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PRELIMINARY COURSE

General Mathematics

Robert Rowland

Second edition published 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064 First edition published 2000 Typeset in 10.5/12.5 pt Times © John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2000, 2008 The moral rights of the author have been asserted. National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication data Rowland, Robert, 1963–. Maths quest general mathematics: preliminary course. 2nd ed. For secondary school students. ISBN 978 0 7314 0570 1 (student edition) ISBN 978 0 7314 0571 8 (teacher edition) 1. Mathematics — Textbooks. I. Title. 510

Reproduction and communication for educational purposes The Australian Copyright Act 1968 allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this work, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL). Reproduction and communication for other purposes Except as permitted under the Act (for example, a fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review), no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher. Cover photograph and internal design images: © Digital Vision Illustrated by the Wiley Art Studio Printed in China by Printplus Limited 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Contents

Introduction viii About eBookPLUS x Acknowledgements xi

10 Quick Questions 2

CHAPTER 1

Earning money 1

Are you ready? 2 Calculating salary payments 3 Exercise 1A 4 Calculating wages 6 Exercise 1B 8 10 Quick Questions 1 11 Commission and royalties 11 Exercise 1C 14 Payment by piece 16 Exercise 1D 17 10 Quick Questions 2 18 Working overtime 19 Exercise 1E 21 Investigation — Investigating government payments 24 Additions to and deductions from gross pay 25 Exercise 1F 27 Investigation — Examining bank fees and taxes 30 10 Quick Questions 3 31 Budgeting 31 Exercise 1G 35 Summary 40 Chapter review 41 Practice examination questions 43

69 Using ratios 69 Exercise 2F 72 Summary 74 Chapter review 75 Practice examination questions 76

CHAPTER 3

Applications of area and volume 77

Are you ready? 78 Review of area 79 Exercise 3A 81 Investigation — Maximising an area of land 84 Calculating irregular areas from a field diagram 85 Investigation — Land survey 86 Exercise 3B 87 10 Quick Questions 1 88 Solid shapes 89 Exercise 3C 91 Surface area 92 Exercise 3D 94 10 Quick Questions 2 96 Volume of a prism 97 Investigation — Exploring the volume of a prism 97 Exercise 3E 99 Volume of other solids 103 Exercise 3F 105 Summary 108 Chapter review 109 Practice examination questions 112

CHAPTER 2

Units of measurement 45

Are you ready? 46

Units of measurement 47 Exercise 2A 50 Relative error 52 Exercise 2B 54 Investigation — Measuring heights 56 10 Quick Questions 1 56 Significant figures 57 Exercise 2C 60 Rates 61 Exercise 2D 65 Percentage change 67 Exercise 2E 68

CHAPTER 4

Basic algebraic skills

Are you ready? 114

113

General number patterns 115 Exercise 4A 117 Number pattern notation 119 Exercise 4B 122 10 Quick Questions 1 124 Adding and subtracting like terms 125 Exercise 4C 126 Substitution 127 Exercise 4D 128

iv

10 Quick Questions 2 130

Multiplication and division of algebraic expressions 131 Exercise 4E 133 Solving linear equations 134 Exercise 4F 137 Equations arising from substitution 139 Exercise 4G 141 Summary 143 Chapter review 144 Practice examination questions 146

CHAPTER 5

Statistics and society

Are you ready? 148

147

Analysing data 149 Investigation — Why statistical investigation? 149 Investigation — A statistical investigation – 1 149 Statistical processes 150 Investigation — Posing questions 150 Investigation — A statistical investigation – 2 150 Exercise 5A 152 Investigation — A statistical investigation – 3 153 Exercise 5B 155 Investigation — A statistical investigation – 4 155 Exercise 5C 159 Investigation — A statistical investigation – 5 159 Investigation — A statistical investigation – 6 159 Investigation — A statistical investigation – 7 159 Quality control 160 Exercise 5D 162 Privacy and ethical issues 163 Investigation — Privacy issues 163 Investigation — Organisations that use statistics 164 Summary 165 Chapter review 166

Target populations and sampling 169 Investigation — Gallup poll 169 Investigation — Identifying the target population 169 Exercise 6A 172 Investigation — Census or sample 174 Population characteristics 174 Investigation — Population characteristics 175 Exercise 6B 177 Investigation — Choosing a sample 179 10 Quick Questions 1 179 Bias 180 Investigation — Bias in statistics 181 Investigation — Biased sampling 182 Investigation — Spreadsheets creating misleading graphs 182 Exercise 6C 184 Investigation — Bias 185 Types of data 186 Exercise 6D 188 10 Quick Questions 2 191 Estimating populations 191 Investigation — Estimating a population 192 Exercise 6E 193 Summary 194 Chapter review 195 Practice examination questions 196

CHAPTER 7

Modelling linear relationships 199

Are you ready? 200

CHAPTER 6

Data collection and sampling 167

Are you ready? 168

Graphing linear functions 201 Exercise 7A 204 Investigation — Graph of height versus age 205 Gradient and intercept 205 Exercise 7B 209 Drawing graphs using gradient and intercept 211 Exercise 7C 214 10 Quick Questions 1 215 Graphing variations 216 Exercise 7D 217 Investigation — Currency conversions 218 Step and piecewise functions 218 Exercise 7E 220 Simultaneous equations 221 Exercise 7F 222

v

Summary 224 Chapter review 225 Practice examination questions 227 Stem-and-leaf plots 302 Exercise 9E 306 Five-number summaries 308 Exercise 9F 312 Summary 315 Chapter review 316 Practice examination questions 319

CHAPTER 8

Investing money 229

Are you ready? 230

Calculation of simple interest 231 Exercise 8A 234 10 Quick Questions 1 236 Graphing simple interest functions 236 Exercise 8B 239 Calculation of compound interest 241 Exercise 8C 244 10 Quick Questions 2 247 Calculating compound interest from a table of compounded values 248 Exercise 8D 251 Graphing compound interest functions 253 Exercise 8E 255 Share dividends 257 Exercise 8F 258 Graphing share performance 260 Exercise 8G 262 Investigation — Researching share prices 263 Inflation and appreciation 264 Exercise 8H 265 Summary 267 Chapter review 268 Practice examination questions 270

CHAPTER 10

Summary statistics

Are you ready? 322

321

Calculating the mean 323 Investigation — Average — what does it mean? 323 Exercise 10A 328 Standard deviation 333 Exercise 10B 337 Median and mode 341 Exercise 10C 345 10 Quick Questions 1 349 Best summary statistics 350 Exercise 10D 351 Investigation — Wage rise 354 Investigation — Best summary statistics and comparison of samples 354 Summary 355 Chapter review 356 Practice examination questions 361

CHAPTER 9

Displaying single data sets 271

Are you ready? 272

CHAPTER 11

Similarity of two-dimensional figures 363

Are you ready? 364

Frequency tables 273 Exercise 9A 276 Types of graphs 277 Exercise 9B 280 Investigation — Choice of graph 283 Investigation — Producing graphs using technology 283 Statistical graphs 283 Exercise 9C 287 10 Quick Questions 1 291 Range and interquartile range 292 Exercise 9D 297

Similar figures and scale factors 365 Exercise 11A 367 Investigation — Enlarging a figure 369 Investigation — Investigating scale factors 369 Investigation — Similar triangles 370 Solving problems using similar figures 371 Exercise 11B 372 Investigation — Scale drawing of the classroom 373 House plans 374 Exercise 11C 376 Investigation — House plans 378

vi

Summary 379 Chapter review 380 Practice examination questions 382 Proportional diagrams 450 Investigation — Checking with a proportional diagram 450 Investigation — Using proportional diagrams 450 Summary 451 Chapter review 452 Practice examination questions 454

CHAPTER 12

Taxation

Are you ready?

