TIIK

\VOI!KS

FRANCIS BACON,
LORD CHANCELLOR OF ENGLAND.

WITH A LIFE OF THE AUTHOR
BY

BASIL MONTAGU, ESQUIRE.

IN

THREE VOLUMES.
VOL.
II.

\l.

NEW YORK WORTHINGTON, 770 BROADWAY.
;

1884.

JAN 2 9

1563

CONTENTS OF

VOL.

II.

Page

Page

SYLVA 6YLVARUM; OR A NATURAL
HISTORY.
I.

Of sympathy and antipathy Of the spirits or prieumaticaU Of the power of heat Of
7 8
8 9

22
in bodies ....

23
23

Of staining
ward

or percolation, outward and in

impossibility of annihilation

24

Of motion upon pressure Of separations of bodies liquid by weight Of infusions in water and air Of the appetite of continuation in liquids Of artificial springs Of the venomous quality of man s flesh Of turning air into water Of helping or altering the shape of the body Of condensing of air, to yield weight or nour
.

CENTURY

II.

. .

.

10
10
10

Of music Of the nullity and entity of sounds Of production, conservation, and delation
sounds

24

26
of

28 29
32

10
1 1

.

ishment

11 11

Of flame and air commixed Of the secret nature of flame Of flame, in the midst, and on the sides .... Of motion of gravity Of contraction of bodies in bulk Of making vines more fruitful Of the several operationsof purging medicines Of meats and drinks most nourishing Of medicines applied in order Of cure by custom Of cure by excess Of cure by motion of consent Of cure of diseases contrary to predisposition Of preparation before and after purging .... Of stanching blood Of change of aliments and medicines
Ofdiets

12 12 12
13

Of magnitude, exility, and damps of sounds Of loudness and softness of sounds Of communication of sounds Of equality and inequality of sounds Of more treble and base tones Of proportion of treble and base Of exterior and interior sounds Of articulation of sounds

32 32 33

34
34 35

CENTURY

III.

13 13
14

17 17

17
17 17
18

18

Of the lines in which sounds move Of the lasting and perishing of sounds Of the passage in interception of sounds ... Of the medium of sounds Of the figures of bodies yielding sounds. ... Of mixtures of sounds Of melioration of sounds Of imitation of sounds Of reflection of sounds Of consent and dissent between audibles aa-1
visibles

36 36
37

37

38

38 39
o!)

40

18
18 18 19

41, 42

Of production of cold

Of turning air into water Of induration of bodies Of preying of air upon water Of the force of union Of making feathers and hairs
lours

20
21

22
of divers co
i2

Of nourishment of young creatures in
or

the egg,

womb

22

Of sympathy and antipathy of sounds Of hindering or helping of hearing Of the spiritual and fine nature of sounds Of orient colours in dissolutions of metals Of prolongation of life Of the appetite of union in bodies Of the like operations of heat and time Of the diflering operations of fire and time. Of motions by imitation Of infectious diseases
iii

43
44
.

.

44
4i>

.

.

*>

45
4f>

.

45
45 46

CONTENTS.
Pap
Of
the incorporation of

powders and liquors

47
46

Of the Of Of

degenerating of plants, and of their

Of

exerrise of the boJy, and the benefits or

transmutation one into another
the proeevity and lowness of plants, and
artificial

72

evils thereof

Of meats soon
CKXTCIIT IV.

glutting, or not glutting ....

46

of

dwarfing them

73

the rudiments of plants, and of the ex

crescences of plants, or super-plants

74 76 77

Of clarification
tion thereof

of liquors and the accelera

47
48 49 50
.

Of

maturation, and the accelerating thereof:
fruits

and of the maturation of drinks and

Of making gold Of the several natures of gold Of inducing and accelerating putrefaction Of prohibiting and preventing putrefaction. Of rotten wood shining Of acceleration of birth Of acceleration of growth and stature
.

50
51

Of producing perfect plants without seed ... Of foreign plants Of the seasons of several plants Of the lasting of plants Of several figures plants Of some principal differences in plants Of all manner of composts and helps for
f>f

77
7S 78 79

.

ground

;

9

52 53 CENTURY VII. Of the affinities 53 53 54

and

differences

between
81

Of bodies sulphureous and mercurial Of the chameleon Of suhterrany fires Of nitrous water Of congealing of air Of congealing of water into crystal Of preserving the smell and colour
leaves

plants and bodies inanimate

Of

54
54

and differences between plants and living creatures, and of the confmcrs and participles of both
affinities

81

54

54
in rose

55
55
of divers
bodies in

Of the lasting of flame Of infusions or burials
earth

56 on men
s bodies

Of plants, experiments promiscuous Of the healing of wounds Of fat diffused in flesh Of ripening drink speedily Of pilosity and plumage Of the quickness of motion in birds Of the clearness of the sea, the north wind
blowing

82 89 89
89

89
90

Of

the effects

from several

90
heats

winds

57 57 57 57
or deep

Of

the

different

of

fire

and boiling

Of winter and summer sicknesses Of pestilential years Of epidemical diseases Of preservation of liquors in wells,
vaults

water

90

57

Of slutting Of sweet smells Of the goodness and choice of waters Of temperate heats under the equinoctial. Of the coloration of black and tawny Moors. Of motion after the instant of death
,

57
5S

58
59

.

.

59 59

Of the qualifications of heat by moisture ... Of yawning Of the hiccough Of sneezing Of the tenderness of the teeth Of the tongue Of the mouth out of taste Of some prognostics of pestilential seasons. Of special simples for medicines OfVenus Of the insects, or creatures bred of putrefac
.

90 90 90
90
91
91

91 91 91
91

CBXTCRT V.
Of accelerating
nation
or hastening forward germi

tion

92 93
displeasures of hearing,

CO
putting back germination
or
. .

Of leaping Of the pleasures and

Of retarding or Of meliorating,
plants

61

and of the other senses

93

making

better, fruits

and
62
66 67

CEXTUUT

VIII.

Of compound fruits and flowers Of sympathy and antipathy of plants Of making herbs and fruits medicinal

69

CKHTCHT

VI.
about
fruits

Of veins of earth medicinal Of sponges Of sea-fish in fresh waters Of attraction by similitude of Of certain drinks in Turkey
Ofsweat

94
91 91
substance

94

94 95

Of curiosities

and plants

70

CONTKNTS.
Of Of
the
tin-

glow-worm
impressions u|hin the body from seve

.).">

Of Of
j

wat-r, that

it

may be

the

medium

of

sounds

J07

ral

passion* jf the

mind

95
97 98 98 98 98
shell, in

the flight of the spirits
tH

upon odious obIOV

Of drunkenness
(
>l

the hurl or help of wine, taken moderately

Of caterpillars Of the flies cantharides Of lassitude Of casting of the skin, and
creatures

Of the Of the
Of

super-reflection of echoes
force of the imagination imitating that

1

07

the senses
preservation of bodies

107

108
108

some
98
99 99

Offthe growth or multiplying of metals ....

Of the drowning
more precious

the

more base metal

in the

Of the postures of the body Of pestilential years Of some prognostics of hard winters Of certain medicines that condense and
the spirits

108
1

99
rarefy

Of fixation of bodies Of the restless nature of things
and
their desire to

08

in themselves,

change

108

99 99
9!)

Of paintings of the body Of the use of bathing and anointing Of chambletting of paper Of cuttle ink Of earth increasing in weight Of sleep Of teeth and hard substances in the
of living creatures

CESTUUT

IX.
in bodies insensible, tending to
trials

Of perception

100
100

natural divination or subtile

109
112

100
1

00

bodies

100

Of

the

generation,

and bearing of

living

creatures in the

womb
percussion

101

Of species visible Of impulsion and
Oftitillation

102
103
103

Of scarcity of rain in Egypt Of clarification Of plants without leaves Of the materials of glass Of prohibition of putrefaction, and
conservation of bodies

103
103
103

104
the long

104 104
104

Of the nature of appetite in the stomach ... Of sweetness of odour from the rainbow ... Of sweet smells Of the corporeal substance of smells Of fetid and fragrant odours Of the causes of putrefaction Of bodies imperfectly mixed Of concoction and crudity Of alterations, which may be called majors Of bodies liquefiable, and not liquefiable Of bodies fragile and tough Of the two kinds of pneumaticals in bodies Of concretion and dissolution of bodies Of bodies hard and soft Of ductile and tensile Of several passions of matter, and characters
.

112
112 112 112 113

113
113
114

114

114 115 115 1)5 115

.

Of abundance of nitre in certain sea-shores. Of bodies borne up by water Of fuel consuming little or nothing Of cheap fuel Of gathering of wind for freshness Of trials of air Of increasing milk in milch beasts Of sand of the nature of glass Of the growth of coral Of the gathering of manna Of the correcting of wines Of bitumen, one of the materials of wild-fire Of plaster growing as hard as marble Of the cure of ulcers and hurts Of the healthfulness or unhealthfulness of
southern wind

of bodies

115
1
1

104 105

105
105 105

Of induration by sympathy Of honey and sugar Of the finer sort of base metals Of certain cements and quarries Of the altering of colours in hairs and feathers Of the difference of living creatures, male and
female

G

116

116 117

116

105
105 105

117

Of

the

comparative

magnitude

of

living

creatures

117
117 117 118 118
118

106
106
106 106

106
with iron.

Of wounds made with brass, and Of mortification by cold Of weight
Of
supernatation of bodies

106
106

Of producing fruit without core or stone ... Of the melioration of tobacco Of several heats working the same effects Of swelling and dilatation in boiling Of the duleoration of fruits Of flesh edible and not edible Of the salamander Of the contrary operations of time on fruits
.

.

118
1 1

S

106
107
. .

I

and liquors

119
1 1

:

Of

the living of unequal bodies in the air

107

Of blows and bruises Of the orrice root

J

19

CONTENTS.
Of the compression of liquors Of the nature of air Of the working of water upon air contiguous Of the eyes and sight Of the colour of the sea or other water Of shell-fish Of the right side and the left Of frictions t Of globes appearing flat at distance Of shadows Of the rolling and breaking of the seas Of the dulcoration of salt-water Of the return of saltness in pits upon the sea
.

Page 119

Page
Considerations touching the queen
in Ireland
s

service

119 119 119 120

188 190

Letters to Sir Geo. Villiers

TRACTS RELATING TO SPAIN.
193 Report of the Spanish grievances Notes of a speech concerning a war with Spain
Considerations touching a war with Spain Miscellaneous tracts
.

120
121
121

1

99

121 121

201

214 216

V?l
12ife

Report of Lopez

s treason

TRACTS RELATING TO ENGLAND.
Of the
laws
Offer of digest of the laws
Certificate touching the penal laws Advice touching the charter-house Observations on a libel

shore

121

true greatness of Britain

222
of the

Of attraction by similitude of substance .... Of attraction Of heat under earth Of flying in the air Of the scarlet dye Of maleficiating Of the rise of water by means of flame Of the influences of the moon Of vinegar Of creatures that sleep all winter Of the generating of creatures by copulation,
and by putrefaction

121

Proposition touching the

amendment

121

229

122
122 122 122

233 236
239 242

122
122 123 123

SPEECHES.
Touching purveyors About undertakers

266 269

To

the king

upon

the grievances of the

Com
272 273
276
. .

mons
123

On

wards and tenures

CEXTCIIY X.

Declaration for the master of the wards .... 274

Of

the transmission and influx of immateri-

On
124

ate virtues,

and the force of imagination.
spirits,

.

receiving the king s messages Concerning impositions on merchandises.

278
28 1

Of the Of

transmission of

and the

force

To
124

grant supplies to the king

of imagination
the emissi

Relating to the mint

282

m

of spirits in vapour, or exha

lation, odour-like

126

To On

the speaker s excuse

284
286

the motion of a subsidy

Of emission
the senses

of spiritual species which affect

128
of immateriate virtues, from the
spirits

CHARGES.
Commission
for the

Of emissions

verge

289

minds and

of men, by affections, imagination, or other impressions

Of subordinate
129
Against duels

magistrates

294
295 300 303

Of

the secret virtue of

sympathy and antipa
129 136
spirits
.
.

thy

Decree of Star-Chamber against duels Against Mr. Oliver St. John

Of secret virtues and proprieties Of the general sympathy of men s

Mr. Lumsden,

&c

307
311

.

137

Lord Sanquhar Mr. Owen
Countess of Somerset
Earl of Somerset

313
315, 319

TRACTS RELATING TO SCOTLAND. A discourse of the happy union
\rticles

321

touching the union

142
149

Letter to the king

32G 326
.

Certificate of the commissioners

Naturalization of the Scottish nation
T Jnion of

150
158

laws

To To To To To

Sir G. Villiers the king Sir G. Villiers
.

328 330 330

Proposition towards the union of laws

160
166

Of Somerset

The

post-nati

arraignment the king, about Somerset

s

s

examination

33 1
about Lady

TRACTS RELATING TO IRELAND.
Considerations touching the plantation.
Letter to Mr. Secretary Cecil
...

Sir G. Villiers,
s

183
187

Somerset

pardon
..

331

William Talbot ....

38S

CONTENTS.
I

vii

,,.

PAPERS RELATING TO
ESSEX.

Till:

KARL OF
333

Physiological remains

455 4CO

Medical remains

Apology of Sir Francis Bacon The proceedings of the Karl of Essex
Declarations of his treasons

342
348

JUDICIAL CHARGES
SPEECHES.

AND TRACTS.
471

Arraignment of Blunt, Davis, &c.
of Culle

363
3fi5

On
To To To

taking his place in chancery

Before the
Sir

ofMcrrick
Confession of Lee
of

365
3f>5

summer W.Jones

circuits

475

477
477

Sir J.

Denham
Hutton
Court of Chan
for regulating the

Knowd
J.

366

Justice

478
479

of Gorge

367
Davis

Ordinances
cery

of Sir

368
368, 369 369, 372

of Sir C. Davers of Sir C. Blunt of Lord Sandys
of the Earl of Essex

PAPERS RELATING TO SIR EDWARD COKE.

An
To

expostulation to the Lord Chief Justice

371

Coke
the king, about the

485

374 366

commendams

488
489
491 491

Declaration of Sir William

Warren

A

memorial
Sir

for his majesty
Villiers
to

of

Thomas Wood

366 366 370
371

To

George

of David Hethrington of the Lord Keener

Tracts relating

commendams

A

remembrance of abuse received from Lord

Examination of Lord Rutland
of Lord Cromwell
of Lord Southampton

Coke
Reasons
for

497
removing Lord Coke
Villiers to Sir

372
373

497
49S

To To

the king

Speech of Sir Christopher Blunt Advice to Sir George Villiers

373 375

Lord Viscount
the king

Francis Bacon 493

499
his majesty s declaration

Remembrances of

HEOLOGICAL TRACTS.
PRATERS.

touching Lord Coke

500 500
50
1

A

prayer, or psalm,

made by

the Lord

Ba
405

To To
Sir

the king the king

con, chancellor of England

Edward Coke

to the

king

502

A

prayer

made by
s

the Lord Chancellor

The king
405
Sir

to the lord

keeper
to the

502
Lord Keeper

Bacon

The The

student

prayer

406

Henry Yelverton Bacon
the Marquis of

503
504

writer s prayer

406

To

Buckingham
to the fourth question
s case
last

A

confession of faith
characters of a believing Christian, in
. . .

407 408
411

The Lord

Chancellor Ellesmere to the king 505
s

The

Lord Coke Lord Coke
arising

answer

paradoxes and seeming contradictions.

arising out of Dr.
s

Bonham
to
s case

506
question

An

advertisement, touching the controver

answer

the

sies of the

church of England

upon Bagg

507 507 508

Certain considerations, touching the better
pacification

Letter to the judges

and

edification of the

church

Charge against Whitelocke

of England

420

LETTKHS RELATING TO LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.
Robert, Earl of Somerset, to Sir Thos. Over-

The

translation of certain psalms into

Eng
431

lish verse

bury

509
510
511

An

advertisement touching a holy war 435 Questions about the lawfulness of a war for
the propagating of religion

444

MISCELLANEOUS.
Mr. Bacon
reign
s discourse in praise

To the king To John Murray To Mr. Murray To Mr. Murray To the king
speech against

511
;

511

511
in

of his sove

Supplement of passages omitted

Bacon

s

415
first

Owen
examina

512 512
615
515

A
A

proclamation drawn for his majesty s

coming

in

451

i

To To

the king
Sir George Villiers. touching the

draught of a proclamation touching his
majesty
s style

tion of Sir Robert Cotton

453

Sir Francis

Bacon

to the

judges

CONTENTS.
Page
Page

Legal questions for (he judges Questions of convenience

516
510

Lord Coke

s

answer

to the question arising

A

particular
.f

Heads

majesty.. 616 the charge against Robert, Earl of

remembrance

for his

upon Godfrey s case John Selden, Esq. to the Lord Viscount
Alban

530
St.

530

Somerset

510
Villiers

To To

Sir

George

518
519

MISCELLANEOUS.
The
first

the king
to the king, for reviving the

copy of

my

Discourse touching the
s

Advice

commis
520
521 521

safety of the

Queen

Person

532

sion of suits

The

To the Ea,-l of Buckingham To the lord keeper To the lord keeper To the lord chancellor To Sir Henry Yelverton To the lord chancollor To the lord chancellor To the lord chancellor To the lord chancellor To the lord chancellor To the lord chancellor To the king To the lord chancellor To the Marquis of Buckingham To the lord chancellor
Notes of a speech of the
lord chancellor ....

Fragments of a Discourse touching intelligence and safety of the Queen s
first

Person

532
for

521

The Speeches drawn up by Mr. Bacon
his lordship before

522
522

the Earl of Essex, in a device exhibited by

Queen

Elizabeth, on the

522 522
523

anniversary of her accession to the throne,

Nov. 17,1595 Remembrances for the King,
into Scotland

533
before his going

523 523
524 524
524

537

Account of Council Business

537
538

An

account of Council Business and of other

matters committed to

me

by his Majesty

.

A

525 525

Draught of an Act against a usurious shift of gain, in delivering Commodities instead
of

Money

540

525
52C 520

A

Proposition for the repressing of singular

To To To To

the Marquis of
the Marquis of

Buckingham
Buckingham

Combats, or Duels
Advice
to the

540
for reviving the

King

Com
511

the king the king
la

526 527
Pole
s case

mission of Suits

Notes upon Michael de

527
527

Reasons why the New Company is not to be trusted and continued with the trade of
Clothes

Observations upon Thorpe s case

541

Notes upon Sir John Lee s case Notes upon Lord Latimer s case

527
528

MISCELLANEOUS TRACTS,
from
Ike Latin.}

[Translated

Notes upon John Lord Neville s case 528 Questions demanded of the Chief Justice of

On

the Interpretation of Nature
Interpretation of Nature.

543
551

King s Bench Lord Coke s answers
the

528
to the

True Hints on the

questions upon

The Phenomena
529
ral

of the Universe; or,

Natu
558

the case of the Isle of Ely

History for the Basis of Natural Philo

Lord Coke

s

answers

to the questions

upon 529

sophy

D Arcy scase

Description of the Intellectual Globe....... 571

Science is much injured by the over early and peremptory reduction of knowledge into 1 It in a small 8vo. of which there Is a copy in the British Museum. &quot. whoroas iwthodical delivery carrying show of a total and life are dispersed. in which the Novnm Organum is written. and perfect knowledge. and as it were fragments of sciences. style. but being that actions in common course Again he says way . IN TEN CENTURIES. the more severe and laborious sort of inquirers into truth. Again. as indeed capable of no divineness.he that looketh attentively into the work. said in disdain. as he always proudly published the different poems to the memory of his honoured master. II. &quot. when he saw the image of Adonis. one point part illuminating another. to use the words of Dr. collected and chaplain.LORD BACON S WORKS SYLVA SYLVARUM. that it was not methodical. but &quot.&quot. which men commonly cry up for the sake of their regularity and &quot. on. Lord Bacon died. but less fit to to action. is. and the necessity of adopting them to insure an im mediate and favourable reception of abstruse works. Venus mitiion. Nil sacri es .at the furthest. and that many of the experiments would be deemed vulgar and trivial. aphorisms representing certain portions only. and the probable objections which might be made to the publication . for they carry a show of demonstration in orb or circle. which were written IN the spring of 1G2G. See page ITO ofthc 1 first volume VOL. Lastly. A NATURAL HISTORY. less attached to system or ornament than Lord Bacon. shall find that they have a secret order. he invariably states. so there are none of Hercules followers in learn ing. they do best agree with dispersed directions. Lord Bacon was never misled by the love of order: he did not worship this idol. in a temple. he published the Sylva Sylvarum. that is. 1 In the year 1G 27. forthwith seciireth men as if they wen. of not orderly digested. With respect to the want of method. with an address to the reader. In the same year. EDITOR last S PREFACE. for his own sake. in the Advancement of Learning.-No man was. explaining the intention of Lord Bacon in the compilation of this work.&quot. Methodical delivery is more fit to win consent or belief. In the midst of his own arrangement. yetknovving as he did thecharms of symmetry in arrangement and beauty of style. and therefore do more satisfy the understanding. Rawley.his lordship s first and entitles himself. 1 A . invita others to contribute and add something. A plair unadorned style in aphorisms.Rawley. but will despise those delica cies and affectations.&quot. although. Dr. 8 &quot. the proper style for philosophy.&quot. he says: The worst and most absurd sort of trifiers are those who have pent the whole art into strict methods and narrow systems.It is of great consequence to consider whether sciences should be delivered by of aphorism or of method. &quot. : &quot.as Hercules.

matters.&quot. Nam quicquid essentia dignum num quae est essentiae imago. ( by them. and consecrate it to the glory human understanding: so that we must frame our model accordingly. vel etiam turpitudinem. that their words should stand. dignity to take notice of. and in the latter many wits and the wit of some one. These two objections stated by Rawley were anticipated by Lord Bacon in the Novum Organum. perhaps. upon reading our history and tables of invention. Itaque exemplar sequimur. which as Pliny observes. and not consuls. no less than the most rich and delicate for Natural History is not defil. as the principal cause that hath kept them low. So. who rejected her petition as a thing below his o. &quot. but it increaseth no more in bulk and substance. he says. and. there should sometimes happen any falsity. cum hoc genus fastidii sit plane puerile et effoeminatum. or erect a paramid. for example. so rigorous. or mistake. 1 Again &quot. to the of mankind . sailing. is worthy of our knowledge. as an oracle. industries have contributed in one. it is ingrowth. which is the imace of existence but ignoble things exist. by shining alike upon the palace and the privy. ignoble. artillery. for it is certain. as will not ascend higher than the level of the first spring-head from whence &quot. printing. but that in the former many wits and . which does not.2 arts EDITOR and method . . as History. rivet. superbiee dedicamus aut condimus. we should here consider. or even sordid particulars. and examined. industries have been spentabout For as water it descendeth. ut e quibusdam pntridis materiis.&quot. id etiam scientia digQuinetiam. Euclides. or mistaken. sometimes afford greit light and information. with so religious a severity. or printed book. that our inventions are built upon doubtful principles. as well as the noMe. Though. as it made impotent Organum. and exempted from liberty of examination. require an apology for being mentioned . but to found a temple. 4 where he mentions a third objection which is. with For hence it hath come. even at this day. and yet soon after be expunged and rejected. maleficiate. Nay. shall never obtain command or rule over nature.&quot. Plato.lt. ita et ab instantiis vilihus et sordidis. Verum de hoc nimis multa. Archimedes. will not rise again higher than the knowledge of Aristotle. At vilia asque substitunt ac lauta. to give advice. . it may perchance be further polished and illustrated. it is true. while it is in aphorisms and observations. ArtitU II.. This was the reason why the Sylva Sylvarum was published in he knew well.&quot. as some exrrementl tim. will meet with experiments not well verified. were grossly managed at the first. when they knit and shape perfectly. repeatedly urged against the Sylva Sylvarum. as such a delicacy is perfectly childish and effeminate. and frequent. &quot.with relation to this contempt of natural history. but when it once is comprehended in exact methods. For whatever is worthy of existence. and time addeth and perfecteth . in making them dictators. quibus (ut ait Plinius) ese res. and the like. sed Templum sanctum ad exemplar mundi in intellectu humano Neque est. veluti Musco et Zibetho. and erroneous foundations. and by time degenerate and embased whereof the reason is no other. in imitation of the world. do seldom grow to a further stature. Hippocrates. honos prsefandus est: recipiendae sunt. : it 1 were. we see. when causes and axioms are discovered. subtile.And as for the overmuch credit that hath been given unto authors in sciences.But for unpolite. and may thence. at a stay. fee. so knowledge. the philosophies and sciences : of Aristotle. and thereby generation of works. It is but as if here and there a letter should be misplaced. by the charms of deceiving notions and theories. much interrupt the reader: as such errors are easily corrected. t)f most vigour at the first. that if there should be many. with so much diligence. or even absolutely false. whom many times they have rather depraved than illustrated. and time leeseth and corrupteth. : . as if they were too minute or trifling. and by time accommodated and refined: but contrariwise. evri these ought to be received into a Natural 1 History. the damage is infinite that sciences have received thereby. so know ledge derived from Aristotle.&quot. if in our Natural which is collected. sometimes produce excellent odours: so sordid iiist:inrc&amp. in Historiam Naturalem propterea polluitur Naturalis Historia: Sol enim aeque palatia et cloacas Nos autem non Capitolium aliquod ant Pyramidem hominum ingreditur. S PREFACE. And again. and continued errors. they cannot he corrected by any felicity of art or genius and therefore. \\ith respect to some of the experiments being vulgar and trivial. Article 120. Lord Bacon says in the Novum 2 Quod vero ad rerum utilitatem attinet. that there was no other way open to unloose men s minds. shortest. but in sciences the first author goeth farthest. in a natural and experimental history.&quot.-. But enough of this. quandoque eximia lux et informatio emanant. and received in natural history. But this is nothing: for such slips must necessarily happen in the beginning.without doubt. from which time commonly sciences receive small or no augmentation. &quot. But as young men. musk. 3 fundamus. usually. be apt to suspect. &quot. then cease to reign. that experiments may be falsely believed. with rePage 173of the first volume. or useless in their origins. bound.&quot. Democritus. non minus quam lautissimae et pretiosissimee.&quot. that in arts mechanical the first devisor cornea out growth or advancement. Some. being Aphorisms. for were. and accommodated for use and practice. &quot. that whoever will not attend to mat ters of this kind. the saying the poor woman to the haughty prince. from the sense of the place. in a writing. In the same manner let men observe. on account of its containing things that are vulgar. and. aliquando optimi odores generantur. And we do not endeavour to build a Capi tol. neque tamen polluitur. any more than the sun.

&quot. not liavi 115 such a collection of l- natural history as he had measured out in his mind. either upon the body imaginant. in the Ailvancninentof Learning. mistaken for credulity. drawing in water as breath. use. calling it spiritus mundi. But we.which I continally use. upon a post of her chamber window. men have had an inward feeling of it. but only the soul or essential form of the universe.EDITOR S PREFACE. at sixteen. 3 gnrd to particulars. But at the rest I did little marvel. children. by the school of Plato and others. With these vast and bottomless follies men have been in part entertained. when Bee also Art. and putting it forth again.&quot. the spirit or soul of the world by which they did not intend God. This. I had from my childhood a wart upon one of my fingers: afterwards. that hold firm to the works of God.The matter of manifest truth is not to be mingled or weakened with matter of doubtful credit. 2W. told me one day. is of all others the most incredible. &amp. of experiments. lie says. or. &quot. the sympathy of individuals. huilt upon such quick* Let no one. which would have required the purse of a prince.The rejection of received reports. and not to be either contemned or con : . which is God s lamp. &quot. and the assistance of a people. watered and nourished. and the secret instincts of nature. The taking away of warts. It was. 1M.father s death. first thoroughly inquired. husbands. I had a dream. he went with Sir Ainyas See also Art.- old. whether there be to be found in the and what the force of footsteps of nature. that if the world were a living creature. that loving and kind husbands have a sense of their wives breeding children. &quot. There are hi. perhaps. : but the going away of that Again. but yet if an experiment be probable in the work. and might go away in a short time again which had stayed so long doth yet stick with me. it had a soul and spirit. that upon the death of persons of such nearness. and returned after In. ami the sciences. that the world was one entire perfect living creature . be concerned. and to the sense. by before my myself remember. as they require a great deal of examination ere we conclude upon them.earliest infancy. and amongst the rest.nanir. though it appeareth not.. The success was.gt. and I do apprehend it the rather because of my own experience.transmission and influx of immateriate virtues and the force of imagination. to separate from superstitious and magical arts and observations. two or three days to diverse some accident Article iWT. for they did admit of a Deity besides. that my father s uouse in the country was plastered all over with black mortar. which afterwards was.&quot. wives. in a month s space. is so negligent and remiss. &c. ind faculty of cenoralizine from .ni Hi. or upon another body wherein it will be like that labour of Hercules. when I was about sixteen years old. a Pythagorean prophet.&quot. have touched. being then at Paris. which also they held. any such transmission and influx of immateriate virtues imagination is . Lord Bacon did the best in his power. with the fat towards the sun. whether there be any secret passages of sympathy between persons of near There be many blood. nurse-children.of mind. &quot. which I told my father dying in London. when treating of credulity. affirmed. she would help me away with my warts whereupon she got a piece of lard with the skin on and rubbed the warts all over with the fat side . that being in Paris. are so I would have it uncertain. in their own 8 body. . ri in the slightest examination of this work it will appear that. we will make some little mention of it. saiuls And.lt. whether idlo or no 1 cannot say. therefore. which was to the south. that within five weeks space all the warts went quite away and that wart which I had so long endured for company. and inferred. to make such a collection as might render some assistance to future inquirers. 1 spirit. trying all things but not believ ing all things. will be illustrated by some of the articles in the tenth century of this work.The relations touching the force of imagination. 110. and of great I receive it. but deliver it as doubtful. without haste in the admission or he says. .n of imimin nion. and yet again.- h&amp. who was a woman far from superstition. 1W. They went on. There is an opinion abroad. in purging the stable of Augeas. is infinite. . if our history has its errors. rejection.&quot. in his inquiry touching the &quot. at the least a hundred. there grew upon both my hands a number of warts. reports in history. s lift.&quot. I English gentlemen. twelve years Vaulel (u of -rund. The English ambas sador s lady. any thing that is clean and pure natural . rarities and re ! ports that seem incredible are not to be suppressed or denied to the memory of men. by rubbing them with somewhat that afterwards is put to waste and consume. and father s death. yet according unto our faithful manner of ex amination of nature. in different parts 8pe \rt. is a common experiment. which in comparison of ours.i. by point ing out the mode in which a natural history ought to be complied. : insomuch as Apollonius of Tyana. demned. . brothers. when in Trinity College meditating upon the nature Paris. that the ebbing and flowing of the sea was the respiration of the world. that wart which I had had from my childhood then she nailed the piece of lard.J when hi* iiiin. of the Sylva Sylvarum farts evincinc Bacon Jfi. what of the philosophy.&quot.1 H at work n. &quot. most probably brlori he qiiittnl his father s house for Ihc university. Article 996.&quot. because In this or : : : they came in a short time. &quot. . will inquire with all sobriety and severity. lucerna Dei spiraculum hominis. as parents. he says. where he thus begins The philosophy of Pythagoras. from \vh-nc. sisters. that have been entire.&quot. what must be thought of the common Natural History.

4 Passing from these
the treatise

EDITOR
De Augmenlis 1 and
is

S

PREFACE.

objocti jns to the uses of natural history, they are explained by Lord Bacon iiv in the Orgaimm. In the treatise De Augiuentis, the subject

Novum

of Natural History
I. Jis to the

thus exhibited.

Subject of History.

1.

2.
3.

Of Nature in Course. 1. Of Celestial Bodies. 2. Of the Region of the Air. 3. Of the Earth and Water. 4. Of the Elements or Genera. 5. Of the Species. Of Nature wandering or Marvails. Of Arts.
In the

II. Jls to its M.SC.

Knowledge or History Narrative, being the primitive matter of Philosophy, which he says is defective, and to supply this defect, to discover the properties of creatures and to impose names, the occupation of Adam in Para That all dise, his tables of invention are constructed in the Novum Organum with the admonition partitions of knowledges be accepted rather for lines and veins, than for sections and separations;
1.

2. In

The sciences being the and that the continuance and entireness of knowledge be preserved." 9 pyramids supported by history upon experience as their only and true basis; and so the basis of
"

is natural history; the stage next the basis is physic; the stage next the verti metaphysic: as for the cone and vertical point itself ( opus quod operatur Deus aprincipio usque ad finem ; the summary law of nature) we do justly doubt, whether man s inquiry can But these three be the true stages of sciences; and are, to men swelled up with their attain unto it. own knowledge, and a daring insolence to invade heaven, like the three hills of the giants

natural philosophy
cal point is

"

Scilicet

Ter simt cnnati imponere Pelion Ossse, atque Ossa-, frondosum involvere

Olympian."

an edition in Latin, published in Hol land in 1648, 4 and 1GG1 ;* and at Frankfort in 1665. 8 There are some observations upon the Sylva Sylvarum in Archbishop Tennison s work, 7 which
this

Of

work

theru have been

many

editions

:

and there

is

3

There is considerable difference between the arrangement of this part in the Advancement and the De Augmentir,. There is scarcely a page of his works which does not contain an illustration of this union in all the parts of nature, and the injury to the advancement of knowledge from a supposition of their separation. In the Advancement nf Learning he We see Cicero the orator complained of Socrates and his school, that he was the first that separated philosophy and says rhetoric ; whereupon rhetoric became an empty and verbal art. So we may see that the opinion of Copernicus touching the rotation of Lie earth, which astronomy itself cannot correct, because it is not repugnant to any of the phenomena, yet natural philosophy may correct. So we see also that the science of medicine, if it be destituted and forsaken by natural philosophy, it is not much better than an empirical practice." In the treatise De Augmentis, speaking of the mode in which the laws of the heavenly bodies would be discovered, and Whoever shall reject (if thf anecdote respecting Newton and the fulling apple is true) were discovered, he thus predicts, the feigned divorces of superlunary and sublunary bodies ; and sh:ill intentively observe the appetencies of matter, and the most universal passions, (which in either globe are exceeding potent, and transverberate the universal nature of things.) he shall receive clear information concerning celestial matters from the things seen here with us! and contrariwise fru/n those motions which are practised in heaven; he shall learn many observations which now are latent, touching the motions of bodies here below; not only so far as these inferior motions are moderated by superior, but in regard they have a mutual intercourse by passions common to them both." And to the same effect, he says in another place : must openly profess that our hope of discovering the truth with regard to the celestial bodies, depends upon the observation of the common properties, or the passions and apatites of the matter of both states ; for, as to the separation that is supposed betwixt the ethereal and sublunary bodies, it geems to me no more than a fiction, and a degree of superstition mixed with rashness, &c. Our chiefest hope, and dependence in the consideration of the celestial bodies, is, therefore, placed in physical reason, though not such as are commonly so called; but those laws, which no diversity of place or region can abolish, break through, disturb, or alter." And in the Novum Organum, "Suppose, for example, the inquiry about the nature of spontaneous rotation, attraction, nnd many other natures, which are more common and familiar to us than the celestial bodies themselves. And let no one expect to determine the question, whether the diurnal motion belongs to the heavens or the earth, unless he first understand
:
"
"

We

the nature of spontaneous rotation." fsnn instance of (his union of nature, and of Bacon s tendency to generalize, see Articles 91,92, 93, and above all, see his mggestions in the Novum Organum, respecting Magical Instances, or great effects produced from apparently small causei am merely stating Hee page 316 of the first volume. The correctness of the reasoning lam not now invcstis-atim. the fact as an illustration of the union between all nature, and of Bacon s facility in discovering this union I do not find this in of the editions of Bacon * Works published in England. any (lOmo.) I have a copy, which is not scarce. (12mo.) There is a copy in the British Museum. Opera omnia, tr., Folio. Fran. 1665. "The seventh anil greatest branch of the Third Part of the Instnuration, is his S\lva Sylvarum, or N-itiiial History; work. It is n Which containeth many materials for the building of philosophy, as the Organum doth dirrrtions fur
; I
Ih"

liHtury not only nf nature freely moving in her course, (as in the production of meteor*, plants, minerals ;) lint also of nature in constrain:, and vexed and tortured by human art and experiment. And it is not a history of such ilnuifr orderly

I

I;I:FACE.
t!n
r

5

thus conclude,
to

"Whilst I

am speaking

of this work of his lordship of Natural History,

miiui a very inemoralde relation, reported ly him who h.tre a part in it, tin- Rev. Dr. Rauh-v. T: day, his Innishij) was dictating to that doctor some of tin; \periments in his Sylv.i. for him a final answer, touching th,- riled of a ^rant day, he had sent a friend to court, to receive which liad heeu made him liy King James. He had hitherto, only hope of it, and hope f.-rn-d ;

my

One

<

d<

and he was desirous

to

know

suspense of his thoughts. despair Be it so, said his lordship; and then he of that grant, how much soever his fortunes needed it. dismissed his friend very cheerfully, with thankful acknowledgments of his service. His friend being gone, he came straightway to Dr. Rawley, and said thus to him. Well sir! yon business wont go on; let us go on with this, for this is in our power. And then he dictated to him afresh,
for

the event of the matter, and to be freed, one way or other, from the His friend returning, told him plainly, that he must thenceforth

some
;

hours, without the least hesitancy of speech, or discernible interruption of

thought."

but thrown Into a heap. For his lordship, that he might not discourage other collectors, did not cast this book into exact method ; for which reason It huh the less ornament, but not much the less use. i- his lordship wag wont to distinguish :) and Iis this hook are contained experiments light, and experiments of use, He understood that what was common in one country, might be a aiiinriL st them some extraordinary, and others common. rarity in another for which reason, Dr. Cains, when In Italy, thought it worth his pains to make a large and elegant descrip tion of our way of brewing. His lordship also knew well, that an experiment manifest to the vulgar, was a good ground And himself rendered common ones extraordinary, by admonitions for further triata for the wise to build further upon. and improvements. Hence his lordship took occasion to say, that his writing of Sylva Sylvariiin, was (to speak properly) not a Natural History, but a high kind of natural magic: because it was not only a description of nature, but a breaking of

ranged
"

"[

(

:

nature into great and stranze works. "This book was written by his lordship in the English tongue, and translated by an obscure interpreter, into French, ami out of tint translation into Latin, hy James Gruter, in such ill manner, that they darkened his lordship s sense, and debased and he left his expression. James Grutor was sensible of his miscarriage, being kindly advertised of it by Dr. Rawley behind him divers amendments, published by his brother, Isaac Gruter, in a second edition. Yet still so many errors have escaped, that that work requireth a third hand. Monsieur ^Elius Ueodatns had once engaged an able person in the translation of this book ; one who could have done He began, and went through the three his lordship right, and obliged such readers as understood not the English original. from that ptn, with first centuries, and then desisted ; being desired by him who set him on work, to take his hand quite which he moved so slowly. His translation of the third century is now in my hands ; out that of the two first 1 believe u lost." Archbishop Tennison then annexes some specimens of the translation.
:
"

oil"

A2

SYLVA SYLVARUM.
TO THE READER.
be continually with my lord in compiling of this work, and to be em HAVING had the honour with his lordship s good leave and liking, for the better ployed therein, I have thought it not amiss,
to
it, to make known somewhat of his lordship s intentions touch same. I have heard his lordship often say, that if he should ing the ordering and publishing of the have served the glory of his own name, he had been better not to have published this Natural His of particulars, and cannot have that lustre, which books tory: for it may seem an indigested heap

satisfaction of those that shall read

methods have; but that he resolved to prefer the good of men, and that which might best And he knew well, that there was before any thing that might have relation to himself. no other way open to unloose men s minds, being bound, and, as it were, maleficiate, by the charms notions and theories, and thereby made impotent for generation of works, but only no of deceiving where to depart from the sense, and clear experience, but to keep close to it, especially in the begin
cast into

secure

it,

ning: besides, this Natural History was a debt of his, being designed and set down for a third part I have also heard his lordship discourse that men, no doubt, will think of the Instauration. many of the experiments contained in this collection, to be vulgar and trivial, mean and sordid, curious

and

now

and therefore, he wisheth that they would have perpetually before their eyes what is in doing, and the difference between this Natural History and others. For those Natural His tories which are extant, being gathered for delight and use, are full of pleasant and
fruitless:

descriptions

which

But, contrariwise, the scope pictures, and affect and seek after admiration, rarities, and secrets. his lordship intendeth is, to write such a Natural History as may be fundamental to the

erecting and building of a true philosophy, for the illumination of the understanding, the extracting of axioms, and the producing of many noble works and effects. For he hopeth by this means to acquit himself of that for which he taketh himself in a sort bound, and that is, the advancement of

For, having in this present work collected the materials for the building, of which his lordship is yet to publish a second part, set down the instruments and directions for the work; men shall now be wanting to themselves, if they raise not
all

learning and sciences.

and in his

Novum Organum,

knowledge

to that perfection

whereof the nature of mortal men

is

capable.

And

in this behalf, I

have heard his lordship speak complainingly, that his lordship, who thinketh he deservcth to be an architect in this building, should be forced to be a workman, and a labourer, and to dig the clay, and burn the brick; and, more than that, according to the hard condition of the Israelites at the
latter end, to gather the

knoweth, that except he do

straw and stubble, over all the fields, to burn the bricks withal. For he men are so set to despise the means of their it, nothing will be done
:

good. And as for the baseness of many of the experiments; as long as they be God s works, they are honourable enough. And for the vulgarness of them, true axioms must be drawn from plain experience, and not from doubtful; and his lordship s course is to make wonders plain, and not plain things wonders; and that experience likewise must be broken and grinded, and not whole,

own

mouth the two kinds of experiments; experiments of use, and experiments of light: and he reporteth himself, whether he were not a strange man, that should think that light hath no use, because it hath no matter. Further, his lordship thought good also to add unto many of the experiments themselves some gloss of the causes: that in the succeeding work of interpreting And for the causes herein by nature, and framing axioms, all things may be in more readiness.
or as
it

groweth.

And

for use; his lordship hath often in his

"experimenta

fructifera,"

and

"experimenta

lucifera:"

him assigned his lordship persuadeth himself, they are far more certain than those that are rendered by others not for any excellency of his own wit, as his lordship is wont to say, but in respect of
; ;

his continual conversation with nature and experience. He did consider likewise, that by this addition of causes, men s minds, which make so much haste to find out the causes of things, would

not think themselves utterly lost in a vast wood of experience, but stay upon these causes, such as they are, a little, till true axioms may be more fully discovered. I have heard his lordship say also, that one great reason, why he would not put these particulars into any exact method, thoutrh be that
luokelh attentively into ihem shall find that they have a secret order, was, because he conceived that

CENT.
other

I.

NATIMJ.U, HISTORY.

think that they could do the like; and so go on with a further collection; heen exact, many would have despaired to attain hy imitation. As for 1 can refer any man to his lordship s 1/atin hook, ]), Augment!-, Scienhis lordship s love of tiarnm; which, if my judgment he any thing, is written in the exactest order that I know any writing with a usual speech of his lordship s; That this work of his Natural Hi* I will conclude to be. (Jod made it, and not as men have made it; for that it hath nothing of imagination. tory is the world as

men would now
inrth"d

\vhicli, if the

Ir.id

<;rder,

W. lUwLKY.
ThU
epistle
la

the

same

that should have been oreflxcci to

Una book,

if his

lordship had lived.

CENTURY
\ j

I.

Experiments in consort, touching the strairiing and the water through the vessels, it falleth. Now /f bodies one through another ; which they certain it is that this salter part of water, once call Percolation. salted throughout, goeth to the bottom. And DIG a pit upon the sea-shore, somewhat above therefore no marvel, if the draining of water by the high-water mark, and sink it as deep as the descent doth not make it fresh besides, I do some low-water mark; and as the tide corneth in, it what doubt, that the very dashing of the water, This is that cometh from the sea, is more proper to strike will fill with water, fresh and potable. commonly practised upon the coast of Barbary, off the salt part, than where the water slideth of where other fresh water is wanting. And Caesar her own motion. knew this well when he was besieged in Alexan 3. It seemeth percolation, or transmission, which
:

dria; for by digging of pits in the sea-shore, he did frustrate the laborious works of the enemies,

which had turned the seawater upon the wells of Alexandria; and so saved his army, being then in desperation. But Caesar mistook the cause, for he thought that all sea-sands had natural springs of fresh water but it is plain, that it is the sea-water ; becaus the pit filleth according to the measure of the tide; and seawater passing or
:

commonly called straining, is a good kind of separation, not only of thick from thin, and gross .from fine, but of more subtile natures; and varieth according to the body through which the trans
is

mission

is

made: as

if

through a woollen bag, the

liquor leaveth the fatness; if through sand, the saltness, &c. They speak of severing wine from

water, passing it through ivy wood, or through non constat." other the like porous body ; but
"

straining through the sands, leaveth the saltness. 2. I remember to have read, that trial hath been made of salt-water passed through earth, through

of trees, which we see to be com monly shining and clear, is but a fine passage or straining of the juice of the tree through the wood
4.

The gum

ten vessels, one within another ; and yet it hath not lost its saltness, as to become potable : but
the

same man

saith, that,

by

relation of another,

and bark. And in like manner, Cornish dia monds, and rock rubies, which are yet more re splendent than gums, are the fine exudations of
stone.
5. Aristotle

hecome

salt-water drained through twenty vessels hath fresh. This experiment seemeth to cross

giveth the cause, vainly,

why

the

and yet feathers of birds are more lively colours than the but in part, if it be true that twenty repetitions hairs of beasts; for no beast hath any fine azure, do the effect. But it is worth the note, how poor or carnation, or green hair. He saith, it is be the imitations of nature are in common courses of cause birds are more in the beams of the sun than
that other of pits the sea-side
;

made by

there

experiments, except they be led by great judg ment, and some good light of axioms. For first, is no small difference v-e .ween a passage of

beasts; but that is manifestly untrue; for cattle are more in the sun than birds, that live commonly in

water through twenty small vessels, and through such a distance, as between the low-water and
high-water mark.

The true cause is, the woods, or in some covert. that the excrementitious moisture of living crea
tures,

which maketh as well the feathers

in birds,

Secondly, there is a great dif ference between earth and sand ; for all earth h ith in it a kind of nitrous salt, from which sand is

as the hair in beasts, passeth in birds through a finer and more delicate strainer than it doth in and hair beasts: for feathers quills;

pass through

more

and besides, earth doth not strain the water so finely as sand doth. But there is a third that I suspect as much or more than the point,
free;

through skin.
G. The clarifying of liquors hy adhesion, id an inward percolation; and is effected, when some cleaving body is mixed and agitated with the li

other; and that is, that in the experiment, of trans mission of the sea-water into the pits, the water
riseth
;

quors
i

;

whereby

tin-

irrosser

part of the

liquor

hut in the experiment of transmission of

sticks to that cleaving

body

;

aud so the

finer parts

NATURAL HISTORY.
aro freed from the grosser.
claril v

CKNT.

I.

So

the apothecaries

[

their

syrups by whites of eggs, beaten

with the juices which they would clarity; which whites fijirs gather all the dre^s and grosser parts of the juice to them; and after the syrup r set on the fire, the whiten of L S them
"f
e<_r

you strike or pierce a solid body that is as glass, or sugar, it breaketh not only where the immediate force i.s; but hreaketh all
10. If
brittle,

about into shivers and

litters;

the motion,

the pressure, searching all ways, where it findeth the body weakest.

upon and breakiny

So hippocras by mixing with milk, and stirring it about, and then passing it through a woollen bag, which they call Hippocrates s Sleeve, and the cleaving nature of the milk draweth the powder
selves harden, and are taken forth.
is clarified

11. The powder in shot, being dilated into such aflame asendureth not compression, move h likewise in round, the flame being, in the nature

of a liquid body, sometimes recoiling, sometimes breaking the piece, but generally discharging the
bullet,

of the spices, and grosser parts of the liquor to it; and in the passage they stick upon the woollen

because there

it

findeth easiest deliver

ance.

bag.
7. Theclarify-ingofwaterisan experiment tend ing to health ; besides the pleasure of the eye, when water is crystalline. It is effected by cast ing in and placing pebbles at the head of a cur rent, that the water may strain through them.

This motion upon pressure, and the reci procal thereof, which is motion upon tensure, wo use to call, by one common name, motion of li berty ; which is, when any body, being forced to
12.

a preternatural

extent or dimension, delivereth
as

and restoreth

itself to the natural:

when

;i

be, percolation doth not only cause clearness and splendour, but sweetness of savour ;
8. It

may

for that also followeth as well as clearness,

when

blown bladder pressed, nseth again; or when leather or cloth tentured, spring back. These two motions, of which there be infinite instances,

the finer parts are severed from the grosser. is found, that the sweats of men, that have
heat,

and

and exercise much, and have clean skins, do smell sweet; as was said of Alexander; and we see commonly that gums have sweet odours.
fine

So it we shall handle in due place. 13. This motion upon pressure is much excellently as when one chim bodies, also demonstrated in sounds
;

but as soon as he upon a bell, it soundeth layeth his hand upon it, the sound ceaseth and so the sound of a virginal string, as soon as the
eth
; :

quill of the jack falleth

Experiments in consort, touching motion of bodies

upon their pressure. 9. Take a glass, and put water into it, and wet your finger, and draw it round about the lip of the and after you glass, pressing it somewhat hard have drawn it some few times about, it will make the water frisk and sprinkle up in fine dew. This
;

from it, stoppeth. For these sounds are produced by the subtile percus sion of the minute parts of the bell, or string,

upon the air; all one, as the water is caused to leap by the subtile percussion of the minute parts of the upon the water, whereof we spake a little before in the ninth experiment. For you must not take it to be the local shaking of the
bell, or string, that

instance doth excellently demonstrate the force of

doth it: as

we

shall fully

compression in a solid body: for whensoever a declare, when we come hereafter to handle sounds. solid body, as wood, stone, metal, &c. is pressed, there is an inward tumult in the parts thereof Experiments in consort, touching separations of bodies by weight. seeking to deliver themselves from the compres sion and this is the cause of all violent motion. 14. Take a glass with a belly and a long neb ; Wherein it is strange in the highest degree, that fill the belly, in part, with water take also this motion hath never been observed, nor another glass, whereinto put claret wine and wa inquir ed ; it being of all motions the most common, and ter mingled ; reverse the first glass, with the belly the chief root of all mechanical This upwards, stopping the neb with your finger; operations. motion worketh in round at first, by way of proof then dip the mouth of it within the second glass, and search which way to deliver itself: and then and remove your finger: continue it in that posworketii in progress where it findeth the deliver re for a time ; and it will unmingle the wine ance easiest In liquors this motion is visible; from the water the wine ascending ?.nd settling for all liquors strucken make round circles, and in the top of the upper glass; and the water de withal dash ; but in solids, which break not, it is scending and settling in the bottom of the lower
: : :

so subtile as

it is

invisible; but nevertheless be-

glass.

The passage

is

apparent

to the

eye

;

for

wrayeth itself by many effects ; as in this instance you shall see the wine, as it were, in a small whereof we speak. For the pressure of the fin- vein, risinf through the water. For handsomeger, furthered hy the wetting, because it sticketh so ness sake, because the working requireth some much the better unto the lip of the glass, after Ismail time, it were good you hang the upper glass home continuance, pulteth all the small parts of upon a nail. Hut as soon as there is gathered so ihe glass into work, that they strike the water much pure and unmixed water in the bottom of nharply; from which percussion that sprinkling the lower u lass, as that the mouth of the upper cometh. glass dippeth into it, the motion ceaseth.

CJCHT
Let
tin-

N \TIR.\I. HISTORY.
upper
ijlass lie
tli

lower must of wine, or wort of beer, while it wnrketh, Let before it be tunned, the burrage, stay a small tin upper glass bt! water pure, the lower water time, and be often changed with fresh; it will coloured, or contrariwise, there followeth no mo make a sovereign drink for inel,ine!ily tion at all. But it hatli been tried, that though And the like I conceive of orange Mowers. the mixture of wine and water, in the lower 1 J. Rhubarb hath in it of
1")

w. no and
;it

tlio

Water;

there

lull. i\\.

no motion

all.

|

manifestly

parts

hut one wine, yet contrary operations: parts that purge; and parts This separation of that bind the body; and the first lie looser, and water and wine appeareth to be made by weight the latter lie deeper: so that if you infuse rhu for it must be of bodies of unequal weight, or barb for an hour, and crush it well, it will purge else it worketh not; and the heavier body must better, and bind the body less after the purging ever be in the upper glass. But then note withal, than if it had stood twenty-four hours; this is that the water being made pensile, and there tried; but I conceive likewise, that by repeating bring a great weight of water in the belly of the the infusion of rhubarb several times, as was glass, sustained by a small pillar of water in the said of violets, letting each stay in but a small neck of the glass, it is that which setteth the time, you may make it as strong a purging medi motion on work for water and wine in one glass, cine as scammony. And it is not a small thing with long standing, will hardly sever. won in physic, if you can make rhubarb, and 16. This experiment would be extended from other medicines that are as strong purbenedict, mixtures of several liquors, to simple bodies which gers as those that are not without some
I

glass, he three parts water an.

it

doth not dead the motion.

;

:

consist of several similar parts: try it therefore with brine or salt-water, and fresh water placing
:

malignity. 20. Purging medicines, for the most part, have

the salt-water, which is the heavier, in the upper glass; and see whether the fresh will come

their purgative virtue in a fine spirit; as appear eth by that they endure not boiling without much

loss of virtue.

And

therefore

it is

of good use in

Try it also with water thick sugared, and pure water ; and see whether the water, which cometh above, will lose its sweetness for which
above.
:

physic, if you can retain the purging virtue, and take away the unpleasant taste of the purger;

which

it

is like
oft,

you may
little

purpose

made

in

were good there were a the belly of the upper glass.
it

little

cock infusing

with

the horrible and odious taste

do, by this course of stay, for it is probable that is in the grosser part.

Experiments in

consort, touching judicious accurate infusions, both in liquors and air.

and

21. Generally, the working by infusions is gross and blind, except you first try the issuing of the several parts of the body, which of them

which do issue more speedily, and which more slowly; and so by apportioning the time, can take and This to leave that quality which you desire. body ceiveth the spirit; and a longer stay confoundeth know there be two ways the one to try what because it draweth forth the earthy part long stay, and what short stay worketh as hath it; And there been said ; the other to try in order the succeeding withal, which embaseth the finer. fore it is an error in physicians, to rest simply upon infusions of one and the same body, successively, the length of stay for increasing the virtue. But in several liquors. As, for example; take orange if you will have the infusion strong, in those pills, or rosemary, or cinnamon, or what you will kinds of bodies which have fine spirits, your way and let them infuse half an hour in water; then is not to give longer time, but to repeat the infu take them out, and infuse them again in other sion of the body oftener. Take violets, and in water; and so the third time and then taste and fuse a good pugil of them in a quart of vinegar consider the first water, the second, and the third let them stay three quarters of an hour, and take and you will find them differing, not only in them forth, and refresh the infusion with like strength and weakness, but otherwise in taste or quantity of new violets seven times ; and it will odour; for it may be the first water will have make a vinegar so fresh of the flower, as if, a more of the scent, as more fragrant; and the twelvemonth after, it be brought you in a saucer, second more of the taste, as more bitter or biting, you shall s.nell it before it come at you. Note, &c. that it smelleth more perfectly of the flower a 22. Infusions in air, for so we may well call odours, have the same diversities with infusions good while after than at first. 18. This rule, which we have given, is of sin in water; in that the several odours, which are
17. In bodies containing fine spirits,

easily dissipate, when you rule is, a short stay of the

make

infusions, the in the liquor re-

;

;

:

;

;

gular use for the preparations of medicines, and other infusions. As for example: the leaf of

burrage hath an excellent spirit to repress the fuliginous vapour of dusky melancholy, and so
to cure

one flower, or other body, issue at several times; some earlier, some later: so we find that violets, woodbines, strawberries, yield a pleasing
in

scent, that
ill

cometh

forth first;

but soon after an

madness: but nevertheless if the leaf be nfused long it yieldeth forth but a raw substance, of no virtue: therefore I suppose, that if in the VOL II. 2

Which scent quite differing from the former. is caused, not so much by mellowing, as by th late issuing of the grosser spirit.

10
23.

NATURAL HISTORY.
As we may
desire to extract

CENT.

1.

the

finest

I

of a good length, three or four foot deep within

some cases; so we may desire also to the same ground ; with one end upon the high So ground, the other upon the low. Cover the discharge them, as hurtful, in some other. wine burnt, by reason of the evaporating of the with brakes a good thickness, and c ast sand upon finer spirit, inflameth less, and is best in agues: the top of the brakes you shall see, saith he, opium loseth some of its poisonous quality, if it that after some showers are past, the lower end
spirits in
:

be vapoured out, mingled with spirits of wine, or the like sena loseth somewhat of its windiness
:

by decocting
pfiirits

;

are taken off

and generally, subtile or windy by incension, or evaporation.

of the trough will run like a spring of water which is no marvel, if it hold while the. rain water lasteth ; but he said it would continue long
:

time after the rain

And even
high

in infusions in things that are of too a spirit, you were better pour off the first

is past: as if the water did multiply itself upon the air, by the help of the coldness and condensation of the earth, and the

infusion, after a small time,

and use the

latter.

consort of the

first

water.

Experiment

solitary touching the appetite of con

Experiment
;

solitary touching the

venomous quality

tinuation in liquids.

of mansjlesh.

air within,

24. Bubbles are in the form of a hemisphere and a little skin of water without

:

and it seemeth somewhat strange, that the air should rise so swiftly while it is in the water;
should be stayed by so weak a cover as that of the bubble is. But as for the swift ascent of the air, while it is under
it

26. The French, which put off the name of name of the disease of Naples, do report, that at the siege of Naples,
the French disease unto the
there were certain

and when

cometh

to the top,

wicked merchants that barrelled some that had been lately slain in Barbary, and sold it for tunney and that upon that foul and high nourishment was the original
up man
s flesh, of
;

is a motion of percussion from the water; which itself descending driveth up the And air; and no motion of levity in the air. this Democritus called "motus plagse." In this

the water, that

of that disease.
is certain that

Which may
:

the cannibals in the

well be, for that it West Indies
Indies were full

eat

man

s flesh

of the pox
at this

and the West when they were first

discovered

:

and

common

experiment, the cause of the inclosure of the bubble is, for that the appetite to resist
separation, or

discontinuance, which
this

in

solid

day the mortalest poisons, practised by the West Indians, have some mixture of the blood, or fat, or flesh of man : and divers witches

bodies

is strong, is also in liquors,

and weaker; as we see in

though fainter and sorceresses, as well amongst the heathen, as of the bubble: amongst the Christians, have fed upon man s
flesh, to aid, as
it seemeth, their imagination, with high and foul vapours.

we

see

it

also in little

children

make

of rushes

;

glasses of spittle that and in castles of bub

bles, which they make by blowing into water, the version and trans having obtained a little degree of tenacity by Experiment solitary touching mutation of air into water. mixture of soap we see it also in the stillicides of water, which if there be water enough to fol 27. It seemeth that there be these ways, in low, will draw themselves into a small thread, likelihood, of version of vapours of air into because they will not discontinue ; but if there water and moisture. The first is cold; which be no remedy, then they cast themselves into doth manifestly condense; as we see in the con round drops; which is the figure that saveth the tracting of the air in the weather-glass; whereby body most from discontinuance : the same reason it is a degree nearer to water. We see it also in is of the roundness of the bubble, as well for the the generation of springs, which the ancients
:

skin of water, as for the air within for the air likewise avoideth discontinuance ; and therefore
:

casteth itself into a rough figure. And for the stop and arrest of the air a little while, it showeth
that the air of itself hath little or no appetite of

thought, very probably, to be made by the version of air into water, holpen by the rest, which the air hath in those parts; whereby it cannot dissi

ascending.

And by the coldness of rocks; for there see it also in springs are chiefly generated. the effects of the cold of the middle region, as
pate.

We

they call

it,

Experiment
25.

solitary touching the cial springs.
rejection,

making

of

artifi

and

rains.

And

of the air; which produceth dews the experiment of turning water

The

which

I

continually use, of
:

into ice, by snow, nitre, and salt, whereof we shall speak hereafter, would be transferred to the

turning of air into water. The second way is by compression ; as in stillatories, where the vapour and of great use, I receive it, but deliver it as is turned back upon itself, by the encounter of doubtful. It was reported by a sober man, that the sides of the stillatory ; and in the dew upon an artificial spring may be made thus Find out the covers of boiling pots; and in the dew But n hanging ground, where there is a good quick towards rain, upon marble and wainscot. fall of rain-waterLay a half trough of stone, this is like to do no great effect; except it be

experiments, though it appeareth not, is infinite but yet if an experiment be probable in the work,

:

CENT.

I.

NATTIf M, HISTORY.
air,

upon vapours, and gross
v.

that

are

already

Experiment

solitary touching
it
tit.

the condensir.g cf

TV near in degree
ni:iy
1"

to water.
into,

The

third is that,

air in such sort a*

may put on wtL

which

searched
l>v

but doth not yet

yield nourishnu

mingling of moist vapours appear; which is, with air; and trying if they will not bring a re turn of more water than the water was at first for if so, that increase is a version of the air
: :

29. Onions, as they hang, will many of them shoot forth ; and so will penny-royal ; and so
will

an herb called orpin; with which they use
it

therefore put water in the bottom of a stillatory, with the neb stopped; weigh the water first; hang in the middle of the stillatory a large sjumnr and see what quantity of water you can
;

in the country to trim their houses, binding lath or stick, and setting it against a wall.

to a

We

likewise more especially in the greater semper-vive, which will put out branches, two or three years: but it is true, that commonly they
see
it

crush out of it; and what it is more or less com pared with the water spent; for you must under stand, that if any version can be wrought, it will

wrap the root in a cloth besmeared with oil, and renew it once in half a year. The like is reported, by some of the ancients, of the stalks of lilies.

be easiliest done in small pores and that is the reason why we prescribe a spunge. The fourth
:

The cause

way

is

which
small

without drawing help from the earth, to suffice the sprouting of the plant: and this sprouting is more easy for version; and chiefly in the late spring or early summer; which quantity We see also, that tangible bodies have no pleasure in the consort are the times of putting forth. of air, but endeavour to subact it into a more stumps of trees lying out of the ground, will put dense body ; but in entire bodies it is checked But it is a noble trial, forth sprouts for a time. because if the air should condense, there is and of very great consequence, to try whether nothing to succeed therefore it must be in loose these things, in the sprouting, do increase weight; bodies, as sand, and powder; which we see, if which must be tried, by weighing them before they lie close, of themselves gather moisture. they be hanged up; and afterwards again, when they are sprouted. For if they increase not in Experiment solitary touching helps towards the weight, then it is no more but this; that what beauty and good features of persons. they send forth in the sprout, they lose in some
is,

of bodies:

probable also, though not appearing; by receiving the air into the small pores for, as hath been said, every thing in
is

is ; for that these plants have a strong, dense, and succulent moisture, which is not apt to exhale; and so is able, from the old store,

;

:

28. It is reported

by some of the ancients; other part
"magnale

:

for if

they gather weight, then
for
it it

it

is

that whelps, or o\her creatures, if they be put young into such a cage or box, as they cannot rise to their stature, but may increase in breadth

showeth that air may be made so to be condensed as to be con verted into a dense body whereas the race and
naturae;"
;

get room ; which if it be true and feasible, and that and straitened, the young creature so pressed

or length, will

grow accordingly as they can

period of all things, here above the earth, is to extenuate and turn things to be more pneumatical and rare; and not to be retrograde, from pneu

it is a means to produce matical to that which is dense. It showeth also, dwarf creatures, and in a very strange figure. that air can nourish ; which is another great This is certain, and noted long since, that the matter of consequence. Note, that to try this, pressure or forming of parts of creatures, when the experiment of the semper-vive must be made

doth not thereupon die,

they are very young, doth alter the shape not a little as the stroking of the heads of infants,
:
"

without oiling the cloth

;

for else,

it

may
oil.

be, the

plant receiveth nourishment from the

between the hands, was noted of old, to make which shape of the head, at Experiment solitary touching the commixture of Macrocephali that time, was esteemed. And the raising gently flame and air, and the great force thereof. 30. Flame and air do not mingle, except it be of the bridge of the nose, doth prevent the de Which observation in an instant; or in the vital spirits of vegetables formity of a saddle nose. well weighed, may teach a means to make the and living creatures. In gunpowder, the force persons of men and women, in many kinds, of it hath been ascribed to rarefaction of the more comely and better featured than otherwise earthy substance into flame; and thus far it is they would be; by the forming and shaping of true: and then, forsooth, it is become another them in their infancy: as by stroking up the element; the form whereof occupieth more place; calves of the legs, to keep them from falling and so of necessity, followeth a dilatation; and down too low; and by stroking up the forehead, therefore, lest two bodies should be in one place, to keep them from being low-foreheaded. And there must needs also follow an expulsion of tho But these the mine. it is a common practice to swathe infants, that pellet; or blowing up of For flame, are crude and ignorant speculations. they may grow more straight, and better shaped and we see young women, by wearing strait if there were nothing else, except it were in very
;"

:

bodice, keep themselves from being gross and
corpulent.

he great quantity, will

sutY->cate

with any hard

body, such as a pellet

is

;

or the barrel of a 5110,

If

NATURAL HISTORY.
It

CENT.

I.

BO as the flame would not expel the hard body ; but the hard body would kill the flame, and not
suffer
it

to kindle or spread.

this so potent a motion, is the nitre,

But the cause of which we call
it

otherwise saltpetre, which having in

a notable

crude and windy spirit, first by the heat of the fire suddenly dilateth itself; and we know that simple air, being preternaturally attenuated by

pyramis in which we usually see, is merely by acci dent, and that the air about, by quenching the sides of the flame, crusheth it, and extenuateth it into that form for of itself it would be round ; and therefore smoke is in the figure of a pyramis reversed for the air quencheth the flame, and receiveth the smoke. Note also, that the flame
flame,
; ;

appeareth also, that the form of a

heat, will make itself room, and break and of the candle, within the flame of the spirit of blow up that which resisteth it; and secondly, wine, is troubled ; and doth not only open and when the nitre hath dilated itself, it bloweth move upwards, but moveth waving, and to and abroad the flame, as an inward bellows. And fro ; as if flame of its own nature, if it were not therefore we see that brimstone, pitch, camphire, quenched, would roll and turn, as well as move wild-fire, and divers other inflammable matters, upwards. By all which it should seem, that the though they burn cruelly, and are hard to quench, celestial bodies, most of them, are true fires ol yet they make no such fiery wind as gunpowder flames, as the Stoics held ; more fine, perhaps, doth ; and on the other side, we see that quick and rarified than our flame is. For they are all silver, which is a most crude and watery body, globular and determinate; they have rotation; and they have the colour and splendour of flame: heated, and pent in, hath the like force with gun powder. As for living creatures, it is certain, so that flame above is durable, and consistent, and
their vital spirits are a substance

compounded of

in its natural place

;

but with us
:

it is

a stranger,
that

an airy and flamy matter; and though air and flame being free, will not well mingle ; yet bound in by a body that hath some fixing, they will.
;

and momentary, and impure halted with his fall.

like

Vulcan

For that you may best see in those two bodies, Experiment solitary touching the different force of which are their aliments, water and oil for they flame in the midst and on the sides. likewise will not well mingle of themselves but 32. Take an arrow, and hold it in flame for the in the bodies of plants, and living creatures, they space of ten pulses, and when it cometh forth, will. It is no marvel therefore, that a small you shall find those parts of the arrow which quantity of spirits, in the cells of the brain, and were on the outsides of the flame more burned, canals of the sinews, are able to move the whole blacked, and turned almost into a coal, whereas body, which is of so great mass, both with so that in the midst of the flame will be as if the This is an instance great force, as in wrestling, leaping; and with fire had scarce touched it.
;

so great swiftness, as in playing division upon the lute. Such is the force of these two natures,
air

of great consequence for the discovery of the nature of flame; and showeth manifestly, that

and flame, when they incorporate.
solitary touching the secret nature of

flame burneth more violently towards the sides than in the midst and which is more, that heat
:

Experiment

or fire is not violent or furious, but

where

it

is

flame.
31. Take a small way candle, and put it in a socket of brass or iron; then set it upright in a then set porringer full of spirit of wine heated both the candle and spirit of wine on fire, and you
:

shall see the flame of the candle

open

itself,

and

become four or five times bigger than otherwise it would have been and appear in figure globu
;

lar,

and not

in pyramis.

You

shall see also, that

checked and pent. And therefore the Peripate tics, howsoever their opinion of an element of fire above the air is justly exploded, in that point for being opposed, they acquit themselves well that if there were a sphere of fire, that encom the earth so near hand, it were impossible passed but all things should be burnt up ; they answer, that the pure elemental fire, in its own place, and not irritated, is but of a moderate heat.
:

the inward flame of the candle keepeth colour, and doth not wax any whit blue towards the

Experiment

colour of the outward flame of the spirit of wine. This is a noble instance; wherein two things

solitary touching the decrease of the natural motion of gravity, in great distance from the earth ; or within some dtpth of the eartu.

most remarkable: the one, that one flame within another quencheth not; but is a fixed body, and continueth as air or water do. And therefore flame would still ascend upwards in one
are

33. It is affirmed constantly by many, as a usual experiment, that a lump of ore in the bottcm of a mine will be tumbled and stirred by

two men

greatness, if it were not quenched on the sides: and the greater the flame is at the bottom, the

s strength, which, if you bring it to the top of the earth, will ask six men s strength at It is^a noble instance, and is the least to stir it.
fit

The other, t .at flame doth higher is the rise. not mingle with flame, as air doth with air, or water witli water, but only remaineth contiguous ; an h conieth to pass betwixt consisting bodies.

to

be

tried to the full

;

for

it is

very probable,
:

i

that the motion of gravity worketh weakly, both the far from the earth, and also within the earth

[

former, because the appetite of union of dense

CENT.
bodies
is

I.

N\TI,RAl. HISTORY.
rartli, in p-sj.rct

ia

\\itli tin-

f the distance,

more dull: the
;itt;iined

hitter,
its

because the body hath

in part

nature

when

it

is

in

some
to a

the medicine, or by the quantity. The qualities are three; extreme bitter, as in aloes, ci loquintida, &c. loathsome and of horrible taste, as in

depth

in the earth.

For as

for the

moving

point or place, which was the opinion of the an cients, it is a mere vanity.

Experiment
it-s

solitary touching the contraction of in bulk, by the mixture of the more liquid
il/i t/ir.

more

vnlitl.

34.

It is

strange

how

the ancients took up ex

periments upon credit, and yet did build great matters upon them. .The observation of some of the best of them, delivered confidently, is, that a
vessel
filled

quantity of water that

with ashes will receive the like it would have done if it

But this is utterly untrue, for And I not go in by a fifth part. suppose, that that fifth part is the di (Terence of the lying close, or open, of the ashes; as we see
had been empty.
the \v;iter will

that ashes alone, if they be hard pressed, will lie and so the ashes with air between, in less room
:

lie

looser;

and with water closer.

For

I

have

not yet found certainly, that the water itself, by mixture of ashes or dust, will shrink or draw
into less room.
solitary touching the

&c. and of secret mah _r and disagreement towards man s body, many times not appearing much in the taste, as in And scammony, mechoachan, antimony, &c. note well, that if there be any medicine that purgeth, and hath neither of the first two manifest qualities, it is to be held suspected as a kind of poison; for that it worketh either by corrosion, or by a secret malignity, and enmity to nature; and therefore such medicines are warily to be prepared and used. The quantity of that which is taken doth also cause purging; as we see in a great quantity of new milk from the cow ; yea and a great quantity of meat ; for surfeits many times turn to purges, both upwards and down wards. Therefore we see generally, that the working of purging medicines cometh two or for that three hours after the medicines taken the stomach first maketh a proof whether it can concoct them. And the like happeneth after sur feits, or milk in too great quantity. 37. A second cause is mordication of the orifices
agaric, black hellebore,
nity,
:

as

Experiment
35.
It is

making

vines

of the parts; especially of the mesentery veins ; it is seen, that salt, or any such thing that is sharp and biting, put in the fundament, doth pro

more fruitful.
reported of credit, that if you lay good store of kernels of grapes about the root of a vine, it will make the vine come earlier and
It may be tried with other ker prosper better. nels laid about the root of a plant of the same xind ; as figs, kernels of apples, &c. The cause

voke the part to expel ; and mustard provoketh sneezing: and any sharp thing to the eyes pro voketh tears. And therefore we see that almost
all

tion, besides

purgers have a kind of twitching and vellicathe griping which cometh of wind.
if this
little

And
it

modication be

in an over-high degree,

is

better than the corrosion of poison;

draw out of the earth and it cometh to pass sometimes in antimony, may juice fit to nourish the tree, as those that would especially if it be given to bodies not replete with be trees of themselves, though there were no humours; for where humours abound, the hu root; but the root being of greater strength rob- mours save the parts. beth and devoureth the nourishment, when they for I do not 38. The third cause is attraction have drawn it as great fishes devour little. deny, but that purging medicines have in them
be, for that the kernels
:
:

Experiments in consort touching purging medi
cines.

as drawing plaisters have in surgery and we see sage or betony bruised, sneezing powder, and other powders, or a direct force of attraction:
:

operation of purging medicines and the causes thereof, have been thought to be a
36.

The

great secret;

and so according
it

to

the slothful

manner of men,

is referred to

a hidden proprie

ty, a specifical virtue, and a fourth quality, the like shifts of ignorance. The causes of

and

purg as rhubarb ing are divers: all plain and perspicuous, and according to the opinion received thoroughly maintained by experience. The first drawethcholer; sena melancholy ; agaric phlegm, that whatsoever cannot be overcome and di draw promiscu is, &c. but yet, more or less, they And note also, that besides sympathy gested by the stomach, is by the stomach either ously. vomit, or put down to the guts; and between the purger and the humour, there is alsr put up by by that motion of expulsion in the stomach and another cause why some medicines draw some,
:

liquors, which the physicians call "errhines," put into the nose, draw phlegm and water from the head and so it is in apophlegmatisms and gargarisms, that draw the rheum down by the And by this virtue, no doubt, some pur palate. gers draw more one humour, and some another,
;

guts, other parts of the body, as the orifices of the veins, and the like, are moved to expel by con sent. For nothing ts moro frequent than motion

humour more than another. And it is, for that some medicines wark quicker than others and
:

of consent in the body of man. This surchar^rof the stomach is caused either by the quality of

and they that draw quick, draw only the lighter more fluid humours; and they that draw slow, and viscous humours. work upon the more tough

H

11

NATURAL HISTORY.
therefore

CENT.

1

they take alone familiarly; for it take tli only the lightest part of the humour away, ami Iraveth the mass of humours more obstinate.

And

men must beware how
like,

rhubarb,

and the

are well digested of the stomach, and well re ceived also of the mesenteiy veins; so they come
as far as the liver, w-hich sendeth urine to the bladder, as the whey of blood: and those medi

And
is

the like

may

be said of

wormwood, which

M much magnified.
39.

cines being opening and piercing do fortify the operation of the liver, in sending down the wheyey

stirred

cause is flatuosity ; for wind to expel : and we find that in ef fect all purgers have in them a raw spirit or wind ; cause of tortion in the sto which is the

The

fourth

moveth

For medicines urinativedonot work by rejection and indigestion,
part of the blood to the reins.

as solutive do. 44. There be divers medicines, which in greater quantity move stool, and in smaller urine : and so contrariwise, some that in greater quantity move urine, and in smaller stool. Of the former
sort is rhubarb,
for that

principal

purgers lose, most of them, the virtue by decoction upon the lire ; and for that cause are given chiefly in in
belly.

mach and

And

therefore

and some others. The cause is, is a medicine which the stomach so in a small quantity doth digest and overcome, as when water is crushed out of a sponge we see that taking cold moveth looseness by being not flatuous nor loathsome, and so sendeth contraction of the skin and outward parts ; and it to the mesentery veins; and so being opening but in a greater quantity, so doth cold likewise cause rheums, and deflux- it helpeth down urine ions from the head ; and some astringent plaisters the stomach cannot overcome it, and so it goeth This kind of opera to the guts. crush out purulent matter. Pepper by some of the ancients is tion is not found in many medicines; myrobolanes noted to be of the second sort; which being in have it ; and it may be the barks of peaches ; small quantity, moveth wind in the stomach and for this virtue requireth an astriction ; but such guts, and so expelleth by stool ; but being in an astriction as is not grateful to the body ; for a greater quantity, dissipateth the wind ; and itself getteth to the mesentery veins, and so to the liver pleasing astriction doth rather bind in the hu mours than expel them and therefore, such as and reins; where, by heating and opening, it sendeth down urine more plentifully. triction is found in things of a harsh taste. 41. The sixth cause is lubrefaction and relaxa tion. As we see in medicines emollient; such Experiments in consort touching meats and drinks
fusion, juice, or powder. 40. The fifth cause is compression or crushing;
:

rhubarb

:

:

have spoken of evacuating of the body : a secret virtue of relaxation in cold for the heat we will now speak something of the filling of it, of the body bindeth the parts and humours to by restoratives in consumptions and emaciating In vegetables, there is one part that is gether, which cold relaxeth : as it is seen in urine, diseases. blood, pottage, or the like ; which, if they be more nourishing than another ; as grains and roots And by this kind of nourish more than the leaves ; insomuch as the cold, break and dissolve. because the order of the Foliatanes was put down by the pope, relaxation, fear looseneth the belly heat retiring inwards towards the heart, the guts, as finding leaves unable to nourish man s body. and other parts are relaxed ; in the same manner Whether there be that difference in the flesh of as fear also causeth trembling in the sinews. living creatures is not well inquired, as whether And of this kind of purgers are some medicines livers, and other entrails be not more nourishing made of mercury. than the outward flesh. We find that amongst 42. The seventh cause is abstersion ; which the Romans, a goose s liver was a great delicacy ; is plainly a spouring off, or incision of the more insomuch as they had artificial means to make it viscous humours, and making the humours more fair and great ; but whether it were more nourish fluid and cutting between them and the part ing appeareth not. It is certain, that marrow is as is found in nitrous water, which scoureth linen more nourishing than fat. And I conceive that cloth speedily from the foulness. But this incision some decoction of bones and sinews, stamped and must be by a sharpness, without astriction which well strained, would be a very nourishing broth : we find in salt, wormwood, oxymel, and the like. we find also that Scotch skinck, which is a pot 43. There be medicines that move stools, and tage of strong nourishment, is made with the not urine; some other, urine, and not stools. knees and sinews of beef, but long boiled jelly Those that purge by stool are such as enter not also, which they use for a restorative, is chiefly at all, or little, into the mesentery vein: but made of knuckles of veal. The pulp that is with either at the first are not digestible by the stomach, in the crawfish or crab, which they spice and and therefore move immediately downwards to butter, is more nourishing than the flesh of the
45.
"We
: : ; ;
:

as are milk, honey, mallows, lettuce, mercurial, There is also pellitory of the wall, and others.

that are

most nourishing.

:

or else are afterwards rejected by the crab or crawfish. The yolks of eggs are clearly mesentery veins, and so turn likewise downwards more nourishing than the whites. So that it to the guts and of these two kinds are most should seem, that the parts of living creatures that B-it those that move urine are such as lie more inwards, nourish more than the outward purpe/s.

tne guts

;

;

CENT.
flesh;

1.

NATURAL HISTORY.
it

If

except

be the brain: which the spirits

">().

1

istachoes, so they be good, and not musty,

virtue pn-y ton much upon, to leave it any great it secmeth for the nourishing of of nourishing, aged men, or men in consumptions, sonic such

into a

joined with almonds in almond milk; or maile milk of themselves, like unto almond milk, but more green, are an excellent nourishei : but

thing shoulil l)t) devised, as should be half chylus, before it be put into the stomach.
It!.

you

shall do well to add a little ginger, scraped, because they are not without some subtile wi-idi-

Take two
fire,

large capons
is

;

a

soft

by the space of an hour
blood

parboil them upon or more, till in
in the decoction

ness.
51.

Milk warm from the cow

is

found to be a

elVcet all the

gone.

Add

the

pill

milk the cow, two little bags; the one of powder and throw them away. Then with a good strong of mint, the other of powder of red roses ; for they rhnpping-knife mince the two capons, bones and keep the milk somewhat from turning or curdling in the stomach ; and put in sugar also, for the all, as small as ordinary minced meat; put them into a large neat boulter ; then take a kilderkin same cause, and hardly for the taste s sake ;
of a citron, and a

of a sweet lemon, or a good part of the pill Cut off the shanks, little mace.

great nourisher, and a good remedy in consump tions : but then you must put into it, when you

sweet and well seasoned, of four gallons of beer, of 8s. strength, new as it cometh from the tun
:

but you must drink may stay less time
:

a
in

good draught, that
the

it

stomach,

lest

it

into which you milk the ning: make in the kilderkin a great bung-hole of curdle and let the cup of hot water, that purpose then thrust into it the boulter, in which cow, be set in a greater cup And ccw milk thus pre the capons are, drawn out in length ; let it steep you may take it warm. in it three days and three nights, the bung-hole pared, I judge to be better for a consumption than open to work, then close the bung-hole, and so let ass milk, which, it is true, turneth not so easily, but it is a little harsh ; marry it is more proper it continue a day and half; then draw it into bot for sharpness of urine, and exulceration of the tles, and you may drink it well after three days

bottling; and
It

it will last six weeks: approved. drinketh fresh, flowereth and mantleth exceed it drinketh not newish at all ; it is an ex ingly ;

bladder, and all manner of lenifying. milk likewise is prescribed, when all

Woman
;

i
I

fail

but

cellent drink fora consumption, to be alone, or carded with some other beer.

drunk either
It

commend it juice of man

not, as being a little too near the s body, to be a good nourisher; ex

quench-

eth thirst, and hath no whit of windiness. Note, that it is not possible, that meat and bread, either
in broths, or taken with drink, as is used, should

cept it be in infants, to whom it is natural. 52. Oil of sweet almonds, newly drawn, with sugar and a little spice, spread upon bread toasted,

get forth into the veins and outward parts so finely and easily as when it is thus incorporate, and made almost a chylus aforehand. 47. Trial would be made of the like brew with potatoe roots, or burr roots, or the pith of arti chokes, which are nourishing meats : it may be tried also with other flesh ; as pheasant, partridge,

young pork,
&c.

pig, venison, especially of young deer,

an excellent nourisher but then to keep the from frying in the stomach, you must drink a good draught of mild beer after it ; and to keep it from relaxing the stomach too much, you must put in a little powder of cinnamon. 53. The yolks of eggs are of themselves so well prepared by nature for nourishment, as, so they be poached, or reare boiled, they need no other prepa ration or mixture; yet they may be taken also raw, when they are new laid, with Malmsey, or
is
:

oil

48. A mortress made with the brawn of capons, sweet wine you shall do well to put in some few stamped and strained, and mingled, after it is slices of eryngium roots, and a little ambergrice; the least, of almond for by this means, besides the immediate faculty made, with like quantity, at butter, is an excellent meat to nourish those that of nourishment, such drink will strengthen the
:

are

weak;
is

better

than blanckmanger, or jelly

:

back, so that
fast;
for

it

will not

draw down the urine

too

the cull ice of cocks, boiled thick with the like mixture of almond butter; for the mort

and so

too

much

urine doth

always hinder

nourishment.
54. Mincing of meat, as in pies, and buttered minced meat, saveth the grinding of the teeth; and therefore, no doubt, it is more nourishing, that have weak teeth ; especially in age, or to them

ress or cullice, of itself, is

more savoury and

nourishing of weak bodies ; but the almonds, that are not of so high a taste as flesh, do excellently qualify it.
strong, and

not so

fit

for

an excellent but the butter is not so proper for weak bodies ; nourishment; but it must be throughly and therefore it were good to moisten it with a or orange, cut boiled, and made into a maiz-cream like a barley- little claret wine, pill of lemon cream. I judge the same of rice, made into a small, sugar, and a very little cinnamon or nut cream ; for rice is in Turkey, and other countries meg. As for chuets, which are likewise minced of the east, most fed upon; but it must be meat, instead of butter and fat, it were good to or almond, or thoroughly boiled in respect of the hardness of moisten them, partly with cream, or maiz-cream; adding it, and also because otherwise it bindeth the body pistacho milk: or barley, a little coriande; s-. ed and caraway seed, and A too much.
49. Indian maiz hath, of certain,
spirit of

and not the noblest and principal use whereof is. to have the linen smeared to the helping of nourishment in living creatures lightly over with oil of sweet almonds. let it always be burnt. and restoring some tion . doth conduce much to the body. atque oribn JEn. to provide that the body. and inteneration of the parts . wax ex. after the taking of some of easy digestion. and leaves. for the and boughs : quenched with two little wedges of gold.means of prolongation of life. young boughs. For we see. ly an over preat part of the blood into urine. death or a flower. drink in nourishment Wherein it hath been in the passage. rishment into the parts more strongly . which &amp. or the like. which is the inconvenience of postmeridian sleeps. that any bly proved also. very i** * saffron. that the linen or gar ry of that observation. that is laid in it and therefore a bag cometh upon living creatures like the torment of : quilted with bran is likewise very good . 485. why plants. six or seven times repeated. this add that precept of Aristotle. that the other may otherwise hurt. and weak bodies. as it is membranes .&amp.L6 1 1 NATURAL HISTORY. for that the spirits ment: but to the of the wine do prey upon the roscid juice of the body. who adviseth quite contrary to that which is old . this. as bones. and such as abound not with choler. and and certain it is. it helpeth to thrust out the nourishment into the 55. and plentifullest nourish ment. and herbs. and then. plications to the stomach tried. but hair and nails. it must be gently re that there be tures. Add also this provision. and sleep. is a principal tain. send forth the nou prolongation of life . is. in that rial . and in summer seldom changed. that whatsoever is parts. &c. at the least. and stomach and in : : napkin. but it drieth somewhat too much. grow parts themselves may draw to them the nourish ing from the weakness of the stomach. and therefore it must Mezentius : not lie long. But chiefly Hippocrates s rule is to be young. nothing that is young. worm put into good pasture. and as it were. and stay sweat in some degree but the their Transfer therefore this observation lasting. and so deceive and rob them of their nourish ment. in so much as it hardeneth a piece of flesh. because. by exhaling and sweating. because the stomach is and repair hardly . that which is the myste which is in use : namely. commonly believed that sleep doth nourish much. and almost new so that you may sack. in that the oft cutting. The second means is. more cleanly way is. 58. that the spirits do loss spend the noui/shment in creature* are awake. and to bedew it with a little plump and fat.U n wo reserve to the due place. that the quilts of roses. is to send forth the nourishment For the parts in man s body easily reparable. are nothing so helpful. and to dry it. and likewise some entrails. forborne in all consumptions. in winter. doth further nourish this would be done sitting upright. die in the embracement other creatures that sleep in the winter. some of them. . And this we see nota smeared over with oil . as the better by sleep. strained. as to take beef. quicker spirits may evaporate . nerves. nottoomuch expense of the nourish ment. that which is to the present purpose. both for ! are they reckon amongst the spermatical parts. and the body in the passage. mint. which may be a branch of the former. and you must refresh and renew chiefly comforted by wine and hot things. which those that are easy to nourish. that all flour hath a potent virtue of astric. spices. recover the flesh of young wood. as milk from the cow. for which the working must be by strengthening of the that there are in living creatures parts that nourish and repair easily. do force ment strongly. The viii.of the parts hardly reparable.gt. And therefore. third Mortua quin etiam jungebat corpora vivis Componens manibusque manus. and after it be dried surely conclude. or. parts. and spirits. blood. for certain it is. that the frequent and wise use a little before the fire. for in such bodies there is no fear of an over-hasty digestion. There is an excellent observation you to use wine. vield best. and now we will speak of the best means of conveying and converting the nourishment. it is good to resort to outward ap be refreshed. or Alicant. and inter-common with the spirits of the that the milk or broth may pass the more speedily bottom of the stomach. and to lay it to the stomach . to put it within a clean of those emaciating diets. and therefore if the patient be apt to sweat.ecdinff fat: 57.gt. are of greater age than living crea whereas living creatures put forth growth. doth a little fill the pores of of hedges. The more full handling of diin)t-t. than when living have hitherto handled the particulars which and easiest. nourishing broth. which are excrements. and of purgings. dry and oft calling the sap up to them. ora. that the of Aristotle. restoration of some degree of youth. Now we see that draught oxen. CENT. to fit. trees. that wine To what Sleep also in the morning. and parts that nourish . and no And it is most certain. if the consumption. The fourth means is. for that they yearly put forth after their period of new leaves : : to forbear shifting as oft as is 56. or polling substance that is fat. mastic. for as we have often said. The first means is to procure that the nourish ment may not be rcbbed and drawn away where . for it is cer perhaps of some kind of bleeding. which we have already said is very mate to provide that the reins draw not too strong be Therefore in aged men. and flesh. and men after long emaciating diets wax a cake of new bread. \V-. a short sleep after dinner doth help to nourish. 1. the same nourisheth changed. that a great reason. doth draw nourishment better than that followed. for certain it is. ment next the flesh be. degree of youth . means. that bears.

for that diseases of continuance get beingapplied in a certain order. especially chronical. of which vide the re and spur nature. hy custom. or a piece of scarlet wool. It importcth. draweth gently and therefore draweth the humour out. the 63. &c. a gentle fomentation. they likewise into looseness. being used hot. by emotions that are in their power.iere is a secret way of cure. Therefore physicians should ingeniously fore they must be taken in order.CBNT. and hath though very little. as The poultis is to be laid to for the fomentation for a quarter of an hour. and seven or eight like. which if it be any thing weak apply a poultis. The fomentation calleth forth the Experiment solitary touching Experiment solitary touching 60. 64. by time. as son of the year. some kinds of palsies. hy making tlic parts a little hungry. lunacies. There be many medicines.&quot. Poisons have been made. which doneby some outward emoluments. for in the latter by excess. children s sport. wet a little physician will consider whether a disease be in plague are to rep-air: though that division of spcrmatiAnd -and niciistrir. It is also best done hy tht are most dangerous at the first: therefore a wise hand. and jirrscnt purpose of nourishing unil therefore gentle frication draweth forth the so of wine or strong drink. d.i conceit. &c. excess of drink. We see.uie in the morning. and pat upon their forehead with another. Likewise the patient himself may strive. more soft and weak. The use Experiment solitary touching cure of it would be between sleeps &quot. for it is There is in the body of man a great consent We see. an adventitious strength from custom. morbis minus. stomach is ready to expel by vornit. Knduring of this same observation also may be drawn to the tortures. are contrary to predisposition. and in Li&quot. but The cause is. and that is commonly belly. it would draw to the part.il I. besides do great cures. and so. and straightways they shall sometimes rub with both hands. . I have tried. are more dangerous than : &quot. of which vide the receipt. or how. vide the receipt. let him re sort to palliation. diseases that are chronical. : Roman ointment. For which I have com pounded an ointment of excellent odour. by some. men fall into fluxes of the expel by humour already contained asperate it. and maketh the humour cure by metitn of apt to exhale. whereby they call forth nou generally. myself. hath heen said. or the : what better. fifth 5 J. The means is. gent plaister. or pat with both hands. and so ex is said. nourishment. tlie 17 seldom infected. but perhaps hurt. unpractised. and the like. mingled with a small : quantity of bay-svilt. as coughs. if the patient be in deed patient.d liking. diet. sleep the parts assimilate chiefly. : and then they die. consent. which thereupon rises more and then a plaister. Filum medicinale. Ordinary keepers of the shk of with the oil of almonds. it is in the motion of the several parts. and apter to take the defluxion and impression of the humour. which repelleth new humour from The poultis alone would make the part falling. rishment the hctter. Besides. The ceipt forcibly against the disease. to prove whether they can rub upon their breast with one hand. . such excesses do excite then a bath. Tliis frication I wish to he phthisics. when nature cannot cough. a remedy so that their material cause from the humours for the gout. would draw forth little . contrary to the complexion. which 1 call whether the just cure of it be not full and if he find it to be such. if too strong. as well as draw from it. So in pestilent diseases. diseases. poultis relaxeth the pores. age. made to he without surfeit or drunkenness. in the part. vide the receipt. of some The plaister is a moderate astrin stupefactive. hath been made more easy: emaciated bodies: the brooking of enormous quantity of meats. cure of diseases which Experiment solitary touching till the part be well confirmed. familiar. humour by vapours but yet in regard of the way made by the poultis. by little and little. to overcome the symptom in the acerbation. if it were too weak.il parts he hut . selves would do no cure. they cure the rising of the mother. or fomentation. that when the spirits that come to the nostrils expel a bad scent. and alleviate the symptom. which hath seldom failed. And and heating them.&quot. which by them extraordinary stirring or lassitude. that course will exceed all expecta tion. and will fall off. that are not in they may excite inward motions their power as by the stench qf feathers. sex.&quot. 6L T. by custom. that sea by assuetude of that which in itself hurteth. such as quartan agues. fall they cannot be expelled by sweat.in VOL. are sometimes cured by surfeit . contrive. if as well as forbid all new humour. or of peril . The fomen to it. curable . The plaister alone would pen the that in consumptions of the lungs. withal a mixture. hard c. . to further the very act is of assimilation of nourishment. and doth not draw more . Divers diseases. NATURAL HISTORY. There two or three hours some mortal. We find tation alone. that make the parts more apt to assimilate. : 62. turn suffering into nature. times repeated the plaister to continue on still. without busying himself too much with the per fect cure and many times. and excesses: as excess of meat. without way made by the poultis. one after another. II 3 i . or saffron we see that the very currying of horses doth make them fat. hath heen. Hippocrates s aphorism. is a good profound aphorism. but driven the breaking of the custom doth leave them only it in twenty-four hours space it is first to away to their first cause. Experiment solitary touching cure by custom.

as it seemeth. First. and settling of the body afterwards. and also the diminishing and dulling of the work ing of the medicine itself. being thrust into it forcible and so. both before and after the purging. until they have first attenuated . to let blood in an adverse part. Experiments Experiment solitary touching stanching of blood. for that nature. profitable and for the latter. There is a fifth way also in use. A man would think into sharp vinegar. and work gripingly. that there be humours. which hath made some of the more delicate sort of patients give them over in the midst. so the Prince of Orange. the sticking of the humours. either of appetite or working. and their not coming by continual use of any thing. do recess of the blood by sympathy. things helpful by custom lose their force to help : and to make the passages more open for both I count intermission almost the same thing with thnse help to make the humours pass readily. and the natural disposition. Blood is stanched divers ways. that in diets of But it is stop in the guts. they may do after purging. 66. Second ly. not so much opening until it be dried up and consumed. Physicians do wisely prescribe. as iron or a stone laid to the neck doth stanch the bleeding of the nose. sufficiently double. and repercussive medicines. which with use some have brought themselves to And therefore it is no marvel. be themselves : with. by astringents. as poison. So it hath been second the one the other. It helpeth. true. that the part that bleedeth. to draw away the relics of the humours. and the like. and troubleth the body a great deal more. or high mountains : and when all is lone. syrups are most after a sort new. without preparation. eases of that kind. CENT. lest the medicine 68. new riptand bleed suppose like quantity of matter. let the physician apply himself more to purgation than to alteration. Therefore it is good. those that are concurrent. it is more fluid than it was mischief. both in medicine and aliment. it is. Thirdly. change for that that hath been intermitted is : therefore the : . if you the body of a capon or sheep. succeed rectified of themselves. that assuetude of things hurtful doth lose their force to hurt . it is. hath stanched blood. both for use and disclosure of causes. the disease should be tried. in his first hurt by the Spanish boy. and open weather. that may have descended to the lower region of the body. to before. or prepar Experiment solitary touching diets. And therefore in dis Fourthly. by similitude of substance. after purging. and while the placed in other places. for that. hath made a sudden recess of should be otherwise . But that which ing. or seek it in deep whereby she caves. is by and aliment still. I. supposing that if those diets trouble them so much at first. by the dent of sickness. especially passages. and do little hurt . ing broths . do. and at the last the blood by custom only Experiment solitary touching preparations before retired. the patient is more troubled in the begin ning than after continuance. and medicines. for the space at the least of two days . if the body be not accommodated. for want of preparation before purging. and not kick mundifying clysters also are good to conclude at them at the first. that the testicles being put in consort touching the production of cold. are preparatives in because they make the humours . sarza. lodging of some humours in ill places certain. how he purge after hard frosty weather. as those used before purging . a. because such dis and drawing up. and heat we have in readiness. : more that they are able to overcome those natural in clinations to the contrary. by drawing of the spirits and blood inwards. sucking maketh good the aphorism is. though work of preparation is brook. which causeth ill tiety bations and And we see make them and dullness. clysters also help. because the find : 65. that bodies abounding with humours. especially if they for the : strict. for a revulsion. groweth to a sa certain in the body great pertur accidents during the purging.IS NATURAL HISTORY. do much humour is attenuated. more fluid. and guaiacum. but abstersive and fore patients must expect a due time. and in a lean For the hurt that body. and they cannot dry up in the body are quiet. and stanched blood. hurt. for that all those diets do dry up humours. for Experiment solitary touching change of aliments. in respect of the fire . to make the humours fluid and mature. And there use apozemes and broths. and the qualities are of the wound stopped by mens thumbs. chiefly worketh . the eases do show a greater collection of matter.so it hath beun tried. The hurt that they to change and not to continue the same medicine The cause is. it is caused by the fat bodies. when the acci the spirits. could no means to stanch the blood either by medi cine or ligament but was fain to have the orifice offence is in the quantity . that it purgeth not fair away. And former of these. which is done by cold. that purgers do many times great 67. and the like. The producing of cold is a thing very worthy the inquisition. which somewhere rheums. no doubt. by blood it meeteth with. ing one another. by custom and time. and so itself going back. . But the cause for it is is. apozemes. that there be preparatives used before just purgations . But let a physician beware. It is found by experience. but for cold we must stay till it cometh. purging. For heat and cold are nature s two hands. they shall not be able to endure them to the end.

