced with new. inductive coupling. and those highfrequency harmonic voltages and currents tend to inductively and capacitively “couple” better to nearby conductors than any 60 Hz signals from the old controls used to. phases. and amplitudes. from most recent to ﬁrst.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . You may be familiar with equalizers. . . . . . 204 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Lowpass ﬁlters . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . A common need for ﬁlter circuits is in highperformance stereo systems. . A circuit designed to perform this frequency selection is called a ﬁlter circuit. . . . 215
8. or simply a ﬁlter.2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8.5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Bandpass ﬁlters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . where certain ranges of audio frequencies need to be ampliﬁed or suppressed for best sound quality and power efﬁciency. . 189
. . 215 Contributors . so a crossover circuit is connected between the tweeter and the stereo’s output terminals to block lowfrequency signals. . . . . . .1
What is a ﬁlter?
It is sometimes desirable to have circuits capable of selectively ﬁltering one frequency or range of frequencies out of a mix of different frequencies in a circuit. . . . 199 Bandstop ﬁlters . . . . . . . . . . which allow the amplitudes of several frequency ranges to be adjusted to suit the listener’s taste and acoustic properties of the listening area. . . . . . . . A tweeter (highfrequency speaker) is inefﬁcient at reproducing lowfrequency signals such as drum beats. . . . . . . . . . 190 Highpass ﬁlters . . . . 202 Resonant ﬁlters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 8
FILTERS
Contents
8. . . . . . . . . only passing highfrequency signals to the speaker’s connection terminals. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 What is a ﬁlter? . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . which block certain ranges of frequencies from reaching speakers. . . . . . . . . . Both equalizers and crossover networks are examples of ﬁlters. . . . . . . . . . . . This gives better audio system efﬁciency and thus better performance.6 8. . . . . . . . . You may also be familiar with crossover networks. . . . . . . designed to accomplish ﬁltering of certain frequencies. . . . . . . . . .
and many variations of each one: The inductive lowpass ﬁlter in Figure 8.1: Inductive lowpass ﬁlter The inductor’s impedance increases with increasing frequency. blocking all (higherfrequency) harmonics. that these circuits can be analyzed over several points of frequency by repeated seriesparallel analysis. • A Bode plot is a graph plotting waveform amplitude or phase on one axis and frequency on the other. We will be studying the design of several elementary ﬁlter circuits in this lesson. a lowpass ﬁlter is a circuit offering easy passage to lowfrequency signals and difﬁcult passage to highfrequency signals. This high impedance in series tends to block highfrequency signals from getting to the load. This can be demonstrated with a SPICE analysis: (Figure 8.2
Lowpass ﬁlters
By deﬁnition. Some electronic devices are sensitive to the presence of harmonics in the power supply voltage. much like the previous example with two sources (60 and 90 Hz). There are two basic kinds of circuits capable of accomplishing this objective. then it should be possible to construct a ﬁlter circuit that only allows the fundamental waveform frequency to pass through. displaying Bode plots (amplitude versus frequency) for the various kinds of ﬁlters.1 and the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter in Figure 8. if the student is willing to invest a lot of time working and reworking circuit calculations for each frequency. If a distorted sinewave voltage behaves like a series of harmonic waveforms added to the fundamental frequency. FILTERS
Another practical application of ﬁlter circuits is in the “conditioning” of nonsinusoidal voltage waveforms in power circuits. • REVIEW: • A ﬁlter is an AC circuit that separates some frequencies from others within mixedfrequency signals. though.190
CHAPTER 8. To reduce the load of math on the reader.
8. I will make extensive use of SPICE as an analysis tool. Bear in mind.2)
.3
1
L1 3H
2
V1
1V
Rload
1 kΩ
0
0
Figure 8. • Audio equalizers and crossover networks are two wellknown applications of ﬁlter circuits. and so require power conditioning for proper operation.
2.8.3: Capacitive lowpass ﬁlter.plot ac v(2) .2: The response of an inductive lowpass ﬁlter falls off with increasing frequency. LOWPASS FILTERS
191
inductive lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 3 rload 2 0 1k .end
Figure 8.
.
1
R1 500 Ω 1V C1 7 µF Rload
2 1 kΩ
V1
0
0
Figure 8.ac lin 20 1 200 .
(Figure 8.4: The response of a capacitive lowpass ﬁlter falls off with increasing frequency. FILTERS
The capacitor’s impedance decreases with increasing frequency. the inductive lowpass ﬁlter is often preferred in ACDC power supplies to ﬁlter out the AC “ripple” waveform created when AC is converted (rectiﬁed) into DC. with only a resistor and capacitor needed for operation. The inductive lowpass ﬁlter is the pinnacle of simplicity. with only one component comprising the ﬁlter. Inductors. Capacitors also tend to participate less in “coupling” effects with other components (generate and/or receive interference from other components via mutual electric or magnetic ﬁelds) than inductors. typically exhibit signiﬁcant dissipative (resistorlike) effects.plot ac v(2) .ac lin 20 30 150 . and in the magnetic losses of the core material. capacitive ﬁlter designs are generally preferred over inductive because capacitors tend to be “purer” reactive components than inductors and therefore are more predictable in their behavior. and are less expensive. on the other hand.192
CHAPTER 8. This low impedance in parallel with the load resistance tends to short out highfrequency signals. However. passing only
. However. dropping most of the voltage across series resistor R1 . By “pure” I mean that capacitors exhibit little resistive effects than inductors. making them almost 100% reactive. both in the long lengths of wire used to make them.4) capacitive lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 c1 2 0 7u rload 2 0 1k . despite their increased complexity. The capacitive version of this ﬁlter is not that much more complex.end
Figure 8.
whereas the inductive lowpass ﬁlter does not. one capacitor). One frequent application of the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter principle is in the design of circuits having components or sections sensitive to electrical “noise. This cutoff percentage of 70. If a cutoff frequency equation fails to give consideration to load impedance.end fcutof f = 1/(2πRC) = 1/(2π(500 Ω)(7 µF)) = 45.5) capacitive lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 c1 2 0 7u * note: no load resistor! . skewing it down from what the formula told us it would be. below the calculated cutoff point. it assumes no load and will fail to give accurate results for a reallife ﬁlter conducting power to a load. A capacitive lowpass ﬁlter requires an extra resistance in series with the source. A prime example of this is unwanted AC signals (“noise”) becoming impressed on DC power lines supplying sensitive circuits: (Figure 8. In a simple capacitive lowpass ﬁlter (one resistor. the cutoff frequency is given as:
fcutoff =
1 2πRC
Inserting the values of R and C from the last SPICE simulation into this formula. the inductive lowpass ﬁlter is the better design choice. sometimes AC signals can “couple” from one circuit to another via capacitance (Cstray ) and/or mutual inductance (Mstray ) between the two sets of conductors.473 Hz When dealing with ﬁlter circuits. LOWPASS FILTERS
193
the pure DC component. That is. In the design of a highcurrent circuit like a DC power supply where additional series resistance is undesirable.6)
.ac lin 20 40 50 . all though it may seem so at ﬁrst glance. In a simple capacitive/resistive lowpass ﬁlter.473 Hz. All lowpass ﬁlters are rated at a certain cutoff frequency. it is the frequency at which capacitive reactance in ohms equals resistance in ohms. However. The primary reason for this is the requirement of low ﬁlter resistance for the output of such a power supply. if low weight and compact size are higher priorities than low internal supply resistance in a power supply design. we arrive at a cutoff frequency of 45. the frequency above which the output voltage falls below 70. On the other hand. What’s wrong? The problem here is that the load resistance of 1 kΩ affects the frequency response of the ﬁlter.plot ac v(2) .8. we see the load voltage well below 70. it is always important to note that the response of the ﬁlter depends on the ﬁlter’s component values and the impedance of the load.7 is not really arbitrary.” As mentioned at the beginning of the last chapter.2. when we look at the plot generated by the SPICE simulation. the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter might make more sense. Without that load resistance in place.7% of the source voltage (1 volt) even at a frequency as low as 30 Hz.7% of the input voltage. SPICE produces a Bode plot whose numbers make more sense: (Figure 8.
the Output should be 70.194
CHAPTER 8. FILTERS
Figure 8.6: Noise is coupled by stray capacitance and mutual inductance into “clean” DC power.473 Hz.
.7% at 45.5: For the capacitive lowpass ﬁlter with R = 500 Ω and C = 7 µF.
"Noise" source
Mstray Zwire
Cstray Zwire Load
Zwire
"Clean" DC power Esupply
"Dirty" or "noisy" DC power Eload
Figure 8.
applied to load. but size and economics limit decoupling capacitors to meager values. and shorting it out. • Inductive lowpass ﬁlters insert an inductor in series with the load.2. power conductor impedance allows the two voltages to differ. However. The former
. If we wish to prevent such “noise” from reaching the DC load. the capacitor behaving as a very low impedance to any AC noise. In its simplest form. usually located as close as possible to the sensitive DC loads. After coupling with the AC noise source via stray mutual inductance and stray capacitance. because the uninterrupted conductors connecting them should make the two sets of points electrically common. one would expect Eload to be precisely identical to Esource . • REVIEW: • A lowpass ﬁlter allows for easy passage of lowfrequency signals from source to load. Capacitor size is usually 0.1 µF or more.7: Decoupling capacitor.7)
"Noise" source
Mstray Zwire
Cstray Zwire Load
Zwire
"Clean" DC power Esupply
"Cleaner" DC power with decoupling capacitor Eload
Figure 8. though. the AC being unwanted. a minimum amount of capacitance needed to produce a low enough impedance to short out any noise. all we need to do is connect a lowpass ﬁlter near the load to block any coupled signals. Normally. ﬁlters noise from DC power supply. Greater capacitance will do a better job at ﬁltering noise. capacitive lowpass ﬁlters insert a resistor in series and a capacitor in parallel with the load. this is nothing more than a capacitor connected directly across the power terminals of the load. and difﬁcult passage of highfrequency signals. which means the noise magnitude can vary at different points in the DC system. LOWPASS FILTERS
195
The oscilloscopemeter on the left shows the “clean” power from the DC voltage source.8. Such a capacitor is called a decoupling capacitor: (Figure 8. the voltage as measured at the load terminals is now a mix of AC and DC. A cursory glance at a crowded printedcircuit board (PCB) will typically reveal decoupling capacitors scattered throughout.
10) and capacitive (Figure 8. especially with highpass ﬁlters where high frequencies commonly cause inductors to behave strangely due to the skin effect and electromagnetic core losses.7% of the input.5u rload 2 0 1k .7% of the input (source) voltage. Just as in the case of the capacitive
.8) versions of the highpass ﬁlter are just the opposite of their respective lowpass ﬁlter designs:
C1 1 0. And. requiring only one component above and beyond the load.end The inductor’s impedance (Figure 8.7% of the input voltage. the reactive purity of capacitors over inductors tends to favor their use in ﬁlter design. The capacitor’s impedance (Figure 8. above which the output voltage increases above 70. FILTERS
ﬁlter design tries to “block” the unwanted frequency signal while the latter tries to short it out.9) This high impedance in series tends to block lowfrequency signals from getting to load. the inductive (Figure 8.196
CHAPTER 8.8) increases with decreasing frequency. Above the cutoff frequency. again. the capacitive design is the simplest.3
Highpass ﬁlters
A highpass ﬁlter’s task is just the opposite of a lowpass ﬁlter: to offer easy passage of a highfrequency signal and difﬁcult passage to a lowfrequency signal. capacitive highpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin c1 1 2 0.8: Capacitive highpass ﬁlter.5 µF V1 1V Rload 1 kΩ 2
0
0
Figure 8.plot ac v(2) . and vice versa.
8.ac lin 20 1 200 . As a consequence. (Figure 8. As with lowpass ﬁlters.10) decreases with decreasing frequency.11) This low impedance in parallel tends to short out lowfrequency signals from getting to the load resistor.
• The cutoff frequency for a lowpass ﬁlter is that frequency at which the output (load) voltage equals 70. the output voltage is lower than 70. This time. most of the voltage gets dropped across series resistor R1 . As one might expect. (Figure 8. highpass ﬁlters have a rated cutoff frequency.
plot ac v(2) .3.
inductive highpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 200 l1 2 0 100m rload 2 0 1k .
1
R1 200 Ω 1V L1 100 mH Rload
2
V1
1 kΩ
0
0
Figure 8. HIGHPASS FILTERS
197
Figure 8.9: The response of the capacitive highpass ﬁlter increases with frequency.end
.ac lin 20 1 200 .8.10: Inductive highpass ﬁlter.
In this simple example circuit. but this should give you the general idea. For better performance yet. which is the topic of the next section. and 2 tweeters. • REVIEW: • A highpass ﬁlter allows for easy passage of highfrequency signals from source to load. so that is the value for R in the formula.
. a capacitor connected in series with the tweeter (treble) speaker will serve as a highpass ﬁlter.11: The response of the inductive highpass ﬁlter increases with frequency. the capacitive highpass ﬁlter’s cutoff frequency can be found with the same formula:
fcutoff =
1 2πRC
In the example circuit. we might like to have some kind of ﬁlter circuit capable of passing frequencies that are between low (bass) and high (treble) to the midrange speaker so that none of the low.198
CHAPTER 8. In like fashion. an inductor connected in series with the woofer (bass) speaker will serve as a lowpass ﬁlter for the low frequencies that particular speaker is designed to reproduce. thereby preventing that power from being wasted on a speaker inefﬁcient for reproducing such sounds. A real stereo would have six speakers: 2 woofers. Using a stereo system as a practical example.or highfrequency signal power is wasted on a speaker incapable of efﬁciently reproducing those sounds. What we would be looking for is called a bandpass ﬁlter. imposing a high impedance to lowfrequency bass signals. the midrange speaker is subjected to the full spectrum of frequencies from the stereo’s output. FILTERS
Figure 8. 2 midranges. lowpass ﬁlter circuit. there is no resistance other than the load resistor. More elaborate ﬁlter networks are sometimes used. Also bear in mind that I’m only showing you one channel (either left or right) on this stereo system.
8.12: Highpass ﬁlter routes high frequencies to tweeter. BANDPASS FILTERS
199
lowpass Woofer
Stereo
Midrange
highpass Tweeter
Figure 8.7% of the input. • Capacitive highpass ﬁlters insert a capacitor in series with the load.4
Bandpass ﬁlters
There are applications where a particular band.13: System level block diagram of a bandpass ﬁlter. Above the cutoff frequency. inductive highpass ﬁlters insert a resistor in series and an inductor in parallel with the load.
8. The result is called a bandpass ﬁlter.14)
Signal input
Lowpass filter blocks frequencies that are too high
Highpass filter blocks frequencies that are too low
Signal output
Figure 8. Creating a bandpass ﬁlter from a lowpass and highpass ﬁlter can be illustrated using block diagrams: (Figure 8. the output voltage is greater than 70. while lowpass ﬁlter routes lows to woofer.
. or spread. The former ﬁlter design tries to “block” the unwanted frequency signal while the latter tries to short it out. Filter circuits can be designed to accomplish this task by combining the properties of lowpass and highpass into a single ﬁlter.7% of the input (source) voltage. or frequencies need to be ﬁltered from a wider range of mixed signals. and difﬁcult passage of lowfrequency signals. and vice versa.4. • The cutoff frequency for a highpass ﬁlter is that frequency at which the output (load) voltage equals 70.
capacitive bandpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 200 c1 2 0 2. The fact that the highpass section comes “ﬁrst” in this design instead of the lowpass section makes no difference in its overall operation.14. While the general idea of combining lowpass and highpass ﬁlters together to make a bandpass ﬁlter is sound.5 µF Rload 1 kΩ
V1
0
0
0
Figure 8. Both the lowpass and highpass sections will always be blocking signals to some extent.ac lin 20 100 500 . The response of the bandpass ﬁlter is shown in (Figure 8.200
CHAPTER 8.16.plot ac v(3) . even at the peak of the “passband” frequency range. Because this type of bandpass ﬁlter works by relying on either section to block unwanted frequencies. it can be difﬁcult to design such a ﬁlter to allow unhindered passage within the desired frequency range. and their combined effort makes for an attenuated (reduced amplitude) signal at best.end Bandpass ﬁlters can also be constructed using inductors. it is not without certain limitations. Using real components. Notice the curve peak on the previous SPICE analysis: the load voltage of this ﬁlter never rises above 0.14: Capacitive bandpass ﬁlter. It will still ﬁlter out all frequencies too high or too low. although the source voltage is a full volt. If we were to design a bandpass ﬁlter using inductors.
. it might look something like Figure 8.5u c2 2 3 1u rload 3 0 1k . FILTERS
What emerges from the series combination of these two ﬁlter circuits is a circuit that will only allow passage of those frequencies that are neither too high nor too low. here is what a typical schematic might look like Figure 8. the reactive “purity” of capacitors gives them a design advantage.59 volts. but as mentioned before.15)
Source
Lowpass filter section 1 R1 200 Ω 1V C1 2
Highpass filter section C2 3 1 µF 2.
4.
.8.15: The response of a capacitive bandpass ﬁlter peaks within a narrow frequency range. BANDPASS FILTERS
201
Figure 8.16: Inductive bandpass ﬁlter.
Source
Highpass filter section R1
Lowpass filter section L2
L1
Rload
Figure 8.
it looks something like (Figure 8. giving sharp response when the component values are chosen in the following ratios:
Signal output
Component value ratios for the "TwinT" bandstop filter R1 = R2 = 2(R3) C2 = C3 = (0. When you turn down the volume control on your stereo. Constructed using two capacitive ﬁlter sections. and R3 in a “T” conﬁguration as well. The lowpass ﬁlter section is comprised of R1 . or notch ﬁlters.17)
passes low frequencies Lowpass filter Signal input Highpass filter passes high frequencies
Figure 8. you are “attenuating” the signal being sent to the speakers. narrower band of passable frequencies).18). bandreject.
8. Together. Not surprisingly. FILTERS
This signal attenuation becomes more pronounced if the ﬁlter is designed to be more selective (steeper curve.17: System level block diagram of a bandstop ﬁlter. this kind of ﬁlter passes all frequencies above and below a particular range set by the component values. • Bandpass ﬁlters can be made by stacking a lowpass ﬁlter on the end of a highpass ﬁlter. (Figure 8. • REVIEW: • A bandpass ﬁlter works to screen out frequencies that are too low or too high. just like the bandpass design.5
Bandstop ﬁlters
Also called bandelimination. The highpass ﬁlter section is comprised of C2 . We will discuss those methods a little later in this chapter. There are other methods to achieve bandpass operation without sacriﬁcing signal strength within the passband. R2 . except that this time we connect the two ﬁlter sections in parallel with each other instead of in series. • “Attenuate” means to reduce or diminish in amplitude. it can be made out of a lowpass and a highpass ﬁlter.202
CHAPTER 8. giving easy passage only to frequencies within a certain range. this arrangement is commonly known as a “TwinT” ﬁlter. and C1 in a “T” conﬁguration.5)C1
. C3 . or vice versa.
• The frequency of maximum attenuation is called the notch frequency. both the lowpass and highpass ﬁlter sections are of the “T” conﬁguration.8. or notch ﬁlters.5. Commonly. giving easy passage only to frequencies outside of that range.18: “TwinT” bandstop ﬁlter. bandreject.ac lin 20 200 1.end
• REVIEW: • A bandstop ﬁlter works to screen out frequencies that are within a certain range. Also known as bandelimination. giving the name “TwinT” to the bandstop combination. • Bandstop ﬁlters can be made by placing a lowpass ﬁlter in parallel with a highpass ﬁlter.plot ac v(3) . Given these component ratios. BANDSTOP FILTERS
203
R1 C2 source R3 C1
R2 C3 Rload
Figure 8.19) twint bandstop filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 200 c1 2 0 2u r2 2 3 200 c2 1 4 1u r3 4 0 100 c3 4 3 1u rload 3 0 1k .
.5k . the frequency of maximum rejection (the “notch frequency”) can be calculated as follows:
fnotch =
1 4πR3C3
The impressive bandstopping ability of this ﬁlter is illustrated by the following SPICE analysis: (Figure 8.
.22) to short a signal. Knowing this. and this property can be exploited in designing bandpass and bandstop ﬁlter circuits. we have two basic strategies for designing either bandpass or bandstop ﬁlters. but never both at the same time.20: Series resonant LC bandpass ﬁlter.
8. the two basic resonant strategies are this: series LC to pass a signal (Figure 8. while parallel LC (“tank”) circuits give maximum impedance at their resonant frequency. FILTERS
Figure 8. We should know by now that combinations of L and C will tend to resonate. the ﬁlter designs we’ve concentrated on have employed either capacitors or inductors.20). or parallel LC (Figure 8.204
CHAPTER 8.19: Response of “twinT” bandstop ﬁlter. For bandpass ﬁlters.6
Resonant ﬁlters
So far. Series LC circuits give minimum impedance at resonance. The two schemes will be contrasted and simulated here:
filter 1 V1 0 L1 1H 1V 2 C1 3 1 µF Rload 1 kΩ 0
Figure 8.
A couple of points to note: see how there is virtually no signal attenuation within the “pass band” (the range of frequencies near the load voltage peak). The other basic style of resonant bandpass ﬁlters employs a tank circuit (parallel LC combination) to short out signals too high or too low in frequency from getting to the load: (Figure 8. unlike the bandpass ﬁlters made from capacitors or inductors alone.21: Series resonant bandpass ﬁlter: voltage peaks at resonant frequency of 159. since this ﬁlter works on the principle of series LC resonance.plot ac v(3) . (Figure 8.15 Hz.21) series resonant bandpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 1 c1 2 3 1u rload 3 0 1k . allowing the signal to get to the load with minimal attenuation. Also. However. the resonant frequency of which is unaffected by circuit resistance.22) The tank circuit will have a lot of impedance at resonance.6.ac lin 20 50 250 .8.end
Figure 8. RESONANT FILTERS
205
Series LC components pass signal at resonance. the tank circuit will have a low impedance. and block signals of any other frequencies from getting to the load. Under or over resonant frequency. shorting out the signal and dropping most of it across series resistor R1 . different values for the load resistor will change the “steepness” of the Bode plot (the “selectivity” of the ﬁlter). (Figure 8. however.23)
. the value of the load resistor will not skew the peak frequency.
206
CHAPTER 8.
parallel resonant bandpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 l1 2 0 100m c1 2 0 10u rload 2 0 1k .22: Parallel resonant bandpass ﬁlter.15 Hz.ac lin 20 50 250 . FILTERS
1 V1 1V 0
R1 500 Ω L1
filter 2 C1 100 mH 0
2 Rload
2 1 kΩ 0
10 µF 0
Figure 8.end
Figure 8.23: Parallel resonant ﬁlter: voltage peaks a resonant frequency of 159.
.plot ac v(2) .
its very low impedance shorts out the signal. (Figure 8. it passes signals to the load at any other frequencies. RESONANT FILTERS
207
Just like the lowpass and highpass ﬁlter designs relying on a series resistance and a parallel “shorting” component to attenuate unwanted frequencies.8.24 photograph of a simple radio comprise the main elements in the tank circuit ﬁlter used to discriminate one radio station’s signal from another. Just as we can use series and parallel LC resonant circuits to pass only those frequencies within a certain range.25) When the series LC combination reaches resonance. Again. First. In most analog radio tuner circuits. notice how the absence of a series resistor makes for minimum attenuation for all the desired (passed) signals. we can also use them to block frequencies within a certain range. is
. for selecting a particular radio frequency from the multitudes of frequencies available from the antenna. the rotating dial for station selection moves a variable capacitor in a tank circuit. to use either series or parallel resonance. The amplitude at the notch frequency. we will examine the parallel resonant bandstop ﬁlter: (Figure 8.24: Variable capacitor tunes radio receiver tank circuit to select one out of many broadcast stations. we have two major strategies to follow in doing this.28) Once again. The variable capacitor and aircore inductor shown in Figure 8.
Figure 8. on the other hand. It should be noted that this form of bandpass ﬁlter circuit is very popular in analog radio tuning circuitry. this resonant circuit can never provide full input (source) voltage to the load. Conversely. That series resistance will always be dropping some amount of voltage so long as there is a load resistance connected to the output of the ﬁlter. (Figure 8.6.27) The parallel LC components present a high impedance at resonant frequency. dropping it across resistor R1 and preventing its passage on to the load. we’ll look at the series variety: (Figure 8.26) Next. thereby blocking the signal from the load at that frequency. creating a bandstop ﬁlter.
end
Figure 8.
.208
CHAPTER 8.15 Hz).25: Series resonant bandstop ﬁlter.plot ac v(2) .26: Series resonant bandstop ﬁlter: Notch frequency = LC resonant frequency (159. series resonant bandstop filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin r1 1 2 500 l1 2 3 100m c1 3 0 10u rload 2 0 1k .ac lin 20 70 230 . FILTERS
1
R1 500 Ω
2 L1 100 mH Rload 3 C1 10 µF 0
2
V1
1V
1 kΩ
0
0
Figure 8.
6.
parallel resonant bandstop filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 100m c1 1 2 10u rload 2 0 1k .15 Hz).
.end
Figure 8.8.27: Parallel resonant bandstop ﬁlter. RESONANT FILTERS
209
C1 1 V1 0 1V
10 µF 2
L1 100 mH
Rload
1 kΩ 0
Figure 8.ac lin 20 100 200 .plot ac v(2) .28: Parallel resonant bandstop ﬁlter: Notch frequency = LC resonant frequency (159.
the more insightful student will recognize that any combination of capacitors and inductors together in a circuit is likely to cause resonant effects to happen at a certain frequency. more effective design of lowpass or highpass ﬁlter might be realized by combining capacitive and inductive elements together like Figure 8. After assessing the standard RC and LR lowpass and highpass ﬁlter designs. and eliminates the need for a series resistance.29. A word of caution to those designing lowpass and highpass ﬁlters is in order at this point. The inductors should block any high frequencies. which is seen at the load. At ﬁrst. FILTERS
very low. as well as introduce antiresonant effects that will skew the peak/notch frequency. both working together to allow only low frequency signals to reach the load.30) lc lowpass filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin l1 1 2 100m c1 2 0 1u l2 2 3 100m rload 3 0 1k . Resonance.end What was supposed to be a lowpass ﬁlter turns out to be a bandpass ﬁlter with a peak somewhere around 526 Hz! The capacitance and inductance in this ﬁlter circuit are attaining resonance at that point. In other words.plot ac v(3) . can cause strange things to happen. If there is any stray resistance (especially likely in the inductor). the selectivity depends greatly upon the “purity” of the inductance and capacitance used.29: Capacitive Inductive lowpass ﬁlter. creating a large voltage drop around C1 .ac lin 20 100 1k . as we have seen before. regardless of L2 ’s attenuating inﬂuence. this is a very “selective” ﬁlter. In all these resonant ﬁlter designs. this will diminish the ﬁlter’s ability to ﬁnely discriminate frequencies. The output voltage to the load at this point actually
.
1 V1 0 1V
L1 100 mH
filter 2
L2 100 mH 1 µF Rload
3
C1
1 kΩ 0
0
Figure 8. this seems to be a good strategy. Let’s plot a SPICE analysis and see what happens over a wide frequency range: (Figure 8.210
CHAPTER 8. it might occur to a student that a better. However. while the capacitor should short out any high frequencies as well.
. vm(3):
Figure 8.30: Unexpected response of LC lowpass ﬁlter. We’ll run the same analysis again. which might not be good either. they will impose a very heavy (very low impedance) load on the AC source.
exceeds the input (source) voltage! A little more reﬂection reveals that if L1 and C2 are at resonance.8. and the source current.31: Current inceases at the unwanted resonance of the LC lowpass ﬁlter. along with load voltage. only this time plotting C1 ’s voltage. I(v1). vm(2) in Figure 8. RESONANT FILTERS
211
Figure 8.6.31.
The voltage source impedance must match the input impedance of the ﬁlter. The problem is that an LC ﬁlter has a input impedance and an output impedance which must be matched. C= 1µF Z = (L/C)1/2 =((100 mH)/(1 µF))1/2 = 316 Ω In Figure 8. we can ﬁnd the impedance of the ﬁlter. Note that if we needed to drive a 1000 Ω load.0 uF Rload 316 Ω 4 100 mH 2 100 mH 3
0
Figure 8.32: Circuit of source and load matched LC lowpass ﬁlter. FILTERS
Sure enough.29). If we were expecting this ﬁlter to provide a simple lowpass function. the L/C ratio could have been adjusted to match that resistance.212
CHAPTER 8. we might be disappointed by the results.plot ac v(3) . LC matched lowpass filter V1 1 0 ac 1 SIN Rg 1 4 316 L1 4 2 100m C1 2 0 1. and the required . Z = (L/C)1/2 Taking the component values from (Figure 8. and the ﬁlter output impedance must be matched by “rload” for a ﬂat response. For L= 100 mH. and changed the load Rload from 1000 Ω to 316 Ω. Rg and Rload to match it.0u L2 2 3 100m Rload 3 0 316 .
filter 316 Ω 1 Rg Vpp Voffset 1 Hz L1 1V C1 L2 1.32 we have added Rg = 316 Ω to the generator.ac lin 20 100 1k . The input and output impedance is given by the square root of (L/C).end
. we see the voltage across C1 and the source current spiking to a high point at the same frequency where the load voltage is maximum.
By saturate. This poor load regulation can be mitigated by a swinging choke. has a “frequency” of zero. DC of course.33 shows the “ﬂat” response of the LC low pass ﬁlter when the source and load impedance match the ﬁlter input and output impedances. is a nonsinusoidal AC voltage consisting
. we mean that the DC current creates a “too” high level of ﬂux in the magnetic core.8. Decreasing reactance. The decrease in inductance decreases reactance XL . lowpass ﬁlters made up of capacitors and inductors are frequently used as ﬁnal stages in AC/DC power supplies to ﬁlter the unwanted AC “ripple” voltage out of the DC converted from AC. very low. Since induction is proportional to dΦ/dt.33: The response of impedance matched LC lowpass ﬁlter is nearly ﬂat up to the cutoff frequency.6. The power supply voltage changes with a change in load. thus.
Figure 8. RESONANT FILTERS
213
Figure 8. Despite the unintended resonance. increasing the voltage at the ﬁlter output. The ripple voltage. The point to make in comparing the response of the unmatched ﬁlter (Figure 8. on the other hand. This improves the voltage regulation with respect to variable loads. This is undesirable. so there’s no way it can make an LC circuit resonate. This is a choke. so that the AC component of current cannot vary the ﬂux. making the ﬁlter’s resonant frequency very. the inductance is decreased by the heavy DC current. inductor. The ﬁlter inductors and capacitors are generally quite large (several Henrys for the inductors and thousands of µF for the capacitors is typical). reduces the voltage drop across the inductor. This property is directly applicable to LC ﬁltered power supplies– the regulation is poor. if this particular ﬁlter design possesses a potentially troublesome resonant point? The answer lies in the selection of ﬁlter component sizes and the frequencies encountered from an AC/DC converter (rectiﬁer). designed to saturate when a large DC current passes through it.30) to the matched ﬁlter (Figure 8. What we’re trying to do in an AC/DC power supply ﬁlter is separate DC voltage from a small amount of relatively highfrequency AC voltage. Why is this.33) is that variable load on the ﬁlter produces a considerable change in voltage.
200E+02 v(4) 1. the lowest frequency the ﬁlter will ever see is 120 Hz (100 Hz in Europe).12 microvolts
With a full 12 volts DC at the load and only 34. FILTERS
of a fundamental frequency at least twice the frequency of the converted AC voltage. The following SPICE analysis calculates the voltage output (AC and DC) for such a ﬁlter. ac/dc power supply filter v1 1 0 ac 1 sin v2 2 1 dc l1 2 3 3 c1 3 0 9500u l2 3 4 2 rload 4 0 1k .end v2 1.
.200E+01 freq 1. with harmonics many times that in addition. Therefore. For pluginthewall power supplies running on 60 Hz AC power (60 Hz United States.412E05
DC voltage at load = 12 volts
AC voltage at load = 34.12 µV of AC left from the 1 volt AC source imposed across the load.214
CHAPTER 8. 50 Hz in Europe).200E+01 v(4) 3.print dc v(4) . which is well above its resonant point.34: AC/DC power suppply ﬁlter provides “ripple free” DC power. this circuit design proves itself to be a very effective power supply ﬁlter. with series DC and AC (120 Hz) voltage sources providing a rough approximation of the mixedfrequency output of an AC/DC converter. the potentially troublesome resonant point in a such a ﬁlter is completely avoided.print ac v(4) .ac lin 1 120 120 .dc v2 12 12 1 .
2 V2 1 V1 0
L1 3H 12 V C1 1V 120 Hz
3
L2 2H 9500 µF Rload
4
1 kΩ
0
0
Figure 8.
The mathematics involved with component selection and frequency response prediction is daunting to say the least – well beyond the scope of the beginning electronics student. It has been my intent here to present the basic principles of ﬁlter design with as little math as possible. The beneﬁt of such computer simulation software cannot be understated. an intuitive understanding of circuit concepts can be attained. it only begins to scratch the surface of ﬁlter design. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. from most recent to ﬁrst.
8. the ﬁlter will work OK. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. With the ability to generate Bode plots and precise ﬁgures. If you are not familiar with the use of SPICE or other circuit simulation programs.
. A quick perusal of any advanced ﬁlter design textbook is sufﬁcient to prove my point. To see SPICE analyses presented in this book is an aid to understanding circuits. Circuit simulation software empowers the student to explore circuit designs far beyond the reach of their math skills.7
Summary
As lengthy as this chapter has been up to this point.8. So long as the desired and undesired frequencies are well to either side of the resonant point. for the beginning student or for the working engineer. leaning on the power of the SPICE circuit analysis program to explore ﬁlter performance. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. take the time to become so! It will be of great beneﬁt to your study.
fresonant =
•
1 2π LC
8.7. but to actually set up and analyze your own circuit simulations is a much more engaging and worthwhile endeavor as a student. But if any signal of signiﬁcant magnitude close to the resonant frequency is applied to the input of the ﬁlter. strange things will happen! • REVIEW: • Resonant combinations of capacitance and inductance can be employed to create very effective bandpass and bandstop ﬁlters without the need for added resistance in a circuit that would diminish the passage of desired frequencies. SUMMARY
215
The lesson learned here about resonant effects also applies to the design of highpass ﬁlters using both capacitors and inductors.8
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. which is something often lost when a student is burdened with the task of solving lengthy equations by hand.
FILTERS
.216
CHAPTER 8.
. . . .1 9. . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . 277
Practical considerations . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Energy losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Current transformers . 248 Special transformers and applications .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Electrical isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Heat and Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . 262 Saturable reactors
ScottT transformer . . . . . . . . . 239 Winding conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . .7. . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Power capacity . .9 Impedance matching . . . . . . .8. . . 237 Phasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 9
TRANSFORMERS
Contents
9. . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . 268
Contributors . . . . . . 259 Tesla Coil . .2 9. . .5 9. . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. 272 Inrush current . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Stepup and stepdown transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . .5 9. . 271 Core saturation . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Linear Variable Differential Transformer . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . 251 9. . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Voltage regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Air core transformers . . . . . . . . 281
217
. . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . 251 Potential transformers . . . .7 Mutual inductance and basic operation . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . 269 Stray capacitance and inductance . 260 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.
the load (inductor coil) must produce an opposing voltage equal in magnitude to the source. limiting AC current. TRANSFORMERS
9.1
Mutual inductance and basic operation
Suppose we were to wrap a coil of insulated wire around a loop of ferromagnetic material and energize this coil with an AC voltage source: (Figure 9. and magnetic ﬂux in the device. Michael Faraday discovered the mathematical relationship between magnetic ﬂux (Φ) and induced voltage with this equation:
e= N
dΦ dt e = (Instantaneous) induced voltage in volts N = Number of turns in wire coil (straight wire = 1) Φ = Magnetic flux in Webers t = Time in seconds
Where.
. the voltage drop originates from electrical energy loss. From where does this opposing voltage arise? If the load were a resistor (Figure 9. With a perfect inductor (no resistance in the coil wire). the “friction” of electrons ﬂowing through the resistance. in order that it may balance against the source voltage and produce an algebraic loop voltage sum of zero. Changing ﬂux induces a counter EMF. Here. limiting current through the coil as predicted by the equations XL = 2πfL and I=E/X (or I=E/Z). ﬂux Φ changes.1 (b)).218
CHAPTER 9. we could apply this fundamental law of electricity to describe the respective voltages of the source and of the inductor coil. In other words. In this example. For the purposes of this example. as in any onesource. we need to take a more detailed look at the interactions of voltage.1: Insulated winding on ferromagnetic loop has inductive reactance. Kirchhoff ’s voltage law describes how the algebraic sum of all voltages in a loop must equal zero. When AC current changes. though.1 (a))
iron core wire coil resistor
(a)
(b)
Figure 9. we would expect this ironcore coil to oppose the applied voltage with its inductive reactance. assuming zero voltage dropped along the resistance of any connecting wires. oneload circuit. the voltage dropped across the load must equal the voltage supplied by the source. As an inductor. the opposing voltage comes from another mechanism: the reaction to a changing magnetic ﬂux in the iron core. current.
Graphed. Magnetic ﬂux through a ferromagnetic material is analogous to current through a conductor: it must be motivated by some force in order to occur. Because the mathematical relationship between magnetic ﬂux and mmf is directly proportional. and because the mathematical relationship between mmf and current is also directly proportional (no ratesofchange present in either equation). this motivating force is voltage (a. or mmf.9. In fact. dΦ/dt. (Figure 9. In magnetic “circuits. Magnetomotive force (mmf) and magnetic ﬂux (Φ) are related to each other by a property of magnetic materials known as reluctance (the latter quantity symbolized by a strangelooking letter “R”):
A comparison of "Ohm’s Law" for electric and magnetic circuits: E = IR Electrical mmf = Φℜ Magnetic
In our example. It should be mentioned that the current through an ironcore inductor is not perfectly sinusoidal (sinewave shaped). if the
. In electric circuits. this current is sometimes referred to as the magnetizing current. Due to its function in providing magnetizing force (mmf) for the core.a. the current through the coil will be inphase with the ﬂux wave as in (Figure 9.” this motivating force is magnetomotive force.3) This is why alternating current through an inductor lags the applied voltage waveform by 90o : because that is what is required to produce a changing magnetic ﬂux whose rateofchange produces an opposing voltage inphase with the applied voltage. or EMF). the ﬂux wave 90o lagging behind the voltage wave:
e = voltage e
Φ = magnetic flux Φ
Figure 9. electromotive force. due to the nonlinear B/H magnetization curve of iron.1.2) this shows itself as a set of sine waves (assuming a sinusoidal voltage source). Magnetomotive force generated by an electromagnet coil is equal to the amount of current through that coil (in amps) multiplied by the number of turns of that coil around the core (the SI unit for mmf is the ampturn). the mmf required to produce this changing magnetic ﬂux (Φ) must be supplied by a changing current through the coil. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
219
The instantaneous voltage (voltage dropped at any instant in time) across a wire coil is equal to the number of turns of that coil around the core (N) multiplied by the instantaneous rateofchange in magnetic ﬂux (dΦ/dt) linking with the coil.2: Magnetic ﬂux lags applied voltage by 90o because ﬂux is proportional to a rate of change.k.
4
e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux i = coil current e i Φ
Figure 9. making it even less sinusoidal and altering its phase to be lagging slightly less than 90o behind the applied voltage waveform. resulting in a magnetizing current waveform that looks something like Figure 9. accounting for the bellshaped halfcycles of the current waveform in the above plot. The distortion of an ironcore inductor’s exciting current may be minimized if it is designed for and operated at very low ﬂux densities. The effects of hysteresis and eddy currents conspire to further distort and complicate the current waveform. using as little iron as possible.220
CHAPTER 9. This coil current resulting from the sum total of all magnetic effects in the core (dΦ/dt magnetization plus hysteresis losses. where “N” is the number of turns of wire in the coil and “I” is the current through it). this
. the magnetizing current waveform becomes distorted. disproportionately greater levels of magnetic ﬁeld force (mmf) are required to deliver equal increases in magnetic ﬁeld ﬂux (Φ). inductor is cheaply built.4: As ﬂux density approaches saturation. The situation is further complicated by energy losses within the iron core. When a ferromagnetic material approaches magnetic ﬂux saturation. lags applied voltage by 90o . coil current increases dramatically at the peaks in order to maintain a ﬂux waveform that isn’t distorted. eddy current losses.) is called the exciting current. the magnetic ﬂux density might reach high levels (approaching saturation). TRANSFORMERS
e = voltage e
Φ = magnetic flux Φ i
i = coil current
Figure 9. like current.3: Magnetic ﬂux. etc. Generally speaking. Thus. Because mmf is proportional to current through the magnetizing coil (mmf = NI. the large increases of mmf required to supply the needed increases in ﬂux results in large increases in coil current.
though. we’ll assume that our example core is far from saturation and free from all losses. except this time with a second coil (Figure 9. If the inductor is perfect (no wire resistance. which tends to make the inductor bulky and expensive.5: Ferromagnetic core with primary coil (AC driven) and secondary coil. For the sake of simplicity.6) the induced voltage waveform is drawn slightly smaller than the source voltage waveform simply to distinguish one from the other: This effect is called mutual inductance: the induction of a voltage in one coil in response to a change in current in the other coil. having a current waveform 90o out of phase with the voltage waveform creates a condition where power is alternately absorbed and returned to the circuit by the inductor. it will dissipate zero power. As we’ve seen already in the inductors chapter.). while the second will be labeled the secondary:
iron core wire coil
wire coil
Figure 9. The ﬁrst coil will be labeled the primary coil. it is measured in the unit of Henrys. In the following graph. but unlike normal inductance it is symbolized by the capital letter “M” rather than the letter “L”:
. etc. Let us now consider the same inductor device.
If this secondary coil experiences the same magnetic ﬂux change as the primary (which it should. Like normal (self) inductance. (Figure 9. no magnetic core losses. and has the same number of turns around the core.1. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
221
requires a core with large crosssectional area.5) wrapped around the same iron core. assuming perfect containment of the magnetic ﬂux through the common core). resulting in a perfectly sinusoidal exciting current.9. a voltage of equal magnitude and phase to the applied voltage will be induced along its length.
In fact. Indeed.8) If you ﬁnd this process a bit confusing. it would cause more voltage to be induced voltage in the primary coil (remember that e = dΦ/dt). (Figure 9. the magnetic ﬂux in the core cannot be affected by secondary coil current. of equal magnitude and opposite phase. if we connect a load resistor to it. However. in accordance with the mmf=ΦR “magnetic Ohm’s Law” equation. TRANSFORMERS
ep = primary coil voltage Φ = magnetic flux ep Φ es ip
ip = primary coil current es = secondary coil voltage
Figure 9. this is what happens. e2 = voltage induced in secondary coil i1 = current in primary coil
No current will exist in the secondary coil. Usually. do not worry. this mmf is accompanied by magnetic ﬂux. additional ﬂux is not permitted. it does not. Polarity marks and current direction arrows have been added to the illustration to clarify phase relations: (Figure 9. Magnetomotive force is produced any time electrons move through a wire.
Inductance di e=L dt
Mutual inductance di e2 = M 1 dt Where. because the primary coil’s induced voltage must remain at the same magnitude and phase in order to balance with the applied voltage. inphase with the induced voltage (because the voltage across a resistor and the current through it are always inphase with each other). Transformer dynamics is a complex
.6: Open circuited secondary sees the same ﬂux Φ as the primary. If more ﬂux were induced in the core. However. Therefore induced secondary voltage es is the same magnitude and phase as the primary voltage ep. an alternating current will go through the coil. in accordance with Kirchhoff ’s voltage law. In this case.7) At ﬁrst. though. so the only way the secondary coil’s mmf may exist is if a counteracting mmf is generated by the primary coil. what does change is the amount of mmf in the magnetic circuit. since it is opencircuited. This cannot happen. an alternating current forming in the primary coil – 180o out of phase with the secondary coil’s current – to generate this counteracting mmf and prevent additional core ﬂux. one might expect this secondary coil current to cause additional magnetic ﬂux in the core.222
CHAPTER 9. Consequently.
MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
223
iron core wire coil
wire coil
Figure 9.8: Flux remains constant with application of a load. a counteracting mmf is produced by the loaded secondary.9. However.
.7: Resistive load on secondary has voltage and current inphase.1.
+ + + + wire coil wire coil
iron core
mmfprimary mmfsecondary
Figure 9.
While most transformer designs enclose the coils and core in a metal frame for protection. this particular transformer is open for viewing and so serves its illustrative purpose well: (Figure 9.9)
Transformer
Figure 9. separated by lines indicating a ferromagnetic core. the iron core can be seen in this photograph to be made of many thin sheets (laminations) rather than a
. the powered inductor of a transformer is called the primary winding. The following photograph shows a power transformer of the type used in gasdischarge lighting. The wire gauge can also be seen to differ between primary and secondary windings. Its schematic symbol looks like two inductors (coils) sharing the same magnetic core: (Figure 9. As modeled in our initial example. What is important to understand is this: when an AC voltage is applied to the primary coil. Here.9: Schematic symbol for transformer consists of two inductor symbols. drawing current from the source. The top coil is larger than the bottom coil. because it transforms electrical energy into magnetic energy. Rather than energy merely being alternately absorbed and returned the primary coil circuit. it creates a magnetic ﬂux in the core. while the unpowered coil is called the secondary winding. Like the transformer shown previously. As far as the source “knows. While many transformers have ferromagnetic core materials. Because its operation depends on electromagnetic induction between two stationary coils and a magnetic ﬂux of changing magnitude and “polarity. a transformer is shown cut in half. energy is now being coupled to the secondary coil where it is delivered to a dissipative (energyconsuming) load.224
CHAPTER 9. Figure 9. the inductor coils are often referred to as windings. We call this type of device a transformer. Notice how the primary coil is behaving as a load with respect to the AC voltage source. the two inductor coils can be clearly seen. exposing the crosssection of the iron core as well as both windings. and how the secondary coil is behaving as a source with respect to the resistor. The reason for this disparity in wire gauge will be made clear in the next section of this chapter. their constituent inductors being magnetically linked together through the air.11.” transformers are necessarily AC devices. In transformers. having a greater number of “turns” around the core. there is also an additional primary coil current lagging the applied voltage by 90o . TRANSFORMERS
subject. just enough to magnetize the core to create the necessary voltage for balancing against the source (the exciting current). Additionally. then back into electrical energy again. which induces AC voltage in the secondary coil inphase with the source voltage. there are some that do not.10) Both coils of wire can be seen here with coppercolored varnish insulation. this unit also utilizes primary and secondary windings of differing turn counts. wound around an iron core. In the next photograph. Of course. The pair of vertical lines represent an iron core common to both inductors. The two inductor coils are easily distinguished in the above symbol. Any current drawn through the secondary coil to power a load induces a corresponding current in the primary coil.” its directly powering the resistor. in reference to the manufacturing process where wire is wound around the core material.
9.1. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
225
Figure 9.10: Example of a gasdischarge lighting transformer. solid piece. The reason for this will also be explained in a later section of this chapter.
Figure 9.11: Transformer crosssection cut shows core and windings. It is easy to demonstrate simple transformer action using SPICE, setting up the primary and secondary windings of the simulated transformer as a pair of “mutual” inductors. (Fig
226
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
ure 9.12) The coefﬁcient of magnetic ﬁeld coupling is given at the end of the “k” line in the SPICE circuit description, this example being set very nearly at perfection (1.000). This coefﬁcient describes how closely “linked” the two inductors are, magnetically. The better these two inductors are magnetically coupled, the more efﬁcient the energy transfer between them should be.
(for SPICE to measure current)
1
Rbogus1
(very small)
2
3
Vi1 0V
4
V1 0
10 V
L1 100 H 0
(very large)
L2 100 H 5
Rload
1 kΩ
5
Rbogus2
Figure 9.12: Spice circuit for coupled inductors. transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 ** This line tells SPICE that the two inductors ** l1 and l2 are magnetically ‘‘linked’’ together k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end Note: the Rbogus resistors are required to satisfy certain quirks of SPICE. The ﬁrst breaks the otherwise continuous loop between the voltage source and L1 which would not be permitted by SPICE. The second provides a path to ground (node 0) from the secondary circuit, necessary because SPICE cannot function with any ungrounded circuits. Note that with equal inductances for both windings (100 Henrys each), the AC voltages and currents are nearly equal for the two. The difference between primary and secondary currents is the magnetizing current spoken of earlier: the 90o lagging current necessary to magnetize the core. As is seen here, it is usually very small compared to primary current induced by the load, and so the primary and secondary currents are almost equal. What you are seeing here
9.1. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 9.962E+00 i(v1) 9.975E03 i(vi1) 9.962E03
227
Primary winding
Secondary winding
is quite typical of transformer efﬁciency. Anything less than 95% efﬁciency is considered poor for modern power transformer designs, and this transfer of power occurs with no moving parts or other components subject to wear. If we decrease the load resistance so as to draw more current with the same amount of voltage, we see that the current through the primary winding increases in response. Even though the AC power source is not directly connected to the load resistance (rather, it is electromagnetically “coupled”), the amount of current drawn from the source will be almost the same as the amount of current that would be drawn if the load were directly connected to the source. Take a close look at the next two SPICE simulations, showing what happens with different values of load resistors: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 ** Note load resistance value of 200 ohms rload 4 5 200 .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 9.348E+00 i(v1) 4.679E02 i(vi1) 4.674E02
Notice how the primary current closely follows the secondary current. In our ﬁrst simulation, both currents were approximately 10 mA, but now they are both around 47 mA. In this second simulation, the two currents are closer to equality, because the magnetizing current remains the same as before while the load current has increased. Note also how the secondary voltage has decreased some with the heavier (greater current) load. Let’s try another simulation with an even lower value of load resistance (15 Ω): Our load current is now 0.13 amps, or 130 mA, which is substantially higher than the last time. The primary current is very close to being the same, but notice how the secondary
228 transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 15 .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 1.950E+00 i(v1) 1.301E01 i(vi1) 1.300E01
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
voltage has fallen well below the primary voltage (1.95 volts versus 10 volts at the primary). The reason for this is an imperfection in our transformer design: because the primary and secondary inductances aren’t perfectly linked (a k factor of 0.999 instead of 1.000) there is “stray” or “leakage” inductance. In other words, some of the magnetic ﬁeld isn’t linking with the secondary coil, and thus cannot couple energy to it: (Figure 9.13)
wire coil
leakage flux
wire coil
leakage flux core flux
Figure 9.13: Leakage inductance is due to magnetic ﬂux not cutting both windings. Consequently, this “leakage” ﬂux merely stores and returns energy to the source circuit via selfinductance, effectively acting as a series impedance in both primary and secondary circuits. Voltage gets dropped across this series impedance, resulting in a reduced load voltage:
9.1. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
voltage across the load “sags” as load current increases. (Figure 9.14)
229
ideal transformer leakage inductance Source leakage inductance Load
Figure 9.14: Equivalent circuit models leakage inductance as series inductors independent of the “ideal transformer”. If we change the transformer design to have better magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary coils, the ﬁgures for voltage between primary and secondary windings will be much closer to equality again: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 ** Coupling factor = 0.99999 instead of 0.999 k l1 l2 0.99999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 15 .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 9.987E+00 i(v1) 6.658E01 i(vi1) 6.658E01
Here we see that our secondary voltage is back to being equal with the primary, and the secondary current is equal to the primary current as well. Unfortunately, building a real transformer with coupling this complete is very difﬁcult. A compromise solution is to design both primary and secondary coils with less inductance, the strategy being that less inductance overall leads to less “leakage” inductance to cause trouble, for any given degree of magnetic coupling inefﬁciency. This results in a load voltage that is closer to ideal with the same (high current heavy) load and the same coupling factor: Simply by using primary and secondary coils of less inductance, the load voltage for this heavy load (high current) has been brought back up to nearly ideal levels (9.977 volts). At this
230 transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 ** inductance = 1 henry instead of 100 henrys l1 2 0 1 l2 3 5 1 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 15 .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 9.977E+00 i(v1) 6.664E01 i(vi1) 6.652E01
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
point, one might ask, “If less inductance is all that’s needed to achieve nearideal performance under heavy load, then why worry about coupling efﬁciency at all? If its impossible to build a transformer with perfect coupling, but easy to design coils with low inductance, then why not just build all transformers with lowinductance coils and have excellent efﬁciency even with poor magnetic coupling?” The answer to this question is found in another simulation: the same lowinductance transformer, but this time with a lighter load (less current) of 1 kΩ instead of 15 Ω: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 1 l2 3 5 1 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end With lower winding inductances, the primary and secondary voltages are closer to being equal, but the primary and secondary currents are not. In this particular case, the primary current is 28.35 mA while the secondary current is only 9.990 mA: almost three times as much current in the primary as the secondary. Why is this? With less inductance in the primary winding, there is less inductive reactance, and consequently a much larger magnetizing cur
9.1. MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND BASIC OPERATION
freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 9.990E+00 i(v1) 2.835E02 i(vi1) 9.990E03
231
rent. A substantial amount of the current through the primary winding merely works to magnetize the core rather than transfer useful energy to the secondary winding and load. An ideal transformer with identical primary and secondary windings would manifest equal voltage and current in both sets of windings for any load condition. In a perfect world, transformers would transfer electrical power from primary to secondary as smoothly as though the load were directly connected to the primary power source, with no transformer there at all. However, you can see this ideal goal can only be met if there is perfect coupling of magnetic ﬂux between primary and secondary windings. Being that this is impossible to achieve, transformers must be designed to operate within certain expected ranges of voltages and loads in order to perform as close to ideal as possible. For now, the most important thing to keep in mind is a transformer’s basic operating principle: the transfer of power from the primary to the secondary circuit via electromagnetic coupling. • REVIEW: • Mutual inductance is where the magnetic ﬂux of two or more inductors are “linked” so that voltage is induced in one coil proportional to the rateofchange of current in another. • A transformer is a device made of two or more inductors, one of which is powered by AC, inducing an AC voltage across the second inductor. If the second inductor is connected to a load, power will be electromagnetically coupled from the ﬁrst inductor’s power source to that load. • The powered inductor in a transformer is called the primary winding. The unpowered inductor in a transformer is called the secondary winding. • Magnetic ﬂux in the core (Φ) lags 90o behind the source voltage waveform. The current drawn by the primary coil from the source to produce this ﬂux is called the magnetizing current, and it also lags the supply voltage by 90o . • Total primary current in an unloaded transformer is called the exciting current, and is comprised of magnetizing current plus any additional current necessary to overcome core losses. It is never perfectly sinusoidal in a real transformer, but may be made more so if the transformer is designed and operated so that magnetic ﬂux density is kept to a minimum. • Core ﬂux induces a voltage in any coil wrapped around the core. The induces voltage(s) are ideally in phase with the primary winding source voltage and share the same waveshape. • Any current drawn through the secondary winding by a load will be “reﬂected” to the primary winding and drawn from the voltage source, as if the source were directly powering a similar load.
232
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
9.2
Stepup and stepdown transformers
So far, we’ve observed simulations of transformers where the primary and secondary windings were of identical inductance, giving approximately equal voltage and current levels in both circuits. Equality of voltage and current between the primary and secondary sides of a transformer, however, is not the norm for all transformers. If the inductances of the two windings are not equal, something interesting happens: transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 10000 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac v(2,0) i(v1) .print ac v(3,5) i(vi1) .end freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.000E+01 v(2) 1.000E+01 v(3,5) 9.962E01 i(v1) 9.975E05 i(vi1) 9.962E04
Primary winding Secondary winding
Notice how the secondary voltage is approximately ten times less than the primary voltage (0.9962 volts compared to 10 volts), while the secondary current is approximately ten times greater (0.9962 mA compared to 0.09975 mA). What we have here is a device that steps voltage down by a factor of ten and current up by a factor of ten: (Figure 9.15)
Primary winding
Secondary winding
Figure 9.15: Turns ratio of 10:1 yields 10:1 primary:secondary voltage ratio and 1:10 primary:secondary current ratio. This is a very useful device, indeed. With it, we can easily multiply or divide voltage and current in AC circuits. Indeed, the transformer has made longdistance transmission of electric power a practical reality, as AC voltage can be “stepped up” and current “stepped down” for reduced wire resistance power losses along power lines connecting generating stations with
9.2. STEPUP AND STEPDOWN TRANSFORMERS
233
loads. At either end (both the generator and at the loads), voltage levels are reduced by transformers for safer operation and less expensive equipment. A transformer that increases voltage from primary to secondary (more secondary winding turns than primary winding turns) is called a stepup transformer. Conversely, a transformer designed to do just the opposite is called a stepdown transformer. Let’s reexamine a photograph shown in the previous section: (Figure 9.16)
Figure 9.16: Transformer crosssection showing primary and secondary windings is a few inches tall (approximately 10 cm). This is a stepdown transformer, as evidenced by the high turn count of the primary winding and the low turn count of the secondary. As a stepdown unit, this transformer converts highvoltage, lowcurrent power into lowvoltage, highcurrent power. The largergauge wire used in the secondary winding is necessary due to the increase in current. The primary winding, which doesn’t have to conduct as much current, may be made of smallergauge wire. In case you were wondering, it is possible to operate either of these transformer types backwards (powering the secondary winding with an AC source and letting the primary winding power a load) to perform the opposite function: a stepup can function as a stepdown and visaversa. However, as we saw in the ﬁrst section of this chapter, efﬁcient operation of a transformer requires that the individual winding inductances be engineered for speciﬁc operating ranges of voltage and current, so if a transformer is to be used “backwards” like this it must be employed within the original design parameters of voltage and current for each winding, lest it prove to be inefﬁcient (or lest it be damaged by excessive voltage or current!). Transformers are often constructed in such a way that it is not obvious which wires lead to the primary winding and which lead to the secondary. One convention used in the electric power industry to help alleviate confusion is the use of “H” designations for the highervoltage winding (the primary winding in a stepdown unit; the secondary winding in a stepup) and “X” designations for the lowervoltage winding. Therefore, a simple power transformer will have
234
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
wires labeled “H1 ”, “H2 ”, “X1 ”, and “X2 ”. There is usually signiﬁcance to the numbering of the wires (H1 versus H2 , etc.), which we’ll explore a little later in this chapter. The fact that voltage and current get “stepped” in opposite directions (one up, the other down) makes perfect sense when you recall that power is equal to voltage times current, and realize that transformers cannot produce power, only convert it. Any device that could output more power than it took in would violate the Law of Energy Conservation in physics, namely that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted. As with the ﬁrst transformer example we looked at, power transfer efﬁciency is very good from the primary to the secondary sides of the device. The practical signiﬁcance of this is made more apparent when an alternative is considered: before the advent of efﬁcient transformers, voltage/current level conversion could only be achieved through the use of motor/generator sets. A drawing of a motor/generator set reveals the basic principle involved: (Figure 9.17)
Power in
A motor/generator set
Power out
Shaft coupling Motor Generator
Figure 9.17: Motor generator illustrates the basic principle of the transformer. In such a machine, a motor is mechanically coupled to a generator, the generator designed to produce the desired levels of voltage and current at the rotating speed of the motor. While both motors and generators are fairly efﬁcient devices, the use of both in this fashion compounds their inefﬁciencies so that the overall efﬁciency is in the range of 90% or less. Furthermore, because motor/generator sets obviously require moving parts, mechanical wear and balance are factors inﬂuencing both service life and performance. Transformers, on the other hand, are able to convert levels of AC voltage and current at very high efﬁciencies with no moving parts, making possible the widespread distribution and use of electric power we take for granted. In all fairness it should be noted that motor/generator sets have not necessarily been obsoleted by transformers for all applications. While transformers are clearly superior over motor/generator sets for AC voltage and current level conversion, they cannot convert one frequency of AC power to another, or (by themselves) convert DC to AC or visaversa. Motor/generator sets can do all these things with relative simplicity, albeit with the limitations of efﬁciency and mechanical factors already described. Motor/generator sets also have the unique property of kinetic energy storage: that is, if the motor’s power supply is momentarily interrupted for any reason, its angular momentum (the inertia of that rotating mass) will maintain rotation of the generator for a short duration, thus isolating any loads powered by the genera
9.2. STEPUP AND STEPDOWN TRANSFORMERS
235
tor from “glitches” in the main power system. Looking closely at the numbers in the SPICE analysis, we should see a correspondence between the transformer’s ratio and the two inductances. Notice how the primary inductor (l1) has 100 times more inductance than the secondary inductor (10000 H versus 100 H), and that the measured voltage stepdown ratio was 10 to 1. The winding with more inductance will have higher voltage and less current than the other. Since the two inductors are wound around the same core material in the transformer (for the most efﬁcient magnetic coupling between the two), the parameters affecting inductance for the two coils are equal except for the number of turns in each coil. If we take another look at our inductance formula, we see that inductance is proportional to the square of the number of coil turns:
L=
N2µA l L = Inductance of coil in Henrys N = Number of turns in wire coil (straight wire = 1) µ = Permeability of core material (absolute, not relative) A = Area of coil in square meters l = Average length of coil in meters
Where,
So, it should be apparent that our two inductors in the last SPICE transformer example circuit – with inductance ratios of 100:1 – should have coil turn ratios of 10:1, because 10 squared equals 100. This works out to be the same ratio we found between primary and secondary voltages and currents (10:1), so we can say as a rule that the voltage and current transformation ratio is equal to the ratio of winding turns between primary and secondary.
Stepdown transformer many turns high voltage low current few turns low voltage high current load
Figure 9.18: Stepdown transformer: (many turns :few turns). The stepup/stepdown effect of coil turn ratios in a transformer (Figure 9.18) is analogous to gear tooth ratios in mechanical gear systems, transforming values of speed and torque in much the same way: (Figure 9.19) Stepup and stepdown transformers for power distribution purposes can be gigantic in proportion to the power transformers previously shown, some units standing as tall as a home. The following photograph shows a substation transformer standing about twelve feet tall: (Figure 9.20)
.
Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS
LARGE GEAR (many teeth) SMALL GEAR (few teeth)
high torque low speed
low torque high speed
Figure 9.20: Substation transformer.236
CHAPTER 9. while stepping speed up.19: Torque reducing gear train steps torque down.
3
Electrical isolation
Aside from the ability to easily convert between different levels of voltage and current in AC and DC circuits.print ac v(3.0) i(v1) . which is the ability to couple one circuit to another without the use of direct wire connections. transformers also provide an extremely useful feature called isolation.
Voltage transformation ratio = Lsecondary Lprimary
•
9.21) v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 v2 5 0 dc 250 l1 2 0 10000 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0. ELECTRICAL ISOLATION
• REVIEW:
237
• Transformers “step up” or “step down” voltage according to the ratios of primary to secondary wire turns.3. A transformer designed to reduce voltage from primary to secondary is called a stepdown transformer.
•
N = number of turns in winding
• A transformer designed to increase voltage from primary to secondary is called a stepup transformer. We can demonstrate an application of this effect with another SPICE simulation: this time showing “ground” connections for the two circuits.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .5) i(vi1) .end
. • The transformation ratio of a transformer will be equal to the square root of its primary to secondary inductance (L) ratio.print ac v(2.ac lin 1 60 60 .9.
Voltage transformation ratio = Nsecondary Nprimary Nprimary Nsecondary
Current transformation ratio = Where. imposing a high DC voltage between one circuit and ground through the use of an additional voltage source:(Figure 9.
5) i(vi1) 6.0000 AC voltages: freq v(2) i(v1) 6.000E+01 9.000E+01 1.000E+01 9.21: Transformer isolates 10 Vac at V1 from 250 VDC at V2 .238
CHAPTER 9.0000 (5) 250.962E04
0): 250. TRANSFORMERS
(for SPICE to measure current)
1
Rbogus
2
3
Vi1 0V
4
V1 0
10 V
L1 10 kH 0 V2
L2 100 H 5 250 V 0
Rload
1 kΩ 5
Figure 9.962E01 9.975E05 freq v(3.0000
Primary winding Secondary winding
.
DC voltages referenced to ground (node (1) 0.0000 (3) (4) 250.0000 (2) 0.
There are applications where electrical isolation is needed between two AC circuit without any transformation of voltage or current levels.4. but rather isolated to the secondary side.
9. • REVIEW: • By being able to transfer power from one circuit to another without the use of interconnecting conductors between the two circuits.22: Isolation transformer isolates power out from the power line. transformers called isolation transformers having 1:1 transformation ratios are used.4
Phasing
Since transformers are essentially AC devices. even at a different frequency. It could be AC. In these instances. and the transformation of AC power from primary to secondary circuits remains the same as before. PHASING
239
SPICE shows the 250 volts DC being impressed upon the secondary circuit elements with respect to ground. it does not matter that the commonmode voltage is DC. Using our SPICE example from before. we need to be aware of the phase relationships between the primary and secondary circuits. transformers provide the useful feature of electrical isolation. (Figure 9. The impressed voltage in this example is often called a commonmode voltage because it is seen at more than one point in the circuit with reference to the common point of ground. The transformer isolates the commonmode voltage so that it is not impressed upon the primary circuit at all. we can
. and the transformer would isolate it from the primary circuit all the same. A benchtop isolation transformer is shown in Figure 9.9. • Transformers designed to provide electrical isolation without stepping voltage and current either up or down are called isolation transformers.
Figure 9. For the record. either.22.21) but as you can see there is no effect on the primary circuit (zero DC voltage) at nodes 1 and 2.
5). and the current was stepped up by a factor of 10.24) Both
. V(2).end nutmeg commands: setplot tran1 plot v(2) v(3. the voltage was stepped down by a factor of ten. (Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS
plot the waveshapes (Figure 9. V(3.23) .5m 17m .tran 0.23) for the primary and secondary circuits and see the phase relations for ourselves: spice transient analysis file for use with nutmeg: transformer v1 1 0 sin(0 15 60 0 0) rbogus1 1 2 1e12 v2 5 0 dc 250 l1 2 0 10000 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0. (Figure 9.999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 1k .
In going from primary.240
CHAPTER 9. to secondary.5) is inphase with primary voltage V(2).23: Secondary voltage V(3.5)
Figure 9. and stepped down by factor of ten.
23) waveforms are inphase in going from primary to secondary.24) and voltage (Figure 9.9. Secondary current is stepped up by a factor of ten. It would appear that both voltage and current for the two transformer windings are inphase with each other.25)
+
+ or
??? +


Figure 9. at least for our resistive load.4. the polarity of a transformer can be ambiguous.24: Primary and secondary currents are inphase.25: As a practical matter. PHASING
241
current (Figure 9. nutmeg commands: setplot tran1 plot I(L1#branch) I(L2#branch)
Figure 9. a transformer is nothing more than a set of magneticallylinked inductors. If we were to look at an unmarked transformer. After all. but it would be nice to know which way we should connect a transformer in order to ensure the proper phase relationships be kept. This is simple enough. we would have no way of knowing which way to hook it up to a circuit to get inphase (or 180o outofphase) voltage and current: (Figure 9.