383

384

Calculating allowable deductions 385 Exercise 12A 388 Taxable income 390 Exercise 12B 392 10 Quick Questions 1 395 Medicare levy 395 Exercise 12C 397 Investigation — Medicare levy 397 Calculating tax 398 Exercise 12D 402 10 Quick Questions 2 404 Calculating GST and VAT 405 Exercise 12E 407 Graphing tax functions 409 Exercise 12F 409 Summary 411 Chapter review 412 Practice examination questions 414

CHAPTER 14

The language of chance

Are you ready? 456

455

CHAPTER 13

Right-angled triangles 415

Are you ready? 416 History of mathematics — Pythagoras of Samos (circa 580 BC–500 BC) 417

Pythagoras’ theorem 418 Exercise 13A 421 Calculating trigonometric ratios 423 Investigation — Looking at the tangent ratio 423 Investigation — Looking at the sine ratio 425 Investigation — Looking at the cosine ratio 426 Exercise 13B 429 10 Quick Questions 1 430 Finding an unknown side 431 Exercise 13C 435 10 Quick Questions 2 438 Finding angles 438 Exercise 13D 442 Angles of elevation and depression 445 Exercise 13E 448 Investigation — Calculation of heights 449

Informal description of chance 457 Exercise 14A 460 Investigation — Common descriptions of chance 462 Sample space 462 Exercise 14B 464 Investigation — Matching actual and expected results 465 10 Quick Questions 1 466 Tree diagrams 467 Exercise 14C 470 Investigation — Two-stage experiments 471 Equally likely outcomes 472 Exercise 14D 474 10 Quick Questions 2 475 Using the fundamental counting principle 476 Exercise 14E 479 Summary 481 Chapter review 482 Practice examination questions 484

CHAPTER 15

Relative frequency and probability 485

Are you ready? 486 Relative frequency 487 Exercise 15A 489 Investigation — Researching relative frequencies 491 Single event probability 492 Exercise 15B 494 Investigation — Comparing probabilities with actual results 497 10 Quick Questions 1 498

vii

Writing probabilities as decimals and percentages 499 Exercise 15C 500 Range of probabilities 502 Exercise 15D 504 10 Quick Questions 2 506 Investigation — Graphing results 506 Complementary events 507 Exercise 15E 509 10 Quick Questions 3 511 Summary 512 Chapter review 513 Practice examination questions 514 Glossary 515 Answers 521 Index 559

Introduction

Maths Quest General Mathematics — Preliminary course is the first book in a series specifically designed for the General Mathematics Stage 6 Syllabus starting in 2000. This course replaces the current syllabuses for Mathematics in Society (1981) and Mathematics in Practice (1989). There are ﬁve new areas of study: • Financial mathematics • Data analysis • Measurement • Probability • Algebraic modelling. This resource contains: • a student textbook with accompanying eBookPLUS and • a teacher edition with accompanying eGuidePLUS.

Student textbook

Full colour is used throughout to produce clearer graphs and diagrams, to provide bright, stimulating photos and to make navigation through the text easier. Clear, concise theory sections contain worked examples, highlighted important text and remember boxes. Worked examples in a Think/Write format provide a clear explanation of key steps and suggest a presentation for solutions. Exercises contain many carefully graded skills and application problems, including multiple-choice questions. Cross-references to relevant worked examples appear beside the ﬁrst ‘matching’ question throughout the exercises. Investigations, including spreadsheet investigations, provide further learning opportunities through discovery. Sets of 10 Quick Questions allow students to quickly review the concepts just learnt before proceeding further in the chapter. A glossary of mathematical terms is provided to assist students’ understanding of the terminology introduced in each unit of the course. Words in bold type in the theory sections of each chapter are deﬁned in the glossary at the back of the book. Each chapter concludes with a summary and chapter review exercise, containing questions in a variety of forms (multiple-choice, short-answer and analysis) that help consolidate students’ learning of new concepts. Practice examination questions provide a ready source of problems for students to use to gain further conﬁdence in each topic.

ix

Technology is fully integrated, in line with Board of Studies recommendations. As well as graphics calculators, Maths Quest features spreadsheets, dynamic geometry software and several graphing packages. Not only does the text promote these technologies as learning tools, but demonstration versions of the programs (with the exception of Microsoft Excel) are also included, as well as hundreds of supporting ﬁles on the bonus accompanying online resources. Graphics calculator tips are incorporated throughout the text. All formulae, which are given on the HSC examination formula sheet, are marked with the symbol .

Programs included

Graphmatica: an excellent graphing utility Equation grapher and regression analyser: like a graphics calculator for the PC GrafEq: graphs any relation, including complicated inequalities Poly: for visualising 3D polyhedra and their nets Tess: for producing tessellations and other symmetric planar illustrations TI Connect: calculator screen capture and program transfer CASIO Software FA-123: calculator screen capture and program transfer Cabri Geometry II: dynamic geometry program Adobe® Acrobat® Reader 4.0

**Teacher edition with accompanying eGuidePLUS
**

The teacher edition textbook contains everything in the student textbook and more. To support teachers assisting students in class, answers appear in red next to most questions in the exercises. Each exercise is annotated with relevant study design dot points. A readily accessible Work program lists all available resources and provides curriculum coverage information. The accompanying teacher eGuidePLUS contains everything in the student eBookPLUS and more. Two tests per chapter, fully worked solutions to WorkSHEETs, the work program and other curriculum advice in editable Word 2000 format are provided. Maths Quest is a rich collection of teaching and learning resources within one package. Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary course, Second edition, provides ample material, such as exercises, analysis questions, investigations, worksheets and technology ﬁles, from which teachers may set assessment tasks.

**Next generation teaching and learning
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About eBookPLUS

This book features eBookPLUS: an electronic version of the entire textbook and supporting multimedia resources. It is available for you online at the JacarandaPLUS website (www.jacplus.com.au). These additional resources include: • Word documents designed for easy customisation and editing • interactive activities and a wealth of ICT resources • weblinks to other useful resources and information on the internet.

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Acknowledgements

The Maths Quest project began in 1997, and the ﬁrst edition of this book was printed in 2000. In that time we believe that Maths Quest has become the best-resourced mathematical database in Australian education. I would like to thank all of those people who have supported us with our ﬁrst edition. I hope that we have been able to help you in achieving your goals and have also played a part in your successes. Technology has evolved greatly since our ﬁrst edition was published. The second edition has evolved from the ﬁrst textbook into an interactive resource for both students and teachers. I would like to thank everyone at John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd for giving me the opportunity to do this. There are three people in particular whom I would like to single out for special mention: Jennifer Nolan, whose support for the Maths Quest project and for me personally has made everything possible; Ingrid Kemp, the newest addition to our team, who has brought a new set of eyes to our project and kept the ball rolling — thanks Ingrid; and ﬁnally Keith Hartmann, who has tirelessly reviewed all of the new material and has completed all of the answer checking — thanks Keith — I hope you’re enjoying retirement! Finally, and most importantly, to my family — thank you. Without your support this book and online resources would never have been completed. The author and publisher would like to thank the following copyright holders, organisations and individuals for their assistance and for permission to reproduce copyright material in this book.