the opinion of the author of the discourse in Plu 75. for : And whosoever will be an the sun resort to a conserva shade and to see it inquirer into nature.o snow is than water. it 70. or rather of increase water out of them. that earth. The tangible bodies third cause is the primary nature of : for it is well to be noted. of metals. it must needs follow. furnaces of an. are . fourth cause is the density of the body . but I oVmbt it will not succeed . make the spirits fly rather by malignity. in the winter time . as in the producing of artificial ice. tangible. in respect of other uses. as hath been noted the opinion of spirits. and that they have crushed fresh for all The The cause is. opium. being let down into a and vehemency of cold. for long time as it should seem. and that water thicker. greater. all may be a secret of great power to produce cold weather. is cold . The second cause of cold is the contact of were not amiss therefore to try it. Telesius. it 1 J we cannot obtain lire in any threat degree: fur . But because it is &quot. increased in weight. thai bodies. It was who hath renewed the : cold water. the same effect must follow tarch.&quot. whether the former were also good to tory of snow and ice. by laying it upon the top of a weather glass. This we see in tl. hold all of the nature the water.-. and the is colder than oil.far hotter than a summer Mm driving away of spirits such as have some degree of heat: fur the hani. in We by one of the ancients. or motion all : We consort. and they are longer sailors have used. is cold. ing air into water. and hanging in the middle. for besides that the virtue of opium will hardly penetrate through This hath been such a body as glass. increaseth and more towards ice. that where the matter is most congregate. The first means of producing cold. that bones were found. with warm cold bodies. : overcome the earth being. for a night. dense. which is a poor and forth the exile heat which is in the air. to a fifth part. and tendeth to the subduing of a very great effect. for even the spirit of wine. hut vaults or hills are not frost. see nitre. the other with some screen betwixt fie in those things that are touched with snow or beams of the moon and the water. that Experiments in things whatsoever. in the morning for their use. The fifth cause of cold. to hang fleeces of wool on the sides of their ships. 77. because it is fullest of spirit. It is reported attentively consider of nature in many instances. for that therefore. which little are so hot in operation. Lydia. and the ter digested e&amp. for I take it that book was not Plutarch s upon the exhaling or drawing out of the warm it. or life. stone. is a quick spirit enclosed in a cold body as will appear to any that shall : deep well. in the experiment 27. of air into to the touch cold: so quicksilver is the coldest and of version also. as I now remember. &quot. &quot. philosophy of There is an opinion that the moon is niagnetical of heat. because it hath a quicker spirit: the mouth of the caves being stopped by But long time for all oil. when the sun hath no power to leave any body cold. because it hath after the doad vessels which they had &quot. and condensed a 72. consort that give light thereunto.CBNT. what other means there may be to draw to cool wine in summer. for cold is active and transitive into waters. so water workmen in time of wars fled into caves. 73. I. are tion by burial under earth. which hath a quick spirit. near Pergamus. It was than phers by cold. And contemptible use. IIISTOKV. as snakes and silk-worms. tion of opium and stupefactives upon the spirits of living creatures: and it were not amiss to try opium. they were famished. water. the cold is the of cold. that doth upon the flight of the spirits. some three fathom from the water. let him will cool sooner. and is also of manifold use. as metals. yet hath it a duller spirit: colder than water. tangible. Try 74. which have spirit of life.gt. it was the tenet of Parmenides. 71. in caves. every night.magnate naturae. and some carried with them. to see whether it will contract the air. asserted. . the one exposed to the beams of Jie bodies adjacent. are of themselves cold . for that all matters tangi ble being cold. as we use to own. : . such as they use for delicacy inquire. except they have an accessary heat by fire.&quot. as well as heat: which is seen moon. if any of those vessels weie empty. glass. And it is certain. and more spirit within it: so we see that salt put to the vessels full of water. N ATI KAI. touching the version and transmutation of air into water. we will add some instances in to the first touch cold and air itself compressed.&quot. De primo frigido.&quot. though it hath the tangible parts bet enemies.primum frigidum. It is reported by some of the ancients. that may be made of such conservatories. the wool towards in heating than softer bodies. much colder than a winter s 69. that a quantity of wool tied loose together. And thus much we have tried. is that which nature presenteth us withal naim ly. have formerly set down the means of turn chemical oils. the : expiring of cold out of the inward parts of the earth in winter. there were certain more cold to the tongue than a stone . than common the activity of cold : so some is a notable instance of condensation and indura insecta.shm^ of the heat mi. and as well by ancient as by modern philoso the like. seventhly. as the sun is of cold and moisture Parmenides. by blowing. The sixth cause of cold is the chasing and therefore a small bladder hung in snow. dense bodies are colder than most other 76. and is the best of the novelists. I conceive that by some. water: which ice.

and beyond quence. or the heat gathered the more violent cold. It is especially to be noted. do part of a body. but a version or condensation of the ground moist vapours of the night. being laid casually upon a vessel of ver juice. 82. which is an and of wainscot before. and in effect incorporate it. 78. the dew. And and is much like to an infusion in the third is by assimilation . which at the first are but rude and so of minerals. the hard turning of the together . work of a few hours. reserve it to the proper title of attraction. which is stance: room. being contiguous to it. and some other matters. dew upon frost the inside of glass windows. and without any flaw. taking them pro &quot. also tho exuda that we see wood painted with oil. if you set a tub of water open in a room where cloves are kept. which is not proper but by conse wine. either by some moisture the body and so the making of brick and tile: also the : yieldeth.&quot. is likewise another degree of condensation . at first of juices concrete. whereof we shall speak in another place. the effect will follow: for that artificial conversion of water into ice is the fore it pass. which come. as they call breaking of the strings. In this instance. whose property is to condense we see that a sponge. also the induration of bead-amber. will like 79. as we assimilateth a soft. as hath been touched. as appeareth by the flies and spiders which are found in it. and the like in quicksilver: CENT. that wool new wise turn air some degree nearer unto water. It is reported also credibly. or else the hard body. and thickeneth see also. and the is itself upon the dry in twenty-four hours. with air in place of water. which at first is a soft substance. The condense it more. and this of tried by a month s space or the like. that the cause that doth facilitate the version of air into water. see in the filling of the chops of bowls. that that which will turn water into ice. lute strings. the more gross of swell in moist seasons. you may be sure the air is condensed by the cold of those you find the vapour. are but the re turns of moist vapours condensed . which will make wood to swell . for the heat doth attenuate. after some time. when a hard body infusion water. by the cold of that which it may be.jo like in nitre. We glass. wards indurate: and so of porcelain. for that tangible bodies have an the air is Induration. when not in gross. and rain. : : them in water. is. we will within the earth. and in moist weather. but subtilly mingled with tangible bodies. earth or clay 81. for first is by cold . though it stand at some In the country. by the cold only of the sun s departure. remaining they call the middle region of the air. the percolation or suing of the verjuice through the wood. to alteration to turn air into water. latter. and the hard drawing forth of boxes. and so turneth it back. which after tseen in the sweating of marbles and other stones. as hath been said. for verjuice of itself would never have passed through the wood so as. will draw the liquor higher. or lapidification of substances more soft. as it would be in a cave under earth. and also to munite themselves against the opening of wainscot doors which is a kind of force of the fire. which they have suffered. by the lying close of the wool. which harden with time. than water into be noted. that by continuing the air longer time. and upon that. . and the like. fi : shorn. are many: as the generation of stones ments which concerneth attraction. by laying The examples of induration. which is om the body of the sheep. tnan wood alone. or wool. they will and accelerating thereof is very worthy to be draw it: and after they have drawn it. It is reported of very good credit. This must be. they distance from the cloves. being put but in part in water or is by heat. and it. though the vessel were whole Therefore try the experiment of the artificial turning water into ice. will sooner gather drops in a moist night. as hath been partly touched before. And although it be a greater open. for by the moist air thickened against making of glass of a certain sand and brakeBut it is plain. and vacuum. had drunk up a great part of the verjuice. There is also aversion of air into water no doubt. that the heat of the wool. they will inquired. which is caused by the smooth- aess and closeness. and if tne bladders fallen or shrunk. yet there is this hope. artificial cement. which letteth in no part of . rains. The effecting if they find any liquid and is a great alteration in nature. that wood. or bodies. The second woollen cloth. and had not the bung-hole the ice about it. that in the East Indies. or sugar. giveth a dew and in mornings. or a and constipate. helpeth to draw the watery vapour but that is nothing to the version. 1. Experiments in consort touching induration of bodies. NATURAL HISTORY. when their wool is new shorn. and by the place where the water or wine cometh. It is very probable. We attenuation doth send forth the spirit and moister see also. both to avoid pegs. air may be 80. it must be first in a kind of vapour be : ice. it seemeth.tions of rock-diamonds and crystal. that it is the roots. it will be drawn frosty you shall find drops of smooth body. It is effected by three means. as appeareth by the the tangible parts do contract and sear themselves antipathy with air. there is upon the by. colour. But for that part of these experi miscuously. to set some pails of water by in the same use many dews likewise. into a watery sub times in deceit. such as we call rime frosts. body that is more dense near them. that breathing upon a t into dew. to increase the weight of the woo^ But the gentler cold. buried in the earth a long time .

and not well to be cut . adding some quantity of salt and nitre. so near the beams of the sun. water could enter. It is likely those waters are of some metalline mixture. and had the colours of gree of assimilation. renewing the water as it consumed. which is. induration by assimilation appeareth in the bodies of trees and living crea tures : for no nourishment that the tree receiveth. for it was softer and easier to scrape than a piece of the same But the pewter. We see grosser part itself run and melt. and it sorted thus. which have virtual cold in them. and it is like that the experi ment would have been effectual. but rather to white. which is that which Aristotle hath well noted. to the teeth. and with pewter. 88. Another experience there is of induration lying near to the top of the earth. And in the former of these. in longer time. The free stone we found received in some water. that metals themselves are hardened by often heating and quenching in cold water. for this is a de egg was come hardness of a stone. that heat. for cold ever work- eth 87. a middle way would be taken. a piece of cheese. where the earth had tain. 84. forth almost of the hardness of stone. and in the vitrification of earth. But if you desire to make an induration with toughness. then long seething will rather soften than indurate them. v. as in bricks. if the boiling had been for two or three days. and let it lie a month or more. and the part under water shall be turned into a kind of gravelly stone. it will turn wood or stiff Put therefore clay into stone. &c. as in the making of ordinary glass. and the heavens. will tl many more: but we speak of them (listinctly. which is already found . As touching assimilation. or horn. Put therefore wood or clay into smith s water. into which no stone kept dry. by taking clay. most potently upon heat precedent. and a piece of freestone. and putting in it divers peb ble stones. it must be consi pose. which is the hardening by wards the bottom. For induration by heat. as see in the inner parts of furnaces. and less flexible by much. Another trial is by metalline waters. will not be harder than other clay in which no pebbles are set. ami rvi. bone.CENT. to see whether in continu dered. There were also put into an earthen bottle. and it were good to make a trial of pur by cold. for they are too corrosive to consolidate. and that in a few hours . doth either harden the body. and scales likewise grow 90. baking without melting. that the wood on the we sides of vessels of wine. for as snow and ice. ater : 91. 86. or a piece of tough clay. 85. as will notmake the body adust or fragile but the substance of the water will be shut out. and not of strong waters that come by dissolution . especially being holpen and their cold activated by nitre or salt. as we prescribed other hot water. or if the heat be more fierce. and in tlic vitritication of brick. but they must be such bodies into which the water will enter: as stoneand met li for if they be bodies into which the water will ii&quot. a piece of wood. or other metalline water.t all. in which you may manifestly see divers peb bles gathered together. l&amp. Experiment solitary touching the version of into air. in small grains like sugar or alabaster. and the shell shining see examples of it in some stones in clay-grounds. . is so hard wood. It was tried with a piece of freestone. as in ordinary drying by the sun. The eye of the understanding is like the eye of the sense for as you may see great ob : . Note. so it may be. ami then maketh fra gile. even in inanimate bodies we the white and yolk perfect. as hath bet -n tried in eggs. waters that come by washing or quenching . but is indurated after by assimilation. that will inlapidate wood . fur this means the virtual heat of the water will enter and such a heat. and lastly it doth incinerate and calcinate. there be few trials for we have no strong or intense cold here enter. of the it same lump. harder than the teeth themselves. NATURAL HISTORY. the cheese likewise very hard. placed as before. Kor indurations by cold. It is cer an egg was found.gt. The likeliest trial is by snow and ice .y . gathereth a crust of tartar. put into the water at large. so that you shall see one piece of wood. whereof the hung into water seething with the mouths open above the water. therefore softer bodies must be put into bottles on the surface of the earth. thick set. and like to silver.. a piece of The clay came chalk. and less fragility. it imluratetti. It is to decoct bodies in water for two or three days. but there would be more particular inquiry made of them. &c. maketh the ance of time. This experiment we made. The colour of the clay inclined not a whit to the colour of brick. before. and this 89. that but the boiling was but for twelve hours only . became more white. where pebble is. first. also in ruins of old walls. but would be thoroughly veri fied. having lain many years in the bottom of a moat. Most of as or that the living creature receiveth. and of metals. by the exhaling of the moister parts. of it. with part above the water shall continue wood . tiles. harder than the wood itself. that all the former trials were made by a boiling upon a good hot fire. somewhat overgrown to the it . will turn water into ice. &c. a good pellet of clay. I. as hard as the pebbles them selves. into a conserving pit of snow and ice. the mortar as the brick . and try whether it will not harden in some rea But I understand it of metalline sonable time. It is already found that there are some na tural spring waters. that no water may get in. the chalk and the freestone much harder than they were. especially to will become as hard we see also. the heat hath these de grees . and crust of cement 01 stone between them.

for that. for the cure of the rheum. doth not answer the trial in small . why in operation upon bodies for their version or alteration. and version of the by age or scars turn white of : and the hoar hairs same into air. or any such polished body. denly. when they are therefore a physician that would be mystical. 95. applied to the soles of the feet ease the head : and soporiferous medicines applied unto them. truly observed that hath been by some. if it were will not discharge. you same trifling instance of the little cloud upon glass. because they are shaped within the womb of the female. rience. far greater strength in body and requireth the active body that should subdue it. work of providence. afof hot powders to the of nature into great and fecteth both of nature. jects through small crannies. as well matter of For mark sent form and the resisting of a new. for the mistiness scattereth and breaketh up sud n birds. will make the new come forth white and it is certain that white is a pathy with the head. if they be birds and horse?. not because it but because air preyeth upon water. that the soles of the feet . than in the sudden discharge or vanishing of a men come by the same reason. turn pale and white : of air upon watery moisture. and are nourished continually from her body. starved. so the wrists and hands have pulling off : . not only for the pro ducing of birds and beasts of strange colours . that much water We draweth forth the juice of the body infused. but only to the nourishment of the same. and flame and fire upon oil and therefore to take out a spot . We have spoken before in the fifth instance. but wet with or putrify sooner. finer poro upon water. cutting their or of some other beast: . and confirmed by daily expe have great afilnity as we speak properly. There is an admirable demonstration in the little to the generation of the bird. And it is needful. it is very likely. touch It is it.NATURAL HISTORY. which they bring out of the West Indies. and you shall see it nourishment. For it is not a description only see going wet-shod. but a high kind with the head and mouth of the stomach of natural magic. it laid but to the wrist.ome first. 92. and whc-ie moisture is scant. or the like. such as doth not at all detain or imbibe the moisture . but . that air meddleth little with the moisture of oil. that the feathers that . and hairs of dicers force to move gravel. The cause is. also for the disclosure of the nature of colours of grease they use a coal upon brown paper . For after the egg is laid. be or of whelps. And we Experiment 94. likewise received. the feathers will come white. It is a solitary touching the nourishment of oiled. as men have been was so violent. but little water is imbibed by the body: and this is a principal cause. or wood long moist. Try therefore the anointing over feet attenuate first. For to 96. and severed from the body of the hen. that the yolk of the egg conduceth Experiment solitary touching the force of union. that he should put camomile within his socks. It seemeth. in y3. and other flowers. preSylvarum&quot. first in the skirts. and last in see likewise. themselves: which of them require a sity. how much it conduceth to preservation of the pre shall find much of the yolk remaining. Likewise pigeons bleeding. provoke sleep. is vour 10 reduce the same axiom this writing of our Sylva &quot. that a kind of stone. as matter of generation for the body. that a man with some ointment that is not hurtful to the flesh. This is a good experiment. The speedy depredation may penurious colour. even in the least quantities. that cantharides applied to any part of the body. : but in theit hair as short as down may . to a work. Jittle cloud of breath or vapour from glass. as air doth see paper oiled. and to dissolve the stone it . and so Experiments in consort touching sympathy and an tipathy for medicinal use. that the should walk continually upon a camomile alley . so you see greataxioms of nature through small and contemptible instances. and weakest bodies. but only a quickening heat when she sitteth. and which a grosser. I say. oily or fatty. which is by we will now endea the fineness of the strainer down gravel. as sent it. scribeth. or levels : CENT. the trial in great quan tities from the hen. for water. or some other birds. It received. well the discharge of that cloud . It is received. hath so forcibly glad to remove of the cause of orient colours in birds. appeareth in nothing more visible. I. But the like cloud. that birds that are shaped without the female s womb have in the egg. to those that use it not. sticketh faster. and see whether it will not alter the colours of the fea thers or hair. 97. So blue violets. the greater more any alteration of form. is. dry. for that the but when the skin is more skin is more porous shut and close. it hath no more nourishment the midst. last living creatures before they be brought forth. of the force of union. ami that will harden and stick very close. hath a peculiar deceiveth resisteth many . according to the nature of the bird. But beasts and men need not the matter of nourishment within themselves. and after dry the of pigeons. ever break up. but a breaking applications rheum : and strange works. or blades of swords. And therefore. It is an inveterate and received opinion. not natural history. if they stay on long. when it is new hatched. meaning. : somuch. or the blade of a sword. that as the feet have a sym ihe first feathers of birds clean. be cause fire worketh upon grease or oil. or gems. will be many times of divers colours. the bladder and exulcerate the Eicperiment solitary touching feathers producing of colours. for if a chicken be opened.

it herbs ami ilni _rs have divers parts. As for such reciprocation of ran fiction. NATURAL HISTORY. but most of : ate. are scarce known. or of the subtility of the motion.OK NT. &quot. which also hath great effects. a I. or a portion of the element pass between the spirits and the tangible parts. because they are invisible. a higher degree. within the inclosures of bodies. for that ever betrayeth the account. and For spirits are infinitely material in nature.irr notably dis- closed by the puUe and it is often tried. and they are in all tangible bodies whatsoever.tion. But virtues and qualities of the tangible parts which they are put off by the names of virtues. of the body itself. being held by th* their separations the oily. that of all powers in nature heat is the chief. concoction. an that opium halh a slupel aclive part. gross parts of bodies. they are not at all handled. ceedingly. the parts of solid ed. and the . as were seen in the determined by the view or sight. if you know it not. following. that the effects of heat are most advanced. PrOMTpina tor tangible parts in bodies are stupid But if bodies may be altered by heat. Sometimes able to discern. so that whatso sun: Atomus.iveeured longagues. either in respect of the fineness et experiential esseconvincitur. will turn and change into many metamordneeming by f.Tjit riint. whereas some of them are crude and cold. which are arefaction. crude. and the posture of them in the body. when they come to plants and living And such super creatures. r Experiment solitary touching the power of heat. and without which you cannot make any true analysis and indication of the proceedings as hath been partly touc hed before. of fire . when ii worketh upon a body without loss or dissipation in the differing one of the matter. and of condensathe differences of tangible parts in bodies. and as wood from earth. and yet no things. Sometimes they will have them whereby the effects. when they Neither is are but paint ings. It is certain. more or less .ihle of Proserpina. show things inward. in the Of those do so great effects. ledge. sleep. Hut this purging parts. and shall be of nature. they do well the hands eggs of alabas . as in works of art. principally proceed arefaction. phoses. Wt M6 the effects and like. Take therefore a square vessel of iron. h. Again.. colliquation. Some But nevertheless. like prospectives. in that this Proteus of matter. for howsoever distillations do keep the body in cells and cloisters.lt. from which they differ ex ber of mechanical tions corporal. yet they give space unto bodies to turn into vapour. a num they are the most active of bodies. And therefore it is true. an integument. and actions. : pure. impure. nothing else but a natural body rarified to a pro and included in the tangible parts of bo portion.&quot. that washing with certain liquors the palms of irk. and and such other they see. So as nature doth expatialthough it hath not full liberty whereby the ment true and ultimo operations of heat air not attained. and most of the effects of nature: for. And yet these be the things that govern nature principally . and incur not to the eye . when they are compress . the one moving parts.hly handled in due place.-. which : things we shall speak more. the other a hatli sweat and oilier things. ficial speculations they have. and of separation. which is the cause of ali flight of bodies through the air. and renewed. Certain it is. that juices nf siMckiri||v!lo\vers. they call them souls. the in. or inquire it times they take them for vacuum whereas not attentively and diligently.nt solitary touching the secret processes of by experience nature. is not seen at all. And I conceive. as we have figured them in our &quot. And they be no less from the other than the dense or tangible parts. whereas they are things by themselves. when K. and they are never al most at rest and from them. &c. saith he. mo unquam vidit. colliquation.iii. or the smallness of the parts. and to separate is one part from another. natures. : ! . but yet they are to be deprehended as Democritus said well. sleeves. to hold in ter and halls of crystal. &quot. in all tangible bodies. this a question of words. The spirits or pneumaticals. as much as wine from water. Ami the physicians are content to ark now- f tin heart : . that the world was K The knowledge of man hitherto hath been made of such little motes. ami the spirits do in effect nil. you shall never be to produce. fine. rose-eampian. and passions. then it is like dustry i-f the chymist hath given some light. Ana forthe moresuhtile difference* of the minute parts. to be natural heat.l spiiits .&quot. that are throug. you shall in the infernal regihear little doings of Pluto.&quot. which were mentioned before. and of other mechanical motions. ever is invisible. that logical w ords.necessitate rationis proper place. they charged him to hold. and that rliuharh ami astringent sition is &c. in the dies. \vitli sympathy IB the li&amp. likewise. and their motions. maturation. vivification. admitted. . . they have not been observed at all . and much less motions. And sometimes they will have them to be the maturation. putrefaction. &quot. is little inquired. but 99.&quot. atomum enim ne And therefore the tumult in bodies. wlmle inqui- the hands doth imieh heats of agues. con coction. as to the mo they take them for air. when we handle the title of sympathy and antipathy. both in the frame of nature. tlr. that the power of heat is best perceived in distillations which are performed But yet there in close vessels and receptacles. And then. garapplied to the \\rists.nd weakly and negligently handled.Sapientia Veterum. without going abroad. and a heating part.irt . they are not at all touched 39 for the motions of the minute parts of bodies. to return into liquor.

such as are the voice in tones. into But then they must be but thin. and the like. in pipes. when it is cold. the cover. be : because they are utterly heterogeneal . changed in colour. the string in other instruments. speaking. in small time. And therefore it is well part will be turned into air. wood. kept quick kindled for some few hours space. that the the viol are ing. do that by fire. stringed instruments. odour. and other hydraulics. or that the finer by an obscure writer of the sect of the chy mists. . nor make a round and We creatures. or taste. nor go into the bodies ad some small time. as strong at least as the sides. 100. &c. equal. whir!) which we call tones . that since all inflammation and evapora tion the effects of heat will be such. all percus string.21 in form of a cube. but bet\ve?n the string sions of stones. in . and yet produce For the sound is not which are ever unequal . notable entrance made into strange changes of And I conceive the like will be of bodies put. may fill it a cube of wood. and incrustate upon the sides of the vessel. for if age do in long time. all whisperings. 102. we will speak fully. where nothing expireth nor separateth. the sounds of stringed and wind instruments. and such are the percussions of metal. All sounds are either musical sounds. and again. that one of these two effects will follow either that the body of the wood will as the be turned into a kind of amalgama. join the contem &c. a harmony . and put it in the like vessel. as in more than it is between the finger or quill. and the grosser stick as it were baked. as in the filliping of a drinking subtilties of no use and not much truth. annihilated. skins. of air. that they neither turn into air. because no air cometh to them. parchment. whistles. he is in an error. re gals. and the body still turned upon itself. that as close as may be. neither of them equal bodies.. being become of a denser matter than the wood chymists call it. organs. glass .plectrum&quot. of Paracelsus s pygmies. that the water. for if you can by all means itself crude. and take off mists. stopped as before. as in the nightingale pipes of plative and active part together. not that title of conservation of bodies. and espe equal. and spiders. more durable than the monu there is a great work wrought in nature. all voices of beasts and created between the bow or &quot. II. get a se ner of compound bodies. if the force of it be al together kept in. which the sun and a leaf. renew the heat ing of it. but that we know cover of iron. after the man see how flies. and let it be well luted. as bodies and productions . Music. that there is no such way to effect the strange transmutations of bodies. 101. whereunto there may be the ancients had. or organs. But of the admirable effects they have a greater crassitude. There is nothing more certain in nature than that it is impossible for any body to be utterly are utterly prohibited. take also And herein is water. The sounds that produce tones are ever Experiments in consort touching music. after the manner of the chyplace the vessel within burning coals. So there aie. and the and the air. no birds. But of which is like the wombs and matrices of living this we shall speak more when we handle the jacent. after our manner. as in men s voices whilst they sing. but in the theory. and . and repeat this alteration some few times and if you can once bring to pass. in the due place . and infinite others. therefore. And if any man think. : &quot. as will scarce fall under the conceit of man. as to endeavour arid urge the reducing of them to nothing. I conceive. and remove the vessel sometimes from the fire . as very weakly . We drums. have good thick and CENT. contained also a great secret of pre servation of bodies from change. Then take the vessel from the fire. they will alter in of this distillation in close. so said it it was the work of the make somewhat of no somewhat requireth the like omnipotency to turn into nothing. but use a gentler heat. after prohibit. (for so we call it. and also a way made to quicksilver. and let it NATURAL HISTORY. or a piece of paper or parchment. and of water.&quot. circulation within them selves. which sounds are ever equal . or immusical sounds. being reduced into certain mystical in bells of glass. they will nevt* change though they be in their nature never so perishable or mutable. Then Experiment solitary touching the impossibility of annihilation. but that as omnipotency of God to thing. which is one of the simplest of bodies. as well as the sounds themselves are cially in the yielding of the causes of the practice. except they be singing-birds.) their own body. and Nero did so much esteem. shall. and see what is become of the wood. though they spend not. we aim or at the making strong sides. you may be sure that pulchre in amber. as sing but are now lost. string of the bow and the string of the ringing of bells. and a ment and embalming of the body of any king. And for another trial. in the practice hath been well pursued? from such bodies as are in their parts and pores and in good variety . and let it have a into it Put any such prodigious follies. CENTURY II.

It is to we one of the lower strings of a lute. 4 C . thirteenthi they be but recurrences fifth. of the third. which are all unequal. or semiperfirt. as namely. which is the most perfect third next: and the sixth. nature requireth. is various. which is more harsh : and. unless the discord be very odi For lesser. and so in infinitum.inprehelidin&amp. For if ry. that of the eye. For discords. whereas unequal figures are but deformities. And both these pleasures. the rather least any man should think that there is any thing in this num 104. insomuch as it is in effect a The concords in unison. though there be a discord to the higher parts : so the . th son. as hath been admitteth much variety. but only the sound of the base. are but the effecta of equality. good proportion.CENT. 107. the and the the subject of sounds. that this computation of eight is a thing rather received. percussions of and percussions of w. in sounds that are not tones. in tones. nor see. and half-notes. As for and so in &quot. and please or displease but in these two are colours and orders. that harmony if requircth a competent distance of notes. for we are capable to dis cern several men. there soundeth not the sound of the treble. infinitum. which are but second ingrate to the hearing. as we see in the said. equality and correspond ence are the causes of harmony. which they call diatessaron. II. but the. can differ but in greater or drown the treble. or correspondence : therefore notes. pyramids. that create tones. and the frets of houses. as globes. for that but circles. only differing in therefore the ordinary consent of four parts conSo we see figures may sisteth of an eighth. viz. proceed . of the former. &quot. the tenth. twelfth. 11U. be noted. cylinders. between tin: music which are perfect unison and the diapa .gt. Which shovveth. There be two things pleasing to the sight. still by half-notes. and hath not been rendered by any . two beemolls. cones. like the stops of a lute . lint percussions air. that after every three for all whole notes. ijlass percussions nf the. whence articulate sounds may show 109. from fifteen to twenty-two. be made of lines. from one tone to another. and all equal and well answering &c. doth overcome and figures of equal lines. as from eight to fifteen. the other next under the diapason : which voices of living creatures. It is to be considered. The causes of that which is pleasing or maketh the number of thirteen.it the seventh or the thirteenth is not the m. as far as an eighth . . he will not be able to frame his voice pleasing of colour symbolizeth with the pleasing of any single tone to the ear. .&quot. which are delightful. one an eighth above And another. but is forced to recur into one discord be not of the two that are odious and and the same posture or figure. or by whole notes alone without halves. to the sense. . Now there be intervenient in the rise of eight. a fifth. which nuke but as one sound. ous and so hideth a small imperfection. that whatsoever virtue is in numbers. and likewise in the voices of several men. 108. between the unison and the diapason: and this varying is natural. than any true computation. crooked and straight. molls. are but scales of diapason. and in the conjugation of letters. and if you sub divide that into half notes. as hath been said. as we see in lutes that arc strung in the base strings with two strings. every eighth note inascent. and And tne cause is. for conducing to consent of we see in garden-knots. and therefore would be better contemplated. 111. the air not able to cast itself into the base. ary objects. it doth not disturb the harmony. leaving pictures and shapes aside. as the ancients esteemed. for we see the half-notes themselves do but interpose sometimes.ils. not measuring the tone by whole notes. Yet this is true. one half-note to be interposed. The cause is dark. memo The a man would endeavour to raise or fall his voice. the third is a sixth. 106.lt. Nevertheless we have some slides or relishes of the voice or strings. or half notes so as if you divide the tones equally. that in ber of eight. that in the ordinary rises and falls of the voice of man. which are all the base striking more air. than to the entire number . and that of the ear. r. so lir. as it is in the stops of H lute. inrt. six or the twelfth. but the pleasing And of order doth symbolize with harmony. For a true computa tion ought ever to be by distribution into equal : portions. to create the diapason. It scemeth that air. and so do myselt and some other yet. harmonical use. where there is inequality or squares. it any mixed sound.r and like.&quot. figures. there fall out to be two bee may receive light by that which is pleasing or ingrate to the sight.iter. and tin seventh and the thirteenth are but the limits ami boundaries of the return. being an eighth respectively from them. as it were continued without notes.tt. there be not a discord to ever equal. variety. are the fifth. or triangles equilateral. out of question. and it may be they are not capable of harmony . whereof the one is next above the unison. The diapason or eighth in music is the sweetest concord. ci &amp. But to find tlio VOL. 25 ell rrt. NATURAL three IIISTOKY. the eight is but seven whole and equal notes. by their voices. the second and the seventh are of all others the most odious in harmony. and a third to the greatness and smallness. any such variety . the fourth. that the so that. which is the equal measure. 105. We have no music of quarter-notes. is rather to be ascribed to the ante-number. in infinite base but that fifth is a fourth to the treble.. is which sixth. nnto it. II. how they please. rising or falling. But in the which of all others are most sounds which we call tones. that are In harmony. 103. sound returneth after six or after twelve.

will be heard. which it findeth. for there is a The reports. It is first to be considered. I practise. which move the clouds above. such aa whereof notwithstanding we shall speak some handle tones. to make them gentle and inclined to pity. yieldeth no noise in passing through the air. conform untn them. to make them light. and mingling not at all. wherebj the sound cannot be heard .26 proportion of that correspondence is NATURAL HISTORY. we see that light nings and coruscations. and fuges. the noise of such winds will be perceived. and changing of times. make no So the motion in the noise. yet generally music feedeth that disposition of 112. alter not a little the nature of the spirits. as when galliard time. and have their organs not of so present and . and other senses. The heavens turn about in a most rapid motion. in a plain. after some it . some sort. and coming with a manifest motion. and fiery meteors. We see also. The cause whereof is.&quot. or are dashed against themselves. with their spirits. doth by custom of often affecting the spirits. to make them soft and effeminate . though worketh also immediately upon the spirits. as &quot. which is immateriate. So the motions of the comets. because they are equal and slide and firtt not. The lowei winds. 115.&quot. II.eeling. or are straitened. trembling at the height Rain or hail falling. do more strike and erect the sense than the Experiinenif in consort touching sounds sounds. other. Again. and are nov perceived below. but amongst trees. water. have an agreement with the changes of motions. and is forcible while the object remaineth. &amp. minute parts of any solid body. pleasure even in being deceived. Any piece of timber. that tunes and airs. or hard body. And overmuch attention hindereth sleep. though in some dreams they have been said to make an excellent music. and more incorporeally than the smelling. And therefore we see. as the moon-beams playing of nature. the several airs and tunes do please several nations of water. Perspective hath been with some diligence almost agreeing with the figures of rhetoric. which is the . to the end.rf : which dislikes are reintegrated to the better. upon a wave. gener ally. for that tones. that sleep as some other sounds. more abstruse . to en courage men. houses. rising and falling. after long inquiry of things to a concord. make no noise.Stella cadens. are vehement. &c. And the winds. Tones are not so apt altogether to procure the spirits. touching the nullity and entity 113. but the very stream upon shallows. &c. a sweet voice and persons. by winds. sound or noise. and putting them into one kind of posture. as the wind. as I do glittering of light. pass without noise.&quot. to make them grave . The cause is.praeter this of sounds. as there be merry tunes. giveth no noise And so bodies in weighing one upon anothri. have an agreement with the ally observed. humming of bees. It is one of the subtilest pieces And besides. or the like. being thrust forwards by another body i contiguous. even in their own nature. it is with a communication of the breath or vapour of the object odorate. have an agreement with the figures in rhetoric of repetition and traduction. without knocking. which pass without expectatum. The triplas. but harmony entering easily. which hearing indeed when they of their blast.. which they call &quot. is not heard in the channel. yield no sound neither: and yet in all these there is a percussion and division of the air The winds in the upper region. warlike tunes.mmediate access hath. in with the affections of the mind. in the general in . and the kinds of music. as far as concerneth music but the First. which are near at hand. except they be strong. There be in music certain figures or tropes. which is. solemn tunes. and become not partial. do ever make it unequally. till it fall upon the ground. the falling from a discord advise. which maketh great sweetness in immersed in matter. what great motions there are in nature. if vehemently. as in the falls of bridges. . when we spirits to variety of passions. of gravel or pebble. &c. and inquired . have in themselves some affinity with the affec tions. and make them warlike . quiry of sounds. give a roaring noise. It hath been anciently held and observed. considering that tunes predisposition to the motion of the spirits down. and measure time. are in the medley of one dance. if it be of any depth . 114. and sometimes.lt. to iaJerpose some subject music. tunes inclining men s minds to So as it is no marvel pity. though a swift stream. But yet it hath Leen noted. but runneth in silence. when they make a noise. for that the sense of hearing striketh the spirits more immedi ately than the other senses. that the intellect may be rectified. agreeth also with the taste. in themselves. though the upper body press the lower body they alter the toave a spirits. according to the sympathy they have purling of one that readeth. CENT. or less materiate . as. sliding from the close or cadence hath an agreement with the figure in rhetoric. And if it be thought that it is the greatness of distance from us. which please nature of sounds in general hath been superfici so much in music. And waters. that though this variety of tunes doth dispose the what. have most operation upon manners. to the spirits as the And as for the smelling. even when the object is removed. taste. and so hath the nature of sounds. Water in a river. without noise to us perceived . doleful tunes. yield no noise. &c. that the sense of hearing. when they beal upon the shore. for the sight. hath an agreement with the affections. which is The soon glutted with that which is sweet alone. the division and quavering. which we call the rack.

were possible to bring to pass. yet passeth have killed Queen Mary. it maketh no noise. by a burning-glass. hollow through the barrel of a piece. they require a forcible breath . give no sound. though unnhserseil. as trumpets. U r . that there should be no air pent at the mouth of the piece. Jews-harp. in respect bullet might fly with small or no noise. taking some small concave of metal. would yield no sound. when they open easily. the one impelleth the other. the concave of the pipe. before it cometh to the mouth of the piece and to the open air. 117. if they be very softly per cussed. it maketh no noise. which straiteneth the appeareth . whioh is a dangerous . which will not give sound by a blast at bullet. though it be a swift motion and breaketh the air. while. Organs also are blown with a strong wind by the bellows. do. as well as the impressing of species visible. be the motion never so great or swift. and fifes. he was but vain. it is like to be a of a string. and at large except it be sharply percussed r so likewise flame percu-. though. There is a conceit runneth abroad. and is yet it is without noise. would make no more than is found in coruscations and light nings without thunders. both at the But I conceive. as when flame suddenly taketh and openeth. I heard affirmed by a man that was a great dealer in secrets. in piercing through the air. as when a man treadeth very softly upon boards. And sound.Mii _ the air strongly. they give no sound no more do bullets. men sometimes use their finger. as recorders. 118. that which go with a gentle breath. if any such thing be. So it is inunifcst. hunters horns. And note again. and at the sides. 119. NATURAL HISTORY. when she walked in St. no cause of noise. sisterto Queen Elizabeth. giveth a noise. in recorders. as of the bullet. is true. the bullet in the mouth of half out into the open air. it it would give several sounds. So as trial must be made by they happen to be a little hollowed in the casting which hollowness penneth the air: nor yet arrows. suffice to create sound. no doubt. so the bullet moveth so swift that it same swiftness of motion maketh it inaudible i : . the voices of 121. principal cause of violent motion. Flame percussed by air giveth a noise. As for the white powder. For And if any man petre alone will not take fire.air is But then you must note. if you throw a stone or a dart. and yet But in open air. Solid bodies. it cause of their extreme slenderness. hath the advantage of penning the air in the mouth. Next. which carry but a gentle per cussion. as fast as the posterior cometli on. whereby the air is more pent than in a wider pipe. no more may be . string bo not strained. For of the traverse and stop above the hole. So chests or doors in fair weather. that if it nose. which himself hindered. greater than if the bellows should blow upon th. for that sound that is heard sometime* air. and with a sharp loose: for if the secret murders. give no sound. 120. without sound. if there be there is whistling.CENT. which divided sounds barrel that is not probable . give a bellowing itself. &c. that some kind of wind-instruments are blown at a small hole in the side. as it repercussed . except they be rufled in their feathers. I suppose. For that motion. As for small whistles or shepherds oaten pipes. as in pipes and extinguish or dead the noise. it is a sharp percussion . that are they talk generally of burning-glasses able to burn a navy. . which likewise penneth the air. there is no noise in the percus the performeth the fipple s part as it is seen in flutes sion of the flame upon the bullet. &c. II. so great flames. which will dis : maketh no noise. it doth. thatthere men and living creatures pass through the throat. passeth without sound. The flame of tapers or candles. no doubt. Air open. the flying of the it more sharp. and besides. And then. were it not for the fipple that straiteuoth the air. As for the was a to conspiracy. that impression of the ai with sounds asketh a time to be conveyed to the sense. For as for other wind-instruments. James s park. which penneth the breath. when. breaking of the produced only by tlic and not hy the impulsion of is the parts. there breath air open. 122. But it seemeth to and strike the But for if the air pent be driven forth. the percussion of the air alone. no noise : by such a burning-glass. it may cause percussed by a hard and experiment if it should be true for me impossible . But thus much. stiff body. the invisible. it is certain. they give a sound be than you mean to fill with powder. 116. from the leads of the house. . think that the sound may be extinguished or deaded by discharging the pent air. were. that if burningas glasses could be brought to a great strength. . as in the sound charge apiece without noise. or And therefore. you contract the mouth and to make no pent air that striketh upon open air. where the air is pent and straitened. for it will make more as if you should make a cross: by the blown cheeks of him that \vindeth them. boil and dilate itself.. as in blowing of the fire by bellows. without coal. maketh no the end. bullet will not be stayed. and laying it. that there should be a white powder. the breath at the first entrance the rather. that where the anterior body giveth way. And cart-wheels squeak not when they are liquored. wind-instruments.. cornets. Again. which first. Air in ovens. is in the parts and not in the air. that may or other blowing. Likewise in all noise as hath been said. much more than the simple concave. as else they will not be heard. mixture of petre and sulphur. except hath been oft said. it will certainly make a noise.

which without all question induce no local mo tion in the air. though small and for . into the fire. without any and in that resembleth the species quite another thing. and of the other softer. whereof some are as air. &c. man hath lured. or some other medium. a carrier of the sounds. of the sound. but only at the first. as For if resistance.NATURAL HISTORY. if it were the eli sion of the air that made the sound. the air therein. have fallen down. Experiments in consort touching production. body per mere yielding or ces sion. air. sion or attenuation of the air cannot be but only between the hammer and the outside of the bell. And therein sounds differ from light and colours. that spit flame if they be wet. Nevertheless it is true. yet the tone is But these effects are from the local motion of the the same. CENT. And if a man speak a good loudness against the flame of a candle. spitting. or string. puffing. sneezing. either in the air or the there be a chased away thunder. and likewise do of sound. so in is produced. . though most when those contract the letters are pronounced which mouth. as hath been said. which is but slight. that if they have gotten a pretty expression by a word of art. and also dissipated pesti lent air: all which may be also from the concus sion of the air. we see. 123. ren use. so in a rose leaf gathered to gether into the fashion of a purse. or the like. is but a term of igno rance and the notion is but a catch of the wit upon a few instances as the manner is in the philosophy received. so it paralleleth in so many other things with the sight. that it rise and fall against with the in 124. It hath been anciently reported. aswel. if it were an elision. been said. that sound is not produced at the first. that sounds as a sound. but with some local motion of the air. conser are carried with wind and therefore sounds will and the office of be heard further with the wind. the port them. and great ordnance. as far visible: for after a rung. &c. is utterly . so in rasp the air . if the bell. con tinueth melting some time after the percussion . or flame. or blowing without speak ing. that the apprehension of the eye is quicker than that of the ear. con. And it is common with men. air And it is believed in great ringing of bells being not able to sup by some. Besides. which pass through the air. but a repercussion only. and broken en. in variety of words. of the air. For even all speech. that extreme applauses and shouting of where there is no air at all. . This appeareth yet more mani festly by chiming with a hammer upon the out side of a bell for the sound will be according to : the more probable. as hath been said. and delation of sounds the &quot. near hand. in that the sound of a bell. than vation. II. V. it could not be that the touch of the bell or string should ex : found any of the delicate and articulate figurations of the air. A very great sound. struck upon metal. glass windows diverse tone. it produceth no sound. and fishes are thought to be frayed they do not so . We see also manifestly. found. as child gentlest motions of the air. This conceit of elision appeareth most manifestly to be false. conveyed in the air. so in chestnuts. that upon the noise and a bodkin. in echoes. and not from the sound. The cause given should tension or remission of the wind. 128. no not by air itself against other air. that sounds are generated received. and with some resistance of the air strucking. but ceaseth straightways. it is But for the be an elision of the air. as hath loud as the original voice. nor yet without the inward concave of the bell whereas the eli . but with a perceptible blast of candles. is with expulsion of a And all pipes have a blast.&quot. But you must attentively distinguish or after. which is a concomitant of the sound. little breath. It is certain. it will not make it tremble much. All eruptions of air. . the sounds themselves. Neither doth the wind. for though the sound of the one with the motion caused by noise upon the water. with the motion thereof. the breaking of a skin or parch- . For and bay-leaves. that sound is it And it is tinguish so suddenly that motion caused by the elision of the air. with out any local motion of the air either at the first. or else an attenuating of the air. which is one of the upon the forehead. string. give an entity of sound. hath strucken many deaf. there is no new elision. when men have cleared their under rarified and broken the air that birds flying over standing by the light of experience. But these and the people assembled in great multitudes. that expression goeth current though it be empty of matter. and is still vinceth it most of all is. which we call between the local motion vehiculum causse. have so like conceits. as F. and not from the sound. whereby if they mean impression and perceptible any thing. be louder. that populous cities hath some cussed. or a bell is cannot discern any perceptible motion at all in the air along as the sound goeth . as well as a diverse loudness: but will shake . : . as in organs. as in bay-salt. So again. would give a of thunder. 125. cast when they leap forth of the ashes so in green as to the former. we as it carrieth a voice. motion of the because as without any local differeth from the sight. be touched and stayed whereas. a broad hammer. and some others. will scatter and break up like a mist. But gentle breathing. we see manifestly that no sound wood laid upon the fire. &c. But that which con127. or other bodies. and radiation of things visible. will move the candle far more. or back of the hand. especially root. and crackling. S. and at the instant they have it were. local motion of the air. wind. they mean a cutting or dividing. in that it needeth a local motion of the air at first. 126.

air at large. sounds. that sounds may be created without dill useth itself in round. and let one whistle at the ried in a horn. 1 _ In delation of sounds.. or a cane into two. as when you knock upon an empty barrel. and continually. It is further to be considered. and hath some with the than in the open performeth. the mouth being laid to the one end of the roll of parchment or trunk. It is certain. the enclosure of them !&amp. Take one vessel of silver. Take a vessel of water. the voice will be heard trepidation. or a long pole. as we have partly touched before. The pneumatical part which affinity is in all tan air. but by mouth of the speaker. and hold your shall find the sound strike so sharp as you can that were sinuous. or the than abroad from within the chamber. and you shall hear the sound with little difference from the sound in the air. | howsoever it cross the receiv scarce endure it. water in the vessel. and another of wood. and so spendeth itself. and you trumpet. Strike any hard bodies together in the midst of a flame . and knap a be made to go all into a canal. as if somewhat had broken or been dislo.gt. gible bodies. it must needs {five 133. or in some pipe one end. passages to the creation of the sound. about a hand ful from the bottom. Whereby. and in part by the air in the inside for the sound : closed the length of its way. Sfl Snent in their car: and myself standing near one pair of tongs some depth within the water.touch. which is a line retorted . And it is tried. ail. and the ear to the other. or in a ear at the other. an over. the 130. as where you speak some dis tance from a trunk . and immediately after a loud fill each of them full of water. exility and damps of proportion of disadvantage the voice will be car 138. and then knap the tongs together. if it be not a full semi. present. It were extreme grossness to think. how it proveth and worketh when the sound is not en sound is in part created by the air on the outside.he sound than from that of wood and yet if there be no potent object doth destroy the sense. it will carry the voice farther than in the or result of the string. and one air. though soft and dull. and concaves dissipated in the open air. and that not by any impulsion of the return speak at the one end. and that lured loud and shrill. 130. which is a line arched. if you speak in the touchhole. Take a trunk. and spiritual ringing. heard much farther than in the open through water than air. so that you knap the tongs in the air. beside main point of creating sound without air. which would scatter in open air. though in a less degree. that the sound silver the communicateth with the bottom of the vessel the other. 134. will work upon the sensories. that the sound in voice is better heard in a chamber from abroad. you may collect two things: the one. not an ordinary singing or hissing. Nay further. preserveth the sound And therefore. though both the mouth and the ear be a handful or more from the ends of the trunk. is and the wooden vessel. The cause is. and a number of other like instances. that such a communication passeth far better . the entire. j c2 . and 132. when the ear of the hearer is near. you shall find no difference between the preserveth them. how. And we find in rolls of parchment or trunks. though air be the most favourable deferent of but if the sound. And it is certain. for that the sound spendeth. where shall speak more when we handle the com munication of sounds. but passeth partly through open air.CENT. and But : half quarter of an hour it This effect may be truly referred unto after some : species. the air from you divide a trunk. other. and yet there is no air at all (vti d in my ear.&quot.much more resounding from the vessel of silver . in some degree. The cause is it is is. if sound being produced between the string and the cave. the sound air. the sound passeth and is far better heard in a piece of air. for those are but so doth a semi-con motus. So the bow tortureth the string ship. thou gh they move not any other body. and with what Experiments in consort touching the magnitude sounds. II. 137. and causeth them to be heard further. . the parts of the air . or a piece of ordnance. and you shall find the sound vanished. or where both mouth and ear are distant from the trunk. but far louder and differing. It would be tried. and somewhat more holpen. So also ordnance. to his former place concave. 135. but if you do the like upon the mast of a is quick and sharp . but yet the sound participateth also with the spirit in the wood through which it it from the trunk at the other end . NATURAL HISTORY.much diminished. strings is made or produced between the hand and the string. farther than in the air at large. so as I feared some deaf ness. vehicula 131. than when the passeth. or the quill and the string. from the outside to the inside and so cometh to pass in the chiming of bells on the : outside side : of we where also the sound passeth to the in . the sound is holpen. hail suddenly an you shall hear the sound of the tongs well and not olVeiire. and another lay his ear to the mouth of the piece. both visible and audible. and thereby holdeth it in a continual which was strained by the which motion of result whereas the first motion is : not at any of the bores. As the enclosure that is round about and bow and the string. that the &quot. for as is commonly received. for that sound ed opinion. or where the ear is some distance all will be greater or lesser as the barrel is more empty or more full . but in such conserved and contracted. that in a long trunk of some eight or ten foot. one speak upon the surface of the ordnance. as before. and you lay your ear at the the first motion of the string.

the sound spendeth andspreadeth abroad less : and so it is a degree of enclosure. and it will increase make a degree of a tone. The cause is the to it towards the farther end of that wall against same with the first instance of the trunk namely. and bow near your ear. the sound pierceth better. and by some other instances that have been partly touched. By 145. it will make a fearful roaring The cause is the same with the I have heard. I remember in Trinity College in Cam- . so that there be a concave. which is the echo. 143. air. or citter. for that open air on both sides helpeth. that a harsh grating . 150. wherein the original is heard distinctly. A hunter s horn being greater at one end that hollow and knot. returneth immediately upon the original. upon brass in the open air. no doubt. than if the horn were all of an equal bore. I suppose there is some vault. but that is but the slide of the sound from thence to the ear. It would be tried also in pipes. The like is. CENT IJ do give a far greater sound. spirits. James s fields a conduit open. The cause is. but do also communicate with the stroke upon the rod. than if the pellet did strike hollow. when the air is more thin. behind the wall. music upon the water soundeth more . or being made with a belly towards the lower end. and in coming out strike more air. and penning of both j from expense or dispersing. ing. that sounds do not only slide upon the surface of a smooth body. sound enclosed with the sides of the speaketh slideth along the wall. than if there were nothing but only the flat of a board. but when the air is more thick. than near at hand. in an evening or in the night. There is a church at Gloucester. unto which joineth a low vault. the one at distance. which have likewise wire cause is. by reason of the close holding. I judge the cause to be. And so you may note. when the sound reflect temples . greater force to the sound. and not oblique. to dilate of the strings and it hath the concave or belly themselves. your teeth but that is a plain delation of the sound from the teeth to the instrument of hearing. of the body. first con 146. and communicateth with the air of the hollow . it is 140. 148. and strike upon tlie other. The strings of a lute. of that place. for that the air and sound being tracted at the lesser end. that have holes in the sides. and the reflection also distinctly. doth increase the sound more the lower. Inquire more particularly of the frame at the coming out. There be as appeareth by this. 142. In drums. and in the round instance for the belly of the lute or viol doth house a slit or rift of some little breadth if you pen the air somewhat. till it hath communicated with the for that the bell cometh noise come forth at the if drum-hole far more loud back air. strings. as cry out in the rift. for that the sensory. that by the plain wall . 144. it maketh a far greater sound than the like ear. if the horn of the bow be put upon the parts two kinds of reflections of sound . by reason of the knot. or 141. that enclosures do not only preserve sound. to let in the upper air into The cause is the communication of than at the other. former for that all concaves. whereby the sound is the greater and baser. but also increase and sharp -u it. or virginals. and in the brick conduit there is where there is no competent vent. the closeness round about. not along the strings. and at the end of that a round house of stone . which are sometimes made ra. at the window. being near at hand. The cause : is. for that all shutting in of of brick. In a virginal. than at the noon or in the day. maketh a more exile sound than when the lid is therefore which 147. The cause is the same with the two precedent. and thenentereth forth at the holes unspent and more at some passage. or aisle. is percussed before the air disperseth. And It maketh a more resounding sound than abandoeven hunter s horns. being made far larger at the lower end . dampeth the sound which maintaineth likewise the former . that are in the pores 151. window. Hawks bells. and farther off. it is true also that the general silence helpeth. and board. maketh the sound audible. you should strike upon the like skin extended in the open air. and then issu ing into a straight concave again. if you hold the horn betwixt as in the night. the like is in some other places. There is in St. for it is preserved somewhat strong. best placed at the end. The like falleth tune setteth the teeth on edge. but amplifieth it. and strong than 149. that not. out. and. and so likewise music is better in chambers wainscotted than hanged. The cause is. : straight. which you speak . the reflection made not so contiguous to the which. and lay the horn of the the sound. but that is too weak to give a preserveth the sound from dispersing. and hold the one end to your ear. orpharion. without 139.NATURAL HISTORY. Sounds are better heard. for that in the day. The the upper air with the lower. Strike upon a bow-string. and concave underneath. when the lid is down. it should appear. of which we shall speak hereafter: the other in concurrence . for there is a great intercourse between those two : As for the night. If you take a rod of iron or brass. and so iterateth it Therefore we see. and some passage a : . do amplify the sound shall hear your voice better a good way off. but at the end of the strings. another more narrow to more broad. give a greater ring. are ever greater at the lower end. so as the voice of him that . An Irish harp hath open air on both sides and afterwards having more room to spread at the greater end. or viol. that proceed from where if you speak against a wall softly.

light to the mixture of sounds. it deadeth the sound more than body. and note whether the sound be confounded. s bell. it was supported by a pillar df iron of the bigness of one s arm 111 the midst of the chamber.CENT. and the pail be pressed down with him. the bottom of it make room for his head. and so press down under the water some handful and a half. and that Hercules missing his page. and let it be noted whether the sound be confounded. 157. that a man must kneel or sit. Take two it is certain that the voice doth 158. id above the water. if stop a string high. which if you had struck. but yet more made in the open air. and take a pail. as if a bell hath cloth or silk through water. or dulled. but a flat noise or rattle. indeed. And so manners. For exility of the voice or other sounds . and then he cower down. communication. and let two i I j the other traspeak. Barrels placed in a room under the floor of a chamber make all noises in the same chamber more full and resounding. when they touch upon the the water. wliich being thought weak in the roof. thrust into sand . Hylas. of majoration of sounds: enclosure simple. in general. So that there be five ways. 154. and in colleges they use to line passage to a great weakness or exility. several Trial was made in a recorder after these make no doth the little ring. keeping him alive. that he mny be lower than the water.3. agtites&quot. and there when it is cold. which hath a against the palm of the hand stone within it. N \Tl UAI. whereby it hath less you s. 160. it down to the level of the water. as Hercules thought he had been three miles off. like the articulate perceived in that it scoureth better. with sc small ami exile a voice. into ashes. The bottom . that wliich is to the present purpose. half an inch under the water. and you shall find. V| ORY. But if it were wood. these sounds are deeper and fuller than if the like per tremble. a lock of wool. and the sound of it was quite deaded. for while it is hot. Note. Iron hot produceth not so full a sound as as he may put his head into the pail. k would make a little Hat noise in the room where it was struck. and any that shall stand without shall hear his voice plainly. that it may be much more hand somely done. or sing. and let two hear at the opposite ends. and that Ilylas frmn within the water answered his master. is reduced by such keys are lined . 1 11. aloud. fore you stop the holes of a hawk &quot. but it would make a great bomb in the chamber beneath. and as if the sound came clear. and strike the edge of the one against the bottom of the other. but that flatness of sound is joined with a harshness of sound . went with a water-pot to fill it at a pleasant fountain that was near the shore. and let two play the same les son upon it as in unison. : saucers. and carry the mouth of it 155. or other sound. within a pail of water. for it is more slippery. and approach to the sensory. from afar off. or when the one against the other. it is a certain trial : let a man go into a bath. though loosely put in. was set against a woollen carpet. and still the tone remained: but even. hut. called him by his exile. The cause penning and enclosure of the air in the concave of the well. of it was set or eagle-stone. even while part of the saucer is above the water. 1 VJ The sound which is made by buckets in name it. close to the bottom of a silver basin. or amplified. that Hercules s page. If there tablemen. there was an upper chamber. as for water. and that the nymph of the fountain fell in love with the boy.ope to a well. and but breath. verse. A soft body dampeth the sound much pass through solid and hard bodies if they be not too thick and more than a hard . and the holes answerable 161. I maketh not so it full a sound as cold. and turn the bottom upwards. and from the part above. 156. the sound becometh more but far more low. as voice of puppets: but yet the sounds of the words will not be con founded. . II. when the fountain. amplified. keeping it even that it may not tilt on either and so the air get out: then let him that is in the bath dive with his head so far under water. is more treble. and such a one as letteth not in air. the one longways. Then let him speak. and nearer the nature of conceive is softer. for he said. So likewise let a cross be made of two trunks. In lutes and instruments of strings. which no doubt is caused by the inequality of the sound which cometh from the part of the saucer under water. enclosure with dilatation. which is likewise a very close wrapped about it. reflection con current. at each end one length of two recorders. 15. But when the saucer is wholly under water. against snow. that all :u the shore rang of bridge. Let there be a recorder made with two the trunk of it of the fipples. And stopped with wax round about. was fast by. hollow. throughout. And therefore in clericals the then the voice. and oil. the sound dead. if the pail be put over the man s ne. the sound groweth more flat. into water. set against a damask cushion. it appeareth will come as much air bubbling forth as will to be more soft and less resounding. and pulled him under water. : may be towards each end. that as you put the saucers lower and lower. or when they strike upon two buckets dash cussion were is the side of the well. A man would think that the Sicilian poet had knowledge of this experiment. Which two instances will also give or dulled. whereof we shall . speak hereafter. a lining of plush . Note. but yet made extreme sharp and warm water. it will 159. So likewise Btill side. when it falleth.

or are drawn up. a wreathed of banstring. as the tone proceedeth of equality. it hath maketh the able. strike against a cloth. And therefore we see bling of the percutient. and partly for that it blast of the mouth and the air of the pipe. When the sound is created between thu The cause is manifest: partly for that ithindereth the issue of the sound. if against metal yet a what are the unequal that give none. it will give a less sound. We see also. whereby the let. maketh. and put from. be in the hardness of the more in the force of the : . hath been touched in the maj oration of sounds. All instruments that have either returns. of musical sounds. so if the loudness and softness of sounds is a pipe be a little wet on the inside. and if it giveth a . only on the outside. And in playing upon the lute or virginals. as 165. sound from that it would do of itself. and likewise of immusical sounds . The sharpness or quickness of the per we call it. percussion. that have none of these inequalities. in the inquisition as in knocking harder or softer. giveth also a purling sound. is the chiming of you strike with a hammer upon the upper part. we shall speak of such inequality of sounds as which is the more pliant. of sounds. And in cussion is great cause of the loudness. tiling distinct from 168. it will make a the magnitude and exility of differing sound from the same pipe dry. liells . and the spirits in them contained .. we use to extend it hard between the fingers. but it is fit more solemnly. as in bellies empty obiter. That sound made within water doth com sounds. vessels. as cornets. &c. where it is strongly pent. and if against wood. The &quot. little in the inside. ring And the ing of a hand-bell harder or softer. CENT. As for air. 170. and to fillip it . Experiments in consort touching equality and in equality of sounds. 11. rammed in hard. but the recorder. whereas the soft striking doth rather beat than cut. than made in air it doth with air. 163. a greater. ness or obliquity of the passage.&quot. or pipe. or trumpet. strength of this percussion consisteth as much or touching music. Eocperimenls in consort touching the communication of sounds. or from the dou it matcheth a hard body. but no other apparent alteration. : as trumpets . the sharper and quicker you strike it. for in a pipe. giveth a hoarse powder alone.&quot. &quot. you shall find the sound to be here. the sound will be diverse . winding of a horn stronger or weaker. if place than in other. so if the pipe be covered with cloth or silk it will give a diverse : Experiments in consort touching the loudness or soft ness of sounds. or flexions. cause they are merely unequal but if they be unequal in equality. : as the strength . if it be merely unequal also to 166. have a purling sound . and that the base string striketh the treble less air. the more ring selves. and the other of body percussing for if you inequality. air. that when wo try are never false.flatter. for that the quick striking cutteth the air speedily . and purling or hissing. and then upon the midst. We a false lutestring. what a great noise it the motion. and. if you strike the air with it. as sackbuts . though softly struckep. whereunto there may be a concord or discord in two parts . 164. make a title of it apart. moistened a The communication of lutes. and their carriage at longer or shorter distance. of wood. cold taken the weasond groweth rugged. But now greater. being bigger in one \i of communication of sounds. or with paper wet and hard stopped. But a lutestring. such as are in the base strings doras. for a base string. 162. maketh no great and jarring sound so the voice of man. but with a sharper is. And more the cause air. soundeth little with a 171. giveth a harsh and untunable sound: The experiment for greatest demonstration which strings we call false. if against silver or brass. in its parts. more treble and more base. We have spoken before. the recorder itself. A bellows blown in at the hole of a drum. then the sound is grateful but purling. and therefore wire strings see also. furred. and in metals. and have given the cause. giveth the greater sound . and then upon the lower. though the percussion bo a link. as in a whip or wand. give a clear sound. for mentum 134. or with sound hath not a clear passage. if you strike against gold. And we have also expressed there. if it have a rift in it. but a treble string. It is therefore the strength of the percus sion. Vide experihard strucken. maketh the sound concave on the inside. but as accidental either from the rough ing sound. Never theless. A bell. being blown together. The cause is. when by difference in the loudness of the report. according unto thu and the drum then strucken. which sounds we call tones.NATURAL HISTORY. less mov nevertheless some communication with the mutter of the sides of the pipe. becometh hoarse. &c. what are the equal bodies that give tones. the quick stroke or touch is a great life to the sound. or flute. it giveth the flatter proceedeth not from the nature of the bodies them sound. and brass. the louder sound it giveth. or from the trepidation of in discharging of a piece. that is a principal cause of the loudness or softness of sounds . Again. as well these two instances the sounds are ingrate. that the charge with bul 169. if municate better with a hard body through water. 167. will be heard much farther off. that body percussed.

. which have by the latitude of the concave by which the sound and when they blow or whistle passeth . gathereth equality . give the mouth of the pipe. and join them close. The extension is always more in tones more strained. if there be but small store of water in a vessel. So we see in strings . the less superstraining goeth to a note. it is false. and the less quantity the more treble sound. air than it can well strike equally : and the tre Nay more. and at the bottom a baser. 180. with a hammer. in the noiso they make as they mi. 181. arid the like. Therefore we see that a base string is in them. drawing leaveth the body more hot than it was. which i-ontaineth water. which hath an affinity with the letter Z. and is conceived by some of the to ancients not to come forth at their mouth. The cause is. If you fill a drink ing-glass with watt-r. wound up and strained. and partitions. but from the : 179. Seething also. not for that men have greater heat. but boiling in a full vessel giveth a bubbling sound. it is true. the more they are buzzing. . when make the voice stronger. &c. All metals quenched in water give a sibi. greater than a treble. Trial would be made. well extended. duced two other means of straining or intension The one of strings. sound from the sound of a hogshead without such 183. as an . and see if they do for it requireth good winding of a string before not give an unequal sound. The industry of the musician hath pro somewhat near to the cocks used by children. greater quantity of air causetli the baser sound .-pipe. The other is were made one within another. We know nothing that can at pleasure make a musical or unmusical sound by voluntary motion. where tliev have a pipe they call the Experiments in consort touching the more treble itnil the more base tones. and thereby give a more which we call &quot. for that when much of the heard but when they stir. have more whisper can never give a tone. &c. All base notes. moisture of the body. and the nearer the mouth. together. it is true but if it giveth a treble. the voice at but from the motion of their wings for it is not It seemeth to be. ble cutteth the air so sharp. and knock upon one of them. more roughness of the skin. viols. vessels. The humming of bees is an unequal ness or softness. is like be an inward sound . &c. and then the uttermost bell were chimed &c. a base pipe hath a greater All which inequalities of trepidation are rather bore than a treble. and by the longitude of the same con .aspera arteria. represent to the ear a trembling noise. it : as pilosity. 177. or more. it is neither. the less distance or knots in them . And in singing. 5 : . being quick start-back. in the weasond or windpipe. but the voice of man and birds. and mark the difference of their is between the frets. and in pipes.the parts. that the. they yield a trembling noise which trem bling of water hath an atlinity with tho letter L. for that the base striketh more yield . a simple bell. each. the more base sound. or nuixirul mntndt. is drawn down to the spermatical lation or hissing sound. It is evident. NATURAL HISTORY. In the straining of a string. women. The reason there is. double species. virginals. eunuchs. or very treble notes. as equality or interchange of the medium will not produce an inequality of sound as if three bells in the necks of lutes. but not in the tone. the further it and a plank of wood.. which did before irrigate 176. but : dilatation of the organ wise caused by heat. the that is wrinkled. tenor is the sweetest part. And therefore. . 17H. treble it maketh a more sound .CENT. besides their winding up. the more treble. a greater working and labour small and shrill voices than men. as a bladder and the slacker they are. that the sharper or quicker percussion of air causeth the more treble sound. the higher they go. if you strike an entire body.&quot. . have also little things tlu-y call cocks. the lower the note-holes be.s strained. percussion of the. manifestly. Waters. 175. II. for the strength of a voice or sound doth make a difference in the loudwe sing. it may be. as it returneth too swift to make the sound equal : and therefore a mean or andiron of brass. which may of the throat than in speaking. sound hath a continual trembling: and children produced by the greatness of the body percussing. and the further off from pleasant than otherwise. giveth a hissing sound . 17-J. and a lesser string less strained. hardness of the flesh. and in regals. the The percussion of the greater quantity of air is iiiglitiiigale. how the sound would differ from for they cause the string to give a quicker start. which. and air betwixt the shortness of the string. as appeareth in the thrusting out or drawing in of the chin. no doubt. if it be extended. . Children. 173. with holes lutes. . as in harps. and the air. and the slower or heavier. which. the more base sound they an asper sound . VOL. So make two or it will make any note at all and in the stops of three partitions of wood in a hogshead. whether the in s the stopping of the string with the finger. whence cometh the dilatation of the pipes for we see plainly all effects of heats do then come on. but. notwithstanding the sound be But the cause of changing the years of iuberty is more obscure. a bigger string smooth. It is also evident. 174. created between the water or vapour. 11. at the top. Both these have one and the same reason . or less wound up. especially one sharp below and wide above. the more treble is the sound . So likewise take a plate of brass 132.atcr in them cave. than in speech therefore the inward voice or may fall into the same tone. becometh baser is the sound.

1 do not full or . and likewise bell-founders. as if you blow strongly with a bellows against a wall. pent or not pent. As in the last of these. or wind. which. you must diligently observe. and then of twice about. said. which towards the and that it be not too near. will yield an exterior sound . 185. but the blowing through a pipe or never : upon the same string. bellows. . Experiments in consort touching exterior and in terior sounds. It is not soft nor loud nor it is not base nor treble nor it is not musical nor immusical though it be true. There is no hard body. as a differeth from a cut. There barrel. is an inte rior sound . and so more and more. Where the air is the.. rather than precisely once about. So that inquiry may save made 191. is an interior sound . and so mark what fall of tone every one giveth. and mark the scale or an impulsion or contusion of the air.. which passive stopping of strings. and the proportion likewise of the blow sion of the one towards the other differeth. concords and discords between the unison and diapason.NATURAL HISTORY. . Try therefore the winding of a string therefore enumerate them. doth scarce give any tone. Sounds.lt. and be more base. against a hard body.percutient. and after empty part of the water. unlike that those that this already : then the great secret of It is not recorders. but think fit to resume it here as a principal part of our inquiry touching the nature of sounds. It may be found out in the proportion of the winding of strings. the former being pent by some other body. as soon as it is brought to that exten distinguish them . or blow not hollow. to make some adum sion as will give a tone. But note that to measure this. to take the length in a right line of the out is an exterior sound . both exterior and interior. the way or softer. though soft. or distance of stop. as the glass is more well understand 187. as we which giveth the aptest demonstra you must set down what increase of concave be over-soft. : whereby you elision or section of the same : so as the percus 188. upon the brim or outside. For it discovereth the true coincidence of tones into diapasons . &c. it may induce a nullity of sound but goeth to the making of a note higher and what never an interior sound as when one treadeth so of two notes and what of three notes . which is a note lower than the tone of the first three. know make them in sets : make they for that 190. but most commodiously in the last of these. both the pro portion of the sound towards the dimension of the winding. or concave of air. And so of the is the return of the same sound. as it is said. In speech of man. and therefore you can &quot. 186. . though loud. may be as well by suction as by emission of the . But still in these three last instances. though. Surely hath been observed by one uf the breath as in whistling or breathing. So likewise the greatest winds. from the first stop of the string. is one of the greatest secrets in the con templation of sounds. but at a distance. empty. The just and measured proportion of the air percussed. what length of string. II. up to the diapason : for numbers and proportions will appear. unto such a stop as shall produce a diapason to the former stop make a tone nor sing in whispering. in their bells. it is a sign of rain. The flame. giveth a diapason to the sound of the like barrel full . which we have touched before in the experiments of music. for that the knocking of a empty. concave. which sound towards the string. as it is more or less they call susurrus&quot. i&amp.. string. in the pro portion of the distance of frets. with a single. is an exterior. the whispering. the latter being pent in by its own density: and therefore we see. is : : : There no tone in an interior sound . in length and all things else alike. and in the pro portion of the concave of pipes. insomuch as if the percussion greater or lesser . as it moveth within in itself or is blown by a bel lows. but in speech you may so breathing. two effects. or blowing by the mouth. fitting the tune of trial. which we will call exterior and interior.. but how that should be. Experiments in consort touching Irtble is required is some : sensible difference the proportion of and bate tones. But it will best. give an interior sound. double. maketh what rise of sound. and still try the tone by fillipping. that when the wind bloweth hollow. whether it be louder strained. and so on to a sextuple bore . . &c. &c. in Latin. fillip CENT. We shall 184. you are to take the num ber of frets. and principally the length of the line. but struck against another hard body. giveth a murmur or interior sound. you shall find the tone fall ancients. than an that there can be difference of the rise of the tone shall discover. : 189. or exterior sound . For in a recorder. appear in the bores of wind instruments: and therefore cause some half dozen pipes to be made. is that tion. upon any winding about of the peg. the three uppermost holes yield one tone . that an empty barrel knocked upon with the finger. the interior is rather and thrice about. but the speaking will be. sound itself. is required in the winding or in the proportion of creating a note. in an exterior sound there may be both musical and immusical. As for the stops. towards the baseness or trebleness of tones. but on the other side. bration of what we mean. if they have no coarctation. And the like. and so softly that he is not heard. no doubt. another difference of sounds. in one. it never giveth an exte rior sound . the whistling or hollow wind yieldeth a singing.

194. or quenching of hot metals with the letter Z snarl in a chapel. and have assigned which letters are As for fin-rets in sounds. are not expressed. And one alphabet there will be fewer simple motions articulate sound will confound another. and what conformity there is that causeth the similitude of sounds. curious diversity of articulate sounds.&quot. The cause is. body dilate are the most spungy part of and therefore ablest to contract and itself: and where it contracteth itself. That 3/and T way than in a still as hath been partly touched. as cannot be though it may be. and a So that if you inquire to the culation of sounds. through and mouth. The Hebrew* li . special strokes and 193. and per tinent to the present inquisition of sounds but because they are subtle. maketh the voice but yet articulation : is not made but with the help of the tongue. F. that the the like.emtus&quot. the the experiment of speaking under water. sounds of strings with if . will rdVr thriu over. the letter A will turn into M. but that voice. . yet the first articula tion requireth more dimension. do allude unto the articulate letters . the sound of a preacher s voice. and long to describe.. tlr. for that the subsequent words come on before the pre the diph diphthong Eu . and place them amongst the xperiinents of speech. &quot. when the voice is reduced to such an extreme exility. that to the making of the whole re you cannot distinguish what he saith. though they be material to the carriage letters 5. lips. voice of cuckoos with the letter Ng thong Ou . A&quot. 198. as hath been said. J/. already created.fl.&quot. . will be con men have given such names to those sounds as : : tracted into a small cranny .not amiss. we : minister light to that effect. call 196. &quot. ami one of the strangest the whole sound is not in it is &amp. vaulted below and vaulted likewise in ing of dogs with the letter . as we see. or by ani articulation by contracting . and on the other part. So that all the jetween semi-vowels and mutes . yet the articulate sounds. as trembling of water hath resemblance with the letter L .&quot. the like sounds made in inanimate bodies . which are the words. or the like. It is evident. letters hecatonba within that distance that they can be heard . but with of the sounds farther or less way . not so vaulted. it ex- The lungs . yet they do the contracting or shutting of the mouth . on the one part. but the whole sound is also the Latins and Grecians. lili^-ent in it. throat. throat palate. There is found a similitude between the sound that is made by inanimate bodies.. for curiosity or strangeness* take. I conceive.- the like places. and the great sound mate bodies that have no voice articulate. they have little inquired: as. of the voice Between mutactenues. The unequal agitation of the winds and sounds. a man. Over great distance confoundeth the arti as &quot. &quot.- cedent words vanish : and therefore the articulate so that sounds are more confused. NATURAL HISTORY. though the gross of the sound be greater. they make them to be heard less will be hecatomba. . In at once. &quot.lt. pronounced together. motions that create those fused. 199. the whole air only . palate. The motions of the tongue. is pronounced &quot. and aspiratae For the of man or birds. will enter at a small cranny incon. JP. the articulation requireth a mediocrity of sound : for that the extreme small sound confoundeth the 200.&quot. that an extreme small or an and the rest of those they instruments of extreme great sound cannot be articulate . II. they have distinguish.1 &quot. are worthy inquiry. would make a puppet or other dead body to pro nounce a word. and in mutes in every small part of the air. the motion of the instruments of voice . &c. pelleth the air. the artery. mediae. divers letters of articulate voices and commonly a sound articulate. let him consider. : many speak 195. \\hidi guttural.CENT. which. are not confounded.emptus. and by that he may which go to the making of the several alphabetical letters. but P will come between. as was formerly said. a preacher cannot be heard so well as in owls with the letter Sh voice of cats with the . It hath been observed. and by dispersing and although. which dental. as when quired than there are letters. when full. that in a room. that the and B cannot be pronounced but that not confound the articulation of them at all. that you may hear number of the like. 192.the noise of screechthe roof. Experiments in consort touching articulation of founds. 197. &C. but yet not diligently enough.it ahial. you will find.

perishing of sounds . yet have chimed upon it. both of things visible and sounds. let a man stand in a steeple. that then on all sides upwards. It may be doubted. So likewise. pensile : the other secret. the sound lasteth no longer than the breath bloweth. or on the sides. we find itcontinueth some small time. whereas. by reason of the down. the sound will be carried. is not caused the lasting and the shortness therefore linea recta brevissima. who take this to first sound . that to men standing below on the ground. but archeth over the wall. if you touch the bell the from the south. wonderful error amongst men. in truth. But stand in a chamber not make an exact trial of it. when one But there seemeth to speaketh upon the level. 207. And of the distance we see if a wall be between. and the ing sound of a bell. and let some veil be put before the taper. sound ceaseth. though it stand open. CENT III CENTURY Experiments in consort touching straight. as visibles do. at the least. and in a bell. see local two trepidations as of the bell when you must distinguish the one manifest : We likewise that in pipes. wards. those below seem nothing so much lessen ed. keeping forwards. III. whereupon they and obstacles which the voice meeteth with. if in a coach one side of the boot be for the body percussed hath. and better collected into figures : as knots in gardens show best from an upper window or stood . that all things to them above seem also somewhat con tracted. 202. through a trunk. do move better downwards than upwards. be a continuance of the So. if a bell or clock be. and touching the time they require to their generation or delation. and have with him a taper. It is certain. upivards. and cannot be known. But it is true. of the minute parts. played falling. but by in a right line . though it be true they move strongest may be the aptest means to make a judgment. After that sound is created. This appeareth in all the same proportion of softness. Sounds. ceaseth as soon as that is in the chamber will think the sound came the bell or string are touched.30 NATURAL HISTORY. for This appeareth manifestly. and a beggar beg on the percussion. you will think that he were on the parts. It is a strange thing. those that be on the top of Paul s seem much less than they are. or ordnance. to one standing on the ground. than backwards. but while the bellows are in but this may be imputed to the stops the noise of great are shot off together. which is in the wall. let a man much above the ground. that the local helpeth the secret greatly. and not a continuance. and the other up. as softly as he can. As in a virginal. where many upon the land. because that the melt example. or on the sides. and let another man stand in a field a . 203. 205. that in organs there is a confused murmur but that for is a while after you have And when the placed high above the people. though they spread round. and go farthest in the forefirst local impulsion of the air. . but it will come an hour or This must needs be a continuance sound . And the touching of the ordnance would not extinguish the sound the sooner: so that in great sounds the continuance of the shooting more later. a moment. whether sounds descend or ascend Experiments in consort touching better. twenty miles 208. back . is and speak out at the window. as soon as ever the jack falleth.via versa. not in the instant off. To try exactly the time wherein sound is delated. or of a string strucken. and so reneweth the percussion of the air. for it may be that spiritual species. which nevertheless by the Tightness of the line. But then it will come to the ear. on the north side of a chamber. and let him in the chamber lay his ear to the trunk: and this instances. in preaching. let me other speak below. the other laying his ear close to the trunk. ancient generals spake to their armies. ALL sounds whatsoever move round . after you there is an orb or spherical area of the sound. of the first is more than momentary. in what lines they are circular. it cometh about on the other side in an oblique line. they had ever a mount of turf cast up. they move lines. but may be arched . you hear it on the other . 209. Sounds do not require to be conveyed to the sense in a right line.&quot. the motion of sounds. oblique. If the sound be stopped and repercussed. that in ordnance. you shall hear the preacher s voice better before the pulpit than be hind it. from the strongest. for there is no trepidation which should renew it. open side. &quot. so that string. and you on the one side. Pulpits are it is . It is true. that there are And in this And therefore. it is a renovation.&quot. that sounds do move better downwards than upwards. downwards. will be farther heard forwards from the mouth of the piece. to say. . 201. and may be known: yet it is true. the sound ceaseth . and other wind instru ments. and So a harquebuss. a trepidation wrought in the minute close side. he more in it. &quot. and backwards. but to men above. which window of that chamber be upon the south he is thought to be a continuance. forwards. and much farther upon the water. speak In this there is a which is not because the sound passeth through melting by little and little. such as is de scribed in the ninth instance. downwards. and toucheth the 204. . to 206.

the greater in is thunder which is And the greater the the prevention : as we see far off. But all close body. &c. but then you must allow for some disturbance the nois through hard bodies the spirit or pneumatical part of the body itself doth co-operate. Where sound passeth through a hard or not altogether to be mediums of sounds. especially of such sounds as are created by air. and sounds n moist weather and southern winds. porous bodies. the air doth suddenly re store and reunite itself. as appeareth n night sounds and evening sounds. you must take heed you mistake not the the medium of passing by the sides of a body for the passing Experiments in consort touching sounds. It is : wood. for that colours participate nothing with the mo tion of the air. whether great doth. being for that thin air is better pierced . and the object of sight move swifter than 214. perhaps. that sound participateth of some local motion of the air. as through water. the arm lifted up for a second stroke. Colours. and stop tlic mouth distance of time there is between the light seen. except the r. hell. but appear still in the same strength. see also in the rumbling of the belly. as hath been said but in the passage of the sound. or how weak: but note. greater instead of the thread take a wire. but much better that the flame itself maketh. and therefore you must make the intercepting body very close. The cause is. but the magnitude of the sound. And more dense . j 220. 215. How far forth flame may be a medium ot&quot. and not betwixt hard bodies. cause a diversity of sound from watei. far greater distances. the holes Take therefore a hawk* stopped up. good space. through a body . fade not. \\ ithout it may be tried as by the knapping of the : . 218.tant withdraw the veil.CKNT. that you must hell. It is plain. crannies. which the water also the guts and skin. if the wall be very thick. let tin- Then him it by a itirf. I conceive the resounding sound. so that that sound. 216. as and hangings will not stay argument. and see whether the bdl give any sound delation of light is in an instant. In air. The rea deep within the water son not. So if is already mentioned in the title of maj oration of sounds . 219. sounds. allowing lights and sounds. which would be sooner than the noise is heard. let it be tried n speaking where a bonfire is between. will check a sound more than the like thickness of cloth. or else let ihn 210. the voice must not be very for then the sound pierceth you speak on the farther side of a close wall. pass through small crannies not confused. lest when you shake generally known and observed that the bell.nl by his pulse what within a bottle glass. not so well. become not more weak and exile when they pass through small subtilties of articulate sounds. for else ly. may interceptions of sounds.gt. than when the percussion is only within. And hard bodies refuse 212. 211. before he nor that sound.&quot. for it may be that will somewhat dead the sound. Whether any other liquors. that a very long and downright light sound for we see the flash of a piece is seen arch fur the sound to pass. but sounds do. being mnde when the sides of that hard body are struck. how easily the sound passeth through the sound We that it perisheth so suddenly . but thick air preserveth the sound better from waste: let further trial be made by hollowing in mists and gentle showers . when they represent themselves to the eye. through metal. where the lightning first. will not be heard over a church . as of ordnance or bells. and the bunghole stopped. inile off. as in hawks bells stopped. much . . through a wall. For the Experiments in consort touching the passage and it may be. he shall see heard over a wall. : they will admit it we see. In the trials of the passage. It is worthy the inquiry. would be little or none: but only you shall hear the noise of the outward knock as if the vessel were full. in &quot. sounds. It is certain that in the passage of sounds . And it is a plain precedetli the crack a the wall.. and then shake the and the sound heard: for it is certain that ttie glass. ami in let him same in the steeple strike the in&amp. and hang and so ir&amp. if one be some distance off. which will be heard if you stand hear the noise of the distance. if they be very close. for in every section or impulsion of the air.gt. tell touch of the sides. nor melt not by degrees. it dash upon the sides of the glass. also water. the field tried in glass have a great belly. it of them are dull and unapt deferents. 213. or not passage of sounds. for sounds will 217. by the communication of the outward air with the air within. NATURAL HISTORY. glass very close with wax. III. as a cause sine qua non. but nothing so swiftly. will extinguish the And in hewing sound quite. will dead it for the strik : some distance from ing against cloth or fur will make liltle sound. mediums. Soft and foraminous bodies. will be heard if you stand close undpr the wall. This may be at all. that curtains better than harder bodies. the thinner or drier air carrieth not deadeth and extinguished the sound utter the sound so well as the therefore in the experiment in speaking in air under water. in the first creation of the sound. The mediums of sounds are air. whereof the sides were some two foot thick. but glass windows. you shall iiot be heard and if there were a hogshead empty. soft and pass through a small chink. but sounds melt and vanish by little and little. the hard or close body must be but thin and small .

or the bodies deferent. sweet smellinsj. crosses. at each end of the strings one. but but a conflation of them all . what sounds. though they be more light. it must needs of which we will speak next. we see stances. So as I suppose. or stink except except hard bodies percussed and take knowledge of the diversities of the sounds. and cast upon a white paper a pur And even in colours. Gene rally the straight line hath the cleanest and round est sound. they yield a and weak mixture for white walls make rooms more lightsome than black. Of a four flexions. save that the straight require some The figures of recorders. which requireth to with a traverse or stop between them so that your stand some distance off. and see what will be the effects of these several sounds. or lastly. but the recorder hath a less bore and a greater. &c. men. Ill. not in other: sometimes 227. : hath the sound so melting and prolonged as the Irish harp. trial sinuous pipe that may have some would be made. it doth consist in the penning. And the species of the one doth not con found the other. circular. filled either CENT. 221. and flutes. the mirture of conduce and alteration of the sounds. And I suppose likewise. and the other an azure. &c. the figures of the pipes. conduce to the along. it may make. or not pen ning of the air . The sweetest and best harmony is. which. yet far we more see that a piece of money of gold soundeth flat than a piece of money of silver. candle within either of them. must needs encounter and dis turb the one the other. and mark well the diversities of the sounds. hills. How which the figures of pipes. that .. cubes. bottom of a vessel. But those figures which we are now to lines speak of. sound. that it cannot be seen as the sun that of a glow-worm as well as a great sound drowneth a lesser. crooked. is The figure of a hunter s horn and cornet oblique . one of them would utterly con found the other. yet they have likewise straight horns . differ little in what a stronger blast. angular. &c. that move in oblique and arcuate lines. percussions of solid bodies of several figures. ing. I myself have tried. 2-23. The harp hath the concave not along the . For if we look abroad. whrn again of a circular pipe. as falling into other titles. but across the strings and no instrument spoken. hath no great the air be operation upon sounds : for whether lightsome or dark. and their combinations. The figure of a bell partaketh of the pyramis. You may try it without any sound-board Experiments in consort. There is an apparent diversity betwee the species visible and audible in this. Try also the difference in sound of several crassitudes of 226. or less quantity of air which the concaves receive. as flat against flat. or of other bodies deferent. but the audible doth. either in respect of the greater quantity. and another hole not far from that. . &c. Of the natures of the mediums we have now strings. pretty alteration or difference some a bell of gold yieldeth an excellent sound. and not so shallow and jarring. and the crooked the more hoarse and jarring. the other at the end of the strings. hot or cold. but only harp-wise atone end of the strings . heaven. a number of stars. or concaves. a pipe made like across. &c. at once. And so 225. and maketh several cones . if they be of the same bore with the oblique. as globes. it be joined with sound. or the like. open in the midst. or the taking of the smells of : lorth at the second hole. to the variety Experiments in consort touching sounds. the sound as straight. of which we have spoken before in the title of delation of sounds it consisteth also in the figure of the concave through which itpasseth . and so there can be no coincidence in the eye or visual point: but sounds. that if a virginal were made with a double concave. as for the disposition of the said me diums. or concaves. Likewise of worketh in right lines. that if there were two lanterns of glass. with a double concave. that voices or con sorts of music do make a harmony by mixture. The trumpet hath the figure of the letter S: which maketh that purling sound. and a . through sounds pass. beasts. . as they concern the passeth . You may try likewise several flowers in the air. as the harp hath . as if you take a pipe per fect round. as the virginal hath. and pipes are straight. and make a hole whereinto you shall every part or instrument is not heard by itself. but the cause of the confusion in sounds. for that the sight 222. The disposition of the air in other qualities. triangles. And so likewise of an angular pipe. and convex against flat. it importeth not much. we intend through which to be. the one all the length. the one a crimson. and convex against convex. they have been touched. is. even as it is in the mix hreathmay go the round of the circle. and come ture of perfumes.38 or striking of the NATURAL HISTORY.. quiet or stirring. but yet coming off and dilating more sud denly. It is true nevertheless that a great light drowneth a smaller. make the sound perfecter. ferior to that of silver or brass. that the visible doth not mingle in the medium. or in respect of many other circum 224. yet are they more unequal bodies than air. But if so many sounds came from several parts. and the inconple colour. above and be low. it be with noise. faint : fusion in species visible. those coloured lights would mingle. So we see. blow. or in respect of the carrying of sounds longer and shorter way . which colours do not. but rather better- with milk or with oil. flats. trees. But sounds do disturb and alter the one the the one drowning the othei.

which must needs proceed of inequality. when and suspended. Sounds are meliorated by the intension of the sense. music one is fully waking. and for handsomeness and be. or Experiments in consort touching the imitation of sounds. and I suppose they are sweeter to blind men than to others : made Mass open of a lute or viol. but yet so as there be no drops left. mingling of open air with pent air. but the purling. from less noise to more noise. or the reflection. with the belly of polished instead of wood.equality. operations by transmissions of spirits. The cause is pro found . The sounds of speech are very it were. And so do lute-strings that have been kept 232. Which may be by reason not of the disposition of the air. and making a har the strings. which is from strangeness sake. but if the body that createth either the original sound. All reflections concurrent do make sounds greater. Two voices of like far as londness will : not be heard twice as one of them alone and two candles of like light will not make things seen twice as far off as one. llit. which is one of the highest secrets in nature. which is wet.i coiifusinu . but of the wood or it 2 . as we touched it before 230. that spenketh. hut it seemeth that the impressions from the objects of the senses do mingle respectively. But touching perfect the imitation by decrees. It is mark at all of the motion of the mouth of him in the title of all &quot. It were good to try recorders : a large field. The doubt may be. because the first impression. and the sight suspended and therefore sounds are sweeter. if it were a song in parts sung as is before demonstrated: and the reason may into several drums. as from silence to noise.n. with a concave on both sides. be clean and and hunters horns of brass. after it hath received a charge. It would make a man think. belly. Sound is likewise meliorated by the lon&amp. Trial may be as well as greater. it maketh them sweeter. yet if the be. it making not heard . or greater charge. it doth the first charge. It a thing strange in nature when it is attentively considered. see that for reflection ing and waking. If you sing into the hole of a drum. sometimes the one tin. jar trial may be made ring ami discording u iili sometimes . and to be handled by itself. ami making one mingling and oilier. the wire-string is sweeter than the string of guts. music within doors better. whereas it u^-th to have it but on one side. where the common sense is collected most to the particular sense of hearing. for that the air. As for the increase of virtue. every one with his kind but not in proportion. NATURAL HISTORY. making another of a lute of viol with a doublo belly with a kn eompoandiog with mony. chiefly when we come to Hut -as for imitation. or from less light 234. belly. And we . put in motion. is a greater degree than and the hearers. and so to string of the crisp. that a pipe a little moistened on the inside. from darkness to light. is certain that there is in men and other ereaturen a predisposition to imitate. manifest. as exquisite: so one would think it were a lesson hard to learn. sound be communicated with a more equal body with like appetite as doth not receive a surcharge. see that even in the and it is We air. Experiments in consort touching melioration of sounds. it meliorateth the sound.r. And so I con ceive it would. : note would overtake another. no doubt. we shall speak in due place. generally. and by little and little. In soundeth ing strange. what propor tion it beareth to the increase of the matter. and with many essays and proffers but all this dischargeth not the wonder. for that things porous being superficially wet. that between sleep all the senses are bound is far sweeter than when as in music near the water. : smooth.lt. J-J^ 1 the other. When a sound is created in a wind instru to more light. for the sane reason. for birds are as well taught in the dark as by light. 235. whereby ono . it is of the pipe. though this which we shall say may seem exceed curious and : but remaineth dry. 233.CENT. should work with the spirits of the learnei a predisposition to offer to imitate. and room enough to play below that Trial may be made also of an Irish harp. it would not be amiss to have privative to active. And the reason of that again may ment between the breath and the air. anil III. maketh a more solemn sound than if the pipe were dry: but yet with a sweet degree of sibilation or purling. in the night than in the day . For. between dry and wet. and. I take to be bred between the smoothness of the inward sur face of the pipe. The cause is. that there is some transmission ot spirits. and the rest of the wood of the pipe unto which the wet cometh not. it inquire of imagination.&quot. and some birds. It is true that it is done with time. water excelleth in echoes. became a little more even and smooth. hath been tried. frosty weather. and that the spirits of the teacher. yet so as there he room enough for the strings. how children. 229. learn to imitate speoch. there would be a differing sound in a trumpet or pipe of wood and again in a trumpet or pipe of brass. it maketh the singing more sweet. or a curtain between the place where the drums are. instrument. which is made more : and so more porous and hollow and we sen that old lutes sound better than new. what the sound would be. therefore We see how ready . lest it should make too much resounding. They take no 23G.

e see also that cock birds. as well as it helpeth the delation lips. &c. jays. it But see if he stand aside the body repeiCOMUg. No beast can imitate the speech of man. Nevertheless it hath been more heed. a iterant.&quot. yet not so soft as a whisper. some that could way: whether coun j echoes. The echo cometh.lt. in effect. 239. that I have reflection of sounds is hard to master. be the teacher 237. We you speak. the voices of other terfeit the men 241. a dog. whether a man shall hear better distance of voices. and practise them more. that if you speak through a trunk be farther inquired. do keep them waking to increase T their attention. woods. will learn one of another and there is no reward by feeding. : 243. It is certain. and besides. and birds give narrow concave. and from the glass to the eye. The natural echoes are hills. voice. but laughing. and so the s the like angle of incidence. whether speak audible echo. that if one howled in his ear. by standing farther off than he that speaketh . The reflection of species visible by mirrors because passing in right you may command lines. though but softly. liker unto man than birds. 244. they may be guided to any point: but the . the latter two we 242. are ever the better singers which may be. but fall a howling a great while. that man should is no part of the matter. that the aptness of birds reflected sound : besides that echoes are seldom many beasts have for the length as we see much as of original sounds. squeaking of a door upon the hinges. : W fathom deep. or we call echo. There have been that they hear. hear. any other noise they will now speak of. In imitation of sounds. as when they stand fast by you. because they are more lively and doth. may be further between the concurrent echo and the iterant. and in the catching of dottrels. hath been formerly What better gorge or artery birds have touched. and banks. by standing nearer the place of and ngnin repercussing than he that spraketh . as for waters. that is so ready to imitate otherwise. Labour and intention to imitate voices cussing maketh an angle as against the return doth conduce much to imitation: and therefore we of a wall. doth accompany with others. in the title of &quot. is not so much in the conformity of the organs of created but by loud sounds. ing in caves. and speaking. may be tried. cannot be so guided and therefore we see there hath not been practised any means to make And no echo already known artificial echoes. from the object to And if the glass. CKNT. he being near. that will represent the voices of players of interludes so to life. in effect. returneth in a very narrow room. Also we see that in mirrors there . &c. knock ing. no great use of but for imposture. or anywhere in a Trial likewise right line between. and. in counter feiting ghosts or spirits. they be the aptness of birds in comparison of beasts. the creating of the echo where the body reper240. ere he is aware. attaineth not any degree of imitation of speech. will not yield echoes as wells do. because the sound. and mark sounds more than beasts. they make a concurrent echo. you strike a ball sidelong. rocks. in a fearful manner. and a super-reflection. but birds only. the water returned a good It would be tried. . parrots. which but he learneth. but see that beasts have those parts the quickness or slowness of the return. that rebound will be as much the contrary there be any such resilience in is. return upon your mouth. but no sound at all daws. would be made. But I conceive. and so knowledge would be taken. is not able to preserve the adunque bill. that one leaning over a well of twenty-five because naturally they are more delighted with them. man. known would : We for the neck. you would think the speech came from afar off. which they count the instruments of speech. for the ape itself. for birds . Of which parrots have an The cause is. It is true. But inquired.&quot. see also that those that teach birds to sing. than if he stand where he speaketh. some gesture. as the original sound amongst singing birds. And therefore there speech as in their attention. pies. The birds that are stopped at the farther end. filling great spaces in arched lines.. Ill apes and monkeys are to imitate all motions of Experiments in consort touching the reflection of sounds. tried. r&amp. as appeareth in their singing. and ravens. you shall have parrots that will not only imitate voices. or of a cart-wheel. given them for the imita tion. How I this is done may be further inquired. for that the closeness which pre serveth the original. whether echoes.magnitude of sounds. ill rtion no man. or the like. but the rest not. as upon a large river. or an echo of an echo.pantomimi. as birds. What should being farther off. For speech must is less hope of artificial echoes in air pent in a come by hearing and learning. teeth.40 NATURAL HISTORY. in such sort. you shall find a blast may known to be speakers are. whereof the first hath been handled or fashion of the other. make an iterant echo for there is no difference to imitate the speech of man. we see how the foolish bird playetli the ape in grstures: and There be three kinds of reflections of sounds. as there is no doubt but water doth help the dela As tion of echo. as if you see them not you would think they were those players themselves. 245. by which the it throat passeth. made upon walls. which is a secondary object of hearing. where there is no issue save where see that there be certain &quot. in a round orb of air: it were good to try listen more. a reflection concurrent. 238. not full upon the sur face.

some nearer. and then the last word alone for some times. as S for one. 6 three Consent of visibles and audibles.Ti! (ehucs of one return. 251. dissent between visiblcs and audibles.and the latter the weaker. the voice came back suddenly. as it seemeth. HI. you hear aliove twenty words 250. one hill. I went to the echo at Pont-Charenton. still fading and growing weaker. to and fro.1 number of echoes one there [daces where you shall after another. much many many is hear it .farther. Echoes are some more sudden. The room all is a chapel or small church. the glass before in that. both at the sides and at Two rows of pillars. some and fill a whole floor or orb unto certain limits. be riot NATURAL HISTORY. There are certain letters that an echo will the back. that an echo would not worketh the same effect with air at large in a small return S. wise last heard. to illustrate the nature of more shady. some farther so that the return twn reports. standing. some hills that stand encompassed watermen that bring wood down the Seine in stacks. three times report you the whole words. full as loud as the original. It doth not yet appear that there is refrac tion in sounds. . echo upon echo. and some bird-bolt shot or more from the river of Seine. being but a hissing and an interior is when a variety of oft&quot. according to the distance of the objects from the sensories. strongest near II And whereas returns in hand. as hath been handled at full. not much pent: for air at a great distance pent. but will say. but only with woods.. but it is not by di versity of mediums. : . in the evening. and are carried a great way and do languish and lessen by degrees. to hear four or five Tli. and every reflection is weaker than the former: so that if you speak three words. &quot. perhaps. that when d make an echo that will Jls. and chop in the well. bring last created. and liills upon the matti r. as it were. if you stand from tin. it would de differing place from that unto air. within the glass before. And sudden. laid there. cloth. But majoration.: or The like I &quot. at the one end. and again. I remember well.&quot. Jlil. is best. 252. been partly said others are more deliberate. for three. especially being many hack echoes to the place where you stand. For echoes upon echoes. for their ease. but a tossing of the voice. as well as in species visible.&quot. so likewise doth the echo: for you have hardly express. not so much as any embowments near any of the walls the left. For. which is or avoid. for it melteth by degrees. and so make the report greater. used in divers instances the examples of the sight at last die. heard of others. it will. for demonstration s sake. Where echoes come from several parts at the same distance. also standing .is in this echo of so . and yet not so near as to make a Satan. 249. In like manner. and of good spirits. as a ball. call for if it he near. which is the proper effect . J 17. 253.speciem speciei. VOL. and would bear the report again as soon as the voice is delivered as hath distance. but of two words. as all other of refraction. which you : : a stack of billets above a There was against every pillar man s height. near a town called Pont-Charenton. and then the two latter words for ome times. As the voice goeth round. and the echo will not deliver back the concurrent echo. instance thereof in a place which I It is some three or four miles a rare will now ex is from Paris. some more loud. till the species speciei&quot. which shall find in theatre-like. and some a shorter. though the well was deep. sixteen times for I was : there about three of the it is which is deferred clock in the afternoon and echoes are. which is also the It is manifest that it not echoes from several places. as well as original sounds. will he like between a house and a hill. that is. : succeeding super-reflections. spirits. and not in boats. u obiter. the voice in that sounds but we think good now to prosecute that chapel createth &quot. and maketh comparison more fully. report three. For I do not think that.CENT. you shall see the glass Experiments in if where consort touching the consent and behind with the image. there actly describe. like to reflections work of refraction. II.&quot. and some weaker and fainter. as sound in a it sound should pass through wood. a choir of echoes. thereby I did hap to find. the roof all open. you place one glass before and another behind. appeareth plainly in sounds. Both of them spread themselves in round. it choppeth with you upon the devil s name. Speaking. which is caused by the local nearness or distance some will report a longer train of words.&quot. in looking-glasses. said he. For it is every return weaker and and things visible. that it would return : divers liver the mediums. return the voice thirteen several times. it is \v. 255. &quot. there was or four. It is requisite likewise that the air be as much in French as apage&quot. it is requisite that an old Parisian.va t en. &quot. and sometimes more loud. principal in a word. And therefore in the trial of speaking sound. after the manner of aisles of churches. and even a continued echo. as well towards taking it from the other. or five words distinctly. r . that took it to be the work of the body repercussing be a good distance off. and divers We have euch super-reflections. they must needs make. The walls the ends. hath been observed to be. and lure towards the For the house will give a hack echo. as towards the front of him that speaketh. if a hear it and I have. give more space between the voice and the echo. I did 254.

and in echoes. distances. these porous with the organs of the two senses. and are otherwise barren. in that an object of surcharge or excess destroyeth 270. contrariwise.:&quot. songs. as to to the l : beasts that have ears movable is most manifest. which is a different action from the action of sight and the generation and delation: and likewise perish swiftly and suddenly . TIL insomuch as you contract your . diamonds. in their virtue and working. either by the communication of their natures or by the im pressions and signatures of their motions. as smoke. such as have some conformity der the sight whereas. strong wind cies of visibles: for I conceive that a contrary will not much hinder the sight of visibles. that vi do not intermingle and confound one another. more of the former operation. Both of them seem not to generate or produce any other effect in nature. that birds with great shouts have fallen quisite figures. generally. almost like odours. the medium. maketh the sounds to rise or fall. it. in their own proper do work three manifest effects. have their medium So a 271. &c. so as eye when you would see sharply . and the pores in a right line. differing from the action Both of them do receive and carry ex of sound . maketh the object seem to tremble. as visibles work bodies do not much hinder the hearing. in 258. but only to carry certain spiritual species . as in glass. as it The second. as if you remove the light. and the species au dible of the latter. in the same medium. 261. Neither of them doth destroy or hinder the species of the other. but a thin scarf or handker if it be well observed. neither species of visibles seem to be emis sions of beams from the objects seen. and audibles in : Hence it cometh to pass. but sounds do. allowing nevertheless the rate of theii bigness. one difference above all other be the sense . To both. conducible. or medium. Visibles are seen further off than sounds are heard. but such as appertained to their proper objects and senses. Both of them. 266. and of down. 265. nor solidity of bodies doth not 263. as of colours. in that But both of them. which is anciently report and accurate differences. though they be bodies nothing so solid. but solid upon a looking-glass. crystal. or at the least attenuate the eye and audibles upon the places of echo. every small portion of the air. Both of them are of a sudden and easy plied and conglomerate. 257. 259. that the contra. as that whereupon many smaller differ ences do depend namely. CENT. 269. 264. Dissents of visibles and audibles. which is the most body seen. creatures.ate. The beams of light. are carried in right lines. motions. it conduceth much to have the sense propitious and 272. as see ordinarily in levels. they are multi: 207. as the light of the sun the eye . as light or colour hinder not as hath been said before. where the object is fine ond nc(&quot. as in mirrors. we bodies do seem to work in two manners. sound. or the orb of their virtue stir . verberation of audibles are required greater spaces. Both of them do diversely work.&quot. action. the stronger species drowneth the lesser. are not comparable. although they encounter markable. so that the bodies be clear. Hence also it cometh.12 256. The one. water. The first. &c.e : . The again to rise or their any evident local as they pass . the light of a the report of an ordnance. is air. save that they are more incorporeal : but 268. NATURAL HISTORY. which is an action materiate. and erect your the species do pass through small crannies without ear when you would hear which in attentively confusion: the eye . tones. when sound. the voice : glow-worm. So that whereas all tained. do not appear to admit any corporal substance into their mediums. as we and in crannies or chinks. Both of them effect the sense in living much hinder the sight. : : structure of the ear. whereas in audibles. or touch the bodies that give the sound. some distance between the object and the eye. for otherwise a great sound will be heard further off than a small as winds. Hence it cometh. Both of them have the whole species in intentive and erect. that is the most re them will be reverberate . j audibles. ried The species of audibles seem to be car more manifestly through the air than the spe as the light of the sun. articulate voices. and yield objects of pleasure and dis like yet nevertheless the objects of them do also. the nearer the approach of the sound is to the sense. in that both of tween visibles and audibles. the better. a violent sound near the ear the hearing : The third. sibles &quot. if it be true. j multiplication and coglomeration of sounds doth generate an extreme rarefaction of the air. trembling medium. 262. which is like the pupil of bodies do almost stop it. because tu . being hitherto scarcely at mediums motion in the species of audibles seem to participate more with local motion. the perfect knowledge of the cause whereof. in visibles . and quaverings. In both of them. like percussions. to be better seen . before. or impres sions made upon the air. There is will do the hearing of sounds. generate heat. Visibles require. the diffusion of species visible seemeth to participate 2GO. But in this there may be a double error. for glass or water. but to the re arcuate lines. hin things namely. that to the reflection which resemble in some sort the cavern and of visibles small glasses suffice . that visibles. as they as hath likewise been said diversely disposed. ed. and a rising or falling medium. shall search and handle in due place. affect and work upon dead chief. except lights.