. and inductors don’t usually come with polarity markings of any kind.
transformer manufacturers have come up with a sort of polarity marking standard to denote phase relationships. On the diagram will be a pair of dots similar to what is seen above. the phase shift from primary to secondary will be zero degrees.26: A pair of dots indicates like polarity. the transformer will come with some kind of schematic diagram labeling the wire leads for primary and secondary windings. the subscript numbers are supposed to represent winding polarity. but when “H” and “X” labels are used to label transformer winding wires. relative to the other winding(s). all you have to do is swap the winding connections like this: (Figure 9. In other words. the phase shift will be 180o between primary and secondary. Of course. It is called the dot convention. Typically. Sometimes dots will be omitted. If you want to reverse the phase relationship yourself. The similar placement of these dots next to the top ends of the primary and secondary windings tells us that whatever instantaneous voltage polarity seen across the primary winding will be the same as that across the secondary winding. and is nothing more than a dot placed next to each corresponding leg of a transformer winding: (Figure 9. if the dots on each winding of the transformer do not match up. the dot convention only tells you which end of each winding is which.28) • REVIEW:
. The “1” wires (H1 and X1 ) represent where the polaritymarking dots would normally be placed.27: Out of phase: primary red to dot. like this: (Figure 9. On the other hand.242
CHAPTER 9. secondary black to dot.27)
Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS
Since this is a practical concern.26)
Figure 9.
• The dot convention is a type of polarity marking for transformer windings showing which end of the winding is which.5.
. but all circuits are electrically isolated from one another.5
Winding conﬁgurations
Transformers are very versatile devices. three inductor coils share a common magnetic core. The relationship of winding turn ratios and voltage ratios seen with a single pair of mutual inductors still holds true here for multiple pairs of coils. • The phase relationships for voltage and current between primary and secondary circuits of a transformer are direct: ideally. Not only are voltages and currents of completely different magnitudes possible with such a transformer.
9. Consider this transformer circuit: (Figure 9. It is entirely possible to assemble a transformer such as the one above (one primary winding. In fact. zero phase shift. secondary red to dot. WINDING CONFIGURATIONS
243
Figure 9. two secondary windings) in which one secondary winding is a stepdown and the other is a stepup. but transformers don’t have to be made with just two sets of windings. this design of transformer was quite common in vacuum tube power supply circuits.28: In phase: primary red to dot. magnetically “coupling” or “linking” them together. The basic concept of energy transfer between mutual inductors is useful enough between a single primary and single secondary coil. relative to the other windings.29: Transformer with multiple secondaries. which were required to supply low voltage for the tubes’ ﬁlaments (typically 6 or 12 volts) and high voltage for the tubes’ plates (several hundred volts) from a nominal primary voltage of 110 volts AC. provides multiple output voltages.29)
load #1
load #2
Figure 9. Here.9.
the winding turn/voltage magnitude relationship of a normal transformer holds true for all tapped segments of windings. A tap is nothing more than a wire connection made at some point on a winding between the very ends.32) Carrying the concept of winding taps further. like Figure 9. This fact can be exploited to produce a transformer capable of multiple ratios: (Figure 9.31.244
CHAPTER 9. The transformer in Figure 9. a primary and ﬁve secondaries.”
. being hidden from view. Not surprisingly. we end up with a “variable transformer. The wires for this transformer (15 of them!) are not shown in the photograph.
load #1
load #2
Figure 9. Low voltage is required to power the ﬁlaments of vacuum tubes. TRANSFORMERS
Figure 9.30 is intended to provide both high and low voltages necessary in an electronic system using vacuum tubes. One transformer with multiple windings sufﬁces elegantly to provide all the necessary voltage levels from a single 115 V source. If electrical isolation between secondary circuits is not of great importance.31: A single tapped secondary provides multiple voltages. while high voltage is required to create the potential difference between the plate and cathode elements of each tube. a similar effect can be obtained by “tapping” a single secondary winding at multiple points along its length.30: Photograph of multiplewinding transformer with six windings.
One consumer application of the variable transformer is in speed controls for model train sets. much more efﬁcient than control using a variable resistor! Movingslide contacts are too impractical to be used in large industrial power transformer designs.5. but multipole switches and winding taps are common for voltage adjustment. where a sliding contact is moved along the length of an exposed secondary winding. Typically. able to connect with it at any point along its length. Adjustments need to be made periodically in power systems to accommodate changes in loads over months or years in time. These transformers were essentially stepdown units. the highest voltage obtainable from the secondary winding being substantially less than the primary voltage of 110 to 120 volts AC.33: A sliding contact on the secondary continuously varies the secondary voltage.33)
Variable transformer
load
Figure 9.9. WINDING CONFIGURATIONS
245
multipole switch
load
Figure 9.32: A tapped secondary using a switch to select one of many possible voltages.
. especially the train sets of the 1950’s and 1960’s. The variablesweep contact provided a simple means of voltage control with little wasted power. The effect is equivalent to having a winding tap at every turn of the winding. and these switching circuits provide a convenient means. and a switch with poles at every tap position: (Figure 9.
.35.246
CHAPTER 9. A stepdown autotransformer would look something like Figure 9. saving copper. Seeing as how we can tap any transformer winding to obtain the equivalent of several windings (albeit with loss of electrical isolation between them).35: This auto transformer steps voltage down with a single coppersaving tapped winding. and the resulting device is called an autotransformer: (Figure 9.34: This autotransformer steps voltage up with a single tapped winding. The autotransformer depicted above performs a voltage stepup function. but must be actuated only when the transformer has been deenergized (no power). Indeed this is possible.34)
Autotransformer
load
Figure 9. TRANSFORMERS
such “tap switches” are not engineered to handle fullload current. it makes sense that it should be possible to forego electrical isolation altogether and build a transformer from a single winding.
Autotransformer
load
Figure 9. sacriﬁcing isolation.
5. (Figure 9. In Figure 9.
.
"boosting"
120 V
30 V
150 V
Figure 9. the “boosting” conﬁguration. The alternative with a normal (isolated) transformer would be to either have just the right primary/secondary winding ratio made for the job or use a stepdown conﬁguration with the secondary winding connected in seriesaiding (“boosting”) or seriesopposing (“bucking”) fashion. The latter conﬁguration is popular enough to have earned itself its own name: the Variac.37: Ordinary transformer wired as an autotransformer to buck the line voltage down.36 the secondary coil’s polarity is oriented so that its voltage directly adds to the primary voltage. autotransformer windings can be tapped to provide variations in ratio. they can be made continuously variable with a sliding contact to tap the winding at any point along its length. The prime advantage of an autotransformer is that the same boosting or bucking function is obtained with only a single winding.37 the secondary coil’s polarity is oriented so that its voltage directly subtracts from the primary voltage:
"bucking"
120 V
30 V
90 V
Figure 9. ﬁne range of control by a simple twist of a knob.38) Small variacs for benchtop use are popular pieces of equipment for the electronics experimenter. being able to step household AC voltage down (or sometimes up as well) with a wide. First. Like regular transformers. and load voltages are given to illustrate how this would work. Primary. making it cheaper and lighter to manufacture than a regular (isolating) transformer having both primary and secondary windings.9. Additionally.36: Ordinary transformer wired as an autotransformer to boost the line voltage. WINDING CONFIGURATIONS
247
Autotransformers ﬁnd popular use in applications requiring a slight boost or reduction in voltage to a load. Next. In Figure 9. the “bucking” conﬁguration. secondary.
among other factors. the output voltage of a transformer varies some with varying load resistances.Efullload Efullload
(100%)
. • A Variac is a variable autotransformer. of course.
9. It can be calculated from the following formula:
Regulation percentage =
Enoload . it is good to have the secondary voltage vary as little as possible for wide variances in load current. The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer’s voltage regulation. tapped inductor coil used to step up or step down voltage like a transformer. The degree of variance is affected by the primary and secondary winding inductances. For power transformer applications. except without providing electrical isolation. intersected at many points to segment a single winding into sections.38: A variac is an autotransformer with a sliding tap. even with a constant voltage input. • REVIEW: • Transformers can be equipped with more than just a single primary and single secondary winding pair.248
CHAPTER 9. This allows for multiple stepup and/or stepdown ratios in the same device. making contact with the winding at any point along its length. has to be bare (no insulation) in the area where the arm sweeps. where the transformer is seen by the load (ideally) as a constant source of voltage. not the least of which includes winding resistance and the degree of mutual inductance (magnetic coupling) between the primary and secondary windings. • An autotransformer is a single. TRANSFORMERS
The "Variac" variable autotransformer
load
Figure 9. The winding. • Variable transformers can be made by providing a movable arm that sweeps across the length of a winding.6
Voltage regulation
As we saw in a few SPICE analyses earlier in this chapter. • Transformer windings can also be “tapped:” that is.
print ac v(3. VOLTAGE REGULATION
249
“Fullload” means the point at which the transformer is operating at maximum permissible secondary current.5) 9.990 V .” Calculating voltage regulation with these ﬁgures.000E+01
v(2) 1. we get:
Regulation percentage =
9.110E12
Output with (almost) no load
So.ac lin 1 60 60 .999 vi1 3 4 ac 0 rload 4 5 9e12 . let’s compare the output voltage with a 1 kΩ load versus a 200 Ω load (assuming that the 200 Ω load will be our “full load” condition).9. a good power transformer should exhibit
.00 volts AC: freq 6.962E+00 v(3.653E04 i(vi1) 1.9.348 V
(100%)
Regulation percentage = 6.6.5) 9. this would be considered rather poor (or “loose”) regulation for a power transformer.348 V 9.962E03 i(vi1) 4.000E+01 freq 6. Recall if you will that our constant primary voltage was 10. Now let’s take that same transformer circuit and place a load resistance of extremely high magnitude across the secondary winding to simulate a “noload” condition: (See ”transformer” spice list”) transformer v1 1 0 ac 10 sin rbogus1 1 2 1e12 rbogus2 5 0 9e12 l1 2 0 100 l2 3 5 100 k l1 l2 0.8678 %
Incidentally.5) 9.0) i(v1) .990E+00
i(v1) 2. Powering a simple resistive load like this.348E+00 i(vi1) 9. Taking our ﬁrst SPICE transformer simulation as an example.000E+01 v(3.end
freq 6.000E+01 freq 6.5) i(vi1) .674E02
Output with 1k ohm load Output with 200 ohm load
Notice how the output voltage decreases as the load gets heavier (more current).000E+01 v(3. we see that our output (secondary) voltage spans a range of 9.348 volts at the point we decided to call “full load. This operating point will be determined primarily by the winding wire size (ampacity) and the method of transformer cooling.print ac v(2.990 volts at (virtually) no load and 9.
which means the secondary winding outputs a nearly constant voltage despite signiﬁcant variations in supply (primary winding) voltage. an arc doesn’t require as much voltage to sustain itself once the air has been heated to the point of ionization. Another application is in current control for AC arc welders. These transformers are also highly tolerant
. but like the discharge lamp. and the ability to “ride through” brief losses in power by keeping a reserve of energy in its resonant tank circuit. a stepup transformer with poor voltage regulation sufﬁces nicely for the task of conditioning power to the lamp. highcurrent power for the welding process. TRANSFORMERS
a regulation percentage of less than 3%. Normally. where poor regulation is actually desired.39) In addition to blocking harmonics created by the saturated core. “Ferroresonance” is a phenomenon associated with the behavior of iron cores while operating near a point of magnetic saturation (where the core is so strongly magnetized that further increases in winding current results in little or no increase in magnetic ﬂux). Some arc welder designs provide arc current adjustment by means of a movable iron core in the transformer.250
CHAPTER 9. Inductive loads tend to create a condition of worse voltage regulation. its iron core is “stuffed full” of magnetic lines of ﬂux for a large portion of the AC cycle so that variations in supply voltage (primary winding current) have little effect on the core’s magnetic ﬂux density. Thus. where a stepup transformer is required to initially generate a high voltage (necessary to “ignite” the lamps). and provides the added beneﬁt of storing energy in the form of AC oscillations. the ferroresonant transformer is a power transformer engineered to operate in a condition of persistent core saturation. core saturation in a transformer results in distortion of the sinewave shape. a decrease of secondary voltage under high load current would be a good thing. No exposition on transformer regulation could be called complete without mention of an unusual device called a ferroresonant transformer. Moving the iron slug away from the windings reduces the strength of magnetic coupling between the windings. this resonant circuit also “ﬁlters out” harmonic frequencies generated by nonlinear (switching) loads in the secondary winding circuit and any harmonics present in the source voltage. A high voltage is desired to assist in “striking” the arc (getting it started). and the ferroresonant transformer is no exception. forming a resonant circuit tuned to the power supply frequency. This “tank circuit” serves as a ﬁlter to reject harmonics created by the core saturation. This is because discharge lamps’ voltage requirements tend to be much lower after a current has been established through the arc path. cranked in or out of the winding assembly by the operator. In this case. That is. providing “clean” power to the load. While being somewhat difﬁcult to describe without going deep into electromagnetic theory. To combat this side effect. One such case is in discharge lighting. harmonic ﬁltering between the power source and the load. ferroresonant transformers have an auxiliary secondary winding paralleled with one or more capacitors. so this analysis with purely resistive loads was a “bestcase” condition. however. which is available for sustaining output winding voltage for brief periods of input voltage loss (milliseconds’ worth of time. Ferroresonant transformers offer several features useful in AC power conditioning: constant output voltage given substantial variations in input voltage. but certainly better than nothing). (Figure 9. then the voltage is expected to drop off once the lamp begins to draw current. which diminishes noload secondary voltage and makes for poorer voltage regulation. There are some applications. which are nothing more than stepdown transformers supplying lowvoltage.
the more stable the secondary voltage and the better the regulation it will provide.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
251
AC power output AC power input
Resonant LC circuit
Figure 9.
9. that some may be brieﬂy paralleled with unsynchronized AC power sources. and are intolerant of frequency variations. generating signiﬁcant heat in the process. which means they don’t work very well when powered by small enginedriven generators having poor speed regulation. Semiconductor circuits exist to “condition” AC power as an alternative to ferroresonant devices. the practical purpose for the power dissipated is to
.7
9. • REVIEW: • Voltage regulation is the measure of how well a power transformer can maintain constant secondary voltage given a constant primary voltage and wide variance in load current. Voltages produced in the resonant winding/capacitor circuit tend to be very high. They are so tolerant. in fact.7. allowing a load to be switched from one source of power to another in a “makebeforebreak” fashion with no interruption of power on the secondary side! Unfortunately.1
Special transformers and applications
Impedance matching
Because transformers can step voltage and current to different levels.9. • A ferroresonant transformer is a special transformer designed to regulate voltage at a stable level despite wide variation in input voltage. In the case of a resistive heating element. may prioritize the ferroresonant transformer’s advantages over its disadvantages. but none can compete with this transformer in terms of sheer simplicity. of excessive loading and transient (momentary) voltage surges. they can be used to “convert” the impedance of a load to a different level. so let’s investigate what it means. The lower the percentage (closer to zero). That last phrase deserves some explanation. these devices have equally noteworthy disadvantages: they waste a lot of energy (due to hysteresis losses in the saturated core).39: Ferroresonant transformer provides voltage regulation of the output. Some applications. though. The purpose of a load (usually) is to do something productive with the power it dissipates. and because power is transferred equivalently between primary and secondary windings. necessitating expensive capacitors and presenting the service technician with very dangerous working voltages.
41.5 Ω Pload = 1000 W I=8A 125 V Rload 15.625 Ω (R=E/I) load at 125 volts. and the power dissipation would only be 250 watts (P=IE. With 62. not a 62. at different voltage and current ratings. we arrive at ﬁgures of 62. not the actual 62. not only has our stepup transformer transformed voltage and current.5). All hope is not lost. but they do so at different voltage and current levels (either 250 volts and 4 amps.
I=8A 125 V
I=4A 250 V Rload 62. The 250 volt heater would be said to be a higher impedance load than the 125 volt heater. but two loads of equal power rating are not necessarily identical.41: Stepup transformer operates 1000 watt 250 V heater from 125 V power source The ratio of the transformer’s windings provides the voltage stepup and current stepdown we need for the otherwise mismatched load to operate properly on this system. or onequarter of its rated power.5 Ω
1000 watts dissipation at the load resistor !
Figure 9. or 125 volts and 8 amps). but it has transformed impedance as well. we could operate the 250 volt heater element on the 125 volt power system like Figure 9.40: Heating elements dissipate 1000 watts.5 Ω of impedance (resistance).252
CHAPTER 9. If we desired to operate the 250 volt heater element directly on a 125 volt power system. 125 x 2). Both heaters dissipate exactly 1000 watts of power. Consider these two 1000 watt resistive heating elements: (Figure 9. though.625 Ω Pload = 1000 W
Figure 9. we would end up being disappointed. As far as the power supply “knows.5 Ω of the load itself. With a stepup transformer. If these are AC loads.625 Ω. In other words. TRANSFORMERS
heat something up. although in this case that’s all they’re composed of (no reactance). 125/62. The transformation ratio of impedance is the square of the voltage/current transformation ratio. we might refer to their opposition to current in terms of impedance rather than plain resistance.” its powering a 15. respectively. Loads are engineered to safely dissipate a certain maximum amount of power.625 Ω load impedance. and we couldn’t obtain the full rated power dissipation from the heater. Take a close look at the primary circuit ﬁgures: 125 volts at 8 amps.5 Ω and 15. The impedance of the heater and the voltage of our source would be mismatched. the same as the winding inductance ratio:
.40)
I=4A 250 V Rload 62. the current would only be 2 amps (I=E/R.5 Ω load! The voltage and current ﬁgures for the primary winding are indicative of 15. Using Ohm’s Law to determine the necessary resistance of these heating elements (R=E/I).
42) With an internal impedance of 500 Ω.5 Ω to 15. we’ll need to use a stepdown transformer: (Figure 9. Recall from our study of network analysis the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.625 Ω (a 4:1 ratio. To make this system work better. we would need a winding ratio equal to the square root of 500:8 (the square root of 62. high current) load. the ampliﬁer can only deliver full power to a load (speaker) also having 500 Ω of impedance.5:1. This is generally more of a concern in specialized electric circuits such as radio transmitter/antenna and audio ampliﬁer/speaker systems. With such a transformer in place. If an 8 Ω speaker were connected directly to the 500 Ω ampliﬁer as shown. we must be able to properly match the load impedance and source (Thevenin/Norton) impedance together.906:1). low current) supply to a low impedance (low voltage. Let’s take an audio ampliﬁer system and see how it works: (Figure 9. the speaker will load the ampliﬁer to just the right degree.
Nsecondary Nprimary
N = number of turns in winding
This concurs with our example of the 2:1 stepup transformer and the impedance ratio of 62.7. Substitute the word “impedance” for “resistance” in that deﬁnition and you have the AC version of that Theorem. the impedance mismatch would result in very poor (low peak power) performance. which is 2:1 squared). Such a load would drop higher voltage and draw less current than an 8 Ω speaker dissipating the same amount of power.43) To obtain an impedance transformation ratio of 500:8. drawing power at the correct voltage and current levels to satisfy the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem and make for the
. Additionally. Since we’re going from a high impedance (high voltage. the ampliﬁer would tend to dissipate more than its fair share of power in the form of heat trying to drive the low impedance speaker. or 7. If we’re trying to obtain theoretical maximum power dissipation from a load. we can use a transformer to match these mismatched impedances. which states that the maximum amount of power will be dissipated by a load resistance when that load resistance is equal to the Thevenin/Norton resistance of the network supplying the power.9. for it allows a load to dissipate its full rated power even if the power system is not at the proper voltage to directly do so. Impedance transformation is a highly useful ability of transformers. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
253
Voltage transformation ratio =
Nsecondary Nprimary Nprimary Nsecondary
2
Current transformation ratio =
Impedance transformation ratio =
Nsecondary Nprimary
2
Inductance ratio = Where.
.906 : 1
Figure 9.
. TRANSFORMERS
Audio amplifier Thevenin/Norton Z = 500 Ω . .
Speaker Z=8Ω
ZThevenin EThevenin 500 Ω Speaker Z=8Ω
Figure 9.254
CHAPTER 9. equivalent to .42: Ampliﬁer with impedance of 500 Ω drives 8 Ω at much less than maximum power. .43: Impedance matching transformer matches 500 Ω ampliﬁer to 8 Ω speaker for maximum efﬁciency.
impedance "matching" transformer Audio amplifier Thevenin/Norton Z = 500 Ω impedance ratio = 500 : 8 Speaker Z=8Ω winding ratio = 7. .
9.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
255
most efﬁcient power delivery to the load. The use of a transformer in this capacity is called impedance matching. Anyone who has ridden a multispeed bicycle can intuitively understand the principle of impedance matching. A human’s legs will produce maximum power when spinning the bicycle crank at a particular speed (about 60 to 90 revolution per minute). Above or below that rotational speed, human leg muscles are less efﬁcient at generating power. The purpose of the bicycle’s “gears” is to impedancematch the rider’s legs to the riding conditions so that they always spin the crank at the optimum speed. If the rider attempts to start moving while the bicycle is shifted into its “top” gear, he or she will ﬁnd it very difﬁcult to get moving. Is it because the rider is weak? No, its because the high stepup ratio of the bicycle’s chain and sprockets in that top gear presents a mismatch between the conditions (lots of inertia to overcome) and their legs (needing to spin at 6090 RPM for maximum power output). On the other hand, selecting a gear that is too low will enable the rider to get moving immediately, but limit the top speed they will be able to attain. Again, is the lack of speed an indication of weakness in the bicyclist’s legs? No, its because the lower speed ratio of the selected gear creates another type of mismatch between the conditions (low load) and the rider’s legs (losing power if spinning faster than 90 RPM). It is much the same with electric power sources and loads: there must be an impedance match for maximum system efﬁciency. In AC circuits, transformers perform the same matching function as the sprockets and chain (“gears”) on a bicycle to match otherwise mismatched sources and loads. Impedance matching transformers are not fundamentally different from any other type of transformer in construction or appearance. A small impedancematching transformer (about two centimeters in width) for audiofrequency applications is shown in the following photograph: (Figure 9.44)
Figure 9.44: Audio frequency impedance matching transformer. Another impedancematching transformer can be seen on this printed circuit board, in the upper right corner, to the immediate left of resistors R2 and R1 . It is labeled “T1”: (Figure 9.45)
256
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
Figure 9.45: Printed circuit board mounted audio impedance matching transformer, top right.
9.7.2
Potential transformers
Transformers can also be used in electrical instrumentation systems. Due to transformers’ ability to step up or step down voltage and current, and the electrical isolation they provide, they can serve as a way of connecting electrical instrumentation to highvoltage, high current power systems. Suppose we wanted to accurately measure the voltage of a 13.8 kV power system (a very common power distribution voltage in American industry): (Figure 9.46)
highvoltage power source
13.8 kV
load
Figure 9.46: Direct measurement of high voltage by a voltmeter is a potential safety hazard. Designing, installing, and maintaining a voltmeter capable of directly measuring 13,800 volts AC would be no easy task. The safety hazard alone of bringing 13.8 kV conductors into an instrument panel would be severe, not to mention the design of the voltmeter itself. However, by using a precision stepdown transformer, we can reduce the 13.8 kV down to a safe level of voltage at a constant ratio, and isolate it from the instrument connections, adding an additional level of safety to the metering system: (Figure 9.47)
9.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
257
highvoltage power source
13.8 kV
load
fuse
fuse precision stepdown ratio
PT grounded for safety
V 0120 VAC voltmeter range
Figure 9.47: Instrumentation application:“Potential transformer” precisely scales dangerous high voltage to a safe value applicable to a conventional voltmeter. Now the voltmeter reads a precise fraction, or ratio, of the actual system voltage, its scale set to read as though it were measuring the voltage directly. The transformer keeps the instrument voltage at a safe level and electrically isolates it from the power system, so there is no direct connection between the power lines and the instrument or instrument wiring. When used in this capacity, the transformer is called a Potential Transformer, or simply PT. Potential transformers are designed to provide as accurate a voltage stepdown ratio as possible. To aid in precise voltage regulation, loading is kept to a minimum: the voltmeter is made to have high input impedance so as to draw as little current from the PT as possible. As you can see, a fuse has been connected in series with the PTs primary winding, for safety and ease of disconnecting the PT from the circuit. A standard secondary voltage for a PT is 120 volts AC, for fullrated power line voltage. The standard voltmeter range to accompany a PT is 150 volts, fullscale. PTs with custom winding ratios can be manufactured to suit any application. This lends itself well to industry standardization of the actual voltmeter instruments themselves, since the PT will be sized to step the system voltage down to this standard instrument level.
9.7.3
Current transformers
Following the same line of thinking, we can use a transformer to step down current through a power line so that we are able to safely and easily measure high system currents with inexpensive ammeters. Of course, such a transformer would be connected in series with the power line, like (Figure 9.48). Note that while the PT is a stepdown device, the Current Transformer (or CT) is a stepup device (with respect to voltage), which is what is needed to step down the power line current. Quite often, CTs are built as donutshaped devices through which the power line conductor is run, the power line itself acting as a singleturn primary winding: (Figure 9.49) Some CTs are made to hinge open, allowing insertion around a power conductor without
258
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
grounded for 05 A ammeter range safety A Instrument application: the "Current Transformer" CT
13.8 kV
load
fuse
fuse precision stepdown ratio
PT grounded for safety
V 0120 VAC voltmeter range
Figure 9.48: Instrumentation application: “Currrent transformer” steps high current down to a value applicable to a conventional ammeter.
Figure 9.49: Current conductor to be measured is threaded through the opening. Scaled down current is available on wire leads.
9.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
259
disturbing the conductor at all. The industry standard secondary current for a CT is a range of 0 to 5 amps AC. Like PTs, CTs can be made with custom winding ratios to ﬁt almost any application. Because their “full load” secondary current is 5 amps, CT ratios are usually described in terms of fullload primary amps to 5 amps, like this:
600 : 5 ratio (for measuring up to 600 A line current) 100 : 5 ratio (for measuring up to 100 A line current) 1k : 5 ratio (for measuring up to 1000 A line current)
The “donut” CT shown in the photograph has a ratio of 50:5. That is, when the conductor through the center of the torus is carrying 50 amps of current (AC), there will be 5 amps of current induced in the CT’s winding. Because CTs are designed to be powering ammeters, which are lowimpedance loads, and they are wound as voltage stepup transformers, they should never, ever be operated with an opencircuited secondary winding. Failure to heed this warning will result in the CT producing extremely high secondary voltages, dangerous to equipment and personnel alike. To facilitate maintenance of ammeter instrumentation, shortcircuiting switches are often installed in parallel with the CT’s secondary winding, to be closed whenever the ammeter is removed for service: (Figure 9.50)
power conductor CT ground connection (for safety)
current
close switch BEFORE disconnecting ammeter!
05 A meter movement range
Figure 9.50: Shortcircuit switch allows ammeter to be removed from an active current transformer circuit. Though it may seem strange to intentionally shortcircuit a power system component, it is perfectly proper and quite necessary when working with current transformers.
9.7.4
Air core transformers
Another kind of special transformer, seen often in radiofrequency circuits, is the air core transformer. (Figure 9.51) True to its name, an air core transformer has its windings wrapped around a nonmagnetic form, usually a hollow tube of some material. The degree of coupling (mutual inductance) between windings in such a transformer is many times less than that
260
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
of an equivalent ironcore transformer, but the undesirable characteristics of a ferromagnetic core (eddy current losses, hysteresis, saturation, etc.) are completely eliminated. It is in highfrequency applications that these effects of iron cores are most problematic.
(a)
(b)
Figure 9.51: Air core transformers may be wound on cylindrical (a) or toroidal (b) forms. Center tapped primary with secondary (a). Biﬁlar winding on toroidal form (b). The inside tapped solenoid winding, (Figure (a) 9.51), without the over winding, could match unequal impedances when DC isolation is not required. When isolation is required the over winding is added over one end of the main winding. Air core transformers are used at radio frequencies when iron core losses are too high. Frequently air core transformers are paralleled with a capacitor to tune it to resonance. The over winding is connected between a radio antenna and ground for one such application. The secondary is tuned to resonance with a variable capacitor. The output may be taken from the tap point for ampliﬁcation or detection. Small millimeter size air core transformers are used in radio receivers. The largest radio transmitters may use meter sized coils. Unshielded air core solenoid transformers are mounted at right angles to each other to prevent stray coupling. Stray coupling is minimized when the transformer is wound on a toroid form. (Figure (b) 9.51) Toroidal air core transformers also show a higher degree of coupling, particularly for biﬁlar windings. Biﬁlar windings are wound from a slightly twisted pair of wires. This implies a 1:1 turns ratio. Three or four wires may be grouped for 1:2 and other integral ratios. Windings do not have to be biﬁlar. This allows arbitrary turns ratios. However, the degree of coupling suffers. Toroidal air core transformers are rare except for VHF (Very High Frequency) work. Core materials other than air such as powdered iron or ferrite are preferred for lower radio frequencies.
9.7.5
Tesla Coil
One notable example of an aircore transformer is the Tesla Coil, named after the Serbian electrical genius Nikola Tesla, who was also the inventor of the rotating magnetic ﬁeld AC motor, polyphase AC power systems, and many elements of radio technology. The Tesla Coil is a resonant, highfrequency stepup transformer used to produce extremely high voltages. One of Tesla’s dreams was to employ his coil technology to distribute electric power without the need for wires, simply broadcasting it in the form of radio waves which could be received and conducted to loads by means of antennas. The basic schematic for a Tesla Coil is shown in Figure 9.52.
9.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
261
discharge terminal "Tesla Coil"
Figure 9.52: Tesla Coil: A few heavy primary turns, many secondary turns. The capacitor, in conjunction with the transformer’s primary winding, forms a tank circuit. The secondary winding is wound in close proximity to the primary, usually around the same nonmagnetic form. Several options exist for “exciting” the primary circuit, the simplest being a highvoltage, lowfrequency AC source and spark gap: (Figure 9.53)
HIGH voltage! HIGH frequency! RFC
high voltage low frequency RFC
spark gap
Figure 9.53: System level diagram of Tesla coil with spark gap drive. The purpose of the highvoltage, lowfrequency AC power source is to “charge” the primary tank circuit. When the spark gap ﬁres, its low impedance acts to complete the capacitor/primary coil tank circuit, allowing it to oscillate at its resonant frequency. The “RFC” inductors are “Radio Frequency Chokes,” which act as high impedances to prevent the AC source from interfering with the oscillating tank circuit. The secondary side of the Tesla coil transformer is also a tank circuit, relying on the parasitic (stray) capacitance existing between the discharge terminal and earth ground to complement the secondary winding’s inductance. For optimum operation, this secondary tank circuit is tuned to the same resonant frequency as the primary circuit, with energy exchanged not only between capacitors and inductors during resonant oscillation, but also backandforth between
262
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
primary and secondary windings. The visual results are spectacular: (Figure 9.54)
Figure 9.54: High voltage high frequency discharge from Tesla coil. Tesla Coils ﬁnd application primarily as novelty devices, showing up in high school science fairs, basement workshops, and the occasional low budget scienceﬁction movie. It should be noted that Tesla coils can be extremely dangerous devices. Burns caused by radiofrequency (“RF”) current, like all electrical burns, can be very deep, unlike skin burns caused by contact with hot objects or ﬂames. Although the highfrequency discharge of a Tesla coil has the curious property of being beyond the “shock perception” frequency of the human nervous system, this does not mean Tesla coils cannot hurt or even kill you! I strongly advise seeking the assistance of an experienced Tesla coil experimenter if you would embark on building one yourself.
9.7.6
Saturable reactors
So far, we’ve explored the transformer as a device for converting different levels of voltage, current, and even impedance from one circuit to another. Now we’ll take a look at it as a completely different kind of device: one that allows a small electrical signal to exert control over a much larger quantity of electrical power. In this mode, a transformer acts as an ampliﬁer.
9.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
263
The device I’m referring to is called a saturablecore reactor, or simply saturable reactor. Actually, it is not really a transformer at all, but rather a special kind of inductor whose inductance can be varied by the application of a DC current through a second winding wound around the same iron core. Like the ferroresonant transformer, the saturable reactor relies on the principle of magnetic saturation. When a material such as iron is completely saturated (that is, all its magnetic domains are lined up with the applied magnetizing force), additional increases in current through the magnetizing winding will not result in further increases of magnetic ﬂux. Now, inductance is the measure of how well an inductor opposes changes in current by developing a voltage in an opposing direction. The ability of an inductor to generate this opposing voltage is directly connected with the change in magnetic ﬂux inside the inductor resulting from the change in current, and the number of winding turns in the inductor. If an inductor has a saturated core, no further magnetic ﬂux will result from further increases in current, and so there will be no voltage induced in opposition to the change in current. In other words, an inductor loses its inductance (ability to oppose changes in current) when its core becomes magnetically saturated. If an inductor’s inductance changes, then its reactance (and impedance) to AC current changes as well. In a circuit with a constant voltage source, this will result in a change in current: (Figure 9.55)
L load I
Figure 9.55: If L changes in inductance, ZL will correspondingly change, thus changing the circuit current. A saturable reactor capitalizes on this effect by forcing the core into a state of saturation with a strong magnetic ﬁeld generated by current through another winding. The reactor’s “power” winding is the one carrying the AC load current, and the “control” winding is one carrying a DC current strong enough to drive the core into saturation: (Figure 9.56) The strangelooking transformer symbol shown in the above schematic represents a saturablecore reactor, the upper winding being the DC control winding and the lower being the “power” winding through which the controlled AC current goes. Increased DC control current produces more magnetic ﬂux in the reactor core, driving it closer to a condition of saturation, thus decreasing the power winding’s inductance, decreasing its impedance, and increasing current to the load. Thus, the DC control current is able to exert control over the AC current delivered to the load. The circuit shown would work, but it would not work very well. The ﬁrst problem is the natural transformer action of the saturable reactor: AC current through the power winding will induce a voltage in the control winding, which may cause trouble for the DC power source.
264
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
saturable reactor
load I
Figure 9.56: DC, via the control winding, saturates the core. Thus, modulating the power winding inductance, impedance, and current. Also, saturable reactors tend to regulate AC power only in one direction: in one half of the AC cycle, the mmf ’s from both windings add; in the other half, they subtract. Thus, the core will have more ﬂux in it during one half of the AC cycle than the other, and will saturate ﬁrst in that cycle half, passing load current more easily in one direction than the other. Fortunately, both problems can be overcome with a little ingenuity: (Figure 9.57)
load I
Figure 9.57: Out of phase DC control windings allow symmetrical of control AC. Notice the placement of the phasing dots on the two reactors: the power windings are “in phase” while the control windings are “out of phase.” If both reactors are identical, any voltage induced in the control windings by load current through the power windings will cancel out to zero at the battery terminals, thus eliminating the ﬁrst problem mentioned. Furthermore, since the DC control current through both reactors produces magnetic ﬂuxes in different directions through the reactor cores, one reactor will saturate more in one cycle of the AC
9.7. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
265
power while the other reactor will saturate more in the other, thus equalizing the control action through each halfcycle so that the AC power is “throttled” symmetrically. This phasing of control windings can be accomplished with two separate reactors as shown, or in a single reactor design with intelligent layout of the windings and core. Saturable reactor technology has even been miniaturized to the circuitboard level in compact packages more generally known as magnetic ampliﬁers. I personally ﬁnd this to be fascinating: the effect of ampliﬁcation (one electrical signal controlling another), normally requiring the use of physically fragile vacuum tubes or electrically “fragile” semiconductor devices, can be realized in a device both physically and electrically rugged. Magnetic ampliﬁers do have disadvantages over their more fragile counterparts, namely size, weight, nonlinearity, and bandwidth (frequency response), but their utter simplicity still commands a certain degree of appreciation, if not practical application. Saturablecore reactors are less commonly known as “saturablecore inductors” or transductors.
9.7.7
ScottT transformer
Nikola Tesla’s original polyphase power system was based on simple to build 2phase components. However, as transmission distances increased, the more transmission line efﬁcient 3phase system became more prominent. Both 2φ and 3φ components coexisted for a number of years. The ScottT transformer connection allowed 2φ and 3φ components like motors and alternators to be interconnected. Yamamoto and Yamaguchi: In 1896, General Electric built a 35.5 km (22 mi) threephase transmission line operated at 11 kV to transmit power to Buffalo, New York, from the Niagara Falls Project. The twophase generated power was changed to threephase by the use of ScottT transformations. [1]
3phase23 = V∠0° 3phase31 = V∠120° 3phase12 = V∠240°
Y1 86.6% tap
R3 2phase2 = V∠90°
R4 50% tap Y2 R2 T1 T2 Y3 2phase1 = V∠0° R1
Figure 9.58: ScottT transformer converts 2φ to 3φ, or vice versa.
R4 + + Y1 R1
A
Y2 R2
T1 + − + − V12
V2P1 C
VDB = 0.
.6% of 90o to 50% of 180o we get 120o .5V(1+j0)
V12 = V2P1 = V∠0° V31 = (0. Subtracting 86. and 1 240o = 0. V31 : V12=V2P1 =Vsin(θ+0°)=V∠0°=V(1+j0) (1) KVL: V12 +VAC = 0 (2) KVL: V31 VCB +VBD = 0 (3) KVL: V23 = VDB . The primaries of both transformers are connected to the 2φ voltages.5+j0.866 90o . One end of the T2 86. the other end is connected to the T1 secondary center tap. along with input 1 0o (a). V23 .866V2P2 = 0.5(1+j0)+0. Figure 9. subtracted at V23 in the KVL equations.866)=V∠−120°=V∠240°
Figure 9.59.866 respectively.5)V∠0°0.5 0o . Application of 2φ Niagara generator power produced a 3φ output for the more efﬁcient 3φ transmission line.866(0+j1))=V(0. This 0o is vectorially subtracted from T2 secondary voltage due to the KVL equations V31 .
D V23
+ −
T2 Y3 +
R3 + V31 + − + V2P2 −
Given two 90° phased voltages: V2P1 =Vsin(θ+0°)=V∠0°=V(1+j0) V2P2 =Vsin(θ+90°)=Vcos(θ)=V∠90°=V(0+j1) Derive the three phase voltages V12 . V23 .5V2P1 = 0.0. to keep track of the Kirchhoff voltage loop polarities. At (b) the vectors are scaled by transformers T1 and T2 to 0.866)=V∠120° V23 =(0. Both ends of the T1 secondary are the other two 3φ connections.60 we graphically show the 2φ vectors at (a).266
CHAPTER 9.50% +B 
.6% tap. This 0. one of the 3φ voltages is identical to a 2φ voltage due to the 1:1 transformer T1 ratio.866V2P 2 is added at V31 .58.5)V∠0°+0.5 and 0. VP 12 = V2P 1 .5V∠0° = 0. TRANSFORMERS
The ScottT transformer set.6% . More common these days is the application of 3φ power to produce a 2φ output for driving an old 2φ motor. we use vectors in both polar and complex notation to prove that the ScottT converts a pair of 2φ voltages to 3φ. In Figure 9.866V2P 2 due to the 86.866 90o . The T2 secondary voltage is 0.VBA
86.5V2P 1 on the secondary ends. consists of a center tapped transformer T1 and an 86.5+j0. The bottom line is when we add 86.866V(0+j1) VCB = VBA = 0. First. Subtracting 0o is equivalent to adding 180o . The three output phases are 1 120o and 1 240o from (c). At (c) 1 120o = 0.6% tapped transformer T2 on the 3φ side of the circuit. We show “DC” polarities all over this AC only circuit.6% of 90o from 50% of 180o yields 120o or 240o .5(1+j0)0. Keep in mind that this 2nd phase of the 2φ is 90o . The T1 center tapped secondary produces opposite polarities of 0.866V∠90° = 0.866(0+j1))=V(0. In Figure 9.866V∠90°=V(0.5 0o + 0.866V∠90°=V(0.6% secondary winding is a 3φ output.59: ScottT transformer 2φ to 3φ conversion equations.VBA = 0 (1) KVL: V12 = VAC (2) KVL: V31 = VCB +VBD (3) KVL: V23 = VDB .
SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS AND APPLICATIONS
0. The excitation voltage is in the range of 0.866V∠90° 1∠90° 1∠0° 0.
9. and inphase with V3 .7.61: LVDT: linear variable differential transformer. 1∠90° yields 1∠−120° . Units are available for measuring displacement over a distance of a fraction of a millimeter to a half a meter. As the core is moved toward the top winding. Moving the slug down from the center position increases V13 . In practice leakage inductance prevents the null from dropping all the way to 0 V.5∠0° 0. Theoretically. A ferrite core is suitable at these frequencies.8
Linear Variable Differential Transformer
A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) has an AC driven primary wound between two secondaries on a cylindrical air core form. With a centered slug. If the core is moved toward the bottom winding.1∠240°
Figure 9. bottom winding. It is extended outside the body by an nonmagnetic rod. Note that it is inphase with with V1 .60: Graphical explanation of equations in Figure 9. and 180o out of phase with V3 .7.5∠0° 1∠240° 1∠120°
267
a
0.9. However. The LVDT is a displacement or distance measuring transducer. the voltage across this coil increases due to increased coupling. with a 180o phase reversal in passing the center. Moving the slug from top to bottom shows a minimum at the center point. a centered slug yields equal voltages across both coils.59. the top winding. it is 180o out of phase with with V1 .
. the seriesopposing wired secondaries cancel yielding V13 = 0.61) A movable ferromagnetic slug converts displacement to a variable voltage by changing the coupling between the driven primary and secondary windings. the top winding.866V∠90°
b
c
1∠0°. the voltage on this coil increases as the voltage decreases across the top coil. LVDT’s are rugged and dirt resistant compared to linear optical encoders. Moving the slug up increases V13 .5 to 10 VAC at a frequency of 1 to 200 Khz. bottom winding. while the voltage on the bottom coil decreases.
up V1 V1 V2 V13 V3 V3 center down
Figure 9. (Figure 9.
TRANSFORMERS
• Transformers can be used to transform impedance as well as voltage and current. in the business of practical transformer design. transformers are rated for certain levels of primary and secondary winding voltage and current. it is called impedance matching. but each winding has to be sufﬁciently insulated from the other in order to maintain electrical isolation between windings. transformers must be well designed in order to achieve acceptable power coupling. For example. • An aircore transformer is one lacking a ferromagnetic core. though the current rating is usually derived from a voltamp (VA) rating assigned to the transformer. aircore. • A Current Transformer (CT) is another special instrument transformer designed to step down the current through a power line to a safe level for an ammeter to measure. the ideal transformer would have to be inﬁnitely large and heavy to meet these design goals. the magnetic core can be saturated.
9. stepup transformer designed to produce very high AC voltages at high frequency. the inductance of which can be controlled by the DC current through a second winding around the same core.8. Respecting these limitations. and wire thick enough to handle any amount of current. When this is done to improve power transfer to a load. • A Tesla Coil is a resonant.268 • REVIEW:
CHAPTER 9. winding conductor insulation is a concern where high voltages are encountered. Additionally. • A saturable reactor is a special type of inductor. is a distance measuring device. also known as an LVDT. perfectly sinusoidal exciting current. • A linear variable differential transformer. This means the winding conductors must be made of the proper gauge wire to avoid any heating problems. • A Potential Transformer (PT) is a special instrument transformer designed to provide a precise voltage stepdown ratio for voltmeters measuring high power system voltages. An ideal transformer would have perfect coupling (no leakage inductance). • A ScottT transformer converts 3φ power to 2φ power and vice versa. decreasing the inductance of the power winding in a controlled fashion.1
Practical considerations
Power capacity
As has already been observed. perfect voltage regulation. and low exciting current distortion. Also.8
9. no hysteresis or eddy current losses. take a stepdown transformer with
. Thus. Unfortunately. It has a movable ferromagnetic core to vary the coupling between the excited primary and a pair of secondaries. as they often are in stepup and stepdown power distribution transformers. Not only do the windings have to be well insulated from the iron core. tight voltage regulation. With enough DC current. transformers must be designed to carry the expected values of primary and secondary winding current without any trouble. compromises must be made.
but not as good as the copper or aluminum from which wire windings are typically made. There is. but this is typically seen on small transformers. which is resistive power dissipation due to the passage of induced currents through the iron of the core. modern power transformer designs typically exceed 95% efﬁciency. of course.8. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
269
a primary voltage rating of 120 volts. The photograph of (Figure 9. It is good to know where some of this lost power goes. Large transformers are almost always rated in terms of winding voltage and VA or kVA. In order to maximize the eddy current effect. Iron is a fair conductor of electricity. This phenomenon is so pronounced that it is often exploited as a means of heating ferrous (ironcontaining) materials.
9.8.62) shows an “induction heating” unit raising the temperature of a large pipe section.333 A (maximum primary winding current)
= 20. they do so with a minimum of loss. and weight. Perhaps the most signiﬁcant of these “core losses” is eddycurrent loss. The box units at the right of the picture produce the highfrequency AC and control the amount of current in the wires to stabilize the pipe temperature at a predetermined “setpoint. Consequently. however. power lost due to resistance of the wire windings.9. a secondary voltage rating of 48 volts. we have a source of inefﬁciency in the transformer that is difﬁcult to eliminate. Increasing the gauge of the winding wire is one way to minimize this loss. highfrequency alternating current is used rather than power line frequency (60 Hz). there will be currents induced in the iron just as there are currents induced in the secondary windings from the alternating magnetic ﬁeld. there will always be power dissipated in the form of heat through the resistance of currentcarrying conductors. and what causes it to be lost. These induced currents – as described by the perpendicularity clause of Faraday’s Law – tend to circulate through the crosssection of the core perpendicularly to the primary winding turns.”
. Unless superconducting wires are used. Resistive losses aside. Hence. Because transformers require such long lengths of wire. Loops of wire covered by hightemperature insulation encircle the pipe’s circumference. size. these “eddy currents” must overcome signiﬁcant electrical resistance as they circulate through the core. and a VA rating of 1 kVA (1000 VA). The maximum winding currents can be determined as such:
1000 VA 120 V 1000 VA 48 V
= 8. they dissipate power in the form of heat. the bulk of transformer power loss is due to magnetic effects in the core. Because iron is a conductor of electricity as well as being an excellent “conductor” of magnetic ﬂux. As it was stated earlier. but only with substantial increases in cost. this loss can be a signiﬁcant factor. inducing eddy currents within the pipe wall by electromagnetic induction.2
Energy losses
When transformers transfer power. Their circular motion gives them their unusual name: like eddies in a stream of water that circulate rather than move in straight lines.833 A (maximum secondary winding current)
Sometimes windings will bear current ratings in amps. In overcoming the resistance offered by the iron.
so transformers designed to run on higherfrequency power (such as 400 Hz.62: Induction heating: Primary insulated winding induces current into lossy iron pipe (secondary). The main strategy in mitigating these wasteful eddy currents in transformer cores is to form the iron core in sheets.
. each sheet covered with an insulating varnish so that the core is divided up into thin slices.63: Dividing the iron core into thin insulated laminations minimizes eddy current loss. The result is very little width in the core for eddy currents to circulate in: (Figure 9. This has the undesirable effect of increasing the manufacturing cost of the transformer. used in many military and aircraft applications) must use thinner laminations to keep the losses down to a respectable minimum. Laminated cores like the one shown here are standard in almost all lowfrequency transformers. Recall from the photograph of the transformer cut in half that the iron core was composed of many thin sheets rather than one solid piece. Eddy current losses increase with frequency. TRANSFORMERS
Figure 9.270
CHAPTER 9.63)
solid iron core "eddy" current
laminated iron core
Figure 9.
Another “core loss” is that of magnetic hysteresis.9. As we’ve seen in earlier chapters. the effect of having capacitance along with the windings’ designed inductance gives transformers the ability to resonate at a particular frequency. Transformer energy losses tend to worsen with increasing frequency. one would think excessive frequency would never pose a problem.3
Stray capacitance and inductance
Aside from power ratings and power losses. and this capability is sometimes denoted with a “K factor” rating. and making sure other devices’ magnetic ﬂux is shielded from the transformer core) is another concern shared both by inductors and transformers. Unfortunately it does.8. and designing the core for minimum ﬂux density (large crosssectional area). eddy currents and hysteresis effects becoming more severe. The skin effect within winding conductors reduces the available crosssectional area for electron ﬂow. Powdered iron cores are often found in transformers handling radiofrequency currents.
9. In power systems. transformers often harbor other undesirable limitations which circuit designers must be made aware of. This type of loss can be mitigated through good core material selection (choosing a core alloy with low hysteresis. nonsinusoidal waveforms are equivalent to additive series of multiple sinusoidal waveforms at different amplitudes and frequencies. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
271
Another. Magnetic core losses are also exaggerated with higher frequencies. We’ve already seen the detrimental effects of leakage inductance on voltage regulation with SPICE simulations
. Closely related to the issue of ﬂux containment is leakage inductance. In most power distribution systems where the line frequency is very stable. turn to turn (in a single winding). these granules of iron are individually coated in an electrically insulating material. All ferromagnetic materials tend to retain some degree of magnetization after exposure to an external magnetic ﬁeld. Like the lamination sheets. as evidenced by a “thin” B/H hysteresis curve). they can cause severe transformer overheating. Also. transformers of signiﬁcant size are designed to operate efﬁciently in a limited range of frequencies. than the design frequency of the transformer.” and it takes a certain investment in energy to overcome this opposition to change every time the magnetic ﬁeld produced by the primary winding changes polarity (twice per AC cycle). This tendency to stay magnetized is called “hysteresis. For this reason. and winding to core. Flux containment (making sure a transformer’s magnetic ﬂux doesn’t escape so as to interfere with another device. deﬁnitely a design concern in signal applications where the applied frequency may reach this point (usually the resonant frequency of a power transformer is well beyond the frequency of the AC power it was designed to operate on). which makes the core nonconductive except for within the width of each granule. Usually this capacitance is of no concern in a power application. in the form of harmonics created by nonlinear loads. thereby increasing effective resistance as the frequency goes up and creating more power lost through resistive dissipation. similar technique for minimizing eddy current losses which works better for highfrequency applications is to make the core out of iron powder instead of thin iron sheets. these other frequencies are wholenumber multiples of the fundamental (line) frequency. but small signal applications (especially those of high frequency) may not tolerate this quirk well. Power transformers can be engineered to handle certain levels of power system harmonics. In signiﬁcant measure. meaning that they will always be higher.8. Like their simpler counterparts – inductors – transformers exhibit capacitance due to the insulation dielectric between conductors: from winding to winding. not lower.
creating harmonics in the secondary winding’s output. discharge lighting circuits require a stepup transformer with “loose” (poor) voltage regulation to ensure reduced voltage after the establishment of an arc through the lamp. This results in a severely cropped sinewave ﬂux waveform. the more current drawn by the load. at voltage levels well below peak. Because leakage inductance is equivalent to an inductance connected in series with the transformer’s winding. Remember that ferromagnetic materials cannot support inﬁnite magnetic ﬂux densities: they tend to “saturate” at a certain level (dictated by the material and core dimensions). The core is designed to saturate quickly and sharply.64: Voltage and ﬂux waveforms for a peaking transformer. The resulting leakage ﬂux will produce leakage inductance. the less voltage available at the secondary winding terminals. One way to meet this design criterion is to engineer the transformer with ﬂux leakage paths for magnetic ﬂux to bypass the secondary winding(s). good voltage regulation is desired in transformer design. it manifests itself as a series impedance with the load. Special transformers known as peaking transformers exploit this principle to produce brief voltage pulses near the peaks of the source voltage waveform. the voltage induced in the secondary winding will no longer match the waveshape as the voltage powering the primary coil. Thus. but there are exceptional applications.
9.8. As was stated before.
. Usually. TRANSFORMERS
early in this chapter. As we discussed before. and secondary voltage pulses only when the ﬂux is changing (below saturation levels): (Figure 9. the overloaded transformer will distort the waveshape from primary to secondary windings.4
Core saturation
Transformers are also constrained in their performance by the magnetic ﬂux limitations of the core.272
CHAPTER 9. When a transformer’s primary winding is overloaded from excessive applied voltage. we must be mindful of the saturation limits of the core.64)
ep = primary voltage
es = secondary voltage
Φ = magnetic flux
es ep Φ
Figure 9. harmonic content in AC power systems typically causes problems. In other words. For ferromagnetic core transformers. meaning that further increases in magnetic ﬁeld force (mmf) do not result in proportional increases in magnetic ﬁeld ﬂux (Φ). the core ﬂux may reach saturation levels during peak moments of the AC sinewave cycle. which will in turn produce the poor regulation needed for discharge lighting. If this happens.
65)
e 60 Hz
Φ
e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux Φ e 50 Hz
Figure 9. Yet another cause of transformer saturation is the presence of DC current in the primary winding. a voltage waveform reaching the same peak value. For example. Since each halfcycle of the 50 Hz waveform accumulates more area between it and the zero line of the graph than the 60 Hz waveform will – and we know that the magnetic ﬂux is the integral of the voltage – the ﬂux will attain higher values in Figure 9. In this case. the voltage waveform is the derivative of the ﬂux waveform. If we take the opposite perspective.66) Mathematically. This is true even if the source voltage is the same as before. but for longer periods of time. Thus.8. but taking a longer amount of time to complete each halfcycle. this is another example of calculus in action. but for longer periods of time. (Figure 9. and the ﬂux waveform is the integral of the voltage waveform.9. Because the voltage is proportional to the ﬂux’s rateofchange. the ﬂux must reach greater peak levels than before in order to produce the same opposing voltage needed to balance against the source voltage.65: Magnetic ﬂux is higher in a transformer core driven by 50 Hz as compared to 60 Hz for the same voltage. it will climb to a greater peak value.66. (Figure 9. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
273
Another cause of abnormal transformer core saturation is operation at frequencies lower than normal. Since instantaneous winding voltage is proportional to the instantaneous magnetic ﬂux’s rate of change in a transformer. we may call the original waveform the integral of the derivative waveform. demands that the ﬂux maintain the same rate of change as before. The integral of any mathematical function is proportional to the area accumulated underneath the curve of that function. though. and relate the original waveform to its derivative. we say that the voltage waveform is the derivative of the ﬂux waveform. Any amount of DC voltage dropped across the primary winding of a transformer will
. “derivative” being that calculus operation deﬁning one mathematical function (waveform) in terms of the rateofchange of another. if a power transformer designed to operate at 60 Hz is forced to operate at 50 Hz instead. if the ﬂux has to climb at the same rate as before.
core saturation is a very undesirable effect.
cause additional magnetic ﬂux in the core. engineering the core for low ﬂux densities provides a safe margin between the normal ﬂux peaks and the core saturation limits to accommodate occasional.67)
saturation limit flux centerline 60 Hz e Φ
saturation limit
Figure 9. shifts the waveform peaks toward the upper saturation limit. (Figure 9.67: DC in primary.66: Flux changing at the same rate rises to a higher level at 50 Hz than at 60 Hz. Also.274
CHAPTER 9.
. For most transformers. which is good because it makes for less distortion in the magnetization current waveform. TRANSFORMERS
e 60 Hz Φ less area less height
e 50 Hz Φ more area more height
Figure 9. abnormal conditions such as frequency variation and DC offset. and it is avoided through good design: engineering the windings and core so that magnetic ﬂux densities remain well below the saturation levels. This additional ﬂux “bias” or “offset” will push the alternating ﬂux waveform closer to saturation in one halfcycle than the other. This ensures that the relationship between mmf and Φ is more linear throughout the ﬂux cycle.
and the mmf is proportional to winding current. experiencing zero rateofchange (dΦ/dt = 0 and di/dt = 0). In order for the transformer to create an opposing voltage drop to balance against this applied source voltage.8.8. As the voltage builds to its positive peak.69) Both core ﬂux and coil current start from zero and build up to the same peak values experienced during continuous operation. the ﬂux and current levels were at their negative peaks when voltage was at its zero point. the voltage waveform is the derivative of the ﬂux waveform. and both will be lagging the voltage waveform by 90o :
e = voltage e
Φ = magnetic flux Φ i
i = coil current
Figure 9. In a continuouslyoperating transformer.5
Inrush current
When a transformer is initially connected to a source of AC voltage. Thus. between continuousmode operation and the sudden starting condition assumed in this scenario: during continuous operation. the current waveform will be inphase with the ﬂux waveform. however. these two waveforms are phaseshifted by 90o . We know that the rate of change of instantaneous ﬂux in a transformer core is proportional to the instantaneous voltage drop across the primary winding.9. Let us suppose that the primary winding of a transformer is suddenly connected to an AC voltage source at the exact moment in time when the instantaneous voltage is at its positive peak value. but actually no more rapidly than under normal conditions: (Figure 9. (Figure 9. (Figure 9. The result is that winding current increases rapidly. lags applied voltage by 90o . there is no “surge” or “inrush” or current in this scenario. in a transformer that has been sitting idle. During continuous operation (when the transformer has been powered for quite some time).68: Continuous steadystate operation: Magnetic ﬂux. although transformer inrush is caused by a different phenomenon. as stated before. a magnetic ﬂux of rapidly increasing value must be generated. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
275
9.72) This is analogous to the inrush current exhibited by an electric motor that is started up by sudden connection to a power source.69) Alternatively. Or. like current. the ﬂux and current waveforms build to their maximum positive ratesofchange. this is the point in time where both ﬂux and winding current are at their negative peaks. let us consider what happens if the transformer’s connection to the AC voltage source occurs at the exact moment in time when the instantaneous voltage is at zero. and on upward to their positive peaks as the voltage descends to a level of zero: A signiﬁcant difference exists. there may be a substantial surge of current through the primary winding called inrush current.68) Since ﬂux (Φ) is proportional to the magnetomotive force (mmf) in the core. both magnetic ﬂux and winding current should
. (Figure 9. and the ﬂux waveform is the integral of the voltage waveform. however.
e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux i = coil current e i Φ
Instant in time when voltage is zero.
. TRANSFORMERS
e = voltage Φ = magnetic flux i = coil current e i Φ
Instant in time when transformer is connected to AC voltage source. during continuous operation. same as steadystate operation.276
CHAPTER 9.70: Starting at e=0 V is not the same as running continuously in Figure 9.
Figure 9.
Figure 9.3 These expected waveforms are incorrect– Φ and i should start at zero.69: Connecting transformer to line at AC volt peak: Flux increases rapidly from zero.
9. the inrush could be even more severe.
9. will disproportionately rise to a value easily exceeding twice its normal peak: (Figure 9.
Figure 9. assuming it doesn’t saturate the core. disproportionate amounts of mmf are needed to generate magnetic ﬂux.8. When the magnetic ﬂux increases in response to a rising voltage. most transformers aren’t designed with enough of a margin between normal ﬂux peaks and the saturation limits to avoid saturating in a condition like this. which creates the mmf to cause ﬂux in the core. the most notable being the production of heat and noise. Heating may be minimized by good design. ensuring that the core does
.6
Heat and Noise
In addition to unwanted electrical effects. in a transformer that’s just “starting. increasing to twice the normal value. the magnitude of the inrush current strongly depends on the exact time that electrical connection to the source is made. transformer overcurrent protection devices are usually of the “slowacting” variety.72) This is the mechanism causing inrush current in a transformer’s primary winding when connected to an AC voltage source. Thus.71)
Φ e
flux peak approximately twice normal height!
Instant in time when voltage is zero. As you can see. so as to tolerate current surges such as this without opening the circuit. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
277
start at zero. generating the necessary mmf to create this higherthannormal ﬂux. Because of this. transformers may also exhibit undesirable physical effects. and so the core will almost certainly saturate during this ﬁrst halfcycle of voltage.” the ﬂux will reach approximately twice its normal peak magnitude as it “integrates” the area under the voltage waveform’s ﬁrst halfcycle: (Figure 9. the magnetizing current would rise to approximately twice its normal peak value as well. In an ideal transformer. However. it will increase from zero upward. not from a previously negative (magnetized) condition as we would normally have in a transformer that’s been powered for awhile. Noise is primarily a nuisance effect. This means that winding current. Φ starts at initial condition Φ=0. If the transformer happens to have some residual magnetism in its core at the moment of connection to the source.71: Starting at e=0 V. from a "cold start" condition. but heat is a potentially serious problem because winding insulation will be damaged if allowed to overheat.8. During saturation.
or “dry.” transformers are often rated in terms of maximum operating temperature “rise” (temperature increase beyond ambient) according to a letterclass system: A.
Figure 9. Audible noise is an effect primarily originating from the phenomenon of magnetostriction: the slight change of length exhibited by a ferromagnetic object when magnetized. at 40o Celsius (maximum) ambient air temperature. and also to displace moisture which would otherwise compromise the integrity of the winding insulation. that eddy currents are minimized.72: Starting at e=0 V. These letter codes are arranged in order of lowest heat tolerance to highest: • Class A: No more than 55o Celsius winding temperature rise. F. TRANSFORMERS
i Φ e
current peak much greater than normal! flux peak approximately twice normal height!
Instant in time when voltage is zero. at 40o Celsius (maximum)ambient air temperature.278
CHAPTER 9. Heatdissipating “radiator” tubes on the outside of the transformer case provide a convective oil ﬂow path to transfer heat from the transformer’s core to ambient air: (Figure 9. • Class H: No more than 150o Celsius winding temperature rise. or H.73) Oilless. at 40o Celsius (maximum)ambient air temperature. from a "cold start" condition. B. Current also increases to twice the normal value for an unsaturated core. or considerably higher in the (designed for) case of saturation. • Class F: No more than 115o Celsius winding temperature rise. The familiar “hum” heard around large power transformers is the sound of the iron core expanding and
. at 40o Celsius (maximum)ambient air temperature. Large power transformers have their core and windings submerged in an oil bath to transfer heat and mufﬂe noise. not approach saturation levels. and that the windings are not overloaded or operated too close to maximum ampacity. • Class B: No more than 80o Celsius winding temperature rise.
73: Large power transformers are submerged in heat dissipating insulating oil. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
279
Primary terminals
Secondary terminals
Heat
Core
Heat
Radiator tube
Radiator tube
flow Oil
Figure 9.8.9.
.
Large units are typically rated in VA (voltamps) or kVA (kilo voltamps). TRANSFORMERS
contracting at 120 Hz (twice the system frequency. these stresses may be great enough to cause audible noise to emanate from the transformer. which explains why ferroresonant transformers – which must operate in saturation for a large portion of the current waveform – operate both hot and noisy. there will be no current through it.280
CHAPTER 9. physical force between the windings which will tend to make them vibrate. Leakage inductance tends to worsen a transformer’s voltage regulation (secondary voltage “sags” more for a given amount of load current). • Leakage inductance is caused by magnetic ﬂux not being 100% coupled between windings in a transformer. which can be problematic in signal applications. • Magnetic saturation of a transformer core may be caused by excessive primary voltage. • Magnetic effects in a transformer’s iron core also contribute to inefﬁciency. However. to ensure there is adequate mechanical support to handle the stresses. though. which is how (self) inductance works. • Increased frequency results in increased power losses within a power transformer. which is 60 Hz in the United States) – one cycle of core contraction and expansion for every peak of the magnetic ﬂux waveform – plus noise created by mechanical forces between primary and secondary windings. Transformer designers have to consider these physical forces in the construction of the winding coils. and consequently no magnetomotive force (mmf) produced by it. Among the effects are eddy currents (circulating induction currents in the iron core) and hysteresis (power lost due to overcoming the tendency of iron to magnetize in a particular direction). and/or by the presence of a DC current in any of
. operation at too low of a frequency. These opposing mmf ’s generated between primary and secondary windings as a result of secondary (load) current produce a repulsive. • REVIEW: • Power transformers are limited in the amount of power they can transfer from primary to secondary winding(s). the winding generates an mmf. • Resistance in transformer windings contributes to inefﬁciency. Another noiseproducing phenomenon in power transformers is the physical reaction force between primary and secondary windings when heavily loaded. If the secondary winding is opencircuited. • Both transformers and inductors harbor certain unavoidable amounts of capacitance due to wire insulation (dielectric) separating winding turns from the iron core and from each other. Any ﬂux not involved with transferring energy from one winding to another will store and release energy. when the secondary is “loaded” (current supplied to a load). which may cause overheating in large transformers. which becomes counteracted by a “reﬂected” mmf in the primary winding to prevent core ﬂux levels from changing. as current will dissipate heat. maintaining low magnetic ﬂux levels in the core is the key to minimizing this effect. Again. wasting energy. Under heavy load (high current) conditions. This capacitance can be signiﬁcant enough to give the transformer a natural resonant frequency. The presence of harmonics in a power system is a source of frequencies signiﬁcantly higher than normal.
which provides an adequate margin of safety between peak magnetic ﬂux density values and the saturation limits of the core. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. Saturation may be minimized or avoided by conservative design. • Transformers often experience signiﬁcant inrush currents when initially connected to an AC voltage source. from most recent to ﬁrst. Physical forces causing winding vibration may also generate noise under conditions of heavy (high current) secondary winding load. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.html
.9. EDN. Rapid Electriﬁcation a Century Ago”. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. (4/11/2002). Bart Anderson (January 2004): Corrected conceptual errors regarding Tesla coil operation and safety.org/organizations/pes/public/2005/mar/peshistory. http://www. CONTRIBUTORS
281
the windings.
9. Mitsugi Yamaguchi.9. “Electric Power In Japan. Inrush current is most severe when connection to the AC source is made at the moment instantaneous source voltage is zero. • Noise is a common phenomenon exhibited by transformers – especially power transformers – and is primarily caused by magnetostriction of the core.
Bibliography
[1] Mitsuyoshi Yamamoto.9
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.ieee.
282
CHAPTER 9. TRANSFORMERS
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 10
POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Contents
10. . . Depicted above (Figure 10. . . . . . . . . .5 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Singlephase power systems . . . . . . . . . . If the load resistor’s power dissipation were substantial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 10. . . . . . . .6 10.1 10. . Threephase power systems .1: Single phase power system schematic diagram shows little about the wiring of a practical power circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
. . . . . . . . . . . .4 10. . . . Contributors . . . 283 289 296 300 306 313 318 343 345
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Threephase Y and Delta conﬁgurations Threephase transformer circuits .8 10. . . . . .7 10. . . Polyphase motor design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . we might call this a “power circuit” or “power system” instead of regarding it as just a regular circuit. . . The distinction between a “power circuit” and a “regular circuit” may seem arbitrary. .1) is a very simple AC circuit. . . . . .1
Singlephase power systems
load #1
load #2
Figure 10. . . . . . . but the practical concerns are deﬁnitely not. . . . . . . . . Phase rotation . . . . Harmonics in polyphase power systems Harmonic phase sequences . .
permitting the use of smaller. If we give the source in the above circuit a voltage value and also give power dissipation values to the two load resistors. we can determine the wiring needs for this particular circuit: (Figure 10.66 amps total circuit current. This is no small amount of current. The advantage would be less current required. One way to do this would be to increase the voltage of the power source and use loads built to dissipate 10 kW each at this higher voltage. in the real world it can be a major concern.33 A) Itotal = 166. would have to have greater resistance values to dissipate the same power as before (10 kW each) at a greater voltage than before. and would necessitate copper wire conductors of at least 1/0 gage.3)
.
I= I=
P E 10 kW 120 V (for each load resistor)
I = 83. of course. and cheaper wire: (Figure 10.33 A
Itotal = Iload#1 + Iload#2 Itotal = (83. Such wire is well over 1/4 inch (6 mm) in diameter.67 A
Ptotal = (10 kW) + (10 kW) Ptotal = 20 kW
83.2: As a practical matter.33 amps for each load resistor in Figure 10. Normally.33 A) + (83. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
One such concern is the size and cost of wiring necessary to deliver power from the AC source to the load. However.2)
120 V
load #1 P = 10 kW
load #2 P = 10 kW
Figure 10. lighter.2 adds up to 166. the wiring for the 20 kW loads at 120 Vac is rather substantial (167 A).284
CHAPTER 10. weighing over 300 pounds per thousand feet. The loads. Bear in mind that copper is not cheap either! It would be in our best interest to ﬁnd ways to minimize such costs if we were designing a power system with long conductor lengths. we do not give much thought to this type of concern if we’re merely analyzing a circuit for the sake of learning about the laws of electricity.
