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CELTA Pre-Course Task Answered by Zainab Saleh Dawwadi

Task 1 1. In what context will you be doing the CELTA course? I will be doing the CELTA course for all different learning / teaching contexts, in order to be able to accommodate the learning and teaching style more. 2. Do you know what context will you be teaching in after you finish the course? I think I will be expected to be exposed to any of the learning / teaching contexts mentioned above. I am open to all the possibilities either locally or globally. Task 2 1. Think about why you decided to teach adults. I have decided to teach adults for many reasons. As I see that teaching adults is quite different than teaching younger learners, because adults are mature in the way of dealing with learning methodology , which means they know exactly why they come to learn a language and usually no one has pushed or forced them, as when parents do. And when they do so, younger learners come with no intention to perform well, and their main goals are to satisfy their parents only. But adults usually have many different motivations and reasons for taking English or any other language courses, which means, they're more serious about learning a language than younger learners. Another reason for me to teach adults is that they're able to use their L1 knowledge and to transform it to their L2 language. They're also a much more motivated to their clear targets, that's the purpose why they're learning from the first place. 2. Think about what you, as an adult, bring to this learning situation. As a second language learner, I am more tuned to the need of the learners since I have gone through the same process of learning the language myself, therefore some of my goals in teaching adults are to provide and focus hard on how to make a positive atmosphere in classes which will reflect immediately on the learners behaviors, because each learner comes from unknown circumstances, looking forward to learning and improving her/his English language, so that's why teachers should be aware of that too and more careful about dealing with their students. 3. Look at your answers to question 1 and 2 and use these ideas to help you to write down what characterizes adult learners. 1- Teaching adults is easier in some way when it comes to behavioral aspects, but on the other hand it can be considered difficult in terms of changing their learning style, because they were set in their L1 language and therefore they would use that knowledge to learning L2. 2- In every learning environment you will have exceptions, but in general adult learners tend to be able to cope easily and adapt to changes. 3- They are able to work cooperatively and collaboratively in order for them to achieve tasks. 4- They are able to come over their differences to complete their work, more over they are better negotiators. 5- Because of their age and experience, they tend to be more serious and on task when it come to their learning.

Task 3 1. What would you want to find out about a group of learners that you had to teach so that you could plan your lesson? The first week is an important time to learn and set the tune of the learning environment in any learning class. Tasks as ice breaker, having a discussion with the learners on their goals and dreams, strategies on how to achieve them would probably help. Another thing is knowing the learning style of either group or individual learners. As I have stated above each learner has different style and would not learn if not accommodated . How would you find out? By applying a pre-during and after assessment we will be able to assess our students needs, weaknesses and strength. By knowing how our learners learn in another word if they are visual, auditory, tactile or kinesthetic. While the learners are working on any given task the teacher should observe and assess the learners in terms of chemistry between groups and individual learners. Task 4 If you were teaching a group of learners, each of whom had different motivations for learning English, which learners would be the most challenging in terms of motivation? As a teacher, all of my students are important, no matter what their motivations are, because even if each learner has a particular goal/ target that he/ she wants to achieve, therefore the teacher will have to encourage them all the same way. At the same time any given lesson the teacher should keep in mind that all her/ his lesson have to be modified to help students to achieve their goals and any failure to the learning process might occur in a certain stage, or at the end of the course, will include the teacher. Task 5 Look at the list of qualities and skills that a teacher might have. Which do you think learners most often rate in the top five? 1- Is sensitive to the culture and backgrounds of learners, is the big umbrella which include to be approachable, sensitive to learners as people, has a sense of humour, patient, inspires confidence and respects individuality, empathises with learners. 2- Is always learning and developing and that include being able to build rapport with students and other teachers, how to give clear info and feedback, to be organized and methodological, plan well and paces lessons to match learners. 3- Can be authoritative without being distant which will help the teacher to have calm presence, listen to students and be patient and friendly. 4- To be enthusiastic and inspires enthusiasm that means the teacher has to be able to be honest, does not complicate things unnecessarily and trust learners.

