General Knowledge India Economy Industries in India

Most important industry in terms of employment and production of export goods. In Maharashtra (Mumbai, Sholapur, Pune, Kolhapur, Satara, Wardha, Hajipur), Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Rajkot, Surat, Bhavnagar), Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore Manchestor of South India). Tamil Nadu has the largest number of cotton textile mills in India India manufactures the largest quantity of jute goods in the world. Mainly located in West Bengal, followed by Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, UP, MP The location of silk industry is governed by two factors - prevalence of sericulture practices and availability of skilled labour. Karnataka is the leading producer, followed by West Bengal, Bihar, etc In Punjab (Dhariwal, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Ferozpur), Maharashtra (Mumbai), UP (Kanpur, Mirzapur, Agra, Tanakpur), etc Located near the sources of raw materials and fuel (coal). In Jamshedpur (Jharkhand), Durgapur, Burnpur (W.B.), Bhadrwati (Karnataka), Bokaro (Jharkhand), Rourkela (Orissa), Bhilai (Chhatisgarh), Salem (T.N.), Vishakhapatnam (A.P.)

1

Cotton Textile

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Jute

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Silk Textile

4

Woollen Textiles

5

Iron and steel

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Located mainly near the sources of raw materials, means of transport and cheap electricity. In Hirakud, Koraput (Orissa), Aluminium Smelting Renukoot (UP), Korba (MP), Ratnagiri (Maharashtra), Mettur (TN), Alwaye Copper Smelting In Khetri, Alwar, Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan), Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Agnigundala (A.P.) In Ranchi, Vishakapattnam, Durgapur, Tiruchirapalli, Mumbai, Naini it forms the basis for the manufacturing of industrial, defence equipments, automobiles, railway engines and electrical machinery. In Bangalore, Pinjore (Haryana), Kalamassery (Kerala), Hyderabad, Secunderabad, Srinagar, Ajmer. Power generation equipments. In Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Jammu, Ramchandrapuram (Hyderabad), Hardwar, Bangalore, and Jagdishpur (UP).

7

8

Heavy Machinery Machine Tools Industry

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Heavy Electrical Equipments

Locomotives: In Chittaranjan (WB), Varanasi, Jamshedpur, Bhopal. 10 Railway Equipments Coaches: Perambur(TN), Kapurthala (Punjab), also at Bangalore and Kolkata. 11 Ship Building Hindustan Shipyard at Vishakhapatnam, Cochin Shipyard, Mumbai (Mazgaon Dock) and Kolkata (Garden Reach Workshop). For Indian Navy, only at Mazgaon In Mumbai, Asansol, Sonepat, Delhi, Chennai, Jalandhar and Ludhiana At Faridabad, Pinjore, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai The location of fertilizer industry is closely related to petro-

12 Cycles 13 Tractors 14 Fertilizers

chemicals. About 70% of the plants producing nitrogenous fertilizers use naphtha as raw material Naphtha is a by-product of oil refiners. Phosphate plants are dependent on mineral phosphate found in UP and MP. Now natural gas based fertilizer plants are also being set up. The Fertilizer Corporation of India (FCL) was setup up in 1961. National Fertilizer Limited (NFL) was set up in 1974. In Sindri (Bihar), Nangal, Trombay, Gorakhpur, Durgapur, Namrup, Cochin, Rourkela, Neyveli, Varanasi, Vadodara, Vishakhapattnam, Kota and Kanpur Pharmaceuticals 15 and Drugs 16 Pesticides 17 Sugar Industry 18 Aircraft Antibiotics are prepared at Pimpri and Rishikesh. The Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited has 5 plants at Hyderabad, Rishikesh, Chennai, Gurgaon and Muzaffarpur. A number of other units are concentrated in Mumbai, Baroda, Delhi, Kolkata and Kanpur. Delhi and Alwaye UP, Maharashtra, AP, TN, Karnataka and Bihar Hindustan Aeronautics India Ltd. Was formed by merging two aircraft factories at Bangalore and Kanpur. Four other factories are at Nasik, Hyderabad, Koraput (Orissa), Lucknow Bareilly (UP), Baroda (Gujarat) - Synthetic Rubber Units, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Amritsar - Reclaimed Rubber Units

19 Rubber Industry

Five Year Plans
It was based on Harrod-Domar Model. Community Development Program was launched in 1952. Emphasized on agriculture, price stability, power & transport. It was more than a success, because of good harvests in the last two years. Also called Mahalanobis Plan after its chief architect. Its objective was rapid industrialization. Advocated huge imports which led to emptying of funds leading to foreign loans. It shifted basic emphasis from agriculture to industry far too soon. During this plan, price level increased by 30%, against a decline of 13% during the First Plan. At its conception time, it was felt that Indian economy has entered a take-off stage. Therefore, its aim was to make India a 'self-reliant' and 'self-generating' economy. Also, it was realized from the experience of first two plans that agriculture should be given the top priority to suffice the requirement of export and industry. Complete failure due to unforeseen misfortunes, viz. Chinese aggression (1962), Indo-Pak war (1965), severest drought in 100 years (1965-66). Plan holiday for 3years. The prevailing crisis in agriculture and serious food shortage necessitated the emhasis on agriculture during the Annual Plans. During these plans a whole new agricultural strategy involving widespread distribution of High-Yielding Varieties of seeds, the extensive use of fertilizers, exploitation of irrigation potential and soil conservation was

1

First Plan (1951 - 56)

2

Second Plan (1956 - 61)

3

Third Plan (1961 - 66)

4

Three Annual Plans (196669)

put into action to tide-over the crisis in agricultural production. During the Annual Plans, the economy basically absorbed the shocks given during the Third Plan, making way for a planned growth. Main emphasis on agriculture's growth rate so that a chain reaction can start. Fared well in the first two years with record production, last three years failure because of poor monsoon. Had to tackle the influx of Bangladeshi refugees before and after 1971 Indo-Pak war. The fifth plan prepared and launched by D.D. Dhar proposed to achieve two main objectives viz, 'removal of poverty' (Garibi Hatao) and 'attainment of self reliance', through promotion of high rate of growth, better distribution of income and a very significant growth in the domestic rate of savings. The plan was terminated in 1978 (instead of 1979) when Janta Govt.came to power. There were 2 Sixth Plans. One by Janta Govt. (for 78-83) which was in operation for 2 years only and the other by the Congress Govt. when it returned to power in 1980. Objectives: Increase in national income, modernization of technology, ensuring continuous decrease in poverty and unemployment, population control through family planning, etc. The Seventh plan emphasized policies and programs which aimed at rapid growth in food-grains production, increased employment opportunities and productivity within the framework of basic tenants of planning. It was a great success, the economy recorded 6% growth rate against the targeted 5%. The eighth plan was postponed by two years because of political upheavals at the Centre and it was launched after a worsening Balance of Payment position and inflation during 1990-91. The plan undertook various drastic policy measures to combat the bad economic situation and to undertake an annual average growth of 5.6% Some of the main economic performances during eighth plan period were rapid economic growth, high growth of agriculture and allied sector, and manufacturing sector, growth in exports and imports, improvement in trade and current account deficit. It was developed in the context of four important dimensions: Quality of life, generation of productive employment, regional balance and selfreliance. To achieve the growth rate of GDP @ 8%. Reduction of poverty ratio to 20% by 2007 and to 10% by 2012. Providing gainful high quality employment to the addition to the labour force over the tenth plan period. Universal access to primary education by 2007. Reduction in gender gaps in literacy and wage rates by atleast 50% by 2007. Reduction in decadal rate of population growth between 2001 and 2011 to 16.2%. Increase in literacy rate to 72% within the plan period and to 80% by 2012.

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Fourth Plan (1969 - 74)

6

Fifth Plan(1974-79)

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Rolling Plan (1978 - 80) Sixth Plan (1980 - 85)

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9

Seventh Plan (1985 - 90)

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Eighth Plan (1992 - 97)

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Ninth Plan (1997- 2002)

12 Tenth Plan (2002 - 2007)

Reduction of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 45 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 28 by 2012. Increase in forest and tree cover to 25% by 2007 and 33% by 2012. All villages to have sustained access to potable drinking water by 2012. Cleaning of all major polluted rivers by 2007 and other notified stretches by 2012.

Growth During Five Year Plans
Plan First Plan (1951 - 56) Second Plan (1956 - 61) Third Plan (1961 - 66) Fourth Plan (1969 - 1974) Fifth Plan (1974 - 79) Sixth Plan (1980 - 85) Seventh Plan (1985 - 90) Eighth Plan (1992 - 97) Ninth Plan (1997 - 2002) Tenth Plan (2002 - 2007) Target 2.9% 4.5% 5.6% 5.7% 4.4% 5.2% 5.0% 5.6% 6.5% 8.0% Actual 3.6% 4.3% 2.8% 3.3% 4.8% 6.0% 6.0% 6.8% 5.4% -

Important Antipoverty Employment Generation Programs
Started on April 1, 1999. It has replaced the following programs: Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP) : Started in 1978 79). Training Rural Youth for Self -Employment (TRYSEM): Started in 1978-79. Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA): Started in 1978 -79. Ganga Kalyan Yojana (GKY): Started in 1997. Million Wells Scheme (MWS): Started in 1989. Supply of Improved Tool-kits to Rural Artisans (SITRA). The yojana takes into account all the strengths and weaknesses of the earlier self-employment programs. Every assisted family will be brought above the poverty line. It is proposed to cover 30% of the rural poor in each block. To Target at atleast 50% Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, 40% women and 3% disabled. It was introduced in 2000-01 with the objective of focusing on village level development in five critical areas I.e., primary health, primary education, housing, rural roads and drinking water and nutrition with

Swaranjayanti 1 Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGRY)

2 Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)

1997. The SJSRY came into operation in Dec. 1999. with the mergence of the Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) and the Jawahar Gram Sampoorna Gramin Samriddhi Yojana (JGSY).2 per kg of wheat and Rs. West Bengal West Bengal. Rajasthan. Launched on Dec. Assam . It has the following components: Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (Gramin Awas). Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (Rural Drinking Water Project).2000. Uttaranchal. (SGRY) The objective of the program is to provide additional wage employment in rural areas and also to provide food security. Earlier Jawahar Rozgar Yojana. 25. It seeks to provide employment to the urban employed or underemployed living below poverty line and educated up to IX standard through encouraging the setting up of self-employment ventures or provision of wage employment. Jammu and Kashmir. Sikkim. Uttaranchal. Arunachal Pradesh. UP. which 3 Rozgar Yojana started in 1989.2 per Kg for wheat and Rs.3 per Kg for rice.the overall objective of improving the quality of life of people in rural areas. Sikkim. Meghalaya. Gujarat. was merged with Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana. Inaugurated on March 19. it was extended to cover those people who get old age pensions. Punjab. 25. Swarna Jayanti 4 Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) 5 Antyodaya Anna Yojana 6 Annapurna Yojana General Knowledge Indian Geography Indian States International Boundaries 1 Bordering Pakistan 2 Bordering China 3 Bordering Nepal 4 Bordering Bangladesh Jammu and Kashmir. through a restructuring and streamlining of the earlier urban poverty alleviation programs.3 per kg of rice. It was started on Sept. Himachal Pradesh. Later on. Bihar. the Urban Basic Services for the Poor (UBSP) and the Prime Minister's Integrated Urban Poverty alleviation Program (PMIUPEP). Rural electrification was added as an additional component from 2001-02. Mizoram. Initially the scheme provided 10 kg food grains to senior citizens who were eligible fore old age pension but could not get it due to one reason or the other. The scheme aims at providing food security to poor families.2001. Tripura. the Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY). The scheme contemplates identification of 10 million 'poorest of the poor' families and providing the \m with 25kg of food grains per family per month at a low price of Rs. Food grains are provided to the beneficiaries at subsidized rates of Rs.

84.756 7.3 Sec 59% Neil Armstrong and Edvin Aldrin on Apollo XI (1969) Heights of Some Important Indian Peaks SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 K2 Kanchen Junga Nanga Parvat Gasher Brum Broad Peak Disteghil Sar Masher Brum E Nanda Devi Masher Brum W Rakaposhi Kamet Saser Kangri Peak Height in metres above mean Sea Level 8.047 7.611 8.598 8. 7hrs.476 km 1 : 3. 27 days. 43 min & 11. Sikkim.occupied area) Moon Important Facts Average distance from Earth Diameter Ratio of diameter of moon to that of earth Rotation speed Revolution Speed Time taken by moonlight to reach earth Percent of surface visible from earth First man to reach moon 3.7 27 days.068 8. Mizoram Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan . Manipur. Assam Arunachal Pradesh. 1. 43 min & 11.672 . 2hrs. Nagaland.806 7.5 Bordering Bhutan 6 Bordering Myanmar 7 Bordering Afghanistan West Bengal.788 7.821 7.47Sec.817 7. Arunachal Pradesh.47 Sec.126 8.885 7.365 km 3.

Karnataka Maharashtra.066 Important Crops India 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rice Wheat Maize Bajra Jowar West Bengal. Karnataka. Bihar. Karnataka. Punjab. UP. Punjab. Maharashtra.135 7. Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu. Punjab. Maharashtra UP. Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan. Andhra Pradesh. UP Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu. Gujarat.138 7. Assam Assam. MP. Tamil Nadu Kerala. Rajasthan Karnataka. UP UP. Rajasthan UP. Karnataka Rajasthan. Karnataka 11 Soyabean 12 Sunflower 13 TOTAL OIL SEEDS 14 Sugarcane 15 Cotton 16 Jute and Mesta 17 Tea 18 Coffee 19 Rubber .544 7. AP TOTAL COARSE Maharashtra. UP CEREALS TOTAL PULSES TOTAL FOOD GRAINS Groundnut Rapeseed And Mustard MP.090 7.128 7. Andhra Pradesh WB. Maharashtra. Andhra Pradesh. West Bengal Gujarat. UP.422 Chaukhamba (Badrinath Peak) 7. Haryana Madhya Pradesh.13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Skyang Kangri Sia Kangri 7. West Bengal. Gujarat. Kerala. Haryana Madhya Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh Karnataka.138 Trisul West Nunkun Pauhunri Kangto Dunagiri 7. Maharashtra MP.

20 Silk 21 Tobacco Karnataka. eri and muga. Andhra Pradesh. Karnataka Important Indian Town Rivers SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Town Allahabad Patna Varanasi Kanpur Hardwar Badrinath Agra Delhi Mathura Ferozpur Ludhiana Srinagar Lucknow Jaunpur Ayodhya Bareilly Ahmedabad Kota Jabalpur Panji Ujjain Surat Jamshedpur Dibrugarh Guwahati River At the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna Ganga Ganga Ganga Ganga Alaknanda Yamuna Yamuna Yamuna Satluj Satluj Jhelum Gomti Gomti Saryu Ram Ganga Sabarmati Chambal Narmada Mandavi Kshipra Tapti Swarnarekha Brahmaputra Brahmaputra . Gujarat. Mulberry is the main variety. In India all 4 varieties of silk are available. Andhra Pradesh. while tussar is mainly found in Bihar. tussar. Jammu and Kashmir. Mulberry.