33 amps. At the point of use (the electric power customer). We can now use number 4 gage wire. but it is a very valid concern in the real world.3: Same 10 kW loads at 240 Vac requires less substantial wiring than at 120 Vac (83 A). porcelain insulators. Again.67 A) Itotal = 83. especially when large amounts of power are being dealt with. Another practical concern with power circuits is the danger of electric shock from high voltages.67 A
Itotal = Iload#1 + Iload#2 Itotal = (41. lighter. half of what it was before.33 A
Ptotal = (10 kW) + (10 kW) Ptotal = 20 kW
Now our total circuit current is 83. The gain in efﬁciency realized by stepping up the circuit voltage presents us with increased danger of electric shock.1. this is not usually the sort of thing we concentrate on while learning about the laws of electricity. and insulating the lines from the supporting structures with large. this solution is not without disadvantages.10. cheaper wire. This tradeoff between efﬁciency and danger is one that European power system designers have decided to
. This is a considerable reduction in system cost with no degradation in performance. Power distribution companies tackle this problem by stringing their power lines along high poles or towers. which weighs less than half of what 1/0 gage wire does per unit length. However.
I= I=
P E 10 kW 240 V (for each load resistor)
I = 41. This is why power distribution system designers elect to transmit electric power using very high voltages (many thousands of volts): to capitalize on the savings realized by the use of smaller. SINGLEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
285
240 V
load #1 P = 10 kW
load #2 P = 10 kW
Figure 10.67 A) + (41. but it might not always be practical to keep power wiring out of reach at the point of use the way it can be elevated out of reach in distribution systems. there is still the issue of what voltage to use for powering loads. High voltage gives greater system efﬁciency by means of reduced conductor current.
There’s only one disadvantage to this design: the consequences of one load failing open.4)
83. so the safety factor is better. I’ve avoided labeling “polarities” in the AC circuits we’ve been analyzing. For this reason. phase relationships will become very important. However. even though the notation is valid to provide a frame of reference for phase.3 A total current. the odds are that it will be from coming into contact with the conductors of a particular load rather than from contact across the main wires of a power system.5)
+ 240 V 
+ 240 V 
.33 A load +120 V #1 10 kW load +120 V #2 10 kW 83. if either load were to open. An alternative solution would be to use a higher voltage supply to provide power to two lower voltage loads in series. In later sections of this chapter. all their households and appliances operating at a nominal voltage of 240 volts instead of 120 volts as it is in North America. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
risk. or being turned off (assuming each load has a series on/off switch to interrupt current) are not good.33 A
Figure 10. For the most part. If anyone is going to get shocked. Notice the polarity markings (+ and ) for each voltage shown. Is there any way to realize the advantages of both increased efﬁciency and reduced safety hazard at the same time? One solution would be to install stepdown transformers at the endpoint of power use.286
CHAPTER 10. Being a series circuit. so I’m introducing this notation early on in the chapter for your familiarity.4: Series connected 120 Vac loads. just as the American tourist must do while in Europe. The voltage across each load is only 120 volts. The current through each load is the same as it was in the simple 120 volt circuit. this would be expensive and inconvenient for anything but very small loads (where the transformers can be built cheaply) or very large loads (where the expense of thick copper wires would exceed the expense of a transformer). we still have a full 240 volts across the power system wires. That is why tourists from America visiting Europe must carry small stepdown transformers for their portable appliances. we need to modify the design a bit: (Figure 10. current would stop in the other load as well. but the currents are not additive because the loads are in series rather than parallel. This approach combines the efﬁciency of a highvoltage system with the safety of a lowvoltage system: (Figure 10. Mind you. as well as the unidirectional arrows for current. to step the 240 VAC (volts AC) power down to a more suitable 120 VAC. but each load is operating at a reduced voltage. driven by 240 Vac source at 83. not 240.
Three smaller wires are still cheaper than the two wires needed with the simple parallel design. Fortunately. then run a third wire to the connection point between the loads to handle the eventuality of one load opening. An essential component to a splitphase power system is the dual AC voltage source.10. Since most AC systems receive their power from a stepdown transformer anyway (stepping voltage down from high distribution levels to a userlevel voltage like 120 or 240). The astute observer will note that the neutral wire only has to carry the difference of current between the two loads back to the source. that transformer can be built with a centertapped secondary winding: (Figure 10. This is called a splitphase power system. so we’re still ahead on efﬁciency. This is a common feature in power systems containing “neutral” wires. In the above case. we use two 120 volt supplies (in phase with each other!) in series to produce 240 volts. designing and building one is not difﬁcult.6) If the AC power comes directly from a generator (alternator). The extra expense to include a centertap connection in a
. the coils can be similarly centertapped for the same effect.33 A (for each load resistor)
Instead of a single 240 volt power supply.33 A + + 120 V ∠ 0o "hot" "neutral" 0A "hot" 83. SINGLEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
287
83.5: Addition of neutral conductor allows loads to be individually driven. since grounding the neutral wire ensures the least possible voltage at any given time between any “hot” wire and earth ground. the neutral wire carries zero current.
Etotal = (120 V ∠ 0o) + (120 V ∠ 0o) Etotal = 240 V ∠ 0o I= P E Ptotal = (10 kW) + (10 kW) Ptotal = 20 kW
10 kW I= 120 V
I = 83. with perfectly “balanced” loads consuming equal amounts of power. Notice how the neutral wire is connected to earth ground at the power supply end.1.33 A load +120 V #1 ∠ 0o load +120 V #2 ∠ 0o 
120 V ∠ 0o
+ 240 V 
Figure 10.
Otherwise. phase relations between multiple AC sources might be very confusing.4 kV + Figure 10.288
CHAPTER 10. This notation is often used to reference the phasings of multiple AC voltage sources.7)
120 V 120 V
+ 240 V 
"hot" + + 120 V ∠ 0o 120 V ∠ 180o + 240 V ∠ 0o "hot"
Figure 10. we’d be denoting two voltage sources in direct opposition with each other. Why am I taking the time to elaborate on polarity marks and phase angles? It will make more sense in the next section!
. transformer or alternator winding is minimal. If not for these polarity markings. To mathematically calculate voltage between “hot” wires. we must express their relative phase shifts as being 180o apart.6: American 120/240 Vac power is derived from a center tapped utility transformer. because their polarity marks show them to be opposed to each other:
Polar 120 ∠ 0o . which would give 0 volts between the two “hot” conductors.(120 + j0) V 240 + j0 V
If we mark the two sources’ common connection point (the neutral wire) with the same polarity mark ().7: Split phase 120/240 Vac source is equivalent to two series aiding 120 Vac sources. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Stepdown transformer with centertapped secondary winding + + 2. with polarity marks (+) to () just like seriesaiding batteries can alternatively be represented as such: (Figure 10. Note that the splitphase sources in the schematic (each one 120 volts 0o ). we must subtract voltages. Here is where the (+) and () polarity markings really become important.120 ∠ 180o 240 ∠ 0o
Rectangular 120 + j0 V . so it is clear whether they are aiding (“boosting”) each other or opposing (“bucking”) each other.
However.(120 V ∠ 120o) Etotal = 207. with more than two wires. Apologies for the long introduction leading up to the titletopic of this chapter. the voltage across each load must be 120 volts as well. delivering power to loads at more than one voltage. This technique. providing socalled 120/240 VAC power. The advantages of polyphase power systems are more obvious if one ﬁrst has a good understanding of single phase systems. • REVIEW: • Single phase power systems are deﬁned by having an AC source with only one voltage waveform.10. except that each voltage source was 120o out of phase with the other: (Figure 10. The term “single phase” is a counterpoint to another kind of power system called “polyphase” which we are about to investigate in detail. Instead. This principle. In a more general sense. while drawing currents at levels typical of a fullvoltage system. this kind of AC power supply is called single phase because both voltage waveforms are in phase. with each other. works just as well for DC power systems as it does for singlephase AC systems. voltage between the two “hot” wires is not 240 volts (120 0o .2. the voltage is:
Etotal = (120 V ∠ 0o) . by the way. applied to power systems. But we know from our experience with vectors and complex numbers that AC voltages don’t always add up as we think they would if they are out of phase with each other. The term “splitphase” merely refers to the splitvoltage supply in such a system. THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
289
Power systems in American households and light industry are most often of the splitphase variety.
10.2
Threephase power systems
Splitphase power systems achieve their high conductor efﬁciency and low safety risk by splitting up the total voltage into lesser parts and powering multiple loads at those lesser voltages. • A splitphase power system is one with multiple (inphase) AC voltage sources connected in series. Given load currents of 83. each load must still be dissipating 10 kilowatts of power. or in step. They are used primarily to achieve balance between system efﬁciency (low conductor currents) and safety (low load voltages). Suppose that we had two sources of AC voltage connected in series just like the splitphase system we saw before. Such systems are usually referred to as threewire systems rather than splitphase because “phase” is a concept restricted to AC.85 V ∠ 30o
. • Splitphase AC sources can be easily created by centertapping the coil windings of transformers or alternators.33 amps.120 180o ) because the phase difference between the two sources is not 180o .8) Since each voltage source is 120 volts. and each load resistor is connected directly in parallel with its respective source. can be put to use to make power systems with even greater conductor efﬁciencies and lower shock hazard than with splitphase.
33 A ∠ 120o
Figure 10. and thus the power system voltage is designated as 120/208.Iload#2 .33 A ∠ 0o + + "hot" 120 V ∠ 0o 120 V ∠ 120o "neutral" load +120 V #1 ∠ 0o load 120 V #2 ∠ 120o +
+ 207. If we calculate the current through the “neutral” conductor.
"hot"
Iload#1 . we ﬁnd that it is not zero. similar to splitphase.8: Pair of 120 Vac sources phased 120o . Kirchhoff ’s Current Law tells us that the currents entering and exiting the node between the two loads must be zero: (Figure 10.(83. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
83.Iload#2 Ineutral = .Ineutral = 0 . we say that the voltage between “hot” conductors is 208 volts (rounding up).(83.Ineutral = Iload#1 + Iload#2 Ineutral = Iload#1 .290
CHAPTER 10.33 A ∠ 1200) Ineutral = 83.9: Neutral wire carries a current in the case of a pair of 120o phased sources.85 V ∠ 30o 
"hot" 83. Nominally. even with balanced load resistances.9)
83.33 A ∠ 120o
.33 A ∠ 120o
Figure 10.33 A ∠ 0o load + 120 V ∠ 0o #1 "neutral" Node Ineutral load o #2 120 V ∠ 120 + "hot" 83.33 A ∠ 0o) .33 A ∠ 240o or 83.
This circuit we’ve been analyzing with three voltage sources is called a polyphase circuit.
.10. For proof of this. with each load’s “hot” wire carrying 83. The fact that the neutral wire is carrying 83.33 amps. With the same amount of current through each “hot” wire. It is there just in case one or more load resistors should fail open (or be shut off through a disconnecting switch).33 A ∠ 120o load #1 load #3 120 V 10 kW load #2 120 V 10 kW 120 V 10 kW + 208 V ∠ 30o 
Figure 10. each load will be dissipating 10 kW of power. powering another load resistor with a third 120 volt source having a phase angle of 240o ? That way.11. equal currents).33 A ∠ 240o + 120 V ∠ 240o 120 V + ∠ 120o 83. so we haven’t reduced system cost over the splitphase 120/240 system. Let’s see how this might look: (Figure 10. the voltage drops across the remaining load(s) will change.2. THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
291
So.33 A ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 0o 83. I’ll spare you the long. the currents are the same as for two loads. we get 120 volts across each load resistor.10)
83.33 amps as before. the neutral wire will not have to carry any current at all. why not use that third wire as another “hot” conductor. drawnout calculations because you should be able to intuitively understand that the three voltage sources at three different phase angles will deliver 120 volts each to a balanced triad of load resistors. What we have here is a situation similar to our splitphase power circuit with no “neutral” conductor: if one load should happen to fail open.33 amps of current raises an interesting possibility: since its carrying current anyway. Notice that this circuit has no “neutral” conductor to ensure stable voltage to all loads if one should open. A full mathematical analysis of all the voltages and currents in this circuit would necessitate the use of a network theorem. SPICE listing: 120/208 polyphase power system) Sure enough. we need a neutral wire to connect the source node and load node together: So long as the loads remain balanced (equal resistance. Note that we are still conveying 20 kW of total power to the two loads. we ﬁnd that the “neutral” wire is carrying a full 83. we have realized a gain in safety.12) At that current and voltage.10: With a third load phased 120o to the other two. because the overall voltage between the two “hot” conductors is 32 volts lower than it was in the splitphase system (208 volts instead of 240 volts). the easiest being the Superposition Theorem. we can use SPICE to do the math for us: (Figure 10. we could transmit more power (another 10 kW) without having to add any more conductors. we must use the same gage copper conductors. with (approximately) 208 volts between any two “hot” conductors and conductor currents equal to 83. However. just like each “hot” wire.33 amps. (Figure 10. To ensure load voltage stability in the event of another load opening.
44 .1) .3) v(3.44 r2 2 4 1.4) .ac lin 1 60 60 .print ac i(v1) i(v2) i(v3) .000E+01 8.333E+01 8.44 Ω 2
120 V ∠ 120o
Figure 10.4) 1.44 Ω
4 1.2) v(2.078E+02 2.44 r3 3 4 1.44 Ω R2 R1
1 1.11: SPICE circuit: Three 3Φ loads phased at 120o .1) 2.4) v(2.292
CHAPTER 10.print ac v(1.end
VOLTAGE ACROSS EACH LOAD freq v(1.4) 6.078E+02 CURRENT THROUGH EACH VOLTAGE SOURCE freq i(v1) i(v2) 6.200E+02 VOLTAGE BETWEEN ‘‘HOT’’ CONDUCTORS freq v(1.333E+01
.
120/208 polyphase power system v1 1 0 ac 120 0 sin v2 2 0 ac 120 120 sin v3 3 0 ac 120 240 sin r1 1 4 1.print ac v(1.333E+01
v(3.200E+02 v(3.078E+02 i(v3) 8.4) v(3.2) v(2. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
1 + 0 + 2 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o 3 3 R3 1.4) v(2.000E+01 2.3) 6.200E+02 1.000E+01 1.
13)
120V 250 A
load #1 10 kW
load #2 10 kW
load #3 10 kW
Figure 10.33 A ∠ 240o + 120 V "hot" ∠ 240o 120 V + ∠ 120o "hot" 83.33 A ∠ 0o "hot" + 120 V ∠ 0o 83. “polygon” (a geometrical shape made of multiple line segments: for example. three 10 Kw loads on a 120 Vac system draw 250 A.14) Our current is half of what it was with the simple parallel circuit. (Figure 10.33 A ∠ 120o 0A "neutral"
load #1 load #3 120 V 10 kW load #2
120 V 10 kW
120 V 10 kW
Figure 10. A singlephase system with three loads connected directly in parallel would have a very high total current (83. we would need over a halfton of copper wire to do the job. pentagon and hexagon).2. at about 510 pounds per thousand feet. This would necessitate 3/0 gage copper wire (very large!). The preﬁx “poly” simply means “more than one. On the other hand. THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
293
83. this is a “polyphase” circuit.33 times 3.13: For comparison. which is a great improvement. and “polyatomic” (a substance composed of multiple types of atoms). Since the voltage sources are all at different phase angles (in this case. (Figure 10. three different phase angles). or 250 amps. Let’s survey the advantages of a threephase power system over a singlephase system of equivalent load voltage and power capacity. If the distance from source to load was 1000 feet. it is a threephase circuit. More speciﬁcally. and with a considerable price tag attached. 120 volt loads.12: SPICE circuit annotated with simulation results: Three 3Φ loads phased at 120o . the kind used predominantly in large power distribution systems. we could build a splitphase system with two 15 kW.10. We could get away with using number 2 gage copper wire at a total mass of about 600
.” as in “polytheism” (belief in more than one deity).
but then those phase shifts would depend on the phase angles of our load impedances as well (substituting a capacitive or inductive load for a resistive load would change everything!). the six “pole” windings of a threephase alternator are connected to comprise three winding pairs. One question remains to be answered: how in the world do we get three AC voltage sources whose phase angles are exactly 120o apart? Obviously we can’t centertap a transformer or alternator winding like we did in the splitphase system. First. we showed the three voltage sources connected together in a “Y” conﬁguration (sometimes called the “star” conﬁguration). each set spaced 120o apart around the circumference of the machine as in Figure 10. We can use number 4 gage wire at about 125 pounds per thousand feet. permitting the use of much thinner and lighter wire. the conductor currents are quite a bit less (83.12). The best way to get the phase shifts we’re looking for is to generate it at the source: construct the AC generator (alternator) providing the power in such a way that the rotating magnetic ﬁeld passes by three sets of wire windings.
pounds. with the additional beneﬁt that the maximum voltage in the system is lower (208 versus 240). there is greater potential for dangerous electric shock to occur. Perhaps we could ﬁgure out some way to use capacitors and inductors to create phase shifts of 120o . the advantages are quite clear. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
+ +
125 A ∠ 0o "hot" 120 V ∠ 0o 120 V ∠ 180o "neutral" 0A load #1 load #2 120 V 15 kW 120 V 15 kW + 240 V ∠ 0o 
"hot" 125 A ∠ 180o
Figure 10. each pair producing AC voltage with a phase angle 120o shifted from either of the other two winding pairs. However. even though each load only receives 120 volts. we also have to consider the increased safety hazard of having 240 volts present in the system.15. This represents a signiﬁcant cost savings over the splitphase system. Overall.33 amps versus 125 or 250 amps). with one lead of each source tied to
. which will total 500 pounds (four runs of 1000 feet each) for our example circuit. The interconnections between pairs of windings (as shown for the singlephase alternator: the jumper wire between windings 1a and 1b) have been omitted from the threephase alternator drawing for simplicity. since that can only give us voltage waveforms that are either in phase or 180o out of phase. ﬁguring about 200 pounds per thousand feet with three runs of 1000 feet each between source and loads.14: Split phase system draws half the current of 125 A at 240 Vac compared to 120 Vac system.294
CHAPTER 10. When we contrast these two examples against our threephase system (Figure 10. Together. In our example circuit.
16: Alternator ”Y” conﬁguration. a common point (the node where we attached the “neutral” conductor).2. • A polyphase power system uses multiple voltage sources at different phase angles from each other (many “phases” of voltage waveforms at work). The common way to depict this connection scheme is to draw the windings in the shape of a “Y” like Figure 10.16. The “Y” conﬁguration is not the only option open to us.10. A polyphase power system can deliver more power at less voltage with smallergage conductors than single. (b) Threephase alternator. • REVIEW: • A singlephase power system is one where there is only one AC voltage source (one source voltage waveform). THREEPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
Threephase alternator (b) Singlephase alternator (a) winding 1a S winding 1b winding 2a winding 1a S winding 3a winding 1b
295
N
winding 3b
N
winding 2b
Figure 10. 180o phaseshifted from each other.
+ 120 V ∠ 0o
+ + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V ∠ 240o
Figure 10. but it is probably the easiest to understand at ﬁrst. powering a two seriesconnected loads.15: (a) Singlephase alternator.or splitphase systems.
. The advantage of this is the ability to have lower conductor currents while maintaining low load voltages for safety reasons. • A splitphase power system is one where there are two voltage sources. More to come on this subject later in the chapter.
There are some applications of threephase power.296
CHAPTER 10. which will hits its peak 120o after winding 1. This order keeps repeating itself as long as we continue to rotate the alternator’s shaft. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
• The phaseshifted voltage sources necessary for a polyphase power system are created in alternators with multiple sets of wire windings. the voltage and current magnitudes will all be the same.17) and watch what happens as the magnet rotates. Now. (Figure 10. winding 2’s waveform will be leading 120o ahead of 1 instead of lagging. the order is 123 (winding 1 peaks ﬁrst. we’ll have 321. For clockwise rotation of the shaft. These winding sets are spaced around the circumference of the rotor’s rotation at the desired angle(s). that depend on having phase rotation being one way or the other. Where we decide to place the windings will dictate the amount of phase shift between the windings’ AC voltage waveforms. then winding 3). winding 3 will generate its peak instantaneous voltage exactly 120o (of alternator shaft rotation) after winding 2.18) However.3
Phase rotation
Let’s take the threephase alternator design laid out earlier (Figure 10. or 240o leading) and winding 3 an angle of 240o (or 120o leading). If we make winding 1 our “reference” voltage source for phase angle (0o ). them winding 2.
10. Since voltmeters and ammeters would be useless in telling us what the phase rotation of an operating power system is. The magnet passes by each pole pair at different positions in the rotational movement of the shaft. (Figure 10. and 3 will be another 120o ahead of 2. then winding 2 will have a phase angle of 120o (120o lagging. if we reverse the rotation of the alternator’s shaft (turn it counterclockwise). Instead of 123. we
. as we will see shortly. This sequence of phase shifts has a deﬁnite order.
winding 2a winding 1a S
winding 3a winding 1b
winding 3b
N
winding 2b
Figure 10. If the magnet is rotating clockwise. If we’re using a polyphase voltage source to power resistive loads. the magnet will pass by the pole pairs in the opposite sequence.17: Threephase alternator The phase angle shift of 120o is a function of the actual rotational angle shift of the three pairs of windings (Figure 10. Whether 123 or 321. phase rotation will make no difference at all.19) The order of voltage waveform sequences in a polyphase system is called phase rotation or phase sequence.18).
3.3.2.3.19: Counterclockwise rotation phase sequence: 321.
.1.2.10.1.1.2.
phase sequence: 3.3 1 2 3
TIME
Figure 10.1 3 2 1
TIME
Figure 10.2.1.2. PHASE ROTATION
297
phase sequence: 1.3.3.18: Clockwise rotation phase sequence: 123.2.
20: Phase sequence detector compares brightness of two lamps. The two lamps are of equal ﬁlament resistance and wattage. the two lamps would glow at equal brightness. which is then used to detect the sequence by way of comparison between the brightness of two indicator lamps in Figure 10.298
CHAPTER 10. If the capacitor were to be replaced by a resistor of equal value to the lamps’ resistance. the circuit being balanced. One ingenious circuit design uses a capacitor to introduce a phase shift between voltage and current. The following SPICE analysis demonstrates what will happen: (Figure 10. the capacitor introduces a phase shift between voltage and current in the third leg of the circuit equal to 90o . The resulting phase shift from the capacitor causes the voltage across phase 1 lamp (between nodes 1 and 4) to fall to 48.21).20. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
need to have some other kind of instrument capable of doing the job. The capacitor is sized to have approximately the same amount of reactance at system frequency as each lamp’s resistance. However. greater than 0o but less than 120o .1 volts and the voltage across phase 2 lamp (between nodes
.21: SPICE circuit for phase sequence detector.
to phase #1 C
to phase #2
to phase #3
Figure 10. This phase shift. ”phase rotation detector – sequence = v1v2v3”
1 + 0 + 2 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o 120 V ∠ 120o R1 3 3 C1
1 2650 Ω
4 1 µF R2 2 2650 Ω
Figure 10. skews the voltage and current values across the two lamps according to their phase shifts relative to phase 3.
reversal of the alternator’s shaft rotation is not usually an option open to an enduser of electrical power supplied by a nationwide grid (“the” alternator actually being the combined total of all alternators in all power plants feeding the grid).810E+01 1.” going from left to right in the number string above.4) 6.810E+01 1. the opposite rotation
. 321321321321321 .610E+02 Here.4) v(3.
What is commonly designated as a “123” phase rotation could just as well be called “231” or “312.4) .000E+01 1.4) v(2. . Just the opposite will happen if the phase sequence is reversed: ”phase rotation detector – sequence = v3v2v1 ” phase rotation detector .4) v(2.5 volts while the second receives only 48. PHASE ROTATION
phase rotation detector .4) v(3. We’ve investigated how phase rotation is produced (the order in which pole pairs get passed by the alternator’s rotating magnet) and how it can be changed by reversing the alternator’s shaft rotation.000E+01 4. .print ac v(1.print ac v(1.4) v(3. .4) .795E+02 4. making the ﬁrst lamp dim and the second lamp bright.4) 6.5 volts.ac lin 1 60 60 .sequence = v3v2v1 v1 1 0 ac 120 240 sin v2 2 0 ac 120 120 sin v3 3 0 ac 120 0 sin r1 1 4 2650 r2 2 4 2650 c1 3 4 1u .end freq v(1.sequence = v1v2v3 v1 1 0 ac 120 0 sin v2 2 0 ac 120 120 sin v3 3 0 ac 120 240 sin r1 1 4 2650 r2 2 4 2650 c1 3 4 1u .3.(”phase rotation detector – sequence = v3v2v1”) the ﬁrst lamp receives 179.795E+02 1.610E+02
299
2 and 4) to rise to 179. However.4) v(2. . Likewise. This trick makes more sense if we take another look at a running phase sequence of a threephase voltage source: 123 rotation: 321 rotation: 123123123123123 . There is a much easier way to reverse phase sequence than reversing alternator rotation: just exchange any two of the three “hot” wires going to a threephase load.1 volts.ac lin 1 60 60 .4) v(2.end freq v(1.4) v(3.10.
as shown in the operation of a phase rotation detector circuit.
. consisting of stationary wire windings and a rotating magnet assembly.
10. • Phase rotation has no impact on resistive loads. all equivalent). the phase rotation ends up being reversed (123 gets changed to 213. • Phase rotation can be reversed by swapping any two of the three “hot” leads supplying threephase power to a threephase load. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
(321) could just as easily be called “213” or “132. there are only two possible phase sequences: 123 and 321.22: All possibilities of swapping any two wires. For a threephase system. is the order in which the voltage waveforms of a polyphase AC source reach their respective peaks.
Original 123 phase rotation 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
End result 2 1 3 1 3 2 3 2 1 (wires 1 and 2 swapped) phase rotation = 213
(wires 2 and 3 swapped) phase rotation = 132
(wires 1 and 3 swapped) phase rotation = 321
Figure 10. we can try all the possibilities for swapping any two of the wires at a time and see what happens to the resulting sequence in Figure 10.22.300
CHAPTER 10. No matter which pair of “hot” wires out of the three we choose to swap.” Starting out with a phase rotation of 321. but we will leave those details to another lesson). corresponding to the two possible directions of alternator rotation. • REVIEW: • Phase rotation. but it will have impact on unbalanced reactive loads. (Other AC motor designs are not quite this simple. some types of AC motors are virtually identical in construction to their alternator (generator) counterparts. 132 or 321. As we studied in the ﬁrst chapter of this book.4
Polyphase motor design
Perhaps the most important beneﬁt of polyphase AC power over singlephase is the design and operation of AC motors. or phase sequence.
24: Counterclockwise AC motor operation. It could just as easily be powered in a counterclockwise direction by the same AC voltage waveform a in Figure 10.10.4.24. (Figure 10. If the rotating magnet is able to keep up with the frequency of the alternating current energizing the electromagnet windings (coils).23) However.23: Clockwise AC motor operation. POLYPHASE MOTOR DESIGN
Step #1 N S N I I + S N S Step #2 N S
301
Step #3 S N
N S S N
Step #4 S N
+ I I

Figure 10. it will continue to be pulled around clockwise. clockwise is not the only valid direction for this motor’s shaft to spin.
Step #1 N S S I I + N N S Step #2 N S
Step #3 S N
S S N N
Step #4 S N
+ I I

Figure 10.
.
Once helped to spin in a particular direction. Other strings just blink on and off with no apparent motion. These supplementary coils are typically connected in series with a capacitor to introduce a phase shift in current between the two sets of windings. the magnetic rotor can spin in either direction. In fact. (Figure 10. What makes the difference between the two types of bulb strings? Answer: phase shift! Examine a string of lights where every other bulb is lit at any given time as in (Figure 10. The natural question should arise at this point: how can the motor get started in the intended direction if it can run either way just as well? The answer is that these motors need a little help getting started. Have you ever seen a row of blinking light bulbs such as the kind used in Christmas decorations? Some strings appear to “move” in a deﬁnite direction as the bulbs alternately glow and darken in sequence. current. Usually. so do the respective magnetic ﬁelds generated by the motor’s stationary windings. (Figure 10. It was this concept of a rotating magnetic ﬁeld that inspired Nikola Tesla to design the world’s ﬁrst polyphase electrical systems (simply to make simpler. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Notice that with the exact same sequence of polarity cycles (voltage.27)
. and energized with an AC voltage that is out of phase with the main power. What can be a confusing concept is made much clearer through analogy. It is this phase rotation that pulls the rotating magnet around in a deﬁnite direction. more efﬁcient motors).302
CHAPTER 10.25)
winding 2’s voltage waveform is 90 degrees out of phase with winding 1’s voltage waveform winding 2a winding 1a S winding 1b
N winding 2b winding 2’s voltage waveform is 90 degrees out of phase with winding 1’s voltage waveform
Figure 10. the combination of all three phase winding sets working together creates what is often called a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. The result is a set of magnetic ﬁelds with a deﬁnite phase rotation. Polyphase AC motors require no such trickery to spin in a deﬁnite direction. and magnetic poles produced by the coils).26) That phase shift creates magnetic ﬁelds from coils 2a and 2b that are equally out of step with the ﬁelds from coils 1a and 1b. The line current and safety advantages of polyphase power over single phase power were discovered later. Because their supply voltage waveforms already have a deﬁnite rotation sequence. it comes from an additional set of windings positioned differently from the main set. Where that “help” comes from for a singlephase AC motor to get going in one direction can vary. This is a common trait of all singlephase AC “induction” and “synchronous” motors: they have no normal or “correct” direction of rotation. they will continue to spin that way as long as AC power is maintained to the windings.25: Unidirectionalstarting AC twophase motor.
Figure 10.4.27: Phase sequence 1212: lamps appear to move. POLYPHASE MOTOR DESIGN
303
1a
2a
1b C I
2b
I
these two branch currents are out of phase with each other
Figure 10.26: Capacitor phase shift adds second phase.
.10.
the rotating magnetic ﬁeld necessary for selfstarting must to be created by way of capacitive phase shift. Now imagine this blinking string of bulbs arranged into a circle as in Figure 10.
1 all "1" bulbs lit 1 all "2" bulbs lit 1 all "3" bulbs lit 1 all "1" bulbs lit
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3 Time
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
phase sequence = 123 bulbs appear to be "moving" from left to right
Figure 10.304
CHAPTER 10. and it will run in the opposite direction! • REVIEW:
.” Now let’s examine a string of lights where there are three sets of bulbs to be sequenced instead of just two. The blinking pattern will either appear to move clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the phase sequence. With this blinking sequence.29 appear to be “moving” in a clockwise direction because they are arranged around a circle instead of a straight line. there is no deﬁnite “motion” to the bulbs’ light. Now the lights in Figure 10. If the lighting sequence is 123 (the sequence shown in (Figure 10. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
When all of the “1” bulbs are lit. With singlephase motors. Your eyes could follow a “motion” from left to right just as easily as from right to left. but which cannot start on its own because its magnetic ﬁeld alternation lacks a deﬁnite “rotation. the bulbs will appear to “move” from left to right. and these three sets are equally out of phase with each other in Figure 10.29. Plus. the necessary phase shifts are there already. which can run just as easily in either direction. the “2” bulbs are dark.28. and vice versa. With phase shifts of less than 180o we get true rotation of the magnetic ﬁeld. This is analogous to the singlephase AC motor. This is analogous to a threephase AC motor with three sets of windings energized by voltage sources of three different phase shifts in Figure 10. It should come as no surprise that the appearance of motion will reverse if the phase sequence of the bulbs is reversed.28)). With polyphase motors. the direction of shaft rotation for polyphase motors is very easily reversed: just swap any two “hot” wires going to the motor.30. Technically.28: Phase sequence: 123: bulbs appear to move left to right. the “1” and “2” bulb blinking sequences are 180o out of phase (exactly opposite each other).
bulbs appear to rotate clockwise.
winding 2a winding 1a S
winding 3a winding 1b
winding 3b
N
winding 2b
Figure 10. POLYPHASE MOTOR DESIGN
305
2
3
all "1" bulbs lit
1
1
3 2
2 3 The bulbs appear to "move" in a clockwise direction
all "2" bulbs lit
1
1
3 2
2 3
all "3" bulbs lit
1
1
3
2
Figure 10.4.29: Circular arrangement.10.
.30: Threephase AC motor: A phase sequence of 123 spins the magnet clockwise. 321 spins the magnet counterclockwise.
their direction of rotation is ﬁxed by the phase sequence of the voltage they’re powered by.
.31: Threephase “Y” connection has three voltage sources connected to a common point. (Figure 10. while the windings themselves are typically called phases. although it certainly helps alleviate potential problems should one element of a threephase load fail open.306
CHAPTER 10. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
• AC “induction” and “synchronous” motors work by having a rotating magnet follow the alternating magnetic ﬁelds produced by stationary wire windings.33) be a neutral wire attached at the junction point in the middle.
10. there may or may not (Figure 10.32.31)
120 V ∠ 0o
+ + + 120 V ∠ 240o
120 V ∠ 120o
Figure 10. a deﬁnite direction of shaft rotation can be established. thus reversing its shaft rotation. the “Y” conﬁguration becomes more obvious in Figure 10. • Swapping any two “hot” wires on a polyphase AC motor will reverse its phase sequence. The three conductors leading away from the voltage sources (windings) toward a load are typically called lines. If we draw a circuit showing each voltage source to be a coil of wire (alternator or transformer winding) and do some slight rearranging. • Singlephase induction motors often use an auxiliary winding connected in series with a capacitor to create the necessary phase shift. In a Yconnected system. as discussed earlier.5
Threephase Y and Delta conﬁgurations
Initially we explored the idea of threephase power systems by connecting three voltage sources together in what is commonly known as the “Y” (or “star”) conﬁguration. • By introducing a phase shift of less than 180o to the magnetic ﬁelds in such a motor. This conﬁguration of voltage sources is characterized by a common connection point joining one side of each source. • Singlephase AC motors of this type need help to get started spinning in a particular direction. • Polyphase motors don’t need such measures.
32: Threephase.
"line"
"neutral"
3phase. 3wire "Y" connection "line" + 120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V ∠ 240o "line"
Figure 10.10. threewire “Y” connection does not use the neutral wire. THREEPHASE Y AND DELTA CONFIGURATIONS
307
"line" + 120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o 120 V ∠ 240o "line"
Figure 10.
"line"
(no "neutral" wire)
.33: Threephase.5. fourwire “Y” connection uses a ”common” fourth wire.
and the latter to current through any one component. Starting with the top winding and progressing counterclockwise. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
When we measure voltage and current in threephase systems. the line voltage is roughly 208 volts. this is not the case.” for its geometric resemblance to the Greek letter of the same name (∆). Yconnected sources and loads always have line voltages greater than phase voltages. threewire ∆ connection has no common.34: Threephase. however.308
CHAPTER 10. the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage times the square root of 3:
For "Y" circuits: Eline = 3 Ephase
Iline = Iphase
However. the phase voltage is 120 volts. One quick check of this is to use Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law to see if the three voltages around the loop add up to zero. Phase voltage refers to the voltage measured across any one component (source winding or load impedance) in a balanced threephase source or load. Line voltage refers to the amount of voltage measured between any two line conductors in a balanced threephase system. and consequently there will be no circulating current. Another conﬁguration is known as the “Delta.
"line" 120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o + + 120 V ∠ 120o "line"
Figure 10. our KVL expression looks something like this:
"line"

. If the Yconnected source or load is balanced. electrons ﬂowing around the triangle with nothing but the internal impedance of the windings to hold them back. we need to be speciﬁc as to where we’re measuring. For the circuit shown above. Take close notice of the polarity for each winding in Figure 10.34. the “Y” conﬁguration is not the only valid one for connecting threephase voltage source or load elements together. then there will be no voltage available to push current around and around that loop. With the above circuit. At ﬁrst glance it seems as though three voltage sources like this would create a shortcircuit. If they do. The terms line current and phase current follow the same logic: the former referring to current through any one line conductor. and line currents equal to phase currents. Due to the phase angles of these three voltage sources.
Because each pair of line conductors is connected directly across a single winding in a ∆ circuit.35: Voltage across open ∆ should be zero. our KVL
(120 V ∠ 120o) + (120 ∠ 0o) + (120 V ∠ 240o) + Ebreak = 0 0 + Ebreak = 0 Ebreak = 0
Sure enough. because each line conductor attaches at a node between two windings.10. we turn to its practical use as a source of power in threephase circuits.35)
120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V ∠ 240o + 120 V ∠ 120o
+

Ebreak should equal 0 V
Figure 10. telling us that no current will circulate within the triangular loop of windings when that connection is made complete. there will be zero voltage across the break. the line current will be the vector sum of the two joining phase currents. the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage. if we add these three vector quantities together.5. Another way to verify the fact that these three voltage sources can be connected together in a loop without resulting in circulating currents is to open up the loop at one junction point and calculate voltage across the break: (Figure 10. Having established that a ∆connected threephase voltage source will not burn itself to a crisp due to circulating currents.
Starting with the right winding (120 V equation looks like this:
120o ) and progressing counterclockwise. Conversely. the resulting equations for a ∆ conﬁguration are as follows:
. they do add up to zero. Not surprisingly. THREEPHASE Y AND DELTA CONFIGURATIONS
309
(120 V ∠ 0o) + (120 V ∠ 240o) + (120 V ∠ 120o) Does it all equal 0? Yes!
Indeed.
it is still less than the 1000+ pounds of copper required for a singlephase system delivering the same power (30 kW) at the same voltage (120 volts conductortoconductor).310
CHAPTER 10. With each load resistance receiving 120 volts from its respective phase winding at the source. the current in each phase of this circuit will be 83.33 A)
Iline = 144.
.36)
120 V ∠ 0o + 120 V o ∠ 240 + 120 V ∠ 120o
10 kW
+

10 kW
10 kW
Figure 10.33 A (for each load resistor and source winding)
Iline = Iline =
3
Iphase
3 (83. The answer is no.33 amps:
I= I=
P E 10 kW 120 V
I = 83. given the fact that we have such greater conductor currents. Although this circuit would require three number 1 gage copper conductors (at 1000 feet of distance between source and load this equates to a little over 750 pounds of copper for the whole system). more costly wire. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
For ∆ ("delta") circuits: Eline = Ephase Iline = 3 Iphase
Let’s see how this works in an example circuit: (Figure 10. necessitating thicker. which is substantially more than the line currents in the Yconnected system we looked at earlier.34 A
So each line current in this threephase power system is equal to 144.36: The load on the ∆ source is wired in a ∆.34 amps. One might wonder if we’ve lost all the advantages of threephase power here.
g.37: Even with a source winding failure.38. However.39) with the same winding failure in a Yconnected source In this case. With each load phase element directly connected across a respective source phase winding. The only consequence of a source winding failing open for a ∆connected source is increased phase current in the remaining windings. 208. The only difference is extra current in the remaining functional source windings. a neutral wire was needed in case one of the phase loads were to fail open (or be turned off).
208 V + 120 V o ∠0 + 120 V ∠ 120o


104 V
104 V
winding failed open!
Figure 10. With a Yconnected system. Yconnected systems are
. two load resistances suffer reduced voltage while the third loses supply voltage completely! For this reason. the phase voltage will be constant regardless of open failures in the load elements. With a ∆connected load. if dual voltages are needed (e.38: Open “Y” source winding halves the voltage on two loads of a ∆ connected load.37) without affecting load voltage or current!
120 V ∠ 0o + + 120 V ∠ 120o
120 V
winding failed open!
120 V
120 V

Figure 10. and load phase voltage is still 120 V. in order to keep the phase voltages at the load from changing. A Yconnected load suffers an even worse fate (Figure 10. ∆connected sources are preferred for reliability. Compare this fault tolerance with a Yconnected system suffering an open source winding in Figure 10. THREEPHASE Y AND DELTA CONFIGURATIONS
311
One distinct advantage of a ∆connected system is its lack of a neutral wire. 120/208) or preferred for lower line currents. two of the resistances suffer reduced voltage while one remains at the original line voltage.5. This is not necessary (or even possible!) in a ∆connected circuit. Perhaps the greatest advantage of the ∆connected source is its fault tolerance. It is possible for one of the windings in a ∆connected threephase source to fail open (Figure 10.10. the line voltage is still 120 V.
and looses one load entirely. while line current is equal to phase current. line voltage is equal to phase voltage. • The three components comprising a threephase source or load are called phases. while line current is equal to phase current times the square root of 3. • Line current is the current through any one line between a threephase source and load.312
CHAPTER 10.
For ∆ ("delta") circuits: Eline = Ephase
•
Iline =
3
Iphase
.
For "Y" circuits: Eline = 3 Ephase
• Iline = Iphase • In balanced ∆ circuits. the conﬁguration of choice.39: Open source winding of a ”YY” system halves the voltage on two loads. • Line voltage is the voltage measured between any two lines in a threephase circuit. • Phase voltage is the voltage measured across a single component in a threephase source or load. line voltage is equal to phase voltage times the square root of 3. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
+ 120 V o ∠0


+ 120 V ∠ 120o
104 V 0V
104 V
winding failed open!
Figure 10. • Phase current is the current through any one component comprising a threephase source or load. • REVIEW: • The conductors connected to the three points of a threephase source or load are called lines. • In balanced “Y” circuits.
10. it makes sense that we would need threephase transformers to be able to step voltages up or down. the other two can still maintain full line voltages to the load).6. the winding connection options are the same: • Primary . The various combinations of ways that these windings can be connected together in will be the focus of this section. Yconnected sources can deliver the same amount of power with less line current than ∆connected sources. However.10. while ∆ connections enjoy a higher level of reliability (if one winding fails open. eliminating the requirement for a special threephase transformer. Whether the winding sets share a common core assembly or each winding pair is a separate transformer.40. and are able to perform with less material requirement. each set wound around one leg of an iron core assembly. less size. and less weight than their modular counterparts.
. special threephase transformers are built for those tasks. THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER CIRCUITS
313
• ∆connected threephase voltage sources give greater reliability in the event of winding failure than Yconnected sources. Those sets of primary and secondary windings will be connected in either ∆ or Y conﬁgurations to form a complete unit.40: Three phase transformer core has three sets of windings.Secondary • • • • Y Y ∆ ∆ Y ∆ Y ∆
The reasons for choosing a Y or ∆ conﬁguration for transformer winding connections are the same as for any other threephase application: Y connections provide the opportunity for multiple voltages.6
Threephase transformer circuits
Since threephase is used so often for power distribution systems. This is only partially true. Essentially it looks like three singlephase transformers sharing a joined core as in Figure 10. A threephase transformer is made of three sets of primary and secondary windings. However.
Threephase transformer core
Figure 10. as regular singlephase transformers can be ganged together to transform power between two threephase systems in a variety of conﬁgurations.
Getting this phasing correct when the windings aren’t shown in regular Y or ∆ conﬁguration can be tricky. A2 .42: Inputs A1 . B3 .41)
+ ∠ 0o
+

+ ∠ 120o o
+∠0 o
∠ 240 (Y)
∠ 240
o
+ ( ∆)

+ ∠ 120o
Figure 10. I’ll show the wiring connections for a YY conﬁguration: Figure 10.44) are connected in a chain. (∆) The winding polarities must stack together in a complementary manner ( + to ). while the nondot ends are connected together to form the centers of each “Y”. First. Now.
A1 B1 C1 T1 A2 B2 C2
Figure 10. At
T2
T3
. as may outputs B1 . and C. starting with Figure 10. Let me illustrate. B. forming the ∆ loop. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Probably the most important aspect of connecting three sets of primary and secondary windings together to form a threephase transformer bank is paying attention to proper winding phasing (the dots used to denote “polarity” of windings). Three individual transformers are to be connected together to transform power from one threephase system to another. the “dot” side of one winding connected to the “nondot” side of the next.43 Note in Figure 10.44) Note how the secondary windings (bottom set.43 how all the winding ends marked with dots are connected to their respective phases A.314
CHAPTER 10. B2 .41: (Y) The center point of the “Y” must tie either all the “” or all the “+” winding points together. Remember the proper phase relationships between the phase windings of ∆ and Y: (Figure 10. Having both primary and secondary winding sets connected in “Y” formations allows for the use of neutral conductors (N1 and N2 ) in each power system. we’ll take a look at a Y∆ conﬁguration: (Figure 10. Figure 10. A3 may be wired either “∆” or “Y”.42.
THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER CIRCUITS
315
YY A1 B1 C1 N1 T1 N2 A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.6.10.44: Phase wiring for “Y∆” transformer.
.
T2
T3
Y∆ A1 B1 C1 N1 T1 T2 T3
A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.43: Phase wiring for “YY” transformer.
Considering that a ∆ conﬁguration can operate satisfactorily missing one winding. representing a ∆∆ conﬁguration with a missing winding in both the primary and secondary sides: (Figure 10. let’s examine a ∆Y system in Figure 10. a connection is made to a line of the second power system (A. And ﬁnally. The following photograph (Figure 10. some power system designers choose to create a threephase transformer bank with only two transformers.” Of course. and C). weight.
∆Y
A1 B1 C1
T1 N2 A2 B2 C2
T2
T3
Figure 10. this system no longer provides the fault tolerance of a normal ∆∆ system. each of the two transformers have to be oversized to handle the same amount of power as three in a standard ∆ conﬁguration. If one of the two transformers were to fail. the load voltage and current would deﬁnitely be affected.48) shows a bank of stepup transformers at the Grand Coulee hydroelectric dam in Washington state.45) would allow for the provision of multiple voltages (linetoline or linetoneutral) in the second power system. and cost advantages are often worth it. but it appears the secondaries are connected in a Y conﬁguration.47) This conﬁguration is called “V” or “Open∆.45. but the overall size. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
every connection point between pairs of windings. however. B.45: Phase wiring for “∆Y” transformer. we turn to the ∆∆ conﬁguration: (Figure 10. wired together in some form of threephase conﬁguration. Several transformers (green in color) may be seen from this vantage point. and they are grouped in threes: three transformers per hydroelectric generator. Such a conﬁguration (Figure 10. Now. ∆∆ connection schemes (Figure 10. being that there is only one large highvoltage insulator protruding from
.46) When there is no need for a neutral conductor in the secondary power system. from a source power system having no neutral. Bear in mind.46) are preferred because of the inherent reliability of the ∆ conﬁguration.316
CHAPTER 10. The photograph doesn’t reveal the primary winding connections. that with one winding set missing from the ∆ shape.
10.6.47: “V” or “open∆” provides 2φ power with only two transformers.46: Phase wiring for “∆∆” transformer. THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER CIRCUITS
317
∆∆
A1 B1 C1
T1
T2
T3
A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.
"Open ∆" A1 B1 C1
T1
T2
A2 B2 C2
Figure 10.
.
7
Harmonics in polyphase power systems
In the chapter on mixedfrequency signals.318
CHAPTER 10. On the right. as the ﬁlament resistance changes throughout the cycle due to rapid ﬂuctuations in temperature. Examples of nonlinear components include gasdischarge lamps. when magnetic ﬁelds within the motor’s core operate near saturation levels). The building to the left is the powerhouse. with no even integer multiples. transistors. there should be no harmonic content . Nonlinear components draw current disproportionately with respect to the source voltage. we explored the concept of harmonics in AC systems: frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental source frequency.
10. (Figure 10. . and electric motors (again. the sloping concrete wall is the downstream face of the dam:
Figure 10. any distortion of an otherwise sinewave shaped waveform constitutes the presence of harmonic frequencies. transformers (primary winding magnetization current is usually nonsinusoidal due to the B/H saturation curve of the core). . With AC power systems where the source voltage waveform coming from an AC generator (alternator) is supposed to be a singlefrequency sine wave. undistorted. causing nonsinusoidal current waveforms.49) Most nonlinear loads produce
. When the nonsinusoidal waveform in question is symmetrical above and below its average centerline. This would be true were it not for nonlinear components. ideally. the harmonic frequencies will be odd integer multiples of the fundamental source frequency only. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
each transformer. semiconductor powercontrol devices (diodes. Even incandescent lamps generate slightly nonsinusoidal currents. where the generators and turbines are housed. USA. As we learned in the mixedfrequency chapter. This suggests the other side of each transformer’s secondary winding is at or near ground potential. Washington state. SCRs. which could only be true in a Y system.48: Stepup transfromer bank at Grand Coulee hydroelectric dam. TRIACs).
the odd harmonics can still cause problems. Some of these problems are general to all power systems. 12th. we’ll begin our simulation with a very simple AC circuit: a single sinewave voltage source with a purely linear load and all associated resistances: (Figure 10. It is helpful to be able to simulate nonlinear loads in SPICE so as to avoid a lot of complex mathematics and obtain a more intuitive understanding of harmonic effects. 8th. assuming a 60 Hz source. can occur in any AC power system where there is signiﬁcant harmonic content. Being completely linear in nature. and so evennumbered harmonics (2nd. 6th. you obtain a direct indication of current through it. and normally this would result in a sinewave graph output. and it is these problems to which this section is speciﬁcally devoted. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
319
current waveforms like this. However. however.52. etc. Examples of nonsymmetrical waveforms with even harmonics present are shown for reference in Figure 10. we should expect no harmonics other than the 1st (fundamental) of 60 Hz. since E = IR.
Figure 10.
Pure sine wave = 1st harmonic only
Figure 10. See SPICE output “Fourier components of transient response v(2.51) The Rsource and Rline resistances in this circuit do more than just mimic the real world: they also provide convenient shunt resistances for measuring currents in the SPICE simulation: by reading voltage across a 1 Ω resistance. First. singlephase or otherwise. In this case. I’ve purposely omitted the waveform display for
. A SPICE simulation of this circuit (SPICE listing: “linear load simulation”) with Fourier analysis on the voltage measured across Rline should show us the harmonic content of this circuit’s line current.) are absent or only minimally present in most AC power systems.10. A .49: Examples of symmetrical waveforms – odd harmonics only.7. Even though half of the possible harmonic frequencies are eliminated by the typically symmetrical distortion of nonlinear loads. there are some problems caused by harmonic currents that are speciﬁc to polyphase power systems.50: Examples of nonsymmetrical waveforms – even harmonics present. for example.50.3)” and Figure 10.plot command appears in the SPICE netlist. 4th. Transformer overheating due to eddy current losses. 10th.
200E+02 2.324 9 5.691 total harmonic distortion = 0.000000 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.267 5 3.198E01 1.400E+02 9.3) dc component = 4.267 11.5m 30m 0 1u .000000 41.453E11 0.200E+02 5.end
Fourier components of transient response v(2. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
2 Rsource 1 Vsource 0 120 V 1Ω
Rline 1Ω 1 kΩ
3
Rload
0
Figure 10.000000 4.028E12 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.000000 36.plot tran v(2.056E12 0.343 8 4.461 108.400E+02 3.931E11 0.
linear load simulation vsource 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource 1 2 1 rline 2 3 1 rload 3 0 1k .3) .000 123.399 30.3) .320
CHAPTER 10.000000 51.376 76.000E+01 1.407E12 0.000000 21.691
.324 93.000 2 1.657 125.600E+02 3.000000 53.000000 83.000E+02 1.716E11 0.122 3 1.461 6 3.624 4 2.51: SPICE circuit with single sinewave source.338E11 0.800E+02 7.651E11 0.options itl5=0 .000000 72.800E+02 4.399 7 4.four 60 v(2.793E12 0.000000 34.tran 0.122 37.
(See Figure 10. Another is to add some AC current sources in parallel with the load resistor.55 and “Fourier components of transient response v(2. The latter method is often preferred by engineers for simulating harmonics. Since we’re letting SPICE do all the math work.9 mA: our 50 mA. This can be done in two fundamentally different ways.52: Frequency domain plot of single frequency component. given a source voltage of 120 volts and a load resistance of 1 kΩ. I’d like to simulate a nonlinear load so as to generate harmonic currents. We show 0.1198 amps (1. Here we see the same 0. or the fundamental frequency. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
321
Figure 10.3)”) the mixed frequencies are unmixed and presented separately.7. the complexity of a semiconductor component would cause no trouble for us. its current will add with the resistor’s to make a nonsinusoidal total line current. but since current sources can be ﬁnetuned to produce any arbitrary amount of current (a convenient feature). since current sources of known value lend themselves better to mathematical network analysis than components with highly complex response characteristics. which is our expected load current: about 120 mA. One way is to design a load using nonlinear components such as diodes or other semiconductor devices which are easy to simulate with SPICE. Why don’t
.1198 amps of 60 Hz (fundamental) current as we did in the ﬁrst simulation. I’ll choose the latter approach shown in Figure 10. we have a current source of 50 mA magnitude and a frequency of 180 Hz. 180 Hz current source at work. See SPICE listing: “linear load simulation”.54 just so you can see the effects of this 3rdharmonic current on the total current. and so we see very small harmonic currents indicated (in the picoamp range!) for all frequencies up to the 9th harmonic (in the table ). Next.plot command is in the netlist simply to satisfy a quirk of SPICE’s Fourier transform function.10.53 and SPICE listing: “Nonlinear load simulation”. but appearing in the 3rd harmonic row we see 49. brevity’s sake – the . which is three times the source frequency of 60 Hz.198E01) for the “Fourier component” of the 1st harmonic. which is as far as SPICE goes in performing Fourier analysis. No discrete Fourier transform is perfect. I’ll show the waveform plot in Figure 10. In the Fourier analysis. Connected in parallel with the 1 kΩ load resistor. which would ordinarily be a plain sine wave. In this circuit.
four 60 v(2.5m 30m 0 1u . Nonlinear load simulation vsource 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource 1 2 1 rline 2 3 1 rload 3 0 1k i3har 3 0 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) .322
CHAPTER 10.tran 0.end
Figure 10.3) .
.53: SPICE circuit: 60 Hz source with 3rd harmonic added.plot tran v(2.54: SPICE timedomain plot showing sum of 60 Hz source and 3rd harmonic of 180 Hz.options itl5=0 .3) . POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
2 Rsource 1 Vsource 0 120 V 60 Hz 1Ω
Rline 1Ω 1 kΩ
3
3
Rload
50 mA 180 Hz
0
0
Figure 10.
329E10 0.498
Figure 10.546 241.582 212.736E11 0.10.772 232.349E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.071 8 4.000E+01 1.600E+02 5.
.845 7 4.200E+02 1.000 2 1.609E11 0.198E01 1.871E11 0.570 3 1.3) dc component = 1.000000 177.7.400E+02 1.546 5 3.666663 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.400E+02 2.800E+02 1.071 228.000 97.407E11 0.619E10 0.416667 144.000E+02 3.582 6 3.000000 169.55: SPICE Fourier plot showing 60 Hz source and 3rd harmonic of 180 Hz.000000 72.000000 67.000000 156.200E+02 8.845 249.000000 169.772 9 5.498 total harmonic distortion = 41.000 4 2.990E02 0. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
323
Fourier components of transient response v(2.570 216.074E10 0.000000 160.800E+02 4.000000 140.000 139.
56 and SPICE listing: “Nonlinear load simulation”. It’s an inevitable consequence of this type of simulation. where one part of the load is “normal” (a resistor) and the other part is imitated by a current source. 5th.58 and SPICE listing “YY source/load 4wire system with harmonics”.57) every harmonic current source is equally represented in the line current. (Figure 10.four 60 v(2.tran 0. Nonlinear load simulation vsource 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource 1 2 1 rline 2 3 1 rload 3 0 1k i3har 3 0 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har 3 0 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har 3 0 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har 3 0 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) . this is just a singlephase power system simulation. See Figure 10.plot tran v(2. See Figure 10.9 mA each. Two Fourier analyses will be performed: one for the voltage across a line resistor. 5th. 7th.
. As before. and one for the voltage across the neutral resistor.5m 30m 0 1u .options itl5=0 . and each of those harmonic currents would appear in the Fourier analysis breakdown. reading voltages across ﬁxed resistances of 1 Ω each gives direct indications of current through those resistors. and 9th harmonics present.
Nonlinear load: 1st. 3rd.” we would see further distortion of the line current waveform from the ideal sinewave shape. 7th. so some of its current is shunted through the load and never goes through the line back to the source.3) . 3rd.56: Nonlinear load: 1st. and 9th harmonics present 3 3 3 3 3
2 Rsource 1 Vsource 0 1Ω
Rline 1Ω 1 kΩ 120 V 60 Hz
Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 0 0 0 0 0
Figure 10.324
CHAPTER 10. at 49.end As you can see from the Fourier analysis.3) . So far. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
we see the entire 50 mA through the line? Because that current source is connected across the 1 kΩ load resistor. Things get more interesting when we make it a threephase simulation. If we were to add more current sources to the “load.
990E02 0.000 total harmonic distortion = 83.000E+01 1.000000 72.000000 38.600E+02 6.742E09 0.990E02 0.000 8 4.416667 144.800E+02 2.062 72.
.3) dc component = 6.873 72.219 144.000E+02 4.57: Fourier analysis: “Fourier components of transient response v(2.000000 93.299E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.198E01 1.333296 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.200E+02 4. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
325
Fourier components of transient response v(2.7.900E09 0.3)”.800E+02 4.990E02 0.469E09 0.000000 116.000 21.416666 72.400E+02 4.990E02 0.781 9 5.400E+02 5.000 6 3.416667 0.908 216.062 7 4.000 2 1.873 5 3.416666 144.000000 85.000 4 2.271E09 0.000 33.000 44.000 157.200E+02 1.000
Figure 10.908 3 1.10.
1111m 0) * * analysis stuff .55555m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 10 7 1k i3har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 180 11.8) .plot tran v(0.7) .four 60 v(0.1111m 0) rsource3 5 6 1 * * line and neutral wire resistances rline1 2 8 1 rline2 4 9 1 rline3 6 10 1 rneutral 0 7 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 8 7 1k i3har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 9 7 1k i3har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 180 5.1111m 0) i5har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 300 11.1111m 0) i7har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 420 11.55555m 0) i5har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 300 5.55555m 0) rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / 240 deg) vsource3 5 0 sin(0 120 60 11.plot tran v(2.8) .55555m 0) i7har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 420 5.5m 100m 12m 1u .options itl5=0 . POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
YY source/load 4wire system with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / 0 deg) vsource1 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / 120 deg) vsource2 3 0 sin(0 120 60 5.1111m 0) i9har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 540 11.end
.55555m 0) i9har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 540 5.7) .four 60 v(2.326
CHAPTER 10.tran 0.
000000 0.990 0.198E01 1.146 7 4. (Figure 10. See Figure 10.000000 148.59 and Fourier analysis: “Fourier components of transient response v(2. as determined by the voltage drop across the Rneutral resistor between SPICE nodes 0 and 7.985 0.000 4 2.800E+02 4.985 3 1.000E+01 1.990E02 0.416667 0.416666 0. and odd harmonic currents of approximately 50 mA each.60) In a balanced 3phase Y load.000 147.415422 0.990 5 3.7.415423 0.877E10 0.58: SPICE circuit: analysis of “line current” and “neutral current”. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
Rline 1Ω Rline 1Ω 8 9
327
2 Rsource 1 Vsource 120 V 60 Hz 0o Vsource 0 60 Hz 120 V 240o 1Ω 1Ω
4 Rsource 3 120 V 60 Hz 120o Rneutral 1Ω 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 1 kΩ Rload 1Ω 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz
7
Vsource 5 Rsource 6
Rline 1Ω
10
Figure 10.10.200E+02 2.784E10 0.8)” What should be surprising here is the analysis for the neutral conductor’s current. we would expect the neutral current to be zero.000000 172.400E+02 4.200E+02 4.000 8 4.000000 166.000 166.1198 amps. it should come as no surprise that the Fourier analysis for line current in one phase of the 3phase system is nearly identical to the Fourier analysis for line current in the singlephase system: a fundamental (60 Hz) line current of 0. Each
.990E02 0.218E10 0. Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier components of transient response v(2.000 total harmonic distortion = 83.975E02 0.975E02 0.811 9 5.000 2 1.000 6 3.000000 147.811 0.000E+02 4.146 0. each phase identical to the singlephase AC system simulated earlier. Consequently.236E10 0.600E+02 1.400E+02 4.000 148. YY source/load 4wire system with harmonics.404E12 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.8) dc component = 6.000
Fourier analysis of neutral current: This is a balanced YY power system.209009 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.000 172.800E+02 2.
396E10 0.7) dc component = 1.981 6 3.819E10 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.999
normalized phase (deg) 0.206 3 1.337E07 1.017
.584 9 5.000000 60.188 240.493E01 344147.018 2 1.000431 91.975E10 0.000783 15.000E+01 4.200E+02 1.257E09 0.023E07 2.000E+02 9.103 5 3.800E+02 1.200E+02 1.136 0.002898 21.025 24. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Figure 10.882 7 4.600E+02 3.4889 179.7638 180.493E01 344147.000 4 2.001378 35.993 8 4.080596 119.963 44.800E+02 5.000 31.400E+02 1.018 81.121 59.328
CHAPTER 10.913955 59.264E06 2.400E+02 1.434 240.869E10 0.59: Fourier analysis of line current in balanced YY system
Fourier components of transient response v(0.
The phase shift ﬁgure of 120o generally assumed in threephase AC systems applies only to the
. Observe how this harmonic waveform has the same phase relationship to the 2nd and 3rd fundamental waveforms as it does with the 1st: in each positive halfcycle of any of the fundamental waveforms. we cannot say the same for harmonic currents in the same system. However. Let’s consider. The key to understanding this is made clear in a timedomain graph of phase currents.10. it appears our 3rd and 9th harmonic currents in each phase are adding to form the neutral current.62. or three times the current sources’ values.7) ” This is exactly what’s happening. individually. With three sources per harmonic frequency in the load. though it might not be apparent why this is so. what a 3rd harmonic waveform for phase 1 would look like superimposed on the graph in Figure 10. you will ﬁnd exactly two positive halfcycles and one negative halfcycle of the harmonic waveform. Examine this plot of balanced phase currents over time. The same may be said about the 5th and 7th harmonics. or the 1st harmonic) current is virtually absent from the neutral conductor. (Figure 10.493E01 volts across 1 Ω) each! This is very nearly 150 mA.4337 µA of 1st harmonic when reading voltage across Rneutral . though.61) With the three fundamental waveforms equally shifted across the time axis of the graph. both of those currents having negligible magnitude. with a phase sequence of 123. leaving zero current through the neutral conductor.3 mA (1. this is what happens. In contrast. In a system with no harmonic currents. with 149. Our Fourier analysis shows only 0. What this means is that the 3rdharmonic waveforms of three 120o phaseshifted fundamentalfrequency waveforms are actually in phase with each other.60: Fourier analysis of neutral current shows other than no harmonics! Compare to line current in Figure 10. See Fourier analysis: “Fourier components of transient response v(0.7.59 phase current – which by itself would go through the neutral wire back to the supplying phase on the source Y – should cancel each other in regard to the neutral conductor because they’re all the same magnitude and all shifted 120o apart. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
329
Figure 10. the 3rd and 9th harmonics are strongly represented within the neutral conductor. it is easy to see how they would cancel each other to give a resultant current of zero in the neutral conductor. Note that the fundamental frequency (60 Hz.
3.2.
1
2
3
TIME
Figure 10.3 1 2 3
TIME
Figure 10.62: Third harmonic waveform for phase1 superimposed on threephase fundamental waveforms. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
phase sequence: 1.2.1.2.3.61: Phase sequence 123123123 of equally spaced waves.1.
.330
CHAPTER 10.
) are generally not signiﬁcant.63)
1 2 3
TIME
Figure 10. this principle may be expressed symbolically. A’ and B’ must be in phase with each other:
Phase sequence = ABC Fundamental A 0o B 120o C 240o
3rd harmonic
A’ B’ C’ o o 3x0 3 x 120 3 x 240o (0o) (360o = 0o) (720o = 0o)
This characteristic of the 3rd harmonic in a threephase system also holds true for any integer multiples of the 3rd harmonic. etc. Thus. the 9th harmonics. the 21st harmonics. the 18th harmonics. not only are the 3rd harmonic waveforms of each fundamental waveform in phase with each other. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
331
fundamental frequencies. 3 all coincide when superimposed on the fundamental threephase waveforms. When relating waveforms of different frequency. and the timeshift between A’ and B’ is equivalent to 120o at a frequency three times lower. For the more mathematically inclined. because the A’ and B’ waveforms alternate three times as fast as A and B. uniﬁed waveform (shown in bold in (Figure 10.) to signiﬁcantly contribute to neutral currents. Let’s call the 3rd harmonic of each waveform A’ and B’. both at the same frequency. Suppose that A represents one waveform and B another. Since only odd harmonics appear in systems where waveform distortion is symmetrical about the centerline – and most nonlinear loads create symmetrical distortion – evennumbered multiples of the 3rd harmonic (6th. the 12th harmonics. A phase shift of 360o is the same as a phase shift of 0o . the 15th harmonics. which is to say no phase shift at all. 18th. In polyphase power systems with some number of phases other than three. we would see them precisely overlap and appear as a single. 9th.10. So. or 360o at the frequency of A’ and B’. The phase shift between A’ and B’ is not 120o (that is the phase shift between A and B).7. but so are the 6th harmonics. 12th. etc. this effect occurs
. The shift between waveforms is only accurately expressed in terms of phase angle when the same angular velocity is assumed. the most accurate way to represent phase shift is in terms of time. 15th. not to their harmonic multiples! If we were to plot all three 3rdharmonic waveforms on the same graph. but 3 times that. 21st. respectively.63: Third harmonics for phases 1. leaving only the oddnumbered multiples (3rd. and so on. 2. but shifted 120o from each other in terms of phase.
doing so just causes a different problem: the load’s “Y” centerpoint will no longer be at the same potential as the source’s.64)
Source
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
line line
Load
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
ω
3ω
neutral
3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω
5ω
7ω 9ω
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
line
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
Figure 10. the triplen harmonic currents may be of great enough magnitude to cause neutral conductors to overheat. 20th. as other safety concerns prohibit neutral conductors from having overcurrent protection. then they won’t. The 5th and 7th harmonic currents are present at their normal levels (approximately 50 mA). the harmonic currents that add in the neutral conductor of a starconnected 4phase system where the phase shift between fundamental waveforms is 90o would be the 4th. and is mathematically equivalent to 2πf. and so on: (Figure 10. “3ω ” represents the 3rd harmonic. The following illustration shows how triplen harmonic currents created at the load add within the neutral conductor. So. 8th. we see that the triplen harmonic currents (3rd and 9th) all but disappear in the lines connecting load to source. In power systems containing substantial nonlinear loading. For instance. we see that there is substantial harmonic
. Due to their abundance and signiﬁcance in threephase power systems. “5ω” represents the 5th harmonic. We’ll rerun the last SPICE simulation without the 1 Ω Rneutral resistor and see what happens: Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier analysis of voltage between the two “Y” centerpoints: Fourier analysis of load phase voltage: Strange things are happening. but the 3rd and 9th harmonic currents are of negligible magnitude. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
with harmonics of the same multiple. “ω” represents the fundamental frequency. right? Unfortunately. Second.332
CHAPTER 10. meaning that each phase of the load will receive a different voltage than what is produced by the source. 12th. 16th. one might be tempted to remove the neutral wire entirely. In an effort to mitigate these additive triplen currents. indeed.64: “YY”Triplen source/load: Harmonic currents add in neutral conductor. This is very problematic. and thus there is no provision for automatic interruption of these high currents. and so on. If there is no neutral wire in which triplen currents can ﬂow together. the 3rd harmonic and its multiples have their own special name: triplen harmonics. First. All triplen harmonics add with each other in the neutral conductor of a 4wire Yconnected load. The symbol “ω” is used to represent angular velocity.
options itl5=0 .55555m 0) i9har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 540 5.four 60 v(2.plot tran v(8.7) .5m 100m 12m 1u .tran 0.7) .55555m 0) rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / 240 deg) vsource3 5 0 sin(0 120 60 11.7) .1111m 0) i9har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 540 11.1111m 0) i7har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 420 11.8) .plot tran v(2.1111m 0) rsource3 5 6 1 * * line resistances rline1 2 8 1 rline2 4 9 1 rline3 6 10 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 8 7 1k i3har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 9 7 1k i3har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 180 5.7.55555m 0) i7har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 420 5.8) .four 60 v(0.10.end
333
.55555m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 10 7 1k i3har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 180 11.four 60 v(8. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
YY source/load (no neutral) with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / 0 deg) vsource1 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / 120 deg) vsource2 3 0 sin(0 120 60 5.55555m 0) i5har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 300 5.7) .1111m 0) * * analysis stuff .plot tran v(0.1111m 0) i5har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 300 11.