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Task 6 Make a list of associations you have with the word " grammar ". they may not all be negative! Having the knowledge but not able to use it. Having the language system but not being able to use it. Having the ability to apply or do what we learn instead of storing the learning knowledge. Need to understand that grammar is not so fixed and rigid but flexible. Grammar should be concerned the main skill to learn because it's the gate for other skills such as reading, listening, speaking and writing. Distinguish between accuracy and meaning which means my sentence convey a clear message, but with miner grammatical mistakes that will not hinder understanding. Task 7 Look at the following sentences and decide which are correct. Write a correct version of the examples that are incorrect.

1- We've been looking for you for ages. " correct " 2- I've been to the movies last night. " incorrect " I went to the movie last night. " correct " 3- He often come late. " incorrect " He often comes late. "correct " 4- They were waiting by the foundation. " correct " 5- Can I have a coffee black, please. " incorrect " Can I have a black coffee. " correct " 6- People with 12 items or less can queue here. " correct " Task 8 Provide a list of reasons why English language teachers need to know about grammar. In doing so, try to give some thought to the learners' perspectives. 1234To present the language correctly to the learners. To make correct sentences leading to obvious meanings. To simplify grammatical terms in order to achieve learning aims. To recognize which tense " time " the speaker refers to in explaining events, to reduce confusion and misunderstanding. 5- To marry the ability to learn and apply. Task 9 Identify the underlined words in the following dialogue. Use a grammar reference book or a dictionary to help you with this if necessary.

A: what are you looking for? You is a determiner subject pronoun, which comes after the verb be or any other auxiliary in a question sentence. B: Well, it's a photograph of something close up, but I can't work out what it is. A is an indefinite article usually followed by a singular countable noun. Also used when the next word begins with a consonant. But taking in consideration that some vowels like " U " pronounced into different ways, if it sounds like " j " like in university we treat it as a consonant. We also use" an "with some letters sound like vowels, and those letters we treat them as real vowels like " F ,M ,L ,N ' we say an Mp3. Another use for the article" a "is when we talk or mention something for the first time. But in general is a preposition, but here it's a conjunctive word, connecting two clauses. A: yes, it's quite abstract isn't it? Quite is an adverb of degree that comes before an adjective, which means fairly or very. Abstract is an adjective that describes an idea exists as thoughts in the mind, but it's not existed in reality, would not occur normally in nature or life. B: yes, it could be one of those things for unblocking a sink. Could is a model verb. It has many uses, but here it is used for saying that something is possible to be used as a suggestion sentence. Or it seems that the [person does not really know what the object he sees is, but he thinks it it's possibly a plunger. Those is a determiner adverb ,and it's the plural of that, which refers to things are far from you to when you talk about. It could come with a noun or without a noun. Examples: Those apples look nice. Which shoes do you prefer these or those? For is usually a preposition, but here is a conjunction, connecting two clauses, showing a purpose of an object on a gerundic action. A: oh, you mean a plunger. Mean is the verb in the infinitive form, which used in the present simple tense. Describing the way of someone asking if you have understood it correctly. Plunger is a noun used for an object which used for pulling the dirt out of a sink or a bath that is blocked. Consists of a rubber cup fixed to a short stick. Task 10 Described if the underlined verbs in the following sentences and questions are lexical verbs or auxiliary verbs. 1- He watches TV for at least two hours every evening. Watches is a lexical verb " main verb " 2- What are you looking for? Looking is a lexical verb " main verb " 3- They aren't going to come. Aren't or are is an auxiliary verb " helping verb " 4- What does he want? Does is an auxiliary verb " helping verb "

5- They haven't been here before. Have is an auxiliary verb 6- He was waiting on the corner. Wait is a lexical verb Task 11 Decide if the underlined verbs be, do and have have an auxiliary or lexical function in the following sentences and questions. 1. I had a bad headache yesterday. Had in this sentence has a lexical function. " the main verb of the sentence " 2. When do you get up each day? Do in this sentence has an auxiliary function. " the helping verb of the sentence " 3. How long have you been learning English? Have here has an auxiliary function. 4. I did it without thinking. Did here has a lexical function. 5. We do some exercise every morning. Do here has a lexical function. 6. Have you had them long? Had here has a lexical function. 7. I was hoping for a quick answer. Was here has an auxiliary function. 8. Are they still here? Are here has a lexical function. Task 12 All of the following sentences contain modal auxiliary verbs that are underlined. Match the meaning of the modal verb to the definition below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. You should see a doctor as soon as you can. C- advice You may go now, thank you . E- permission This letter must be from Frank-he's the only one who hasn't written so far. I can't play the piano very well. A- ability We could go out, but I don't know if I'm in the mood. B- logical deduction Task 13 Match the underlined verb form examples to the correct definition. 1. I worked until 7 o'clock last night. Past tense form 2. They've been seeing a lot of each other lately. Ing form 3. She lives not far from here. 3rd person- present simple tense