Illustrative material

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com/us/product/software. Not to be used for navigation. 479. Software The authors and publisher would like to thank the following software providers for their assistance and for permission to use their materials.com Web: http://www. Inc. 477. The user is expected to register share-ware if use exceeds 30 days. LTD.. 345 Montecillo Dr. Program-Link FA-124 Copyright © 1999–2005. 485. 505(2). 498. © Rubberball Productions: p. fx-9860G Manager PLUS Expired (30 days) Copyright © 2006. All rights reserved. CASIO COMPUTER CO. 5 of WorkSHEET 11. 142(upper) • © Queensland Transport: p. CA 94595-2654. please contact Shriro Australia Pty Ltd.html Note: The TI Connectivity cable can be purchased from educational booksellers or calculator suppliers.2/ Reproduced with the permission of Maritime Safety Queensland. Texas Instruments TI Connect™ and TI-GRAPHLINK software TI Connect™ and TI-GRAPHLINK software reproduced with permission of the publisher Texas Instruments Incorporated..xii 472. All rights reserved. 491. Order forms are available at www. 501. the use of such material does not imply that the providers endorse this product in any way. TI Connect software available from Texas Instruments Web: http://education.graphmatica. 6 • © Stockbyte: pp. e-mail: ksoft@graphmatica. 314. Graphmatica Reproduced with permission of kSoft.au and ﬁnd the calculator product range If you are interested in this product after expiry. However.casioed. 476(2).graphmatica. CASIO COMPUTER CO.com Software included is for evaluation purposes only. 11. Walnut Creek. Third party software — registered full version ordering information Full versions of third party software may be obtained by contacting the companies listed below. 500 • © Stockdisc: p. 490. txt . Distributed by Shriro Australia Pty Ltd 23–27 Chaplin Drive Lane Cove NSW 2066 Web: www. LTD. 510 • © Purestock Superstock: pp. 494.com/register..ti.net.

Robert has successfully taught all levels of Mathematics to Year 12 as well as Computing Studies 7–12 and Information Processes and Technology.cabri. He taught at Cabramatta High School from 1985 to 1988 before taking up his appointment at Ulladulla High School in 1989.peda. Information that will enable the publisher to trace the copyright holders or to rectify any error or omission in subsequent reprints will be welcome. please contact the Permission Section of John Wiley & Sons Australia. the demo version of Cabri Geometry™ II Plus must not be used in the classroom for presentation on a regular basis. Cabrilog 6. Robert is the coauthor of New South Wales Maths Year 9 Standard and New South Wales Maths Year 10 Standard as well as being the author of Maths Quest General Mathematics — Preliminary Course and Maths Quest General Mathematics — HSC Course. Every effort has been made to trace the ownership of copyright material.com 1.xiii Cabri Geometry™ II PLUS Reproduced with permission of Cabrilog. Inc. e-mail: peda@peda. .com» or www. Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. About the author Robert Rowland has been teaching Mathematics for over 20 years and currently holds the position of Head teacher. 2.com Microsoft® Excel. Screenshots reproduced throughout with permission from Microsoft. In such cases. For site licences contact Cabrilog — Grenoble-France at «sales@cabri. Robert Schuman Place 38000 Grenoble FRANCE Web: http://www. Due to copyright restrictions.com Web: http://www.com GrafEq and Poly Evaluation copies of GrafEq™ and Poly™ have been included with permission from Pedagoguery Software. Teaching and learning at Ulladulla High School. Microsoft® Word and Microsoft® PowerPoint Microsoft Excel. who will arrange for the payment of the usual fee.cabri.

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Earning money 1 syllabus reference Financial Mathematics 1 • Earning money In this chapter 1A Calculating salary payments 1B Calculating wages 1C Commission and royalties 1D Payment by piece 1E Working overtime 1F Additions to and deductions from gross pay 1G Budgeting .

56 × 1. a $23.45 pm to 9. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET.5% of $4570 1.8 7 For each of the following pairs. $400 b $13.1 Converting units of time Are you ready? Try the questions below.6 6 Jessica has worked the following hours in one week.areyou 1.3 3 Convert each of the following percentages to a decimal.4 4 Find each of the following. If you have difﬁculty with any of them.5 Multiplying a quantity (money) by a decimal 5 Calculate each of the following. a 2 years (months) b 3 years (weeks) c 42 weeks (fortnights) d 60 months (years) Multiplying and dividing a quantity (money) by a whole number 1.2% e 8. express the ﬁrst quantity as a percentage of the second quantity. READY? b $31 432.72 × 52 Converting a percentage into a decimal 1.5 Adding periods of time b $12. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy.90 × 2.2 2 Calculate each of the following. $625 1. $20 c $125.50 × 26 c $528.9 Increasing a quantity by a percentage 8 Increase each of the following by the percentage indicated.30 pm How many hours has she worked? Expressing one quantity as a percentage of another 1.70 ÷ 12 d $45 600 ÷ 52 c 4% f 17.00 am to 2. a 10% of $350 c 18% of $9000 b 25% of $1424 d 12.00 pm Saturday 8. a $560 by 10% b $1120 by 5% c $2560 by 15% . Thursday 6. a $8.5 1.25% Finding a percentage of a quantity (money) 1.5% 1 Convert each of the following to the units shown in brackets. a $56.30 pm to 9. a 34% b 79% d 67.00 pm Friday 5.

Chapter 1 Earning money 3 Calculating salary payments Methods of payment A payment received by an employee for doing a job is called income. To make calculations about salaries. WORKED Example 2 Grace is a solicitor who is paid $3500 per month. Such employees include teachers. fortnightly or monthly pay of a person and are then asked to calculate the annual salary. . so multiply $3500 (monthly pay) by 12. wages. A salary is therefore usually stated as an amount per annum. THINK 1 2 WRITE Fortnightly pay = $46 800 ÷ 26 Fortnightly Pay = $1800 There are 26 fortnights in a year. piecework and overtime. WORKED Example 1 Dimitri works as an accountant and receives an annual salary of $46 800. fortnightly or monthly amounts. accountants and some doctors. Calculate Grace’s annual salary. A salary is a ﬁxed amount of money that is paid to employees to do their jobs. 1 year = 52 weeks = 26 fortnights = 12 months A lecturer is paid a salary. Calculate the amount that Dimitri is paid each fortnight. THINK 1 2 WRITE Annual salary = $3500 × 12 Annual salary = $42 000 There are 12 months in a year. which means per year. you will need to remember the following information. Evaluate. Salaries are paid in weekly. Evaluate. In this section we are going to look at some of these methods of payment: salaries. We reverse this calculation when we are given the weekly. so we divide $46 800 by 26. Salaries Many people employed in professional occupations are paid a salary. royalties. regardless of the number of hours worked. lawyers. There are many different ways people are paid for performing a job. Salaries are usually calculated on an annual basis. The amount paid does not change. commission.