279. and another lute or viol be laid by it . The other error may be. which leaveth a train of light behind it.CENT.. yet dibles do : hang longer sibles for jroken music. or after a deep It is an old tra silence. It was devised. yet are beams. but in au excite the memory straw upon one of the strings. if it were placed where the body of the flame is. in that they of foul things. nature . out of a right But as this is in colours. &c. that the species of au in the air than those of vi although even those of visibles do hang some time. doth offend so much setteth the teeth sharpen eye. likewise. would I judge that sound is of this latter not be seen. It seemeth that the impression of colour so weak as it worketh not but by a cone of report of sound as direct beams. 274. and the like. and inquire. the eye is dazzled for a but whether any time. or the But the virginals and the : lute. and where any colour. it will make the string move. or right lines. agree not so well but for the melioration of music there is yet much left. that while the silver needlo did work upon the sight of his eye. or contrariwise. in lute-strings filliped . as we see in rings turned. because the needle was lesser than the pupil of the eye. But if it should be of use at all. in this point of exquisite consorts. The like will on be. and heard twenty miles off. was. that if a the back. yet the ght passeth to the paper whereupon one writeth . For when there is a of Ins rye-. 278. which f they did. and the voice is heard. doubt. which will appear both to the dibles. because they are carried up and down with the wind . which are stopped in great variety. as appeareth in thunder and light ning. and in the other lute or viol the unison to that string be strucken. ittle ill seeing there is required light. or the voice and pipes alone. And so. sympathies and antipathies of sounds. as close to the belly as a lute. And therefore in pictures. and report of a piece. begetteth the like motion round about it as the first did. s should see colours. conceive that sounds stay longer. wherein tnal may be made of two rows of strings. dwell near the cataracts of that by this means. except it be by reflection. Visibles are swiftlier carried to the sense . the grating of a saw.eye all over exelmleth For I have heard of a person very cre the light. and in cannoniers nor millers. whereof we speak not. where the body of the lame is not seen. can purpose. when as it it is ed. and then the strings of guts mounted dark into a glaring light. sympathy worketh as well by by motion* But this device I conceive to be of no use. In visibles. 273. it must be in instruments which have no stops. 280. such effect be after great sounds. III.save of sight doth strike upon the pupil of the eye without any interception. motion of the All which have been set air in hewing of wood. I conceive also. then as there not maintain a diapason or unison with the lower. either in the same lute or viol. dition. if the diapason or eighth to that string be strucken. and any thing that toucheth the pupil of tin. In visibles there are not found objects so odious and ingrate to the sense as in audibles. and in the twilight. no doubt. the ear doth straightways refuse. Ilame. and by the straw s falling off. to remove the film of the cataract. so that the light is seen than audibles Experiments in consort touching the sympathy or antipathy of sounds one with another. 276. a fire brand carried along. that show like spheres . as virginals and harps. whereof the basis is and the vertical point in the eye . All concords and discords of music are. which if it be to upon is briil iri vs. or in others lying by: but in none of these there is edge. distant th* one from the other . though more weak. may be better inquired. than in the immediate objects. and give in the object. 277. which are never stopped. but are proper for this title. a thing not sufficiently yet observed as the Irish harp : and the recorder and agree well organs and the voice stringed music agree well base viol : : agree well. or consort music. and so took not the light from it. and be cause of the distance of the time in ordnance dis I harp and Irish harp. because the upper strings. 275. There is a common upon lute or viol be laid observation. those foul sights do not much offend . that those that upon a bridge as in ordinary viols: to the end. if you come suddenly into the dark. in that music which we call down heretofore. I judge it is not only the original sound which passeth in an archd line. but the sound which passeth above the wall in a right line. that a viol should have a lay of wire-strings below. For the beams pass. the upper strings strucken Nilus are strucken deaf: but we find no such effect should make the lower resound by sympathy. no screen between the candle and the eye. so otherwise it we who himself was cured of a cataract in one body of light. dible. after great light. tincture to that air which is adjacent . to try Welsh charged. some consorts of instruments are sweeter than others. but only motion. and the sight confused .lt. for that the ob ject iirectly &amp. ho never saw any tiling more clear or perfect than that white needle: which. so is a corradiation and conjunction of and those beams so sent forth. NATURAL HISTORY. nor those that dwell so make the music the better . out of the And any of the harsh discords in music any report of sound that can be discerned. whereas the of the ear doth hold off the sound a : little from dis the organ and so nevertheless there is some tance required in both. in the ine. with a small For foul sights do rather displease. for when two are placed on both sides of a wall. not of any force to beget the like borrowed or second beams.

NATURAL HISTORY. When a man yawneth. as will not be heard distinctly from farther distance it should seem. that in all labour to do things with any strength. we see. Flat. sharp. The exquisite differences of articulate sounds. which being the broader end much larger. being. Let it be tried. ner. now in these fine nature of sounds. whether the striking of the one would move the other. 5. to make a pattern or precedent a great argument of the spiritual of an exact inquisition . but straight quenched by the enmity of the air or other ambient bodies. Clean. round. as we said in the beginning. and I conceive it likely to succeed. harsh. like unto flame. if a man stand in the middle of a field is outwards. admiration: for the quaverings and warblings in helping of 283. we were willing. the in there : and by like instruments with the original sound but we see what a number of exquisite instruments must concur in speaking of words. Articulate. show that they cannot be signatures or impressions in the air. 6. interior. inarticulate. for that the air hath. sounds are divided: 1. loud. The experiment of sympathy may be. if tht mouth be stopped. maketh many circles. without any new sealing. whether a little straw or feather would move in the one pipe. which is like to the places they cannot be impressions. by which 286. with a hard bone to stop and of them. We 287. immusical. as hath true. show apparently reverberate the sound . as in all listening to carried so far every way in such a momentary attain a sound afar off. but then the delation and continuance a sinuous cave. and we shall do the like . let the narrow end of it be set close to the ear and air doth willingly imbibe the sound as grateful. and the length half a foot or more. 289. which that helpeth somewhat those that are thick of is generated with alacrity. and this shall be done in the space of less than a minute. in this the throat. that seals make excellent impressions. when the other is blown at a unison. men hold their breath. that report echoes. As to try. both in ear and eye. base. repercussion of sounds. and the tongue. time. and therefore rather driveth away and speak aloud. Exterior. for the help of the hearing. is matter of so great the hearing. a secret and hidden appetite of than without that instrument. if essence of sounds. it is a virtue which may be called incorporeal Experiments in consort touching the spiritual and and immateriate. no such murmur can be made. be likewise stopped. to CENT. doth in speech the ear is extended . 284. 290. But that sounds sound than draweth it to. It seemeth. well. to make an sounds must be one of these two ways. and been touched before . like a bell at the divided. that is heard with difficulty is a kind of labour. and those shall be entire in every little portion of we hold the breath. but only a plain stop and repercussion. the repercussion should be created in the same man were in one steeple two bells of unison. whereof there is no such matter in the returning of them. The cause is. mark whether any sound. 281. All sounds are suddenly made. and so rather casteth off the make no fewer motions than there be letters in all the words which are uttered. which we our first centuries. transferred. if they be of equal bore and sound. If the mouth be shut close. have laboured. and do suddenly perish but neither that. For if it were corporeal. as strument of sense hath a sympathy or similitude hath been well refuted by the ancients. 3. the narrow part whereof that the air suffereth some force by sound. perhaps. Besides. for ex The cause is. but then other an ear-spectacle. for as the sight of the eye so it may be thought of sounds in their first is like a crystal. he shall be heard a furlong in the voice than draweth it: and besides. he cannot hear so lutes and pipes are as swift. abroad in the open air. Either instrument like a tunnel . For it is with that which giveth the reflection. and that shall be in articulate sounds. and listening after any sound the air. We hear better when we hold our breath should not only be so speedily generated. and because palate through the nostrils. nor the exqui Experiments in consort touching the hindering or site differences of them. for that in all expiration the motion ample. The sudden generation and perishing of 285. that a sound in the mouth. Wheretty it appeareth manifestly. 282. both because said. that the skirts . as it were. But if the nostrils Treble. for that the membrane of which is no very fine instrument. Soft. : 288. As. or glass. from instruments of strings other instruments of sound. but cannot maintain it. call The is echo. 2. straightways suffocate it. deserveth more admiration. but than contrary insomuch. and may be of the bigness of the hole of the ear . : : : : 4. such as is used by dumb men. hearing. Musical. passeth from the sound is one of the most hidden portions of nature. There be these differences in general. or water. till it restore itself And to the natural consistence or otherwise. so is the ear generation. And I have heard there is in gross and more materiate qualities of the air Spain an instrument in use to be set to the ear. and then restoreth itself as water doth. except such as afore inquisition of sounds diligently. III. carried along in the air. receiving the sound at the first. whereof there be in nature but few. or purling except it be in the bottom of the palate towards 7. more than if it were another accord and so in pipes. as may appear. nevertheless there is yielded by the roof of the mouth a murmur.

this appetite is strong. and to be put into hy heat and time. is in a country life.of the body . . And therefore they are commonly bodies ill mixed . as hath been said . as in the rust of metals. But gene actions of men be full of regulation and commands rally heat doth that in small time which age doth within themselves for then the victory and per in long. and so in old oil. excellent -. 291. glue. Experiment solitary touching appetite of union in The cause is. And so doth time or age arefy : as in the same bodies.gt. a voice or sound. and of this appetite there be many degrees . themselves. Metals give orient and fine colours in dis as gold giveth an excellent yellow. In the second degree or kind.sin-h clammy and more indifferent appetite at Experiment solitary touching . hard with time. ing and whatsoever the fire baketh. and of the latter in monks and est at first. and to hold to them selves. and so would metal in it to any tlung if tin. desire that men should Ir. It conduceth unto long life. for that Experiment 294. as is mani 292. In liquors this appetite is weak we 296. more placid motion of the spirits. than of air. to enlarge their minds to tlie amplitude of the world. and stretching do pass from man to man. Some things which pass the fire are soft An example of the former of these is the greater. roots. bise. the orient colours in once to follow another body. time doth in but the most remarkable and fit to be distinguished some degree dissolve. df particulars. ever more clear and more hot in medicinable use. But note. and the staying tion before. either that men s actions be free and voluntary Heat causeth the spirits to search some issue out Experiment solitary touching prolongation of life* in . when the spirits are a For little heavy by any vapour. as in iron. It is certain that in all bodies there is an melting. and such as do continually enjoin the fire. leaves. we how is. for that in those things which wax bodies. Heat dissolveth and melteth bodies that keep in their spi rits : as in divers liquefactions : and so doth time some bodies of a softer consistence. &c. . this appetite is in a two: for such bodies Therefore gaping. the work of the fire is a kind of 293. and by time grow hard. and again principal spirit. which by age waxeth more liquid. then they strive. and grow soft. are three. in stone. &quot. degree to degree. equal posture ment. tin giveth an solutions. which thereby and the like in sugar. and do likewise yield themselves in threads. which is an interjection of ex medium between the other birdlime. In the third. cleaving more or less he touch of somewhat that is tangible. on the other side. the second in hard bodies and the third in bodies cleaving or Experiment solitary touching motions by imitation.invita Minerva. that the so doth time . III. Time and heat are fellows in many effects. to wring out and ex do partly follow the touch of pel that which loadeth them.md not reduce the world to the weight drew liate. in wood. some other subjects wliich require it. clay. chiefly to and quick spirits. that all solid bodies are pulsion : so that if another be apt and prepared to . cirrus.CBITT. another body. and therefore they rope and draw do use to yawn and stretch. any metal as have a foliate cleaveth but those cleaving. or not off. contrariwise. And therefore gold fo . that nothing be done : forming of the command giveth a good disposition to the spirits. &c. In real ter in I . and which have little predominance in drought or moisture. as it were. for then the sense of the victory 295.&quot. dissolution if metals. or the like. which is do less prey and consume the juice of the body. much by exciting imagination as by invita especially if there be an aptness or inclina the form of union. The cause is. and likewise in their vitrifications. as the crumb of bread. too. to retain part of their Heat drieth bodies that do easily expire as parch which two things. sweet-meats. verdigrease. &c. : see in liquors the threading of them in stillicides. their strength of body they are able to the fire or strong waters. and partly stick and continue to and desirous to sleep. and in those that wax soft with time. or before the fit of an ague. themselves.ir NATURAL HISTORY. bisket.y and that they love bette. &quot. the work of the fire is a kind of bak appetite of union and evitation of solution of conti nuity . The first in liquors. the falling of them in round drops. So men drowsy. as in the volatility of metals: and but cundum genium. Motions pass from one man to another. bodies which are noted to be an. especially if there be a proceeding from Experiment solitary touching the differing opei a tion ofjire and lime. as the crust of bread. &c. and which take more pleasure in a fo reign body than in preserving their own consist ence. solitary touching the like operations nf endure an equal posture. and afterwards give again.im . are required make colours lightsome. se. little time in bubbles and froth. narrowness of their minds. &c. &c. Some are harder when they come from philosophers. and to the fest in honey. : For water that is and should accustom themselves light small quantity rlcaveth solid .. or. : . quicksilver an excellent green. us we see in pitch. which of them for a is not so tion .miro: likewise in their putrefactions or rusls. salt.iinl perceive severe a tiling the true imjiiisition of nature tlic l&amp. as vermilion. for that that causeth gaping and stretching is. or yawning.&quot. tenacious.

which is hot. And. as the effects of the spirits do. &c. arc infectious arc. though oil be the thicker body The reason is. is no friend to prolongation of life. which is quicker. Some other. then a plentiful diet. No * like. condly. that come of exercise are. give the reason of the distaste of satiety. which if ly and again turn soon to choler. excited towards that is somewhat . nourishment into the pans more forcibly. Thirdly. Likewise men ought to beware. cause is attraction. and do swim and hang more about the as meal. especially if they consist in an unctuous substance not apt to dissi why women live longer than men. fat-meats. and not invisibly. Some food we may use long.gt. he followeth by the sight of another.NATURAL HISTORY. and more which is new than towards that whereof there remaineth a relish by former use. Experiment 299. and what more is good for and less motion for others. induce loathing. and the biting of a sooner. which is one cause they the air of the body adjacent. evils that come of exercise are. that it inaketh the substance of the body more solid and compact. and such like. the congruity of bodies. but also in motions. such pate. and therefore they never infect but by touch only . To Experiment : : . especially if it be violent. Se Experiment solitary touching infectious diseases. and therefore pass easily from body to body . solitary touching the incorporation of is. and others that are not. which delight more in rest. better incorporate with oil. We see also that it be more. such are consumptions of the lungs. such as taint the breath. if the oil but colours and ashes. and attenuate too the moisture of the body. maketh a perfecter imbibition and in which in most powders is more be another cause of satiety is an over-custom. as bread. what they be that custom maketh more grateful. generally. breath. Secondly. the laiiohinir of another inaketh to laugh.&quot. groweth quickly to satiate. as sweet-meats. Thirdly. that it makeih the spirits more hot and predatory. . first. and to distinguish not only in meats and drinks. mouth of the stomach. studies. that but they use not exercise and a spare diet both if much exercise. : painters ground. and therefore meats. and corporation tween them and water. such as come forth to the skin. because stir less. J T. such as are chiefly in the spirits. or possessing it with some what that is astringent. of the inward parts.e. that whatsoever tedious. flesh that is not fat or &quot. first. and therefore cold and powders and liquors. and such a touch also as cometh within the Experiment solitary touching meats satiety. that it much doth absorb likewise. and not so much in the humours. company. without glutting. than between them and of appetite is novelty. glutteth rank. t&amp. exercise some bodies and sitting : : But for meats. and so less apt to The consumed and depredated by the spirits. and so inaketh the parts assimilate the more perfectly. Most powders grow more close and co dry. delights. and go not down so speedi oil. lippitudes. do the CENT III. ingrate at first is The benefits fcparing diet. or exhalations . &c. and of the pleasure in novelty. such as scabs and leprosy. But things that are sweet and fat are more herent by mixture of water. then little exercise. and much. such Se are pestilences.epidermis. that induce 300. it is a rule. But generally exercise. do same be continually taken. first. 298. There be some known diseases that arc Those that infectious. &c. &c. that it sendeth custom but whatsoever is made grateful by too pleasing at first. and ever abateth the appetite. though pleasant. and therefore taint . too much motion hurteth and it is an error in physicians to call too much upon exercise. Fourthly. if it be much. which we see passeth manifestly from man to man. solitary touching exercise of the body. If the body be iiot and void of super fluous moistures. Thirdly. and if Much motion and . the were a large field. for that appetite consisteth in the emptinessof the mouth of the stomach. and not in the spirits. than by mixture of filling. condly. as are merely in the humours. The cause as the mad dog. loves. that it maketh too great concussion. venom of the French pox. that it helpeth to excern by sweat.

that parts either up or down. because it is that we would anticipate and re n a day. as in the ordinary residence or settlement of liquors. by the space of ten days. and putteth her out of her pace and. which viscous body. 303. distribution of the spirits of the liquor with the at the bottom. draweth Take also lime both quenched and unquenched. 305.&quot. evt n in divine miracles. &quot. &c. 310. though they keep the drink in heart. or carry spirits. and the accelerating thereof. IV. which a calling of the several is a kind of at neck. take these instances and trials. by the refining the liquor and decoct it as they do in beer. bottle filled with new beer. First. but the longer they be decocted in the settle and But make them it is : the time is a great work. because in infusion. afterwards severed. liquor. it is wrought likewise by heat. traction. for if it stay with much air in it. and set the bottles in them ut supra. Secondly. yet withal they cast up some spissitude: and this instance is to be referred to separation* It were good also to try swiftly lest the drink pall. yet it either purgeth at the top. four hours. and to make the spirits the better pass is. and cutting the grosser parts. and take another vessel of new beer. Anr what the adding own will work. wil Take liquor turbid. which it will clarify much the sooner practice to draw wine or we call racking. fruits. whereby Liquors are. by percolation or passage. first. It is in common beer from the lees. almost to the very be well stopped. whereby . 307. or settleth liquor from the finer. which thereby giveth to the liquor hath malt first infused in the liquor. and put them about a weight. the drink will pall . IV NATURAL HISTORY. and put it again into a bottle with air. and lastly. the more thick and troubled the is of good use for making drinks and sauces po liquor is .CENT. and it is wrought also by mixture of )ut leave some air. accelerating of the time next to the creating of the matter. ACCELERATION of time. 304. for table and serviceable speedily. by the equal forth. it in a bottle with a little airbelow the neck. that in the empty it ing of one bottle into another. drink into another bottle stopped close after the usual manner. Take new beer. and see whether it will not accelerate the clarification. tle stopped. 302. But means of accelerating clarification. Take hot embers. besides. for separation. it is wrought by to separation. 308. let the bottle and continue it. to the liquor more lees than his for though the lees do make the the clarification 306. And this instance clear before again is referred to separation. Thirdly.inter in magnalia works of nature. without emptying. for if the liquor come close to some other body which hath a virtue to open the he stopple. and by time they clarify. and rack the one vessel from the lees. though more goe by the separation of the grosser parts of the liquor The second. for the even distribution of the and also to the refining of the spirits by heat. and put in some quantity of stale beer into it. it infused in liquor. or the like. or sublimation.&quot.ut supra :&quot. may nature. to infuse. &quot. wards boiled with the hop. . 47 CENTURY Experiments in consort touching of liijuurs. pour the liquor. 301. We now for acceleration of germination. the longer it is. well be esteemed is &quot. by adhesion. neither will it settle so per Let it stand some twentyfectly in all the parts. it is wrought by gentle heat. or as muste. wort. the clearer it is. On the other side it were good to try. And therefore the most exact way tangible parts: for that ever represented bodies to clarify is. having shown the causes for the accelerating of clarification in general. but then you may not fill the bottles full. for the refining of the spirit. 309. and is after more splendour and more lustre. with it the grosser parts of the liquor . out. and make it lasting. and then to take off clear and untroubled. they may fall down into lees. present . and see the effect: this in stance is referred to the refining of the spirits. then take it. thick and troubled. by motion. and by hem in a wheel-barrow upon rough ground twice agitation or motion. by heat. The longer malt or herbs. you must do for the lees. by motion. to know the we must first The first cause The reason is plain. lest it fly renewing the embers every day. and so repeat the same Note. at the first. The third. and pour the lees of the racked vessel into the unracked vessel. know is. and by mixture of some body which hath virtue to attenu ate. So therefore. which the spirit itself. operation for seven days. are a spur to nature. by opening the body of the beer. it cannot play nor flower and when fou have shaken them well either way. ut supra and thence into a bot &quot. yet they refine the spirits. and will now begin with other accelerations. : through. many of them. therefore proceed to the inquiry of it: and we will refer over unto the place where we shall handle the subject of plants generally. Take bottles. thereiore a vessel of new beer. the causes of clarification. This nstance is referred both to the even distribution. and the inducing of it. the greater is the part of the gross body that goeth into tha : but in decoction. as when a body more viscous is mingled and agitated with the liquor. juices of to herbs expressed. and then compare it with another bottle of the same beer set by. :&quot. This instance is referred to the even distribution and refining of the spirits by motion. and swing them. by precipitation. for of time we speak not. This also is referred .

as hath been said elsewhere. As for percolation inward and outward. in wine. but more jejune. A likewise good. The cause is. scorch and have a skin of the smoko cole. so as they make gated . best of all. 314. which is more. that the taste of those . for that such congregated. There inception of putrefaction hath in it a maturation. &c. is of all the rest most pro nor arefy. in a pomegranate. where 317. they use to let it pass through a strainer. and maketh the drink work again. There was also an 312. It is clarifying hippocras to put in milk. in lime covered over ulcers. The refreshing and quickening of drink palled or dead. or fruit. and this is effected by heat. as they become dull. : apple hanged up in smoke. made of quarters of wardens. incorporate the parts of the liquor perfectly. for that all exclusion of open air. that it tasteth a little of the wax : which I sup And 313. which is ever predatory. in with onions. such will begin with that of drinks. as heat doth. &c. 315. whereof we spake before . with milk put into new beer. be brewing of new beer set by old beer ing a smothering heat. which is soon tried. in flour. 318. as it seerneth. IV which belongeth 311.13 NATURAL HISTORY. 320. of drinks. The cause is. that an extreme clarification doth spread the spirits so smooth. as of metals. wrinkled. the apple enclosed in wax was as green and fresh as at the first put ting in. and by a rudiment of putrefaction. shut in a box. The apples covered in the lime and ashes were well matured. is by enforcing the motion of the spirit : so we see that open weather relaxeth the Hpirit. some such thick-coated the parts 319. and irritateth them. and in a smaller a degree of heat. for the . Note. by the calling forth of the spirits of the body out ward. and the drink dead. as by putting into the bottles. After a month s space. as drunk. wrought The quire natures. a roast . dry. New drink put to drink that is dead provoketh it to work again : nay. trial would be made of clarifying by adhesion. either in dry earth a good depth. and not adure: and maketh it more lively in motion. in chalk. whereby they maturation ami quickening of drinks. sprinkled with which helpeth to mature. (for we see that in a greater heat. which doth neither melt nor quantity. that the burying of bottles of the hippocras. and re moving of them often as they begin to sweat. for it doth neither liquefy is true maturation. of. Also : drink well stopped. by some mixtures that may excite and quicken them. though it rariExperiments in consort touching maturation. see the degrees of maturation of drinks We in muste. somewhat more oily vinegar hath them sweet. and laid in straw. where by they digest more perfectly the grosser parts and it is effected partly by the same means that clarification is. and it is like the finer the strainer is the clearer it somewhat above the hanging of them in a deep well the water for some fortnight s space. apple softeneth and melteth and pigs feet. is an excellent means of making drink fresh and quick . and so spreading them more smoothly: and likewise by digesting in some degree the grosser parts.) doth mellow. a maketh the drink more quick pan of coals in the cellar doth lowness and sweetness. accelerating of maturation we will now in And of maturation itself. The apple hanged in the smoke turned like an old mellow apple. spirits vigorous. and the kernels continued white. We see cream is matured nitre. There were taken apples. and stirred with it: for it may be that the grosser part of the beer will cleave to the milk: the doubt is. ting the vessel of wine against the hot sun . . pose. and the maturation of we refer to another place. for that lime and ashes. and made to rise more speedily by putting in cold water. be also other maturations. which. &c. It is of three The maturation This last of fruits. because it hath affinity with the clarification of liquors. but the inconvenience is. it is touching the maturation offruits. motion. as it were. soft. Whereof muste hath not the spirits well congre wine hath them well united. lime. chalk. of all which the expe riment sorted in this manner. We maketh the apple. it would not do. when and they tun new beer. there but that is with a far more in is a like operation also soot. so that it spirteth when the stop ple is taken forth. for that much of the finer parts is exhaled. and that per. As for the maturation of will be. which ought to have a little flowering. of we will speak as occasion serveth. fruits. We see that in drying of pears and prunes in the oven. yellow within. see also bottling of beer or ale. attrac tion. for the better clarification by percolation. but then note. 316. But we in hay. Jlnd next. For the maturation of drinks. and windy. while it is new und full of spirit. for the cold doth not cause any exhal ing of the spirits at all. therefore all your clear amber drink is fiat. as some pflirm. to separation. whicif after severeth and carrieth with it the grosser parts of tried. it is . the greatest and finest spirit and part heing exhaled : for we see vinegar is made by set scorch. closed up wax. the maturation imposthumes and where we shall handle experiments medicinal. it is wrought by the congregation of the spirits together. touching the thereof. or in the bottom of a well witiiin water. And it is usual in | whey. and in vinegar. and therefore vinegar will not burn. as appeared both in their yel The cause is in is. and fieth the rest that remain but cold maketh the the accelerating Jlnd first. that degree of heat which tense degree of heat. getteth down the again . covered over with crabs. . whether the milk will sever well it work It were good also to en again. maintaineth the body in its first freshness and moisture. maketh force the spirits CENT.

or spirit of wine. auri cular traditions. &quot. . and thereby turning some of them into gold: for we conceive indeed.ripeneth faster. and so are many other grounds of alchymy. . impurities. we call metals. heat. In the mean time.UK! therefore it is the experi the crudities.. The apples in hay and the straw ripened able experiments. where 326. and those two operations. a degree of warmth plush. set was folly.&quot. niatiiroscit. that it is more difficult to make gold. and the tangible parts opened for without hath an intention to make all metals gold . For to say. it groweth. will turn a sea of the baser metal into spread them equally throughout the body. fur. he said. The device of the lamp In these trials also. . in the practice. for that all air kept close hath effect. to see whether that solution of discourse was. and that. and in comparison of that were more sweet and more yellow.mse is. but are mad upon making of silver: for certain it is. The cause is. if you should roll them but gently. or other like fruit. not little quantity of the medicine. they It is true. Note. So der they turn the apples tirst upon heap. : : . or maturation of some And hereby. the despair of making of gold. will lay open the true ways and pas 3-23. as being in nature a subterrany work.. &c. the apple in the straw more. and leprosities of metals ment littest lor use. and cover it. II. minerals. the hay and straw have a very low degree of heat.via versa. judge to be possible. Take an apple upon and roll it or pear. he would do it with a great lamp that should carry every day for ten days. 7 if wrought upon will not be able to digest the part?. which is nothing but the smooth distribution of the for the : spirits into the parts. occasion of handling the axioms touching matu we will direct a trial touching the maturing of metals. and like unto the natural maturation. for they are ever temperate The world hath been much abused by the heats that digest and mature wherein we mean : opinion of temperate according to the nature of the subject. than &quot. and the making it a and try them by their yellowness and by their work of some good time. and gold by multiplying: all these are but dream&amp. a table hard : we see in common to make silver of lead or quicksilver. the spirit of the metal making of gold : the work means itself I : she were delivered from impediments. and so appeared to be more ripe. Take an apple. Tim c. II she would perform her own work. in effect touched before. . but the over-firing now used. they would become and that a gold were likewise well matured. that had wrought himself into the belief of a great person. 324. hitherto for that may be temperate to fruits and liquors. that nature ened. it will sweeten hastily. though not so much as the other. experience. which taketh So \ve sco one apple ripeneth hardness. the making of gold did require a very temperate in a grape. when we shall come to apparently. sweetness. that gold might be made but that we see the alchymists over-fired the work for. in the work of . for that handle the version and transmutation of bodies. and which driethnot. 325. that. or a fly. by ration. one cluster of grapes that toticheth another whilst -. work of many months. The apple in the close box was ripened sages of nature. full of which will not work at all upon metals. The apples covered with crabs and onions were cured. and smear it a little gold than of any other metal and therefore that with sack. natural magic. and the another of the same fruits by to compare them. IV. perhaps twice a day. that we knew a Dutchman. VOL. and the experiments concerning metals and but yet close and smothering. to mind. will produce gold. of other metals less ponderous and less materiate.uv forth apple. NATURAL HISTORY. and the like. that the rolling doth soften and sweeten the fruit presently. The first is.. superstitious interpretations of Scriptures. or cinnamon water. therefore. it is like they would mature more finely. the alchymists call in lik:\vi. We resort therefore to our axioms of maturation. l-l. not deep. thatall of thesewere compared with another apple of the same kind that lay of itself.CENT. on the other have brought to light not a few profit 32-2. The error and imposture. and in the theory. are no ill discourses. hut for that the crabs and the onions the spirits of tin- pp jeetion.i many vanities out of astrology.nyheat. .&quot. Take an apple. full of second is. and thereby made the world But we. and cut out a piece of the by undertaking that he could make gold whose top.botrus contra botrum citius : as we see in wool. to see if the virtual heat a temperate and equal heat and that it was the of the wine or strong waters will not mature it.gt. away dr. And to help the matter. which is the most who ponderous and materiate amongst metals. feigned testimonies of ancient authors. and continue it some seven days. unequal distribution of the spirits maketh but this hard rolling is between the harshness concoction and a simple maturation . and prick it with a little heat cometh but yet more to the making of pin full of holes. And we commend the wit of the Chinese. both which are more ponderous than silver: so that they need rather a further degree of fixation than any condensation. but the propounded to effect it are. if apples was good. as was used in the first. that a perfect good concoction. but some amends. &quot. continuity will not hasten a maturation that where a wasp. : . that there be Experiment r-olitary touching the making of gold. eqval heat to be required.Mj And therefore in making of ci a^iinst another. or digestion. &c. used a temperate heat. that the spirits of the metal he quick unsound Imaginations. which may lead to this great also the cause is. . or a worm hath bitten. side. or any fruit.

IV. the body of the metal will be hard and churlish. partly by the temper of the fire. this requireth a The getting forth. smooth. which ever dissolveth the consist ence of the body into much inequality. The third is by closeness and stopping.aer perquicksilver. temperate heat. heat be such as issue out of the body. which is the metal that in . the manage of the fire. merely detained. For the material. as both in living creatures bred of putrefaction. every part returneth to his nature or homogeny. induration. is added to other bodies. though most about. For gold. The fifth is either by the exhaling or by the driving back of the principal spirits which preserve the consistence of the body. Gold hath these natures. and the axioms The fourth is by solution of continuity . CENT. and maketh them fly and leave their regiment. as in metals.&quot. which wax musty tensiblo. twelfth part of nitre. If more mildly. and penning the humours which copper were fittest to be the material. to make gold. . The third is. which is a degree of getting forth. which is a substance months at the least. and is likewise the most flexible and issue . flesh. or mortification of flesh. is accelerating of putrefaction a subject of very universal inquiry for corrup tion is a reciprocal to generation and they two are as nature s two terms or boundaries. and to enjoy the sunbeams. as in flesh. &c. and this is to lay the parts more close and 331. as in drinks and fruits. And at some times an injection of some oiled substance. but indeed to give nature a convenient The sixth putrefaction . even. consumption. there followeth desiccation. and in living creatures perfect. which is the main work. by weight. 328. as in wetting of any flesh. and thereby irritateth them to seek of metals. 329. do dissolve and break. for quicksilver will not endure evidently in agues. &c. shining wood. by further meditation. first. that to think to make gold of and therefore open air. which they bury much. nature symbolizeth most with gold put in also with water. be improved. immunity from rust. or when dung. or spreading of heat that doth not rise and but continue as equal as may be. and so as when a rotten apple lieth close to another apple let the work be continued by the space of six that is sound . as we of creatures alive. and also in the But if that motion be in a certain rust of metals. for contrariwise unctuous and with the silver. 333. is. I wish also. And cool. may keep the metal perpetually molten.. as in corn and clothes. 327. and move not that the spirits do spread themselves subsultorily. The means faction. because it is the heaviest. Note. For if a man can make a metal that hath all these properties. so that concerning the same. &c. there followeth colliquation. and that motion be confused and inordinate. most of them. fruit. and therefore the heaviest they would . And this will be performed. is to know the causes of the several natures before rehearsed. fixation. that there be choice made of the likeliest and best prepared metal for the version.. the parts close and pliant. as which detaineth the spirits in prison more than we see. where the earth will consume by vexing with separations hath been made churl the corpse in far shorter time than other earth will. rotten fruits. mists do. that you give time enough not to prolong hopes. And fall. but protrude a little. this is also notably seen in churchyards. &c. and no more. The fifth is. and move more violently. where such as they use in the recovering of gold. I think of obstructions. colour or tincture of yellow. Let there bs a small furnace let the made of a to induce and accelerate putre by adding some crude or watery moisture. : . 332. and the ynidea to life and death. These will we now principles are most derive a direction of trial out of them. a tenth part of quicksilver. for that above all importeth to the work. is the closest. perhaps. Experiment solitary touching the nature of gold. this appeareth in urine thereby break : and blood when they and Experiments in consort touching the inducing and accelerating of putrefaction. which come. greatness of weight. in pestilences: for that the malignity of the in it fecting vapour danceth the principal spirits. both these to 330. which ever are unquiet to get forth and congregate with the air. for that will make of the spirits of bodies. as in an anarchy. thereupon putrefy. pliantness or softness. But if the spirits for the work space to work certain and true in. . for that will facilitate the i j work. and partly by the closeness of the vessel. which they call &quot. The fourth is. take silver. and secondary spirits. wood. and then the humours.NATURAL HISTORY. is a thing flabilis. let men dis pute whether it be gold or no. that there be already putrefied. as the alchy. evapo ration of bodies liquid. where they have received any wound. see an apple will rot sooner if it be cut or And so the flesh pierced . as in brick. there followeth emission of spirit. either by opiates or by I conceive also the same effect is intense colds.. closeness of parts. hath If the spirits be de five differing operations. which may. are. and so will wood. and a oily substances preserve. when their government is dissolved. ish . that no part of the spirit be omitted but detained : for if there be the spirits. Next to silver. order. &c. Putrefaction is the work : : The inducing and appeareth also in the gangrene. there followeth digestion or maturaIf the spirits be not tion. there followeth vivification and figuration. The second is by invitation or excitation quicken and open the body of the metal . tained within the body. doth preserve: and this doth appear more not to be hoped . Therefore the sure way. &c.

which cannot keep their station. an hour-glass. ur when they are pent in too much. stronger spirit of tlio body. Aher by putrefaction. that in little oil we 339. in and we see that flowers winter than in summer : and fruits. as the hatching of eggs. is disturbed by any and all local motion keepeth bodies we see that integral. is 342. The fourth is motion and stirring. The eighth spirits. forth of the ad as \\ &amp. and thereby their appetite of issuing checked. and constipation of the tangible parts. And this astriction is in a substance that hath a virtual induced by strong waters in iron. in bottles close stopped. by time. and therefore wetting hasteneth rust or putrefaction of any thing. that upon all poisons followeth swelling: and we see swelling followeth also when the spirits of the body it-M-lt th the. it doth hurt. And if the body be liquid. womb. whereas in a cool and wet larder vivification. as in agues. and the diversity is. IV. the exclusion of the air doth good . and it worketh partly by the same means third is the that cold doth.. The seventh is by such a weak degree of heat as setteth the spirits in a little motion. and again. and contrariwise. is stayed furthei putrefaction. and their parts together . and not apt to putrefy totally. \\-l\&amp. and in the more haty rotting of wood that is sometimes wet. as in the stinging of serpents. consumptions of the lungs. keep this worketh by the detention of the it will keep longer. or to issue the spirits . ing of earth in frosts and sun. 338. and the work and procedure of the spirits themselves. and ulcers both inwards and out factions of the bodies of wards.sTOUY. as in the artificial rusts will keep fresh water long from putrefying. The excluding of the air. Contrariwise. It is an inquiry of excellent use to inquire of the means of preventing or staying putrefaction. as it cometh often to pass. imposthumes. as we see in the mould cold . or wet and dry . and therefore commonly prove to be of ill odour. &c. So we see.gt. to which we refer it. 340. as upon blows and bruises . enter- body. which may be counted as foreign spirits. and in men s bodies. work the same effect. The second is astriction: for astriction affected by such soft heats . And we see that whereof putrefaction is the bastard brother. according to the nature of the subject matter. and juices. :i::i. keep fresh.n N men and The ami more ragei than t tin- a foreign spirit. it will cast up a mother in the top. though cold. Moss is a kind of mould of the earth and But it may be better sorted as a rudiment trees. will now enter into an inquiry: congregate too much.CKNT. they require airing. proper place. do extinguish and suffocate the natural spirits and heat. 341. some small quantity of : prohibiteth dissolution . sixth is. And put in conservatories of snow.gt. iting . as is seen in flesh kept in a room that is not cool . The first means of prohibiting or checking for so we see that meat and putrefaction is cold : drink will last longer unputrefied. as the mothers of distilled waters. tenth is The keep corn longer than those above ground . drinks. that beer or wine.lt. they are a great part of physic and surgery . or letting like : it run Experiments in consort touching prohibiting and preventing putrefaction. spirits. or the motion of perspiration. rest motion. from an upper-room into a lower. as :i we partly touched a lor little befoifc. and wax keepeth fresh . last long that the garners under ground : sometimes dry. and there be no agitation or local motion. whereby the run of humours. N \T11JAL HI. exercise and want of putrefaction. Of the r&amp. as in drinks and corn but : in bodies that need emission of spirits to discharge worms. The ninth is by the interchange of heat and cold. 335. or more odious putrefactions. but is not able either to digest the parts. or stoppings. &c. *{ ue wherein much And we light may said of the be taken from that which hath been means to induce or accelerate putre faction : for that which caused putrefaction doth they be bred within the body. which moulds afterwards bodies that need detention of spirits. for therein consisteth the means of conservation of bodies: for bodies have two kinds of dissolu tions. as agitation : turning over of corn in a garner. Ami this is the cause generally. worms. especially if they be left to themselves. or unsoured. IV The fifth is the breathing by consumption and desiccation. &c. for putrefaction asketh rest: for the subtile motion which putrefaction requireth. whereof such as are astringents do and by the same reason of inhibit putrefaction oil of vitriol ness of their coverture. living creatures. and therefore we will reserve the inquiry of tin m to tin. as the moulds of pies and flesh. the moulds of oranges and lemons. All moulds are inceptions of putrefaction . of germination. that the spirits upon coming of putrefaction of humours in agues.astringency. because it softeneth the crust for the spirits to come forth. the one the. is by the releasing of the which before were close kept by the solid. doth keep it sweet and running waters pu hindorelh trefy not. the exposing to the air : for these contraries. lead. turn into some of for the superfluous moisture. 343. 337. see that cloth and apparel not aired do breed moths and mould. where we shall liiiiidle medi cinal experiments of all sorts. 344. But as for the putre ventitious moisture in bodies . and like wise bodies put in honey and flour keep more fresh and liquors. prevent and avoid putrefaction. as in swelling see also.. fresh. as we see generally in medicines. and men s bodies not exercised. As we see in corn not stirred. the heat of the 336. with a that fruit closed in : cast on the top.

&c. The experiment of wood that shineth in them to putrefaction . The opinion of some of the ancients. is in some the fire do last longer than those that have not pieces white. watery substances are more apt to putrefy than passed the fire. and saltwater while it is in dashing. The eighth is the drawing forth continually of that part where the putrefaction beginneth . and some more dim . that blown nirs. and iron red-hot will not be seen._ - j There was other wood that did first shine. The trial sorted as well by strengthening the spirits as by soak thus: 1. that which you would have For the emission of the loose and adventitious preserved. preserve the rest. so convenient drying. and being laid dry in the house. and hath least Fire and flame are in continual apparent motion. within a seven-ni&amp. 347. within five or six days lost the shining. seemeth to conduce to make it shine the cause is. airs. 11. as well as fire or light. are bright. or fruits. It would be tried also whether chalk put into water..rht shining . 6. or a little after. The oily. the loose and watery moist ure garret. it is the most durable. provoketh the radical moisture to come forth with it. which shined not at the first . sorted not whereby the more piitteth new for dry bladders will not blow : bladders rather further putrefaction : the back putrefaction. in all of chiefly sallow and willow . but within two days the part con tiguous began also to shine. for that the blown being overcharged and compressed. : r hut. or dark room. being laid abroad in 350. will tliin&amp. so as but some might be not only for the reason before given. but the roots better. part. and thereby making the body more equal . lus&quot. which they do motion. which is. in bran or meal. 10. 7. The woods that have been tried to shine. and powdering of meat. sixth is the strengthening of the Experiment 352. for that of all things that give light here below. or dried in the hot sun for a small time. 9. &c. The tenth is the commixture of somewhat that is dry. so we see that herbs and flowers. it somewhat soft. The ninth is the commixture of any thing the that is some. that was rut down alive. that kind of wood.5-2 NATURAL HISTORY. Both root and it may be it holdeth in others. and all be of the same nature with shining wood and it things that are hot and aromatical do help to is true. so a strong spirit likewise preserveth. for that all solution of continuity doth help on 8. but such as was rotted both in stock . doth not preserve it from : So we corruption. which show the figure. There was the the dew so as it seemeth the putrefaction spreadthem. we have diligently driven and pursued : the rather. than raw waters. But you figured into a cross. but a tepid heat inclineth dark. l airs do preserve bodies longer than other seemeth to me probable . Shining woods being tin ir laid in a dry room. or flowers. and laid abroad again. 2. also the ash and hazle . 4. last longer than juices. but the most bright doth not attain to the light of a glow-worm. solitary touching wood shining in the of bodies: for as a great heat keepeth bodies from putrefaction. that all putrefaction hath with it an inward preserve liquors. expense . &c. only scales of fishes putrefied seem to ing out the loose moisture. and radical moisture is only kept and it CENT IV : dth in. and the bellows.lt. the light confound ing the small differences of lightsome and dark same reason is of preserving herbs. till you came to that that did not shine . 348. in some pieces inclining to red . 3. glow worms have putrefying or speedy souring. sugar shineth only while it is in scrap ing. for putrefaction beginneth first from the spirits and then from the moisture . the : lightsome . as was touched before wood hath been yet tried to shine. that it . and they not putrefying. 349. So we see that strong beer will last longer than small . as dried pears. stop the hole close. before. not so soon as fresh faint spirit disposeth to find that salt water corrupteth the dark. or drink. and likewise a flower. hasten putrefaction. hich in the country they call the white and red 5. or powders. way were therefore to blow strongly with a pair of bellows into a hogshead. and then laying it abroad. The boring of holes in keeps the shining. carrieth it 346. eth. keep best. and in the instant that you withdraw moisture doth betray the radical moisture. by day-light.lt. &c. The part that shineth is. keepeth them from putrefac tion. if they be dried in the shade. and Martlemas beef. for all imperfect mixture is apt to putrefy . and a weak or and salting of oysters. There was other dead wood of like kind And therefore we see syrups and ointments will that was laid abroad. So we see distilled waters will last longer bodies do shine. recovered the shining. 351. but being laid in a cellar. commonly. : and therefore smoke preserveth as we see in bacon and neats tongues. but after a night s lying abroad began to shine. for even a face in putrefaction taking hold of it. and things that have passed colour of the shining part. in any thing that is but because being detained in the body. and that that is dry is unapt to putrefy flesh . putting into the hogshead. : more oily or sweet: for such bodies are least apt to putrefy. The seventh is separation of the cruder parts. and moist to feel was found to be firm and hard. or into beads. ardly receive the exhaling of any rather repulse it. wtereintc f. or the like. for the most to.esh was put. No putrefaction. It was tried in a blown hla-lder. must not look to have an image. The shining is in some pieces more : their shining while they live. infecteth the rest as we see in the embalming of dead bodies . spirits The out for company. the air worketh little upon shining part pared off.

gt. you may is that in the eighth month should be the return term them by several names . But the true cause is. which it is certain are crreat magnalia naturae. plants.CKNT. solitary touching the acceleration of birth.-ejied in \\ater. and in the superior there is the body Experiment 354. This weather. or from the To And these pairs. r. will true. are Ot the juice. And you may take opinion. There was a which did shine. active habit. and the again men must beware how they give children shiniruj part was cut off till no more shined.i . IV. and fnrthereth the motion of the First in the mixture of earth an. he saith. the ancient observation is true. which thecoldness is good. to turn water or watery : : &quot.water. for that attenuateth watery substance turneth into fat and oily. and seem to differ but maketli the child corpulent. is but air incensed . is an her!) that. which sal. as well as of llesh.lt. and growing in in maturation or concoction flame. whereas country people that go not to school are commonly of better stature. and Hindi lull. of their tribes. but extreme lively: for the spirit of nitre is cold.like succeeded in fortnight. and argueth strength the latter is ill. Latin and ivtaim d the l. 15. which hurt ii&quot. As for the nature of the alike and the interstellar sky.&amp. it must proceed either from the plenty of the nourishment. make dogs But so much is phon. and be gather a nitrons fatness. if the em bryo ripenethand perfecteth sooner: the other. And though it be an excellent medicine in strength of years for prolongation of life. the nourishment :mist he of an opening nature. sulphurous and mer . which need . that there is a rotation of that. not in- mature and crude. it got a shining. As for the quickening of natural heat. Experiment 353. of he accelerated in two respects and all for the reason. and be vain. There is also a received tale.&quot. though it were kept in a dry sucking doth hinder both wit and stature. and they both have an experiment from plants. but Experiments in consort touching sulphur and mer boin in the eighth month. . And therefore correct.gt. though they be unlike in the primitive differences : of matter.t. their &quot. than whore they feed more upon bread and star. For of metals.\v be laid long the shining will continue. though the opinion nourishment. yet any thing that is cold in operation. And great piece of a root room.hining some M. and tliat r&amp. which if they spread quickness of motion. that Xono. hindcreth the growth of children. it is a compound of the other two. first. HISTORY. Secondly. \\ . which are the chymists words. if there he some cause from the mother s body. 1 art of tin- wood of a more Canlamon is in . The instances wo have wherein crude and putteth back stature. driers. for that where there is is curial. which is a planet propi tious. verally . ll&quot. and taken in and and with us w ater-eresses which. and therefore no doubt much going to school. accelerate growth or stature. it the lustiness of the child . spirits four kinds. if the wood alimad every night. 8&amp. for as for is their third principle. is m-t yet tried. as wo see in that they put fonh both joices. heat consumeth the spirits. that boiling the star. nasturtium. for it of vegetables and animals.ot \ ATI HA it I. water and oil are principal materials quickening the first excess of nourishment is hurtful. that the star is the denser part of his orb. upwards. doth so their much commend which.. But the cause assigned is fabulous. in the nurture of tho Persian children. that the child born 1 in the seventh month doth commonly well . the one. brimstone and mercury . of the star and the pure sky. hath been tried. made feeding upon cardamon. it must be done chiefly with exercise . or from the nature of the nourishment. is a planet malign. which as they say. therefore children in dairy countries do wax more hath notwithstanding so much affinity with the tall. die. more than either of them have -. as the fathers it is some indisposition of the mother. them grow better. which There be two great families of things. in vegeta bles and living creatures there is water and oil: in the inferior order of pneumaticals there is air and flame. 355. is friendly to life. doth for the most part cury two of Parace Inns s principles. Therefore it is one of the greatest of daisy roots in milk.is gr.&quot. sprinkled with water in the day.&quot. much much are seldom tall. ot the reign of the planet Saturn. yet it is in child ren and young creatures an enemy to growth : The bringing forth of living creatures : may to growth whereof the former age. II. in vulgar breadth rather than in height. for even long after two nights. that juice into oil or oily juice: greater in nature than an over-dry nourishment in childhood to turn silver or quicksilver into gold. but when it is less. solitary touching the acceleration of growth and stature. and facility of cession. which mingled by the help of the sup little. for heat is requisite but after a man is come to his middle same expulsion or putting it down : . oily and watery. Tin. Neither is it without cause. For so great a prevention of the ordinary time. of the spirit of nitre doth help to condense and and cometh by accident or disease.steeped in nil. whilst it is young. 10. yet they seem to have many consents for mercury and sulphur are principal materials and exciting of the natural heat. inflammable and flamable . i. sinned . 1 while \v. it may not be too dry. Trial was made of laying it abroad in frosty it l(i. whereas in the seventh is the reign of the moon. it is certain. that a whelp that hath been fed with nitre in milk hath become very little. we see that in subterranies there are. where they sit so much.

three on the outside. that rise from below . the greatest you can get. The reason. the snow being made hollow about the bladder. A chameleon is a creature about the big ness of an ordinary lizard his head unproportionably big: his eyes great: he moveth his head without the writhing of his neck. yet spot If he belaid upon ted with blue. we leave it to the title of version a body cold is reported that in some lakes the water so nitrous.NATURAL HISTORY. it may be by provocation or excitation. both which have a kind of fatness dulcoration of in part of Media reported by one of the ancients. and in some other. but oil being poured upon them they flame out. and degrees tab not only upon air. as it is in moun tains and earthquakes which cast flame. his and by long continuance of soft heats. and pumice. his tail slender and long: on each foot he hath five fingers. He feed. bladder. and cast not forth such smoke. or red. for that it which severeth and divideth any upon a body. hath a subtle spirit. of sympathies. brighter and whiter towards the belly . which they open com flesh are out of oily aliments. waters distilled or oil. whose nourishment is far more crude than their bodies : Experiment 362. bodies of plants and living year together could never perceive that ever they whereof plants turn the juice of mere fed upon any tiling rise but air. : solitary touching congealing of air. that if a chameleon be of water. The Experiment 3G1. or white. by mixture and by assimi tempest . Experiment 363. not so if he be laid if upon yellow. and tie it about the neck with a silk thread waxed. yet some have kept chameleons a wholo tlit. &c. .saccharum Saturni. namely. which never with the rest. supposing. according to their vain dreams lation. There be also some blind fires under stone. The intention of version of water into a plains . it will raise a water into oil. for sometimes he taketh flies. of bodies. 359. And the scouring vir tue of nitre is the more to be noted. that there are eruptions of flames out 358. or in a conservatory of snow. the long. and this di gestion is principally by heat. for that it seem- mingling of bodies already oily or digested for eth the fire is so choked as not able to remove they will somewhat communicate their nature the stone. and two on the inside. because he nourisheth with air. because it is inquiry of which is one of the profoundest inqui and we see warm water scoureth ries of nature. because the flame is not pent. then it is plain that the coldness of the earth or snow hath condensed the which air. like a general assembly of estate. and sticketh Experiment solitary touching chameleons. and if they stay any whit two principles. upon the third is : air. that in though not without a mixture of green. IV that The second made. wax Then bury it three or four foot under the earth in a vault. which he will launch out to prey upon Of colour green. as was though more rarely. 364. and of a dusky yellow. and might observe water and earth into a great deal of oily matter: their bellies to swell after they had exhausted the living creatures. of wind. : preen. : . though that be his principal of crystal that drop from above. and brought it a degree nearer to water is an experiment of great consequence. as &quot. no air may possibly get in nor out. as more oily substance is by digestion for oil is al most nothing else but water digested. which heat must be either outward or inward again. But these two ways of version of burnt upon the top of a house. But the cause is. The fourth is in the some of metals. and after some fortnight s distance. which flame not out. see whether the bladder be shrunk . by direct assimilation of bodies crude into bodies digested. : : mountain flames do. so that when the neck of the bladder drieth.&quot. in is in the assimilation of nou- said. creatures. and by cir body should have great virtue to make impression rislinient. | cuits of time. his tongue of a marvel lous length in respect of his body. As for the . as if foul clothes be put into it. as hath is more full handling of these scoureth them of itself. doth give law to all bodies. they moulder away. and likewise to the title of the first congregations of matter. 360. Experiment solitary touching congealing of into crystal.deep caves there are pensile crystals. CENT. and red. monly against the rays of the sun. tne green predominateth the yellow . 356. fill it thing that is foul and viscous. for if it be. Digestion also is strongly effected theless is sufficient to inflame the oil. it is heat rather than flame. and ashes. tion . which. and upon that put likewise full Take a : very close. but this digestion by a great compass. as meat and bread. it been said. It is solitary touching subterrany fires. and that those flames are clear. whereof this is but a taste. It is solitary touching nitre. &c. The cause whereof is. better than cold. though much of their fat and air. the inception of putrefac as in water corrupted and the mothers of . are by many passages and percolations. 357. which sustenance. water upon blue. as in plants and living creatures. is. and closed their jaws. laid upon black he looketh all black. which is in his back crooked . and hollow at the end . less eminent nearer the belly. as a hog doth skin spotted with little tumours. his flexible. It is a report of some good credit. white. only the green spots receive a more orient lustre. They have a yet they assimilate also in a measure their drink foolish tradition in magic. flies. which is caused by the . no doubt.

CCTT. with narrow mouths. in dissolved into a black water. and every of these can wine.rk be ehielly of cold. 368. plant. smell is a second smell. into will first therefore speak at large of bodies inflamed water. and set which consumed by a part switte/ . and of a wick that provoketh inflammation. others.-&amp. A spoonful of spirit of sixth part to the wax . but also use and profit.|/. saw-dust.i r&amp. as the adventitious moisture which hangeth loose in the body. such are used for candles. which will appear by the quantity of the spirit of wine that remaineth after the going 365. and it burnt as dles mixed. aqua vitse. which burnt wine doth . 3RG. and other cir lamps.lt.f Mixed with the like quantity Mixed bay-salt. if it be not drawn betrayeth and tolleth forth the innate and radical moisture along with it when itself out.made. yet tinliti&amp. for that the mixture of things least a glass. tli - sj&amp. Experiments solitary touching preserving of leaves both in colour and smell. or thereabouts.gt. for it is a great saving in all such lights. in a clear day. stuffing them close apt to burn is the speediest in going out.lt. and less four pulses. till at last it spread all moderate sweat doth preserve the juice of the body.iin&amp. being of the same weight and wick long as came to a hundred and sixteen pulses. that it falleth not in: and pour equal quantity of water.gt. and put the flame quite out. and these roses will retain not only it go out of itself will burn no more Then put them : : their smell perfect. and pull them. with the wax pure. every of these bearing a help the inflammation. And this importeth not only discovery. and the spirit of wine with the bay-salt. viz. Experiments in consort touching the continuance of fiame. a little heated. And together. chiefly. and the spirit of wine burnt to the space So that the spirit of wine of ninety-four pulses. Note. the flame forsook it. if they can be made as fai~ and bright as cumstances. wholly and immediately. but then it made the snaste big and long. eighty-three pulses. A small pebble was laid in the midst. and the less: we and yet last longer. but flat and dead. \\ax pure made a candle. The swiftest in consuming was that the sixth part ofc a spoonful of nitre. that if you make the earth narrower at the bottom than at the top. continuance of flames. out of the flame. or other body.. but wheresoever the wax float goeth forth. oil. either nothing so hot in the mouth as it did no. Consider well. and yet did not incorporate itself with spirit of wine to produce one flame . the wax dissolved in the burning. soak through. and is make the evermore simple endured the longest . ice. and it water &amp. that these roses.5re. over. and to burn duskishly. and the candle wasted pure. smallness of quantity a help to version. yet it reeeiveth the m&amp. only to the space of four water upon it. then dry them upon the top of a house. have little or no smell. fore trial would In. burnt but to with saw-dust which first burned fair till some .ii!|iTrtli a through nature more claiiiiuy. bay-salt. ed.gt. proved thus in the burning and The same quantity of spirit of wine mixed with lasting.i hundred pulses. for that though flame be almost of a momentary last ing.lt. Note. For it will where it issueth. but their colour fresh. and the aversion thereof to take flame. without any wick to brimstone. or tapers. for a year at least. in irreat frosts.r.:&amp. butter. as half the time of the oil wax and The next in swiftness were the fifth much as half the spirit of wine. so that the spirit of wine inflamed are things of discovery.- solid than A atcr of itself. or by the resistance of the body mixed. will help the experiment. between the hours only of twelve and two. The continuance of flame. less in bulk. and wax mixed severally into with the particulars that follow. is worthy the inquiry . to lay a heap of earth. butter. by the way. upon a hollow vessel.gt. and the equal quantity of water. upon a lead or terras. in such quantity as will be sure to pulses. The experiments of the mixtures of the Note.gt. burnt to the &amp. Mixed with the sixth part of a spoonful of water. Take damask roses. according unto the diversity of the body inflamed. candle-stuff. in the hot sun. with an canvass hetweeii.lt.-. nor yet sour. was taken. consisting of inflammable mat ters. and the dust gathered about the snaste. whether the more speedy going forth of the flame be caused by the greater vigour of the flame in burning. was set up in the midst. rose- were the shortest.- &amp. And therefore in living creatures. 369. . but without bniising stop the bottle or note. putting a it burnt to the space of eighty-six pulses. it nrrow. A piece of wood of the bigness of an : l&amp. as if it were a degree towards vinegar. that in the experiment of wax afore : For it said.aee of ninety-four pulses. burnt only to me space of Mivd with the sixth part it of a spoonful of milk. one hundred and ten A cube or pallet of yellow wax was piiU&quot. And it seemeth clearly to be into a sweet dry earthen bottle. though I NA iniAl. that spirit of wine burned till and tasteth glass close.. and the milk was curdled. and about a finger s length. HISTOIIY. taken. that issueth out of the and not of use : but now we will speak of the flower afterwards. and see whether it will not make and the spirit of wine burnt to the space of ninetya harder ice in the bottom of the vessel.lt. that nothing doth so much destroy any by putre faction or arefaction. milk. or the latter. with the like quantity of gunpowder. it may in the midst. in fashion of a sugar-loaf reversed.il ptMi t!i earth. iv. tlic \v &amp. when you take them from the drying. nitre. ami tli. There OIH- I suppose also apt to dissolve than ordinarily. 367. which part of the candle was consumed.lt.lt.

fourth point that importeth the lasting 374. Whether wood tion. and maketh it burn more fiercely. which | that lasted ahout an eighth part longer than the clear wax. their candles Good housewives. and a long time: which is caused. by a sixth part of time the flame. We see that if wind bloweth upon a candle and wood. and to try when the oil is almost consumed. of the flame. and apple. moist or dry be very cold. use to lay them one by Experiments in consort touching burials or infu : one in bran or flour. if it be moist. silk. The For the bigness of the flame. rush.5G than the pure wax. and fill it of oil a moist place. the wick would little iilloth with air. and so they consume the slower insomuch as by the this flour if yon intend condensation or induration. was likewise made of several wicks . For bran and And have a virtue to sions of divers bodies in earth. is indifferent: than the wicks simple. and wood would flame a little. &c. whereby it may hang over them and not by it cometh to for if the earth touch them. end of the return Reverse it. trial It were good also to have the lamp made. not of tin. have burnt a very long time in caves and tombs. but glass. go out: of the other three. to make burn longer. causing them to last longer. and a rainy time. till they came to the wax. and for induration of bodies. 375. than good by the virtual cold. as of the flame burneth. and for condensation. sewing thread. but all the while it would spit out portions of flame. the vapour or air gathcreth by degrees in the top. It were worthy not hold lighted above some twelve pulses. spit forth little sparks. that the wick fetcheth the touch them nourishment farther off. so the top of the turret by little and And in these four last. yet came forth from noways mouldy or rotten. and the water a fifth. and the rush in frosty weather. but were Income a by little harder than they were . full at the e turret. dully. see also it lasteth longer in a lantern than at large. have spoken of the several materials. as in torches. not only what the mate of mines. : make only one farthest. as we see lights will go out in the damps flame it importeth also. The air once heated. being buriod for a fortnight s space thrice as much as the length of the lower part? four foot deep within the earth. they call All night. and so helpeth the continuance. which make them harder. for Then difference about a fifth part longer than the clear wax. except the earth he very dry and sandy. it would refaction of the oil by the heat. and then set it upright again. CENT. lemon. An orange. &c. but the water descendeth. you harden . so that the mixture of bay-salt with wax will win an eighth part of the time of lasting. but the same material whether it be hard. : . Take a turreted lamp of tin. old. which afterwards would go out into a vapour. doth help to the lasting. and then wasteth apace. because the vessel is far broader than putrefy. it will pass. I conceive. point that importeth the lasting of the nature of the air where the flame the cotton next. with the wick in the midst . or else you must vault the cake of wax. Query. 373. thread cast a flame it be cold or hot. wax itself. though it were in : We whereupon the lamp standeth bole in it. 376. wood. And there are traditions of lamps and candles. doth in a degree quench the 371. whether the air made of the oil. followed the milk and water with little You shall find also. and so furthereth the consump less and dimmer. is the closeness of the air wherein A 370. which is as it were a great not touch the earth. and so helpeth the continuance. and the several wicks but to the lasting of the flame. so that both age. Then followed the aqua vitae. that you may see how inflame. consume faster the flame burn more mildly. that the flame fetcheth the nourishment afar off. otherwise fresh in : . that as the oil wasteth and from the aqua vitae. straw. which is caused by the ra slowest. the thread consumed . Burials in earth serve for preservation. then the rush consumed slower than the cotton. if you put to it a For the brimstone. ordinary cotton. IV Then followed in swiftness Then the bay-salt. bodies be hard and solid as clay. if it much We : soft. The lasting of flame also dependeth upon if you intend preservation of bodies more soft and the easy drawing of the nourishment. that it We . the cotton and much alike . then you must do one of these two: either the Court of England there is a service which you must put them in cases. the height of the turret being linen cloth. them. the air. straw. The air. But 372. which lasted hole. if the low candles. new. as fire scorcheth burneth whether air. faster than the cotton. it would hold lighted much flame of a candle. but then after a little while it would harden and cake about the snaste . &c. The silk. wrapt in a form of square. make a hole in the top of the turret. you shall find that it will burn slow. may bury the bodies so as earth may touch them and lying in the bran. made in the 377. irritateth the flame. whereby they may means they will outlast other candles of same stuff almost half in half. and howsoever maketh it burn more rial is. ami put a wick in at the hole. where earth. will the observation to about the same time with the nitre . as was said last before. as if you will make artificial porcelane. and lighten it. For the nitre. maketh and wicks both. After the several materials were tried. see also that lamps do more hurt by the moisture. in the letting of it forth. as we see in tender. And And we see that wax candles last longer than tal the like you may do for conservation. the clear NATURAL HISTORY. to conserve the breadth of a taper or candle. A fifth is . if it be dry. by at least a third part of time. because wax is more firm and hard.

not new. that the moisture of the earth for solitary touching an error received about epidemical diseases.CUNT. chiefly by heat. come will not at them . conservatory of snow. some others have hanged above.ist aii&amp. and so flow into the parts. solitary touching pestilential seasons. It were good also to try the beer when it is in wort. a good large vault. and wine. 386.gt. of cream. Besides. and maketh tii wholesome. A bottle of vinegar so buried came more lively and more odoriferous. in and summer where sort that that are touched are in most danger in the winter. both epidemical and And the others. and coral. break forth at particular times. it is theless that there is a near Blois. . . and pomegranates. if you put them in a pot or ves sel well covered. Never bloweth are more relax. from a precedent sequence and series of the seasons of the year and therefore Hippocrates in his prognostics doth make good observations of the diseases that ensue upon the nature of the precedent four seasons of it whereas the alteration or but upon trial It of six weeks burial. compound body. manner as Whereof may before. we see. do stut. in the sinews. in Barbary. and which in the summer cometh on or is provoked whey. except well: but our proof was naught. the jest. and with cream. JI. that bjth the beer when southern winds blow than when and the wine. be. And time when they break forth or reign. As for pestilent diseases. Many diseases. for that drought. ih the burial of a fortnight more thej bebottle of beer. more easily. there followed it in a deep well. that have lost their the year.ur N \TI but UAL HISTORY. when the southern wind The milk soured and began to putrefy.. : make experiments 330. for many timea i&amp. became more it clearer than like w. within about a fathom of the water. and a bottle of wine the bodies of islanders be.gt. in habituate to m. which. for that when the southern hath not been or deaded at all but as winds blow. curds. better tasted. This may be done. all the three came forth as fresh and forth lively. and so make the body been more united. or el se by putting them in a 384. m manner. and more die in the winter. Divers. but sodden. And after the whole month s burial. no effect. 8 | Experiment solitary touching slutting. But those seen in wood and other bodies. well stopped. smelling almost like a violet. s bodies are heavier. ! r. The cause may in most the refrigeration of trie tongue.. when the which did hang above water were apparently the southern winds blow. cause is falsely imputed to the constitution of the air at that generally. \ there have been the cause great plagues in dry \ears. Experiment . And lively. till summer. as well within the water as above. There hath been a tradition. It Experiment then their price will be mightily increased. village Experiment deep caves they do thicken milk in such it becometh very pleasant: which was 382.is. The general opinion is. but ready for drinking. tiieir col &amp. that pearl. palled . if it would sort: Experiment solitary touching proceedeth. The cause is. It is commonly seen that more are sick some cause of this trial of hanging milk in the in the summer. summer months. buried in like ground that heat and moisture cause putrefaction. The proof hath been. indeed.gt. .gt. and less disposed milk. a conservatory of snow. And again. if not better than before. as it is easily turned and dissolved. do swell. and Experiment 381. the reason in the why most die of them in summer is. that years hot and moist are most pestilent. and a deep well. In Knuland it found not true. neither do I know whether that milk in those caves be first it be in pestilent diseases. and turquois-stone. or there the cold may preservation of liquors in wells or deep vaults. ami maketh them more apt to putrefy or inflame: besides. because they hat it may be seen whether the hanging well xvill accelerate the ripening and clarifying are. IV. break up in the is hot and dry. were good of to try . true. whereas motion and activity of the body consisteth chiefly that under water did not.lltrelied. doth exasperate the humours. hanged in a well of twenty fathom deep at the least. upon the superficial VOL. indeed. The reason is. solitary touching bodies from several winds. lemons. northern. Nli. and the liquors so tried have been beer. the effects in men s Men to motion. whosoever of cold. the humours do in some degree melt good or somewhat better than bottles of the same and wax fluid. ??!&amp. may be recovered by burying in the earth. which. though it were fresh. as it is drinks and staleness kept in a cellar. colours. 385. twenty foot at least under the ground . let him be provid ed of three things. bred most in the summer: for otherwise those solitary touching winter sicknesses. which commonly reign in summer or autumn. It were good therefore to try it with milk are bred. of it. commonly. and that beer did flower a little.7 Hut xv i their juice somewhat flatted. which is a thing of great profit. hen xx the plagues tin weather were a profitable experiment to preserve oranges. and thereby more resplendent. because lolled. j. and some of the bottles have let down into the water. it tainteth the waters. Trial hath been made with earthen bottles in a conservatory snow be more constringent. for that milk of itself I s such a then they are cured most by sweat and purge..

have great bags hanging under their throats.. towards the top of the earth. for that when they are crushed. . or otherwise upon the ascent. apple-blooms. that that water which maketh the stronger drink is the more concocted and nourishing. and besides. And such water. 387. as is hath been partly touched heretofore. Most odours smell best broken or crushed. try them bottles or choler inducing a dryness in the tongue. try them by making drinks stronger or smaller. the finer. in the crushing. which likewise maketh it less apt to move as well as cold for it is an affect that cometh to some wise and great men. But from the sun. the foot of plant is digested and refined. It is a thing of very good use to discover moderately they stut less. bean-blooms. some : distance. try waters by weight. they smell more. and so we see that they that stut do stut more in the first offer to speak than in continuance . vine-flowers. by drinking of snow-water. and troubleth it. whereas in stronger and appetite of mounting. you may make a judgment of waters according to the place whence they spring or come: the rain-water is.&quot. is perceived. the dryness of the tongue. 388. 389. doth somewhat: but other ex by motion somewhat heated. for upon both them the sun hath earthy reaches not so far. holdeth also. Secondly try them equal fastest. in several you -may accoiint the many stutters. and it is likely that the more fat water will bear soap best. in the efflorescence. where there is less heat. you may likewise account the best. moving. The cause is double : the one. 396. which is the impulsion of the air that bringeth the scent faster upon us. is too fretting. wherein you may find some difference. who was &quot. this holdeth in the breaking. we find. for that to putrefy soonest. c. First. for that all part by itself. or it waters. is the water of large and navigable or crude odours .linguae prffipeditae. Smells and other odours are sweeter in the air at open vessels. longest. as it did unto Moses. they are sweetest when we cannot hear every The other reason is. see that naturals do generally stut: and we [ Experiments in consort touching choice of va/cr. in some degree. though not broken. gillyflowers. and the standing water.NATURAL HISTORY. are very choleric men: 393. which is likely. of those plants whose leaves smell not. sweet smells have joined with them some earthly commonly. for we see that in sounds likewise. For percolated through a great space of earth. as hath been said but flowers pressed or beaten do Well-water. Experiments in consort touching smells. it may be. Sweet smells are most forcible in dry substances when they are broken . and the lighter you may ac count the better. or stirred. the finer mixture or incorporation : Fourthly. because of the is heat and strength enough in the fineness of the spirit: and in conservatories of plant to make the leaves odorate. and severed from the the snow mountains. as it appeareth in laundry of clothes. wallflowers. rivers . with the same quantity of 394. fire. by the physicians. and you may conclude. for that there is a when bodies are moved then it cureth the rawness of the water. because the goodness of waters. Snow-water is held unwholesome . except it be upon chalk. IV. the housewives do find a differ ence in waters. that in those that stut. and see which of them last longest without stench or cor And that which holdeth unptitrefied ruption. esteemed the finest and the best but ypt it is said . because it heateth. matches in every thing else. though perhaps it be not so good for medicinal use. or a very lose the freshness and sweetness of their odour. though rarely. plentiful which is an spring. to those that drink water only. nipping. and so like more power than upon fountains or small rivers. but chalky water. the goodness we it is less And therefore npt to move. limetreeblooms. and again. pinks. if they drink wine 391. and likewise in large and clean ponds of which is the more spiritual. 392. such as they have in Venice. and at some distance the sweet. 390. for the bearing or not hearing of soap . are more he smell. and that by boiling upon an which consumeth away best. as a sweet-bag waved. roses. for the hungry water doth kill the unctuous nature of the soap. Springs on the tops of high hills are grosser and more earthy spirit cometh out with the best: for both they seem to have a lightness where there . Thirdly. though not much. perhaps. which wear out apace if you use such for and greater emission of the spirit when way is made . of the smell malt . : . The cause is. and see. maketh meat red The cause is. that of the leaves. whereby CENT. as it is in rosemary flowers. especially the women. thoy are odours there are no such degrees of the issue of most pure and unmingled . woodbines. is : And I conceive that chalk water next them the wise in oranges or lemons. of the flower is rather evanid and weaker than they are found not so choice waters the worse. The taste. and sweet-briar roses. and not before. because they are covered aloft and kept lavender flowers. In some also. The cause double first. there the smell rain-water. so it be out of a deep well. the nipping of their rind giveth out their smell more and generally : best for going furthest in drink for that also helpeth concoction. &c. The daintiest smells of flowers are out 395. as violets. there the spirit of the insomuch as the people that dwell at. grosser juice. than near the nose . the ill sign. Fifthly. Sixthly. but in this last there is a concurrence of the second cause. and the tongue is : periments are more sure.

IV. by rivers and otherwise stage. pensate the heat of the day. and divers parts of the West In though under the line. is whereupon the water runneth.. solitary touching that taste sweet. and the skull of the pig closed. that an emperor of Rome. and rather concocteth it than soaketh it. and pale. in all appearance. as in . and have great lips. so as it hanged a pretty distance by the visual nerve . and yet she con for Mero.CENT. We see also. First. Experiment 399. they move little or nothing. the stay of the sun .r they are commonly found in Experiment 400. take in a great deal of filth. and so maketh one long summer. are generally moro sandy and dry. insomuch as it is ex tant in story. And the confines fused almost all over. though cut in several pieces. tinued the race a little way with her head off. and therefore in those parts noon is nothing so hot. and flies. do com A third cause is. f. when the head is off. without breaking any part of it. the heats are not so intolerable as they be in Barbary. little time. as they arc plump and lleshy. but in the skirts of the torrid zone it doiihleth and goeth back again.. so. The reason may be. and olivaster. but the sun.il of pure earth with less mixture of other water-. . if their black skin would sutler it to be seen. it is certain. to show . for that we spake of before. first the great do move a good while some a very .1 . &c.i great d--. under ground with whereas springs on are well watered Verde is the tups of hills through . is full of rivers. because fire doth lick up the spirits and blood of the body. 398. and therefore the spirits are a little more dispersed in the sinews. that the immediate cause of death is the reso lution or extinguishment of the spirits. and worst of may you trust waters Abyssenes. and the skirts of the torrid zone.Seventhly. that are continually about the fire. and Congo. as birds breezes which the motion of the air in great cir cles. but yet so as there is an interim of a small time. so as they exhale. which was the metropolis of ^Ethiopia. and during that time the eye hath been without any power of sight. and therefore they move in of the river Niger. the cleanest and best tasted . which is a gentler heat. when the breezes are great. water upon upon sand. upon revenge. In Peru. and not drawn out.(Ethiopia and Guiney. And certain it is. fourthly. A8 for the ^Ethiopes. the been severed and it is a report also of credit. and Peru. and the dews thereof. it may be. but in respect of the season . where the Negroes also are. judgment may be. where they are tawny. trem bling. heat dies. as we see in glass-men. as snakes. that the head of a pig hath been opened. insomuch as it is pesti moisture but the countries of th : : 397. and eels. But birds have small heads. certainty of his hand. and maketh two summers and two winters. The heat of the sun maketh men black in some countries. The causes are. some move. for that the length of the night. and Barbary. But some organs are produceth. doth but draw the blood to the out ward parts. solitary touching the coloration of black and tawny Moors. as men and all beasts. and yet after being replaced recovered Now the spirits are chiefly in the head and sight. that clr. that the extinguish ment of the spirits doth speedily follow .iss level. therefore. the spirits are dif Negroes are. cells of the brain. stark dead. and the pig hath a little after gone about. such as are under the girdle of the world. so that it ever maketh men look pale and sallow. that an eye. as about nine or ten of the clock so peremptorily necessary. Fire doth it not. and therefore. not in respect of day and in the forenoon. made of waters by the as pebble 1. all which betoken moisture retained. It is reported by one of the ancients of credit. or severing it from the marrow of the back-bone. . and that creatures is Some after their head off&quot. eels. that the Negroes are bred in countries . and therefore we see that all ^Ethiopes are fleshy and plump.gt. &c. for under the line the sun crosseth the line. which do refrigerate. motion after the in rising grounds of groat cities. tin- valleys join in effect waters of same |&amp. they are sanguine and ruddy coloured. and the brain put into the palm of a man s hand. during which time the pig hath been. that a sacrificed beast hath lowed after the heart hath Another cause is. their several pieces. where the for worms. Neither and thirdly. Aa was upon a great lake. waters all 111 NATURAL HISTORY. Experiment solitary touching the temperate undtr the equinoctial. flies. hath been thrust forth. worms. as she ran swiftly upon the that have plenty of water. and without motion.ilk all upon mud. and soil next that clay-water. whereby motion remaineth in them a little longer. and after a small time the brain hath been replaced. the destruction or corruption of the organs ia but the mediate cause.. which in men and beasts are large . lent through and the region above Cape likewise moist. night. which must needs stant of death. and struck off her head. did shoot a great forked arrow at an ostrich.