D- possibility

4. You have to try harder. Base form 5. It was handed to me as I was leaving. Past participle form.

Task 14 Think of the past form and the past participle forms of the following verbs. Which are regular? Which are not regular? Hear Think Go do take drink help steal arrive past form helped arrived past form heard thought went did took drank stole past participle helped arrived past participle heard thought gone done taken drunk stolen

Regular verbs Help Arrive Irregular verbs Hear Think Go Do Take Drink Steal Task 15

Identify the different elements " past, present, modal, perfect, progressive, passive" underlined in the following verb phrases. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I was hoping to see you. " progressive " They might have got home by now. " modal " We have tried to help. " perfect" They were being questioned at length. " passive " I saw it coming. " past " This time next week you will be lying on a beach. " future progressive " Task 16 Identify the tense names of the underlined verbs in the following sentences. You will most likely need to refer to a grammar reference book to help you. 1. I am having a really good time." Refers to present progressive tense". 2. We stopped doing that years ago. " Refers to past simple tense". 3. She lives somewhere near here. " present simple tense ".

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

We had been for a drink before we met him. " past perfect ". These computers are made in china. " present passive tense ". You will have been here for 2 days by then, " future perfect simple". It happened as I was driving home. " past simple interrupted by past continues ". I have been feeling unwell for a while. " present perfect continues ". Task 17 The following examples of language contain different tenses which are underlined. The name of the tense is also given. Decide what the time reference of each examples is and remember that the time reference may not match the tense name.

1. The sun was shining brightly in the sky. Refers to the past continues time, and it's a finished action usually the past progressive interrupts the past simple, but both of them are finished actions. 2. They'll have finished work on the bridge by then. " future perfect simple " which refers to an action will be finished before a certain time in the future. 3. She's been working in the garden all morning. " present perfect progressive" that refers to an action started in the past and still running " progressing " or the action just finished " recently " leaving a sign, means it emphasizes the continuation of an action. 4. Have you got a minute? I was wondering whether we could have a word. " past progressive " it refers to a possibility of an action might happen or not in the near future. 5. They own most of the land around here. " present simple" refers to a fact, means something true in general can be changed but not repeatedly, like the actions we use to explain daily routines. Task 18 1. What auxiliary verb is used to create the present progressive? Auxiliary verbs are used to create the present continues are only the verb be " am, is, are " . 2. What is the form of the lexical verb of the present progressive? There are different forms of lexical verbs in the present progressive like: - If the verb ends with an e like in " dance " we drop the e and we add an ing " dancing ". - If the verb ends with a consonant, vowel and a consonant, we double the consonant like in " sit " " sitting" or " run" " running ". - Most of the other action verbs stay in the same form, but we only add " ing " to them. Task 19 Look at the following mini-dialogue below and decide the time reference or use of the underlined examples of the present progressive. 1. A: how about going to a movie this evening. B: I can't I'm meeting Judy for a drink.

This present continues refers to a near fixed future plan, we also can say that the speaker has a arranged for plan before, so they're meeting. 2. A: where's Tony? B: I don't know where he's got to. A: He's always running late. Present continues is used here to talk a bout a repeated action which annoys you! and in this case we use the adverb of frequency " always". 3. A: it was late at night and I was on my way back to the hotel. Suddenly, I find I'm walking down the street all on my own and I can hear the sound of footsteps This present progressive form is used to grab the readers' attention in narratives" Story telling". Task 20 What is the problem with the following examples? He's having a brother and a sister. " incorrect ". The problem in this sentence is, using the present progressive, which is wrong, because this is a fact sentence, which needs the present simple. We should say: He has a brother and a sister. " correct ". I'm liking this ice cream. " incorrect " We don't use " ing " form with stative or non action verbs that have short terms of time of usage such as like, love, understand.. I like this ice cream " correct" What are you thinking of your new job? " incorrect " Thinking means at the moment, but question like this is about general opinion, so we need To use the auxiliary" do" not " are" with you in questions with think to make a present simple question. What do you think of your new job? " correct " The sauce is lacking salt. " incorrect " Lack is a stative verb we can't use it with the present progressive. The sauce lacks some salt or need some salt. " correct " . Task 21 Make a list of what extra information dictionaries can provide about words apart form the meaning. It would be a good idea to refer to a dictionary to help you. 1. Dictionaries are organized according to the alphabetic letters which helps the process of searching for any word easily. 2. With dictionaries you can learn how to pronounce words if you've learnt their phonetic letters without any help from anyone using " the pronunciation guide". 3. Dictionaries show you how words are distinguished with more than one meaning. 4. Dictionaries assist people to divide words as their classifications " nouns, verbs, adverbs,." Etc.