800E+02 3.000E+01 0.416668 0.002898 21.600E+02 1.018 2 1.000 31.417499 179.188 240.231E08 0.200E+02 2.023E07 0.001378 35.000E+02 9.005 total harmonic distortion = 58.025 24.093E08 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.000 4 2.462 179.990E02 0.000835 179.103 5 3.009 4 2.080596 119.000E+01 1.000000 90.882 7 4.001E07 0.990E02 0.584 9 5.453E04 1.963 44.000000 159.000 4 2.800E+02 5.600E+02 1.000 19.600E+02 8.400E+02 9.7) dc component = 6.000E+01 1.000 8 4.638 90.423E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.000783 15.991E07 0.263E08 0.7) dc component = 6.000003 90.023E04 2.000E+01 0.000E+02 4.400E+02 5.000008 90.000832 179.417500 180.005
normalized phase (deg) 0.000E+01 1.009 111.198E01 1.000 90.565 0.043467 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.963E11 0.234E04 2.959E02 0.406E07 0.000 2 1.000E+01 344147.7879 180.485 179.000 124.000000 13.000 6 3.993 8 4.999 total harmonic distortion = 59.018 81.8) dc component = 5.4728 179.000000 60.126E11 0.606E11 0.000 2 1.473 180.790 8 4.981 6 3.210E07 0.388E10 0.200E+02 6.800E+02 1.000E+02 3.800E+02 8.995E02 0.510 0.121 59.800E+02 5.000000 124.200E+02 9.999 total harmonic distortion = ************ percent Fourier components of transient response v(8.999
.198E+02 1.473 3 1.000 158.000431 91.400E+02 4.000000 158.400E+02 5.136E07 0.000000 0.925539 percent Fourier components of transient response v(0. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Fourier components of transient response v(2.000000 0.000000 35.017
normalized phase (deg) 0.000000 111.434 240.850 6 3.747 179.334
CHAPTER 10.747 5 3.565 7 4.462 9 5.200E+02 6.136 0.000E+01 344147.638 9 5.485 7 4.070E08 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.913955 59.000 159.016 3 1.800E+02 2.016 90.850 13.206 3 1.400E+02 5.000000 19.138E07 0.200E+02 4.278E07 0.400E+02 4.200E+02 4.416665 0.510 5 3.789 35.
846 60 5.10.65 is a graphical summary of the aforementioned effects.65: Threewire “YY” (no neutral) system: Triplen voltages appear between “Y” centers. balanced Y system. load phase voltage (nodes 8 and 7). Since removing the neutral wire didn’t seem to work in eliminating the problems caused by harmonics. which is deﬁnitely not normal in a linear (no harmonics). and see what happens. The 120o phaseshifted source has these ﬁgures: “(0 207. Finally. Let’s try a ∆ source instead of a Y. According to SPICE. keeping the load in its present Y conﬁguration. In the previous simulation where we had a 4wire. If you just want to ﬁnd out what happens in the circuit.7. the voltage as measured across one of the load’s phases (between nodes 8 and 7 in the SPICE analysis) likewise shows strong triplen harmonic voltages of 50 volts each. the only way to do it in SPICE is to set up the sources with a delay time or phase offset speciﬁed in seconds.55555m 0)”. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
335
voltage between the two “Y” centerpoints. 0 time delay.846 volts peak amplitude (120 times the square root of three.66) Note: the following paragraph is for those curious readers who follow every detail of my SPICE netlists. between which the neutral conductor used to connect. 60 Hz. removal of the neutral conductor leads to a “hot” centerpoint on the load “Y”. Thus. Nontriplen currents appear in line conductors. In summary. Figure 10. and 0 damping factor. the undesirable effect from harmonics was excessive neutral current. nodes 1 and 2). The measured parameters will be line current (voltage across Rline .846 60 0 0)”. all the same as the ﬁrst except for the time delay factor of 5. all comprised of triplen frequencies. and source phase current (voltage across Rsource . 207. Triplen voltages appear across load phases. the 0o source has these ﬁve specifying ﬁgures: “(0 207. but at least each phase of the load received voltage nearly free of harmonics. Yconnected system. (Figure 10. which means 0 volts DC offset. to ensure the load phase voltages remain at 120 volts each). or 1/3 of the full
. and also to harmonic load phase voltages of equal magnitude. there is 50 volts of both 3rd and 9th harmonic frequency between these two points. nodes 0 and 8). skip this paragraph! When simulating circuits having AC sources of differing frequency and differing phase.
Source
ω 5ω 7ω
line line
ω 5ω 7ω
Load
V
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
3ω 9ω
V
3ω 9ω
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
line
ω 5ω 7ω
Figure 10. perhaps switching to a ∆ conﬁguration will.55555 milliseconds.
5m 100m 16m 1u .2777m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 10 7 1k i3har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 180 4.2777m 0) i5har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 300 15.846 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / vsource2 3 2 sin(0 207.8) v(8.tran 0.16666m 0) i9har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 540 4.16666m 0) i7har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 420 4.16666m 0) * * analysis stuff .plot tran v(0.7) v(1.1111m rsource3 5 0 1 * * line resistances rline1 0 8 1 rline2 2 9 1 rline3 4 10 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 8 7 1k i3har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 9.2777m 0) i9har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 540 15.55555m rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / vsource3 5 4 sin(0 207.72222m 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 9 7 1k i3har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 180 15.72222m 0) i7har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 9.7) v(1.72222m 0) i5har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 9.846 60 5.2777m 0) i7har2 9 7 sin(0 50m 420 15.2) .336
CHAPTER 10.end
0 deg)
120 deg) 0)
240 deg) 0)
.8) v(8. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
DeltaY source/load with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / vsource1 1 0 sin(0 207.four 60 v(0.72222m 0) i9har1 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 9.16666m 0) i5har3 10 7 sin(0 50m 300 4.2) .options itl5=0 .846 60 11.
and 9. because the phase voltages in a Y load are not in phase with the phase voltages of a ∆ source. Consequently.66: DeltaY source/load with harmonics period of 16. and VC will have phase angles of 30o . If ∆ source voltages VAC . and 210o .72222 milliseconds (210o ).6667 milliseconds. This is for the ∆connected source. The result of this analysis is almost as disappointing as the last. The 240o source must be timedelayed twice that amount. Both 5th and 7th harmonics are represented there. requires a different set of timedelay ﬁgures for its harmonic current sources. or 11. VBA .7.
. which gives all sources in the netlist time to engage before any analysis takes place.6667 milliseconds for a 60 Hz waveform.tran transient analysis line to hold off analysis until 16 milliseconds after start. respectively. on the other hand.2777 milliseconds (30o . they don’t “turn on” until their delay time has elapsed. with a full 50 volts of triplen harmonic (3rd and 9th) frequencies across each load component. which should come as no surprise. I set the . 90o . then “Y” load voltages VA . I had to set them at 15. which means any mathematical analysis up to that point in time will be in error. respectively. VB . and 240o . (Figure 10. 120o . equivalent to a fraction of 240/360 of 16.1111 milliseconds. This is an intrinsic property of all ∆Y circuits and not a quirk of SPICE. Otherwise. and VCB are referenced at 0o . One ﬁnal note: when delaying AC sources in SPICE. when I speciﬁed the delay times for the harmonic sources. the only advantage of the ∆Y conﬁguration from the standpoint of harmonics is that there is no longer a centerpoint at the load posing a shock hazard. the load components receive the same harmonicallyrich voltages and the lines see the same currents as in a threewire Y system.67) Line currents remain unchanged (the only substantial harmonic content being the 5th and 7th harmonics). Therefore. and load phase voltages remain unchanged as well. The Yconnected load. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
0 Rline 1Ω Rline 1Ω 8 120 V 60 Hz 0o Vsource 0 Rsource 5 Vsource 4 4 1 kΩ Rload 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 1Ω 60 Hz 120 V 240o 9
337
2
Rsource 120 V 60 Hz o 3 120 1Ω 4
1 kΩ
Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz
1 kΩ
Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz
1 1Ω 2 Vsource Rsource
7
Rline 4 1Ω
10
Figure 10. Source phase current is a fraction of the line current.10. 4.16666 milliseconds (90o ). or +330o ). with negligible triplen harmonics: Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier analysis of load phase voltage: Fourier analysis of source phase current: Really.
198E01 1.198 179.200E+02 2.000E+01 1.000000 150.491E11 0.000 100.000000 66.800E+02 1.998 324.800E+02 2.000021 179.897 59.002 6 3.000 9.200E+02 6.006 total harmonic distortion = 59.416682 30.000E+01 0.000000 0.925038 percent Fourier components of transient response v(8.398E07 0.400E+02 4.996 6 3.570 5 3.033E11 0.995
normalized phase (deg) 0.519E07 0.815 91.390 179.400E+02 4.417222 89.200E+02 1.000578 148.000000 110.200E+02 4.600E+02 1.723 3 1.813 39.7) dc component = 1.994E02 0.897 9 5.433E07 0.228 119.112 81.694 0.525E11 0.996 97.772 5 3.000000 150.883E02 0.493 179.998 83.400E+02 5.000E+01 1.000 156.998 8 4.931E02 0.000000 39.996 4 2.506E06 0.400E+02 2.906E02 1.338
CHAPTER 10.453 324.941E07 0.600E+02 2.000 2 1.181 2 1.998 92.267E06 0.400E+02 2.006 total harmonic distortion = 59.005 4 2.800E+02 8.000038 179.800E+02 5.000E+02 4.995 total harmonic distortion = 58.815 110.800E+02 4.200 329.000000 174.518E06 0.2) dc component = 3.000 2 1.307 239.000013 0.8) dc component = 6.397 5 3.000E+02 6.802 7 4.000000 91.186
.200E+02 1.000E+02 2.000540 151.417440 179.024E11 0.875 9 5.000000 156.745 179.000062 0.000000 52.200 9 5.400E+02 1. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Fourier components of transient response v(0.993E02 0.995
normalized phase (deg) 0.000000 49.004109 percent Fourier components of transient response v(1.722 149.162 7 4.600E+02 2.800E+02 1.548 8 4.416644 29.998 4 2.926 7 4.324E11 0.417398 179.000E+01 0.000000 68.200E+02 2.994 8 4.564E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.140E11 0.949E11 0.466E02 0.838 1.198E+02 1.031969 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.234E11 0.000000 159.000E+01 6.693 3 1.112 6 3.000000 57.417221 90.850E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.259E08 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.422E06 0.000000 174.674 3 1.603 301.883E02 0.
analyzing line current. (Figure 10. These results may be graphically summarized as such in Figure 10. Fourier analysis of line current: Fourier analysis of load phase voltage: Fourier analysis of source phase current: As predicted earlier. What we would have is current circulating within the loop formed by the ∆connected phases. since each load phase would be directly connected in parallel with each source phase. nor in the source phase current! We know that triplen currents exist. This is where the triplen harmonic currents have gone: they stay within the ∆ of the load.7. See SPICE listing: “DeltaDelta source/load with harmonics”.69. It would seem to be the ideal solution. load phase voltage. “Fourier analysis: Fourier components of transient response v(0. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
339
Source
ω 5ω 7ω ω 5ω 7ω
line line
ω 5ω 7ω
Load
ω
3ω
5ω
ω 5ω 7ω
ω 5ω 7ω 3ω 9ω
7ω 9ω
V
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
line
ω 5ω 7ω
Figure 10. Let’s simulate and observe. because the 3rd and 9th harmonic current sources are intentionally placed in the phases of the load. and think about what would happen if the 3rd and 9th harmonic sources were DC sources instead. but where did those currents go? Remember that the triplen harmonics of 120o phaseshifted fundamental frequencies are in phase with each other. and “Fourier components of transient response v(2. If we were to reconﬁgure the system into a ∆∆ arrangement. nor in the load phase voltage. thanks to the direct connection with the source phases in a ∆∆ system. Nontriplen currents appear in line conductors and in source phase windings. This is a major beneﬁt of the ∆∆ system conﬁguration: triplen harmonic currents remain
. and source phase current. with negligible harmonic content.10. never reaching the line conductors or the windings of the source.68) that should guarantee that each load component receives nonharmonic voltage. The complete lack of any neutral wires or “center points” in a ∆∆ system prevents strange voltages or additive currents from occurring. Note the directions that the arrows of the current sources within the load phases are pointing.6)”.67: “∆Y” source/load: Triplen voltages appear across load phases.1)”. the load phase voltage is almost a pure sinewave. But what happened to the triplen harmonics? The 3rd and 9th harmonic frequencies don’t appear in any substantial amount in the line current.
69: ∆∆ source/load: Load phases receive undistorted sinewave voltages. Nontriplen currents apprear in line conductors and in source phase windings.68: DeltaDelta source/load with harmonics. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Rline 1Ω Rline 1Ω
0
Rload 1 kΩ 50 mA 180 Hz 50 mA 300 Hz 50 mA 420 Hz 50 mA 540 Hz
2
6
7
120 V 60 Hz 0o Vsource 0 Rsource 5 Vsource 4 1Ω 60 Hz 120 V 240o
Rsource 120 V 60 Hz 120o 1 kΩ Rload 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 1 kΩ Rload
1 1Ω 2 Vsource 3 Rsource 180 Hz 300 Hz 420 Hz 540 Hz 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA 50 mA
1Ω 4
4 8
Rline 4 1Ω
Figure 10.
Source
ω 5ω 7ω ω 5ω 7ω
line line
ω 5ω 7ω
Load
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
ω 5ω 7ω
ω 5ω 7ω ω
V
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω 3ω 9ω
ω 3ω 5ω 7ω 9ω
line
ω 5ω 7ω
Figure 10.
.340
CHAPTER 10. Triplen currents are conﬁned to circulate within load phases.
10.1111m 0) i9har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 540 11.6) v(2.plot tran v(0.55555m 0) i7har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 420 5.1111m 0) * * analysis stuff .1111m 0) i5har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 300 11.7.55555m 0) * * phase 3 of load rload3 6 8 1k i3har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 180 11.tran 0.1111m 0) rsource3 5 0 1 * * line resistances rline1 0 6 1 rline2 2 7 1 rline3 4 8 1 * * phase 1 of load rload1 7 6 1k i3har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 180 0 0) i5har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 300 0 0) i7har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 420 0 0) i9har1 7 6 sin(0 50m 540 0 0) * * phase 2 of load rload2 8 7 1k i3har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 180 5.6) v(7.1) .6) v(2. HARMONICS IN POLYPHASE POWER SYSTEMS
DeltaDelta source/load with harmonics * * phase1 voltage source and r (120 v / 0 deg) vsource1 1 0 sin(0 120 60 0 0) rsource1 1 2 1 * * phase2 voltage source and r (120 v / 120 deg) vsource2 3 2 sin(0 120 60 5.1) i(3har1) .55555m 0) i9har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 540 5.options itl5=0 .5m 100m 16m 1u .four 60 v(0.55555m 0) rsource2 3 4 1 * * phase3 voltage source and r (120 v / 240 deg) vsource3 5 4 sin(0 120 60 11.55555m 0) i5har2 8 7 sin(0 50m 300 5.1111m 0) i7har3 6 8 sin(0 50m 420 11.end
341
.6) v(7.
940 60.600E+02 1.000E+01 2.400E+02 2.127 180.6) dc component = 5.000 46.000000 151.813 300.000E+02 8.475 7 4.991 total harmonic distortion = 58.000009 89.129E07 0.000000 89.385E07 0.200E+02 4.923E12 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.877E06 0.400E+02 4.000000 63.449 89.000000 179.800E+02 6.000003 89.000 8 4.070E01 1.961298 percent
normalized phase (deg) 0.800E+02 7.000000 156.400E+02 4.000000 0.480E11 0.000 6 3.974 4 2.385E11 0.000000 23.368 5 3.000E+02 1.760 180.759 9 5.000 4.013
normalized phase (deg) 0.600E+02 4.997 0.800E+02 1.000003 89.000000 31.1) dc component = 1.251E06 0.666 60.200E+02 1.416918 180.749 3 1.000 6 3.257E07 0.940 9 5.000 144.752E06 0.000 181.666 3 1.939 202.578E10 0.571 359.200E+02 2.235702 percent Fourier components of transient response v(2.699 89.000000 4.800E+02 3.010 141.657E11 0.000 2 1.416664 149.415 359.127 5 3.000 151.200E+02 5.089E10 0.187 5 3.987 total harmonic distortion = 58.800E+02 1.980E02 0.000000 89.680E10 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.905
normalized phase (deg) 0.800E+02 2.600E+02 2.200E+02 8.000000 144.000000 133.200E+02 1.626E02 0.001667 180.990 4 2.400E+02 1.000000 63.992E01 0.215E10 0.001667 180.951E09 0.997 7 4.000000 36.001 8 4.985 4 2.000E+01 1.992E01 0.000 8 4.749 89.905 total harmonic distortion = 0.007E11 harmonic frequency Fourier normalized phase no (hz) component component (deg) 1 6.000000 22.000 2 1.039E09 0.000008 89.760 7 4. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Fourier components of transient response v(0.974 36.925538 percent Fourier components of transient response v(7.194E01 1.000E+01 1.000E+02 4.491 3 1.385 89.6) dc component = 6.949
.955 156.000000 8.499E09 0.569E11 0.000000 150.595E11 0.416921 180.195E+02 1.940 2 1.911E11 0.385 9 5.400E+02 9.999 6 3.342
CHAPTER 10.400E+02 3.000 6.416669 150.980E02 0.939 243.626E02 0.001 213.
70) and/or in mathematical terms:
A B C
TIME
Figure 10. • The 3rd harmonic. • In a 4wire YY system. where phases A. triplen harmonic currents add within the neutral conductor. • Triplen harmonic currents in a ∆connected set of components circulate within the loop formed by the ∆. • When the sinewave distortion is symmetrical above and below the average centerline of the waveform. and do not “spread” to other parts of the system. • REVIEW: • Nonlinear components are those that draw a nonsinusoidal (nonsinewave) current waveform when energized by a sinusoidal (sinewave) voltage. no rotation. C all coincide.8.70: Harmonic currents of Phases A. 15th) are known as triplen harmonics.8
Harmonic phase sequences
In the last section. HARMONIC PHASE SEQUENCES
343
conﬁned in whatever set of components create them.
10. and C are 120o apart. B. and integer multiples of it (6th. that is. They are in phase with each other. despite the fact that their respective fundamental waveforms are 120o out of phase with each other. This can be thought of in graphical terms. we can say that nonlinear components generate harmonic currents. 12th. (Figure 10. not evennumbered. In a 60 Hz threephase power system. we saw how the 3rd harmonic and all of its integer multiples (collectively called triplen harmonics) generated by 120o phaseshifted fundamental waveforms are actually in phase with each other. 9th. the thirdharmonic multiples of those frequencies (180 Hz) fall perfectly into phase with each other.10.
. Since any distortion of an originally pure sinewave constitutes harmonic frequencies. the only harmonics present will be oddnumbered. B.
we will notice an interesting pattern develop with regard to the rotation or sequence of the harmonic frequencies:
Fundamental
A 0o
B 120o
C 240o
ABC no rotation
3rd harmonic
A’ B’ C’ 3 x 0o 3 x 120o 3 x 240o (0o) (360o = 0o) (720o = 0o) A’’ 5 x 0o (0o) A’’’ 7 x 0o (0o) A’’’’ 9 x 0o (0o) B’’ 5 x 120o
(600o = 720o . which “rotate” in the opposite sequence as the fundamental. This pattern of positivezeronegativepositive continues indeﬁnitely for all oddnumbered harmonics. are called zero sequence.344
CHAPTER 10. are called negative sequence. Harmonics such as the 5th. lending itself to expression in a table like this:
. Triplen harmonics (3rd and 9th shown in this table) which don’t “rotate” at all because they’re in phase with each other. which “rotate” with the same sequence as the fundamental. POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
Phase sequence = ABC Fundamental A 0o B 120o C 240o
3rd harmonic
A’ B’ C’ o o 3x0 3 x 120 3 x 240o (0o) (360o = 0o) (720o = 0o)
If we extend the mathematical table to include higher oddnumbered harmonics.240o)
CBA
(120 ) B’’’ 7 x 120o
(840o = 720o + 120o)
o
(240 ) C’’’ 7 x 240o
(1680o = 1440o + 240o)
o
7th harmonic
ABC
9th harmonic
(240 ) C’’’’ no 9 x 240o o o rotation (1080o = 0o) (2160 = 0 )
(120 ) B’’’’ 9 x 120o
o
o
Harmonics such as the 7th. are called positive sequence.120o)
5th harmonic
C’’ 5 x 240o
(1200o = 1440o .
and/or 23rd) in the power supplied to a threephase AC motor will result in a degradation of performance and possible overheating.10. CONTRIBUTORS
345
Rotation sequences according to harmonic number + 0 1st 7th 13th 19th 3rd 9th 15th 21st 5th 11th 17th 23rd Rotates with fundamental Does not rotate Rotates against fundamental
Sequence especially matters when we’re dealing with AC motors. the primary harmonic of concern is the 5th. and generally originate with less amplitude anyway.9.9
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions. 17th. Ed Beroset (May 6. from most recent to ﬁrst. whereas negativesequence frequencies actually work against the direction of the rotor’s rotation. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. 11th. which is 300 Hz in 60 Hz power systems and 250 Hz in 50 Hz power systems. Zerosequence frequencies neither contribute to nor detract from the rotor’s torque. 2002): Suggested better ways to illustrate the meaning of the preﬁx “poly”.
10. An excess of negativesequence harmonics (5th.
. Positivesequence frequencies work to push the rotor in the proper direction. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting. since the mechanical rotation of the rotor depends on the torque produced by the sequential “rotation” of the applied 3phase power. Since the higherorder harmonics tend to be attenuated more by system inductances and magnetic core losses. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.
POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS
.346
CHAPTER 10.
. . . . . . . . . .1 Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits . . . . . . . . . . 60 Hz AC voltage source is delivering power to a resistive load: (Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . 360 11. . . where a 120 volt. 355 11. .1: Ac source drives a purely resistive load. .3 Calculating power factor . . 347
. . . . . Reactive. . . .5 Contributors .1)
120 V 60 Hz
R
60 Ω
Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 11. . . . 352 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Practical power factor correction . . and Apparent power .1
Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits
Consider a circuit for a singlephase AC power system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 11
POWER FACTOR
Contents
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 True. . . . . .
it would look like Figure 11. because this form of mathematical symbolism implies unchanging phase relationships.348
CHAPTER 11. its frequency is double that of either the voltage or current waveforms. phase relationships constantly change. the current to the load would be 2 amps.2: Current is in phase with voltage in a resistive circuit. and to handle any relevant phase relationships with trigonometry. and impedance. When frequencies are not the same. If we were to plot the voltage. This different frequency prohibits our expression of power in an AC circuit using the same complex (rectangular or polar) notation as used for voltage. Also note that the waveform for power is not at the same frequency as the voltage or current! Rather. never negative for this resistive circuit. Because this load is purely resistive (no reactance). RMS.3. and power waveforms for this circuit. For comparison. Note that the waveform for power is always positive.
.
e= i= p= + Time 
Figure 11. the current is in phase with the voltage. As strange as it may seem. current.2. and never returned to the source as it is with reactive loads. the best way to proceed with AC power calculations is to use scalar notation. let’s consider a simple AC circuit with a purely reactive load in Figure 11. current. This means that power is always being dissipated by the resistive load. The power dissipated at the load would be 240 watts. POWER FACTOR
ZR = 60 + j0 Ω or 60 Ω ∠ 0o I= I= E Z 120 V 60 Ω
I=2A
In this example. and calculations look similar to that in an equivalent DC circuit. If the source were a mechanical generator. it would take 240 watts worth of mechanical energy (about 1/3 horsepower) to turn the shaft.
319 Ω ZL = 0 + j60.319 Ω
I = 1. it would take (practically) no net mechanical energy to turn the shaft. Note that the power alternates equally between cycles of positive and negative.1. POWER IN RESISTIVE AND REACTIVE AC CIRCUITS
349
120 V 60 Hz
L
160 mH
Figure 11. The generator shaft would be easy to spin.
.319 Ω or 60. (Figure 11. Now.3: AC circuit with a purely reactive (inductive) load. If the source were a mechanical generator.989 A
+
e= i= p= Time
Figure 11.11.
XL = 60. because no power would be used by the load.4: Power is not dissipated in a purely reactive load. Though it is alternately absorbed from and returned to the source.319 Ω ∠ 90o I= I= E Z 120 V 60.4) This means that power is being alternately absorbed from and returned to the source. and the inductor would not become warm as a resistor would.5. let’s consider an AC circuit with a load consisting of both inductance and resistance in Figure 11.
319 Ω or 60.078 Ω ∠ 45. This reactance combines with the 60 Ω of resistance to form a total load impedance of 60 + j60. or 85.410 A
At a frequency of 60 Hz.410 amps.350
CHAPTER 11. The only thing left to dissipate power here is the
.152o .078 Ω).319 Ω ∠ 90o ZR = 60 + j0 Ω or 60 Ω ∠ 0o Ztotal = 60 + j60. the rest of the circuit. the 160 millihenrys of inductance gives us 60.078 Ω 45.152o
I= I=
E Z 120 V 85. our load current is 1.5: AC circuit with both reactance and resistance.
XL = 60. as they equally absorb power from. and return power to.078 Ω
I = 1. If we’re not concerned with phase angles (which we’re not at this point).319 Ω ZL = 0 + j60.319 Ω or 85. We already know that reactive components dissipate zero power. Therefore.319 Ω of inductive reactance. This is the ﬁgure an RMS ammeter would indicate if connected in series with the resistor and inductor. we may calculate current in the circuit by taking the polar magnitude of the voltage source (120 volts) and dividing it by the polar magnitude of the impedance (85. any inductive reactance in this load will likewise dissipate zero power. POWER FACTOR
Load
Lload 120 V 60 Hz Rload
160 mH
60 Ω
Figure 11.319 Ω. With a power supply voltage of 120 volts RMS.
In a purely reactive circuit that alternation between positive and negative power is equally divided. current. the phase angle for power means something quite different from the phase angle for either voltage or current. indicating that there is more power absorbed by the load than there is returned to the circuit. Mathematically representing power in an AC circuit is a challenge. Looking at the waveform plot for power.11. Voltage and current are in phase with each other. In other words. resulting in a net power dissipation of zero.
+
e= i= p= Time
Figure 11.6: A combined resistive/reactive circuit dissipates more power than it returns to the source. Furthermore. • In a purely reactive circuit. and impedance that we’ve worked with so far.1. Rather. resistance. it should be evident that the wave spends more time on the positive side of the center line than on the negative. If we look at the waveform plot of voltage. The reactance dissipates no power. Because of this way in which AC power differs from AC voltage or current. However. power is alternately absorbed from and returned to the AC source. no circuit power is dissipated by the load(s). Whereas the angle for voltage or current represents a relative shift in timing between two waves. the imbalance of positive versus negative power is due to the resistance as it dissipates energy outside of the circuit (usually in the form of heat). Voltage and current are 90o out of phase with each other. the phase angle for power represents a ratio between power dissipated and power returned. the resistor does. What little returning of power that occurs is due to the reactance. and reactance than it is to try to derive it from vector. POWER IN RESISTIVE AND REACTIVE AC CIRCUITS
351
resistive portion of the load impedance. the power waveform will still alternate between positive and negative. or complex quantities of voltage. the combined inductive/resistive load will consume more power than it returns back to the source. and total power for this circuit. • REVIEW: • In a purely resistive circuit. but the amount of positive power will exceed the amount of negative power. in circuits with mixed resistance and reactance like this one. all circuit power is dissipated by the resistor(s). it is actually easier to arrive at ﬁgures for power by calculating with scalar quantities of voltage.6.
. because the power wave isn’t at the same frequency as voltage or current. the amount of mechanical energy needed to turn the shaft would be the amount of power averaged between the positive and negative power cycles. current. As with any reactive circuit. the power alternates between positive and negative instantaneous values over time. current. though. If the source were a mechanical generator. we see how this combination works in Figure 11.
true power is a function of a circuit’s dissipative elements. but some power will deﬁnitely be dissipated and some will merely be absorbed and returned. both of these formerly complex quantities must be reduced to their polar magnitudes for the scalar arithmetic. There are several power equations relating the three types of power to resistance.352
CHAPTER 11.
11. POWER FACTOR
• In a circuit consisting of resistance and reactance mixed. rather than watts. If I’m calculating apparent power from voltage and impedance. and impedance must be represented by their polar magnitudes. Apparent power is measured in the unit of VoltAmps (VA) and is symbolized by the capital letter S. Reactive. and impedance (all using scalar quantities):
. The mathematical symbol for reactive power is (unfortunately) the capital letter Q. yet the fact that they drop voltage and draw current gives the deceptive impression that they actually do dissipate power. in a circuit is called true power. The combination of reactive power and true power is called apparent power. This “phantom power” is called reactive power. if I’m calculating true power from current and resistance.2
True. current. or dissipated. and it is measured in a unit called VoltAmpsReactive (VAR). and it is the product of a circuit’s voltage and current. as always). As a rule. not by real or imaginary rectangular components. without reference to phase angle. Since we’re dealing with scalar quantities for power calculation. Reactive power is a function of a circuit’s reactance (X). The actual amount of power being used. and not merely the “real” or “imaginary” portion of the current. and it is measured in watts (symbolized by the capital letter P. Apparent power is a function of a circuit’s total impedance (Z). there will be more power dissipated by the load(s) than returned. reactance. I must use the polar magnitude for current. and Apparent power
We know that reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors dissipate zero power. For instance. usually resistances (R). any complex starting quantities such as voltage. Voltage and current in such a circuit will be out of phase by a value somewhere between 0o and 90o .
Examine the following circuits and see how these three types of power interrelate for: a purely resistive load in Figure 11.8.9.11. Using the laws of trigonometry. TRUE. and a resistive/reactive load in Figure 11. Reactive load only: Resistive/reactive load: These three types of power – true. reactive power. Resistive load only:
I=2A 120 V 60 Hz R no reactance 60 Ω
P = true power = I2R = 240 W Q = reactive power = I2X = 0 VAR S = apparent power = I2Z = 240 VA
Figure 11.10). or the length of one side and an angle.
. and apparent power for a purely resistive load. We call this the power triangle: (Figure 11. a purely reactive load in Figure 11.2. and apparent – relate to one another in trigonometric form. reactive. P=IE being useful only for that purpose. we can solve for the length of any side (amount of any type of power).7: True power. given the lengths of the other two sides. AND APPARENT POWER
353
P = true power
P = I2R
P=
Measured in units of Watts
E2 R
E2 X Measured in units of VoltAmpsReactive (VAR) Q = reactive power Q = I2X Q=
S = apparent power
S = I2Z
S=
E2 Z
S = IE
Measured in units of VoltAmps (VA)
Please note that there are two equations each for the calculation of true and reactive power. REACTIVE.7. There are three equations available for the calculation of apparent power.
73 VA
Figure 11.998 VAR S = apparent power = I2Z = 169.989 A 120 V 60 Hz no resistance 160 mH XL = 60.73 VAR S = apparent power = I2Z = 238.410 A
Load
Lload 120 V 60 Hz Rload
160 mH XL = 60.354
CHAPTER 11. and apparent power for a purely reactive load.319 Ω
L
P = true power = I2R = 0 W Q = reactive power = I2X = 238.256 VA
Figure 11.9: True power.319 Ω 60 Ω
P = true power = I2R = 119. reactive power.8: True power.
I = 1. POWER FACTOR
I = 1.365 W Q = reactive power = I2X = 119. reactive power.
. and apparent power for a resistive/reactive load.
The opposite angle is equal to the circuit’s impedance (Z) phase angle. CALCULATING POWER FACTOR
355
The "Power Triangle"
Apparent power (S) measured in VA
Reactive power (Q) measured in VAR
Impedance phase angle True power (P) measured in Watts
Figure 11. • Power merely absorbed and returned in load due to its reactive properties is referred to as reactive power. the angle of this “power triangle” graphically indicates the ratio between the amount of dissipated (or consumed) power and the amount of absorbed/returned power.10: Power triangle relating appearant power to true power and reactive power. Q = opposite length. P = adjacent length. and S = hypotenuse length. Apparent power is symbolized by the letter S and is measured in the unit of VoltAmps (VA).3.
11. • REVIEW: • Power dissipated by a load is referred to as true power. When expressed as a fraction. It also happens to be the same angle as that of the circuit’s impedance in polar form. Because true power and apparent power form the adjacent and
. • Total power in an AC circuit.11. • These three types of power are trigonometrically related to one another. True power is symbolized by the letter P and is measured in the unit of Watts (W). Reactive power is symbolized by the letter Q and is measured in the unit of VoltAmpsReactive (VAR). this ratio between true power and apparent power is called the power factor for this circuit. both dissipated and absorbed/returned is referred to as apparent power.3
Calculating power factor
As was mentioned before. In a right triangle.
or at least closer.152o = 0. because the reactive power equals zero. The power triangle for a purely capacitive circuit would again be a vertical line (pointing down instead of up as it was for the purely inductive circuit). If there are no dissipative (resistive) components in the circuit. the power factor is 1 (perfect). The poor power factor makes for an inefﬁcient power delivery system. to zero). because the adjacent (true power) side would have zero length. Since we know that the (uncorrected) reactive power is 119. The same could be said for a purely capacitive circuit. because true power equals zero.705 cos 45.410 amps of current. Power factor can be an important aspect to consider in an AC circuit. to cancel out the effects of the load’s inductive reactance. The effect of these two opposing reactances in parallel is to bring the circuit’s total impedance equal to its total resistance (to make the impedance phase angle equal.356
CHAPTER 11. For the purely inductive circuit.365 W 169. the power factor ratio is also equal to the cosine of that phase angle. Here. making any power in the circuit purely reactive. paradoxically.256 VA
Power factor =
Power factor = 0.705
It should be noted that power factor. Inductive reactance can only be canceled by capacitive reactance. we need to calculate the correct capacitor size to produce the same quantity of (capacitive) reactive power. If our last example circuit had been purely resistive. the power factor is zero. like all ratio measurements. we’ll use the power formula which starts from voltage and reactance:
.998 VAR (inductive). Using values from the last example circuit:
Power factor =
True power Apparent power 119. For the purely resistive circuit. Since this capacitor will be directly in parallel with the source (of known voltage). the power triangle would look like a vertical line. Poor power factor can be corrected. because any power factor less than 1 means that the circuit’s wiring has to carry more current than what would be necessary with zero reactance in the circuit to deliver the same amount of (true) power to the resistive load. Here.256 watts to the load with the same 1.365 watts that it is presently dissipating with that same current quantity. then the true power must be equal to zero. so we have to add a capacitor in parallel to our example circuit as the additional load. we would have been able to deliver a full 169. by adding another load to the circuit drawing an equal and opposite amount of reactive power. because the opposite (reactive power) side would have zero length. POWER FACTOR
hypotenuse sides of a right triangle. the power triangle would look like a horizontal line. rather than the mere 119. respectively. is a unitless quantity.
and may be ignored for the moment. .3. C= 1 2πfXC
X = 120.998 VAR 1 2πfC
XC =
X=
. . .11)
Itotal = 994. X= E2 Q (120 V)2 119. .11. .257 mA L load 22 µF 2 Rload
Load Iload = 1. CALCULATING POWER FACTOR
357
Q=
E2 X
. solving for C .319 Ω 60 Ω
120 V 60 Hz
Figure 11.002 Ω)
C = 22. . solving for X .41 A 160 mH XL = 60. 2.002 Ω
C=
1 2π(60 Hz)(120.105 µF
Let’s use a rounded capacitor value of 22 µF and see what happens to our circuit: (Figure 11. . V2 and node numbers: 0. 1. and 3 are SPICE related.11: Parallel capacitor corrects lagging power factor of inductive load.
. .716 mA 1 V1 C 3 0 V2 IC = 995.
57 Ω ∠ 90o) // (60. POWER FACTOR
Ztotal = ZC // (ZL .366 VA
Power factor = 0. overall.272o = 0. The power factor is much closer to being 1:
Power factor = Power factor =
True power Apparent power 119. The reference is Vtotal . A SPICE simulation of the circuit of (Figure 11. The SPICE circuit ﬁle has a zero volt voltagesource (V2) in series with the capacitor so that the capacitor current may be measured. If we had added too large of a capacitor in parallel. We can compare those currents to Vtotal .365 W S = apparent power = I2Z = 119.365 watts. The Nutmeg plot of the various currents with respect to the applied voltage Vtotal is shown in (Figure 11.41 amps to 994.9999887
Since the impedance angle is still a positive number. is still more inductive than it is capacitive. or purely resistive.358
CHAPTER 11. The start time of 200 msec ( instead of 0) in the transient analysis statement allows the DC conditions to stabilize before collecting data. has been substantially improved.2724o
P = true power = I2R = 119. to which all other measurements are compared. This is because the applied voltage.7 milliamps.58m Ω or 120.272o cos 0.365 W 119. overall. we would have ended up with an impedance angle that was negative. appears across the parallel branches of the circuit. indicating that the circuit was more capacitive than inductive. Vtotal .12).64 . while the power dissipated at the load resistor remains unchanged at 119.j573.cir power factor”.11) shows total voltage and total current are nearly in phase.60 Ω ∠ 0o) Ztotal = 120. If our power factor correction efforts had been perfectly ontarget. There is no single current common to all components. Note that the lagging current.64 Ω ∠ 0.366 VA
The power factor for the circuit. See SPICE listing “pf. we would have arrived at an impedance angle of exactly zero. indicating a phase angle of near zero.319 Ω ∠ 90o . Note that the total current (Itotal ) is in phase with the applied voltage (Vtotal ). The main current has been decreased from 1. This is no coincidence.9999887 Impedance (polar) angle = 0.ZR) Ztotal = (120. IL of the inductor would have caused the total current to have a lagging phase somewhere between (Itotal )
. we know that the circuit.
3.
.end
factor 170 60)
stop start 200m 160m
Figure 11.cir power V1 1 0 sin(0 C1 1 3 22uF v2 3 0 0 L1 1 2 160mH R1 2 0 60 # resolution .tran 1m . The lagging IL with respect to Vtotal is corrected by a leading IC .12: Zero phase angle due to inphase Vtotal and Itotal .11. CALCULATING POWER FACTOR
359
pf.
Most likely.4
Practical power factor correction
When the need arises to correct for poor power factor in an AC power system. It cannont be sold. Note that reduction of line losses applies to the lines from the generator to the point where the power factor correction capacitor is applied. you probably won’t have the luxury of knowing the load’s exact inductance in henrys to use for your calculations.2. there is still circulating current between the capacitor and the inductive load. our example circuit started out with a power factor of 0. If the load’s reactance is inductive in nature (which is almost always will be). POWER FACTOR
and IL . by adding a parallel reactance opposite the effect of the load’s reactance. However. You may be fortunate enough to have an instrument called a power factor meter to tell you what the power factor is (a number between 0 and 1). You must also be very careful to use the proper capacitors for the job (rated adequately for power system voltages and the occasional voltage spike from lightning strikes. • REVIEW: • Poor power factor in an AC circuit may be “corrected”. Conversely. and was corrected to a power factor of 0. that total current (Itotal ) was forced to be inphase with the total applied voltage (Vtotal ). The result is a total current phaseangle somewhere between the inductor and capacitor currents.6. It should be noted that too much capacitance in an AC circuit will result in a low power factor just as well as too much inductance. by the calculation of an appropriate capacitor value. If a circuit is predominantly inductive. you will have access to a wattmeter for measuring true power. compensates for the lagging inductor current. and capable of handling the expected levels of current). the product of these two waveforms. The parallel capacitor corrects this problem. This is not normally a problem because the power factor correction is applied close to the offending load. parallel capacitance is what is needed to correct poor power factor. IC . or reestablished at a value close to 1. the leading capacitor current. though.360
CHAPTER 11.
11. In less favorable circumstances you may have to use an oscilloscope to compare voltage and current waveforms. we say that its power factor is leading. will always be positive throughout a 60 Hz cycle. for continuous AC service.999 lagging. Since the total voltage and current are in phase. Thus. Moreover. like an induction motor. we say that its power factor is lagging (because the current wave for the circuit lags behind the applied voltage wave).705 lagging. Negative power is fed back to the generator. if a circuit is predominantly capacitive. power. whose reading you can compare against a calculation of apparent power (from multiplying total voltage and
. Had the phaseangle not been corrected to zero (PF=1). real power as in Figure 11. it does waste power in the resistance of electric lines between load and generator. measuring phase shift in degrees and calculating power factor by the cosine of that phase shift. and the apparent power (which can be ﬁgured by taking a voltmeter reading in volts and multiplying by an ammeter reading in amps). You must be careful not to overcorrect when adding capacitance to an AC circuit. In other words. the product would have been negative where positive portions of one waveform overlapped negative portions of the other as in Figure 11.
615 A RMS
Figure 11. and from that determine the reactive power of this load: (Figure 11. 2. we need to calculate the apparent power in kVA.308 kVA
As we can see.13)
wattmeter P 240 V RMS 60 Hz
ammeter A Load
Wattmeter reading = 1.4. you can determine reactive power and power factor. we can draw a power triangle.” given the length of the hypotenuse (apparent power) and the length of the adjacent side (true power):
.308 kVA
Power factor =
Power factor = 0. which tells us that the power factor in this circuit is rather poor (substantially less than 1).13: Wattmeter reads true power.11.5 kW 2. PRACTICAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
361
total current measurements). product of voltmeter and ammeter readings yields appearant power.308 kVA is a much larger ﬁgure than 1.65
Using this value for power factor. Let’s do an example problem to see how this works: (Figure 11.5 kW. we use the Pythagorean Theorem “backwards. From the values of true and apparent power.14) To determine the unknown (reactive power) triangle quantity.5 kW Ammeter reading = 9. Now. we ﬁgure the power factor of this load by dividing the true power by the apparent power:
Power factor =
P S 1.615 A)(240 V) S = 2. First. We can do this by multiplying load voltage by load current:
S = IE S = (9.
754 kVAR). we can calculate the size of capacitor needed to counteract its effects:
.5 kW
Figure 11. POWER FACTOR
Apparent power (S) 2. which means that we’ll have to correct for it with a capacitor of appropriate size.(True power)2
Q = 1.14: Reactive power may be calculated from true power and appearant power.362
CHAPTER 11. it will have a lagging (inductive) power factor. wired in parallel.308 kVA
Reactive power (Q) ???
True power (P) 1.754 kVAR
If this load is an electric motor.
Reactive power =
(Apparent power)2 . Now that we know the amount of reactive power (1. or most any other industrial AC load.
737 kVAR (for the capacitor only). .15)
wattmeter P 240 V RMS 60 Hz C
ammeter A Load
80 µF
Figure 11.761 µF
Rounding this answer off to 80 µF.845 Ω)
C = 80. but it will result in a substantial reduction of apparent power. . . of course.845 Ω
C=
1 2π(60 Hz)(32.11. . and of the total current drawn from the 240 Volt source: (Figure 11. .15: Parallel capacitor corrects lagging (inductive) load. . we can place that size of capacitor in the circuit and calculate the results: (Figure 11. solving for X .754 kVAR 1 2πfC
XC =
X=
. and a corresponding reactive power of 1.Capacitive kVAR = Total kVAR 1.737 kVAR = 16. resulting in:
Inductive kVAR . An 80 µF capacitor will have a capacitive reactance of 33.157 Ω. PRACTICAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
363
Q=
E2 X
. solving for C . C= 1 2πfXC
X = 32.754 kVAR . the capacitor’s reactive power will directly subtract from the load’s reactive power. giving a current of 7. X= E2 Q (240)2 1.519 VAR
This correction. Since the capacitor’s current is 180o out of phase from the the load’s inductive contribution to current draw. .16)
. .238 amps. will not change the amount of true power consumed by the load.4.1.
16: Power triangle before and after capacitor correction.519 VAR
Figure 11.754 kVAR (inductive)
True power (P) 1. POWER FACTOR
Power triangle for uncorrected (original) circuit
Apparent power (S) 2.737 kVAR (capacitive)
Power triangle after adding capacitor Apparent power (S) True power (P) 1.5 kW Reactive power (Q) 16.308 kVA
Reactive power (Q) 1.5 kW
1.
.364
CHAPTER 11.
5kW / 1.
.5. or 6.11.99994. or 0. using the standard form of the Pythagorean Theorem:
Apparent power =
(Reactive power)2 + (True power)2
Apparent power = 1. which led to a much betterlooking second edition. a substantial improvement over the uncorrected value of 9.
11. and a new total current of (1. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information.615 amps! This lower total current will translate to less heat losses in the circuit wiring. meaning greater system efﬁciency (less power wasted).25 amps. from most recent to ﬁrst.5
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions.50009 kVA / 240 Volts).5009 kVA). CONTRIBUTORS
365
The new apparent power can be found from the true and new reactive power values. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting.50009 kVA
This gives a corrected power factor of (1.
POWER FACTOR
.366
CHAPTER 11.
. . .7 Contributors . are devices whose motion depends on the polarity of the applied voltage (or. . . . . . . . .Chapter 12
AC METERING CIRCUITS
Contents
12. . . the alternating current must be rectiﬁed into DC. . . . . . . (Figure 12. . . . . four diodes will 367
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . you can think of it in terms of the direction of the current). . Bibliography . . . . . . . . .2 Frequency and phase measurement 12.6 AC instrumentation transducers . . . . . . Arranged in a bridge. . . . . 12. . . . .3 Power measurement . . . . . . .4 Power quality measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 AC voltmeters and ammeters . . . . . . 12. . . . In order to use a DCstyle meter movement such as the D’Arsonval design. . . . . . . . . . . 367 374 382 385 387 396 406 406
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oddly enough. . . . . . . because the direction of needle movement will change with each halfcycle of the AC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and those engineered speciﬁcally for AC use. . . This is most easily accomplished through the use of devices called diodes. . . . . . . . . . . 12.1) Permanentmagnet meter movements. . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . Without going into elaborate detail over how and why diodes work as they do. . . . . . . . . . . . just remember that they each act like a oneway valve for electrons to ﬂow: acting as a conductor for one polarity and an insulator for another. . . . . . . . the arrowhead in each diode symbol points against the permitted direction of electron ﬂow rather than with it as one might expect. .5 AC bridge circuits . . . . like permanentmagnet motors. . . . Permanentmagnet moving coil (PMMC) meter movements will not work correctly if directly connected to alternating current. . We saw diodes used in an example circuit demonstrating the creation of harmonic frequencies from a distorted (or rectiﬁed) sine wave.1
AC voltmeters and ammeters
AC electromechanical meter movements come in two basic arrangements: those based on DC movement designs. . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . .
2: Passing AC through this Rectiﬁed AC meter movement will drive it in one direction.
AC source
Bridge rectifier
Figure 12.
serve to steer AC through the meter movement in a constant direction throughout all portions of the AC cycle: (Figure 12.1: Passing AC through this D’Arsonval meter movement causes useless ﬂutter of the needle.
.368
CHAPTER 12.2)
50 0 "needle" 100
magnet
magnet
wire coil + Meter movement needle will always be driven in the proper direction. AC METERING CIRCUITS
50 0 100
"needle" magnet magnet
wire coil
Figure 12.
or should I say. just as poorly! The forces involved are very small. and thus inherently capacitive in nature. When a sensitive meter movement needs to be reranged to function as an AC voltmeter.3. seriesconnected “multiplier” resistors and/or resistive voltage dividers may be employed just as in DC meter design: (Figure 12. meaning that no current need be drawn from the circuit under test.4) Capacitors may be used instead of resistors. electrostatic meter movements are capable of measuring very high voltages without need for range resistors or other. especially if the electron beam is swept sidetoside across the screen
. Electrostatic attraction between two metal plates separated by an air gap is an alternative mechanism for generating a needlemoving force proportional to applied voltage.12. though. for some highvoltage AC applications. external apparatus. This strategy has the advantage of being nondissipative (no true power consumed and no heat produced): (Figure 12. much smaller than the magnetic attraction between an energized coil and an iron vane. AC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS
369
Another strategy for a practical AC meter movement is to redesign the movement without the inherent polarity sensitivity of the DC types. the electrostatic movement is an elegant technology. to make voltmeter divider circuits. This works just as well for AC as it does for DC. If nothing else.3: Ironvane electromechanical meter movement. But. This means avoiding the use of permanent magnets.6) The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) mentioned in the DC metering chapter is ideally suited for measuring AC voltages. Also.1. Probably the simplest design is to use a nonmagnetized iron vane to move the needle against spring tension. this technology possesses the advantage of extremely high input impedance.5) If the meter movement is electrostatic. the vane being attracted toward a stationary coil of wire energized by the AC quantity to be measured as in Figure 12. and as such these “electrostatic” meter movements tend to be fragile and easily disturbed by physical movement. a single “multiplier” capacitor may be connected in series to give it a greater voltage measuring range. just as a seriesconnected multiplier resistor gives a movingcoil (inherently resistive) meter movement a greater voltage range: (Figure 12.
50 0 "needle" 100
wire coil
iron vane
Figure 12.
5: AC voltmeter with capacitive divider.4: Multiplier resistor (a) or resistive divider (b) scales the range of the basic meter movement. AC METERING CIRCUITS
AC voltmeter Voltage to be measured Sensitive meter movement Rmultiplier Voltage to be measured
AC voltmeter Sensitive meter movement Rmultiplier
(a)
(b)
Figure 12.370
CHAPTER 12.
Electrostatic meter movement Cmultiplier Voltage to be measured
Figure 12.
Sensitive meter movement Voltage to be measured Rmultiplier
Figure 12.6: An electrostatic meter movement may use a capacitive multiplier to multiply the scale of the basic meter movement..
.
Average and RMS values rate against each other as such for these three common waveform shapes: (Figure 12. and PeaktoPeak values for sine. although many times it is mistaken as such. and electromechanical meter movements naturally deliver average measurements rather than RMS.707 0.1. signiﬁcant power consumption. size.637
= 1. square. CRT’s have the disadvantages of weight.109:
0. and triangle waves. the meter movement will be calibrated to indicate approximately 1. As we already know.1099
In other words.5 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak)
Figure 12. AC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS
371
of the tube while the measured AC voltage drives the beam up and down. None of the meter movement technologies so far discussed inherently measure the RMS value of an AC quantity. Note that for triangle waves.637 (Peak) PP = 2 (Peak)
RMS = Peak AVG = Peak PP = 2 (Peak)
RMS = 0. Since RMS seems to be the kind of measurement most people are interested in obtaining with an instrument. For sine waves we see that RMS is equal to 0.7: RMS. A graphical representation of the AC wave shape and not just a measurement of magnitude can easily be had with such a device. what are AC meter designers to do? Cheat. and then the meter movement scale is altered by the appropriate multiplication factor. and fragility (being made of evacuated glass) working against them. the ratio between RMS and Average is not the same as for sine waves:
.7)
RMS = 0. electromechanical AC meter movements still have a place in practical usage. of course! Typically the assumption is made that the waveform shape to be measured is going to be sine (by far the most common. Average. ironvane. and electrostatic) all tend to mechanically average the instantaneous values into an overall average value for the waveform. This is the issue of RMS measurement. there is another factor crucially important for the designer and user of AC metering instruments to be aware of.707 times the peak value while Average is 0.11 times higher than it would ordinarily (naturally) indicate with no special accommodations.577 (Peak) AVG = 0. With some of the advantages and disadvantages of these meter movement technologies having been discussed already. so we can divide one ﬁgure by the other to obtain an averagetoRMS conversion factor of 1. called RMS (RootMeanSquare) for the sake of meaningful comparisons with DC and with other AC waveforms of varying shape. AC measurements are often cast in a scale of DC power equivalence.637 times the peak. This average value is not necessarily the same as RMS.707 (Peak) AVG = 0. Meter movements relying on the motion of a mechanical needle (“rectiﬁed” D’Arsonval.12. However. especially for power systems). It must be stressed that this “cheat” only works well when the meter is used to measure pure sine wave sources. For these reasons.
and the heat output of that resistor is measured with a device like a thermocouple. or any kind of distorted sine wave.154
With square waves.8)
sensitive meter movement
AC voltage to be measured thermocouple bonded with resistive heating element
Figure 12.372
CHAPTER 12. Calibrating AC voltmeters and ammeters for different fullscale ranges of operation is much
. The resistor converts the AC voltage or current quantity into a thermal (heat) quantity.8: Direct reading thermal RMS voltmeter accommodates any wave shape. for it will work with ANY waveform shape whatsoever: (Figure 12. square waves. This is because a CRT with its practically weightless electron beam “movement” displays the Peak (or PeaktoPeak if you wish) of an AC waveform rather than Average or RMS. Suppose that the AC source to be measured is connected across a resistor of known value. The astute reader will note that I have omitted the CRT “movement” from the RMS/Average discussion. This would provide a far more direct measurement means of RMS than any conversion factor could. This includes triangle waves.577 0. The system’s mass works to average these values by the principle of thermal inertia. one major instrument manufacturer has implemented this technique into its highend line of handheld electronic multimeters for “trueRMS” capability. and then the meter scale itself is calibrated to give an indication based on the squareroot of the thermal measurement: perfect RootMeanSquare indication all in one device! In fact.5
= 1. While the device shown above is somewhat crude and would suffer from unique engineering problems of its own. a similar problem arises: how do you determine the RMS value of a waveform from it? Conversion factors between Peak and RMS only hold so long as the waveform falls neatly into a known category of shape (sine. this matter of accurate RMS measurement is no small matter. AC METERING CIRCUITS
0. the concept illustrated is very sound. and square are the only examples with Peak/RMS/Average conversion factors given here!). With harmonics becoming an everpresent phenomenon in large AC power systems. effectively squaring the values in realtime. triangle. the RMS and Average values are identical! An AC meter calibrated to accurately read RMS voltage or current on a pure sine wave will not give the proper value while indicating the magnitude of anything other than a perfect sine wave. One answer is to design the meter movement around the very deﬁnition of RMS: the effective heating value of an AC voltage/current as it powers a resistive load. Still.
They can allow small. (PT) Potential transformer scales voltage down.9)
05 A AC movement range A CT precision stepup ratio
highvoltage power source
13.10) Because of the expense (and often large size) of instrument transformers. • REVIEW:
. they are not used to scale AC meters for any applications other than high voltage and high current. there are no currentcarrying conductors threaded through the center of the CT “donuts” anymore: (Figure 12. Shown here is a voltage and current meter panel from a threephase AC system. However. just as with DC. normal precision resistors (multipliers and shunts) are used. we are not limited to these techniques as we were with DC: because we can use transformers with AC. Potential Transformers (PT’s) and Current Transformers (CT’s) are precision instrument devices manufactured to produce very precise ratios of transformation between primary and secondary windings.8 kV
load
fuse
fuse precision stepdown ratio
PT
V 0120 V AC movement range
Figure 12.1. As this panel has been removed from service. simple AC meter movements to indicate extremely high voltages and currents in power systems with accuracy and complete electrical isolation (something multiplier and shunt resistors could never do): (Figure 12. Three AC ammeters (rated 5 amps fullscale deﬂection each) on the front of the panel indicate current through each conductor going through a CT. meter ranges can be electromagnetically rather than resistively “stepped up” or “stepped down.12. and parallel “shunt” resistors are used to allow ammeter movements to measure currents beyond their natural range. For scaling a milliamp or microamp movement to a range of 120 volts or 5 amps.9: (CT) Current transformer scales current down. The three “donut” current transformers (CT’s) can be seen in the rear of the panel. AC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS
373
the same as with DC instruments: series “multiplier” resistors are used to give voltmeter movements higher range.” sometimes far beyond what resistors would have practically allowed for.
the frequency will be directly proportional to the shaft speed of the machine. These instruments may be ranged to indicate RMS value. but only if the shape of the AC waveform is precisely known beforehand! • Socalled true RMS meters use different technology to provide indications representing the actual RMS (rather than skewed average or peak) of an AC waveform. AC METERING CIRCUITS
Figure 12.2
Frequency and phase measurement
An important electrical quantity with no equivalent in DC circuits is frequency. naturally provide the average value of a measured AC quantity. though. If frequency needs to be measured at some distance from the alternator. Frequency measurement is very important in many applications of alternating current. One simple but crude method of frequency measurement in power systems utilizes the principle of mechanical resonance. The tuning fork is a great example of this: strike it once and it will continue to vibrate at a tone speciﬁc to its length.
.10: Toroidal current transformers scale high current levels down for application to 5 A fullscale AC ammeters. If the AC is being generated by an electromechanical alternator. whether electromagnetic or electrostatic. • Polarized (DC) meter movements must use devices called diodes to be able to indicate AC quantities. Longer tuning forks have lower resonant frequencies: their tones will be lower on the musical scale than shorter forks.374
CHAPTER 12. Every physical object possessing the property of elasticity (springiness) has an inherent frequency at which it will prefer to vibrate. especially in AC power systems designed to run efﬁciently at one frequency and one frequency only. and frequency could be measured simply by measuring the speed of the shaft. • Electromechanical meter movements. other means of measurement will be necessary.
12.
12: Vibrating reed frequency meter front panel. Whichever tuning fork is closest in resonant frequency to the frequency of that vibration will tend to shake the most (or the loudest).12. looking something like Figure 12. If the forks’ tines were ﬂimsy enough.
Frequency Meter
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
120 Volts AC
Figure 12. Well.2. we could see the relative motion of each by the length of the blur we would see as we inspected each one from an endview perspective. and you have the vibrating reed frequency meter: (Figure 12. and that base is vibrated at the frequency of the measured AC voltage (or current) by means of an electromagnet.11)
sheet metal reeds shaken by magnetic field from the coil
to AC voltage
Figure 12. The user of this meter views the ends of all those unequal length reeds as they are collectively shaken at the frequency of the applied AC voltage to the coil.11: Vibrating reed frequency meter diagram. make a collection of “tuning forks” out of a strip of sheet metal cut in a pattern akin to a rake.12. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT
375
Imagine a row of progressivelysized tuning forks arranged sidebyside.
. The one closest in resonant frequency to the applied AC will vibrate the most. They are all mounted on a common base.
and the frequency is read from them after the device has been adjusted for maximum indication on the meter. See Figure 12.376
CHAPTER 12. the basic instrument doing nothing more than indicating when the two quantities are equal to each other. This deformation is very.13. In lieu of mechanical resonance. or at least a more modern variation of it called the quartz crystal. For that frequency standard.
Sensitive AC meter movement
variable capacitor with adjustment knob calibrated in Hertz. this is a tunable ﬁlter circuit which is adjusted and then read in a manner similar to a bridge circuit (which must be balanced for a “null” condition and then read). especially because it doesn’t require direct connection to the circuit. While reedtype meters are imprecise. Quartz is a naturally occurring mineral possessing a very interesting property called piezoelectricity. In frequency as in other types of electrical measurement. Piezoelectric materials produce a voltage across their length when physically stressed. the most accurate means of measurement are usually those where an unknown quantity is compared against a known standard. and will physically deform when an external voltage is applied across their lengths. and a meter is placed in the circuit to indicate maximum amplitude of voltage across the two components.13: Resonant frequency meter “peaks” as LC resonant frequency is tuned to test frequency. They are often found on small enginedriven generator sets for the purpose of setting engine speed so that the frequency is somewhat close to 60 (50 in Europe) Hertz. very slight in most cases.
. This is the basic principle behind the DC (Wheatstone) bridge circuit and it is a sound metrological principle applied throughout the sciences. their operational principle is not. Essentially. So long as the inductor and/or capacitor can intercept enough stray ﬁeld (magnetic or electric. If we have access to an accurate frequency standard (a source of AC voltage holding very precisely to a single frequency). then measurement of any unknown frequency by comparison should be relatively easy. we turn our attention back to the tuning fork. AC METERING CIRCUITS
Vibrating reed meters. it will work.
Figure 12. but it does exist. we may substitute electrical resonance and design a frequency meter using an inductor and capacitor in the form of a tank circuit (parallel inductor and capacitor). One or both components are made adjustable. obviously. but they are very simple and therefore easy to manufacture to be rugged. This technique is a popular one for amateur radio operators (or at least it was before the advent of inexpensive digital frequency instruments called counters). are not precision instruments. The adjustment knob(s) are calibrated to show resonant frequency for any given setting. respectively) from the circuit under test to cause the meter to indicate.
just like the reeds on a vibratingreed frequency meter. In reciprocal manner. When packaged as such. In other words.12. the quartz chip will tend to vibrate most when it is “excited” by an applied AC voltage at precisely the right frequency.2.
. (Figure 12. The schematic symbol is shown in Figure 12. it will “ring” with its own unique frequency determined by the length of the chip.
C capacitance C caused by wire connections across quartz characteristics of the quartz L
Figure 12. Electrically.
crystal or xtal
Figure 12.15) The dielectric properties of quartz contribute an additional capacitive element to the equivalent circuit. and that chip mounted securely inside a protective shell with wires extending for connection to an external electric circuit. and that resonant oscillation will produce an equivalent voltage across multiple points of the quartz chip which can be tapped into by wires ﬁxed to the surface of the chip.14. which means that it will have a mechanical resonant frequency of its own capable of being manifested as an electrical voltage signal.14: Crystal (frequency determing element) schematic symbol. if a chip of quartz is struck. that quartz chip is equivalent to a series LC resonant circuit. Chips of quartz rock can be precisely cut for desired resonant frequencies. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT
377
Quartz rock is elastic (springy) within that small range of bending which an external voltage would produce.15: Quartz crystal equivalent circuit. the resulting device is simply called a crystal (or sometimes “xtal”).
These patterns are called Lissajous ﬁgures and are a common means of comparative frequency measurement in electronics. A full discussion on crystal dynamics is not necessary here. we will obtain a simple ﬁgure on the screen of the CRT. thus eliminating frequency errors due to thermal expansion and contraction of the quartz. The capacitance shown in parallel due to the wire connections across the dielectric (insulating) quartz body is real. If we allow one AC signal to deﬂect the beam up and down (connect that AC voltage source to the “vertical” deﬂection plates) and another AC signal to deﬂect the beam left and right (using the other pair of deﬂection plates). Crystals. very low. mechanically). though. National standards laboratories around the world maintain a few of these hyperaccurate clocks. The ﬁrst picture is of the Lissajous ﬁgure formed by two AC voltages perfectly in phase with each other: (Figure 12. nothing discovered thus far surpasses the accuracy of a single resonating atom. Now we get to the practical part: once we have a source of accurate frequency. there will be a pair of plates to the left and right of the beam as well as a pair of plates above and below the beam as in Figure 12. Cathode Ray Tubes typically have means of deﬂecting the electron beam in the horizontal as well as the vertical axis. which uses an atom of mercury (or cesium) suspended in a vacuum. even greater frequency stability may be desired. principally due to the relative absence of stray resistance. making their resonant frequencies very deﬁnite and precise. The resulting frequency is detected as a radiowave signal and that forms the basis for the most accurate clocks known to humanity. and if their amplitudes are equal:
. as resonant elements. Rather. but what needs to be understood about crystals is this resonant circuit equivalence and how it can be exploited within an oscillator circuit to achieve an output voltage with a stable. the shape of that ﬁgure being dependent upon the phase shift between the two AC signals.378
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
The “capacitance” and “inductance” shown in series are merely electrical equivalents of the quartz’s mechanical resonance properties: they do not exist as discrete components within the crystal. and it has an effect on the resonant response of the whole system. typically have much higher “Q” (quality) values than tank circuits built from inductors and capacitors. If the two frequencies are the same. For the ultimate in a frequency standard though.17) If the two AC voltages are not in phase with each other. If metal plates are used to electrostatically deﬂect the electrons. the resonant frequency variation over time with a quartz crystal is very. This is how quartz movement watches obtain their high accuracy: by means of an electronic oscillator stabilized by the resonant action of a quartz crystal. known frequency. To achieve this. how do we compare that against an unknown frequency to obtain a measurement? One way is to use a CRT as a frequencycomparison device. the Lissajous ﬁgure will take on the appearance of an oval. shown as they would appear on the face of an oscilloscope (an AC voltagemeasuring instrument using a CRT as its “movement”).16. This is the principle of the socalled atomic clock. Because the resonant frequency is solely dependent on the physical properties of quartz (a very stable substance. For laboratory applications. a straight line will not be formed. the crystal in question may be placed in a temperature stabilized environment (usually an oven). Here is a sampling of Lissajous ﬁgures for two sinewave signals of equal frequency. becoming perfectly circular if the phase shift is exactly 90o between the two signals. excited by outside energy to resonate at its own unique frequency. and broadcast frequency signals based on those atoms’ vibrations for scientists and technicians to tune in and use for frequency calibration purposes. patterns will be produced on the screen of the CRT indicative of the ratio of these two AC frequencies.
2.12.
. zero degrees phase shift.17: Lissajous ﬁgure: same frequency.
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12. FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT
379
electron "gun"
horizontal deflection plates (vacuum) electrons electrons vertical deflection plates
viewscreen
light
Figure 12.16: Cathode ray tube (CRT) with vertical and horizontal deﬂection plates.
Consider the following illustration of a 3:1 frequency ratio between horizontal and vertical: (Figure 12. we will end up with a line again.18: Lissajous ﬁgure: same frequency. if the two AC signals are directly opposing one another in phase (180o shift).22. . the more complex the Lissajous ﬁgure. When we are faced with signal frequencies that are not the same.20) The more complex the ratio between horizontal and vertical frequencies.19: Lissajous ﬁgure: same frequency. 180 degrees phase shift. the Lissajous ﬁgure will appear to “move. only this time it will be oriented in the opposite direction: (Figure 12. . Consider the following examples and their given vertical/horizontal frequency ratios: (Figure 12.18)
CHAPTER 12. Finally. Lissajous ﬁgures get quite a bit more complex.380 (Figure 12.21) .19)
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12. 90 or 270 degrees phase shift. AC METERING CIRCUITS
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12. vertical = 2) in Figure 12. and a 3:2 frequency ratio (horizontal = 3.” slowly changing orientation as the
. In cases where the frequencies of the two AC signals are not exactly a simple ratio of each other (but close).
FREQUENCY AND PHASE MEASUREMENT
381
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12.
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12.2.20: Lissajous ﬁgure: Horizontal frequency is twice that of vertical.