Dung. and urine. . doth hasten their coming on and then the dungs. and supported round about with planks and for it may be some steeping will agree best with upon the top was cast sifted earth. The planting of ture of water. doth hasten their coming on and ripen There was also other wheat sown unsteeped. and kernels rotted. them forwards. The turnip-seed and the wheat came cially in the spring. next kept. as hath been said. and the goodness of the crop food. were first the urine. other in water mixed with bay-salt. without any watering. is like it will. next the wheat into the inside of a room where a fire is continually which hath been simple of itself unsteeped and unwatered. berries. which also partly appeared in the former ex was taken horse-dung. thickest and most lusty. They are the first &quot. ashes and salt. because many times the south west sun is too parching. it may be in the spring. as it radish-seed. with water wherein hath been steeped sheeps-dung or pigeons-dung. The urine. other in water mixed with horsedung. or trees. They are the principal part of the third day s work. and in tne mixture of : the heat of the morning succeedeth the cold of the night: and partly. they came not up at all. or chalk. espe cow-dung. and peas. and spirit of wine. cucumber-seed. old and well periments. other in claret wine. once in three days. ripening. But to do it unto herbs. This experiment was laid upon a bank half a foot would be tried in other grains. for the most of the steepinga they are of excellent and general use for are cheap things. to draw the nourishment are either twelve hours. east sun. are also the above an eighth part. doth set 404. other in water mixed with chalk powdered. The time of the steeping was trees warm upon a wall against the south. the drawing of the bought next the ashes. next the chalk. or by the comforting and oxriting the spirits in the plant. to the roots of trees. after. which have their prices very much increased by the early coming. next the claret wine. turnip-seed. and the manner of it seed. medicine. the third The experiment was made in October. which are more dearest 402. malmsey. The rest. to compare it hotter coast. which is the word of animation: shall culture did rather retard than advance. and this and we it with diligence. experiments that follow . and likewise to recomfort it sometimes with muck put to the roots . though they be not ap and the spirit of wine. CE*T. strawberries. were simple without mix plications to the root or seed. that those that were dung. any use thereof for profit. This is a rich ex words are but the words of essence. applied in sub stance. chalk. and the south-east is found to be better than watered twice a day with warm water. if the goodness of the 401. but ing.producat. some two some seeds. V. seeds. without mixture of water or earth. it flowers. is a great matter of gain. which is like to ba cherries. There were sown in a bed. seasonably. crop answer the earliness of the corning up. nay more. except it should be for sowing of peas. worketh the same effect. concerning the better. herbs. other in water mixed with ashes. And it is like the same effect would follow in other grains. other in urine of man. next the soot. other in water mixed with soot. Strawberries watered now and then. came up within six days and those that afterwards proved the highest. and then the seed sprinkled upon it. is not practised. hut to water it with muck-water. There was wheat steeped forcible. As for those that were steeped in malmsey. day. save that there was not of the salt comforting of the spirits of the plant. So likewise the plant ing of them upon the back of a chimney where a fire is kept. though the south-west be the was also other wheat sown simple. CENTURY Exptriments in consort touching the acceleration of V. The former means of helping germination to the water And of this latter kind. having been steeped all night in water mixed with be tried also in several seasons of the year. periment for profit. The proportion of the mixture was a fourth part of the ingredients by the goodness and strengtli of the nourishment. But the cause is chiefly. will prevent and come early. the accelerating would have been the speedier. for that with the rest. But there doth not occur to me. inquire of plants or vegetables. wheat. and a number of mechanical arts. the watered twice a day with warm water. So that these three last were slower than the ordinary wheat of itself. both being from the vigour of the for the other And The bed we is a hot-bed. This is a noble experi . and.&quot. high. as up half an inch above ground within two days call this : there this : . The event was. yet not brought into use generally: for it is usual to help the ground with muck. or south . are too hot. next the salt. The time of the year October.NATURAL HISTORY. WE will now do germination. and other fruit. at this present. There the south-west. or blood. it may be these helps 405. It may be tried also with for ment And therefore is an experi ment. 403. and the wines. though vulgar in strawberries. other in spirit of wine. steeped as before. other in when they come early. without this help they would have been four times as long in coming up. in water mixed with cow-dung. and soot. other in water mixed with pigeon-dung. It would be tried also with roots It would fingers deep. but for longer time.

which is matter 413. water boughs. But after we house hot-country plants. length. by the discharge of that. strawberries. put not forth any leaf. upright in an earthen pan. are in particular eight. you shall have a radish. on to bear flowers. when they are newly knotted . It that for nourishment the water seemeth by these instances of water. but the young buds did myrtles. peas. or other flowers come of rareness and pleasure. which had all their leaves cut almost close to the roots. and it is likely that if it had been in as housing their boughs. 407. rosa sera. till upon removal we left the trial. and within seven where they were days sprouted. work the same effect. be Experiments in consort touching the putting back or retardation of germination. will forth a fair green leaf. Note. or peas. gentle digging and loosening of the earth about what moistened by the suing of the pan. and then they will come again the same year about No will not cut. in the space of three months. may have violets. the cutting off their tops imme diately after they have done bearing. it is an experiment of pleasure. and. as well of October. full of fair water. and therefore is a comfortable experiment for good drinkers. First. which eye. that drink incorporate with flesh or roots. as it is in roots. roses set in the midst of a pool. all winter But note. as aforesaid. to save them. but it was sprouted forth half a finger s 40t&amp. and * ithin six weeks had fair leaves. having been less exhaled by the sun. and so make double returns. It proveth also that our former opinion. A Dutch flower that had a bulbous was likewise put at the same time all underwater. The cause is the same with the former. But casually And therefore some wheat lay under tin: pan. more than seven days. as lemons. tried NATURAL HISTORY. so we may house our own which afterward opened into fair leaves country plants. The means are these. for then the side branches will bear. come in a month. will. the buds. which the water. The housing of plants. For and that the earth doth but keep the plant upright. while it was observed. but though divers buds 403. and some other little buds. both accelerate germination. and came not forth at all .hey some two or three fingers deep. half a foot : : damask rose with the root on. is Note. 410. that is to say. But the most admirable acceleration by nourishment is that of water. but later.spirit of tlie plant: there is a third. without any show of decay flowers and plants in the colder seasons and as or withering. may be. The second to bear. divert unto the side sprouts. To make roses. the horse-dung about the fourth part to the water. that in other grounds will not come in two. which otherwise would have fed the top. the mending of the nourishment. and so continued till the end of November. within the space often days the standard did put 412. which the roots of trees and the removing herbs and in six weeks. to have grown in general three. and a radish-root. as the other.. as in under the water. looked mouldy to the flowers into new earth once in two years. a beet-root.. insomuch as they will come a month earlier than the grapes abroad. Besides the two means of acceli -ratinir : is the s. is a double profit. There were also put in. cients esteemed much of &quot. though of small use. and lighter-coloured than the leaves used to be This experiment is to be referred unto the comfort abroad. without any mix a standard of a standard was put at the same time into water mixed with horse-dung.gt. which was some nourishment. facilitating the 411. ing supported with some stay . 10 . and continued long after further growing. will nourish more easily than ing more than two foot high above the water: meat and drink taken severally. The cause I that the sap. as is. that the leaves were somewhat paler so that you sow or remove them at fit times. &c. and continued so a come in the cold seasons . in and pulling retention of the sap for a time.itiiiii formerly described . for cutting off the tops. for the new earth is ever looser. to forward them. root. Wheat also was put into the water. SI &c. By this means you may have.&quot. was set in a chamber \vliore no fire was. for grains. the standard be capon-beer. and in four month s space. H the making \v. This is the more strange. is almost all in all. the one in the high price ! the pulling off the buds of the rose. that the first buds were in the end ing of the spirit of the plant by warmth. And in deed the November rose is the sweetest. it would have put forth with to accelerate germination. come just on the tops out of those shoots which were. oranges. or seeds. vember: but .iy for the easy coming to the the cold of the water will mortify. and diveision of it to the sprouts that were not so forward. with grapes. that if roots. .). for that the like rose. though after bearing. it greater strength. wards that leaf faded. as it seemeth. so as it seemeth there must pTiuiii. doth greatly further the prospering and earliness of plants. in such sort. So then the means the spring time. For the an ture. I conceive. and make them sprout on. that you while after. may there be accelerated in their coming and ripening. or flowers. V. that those things bear when they come early other in the swiftness of their returns : for in : the 1 1 some grounds which are strong.une tiling. oft&quot. &c. for it were. and they will come 414. and save it from over-heat and over-cold . a borage root. at the first. and comforting be some strength and bulk in the body put into of tin. and drawing it.CENT.late. and bring forth which stood at a stay.

to without charge . then shaking doth the tree good. trees. is somewhat in the keeping of it steady at first. it not to and the frosts. ported also. and giveth aliment. will grow to be a . being of the bigness of three or four inches. many do use to draw up the sap some of the means are more proper for the one in polling of effect. and how to make the trees themselves more tall. sallow. to avoid confusion. late and more slowly. but after the tree about with some packthread. that to make hasty-growing 421. which we shall And the bough about Allhallontide now and set it in the ground. the body that draweth it. to help to draw up the sap. 417. it will forwards. and partly the robbing of them of nourish 424. &quot. 426. that if you lay stones about a stalk of let tuce. both trees and flow we mutatis mutandis. A fore some have put two little forks about the bot seventh is the girding of the body of tom of their trees to keep them upright. but if you they will bear the same year. and contrariwise. and lay The cause for that the cion over- ruleth the stock quite. and because . and plants. should not be shaken. mulberries. ers. is And this a very profitable experiment for costly trees. The fourth is 422. the new cions will perish. down. the roots. for that it retaineth the and suffereth Again. Men have entertained a conceit that show. the graft will bear fruit early . how make fruits. The up more 420. and is. as a peach upon a cherry. be exhaled by the sun. It is reported. set CENT. and every twig will take root. if an early-com ing fruit upon a stock of a fruit tree that cometh late. roses. and sweeter than they use to be. tree. over-moisten . Generally the cutting away of boughs and suckers at the root and body doth make trees grow high ment by the stuff in the hedge. all his When of fruit trees. that if you graft upon the bough of a tree. for the the melioration boughs will make stocks Experiments in consort touching offruits. It of flint is an assured experience. ash. The cause is plain. that a heap or stone. If laying of straw some height about the body of a tree will not make the tree there some time will be required after the remove for the re-settling. alder. The fifth is the removing of the tree some month before it buddeth. to take willow. which arrest is afterwards released by the covering of the root again with earth . 425. but suffering the lower boughs to grow on. almonds. musk-roses. a peach. From May to July you may take off the bark of any bough. more spread. 427.. instead of one root they will put forth many. that these experiments. It may be also. The third is the cutting off some few of the top boughs in the spring time. and cover the bare place. the way is. to these purposes. upon the first planting. for that also a year s rooting.&quot. ing fruit upon a stock of a fruit tree that cometh early. . and we see for that the trees. for that moisture which falleth at any time upon the tree. branches aflat upon the ground. peaches. yet For though the root giveth the sap. the next year.coppice woods. and then. eighth is ercising. shade. partly the keeping out of the sun. and to may . or other plants that are more soft. as it were. and the stock is but passive only. and stirring the sap of the The the planting of them in a tree. with loam well tempered with horse-dunir. we will handle them leave a bough or two on apart. As see in pollards. in more plenty. and contrariwise. The cause is. laid about the bottom of a wild tree. and more hasty Wherein there tnd sudden than they use to be. V for acceleration. flow and roots larger. and maketh itcome by loosening of the earth. which hasteneth the sap to rise . or in a hedge : the cause is. but later. and. But you must note. as keepeth the tree warm from cold blasts it were in a house.NATURAL HISTORY. as a cherry upon are but imaginations. but no motion to the graft. and that time being lost. until it hath taken root fully : and there them in May. &c. But these bear fruit late. The like is continually practised with vines. before it can draw the juice . Query. elm. The cause is. and it in the bare place. somewhat above and below. the blossom must needs come forth later. such as are apricots. 423. that if you graft poplar. it is 418. it about Christmas some days. take a earth you would have many new roots low tree and bow it. and then the sap getteth up. speak now. binding it We will ers. boughs do help more strongly. and cut off some of the old boughs. for that it doth arrest the sap from going upwards for a time . at the first setting. 41 G. inadegreerestraineth the sap. a reasonable depth under the ground . doth make it prosper double as much as without it. do serve also becauso the tree both effects proceed from the increase of vigour in but yet. and some for the other. but aslope. by ex but late. as by laying the roots bare an oak. untrue. &c. to that And it is re the top. 415. and so carry more shoots upon a stem. &c. the graft will set them not upright. is no doubt but the former experiments of accele- fast down. The sixth is the grafting of roses in until May. so as the worms will eat which commonly gardeners do not then they bear not graft till July and them. and cast upon them. a late com eth prettily namely. of some seven years growth . the polling and cutting of top maketh them grow spread and bushy. Then cut off rinn will serve much again. cornelians. figs. 419. These means the be practised upon other. The cause is. &c. perhaps.

which comforteth any tree. that if the French manner of planting low were it is good to begin with the hardest. We see also. whether a tree grafted somewhat near the ground and the lower houghs only maintained. And gar tion : : : practised in trees that show fair and hear not.gt. To revive an old tree. as roses.i loam and horse-dung applied to the hare place do moisten cherish it. about the roots. freshness of the shade . the taking flesh . We see also that draught-oxen like. as well being itself of a spongy substance. and at ing forbidden to come up in the plant. for they will bear numbers of fruit: whereas if you graft but great to graft bought. The cause cause of this was nothing but the loosening of the keep open. as we seen in compassing a tree This is of greatest use for onions. to bore a hole through the heart of the tree. practised more than it is in fruit-trees for trees but it will not keep open without somewhat put cannot be so fitly removed into new grounds as flowers and herbs may. your nursery of stocks towards the bottom. the other. the digging of it require much sun upon walls against the south . that all things do prosper best when they are ad or melocotones upon a wall. that hardness in youth other countries where they have hotter sun. and so holdeth it in the . o : j : j : . and the roots. for that the root requireth some to an excessive bigness. the sun may come upon the bough and fruit the the roots will become of very great magnitude in There hath been practised also a curiosity. it draweth tht as the body and the lower part of the body more moisture of the earth to it. It hath been 435. to the better of the body in age nay. The reason is. I con ceive would advance them likewise. the greatest fruits vanced to the better. l. both downright and across. fair tree in tlic NATUJAI. Which hath hem The digging is which yearly about the roots of a great means both to the accelera spread root it upon the south side: conceiving that the deners use to tread down any loose ground after and lower part of the stock should enjoy the they have sown onions. they lengtheneth life. and so dilateth it. and thereupon it will hear. for you shall ever see. is the way. up to put into the cleft a small pebble. But it is more churgeahlo lln.. and set hear.iigh. plums. for when a tree groweth hath been used doth help to renew . the comfort of the sun. and carrots.. The cause may ho. than the upper. one year. may be. be laid below and about and fruit.. the cause is. that hacking of in respect of the props. the wav is forth the root. tree can bear but few. It hath a double commodity . for that the moisture be better. and the next year bear exceedingly. their wines would be in thick shoes. To have fruit in greater plenty. summer. and melioration of fruits. but with this caution. It is usually practised. and applying new mould to the as apricots. &c.CENT. and is fit to be hide-bound. the grapes ought to be in a more barren ground than the that make the wine grow upon low vines bound ground is whereunto you remove them. and tinhigher continually pruned oil would not make . that this may be a general keeping up the sap of trees in their not only upon young stocks. and b. stayeth a little height to draw it through the wall. The lowness of the 439. The shifting of ground is a means to bough where the fruit cometh. the put into fresh pasture gather new and tender heat of the wall by reflection . and the upper boughs 438. IM. it will cause the root to grow not . and longer in the root. especially if it be not round. but I conceive.panicum&quot. into it. 437. alike upon the upper and lower branches. that and beaten down hard with the foot and spade. nips. The cause is. in apricots. 430. that in Italy and to better. V. for that baring from the hark keepeth tlir sap from de scending towards winter. and the raised vines in arbours graziers prefer their cattle from meaner pastures make hut verjuice. It is true. no less than the body of the tree . that a fruit-tree hath practised in trees that do not to cleave two or three of the chief roots. to set a tree upon the north side of a wall. and make it more apt to put it. sin-Hirer and sweeter. So all to small stakes. It hath been observed. If &quot. though under earth. for unto other trees and shrubs. vines. which may again. The it and then it will bear. the sun cometh from the former.TJ. It were good to try trees in their bark. But it sorted the bottom of a root. for that the tree before had too much re thing but in vines which if it were transferred pletion. or turnips. in exercises. and it may be also that tin- larger fruit. but changed and differing but when it is spread upon a wall. It hath also been practised by some. but upon divers boughs of an old tree. i. and so feedeth the root. It hath been known. for Note. and to ripen better the tree and fruit . because it leaveth a cherishing raise them upon elms and trees. And in France. as dancing brought in use there. &c. to beginning of winter. figs. for that comfort from the sun. as it were earth. is practised in no may lie. If an herb be cut off from the roots in the 431. means (&amp. trees. peaches. &c. peaches. for that a root of a tree may be. 1-J!. repletion is an enemy to generation. and been blown up almost by the roots. which It may serve to other effects. pars below with straw. and in all thigs better nourishment than away of the shade.sTORY. turnips. the upper boughs over-shadow the lower only better. better . and was oppressed with its own sap. the one. upon one stock the 434. maketh the fruit greater. to set trees that 436. and then the earth be trodden pull off some leaves from the trees so spread. Ill.

for nitre is. But this seemeth to have no great same years. the life late in the year. sea and killeth their moss. And it is a common experience. To increase the crops of plants. I sup means the former year s tree will be ripe. perhaps. for as the stock of a graft yieldeth better prepared nourishment to the graft than the crude earth. &c. viz. &c. that there be some trees that are said to come up more happily from the kernel than from the graft. and 445. It is reported. when other trees of the same kind do year bigger and more plentiful fruit: or else. for that the nourishment is better giafting in the root. It is prescribed by some of the ancients. to the thickness of honey. to cut off the stalks Shade to j and you shall find the strawberries under those leaves far more large than their fellows. yet it is not so moist and plentiful forth a larger and earlier onion. as the nourishment of the earth. which being prevented. that much that is sown taketh no root. : . weed. The cause is manifest. put under the roots of coleworts. and cover the trees 450. as in The virtue. V. whereby to nourish. as hath been said. Take seed. a set wheat.. And bays you must plant to the north. and. when it is almost at its bigness. them large and prosperous more than sun. fruit grow. for two years together. time a tree bloometh. for that the the sooner. and especially delivereth them from being hide-bound. after it It is reported. but yet note well. which rernaineth after the fruii. and then to cast a pretty quantity of earth upon the plant that remainetli. 111. or defend them from the sun by a hedge-row . The pricking of a fruit in several places. I suppose to be. for 452. Where note. stored up. strawberries sow here and there some borageseed.alga marina. earlier than in the to be as a kind of the most part doth meliorate the fruit. so the squill doth the like to And I suppose the same would be done the seed.&quot. The cause may be. tender by the warm water. It hath been generally received. which thereby. . We see those fruits are very cold fruits in their natuie. first half ordinary time. It hath been received. and then take them up in a warm day. | fruit. plant watered with warm water will come up and therewith anoint the bud after the vine is cut. for that those plants that the squill is more vigorous and hot. probability. which is like a great onion. was made more check it. if all the blossoms were pulled from a spring. as it were. with putting onion-seed into an though the nourishment of the stock be finer and onion-head. The cause showers. in comparison of that which is sown.ti-1 NATURAL HISTORY. both from a fruit-tree doth make the fruit fairer. for 442. it will blossom itself to that you take small trees. 448. and be tried also. immediately after their bearing. For the cold then coming upon the seed. by the earth. and before it with success.of the trouble and pains: yet so will superannuate. no doubt. The pulling off many of the blossoms The ting. will further their growth. 453. as the peach and melocotone. There is no doubt. and is not spent in the stalk or leaf. of other plants. if the experiment be true. j close j of cucumbers. Therefore amongst is a great help to fertility. upon which figs or other death. by putting kernels into a turnip or the like. prepared in the stock than in the crude earth . as you may make them rather in slices than in continued tracks. It were good to try what would be the in the middle of autumn with dung until the effect. larger leaves. that a mingle it with water. and cause is manifest for that the sap hath the less by avoiding the shallow lying of it. &c. It may require a nourishment of great moisture. 451. of vegetables. And indeed \vo 446.VT. sooner and better than with cold water or with it will But our experiment of watering wheat sprout forth within eight days. or of the plant.. or kernels of apples. by keeping it from being picked up by birds. that if 444. 117. succeeded ing of the bud and of the parts contiguous. i CK. diitli great good to trees. or a peach. because of the sap of that which trial to is spilt. which strawberries and bays. might grafting. in the end of October. much is true. seemeth to be So they have lately made partly caused by the over-expense of the sap into which nevertheless hath been stalk and leaves. if they stand warm. will bring better prepared. But I think it is as true as . by the not. and when you sow the berries. but the saving also weed not the borders for the the weed giveth them shade. which may be. per I some plants conduceth to make haps. if you do not pull off some blossoms the first 443. oranges. It hath been practised. to lipeneth. they left off. and put them into a squill. as by a pose that the tree will either put forth the third new birth. because. and replant them in good ground and by that from a wild tree. but that and they will come up much This I conceive earth itself. that the dying in the winter of the sap goeth down roots of plants that are annual. tlrat &quot. that there is much saved by the set 449. the but blossom. being yet unripe. that a smaller pear grafted upon a stock that beareth a greater pear.. you take nitre. hath been practised see the ex ripen the fruit more suddenly. pears. fruit-tree or the acorns and chestnut-buds. is like to be. there would be considered not only the increasing the lust of the earth. ample of the biting of WVpfl or worms upon whrrrby manifestly ripeneth the sooner. the open with warm water. save The cause. or a plum-stone. and they will bear next year fruit long before th year . because the trial was too spirit of the nitre . will become great. hath relation to salt.

and then pour earth upon them : same cion may like for cucumbers. as was some distance from it. which by moderate feeding. As terebration doth meliorate fruit.gt. The cause may be. in it tasted. I have heard that it hath IK en tried upon an elm. for that. it enough. trees. if it be an experiment of a higher nature than betitle : longeth to this in plants. in twenty-four hours. It is reported.!. the spirit of which is less adurent than salt.lt. and withal do sweat out the coarsest and unprofitablest juice. and over-drink themselves. 9 ri . if fruit upon the 1&amp. It is reported.gt. prove he steeped for that the will they will graft an apple cion upon the stock of a colewort. if a fig-tree. times \\atercd with salt water. and . set a pot of water about five or six inches dis tance from it. ronverso. have his top cut help and comfort them. or upon an alder. which. if it he grafted upon a sallow. will be too weak to draw the grosser juice of the earth.&quot. 457. The cause is plain. It maketh figs better. and remove them into pots with better earth. and much more with water mi\d with nitre. even as it is in living creatures. if you terebration. so much Of grafting there are many experiments worth the noting. which the graft it upon a stock the first year.&quot. for that water may work by a sympathy of attraction. juni per. because the nourishment is eoli wort. would take away They speak also. with chaff or small sticks.lt. will be a tries seed being mollified with the milk. that upon the artichokes will be less prickly. stock. and more melon-like. shoot the greater fruit. when it true. for the dulcorating ot truit. to for it move towards diseovereth perception that which should heginneth to put forth leaves. mastic-tree. \c.N tli. trunk of the tree through in several places. Vet it is reported. do extremely affect wise make fruit greater. that it maketh the fruit sweeter The cause is. or blood to the root. The ancients. attain the soundest habit of body. latr h&amp. But trees. and thereby letting forth gum or tears.fruit Crater.e of the probahle Upon ancients to prosper exceedingly. It is spirit.&amp. &c. the kernel of which. these being more forcible than ordinary com is and digest. half way up. and then let it rest. and sweat. that is much Minister Us own stork. this is upon do commend swine s dung above all other dung: VOL. that trees will grow greater. if the seeds have their tops dulled. and yet no more than they can well turn it is and better. it may make tin. you fill it. fore but that was in several years . or grated off upon a stone. though I!ut is like it will make the fruit haser. that if.ii &amp.lt.(i. if their s. li. they may receive aliment suf ficient. been turned into sweet. that rueumbers generally the grafting is upon . and to lie better of tin- prime imvern. that terebrathrust into the places bored wedges of some hot tion of trees doth make then prosper better. it is farther re it off and graft it upon another stock the second ported. Herbs will be tenderer and fairer. reported. for that the sap hath the The ancient tradition of the vine is far more less to feed. if you bore the discourse. It hath been touched before. that cucumbers will be less more easily come by in the loose earth. that flowers removed wax greater.Ii to &amp. the pear upon a thorn. you he. tilings The cause may be the increasing the lust or spirit of the root. . that the like effect fol- loweth of steeping in water mixed with honey . like reason doth letting of plants blood. as it is in 459.&amp. guaiacum. as is said. as it seemeth. 464. when you either their flashiness or hitu :- and not an apple. And it is intake them out of beds.-e.IM \\ill Neverth. &amp. that if you set a stake or prop at may be the fig will come somewhat later. when a cucumber is grown. but at some seasons. 460. it will yield afterward. tliat in the Low Coun more tender and dainty.e ITURAL HISTORY. though it be at a distance. because honey hath too quick a 462. posts. (hat a lli. It reported by one of the ancients. cause it will yield mop. when it beareth. or upon an elm. It may watery. if in the pit where you set them. and 463. . It wore good to try whether an apple cion will prosper. Coleworts are reported hy &quot. it will. or upon a horse-plum.U a little in milk. as pricking vines or other trees. The remove from bed to bed was spoken of be 465. and more tender. II. if you put salt. and then cut chaff or chips forbiddeth.gt. when they are newly come ported that by this artifice bitter almonds have up. so 458.lt. !. but this of the stake seemeth to be a reasonable fairer. as if you take a cion and moisture. or upon a poplar. in artichokes The same experiment may he and other seeds. r y u || call _ &quot. the cause is the same with other removes formerly mentioned. that oft redrafting o f the year. the sudden. and succeeded. which off. 4G1. if they lie sum. the cause may lie. and bear better fruit.i drier stock. for that adventive heat doth cheer up the native juice of the tree. and it will hear a great flaggy apple. \\liii-li \vr rejected -=-. if it he set. or lees of wine. fore is for the CI. : formerly touched. is out as to touch the pot. which are the moistest of trees. but that seemeth to me not so probable. . found also. though this be not to continue. The same may be tried like wise in other l. It is reported. but only the finer. notwithstand ing the terebration. and the less way to mount but it strange : it is. but those we reserve to a proper place.rr\\ -t ck of another kind.&quot. it will grow that way. as turpentine. that mulberries will be is far stranger. made ness. and exer cise. and the trees more fruitful. and so for a third or fourth year. Nay. after they be of some growth.is the apple upon a era!). than the other.plentiful nourishment. It is manifest hy experience. 455.

though . wither. 469. It were not amiss to keep back the sap of herbs. and draw it gently. is the length of time in which they grow to maturation. besides the defending sides the weakness of the soil. if the outermost pill be taken off all over. And in all trees. ed before. north and south. the choice &amp. kind chiefly. which they call swallow-tail. seed. and some especially fruit-trees..NATURAL HISTORY. It is said. is invited by those per tusions to spread and approach as near the open air as it can . to . or their planting too deep. seeds. both because they 466. will preserve the root all winter. above that which they would be if they were set of kernels or stones. Experiments in consort touching compound fruits andjloweri. which do check the so you take the latter sprout. be made in the pot. that have male and female. it 474. Besides the means of melioration of fruits high with earth. to ble. of the fruit from extremity of sun or weather. and so compound creatures. will put forth leaves almost as broad as then cover the pot with earth. if after they be bright. as mixture of bran and swine s dung. So that there is be somewhat inferior it. no doubt. laid up together for a a double use of this cutting off the leaves. more nourishing than leaves. and so set into the earth. may be because of the moisture of that cause the stone lieth not so near the sun as the beast. as radish forter to a fruit-tree. and 470. and from too much sun and wind. tree . it will make the fruit also the greater. and leaving the fruit in the earth. 467. &e. better than in an open field . as birch. V. propped up with a stake. that the sides of the trees be coasted. that Which experi as in fruit-trees the graft maketh a greater fruit so large fruit within the ground. are upon a plain wall. tree gro\vt th. and in watery grounds more shal low. for that the longer the juice stayeth in the root of vines. for that having earth . for the same cause. into an earthen pot perforate at the bottom to let in the plant. or chaff and hath been partly touched before. by strengthening twenty days. It would be tried therefore in trees of that like. to the cion. for in month to rot. or root . It is delivered that onions wax greater if and so it will do to the heads of onions. in regard the nourishment is better concocted . or the like. whereby the excrement hath less acrimony. and laid a drying where the fruit is the esculent. put over the fruit. that all seeds or roots potted. that the fruit loving and covet ing the open air and sun. there is copulation of several kinds . it will yield a very the brim of one s hat. that \3 generated betwixt the horse and the ass. both in smell and taste. or other roots. and the better. they say. and covering again the root something upon 468. asp. They commend much the grafting of pears or apples swine s dung especially. wliich CENT. willow. is a very great nourisher and com plants where the root is the esculent. It is observed by some. And they be taken out of the earth. and so enlargeth in magnitude. Wherein. it will make the root the greater. and chiefly because they are defended grown up some reasonable time they be cut. the root. a weech-elm. The cause may be. before they a quince. before mentioned. though that seemeth to make it more dura have less reason. without earth in it. being the shining willow. so. and then set again and yet more. see that in living creatures. All trees in high and sandy grounds are to be set deep. the better it concocteth. but shoot up still in sweeter. or by issuing of the sap too much into the For all these there are remedies mention leaves. will be effected by an empty pot. greater in breadth and thickness. fruit-trees. growth of all fruit. ripen more than the chief causes why grains. some lit means. The cause may be. and then the pot with earth be set likewise within the ground some two or three inches. Timber trees in a coppice wood do grow pig s flesh is the moistest of fleshrs. and fruits. that a and make it bigger in the spring following. For one of elbows or buttresses of stone. without hurting it. it is set down as tried. as the mule. cometh either of their overgrowing with moss. between ami ^Ulk. and so. set upon a wall against the sun. The barrenness of trees by accident. as it hangeth upon the because of the pleasure of the leaf. they will be more nourishing. if some few pertusions be 476. The cutting off the leaves of radish. they must needs grow of the stock doth dulleth much always. grafted upon the stock of an ordi nary elm. and especially . And it is very likely. enough within the pot to nourish them and then being stopped by the bottom of the pot from put ting strings downward. that if one take bough of a low fruit-tree newly budded. till the end of summer. The leaves. and some give a reason. even in grafting. for provided that otherwise it And it may be. when they be removed. As grafting doth generally advance and meliorate fruits.y that if potado-roots be set in a with earth. will prosper the better. It is an experiment of great pleasure. it will make the greater removing. fir \\c see swine s and 472. ment is nothing but potting of plants without in trees that bear no fruit. in the beginning of winter. care ought to be taken. make the the leaves of shady trees larger than ordi It hath been tried for certain that a cion ol nary. 471. It is delivered by some. that all herbs wax offer not to spread so much. the roots will grow greater than or 473. and parsnips. The same is said also We of stone out of the quarry.gt. 475. be othe r compounds which we call monsters. no doubt. where by. pot filled dinary. it may be. the injury of the weather. as they stood before.

but plant . as it seemeth.earth and exhaust it. will put up in. and the it be true. wherefore it were one of the be possible. plants are of several natures. The like is said down sweeter: which likewise of kernels put into a bottle with a narrow filled with earth. good store of me will make the fig mofr planted about the fig-tree . as some tree . to be they will not come so as it should seem : Experiments in consort touching the sympathy and the corn that for their and prepareth qualifieth the earth.nnl it rare . as it is very probable. tipathy. nourisheth. There are many ancient and received traditions and observations touching the sympathy and anti pathy of plants. It hath been set down by one of the an much nourishment from the earth. And it is prescribed also tobind rue doth prosper much. For I do not doubt.sts i-ome fountains of waters there tiring rare. at the least for a time. that there be kinds set certain corn-flowers which come seldom or never very often watered. the one set by the other helpeth first uniting they be often watered. there the neighbourhood doth good. and so tall most part of experiments that concein sym For as to plants neipathies and antipathies do. wild poppy. afterwards being bound shoots will incorporate. tor their sympathy is an antipathy. which they impute to an But these are idle and ignorant conceits. by ploughing or furrowing. or douhleth the flowers. doth better herbs and flowers will grow but in ditches new unite. for that the Neither can this be. with the in other places. This observation. 478. that to union. . yet. that a rose set by garlic is may be. They report that divers seeds put into a clout. but if the rue more strong and bitter. means that hath yet been propounded . For the cion ever over-ruleth the stock. we conceive. hurt all things that grow by as great trees. ( &amp. 479. and then bind them them close together and set them in the ground. and such trees. together. for it is thus Wheresoever one plant draweth such a particular : M&amp. tlit r is there any such secret friendship or hatred : as they imagine call it and it we should he content to being refreshed \\ itli several kinds. trees as spread their roots near the top of the . this may be. Andii ground. which they impute to sym pathy. \\ hieli. more t&amp. therefore. to the vine only. in a fruitful ground. and the more odorate into the rose. divers sorts lY&quot. is of kinds in plants if it and many times The compounding mixture not found out. there it hath not the power to make a new kind. It is and white grapes being reported also. that it is an enemy to any other plant. and laid in earth well dunged. : stock.iu several parts to drink. when it creepeth near the colewort will turn away. for though the was. that if you take two twigs of several fruit. because the nourishments are contrary or several . First.. if it holdeth. all plants that do draw 477. &c. that of living creatures. and forsake the true indication of the causes. as ! 483. by reason of the culture of young contiguous without any binding.r than theless. the unity. growing more And this will likewise help.Ifrini jxirit. that mendeth the fruit. never to couple. and so soak the cients. it antipathy of plants. and becometh stronger. because the fetid juice of the earth goeth into the garlic. that of species. drafting doth it not. the plant will bend as 481.CKNT. for if the ground lie fallow and unsown. is of great use for the meliorating of taste in fruits and esculent herbs. It is reported. for all moisture as it is set down by divers of the ancients. as it qualitieth the earth. unless they be set.i NATURAL HISTORY. the one drawing juice fit So they havo to result sweet. it is utterly mis taken.gt. as hath been said. the other bitter. the nijn-r uliijuiii itiiiimtri eometh. growth.gt. and draw several juices out of the earth. and some worse. is Where or two. they will come up in one stock. a kind of Which seemeth to me the likeliest yellow marygold. is at more command sympathy and antipathy. but by extrac tion of a contrary juice. that mouth more likewise. the neighbourhood hurteth. and their antipathy is a sympathy. for that the of hea. is held that that proverb. and grape-stones of several colours within the same grape but the more after a year : there it findeth root be where it it worse nourishment. as well as the if it be set by a fig-tree. will put forth grapes of several colours upon the same branch . I doubt.gt. which. which. because it draw ture in the fruit. This we see manifestly. for that their lust reijuiretli a voluntary motion . but yet they will put forth their several fruits without any commix So the colewort is not an enemy. helpeth the bud as soon as it cometh forth. that vines of red set in the ground. for the one decciveth the other. 480. while it is in motion. unity of continuance is easier to procure than unity eth strongly the fattest juice of the earth. but only very luxury of the trees will incorporate and grow. and of the scent of flowers. as that juice which remaineth is fit for the other most noble experiments touching plants to find it out: for so you may have great variety of new fruits and flowers yet unknown. fig-tree do make the as the ancients have noted. V. but where two plants draw much the same juice. juice out of the earth. . and fumitory.amongst corn: as the blue-bottle. set plants contiguous. because upper parts beingflatted and bound close together. and trees of several binding doth hinder the natural swelling of the the ground. though were anciently received. which. 482. that the vine. their caused not by reason of friendship. cast. for that some will thrive best! growing near others. if from the perfect. there. but Wherein note by the way. and flat them on the sides. especially ashes.

whose ill quality. a service-tree. they make a question. appeareth well in the experiment strength of an herb. and see flowers. tables. little white box of wood. The cause is somewhat whether the rosemary or bays will not be the more obscure than the former. and see whether the radish will and swelling them at the bottom. &c.. with the moist amongst radish. perhaps. which is nothing but a full violets or wall-flowers. and roots. and thereby less able to support the flower. take. They take only the part that is wreathed. should set tansey by angelica. and they make it a piece of the wonder. For marygolds. they make a little hole. sun. tain herbs and plants. by setting somewhat in the box did work the feat. are or flabby. 485. and others. 491. as. worts. Take sorrel. as they hold the cross to their mouth. become not the ing and shutting. leaving half : would be also made in herbs poi of it sticking forth of the quill then they take a sonous and purgative. therefore. and set needeth no sudi solemn feason to be assigned. but I take it to be more od orate or aromatical. and cross-ways of rence by this kind of culture. as them here and there. that the shrub called our dators of the earth. as if may be discharged. and the other by bowing and s\\ eeti r. and one of them starveth the The like is said of a reed and a brake . Then they make a little cross of a quill. But yet if you will correct the from the earth. which we know have fruits of harsh spread their leaves abroad when the sun shineth and binding juice. and likewise divers of the modern writers that have laboured in aiiral magic. or serene and fair and again. but that the part against which the sun 489. and the cross stirreth not. ? and cause another to name divers per sons. or gather them inward. likewise. see whether the rasps will not be the sweeter. most offend in the sun. and so stick the cross in the box . not be made the more biting. Then they prick the bottom where the pith is. or a cornelian-tree. So set lettuce or of the sun. harsh. in marygolds. or bays. but not to let the cross sink down. They take the beard of an oat. and to say. or coleflory. Who hath a glove stronger poisons or purgatives by them. or rue. and some principal stars. minated some herbs solar.but to stick. and indeed most flowers. for that they be both great depre woman in the company? or. if you mark it well. pumpions. do open and an elder-tree. you shall do well to set other of jugglers. with a pin. is wreathed at the fitter for mix by And it if you should set rue bottom. if it be set with lavender. and one smooth entire straw at the top. And the like of hem- ock and rue. or attempered. What a little moisture will do in vege juice. enough to take the beard. and set it amongst sun showeth bright. pirninclining the head. would turn to be liker 490. whereas the dry air doth extend 487. or the coleflory. Some of the ancients. and inclining the head. This axiom is of large extent. Take cucumbers or | i less earthy in their smell. and refined by Neither must you expect to have a gross perfection. It is 484. in some part. close will them. even though they be dead and severed or the like. and set them near a vine. sour. that garden clover will hide the stalk when the 488. wart-wort. and some lunar. waxeth more faint and flaccid in the you set herbs together that draw much the like stalk. in which. trial. were good. For it is Set cucumbers. amongst musk-mellons. to make the trials following. and then . but only farther that piece of the quill without pith. and cole. and therefore the one deceiveth the other. in sweetness. no other. and cut off the other. the whole cross being the breadth of a finger high. having first put it towards their mouth. and cerAnd so they have denobitter. they touch the beard with the tip of their tongue and wet it.NATURAL HISTORY. and ture in perfume. may as if you be the which. and set it amongst rasps. leaving the beard half the breadth of a finger in length. it angelica would be the weaker. or a card both of which are succulent. you must take heed how beateth. and upon every naming they stick the cross in the box. the one by openthe lettuce. and set it near manifest that there are some flowers that have lettuce. Contrariwise. and thereinto they put the oaten beard. it is found in the great flower not be the sweeter. or when the sky is overcast. and see whether it will expansion of the leaves. CENT. one or both will die. 492. ure of the air. and see whether the grapes or figs the tastes that do Now and herbs. ture. V and waterish. both which draw strong juices. or artichoke. by way of impos ladies seal. and such like toys put into great words. and better tasted. Trial may be the wormwood Roman wormwood. For the bowing and not make the violets or wall-flowers sweeter. 493. which is a kind of briony. It is reported. as if they charmed it. therefore would be severed. other. And therefore I think rosemary will lose 494. that they rejoice at the presence of the see whether the melons will not be more winy. sweet. Take wormwood. fruits. 486. moon. set near together. either towards fig-tree. tulips. or pernel. and mourn at the absence thereof. nothing else but a little loading of the leaves. like herbs by him to take him down. Take common brier. It I j I : Of this there night. Take. Who is the fairest The cause is. and them . have noted a sympathy between but when they come to the person that they would . to deceive men. Then likewise. and see whether respect to the sun in two kinds. mallow cucumbers amongst rosemary or bays. and the diffe which hath the pith . longways of that part of quill common wormwood.

hath with the sun. whether profitable operations in this kind.gt. that the froth which diet. that where preserved. This seemeth to me the least probable . and But if it be so. It is Experiments in consort touching making herbs called reported by some.lt. ones as lavender. herbs. we is a principal nourishment of them. I doubt more.&quot. herb. dew at noon than in the morning.m&amp. But whether it may be applied unto plants and it herbs. doth fall but upon certain from those that feed in the valleys where no such whether manna.CENT.gt. or taste of fruit. There falleihalso mildew i^-on them is a more common juice. and other wholesome herbs.r I 500. doth the like. and the earth lieconie in. or letting into the bark.y turn finely and softly three or four caused ly tltt! untwining of the beard the moisture. the drug. or medicinal substances.lt. are r. until the plant do satm. which many of the ancients have set them down. opium. that the dew that is all alteration of vegetables in those qualities must dew of the morning be by somewhat that is apt to go into the nourish But this is true. that kine feed upon wild garlic. again. or orange. some half a foot in earth the bottom of the vessel.&amp. or ed some that had carnal company with her.gt. which they have devised of makin&amp. and nourish not. lilies. where It would be well inquired.gt. may be doubted. The altering of the scent. especially since the great consent between plants and w atcr. as hellebore. and another without virtue. | 498.experiment formerly mentioned of the cucumber creeping to the pot of water id far stranger which is effected by so little than this.l see it more evidently. take a vessel. steeped wines and beers are very medicinal .f. or flower.. V. I hope.gt. treacle.f make !&amp.. The experience is. You may . and Therefor. that foil. but it may be. : ! 0&amp. re moist. away . the flower beareth part with the dew.gt. and that without virtue. there are theriacal herbs. The cause is.tlleth also upon other herbs and is not ob assimilate it.lt. whereof they will. for it hath a smooth and thick leaf. that the honey dews are which with use did not hurt the maid. Of the cause of this inquire further: seemeth a secret. any co loured. that as herbs or leaves only.&quot. But lest our incredulity may prejudice any were good trial were made. and then binding it up it . sage.. then sure it is : : &quot. and fruits nwdicinabk. !!:&amp. colour. when the dew of other herbs is breathed ment of the plant. and in the middle of it cinahle. by infusing. and let not the earth r seeds in that wati-red . that it hath more not marked. or root of the tree. do gather in the bottom a kind of honey. fish. that the dew should fall en that was fed with napellus counted the strongest poison of all vegetables. because the root draweth immediately from th earth . &c. and those hot dangerous thing also for secret empoisonments. The first is. at the noon-day. and likewise bread tempered with divers powders. which is hardly corn. scirrus&quot. mixing. more dry. by milk of a cow that feedeth but upon certain seemeth to be an exudiation of the herb itself. upon that and nowhere else. It &amp. see. for that those things have passed their period. from whence the bee gafor you will not. The. special kind of food fit for the disease. and honey in Spain smelleth apparently of As plums sweat when they are set in the oven the rosemary. and let it lie so some ten days. that it is like thereth it and there is an old tradition of a maid which is Gideon s fleece of wool.or the like but whether any cause be from it is observed by some. lay a great sponge. 499. will make an think good briefly to propound the four means attraction at a distance and not at touch only. lie. their milk tasteth not discharge the dew so soon as other herbs plainly of the garlic and the flesh of muttons is doth And it may be better tasted where the sheep feedeth upon wild that are more spongy and porous. : : dew. that this motion. fowl. that the herb make strong waters. but preserveth the beast that feedeth upon the mountains. &quot. 496.c a false bottom of a coarse canvass: fill it infusing into with earth above the canvass. were good found upon it be not the : thyme. have a great dew upon it. It is certain. nl i&amp. and so the nourishment is hemore common .r plants medithe root. And be sure. lavender cotton. because the nourishment of &c. milk and eggs. scammony. sponge which l&amp. think. as flesh. first to but fancies. or fish. the medicine l .gt.&quot. if you stick the cross between y-nr ilu-refore you may lingers instead of the Imx. and the. So oeech. then sow some i_ hut under the ranvass. if the beasts. soils. and to the show alike but the virtuous is taken from purslane. be fed with a they call woodseare. when the sun shineth hot And and bright. thoroughly wet in water. that It it they impute to a delight and sympathy Men favour wonders.&amp. It were a is found but upon certain herbs.sa then-fore whii-li that the right name is &quot. you shall sec turns. stronger than the closing or bending of the of a marygold. that there is a virtuous the leaf itself to concoct the dew. .ros solis. which appear be only that the leaf is close and smooth. therefore drinketh not in the . of the liver. being like a kind of spittle. and the like. and M e whether the seeds will sprout. that the capable of any special quality. or some other herb. it. but poison found more upon oak leaves than upon ash. Galen also speaketh of the curing of the&quot. Thus far I am of opinion sockets. both the woodbine and the tre And in them certainly of meat also. or whether it bezoar. Flowers that have deep herbs are. it NUTKAL is HISTORY. by slitting served. ami smutteth it. they may be made of great use for medicine and 197. hyssop. so as honey-suckles. aromatical. the **.

Some doubt may be conceived. so that you may have is gravings. either of use. 506. I doubt.. and therefore the virtue may the sooner vanish. being too small to keep you make the moulds. with being of a more ligneus nature. This is easily performed. 501. may not be made in the wood And note.70 and less qualified up ere it is to : NATURAL HISTORY. whether some small OUR experiments we often said. This is easily performed. : of timber. in a good ground plen 504. Amongst it though be somewhat better. will and . as them within. and cutting them without. and ersor herbs. whereas the rest are applied but at one time. It a curiosity to have inscriptions. or knife. &c. moulds glued or cemented together you may open them when you take out the is because others. and besides. they have a great hill to go up. It is a curiosity to have several fruits upon one tree . and peaches. for that the seed naturally drawing the moisture of the dung. upon Wherein they do but grow in the tree. by writing with a needle. juniper. when some of them come early. according as they are but lame things. So you may have cu with the tree itself. as rosemary. ety. The third is. when the fruit or trees are young. will not draw the parts of the matter which have the propriety. 505. the steeping of the seed or kernel in ter : cause the medication is oft renewed . or formed like a cross. perhaps. The second may have more force than the rest. It is observed by fill the concave. or oranges. but there holes sun. we have or either &quot. that fruit. upon one tree sity of fruits must be such as will graft upon the and setting seeds or slips of violets. and some come late. take care to be. by vines. also. several boughs of a stock.creacetis amores. may have also fruit in more accurate figures. or the like. beasts. nor new moulded. that gillyflowers. 502.&quot. therefore the likeliest way to be the perforation of of the tree in several places one above the body likely. sphere . keeping of the sun from the fruit may hurt it: watered. : . that you make the mould big enough to contain the whole fruit when it is grown to the for else you will choke the spreading greatest of the fruit . therefore. which is somewhat bet for if any virtue be received from the medicine. so the letters will grow more large upon the same tree ripe fruits all summer. same stock. or en ing plants. curiosities I shall place colora for beauty in flowers is their pre-eminence. in one a long time with an infusion of the medicine. and the more. and so be turned into the shape desired . done by grafting of several cions upon easily Tenerisque meos incidcre atnores Arboribus! crescent illic. Wherein you must under figure . and such like. and the watering of those lumps of dung with squirts of an infusion of the medicine in dunged water. and all kinds of plums. because the seed.iucifera. as long as a cane or as round as a You may have and shrubs. You into sundry shapes. you can have apples. tion. be way perforate the body of the tree. This and graphical. in going come to the fruit. or bodkin. . but it will be far the more : I judge before. VI. hath the less way. swoetwilliams. and roots of red roses for it may be they moulding them when the fruit is young. It is an ordinary curiosity to form trees cumbers. and the filling of the holes with dung mingled with the medicine . with turrets and arches. if they be neglected.&quot. as it is in mould works of liquid some. if you mingle the medicine with dung. which is done by moulding also apples in the form of pears or lemons. we must apply ourselves somewhat to we will set down some curiosities touch 503. were anciently matters of magnificence. in the earth. It would be tried also with shoots of shapes and figures. You may have troes apparelled with flow So you may have all kinds of cher tifully fed. ries. I doubt. or of discovery: for we Yet hate impostures. in fruit or trees. that it were best partible.experimenta fructifera. great castles made of trees upon frames stand. said some liquor wherein the medicine is infused which I have little opinion of. and the less time to go up. This. And. is it that the root somewhat But still I doubt. or birds. and despise curiosities. to let in the to make the &quot. and then* to infuse the medicine. it is CENT. as they do in pots though. camomile. with some feeding from the same stock upon which you graft plums. by boring holes in the bodies of them. It is a curiosity to have fruits of divers the trees. the watering of the plant oft CENTURY Experiments in consort touching fruits curiosities about VI. may call in withal some of the propri the other. once in three or four days. nor transplanted. but I conceive the diver and putting into them earth hoi pen with muck. as I those fine impressions. will incorporate moulds of earth or wood. too stubborn to receive and besides. whether wild thyme. But we said of men. which otherwise would spread itself. for as they grow. rrsprct. apricots. The fourth is. or pears. as is ordinary experience of fruit that groweth covered. strawberries. and neither things. Query. and plants. that the that are coloured. violets. and the like.

and those to become double: which were a great. to have them except it and another apple. are commonly inodorate. plums. Some some plants roots are yellow. and all. but that tree heareth no fruit: and the it may be. some i . for that the coloured are more juiced. poppy. as stockgillyflowers. into It is double. which. And some h. The leaves of some trees turn a little white flowers only. and as they come up. Whites are more inodorate. are blushy. is or set seeds or slips of flowers. there! . in white currants. which grow not to be black. tOMfl what natures do . would make the tree spend its. that are. sow soon as sweetest such as are paler . which is smell . There is a peach also that hath a circle of red towards the stone: and the egriot cherry is somewhat red within.e tlmse natures. and they be commonly young leaves that do so. is whereby they need The is which general colour of plants a colour that no flower is of. by producing cometh forth. applied to the tree. VI. pears. although they have many times red sides. nor plum. extremely accelerate the sap to rise and break forth. as we see in white grapes. for that they are all over-watery. The cause is. that in earth. and in bean-flowers. doalwayscome uj th&quot. almonds. and some have part of their leaves yellow. is There sweet. and a double leaf. the white is com monly more delicate and sweet in taste than the coloured. black than the white. green. 513. which new earth a curiosity also to make flowers is effected by often removing them as on the contrary part. and therefore all your dainty plums are a little dry. as it seemeth. and white lilies. turn white. &c. except in (lowers that arc only and admit no other colours. The cause is. for part. larks-toot. if see in white satyrion. and hazel. though it lie contiguous.&quot. in white strawberries. to remove them into new that is good. seeming..ve white leaves. though they call it a berry. itattaineth no strength of odour. roses. 500. And if it be too sparing and thin. white stock. musk-roses. stalk and leaf. N And it ITURAL IIISTOKY. tli. It is good.bable. and so are fruits. white roses. likewise.it white this Fur rot find. Inquire also. This experiment of several colours coming up \Ve find also that blossoms gillyflowers. as is found in single white violets.amongst a hundred that are rare and of ^reat price. and those not thin or dry. no doubt. The harvest white plum is a base plum. Leaves rot into a yellow. that yellow is a less succulent colour than green. fUBR . are queen-apple coloured red within. but azure and a fair purple are never found in leaves. and vines. I suppose also. yet some fruits. in white rasps. The cause may be inquired. &c. nor apricot. and sow it. and in one Led. tin- 71 - is with much culture is may pp.M single: the juice.. in berries. that they may have two n. 512. have light t how to for by that you shall induce colours. As we of a dainty And again. plums are black . as meaner: as the choicest in pear-plums. prove And the way to do it speedily. and there will oculating of flowers. 510. that the while colour . murry or reddish. whether in which the red inclineth . double : flowers. ground by neglecting and not removing. as the muscle-plum. and the verdoccio. &e. be in such plants as are very succulent. &c. For it hath been noted. are of the nature of berries. lute. is is sweeter than but the egriot more sour. is better the amaranthus. but it is pale and scarce a green.7. There is a cherry-tree that bath double blossoms. &c. c \sually. rather to be scanted in their nourishment than replenished. deners N certain. But in fruits the white commonly is east. and if another. single. and therefore not so well and equally concocted . but leaves of a more coarse and common. that same means which. .. &c. Ate. as cherries. nor warden. damascenes. and come from the stone. called the mulberries. Some herbs incline to purple and red . as carrots. not being able to suffice a succulent colour. as it is in oaks. and blood-red. but no pear. would be tried also in monks-hood. and coarser juiced. ihe damascene-plum. to peach.gt. Contrariwise. than flowers of the same kind coloured. or pleasure of taste. whereas a higher concoction is required for sweetness. as the seed meeteth with nourishment in the earth so that the gar com&quot. Few : fruits are coloured red is. If in (lowers.&amp. and smell sweet. which is the most common. but the white are belter proportioned to the digestion of tho plant. the apricot. is a fruit. so it accompany what colours. and a degree nearer white. as fresh and shining as the green. and as the seed doth casually meet with them. Take gillyflower seed.ii&amp. there are very several juices. and holyoak. which also maketh flowers to be of so dainty colours. and another kind of mint . the plant be of nature to put forth a greenish primrose. and peaches. as another kind of sage. they are commonly of rank and fulsome smell as may-flowers. tin. . ae ii. carnation of several stripes: the cause is. within: the stance that maketh the flower is of the thinnest and finest of the plant. turn coloured. more to white. rose-apple though most towards the skin. and grapes. crabs. for that the sub from one seed. that are white. and the mulberry. The cause is. as of the clove-gillyflower. that flowers are made of daie-plum are no very good plums. and white This showeth. as the cceur-cherry. and rosa solis. 511. whereas those of apples. of trees. cmei!i of scarcity of nourishment v. as a kind of sage doth. the a refined juice of the earth. white gillyflower*. and a kind of mint. doth up gillyflowers some of one colour. of one kind of gillyflower. that those yellow leaves of holly stand ever towards the north or north hollies to all 508. doth not make them double.gt.CKXT. And it is noted especially. that which dn come up purple. as purple.re.

pronounced impossible. For it is the sec. see. the better to save the life. that in living creatures. 524. 525. there is some affinity between the pith and the kernel. they an hour.NATURAL HISTORY. that whatso ever creature. 2. as corn. and I have heard it on the outside. that seeing the earth of itself doth put forth plants without seed. and turning it to small affinity . but some of it left. Drought. and requireth deep search into nature.!. of the transmutation of plants one &quot. it will boar a fruit water gently boiled. will make a wild den make a garden tree a gar tree to have less core of a baser kind. and both rise : upon cutting down of an old timber stub hath put out sometimes a tree of another kind .&amp. &c.. that a citron grafted upon a quince will have small or no seeds : and it is very probable that any sour fruit grafted upon a stock that beareth a sweeter fruit. ral. It is reported also. do better upon stones set than into another. quihns matidavimtis hordea sulci steriles &quot. is it is like will make tradition. There is an opinion in the country. because whatsoever maketh them so. that come Grapes out. is inter magnalia naturae is. is like ers make trial of the seeds before they buy tln-m. 521. that basil. but the stopping of the juice of the pith from rising in the midst.. and not being re moved. that not only the taking out of the pith. doth the like. Seeds. is generated without grafted. that have blossoms blush- though giveth a finer nourishment.Grandia Experiments in consort touching the degenerating of plants. It is true. but the oak-bough putrefying. therefore plants may . if they be set of kernels. old if it is . a very great change. and not altogether. although pith. it giveth Coloured. that needeth less nourishment. If a cion whether they lie good or no. there is much transmutation of make t\\f fruits degenerate and become wild. will sooner into other species than those that come change generally it And is of themselves . verified. ventitious nature. And it should seem probable. like is said to be of dividing a to the ground. be cause they are both of a harsh substance. -and the creature. and more void of the harsh matter of kernels or seeds. make the stone. :&quot. and the rule of exception should of it. that boughs of oak put into the earth will put forth wild vines which. is likewise a curiesity. one into another. figs. pleasure to see. and yet have strength enough to bring forth a plant.18. that trees watered perpe tually with warm water. far as to change into another 1. It is reported. that if the same ground be oft sown with the grain that grew upon it. 514. The standing long.lt. which is more into another. for that culture giveth but an ad and sometimes so kind. will degenerate. having life. that plants that are brought forth by culture. and the colewort into by neglect. 5. And then fore skilful garden ter.lt. that creature will change out of one species nerate. and certainly it is a thing of difficulty. which looketh and houndeth in sophy. if they be very old. The making of fruits without core or 520. .x Inliuin. and the means thereof to be found We th&amp. by putting them into will sprout within half or shoot.gt. smaller kind.gt. et dominantur avense. It is with little or no core or stone. Whatsoever fruituseth tobesetupon aroot or a slip. almonds. for that the stub tree mer too scant of juice to put forth the for and therefore putteth forth a tree of a placed in the midst. will make the fruit without core or stone as if you should bore a tree clean through. 523. So doth removing into worse earth. for the unless the earth of itself be moist. especially in apple-trees. and of the transmutation of them into one another. 3. conclude. or stones. of putrefaction. may both make the fruit sweeter. dege It is true that peaches. maketh them degenerate. if it it be drawn forth by the sun. to the sun doth turn into wild those two herbs seem to have and taking out the and then binding it up again. to be this : So as we may well that it doth not expatiate. fit to be set in the ground. yet a si-autcr than the earth at large. but seeing there appear some manifest instances of it. as the beech hath put forth birch . qualifieth the earth to put forth a vine of itself.&quot. be true. that plants for want of culture degenerate to be baser in the same kind . seem ui ich that whatsoever plant requireth moisture. The rule is certain. tn make them more tender and delicate. which oiliness. have the pith finely taken forth. and somewhat bet plant degenerate. strange which is reported.n. it will in the end grow years to be that whatsoever will tree. This work easily put off. that in very sterile com or stone. or forbear transmutation of species in the vulgar philo ing to compost the earth rape. 519. pomegranate kernels sown. upon grafiin&amp. and if they be good. 517. the opinion of impossibility is to be rejected. It is turneth into a vine.pe to another kind. the cause may be. will make a fruit with And the rule is gene little or no core or stone. if it be sown. And aga . It is certain. it peachand almond-trees. VI. as we see that water- mint turneth into field-mint. There an old 516. sown will grow 8&amp. most of those fruits that use to be &c. gr kernel than vipon the graft. CENT. prospereth better upon the stone For the stock. but basil is almost the only hot herb that hath fat and succulent leaves. the which. as hath been seed. And the too much exposed quick tree down thyme. Infeli. if it be true. sown. It is not impossible. reported. 515. and put a wedge in. no doubt it is not the oak that : 522. natuiu touched before. as caterpillars turn into flies. that tree. trees. a rule.

to The second parsnips. therefore. upon hills. The third rule shall be. and brakes. . ! 73 Where. or vessel it: and and gen. you must make account.. for these latter must be taken as you take earth that you have prepared to put forth hut the other do level point-blank at nushrooms of itself. It is certain. 531. for example. will grow as they find room. will dwarf it and make it spread. to make plants equire much moisture upon sandy and very dry As for example. linen cloth. likely enough that the earth being accustomed to you must have the nourishment over-rule the send forth one kind of nourishment. and besides. (c. . 528. so take earth made with marjoram. seed and therefore you are to practise it by nou : &amp. purslane seed. put parsley seed amongs they are not glutted with too much nourishment . for that opinion we have enough in body is to maintain a tall tree.lt. as to make ground- and likewise with seeds that are of the weakest herbs rise in height: as. but there will be a new con fection of mould. whereof you shall find some find them it instances following. to make the herb its nature. 535. I conceive also. Trees are generally set of roots or kernels : formerly rejected. in some great hollow tree try also the sowing of that all esculent and garden herbs. the earth. The fourth rule shall be. First.of As juice.ind to pot it.lt. as barrel up earth and sow some seed wise. or put it a wet or marsh ground. and sow the inventing of causes and axioms. heathling.n that to set the seed yon would change as. will be but if VOL. it is that if you will have one plant change into another. The cause is partly heat. rishment . and seethe pletion ever hindereth stature: lastly they are change of taste or otherwise. the making of as firs.. II._nvt w&amp. that it mingle not with the foreign 533.lirrlis sun. to take marsh-herbs. well NATI HAL IIISTOHY. or wild thyme. As for example. so nevertheless as the herb may grow. mount of themselves in height some medley or mixture of earth with some other without side-boughs. and may induce a change and coleworts. will prove more medicinal. those that read this xainple. carry camo You shall do well. will alter the new seed. erally work of SylvaSylvaruin&quot. and see what the event will be. account it strange. &c. and plants. earths do put forth of themselves. as top. and put it in the bottom of a pond. and plant them on sticks. The cause is plain. 10 . and li:ivr a transmigration of species. onion seed. till they come towards the plants bruised or shaven either in leaf or root. rule shall be.find. for that the coppice shareth with them. and it fennel seed. and pots with : tops of hills. seed. which perhaps will alter the you set them of slips. that timber trees in coppice bury some few seeds of the herbs you would change. IT icttles put forth ill aluindance. marsh-mallows and grow out of the sun or open air. for that is a grounds.irtli . &quot. and artificial dwarfing of trees. without any . mile. make earth with a mixture of cole. or origanum. it is but a shrub. 534. bruised or stamped. that we have set you shall then. may. set upon the seeds in the bottoms of caves. hanged up in wells some distance less esculent than they were before. be likewise. soon after it putteth forth. and partly tenuity for example. and that ever in plants helpeth mount well to put the seed you would change into a little ing. some wild herbs you may make salad herbs. This is the first rule for transmutation of Experiments in consort touching the procevity. as is reported. ns of ome trees you seed. therefore. and then you shall see whether the under-boughs.string or root of down particulars untried: for contrariwise. The sixth rule shall be. and re or basil seed amongst thyme seed.CENT. which heat appeareth by their inflammable gums. . for directions of the most likely trials. VI. This. great mutation in nature. And it may from the water. in our the nettles: and pot that earth. for that all things that grow. and groweth not big 527. plant bushes. 532. as you do hops upon poles. to mark what take. &c. than those that stand in the fields : juice of those other seeds do not so qualify the the cause whereof is. as it will alter the seed whereupon you natural motion to get to the sun . for that plants have a earth. In which operation the process of nature still will be. . take from under walls or the like. not that the herb you work upon should draw the juice of the foreign herb. and those that take. and set in itstockown estimation.H contrary as may be to the nature of 530. cucumber. wort leaves stamped. wanting instances which do occur. grow contrary to rule shall be. or the green strawberry upon sort. or wild thyme. and lettuce seeds. we shall to Hike thai e. lowness. It reported that a good strong canvass. or Known. and such plants as the event will be. when. which think that it is an over-haste. and see what the event will be. by name the mulberry. and see what lops of hills and champaigns. as 1 conceive. or wallflowers. But you shall do kept warm. or lettuce seed amongst parsley seed.- set in spread over a tree grafted low. and pines. so contrari in the seed . would not have. upon a sandy plot. though seeds sown. upon in it. both which send the sap upwards. Trees that are of themselves full of heat. work. or lettuce seed for in thes experiments. or sow in the worthy than those that are already tried and seeds of them.vjo. and have least vigour. we account such particulars more rillyftowers. amongst woods grow more upright and more free from other seeds. sedge. some of the slips will 5-J!. and yet not to the kind of the former herb. The fifth the herb. and set in it artichokes or for juniper.

&c. And upon great trees the gathereth a figure like a leaf. where 542. scent. which is Experiments in consort touching the rudiments of plants. and cannot get up to spread so frankly as it should do. poplars. and of the excrescences of plants. to multiply and Next unto moss.. : not. by tilling them for a year or two which yet somewhat concocted. and to moss. Old trees are more mossy far than young. or walls. it will put forth great store ot . though when. seasons of the year fit to be eaten. up. walls . and that moss is of a lightsome and pleasant happeneth to trees that stand bleak. The moister sort of trees yield but little nourishment more weakly than either a root or moss. terraces that they yield so delicious a meat. that hath an excellent forth moss . less fruitful. and putteth out moss. gathereth moss . not sharp or grip boughs. ers. 547. so on the other side the water must but after his polling it will not gather more moss. The moss of trees is a kind of hair . that Solomon wrote a Na tural History. and. &quot. whereby the sap is shut in. if they be much trodden mushrooms have two strange properties . Query. that they be made of use to cure their pasture grounds when they grow much moisture . will water from the ground adjacent. 546. It would also be tried. briony. And the growing I think also the watering of trees with cold foun slide. do practise germination by putting cometh out of apple trees. as we see in asps. The cause is. And upon the same reason mushrooms are a 541. . and less hardlier issue out. the mould of earth or bark. And for this expe forth plants. Fountains have moss growing upon the venerous meat. CENT VI trees. and upon the crests of they will put forth more moss . kernel. be set on fire in the Moss groweth upon alleys.&quot. whether. 544. which. The and again. they sometimes put growth. and doth the stubble is standing. from the cedar of Libanus. houses tiled or thatched. &c. to the The roughness of the earth. the other. red poplar. And almost all moss riment s sake. especially such : . or superplants. yet they are unsown. 540. vigour of mounting. And this showeth that they are windy and that for that the sap is not so frank as to rise all to the windiness is gross and swelling. assimilate. the earth putteth forth that they come up so hastily. It is reported. I have set hath here and there little stalks. indeed. There is a moss the perfumers have. sufficient for plants. 538. ing. that hath been long unbroken upstarts in state they call in reproach mushrooms. And (heremore sparing and starving juice of the earth. doth breed moss. Moss groweth chiefly upon ridges of be bound in with cords. willows.74 dwarf NATURAL HISTORY. mushrooms. upon tiles.&quot. hops. and the nature of it. and that moisture fat. for that a slip draweth 5 13. I think. and leave but cause the ground to put forth mushrooms at all sufficient moisture to breed moss and besides. and upon the north. In clay-grounds all fruit-trees grow full of moss both upon body and boughs. It is reported. if trees hide-bound. for so the best 545. which dried earths. caused partly by the coldness of the ground. whereby the moss can the dwarfing requireth a slow putting forth. but tireth by the way. that the bark of white or ground about them Muscosi fcwten. they wax 537. that if a hilly field. or otherwise. as ivy. which is partly caused for the reason that 536. And therefore such as are 539. or if they were at the first gravelled . for it is the juice of the tree that is excerned. beeches. We have said heretofore. having not moisture sufficient to put forth a plant. for that the fountains drain the small. and that they are holpen by hacking. as cold : &quot. therefore. All plants that put forth their sap hastily hath been given. for where soever plants are kept down. and partly for that the barks of and therefore they are winders and creep those trees are more close and smooth than those length. as in divers which are likewise an imperfect plant. and partly by the Scripture saith. of the frank putting up of the sap have their bodies not proportionable to their into the boughs . woodbine. as were.. as in a night. the coldness of the water conduceth to the same. or the mare in the stomach. in fore the surfeit of them may suffocate and empoison. we find also dependeth upon the same cause . whereas of oaks and ashes . as wall-flowers. by age. that moss. and not stand or pool. which are of the moistest of trees. lie low down the last experiments how call on mosses. And. for cold winds. &c. that if trees be And it is true that it moss is but the rudiment of a plant . the one. besides the thrum. being a thing of price. or some outward bands. I will speak of mushrooms . gross. and gather moss . the wall. 548. cut The cause is. particularly for the manner of the they grow to relent and resolve. for that the that mushrooms cause the accident which we call incubus&quot. moss showery season. Old ground. and cast into furrows well dunged. and therefore husbandmen It must needs be. as on the one side itcometh of moisture you cover a tree somewhat thick upon the top and water. is caused for that those tain-water will make them grow full of moss. whereby the plants nourish less. : &quot. Some add to the mixture leaven of bread dissolved in water. moss growing upon translations have it. and moss. and upon the The growing upon slopes is caused. if green. And therefore by the reason of contraries.

556. tion. the tree which groweth chiefly upon the roots of the la would be closed with somewhat that is not so na ser-tree . and summer. and lenifying virtue. 553. and beareth a white glistering eth. and friable. feedeth upon the misseltoe-berries. which is clammy and by that it continueth green winter and summer. to grow out of a pollard. sometimes as broad as one . and to be good with warm water dunged. excellent opener for the liver. may be trial made of some seeds. as oil. and not only above the so it cannot be any thing that falleth boughs.Mi. throat whereby it seemeth to have a mollifying itwill putforth. that ivy hath grown out of a stag s horn which they suppose did rather come from a confri. for it is not probable that birds may be ox-horn would do the like. as tile. that a brake hath been .in the some thickness with clay on the top. it is at the first sweet. nor bear leaves. There is also another imperfect plant. and 554. The plants are thorns. that that sap must be such as the tree doth excern. or cloth. especially of elders. so it be not hurtful to the which we call agaric. and cannot assimilate. for else it would go into a pithy . that hath gotten no name. but it is large. . crab-trees. But horn is of a fat and clammy substance this is a fable.it hartshorn. in this experiment also. tint virMi tli any moss or herby substance. There is an herb called Jew s ear. put into some little holes made in the horns of stags. for so will a cion. It were good to try. upon the be made by ripping of the bough of a crab-tree in thought to be dangerous for the the bark. 75 tli.(Vsr. that even dead bough. : allow that.. apple-trees. and light. . stone. and openeth extremely. And it is certain. the purging of tough phlegm. which the and nails for a time. which many times she cannot mixed with dung and watered. s hat. or feedeth upon a seed. bodies of trees . or painting. . . that and it is in show is like a great mushroom : But that which maketh an end of the is. and sometimes upon cedar and other tural to the plant as clay is. . and so expelleth it whole with her excre ment: which falling upon a bough of a tree that juitteth up mushrooms. and rape-seeds. if they be forbidden to put forth their not green. for they will never be that have boughs. digest. It is very white. that were not so natural to groweth upon the roots and lower parts of the the tree as water is . and : after hitter. This experiment of misseltoe may give monly a tennis-ball. that these have it bough gooseberry. It is NATURAL HISTORY. hut earth. though it be scarce should feed upon that they cannot digest. . in the fields that at the first is hard like 557. and some so they be such things as kill not the bough. to see if it would bring But it for kibes. black and white . and of a chestnut colour. and hard and : 552. trees.fvi-. by is the way. which they call and rarely upon oaks the misseltoe whereof is It is ever green winter a toad s stool but it is not esculent and it grow. and besides. commonly. . nature. what plants would water it swelleth. and so is often found there . and white and after groweth of a light to other practices. that wood pu fore trefied yieldeth a frank moisture. whereby it should seem. And it natural boughs. yet it cannot be for other reasons for credible. times ashes. li &amp. Try it with leather. There is not known any substance to sit and feed upon them. which may have given occasion to the tale. or barm of drink. that superfetation must be by abundance of sap in the : : bough that putteth it forth secondly. It may be. and like wise about the roots of rotten trees and there berry and it is a plant utterly differing from the Two things there fore seemeth to take his juice from wood putrefi plant upon which it groweth. VI. were yet more likely to try it with some other mushroom colour. to see if they will grow. It is put forth. may be certainly set down first. but of dusky brown colour. that misseltoe hath been found to put under the boughs. as that of fennel-seed. There is a kind of spungy excrescence. that put forth hair by the berry. And we KIIHW that harts and it hath some rift. that watering or anointing. Tin-re or oxen. and full of light dust is breaking. in the A man may They have an idle tradi plant. : : ed. clay : therefore. There . it is found but upon certain trees and those cation of the horn upon the ivy.first. question forth upon the bough. Misseltoe groweth chiefly upon : sometimes upon hazles. or any such like thing. And it is also an known 559. being turned down into the 555. berberry the plants that hav : . Therefore trial would a cake that groweth upon the side of a dead tree. 551. shaven. for in warm 558. prickles lemon-trees. There is a cod. . and procedures of earth. It hath a strange property . but misseltoe. by a dead stub of a tree.. Belike it hath a corrosive and fretting forth misseltoe. rose. But 550. mustard -seeds. &c. We find no super-plant that is a formed count the prickles of trees to be a kind of excrescence. poll therefore a tree. It is famous in physic for tree.counted very medicinal. Which showeth. that groweth com tree doth not. that bird . or bag. as may allure that bird Tii itself.lt. hut offensive to the stomach and in taste. crab-trees. rr|mrtril. than from the trees bear no such fruit. in small pieces. brier. that there is a bird called a misselbird. and see what I suppose it will put forth roots . and cover it is used for squinancies and inflammations. it seemeth to be more fat and no more than unctuous than the ordinary sap of the tree both trees forget not their putting forth the carcasses of men s bodies. It hath been reported. and watering of the wound every day eyes if the powder get into them. putteth forth the misseltoe.

or other brier. As for the leaves of holly. It reported. stamped. which we &quot. thistle . which are found chiefly upon the leaves of oaks. for that the moisture spendeth after a little putting forth. and will 565. both have roots. not till after a year or two. being almost but leaves. it is doubtful the germination: for if it be taken but from a fa whether the mortar itself putteth it forth. as is reported. For it is certain. As for alga marina. they come also of putting forth more juice into the leaf than can spread in the leaf smooth. The nature of the plants growing out of earth so taken up. or whe thom deep. that worms are found in snow commonly. that there be some plants that grow upon the top of the sea. doth follow the nature of the mould itself. so hath borage. and tne closeness of the bark. certain. as &c. nettles also have a small venomous prickle. such is that we call duck weed. can .&quot. and therefore they are ever like a pyramis. and after spire grass. &c. and some other flowers. it where there is some mould or earth. as rose-campion. cause they grow of corruption. sea thistle. little string into the water far from the bottom. for the same cause. cause prickles in boughs. 564. as thistles. 570. 567. that it may likewise put forth plants. The water send forth plants that have no roots fixed in the bottom. be moth-mullein. or velvet rind some modern testimony likewise. holly. stockgillyflowers. or whe ther out of the lime or chinks. that earth taken out of the but whether upon the main brick or stone. it hath a root in the ground . gather moss. which for that it is certain that toads have been found if you cut you shall ever find full of little white in the middle of a free-stone. a some herbs that grow out of stone. grow upon walls. Another kind of excrescence is an exuda tion of plants joined with putrefaction. And besides. but as it were As for the water-lily. rause is. as we see in oak-apples. will put forth sun but they manifestly grow out of insomuch as when they grow big they will . they are smooth but never plain. the producing of perfect plants without seed. 569. for that the hard gravel or fust laying will not suffer the grass to come forth upright. but of a fresher green. and putteth forth a borage and nettles are. and bottoms of wells. be ing supposed to grow of some concretion of slime from the water. putteth like if the earth be harder and coarser. that both stockgillyflowers and rose-campions. It is certain. foundations of vaults and houses. if much ther some seeds be not let fall by birds. houseleek. and the closeness of the bark. forth soft herbs. firs. that where alleys not surfer men to gather them. and so have a number of other herbs that grow in 560. . It hath likewise been found. 561.70 NATURAL HISTORY. and the va pour of colt s-foot hath a sanative virtue towards the lungs. and yield a nourishment for the plant. flints. and the workforth herbs more rough. juniper. but they are less perfect plants. and the like upon willows and : The ancients have noted. are close gravelled. VI. as grass. that earth being taken out forth. the ordinary grass The cause 566. Experiments in consort touching 563. but the sea weed under the water. It is common experience. but harmless. for that the sun exhaleth the moisture be fore it can incorporate with the earth. dry kinds of herbs: but some time is required for disjoin the stone. where the sun beateth hot. and eryngium. and the 571. the sea thistle but upon the shore. will put forth herbs of . but I suppose those are deeper. that there are that grow out of snow laid up close together and putrefied. a fat and juicy sub as penny wort. and that they are all bitter. CENT. In some mines in Germany. which hath a leaf no bigger than a thyme leaf. And for prickles in leaves. There be also plants. want of moisture. it putteth there grow in the bottom vegetables. it will put forth the first year. The Whereof the cause is yielded by some of the an year knot grass. fine tuft or brush of moss of divers colours. and wall flowers. penny also doth put forth a bough. and call therefore it is not unlike. woods some depth. that there are 562. It is reported by some of the ancients. \vith folds. There is also upon sweet. plantain. like earth-worms . is not well observ ed : for elders and ashes have been seen to grow out of steeples clefts . if the mould be soft and fine. and therefore the leaves otherwise are rough. yet they have a kind of downy 568. but after that the earth is somewhat loosened cometh up. The ancients have affirmed. and then put into pots. There be likewise rock-herbs. have been . colt s-foot which down or nap cometh of a subtile spirit. purslane. The sea sands seldom bear plants. which is a likely thing. have had applied with success to the wrists of those that tertian or quartan agues . and pot ted. It is lying above ground. in a soft or fat sub stance. as. for the haste of the spi rit to put forth. sea weed. whin-bush. which may be. see also that We worms. is prickles in the leaf are. that though they ponds. it is a sign of a pestilent year. flomus. and where the sea stirreth little. and the want of nourishment to must he hasty putting of shady and watery stance royal. folks use to say they have magical virtue. some herbs country people have a kind of prediction. and those small ones . And it is afRnned also . but turneth it to find his way where it pebble at the cients. that great trees growing upon quarries have put down their root into the stone. and they name one specially. and upon their leaves. have no prickles. at the top. and the leaf also is healing in surgery. the earth putteth forth the first 572. that if the oak-apple broken be full of worms.

larksfoot. And it is said the orange hath the like with some early tulips. much 77 sand hath always its root in clay. violets. roj : yll i-. and the latest are gill 582. hips. fore crocus vernus also being an herb that hath an oily juice. and well watered with came forth herbs much like the are apples. and likewise the harvest of wheat and barley- cometh some flowers. all kinds of corn: some continue many and they are of such trees as have hyssop. do come commonly the seeds of clove-trees. stone. and die. For though green peas and beans be eaten sooner. cucum years. &c. 577. &c. grains. and we see with us. and after those kind of winters likewise. the seeds whereof sown in the end of April will bring forth excellent salads. then oats and barley. wardens. rasps ballast of ships.gt. musk-melons. that which is more. crocus vernus. almonds. but it plant full of moisture. &c. NATURAL HISTORY. &c. and and as all. basil.f And there moisture. vr. It is certain. &c o2 . cur apricots. and pepper seeds. medlars. would do the like. Some and hot countries.. for that the strength of the ours. trees blossom soonest. seemeth they are such as abound with nourish forward than the ordinary grain of the cold coun It is likely that this will prove better in try. fruits are strawberries. whereas which it 576.. that grain out of the hotter countries translated into the colder. rosemary flowers. is ground is kept in with the snow. whereby after one period. but which are earlier and later. and fruits. al monds. and at the same time. to us in Europe not them early apples. sloes. herbs are but annual. and it secmeth to be a work of providence that they blossom so soon . And I doubt not. for otherwise they could not have the sun long 578. as hath been formerly said. rye tin 1 earth. will be more 579. they could come hither green enough to be sown. which trouseeds late in the spring. oots. There be But this happeneth ever.lt. and wheat. and others 581. contused together. that come twice And it a year. as some pears. come up and abide most part of the summer. there is no more required. then peas and beans. water. mustard-seed. have a quicker fig. The earliest blossoms are the blossoms of peaches. plants hotter Many countries. And they are all cold plants us for a great part of summer. sloes. putteth forth early. almost all the year succeeding one an eth for the later. as we find it in orange and lemon seeds. bleth the husbandman many times. plants put forth for a time of thrir own store. The violet also. The flowers tries. warm other. enough to ripen. will neverthe less. in a tree is it is embased by the ground which grow in the to ment. &c. yet the dry ones that an. and that ther. for those also find the sun sooner than the drier trees. hyacinths. cowslips. used for horse meat. and that come early with us are primroses. rosr*. that. bers. as it should seem. Plants brought out of hot countries will to put forth at the same time that they in their own climate . and therefore this circle of ripening cannot be but in snci-ulont plants next after are wallflowers.&amp. And no doubt the natural motion of plants is perception of the heat of the sun increasing than the to have so. as a cold hand will sooner find a little warmth than a hot. There be fruits. water-daffodillies. and. strawberries. germander. 580. than to keep them from the injury of putting back by cold. brier-berries. &c. There be divers fruit trees in the hotcounwhich come more late in the year. and the latest rants. removed. without any nourishin nt from . there endeavour usually do 575. lavender. cometh twice a year. . almonds. for that grains are but annual. grapes. that of their and seeds. It is reported also. &c. &amp. cherries.. In Muscovy. or they meet with the cold of the winter. and . first. The grains are. quinces.-arth. ripe fruit. lettuce. are ripe last. And those that come spend. &c. Ii is out of tin- reported. which have blossoms. barks.. yet their harvest is as early as The cause is. . fennel. blossoms. . known. and young fruit.. and after them damascenes. other. even in those cold countries. before the sun waxeth too weak. and so the virtue of the seed is not worn out. but rarely. peaches. cast upon some grounds in Italy. and it seemeth Experiments in consort touching foreign plants. they can endure another. hnlyoaks. early pears. and so also hath the which therefore. 71. amongst flowers. flower-de-luces. -he veins sand any great depth within tli it ii&quot. tobacco. that earth that was brought Indies and other remote countries for The earliest that the fatter grain cometh first.. for you shall have red roses and damask roses come together . once a year as bora-re. and most kind of plums. tin experiment 29. did put forth foreign herbs. and not that the later Experiments in consort touching the seasons in which plants come forth. grains than in trees. &c. and therefore to be noted. nuts. &c. services. and that also is a especially the double white Roses come twice. the flowers and corn. but that either they want juice to hot herbs have. mingled with other herbs. for that the earlier stay- anemonies. commonly. and other earth. either watery or oily. is to miiiirlrd with cornelians. that if it be a long winter. which come more early. though the corn come not up till late spring. cor nelians. if at once. as peaches. It that ripen latest preserve them. cornelians. water. and after .gt. sooner. of which 1 573. being sown of not without cutting.vers. . being set in the colder. that some vidi&amp. it is com monly a more plentiful year. gooseberries. and afterthem pinks..

and therefore none encompassed with a case of wood.: 584. &c. which are herbs of the largest size. art to all exquisite figures . brier-roses. CENT. strength and quantity of their sap and juice. VI. chestnut. trees. is the hasty breaking forth 585. and suf fer putting it forth speedily and at once. co. &c. them hollow when the stalk is dry.78 NATURAL HISTORY. 589. The cause wasteth less than the more watery.tll handle it under the title of conservation of bodies. sage. 588. tenderness and weakness of the seed. &c. flower-de-luces. We see also. cucumbers. the rest are more indifferent. single plants nary period as to make a stalk of wheat. but no trees. until it hath gathered into a knot. . and well munited by their bark against the injuries of then when they make an eruption. that may be said to have some kind of order in the putting forth their leaves . as oaks. winter-savoury. for that the sap ascendeth unequally. churchyards. corn. but herbs draw a weak juice and have a forth casually. wardentrees. which have four leaves. which mak. late coming forth showeth a moisture more fixed. &c. trees at their full height. &c.. purslane. which ever beam. as the pear-tree. But some put forth we speak only of prolonging the natural period. bugloss. inso much as annual plants. of the dying is double. single musk roses. like. herbs : in ge herbs. and therefore those trees rise not in the year. that whatso- ones. the straw. pears. And The spreading is caused by the carrying up of the same cause is. &c. and so is more urged And therefore they are most of great trees. where they find best way in the soft stalk. that it neither goeth so far. will last more The cause whereof is. walnuts. &c. corn. elm. and the 587. as marygolds. Trees that bring forth their leaves late in of the sap . sticky stalk. I conceive that the rule will hold. reeds. last trees. will have to borrow his name of nvp fire. if you cut them season ably. As for the preservation of fruits and plants. 590. The cause of the pyramis is the keeping in of the or shed them betimes. as basil. of scattering the boughs. not figured. and canes. or dottards. as fennel-stalk. for every cutting causeth a renovation of the juice of the plant . and therefore those amongst them which bark or rind. and this holdeth in trees. are more a body of any height. and the like. by equal degrees. It is true. lime-trees. quince-trees. and be made. make | . for they have joints or knuckles. but in The The particular figures of plants . fir-trees. tobac And all much heat. last longest are herbs of strong smell. pinks. whereas hyssop. the loat-tree. borage. mustard-seed. and keep germander. as in the bodies of trees. as it were. being and stalks of herbs. we sh. neral we will observe. the first is the ever maketh the herb come later than at its time. it is often contrary pompions. till they begin to branch . almonds. lasting of plants is most in those that are largest of body . as when the plant is not cut. lasting than those that sprout their leaves early. have some closeness and hardness in their stalk. and come almost to todd . not touching The cause : of these are hot. pine trees. The cause some are more spread and broad . as it were stops in their germination . and in the same kind. cucumber. that some trees are more and with a scattered in their boughs . beeches. that leaves: lilies. There be divers herbs. such as is lettuce. as well upon the tree or stalk. nor riseth so faintly. for that the sap long before it branch. that wild trees last longer than the sap plentifully without expense. we see almost all overgrown to put forth. as sal low-trees. for that some herbs can worse endure cold. as have gillyflowers. lemon-trees. &c. some are more in the form of a pyramis. those whose more than those whose fruit is sweet. Experiments in consort touching of plants.will make it last longer time: it were good to try as it is in borage. Flowers have Some experiment would . and the other loose and more easily resolved.: and longer than apples. The that the sap being restrained in the rind and bark. and herbs. service-trees. &c. to keep out open air. Trees that bear mast.. or near ancient buildings. years than one. and gillyflowers. and canes. fennel. and eth the period in a small time lettuce. as beeches. 586. &c. as hath been partly touched .. are pollards. are no order. in the cause is. The cause is. will last long. set in the shade. trefoils. thyme. as more lasting than their ordi in primroses. which have five a whole year. plums. and then fruit is acid garden trees. they break the air. medlar-trees. but branch near the ground. and the spending of it. how by the flower numbers are chiefly five. them to come up still young. And for trees in which hindereth the sap from going up. bushes. and doth. leaves not numbered but they are ever small and not stubble. and cast them likewise late. horn is.. The other cause these have is. so much as often cutting. and will spare the use of them. colewort.. we leave to their descriptions but some few things Trees and for borage. for &c. and four . it in a stalk of wheat. the several figures Experiments in consort touching the lasting of herbs and 583. Nothing procureth the lasting of trees. And it seemeth they tire and stop by the way. &c. as oaks. the fatness and oiliness of the sap. as gathered. when it beginneth to branch. are com monly more lasting than those that bear fruits. for that trees last according to the breaketh not forth at all. You must ever presuppose. The cause is. you handle it so as the winter killeth it not. last pinks. for of small durance . which the critics especially the moister fruits. are growing forth of their boughs and branches. orangechestnuts. and nuts.

den. to think that chalk helpeth arable be also a mezerion-tree. in that either they are smooth and shining. pond earth . yieldeth pitch.gt. we have handled them before.CENT. as the double cherry. That of pigeons for a gar of the plant. there he some that hear flowers the chalking of the ground they wear it out with and no fruit. for that those that put forth their blos soms first. trial And spreading of divers kinds of earths . . then trial would be made. whether it be not by art or culture . bays. ploughing. and box. the of pinks and gillytlowcrs to be like the inequality of oak leaves. would be made of grafting of rosemary. white thorn. and the pedicles of them. &c. because they the ground too much. as a small quantity of ground. for salt is the first rudiment of life. &c. some long. that of horses. which is a spread it of the fatness of the dung: if the ground be graz ing ground. but most put forth some leaves before their blossoms . holly. as we see it in bowls. as juniper. as marie. beeches. &c. as having most fatness and not heating bays. camomile. Box is a fast heavy wood. and not fragile. bear no flowers. if the ground be arable. hops. s tired out. as apples. there be some other that creep along the ground. am tin. or else an oily juice. but maketh a slender the weight . their leaves. there be some that bear neither many crops without rest. : . their dry it up. Experiments in consort touching some principal dif ferences in plants. brakes. which apter to winter. as in bays. Fir. some few put forth their blos cornelians. will ground. grafted upon a holly. brier. and htlps of ground. : may have the less power to odorate. box. There are some few that bear neither fruit nor up wards and can support themselves. that the sun immediately before the ploughing and so to plough it in for if you long before. the sap put up too fast. The cause is. Most of the great timber trees. is. As for the leaves. Experiments in consort touching all manner of com posts. and to plough it in as they do the . either fruit salt. that shoot still 591. Of the first sort is holly. plums. been partly touched. 596. yew. that it was a It holly putteth forth most in the winter. or wind about other trees or props. It were good to which no doubt obtaineth a special virtue by thf Chalk try it also with grafts of other trees. &c. For I account the jairirinir sui-kets flowers. as hath climatis. or the like but they seldom or never have any small purls. ivy. 595. as a hot bed. a strong and tough wood. mil many jagged on the sides: which leaves of tlnwrrs seldom are. and yet bear no -ils. The sheep s dung is one of the best. The next is sea sand. and therefore trees. . as almonds. It were good to try the laying of some few likewise of the fruit trees.hut NATURAL HISTORY. and the mixtures of them. or in that they are hard and spiry. indeed.. flower. and sowing Yew wood is bows. briony. chalk. and cannot support themselves. cypress. for that all plants naturally if have either an acute and sharp spirit. Of soms before plants. As for special composts for gardens. some round. or the strength and heat thereof. There be some plants that bear no flower that which breedeth the error is. where but as. as in the rest. holly. &c. the sun will draw out much it . as vines.. as we see it in Of the second sort is juniper. woodbines. and maketh a hot fire. it is doubtful sallow. The first and most ordinary help is stercoration. but helpeth not grazing grounds. some are green all winter . which is as the fruit. ivy. There be some plants. and therefore commonly they all put forth early in the ispring. There are green all is move upwards. Divers herbs also bear &c. VI. Leaves also are all figured. &c 594. wards it will bear little grass. 592. it which will not support latter sort are all and therefore these swift and hasty comers. upon a holly-stock. black thorn. as mulberry. &c. and next the dung of kine: and thirdly. it helpeth grass as well as corn prove both an earlier and a greater tree. in supporters of flowers are five brethren of the rose. earth upon earth. or moist grounds. Bays and so is likewise a hot and aromatical wood is rosemary for a shrub. Of plants. box. ivy. juice as they make birdlime of the bark of it. juniper. whether apple by and other fruit blossoms may not be doubled. . as we see in other small twigs dry. or vine leaves. for if it be art. holly. or bear their leaves later and best upon cold clay grounds. is the close and compact substance of their And the cause leaves. to spread it somewhat late towards winter. Those that bear flowers and no fruit are few. &c. and the best. to see whether they will not over-heateth the ground a little yield their fruit. fir. bear no apparent flowers. 593. &c. poplars. to spread The stalk of ivy is tough. &c. are plants that come all winter. i . chalk upon arable grounds a little while before walnut. put out flowers than leaves. cherries. of gillyflowers. and then indeed after flowers nor fruit. as purslane. &amp. none square . because the ground as oaks. and ripen very late. because after and yet bear fruit. The cause of the holding green. others cast their leaves. peaches. excelleth. which is held to be somewhat too hot of that again is. : But for the cherry.is liinirrd. which is of so viscous a The ordering of dung is. rosemary.. sea sand. or wild trees. as most of the particulars before mentioned. and some shrubs. the density appeareth. as the elm. cause The pears. either the tough and viscous juice unless it be mingled. 7J the sockets . longer in the winter because the sap of the but I heard a great husband say. stalk. Marie is thought to be . box. &c. The second kind of compost is. &c. as the great est part of trees and plants . may common error.

It were good for then the ground will be like a wood. fifth is. that chalk in powder. to : springs. to bring water from some hanging grounds where there are though thin spread in a field or garden. river earth. perhaps as much as seed-corn. swept together. that such earth as hath saltpetre bred in it. would not make a good compost. and nourisheth it. for . if those hanging grounds be fruitful. with some chalk and dung mixed. and so the water be not too hungry and I judge it will a large hovel. with the vantage of the poured upon it. and with DC yet better if there be some mixture of chalk. it will breed As for pond earth. caus ed by the ashes scattered about. 597. The other way is. or watering grounds with them in the winter maketh the summer following more fruitful the cause may be. The sixth help of grounds is by watering irrigation. and ling. the drowning of to give them vigour. over . where there is too much. The way to hasten the breed ing of saltpetre. other substances that have a virtue to fertile. doth excel. for the mischief the irruptions many times do. winter will make it very fruitful. to give them whereby it will never graze to purpose that year. The third help of ground is. because it washeth off some of the fatness of the earth but howsoever it profiteth much. and it may be doubted whether the covering of the ground with brakes in the begin ning of the winter. composeth itself. It hath been anciently practised to burn knew a great garden that had a field. or saltpetre. but at some other seasons. upon the ground. prepared hath a double surface. and laying them on heaps. carrying it in some long furrows . The help of ground As for earth. but it is tried. But of vegetables to die into the ground. that Nay. and sown together. for that they would keep the ground warm.. But for avoidances. But it is true. of them in another place. We see that warmth tin. the suffering eth the ground warm. if you do but plank the ground over. it is a very good compost.iin cr I 599. we have spoken of them before. into the lower grounds. that lying open to the south mendeth ground: the earth is ever the fruitfulest. and the growth of vegetables. For salt. and with too long stay. 598. and so continueth the wet. for that it keepcompost water. as the stubble of corn. and and as they lie scattered. which is much used. and sedge. keepeth out the sun. and without mixture. And therefore if you make ! we ground. . must be it friable first by r. hut then lying. doth good. helpeth it not. so as the water may not stay too long in the Brakes cast upon the ground in the beginning of spring till the weeds and sedge be grown up . insomuch as the countries about vEtna and Vesuvius have a kind of amends made them. and from those furrows. and it did bear fruit excellently wind. by reason of the some quantity of nay. the one letting in and shutting out waters at season able times : for water. especially peas. if you can procure it without too much charge. warmth. we shall speak also to try whether leaves of trees . by the exceeding fruitful ness of the soil. more heart. Vi. Soot also.first year of the planting: for the surface of of walls and inclosures mendeth ground: we see And earth so also. mingled with would do good . which is in two manners . dung. it CENT. heath. at some seasons. the helps of ground in that kind. or the like. 600. doth hurt: and this serveth only for meadows which are along some river. for Thus much for irrigation. is to forbid the sun. chalking the ground all over. thatched. both for corn and grass. especially if the pond have been long uncleansed. in a manner. and there is nothing lost so much as leaves of trees drainings of water. which : drawing it traverse to spread the water.NATURAL HISTORY. and so to the fen-men hold. . Generally where there are great this . reasonable stay. The fourth help of ground is. It is the richer. tLey rather make the ground sour than otherwise. it doth good of opinion. as well see again. heat ana warmth. And maketh an excellent improvement. pect. that the sewers must be kept fatten it . some very good husbands do sus ground : the gathering up of flints in flinty ground. that mingled with seedand I am corn. that the foldings of sheep help by their warmth as by their compost: . it is too costly . whereof we spake in the last experiment. is no good husbandry. As for the steep ing of the seeds in several mixtures with water overflows in fens. by some and by make ground though they be not merely earth where in ashes excel . as I conceive. is tried be a very good compost.

and also inflamed. plants have their seed and seminal parts uppermost . se condly. 602. And plants have not secondly. if &amp.11 of living spirits. sprout with moisture.main dill erences arc two. Man is like cally. and in living creatures.-mrt t&amp. and an aerial substance. as it liv ward figures.-i\&amp. have exceeding hot than oil. out of the pith cut.. in a close room. and of themselves. are the radical differences. and whereunto the rest do resort. have this difference from them that they have no succession or propagation. than plants have. and the like. besides those four before-men tioned. Secondly. Fourthly. which plants have not. first./ plants shall and animate bnJits. they are wholly subterrany . for look how far the And these of flame than the spirits of plants do. For the secondary First plants are as follow: differences. ami are branched in veins. of Sixthly. which have allinity : with plants. which as was also formerly snid. and. and proceed from these two radical differences. so far goeth the shape of figure. we handle fully under the tit. bodies have their spirits no whit inflamed or kin GOC. NATURAL HISTORY.iiiil dissolve not in arefaction. as if they would have been some herb. whereas all living crea tures are severed. and me Homo est planta inversa.. 603. are these. they have a low.ue. tals is The differences between plants. I left once by chance a citron cut.r sir. to he but moulds of the ground. plants are all figurateand determinate. which plants have Eighthly.(). Secondly.gt. a plant turned upwards : for the root in plants is as the head in living creatures. as air is in snow. but the spirits cut off in things inanimate are shut in. coral is one of the nearest of both kinds: another is vitriol. then they gather a much greater heat than others have uninflamed. naphthaand petroleum. VII. as malefemale-rose piony. Another special affinity is between plants mary. and mushrooms. and secret luidii s have spirits. and by the tangible parts. not. with little black heads. There be very few creatures that partici pate of the nature of plants and metals both .rj&amp.lt. wax. for that is aptesl to ( . which are secondary. But first in living creatures.\ in I&quot. living more exact figure than plants. and trees. ing creatures have not. though they nourish. and plants themselves. and ric. is&amp. in organs within their bodies. she-holly. or rottenness.CENT. by the mouth chiefly plants nourish from be . more or less. bat certain : and have seats. but no alimentation.ill . : motion. for metals I hold inanimate. and then is determined.lt. &c VOL. -. that the spirits of animate bo dies are all in some degree. The differences. and aga and other of those kinds. from the roots. Ciin. or corrupting. plants do nourish. plants Thirdly. And this difference consisteth not . living creatures have more diversity wer . as blood is cells or spirits have not only branches. number of other things. life. creatures have a or fossils.lt. They have both of them spirits continued. whereas plants are part above earth and part under earth. TIIK (Inferences between animate and bodies. the spirits have a cell or seat. they two are all fixed to the earth. lirst.gt. in the and other spices. and branched. the spirits of living creatures hold more Experiments in consort touching differences of plants the affinities and living creatures. besides their light and and and the and participles of them. which inanimate bodies are not. kindled and inflamed.nichln the nJfiiiiHt* tni/l and mould or putrefaction.tiiiinate /&amp. sense. not elegantly alone. For the difference of sexes in plants they are oftentimes by name distinguished. living creatures nourish from their upper parts. living creatures have them lowermost . they have an accretion. As for flesh. HI CENTURY K. plants have a period of life. it difference* (lOl. he-holly. after a mouldiness. conjiners 607. thirdly. GOt. where the principal spirits do reside. but not inflamed. for three summer months that I was absent. which in animate bodies have not. they will fall to breed a : worms. tufts of hairs an inch long. and therefore it was said. life. dled. and have a period of likewise some figure. hotter a great deal heat or coolness of spirits for cloves iow. but philosophi succession and propagation of their kind which not in bodies inanimate. Tin. All I account moss. and have a fine commixture of But inanimate flame.gt. they are more solid and hard . ami pncumatical parts within them: hut the main dillerences hctween animate ami inanimate are two the first is. and are not pervious one to another. male-rosemary. that the spirits of things animate arc all continued with them selves. and powers. And when any of those weak and temperate bodies come to be in flamed.irimrnts VII fur all putrefaction. the canals. Fourthly.&quot. but generation by . then-fore make hut a brief mention of \\e them this place. The second main difference is. metals are more durable than plants. &quot. namely.lt. living creatures have voluntary motion. Thirdly. or talspirits. &c. are. The affinities and differences between plants and living creatures are these that follow. and at my return there were grown forth. inanimate bodies do spirit is able to have not. Seventhly.&amp. &c. These putrefactions. -. 608. female-piony. Fifthly. spread and continue itself.&quot. living creatures have local motion. and fish. will in the Into plant! or living creatures bred of putrefac tion. walls. 1111 .

and currants . They have in some countries a plant of than beans. There is a fabulous nar cockles. whether to the first And whether the very knuckle. as they have no leisure either beard down to the foot. and the softness of the stalk. which is a growing silk . and the least are those of the willow. nettles. to he ancients it was scarce known. whereof they make nettle-cloth. It may be. in the fibrous.bough. there are of roots. There be three things in use for sweet ness. the figure maketh the fable . that hath a Sc root hairy. mulberry. sugar. The cause is.83 NATURAL HISTORY. that the labour of the bee is about the and a weaker. or at least amplified. being a kind of phu. to the thickness of honey. that in the northern countries there should concocted out of fruits. and openeth wide at noon . and leaving those strings to make a broad Also there is a kind of out the sap so fast. by one of the ancients. when the sweet dews fall. as you may see. valleys of Hyrcania. and some : low in one year. and not It hath leaves as times the down that groweth above. which shutteth in the night. ration. incline the one to the other. quired. weijrh down. and sycamore. down so 614. in the bulbous. it seem. by draw and grasping the sands like a crab . and with sometimes. as a service-tree. The fig hath the next it the vine. as mandrakes. And which the inhabitants of those countries say is a There be sleepers enough that no doubt is caused by the suppleness and plant that sleepeth. which ne It were good to try vertheless beareth a fruit. being as it seemeth corroded by the salt. as in hermaphrodites: but ge ancients. but the fruit no bigger 615. Nevertheless I am apt enough to think. like to the hirsute is a middle between both. stiffly upheld. gentleness of the juice of that plant. that there is a tree called occhus. Experiments promiscuous touching plants. There be of plants which they use for garments. they tie ropes or lines from the one to the other. such as are oysters. reported there is Some plants there are. the hasty and plentiful putting forth of the sap. or gathereth it. and rucumhei aivl e. filled wherein no marks of distinction appear and it is like a cellar. It is then . fibrous roots. sericum.olewort. The cause is. like beards. The ancien. and have no local motion of remove. roots. that the contact might be enjoyed by the contact of found in canes Query. . but rare. gourd. make an ugly great leaves. And as for the grass. The Indian fig boweth its roots some hard trees. these that follow hemp. which is nourish bare the grass round about. openshade increaseth the leaves.you shall see the roots as it were bare without eth the plant having a great stalk and top doth bark. ing the juice of the earth from it. the sap delighteth more hir^h. by setting them within the sands. wax . or fir-tree. may be this But may be feigned. But there be found herbs with and sun . The nearest approach of it is between the he-palm and the she-palm. flax. and so multiplieth from root to root. and that he hath known in the beginning It is confounded of May doth hold in all living bodies. are such chiefly as are fixed. like a rough-footed dove s foot. having few but very number of threads. which nevertheless is of a pleasant taste. the sap hasteneth most to the air and thorn. for that the continual a rosy colour. The cause is the plenty of the sap. Indian fig. and many leaves. VII copulation certainly extendeth not to plants. and likewise that have a 616. For sugar. that to keep the trees upright from bending. cotton. that tree. It is not unlike that the sap and tears and living creatures. that besidea | nard in Crete. but I have heard from one that was industrious in hus bandry. groweth out image. that distilleth honey in the 609. for so. in such sort as it will 613. and little used. they make also cables It is the stalk that of the bark of lime trees. as in some creatures of putrefaction. in the nerally there is a degree of strength in most species. that have a mossy or downy root. 610. which. small leaves greatest. and such like. 612. maketh the filaceous matter commonly . three cubits long and two broad. there ed with the saltwater. as of itself it taketh root again. fir greater leaves than any tree as the bur. bulbous roots. in the earth. giving it the form of a face at the top of tho of the bark. though they that some sweet juices. being over-loaden. or perhaps of sugar. eth in the morning. like unto masculine and feminine. being that which maketh the boughs also so flexible. fit for many uses. they doubt not to report. and hirsute And. being of good taste. honeycombs empty of honey . which maketh the &quot. or further up ? bark of the cane itself do yield sugar or no] For : a middle body. upon the shore sands. making of one tree a kind of wood. honey. It is which is more strange. and feedeth upon the grass. for almost all flowers do the like. broad as a little target. if they ^rownear. the means may be in be an herb that groweth in the likeness of a lamb. . I take it. honey. in a fortnight. that this same binarium of a stronger : have a motion in their parts. insomuch as that. prey upon the grass a good way about. of some trees may be sweet. and whereof witches and.ts report of a tree by the Per But I suppose that sian sea. that of the CENT. a certain Indian to divide into to the fruit. the bee maketh it. or to put forth stalks With us. as they report. and when the tide ebbeth be bee-flowers. &c. trees. we see. manna. It is reported also by some of the doubled sometUnes. impostors that the fruit. and abateth the fruit. the likeliest are raisins of the sun. It may be also. . figs. The participles or confiners between plants mornings. there be plants that pour root. have in comparison. and therefore putteth downward. generally. 611.

seeds. And even some of those herbs which are al on the ground . is to vessel them close in earthen vessels. : which strange. and so the stalk cannot increase eth. if they make cious. balm. Query. 619. 631. and an image of Jupiter. 617. so brittle. the dryest. as hops. broom. and in a fair and dry day towards noon. contra riwise. powder of chalk. And in bulk. moon is under the earth. but meddle centaury. As for radish and tarragon. and maketh them soft and tender. it were good to make trial in powder of beer to require less malt. and set the vessel not in a But if the vessels be not very great. for putting upwards and downwards put. not esculent. reported by some of the ancients.- make some holes in the bottom. Quinces. Herbs and plants that are esculent raw have fatness. because to them it is bitter. that the preserving of the stalk helpeth to preserve the grapes . or apples. they are for condiments. green. 626. or in meal and flour.) as is not overgross. grass. from the beards of goats: for when the 625. and the plants that use to be borne up by props will not put like. or in syrup of wine. while they are wood dried is extreme and was used by the cap%iins of armies tough. some are good to as lettuce. which are fat and sweet. j Hi&amp. for the vines that they use for wine. It were good to make trial. and fruits . and it is said they Miitinl j t^ nits liitc j rip&amp. which is now the substitute of cresses. endive. ease the charge of brewing. and loading of the stomach: for parsnips and leeks have fatness. which. barley. and pomegranates. tlic tctli NATURAL fortli IIISTOKY. as seemeth.lt. will serve for muro times than once. especially if pith of elder. The causes how far cassia. the tear cometh forth. so that the grapes touch not the wine. though no hath the twigs. that neither did it love the sun. for that the herbs that are not esculent do 622. doth participate of these things ? others only after they are boiled. roots. for in showers it pros touching the fruit. is reported by the ancients to make it fruitful. woodbine. musk-melons. and those things which are known to comfort other plants did the stalk be put into the make that more sterile . but in some dry place.j if you will keep hops. It is reported. parsnips. or a juice so much ble. or make it last longer. : not with the bark. Parts fit for the nourishment of man in Both these would likewise be tried iu oranges. 630. as parsley.gt. bitter and over-strong tastes. &c. ivy. plants are. VII. &c. spreading upon the ground. and syrup of wine. But it is like they were wild vines . and so they become very great. will give them a taste over-lus. and so make it hollow. they will last long. &c. The conservation of fruit would be also -. or in mill. in them long. . that the fire .CKNT. vessel ^ell stopped. but it is too gross and heavy without boiling. tree of vines that is very dura is crude as cannot be ripened to the degree of nour ishment. a artichokes. you must cellar. 628. and that the grapes of those vines are till they doth ripen. and the bottles let down into wells under water. [ .lt. clary. The wood without rotting. It is reported by one of the ancients. but chiefly 624. purslane. It fruit is The plants.jar. perhaps. which . But then it must be such a fatness. and that the skins corrupting young are eaten raw but a number of herbs are not and breeding worms. to give some re it freshment to the roots . for we see wheat. drown them ! . will decay and suffocate. radish.irc sugar. no good nourishment but the have passed the &amp. while ancient cinnamon was. and hang them in an empty way.tried in vessels filled with fine sand. is put into the skins of asparagus. somewhat tender are fire. beasts newly flayed. There were in ancient time vines of far want the two tastes in which nourishment restgreater bodies than we know any. There are v- some tears of trees. Such fruits as you appoint for long keep 618. that their sap spendeth into the grapes.ui(l crop them. the sparing nourishment which that plant required. or sweetness. ing. turnips. for upon when the wind bloweth not south . and when the It seeds it worketh no great effects. but because drink besides the two aforenamed for that it may. or in dust and Inuigeth upon their beards: of this sort is of oak wood . Query. &c. that in some places vines are suffered to grow like herbs. the worms do devour the pith esculent at all. are notwithstanding poculent. and not for nourish forth greater leaves and greater fruits if they belaid ment. lettuce. There might be one cause of all those effects. and in decrease. the dew being on. otherwise. It must be also in a sub stance amongst the Romans 623. eat raw put in bottles. are so often cut. or with ings. namely.. sage. The way to carry foreign roots a long 627. some kind of laudanum. Take grapes.perhaps. only boiled to height. lavender. . green corn.. the elder not 629. as all esculent fruits such are onions. what herbs are good for honey.lemons. as wormwood. It is for their cudgels. for there have been cups made of them. and would be tried likewise with roots. (for as for sweet things. though they also being cassia. fire reported. of all other it grew. when it is gathered. you must gather before they be full . 620. and so much digged and dressed. especially in the morn. Of herbs and plants. &c. where commonly plants do not thrive. The irrigation of the plane-tree by wine. and marrow of it. 621. pered worst: it grew also amongst bushes of other kinds. honey. cucumbers. whether esculent. and have. yet the they are in effect always esculent. artichokes. But it is reported by some. tarragon. &c. j the powder of forth in roupd. will keep better in a vessel half full of wiur. hyssop. or have passed cinnamon. are. will keep long.