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5. Dictionaries include collocation boxes which mean lists of words the frequently come together. 6. Dictionaries provide consonant, vowel and diphthong lists. 7. Dictionaries have grammatical explanations for many important words they could be used as " grammatical reference". 8. Dictionaries are provided with some coloured pictures with more information for visual learners. Task 22 In the following sentences, there is a vocabulary error of some kind. Identify and describe the problem. 1. He's the highest person in the family by more than 2 centimeters. He's the tallest person in the family by more than 2 centimeters." Correct " We use the high to measure how tall are the objects and buildings, but not with people. 2. I think I'll go to bed now. I'm feeling a little enervated. I think I'll go to bed not. I'm feeling a little tired. " correct " Enervated is more formal in usage. 3. It is an extremely good essay. The ideas in it are original and pretentious. It is an extremely good essay. The ideas in it are original and well written. We use pretentious to show someone's behaving in the way that is intended to impress other people, but seems unnatural to the person. 4. Her grandfather gave her a loving slap on her face. Her grandfather gave her a loving pat on her face. Slap is a verb which shows a negative unkind action which can't be a loving action. 5. Every day I like to go footing after work. It's good exercise and it helps me to relax. Every day I like to go walking after work. It's good exercise and it helps me to relax. We rather say go walking or on foot, but not footing it doesn't make sense. Task 23 Underline and identify these different examples . Note: some sentences contain more than one collocation Not only was he nice, but he was also strikingly handsome. " adverb- adjective collocation " After he got up, he made his bed and did some housework. Got up is a verb-preposition collocation Made his bed is a verb-noun collocation Did some housework is a verb- noun collocation too. It was absolutely fabulous. Is an adverb- adjective collocation They both really depend on each other. Is a verb-preposition collocation Their farewell at the airport was highly emotional. Is an adverb- adjective collocation

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6. She was caught in a vicious circle. Is an adjective-noun collocation Task 24 Match the terms 1-3 with the definitions A-C 1. Stress B. giving emphasis to one syllable 2. Phoneme C. an individual sound 3. Intonation A. the music of our voices Task 25 Match the problems 1-3 with the outcomes A-C 1. An individual sound is mispronounced. B. The listener might understand "b" when the speaker wanted to say "p". 2. A request is made with very flat intonation. C. The speaker can sound arrogant and demanding. 3. The wrong syllable is stressed in a word. A. The word is incomprehensible. Task 26 What are these words? They are: 1. / there / 4. / peaceful / 7. /such /

2. / south / 5. /young / 8. / equation /

3. / language / 6. /call / 9. / sugar /.

Task 27 Where does the stress fall on the following words? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Guarantee Mechanisation Retreat Success Identity 6. Cavalry 7. Language 8. Speculative 9. Balance 10. Articulate " adjective"

Task 28 1. Mark the main stress on the words in the following " word family". Why do you think non-native speakers often experience with these words?

Photograph

photography photographer photographic

2. Mark the stress in the following pairs of words. Can you identify a pattern? To record / a record To present / a present Task 29 Underline the / to increase / an increase to import / an import

/ in the following words:

Mother forgot announce tonight notable mention patrol indicative Task 30 Think of all texts that you have read so far today and comment on the way in each you have read these texts When we are reading we use different strategies, in order to get the meaning accurately without wasting time. It depends on what is the task and type if questions accompanying the reading task. We may use skim-scan or reading to get the main idea, get the meaning of some vocabulary by using contexts . It differs if you are reading for pleasure or you are reading to complete a time controlled task. Task 31 Below are some different text types. Think about which of the above reading sub-skills we would use to read these texts. An academic article will need to read for an essay we are writing. " intensive / detailed reading" A telephone directory. " scan reading ". The editorial of a newspaper on a topic we care about a lot. " read infer" An advertisement for a job that might be suitable. " skim/gist "

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Task 32 What problems are there with this way of reading? The greatest difficulty that a non-native learner might face in reading is exploring new vocabularies meanings, and this way of reading will lead to different negativities such as: 1. 2. 3. 4. Losing interest. Time consuming. Confusion when translating the meaning. Meaning distorted.