.21: Lissajous ﬁgure: Horizontal frequency is three times that of vertical.12.
3
Power measurement
Power measurement in AC circuits can be quite a bit more complex than with DC circuits for the simple reason that phase shift complicates the matter beyond multiplying voltage by
. 1:2. Reference frequency signals can be made with a high degree of accuracy by oscillator circuits using quartz crystals as resonant devices. If the two frequencies are locked in an exact integer ratio between each other. indicating frequency by relative oscillation among a set of uniquely tuned “reeds” shaken at the measured frequency. etc.). The physics of Lissajous ﬁgures limits their usefulness as a frequencycomparison technique to cases where the frequency ratios are simple integer values (1:1. phase angle between the two waveforms rolls between 0o and 180o . One or both components is made to be adjustable. Lissajous ﬁgures are a popular means of frequency comparison wherever an accessible frequency standard (signal generator) exists. with an accurately calibrated adjustment knob. 1:3. • Frequency can be measured in a comparative fashion. as is the case when using a CRT to generate Lissajous ﬁgures. usually) to indicate frequency. Despite this limitation. For ultra precision. the Lissajous ﬁgure will be stable on the viewscreen of the CRT. 3:4.22: Lissajous ﬁgure: Horizontal/vertical frequency ratio is 3:2.382
CHAPTER 12. • REVIEW: • Some frequency meters work on the principle of mechanical resonance. 2:3.
12. and a sensitive meter is read for maximum voltage or current at the point of resonance. • Other frequency meters use electric resonant circuits (LC tank circuits. AC METERING CIRCUITS
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Lissajous figure: Horizontal/Vertical frequency ratio is 3:2
Figure 12. atomic clock signal standards (based on the resonant frequencies of individual atoms) can be used.
The voltage generated across the width of the ﬂat. rectangular conductor.12. the Hall voltage would be in direct proportion to the multiple of circuit current and
. rectangular conductor is directly proportional to both the magnitude of the current through it and the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. The Hall effect is an unusual effect ﬁrst noticed by E. the common electrodynamometer movement with its stationary and moving coil does a ﬁne job of this. but it is a workable solution. What is needed is an instrument able to determine the product (multiplication) of instantaneous voltage and current. POWER MEASUREMENT
383
current ﬁgures obtained with meters. Mathematically. Fortunately. it is a product (multiplication) of these two variables.23: Hall effect: Voltage is proportional to current and strength of the perpendicular magnetic ﬁeld. The amount of “Hall Voltage” produced for any given set of conditions also depends on the type of material used for the ﬂat. Three phase power measurement can be accomplished using two dynamometer movements with a common shaft linking the two moving coils together so that a single pointer registers power on a meter movement scale. This. whereby a voltage is generated along the width of a currentcarrying conductor exposed to a perpendicular magnetic ﬁeld: (Figure 12. It has been found that specially prepared “semiconductor” materials produce a greater Hall voltage than do metals. H. and so modern Hall Effect devices are made of these.3. makes for a rather expensive and complex movement mechanism. An ingenious method of deriving an electronic power meter (one that generates an electric signal representing power in the system rather than merely move a pointer) is based on the Hall effect.23)
voltage
S current N current
S N
Figure 12. obviously. It makes sense then that if we were to build a device using a Halleffect sensor where the current through the conductor was pushed by AC voltage from an external circuit and the magnetic ﬁeld was set up by a pair or wire coils energized by the current of the AC power circuit. Hall in 1879.
but it will also be a DC signal! This is because the Hall voltage polarity is dependent upon both the polarity of the magnetic ﬁeld and the direction of current through the conductor. At those points in time.24)
voltage
Rmultiplier
AC power source
Load
Figure 12. Between those points in time. this device is able to provide instantaneous power measurement: (Figure 12. this net DC voltage can be separated from the AC mixed with it. generating a signal corresponding to the instantaneous absorption and release of power through the reactive load. Any phase shift between voltage and current in the power circuit less than 90o will result in a Hall output voltage that oscillates between positive and negative. The net DC output voltage will be zero. the alternate peaks of Hall device current and magnetic ﬁeld will never coincide with each other: when one is at its peak. Often it is useful to have a meter to totalize power usage over a period of time rather than instantaneously. the other will be zero. the ﬁnal output signal registered on a sensitive DC meter movement. meaning no real power delivered to the load). AC METERING CIRCUITS
voltage. but spends more time positive than negative. The output of such a meter can be set in units of Joules. or total energy
. the Hall output voltage will likewise be zero. Not only will the output voltage of the Hall effect device be the representation of instantaneous power at any point in time. Consequently there will be a net DC output voltage. indicating zero true power in the circuit. being the product (multiplication) of current and magnetic ﬁeld strength. If voltage and current in the power circuit are 90o out of phase (a power factor of zero.384
CHAPTER 12. Conditioned through a lowpass ﬁlter circuit.24: Hall effect power sensor measures instantaneous power. Having no mass to move (unlike an electromechanical movement). If both current direction and magnetic ﬁeld polarity reverses – as it would ever halfcycle of the AC power – the output voltage polarity will stay the same. the Hall output voltage will ﬂuctuate equally between positive and negative.
the output of the meter can be set in units of WattHours. Remember that “averaging” type meters are calibrated so that their scales indicate volts RMS. then have that motor turn an “odometer” style counting mechanism to keep a running total of energy consumed. With problems like these plaguing power systems. Mechanical means for measuring WattHours are usually centered around the concept of the motor: build an AC motor that spins at a rate of speed proportional to the instantaneous power in a circuit. cause exceedingly high neutral conductor currents in threephase systems. regardless of waveshape. A “power quality” meter is one that gives some form of harmonic content indication. A simple way for a technician to determine power quality in their system without sophisticated equipment is to compare voltage readings between two accurate voltmeters measuring the same system voltage: one meter being an “averaging” type of unit (such as an electromechanical movement meter) and the other being a “trueRMS” type of unit (such as a highquality digital meter). meaning that they did not distort the shape of the voltage sine wave. create electromagnetic “noise” in the form of radio emissions that can interfere with sensitive electronic equipment.4. more commonly. The “motor” used in these meters has a rotor made of a thin aluminum disk. with the rotating magnetic ﬁeld established by sets of coils energized by line voltage and load current so that the rotational speed of the disk is dependent on both voltage and current. This is not true anymore. based on the assumption that the AC voltage being measured is sinusoidal. and can be difﬁcult to pinpoint. and the greater its harmonic content. aside from power factor. A power system with good quality power should generate equal voltage readings between the two meters. since power is a measure of work being done per unit time. the worse the power quality is. whereas the trueRMS meter always will. If the voltage is anything but sinewaveshaped. or cause nonsinusoidal currents to ﬂow in the circuit. to within the rated error tolerance of the two instruments. Almost all loads were of the “linear” variety.12. Or.
12. meaning that the voltages and currents in the power system(s) feeding these loads are rich in harmonics: what should be nice. Anything other than a clean sine wave could be an indication of trouble: (Figure 12. POWER QUALITY MEASUREMENT
385
consumed. The rule of thumb here is this: the greater the disparity between the two meters. Power Quality is the general term given to represent an AC power system’s freedom from harmonic content.25)
.4
Power quality measurement
It used to be with large AC power systems that “power quality” was an unheardof concept. reduce electric motor horsepower output. the averaging meter will not register the proper value. engineers and technicians require ways to precisely detect and measure these conditions. Excessive harmonics in an AC power system can overheat transformers. Loads controlled by “nonlinear” electronic components are becoming more prevalent in both home and industry. Another qualitative measurement of power quality is the oscilloscope test: connect an oscilloscope (CRT) to the AC voltage and observe the shape of the wave. clean sinewave voltages and currents are becoming highly distorted. which is equivalent to the presence of an inﬁnite series of highfrequency sine waves at multiples of the fundamental power line frequency.
AC METERING CIRCUITS
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical Y V/div trigger
DC GND AC
timebase X s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 12. green. and displays the result in the form of a histogram: (Figure 12. orange.26)
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Total distortion = 43.
.25: This is a moderately ugly “sine” wave. numerical ﬁgures) is necessary. if quantitative analysis (deﬁnite.26: Power quality meter is a low frequency spectrum analyzer. What this instrument does is provide a graphical representation on a CRT or digital display screen of the AC voltage’s frequency “spectrum. yellow. Such an instrument is called a power quality meter and is sometimes better known in electronic circles as a lowfrequency spectrum analyzer. and blue is in that light).” Just as a prism splits a beam of white light into its constituent color components (how much red.7 % Power Quality Meter
Figure 12. there is no substitute for an instrument speciﬁcally designed for that purpose.386
CHAPTER 12. the spectrum analyzer splits a mixedfrequency signal into its constituent frequencies. Deﬁnite harmonic content here! Still.
5
AC bridge circuits
As we saw with DC measurement circuits. evennumbered harmonics tend to be canceled out. or fundamental).5. the easier it is to detect a condition of imbalance between the four resistors with the null detector.12. This is true with AC as well. However. and so only harmonics existing in signiﬁcant measure are the oddnumbered. the bridge circuit works as a pair of twocomponent voltage dividers connected across the same source voltage. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
387
Each number on the horizontal scale of this meter represents a harmonic of the fundamental frequency. Power quality meters such as this might be better referred to as overtone meters. and its value can be determined by a ratio of the other three. the circuit conﬁguration known as a bridge can be a very useful way to measure unknown values of resistance. with a nulldetector meter movement connected between them to indicate a condition of “balance” at zero volts: (Figure 12. When the bridge is in a balanced condition (zero voltage as indicated by the null detector). and thus the more sensitive it will be.” or whose resistances are known to a precise degree. 60 Hz sine wave would show only a tall black bar over the “1” with no black bars showing at all over the other frequency markers on the scale. the “5” for 300 Hz (the 5th harmonic). which are “calibrated. because different types of nonlinear loads tend to generate different spectrum “signatures” which can clue the troubleshooter to the source of the problem. Meters like these are very useful in the hands of a skilled technician.
. A pure. For American power systems. the ratio works out to be this:
In a condition of balance: R1 R2 = R3 R4
One of the advantages of using a bridge circuit to measure resistance is that the voltage of the power source is irrelevant. the higher the supply voltage. because a pure sine wave has no harmonic content.
12. The black rectangles represent the relative magnitudes of each of these harmonic components in the measured AC voltage. there will be no fundamental error introduced as a result of a lesser or greater power supply voltage unlike other types of resistance measurement schemes. A greater supply voltage leads to the possibility of increased measurement precision. the “1” represents 60 Hz (the 1st harmonic. Practically speaking. and using a microprocessor (small computer) to perform numerical Fourier analysis (the Fast Fourier Transform or “FFT” algorithm) on those data points to arrive at harmonic frequency magnitudes. and we can apply the very same principle to the accurate measurement of unknown impedances. the “3” for 180 Hz (the 3rd harmonic).27) Any one of the four resistors in the above bridge can be the resistor of unknown value. because they are designed to display only those frequencies known to be generated by the power system. and so on. In threephase AC power systems (predominant for large power applications). digitizing those points of information. To review. The process is not much unlike what the SPICE program tells a computer to do when performing a Fourier analysis on a simulated circuit voltage or current waveform. These meters work by very quickly sampling the AC voltage at many different points along the waveform shape.
28)
Press button To test
Null detector for AC bridge made from audio headphones Headphones
Test leads
1 kΩ
8Ω
Figure 12. requiring substantial current to drive. of course.27: A balanced bridge shows a “null”. only the balance equation is with complex quantities. as both magnitude and phase across the components of the two dividers must be equal in order for the null detector to indicate “zero. An oscilloscope is often used for this. or minimum reading. and so a stepdown transformer helps “match” lowcurrent signals to the impedance of the headphone speakers. Headphone speakers are typically lowimpedance units (8 Ω). One way to maximize the effectiveness of audio headphones as a null detector is to connect them to the signal source through an impedancematching transformer. An audio output transformer works well for this purpose: (Figure 12.28: “Modern” lowOhm headphones require an impedance matching transformer for use as a sensitive null detector. on the indicator. although very sensitive electromechanical meter movements and even headphones (small speakers) may be used if the source frequency is within audio range.
.” The null detector. Impedance bridges work the same. AC METERING CIRCUITS
R1
R3
null
R2
R4
Figure 12.388
CHAPTER 12. must be a device capable of detecting very small AC voltages.
it must be stressed that the impedance quantities in the above equation must be complex. the impedance ratios of each branch must be equal:
Z1 Z = 3 Z2 Z4
Again. be it capacitance.1 µA with this simple detector circuit. without phase angles in balance as well. the whole circuit looks like Figure 12. Depending on how the bridge is set up. the unknown quantity is always “balanced” against a known standard. Connected to a resistive bridge. it is sometimes helpful to draw the respective bridge legs in the form of boxshaped components. inductance. When describing general AC bridges. I’ve been able to detect currents of less than 0. It is insufﬁcient that the impedance magnitudes alone be balanced. or derived from
. each one with a certain impedance: (Figure 12. this circuit is usable for detecting signals from DC to over 2 MHz: even if the frequency is far above or below the audio range. a condition of balance will be realized when the headphones fail to produce “clicks” (or tones.12. With the pushbutton switch in place to interrupt current.
Headphones
R1
R3
R2
R4
Figure 12. a “click” will be heard from the headphones each time the switch is pressed and released. Bridge circuits can be constructed to measure just about any device value desired. calibrated component that can be adjusted in value until the null detector device indicates a condition of balance.5.29. where impedances and not just resistances must be in proper ratio for balance. and an audio output transformer (1000:8 ohm impedance ratio). if the bridge’s power source frequency is within audio range) as the switch is actuated. accounting for both magnitude and phase angle.30) For this general form of AC bridge to balance. resistance. there will still be voltage across the terminals of the null detector and the bridge will not be balanced. the unknown component’s value may be determined directly from the setting of the calibrated standard. Listening to the headphones as one or more of the resistor “arms” of the bridge is adjusted.” As always in bridge measurement circuits. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
389
Using a pair of headphones that completely surround the ears (the “closedcup” type). or even “Q. Roughly equal performance was obtained using two different stepdown transformers: a small power transformer (120/6 volt ratio). obtained from a highquality.29: Bridge with sensitive AC null detector.
A couple of simple bridge circuits are shown below. AC METERING CIRCUITS
Z1 null Z2
Z3
Z4
Figure 12. one for inductance (Figure 12.32)
unknown inductance Lx null Ls standard inductance
R
R
Figure 12.31) and one for capacitance: (Figure 12. as practical symmetrical bridge circuits often have a calibrated.30: Generalized AC impedance bridge: Z = nonspeciﬁc complex impedance. in the hypothetical world of perfect components. They are a bit simpliﬁed from their reallife counterparts. But.31: Symmetrical bridge measures unknown inductor by comparison to a standard inductor. that standard through a mathematical formula.390
CHAPTER 12. these simple bridge
. variable resistor in series or parallel with the reactive component to balance out stray resistance in the unknown component. Simple “symmetrical” bridges such as these are so named because they exhibit symmetry (mirrorimage similarity) from left to right. The two bridge circuits shown above are balanced by adjusting the calibrated reactive component (Ls or Cs ).
the settings of Rs and Cs can be read from their calibrated knobs. Wien bridges are useful for determining the values of “lossy” capacitor designs like electrolytics. It is assumed in the operation of the Wien bridge that the standard capacitor has negligible internal resistance. An example of a little extra complexity added to compensate for realworld effects can be found in the socalled Wien bridge.33) All capacitors have some amount of internal resistance.34) Calibrationgrade inductors are more
. which uses a parallel capacitorresistor standard impedance to balance out an unknown series capacitorresistor combination. the parallel impedance of the two determined mathematically. The combined effect of Rs and Cs is to alter the magnitude and phase angle until the bridge achieves a condition of balance. and the unknown capacitance and resistance determined mathematically from the balance equation (Z1 /Z2 = Z3 /Z4 ).12. used to precisely measure inductances. be it literal or equivalent (in the form of dielectric heating losses) which tend to spoil their otherwise perfectly reactive natures. This internal resistance may be of interest to measure. or at least that resistance is already known so that it can be factored into the balance equation. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
391
unknown capacitance Cx Cs null standard capacitance
R
R
Figure 12. the capacitors are made ﬁxed (and usually of equal value) and the top two resistors are made variable and are adjusted by means of the same knob. When used in this fashion. circuits do just ﬁne to illustrate the basic concept. because the balance of the bridge is frequencydependent. An interesting variation on this theme is found in the next bridge circuit. They are also used as frequency meters. This ingenious bridge circuit is known as the MaxwellWien bridge (sometimes known plainly as the Maxwell bridge).5. where the internal resistance is relatively high. Once that balance is achieved. and is used to measure unknown inductances in terms of calibrated resistance and capacitance.32: Symmetrical bridge measures unknown capacitor by comparison to a standard capacitor. (Figure 12. (Figure 12. and so the Wien bridge attempts to do so by providing a balancing impedance that isn’t “pure” either: Being that there are two standard components to be adjusted (a resistor and a capacitor) this bridge will take a little more time to balance than the others we’ve seen so far.
33: Wein Bridge measures both capacitive Cx and resistive Rx components of “real” capacitor.34: MaxwellWein bridge measures an inductor in terms of a capacitor standard. AC METERING CIRCUITS
Cx Rx Cs null Rs
R
R
Figure 12.
.392
CHAPTER 12.
Lx Rx R
null Cs R Rs
Figure 12.
35) While reedtype meters are imprecise. With no second inductor to react with in the Maxwell bridge. One or both components are made adjustable. and a meter is placed in the circuit to indicate maximum amplitude of voltage across the two components. However. Because the phase shifts of inductors and capacitors are exactly opposite each other. they form stray current paths to the AC voltage source which may affect bridge balance: (Figure 12.36) One way of greatly reducing this effect is to keep the null detector at ground potential. Because capacitances can “conduct” alternating current by charging and discharging. this is a tunable ﬁlter circuit which is adjusted and then read in a manner similar to a bridge circuit (which must be balanced for a “null” condition and then read). and even a small amount of coupling between coils in a bridge can introduce substantial errors in certain conditions. but a full discussion is not warranted here.37) The Wagner earth circuit is nothing more than a voltage divider. in the latter conﬁguration it takes more trialanderror adjustment to achieve balance. the bridge can be made to work if the capacitor is ﬁxed (nonvariable) and more than one resistor made variable (at least the resistor in parallel with the capacitor. The problem is worsened if the AC voltage source is ﬁrmly grounded at one end. There are more variations beyond these designs. we may substitute electrical resonance and design a frequency meter using an inductor and capacitor in the form of a tank circuit (parallel inductor and capacitor). In lieu of mechanical resonance. and both must be adjusted to achieve balance. and so the use of a simple “symmetrical” inductance bridge is not always practical. as it would create a direct current path for stray currents. However. and the frequency is read from them after the device has been adjusted for maximum indication on the meter.12. The adjustment knob(s) are calibrated to show resonant frequency for any given setting. Another advantage of using a Maxwell bridge to measure inductance rather than a symmetrical inductance bridge is the elimination of measurement error due to mutual inductance between two inductors. which would be worse than any capacitive path. and one of the other two). the standard capacitor (Cs ) and the resistor in parallel with it (Rs ) are made variable. a special voltage divider circuit called a Wagner ground or Wagner earth may be used to maintain the null detector at ground potential without the need for a direct connection to the null detector. and thus no current through stray capacitances. Unlike the plain Wien bridge. (Figure 12. their operational principle is not. as the different variable resistors interact in balancing magnitude and phase. the limiting factor being the inductor’s stability over a wide frequency range. Instead. Generalpurpose impedance bridge circuits are manufactured which can be switched into more than one conﬁguration for maximum ﬂexibility of use. designed to have the volt
. the balance of the MaxwellWien bridge is independent of source frequency. However. For easiest operation.5. as they are here. Magnetic ﬁelds can be difﬁcult to shield. and in some cases this bridge can be made to balance in the presence of mixed frequencies from the AC voltage source. directly connecting the null detector to ground is not an option. A potential problem in sensitive AC bridge circuits is that of stray capacitance between either end of the null detector unit and ground (earth) potential. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
393
difﬁcult to manufacture than capacitors of similar precision. the total stray impedance for leakage currents made far less and any leakage currents through these stray capacitances made greater as a result: (Figure 12. a capacitive impedance can balance out an inductive impedance if they are located in opposite legs of a bridge. this problem is eliminated. so there will be no AC voltage between it and the ground. Essentially.
35: Stray capacitance to ground may introduce errors into the bridge.
.394
CHAPTER 12.36: Stray capacitance errors are more severe if one side of the AC supply is grounded.
Cx
Cs null
Cstray R R
Cstray
Figure 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
Cstray Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray
Cstray
Figure 12.
(Figure 12. but the null detector is also guaranteed to be at zero potential with respect to ground. headphones (ampliﬁed or unampliﬁed). Because the midpoint of the Wagner divider is directly grounded. without a direct connection between the detector and ground. oscilloscopes (CRT’s).5. and powered by the same AC voltage source. any other divider circuit (including either side of the bridge) having the same voltage proportions and phases as the Wagner divider. age ratio and phase shift as each side of the bridge. • Null detectors for AC bridges may be sensitive electromechanical meter movements.38) so that one end of the null detector may be connected to either the bridge or the Wagner earth. its only required point of calibration accuracy is at zero. Like DC null detectors.
. the bridge is not only guaranteed to be balanced. AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS
395
Cstray
Wagner earth Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray
Cstray
Figure 12. thus eliminating any errors due to leakage currents through stray detectortoground capacitances: • REVIEW: • AC bridge circuits work on the same basic principle as DC bridge circuits: that a balanced ratio of impedances (rather than resistances) will result in a “balanced” condition as indicated by the nulldetector device. the Wagner earth divider forces the null detector to be at ground potential. When the null detector registers zero signal in both switch positions. There is often a provision made in the null detector connection to conﬁrm proper setting of the Wagner earth divider circuit: a twoposition switch. will be at ground potential as well. Thus.12. or any other device capable of registering very small AC voltage levels.37: Wagner ground for AC supply minimizes the effects of stray capacitance to ground on the bridge.
AC METERING CIRCUITS
Cstray Cx Cs null Cstray R R Cstray
Cstray
Figure 12. • Some impedance bridge circuits are frequencysensitive while others are not. pH probes.
12. or even capacitances balancing out inductances.6
AC instrumentation transducers
Just as devices have been made to measure certain physical quantities and repeat that information in the form of DC electrical signals (thermocouples. • AC bridge circuits can be of the “symmetrical” type where an unknown impedance is balanced by a standard impedance of similar type on the same side (top or bottom) of the bridge.). they can be “nonsymmetrical. • AC bridge circuits often have more than one adjustment.396
CHAPTER 12. A simple and easy way to do this is with a potentiometer: (Figure 12.” using parallel impedances to balance series impedances. The frequencysensitive types may be used as frequency measurement devices if all component values are accurately known. since both impedance magnitude and phase angle must be properly matched to balance. strain gauges.39)
. It is often necessary to be able to detect and transmit the physical position of mechanical parts via electrical signals. This is especially true in the ﬁelds of automated machine tool control and robotics. etc. special devices have been made that do the same with AC. • A Wagner earth or Wagner ground is a voltage divider circuit added to AC bridges to help reduce errors due to stray capacitance coupling the null detector to ground. Or.38: Switchup position allows adjustment of the Wagner ground.
they rely on physical contact between the “wiper” and the resistance strip. we are able to completely avoid sliding contact between parts if we use a variable transformer instead of a potentiometer. which means they suffer the effects of physical wear over time. The core does not contact the wire windings. which stands for Linear Variable Differential Transformers. their proportional output versus shaft position becomes less and less certain. but slides in and out within a nonconducting tube.6. When the core is centered and both windings are outputting the same voltage. at frequencies ranging from power
. you might hear “scratching” sounds coming out of the speakers. It is variable because the core is free to move between the windings. and two secondary windings connected in seriesbucking fashion. Being arranged to oppose each other (180o out of phase) means that the output of this device will be the difference between the voltage output of the two secondary windings. nor is there the possibility of creating an arc. The primary advantage of an LVDT over a potentiometer for position sensing is the absence of physical contact between the moving and stationary parts. As potentiometers wear. With most potentiometer circuits.12. this device is a transformer: it has a single primary winding powered by an external source of AC voltage. The AC voltage output by an LVDT indicates the position of the movable core. the current is so low that wiper arcing is negligible. this potential for arcing translates into a potential for an explosion! Using AC instead of DC. the net result at the output terminals will be zero volts. It is differential because of the way the two secondary windings are connected. Also. potentiometers have their own unique problems. Devices made for this purpose are called LVDT’s. You might have already experienced this effect when adjusting the volume control on an old radio: when twisting the knob. Those noises are the result of poor wiper contact in the volume control potentiometer.39: Potentiometer tap voltage indicates position of an object slaved to the shaft. However. The further away the core is from center position. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS
397
potentiometer shaft moved by physical motion of an object
+ V 
voltmeter indicates position of that object
Figure 12. this physical contact between wiper and strip creates the possibility of arcing (sparking) between the two as the wiper is moved. the LVDT does not “wear” like a potentiometer. It is called linear because the core’s freedom of motion is straightline. For one. The phase of the output voltage relative to the excitation voltage indicates which direction from center the core is offset. Zero volts means that the core is centered. but it is a possibility to be considered. Excitation of the LVDT is typically 10 volts RMS or less. the greater percentage of input (“excitation”) voltage will be seen at the output. Thus.40) Obviously. The design of an LVDT looks like this: (Figure 12. If the potentiometer is to be operated in an environment where combustible vapor or dust is present.
398
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
AC output voltage AC "excitation" voltage
movable core
Figure 12.40: AC output of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) indicates core position. line to the high audio (20 kHz) range. One potential disadvantage of the LVDT is its response time, which is mostly dependent on the frequency of the AC voltage source. If very quick response times are desired, the frequency must be higher to allow whatever voltagesensing circuits enough cycles of AC to determine voltage level as the core is moved. To illustrate the potential problem here, imagine this exaggerated scenario: an LVDT powered by a 60 Hz voltage source, with the core being moved in and out hundreds of times per second. The output of this LVDT wouldn’t even look like a sine wave because the core would be moved throughout its range of motion before the AC source voltage could complete a single cycle! It would be almost impossible to determine instantaneous core position if it moves faster than the instantaneous source voltage does. A variation on the LVDT is the RVDT, or Rotary Variable Differential Transformer. This device works on almost the same principle, except that the core revolves on a shaft instead of moving in a straight line. RVDT’s can be constructed for limited motion of 360o (fullcircle) motion. Continuing with this principle, we have what is known as a Synchro or Selsyn, which is a device constructed a lot like a woundrotor polyphase AC motor or generator. The rotor is free to revolve a full 360o , just like a motor. On the rotor is a single winding connected to a source of AC voltage, much like the primary winding of an LVDT. The stator windings are usually in the form of a threephase Y, although synchros with more than three phases have been built. (Figure 12.41) A device with a twophase stator is known as a resolver. A resolver produces sine and cosine outputs which indicate shaft position. Voltages induced in the stator windings from the rotor’s AC excitation are not phaseshifted by 120o as in a real threephase generator. If the rotor were energized with DC current rather than AC and the shaft spun continuously, then the voltages would be true threephase. But this is not how a synchro is designed to be operated. Rather, this is a positionsensing device much like an RVDT, except that its output signal is much more deﬁnite. With the rotor energized by AC, the stator winding voltages will be proportional in magnitude to the angular position
12.6. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS
Synchro (a.k.a "Selsyn") Resolver
399
AC voltage source rotor winding threephase stator winding
rotor winding
twophase stator winding
stator connections
rotor connections
stator connections
rotor connections
modern schematic symbol
Figure 12.41: A synchro is wound with a threephase stator winding, and a rotating ﬁeld. A resolver has a twophase stator. of the rotor, phase either 0o or 180o shifted, like a regular LVDT or RVDT. You could think of it as a transformer with one primary winding and three secondary windings, each secondary winding oriented at a unique angle. As the rotor is slowly turned, each winding in turn will line up directly with the rotor, producing full voltage, while the other windings will produce something less than full voltage. Synchros are often used in pairs. With their rotors connected in parallel and energized by the same AC voltage source, their shafts will match position to a high degree of accuracy: (Figure 12.42)
Synchro "transmitter" Synchro "receiver"
The receiver rotor will turn to match position with the transmitter rotor so long as the two rotors remain energized.
Figure 12.42: Synchro shafts are slaved to each other. Rotating one moves the other. Such “transmitter/receiver” pairs have been used on ships to relay rudder position, or to
400
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
relay navigational gyro position over fairly long distances. The only difference between the “transmitter” and the “receiver” is which one gets turned by an outside force. The “receiver” can just as easily be used as the “transmitter” by forcing its shaft to turn and letting the synchro on the left match position. If the receiver’s rotor is left unpowered, it will act as a positionerror detector, generating an AC voltage at the rotor if the shaft is anything other than 90o or 270o shifted from the shaft position of the transmitter. The receiver rotor will no longer generate any torque and consequently will no longer automatically match position with the transmitter’s: (Figure 12.43)
Synchro "transmitter" Synchro "receiver"
AC voltmeter
Figure 12.43: AC voltmeter registers voltage if the receiver rotor is not rotated exactly 90 or 270 degrees from the transmitter rotor. This can be thought of almost as a sort of bridge circuit that achieves balance only if the receiver shaft is brought to one of two (matching) positions with the transmitter shaft. One rather ingenious application of the synchro is in the creation of a phaseshifting device, provided that the stator is energized by threephase AC: (Figure 12.44)
threephase AC voltage source (can be Y or Delta) Synchro
voltage signal output
Figure 12.44: Full rotation of the rotor will smoothly shift the phase from 0o all the way to 360o (back to 0o ). As the synchro’s rotor is turned, the rotor coil will progressively align with each stator coil, their respective magnetic ﬁelds being 120o phaseshifted from one another. In between those positions, these phaseshifted ﬁelds will mix to produce a rotor voltage somewhere between 0o ,
12.6. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS
401
120o , or 240o shift. The practical result is a device capable of providing an inﬁnitely variablephase AC voltage with the twist of a knob (attached to the rotor shaft). A synchro or a resolver may measure linear motion if geared with a rack and pinion mechanism. A linear movement of a few inches (or cm) resulting in multiple revolutions of the synchro (resolver) generates a train of sinewaves. An Inductosyn R is a linear version of the resolver. It outputs signals like a resolver; though, it bears slight resemblance. The Inductosyn consists of two parts: a ﬁxed serpentine winding having a 0.1 in or 2 mm pitch, and a movable winding known as a slider. (Figure 12.45) The slider has a pair of windings having the same pitch as the ﬁxed winding. The slider windings are offset by a quarter pitch so both sine and cosine waves are produced by movement. One slider winding is adequate for counting pulses, but provides no direction information. The 2phase windings provide direction information in the phasing of the sine and cosine waves. Movement by one pitch produces a cycle of sine and cosine waves; multiple pitches produce a train of waves.
P θ
fixed
slider
fixed
slider sin(θ) (a) cos(θ) (b)
Figure 12.45: Inductosyn: (a) Fixed serpentine winding, (b) movable slider 2phase windings. Adapted from Figure 6.16 [1] When we say sine and cosine waves are produces as a function of linear movement, we really mean a high frequency carrier is amplitude modulated as the slider moves. The two slider AC signals must be measured to determine position within a pitch, the ﬁne position. How many pitches has the slider moved? The sine and cosine signals’ relationship does not reveal that. However, the number of pitches (number of waves) may be counted from a known starting point yielding coarse position. This is an incremental encoder. If absolute position must be known regardless of the starting point, an auxiliary resolver geared for one revolution per length gives a coarse position. This constitutes an absolute encoder. A linear Inductosyn has a transformer ratio of 100:1. Compare this to the 1:1 ratio for a resolver. A few volts AC excitation into an Inductosyn yields a few millivolts out. This low signal level is converted to to a 12bit digital format by a resolver to digital converter (RDC). Resolution of 25 microinches is achievable.
402
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
There is also a rotary version of the Inductosyn having 360 pattern pitches per revolution. When used with a 12bit resolver to digital converter, better that 1 arc second resolution is achievable. This is an incremental encoder. Counting of pitches from a known starting point is necessary to determine absolute position. Alternatively, a resolver may determine coarse absolute position. [1] So far the transducers discussed have all been of the inductive variety. However, it is possible to make transducers which operate on variable capacitance as well, AC being used to sense the change in capacitance and generate a variable output voltage. Remember that the capacitance between two conductive surfaces varies with three major factors: the overlapping area of those two surfaces, the distance between them, and the dielectric constant of the material in between the surfaces. If two out of three of these variables can be ﬁxed (stabilized) and the third allowed to vary, then any measurement of capacitance between the surfaces will be solely indicative of changes in that third variable. Medical researchers have long made use of capacitive sensing to detect physiological changes in living bodies. As early as 1907, a German researcher named H. Cremer placed two metal plates on either side of a beating frog heart and measured the capacitance changes resulting from the heart alternately ﬁlling and emptying itself of blood. Similar measurements have been performed on human beings with metal plates placed on the chest and back, recording respiratory and cardiac action by means of capacitance changes. For more precise capacitive measurements of organ activity, metal probes have been inserted into organs (especially the heart) on the tips of catheter tubes, capacitance being measured between the metal probe and the body of the subject. With a sufﬁciently high AC excitation frequency and sensitive enough voltage detector, not just the pumping action but also the sounds of the active heart may be readily interpreted. Like inductive transducers, capacitive transducers can also be made to be selfcontained units, unlike the direct physiological examples described above. Some transducers work by making one of the capacitor plates movable, either in such a way as to vary the overlapping area or the distance between the plates. Other transducers work by moving a dielectric material in and out between two ﬁxed plates: (Figure 12.46)
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 12.46: Variable capacitive transducer varies; (a) area of overlap, (b) distance between plates, (c) amount of dielectric between plates. Transducers with greater sensitivity and immunity to changes in other variables can be obtained by way of differential design, much like the concept behind the LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer). Here are a few examples of differential capacitive transducers: (Figure 12.47)
12.6. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS
403
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 12.47: Differential capacitive transducer varies capacitance ratio by changing: (a) area of overlap, (b) distance between plates, (c) dielectric between plates. As you can see, all of the differential devices shown in the above illustration have three wire connections rather than two: one wire for each of the “end” plates and one for the “common” plate. As the capacitance between one of the “end” plates and the “common” plate changes, the capacitance between the other “end” plate and the “common” plate is such to change in the opposite direction. This kind of transducer lends itself very well to implementation in a bridge circuit: (Figure 12.48)
Pictoral diagram capacitive sensor Schematic diagram
V
Figure 12.48: Differential capacitive transducer bridge measurement circuit. Capacitive transducers provide relatively small capacitances for a measurement circuit to operate with, typically in the picofarad range. Because of this, high power supply frequencies (in the megahertz range!) are usually required to reduce these capacitive reactances to reasonable levels. Given the small capacitances provided by typical capacitive transducers, stray capacitances have the potential of being major sources of measurement error. Good conductor shielding is essential for reliable and accurate capacitive transducer circuitry! The bridge circuit is not the only way to effectively interpret the differential capacitance output of such a transducer, but it is one of the simplest to implement and understand. As with the LVDT, the voltage output of the bridge is proportional to the displacement of the transducer action from its center position, and the direction of offset will be indicated by phase
404
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
shift. This kind of bridge circuit is similar in function to the kind used with strain gauges: it is not intended to be in a “balanced” condition all the time, but rather the degree of imbalance represents the magnitude of the quantity being measured. An interesting alternative to the bridge circuit for interpreting differential capacitance is the twinT. It requires the use of diodes, those “oneway valves” for electric current mentioned earlier in the chapter: (Figure 12.49)
R
R C1 + + C2 Rload Eout
Figure 12.49: Differential capacitive transducer “TwinT” measurement circuit. This circuit might be better understood if redrawn to resemble more of a bridge conﬁguration: (Figure 12.50)
R + C1
R Rload + C2
Figure 12.50: Differential capacitor transducer “TwinT” measurement circuit redrawn as a bridge.Output is across Rload . Capacitor C1 is charged by the AC voltage source during every positive halfcycle (positive as measured in reference to the ground point), while C2 is charged during every negative halfcycle. While one capacitor is being charged, the other capacitor discharges (at a slower rate than it was charged) through the threeresistor network. As a consequence, C1 maintains a positive DC voltage with respect to ground, and C2 a negative DC voltage with respect to
12.6. AC INSTRUMENTATION TRANSDUCERS
405
ground. If the capacitive transducer is displaced from center position, one capacitor will increase in capacitance while the other will decrease. This has little effect on the peak voltage charge of each capacitor, as there is negligible resistance in the charging current path from source to capacitor, resulting in a very short time constant (τ ). However, when it comes time to discharge through the resistors, the capacitor with the greater capacitance value will hold its charge longer, resulting in a greater average DC voltage over time than the lesservalue capacitor. The load resistor (Rload ), connected at one end to the point between the two equalvalue resistors (R) and at the other end to ground, will drop no DC voltage if the two capacitors’ DC voltage charges are equal in magnitude. If, on the other hand, one capacitor maintains a greater DC voltage charge than the other due to a difference in capacitance, the load resistor will drop a voltage proportional to the difference between these voltages. Thus, differential capacitance is translated into a DC voltage across the load resistor. Across the load resistor, there is both AC and DC voltage present, with only the DC voltage being signiﬁcant to the difference in capacitance. If desired, a lowpass ﬁlter may be added to the output of this circuit to block the AC, leaving only a DC signal to be interpreted by measurement circuitry: (Figure 12.51)
R
Lowpass filter
R C1 + + C2 Rload
Rfilter Cfilter Eout
Figure 12.51: Addition of lowpass ﬁlter to “twinT” feeds pure DC to measurement indicator. As a measurement circuit for differential capacitive sensors, the twinT conﬁguration enjoys many advantages over the standard bridge conﬁguration. First and foremost, transducer displacement is indicated by a simple DC voltage, not an AC voltage whose magnitude and phase must be interpreted to tell which capacitance is greater. Furthermore, given the proper component values and power supply output, this DC output signal may be strong enough to directly drive an electromechanical meter movement, eliminating the need for an ampliﬁer circuit. Another important advantage is that all important circuit elements have one terminal directly connected to ground: the source, the load resistor, and both capacitors are all groundreferenced. This helps minimize the ill effects of stray capacitance commonly plaguing bridge measurement circuits, likewise eliminating the need for compensatory measures such as the Wagner earth. This circuit is also easy to specify parts for. Normally, a measurement circuit incorporating complementary diodes requires the selection of “matched” diodes for good accuracy. Not so with
406
CHAPTER 12. AC METERING CIRCUITS
this circuit! So long as the power supply voltage is signiﬁcantly greater than the deviation in voltage drop between the two diodes, the effects of mismatch are minimal and contribute little to measurement error. Furthermore, supply frequency variations have a relatively low impact on gain (how much output voltage is developed for a given amount of transducer displacement), and squarewave supply voltage works as well as sinewave, assuming a 50% duty cycle (equal positive and negative halfcycles), of course. Personal experience with using this circuit has conﬁrmed its impressive performance. Not only is it easy to prototype and test, but its relative insensitivity to stray capacitance and its high output voltage as compared to traditional bridge circuits makes it a very robust alternative.
12.7
Contributors
Contributors to this chapter are listed in chronological order of their contributions, from most recent to ﬁrst. See Appendix 2 (Contributor List) for dates and contact information. Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting, which led to a much betterlooking second edition.
Bibliography
[1] Waltt Kestler, “Position and Motion Sensors”, Analog Dehttp://www.analog.com/UploadedFiles/Associated Docs/ vices. 324695618448506532114843952501435805318549066180119988Fsect6.PDF
Chapter 13
AC MOTORS
Contents
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.1 Hysteresis and Eddy Current . . . . . . . 13.2 Synchronous Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 Synchronous condenser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 Reluctance motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4.1 Synchronous reluctance . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4.2 Switched reluctance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4.3 Electronic driven variable reluctance motor 13.5 Stepper motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.5.1 Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.5.2 Variable reluctance stepper . . . . . . . . . 13.5.3 Permanent magnet stepper . . . . . . . . . 13.5.4 Hybrid stepper motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 Brushless DC motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7 Tesla polyphase induction motors . . . . . . . 13.7.1 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7.2 Theory of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7.3 Nola power factor corrrector . . . . . . . . . 13.7.4 Induction motor alternator . . . . . . . . . . 13.7.5 Motor starting and speed control . . . . . . 13.7.6 Linear induction motor . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.8 Wound rotor induction motors . . . . . . . . . 13.8.1 Speed control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.8.2 Doublyfed induction generator . . . . . . . 13.9 Singlephase induction motors . . . . . . . . . 13.9.1 Permanentsplit capacitor motor . . . . . . 13.9.2 Capacitorstart induction motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 409 412 420 421 421 422 424 426 426 428 431 435 438 442 443 445 453 454 455 460 460 462 462 464 465 466
407
408
13.9.3 Capacitorrun motor induction motor . . . . 13.9.4 Resistance splitphase motor induction motor 13.9.5 Nola power factor corrrector . . . . . . . . . . 13.10 Other specialized motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.10.1 Shaded pole induction motor . . . . . . . . . 13.10.2 2phase servo motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.10.3 Hysteresis motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.10.4 Eddy current clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.11 Selsyn (synchro) motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.11.1 Transmitter  receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.11.2 Differential transmitter  receiver . . . . . . 13.11.3 Control transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.11.4 Resolver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.12 AC commutator motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.12.1 Single phase series motor . . . . . . . . . . . 13.12.2 Compensated series motor . . . . . . . . . . 13.12.3 Universal motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.12.4 Repulsion motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.12.5 Repulsion start induction motor . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 467 467 469 469 469 470 470 471 472 473 476 478 479 480 480 480 481 481 482
Original author: Dennis Crunkilton
Figure 13.1: Conductors of squirrel cage induction motor removed from rotor.
13.1
Introduction
After the introduction of the DC electrical distribution system by Edison in the United States, a gradual transition to the more economical AC system commenced. Lighting worked as well on AC as on DC. Transmission of electrical energy covered longer distances at lower loss with
5) An alternating current has to expend energy. Br due to hysteresis remains. (Figure 13. a small amount of residual magnetization. Its ruggedness and simplicity (Figure 13. Numerous problems were encountered due to changing magnetic ﬁelds. The laminations are coated with insulating varnish before stacking and bolting into the ﬁnal form. Steinmetz contributed to solving these problems with his investigation of hysteresis losses in iron armatures. Modern solid state electronic circuits drive brushless DC motors with AC waveforms generated from a DC source. If the laminations are made of silicon alloy grain oriented steel. His new type of motor. The thin isolated laminations break these loops. (Figure 13. not spun by water or steam. another form of energy. Cruise ships and other large vessels replace reduction geared drive shafts with large multimegawatt generators and motors. the AC induction motor. converting it to mechanical work. Both rotor and stator cores of AC motors are composed of a stack of insulated laminations. And. a digital version of motor. and low maintenance. is driven by alternating current square waves.2 shows the family tree of the AC motors described in this chapter. one goal is to maximize motor efﬁciency. Alas. It must be removed from the motor and may adversely affect longevity. is the workhorse of industry to this day. However. the Tesla motor reigns supreme. Also.
13. However. Magnetic hysteresis is a lagging behind of magnetic ﬁeld strength as compared to magnetizing force. Charles P. persist in small appliances along with small Tesla induction motors. If a soft iron nail is temporarily magnetized by a solenoid. Some of the electric energy is lost to heat. due to I2 R losses in the motor windings. the silicon (a semiconductor) added to the alloy used in the laminations increases electrical resistance which decreases the magnitude of eddy currents. Such has been the case with dieselelectric locomotives on a smaller scale for many years. hysteresis losses are minimized. Yet small brushed AC motors. high reliability.1. in overcoming this residual magnetization before
. Nikola Tesla envisioned an entirely new type of motor when he visualized a spinning turbine. The brushless DC motor. AC motors were constructed like DC motors.13. but by a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. (Figure 13. Thus. At the system level.1) make for long life. these problems had to be solved before AC motors of any type could be properly designed before they were built.3) a motor takes in electrical energy in terms of a potential difference and a current ﬂow. Hc the coercive force. AC motors also have some losses not encountered by DC motors: hysteresis and eddy currents.4) The current loops look like shorted transformer secondary turns. motors were a problem with alternating current.1
Hysteresis and Eddy Current
Early designers of AC motors encountered problems traced to losses unique to alternating current magnetics. similar to the DC variety.1. Though few AC motors today bear any resemblance to DC motors. the stepper motor. The heat is an undesired byproduct of the conversion. actually an AC motor. Initially. These problems were encountered when adapting DC motors to AC operation. Eddy currents are minimized by breaking the potential conductive loop into smaller less lossy segments. generated by solid state circuitry Figure 13. INTRODUCTION
409
alternating current. reducing the heat loss. Above one horsepower (750 W). as compared to the static ﬁelds in DC motor motor ﬁeld coils. electric motors are not 100% efﬁcient. is replacing the conventional brushed DC motor in many applications. again. one would expect the nail to lose the magnetic ﬁeld once the solenoid is deenergized.
2: AC electric motor family diagram.410
Electric motor family tree
Electric motor
AC
DC
Figure 13.
Asynchronous AC brushed Universal
Synchronous Other DC motors
Polyphase
Single phase
Sine wave
Stepper
Brushless
Reluctance
Squirrel cage
Permanent split capacitor
Split phase
Wound rotor
Variable reluctance
Synchronous reluctance
CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
Wound rotor
Capacitor start
Shaded pole
PM rotor
PM
Switched reluctance
Synchros & resolvers
Capacitor run
Variable reluctance
Synchronous condenser
Hybrid
.
let alone in the opposite direction.4: Eddy currents in iron cores. “Soft” iron alloys have lower losses than “hard” high carbon steel alloys.
solid core
laminated core
Figure 13. has still lower losses. The loss is proportional to the area enclosed by the hysteresis loop on the BH curve.13.5: Hysteresis curves for low and high loss alloys.3: Motor system level diagram. Once Steinmetz’s Laws of hysteresis could predict iron core losses.1. rolled to preferentially orient the grain or crystalline structure. Silicon grain oriented steel. it can magnetize the core back to zero. it was possible to design
. INTRODUCTION
411
Mechanical enegy Electrical energy Heat
Figure 13. Hysteresis loss is encountered each time the polarity of the AC reverses. 4% silicon.
B Teslas BR HC
H Aturns/m
B
H
HC BR low hysteresis loss high loss
Figure 13.
requiring considerable torque to break one unit loose (out of synchronization) from the other. If more torque in the direction of rotation is applied to the rotor of one of the above rotating
. The procedure for synchronizing two alternators is to (1) open the switch. use a motor as a generator. they must be synchronized. (2) drive both alternators at the same rotational rate. conversely. (clocks) and tape players. Above 10 Horsepower (10 kW) the higher efﬁciency and leading powerfactor make large synchronous motors useful in industry. the AC line operated variety has better long term accuracy−− over a period of months. Though. The point is that in either case the rotors must run at the same nominal frequency. it should be possible to use a generator as a motor. Large synchronous motors are a few percent more efﬁcient than the more common induction motors. if an external power source were connected.
13. (4) close the switch before they drift out of phase. Once synchronized. Today this is but a minor category of AC motors.6: Synchronous motor running in step with alternator. That is. This knowledge of eddy current and hysteresis was ﬁrst applied to building AC commutator motors similar to their DC counterparts. Since motors and generators are similar in construction. (3) advance or retard the phase of one unit until both AC outputs are in phase. Or. If it falls behind by a few cycles.
torque angle
N S N S 1
S S N N 2
S S N N 3
Figure 13.2
Synchronous Motors
Single phase synchronous motors are available in small sizes for applications requiring precise timing such as time keeping. The ﬁgure below shows small alternators with a permanent magnet rotating ﬁeld. the synchronous motor is more complex. it could be two motors. AC MOTORS
AC motors which performed as designed. Though battery powered quartz regulated clocks are widely available.6 could either be two paralleled and synchronized alternators driven by a mechanical energy sources. This is due to power plant operators purposely maintaining the long term accuracy of the frequency of the AC distribution system. This was akin to being able to design a bridge ahead of time that would not collapse once it was actually built. This ﬁgure 13. Others invented new types of AC motors bearing little resemblance to their DC kin. the alternators will be locked to each other. or an alternator driving a synchronous motor.412
CHAPTER 13. and be in phase with each other. A synchronous motor is similar to an alternator with a rotating ﬁeld. they will make up the lost cycles of AC so that clocks lose no time.
6 right. the synchronous motor is not self starting and must still be brought up to the approximate alternator electrical speed before it will lock (synchronize) to the generator rotational rate. This torque decreases as the sine wave decreases to 0 VDC at (3) with the torque at a minimum. However. as the sine wave changes to positive in Figure 13. In a similar manner the rotor south pole is repelled by the upper south coil and attracted to the lower north coil. the rotor will exceed the maximum torque angle advancing or lagging so much that synchronization is lost. while the upper south coil attracts that rotor north pole.7 (1). At (4) the sinewave reaches a negative peak with holding torque again at a maximum.2. As the sine wave changes to negative between (3&4). The process repeats for a new cycle of sine wave. Assuming that the motor is up to synchronous speed. As the sine wave changes from negative to 0 VDC to positive.
α
S N N 1 2 1 3 4 S
S N S S N 2
N N
N S N
S 3
S 4
Figure 13. Note. the synchronous motor will maintain synchronism with the AC power source and develop torque. it is not necessary to go through the elaborate synchronization procedure for alternators. This angle increases with loading until the maximum motor torque is reached at α=90o electrical. The current in the coils of a single phase synchronous motor pulsates while alternating
. while attracting rotor north rotor pole. Torque is developed only when synchronization of the motor is maintained. If excessive torque or drag is applied.7: Sinewave drives synchronous motor. like a motor.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
413
alternators. Synchronization and torque are lost beyond this angle. the angle of the rotor will lag the stator ﬁeld as at (3). the lower south coil pushes the south rotor pole. In the case of a small synchronous motor in place of the alternator Figure 13. In actual practice. loading the rotor will cause the rotor to lag the positions shown by angle α. the above ﬁgure illustrates the rotor position for a noload condition (α=0o ). extracting energy from the AC line. By the time that the sine wave reaches a peak at (2). Once up to speed. If a load such as a brake is applied to one of the above units. The rotor will also be advanced with respect to the rotor in the other alternator. the angle of the rotor will advance (opposite of (3)) with respect to the magnetic ﬁeld in the stator coils while still synchronized and the rotor will deliver energy to the AC line like an alternator. In a similar manner the rotor north pole is repelled by the upper north coil and attracted to the lower south coil. the torque holding the north pole of the rotor up is at a maximum. the lower north coil pushes the north rotor pole.13.
These 6souths are interleaved with 6north tabs bent up from the top of the steel pole piece of the coil.8: Addition of ﬁeld poles decreases speed. Higher efﬁciency higher torque multipole stator synchronous motors actually have multiple poles in the rotor.9. wind a single coil with twelve interdigitated steel poles pieces as shown in Figure 13. Though the polarity of the coil alternates due to the appplied AC. it is necessary to bring the permanent magnet rotor up to speed with an auxiliary motor. A similar 2pole permanent magnet synchronous motor will also rotate at 3600 rpm. The rotation speed will be 1/6 of the electrical speed of the AC. A 4pole motor would rotate at 1800 rpm. it synchronizes to this alternation.8) is for illustration. The style of construction shown (Figure 13. A 2pole (pair of NS poles) alternator will generate a 60 Hz sine wave when rotated at 3600 rpm (revolutions per minute). a 12pole motor at 600 rpm. Rotor speed will be 1/6 of that experienced with a 2pole synchronous motor.
Figure 13. A lower speed motor may be constructed by adding more pole pairs. Construction is similar to the previous ﬁgure with a single coil.
N S
Figure 13. AC MOTORS
polarity. a permanent magnet rotor bar will encounter 6pole pairs corresponding to 6cycles of AC in one physical rotation of the bar magnet. The stator (Figure 13. or 600 rpm for a 12pole motor. The one coil style of construction is
. Since the coil ﬁeld pulsates and does not rotate. If the permanent magnet rotor speed is close to the frequency of this alternation. Rather than wind 12coils for a 12pole motor. Example: 60 Hz would rotate a 2pole motor at 3600 rpm. This is a small induction motor similar to those in the next section.414
CHAPTER 13. Thus. Pole pieces route the south ﬂux from the bottom and outside of the coil to the top.9: Onewinding 12pole synchronous motor. assume that the top is temporarily north. the bottom south. The 3600 rpm corresponds to 60 revolutions per second.10) shows a 12pole Westclox synchronous clock motor.
The synchronous motor bar rotating within the pole tabs keeps accurate time.com The rotor (Figure 13.10: Reprinted by permission of Westclox History at www.12 generates an electrically rotating ﬁeld in the stator.13. how many poles would be required? A 10pole motor would have 5pairs of NS poles.11: Reprinted by permission of Westclox History at www.com economical for low torque motors. At one time nonselfstarting motors without the induction motor cup were manufactured.2.)
Figure 13. This 600 rpm motor drives reduction gears moving clock hands. Such motors are not self starting if started from a ﬁxed frequency power
.clockHistory. If the Westclox motor were to run at 600 rpm from a 50 Hz power source. A 3phase synchronous motor as shown in Figure 13.11) consists of a permanent magnet bar and a steel induction motor cup. The induction motor cup outside of the bar magnet ﬁts outside and over the tabs for self starting.clockHistory. It would rotate at 50/5 = 10 rotations per second or 600 rpm (10 s−1 x 60 s/minute.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
415
Figure 13.
where f is the power line frequency. Having a leading power factor. φ3. These will be slip ring fed electromagnets in large industrial motors. The number of poles is n. the ﬁeld will be at a peak pointing between these poles. the resultant ﬁeld will rotate. AC MOTORS
source such as 50 or 60 Hz as found in an industrial setting. Large industrial synchronous motors are self started by embedded squirrel cage conductors in the armature. and will be square waves in all but the most demanding applications.12) will rotate at 1800 rpm with 60 Hz power or 1500 rpm with 50 Hz power.12) may be started by ramping the drive frequency from zero to the ﬁnal running frequency. Such motors are known as brushless DC motors. they can correct the AC line for a lagging power factor. multiply by 60. The rotor with multiple magnet poles (below right) is used in any efﬁcient motor driving a substantial load.
φ1 φ2 φ1 φ2
φ3
N S S
N S N
φ3
Figure 13.
. If the coils are energized one at a time in the sequence φ1. when the φ1 and φ2 sinewaves coincide. For example. Two or three phase drive may be used by supplying the appropriate number of windings in the stator. Furthermore. acting like an induction motor.12: Three phase. but smoothly. the rotor should point to the corresponding poles in turn. Only 3phase is shown above. The electromagnetic armature is only energized after the rotor is brought up to near synchronous speed. not in steps. The bar magnet rotor shown is only appropriate for small motors. They are used when constant speed is required. Since the sine waves actually overlap. S = f120/n where: S = rotor speed in rpm f = AC line frequency n = number of poles per phase The 3phase 4pole (per phase) synchronous motor (Figure 13. 50 or 60 Hz for industrial power line operated motors. the rotor is not a permanent magnet as shown below for the multihorsepower (multikilowatt) motors used in industry. Large industrial synchronous motors are more efﬁcient than induction motors.416
CHAPTER 13. but an electromagnet. For rotor speed in rpm. True synchronous motors are driven by sine waveforms. 4pole synchronous motor Small multiphase synchronous motors (Figure 13. φ2. The multiphase drive signals are generated by electronic circuits. The three phases of stator excitation add vectorially to produce a single resultant magnetic ﬁeld which rotates f/2n times per second.
Ripple torque. (Figure 13.15) Note that there are no stator coils.13) shows the drive electronics associated with a low voltage (12 VDC ) synchronous motor. Would ripple torque be a problem for a fan motor? No.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
waveform gen & power drive φ1 φ2 φ3 motor torque output
417
hall effect
Figure 13. If constant and accurate speed of rotation is required. we do not want the motor to alternately speed and slow as it moves audio tape past a tape playback head. This is analogous to the mechanical situation. which compares the tachometer frequency and phase to a stable reference frequency source such as a crystal oscillator. a pulse train proportional to motor speed.13.
reference frequency phase locked loop waveform gen & power drive φ1 φ2 φ3 motor torque output
position sensor tachometer
Figure 13.14: Phase locked loop controls synchronous motor speed. is fed back to a phase locked loop. as proviced by simple hall effect sensors. This type of motor has higher ripple torque torque variation through a shaft revolution than a sine wave driven motor. or an optical encoder. This is not a problem for many applications. not even a motor.14) This tachometer signal. Though. (Figure 13. The PM rotor may be rotated by hand but will encounter attraction to the pole pieces when near them. we are primarily interested in synchronous motors in this section.2. These motors have a position sensor integrated within the motor. inductosyn (magnetic encoder). (as for a disk drive) a tachometer and phase locked loop may be included. A synchronous motor will generate a sinusoidal back emf if the stator
. which provides a low level signal with a frequency proportional to the speed of rotation of the motor. Would ripple torque be a problem for a motor used in a tape player? Yes.13: Electronic synchronous motor The block diagram (Figure 13. A motor driven by square waves of current. The position sensor could be as simple as as solid state magnetic ﬁeld sensors such as Hall effect devices providing commutation (armature current direction) timing to the drive electronics The position sensor could be a high resolution angular sensor such as a resolver. is known as a brushless DC motor. or cogging is caused by magnetic attraction of the rotor poles to the stator pole pieces. it is classiﬁed as a synchronous AC motor. If a motor is driven by sinewaves of current synchronous with the motor back emf. regardless of whether the drive waveforms are generated by electronic means.
3φ distributed winding
Single phase belt
Figure 13.418
CHAPTER 13.15: Motor ripple torque and mechanical analog. AC MOTORS
N S
Ripple torque
mechanical analog
Figure 13.16: Windings distributed in a belt produce a more sinusoidal ﬁeld.
.
Pulse Width Modulator. A resolver. Slots having fewer windings at the edge of the phase winding may share the space with other phases.16) across many slots instead of concentrated on one large pole (as drawn in most of our simpliﬁed illustrations).78. For a 2phase motor. Induction motors are mostly used in railway traction.13. The high temperature superconducting version of this motor is one ﬁfth to one third the weight of a copper wound motor.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
419
magnetic ﬁeld has a sinusoidal distribution. However. Encoders provide a digital angular position indication in either serial or parallel format. The advent of modern solid state electronics makes it possible to drive these motors at variable speed. A resolver provides analog angular position signals in the form of signals proportional to the sine and cosine of shaft angle. makes it attractive for such applications. driven by a sinewave. (Figure 13. Synchronous motor efﬁciency is higher than that of induction motors. a small synchronous motor. In all these applications the electronic variable speed drive is essential. especially if high energy permanent magnets are used in the rotor. the torque is constant throughout a revolution by the trigonometric identity: sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1 The generation and synchronization of the drive waveform requires a more precise rotor position indication than provided by the hall effect sensors used in brushless DC motors.17: PWM approximates a sinewave.[1] The largest experimental superconducting synchronous motor is capable of driving a naval destroyer class ship.
. a high efﬁciency method of approximating a sinewave with a digital waveform. or optical or magnetic encoder provides resolution of hundreds to thousands of parts (pulses) per revolution. This arrangement cancels many of the stator ﬁeld odd harmonics.2. Winding belts may take on an alternate concentric form as shown in Figure 13. The synchronous motor can also be smaller. It will be more sinusoidal if pole windings are distributed in a belt (Figure 13. The sine wave drive may actually be from a PWM.
PWM
Figure 13. which mounts inside a drive wheel.17) Each phase requires drive electronics for this wave form phaseshifted by the appropriate amount per phase.
typically above 91%. And the position of the rotor with respect to the stator ﬁeld needs to be calculated. or it may be physically smaller for a given capacity. This leading power factor can be exaggerated by removing the mechanical load and over exciting the ﬁeld of the synchronous motor. a hydrogen ﬁlled synchronous condenser can be driven harder than an air cooled unit. the leading power factor can be adjusted by varying the ﬁeld excitation. Since a synchronous condenser does not supply a torque. The synchronous condenser may then be ﬁlled with hydrogen to aid cooling and reduce windage losses. Furthermore. large industrial synchronous motors came into wide use because of this ability to correct the lagging power factor of induction motors. the output shaft may be dispensed with and the unit easily enclosed in a gas tight shell.420
CHAPTER 13.[3]
13. and controlled. As a result the industrial grade electronic speed control used with induction motors is also applicable to large industrial synchronous motors. the rotor needs to lag the stator ﬁeld direction by 90o . the thermal conductivity of hydrogen is ten times that of air. by absorbing or supplying reactive power to the line. This is often usefull in cancelling out the more commonly encountered lagging power factor caused by induction motors and other inductive loads. This type of control is known as vector phase control. This makes it possible to nearly cancel an arbitrary lagging power factor to unity by paralleling the lagging load with a synchronous motor. it loses synchronization. A synchronous condenser is operated in a borderline condition between a motor and a generator with no mechanical load to fulﬁll this function. Thus. More real power may be transmitted through a ﬁxed size line if the power factor is brought closer to unity by synchronous condensers absorbing reactive power. It is implemented with a fast microprocessor driving a pulse width modulator for the stator phases. Since the density of hydrogen is 7% of that of air. AC MOTORS
The variable speed drive must also reduce the drive voltage at low speed due to decreased inductive reactance at lower frequency. Thus. the position of the rotor needs to be known accurately. Such a device is known as a synchronous condenser. The efﬁciency of long power transmission lines may be increased by placing synchronous condensers along the line to compensate lagging currents caused by line inductance. As a result.
. the windage loss for a hydrogen ﬁlled unit is 7% of that encountered in air. It can compensate either a leading or lagging power factor. To develop maximum torque.[2] A larger version of the linear synchronous motor with a movable carriage containing high energy NdBFe permanent magnets is being developed to launch aircraft from naval aricraft carriers. heat removal is ten times more efﬁcient. Furthermore. This enhances power line voltage regulation. If the rotor and stator of a conventional rotary synchronous motor are unrolled. Originally. There is no explosion hazard as long as the hydrogen concentration is maintained above 70%. Much less results in reduced torque. Any more. a synchronous linear motor results. This type of motor is applied to precise high speed linear positioning.3
Synchronous condenser
Synchronous motors load the power line with a leading power factor. The stator of a synchronous motor is the same as that of the more popular induction motor.
13. which must be cooled to the liquid nitrogen boiling point of 77o K (196o C).18) A capacitor bank does not have this ability.4. the magnetic analog of electrical resistance. Transient sags and dips of milliseconds duration are stabilized.
13.4. or any other material with a relative permeability µr =1. The capacity of a synchronous condenser can be increased by replacing the copper wound iron ﬁeld rotor with an ironless rotor of high temperature superconducting wire.18: Synchronous condenser improves power line voltage regulation. is of no more use than air. (Figure 13. Thus.1
Synchronous reluctance
If the rotating ﬁeld of a large synchronous motor with salient poles is deenergized. An iron core would saturate at 2 Teslas in the rotor air gap.4
Reluctance motor
The variable reluctance motor is based on the principle that an unrestrained piece of iron will move to complete a magnetic ﬂux path with minimum reluctance. This supplements longer response times of quick acting voltage regulation and excitation of generating equipment. The ability to absorb or produce reactive power on a transient basis stabilizes the overall power grid against fault conditions. which increases generator excitation thereby restoring line voltage. while producing a ﬂux density of 3 Teslas or higher. The superconducting wire carries 160 times the current of comparable copper wire. The synchronous condenser aids voltage regulation by drawing leading current when the line voltage sags. approximate µr =1000. Such a machine is said to have considerable additional transient ability to supply reactive power to troublesome loads like metal melting arc furnaces.19)
13. Such a synchronous condenser has a higher power density (smaller physically) than a switched capacitor bank. it will still develop 10 or 15% of synchronous torque. an iron core. in the rotor.
Generator Voltage 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 20% 40% 60% Line current 80% 100%
sync w/o hronous cond syn ense chr r ono us con den ser
Figure 13. (Figure 13. The manufacturer describes it as being a “reactive power shock absorber”. RELUCTANCE MOTOR
421
The ability of synchronous condensers to absorb or produce reactive power on a transient basis stabilizes the power grid against short circuits and other transient fault conditions. This is due to variable reluctance throughout
.
(Figure 13. Low power factor. There is no practical application for a large synchronous reluctance motor.422
CHAPTER 13.2
Switched reluctance
If an iron rotor with poles. but requires a bipolar switch. (Figure 13. If slots are cut into the conductorless rotor of an induction motor. a synchronous reluctance motor results. More torque is provided by the bipolar drive (b). or drawn from the power line. This attracts the rotor to the clockwise rotating magnetic ﬁeld in 60o increments. This is an over simpliﬁed rotor and waveforms to illustrate operation. one which only switches in one direction. Sequential switching (Figure 13. The power driver must pull alternately high and low. For smooth vibration free operation the 6step approximation of a sine wave (c) is desirable and easy to generate. That is. When a stator coil pole pair is energized. Such was the status of the variable reluctance motor for a century before the development of semiconductor power control. The reluctance of the rotor to stator ﬂux path varies with the position of the rotor. the magnetic analog of electric resistance. The synchronous torque is due to changes in reluctance of the magnetic path from the stator through the rotor as the slots align. a switched reluctance motor. The mangetic ﬂux seeks the path of least reluctance. This motor is an inexpensive means of developing a moderate synchronous torque.20) of the stator phases moves the rotor from one position to the next. requiring only a single ended unipolar switch.4. It starts like an induction motor but runs with a small amount of synchronous torque. low pullout torque. the rotor will move to the lowest magnetic reluctance path.19: Reluctance is a function of rotor position in a variable reluctance motor. one at a time. Various waveforms may drive variable reluctance motors. corresponding to the stator slots. we can explain operation as if it were a stepper motor. is ﬁtted to a multiphase stator.
13. capable of synchronizing with the stator ﬁeld results. AC MOTORS
a rotor revolution. it is practical in small sizes. If one end of each 3phase winding of the switched reluctance motor is brought out via a common lead wire. Sine wave drive (d) may be generated by a pulse width modulator (PWM). Waveforms (a & b) are applicable to the stepper motor version of the variable reluctance motor.
φ3
S
S
φ3
N
high reluctance
N
low reluctance
Figure 13. (Figure 13.20) The other coil connections are successively pulled to ground. but without any conductors. in a wave drive pattern. and low efﬁciency are characteristics of the direct power line driven variable reluctance motor.
.19) A switched reluctance motor is also known as a variable reluctance motor.21) Wave drive (a) is simple. However.
21: Variable reluctance motor drive waveforms: (a) unipolar wave drive. RELUCTANCE MOTOR
423
V+
φ3 φ2
φ2 φ3 φ1
φ2 φ3 φ1
φ1 φ1 φ2 φ3
Figure 13.
. (b) bipolar full step (c) sinewave (d) bipolar 6step.13.20: Variable reluctance motor. oversimpliﬁed operation.4.
φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3 (b) (a)
φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3 (d) (c)
Figure 13.