Mumbai Thane and Chennai via Pune and Belgaun.Varanasi .Vijaywada Delhi .Mumbai (Via Jaipur.Nasik .Kanpur .Agra .Gwalior .Kolkata Agra .Amritsar.26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Kolkata Sambalpur Cuttack Serirangapatnam Hyderabad Nasik Vijayvada Curnool Tiruchirapalli Hooghly Mahanadi Mahanadi Cauvery Musi Godavari Krishna Tungabhadra Cauvery Important National Highways SNo National Highways 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 NH 1 NH 2 NH 3 NH 4 NH 5 NH 6 NH 7 NH 8 NH 9 NH 10 Connects New Delhi . Baroda and Ahmedabad) Mumbai .Dhule Varanasi .Allahabad .Jalandhar .Ambala .Fazilka Important Rivers India .Kanyakumari Delhi . Delhi .Mathura .Chennai Kolkata . Kolkata .

In Maharashtra Rann of Kuchchh 450 Near Fatehabad Gulf of Khambat Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal 494 416 0 1465 805 Brahmagir Range of Western Ghats Bay of Bengal Important River Valley Projects .P.P. Raipur Distt. Matsatung Glacier Near Gosain Dham Peak Vindhyanchal Amarkantak Brahmaputra Near Mansarovar Lake Narmada Tapti Mahanadi Luni Ghaggar Sabarmati Krishna Godavari Cauvery Amarkantak Betul Distt. In M.SNo 23 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Name Origin From Falls into Krishna river Bay of Bengal Chenab Arabian Sea Chenab Satluj Chenab Ganga Yamuna Ganga Ganga Yamuna Ganga Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambat Gulf of Khambat Bay of Bengal Length (km) 640 2525 1050 2880 720 470 725 1375 1050 1080 730 480 780 2900 1057 724 858 Tungabhadra Western Ghats Ganges Satluj Indus Ravi Beas Jhelum Yamuna Chambal Ghagra Kosi Betwa Son Combined Sources Mansarovar Rakas Lakes Near Mansarovar Lake Kullu Hills near Rohtang Pass Near Rohtang Pass Verinag in Kashmir Yamunotri M. In Chhatisgarh Aravallis Himalayas Aravallis Western Ghats Nasik Distt.

On Tapi in Gujarat. Punjab On Bhgirathi. On Mahanadi in Orissa. Gujarat/MP. On Krishna in AP On Tungabhadra in AP & Karnataka On Cauvery in Karnataka. It is the oldest river valley project of India. Ht 226 m. Uttaranchal Sardar Sarovar Project On Narmada. Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Jawahar Sagar Dam. Based on Tennessee Valley Project. On Damodar in Bihar. On Mayrukashi in WB. On Kosi in N. . On Manjra in AP. On Bhima in Maharashtra On Jog Falls in Karnataka In TN On Ganga in WB. World's longest dam: 4801m On Son in Mirzapur. Apart from power and irrigation it helps to remove silt for easy navigation. On Beas in HP On Chambal in MP & Rajasthan. Highest in India.Bihar. Punjab On Beas. USA. 3 dams are there: Gandhi Sagar Dam.Sno 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Project Name Bhakra Nangal Project Mandi Project Chambal Valley Project Damodar Valley Project Hirakud Project Rihand Project Kosi Project Mayurkashi Project Kakrapara Project Nizamsagar Project Nagarjuna Sagar Project Tungabhadra Project Shivasamudram Project Tata Hydel Scheme Sharavathi Hydel Project Kundah & Periyar Project Farakka Project Ukai Project Mahi Project Salal Project River Name On Sutlaj in Punjab. Reservoir is called Gobind Sagar Lake. Reservoir is called Govind Vallabh Pant reservoir. On Tapti in Gujarat On Mahi in Gujarat On Chenab in J & K Mata Tila Multipurpose On Betwa in UP & MP Project Thein Project Pong Dam Tehri Project On Ravi.

Kalahandi). Bankura. Bhandara. Darjeeling) Jharkhand (Jharia. Giridih. etc. Hussan) 1 Coal 2 Manganese 3 Copper . Pench valley.290 1.510 1. Hazaribagh. Korba. Kharhawadi. Betul). cement industry. Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat. Madhya Pradesh and Chhatisgarh (Rewa. Sohagpur. Hindgir. Kanha valley.Haldia (riverine port) Paradip (exports raw iron into Japan) Vishakhapatnam (deepest port) Chennai (oldest and artificial) Mangalore (exports Kudremukh iron-ore) Ennore (most modern in private hands) Cochin (natural Harbour) Tuticorin (southernmost) Mineral Resources of India West Bengal (Raniganj. Palamau). Masobani. Birbhum. Talcher. Karnataka (Chitradurg.Lengths of Some Important Indian Rivers SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Indus Brahmaputra Ganga Godavari Narmada Krishna Mahanadi Cauvery River 3. Surda). Karnapura. etc. Burdwan. Maharashtra (Nagpur. Jharkhand (Singhbhum. Power sector is the largest consumer of coal in India followed by steel industry. Ratnagiri). Garibadi). Rajasthan (Khetri). Bonai.290 890 760 Length (km) Major Ports in India SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 Western Coast Kandla (Child of partition) Mumbai (busiest and biggest) Jawahar Lal Nehru (fastest growing) Marmugao (naval base also) Eastern Coast Kolkata . Karnataka (Keonjhar. Rampur.900 2. Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat).450 1.000 2. Orissa. Jalpaigudi. Purulia. Sambhal). Orissa (Rampur. Mand river area. Umaria. Andhra Pradesh (Kadur. Bokaro. Chhindawara).

Narimanam. Udaipur. Jharkhand (Singhbhum.4 Mica Jharkhand (Hazaribagh. In Orissa (Kalahandi. Andhra Pradesh. Chikmagalur. Andhra Pradesh (Ramgiri and Yeppamanna goldfields in Chittor and Anantapur districts Rajasthan (Zawar mines near Udaipur). Karnataka (Kolar mines) Jharkhand (Jaduguda). Bihar (Gaya. Naomundi). Balaghat). Hutti. The private sector refinery of Reliance Limited is at Jamnagar. Recently oil has been discovered in Cauvery basin. Kochi. Karnataka (Bababudan hills. a very high-grade iron ore. Goa (North Goa). Mathura. etc. Oil Refineries Vishakhapatnam. Bolangir. Japan is the biggest buyer accounting for about 3/4th of India's total exports. Krishna and Godawari basin. Andhra Pradesh (Nellore. Andhra Pradesh. Barauni. In Madhya Pradesh (Bailadila. Hospet). Andhra Pradesh (Mysore. Sambalpur). Katni. Paradip. Karnataka (Gulbarga) Kerala coast (From Monazite sand). Zinc and Lead 11 Uranium 12 Thorium Earth Some Important Facts . Andhra Pradesh (Guntur. Public sector refineries are located at Digboi. Major ports handling iron ore export are Vishakhapatnam. Naharkatiya. Kharmbat basin. Chennai. Kodarma. Guwahati. Bongaigaon. Panipat. Kalol). India possesses Haematite. Raichur). Maharashtra. Badarpur. one in joint sector and one in private sector. Tamil Nadu Karnataka (Kolar. Rajasthan (Ajmer). Koraput. Jaipur) Assam (Digboi. Kurnool). Madhya Pradesh (Jabalpur. Gujarat. Joint sector refinery is at Mangalore. Marmagao and Mangalore. Orissa India is the fifth largest exporter of Iron ore in the world. Mumbai (2). Jharkhand (Lohardaga. Rajasthan (Bhilwara. Jabalpur). Mumbai High. Koyali. Sundargarh. Khambat. rocks of Aravallis in Rajasthan 7 Iron 8 Bauxite 9 10 Gold Silver. Nalgonda). etc. Gujarat (Ankleshwar. Gumla). Giridih. Haldia. 16 in public sector. Vizag. Bassein (south of Mumbai High). Shahdol. Masinpur and Pallharia). Bhagalpur). Chitradurg). Mandla. Numanigarh and Tatipaka. Chief ore for producing aluminium. 5 Petroleum 6 There are 18 refineries in India.

91 sec 365 days. 5hrs & 45.51 sec Mar.km 29.21 (Vernal Equinox).755 km 12.976 x 10kg 1. Dec. 56 min & 40.2 km/sec Mount Everest (8. Sept.033 m) 40.076 km 40.083 x 10 litres 5.518 kg/lt 510 million sq.024 km 14C About 152 million km Minimum distance from sun (Perihelion) About 147 million km Rotation Speed Revolution Speed Dates when days & nights are equal Dates of longest days and shortest nights 23 hrs.712 km 11.Age Mass Volume Mean Density Total Surface Area Land Area Water Area Equatorial Diameter Polar Diameter Escape Velocity Highest Land Point Lowest Land Point Greatest Ocean Depth Equatorial Circumference Polar Circumference Mean Surface Temperature Maximum distance from sun (Aphelion) 4.8% of the total surface area 12.2% of the total surface area 70. 22 (Winter Solstice) National Parks and Wild Life Sanctuaries . 23 (Autumnal Equinox) June 21 (Summer Solstice).852 m) Dead Sea (396 m) Mariana Trench (11.550 million years 5.

In Assam II home of Asiatic Lion. In UP In Bharatpur. In Assam One horned rhino. Home of tiger In MP In MP in Jharkhand In Kerala In UP In TN In Meghalaya In Rajasthan In Rajasthan In Arunachal Pradesh 10 Hazaribagh National Park 11 Periyar Game Sanctuary 12 Dudhwa National Park 13 Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary 14 Nokrek National Park 15 Sariska Sanctuary 16 Ranthambhor National Park 17 Namdapha National Park 18 Keibul Lamjo Floating National Park In Manipur 19 Palamau Tiger Project 20 Simlipal National Park 21 Ranganthittoo Bird Sanctuary 22 Nagarhole National Park 23 Mudumalai Sanctuary 24 Balpakram Sanctuary 25 Bandipur Sanctuary 26 Jaldapara Sanctuary 27 Wild Ass Sanctuary In Bihar In Orissa In Mysore. Nuclear Power Stations . In Kashmir In Uttaranchal. Rajasthan For Hangul. In Gujarat One horned rhino. Gujarat.Tamil Nadu border In West Bengal. Karnataka In Karnataka In TN In Meghalaya Along the Karnataka . For wild ass.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Gir Forests Kaziranga Sanctuary Manas Sanctuary Chandraprabha Sanctuary Ghana of Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary Dachigam Sanctuary Corbett National Park Kanha National Park Shiv Puri National Park Home of Asiatic lion. For rhinos In Rann of Kutch.

India's oldest and biggest In Tamil Nadu.1 Tarapur 2 Kalpakkam 3 Rawatbhata 4 Narora 5 Kaiga 6 Kakrapara In Maharashtra . called Indira Gandhi Nuclear Power Station In Kota. under construction with the assistance of Russia Railway Zones SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Central Eastern Northern North Eastern North-East Frontier Southern South Central South Eastern Western East Coast East Central North Central North Western South Western West Central SouthEast Central Railway Zones Mumbai VT Kolkata New Delhi Gorakhpur Maligaon . Rajasthan In Uttar Pradesh In Karnataka In Gujarat 7 Kudankulam In Tamil Nadu.Guwahati Chennai Secunderabad Kolkata Mumbai Churchgate Bhubaneshwar Hajipur Allahabad Jaipur Bangalore (Hubli) Jabalpur Bilaspur Head Quarters Sanctuaries and Parks in India .

chital. Madhya Pradesh Border of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu Bangalore Karnataka Chikmagalur. Chhattisgarh Shahdol. famous sportsman Dachigam Sanctuary Datma Sanctuary Dandeli Sanctuary Dudhwa National Park Gandhi Sagar Sanctuary Garampani Sanctuary Ghana Bird Sanctuary Location Bilaspur. sambar. chital. chital. wild bear Tiger. leopard. green pigeon Elephant. Pradesh chital. sambar India's biggest wild life sanctuary famous for Gir lions Tiger. leopards. panther. sambar. wild bear Tiger. nilgai. Kashmir Singbhum. sambar. Mandsaur. nilgai. leopard. sambar. sambar Kashmiri stag Elephants. barking deer Chital. Jharkhand Tiger. wild boar. wild buffalo. chital.P. chital. M. chinkara Famous for Gir lions. leopard. Uttaranchal Dachigam. panther. leopard. sambar. chital. Bihar Hazaribagh. chinkara. sambar. barking deer Tiger.Name Achanakmar Sanctuary Bandhavgarh National Park Bandipur Sanctuary Banarghatta National Park Bhadra Sancturary Bhimabandh Sanctuary Bori Sanctuary Borivli National Park Chandraprabha Sanctuary Corbett National Park named in memory of Jim Corbett. black-buck. panther. Bihar Reserves for Tiger. chital. Uttaranchal Dharwar. chital. panther. Karnataka Lakhimpurkheri U. leopard. panther. . langur Water birds. chital and sambar Tiger. barking deer Mumbai Near Varanasi Uttar Pradesh Nainital. deer. elephants. Karnataka Monghyr. Gujarat Gautam Buddha Sanctuary Hazaribagh Sanctuary Gaya. sambar. wild bear. wild bear Elephant. birds Elephant. tigers. water birds Hoshangabad. wild birds Elephant. sambar. Diphu. gray Partridges. barking deer Gir Forest Junagarh. Assam Bharatpur. chital. wild boar. Madhya Tiger. bear. sambar. bison Tiger. elephant. nilgai. deer. barking deer. wild bear. sambar. panther. Rajasthan Panther.P. chital. langur.

elephant. panther. barking deer. panther. snow pigeon Tiger. Himalayan bear Tiger. chital. wild bear Kaziranga National Park Jorhat. H. A. nilgai Tiger. sambar.P. panther.sambar. panther. leopard. Sikkim Khamrsan. chital.P. bear. Palghat. tiger. Rajasthan Shimoga. panther. panther. chital. Karnataka Tirap. tiger. musk deer. wild bear Horned rhinoceros. sambar. nilgai Pelicans. gaur chital. sambar. wild cat Intangki Sanctuary Jaldapara Sanctuary Kawal Sanctuary Kohima. Assam Khangchandzendra National Park Kinnersani Sanctuary Kolleru Pelicanary Nagerhole National Park Namdafa Sanctuary Nawegaon National Park Pachmarhi Sanctuary Pakhal Sanctuary Parambikulam Sanctuary Pench National Park Gangtok. sambar. M. nilgai Elephant. panther. nilgai.P. Elluru A. Warangal A. chital. wild bear Important bird sanctuary Snow leopard. A. gaur. sambar. panther. brown bear. elephant. gaur. gaur. nilgai. panther. sambar. gaur. nilgai. tiger. Maharashtra Hoshangabad. musk deer. chital. wild buffalo Snow leopard.P. painted stork Elephant. panther. chital. panther. barking deer Tiger. snow cock. wild boar Rhinoceros Tiger. chital. chital Tiger. nilgai. nilgai Tiger. Karnataka . Coorg. Arunachal Pradesh Bhandara. gaur. Maharashtra Periyar Sanctuary Idukki. tiger. sambar.P. gaur. Ranganthittoo Bird Sanctuary Rohla National Park Sariska Sanctuary Sharaswathy Valley Sanctuary Alwar. Kerala Nagpur. sambar. Kerala Islands in Cauvery river in Karnataka Kulu. king cobra Tiger.P. leopard. chital Elephant. Nagaland West Bengal Adilabad. gaur. Elephant. tiger. panther. sambar. chinkara Elephant. sambar.

