chemistry experiment

Microscale Chemistry Experiments: Adaptation to Malaysian National Curriculum

School of Chemical Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia Penang, Malaysia
Prepared under UNESCO Contract No: 4500049693

CONTENTS
Foreword Preface List of apparatus 6 8 9

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY SCIENTIFIC METHOD A. Investigating the effect of the temperature of water on the solubility of sugar 10

CHAPTER 2
THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM A. DIFFUSION OF PARTICLES IN SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES I. Diffusion of gases II. Diffusion of liquids ** III. Diffusion of solids 12 13 13

CHAPTER 3
CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS A. DETERMINING THE EMPIRICAL FORMULA OF COPPER(II) OXIDE ** B. CONSTRUCTING BALANCED CHEMICAL EQUATIONS I. Heating of copper(II) carbonate ** II. Formation of ammonium chloride III. Precipitation of lead(II) iodide 15

18 19 19

CHAPTER 4
PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS A. INVESTIGATING THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GROUP 17 ELEMENTS I. Reactions of halogens with water a) Chlorine with water ** b) Bromine with water ** c) Iodine with water

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II. Reactions of halogen with iron a) Chlorine with iron ** b) Bromine with iron ** c) Iodine with iron ** III. Reactions of halogens with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution a) Chlorine with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution b) Bromine with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution. c) Iodine with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution B. STUDYING THE PROPERTIES OF OXIDES OF THE ELEMENTS IN PERIOD 3 I. Reaction of oxides of Period 3 elements with water II. Reaction of oxides of Period 3 elements with 2 M nitric acid and 2 M sodium hydroxide solutions

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29 30

CHAPTER 5
CHEMICAL BONDS A. PREPARATION OF IONIC COMPOUNDS I. Preparation of magnesium oxide II. Preparation of iron(III) chloride ** 32 33

B. COMPARING THE PROPERTIES OF IONIC AND COVALENT COMPOUNDS I. Melting point and boiling point 35 II. Solubility in water and organic solvents 36 III.Electrical conductivity 37

CHAPTER 6
ELECTROCHEMISTRY A.CLASSIFYING CHEMICALS INTO ELECTROLYTES AND NON-ELECTROLYTES I. Molten substances II. Aqueous solutions B. ELECTROLYSIS OF MOLTEN COMPOUNDS C. INVESTIGATING THE ELECTROLYSIS OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS I. Electrolysis of sodium hydroxide solution ** II. Electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution D. PURIFICATION OF COPPER

39 40 42 44 45 47

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CARBONATE AND CHLORIDE SALTS 73 B. ELECTROPLATING AN OBJECT WITH COPPER F. INVESTIGATING THE ROLE OF WATER IN SHOWING THE PROPERTIES OF ACIDS B. DETERMINING THE END POINT OF THE TITRATION BETWEEN HYDROCHLORIC ACID.E. CONSTRUCTING THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES USING THE PRINCIPLE OF DISPLACEMENT OF METALS 49 51 53 55 CHAPTER 7 ACID AND BASES A. STUDYING THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BASES I. 76 4 . MEASURING THE pH OF SOLUTIONS USED IN DAILY LIFE ** E. Reactions of bases with ammonium salts III. NaOH SOLUTION USING AN ACID-BASE INDICATOR ** 57 59 61 62 64 65 65 67 69 CHAPTER 8 SALTS A.PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY FROM CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN A DANIEL CELL H.Reactions of bases with metal ions D.Recrystallisation of the salt. Reactions of bases with acids II. SULPHATE. Preparation of the salt 76 III. SOLUBILITY OF NITRATE. Reactions of acids with bases II.Reactions of acids with metal carbonates C. PREPARATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS BY MIXING ACIDS WITH BASES I. To determine the volume of acid for neutralization 75 II.PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY FROM CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN A SIMPLE VOLTAIC CELL G. HCl AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE. Reactions of acids with metals III. STUDYING THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS I.

SO2 VIII. Preparation of the salt 99 100 ** Experiments from the UNESCO Advanced Teaching and Learning Packages on Microchemistry Experiences which have been adapted to the Malaysian National Curriculum (Form Four) website http://portal.Preparation of barium sulphate E. Test for hydrogen chloride gas. CO3295 II. Cl96 296 III. HCl VII. Test for oxygen gas.CONSTRUCTING THE IONIC EQUATION FOR THE FORMATION OF LEAD(II) CHROMATE(VI) F. H2 III. STUDYING THE EFFECT OF HEAT ON CARBONATE AND NITRATE SALTS I.phpURL_ID=6816&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201. Test for carbonate ion. Carbonate salts ** 91 II. Test for ammonia gas.html 5 .Test for nitrate ion. Test for hydrogen gas. PREPARATION OF INSOLUBLE SALTS BY CARRYING OUT A PRECIPITATION REACTION I.Test for sulphate ion.Test for nitrogen dioxide gas.PREPARATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS BY MIXING AN ACID WITH AN INSOLUBLE METAL OXIDE D.C. PREPARATION OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE FERTILIZER I.org/science/en/ev. Nitrate salts 92 H. O2 II. Test for chloride ion. CARRYING OUT CHEMICAL TESTS TO IDENTIFY GASES I.Test for sulphur dioxide gas. Test for chlorine gas VI. Preparation of lead(II) iodide II. SO4 IV. Preparation of lead(II) chromate(VI) III. To determine the volume of acid for neutralization II. NO2 78 80 80 81 82 84 85 86 86 87 87 88 89 G. TESTING FOR THE PRESENCE OF ANIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION I. Test for carbon dioxide gas. CO2 IV.unesco. NH3 V. NO397 CHAPTER 9 MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY A.

Using this approach. I would like to acknowledge the authors. Central to the teaching-learning approach in the chemistry curriculum is practical work which involves scientific investigations and hands-on activities. experiments in this manual have been developed at the School of Chemical Sciences. teachers will be encouraged to view microscale chemistry experiments as a viable alternative to conducting practical work in chemistry. In this respect. Chemistry is offered to students at the upper secondary level beginning in Form Four (equivalent to Grade 10). Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) according to the chemistry syllabus for the Malaysian Form Four Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools (KBSM). safe. It also has the potential to significantly enhance learning and development of conceptual understanding. in advancing further the use of microscale chemistry. Mrs Mashita Abdullah and Assoc. The chemistry curriculum is organised based on the following themes: introduction to chemistry. Zurida Hj Ismail for their dedication in compiling this work. Prof. interactions between chemicals and production and management of manufactured chemicals. easy manipulative techniques and high quality skills.FOREWORD In Malaysia. Prof. It is conducted by using reduced amounts of chemicals. Microscale chemistry is an approach to performing chemistry experiments which provides hands-on activities and personal experiences where students can do experiments individually. Tan Sri Dato’ Dzulkifli Abdul Razak VICE-CHANCELLOR UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA 11800 USM. PENANG MALAYSIA 6 . miniature labware. USM. Prof. UNESCO in particular. Norita Mohamed. I hope that with this manual of experiments. matter around us. through its innovative effort is proud to collaborate with any party.

Malaysian specialists have prepared the adapted version of the chemistry materials using part of UNESCO’s learning materials with great success: 39 new experiments were tested using the advanced Microchemistry kits and 13 experiments were adapted from UNESCO materials. NATURAL SCIENCES SECTOR DIVISION OF BASIC AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES Academician Alexandre Pokrovsky DIRECTOR MICROSCIENCE EXPERIMENTS PROGRAM OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR CHEMICAL SCIENCES IN DEVELOPMENT (IOCD) 7 .The Global Microscience Experiments Project. Biology and Physics have been prepared and are available free on the UNESCO website. We would like to congratulate warmly our Malaysian colleagues for the present publication and the excellent result which can constitute an example of best practice within the Global Microscience Experiments Project and a good model for use by other countries in the world. Chemistry. Many teaching and learning materials on Microscience experiments covering Primary Sciences. is very well known throughout the world. However. We hope that the present adapted version of the UNESCO learning materials in microchemistry and especially the 39 new experiments could be examined by other interested countries and could be used totally or partially in their own educational programs. the key point for the successful development of the project in a national level is the preparation of adapted versions of the existing materials to fit the national educational needs and curricula. Maria Liouliou PROJECT COORDINATOR UNESCO. created by UNESCO in close cooperation with various international and national organisations. We believe that the Malaysian adaptation of Microchemistry Experiments contributes to a new phase of the Global Microscience Experiments Project whereby such adaptations become important components of the teaching and learning materials available to all.

Zurida Hj Ismail (zurida@usm. Director of Microscience Experiments Programme IOCD and Prof. and a saving of up to 75 percent in time spent in conducting the experiments. electrochemistry. there is a reduction of up to 70 percent in chemical wastes produced and chemical costs. The rest of the experiments (39) have been developed according to the Malaysian Form Four chemistry syllabus by replacing the traditional apparatus with microscale chemistry apparatus. The experiments have been designed using the Advanced Microchemistry Kit (Somerset Educational South Africa) and also glassware with a smaller volume.my) SCHOOL OF EDUCATIONAL STUDIES UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA 11800 USM. We are also grateful to Prof. It comprises nine chapters which include: introduction to chemistry. PENANG MALAYSIA 8 . Norita Mohamed (mnorita@usm. Our continuing work with microscale chemistry experimentation with teachers and students through workshops held and school trials. salts and manufactured substances in industry.com) SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL SCIENCES Assoc. John D.my) Mrs Mashita Abdullah (mashita92@yahoo. Director of RADMASTE Centre. chemical formulae and equations. Prof. We hope that with these experiments. Bradley. Prof. We would like to especially acknowledge the assistance of Academician Alexandre Pokrovsky. Thirteen experiments (marked with ** in the Table of Contents) in this manual have been adapted from experiments in the ‘UNESCO Advanced Learning Package on Microchemistry Experiences’ prepared by the RADMASTE UNESCO Associated Centre of the University of Witwatersrand (South Africa) in cooperation with the Committee on Teaching of Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and UNESCO. periodic table of elements. chemical bonds. have shown that with this approach. acids and bases. Dean of the School of Chemical Sciences for his support in the development of microchemistry experiments at Universiti Sains Malaysia.PREFACE This manual of experiments has been prepared as a students’ learning package for Form Four (equivalent to Grade 10) secondary school students. Wan Ahmad Kamil Mahmood. the structure of the atom. teachers will be able to experience themselves the feasibility of conducting chemistry practical work with a microscale approach.

List of apparatus Advanced Microchemistry Kit (Somerset Educational) Big sample vial and lid Comboplate Combustion tube Crossarms for microstand Gas collecting tube Glass fusion tube Glass rod LED Lid 1 Lid 2 Microburner Microburette Microspatula Microstand Plasticine Propette Silicone tube Small sample vial and lid Straw electrodes Syringe Voltmeter Wire connections Other components 10 cm3 beaker 25 cm3 conical flask 10 cm3 measuring cylinder Blue litmus paper Battery 9V Durham tubes Filter funnel Microcrucible Microtripod stand Pencil lead Pipe-clay triangle Small wire gauze Test tube Thermometer Universal indicator paper W-tube Wire gauze 9 .