23) resembles a brushless DC motor without a permanent magnet rotor. A variable reluctance motor driven by a servo. The relationship between torque and stator current is highly nonlinear– difﬁcult to control. This must be done precisely to minimize audible noise and ripple
. there is an electronic driven version of the switched reluctance motor. Rather than a stepper.22. However. A microprocessor performs complex calculations for switching the windings at the proper time with solid state devices.23 This is the opposite of the high ripple torque desired in stepper motors. or derive this from monitoring the stator back EMF. stop. While the variable reluctance motor is simple. an electronic feedback system. even more so than an induction motor. However. a variable reluctance motor is optimized for continuous high speed rotation with minimum ripple torque. this is offset by the cost of the electronic control.424
CHAPTER 13. minimizing ripple torque.3
Electronic driven variable reluctance motor
Variable reluctance motors are poor performers when direct power line driven. Sequential switching of the ﬁeld coils creates a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which drags the irregularly shaped rotor around with it as it seeks out the lowest magnetic reluctance path. Variable reluctance motors or steppers actually use rotors like those in Figure 13.22: Electronic driven variable reluctance motor. Figure 13. If smooth rotation is the goal. which is not nearly as simple as that for a brushless DC motor. and start is a variable reluctance stepper motor. covered in another section. microprocessors and solid state power drive makes this motor an economical high performance solution in some high volume applications. This makes the motor simple and inexpensive. this motor is easy to spin. controls torque and speed.
13. An electronic driven variable reluctance motor (Figure 13. AC MOTORS
Doubling the number of stator poles decreases the rotating speed and increases torque. This might eliminate a gear reduction drive. It is necessary to measure the rotor position with a rotary position sensor like an optical or magnetic encoder. Though difﬁcult to control. A variable reluctance motor intended to move in discrete steps. it is difﬁcult to control.4.
φ2 φ3 φ1 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ2 φ3
φ3 φ1 φ2
φ1 φ2 φ3
φ3 φ1 φ2
Figure 13. Electronic control solves this problem and makes it practical to drive the motor well above and below the power line frequency.
or permanent magnets. Disadvantages • Current versus torque is highly nonlinear • Phase switching must be precise to minimize ripple torque • Phase current must be controlled to minimize ripple torque • Acoustic and electrical noise • Not applicable to low volumes due to complex control issues
. No brushes. • High starting torque. Advantages • Simple construction. • High efﬁciency and reliability compared to conventional AC or DC motors. winding current must be monitored and controlled. it requires considerable optimization. For lowest ripple torque. fan motors. or pump motors. But. commutator. The simplicity of the motor compensates for the drive electronics cost. One such vacuum cleaner uses a compact high efﬁciency electronic driven 100. no permanent magnets. no Cu or Al in the rotor. • Adaptable to very high ambient temperature. • Cost effective compared to bushless DC motor in high volumes. which is only justiﬁed for large manufacturing volumes. no commutator.000 rpm fan motor. • Low cost accurate speed control possible if volume is high enough. RELUCTANCE MOTOR
425
µprocessor control
stator drive
variable reluctance motor
stator current rotor position
Figure 13.13. simpliﬁes motor manufacture. The strict drive requirements make this motor only practical for high volume applications like energy efﬁcient vacuum cleaner motors. using specialized design techniques. no rotor windings. The efﬁciency of this electronic driven motor can be high. torque.23: Electronic driven variable reluctance motor.no brushes.4.
426
CHAPTER 13. Thus. the default is the stepper due to low cost. They were once used for the same purpose in harddrives. Wide spread acceptance of the stepper motor within the last two decades was driven by the ascendancy of digital electronics. a stepper (short for stepper motor) holds its load steady with a holding torque. Drive waveforms of bipolar (±) square waves of 224V are more common these days. The rotor is a cylindrical solid. Today this is a higher cost solution to high performance motion control applications. being either “on” or “off ”. (Figure 13. and low cost. moderate speed. Otherwise. or commutator. The expense and complexity of a servomotor is due to the additional system components: position sensor and error ampliﬁer. Modern solid state driver electronics was a key to its success. High acceleration or unusually high accuracy still requires a servo motor. good accuracy. rather than rotating continuously like a conventional motor. However. With the direct line voltage. a stepper motor controller is less complex and costly than a servo motor controller.24: Stepper motor vs servo motor.5
Stepper motors
A stepper motor is a “digital” version of the electric motor.25) In other words.24) It is still the way to position heavy loads beyond the grasp of lower power steppers. Slosyn synchronous motors can run from AC line voltage like a singlephase permanentcapacitor induction motor. we have a 2phase drive. AC MOTORS
13.
13. Application wise. As the windings are energized in sequence. (Figure 13. The bipolar magnetic ﬁelds may also be generated from unipolar (one polarity) voltages applied to alternate ends of a center tapped winding. the high speed and accuracy required of modern harddrive head positioning dictates the use of a linear servomotor (voice coil). which may also have either salient poles or
. Thus. The rotor moves in discrete steps as commanded. The servo ampliﬁer is a linear ampliﬁer with some difﬁcult to integrate discrete components. DC can be switched to the motor so that it sees AC. When stopped but energized.
command
stepper motor load command
error
servo motor
load
position sensor
Figure 13. A stepper motor positions the readwrite heads in a ﬂoppy drive. And. simple drive electronics. The stepper motor drivers are less complex solid state switches. microprocessors readily interface to stepper motor driver circuits. the rotor synchronizes with the consequent stator magnetic ﬁeld. we treat stepper motors as a class of AC synchronous motor. good torque. the predecessor of the stepper motor was the servo motor.5. A considerable design effort is required to optimize the servo ampliﬁer gain vs phase response to the mechanical components. The capacitor generates a 90o second phase.1
Characteristics
Stepper motors are rugged and inexpensive because the rotor contains no winding slip rings.
load inertia. Drive electronics may halve the step angle by moving the rotor in halfsteps.13. they do not even approach a subfractional hp rated capability. They are truly small low power devices compared to other motors.75o . number of teeth. three pairs per phase. The maximum start frequency is the highest rate at which a stopped and unloaded stepper can be
. For example a 12pole stepper has 6pairs of poles. If they do rotate continuously. the step angle. There is less torque available for a running motor. a 4pole stepper motor may have two phases composed of inline pairs of poles spaced 90o apart. They have torque ratings to a thousand inoz (inchounces) or ten nm (newtonmeters) for a 4 kg size unit. emulates AC current in single coil at (a). torque pulsations. These phases are frequently split into pairs.5. decreasing to zero at some high speed. Most steppers are a few inches in diameter with a fraction of a nm or a few inoz torque. corresponding to 4 to 500 steps per revolution. The step angle is related to motor construction details: number of coils. Since stepper motors do not necessarily rotate continuously. ﬁne teeth. Thus. there is no horsepower rating.
Torque maximum speed holding torque
cutoff speed Speed
Figure 13. More often than not the rotor is a permanent magnet. This speed is frequently not attainable due to mechanical resonance of the motor load combination. when the drive waveforms are changed.26) An energized.25: Unipolar drive of center tapped coil at (b). load torque. Stepper motor coils are wound within a laminated stator. There may be as few as two winding phases or as many as ﬁve. holding stepper has a relatively high holding torque rating.26: Stepper speed characteristics. It can be from 90o to 0. Stepper motors move one step at a time. STEPPER MOTORS
V+ V V V+ Vbipolar
+
427
unipolar
Figure 13. (Figure 13. There may also be multiple pole pairs per phase. number of poles. The torque available is a function of motor speed. Determine that the rotor is a permanent magnet by unpowered hand rotation showing detent torque. A small “dime” size stepper has a torque of a hundredth of a newtonmeter or a few inchounces. Steppers cannot achieve the speeds on the speed torque curve instantaneously. except for can stack construction. and drive electronics as illustrated on the speed vs torque curve.
AC MOTORS
started.428
CHAPTER 13. the rotor four salient poles. the step rate may be decreased before stopping. The maximum torque at which a stepper can start and stop is the pullin torque. However. yielding a 30o step angle.28.5. This means that an irregularly shaped soft magnetic rotor will move to complete a magnetic circuit. minimizing the length of any high reluctance air gap. Once the motor is up to speed.(Figure 13. permanent magnet. the rotor moves less than the stator angle for each step. due to the lesser number of rotor poles. pullout torque is the maximum sustainable torque without losing steps. This torque load on the stepper is due to frictional (brake) and inertial (ﬂywheel) loads on the motor shaft. the step angle is given by: ΘS = 360o /NS ΘR = 360o /NR ΘST = ΘR .
φ3 V+ φ2 φ2 φ3 φ1 φ1 30o step φ3 15o step φ4 φ1 V+ φ2 φ1 φ4 φ2 φ3
Figure 13. Any load will make this parameter unattainable. For a variable reluctance stepper motor. The variable reluctance stepper has s solid soft steel rotor with salient poles.
13. The permanent magnet stepper has a cylindrical permanent magnet rotor. The drive waveforms for the 3φ stepper can be seen in the “Reluctance motor” section. When stopping a stepper motor. and hybrid.
ΘST = step
. There are three types of stepper motors in order of increasing complexity: variable reluctance. In practice.27: Three phase and four phase variable reluctance stepper motors. NP = number rotor poles
ΘR = Rotor angle.27) A deenergized stepper with no detent torque when hand rotated is identiﬁable as a variable reluctance type stepper.2
Variable reluctance stepper
A variable reluctance stepper motor relies upon magnetic ﬂux seeking the lowest reluctance path through a magnetic circuit. angle NS = number stator poles.ΘS where: ΘS = stator angle. The drive for a 4φ stepper is shown in Figure 13. The stator typically has three windings distributed between pole pairs . The hybrid stepper has soft steel teeth added to the permanent magnet rotor for a smaller step angle. Sequentially switching the stator phases produces a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which the rotor follows. the step rate is ramped up during starting from well below the maximum start frequency.
The rotor moves counterclockwise (CCW). The rotor tooth angle of 45o enters into the calculation by the above equation.28. By reversing the sequence of pulses. which is 45o . The rotor moved CCW to the next rotor tooth at 45o . which is a smaller angle (15o ) than the stator angle of 30o . φ3 . but it aligns with a CW by 30o stator tooth. This could be combined into a single circuit board. Otherwise. It outputs current to the proper phases in sequence. An actual motor. Starting at rest with phase φ1 energized. Instead. three pulses are required (φ2 . The shaft is frequently ﬁtted with a drive screw. the φ2 stator ﬁeld attracts a different tooth in moving the rotor CCW. When the controller powersup. it can drive the carriage toward the optical interrupter. In Figure 13. the actual step angle is the difference between a stator angle of 45o and a rotor angle of 30o .13. The rotor has protruding poles so that they may be attracted to the rotating stator ﬁeld as it is switched.29.. the stator magnetic ﬁeld rotates clockwise. we show the internal construction of a variable reluctance stepper motor in Figure 13. However. moving from φ1 to φ2 . The controller could be a microprocessor or a specialized integrated circuit. A screw drive. Variable reluctance stepper motors are applied when only a moderate level of torque is required and a coarse step angle is adequate. but a simple onoff switch capable of high enough current to energize the stepper. Both driver and controller may be combined into a single integrated circuit accepting a direction command and step pulse. the driver could be a relay or even a toggle switch for each phase.30) This may move the heads of a ﬂoppy drive upon command by the ﬂoppy drive controller. it does not know the position of the carriage. With 3pulses per stator tooth. Note what does not happen! The dotted rotor tooth does not move to the next stator tooth. (Figure 13. calibrating the
. The direction. is much longer than our simpliﬁed illustration. the direction of rotation is reversed above right. the driver is either discrete transistor switches or an integrated circuit. How far would the stepper rotate if the rotor and stator had the same number of teeth? Zero– no notation. as used in a ﬂoppy disk drive is such an application. The driver is not a linear ampliﬁer. STEPPER MOTORS
φ1
S
429
φ3
S Ν S Ν S
φ2
Ν
φ4
Ν
φ1 V+ φ4 φ2
φ1 φ2 φ3 φ4 counterclockwise 15o step
φ1 φ2 φ3 φ4 reverse step. In principle. Thus.5. and 8stator teeth. clockwise
φ3
Figure 13. φ4 ) to align the “dotted” rotor tooth to the next CCW stator Tooth.28: Stepping sequence for variable reluctance stepper. and number of steps are controlled by a stepper motor controller feeding a driver or ampliﬁer. Disassemble a reluctance stepper to view the internal components. step rate. 24pulses or steps move the rotor through 360o . etc. In practice.
29: Variable reluctance stepper motor.
. AC MOTORS
Figure 13.
optical interrupter stepper motor guide rails carriage
knife edge
Figure 13.30: Variable reluctance stepper drives lead screw.430
CHAPTER 13.
.5o to 90o .31: PM wave drive sequence (a) φ1 + . this is almost always square waves generated from DC by solid state electronics. The controller counts step pulses from this position. If the detent angle is large. +2. Wave drive
φ−1 φ−1 φ−1 φ−1
S N
+ −
−
N S N S
N S
S N φ−2 Wave drive a b
+
S N S c
N
S
N
−
φ−2
+
φ−2
+
φ−2
−
d
Figure 13. The timing of the bipolar or unipolar wave is wave drive. Rotation of the shaft of a deenergized motor exhibits detent torque. (d) φ2 . or half step. (b) φ2 + .5. Unipolar drive supplies a (+) and () alternating magnetic ﬂux to the coils developed from a pair of positive square waves applied to opposite ends of a center tapped coil. A bipolar drive of alternating polarity is required to power windings without the center tap.3
Permanent magnet stepper
A permanent magnet stepper motor has a cylindrical permanent magnet rotor. STEPPER MOTORS
431
position at which the knife edge cuts the interrupter as “home”. The windings could be center tapped to allow for a unipolar driver circuit where the polarity of the magnetic ﬁeld is changed by switching a voltage from one end to the other of the winding.13. • The only type stepper with no detent torque in hand rotation of a deenergized motor shaft. Bipolar drive is square waves alternating between (+) and () polarities.5 V to 2.5 V. Summary: variable reluctance stepper motor • The rotor is a soft iron cylinder with salient (protruding) poles. The stator usually has two windings.. it is likely a permanent magnet stepper rather than a hybrid stepper (next subsection). most inexpensive stepper motor. • This is the least complex.
13. A pure permanent magnet stepper usually has a large step angle. say. say 7. In practice. As long as the load torque does not exceed the motor torque. Permanent magnet stepper motors require phased alternating currents applied to the two (or more) windings. the controller will know the carriage position.5. • Large step angle • A lead screw is often mounted to the shaft for linear stepping motion. (c) φ1 . full step.
33: Waveforms: unipolar wave drive.32: Waveforms: bipolar wave drive. () φ2 points rotor left.34)
φ2 φ2’ φ1 V+ φ2 V+ φ2’ φ1 φ2 V+ φ2’ φ1 φ2a φ2a’ φ2b’ φ2b’ φ1a
φ1a’ φ1b
φ1’
2wire bipolar
6wire unipolar
φ1’
5wire unipolar
φ1’
8wire bipolar or unipolar
φ1b’
Figure 13. (+) φ2 points rotor north right. this does not produce as much torque as other drive techniques. There are twice as many waveforms because a pair of (+) waves is required to produce an alternating magnetic ﬁeld by application to opposite ends of a center tapped coil. This simpliﬁes the drive electronics. The motor requires alternating magnetic ﬁelds.432
CHAPTER 13. The coil magnetic ﬁeld reverses because the polarity of the drive current reverses. While simple. The (Figure 13.
φ1
+ + a b c d
φ2
φ2’ φ1
φ2
φ1’
Figure 13.33) waveforms are unipolar because only one polarity is required.31) The rotation sequence left to right is positive φ1 points rotor north pole up. (Figure 13. the most
. Permanent magnet stepper motors are manufactured with various leadwire conﬁgurations. negative φ1 attracts rotor north down. (Figure 13.34: Stepper motor wiring diagrams. The 6wire motor. The wave drive waveforms below show that only one coil is energized at a time. the simplest drive is wave drive. motor coils must have center taps for unipolar drive. The waveforms (Figure 13. AC MOTORS
Conceptually. (+) and () drive the stepper. The 4wire motor can only be driven by bipolar waveforms. but requires twice as many drivers.32) are bipolar because both polarities . However. These may be produced by either unipolar or bipolar waves.
φ1 φ2 φ1’ φ2’ V+ φ2 V+ φ2’ φ1
6wire
φ1’
Figure 13.
35)
φ−1 S φ−1 S φ−1 N
S
φ−1
+
N
+
N
S
S
−
S
N
S
−
S
−
N
−
a
N
N + φ−1 0 + φ−2 0 
N φ−2 b
S φ−2
N
S
+
b
N
+
c
S
N
N
S d
+
a
−
−
+
−
φ−2
+
+
φ−2
−
c d
Figure 13. STEPPER MOTORS
433
common arrangement. This winding method is applicable to all but the 4wire arrangement above.36) Half stepping provides greater resolution in positioning of the motor shaft. Full step bipolar drive as shown in Figure 13. less expensive driver circuit. The additional cost of bipolar drive is justiﬁed when more torque is required. but provides maximum ﬂexibility. A pair of coils may be connected in series for high voltage bipolar low current drive. (Figure 13. is intended for unipolar drive because of the center taps. as the common center tap interferes if both windings are energized simultaneously.35 has the same step angle as wave drive. This corresponds to twice as many step pulses per revolution. A biﬁlar winding is produced by winding the coils with two wires in parallel. The unipolar waveforms for half step drive are shown above. often a red and green enamelled wire. Half step drive is a combination of wave drive and full step drive with one winding energized. The 5wire motor can only be driven by unipolar waves. or in parallel for low voltage high current drive. Unipolar drive uses a less complex. The 8wire conﬁguration is rare. Though.13. For example. yielding twice as many steps.5.35: Full step. Full step drive Full step drive provides more torque than wave drive because both coils are energized at the same time. It may be wired for unipolar drive as for the 6wire or 5wire motor. Half step drive The step angle for a given stepper motor geometry is cut in half with half step drive.
. it may be driven by bipolar waves if the center taps are ignored. This method produces exact 1:1 turns ratios for center tapped windings. followed by both windings energized. (Figure 13. Unipolar drive (not shown) would require a pair of unipolar waveforms for each of the above bipolar waveforms applied to the ends of a center tapped winding. bipolar drive. The rotor aligns with the ﬁeld poles as for wave drive and between the poles as for full step drive. half stepping the motor moving the print head across the paper of an inkjet printer would double the dot density. This attracts the rotor poles midway between the two ﬁeld poles.
Each side wraps around to the center
. This style of construction is known as can stack.
N
S
north south
ceramic permanent magnet rotor φ1 coil φ2 coil
Figure 13. Construction The contruction of a permanent magnet stepper motor is considerably different from the drawings above. or at least not increase the number of windings for ease of manufacture. By varying the currents to the windings sinusoidally many microsteps can be interpolated between the normal positions. The permanent magnet stepper (Figure 13.37) only has two windings. with ﬁngers brought to the center. bipolar drive. yet has 24poles in each of two phases.434
φ−1 φ−1 φ−1
CHAPTER 13. It is desirable to increase the number of poles beyond that illustrated to produce a smaller step angle.37: Permanent magnet stepper motor. will have a north side and a south side. One phase. Microstepping is possible with specialized controllers. A phase winding is wrapped with a mild steel shell. on a transient basis. AC MOTORS
φ−1
S N S N φ−2 a
S
+ −
+
N
−
S N S N S
N
S
−
N
N
S φ−2
+ 0 + 0 
−
+
b +
−
φ−2
+
c
N
S
+
N
S
−
φ−2
+
d
a
b
c d
Half step
Figure 13. 24pole canstack construction. It is also desirable to reduce the number of windings.36: Half step.
This is key to making the rotor follow the switching of the ﬁelds between the two phases.5o because the φ2 is offset (rotated) by 7. which is not usefull. (Figure 13.
13. (b) ﬁeld offset detail. We do not know which direction.5o from φ1. However. This can be viewed with magnet viewer ﬁlm or iron ﬁlings applied to a paper wrapping.38: (a) External view of can stack.5. These alternating northsouth ﬁngers will attract the permanent magnet rotor. Canstack style construction of a PM stepper is distinctive and easy to identify by the stacked “cans”.13. STEPPER MOTORS
435
of the doughnut with twelve interdigitated ﬁngers for a total of 24 poles. the rotor would jump 360o /24 = 15o . The rotor is a cylindrical perma
.5.4
Hybrid stepper motor
The hybrid stepper motor combines features of both the variable reluctance stepper and the permanent magnet stepper to produce a smaller step angle. See below for offset. often a ferrite sleeve magnetized with numerous poles. the colors will be green for both north and south poles with the ﬁlm. • Often used in computer printers to advance paper.38) Note the rotational offset between the two phase sections. • Canstack construction provides numerous poles from a single coil with interleaved ﬁngers of soft iron. Though. Note that the rotor is a gray ferrite ceramic cylinder magnetized in the 24pole pattern shown. the rotor will move 7. If the polarity of the phase were reversed. And. • Large to moderate step angle. if we energize φ1 followed by φ2. Application of any of the above waveforms will rotate the permanent magnet rotor. it will rotate in a reproducible direction if the phases are alternated. Summary: permanent magnet stepper motor • The rotor is a permanent magnet.
φ−1 coil
x’
x’
x
90° offset
φ−1 coil
PM rotor dust cover φ−2 coil
φ−2 coil
x
Can stack permanent magnet stepper
Figure 13.
In other words. but wired in series. Thus. Note the reduced number of coils and teeth in rotor and stator for simplicity.40) to illustrate details not obvious above. 96pole 8pole stator
S
Figure 13. Two phase windings are common as shown above and below. There are typically two winding phases distributed between pole pairs. However. This detail is only discernable on the schematic diagrams below. a pair of wires wound physically in parallel.39: Hybrid stepper motor. This winding may be center tapped for unipolar drive. the rotor effectively has 96 interleaved poles of opposite polarity. The center tap is achieved by a biﬁlar winding. one pole of the rotor. As if this were not complicated enough. These stator phases are offset from one another by onequarter of a tooth. there could be as many as ﬁve phases. may align with the stator in 48 distinct positions. we provide a simpliﬁed pictorial and schematic representation (Figure 13. Though. or Figure 13.40)
. The stator coils are wound on alternating poles with corresponding teeth. and the rotor half tooth offset. Therefore. Features of hybrid stepper schematic (Figure 13. φ2). except for missing teeth in the space between the poles.436
CHAPTER 13. This offset allows for rotation in 1/96 th of a revolution steps by reversing the ﬁeld polarity of one phase. Note that the 48teeth on one rotor section are offset by half a pitch from the other. we attempt to illustrate the quarter tooth rotation produced by the two stator phases offset by a quarter tooth. The stator teeth on the 8poles correspond to the 48rotor teeth. the rotor moves in 2×96=192 steps per revolution for the above stepper. The above drawing is representative of an actual hybrid stepper motor. Due to this offset. The quarter tooth stator offset in conjunction with drive current timing also deﬁnes direction of rotation. The result is that the rotor moves in steps of a quarter of a tooth when the phases are alternately energized. the stator main poles are divided into two phases (φ1. In the next two ﬁgures.30. The northsouth poles of a phase swap polarity when the phase drive current is reversed. However.
N
S
rotor pole detail
N
permanent magnet rotor.39). This rotor tooth offset is also shown below. the teeth of the south pole are offset from the north teeth by half a tooth. the rotor may align with the stator in 96 distinct positions. See rotor pole detail above. Bipolar drive is required for untapped windings. say the south pole. magnetized along the axis with radial soft iron teeth (Figure 13. AC MOTORS
nent magnet. This half tooth offset shows in the rotor pole detail above.
• (b) φ1=off. Align (right to left): φ2 statorNright:rotortopS.40: Hybrid stepper motor schematic diagram. • Enough torque applied to the shaft to overcome the holdin torque would move the rotor by one tooth. φ1’ statorS: rotorbottomN.
. total rotation=1/4 tooth. φ2=on. the rotor would move by onehalf tooth. north stator bottom to south rotor. φ2=off. the bottom north. In fact. • The top φ1 stator teeth align north to rotor top south teeth. STEPPER MOTORS
1/4 tooth offset alignment stator North PM South PM North
437
N φ1
φ2′
1/2 tooth offset alignment Stator South
φ2
S φ1′
Figure 13.5. off. reverse. φ2 are switchable: on. • The bottom φ1’ stator teeth align south to rotor bottom north teeth. • The top of the permanent magnet rotor is the south pole. • If the φ1 stator is temporarily energized north top. This will allow for rotation by that amount if φ1 is deenergized and φ2 energized. Start position.13.41) • Rotor top is permanent magnet south. • (a) φ1=on=northtop. the φ2 stator teeth are offset by onequarter tooth. • The rotor northsouth teeth are offset by half a tooth. direction unknown. Rotate 1/4 tooth. Fields φ1. • The φ2 stator teeth are not aligned with the rotor teeth when φ1 is energized. The alignment would be south stator top to north rotor bottom. rotation=0. Polarity of φ1 and ¡phi2¿ drive determines direction of rotation. bottom north. Align (top to bottom): φ1 statorN:rotortopS. Hybrid stepper motor rotation (Figure 13. south bottom. • If the polarity of φ1 were reversed. φ2’ statorS: rotorbottomN.
Rotate 1/4 tooth from last position.5o of permanent magnet steppers. • The poles of one stator windings are offset by a quarter tooth for an even smaller step angle. Align (left to right): Total rotation: 3/4 tooth. φ2=off (same as (a)). AC MOTORS
off S φ1
off off φ2′ φ2 S φ2′ N φ2
off off φ2′ φ2
S φ1′ align top
(a)
off align right
φ1′
(b)
N φ1′ align bottom
(c)
Figure 13. Total rotation from start: 1/2 tooth. φ2=reverse(on). • Not shown: φ1=on. • The stator windings are divided into no less than two phases.
13. • The rotor is a permanent magnet with ﬁne teeth. The hybrid stepper will have a small step angle. φ1’ statorN:rotortopS. Align (bottom to top): φ1 statorS:rotorbottomN.438
N φ1 φ1
CHAPTER 13. φ2=off. Summary: hybrid stepper motor • The step angle is smaller than variable reluctance or permanent magnet steppers. corresponding to a few hundred steps per revolution. North and south teeth are offset by half a tooth for a smaller step angle. So.6
Brushless DC motor
Brushless DC motors were developed from conventional brushed DC motors with the availability of solid state power semiconductors. why do we discuss brushless DC motors in a chapter on AC motors? Brushless DC motors are similar to AC synchronous motors.41: Hybrid stepper motor rotation sequence. • The stator poles have matching ﬁne teeth of the same pitch as the rotor. • (c) φ1=reverse(on). The step angle could be a fraction of a degree. • Not shown: φ1=off. much less than the 7. Align (top to bottom): Total rotation 1tooth. An unpowered stepper motor with detent torque is either a permanent magnet stepper or a hybrid stepper. The major
.
The style of construction is either cylindrical or pancake.42 and 13.43: Pancake motor construction: (a) single stator. Synchronous motors are usually large multikilowatt size. Lower torque applications like ﬂoppy disk drive motors sufﬁce with a stator coil on one side
.13. The speed of a brushless DC motor is not ﬁxed unless driven by a phased locked loop slaved to a reference frequency. as compared to a rectangular. (b) double stator. The most common cylindrical style is with the rotor on the inside. Such is the case with brushless DC fan motors. back EMF for brushless DC motors. BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR
439
difference is that synchronous motors develop a sinusoidal back EMF. (Figures 13. with permanent magnet rotors.42: Cylindrical construction: (a) outside rotor.43)
Stator Stator
Rotor Rotor
(a)
(b)
Figure 13. High torque pancake motors may have stator coils on both sides of the rotor (Figure 13. above right. a submultiple of the powerline frequency. can take on two forms (Figure 13. the direction of the magnetic ﬂux is radial with respect to the rotational axis. sans the shaft. It is also possible the put the rotor on the outside surrounding the stator.6. Both have stator created rotating magnetic ﬁelds producing torque in a magnetic rotor. cylindrical. True synchronous motors are considered to be single speed.43b). However. (b) inside rotor.
Rotor Stator
(a) (b)
Stator Rotor Stator
Figure 13. often with electromagnet rotors. Brushless DC motors tend to be small– a few watts to tens of watts. The most usual construction. This style motor is used in hard disk drives. This style of construction may be short and fat. or trapezoidal.42).
43a). Again. The ﬂat stator coils are trapezoidal to more closely ﬁt the coils. The commutation function may be performed by various shaft position sensors: optical encoder. or Hall effect magnetic sensors. The Hall output may drive a comparator to provide for more stable drive to the power device.440
CHAPTER 13. The simple cylindrical 3φ motor Figure 13. synchro. The direction of the magnetic ﬂux is axial. Not shown here.44: Hall effect sensors commutate 3φ brushless DC motor. More modern Hall effect sensors may contain an integrated ampliﬁer. The voltages at the two outputs are complementary. The above cylindrical motor could drive a harddrive if it were equipped with a phased locked loop (PLL) to maintain constant speed. Or.44) A Hall effect sensor is a semiconductor device where the electron ﬂow is affected by a magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to the direction of current ﬂow. The changing position of the permanent magnet rotor is sensed by the Hall device as the polarity of the passing rotor pole changes. The stator poles are also mounted atop a steel plate.45). AC MOTORS
of the rotor. and approximate the rotor poles. This Hall signal is ampliﬁed so that the stator coils are driven with the proper current. parallel to the axis of rotation. Small inexpensive motors use Hall effect sensors. The sensor must be mounted close to the permanent magnet rotor to sense its position.
V+ H1
A1
V+ V+ H1 V+ S N
V+ NC H3
H2 H3 V+ H2
A2
A3
V+
Figure 13. It looks like a four terminal variable resistor network. (Figure 13. it may drive a compound transistor stage if properly biased. The 6stator coils comprise three winding phases. magnetic encoder (resolver. that is. and digital circuitry. a rotating magnetic ﬁeld would be generated. We do not show that the rotor is capped by a mild steel plate for mounting to the bearing in the middle of the stator. The 3φ pancake motor (Figure 13. The permanent magnet rotor would follow as in the case of a synchronous motor. helping to close the magnetic circuit. Application of a magnetic ﬁeld to the sensor causes a small voltage change at the output. A
. This 3lead device may directly drive the power transistor feeding a phase winding. Similar circuitry could drive the pancake ﬂoppy disk drive motor (Figure 13.. the Hall signals may be processed by combinatorial logic for more efﬁcient drive waveforms.45) has 6stator poles and 8rotor poles.44 is commutated by a Hall effect device for each of the three stator phases. etc). (Figure 13. The rotor is a ﬂat ferrite ring magnetized with eight axially magnetized alternating poles. The steel plate also helps complete the magnetic circuit. If the three stator phases were successively energized. it would need a PLL to maintain constant speed.
. This is an incentive to move lower performance products from a 3φ to a 2φ conﬁguration. • The stator has 2phases distributed between 4poles • There are 4salient poles with no windings to eliminate zero torque points. The brushless DC fan motor (Figure 13. • The fan housing is placed atop the rotor. BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR
φ−1 φ−2 φ−3
441
S N S N
N S N S
Stator
Rotor φ−1′ Hall effect sensor
Figure 13.45: Brushless pancake motor two pole rotor would follow this ﬁeld at the same rotation rate as the rotating ﬁeld. However.6.46: Brushless fan motor. • The Hall effect sensors are spaced at 45o physical. • The rotor has four main drive poles. our 8pole rotor will rotate at a submultiple of this rate due the the extra poles in the rotor. it may be called a 4φ motor. Depending on how it is driven. 2φ.46) has these feature:
S N S H2
N N S
S
N S
H1 N N
S
2φ brushless fan motor
Figure 13. • The rotor has 8poles superimposed to help eliminate zero torque points. The goal of a brushless fan motor is to minimize the cost of manufacture.13. which is placed over the stator.
Tesla sold the manufacturing rights to George
.5.4. If the rotor was a 2pole rotor.442
CHAPTER 13. This further removes the torque minima. 3. and had a half horsepower (400 watt) model by 1888. The addition of the four small salient poles with no windings superimposes a ripple torque upon the torque vs position curve. Moreover. it is possible for a hypothetical 4pole motor to come to rest at a torque minima.
V+
A1
N V+
A2
S V+ V+ H1
A3
H1 H2
V+ V+ H2
A2
Figure 13. etc) if they are to be selfstarting.
13. the Hall sensors would be placed 90o physical. The more successful we are in removing the torque minima.7
Tesla polyphase induction motors
Most AC motors are induction motors. The majority of the torque is due to the interaction of the inside stator 2φ coils with the 4pole section of the rotor. the result is that torque minima are partially removed.47. When this ripple torque is added to normal energizedtorque curve. 90% of industrial motors are induction motors. Nikola Tesla conceived the basic principals of the polyphase induction motor in 1883. Since we have a 4pole permanent magnet rotor. This makes it possible to start the motor for all possible stopping positions. which is 90o physical for a single pole rotor. one sensor provides commutation for two opposing windings. In fact. where it cannot be started from rest. the easier the motor starting. In Figure 13. Induction motors are favored due to their ruggedness and simplicity. we should be able to start the motor. Since the Hall sensor has two complementary outputs. The 8poles rotor section is only for improving motor starting. the sensors must be placed 45o physical to achieve the 90o electrical spacing.7 being common. the 4pole section of the rotor must be on the bottom so that the Hall sensors will sense the proper commutation signals. Thus. As long as the torque minima does not drop to zero. AC MOTORS
You may recall that conventional DC motors cannot have an even number of armature poles (2. The 2φ stator requires that the Hall sensors be spaced apart by 90o electrical. the 2φ pushpull drive (also known as 4φ drive) uses two Hall effect sensors to drive four windings. Note Hall spacing above.47: Brushless DC motor 2φ pushpull drive. The addition of eight permanant magnet poles to the normal 4pole permanent magnet rotor superimposes a small second harmonic ripple torque upon the normal 4pole ripple torque. The sensors are spaced 90o electrical apart.
However. unlike a brushed DC commutator motor. That is. the source of the two phases of AC was a 2phase alternator. one pair for each of the two phases of AC.1
Construction
An induction motor is composed of a rotor. The stator in Figure 13. the other to a Spole until the phase of AC changes polarity. The other pair of coils is oriented 90o in space to the ﬁrst pair. In Tesla’s time.48. This pair of coils is connected to AC shifted in time by 90o in the case of a 2phase motor.
13.48 has salient.48 is wound with pairs of coils corresponding to the phases of electrical energy available. The 2phase induction motor stator above has 2pairs of coils. While we include numerous illustrations of twophase motors for simplicity. this is two or three phases. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
443
Westinghouse for $65. we mean that the stator contains multiple distinct windings per motor pole. for larger motors less torque pulsation and higher efﬁciency results if the
. driven by corresponding time shifted sine waves. In practice.48: Tesla polyphase induction motor. Most large ( > 1 hp or 1 kW) industrial motors are polyphase induction motors.7. By induction motor.
Rotor Stator
Figure 13. Large industrial motors are 3phase. and a stator containing windings connected to a polyphase energy source as shown in Figure 13. we mean that the stator windings induce a current ﬂow in the rotor conductors. The simple 2phase induction motor below is similar to the 1/2 horsepower motor which Nikola Tesla introduced in 1888. one coil corresponds to a Npole. obvious protruding poles.000. The individual coils of a pair are connected in series and correspond to the opposite poles of an electromagnet.13.7. This design is used to this day for subfractional horsepower motors (<50 watts). By polyphase. known as an armature. The stator in Figure 13. as used on Tesla’s early induction motor. we must emphasize that nearly all polyphase motors are threephase. like a transformer.
50.
φ−3
φ−1 φ−2
(a)
φ−1
(b)
φ−2
Figure 13.49: Stator frame showing slots for windings. then worked into the slots. Actual stator windings are more complex than the single windings per pole in Figure 13.50: Stator with (a) 2φ and (b) 3φ windings. A stack of these is secured by end screws. the windings for both a twophase motor and a threephase motor have been installed in the stator slots. The coils are wound on an external ﬁxture. In Figure 13. AC MOTORS
coils are embedded into slots cut into the stator laminations. Insulation wedged between the coil periphery and the slot protects against abrasion. Comparing the 2φ motor to Tesla’s 2φ motor with salient poles.50.49)
Figure 13.444
CHAPTER 13. The stator laminations are thin insulated rings with slots punched from sheets of electrical grade steel. the number of coils is the
. which may also hold the end housings. (Figure 13.
The disk follows with a little less speed than the permanent magnet. The theory of operation of induction motors is based on a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. sparking.
(a)
(b)
Figure 13. is divided into identical coils inserted into many smaller slots than above. The lines of ﬂux cutting the conductor will induce a voltage. The misalignment with the stator slots reduces torque pulsations. That is. In actual large motors. This eliminates the brushes. The key to the popularity of the AC induction motor is simplicity as evidenced by the simple rotor (Figure 13. in the conductive disk. producing a more sinusoidal magnetic ﬁeld distribution across the pole. brush adjustment and replacement.51: Laminated rotor with (a) embedded squirrel cage. One means of creating a rotating magnetic ﬁeld is to rotate a permanent magnet as shown in Figure 13. This group is called a phase belt.
. Both rotor and stator cores are composed of a stack of insulated laminations. The polarity of the electromagnet is such that it pulls against the permanent magnet.52. The rotor consists of a shaft. and remachining of the commutator. The laminations are coated with insulating oxide or varnish to minimize eddy current losses. and an embedded copper or aluminum squirrel cage. a steel laminated rotor. with respsect to the shaft.16. See Figure 13.13. arcing. This current ﬂow creates an electromagnet whose polarity opposes the motion of the permanent magnet– Lenz’s Law. The alloy used in the laminations is selected for low hysteresis losses.2
Theory of operation
A short explanation of operation is that the stator creates a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which drags the rotor around. and consequent current ﬂow.7. Edge slots may contain windings from two phases. If the moving magnetic lines of ﬂux cut a conductive disk. it will follow the motion of the magnet. The slots at the edge of the pole may have fewer turns than the other slots.
13. The distributed coils of the phase belt cancel some of the odd harmonics. graphite dust.7. The squirrel cage conductors may be skewed. the phase belts overlap. a pole winding. twisted. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
445
same.51). This is shown in the synchronous motor section. (b) conductive cage removed from rotor. shown at (b) removed from the rotor. there is no commutator. As compared to a DC motor armature.
Torque is proportional to slip. the trace moves up and left toward (b).446
CHAPTER 13. no torque. With maximum negative “X” and minimum “Y” deﬂection. If a load is applied to the disk. developing more torque. Then with minimum “X” and maximum negative “Y”. AC MOTORS
Figure 13. 0. no electromagnet ﬁeld. Starting at (a) with maximum “X” and minimum “Y” deﬂection. This circle is traced out by a counterclockwise rotating
.54 shows the two 90o phase shifted sine waves applied to oscilloscope deﬂection plates which are at right angles in space. so that lines of ﬂux cut the disk induce a current. no induced current ﬂow.53. it moves to (d). A rotating magnetic ﬁeld is created by two coils placed at right angles to each other. Between (a) and (b) the two waveforms are equal to 0. An analog automotive eddy current speedometer is based on the principle illustrated above. there would be no ﬂux cutting the disk. If the disk were to spin at the same rate as the permanent magnet. The combination of 90o phased sine waves and right angle deﬂection. results in a two dimensional pattern– a circle. a circular Lissajous is produced by driving the horizontal and vertical oscilloscope inputs with 90o out of phase sine waves. slowing it. Figure 13. a one dimensional line would display. This point (0. completing one cycle.707 Vpk at 45o . This should not be surprising if you are familiar with oscilloscope Lissajous patterns. more torque will be developed as more lines of ﬂux cut the disk. More slip corresponds to more ﬂux cutting the conductive disk. create an electromagnetic ﬁeld in the disk. With the disk restrained by a spring. Thus.707. In Figure 13. If this were not the case. which follows the permanent magnet.52: Rotating magnetic ﬁeld produces torque in conductive disk. the trace moves to (c). the disk speed will always fall behind that of the rotating permanent magnet. disk and needle deﬂection is proportional to magnet rotation rate. the degree to which the disk falls behind the rotating magnet. and on back to (a).707) falls on the radius of the circle between (a) and (b) The trace moves to (b) with minimum “X” and maximum “Y” deﬂection. driven by currents which are 90o out of phase. The torque developed by the disk is proportional to the number of ﬂux lines cutting the disk and the rate at which it cuts the disk.
54: Xaxis sine and Yaxis cosine trace circle.53: Out of phase (90o ) sine waves produce circular Lissajous pattern.13.
.7. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
447
OSCILLOSCOPE b vertical Y V/div c a trigger
DC GND AC
a horiz’tl X
a’ b
c
d
a
timebase d s/div
DC GND AC
Figure 13.
b a’ c a a’ a
b
c
a
d a’ b
a
d horizontal deflection verticall deflection
c
d a
Figure 13.
The line is produced by equal deﬂections along both axes.
φ−1
φ−1 φ−2
φ−1 φ−2
a φ−1
φ−2
a’
b
φ−2
a a’ b
c
d
φ−1
φ−1 φ−2
c
d
φ−2
Figure 13. Figure 13.448
CHAPTER 13. Such is the case for a 2phase motor.1) at (d). y=x is a straight line.down left to (1. back down left to origin at (c). Equal “X” and “Y” deﬂection moves the illuminated spot from the origin at (a) up to right (1.55: No circular motion from inphase waveforms.
.56: Rotating magnetic ﬁeld from 90o phased sinewaves.55shows why inphase sine waves will not produce a circular pattern.
OSCILLOSCOPE vertical b V/div a trigger c timebase d s/div horiz’tl X
DC GND AC
Y
DC GND AC
a
a’ b
c
d
a
Figure 13. and fed with corresponding 120o phased currents will also produce a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. For reference. and back up right to origin.1) at (b). By analogy three windings placed 120o apart in space. AC MOTORS
electron beam. a similar pair of currents should be able to produce a circular rotating magnetic ﬁeld. If a pair of 90o out of phase sine waves produces a circular Lissajous.
The “full speed” Figure 13. the synchronous speed is cut in half because the magnetic ﬁeld rotates 180o in space for 360o of electrical sine wave. or 3000 rpm. The magnetic ﬁeld will rotate once per sine wave cycle. φ2 zero • (d) φ1 zero. φ2 70% • (b) φ1 zero. the magnetic ﬁeld rotates counterclockwise (ﬁgures ad) as follows: • (a) φ1 maximum. φ2 zero • (a’) φ1 70%. progress from points (a) through (d).there is but one pole pair per phase– the number we need. Figure 13. Though the rotor of an induction motor never achieves this speed.7.57 has a total of six poles or three polepairs and three phases. The 3600 and 3000 rpm.57: Doubling the stator poles halves the synchronous speed. If we double the number of motor poles. are the synchronous speed of the motor. φ2 maximum • (c) φ1 maximum negative. The synchronous speed is given by: Ns = 120·f/P Ns = synchronous speed in rpm f = frequency of applied power. it rotates at 50 rotations per second. For 50 Hz power.13. it certainly is an upper limit.56. φ2 maximum negative Motor speed The rotation rate of a stator rotating magnetic ﬁeld is related to the number of pole pairs per stator phase. a multiple of 2
. the ﬁeld rotates at 60 times per second or 3600 revolutions per minute (rpm). However. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
449
As the 90o phased sinewaves. In the case of 60 Hz power. Hz P = total number of poles per phase.
φ1 φ2 φ1 φ2
φ3
φ3
full speed
half speed
Figure 13.
while the stator magnetic ﬁeld rotates at the synchronous speed Ns . the slip between the rotor and the synchronous speed stator ﬁeld develops torque. Rotor frequency is given by: fr = s·f where: s = slip. The ratio of actual ﬂux cutting the rotor to synchronous speed is deﬁned as slip: s = (Ns . The locked
. The current induced in the rotor shorted turns is maximum. If the rotor were to run at synchronous speed. f = stator power line frequency Slip at 100% torque is typically 5% or less in induction motors.58 graph shows that starting torque known as locked rotor torque (LRT) is higher than 100% of the full load torque (FLT). However. The longer more correct explanation is that the stator’s magnetic ﬁeld induces an alternating current into the rotor squirrel cage conductors which constitutes a transformer secondary. no ﬂux will cut the rotor at all. It is the magnetic ﬂux cutting the rotor conductors as it slips which develops torque. no torque. as is the frequency of the current.5 Hz. If there were no mechanical motor torque load. the rotor is at rest.05·50 = 2. N = rotor speed The frequency of the current induced into the rotor conductors is only as high as the line frequency at motor start.57 has four poles per phase (3phase). windage. or other losses. The rotor ﬁeld attempts to align with the rotating stator ﬁeld.5 Hz is the difference between the synchronous speed and the actual rotor speed. no bearing. fr = 0. or (Ns . As the rotor speeds up. at the synchronous speed. The rotor speed is 5% less. the frequency of the induced current in the rotor fr = 0. The rotating stator magnetic ﬁeld interacts with this rotor ﬁeld. Why is it so low? The stator magnetic ﬁeld rotates at 50 Hz. This induced rotor current in turn creates a magnetic ﬁeld. Torque When power is ﬁrst applied to the motor. no current induced in the rotor. Thus for f = 50 Hz line frequency. a loaded motor will slip in proportion to the mechanical load. decreasing as the rotor approaches synchronous speed. The result is rotation of the squirrel cage rotor. AC MOTORS
Example: The “half speed” Figure 13. The Figure 13. The stator ﬁeld is cutting the rotor at the synchronous speed Ns . The rotating magnetic ﬁeld is only cutting the rotor at 2. the rate at which stator ﬂux cuts the rotor is the difference between synchronous speed Ns and actual rotor speed N.N). the line frequency. the rotor would rotate at the synchronous speed. The 2.5 Hz. Thus.450
CHAPTER 13. If the rotor spins a little faster. there would be no stator ﬂux cutting the rotor. the safe continuous torque rating. The synchronous speed for 50 Hz power is: S = 120·50/4 = 1500 rpm The short explanation of the induction motor is that the rotating magnetic ﬁeld produced by the stator drags the rotor around with it.N)/Ns where: Ns = synchronous speed.
This is the lowest value of torque ever encountered by the starting motor. the safe running current. As the rotor accelerates to within a few percent of synchronous speed. slip.59) showing consideable variation from the torque curve above. B. and D to meet these
. but will decrease rapidly beyond this point. There are several basic induction motor designs (Figure 13. The current has decreased only slightly at this point. Starting current known as locked rotor current (LRC) is 500% of full load current (FLC). As the rotor starts to rotate the torque may decrease a bit for certain classes of motors to a value known as the pull up torque. The locked rotor torque (LRT) for various motor designs and sizes ranges from 60% to 350% of full load torque (FLT). continuous operation above 100% can damage the motor.59) have been developed to better drive various type loads. any portion of the torque curve below 100% rated torque is normal. Any motor torque load above the breakdown torque will stall the motor.13. and current will approach zero for a “no mechanical torque” load condition. The torque. %Ns =%Synchronous Speed. Starting current or locked rotor current (LRC) can range from 500% to 1400% of full load current (FLC). both torque and current will decrease substantially. As the rotor gains 80% of synchronous speed. The different designs are optimized for starting and running different types of loads. The motor load determines the operating point on the torque curve. corresponding to the torque curves (Figure 13.58: Torque and speed vs %Slip. This condition is analogous to an open secondary transformer. rotor torque is about 175% of FLT for the example motor graphed above. C. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) has speciﬁed motor classes A. For a running motor. NEMA design classes Various standard classes (or designs) for motors. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
500% %full load torque & current locked rotor current 400% 300% 200% 100%
qu e
451
curre
nt
tor
breakdown torque pullup torque full load torque/ current locked rotor torque 80 20 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns
100 0
Figure 13. torque increases from 175% up to 300% of the full load torque. This breakdown torque is due to the larger than normal 20% slip. The current is high because this is analogous to a shorted secondary on a transformer.7. While the motor torque and current may exceed 100% for a few seconds during starting. Slip will be only a few percent during normal operation. This current draw can present a starting problem for large induction motors.
The high slip results in lower speed. fans. • Class B (IEC Class N) motors are the default motor to use in most applications. Power factor Induction motors present a lagging (inductive) power factor to the power line. and reciprocating pumps and compressors.452
CHAPTER 13. All motors. • Class D motors have the highest starting torque (LRT) coupled with low starting current due to high slip ( 5% to 13% at FLT). This motor handles transient overloads as encountered in injection molding machines.
400% %full load torque 300% 200% 100%
D C A
B
100 0
80 20
60 40
40 60
20 80
0 % slip 100 % Ns
Figure 13. without excessive starting current (LRT). With a starting torque of LRT = 150% to 170% of FLT. the motor excels at driving highly variable speed loads like those requiring an energy storage ﬂywheel. AC MOTORS
drive requirements. and elevators. • Class E motors are a higher efﬁciency version of class B. Speed regulation is poor.59: Characteristics for NEMA designs. crushers. • Class F motors have much lower LRC. It typically drives pumps. However. except class D. They drive constant easily started loads. This motor is applied to hardstarting loads which need to be driven at constant speed like conveyors. shears.
. Applications include punch presses. and break down torque than class B. Similar International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classes N and H correspond to NEMA B and C designs respectively. • Class C (IEC Class H) has higher starting torque than class A and B at LRT = 200% of FLT. • Class A starting torque is the same as class B. operate at %5 slip or less at full load.The power factor in large fully loaded high speed motors can be as favorable as 90% for large high speed motors. Efﬁciency and power factor are high. it can start most loads. LRT. Drop out torque and starting current (LRT)are higher. and machine tools.
more current is consumed in generating torque.60 Induction motors are typically oversized to guarantee that their mechanical load can be started and driven under all operating conditions. As the torque load is increased.7. 1φ motors in particular. though 90% is more common. Efﬁciency at 75% FLT can be slightly higher than that at 100% FLT. Efﬁciency for a lightly load or noloaded induction motor is poor because most of the current is involved with maintaining magnetizing ﬂux. while current associated with magnetizing remains ﬁxed. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
453
At 3/4 full load the largest high speed motor power factor can be 92%. Thus the power line sees a reactive load.60). Large induction motor efﬁciency can be as high as 95% at full load.13. increasing the power factor. Little resistance is reﬂected from the secondary (rotor) to the primary (stator). Thus. While there is nothing to be saved in a fully loaded motor. The power factor for small low speed motors can be as low as 50%. An unloaded motor is analogous to a transformer with no resistive load on the secondary.7. rising as the rotor achieves speed.3
Nola power factor corrrector
Frank Nola of NASA proposed a power factor corrector (PFC) as an energy saving device for single phase induction motors in the late 1970’s. It is based on the premise that a less than fully loaded induction motor is less efﬁcient and has a lower power factor than a fully loaded motor. efﬁciency suffers only slightly down to 25% FLT. This was a good concept for the notoriously inefﬁcient single phase motors for which it was intended. and most all single phase motors.
Efﬁciency Large three phase motors are more efﬁcient than smaller 3phase motors. the power factor can be in the range of 10% to 25%. there is energy to be saved in partially loaded motors. as low as 10% PF.
13. Efﬁciency is decreased a few percent at 50% FLT. Efﬁciency only becomes poor below 25% FLT. and decreased a few more percent at 25% FLT.60: Induction motor power factor and efﬁciency.
. power factor 80% 60% 40% 20% 0 20 40 60 80 100 % load efficiency power factor
Figure 13. The variation of efﬁciency with loading is shown in Figure 13. At starting. the voltage to a partially loaded motor may be reduced to decrease the energy required to maintain the magnetic ﬁeld. Power factor (PF) varies considerably with the motor mechanical load (Figure 13. This will increase power factor and efﬁciency. If a polyphase motor is loaded at less than 75% of rated torque where efﬁciency peaks.
100% efficience. As the rotor is loaded an increasing resistive component is reﬂected from rotor to stator. The energy consumed in maintaining the stator magnetic ﬁeld is relatively ﬁxed with respect to load changes.
500% %full load torque & current 400% 300% 200% 100% 20 120 100 80 0 20 Motor mode 60 40 40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns 100% 200%
tor qu e qu e
curre
nt
tor
Generator mode 40 60 140 160
80 180
100 % slip 200 % Ns %full load torque & current
300% 400%
curre
nt
500%
Figure 13.61) This corresponds to a few % of “negative” slip. it might be economical as part of an electronic motor starter or speed Control. It normally lags by 1% in a motor. Though. It is failsafe. Since the rotor is cutting the stator magnetic ﬁeld in the opposite direction (leading). The payback period for the expensive electronic controller has been estimated to be unattractive for most applications.90% = 5%. AC MOTORS
This concept is not very applicable to large 3phase motors. This type of alternator appears to be unsuited as a standby power source. This means that as we are rotating the motor faster than the synchronous speed. like a punch press.7.61: Negative torque makes induction motor into generator. a 95% efﬁcient motor is still 94% efﬁcient at 50% full load torque (FLT) and 90% efﬁcient at 25% FLT. say 1% slip. the rotor induces a voltage into the stator feeding electrical energy back into the power line. the rotor is advancing 1% faster than the stator rotating magnetic ﬁeld. [7]
13. Moreover. there is not much energy to be saved. No power can be generated in the event of a power company power failure. it has the advantage of not requiring an automatic power failure disconnect switch to protect repair crews. As an auxiliary power wind turbine generator. This is not 5% of the full load wattage but 5% of the wattage at the reduced load. The Nola power factor corrector might be applicable to a 3phase motor which idles most of the time (below 25% FLT). (Figure 13.4
Induction motor alternator
An induction motor may function as an alternator if it is driven by a torque at greater than 100% of the synchronous speed.454
CHAPTER 13. Because of their high efﬁciency (90%+). Such an induction generator must be excited by a “live” source of 50 or 60 Hz power.
. The potential energy savings in going from 100% FLT to 25% FLT is the difference in efﬁciency 95% .
an induction alternator presents a leading power factor. feeding power back into the power line. Any wind induced turbine speed in excess of synchronous speed will develop negative torque. Motorstart rated circuit breakers (analogous to slow blow fuses) should replace standard circuit breakers for starting motors of a few kilowatts. this allowable speed variation only amounts to about 1%.13. Sometimes 3phase motors are purchased for use on single phase if threephase provisioning is anticipated. This reduces starting current to. followed by application of full line voltage as in Figure 13. Synchronous alternators are also more efﬁcient. This current is allowed to ﬂow by the capacitors without dissipating power. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
455
Small remote (from the power grid) installations may be make selfexciting by placing capacitors in parallel with the stator phases. affecting other loads. Small motors of a few kilowatts or smaller can be started by direct connection to the power line. say. a direct line connected induction generator is considered to be ﬁxedspeed in a wind turbine. An intermittent duty autotarnsformer may reduce the stator voltage for a fraction of a minute during the start interval. Starting larger motors can cause line voltage sag.7. The S contacts open and the R contacts close after starting. If the load is removed residual magnetism may generate a small amount of current ﬂow. The load may be applied at this point. Whereas an induction motor presents a lagging power factor to the power line. a few hundred percent is more common. As the generator is brought up to full speed. Running 3phase motors on 1phase Threephase motors will run on single phase as readily as single phase motors.[6] Start up procedure is to bring the wind turbine up to speed in motor mode by application of normal power line voltage to the stator. 200% of full load current.7. The power rating needs to be 50% larger than for a comparable single phase motor to make up for one unused winding. The speed of a wind turbine is difﬁcult to control. See Doublyfed induction generator for a true variable speed alternator. An induction alternator is better able to cope with these variations due to the inherent slip. the current ﬂow increases to supply a magnetizing current to the stator. However. This stresses the gear train and mechanical components less than a synchronous genertor. Multiple generators or multiple windings on a common shaft may be switched to provide a high and low speed to accomodate variable wind conditions. Single
. though. Thus. Since the autotransformer is only used for the short start interval. reversing the normal direction of the electric kilowatthour meter. Voltage regulation is poor. This breaker accepts high overcurrent for the duration of starting. it may be sized considerably smaller than a continuous duty unit.5
Motor starting and speed control
Some induction motors can draw over 1000% of full load current during starting. The only problem for either motor is starting.
13. Induction generators are not widely used in conventional power plants. Motors over 50 kW use motor starters to reduce line current from several hundred to a few hundred percent of full load current. An induction motor may be converted to a selfexcited generator by the addition of capacitors. The speed of the steam turbine drive is steady and controllable as required by synchronous alternators.62. Closure of the S contacts applies reduced voltage during the start interval. and subject to wind speed variation by gusts.
phase is applied to a pair of windings simultanous with a start capacitor in series with the third winding. Moreover.[9]
. While running.63. R= run optional run capacitor start capacitor
φ1
φ1 φ2
M1
φsynthetic φ1’
synthetic 3φ
φ3
standard 3φ
Figure 13. Sometimes a smaller capacitor than the start capacitor is retained while running.62: Autotransformer induction motor starter. Matt Isserstedt shows a complete design for powering a home machine shop.64.[9] However. The circuit in Figure 13.63: Starting a threephase motor on single phase. However. Three phase power may be tapped off from the three stator windings for powering other 3phase equipment.63 for running a threephase motor on single phase is known as a static phase converter if the motor shaft is not loaded. it may be started with a capacitor considerably smaller than a normal start capacitor. as shown in Figure 13.65. R= run
CHAPTER 13.
φ1 R φsynthetic S φ1’ R
return S = start. The capacitor supplies a synthetic phase approximately midway 90o between the 180o single phase power source terminals for starting. the motor generates approximately standard 3φ. Hanrahan provides construction details. If it is small enough. AC MOTORS
R S R M1 S
Figure 13. adjustment of these capacitors to equalize the currents as measured in the three phases results in the most efﬁcient machine. it may be left in circuit as a runcapacitor.63 upon motor start. [8] Since a static phase converter has no torque load. See Figure 13. Moreover. The start switch is opened in Figure 13. smaller runcapacitors result in better 3phase power output as in Figure 13. the motor acts as a 3phase generator. a large start capacitor is required for about a second to quickly start the converter.456
φ3 T1 φ1 S T2 S φ2 S = start.
Adapted from Figure 7.7. Adapted from Figure 1.13.65: More efﬁcient static phase converter.64: Selfstarting static phase converter. Hanrahan [9]
220V single phase in L2
L3 3phase L2 out L1
run run
1 HP motor start
L1
Start capacitor = 50100 µF/HP. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
457
L3 3phase L2 out L1 220V single phase in L2 L1 Run capacitor = 2530 µF per HP 1 HP motor
Figure 13.
Figure 13. Run capacitors = 1216 µF/HP. Run capacitors = 1216µF/HP. Hanrahan [9]
. Run capacitor = 2530µF per HP. Start capacitor = 50100µF/HP.
AC MOTORS
Induction motors may contain multiple ﬁeld windings. may be changed by reducing the line voltage. for example a 4pole and an 8pole winding corresponding to 1800 and 900 rpm synchronous speeds. However. If the motor is driven by 50 Hz. the synchronous speed of the motor may be changed. In practice. (Figure 13. the voltage to the motor needs to be decreased when frequency is decreased.
φ1 φ1
4pole
2pole
Figure 13. However. Only the wiring for one phase is shown above for clarity.67) Electronic speed control Modern solid state electronics increase the options for speed control. Energizing one ﬁeld or the other is less complex than rewiring the stator coils in Figure 13. decreasing the frequency of the current fed to the motor also decreases reactance XL which increases the stator current. This reduces the torque available to the load which reduces the speed. our induction motor may run at multiple speeds. By changing the 50 or 60 Hz line frequency to higher or lower values. the drive frequency may be increased to increase the synchronous speed of the motor.66: Multiple ﬁelds allow speed change. what would be the corresponding 4pole and 2pole synchronous speeds? Ns = 120f/P = 120*50/4 = 1500 rpm (4pole) Ns = 3000 rpm (2pole) Variable voltage The speed of small squirrel cage induction motors for applications such as driving fans. If the ﬁeld is segmented with leads brought out. When switching the above 60 Hz motor from 4 poles to 2 poles the synchronous speed increases from 1800 rpm to 3600 rpm. This may cause the stator magnetic circuit to saturate with disastrous results. Thus.66. Conversely. it may be rewired (or switched) from 4pole to 2pole as shown above for a 2phase motor.5o segments are switchable to 45o segments. The 22. the voltage needs to be increased to overcome increasing reactance to keep
.458 Multiple ﬁelds
CHAPTER 13.
The inverter (Figure¡ref¿02480.13. This is a chopped waveform which is either on or off.68: Electronic variable speed drive.7. variable frequency & voltage
M1
Figure 13. Summary: Tesla polyphase induction motors • A polyphase induction motor consists of a polyphase winding embedded in a laminated stator and a conductive squirrel cage embedded in a laminated rotor.
. many control methods are available. Once electronics is applied to induction motor control. • Direct Torque Control An elaborate adaptive motor model allows more direct control of ﬂux and torque without feedback.67: Variable voltage controls induction motor speed. The ﬂux and torque producing components of stator current are measured or estimated on a realtime basis to enhance the motor torquespeed curve. This method quickly responds to load changes. without feedback.eps¡x1¿) approximates sinewaves to the motor with pulse width modulation outputs. This is computation intensive.
AC line speed
Inverter. • Vector Control Also known as vector phase control. TESLA POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
459
100% % torque 75% 50% 25% 100 0 80 20 motor torque
100% V reduced speed
50% V
load to
60 40
rque
40 60 20 80 0 % slip 100 % Ns
Figure 13. the percentage of “on” time corresponds to the instantaneous sine wave voltage. current up to a normal value and maintain torque. varying from the simple to complex: Summary: Speed control • Scaler Control Low cost method described above to control only voltage and frequency. high or low.
CVNX1.69) This resistance is shorted out once the motor is started to make the rotor look electrically like the squirrel cage counterpart. Thus. and consequent magnetic ﬁeld in the rotor. no power is applied to the slip rings. Figure 13. • Multiple ﬁeld windings can be rewired for multiple discrete motor speeds by changing the number of poles. Line current reducing starters are only required for large motors. if started.
. Why put resistance in series with the rotor? Squirrel cage induction motors draw 500% to over 1000% of full load current (FLC) during starting. • Three phase motors will run on single phase. and pullout torque is proportional to slip. but also increases the starting torque.7. AC MOTORS
• Three phase currents ﬂowing within the stator create a rotating magnetic ﬁeld which induces a current. polyphase induction motors are selfstarting.460
CHAPTER 13. The direction of linear travel is controlled by the sequence of the drive to the stator phases. Their sole purpose is to allow resistance to be placed in series with the rotor windings while starting.[4] [5]
13. This will increase efﬁciency and reduce maintenance. the linear induction motor is scheduled to replace steam driven catapult aircraft launch systems on the next generation of naval aircraft carrier. • Unlike single phase motors. The linear induction motor has been proposed as a drive for high speed passenger trains.8
Wound rotor induction motors
A wound rotor induction motor has a stator like the squirrel cage induction motor. • Motor starters minimize loading of the power line while providing a larger starting torque than required during running.6
Linear induction motor
The wound stator and the squirrel cage rotor of an induction motor may be cut at the circumference and unrolled into a linear induction motor.
13. generating a 3phase output. in 2013. While this is not a severe problem for small motors. However. • A static phase converter is three phase motor running on single phase having no shaft load. Placing resistance in series with the rotor windings not only decreases start current. Rotor torque is developed as the rotor slips a little behind the rotating stator ﬁeld. However. the linear induction motor with the accompanying magnetic repulsion levitation system required for a smooth ride has been too costly for all but experimental installations.70 shows that by increasing the rotor resistance from R0 to R1 to R2 . it is for large (10’s of kW) motors. high torque is produced while starting. but a rotor with insulated windings brought out via slip rings and brushes. locked rotor current (LRC). (Figure 13.Note that this torque peak is much higher than the starting torque available with no rotor resistance (R0 ) Slip is proportional to rotor resistance. locked rotor torque (LRT). Up to this time. the breakdown torque peak is shifted left to zero speed.
8.
400% 300% 200% 100% R2
breakdown torque R1 R0
%full load torque
100 0
80 20
60 40
40 60
20 80
0 % slip 100 % Ns
Figure 13.
. WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION MOTORS
461
φ1 φ2 M1 φ3 Stator Rotor Start resistance
Figure 13.70: Breakdown torque peak is shifted to zero speed by increasing rotor resistance.13.69: Wound rotor induction motor.
The complication and maintenance associated with brushes and slip rings is a disadvantage of the wound rotor as compared to the simple squirrel cage rotor. For comparison. A higher resistance at R3 reduces the speed further. (See Induction motor alternator) This is a singlyfed induction generator. Since there are connections to both the stator and rotor. A shorted rotor operates like a squirrel cage rotor. See R2 curve at 90% Ns.
400% 300% 200% 100% R3 speed reduction R0. Speed control works well with variable speed loads like elevators and printing presses. Resistors R0 R1 R2 R3 increase in value from zero. Since the speed of a wound rotor induction motor may be controlled
. a squirrel cage rotor only exhibits pull out (peak) torque at 80% of its’ synchronous speed. the down shifted break down torque.8. A high starting resistance makes the high pull out torque available at zero speed.
13. This motor is suited for starting high inertial loads.2
Doublyfed induction generator
We previously described a squirrel cage induction motor acting like a generator if driven faster than the synchronous speed. This reduces rotor current and speed. Speed regulation is poor with respect to changing torque loads.462
CHAPTER 13. 2. Heat generated during starting is mostly dissipated external to the motor in the starting resistance. 3
= motor torque R1 R0
%full load torque
rque load to 100 80 0 20
60 40
40 60
20 80
0 % slip 100 % Ns
Figure 13.1
Speed control
Motor speed may be varied by putting variable resistance back into the rotor circuit. is not available at high speed.8. A wound rotor induction motor may also act as a generator when driven above the synchronous speed.
13.71: Rotor resistance controls speed of wound rotor induction motor.71. having electrical connections only to the stator windings. This speed control technique is only usefull over a range of 50% to 100% of full speed. R2
1. AC MOTORS
The resistance decreases the torque available at full running speed. such a machine is known as a doublyfed induction generator (DFIG). The singlyfed induction generator only had a useable slip range of 1% when driven by troublesome wind torque. Figure 13. But that resistance is shorted out by the time the rotor is started. The high starting torque available at zero speed.
74) The borrowed power. along with the larger shaft energy. we can also overspeed it by 50%. leaving. The converter may “borrow” power from the line for the underspeed rotor.
Overspeed torqure Rotor
Stator
φ1 φ2
100% Torque energy
Converter
70% φ1 Electric energy φ3 φ2 φ3 30% Electric energy
Figure 13.73) absorbing power from the rotor. over a range of 50100% by inserting resistance in the rotor. leaving the line with 100% for the theoretical lossless DFIG. The stator appears to be supplying 130% of power to the line. still allowing the stator to feed the power line with 60 Hz power. resistance placed in the rotor circuit will absorb excess energy while the stator feeds constant 60 Hz to the power line. Not only can we slow the rotor by 50%. (Figure 13. the rotor resistance may be replaced by a converter (Figure 13.73: Converter recovers energy from rotor of doublyfed induction generator. • Excellent starting torque for high inertia loads.72) In the case of underspeed. (Figure 13. ±30% is more practical. WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION MOTORS
463
Overspeed torqure Rotor
Stator
φ1 φ2
100% Torque energy
70% Electric energy φ3 30% Waste heat
Figure 13. we can vary the speed of a doubly fed induction generator by ±50% from the synchronous speed. This improves the efﬁciency of the generator.13. That is.8.72: Rotor resistance allows overspeed of doublyfed induction generator. we may expect the same of the doublyfed induction generator. which passes it on to the stator. negative resistance inserted into the rotor circuit can make up the energy deﬁcit. In actual practice. If the generator overspeeds. Keep in mind that the rotor “borrows” 30%. passes to the stator which is connected to the power line. and feeding power into the power line instead of dissipating it. Wound rotor induction motor qualities.