P. panther.P. sambar. musk deer. • Born in 563 BC on the Vaishakha Poornima Day at Lumbini (near Kapilavastu) in Nepal. West Bengal General Knowledge Indian History Buddhism The Buddha: • The Buddha also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata. hyena. Brought up by stepmother Gautami. panther. partridge Tiger. Similipal Sanctuary Someshwara Sanctuary Sunderban Tiger Reserve Mayurbhanj. a corpse and an ascetic. leopard Tiger. • His mother (Mahamaya. nilgai Elephant.Shikari Devi Sanctuary Mandi. . a sick man. panther. Karnataka South 24 parganas. gaur. Orissa Canara. chital Tiger. M. crocodile. Black bear. deer. leopard. of Kosala dynastry) died after 7 days of his birth. he decided to become a wanderer. Enjoyed the married life for 13years and had a son named Rahula. • Married at 16 to Yoshodhara. wild boar. sloth bear. H. hyena. • After seeing an old man. wild boar. Gangetic dolphin Shivpuri National Park Shivpuri. • His father Suddhodana was the Saka ruler. tiger. leopard.

the third part of the Tripitaka was coded in the Pali language. . in 483 BC under the Chairmanship of Mehakassaapa (king was Ajatshatru). in 383 BC under Sabakami (King was Kalasoka). contains collection of Buddha’s sermons. Vinaya Pitaka: Rules of discipline in the Buddhist monasteries. Buddist Literature: In Pali language. • • Delivered the first sermon at Sarnath where his five disciples had settled. Abhidhamma Pitaka: Explanation of the philosophical principles of the Buddhist religion Constitutional Development Regulating Act. Vice-Chairman was Ashwaghosha). Divided the teachings of Buddha into two Pitakas-Vinaya Pitaka and Sutta Pitaka. • Second Council: At Vaishali. His first sermon is called ‘Dharmachakrapracartan’ or ‘Turning of the Wheel of Law’. Sutta Pitaka: Largest. 1773: • End of Dual govt. Divided Buddhism into Mahayana and Hinayana sects.• Left his palace at 29 in search of truth (also called ‘Mahabhinishkramana’ or The Great Renunication) and wandered for 6 years. Buddhist Councils: • First Council: At Rajgriha.Followers divided into Sthavirmadins and Mahasanghikas. Attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar (identical with village Kasia in Deoria district of UP) in 483 BC at the age of 80 in the Malla republic. in 72 AD under Vasumitra (King was Kanishka. in 250 BC under Mogaliputta Tissa (King was Ashoka) In this. • Fourth council: At Kashmir (Kundalvan). • Third Council: At Pataliputra. • Attained ‘Enlightenment’ at 35 at Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal tree.

In fact. the company became a subordinate department of the State. 1858: • Rule of Company in India ended and that of the Crown began. Charter Act of 1793: • • Company given monopoly of trade for 20 more years. Governor General of Bengal to be Governor General of India (1st Governor General of India was Lord William Bentinck). Charter Act of 1853: • The Act renewed the powers of the Company and allowed it to retain the possession of Indian territories in trust of the British crown. Charter Act of 1833: • • End of Company’s monopoly even in tea and trade with China. by written laws. Government of India Act. Pitts Act of 1784: This Act gave the British Government a measure of control over the company’s affairs. . • Establishment of Supreme Court in Calcutta. Charter Act of 1813: • Company deprived of its trade monopoly in India except in tea and trade with China. • Recruitment to Civil Services was based on open annual competition examination (excluding Indians). It laid the foundation of govt.• Governor of Bengal to be the Governor – General of British territories of India. interpreted by courts. He was to exercise the powers of the Crown. • A post of Secretary of State (a member of the British cabinet) for India created. Company was asked to close its business at the earliest. Act of 1786: • Governor General given the power to over-ride the Council and was made the Commander-in-chief also.

Indian Council Act. Indian Council Act. He represented Secretary of State and was assisted by an Executive Council. The Transferred subjects were to be administrated by the Governor with the aid of ministers responsible to the Legislative Council. 1892: • Indians found their way in the Provincial Legislative Councils. The Provincial subjects of administration were to be divided into 2 categories: Transferred and Reserved. 1909 or Morley-Minto Act: It envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims.• Secretary of State governed India through the Governor General. Department of Foreign Affairs and Defence were reserved for the Governor General). Government of India Act. The joining of Princely States was voluntary and as a result the federation did not come into existence. • Dyarchy was introduced at the Centre (Eg. 1919 Or Montague-Chelmsford Reforms: • • Dyarchy system introduced in the provinces. it actually happened after 1935 Act. 1861: • The Executive Council was now to be called Central Legislative Council. which consisted of high officials of the Govt. • Burma (now Myanmar) separated from India. Provincial autonomy replaced Dyarchy in provinces. They were granted separate legal identify. Government of India Act. 1935: • Provided for the establishment of All-India Federation consisting of the British Provinces and the Princely States. Governor Generals of India Lord William Bentinck (1828 – 1835): • Carried out the social reforms like Prohibition of Sati (1829) and elimination of thugs (1830). Indian Council Act. • Governor General received the title of Viceroy. Indian legislature became bicameral for the first time. . The Governor and the Executive Council were to administer the reserved subjects without any responsibility to the legislature.

which made communication easier. . Udaipur (1852). • Made Shimla the summer capital. Jhansi (1853) and Nagpur (1854). the designation was Governor General of Bengal. Lord Ellenborough (1842 – 1844) Lord Hardinge I (1844 – 1848) Lord Dalhousie (1848 – 1856): • Opened the first Indian Railway in 1853 (from Bombay to Thane). The harbors of Karachi. Bombay and Calcutta were also developed. Jaipur and Sambhalpur (1849). Many bridges were constructed and the work on Grand Trunk Road was started. • Started the Public Works Department. Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835 – 1836): Abolished all restrictions on vernacular press (called Liberator of the Press). Lord Auckland (1836 – 1842): The most important event of his reign was the First Afghan War. • Laid out the telegraph lines in 1853 (First was from Calcutta to Agra). which proved to be a disaster for the English. made him the first Governor General of India.• Made English the Medium of higher education in the country (After the recommendations of Macaulay). • Charter Act of 1833 was passed. • Established the postal system on the modern lines through the length and breadth of the country. Before him. • Suppressed female infanticide and child sacrifice. • Introduced the Doctrine of Lapse and captured Satara (1848).

which provided for the properly articulated system of education from the primary school to the university. • In 1854.N.Aiyar B. remarriage of widows was legalized by Widow Remarriage Act.G.G.S. Newspaper Journals Newspaper/Journal Bengal Gazette(1780) (India’s first newspaper) Kesari Maharatta Sudharak Amrita Bazar Patrika Vande Mataram Native Opinion Kavivachan Sudha Rast Goftar (First newspaper in Gujarati) New India (Weekly) Statesman Hindu Sandhya Vichar Lahiri Hindu Patriot Som Prakash Yugantar J.• Started Engineering College at Roorkee.B. • Due to Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar’s efforts.Upadhyaya Krishnashastri Chiplunkar Girish Chandra Ghosh (later Harish Chandra Mukherji) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Bhupendranath Datta and Barinder Kumar Ghosh Founder/Editor .Tilak G. • Encouraged science.Tilak B.K.K. “Wood’s Dispatch’ was passed. commerce.Mandalik Bhartendu Harishchandra Dadabhai Naoroji Bipin Chandra Pal Robert Knight Vir Raghavacharya and G. mineralogy and industry. forestry.Gokhale Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh Aurobindo Ghosh V. 1856).Hikki B.

M.Gandhi Swami Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda Shyamji Krishna Verma Birendra Nath Chattopadhyaya Tarak Nath Das K.K.R. Joglekar.Gandhi M. all Kshatriyas.M. • There were 24 Tirthankaras (Prophets or Gurus).Ambedkar Mohammed Ali Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan Abdul Kalam Azad Abdul Kalam Azad Motilal Nehru Lala Lajpat Rai Annie Besant Annie Besant Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi M.K.Bombay Chronicle Hindustan Mooknayak Comrade Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq Al-Hilal Al-Balagh Independent Punjabi New India (Daily) Commonweal Pratap Essays in Indian Economics Samvad Kaumudi (Bengali) Mirat-ul-Akhbar Indian Mirror Nav Jeevan Young India Harijan Prabudha Bharat Udbodhana Indian Socialist Talwar (in Berlin) Free Hindustan (in Vancouver) Hindustan Times Kranti Firoze Shah Mehta M.Ranade Ram Mohan Roy Ram Mohan Roy (first Persian newspaper) Devendra Nath Tagore M.G.K.Pannikar Mirajkar.Gandhi M.Malviya B. Ghate Jainism • Jainism founded by Rishabha. First was Rishabhnath .

whose husband Jamali became his first disciple. Bihar) in 599 BC. • The 24th and the last Tirthankar was Vardhman Mahavira (Emblem: Lion). in 527 BC. he attained death at Pava.e. after the death of his parents. he attained supreme knowledge (kaivalya). sister of Lichchavi Prince Chetak of Vaishali. and his followers were named Jains. He was born in kundagram (Distt Muzaffarpur.(Emblem: Bull). outside the town of Jrimbhikgrama. • From now on he was called Jaina or Jitendriya and Mahavira. • His father Siddhartha was the head of Jnatrika clan. • The 23rd Tirthankar Parshwanath (Emblem: Snake) was the son of King Ashvasena of Banaras. • In the 13th year of his asceticism (on the 10th of Vaishakha). • Mahavira was related to Bimbisara. i. worthy. • His mother was Trishla. He also got the title of Arihant. near Patna. • At 30.. had a daughter named Priyadarsena. he became an ascetic. . • Married to Yashoda. • At the age of 72.

11 years after the death of his guru Ram Krishna Paramhans. casteism and untouchability. idol worship.• Mahavira preached almost the same message as Parshvanath and added one more. Arya Samaj: • • • Founded by Swami Dayanand (or. His motto was ‘Go back to the vedas’ & ‘India for the Indians’. Started by Sridharalu Naidu. Social and Cultural Uprising Brahmo Samaj: • • • • Founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1828. Ramakrishna Mission: • • • Founded by Vivekanand (earlier. He urged the students to live and die for truth. He was a teacher in Hindu College in Calcutta. Dharma Sabha: • • Initiated by Radhakant Deb in 1830. Criticized Sati Pratha. Lokahitawadi: . He was opposed to Sanskrit system of education. He disregarded Puranas. but played an active role in promoting western education even to girls. Dayanand’s views were published in his famous work. Was opposed to reforms and protected orthodoxy. He advocated widow remarriage. Veda Samaj: • • Veda Samaj called Brahmo Samaj of South. He also supported women’s education and their rights. Other important leaders were Devendranath Tagore (father of Rabindranath Tagore) and Keshap Chandra Sen. He translated books of Brahmo Dharma into Tamil and Telegu. Vivekanand attended the Parliament of Religion at Chicago in 1893. Young Bengal Movement: • • Founded by Henry Louis Vivian Derozio (1809-31). Irish woman Margaret Nobel (Known as sister Nivedita) popularized it. casteism and advocated widow remarriage. Moolshankar) in 1875. Narendranath Dutta) (1863 – 1902) in 1897. because he thought it would keep the country in darkness. Brahmcharya (celibacy) to it. He also wrote Veda Bhashya Bhumika and Veda Bhashya. Satyarth Prakash.

S.M. Lord Elgin (1862 – 1863) Lord Lawrence (1864 – 1869): • • • • Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe. Annie Besant was elected its president in 1907. Viceroys Of India Lord Canning (1856 – 1862): • • • • • • The last Governor General and the first Viceroy. Later. Olcott of the US Army joined her. It did notable work in providing famine relief and in improving the condition of the tribal. The sect preached belief in one supreme being. He advocated female education for the upliftment of women. Advocated western education and a rational outlook. As a votary of national self-reliance. In 1882. Madam H P Blavatsky laid the foundation of the movement in US in 1875. Mutiny took place in his time. Lord Mayo (1869 – 1872): . the Guru’s supreme position and a simple social life for the believers (the Satsangis). the rule passed on to the crown. wearing handspun khadi cloth. Bombay and Madras in 1865. She founded the Central Hindu College in 1898. Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse. popularly known as Shiv Dayal Saheb or Swami Maharaj. Col. which became Banaras Hindu University in 1916. 1858. Tulsi Ram. Radhaswami Movement: • • Founded in 1861 by a banker of Agra.• • Started by Gopal Hari Deshmukh. Servants of India Society: • • Formed by Gopal Krishna Gokhale in 1915. it was shifted to India at Adyar (Tamil Nadu). Expanded canal works and railways. Theosophical Society: • • • • Founded by Westerners who drew inspiration from Indian thought and culture. Created the Indian Forest department. he attended Delhi durbar in 1876. The Universities of Calcutta. On Nov. High Courts were established at Calcutta. Indian Councils Act was passed in 1861. Bombay and Madras were established in 1857.

Lord Elgin II (1894 – 1899): • Great famine of 1896 – 1897. Arms Act(1878) made it mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms. Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan. aimed at prohibiting child labour. Organised the Grand ‘Delhi Durbar’ in 1877 to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of ‘Kaiser – I – Hind’. Was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan convict in the Andamans in 1872. Repeated the Vernacular Press Act (1882) Passed the local self – government Act (1882) Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William Hunter Commission’s recommendations). Indian Council Act of 1892 was passed. Lord Lansdowne (1888 – 1894): • • • • II Factory Act (1891) granted a weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for women and children. Established the Rajkot college at Kathiarwar and Mayo College at Ajmer for the Indian princes. Lord Curzon (1899 – 1905): • Passed the Indian Universities Act (1904) in which official control over the Universities was increased. Provincial and Subordinate. Lyall Commission was appointed. Lord Dufferin (1884 – 1888): • Indian National Congress was formed during his tenure. Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals.• • • • • Started the process of financial decentralization in India. Lord Northbrook (1872 – 1876): Lord Lytton (1876 – 1880): • • • • Known as the Viceroy to reverse characters. a census was held in 1871. . But this was withdrawn later. 1881. Lord Ripon (1880 – 1884): • • • • • • Liberal person. although it failed to address concerns such as work hours for men. Organised the Statistical Survey of India. who sympathized with Indians. For the first time in Indian history. Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial. The I Factory Act. Passed the infamous Vernacular Press Act (1878).