23 Hourly rate = $799. A salary is usually calculated on an annual basis and can be paid in weekly. Calculate Wendy’s pay if she is paid: a weekly b fortnightly c monthly. To calculate information about equivalent daily or hourly rates of pay.03 2 Calculate the weekly pay by dividing the salary by 52. To do this.2 Example 1 Toni is paid a salary of $44 200 per annum. 5 Darren earns a salary of $43 000 per annum. SkillS HEET 1. we need to know the number of days or hours worked per week. 2. 3 Frieda is paid a salary of $54 000 per annum. Calculate the hourly rate by dividing the weekly pay by 42. 1 Multiplying and dividing a quantity (money) by a whole number EXCE reads L Sp he Payroll calculations et . Calculate Frieda’s monthly pay. 2 Roger is paid a salary of $49 920 per annum. WORKED Example 3 Charlotte works as a laboratory technician and is paid an annual salary of $41 560. A salary is a ﬁxed payment made for doing a job. remember 1. we need information about the number of days and hours worked by the employee. Calculate Darren’s fortnightly pay.4 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course To compare a salary payment with other forms of income it may be necessary to calculate the equivalent daily or hourly payment. If Charlotte works an average of 42 hours per week. Calculate Roger’s weekly pay. fortnightly or monthly instalments. Calculate Toni’s fortnightly pay. calculate her equivalent hourly rate of pay. correct to the nearest cent.1 Converting units of time 1A WORKED Calculating salary payments SkillS HEET 1. THINK 1 WRITE Weekly pay = $41 560 ÷ 52 = $799. 3. 4 Wendy works as an ofﬁce secretary and is paid a salary of $38 740 per annum.23 ÷ 42 = $19.

Letitia is on a wage and is paid $16. who receives $27 900 per annum. Calculate Thao’s annual salary. C Wayne. a Calculate Jade’s weekly pay. Give your answer correct to the nearest cent. calculate whether Karina or Letitia receive the better rate of pay. 8 Thao receives $1250 per fortnight. 3 12 Jade receives a salary of $33 000 per annum. D Ron. Calculate the number of hours that Henry will need to work each week to earn more money than Garry does.50 per hour. If Fiona works an average of 40 hours per week.00 per hour. a Calculate Karina’s weekly pay. b If Karina works an average of 42 hours per week. correct to the nearest cent. Calculate the hourly rate to which Jade’s salary is equivalent.Chapter 1 Earning money 5 6 Copy and complete the table below for food production employees. 13 Karina is on an annual salary of $35 776. 14 Garry earns $42 500 per year while his friend Henry earns $18. who receives $1075 per fortnight. Calculate Deidre’s annual salary. B Bryan. calculate the equivalent hourly rate of pay. WORKED WORKED Example 2 Example 11 Fiona receives a salary of $29 700 per annum. Annual salary Weekly pay Fortnightly pay Monthly pay $30 000 $39 500 $42 250 $54 350 $86 475 7 Maxine is paid a salary. who receives $2330 per month. 9 Deidre is paid monthly and receives $5800. Calculate Maxine’s annual salary. 10 multiple choice Which of the following people receives the greatest salary? A Goran. . who receives $530 per week. b Jade works an average of 36 hours each week. She receives $460 per week.

WORKED Example 4 Sadiq works as a mechanic and is paid $13.52 Using a similar method we are able to calculate the number of hours worked by an employee.84 ÷ 42 Hourly rate = $11. WORKED Example 5 Georgina works 42 hours as a data entry operator for a computer company. Calculate Sadiq’s wage in a week where he works 38 hours. In some cases.84.70 To compare two people’s wages. Her wage for the week totalled $483. The hourly rate at which a person is usually paid is called an ordinary rate. An allowance is an additional payment made when the working conditions are difﬁcult or unpleasant. The wage for each week is calculated by multiplying the ordinary rate by the number of hours worked during that week. Calculate Georgina’s hourly rate of pay. We must also consider the number of hours each has worked. Wages are compared by looking at the hourly rate. THINK Multiply $13. The number of hours worked is found by dividing the wage by the hourly rate.65 (the hourly rate) by 38 (the number of hours worked).84 (the wage) by 42 (number of hours worked).65 × 38 Wage = $518. we can’t just look at the amount of money each receives in a pay packet. A wage is paid at an hourly rate. WRITE Wage = $13. WRITE Hourly rate = $483.65 per hour. . THINK Divide $483. given their wage and hourly rate of pay. To calculate the hourly rate of an employee we need to divide the wage by the number of hours worked.6 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Calculating wages Most people in the workforce earn a wage. wages are increased because an allowance is paid for working in unfavourable conditions.

86 × 12 = $10. The total allowance should be calculated and then added to the normal pay. 2.45 (hourly rate) by 35 (number of hours worked). 6. In these cases.75 + $10. To calculate the number of hours worked we divide the wage by the hourly rate.45 per hour for a 35-hour week. . 5. remember 1.07 2 3 Calculate Ryan’s normal pay by multiplying $9.45 × 35 = $330. This type of allowance is also paid to casual workers. 4. A wage is money earned at an hourly rate. WORKED Example 6 Ryan is a road worker and is paid $9. Allowances are paid for working under unfavourable conditions. The casual rate is a higher rate of pay to compensate for this. To calculate an hourly rate we divide the wage by the number of hours worked.32 Total pay = $330. THINK 1 WRITE Normal pay = $9. a road worker may be paid an allowance for working in the rain. Add the normal pay to the wet weather allowance to calculate the total pay. Calculate Ryan’s pay if for 12 hours of the week he works in the rain. the allowance must be multiplied by the number of hours worked in the unfavourable conditions and this amount added to the normal pay. A casual rate is a higher rate of pay for casual workers to compensate them for having no holidays and receiving no sick leave.Chapter 1 Earning money 7 For example.86 (the wet weather allowance) by 12 (number of hours worked in the wet).32 = $341. 3. When you are employed on a casual basis you do not receive any holiday pay and you do not get paid for days you have off because you are sick. For working on wet days he is paid a wet weather allowance of 86c per hour.75 Allowance = $0. Calculate the wet weather allowance by multiplying 0. To calculate a wage we multiply the hourly rate by the number of hours worked during the week.

Casual workers earn 20% more per hour than full-time workers to compensate for their lack of holidays and sick leave. Calculate the casual rate earned by casual waitresses.5 hours.5 41 36 Wage et 3 Alicia is an apprentice chef.5 hours. 6 multiple choice Which of the following workers earns the highest wage for the week? A Dylan.67 per hour D Cameron.19 per hour . Calculate Alicia’s wage in a week where she works: a 36 hours b 48 hours c 42.80 per hour.95 per hour.95 $20.8 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 1B EXCE reads L Sp he WORKED Calculating wages Example Payroll calculations 4 1 Allan works in a newspaper printing mill and is paid $12. Smith B. 2 Copy and complete the table below by calculating the wage of each of the workers. He earns $13.04 Hours worked 40 38 37. Calculate Domonic’s wage in a week where he works: a 32 hours b 37 hours c 44. a A full-time waitress earns $14.10 $18. Tran A. who works 35 hours at $13. who works 40 hours at $12. McTavish Hourly rate $14. who works 37 hours $12.93 per hour C Connor.52 $16.45 per hour.50 per hour. In the ﬁrst year of her apprenticeship she earns $11. b Calculate Katherine’s wage in a week where she works 6 hours on Saturday and 7 hours on Sunday. Name A. Calculate Allan’s wage in a week where he works 40 hours. Milosevic L. 5 Katherine works as a casual waitress. who works 38 hours at $12. 4 Domonic is a fully qualiﬁed chef. Brown N.50 per hour B Lachlan.45 $15.