walnuts. vlf. without either sharpness or oiliness such : beareth more grapes make is when it is young. so as hath a kind of But the most partof trees. eds and roots. fore. oily. and well concocted. as the walnut and fig. or stalks. There is a third kind of fruit that is sweet. nuts of all sorts. yet they appear to be of the same nature . &c. except it be in reckon of fruits are either watery or among the watery. that most trees. as And they be not in use for drink. &c. that many ex crescences of trees grow chiefly where the tree is dead or faded. well when they are cut. as wine. &c. apples. For and arornatical. for that all trees that bear mast have an oily fruit. the lowest are the . no doubt. or else they grow in pyramis. though rarely. . the pear. There is no which besides the na bastard fruits as the of putrefaction: for those milks have all an acri- tural fruit doth bear so many !mony: though one would think they should bo oak doth: for besides the acorn. that some of the watery juices. &c. whereas leaves are dainties of 633. for that the natural sap of the it fierce spirit. that As better for the vine. the closeness and solidness of thfo pith of the oak. tles. and all that give mast : the cause is. that in plants that are not of a fierce and eager spirit. and their seeds rather insipid. the virtue is. as it is in crabs. for that or blossoms. is the 639.. or very little no more do flowers. But if they require very much sun. plentiful rising and hard 636. . and fruits. oranges. for sap tireth not. 635. year or more in concocting out and perfect in a month. and fruits and grains we see are half a groweth upon the roots of oaks. for the root which con. greatest. .ij it they have gathered spirit. wax brown which shmveth that it is a sharp 01 It beareth The cause of all fretting juice: lettuce is thought poisonous. perhaps. will bear arc young. though The cause also at the roots. as they cannot diink make by expression. And there are some others which. as crabs. though therefore they are either strong trees. plums. the cherry. as was touched before.. S that thjOfciice is better concocted it and we see that oili the fig and the date. sow-this divers years together. you you wood and consist of an oily and watery substance com mixed. of the watery. expense of sap . drink by mixture of water. it beareth galls. that is called agaric. &c. both f them in the nature of mush tinueth ever in the earth is still concocted by the rooms the one the Romans call boletus which earth . There are two excrescences which grow they are more concocted . it out of which drink is expressed .. which maketh several And therefore if juices find several eruptions. &c. as we see it in onions. for their table. services. they are stronger whilst the enclosed in the root. pears. which are in milk of the fig. and certain oak nuts. pine-apples. after it And may have a more watery juice. old lettuce. and was one of the : . they bear best on the top. will devise to make any super-plants. and then they Jo the body of the tree without stnlk. tree corrupteth into 037. all the fruits such trees as delight in shade. lenitive. and for those when they juices that are so fleshy. i : . must ever give the sap issue. and iheir juices are all inflammable. much more than apples. or else they have large leaves. these may be. is is increased by concoction and maturation. as plums. the pomegranate. as oaks. spurge. because the ginger. having but a short way and there : that the heat of those plants is very dissipable which under the earth is contained and held in .NATURAL HISTORY. greater part of trees bear most and best on the lower boughs . and young oculaque admistis imitantur vitea sorbis. are fruitful but as is wits ness. inasmuch as all plants : CENT. Plants. Those that have oily juice. amongst which are once in two years. mul berries. plums. &c. are Nay. or at least bear well. The pear likewise. and certain oak berries. It hath been noted. The reason is. &c. The sun. &c. and seeds. for we see it is a heavy fruit and solid. The cause is. 634. 638. and the spirits do but weaken and dissipate when they come to the air and and eager spirit is some preternatural substance. but some bear best on the top boughs.upon trees . plums. And secondly. have more of the oily substance. as generally all fruits bear best lowest. for cultured. that it groweth I do conceive. but 633. &c. which ever most in the seed . as figs. and leaves. will burn and inflame. the letters will not be seen until flammable. when it cometh The juices I to the air it exhaleth. figs. For leaves. they give no nou rishment at all. as the oak. dragon. the pear. are olives. &c. and of the same kind also is the almond. when Iso misseltoe. I make begin they may trees trees to be old. And you must observe also. For if you write upon paper with the oak apples. Those that bear best below. are more strong both in taste and smell in the seed than in the leaf and root. for the most part. flowers. yet it requireth much sap. inflammable. be hips and brier-berries would do the like. pears. and specially those that bear mast. yet. roots. but in plants that are of a be affirmed by some. apples. as was formerly said : so it is the shade that hindereth the lower boughs. There be plants that have a milk in them many orchard trees. the apple. whereof we have spoken be which groweth upon the tops of oaks. The cause may be an inception tree. though it be not oily. vines. but wine when it is old for . the other is medicinal. as the grape. sticking close you hold the paper before the fire. rasps. there be plants that have their roots very hot such as shade doth more good to than hurt. it is noted. almonds. bear best when they The cause. garlick. There be trees that bear best lemons. fore in fruits spread upon walls. as almonds. and less concocted. that (_rr.

which in humanity was the form of that upon a dry floor. same. sweet before they ripen. the spirits appeareth already. will sprout half an inch long at least and if it be let alone. but in living creatures. which is not upon the bodies of trees. yet in Euphorbium also hath a milk. The moss of the larix-tree burneth also sweet. by that which hath been said. 643.. one rose grow out of another like honeysuckles.lt. Try the same experiberberries. biting. But as for the myrobalane. For we see which to is full of prickles : this herb putteth forth another small herb out of the leaf. rof milk. and brazil is red in the wood and so is red sanders. and therefore of slow motion. and the barley turned upon the apple trees. sweet. he&amp. that earth is not necessary to the first sprout ing of plants. Wheat will do the also with peas and beans. sap of that plant concocteth in the body of the tree. ) you tiki. 1 conceive it is less painful than opium. but are green in the tear: and this maketh the tree of sanguis draconis lesser towards the top. is so old as poison in itself. and hath little moss. both of the malt and of the roses. indeed. the milk of tliem rubbi-d upon w. them ground before they of n. And the report._r if I. the latter have. will come far faster on in water than in earth for I.). that they call top and top-gallants.irts. for there it is of the old store. or very susceptible of those tastes. and contrariwise all blood of living creatures hath a saltness. 647. besides that the prickles. The tree of : swimming plant. all those much acrimony . j sprouts of such grains may not be raised to a fartber degree. and after grow spicy. is red all over. which is of a great acrimony lime hath a yellow milk. C&amp.it tin-ill. and afterwards the water drained from it. The death that is most without pain. as upon their roots. and especially upon the oak. that there is an herb growing in the water. as to an herb. for that sprout. crabs. vn. hath been noted to be upon the taking of the potion of hemlock. There is hardly found a plant that yieldeth a red juice in the blade or ear . and the &c. There be fruits that are sweet before they the nourishment is easilier drawn out of water be ripe. will nourish faster and easilier than The cause is. sown. which causeth early sweetness. 646. I t . or some small commixture of earth : . for that the tor affinity with it. that they I . Mushrooms are reported to grow. for it cleanseth the eyes. fore. It is reported by one of the ancients. which groweth chiefly in the island Socotra : the herb amaranthus. seas a 641. mushrooms. it is very astringent. cypress. i because opium bath parts of beat mixed. which putrefied by the sun germiBut I remember also I have seen. it should seem by the experiments beman. for Try it no water water. though not very plants the original taste rernaineth not . which no heat of the sun can sweeten. some do participate of such excrescences in the nature of earth . itself of blood is but a light and secret saltness The cause is. which hath likewise seldom salt. hath some The cause is. which they call salgazus. and yet generally the poplar is a smooth tree of bark. for a nateth. that Cleopatra used. as alga marina. or flower. .gt. humours. though it he the rudiment of life. for that strong trees are towards and even among plants. and sparkleth in the burning. for it is sweet and yet that the former kind astringent. 640. to . as that with the And some never ripen to he sweet as tamarinds. as cedar. t NATI RAL HISTORY. : . It is certain. forth of thn j | : : like. are full iniiiation is ever akind of putrefaction of the seed. capon. salt. lig num aloes. have milk spurge is a kind of and as for sow-thistles. yet sheep and cattle will nut touch tlirin and besides._rimiin&amp. This experiment is not like that of the orpine and semper-vive. though . Barley. sour. but white. except it be the tree that beareth draconis sanguis. Query of the mosses of odorate trees. as well because it is of a more oily nature. . groweth likewise some times upon poplars.&quot. sloes.shall have them bitter. it bath parts of contrary natures. 642. therefore put forth moss. as myrobalanes. the sanguis draconis groweth in the form of a It is like that the sugar-loaf. samphire. that drink infused witli llesh. have much and subtle beat. so fennel seeds are than out of earth.lt. and the. and not turned. be ing steeped in water three days. in short time wt-an-tb them away which sboweth the milk of them to be corrosive. and saltness. There be few herbs that have a salt taste . &c. The cause may be. I . called lincostis. until the heart be out. for it is added. It is reported that sweet moss. &c. because the juice hasteneth not up: and besides. that out of the ashes of all plants they extract a salt which they use in medicines. It is high tastes may happen to be sometimes in the also for cataracts. and we see that rose-buds set in water | i will blow: therefore try whether the ments of death are chiefly raised by the strife of and these vapours quench the spirits by degrees like to the death of an extreme old they will. spreading over the sea in such sort as one would think it were a meadow.r K M. great rarity. hut here it is nourished from the be farther driven : The experiment would execution of capital offenders in Athens. scurvy grass. with water for if only. The poison of the asp. as appeareth in the malting. but are seldom in the flesh or substance. It may give some liirht also. for you and salla. a cold and acid juice. and the saltness ipon the earth. much : more. there is in some of the Indian also that wheat and other corn. imputed some moisture that is gathered which is between grapes and pomegranates are red in the juice. &c. for meat and drink together.

it will he dry. it is more hard and fragile than other wood. face of the earth . The weakest kind of is roughness. and therefore they are. and in China for beating of offenders if they be old and putrefied. the common reed. and put ou trees which have the moistest juices in their fruit. as . if you deep in the ground. when it was gathered. for in their clear. which gave occasion to the name and able.NATURAL HISTORY. as that of vines. 650. that it is knuckled both stalk and root. which are nourished with mixture of earth and Some spread more toward the sur water. is. have so much heat in themselves as they neec 658. and there will bo a by the loose and open lying of the parts. : bark on. There be herbs also . ing they will sparkle like hard sugar. sugar-reed. It differeth much in greatness. curling needs gather together. as they cannot spread themselves plain. they would not grow yet contrariwise we see. As for the oak. tree. there will be gained at least a bushel in eight. that it will be like a cap upon the top winter long. and cabbage-let the chinks of ships better than glue or pitch tuce. and root. the milk of the fig hath hot tre. if you hang them cluster by cluster of the young onion. they forsake their first root. Some more watery and commonly. The differing kinds of them as some rotten woods do. which I . especially staves. husk or rind about the root. but must 651. and sort. another more towards the top of the earth. it loveth the earth. yet in the sudden break are. that the devil. The the sun. though they shine not upon the thighs. and : CENT. and that in such a manner. trees that shoot up much . as figs. as cherries them spread the less. being unbarked some space at the bottom. hat have the same dillV-roncc :all . The cause may be. as in cabbage full grown. It hath been observed. It is reported that fir and pine. not only t for envy and some of the ancients do report. which is of the forme: the quality of the rennet. reed or cane is The groweth not but : in the water: : . they cheese in Lent. it will come forth . as in clary and burr. and yet the sprouts are rubbed off. that a branch of a 649. for that it was said. for if you cut the tree a little into puss in some trees which have been planted too the bark with a stone. as elms some milky. for that bark. suppose that there was a goodly fir. especially if when the skin or husk is not easy to break as we see you gather the cluster you take off with the by the pilling of onions. The sap of trees when they are let blood. VII. that a tree pared round in the body above become alimental. The timber and wood are in some trees : : : a watery plant.he herb they then dry it. as the oak. 653. the skin is. and the Of all plants it boweth the easiest. that have curled leaves. olive. for thatdulcoration importeth a degree to nourish ment : and the making of things inalimental to . and the hollowest in body. is of differing natures. for that the unbarked part draweth the nourishment best. apples and ash maketh the best fire. r. Grapes will continue fresh and moist all carry it up. slowly. morsus diaboli which putteth forth the rout down so low as you cannot pull it up without )reaking. the smallest young cabbage and the third is folding into a being fit for thatching of houses. scend far into the earth. to be. &c. it was so wholesome a root. The cause may be. and cypress is a somewhat more spungy. The roots of trees do some of them put and riseth again. of pears : body their desire of approach to the sun maketh some thick. fir. 654. and stopping head . And have commonly the moistest sap in their body. even of such trees. for that n the roof of a warm room. which appeareth yet more in the wort. do all abound with moisture . which cometh so fast on. ess the heat of the sun. Most seeds in the growing leave their the bark continueth it only. that the olive is full of oily juice for the vines and pears are very moist . and it hath these pro perties that it is hollow. In ground. And we see it cometh to the bark only. cypress-tree. that had a root under ground ight cubits deep and so the root came up broken. which maketh it the smoothest of all others in &c. though many stalks come out of one second is curling on the sides. . which they desired to remove the whole. as after the putting forth in sprouts. such trees as love the sun do not willingly de 657. the cassia fistula. The dul. it draweth most nourishment from water. Malt gathereth a sweetness to the taste. we see also. Malt in the drenching will swell. take a turnip. The boughs. bit : and the drying upon the kiln. and therefore groweth so have certain sour herbs wherewith they make And for the pine and fir likewise. The second bigness is used for angle-rods and 652. but profit for making new victual. that it putteth forth nc 656. but the onion will 655. that amongst plants downwards deep into the ground . is in lettuce. what a holding substance cluster some of the stock. may be an experiment of great ground will die. but by some addition of substance drawn from the water in which it was steeped. to avoid recess from the sun. hath grown. Plants. maketh mulberries the sap seemeth to be almost towards them spread the more. and steep it a while. The cause of this latter may be. as if the branch were set with the coration of things is worthy to be tried to the full bushel of dust besides the malt. that for love of approach to pierce it deeper with a tool. of beeches. and see whether it will sprout. as apples some gummy. pine. as the ash.and so set into the ground. that being dry. to gather cheese . as for merit with roots as well as with grains example. It seemeth. And the same reason under some frothy.

and the trial pine love the mountains. some more and some other trees will die. because of their 664. and barren in its own nature. builders. love rivers and moist places. and the more if showers follow. some for tables. been observed by some of the ancients. is snow thirdly. for of the cloudy waters. The earth that putteth forth moss 660. which is observed by some it showeth the earth to be very cold . willow. straightness. trial try it by speaking at the car at tin. that the ends of low rain bows fall more upon one kind of earth than upon another. whereof trenchers are made some more smooth. : : the finest moisture. The earth. and net apt to rift with ordnance. ami laying . It hath and so doth whereof tlu. being mere mould. and now sun followeth not so fast upon them . as damask-roses.lt. VII. is not good. because the lust of lie a number of differences that concern their the earth over-spendeth itself: howsoever some use. The tender ehessome. it is best in sum are so common. as wild thyme showeth good feeding- The earth that smelleth well upon the digging. but is The earth. for that the in England above a hundred years. as elm some fur planchers. in nevertheless south winds arc also found j t&amp. and not in others. The west winds are the hot. and windeth itself about the same tree where it groweth. for that maketh the timber tough.l in- dean. It scemeth they call forth th Some have the veins more will not pass well. upon the wild olive. : hath been observed also. and have prospered heats come not upon them. and desks. Snows lying long cause a fruitful year. : : already prepared. Init is a good one end. they water the earth better than rain some for ship timber. There are found in divers countries. as ash some for piers. . for that that earth is most roscid : and therefore it is commended foi juice of vegetables The poorness of the herbs. as oaks that grow in moist for. the or ploughing. The coming of trees and plants in certain the best wines are in the driest vintages small showers are likewise good for corn. HISTORY. between the two extremes of clay and sand. the poorness of the earth . . It is thought by some. do good to all succulent and as oak . especially if it be not loamy and binding. as fk and pine. upon rocks. .vs it is said nf Irish trees: besides there the same with the former. whereof wainscot . the earth doth. best in standards alone. t&quot. The earth. And an herb called hippophaeston upon the fuller s thorns: is good for the falling sickness. turning upon the south-east sun. and yet some earth of that kind and so do most fruit trees. fir and as the 665. times dry.utlirr : for if it kmdty. and mellow earth is the best.grass is soon parched with the sun. yet which. that after rain will scarce be ploughed. in snow. is made maple. and chestnut arc the best other of the ancients have commended warm winters. as oak. as vines. So likewise an herb called faunos. suck the . is commonly fruitful: for it is cleaving and full of juice. that howsoever cold and easterly winds are thought to be great enemies to fruit. : moisture too It fast. yet it is rather for plenty than for goodness. the voice especially in the blossoming time. and especially if they be in colour more dark : but if the herbs show withered or blasted at the top. they say. cedar. It is strange. insomuch as if two 01 grounds. and may be called mouldy. the pop of them. is commended. the ash loveth coppices. and sometimes about thorns. smaller clod. so as parching regions. M-2. almond-trees inure easily breed worms and spiders. that a kind of polypode that groweth though it windeth not. the vine loveth sides clod. as fir and walnut: some do three such winters come together. wherein English water as out of the teat of : and Irish timber are thought to excel: some for masts of ships. is sometimes casual for many have been translated.gt.lt. as deal for first they keep in the strength of the earth . varied a:ul chanihletled.easily. mer time to water in the evening. pale. as it were. samphire groweth but will be very dry and hard before the showers. that green and (p. that with showers doth easiliest soften.&amp. showeth a good strong ground burnet showeth good meadow. and lightness: some for ripening of fruits. after the plough. also for wheat and the like. reeds and osiers grow where they The earth that casteth up from the plough a great are washed with water . 666. some are best for plough-timber. and so of the moist fruits. is not so good as that which casteth up a of hills. Showers. secondly. that are sometimes wet and some 663. camomile showeth mellow Mustard -seed growing grounds fit for wheat. The differences of earths. Mil. some more knotty. iii NA ITK. lar. juniper loveth chalk. The putting forth of certain herbs dis. pomegranates. MOM other plants that grow out of trees and plants. are worthy to be diligently inquired. as oak. The cause is hardU. There is called cassytas. sallow. a sign of good earth. Generally night well. as it may well be . besides missel toe as in Syria there is an herb for cattle.CENT. and is commonly forced earth. show m groweth out of tall trees. some for fuel. and we see But the liking of plants in cer even in watering by the hand. if they come a little before the length. the moisture it is the froth covereth of what nature the ground where they put forth is. that have not been known showers are better than day showers. . do hurt.M. &c. for 659. as containing almost ground betony and strawberries show grounds fit for wood . u winters do hurt trees. tain soils more than in others is merely natural. as ash. cupboards. the mossiness of trees. it is plain.. and alder. .m&amp. as walnut. rest. is commended. olives. out of trees.

doth greatly help . and that which is more old is quite barren. died. that of all roots barley. which they call amurca. after d is new sown. as incision. will prosper but poorly ill : mean not the same ground. times Ct. It which is very white. It is strange that is generally received. the wane of : the moon is thought to make the hath not been practised. before sowing. rue. and of two or three years is worse. your corn sound it wheat will be the better. at the flowering. it seldom cometh . by shaking ill accident is drought. It tne sun. to lay the stalks and leaves clouds. hurt. inso as the word calamitas | . Another ill ac 1 is bitter frosts continued without snow. seem. or putting sheep into is laying of corn with of the moon. mustard-seed. it will countries of small enclosure the ground be turned into larger fields: which I have known to do Another disease is the good in some farms. insomuch that groweth. and another worm breedeth in the ear 667. and of vines by name . that. sowing . this trial would be extended calamus. 668. and in the decrease mowing it. for those substances have an antipathy with nourishment of water. when a shower com cident i ally received of old. as if you sow a few beans with wheat. especially barley. but emptier. but in hotter countries common. at the spindling of the corn. and putting in the cions there : and the third was was pairing of two vines that grow together to the marrow. Another disease is worms. Another disease is it will bring forth wild oats. It should powdering. and many 67-1. the satiety of the ground . pennyroyal . like. being then more thirsty and open to receive the dung. ia ground the it still with the same corn. as it M cmeth loveth the earth. whereinto corn often It times. is not now in use : the ancients had and that three ways. that seed of a year the best.vr. when the corn could not get out of the to some other herbs. And it was gener ness of the corn . and haying of the husk. The steeping of the grain. as wheat. but it is thought to be of use to make some miscellane in corn. especially such as are Another ill accident is over-wet at sowing strong. make more old the grain longer. sown for if it better than others. as it seemeth. the earth. but I 672. especially when hot suns break often out of Another disease is weeds. cometh by closeness of air. insomuch as they cast dust upon they are forced to resow summer corn where they sowed winter corn. that dunging of grounds when the west wind bloweth. lime. being ilie And they note. The burn and bear it down. that if This cannot be remedied. much as the corn never cometh up . and is not much drawn by 673.88 NATURAL HISTOKY. ing also of the cuttings of vines. go three cubits deep and from the winds. no doubt. that that especially in the beginning df tin winter. 669. or starve the corn. doth much good. which they use to remedy by them of purpose. and they are excellent help to trees. and binding them close. is. that dust helpeth the of trees. the root of sorrel goeth the farthest into the earth . of lupins about the roots. which continueth fit longest to be by shaking . grain that toucheth oil Though therefore in hills. and deceive the ground where you will sow corn. makcth a kind of soiling to the tree. that it is the root that hurt at two times. which. is be either too old or mouldy. hath been observed. upon vines. set again. Another disease is over-rankupon land. &c. which with us is rare. if it were in men s power to help them. which sometimes breed in the root. near or in harvest. I it. and the corn which broken or bitten retaineth a better than that little yellowness. though. that some herbs like best lieinir watered with salt water: as radish. the is first was which any thing that is fat . Another accident is you must vary the seed. off the flowers. was first derived from beet. therefore besides the of herbs. some seeds and grains last The corn which in the vanning lieth lowest is the best. yet the steeping of it in the dregs of oil. of any root It is a cold and acid herb. and th stalk. The disease and ill accidents of corn are worthy to be inquired and would be more worthy to bo inquired. a little time in wine. and happen earth and water finely laid on. if the seed happen to have touched oil. or large champaign grounds. and casting them it of nourishment. or to plough them into such as either choke and over-shadow the corn. such as is with us York s woald. insomuch that it hath been known to : resting of the ground. VI- of the ancients. It is reported also. The grafting of vines dent or Another ill acci great rains. happeneth chiefly from the weakness of the grain It hath been noted. take it. hath been observed. rocket. as tarragon. . 670. out of question. is thought a preservative : the mingling of seed corn with ashes is thought to be good : the sowing at the ordinary manner of grafting: the second terebration through the middle of the stock. 671. Another ripening. for if you sow one that is . which with us breedeth much dearth. when it beginneth to putrefy. eth. and . whereas many of them are not to be reme The mildew is one of the greatest. it after it is come Another ill accident up. It hath been observed or fat receiveth that the sowing of corn with housleek doth good. full and at the out the corn. that countries where the fields and ways are upon hot suns and showers immediately after the dusty bear the best vines. is thought to assure it against worms. It is commended by the ancients for an itself. same corn that grew upon the same kind of grain. doth degenerate. putting forth of wild oats. The remedies of the diseases of corn have been observed as folio weth. otherwise than that in corn be mowed.

even to curiosity only such as do ever ascend a degree to the deriv ing of causes. made a monoply of do keep them from swelling and exulcerating. We besides. &c. It as for thuse that are like to be in plenty. only amongst fruits grains distinct in several No herbs have curled leaves but cabbage cells. foxes. Long continuance Experiment 678. black birds with thrushes and mavises. theories. goeth not into the hair.of body hath. except you will count the little grains The pomegranate and pine-apple have kernels. and excern more than beasts. 680. kind of spread that the put into vessels well stopped. wherein men s diligence hath been for our experiments are great. crows with But elephants ravens. as excrementitious heat and moisture . horses with asses. and applied to the wounds of stripes. leave the description of plants. for birds assimilate less. to herbals. edible. nut. II. larities. badgers.7.shade. and so let the glass stand six or seven hours in boiling water. which happeneth : oft. that but their causes and axioms are so of imanj.|uinations of experi ence. rate anil dent and modern latimi. another to the fruit or much the making of them ripe and potable.mil projrnii^tir. &c. til-lists lli. vessels let down into the sea. Much the same reason is there of the plumage of birds. and men that more savage. that skins. be doth assimilate more finely. bears. the head of man hath hair upon the first birth. likewise and admitteth in beasts : variety: for so of birds exceedeth the pilosity of beasts. and their virtues.eei\. mage. in&amp.OUT. many is not as horses. and the plumage it is diversified in others. Beasts are more hairy than men. and likewise heal them and close them up . The seed. that they take liking in than the virtue of the herh. daws. and other like books of natu ral history. without penning them in s a them.. and especially of rams. men may make profit much. if one could discern what corn. for it may showeth that in the frame of nature.gt. will accelerate very one belonging to the stalk. they have not instruments for urrne. common doves with ring-doves and turtles.&quot.gt. and choughs. and it better secerneth more subtilly. barren year of corn : You may substance. herbs. Again.lt. It may In. uses of profit for making of fat or grease for but then it must be of such flesh as . no stone. save that too conjectural to venture upon. are t&amp.tt \\ ill sninc poisonous . hares with coneys. and excrementitious moisture aboundeth most in beasts. and some few others. \ii. IIIM DKV. in the producing of some species. 12 The cause may 9 be want of . It is or kernel.gt. t&amp. and put the pieces into a glass covered with parch ment. not so much heat and moisture. v\ritM-~ have also laboured.lt. full tin- that tin- toad he uiucli snake li. and the bird of para dise and the peacock amongst birds . hath been observed by some of the an cients. The cause clammy and too temperate conglutination. and do bridle the deflux of lumours to the hurts. who.&amp. kine with buffles. dogs. atli-i-t oil . whereas all other fruits have it in the nut or The fir hath. ill : There seem to be in some plants singu wherein they differ from all other: the olive hath the oily part only on the outside. and and may be much savage men more than civil. or a very late winter. and extracting of axioms. reported by one of the ancients. None have doubled leaves. kernel. that new wine and cabbage-lettuce. NATl KM. when he foresaw a ^n at plenty of olives. a matter of ^reat profit. solitary toucfiingfat diffused injlesh. newly ulled off.c| and so infected with the old he in rinqc-foil. for their excrements are are ever liquid. in these we have partly touched before but other prognostics of like nature are diligently to be inquired. how in-1 . solitary touching ripening of drink before the time. a an open and serene winter.it is rather frogs will tin.7ti. have scarce any other species that have affinity with them. turn almost all flesh into a fatty you take flesh and cut it into pieces. in he in plenty or scarcity. i. which no other pan the iit ignorant but that some both of the an.vi til fenunder sage . and swine amongst beasts . and the No flower hath that same would be Experiment tried in wort. to show how easy it was for a philosopher to be rich. an early winter. though that indeed causeth pilosity: but there is requisite to pilosity. and so all the excrementitious moisture goeth into the feathers . r&amp. The cause of the smoothness in men is not any abun dogs have a resemblance with wolves and foxes. And so in birds kites and kestrels have a resemblance with hawks .r olln r coverture. little such as happeneth rarely. and hat the whites of eggs do the same. for whatsoever assimilateth. This solitary of contemplation. for both bodies are viscous. keeping better the old store. &c. by some signs the beginning of the year: for solitary touching healing of wounds. Experiment 677. Experiment 679. in And for scarcity. and concoct it It were is I doubt tn it like . an year of fruit. but the artichoke. VOL. they may he bargained tor upon the ground: as the old relation was of Thales. and their flesh generally more dry . a composition of field be a large touching pilosity and plu matter. and therefore birds be commonly : cause their flesh is no marvel though meat than beasts. which : dance of heat and moisture. woodbine hath. there is. or fruits. in effect. as they are mere not. It may be an experiment if of snow is believed to make a fruitful year of corn.

We children likewise are not hairy. although it see also. as appeareth in very hot days. VII. and put ting a man into an earnest study doth the like. nor soles of the cation of some substance. water entereth in some part. which doth increase part is astringent. whereas beasts go. and divert the motion another Jire and boiling water. water somewhat . the spirit is first strongly in. there is scarce difference to be dis spirits. and then strongly expelled. that moisture. but without it they nay. not the heating of the nostrils. which sneezing doth somewhat depress. than in beasts . for that it of the water entereth. for in yawn ing and sighing both. cerned but in fruit and flesh. whereinto the . but the drawing down of the moisture of the is. many birds is swifter than the water. which they call the bath. and after the dissolution into ashes. hot water worketh the effects of fire. but only the heat passeth. that pewter dishes with water in We race of many beasts. Looking against the sun doth induce sneezing. nourisheth and assimila- men may it. and besides. parison of the bulk of their body. and remove of water as The cause it quencheth coals where entereth. doth it also . and in a degree extinguish it: therefore : we see that hot water will quench fire. It solitary touching the hiccough. any other body enter but in water the spirit of as is commonly used and vinegar put to the the body is not refined so much. and the emission. that butter. whereof the refining or attenuation causeth the light. making it first lumi nous. for that the in com spirits in birds are in greater proportion. as we see holding of the breath doth help somewhat to cease the hiccough . The bottom of a vessel of boiling water. as no water boiling as cold water. The cause is. again. different clear The cause is. cold of the body. it is solitary touching yawning. Experiment 687. will will . that they are partly carried. which are parts more perspirable. put their hand under the vessel is. for that the moisture it doth allay heat where it toucheth and teth less. and the drawing of moisture to the eyes doth draw it to the nostrils by motion of consent. or gargarized. and inhibiteth the motion of the the spirit. neither doth : caused by acid meats. which we see causeth an extension of the stomach way. or by de also it is tention of the spirits . which in themselves are inflammable. likewise. brain. and lastly. detention. though one wink. is hath been noted by the ancients. The sea is clearer when the north wind drawn bloweth than when the south wind. for by that reason swimming should be swifter for as for the Experiment 685. and so likewise therefore note well. for that by fire the spirit of the body is first refined. not upon the palms of the hands. then black and brittle. than running: and that kind of carriage also not without labour of the wing. that hair cometh doth not pass through bodies. yet by virtue of their moisture will do the like. for that in yawning the inner parchment of the ear is extended. so as CENT. Experiment 682. not melt easily. and besides. see also. not by entrance feet. and then emitted . the different heats of a lifting up of the stomach. for that the motion of the hiccough is the and Experiment solitary touching 683. for much of the matter of hair. And yet it worketh manifest effects . for that the southern wind relaxeth Experiment 686. The cause Ecperiment solitary touching the qualijkation of heat by moisture. and followeth sneezing . Fire burneth wood. in the other parts of the body. or drinks.JO NATURAL HISTORY. the tickling of the nostrils within doth draw the moisture to the nostrils. diversion. : these. that is nothing. 634. we see more. but by qualifying of the heat and as we see in this instance and we see . by the drawing in of the spirit and breath . as in sneezing . and the motion is ceased either by diversion. and to the eyes by conso . and excerneth more. first the fragility. so it : perspiration . Birds are of swifter motion than beasts. or oil. solitary touching sneezing. The cause is. nostrils. into which the water entereth not at all. there is much more difference. that the water of things distilled in : Experiment solitary touching the quickness of motion in birds. solitary touching the ness of the sea. especially in children. for the flight of 681. as heat and cold do. that sneezing doth cease the hiccough. The cause is. for that their skins are more perspirable. would do it . without communi doth the chin. as contrariwise. differcth not much from the water of things distilled by fire. for that salt water hath a little oiliness in the sur face thereof. for it will make the eyes run with water. that dangerous to pick one s ear whilst he yawriIt eth. for then the holding up of the nostrils against the sun. broken and incinerate : scalding water doth none of For first we see that the hiccough cometh of fulness of meat. as in eggs boiled and roasted. is not very much heated. the skull being of a more solid substance. that in bodies wherein the water doth not much enter. them reason that some give. goeth forth by insen sible perspiration . hath been observed. The so clear cause is. And again we see. is hath been observed by the ancients. which is by the pricking of the stomach .

whereby the &c. as is. We see been seen. without too much perturbation. the corrupting of the moisture about the brain : the over-moisture of the brain doth tongue. as we see by the decay in the sight in rest are degrees of corruption. and make sweet and luscious . for that the hiiiiiniir which was descending to the nostrils. the tenderness of the which whereby receiveth more easily all cattle may be safely taken. And I conceive that the trochisks of vipers. and qualified perforations for the spirits catiou or acrimony for they undermine that to than the five senses pass. VII. been observed. ent. there would be more : Therefore Scaliger doth generation. in the latter. &c. 689. without any mordiorgans. if they could be taken the next is for . taste. most pyed part. and the flesh of the teeth are parts without blood whereas blood snakes some ways condited and corrected. that all contusions of bones in hard also.CBNT. When the mouth is out of taste. the Experiment solitary touching tht tenderness of teetk. such The cause in their tongues. It hath been noted. Wise physicians should with all dili well to make gence inquire what simples nature yieldeth that sense. divers creatures bred of putrefaction. snails. as earth-worms. as agaric and weather are more difficult to cure. which is proper for stop 688. which many times turneth bitter. for they also will water. n infectious years than in several of motions. that the tongue receiveth more easily tokens of diseases than the other parts. and they expel that which is offensive Of this gently.lt. Jews-ear are of greatest virtue. and obstmcteth their salt. that are profound. It hath been observed by the ancients. where also the diminution of the spirits concurreth as another cause : we see also that blind Experiment 691. such as carrots and parsnips. as casthat they are parts without blood so the bones toreum and musk. in the blackness of the tongue. is diverted to the eyes. many toads that 694. teeth are more by cold drink. are of several frame. are of the same that the sinews are much affected with cold. or the like. are : : to cold is greater than of flesh. than any other parts of the flesh. hearing. to take bodies putrefied. are spotted Again. is proper for the spleen Generally. and loathsome. for that which are so much magnified. and so are th* parts for medicines. in divers ditches was observed the notes of moisture. but sweet never: for the passages. affected double than the other parts. alterations. they open that which is stopped and shut. but the. Now in in the great plague of the last year. for that the flesh of this kind.. solitary touching the taste. that putrefactions of plants. bone resisteth. Experiments in consort touching Venus. which therefore are proper for the stone: of this kind is the dwarf-pine. as the swelling of their thighs. which is proper for the jaundice of this kind is : will previ ut it. age. Hut yet to it hath /. solitary touching special simples for many species displeasures thereupon. The cause is. timber-sows. &c. more eager: the other is. matching of it with itch is improper. \\liereoftlieeaiise is. as of heats within. though they be somewhat loathsome to take. are more so qualify the motions of the spirits. which and a number of others. have extreme subtile parts. and pleasures or other years. The pleasure of the act of Venus is the had tails two or three inches long at the least . chiefly sometimes loathsome. hartshorn.&amp. It is reported likewise. and dimness of sight in the former. : for that putrefaction is the subtilest of all motions Experiment solitary touching the tongue. which helpeth to qualify the cold and therefore we see of late are grown into some credit. all the organs of the senses roots. are maketh nevertheless also dim-sighted. the over-moisture of the for cause is. The cause is the one. Experiment 692. 693. First. are to be placed amongst them. which some down. ttfings taste yet eunuchs which are unable to generate. which appear in the parts of bodies. though that Which argueth a great disposition to putrefaction also be But the causes pleasing to the touch. kind are elder-flowers. if NATURAL HISTORY. The . cold becometh . which have extreme subtile in sharp colds wax brittle and therefore it hath parts. that much use of Venus doth dim the sight: and Experiment 690. The cause of bitter. in the soil and air. the smoothness of their skin. and low grounds about London. the looseness of their eunuchs. and since we cannot take down the lives of living creatures. : . no doubt. greatest of the pleasures of the senses : the whereas toads usually have no tails at all. and smell. is the expense of it The spirits. So the parts of beasts putrefied. there are belly. subtilty of operation. slirinketh. the pleasure of generation a s xth and if there were any other differing . cometh by rheums and all cataracts. sometimes salt. The instniments of sight. that there were seen. It solitary touching some prognostics of ness pestilential seasons. as there be diversities of organs. which is proper for agues and infections: of this kind is piony. for nature. but never sweet. for that the resistance of bone pings in the head of this kind is fumitory. would make us immortal of the Paracelsians say. that the rubbing of tlic one be about till sun eyes they run with water which is hard. and thicken the spirits visual.

they be laid up dankish and delighteth to be about the flame of a There is a worm called a wevil. blood. which round themselves into balls. without an organ. and in especially shaded. than engender putre thumations. which had shut it in. : dung. that cimices are found we see their great and sudden effect in fetching in the holes of bedsides. are more inclined to Venus in the winter. earthworms. Which should show. but not in the as we see in warming upon cold . The contem swimmeth upon the gad-fly. nifices The moth breedeth upon . as the For they are both or be the sudden exhaling of that little spirit. Furthermore. and calleth them forth . as it were. that bitter things are apt rather to kill. of the shape of a large white mag the spirits there is scarce any evacuation. is best inquired The that is fly called in creatures. principally of straw or mats. intending by it And the reason of the dying of the worm. as the tilent diseases. by way of in old snow. carrots. breedeth of somewhat the top of the water. And it is truly observed. as lice and tikes . and dull of some observations on the insecta. which in them lie more the ancients. There is a worm that breed eth of the dregs of wine decayed . Se First. are greater and deeper than bred chiefly under logs of timber. The reason and especially dangerous impos. Note. It Experiments in consort touching candle. neither do CENT. 696. so times in gardens. especially of the spirits. and somewhat The excrements of living pleasure of Venus . where no logs are. and is of colour reddish. which were preserved in cold. that snow. but in bodies that are cold and moist as upper parts of the body.faction . creatures bred of putrefaction. and for dung. whereto children are most subject. and therefore they are not venemous. eels. is of the greatest pleasure. and plation whereof hath many excellent fruits. for that lately observed by physicians. and in the winter morecondensefl and kept entire . Query. bred of putrefaction. the pleasures of the touch are at what seasons ? those of the other senses . that snow hath in the word insecta agreeth not with the matter. and in parts than in waters . It is received nence. as the water-spider that hath six legs. V*. the summer doth been cherish the spirits. Thirdly. all ex It is affirmed both by the ancient and modern . rishment. Some breed in the : men again when they swoon : for drink. in disclosing many things in the nature turneth into a gnat. but contra which is but in two things. . And it hath been women in the summer. It is true that the af seemeth their generation requireth a coverture. principal evacuation. and that feedeth upon roots as Some breed in waters. in disclosing the original of figuration. we well know whether some beasts crements are the refuse and putrefaction of nou and birds have not senses that we know not . as the timber is . where there hath little moisture . It hath been observed by of perfect creatures. The insecta are found to breed out of se veral matters: some breed of mud &c. for that it is a that are aptest to There is a worm that putrefy. which after wards. And therefore all the omission gales. the winter doth dull them. may operation. Some breed in wood. for water in mud doth putrefy. or refrige for as the pains of the touch timber . but it a secret warmth for else it could hardly vivify. both growing and the very scent of dogs is almost a sense by and cut down. the absti straw kept close and not aired. in traducing. snakes. better perceived in small than in great. by the summer are more ex haled and dissipated. as soon as it cometh out of the cold. and the creatures do not only breed insecta when they the spirits move and touch themselves tain that the pleasure of : drunkenness are excerned. but only humours putrefied. sweet smells and riwise are held by the physicians to clarify the wine. which is given as a great dainty to nightin Venus and of either of exercise. &c. fecting of the spirits immediately. especially wet. but they must be standing than in perfect . the insecta. or intermission of the use of Venus in moist and well habituate bodies. and great joys likewise make arefied by the hair. It hath been always observed that men as in worms. both from sun and rain or dew. in what woods most. that there is a worm that breedeth hidden. 695. in disclosing the original vivification. where excrements are Fleas breed not. and We see that the worms with itself. For as butterflies quicken with heat.NATURAL HISTORY. many feet. for of breedeth in meal. in a body more hot and dry. and dieth soon after it cometh out of the work effects upon perfect creatures. that in many pes the spirits. most about ponds. and the like sweet vapours. parsnips. as exhale with heat. and. which were benumbed with cold so spirits may . And fourthly. we ever use it for brevity s sake. they are in the body . The cause is. imperfect is The : nature of vivification very worthy the in is quiry and as the nature of things commonly whole so the nature of vivification . But it likewise are the pleasures. there are worms found in the spirits of men are. as is observed by some of the ancients. which next the are bred by the sweat close kept. but also while pleasure of Venus is somewhat of the same kind. breedeth a num ber of diseases : that they are killed by strewing wormwood in the rooms. cloth and other la them breedeth diseases of repletion. and they be things that are fat or sweet is evident . or the chamber and bed- women s are. is it is cer hair of living creatures. It is observed also. bred if : under ground. For smells. condly. Secondly. but in got. to motion. and and are chiefly in the guts. putrefactions not able to preserve itself. and they are said to be found also ration upon heat many are greater than the offences of other senses .

03 HiMTvation. for the hands go backward before the contrary mo before the motion some of them. that though their spirit be diffused. and therefore have taste and bees are called with sound upon brass. which showeth like : furnace. if they have all skins. strengthened the For otherwise. most with pleasure and . Yet there are certain The cause brought sounds. They are all without blood which may be. they might live longer. for ants below. as we see in chymical trials. doth not cause the spirits as it were break forth with more force 1 as breath also. and worthy to be weighed. and in casting of any thing. but touching the pleasure and displeasure of the senses. as in perfect creatures little. they and that matter to be put forth and figured. flies that worms have been kept in boxes the pleasures and dis pleasures of the senses. and snakes are thought. win it. or perhaps the absence of the sun. as the gentle heat of imagination more rr utable and giddy. for that if they were is in. to : and grow very long: and those that interchange from worms to flies in the summer. Harsh kept close. and dieth presently as soon as it is out of the furnace which is a noble instance. to gether with the enumeration of them. They stir a good offence. which hath a spirit wise. that their motion is indi -t r- wind sometimes moveth in the fire . The insecta have been noted : by the an Experiment 699. we refer to that place. As we to foresee. . that they have only the sense of for if they feeling. but this hath not been dili gently observed . the exility of the spirit. Many of the as butterflies dilating of it by a little heat. 697. and skin. that in furnaces of copper and brass. and then forwards. ligently observed. Of musical tones and unequal sounds we have spoken before. this action furthered by the chalcites. which is vitriol. for that the juice is almost all one. ti in is. because they excite the eth memory the of things that are odious or fearful little aftVct. make a shivering or horror in flies. and whereas some of the ancients have said. men are curious be not the least weight upon of their bodies the one horse more than upon the other.ehalrites. to make a which many times breed of putrefaction. and touches. but the similar parts little. cometh forth more forcibly of their spoil. for that the objects of the ear do affect the is the diffusion of the vital spirit. and therefore they have hearing. intend. leapeth better with weights in his The cause is. immediately. The cause whereof is. weight hinder- as dormice and bats.f the walls of the furnace: sometimes seen moving and their imagination indefinite. and less confined to organs than in perfect creatures. the integral parts have extreme variety. immediately are cast often. being the body. It is true. and set the teeth on edge. that there Now have matter pro great axiom of vivificamust be heat to dilate the spirit the .&amp. . congealeth presently. will vivify. The insecta have voluntary motion. not so fully. tluir from a flowery heath twc or three miles off to It may be. and flesh. which is caused also. that they have.gt. for it showeth. to live till they be old: and eels. solitary touching leaping. the rather for the casting drawn and kept in. VII. as small birds likewise have. and do by a participation or impulsion of the . otf.. a diaphragm and an intestine. is And.is if it took hold is &amp. is often cast in to mrml the working. that creatures that sleep and rest much. no doubt. especially of hearing. that : their hives. are first cast backward. therefore imagination . tastes. In leap . where no contraction is needful. as soon as ever it cooleth never so little. most things putrefied bring forth insecta of several names. Query. gnats and flies have us rt ell violent heat of fire. with so much the greater force . We see there is no colour that affect- while after their heads are or that they be cut in pieces. besides. the arms. : eth. for grasshoppers eat up the green of whole countries and silk-worms devour leaves cients to feed little . and the easy spirits. they be things that 698. &c. insecta. four years at the least. and bone. and they take their rise. Briefly. A man hands than without. that there see in horse-races. of the body . there riseth suddenly a fly. weight. but we will iiot take upon us now to enumerate them all. not blood. they delight more in one flower or go forth right to a place. revive easily when they seem dead.CENT. and ants make great provision. which is manifestly untrue : livincr creatures. for that their vital spirits are more diffused throughout all their parts. life . true. an active spirit to be dilated viscous or tenacious to hold in the spirit must needs have matter sight. as of a saw when it is sharpened grind ing of one stone against another. or are called 700. where we mean to handle the title of that will put forth and germinate. and from flies to Experiment solitary touching in the winter. yet there is a seat of their senses in their head. It is said by some of the ancients. the eye much with displeasure: there be sights that are horrible. it is neg go right forward to their hills. a spirit dilated by so ardent a fire as that of the Now herb than in another. eat if it be proportionable. will live greater swing. and bees do admirably know the way iiiinatr. ing with weights the arms are first cast back wards. animals in general.lt. squeaking or and other shrieking noise . which in most of the insecta tion of the spirits. but fo same things painted do affect As smells. if it portionable. Other observations concerning the insecta. The cause brought to the sun or fire. for that the It is swiftly. sinews by contracting them. They are not generally of long we yet bees have been known to live seven years . ephemera that live but a day. NATURAL HISTORY.

and would pierce through the sides of ships where a bullet would not pierce. for then the motion of attraction similitude of substance beginneth by though it be against the stream. by the taking of the end of a bow between the teeth. A thing of great use and pleasure for so you like to candied conserves. and are made of sugar rivers. The Turkish bow giveth a very forcible quality of drying. and putrefaction: and they Experiment solitary touching tude of substance. and hath no affinity mere waters. save wood sharpened which were dis charged out of muskets. terra sigillata communis. and turn up their bellies. As for the set ting of the teeth on edge. and in of the hearing. quantities of fish that come t!i. that the armoniac is the most cold of them. VIII. as shrieking 01 grating. had in use at one time. for a discord itself is but a harshness of . About the bottom of the Straits are ga thered great quantities of sponges. and arresting the spreading of attraction by simili poison. It is the more to be noted. but yet so and bolus armenus. CENTURY Experiment solitary touching veins of medicinal earth. fatter. they seem to be of great bulk. of nature fully in due place. I doubt there hath 705. do indrinks in Experiment solitary touching certain p. body of the object. within the sea. dependeth upon one of the greatest se which is. which are put into the chief are. sweet sounds. and iron would draw But this iron. and rheums. not stayed upon. Yet it is true. which they call servets. that we of eight inches thick. we see plainly what an intercourse there is between the teeth and the organ It is true that inequality divers sounds meeting.oriate. because that there be but few substances. see. . which are ga thered from the sides of rocks. where the body wholly freed from the motion of gravity : for were taken away. and more grown. at some good distance from and besides. and if they be harsh. as in except itself be killed by a violent motion. and in a discord straight falling upon a concord. where it is digged. : is substance will cause attraction. But we shall handle this point h&ven of Constantinople you shall have great to from the Euxine sea. but passing. these instances of arrows. which are sea-fish into fresh water ponds. insomuch as it hath been known. so as you may Turkey. for which cause the island brass of two inches thick: but that which is more Lemnos. lead would draw lead. have of all other simples the perfectest and purest 704. are un equal . or a piece of lemnia is the most hot. tins is most manifest in music. if it be headed with wood. and may fall to breed. but of veins of earth medicina. take them with your hand.shoot. that Colchester oysters. and in the raucity of a trumpet. pits. for all these three degrees of pleasing and displeasing in sounds. : But this crets in all nature. So it is sound alone that doth immediately and incorporeally affect most. terra lemnia. whether they be sharp or flat. the fish will eat 701. is rather an increase of sweetness . They have in Turkey and the east certain not been sufficient experiment made of putting It is confections. if they be sweet. for curing of when the sea voideth. . I nightUlftfapip of a regal . said. same motion of weight or gravity. for plant-like. it is offensive and therefore there be : sounds. VIII. short arrows.NATURAL HISTORY. Experiment solitary touching the growth of sponges. but crushed together. without any other heads. discords. being as it were a large but tough moss. will be transported in a very small room. which they called sprights. infection. harsh sounds. that similitude of they are gathered sometimes fifteen fathom deep and when they are laid on shore. without the help of the loadstone.1. that the bole. 702. whereof terra lemnia is the that there is a fresh water coming also to them may have them new : the sea The virtues of them are. THERE be minerals and fossils in great the pleasanter. if that salt We 703. and concords and discords in music the CENT. lous ages consecrated to Vulcan. doth kill the other motion. which is a Experiment solitary touching sea-Jish put in fresh motion of the matter. have a round ness and equality. with little or no mixture of any other quality. the arrow. that grow deep And it is certain. hath been known to pierce through a piece of wood chief. such as we now speak of. And it is variety. that salmons and smelts love to get into with the form or kind. It seemeth that fish that are used to the water do nevertheless delight more in fresh. it may be. but if you stay upon it. as in the purling of a wreathed string. stanching of blood. and pools. and gold would draw gold. stopping of fluxes. was in the old fabu s trange.u when they come into the fresh water. become by that means wounds. and that terra arrow hath pierced a steel target. but few. which we call by divers names. for sea fight. where the sea goeth and cometh. At the show itself. and striking upon the string.

sweat is ill.il : : : which. frugality may be the cause expelleth sweat. moveth to an expulsion quencheth over-dry heat shutteth the pores and therefore men will sooner sweat co indifferent over all the body. per parts of the body than the lower. and thereby sort of men. Fear causeth blood. for that in sleep the heat and lislnnan. It is likely severeth and issueth out. But I do much marvel. : the more heated. vered before the sun or fire. But yet the two former observa grees of heat in the bottles. And I wonder great fears. it colliquation. or equal. Whereby it may be con plentifully. The to be refined but by summer heats and again. have not taken into use beer or ale. The the less at it. the out sweat : besides. 706. and it may be is the flying glow provoke sweat in bed by bottles. or sugar and citrons. hot water doth cause not well observed. yet hypochondriacal passions. ceived. for the glow-worms of the cold countries ripen not that that part of the nourishment which is fresh and sweet.hy. and yet sleep doth rather stay other fluxions. Sweat is salt in taste the cause is. and rather to be stayed. chiefly. hri \\inir in Constantinople. or su^ir and violets. it doth easily ex a gentle heat. out of the parts that are less and more dry. as rheums. Italy. for that sweat in less. and the hotter countries. and fluxes of the belly but in those diseases which are expelled Experiments in consort touching sweat. and not sustained. because I see France. NATURAL HISTORY. a fly they call lucciole.it more in sir. their healths and their complexions. and suspected as in nothing sort mijrht well be at the cost. as the forehead and breast. Cold sweats are. looseness of the body. of summer. The trembling is caused. that the spirit of them is very fine. give as . and lemons. Blood also raw hath some saltness more than flesh because the assimilation into flesh is 71. sweat is cerned. or from motion guish the heat. but in issueth in sweat.Experiments in consort touching which the passions of the mind make upon the body. doth set up spirits do naturally move inwards. when nature. ofdrinkin-r water: for that it is no small 710. their law. fens. : . that shineth as the glow And therefore physicians may do well when they worm doth . the standing of the hair up 708. . charged by sweat. for that the pores are better opened by that by reason of the fineness. the reason caused. or an over-moist either proceedeth from the labour of the spirits. Men sui. because they are forbidden wine by &amp. Sweat cometh forth more out of the up The paleness is right. In Italy. issueth. than by a more violent . 709. considering they But when they are collected once within. and that kind of colliquation is not the matter that oftendeth made either by an over-dry heat.3. The cause is.iy for one s drink but the better near death and always ill. sweat. -p than waking. trembling. as in agues. and disease where it is seated. paleness. would better both of the body. or cause is. and sendeth forth but in the former. and there rest. if the heat be increased by degrees.\. because those parts are more replenished with onur the heart. first. &c. that no Kng. do provoke in bed a sweat more daintily than 712. It may be 707. with a decoction worm. or Dutchman. and to lay in the tions hold . and shrieking. mortal. For as for the becometh more violent and irritate . lh &amp. for that the blood runneth inward to suois. the sweat issueth more abundantly. and that they breed not in champain. In those diseases which cannot be dis^ great gain to any that should begin it in Turkey. than cause them . for that cold sweats come by a relaxation Spain. The cause is .reiier. whereby the moisture mlier for the more delicate persons : and :hose they dissolve in water. But that fly is chiefly upon fens and of sudorific herbs in hot water. sweat cometh more bushes and hedges. Thus much we see: that Secondly. &c. many times. if they did. before it mer. perhaps. evaporation from the skin so as it spendeth the they breed chiefly in the hottest months of sum matter in those parts under the water. as we see that even hot water of consent. or German. and after half an hour. The passions of the mind work upon the not without a little and subtile excretion from the body the impressions following. Experiment solitary touching the gf/otu-tfor/w. turneth into blood and flesh : and the so far as to be winged. which heat did keep firm in the parts. the impressiont only that part which is separate and ex. and by hale.CCNT.&c. The cause is. as in diseases of the lungs. neverthe by sweat. the heat have such quantity of barley. for that and the spirits are they that put forth spirits through the flight of the spirits inward. and not than if it be greatest at first. and sedge. starting. it would be matter of 711. cause is. and therefore make their drink. there is their opening. The nature of the glow-worm is hitherto brick-bats hot. good shade as bushes. for that sweat is a kind of the latter sort is partly critical. In bathing in hot water. they are less fleshy. it easeth and lighteneth. heat: for over-moisture doth somewhat extin which showeth them oppressed . and OBhB Oiher flowen { and some ini. Mil. not able to expel the fire . pestilences. Again. than if they stood naked and earthen bottles.gt. to make two de marshes. or forsaking of the spirits. and sweat ward parts are destituted. cometh not in the parts under the water. for they are not seen but in the heat bed the less heated first.lt. filled with hot water. and saving to p. or other green of the : : : : .

and some times tears. dancing. though it be without dislike. but contrariwise red ness about the cheeks and gills. to resist in some measure. and thereby sendeth tears and knitting of the brows is a gathering. The cast of the spirits worketh an expression of the moisture of the eye is a gesture of aversion. 715. without sending forth the colour again. Tears come from of compression of the moisture of the brain. whereby. but in many there is no paleness at all. for And we see also this knitting of the brows will wringing is a gesture of expression of moisture.maketh the teeth also to sit hard one against another. and roaring. when the spirits dilate. humours thereupon. that ex ribus erubuit and likewise when we come be stirring. Wonder causeth astonishment. imagination of the act of revenge. Tears are sal. Foaming at the mouth is Sighing is caused by the drawing in of a greater from the same cause. which to refresh themselves. when he is ashamed. singing. caused. and casting of the eyes. and is commonly or crying upon pain. .ing and suddenly striketh the spirits for it must he noted. distort heating. and give over to resist : brows. or cogitation of The distorting of the face is caused by a conten any thing. and cause motions by consent. tion. The frowning moisture of the brain. as hath been said : for when the spirits cannot expel the thing that hurteth. they expel the voice. casting up of the aad occupy more room. which we use when we : which contraction by consequence astringeth the refuse a thing. moveable posture of the body . follow upon earnest studying. fore great or reverend persons. Standing upright of the hah is caused. grinding of the teeth. All these are the effects of the dila tion endure to look firmly upon others and we see. the hair that licth aslope CENT. and the casting down of the eyes and coming forth of the spirits into the out both. and in it is a motion of shrinking. Screeching is an appetite of expelling that which : and coming of the colour. are caused by the burning of the spirits about the heart. nite trembling the shaking of the head is but a slow and defi and is a gesture of slight refu . and bending of the fist. and in that kind it is a motion of erection. a gathering and serring of the spirits together by to resist. yet that is but in passage to the face. Pity causeth sometimes tears. they are the effects ion or cast of the eye aside. th-n in joy. frowning and knitting of the : appetite of expulsion. Swelling is groaning. it workelh it diversely. bending of the fist. VIII. Light displeasure or dislike causeth shak Sobbing is the same thing stronger. Trembling in anger is likewise by of nature. Paleness. and roaring are caused by an ing of the head. must needs rise. sion causeth also wringing of the hands. both by a dilatation of the spirits by over groaning. leaping. which maketh the Shame causeth blushing. he will not groan. the blushing will be seen in the whole breast if it be naked. and afterwards open. it proceedeth of the reverence a man beareth to other men . and lifting up of the hands. And this is when the spirits for if one do con yield. he cannot : spirits. stantly resist pain. and the going and coming of the colour in others also trembling in some: swelling. and screaming. stamping. being an ebullition. while the spirits did spread so much as they could 719. as in a calling in of the spirits. foaming at the 716. in their strife to do it. and therefore when a man would listen suddenly to any thing. Blushing is the resort of blood to the face . and we see also. also a com And although the part that laboureth most. which is by the is ing of the face. But the object of pity. caused by a contraction of the spirits of the brain that gesture of the hand. eyes to heaven. Groaning.ing. but in a less degree. as hath been said in grief. cessive sudden joy hath caused present death. and a flex not retire again.NATURAL HISTORY. by motion of consent. call in more spirits And if the paleness be from the outward parts. from the For retiring of the spirits. Stamp quantity of breath to refresh the heart that labour. first and then to expel. As for the casting down of the eyes. wise an inquisition in the beginning. and by a liquefaction or boiling of the that commonly joined with some fear. parts knit first. that a dislike causeth. Grief and pain cause sighing. first to bear and resist. and then to expel . for the starting is an erection of the spirits to attend. by pro 720. Joy causeth a cheerfulness and vigour in the eyes. screaming. or loathness to behold brain by consent. when anger is joined with fear. Sweating is pound motion. he starteth . :&quot. what the matter should be. or warn it away. down is which . it Lr &quot. viz. : that kind both an apprehension of the thing feared. that blushing. Starting is Anger causeth paleness in some. are caused by an eth like a great draught when one is thirsty. which in the passion of shame 718. yet they are offers revenge. For compression of the but grief in another s behalf. are more when we come before many . by the labour of the to resist. alone. 717. many motions. Grinding of the teeth is caused likewise. As for tears. for that by the shutting of the pores of the skin. And this contraction or compres ring of the spirits. and like ! inmitli. pulsion of the moisture. sweating. or ser into the eyes. upon the same cause that they do in grief: for pity is dilatation of the spirits. Foi . These effects arise from the same causes that trembling and horror do : namely. 714. often. ore ward parts which maketh them more lively and Pompeii quid mollius 1 nunquam non coram pluWe know it hath been seen. sobbing. or an im &quot. tears. though they be unprofitable sending forth of the spirits in an appetite to to expel that which hurteth.

and wanteth spissitude: and we have a i merry saying. and therefore it is proper to as poppy. It hath been observed by the am-ients. And note well the spirits visual. Men are sooner drunk with small draughts been mentioned.res that the shrewd severaestverumgaudium. when they see things turn round and move. though it be a much lighter mo out of their place . or men are taken with a plain de destitution in voluntary motion. a continual expulsion of the breath.. the spirits in all pas to the parts that labour most. for any liquid body upon compression turneth. sions. The cause is.&quot. for that cause of seeing things double. 725. from the dila tation of the spirits. is an effect of dilata tion of the spirits. for that it is over-moist cue author. . : . is the weakness of the moveth laughter in the instant. and so make them weak to move. they rob the spirits animal of their matter. So we can obtenebration joined with a semblance of turning not laugh at any thing after it is stale. but a light touch of the spirits. for the vapour is as an unequal medium and it 722. And therefore drunken men are apt to fall asleep and opiates. Drunken men imagine every thing turnbody and we see that men even in a grieved state of mind. rous parts: in fear and airjrr to the heart to the face and in light dislikes to the he.ur. ana for the swift . which maketh the object seem to come on . us usrtli. Fourthly. that they that go drunk to bed get strange wonders. 723. sion. but whilst round which we see also in the lighter sort of it is new and even in tickling. So likewise. for that the spirits them selves turn. ing. and lifting up of the is yet believed.CENT.&amp. that the sperm of drunken men is hands. parts in general. hemlock. miming strongly. :md the casting up of the eyes. induce a kind man. The cause of seeing things out of their place.( the fixing of the mind upon dnth lint &amp. : i mused hy &amp. the running of the eyes with water. as was said before. it doth not move laughter so much. they cannot stand nor speak The cause is. il is a kind of appeal to th Deity. only by tickling some parts of the make the spirits less supple and apt to move. and shaking of the breast and sides. henbane. and occupy part of the place where they are. affinity which hath no : : : : tion: &quot. as in made less apt to but only move. they proceed. and sometimes they see things affinity an impression as fore. fear maketh them as hath been formerly touched. and it is all one to the sight. and stupefactives. where we spake of the tears of joy and grief. : somewhat ridiculous. by power and providence. for that the spirits of the stood. shaking of the breast and sides . Wherein first it is to be under daughters. if you tickle the swoonings. as we see in water. with the loud noise. and give warning. 13 1 &amp.\r . &c. of the eyes with water. They reel . or the medium moveth. is the refraction of the spirits visual . I.. tides. ninl arc spirits fly not. And we object moveth. As for 7-JI. to speak of the turns. joined of delight and therefore exhilaration hath some those things that they see near hand. by the grossness of their vapour. The cause of the imagination that Now causes of the effects before mentioned whereunto these general notes give some light. the motion of which are most affected. which maketh the interjec tion of laughing. yet cannot sometimes forbear laugh eth round: they imagine also that things come it is ever with some degree upon them: they see not well things afar off. all. Be And there sides. spirits for in every megrim or vertigo there is an deformity. for that the spirits visual themselves draw back . they tremble .lt. . hrreliy lor it : ill Experiments in consort touching drnnkenneu. II. Lustcauseth a flagrancy in the eyes. that in other passions. and therefore the spirits resort to those and fro for. being oppressed. especially being sudden. it is a for we see. that the cause of laughing is of drunkenness. being compressed by the vapour of the wine.gt. it \\TI-K. Thirdly. nKtonishnirnt. object of it is deformity. for in that laughing but hath its scarce properly a pas source from the intellect . is the swift and priapism.\I.than with great. Drunken fect. of ened. it lute-string. For the di latation of the things turn round is.mr ohjeet cogitation. It t i u spatl ite and trans. if it be violent and continued. and is as the sight of things outof place in water. And again. 724. And for suddenness.. wine sugared ine VOL. continued expul sion of the breath and voice.lt. or give a hard or conti nued touch. is HISTORY. Secondly. they resort to the eyes and vene. The The cause of both these is. which unfruitful. and that in great wine prey upon it as well as they and so they vehemency. id. is laughing there ever precedeth a conceit of wine oppress the spirits animal. The cause that they shrewd turn that lighteth upon another or any cannot see things afar off. . &c. and besides. in lust. for that great use may be made of the make the same appearances. double. whether the visual spirits move. resort most evermore. -. . absurdity. wonder the vttle. motion of the object. And not so deep as wine doth by the quantity of the vapour. see that long turning round breedeth the same imagination. which after a little time it doth not. it is moved.Sservation. that.gt. VIII. to desired. The cause of the imagination that things come upon them is.ui.r|iingcausethadilatationofthemouth and lips. we see that if you fillip a showeth double or treble. with the pas whereby they are nourished for the spirits of the sions of the mind. and the motion of the object. they see with joy. As in the last which hath 726. and the like. the sight and the touch are the things unquiet motion of the spirits. or are most affected. or the mouth and lips. that any great part of the matter : think they come upon them.

of the feet. the thighs. the crab. skin are. that in deer skin or shell thatputteth off the it is the young horn hat putteth off the old . if is. 31. They breed in the spring chiefly. and crumble awaj caterpillar. thought to be some remedy wine sugared be taken after Experiments in consort touching lassitude. by dew . though moderately used. not shaped ac cording to the parts. but especially caterpillars. though can briateth sooner. and the green caterpillar breedeth in the inward parts of roses. anointing give a relaxation or emollition . anointing with oil and warm water. is The body of the cantharides likewise some corrosive quality. it is against inebriating. the lobster. for that but is bred of a duller matter. or : putrefaction. the flies cantharides. And they breed commonly when . For it is certain. because water entereth better into good. There is a caterpillar that hath a tenderness and softness of the new shell. VIIT. and The flies cantharides are bred of a worm or caterpillar. and the mixture of oil and water is better than either of 727. the east winds and solitary touching the casting of the skin shell in some creatures. and in birds. and bathing and . because then there is both dew and is. all which bear sweet fruit. and compression of the parts ture ligest. but peculiar to certain fruit-trees. as we see upon the ground. as sleep likewise doth. in moist and full bodies it is them alone . The cause pour. of the body. But where there is mois partly. the animal spirits. for upon trees trees or and hedges. &c. and fruit that hath a kind of secret biting or sharpness: for e fig hath a milk in it that is sweet and cor gain. and turneth to a butterfly. that ticketh not close to the flesh. by which the leaves of the hedges are in great part consumed . but the old shells never : towards the end of summer. both the greatest.er. cobwebs breed all over. &c. and maknth them not so easy to resolve into va bright coloured. cause in going down a that in the lift hill. sops tharides have such a corrosive and cauterising quality . Lassitude is remedied by bathing. wine pure. And they are known by the extreme some other fly. for there is not any other of the insecta. the looseness of the skin or shell. . for that the wine descendeth not so fast bottom of the stomach. volatile.NATURAL HISTORY. as are the fig-tree. waxeth so as it is like. wine pure. and so dischargeth weariness. The cause is. or by oil or milk. as well by their breeding out of the leaf. The use of wine in dry and consumed bodies is hurtful . The The old skins are found. the young eathers put off the pld : and so birds that have . the snake. and oil after entry softeneth better. the silk-worm. and it may be. breed upon cabbages. to spirits. and apt to putrefy. especially not blown. The cause of the latter is. and breedeth of dew and leaves. The is. that the taking of tobacco doth help The reason whereof is. and the most. the : bout them. the hodmandod or dedman. but maketh longer stay in the upper part of the stomach. solitary touching caterpillars. but the skin is shaped ac cording to the parts. in wine. The cause of the is. for that the spirits of the the pores. the sugar doth inspissate the spirits of the wine. the pine-tree. taken upon much drinking.gt. and send(!th vapours faster to the head . or those that eat them. as by their feeding upon the leaf. And the same effect is wrought either 730. whereupon. And for the same reason. quantity for quantity. as they term it. joeth up the hill.heir &amp.. enough. leaf. The caterpillar is one of the most general of worms. they scale off. somewhat by the freshness of the colour of it The cause of the casting of skin and shell should seem to be the great quantity of matter in those reatures that is fit Experiment solitary touching 729. In going up a hill. when a man the weight of the body beareth . scabbed. it is requisite the matter be not too ^ioist : and therefore we see they have cobwebs caul. and in going down the hill. which is a sign of a slimy dryness . inebriate more than wine of itself. the viper. hat )ld : it is the new so we see. or perhaps y degrees. rosive. the craw. and chiefly because refresheth the spirite Experiment 728. that the delicate coloured dragon-flies may have Nay farther. The creatures that cast is secundine ish. it openeth the parts compressed or conit used . We see also but a general cover. fat leaf. It wine do prey upon the dew or radical mois is found also. to make skin or shell . which have a fur or down upon it. And therefore no marvel. there wine helpeth and desiccate the moisture. ture. most upon the knees upon the thighs. because by cheering or comforting of the Experiment solitary touching the help or hurt of wine. or superfluous. the knees will be most weary. the tortoise. Those that :ast their shell are. Experiment 732. have much blown the cause whereof the The dryness of that wind for to all vivification upon compared to the casting of the skin is by the ancients breaking of the secundine. for that all lassitude is a kind of contusion. former to the strong said to anti make the pine-apple hath a kernel that ia abstersive : the fruit of the brier is children. where the dew sticketh. and so deceive and discharge lassitude. the grasshopthe lizard. and seemethto have affinity with the sLk-worm. and therefore inebriateth less than CENT. but not rightly casting of the skin a for that new birth were to make every and besides. and the wild hrier. and sun. for we see infinite number of caterpillars which breed by the opiate virtue thereof.

but not aromatical which they take. The natural cause also stead of gay clothes. of which the the mouth. holdeth. The cause is. 736. do not only paint themselves. 738. It is strange that the use of bathing. for prolongation of life. and so did the ancient to God s providence. being set. for coffee and opium are taken down. and must needs leave anointing. that galley-slaves. gathered by sitting. the better com like our taverns. which they draw arches. which with a fine long pencil they lay under their eyelids. locusts. that years of store of haws and hips do com monly portend cold winters. Leaning long upon any part maketh it taken in root or seed. we come which is out of it. and the We Turks are great all fear. With the Romans and Gro of diet. This drink comforteth the brain forting of thu stomach. beaten into powder. for that the vapours. legs gathered making black as soot. supposing it expelleth condense the spirits. of henbane-seed . NATURAL HISTORY. The reason is. and yet would appear young. . may be the want of heat. But it seemeth they are taken after several manners . or with the. show a general disposition of the year. being olivaster. who are of an ill complexion. It hath been noted. Picts and Britons reacheth even to the falling of a sparrow. or at least they will have gay skins in birds in such seasons. which are more wholesome. but hollow. of all such things as do inebriate and provoke sleep. of saffron. of the Assyrian of the scarlet amomum. the leaf to bacco. if they conld much more is like to reach to the preservation of tell how. Generally. it is choose these exercises where the limbs the stomach and belly. 733. which are more forcible and as we call it asleep. of ambergrease . aa 9 quantity of cold vapours not dissipated. and of their eyebrows. Megrims and giddiness are rather when we rise after long sitting. silt . we feel a stinging or pricking. and make them strong and aleger. than to the sense of man. You shall find that embowed Xenophon maketh gendered of putrefaction. that. the root and leaf beetle. generally. touching medicines that condense and relieve the sprits. is the it. which causeth the cold of the winter following. And same prognostic. or the like. which is by that less pen. what ing. : more and. as in rowing. With the same powder into great numbers of cause is and unwholesome. mention. great 740. that the Medes used to paint their eyes. for that those creatures being en they colour also the hairs of their eyelids.and heart. the lay ing up of the lens hinli. by combing it. notwithstanding their misery otherwise. They have in Turkey made of a berry of the . by the sudden motion up into the head. with a the : And subtilly in any of these things. and make it into works. and the tear of poppy. plain . especially their king Experiment solitary touching the prognostics of hard and grandees. in the summer precedent . as the so that it seemeth men would Scripture saith. As for the Chineses. The Turks have a black powder. and do all And to good therefore. fly that the compression of the part suffereth not the spirits to have free access . made of the re-entrance of the spirits. 734. a drink called same: name. because the stomach is supported some and is pensile in standing or go takers. of mandrake . and they ascribe it So do the West Indians . Experiment pestilential solitary touching pestilential years. that the painting may not be taken forth .md we see that in weak stomachs. Lying not erect.Experiment solitary touching the use of bathing and teth forth those fruits. Certainly this up. The cause is. solitary touching paintings of the body. Erp-rinunti in contort touching riment solitary. as tlie body. helpeth and comforteth. which doth colour them black . and the knees almost to : berry coffee. Note. reason is. that tobacco is not 735. than while we sit. as hath been said be divers with us that are grown gray. when they abound. which is in of the bed . which were move more than champed in the mouth with a little It is like there are more of them. that those years are a mineral called alcohol. part . for ever than leaves. root and flower. when there are The frogs.CNT. are commonly fat and fleshy . barbarous people. beetle is but lime. of folium indum . but they 737. and of a strong scent. if it may be had call powder which they and kermes . and in sawing. and sit at it in their coffee-houses. and abundance of moisture. in sitting. if you find worms in oak-apples for the constitution of the air appeareth more hair black. they paint their cheeks scarlet. that winters. as they say. in water. to diseases of putrefaction. and con stitution of the air. It is an observation amongst country peo pounce and raise their skin. which put. The Turks use with the same tincture to colour the hair of their heads and beards black. go naked. the postures oftht coflee. is left. &c. ple. leaden comb. numb. whereby the white of the eye is set off more white. cast new beak putting oil the old. and therefore when Experiment 739. find means to make their fore. see also. tobacco but in smoke. and well corrected. opium. Query. as hot as they can drink it: and they take which is in the posture of the body. the Jlj-jn pg much matter for their beak. and helpeth digestion. if they were well found out. flies. their beaks. VIII. and have the colours of birds feathers.

and eat nothing. and yet with a little heat of sun or fire. were magnale naturae. great is it to break up. and thence issue the horns . the bill. in drops. or at least preserveth upon water. help sleep : as the blowing of the wind. flie trickling of water. soft singing. and darkness. sleep. whereof we spake in the hundred and twelfth experiment. and need bathing more. Experiments in consort touching solitary touching increase of earth. revive again. *&amp. and prolongation of life. though veined. and the nails. And for the same cause. and seldom walk. and eat nothing. Experiment 741. with it. pain and noise hinder sleep. Some noises. reading. furthereth sleep. recovereth weight again. Sleep nourisheth. which produccth weight. and weighed. during their sleep wax very fat. and beams houses. I of opinion. and then and after being dried by the fire. but lie as dead all winter. as you need not fear that bathing should make them frothy. and preserve it in that manner that it neither come to of the teeth deserveth to be inquired of. do not their honey 1 Butterflies. man would think. which is the day when the river beginneth to rise and then it will grow more and more ponderous. like chamblet or marble. it cannot be caused but by the air. that which laid in the is all tile. For the Turks it is more proper. be wet nor wasted . and much in and other hollow close places. 747. and put them severally. that the . and only the blood of the cuttle should be as black as ink. and weigh it daily. As for birds. It is reported of credit. that tooacco. And it should seem. and the cuttle is accounted a delicate meat. one can scarce draw his Another cause maybe. and therefore they can not so well close. . but the roof is. cannot get to sleep : be. they have three other hard substances proper to them . Bats have been found in ovens. that the cause should be the high concoction of that A blood for we see in ordinary puddings. because that their drink ing water and feeding upon rice. The experiments medicinal. and stir the water lightly. : request. cut. the bones. or stone. and especially the cause may in their feet. that are of hard substance. teeth and hard substances in the bodies of living creatures. whereby they sweat less. VIII first riseth. a pretty art of chamblet They ting of paper. it is credibly affirmed. Experiment 742. may be so used as it may be a great help to But hereof we health. which is ever requisite to sleep. loseth weight . there is the hard bone that is the instrument of hearing. without other nourishment. . being of some thick Beasts that sleep in winter. attention 746. Query. which cold doth shut in and hinder. bodies. and easy to waste. whether bees do not sleep all winter. humming of bees. and that very day when the river amongst the Turks al this day whereas plagues in Cairo use suddenly : CENT. for that in sleep is required a free respiration. the nature 743. the teeth. with us am the remaineth but as a part of physic. and go together in the head. was as usual as eating or sleeping. contrariwise. The is greatest quantity of hard substance continued . a long time. age. For there is the skull of one entire bone there are the teeth . &c. shall speak indue place. eth the spirits to succour. for that it made the body soft. that upon egg: and their quills : for as for their spur. A dormouse. for that they . there are the maxillary bones . and then wet their paper. where the walls and other parts have columns . There be five parts in the bodies of living creatures. and whatsoever moveth attention with out too much labour stilleth the natural and dis cursive motion of the spirits. that the blood of birds and beasts and fishes should be of a red colour. towards the head. as it was with it Experiments in consort touching Romans. But yet cer tain it is that bathing. solitary touching chambletting of cause is. Which if it be till the river cometh to its height. Those that are very cold. 745. the whole body of the air hereabouts sufFereth a change: for. and spare and other flies. maketh their bodies so 744. or lead. the Turks are great sitters. So it hath been ob served. which th a beginneth to condense and so turneth with in that suiall mould into a degree of moisture. the skull.100 cians so it NATURAL HISTORY. for that cold callbreath. it is . Experiment weight in It To restore teeth in may be thought of. Besides. the horns. eat they nothing. in the better sort ot open air. that if you take earth from land adjoining to the river of Nile. will sleep some days together. was hurtful to health. and other food of small nourishment. all solitary touching cuttle-ink. It is somewhat strange. matted one upon another and therefore it is likely that they sleep in the winter time. move in the spirits a gentle The Turks have paper. as it is noted of wild ness. that as soon as ever the river heginneth to increase. both winter and summer. as well as the other parts of living creatures bodies. take divers oiled colours. boiling turneth the blood to be black. so that the building of living creatures bodies is like the building of a timber house. true. which is not with us in use. and the paper will be waved and bears. that the use of it. only sleep. for we see and hard. it will not alter weight until the seventeenth of June. when we come to handle solid that in great colds.gt. and especially anointing. But howsoever. which is of like matter with the the shell of the teeth for no birds have teeth : : more btrange.

and manner of till the a tale of the old Countess of coming of them forth. But no living creatures tli. 2. VIII. who clad with flesh.- 754. The teeth of men breed first.tli. salmons. that great one of restoring teeth The instances that give any likelihood sense. lobsters.gt. four years old there cometh the mark tooth. &c. indented one within another like saws. The staying and easing of sinew for marrow hath no sense. The pulp of marrow diffused. when the grow. But yet that again. which are between both. as oysters. to have a kind of marrow diffused. marrow. horns. that the teeth stand at a mark is out of the horse s mouth. Query. 757. but a little 1. these things are to be jaw-bones have no marrow severed. i. and the like. Some creatures have over-long or out-growing teeth. with procured to come larger than usual. it : not only of pain. though less. in men. creatures. teeth. trouts. and longer talons? And whether children may &c. As for the entrails. as to make mark in the place of the division. The preserving of them. it. as in eagles fly to 755. as men tain seasons of the : It . the renewing of horns. for does. substances unto their several places. 753. especially their master-teeth. continue at a till that at eight years old the tooth is smooth. Concerning teeth. 4. 752. that by age is spitted. whether horns pointed teeth. are the late coming of teeth in some. and new come about seven years old. as the fore-teeth : broad. Some fishes have diverse rows of teeth in the made to have greater or longer bills. No beast that hath horns hath upper teeth and no beast that hath teeth above wanti th Experiments in consort touching the generation and tin in below: but yet if they be of the same kind. and quire only of the teeth.ili&amp. as a kind of mar by painting with mercury . casting her old teeth.. the tell Query. and r^i. ft. or tusks: as boars. 6.CENT. wild conies. hath not been known to therefore let trial have been provoked bj be made. as deer. and that wearcth shorter and shorter every year. 756. in some and the hole gone and then they say. Horn is alike throughout. The back-bone hath one kind of hot. may be brought again to be more branched ? for these trials. but it is rather with least pain. or greater roofs of their mouths. called and provoked. some other creature. j Some living creatures generate but atcer- into upper teeth. Snakes! not have some wash. None other of the hard substances have And last of all. or something to make their and other serpents have venomous teeth. and sometimes did dentire twice or thrice. 71*. which we call fangs. which thought keeping of them white. as men and horses. as an ox or a deer have a greater head of horns 1 And whether the head of a deer. And the pain of the teeth is one of the sharpest and other bones of the body have another. nails.. which hath a hole as big as you may lay a pea within but only little gristles. shetp. 3. But we will leave the inquiries of other hard of restoring teeth in age. 5. teeth are.it 101 have shrlls very hard. have bones within them. And many more in salt-waters. 7 tr i:&amp. and the renewing of the beaks in birds. of three kinds : sharp. and The And art . but the teeth . after full growth. Teeth likewise are considered. as the back-teeth.illv cockles. where teeth have been struckcn out. bearing of living cnalurtx in the womb. are cast and renewed : : : stay. teeth. and most sorts of birds and fishes and all others at any time of the year. and by rheums. which we call the molar-teeth. and so is the nail. but a nail. pikes. which hath an affinity with the brain. as lions. whether by art such hard matter can be It may he tried. it followeth not. now in therefore. and sometimes be and child is about a year and half old : and then they cast them. but of cold.lt. iv . and some have teeth. which they call the colt s tooth : tortoise. crabs. The skull hath brains. is they are all lived she was seven-score years old. it will pro into horns. wearing: as for nails. hat she without bones: save that a bone found in the heart of a stag. and dogs. nor yet e cmiviTso . more particularly how that cometh. muscles. help to the teeth of children. Horses have. and so doth the skull horns. which are commaterial with teeth. may be in and others coming in their place. Some living creatures have teeth against teeth. whereby they maybe | Pyrrhus had. NATURAL HISTORY. of mi s and beaks of the body: as skull. Teeth are much hurt by sweetmeats. shrimps. The drawing of them causeth the sense and pain . yea some at thirty and forty. The of pains. also. The binding in of artificial blood. year. except their : grow continually parrots. that if the hard matter goeth not 758. But there have been their teeth some litle may be procured to grow in beasts that are not some men that have had horned. and by things over-cold. no more than the tooth-ache. 751. as of one whole bone. But divers have backward Most of the hard substances : teeth come forth at the ex- twenty. and the teeth have sense. j . They Desmond. and by things overrow. they and bills and beaks will over cast. or grinders. whether birds may not have something done to more them when they are young. craw-lisli. will show. at three years old. scallops. and 750. and so again have dogs. a tooth and at put forth. or canine. that have no horns. have no upper tc. Bones. only the bones are more inward. within it. salmons. which teeth better and stronger? Coral is in use as a are siiim times mistaken for their sting. as pikes. and how? And whether they may be undivided. in age.

growth within a twelvemonth. which being Some ordinarily but one as women. or what you will. ele . and moist. swine. does go about nine months. then fill the basin tradition of ten years is fabulous. conies. Some creatures bring forth many young of food ones at a burden as bitches. There is also another reason why some yet informed. : . in the . that glow-worms in glasses were put in the heat and comfort of the spring prepareth the water to make the fish come. yet some there is . and duck. and fulness of sperm required to the producing one of that of food. We find. For birds with water. hogs. Fishes are cold. greater whilst the female is is full . concurrent with the former For the colt hath about four years of growth and so the fawn. creatures that generate at cer will show greater. Sheep are a cold versity amongst them in the time of bringing so there is less diversity in the time of creature. And amongst birds. I have heard of a and fishes . that CENT. nor whilst she is or less. and for forth most of them coming to their that they seldom drink. so will a candle inalanthorn. : . But whelps. see. the tame dove almost : are longer coming to their maturity or growth are longer in the womb. and in the womb. and so the calf. For example. for no creature goeth to generate ing his eyes open. therefore the treading or coupling. as well as things coloured. . in respect of their small heat. cats. into it. three weeks. which breed at all seasons. mares eleven months bitches nine weeks . and that is the relation of their time of bearing to the time of generation . hares. another. which is from warmth. somewhat the later. those against it a picture of the devil. may admit greater or by the partitions and rut of deer is in September . dogs. as there is less di creature. and not the glass . and some shorter. that the time of going to kind which if less be required. that is. which come to their growth. the middle of September. . the conwomb. phants are said to go two years . some are longer time womb. of others. are full of heat and moisture. being tame. as horses. 762. . For the former. doves are the fullest of heat and moisture amongst birds. and sanguine. there. or from the cistern or pool of water. I know not whe less diversity of time than amongst other crea ther this experiment may not be extended so. put an angel of gold. and practice. hav creatures generate at certain seasons. and therefore breed often. horses. cause. generate seldom. for that they need number if more. . feed full and we see that those creatures. is or at equal angles. and the disclos pose you shall not see the image in a right line. or from plenty of food. As for birds. as appeareth by their fearfulness. and you shall see it out of its place. that take an empty basin. for the hen sitteth but you might see the image. about the same time. I say. either by the quantity often. in domestic creatures. if it be hot. and the object in the finer. . This may be caused. then go so far from the basin. the distance between because of the reflection. To proceed. And therefore it the grosser. a which for beauty and strangeness were a fine month Query. ing or hatching. For it is manifest. he seeth things in the air. but aside. men. are but nine weeks continually. be cause it is not in a right line. It would be well holted out. which may sever the sperm. either from the nature of the creature. j I . or somewhat before. but light by refraction So sheep. tain seasons. the hardness of their flesh. if there he a either from the nature of the kind. VIII. as birds in the bottom of the water. refractions may not be made upon reflections. The cause of the proof: for then you should see the image like a rrcat difference of times amongst living creatures spirit in the air. how it worketh fall to generate again three or four times one after I know not. generate will show greater. if drought. or what you will. &c. fulness 760. which are long in the : womb. or rearing her Of living creatures. when the eye is placed in the grosser me or young ones out of the nests of birds. : fit for And if rain come early about generation. the turkey-hen. Women go commonly nine months the cow and the ewe 759. men. for the received : j institution ot the womb. as tures . and the laying of the egg . dogs. &c. For the second cause. as about six months. till you cannot see the angel. and swimmeth upon his back . fewer the whole summer s feed and grass to make them cells of the womb. and the object is in young. things show greater. double inquiry. 761. as is cliiHly seen in men : and so elephants. The cause of generation at all seasons &c. seemeth to be fulness for generation is from redundance. you shall place orer \s. whether. they will dium. as appeareth by their mildness. commonly. kine. full growth. But For like as a shilling in the bottom of the water for the most part. there if. But deer are a melancholy dry within three quarters of a year. for that the end of the winter. put a looking-glass into a basin of water. but contrari found by experience. that if you take the eggs wise.102 NATURAL HISTOR\. generate &c. wild. Experiments in consort touching species visible. But ! stitution of the are long time in coming to their in most other kinds. But I am not them. clogs. whether when a diver diveth. There is no doubt. lionesses. they go to rut some what the sooner. the hardness or is | dryness thereof. I sup and again between the egg laid. whether great in sitting. Most sort of birds are their growth of a dry substance in comparison of beasts. that when the eye busy standeth in the finer medium. For the first. we well as upon direct beams. As for example. This fulness ariseth from two causes. generate in the spring . &c. goose.

i:L h it hath as thin a skin as the other parts mentioned. for upon tickling we is would look t\\een like . nave in them a natural appetite Experiment 767. A weighty body put into motion is more moisture. of the part to avoid ever a starting or shrinking away it.f the hairl. -. but the chief cause I take to be. there should be. that if Experiments in consort touching impulsion and percussion. and flat. But there is als^ in tho touch more hard. Tin n put a if vu c. be is true that the water of Nilus is sweeter than force. Tickling is most in the soles of the feet. Tickling also causeth laughter. and as soon as ever it getteth any moisture from the water. and the resistance of the stone. by putting it into great jars of stone. that the river of Nilus over flowing. with almonds in new beer. by the resistance of the body upon which it resteth.&amp. that no weight I this want of showers will press or cut so strong. and stirring it about with a few stamped al Experiment solitary touching titillation. It were good to try this. because it is accustomed to be touched. for swift-running waters vapour not so much as standing waters . as appeareth in infinite tain. namely. it ii&quot. move country. and if it be too small. and Branched like : and partly. : \j&amp. great.k- 1 that the p:ilm i. as they have when they are thrown.gt. and it is cer is of great ways efficacy. whereas a thing more obtuse.i devil indeed. or of both. and it is excellent good for of the body that moveth. and rareness of touch do further: for we see a ta 769.irifyintrfor all tickling is a light motion of the spirits. being laid upon a air. doth get. or muste. that the air. as it doth. that in Egypt they prepare and clarify the water of Nile. th-. the country of Egypt. and hypochondriacal melancholy. nevertheless. As for the 765. The cause may be the emission of the spirits.. and BO of the Kreath. HISTORY.it resteth. and not easily impelled than at first when it resteth. I They have . wherebv or by the motion of gravity continued. to fying joined with the rareness of being touched there hasten and perfect the cl . doth tickle. For if a weighty body be pensile. or else to the concoction of the water . deserts of S. doth not. There be scarce to be found any feather. procuroth sneezing. strange. r 103 devil s BO as you do not sre the water. cause to the impulsion there is requisite the force other waters in taste . by a flight from titillation . of the after it hatb vessel. yet is not ticklish.clari cause is the thinness of the skin in those parts. It is solitary touching the scarcity of rain in Egypt. Unit ground.&amp. quick 768. that do likewise expel the you it 763. The cause is partly because motion doth discuss the well endured. and on the sides. which the body that is moved and if the body be too showeth it is lenifying. besides their mo tion of gravity. or in the nature of the air. that have branches and no leav. leafless. pression in them. or a rush. for that the air body. a stronger compres sion of parts than it hath of itself: and therefore needeth more force to be put in motion. The cause is. because a body tlr. which. And for suddenness.lt. N ATI II \l. brown of colour. forwards. The rested some time. little or no rain in that long race of the water. it imbibetn cussion. I conceive also. that the the body below and the priority of the force al whites of eggs and milk do clarify. or shot through the Experiment solitary touching clarification.in riar Hacon walked betwo steeples: which was thought to he done by glasses. the percussion will make an impulsion very near as easily as if it were already in motion. not to at all . And tickling is ever painful. and sufFereth it not to remain in vapour. which the thinness of the skin. needs have great power to concoct it. tickle the nostrils with a feather. it may be ascribed either unto the : off&quot. Macario in Esrypt.CKVT.gt. or a you allow coral for one. not seeing the water. the parts of the body moved have by impulsion. It is common experience.water: j)icturc aside. and hang but by a thread. as well downwards. bles. without shade. to make it move well. VIII. for that and dissipateth it in the whole body of the air. and we see also. which is a sudden emis sion of the spirits. country either of woods or hills. when he walked upon the see there eld tale in Oxford. . A body over-great or over-small will not be thrown so far as a body of a middle size: so cocted vapour not so much as waters raw. as falling or stricken from above. from whence conceive cometh chiefly.&amp.m Ml tin iiM-:Jass in tin. a plant which in we see no man can tickle himself: we see also long. It hath been touched in the title of perco loose of that motion preventeth the resistance of lations. more than waters upon And it or proportion between the body moved and the after some time of boiling as at the first.lt. It may be the air hath some part in furthering the per is of itself thin and thirsty . no the fire do vapour so much that it seemeth there must be a commensuration. The cause must be either in the nature of the water. drawn along the lip or cheek. and it runneth through a of a hot climate. and so draw it and under the arm-holes. whereby the sun must it resisteth too little. such as are inwards. or straw. In the water. the cause must be. it yieldeth too little. a com it might breed rain. monds. wherewith they also besmear the mouth 766.\v l&amp.lt. torpor of solid bodies. for waters well con 764. and suddenness Experiment solitary touching plants without leaits.

ex -ept gold. are preserved very long. of wax three or four fold. The Dead Sea. set in water within a house. there were found at a time two coffins of lead in and the people thereabout a tomb.104 coral. to herbs. of preserved be not of that gross that it may corrupt quicksilver. that the body adjacent solve it.th it must have a virtue to draw forth. water is and white amber. namely that the ancient Egyptian mummies were shroud no difference but But should seem. By this it seemeth and then they crush the ashes into lumps like a that the Romans in Numa s time were not so stone. It is strange. save that NATURAL HISTORY.. though it be a good distance off: and it is nothing but the shining of the nitre upon the sea sands. the body was so tender. as living bodies bound air terogeneal towards the body that is to be pre served . Near the castle of Caty. asappeareth in the mum mies of Egypt. and in their former dimensions. Which maketh me find it very strange. whereof we now speak. and covered over with watchcandles setta. defaced it. in conservatories of snow. which it doth not appear was practised upon the body of Alex ander. Experiment consumeth solitary touching fuel that little or nothing. which vomiteth up bitu and ambient be not commaterial. which are the parts aptest But that is nothing to the wonder: to corrupt. three thousand years. that the be excluded. the 771. in the land of Idumea. and which showeth. and the discipline of the Experiment solitary touching the materials of glass. The second is. amber. that if the body to be pre : it have been borne up. for the same There is a fourth reason. that in the labour of King Numa. hut imposture. such abundance of nitre the shores there do put forth. which was the cause that the body was utterly con glass-works. for else the putrefaction will play within. and solitary touching prohibition of pu the long conservation of bodies. thin and small. nothing can issue from the other. 77 I. as a corpse is. touching but the nose of it. and. for that undermineth the body. But I find in Plutarch and others. issue forth. and so sell them to the Venetians for their good embalmers as the Egyptians were. sumed. where| . besmeared with gums. that the body to be you may make water so strong and heavy. that all metals. that notwithstanding all the embalming. swim upon quicksilver. but in the coflln th. temedy -also. which is. as Caesar. some of them. tha.ulcth and dis- : Experiment trefaction. that at the foot of a hill near and dry tne moisture of the inward body. so that such bodies. it may be. in honey. and that in the coffin that had the body. but merely he. spnr. being written on of a weed. It is true. than of bulk. whereof the one contained the body of playeth strangely. : 772. how long carcasses have continued uncorrupt. Egyptian mummies should be reported find that the to be as we see what a soft and corruptible substance the flesh of all the other parts of the body is.irs after his death and the other. and into the water in respect of the water.it from Pavia by the river Ticinum. or the like. The third is. VIII I remember Livy doth relate. which no doubt was the best. perhaps. and the ashes had the books. namely. for if nothing can be received by the one. It is reported. Experiment solitary touching bodies that are borne and conspireth with the spirit of the body to dis up by water. according to our observa tion and axiom in our hundredth experiment. and that matter maketh not that haste to corruption that is And therefore bodies in shining conceived. which is ga thered in a desert between Alexandria and Ro. in gums. rites and ceremonies. having lasted. in manner of cerecloth. is of that crassitude. they were found as fresh as if they had been but newly written. bodies will not corrupt the first is. although no part of it issue into the iron of which I see no use. The crystalline Venice glass is reported there was nothing at all to be seen. that all sinking into but an over-weight of the body put served be of bulk. a great part of the way you would think the sea were near at hand. is but an accident. period of bodies. in quicksilver. and by the wells of Assan. pontiffs. and flies. which indeed may be very material. when Augustus Caesar visited the sepulchre of Alexander the Great in Alexandria. CKNT. in balms. that. it being some four hundred yt-. but a littie to be a mixture in equal portions of stones brought light cinders about the sides. but withal. such are quick silver hand and not sunk foot cast into . though nothing the Marc Mortuum there is a black stone. he found body to keep its dimension. then the body that ineloso. It need not go for repetition. have a superstitious belief. called by the Arabs kal. that if you provide against three causes of putrefac tion. pu trefaction. they find means to draw forth the brains. for hard as stone-pitch. &c. and well to be noted. his books of sacred women it helpeth to the easy deliverance. as may bear up within itself.parchment. for I one. We body adjacent: and therefore it must be rather see also. as is conceived. in wax. which we conceive to be so natural a it ed in a number of folds of linen. if we resume again that which we said in the aforesaid experiment concerning annihilation. and is by the Egyptians used first for fuel . 773. 770. Experiment solitary touching the abundance of nitre in certain sea-shores.men. and to take forth the entrails. that This being it closeth at the top.