Lord Hardinge (1910 – 1916): • • • • • Held a durbar in dec.Africa (1915).P. 1908) were sent to Mandalay jail in Burma. An Indian Sir S. 1905) into two provinces 1. A Women’s university was founded at Poona in 1916.1921. Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911). Communist part was founded in 1921 by M. but he escaped unhurt (Dec 23. capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911). 1912). a great nationalist and a leader of the Arya Samajists. Extremists like Lala Laipat Rai and Ajit Singh (in May. Lord Reading (1921 – 1926): • • • • • • • • • • • Rowlatt act was repeated along with the Press act of 1910. 2.• • • • • • Partitioned Bengal (October 16. to restore India’s cultural heritage. Prince of Wales visited India in Nov. Gandhiji came back to India from S. 1925. Lord Minto (1905 – 1910): • • There was great political unrest in India. Various acts were passed to curb the revolutionary activities. Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act (1899) and put India on a gold standard. Extended railways to a great extent. The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 – 98 led him to create the North Western Frontier Province(NWFP). Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 1921): • • • • • • • August Declaration of 1917. Rowlatt Act of 1919. The Indian Council Act of 1909 or the Morley – Minto Reforms was passed. . Communal riots of 1923 – 25 in Multan. was murdered in communal orgy.East Bengal & Assam. Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage new educational policy. The government of India Act in 1919 (Montague – Chelmsford reforms) was passed. 1907) and Bal Gangadhar Tilak (in July. Suppressed non-cooperation movement. Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement. Bengal (proper). A bomb was thrown at him. Non – Cooperation Movement. Swami Shraddhanand. Delhi. Ahmedabad session of 1921. Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to enquire into the police administration of every province. Formation of Swaraj Party. Amritsar. Moplah rebellion (1921) took place in Kerala. etc. Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1904).N. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13. 1911 to celebrate the coronation of King George V. Kakory Train Robbery on Aug 9. 1919).Roy. Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922. whereby control over the Indian government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India was established.Sinha was appointed the Governor of Bengal.

Partition of India decided by the June 3 Plan. 1931) was signed and Civil Disobediance Movement was withdrawn. First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930. On his return Gandhiji was again arrested and Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed in Jan 1932. Lord Willington (1931 – 1936): • • • • • • Second Round Table conference in London in 1931. Outbreak of World War II in 1939. Gandhi – Irwin Pact (Mar 5. He declared that the Atlantic Charter (issued jointly by the UK and US. Retried in June 1948 and was succeeded by C. Lord Linlithgow (1936 – 1944): • • • • • Govt. Elections to the constituent assembly were held and an Interim Govt.1947 – Aug. 1932) assigned seats to different religious communities. 9. 1942). 1940. Lord Wavell (1944 – 1947): • • • • Arranged the Shimla Conference on June 25. The Muslim League observed the days as ‘Deliverance Say’ (22 December) Churchill became the British PM in May. Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1929. Dandi March (Mar 12. 1945 with Indian National Congress and Muslim League. Government of India Act (1935) was passed. Third Round Table conference in 1932. when they gave up offices on the issue of India having been dragged into the II World War. Cripps Mission in 1942.Lord Irwin (1926 – 1931): • • • • • • • Simon Commission visited India in 1928. by which India became independent on August 15. 1946. Cabinet Mission Plan (May 16. Poona Pact was signed. They remained in power for about 2 years till Oct 1939.1947): • • • • Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of free India. Indian Independence Act passed by the British parliament on July 4. was appointed under Nehru. Communal Awards (Aug 16. . 1930). failed.Rajagopalachari (the first and the last Indian Governor General of free India). Civil Disobedience Movement (1930). First meeting of the constituent assembly was held on Dec. stating to give sovereign rights to those who have been forcibly deprived of them) does not apply to India. 1947. Quit India Movement (August 8. 1947. Lord Mountbatten (Mar. 1946). Gandhiji went on a epic fast in protest against this division. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces. of India Act enforced in the provinces. Martydorm of Jatin Das after 64 days hunger strike (1929).

National movement found real expression in the movement against the partition of Bengal in 1905. the INC under Dadabhai Naoroji adopted ‘Swaraj’ (Self-govt) as the goal of Indian people.Banerjee in 1885 (72 delegates attended it).Gokhale. reducing the old province of Bengal in size by creating East Bengal and Assam out of rest of Bengal. INC took the Swadeshi call first at the Banaras Session. Aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks and at rallying the Moderates and the Muslims to the Government’s side. Ghadar Party (1913): . quite moderate in its approach and confided in British justice and generosity. Bonfires of foreign goods were conducted at various places. A mighty upsurge swept the country against the partition.C. Bal. 1905. Swadeshi Movement (1905): • • • Lal. Extremists were led by Bal. demanded special safeguards to its community and a separate electorate for Muslims. The objective was to set up a communal gulf between Hindus and Muslims. Surat Session of Indian National Congress (1907): • The INC split into two groups – The extremists and The moderates.Gokhale. 1905 presided over by G. an Englishman and a retired civil servant.Hume. communal and conservative political organization which supported the partition of Bengal. First session in Bombay under W. it envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims. through a royal Proclamation.K. Partition of Bengal: • • • By Lord Curzon on Oct 16. Formation of Muslim League (1906): • • Setup in 1906 under the leadership of Aga Khan. and Aurobindo Ghosh played the important role. Pal. Pal).Important National Activities The Indian National Congress: • • • • Formed in 1885 by A. Demand for Swaraj: • In Dec 1906 at Calcutta. Lal while the moderates by G. Bal.K. In the first two decades (1885 – 1905). Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. Pal. at the Surat session in 1907. It was a loyalist. Indian Councils Act or Minto Morley Reforms (1909): • • Besides other constitutional measures.O. Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai (Lal. opposed the Swadeshi movement. But the repressive measures of the British gave rise to extremists within Congress like Bipin Chandra Pal.

G. 1919): • • This gave unbridled powers to the govt. Sardar Udham Singh killed O’Dyer when the later was addressing a meeting in Caxton Hall. Mohd. London. which had been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain. 1940. Hunter Commission was appointed to enquire into it.Subramania Iyer at Adyar. Amritsar. 1919): • • • • • • People were agitated over the arrest of Dr.Ali and Shaukat Ali started this movement. Both INC and Muslim League concluded this (Congress accepted the separate electorates and both jointly demanded for a representative government and dominion status for the country). near Madras (Sept. Home Rule Movement (1916): • • • Started by B.Tilak(April. Satyapal on April 10. Non-cooperation Movement (1920): . 1919. This law enabled the Government to suspend the right of Habeas Corpus. Rabindranath Tagore returned his Knighthood in protest. He gave the slogan: Swaraj is my birth right and I will have it. to arrest and imprison suspects without trial for two years maximum. HQ was at San Francisco. 1916). August Declaration (1917): • After the Lucknow Pact. As a result hundreds of men. On March 13. It was the first country-wide agitation by Gandhiji and marked the foundation of the Non Cooperation Movement. Khilafat Movement (1920): • • Muslims were agitated by the treatment done with Turkey by the British in the treaty that followed the First World War. Objective: Self – government for India in the British Empire. General O’ Dyer fires at people who assembled in the Jallianwala Bagh. Sir Shankaran Nair resigned from Viceroy’s Executive Council after this. 1916) at Poona and Annie Besant and S. Tilak linked up the question of Swaraj with the demand for the formation of Linguistic States and education in vernacular language. Rowlatt Act (March 18. Two brothers. Caused a wave of anger in all sections. This came to be called the August Declaration. Lucknow Pact (1916): • • Happened following a war between Britain and Turkey leading to anti-British feelings among Muslims. Taraknath Das and Sohan Singh Bhakna. women and children were killed and thousands injured.• • Formed by Lala Hardayal. a British policy was announced which aimed at “increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration for progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British empire”. Kitchlu and Dr. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13.

shot dead Saunders (Asst. In 1931. In 1909. In 1908.William Curzon Whyllie. Revolutionary Activities: • • • • • • • • • • • • The first political murder of a European was committed in 1897 at Poona by the Chapekar brothers.1931 at Lahore Jall (Lahore Conspiracy Case) and their bodies cremated at Hussainiwala near Ferozepur. . Lahore Session (1929): • • On Dec. He was hanged in 1933.• • It was the first mass-based political movement under Gandhiji.L. Kanhaiyalal Dutt and Satyendranath Bose were hanged. the INC. declared Poorna Swaraj (Complete independence) as its ultimate goal. 1929 under the President ship of J. of Lahore.Ayerst was accidentally shot. Then Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Assembly on Apr 8. with his colleagues. In Oct. but Lt. Damodar and Balkishan. The Government used brutal repression and police attacks to break the popular opposition.19. 1924. Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged on March. Madam Bhikaiji Cama. the political advisor of “India Office” in London.P. Lala Lajpat Rai was severely beaten in a lathi-charge. a Parsi revolutionary unfurled the flag of India at Stuttgart Congress (of Second international). Khudiram Bose and Prafulla chaki threw a bomb on the carriage of kingford. was to be celebrated every year. he. In 1929 only Jatin Das died in Lahore jail after 63 days fast to protest against horrible conditions in jail. Rasbihari Bose and Sachindra Nath Sanyal threw a bomb and Lord Hardinge at Delhi.30. Surya Sen. At Lahore. 1925. as there were no Indians in it. Indian leaders opposed the commission. (Alipur Case). Their target was Mr. In 1930. On Dec. formed the Indian Republic Army in Bengal. a meeting of revolutionaries from all parts of India was called at Kanpur. Simon Commission (1927): • • • Constituted under John Simon. 1930 was fixed as the First Independence Day. 9.12. the newly adopted tri-colour flag was unfurled and an. he masterminded the raid on Chittagong armoury. 1922. at its Lahore Session.17. the unpopular judge of Muzaffapur. They setup Hindustan Socialist Republic Association/Army (HSRA). to review the political situation in India and to introduce further reforms and extension of parliamentary democracy. He succumbed to his injuries on Oct. Congress passed the resolution in its Calcutta session in Sept 1920. 1928. President of the Plague Commission. S. who ordered lathi charge on Lala Lajpat Rai) on Dec. Thus. 1922. Bhagat Singh. Chandrashekhar Azad shot himself at Alfred Park in Allahabad. 1928. This compelled Gandhiji to withdraw the Non Cooperation movement on Feb. (Delhi Conspiracy Case). They carried out a dacoity on the Kakori bound train on the Saharanpur-Lucknow railway line on Aug.Nehru.26.31. In 1907. 1929.Rand. 1929. M L Dhingra shot dead Col. Chauri –Chaura Incident (1922): • • A mob of people at Chauri – Chaura (near Gorakhpur) clashed with police and burnt 22 policemen on February 5. 23. In 1912. a revolutionary of Bengal. Khudiram.

the session was soon deadlocked on the minorities issue and this time separate electorates was demanded not only by Muslims but also by Depressed Classes. 1931.Ambedkar and M. but seats reserved to them in the provincial legislature were increased. Ramsay Macdonald. The Communal Award (Aug 16. First Round Table conference (1930): • • It was the first conference arranged between the British and Indians as equals. Indian Christians and Anglo – Indians. He picked a handful of salt and inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement. The two (government represented by Irwin and INC by Gandhiji) signed a pact on March 5. It showed divide and rule policy of the British. In this.R. 1930.Rajah became active. In this the INC called off the civil disobedience movement and agreed to join the second round table conference. Anglo Indians. Sikhs. Eventually Poona pact was reached and Gandhiji broke his fact on the sixth day (Sept 25. who was in Yeravada jail at that time. Gandhiji. Jaikar and Srinivas Shastri initiated efforts to break the ice between Gandhiji and the government. He reached the seashore on Apr.1932): • • • Announced by Ramsay McDonald. The government on its part released the political prisoners and conceded the right to make salt for consumption for villages along the coast.M. mass meeting took place almost everywhere. Muslim League. Indian Christians. 1930 in London to discuss Simon commission. Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931): • • • • Moderate Statesman. Poona Pact (September 25.12. Political leaders like Madan Mohan Malviya.6. Boycotted by INC.Dandi March (1930): • • • • Also called the Salt Satyagraha. Second Round Table Conference (1931): • • Gandhiji represented the INC and went to London to meet British P. 1930 for the small village Dandhi to break the salt law. It was held on Nov. women and even Backward classes. 1932): • • • • After the announcement of communal award and subsequent fast of Gandhiji. Liberals and some others were there. the idea of separate electorate for the depressed classes was abandoned. Along with 78 followers. Sapru. started a fast unto death against it. B. Third Round Table Conference (1932): . 1932).C. Hindu Mahasabha. Gandhiji started his march from Sabarmati Ashram on March 12. However. Envisaged representation of Muslims.

The discussions led to the passing of the Government of India Act. On Aug 9. Rangoon fell and Japan occupied the entire S E Asia.Bose secretly escaped from India in Jain 1941. the mission put towards its proposals. 1946. Japan entered the World War – II and advanced towards Indian borders. Ali Jinnah of Bombay gave it practicality. there being no program of action. made a declaration on March 15. INA had three fighting brigades named after Gandhiji. The resolution was passed on Aug. the movement became spontaneous and violent. 1935. The Cabinet Mission Plan (1946): • • • The struggle for freedom entered a decisive phase in the year 1945-46. 1942. the Congress was banned and its important leaders were arrested. Demand For Pakistan: • • • • In 1930. The Cripps Mission – 1942: • • • • • In Dec. Gandhiji gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’. On May 16. The mission held talks with the INC and ML to bring about acceptance of their proposals.V. and reached Berlin. Muslim League first passed the proposal of separate Pakistan in its Lahore session in 1940. Baluchistan. He offered a draft which proposed dominion status to be granted after the war.Alexander) will visit India. Azad and Nehru. By March 7. The arrests provoked indignation among the masses and. The Revolt of 1942 & The Quit India Movement: • • • • • • • • • • Called the Vardha Proposal and Leaderless Revolt.Lord Attlee. Sir Stafford Cripps and A. The Indian National Army: Founded by Rasbehari Bose with Captain Mohan Singh. The British govt. 1942. In July 1943. The new Labour Party PM. Gandhiji termed it as a post dated cheque in a crashing bank. Iqbal suggested that the Frontier Province. he joined the INA at Singapore. Violence spread throughout the country. The soldiers were mostly raised from Indian soldiers of the British army who had been taken prisoners by the Japanese after they conquered S. 1946. at Bombay. with a view to getting co-operation from Indians sent Sir Stafford Cripps. Rani Jhansi Brigade was an exclusive women force. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali gave the term Pakistan in 1923.C. that British Cabinet Mission (comprising of Lord Pethick Lawrence as Chairman. Rejected by the Congress as it didn’t want to rely upon future promises. S.E. leader of the House of Commons to settle terms with the Indian leaders. Mohd. 1941. . The movement was however crushed. There.Asia. Sindh and Kashmir be made the Muslim State within the federation. Two INA head quarters were Rangoon and Singapore (formed in Singapore).• Proved fruitless as most of the national leaders were in prison.8. Rasbehari Bose handed over the leadership to him. It rejected the demand for separate Pakistan and instead a federal union consisting of British India and the Princely States was suggested.