but Zoe works a 40-hour week. 14 Ingrid works as an industrial cleaner and is paid $14. Find the least time Zhong must work if he is to earn more money than Rema does.20 C April.08 per hour. Calculate Zoe’s hourly rate of pay. 16 Tamarin works 38 hours per week at $12. who earned $707.96 $231. Black C. a Calculate Rema’s wage in a week where she works 37 hours. 11 multiple choice Which of the following workers is paid at the highest hourly rate? A Melissa.25 at $17. . Name A.60 per hour for a 35-hour working week.42 $20. who earned $576. who earned $439.63 $813.38 $15.20. When he has to work at heights he is paid a 46c per hour ‘height allowance’.60 12 multiple choice Which of the following people worked the greatest number of hours? A Su-Li. When Ingrid is working with toxic substances she is paid an allowance of $1.45 B Belinda.52 per hour D Camille. b Zoe earns the same amount each week as Tamarin does.72 Hours worked 36 40 37 $19.25 per hour WORKED Example 13 Richard works as an electrical linesman and is paid $10. a Calculate Tamarin’s weekly wage. who earned $333.40 per hour C Vera.20 per hour.76 D Nicole.38.57 per hour B Denise. b Zhong is Rema’s assistant and earns $8. White B.94 per hour for a 38-hour week.40 per hour.42 per hour. 8 Julie earns $11. Calculate the number of hours worked by Julie in a week where she is paid $445.00 at $14.80 $369. who works 40 hours for $419. Calculate 6 Richard’s pay in a week where 15 hours are spent working at heights. Green D. Calculate Ingrid’s pay if she works with toxic substances all week.80 for 20 hours work.16 $538.30 $776.44 Hourly rate 5 10 Calculate the hourly rate of a casual worker who earns $250. who works 35 hours for $366.20 at $9. Grey Wage $416. Brown E.Chapter 1 Earning money 9 WORKED Example 7 Calculate the hourly rate of a person who works 40 hours for a wage of $387. 9 Copy and complete the table below. who works 36 hours for $376. 15 Rema works as a tailor and earns $9.45 per hour. Scarlet F. who works 38 hours for $399.66 at $11.

reads L Sp he et EXCE Wages_1 2. access the spreadsheet (Wages_1) from the Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM. Alternatively.00. 15. Dean Jones. Work through the following steps. This will calculate the wage for Frederick Astini (the ﬁgure 448 should appear in the cell). 1. (The entries in this column should read $448. $425. $403.60. If you now change the hours worked by each employee. Paul Limbrick. his or her gross pay should update automatically. . In cell E7 (in the column headed Gross Pay) enter the formula =C7*D7.) 7.00). 6. 45.20.10 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Computer Application 1 Spreadsheets Throughout this chapter we are going to develop a number of spreadsheets that will calculate wages. Enter the hours worked as follows: Frederick Astini. James Carter. 36. $168. Choose the Save As function to save the spreadsheet as Wages_1. Format cell E7 as currency (cell E7 should now show $448. Highlight cells E7 to E11 and select the Fill Down option. Enter a pay rate of $11.20 per hour for each employee.00. Open a spreadsheet and enter the following information. 5. 38. Kelly George. 3. 4. 40. The wages for each employee should now be calculated and be formatted as currency. 8.00 and $504.

Calculate Simone’s fortnightly pay.Chapter 1 Earning money 11 1 1 Calculate the wage of a person who works 36 hours at a pay rate of $9. 8 Ivan earns an annual salary of $56 480 and is paid monthly.06 for a 38-hour working week. 10 Penny works an average of 35 hours each week.) Commission and royalties Commission is a method of payment used mainly for salespeople. Calculate Penny’s weekly pay. 9 Penny earns an annual salary of $44 000 and is paid weekly. being paid as a percentage of sales. a person receives a percentage of the value of goods sold. 7 Simone earns an annual salary of $70 000 and is paid fortnightly. Calculate Debbie’s hourly rate of pay. Calculate Damien’s weekly pay. 3 Donna works 15 hours on weekends at $14.56 per hour. A royalty is a payment made to a person who owns a copyright. an author who writes a book is paid according to the number of books sold.65 per hour. Royalties are calculated in the same way as commission. (Answer to the nearest cent. Calculate Donna’s wage. .56 per hour.88 per hour. a musician who writes a piece of music is paid royalties on sales of CDs. When paid commission. Calculate the hourly rate to which her salary is equivalent. For example. 4 Calculate what Stephen will earn for working 8 hours at $11. Calculate Ivan’s monthly pay. 2 Calculate the wage of a person who works 38 hours at $13. 6 Damien earns an annual salary of $47 000 and is paid weekly. 5 Debbie earns $489.

This type of commission is commonly used in real estate sales. each portion of the commission is calculated separately. In these examples.5% of $160 000. commission may operate on a sliding scale. Calculate the commission earned on the sale of a property for $235 000. Calculate the commission that Jack earns in a week if he makes sales to the value of $15 000. WORKED Example 8 A real estate agent is paid commission on his sales at the following rate: • 5% on the ﬁrst $75 000 • 2. This means that the commission rate changes with the value of sales. Calculate the balance of the sale.12 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 7 Jack is a computer salesman who is paid a commission of 12% of all sales. Add up each portion to calculate the commission.5% on the balance of the sale • price. WRITE Commission = 12% of $15 000 Commission = 12 ÷100 × $15 000 Commission = $1800 In some cases. . THINK Calculate 12% of $15 000. The ﬁnal commission is the sum of each portion. THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE 5% of $75 000 = $3750 Balance = $235 000 − $75 000 Balance = $160 000 2. Calculate 2.5% of $160 000 = $4000 Commission = $3750 + $4000 Commission = $7750 Calculate 5% of $75 000.

you will need to add the retainer to the commission. In these cases. Here the commission is calculated only on sales above this ﬁxed amount. remember 1. 4. Calculate Shelley’s pay in a week where her sales total $12 250. Calculate Tony’s pay in a week where his sales total $84 000. To calculate this type of pay. 3 Add the $300 to the commission to calculate Tony’s pay. Some commissions are paid together with a ﬁxed payment called a retainer. 2 In some cases. the commission does not begin to be paid until sales have reached a certain point. This is to ensure that the person earns some money even if no sales are made. but rather on a section of sales above a certain point. To calculate an employee’s pay. A commission is earned when a person is paid a percentage of the value of sales made. the ﬁxed payment needs to be added to the commission. each portion of the commission is calculated separately and then totalled at the end. 3. THINK 1 WRITE Commission = 2% of $12 250 Commission = 2 ÷ 100 × 12 250 Commission = $245 Pay = $250 + $245 Pay = $495 Calculate the commission of 2% of $12 250. Add the $250 to the commission to calculate her pay. WORKED Example 10 Tony is a car salesman. people receive a ﬁxed amount (called a retainer) as well as a commission. WORKED Example 9 Shelley is a furniture salesperson and is paid $250 per week plus a commission of 2% of all sales. In some cases where a ﬁxed payment is made. Some commissions are paid on a sliding scale. Find 2% of this amount. 2. commission may not be paid on all sales. THINK 1 2 WRITE $84 000 − $50 000 = $34 000 Commission = 2% of $34 000 Commission = 2 ÷ 100 × $34 000 Commission = $680 Pay = $300 + $680 Pay = $980 Calculate the amount on which commission is to be paid. .Chapter 1 Earning money 13 In some cases. Tony is paid $300 per week and 2% of all sales over $50 000.