776. and green of colour. it is soft.CENT. and last be caused by some natural furnace or heat in the peat. that there dwellings. as of the seats It is certain. There is a kind of stone about Bethlehem. privily. 14 hath some coagulating virtue. and making them reverbe rate. to make them more milch. which spirit or vapour hath no weight. and go round in circles.lt. which of all other hath most affinity with glass: inso fuel. nitre are of the best. as the sea-coal men use it.gt. &amp.it not. or to this .il. but if it be used purposely. as other dews do. it and winter. Sea-coal lasts longer than charcoal . and in They gather it from the leaf of the Experiment solitary touching by 777. it turn to a glassy and again. but not of such mulberry-trees as grow in the valleys. if you could last find choose their dwelling for their better health. as soon as it is out of the fire. coal. which feedeth upon . which inspissateth the dew. the mulberry-leaf itself the choice of mulberry-tree . you will say. It is solitary touching glass. that in the valley near the Experiment solitary economical touching cheap mountain Carmel in Judea there is a sand. to discover the wholesome. to ga wind from the top. make them last longer. ness or unwholesomeness. It is said potsherds or vessels of earth in their walls. ilesh or will persuaded that a pur. sand nf the nature of reported. or to fatten them. for the discovery of the nature Italy and Spain for freshness. the flame may continue. . substance without the : : : mixture be. out fuel that would neither hum hot. the growth of coral. Turf and is very strange. and cow-sheards. as it were. the trials of airs. is milch beaits. and gathering the winds and air in the heats of sum mer . that that vapour also can last but a short time : to that it may be answered. being coaled into great pieces. for they serve for a natural divination of seasons. of pilgrims iiml N \TIR\I. for but only waxeth brighter should do so is not strange : we M-. 778. and wax. Th^ro would be used much diligence in seem.f be some houses wherein confitures and pies will VOL. much as other minerals laid in fire. most plenty. better than the astronomers can by their figures: and again. which whiteneth also in the burning .oinr I MW not. and charcoal of roots. Experiment 779. Small-coal. that before those dews come upon trees in some bodies and places. do not is good for nothing . \\ JOS make hich bimieth like . fuel to brew or bake with the rather because it whether the crude materials of glass. and yet they do not speak of any eruption long. but they be but pennings of the winds. solitary touching the gathering \f manna. The manna of Calabria is the best. as well of seasons. for the tasting of air . some inquire better of of the plant. poured upon char earth . and the wick not burn. and other candle-stuff. to couch we but see. and rooms in Experiment 781. The which they grind to powder. and put into water. or vapour.beinga kind of mineral. the valleys. Sedge is a cheap of flames. And li&amp.-&amp. mingled Trial would be made with glass already made. it day in use in Gaza. sooner corrupt in be noble experiments that ran make tins dix-o. keep them from murrain.. It were good to try in glass-works. enlarging them again. it is saving. deadeth straightway*. VIII.else.gt. rather than this de vice of spouts in the wall. : we find it is it. and commonly it is made of some tangible more milk. are cheap fuels. but tin- strangeness : that it should con tinue any time so for iron. fires. Certainly it were very . that by such as the help of oil. It may be chalk and But then is the matter of ignis fatuus. ther the It is at this brought into the red. and to pass it down in spouts into rooms. for that it is not found upon other trees : and we see by the silk-worm. upon the south-west of Sicily. facilitate the making of glass with less heat. it brancheth only when it is under Experiment solitary touching the gathering of water. they teach men where to m tiling of rn-at use and profit. or brier-coal. Belike becometh hard and shining also to have a white it not brought over with the cast away as nothing worth : a device for freshness there are is said. 01 some mixture of sea-coal with earth or chalk 775. Surely there would be some better body which hath weight: but it is not impossible trials made of mixtures of water in ponds for cattle. hath no leaves . HISTORY. glass put The thing into it turneth into the mother sand. And manna falleth upon the It should leaves night.It should seem. and consumeth not. it is Experiment solitary touching 780. It is a submarine plant. Bather mould more than in others. made of some whereof cattle drink.uid eonsumeth is. to make the bulk of the coal greater.h I am diminished Tli. In the sea. perhaps that it should be made of spirit.i ru-. also. and it is likeliest to if it be true lasts longer than ordinary charcoal. of airs than in other--. and yet long: am I altogether incredulous but there may Experiment solitary touching increasing nf milk in be such candles as they say are made of salaman der s wool .- iron red-hot burneth. and be made much coral is found. but being for if that wind for freshness. deceit. which maketh them give question what. they dissipate and cannot hold out. and remolten. in great heats : and It is it berry coral. as air. II. flame must be in a body. It known.

noses Experiment solitary touching plaster hard as marble. whereof the one is unctuous. There &quot. This experiment eggs. inebriating. touching the correcting of wine. : a cement. Experiment solitary touching mortification Now men it were.n full or hath been noted by the ancients. why wild fires. to be apt to certain it is. and besides. for dews fall. : that place yieldeth great quantities of bitu . It solitary touching judgment of the cure in some ulcers and hurts. without any sud loadstone and flint. and in the head more easy. and so putrefaction is made complete. so is not sulphur. which they call the court of And therefore were good. water also doth good. Weigh iron and aqua fords severally. will in a may be transferred to the cure of gangrenes. and the other is as And . Experiment 782. whereas . Certainly the it were not amiss that fall it to observe trees. and resort to things that are refrigerant. are somewhat bristly. unhcalthfulntss &amp./Etna and Vesuvius. wherein you must beware of Warm Experiment 785. is growing as serveth those spirits that remain.quidat spargit. nivem Whereby he and sicut lanam. ulcers or hurts in the 789. gelu sicut cineres did infer. without rain. ashes. whites of eggs. doth refresh. . coming of themselves. without showers. VIII. near Cuma. do of themselves qualify the air. they work which may make them both to fume in the sea coasts. that leaf. and so in the very instant helpeth somewhat: but iron is corrosive and not sanative. 788. and stone powdered. And in may be many difference hath been found therefore a hurt of the head is harder to cure in a Frenchman. by putting in some like substances while of the southern wind. that Experiment solitary touching weight. solitary modern observation. ami . especially of the black mulberry. impure bodies. is. and of the leg Experiment in an Englishman. and to inflame less. for that in the place near Puteoli. CENT. by the addition of whites of den working upon the spirits. or hurts and ulcers in the head require it not. tures do best repress fumes. gangrened which consist upon sulphur. till they can re vive. they would be transferred unto other wine and strong do refrigerate in part.is The cause easily than wounds made with iron. do not quench with water. This experiment cause fevers. for that brass hath in itself a sanative virtue . whereof the one s constitution suppose. were rather of brass than iron. but no water. but contrariwise dryness maketh them more apt to a little better herbs growing on mountains. snow put upon them helpeth for that it pre. that And I valleys. and that remain in those parts. or induced by too much applying of opiates . that southern winds. that bitumen mingled with lime. if they come to a fire they rot off pre and ashes. The cause is. and ears are mortified. but when showers are joined. because the vapour of the sea. ther the best May-dew for medicine. and pumice. you shall hear under the earth a horrible thundering of fire and water conflicting together. with an inward warmth. not improbably. It hath been noted by the ancients. wild Experiment solitary touching wounds. not. and the leaves also. compounded of flour. snow hath in it a secret warmth as the monk proved out of the text . and virtue of cherishing. is said to have the walls plastered. that becom eth hard as marble : wherewith Piscina Mirabilis.106 NATURAL HISTORY. made into paste. by adding some sulphur or alum .lt. should gather it from the hills. put under water. but with The cause is. it a mixture of a fiery and watery substance . will make as it were an artifi cial rock the substance becometh so hard. And dews upon consolidate. whereof the prin 787. and check the sultry heat Therefore this holdeth not beer. shoot forth smoke. for that the few spirits ported also. Vulcan. and there break forth also spouts of boiling water. is. and gum-dragon. for that the first concretion of bitumen . that he that would ga is more dry. This appeareth. legs are hard to cure. dry heat. do cause a feverous disposition of the year. for that southern winds rain. It is solitary touching fire. 784. that the instruments which are used by chirurgeons about wounds. that wounds which are made with brass heal more cipal ingredient is bitumen. and.f they have a manner to prepare their Greek wines. It hath been noted by the ancients. that the reason conceived by some. are suddenly drawn But forth. with cold. and the like. what a dainty smooth juice it hath . that snow did frost did fret like warm like wool. blowing much. for that ulcers or hurts in the legs then dissolve tfle iron in the aqua fortis. to keep them from fuming and It is said 786. that the powder of and little it openeth the pores. less. because by little And it is certain and tried. the materials of Experiment 783. The cause is.&quot. either few days harden to the hardness of a stone. which by the defluxion of humours of the lower parts is hindered whereas : the dew. the like between Frenchmen spend before they come to the and Englishmen. It is re sently. solitary touching the healt/ifulness or the southern wind. that those two na tringent. as when men s by cold. In the cold countries. and the other s more moist. which may help to preserve require desiccation.

yet the first experiment is true. because they As for the are more dry and hollow. it appeareth manifestly in this : t^a* if you take a body of Experiment stone or iron. could not get can use no such help. it turn. especially of a dead horse. 792. can follow the water gathereth upon an heap to And the voice soundeth as if it came from above wards the hinder end. the head and the neck shake. because there is a remedy at hand by stopping of the nose. and make all the body water. Those effects which are wrought by th* magnitude and shiP i ind throw them with equal in tart. Let there be a body of unequal weight. or bone and lead. and a&quot. it will and the weightier end will recover to be forwards. cend. which \ watrr may be the medium of jart sounds. no doubt. it must needs be that the body turn over for. of quick Experiment solitary of the flight of the spirits upon drains. be driven faster than the water little and little. holding confidently the mo on either side of the door. it inaketh a sound. it is in length a hundred feet. And I remember well a physi cian. that used to give some mineral baths for the &c. know not whether there were any error in the not by the water. if you stand by the close end wall over The echo fadeth. we see that the grating of a saw. but in horses. touched. as the echoat Pont-Charenton doth. their flight. or in the midst just over flowing of the ocean: because the earth over-run. it hath been formerly in So that ho that object tainteth the imajiinatinn. There is in the city of Ticinum in Italy. Take two of aqua fortis two ounces. or any very harsh noise. the increasing odious objects. The cause is. and the body. as For feeling. though it be better against old walls than new . false. and &quot. in breadth twenty feet. idirs did severally: notwithstanding good dnil of waste by a thirk vapour that issueth during the working.v&amp.r hotly doth increase the \\ater maketh a sound. 793. It is certain. the super-reflet which is it less endureth pressure of parts. when it was put into the gout.gt. Experiments in consort touching iion of echoes.CENT. as we see brine. doth not For odious smells. to be the cause of the ebbing and if you stand in the door. when it is salt enough. the dissolution will not bear a flint as big as a nutmeg. if you should This was tried once or twice. solitary touching the force of imitating that of the sense. we see that in the taking of But it seemeth the weight of the quick a potion or pills. the that it may be or acid things. yon shall find it 107 to b. or which he supposeth. you shall find that an anchor trial. and dieth by Galilaeus noteth it well. are force. And if you stand at the lower end. If you dash a stone against a stone in So the bottom of the water. wherein water is. but I think that the sound cometh up by the pole. silver more than the weight of a stone. secth the thing done by another. if you throw into a shade.. . and tlie weight. where the motion began the door.KM! weight .against the door. swifter. and so there is induced in them a trepida tion and horror. and in height near fifty . weigh the dissolution. Which theory.i NATURAL HISTORY. for that the more dense body bath a more violent pressure of the parts from the first impul sion the cause. and when the hinder part moveth . And even in sight which hath in effect no odious object. which compose the weight of a stone more than the is less perceived. coming into sud den darkness induceth an offer to shiver. but tion of the earth. desti tute . VIII.lt. having a door in twelve or thirteen it can more easily draw forward the lighter part. there followeth a dullness or shi Experiment solitary touching the flying of bodies in the air. you cannot pf^ihly throw the wood so far percussion of the sense. imagina 795. Experiment solitary touching water. yet. It reporteth the voice inequality of the presume of parts. for that charge the aqua fortis will bear. and take on almost as if they were mad. bath. the like effect followeth. as hath been often said. will hear an egg. which set the tins mtdium as of sound*. for that 794. 791. if you come out of the sun suddenly of wood and lead. the echo holdeth . the parts are. Therefore if a man see another eat BOUT teeth on ed_n&amp. that if an open trough against the door. of all violent motions. turned. than the forward part can make way for it. down so easily as in ordinary shiver. that weight of the aqua fortis. unless the body be over-long. For tastes. let down by a rope maketh a sound . we see the smell of a car unequal rion. : the midst. will set the teeth on edge. from you with the light end forward. a church which hath windows only from above. and by things the imagi as the stone or ir^n produced likewise in some degree hy nation. times. vering in all the body. maketh them fly away. hath his ow . silver solitary touching the super-natation of bodies.is the . and yet the rope is no solid body whereby the sound can as :i Experiment 790. not. in some degree.*bor of wood. though heretofore not found out. For sounds. of the same tion. Nay. that all echoes sound neth the water. that a long pole struck upon gravel in the bottom of showeth that the o|tenin&amp.gt. Note. All objects of the senses which are very offensive do cause the spirits to retire and upon : of the weight of water will increase its power of bearing.

to consider of the emptiness. compared with the dimen upon a stick. of earthy and an adulteration or counterfeiting but if it be done watery substances. it may be a Parchment. spreading both of the lead will multiply and increase. and of their can by no means be separated again which appetite to take in others. and not not jejune. it were good therefore to seem. and yet melteth without be the more manifest. that it doth it with a kind of thirst.as not satisfied with its own former consistence. of the quicksilver. after a time. so that the flower be covered metal. will think on. which This would be no man. if are made. Air taketh in lights.do lose any weight] evenly spread . but lead in silver. and known of old. and by the smallness of the There be other bodies fixed. is the last refuge in separations. drink in liquors. have little or no spirit. heat. upon the stone like warts. will increase into greater which fire worketh not so that there are three This is certain. Gold is the only substance which hath another flower gathered at the same time. himself waxeth turn-sick. they bled. If you compare it with 799. This showeth. that causes of fixation. where. VIII. to it it. I remember to great saving of the richer metal. and put into the ground. will not be detected. them after four or five days . when that the so incorporated with the more rich or insatisfaction of several bodies. trnm had in it a fifth of silver to the gold. and all liquors do g-old. but by the coldness of the quick silver indurate . by weight. that a fif teenth part of silver incorporated with gold will upon a high place without lie rails is or good hold fall : not be recovered by any water of separation. so as there is nothing to that in Cyprus there is a kind of iron. 797. and smells. teeth also set on edge. : : . &c. baser metal as is . to be observed. and more resplendent. or if he look upon wheels that So if a man be turn. as we may call it. is well said by one of the ancients. and it is should be inseparably incorporated with gold or most manifest. mul gold: as . and without disguising. It be without induration. The melting showeth that it is do preserve excellently in quicksilver . 800. or strangled. because the quicksilver presseth tho flower. which. that the lead did swell. but then that was proportionable: and dry bodies. Water. ex be used fall. and cold. but the equal may be merely conservation . and tie it gently detected. as it was easily separated. : : The ancient elec. insomuch as it hanged first may be joined with a nature liquefiable. as fit for most uses as denly and easily. in somo other properties. and put them both into a stoop-glass sions . as we see in the stuff whereof coppels cut into little pieces. But that is a tedious way. Take a stockgillyflower. Experiment Experiment solitary touching the drowning of more base metal in the more precious. but the stiffness of the stalk cannot and no means at all to issue forth. : leaden bands. copper and lead with silver. and for else it would never receive them in so sud made a compound metal. that may further the intrinsic in Experiment solitary touching preservation of bodies. 798. it the drowning of metals. in cellars. and more qualified hastily receive dry and more terrestrial bodies. upon it be well watered. them selves are re?dy to faint. I call solitary touching the restless nature of things in themselves. it will nothing in it volatile. he ready to for imagining a putteth his spirits into the cept you put a greater quantity of silver to dra\ to it the less. as if in strife. the two Experiment solitary touching the growth or tiplying of metals. cloth. that bodies much difficulty. So if a man see another turn swiftly and long. from the cold. for the freshness of the flower of it is not want of spirit to : fly out. So that the fixing : preserve only. lead being the weightier full of quicksilver. that being fly out . the closeness of the seen in old statues of stone which have been put and the jejuneness or extreme tangible parts. It is reported by some of the ancients. or scarce in spirit. whether glass remolten for the parts in glass are but they are not so close as in we see by the easy admission of light. avowedly. is a kind of version. one is a glue to another. if you take so much then lay a little weight upon the top of the glass the more silver as will countervail the over-weight that may keep the stick down. that silver in gold will be 796. or to make drink in waters and liquors so that. he said. and you shall find the flower fresh. and look upon of the lead. which is the more spreading of the tangible parts. This to do privily. It is a profound contemplation in nature.. there appeared. flexible than it was. corporation. the even pieces. which they put into furnaces. have heard of a man skilful in metals. try.108 NATURAL HISTORY. though false as if silver and sounds. as eth. which weight. the last not. | CENT. and their desire to change. and vapours. the crmpound pass for the rich metal simple. almost. and the close coacervation of them whereby they have the less appetite. Note. and the stalk harder and less Experiment solitary touching fixation of bodies. on the other side. or were better inquired and the quantity of the fifteenth turned to a twentieth. as hath been spirits and tangible parts. and likewise with some : little additional. So many upon the seeing very action of a fall. the feet of them being bound with comminution of spirits of which three. or tortured. of others bleed. skins.

in heat. which pertain to natural divination and discovery. Great and early heats in the spring. when men find it not. do portend a great pesti- as if you kr. if you know the con K . a great distance off. which goeth into plants and trees. And gold. which is apt to corrupt the that which is to come. : . than give it leave to breathe forth presently. for else And all bodies would be alike one to another. it is but a wandering notion. Therefore they that come abroad soon after water. no doubt. as well as the sense. but either to overcome and turn an most solid body. and much more if the August be dry. and then some dry weather again. and t convcrso. that will not t and as it were with consent. and generally so do years with little wind or loadstone draweth iron. So in all physiognomy. the be gentle. The lesser infections. as well as to foretell but a gross vapour. purple fevers. Now it is true. sider attentively. even to the next summer. It is therefore 803. doth greedily drink in quicksil other body into itself.gt. and see a weather-glass will find the least difference of the weather. is certain. CENTURY Experiments in consort touching perception in bodii a insensible. Also the plenty of frogs. shall therefore now handle only those two percep We continueth the corruption of the air. by the first showers. is far more subtile than the sense . IX. is nature..gt. Great droughts in ers summer lasting till to wards the end of August. NATURAL HISTORY. if they trials. ever more a perception precedeth operation .eatures bite of putrefaction. that this reception of other die.CRrlT. vehemently. or discipline will suppress. that sireth all touch upon silver. is released. And. are commonly taken with sick of water. lor as for the petty assertion. and many after the first showers. the earth. 801. or cold.orous: metals themselves do receive in readily Ptnuiir waters. 802. And this perception also is sometimes . and hovering all winter. to corrupt or putrefy. in the summei precedent. and to exclude or expel that which is ingrate and whether the body be alterant. and go out. and cometh forth abundant sense cannot inform but if you boil them in ly. which is caused by an early or subtile IT perception. 109 it hough themselves he and not com bodies procal. flies. Of tlu: eauso this. : : will discover it. comitants. It is true also. or the like. Only which seemeth by the weight to be the closest and other body.w vLe causes. or water. tions. nor ipparentty &amp. divination ceptions appeareth early. or altered. except a very frosty winter discharge it. and the like c-. that divination is attained by other means . prognostics of pestilential and un years. then fixeth and first conceal. and sometimes do portend a pestilent summer the year following better. which seldom succeedeth such droughts. so cometh long after.gt. in the great effects exhaled. portend the same. that matter is like a common strumpet. as by victory or itself to . but we tie ourselves here to that divination and discovery chiefly. yet they have perception for when one body is applied to another. open nature. then they rather wash and fill the subject of a very noble inquiry. blastings. grasshoppers. besides. sometimes this perception. but the speedy consuming of it. flame doth not content itself to take in any ver. leaving the handling of perception in other things to he disposed elsewhere. at namely distance. the taste will not discover the best ness and in Africa. or flame Babylon. nobody will stir out of doors water. tending to natural divination or subtile trials. though they have no sense. The . so that the sense is but a dull thing in comparison of it: we I \ IX. forms. and worms in the oak-apple. that all bodies whatsoever. fireth naphtha of a thunder. as to try whether seeds be old or new. as sand and ashes.&amp. : aptness or propension of air. entire bodies. a-jues. it is a principal means of for about the end of August all the sweetness of for that which in these per the earth. to inquire of the more subtile perceptions : for it is another key to : . and maketh it of upon the ill influence. which we have heretofore set down. con d*&amp. as well as upon the touch as when the in May. in some kind of bodies. have been spoken of before. i is not violent: for is many tin minuted. that it serveth that nothing then can breathe forth of the earth to discover that which is hid. and to wnat axiom it may be referred. But if the showers come other means. as it is in many subtile air and that vapour. there is a kind of election to embrace that which is agree able. The wind blowing much from the south without rain. is to be found before it break forth into manifest effects of diseases. of the small-pox. And it seemeth. showers begun. and some gentle show upon them. the new seeds will sprout sooner and so those showers. you may judge of the effect to follow : and the like may be said of discovery . and strong waters likewise do readily pierce into metals and stones: and that strong water will touch upon gold. without winds. doth portend pestilential years. We will therefore set down some wholesome 801. it lineaments of the body will discover those natu ral inclinations of the mind which dissimulation \\ill But if dry weather come again.

if they come earlier. nor enclosures. doth not rise to its height at once. in places. winter is ever joined with frost. it is sway. show a hot summer to follow. air is the discovery of the disposition of the good for the prognostics of wholesome and unwholesome years. namely. and to compare them. both upon a stake of wood sweat. and hips. more immediate of wea sponge.. or seats. Generally a moist and cool summer por more or less corrupted. feldfares. &c. matches in all things. and retiring places for health : for mansion-houses respect provisions as well as and colds to succeed toward the latter part of the winter. and the other in the colder. for that the wholesome summer. And if it be in the same country. yiO. The cause is. how the water standeth then . and the beginning of the spring for till then the former heat and drought bear the ter. whence they came: as the winter birds. and to set them. An open and warm winter portendeth a hot 809. more than in tain seasons. Birds that use to change countries at cer there be some houses. It were good to lay a piece of raw flesh or fish in the open air. or some height above the earth. and at the same time. like unto as swallows.. do show thp others. are caused chiefly by the moistness of woodcocks. cuckoos. then they show a temperature of season. The resounding of the and the murmur of winds in sea tho . and especially if the heat and drought extend far into September. if there be a showering April vapours of the earth are not dissipated in the sum between but otherwise it is a sign of a pestilen mer by the sun . sufficiently multi 815. more ponderous bats. wherein sweetmeats will relent. for the vapours disperse into corrupt. &c. The predictions likewise of cold and long experiment would be made about the end of March: for that season is likeliest to discover winters. And because you cannot be informed whether the by the nature of the evtrth. that season in which they come : place you will try. the air is more unequal either than in others. it tial year. following will do.. That of plenty of haws. and transporteth them into the late We see that spring and summer following. and upon the flat of the drops of the eaves of houses come more slow the earth. so temperature of weather. The prognostics. with us show know find it before a it after. and hot and dry summers. and the temper of it in heat or cold . no doubt. or no . that if a general disposition be in the air to putrefy. fur putrefaction CENT. And the greater the enemy to health . where it ter. or stone. as well for the discovery of the causes. or than the other: and come towards summer. for that likewise may disclose an inclination of the air to dry weather. 813. 812. that may concern health diversely. and baked meats will mould. and to mark when you set them. you may judge of ther to follow soon after. or fish. 811. how far the water cometh . and see whether it doth not moisten. whereas cold and frost keepthe air. and make the wool. and so they rebound upon the : were good to take two wea ther-glasses. it were good to try that ex posing of flesh or fish. &c. are more certain than that place. Take May-dew. the flesh. when you come again. that in some places. Because it is certain. it were not amiss in the same year. portend a tendeth a hard winter. summer following. 817. in the cold winters. and vapour of the earth. those of seasons. but also of the moisture and dryness of the winter showers. where no shade is. being many ways corrected. and another of the same kind and bigness within doors: for I judge. and what the summer be known. which in fy quickly the quality of the air. upon the air. to lay one piece of flesh or fish in the open air. As 814. for eth them in. for that it showeth 806. no doubt. you may be sure that the place where the water is lowest is in the warmer air. good to make trial. and inequality of air is ever an putrefaction be quick or late. portendeth an open beginning of win for lodges. the air in those seats. And this the air. and brier-berries. ly down than they use. and if it putrefy quickly. as situated in a gross and moist air. hath been spoken of air. if they come earlier. 808. IX.110 ence in the NATURAL HISTORY. Lay man buildeth his house. than in the house. But for the choice of places. And because the as for divers provisions. are good to what the winter hath done. will sooner putrefy abroad where the inequality be. for the same hours of one day. that have used to sion from the earth . winter. and autumn. 805. not only of aptness of air to and dry summer. according to that country that they will almost run with water. wherein the experiments above-mentioned may serve. than to take the experiments following. all which. A hot and dry summer. and if you find them unequal. receiveth great tincture and infu before. But because it is better to and out of the northern countries. it is a sign of a disposition in the air to putrefaction. or bread. and see whether it putre frosty winter. A dry March. If wainscot. for the choice of places to dwell in : at the least. wool. or a sponge. 816. be more dry in the beginning of winter. so it is of much more use. or by the situa tion of woods and hills. and wainscots will also sweat more. except you compare this experiment with the like experiment in an other year. and a dry May. upon the shore . it portendeth a hard and The cause is. : health. the greater is the inequality of the temper of hath less. comparing it with some other places . of the ascent or descent of the wa air hath more power. and the vapours are not plied. that if it do. 807. if they come early.

re water: and land-birds also. The cause is. as the cold and freshness thereof: for being a bird much do in a deep water. do foreshow like wise rain for earthworms will come forth. against rain. and conies. and crows seem to call number of instances in our inquisition 1J&amp. The cause and pegs of woods. and so it getteth and deer. But the kite We of prey. or down of thistles. and fire. So we see both extremes bring the gout. of we spake before. whereas in the first putting up it and a heifer will put up her nose. will feed hard before rain . Fishes. when she soareth high. into the air. for that stream. must needs have a quicker imprcssiun from the air. until there be an eruption of a great in the morning to feed against rain and cattle. for that the wind cannot be perceived by better . when they driw and wind wings. Worms. and besides. tempests. and leaves bow down. quantity from under the water. &c. We spake of the ashes that coals cast off. upon seem 819. When wind expireth from under the sea. on. and the flexuous burn ing of flames doth show the air beginneth to be the grossness of the air. which if it is to be noted. as swimmers the air. fly to and fro in the air. As land to the waters.gt. do engrieve either towards lain. when they fly from the 830. perceived. it is : : cometh 822. have subtile perceptions see the of \\iud rising. and geese do gaggle. for we usually try which way the windblowThe eth. and hurts. thai water-fowl do joy most in that air which lib -i i&amp. (Jreat mountains have a perception of the than the disposition of the air to tempests. moor-hens.. show for such winds breathing chutly .lt. The trefoil against rain swelleth in the and of grass and chaff carried by the wind . you may be sure of a fair day to follow. and beat the waters with their stones and wainscot. and so standeth moreupiignc: for by wet. scarce moving them. sooner valleys or plains below: and therefore they say in \\ ales. when they play towards the top off. collection of the matter of tempests and winds. and swim lower. except they And therefore a mur mur out of caves likewise portendeth as much.lt.lt. being but heavy of wing. and when it is as itcauscth some resounding of the water. that all birds no wind at the first. so it causeth some light mo 826. will not things 821. and are aptest by their voice to tell tales what they flight to find. and fleas bite more. The cause may be. so any liirht thing that movethwhen we find no wind showeth -\ wind at hand . The air. so as rain : all which is sometimes she : is seen to pass over a cloud. for that mean mischief.gt. and especially birds who live in the air freest and clearest. taketh pleasure in the air that is con densed . cause is. 827.. without apparent wind. 820. &c. &c. when they sw eat and boxes do fireshowrain and wind. for it is no marvel. and upon the wing. pleasure that both kinds take in the moistnes* and density of the air . will fly it. stalks do erect. and snuff in into a body is apparent to the sense air : . as crows. land-birds. and corns. but flame is move than and for the ashes. ashes more than they use. And yet it is true also.. Beasts do take comfoit generally in a The moist air: and it maketh them eat their meat tions of bubbles. Water-fowls. though wind unperceived shake them wings spread. they in the showeth winds but kites flying aloft show fair when certain hills have thoir night-caps and dry weather. bef the air here below. For prognostics of weather from living creatures it stalk. approach the air till it groweth moist. swallows. as they call it.l Ill I&quot. they can uphold themselves with their no marvel. and therefore sheep will get up betimes the sense. and white circles of froth.U . aches. whithersoever they would otherwise go. or such light of the water. cause is. till it hath struck and driven find an ease in the depth of the air. and moist air. 824.NATURAL HISTORY. 823. 828. easier to trembling of a candle will discover a wind that otherwise we do not feel. that creatures that live in the open air. The heron. where dry. 818. 829. and therefore hot. Solid bodies likewise foreshow rain. as sea-gulls. as trouts and salmons swim against the unquiet . are soonest perceived to collect in the places next it. and therefore the ob &amp. as when feathers. and likewise by the motion of their express the same. and contrariwise. sub dio. earth. than men that live most within doors. for that they both mount most into the air of that temper wherein they delight: and the heron being a water-fowl. in little portions. or towards frost: for the one maketh the humours more to abound . vermin. for that a fish hating the dry. and many times flieth against the and so do coals of fire by casting off the wind.mt of the \vin&amp. many birds do prune their feathers . but the comfort they to receive in the relenting of the air. she delighteth in the fresh air. by casting up grass. or chaff. And therefore when they are aloft. : an&amp. which are for the most part bred above middle region.i . reason also. scuring of the smaller stars is a sign of tempest And of this kind you shall find a following. aro not at the first be [lent by water or wood. do commonly foretell rain. de For the same light in bathing. to folwoods. The upper regions of the air perceive the is. There is a small red flower in the stubble-fields. 825. before men find it. ventis. many of them. flock when they and fly together from the sea towards the shores . Even in men. moles will cast up more. and the other maketh them sharper. and so desire to bo in molion. The cause is. needeth the help of the grosser affecteth not so air.. which country-people call the wincopipe . the air against rain. 1 open in the morning.

For heat. last a great while. 833. that smell doth spread no Experiment solitary touching sweetness of odour from the rainbow.. as it is in light. if it be not too equal. 831. and generally all flowers that have cool and delicate spirits. and colours. that no smell issueth but maketh the stomach draw humours. It : neither do we know. thing that distance that the other do. for to touch. capers. though thn former be hut from an outward for that the stone. solitary touching the stance of smells. we see that woods in the stomach. &c. for motion whetteth. if their houses and stables be kept sweet. there breatheth forth The Cause that this happeneth but in cer tain matters. provoke appetite.112 fiard . it is. It is certain. can not preserve the smell. It is true. will sometimes smell like and beateth back the air against itself. As for the why onions. Some con tinue both on the fire. as rose- in the nerves placed in the mouth of the stomach. smell better in a morning or evening than at noon. and so of cage birds : we drawing up water itself ness.. which quench with emission of some corporeal substance not . being dissipated in the them see. doth draw forth: and the like do soft showers. for that sour things also moved by sour induce a contraction and from the fire . Dogs almost only of beasts delight in fetid odours. which cause is Some do scarce come forth. and calleth upon supply. or CK. And therefore the smell of violets and roses exceedeth in sweetness that of spices and gums . appetite mos&quot. which have in themselves some sweetness . contraction. which moveth in a small compass? Whereas those woods and heaths are of vast spaces . which cannot possibly fall Experiment 835. for that want of meat appetite Experiment corporeal sub 834. up. and abstersion. whether some and some degree of sweet may not have pool. pinks. many times. : much : for moisture. where a rainbow seemeth to hang over or a sweet smell. for that the body itself rejecietli is the catburieth that which she voideth and it holdeth chiefly in those beasts which feed upon flesh. To sweet smells heat is requisite to con Experiment solitary touching the nature of appetite coct the matter. besides. they call appetitus caninus. will smell a great way into the sea. the refrigeration of the stomach joined . and therefore but from the air that is very low . the cause is. and yet over-fasting doth. NATURAL HISTORY. or at water. least not so pleasantly. is manifest. are cold and dry . and in sounds. as by means of the fire . a great cause of appetite. by approach to the fire . which showeth them corporeal . olives. and some moisture to spread the breath of them. IX. &c. cause the appetite to cease . as jumper. it is by vellication of those meats. and all smells that are enclosed in a fast body but generally those : nerves. than satiate it.VT. Appetite is moved chiefly by things that and spices are more odorate in the hot countries wood itself. For we see plainly. wallflowers. It hath been observed by the ancients. for the rainbow consisteth of a glomeration of small drops. and salt. and pepper in baked move appetite. Appetite is things . and others of that kind. as vinegar. ill. where the degree of heat is small . we see that smells do adhere to hard bodies. since a peal of ordnance will do as much. which is hut a kind cause. is. and such humours as are light and choleric. and the strongest sort of smells are best in a weft afar off. and the latter is an inward swelling of the body of the Experiment solitary touching sweet smells. for equal ob beasts. which par ticipate of bitterness. So as there be four principal causes of smells are the most grateful. consisteth in the matter of an acid and glassy phlegm in the mouth of the stomach. as in perfum ing of gloves. hath a freshness and good scent. and heaths of rose that 832. river. &c. for that cold is a than in the cold too kind of indigence of nature. Some sweet smells are destroyed And the disease which &c. may also have... that we find it sensibly in no but good earth. tunicth of water congealed. besides hunger. juice of lemons. but what is that. gillyflowers. that pigeons and horses thrive best. which water. solitary touching fetid and fragrant odours. But the cause why excrements smell ill jects never move the sense. which sounds and light it falleth. vellication. As for wormwood. may hold the very sweetness The excrements the for of most creatures smell creature that voideth chiefly to : same of the herbs and flowers. make the ground sweet but none are so delicate as the dew of the rainbow where : and do do not. that some woods of oranges. we see that things dried lose their sweetness : and flowers growing. nor fountain turned true. that bay-salt. as violets. It may be also that the water itself hath some sweetness. and so is dry ness and therefore all sour things. which the gentle dew of the rainbow for they also mary. or where the strength of the smell is allayed . oil of vitriol. they move appetite by ab stersion. with some dryness. newly . which showeth there is somewhat in their sense of smell differing from the smells of other : . Certain violets. per haps twenty miles .. and other dew that fall from high. for these things do rather woo the sense. sweet gums. as a distilled water. besides that of man. foi rain. which is an empti ness . wainscot.

but where those are wanting. IX. and processes. &c. or suppression. being but notional and ill few things. especially where they pro ceed from creatures that are very hot. But it may be also joined with a further cause. And of kinds of processes of natures and charac the worst. Experiment 838. and conjugations. and the parts thereof. and not durable . : Besides. and. which are most obvious to men s ob limited . are likewise call concoctions : and they are all made to be the works of heat sages. general. as the excrements from the ters of matter.gt. moisture. or hotchpotch many tastes. urine and excrements concocted. liquor. or notable alteration. be.lt. and in the several and the like. think. and is transitory. which is more subtile . and the body resulting. cold. as is most contrary to the consistence of the body whilst it is sound for it is a mere dissolution of that form. either by cold. that some putrefactions and excrements do yield excellent odours. and those that are from the third. the four digestions. solitary touching concoction and and do pull and vellicate the sense. wrought by emission. to come from : and the moss we spake of from and also by the disor- musk as some dination and discomposture of the tangible parts. II. those that are from tin. The plations. : may be the same holdeth in smells : for those all kind of smells that we have mentioned. living creatures in the first vivifi and the middle action. that are full of heat.gt.CENT. The cause may be. especially of some persons. ventive heat thus far true. of the elements and their concocted. that it should signify the degrees of alteration. Ne vertheless it natural heat and spirits of the body. the sperm of fish apple-trees is little better than an excretion. ia chiefly taken into use from living creatures and their organs. or by excitation and solicita tion of the body putrefied. drought. In versions. and it is. for that putrefaction the ambient body. Experiment solitary touching the causes of putrefac tion. it is but nugathis last And tion : disagreeing colours is ever unplea sant to the eye: mixture of discordant sounds ture of many enemy for cold. where men urine. but to have a commixture of somewhat that is in itself ingrate. and other passages of nature. of the influences of heaven. is fitly called. or suffoca tion. and seemeth to cross the But this is dissolution. by the body ambient. 837. And as for the peregrine heat. what strange tastes delight the taste : as red herrings. caviary. Certainly. smokes. guisheth vivification. &c. All putrefactions come chiefly from the inward spirits of the body and partly also from . as it is at first. qualities active. Therefore they speak of meat and notions. there is another reason. that all putrefaction. much siiirll NATURAL HISTORY. former observation. tendeth to is strange. that the objects that please any : all some equality. hath so too. cation . concoction. them. is unpleasant to the taste. are strong. The constantest notion of concoctioo of measured instances and so assent to be made is. which ever consisteth in spirits attenuate. which is a kind of putrefaction for the parts are in con fusion. chylus stomach. vapours. be else. harsh ness and ruggedness of bodies is unpleasant to is . Therefore all which notions are but ignorant catches of they are to be set aside. it is the touch now it is certain. in the stomach. that if the proportion of the adbe greatly predominant to the it being a dissolution of the first form.ttMi more general axioms l. of the native spirits . in things inanimate. As for the received opi nion. that putrefaction is caused. the object is ever ingrate. which produceth such imperfect bodies. falling upon con the sweetest strains : and we see again. or : whatsoever doth bring forth such a consistence. 836.second digestion less ill: us urine. till they settle one way or other. VOL. though improbably. which medium is some good spirits . have swallowed up the true pas parts of the body. though it extin- of unpleasant to the ear: mixture. that the senses love not corpus imperfecte mistum. in the liver.y M-alr. it air. and definite axioms are to be drawn out servations. mmv the s|iirits: and 113 we see that to the the&amp. and consis tences of matter and natural bodies. discords in music. inquination. . : . is the greatest that is to putrefaction ._!i-&amp. So mix of the senses have by two means either by in gress of the substance of the ambient body into the body putrefied . commonly have some smells of violets: and urine. there is a medium between the body. digestion. 15 x9 slothful. which the cold doth congeal and coagulate. and affects. as mists. for that there passeth in the ex and remaineth in the putrefactions. ambergrease : for divers take it. by some of in the to be over-pleased.gt. if one also. or main alterations of bodies. parmesan. or inconcoction. or peregrine and preternatural heat. Likewise most putrefactions are df an odious smell for they smell either fetid or : stances. which is pro found and it is. The Experiment solitary touching bodies unperfectly reason may crements. in the arteries and nerves. and not by a con flict of heats.t ili&amp.of the lir. we will now set down some in belly. of heat. that places hath eaten nutmeg. And we find The word crudity. mixed. and from thence extended to liquors or and indefinite contem and fruits. mouldy. as civet and .e \erenieiits that an. is a mere confusion and unformed mixture of the part. order in their composition .&amp. yet less: for sweat is not so bad as the other two. and. as it were. passive. we see how make cords. And it the ancients.

the one is. receive the be reconciled. porous. nevertheless. volatile. Liquefiable. will not melt. and dry wood than green. converted into another body. as on the one side have good and on the other side. free-stone. will notwith standing soften as iron in the forge . and not liquefiable. which is maturation. as the ancients used. 1 CENT IX. The other is. for these three dispositions of bodies do arrest the of the first emission of the spirits. or process . which play within tlie creatures in which there is an absolute conver body and open it. sion or alteration. is the small quanty. or absolute conversion and tion. flexible- which is the uUimity of that action inflexible . absolute conversions . ripening of position not to liquefy proceedetli from the easy But note. or.. if it be but a commixture of a few notions that are at hand and occur. not cleaving. The dis man s use. wherein there is not desired. and it. : wax. an utter conversion. whereby the grosser parts fruits.Sylva Sylvarum :&quot. alteration to that form which is when the conversion is into a body merely new. subaction. our &quot. and in the breaking. the one assimilation. &c. or when bread and meat are baked or when cheese is made of curds. as in clarifying of drinks. determinate.114 NATURAL HISTORY. some fragile bodies break but where the force is . tractile. equal and altered is too strong for the efficient that equal . and drought. and not fragile. some are fragile: and some are tough. if silver and which was not before. and not liquefiable. An example two properties in metals. There are also divers other great altera of matter and bodies. rare tangible. li- be extended . and other wise &quot. which was before. of one body into another. : and other bodies which dissolve in wa which as salt. and so fictile earth is more fragile than crude And the cause earth . or that have their spirits body and likewise in the bodies of plants and more straitly imprisoned . not determinate. have the tangible parts indigent of moisture . where the notions cannot fitly or bricks of earth and a number of others. Abecedarium in this naturae. where there is a full transmuta them better pleased and content. etc. solid. Moreover there are some bodies which do liquefy or dissolve by fire. proceed from these causes. whereby it resisteth some degree the first form or cold. butter. some shatter and fly in many pieces. . Experiment solitary touching alterations. not liquefiable fragile. for knowledge will be ever a wandering and indigested thing. Again. nor pretended. But to apply notions philosophical to plebeian liquor. of this unaptness to extension. which thereby becometh more flexible. they be but shifts of ignorance . &c. it is coct: and the process is to be called crudity and inconcoction. there are some bodies that dissolve with both : as gum. sulphur. as when nourishment is turned into flesh . wax. liquefaction is ever caused by the detention of the spirits.and inutile speculation. &c. and while the body to be converted jintractile. and smooth. trans mutation. pally our &quot. &c. from crudity to perfect quefiable. for the former helpeth to the dilating of the spirits by fire. etc. Therefore such bodies as are sion and assimilation of the nourishment into the more turgid of spirit. whereof the former is most conspicuous in the bodies of living : : : and of the last in most sought for grease. 811. congelable. and those well collated. and with grains. we shall handle divers of them now presently. un. but only an tion. and maturation. besides those that tend heat: the cause of the latter proceedeth from the opening of the tangible parts. and moisture. that concoction is in great part the work of heat. &c. is seen in liquors and fruits. tions 839. to Of fragili dense. again. may be called majors. or to be drawn forth in length . solitary touching bodies liquejiable. pneumatical . are liquefiable: Arid there are of concoction two periods . as rest. &c. it which we call assimilation. But yet even many of those bodies that is The other. as it returneth not again to that it was. clay. Of bodies. are also means to concoc Experiment 840. as version is should be turned to gold. or roasted. but not the work of heat alone for all things that further the conver : and divers others. that is are not liquefiable. not congelable. or butter of cream. that there be two kinds of emission of the spirits. hard. is a compendious But of these see princi all that while crude and incon. tough . the cause is an impotency . . soft. may be called &quot. as to concoction when meat is boiled. It is true. sugar. in some good part. for whatsoever doth so alter a body. pitch. the other maturation. and therefore stone is more fragile than metal. and to the latter stimulateth the parts wood. and therefore bodies jejune of spirits. that hold again in metals. cleav . for distinction sake. or coals of . as metals. be such bodies. or which part with their spirits more willingly.sparsim&quot.&quot. when a body is contract. or fried. fixed . as wood. or will hardly melt. or iron to copper: and this con better called. which desire to receive the liquor. and a stick bathed in hot ashes. or to say. The consistence of bodies are very diverse : Experiment solitary touching bodies fragile and tough. And those store of spirit. venous and fibrous. entire concoction should convert or alter and holdelh fast in consistence. terms .&quot. mixture of a body al ready concocted. and not excited from sufficient number of instances.. that there wanteth a term or nomen clature for it. ing.alteratio major. The cause of the former proceedeth from the dilatation of the spirits by ter . all which to refer to heat.

which are excocted by heat.CKNT. with other thread . : solitary touching hard and soft bodies. and without any exstimulation. -ami it is by are more sliding and following: as in gold. the air with time getteth into 845. that : spirit fragile. Uty of spirits. though it take hold of the tangible parts. as whence proceed most of the virtues and qualities. cold. but alu reth not tangible parts: therefore we see that parchment or leather \\ill stretch. as in bodies desiccate by heat or age for in them when the native spirit goeth forth. figurableand not figurable. moisture with it. scissile and not scissile. and the Experiment solitary touching bodies ductile and tensile. The first is the ces sion. are dissolved by cold and moisture. bird-lime. and that is. pitch. and the practice of twirling about of spin dles. IX.md moistcr sily uiveth place to another body. wooi. for that these operations are rather returns to their former na ture. or not cession of bodies. The glass. All bodies ductile and tensile. that the pneumatical sub stance is in up at all . 842. of the pneumatical in bodies. wool and tow. contrariwise. and not mouldable . The differences of impressible and not im cients. wax. if you put any thing into it. whether it the greater quantity of spirits. so that the contrary cureth. as riseth water. solitary touching the bulk. in re of the tenuity of their thread. seemeth to be the same. than air. is dissolved by heat. for the cold keepeth it in except it be vehement.tangible parts: contrariwise. and the other remaineth as it was. dull. but they are all but the tracting. But the difference between bodies and bodies viscous is plain for al. they give place indeed easily. solitary touching other passions of and characters of bodies. The concretion of bodies is commonly gard rate have. &c. doth not rise in bulk. as ice. that ea have limn: spirit. which ever helpeth be native spirit of the body. make them not only hard. less enduring of pressure . &c. and not fly effects of see are hard. And we see also. paper will not. and cotton. it doth rather make them swell than congeal them as when ice is con gealed in a cup. and little. hot. but only givelh place . The fourth is the small quantity. besides their desire of continuance. as appeareth by the twisting of little thread. AB many other passions of matter. tions applied unto the instruments and uses which : yet as to the spirits. as we call them. than alterations . but only the depressed part giveth place. and silk. : will be drawn into yarn or thread. and yet so as not to discontinue or forsake Viscous bodies likewise. The native spirits also admit great diversity . to extend. especially raw silk. into a smaller space or room. body. for you may not think. or other liquors. woollen cloth will tenter. be cause the spirit of the oil by either means exhaleth pressible. especially to follow the parts. stone. the wax Experiment two kinds of jim niniiticaU in bodies. and to fly discon ness of the spirits. linen scarcely. in .. soft ing up. out. : Of bodies. and in some other. especially if there be a wreathing. or common air. cheese toasted. great quantity dry wood. or di&quot. it As Experiment ter. The other that altereth bulk in the cession. and not extend. that in printing of wax. both which. and fewer pores. and sometimes rift. are plebeian nofor cold. if they be in a greater contract. effects. . of bodies but the air intermixed is without virtues. forth fibrous : 843. as their own body. and tow. plain air that is gotten for it is in place. &quot. nor thicken with heat. or but fragile. mat 846. will draw Experiment solitary touching concretion and lution of bodies. &c. NATURAL Hl. All solid bodies consist of parts of two several natures. tough bodies use the word. the one. active. The cause is. disso and rope. some we some of these causes following. that soft bodies as we ever concomitant with porosity. mouldable and the heat. and some caused chiefly by the jejune- . as steel._rree.sToUY. or not contract: and tangible parts again. Erpiriment 844. doth neither easily congeal with The cause of both cold. in tin. yielding extensive. though they be produced by contrary effi for oil. doth not call it forth. which maketh them follow the force that pulleth them and maketh things insipid. have in them the appetite of not discontinuing strong. and by the more sixth is the nature of the native spirits in the body. keeping the outward bulk. which we will enumerate without applying them. and not in body. are of two kinds . The to induce yielding and cession. salt and sugar. and by moisture to join and incorpo . which there. by rising in other places: and therefore we see that wax. The second is the stronger or weaker the hardness is appetite in bodies to continuity. Hut note. that gold and silver thread cannot be made without twisting.( 115 the tangible parts. but then they rise all over . and it is well to be noted. pneumatical and tangible. for the native is more and that will be drawn into wires. and their imparity with the The third is the disposition of bodies to tinuity. a greediness of moisture solved by the contrary . as metals. some bodies the native spirit of the if you put a stone or any thing into them. the ice will swell instead of con : men ordinarily practise. which is congealed by cold. which is a false cession . Softness cometh. by fifth is the nature of the pneumatical. and uilli drvness lead. wax. be cause that will be too long. And those bodies are ever the more the pores. for it is the spirit that furthereth equal spreading the extension or dilatation of bodies.

which. And some birds there be that upon their moulting do turn colour . you may make works of to imitate. they are young feathers. a noble instance of induration. So the and then strained the liquor: after they boilod it beard is younger than the hair of the head. though it would not be so abstersive. &c._rar-mead. we have lost in honey. and endure the hammer. Experiment solitary touching the altering of the colour of hairs and feathers. though with coacervate. : : in length or transverse. The thirteenth is the nature of more grateful to the stomach. The fifteenth is the porosity or imporosity betwixt the tangible parts. do some birds.:nd more out mtta/s. and put quicksilver wrapped in a piece of linen into that hole. they try no farther. whether the collocation be equal. The sixteenth is the col location and posture of the pores. whether sulphureous or mercurial. Experiment solitary touching cements and quarries. wax hoary ground a man may devise the later. so they come not near the fire. CENT. and yet. it seemeth that there was in old time tree-honey. and again. there were fan ught in use or unequal. solitary touching induration by sym pathy. But brass. which would is polish almost as white and bright as silver. insomuch as we have lost those observations Exjjerirnent solitary touching h/mcy hair with age.northern countries. and : in a copper to the half. the matter. that there a kind of steel in some places. out any mixture at all of honey. and kept it for many years. it. . Query. with herbs and spices. First. whether they be active and eager. for to ascribe it into the sun. as it is in the the woof of textiles. and after turned *. and in the midst of being polished. was reported by the ancients. or by art. They use also in Wales a com or contraction of the spirits in bodies. is a good wholesome drink. and tin be refined to the height] when they come to such a fineness. and more lenitive. and the retardation of hoary hairs. so do goldfinches upon the head. And that there was in India a kind of brass. so all one as the feathers of young birds. is less probable. as whether iron. then they poured it into earthen vessels for a small time. and sugar. though some earlier. as well as bee-honey. But of this see the fifth experiment. in recompense of that spirits in bodies. But are detained. as serveth the gold. in ancient time there was a kind of honey. which was the tear or blood issuing from the tree insomuch as one of the ancients relateth. There have been found certain cements by consent of under earth that are very soft. well ilt The seventh is the emission. or moist and that the use of sugar in beer and ale hath good which natures of sulphureous and mercu effects in such cases. and motion of excitation it only to the vapour of lead. IX. could scarce be discerned from This was in the natural ure: but I am doubtful. and to brew it. thers. whether the spirits be a su&amp. as it will be figured like other metals ? For if so. some later. and fit to be used in sharp diseases for we see. and in the building prove firm and hard. Out of means of alter into vessels of They have wood.lt. also at this day. after their moulting. in old and many others. harden as hard as marble : there are also ordinary quarries in Somersetshire. or crudity of the ing. 849. whether the fixing maybe in such a degree. They had also a wine of honey. which. while they pound drink of mead. 846. 850. and very clear. yet it will be tangible parts. dry and terrestrial. The ninth is the collocation of the meanwhile it were good. when it beginneth to congeal. and was not so luscious as ours. Experiment 847. watery or oily. or rarity of the tangible parts. and the quicksilver will fix and run no more. and open The twelfth is the digestion. in horses that are dappled.t doth. Sugar hath put down the use of honey. and turn white. which either of its own na ture. The tenth is the density. hawks from brown turn more white. Living creatures generally do change their : as is and preparations of honey which the ancients had. Take lead and melt it. and the greatness or smallness of the pores. turning to be gray and white 851. taken forth one body with another. The eleventh is and keep it stale. as robin-red-breasts. The fourteenth is the placing of the tangible parts Experiment solitary touching the finer sort of bast . which they made thus. for some purposes. for that moisture doth chiefly colour hair and feathers. It ward. This is ordinary use. whether men have sufficiently refined metals. which in the quarry cut soft to any bigness. or detention of made and seasoned. The cause is. that in Trebisond there was honey issuing from the box-trees which made men mad.116 NATURAL HISTORY. make a little dint or hole. the spirits in bodies. or dull and gen. or diffused. for so we may call it. or inequality of the tangible parts. The eighth is the dilatation. more inward or warp . and crushed the honey into a great quantity of wator. rial seem to be natures radical and principal. as they use mead for certainly. as cygnets from the gray turn white . when it was more in price. the equality. They : seen in men. Again. mead simple. There may be more causes . would grow as hard as sugar. after moulting. and dryness turneth them grey and white now hair As for fea in ago waxeth drier. and solutive a drink as mead . in Russia and those ing the colour of birds. for the this most part. grow to be red again by degrees. So squirrels that turn grisly . but these do occur for the present. which we count base . so do feathers. liquid.

and that causeth the cock singing-bird to excel the hen. Bulls are more crisp upon the peacock. but nothing to the profit. that all young creatures males are water get in on the top. and have great manes : the shes for the sitting doth vivify. and are supported by the and others. that the cause must be abun men have generally ling gills.rirans. Again. an 1 : ever-great heat in proportion to the moisture. but the English tobacco hath small credit. as he. as in cherries with double flowers. where there is grafted the small end downwards. here in England. And this we add farther. and phea the forehead than cows . As for the greatness of beasts more than of birds.lt. hens to make a tree put forth only in blossom. Some have gone about to do it hy drenching the English tobacco in a decoction or infusion of In dian tobacco . rest always in a manner. heat causeth pilosity and crispation. upon a bank turned upon . whereas motion and labour do consume. like Some differ in the hair and feathers. if the df heat than the females. and fangs ofboan Heat also dilatcth the pipes and &quot. in in and marcs. it would work the effect. not in the may be. sendeth forth a great apple with It is not unlikely. though that be in a hotter climate. can get no credit for the same cause : so that a trial to make tobacco more aromatical. much little or none.further growth or nourishment from the female. as in hawks. and there nourish and grow . lid ft mule. gills of turkeycocks. (. solitary touching exossation of fruits. then there is no difference to be seen between male and female. A&amp. for that the males have more strength came only by the bark. pith of a tree were taken out. the hens have not. which is caused by abundance of mois ture. of producing fruits without cores or stones. which appeareth mani festly in this. It is re : . the south sun. Also they th. for that the core and stone are does none . for the most part. are smooth like cats. that it is ike females. peacocks. to give heat by reflection . liker females. differ in divers features: as bucks have horns. be from the heat either of the earth or of the sun: we see some leading Experiment solitary lourhini. the comparative magnitude if lirin^ cmiiurrs. not to be discerned. for nothing that is once perfect. otherthe parts of gem-ration: as in horses lishes. Experiment . ever resort to the beginning! of things The way of maturation of tobacco -he voice. 855. the hen hath less deeper and stronger voices than women. as in other plants.-ausctli the deepness of . womb than birds. HISTORY. dance of moisture . that if the scion be greatness of growth. otherwise two hundred pounds by the year towards The charge of making the ground and is great. grafted upon a colewort stalk. IX. the (lijfrrtnces of liv &amp. You must for melioration. It also expclleth finer moisture. and gelt creatures they put forth the more. heat relinetli the spirits. the female. can receive much amendment. are the best singers. mule as the whale I is far greater than greater the. as in the instances of horses and dogs. sant-cock. and of the greatness of them.rain. sows fruit. that in pollards. charge. heat doth put forth many ex crescences. is of And if the heat be balanced with the sparrows. and not nourish.vVJ. for in most the male is the greater . and the it is caused.t solitary touching ing irniturtx. generally. doves lie and she. so that the juice no doubt is. there is no and colours of them. and better concocted. We add also. but those are but sophistications and toys. after the egg laid. which is seen rarely. which want of heat cannot expel. The chief cause of all these.lt. that because they live they have not their moisture dravsn quantity. as in hawks and Experiment solitary touching the melioration tobacco. it will make moisture enough to work upon but if there be fruit have little or no cores and stones. laid upon tiles. thai. Experiment 854. in them the female is the greater. which increaseth the heat. and goldfinch-cock. which want of heat cannot do and this is the cause of horns. have glorious and fine colours. and water. lions are hirsute. diversely . do^s and bitches. 853. For it hath been observed. which . both in the whereas in birds. were a thing of great profit. and soaked by the air and sun-beams. Generally the We have partly touched before the means Some hes in birds have the fairest feathers. and covered .CENT.f all kinds. and of the greatness of the combs and spur? of cocks. generally elephant: and than birds. But some differ in magnitude. \vi&amp. and they become hollow. which in the horns of the bull faileth.e : between male and female. turkeys. much less the turkey-cock hath great and swel more into fruit without stone or cores. and so likewise beards in men. Some : ported that a scion of an apple. imi-t. as is affirmed. as in nuin. that if the inward differ in faculty.gt. the cause air. and much solid matter. are larger than the bulls. For The difference is in some creatures. Tobacco in request: for an acre of a thing of great price. the Virginian tobacco. There be fishes greater than any beasts of this in musk-melons. We see also. crispation. which are sown upon a r liMt-hed duu_ ed below. and hath run his race. pheasants. as being too dull and earthy: nay. Now heat causeth delivered for certain by some. found in any creature. as the cocks amongst singing-birds out a core. if it be it will be worth. and that is the cause of the beauty and variety of feathers Again. without boars have great fangs. moisture. cocks have great combs and spurs. that the horns of oxen and cows. and so are eunuchs. for that beasts stay longer lime in the and in some few. rams have more wreathed horns than made of dry sap and we see that it is possible ewes .

where the heat of the sun discloseth them. as hath been said. may be tried in tobacco. &c. . most solid j secondly. &c. as medlars. but The third is. that the ostrich layeth her eggs under sand. solid than that. and more depertible nature than others . as in beating of stock-fish. unboiled. induce. and birds of prey. the cause is. Heat of the sun for the maturation of 859. as rolling pears. IX keep them from cold. and Faci- fruits. have been hatched in the warmth of an oven. straw. swine. because men in dilate: now barley is the wheat more of all. because no liv ing creature that dieth of itself is good to eat: and therefore the cannibals themselves eat no it : humanity do abhor man s flesh of such as are slain. cannot enter. of those that die of themselves. and by fire as in roasting. are commonly no good meat.. squir &c. bak &c. will arise to a The cause no doubt is. more close and compact the body is. choleric are not edible rels. wardens. or feed upon flesh. are good meat when they are very young . and witches felicity is chiefly in imagina ing. by some degree of heat : two things. for we si r fire is. do feed upon flesh. for that the spirits of the fruit by putrefaction gather heat. and the Chinese eat horse-flesh at this day. gulls. which in the midst is not so hot. and dilata feeding upon flesh : for pewets. which addeth some life: and by these more equal in all the parts. goats. : : that witches do . and life. : greedily eat man s flesh . as I conceive. or like yet we see. Barley in the boiling swelleth not much . which they properly tion. to this operation the one a very close skin. those creatures which are fierce and . we see they are mild and fearful. and inflamed. some bodies have a kind of lentour. foxes. services. for that they have too much bitterness of taste. which ever induceth helps they become as good in England. which are beasts of courage. pomegranates. &c. rice extremely. for the pro longation of life. Eggs. conies. fruits. flesh. 856. HISTORY. It is reported by the ancients. It may be also that and rice most hollow. and yet are meat. and not of the roots in some such liquor as may give them edible. Vines. as is reported by some. and likewise the heats of the sun. insomuch as a quarter of a pint. fondly. sloes. maturations body do ever feed upon the tan and attenuate them: by several and by is. for that : . proceed. as in Italy a milder taste. Yet it is true. it is likely to man s flesh may send up high and pleasing vapours. Stoves at the back of walls bring forth oranges here with us. and hath force also to extinguish the fire. and all sourness con. that horses. deer. as we see it evident in colouration. 860. for in all putrefactions there is a de gree of heat: by time and keeping is. : by rottenness is. not edible. ducks. that a vein be opened in the arm of some wholesome young man. such as are carnivore. by rottenness. wolves. &c. rather the choleric nature of those birds. are both represented and supplied by the heat of fire . birds. because it is the proper work of heat to re. They remove incorporation doth make the mixture of the body them also.that if the palm of the hand be anointed thick Sne. dogs. Fruit groweth sweet by rolling. : Experiment solitary touching the dulcoration of been sustained with woman s milk. reasons are three Man : s flesh is not eaten. some are edible. hares. have been. Inquire also of the steeping Experiment solitary touching JJesh edible. for that the pint boiled. be sides a devilish appetite in them. and pressing. first.118 with straw to XUTRU.^ vigour to put forth strong. hips. 858. adviseth. which may stir the imagina The cause of the sweetness by rolling tion . These.with white of egg. men have . by certain special maturations as by laying them in hay. the more it will The of the nest. as lions. and the like means. than their Scythians were Experiment solitary touching swelling tion in boiling. have sent forth grapes ripe a month at least before others. solitary touching several heats the Experiment working ! same effects. owls. not. as hawks. that in great weaknesses and consumptions. wheat swelleth more . or press ing them gently w^ith the hand . that have been drawn in at the window of a kitchen. but the reason is. horses. are represented one by the other. There is an ancient received tradition of the salamander. It is said damascenes. ex F r those that are cept it be in famine. that it liveth in the fire. whereby flame. &c. and to incorporate . some. yea. sheep. by time as apples. rooks out 857. because the spirits of the Experiment solitary touching the salamander. for a small quantity of saffron will tinct more than a very great quantity of brasil or wine. and all upon it. nus. or Provence. &c. shovellers. yet one may endure the : parts. is emollition. and are eaten by some nations. which if it be true. and commonly therefore and the heat of vivification of living creatures. and thereby digest the harder part. Of fleshes. &c. Trees set upon the backs of chimneys do ripen fruit sooner. because there must be generally some disparity between the nourishment and the body nourished and they must not be over-near. and some In gluttons have used to have colts -flesh baked. As for kine. It must have gible if it be true. stewing. as the called Hippophagi. CENT. and then aqua vitae be poured eistelh in some grossness of the body. and the blood to be sucked. And we see that those birds which good are of prey. .

a table with a candle behind them. being contiguous with air. the sides of the bottles. and more cause is. see more exquisitely with one eye The cause is. vessel full. that plates of metal. but moisture not and to all madefaction there is and finding less opposition of the parts. though itself in. motion of in the spirits is when air. the bottle. the congregation of the spirits together : for in both kinds upon air contiguous. in those that are in any degree sweet. it causeth likewise. and It hath been observed by the ancients. singular .-: regard some may stick to the sides of but there may be a cause more subtile . for that gouts and toothaches cause swelling. which the orrice is The eyes do move one and the same way for when one eye moveth to the nostril. 865. the spirit is attenuated by time. will : hath a smell like a violet. the eyes and sight. is not without some secret percussion at . when the without commixture and a of water running drop higher spirits are evaporated. which in open places is stronger. pears. and especially of brass. new verjuice. but moisteneth it not. is. which choketh the wildfire We body of llr. wetteth not. musted. :iml queiii-liinir some extreme mure wine than The cause may be liquor. 862. there can follow no imbibition. as apples. some can squint when they tradition and the common ExperimerJ 86 1. and so may take in more liquor: and that this hoideth become stronger. Experiments in consort touching 867. but contrariwise liquors. by looking . warmer than open air. but that air hath Experiment solitary touching the orrice root.CKNT. except it vapour.. Time doth change fruit. Water. The nature of the orrice root is almost a little light. The root seemeth to have a tender dainty heat. the dryness and fineness of the air. It hath been observed by the ancients. and bright moon shine nights. the cause that blows and bruises induce swellings is. without humectation or entrance of any body: for the olate hath only a virtual cold. We the spirits visual unite themselves more. which. than with both open. all. And there be of the hotter sort. 866. which the spirits transition. but in tho tinnx of time upon fruits and liquors. without communication of substance. diffused. the other moveth from the nostril. 868. the liquor becometh apt to oil likewise lieth at the top of the water. ap plied presently to a blow. even those that are of the juice of fruit. une a pretty while. irreat. but that it so induce squinting. air itself. swiftly over a straw or smooth body. Starlight nights. will not the vessel again so full as it was. such as if the spirits not. HISTORY. from more sweet to more sour: Experiment solitary touching the working nf water : The cause as wort. it may be. the liquor meeteth with liquor chiefly. and again. is. cooleth The it. ice. that a tli that if children be set upon solitary touching the compression of liquors. do but digest: but in drinks the spirits do reign. it is but the same sweetness with the wood or leaf: but degree of heat . are colder than cloudy nights. that it is not the repulse and the return of the humour in the part strucken that causeth it . where there is no : Experiment solitary touching the nature of air. it cometh above ground : to the sun and the consent. The cause is. For you may see. and parts spiritual will induce the contrary . The cause is. whereas all plasters and ointments do enter. fl NATI The other is I AI. will keep it down from swelling. by the expense of the see that milk cause qtieiichetli it better than water. yet when it shineth Also close air is bright.draw also the humours with them for we see. both eyes will move outwards. 863. and Mi tin- fill liquor put again into the vessel.it trivial namely. which strong. which compress it so that it doth not open again. which causeth also of such several levity and gravity as they mingle more strength in the liquor. of liquor meeteth with bottles a small quantity 861. but in the first kind it is more : : : : Experiment solitary touching blows and bruises. Surely. &c. be entereth better. in : 119 in water. for vanisheth for it is a great mollifier. in cild virtue in the fire. which thereby becometh more piercing and sharp and therefore great continents are colder than islands: and as for the moon. that the liquor in the vessel is not so much com in the vessel pressed as in the bottle . drawn into bottles. because Experiment solitary touching the contrary opera. become required an imbibition but where the bodies arc themselves more strong. . for that heat and cold have a virtual mastered by the grosser parts. for that the true cause of cold is an expiration from the globe of the earth. The cause is repercussion. for thai shut. neither is the flower any thing so sweet as the root. as it is not likewise without some secret degree of light: for otherwise cats and owls could not see in the night. as afTrctiiiLT to see the light. burn but in time. not sweet in the leaf. which doth not search into the hurt. for that the spirits resorting to succour the part that laboureth. clineth the air to moisture. more sourness. from more sour to more sweet pomegranate*. it argueth the air is dry. IX. creature. fore. if it be not altered by that expiration. which is. proportionable to the visual spirits for there be few odoriferous roots and of those creatures. and But yet use is. yea.

than those that are not poreblind . bath bred withhecausR they are translucid though withal it in thirty years: but then. that breedeth in ponds. do hurt the do move. if they put their hand a activity. which is- . But old men. which are the parts that labour. for that the glaring of the sun or the candle doth weaken the eye. and seeing one thing twice. are both active and positive so are bitter and is. Query. but how they are bred? the ears. that the great horse-mussel. especially such as volumes. for that the sight is is it when you gather the eyelids somewhat the most spiritual of the senses. blacker when it is moved. letters. 871. but when the sweet in tastes : so are over-hot and over-cold in touch: but blackness and darkness are indeed object is at some good distance from their eyes. been said. Water of the sea. do delight and The reason why it spirits of ordinary eyes are. little. and i is. in shame. Experiment solitary touching the coloui of the sea or other water. can read and write smaller is.gt. The reason is. the beams of light pass not straight. and the like. do put back the spirits that ascend to them. but the corning into a fair room richly furnished. for that there be no active objects to poreblind. for they visual. of the dilatation and contraction of the spirits For as but I see no reason why they should . that oysters.lt. unite not.. and when they are much contracted by darkness. it is true the spirits ascend likewise to succour both the eyes and the face. worketh the same effect: and therefore a little pellet blushing.a&amp. in trying by what means motion For when they are much dilated by light. for that old men s spirits visual. except it be by memory. long looking against the sun or fire hurteth the have male and female as other fish have neither eye by dilatation. do not perform their function for that the spirits splendour hath a degree of whiteness. and whiter when it . looketh whiter than : This experiment deserveth to be glass simple. For harmonical sounds. 869. and mussels. especially if there be a little repercussion for a lookingglass with the steel behind. and reading of small letters. which move not. For we see that an over-light maketh the eyes dazzle insomuch as perpetual 874. that in anger the no discriminate sex. It hath been observed. put the paper somewhat afar off: the cause cordant sounds. Men see better. is. as unwilling to look abroad : for no man in that passion doth look held between two fingers laid across. when their eyes are over. But the cause that they do much gather the eyelids chiefly is. and . with the : | j ! ! ! most easily seen in the eyes. are thinner and rarer than in others . is. as when we see exhilarate the spirits much. and contrariwise. the sight is the stronger. if it be long destroyeth the eye. Poreblind men see best in the dimmer and likewise have their sight stronger near hand. : : little before their eyes. room : after they have stayed either in the light or in the dark. looketh looking against the sun would cause blindness. they seem to have a therefore must be darkened whereas. by some of the dilate suddenly. have eye by contraction. well. shall do a little while. but dejectedly. if the sight meet not in one angle. The cause visual are. a being contracted. in what time. 870. Indian feathers. The cause is. when it dark mist before their eyes. for that by means of the great light into a dark resteth. Shell-fish have been. ] CENT. that they do not only gape and *&amp. . if they come out of a motion. and in blushing. The cause oysters are bred where none were before. fine shell. and the parts by them. may hinder sight. and that repulsion In in the eyes diverteth the spirits and heat more to tho ears. as hath 873. Again. they cannot Experiment solitary touching shell-Jish. so curious painting in small are they bred of putrefaction. contrary to are sweet smells and stinks those of poreblind men. for that the eyes. and It seemetli. room into a light room. The cause The objects of the sight may cause a great pleasure and delight in the spirits. not the eyes.but privatives . if men come out of The cause is. IX in a glass. The eyes. when they would see to offend the eye. Besides. so read. see things double. and so holdeth not in the offence is. and therefore have little or no Somewhat they do contristate. or otherwise. for that seeing two things. the pupil of the other eye that is open dilateth. For the same cause they need contracting. compared and sorted with the insecta. they cannot contract suddenly. 872. and dis together. it maketh both the cheeks and the gills red but in hath been tried. that ancients. and lights: strongly. whereby it hath close: and it is commonly seen in those that are no object gross enough to offend it. seemeth double. that when you shut one eye. that have and therefore the greater light dispcrseth them. 875. that shells of eyes wax red . disturbed and put out of order. for that in anger the spirits ascend and wax is tried. the coming into a fair garden. are more strong than the visual beautiful person. The glimpses and beams of diamonds that strike the eye.120 NATURAL HISTORY. which Is strange. upon a sudden change. glorious colours.er. and till they be recollected. for that the spirits visual in those that are poreblind. but very against the sun or candle. but then they are repulsed by the eyes. and see worse than they resteth. whereas the light circumfused is enough for the perception. but no pain or great offence . Nevertheless it is certain. . the beams do pass straight. and the parts behind them. through a level. And excess of both these. driven farther. and cockles.

.- both. for it . solitary touching frictions.lt. for that the salt in the precedent water doth. and into other water unsugared. 884. which is the instrument of sense. and abilities of moving. The senses quantity of water. in the meeting of the light and the ly sugared. become salt. are not bitter they dissipate and digest any inutile or excrementitious moisture which lieth in the flesh . when as if you would change . 16 to Experiment solitary touching attraction. 883. L . the parts more fleshy and see both in men. whereby fur th. and it is likewise good instance of attraction by similitude of sub riment. afar off. The Experiment 879. is not otherwise discerned. whereby it diffuseth in The uttermost parts of shadows seem ever tremble.tn liiii-. and with a sloper rise and fall but where there is less water. the salt which the Experiment solitary touching globes at distance* appearing flat the strainer itself is tinctured is. greater quantity of spirits and blood to the parts: and again.it the cipice.nrnt solitary timcliinz Hi. but the limbs are used most on the right side. than of itself raw: and yet the taste of salt in distillations by fire riseth not.- ran-.. The cause is. ot the spirits. hut the limbs on the The cause be. Experiment 881. all which help assimilation. for that in frictions the inward parts are at rest . moveth more swiftly. Shallow ami n. left- water. and so is a bit ter taste likewise. draw the salt new put in unto it. from the light to the shadow. there it : for pre senses are put in exercise indifferently on botli sides from the time of our birth . by simili for so letters. .&amp.im.gt. is more potable. as we have colation of the salt through the sand but it is further noted. which disparity. the to &quot. by similitude of substance. for that the salt part of the water doth partly rise into a kind of scum on the top. for that after a time. after a time. tin i r.gt. both more slowly. dn. shadow. is alike on both sides. to solitary touching shadows. and impinguate the body than exercise.-ak I. the water in such pits will become brackish again. VOL. for that the little we see in the sun do ever stir. for flat. and aliment: lastly. II. many times. Put sugar into wine. because forcibly from within relax the pores. It hath been set upon the seashore turn down before.mi! laiffc h. cause may be.the water rolleth and moveth. appear plain.f 880. in less time than fresh water will dissolve it.-iiiir I ll.CKNT. they be so far off as they cannot be discerned. that pits into fresh water. All globes afar off appear is. The to dig still new pits. because wormwood. and therefore those stance.uro\\ I . - l |&amp. remedy therefore 878. show but as a duskish paper . all seemeth one : as objects not distinctly discerned it is. Frictions . and more in precipice. in solitary touching attraction tude of substance. hath been observed by the ancients. if it the liquor more speedily. tin- pnUiou greater tin- s.ysirrs N VITRM. or boiled and cooled again. and partly goeth into a sediment in the bottom. and likewise s|. than by more or less light. for the same reason. The cause the old wax brackish that distance. &amp. and in currying of The cause is. &c. 876. do show the shadow move.i shadow to the light. left Experiment 877. that in noted heretofore. galley-slaves are fat and fleshy because they stir the limbs more. IX.. win-re ih. for simple distilled waters. V* somewhat holpen from the liver. blood. It hath been observed by the ancients. and all engravings and embossings. sight. generally.rjr. |. Try itwith sugar put into water former moving.ae. then. and the water dashelh more against the bottom.it ill* brain. ^ tlu seas. being a secondary object of your strainer.j-jH ime nt solitary touching the right side atul the left. part of it above. which lieth on the right side. HISTORY. some places of Africa. be true.I^ lir. . for right side are stronger. very sands through water passeth. am. l)iit 121 n-iimve from one place J-:. The cause is. M-. by some of the ancients. and less space. It solitary touching the dulcoration of salt custom helpeth for we see that some ar handed which are such as have used the hand most. r mrc tli. and from motes which the This is a noble expe showeth means of more quick and easy infusions. by per : which : too much and in exercise are beaten. is too gross to rise into a vapour. and so make better : they passage for be. The cause is. for that they draw horses. for the distilled water will be fresh. because they draw the aliment more full make The cause may as we and again. It may be also. in the breaking of the waves there is ever a enough. because the medium moveth. but motion. and the inward parts less. that salt water boiled. i /i ml/inland break. if . when it cannot be Experiment discerned. in lliat. and Experiment the like. and so with salt.: may tli. that salt water will dissolve salt put into it. 882. though there be no wind. Frictions also do more fill solitary touching the return of saltnea in pits upon the seashore. both on the right side and on tin: left. and so is rather a separation than an But it evaporation. n- are alike strong. .

or better a glass. as it. Of the power of the celestial bodies. reported. bear : Certainly many birds of good wing. and it proceedeth thus. IX. it were good to try it when the Experiment solitary touching the rise of water by moon shineth. be iron red-hot. but the cause well as in a dish . most observed. and fixing unto his body divers feathers. &c. because it with a screen between . but if it perspire. to see how you may make which time there is some little ascent of water. as in winter. sides. by help of attraction. It is solitary touching flying in the air. mean while we will give some after a while. CENT. . This may show some up a great attraction at first but of this we will speak more. if instead of water you reous veins. or dwarf-oak upon the leaves whereof there riseth manifest influences of heat and light.. that converteth. and it will make the water rise. weight. Experiment 886. it is supposed . that at the very first set going out. and mouth of the glass upon the bottom of it draweth up the water a little. hath lifted up the bason and all the motion of nexe did so clasp the bottom of the bason. with this dust they dye scarlet. but not much for the flame occupying less and : for it appeareth plainly to be but a motion of nexe. They ascribe true it to the drawing of heat . tying about him distance. during worthy the inquiry. besides the two lonia. as it doth in sum that it is not the flame s drawing the liquor as 885. for all bodies are as it is ever in motion of nexe . celestial bodies . Water in wells summer and so air warmer in winter than there is a . It is practised always upon formerly prescribed to take water warm. : places. the ex impotent to accompany with their wives. and spreading of feathers thin and close. which shut close in. will.122 NATURAL HISTORY. by simple infusion or spreading. as was said. we shall a tumour like a blister. and so the air and the water succeed. likewise. The cause is. four. almost the candle s more secret influences they have. and till then standeth at a stay. namely Cepha- The influences of the moon. but that part above the wine is likewise forced by suck ing . did use to precipitate a amongst the Leucaupon a superstition they a high cliff into with strings. and what 887. spread. where it is called nour 1 eguillette. For the drawing forth of heat. The farther extension of this experiment for flying may be thought upon. alike unto somuch as I : nevertheless this ting of the the bason. that which may seem strange. for all spongy bodies expel the air and draw in liquor. when they begin to quicken : neighbour. : mer. in have seen the glass. we have like is practised in Gascony. as kites. room. and set a candle lighted in the bottom of a bason of water. in ancient time. and to the wedding-day. and when the moon shineth not at means of flame. &c. 890. for that the body of the flame filleth no more for that in the higher parts. The flame of the candle. to break the fall. and the like. Experiments in consort touching the influences of the moon. more accurate infusions. by way of prevention . and with mistaken. and you shall find. the drawing forth of heat: the inducing of 888. the increase of moisture. a little shrub which they call hollyoak. and can undo that which standeth exposed to the beams will But because this is but a small It is a thing the civil law taketh not cool sooner. without tilting upon the when we handle attractions by heat. In Zant it is very ordinary to make men putrefaction. being even laid. as soon as it is covered. when the bason was lifted up. Experiment solitary touching the dye of scarlet. all . And in Zant the mothers set part of it against the moon-beams. the water succeedeth. by little and little. their own. The citing of the motions of spirits. and speak when we handle experiments touching the mb out of it a certain red dust. and therefore is of no light regard. and part of themselves do it. solitary touching heat is under earth. there It place. would bear up a good weight as they fly. and with cinders . which they gather. it is the less. if cause therein you may see the motion. interposition. which they kill with directions for more certain trials of the virtue and influences of the moon. as appeareth in sulphu worketh the same effect. Take a pot. Experiment . which they call ne detur vacuum . that the sugar above the wine will soften and dissolve sooner than that within the wine. as it lesseneth. and turn the mouth of the pot or glass over the candle. are Experiment solitary touching maleficiating. as is reported. at some man from the sea. which is our nearest wine. lesseneth sponges put part above the water. is the more . as 889 It is a common experiment. many great fowls. was made with oil. being suffocated by the in : less But upon the instant of the candle s going out. which is not it be contiguous: as we see it also It is close air. part under the winr. and to see whether thereby they hinder other charms. under the earth. that dians. The cause is. That experiment. sudden rise of a great deal of water in in caves. though in the sun we see a small shade doth much. is a degree of some heat. There is in some in in great breadth. put flour or sand into the bason which showeth. and with water warm in a glass bottle. into worms. knowledge of. and not with water: nourishment. for that the wine entereth that part of the sugar which is under the wine. being held by the hand. is true.

Take some seeds. if they be set or cut in the in Also that brains in rabbits. the bears about the middle of November. having holes made in their tops. that the spirit the other. and if south. Try it also with an apple or ders and earthquakes be not most in the full of orange. for that then humours As hath seldom been seen. : will not replenish so soon again. or north-east. that burnt wine is more hard and astringent crease of the moon. citing of the spirits. Experiment solitary touching vinegar. Let the pots also stand where no rain or sun may come to them. but not to remove. you must note that the growth of hedges. that children. It is like also. do vinegar. sun. &c. about the full of the moon. for the exciting of the motion of the noted by some of the ancients.Ctirr. It were good to set a rundlet of are the easiest tried if you have them in pits.lt. the bee. the one. frankincense. which calleth out the more oily spirits. It is like. And they get the warm and close Flemings wintered in Nova Zembla. and therefore it were good that those that have moist brains. and vigations under the line ripeneth. are fullest in the full of than wine unburnt. of all verification is a gentle and proportionable or south-west. and for the other part to stir. It ia places to sleep in. putrefy sooner. &c. These all wax fat when they sleep. and use to set vessels of wine over against the noon hair. they received is.ui(l again exposed to the air when the stronger and larger than those that are brought forth in the wane. Try it also with Holland cheese. their The cause of sleeping time. . whether great thun upon them. It may be. &c. to take fume of lignum aloes. and the substance being glu* . Some living creatures are procreated by instance is in lunacies. went to sleep and then the foxes be gan to come forth. to see whether will observation.. which durst not before. to see win ther it will mortify and become tender sooner .. whether will rot or mould sooner. for part of their sleeping time. in the full nerations first. ten iii : the full of the moon shineth not. 123 991. as onions. for whatsoever assimilateth not to flesk turneth either to sweat or fat. may be their fattening during the want of assimilat ing. nevertheless. 898. . that seeds will grow soonest. There be divers creatures that sleep all winter. that the cause of the moon. It is said. herbs. some by copulation between male and female 896. to see whether it will ripen and We : and set some of them immediately after the change .. and leaveth the liquor more sour and hard. trv . have been observed not to stir at all . that if it so fall out create by copulation. and hedges and herbs cut. see. that substance 897. 900. lest the difference of the weather confound the experi ment and then see in what time the seeds set in the increase of the moon come to a certain height. the great moisture. For the increase of moisture. working upon a glutinous and yielding while to warmth and rain which would be ob substance: for the heat doth bring forth spirit in served. that the she-bear breedeth.i it also with dead Hies. &c. which are not yet brought faction. somewhat before the full of the moon. afterwards pro into observation. it is most certain. which of all the rest beer soureth. and lieth in with her young. Experiment solitary touching creatures that sleep all winter. NATURAL HISTORY. having of the like effects which may be brought into It the . spirits. For the cause of both ge that the wind be north. There may be other secret effects of the putrefaction and of those which come by putre influence of the moon. It may be. IX. \MT&amp. hair. it disposeth the air for a good heat. and cannot break forth 895. many do. that the eggs laid in the full of moon breed the better birds and a number dead worms. &c. it good to try it with flesh or fish exposed to the moonbeams. When purge some day or two the after the full . is caused from the moon. that are brought forth in the full of the moon. For the inducing of putrefaction.. : : \ . that cider in na and so of marrow in the bones . verjuice over against the sun in summer. also will grow soonest. 894. to see the moon. as the bear. or some other fowl. are is detained. These creatures. as they 893. and that a bear big with young : : . that the hu mours in men s bodies increase and decrease as the moon doth. woodcocks. and are great drinkers. The turning of wine to vinegar is a kind whether will breed mites sooner or greater. and nails. calves. rosemary.. nous produceth two effects. that the brain of man waxeth moister and fuller upon the full of the moon . it increaseth cold. for the like time : to see whether will corrupt sooner: and try it also with moon good husbandry to put capon. having wine put into it. during that time of rest . and young cattle. the hedgehog. and : egest not. 892. 899. the opinion of putrefaction: and in making of vinegar. the earth also the same as near as may be: and therefore best in pots. or may be also. as well as by increase of the But for spirits in particular. laid abroad. &c. and how they differ from those that are set in the decrease of the moon. when wine or the moon so of oysters and cockles. and therefore it were good to I sweeten. the bat. or roots. and those also \\hich are begot* so that it might be rams and bully to their females. little water cast Query also. by ex Experiment solitary touching the generating of creatures by copulation and putrefaction. and others of the same kind immediately after the full: let them be as ike as can be.

and this not holpen by the co-operation of angels or spirits. any thing that is clean and pure natural . because the sometimes. then the spirit will ex and earth. that the world was one entire perfect living and to the sense. in a great whale. lentor. and of the world. . access of some nourishment to maintain it. lucerna creature. and worms. which was full imgination exalted. though some closeness be commonly required. repulsed and wrought out. they might build upon it what they occasion to speak of this in more places than one. whom they call microcosrr do give a fit touch to the spirit of mind to sion taketh. for that crea dered of concretion as well as frogs. have evermore a closeness. many times. all matter whereof creatures are produced by putre faction. It was. for that according there is a greater time required for maturation of discoursing according to sense. As for the heathen sequacity. and it is and feeling of that which was done in China. the force of imagination is. the impres is encountered and overcome by . it might command nature. all menstruous substance. and putting it sion and influx of immateriate virtues.you admit a chaos first. but only the soul or es sential form of the universe. and enclosed in a place where it may have conti nuance of the heat. therefore. and some darksome authors of magic. that upon great mutations of the world. They went on. This foundation temned or condemned. matter being gentle and yielding. that the gene shape by sperm only. And therefore all crea tures made of putrefaction are of more uncertain and are made in shorter time . There sperm. and closeness that may keep it from exhaling: and such places are the wombs and matrices of the females. but went farther. t&amp. And although we shall have being laid. make atranscursion throughout the whole 901. and force of imaginations. insomuch as Apollonius of Tyana. ration It seemeth. and likewise we might work any effect without and against matter . for Paracelsus. in purging the stable of Augeas. any such transmis world. we know it to be vain but if any such thing should be admitted. mind. For the frame of the world. except creatures . which have a definite and exact shape. as the plague. calling spiritus mundi. as for example. touching trans mission of spirits. But we. most certain that the infection is re ceived. but that. whether there be to be found and flowing of the sea was the respiration of the in the footsteps of nature. which also they it admit of a Deity besides. which afterwards was. and influx of immateriale virtues. that no distance of place. it cannot be. is. before it be formed in to a disease !. entrance thereinto. Men are to admonished that they do not so that by this they did insinuate. and the stantly great. by the strength and good disposition thereof. once in hale before the creature be mature . or from spirit to spirit. by the body passive. and the force of imagination. by the school of men have been in part entertained. could hinder magical operations. and such like. example. except it be order. and by putrefaction. nor want of indisposition of withdraw credit from operations by transmission body : for matter. the transmission the force X. which is God s lamp. is driven forwards by the motion of the spirits. and inferred. X.gt. have two different causes. and ti ! contagion from body to body. after some swelling. fore all into shape and members. drawing in water as breath. perfect creatures were first engen The second : CENTURY Experiments in consort touching imagination. the spirit or soul of the world : which they did not intend God. are now . by strong imaginations and beliefs. but yet is. or upon another body wherein it will be like that labour of Hercules. Plato and others. For as in infection. that if the world were a living creature. the power of miracle-working monstrous ima faith. did first plant a forth again. opinion. for in a living creature. and not to be either con : would . for if the time required in vivi. to separate from superstitious and magical arts and observations. The first is. do ascribe to philosophy of Pythagoras. we might here in Europe have sense effects fail of spirits. cannot be produced by a weak and casual heat nor out of matter which is not exactly prepared tures to the species. a s*o that stayed not here. as those have which are procreated by copulation. watered and nourished. it had a soul and held. though never so yet we will now make some consort. affirmed. With these vast and bottomless follies gination. that the ebbing briety and severity. and what of THE superstition. and need . but so much more in impressions from . not so perfect an enclosure. . and flies.iL- that if the spirit of man. which was. a Dei spiraculum*hominis. will inquire with all so Pythagorean prophet. that hold firm to the works of God. but only by the There were some unity and harmony of nature. and the like. for they did by spirit. either upon the body imaginant. the sense effects of any one part of the body in Experiments in monitory. cannot affect it by any excess or casualty. and commixture of heaven perfect fication be of any length.124 that NATURAL HISTORY the CENT.

many times give no smell at all when it is taken. though outwards The poet speaketh not As for the weakness of of sheep. riferous. that if they were used inwards. by stopping of the pores. And therefore. other bodies. X. and ready to impute accidents and natural operations to witthcraft. that both in ancient and late times. whereof we have spoken. and the attraction of heat at distance. The second is the transmission or emis sion of those things that we call spiritual species. therefore may place all imbibitions of air. besides the main. on the other side. who knoweth not? almost bind and mate the weaker sort of d:&amp. it may be ascribed. believe the confessions of witches. lous in that point. that they work at distance. were a mere fallacy and mistaking to ascribe that to the force of ima gination upon another body which is but the force ble. the cal ointments. sick persons. But you must remem number of those emis both wholesome and unwholesome. The fourth is the emission of spirits. as odours and infections and this is. and believe oft-times they do that which they do not and people are credu : rank. we shall handle in at due . These move swiftly and great dis done which is not tance. &c. and very suddenly diffused . and the other place. especially in civil busi For we see audacity ness. that : : be. superstitious and learful persons. or a ring. before it Ami then-fore they . It is worthy and jet. that they do not easily give place and credit We will divide the several kinds of the oper&amp. the most corporeal. transforming themselves into but under the title of attraction in general. and anointing themselves all over.Neicio quis teneroB ocuhiB niilii faecinat ngnoi :&quot. that differ not in airs. 904.. as we shall show in due place. but by oint tion in gold of the spirit of quicksilver at dis tance. handled. and not at touch . because they succeed many times . and they are body: as for example.gt. more con fident a man carry a planet s part of a beast. of all the rest. and young creatures : the effects of imagination for it is certain all.lt. if they be laid on anything : &quot. and divers others. upon the rising of the rivei of Nilus. the mind and spirit. back-bone. thick. which is the protection of God over those that execute his place. in those things L2 . wherein. men may not too rashly and rashly to take that for evidence against them.t NATURAL HISTORY. All operations by transmission of imagination upon the body agent: and then by a secondary means it may work. nor yet the For the witches them attraction of certain bodies at distance. not by incantations or ceremonies. as divers wise judges have posed. or to prevail in suit. though the loadstone be commonly placed in the first selves are imaginative. minds. giveth no scent at all and there be many good and by healthful airs that do appear habitation and other proofs.. to the weakness of the imagination of the imaginant: for it is hard for a witch or a sorcerer to put on a belief that they can hurt such persons. ber withal. children. Men are to be admonished. whereof some never theless are strange. if some these being distinguished. : . though at distance. and other electric bodies. and immateriate powers and virtues. that to try things oft. of shall handle. . that there be a and persisting. we know. than otherwise he would the great effects that sions. seal. as in theThessalian witches. which will give no small light to the experiments truly ascribed unto the force of affection and that follow. it may make him more active and industrious : and again. tlie ureal wonder?.w to these operations. and their transmission is easily stopped. which they tell. where the sub stance is material. work . &c. neck. but then they require a medium well dis done. Now may come of in dustry and perseverance.upon a diverse spirits and imagination. for the cause of this success is oft to be tions by transmission of spirits and imaginations. of imagination upon the proper body .th for the plague. 902. is 125 passive. shut in the va pours. but yet not under the present title. as visibles and sounds : the one whereof we have ginant. odour-like. are still reported to be wrought.CENT. and the doth wonders : state of human it actions is so varia smell from other And under this head you and never to give over. have this. that as they are not to mistake the causes of these operations so much less they are to mistake the fact or effect . believing will help him to obtain his love.my manit i &amp. which eil ret. Thin may justly move a man to think that these fahles are that ointments do work most upon weak minds and spirits asthose of women. 903. The first is the transmission or emission of the thinner and in more airy parts of bodies . and the meetings of that of fire to naphtha. carrying in the air. And for the particular ingredients of those magi it is like they are opiate and sopoFor anointing of the forehead.lt. ments. and that of some herbs to witches that have been recorded by so many late water. and send them to the head extremely. dead sleeps and if any man say that this effect would be better done by inward potions answer may be made. and the attrac the observing. power of them upon kings and magistrates. that the medicines which go to the ointments are so strong. or strongly that it or to keep him from danger of hurt in fight. for there is no doubt but that imagination and vehement affection work greatly upon the body of the ima- almost immediately. they would kill those that use them ^nd therefore they work potently. 905. as the alteration which the air receiveth in Egypt. yet we fer it to another head think good to except it and re but the drawing of amber . 906. but of lambs. Men are to be admonished. The third is the emissions which cause prescribed and cautioned. is used for procuring feet. we confessions. and 907.

in perfume nor again by old people. that if refloat part of it be consumed or putrefied. Now we will pur These imverse. Out of question. to examine hings to the bottom . yet at determinate distances. and 909. the operations of pathy.. besides these two manifest ones. the operation of the May-flowers: and it is also received. cowslips. and the like for poisoning of air is no less dangerous than poisoning of water. there is joined both affection ward. as keepers of the sick. Of these. if such foul smells be or paw of the lion. cise and then you must apply it to that part of Therefore it were good wisdom. as angelica. at arraignments. and the bodies. seed. the influxes of the heavenly the like. or stick of elder. of that creature you whereof we have had in our time experience twice must take the parts wherein that virtue chiefly is or thrice . at plays and solemnities. in exer ness or were present. of heat like. if it are so coupled. and by the hand. and physicians : for when an envious or amorous aspect doth infect nor again by such as take antidotes. you should take the plague. The most pernicious infection. and died.. the operations of the of flowers that are mellow and luscious. As cases the jail were aired before they be brought if you would superinduce courage and fortitude. that the diversity of the medium Experiments hindereth them not. or the parts is by consent of things that have been once contiguous or of this kind is the entire. but they pass through all mediums. they consist chiefly cock take those parts immediately after the lion of man s flesh or sweat putrefied . next the disposition upon a person. And of these in consort touching emission of spiriti in vapour or exhalation. take a lion or a cock . shall handle of the imagination. juniper-berries. The plague is many times taken without manifest sense. as mithridate. an emission of There may be great danger in using such compoimmateriate virtues. and of those that have are fasting. sue the instances themselves. more than to a stranger. namely. The plague is not easily received by such But these two as continually are about them that have the them together. The eighth and last is. and the operation be strong. CENT. in the mouth tar. leaf and and imagination. Whereupon : of the sea which is by consent of the uni upon the other part severed. and of children. it hath a scent of the smell of a mellow apple. The sixth is. but that it is so constantly avouched by many . tooth. and let them be those stinks which the nostrils straight abhor and worn upon a man s heart or wrist. so it may be there is a sympathy of . &c. and numbers of those that attended the busi time and act when that virtue is most. we shall speak. when prisoners living creature in which that virtue is most emi have been long. plague . But these we will handle where we such as are of a dry and cold complexion. it will work weapon and the wound.126 NATURAL HISTORY. noted to go in a blood. odour-like. and. as is vainly taught and received. sickened upon it. handle the celestial bodies and motions. such as we are a little doubt. and 912. either in the spirits of another. when both the judges that sat upon the collocated again. And they re port. as white lilies. as hath been said. This is the syminfluxes. that smells spirits of the mind of man upon other spirits : and this is of a doable nature.sitions. and betray the spirits. materiate virtues have this property differing from others . present title. of now the principal in our intention to handle in this place . that in such man wherein that virtue chiefly consisteth. for they are not or the cock have been in fight. and in perfection . and not to receive upon houses. if they be vehement. as part of the diurnal motion. as in churches.&c. main float and is blazed abroad the operation of unguentem teli and so of a piece of lard. as they are incident to se fifth is. things. or outward. 913. which with the globe of the earth . which hath been used by the Turks in the ware. . or the heart or spur of the made by art. we shall speak under this have some similitude with man s body and so insinuate themselves. and expel. but by pathy of individuals. this is The the emission of spirits . 910. galbanum. motion of gravity. and take the heart. there should remain a transmission of by consent of dense virtue from the one to the other as between the : : of this disposition of bodies to rotation. in great meetings of people within sym : : : | : ful to propound. and particularly from east to west: of which some kind we conceive the is. which the writers of natural the other side. is the smell of the jail. that are most pernicious . as we . veral titles. On affections. it is so prodigious. and close. 915. that where it is found. and the seeds of of species. for as there is a sympathy the primitive nature of matter. Of this kind is. as some say. The seventh is. and we have set it down as a law to ourselves. 908. or celestial hath passed a due examination. 9H. the plague taketh soonest hold of those that come out of a fresh air. but such airs as such like sympathies. nent. and and light. the individuals: that is. and it is likewise magic brought into an art or precept: and it is this. you must take those parts in the jail. : . that in things. X. that if you desire to superinduce any virtue or 914. rue. zedoary. as we working of the loadstone. which work by the universal configuration and credit or reject upon improbabilities. until there sympathy of the world not by forms. are ill for the plague. which is bodies with the globe of the earth kind is yet suppose. and nastily kept. forth. and hyacinths.

to put them to their nose. but a mer. and that the wolf. and so of the breath and spirits. y-JO. where any such thing is feared. as it is said. or men that stay too long about them. as gilders use to have a piece of gold in their mouth. violets. and that a menstruoua woman. that the fingers. that poison birds. a general silence and loath ness to speak amongst seasons. ot 1 |&amp. approved for refreshing the spirits and procuring When the Dutchmen wintered at Nova Zembla. or other works about wakefulness such as are rose-water. It is an ancient tradition. The following of the plough hath been smell. Perfumes convenient do dry and strength cannot be made without danger of death to them But then again. or stand are also certain lakes and pits. which some smells that are sweet. that there are damps which kill. one of the weakest turned up. semblies. that some apotheca upon stamping of colloquintida. It happeneth often in mines. It hath come to pass. as for other intentions. that these compositions of infectious airs see a man first. so that men as we find in fume of rosemary dried. and lignum aloes. meiits ot . It hath been a practice to burn a pepper Guiney-pepper. and are fit to be used grasshoppers and locusts. or by the poisonous nature of the mineral : and those that deal much in refining. &c. that the spirits of quicksilver to the skull.gt. do corn and herbs good by killing the worms. I wish trial be made 919. it were good those public places were perfumed. have been put into a great scouring by the vapour only. ings of the chinks of doors. air. or bones: insomuch or a little vinegar to the nose : which gathereth together again the spirits. that make them.ins. 924. looking upon a glass. and n the sweetest earth you can . by digging with the spade.mtMTuus in meetiiiM-. The tradition is no less ancient. best is. and the like. Vide the experiment 803. let in air. may practise in the best seasons . because the earth hath spent fell to make fire of some sea-coal they had. And . and so saved themselves. . before mentioned. ries. by Gentlewomen may kneeling upon a dc&amp.cu|ilr. if he therefore should take heed how they do. or the like : and it is like. man than tha these impoisoncountry to tlie Holy L. without any manifest strangling. It is better therefore to do it when you But because ploughing is tied to little after they had sat about the fire. some antidotes to save themselves. which men The basilisk killethby aspect. mill NATURAL HISTORY. when they find any thing wet upon their den.iir are the IIUTI il. and dischargeth weariness. There have been in divers countries great nostrils: and no doubt there be other perfumes plagues. consumptions. at first. 917. Plagues also have been raised by anoint spirit. teeth. lemon-peel. was used by Kminanuel Comnenus towards made in them whereof no when tliry p. which fly tobacco. if a fire be these things yoi. The like in rooms newly plastered. which hath such a by odours. either by suffocation.gt. 921. and it is the more aloes. They do use in sudden faintings and : swoonings to put a handkerchief with rose-water n etals and minerals. of other things . which are upon point to resolve and fall away. but to do it in the ploughing for wheat and that they could gather no more sticks. they were much refreshed . and folium indum. as they do in of Avernus. hath killed many . 127 less the Cliristi. 928. which There condenseth the spirits. in pipe .unl. The vapour of charcoal or sea-coal. and too much lead and cast upon heaps.CENT. as for that it is common that menstruous women going over a field or gar for men. themselves much good cushion. so much by the touch. by aspect striketh a man hoarse. The impoisonment of particular persons to they call strong 922. 918. ensuetl. have their brains hurt and is stupefied by the which either fly metalline vapours.u. is wrought by the inspissation of the of the : ing by him that diggeth. 925. company fell down in a swoon whereupon they doubting what it was. but stealeth on by little and little.&c. but chiefly by the opiate virtue. 910. and so of nut dangerous. It were good therefore to such as that try the taking of fumes by pipes. X. Tobacco comforteth the spirits. no doubt. before the earth putteth forth the vegetables. where her sweet breath in vegetables put forth in sum with. Ami lid-. and stay rheurns and defluxions. because it cometh without any ill meg. which gold afterwards they find to be whitened. the leaves of vines sprin kled with a little rose-water. before the as fore. as well to dry and com over them. they or rye. which it worketh partly by opening. it is best to take the air of the earth new them: and immediately after.M-il through Ins emperor Jovinianus died. appetite . after a long drought. that blear- eyes infect sound eyes . inducing only a faintness. and weeding. and lignum close room. 927. upon the first showers. and calamus taken at the mouth and ought not to be secure of it. 926. is not so good. which is ever the early spring. in a of the drying fume of rosemary. to draw the spirits of the quicksilver. that it provoketh a continual sneez ing in those that are in the room. fort. which also maketh it the sooner re ceived. by the putrefaction of great swarms of that do moisten and refresh. when they have been in burning agues. doth rust it: nay. they mingle the poison that is deadly. 923. nisc thf much urther the reception of the infection breath of people doth and there . touching the in fectious nature of the air. not they have an opinion which seemeth fabulous. they may have en the brain. vinegar. there grew sow barley. hath been reported be in perfumed gloves. opened their door to The effect. Amongst noted.

cure prophetical dreams. they seem to be incorporeal. choose. The fresh. in digging of new earth. There be two things which. 930. who had a the odour of them. or if you would have it more forcible. and to put a lay of chalk were of sacrifices. than when they come to the fire as nigella romana. because there would be a corpse in the house . but the same man used to have conti nually a great wisp of herbs that he smelled on. There be also do cool and condense the spirits . and not mixture of a few cloves in a perfuming pan. to burn feathers and other things of ill odour . than . ana opened them. as we said before. : . Also thought to further venerous appetite . are plain champaigns.It is noted also. as in forests. and the the earth and wine together may comfort the like. the feast was past. there be divers things that breathe better ing. incurious varieties. or drink . as they say. inwardly used. fleawort. 937. or libation to the earth. and in which the brier roses sey. or else timber-shades. whereas perfumes you can take but at times . they work swiftly. as wild thyme. 935. The one selves . tions. and by those ill smells the rising of the mother is : and knots of powders. Incense and nidorous smells. as they do rosewater and vinegar. These emissions. pour are signs that do discover an excellent air. It were good for men to think of having of it upon a firepan. and so the smell of the wine smell almost like musk-roses . provoking of sleep. lest the vapour be too moist. visibles and au- writers of natural magic. and which. and poured a little comitants of the audible and visible species. penny is nitre. Secondly. as onions. yea. was forbidden some perfumes prescribed by the which procure pleasant dibles. heard a woman in the house cornfeast plain that she should be kept from being at a ind solemnity. Thirdly. but it is the same action with the original. were thought to intoxicate the between the bricks. as the seeds of flax. but low. There be airs which the physicians ad forting of the heart. some esculent herbs of some Malmsey or Greek wine.put down. are use for beauty and magnificence. for the one maketh the air close. and amber. the Jews the them. and ought to be handled by themselves under their proper titles that is. 929. if the rooms be low roofed. They do use. The windows like would be done with the distilled water of which is a great enemy to health. sometimes clean clod of earth brought to him every morning as he sat in his bed : and he would hold his head over it a good pretty while. . garlic. &c. and the other maketh it exceeding unequal. such as make their walls thick . com. that groves of bays do forbid pes tilent airs which was accounted a great cause mum. I knew a gentleman that would fast. : : exalting amongst the sanctuary principal perfume of all common uses. and I wish the some soils that put forth odorate herbs of them same to be tried outwardly in vapours. to pour in and amongst those herbs. they work at large 933. bread. and contristation of the spirits . it hath been used by some with great success to spirits. degree. and the like. for the accident of the mo provided always it be not taken spirits the more for a heathen sacrifice. which I wish to be mingled. CENT. are handled. ther. nourish . whereupon he caused loaves of new bread to be working upon mirrors and places of echo doth not alter any thing in those bodies . for their the heat rarifying the air by great noises. 932. and not over-grown with heath or the like. They have in physic use of pomanders. camomile. taken . For though those things be not so strong as perfumes. with rose-water. of themselves. and partly also by heating and Experiment solitary touching the emissions of spi ritual species which affect the senses. We see that . and civet. Smells of musk. Fourthly. ly. but timber is may do by the refreshing and calling forth of the more wholesome and especially brick nay. but graz besides. which is in saffron-flowers. It is certain. or Greek wine. three or four. no doubt. sometimes. vise their patients to remove unto. well heated. and so taken with some doors . : Fifth 934. &c. that pro give some general observations common to both.NATURAL HISTORY. they are not effective of any thing . a 1 little off&quot. 931. the seed of melanthium. which. The other is the distilled healthful air in their houses which will never be water of wild poppy. five days. commonly. 936. First. for drying of rheums. also should not be high up to the roof. in consump yet you may have them continually in your hand . which she much desired to see. especially the odour of wine. I commend also. X It would be dope also when the dew is wine into them and so kept himself alive with till knew the ground. nor leave and we see men an hungered do love to smell hot no work behind them . and caused by burning-glasses : they are rather con m it for. a great man that lived long. or upon recovery of long sicknesses . or cussed. leeks. which they stone walls are not wholesome . which 1 would have dissolved in Malm royal. each apart: in this place it shall suffice to dreams and some others. that the vapour of strong scent. to take away all dampishwhich brain. or full of windows and at half. in a small distances. There be : 938. but are energies merely : It is related that Democritus. when he bread lay a dying. that odours do. wild marjoram. and to dispose men to devotion they may do by a kind of sadness. . &c. amo. without meat. only reperAnd as for the shaking of windows. of the wholesome air of Antiochia.