Figure 1. 6. 50 °C. glass rod. Fill another 10 cm3 beaker with sugar. microtripod stand. 2. 10 cm3 beakers. Record the temperature of the water with a thermometer. Fill a measuring cylinder with 10 cm3 of water and pour it into a 10 cm3 beaker. 7. 60 °C and 70 °C each time. 10 . electronic balance. thermometer. Repeat the experiment using water heated to different temperatures – 40 °C. 4. Investigating the effect of the temperature of water on the solubility of sugar Objective: To investigate the effect of the temperature of water on the solubility of sugar Apparatus: 10 cm3 measuring cylinder. Weigh the beaker with the sugar again and record the weight as b g. Materials: Sugar and water. wire gauze. 5. Add the sugar a little at a time to the 10 cm3 of water in the beaker using a microspatula.Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemistry Scientific Method A. microburner. 3. Heat the water using a microburner (refer to setting up of the microburner below). The amount of sugar that dissolves in the water at room temperature is (b-a) g. Continue adding the sugar until no more sugar dissolves in the water. 9. 8.1 Procedure: 1. Record the results in the following table. Weigh the beaker and its contents and record the weight as a g.

(2005).C. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. O. U. Lim. N. 4. E. (Both axes must be labeled with their units and the title of the graph must be given). (ii) the responding variable. & Ahmad. State: (i) the manipulated variable. & Tan.. 3. Chemistry practical book form 4..N. Low. 2.W. Bhd: Shah Alam. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. W. S. Exploring Chemistry Form 4. Attach the microburner lid (with glass tube and wick) to the vial and light the microburner. Plot a graph of the mass of sugar dissolved against temperature.L. (2006). 11 .K. Lim.Setting up the microburner: Fill three quarters of the microburner vial with methylated spirit. 2. give a conclusion for the experiment. Fajar Bakti Sdn. Y. State the hypothesis for the experiment.T..H. Data and Observations: Temperature (°C) Initial mass of beaker and Its contents (g) Final mass of beaker and its contents (g) Mass of sugar dissolved (g) Conclusions: Room temperature A B (b-a) 40 b c (c-b) 50 c d (d-c) 60 d e (e-d) 70 e f (f-e) Questions: 1. From the graph. (iii) the fixed(controlled) variables of the experiment. References: 1. Loh. Eng. Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools.

Wear gloves when handling this substance. hot liquid gel. dry propette to add 2-3 drops of bromine into the tube. small sample vial and lid. KMnO4 crystals.1 1. Apparatus: Gas collecting tube. comboplate. big sample vial and lid. potassium manganate(VII). Procedure: I. Watch Out! Liquid bromine. KMnO4 solution. Use a clean. Put a gas collecting tube in well F1 of the comboplate in a vertical position using plasticine at the bottom of the well. This activity must be carried out in a fume chamber. Diffusion of gases Figure 2. Br2. 12 . Take the comboplate into the fume chamber. propette and plasticine. 4. tap water. Close the tube immediately and record any observations for several minutes. 3. silicone tube. 2. 1 mol dm-3 potassium manganate(VII). Br2 is toxic and corrosive.Chapter 2: The Structure of the Atom A. Diffusion of particles in solids. syringe. Materials: Liquid bromine. a liquid and a solid. liquids and gases Objective: To investigate the diffusion of particles in a gas.

Press the plunger of the syringe slowly so that the KMnO4 solution flows down the tube into the water at the bottom of the vial. 2. Put a lid onto the vial and seal the hole in the lid with a piece of plasticine. III.3 13 .2 1. Fill ¾ of a small sample vial with water.II. Attach the silicone tube to the nozzle of the syringe. Fill the syringe with 1 mol dm-3 of KMnO4 solution. Carefully insert the silicone tube into the water in the vial until the open end touches the bottom. Diffusion of solids Figure 2. 7. 4. 5. Carefully remove the tube and syringe. 6. Diffusion of liquids Figure 2. 3.

Low. 4. Based on your observations. Chemistry practical book form 4. E. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. (2005). a liquid and a solid in ascending order. what can you conclude? 3. Cl2? 6. L. In Section I. Fill a big sample vial with the hot gel solution and leave it aside to solidify.K. Bell. Lim. Why must the test tube in Section III be clamped upside down? 2. U. 2. Based on your observations in Sections I. Br2 with a lighter gas such as chlorine. Lim. Leave the vial for one day and record any changes which have occurred.3. Magister-Press Publishing House: Moscow. what will happen if you replace bromine. & Ahmad.C. What will you observe if you repeat the activity in Section II with boiling water? References: 1. & Tan. Based on your results.1. B. 5.N. arrange the rate of diffusion in a gas. Eng.Bhd: Petaling Jaya.. N. J.W. Advanced learning packages. 3. II and III... 2.D. Microchemistry experiences. Y. 14 . & Bradley. Put the vial upside down as shown in Figure 2. (2002). Put some crystals of KMnO4 on the lid of the vial and close the vial containing the gel. S. Data and Observations: Experiments I Observations II III Conclusions: Questions: 1.H. define diffusion. L. Explain your answer.

Chapter 3: Chemical Formulae and Equations A. Determining the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide Objective: To determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide Apparatus: Comboplate, 2 cm3 syringes, glass tube (6 cm x 4 mm), lid 1, lid 2, microspatula, propette, 2 silicone tubes (4 cm x 4 mm), microburner and matches. 2 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4, granulated zinc, Zn, 1 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate, CuSO4 solution, copper(II) oxide, CuO powder, and methylated spirit.

Materials:

Figure 3.1 Procedure: 1. Use a microspatula to add about 0.5 to 1 g of granulated zinc to well F1. 2. Fill two thirds of well F6 with tap water from a propette. 3. Seal well F1 with lid 1. Seal well F6 with lid 2 so that the vent hole faces outwards. 4. Connect one end of a silicone tube to the tube connector on lid 1. Connect one end of the other silicone tube to the tube connector on lid 2. 5. Weigh the glass tube and record the weight. 6. Hold the glass tube in a horizontal position. Use the narrow end of a clean microspatula to place a small quantity of copper(II) oxide powder in the center of the glass tube. 7. Weigh the glass tube with the copper(II) oxide and record its weight. 8. Keep the glass tube horizontal and attach one end to the silicone tube on lid 1. Connect the other end to the silicone tube on lid 2. Note: keep the glass tube horizontal at all times otherwise the powder might spill into well F1 or F6. 15

9. Fill the syringe with 1 ml of 2 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. Fit the nozzle of the syringe into the syringe inlet on lid 1. Watch Out! Be careful when you handle acids. Acids are corrosive. 10. Light the microburner (refer to pg 11, Chap 1) and place it away from the comboplate. 11. Add the sulphuric acid very slowly from the syringe into well F1. 12. Using a propette, add slowly through the tube connector, 2 – 3 drops of copper(II) sulphate solution into well F1. 13. When a few bubbles have come through the water in well F6, bring the flame of the microburner to the middle of the glass tube where the copper(II) oxide powder has been placed. Hold the microburner in this position. Caution: Do not bring the flame of the microburner near the silicone tubes (as they will melt) or the vent of well F1 (as hydrogen is explosive) 14. Stop heating the copper(II) oxide powder after about 2 minutes or after it has changed in appearance. Blow out the microburner flame. 15. Continue the flow of hydrogen gas, H2, until the apparatus cools down to room temperature. 16. Weigh the glass tube and its content and record the weight. 17. If there is water being sucked up from well F6 into the glass tube, disconnect lid 2 from well F6. 18. Repeat heating, cooling and weighing in steps 13 to 16 until a constant mass is achieved. Record the constant mass in your notebook. Caution: A mixture of hydrogen and air will explode when lighted. Note: The 2 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, granulated zinc and 1 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate solution can be replaced by 5.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid and zinc powder. Data and Observations: Description Glass tube Glass tube + copper(II) oxide Glass tube + copper Copper Oxygen Moles Moles of copper Moles of oxygen Mole ratio Mass (g)

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Conclusions:

Questions: 1. Describe what happens to the CuO(s). 2. What other changes occur in the glass tube? 3. What chemical reaction has occurred in the tube? Write down the chemical reaction for the production of hydrogen. 4. Why do you need to repeat heating, cooling and weighing until a constant mass is achieved? 5. Based on your results, calculate the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide. References: 1. Low, S.N., Lim, Y.C., Eng, N.H., Lim, E.W. & Ahmad, U.K. & Tan, L.L. (2005). Chemistry practical book form 4, Abadi Ilmu Sdn. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. 2. Bell, B. & Bradley, J.D. (2002). Advanced learning packages, Microchemistry experiences, Magister-Press Publishing House: Moscow.

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propettes. Note its color. 18 . Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 3. Use the narrow end of a plastic microspatula to fill about ½ of the fusion tube with copper(II) carbonate powder. Ca(OH)2. When the reaction is completed. microburner. W-tube. 3. withdraw the silicone tube. Pb(NO3)2 solution and potassium iodide.2 (refer to pg 11. Record the observations in the notebook. lid 2. 5. CuCO3 powder.Chapter 3: Chemical Formulae and Equations B. lime water. Chap 1 for setting up of microburner). microspatula. lead(II) nitrate. HCl. crossarms for microstand. concentrated ammonia. KI solution. Hold the fusion tube in a horizontal position. 4.2 1. Constructing balanced chemical equations Objective: To construct balanced chemical equations Apparatus: Materials: Comboplate. Heat the copper(II) carbonate and pass the gas produced through limewater in well F4. 2. NH3 solution. concentrated hydrochloric acid. Heating of copper(II) carbonate Figure 3. Copper(II) carbonate. Observe what happens to the copper(II) carbonate and the limewater. glass fusion tube. silicone tube. Procedure: I.

Precipitation of lead(II) iodide Figure 3. place three or four drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid in one of the outer tubes of the W-tube. Caution: Do not shake vigorously. Caution: Concentrated hydrochloric acid and ammonia are corrosive and harmful. place three or four drops of concentrated ammonia solution into the other outer tube of the W-tube.4 19 . Observe what happens in the middle of the W-tube and record your observations.3 1. Using a propette. Using another propette.II. It may cause the solutions to mix together. Shake the W-tube carefully to allow the gases to flow. III. Therefore. handle these solutions carefully and carry out these activities in the fume chamber. 4. Formation of ammonium chloride Figure 3. 2. 3.

B. Y. H.1. J. a) The reactants and products in Sections I.C. Data and Observations: Section I II III Reactants Products Conclusions: Questions: 1. S. Low. & Ahmad.K. gas or aqueous solution. 2. liquid. N. II and III. 2. 3. Gupta. 84(2). (2002). 4. 321. & Tan. Write a balanced chemical equation for each reaction that occurs. Lim. Eng.L. L. Magister-Press Publishing House: Moscow. E.W. (2005)... Journal of Chemical Education. Using a propette. c) The chemical formula of each of the reactants and products.N. 2. U. Construct a table to fill in the following data. Advanced learning packages. Chemistry practical book form 4. Stir the mixture using a microspatula and observe what happens. 3. Abadi Ilmu Sdn.H. Lim. 20 . place the lead(II) nitrate solution until ¼ of well F1 of the comboplate is filled up. Record your observations in your notebook. References: 1. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. b) The state of each reactant and product that is whether it exists as a solid. A novel W-Tube for microscale experiments in chemistry.D. Bell.. (2007). Microchemistry experiences. & Bradley. Add the potassium iodide solution until half of the well is filled up.O.

Reactions of halogens with water Apparatus: Materials: Comboplate. propette. microspatula. Wear gloves and safety goggles when handling these halogens.Chapter 4: Periodic table of elements A. Objective: To investigate the chemical properties of group 17 elements. I. KBr solution. household bleach. potassium bromide. bromine gas and solid iodine are poisonous. distilled water. 2. Investigating the chemical properties of group 17 elements. 4. Caution: Chlorine gas. Carry out the experiment in the fume chamber. blue litmus paper. potassium manganate(VII). Procedure: a) Chlorine with water Figure 4. Put a piece of blue litmus paper into the solution produced in well F2. Record the observations in a table in your notebook. iodine. silicone tube. syringe. 21 . HCl. Pass the chlorine gas into 1 cm3 of distilled water in well F2.1. 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. lid 2.1 1. lid 1. KMnO4. Observe any changes in colour. as shown in Figure 4. 3. I2 solid.