Lord Mountbatten put forward his plan which outlined the steps for the solution of India’s political problem. 1946): • Based on Cabinet Mission Plan. It resulted in heavy communal riots. Formation of Interim Government (Sept 2.C. Formation of Constituent Assembly (Dec 9. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel. Therefore. there were 562 small and big Princely States in India. The British govt. Muslim League withdrew its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan on July 29. 1947. 1946. 1946): • • • • Jinnah was alarmed at the results of the elections because the Muslim League was in danger of being totally eclipsed in the constituent assembly. 1946). The Princely states would enjoy the liberty to join either India or Pakistan or even remain independent. used iron hand in this regard. There would be a separate constitutional assembly for Pakistan to frame its constitution.Rajendra Prasad was elected as its president. Mountbatten Plan (June 3. 1947. At the time of independence. J. Venue. all the States. which contained the major provisions put forward by the Mountbatten plan. By August 15. It passed a ‘Direct action’ resolution. Hyderabad and Junagarh had signed the Instrument of Accession. with a few exceptions like Kashmir. Aug. Year and Presidents of India National Congress (INC) Year 1885. passed the Indian Independence Act of 1947 in July 1947.15. 1947 was the date fixed for handing over power to India and Pakistan.• Both Congress and Muslims League accepted it. an interim government consisting of Congress nominees was formed on Sept. W. The outlines of the Plan were: India to be divided into India and Pakistan. Bengal and Punjab will be partitioned and a referendum in NEFP and Sylhet district of Assam would be held. 1946): • The Constituent assembly met on Dec 9. which condemned both the British Government and the Congress (Aug 16.2. Jinnah celebrated Pakistan Day on Mar 27.L. Goa was with the Portuguese and Pondicherry with the French. 1947): • • • • • • • On June 3. 1947. Partition and Independence (Aug 1947): • • • All political parties accepted the Mountbatten plan. 1946 and Dr. 1946.Nehru was its Vice-President and the Governor-General remained as its President.Bannerji President . the first home minister. Venue Bombay. Jinnah’s Direct Action Resolution (Aug 16.

Nehru J. Madras Lahore Lucknow Calcutta Amritsar Calcutta (sp.Nehru (Poorna Swaraj resolution was passed) Vallabhbhai Patel (Here.session) Ahmedabad. 1933 1934 1936 1937 1938 1939 Allahabad Calcutta Lahore Calcutta Madras Allahabad Bombay Calcutta Poona.Nehru).K.Malviya A.Banerjee G.Das Abdul Kalam Azad (youngest President) M.L.Nehru (first session in a village) S.1882 1886 1893 1906 1887 1888 1889 1890 1895. 1902 1905 1907.Majumdar (Re-union of the Congress) Annie Besant (first woman President) Motilal Nehru Lala Lajpat Rai C.Bose was re-elected but had to resign due to protestby .session) Belgaon Kanpur Calcutta Lahore Karachi Delhi. S.R.Mehta S.C.N.L.L.K.Gokhale Rasbehari Ghosh M.Gandhi Sarojini Naidu (first Indian woman President) Motilal Nehru (first All India Youth Congress Formed) J.L. resolution on Fundamental rightsand the National Economic Program was passed) (Session Banned) Rajendra Prasad J.M.1922 1923 1924 1925 1928 1929 1931 1932.C. Gaya Delhi (sp. Calcutta Bombay Lucknow Faizpur Haripura Tripuri Dadabhai Naoroji " " Badruddin Tyyabji (fist Muslim President) George Yule (first English President) Sir William Wedderburn Sir Feroze S. Ahmedabad Banaras Surat.Bose (a National Planning Committed set-up underJ.C. 1908 1909 1916 1917 1919 1920 1921.

When the same person is appointed as the Governor of two or more States. The legislature of a State or a High Court has no role in the removal of a Governor. 2 Status  Can give his resignation or can be removed earlier by the President. Council of Ministers.  Must possess the qualification for membership of State Legislature.  His oath is administrated by the Chief Justice of the concerned State High Court and in his absence.  Appointed by the President on the recommendations of Union Council of Ministers.000 per month) and is not subject to the vote of the State Legislature.B.  President consults Governor while appointing Chief Justice and other judges of High Court. General Knowledge India Politics The Governor  Citizen of India  Completed 35 yrs of age. Governor of the Union Territory. 3 Powers  Appoints Chief Minister. the same person can be appointed as Governor of one or more States or Lt. the senior .Gandhiji (as Gandhiji supported Dr.  His usual term of office is 5 yrs but he holds office during the pleasure of the President.  Summons. but under the Seventh Amendment Act 1956. Advocate General of the State and Election Commissioner of the State.  Mustn't hold any office of profit.most of that Court. He can be asked to continue for more time until his successor takes the charge.Pattabhi Sitaramayya. 1940 1946 1948 Ramgarh Meerut Jaipur Abdul Kalam Azad Acharya J. Rajendra Prasadwas appointed in his place.  Nominal executive in States. .  Normally each State has its own Governor.  Shouldn't be a member of either house of parliament or the State 1 Qualification legislature. Appoints judges of courts below the High Court.Kriplani Dr.Pattabhi Sitaramayya).  Salary from the Consolidated Fund of the State (Rs. Chairman & members of State Public Service Commission. Prorogues & dissolves the State Legislature. the emoluments and allowances payable to him shall be allocated among the States in such proportion as determined by the President of India.36.

Quasi-judicial procedure. Takes OATH in presence of Chief Justice of India. When the President's Rule is in progress. Completed 35 yrs in age. Security deposit . (No nominated members). Indirectly elected through 'Electoral College' consisting of Elected members of both the Houses of Parliament & Elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States. the Vice-President acts as President. if not then senior-most judge of Supreme Court shall act as the President of India. If he is not available then Chief Justice. senior most judge of Supreme Court. Appoints PM. Comptroller and Auditor General. Attorney General. He takes over the reigns of administration directly into his own hands and runs the State with the aid of the Civil Servants President Must be a citizen of India. Can give resignation to Vice President before full-term. of times a person can ecome President. Chairman & members of UPSC. resignation or removal. 5 year term Article 57 says that there is no upper limit on the no. Present Salary . Eligible to be a member of Lok Sabha. Members of Finance Commission. Can be impeached only on the ground of violation of Constitution. Governors. Chief Justice & Judges of Supreme Court & High courts. Chief Election Commissioner and other members of Election Commission. etc. he becomes the 'Agent of the Union Government in the State'. Reports to the President if the State Government is not running constitutionally and recommends the President's rule (Article 356). Appoints Finance Commission (after every 5 yrs) that recommends distribution of taxes between Union & State govts. Governor of any State. Minister of Union or State. The election is to be held within 6 months of the vacancy. ministers.50. Ambassadors.15. Appoints the Chief Justice and the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts. Must not hold any Government post.000/month (including allowances & emoluments). The impeachment procedure can be initiated in either House of the Parliament. The President can promulgate 3 types of Emergencies: National Emergency (Article 352) State Emergency (President's Rule) (Article 356) 1 Qualification 2 Election 3 Term & Emoluments 4 Impeachment 5 Vacancy 7 Powers . Exceptions: President and Vice-President. Can summon & prorogue the sessions of the 2 houses & can dissolve Lok Sabha. In case the office falls vacant due to death.000/Supreme Court inquires all disputes regarding President's election. or in his absence.

K.1990 21.1980 31.1991 16.1997 19.12.1999 22.10.1989 10.03.1980 31.Manmohan Singh 15.1964 09.1984 02.1966 24.07.1996 21.03.Financial Emergency (Article 360) He is the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces of India.01.Singh Chandra Shekhar P.1996 01. Prime Ministers of India Jawahar Lal Nehru Gulzari Lal Nanda Lal Bahadur Shastri Gulzari Lal Nanda Indira Gandhi Morarji Desai Charan Singh Indira Gandhi Rajiv Gandhi V.06.05.10.V.01.07.1996 01.01.06.03.1996 21.1966 24.Gujral Atal Bihari Vajpayee Atal Bihari Vajpayee Dr.1998 13.12.2004 Till Date Strength of State Legislatures .1977 28.1966 24.1964 11. President appoints Chiefs of Army.1989 10.1991 16.1990 21.10.1997 18.Narsimha Rao Atal Bihari Vajpayee H.2004 27.1947 27.06.01. Deve Gowda I.01.1964 11.1999 21.1998 12.11.05.06.1966 24.06.04.P. Declares wars & concludes peace subject to the approval of the Parliament.05.11.1979 14. Navy & Air Force.10.05.06.03.01.D.1979 14.1964 09.05.1984 01.1977 28.05.08.04.

SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 State / UTs Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Delhi Bihar Jharkhand Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Chhatisgarh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Pondicherry Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttaranchal West Bengal Legislative Assembly 294 40 126 70 243 81 40 182 90 68 76 224 140 230 90 288 60 60 40 60 147 30 117 200 32 234 60 403 70 294 Nil Nil Nil Nil 75 Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 36 75 Nil Nil Nil 78 Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Legislative Council 104 Nil Nil .

(Its opinion isn't a binding of President).  Salary: Chief Justice . Supreme Court  It is a court of record as its decisions are of evidentiary value & cannot be questioned in any court.  Revisory Jurisdiction: The Supreme Court under Article 137 is empowered to review any judgement or order made by it with a view to removing any mistake or error that might have crept in the Jurisdiction of The 6 judgement or order.30.000/.  Consists of Chief Justice & 25 other judges.Supreme Court of India 1 Status  Stands at the apex of the judicial system of India.  The Supreme Court also enjoys the power of Judicial review as it can ensure that the laws passed by legislature and orders issued by the executive do not contravene any provision of the Constitution.State.  Original Jurisdiction: The Supreme Court settles all disputes between Centre . State .  Can give resignation to President. 2 Appointment 3 Qualification 4 Term & Salary 5 Removal of Judges . Other Judges . etc. a distinguished jurist of the country.000/per month  A motion seeking the removal of the judge can be preferred before either House of the Parliament.  Writ Jurisdiction: Every individual has the right to move the Supreme Court directly by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of his Fundamental Rights.  The senior most judge of the Supreme Court is appointed as the Chief Justice of India.State.per month.  The Chief Justice & other judges hold office till 65 yrs of age.  After retirement. Other judges are appointed by the President after consultation with such judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Court as the President may deem necessary.  The Supreme Court recommends the removal of members of UPSC to the President. a judge of Supreme Court cannot plead or act before any authority.  The resolution should be supported by a majority of total membership of both houses & by 2/3 majority of the members present & voting.  The Supreme Court decides disputes regarding the election of the President and the Vice President. it is duty bound to give its opinion.33.  Citizen of India  Have been a judge of High Court for 5 yrs or An advocate of High Court for 10 yrs minimum or In President's view.  Can be removed by the Parliament.   Advisory Jurisdiction: If the President seeks the advice of Supreme Court.

General.Attorney General of India Status: • • • • Highest legal officer of the Union Govt. Because of this. Citizen of India. whenever there is a change in the party in power. It is a political appointment and therefore. However. he is not paid salary but a retainer to be determined by the President. • . In England. the Attorney General resigns from his post to enable the new Government to appoint a nominee of his choice. Gives advice on all such legal matters which may be referred or assigned to him by the President. He is also allowed to take up private practice provided the other party is not the State. Appointed by the President. 1 Election • 2 Criteria The Supreme Court has the final and exclusive jurisdiction for resolving disputes and doubts relating to the election of the Vice-President. of India. The Attorney General is assisted by two Solicitors-General and four Additional Solicitors . the Attorney General is a member of the Cabinet. He is entitled to audience in all courts of the country & can take part in the proceedings of the Parliament & its committees. Appears before the Supreme Court and various High Courts in cases involving the govt. but in India he is not. he is not given the right to vote. • • • • • • Vice President • Elected by both the houses (Electoral College) in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote and the vote being secret. Nominated members also participate in his election. The Attorney General gets a retainer equivalent to the salary of a judge of the Supreme Court. The person should be qualified to be appointed a judge of the Supreme Court.

for this purpose. Vice-President. resolution. Governor of a State and a Minister of the Union or a State. • Being the Vice President of India. are not held to be holding an office of profit. During . • All bills. However. (For maximum 6 months). but he is entitled to the salary and allowances payable to the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. Since he is not a member of Rajya Sabha.• More than 35 yrs of age • Possess the qualification for membership of Rajya Sabha. Can be re-elected. the Vice President shall not perform the duties of the office of the Chairman of Rajya Sabha and shall not be entitled to receive the salary of the Chairman. 3 Other Points • • Term can be cut short if he resigns or by a resolution of the Raja Sabha passed by a majority of all the then members of the Rajya Sabha and agreed to by the Lok Sabha. • He is the ex-officio chairman of Rajya Sabha. he is not entitled for any salary. state or local authority. • Not hold any office of profit under union. the President. he has no right to vote. motion can be taken in Rajya Sabha after his consent. • Can discharge the function of President if the post falls vacant. • When he discharges the functions of the President. Holds office for 5 yrs.

D.1987 1987 .Giri G.000/. Hidayatullah R.40.1997 1997 .D.1992 1992 .S. • Present salary is Rs.1977 1967 .per month.1979 1979 . he is entitled for the salary and privileges of the President of India. Narayanan Krishna Kanth Bhairon Singh Shekawat Year Parts of the Constitution .1974 1974 . Venkataraman Dr.V.this period.1962 1962 . Jatti Md.1984 1984 . Pathak B. Radhakrishnan Zakir Hussain V. S. Sharma K.2002 2002 S.R. Vice Presidents of India SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Name 1952 .1969 1969 .

Part . Contains the duties of the citizens. 238) Part .4) Part . Deals with Union Territories.237) Part . Deals with UPSC and Public Service Commissions.351) .IV . Added by 42nd amendment in 1976.dealing with . Added by 74th amendment in 1992.329) Part . Deals with distribution of revenue between Union & States. alterations.XV (Art. 5 11) Deals with territory of India formation of new states.XII (Art. Ministers.VI (Art. 245 . (They have been given administrative powers). Part .II (Art. 31 . 151) Comptroller & Auditor General). State legislature.342) Part . Contains a new schedule 'SCHEDULE ELEVEN'.III (Art. (Duties & Function of PM. Added by 73rd amendment in 1992.323) Part .IV (Art. 239 . at the Union Level. 36Deals with Directive Principles of State Policy.Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha. Attorney General. It contains 29 subjects related to Panchayati Raj. 51A) Deals with govt. at the State Level. was replaced in 1956 by the 7th amendment.300A) Part . contracts. 51) Part . 244.35) the right to property was deleted by 44th amendment). 244A) Part .263) Part . Part . It contains 18 subjects related to Municipalities. Relates to official language.308 . Part . Parliament . commerce & intercourse within the Territory of India.XVI (Art. Advocate General of the State). 2. 12 Deals with fundamental rights of Indian citizens. Deals with States.VIII (Art. 152 .XIII (Art. Consists of 2 parts: 1.307) Part .301 .XIV (Art. (Art.241) Deals with govt. Relates to trade. Deals with relation between Union & States. liabilities etc. Deals with elections (Also Election Commission) Deals with special provisions for Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribed & Anglo . 52 Presidents.XVII (Art. (They have been given administrative powers). 264 . Governor.XI (Art.Indian Representation.VII (Art.V (Art.324 . Contains a new schedule 'SCHEDULE TWELVE'. High Court. appointment of Finance Commission (Article 280).I (Article 1 .X (Art. Part . Deals with various rights of citizenship.330 . names of existing states. Part . (Duties & functions of Chief Minister & his ministers.A (Art. Deals with Scheduled & Tribal Areas. 343 .IX Part .