Task 33 Make a list of reasons why you think non-native speakers are might find listening more challenging than reading? 1. They are not able to transfer their skills in listening from L1 to L2. 2. They usually try to stop by every word thinking that will help them to understand the whole thing. 3. When they do this they are left behind trying to understand the previous word. 4. They don't have the skills to listen to the key words. 5. Not knowing the vocabularies. 6. Not understanding different accents 7. They get fed up and tired after a while of listening 8. The have problems listening without seeing images or some times they have hearing problems 9. When learners can't understand a word they block their heads. 10. Learners don't usually listen accurately, they get lost with the delivered message. Task 34 Think of three different situations in which you listened today. Make a note of who you were listening to, your motivation for listening and describe how you listened . Listened to a talk show, my motivation was to learn new information of interest, knowing the topic they were talking about, and listened to key words, tried to use pictures and visual aids to help understanding new vocabularies. Listened to my son talking on the phone with his cousin, my motivation was because my son is a 5 year old boy I was listening to the way he speaks and thinks and see his social development so far and to enjoy it. Listened to some music, my motivation was to relax and not to focus on anything, and be an absent minded for a little while. Task 35 Match the above listening sub-skills to the following listening texts. 1. A lecturer for a course you are taking at university. " listening to infer meaning- intensive listening" 2. A sales pitch for a computer that doesn't really interest you. However, you are at work and you can't just walk out. " scan listening " 3. Announcements at a train station when you are waiting to hear the time of the next train to your destination. " intensive listening" 4. Instructions from your boss for a new task that critical for your job. " intensive listening "

5. An interview with someone who is famous and whose political opinion you would like to find out about. " listening to infer meaning" 6. A radio program on a topic that is mildly interesting for you. " skim/gist listening " Task 36 Think about this disparity between 2 years' study of a language and a lack of ability to speak. Why do you think this happens? The main reason is that learners don't practice the language which they've been struggling to learn it for two years or even more, and if so, this will make the language easy to forget " vanish" by time, which will lead to loosing faith in themselves, and even worse. They will be disappointed of themselves at the end, here come the teachers' roles to start building that from the beginning and encourage them to use the language they've reached so far. And here are more explained points: 1. Teachers are using unbalanced skills " grammar, listening, speaking, writing and reading". 2. Teaching and focusing more on grammar without practicing it in the speaking. 3. Students' inabilities to transfer their acquired learnt skills knowledge, may bebecause of fear to be made of fun or lack of class activities. 4. Do not encourage students to speak or fear of being judged by others. 5. Not having enough time, people and place for them to use the language outside the class room. 6. They think no one will understand them with their own accents, and this will cause troubles in speaking the language too. Task 37 Look at the following examples of learner language and decide whether the student has managed to communicate successfully or not. 1. 2. 3. 4. Could I please have a.? " not successfully " You come my house tonight? " successfully " Yesterday good time. Next week we see, no? " not successfully " A. How long have you been in New Zealand? B. I stay here 5 weeks. " successfully " not accurate but the message was clear to understand. Task 38 Decide if the following descriptions of conversation are transactional or interactional. 1. 2. 3. 4. You ask a colleague if s/he would mind helping you with something. " Transactional" You offer to collect your neighbor's mail while s/he is away on holiday. " Interactional" You comment on the weather to an acquaintance at a bus stop." interactional " You visit a friend and spend time admiring and talking about his/her garden." Interactional"

5. You participate in a university group tutorial that is useful for an essay you are writing. "Transactional" 6. You go out with your boss and other colleagues for a drink and a chat after work. " interactional" Task 39 Make a list of reasons why you think speaking fluency practice could help learners' language development. 1.Speaking is the only skill that you can't do it alone, so you have to practice it with poeple to make it perfect. 2. Through speaking learners will use their frozen grammar and vocabulary, by receiving and sending the language. 3. Through speaking learners will start building their confidence freely, the more you practice the better you become. 4. Through speaking students will realize more their needs for the language, also peer evaluation and correction is also important. 5. Speaking practice will allow learners to pronounce words correctly, and to use them suitably. 6. Teachers have to help learners in developing problem solving skill, cooperation and collaboration. 7. Providing the opportunity to speak outside the class will help to improve their fluency.