If Darren sells CDs to the value of $40 000. . What rate of commission does Asif receive? A 0.90. Calculate Beryl’s earnings in a week where her sales total is: a $2600 b $3270 c $5687.5% C 5% D 20% SkillS HEET 1. 9 Gabrielle is a fashion sales representative. calculate his commission if it is paid at a rate of: a 1% b 3% c 3.14 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 1C SkillS Commission and royalties HEET 1. The royalty is 12% of the value of all sales of his book. Calculate the amount of money Linda earns in a week where her sales total $95 000. Calculate the amount that Kylie is paid for selling insurance to the value of $25 000.4%. Calculate Gabrielle’s commission in a week where her sales total $9500. Ursula’s sales total $105 000 and she is paid a commission of 0.5% commission.05% B 0.5% on the balance of the sale price. Calculate the commission charged on the sale of a property valued at $250 000. 2 Beryl sells exercise equipment and is paid a commission of 10% on all sales.3 WORKED Example 7 Converting a percentage into a decimal 1 Kylie is an insurance salesperson and she is paid 8% of the value of any insurance that she sells. 3 Darren’s job is to sell CDs to music stores. 4 Linda is a car salesperson who is paid 1. Asif earns $870 commission on sales of $17 400. Gabrielle is paid a commission of 5% on the ﬁrst $3000 of sales each week and 10% commission on the balance.4 Finding a percentage of a quantity (money) EXCE reads L Sp he Calculations with percentages et WORKED Example 8 8 A real estate agent charges commission at the following rate: • 5% on the ﬁrst $75 000 • 2. Calculate the value of Ken’s royalty if the value of sales totals $34 500. 5 Ken is an author and is paid a royalty on his book sales. How much does Ursula receive in commission? A $105 B $840 C $8400 D $84 000 7 multiple choice Asif is a sales representative for a hardware ﬁrm.8%. 6 multiple choice Ursula is a computer software salesperson.

He is paid $300 per week plus 3% commission on all sales greater than $5000. a How much does Fred earn for a week in which his sales are $5000? b How much does Gina earn for a week in which her sales total $5000? c In another week Gina earns $650. who is paid $250 plus 6% commission C Cathy.5% commission on all sales over $3000. 9 12 Daniel works as a sales representative for a car accessories ﬁrm. 17 multiple choice A ﬁrm employs ﬁve sales representatives. How much should his sales be? WORKED Example 15 Mario is a pay television salesman. Fred is paid a commission of 8% and Gina is paid $250 plus 5% commission. who is paid $280 plus a commission of 1. What is the value of Gina’s sales? d Fred wishes to earn $650 in a week.5% commission 14 Fred and Gina sell life insurance. Calculate Neville’s pay in a week where his sales total is: a $4000 b $6500 c $8560. Calculate Daniel’s earnings in a week where his sales total is: a $6000 b $8500 c $12 475. Bonito is paid $250 plus a 3.8% D Trevor. c Who will earn the most money in a week where both Andrew and Bonito make $16 000 in sales? Work T SHEE 1. Who earns the most money? A Averil. b Calculate Bonito’s commission in a week where his sales total $6500. calculate the commission on a property that sells for: a $90 000 b $140 000 c $600 000. Calculate Stanisa’s pay in a week where his sales total $35 000. who is paid $300 plus a commission of 3. Calculate Mario’s pay in a week where his sales total $7500. who receives a commission of 4% B Richard. 10 16 Neville is a door-to-door encyclopedia salesman.Chapter 1 Earning money 15 10 Using the sliding scale for commission shown in question 8.5% on all sales over $6000 18 Andrew and Bonito are sales representatives. who is paid a commission of 8% B Bernard.5% on all sales. who receives $100 plus a commission of 3% C Susan. WORKED Example 11 Stanisa is a car salesman who is paid $250 per week plus a commission of 2% of any sales he makes. who is paid $350 plus 4% commission D Darrell. Mario earns $500 per week plus 5% commission on all sales above $5000.1 . who is paid $540 plus 2. Andrew is paid $300 plus a commission of 2. 13 multiple choice A group of sales representatives each have $10 000 in sales for a week. Daniel is paid $150 per week plus 4% of any sales. a Calculate Andrew’s commission in a week where his sales total $6500. Which representative will earn the most in a week where each of their sales totals $12 480? A Peter.

16 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Payment by piece Payment by piece. Calculate what Holly will earn for a delivery of 3500 brochures. He is paid $2.00 to calculate what Holly is paid. There are also examples where you will be asked to compare payment by piece with other methods of earning income. piecework is paid for multiples. wages.25 × 24 Pay = $54. Multiply 3. THINK 1 WRITE 3500 ÷ 1000 = 3.25 per car washed. . rather than for single units. For example.5 by $23. in particular. WORKED Example 11 Len has a job washing cars in a car yard.5 × $23. A person delivering to a letterbox is paid for piecework. THINK Multiply the pay rate by the number of cars detailed.00 In some cases. Calculate what Len earns in an afternoon where he washes 24 cars. for letterbox deliveries you may be paid per 1000 deliveries made.5 Holly’s pay = 3. The amount earned is calculated by multiplying the rate of payment by the number of pieces of work completed.00 Holly’s pay = $80.00 per thousand brochures delivered. She is paid $23.50 2 Divide 3500 by 1000 to calculate the number of thousand brochures delivered. WRITE Pay = $2. WORKED Example 12 Holly is delivering brochures to letterboxes in her local area. It is commonly paid for jobs such as car detailing and letterbox delivery. or piecework refers to payment for the amount of work completed.

She is paid $21.Chapter 1 Earning money 17 WORKED Example 13 Tristan has a job picking apples. Calculate the earnings of each person in the group if: a Ryan picked 23 baskets b Summer picked 21 baskets c Seth picked 19 baskets d Taylor picked 18 baskets. You will need it to compare payment by piece with them. a Calculate Tristan’s pay for picking 21 baskets of apples in one day. You will need to ﬁrst divide by this amount.50 to clean a house. b Divide $92. 1D WORKED Payment by piece Example 11 1 Julia works after school at a car yard detailing cars.40 Pay = $92. Payment by piece is payment to an employee for the amount of work completed.80 per thousand pamphlets delivered. If Julia is paid $10.40 ÷ 8 Hourly rate = $11. calculate the equivalent hourly rate of pay he has earned. 2 A group of four friends take a job picking fruit over summer.50 per basket of fruit picked. 5 Dean works as a house cleaner. WORKED Example 12 6 Barbara delivers pamphlets to local letterboxes. 3 Natalie advertises that she will do ironing for $12. WRITE a Pay = 21 × $4.40 b Hourly rate = $92. b If it takes Tristan 8 hours to pick these apples.50 per basket. Be careful when pay is calculated for completing 100 or 1000 units of work.40 per basket. 3. To calculate the amount to be paid.40 (total pay) by 8 (number of hours worked). . calculate his earnings.85 per car. If Dean cleans 7 houses. 2. Calculate Matthew’s earnings in a week if he mows 9 lawns. 4 Matthew charges $15 to mow a lawn. He is paid $4. Calculate what Barbara will be paid for delivering 15 000 pamphlets. He charges $46.55 remember 1. THINK a Multiply 21 (the number of baskets) by $4. Calculate Natalie’s earnings for doing 14 baskets of ironing.40 (the pay per basket). multiply the number of units of work completed by the amount to be paid per unit. They are paid $4. 4. Remember your work on other methods of payment. calculate what she will earn in an afternoon when she details 7 cars.