(b) Atleast 25 yrs of age. States or local govt. Deals with administrative tribunals set up by parliament to hear disputes & complaints regarding Union.392) Part .XIV . Parliament of India LOK SABHA:  Maximum strength . (530 . The life of the Lok Sabha can be extended by the Parliament beyond the five year term. Exemption of criminal proceedings for their official acts as President & Governors.  The Candidate must be: (a) Citizen of India.Union Territories)  Present strength of Lok Sabha .369 .360) Part . XVIII (Art. But the Parliament cannot extend the normal life of the Lok Sabha for more than one year at a time (no limit on the number of times in the Constitution).XX (Art. The members among themselves elect him.  Oath of MPs is conducted by the Speaker. after his election cuts-off all connection with his party & acts in an impartial manner. 323B) Deals with emergency provisions. by writing to Speaker. By 42nd amendment in 1976. (Art -370 contains temporary provisions of J & K . He does not vote in the first instance.  The Eighty Fourth Amendment.XIX (Art. but it may be dissolved earlier by the President. extended freeze on Lok Sabha and State Assembly seats till 2026.  The Speaker continues in office even after the dissolution of the Lok Sabha till a newly elected Lok Sabha meets.323A. when a proclamation of emergency under Article 352 is in force.361 . but exercises his casting vote only to remove a deadlock. (e) Has registered as voter in any Parliamentary Constituency.XXI (Art.352 . (c ) Mustn't hold any office of profit. Concerns the short title. 368) Part .  Usually the Speaker. (Art-369 gives temporary powers to the Parliament to make laws for State list).Part. 2001. .545.  Charges his salary from Consolidated Fund of India.XXII (Art.395) Part .  Presiding officer is Speaker (In his absence Deputy Speaker). Can resign. (d) No unsound mind/ insolvent.A (Art. commencement and repeal of the Constitution.367) Part .States/ 20 .550 + 2 nominated members. Deals with Amendment of Constitution.  The normal tenure of the Lok Sabha is five years.Employees.Restricts the parliament to make laws for that State).393 .

the Parliament. RAJYA SABHA • Maximum Strength . science. The total membership of Rajya Sabha is thus 245. (d) Others as prescribed by parliament from time-to-time. has provided for 233 seats for the States and the Union Territories.  The Majority of the total membership can remove Speaker after giving a 14 days notice. . He presides over the proceedings of the Rajya Sabha as long as he does not act as the President of India during a vacancy in the office of the President of India. (b) 30 yrs of age. by law. as 1/3rd members retire every 2 years. • Representatives of the State are elected by members of State legislative assemblies on the basis of proportional representation through a single transferable vote. • The Rajya Sabha MPs are elected for a term of 6 years. (During this time. he doesn't preside over the meetings). • The candidate must be: (a) Citizen of India. • All the States and the Union Territories of Delhi and Pondicherry are represented in the Rajya Sabha. art and social service}. • There are no seats reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Rajya Sabha. President nominates 12 amongst persons having special knowledge or practical experience in the fields of literature.250 {Out of these. • Vice-President is the ex-officio chairman of Rajya Sabha. (c ) Be a parliamentary elector in the State in which he is seeking election. continues in office till his successor takes charge. After his removal. Speaker sends his resignation to deputy Speaker. • Presently.

1971 Both these States were elevated from the status of Union Territories by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act. 1969. 1974. The New States Created After 1950 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Andhra Pradesh Gujarat and Maharashtra Kerala Karnataka Nagaland Haryana Himachal Pradesh Created by the State of Andhra Pradesh Act. It was carved out from the State of Punjab by the Punjab (Reorganisation) Act. Te comprised Travancor and Cochin areas. It was elevated to the Status of a full State by the State of Mizoram Act. Goa was separated from the Union Territory of Goa. 1986. It was carved out from the State of Assam by the State of Nagaland Act. apart from money bill (including budget). I. But Daman and Diu remained as Union Territory Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act. 2000 by dividing Madhya Pradesh on November 1. Later in 1971. • In Rajya Sabha any bill can originate. It was renamed Karnataka in 1973. 1975. Daman and Diu Reorganisation Act. 1962. It got the status of a full State in 1975 by the 36th Amendment Act. It received the status of a full State by the State of Arunachal Pradesh Act.• Also a deputy chairman is elected from its members. Created from the Princely State of Mysore by the State Reorganisation Act. Daman and Diu and was made a full-fledged State by the Goa. 2000 8 Meghalaya 9 Manipur and Tripura 10 Sikkim 11 Mizoram 12 Arunachal Pradesh 13 Goa 14 Chhattisgarh . 1956. 1966 The Union Territory of Himachal Pradesh was elevated to the status of State by the State of Himachal Pradesh Act. 1986. 1987..e. 1970 First carved out as a sub-State within the State of Assam by 23rd Constitutional Amendment. 1953 by carving out some areas from the State of Madras The State of Bombay was divided into two States. it received the status of a full-fledged State by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act. Sikkim was first given the Status of Associate State by the 35th Constitutional Amendment Act. 1960 Created by the State Reorganisation Act. 1971. 1956. Maharashtra and Gujarat by the Bombay (Reorganisation) Act.

Gave effect to transfer certain territories to Pakistan following the 1958 Indo-Pak agreement. 2000 by dividing Uttar Pradesh on November 9. Abolished the titles and special privileges of former rulers of princely . STs and Anglo-Indian in Lok Sabha and Leg. 2000 Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act.2000. 1951 Seventh Amendment 1956 Eighth Amendment 1959 The Ninth Amendment 1960 The Tenth Amendment 1961 Twelfth Amendment 1962 Thirteenth Amendment 1962 Fourteenth Amendment 1963 Eighteenth Amendment 1966 Necessitated on account of reorganisation of States on a linguistic basis Extended special provisions for reservations of seats for SCs. Extended the reservation of seats for SC/ST and nomination of AngloIndians for a further period of 10 years (till 1980). the former French territories were included in the I schedules as UT of Pondicherry. 6 Incorporated Goa. 7 Created Nagaland as a State.15 Uttaranchal 16 Jharkhand Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act. Created a sub-state of Meghalaya with in Assam. 2 3 4 5 Incorporated Dadra & Nagar Haveli as a UT. Haryana and UT of Chandigarh. Twenty first 10 Amendment 1967 Twenty second 11 Amendment 1969 Twenty third 12 Amendment 1969 13 Twenty sixth Included Sindhi as the Fifteenth Regional language. Assemblies for a period of 10 years from1960 to 1970. Mahe and Yanam. Daman & Diu as a UT. 8 Pondicherry. Important Constitutional Amendments 1 First Amendment Added Ninth Schedule. 9 Reorganised Punjab into Punjab. Karaikal. 2000 by dividing Bihar on November 15.

Article 352 was amended to provide 'Armed Rebellion' as one of the circumstances for declaration of emergency. Extended reservation for SC/ST by another 10 years (till 1990) Added the Tenth Schedule (regarding anti-defection) Mizoram was made a state Conferred state hood to Arunchal Pradesh Hindi version of the Constitution of India was accepted for all purposes. The UT of Goa. Manipuri and Nepali were included in the VIII Schedule. Konkani. The Right to Property was deleted from Part III. Increased the elective Strength of LS from 525 to 545. Daman and Diu was divided and Goa was made a State. and the promulgation of ordinances by the President. . Made Sikkim a State Provided that the President can make a declaration of emergency. Established Manipur and Tripura as States and Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh as UTs. the election to Parliament of a person holding the office of PM or Speaker and election of the President and Prime Minister. Reduced the voting age from 21 to 18 years for the LS as well as Assemblies Also extended reservation of seats for SC/ST till 2000 AD. Placed beyond challenge in courts. The upper limit of representatives of States went up from 500 to 525.Amendment 1971 Twenty seventh 14 Amendment 1971 Thirty first 15 Amendment 1973 Thirty sixth 16 Amendments 1975 Thirty eight 17 Amendment 1975 Thirty ninth 18 Amendment 1975 Forty fourth 19 Amendment 1978 Forty fifth 20 Amendment 1985 Fifty second 21 Amendment 1985 Fifty third 22 Amendment 1986 Fifty fifth 23 Amendment 1986 Fifty sixth 24 Amendment 1987 Sixty first 25 Amendment 1989 Sixty first 26 Amendment 1989 Seventy first 27 Amendment 1992 states. It also authorised the President to declare different kinds of emergencies. Governors and the Administrative Heads of Uts would be final and could not be challenged in any court. Daman and Diu remained as a UT.

Maithili. Made the 2001 census the basis for delimitation of constituencies of the Lower House of Parliament (Lok Sabha) and State assemblies (Vidhan Sabhas) Amended the Anti . (Nagarpalika Bill) Provides for. Jurisdiction and Seats of High Courts High Court Status: • Each State has a High Court.Seventy third 28 Amendment 1993 Seventy Fourth 29 Amendment 1993 Eighty second 30 Amendment 2000 Eighty fourth 31 Amendment 2001 Eighty sixth 32 Amendment 2002 Eighty seventh 33 Amendment 2003 Ninety first 34 Amendment 2003 Ninety second 35 Amendment 2003 (Panchayati Raj Bill) Provided among other things Gram Sabha in Villages. the qualifying marks for passing an examination for them has also been lowered. Cannot be more than 15% of the strength of Lok Sabha & respected Vidhan Sabha. Haryana & Union Territory of Chandigarh. Besides. women and the backward classes. Makes education a fundamental right for children in the age group of 6 . constitution of three types of municipalities. among other things.Defection Law and also made a provision that the number of ministers in the Central & State Govts. Extended freeze on Lok Sabha and State Assembly seats till 2026. • Presently there are 21 High Courts in India. reservation of seats in every municipality for the SC and ST. there can be a common High Court like Punjab. • However. direct elections to all seats in panchayats and reservations of seats for the SC and ST and fixing of tenure of 5 years for panchayats.14 years. . it is the highest judicial organ of the State. Reinstaled the provision of reservation of SC and STs in matters related to promotion. Bodo. • Consists of Chief Justice & other such judges as appointed by the President. constitution of panchayats at the village and other levels. Santhali and Added into the VIII Schedule.

Panaji and Aurangabad) Kolkata (Circuit Bench at Port . the chief justice of the High Court concerned is also consulted in addition to chief Justice of Supreme Court & Governor of the State concerned. In this the Chief Justice of India is also consulted. unlike in the case of the Supreme Court. In case of appointment of a judge. • A judge of a High Court can be transferred to another High Court without his consent by the President. The conduct of the judges of the High Court cannot be discussed in Parliament. A judge of High Court continues his office till 62 yrs of age. Daman and Diu West Bengal and Andaman and Seat Allahabad (Bench at Lucknow) Hyderabad Mumbai (Bench at Nagpur. Goa.in the year 1866 1954 1862 1862 Name Allahabad Andhra Pradesh Mumbai Kolkata Territorial Jurisdiction Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra. Qualifications: • • Term: Must be a citizen of India Should have been an advocate of a High Court or of two such Courts in succession for atleast 10 yrs. The opinion provided by him shall have primacy and is binding on the President. Appointment of Judges: The appointment of Chief Justice is made after consultation with the Chief Justice of Supreme Court & the Governor of the State by the President. Removal: • • The President can remove a judge of High Court only if the Parliament passes the resolution by a 2/3 majority of its members present & voting in each house. Dadra and Nagar Haveli. or should have held judicial office in India for a period of atleast 10yrs. Jurisdiction Seats High Courts: Estd. Term can be cut short due to resignation or removal by the President. (Allahabad High Court has 37 judges while J & K High Court has only 5). does not fix any maximum number of judges for a High Court. except on a motion for the removal of a judge.• The Constitution.

Nicobar Delhi Guwahati Gujarat Himachal Pradesh J&K Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Chennai Orissa Patna Punjab & Haryana Rajasthan Sikkim Bilaspur Nainital Ranchi 1966 1948 1960 1971 1957 1884 1956 1956 1862 1948 1916 1966 1950 1975 2000 2000 2000 Delhi Assam. Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Gujarat Himachal Pradesh J&K Karnataka Kerala and Lakshadweep Madhya Pradesh Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry Orissa Bihar Blair) Delhi Guwahati (Bench at Kohima and Circuit Benches at Imphal. Haryana and Chandigarh Chandigarh Rajasthan Sikkim Chhattisgarh Uttaranchal Jharkhand Jodhpur (Bench at Jaipur) Gangtok Bilaspur Nainital Ranchi Fundamental Rights Right to Equality . Manipur. Meghalaya. Agartala & Shillong) Ahmedabad Shimla Srinagar and Jammu Bangalore Ernakulam Jabalpur (Benches at Gwalior and Indore) Chennai Cuttack Patna Punjab. Nagaland. Tripura.

Omitted by the 44th Amendment Act.Article 14 Equality before law and equal protection of law Article 15 Prohibition of discrimination on grounds only of religion. Article 26 Freedom to manage religious affairs Article 27 Prohibits taxes on religious grounds Article 28 Freedom as to attendance at religious ceremonies in certain educational institutions Right Against Exploitation Article 23 Article 24 Traffic in human beings prohibited No child below the age of 14 can be employed Right to Freedom of Religion Article 25 Freedom of conscience and free profession. exempted. Right to Freedom of Religion Article 25 Freedom of conscience and free profession. race. sex or place of birth. however. Military and academic distinctions are. Article 17 End of untouchability Article 18 Abolition of titles. practice and propagation of religion. Article 16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment. Article 26 Freedom to manage religious affairs Article 27 Prohibits taxes on religious grounds Article 28 Freedom as to attendance at religious ceremonies in certain educational institutions Cultural and Educational Rights Article 29 Article 30 Article 31 Protection of interests of minorities Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions. caste. practice and propagation of religion. Right to Constitutional Remedies Article The right to move the Supreme Court in case of their violation (called Soul and .

• They are not eligible for re-appointment.32 heart of the Constitution by DR Ambedkar). • The Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the President and the other Election Commissioners are appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Election Commissioner. Article 324 also provides for the appointment of Regional Commissioners at the time of General Elections after consultation with the Election Commission. They all enjoy equal powers. • Election Commissioners are appointed for a term of 5yrs. • The term of 5yrs can by cut short by resignation or removal by President on recommendation of the Parliament (Same as that of Judge of the Supreme Court). Also. . the State legislature and the offices of President and Vice-President. they cannot hold any office of profit after their retirement. • Preparation of code of conductor for all political parties. • Consists of Chief Election Commissioner +2 Election Commissioners. Functions: • Preparation of electoral rolls & keeping voters list updated. Election Commission (Article 324) Status: • The Constitution provides for an independent election commission to ensure free and fair election to the Parliament.

A person with long administrative experience & knowledge of accounts is appointed. Other Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice . • • Chief Minister Status • • • Real executive head of the Govt at the State level. • He is the guardian of the public purse. • To examine the returns of election expenses filed by the candidate. The President can remove him only on the recommendation of the 2 houses of Parliament (as in case of judge of Supreme Court). His duties are to audit the accounts of the Union and the States and to ensure that nothing is spent out of the Consolidated Fund of India or of the States without the sanction of the Parliament or the respective State Legislature. The position of Chief Minister at the State level is analogous to the position of the Prime Minister at the Centre. He submits an audit report of the Union to the President who shall lay it before the Parliamentary and the audit reports of the States to the respective Governors who shall lay it before the respective State Legislature.• Recognition of various political parties & allotment of election symbols. Appointed by Governor. In short the CAG acts as the custodian & trustee of public money. • Appointment of election officers to look into disputes concerning election arrangements. Holds office for 6 yrs or till 65 yrs of age. Comptroller Auditor General India CAG Status: • • • • Powers: Appointed by the President.