Task 40 Which of the following characteristics would you associate with spoken language "S" and which with written language "W". Includes gesture and facial expression to back up the message." S" Uses punctuation to make the content easier to understand. " W" Includes hesitation devises and fillers such as ' yeah' , 'umm', 'ah' etc. " S" The communicator usually gets immediate feedback from the person they are communicating with. "S" Is usually pre-prepared, although e-mail and text messages often are not. "W" Uses pauses, stress and intonation to show where ideas begin and end. "S" Is spontaneous and planning usually takes place in the moment of communicating. "S" Suggests that meaning is static in the communication, although open to interpretation. "S" The communicator may never find out what the person he is communicating with thinks of his message. "S" Includes headlines, different type sizes and colours to enhance the content. "W" Is usually smooth-flowing. "S" Involves negotiation of meaning between the communicator and the person they are communicating with. "S"

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Task 41 Look at the learner errors in the sentences below. Identify the mistakes and try to decide why the learner made these mistakes. 1. She through the ball hard, so it hurt when I court it. The error here is the word through has to be threw, and the word court has to be caught, because both words have the same pronunciation, that's why students confuse between them. 2. My brther livs in Swdn. " brother, lives, Sweden " , students usually forget to write some vowels, and it's common. 3. However, hard I try, it never works. forgetting commas. 4. First of all, he invited me to sit down after that, he offered me a coffee, I was very surprised by his politeness. Punctuations mistakes. Task 42 1. Look at the samples of learners' writing below and identify the difficulties encountered by these learners and other learners whose first language do not have a Roman script. Correction for sample A Dear hasband / husband I hope you are very well / fine I remember you, I miss my family / wrong usage for remember" I always think about youfull stop not comma The hardest thing been leaving my own country. Have been / is Also has to improve the hand writing. Correction for sample B Dear Soma I'm sorry I'm lit writing to you. about / writing late to you about.. This sample has a lot of punctuation and spelling problems..

2. Suggest some activities that teachers can use to help students to develop basic writing. Writing is a productive skill, which means that students have to brainstorm and elicit all vocabulary they know about a certain topic, they also have to follow some basic rules in writing like punctuation, capital letters, conjunction etc. and these are some activities might help in teaching writing: Bring a writing sample full of punctuation mistakes, ask learners to identify all the mistakes. Get them involved with English pen friend. Practice directions on their cities. Writing a poem if possible.

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5. Crossword games. 6. River writing. 7. Descriptive writing. Task 43 Below are some extracts from lesson plans. Decide which part of the lesson plan " 1-7 above" they may come from. Extract. a. I'd like to smile more and create a better rapport today. 4. Stage. b. Students students in pairs. 5.procedure. c. By the end of the lesson students will be able to use a range of adjectives to describe someone's personality. 1. Lesson aims/learning outcomes. d. Teacher hands out text and gives a different set of questions to each group. 7. Stage aim. e. Some students may find the pronunciation of several words quite difficult. I must make sure I use lots of repetition. 2. Anticipated problems and solutions. f. To get students interested in the topic of the listening text. 3. Personal aim. Task 44 Resource Can be used for 1.published course book F. Developing students' language and skills in a structured way and allowing them to review at home. 2.Cassette or CD player G. developing students' listening skills with specially prepared or real materials. 3. Newspapers in English B. developing students' ability to read real texts. 4. Internet. C. giving students work which can be tailored or their individual needs. 5. overhead projector "OHP" I. showing pre-prepared work on a large screen for clarity. 6. Whiteboard. H. writing down new words for students to focus on, making the form, meaning or pronunciation features of a language area clear. 7. TV/radio. D. Developing students' ability to listen to authentic speech. 8. teachers' own materials. E. finding information on a particular topic area and developing reading skills. 9. dictionaries. A. Encouraging students to expand their vocabulary and to find out about new words on their own. Task 45 Below are some instructions given by teachers. In each case the group of learners had difficulty following the instructions. For each one write. Why do you think the difficulty occurred? How could you give the same instruction in a more effective way?