22 . Record the observations in your notebook. Put a piece of blue litmus paper into the solution produced.3 1.2 1. 3. 4. 4. 2. Record the observations in a table. Stir the mixture using a microspatula until no further changes occur. Observe any changes in colour. Put a small piece of solid iodine into 1 cm3 of distilled water in well F4. 3. 5.b) Bromine with water Figure 4. 2. Pass the bromine gas into 1 cm3 of distilled water in well F3. as shown in Figure 4. Observe any changes in colour. c) Iodine with water Figure 4.2. Put a piece of blue litmus paper into the solution produced.

iron.0 cm3 of hydrochloric acid very slowly using the syringe. syringe.4 1. Procedure: a) Chlorine with iron Figure 4.4. HCl. KMnO4. crossarms microstand. 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. potassium bromide. Reactions of halogens with iron Apparatus: Materials: Comboplate. household bleach. glass tube. silicone tube. Chap 1 for setting up of microburner). 3. Record the observations in a table in your notebook. so that the chlorine gas produced will pass over the hot iron powder.II. fusion tube. When the iron powder becomes red hot. 4. Fe powder. I2. 2. hot water. microburner. Heat the iron powder in the glass tube strongly with a microburner (refer to pg 11. plasticine. solid iodine. potassium manganate(VII). 23 . KBr. add the 1. soda lime. propette. Observe any changes. Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 4.

5 1.b) Bromine with iron Figure 4. 3. When the iron powder becomes red hot. Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 4. Heat the iron powder in the combustion tube strongly. Record your observations in a table in your notebook. c) Iodine with iron Figure 4.6 24 . 2. so that the bromine gas produced will pass over the hot iron powder. add the potassium manganate(VII) solution very slowly.5. Observe any changes. 4.

5. potassium manganate(VII). heat the iodine crystals in the fusion tube to sublime it. Materials: 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid.1. 4. silicone tube. III. 2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide. NaOH solution Apparatus: Comboplate. Caution: Be careful when handling halogens and sodium hydroxide solution. Heat the iron powder in the glass tube strongly. lid 1. Put some iodine in a fusion tube and set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 4. syringe. 2. as shown in Figure 4. I2 solid. When the iron powder becomes red hot.6. 2. HCl. NaOH solution. Pass the chlorine gas into 1 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution in well F2. household bleach. Observe any changes in colour. microspatula. Procedure: a) Chlorine with sodium hydroxide.7 1. potassium bromide. 25 . lid 2. Record your observations in your notebook. iodine. KMnO4. KBr. propette. 3. Reactions of halogens with sodium hydroxide. Pass the iodine vapor over the hot iron powder until no further changes occur.7. Record your observations in a table in your notebook. NaOH solution Figure 4.

Pass the bromine gas into 1 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution in well F3 as shown in Figure 4. Observe any changes in colour. Stir the mixture using a microspatula until no further changes occur. I2 into 1 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution in well F4. 2. NaOH solution. c) Iodine with sodium hydroxide. NaOH solution Figure 4.8 1. Put a small piece of solid iodine.8. Figure 4. 26 . Record your observations in your notebook.b) Bromine with sodium hydroxide.9 1. 2.

4. b) What are the products formed when chlorine. Observe any changes in colour. State the variables and the operational definition. Conclusions: Questions: 1. What is the function of soda lime in Section II? 27 . Record your observations in a table in your notebook.3. a) State the properties exhibited by each halogen when they react with water. 2. bromine and iodine react with water? c) Write the chemical equations for the reactions. Data and Observations: Halogen Reactant Water Chlorine Observation Bromine Iodine Iron powder Sodium hydroxide Construct a hypothesis for the experiment involving halogens and sodium hydroxide. In Section I.

edu/Microscale_Gas_Chemistry. Microscale gas chemistry: experiments with chlorine. 6.N.D. Explain your answers. 3. Low. Advanced learning packages.. Eng. bromine and iodine react with sodium hydroxide. NaOH solution? b) Write the chemical equations for these reactions. (2002). B. 5. bromine and iodine with iron? b) Write the chemical equations for these reactions. Why must the iron powder be heated first before these halogens are passed over it in Section II? 4. U.html.W. Chemistry practical book form 4.K. Microchemistry experiences.. E. (2005). Retrieved from: http://mattson. N. Lim. & Tan. & Ahmad. a) What are the products for the reactions between chlorine. 2. S. Describe the changes in reactivity of Group 17 elements when going down the group.H. Y. Bell. & Bradley.C.. a) What are the products when chlorine. Lim.3. Magister-Press Publishing House: Moscow. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. References: 1.L. 28 . J. L. Abadi Ilmu Sdn.creighton.

Use a clean propette to fill half of wells F1 to F5 with distilled water.Chapter 4: Periodic table of elements B. Figure 4. silicone(IV) oxide. Use the spooned ends of different microspatulas to add sodium oxide. magnesium oxide. propette. Na2O. microburner.10 1. 29 . Stir the solution using the microspatula and observe the solubility of the oxides. aluminium oxide. Procedure: I. magnesium oxide. glass rod. silicone dioxide. and 2 cm3 syringe. 2 mol dm-3 nitric acid. and phosphorus pentoxide to wells F1 to F5 respectively. Studying the properties of oxides of the elements in Period 3. NaOH solution distilled water. SiO2. 2. 4. Objective: To study the properties of the oxides of elements in Period 3. Apparatus: Chemicals: Comboplate. 3. universal indicator solution. syringe. Sodium oxide. P2O5. Reaction of oxides of Period 3 elements with water. Add one drop of universal indicator solution to each solution and record the pH of the solution. Al2O3. HNO3. aluminium oxide. MgO. phosphorus pentoxide. and 2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide. microspatulas.

8. Light the microburner (refer to pg 11. 7.11 1. Oxide Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P2O5 30 Observations Solubility in water pH values of solution Inference . Heat the reaction mixture in F1 by stirring with the heated glass rod. 5. Use the spooned end of a microspatula to place one level spatula of sodium oxide powder into wells F1 and E1 of the comboplate. Data and Observations: I.5 cm3 of nitric acid and 0. 2.5 cm3 of sodium hydroxide to the contents in each well F1 and E1. 4. Record the solubility of sodium oxide in the two solutions. Reaction of oxides of Period 3 elements with 2 M nitric acid and 2 M sodium hydroxide solutions Figure 4. 3. and repeat the heating process a few times. Caution: Do not keep the rod in the flame for a long period. aluminium oxide.II. Repeat this process to the contents of E1. 6. silicon(IV) oxide and phosphorus(V) oxide respectively in wells F2 to F5 and E2 to E5. Rinse and dry the rod. Repeat the experiment with magnesium oxide. Chap 1) and fully heat one end of the glass rod in the flame. Fill the syringe with 0.

. Why are nitric acid and sodium hydroxide solution used in this experiment? 2. 31 . References: 1. if any. & Ahmad.II.W. MgO. E. (2005).N. b) Aluminium oxide. if any. Write the chemical equations for all the reactions of the oxides of Period 3 elements with water. Eng. 3. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. Chemistry practical book form 4. N. Lim. if any..C. U. Bhd: Petaling Jaya..L. Lim. L. Al2O3.H. Low.K. Oxide Na2O MgO Al2O3 Solubility in 2 mol dm-3 NaOH Solubility in 2 mol dm-3 HNO3 Inference SiO2 P2O5 Conclusions: Questions: 1. S. Write the chemical equations for the reactions of sodium hydroxide solution and nitric acid with a) Magnesium oxide. Y. & Tan.

Chapter 5: Chemical bonds A. pipe-clay triangle. Figure 5. Magnesium ribbon. microburner. Observe what happens to the magnesium ribbon. microtripod stand. Preparation of ionic compounds Objective: To prepare ionic compounds I. Record it in your notebook. 32 . Chap 1).1. Preparation of magnesium oxide Apparatus: Materials: Procedure: Microcrucible. 4. Heat the magnesium ribbon strongly with a microburner (refer to pg 11. Place the magnesium ribbon in a microcrucible as shown in Figure 5. Use sand paper to remove the oxide layer on the surface of the magnesium ribbon. 2. Obtain a 2 cm length of magnesium ribbon. 3. sand paper and methylated spirit.1 1. 5.

Data and Observations: Experiment I Observations II 33 . Fe powder. glass tube. add the 1. 2. Figure 5. Record your observations in a table in your notebook. HCl and sodium hydroxide. so that the chlorine gas produced passes over the hot iron powder. Preparation of iron(III) chloride Apparatus: Materials: Comboplate. 2 mol dm-3 Hydrochloric acid. Watch Out! Chlorine gas is poisonous. 4. Do not inhale the gas.2 Procedure: 1. When the iron powder becomes red hot. household bleach.2. Heat the iron powder in the glass tube strongly. syringe. silicone tube.0 cm3 of hydrochloric acid using the syringe very slowly. Setup the apparatus as shown in Figure 5.II. Iron. 3. NaOH solution. Observe any changes. propette and microburner.

J. Eng. References: 1. U. B.L.H.. Lim. E. 3.Conclusions: Questions: 1. N.W. S. Microchemistry experiences. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. & Bradley. 2. Microscale gas chemistry: experiments with chlorine.edu/Microscale_Gas_Chemistry. Low. Magister-Press Publishing House: Moscow.C.K. a) What are the products of all three reactions? b) Give the chemical equations for the reactions. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. Bell.html.N. Y. L. & Ahmad.. Retrieved from: http://mattson. 34 .creighton. & Tan. Lim. (2005).D. (2002).. Advanced learning packages. Chemistry practical book form 4.

Na2SO4. Observe their physical states. C6H14. diethyl ether. Make inferences regarding their melting points and boiling points. Use the propette to place three drops of diethyl ether and hexane into wells F3 and F4 respectively.Chapter 5: Chemical bonds B. microspatula.3 1. 4. Comparing the properties of ionic and covalent compounds Objective: To compare the properties of ionic and covalent compounds I. sodium sulphate. Figure 5. Use the spooned end of a microspatula to place one level spatula of sodium chloride and sodium sulphate into wells F1 and F2 of the comboplate. 35 . 3. propette. Melting point and boiling point Apparatus: Materials: Procedure: Comboplate. (C2H5)2O and hexane. Sodium chloride. 2. Leave them aside for 5 minutes and then observe what happens. NaCl.

2. 4. propette. C6H12. (C2H5)2O. Durham tubes. 3. 36 . 5. Sodium chloride. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by using two leveled spatulas of sodium sulphate. Solubility in water and organic solvents Apparatus: Materials: Comboplate. hexane. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by using 10 drops of diethyl ether. sodium sulphate. Shake and observe whether sodium chloride is soluble or not in water. Repeat steps 1 to 3 by using 10 drops of hexane. diethyl ether. Figure 5.Data and Observations: Compound Sodium chloride Sodium sulphate Diethyl ether Hexane Physical state After 5 minutes Inference II. Add 10 drops of water into it. 6. Place the Durham tube slanting in well F1 of the comboplate. Repeat steps 1 and 2 using cyclohexane as a solvent in place of water. Use a spooned end of a microspatula to place two leveled spatulas of sodium chloride in a Durham tube. C6H14 and cyclohexane.4 Procedure: 1. Na2SO4. NaCl.

37 . LED. battery 9V. microspatula. 5. Fill a microcrucible with solid lead(II) bromide until it is half full. Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 5. C6H12O6. 3. Heat the solid lead(II) bromide until it melts.5 Procedure: Figure 5. 4. carbon electrodes. 1 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution. comboplate. Chap 1 for setting up of microburner). Electrical conductivity Apparatus: Materials: Microcrucible. PbBr2. Solid lead(II) bromide. microburner. wire gauze and microtripod stand. Observe whether the LED lights up or not. NaCl. pencil lead. 2.5 (refer to pg 11. Figure 5.Data and Observations: Solubility Compound Sodium chloride Sodium sulphate Diethyl ether Hexane In water In organic solvent III.6 1. Observe again whether the bulb lights up or not. glucose.