Entire ministry resigns.1974 11.1992 25. Sanjiva Reddy Gaini Jail Singh R. • • • If CM resigns. Generally.07.V. but he has to get himself elected within 6 months otherwise he is removed.1969 20.D. the leader of the majority party is appointed.05.07.1977 25.05.07.1967 03.1987 25. Ali Ahmed B. J.071992 25.2002 Till Date General Knowledge Science Common and Chemical Names of Some Compounds .05.1974 11.07.P. Rajendra Prasad Dr.1987 25. Hidayatullah*# V.07. Venkataraman Dr.2002 13.V.1962 13.05.02.07. Sharma K.1969 24.1977 25.1982 25.07.1950 13.01.07.D. Narayanan Dr.07.of the Chief Minister.1969 24. Giri F. Zakir Hussain V.Giri (Vice President)# Justice M.S. S. A person who is not a member of State Legislature can be appointed.1969 24. Radhakrishnan Dr.1962 13.08.1982 25. Jatti# N.07.A.07.1967 03.1997 25.1997 25.07.08.02.1977 25.R.1969 24.08.05.05.07.1977 25. Presidents of India 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Dr.1969 20. Abdul Kalam 26.08.

10H2O C2H5OH C12H22O11 D2O .2H2O FeSO4.7H2O CaO (CaSO4) ½ H2O (CaSO4) .10H2O MgO CaCO3 AgNO3 N2O CHCl3 HgS Na2B4O7.5H2O ZnSO4.7H2O FeSO4 (NH4)2 SO4.7H2O CH4 CH3COOH K2CO3 Na2S2O3.24H2O MgSO4.6H2O CuSO4.5H2O NaHCO3 Na2CO3.Common Name Dry Ice slaked Lime Bleaching Powder Nausadar Caustic Soda Rock Salt Caustic Potash Potash Alum Epsom Quick Lime Plaster of Paris Gypsum Green Vitriol Mohr's Salt Blue Vitriol White Vitriol Marsh Gas Vinegar Potash Ash Hypo Baking Powder Washing Soda Magnesia Chalk (Marble) Lunar Caustic Laughing Gas Chloroform Vermelium Borax Alcohol Sugar Heavy Water Chemical Name Solid Carbondioxide Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Oxychloride Ammonium Chloride Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Chloride Potassium Hydroxide Potassium Aluminium Sulphate Magnesium Sulphate Calcium Oxide Calcium Sulphate Calcium Sulphate Ferrous Sulphate Ammonium Ferrous Sulphate Copper Sulphate Zinc Sulphate Methane Acetic Acid Potassium Carbonate Sodium Thiosulphate Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Carbonate Magnesium Oxide Calcium Carbonate Silver Nitrate Nitrous Oxide Tricholoro Methane Mercuric Sulphide Borax Ethyl Alcohol Sucrose Duterium Oxide CO2 Chemical Formulae Ca (OH)2 CaOCl2 NH4Cl NaOH NaCl KOH K2SO4 Al2 (SO4)3.

10H2O C6H2CH3 (NO2)3 HgCl SiO2 Elements Symbols and Atomic Numbers Name Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Flourine Neon Sodium (Natrium) Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorous Sulphur Chlorine Argon Potassium (Kalium) Calcium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Ti V Cr Mn Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 23 24 25 Atomic Number .N.Globar's Salt T.T Calomel Sand Sodium Sulphate Tri Nitrotoluene Mercurous Chloride Silicon Oxide Na2SO4.

Iron (Ferum) Cobalt Nickel Copper (Cuprum) Zinc Germenium Bromine Krypton Zirconium Silver Tin (Stannum) Antimony (Stabnium) Iodine Barium Gold (Aurum) Mercury (Hydragerm) Lead (Plumbum) Bismuth Radium Thorium Uranium Plutonium Curium Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ge Br Kr Zr Ag Sn Sb I Ba Au Hg Pb Bi Ra U U Pu Cm 26 27 28 29 30 32 35 36 40 47 50 51 53 56 79 80 82 83 88 90 92 94 96 Different Branches of Science .

It is related with future generations Deals with the study of origin of new from old Deals with life or possibilities of life beyond the earth Study of flower yielding plants Study of condition and structure of the earth Study of heredity and variations Study of growing old Study of female reproductive organ Study of garden cultivation Study of blood .Branch Aeronautics Astronomy Agronomy angiology Anthology Anthropology Apiculture Araneology Batracology Biochemistry Biotechnology Cardiology Craniology Cryptography Cryogenics Cytology Dermatology Ecology Entomology Etiology Eugenics Evolution Exbiology Floriculture Geology Genetics Gerontology Gynaecology Horticulture Haematology Science of flight of airplanes Study of heavenly bodies Concerning Field Science dealing with crop plants Deals with the study of blood vascular system Study of flowers Study of apes and man Honey industry (Bee Keeping) Study of spiders Study of frogs Deals with the study of chemical reactions in relation to life activities Deals with the use of micro-organism in commercial processes for producing fine chemicals such as drugs. on a large scale Study of heart Study of skulls Study of secret writing Study concerning with the application and uses of very low temperature Study of cells Study of skin The study of relationship between organisms and environment Study of insects Study of cause of disease Study of improvement of human race by applying laws of heredity. vaccines. hormones. etc.

Iconography Immunology Jurisprudence Kalology Lexicography Mycology Myology Nephrology Neurology Numismatics Obstetrics Oneirology Study of liver Teaching by pictures and models Science which deals with the study of resistance of organisms against infection Science of law Study of human beauty Compiling of dictionary Study of fungi Study of muscles Study of kidneys Study of nervous system Study of coins and medals Branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy Study of dreams Ophthalmology Study of eyes Ornithology Osteology Palaeontology Philately Philology Phonetics Physiography Pedology Pathology Phycology Physiology Pisciculture Pomology Seismology Sericulture Serpentology Telepathy Study of birds Study of bones Study of fossils Stamp collecting Study of language Concerning the sound of a spoken language Natural phenomenon Study of soils Study of disease causing organisms Study of algae Science dealing with the study of functions of various parts of organisms Study of fish Study of fruits Study of earthquakes Silk industry (culture of silk moth and pupa) Study of snakes Communication between two minds at a distance with the help of emotions thoughts and feelings .Hepatology .

adaptation to stress. Synthesis and secretion of adrenal cortex hormones growth of gland Protein synthesis. constriction of skin and gut capillaries Dilation of arterioles of heart and skeletal muscles. contraction of uterus during birth Reduction of urine secretion by kidney Anterior pituitary gland Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinising hormone (LH) Prolactin Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH or corticotrophin) Growth hormone (GH) In male.Taxonomy Virology Study of classification of organisms Study of virus Human Endocrine System Gland Hormone Releasing and inhibiting hormones and factors Posterior pituitary hormones produced here Receives hormones from hypothalamus no hormones synthesised here stores and secretes the following: Oxytocin Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (vasopressin) Functions Hypothalamus Control of another pituitary hormones Posterior pituitary gland Ejection of milk from mammary gland. raising of blood pressure Parathyroid gland Thyroid gland Parathormone Triiodothyronine (T3)and thyroxine (T4) Calcitonin Adrenal cortex Glucocorticoids (cortisol) Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) Adrenal medulla Adrenaline (epinephrine) Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) . Na+ and K+ ratios in extracellular and intracellular fluids. raises blood pressure Increase rate and force of heartbeat. antiinflammatory/allergy effects Na+ retention in kidney. stimulate spermatogenesis In female. raising blood glucose level General constriction of small arteries. ovulation and maintenance of corpus luteum Stimulates milk production and secretion Synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones growth of thyroid glands. growth of ovarian follicles In male testosterone secretion In female secretion of oestrogen and progesterone. growth. especially of bone of limbs Increases blood calcium level Decreases blood phosphate level Regulation of basal metabolic rate. growth and development Decreases blood calcium level Protein breakdown. glucose/glycogen synthesis.

Alexander Harvey Hahnemann Malaria Parasite Anti-polio Vaccine Chloroform Streptomycin Insulin ( as a palliative for diabetes) Replacing the human heart Cure of Kala-a-zar fever Isolation of metals by electricity. Jonas E. oestrous cycle Gestation. Davy Domagk Eijkman Finsen Fleming. photography Penicillin (in 1929) Circulation of blood Homoeopathy (founder) Medical Inventions . increases glucose and amino acid uptake and utilisation by cells Increases blood glucose level.N. inhibition of ovulation Growth and development of uterus Foetal development Maintenance of corpus luteum Stimulates mammary growth Male secondary sexual characteristics stomach Duodenum Gastrin Secretin Cholecystokinin (Pancreozymin) Kidney Ovary Renin Oestrogens(17 Beta-oestradiol) Progesterone Progesterone and oestrogen Progesterone ans oestrogen Chorionic gonadotrophin Human placental lactogen Testosterone Corpus luteum Placenta Testis Medical Inventions and Discoveries SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Name Ronald Rose Salk. breakdown of glucogen to glucose in liver Secretion of gastric juices Secretion of pancreatic juice Inhibits gastric secretion Emptying of gall bladder and release of pancreatic juice in to duodenum Conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin Female secondary sex characteristics. Simpson and Harrison Waksman Banting Barnard. studied properties of chlorine Sulpha drugs as bactericides Cause of Beri-Beri Discovered curative effect of ultra violet rays. Christian Brahmachari.Islets of Langerhans Insulin (beta cells) Glucagon (alpha cells) Decreases blood glucose level. U.

Frederick Gowland Jenner Koch Lainnec Lister. cure of hydrophobia Milestones in Medicine . Louis Vitamin D Smallpox Vaccination Tubercle Bacillus Stethoscope Antiseptic treatment Treatment of rabies.15 16 17 18 19 20 Hopkins. Lord Pasteur.

S.A Germany Netherlands Germany Estonia Britain Britain U.S.A France U.A Germany Britain U.S.B germs Circulation of blood Cryo-Surgery Diphtheria germs Electro-Cardiograph Electro-encephalogram Embryology Endocrinology First Test Tube Baby Gene Therapy on humans Year 1894 1885 1898 1890 1889 2000-1000 BC 1683 1872 1648 1940 1625 1932 1968 1493-1541 1847 1947 1877 1628 1953 1883-84 1903 1929 1792-1896 1902 1978 1980 Discoverer / Inventor Schafer and Oliver Koller Bier Behring and Kitasato Dreser Country Britain Austria Germany Germany. Spinal Anti-toxins (Science of Immunity) Aspirin Ayurveda Bacteria Bacteriology Biochemistry Blood Plasma storage (Blood bank) Blood Transfusion Cardiac Pacemaker CAT Scanner Chemotherapy Chloroform as anaesthetic Chloromycetin Cholera T.SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Discovery / Invention Adrenaline Anesthesia.S.A U.A S. Japan Germany India Leeuwenhock Ferdinand Cohn Jan Baptista Van Helmont Drew Jean-Baptiste Denys A.A Britain Switzerland Britain U. Local Anesthesia.S.S Hyman Godfrey Hounsfield Paracelsus James Simpson Burkholder Robert Koch William Harvey Henry Swan Klebs and Loffler Willem Einthoven Hand Berger Kari Ernest Van Baer Bayliss and Starling Steptoe and Edwards Martin Clive Robert Weinberg and others Christian Barnard Marie Bichat Netherlands Germany Belgium U. Africa France Genes associated with cancer 1982 Heart Transplant Surgery Histology 1967 1771-1802 .S.

S. et al.A U. Measles Vaccine.S.A India U. Nicolle Edward Jenner Enders Britain Netherlands Norway Switzerland France Germany Germany U.S. Connaught U. Meningitis Vaccine.A U.S.S.A Lab Jonas Salk U.A France U.S. Boyer.S.A Britain Switzerland U.30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Hypodermic syringe Kidney Machine Leprosy Bacillus LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide) Malaria Germs Morphine Neurology Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging Open Heart Surgery Oral Contraceptive Pills Penicillin Physiology Positron emission Tomography Rabies Vaccine Recombinant-DNA technology Reserpine Rh-factor Serology Sex hormones Small Pox eradicated Stethoscope Streptomycin Synthetic Antigens Terramycin Thyroxin Typhus Vaccine Vaccination Vaccine.A U.S.S. Rock Alexander Fleming Albrecht Von Haller Louis Sokoloff Louis Pasteur Paul Berg.S. H.A U.H.A Germany Australia UN France U.S. Polio 1853 1944 1873 1943 1880 1805 1758-1828 1971 1953 1955 1928 1757-66 1978 1860 1972-73 1949 1940 1884-1915 1910 1980 1819 1944 1917 1950 1919 1909 1796 1963 1987 1954 Alexander wood Kolf Hansen Hoffman Laveran Friderich Sertumer Franz Joseph Gall Raymond Damadian Walton Lillehel Gregory Pincus.O Declaration Rene Laennec Selman Waksmann Landsteiner Finlay and Others Edward Calvin-Kendall J.A .A France Britain U.A Gardon.S.S Cohen Jal Vakil Karl Landsteiner Paul Ehrlich Eugen Steinach W.A U.S.W.

S.S.A Greece India National Laboratories and Research Institutions .S. Rabies Vaccine. Smallpox Virology Vitamin A Vitamin B1 Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin K Western Scientific Therapy Yoga 1960 1885 1776 1892 1913 1936 1919 1925 1938 460-370 BC 200-100 BC Albert Sabin Louis Pasteur Jenner Ivanovski and Bajernick Mc Collum and M.S.S. Polio-orai Vaccine.A Norway U.A U.A France Britain USSR. Davis Minot and Murphy Froelich Holst Mc Collum Doisy Dam Hippocrates Patanjali U. Netherlands U.60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Vaccine.A U.

U.P Chennai.P Karaikudi.N Pilani. Uttaranchal Lucknow. A. Delhi . W. T.P Bangalore. U.P Panjim. Uttaranchal Lucknow.SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Name Central Building Research Institute Central Drug Research Institute Central Electro-Chemical Research Institute Central Electronics Engineering research institute Central Food Technological Research Institute Central Fuel Research Institute Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Central Leather Research Institute Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute Central Mining Research Station Central Road Research Institute Central Salt and Marine Chemical Research Institute Central Scientific Instruments Organisation Indian Institute of Chemical Biology Indian Institute of Petroleum Industrial Texicology Central Centre National Aeronautical Laboratory Roorkee. Goa Kolkata. Gujarat Place Chandigarh. Jharkhand Jadhavpur. Rajasthan Mysore. Jharkhand New Delhi. Maharashtra Hyderabad.N Durgapur. W. Chandigarh Kolkatta.P National Chemical Laboratory National Environment Engineering Institute National Geophysical Research Institute National Institute of Oceanography Bose Research Institute National Metallurgical Laboratory National Physical Laboratory Pune. Maharashtra Napery. Karnataka Dhanbad. Jharkhand New Delhi.B Jamshedpur.B Lucknow. U. W. Karnataka National Botanical Research Institute Lucknow. W. U.B Dhanbad.B Dehradun. Delhi Bhavnagar. T.