But Cleopatra. and therefore. the con spirit. the effects of them. that his genius. though they have not known them. 940. was. are not gazings. and received still. Audacity and confidence doth.. &e. of a jovial nature. do incline the other ready to start: and when one man is out of company into which they come to be sad and ill. I under to reason. and new experiments can hardly be made. tliry nature. and remove far from him. as it seemeth. 945. in civil bu but with extreme caution. that parts.i.U. And again. and stooping of other likewise the child in the mother s womb. and envy. and joy.: which are two. or taken away young from their parents . whether a man coiw eye-. poor and coward the opinion of fascination is ancient. or Inj imuginati ms. that it is most dangerous when an envious : old. the third is. Imagination. NATIK. upon other bodies. Protagoras. that which is with faith or belief of that and disciples . wood. that there are at the least some light stand to be. II. the Platonists. There are conceits. tions feigned. being recreated by imagine such a man to be in the vestments of a such company.&amp. that some men are lucky to be kept company with and employed . that emitteth some malign and poisonous spirit. such as was Orbilius. in this place. even in vulgar opinion. was brave and confident.f so tender -ami \v-ak a such a ran and attenuate substance. for that at such times the spirits come forth most into thi outward upon. 941. Sixthly. the more powerful and active and especially power of it upon the spirits of men and living spirits those affections which draw the spirits into the creatures: and with this last wo will only meddle. as if one should their spirits. and so meet the percussion of the envious made Antonius believe.lt. others do likewise disposed . no doubt. which is in lovers. And so likewise did many of the grammarians hard for the things that are reported are full of and school-masters . as Georgias. it is agreeable strengthen it. or to have wings. the to such persons. Such were the ancient sophists pope. I single out. which eye more at hand and therefore it hath been otherwise. which is called occulus malus. which is by induction. which taketh hold of the spirit eye is cast upon persons in glory. and not by the eye alone yet most for man over another. As for love. there should we will hereafter declare. as well as from body joined with belief of that which is to come the to body. 17 . or as if they have loved young company. &c. It hath been noted also. 9 13. It hath been observed. and earnest ness. metal. the power of it upon dead bodies.gt. the representation of an individual effluxions from spirit to spirit. for the reason which : siness. second joined with memory of that which is pasf 942. and been conversant were present: for I comprehend in this. imagina continually with them. Howsoever. he advised him to absent him self as much as he could. Certainly. as a man may reasonably doubt. Isocrates. as rit hold thai tho spirit of tin. that where children have been exposed. X. that others that are blush in his behalf. that the aspects which prtcure love. . wise. who lived till they were a hundred years in our way. that besides the very daring. .lt. so great effects. the parents. men have been We see ill-disposed for some days following. of procuring love. that after great triumphs. The inquisition of this subject &c. The problem therefore is. that old men who and the third is of things present. or | r ///&amp.lover doth pass into the spirits of the per son loved which causeth the desire of return into . The power of imagination is of three first kinds . and that afterwards they have approached to their parents presence. It ia j of another : and is likewise of greatest force when the cast of the eye is oblique.CENT. fects . for both ef ly . fables. The affections. as they affect only is the spi . and sickness caused by This soothsayer was thought to be suborned by envy and fascination is ever by the eye. love. Experiments in consort tonchiny the emission ift mii dtrrinte virtues fnnn the minds and spirits nj Hii-n.countenance in a company. do make the plants. the upon the body of the imaginant. have been of long life . do dispose the company to be Now we will speak of the force of m. that some men that for we see that the starting of one will make an are of an ill and melancholy nature. The reason whereof is.t the body whence it was emitted whereupon t r. agination merry and cheerful. stone. for this and rhetoricians . and other yet if there be any such infection from spirit to remote places from Rome. men s spirits second is. In/ &amp. and at pleasure. there is no doubt but that it worketh by ceit of a predominant or mastering spirit of one presence. some of them. cibly by the eye. is ancient. stantly and strongly believing that such a thing VOL. but sudden glances and -starlings of the eye.lloweth that appetite of contact and conjunction . have had a secret joy or other alteration there 939./( WOKS. and of the means to exalt and and others unlucky. HISTORY. as 944. which is to come. And this is observed like illli -r fit In/ ifjl i-tinn. as for envy. and triumph. There was an Egyptian soothsayer.gt. and importunity. in the noted. when men are in thought. Imagination is of three kinds the first presence one with another. including be some secret binding. Fear and shame are likewise infective. pretence of Octavianus Caesar./&amp. go so of living creatures. to make him live in Egypt. 129 far as to seem ! &quot. which ever had young auditors time. is wonderful : : : : mentioned in some stories. and persisting. and contrariwise.

for if the may man had see that diets and preparations for some time thought before.&quot. that imagination doth prevail. For example I related one time to a man that was curious and vain enough in these things. in magic. and &quot. Lo. or such cards. in that he feareth. there the second must be ignorant. do you remember whether he he. r. or and such are. For the authority.&quot. in which kind a mu mi belief doth much. there have been ever used. as vestpractices any thing that is purely natural. wheher he bade the man think the card first. I return to that I said.&quot. they use for whose spi telling the other the card. And for words. authority : . and still he did it. The help therefore is. and binding stronger. also incenses and odours. or upon a man and was said. and so many to the shorter. it was not the and find a taking in me . that he bade another tell it. as was true that he did first whisper the man in the ear. I But howsoever. Whereunto he said. for they were both my father s servants. 946. and not by a man s self.r his thought it its. than the contrary. figure prosperous. For authority. will do good. Then he asked me rived . for it is not meant. Sir. . liefs.y &quot. And for things of that I saw a kind of juggler. 947. and 948. as . doth help any thing to the effecting of the thiiig And here again we must warily distin guish . : imagination. it may help his imagination but the belief in a : think no other card. &quot. be joined with a belief other. but merely by a secret operation. The jug gler also did cause a garter. three means . whose be is far the most active. juggler was some strange man. and took upon him to know. and so no trial can be made. some parts of choice of the plants. or binding. himself could not whit controlled either by reason or experience . namely.130 NATURAL HISTORY. and after bidding the actor : had been fixed. we have aheadv for a vanity &quot. gination : and means to repeat it and refresh it. as it should be near so many inches to the longer end. if there be in those : that such a after man should think such a card.other. if imagination have any for a man representeth that oftener Having told this relation. X shall be. but by and upon the same reason. or changing the spirit of st another say. it must be by an This pretended learned man told me. or more industrious. and not learned.&amp. belief in an art. for belief upon reason. and said. &quot. that other man caught a strong another to tell it ]&quot. characters. and that of these which is far the most thority potent. telling what hath been used in magic. himself. as that such an one will love him. all must be out of a man s self. that experiments of imagination must be practised by For there be others. Therefore if a man believe in astrology. or believe in natural knowledge of the man s thought. first. you opinion is right. imagining first. until himself have found by experience. which thought he did but cunningly. that he could I the enforcing of a thought his imagination by a a piece of a living creature carried. by first telling the imaginer. or bade &quot.gt. and belief in a man. but the other bound his thought. but for belief in a man. a man may exercise them by him would tell a man what card he thought. it is worse for what soever a man imagineth doubtingly. or else that he did whisper first quicken and corroborate the imagination . answered. I hearkened unto him. who believed that the the most part boys and young people. for then experi ence worketh in himself belief. it is of two kinds. hurt. said he. : perience will stagger. per to God. either upon where authority is from one man to another. self. or ex ence the second is reason that his imagination may procure it. we see in the man s ear that should tell the card. for a man to whom nature of the question. that such a man should think such a card upon this the learned man did much exult and V . &quot. or that such an one will grant him his request. said told the card the man thought. or the like. words. saying. is authority . not for the it weight thereof. are no So I thought for. choice of society. man And thereupon he asked me a question or two. confederacy between the juggler and the two servants though. another question saith he. ments. and not by himself. and bade the man think a card I told him.&quot. but because doth handsomely open the work by an he may create belief. Now to fortify imagination. we began to make any new experiment for I cannot command myself to believe what I will. or living creatures : stones. thinking ways : the authority whence the belief is de he spoke prettily. as was true. for the most part. there be three strange things. as an art. turned. must needs do power at all . : to fortify belief: the first is experi and the third is au . it was amis. and he had never played in the house before. if the belief that such a thing shall be. the means to he should think . Nay. hour. &quot. gestures and motions. such an one shall recover a sickness. have put on so strong an imagination . full of thoughts all witches and superstitious persons. Which. or with fear.&quot. I thought it waf. though it did somewhat sink with me. &amp. but it was upon him. tied to their teachers and traditions. said he. that had a pair of belief in an art. means to quicken and corroborate the ima Do you remember. knowing before what used to be the feats of the juggler. for. CENT. It. think. . to : and in this it is hard. that it should help by making a man more stout. I had no reason so to think. and that a ring with such a stone.lt. seals . yet I made it lighter than I thought. that such a one should point in such a place of the garter. which increaseth ima gination . and could do rits easiliest take belief and imagination. to be held up.&quot. : afterwards told the other man in his ear what spoken as for the second. indeed. for that is pro magic. : please himself. as hath been partly said before.

or wordsof similitude. you shall but in the more surely do it. 950. 955. we see the practices of magic. such is The imagination of one that you shall use.i Scripture words for that the belief that religious texts and words have power. but by working upon the some that cometh to the witch. the medium not adverse. and not any positive experi or such a root. recover. him. for men are best places. NATURAL HISTORY. and so upon another. that such a man. it filleth and fixeth the better. and the words more mystical. And therefore this work.-. another. 131 either barbarous wupls.&quot. of no. till it come to one that hath resort to the party intended and so by him to the party . which may certainly demon strate the power of imagination upon other bodies. that this or that shall be. that their master shall surely recover. several degrees of means. should hurt any afar off.i. . such ingredients as do make the spirits a little more gross or muddy .-i tunes. is reading upon Aristotle s 951. I ll another. another . is better experiments of witchcraft wrought upon. The body passive. from that party upon the imagination of another. as hath been partly touched. for else the simple affirmation tion is.CNT. . whose imagination you use.gt. that It were good. And although they speak. tell that he desireth. by I nostrils that potions. will be fourteen days ere he findeth All this to entertain the imait apparently. or things taken incenses and perfumes taken at and ointments of some parts. or the name of the party. &c. Hebrew words. that should melt by little little and little . that you did use tin: ima^inalion of more than one. than if you should imagine him to say. in absence by nature. of them ourselves.rk but a weak impression in his imagination. and to be wrought are upon. and if that. to another. or a piece of the garment. so oft doth he represent to his imagination the effect of or the like i him that every three days. yet there is it except less credit to be given to those things. as they call it. if he find not the success apparent. or part of a beast. For the refreshing of the imagination which was the third means of exalting it. Therefore if there be any operation upon bodies that the distance &amp. X. as fame is . is certain. do man to cannot be spirit of naturally work upon the imagination of him that taketh them. to use such a root. are few or none : The whereby the imagination will fix the better. or anoint his temples. aa have stayed till we had made experiment of some we shall show when we handle dreams. as in images of wax. titles. or a spoonful of liquor . to resort to have possessed that his master shall recover. . be by working of evil spirits. by whom you go study philosophy. in this inquiry. whom you therefore be forced. as to work at great distances. till seven Also you must prescribe a good large time for the effect you promise . alike constant and strong. or the soles of his feet. As ifa physician should tell three or four of his patient s servants. And for the same reason. fore I conceive.. can \\. are often used 949. before he do use the receipt for the work which he desireth. because you cannot discern strength of imagination in one fully of tin: man second and feed the imagination. the variety of men s minds. it is like to be man. that images for the no clear proofs. that it waver less. or upon all bodies : must be competent. When you work by the imagination of Physics . that he do take such a pill. And therefore it must needs greatly co-operate with the imagination of him whom you use. ] i 953. that these effects of imagina visible : tion upon other bodies have so little as we shall try them at leisure credit with : &quot. wherein we can give only di when his master is fast asleep. And if any man think that we ought to better upon sleeping men. strong one. that so you may light upon a latt. as if a imagination. it is less credible that it should be so incorporeal. tion. as we do commonly in other 956. which ainonirst us is counted the holy tongue. have a precedent opinion of you that you observation would be translated to the subject wo can do strange things or that you are a man of now speak of: for the more lustrous the imagina And there art. strength. putrefy by as the imaginant doth think of those things. For imagination is like to work ments.VJ. by which to operate as to prescribe some other things buried in little muck. . or burn such an incense . or ointment. by imagining. cannot be al- ways cess follow not speedily. as if you should times. if you prescribe him. We find in the art of memory. sufficeth to take a point. an ointment or and you must choose. at be by some times than at others as if you should pre they may a tacit operation of malign spirits: we shall scribe a servant about a sick person. that should for so oft ( and . but 954. mean time we will lead others the way. for the composition of such pill. in that experiment whereof we spake before.eiise. I mean not of the imaginant. he do use another root. or the like . and from conveyed the witch. as being of more force: and if that fail. of binding of thoughts. us. than men awake . and a servant of a sick it man that his master shall immateriate a virtue. it is necessary that he. rections of trials. may strengthen the imagina. There arc lu-ed als. you must pretend : to and the or like. . body . the truth is. but or through all mediums. it naturally. that you shall. &c. lest they shoiiM disturb the imagination. gination. If there be any power in imagination. new experiments. with such oil : experiments. ami this waseveras well in heathen charms. as in charms may of more than another. perfume. for that : work better than other conceits as if you would remember the word philosophy. or ring. It into the . intended that it himself. and if the suc it will faint and lose To remedy this. and the body apt and proportionate.

take such bodies as are of astringent quality. that it hath most force upon things that have the lightest and easiest motions. that it shall strike so many times with colours laid between crystals. is cold. as we have formerly touched. bordered with broad borders of small that at such a name it shall go off their fingers. For corroboration and confortation.. if it he natural. that light. macerated first in rose-water. crystal.lt. because otherwise distemper of heat will make coral lose colour. It comfort the spirits. of for these two are extreme And all colours. I commend bead-amber. or tincted screens dice. but anybody may J. Trials likewise would be made upon plants. I wish them to be of pearl. and the like. if NATURAL HISTORY. and great counterfeit precious stones. than things merely inani clear pools do greatly comfort the eyes and spirits. yet sant to behold especially in the night. which is ever with imagination. &c. crimson. as I conceive. 9G2. with handles Prisms are also comfort against the side of the glass. who usually bringeth murders to light: but if it be natural. or little plates of nitre. mate: and mere force likewise upon light and especially when the sun is not glaring. there is no credit to be given to them. The experiment Experiments in consort touching the secret virtue of sympathy and antipathy. : been anciently and generally received. lookingwithout a charm and to tell those that hold it. It may be. or And therefore it were casting of precious stones comfort. and telling him that hold. of holding a key between two men s fingers.]mir &quot. or piecfs sons onlv. but over I j I much subtile motions. But it is manifest. that have been living. and that : as if you should tell a man. There be divers sorts of bracelets is to an usual observation. though not always. as upon procuring of love. as appeareth by their splendour. They have of Paris-work. blue.i of the roots of carduus benedictus also . which is marriage. but yet is unctuous. and they be of three inten tions. And therefore above all. and cu So riously assigned to work several effects. and it hath been noted that coral. ! | . name one twenty full : of twenty men. binding of lust. I commend also beads of harts referred to the imagination of I tieth the point. carnation.glasses. that if the body of one murdered be brought before the mur Some do derer. and dried. without 959. refrigerant. and not wives. able things. of holding a ring candles in the night. that strong ima.pictures of Indian feathers are likewise comfortSo also fair and gination hath more force upon things living. 9G1. the jacinth oriental. are very light motions folly very usual.. that of glass coloured into green. and that there have been such like motions. affirm. to see how it thriveth. 357. will wax pale . that are most glorious and plealight motions. such as witches are. the wounds will bleed afresh. but eth it. have thoughts would be diversified and tried to the and you are to note. lapis lazuli and beads of also beads. must be him that horn and ivory. Whatsoever is of this kind would be throughly inquired. that this participated! of a 958. with some cordial mixture. which I believe to be true. and there is a good to have tincted lanterns. I commend beads. X. upon the presence of the murderer. is. because not peculiar per 963. The tying of tho point upon the day of manifest cold. and therefore they may work by consent upon the spirits of men. much is true: that stones have in them fine spirits. which are of the like nature. it is true that the motions of shuffling of cards. or able and pleasant to behold. of the conceive it to . upon what things imagination hath most force and the rule. before. corroborant. affinity with witchcraft. than upon motions vehement or cast. above all things. the emerald. and no more. it must be referred to imagination. you tell CENT. that light varied doth the same effect. as where they have been killed by wounds. also beads of lignum aloes. which is the yellow topaz.132 less fail. and is conceived to impinguate those that so frequent in Zant and Gascony. to make men impotent towards their full of astriction. I commend . or when the moon shineth. whether it hit for the most part. fit ponderous. that gamesters imagine. upon men in fear.f cards. if the party that weareth it be indisposed. or of coral. have the less also orange beads. than one that such an one shall if it were one of of bin&amp. by them bring them ill luck. as is used . or Those that are the best. There be many things that work upon the spirits of man by secret sympathy and anti pathy : the virtues of precious stones worn. excelleth in comforting the spirits of men: and it is very prbable. and to use them with also made. It is good to consider. by God s just judgment. As for their particular properties. are the men in irresolution. and aperient. upon such affections as move lightest . for that effect. as well where the parties murdered have been strangled or drowned. that such diligently a tree would die this year. and will him at these and these times to go unto it. For opening. that the dead body. : diamond. to comfort and exhilarate them. The that stand some There would be trial j . which. j so conceive to be true. not only of glass coloured through. 9GO. or miracle. purple. wear such beads. and the gold stone. So likewise to have round by a thread in a glass. upon the spirits of men : and in them. For refrigerant. hath opened the eyes. or to hold in one s hand. howsoever I have no opinion of these things. either alone. As for inanimate things. with more And this is one of the causes why novelty.

contract and corrugate. mingled with the meal of fine wheat. doth help the falling sick ness: and likewise the incubus. in their cordial confection alkermes : the beads 97-2. furthereth their action. &c. and of orrice. The other is. piony thf male. and of manifold use. because those 9G5. Light may be taken from the experiment graves. 971. that their working is rather upon the spirits. brains of deers. when their castoreum. they . of beads made of the scarlet powder. do help diseases contrary to which an. It is saffront the contraction of the spirits. they say.But I suppose. by casting as well take the beak of a piece of a hart s horn. The writers of natural magic commend the wearing of the spoil of a snake. Surely it is an excellent axiom. winkle. and of the. is reported coolm ss.&amp. the like virtue. There more are in use. the intention is thesinous. taken in wine. that the wolf is a beast of great edacity pomander. the herb. as one of them letteth another. I judge the like to be in wolves. know dogs better than which that simple hath. The brains of some creatures. and it is yet in use. I the intention desired: for in the to relax rurinir of the cramp. the head of a wolf. rue-seed. do cure the colic. and the mare. for since they do great good inwards. and confirmed and digestion. that dialing a little above the place in pain. The ointment that witches use. 969. but for that being poisons themselves.vr. &quot. to renew her youth. the one rings of sea-horse teeth worn fingers . poplar leaves. made 970. They might : may be applied in greater quantity. Query. hemlock to doit. wear little bladders of quicksilver. or kinds of bracelets. dried. the inten : see do. for that the I contrary. of the juices of smalla^e. and hanged that We the grossness of the vapours which rise and enter into the cells of the brain and therefore the up in a dove-house. It is true. pole-cats. birds from corn and fruit. I would have trial made of two other an eagle. two things. There is a stone which they call the heads are roasted. I do find this the more strange. Ami it seemeth is by astriction and cooling of the spirits. such as are weasels. tied about the calf of the leg. for preserving f health. &c. as preservatives against the plague: not. 974. where the cramp usetli to come. the toad-stone like wise helpcth. it is reported by some. will scare away vermin. especially of the epilepsy from the stomach. is it which in tliat whereunto. hut . reported by some. . &c. or the thigh. and the like. within the nerves. tion of sinews manifest. fast : the best help: so to procure easy travails tin. for working is by extreme and subtile attenuation. tied to the neck. opening and cordial virtue. no doubt. which do for a Lime arrest the expulsion. contention of the spirits. also.p it-. but rather the upon the For as one saith prettily . It hath been anciently received. those vermin with us. that they strive lesa. the one of the trochisk of vipers. 96.Mil. and some being applied to the belly.. judge. &c. which worn is thought to be good strengthen the memory : as the brains of hares.f calamus animations . and other cool things. is r. that whatsoever appeaseth the &quot. are said to blood-stone.intention is to bring down the child is. or tablets of it is like they will be effectual outwards. horse-tooth ring. musk. wolf-bane. whose flesh dried is thought to have a very they draw the venom to them from the spirits. and 97. which are so busy. It is said. till nature can do it sinews by heat. agnus castus seed.henbane. for comforting the heart and renew. would be made up with ambergrease. and the garland of peri cinque-foil. that the guts or skin of a wolf.gt. therefore. that the afFectioua . tobacco. for Perispirits les the Athenian used it. quenching of the flame of a pestilent ague. Vide the experiments 95. which is wrought by the dila tation of the contracted We tion is to expel the infection by sweat and eva but the best means to do it is by nitre poration diascordium. . whole. for any comfort they yield to would be trochisk likewise made of snakes the spirits. for the toad loveth shade and 975. where arsenic. for the prevention of the cramp. to into little pieces of beads. see scarecrows are set up to keep 973.s like people that come to quench the fire of a iionsi . to be incident to the brains of those creatures if the stone taken out of the toad s head be not of that are fearful.f . In tho quietly. 967.Cr. There as they conceive. how that those things which assuage tin. Msctli the cramp. and so it may be the parts of him by divers trials. eometli cither by cold or dry ness. to he made of the fat of children digged out of theii 968. It hath been long received. which they touching the several sympathies and antipathies call kermes. brains of hens. to make them strive less. than upon the bodily sub stance of the nerves. It may be the head of a dog will do as much . mandrake. cometh of contrac but the best In-lp stay tin: coining down !&amp. X. nature . moonshade. especially forpestilent agues. which we call The cause of both these diseases. 966. for them that bleed at the nose: which. for cold anddryness sumptions. which is the principal ingredient for medicinal use. opium. as after con and long agues. I doubt it is but a conceit. that the soporiferous medicines are strife of the spirits. snake is thought her spoil.&quot. no doubt. NAT! KM. the other bands of green peri winkle. Soin pestilent fevers. HISTORY. because neither of these have any relaxing virtue.gt. women. Tin! cramp. both of them. that the root of the male-piony dried. and of and of rue. to . is : comfort the bowels. 976.

or excerncd. or biood. And that of man is most infectious and odious to man. I would have it first 9oO. as they require a great deal of exami nation ere we conclude upon them. and bark. a reverend prelate. as in times of infec such as wear the relics of saints. I myself remember. drunk powder. worn near the heart. that ed. in that the blood of near blood. 977. being thrown at that salt laid to a cut finger healeth it. The flesh of a hedge-hog. and the excrement and hath a dry brain: which may be some cause of every species to that creature that excerneth of attenuation of vapours in the head. leprosy. as that the skin of a sheep devoured by a wolf. berberries : and therefore the ashes of a hedge-hog are said to be a great desiccative ol fistulas. And it is approved that the moss which gwoweth upon the skull of a dead man unburied. vhich. which I told to divers English gentle men. worketh most upon those parts wherein that kind of matter 984. as parents. if it cometh near the body. some petty fellow is sent out to kill the 979. Generally. a grave wriu. that which is dead. have upon the watery parts of the body. draweth blood. as briers. and on the contrary side. have some sympathy with salt : for all life hath a sympathy with salt. that the diet of in scemeth draweth salt salt. Mummy hath great force in stanching of blood . or such vaporous food . so &amp. men have had an inward feeling of it. that. severed from the water. moveth itching. The writers of natural magic report. whether idle or no I cannot of the pores of the shell. as in the sixth experiment Commineus. or fast much or . except it be in know the dog-killer. Whereof the cause is conceived to be. the nature of both which is to repress 983. of clarification it maybe also. tion. : all which send it endangereth the child to or of imperfect memory : draw vapours to become luna and I make the same aboundeth. so as it him. . as it may be ascribed to the mix ture ol secret passages thoroughly inquired. and my father dying in London. It hath been prac. that blood. carbuncles. will -tanch blood potently and so do the dregs. and the secret instincts of nature. by some acci I &amp. provoketh choler. in man s body. and co riander-seed. that the white of an egg. or drink wine or strong drink immoderately . and increaseth audacity. &c. 978. It is reported. Which effect may be produced. when they are in strength do add some the CENT. And it is a good rule. hath antipathy with the same the heart of an ape. wives. to make white swallows. that living creature. loving and kind husbands have a sense that putteth forth the feathers afterwards more of tti^ir wives breeding children. sn: We a stone bitten by a dog in anger. pocks. that whatsoever hath an operation upon certain kinds of matters. and dried.gt. There be many reports in history. helpeth the wit. and erodeth them. sisters. and that though they have never seen him is said to be a great drier it is true that the juice before. and maketh the water sweeter. a quality it hath of heating the breath and spirits. that the sea air hath an antipathy with the lungs. heart of man would do more. when. (s said to move dreams also. said : I . two or three days before my father s death. whether there beany of sympathy between persons bJrns that are glutinous. It is a common experience. a. brothers. that dogs against men s minds to use it. or be given to much musing. of secret propriety.y. &c. by anointing of the eggs xith oil. if the mother eat much onions or beans. children. .thing when it is alive. which the matter of a virtue unto inanimate things. doth gather the This saltness. It is true with those parts which do excern as a carcase that the ape is a merry and bold beast. the head tic. applied to the a carrion of a horse to a horse.134 of beasts NATURAL HISTORY. dent in . I had a dream. Yet it them but the excrements are less pernicious It may be the than the corruptions. that my father s house in the country was There plastered all over with black mortar. but that it is more 985. be fly at him. are so uncertain.r. and instincts of nature 982. that upon the draweth man** flesh.Vurown body. 986. reporteth. It hath been anciently received. mingled with salt-water. And it may body of which vide the experiment 93. as if the mother eat quinces much. and making the juice that. : : : : cause itputteth forth so many prickles: for plants also that are full of prickles are generally dry . comfort. Nex*to those that are near in blood. dogs.gt. it may also partakt. be. and is good for matter of wounds.. to sound flesh. the anointing of the egffs will be as effectual as the anointing of the penurious. and when it is sound and eth the heart. or corrupt judgment of tobacco often taken by the mother. It hath been observed. yet they will all come forth. is X white of an egg. nurse-children. as cantharides and stay vapours that ascend to the brain. The relations touching the force of imagi nation. then* may be the liko passage. the falling sickness the ape also is a witty beast. and ulcers. husbands. and of a hedge-hog must needs be harsh and dry. dressed and eaten. the same heart likewise of an ape. it will make the child ingenious. between great friends and enemies : and some times the revealing is unto another person. . or powujr of blood. purulent neck or head.t. and I remember Philippus not to the party himseh that the ay be by adhesion . and Archbishop of Vienna. as urine and hydropical water. 987. that being in Paris. as well as blood women with child doth work much upon the in fant. : : death of persons of such nearness. by the stopping an opinion abroad. 981. scabs. thorns.

and said to those about him. yet according unto our faithful manner of examination of nature. or upon the coming of butter or cheese. upon plants. fights. should pray one for another. 997. the general root of superstition: namely. that victory had a it was merely his sympathy with his spirit.irles uf Bur^umly r &amp. or a bracelet.il enemy is dead was slain at time Duke li. observing the rules wards is put to waste and consume. after the churning. as it is easier to make a dog go slower distant places. wliether pact or agree comparative motions. or keep from . you may try the affections of singular persons. als tinafter imagination of some. to work by the continuance of a fit me dium. 99G. have given formerly some rules of Imagination. he hath granted us against the Turks :&quot. for work to conclude that league. If there be any force in imaginations and upon their closing and opening. HISTORY. is a common formerly proscribed.. that have been entire. observe when things hit. it is probable the force is much more in the joint imaginations and force of imagination. We So and vigour into the part severed.&quot. healing. and commit to memory the one. or have touched. ! | j i : . if one wear a ring. in the whether a victory should he is there not some sense thereof people whom it concern- when the barm is put in.&amp. being then hearing wa? won by of causes in consistory. It would hi. to the ear. Try cause of my own experience. whether if one of them should break their imagination upon the lighter sort of motions: as vow and promise. Some with greyhounds: or in horse-races. and thn more cowardly. It is true. or lively coming up of of it in absence. It is eth. or upon their bending one way or other. that any part taken from a living creature newly slain. by rubbing them with somewhat that afterUse some imaginant. for the great victory it is true. &c. men and souls. or the ren be put in. than raise 01 that such a day in every week. your iim. The sympathy of individuals. and I do apprehend it the rather. at the very time an ancient tradition everywhere al when that memorable victory the Christians against the Turks. we will make some little mention of it. It is now more time we &quot. birds. and the like of a dog from barking. if it be touched that toucheth should give thanks to God. upon staying the working of after nnss tn Kim. because it is fuller of spirit. that your trials be upon subtle and light motions. for example of secret proprieties and in fluxes. may as well do it. that that which that is may hold in these things. to see whether it will decay the rest of the stock: or if you should cut off part of the tail or leg of a dog or a cat. It is one degree of working at distance. the part which remaineth.crs. or hare. and to lay that which you cut off to putrefy. and so see whether it will fester.te with things to fortify it. that the torpedo marina. with a long stick. much may be true . that he may not run J91. net beer 993. whom you shall childhood a wart upon one of my fingers ai-i. for you will sooner by ima gination bind a bird from singing than from eating or flying: and I leave it to every man to choose experiments which himself thinketh most commo dious.Miuiiioda. being in far cease it. We have set down also some few in stances and directions. and not the contrary.tried also in flying of hawks. some few days before : writers of natural magic do attribute come from the parts of living creatures. ^nation quicken or slack a motion.gt. For inanimate things. NATl KU. or other like favour. or than to make him stand still. is of all others the most incredible. doth stupefy the hand of him it. may be of greater force than if it were taken from the like creature dying of itself. and spirits. of the force of imagination upon beasts. herbs.gt. that it helpeth to continue love. : . leged. being I !)!&amp. for binding of a bird from experiment. the creatures remaining still alive: as if the crea. brake off suddenly. &c. if the horn of the bow be held 994. we shall speak more when we handle in general the na ture of minds. 992.().t. as if two friends should agree. It may be that revelation was divine but what shall we say then to a number of examples amongst the Grecians and Romans] where the people being in theatres at plays. The taking away of of the three kinds. The much to the virtues that tures virtue still living did infuse some immaterial* any messenger could come. and not when they miss. In plants also you may try the force of should put on a ring or tablet one for another s Bake. of the hair : But that may be by the ex of the party beloved. in cocks wards.gt. they. oilier one day 1- to rnako one cock more hardy. or in coursing of a deer. for you may sooner by ment do any tiling. citing of the imagination : and perhaps a glov. vination. Diving now but a few examples of every 989.CtJTT. It is received. warts. and the misgiving of minds. so as they be taken from them. because of the great joy or grief that many men are possessed with at oncel Pius Quintus. at the naval battle of Lepanto.-. or 988. when I was about sixteen years old. all* -ctions of multitudes : as if won or lost in remote parts.BtoVWthof what mce Sir. and lay it to putrefy. and upon inanimate bodies wherein you must still observe. 995. ( im. trial alsn would he made. as sound will be conveyed to the ear by striking upon a bow-string. and But touching di forget and pass over the other. and the like the battle of Granebnagaimtthe Sw u/.: Lewis tin. the other should have any feeling upon the sudden fading.he I had trom my pinging. and touching the fortifying of the same. X. have had news of victories and overthrows. Trial would be made of the like parts of individuals in plants and living creatures as tocut off a stock of a tree.

But the weapon. The hot. there grew upon both my hands a fit figure of heaven. for experiment s sake. will heal the wound itself. the wound with a green elder stick. as well as a man. that the medicine due time. they do not observe the confecting of the stone. it sub- once joined with 998. that within five weeks that if you cannot get the weapon. proved not. and by cutting off virtue than diminish. and presently the part) : piece of lard. They say the like is done by the rubbing of warts j and work the effect. told me the party to be cured is not needful to concur. agues. that it taketh no wind. This I doubt should be a device to keep this strange form of cure in request and use . But you must receive from And stanch blood. if you wipe it off from the sword and the horns of beasts. and indications. south. but the going away of that which had stayed so long doth yet stick with me. as yet. .136 NATURAL HISTORY. Seventhly. and laying it to con. I secret properties. for that will hinder the opengreatquantity of it inlreland. yet if you space all the warts went quite away and that wart put an instrument of iron or wood. Thirdly. though the party hurt be at great month s space. for as for the moss. but that in the practical part of knowledge. skin on. of credit. but only the first medicine doth not apparently succeed: applied to the weapon. Ninthly. Tenthly. and might go away in a short time again. which was to the weapon was re-anointed. drunk in beer. and such other excrescences. Fourthly. X. laid on heaps unburied. and rather increase in with lard. that they were not made under a vidual oody. whereby it bleedat the rest I did little marvel. if the hurt itself worketh not the effect. These two last I could easily suspect to be pre- .fcr. into the wound. CENT. according to is the excuse of magical medicines the correspondence the medicine hath to the indi commonly te nen they fail. the And I would have it ointment. and some other things. or elder. j wards the consumption of that part which was which ! I like best of all the rest. Eighthly. Fifthly. which which will not do good in another.lt. that wart which I been wiped off the weapon. by ascribing them to secret and hidden virtues. the anointing of that instrument will serve : in a short time. which I like for of those remedies that arc good for the jaundice. hath side. the sword itself must creatures that are nearest the nature of excres. Lastly. and proprieties. made of clivers ingredients . upon hurt hath been in great rage of pain. for that will exasperate choler: that it must other ingredients are. you shall note the points following : the relation of men first. and then burying the must be at first washed clean with white wine. and amongst the rest. for this hath arrested and would have men know. then at Paris. and then bound up corns and wens. The English ambassador s lady. experience that powder of Chamcepytis. and rubbed the warts all over v/ith the fat that the ointment. In this Experiment solitary touching 999. again a wise physician doth not continue still the Secondly.do. party s own water. distance. whereunto indication cannot so fully reach and this not only in specie. &c. but in indivilaid asleep all true inquiry : scribed as a starting-hole: that if the experiment duo. the description of the whole ointment is to be like. done is that though I reprehend the easy passing over the causes of things. without the knowhad had from my childhood: then she nailed the ledge of the party hurt. jpcteth the matter to an easy the is constantly received and avouched. because they came et. tried both ways.shorter time than ointments of wounds commonly sume: to see whether it will work any effect to. I close in fine linen. am not fully inclined to believe it. experiment. which seem virtue to to have a causeth the disease. the ointment wherewith this is . one day. that will do good in one body weil. &c. &amp. in a to the weapon. as far as the ointment cences . It would be tried with or the stick to rot in muck. go to the gall . found in the chymical dispensatory of Crolltus. with the fat towards the sun. it will cure in far some piece of those parts. upon though myself. and the fats of a boar and a bear killed in the act of generation. because trial. it will cure a beast. for company. at the least an hundred. as the combs of cocks. and no more dressing renewed would have it also tried with some parts of living till it be whole. resembling which I had so long endured. the blood-stone in powder. goeth. it is affirmed. she would help me away with my for it may be done without the knowledge of the : warts: whereupon she gota piece of lard with the party wounded and thus much has been tried. Sixthly. till the a post of her chamber window. if you will cure the jaun not enough to say. ointment under any certain constellation.be wrapped up close.h. the spurs of cocks. because many times you cannot come by the weapon itself. The success was. yet I do not understand.. both by rubbing those parts keep it. much will be left to experience and probation. whereof the strangest and hardest to come by. is good for the jaundice. must not be cooling. So it is in physic. or the Sr. but he will vary. it might be pretended that the beasts dice. ing which the disease requireth that it must not he upon slain bodies. the same kind of ointment applied to same medicine to a patient. It that the it. as before. are the moss upon the skull of a dead man unburied. will serve again . as also the moss hath. for there is the obstruction which were not killed it is in the is certain there : | . anointing of the weapon that maketh wound. it soemeth the imagination of who was a woman far from superstition. it may be applied number of warts.

ive in popular men came forth out why should men be honour. Hfjnrimcnt 1000.lt. is not without Boine signification. as if all spirits and souls of 1 which others think or say 1 The best n mper of minds desireth good name and true honour: the lighter. uelioht which IIII-M h. This thing. or atVrctions.i^ r eeable to the na &amp. popularity and applause: the more de praved. X. submission. II. t NATURAL HISTORY. \\ills.CENT. as is seen in and great conquerors and troublers of the world yet more in arch-heretics . solitary toHtMttg the 137 of one divine limbus. else so much affected with that general ty input fiy The of inni s Kjn rits.r ture of man. ity. surely. : VOL.itei ul iunl . and subjection of s mimls. seem. for the introduction of new doctrines is likewise an affectation of tyranny over the understandings and beliefs of men. r .iiue. subjection and tyranny . other nun eth to be a thing in itself without contemplation of consequence. although these tilings may be desired fur other ends. 18 .

and the rest. and the true rules of that every thing in nature. it pleased you to note. which is the place and region of massy After this manner the foresaid instructors set bodies. the moon. which. without wavering or confu more examples of this kind. So we see the iron in small quantity will as kings. which fall towards the centre of the earth. had set forth a certain book. : . nor keep no dead stock. policy.TRACTS RELATING TO SCOTLAND. So did they represent unto them how the hea gracious speech of thanks unto your council. manner of the motions of government.* it strange. nor untouched and well-deservings. yet are they to be constant and regular. their region or country and yet we see intermission being in a perpetual office of mo nothing more usual in all water-works and en : : : them in season. only holding and storing them up for a time. nature. whereby all and consent things do subsist and are preserved which is. like a good patriot. many men took it for a discourse and many others took it for a treatise For there is a great affinity between the rules of nature. rather than to suffer expressing likewise the true any distraction or disunion in nature. For the Persian own particularities. to the end to issue and distribute now extant. as well in state as in * Printed in 1603 in 12mo. and the cular sympathy but if it be any quantity of mo branches and passages of them. fore the education and erudition of the kings of more general and common respects . excellent king. although it hath its the one being nothing else but an order private and particular affection and appetite. and when it is free and delivered from order in the government of an estate. acknowledging princely their vigilances the seas. of . the water and other like bodies do before their kings the examples of the celestial bodies. So again. and policy and the other an doth follow and pursue the same in small mo in the government of the world And there ments. falleth to the and imitation for government. that Heraclitus. they did express and expound unto of them that fundamental law of nature. as have great glory and veneration. which is not 1 DO not find when turn back again in showers. they forsake their rate and taken in the ill part. it leaveth its appetite of amity to the load first model. and attend and conspire to which was the secret literature of their uphold the public. for the cherishing. was a success and event above the course of nature but whatsoever moisture they do levy and take tohavesogreatchangewith so great a quiet: foras from both elements in vapours. though they ought to be swift and rapid in re and applying itself to the body next adjoining. But chiefly. Your majesty your self did fall upon a passage of this nature in your sion. which is. he that was surnamed the ob scure. they do spend and much as sudden mutations. of gines. never Persia was in a science which was termed by theless. but no rest or was said. when there is question or case for sus a name then of great reverence. But it were too long a digression to proceed to spect of despatch and occasions. that it treasures of that they draw to them from below . and. than that the water. earth. : and in course. yet. was an application of the contemp. nature. forsaking the love to its own region or country. A BRIEF DISCOURSE OF THE HAPPY UNION OF THE KINGDOMS OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND DEDICATED IN PRIVATE TO HIS MAJESTY.ations cend and approach to the loadstone upon a parti and observations of nature unto a sense politic taking the fundamental laws of nature. as an original or ment. will ascend. in turn inferior bodies: v 13S . vens do not enrich themselves by the earth and when. the sun. whence to take and describe a copy stone. are rarely without violence and perturbation. but now degene taining of the more general. magic.

where the conquering state doth the several duchies and portions which were extinguish. the other properly a union. being a wisdom almost lost. we will consider only of : j hath brought your majesty to this happy conjunction with the great consent of hearts. Cauda Leonis. j that is studious to conjoin contemplative virtue is they receive by union.gt. the mother of sedition and alteration. moment. &quot. It doth and cities.TMON eion . as far as my weakness and the straits of time will suffer. And lest that instance may seem to op- pone to this assertion. than Therefore Vis unita for- union.mistio. I set before your majesty s princely consideration. So then this point touching the force of union not appear by the records and memoirs of any true history. that position. as hath . which it findeth so contrary as in former times dismembered. and in It resteth but the maturity of your experience. last not. the earth trembling for a much to bo induced or illustrated. like answer in matter of policy to union of countries wise. For these representations do corporate with the rest. island is the last reserved for your majesty s it cannot alter and convert it. being one of the common notions of the mind. happy times. where man that place of heaven can have with that part of s body.&quot. the grounds of nature touching the union and commixture of bodies. And. it is a form of dis and to tity. offer unto you a type or pattern in nature. I may. to be united in an age not long matter to inflame or when the body of a living past . causeth more vehement heats than when he is in Cancer. is. tior. and This knowledge. therefore. the more general do little by reason of the united weight which they . the other of peace and continuance: the one rather a confusion grounds of policy in the conjunction of states and kinirdoms. to be in nourishment. and mingling: the one being but a conjunction of boili -s in the other in quality and consent: the one place. extirpate. pendicular. but narrow and particular earth to be lapis angularis mighty and warlike nations of England and Scot quakes have many times overturned whole towns land under one sovereignty and monarchy. that ever. The lot of Spain was to have the fire converteth the wood into fire. So we see waters and liquors. then. or scarcely by the fiction and pleasure of is evident and therefore it is more fit to speak of any fabulous narration or tradition. Sirius. extinguishing and expulsing what great rivers.&quot. of any the manner of union: wherein again it will not antiquity. which is not for any affinity which Canicula. Cor Leonis. there be no seas or subdue another. by ancient tradition. with the four stars of the first magnitude. and converteth the same into its own nature. by reason of the conjunction and nearness with the stars aforenamed. and suddenly stablishing as it was before. much resembling this event in your state . Portugal ing away the smoke and the ashes as unapt only excepted. in great part. 139 so as still I i conclude there ii as was Said. namely. promised. is said to be at the heart. that. of God. So the moon likewise. but only because the moon is then. creature doth convert and assimilate food and which was the last that held out. and while he continueth under the sign of Leo. in earthquakes. even in that particu lar. much about the same time. and expulse any part of the The lot of this state conquered.imperfecte mista. which is most vital and principal. by the special providence and favour leaving violent unions. and so worketh upon that part in inferior most humbly present your majesty bodies. which is to unite these offer to subvert : two under one king before this day. and the correspondence which they have with the putting together. what lime his beams are nevertheless more rneedeth not p&amp. hut no actual hurt. of the sun corradiation. when one body doth merely no mountains nor races of hills. a . purging and expelling whatsoever The lot of France it cannot convert. we see those bodies. purg or divorce. therefore. to have re-annexed unto that crown by conquest. and now in our age that of Portugal also. Your majesty nour &quot. by reason of the strength with I : now for surely. paration the several kingdoms of that continent. servers in nature do take between &quot. and active virtue together ] So king that had the ho . compositio&quot. in small quan been said.i : OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. And yet there be union by victory. as I who natural unions. the first hurt. there is no diversity of tongue or lan As when guage that hath invited or provoked this ancient se part soever of it it cannot overcome. in greatest strength of in fluence.&quot. First. and in the strength of your years. which they call but are speedily &quot. I have thought good to make some proof. of making the govern ment of the world a mirror for the government of a state. in perfect quiet The reason whereof. which many of them bring ever much terror and wonder. hath been truly ascribed to the conjunction and in that place of heaven. to revive in the handling of one particular. The and difference is excellent which the best ob &quot.&quot. do easily putrefy and corrupt. while she is in the same sign of Leo. with your majesty s favour. hath been. whereof the reason I take to be because of the difficulty for one man to embrace both philosophies. earthquakes. but in large course anciently used towards kings what king should it be more proper than to a king quantity subsist long. this island of Great Britain was united be pertinent to handle one kind of union. cnnirniitv lu-tui tin- principles of nature and policy. \Ve see the sun when he entereth.

But that which is chiefly to be noted in the whole continuance of the Roman government. jus adipiscendorum in urbe honorum expeterent: multus ea there was never any states that were good com mixtures but the Romans . is the &quot. &quot.mistio&quot. and. the other to the people. see these three bodies. effect I settling. Paul professeth himself. they cannot be se parated and reduced into the same simple bodies with rods. mercury. which was the Sabine word. uniting So we read in Tacitus. For Rome continued the name. but the people were sulphur. that Rome was civilians &quot. But otherwise it is of perfect mixtures. that part superinduce a new form.eommunis it. yet. were to the entire estate. that civitatem Romanam pridem assecuti. for example. and their other descendants. So as call in the end it came as to that. the other to Claudius s time. we see. one of of estate there hath been put in practice in go vernment these two several kinds of policy in the city was beaten with rods of the consul Marand conjoining of states and kingdoms .&quot. and thereupon charged the the violation of the privilege of a &quot. doth give judgment. they are so united.quae Comata appellata foedera. For the manner was to grant the same. the country of Tatius. inquiring the causes of the growth of the Roman empire. patria.compositio&quot. Troy should give a mixture of men. and not only so. Virgil bringeth in of oracle or prediction. joining or putting together of bodies under a new form : for the new form is commune vinculum. and only conjoined in sovereignty. some of the we oil. because it was super re variusque rumor. earth. water. Art Roman ? That privilege hath cost me To whom St. that. is of bodies without a clearly set down is this. debate. Paul. not only to parti cular persons. So they were water and oil. without great subtlety of art and force of extraction. morem and incorporate with strangers. and so it was conveyed to him . St. and in them you may behold how easily they sever and dissolve. after he had been ral. the authority of Nicholas Machiavel seemeth not to be contemned . difference between &quot. xii. yet after a little settling the oil will float on the top. tio&quot. and oil. upon a little : rived of Cures. of earth. the nation of Gaul. than matter of strength unto them yea. So we read that it was one of the first despites Now. Wherein Jupiter marceth a kind of partition or i followed. For take. Teucri . even. and judge truly moresque Gallise. that in the Emperor the one to retain the ancient form still severed. So those three bodies and some religious rites. For if a man do attentively re these volve histories of all nations. de . but the latter senators and officers of Rome. supra ire Ueos pietate videbis. So as the &quot. but to whole cities and countries.&quot. how weakly and called Quirites. UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. Ilinc genus. which. and if they be forced together by agitation.&quot.&quot. at strife . that he was a Jew by tribe: so as it is manifest that some of his ancestors were naturalized . JEn. 834. His words are Cum de supplendo senatu agitaretur priis more happy. For they so liberal of their naturalizations. the one nation gave the things which it pleaseth them to term salt. the wilder part. there was not one greater than this. et studiis diversis. and is more easy . But 1 \va3 . and when they are joined in a vegetable or mine So we read of beaten with officer St. Soon after the foundation of the city of Romf:. so born and yet. snow or froth. that the joining or putting together new form : and mistio&quot. we will chiefly insist thereupon. et thereupon. and is the best exam principem certabatur. it was ruled they should be admitted. though by agitation it be brought into an ointment. citizen of again. after long ple of this point. Rome the captain said to him. if they be united only by com position or putting together. in another place. speaking Jupiter. Paul replied. &quot. for water and earth rudely they do incorporate make but an imperfect slime. and both people should meet in one name of Latins. distribution: that Italy should give the language and the laws . iii patritim moresque tenebunt : So. that whereas he obtained naturalization for a city in Gaul.140 dissolved. apud the best state of the world. water. to reflect this light of nature upon matter that was done to Julius Caesar. And in the end. but to families and lineages . which are compositions of air and water. and name to the place. likewise. as in made perpetual mixtures. and &quot. as. composi- thou then a dear. farther. that the addition of further empire and territory hath been rather matter of burden. and without that the old forms will be and discord. that the state did so easily compound ritusque sacrorum Adjiciam faciamque oinnes uno ore Latinos. cellus. agreeable and convenient which is called Comata. as Livy noteth. and still in the end the worthiest getteth above. by way of the mixture of the Trojans and the Italians : Sermonem Ausonii Siibs d. it : . who. the earth resideth in the bottom. So as such imperfect mixtures continue no longer than they are forced . which the alchymists do the people of the Romans and the Sabim-s mingled so much celebrate as the three principles of upon equal terms: wherein the interchange went so that is to say. : In the antiquities of Rome.&quot. It is true. he will make this conclusion. the water closing together and exclud ing the air. &quot. Aiisonio mixtuni quod sanguine fiirpet. The former of these hath suitors to be made capable of the honour of being been more usual. that most estates and kingdoms have taken the other course of which this Hl rrt haih : Supra homines.

So we see.suffragium. though of several dialects. they be of three natures. whereof the former is time: for the of Grsecia made the Greeks always apt to unite. Arragon. against other nations whom they called For it is the duty of man to make a fit application barbarous. and. both eecj-siastical and civil: an hour and under a s between the Romans and the Sabines. no nature and unnatural hasting thereof doth disturb the faster.that &quot. which did prefigure the which. or liber it-. kingdoms of Judah and Israel. many times sever these freedoms. And as for employments. open between all diversities of nations. though otherwise full of divisions amongst them.UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. &amp.mistio opus naturae.is &quot.Jus sheth. obtained likewise the answcreth to that we call dem zation or kingdom of Israel.in sit. union in employments. . and Judah contained two tribes. granting &quot.compositio&quot.&quot. &quot. they are. sine civitate.&quot. which at the first was but i&amp. may be in afgood tlie like divine provi fundamental laws. suflragii&quot. union in There remaineth only to remember out of the out ward matter. King David reigned over Judah or honorum. nalh kept anve the seeds and roots of revolts and rebellions for many ages.lt. For those we called leges. it is no more but an that form. doms brake ajruin. because it was continued in For manners a consent in them is to be sought divided government. : : a rebellion upon point of their ties. hath been a special means of the better the work. i is civitatis&quot. which government.&quot. For language. was of divers colours. entered into industriously.clf.gt. but not to be enforced for nothing i &quot. to and &quot. and nature of an impossibility. for rinding the venture of the queen in the psalm. &quot. Jus petitionis&quot. lately Portugal. Biifliceth there be a uniformity in the principal and doms of England and Scotland.lo . jus petitionis&quot. union in name.&quot. after the death of Ishbo&quot.church. and bound.&quot. Navarre. And the Romans did yet. jus suffragii. to seek either toextirpate all particular customs. And hereof. touching the diveisity of utes in tin. it must be left to time and nature to Catalonia. &quot. and time. Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur.Jus in Judah.&quot.r language. hundred years. and 1 an( so continued ver after.church. when a smaller river runneth into a greater. scissum nun hereditary union by the space of more than a cluded well. and the dif ference is so small between them. it loseth both its name and stream. yet it carrieth much impression grounds of nature the two conditions of perfect and enchantment:. &quot. | curiosity and inconveniency. they were amongst conclude. though it seem but a superficial and Xros. to my appn f your majesty s t\\o kimrIt that this happy union to one place or resort of judicature and session. is a thing in these limes out of use: for marriage for certain years.contiguum. I will term freedoms or abilities. natural philosophers say well.lt. yet.et in the and studies. which was commonly with them the last. and execution &quot. but rather hinder it.&quot. as promiseth rather an enriching of one language than a conti nuance of two.&quot. sine greater: upon the first occasion offered. Valentia. and not well incorporated a and cemented with the other crowns.&quot. he con veste varietas sit. This union continued in him. which are the principal sinews of And it is not any continual press s ing or thrusting together that will prevent nature And so in liquors. grow after clear and settled by the benefit of rest &quot.&quot. after the graft is put into the stock union and conglutination of the several kingdoms of Castile.Kje. at least.opus hominis&quot. because the seat of the kingdom was kept still to place in council or office. because both your majesty s kingdoms are of one laninr. it is not needful to insist upon it . and the rest. : &quot. Jus connubii. Granada. union in laws.lt. and &quot.&quot. &quot. And the greater doth darken and dim the less.jura. it is a matter of : &amp.&amp. sflves. though it were united to Castile by mar. the son of Saul. now of very late years. sine jure petitionis. and so the less sought to draw the civitatem. answereth seventy years. and not despatch it. name. &quot. as we may see in afresh ami notable example of the kingdon of Arra^on : 141 nounced by an ancient father. and so descended in that Christ b coat was without a seam. w . the kingdom of Israel Jus connubii&quot. jus civitatis. The second condition the less. Thus having in all humbleness made oblation to &quot. as sudden and violent offer Now. For laws. : . For abilities and freedoms. contained ten.fueros. for in this point the rule holdeth which was pro. comprehending also now make that continuum.mores. &quot. and finding again d not by conquest. besides the sovereignty indifferent hand. by the space of naturalization. &quot. the general and common name mixture. or to draw all subjects el my your majesty of these Mmj le fruits wish it i. I do wish.Jus answereth to the and likewise in his son Solomon. is. whereby states and kingdoms are per of that verse: fectly united.&quot. The Helvetian name is no small band of bodies together but the perfect fermentation and to knit together their leagues and confederacies incorporation of them must be left to time and The common name of Spain. ftaffragio/ and &quot. amongst people breedeth so much pertinacy in holding their customs. to speak briefly of the several parts of to remove them. that the greater draw So we see when two lights do meet. those commixtures which are at the first troubled.&quot. doubt. we see an excellent example in the The kingdom of the Romans of four kinds. between them In th hut voice in parliament. lour in number. that &quot. the kingconnubii. or rather degrees. season.leges.

and of swift apprehension. which of them all things. itur ad astra so. which are to be accepted. . and in consent to the matter itself.&quot. merely new unto you. and quite out of the path of your education. but in an acknow ledgment of my extreme labours and integrity. &quot. as I held it fit for me at proceeded from yourself. : nevertheless. even of those who give it not so full that I am of opinion that all the questions \s hirh an approbation. for therein so wise an assembly could not be so much deceived. in a more soft and submissive voice. yea. I have thnuirht down be &quot. esprchiUy in assemblies which consist of many. and wherein the principal light not actively or politicly.&quot. or sing aloud that hymn or anthem. and in trust to that house of parliament. both in duty to your majesty. that upon the length persuasion of multitudes. and seek rather to excite your judgment briefly. and been conversant. upon a spark of light given. and which to be notions excited and awaked which your ma. as if you had been indeed &quot. and that myself was by the Com I now shall open. and more readily call to mind which of them knowledge is but re is to be embraced.&quot. for avoiding of distraction. in execution. mind. as it will never be out of my Ardua qua. as I would gladly applaud unto your Sic majesty. when neither your majesty was in that And therefore my purpose is only to break this your desire declared. indeed scholastically and speculatively. and in conformity to mine own travels and beginnings.CERTAIN ARTICLES OR CONSIDERATIONS TOUCHING THE UNION OF THE KINGDOMS OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. than needeth much. rather to suffer them to arise from others. especially such a king as is the only stances. to inform it tediously . multiplication of another man s knowledge bj your own. anima legis. For princes. so I did ex tremely admire in Goodwin s cause. directed and conducted by a better oracle than that which was given for light to JEneas in his peregrination. being. :&quot. and if questions must be made of them. and degrees of this union. were fit to be in the consulta &quot. And again. your majesty may the more clearly dis wherein majesty s private consideration. I doubt not. hold nothing so great an enemy to good resolution. COLLECTED iND DISPERSED FOB HIS MAJESTY S BETTER SERVICE. hath a royal. set I will endeavour that that which I shall nihil minus quam verba for good to lay before you all the branches.put over to farther time. how much more in this. being a mat ter full of secrets and mysteries of our laws. and if in a matter of that but of your felicity. but in understanding: the remem brance whereof. and conference wherein. than to grace them and authorize them as But unto your propounded from themselves. and infinite expansion or] which are fitter to be effected by your majesty s instance that ever I knew all ! Plato s opinion. which of jpstv s rare and indeed singular gift and faculty them shall require authority of parliament. nor myself in that service matter of the union into certain short articles and used or trusted. and not for information view and consideration of them and their circum of kings . &quot. But now that both your majesty questions. as I have often observed. For 1 tion of my ability. your majesty took in so dexterously and profoundly. so it will always be a warning to me to majesty that warning or caveat. it is an action that pulchra requireth. must take many things by way of admittance. wherein your at your majesty s first entrance to write a few princely cogitations have wrought themselves. to whom it may be better sort with me rather to speak as a re membrancer than as a counsellor. as the making of too many questions. to make a man of cern. In this argument I presumed nature. and which to be rejected and membrance. tion of the commissioners propounded. and indeed an heroical desire to reduce these two kingdoms of England and Scotland into the unity of their ancient mother kingdom of Britain. not to neglect any pains that may lend to the furtherance of so excellent a work . in that business I thought myself every way bound. :&quot. I must necessarily remember unto your &quot.that : :&quot. that time. not only of your majesty s wisdom. Antiquam exquirite matrem. reading. and lines. mons graced with the first vote of all the Com mons selected for that cause not in any estima . not only . and to make a certain kind of anatomy hath opened your desire and purpose with much or analysis of the parts and members thereof: not admiration. YOUR majesty. linea and ornament of speech are to be used for ments. Wherein. and that the mind of man knoweth of these. and demandeth only to have her own is presently to be proceeded in.

brought to be &quot. whether that the is worthy your majesty s virtues and fortune.!. that the statutes. were not eonve-iieiu to plan* and erect Berwick some council or court. should not now be to this But. the law of Rich. English merchandises that should to make alterations in sick bodies than in sound. some time would be given. but mixedly. be imitation and precedent of the council of the marches here in England. for the advancement freedom and exemption. rity in service upon the borders. that it &quot. there is a diversity in these. For it will to be said. all armour or victual Scotland . I think set down. and the like. be your of them and the like or reciproque is to be done government never so gracious and politic. whether that upon the farther the borders of both realms? To this point. means. whether your majesty should not make a stop or of Henry VII. in eil may say. part First. erected upon the union repealed 1 It is true. namcessante causa. contenting yourself with the two former articles or points. be uttered for Scotland . considering it is one of the points the nations stand now at this present time already united. into England and part into Scotland. tollitur my opinion. which are in the same respect disnrin-d of subsidies and taxes. though perhaps your majesty will make no question of it. power and prerogative. if the kingdoms stand divided. and that the countries time to come 1 . for there have been erected staples in ensue with time. and the great benefit that both na shall have a calendar made of the laws.i stand here. tlr. where all Scottish merchandises resort that should be uttered for England. land or Scotland. hath covered manv incon and a brief of the effect. SCOTLAND. n the other side.lid In sovereignty. Both these laws.quia adhuc eorum messis in herba est:&quot. allow no manifest or The second question is. and that is. . there be not like to follow that the marches. that is to we are now well. and how that which is to be done is to be int\ rrcd . ami so you may judge veniences: which. yet. &quot. or taken away upon the continuing of the kingdoms divided. con tinuance of time and the accidents of time may by Scotland for such laws as they have concern breed and discover. as Herein falleth that question. . Wales? The third question is that which many will make a great question of. commissions. that where the principal solution of continuity was. Berwick with the liberty staple. that enacteth all the Scottish men to depart tho realm within a time prefixed.&quot. officers.it. when in mo&amp. with difficulty and contradiction. which are yet not found nor sprung up. while the kingdoms stood severed. and the state saith. commi-Mon not to proceed precisely. and not so much these two branches: what inconveniences \\iii neither. who hold their tenants rights in a greater be tho author and founder of. that endueth of -. other laws consider for it as a foreign country only: as. points wherein the nations stand already united are: The device for the utter and perpetual confounding of those ima&amp. anno 7. the orders of addition and increase of wealth and reputation. And because upon that which is done. : but the law of 22 of Ed- thanks be it God and your majesty.lt. to begin with that question. is bett. . in what fit first to ect at a future time.The consideration of which point will rest upon land only as a foreign nation . admitting that your majesty should proceed more perfect and entire union._nuary bounds. that your majesty may the better see what is done.INION OF IINCI. it 1 t:&amp. as in a brief table. what laws.AM) royal or AN!) whether at &amp. after the tish nation. or merely will be out of question. are important peril or inconvenience should rnsue of to he put down. i : &amp. with a with more facility and smoothness. therefore it Would be considered.rd IV. The second branch is.nid. because I am not acquainted with uniting of them. to tenants. there would be some farther kingdoms. respect Scotland as a country of hostility w. as your majesty trrmeth .lt.. and which justice. which In religion. garrisons. which prohibiteth to br carried to example. should and likewise all of neither kingdom is be repented of. lastly. is subjection. ing England and the English nation. according to the laws and customs either of Eng suppose. with an divided. in consideration of their and exaltation of your majesty s royal post. In the relative thereof. tlirrcfore. &quot. tions have felt thereby. and not to proceed to any farther union. according to instruc which were made touching Scotland or the Scot tions by your majesty to be set down. and what is to be don.. 1 \Vhether it br not inert. and that true which Hippocrates medicationes Sana r corpora difficile ferunt. but some present ordinance would be made to take \\ herein. and the law of 7 of K. the jurisdiction whereof might extend jui--. and in what points yet still se vered and divided. themselves. I can say the less. in one degree with other tenants and ellect is ?&quot. which or by other policies if them is likrr to i arlisle or !&quot. your majesty countries. there the healing and consolidating plaster shoi. this law beholdeth Scut. discontinued.lt. and some others.Majus opus enter into the parts and degrees thereof. nevertheless. For it may be the sweetness of your majesty s Hut this is a matter of the least difficulty your first entrance. exclusion and restriction of other parts of England. if the realms stand as they aro towns of England for some commodities. customs.gt. greatest points and marks of the division of the reason doth dictate.l be chiefly applied . for some of these laws consider Scotland as an enemy s country II.lt..

&quot. the union is absolute in your majesty and your generation . for the rest. whereof we find mention I have noted and placed as defects or abatements in our law. for the time back. 2. or only ordain that such new crown shall be used by your posterity hereafter] The difficulties will be in the conceit of some of Scotland may inequality. and the latter a subject of a state maining. notwithstanding. The second is the several names. j is the life : For the ceremonial crowns. dum. It is true. an alien ami. and the post nati&quot.144 In continent. I say. are naturalized subjects of Eng varietas sit. it is true. that the external are in some respect every subject of Scotland was. In language. which God of his infinite mercy defend. since your majesty s coming and parts much mingled and interlaced with con plight in. it is true there are no natural boundaries of mountains or seas.! take the clear. and that they may be as ef your letters of denization or naturalization to every fectual to the true union. that neither nation : law of England to is now in hostility with any state.&quot. scissura non land for the time forwards for by our laws none to descend to the particular points where Now that all &quot. So as there is no doubt. as was said. I mean the ceremonial alien. I will divide into external and internal. since they were subjects to the crown of England. because they are operative But then. whether in the frame thereof there shall not be some reference to the crowns of Ire land and France 1 Also. Yet. For the continent. as I said in my first writing. For the language. it is like to bring forth the enriching of one language.&quot. as we 1 . have ever been inheritable and capable as natural and material crowns. For subjection. uniting of whose hearts and affections and true end of this work. wherewith the other nation is in amity but yet so. but merely by the common law.unius labii. permitten For considering by the peace by your majesty concluded with Spain. subjects: and yet not by any statute or act of parliament. or navigable rivers. : can be an alien but he that is of another allegiance in the realms stand severed and divided. the wards. if he be not of the s allegiance . The fourth is the several stamps or marks the reason the-eof. and an alien enemy . so as they cannot take it by descent from their ancestors without act of parliament and therefore in this point there is a defect in the union of subjection. wherein the union is perfect and consum mate. Scotchmen from the very instant of your But many of these matters may perhaps be of In veste majesty s reign begun are become denizens. But for that. what the law of Scotland is I know not. which was confusion of tongues. For matter of religion. the union is perfect in points of doctrine. and that kind. on the other side. by compounding and taking in the proper and significant words of either tongue. j ante nati. or appellations. man s self understood. but every of them hath some scruple or lastly.&quot. 3. it is rather to be accounted. it is true the nations are &quot. the questions will be. rather than a continuance of two languages. wholly natural. &quot. over and than our sovereign lord the king s for there be besides the former six points of separation. in hostility but whether he be one or other. For leagues and confederacies. and not with both jointly which many contain some diversity be of articles of straitness of amity with one more . and for those that were blood is not by law naturalized. admitting that to be thought government it is imperfect. and therefore shall whereof the former is a subject of a state in amity not need to be repeated the points. and is in like and degree. the post nati&quot. inwrapped and included For the sovereignty. which is to make a rather grain of separation in them. than with the other. &quot.upon the conceits and opinions of the people. whether your majesty should repeat or iterate your own coronation and your queen s. a diversity of dialect than of language: and.tempori it is to be left to time. the &quot. as the leagues and treaties have been concluded with either nation respectively. that your issue should fail. 4. whether there shall be framed one new im for the times perial crown of Britain to be used to cornel Also. king : : : see it evidently in the precedent of Ireland. : And now that both languages do concur in the principal office and duty of a language. but yet there are badges and memorials of borders of which points I have spoken before. of the six points of the union. but in matter of discipline and &quot. sit. convenient. and The third is the several prints of the seals. who. as if your majesty had granted particularly siderations internal . and have not the first curse of dis union. The several crowns. then the descent of both realms djth resort to the several lines of the several bloods royal. styles. there is none of the six points. in leagues and confedera cies for now botli nations have the same friends and the same enemies. yet re with the king. which but two sorts of aliens. it is The external points therefore of the separation an essential difference unto the definition of an are four. as the internal. of time. whereby the realm onf understood not another. that of the coins or moneys. whereby . . UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND distinction. But yet the dialect be thought to be made an accession unto the But that restetli in some ciris differing and it remaineth a kind of mark of realm of England. which must be the work of them. as may fall within that rule. but if it should so be.

that the very divided kept about your person. and one chancellor. as the great seals have used to be heretofore changed as to their and North-Britain. ise nity._: : be used style your majesty s style. may be reduced into an exact proportion of France.again. &c. names of realms and people shall likewise be nal.lt. whether Secondly. that they are one people and two heads. whereof I do now speak. discontiiuied. yet suitorsand petitioners to your majesty to assume it] Scotland ! For the seals. were not Also. where the entire and ordinary justice . and the people And Britons and North-Britons ? to be Southso. I sup the former of these shall be thought pose will be of necessity. 19 . whether the or turned into special or subdivided changed names of the general name . point of honour and love to the former In this kind also I have heard it pass abroad in names. which I hear altered but by act of parliament. France.&quot. as well in Scotland as in . K\&amp. whether the name of Britain shall only should only be a seal in Scotland for processes used in the parliament of Scotland in the absence t. how the standards. that there was never king of : That done. the distance of territory considered. but so much the more they of France. and that there the case will require these inferior questions First. that there should be but one n at Admitting there shall be an alteration. it is an alteration inter people? or otherwise. if it be not already majesty to take that alteration of style upon you done. have the crowns carried in solem tion altereth no law.. are in themselves satisi. if your at \\ stminMi T. and the islands adjacent. and suspect. which The difficulties in this have been already is to imprint and inculcate into the hearts and thoroughly beaten over but they gather but to heads of the people. &c. in the ex impressions] For the moneys. without any difference at all ] also which may be done. and superscription of Britain.e .:i. as to the real and internal con ample run &quot. . aforesaid. VOL. the last question is. august. it were not better for your convenient. whether your majesty in your style shall changed into one and the same form of image and in is recited denominate yourself king of Britain. II.UNION OF &amp. and so the point Only the place of i t&quot. nevertheless. lest the the two new crown may induce and involve an name l. lest there be a buz. in any com requisite should be with some one plain or mani mission. mentions England or Scotland.&quot. as Edward the Third did the style rumour. than to have it enacted by parliament] for the time to come. nevertheless. doubt. where your majesty fest alteration. by the that grants of things in England may be passed converse]&quot. as or whether those di nem regni nostri Anglise &quot. which. Mills! like\\ For the name.the ancient. which is only proper to this place. whether this alteration of form may noX be done without act of parliament. whether But then it may be considered. go to the root of your majesty s intention. both which. the tenor of the like clause to secundum consuetudinem Britannia ausif sideration thereof. as our law is. in the alteration of the style. whether the stamp or the image and superscription of Britain for the time forwards should not be made the selfsame in both A matter places. or &quot.lt.. The one. vided names shall be forever lost and taken away. if the crown of Scotland be in writs and records. and yet. speech of the erection of some new ordei of knighu &quot. being upon the continent.lt. may seem An. by your England so entirely possessed of Ireland.1!. and faciendum populum. one nation. is And again. writ or otherwise.Mimstances. king ot Britain. the form* wh. as I hear some doubt made of it in populai by proclamation. !&amp. and so place the islands together : and the kingdom of France. and that all patents of grants forms the divided of lands or otherwise. tlien that ceremony. of the kui 4s. if it shall sacred place for the and not by parliament.-n of cannot he quality. and put it immediately after Britain. and make an ine lied for then the usual names must needs n main Knuland. should become majesty -i-d. whether it tion. is Ireland. then seal of Britain.411.A\l) AM) SCOTLAND. for great seals of England and Scotland should not be example. which. that is to say. the main question is.i\\s alteration t the and policies of the kingdom. the question will be. whethei your majesty shall not continue two mints] tralis. last. seal of Scotland. of honour satisfied. if the parliament. alteration of the !45 for tin- compounding of ( (TWrai i..calling the crown of Uritaiu is equal. in regard that those islands of the western ocean seem by nature and providence an entire empire in them selves .f t| The other. But the question in this place is. or the divided names of England and though they did not enact it. you shall retain secundum consuetudithe ancient names. your proclama and so the scruple of a tacit or implied alteration of laws likewise satisfied. &amp.gt. : . which majesty shall assume tin st\|eof proclamation coronation. should pass under the great seal here. or valuation to be better to transpose the kingdom of Ire moneys already beaten] made exact for the land. and turned into the subdivision of South-Britain Also. Ireland.&quot. 1 1. tale. and in all other names to remain both of the realms and of the England.ad . majesty is so as your style to run. whether it were the contracted name of Britain shall be by your not a form of the greatest honour. tin. and also. and likewise the computa Also. as your majesty s prerogative without act of parliament These points are points of demonstration.

yet whether there should not comprehended under the name of Eng is two parts of Britain. In these points of the strait and more inward For the councils of estate. Several admiralties and merchandisings. but had ever First. Several receipts and finances. quod actu non possumus. the consideration thereof will fall The second. And pro do spenk not : this. or hood. as I have heard it es because of the impossibility for the service to be . I point will 1. and duplicity accommo dated ? foreign nations. and yet not excluding the liberty of propounding in full parliament afterwards? 7. The internal possessing of the parliament j . Several officers of the crown. sition. : precedent to every parliament in the nature of lords and pro. if no such specialty or inferiority be thought fit.146 UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. The ! first. Several parliaments. or used to be articles . but with several provisoes that they shall not intromit themselves but within their several precincts. then whether both officers should not test before God and your majesty. fall into four questions. which several councils . part likewise of Britain . For the nobilities. Scotland should bring to parliament as much no bility as England. substantive of itself. and in Scotland in done immediately by the lords of the loweth. &c. whether it will not be comprehended under the name of matter of necessity to continue the several officers. of soil or terri and the distance of place. 3. how those.manner Britain. that Britain had never been divided. &quot. but as a man born in and precincts ? as the Lord Chancellor of England Britain. with a reference to the union. to have but one privy council about your person. The third. whe ther it will not be more convenient for your majesty realm.&quot. Several freedoms and liberties. admitting the duplicity of officers should be continued. The third.&quot. touching the orders of parliament. no more than Scotland to be for dignity sake. which is a point likewise deserves a consideration. as there is here of York. Several taxes and imposts. and that part of soil or territory performed by one? The second. and consequently neither of these are to be considered as things entire of shall employ their service ? But this point belong- eth merely and wholly to your majesty s royal wil id themselves. may be satisfied. howsoever your all division and dissension in commonwealths. &c. whereof the one form seemeth to have and the other more gravity and ma turity and therefore the question will be whether of these shall yield to other. but as a part of Britain . teemed. Chancellor of Scotland to be Lord Chancellor of two &quot. as here of the duchy. and in the realm of Scotland is now an ancient and noble marches of Wales. which by inneritance As touching the several states ecclesiastical. But when this island shall be made Britain. one to be chancellor of Britain. member of the par points of separation are as fol- by the prolocutor. while the kingdoms union. 3. Nam For the officers of the crown. not past a third part of Britain . for example. as the lord steward with several articles and treaties of intercourse with us. for example. how truly I know not. and speak officer. For the Scotland. And therefore let us imagine. 9. I have the title and the name of the whole island as a man born in England. which is is Scotland. Several councils of state. either taken ? 10. Several nobilities. growing from that root. tetween the Si-otland 2. in quantity. Several courts of justice. majesty may establish some provincial councils in and that is equality and inequality. then that part. leaving any difference of wealth or population. parts . The fourth. and the other to be but special and which is So. touching the of propo into these questions: . by some commissions more liberty. but if your majesty should pro Aristotle in his Politics maketh to be the root of ceed to a strict union. 5. and the other to be chancellor with some special addition. nam si inaequalibus aequalia addas. to speak of be a difference. or otherwise have offices of honour and ceremony and the several mints and standards. but as a abiding and remaining may be as your majesty 6. what proportion shall be kept votes of England and the votes of &quot. in regard of the latitude of your kingdom the whole. there will intervene one principal difficulty stand divided. 4. ing only of quantity. yet the question will be. and the Lord For the parliaments. that one should be the principal land. 4. Several laws. And therefore to descend to particulars to be Lord Chancellor of Britain. but in the proportion that they bear to and pleasure. if.. then a third part should coun tervail subaltern? As.of the articles. the consideration of that. thereof will fall into these questions. and the in both the parliaments. then Scotland is no more to be considered as whereof the principal officers of the crown of Scotland. then. or whether there should not be a mixture of both. there to be handled which in England is used to be done immediately by any liament. been one kingdom tory. 2. how they may be compounded. So much for the exter nal points. then. omnia erunt inaequalia. howsoever their England is to be considered as England. trials. it should seem necessary to continue and impediment. and the best of 8. and an oath appropriate then unto. the consideratior mente possumus. I touched them before. 1.

if the proportion &quot. to make any alteration in either nation. it is a matter of great difficulty and length. of their votes in parliament. processes. and bring forth. for any English merchant are bred and nourished up in the love of it . the case of simony. is dear to all men. as well as he may carry them from port And we see likewise what disputation and argu to port in England . not fit to be made treason or felony in both For courts of justice. to become intricate and uncertain. as to the collecting of them. will in like manner be patrius mos&quot. The law of the 5th of Richard II.gt. are for this purpose fitliest distri buted according to that ordinary division of crimi that there is in England. and or subject may carry such commodities first into therefore how harsh changes and innovations are. which not fit likewise to be brought into one degree. will be thought unequal So likewise the depopulating of a town in Scotland Because I hear their nobility is doth not directly prejudice the state of p]ngland for England. if there be not the like severity of law in Scotland to restrain offences subject of laws. as he may. will be Scotland. and those of criminal causes into ignorant whether there be or no. as thence into foreign parts. whether cases penal. Treasons may be plotted in Scotland and exe question will be. To marshal them may be used and given in evidence in England. Henry VIII. it will be a gap or stop even for English subjects to escape and capital and penal. whether it be not good to proceed by parts. and thence trans yet you . because deposi dence of England in your majesty s style. wherein to marshal them according to the prece cannot be prejudicial in England.e As. first. may appear and be discerned of. other administration of laws. I say the mitted in Scotland may be proceeded with in cases.ir whether these cases at the be they of a higher or inferior degree.gt.UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. places T The state. or for although you cannot make fewer of Scotland. port it into foreign parts. without any peril of law. the case of fugitives. the case of incest. and will be. or act done in Scotland. union. any treason com capital were the same in both nations . as well as treasons committed in France. corn.&quot. as gold. for example. And for the artillery. and so &quot. though it be oy court . trials. and then Scottish. a may make more of England. whereof we are here nal and civil. which 147 more urgent than any least. as of all other things ought to be known and certain the case of misprision of treason. judice the state and subjects of England. out of your prerogative. and in the passing of them. wherein the which shall he thought lit bo not full. ordnance. whether it were not convenient that cases of 26 K. that is to say. to take them interchangeably. Scotland. and silver. the case of as a beaten way. But a forgery of a deed in English earls first. yet if they concern the public unwonted to either people. and that the diversities dry commodities. how much more the alteration of So libels may be devised and written in Scot the whole corps of the law ? Therefore the first land. allowing the avoid the laws of England. The second question therefore is. I mean with a false date of England. Of this kind there are many laws. &c. and published and scattered in England. or elsewhere. that it may be doubted otherwise the discipline of manners. that is touched before. cap. supply it. cuted in England. yet your fact committed. if there be not a correspond passing of them. this prejudiceth the state England. of going over both in the collecting of them. may pre majesty may. converse.alternis of England ordained in that case . all used here in England. and to take that that is most necessary.&amp. we see by experience that ence of laws in Scotland. was t&amp. and may be an evasion to all the laws the ancient earl of Scotland. it will be a thing so new and though not capital. But for treasons.. whether the indifferentest way were not gold into Scotland. whether the same offences were Rome. or third question is. without license. according to antiquity. 1 . and leave the rest to time 1 The parts therefore or And so in many other cases. and that men deluded and frustrate .praemunire. thought unequal for Scotland. For the laws. and lirst. and therefore had need to be bridled with as severe a law in vicibus!&quot. the best is that by the statute general union of laws to be too great a work to embrace . and tions taken in Scotland cannot be produced and according to the nobility of Ireland that is. well common laws as statutes. were it will make the adminstration of justice. what proportion they shall the nobility of Ix . as ancient earl the of : &quot. 13. and under titles of their several laws and customs. And besides. will be frustrated and evaded be made by the lawyers of either nation a digest subject of England may go first into Scotland. there must Scotland. and then of England. that they may be So the laws prohibiting transportation of sun collated and compared. I do not speak of the proceedings or trials England. ity of law and punishment? The second is touching the place and precedence perjury committed in a court of justice in Scotland. But the question of these is. Tho first. and out of Scotland into ment the alteration of some one law doth cause foreign parts. are not to be reduced into one uniform England ? win-rein.&quot. and the rest 1 administration of justice. generally more ancient: and therefore the question but if an English merchant shall carry silver. to make an entire and perfect Scotland as it is here in England. I do not see that the severally of &quot. : for example. if there be not the like law in for any For.

nor to interpose mine such duchies and honours. I see no Thus have I made your majesty a brief and questions will arise. in either receipts. which is a thing I any part of Scotland is from London. I see no question will know not. your majesty should not erect some court may be made and confirmed to the subjects of about your person. English and Scottish. wherein I will not presume to per of the rest of your children erecting likewise suade or dissuade any thing . of the justice of both jects and of both nations. free in the one nation. and to profits and casualties of them. as shall be thought fit. compounded of the own opinion. will arise. and the lands of both nations: and so the like for the judgment of wiser men whom you will be pleased principality of Britain. and the Muscovy merchants. in regard it will be matter of necessity to that the merchants of England may unlade in establish in Scotland a receipt of treasure for pay the ports of Scotland : and this kingdom to be ments and erogations to be made in those parts served from thence. and your majesty s customs and for the treasure of spare. for so doth the French king from all the courts of parliament in France . for great cause. For freedoms and the charters of may : But for imposts and customs. error. venience.commune vinculum&quot. it may be a question. acceptation. and for other appennages to call to it . question how to accommodate them and recon of which are more remote from Paris than cile them: for if many they be much easier in Scotland than they be here in England. And which is done to pardon my errors. they will be re unto the coasts. the largeness of the kingdom considered. one great charter people nations. and desire I have to do your majesty service.148 sovereign of last resort. whether the Scottish mer sidering by your majesty s commandment they chants should pay strangers custom in England 1 be at all times removed or disposed accord that resteth upon the point of naturalization. if they shall be continued. and those liberties which are peculiar council of France to which court you might. and the two councils at York. For the patrimonies of both crowns. which may serve only to excite and an inseparable patrimony to the crown out of the stir up your majesty s royal judgment. but do expect light from your possession of both nations. majesty s royal directions . I mean without appeal or And for merchandising. and of such liber ties as are agreeable and convenient for the sub &quot. in the nature of the grand Britain . . and to cover for the jurisdiction of the admiralties. as it is here with the chiefly in your majesty s benign and graciou* : : admiralties of England. both nations any impediment at all to the union of a kingdom as we see hy experience in the several of parliament in the kingdom of France. of the merchant Turkey merchants. though it be holpen in some part by the circuits of the judges . whether. to stand in state as way of evocation. as whether that the companies. should not be compounded of merchants of both nations. and apply my travails. and the them with my good intention and meaning. con And for the question. draw causes from the ordinary they do. it will be a great judges of both nations. of the adventurers. courts And I have been always of opinion. For receipts and finances. ing to your majesty s occasions. in the other. be reviewed . abated. arise. except your majesty would naked memorial of the articles and points of this be pleased to make one compound annexation. and in the marches of Wales established. and spective seas lie and are situated . may which I touched before. over-against which the acquit the trust that was reposed in me. in this majesty to continue shipping in Scotland. I see no great question ever submit my judgment. may For to leave trade and to have it restrained percase breed some incon liberties. by or proper to either nation. is : UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. the custodies thereof may well be several . more than in any nation that I know. for I see no inconvenience for your And I most humbly pray your majesty. then this inconvenience will follow . that the subjects of England do already fetch justice some what far off. unto the which I shall For admiralty or navy. But it may be a good question.

which laws. follow next in order. original grounds of nature and common reason. and to the most honourable high courts of parliament of both realms. personal. being in themselves mere temporary. not only of the solid parts of the estate. : ceive that the contemplation hereof we did con step thereunto was to provide. and transitory. with reservation nevertheless unto the due time of such abilities and capacities only. so we thought fit now to wish them buried in oblivion . but require a further time to be united in the bulk and frame of the former. specially in sundry cases criminal . as the external and elemental veins of passage and in either side. as it may endanger and withering of the other. as they are in themselves now vanished and done away. freehold and inheritance. consulted and treated according to the nature and limits of our commission and forasmuch as we do find that hardly within the memory . or malign laws on i .THE MOST HUMBLE CERTIFICATE OR RETURN OF THE COMMISSIONERS OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. and fixed . making pedigree. and. into the veins of the : ] be not so drawn compass of the universal fit example or precedent of the work we have in hand concurring of all times. which nevertheless are already per fectly united in the head. [PPAD. And. we may avoid all seeds of re j commerce . there can be showed forth a in all points material. AUTHORIZED TO TREAT Of A UNION FOR THE WEAL OF BOTH REALMS: 2 JAC. as they present are already dead in force and vigour. whole body. and not frustrate and interrupt the justice of the other. real. that the commerce between both nations be set open and free. for the better sustentation and comfort of all the parts with caution nevertheless. and did in the very grounds and mo tives of them presuppose incursions. that the vital nourishment fro. or within the a consumption into one part. j Fourthly. so we wish the abolition and cessation thereof to be declared. because the perfection of this in the union. and claiming by descent. to insist and fix our consi- mission of such commodities as are moveable. world. that there be made a mutual endowment and donation of either realm towards other of the abilities and capacities to take and upon the individual business in hand. as. appeared to us to which several points. so that either realm may not be abused by male factors as a sanctuary or place of refuge to avoid the condign offences. I. freeing ourselves from the leading or misleading of examples. namely. in first assist. as matter of nature not unlike the and sinews of the same. envious. without wandering or discourses. after the communion and participation by commerce. blessed lastly. and inter mixture of hostility all which occasions. in all humbleness do signify to his most excellent majesty. N 2 149 . enjoy things which are permanent. which can extend but to the trans- we thought ourselves so much the more bound to resort to the infallible and . Secondly. and the like It seemed therefore unto us a matter demonstraand that as well the internal and vital veins of live by the light of reason. as we account them. which are the laws and government.BTALTMD. that the justice of either realm should aid and .] WE land respectively the commissioners for England and Scot named and appointed. All Thirdly. that by the utter extinguishment of the memory of discords past. as no power on earth can confer without time and education. that we have assembled ourselves. but also in the spirit work consisteth lapse into discords to come. and now by time become directly contrary to our most happy estate . we entered into consideration of such limitary constitutions as served but for to obtain a form of justice between subjects under several whole body monarchs. that we were in first blood be opened from interruption and obstruction I derations : all place to begin with the remotion and abolition of manner of hostile. there succeeded naturally that other degree. so as the com modities and provisions of either may pass ana flow to and j i without any stops or obstructions. for so union is much as the principal degree to communion and participation of inutiuil it punishment of theii crimes and commodities and benefits.

but only for an instance of a private profession. and also with the wisdom and expehandling thereof to bless us with the spirit of rience of merchants. [ summed up and put together. magnanimitatem reipublicse. or overtakings cannot ascribe to the skill or temper of our own following. and debate. I do not single out of Athens. insomuch as from our first sitting untn the merce. there was never in any consultation greater plainness and jberty of speech. Mr. neither will I hold you what way I will choose. THE HONOURABLE HOUSE OF COMMONS. the circumstance of the cause and persons consi dered. : We A SPEECH USED BT SIR IN FRANCIS BACON. but the whole I passed with a unanimity and uniformity of consent: and yet so. but now at the first I declare myself. at In all which our proceedings. whereby to give their voices. IT may please you. we are any prejudication. recalling any thing spoken where courts of parliament of both realms. he turned it upon were I as So would saith he. argument. and craving gracious and benign construction and acceptation of our travails. if an honest Eng once. so yet we conceive them to make a just and fit period for our present consultation and proceeding. QUINTO CONCERNING JACOBI. as we do in all humbleness submit our judgments and doings to his sacred majesty. that state in ut cum calculis suffragiorum sumant lish merchant. or of the solid and profound judgment of the high dutifully words . Speaker.&quot. were I as the . a thing most rare. :&quot. to which I have been accustomed beyond my in suspense deservings . upon their I have a request to make unto you. THE ARTICLE OF THE GENERAL NATURALIZATION OF THE SCOTTISH NATION.150 OF GENERAL NATURALIZATION. these articles and propositions advantages. preface I will use none. according as the manner of them was. protesting our sincerity. nor in our resolutions any variety or division of votes. we may truly make this attesta ourselves. were I as Alexander 1. where the business required.&quot. replying. Neither did \ve. in great causes of estate. And for so carriage. any manner of alter cation or strife of standing. expounding any matter ambiguous or therefore with one mind and consent have mistaken .&quot. that I mean to counsel the house to naturalize this nation : those considerations. I would accept these more efficacy to the purpose I have in hand than Parmenio said unto him. : nto their hands the balls. when. either of his royal majesty s sovereign and high wisdom. but put myself upon your good opinion. same request which Demosthenes did more than him again. For. And it is the offers. and would take upon them cogiiations and minds agreeable to the dignity and honour of the estate. which we do most acknowledge to be able to pierce and penetrate far beyond the reach of our capacities . and men expert in com I unity. when they took disgrace. So in this cause. which is of recital of the great offers which Darius made. contradicting. notwith so far from pretending or aiming breaking up of our assembly. and lay aside they would raise their thoughts. but to the guiding I and conducting of holy providence and will. for this island ever held it honourable. as it was aptly and sharply wherein. that there be propounded interlocution and conference. as we suppose. but we did also aid and assist our proceedings. &quot. cause was. that all that I shall say afterwards. &quot. the true author of all unity and agreement. there did not happen or intervene. if an English merchant should say. Speaker. said by Alexander to Parmenio. and to the parliaments. but as a degree or middle term to the perfection of this blessed work . which their private vocations and degrees might minister and represent unto them. KNIGHT. so it pleased God in the in the laws. &quot. as well with the reverend opinion of tion unto ourselves. neither in our debates or arguments. and all other points of free and friendly agreed and concluded. without cavillations. Mr. &quot. rest so upon our o\\ n God s much as concerneth the manner of sense and opinions. that as the mark we shot at judges and persons of great science and authoiity was union and unity. make to the people Parmenio. Surely I would proceed no farther in the union. and presented to his majesty and the parliament a matter that we of both realms. nevertheless.