. In actual practice.
(Figure 13. allowing it to function well under synchronous speed. • The generator version of the wound rotor machine is known as a doublyfed induction generator. but a pulsating ﬁeld reaching maximum intensity at 0o and 180o electrical. a variable speed machine. It may be hand started in either direction. It will only develop 2/3 of the 3φ power rating because one winding is not used. AC MOTORS
Underspeed torqure Rotor
Stator
φ1 φ2
100% Torque energy
Converter
130% φ1 Electric energy φ3 φ2 φ3 30% Electric energy
Figure 13.
13.
open
nostart 1φ motor 3φ motor.74: Converter borrows energy from power line for rotor of doubly fed induction generator.76)
.464
CHAPTER 13. coming up to speed in a few seconds. it will not selfstart. • Higher maintenance of brushes and slip rings compared to squirrel cage motor.75) However. (Figure 13.75: 3φmotor runs from 1φ power.9
Singlephase induction motors
A three phase motor may be run from a single phase power source. • Speed is resistance variable over 50% to 100% full speed. The single coil of a single phase induction motor does not produce a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. but does not start. • Low starting current compared to squirrel cage induction motor. 1φ powered
Figure 13.
Another view is that the single coil excited by a single phase current produces two counter rotating magnetic ﬁeld phasors. the single phase coil will develop torque. pulsating magnetic ﬁeld.
13.77. if the rotor is rotated forward at a bit less than the synchronous speed. At 45o and 45o (ﬁgure c) they are partially additive along the +x axis and cancel along the y axis.13. deriving 2phase power from single phase. it will develop a similar large torque as it nears the speed of the backward rotating phasor.
Figure 13. no starting torque is developed. The sum of these two phasors is a phasor stationary in space.9. typical of polyphase induction motors.76a) and 180o (ﬁgure e). If the rotor is started in the reverse direction. Single phase induction motors have a copper or aluminum squirrel cage embedded in a cylinder of steel laminations. Little torque (see torque vs slip curve) other than a double freqency ripple is developed from the counter rotating phasor.77: Permanentsplit capacitor induction motor.9. An analogous situation exists in ﬁgure d. Less torque will be developed above or below 10% slip. The rotor will see 200% . The solution is to keep the capacitor (impedance) small to minimize losses.10% slip with respect to the counter rotating magnetic ﬁeld phasor. The losses are less than for a shaded pole motor. coinciding twice per revolution at 0o (Figure 13.
. but alternating polarity in time. However.1
Permanentsplit capacitor motor
One way to solve the single phase problem is to build a 2phase motor. This is called a permanentsplit capacitor motor in Figure 13. When the phasors rotate to 90o and 90o they cancel in ﬁgure b.76: Single phase stator produces a nonrotating. with torque pulsations at full speed. This requires a motor with two windings spaced apart 90o electrical. Thus. SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
∠90o
465
∠180o
∠0o
∠90o
a
b
c
d
e
Figure 13. fed with two phases of current displaced 90o in time. once the rotor is started. Thus. It will develop maximum torque at 10% slip with respect to the forward rotating phasor. This type of motor suffers increased current magnitude and backward time shift as the motor comes up to speed.
The direction of the motor is easily reversed by switching the capacitor in series with the other winding. The result is that more starting torque is available for heavy loads like air conditioning compressors.79: Capacitorstart induction motor.2
Capacitorstart induction motor
In Figure 13. the auxiliary winding may be many more turns of heavier wire than used in a resistance splitphase motor to mitigate excessive temperature rise.
Figure 13.
Figure 13. usually applied to smaller motors. described elsewhere is this chapter.79 a larger capacitor may be used to start a single phase induction motor via the auxiliary winding if it is switched out by a centrifugal switch once the motor is up to speed. though.
. Single phase induction motors may have coils embedded into the stator as shown in Figure 13. AC MOTORS
This motor conﬁguration works well up to 1/4 horsepower (200watt).9. This type of motor can be adapted for use as a servo motor. Moreover. Though. the smaller sizes use less complex to build concentrated windings with salient poles.466
CHAPTER 13. This motor conﬁguration works so well that it is available in multihorsepower (multikilowatt) sizes.78: Single phase induction motor with embedded stator coils.
13.78 for larger size motors.
the full magnetizing current is not required. but not as much as a two phase motor built from the same parts. This ﬁxed current is a larger proportion of total motor current as motor load is decreased.80: Capacitorrun motor induction motor.5
Nola power factor corrrector
Frank Nola of NASA proposed a power factor corrector for improving the efﬁciency of AC induction motors in the mid 1970’s. 60 seconds off) like motor starting.13. (Figure 13.9. A motor starting capacitor may be a doubleanode nonpolar electrolytic capacitor which could be two + to + (or .9.
Figure 13.
13.3
Capacitorrun motor induction motor
A variation of the capacitorstart motor (Figure 13. A capacitor for motor running must not be of electrolytic construction. This inefﬁciency correlates with a low power factor. it can start a single phase induction motor.9. SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
467
13. The current density in the auxiliary winding is so high during starting that the consequent rapid temperature rise precludes frequent restarting or slow starting loads. This simple (no capacitor) arrangement serves well for motors up to 1/3 horsepower (250 watts) driving easily started loads.9. The additional complexity of the capacitorrun motor is justiﬁed for larger size motors. This motor has more starting torque than a shaded pole motor (next section). The less than unity power factor is due to magnetizing current required by the stator.to ) series connected polarized electrolytic capacitors. Such AC rated electrolytic capacitors have such high losses that they can only be used for intermittent duty (1 second on.80) is to start the motor with a relatively large capacitor for high starting torque. the current will experience less phase shift than the main winding. At light load.
13. but a lower loss polymer type. improving
. This coil produces a moderate starting torque. but leave a smaller value capacitor in place after starting to improve running characteristics while not drawing excessive current. About 30o of phase difference may be obtained.4
Resistance splitphase motor induction motor
If an auxiliary winding of much fewer turns of smaller wire is placed at 90o electrical to the main winding. It could be reduced by decreasing the applied voltage. It is based on the premise that induction motors are inefﬁcient at less than full load.81) With lower inductance and higher resistance. which is disconnected by a centrifugal switch at 3/4 of synchronous speed.
25% FLC or less. thus restoring a higher power factor and decreasing losses. as in a lumber saw.468
CHAPTER 13. AC MOTORS
IT VT
IStart φ IRun
φ ≅ 30ο
VT IR
IS
I Run
tar t
IT
IX
IS
tar
t
Figure 13. the greater the potential savings. It should be easier to pay for it by a factor of three as compared to the more efﬁcient 3φmotor. for example. Of course. The cost of a PFC cannot be recovered for a motor operating only a few hours per day. punch press.
. The higher the initial line voltage. Since singlephase motors are about 2 to 4 times as inefﬁcient as threephase motors. But there is potential savings from a less than fully loaded motor. It is safe for the power factor controller to lower the line voltage to 104110 VAC. as low as 104 VAC. the greater the possibility of paying for the controller in a few years operation. the power factor and efﬁciency. there is potential energy savings for 1φ motors. Though.81: Resistance splitphase motor induction motor. The voltage cannot be reduced. Any substantially idle. a 117 VAC refrigerator. and decreases motor voltage. That means that it is not fully loaded when operated at greater than 104 VAC. And the more time it idles. single phase induction motor is a candidate for a PFC. A nominal 117 VAC motor is designed to work at as high as 127 VAC. or conveyor. There is no savings for a fully loaded motor since all the stator magnetizing current is required. The power factor corrector senses power factor. it needs to operate a large number of hours per year. the motor will operate more efﬁciently without any addon device. [7] Summary: Singlephase induction motors • Singlephase induction motors are not selfstarting without an auxiliary stator winding driven by an out of phase current of near 90o . if the power company delivers closer to 110 VAC. Once started the auxiliary winding is optional. • The auxiliary winding of a permanentsplit capacitor motor has a capacitor in series with it during starting and running. • A capacitorstart induction motoronly has a capacitor in series with the auxiliary winding during starting.
Low cost and simplicity suit this motor to small fans.10.10. air circulators. (a) dual coil design. (Figure 13.82: Shaded pole induction motor.2
2phase servo motor
A servo motor is typically part of a feedback loop containing electronic. (Figure 13. or by switching motor coil taps as in Figure 13. (b) smaller single coil version.13.10.
OTHER SPECIALIZED MOTORS
469
• A capacitorrun motor typically has a large nonpolarized electrolytic capacitor in series with the auxiliary winding for starting. the construction is typical of a two phase motor.10
13. and other low torque applications.
shorting bars
rotor
(a)
stator coils
(b)
Figure 13. The low mass rotor can accelerate more rapidly than a squirrel cage rotor.
13.1
Other specialized motors
Shaded pole induction motor
An easy way to provide starting torque to a single phase motor is to embed a shorted turn in each pole at 30o to 60o to the main winding. then a smaller nonelectrolytic capacitor during running. mechanical. Motor speed can be lowered by switching reactance in series to limit current and torque. A requirement of many such systems is fast response. Otherwise. • The auxiliary winding of a resistance splitphase motor develops a phase difference versus the main winding during starting by virtue of the difference in resistance. These shading coils produce a time lagging damped ﬂux spaced 30o to 60o from the main ﬁeld.
13.82) Typically 1/3 of the pole is enclosed by a bare copper strap.
. the iron core is removed from the rotor leaving only a shaft mounted aluminum cup to rotate. This lagging ﬂux with the undamped main component. To reduce acceleration robbing inertial. and electrical components.84) The iron core is reinserted within the cup as a static (nonrotating) component to complete the magnetic circuit. The servo loop is a means of controlling the motion of an object via the motor. produces a rotating ﬁeld with a small torque to start the rotor.83. Starting torque is so low that shaded pole motors are only manufactured in smaller sizes. below 50 watts.
Aircraft control surfaces may be positioned by 400 Hz 2φ servo motors. AC MOTORS
L1
Figure 13.10. phonograph turntables.4
Eddy current clutch
If the stator of an induction motor or a synchronous motor is mounted to rotate independently of the rotor. The phase of the waveform may invert (180o phase shift) to reverse the direction of the motor. the hysteresis motor is only available in very small sizes. is greatly accentuated. Because of the low torque. The squirrel cage rotor is attached to the driving motor. See synchro CT section for example.3
Hysteresis motor
If the low hysteresis Sisteel laminated rotor of an induction motor is replaced by a slotless windingless cylinder of hardened magnet steel. an eddy current clutch results.84: High acceleration 2φ AC servo motor. The other winding is driven by a variable amplitude sine wave to control motor speed.470
CHAPTER 13. This variable sine wave is the output of an error ampliﬁer. The coils are excited with DC and attached to the mechanical load. and formerly. the other is driven by an ampliﬁer.
φ−1
φ−2 rotor cup
iron core
φ−1 φ−2
rotor cup
Figure 13.83: Speed control of shaded pole motor. this is accomplished by a series capacitor in the power line winding. or lagging behind of rotor magnetization. and is only used for constant speed applications like clock drives. The drive motor is
. In the above ﬁgure.10. hysteresis.
13.
13. One of the windings is driven by a 90o phase shifted waveform. One phase is connected to the single phase line. The resulting low torque synchronous motor develops constant torque from stall to synchronous speed.
the rotor windings of a wound rotor induction motor are shorted out after starting.85) This is usefull for printing presses and draw bridges. Since the rotors are not shorted out nor resistor loaded. This is a selsyn. (Figure 13. (Figure 13. the higher the synchronizing torque for a pair of motors. which is an abbreviation for “self synchronous”. the synchronizing torque is absent. resistance may be placed in series with the rotor windings to limit starting current. The operation of the eddy current clutch is similar to an analog eddy current automotive speedometer. the other selsyn shaft will move through an angle θ. If drag is applied to one selsyn.
SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS
471
started with no DC excitation to the clutch.13. However there is a substantial synchronizing torque. used in under 50 watt low torque applications.11. Summary: Other specialized motors • The shaded pole induction motor.85: Starting wound rotor induction motors from common resistors. where two motors need to be synchronized during starting. the two rotors will remain synchronized during starting.
φ1 φ3 M1 φ2 Stator Rotor Start resistance Rotor Stator M2 φ2 φ3 φ1
Figure 13. If one rotor is moved through an angle θ. but the rotors still paralleled. • Hysteresis motors are a small low torque synchronous motor once used in clocks and phonographs. If the starting resistors are removed. manual rotation of one shaft will produce an unbalance in the rotor currents until the parallel unit’s shaft follows. • The eddy current clutch provides an adjustable torque. Note that a common source of three phase power is applied to both stators. The DC excitation is adjusted from zero to the desired ﬁnal value providing a continuously and smoothly variable torque.11
Selsyn (synchro) motors
Normally.86) They are not intended to be self rotating.87.
13. If these windings are connected to a common starting resistance. However. this will be felt when attempting to rotate the other shaft. The rotors may be stationary. the main appplication is small units of a few watts for instrumentation applications– remote position indication. a single phase powered rotor is sufﬁcient as shown in Figure 13. While multihorsepower (multikilowatt) selsyns exist. Once started. develops a second phase from shorted turns in the stator. During starting. Instrumentation selsyns have no use for starting resistors.
. and the rotors are shorted. no starting torque is developed. Though we show three phase rotors above. there is no starting torque. The higher the resistance during starting.
A synchro torque transmitter may be substituted for a torque receiver.
S3 M1
S1 R1 60 Hz R2 R1
S3
S1 M2
R1 TX R2
S1 S2 S3
S1 S2 S3
R1 RX R2
R2 TX S2 Stator Rotor Torque transmitter . The receiver shaft is electrically slaved to the transmitter shaft. use single phase paralleled. Stator current will ﬂow developing torque. 115 Vac 60 Hz. (Figure 13. Should one rotor be displaced from the other. which are not externally energized.receiver
Small instrumentation selsyns.
Synchro stators are wound with 3phase windings brought out to external terminals. a synchro receiver has inertial damping built in. AC MOTORS
φ3 φ1 M2 θ Rotor Stator φ2
Figure 13. Remote position sensing is the main synchro application.86: Selsyns without starting resistance. If the rotors of both the torque transmitter (TX) and torque receiver (RX) are at the same angle.RX
RX
Alternate abreviated symbols
Figure 13. and no current will ﬂow. AC energized rotors. the phases of the induced stator voltages will be identical for both.
13. a synchro transmitter coupled to a radar antenna indicates antenna position on an indicator in a control room. the stator phase voltages will differ between transmitter and receiver.87) Synchros function as rotary transformers. A synchro transmitter coupled to a weather vane indicates wind direction at a remote console. and 26 Vac 400 Hz power. However.TX
S2 Rotor Stator Torque receiver .472
φ1 φ3 M1 φ2 Stator θ Rotor
CHAPTER 13.87: Synchros have single phase powered rotors. also known as sychros. Synchro transmitters and receivers are electrically identical.11.88) For example.
. Synchros are available for use with 240 Vac 50 Hz. 115 Vac 400 Hz. retaining the 3phase paralleled stators. Either the transmitter or receiver shaft may be rotated to turn the opposite unit. (Figure 13. The single rotor winding of a torque transmitter or receiver is brough out by brushed slip rings.1
Transmitter .
outputting the sum on the stator outputs. This stator electrical angle may be displayed by sending it to an RX. (Figure 13.88: Synchro application: remote position indication. For example.11.
S3 S3 S1 R3 TDX Torque Differential Transmitter R2 R1 R1 M2 R2 M3 S1 S3 S1
R1 M1 R2
S2 TX Torque Transmitter
S2 ∠Μ3 = ∠Μ1 + ∠Μ2
S2 TR Torque Receiver
Figure 13.11. The addition of a ship’s compass heading by a synchro differential transmitter. a synchro receiver displays the position of a radar antenna relative to a ship’s bow.89) A synchro differential transmitter adds a shaft angle input to an electrical angle input on the rotor inputs.2
Differential transmitter .
SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS
473
N W S transmitter receiver E
Figure 13. Reversing the S1S3 pair of stator leads between a TX and TDX subtracts angular positions.
. displays antenna postion on an RX relative to true north.89: Torque differential transmitter (TDX).
13. regardless of ship’s heading.13.receiver
A synchro differential transmitter (TDX) has both a three phase rotor and stator.
The TDR has electrical angle inputs on both the stator and rotor.90: Torque differential transmitter application: angular addition. ship’s heading is 30o . The TDX has a torque angle input on the shaft. antenna position relative to ship’s bow is 0o .rx
transmitter .474
CHAPTER 13. antennaN = antenna + gyro rx = tx + gy For example. The torque inputs in Figure 13. and an electrical angle output on the three rotor connections. antenna + gyro
differential transmitter
N W
∠tx ∠gy
∠rx
E
S
receiver . AC MOTORS
A shipboard radar antenna coupled to a synchro transmitter encodes the antenna angle with respect to ship’s bow. antennaN is: rx = tx + gy 30o = 30o + 0o Example.tx
∠rx = ∠tx + ∠gy gyrocompass . The angle output is a torque on the TDR shaft. antenna position relative to ship’s bow is 15o . The difference between a TDX and a TDR is that the TDX is a torque transmitter and the TDR a torque receiver.
. ship’s heading is 30o . (Figure 13.90) It is desired to display the antenna position with respect to true north. an electrical angle input on the three stator connections.91 are TX and TDX.gy
Figure 13. The torque output angular difference is TR. We need to add the ships heading from a gyrocompass to the bowrelative antenna position to display antenna angle with respect to true north. antennaN is: 45o = 30o + 15o Addition vs subtraction For reference we show the wiring diagrams for subtraction and addition of shaft angles using both TDX’s (Torque Differential transmitter) and TDR’s (Torque Differential Receiver).
11.∠TX2
Figure 13.13.
SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS
475
R1 TX R2
S1 S2 S3
S1 S2 S3
TDX
R1 R2 R3
S1 S2 S3
R1 TR R2
TDX subtraction: ∠TX .91: TDX subtraction.93: TDR subtraction.
.
R1 TX1 R2
S1 S2 S3
S1 S2 S3
TDR
R1 R2 R3
S1 S2 S3
R1 TX2 R2
TDR subtraction: ∠TDR = ∠TX1 .∠TDX = ∠TR
Figure 13.92: TDX Addition.
R1 TX R2
S1 S2 S3
S1 S2 S3
TDX
R1 R2 R3
S1 S2 S3
R1 TR R2
TDX addition: ∠TX + ∠TDX = ∠TR
Figure 13.
13. The torque inputs in Figure 13. output to be ampliﬁed. They are also difﬁcult to control since they are constant speed devices. The torque output angular sum is TDR. Its rotor is wound with more turns than a transmitter or receiver to make it more sensitive at detecting a null as it is rotated. The torque output angular sum is TR. the poor efﬁciency of AC servo motors limits them to smaller loads. by a servo system. It is simply a sensitive angular position detector. typically. The servo motor.3
Control transformer
A variation of the synchro transmitter is the control transformer.93 are TX1 and TX2 . This corresponds to the servo system having driven the antenna coupled CT to match the angle commanded by the TX. any CT detected error drives the ampliﬁer which drives the motor until the error is minimized. The torque inputs in Figure 13.94: TDR addition. Heavy loads are more efﬁciently driven by large DC servo motors. The servo system will cause the servo motor to drive the antenna to the commanded position. the CT neither transmits nor receives torque. the shaft of the TX is set to the desired position of the radar antenna. However. However. sent by the TX stator. A servo (Figure 13. The CT compares the commanded to actual position and signals the servo ampliﬁer to drive the motor until that commanded angle is achieved. no CT. control transformer. In Figure 13.95. It has three equally spaced stator windings like a TX. There is no error between measured and commanded position. When the control transformer rotor detects a null at 90o to the axis of the stator ﬁeld.
. The torque output angular difference is TDR.11.94 are TX1 and TX2 . or null. The CT (Control Transformer) rotor output is zero when it is oriented at a angle right angle to the stator magnetic ﬁeld vector.96) seeks to minimize the error between a commanded and measured variable due to negative feedback.92 are TX and TDX. stops rotating. The control transformer compares the shaft angle to the the stator magnetic ﬁeld angle. there is no rotor output. a 2phase motor. The servo motor may drive a reduction gear train and be large compared to the TX and CT synchros. Unlike a TX or RX.476
CHAPTER 13. Any rotor displacement produces an AC error voltage proportional to displacement.
R1 TX1 R2
S1 S2 S3
S1 S2 S3
TDR
R1 R2 R3
S1 S2 S3
R1 TX2 R2
TDR addition: ∠TDR = ∠TX1 + ∠TX2
Figure 13. When it measures a minimum. AC MOTORS
The torque inputs in Figure 13. they can be controlled to some extent by varying the voltage to one phase with line voltage on the other phase. the servo has driven the antenna and control transformer rotor to the commanded position. However.
SELSYN (SYNCHRO) MOTORS
477
an
ten
na
input angle
W AC servo motor φ2 φ1 S1 S2 S3 R2
N S
E
CT R1 − +
TX R1 R2
120 Vac
Figure 13.11.96: Servo uses CT to sense antenna position null
.
mechanical coupling 2φ servo motor φ1 M3
S3 S1 R1 S3 S1
M2 CT φ2
S2 R1 R2
R2
M1 TX
S2
− +
Figure 13.95: Control transformer (CT) detects servo null.13.
97) has two stator winding placed at 90o to each other. Y) are available on the resolver stator coils: X=V(cos( bearing)) Y=V(sin( bearing)) The Cartesian coordinates (X.11. Therefore. CT. The sine wave is fed to the rotor of a resolver. Y) may be plotted on a map display.4
Resolver
A resolver (Figure 13. The three TX outputs. and a single rotor winding driven by alternating current. with the bearing angle as a shaft angle. An angle input at the rotor shaft produces rectangular coordinates sinθ and cosθ proportional voltages on the stator windings. like moving control surfaces. a blackbox within a radar encodes the distance to a target as a sine wave proportional voltage V. 3phases. The coordinates (X.97: Resolver converts shaft angle to sine and cosine of angle. Convert to X and Y coordinates.98) It is possible to derive resolverlike quadrature angular components from a synchro transmitter by using a ScottT transformer. torque receiver. See ScottT chapter 9 for details. Summary: Selsyn (synchro) motors • A synchro.
θ
φ2 = sinθ φ1 φ1 = cosθ
Figure 13. are processed by a ScottT transformer into a pair of quadrature components. (Figure 13. and servo motor. torque transmitter. TX transmits a torque form an input shaft to a remote RX output shaft.
13. also known as a selsyn. AC MOTORS
Airborne applications use 400Hz components– TX. Thus. There is also a linear version of the resolver known as an inductosyn. The bearing angle shaft is coupled to the resolver shaft. The rotary version of the inductosyn has a ﬁner resolution than a resolver. accepts a threephase electrical representation of an angular input for conversion to a torque output at its shaft. For example.478
CHAPTER 13.
. • A TX. Size and weight of the AC magnetic components is inversely proportional to frequency. is a rotary transformer used to transmit shaft torque. saves size and weight. use of 400 Hz components for aircraft applications. accepts a torque input at its shaft for transmission on threephase electrical outputs. A resolver is used for polar to rectangular conversion. • An RX. A TX (torque transmitter) may be adapted for service as a resolver.
like comparable DC motors. torque differential receiver. The success or failure of a motor design was not known until after it was actually built at great expense and tested. detects a null when the rotor is positioned at a right angle to the stator angle input. • A TDX. • The threephase output of a TX is converted to a resolver style output by a ScottT transformer. The series motor operates well above the synchronous speed of a conventional AC motor. have higher starting torque and higher speed than AC induction motors. Low hysteresis alloys and breaking the alloy into thin insulated laminations made it possible to accurately design AC commutator motors before building. A CT is typically a component of a servo– feedback system. AC commutator motors may be either singlephase or polyphase. not present in
. He formlated the laws of magnetic hysteresis in ﬁnding a solution.12. sums two electrical angle inputs producing a shaft angle output • A CT.
AC COMMUTATOR MOTORS
479
R3 Y1 S1 R1 R2 θ S3 V2 = 86. AC commutator motors. The singlephase AC version suffers a double line frequency torque pulsation.6% Vsin(θ+120°) Y3 TX synchro ScottT transformer S2 V1 =Vsin(θ) Y2 ct R1 V1 =Vsin(θ) R2 V’2 = Vsin(θ+90°) =Vcos(θ) R4
V3 = M2 Vsin(θ+240°)
Figure 13.13.98: ScottT converts 3φ to 2φ enabling TX to perform resolver function. The situation was so bad that motors could not be designed ahead of the actual construction.12
AC commutator motors
Charles Proteus Steinmetz’s ﬁrst job after arriving in America was to investigate problems encountered in the design of the alternating current version of the brushed commutator motor. torque differential transmitter.
13. • A Resolver outputs a quadrature sinθ and cosine(theta) representation of the shaft angle input instead of a threephase output. Hysteresis is a lagging behind of the magnetic ﬁeld strength as compared to the magnetizing force. This produces a loss not present in DC magnetics. control transformer. sums an electrical angle input with a shaft angle input producing an electrical angle output • A TDR.
While starting.12.1
Single phase series motor
If a DC series motor equipped with a laminated ﬁeld is connected to AC. which shares the arcing and sparking between commutator segments The lagging reactance and arcing brushes are only tolerable in very small uncompensated series AC motors operated at high speed. All but very small AC commutator motors employ compensating windings. use compensated stator windings. This is less of a problem as speed increases. increasing the speed of the “series” motor. However commutator motors are not as maintenance free as induction motors.12. Small line operated appliances. Thus. (Figure 13. and mixers.
. However.99)
field
field
Figure 13. This results in considerable arcing and sparking at the brushes as the armature begins to turn. While such a motor will rotate. vacuum cleaners.
13.
13. requiring 3000 to 10. the peaks of the sine waves saturate the magnetic path reducing total ﬂux below the DC value. the development of solid state rectiﬁers and inexpensive permanent magnets is making the DC permanent magnet motor a viable alternative. AC MOTORS
polyphase motor. or larger. Though.100) A smaller motor air gap and fewer ﬁeld turns reduces lagging reactance in series with the armature improving the power factor.99: Uncompensated series AC motor. Since a commutator motor can operate at much higher speed than an induction motor. Larger higher speed universal motors use a compensating winding. Motors as large as those employed in a kitchen mixer. operation is marginal. A motor will run slower on AC than DC due to the reactance encountered with AC.480
CHAPTER 13.000 rpm use universal motors. due to brush and commutator wear. such as drills. (Figure 13. armature windings connected to commutator segments shorted by the brushes look like shorted transformer turns to the ﬁeld. Very small universal motors may be uncompensated.12. the lagging reactance of the ﬁeld coil will considerably reduce the ﬁeld current.2
Compensated series motor
The arcing and sparking is mitigated by placing a compensating winding the stator in series with the armature positioned so that its magnetomotive force (mmf) cancels out the armature AC mmf.
13. it can output more power than a similar size induction motor. Series AC motors smaller than hand drills and kitchen mixers may be uncompensated. the offsetting effects result in a nearly constant speed from DC to 60 Hz.3
Universal motor
It is possible to design small (under 300 watts) universal motors which run from either DC or AC.
giving the effect of a squirrel cage rotor .5
Repulsion start induction motor
When an induction motor drives a hard starting load like a compressor. a centrifugal switch shorts out all commutator segments.12. Starting torque is 300% to 600% of the full speed value as compared to under 200% for a pure induction motor.12. Speed can be conrolled by rotating the brushes with respect to the ﬁeld axis.
13. Low starting current produces high starting torque. This motor has superior commutation below synchronous speed.13.101: Repulsion AC motor.100: Compensated series AC motor. The ﬁeld induces a current ﬂow into the shorted armature whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes that of the ﬁeld coils. the high starting torque of the repulsion motor may be put to use.12.
shorting brushes field
compensating winding
Figure 13. The induction motor rotor windings are brought out to commutator segments for starting by a pair of shorted brushes. The brushes may also be lifted to prolong bush life. inferior commutation above synchronous speed.
AC COMMUTATOR MOTORS
481
compensating winding
field
Figure 13.
13.101) consists of a ﬁeld directly connected to the AC line voltage and a pair of shorted brushes offset by 15o to 25o from the ﬁeld axis. At near running speed. Summary: AC commutator motors
.4
Repulsion motor
A repulsion motor (Figure 13.
com/cvf32.metalwebnews. P.html [9] Jim Hanrahan“Building a Phase Converter”. www. Design News.html [2] “Linear motor applications guide”. www. (4/11/2002). but is not maintenance free.com/article/CA207108.
Bibliography
[1] “American Superconductor achieves full power of 5MW www. (Aerotech.CVF. • Retractable shorted brushes may start a wound rotor induction motor. at http://www. • The addition of a compensating winding yields the compensated series motor. Christchurch. December http://www. • The AC line is directly connected to the stator of a repulsion motor with the commutator shorted by the brushes.com/products/PDF/LMAppGuide.lmphotonics. at PA)
Pittsburg.pdf as generators”. This is known as a universal motor.482
CHAPTER 13.htm [8] Matt Isserstedt“Building an AutoStart Rotary Three Phase Converter”.com/cimtext.com/news/energytech04zzn.com/howto/phconv/phconv. This is known as a repulsion start induction motor. http://navymatters.O.designnews.
[3] “Linear motor outperforms steampiston catapults”.html?pubdate=04%2F11%2F2002 [6] “Operating 60 cycle motors www. Red Rock Energy
[7] “Energy Saver systems for Induction motors”. EDN.metalwebnews. New Zealand at http://www.beedall. at
. Inc. overcoming excessive commutator sparking.com/energy. At high speed this motor provides more power than a samesize induction motor. The resulting motor is only practical in the smallest sizes. “Electronics poised to replace steampowered aircraft launch system”.html 1995.pdfopt txt Ship motor”. • It is possible to produce small appliance motors powered by either AC or DC.asp?layout=article&articleid=CA151563&cfd=1 [4] “Future Aircraft Carrier . M Photonics Ltd.com/index. Most AC commutator motors are this type. www. Box 13 076. May 2008. AC MOTORS
• The single phase series motor is an attempt to build a motor like a DC commutator motor.spacedaily.htm [5] Bill Schweber..redrok.com/howto/phaseconverter/phaseconverter.edn. Navy Matters”.aerotech.
. . . . Standing waves and resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 14
TRANSMISSION LINES
Contents
14. . . Circuits and the speed of light . (Figure 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waveguides . . . . Impedance transformation . . . . .4 14. . . . . . . . . Measuring each of the two conductors’ resistances from one end of the cable to the other indicated nearly zero ohms of resistance: again. . . . . . I was mystiﬁed by the “50 ohms” label on this coaxial cable. . . . . . . . . .8 A 50ohm cable? . Characteristic impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 484 486 493 499 502 522 529
14. . . . the two conductors insulated from each other for the entire length of the cable. . . . . . . . . How could two conductors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . As such. . . . . . . insulated from each other by a relatively thick layer of plastic. . 483
. just as I would have expected from two insulated conductors. . . . . . . . . Nowhere was I able to measure 50 Ω of resistance on this cable. .7 14. .1) Now. . . . Finitelength transmission lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . unbroken lengths of wire. . . .6 14. the outer (braided) conductor completely surrounds the inner (single wire) conductor. . . . . This type of cabling is often used to conduct weak (lowamplitude) voltage signals. . . . . . . . . .2 14. . . . . . . . . . . have 50 ohms of resistance between them? Measuring resistance between the outer and inner conductors with my ohmmeter. . . . . . . . due to its excellent ability to shield such signals from external interference. . . . . “Long” and “short” transmission lines . . . . . regardless of which points I connected my ohmmeter between. . . . . . . . . I found it to be inﬁnite (opencircuit). . .1 14. . . . . . . . . .1
A 50ohm cable?
Early in my explorations of electricity. . . . . . with a plastic insulating material separating the two. .5 14. . . . . exactly what I would have expected from continuous. . .3 14. . I came across a length of coaxial cable with the label “50 ohms” printed along its outer sheath. . . . . coaxial cable is a twoconductor cable made of a single conductor surrounded by a braided wire jacket.
and in lowfrequency circuits subject to voltage transients (“surges”) such as lightning strikes on power lines.eps¡x1¿) Actually.484
CHAPTER 14. and so we haven’t had to concern ourselves with them in our study of electric circuits thus far. with characteristic properties all its own. including computer networks. the lamp immediately darkens: (Figure¡ref¿02352. When the switch is opened. the effects are very signiﬁcant. What I didn’t understand at the time was the cable’s response to shortduration voltage “pulses” and highfrequency AC signals. we refer to the wire pair as a transmission line. in circuits involving high frequencies and/or extremely long cable lengths. When expressing such properties.2
Circuits and the speed of light
Suppose we had a simple onebattery. TRANSMISSION LINES
Inner conductor Outer conductor (wire braid)
50 Ω
Insulation (polyethylene)
Protective jacket (polyvinyl chloride)
Figure 14. drawing current proportional to an applied voltage. Practical applications of transmission line effects abound in radiofrequency (“RF”) communication circuitry. onelamp circuit controlled by a switch. an incandescent lamp takes a short time for its ﬁlament to warm up and emit light after receiving an electric current of sufﬁcient magnitude to power it. However. the cable’s response to rapidlychanging voltages is such that it acts as a ﬁnite impedance. Many transmission line effects do not appear in signiﬁcant measure in AC circuits of powerline frequency (50 or 60 Hz). Continuous direct current (DC) – such as that used by my ohmmeter to check the cable’s resistance – shows the two conductors to be completely insulated from each other. due to the effects of capacitance and inductance distributed along the length of the cable. This chapter explores transmission line behavior. with nearly inﬁnite resistance between the two. or in continuous DC circuits. so the effect is not
RG 58
/U
. What we would normally dismiss as being just a pair of wires becomes an important circuit element in the presence of transient and highfrequency AC signals.1: Coaxial cable contruction. When the switch is closed. the lamp immediately lights.
14. However.
However. resulting in a much faster transfer of motion from the left end of the train (circuit) to the right end than
.2. the overall effect of electrons pushing against each other happens at the speed of light (approximately 186. and no resistance along the 372. For all practical purposes. motion is transferred from car to car (from electron to electron) at a maximum velocity limited by the coupling slack. Thus. Although electrons move through wires very slowly. instant. When one rail car (electron) begins to move. then it will deenergize. What would happen. delaying the switch’s action on the lamp: (Figure¡ref¿02353. though. Assuming no warmup time for the lamp ﬁlament. what I’d like to focus on is the immediacy of the electric current itself.
Figure 14. it pushes on the one ahead of it and pulls on the one behind it. if the wires carrying power to the lamp were 186.000 mile length of both wires. the lamp will continue to receive power for one second of time after the switch opens..2: Lamp appears to immediately respond to switch. and so this “thought experiment” is valid.000 miles .000 miles per second!). the effect of switch action is instant at the lamp’s location. When the switch is opened again. the lamp would light up approximately one second after the switch closure.000 miles long? Since we know the effects of electricity do have a ﬁnite speed (albeit very fast).. lamp responds after 1 second. not the response time of the lamp ﬁlament. One way of envisioning this is to imagine the electrons within a conductor as rail cars in a train: linked together with a small amount of “slack” or “play” in the couplings. Although the construction and operation of superconducting wires 372.000 miles in length would pose enormous practical problems..14. it is theoretically possible. CIRCUITS AND THE SPEED OF LIGHT
485
Switch Lamp Battery
Figure 14.3: At the speed of light.. Switch Lamp Battery . a set of very long wires should introduce a time delay into the circuit.eps¡x1¿)
186. but not before the slack is relieved from the couplings.
• REVIEW: • In an electric circuit. TRANSMISSION LINES
the actual speed of the cars (electrons): (Figure¡ref¿02354. though. and then the last car moves!
Figure 14. In a very long circuit. so as to produce a wave ahead of it. perhaps more ﬁtting for the subject of transmission lines. this circuit is open. this “coupling” speed would become noticeable to a human observer in the form of a short time delay between switch action and lamp action. . .4: Motion is transmitted sucessively from one car to next. Another analogy. with no lamp at the end. the effects of electron motion travel approximately at the speed of light. .486
CHAPTER 14. electron motion “coupling” travels approximately at the speed of light. although the electrons themselves don’t move that quickly.eps¡x1¿) Likewise. is that of waves in water.
14.eps¡x1¿)
.eps¡x1¿)
First car begins to move
. Suppose a ﬂat. that we had a set of parallel wires of inﬁnite length. although electrons within the conductors do not travel anywhere near that velocity. transferring wave motion along the water’s surface far faster than the water molecules themselves are actually traveling: (Figure¡ref¿02355. . What would happen when we close the switch? Being that there is no longer a load at the end of the wires. The wave will travel as water molecules bump into each other. then the second car moves . Would there be no current at all? (Figure¡ref¿02356.
. .3
Characteristic impedance
Suppose. . wallshaped object is suddenly moved horizontally along the surface of water.
.5: Wave motion in water..
Figure 14. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE
487
Object
water surface water molecule
wave
wave
wave
Figure 14... Switch Battery ..14.6: Driving an inﬁnite transmission line.
infinite length .3.
Voltage applied between two conductors creates an electric ﬁeld between those conductors. TRANSMISSION LINES
Despite being able to avoid wire resistance through the use of superconductors in this “thought experiment. preventing the current from ever reaching an inﬁnite magnitude: Because the electrons in the two wires transfer motion to and from each other at nearly the speed of light.eps¡x1¿. Since the wires are inﬁnitely long. This voltage drop limits the voltage rateofchange across the distributed capacitance. but now constitute a circuit component in themselves. like this: (Figures¡ref¿02360. when the switch is closed.9) and this storage of energy results in an opposition to change in current. behaving as a constant load. and their distributed inductance will never allow unlimited charging current.
Figure 14. In other words. ¡ref¿02361. Switch Battery .eps¡x1¿. ¡ref¿02362.488
CHAPTER 14.. and in so doing drops voltage according to the inductance equation e = L(di/dt).. According to the equation. ¡ref¿02363.eps¡x1¿) The end result of these interactions is a constant current of limited magnitude through the battery source.eps¡x1¿. (Figure 14. The reaction of a capacitance against changes in voltage is described by the equation i = C(de/dt). the “wave front” of voltage and current change will propagate down the length of the wires at that same velocity.. the capacitance between conductors will react against the sudden voltage increase by charging up and drawing current from the source. and this storage of energy results in an opposition to change in voltage. their distributed capacitance will never fully charge to the source voltage. Each wire develops a magnetic ﬁeld as it carries charging current for the capacitance between the wires.7: Equivalent circuit showing stray capacitance between conductors. the current drawn by a pair of parallel wires will not be inﬁnite.. this pair of wires will draw current from the source so long as the switch is closed. Thus. Any pair of conductors separated by an insulating medium creates capacitance between those conductors: (Figure¡ref¿02359.8) Remember that current through any conductor develops a magnetic ﬁeld of proportional magnitude. an instant rise in applied voltage (as produced by perfect switch closure) gives rise to an inﬁnite charging current.
.eps¡x1¿)
infinite length . (Figure 14. Energy is stored in this magnetic ﬁeld. No longer are the wires merely conductors of electrical current and carriers of voltage. respectively. However. Energy is stored in this electric ﬁeld. which tells us that current will be drawn proportional to the voltage’s rate of change over time. because there exists series impedance along the wires due to inductance. resulting in the distributed capacitance and inductance progressively charging to full voltage and current.” we cannot eliminate capacitance along the wires’ lengths.
Switch Battery .......3.
.8: Equivalent circuit showing stray capacitance and inductance.
.. Switch electric field Battery .
Figure 14. magnetic field
Figure 14.
infinite length .
Figure 14.10: Uncharged transmission line...
. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE
489
infinite length ...9: Voltage charges capacitance.. current charges inductance.14.
+ + + + . TRANSMISSION LINES
Switch closes! ..12: Continue wave propagation.. + + + + + + . + + .
...
.
Speed of light (approximately)
Figure 14.490
CHAPTER 14.
Figure 14...
Figure 14....
.13: Propagate at speed of light..11: Begin wave propagation...
3. and it is ﬁxed by the geometry of the two conductors. the transmission line’s response to applied voltage is resistive rather than reactive. but rather a transmission line. CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE
491
with unique characteristics. As a constant load. Z0 = Characteristic impedance of line d1 = Inside diameter of outer conductor d2 = Outside diameter of inner conductor k = Relative permittivity of insulation between conductors
In both equations. identical units of measurement must be used in both terms of the fraction. despite being comprised purely of inductance and capacitance (assuming superconducting wires with zero resistance). We can say this because there is no difference from the battery’s perspective between a resistor eternally dissipating energy and an inﬁnite transmission line eternally absorbing energy.14. No longer are the two wires merely a pair of conductors. For a parallelwire line with air insulation. If the insulating material is other than air (or a vacuum). both the characteristic impedance
. the characteristic impedance may be calculated as such:
d
r
d Z0 = 276 log r k Where. Z0 = Characteristic impedance of line d = Distance between conductor centers r = Conductor radius k = Relative permittivity of insulation between conductors
If the transmission line is coaxial in construction. the characteristic impedance follows a different equation:
d1
d2
d Z0 = 138 log 1 d2 k Where. The impedance (resistance) of this line in ohms is called the characteristic impedance.
. bringing the two conductors closer together increases the parallel capacitance and decreases the series inductance.. Barring any dissipative effects such as dielectric “leakage” and conductor resistance..492
CHAPTER 14.. Conversely. It can be seen in either of the ﬁrst two equations that a transmission line’s characteristic impedance (Z0 ) increases as the conductor spacing increases. the distributed capacitance will decrease (greater spacing between capacitor “plates”).. and it refers to the equivalent resistance of a transmission line if it were inﬁnitely long.. deﬁned as the ratio of a material’s electric ﬁeld permittivity to that of a pure vacuum.. owing to distributed capacitance and inductance as the voltage and current “waves” propagate along its length at a propagation velocity equal to some large fraction of light speed. Velocity factor is purely a factor of the insulating material’s relative permittivity (otherwise known as its dielectric constant).. The ratio of a transmission line’s true propagation velocity and the speed of light in a vacuum is called the velocity factor of that line.. and the distributed inductance will increase (less cancellation of the two opposing magnetic ﬁelds).. The velocity factor of any cable type – coaxial or otherwise – may be calculated quite simply by the following formula:
++++++++++++++++++++++ Velocity of wave propagation .. which by deﬁnition is a greater impedance.. the characteristic impedance of a transmission line is equal to the square root of the ratio of the line’s inductance per unit length divided by the line’s capacitance per unit length:
v = c
1 k
Z0 = Where.. Both changes result in a larger current drawn for a given applied voltage. equating to a lesser impedance... If the conductors are moved away from each other. v = Velocity of wave propagation c = Velocity of light in a vacuum k = Relative permittivity of insulation between conductors
Characteristic impedance is also known as natural impedance..Velocity factor = Where....
L C
Z0 = Characteristic impedance of line L = Inductance per unit length of line C = Capacitance per unit length of line
. TRANSMISSION LINES
and the propagation velocity will be affected.. Less parallel capacitance and more series inductance results in a smaller current drawn by the line for any given amount of applied voltage.
and would exist even if the dielectric were perfect (inﬁnite parallel resistance) and the wires superconducting (zero series resistance). • If a DC voltage is applied to one end of an inﬁnitely long transmission line. it is equal to the reciprocal (1/x) of the square root of the relative permittivity of the cable’s insulation. left unconnected – the current “wave” propagating down the line’s length will have to stop at the end. and so on until the last rail car stops. All transmission lines have some ﬁnite length. the line will draw a current proportional to the surge voltage magnitude divided by the line’s surge impedance (I=E/Z). since electrons cannot ﬂow where there is no continuing path. which causes the next rail car to stop as soon as the next coupling’s slack is taken up. but not indeﬁnitely.
14. FINITELENGTH TRANSMISSION LINES
• REVIEW:
493
• A transmission line is a pair of parallel conductors exhibiting certain characteristics due to distributed capacitance and inductance along its length.80 for typical twowire lines and coaxial cables.4
Finitelength transmission lines
A transmission line of inﬁnite length is an interesting abstraction. This abrupt cessation of current at the line’s end causes a “pileup” to occur along the length of the transmission line. If the end of a transmission line is opencircuited – that is. If a transient voltage (a “surge”) is applied to the end of a transmission line. and so it measured as “open” (inﬁnite resistance). but physically impossible.66 and 0. is surge impedance. The train does not come to a halt together. which I like for its descriptive value. • When a voltage is suddenly applied to one end of a transmission line. For any cable type. the characteristic impedance rating of a transmission line is important even when dealing with limited lengths. and as such do not behave precisely the same as an inﬁnite line. If that piece of 50 Ω “RG58/U” cable I measured with an ohmmeter years ago had been inﬁnitely long.eps¡x1¿)
.4. Characteristic impedance is purely a function of the capacitance and inductance distributed along the line’s length. it will come to a stop. Values range between 0. the line will draw current from the DC source as though it were a constant resistance. as the electrons successively ﬁnd no place to go. This is entirely different from leakage resistance of the dielectric separating the two conductors. and the metallic resistance of the wires themselves. This simple. An older term for characteristic impedance. • Velocity factor is a fractional value relating a transmission line’s propagation speed to the speed of light in a vacuum. But it was not inﬁnite in length. Imagine a train traveling down the track with slack between the rail car couplings: if the lead car suddenly crashes into an immovable barricade. both a voltage “wave” and a current “wave” propagate along the line at nearly light speed. Ohm’s Law relationship between current and voltage will hold true for a limited period of time. I actually would have been able to measure 50 Ω worth of resistance between the inner and outer conductors. causing the one behind it to come to a stop as soon as the ﬁrst coupling slack is taken up. • The characteristic impedance (Z0 ) of a transmission line is the resistance it would exhibit if it were inﬁnite in length. but rather in sequence from ﬁrst car to last: (Figure¡ref¿02364.14. Nonetheless.
494
CHAPTER 14. The basic principle is identical to that of sonar rangeﬁnding: generating a sound pulse and measuring the time it takes for the echo to return. and may be used for the purpose of determining a cable’s length. because voltage cannot exist between two electrically common points.14: Reﬂected wave.760 miles per second). When this electron “pileup” propagates back to the battery. . . current at the battery ceases. . . or 16. Highspeed measurement instruments are able to detect this transit time from source to lineend and back to source again. and the line acts as a simple open circuit. All this happens very quickly for transmission lines of reasonable length. This technique may also be used for determining the presence and location of a break in one or both of the cable’s conductors. and then the last car stops!
Figure 14. For the current signal to reach the line’s end and “reﬂect” back to the source. or 122. The propagation of a signal from loadend to sourceend (such as what happened in this example with current encountering the end of an opencircuited transmission line) is called a reﬂected wave. then the second car stops . TRANSMISSION LINES
First car stops
. it takes only 1/122.292 µs. since a current will “reﬂect” off the wire break just as it will off the end of an opencircuited cable. For a milelong cable with a velocity factor of 0. it is reﬂected back to the source. A signal propagating from the sourceend of a transmission line to the loadend is called an incident wave.
. Instruments designed for such purposes are called timedomain reﬂectometers (TDRs). When this reﬂected wave reaches
.760 of a second (8. .146 microseconds) for a signal to travel from one end to the other. A similar phenomenon takes place if the end of a transmission line is shortcircuited: when the voltage wavefront reaches the end of the line. and so an ohmmeter measurement of the line never reveals the brief time period where the line actually behaves as a resistor.66 (signal propagation velocity is 66% of light speed. the roundtrip time is twice this ﬁgure. .
this happens as quickly as the signal can propagate roundtrip down and up the transmission line at whatever velocity allowed by the dielectric material between the line’s conductors.14. Again. A simple experiment illustrates the phenomenon of wave reﬂection in transmission lines. FINITELENGTH TRANSMISSION LINES
495
the source.4. Take a length of rope by one end and “whip” it with a rapid upanddown motion of the wrist. This is analogous to a long transmission line with internal loss: the signal steadily grows weaker as it propagates down the line’s length. A wave may be seen traveling down the rope’s length until it dissipates entirely due to friction: (Figure¡ref¿02365.15: Lossy transmission line. However.eps¡x1¿)
wave
wave
wave
Figure 14. if the far end of the rope is secured to a solid object at a point prior to the incident wave’s total
. the source sees the entire transmission line as a shortcircuit. never reﬂecting back to the source.
inﬁnitelength transmission line example. (Figure 14. Usually. the purpose of a transmission line is to convey electrical energy from one point to another. a second wave will be reﬂected back to your hand: (Figure¡ref¿02366. a 50 Ω coaxial cable that is either opencircuited or shortcircuited will reﬂect all of the incident energy back to the source. as are reﬂected waves. A transmission line of 50 Ω characteristic impedance and inﬁnite length behaves exactly like a 50 Ω resistance as measured from one end. if a 50 Ω resistor is connected at the end of the cable. However.16: Reﬂected wave. there will be no reﬂected energy. the ideal situation would be for all of the original signal energy to travel from the source to the load. This makes perfect sense if we return to our hypothetical. and not to power some signiﬁcant load device. Even if the signals are intended for information only. TRANSMISSION LINES
dissipation. and then be completely absorbed or dissipated by the load for maximum signaltonoise ratio. “loss” along the length of a transmission line is undesirable. For example.17) If we cut this line to
.eps¡x1¿)
wave
wave
wave
wave
Figure 14. since reﬂected energy is energy not delivered to the end device. Reﬂections may be eliminated from the transmission line if the load’s impedance exactly equals the characteristic (“surge”) impedance of the line. all signal energy being dissipated by the resistor.496
CHAPTER 14. Thus.
but then behave like an open. it will be partial. (Figure 14. because a resistor has the ability to eternally dissipate energy in the same way a transmission line of inﬁnite length is able to eternally absorb energy.
. depending on what condition we leave the cut end of the line: open (Figure 14.or a shortcircuit. indeﬁnitely: the same as if it were of inﬁnite length again: (Figure 14.4.18: One mile transmission.17: Inﬁnite transmission line looks like resistor.. FINITELENGTH TRANSMISSION LINES
497
some ﬁnite length. In essence. Though the energy reﬂection will not be total with a terminating impedance of slight mismatch. the line will once again behave as a 50 Ω resistor.292 µs. 50 Ω coaxial cable
Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Exactly like a 50 Ω resistor
Figure 14. a terminating resistor matching the natural impedance of the transmission line makes the line “appear” inﬁnitely long from the perspective of the source..20)
Switch Battery
infinite length .
Switch Battery
1 mile open 50 Ω coaxial cable Velocity factor = 0. Reﬂected waves will also manifest if the terminating resistance isn’t precisely equal to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. then like an open (infinite resistance)
Figure 14.18) or shorted.66
Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Like a 50 Ω resistor for 16. it will behave as a 50 Ω resistor to a constant source of DC voltage for a brief time.14. not just if the line is left unconnected (open) or jumpered (shorted). if we terminate the line with a 50 Ω resistor.19) However. This happens whether or not the terminating resistance is greater or less than the line’s characteristic impedance.
then like a short (zero resistance)
Figure 14.
.498
CHAPTER 14.66
Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Like a 50 Ω resistor for 16.19: Shorted transmission line.66
50 Ω
Cable’s behavior from perspective of battery: Exactly like a 50 Ω resistor
Figure 14.292 µs.
Switch Battery
1 mile 50 Ω coaxial cable Velocity factor = 0. TRANSMISSION LINES
Switch Battery
1 mile shorted 50 Ω coaxial cable Velocity factor = 0.20: Line terminated in characteristic impedance.
as compared to the period of the waveforms or pulses of the signiﬁcant signals in the circuit. due to the temporarily resistive behavior of any length transmission line. at least partially. This includes the use of coaxial cables in instrument circuits. This type of reﬂection may be particularly troublesome. of course. • REVIEW: • Characteristic impedance is also known as surge impedance. • Reﬂected waves will also appear in transmission lines terminated by resistors not precisely matching the characteristic impedance. After that time (a brief 16.14. As we saw in the last section.292 µs for the milelong coaxial cable of the last example).5. A signal traveling on a transmission line from source to load is called an incident wave. and “shorted” when its end is shortcircuited.
. as it makes it appear that the source has transmitted another pulse.5
“Long” and “short” transmission lines
In DC and lowfrequency AC circuits. whatever that may be. the characteristic impedance of parallel wires is usually ignored. a signal “bounced” off the end of a transmission line. an openended cable simply reads “open” when measured with an ohmmeter. often employed to protect weak voltage signals from being corrupted by induced “noise” caused by stray electric and magnetic ﬁelds. if a transmission line is connected to a DC voltage source. This eliminates all signal reﬂections. the source “sees” only the terminating impedance. traveling from load to source. • A reﬂected wave may become rereﬂected off the sourceend of a transmission line if the source’s internal impedance does not match the line’s characteristic impedance. is called a reﬂected wave. A reﬂected wave returning back to the source will be dissipated entirely if the source impedance matches the line’s. This rereﬂected wave will appear. • A ﬁnitelength transmission line will appear to a DC voltage source as a constant resistance for some short time. like another pulse signal transmitted from the source. Therefore. • A transient (“surge”) signal applied to one end of an openended or shortcircuited transmission line will “reﬂect” off the far end of the line as a secondary wave. if the source’s internal impedance (Thevenin equivalent impedance) is not exactly equal to the line’s characteristic impedance. “LONG” AND “SHORT” TRANSMISSION LINES
499
Rereﬂections of a reﬂected wave may also occur at the source end of a transmission line. it will behave as a resistor equal in value to the line’s characteristic impedance only for as long as it takes the incident pulse to reach the end of the line and return as a reﬂected pulse. • A ﬁnitelength transmission line may be made to appear inﬁnite in length if terminated by a resistor of equal value to the line’s characteristic impedance. but will be reﬂected back toward the line end like another incident wave. This is due to the relatively short timespans in which reﬂections take place in the line.
14. if the source impedance does not match the line. back to the source. then as whatever impedance the line is terminated with.
If a “long” line is considered to be one at least 1/4 wavelength in length. By contrast. we can say that voltage along all respective points on a lowfrequency. A “long” line is generally considered to be one where the source’s signal waveform completes at least a quartercycle (90o of “rotation”) before the incident signal reaches line’s end. this equates to a distance of 3100 miles that a voltage or current signal will propagate in that time.66 ms. To put this into perspective. TRANSMISSION LINES
If the circuit in question handles lowfrequency AC power. At light speed (186. and the distance less by the same factor. Velocity of propagation is usually the speed of light when calculating signal wavelength in open air or in a vacuum. such short time delays introduced by a transmission line between when the AC source outputs a voltage peak and when the source “sees” that peak loaded by the terminating impedance (roundtrip time for the incident wave to reach the line’s end and reﬂect back to the source) are of little consequence.000 m/s). power lines would have to exceed 775 miles in length before the effects of propagation time became signiﬁcant. Even though we know that signal magnitudes along the line’s length are not equal at any given time due to signal propagation at (nearly) the speed of light. in whatever unit of length used in the velocity ﬁgure (if miles per second. but will be less if the transmission line has a velocity factor less than 1. we can say that the transmission lines in question are electrically short. the distance is still a very long 2046 miles! Whatever distance we calculate for a given frequency is called the wavelength of the signal. For all practical purposes.
v f
λ = Wavelength v = Velocity of propagation f = Frequency of signal
The lowercase Greek letter “lambda” (λ) represents wavelength. An AC waveform with a frequency of 60 Hz completes one cycle in 16. But even if we used the coaxial cable’s velocity factor from the last example (0. we need to express the distance traveled by a voltage or current signal along a transmission line in relation to its source frequency. Up until this chapter in the Lessons In Electric Circuits book series. Cables connecting an audio ampliﬁer to speakers would have to be over 4. twoconductor line are equal and inphase with each other at any given point in time.000 miles per second. the propagation velocity will be less than 186. then wavelength in meters). the actual phase difference between startofline and endofline signals is negligible. an electrically long line is one where the propagation time is a large fraction or even a multiple of the signal period. then wavelength in miles.66).” For a 60 Hz AC power system.500
CHAPTER 14. because their propagation effects are much quicker than the periods of the conducted signals. all connecting lines were assumed to be electrically short.65 miles in length before line reﬂections would signiﬁcantly impact a 10 kHz
. you can see why all connecting lines in the circuits discussed thusfar have been assumed “short. A simple formula for calculating wavelength is as follows:
λ= Where. In these cases. because linelength propagations occur within a very small fraction of the AC waveform’s period. if meters per second. If the velocity factor of the transmission line is less than 1.
surely the ultimate example of a “long” transmission line: no matter what kind of load we connect to one end of this line. When an electrical source is connected to a load via a “short” transmission line. an electrically “long” line acts as the principal component in the circuit. We see this when testing a coaxial cable with an ohmmeter: the cable reads “open” from center conductor to outer conductor if the cable end is left unterminated. it is “electrically short” for this application. rendering the load completely irrelevant. the line’s own characteristic impedance dominates over load impedance in determining circuit behavior. If we use a coaxial cable to conduct a DC voltage or current to a load. the load’s impedance dominates the circuit. and we only register the terminating (load) impedance.62 feet. transmission line length is far from trivial. In this condition of perfect impedance matching.8202 feet. Consider our hypothetical 50 Ω cable of inﬁnite length. though. In this scenario. Consider a 100 MHz radio signal: its wavelength is a mere 9. Note how the electrical “shortness” of a cable is relative to the application: in a DC circuit where voltage and current values change slowly. it immediately thereafter behaves as a simple “open circuit:” the impedance of the line’s open end. With a source connected to one end of the cable and a load to the other. Though the line acts as a resistor for a very brief period of time after the meter is connected (about 50 Ω for an RG58/U cable). nearly any physical length of cable would be considered “short” from the standpoint of characteristic impedance and reﬂected waves. especially when line length happens to match speciﬁc fractions or multiples of signal wavelength. perfect matching of line and load impedances is not always practical or possible. the source (connected to the other end) will only see 50 Ω of impedance. regardless of line length.5. “LONG” AND “SHORT” TRANSMISSION LINES
501
audio signal! When dealing with radiofrequency systems.
. line length only affects the amount of time delay from signal departure at the source to signal arrival at the load. However. Since the combined response time of an ohmmeter and the human being using it greatly exceeds the roundtrip propagation time up and down the cable. even at the full propagation velocity of light (186. its own characteristic impedance is of little consequence to the circuit’s behavior. A transmission line carrying this signal would not have to be more than about 21/2 feet in length to be considered “long!” With a cable velocity factor of 0. In other words. The next section discusses the effects of “long” transmission lines. If the load impedance is equal to the line impedance. This is increasingly true the longer the transmission line is. It is the extreme speed of the propagated signal that makes us unable to detect the cable’s 50 Ω transient impedance with an ohmmeter. current drawn from the source is a function primarily of the line and not the load. the cable is considered “electrically short” and its impedance is irrelevant to circuit function. and will have the exact same amount of current drawn from it. Taking the same length of cable.000 m/s). this critical length shrinks to 1. then any signal source connected to the other end of the line will “see” the exact same impedance. though. and no component in the circuit is capable of measuring or responding quickly enough to “notice” a reﬂected wave. because the line’s inﬁnite length prevents the signal from ever reaching the end where the load is connected. The most effective way to minimize the impact of transmission line length on circuit behavior is to match the line’s characteristic impedance to the load impedance.14. when the line is short. line impedance exclusively deﬁnes circuit behavior. its own characteristics overshadowing the load’s. and using it to conduct a highfrequency AC signal could result in a vastly different assessment of that cable’s “shortness!” When a source is connected to a load via a “long” transmission line. This is to say.66.
502 • REVIEW:
CHAPTER 14. in fact.
14. but does not propagate down the cable’s length like the incident or reﬂected waveforms causing it. the line is considered electrically long. these reﬂections will mix with more of the oncoming incident waveform to produce stationary waveforms called standing waves. The following illustration shows how a triangleshaped incident waveform turns into a mirrorimage reﬂection upon reaching the line’s unterminated end. reﬂections will occur. for simplicity’s sake. The incident wave is shown traveling from left to right. “v” is the propagation velocity. while the reﬂected wave travels from right to left: (Figure 14. “standing” wave. being the representative sum of incident and reﬂected voltage waves. The source effectively sees nothing but the load’s impedance.6
Standing waves and resonance
Whenever there is a mismatch of impedance between transmission line and load. • A signal’s wavelength is the physical distance it will propagate in the timespan of one period. thick line rather than a pair of wires. The ultimate example of this is a transmission line of inﬁnite length: since the signal will never reach the load impedance.21) If we add the two waveforms together. The transmission line in this illustrative sequence is shown as a single. stationary waveform is created along the line’s length: (Figure 14. the source only “sees” the cable’s characteristic impedance. barring any resistive losses in the transmission line. • A ruleofthumb for transmission line “shortness” is that the line must be at least 1/4 wavelength before it is considered “long. and “f ” is the signal frequency. Note the dots along the line length marking the “zero” points of the standing wave
. the line’s own characteristic impedance dominates circuit behavior. TRANSMISSION LINES
• Coaxial cabling is sometimes used in DC and lowfrequency AC circuits as well as in highfrequency circuits. Wavelength is calculated by the formula λ=v/f. where “λ” is the wavelength.22) This third. there are no reﬂected waves and thus no problems with line length. for the excellent immunity to induced “noise” that it provides for signals. we ﬁnd that a third. the terminating (load) impedance dominates circuit behavior. Conversely. • In a circuit with a “long” line. • When the period of a transmitted voltage or current signal greatly exceeds the propagation time for a transmission line. the line is considered electrically short. • When a transmission line is terminated by a load precisely matching its impedance. when the propagation time is a large fraction or multiple of the signal’s period. It oscillates in instantaneous magnitude.” • In a circuit with a “short” line. represents the only voltage along the line. If the incident signal is a continuous AC waveform.
.14.
.6. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
503
Direction of propagation Source . Unterminated line
Incident wave Reflected wave Time Incident wave Reflected wave
Figure 14.21: Incident wave reﬂects off end of unterminated transmission line..
.22: The sum of the incident and reﬂected waves is a stationary wave.504
CHAPTER 14. Unterminated line
Incident wave Reflected wave Time Incident wave Reflected wave
Figure 14.
.. TRANSMISSION LINES
Direction of propagation Source .
this time. and tied down at the other (only one halfcycle of hand motion shown.6. Note how there is more than one wavelength suitable for producing standing waves of
. while the free end (if there is any) must be an antinode. and how those points never change position: (Figure 14. Standing waves are quite abundant in the physical world.
Unterminated line
Time
Figure 14. The major difference between a plucked string and a shaken string is that the plucked string supplies its own “correct” frequency of vibration to maximize the standingwave effect: (Figure 14. the anchored end of a vibrating string must be a node. Plucked strings exhibit the same “standing wave” behavior. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
505
(where the incident and reﬂected waves cancel each other). The effect is most pronounced when the free end is shaken at just the right frequency. Consider a string or rope.24) Both the nodes (points of little or no vibration) and the antinodes (points of maximum vibration) remain ﬁxed along the length of the string or rope. By analogy. with “nodes” of maximum and minimum vibration along their length.25) Wind blowing across an openended tube also produces standing waves..23: The standing wave does not propgate along the transmission line. shaken at one end. the waves are vibrations of air molecules (sound) within the tube rather than vibrations of a solid object.23)
Source
. while an open tube end must be an antinode.14. moving downward): (Figure 14.26) A closed tube end must be a wave node. Whether the standing wave terminates in a node (minimum amplitude) or an antinode (maximum amplitude) depends on whether the other end of the tube is open or closed: (Figure 14..
Plucked string
Figure 14.506
CHAPTER 14. TRANSMISSION LINES
Figure 14.
.24: Standing waves on a rope.25: Standing waves on a plucked string.
6.14.26: Standing sound waves in open ended tubes. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
507
Standing sound waves in openended tubes 1/4 wave 1/2 wave
3/4 wave
1 wave
5/4 waves
3/2 waves
7/4 waves
2 waves
9/4 waves
5/2 waves
Figure 14.
.
and force these waves to possess nodes and antinodes according to the type of termination impedance at the load end.66.27: Harmonics (overtones) in open ended pipes The actual frequencies (measured in Hertz) for any of these harmonics or overtones depends on the physical length of the tube and the waves’ propagation velocity. Another way of saying this is that there are multiple resonant frequencies for any system supporting standing waves.508
CHAPTER 14. they also exhibit resonance at frequencies determined by physical length and propagation velocity. This is true for all standingwave systems: standing waves will resonate with the system for any frequency (wavelength) correlating to the node/antinode points of the system. is a bit more complex than resonance of strings or of air in tubes. it would be about 648 feet long. transmission line. The sequential progression of harmonics from one resonant frequency to the next deﬁnes the overtone frequencies for the system: (Figure 14. though. and load. we’ll specify the transmission line (t1) with a 75 Ω characteristic impedance (z0=75) and a propagation delay of 1 microsecond (td=1u). All components have an impedance of 75 Ω: (Figure 14. This is a convenient method for expressing the physical length of a transmission line: the amount of time it takes a wave to propagate down its entire length. which is the speed of sound in air. let’s examine a perfectly matched source. because we must consider both voltage waves and current waves. To begin. Since 1 µs is the period of a
. All higher frequencies are integermultiples of the lowest (fundamental) frequency for the system. Transmission line resonance.28) Using SPICE to simulate the circuit. If this were a real 75 Ω cable – perhaps a type “RG59B/U” coaxial cable. Because transmission lines support standing waves. TRANSMISSION LINES
vibrating air within a tube that precisely match the tube’s end points. This complexity is made easier to understand by way of computer simulation.27)
1/4 wave 1st harmonic 3/4 wave 3rd harmonic 5/4 waves 5th harmonic 7/4 waves 7th harmonic 9/4 waves 9th harmonic Fundamental 1/2 wave 1st harmonic 1 wave 2nd harmonic 3/2 waves 3rd harmonic 2 waves 4th harmonic 5/2 waves 5th harmonic
1st overtone
2nd overtone
3rd overtone
4th overtone
Figure 14. the type commonly used for cable television distribution – with a velocity factor of 0.
31) Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 999meg . we see that the source voltage – shown as vm(1) (voltage magnitude between node 1 and the implied ground point of node 0) on the graphic plot – registers a steady 1 volt. and therefore no resonant “peaks” or “valleys” in the Bode plot. let’s change the load impedance to 999 MΩ.29) In a system where all impedances are perfectly matched.end Running this simulation and plotting the source impedance drop (as an indication of current). while every other voltage registers a steady 0. there can be no standing waves. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
509
1 Esource 0
Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0
3 Rload 0 75 Ω
Figure 14. both the supply voltage vm(1) and the line’s loadend voltage vm(3) remain steady at 1 volt. (Figure 14. Here is the SPICE netlist for the circuit shown above: Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 75 . to see how the system reacts when exposed to signals ranging from DC to 1 wavelength. The other voltages dip and peak at different frequencies along the sweep range of 1
. I’ll choose to sweep the frequency of the AC source from (nearly) zero to that ﬁgure. the line’s sourceend voltage.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis .5 volts: (Figure 14.end Here.28: Perfectly matched transmission line.30) We should deﬁnitely see some reﬂections on the line now as the frequency is swept from 1 mHz to 1 MHz: (Figure 14. and the load voltage. the source voltage.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . 1 MHz signal. to simulate an openended transmission line.6. Now.14.