L.6 to test the electrical conductivity of the sodium chloride solution. solubility and electrical conductivity for both covalent and ionic compounds? References: 1. Eng.C. Low.L.K. S.6.N.. boiling point. Lim. 7. & Tan.. Y. (2005). Data and observations: Compound State Solid Lead(II) bromide Molten Solid Glucose Molten Solid Sodium chloride Aqueous solution Observation Inference Conclusions: Questions: 1. & Ahmad. Lim. Repeat steps 1 to 5 using glucose instead of lead(II) bromide. Chemistry practical book form 4. E. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. 38 . U. N.H. What can you generalize about the melting point.W.. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. Use the set-up of apparatus in Figure 5.

Repeat steps 1 to 6. Classifying chemicals into electrolytes and non-electrolytes Objective: To classify substances into electrolytes and non-electrolytes Apparatus: Materials: 9V battery. Molten substances Figure 6. 6. pencil leads. small wire gauze. 2.1. microtripod stand. Connect the battery clip of the LED to the terminals of the 9V battery and pencil leads. 7. Lead(II) bromide. 5. CuSO4 solution.1 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate. 0. naphthalene.Chapter 6: Electrochemistry A.1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide. NaOH solution. replacing the solid lead(II) bromide with naphthalene. C10H8. Immerse both the pencil leads into the molten lead(II) bromide. Fill a microcrucible with solid lead(II) bromide until it is half full. microcrucible. Chap 1). 0. comboplate. 3. microburner.1 1. heat the solid lead(II) bromide until it has melted completely. Using a microburner (refer to pg 11. propette. Procedure: Caution: Carry out Part I of the experiment in the fume chamber. LED. 4.1 mol dm-3 glucose solution and 0. 39 . I. Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 6. Record your observations in your notebook. PbBr2.

Observe what happens to the red light emitting diode (LED) in the current indicator. Use wells E2. 5. Connect the battery clip of the current indicator into well E6. Connect each of the crocodile clip to the carbon rod (pencil leads) as shown in Figure 6. 7. 2. Insert the carbon rod connected to the long black wire into solution in well E1. Repeat steps 1-6 using the copper(II) sulphate solution and glucose solution. F1 and F2. Aqueous solutions Figure 6. Data and Observation: Substance Molten lead (II) bromide Molten naphthalene Sodium hydroxide solution Glucose solution Copper(II) sulphate solution 40 LED glow Does reaction occur Electrolyte or nonelectrolyte . Make sure that the carbon rods do not touch in the solution. Insert the carbon rod connected to the long end of the red wire into the same solution in well E1. Rinse the propette with tap water to clean it.II.2. 3. Use the propette to add sodium hydroxide solution into well E1. 4. Push the lid with the current indicator into well E6.2 1. 6. Wipe the carbon rods clean.

K.Conclusions: Questions: 1.H. 41 . What substances conduct electricity? What substances do not conduct electricity? What type of substances are electrolytes? What type of substances are non-electrolytes? References: 1. 3. Eng.. 4. E.C. S. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. U.L. Chemistry practical book form 4.. L. N. 2. (2005).. Y. Lim. Lim.N. Low. & Ahmad.W. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. & Tan.

Apparatus: Materials: Procedure: 9V battery. 6. Chap 1). Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 6. microcrucible. Observe what happens at the anode. 8. 7. Record all your observations in your notebook.Chapter 6: Electrochemistry B. microburner. Connect each of the crocodile clip to the pencil leads as shown in Figure 6. 5. heat the solid lead(II) bromide until it melts. Lead(II) bromide. Place the microcrucible on the wire gauze. 9. microtripod stand and small wire gauze. 3. Record your observations in your notebook. 42 1. remove the crocodile clips from the pencil leads. PbBr2. Electrolysis of Molten compounds Objective: To investigate the electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide. pencil leads. . Carefully pour out the molten lead(II) bromide into a small beaker to observe what is formed at the cathode. 4. PbBr2. 11.3.3 Fill a microcrucible with lead(II) bromide until it is half full. Using the microburner (refer to pg 11. Immerse both of the pencil leads into the molten lead(II) bromide. Connect the battery clip of the current indicator to the terminals of the 9 V battery. Figure 6. 2.3. After 4 minutes. current indicator (LED) with wire connection. 10.

2. U. L. & Tan. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. Lim. Write the overall equation that represents the electrolysis of lead(II) bromide. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. Eng.. PbBr2.Data and Observations: Electrode Observation Inference Anode Cathode Conclusions: Questions: 1.N. Low. (2005). References: 1.K. & Ahmad. N. 43 . E..H. Name the ions that move to the cathode and the anode during electrolysis. Y. S. Chemistry practical book form 4. Lim. Write half equations that represent the reactions that occur at the a) Anode b) Cathode 3..L.W.C.

CuSO4 solution. box of matches. 44 . 2 straw electrodes. 1 straw electrode (with carbon electrode).0 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate. Electrolysis of sodium hydroxide solution 1. 3.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution from the propette. Investigating the electrolysis of aqueous solutions Objective: To investigate the electrolysis of aqueous copper(II) sulphate. thin stemmed propette. NaOH solution. current indicator (LED) with wire connections. CuSO4 solution and sodium hydroxide.Chapter 6: Electrochemistry C. sample vial. 2. Let one of the electrodes be called electrode 1 and the other electrode 2. Figure 6. Materials: 1. Fill half of the sample vial with 1. Apparatus: Comboplate.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution. Mark each of the drinking straw electrodes using a permanent marker pen. Push the current indicator into well E6 of the comboplate.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide. Hold electrode 1 with the open end upwards and fill the electrode completely with 1. 4. 9V battery. 1 x carbon electrode (pencil lead).4 Procedure: I. NaOH and 1. Place the vial into well E5 next to the current indicator in well E6.

12. Return any remaining solution in the propette to the small sample vial. 10. sealing the open end with your finger when it is out of the solution. 6.0 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate solution from the propette. 11. Record any observation at the anode. Record all the results. 7. Connect the end of the black wire from the current indicator to the negative (-) terminal of the battery.0 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate solution. Let the substance produced in electrode 1 be called substance A. Repeat this procedure for electrode 2. 3. Record any observation at the anode. Connect the end of the short black wire to the carbon electrode. Return any remaining solution in the propette to the small sample vial. Connect the other end of the red wire to electrode 2. Connect the end black wire from the current indicator to the negative (-) terminal of the battery. Connect the end of the red wire to the positive terminal (+) of the battery. 9. Bring the electrode very close to the glowing splinter. 8. Quickly turn the electrode the other way up and place it into the solution in the small sample vial. Connect the other end of the red wire to straw electrode. 6. Push the current indicator into well E6 of the comboplate. Place the vial into well E5 next to the current indicator in well E6. Data and Observations: Electrolyte Cathode Sodium hydroxide Copper(II) sulphate 45 Observations Anode Change in solution . Let the substance produced in electrode 2 be called substance B. Use tap water to thoroughly rinse your finger free of the copper(II) sulphate solution. 8. cathode and in the electrolytes. Fill half of the sample vial with 1. Electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution 1. Place the carbon electrode (pencil lead) into the solution in the sample vial. 2. II. Quickly turn electrode 1 the other way up and place it into the solution in the small sample vial. Connect the end of the short black wire to electrode 1. Carefully remove straw electrode from the solution. cathode and in the electrolytes. Hold the straw electrode (with carbon electrode) with the open end upwards and fill the electrode completely with 1. 9. Test the gas gathered at the anode by using a glowing splinter. 4. 5. Test the gas gathered at the cathode by using a lighted splinter. Use tap water to thoroughly rinse your fingers free of the sodium hydroxide solution.5. 7. Light the match. Connect the end of the red wire to the positive terminal (+) of the battery.

H2SO4. J. H2SO4. 46 . Advanced learning packages. L.H. b) What are the ions that move to the anode and to the cathode? c) Which ions have been discharged at the anode and at the cathode? d) Write half equations representing the reactions that occur at the anode and the cathode. Draw a diagram which shows what happens during the electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid. U. Magister-Press Publishing House: Moscow.. Microchemistry experiences. & Bradley. References: 1. Bell. Eng. Chemistry practical book form 4. Low. 2. Lim. For the electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution.Conclusions: Questions: 1.K. Lim. c) The discharge of ions at the anode and the cathode and their respective half equations. a) Identify the cations and anions. N.. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. S. Abadi Ilmu Sdn.N. b) The movement of ions to the anode and the cathode. E. 2. & Ahmad. The diagram should show: a) The ions present in dilute sulphuric acid. & Tan.. (2002).C. (2005).W. B. Y.D.L.

The apparatus as shown in the figure 6. CuSO4 solution. Record any changes at the anode and the cathode. Push the current indicator into well E6 of the comboplate. Allow the electric current to pass through the electrolyte for 5 – 10 minutes. 5. 3. Place the vial into well E5 next to the current indicator in well E6. impure copper plate. 47 .5 Procedure: 1. 4. current indicator (LED) with wire connections. 6. Repeat steps 1 to 5 using impure copper as the cathode and pure copper as the anode. Purification of copper Objective: To investigate the purification of copper Apparatus: 9V heavy duty battery. Figure 6. comboplate. Remove the lid from the small sample vial and fill half of the vial with 1. Materials: 1 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate.0 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate solution. pure copper plate.5 is set up using the impure copper plate as the anode and the pure copper plate as the cathode. 2. sample vial and thin stemmed propette.Chapter 6: Electrochemistry D.

H. Lim.K.N.. L. E. Low. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. N. Lim. Eng.. Y.Data and Observations: Electrode Anode Impure copper Cathode Pure copper Anode Observation Cathode Pure copper Impure copper Conclusions: References: 1. & Tan. 48 . (2005). Chemistry practical book form 4.C. S..W. U.L. & Ahmad. Abadi Ilmu Sdn.

comboplate. 4. 3.0 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate solution. Set up the apparatus using the iron nail as the cathode and a copper electrode as the anode as shown in figure 6. Repeat steps 1 – 6 by using copper as the cathode and iron nail as the anode. Clean a piece of iron nail with sand paper. 49 . Figure 6. Remove the lid from a small sample vial and fill half of the vial with 1. Electroplating an object with copper Objective: To investigate the electroplating of an object with copper Apparatus: 9V heavy duty battery.Chapter 6: Electrochemistry E. sandpaper. iron nail. Push the current indicator into well E6 of the comboplate. 2. Place the vial into well E5 next to the current indicator in well E6.6. sample vial and thin stemmed propette. Record the change to the iron nail. current indicator (LED) with wire connections. copper electrode/plate.6 Procedure: 1. 6. 7. Remove the iron nail from the electrolyte and dry it. Switch the current off after 2 – 3 minutes. Wash the iron nail with detergent and rinse thoroughly with water. 5. Materials: 1.0 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate solution.