Calculate his commission for a week in which his sales total $6960. Calculate what Raul is paid in a day where he assembles: a 300 toys b 650 toys c 540 toys. They are paid $18. c Nicholas makes 4750 deliveries. 9 Carolina works as a bicycle courier.40 per 1000 deliveries. 7 Christine is paid $250 per week plus 2. Calculate the amount Keith will earn for a journey of: a 5 km b 15. d Claire makes 6200 deliveries.40 per 1000 pamphlets delivered. 9 Julia has a job delivering pamphlets to letterboxes and is paid $13. Calculate Tom’s fortnightly pay. c If Charlie could ﬁnish in 6 hours. 2 Viet works 35 hours a week at an hourly rate of $9. 6 Mick is paid 7% commission on all sales he makes. 10 Cameron is an author who receives a royalty of 8% of the value of sales of his book. Calculate the amount each person is paid.60 per car. 8 Raul works in a factory assembling toys. Calculate Christine’s pay for a week in which her sales total $12 800.5% commission on all sales.40 per fortnight. Calculate Jason’s pay for a day in which he picks 43 baskets of fruit. Calculate Carolina’s earnings for a 4 km delivery. 10 Keith is a taxi owner/driver. Calculate Julia’s pay for delivering 4500 pamphlets.32 per hour. Calculate her annual salary. 5 Celine is paid $1246. calculate the hourly rate of pay he would earn.70 per kilometre for her deliveries. calculate his hourly rate of pay.89. 4 Tom receives an annual salary of $86 000 and is paid fortnightly. a Jim makes 5000 deliveries. 3 Samantha receives an annual salary of $38 500 and is paid weekly. 12 Charlie works in a car yard as a detailer.5 km c 10. . Calculate Samantha’s weekly pay.85 per basket.18 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 7 A local business employs four people to deliver advertising to letterboxes. She charges $5.25 per 100 toys assembled. b Georgia makes 7500 deliveries. Calculate Viet’s weekly wage. Raul is paid $19. a Calculate the amount Denise will earn in a day during which she picks 32 baskets 13 of fruit. WORKED Example 11 Denise works as a fruit picker.2 km. He is paid $3. a What will Charlie earn in an afternoon during which he details 15 cars? b If it takes Charlie 8 hours to detail the cars. Calculate Cameron’s royalty for book sales totalling $23 000.20 for every basket of fruit picked.60 per kilometre. b If it takes Denise 8 hours to pick the fruit. Charlie is paid $11. Calculate her weekly wage. 2 1 Kim works a 37-hour week at a rate of $12. She is paid $4.00 plus $1. 8 Jason has a job picking fruit and is paid $4. calculate the equivalent hourly rate of pay.

. A person may also be paid these overtime rates for working at unfavourable times. which is 1 1 for time and a half and 2 for double time. When an employee works overtime a higher rate is paid.84 per hour.78 per hour in his job as a childcare worker.Chapter 1 Earning money 19 Working overtime Overtime is paid when a wage earner works more than the regular hours each week.84 × 1 1 × 6 2 Pay = $115. This higher rate of pay is called a penalty rate. WRITE -Pay = $12. WORKED Example 15 Adrian works as a shop assistant and his normal rate of pay is $12. 2 or double time. which means that the person is paid 1 1 times the usual rate of pay.78 × 1 1 2 Time and a half rate = $14. The rate is normally calculated at either: -time and a half. we -multiply the normal pay rate by the overtime factor (either 1 1 or 2) and then by the 2 number of hours worked at that overtime rate. Calculate Gustavo’s hourly rate when he is being paid for overtime at time and a half. To calculate the hourly rate earned when working overtime we multiply the normal -hourly rate by the overtime factor. 2 WRITE -Time and a half rate = $9. when he is paid time and a half. which means that the person is paid twice the normal rate of pay. Calculate the amount Adrian earns for 6 hours work on Saturday. such as at night or during weekends. 2 WORKED Example 14 Gustavo is paid $9. THINK Multiply $9. THINK Multiply $12.84 (the normal pay rate) by -1 1 (the overtime factor) and by 6 (hours 2 worked at time and a half).67 To calculate the pay for a period of time worked at time and a half or double time. we need to calculate the normal pay and then add the amount earned for any overtime.78 (the normal hourly rate) by -1 1 (the overtime factor for time and a half).56 When we calculate the total pay for a week that involves overtime.

40 -Time and a half = $11. Of these nine hours.80 × 38 = $448. Calculate Natasha’s pay for 5 hours at time and a half.20 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 16 Natasha works as a waitress and is paid $11. Add the normal pay and the time and a half pay together. calculate how much was at time and a half and how much was at double time.40 -Time and a half = $10.50 Total pay = $448.90 Calculate Natasha’s normal pay.40 × 2 × 3 Double time = $62. WORKED Example 17 Graeme is employed as a car assembly worker and is paid $10.40 + $88.40 per hour for a 36-hour week.80 × 1 1 × 5 2 = $88.50 = $536.80 per hour for a 38-hour week.40 × 36 Normal pay = $374. Calculate Graeme’s pay in a week where he works 45 hours. Some examples will have more than one overtime rate to consider and some will require you to work out how many hours have been worked at each rate.40 + $93. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE Normal pay = $11. Calculate what Graeme is paid for 6 hours at time and a half.40 3 4 5 6 Calculate the number of hours overtime Graeme worked. Calculate Graeme’s normal pay.40 × 1 1 × 6 2 Time and a half = $93. Calculate what Graeme is paid for 3 hours at double time. If Graeme works overtime.40 Total pay = $374.60 Double time = $10.60 + $62. the ﬁrst 6 hours are paid at time and a half and the remainder at double time. . THINK 1 2 WRITE Overtime = 45 − 36 Overtime = 9 hours Time and a half = 6 hours Double time = 3 hours Normal pay = $10.40 Total pay = $530. Calculate Graeme’s total pay by adding the time and a half and double time payments to his normal pay. Calculate Natasha’s pay in a week where she works 5 hours at time and a half in addition to her regular hours.

4.95 per hour. Calculate Carmen’s rate a quantity (money) by a per hour on a Sunday when she is paid double time.86 $22. Name A. 5 Taylor works as an usher at a concert venue. She is normally paid $13.45 B $14.5 Pay SkillS WORKED Example 15 1. 5. 2. HEET HEET Multiplying 2 Carmen works as a waitress and is paid $11. Calculate the amount Reece earns each hour when he is being paid time and a half. multiply the normal hourly rate by the overtime factor by the number of hours worked at that overtime rate.5 SkillS Example 14 1 Reece works in a restaurant and is paid a normal hourly rate of $11.90 Ordinary rate $8.60 Overtime rate Time and a half Double time Time and a half Time and a half Double time Hours worked 4 6 7 6.7 SkillS HEET Multiplying and dividing a quantity by a fraction . What will Ernie’s hourly rate be when he is paid time and a half for overtime? A $11.42 per hour. 3.5 5.92 C $14. Donnell F. Robinson 7 multiple choice Ernie works as a chef and is paid $9. Nguyen M. Adding periods 4 Ben works in a hotel and is paid $11.48 per hour.10 per hour.56 $13. Overtime can be paid at: -(a) time and a half — 1 1 times the normal hourly rate 2 (b) double time — twice the normal hourly rate. 6 Copy and complete the table below. and you receive a higher rate of pay for the extra hours. To calculate the total pay for a week when overtime has been worked. multiply the normal hourly rate by the overtime factor.6 -public holidays he is paid double time and a half (overtime factor = 2 1 ). decimal 3 Gareth works as a train driver and is normally paid $11. Milosevic J.90 $9.Chapter 1 Earning money 21 remember 1. To calculate the hourly rate when working overtime. Calculate 2 Gareth’s hourly rate of pay on a public holiday. To calculate the pay that is received for overtime.93 D $19. Carides Y. calculate the normal pay and the pay for each overtime rate separately. Calculate the total amount Ben will of time earn for an 8-hour shift on Saturday when he is paid at time and a half. Calculate Taylor’s pay for 6 hours on Sunday when she is paid double time. For working on 1.35 $11. 1E WORKED Working overtime 1.30. Overtime is paid when you work more than your normal working hours in a week. and add them.88 per hour.