1. Jot that down. Has to be " copy down" or " write it down" jot is an informal word "slang" which can't be used in class. 2. I wonder if you'd mind just looking at question number 4 and then if you could just answer it. " look at question 4 try to /can you answer it" the whole question was wrong grammatically. This is a long instruction, we have to keep it clear and simple. 3. I'd like you to read the text on page 4 and answer the first three, then compare your answers with the person next to you. After that write a short summary of the story and discuss this with your partner." The teacher should divide this question into parts, ask them to read the text and answer first three questions as a step, if they finish answering individually ask them to compare their answers, after checking all the answers together, then ask them or write on the board to write a summary of the story to discuss it". 4. Look at the question at the bottom of the page and think about an answer. " look at the question at the end of the page and try to answer it?". Task 46 Imagine that you are the teacher of the students who made the comments below. How would you respond to them? 1. I don't want to work in a group because I will only learn mistakes from other students. listening to many mistakes will lead to explaining things may never occur to your mind, remember that the teacher will be around correcting for each student". He/she may also can consolidate his or her learning by correcting other students mistakes and taking on the rules of being a leader. 2. I wish you could translate more words into my language." This will make learners rely on teachers' translation all the time, try to prepare your lesson at home by using a dictionary. 3. Please don't ask me to work with that student. I don't like people from her country." ?I will respect his or her wish and put that student in a different group but I will have every day part of the lesson talking about respect, understanding and compassion and talk about problems and conflicts in life and try to bring understanding and tolerance to the learning environment. As teacher we are not educators only but also the leaders of change. 4. Could we just talk in class and not use any books? I will ask the whole class if they all agree we will make their wish come true, but if not I will choose the best topic they all agree about and write it on the board then ask the students to prepare it and elicit as much as they can of words we can use then with the same topic at home which we will discuss it the next day. Task 47 Below is a description of an activity you might use in a language learning classroom. Read it and describe: How would you arrange the classroom to carry out the activity " position of desks, chairs, students and teacher" What resources you could use to make the activity more effective" pictures, real objects, handouts, music etc" Any problems about organization of the activity that you could anticipate.

Pair grouping The class will be arranged in a random shape so there will be space for students to stand or move to check with their classmates after finishing the lesson. Also to help the teacher move easily to check on understanding. Students should have a form prepared for them to fill and complete the information that they need for learning about the course. Task 48 You notice that your students have been confusing certain areas of language. You decide to have a lesson focusing on these different areas. Describe how you would make the differences clear to your students. Try to avoid long explanations and use as many different ways as possible" pictures, stories, diagrams, miming. Etc"

Different meanings 1. Slim / thin " slim is to loose weight and to stay attractive, but thin is more like negative adjective for someone who has a little fat on their body. 2. To wink / to blink' to wink to quickly close and open one eye as a sign to someone. To blink is to close your both eyes for a very short time and quickly open them again. 3. I used to get up early " used to show a repeated action happened in the past, but nevertheless now, I am used to getting up early " shows a repeated action happens in the present time. 4. Nervous / upset " nervous is an adjective appears someone who is worried about something or someone./ upset an adjective means angry of something or someone. 5. 4 weeks ago / 4 weeks before" 4 weeks ago is a past time expression, but 4 weeks before is a future time expression. Different pronunciation 6. I do it / I'll do it " I do it is a present simple action usually happens frequently, but I'll do it is an instant future action, differences with " will" that lead to a different meaning. 7. Read" present tense" to stress on the ea as i:, but read in the past tense pronounce it as e as in red. 8. Put / putt " put is pt it sounds like an o, but putt " pt" different sounds. 9. Record" noun" stress the first syllable, record "verb" stress the second syllable. 10. Live "verb" we pronounce it like this with a light " ", but live " something is happening now" we pronounce it with a strong " I " ai" like in bike.