.N. Y. E. Chemistry practical book form 4. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. (2005). References: 1.W.Data and Observations: Set I Electrode Anode Cathode Copper Iron nail Observation II Iron nail Copper Conclusions: Questions: 1.. N. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. U.K. 50 .L..H. What three conditions are necessary to electroplate an iron spoon with copper? 2. L. Suggest 2 ways on how this can be achieved. A good electroplating process is one that results in an even thin layer of coating. & Ahmad. Lim. Eng. Lim. S. Low. & Tan.C.

wire connections.0 mol dm-3 Sodium chloride. Immerse the magnesium ribbon and copper plate in the sodium chloride solution and connect both metals to the voltmeter/multimeter by using the wire connections. Fill half of the small sample vial with 1. 1 x voltmeter. 5. Place the vial into well E6. copper plate and magnesium ribbon. Materials: 1. 3. 1 x sample vial. Production of electricity from chemical reactions in a simple voltaic cell Objective: To show the production of electricity from chemical reactions in a simple voltaic cell Apparatus: 1 x Comboplate.0 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution. 4. Figure 6.7 Procedure: 1. Clean a piece of magnesium ribbon and a copper plate with sandpaper. 1 x thin stemmed propette. NaCl solution. 2.Chapter 6: Electrochemistry F. Record the reading of the voltmeter and any changes at the electrodes. 51 . Repeat steps 1 to 4 using the copper plate instead of magnesium ribbon.

Predict what will happen if sodium chloride. Low. Explain how electricity is produced in a simple voltaic cell. E. 52 . K2SO4 solution. U. & Ahmad. NaCl solution is replaced by potassium sulphate. Eng.C.L.. S. N.H.K. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. Lim. L. & Tan. Chemistry practical book form 4. Give your reasons.Data and Observations: Type of metal Magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) Copper/copper (Cu/Cu) Voltmeter reading (V) Observation Conclusions: Questions: 1. Lim. Abadi Ilmu Sdn.. Give the half equations for the reactions that take place. References: 1..W. (2005). 2.N. Y.

53 . filter paper. 2 wire connections. Co(NO3)2 solution. saturated solution.0 mol dm-3 zinc nitrate Zn(NO3)2 solution. scissors.8 Procedure: 1. 2. 1 x multimeter/voltmeter. Using the E row of the comboplate. Materials: 1. potassium nitrate.Chapter 6: Electrochemistry G. fill half of E1 and E2 with copper(II) nitrate and zinc nitrate solution respectively.0 mol dm-3 copper(II) nitrate. Figure 6. 1. Cut the paper into a shape given below so that it will form a continuous bridge between 2 wells. Make a salt bridge from the filter paper. 2 x thin stemmed propette. Production of electricity from chemical reactions in a Daniel cell Objective: To show the production of electricity from chemical reactions in a Daniel cell Apparatus: 1 x comboplate. zinc foil. KNO3. copper strip.

Immerse the copper plate in the copper(II) nitrate solution and zinc foil in the zinc nitrate solution.L. Chemistry practical book form 4. Connect both metals to the voltmeter/multimeter using the wire connections. 2. (2005).. & Tan. E. S.T. Observe what happens to the voltmeter. Bhd: Petaling Jaya.html 54 . Eng. Microscale 30 Voltaic cells.3. zinc foil. Remove the salt bridge and place it into wells E1 and E2. place the cut out filter paper into a beaker containing a saturated solution of potassium nitrate. L. 3.W. & Ahmad.L. 4... copper plate and copper(II) nitrate solution. O. Y. 5.C. Oxford Fajar Sdn. N.unl. (2007). Lim. Clean up the copper plate and zinc foil with sand paper. & Tan. Lim. W. Y. http://dwb.H. Loh. Data and Observations: Type of metal Zinc Copper Copper(II) sulphate solution Voltmeter Observation Conclusions: References: 1..T. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. 6.N.K. Tan. Low. Success Chemistry SPM. Integrated Curriculum for Secondary School.edu/Chemistry/MicroScale/MScale20. To make the salt bridge complete. U. Bhd: Shah Alam.

3. zinc nitrate solution and magnesium nitrate solution respectively to replace copper(II) nitrate solution. magnesium ribbon and sand paper. Constructing the electrochemical series using the principle of displacement of metals Objective: To construct the electrochemical series using the principle of displacement of metals Apparatus: Comboplate.0 mol dm-3 magnesium nitrate. 5. Zn (NO3)2 solution. thin stemmed propette Materials: 1.Chapter 6: Electrochemistry H. 2. F2. lead strip. 1. Figure 6. Pb(NO3)2 solution. Cu(NO3)2 solution. Record the results of the experiment in a table below. lead strip. Clean a piece of copper strip.0 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate.0 mol dm-3 zinc nitrate. zinc strip. zinc strip and magnesium ribbon respectively with sand paper and drop into each of the wells. copper strip. Repeat step 1 to 4 by using lead(II) nitrate solution. Fill half of F1. Allow the reaction to proceed for five minutes. Mg(NO3)2 solution. 1. F3 and F4 wells in the comboplate with copper(II) nitrate solution. 1.0 mol dm-3 copper(II) nitrate.9 Procedure: 1. 55 . 6. Observe any changes in the colour of the solution and whether any metals are deposited. 4.

. Bhd: Bangi. U. & Tan. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. E. Y.Focus excel chemistry form 4.C.L. & Ahmad. Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. 2. & Lim.N.C (2006). Why is magnesium not displaced by any other metals in this experiment? 2. Low. 56 . Lim. Chemistry practical book form 4.W...W.. (2005). L.H. Y. N. Eng. Eng. E. Lim. References: 1. N. Lim.Data and Observations: Solution Metals Copper Lead Zinc Magnesium Copper(II) nitrate Lead(II) nitrate Zinc nitrate Magnesium nitrate Conclusions: Questions: 1.K. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. S.H. Write the equations to show all displacement reactions involving zinc.

Record your observations in the table. 3. Use the propette to draw up some dry glacial ethanoic acid. water. 5. CH3COOH.Chapter 7: Acids and Bases A.1 Procedure: Place a piece of dry blue litmus paper in well F1 of the comboplate. Observe the effect of the glacial ethanoic acid on the litmus paper. 2. thin stemmed propettes. Investigating the role of water in showing the properties of acids Objective: To investigate the role of water in showing the properties of acids Apparatus: Comboplate. blue litmus paper. Place a few drops of the glacial ethanoic acid onto the blue litmus paper. C2H5OH. 1. ethanol. microspatula Materials: Glacial ethanoic acid. 1 F Blue litmus paper+ ethanoic acid 2 Blue litmus paper+ ethanoic acid+water 3 Blue litmus paper+ ethanoic acid+ ethanol 4 5 6 E D C Figure 7. 4. 57 . 6. Tabulate the observations in the table. Repeat steps 1 to 4 using ethanoic acid in water and ethanoic acid in ethanol to replace glacial ethanoic acid in the wells F2 and F3.

& Tan.. it turns the litmus paper red. Chemistry practical book form 4. Lim. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. CH3COOH not show acidic properties? 3. U. CH3COOH in water Ethanoic acid. What is the ion responsible for changing the colour of blue litmus paper? How is it produced? 2.W. CH3COCH3. When ethanoic acid.K. CH3COOH Ethanoic acid. E.Data and Observations: Type of acid Glacial ethanoic acid. CH3COOH is dissolved in propanone. Low. 58 .L.N. Lim. When ethanoic acid is dissolved in water. Eng. Why does glacial ethanoic acid. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. L. & Ahmad. S.. N. it does not change the colour of blue litmus paper. Why? References: 1. CH3COOH in ethanol Observation Conclusions: Questions: 1. Y.. Why? 4. (2005).C.H.

HCl. 25 cm3 conical flask. test tube. microcrucible. retort stand and clamp. Reactions of acids with bases Figure 7. microspatula. CuO powder. Copper(II) oxide. calcium carbonate. lime water. filter paper. Studying the chemical properties of acids Objective: To study the chemical properties of acids Apparatus: 10 cm3 beaker.Chapter 7: Acid and Bases B. micro burner. 2 mol dm-3 nitric acid. HNO3. filter funnel. wire gauze. zinc powder. 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. wooden splinter and filter paper. 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. 10 cm3 measuring cylinder. microtripod stand. Materials: I. CaCO3.2 59 .

Acid + Base → ___________ + ___________ 60 .Procedure: 1. Complete the following. How do you know that an acid-base reaction has occurred? How is the product of the reaction obtained? What are the products of the reaction? Write an equation for the reaction. Chap 1). 4. 2. 7. Pour the filtrate into a microcrucible. Remove the unreacted copper(II) oxide by filtration. Examine the crystals and record your observations in your notebook. Stir the mixture well. Continue adding copper(II) oxide until some of it no longer dissolves. 3. Filter out the copper(II) sulphate crystals. Data and observations: Test on acid Heating with copper(II) oxide Observation Inference Questions: 1. Cool the saturated solution until crystals are formed. Use a microspatula to add copper(II) oxide powder bit by bit into the acid. Warm the acid with a microburner (refer to pg 11. 3. into a 10 cm3 beaker. 5. 4. Gently heat the salt solution to produce a saturated solution. Pour about 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. 2. 6.

7. Test the gas produced by using a lighted splinter. Cool the saturated solution until crystals are formed. Stir the mixture well. Filter out the zinc sulphate crystals. Data and Observations: Test on acid Test with zinc powder Observation Inference 61 . 5. Use a microspatula to add zinc powder bit by bit into the acid. Warm the acid with a microburner. Remove the unreacted zinc powder by filtration. 3. Pour 5 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid into a 10 cm3 beaker. Pour the filtrate into a microcrucible.II. Reactions of acids with metals Figure 7. Gently heat the salt solution to produce a saturated solution. Examine the crystals and record your observations in your notebook.3 Procedure: 1. 8. 2. 6. 4. Continue adding zinc powder until some of it no longer dissolves.

2.Questions: 1. 3. 4. Acid + Metal → __________ + __________ III.4 Procedure: 1. 62 . What is the lighted splinter for? 3. Add calcium carbonate into the acid with a microspatula. Reactions of acids with metal carbonates Figure 7. Complete the following. Pour the filtrate into a microcrucible. Gently heat the salt solution to produce a saturated solution. Cool the saturated solution until crystals are formed. Examine the crystals and record your observations in your notebook. How do you know that the acid has reacted with the metal? 2. 7. Continue adding calcium carbonate until some of it no longer dissolves. 6. Warm the acid with a microburner. Remove the unreacted calcium carbonate by filtration. 4. Filter out the calcium nitrate crystals. What is the salt and gas produced in the reaction? Write a balanced equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid. 5. Pour 5 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 nitric acid into 10 cm3 beaker. HCl and zinc.

Write an equation for the reaction between nitric acid and calcium carbonate.Data and Observations: Test on acid Test with calcium carbonate Observation Inference Questions: 1. Low. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. What are the products formed? 2.C. U. & Ahmad. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. Eng. Chemistry practical book form 4. Lim.K. E. Y.W. (2005).. Lim. Complete the following. N...N. L. Acid + Carbonate → __________ + ___________ + ___________ Conclusions: References: 1. 63 .L.H. S. & Tan.

FeSO4 solution. Reactions of bases with acids Figure 7. 1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide. 25 cm3 conical flask. 10 cm3 measuring cylinder. microspatula. Studying the chemical properties of bases Objective: To study the chemical properties of bases Apparatus: Comboplate. benzoic acid powder. microburner. ammonium chloride. microtripod stand. Stir the mixture well. test tube.5 Procedure: 1. filter paper. Pour about 5 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution into a 10 cm3 beaker. 64 .Chapter 7: Acid and Bases C. NaOH solution. iron(II) sulphate. NH4Cl powder. 10 cm3 beaker. Use a microspatula to add benzoic acid powder bit by bit into the acid. Material: I. wire gauze. litmus paper. 2. filter funnel. microcrucible.