TRANSMISSION LINES
Figure 14.510
CHAPTER 14.29: No resonances on a matched transmission line.
1 Esource 0
Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0
3 Rload 999 MΩ (open) 0
Figure 14.30: Open ended transmission line.
.
and 1 MHz. 750 kHz. With a source frequency of 250 kHz. the signal is practically DC. the line’s length is precisely right for
. we see zero voltage and maximum current at the sourceend of the transmission line. At 250 kHz.6.32: At f=0: input: V=1. and full source voltage present at the sourceend of the transmission line (voltage measured between node 2 and node 0: vm(2)).31: Resonances on open transmission line. There are ﬁve points of interest along the horizontal axis of the analysis: 0 Hz. and the circuit behaves much as it would given a 1volt DC battery source.33) You might be wondering.2)). (Figure 14. mHz to 1 MHz. 500 kHz. There is no circuit current. I=0. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
511
Figure 14. At 0 Hz (actually 1 mHz).32)
0V=0A Zsource 75 Ω Esource 1V Transmission line (75 Ω) 1V
Figure 14. end: V=1. as indicated by zero voltage drop across the source impedance (Zsource : vm(1. We will investigate each one with regard to voltage and current at different points of the circuit. I=0. 250 kHz. how can this be? How can we get full source voltage at the line’s open end while there is zero voltage at its entrance? The answer is found in the paradox of the standing wave. yet still full voltage at the loadend: (Figure 14.14.
there will be zero voltage (node) and maximum current (antinode). even though the other end of the line is opencircuited: (Figure 14.35) At 750 kHz. What follows is the SPICE simulation (circuit Figure 14. although the node and antinode assignments for voltage and current are reversed: at the shorted end of the line. there can be no current. At 500 kHz.33: At f=250 KHz: input: V=0.eps¡x1¿)
Zero E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14. the source “sees” an open circuit at the point where it connects to the transmission line. the plot looks a lot like it was at 250 kHz: zero sourceend voltage (vm(2)) and maximum current (vm(1. TRANSMISSION LINES
1 V = 13. the loadend of an opencircuited transmission line is a current node (zero point) and a voltage antinode (maximum amplitude): (Figure¡ref¿02383.33 mA Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω 0V Transmission line (75 Ω) 1V
Figure 14. I=13. a shortcircuited transmission line generates standing waves.512
CHAPTER 14.37) In a similar fashion. (Figure 14.33 mA.eps¡x1¿) . end: V=1 I=0. and here we see another point in the analysis where the source current drops off to nothing and the sourceend voltage of the transmission line rises again to full voltage: (Figure 14.39 at resonances) at all the interesting frequencies: 0 Hz (Figure¡ref¿02388. In essence.34: Open end of transmission line shows current node. At this point. Therefore. This is due to 3/4 of a wave poised along the transmission line. 250 kHz
.36) When the supply frequency sweeps up to 1 MHz. but there will be voltage.38 and illustrations of what happens (Figure 14. a full standing wave exists on the transmission line. voltage antinode at open end.2)). exactly onehalf of a standing wave rests on the transmission line. With the line’s load end opencircuited. the sourceend of the line experiences the same voltage and current amplitudes as the loadend: full voltage and zero current. resulting in the source “seeing” a shortcircuit where it connects to the transmission line. 1/4 wavelength to ﬁt from end to end.
6.
Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω Maximum E
Zero I Zero I Maximum I Maximum I
Zero I
Figure 14.14.
Zero E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω
Maximum E Zero E Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
513
Maximum E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω
Zero E
Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I Zero I
Figure 14.37: Double standing waves on full wave open transmission line.
.35: Full standing wave on half wave open transmission line.36: 1 1/2 standing waves on 3/4 wave open transmission line.
and 1 MHz (Figure¡ref¿02391.38: Shorted transmission line.eps¡x1¿).38)
1 Esource 0
Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0
3 Rload 0 1 µΩ (shorted)
Figure 14.514
CHAPTER 14.end
Figure 14.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . The shortcircuit jumper is simulated by a 1 µΩ load impedance: (Figure 14.39: Resonances on shorted transmission line
. TRANSMISSION LINES
(Figure 14.eps¡x1¿).
Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 1u . 500 kHz (Figure¡ref¿02389.40).eps¡x1¿). 750 kHz (Figure¡ref¿02390.
41: Half wave standing wave pattern on 1/4 wave shorted transmission line. I=13.
Zero E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω
Maximum E
Zero E
Maximum I Zero I
Maximum I
Figure 14.42: Full wave standing wave pattern on half wave shorted transmission line. end: V=0.
Maximum E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω
Zero E
Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14. I=13.33 mA Zsource Esource 0 Hz 75 Ω 0V Transmission line (75 Ω) 0V
Figure 14.6.40: At f=0 Hz: input: V=0.33 mA.14.33 mA.
. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
515
1 V = 13.
Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω
Maximum I Zero I Zero I Maximum I
Maximum I
Figure 14.44: Double standing waves on full wave shorted transmission line.
.516
CHAPTER 14.43: 1 1/2 standing wavepattern on 3/4 wave shorted transmission line. TRANSMISSION LINES
Maximum E Zero E Maximum E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω Zero E
Zero I Maximum I Zero I
Maximum I
Figure 14.
end At all frequencies.
. as it should. remains steady at 1 volt.50). Figure 14. the energy reﬂection is total: 100% of the incident wave reaching the line’s end gets reﬂected back toward the source.47.end If we run another SPICE analysis. Figure 14. If. the reﬂections will be less intense. we can discover exactly what is happening at all the interesting frequencies: (DC. this time printing numerical results rather than plotting them. v(1). (Figure 14. the source voltage. as will be the difference between minimum and maximum values of voltage and current along the line.6.47.48. however.ac lin 101 1m 1meg * Using ‘‘Nutmeg’’ program to plot analysis . Suppose we were to terminate our example line with a 100 Ω resistor instead of a 75 Ω resistor. but at a lesser voltage: 0. However.print ac v(1. Figure 14. 750 kHz.45) Examine the results of the corresponding SPICE analysis to see the effects of impedance mismatch at different source frequencies: (Figure 14.5714 volts. an opencircuited line and a shortcircuited line.14.46)
1 Esource 0
Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line (75 Ω) 0
3 Rload 0 100 Ω
Figure 14. and 1 MHz. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
517
In both these circuit examples. The load voltage. Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 100 . 250 kHz. the transmission line is terminated in some impedance other than an open or a short. both the line input voltage (v(2)) and the voltage dropped across the source’s 75 Ω impedance (v(1.ac lin 5 1m 1meg . Figure 14.2) v(1) v(2) v(3) .2).45: Transmission line terminated in a mismatch Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=75 td=1u rload 3 0 100 . v(3). indicating current drawn from the source) vary with frequency. also remains steady.49. 500 kHz. Figure 14.
000E+00 1.286E01 5.57.286E01 5.000E+00
v(2) 5.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.715 mA Zsource Esource 0 Hz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.714E01 5. I=5.
.5714.714E01 4.000E+00 1.714E01 4.000E+00 1.286E01
v(1) 1.000E+06
v(1.714E01 5.714E01 4.4286 V = 5.714E01 5.714E01
v(3) 5.714E01 4.715 mA.14.2) 4.518
CHAPTER 14.286E01 5. TRANSMISSION LINES
Figure 14.47: At f=0 Hz: input: V=0. end: V=0.714E01
0.000E+00 1.500E+05 1.000E+05 7.500E+05 5. I=5.715 mA.000E03 2.286E01 5.46: Weak resonances on a mismatched transmission line
freq 1.5714 V 0.714E01 5.
4286.5714.4286 V 0.49: At f=500 KHz: input: V=0.619 mA.
.5714 V 0.5714.619 mA.
0. I=7. end: V=5.50: At f=750 KHz: input: V=0.715 mA Zsource Esource 500 kHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.619 mA Zsource Esource 250 kHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.4286 V 0.714.5715 mA. I=7.4286 V = 5. I=7. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
519
0.14.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.
0.4286 V = 5. I=5.715 mA.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.5714 V = 7. end: V=0.4286.5714 V = 7. I=0. I=7.715 mA Zsource Esource 1 MHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.48: At f=250 KHz: input: V=0. I=5.5714.6.619 mA. I=5. end: V=0.5714.5714.51: At f=1 MHz: input: V=0.
0.715 mA.715 mA. end: V=0.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.619 mA Zsource Esource 750 kHz Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.619 mA.5714 V 100 Ω
Figure 14.5714 V 0.
and likewise for current. respectively. When a line is terminated by an open or a short. copper tubes with ceramic insulator caps at
. The large. a transmission line with a high SWR tends to act as an antenna.333. One way of expressing the severity of standing waves is as a ratio of maximum amplitude (antinode) to minimum amplitude (node).48 and 750 kHz. This is usually undesirable. but we still have points of “minimum” and “maximum” voltage.
SWR =
Emaximum Eminimum
=
Imaximum Iminimum
SWR =
Zload Z0
or
Z0 Zload
which ever is greater
A perfectly terminated transmission line will have an SWR of 1. for the very reason of maximizing signal radiation and reception. In this example. or SWR is valued at inﬁnity. The following photograph (Figure 14. In this example. “undeﬁned”) quotient.5714 volts) and dividing by the minimum line voltage (0. calculated by taking the maximum line voltage at either 250 kHz or 750 kHz (0. Figure 14. Also. producing signal interference. Figure 14. this is usually considered ideal. An interesting footnote to this point is that antenna structures – which typically resemble open. but because the high values of voltage and current created by the antinodes of standing waves may overstress the transmission line’s insulation (high voltage) and conductors (high current). the terminating impedance of 100 Ω divided by the characteristic impedance of 75 Ω yields a quotient of exactly 1. we will have points of minimum and maximum current at certain ﬁxed locations on the line. this standing wave ratio. and dividing the larger of the two values by the smaller. radiating electromagnetic energy away from the line. corresponding to the standing current wave’s nodes and antinodes. because at those frequencies the standing waves terminate at one end in a node and at the other end in an antinode. and any ﬁnite value divided by zero results in an inﬁnite (actually.46) The same holds true for current: if the line’s terminating impedance is mismatched to the line’s characteristic impedance. TRANSMISSION LINES
At odd harmonics of the fundamental frequency (250 kHz. for voltage or for current. as the radiated energy may “couple” with nearby conductors. Again.520
CHAPTER 14. respectively. rather than channeling all of it to the load.or shortcircuited transmission lines – are often designed to operate at high standing wave ratios.50) we see differing levels of voltage at each end of the transmission line. matching the previous calculation very closely.4286 volts).333.52) shows a set of transmission lines at a junction point in a radio transmitter system. not only because reﬂected waves constitute energy not delivered to the load. (Figure 14. Standing wave ratio may also be calculated by taking the line’s terminating impedance and the line’s characteristic impedance. the SWR will be ﬁnite: 1. since the minimum amplitude will be zero. Unlike the opencircuited and shortcircuited transmission line examples. with a 75 Ω line terminated by a 100 Ω impedance. the maximum and minimum voltage levels along this transmission line do not reach the same extreme values of 0% and 100% source voltage. since voltage at any location along the line’s length will be the same.
As we will see in the next section. they are stationary). In a perfectly terminated line. but are the result of interference between incident and reﬂected waves along a transmission line. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE
521
the ends are rigid coaxial transmission lines of 50 Ω characteristic impedance. though.
. which renders most of the crosssectional area of a round conductor useless at radio frequencies. • An antinode is a point on a standing wave of maximum amplitude. and from that shelter on to other shelters with other antenna structures:
Figure 14. there are no reﬂected waves. which would be a deﬁnite problem for a coaxial line. • Standing waves can only exist in a transmission line when the terminating impedance does not match the line’s characteristic impedance. Why ﬂat straps of copper and not round wires? Because of the skin effect.52: Flexible coaxial cables connected to rigid lines. copper “straps” used as jumper wires to connect the conductors of the ﬂexible coaxial cables to the conductors of the rigid lines. Note the ﬂat. The lines are gasﬁlled to avoid collecting moisture inside them.6.14. these are operated at low SWR conditions. and therefore no standing waves at all. These lines carry RF power from the radio transmitter circuit to a small. Flexible coaxial cable connected to the rigid lines (also of 50 Ω characteristic impedance) conduct the RF power to capacitive and inductive “phasing” networks inside the shelter. Like many transmission lines. • A node is a point on a standing wave of minimum amplitude. The white.e. as it may be exploited to perform a useful function: impedance transformation. • REVIEW: • Standing waves are waves of voltage and current which do not propagate (i. the phenomenon of standing waves in transmission lines is not always undesirable. plastic tube joining two of the rigid lines together carries “ﬁlling” gas from one sealed line to the other. wooden shelter at the base of an antenna structure.
and current nodes at both ends. so that the source “sees” an open circuit where it connects to the transmission line. same as end of half wavelength line. which corresponds to the condition of an open circuit. the line has voltage antinodes at both ends. resulting in resonance. Resonant points exist at every harmonic (integermultiple) frequency of the fundamental (quarterwavelength).
. or vice versa. • Transmission lines may be damaged by the high maximum amplitudes of standing waves. That is to say.522
CHAPTER 14.
14. the nodes and antinodes of standing waves will correlate with the ends of a transmission line. A line with no standing waves (perfectly matched: Zload to Z0 ) has an SWR equal to 1. • The lowestfrequency resonant point on a transmission line is where the line is one quarterwavelength long. which ever yields the greatest quotient. Voltage antinodes may break down insulation between conductors.7
Impedance transformation
Standing waves at the resonant frequency points of an open.53: Source sees open. the source “sees” the load impedance as it is. and current antinodes may overheat conductors.54) frequencies:
Maximum E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω
Zero E
Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I Zero I
Figure 14.53) and 1 wavelength (Figure 14. In either case.or shortcircuited transmission line produce unusual effects. or SWR. TRANSMISSION LINES
• At certain frequencies. • Standing wave ratio. there is maximum voltage and minimum current at either end of the line. is the ratio of maximum standing wave amplitude to minimum standing wave amplitude. The fact that this condition exists at both ends of the line tells us that the line faithfully reproduces its terminating impedance at the source end. When the signal frequency is such that exactly 1/2 wave or some multiple thereof matches the line’s length. The following pair of illustrations shows an opencircuited line operating at 1/2 (Figure 14. It may also be calculated by dividing termination impedance by characteristic impedance. just as if it were directly opencircuited.
and if the line is shortcircuited.7.eps¡x1¿ below) or some multiple (Figure¡ref¿02392a.57) Line opencircuited.57). the source will “see” a shortcircuit at the point where it connects to the line. the source will “see” the exact opposite of the termination impedance. at threequarter wavelength line (Figure 14. same as end of half wave length line.
. transforming an inﬁnite impedance into zero impedance. if the signal frequency is such that the line resonates at 1/4 wavelength or some multiple thereof.60) At these frequencies.eps¡x1¿ below) thereof. the source “sees” a short circuit. That is. the transmission line is actually functioning as an impedance transformer.59). The same is true if the transmission line is terminated by a short: at signal frequencies corresponding to 1/2 wavelength (Figure¡ref¿02390a. same as end of full wavelength (2x half wavelength line). if the line is opencircuited.54: Source sees open.55: Source sees short. at threequarter wavelength line (Figure 14. the source will “see” an open circuit: (Figure 14.58) Line shortcircuited. source “sees” an open circuit: at quarter wavelength line (Figure 14. with minimum voltage and maximum current present at the connection points between source and transmission line:
Zero E Zsource Esource 500 kHz 75 Ω
Maximum E
Zero E
Maximum I Zero I
Maximum I
Figure 14. or vice versa. source “sees” a short circuit: at quarter wavelength line (Figure 14.14. Of course. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION
523
Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω Maximum E
Zero I Zero I Maximum I Maximum I
Zero I
Figure 14. However.
Zero E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω
Maximum E Zero E Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14. reﬂected from open at end of threequarter wavelength line.524
CHAPTER 14.
. same as end of full wavelength line (2x half wavelength).
Zero E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω Maximum E
Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14. reﬂected from open at end of quarter wavelength line.58: Source sees short.56: Source sees short. TRANSMISSION LINES
Maximum E Maximum E Zero E Zero E Zero E Zsource Esource 1 MHz 75 Ω
Maximum I Zero I Zero I Maximum I
Maximum I
Figure 14.57: Source sees short.
7.
. reﬂected from short at end of threequarter wavelength line. reﬂected from short at end of quarter wavelength line.14.59: Source sees open. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION
525
Maximum E Zsource Esource 250 kHz 75 Ω
Zero E
Maximum I Zero I
Figure 14.60: Source sees open.
Maximum E Zero E Maximum E Zsource Esource 750 kHz 75 Ω Zero E
Zero I Maximum I Zero I
Maximum I
Figure 14.
.4286 V = 56. 5/4.62). 7/4. resonant frequency) or some odd multiple (3/4.5714 V 0.25 Ω 7.715 mA
100 Ω
Figure 14. Take for instance the example circuit from the last section where a 75 Ω source connects to a 75 Ω transmission line.619 mA Zsource Esource 250 kHz
Fundamental frequency (1st harmonic)
Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.62: Source sees 100 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of half wavelength line.
. threequarter wavelength (Figure 14.5714 V = 100 Ω Source "sees" 5. but if the signal frequency is known and unchanging.715 mA Zsource Esource 500 kHz
2nd harmonic
Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.4286 V 0. TRANSMISSION LINES
this only occurs at resonant points resulting in a standing wave of 1/4 cycle (the line’s fundamental.5714 V = 7. From the numerical ﬁgures obtained via SPICE.64)
0. this phenomenon may be used to match otherwise unmatched impedances to each other.61).25 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of quarter wavelength line. .63) full wavelength (Figure 14.).5714 V 1/4 λ Source "sees" 0. terminating in a 100 Ω load impedance. 9/4 . halfwave length (Figure 14.61: Source sees 56.5714 V 1/2 λ 0.
0.526
CHAPTER 14.4286 V = 5. let’s determine what impedance the source “sees” at its end of the transmission line at the line’s resonant frequencies: quarter wavelength (Figure 14.619 mA
100 Ω
Figure 14.
Taking the square root of 22.5714 V 0.
0.715 mA
100 Ω
Figure 14.5714 V 3/4 λ Source "sees" 0.5714 V 1λ 0. load impedance (Zload ).25 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of threequarter wavelength line (same as quarter wavelength). and multiplying by the 300 Ω load resistance. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION
527
0.5714 V = 100 Ω Source "sees" 5. A simple equation relates line impedance (Z0 ). and input impedance (Zinput ) for an unmatched transmission line operating at an odd harmonic of its fundamental frequency:
Z0 =
Zinput Zload
One practical application of this principle would be to match a 300 Ω load to a 75 Ω signal source at a frequency of 50 MHz.500 yields 150 Ω for a characteristic line
.64: Source sees 56. we obtain a ﬁgure of 22. and length so that exactly 1/4 of a wave will “stand” on the line at a frequency of 50 MHz.4286 V = 56.4286 V 0.715 mA Zsource Esource 1 MHz
4th harmonic
Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0.500.619 mA Zsource Esource 750 kHz
3rd harmonic
Transmission line 75 Ω (75 Ω) 0. First. calculating the line impedance: taking the 75 Ω we desire the source to “see” at the sourceend of the transmission line.63: Source sees 56.14.25 Ω reﬂected from 100 Ω load at end of fullwavelength line (same as halfwavelength). All we need to do is calculate the proper transmission line impedance (Z0 ).25 Ω 7.7.619 mA
100 Ω
Figure 14.4286 V = 5.5714 V = 7.
The 1/4wavelength.000E01 v(1) 1. 150 Ω.ac lin 1 50meg 50meg . With 0. transmission line segment has successfully matched the 300 Ω load to the 75 Ω source. and using a speedoflight ﬁgure of 186.000E+07 v(1. receives a full 1 volt. or 20 nanoseconds (20 ns).2) 5. the requisite cable length is 4. Since the frequency is 50 MHz.5 volt dropped across 75 Ω.end freq 5. This means the source “thinks” it is powering a 75 Ω load. indicating a perfect match of impedance. the velocity of propagation will be 158.2)) and the other half of its voltage across the input terminals of the transmission line (v(2)). Since we only need onequarter of this length for the cable to support a quarterwave. however.000 ﬁgure at v(3).65: Quarter wave section of 150 Ω transmission line matches 75 Ω source to 300 Ω load. Onequarter of that time (5 ns) will be the time delay of a transmission line onequarter wavelength long: Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 75 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=150 td=5n rload 3 0 300 .print ac v(1. Taking this velocity and dividing by the signal frequency gives us a wavelength of 0.1738 feet.695 feet. to calculate the necessary line length: assuming that our cable has a velocity factor of 0.000E01 v(3) 1. Now. or 16.000E+00
At a frequency of 50 MHz. according to the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.85. the source is dissipating 3. the signal period will be the reciprocal of that.eps¡x1¿)
1 Esource 50 MHz 0
Zsource 2 75 Ω Transmission line Z0 = 150 Ω 0 150 = (75)(300)
3 Zload 0 300 Ω
Figure 14.003162 miles.
.000E+00 v(2) 5. showing node numbers for the SPICE analysis we’re about to run: (Figure¡ref¿02403. Here is a schematic diagram for the circuit. TRANSMISSION LINES
impedance.528
CHAPTER 14.333 mW of power: the same as dissipated by 1 volt across the 300 Ω load. our 1volt signal source drops half of its voltage across the series 75 Ω impedance (v(1. We can specify the cable length in SPICE in terms of time delay from beginning to end. The actual load impedance. as indicated by the 1.100 miles per second.2) v(1) v(2) v(3) .000 miles per second.
8
Waveguides
A waveguide is a special form of transmission line consisting of a hollow. • When operated at a frequency corresponding to a standing wave of 1/4wavelength along the transmission line.33 µW. demonstrating how this phenomenon of impedance transformation is fundamentally different in principle from that of a conventional. we see the 1volt source voltage equally split between the 300 Ω source impedance (v(1. The tube wall provides distributed inductance.000E+07 v(1.5 volt drop across the source’s 300 Ω internal impedance yields a power ﬁgure of 833. as indicated by voltage ﬁgure v(3). the 150 Ω line would have to lengthened or shortened accordingly so that it was exactly 1/4 wavelength long. indicating that the load “appears” as a 300 Ω impedance from the source’s perspective where it connects to the transmission line.000E01 v(3) 2.2) v(1) v(2) v(3) .14. while the empty space between the tube walls provide distributed capacitance: Figure 14.
14. the same as the 0. Strangely enough. This 0. of course. because the transmitter’s frequency is generally wellknown and unchanging.25 volts across the 75 Ω load. the impedance values of source and load have been matched by the transmission line segment. WAVEGUIDES
529
Bear in mind. metal tube.print ac v(1.8.67
. twowinding transformer: Transmission line v1 1 0 ac 1 sin rsource 1 2 300 t1 2 0 3 0 z0=150 td=5n rload 3 0 75 .end freq 5. This technique of impedance matching is often used to match the differing impedance values of transmission line and antenna in radio transmitter systems.2)) and the line’s input (v(2)).000E+00 v(2) 5. the line’s characteristic impedance necessary for impedance transformation must be equal to the square root of the product of the source’s impedance and the load’s impedance. (Figure 14. The use of an impedance “transformer” 1/4 wavelength in length provides impedance matching using the shortest conductor length possible. that this only works for 50 MHz and its oddnumbered harmonics. Once again.000E01 v(1) 1.ac lin 1 50meg 50meg . For any other signal frequency to receive the same beneﬁt of matched impedances.500E01
Here.66) • REVIEW: • A transmission line with standing waves may be used to match different impedance values if operated at the correct frequency(ies). the exact same line can also match a 75 Ω load to a 300 Ω source.2) 5.
66: Quarter wave 150 Ω transmission line section matches 75 Ω line to 300 Ω antenna.530
CHAPTER 14..
..
Waveguide Waveguide
Wave propagation
Figure 14.. TRANSMISSION LINES
1/4 λ Radio Transmitter ..67: Wave guides conduct microwave energy at lower loss than coaxial cables. Z0 = 75 Ω . Z0 = 150 Ω Dipole antenna 300 Ω
Impedance "transformer"
Figure 14.
” Waveguides may be thought of as conduits for electromagnetic energy. Moisture is not as severe a problem in waveguides as it is within coaxial cables. This is known as the principal mode.68)
TEM mode Magnetic field
Wave propagation
Electric field
Magnetic field Both field planes perpendicular (transverse) to direction of signal propagation. Lines small enough in crosssectional dimension to maintain TEM mode signal propagation
. and so waveguides are often spared the necessity of gas “ﬁlling. (Figure 14.8. or TEM (Transverse Electric and Magnetic) mode. though. With only a single conductor (the waveguide’s “shell”). but perpendicular to each other. the propagation of electrical energy down a waveguide is of a very different nature than the propagation of electrical energy down a twoconductor transmission line. waveguides are useless as electrical transmission lines. All electromagnetic waves consist of electric and magnetic ﬁelds propagating in the same direction of travel. because waveguides are singleconductor elements. and it is the dominant mode of wave propagation where the crosssectional dimensions of the transmission line are small compared to the wavelength of the signal. all transmission lines function as conduits of electromagnetic energy when transporting pulses or highfrequency waves. WAVEGUIDES
531
Waveguides are practical only for signals of extremely high frequency. This mode of wave propagation can exist only where there are two conductors. However. there are no concerns with proper conductortoconductor spacing. either. the waveguide itself acting as nothing more than a “director” of the energy rather than as a signal conductor in the normal sense of the word. At microwave signal frequencies (between 100 MHz and 300 GHz). or of the consistency of the dielectric material. both electric and magnetic ﬁelds are perpendicular (transverse) to the direction of wave travel. directing the waves as the banks of a river direct a tidal wave. Along the length of a normal transmission line. In a sense. Below such frequencies. waveguides are considerably simpler than twoconductor cables – especially coaxial cables – in their manufacture and maintenance.14. where the wavelength approaches the crosssectional dimensions of the waveguide.68: Twin lead transmission line propagation: TEM mode.
Figure 14. twoconductor transmission lines of any substantial length operating in standard TEM mode become impractical. When functioning as transmission lines. since the only dielectric in a waveguide is air.
eps¡x1¿ below) Just as transmission lines are able to function as resonant elements in a circuit. The other ﬁeld will “loop” longitudinally to the direction of travel. Many variations of each mode exist for a given waveguide. Sometimes these coupling elements take the form of a dipole. Fortunately.” if a conductive tube is used rather than two parallel conductors. especially when terminated by a shortcircuit or an opencircuit. TRANSMISSION LINES
for microwave signals tend to have low voltage ratings. similar in principle to a “whip” antenna. only one of the ﬁelds – either electric or magnetic – will actually be transverse to the wave’s direction of travel. which is nothing more than two openended stub wires of appropriate length. such as a class of vacuum tube devices called inductive output tubes (the socalled klystron tube falls into this category).532
CHAPTER 14. It is at these high frequencies that waveguides become practical. having no contact with the beam itself: (Figure¡ref¿02408. parasitic power losses due to conductor “skin” and dielectric effects. but still be perpendicular to the other ﬁeld. (Figure 14. Other times.69: Waveguide (TE) transverse electric and (TM) transverse magnetic modes. or a short loop of wire terminated on the inside surface of the waveguide: (Figure 14. at these short wavelengths there exist other modes of propagation that are not as “lossy.69)
Magnetic field
Magnetic field Electric field
TE mode
Electric field
Wave propagation TM mode
Magnetic flux lines appear as continuous loops Electric flux lines appear with beginning and end points
Figure 14. Signals are typically introduced to and extracted from waveguides by means of small antennalike coupling devices inserted into the waveguide. and a full discussion of this is subject well beyond the scope of this book.70) In some cases. the coupler is a single stub (a halfdipole. 1/4λ in physical length). When an electromagnetic wave propagates down a hollow tube. Whichever ﬁeld remains transverse to the direction of travel determines whether the wave propagates in TE mode (Transverse Electric) or TM (Transverse Magnetic) mode. a “cavity” formed of conductive material may intercept electromagnetic energy from a modulated beam of electrons. though. a deadended waveguide may also res
. and suffer from large.
WAVEGUIDES
533
Waveguide
Waveguide
Coupling "stub" Coaxial cable
Coupling loop Coaxial cable
Figure 14.71: Klystron inductive output tube.70: Stub and loop coupling to waveguide.
.14.8.
The inductive output tube (IOT) coaxial output cable RF signal input electron beam toroidal cavity
RF power output
DC supply
Figure 14.
When used as such. being nonconductive. • REVIEW: • Waveguides are metal tubes functioning as “conduits” for carrying electromagnetic waves. cavities with movable plates. snow. To this end. Some of the cans in the background still have their plastic lids in place.72: Cantenna illustrates stub coupling to waveguide. The plastic. TRANSMISSION LINES
onate at particular frequencies.72)
Figure 14. where the signal wavelength approaches the crosssectional dimensions of the waveguide. used as an antenna for a 2. and other physical contaminants from entering the waveguide. If a resonant cavity is made open on one end. but functions as a physical barrier to prevent rain. Inductive output tubes use toroidshaped cavity resonators to maximize the power transfer efﬁciency between the electron beam and the output cable. They are practical only for signals of extremely high frequency. The coupling element is a quarterwave stub: nothing more than a piece of solid copper wire about 11/4 inches in length extending from the center of a coaxial cable connector penetrating the side of the can: (Figure 14.4 GHz signal in an “802. “Real” waveguide antennae use similar barriers to physically enclose the tube. one of them a “Pringles” potato chip can.534
CHAPTER 14. and other mechanical elements for tuning are manufactured to provide coarse resonant frequency adjustment. does not interfere with the RF signal. it functions as a unidirectional antenna. its metallic inner lining provides the necessary conductivity to function as a waveguide. screws.
. the device is called a cavity resonator. A few more tincan antennae may be seen in the background. dust. Although this can is of cardboard (paper) construction. A cavity’s resonant frequency may be altered by changing its physical dimensions.11b” computer communication network. yet allow electromagnetic energy to pass unimpeded. The following photograph shows a homemade waveguide formed from a tin can.
sending or receiving RF energy to/from the direction of the open end.14. Wave travel along a standard.
. WAVEGUIDES
535
• Wave propagation through a waveguide may be classiﬁed into two broad categories: TE (Transverse Electric). or TM (Transverse Magnetic). • A deadended waveguide serving as a resonant element in a microwave circuit is called a cavity resonator. depending on which ﬁeld (electric or magnetic) is perpendicular (transverse) to the direction of wave travel. TEM mode is only possible with two conductors and cannot exist in a waveguide.8. • A cavity resonator with an open end functions as a unidirectional antenna. where both ﬁelds are oriented perpendicular to the direction of travel. twoconductor transmission line is of the TEM (Transverse Electric and Magnetic) mode.
536
CHAPTER 14. TRANSMISSION LINES
.
highquality information into the hands of my students. The goal was to copyright the text – so as to protect my authorship – but expressly allow anyone to distribute and/or modify the text to suit their own needs with a minimum of legal encumbrance. My request to review the draft for the next edition of their book was met with disinterest on their part. I decided to make the book freely available. but a secondary goal was to make the book as affordable as possible. At least in the case of this book. Even though the particular text I was using had been in print and in popular use for a couple of years. I decided to make it “open” following the same development model used in the making of free software (most notably the various UNIX utilities released by the Free Software Foundation. As an industrial electronics instructor. . It was out of frustration that I compiled Lessons in Electric Circuits from notes and ideas I had been collecting for years. If only I could extend the gift of their help by giving to other people what they gave to me . paving the way for a rewarding career and fascinating hobby. More than that. and I resolved to ﬁnd an alternative text. My primary goal was to put readable. Over the years. and those that were still being printed were quite expensive. Some of the best books were out of print. Adding insult to injury was the $100+ price. including several teachers of mine in elementary and high school. Finding a suitable alternative was more difﬁcult than I had imagined. having spent much time at home struggling to comprehend the material within.1 Purpose
They say that necessity is the mother of invention. and the Linux operating system. that adage is true. Their selﬂess assistance played a key role in my own studies. This willful and formal revoking of 537
. but the really good books seemed a bit too heavy on the math and the less intimidating books omitted a lot of information I felt was important.Appendix A1
ABOUT THIS BOOK
A1. whose fame is growing even as I write). I was forced to use a substandard textbook during my ﬁrst year of teaching. I had experienced the beneﬁt of receiving free instruction and encouragement in my pursuit of learning electronics from many people. My students were daily frustrated with the many typographical errors and obscure explanations in this book. Sure. Worse yet were the many incorrect answers in the back of the book to selected problems. . Contacting the publisher proved to be an exercise in futility. there were plenty of texts in print. they claimed my complaint was the ﬁrst they’d ever heard. So.
labwork is the traditionally accepted venue for this type of learning.
ABOUT THIS BOOK
standard distribution limitations under copyright is whimsically termed copyleft. Highpower electric circuits should be left to the care of trained professionals! The Design Science License clearly states that neither I nor any contributors to this book bear any liability for what is done with its contents. explosion. It must be mentioned that although I strive to maintain technical accuracy in all of this book’s content. however. Having taught myself most of the electronics that I know. you must give credit where credit is due (to me. The only “catch” is this: if you plan to distribute your modiﬁed version of this text. The inductive approach. covering the ﬁne legal points in great detail. For the instructor or electronics professional. adding or editing to your heart’s content. and when things go wrong there’s no one to ask for help. the subject matter is broad and harbors many potential dangers. is intended to copyleft works of computer software. its wording is not as clear as it could be for that application. learn what you can from this book. then apply those principles to speciﬁc instances that the student may or may not be able to explore by themselves. The GPL. but anyone has the freedom to change it. leveraging my efforts to suit variant and individual requirements. feel free to use this as a reference manual. if you pass it on to someone else. editing it as you feel necessary if you come across a useful piece of information. you will be giving them something better than what you received. Although electronic components are typically inexpensive. I guaranteed that no instructor would be limited by a text insufﬁcient for their needs. and anyone else whose modiﬁcations are contained in your version). In science education. is
. I appreciate the sense of frustration students may have in teaching themselves from books. The ﬁrst such License I applied to my work was the GPL – General Public License – of the Free Software Foundation (GNU). I chose one of them (the Design Science License.2
The use of SPICE
One of the best ways to learn how things work is to follow the inductive approach: to observe speciﬁc instances of things working and derive general conclusions from those observations. etc. the original author.
A1. Anyone can “copyleft” their creative work simply by appending a notice to that effect on their work. ﬁre. I strongly encourage experimentation on the part of the reader. When other.538
APPENDIX A1. rather than to allow the student to learn on their own through a truly exploratory process. but several Licenses already exist. as useful as it is. For the beginning student of electronics. although in many cases labs are designed by educators to reinforce principles previously learned through lecture or textbook reading. Then. less speciﬁc copyleft Licenses began appearing within the free software community. or DSL) as the ofﬁcial notice for my project. The next chapter covers this process in more detail. as I had been with errorridden textbooks from major publishers. Most textbooks seem to approach the task of education from a deductive perspective: tell the student how things are supposed to work. not everyone has the means or opportunity to set up a laboratory in their own homes. and although its introductory language is broad enough to cover works of text. In “copylefting” this text. Electricity maims and kills without provocation. I’m sure this book in its initial form will not satisfy everyone. and you must ensure that whoever you give the text to is aware of their freedom to similarly share and edit the text. and deserves the utmost respect. but only with circuits powered by small batteries where there is no risk of electric shock.
Another advantage to including computer analyses in a textbook is the empirical veriﬁcation it adds to the concepts presented. a chapter in the Reference volume (volume V) contains an overview of SPICE with many example circuits. providing a perfectly safe means of experimentation on their own computers with circuit simulations of their own design. Richard Stallman.A1. the reader is left to take the author’s statements on faith. Although nothing is quite as good as building real circuits to gain knowledge in electronics. The following is a list of various free computer software used to make this book. • Vim text editor – Bram Moolenaar and others. the reader can immediately see for themselves that what the author describes is indeed true. It is a textbased piece of software intended to model circuits and provide analyses of voltage. • SPICE circuit simulation program – too many contributors to mention. For those wishing to learn more.3. current. of course. and hopefully in a gentle enough way that it doesn’t create confusion. Furthermore. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
539
hard to ﬁnd in the pages of a book. However.
A1.3
Acknowledgements
First. This way. like all human beings. textbooks don’t have to be this way. I wish to thank my wife. Demonstrations also serve to clarify the meaning of the text with concrete examples. With demonstrations. and the respective programmers: • GNU/Linux Operating System – Linus Torvalds. In learning how to use this powerful tool. etc. trusting that what has been written is indeed accurate. • Xcircuit drafting program – Tim Edwards. they should be able to understand how to use it themselves. computer simulation is an excellent alternative. • TEX text processing system – Donald Knuth and others. in seeing SPICE used over and over again. Without demonstrations. a virtue complementing the charitable philosophy of this book very nicely. The problem with faith. are liable to err and/or communicate poorly. There may be more ﬂashy (graphic) circuit simulation programs in existence. whose patience during those many and long evenings (and weekends!) of typing has been extraordinary. and a host of others too numerous to mention. however. I made a discovery: SPICE could be used within a textbook to present circuit simulations to allow students to “observe”the phenomena for themselves. • Nutmeg postprocessor program for SPICE – Wayne Christopher. is that it is only as good as the authority in which it is placed and the accuracy of interpretation through which it is understood. but SPICE is free. Authors. frequency. I discovered this when I started to learn a computer program called SPICE. the readers could learn the concepts inductively (by interpreting SPICE’s output) as well as deductively (by interpreting my explanations). SPICE is introduced early in volume I (DC) of this book series.
. I also wish to thank those whose opensource software development efforts have made this endeavor all the more affordable and pleasurable.
com)) for providing encouragement. Thanks to the staff of the Bellingham Antique Radio Museum.
• Gimp image manipulation program – too many contributors to mention. Boylestad. • Winscope signal analysis software – Dr. many thanks to my parents and those teachers of mine who saw in me a desire to learn about electricity.org)) and Ben Crowell (website: (http://www. and to make the ﬁrst effort in contributing to its form and content.540
APPENDIX A1. Similar thanks to Jim Swartos and KARI radio in Blaine. Other important texts in my electronics studies include the 1939 edition of The “Radio” Handbook. Constantin Zeldovich. Tony Kuphaldt. and a wider audience for the online version of this book. I honor you by helping others as you have helped me. and Forrest Mims’ original Engineer’s Notebook.) Appreciation is also extended to Robert L. and who kindled that ﬂame into a passion for discovery and intellectual adventure. whose ﬁrst edition of Introductory Circuit Analysis taught me more about electric circuits than any other book. Bernard Grob’s second edition of Introduction to Electronics I. Last but certainly not least. April 2002 “A candle loses nothing of its light when lighting another” Kahlil Gibran
. who were generous enough to let me terrorize their establishment with my camera and ﬂash unit.
ABOUT THIS BOOK
• Texinfo document formatting system – Free Software Foundation. (Free for personal and academic use. Thanks to Michael Stutz for drafting his Design Science License. and to Richard Stallman for pioneering the concept of copyleft. constructive criticism.lightandmatter. Washington for a very informative tour of their expanded (50 kW) facilities as well as their vintage transmitter equipment. I wish to speciﬁcally thank Jeffrey Elkner and all those at Yorktown High School for being willing to host my book as part of their Open Book Project.andamooka.
A • LTEX document formatting system – Leslie Lamport and others. Thanks also to David Sweet (website: (http://www.
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provided that the following terms are met: (a) The new. • Contact at: liec0@lycos. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as “minor. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. welcome to modify this book directly by editing your own personal copy. etc.org
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APPENDIX A2. while the material sampled or used from the Work remains attributed to the original Author. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted.2
Jason Starck
• Date(s) of contribution(s): MayJune 2000 • Nature of contribution: HTML formatting.” it is in no way inferior to the effort or value of a “major” contribution. it is recommended that you submit any revisions or expansions to the original author (Tony R. (b) The derivative work is given a new name. so that its name or title can not be confused with the Work. some error corrections. derivative work is published under the terms of this License. Kuphaldt). Given the complexities and security issues surrounding the maintenance of ﬁles comprising this book. but we would all stand to beneﬁt from your contributions if your ideas were incorporated into the online “master copy” where all the world can see it.2. in any way. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge.
A2. time. • Contact at: jstarck@yhslug. contact info. (c) Appropriate authorship credit is given: for the differences between the Work and the new derivative work.tux.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity.com
A2. etc.
9.2.com.2. Incremented edition number to 6 for major format change. all chapters except appedicies. • Nature of contribution: Chapters: all.html.com (June 2005) Typographical error correction in Volumes 1. 8.3
Dennis Crunkilton
• Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2005 to present • Nature of contribution: SpiceNutmeg plots.clockHistory. Reprinted by permission of Westclox History at www.2. describing how you contributed to the book. ScottT and LVDT subsections inserted.com
• Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005 • Nature of contribution: Granted permission to reprint synchronous westclox motor jpg’s. CH 13.5. Ch12. 06/2006. added to. (s/visaversa/vice versa/). CREDITS
543
A2. 02/2009. • Nature of contribution: Broke “Special transformers and applications” section into subsections. 04/2005.pdf.billsclockworks. added to Air core transformers subsections chapter 9. • Nature of contribution: Chapter 13: AC motors.2. 09/2005.net
A2. www. • Nature of contribution: Chapter 13: AC motors. pdf. Added DoublyFed Induction Generator subsection. Ch10.3. html. 01/2006. ps. gnuplot Fourier plots chapters 6. 10.
.4
Bill Stoddard. • Bart Anderson (January 2004) Corrected conceptual and safety errors regarding Tesla coils.5
Your name here
• Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution • Nature of contribution: Insert text here. • Contact at: my email@provider.2.A2. • Nature of contribution: Mini table of contents. Added ﬂoating captioned LaTeX ﬁgures for more booklike appearance of . 01/2006.2. latex. • Contact at: dcrunkilton(at)att(dot)net
A2. • The students of Bellingham Technical College’s Instrumentation program. minor change.6
Typo corrections and other “minor” contributions
• lineallaboutcircuits. various chapters. See Devel/tutorial.“Running 3phase motors on 1phase”. 7. chapter 13 • Contact at: bill(at)billsclockworks(dot)com
A2.
s/it’s/its. s/phase shift makes complicates/phase shift complicates/. Chapter 8: FILTERS.eps. Chapter 5: REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R. s/capcitive/capacitive./ which only allow the passage of current in one direction.eps. s/will be drive it/will drive it/. s/over 50 Kw use/over 50 kW use/. 02062. L.eps. • Sean Donner (January 2005) Typographical error correction in “Series resistorinductor circuits” section. clariﬁed text. Chapter 7: MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS.eps. • Colin Creitz (May 2007) Chapters: several. AND C.eps. 02056.eps.Typographical error correction in “Other waveshapes” section. • Jeff DeFreitas (March 2006)Improve appearance: replace ”/” and ”/” various chapters. (January 2005). change Vic to Vir above resistor in image) (January 2005). 02515. Corrections numerous chapters.eps.).
CONTRIBUTOR LIST
• Ed Beroset (May 2002) Suggested better ways to illustrate the meaning of the preﬁx “poly” in chapter 10. 02516. • Duane Damiano (February 2003) Pointed out magnetic polarity error in DC generator illustration. (02083. (dropping most of the voltage gets across series resistor / dropping most of the voltage across series resistor) • Brendan Finley (March 2007) Suggested content change in Transformers chapter. s/dividing it my the/dividing it by the/.544
APPENDIX A2.eps. (corrected for the skin effect/corrected for the skin effect). • Richard Cooper (December 2005) Clariﬁcation of 02206.eps 3phase transformer images. (If we were restrict ourselves /If we were to restrict ourselves). (January 2005). L.eps. 02068. s/Alterantor/Alternator. • Kieran Clancy (August 2006) Ch 4. • anonymous (September 2007) Typo correction in Basic AC chapter. changed image 02305.eps.eps.¡/itemi¿ • Michiel van Bolhuis (April 2007). 02258. images: 12008. s/750 kiloWatt/750 Watt. 02263. Chapter 3: REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE “Voltage and current” section. s/positive negative/positive or negative.eps.eps. (which only allow passage current in one direction. Correction of 02210. text: s/(Figure 8. Chapter 4: REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE (calculate the phase angle of the inductor’s reactive opposition / calculate the phase angle of the capacitor’s reactive opposition). More on the “skin effect” section. and C” section.eps opendelta image.eps. 02074. s/in an open ended/in open ended/. (Across voltage across the resistor/ Voltage across the resistor). 02053.18/(Figure 8.eps “Mutual inductance and basic operation” section. s/because we can to use/because we can use/.) (January 2005).Typographical error correction in “What is a ﬁlter?” section.Typographical error correction in “AC capacitor circuits” section.Typographical error correction in “ Parallel R.18). / from others within mixedfrequency signals. 02209. 02257.
. (from others in within mixedfrequency signals. 02516.
missing formula. image: 12105. Polyphase AC Circuits.com (Aug 2007) Ch . Parallel. • Devin Bayer (September 2007) Correction to sml2html. • Harvey Lew (February 2003) Typo correction in Basic AC chapter: word “circuit” should have been “circle”.3 .com (Oct 2007) Ch 1 .com (Sept 2007) Ch 1 .eps. Zarella (April 2002) Suggested an improved explanation for the “average” value of a waveform.
.000. • rrgibbs@allaboutcircuits.com (Nov 2007) Ch 13 . • machan@allaboutcircuits. • earsintraining@allaboutcircuits. • jut@allaboutcircuits. • mike@allaboutcircuits.” • Puddy Tat@allaboutcircuits.2.com (May 2007) Pointed out error in Form Factor deﬁnition and calculation. AC Motors. ¡backslash¿} to } in <tabular>. • stacymckenna@allaboutcircuits.com (Feb 2008) Ch 9 .com (July 2007) Ch 1. Power Factor. • Bob Schmid (April 20027) Suggested we add Inductosyn. s/Vary/Very/ . • Jim Palmer (May 2002) Typo correction on complex number math.eps. • Mark D. s/as a the/as the/. ¨ • Elmo Mantynen (August 2006) Numerous corrections in chapters: Resonance.com (April 2007) Transformer voltage regulation example error. Corrected error concerning Tesla’s sale of AC induction motor. 3plcs Ch 1.A2. s/eight white/seven white/ . • Dave@allaboutcircuits. • Don Stalkowski (June 2002) Technical help with PostScripttoPDF ﬁle format conversion.png not displayed in html. added graph to “Calculating factor correction” section. s/100/180 trigonometric sin function table.com (April 2007) Resonance.sed. • John Symonds (March 2002) Suggested an improved explanation of the unit “Hertz. • recca02@allaboutcircuits. image: 12081. added to Ch12“AC metering”. CREDITS
545
• Steven Jones (November 2006) Suggested content addition in Power factor chapter. • Joseph Teichman (June 2002) Suggestion and technical help regarding use of PNG images instead of JPEG. Change one million to to $65. “AC Phase” image 02022. Clariﬁcation of light load as refering to less current.
Error in the sign of value in sine table. s/Overspeed/Underspeed 02514.png
.png • peter o@allaboutcircuits.com (Feb 2008) Ch 1 .com (Feb 2009) Ch 2 .com (Feb 2008) Ch 2.546
APPENDIX A2. s/by/be in ”More on AC polaity” section.
CONTRIBUTOR LIST
• Unregistered@allaboutcircuits. • Imranullah Syed (Feb 2008) Suggested centering of uncaptioned schematics. • ShaunManners@allaboutcircuits. image 02046. • Timothy Kingman (Feb 2008) Changed default roman font to newcent. • Dennis Crunkilton (Feb 2009) Ch 13 .
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Index
λ, symbol for wavelength, 500 ω, symbol for angular velocity, 61, 85, 332 400 Hz AC power, aircraft, 270 Absolute value, vector, 37 AC, 1 AC circuit analysis, 120 AC motor, 408 addaphase, AC motor, 455 Admittance, 119 Alternating current, 1 Alternator, 2, 294 Alternator, induction, 454, 462 Ammeter, 367 Ampturn, unit, 219 Ampliﬁer, 262 Ampliﬁer, magnetic, 265 Amplitude, 12 Amplitude, average, 14 Amplitude, peak, 12 Amplitude, peaktopeak, 12 Amplitude, RMS, 16 Amplitude, vector, 30 Analysis, AC circuit, 120 Analysis, Fourier, 162 Analysis, frequency domain, 166 Analysis, parallel, 106 Analysis, series, 101 Analysis, seriesparallel, 110, 120 Analysis, time domain, 166 Analyzer, spectrum, 166 Angle, vector, 37 Angular velocity, 61, 85, 332 Antenna, 24, 78 Antinode, 505 Antiresonance, 138 Antiresonance, mechanical, 144 Arithmetic, with complex numbers, 42 Artifact, measurement, 175 Atomic clock, 378 Attenuation, 200 Autotransformer, 246 Average amplitude, AC, 14, 371 B, symbol for magnetic ﬂux density, 119 B, symbol for susceptance, 119 Bandelimination ﬁlter, 202 Bandpass ﬁlter, 199 Bandreject ﬁlter, 202 Bandstop ﬁlter, 202 Bandwidth, resonant circuit, 145 Biﬁlar winding, stepper motor, 433, 435 Bode plot, 130, 166, 190 Boosting, AC voltage sources, 288 Boosting, transformer connection, 246 Bridge circuit, 387, 403 Bridge, MaxwellWien, 391 Bridge, symmetrical, 390 Bridge, Wheatstone, 376 Bridge, Wien, 391 Brush, generator, 3 Brushless DC motor, 417, 438 Bucking, AC voltage sources, 288 Bucking, transformer connection, 246 C, symbol for capacitance, 83 Cable, coaxial, 483 Cable, shielded, 154 Cable, twisted pair, 154 Calculus, 59, 83 Can stack, stepper motor, 434 Capacitance, 83 Capacitive coupling, 153, 188 Capacitive reactance, 83, 84 551
552 Capacitor, 83 Capacitor, decoupling, 195 Capacitor, multiplier, 369 Capacitor, variable, 402 Cathode Ray Tube, 369 Celsius, unit, 8 Centigrade, unit, 8 Characteristic impedance, 491 choke, swinging, 213 Chord, music, 156 Class, transformer heat rating, 278 Clock, atomic, 378 Coaxial cable, 483 Coil, primary, 221 Coil, secondary, 221 Coil, Tesla, 260 Color (musical), 157 Commonmode voltage, 237 Complex number, 21, 28, 351 Complex number arithmetic, 42 Conductance, 119 Conservation of Energy, Law of, 234 Control transformer, synchro, 476 Core loss, 142 Counter, 376 Coupling, signal, 153, 188 CPS, unit, 8 Crest, 12 Crest factor, 17 Crossover network, 189 CRT, 369 Crystal, 376 CT, 257, 372 CT, control transformer, synchro, 476 Current transformer, 257, 372 Current, line, 306 Current, phase, 306 Cutoff frequency, 193, 196 Cycle, 8 D’Arsonval meter movement, 16, 367 DC, 1 DC equivalent, AC measurement, 16 Decoupling capacitor, 195 Degree vs. radian, 61 Delta conﬁguration, 306 Derivative, calculus, 273 Detector, null, 387 Dielectric “loss”, 96 Dielectric constant, 492 Dielectric heating, 96 Diode, 168, 169, 367 Dipole antenna, 24 Direct current, 1 Distortion, inductor current, 219 Domain, frequency, 166 Domain, time, 166 Dot convention, transformer, 241 Doubly fed induction generator, 462 Duty cycle, 405
INDEX
e, symbol for instantaneous voltage, 57, 59, 81, 83 E, symbol for voltage, 65, 88 ECG, 9 Eddy current, 75, 409, 445 Eddy current clutch, 470 Eddy current loss, 142, 269 Eddy current speedometer, 445 Effective resistance, 76 EKG, 9 Electric ﬁeld, 23, 121 Electrocardiograph, 9 Electrolytic capacitor, 96 Electromagnetic induction, 2 Electromagnetic wave, 24 Electrostatic meter movement, 371 Encoder, magnetic, 417 Encoder, optical, 417 Energy, kinetic, 124 Energy, potential, 124 Equalizer, 189 Equalizer, graphic, 165 Equivalent, AC to DC, 16 Exciting current, 220, 224 f, symbol for frequency, 61, 85 Factor, crest, 17 Factor, form, 17 Factor, power, 347 Farad, 83 Fast Fourier Transform, 164, 387
INDEX
Ferrite, 76 Ferroresonant transformer, 250 FFT, 164, 387 Field, electric, 23, 121 Field, magnetic, 23, 121 Figure, Lissajous, 378 Filter, 135, 189 Filter “selectivity”, 205 Filter, bandelimination, 202 Filter, bandpass, 199 Filter, bandreject, 202 Filter, bandstop, 202 Filter, highpass, 196 Filter, lowpass, 190 Filter, notch, 202 Filter, resonant, 204 Form factor, 17 Fourier analysis, 162 Fourier Transform, 162 Frequency, 8, 374 Frequency meter, 374 Frequency, cutoff, 193, 196 Frequency, fundamental, 156, 508 Fullwave rectiﬁcation, 171 Function, sine, 6 Fundamental frequency, 156, 508 G, symbol for conductance, 119 Generator, 3, 294 Generator, induction, 454, 462 Graphic equalizer, 165 Ground, 32 Halfwave rectiﬁcation, 169 Hall effect, 383 Harmonic, 156, 318, 508 Harmonic sequence, 344 Harmonic, even vs. odd, 181, 318 Harmonics and waveform symmetry, 181, 318 Harmonics, triplen, 332, 343 Headphones, as sensitive null detector, 388 Heating, dielectric, 96 Heating, inductive, 75 Henry, 59 Hertz, unit, 8 Highpass ﬁlter, 196 Hot conductor, 286 Hybrid stepper motor, 435 Hyperbolic function, trigonometry, 43 Hysteresis, 271
553
i, imaginary operator, 38 I, symbol for current, 65, 88 i, symbol for instantaneous current, 57, 81, 83 i, symbol for instantaneous voltage, 59 Imaginary number, 38 Impedance, 27, 64, 87, 101, 119 Impedance matching, 252, 253 Impedance, characteristic, 491 Incident wave, 493 Inductance, 59 Inductance, leakage, 227, 229, 271 Induction alternator, 454, 462 Induction generator, 454, 462 Induction motor efﬁciency, 453 Induction motor power factor corrector, 467 Induction motor slip, 450 Induction motor speed, 449, 458 Induction motor starting, 455 Induction motor synchronous speed, 449 Induction motor torque, 450 Induction motor, 2phase, 442 Induction motor, linear, 460 Induction motor, NEMA designs, 451 Induction motor, polyphase, 442 Induction motor, power factor, 452 Induction motor, repulsion start, 481 Induction motor, single phase, 464 Induction motor, speed control, 458, 462 Induction motor, wound rotor, 460 Induction, electromagnetic, 2 Induction, mutual, 4 Inductive coupling, 153, 188 Inductive heating, 75 Inductive reactance, 59, 61 Inductor, 59 Inductosyn, 401 Inrush current, transformer, 275 Instantaneous value, 57, 81 Integral, calculus, 273 Ironvane meter movement, 16, 371 Isolation transformer, 239
554 Isolation, transformer, 237 j, imaginary operator, 38 Joule, 384 Joule’s Law, 49 KCL, 19, 101 Keyboard, piano, 10 Kirchhoff ’s Current Law, 19, 101 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law, 19, 49, 101 Klystron tube, 532 KVL, 19, 49, 101 L, symbol for inductance, 59 Lagging phase shift, 21, 59, 83, 360 Laminated iron core, 269 Leading phase shift, 21, 59, 83, 360 Leakage inductance, 227, 229, 271 Lenz’s Law, 59, 445 Line, polyphase system, 306 Linear induction motor, 460 linear variable differential transformer, 267 Lissajous ﬁgure, 378 Litz wire, 75 Load, nonlinear, 385 Loop antenna, 24 Lowpass ﬁlter, 190 LVDT, 267, 397 M, symbol for mutual inductance, 221 Magnetic ampliﬁer, 265 Magnetic encoder, 417 Magnetic ﬁeld, 23, 121 Magnetic ﬁeld, rotating, 302 Magnetizing current, 219 Magnetomotive force, 219 Magnetostriction, 277 Magnitude, 12 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, 253 MaxwellWien bridge circuit, 391 Meter movement, 367 Meter, power factor, 360 Mho, unit, 119 Microwaves, 531 MMF, 219 Modulus. vector, 37
INDEX
Motor, 300 Motor, AC, 408 Motor, AC commutator, 479 Motor, AC series, 480 Motor, AC servo, 469 Motor, AC, compensated series motor, 480 Motor, AC, servo, 476 Motor, AC, synchronous, 412 Motor, AC, universal, 480 Motor, capacitorrun, 467 Motor, capacitorstart, 466 Motor, DC, brushless, 417, 438 Motor, hysteresis, 470 Motor, induction, 302 Motor, induction, efﬁciency, 453 Motor, induction, NEMA designs, 451 Motor, induction, power factor, 452 Motor, induction, slip, 450 Motor, induction, speed, 449, 458 Motor, induction, speed control, 458, 462 Motor, induction, starting, 455 Motor, induction, synchronous speed, 449 Motor, induction, torque, 450 Motor, induction, wound rotor, 460 Motor, permanentsplit capacitor, 465 Motor, power factor corrector, 453, 467 Motor, reluctance, 421 Motor, repulsion, 481 Motor, repulsion start induction, 481 Motor, shaded pole, 469 Motor, splitphase, 467 Motor, stepper, hybrid, 435 motor, stepper, permanent magnet, 431 Motor, stepper, variable reluctance, 428 motor, stepper, variable reluctance, 421 Motor, switched reluctance, 421 Motor, synchronous, 302, 412 Motor, variable reluctance, 421 Motor/generator set, 234 Multiplier, 369 Mutual inductance, 221 Mutual induction, 4 Natural impedance, 492 Negative sequence, 344 NEMA induction motor designs, 451
INDEX
Network, “crossover”, 189 Neutral conductor, 286 Node, vs. antinode, 505 Noise, transformer, 277 Nola power factor corrector, 453, 467 Nonsinusoidal, 10 Nonlinear components, 168, 318, 385 Nonsinusoidal, 153 Norton’s Theorem, 253 Notation, polar, 37 Notation, rectangular, 37 Notch ﬁlter, 202 Null detector, 387 Null detector, AC bridge, 387 Null meter, 387 Number, complex, 21, 28, 351 Number, imaginary, 38 Number, real, 38 Number, scalar, 27, 351 Octave, 10 Ohm’s Law, 19, 49, 88, 101 Ohm’s Law , 64 Ohm, unit, 119 Optical encoder, 417 Oscillation, 124 Oscillator, 135 Oscilloscope, 9, 378 Overtone, 156, 387, 508 p, symbol for instantaneous power, 58, 82 P, symbol for true power, 352 Parallel analysis, 106 Parallel circuit rules, 101 Parallel LC resonance, 128 PCB, 195 Peak, 12 Peaktopeak, 12 Peaking transformer, 272 Pendulum, 121 Period, 8 Permanent magnet moving coil, 367 Permanent magnet stepper motor, 431 Permittivity, relative, 492 Phase, 20 Phase rotation, 296 Phase sequence, 296 Phase shift, 20 Phase shift, vector, 30 Phase, transformer, 239 Piano, 10 Piezoelectricity, 376 Pitch (musical), 9 PMMC, 367 Polar notation, 37 Polarity, AC, 44, 53, 286 Pole, alternator, 294 Polyphase induction motor, 442 Polyphase, 289, 291 Positive sequence, 344 Potential transformer, 256, 372 Potentiometer, 396 Powdered iron core, 270 Power factor, 347 Power factor meter, 360 Power factor, induction motor, 452 Power quality, 385 Power quality meter, 385 Power triangle, 353 Power, apparent, 352 Power, negative, 59 Power, reactive, 352 Power, true, 352 Primary coil, 221 Primary transformer coil, 4 Principal mode, 531 Printed circuit board, 195 PT, 256, 372 Pythagorean Theorem, 41 Q, quality factor, 378 Q, resonant circuit, 145 Q, symbol for quality factor, 76 Q, symbol for reactive power, 352 Quality factor, 76 Quartz crystal, 376 R, symbol for resistance, 64, 87, 119 Radian, angular measurement, 61, 85 Radio, 23, 78 Radio wave, 23 Ratio, transformer, 232
555
556 Reactance, 119 Reactance, capacitive, 83, 84 Reactance, inductive, 59, 61 Real number, 38 Rectangular notation, 37 Rectiﬁcation, fullwave, 171 Rectiﬁcation, halfwave, 169 Rectiﬁer, 367 Rectiﬁer, siliconcontrolled, 168 Reﬂected wave, 493 Reﬂectometer, timedomain, 494 Relative permittivity, 492 Reluctance, 219 Reluctance motor, 421 Repulsion motor, 481 Repulsion start induction motor, 481 Resistance, 119 Resistance, AC, 77 Resistance, DC, 77 Resistance, effective, 76 Resistor, multiplier, 369, 372 Resistor, shunt, 372 Resolver, 398, 417 Resolver, synchro, 478 Resonance, 126, 505 Resonance, mechanical, 144, 374 Resonance, parallel, 126 Resonance, parallel LC, 128 Resonance, series LC, 131 Resonance, seriesparallel, 136 Resonance, transformer and inductor, 271 Resonant ﬁlter, 204 Resonant frequency formula, 126 Resonant frequency meter, 376 Resonate, 126 Resultant vector, 52 RF: Radio Frequency, 78, 484 Ripple torque, 417 RMS, 16, 371 RootMeanSquare, 16, 371 Rotating magnetic ﬁeld, 302 Rules, parallel circuits, 101 Rules, series circuits, 101 RVDT, 398 S, symbol for apparent power, 352 Saturable reactor, 262 Sawtooth wave, 10 Sawtooth wave , 181 Scalar number, 27, 351 ScottT transformer, 265, 478 SCR, 168 Secondary coil, 221 Secondary transformer coil, 4 Selectivity, 205 Selfinductance, 219 Selsyn, 398, 471 Selsyn, differential transmitter, 473 Selsyn, receiver, 472 Selsyn, transmitter, 472 Sequence, harmonic, 344 Sequence, phase, 296 Series analysis, 101 Series circuit rules, 101 Series LC resonance, 131 Seriesparallel analysis, 110, 120 Servo motor, AC, 476 Shield grounding, 154 Shielded cable, 154 SHM, 125 Siemens, unit, 119 Siliconcontrolled rectiﬁer, 168 Simple Harmonic Motion, 125 Sine function, 6 Sine wave, 6 Singlephase, 283, 288 Sinusoidal, 10, 153 Skin effect, 74, 77, 142, 260, 521, 531 Sound waves, 9 Spectrum analyzer, 166, 385 Spectrum, frequency, 385 Speed control, induction motor, 458 Speed control,induction motor, 462 Speedometer, eddy current, 445 SPICE, 51 SPICE simulation, 128 Splitphase, 287 Square wave, 10, 158 Standard, measurement, 376 Standing wave ratio, 520 Standing waves, 502 Star conﬁguration, 294, 306
INDEX
INDEX
static phase converter, 456 Stepper motor, 426 Stepper motor, biﬁlar winding, 433, 435 Stepper motor, can stack, 434 Stepper motor, hybrid, 435 stepper motor, permanent magnet, 431 Stepper motor, variable reluctance, 421, 428 Superposition Theorem, 185, 291 Surge impedance, 493 Susceptance, 119 swinging choke, 213 Switch, tap, 245 Switched reluctance motor, 421 SWR, 520 Synchro, 398 Synchro (selsyn), 471 Synchro, control transformer, 476 Synchro, differential transmitter, 473 Synchro, receiver, 472 Synchro, resolver, 478 Synchro, transmitter, 472 Synchronous condenser, 420 Synchronous motor, 412 Synchronous speed, induction motor, 449 Tank circuit, 125, 250 Tap switch, 245 TE mode, 532 TEM mode, 531 Tesla Coil, 260 Tesla, Nikola, 260, 302, 408, 442 Theorem, Maximum Power Transfer, 253 Theorem, Norton’s, 253 Theorem, Pythagorean, 41 Theorem, Superposition, 185, 291 Theorem, Thevenin’s, 253 Thevenin’s Theorem, 253 Threephase, 289, 291 Threewire DC system, 289 Timbre, 157 Timedomain reﬂectometer, 494 TM mode, 532 Transducer, 396 Transductor, 265 Transform, Fourier, 162 Transformer, 4, 224
557 Transformer coils, primary and secondary, 4 Transformer core, laminated, 269 Transformer core, powdered iron, 270 Transformer inrush current, 275 Transformer isolation, 237 Transformer ratio, 232 Transformer, ferroresonant, 250 Transformer, peaking, 272 Transformer, ScottT, 478 transformer, ScottT, 265 Transformer, stepdown, 232 Transformer, stepup, 232 Transformer, variable, 244, 397 Transistor, 168 Transmission line, 483 Triangle wave, 10 Triangle wave , 181 Triangle, power, 353 Triplen harmonics, 332, 343 TrueRMS meter, 16 Tube, vacuum, 243 Tuner circuit, radio, 135, 207 TwinT circuit, differential capacitance, 404 Twisted pair cable, 154 Unit, ampturn, 219 Unit, Celsius, 8 Unit, Centigrade, 8 Unit, CPS, 8 Unit, farad, 83 Unit, henry, 59 Unit, Hertz, 8 Unit, joule, 384 Unit, mho, 119 Unit, ohm, 119 Unit, siemens, 119 Unit, voltamp, 268, 352 Unit, voltampreactive, 352 Unit, watt, 352 Universal AC motor, 480 v, symbol for instantaneous voltage, 59, 83 VA, unit, 352 Vacuum tube, 243 Value, instantaneous, 57, 81 VAR, unit, 352
558 Variable capacitor, 402 Variable reluctance motor, 421 Variable reluctance stepper motor, 421, 428 Variable transformer, 244, 397 Variac, 247 Vector, 28, 351 Vector amplitude, 30 Vector angle, 37 Vector length, 37 Vector magnitude, 37 Vector modulus, 37 Vector phase shift, 30 Vector sum, 52 Vector, absolute value, 37 Velocity factor, transmission line, 491 Vibrating reed frequency meter, 374 Voltamp, 268 Voltamp, unit, 352 Voltampreactive, unit, 352 Voltage “polarity,” AC, 44, 53, 286 Voltage regulation, 248 Voltage, commonmode, 237 Voltage, line, 306 Voltage, phase, 306 Voltmeter, 367 Wagner earth, 393 Watt, unit, 352 Wave, electromagnetic, 24 Wave, sawtooth, 10, 181 Wave, sine, 6 Wave, square, 10, 158 Wave, triangle, 10, 181 Waveform symmetry and harmonics, 181, 318 Waveform, nonsinusoidal, 153 Waveform, sinusoidal, 153 Waveguide, 529 Wavelength, 500 Weston meter movement, 16 Wheatstone bridge, 376 Wien bridge circuit, 391 Winding, primary, 225 Winding, secondary, 225 Wire, Litz , 75 Wound rotor induction motor, 460
INDEX
X, symbol for reactance, 61, 64, 84, 87, 119 Xtal, 377 Y conﬁguration, 294, 306 Y, symbol for admittance, 119 Z, symbol for impedance, 64, 65, 87, 88, 119 Zero sequence, 344
INDEX
.
559
.