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such as theobroma oil (cocoa butter). The most commonly used hydrophilic base is composed of a solid glycerol/gelatin mixture. They consist of an active medicament dispersed throughout an inactive base. Displacement values Suppositories are prepared by dissolving or dispersing an active medicament in a molten base and pouring the mixture into a suppository mould. because the density of the medicament may vary considerably from that of the base. or synthetic fats such as Witepsol. Suppository moulds are normally available in 1 g.By the end of this chapter you should be able to: ● calculate quantities of base and drug required for the preparation of theobroma oil and glycerol-gelatin medicated suppositories. 2 g and 4 g sizes – the approximate weights of theobroma oil suppositories that are produced from them – although the volume of the suppository mould will be constant. the weight of the base required to make a suppository will vary depending on the medicament used. 2 g of a medicament with twice the density of theobroma oil would occupy approximately the same volume as 1 g of the suppository base. The displacement values (DVs) of medicaments are required when calculating the weight of suppository base required to prepare medicated suppositories (see Example 8.1). The displacement value of a medicament is the number of parts. The bases used in these products can be broadly classiﬁed into two groups: ■ Fatty bases. ■ Hydrophilic bases. by weight. 93 . These may be of natural origin. of a medicament that will displace one part of suppository base (normally theobroma oil). Suppositories Suppositories are dosage forms prepared for drug delivery via the rectum. For example. However. Displacement values for various medicaments are given in the Pharmaceutical Codex.

1 Calculate the quantities required to make 10 theobroma oil suppositories (2 g mould) each containing 400 mg of zinc oxide (Displacement value = 4.7 g of theobroma oil = 0. 2 Calculate what weight of base would be required to prepare 10 unmedicated suppositories.7 g of zinc oxide would displace 1 g of theobroma oil 1 g of zinc oxide would displace 1 ÷ 4.85 g = 19.) Example 8.7) Solution steps 1 Calculate the total weight of zinc oxide required.7 g of theobroma oil So.85 g Therefore. 4 g of zinc oxide will displace (4 × 1) ÷ 4. the weight of base required to make medicated suppositories = 20 – 0. 4 Calculate.7 This means that 4. the weight of base required to prepare the medicated suppositories.15 grams . therefore.15 g Answer: 19. Total weight of zinc oxide required = 400 mg × 10 = 4 g Weight of base required for unmedicated suppositories = 2 g × 10 = 20 g As the displacement value of zinc oxide = 4. 3 Determine what weight of base would be displaced by the medicament.94 PRACTICAL PHARMACEUTICAL CALCULATIONS (Note: The following examples take no account of preparation losses and it is normal practice to prepare for an excess quantity of suppositories.

4 Calculate. a 1 g suppository mould will produce a 1 g theobroma oil suppository.2 times greater than theobroma oil.3 g of theobroma oil = 0.2 g glycero-gelatin suppository. 200 mg of a drug with a DV of 4 will displace 200/4 mg or 50 mg of base in each mould. but a 1.6 g of aminophylline displace (1 × 0.g.8 g As the displacement value of aminophylline = 1.2 (to take account of the greater density of this base) = 28.2 Calculate the quantities required to make six glycerogelatin suppositories (4 g mould). therefore.6 g Weight of base required for unmedicated suppositories = 4 g × 6 × 1. This factor must be taken into account in displacement value calculations. each containing 100 mg aminophylline (Displacement value = 1. the weight of base required to prepare the medicated suppositories. e. Therefore. Example 8. Glycero-gelatin base has a density 1.3 This means that 1.3) Solution steps 1 Calculate the total weight of aminophylline required.SUPPOSITORY CALCULATIONS 95 Note that for theobroma oil suppositories you can calculate the amount of base displaced by the active ingredient by dividing the amount of active ingredient by the displacement value.3 g of aminophylline displaces 1 g of theobroma oil So.46 g of theobroma oil . 3 Determine what weight of base would be displaced by the medicament. Total weight of aminophylline required = 100 mg × 6 = 600 mg or 0.6) ÷ 1.3 g of theobroma oil 0. 2 Calculate what weight of glycero-gelatin base would be required to prepare 10 unmedicated suppositories. 1 g of aminophylline displaces 1 ÷ 1.