27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

Regional Research Laboratories Structural Engineering Research Centre Visvesvarayya Industrial and Technological Museum High Altitude Research Laboratory Indian Cancer Research Centre Seismic Research Centre Central Marine Research Station Central research Laboratory Centre For Cellular and Molecular Biology Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Forest Research Institute Indian Institute of Science Indian Institute of Sugar Technology Indian Space Research Organisation Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health All India Institute of Medical Science All India Malaria Institute Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research National Institute of Communicable Diseases Central Research Institute

Bhubaneshwer, Orissa; Jorhat, Assam; Jammu, J & K; Hyderabad, A.P Roorkee, Uttaranchal; Chennai; T.N; Bangalore, Karnataka Gulmarg, J and K Mumbai, Maharashtra Gaurividanur, Near Bangalore, Karnataka Chennai, T.N Chennai, T.N Hyderabad, A.P New Delhi, Delhi Dehradun, Uttaranchal Bangalore, Karnataka Kanpur, U.P Bangalore, Karnataka Lucknow, U.P Kolkata, W.B New Delhi, Delhi Delhi Jamnagar, Gujarat New Delhi, Delhi Kasauli, H.P

Some Important Alloys

Name Brass Bronze

Composition Cu(60% to 80%), Zn (40 to 20%) Cu (75 to 90%), Sn (25 to 10%)

Use For making household utencils For making coins, idols, utencils For making utencils For making aircraft frame For making cheap ornaments For making alkali resistant containers For making bells Used for engineering purpose Soldering of metals In aircraft manufacturing For making nails, screws, bridges for making cooking utencils, knives

German Silver Cu (60%), Zn (25%), Ni (15%) Magnelium Rolled Gold Monel metal Bell metals Gun metal Solder Duralium Steel Stainless Steel Mg (5%), Al (95%) Cu(90%), Ni (10%) Cu (70%), Ni (30%) Cu (80%), Sn (20%) Cu (85%), Zn (10%), Sn(5%) Sn(50-75%), Pb (50-25%) Al (95%), Cu (4%), Mg (0.5%), Mn (0.5%) Fe (98%), C (2%) Fe (82%) Cr, Ni (18%)

Some Important Facts of Human Body

Length of alimentary canal BMR (Basal metabolic rate) Number calls in body Longest bone Smallest bone Weight of brain Blood volume Normal B.P Number of R.B.C Life span of R.B.C Normal W.B.C count Life span of W.B.C

Approximately 8 meters 1600 K.cal/day 75 trillion Femur (thigh bone) Ear ossicle, stapes 1400 gms 6.8 litres (in 70 kg body) 120/80 mm Hg (a) In male: 4.5-5.0 million/cubic mm (b) In female: 4.0-4.5 million/cubic mm 120 days 5000-10000/cubic mm 3-4 days (a) Basophils-0.5-1% (b) Eosinophils-1-3% (c) Monocytes-3-8% (d) Neutrophils-40-70% (e) Lymphocytes-2-25% 2,00,000-4,00,000/cubic mm (a) In male: 14-15.6 gm/100 c.c of blood (b) In female: 11-14 gm/100 c.c of blood 500-700 gm O Rh-ve AB 2-5 minutes 70 kg 98.4.F or 37.C 16-20 minutes adult:2123/2123=32 child: 2120/2120=22 milk teeth 12 pairs 31 pairs Thyroid 9 months (253-266 days) 72-75/ minutes Liver

D.L.C (Differential leucocyte count)

Blood platelets count Haemoglobin Hb content in body Universal blood donor Universal blood recipient Blood clotting time Average body weight Normal body temperature Breathing rate Dental formula Number of cranial nerves Number of spinal nerves Largest endocrine gland Gestation period Normal heart beat Largest gland

Largest muscles in the body Largest smooth muscle Smallest muscles in the body Largest artery Largest vein Largest W.B.C Smallest W.B.C Greatest regeneration power Longest nerve Longest cell Menstrual cycle Menopause age Minimum regeneration power Minimum distance for proper vision Type of placenta Pulse rate Volume of semen Normal sperm count ESR (normal Erythrocyte sedimentation rate) Thinnest skin pH of gastric juice pH of urine pH of blood

Gluteus maximus (Buttock muscle) Uterus of pregnant women Stapedius Abdominal aorta Inferior venacava Monocyte Lymphocyte In liver Sciatic Neuron (nerve cell) 28 days 45-50 years In brain cell 25 cm Haemochorial (Chorioallantoic) 72/minute 2-4 ml/ejaculation 200-350 million/ejaculation 4.10 min/hour Conjunctiva 1.4 6.0 7.35-7.45

Units of Measurement

Ampere Angstrom Bar Becquerel Bel Calorie Candela Candle power Celsius (Centigrade) Coulomb Decibel Dyne Electron-volt Erg Fahrenheit Farad Faraday Fathom Foot Candle Gauss Henry Hertz Horse-power Joule Kelvin Kilogram Knot Lambert Light Year Lumen Maxwell Metre Mole Electric current Wave-length and also lengths of atomic dimensions Atmospheric pressure Radioactivity Intensity of Sound Quantity of Heat Luminous intensity Illuminating power of source of light Temperature Electric Charge Intensity of sound (1/10th of Bel) Force Energy Work or Energy Temperature Electric Capacitance Electric Charge Depth of water Brightness Magnetic Induction Inductance Frequency Power Work or Energy Thermodynamic temperature Mass Speed of Ship and Aircraft Brightness Stellar Distance Luminous flux Magnetic flux Length Amount of Substance .

He laid foundations of algebra and pointed out the importance of zero.Bose: He was an eminent Physicist and Botanist. Bhagavantam: His contribution to radio astronomy and cosmic rays in noteworthy. He was a great mathematician and an astronomer. Calcutta.Chandrasekhar: An Indian-born American. Bhaskaracharya: Born in 1114 A. An associate of Sir C. His contributions include about the movement of earth around the Sun. Under his directorship. He invented Crescograph and lived between 1858 and 1937.named after him 'Boson'. Bose: He became well-known when he expounded the Bose Einstein theory which deals with the detection of a group of nuclear particles . He founded Bose Research Institute.V.D.the birth and death of stars is 35 years old.D. He died in 1974.S. The first Indian satellite was named after him. S. who won Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983. Dr.Raman. His theory of Stellar Evolution . such as diameter of Earth and Moon. bhaskaracharya was a great Hindu mathematician and Astronomer. S. His work 'Sidhanta Siromain' consists of two parts of mathematics and two parts of astronomy. He had a foresight on the modern theory of conventions.Bhagavantam was scientific adviser in the Ministry of Defence and Director General of Defence Research Development Organisation.Nautical Mile Newton Newton metre Oersted Ohm Pascal Poise Quintal Radian Second Tesla Volt Watt Weber Distance in Navigation Force (metric) Work Magnetic Intensity Electrical Resistance Stress Viscosity Weight (metric) Plane Angle Time Magnetic Flux Density Electric Potential Power Magnetic Flux Well Known Indian Scientists Aryabhatta: He lived between 476 and 520 A. He was the first Director General of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. determination of various physical parameters of various celestial bodies.S.C. S.N. J. many research laboratories were established throughout India. He is an Astrophysicist.. . Bhatnagar: A great Indian Scientist who lived between 1895 and 1955. His contribution to Planck's Law is laudable. Dr.

V. Raman: First Indian Scientist to receive Nobel prize for physics in 1929 for his invention 'Raman Effect'. He lived between 1887 to 1920 AD. He was the first Chairman of Atomic Energy Commission.His first discovery was laughed at. Narlikar: J. colouring process etc. sublimation. He was awarded Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1968.1944 AD. He mentioned about crecibles.D: An eminent Indian Nuclear Physicist known all over the world. Nag Chowdhury B. His period was between 375 and 413 A.V.Joshi's works on physical and chemical reaction under electrical discharge on active nitrogen. cosmic rays.Narlikar was the co-author of Hoyle-Narlikar theory of continuous creation which supplies missing links in Einstein's theory of Relativity. Cosmic Rays.S. His study of crystal structure is of unique importance. His writings on Hindu Medicine are invaluable Dhanvantri: He was a great physician during the period of Chandragupta Vikramaditya. His theory on extraction of copper and metallic oxides are mention-worthy.Roy: Author of 'Hindu Chemistry'. Prof.Bhaba: He largely contributed to the development of Atomic Physics and he was primarily responsible for setting up of Nuclear reactors in India. it was recognised and today he is a Nobel Laureate. Sir C. theory of partitions and theory of continuous fractions. He was a court physician of King Kanishka. According to his theory. Joshi: Prof.of Physics.P. contributed much to number theory. He published important papers on Quantum Theory. He died in a plane crash in 1966 over Alps. He lived between 1861. Hoyle and Narlikar have shown that the gravitation is always attractive and there is no gravitational repulsions.Maghnad: Late Palit Prof. He lived from 1893 to 1956. Raja Ramanna: A great nuclear scientist. Srinivas Ramanujam: A mathematical wizard. He has done good work on nitrous acid and its salts. . After three decades. Hargobind Khorana: He created an artificial gene and deciphered genetic code. University College of Scientific and Technology. He founded Indian Chemical Society and Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Sir C. the old stars just collapse and disappear in the light of denser stars of low light popularly called Chandrasekhar Limit.D. hydrogen peroxide are noteworthy Nagarjuna: A great Buddhist Philosopher and Chemist. Calcutta University well-known for his researches in nuclear physics. spectrum analysis and other branches of theoretical physics.Ramachandra Rao: Direction of Indian Scientific Satellite Project (ISSP) at Peenya near Bangalore Saha Dr. who was instrumental to stage India's first Nuclear explosion at Pokharan range in 1974. His works are still available in China and Tibet. V. Structure of atom. Charaka: He lived between 80 and 180 A. etc. S. He founded Raman Research Institute at Bangalore. colloids. Homi J. His birth centenary was celebrated in 1987.D.

He was instrumental to take India into space age by launching Aryabhatta in 1975. Everest twice Ann Bancroft Kaycottee Taranath Shenoy (India) Santosh Yadav (India) The first black player to win the Wimbledon men's singles title Arthur Ashe (US) The first person to win the Palk Strait ocean swimming contest Baidyanath . General Knowledge Sports Sports Field The first Indian woman to swim across the English Channel The first Indian to win world Billiards Trophy The first to cross the Damelles by swimming The first to conquer Everest The first to sail round the world The first person to win Wimbledon title five times The first woman who conquered Everest The first person to reach North Pole First woman Olympic Medallist (Weight Lifting) The first person to reach South Pole The first Indian to win All England Badminton Championship The first Indian woman to conquer Everest The first an to climb Everest twice Person Miss.D. He was one of the nine gems of Vikramaditya.Satish Dhavan: He was chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation. Susruta: A fourth century Hindu Surgeon and Physician. Varahamihira: An Indian astronomer and astrologer of 6th Century A. He had written an important book on medicine and on medical properties of garlic. Arati Shah Wilson Jones Mihir Sen Sherpa Tenzing (1953) Megellan Bjorn Borg Jungo Table (Japan) Robert Peary Karnam Malleswari (2000) Amundsen Prakash Padukone Bichendri Pal Nawang Gombu The first person to complete solo walk to magnetic North pole David Hempleman Adam (UK) The first woman to reach North pole The first woman to sail non stop around the world alone The first deaf & dumb to cross the strait of Gibraltar The first woman to climb Mt. He was a mathematician and philosopher.

12 74.29 23.48 9026 Stuttgart Athina Barcelona Salamanca Sestriere Tokyo Goteborg Westwood Neubranden Burg Stuttgart Jena Gotzis Jonathan Edwards GBR Randy Barnes Jurgen Schult Yuriy Sedykh Jan Zelezny Roman Sebrle Bernardo Segura Thierry Toutain Paul Tergat USA GDR RUS CZE CZE MEX FRA KEN 17:25.0 Roma 12:37.18 Paris Atlanta.91 12.3 Ostrava 07:53.78 19.14 8. Ga Sevilla Place Date 9/14/2002 1/8/1996 8/26/1999 8/24/1997 7/14/1998 5/31/2004 8/6/2004 3/9/2004 8/20/1993 8/27/2004 6/8/1992 7/27/1993 7/31/1994 8/30/1991 7/8/1996 5/20/1990 6/6/1986 8/30/1986 5/25/1996 5/27/2001 7/5/1994 9/29/1996 9/28/2003 01:41.45 6.4 Hengelo 26.000m 3000m Steeple Chase 110m Hurdles 110m Hurdles 400m Hurdles High Jump Pole Vault Long Jump Triple Jump Short Put Discus Hammer Javelin Decathlon 20 km Race Walking 50 km Race Walking Marathon Event Time 9.6 Bruxelles 12.9 Hericourt 2:04:55 Berlin World Athletics Records Women .World Athletics Records Men S.32 43.95 18.20.78 2.6 Bergen 40:57.08 86.91 46.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Athlete Name Tim Montgomery Michael Johnson Michael Johnson Wilson Kipketer Hicham El Guerrouj Kenenisa Bekele Kenenisa Bekele Saif Saaeed Shaheen Colin Jackson Xiang Liu Kevin Young Javier Sotomayor Sergey Bubka Mike Powell Nation USA USA USA DEN MAR ETH ETH QAT GBR CHN USA CUB UKR USA 100m 200m 400m 800m 1500m 5000m 10.74 98.1 Koln 03:26.

8 Beijing 09:01.34 2.5 22.63 76.S.Joyner USA Marita Koch Jarmila Kratochvilova Yunxia Qu Elvan Abeylegesse Junxia Wang GDR TCH CHN TUR CHN 01:53.92 752 15.09 4. WA 26:52.07 71.54 7291 Stara Zagora Tula Roma Bruxelles Leningrad Goteborg Moskva Neubran denburg Rudlingen Rethimno Seoul 10.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Athlete Name Nation 100M 200M 400M 800M 1500M 5000M Event Time 10.6 Iraklio 12.3 Brisbane .7 Bergen 29:31.21 52.000M 3000M STEEPLECHASE 100M HURDLES 400M HURDLES HIGH JUMP POLE VAULT LONG JUMP TRIPLE JUMP SHOT PUT DISCUS HAMMER JAVELIN HEPTATHLON 10 KM RACE WALKING 20KM WALK Gulnara Samitova RUS Yordanka Donkova BUL Yuliya Pechenkina RUS Stefka Kostadinova BUL Yelena Isinbayeva RUS Galina Chistyakova Inessa Kravets Natalya Lisovskaya Gabriele Reinsch Mihaela Melinte Osleidys Menendez Jackie JoynerKersee Nadezhda Ryashkina Olimpiada Ivanova URS UKR URS GDR ROM CUB USA URS RUS 41:56.Joyner USA Florence G.2 Seattle.5 Beijing 14:24.49 21.3 Munchen 03:50.6 Place Indianapolis Seoul Canberra Date 7/16/1988 9/29/1988 6/10/1985 7/26/1983 11/9/1993 11/6/2004 8/9/1993 4/7/2004 8/20/1988 8/8/2003 8/30/1987 3/9/2004 11/6/1988 10/8/1995 7/6/1987 9/7/1988 8/29/1999 1/7/2001 9/24/1988 7/24/1990 6/9/2001 Florence G.34 47.8 76.

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