Gently heat the salt solution with a microburner (refer to pg 11. 2. Reactions of bases with ammonium salts Figure 7. Data and observations: Test on sodium hydroxide With benzoic acid powder added Observation Inference 65 . Test the gas formed using moist red litmus paper. Filter out the sodium benzoate crystals. II. Pour the filtrate into a microcrucible. Add 1 drop of sodium hydroxide solution into the well. Reactions of bases with metal ions Procedure: 1. Examine the crystals and record your observations in your notebook. 4. Remove the unreacted benzoic acid by filtration. Add a microspatula of ammonium chloride powder in the well. Continue adding benzoic acid until some of it no longer dissolves. 3. 5. 7. III.6 Procedure: 1. 4. Observe what happen. Fill one third of well F1 of the comboplate with sodium hydroxide solution. Chap 1) to produce a saturated solution. 6. 2. Observe what happen to the litmus paper. Add 10 drops of iron(II) sulphate solution into the well F2 of the comboplate. Cool the saturated solution until crystals are formed.3.

Heating with ammonium chloride powder With iron(II) sulphate solution Conclusions: References: 1. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. U.L.. Chemistry practical book form 4.W. L.. Y. & Tan. Low. N.K. Lim.N. Lim. E..C. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. 66 . S. (2005). & Ahmad. Eng.H.

7 Procedure: 1. rainwater. 3. dilute hydrochloric acid. Add 10 drops of tap water to well A6. Materials: Vinegar. 7. Add 10 drops of lemon juice to well A2. Add 10 drops of rainwater to well A7. tap water. thin stemmed propettes. 8. universal indicator solution 1 A Vinegar 2 Lemon juice 3 Soap solution 4 Distilled water 5 Carbona -ted drink 6 Tap water 7 Rain water 8 Dilute HCl 9 Dilute NaOH B C D E Figure 7. Add 10 drops of dilute hydrochloric acid to well A8. microspatula. soap solution. Add 10 drops of vinegar to well A1. 4. 9. 67 . distilled water. HCl and dilute sodium hydroxide. lemon juice. carbonated drink. 6.Chapter 7: Acid and Bases D. 2. Measuring the pH of solutions used in daily life Objective: To measure the pH of solutions used in daily life Aparatus: Comboplate. Add 10 drops of distilled water to well A4. NaOH solution. Add 10 drops of soap solution to well A3. Add 10 drops of dilute sodium hydroxide to well A9. Add 10 drops of carbonated drink to well A5. 5.

E. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. & Ahmad.W. Advanced learning packages. A1 to A9. U. & Bradley. & Tan. Stir the solution in each well with a clean plastic microspatula. Chemistry practical book form 4. 2.D.H. Lim. Microchemistry experiences. Magister-Press Publishing House: Moscow. (2002)... Eng.. Observe the pH of all the solutions and record your observations in the table.L. Y. Data and observations: Well Number A1 (Vinegar) A2 (Lemon juice) A3 (Soap solution) A4 (Distilled water) A5 (Carbonated drink) A6 (Tap water) A7 (Rain water) A8 (HCl) A9 (NaOH) Conclusions: Colour of solution Proposed pH References: 1. L. B. Low. S. J.10.N.K. Bell.C. (2005). 12. N. Add 1 drop of universal indicator solution into each of the wells. 11. Lim. 68 . Abadi Ilmu Sdn.

1 x syringe. NaOH. Materials: 0. Determining the end point of the titration between hydrochloric acid. phenolphthalein solution. 2 x microburette. HCl and sodium hydroxide.8 69 . HCl. NaOH solution using an acid-base indicator. 1 x silicone tube. Objective: To determine the end point of the titration between hydrochloric acid.1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide.Chapter 7: Acid and Bases E. HCl and sodium hydroxide. 1 x microstand. 1 x microspatula. NaOH solution using an acid-base indicator Apparatus: 1 x comboplate. 0. propettes and white paper.100 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. Figure 7.

Read the level of the meniscus and record this as the initial volume of HCl (titration 1).8 by attaching the plastic syringe to the top of the 2 cm3 microburette using silicone tubing. 70 . 2. Use the syringe to fill up the microburette through the plastic tip. 5. Use the thin stemmed propette to add one drop of phenolphthalein solution to the NaOH in the well F1.00 cm3 aliquots of sodium hydroxide into wells. Position the microburette above the comboplate so that the tip of the microburette is above well F1. HCl. Be careful not to spill any solution out of the well. 9.00 cm3 level (or there about). Clip the assembled microburette into each arm of the microstand above well F1. dispensing the 1. Fill the rinsed microburette with exactly 1. (ii) Rinse the microburette with sodium hydroxide. Continue to add HCl from the microburette one drop at a time until the indicator changes colour from pink to colourless. Observe the volume of HCl in the microburette and record this as the final volume. Push down gently on the syringe plunger and add one drop of HCl into well F1. Stir the solution in well F1 with plastic microspatula. Stir the solution in well F1 after each drop is added.Procedure: 1. Note: Do not place the microburette too close to well F1 as the plastic microspatula may knock against it during stirring of the solution in the well. Repeat this rinsing process twice. Put the comboplate on a piece of white paper. 3. 11. rinse it with water. 8. Orient the pairs of arms on the central stem of the microstand so that one arm of each pair is directly above well F1. This may cause drops of the solution to splash out of the well. F2 and F3. 6. Repeat this step twice. Calculate the volume of HCl dispensed. 7. Rinse the microburette at least three times with the hydrochloric acid. Dispense all this solution into well F1 of the comboplate. Place the plastic tip at the other end of the microburette.00 cm3 of the sodium hydroxide solution. Rinse the 2 cm3 microburette with the sodium hydroxide solution in the following way: (i) Set up the microburette as in Figure 7. Empty the microburette. Fill the microburette with the HCl to the 0. Assemble the microburette as shown. 10. 12. 4. Push the plastic microstand into well D2 of the comboplate. Leave the microspatula in the well during the titration.

04 cm3 before the expected end point. HCl needed (cm3) Average volume of HCl used: Conclusions: 71 . Position the microburette above well F2 by moving the plastic microstand to another small well in the D row of the comboplate. Stir thoroughly. Repeat the titration in well F3. Refill the microburette with the HCl and record the initial volume (Titration 2). Note: Reject any results where the end point has been overshot. Record the final volume (Titration 3). 14. 1 Volume 2 of HCl/ cm3 3 Final burette reading (cm3) Initial burette reading (cm3) Volume of hydrochloric acid. 15. until the indicator changes from pink to colourless. Add one drop of phenolphthalein indicator to the NaOH in well F2.13. one drop at a time with stirring. Now. Data and observations: Titration No. that you know the approximate volume of the HCl required to titrate the NaOH. 17. 16. Add the HCl slowly. you can add the HCl a little more quickly than before until about 0.

2. N. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. Eng. & Tan. Lim. (2005). 2. & Bradley.K. Lim. B. & Ahmad. RADMASTE microtitration experiments.. S. Akoobhai. Bell. Manual for secondary school learners. References: 1. a) What is the average volume of HCl needed to neutralize 25. d) There is no need to rinse the conical flask with NaOH.L. The UNESCO – Associated Centre for Microscience Experiments. L..N. Low.0 cm3 of NaOH? b) Write the equation for the neutralization reaction. b) There must be no air bubbles in the tip of the burette.. Bhd: Petaling Jaya.H. E.W. U. Y. (2005)..Questions: 1. J.C. Explain the following: a) A clean burette has to be rinsed with a little acid before filling it up. a) How is the end point of the titration determined? b) How else could you determine the end point? 3. 72 . Chemistry practical book form 4. c) Burette readings must be taken at eye level. B.

magnesium nitrate. potassium carbonate. 2. lead(II) sulphate. zinc nitrate. calcium sulphate. magnesium carbonate. Repeat steps 1 and 2 using copper(II) nitrate. sodium carbonate. K2CO3. ZnCO3. mercury chloride. Mg(NO3)2. magnesium carbonate. zinc carbonate. Use a spooned end of a plastic microspatula to place 2 leveled spatulas of lead(II) nitrate powder into well F1 of the comboplate. carbonate and chloride salts. magnesium chloride. Ca(NO3)2. Apparatus: Materials: Comboplate. 3.1 1. ammonium carbonate. Cu(NO3)2. copper(II) sulphate. lead(II) chloride and silver chloride. Lead(II) nitrate. copper(II) carbonate. Pb(NO3)2. magnesium sulphate. MgCl2 lead(II) chloride. calcium sulphate. lead(II) sulphate. sulphate. Zn(NO3)2. MgSO4. microspatula. PbSO4. magnesium chloride. syringe. zinc sulphate. barium sulphate. Procedure: Figure 8. potassium carbonate. Stir the mixture and note the solubility of the salt. ZnSO4. sodium carbonate. calcium nitrate. copper(II) chloride. magnesium sulphate. CuSO4. Solubility of nitrate. CuCl2. zinc chloride. copper(II) nitrate.Chapter 8: Salts A. zinc carbonate. BaSO4. HgCl2. zinc chloride. Objective: To study the solubility of nitrate. 73 . calcium nitrate. copper(II) chloride. copper(II) sulphate. carbonate and chloride salts. ammonium carbonate. magnesium nitrate. sulphate. barium sulphate. PbCl2 and silver chloride. ZnCl2 and mercury chloride. CaSO4. zinc nitrate. zinc sulphate. AgCl. Use a syringe to add 1 cm3 of distilled water to the well F1.copper(II) carbonate. MgCO3. CuCO3. Na2CO3.

S. Abadi Ilmu Sdn.H.. U. N. Lim.. & Tan.W. (2005).N. L. Lim.. Y. Low. E. Eng.K.L. & Ahmad. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. Chemistry practical book form 4.C.Data and Observations: Type of salt Nitrate Salt Lead(II) nitrate Copper(II) nitrate Magnesium nitrate Zinc nitrate Calcium nitrate Copper(II) sulphate Zinc sulphate Magnesium sulphate Barium sulphate Lead(II) sulphate Calcium sulphate Copper(II)chloride Zinc chloride Magnesium chloride Mercury chloride Lead(II) chloride Silver chloride Potassium carbonate Sodium carbonate Ammonium carbonate Copper(II) carbonate Zinc carbonate Magnesium carbonate Solubility Sulphate Chloride Carbonate Conclusions: References: 1. 74 .

KOH. conical flask 10 ml. microtripod stand. microburner. Materials: Procedure: I. Preparation of soluble salts by mixing acids with bases Objective: To prepare soluble salts by mixing acids with bases Apparatus: Comboplate. phenolphthalein. microcrucible. pipette tip. 2 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide. 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. HCl. microburette. propette.Chapter 8: Salts B. micro crossarms. silicone tube.2 75 . To determine the volume of acid for neutralization Figure 8. microspatula. syringe. microstand. wire gauze.

0 cm3 of the base. Continue adding the acid until the indicator just turns from pink to colorless. Use the microburette to transfer 2. Gently heat the solution and stir with a microspatula. Filter to remove impurities and pour the filtrate into a microcrucible. From the microburette. Do not add any indicator. HCl and record the initial burette reading. Use the propette to add one or two drops of phenolphthalein.3 1. 6. Orient the pairs of arms on the central stem of the microstand so that one arm of each pair is directly above the conical flask. 5.0 cm3 of the same potassium hydroxide solution into a 10 cm3 conical flask. II. Pour the contents of the conical flask into a microcrucible. Cool the hot saturated salt solution for crystallization to occur. Fill the burette with hydrochloric acid. 4. Add just enough distilled water to cover the crystals. Determine the volume of acid used to neutralize 2. 2. 2. (Let the volume be V cm3). Use a microburette to transfer 2. Filter to obtain the potassium chloride crystals. 3. 6. 5. Titrate carefully by slowly adding the acid into the conical flask and shake well. 3. Place the potassium chloride crystals in a 10 cm3 beaker. Push the plastic microstand into well D1 of the comboplate. III. 1.1. 2. add exactly V cm3 of hydrochloric acid to the base and shake well. 4. Recrystallisation of the salt. 76 . Preparation of the salt Figure 8. Record the final burette reading. Gently heat the solution to evaporate most of the water to produce a saturated solution with a microburner.0 cm3 of potassium hydroxide solution to a conical flask. 3.