Task 49 Below are descriptions of two activities used by teachers. In 1 the teacher was trying to develop students' reading skills, in 2 the teacher was trying to develop the students' speaking skills. Neither activity was very successful. Read the descriptions and: Explain why you think the activities were not very successful in developing the students' reading/speaking skills Describe two activities " one for reading, one for speaking" that you think would develop those skills. 1. Reading The teacher explained that the text was about looking after the environment. The text was handed out and each student was asked in turn to read parts of the text aloud. They were all able to do this. Then the teacher asked some questions about the content of the text. Only one or two students were able to give an answer. One student sad that he didn't understand anything in the text and most of the other students agreed. It wasn't successful, because at first the teacher has to elicit all the new and difficult words and write them on the board, then explain them word by word to the students in order to students' comprehension for the meaning and pronunciation and then to carry on with the way mentioned above. There's another way to ensure that most or all the students have understood the content, is to stop by each part of the text and explain it more carefully. 2. Speaking The teacher wrote the topic" living in the city " on the board and said this would be the topic of today's discussion. The class were asked to give their opinions. One students said he didn't like living in the city and another student said he did. These two students had a brief discussion while the other students listened. The teacher asked some of the other students their opinion, but none responded with more than the fact that they agreed/disagreed. The teacher decided to abandon the discussion. The students said they would be happy to write something about it for homework. In this case the teacher should not postpone the topic, but the teacher has to use the board indicating that there are advantages and disadvantages for living in the city, then start eliciting all the negative and positive adjective from the students on the board by listening to each student's point respectfully, and the whole class will discuss and compare each side of opinion and would enjoy the topic more at last. Task 50 Consider how the following form part of a teacher's professionalism: Confidentiality

Means that any teacher has to be a trust worthy, and to guarantee any private affairs of learners' or any educational organizations are not a public property to talk about. Because it is important that teachers respect the privacy of their students and place they work with. Setting standards Setting standards like planning, instructing, assessing are part of the backbone of today's education system and it matters all teachers alike. They're intended to lend discipline and consistency, and are really the only way to fit the basic frame work for education around the world. Punctuality Punctuality is part of a teacher. Coming to class early will prevent trouble some students from carrying out their disturbances. It's also to the teacher's advantage, because feeling relaxation in the lesson will eventually improve productivity. Punctuality saves time for revision and setting the right exams, which will lead you to be organized and not to waste valuable time. So punctuality and good time management will produce a class that is well focused and organized, and in this way the target of the course will be achieved. Course planning / review According to what have been mentioned above about punctuality and time management, this include planning well to the coming course in advance, before the fixed time. This way you will have a careful plan every week, with a continual revision, depends on what you want students to learn and accomplish as a teacher goal. Record keeping Record keeping tracks your students' progress and provides evidence to support your grading decisions. Developing good record-keeping habits is essential for organizing, processing, and communicating the students' understanding of the curriculum. Assessment Assessing student learning is something that every teacher has to do, usually quite frequently, through many ways focusing on the overall skills " written tests, spelling tests, exercises, various of assessments are ways of which teachers measure student learning. Curriculum development Developing of the teaching curriculum is very important for both teachers and students alike extending their language knowledge, pursuing analyzing their language needs in order to be able to make decisions about their goals. And it's also organized preparation of whatever is going to be taught in courses at a given time. Pastoral care This requires the teachers to take full responsibilities of the students in any school or college in order to deal with them as people and to empathize with them in certain situations. Team work

It's an important part of any working environment for both teachers and students, which requires a teamwork social skill when they enter the workforce, that involves social interaction, which would be more functional and enjoyable. Relationship with students Improving students' relationships with teachers has important, positive side of receiving more guideness, praise and criticism directly from their teachers. Soon students will become more trustful of their teachers, because students need to sense comfort and safety in their classes. Cultural awareness Teachers have to be sensitive towards students unique learning styles. And to be taught as they've come from different environments and becoming aware of cultural values, because people evaluate things differently. Self development is a very important strategy to any teacher, in order to be trained and improving her/his teaching skills to produce better learning system to students. School/ college policies and rules "including equal opportunities and health and safety" Teachers who are contracted to be a member to school/ college have to comply to their requirements and policies, because it's not about teaching and going home, but its about responsibilities. Membership of contribution to professional bodies. A Professional teacher would be delighted to be a member of teaching with professional bodies, to keep up with the latest methods and information in teaching profession. ESOL and teacher training research and development world-wide. I consider teacher training programs are a huge step towards developing teaching/ learning environment any where around the world, and teachers should obtain opportunities of developing their teaching styles, through invaluable courses like the CELTA and the DELTA courses.