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JACQUARDS

INTRODUCTION
Jacquards is a n additional attachment to the machine to create an intricate and complex pattern. Origin of the word jacquard applies to weaving. First invented in 1804 by Joseph Marie Jacquard. The term was applied to knitting much later when perforated card system was devised for attachment to V bed flat knitting machines. There are no. of mechanisms available were needles are selected to produce knit in design. Many designers make use of the jacquards pattern for the intricate look of the garment.
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TYPES OF JACQUARD
Apart from the woven fabric, jacquard fabric also refers to a rib-based, double jersey weft-knit fabric on which a figure or design appears in a different color or texture. Jacquard fabrics are further sub-divided into flatjacquard and blister fabrics. The flat jacquard patterns have equal number of loops in each wale of the pattern knitting. It is not so with blister fabrics. Commonly found jacquard fabrics are brocade, damask and tapestries etc.
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For each type the design width will be determined by the number of feeds on the machine, the number of colors in the pattern and by the number of different patterning selections made at each feed.

Three main types of jacquard fabrics recognized by the size of the area may be classified as follows: Intermediate jacquard: smallest design area with maximum design width 24 wales. Medium jacquard: max design width- approximately 48 wales. Full jacquard: max design width approximately 144 wales.

As in an indication of typical sizes of pattern areas available produced on 18 cut machines in rib jacquards fabrics are: Intermediate jacquard:25 mm x 12mm (1 inch wide inch deep) Medium jacquard: 50mm x 90mm( 2 inch wide x 3 inch deep) Full jacquard: 140mm x 165mm ( 5 inch wide x 6 inch deep)

RIB JACQUARD

PATTERN WHEEL

PATTERN DRUM

PROGRAMME TAPE

Inserted jacks Snipped jacks

Peg type Selector type

Vertical bad Circular band Electronic band

RIBBED JACQUARD DOUBLE KNIT


"Ribbed" means that it is worked with alternating knit and purl stitches with the knit stitches arranged in columns and the purl stitches in alternating columns. "Jacquard" means it is a two color pattern, also called Fair Isle. Each row will contain short stretches of one color while the other color is carried out of sight on the back. "Double knit" means the fabric is reversible. Basically it's two pieces of fabric with the private sides (insides) touching each other, but both sides of the fabric are knit at the same time. Each time a color changes, the two fabrics are joined together. The resulting effect is that one side is a mirrored negative of the other side. Ribbed jacquard double knit fabric is one that encompasses all of those features in one fabric
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RIB JACQUARD MECHANISM

PATTERN WHEEL MECHANISM: most widely used needle selecting jacquard mechanism placed on knitting machine at 38-45 degree it comprises of raising cam, wing cam and stitch cam the slots are filled with jacks of different types . needle activated by high jack will rise to knit position if the slot is empty needle becomes inoperative and stays to float position. a low type of jack will raise the needle to tuck position. 9

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PATTERN DRUM MECHANISM: Pattern drum do not operate on needles directly they operate on jacks below . Two types: 1 multi-step selection: selectors inserted in the grooves of the pattern drum 2 peg drum machines: metal pegs are inserted in the holes of pattern drum

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TAPE PATTERNING DEVICES:


needles are selected by an endless tape, punched with holes.
Punched Steel Tape Jacquard: Modification of pattern wheel mechanism. wheel contains special types of jacks. The steel tape acts on pointed end of jack . If there is a hole in tape, the jack remains undisturbed so the jack butt engages the cam and needle is raised to required position.

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Punched Paper-roll Jacquard: instead of steel tape , paper roll or plastic sheet is used. this gives unlimited scope for needle selection. depth of pattern depends on length of roll.
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CIRCULAR KNITTING JACQUARD MECHANISM


1. A jacquard mechanism mounted in a circular knitting machine for knitting a jacquard fabric, comprising: a fixed selector cam having one track for guiding a knitting needle, and a sliding slot. a movable selector cam a driving mechanism controlled to move movable selector cam between upper position and lower position 2. The jacquard mechanism of claim 1 wherein auxiliary track comprises a tucking track 3. The jacquard mechanism of claim 2 wherein movable selector cam comprises a sloping front surface configured to lift knitting needle to tucking position 4. The jacquard mechanism of claim 1 wherein fixed selector cam comprises a vertical rail slot for guiding the movement of movable selector cam 5. The jacquard mechanism of claim 1 wherein driving mechanism further comprises a board coupled to and turned by servo motor and having two wings spaced 180 degree.
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DEVELOPMENT OF JACQUARDS
The development of Jacquards which rely on electronic (computer) information rather than actual punched cards has greatly reduced the costs of the equipment, materials and labour required to convert a design into ready to weave condition. Recent Jacquards can connect to digital networks, such as Ethernet, thus permitting direct transfer of patterns from the design computer. The number of Jacquard hooks per mechanism has been steadily increasing from around 1000 in the 19th century to over 12,000 at the end of the 20th.

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COMPUTERISED SINGLE KNIT JACQUARD

COMPUTERISED DOUBLE KNIT JACQUARD

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COST
The simplification of Jacquard mechanisms has reduced the cost per hook of manufacturing a Jacquard. Lower purchase costs, especially since the electronic versions. no longer require support equipment such as punches. This in turn has made possible the re-emergence of the hand-loom Jacquards, such as the TC-1 and TIS/SAMT systems. These new mechanisms have brought Jacquard technology well into the reach of schools and even of some individuals.
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ELECTRONIC DEVICES
The patterning capacity of a knitting unit can be made unlimited by the use of electronic devices for selecting the needles. There is no limitation to the width and height of the pattern. The solid state circuits can now transform the light energy into electrical energy, convert AC to DC and amplify small amount of energy to a high voltage. This way it reduces both the preparation time and cost the of design as compared to the mechanical one.

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ADVANTAGES
Work done on incredible speed Long lasting, do not wear out as the metal component Efficiency and reliability of electronic components is greater Space occupying mechanical parts can be dispensed by light-weight transistors

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CAD/CAM
pre-manufacturing with the help of computer based products to create prototypes arcane software is used

INTERFACING CAD WITH ELECTRONIC JACQUARD simplify both production and processing of jacquard design. cardboard and pattern plate is replaced by magnetic tape in electrical jacquard. data required for shed formation is processed on the available programming system which provides CAD.

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CAD software in jacquard machine


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VINTAGE JACQUARDS

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DESIGNERS
MISSONI

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ALEXANDER MCQUEEN

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THANK YOU
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