H. Chemistry practical book form 4. Study the physical properties of the crystals and record your observations in your notebook. L. Lim. E. Y. How do you know when the salt solution is saturated? 2.4.. Filter and press the crystals with a few pieces of filter paper to dry them. 6. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. 7. U. 3. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. (2005). Lim.K. Low. N. S.L. Eng. Data and Observations: Conclusions: Questions: 1. References: 1. & Tan.W. Gently heat the solution to obtain a saturated salt solution with a microburner. Write the chemical equation for the reaction to obtain KCl crystals. 5.N.C. Cool the hot saturated solution to allow it to crystallize... Name another salt that can be prepared from the reaction between an acid and a base. 77 . & Ahmad.

filter funnel. filter paper.Chapter 8: Salts C. Stir the mixture well. microspatula. Pour 5 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid into a 10 cm3 beaker. H2SO4 and copper(II) oxide. 25 cm3 conical flask.4 1. microburner. 2. 3. Materials: Procedure: Figure 8. 2 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. wire gauze. Use a microspatula to add copper(II) oxide powder bit by bit into the acid. CuO powder. Gently heat the salt solution to produce a saturated solution. 5. Remove the unreacted copper(II) oxide by filtration. Warm the acid with a microburner (refer to pg 11. Continue adding copper(II) oxide until some of it no longer dissolves. 78 . Pour the filtrate into a microcrucible. 4. microtripod stand. 10 cm3 measuring cylinder. Preparation of soluble salts by mixing an acid with an insoluble metal oxide Objective: To prepare soluble salts by mixing an acid with an insoluble metal oxide Apparatus: 10 cm3 beaker. Chap 1). microcrucible.

.6.C. Lim. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. & Ahmad. N.K.W. U. Cool the saturated solution until crystals are formed. Eng.H. Name another salt that can be prepared from the reaction between an acid and an insoluble metal oxide. S. E.. 2. Carry out a crystallization to obtain pure copper(II) sulphate crystals. Study the physical properties of the crystal and record your observation in your notebook. 9.N. 8. & Tan. Data and Observations: Conclusions: Questions: 1. (2005).. 79 . References: 1. L. Filter out the copper(II) sulphate crystals.L. Y. Low. Lim. 7. Chemistry practical book form 4. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. Give the equation for the reaction between HNO3 and copper(II) oxide.

Preparation of lead(II) iodide Figure 8. 0. filter paper and syringe. A yellow precipitate forms immediately. Stir the mixture thoroughly with a microspatula. II.Chapter 8: Salts D.5 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate.5 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution and 0.5 mol dm-3 potassium iodide solution in a 10 cm3 beaker. Stir the mixture thoroughly with a microspatula. 80 . microspatula. K2Cr2O7.5 cm3 of 0. BaCl2 solution. 4.5 cm3 of 0. 5. Rinse the residue with distilled water to remove any traces of other ions in it. Add about 0. 2. KI. 2. potassium chromate(IV).5 mol dm-3 potassium chromate(VI) solution in a 10 cm3 beaker. Pb(NO3)2.5 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution and 0. Preparation of insoluble salts by carrying out a precipitation reaction Objective: To prepare insoluble salts by carrying out a precipitation reaction Apparatus: Materials: 10 cm3 beaker. Add about 0. and barium chloride. sodium sulphate. Filter the mixture to obtain the yellow lead(II) iodide as the residue.5 cm3 of 0. potassium iodide. Dry the yellow residue by pressing it between two pieces of filter paper. A yellow precipitate forms immediately.5 1. 3. Na2SO4. filter funnel. Procedure: I. Preparation of lead(II) chromate(VI) 1.5 cm3 of 0. 25 cm3 conical flasks.

Add about 0..C.H.. A white precipitate forms immediately. Rinse the residue with distilled water and dry it between two pieces of filter paper. Y. Rinse the residue with distilled water and dry it between two pieces of filter paper.3.. Filter the mixture to obtain the white barium sulphate as the residue. III. Filter the mixture to obtain the yellow lead(II) chromate(VI) as the residue. Lim. Chemistry practical book form 4. Low. 2. 3. & Tan. Can this kind of reaction be used prepare NH4Cl? Give reasons for your answer.5 mol dm-3 sodium sulphate solution in a 10 cm3 beaker. 2. 4. Data and Observations: Conclusions: Questions: 1. E. S.W.5 cm3 of 0. Lim. Eng.5 mol dm-3 barium chloride solution and 0. 81 .L.5 cm3 of 0. (2005).N.K. L. 4. PbCrO4 cannot be purified by recrystallisation. Stir the mixture thoroughly with a microspatula. & Ahmad. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. Preparation of barium sulphate 1. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. Give the equations for the preparation of the three salts. U. N. Why? References: 1. 3.

syringe and ruler. 6.60 and 0. Fill the microburette with 0.5 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution. 0.5 mol dm-3 potassium chromate. 3. 4.20.Chapter 8: Salts E.40. Place all the tubes in the smaller wells of the comboplate vertically using prestick/plasticine.5 mol dm-3 potassium chromate(VI) solution. microburette. 2. Run in 0. Label seven Durham tubes of the same size from 1 to 7 and place them in the bigger wells of the comboplate. Apparatus: Materials: Procedure: Comboplate. 0.5 cm3 of the potassium chromate(VI) solution into each of the seven Durham tubes.5 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate. 0.30. Shake each Durham tube well. 0. prestick/plasticine. Figure 8. Constructing the ionic equation for the formation of lead(II) chromate(VI) Objective: To construct the ionic equation for the formation of lead(II) chromate(VI).50. Durham tubes. Add 0.6 1. 7.70 cm3 lead(II) nitrate to each of the seven Durham tubes respectively. K2Cr2O7 solution. 0. 0. Pb(NO3)2 solution. 5. 82 . Leave it aside for about half an hour to allow the precipitate to settle. 0.10. Fill the syringe 0. Measure the height of the precipitate in each Durham tube.

Note the colour of the solution above the precipitate in each tube.W..K.5 0. Lim.1 2 0. Bhd: Petaling Jaya. (2005).7 Conclusions: Questions: 1.L.2 3 0.H. 83 . 3. Abadi Ilmu Sdn.C. 10.5 0.4 5 0. E.5 0. N.5 0.5 6 0..5 0.5 0. 2. Eng. Data and Observations: Durham Tube Volume of 0.5 mol dm-3 potassium chromate (VI) solution (cm3) Volume of 0. Y. 4. Low. 9.6 7 0. S. Why must you have the volume of Pb(NO3)2 constant? Why are different volumes of potassium chromate(VI) added to each test tube? Why does the colour of the solution above the precipitate change? How does the height of the precipitate formed change? Why? References: 1. Chemistry practical book form 4.N. L.5 0.5 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution (cm3) Height of precipitate (cm) Colour of solution above precipitate 1 0.3 4 0. & Ahmad. Plot a graph of precipitate height against volume of lead(II) nitrate solution.8.. & Tan. Record your readings and observations in your notebook as shown in Table below. U. Lim.

fresh hydrogen peroxide solution. NaOH solution. Test for oxygen gas. Materials: Procedure: I. Carrying out chemical tests to identify gases Objective: To carry out chemical tests to identify gases. glass rod. 84 . syringe. 2. lime water. HCl. MnO2 powder. toothpick. microspatula. NH3. Manganese dioxide. lid 1. NH4Cl powder. Use the spooned end of a plastic microspatula to place one leveled spatula of manganese dioxide powder into well F1 of the comboplate. microburner. HCl. calcium carbonate. combustion and fusion tube. Na2SO4 powder. forceps. dilute hydrochloric acid. W-tube.7 1. silicone tube. KMnO4 solution. Seal the well securely with lid 1. 2 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. lid 2. dilute acidified potassium manganate(VII). O2 Figure 8. H2O2 (10%). household bleach solution. H2SO4. propette. H2SO4. Apparatus: Comboplate. zinc. CaCO3 powder. lead(II) nitrate. concentrated ammonia. Zn powder.Chapter 8: Salts F. sodium sulphate. 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. sodium chloride. Pb(NO3)2 powder. dilute sodium hydroxide. concentrated sulphuric acid. NaCl powder. ammonium chloride.

3. Attach a piece of silicone tubing to the tube connector on lid 1 so that it slants away from the syringe inlet. 4. Connect the free end of the silicone tube to the glass combustion tube as shown in Figure 8.6. 5. Fill the syringe with 0.5 cm3 of freshly prepared 10% hydrogen peroxide solution. 6. Fit the syringe into the syringe inlet on lid 1, but do not add the hydrogen peroxide to the well yet. 7. Light the microburner (refer to pg 11, Chap 1) and put it down away from the comboplate. 8. Take the toothpick and hold the narrow end of the splint in the flame of the microburner until it begins to burn. 9. While the top 1 to 2 cm of the splint is burning, slowly add the hydrogen peroxide to the manganese dioxide in the well. 10. When the end of the splint is glowing red, put out the flame by either blowing softly on the splint or shaking it gently. 11. Hold the glowing portion of the splint just above the open end of the glass tube and observe what happens. II. Test for hydrogen gas, H2

Figure 8.8 1. Using the propette, add half of well F2 with 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. 2. Add 1-2 leveled spatulas (spooned end) of zinc powder in the well. 3. Light a match, hold it horizontally placing the flame at the mouth of the well and observe what happens.

85

III. Test for carbon dioxide gas, CO2

Figure 8.9 1. Using the spooned end of the microspatula, place 2 leveled spatulas of calcium carbonate powder into well F3. 2. Cover well F3 with lid 1. 3. Using a clean propette, fill ¾ of the well F4 with the limewater. Cover well F4 with lid 2. 4. Join well F3 to well F4 by attaching the silicone tube to the tube connectors on lids of wells F3 and F4. 5. Fill the syringe with 1.0 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid. Fit the syringe into lid 1 on well F3. 6. Add the acid dropwise to the calcium carbonate powder in well F3. Observe what happens. IV. Test for ammonia gas, NH3

Figure 8.10 86

1. Using the propette, add half of well F5 with dilute sodium hydroxide solution. 2. Add 1 leveled spatula of ammonium chloride into the well and stir the mixture with a microspatula. 3. Bring a piece of moist red litmus paper to the mouth of the well. Observe what happens to the litmus paper. V. Test for chlorine gas

Figure 8.11 1. Using the propette, add half of well F6 with household bleach. 2. Cover well F6 with lid 1. 3. Fill the syringe with 0.5 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. Fit the syringe into lid 1 on well F6. 4. Add the acid dropwise to the bleach in well F6. 5. Bring the moist blue litmus paper above the connector of lid 1 and observe what happens. VI. Test for hydrogen chloride gas, HCl

Figure 8.12 87

2. Use the spooned end of a microspatula to put sodium sulphate powder in another angle. Use a microburner to heat the mixture and use moist blue litmus paper to test the gas formed. 4. Using a propette. 3. Observe what happens to the litmus paper and acidified potassium manganate (VII) solution.1. SO2 Figure 8. VII. place a few drops of acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution in one angle of W-tube. 5. Observe what happens.13 1. 88 . add 5-6 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid in well E1. 3. Test for sulphur dioxide gas. Immerse the glass rod in the concentrated ammonia solution and bring it to the mouth of well E1. Using a propette. Add 2 drops of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid in sodium sulphate powder. 2. Place 1 leveled spatula of sodium chloride in well F1.