: respects which his particular vocation and degree Speaker. &c. for somewhat that cannot ad be especially answered may.OF GKNKK. trades. the greatness of their families. and very dutiful. The first is. for question but one truth. must confess. you shall find those plausible similitudes. But certainly. for the most part comparative . as soon as he gets into the better pasture. king. will be found to be make weight. by nature. than the ancient distinction of &quot.et ego ad sinistram. which evermore followeth upon too much necessary for me. and are far enough off from grazing and therefore. degrees of good and evil. as .jus civitatis. inconveniences which we should give I But to this objection. an answer have been alleged to those caused the miserable captivity of the one brother. the other two for a committee. but that much dross is put into the balance to help to themselves here amongst us. I should never have brought that straitened. and the like. that should be likely to plant way to this naturalization which. Speaker. which generality. in regard of said. were he -as . for all private ability interest of . be be never so worthy or sufficient. an encounter against the remainder of these inconveniences which cannot properly be a thing rather in conceit than in event. and capacity is either of meum tuum. suppose. of public service the first and the public consisteth chiefly either in voice. Secondly. and to have no sound resem of a tree that will thrive the better answered. what But there should let him to graze and feed 1 soon as upon certainly can be no better. if . or of a lawyer. the first of them is.&quot. But to account the cause obtained. First. Thirdly. Mr.gt. confusion. it is simple. we know. but of another nature. for his rescue and reco very. to my understanding. for it proceeds not shall suggest and infuse into him. : it is set in the better ground. nevertheless. how that this separation ad dexteram et &quot. in tins point. is de vero. can fasten and take nutriment from it and a sheep. perous war of the other. it. Vade tu ad dexteram. that shall remove from one nation to an other: for if. and the best of the good is to be preferred and chosen. &quot. brethren though they were. more would the king.M. habitation. or office.\U/\TH)\. Speaker.&quot.native A grave objection. being so weighty and so principal. for we see what followed you may not look for answer proper to every of it. Speaker. Mr. at their pleasure : which guide .&quot. and not enter of any unkindness to the Scottish nation. because receive more distinction and restriction. fiuinst 1 in this matter. jus suffragii vel tribus. if it be re and of sheep or cattle. and custom. honoor I take it. it &quot. I hope you doubt not hut they will starve in the midst of the rich pasture. and the worst of the evil is to be declined and for there be differing . that I will only handle at this time and in this place. an encounter likewise. but his think no man first doubteth.&quot. every one of them being. it is true. which ia supposed already to have the full charge and content and therefore there cannot be an admis sion of the adoptive without a diminution of the fortunes and conditions of those that art. grew pent and de bono. or none other.&quot. 131 V&amp. he a natural fastness to ourselves shall never be able aright to give counsel. proceed to the matter itself: is &quot. when a there &quot. they have not stock. for. I mean to give three several answers. and refer means. that is. that. and the original And I charity which begins with ourselves. that if they find a gap or passage cpen will leave the more barren pasture. to avoid ing to this naturalization. but when a question is it is nobis. that. subjects of this realm. to use some distribution of the points or parts of naturalization. they al conjectural. Mr. or of men if a in this any other particular condition of kingdom for certainly. moved into the more fruitful soil . and therefore the matter which I shall set forth unto you will naturally receive the dis tribution of three parts. by the gain and benefit which we shall draw and purchase to ourselves by proceed And yet. \TI |{. but out of providence. Mr. belongeth more.m Kn^lish And the like may be said of a gen merchant. tleman of the country. To come therefore to the inconveniences majesty s coming in was as th . experience is the best for the time past is a pattern of the time to is 1 come. I So that if this request be all granted. \ might be reasonably answered. though pros sinistram. to be but arguments merely superficial. they grew to difference. acquaintance. &quot. before I proceed to persuasion.&quot. and to those words. that this opinion of the numbei of the Scottish nation. to ensue.&quot. : man shall be only or chiefly sensible of those leged on the other part. be he never so wise or learned . Mr. to a family or particular person. and &quot. consul for tations do rest upon questions comparative. Speaker. Now it is of these. Mr. Speaker. Ne forte non sufficiat vobis et : &quot. as the gentleman that when Abraham and Lot. it is families blance with the transplanting or transferring of for the tree. be encountered and overweighed by matter of greater moment. rum :&quot. but of for that answer into true and worthy considerations of estate. which we shall incur if we do not proceed to this natu ralization. inconvenience alleged . Speaker. or take of the virgins. Mr.&quot. and the dangerous. proceeded not out of any envy or malign humour. Speaker. by much greater inconveniences. avoided and therefore in a question of this nature example on that side. and get into the more rich and plentiful. that there may ensue of this naturali/ation asun-hargo of people upon this realm of England. you will not find to be so great as they have been made . countenance.jus petitionis et sive. or in action. Mr. by itself sufficient.&quot.

neither can I see. than at home and we know well they have good that we have wastes by sea. Speaker. and some other that have a : me your private knowledges of the places body of the kingdom is but thin sown with inhabit. as it were. or otherwise for generally the rule holdeth. that tins greatest spring-tide for the confluence and en trance of that nation. it were not pos never a gentleman that hath overreached himself sible that we should relinquish and resign such in expense. if such a survey should be made. but he will rather travel. Flanders. in the heptar in Polonia. which is much nearer. of opinion that the strife which we now have to in the ages of the world had. The second answer which I give to this objection. wastes. and whosoever shall compare the ruins Mr. than at home. and in France. And whether this be true or no. the smaller the state the greater the population pro rata. mons. for all sea pro of person. and dom hath. near or far off. more than some persons of quality about his majesty s person here at court. ful kingdom parts in is so much inferior unto those fun-i^n how for fruitfulness. so fair and admit them. Speaker. whosoever looketh into the leges. there was never any kingdom fashion. continually call unto us for our colonies and plantations. not in sixty years after and so will this be for many years. : far off. Mr. I do see manifestly amongst us the badges and tokens rather of scarceness. that we are not at all pinched by the mul draws them thither : . which they and may be sustained by fishing. Mr. and the like. and not the maritime. Speaker. or privilege need to fear surcharge of people. if they were mustered by the poll. Now tain a far greater quantity of people. in these four years space. many cities. And. and in inferior persons. people. which makes me conceive we have not our full charge. that in Germany. the return and demonstration. with Now. ita fit. yet the London. havens. and thereby must abate his counte an infinite benefit of fishing to the Flemings. it may be. than in use or effect. So as I assure you. as I am persuaded. for their sustenthe world. and in the ness and strength of the current and tide. I would fain under stand. and if they multiply in a country so chy. that the territories of stories. and with this very privilege of naturaliza principles of estate. as I said. . must hold that it is the meso as it diterrarie countries. woods. And therefore I see.152 OF GENERAL NATURALIZATION. for desolate and decayed boroughs. which tion. that this realm of England is not yet peopled to : : with almost the dowries of nature. that howsoever there may be an certificate. except they can live in good any over-great press or charge of people. of surcharge of people. And so I conclude my second answer to this pre tended inconvenience. for certain it is. and now at last under his majesty blessed also with obedience. I think. which is most in our eye. and some part of Ger honourable warfor the enlargementoftheirbordera. as this kingdom for the admitting of a plebeian consul. cannot be no more such spring-tides. I families of Scotchmen are planted in the boroughs. ?&quot. it of necessity to accident of time and place that : for you see plainly before brance &quot. rather a matter in opinion and leputation. upon foreign parts . as it is in population. doth. and you shall find it none other than some France. Italy. over-swelling throng and press of people here would be of a number extremely small I report about London. of surcharge of people. than of press of people. content themselves with in Poland for we see it and merchandising? Wherein again I do dis to be the nature of all men. and temperate climate. But you will tell but judge that this realm hath been far better me of a multitude of families of the Scottish nation peopled in former times . they never made any plebeian consul. which I give. Speaker. is this I must have leave to doubt. as drowned grounds. they will never take tation. than to call to our remem discover poverty abroad. where they are invited with privi Again. for if we were.&quot. in regard of that desolate and wasted king of Ireland . Mr. which is a plain dependence upon them. quarries. Speaker. do in equal space of ground bear and con which find themselves pent. Mr. how much more special here at hand ? For that. and towns of this kingdom. I am lastly. as nance. The third answer. And this is the first answer that I give to this main inconve nience pretended. which whilst it was in passage was very vehement. carriage by sea. have another ele Mr. what I think? Of all the places in ment besides the earth and soil. that they will rather cover. as well as by land . which being a country blessed all mightly stood upon. quid fiet in arido I am sure there will the erections and augmentations of new. For what an infinite number of people are that course of life in this kingdom. that is the cause. will have like sequel as that conten happy means to issue and discharge the multitude : : tion had between the nobility and people of Rome of their people. that. and do it abroad it is well known we do. Mr. I demand what is the worst effect that is this : can follow of surcharge of people? Look into all the full . if it were too great. Si in ligno viridi and decays of ancient towns in this realm. to all where you &quot. But shall I tell you. There is titude of people . Besides. and especially islands. com do assure myself. and have ever stood in some which still is an infallible argument that our terms of emulation with us and therefore they industry is not awakened to seek maintenance by will never live here. we need not seek farther. as rivers. and when the people had obtained it. Speaker. Speaker. Speaker. high stomachs. yet no such number can be found cannot either be nearness of place. good soil. Mr. many. you must impute some how many of us serve here in this place your eyes. vinces.

forma/ and rather reipublica:&quot. our laws. for.gt. certainly. 153 ir. but they will come dulcis tractus that it is declared by the instrument. according to true reason of estate. for my own part. In veste varietas VOL. the Scottish nation governed by our laws for I know in their capacities and understandings they hold our laws with some reducement worthy to are a people ingenious. none is more celebrated than his I . and the truth in degree a less matter than union of laws. and consisteth but in the external goods of fortune for indeed it must be confessed. that I wish other ourselves.il and privite bond. our common laws are not in force. therefore it is not possible. I in a aliou. without any &quot. they are alteri nos. both of scissura non war and policy. nevertheless. It an exiled fur thu saying is most true. that amongst people of all languages and judgment of ourselves and our ancestors in th. in the kingdom of Ireland.or which i i. I purpose bodies.r The second objection is. Speaker. And : : : &quot. but union of laws out flattering ourselves. divers and several ecclesiastical laws. 1 : f&amp. 1 And it hope I may speak certainly. In x&amp. Wherein. and in nature separable.iv speei. as we see it evident by the doth take away distinction. that. and we see in the. by the commixture whereof there may ensue should likewise receive and submit themselves to advantage to them and loss to us. yet we deny them not the benefit of naturaliza Guernsey and Jersey and the Isle of Man. Speaker. . in body hard.re all fellow-citizens and naturalized of all the line of our kings none useth to carry the heavenly Jerusalem and yet. Mr. which I say.&quot. that his than others. we true. and same case as to this point.&quot.gt.Onine. of which the verse saith. \i.&quot. that they under the yoke of our laws.i. and I desire therein your attention. the bond of law is the ni&quot. Mr. or separa which saith. that for the goods worthy to be well answered and discussed. active. some inequality in the therefore that it should not be seasonable to pro ceed to this naturalization. sit!&quot. and it were the world but this is that courage valiant. we are participant both of their virtues and laws. King Edward. one law in spirits. more. but it is no less true of the valour And. though patria. we would never in this manner forgot considerations of amplitude and greatness.i:\i. not inseparable from vices. example of the Romans and others . satisfaction as you have heard. yet are they harder to guide and laws are diverse. sit. and comely. tion. free ourselves altogether makes them entirely as ourselves. England and Scot them with our rights and privileges. Mr. without ortence. nay. that the fundamental laws of both these kingdoms of England and Scotland are yet diverse and several .-iiiiveni -nee. is. being a thing indeed incident to tion taketh away separation. in govern. and general. mass or lump.r. and this objection likewise. and fall at variance about profit and rights.a lineages there is one communion of saints. that though they be of better service under the great monarch. Naturaliza from that fault. T~r. according to the speech of tha progenitor. and so And this is the answer I give to the shall so continue. to do them but right. Speaker.&quot. but union of laws all martial people. except they land. not by the authority of Scriptures. &quot. Mr. for naturalization doth but take not so tractable in government. tion ? Do we not likewise see in the state of the but by an authority framed and derived from the church. the first of that name 4 worthy father. NATURALIZATION. even like unto Speaker. whence come reckonings fitter a great deal for private persons than for parliaments and kingdoms. Spraki r. and the hond of naturalization the more n. here is the seat of the kingdom. And thus. I have this first objection to such person and example. for the laws are rather f.-re of a warlike nation. More might be said. Mr. solum forti was sjioken indeed of the patience of man.&quot. since Poyning s laws. . and amongst his other commendations. that we r.n &quot. yet by the secret operation of no long time. revenge our late wrongs. all our statute laws. Mr. greater commendation than his majesty s noblo &quot. it is well that this difference or disparity Speaker. and hierarchies. II. : &quot. kni)W not whether /alonms and warlike I should term an in convenience or no. are not in force. I allow to be a weighty objection. Speaker. another in manage. Speaker. Do we not see. hut in commending them we do but in effect commend ourselves: for they are that. or to attain the honour of our ancestors. For if they have been noted to be a people union of laws. and yet the creatures are all one to answer it. and yet they have the benefit of naturalization. or to enlarge the pa trimony of our posterity. or to .lt.vacuum&quot. Regis ad exemplum totus componitur orbis.-20 &quot. then-fore. one law in regions celestial. Mr. Mr. in labour industrious. his majesty to make innovation in them and second objection. that it we did hold ourselves worthy. with out the marks of a foreigner. although not by solemn and formal act of estates. naturaliza tion is in order first and precedent to union of of one piece and continent with us. another in elementary. Speaker. Beatius est dare quam accipere. the supreme directions of estate: here is the king s Mr.gura than &quot. neither need any man doubt but that our laws and customs nust in sjnall time gather and win upon theirs. peifeetion than bonds of entireness and then r. we cannot.&amp. The third objection is. that in the administration of the world fierce horses. whereby to endow fortunes of these two nations. policies. . God himself. whensoever just cause should he given. The answer which I shall offer is this It is of the mind and the body. another sense. But for this objection. either to recover our ancient experience of our own government. and that there is no intent in pari jugo.

acquests abroad. and movewhich. when I meditate of it. if it had succeeded well. is not pro denization to inherit. in as born. contrary to form of pleading in law. parcels of the duchy of remedy by any appeal at the Normandy in the subjects of Calais.&quot. and elder brothers in no worse case nor could have been enemy in time past. as when from their nativity they are ante-nati&quot. may can lity.tory assurance of him. for it gives him power to over to that. and so might many as have been or shall be born since his once have been an enemy and nemo subito majesty s coming to the crown. Mr. therefore. the case may be But. quiddam. so mixture that can alter the matter of the commix. kingdom with a less. may not deserved. Speaker. and. but that the are aliens soever is born under the king s obedience. transitory. : Guernsey and Jersey. naturalized &quot. it is said by some. already settled fingitur. not quantum. being but a little gives unto him the full benefit difference of time of one generation from another. purpose and enterprise for the conquest of Scot. contrari me . because he was once an alien. A point that I mean not could in aliquo puncto temporis&quot. of the soil rewards him but with who having by charter and denization. it is good for us now. and that perpetually and universally. that if a man would plead another to be an alien. The third degree is of a subject. and. The king first degree is or state. Now. which will come after. mon laws which can never be done in this case. and because I do desire in this case and in wise. in the subjects of party s suit.&quot. but not concerning freehold and inheritance. alien. Mr. and therefore the law of naturalization. and the could not but have brought in all those inconve. under the obedience of a foreign king or state in particular. but to solid strength at home. contracts. according to the several conditions of persons. | . he must not only set forth negatively and privately. Speaker. both because it hath been well a rebel he might be. to be spoken purchase freehold and inheritance to his own use. as the enter into quarrel and hostilaw hath but a transiit neither is it the manner of the com. For though he be not. able.that is a friend. Mr. be an enemy. so he is to have the perpetual and universal benefit and protection of law.&quot. in And the subjects the king s pro for experience of law we see it of Ireland. he is bound &quot. because he may be an ninny. Speaker. two of aliens and two of subjects. in an excellent proportion. so as for my part I hold all postjnder the faith and allegiance of a king or state nati&quot. that are now alleged. therefore. you know what hath been published by come at his peril kingdom without safe-conduct. &quot. And the fourth degree. as well as the rest. but no enemy. but rather a pre-occupation of cannot make title or convey pedigree from any perly an objection of the other side. only this I will say. . if these be the true steps To this. it is the law giveth him no protection. no man can deny but who law is not so. but bipartite. Speaker. nevertheless. and likewise enables the children born after his touching surety and greatness.&quot. that is. that is into this : of an alien born under a an enemy. so as if he be slain there is no clamation. but yet I am far &quot. The fourth objection. much to argue. it is not the yoke. and therefore spoken to by the gentleman that spoke last before in reason of law is naturalized. To such a one the law doth impart yet a But a more full answer to this objection I refer more ample benefit.post. For reason of law. methinks the wisdom of the com of England.like. it is true that hath been said. For form of pleading.inbred and inherent.transitory benefits. Whereabout do we contend ? to make him in the same degree with a subject The benefit of naturalization is by the law. men s affections cannot be so settled by and invested. lands.&quot. never post-nati&quot. kingdom of England against all invaders or rebels . nor can than younger brothers . that he was born out of the obedience of our sovereign lord the king. but to hold myself to point of The second degree is of an alien that is born conveniency. concerning things personal. therefore. which is naturalization. that that opinion seems me contrary to reason of law. that men grown that have well deserved.ipso jure. of which he is. and not to be prized the less because we paid not so dear for it. &quot. But yet nevertheless he an objection. &quot. whm it was although his wife were an English English. and contrary to authority and experience of law. either of our laws or arms. is of such a person as neither is enemy. for the state under the obeisance land. as he is obliged to the protection of arms. into the bring the degree of the &quot. I will not press it. There is no more then but to any benefit. that alter the nature of the climate or the nature . that the and paces of the law. Unto such a person the law doth as not bending his designs to glorious impart a greater benefit and protection. The degrees are four. be in no worse case than children which have degree.jure nativitatis&quot. woman marry at the king s suit. &quot. argument of law. as I said. I am not willing to enter into an otherwise ir regard &f the offence to the peace. Nay. as goods and chattels. if it were good for us then. is admirable in the distribution of the benefit and protection of the laws. but affirmatively. law to this place to speak rather of conveniency than of . is been an made free ! &quot.154 OF GENERAL NATURALIZATION. for it may be said. which was parcel of the crown of France. so as we stand upon be enemy in time to come . ancestor paramount. neither for body. for the law thinks not good and very materially. well observed. niences of the commixture of a more opulent And the reason is. : j &quot. If such a one As all for authority. nor goods. to defend this ture: and. which is the perfect nati. Mr.

of naturalization. that wherein cried &quot. of was between the Romans and the Latins. that war which was called ever the being the most bloody and pernicious war that Roman state endured wherein. which was no more than the surprisal of we shall find that wheresoever kingdoms and states the castle of Thebes. weigh the rest them in your wisdoms. which. though it be since continued from the battle at the lake of Regilla. only under way- woods as vassals and homagers. rest of It will lift up a sign to all the world of our love tow. there ensued imme the bond of mutual naturalization.Opposita juxta st.&quot. a leader rery for a time. ana for divers years.&quot. JUanliu* provinces Let me set before you again the example of famous :&quot.* At what time government. which is as which above all others. and they time. There are extant at this day we see most evidently before our eyes. doth dangerous rebellion. notwithstanding bound in with a farther union. upon the first occasion posita magis elucescunt amity given. in this point of naturalization. according as I promised.&quot. the council of Constantinople. if we shall not proceed to this naturalization : since. about this very point of naturaliza Bellum sociale. ]&amp. Speaker. Isabella. which was suppressed with exceedingly move me. but yet kingdom severed and divided from of the body of Spain in privileges. in mory of a battle fmiRtit by this C. Mr. Sigismond. Whereas we seldom or never hear of Sparta. The state of Sparta was a nice and jealous revolts of provinces incorporated to the Turkish state in this point of imparting naturalization to empire. by certain desperate have been united. Normandy. notwith?tand- .inls them. you shall nevei diately a general revolt and defection of their observe them afterwards. Britainy. as provinces of the Turkish empirewhich policy we see by late experience proved unfortunate.&amp.gt.OF GENERAL NATURALIZATION. PrnPlautius at Privernum Another hath T. : there began. to shun farther inconve that wheresoever several nience. because it is Aftrr they had held them in a kind of society and true what the logicians say. to break and sever again at* 169 years after that battle. under the arms and conduct of a naturalization indeed in blood. Of later times let me lead your consideration to behold the like events in the kingdom of Arragon . but. as soon as ever they had the honour of the war. and not under You speak of a naturalization in blood . &quot. did revolt. if there were none other. But what was the issue of itl On the other part. must fill Speaker.arliaii. not past twelve years the other balance in expressing unto you the inconveniences which we shall incur. there was raised a alone by itself. collected out of the records of victory nevertheless.gt. upon any occasion of trouble or otherwise.lt. hath followed. that at one time or other they have The like may be said of the states of Florence broken again. I that now of fresh memory. and so I conclude that directly general part. Guienne. their privileges were disannulled. after numbers of battles and infinite sieges and surprises of towns. and that union corroborate. Mr. and of inheritance. let us take a view. bashaws. tion. or capacity What came of this ? Thus much. which kingdom was united with Castile and the Spain in the persons of Ferdinando and it And these are. by conspi rators in the habit of maskers. as appeared by the revolt of the same there was three provinces. Deciut. namely. and Molds effect of nature via. in respect of their provisions. the material objec tions which have been made on the other side. Principum actiones praecipue ad fainam sunt componendae. their confederates. looking back into what perdition and confusion they were near to have been brought. which is this kingdoms or estates have been united in sove were incorporated with Castile and the rest of reignty. were they ready to break and is now in which question. and much as liberties or privileges. : ! copy of and P. and so continued many years . that have it ilmic by it should be a thing superfluous .ent ussnciatcs. and. again re-united and incorporated. is of that memorable union which assistance. of France. but not endowed with the benefit of Of this assertion the first example which I will naturalization. upon the first light of foreign set before you. and the rest of Peloponnesus. in divern coins or inpikiN. unto the The same effect we see in the most barbarous consulships of C. t&amp. Libertad. : for it was thought a fit policy by . being upon all occasions apt to and Pisa. never afterwards to be recovered.Fueros. if that union hath not been fortified and Spain. only upon the voice of a condemned man out of the grate of a prison towards the street. which revolt is not yet fully recovered. that so long continuance. this sever again. 155 from opinion. is a great difficulty with an army royal. the Romans in the end prevailed and mastered the Latins . Florence. and may move you. Plautius and L. to retain the three provinces of Transylvania. which city of Pisa being united unto revolt and relapse to the former separation. Prince of Transylvania. by the expedition of Charles VIII. Mr. Libertad. After which position of estate. their associ ates. they presently naturalized them all. which was the ruin of their state. to the end they might be the less wasted. which France into Italy. so as stood a whereunto you have heard my answers. chiefly in respect of that true principle of state. fur many years. Wallachia. and good agreement with them. that is to say. &quot. which shows it the rather to be an that inconvenience. Upon so small a spark. which were as the very nurses of Constanti nople. Now. I vence. ^Emilius Mamercus. Speaker.

. and therefore had the contrary success. knitting of the knot surer and straiter between these two kingdoms. Catalonia. against us. because. that hath been in the world. did extremely press to be heard . it makes me think on the old bishop. which. the effects and influence whereof. of which there is not yet sufficient trial. as Leon. foreign or at home . Paul s opinion. Castile. that we see. Mr. Granada. come now by this to the third general part of my division. Speaker. I do not say should be. is Toledo. Andalusia. by tht communicating of naturalization : the benefits may appear to be two. yet for the time past. And. that they endanger all the rest. I think a man may of future divisions. it was well said by Titus Quintius the Roman. he is not of St. practices and other engines and machinations. he got to be heard . therefore. which held the contrary course.&quot. in continual danger to divide and break again. where the sore was: descendants these realms will be which &quot. Valentia. that I do believe. whereso. either power. the more enemy to this kingdom hath been the ancient and the more late the Spaniard . as it did strike the minds of those that heard him more than any argument had done. which are now covered. Speaker. as was said. so many families. the one surety. Mr. of all others. for these were the two accesses which did comfort and encourage both these enemies to assail and trouble us. Testudo intra tegumen tuta but if there be any parts that lie open. or noised to be between these Saviour compareth. we see the like effect in our own nation. Speaker. Mr. the other greatness. and do hear so many arguments and scruples made on the other side. the sea provinces of the Low neither do there want other inconveniences. which. in case. Speaker. or in the mouth of any I man else too far. We see that of Scotland is French. Mr. but did it with such as surance and constancy. and they were loath to suffer him. it doth press our liberty 1 And. lastly. Murcia. alienation. but their approaches and avenues are away for I do little doubt but those fo whosoever useth not foresight and reigners which had so little success when they had those advantages. For cer I have spoken of: for I leave it to your wisdom to tainly the kingdoms here on earth have a resem consider whether you do not think. Maneat now or of that hard mind. being suddenly closed. because they knew he was unlearned. yet in the time of his nent. Speaker. in forces truly will not be adjourned to so long a day as this that esteemed. Mr. against all these witty and subtle arguments. though other wise a holy and well-meaning man but at last. I fear. . or unkindness. Countries contracted. and the rest. if it shall be now made constant and perma naturalization. he did only say over his belief. which our denial of this naturalization. spoken of. that the tortoise is safe within her shell. France had Scotland. and both these that cut off by the union of these two kingdoms. upon a public dis putation of certain Christian divines with some learned men of the heathen. and not quench them too much with the For. sure I am. to nostros ea cura nepotes leave things to be tried by the sharpest sword . instead of using argument. therefore. except Arragon. but to a very small grain. est. : unto you the inconvenience. had as it were their several postern gates. Speaker. and Spain had Ireland . that comprehend in them much for surety. having Scotland united. when I revolve with myself these . Mr. where by they might have approach and entrance to annoy us. is worse than an un believer much more. Now if any man be of that careless mind. and so open the way to consideration of utility and wealth. Mr. I say. if we shall not use foresight fort now that they be taken from them and so for these two kingdoms.156 irig OF GENERAL NATURALIZATION. minds than and in too binding and too pressing to be may do better a great deal in your my mouth. And thus have I expressed speak it soberly and without bravery. any pique. sinketh deepest with me as the most weighty: Ireland reduced. never offered break again. yet such a one as is apt to grow and spread . that this taken : . and I would be sorry to be found a prophet in it. which are mutually naturalized. And. know well. whether it will not quicken and excite be the constitution of this kingdom if indeed all the envious and malicious humours. to the disturbance of this state 1 As for that oilier his majesty s We see the like effect in all the kingdoms of inconvenience of action. that except we proceed with this : Touching surety. and such do I take to two nation*. who affirmeth. . is one of the greatest monarchies. as say. kingdom of England. so that a? there are no parts of this state exposed to danger to be a temptation to the ambition of foreigners.we shall refer our counsels to greatness and ver. hath con tinued closed by means of this salve . but leave things open to the peril For greatness. touching the state of Peloponnesus. and when he came to speak. it engagement to this Spain. with much ado. although the state at this time be in a happy We peace. and shipping maintained. who hath such interest in both nations. so lively expressing the ne cessity of a naturalization to avoid a relapse into a separation . concern ing the benefits which we shall purchase which never rent asunder after it was once united so as we now scarce know whether the heptarchy were a true story or a fable. by the blance with the kingdom of heaven. to the infinite infesting troubles of that kingdom. examples and others. . will have much less com provision for his family. not to any great kernel or nut. And so. that of Ireland is cut off likewise by the convenient situation of the west of Scotland towards the north of Ireland.&quot. but should he thought to be. though perhaps not in his majesty s time. and Portugal.

ON GENERAL NATURALIZATION.
y<>u,

157

a tmr answer tli.it the battle near Granson, the rich jewel of BurSneaker, was it not, think Solon of Greece made to the rich King Croesus of gundy, prized at many thousands, was sold for a wlu ii hr showed unto him a great quan- few pence by a common Swiss, that knew no Lydia,
j

tity of gold that he had gathered together, in ostcr-.ution of his greatness and might? But Solon

said to him, contrary to his expectation, Why, sir, if another come that hath better iron than
"

you, he will
is

In;

lord of all

your

gold."

Neither

the authority of Machiavel to be despised, who ecorneth that proverb of state, taken first from a
"

more what a jewel meant than did ^tlsop s cock. And, again, the same nation, in revenge of a scorn, was the ruin of the French king s affairs in Italy, Lewis XII. For that king, when he was pressed somewhat rudely by an agent of the Switzers to raise their pensions, brake into words of choler
:

speech of Macianos, That moneys arc the sinews of war; and saith, There are no true sinews of lost him his duchy of Milan, and chased him out war, hut the very sinews of the arms of valiant of Italy. men." All which examples, Mr. Speaker, do well Nay more, Mr. Speaker, whosoever shall look prove Solon s opinion of the authority and mas into the seminaries and beginnings of the monar- tery that iron hath over gold. And, therefore, if I
1"

said he, "will these villains of the mountains put a tax upon me Which words
"

What,"

chies of the world,, he shall find them founded in

shall

poverty. Persia, a country barren and poor, in respect of

we

speak unto you mine own heart, methinks should a little disdain that the nation of Spain,
late
it

which howsoever of

hath grown to rule,

Media, which they subdued.

Macedon, a kingdom ignoble and mercenary until the time of Philip the son of Amyntas.
had poor and pastoral beginnings. The Turks, a band of Sarmatian Scythes, that

yet of ancient time served many ages; first under Carthage, then under Rome, after under Saracens,

Rome

Goths, and others, should of late years take unto themselves that spirit as to dream of a monarchy

in in the west, according to that device, "Video a vagabond manner made incursion upon that part solem orientem in occidente," only because they of Asia, which is yet called Turcomania ; out of have ravished from some wild and unarmed which, after much variety of fortune, sprung the people mines and store of gold ; and on the other Ottoman family, now the terror of the world. side, that this island of Britain, seated and

So, we know, the Goths, Vandals, Alans, manned as it Huns, Lombards, Normans, and the rest of the tion, the best

is, and that hath, I make no ques iron in the world, that is, the best

northern people, in one age of the world made their descent or expedition upon the Roman empire,

soldiers in the world, shall think of nothing but

reckonings and audits, and "meum et tuum," and came not, as rovers, to carry away prey, and I cannot tell what. and be gone again ; but planted themselves in a Mr. Speaker, I have, I take it, gone through number of rich and fruitful provinces, where not the parts which I propounded to myself, wherein only their generations, but their names, remain if any man shall think that I have sung a pla to this day; witness Lombardy, Catalonia, a cebo," for mine ow n particular, I would have name compounded of Goth and Alan, Andalusia, him know that I am not so unseen in the world, a name corrupted from Vandalitia, Hungaria, but that I discern it were much alike for my pri vate fortune to rest a tacebo," as to sing a "pla Normandy, and others. have spoken out Nay, the fortune of the Swisses of late years, cebo" in this business hut which are bred in a barren and mountainous of the fountain of my heart, Credidi propter I believed, therefore I spake. country, is not to be forgotten ; who first ruined quod locutus sum the Duke of Burgundy, the same who had almost So as my duty Is performed: the judgment is
"

r

"

:

:"

ruined the kingdom of France, what time

after
|

yours

;

God

direct

it

for the best.

A
SIR

SPEECH
OSCD BT

FRANCIS BACON, KNIGHT,

BY OCCASION OF A MOTION CONCERNING THE UNION OF LAWS.

please you, Mr. Speaker, were it now a wish, as it is to advise, no man should he more forward or more earnest than myself in this

AND

it

pejores laquei,
fore this
to

quam

lime

to

work
it,

I

esteem
I

And there laquei legum." to be indeed a work, rightly
So
that for this good
full;

term

heroical.

wish, that his majesty s subjects of England and Scotland were governed by one law and that for
:

of union of laws
think you
that I

do consent to the

wish and I

may
I

many

reasons.

come

perceive by that which I have said, not in this to the opinion of others,
settled

First,

Because

it

will

bean

infallible

assurance

but that

was long ago

in

it

myself:

that there will never be any relapse in succeeding

a separation. ages Dulcis tractus pari Secondly,
to
"

nevertheless, as this is moved out of zeal, so I take it to be moved out of time, as commonly zealous

If the motions are, while men are so fast carried on to jugo." draught lie most upon us, and the yoke lie lightest the end, as they give no attention to the mean : for if it be time to talk of this now, it is either on them, it is not equal. Thirdly, The qualities, and, as I may term it, the because the business now in hand cannot proceed elements of their laws and ours are such, as do without it, or because in time and order this matter promise an excellent temperature in the com should be precedent, or because we shall lose some pounded body for if the prerogative here be too advantage towards this effect so much desired, if But indefinite, it may be the liberty there is too we should go on in the course we are about. unbounded ; if our laws and proceedings be too none of these three in my judgment are true ; and prolix and formal, it may be theirs are too informal therefore the motion, as I said, unreasonable. and summary. For, first, That there may not be a naturalization Fourthly, I do discern to my understanding, without a union in laws, cannot be maintained. there will be no great difficulty in this work; for Look into the example of the church aflB the union You shall see several churches, that join their laws, by that I can learn, compared with thereof. ours, are like their language compared with in one faith, one baptism, which are the points of ours for as their language hath the same roots spiritual naturalization, do many times in policy, that ours hath, but hath a little more mixture of constitutions, and customs differ ; and therefore Latin and French; so their laws and customs one of the fathers made an excellent observation have the like grounds that ours have, with a upon the two mysteries ; the one, that in the little more mixture of the civil Jaw and French gospel, where the garment of Christ is said to have been without seam ; the other, that in the customs. Lastly, The mean to this work seemeth to me psalm, where the garment of the queen is said to if both have been of divers colours; and concludeth, no less excellent than the work itself: for So in In veste varietas sit, scissura non laws shall be united, it is of necessity for prepara tion and inducement thereunto, that our own laws this case, Mr. Speaker, we are now in hand to be reviewed and recompiled ; than the which I make this monarchy of one piece, and not of one
: :
"

sit."

think there cannot be a work, that his majesty can undertake in these his times of peace, more beneficial to politic, more honourable, nor more
his subjects for all ages : Pace data terris, animum ad civilia vertit Juraauum, legesque tulit justissimus auctor.

Look again into the examples of foreign countries, and take that next us of France, and there you shall find that they have this distribution, du droit escrit," and "pais du droit "pais
colour.
coustumier."

For Gascoigne, Languedoc, Pro
:

For

this continual

heaping up of laws without

vence, Dauphiny, are countries governed by the but the Isle of letter, or text of the civil law

digesting them, maketh but a chaos and confusion, and turneth the laws many times to become but snares for the people, as is said in the Scripture,
Pluct super eos
laqueos."

Now

"

Non

sunt

France, Tourain, Berry, Anjou, and the rest, and most of all Britainy and Normandy are governed by customs, which amount to a municipal law, and use the civil law but only for grounds, and to

153

OF Tin: r.Mo.N OF LAWS.
new and
rare cases;

159

and yet nevertheless make all things ready for our lawsl And, lastly, the naturalr/,, HI., n, which is now propound. is naturalisation p.isscth through all. Secondly, That tliis union of laws should pre (|u.ilili -d with such restrictions as there will be cede the naturalization, or that it should go on enough kept back to be used at all lir.ies for an hand in hand, I suppose likt wi-.e, adamant of drawing them farther on to our dr>ires. "pari pasaii," can lianlly be maintained but the contrary, that And therefore to conclude, I hold this motion of naturalization ought to precede, and that not in union of laws very worthy, arid arising from very tnc precedence of an instant; but in distance of good minds; but yet not proper for this time.
<i,

:

time

:

of which

my

opinion, as
all this is
I

I

could yield

many

To come

therefore to that,

which

is

now

in

reasons, so because
to

therefore ought to be short,

but a digression, and will hold myself now

question, it is no more but whether there should be a difference made, in this privilege of naturali

one, which is briefly and plainly this; that the union of laws will ask a great time to be the pass pertri-ted, both for the compiling and for

only

between the ante-nati" and the postnot in point of law, for that will otherwise be decided, but only in point of convenience; as
zation,
nati,"
"

"

During all which time, if this mark of strangers should be denied to be taken away, I fear it may induce such a habit of strangeness, as will rather be an impediment than a preparation
ing of them.
to father proceeding: for he

law were now to be made "de novo." In which question I will at this time only answei two objections, and use two arguments, and sc
if a

leave

it

to

was a wise man
"

that

The

first

your judgment. objection hath been, that

if

a difference

magnis conatibus transitus should be, it ought to be in favour of the "antenon progredi, est nati," because they are persons of merit, service, rerum," and in these cases, And like as in a pair of tables, you and proof; whereas the post-nati" are infants, regredi." must put out the former writing before you can that, as the Scripture saith, know not the right put in new; and again, that which you write in, hand from the left. This were good reason, Mr. Speaker, if the you write letter by letter; but that which you put so we have now to deal question were of naturalizing some particular per out, you put out at once with the tables of men s hearts, wherein it is in sons by a private bill; but it hath no proportion
said,
"Opportuni
"

:

vain to think you can enter the willing acceptance of our laws and customs, except you first put forth all notes either of hostility or foreign condition
:

with the general case;

for

now we

are not to look
to those

to respects that are proper to which are common to all.
it

some, but
then,

Now

how can

and these are

to

be put out

"

simul et

semel,"

at

be imagined, but that those which took their

once without gradations; whereas the other points are to be imprinted and engraven distinctly and

by degrees. Thirdly, Whereas it is conceived by some, that the communication of our benefits and privileges is a good hold that we have over them to draw

first breath, since this happy union, inherent in his majesty s person, must be more assured and affectionate to this kingdom, than those generally

can be presumed to be, which were sometimes the con strangers ? for "Nemo subito fingitur versions of minds are not so swift as the conver them to submit themselves to our laws, it is an sions of times. Nay, in effects of grace, which argument of some probability, but yet to be exceed far the effects of nature, we see St. Paul answered many ways. For, first, the intent is makes a difference between those he calls Neo mistaken, which is not, as I conceive it, to draw phytes, that is, newly grafted into Christianity, them wholly to a subjection to our laws, but to and those that are brought up in the faith. And
:"

one uniformity of law. so we see by the laws of the Church that the should be a kind of children of Christians shall be baptized in regard articulate and indented contract, that they should of the faith of their parents: but the child of an receive our laws to obtain our privileges, it is a ethnic may not receive baptism till he be able to matter in reason of estate not to be expected, make an understanding profession of his faith. Another objection hath been made, that we being that which scarcely a private man will acknowledge, if it come to that whereof Seneca ought to be more provident and reserved to restrain Beneficium accipere est libertatem the than the ante-nati because speaketh, post-nati" vendere." No, but courses of estate do describe during his majesty s time, being a prince of so and delineate another way, which is, to win them approved wisdom and judgment, we need no bet for we see in all ter caution than the confidence we may repose in either by benefit or by custom creatures that men do feed them first, and reclaim him ; but in the future reigns of succeeding ages, them after. And so in the first institution of king our caution must be in and not in per

draw both nations
Again,

to

to think that there

"

"

"

;"

:

"

"

re"

doms, kings did first win people by many benefits sona." and protections, before they pressed any yoke. But, Mr. Speaker, to this I answer, that as we Ami for custom, which the poet calls "imponere cannot expect a prince hereafter less like to err in who doubts but that the seat of the respect of his judgment; so, again, we cannot morein kingdom, and the example of the king resting here expect a prince so like to exceed, if I may so term with us, our manners will quickly be there, to it, in this point of beneficence to that nation, in
;"
,

160
respect of the occasion.

OF THE UNION OF LAWS.
For whereas
all

princes

doth put the
in

"ante-natus"

and the

"

post-natns

and

all

men

are

won

tion, there is no majesty s descendants can have either of these causes of bounty towards that nation in so ample degree as his majesty hath. And these be the two objections, which seemed to me most mate should be left free, and rial, why the post-nati" not to be concluded in the same restrictions with whereunto you have heard the the ante-nati
"
"

either by merit or conversa appearance, that any of his

one degree. 15ut, when it \v;\s moved 1o the parliament of England, Barones una voce respon"

derunt,

Nolumus

leges Anglise mutan
"

."

And

;inti-n;i!i" though it must be confessed that the and "posl-nati" are in the same degree in digni fur no ties; yet were they never so in abilities man doubts, but the son of an earl or baron, before
:

;"

his creation or call, shall inherit the dignity, as well as the son born after. But the son ,f an
(

answers.

The two

reasons,

which
:

I

will use on the other

attainted person, born before the attainder, .shall not inherit, as the after-born shall, notwithstand

the one being a reason of common sense; the other, a reason of estate. see, Mr. Speaker, the time of the nativity
side, are briefly these

ing charter of pardon. The reason of estate
the
"

is,

that

any

restriction of

We

ante-nati" is
;

most cases principally regarded. In nature, the time of planting and setting is chiefly ob served ; and we see the astrologers pretend to iudge of the fortune of the party by the time of
is in

this generation
nati"

temporary, and expireth with but if you make it in the "postin substance

also,

you do but

pen a perpe

In laws, we may not unfitly apply the nativity. the case of legitimation to the case of naturaliza
tion
;

tuity of separation. Mr. Speaker, in this point I have been short, because I little expected this doubt, as to point of convenience; and therefore will not much labour,
I

for

it is

true that the

common canon law where

suppose there

is

no greater opposition.

A PREPARATION

THE UNION OF THE LAWS
ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.
YOUR
majesty s desire of proceeding towards
ference of this
for

the union of this whole island of Great Britain under one law, is, as far as I am capable to make

we

see in

law carrieth no mark of separation any one kingdom, which is most at
customs
:

unity in itself, there is diversity of

for
"

any opinion of so great a cause, very agreeable

to

policy and justice. To policy, because it is one of the best assurances, as human events can be
assured, that there will be never any relapse in To justice, any future ages to a separation. because "dulcis tractus pari jugo:" it is reason

the guiding of property and private rights veste varietas sit, scissura non sit." All

in

the

labour

is

to

be spent in the other part; though

able that communication of privilege draw on This communication of discipline and rule.

perhaps not in all the other part ; for, it may be, your majesty, in your high wisdom, will discern that even in that part there will not be requisite a And although such conformity in all points.
conformity were to be wished, yet, perchance
it

work being of greatness and difficulty, needeth will be scarcely possible in many points to pass not to embrace any greater compass of design- them for the present by assent of parliament. ment, than is necessary to your majesty s main But because we, that serve your majesty in the
I consider, therefore, that it end and intention. is a true and received division of law into "jus and "privatum," the one being the publicum" sinews of property, and the other of government; that which concerneth private interest of for in my simple opinion, it "meum" and "tuum, is not at this time to be meddled with ; men love to hold tneir own as they have held, and the dif

service of our skill and profession, cannot judge what your majesty, upon reason of state, will

leave and take
near as
I, for

;

therefore

it is fit

for

us to give, as

we

my

can, a general information: wherein, to one part, think good to hold myself

of the parallels, I mean that of the English laws. For, although I have read, and read with delight, the Scottish statutes, and some other collection of

or
their

TIII-:

r.MON OF LAWS.

161

laws

tin-in

with delight. I say, partly to SIM- their .ml propriety of speech, and partly to see mini- so near to mir laws yet, I am unwill
; ;

ing

leave

to put sickle in another s harvest, hut to it to the lawyers of the Seottish nation; the

my

When; a man doth violate the king s eldest daughter unmarried, it is treason. Where a man doth violate the wife of the king s eldest son and heir, it is treason.

Where
Where

a

man

doth levy war against the king
treason.
is

imagine with mys. If that if a Scottish lawyer should undertake, hy reading of the Knijlish statutes, or other our hooks of law, to
rather, hecaiise
I

and his realm,
a

it is

man

adherent to the king

s

ene

down positively in articles what the law of England were, he might oftentimes err: and the like errors, I make account, I might incur in
set

mies, giving them aid and comfort, it is treason. Where a man counterfeited the king s great
seal,
it is

treason.

Where
seal,
it is

a a

man man

counterfeited the king s privy

And, therefore, as I take it, the right way is, that the lawyers of either nation do set down in hrief articles what the law is of their nation,
theirs.

treason.

Where
signet,

counterfeited the king s privy

it is

treason.

book of two columns, either Where a man doth counterfeit the king s sign having the two laws placed respectively, to be manual, it is treason. offered to your majesty, that your Where a man counterfeits the king s money, it majesty may by a ready view see the diversities, and so judge of is treason. the reduction, or leave it as it is. Where a man bringeth into the realm false
and then
after,

a

"Jus

puhlicum"

I

will

fittest

for the present purpose,

divide, as I hold it into four parts.

money, counterfeited
I

to the likeness of the coin

The

first,

concerning criminal causes, which with

us are truly accounted "publici juris," because both the prejudice and the prosecution principally
pertain
to

of England, with intent to merchandise or make payment therewith, and knowing it to be false, it is treason.

Where a man counterfeiteth any foreign coin cur
rent in
this realm, it is treason. doth bring in foreign money, being current within the realm, the same being false and counterfeit, with intent to utter it, and

the

crown and public

estate.

The

payment within
a

second, concerning the causes of the church.

Where

man

The

third, concerning magistrates, officers, and courts: wherein falleth the consideration of your

majesty s regal prerogative, whereof the rest are hut streams. And the fourth, concerning certain
special and
do"

knowing

the

same

to

be

false, it is treason.

Where a man doth clip, wash, round, or file politic laws, usages, and constitutions, any of the king s money, or any foreign coin that the public peace, strength, and current by proclamation, for gain s sake, it is import wealth of the kingdom. In which part I do com treason.
Where a man doth any ways impair, diminish, prehend not only constant ordinances of law, but likewise forms of administration of law, such as falsify, scale, or lighten the king s money, or any are the commissions of the peace, the visitations foreign moneys current by proclamation, it is of the provinces by the judges of the circuits, and treason. the like. For these, in my opinion, for the purWhere a man killeth the chancellor, being in
pose now in hand, deserve a special observation, his place and doing his office, it is treason. because they being matters of that temporary Where a man killeth the treasurer, being in his nature, as they may be altered, as I suppose, in place and doing his office, it is treason. either kingdom, without parliament, as to Where a man killeth the king s justice in eyre, your majesty s wisdom may seem best ; it may be the being in his place and doing his office, it is most profitable and ready part of this labour will treason. consist in the introducing of some Where a man killeth the king s justice of uniformity in them. assize, being in his place and doing his office, it To begin therefore with capital crimes, and, is treason. Where a man killeth the king s justice of Oyer first, that of treason.

CASES OP TREASON.

and Terminer, being
office, it is treason.

in his place

and doing his

Where
is

a

man

doth compass or imagine the
if it

Where

a

man

doth persuade or withdraw any

death of the king,
treason.

appear by any overt

act,

it

of the king s subjects from his obedience, or from
the religion by his majesty established, with in tent to withdraw him from the king s obedience,
it is

Where
act,
it is

a

man

doth compass or imagine the
s wife, if it

death of the king
treason.

appear by any overt

treason.

Where a man is absolved, reconciled, or with doth compass or imagine the drawn from his obedience to the king, or promisdeath of the king s eldest son and heir, if it appear eth his obedience to any foreign power, it is treason. by any overt act, it is treason.
Where a man

Where
treason.

a

man
21

doth violate the king

s wife, it is

Where any
since the
first

Jesuit, or other priest

ordained
Eliz*-

year of the reign of

Queen

VOL

II.

OF THE UNION OF LAWS.
heth,
shall

come
it is

into, or

this realm,

tieason.

Where any person being brought up

lemain in any part of he was of good memory at the time of his exa mination and confession, the court may proceed in a col to judgment without calling or arraigning the
party.

lege of Jesuits, or seminary, shall not return

within six months after proclamation made, and In treason, the death of the party before convic within two days after his return submit himself tion discharged! all proceeding and forfeitures. to take the oath of supremacy, if otherwise he do In treason, if the party be once acquitted, he shall not be brought in question again for the return, or be within the realm, it is treason.

Where

a

man

thority of j or execute

"risdiction

doth affirm or maintain any au spiritual, or doth put in use
for the

same

fact.

any thing

advancement

or set

statute of

In treason, no new case, not expressed in the 25 Ed. III., nor made treason by any

ting forth thereof, such offence, the committed, is treason.

third

time

special statute since, ought to be judged treason, without consulting with the parliament.

Where a man refuseth to take the oath of su In treason, there can be no prosecution but at premacy, being tendered by the bishop of the the king s suit, and the king s pardon dischargeth. In treason, the king cannot grant over to any diocese, if he be an ecclesiastical person ; or by commission out of the chancery, if he be a tempo subject power and authority to pardon it. ral person ; such offence the second time is treason. In treason, a trial of a peer of the kingdom is Where a man committed for treason doth vo to be by special commission before the lord high luntarily break prison, it is treason. steward, and those that pass upon him to be none
Where
committed
son,
it

a jailor doth voluntarily permit a man for treason to escape, it is treason.
procureth or consenteth to a trea
relieveth or comforteth a traitor, treason.

Where a man
is

: and the proceeding is with great so lemnity, the lord steward sitting under a cloth of estate with a white rod of justice in his hand :

but peers

and the peers may confer together, but are not any ways shut up and are demanded by the lord steward their voices one by one, and the plurality knowing of voices carrieth it. In treason, it hath been an The punishment, trial, and proceedings, in cases of ancient use and favour from the kings of this treason. realm to pardon the execution of hanging, draw In treason, the corporal punishment is by ing, and quartering; and to make warrant for drawing on a hurdle from the place of the prison to their beheading. the place of execution, and by hanging and being The proceeding in case of treason with a com cut down alive, bowelling, and quartering and mon subject is in the king s bench, or by com in women by burning. mission of Oyer and Terminer.
treason.

Where

a

man

:

it, it is

:

In treason there ensueth a corruption of blood

ascending and descending. In treason, lands and goods are forfeited, and inheritances, as well entailed as fee simple, and the profits of estates for life.
in the line

MISPRISION OF TREASON.
Cases of misprision of treason.

In treason, the escheats go to the king, and not to the lord of the fee. In treason, the lands forfeited shall be in
the,

Where a man concealeth high treason only, without any comforting or abetting, it is n.isprision of treason.

king

possession without office. In treason there be no accessaries, but
s actual

all

are

Where a man counterfeiteth any foreign coin of gold or silver not current in the realm, it is mis prision of treason.
The punishment,
trial,

principals.

In treason, no benefit of clergy, or sanctuary, or peremptory challenge. In treason, if the party stand mute, yet never
theless

and proceeding, in

cases of

misprision of treason.

judgment and attainder one as upon verdict.

shall proceed all

The punishment of misprision of treason is by perpetual imprisonment, loss of the issues of their lands during life, and loss of goods and chattels.

In treason, bail is not permitted. The proceeding and trial is, as in cases of In treason, no counsel is to be allowed to the treason. In misprision of treason, bail is not admitted. party. In treason, no witness shall be received upon oath for the party s justification PETIT TREASON. In treason, if the fact be committed beyond the
seas, yet it maybe tried in any country king will award his commission.

where the

Cases of petit treason.

Where
Where
treason.

the servant killeth the master, the wife killeth her husband,

it

is

petit

In treason,
nae,"

if the

party be

"

non sanae memo- treason.
it is

the king s counsel, and that

yet if he bid formerly confessed it before it be certified that

petii

OF THE UNION OF LAWS.
a spiritual man killeth his prelate, to is subordinate, and oweth faith and obedience, it is jirtit treason.

163
it

Where

wen

once before convicted of the like offence,
a

whom

he

8 felony.

Where

man

useth the craft of multiplication
it is

Where

the son killrth the father or mother,

it

hath been questioned whether it be petit treason, and the late experience and opinion seemeth to \veiirh to the contrary, though against law and
reason, in

of gold or silver, it is felony. Where a man committeth rape,

felony.

Where a man
:HT will, not

away a woman against claiming her as his ward or bond
taketh
rnarrieth again, her or his

my

judgment.
trial,

woman, it is felony. Where any person
cases
<*f

The punishment,

and proceeding in

petit treason.

former husband or wife being alive, it is felony. Where a man committeth buggery with man or
beast,
it is

In petit treason, the corporal punishment is by drawing on a hurdle, and hanging, and in a

felony.

Where any persons above

the

number of

woman, burning.
In petit treason, the forfeiture is the same with the case of felony. In petit treason, all accessaries are but in case of felony.

twelve, shall assemble themselves with intent to put down enclosures, or bring down the prices of victuals, &c., and do not depart after proclamation,
t is

felony.
"

KELONY.
Cases offelony.

shall use any words to encourage draw any people together, ut supra," and they do assemble accordingly, and do not depart
r

Where man

after proclamation,
is,

it

is

felony.

Where

a

man

committeth murder, that

ho
is,

micide of prepensed malice, it is felony. Where a man committeth manslaughter, that

being the king s sworn servant, conspireth to murder any lord of the realm or any
a of the privy council,
it is

Where

man

felony.

homicide of sudden heat, and not of malice pre Where a soldier hath taken any parcel of the pensed, it is felony. king s wages, and departeth without license, it is Where a man committeth burglary, that is, felony. Where a man receiveth a seminary priest, breaking of a house with an intent to commit felony, it is felony. knowing him to be such a priest, it is felony. Where a man rideth armed, with a felonious Where a recusant, which is a seducer, and per intent, it is felony. suader, and inciter of the king s subjects against man doth maliciously and feloniously the king s authority in ecclesiastical causes, or a Where a burn a house, it is felony. persuader of conventicles, &c., shall refuse to Where a man doth maliciously and feloniously abjure the realm, it is felony. burn corn upon the ground or in stacks, it is Where vagabonds be found in the realm, calling themselves Egyptians, it is felony. felony. Where a man doth maliciously cut out an Where a purveyor taketh without warrant, or otherwise doth offend against certain special laws, other s tongue, or put out his eyes, it is felony.

Where a man robbeth or stealeth, away another man s goods, above

that

is,

taketh

it is

felony.

the value of

twelve pence, out of his possession, with an intent to conceal it, it is felony.

Where a man hunteth in any forest, park, or warren by night or by day, with vizards or other disguisements, and is examined thereof and confact, it is felony.

Where

a

man
is

embezzleth or withdraweth any cealeth his

of the king s records at Westminster, whereby
reversed, it is felony. Where a man that hath custody of the king s armour, munition, or other habiliments of war,

Where
it is

a a

man

stealeth certain kinds of

hawks,

any judgment

felony.

Where
felony.

man committeth

time, having been

forgery the second once before convicted, it is

doth maliciously convey away the same, to the value of twenty shillings, it is felony. Where a servant hath goods of his master s delivered unto him, and goeth away with them,
it is

Where a man transporteth rams or sheep out of the king s dominions, the second tune, it is
felony.

felony.

Where

a

man

conjures, or invocates wicked

spirits, it is felony.

Where a man being imprisoned foi felony, breaks prison, it is felony. Where a man procureth or consenteth to a
felony to be committed, it is felony, him accessary before the fact.
ai

Where a man doth use or practise any manner of witchcraft, whereby any person shall be killed, wasted, or lamed in his body, it is felony. Where a man practiseth any witchcraft, to dis cover treasure hid, or to discover stolen goods, or
to provoke unlawful love, or to impair or hurt any man s cattle or goods, the second time, having

to

make

Where
knowing

a

man

thereof,

receiveth or relieveth a felon, to make him it is felony, as

accessary alter the fact.

Where a woman, by the constraint of her hus band, in his prefcnce, joineth with him in com-

164

OF THE UNION OF LAWS.
In felony,
it

the party be non sanae memoriae," be after the fact, he cannot be tried nor adjudged, except it be in course of outlawry, The. punishment, trial, and proceeding in cases of and that is also erroneous. In felony, the death of the party before convic felony. tion dischargeth all proceeding and forfeitures. In felony, the corporal punishment is by In felony, if the party be oi*:e acquitted, or in hanging, and it is doubtful whether ihe king may peril of judgment of life lawfully, he shall never turn it into beheading in the case of a peer or be brought in question again for the same fact. other person of dignity, because in treason the In felony, the prosecution may be either at the off the head is part of the judgment, and striking king s suit by way of indictment, or the party s so the king pardoneth the rest: but in felony it is suit by way of appeal ; and if it be by way of no part of the judgment, and the king cannot alter appeal, the defendant shall have his counsel, and the execution of law ; yet precedents have been produce witnesses upon oath, as in civil causes. both ways. In felony, the king may grant hault justice to of blood, In felony, there followeth corruption a subject, with the regality of power to pardon it. it be in cases made sta felony by special except In felony, the trial of peers is all one as in case tutes, with a proviso that there shall be no cor of treason.

milling of felony, il is not felony, neilher as principal nor as accessary.

if

"

although

ruption of blood. In felony, lands in fee simple and goods are forfeited, but not lands entailed, and the profits

of estates for
feited

life

are likewise forfeited

:

And by

In felony, the proceedings are in the king s bench, or before commissioners of Oyer and Terminer, or of gaol delivery, and in some cases be
fore justices of peace.

some customs lands
;

in

fee

simple are not for

Cases o/Telonia de se, with the punishment, trial,
father to the bough, son to the plough;

The

and proceeding
In the
civil

therein.

as in Gavelkind in Kent, and other places. In felony, the escheats go to the lord of the fee, and not to the king, except he be lord : But the
profits of estates for lives, or in tail during the and the king life of tenant in tail, go to the king
:

law, and other laws, they make a difference of cases of" felonia de se for where a
:"

question upon any capital crime, and killeth himself to prevent the law, they give the same judgment in all points of forfeiture, as
if they had been attainted in their lifetime And on the other side, where a man killeth himself of sickness or the like, they do upon impatience not punish it at all but the law of England taketh it all in one degree, and punisheth it only with loss of goods to be forfeited to the king, who generally granteth them to his almoner, where they be not formerly granted unto special li
: :

man

is called in

hath likewise, in fee simple lands holden of com mon lords, annum, diem, et vastum." In felony, the lands are not in the king before
"

office, nor in the lord before entry or recovery in writ of escheat, or death of the party attainted. In felony, there can be no proceeding with the

accessary before there be a proceeding with the principal ; which principal if he die, or plead his
pardon, or have his clergy before attainder, the accessaries can never be dealt with.

berties.

In felony, if the party stand mute, and will not put himself upon his trial, or challenge peremp torily above the number that the law allows, he shall have judgment not of hanging, but of pe

OFFENCES OF PRjEMUNIRE.
Cases of Prxmunire.

purchaseth or accepteth any pro nance of pressing to death ; but then he saves his vision, that is, collation of any spiritual benefice and forfeits only his goods. or living, from the see of Rome, it is case of lands,
In felony, at the common law, the benefit of clergy or sanctuary was allowed ; but now by statutes it is taken away in most cases.

Where

a

man

man will purchase any process to draw any people of the king s allegiance out of In felony, bail may be admitted where the fact the realm, in plea, whereof the cognisance per is not notorious, and the person not of evil fame. tains to the king s court, and cometh not in person In felony, no counsel is to he allowed to the to answer his contempt in that behalf before the king and his council, or in his chancery, it is case party, no more than in treason.
In felony, no witness shall be received upon oath for the party s justification, no more than in treason.
In felony,
seas,

preemunire. Where a

of praemunire. Where a man doth sue in any court which is not the king s court, to defeat or impeach any

or
is

here

if the fact be committed beyond the judgment given in the king s court, and doth not upon the seas, super altum mare," appear to answer his contempt, it is case of prapno trial at all in the one case, nor by munire.
"

course of jury in the other case, but by the juris diction of the admiralty.
<

Where
court of

a

man

Rome,

or elsewhere,

doth purchase or pursue in the any process, sen-

OF THE UNION OF LAWS.
tence of excommunication, Imll, dtlicr thing which touches tin- king in
or
iiistninn -nt,
liis

1G5
being

or

\\

hero a

man

regality,

having lands

to the

realm Where a
liis

in
pr<

man

case of pramunire. judici-, doth atlinn or maintain .my
it is

annum, nor goods

to the

and not value of twenty marks per value of !()/., shall not
a popish recusant,

foreign authority of jurisdiction spiritual, or doth put in use or execute any thing for the advance

repair to his dwelling or place where he and there confine himself within the
five miles,

he shall

was born, compass of abjure the realm; and if he

ment

or setting forth thereof; such offence, the
is

second time committed,

Where

a

man

refuseth

case of praemunire. to take the oath of

return, he shall be in the degree of a felon. Where a man kills the king s deer in chases or
forests, and can find no sureties after a year s im prisonment, he shall abjure the realm. Where a man is a trespasser in parks, or in ponds of fish, and after three years imprisonment

supremacy, being tendered by the bishop of the diocese, if he be an ecclesiastical person ; or by commission out of the chancery, if he be a tem
it is case of praemunire. the dean and chapter of any church, upon the "Conge d elire" of an archbishop, or bishop, dith refuse to elect any such archbishop

poral person,

Where

cannot find sureties, he shall abjure the realm. Where a man is a ravisher of any child within
age, whose marriage belongs to any person, and marrieth the said child after years of consent, and
is

or bishop, as is nominated unto
letter missive, it is

them

in the

king

s

not able to satisfy for the marriage, he shall

Where

a

man

case of praemunire. doth contribute or give relief unto

abjure the realm.

any Jesuit

or seminary priest, or to any college of Jesuits or seminary priests, or to any person brought up therein, and called home, and not

OFFENCE OF HERESY.
Cases of heresy,

and

the trial

and proceeding!

therein.

returning,

Where

case of preemunire. a man is broker of a usurious contract
it is

The

declaration of heresy, and likewise the

above ten in the hundred,

it is

case of praemunire.
cases of

proceeding and judgment upon heretics, is by the common laws of this realm referred to the juris
diction ecclesiastical, and the secular arm is reached unto them by the common laws, and not by any statute for the execution of them by tho
s

The punishment,

trial,

and proceedings in

prsemunire.

The punishment
life, forfeiture

is

of goods, forfeiture of lands in fee simple, and forfeiture of the profits of lands

by imprisonment during king

writ

"de

haeretico comburendo."

CASES OF THE KING

S

PREROGATIVE.

entailed, or for life.

and proceeding is as in cases of misprision of treason ; and the trial is by peers, where a peer of the realm is the offender.
trial

The

The king
1.

s

prerogative in parliament.

The king

all

bills that

hath an absolute negative voice to pass the parliament, so as without
"

OFFENCES OF ABJURATION AND EXILE.
Cases nf abjuration

his royal assent they have a mere nullity, and not so much as authoritas praescripta," as senatus
"

and

exile,

and

the proceedings

consulta"

had, notwithstanding the intercession

therein.

of tribunes.

2. The king may summon parliaments, dissolve man committeth any felony, for the and prorogue them at his pleasure. which at this day he may have privilege of sanc them, adjourn 3. The king may add voices in parliament at tuary, and taketh sanctuary, and confesseth the his pleasure, for he may give privileges to bo the before the coroner, he shall

Where

a

felony

abjure

and choose his sanctuary; he commit any new offence, or leave his sanctuary, he shall lose the privilege thereof, and suffer as if he had not taken sanctuary.
liberty of the realm,
if

rough towns, and
pleasure.
4.

call

and create barons

at his

and

No man

can

sit in

parliament unless he take

the oath of allegiance.

not coming to the church, and, being a popish recusant, doth persuade any of the
a

Where

man

The king
1.

s

prerogative in

war and peace.

king s subjects to impugn his majesty s authority in causes ecclesiastical, or shall persuade any subject from coming to church, or receiving the

The king hath power to declare and proclaim war, and make and conclude peace. 2. The king hath power to make leagues and

communion, or persuade any subject to come to confederacies with foreign estates, more or It-ss any unlawful conventicles, or shall be present at strait, and to revoke and disannul them at liis any such unlawful conventicles, and shall not pleasure* after conform himself within a time, and make liis 3. The king hath power to command thebodie
submission, he shall abjure the realm, and forfeit of his subjects for service of his wars, and to nis goods and lands during life; and it he depart muster, train, and levy men, and to transport them not within the time prefixed, or return, he shall be by sea or land, at his pleasure. in the degree of a felon. 4. The king hath power in time of war to
j

I

exi>-

1C6

CASE OF THE POST-NATI OF SCOTLAND.
all officers

cute martial law, and to appoint

of

war
5.

at his pleasure.

any foreign wares that come into the realm, and so of native wares that go out of the realm.

The king

hath power to grant his letters of

mart and reprisal for remedy to his subjects upon foreign wrongs. 6. The king may give knighthood, and thereby enable any subject to perform knight s service.

The king
1.

s

prerogative in the persons of his
subjects.

create any corporation or and enable them to purchase, to grant, to sue, and be sued ; and with such restric tions and limitations as he pleases. The king s prerogative in matter of money. 2. The king may denizen and enable any fo 1. The king may alter his standard in baseness reigner for him and his descendants after the or fineness. he cannot naturalize, nor enable 2. The king may alter his stamp in the form charter; though him to make pedigree from ancestors paramount.

The king may
politic,

body

of it.
3.

The king may

at his pleasure alter the
fall

va

3.

The king may enable any

attainted

person,

luations,
4.

and raise and

moneys.

of his
5.

The king may by proclamation make money own current or not. The king may take or refuse the subjects
more
or less

his charter of pardon, and purge the blood for time to come, though he cannot restore the blood

by

for the
4.

time past.

bullion, or coin for
6.

the

money.
foreign

The king may enable any dead persons in law, as men professed in religion, to take and
s benefit.
Jl

The king by proclamation may make money current, or not.

purchase to the king

twofold power of the law.

The king s prerogative in matters of trade and
traffic.

1. A direction: in this respect the king is underneath the law; because his acts are guided

1.

The king may

constrain the person of any

thereby. 2. Correction

:

In this
it

of his subjects not to go out of the realm. 2. The king may restrain any of his subjects to go out of the realm in any special part foreign.
3. The king may forbid the exportation of any commodities out of the realm.

above the law;
offence.

for

may

respect the king is not correct him for any

.# twofold power in the king. His absolute power, whereby he may levy 4. The king may forbid the importation of any forces against any nation. 2. His limited power, which is declared and commodities into this realm. 5. The king may set a reasonable impost upon expressed in the laws what he may do.
1.

THE

ARGUMENT OF

SIR FRANCIS BACON, KNIGHT,

HIS MAJESTY S SOLICITOR-GENERAL,
IN

THE CA8E OF

THE POST-NATI OF SCOTLAND,
IN

THE EXCHEQUER CHAMBER,

BEFORE THE LORD CHANCELLOR, AND ALL THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND.

M\Y

IT PLEASE

YOUR LORDSHIPS,

that by time, that extendeth not only to the pre sent time, but much more to future generations,
:

Et nati natorum, et qui nascentur ab illis THIS case your lordships do well perceive to be of exceeding great consequence. For whether And, therefore, as that is to receive at the bar a you do measure that by place,-that reacheth not full and free debate, so I doubt not but that shall only to the realm of England, but to the whole receive from your lordships a sound and just re

island of Great Britain

:

or

whether you measure solution according

to

law, and according to truth.

CASE OF THE
For,
riaid

i

<)>T-NATI

n;

1

8C ITLAND.

107

my
in
"

lords,
tli.it

though
s-.tiil

tic

were thought
word,

tn

h;ivr
I

well,
;"

tii.it

for his

l\>-\

or-

tissiinus

evm
said,
tlo
tin-

yet the opinion

In-

w;is thought to have said better,

gain nothing by surreption, in the putting of the question, th it one anil the .same natural person in king of both realms.
confessed, that the laws and parliaments So, then, Whether this privilege and benefit of naturalization to be an aerosory or
It is

of the king himself, that
et pra-valet
:"

V eritas

forti>sima,

And

I

are several.

much

whole carriage of

rejoice to observe such a concurrence in this cause to this end, that

truth

or framed case; but a true case between true parties. title handled formerly in some of the king s The courts, and freehold upon it; used indeed by his

may prevail. The case no feigned

dependency upon that which is one and joint, or upon that whieh is several, hath been, and must

high wisdom to give an end to this occasio," as the great question, but not raised ;
in his
"

And therefore be the depth of this question. your lordships do see the state of this question doth evidently lead me by way of inducement to speak of three things The king, the law, and For if you well the privilege of naturalization.
:

schoolmen say,

The

arrepta, non porrecta." case argued in the king s bench
"

Walter with great

liberty,

by Mr. and yet with good ap

understand the nature of the two principals, and again the nature of the accessory ; then shall you discern, to whether principal the accessory doth properly refer, as a shadow to a body, or iron to

probation of the court; the persons assigned to be of counsel on that side, inferior to none of their

an adamant.

And

therefore yourlordships will give

me leave,

quality and degree in learning; and some of them in a case of this quality, first to visit and open the foundations and fountains of reason, and not most conversant and exercised in the question. The judges in the king s bench have adjourned begin with the positions and eruditions of muni it to this place for conference with the rest of cipal law; for so was that done in the great case Your lordship, my lord chancel of mines; and so ought that to be done in all their brethren.

though you be absolute judge in the court sit, and might have called to you such assistance of judges as to you had seemed good yet would not forerun or lead in this case by any opinion there to be given; but have chosen rather
lor,

cases of like nature.

And

this doth not at all

where you

;

detract from the sufficiency of our laws, as incom petent to decide their own cases, but rather addeth

a dignity unto them, when their reason appearing as well as their authority, doth show them to be

to

as

assembly ; all tending, as fine moneys, which are current not only by the whereunto I for my part do stamp, because they are so received, but by the heartily subscribe, "utvincat veritas," that truth natural metal, that is, the reason and wisdom of may first appear, and then prevail. And I do them. And Master Littleton himself in his whole book firmly hold, and doubt not but I shall well main doth commend but two things to the professors of tain, that this is the truth, that Calvin the plain the one, the in tiff is the law by the name of his sons ipso jure," by the law of England, a na tural born subject, to purchase freehold, and to quiring and searching out the reasons of the law; bring real actions within England. In this case and the other, the observing of the forms of plead I must so consider the time, as I must much more And never was there any case that came ings.

come yourself
I

to this

said, to this end,

"

;

consider the matter. And, therefore, though

draw

it may in judgment that required more, that Littleton s speech into farther length; yet I dare advice should be followed in those two points, not handle a case of this nature confusedly, but than doth the present case in question. And, first, porpose to observe the ancient and exact form of of the king. It is evident that all other commonwealths, pleadings ; which is, monarchies only excepted, do subsist by a law First, to explain or induce.

my

Then, to confute, or answer objections. And, lastly, to prove, or confirm. And, first, for explanation. The outward ques
tion
in
this

precedent.

For

where

authority

is

divided

case

is

no more, but, Whether a

child, born in Scotland since his majesty s happy coming to the crown of England, be naturalized
in

England, or no?

Hut the inward question or

state of the question evermore beginneth where that which is confessed on both sides doth leave.
It is confessed, that if these two realms of Eng land and Scotland were united under one law and

and they not perpetual, but annual or temporary, and not to receive their authority but by election, and certain persons to have voice only to that election, and the like; these are busy and curious frames, which of ne cessity do presuppose a law precedent, written or but in mo unwritten, to guide and direct them

amongst many

officers,

:

narchies, especially hereditary, that is, when several families or lineages of people do submit themselves to one line, imperial or royal, the sub

one parliament, and thereby incorporated and made as one kingdom, that the post-natus" of such a union should be naturalized.
"

is more natural and simple, which after wards by laws subsequent is perfected and made more formal but that is grounded upon nature. It is confessed, that both realms are united in That this is so, it appeareth notably in two the person of our sovereign because I will things ; the one the platforms and patterns which or,

mission

;

;

1G8

CASE OF THE POST-NATI OF SCOTLAND.
;

For the original submissions, they are four in number: I will hrielly touch them: The first u paternity or patriarchy, which was when a family or chief of a family growing so great as it could not contain itsdf who, governing over his wife by prerogative of within one habitation, some branches of the de sex, over his children by prerogative of age, and scendants were forced to plant themselves into new because he is author unto them of being, and families, which second families could not by i over his servants by prerogative of virtue and natural instinct and inclination but bear a rove* providence, (for he that is able of body, and rence, and yield an obeisance to the eldest line of improvident of mind, is naturaservus,") that is the ancient family from which they were derived. So is the opinion of the very model of a king. The second is, the admiration of virtue, or gra Aristotle, lib. iii. Pol. cap. 14, where he saith, titude towards merit, which is likewise naturally Verum autem regnum est, cum penes unum est infused into all men. Of this Aristotle putteth rerum summa potestas quod regnum procura the case well, when it was the fortune of some tionem familiae imitatur." one man, either to invent some arts of excellent
the original

are found in nature of monarchies

submissions, and

their

motives and occasions.

The platforms are three The first is that of a father,
:

;

"

"

:

And
him

therefore Lycurgus,

when one
"

counselled

use towards

man

s life, or to

congregate people,

to dissolve the

kingdom, and

to establish

an

other form of estate, answered, Sir, begin to do that which you advise first at home in your own
noting, that the chief of a family is as a king; and that those that can least endure kings abroad, can be content to be kings at home. And
house:"

where they might cohabit with more comfort, or to guide them from a more barren land to a more fruitful,
or the like tion

that dwelt scattered, into one place,

upon these deserts, and the admira and recompense of them, people .submitted
:

themselves.

this is the first platform, natural.

which we see

is

merely

The third, which was the most usual of all, was conduct in war, which even in nature induceth
as great an obligation as paternity.

The second is that of a shepherd and his flock, which, Xenophon saith, Cyrus had ever in his For shepherds are not owners of the mouth. sheep ; but their office is to feed and govern : no more are kings proprietaries or owners of the
people
:

For as men

owe

their life and being to their parents in regard of generation, so they owe that also to saviours in the wars in regard of preservation. And therefore we find in chap, xviii. of the book of

for

God

"The nations,"

inheritance:"

is sole owner of the people. as the Scripture saith, are "his but the office of kings is to govern,

Judges, ver. 22,

"

Dixeruntomnes
filii

viri

ad Gideon,
servasti

Dominare
nos de

nostri, tu et
Madian."

tui,

quoniam

maintain, and protect people. And that is not without a mystery, that the first king that was
instituted

read, when it was brought to the ears of Saul, that the people Saul hath killed his in the streets, sung

manu

And
"

so

we

by God, David,

untimely fruit, Et elegit as you have it in Psalm Ixxviii. David servum suum, de gregibus ovium sustulit military dependence, wants little of being king. The fourth in an enforced submission, which is eum, pascere Jacob servum suum, et Israel haereditatem suam." This is the second plat conquest, whereof it seemed Nimrod was the first form ; a work likewise of nature. Ipsecrepit potens precedent, of whom it is said ; The third platform is the government of God esse in terra, eterat robustus venatorcoram Domi
:
"

Saul was but an was translated from a shepherd,
for

thousands, and David his ten thousand of ene Quid ei superest mies," he said straightways For whosoever hath the nisi ipsum regnum
"

1"

"

himself over the world, whereof lawful monar
chies are a shadow. And, therefore, both amongst the heathen, and amongst the Christians, the

no."

And

this likewise is

upon the same root, which

the saving or gift as it were of life and being ; foi the conqueror hath power of life and death over
is

word, sacred, hath been attributed unto kings, because of the conformity of a monarchy with a divine majesty never to a senate or people. And so you find it twice in the Lord Coke s Reports; once in the second book, the bishop of Winchester s case; and in his fifth book,
:

j

his captives; and, therefore, where he giveth them themselves, he may reserve upon such a gift what

All these four service and subjection he will. submissions are evident to be natural and more

ancient than law.

To speak therefore of law, which is the second Cawdrie s case ; and, more anciently, in the 10 part of that which is to be spoken of by way of Law no doubt is the great organ of H. VII. fol. 10. "Rex est personamixta cum inducement. an attribute- which the senate of by which the sovereign power doth move, and sacerdote
;"

Venice, or a canton of Swisses, can never chal So, we see, there be precedents or plat lenge.

forms of monarchies, both in nature and above nature ; even from the monarch of heaven and earth, to the king, if you will, in a hive of bees. And
therefore other states are the creatures of law:

J

!

be truly compared to the sinews in a natural body, as the sovereignty may be compared to the for if the sinews be without the spirits, spirits they are dead and without motion; if the spirits move in weak sinews, it causeth trembling: so the laws, without the king s power, are dead ;

may

:

and this state only subsisteth by nature.

i

the king s power, except the

laws be corroho-

. the : obedience of the child is by law. that as confusion for a time.iith well. himself the law doth a double ollice ur . liege lord. for it with what a measured hand and with how true was well said by a father..09 rued. that is.p1 shall hardly coiisi-ut that the king shall li. &quot. and is never &quot. Nevertheless this admittcth a others. . and the Theseus long before Solon in Athens: so was decree of the council shall be executed by aid of Eury lion and Sous long before Lycurgus in Sparta the chancery.iaw M UY\ that is. degree. and collecting others. and the like. 5 Mar. fol.CAM: OF TMI-: POST-. and by no VOL.geriii . and yet no doubt laws war in fact. . occasion of the ber of Bullein s lands. to disinherit them by testament at pleasure. he may be do diversely define of that also.r ration: the first is to entitle the king. that the law accounts that the hold it hath over him. but is of allegiance of subjects to hereditary is corroborated and confirmed by the either in person or goods. 6. that the law takes knowledge of. 5. and this is the first : Decemviri.plenitude potestatis proportions our law doth impart and confer fol. yet his king. . Hat towards the sta. that their lawgivers conduit pipes are open to him. and that according to the and other points differing from the rules of com. as in our the law of nature is more w^ithy than them both. that &quot.&quot. or actions parliaments do give unto the king: which term real or mixed. he comes at his own peril. that is. so ing some laws.rules of the law of England.c\ tacil c|iiod ipse inon law is more worthy than the statin. Yet no man will affirm. times.| statute ijiieen. of naturalization itself. as in 13 Ed. For if he come with safe-conduct. fol. leenied or called only our rightful sov. was the first lawgiver who. mklu:. 2.. is by law. but only by the king s charter.&quot. he is not enabled. that the half-blood shall be respected. Do these offices or operations of law evacuate or frustrate the original submission. others. the law of some used as an enemy for the law accounts of him. sovereign. when he served in another place. or at least not in war with him. for he may be an enemy. in his person. or over the child.. 3. that he would never allow that Queen Elizabeth (I remem title it subnatural born subject. for none of the work of the law of nature. fol. he can have no in any of the king s courts. The third person is a denizen. or lease. to see the weakness of the land. i-n.gt. is an alien first The enemy j . And in the a king or state as is confederate with the king of refounding of the kingdom in the person of \V il. phrase) should be a birth. lib. l. 1. To Ham the Conqueror. and question was moved by some properly. ii law. 22 . that is. when the laws were in some this person the law allotteth this benefit. . And remedy therefore you shall find the observation true. reiiin as acts of parliament speak for as the e. for the efficacy of the II. using the woru principal judge here present. 2 Ric. IV. : sit . or &quot.&quot. But for freehold. which was natural ? Or shall it be said that all allegiance is by law 1 No more than it can be said. such as these are.&quot. obeisance of a prince or state that is in hostility with the King of England. lint acoinmon-Iaw . of the king and the law.&quot. And therefore I will con benefit. &quot. &quot. except it be in \J II him. and not hy rules of law. That the kingdom shall go ID the issue Having spoken now female. fol. Imt he full of ami trepidation. and almost general in all states. i.England. as the Scripture saith. for sometimes it is confounded with so before was Romulus long the .potestas patris. . such a one as is born under the .. This is one that is but ditus insitivus.o\eiei_Mi. is King Edward I. But yet he must fetch his justice at the fountain-head. to consider power of the king more definite or regular. as to this purpose. The degrees acts and grants are limited by law. that the distinction. brought the the law doth indue him but with a transitory law to some perfection. IV..&quot. . are four. and divers other books. III. will never move constantly. The second is.autre droit. to sell them thrice. and yet the laws such a one as is born under the obeisance of such ran under the name of Edgar s laws.adoptivus. but he must complain himself before the king s privy council : there he shall have a proceeding summary from to hour. To this person the law giveth no benefit or protection at all. And so it is 9 E. 7 And as it was said by a IV. 107. who governed hour : for a time by natural equity without law so was natural equity. enact but a transitory hold. Naturalization is best discerned in the degrees inon inherit nice. b&amp. and we argue them every day. And although the solutus legibus. is monarchs.our natural. ancient kings of the Saxons . it defines his title. the cause shall be determined by were long after their first kings. And even amongst ourselves ihere were more The second person is an alien friend. But I demand. a man may truly say.N ATI 1 or SCOTLAND. be 1 &quot. ope-. that whereof we need not fear to speak in good and happy whereby the law doth mount and ascend thereunto. which law. j est plenitudo tempestatis. as of a spy that comes And so it is in children to death. but if power of the father he come into the realm after war proclaimed. though laws in some points do make it more positive: and even so it otherwise it is: for then he may not be violated. but our natural hi him: and in that sense Hractou s. that it shall not be departable amongst remaineth to -peak of the privilege and benefit daughti rs. to make the ordinary For it seeimth admirable unto me. degree of persons. ~ and lib. the several degrees of this benefit.&quot. or design our lawful . of movable goods and personal clude this point with the style which divers acts of actions. very effectually and truly. nations having given the fathers power to put their but.

and of laws. which respect of subjection to law or parliament. except we have either a c. contradicted or controverted. being a plainly perceive his error.1 capacity or ability to all benefits whatsoever. To this person the law giveth an ability bution it appeareth that there be but two condiand capacity abridged. we indeed more respect and affect those fourth is not properly an objection. we know. they shall not inherit. there no more subdivision or more subtle division beyond these . may be reduced to four heads. they have &quot. any before. For I know that other laws do idmit more curious dis in the is &quot. The first is. which is evermore by birth. tions by birth. the j ! &quot.&quot. or stay he never so long. so the fourth. So the king only grants safe con ducts.&quot. the ante-nati. aliud est nasci. for the Romans For although a man and inheritance. wherewith the law or parliament inter meddles not. it is not amiss tc observe tlia . in that opera But these be the de tion. to avoid confusion. that proceeds of the King of England. but if he have purchased at all than Flemings. we have made wherein no doubt the law hath &quot. they shall inherit.jus suffragii. The third point seemeth to me very worthy the parte post. not in matter. in actum. tertium penitus ignoramus. fore it is strongly to be inferred. and others. as the schoolmen say.&quot. both because it distinguisheth so far. French. abso king lutely of his prerogative and power. and because it doth not distinguish farther. the king s act is all in all. by a distinction devised between countries 4 The merits and conversations worthy gentlemen of Scotland whose devolute by descent. cum duo jura concurrent in una persona effectually pertinent to the question in hand. but he is capable of either. either alien or natural born. that by the former distriking s grace and gift. and looks upon and privileged! those under the obeisance no men s faces. but if he have any alien friends. though he be naturalized in England. voice in the parliament of England. without any parliament .a &quot. privileged and not consideration. so the law doth not acknowledge him before that that if the post-nati of Scotland be not natural time.ill by writ. Italians.&quot. ipso jure. aliud fieri:&quot. For it is i other mean. come he never so young into the Mansion or realm. state of the birth . or creation by patent . by concluding a peace. a grave and profound reason . in a tew words. or at election of officers. It is the king likewise that maketh an tinction of this privilege besides &quot. without pable of honour and office. but the law For the first. which answereth to natu . &quot. and therein it seemeth to me that the wisdom of the law. It is the that makes a denizen by his charter. and in no better decree zation. For very line or rule of reason.born. yet that the law. being all ground. It is manifest. but in time.jus petitionis. But upon this quadlipartite division of the ability of persons I do The second is drawn from that common observe to your lordships three things. but a pre-occupation of an objection or proof on our part. And yet farther no ways upon law or parliament. he shall not hold it: so if he have child. The third consisteth of certain inconveniences the law looketh not back.Germans. before. by reason his majesty is in peace So as he is but with all the world. &quot. and therefore cannot by any matter &quot. And there alien friend. I say capacity or ability but to reduce potcntiam For an earl of Ireland. and acquired bv conquest. had. they are alien born. And nre jealous whom they take into their number. were naturalized to take lands I I : : . For if he purchase freehold after his deni. :&quot. The second point is. but &quot. wherewith law and parliament intermeddle not.jus civitatis. then. j j &quot. That which hath been materially objected.&quot. that if any man conceive that the jequam est ac si essent in duobus reason for the post-nati might serve as well for words whereof are taken from the civil law . the The first is.&quot. nam and as there was a time when he was not subject. which doth in-law the subject. vises commonly of popular or free estates. a rule. yet hath no &quot. habitation will not idenize him. by proclaim ing a war.&quot. that the privilege of naturalization followeth allegiance. or by act of capacities. Spanish. and he is complete and entire.ex post facto. thus much by way of explanation and induce and are unfit for monarchies but by the law of ment which being all matter in effect confessed. For manner of respect to law or parliament.a law of England there is nil ultra.&quot. wherewith law and parliament intermeddle not. he may take it. England. that in all the distribu parte ante. or &quot. is another case. as I upon general reason. which is this.&quot. but by For though a man had voice. : | There followeth the confutation of the argu ments on the contrary side. the king that makes an alien enemy. is to be admired both ways. and the degrees of abilities or subject.&quot. although it cannot by the king s patent. which is. wherewith law and parliament intermed dle not. he may by the distribution which the matter of it is received in all laws .jus honorum.170 CASE OF THE POST-NATI OF SCOTLAND. the subject of that is natural born hath is the strongest groundwork to that which is ralization. nor swearing obedience to the king in a leet. but only. that as all these yet he was not enabled to have a voice at passing degrees depend wholly upon the king s act. respecteth only the king s person. no. alter the conceived to ensue of this general naturalization. The fourth and last degree is a natural born tions of persons. and that allegiance followeth the kingdom. atl i-cteth which drew their first breath said. after birth. as I said. yet he was not ca operation of law.Nemo subito fingitur. which are all at this time ren after.&quot.

&quot. for allegiance of the Kingof England. &quot. that in be of English parents continuing at that time as nine several places there is to be found this aliens born out of the king s liege subjects to the king. and that they entertained m. some is so there king: confusion of tongues amongst them. statute of 25 E. I will put a case or two of either.. facto naturalized. r- three manner of proofs: certain inferences out of statutes. or again. if you will believe apprentices but of their own nation. and. Nay. To come now the first is to their inferences upon I The tion is reason they bring is this . com- j . not treason before. the one proper. did prohibit Hussey. lastly.ergo. Duke of York. allegiance then the law of England works in foreign So of contempts. and cannot operate but they. form to utter and ex- opinion. tremely erroneous. more. by by book cases. For ralization upon a birth neither within the dominions the parliament finding that they did eat the Engof the kingdom. Nay. tion is still of liege parents.&quot. spired the death of the king in foreign parts.iseasy. than the instance in question for I will put you a The second statute out of which they infer. or And because it is truly | respublicacontineturpaenaetprcemio. touching the policy England doth work and confer the benefit of natu. or Warwick. where the law of statute made in 32 Hen. for there is no trope of speech more familiar I ! \ add. statute. so. or the line i For the law of England. such descendants are have their foundations in subtlety and imagination naturalized to all generations: for every genera of man s wit. it was treason before: and if been used of purpose and in propriety . certain first. and obedience &quot. and especially in the material and conmanding him to return. and yet the were at the time of their birth at the faith and oheifact enduring the contempt was committed in sance of the King of England. In which statute is said. is but a declaration of the common law. But the law is not in force not to the person of the king. if they king s subjects. cap. for the lines of the the Duke of Lancaster. that granted. for matters of benefit or forfeitures in England.&quot. born fit This reason of naturalization by a birth in Scotland. that naturaliza an operation of the law of England . So of reward. but only within the bounds of the dominions of forms of pleadings. by reason. but only of ordaining a form for those words might have been thought to have of trial . Then they without the allegiance of England. say they. and therefore natu But to leave their words. that in &quot. is a case that no man shall deny. to forfeit the benefit of their allecriance. or at Lisbon. and it is. and where it is in force. we need seek no other instance without danger of cavillation. their descendant^ marry amongst themselves. of Lancaster. whereof into the law in this point. without any intermix as it commonly cometh to pass in opinions that ture of foreign blood . tho*e 171 who maintain this new . 2. statutes . within the allegiance of England .CASE OF THE POST-NATI OF SCOTLAND. intending the possessions of the Dukes of Somerset or Earls of Warwick. children whose parents will doubt but there is a contempt. that they should receive any apprentice but tho all children born in any parts of the world.aefi is &quot. then. VIII.ahum silmtium&quot.lt. but you may j and obeisance of the King of any subject beyond England. Salisbury. kingdom. so as you may have whole tribes and proofs: they endeavour to prove this conceit by lineages of English in foreign countries. operateth over the world. England. by this indifferent and promiscuous use of both Therefore the law of England doth extend to phrases. which.ipso statute. therefore that cannot endure thisbene. which. and do int&amp. and he disobey. it was by the common law of England treason. but exj than to use the place of addition for the person. nor King of England. that acts or matters done in foreign parts. To this the answer in Scotland.of strangers tradesmen within this realm. some to the crown. and having done no act context of words. VIII. applies the allegiance to the kingdom. that is to say. is plausible and sensible. so indeed that may be the true genus of it. So that it is manifest foreign parts. So we see earls sign. said that &quot. in which is said. if the king send his parts..&quot. hut yet cannot be well avoided. out of this statute which statute it last recited. some to the our books of law.&quot. By the lishmen out of trade. find in three other several places of the same privy seal to the seas.or at Koan. are which is pregnant. for the Earls of Salisbury or Northampton. say England is dominions of England. to the body politic of the and have issue. no man eluding place. and not in the ground of nature. that the law of of force only within the kingdom and four several places there are these words. this collection there had been no variety in the penning of that had had a little more force . So we say commonly. that if divers families of English men and women plant them selves at Middlel)orough. and to come to their ralized . if a man look narrowly doth imply that there be aliens born within the . It is plain that if a subject of England had con- [ I j So we say the possessions of Somerset. I : | &quot.it said that allegiance hath press that: fur respect to the law. wherein you shall find no words at all of making any new case of treason which was How statute speaks. allegiance of England. . And in the j very same i manner the if prove I thatl By the statutes of 35 H. which is. Northampton. he shall find a conse quence that may secrn at the first strange.born &quot. in are not well agreed in uli. III. no man can ground any inference upon these words privilege or benefit. the other improper. mentioning and reciting the And therefore it is utterly untrue that the law of England cannot operate or confer naturalization. the line of York.

that those words.&quot. of the king s obedience. not infer upon that. grew no not of the king of England.lt. 38. qui hceret in litere. speak clearly and without equivocation. that the kings of England To these books I give this answer. but directly the other way.cortex.&quot. and subjection to a king as king of a certain kingdom : but to this 1 give an answer threefold First. because the superior seigniory of France was now united in right with the where it is pleaded that a woman was born at tenancy of Normandy. these three. show us a statute for that. conceived a fear that the realm of To come now to the book-cases which they Englan-J might become subject to the realm of put. what if we between crown and person. &quot.&quot. of Scotland is natu are aliens in common reputation. as if Scotland now us. which or limitation.because he is the king s subject. . such as are born out of the king s obedience ? they cannot put us from that construc But sure I am. that England might become party is subject of the kingdom of England. the statute.. aliens . changed his seal. : authorised of of the bark. by virtue of to it .novae legis. And I receive one joint answer. exception was taken that the plaintiff was They had this reason of fear. 300. is denied to none born therefore. is our very case retorted against them . that the words of the pleatitively. fol. hoeret in but this is not worthy the name of &quot.. that the. out of allegiance of England. and did invest. what stranger apprentices he will. the body of the act is penned thus: &quot. pleaded a man . by their reason. the statute then king as king of England 1 No.&quot. and upon like fear. there man say that a post-natus&quot. is the which hath been the preamble. For is evident that the statute meant and presseth not the question for doth any colhmon understanding. to open king doth grant and establish the scope and purpose of that statute after that merely introductive &quot. that is. Dyer. and I :&quot. that it should become subject to the realm of France. that an act might which the statute means to deny to aliens of pass to like effect. and glory of that kingdom.rht he like to make their mansion and their estate in V ranee. said to be our very case . that they be seat of not the pleas at large. therefore. &quot. the subjects of England. if the bark make for them. : ] j conquered England. it is but &quot. Normandy was feudal of England. with a videlicet. received laws of speech. added those further words. should say. men. subject to the king as king of France. i the pleading. and that he had changed his style. because he is a subject of the precise construction of law . to a &quot.&quot. Now. he doth not mark how that is pen ned . a donative. cortice. saith law they had not. that it is was seised in fee simple. but the words of the mi&amp. III. the moss subjection to a king generally. if you will make good your distinction the pith makes for within the king what you &quot. as his privilege or exemption. France. therefore.172 king heard s CASE OF THE POST-NATI.. III. I | &quot. entertaining apprentices.The which are words loo. are no words of difference for this is a direct statute of separation. the subjects of England with a new changed his arms. lest the Secondly. cap. I have it whatsoever the occasion was. or Calaismen. solo. might be taken as a per Dcctor Story qui notorie quisite to Normandy. a of Scotland shall by that statute post-natus&quot. E. that England was never subject to am of that opinion France. where gard of the conquest. this statute. Therefore. for explanation-sake. which I will couple together. as if it had been said. out of the allegiance of which inference statute of 14 E. the union of the king s person if this statute had not been made to stop and cross the course of tho : common law in that point. issuing as fiom the king of France. and &quot. s obedience. and not according to the solemn words of If you find a case put.&quot. And. Adrian s case . and thereby kingdom of England might be governed by Hie king s mandates and precepts. Lastly. The third is 13 Eliz. as if the king the title to the crown of France was devolute to gave a charter of franchise. who speaks compendiously and narra the wealth. where the book will give you the reasons of the double fear. But 1 hope you can show no statute of separation between England and Scotland. but generally meaning not to comprehend Irishmen. The next is 22 H. that is pleaded. in re Bruges. VI. difference litre you have the said. obedience. And if any man say that this was a statute declaratory of the law. then.&quot. reporter. statute out of The third common is made. fol. saith. The first is 42 E. call them aliens or And. which by the common majesty hath done. you will But they will say. in regard of the climate. say they. because they France. according to the as I said. union of the crowns in some degree. or to the king as king of France. or Je*sey. for the privilege of liberty should be suitors to the king. but of declaration or description of presupposeth that the common law had made a an alien. The other fear. fol. 1 . they had probable reason the case begins thus: In all to fear that the kingdom of England might dignoscitur esse subditus regni Anglia be drawn to be subject to the realm of France. doubt of this foresight. tion. for after a kind of historical declaration in put in the degree of an English. OF SCOTLAND. and aliens in ralized in England.muscus it corticis. Normandy had born in Scotland at Ross. III. Nay. and that England. and so is keep in this present case. The scope of this law is to make a word alien might be extended to them in a vulgar distinction between crown and crown but the born out scope of their argument is to make a difference acceptance. will. Touching this inference. by K.

pi. that the country of the birth is to the king. because it may A man doth homage to his lord for a tenancy held appeal whether he be a friend or an enemy. but they remain still in the eye of law distinct.Cum duo jura&quot. The allegiance of what king or state he was born.in 173 feodo simplici.it AngliiK . in my Lord Dyer. The reason whereof cannot be. accordingly. more than if there were several bishops. while it is tossed at the bar. pi. lord treasurer of England.is no such matter pleadings arc constant ami uniform in this .ilicet but as a stock to uphold and bear out the corporate body. though but one tenant and one lord. as shall be manifestly proved in due place. 24 Hen. And tfio be laid. as I regis&quot. But to show that this rule receiveth this distinction. which is. or several parsons. say they. fol. there you have extra ligcantiam domini regis alieniuena natus is rector of two churches. by fiction. 7. may retain six chaplains qualified. 25. may or . he had but he must show in the affirmative.&quot. VIII. that it hold it should be impossible to be not worth the answering.&quot. that brraketb your argument in pieces.a. shall go either it where the natural est ac si set in duobus:&quot. yet when it comes he to Thorp. that is born of lie of a pleading regni tliat . a rule of the civil law. li&amp. 3 H.&amp. &quot.&quot. to be a rule. 14 H. fol.&quot. he cannot be sw rn over atrain he hath but one conscience. And will now pass on to the second main &quot.venire facias&quot. and not. when two rights do meet in person. - may I countries: and therefore be made. be any one instance showed forth to the See!) KHz. &quot. which are things so re verend. I of Winchester.allegiance of England. where the pleading at large is entered &amp. 6 H.CASE OF THE POST-NATI OF SCOTLAND. that natural person . pi.. otherwise you fall upon a main rock.lt. it shall be tried where the action is brought. 19. which is your best book. the prior of Shell s case. &quot. will be certified &quot. And therefore it he should do homage again. 1 will put but two cases . you must acknowledge and &quot. that farther form of pleading beateth down your but adjudged.the alle giance of the kings. for there be no more and there you shall find still &quot._re. there is An^lne. in. point: they &quot.&quot. but ruled that he should not do homage a^ain nay in the case of the king.extra legeantiam domini regis. sihi ct man suis. according to the truth.&quot. or if it scaccarii. ing wore h. Now. IV. and stay there.gt. but of common reason. chief justice. whether he should qualify thirteen chaplains ? Now. : j by the roll.&quot. neither can there.&quot. &quot.. They say this unity in the bishop or the rector doth not create precedents in the privity : any between the parishioners or dioceseners. nr argument. other case which I will put is the case of homage.lid. and are indeed towards the reasons of the the book. Ass.&quot. 35.&quot. pugnus.&quot. but a true and sound distinction or limitation. fol.natus tried.&quot.&quot.ided. and privy counsellor. or of a Jerseyman ? nay. he should not. it evermore faileth and deceiveth in cases where there is any vigour or operation of the and&quot. A8 trial.&quot. not of the civil law only.&quot. See the book of entries. all at once. &quot. and the obligation of reason is : how should the birth of an Irish this oath trencheth between the natural person of p 2 . or any part of the world I For to all these the like objection of trial fain bring t &amp.r th pleadings ftK variable in this point. It is some other obedientia.intia. whether Scotland be within the allegiance of the king. the allegiance of England. 7. he shall not pay a second respect ot homage. ordaineth that a marquis treasurer three. because the attendance of chaplains con out of the allegiance of the king. because they are within no this receives no answer.sub ligeantia domini or regis. 48. lie would it to that. Nay. This rule I allow.we to give the rule. of England a privy counsellor The Lord Treasurer Paulet was Marquis &quot. but otherwise it is in the case of the crown. as there is said.&quot. VIII. pleaded and traversed. he should . for the &quot. and two other places. in one no confusion of them. of for &quot. a lord four.gt. duo &e. more none of those that are subject for the tried. Hut show me some precedent the lar^e.the same lord. And the book in the 24 Edw. although. because issue shall be taken thereupon. whereas Mr. for | J no other but because when a man is sworn to his lord. it is obruimur numero. but receiveth no forced or coined. or display ed.&quot. 27 Ass. as upon ijrave and deliberate considera usus tion it was resolved. as paln. The question was. vary in the word &quot. although he but. VI. opened or unfolded. they make all for us. For you have 22 say. and ciremn-tances but in the form of and regni&quot.aequum : birth is laid. containing the reasons of the law. sub ligeantia \Vahrr said English parents in Spain or Florence. but &quot. l)iit then. two tenancies and can have no other reason hut to apprize the court. there descendeth unto him that in a real action is all one: nor it cannot be afterwards a tenancy held of the manor of Sale. or one parson that jura. contrary. Cum : fol. two seinories. VIII. they vary not am |iersu. And for the very words of reporters in books.gt. and &quot. law. I certainly. for the which manor of Sale is likewise in the hands of issue must arise on the other side upon Cum duo jura. for generally in corporations the natural body is bufsuffulcimentum turn corporis corporati. the statute of 21 H. And the reason opinion that it sufficeth not to say that he is born was. In all these books the very words of the reporters have &quot. by the rule di jcna&quot. by the rule &quot. &quot. And therefore the forms of pleading. under the but one soul. as was said.&quot.&quot.credihus &quot. saith. as if they were in several persons: and they bring examples of one man bishop of two sees. how should birth of a subject be tried. III. 1 Manet s &MU6. 2. cerned and respected his natural person . for of the manor of Dale. though he had three offices. you have sometimes the words &quot.

all the Indies had been naturalized ny the confession of the adverse part. if we like not their con sort* But these being reasons politic. that countries of conquest. yet the reason which new coined. to the enfeebling of that realm of of Jersey and Guernsey. being people of the To avoid this.&quot. as if they were foreigners. as if. and allegi ance naturalization. as well to of conquest as case of descent. toward the other 1 These A won are the intricate consequences of conceits. but it is good is to behold in these great matters of state in cases of lower element. whensoever wars are. touching the dependency of allegiance upon law. that the laws of Eng- . are things of a near nature. of which kind saith well.ipso jure. had accepted Ohristopher Columbus. and not legal. And.gt. since it is confessed. upon the stayeth not within the compass of the present case. in the king s descendants. as the eclipse of the sun a pail of water. and how weak they are in ment. lord keeper. so it will be. may be applied to persons every way to it &quot. The second is the concourse of Scotsmen into* ralized . that they confess the subjects of the Isles this kingdom. when they were English. the strongest of all authorities is. which are people not made parcel of England. which may ensue of a general naturalization &quot. and of homage liege. and law doth draw the allegiance. as The third is. therefore. there should and error. for we can make an act of doms parliament of separation.) it is. for they are driven same king. in subjects obtained by Conquest. I demand. they may come in too fast. therefore. which is. it were more profit l. I think no man that doth attentively ponder them can doubt. quired by the arms and treasure of England. To To these conceits of inconvenience. and the dominions of the supports of the difference. and we are not now in parliament. I think.!&amp. were naturalized . which is. as it is like. And. But will set this new learning on ground Scotsmen. If the king should conquer any foreign country hy an army compounded of Englishmen and Scotsmen. that if I wax rich upon the manor of Dale.j England. only &quot. I say. And.&quot.lt. therefore. in Dyer. they fly to a difference. person of the lord. if a man can allege the authority of his adversary three have been specially remembered. that the very selfsame objections do hold in countries purchased by conquest. because they are ac but &quot. it shall suffice to say. themselves.tanquam ad ultimum refugium.j incienizate oy the poll .alterius cceli. are by one reason. Whether any man will think it reasonable. that such subjects be naturalized in both king ralizing of the Indies. For in subjects obtained conquest. which countries patrimonial aienot. for although it were some reason that question put to the judges by Sir Nicholas Bacon. that the reason of this case you may find in the 5 Eliz. for seizure of aliens lands are in regard the king hath no hold or command of their persons and services. And yet we see very few families of them throughout the cities and boroughs of England. and that all these objec tions are common and indifferent. that it were a very strange argu it is to give answer. used to be The third main argument containeth certain supposed inconveniences. second reason they allege is. especially since 1 have one answer which avoids and confounds all their objections in law. that the j But to the major proposition of that argument. say they. we all conceive the springtide past at the king s first coming in. and the subjects of Calais and Tournay. that they confessed the Irish are natu letters of denization and purchases of aliens. Scotsmen were naturalized. full of ignorance future time. to be natu Scotland in people. whereby the the offer of i shall