2 g of glycero-gelatin base. 3 Subtract the weight of the drug from the total weight of the suppositories to ﬁnd the weight of the base required.46 g × 1. if a glycero-gelatin base is used. weight of base required = 32 g – 0. . therefore.3 What quantities are required to prepare eight theobroma oil suppositories. then its displacement value is not required when calculating the respective amounts of medicament and base required to prepare the suppository. the weight of the drug required (1% of the total weight).25 g Answer: 28.96 PRACTICAL PHARMACEUTICAL CALCULATIONS This means that the aminophylline would displace 0. in a 4 g mould. 2 Calculate.55 g = 28. Example 8.68 grams Again.32 g Therefore. the appropriate correction factor must be used as a 1 g mould for a theobroma oil suppository will actually hold 1.25 grams Medicaments included as a percentage w/w If a medicament is present in a suppository as a percentage w/w. the weight of base required to make medicated suppositories = 28.32 g = 31.55 g Therefore.68 g Answer: 31.8 g – 0.2 of the glycero-gelatin base = 0. Total weight of the suppositories = 32 g Weight of drug required (1% w/w) = (32 × 1) ÷ 100 g = 0. containing 1% w/w lignocaine hydrochloride? Solution steps 1 Calculate the total weight of the medicated suppositories.

66 grams .8 g Weight of drug required = (28.8 g × 0.144 g = 28. 2 Calculate the weight of the drug required.SUPPOSITORY CALCULATIONS 97 Example 8. Use a 2 g mould Solution steps 1 Calculate the total weight of the medicated suppositories.4 Prepare 12 glycero-gelatin suppositories.144 g (or 144 mg) Therefore weight of base required = 28. 3 Subtract the weight of the drug from the total weight of the suppositories to determine the weight of the base required.66 g Answer: 28.5% w/w cinchocaine hydrochloride. allowing for the greater density of the glycero-gelatin base. containing 0.5) ÷ 100 = 0.8 g – 0. Total weight of the suppositories = 12 × 2 g × 1.2 = 28.

If a 2 g mould is used. What quantities of base and medicament are required? 4 You are asked to prepare 11 theobroma oil suppositories (2 g mould) each containing 100 mg of aspirin (DV = 1.5.5% w/w bismuth subgallate? 2 How would you prepare six theobroma oil suppositories (2 g mould) containing 10% w/w zinc oxide? 3 Six theobroma oil suppositories (2 g).5). each containing 30 mg phenobarbitone sodium (DV = 1. in a 2 g mould.1). If a 4 g mould is used. . what quantities of base and medicament are needed? 7 Prepare eight glycero-gelatin suppositories (in a 2 g mould) each containing 20 mg of morphine hydrochloride (DV = 1. are to be prepared. each containing 125 mg of paracetamol. What quantities of base and medicament are required? 9 Prepare 12 glycero-gelatin suppositories.98 PRACTICAL PHARMACEUTICAL CALCULATIONS SELF-ASSESSMENT Now try the self-assessment questions to ensure you have understood this chapter. each containing 50 mg of bismuth subgallate (DV = 2.2). What weights of base and medicament are required? 5 Prepare 10 theobroma oil suppositories. what quantities of base and medicament are required? 6 A prescriber requests ﬁve glycero-gelatin suppositories be made. are to be prepared using a 1 g mould. 8 Ten glycero-gelatin suppositories.6). containing 1% w/w hydrocortisone acetate.2). The displacement value of paracetamol is 1. each containing 50 mg of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DV = 1. Questions 1 How would you prepare 10 theobroma oil suppositories (1 g mould) containing 2.

) . Calculate the weight of each medicament and of theobroma oil required to prepare the suppositories.5).SUPPOSITORY CALCULATIONS 99 10 You are required to prepare 10 theobroma oil suppositories (2 g). Each suppository must contain 50 mg of bismuth subgallate (DV = 2. (Hint: Calculate the weight of base displaced by each medicament and subtract both these from the weight of the unmedicated suppositories.5) and 10 mg of hydrocortisone acetate (DV = 1.

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