4.14 1. Figure 8. Record the colour of the gas and any changes happen to the litmus paper. CO2 Ammonia gas. Heat the fusion tube with lead(II) nitrate slowly at first and then stronger. Cl2 89 Colour of gas Smell of gas Effect on damp litmus Confirmatory test on gas . Hold the fusion tube using the forceps. NH3 Chlorine gas.VIII. H2 Carbon dioxide gas. 2. NO2. 3. O2 Hydrogen gas. Use the narrow end of microspatula to place the lead(II) nitrate powder in a clean glass fusion tube. Test for nitrogen dioxide gas. Data and observations: Name of gas Oxygen gas. Test the gases formed using moist blue litmus paper.

J. 4.K.creighton.. Journal of Chemical Education. & Ahmad. Bhd: Petaling Jaya.Abadi Ilmu Sdn. Advanced learning packages. 84(2).html. S.C.W. Microchemistry experiences. Eng. B. Set up a table showing the test and results for each gas. SO2 Nitrogen dioxide gas.. Gupta. 321.edu/Microscale_Gas_Chemistry. Lim. Chemistry practical book form 4. HCl Sulphur dioxide gas. Lim. Magister-Press Publishing House: Moscow.Hydrogen chloride gas. NO2 Conclusions: Questions: 1. Retrieved from: mattson. Low.D.L. List the properties of each gas.H. E.N. (2005). & Bradley. 90 . N. 2. 2. L. (2007). U. Microscale gas chemistry: experiments with chlorine.O. Y. & Tan. Bell.. (2002). References: 1. 3. H. A novel W-Tube for microscale experiments in chemistry.

lead(II) nitrate. Materials: Procedure: I. lid 2. lead(II) carbonate. magnesium carbonate. silicone tube. Use the narrow end of a plastic microspatula to fill about ½ of the fusion tube with copper(II) carbonate powder. propettes. calcium nitrate. 4.Chapter 8: Salts G. NaNO3. Ca(NO3)2. 2. Observe any changes that occur to the lime water. iron(III) nitrate. sodium carbonate. Na2CO3. Observe the color of the residue when it is hot and when it is cold. K2CO3. KNO3. 3. Repeat steps 1 to 5 using each of the carbonates listed in the following table to replace the copper(II) carbonate. 6. iron(II) nitrate. glass fusion tube. Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 8. Hold the fusion tube in a horizontal position. CaCO3. zinc carbonate. CuCO3. ZnCO3. Copper(II) carbonate. Zn(NO3)2. crossarms for the microstand. Heat the carbonate salt strongly. Fe(NO3)3. MgCO3. forceps. microburner. calcium carbonate. zinc nitrate. 5. Chap 1 to set up microburner). Pb(NO3)2. microspatula. prestik/plasticine. 91 . 7. Apparatus: Comboplate. copper(II) nitrate. Studying the effect of heat on carbonate and nitrate salts Objective: To study the effect of heat on carbonate and nitrate salts. splinter. Record all your observations in your notebook.13 (refer to pg 11.15 1. Cu(NO3)2 and potassium nitrate. sodium nitrate. Fe(NO3)2. Carbonate salts Figure 8. PbCO3. potassium carbonate.

Data and Observations: Carbonate salt Copper(II) carbonate. MgCO3 Discussion: 1. 4. a) What are the carbonates that can be decomposed by heat? b) Write an equation to represent the decomposition of each carbonate salt. Name the gas produced in this experiment. ZnCO3 Lead(II) carbonate. PbCO3 Sodium carbonate. CuCO3 Zinc carbonate. What can you infer from the colour change(s) that occur during heating of the carbonate salts? II.16 92 . What role does lime water play in this experiment? 2. Nitrate salts Color of salt before heating Color of residue Hot Cold Effect on limewater Figure 8. K2CO3 Magnesium carbonate. Na2CO3 Calcium carbonate. CaCO3 Potassium carbonate. 3. What are the carbonate salts that are not decomposed by heat? 5.

Cu(NO3)2 Potassium nitrate. Do all nitrates salts decompose to produce the same salts? Justify your answer with your observations. Hold the fusion tube using a pair of forceps. Pb(NO3)2 Copper(II) nitrate. Fe(NO3)2 Iron(III) nitrate. Repeat steps 1 to 5 using each of the nitrate salts listed in the table to replace sodium nitrate. Zn(NO3)2 Iron(II) nitrate. 2. Fe(NO3)3 Lead(II) nitrate. 3. Heat the fusion tube slowly and then stronger. 2. 6.1. NaNO3 Calcium nitrate. Leave the residue in the fusion tube to cool and record its colour. Mg(NO3)2 Zinc nitrate. KNO3 Questions: 1. Write an equation for the decomposition of each nitrate salt. Ca(NO3)2 Magnesium nitrate. 4. Colour of salt before heating Colour of residue Hot Cold Effect on damp blue litmus paper Effect on glowing wooden splinter 93 . 7. Test the gases formed with the splinter and litmus paper. Record all your observations in your notebook. Use the narrow end of a microspatula to place the sodium nitrate powder in a clean glass fusion tube. Record the colour of the gas and any changes that happens to the solid in the fusion tube. Data and observations: Nitrate salts Sodium nitrate. 5.

B. N. Y. Bhd: Petaling Jaya.W.N. 3. Success chemistry SPM. Low. Oxford Fajar Sdn. J. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. Chemistry practical book form 4. (2002).T. Bhd: Shah Alam 94 . E.. Bell. (2005).D. Integrated Curriculum for Secondary School. & Tan. L. U. Loh.T.H..C.L. 2. Microchemistry experiences.K.Conclusions: References: 1.. Advanced learning packages.L. & Ahmad. Tan. W. Eng. S. O. Lim. Magister-Press Publishing House: Moscow. & Bradley. Y. Lim. & Tan. (2007)..

HCl.Chapter 8: Salts H. 5. concentrated sulphuric acid. 4. FeSO4 solution. Fill the syringe with 1. Cover well F2 with lid 2. Test for carbonate ion. 1 mol dm-3 sodium nitrate. Observe what happens to the lime water. 3. AgNO3 solution. BaCl2. 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid.0 cm3 hydrochloric acid. Add the acid dropwise to the sodium carbonate solution in well F1. 1 mol dm-3 sodium sulphate. red litmus paper. 2 mol dm-3 nitric acid. NaNO3 solution. 0. Na2SO4 solution. NaCl. 6. fill ¾ of well F2 with the lime water. 2. syringe. HNO3. silicone tube. Join well F1 to well F2 by attaching the silicone tube to the tube connectors on lids of well F1 and F2. 95 . Na2CO3 solution. Using a clean propette. 1 mol dm-3 sodium carbonate. propette and microspatula. fill 1/3 of well F1 with sodium carbonate solution. lid 2. 1 mol dm-3 sodium chloride.17 1. H2SO4 and lime water. Testing for the presence of anions in aqueous solutions Objective: To test for the presence of anions in aqueous solutions Apparatus: Materials: Comboplate. H2SO4. 1 mol dm-3 barium chloride. Procedure: I. Cover well F1 with lid 1. Using a propette. lid 1. 1 mol dm-3 iron(II) sulphate. 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. CO32- Figure 8.1 mol dm-3 silver nitrate. Fit the syringe into lid 1 on well F1.

Using a propette. Stir the mixture using the microspatula and observe what happens. Add 10 drops of hydrochloric acid into the well F4.II.19 1. Add 10 drops of barium chloride solution to the mixture in well F4. 3. Stir the mixture using the microspatula and observe what happens. 2. Using a propette. Test for chloride ion. Add 10 drops of nitric acid into the well F3. III. fill 1/3 of well F3 with the sodium chloride.18 1. 4. 3. 2. Cl- Figure 8. 96 . Test for sulphate ion. SO42- Figure 8. NaCl solution. 4. Add 10 drops of silver nitrate solution to the mixture in well F3. fill 1/3 of the well F4 with the sodium sulphate solution.

ClSulphate ion. 2. CO3-2 Chloride ion. add 10 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid down the slide of the well F5. Test for nitrate ion. Stir the mixture using microspatula to mix well. Using a propette. fill 1/3 of the well F5 with sodium nitrate solution. SO42Nitrate ion. NO3Observation Inference 97 .20 1. Add 10 drops of sulphuric acid into the well F5. Add 10 drops of iron(II) sulphate solution to the mixture. Observe what happens. Data and Observations: Test Carbonate ion. NO3- Figure 8. 3.IV. Carefully. Do not stir the mixture. 4.

U..L. 4.H. a) What is the white precipitate formed in the test for SO42. Chemistry practical book form 4. Eng. References: 1. Set up a table showing the test and results for each anion. L. Lim.C.. a) What is the white precipitate formed in the test for Cl-? b) Write the ionic equation. N.and NO3-? 5. Give the ionic equation for the reaction between an acid and a carbonate ion. S. Bhd: Petaling Jaya.W.K. 3. E. & Ahmad. Low.N.Abadi Ilmu Sdn. 2. Why must the solutions be acidified first in the tests for Cl-.Conclusions: Questions: 1.? b) Write the ionic equation. Lim. (2005). & Tan.. Y. 98 . SO42.

(NH4)2SO4 fertilizer Apparatus: Comboplate. 25 cm3 conical flask.0 mol dm-3 ammonia. microburette. microburner. silicone tube. 10 cm3 conical flask. propette. microcrucible. NH3 solution. microspatula. micro crossarms. syringe. wire gauze. filter paper. To determine the volume of acid for neutralization Figure 9.Chapter 9: Manufactured Substances in Industry A. microtripod stand.1 99 . microstand. phenolphthalein. 1. Materials: Procedure: I. H2SO4 and 2. Preparation of ammonium sulphate fertilizer Objective: To prepare ammonium sulphate. pipette tip. filter funnel.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid.

From the burette.0 cm3 of the same ammonia solution into a 10 cm3 conical flask. 3.0 cm3 of the base. 5. 100 . 3. add exactly V cm3 of sulphuric acid to the ammonia solution and stir well. 6. II. Titrate carefully by slowly adding the acid into the conical flask and stirring well with a microspatula. Record the final burette reading. 4.1. Pour the contents of the conical flask into a microcrucible. Push the plastic microstand into well D1 of the comboplate. Do not add any indicator. Orient the pairs of arms on the central stem of the microstand so that one arm of each pair is directly above the conical flask. Use a propette to add one or two drops of phenolphthalein. Preparation of the salt Figure 9. Fill a clean microburette with sulphuric acid and record the initial burette reading. Filter to obtain the ammonium sulphate crystals and dry it using 2 pieces of filter paper. 2.2 1. Determine the volume of acid used to neutralize 2. Stop the heating and cool the hot saturated salt solution in order for crystallization to occur. Use the microburette to transfer 2. Continue adding the acid until the indicator just turns from pink to colourless. Gently heat the solution with a microburner to evaporate most of the water to produce a saturated solution.0 cm3 of ammonia solution to a conical flask. 6. (let the volume be V cm3). 2. Use the microburette to transfer 2. 5. 4.

N. Y.W.H. E. Calculate the theoretical yield of ammonium sulphate crystals you can obtain based on your preparation. Lim.. there is no need to filter the solution. Chemistry practical book form 4.* If the salts have crystallized in the microcrucible. Lim. L. U. N. (2005). The mass of ammonium sulphate. Write a balanced equation for the reaction between NH3 and H2SO4. 3. References: 1. S. 2. & Ahmad. Eng. (NH4)2SO4 crystals obtained from your experiment will be less than the theoretical value.C.K. Low. Abadi Ilmu Sdn. Just scoop out the crystals using a microspatula onto a piece of filter paper and dry them. 101 .. Bhd: Petaling Jaya.. & Tan. Data and Observations: Conclusions: Questions: 1.L.

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