On Sunday she works 6 hours for which she is paid double time.50 $16.5 Total pay . Colley 14 multiple choice Jenny is a casual worker at a motel.5 hours WORKED Example 10 Rick works 37 hours at ordinary time each week and receives $12.5 37. Any overtime that Patricia does is paid at time and a half.22 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 8 multiple choice Stephanie works in a shop and is paid $9. Calculate Rick’s pay in a week where.20 C $112. What is the minimum number of hours that Patricia will need to work to earn this amount of money? A 40 B 41 C 42 D 43 Ordinary rate $8. Patricia wants to work enough overtime so that she earns more than $600 each week. A 4.5 hours D 13.5 8.23 $24. Calculate Grant’s pay for a week where he works 4 hours at time and a half and 2 hours at double time in addition to his regular hours.60 B $75. he works 16 4 hours overtime at time and a half. Dymock D.20 per hour. Name W.5 2. Jenny’s pay is equivalent to how many hours work at the normal rate of pay? A 14 B 21 C 24 D 28 15 multiple choice Patricia works a 35-hour week and is paid $14.5 1. Jenny works 8 hours on Saturday for which she is paid time and a half. Clark A.90 Normal hours 38.40 per hour.5 38. Gannon G. Calculate the number of hours at time and a half that Eric will have to work to earn the same amount of money that he will earn in 9 hours at ordinary rates.5 Time and a Double time half hours hours 4 — 5 4 6 — 6. A $37.60 $9. 13 Copy and complete the table below. in addition to her ordinary hours. The normal rate of pay is $10.00 9 multiple choice Eric works on the wharves unloading containers and is paid $14.40 per hour.80 D $188. Hurst S.5 36.5 hours B 6 hours C 10. Calculate how much more Stephanie will earn in 8 hours work at time and a half than she would at ordinary rates. 11 Kirsty works 36 hours each week at a pay rate of $16. when she is paid double time.64 per hour. 12 Grant works as a courier and is paid $13.25 per hour for a 35-hour working week. in addition to his normal hours. she works 4 hours on Sunday. Calculate Kirsty’s pay in a week where.15 per hour.85 $14.5 37.40 per hour.

5*E7 + C7*2*F7. The ﬁrst 4 hours overtime he works each week is paid at time and a half with the rest 17 paid at double time.56 per hour for a 38-hour working week. Load the spreadsheet Wages_1 that you started earlier in this chapter and edit it with the following information.40 for a 36-hour working week. Computer Application 2 Wages 1. $481. Now change the hours for the other employees and notice the gross pay changing. Calculate Kate’s pay in a week where she works: a 38 hours b 41 hours c 45 hours. E L Spre XCE ad sheet Wages_2 2.40. This formula will calculate the gross wage for Frederick Astini. For the ﬁrst 4 hours overtime each week Kate is paid time and a half and the rest is paid at double time. In cell G7 write the formula =C7*D7 + C7*1. access the spreadsheet Wages_2 from the Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM.) 4. Calculate Zac’s pay if the hours worked each day are: Monday — 8 hours Tuesday — 9 hours Wednesday — 12 hours Thursday — 7 hours Friday — 10.60 and $644. Calculate Steven’s earnings for a week in which he works 43 hours.) .60. 5. 17 Kate works as a computer technician and is paid $18.40 in cell G7. $442.5 hours.) 3. 18 Zac works in a supermarket.00. $537. You should now have $554. If Zac works more than 8 hours on any one day the ﬁrst 2 hours are paid at time and a half and the rest at double time. (This will mean that you have copies of both version 1 and 2 of the spreadsheet. Check the functioning of your spreadsheet by changing the hours worked by Frederick Astini to 38 normal hours.40. He is paid at an ordinary rate of $8. Now change the hourly rate of pay for each employee. Alternatively.85 per hour. (You should get $526.Chapter 1 Earning money 23 WORKED Example 16 Steven works on a car assembly line and is paid $12. (Your answers should show $526. Use the Save As option to save this spreadsheet under the name Wages_2.40. Highlight cells G7 to G11 and choose the Fill Down option to copy this formula to the rest of this column. 3 hours at time and a half and 4 hours at double time.

Unemployment beneﬁts 6 What is the difference between unemployment beneﬁts and the youth allowance? 7 How much is paid per week for the unemployment beneﬁt for a: a single person? b single person with children? c married person? 8 Do you have to work to receive the unemployment beneﬁt? 9 What conditions are placed on a person receiving unemployment beneﬁts? (For example. Pensions 11 Name three different types of pension that are paid by the government. Investigating government payments Youth allowance 1 2 3 4 What is the youth allowance? How much is paid per week for the youth allowance? What conditions are placed on receipt of the youth allowance? What will be the total received by a person after one year of receiving the youth allowance? 5 Find out the average weekly income for an 18-year-old person. Compare this with a person who receives the youth allowance. pensions and other welfare beneﬁts. 12 What are the conditions for receiving each of these pensions? 13 How much is received per week for each of these pensions? 14 Does the amount received vary according to marital status and the number of dependants? .) 10 Compare the amount received by a person on unemployment beneﬁts with the average weekly income for an adult in Australia.24 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Fixed incomes Many people rely on government allowances for an income. These allowances include the youth allowance. must they show that they are looking for work.

46 (tax). The amount that we calculate. WRITE Superannuation = 9% of $1320 Superannuation = 9 ÷ 100 × $1320 Superannuation = $118.92 (superannuation) and $11.82 In some cases. Calculate how much is deducted from Charissa’s pay each fortnight for superannuation. Round the answer off to the nearest cent.80 . WORKED Example 18 Robert’s gross pay is $643.60. union fees.60 ÷ 52 Weekly deduction = $6. To calculate an employee’s net pay we subtract any deductions from the gross pay.60 (the annual union fee) by 52.92 and union fees of $11. THINK Calculate 9% of $1320 (gross pay). Robert has deductions for tax of $144. based on their wage or salary. WRITE Net pay = $643. $57. From your gross pay. Calculate Robert’s net pay. superannuation of $57. you will be required to calculate the size of a deduction based on either an annual amount or a percentage.Chapter 1 Earning money 25 Additions to and deductions from gross pay Although we may calculate a person’s pay.60 per week. calculate the size of Bruce’s weekly union deduction.92 − $11. Charissa pays 9% of her gross pay each fortnight in superannuation. THINK From $643.46.24 Divide $324. THINK 1 2 WRITE Weekly deduction = $324. WORKED Example 19 Bruce is a shop assistant and he has his union fees deducted from his pay each week. WORKED Example 20 Charissa is a salary earner and her gross fortnightly salary is $1320. If the annual union fee is $324. The amount left after these deductions have been taken out is called the net pay and it is this amount that you actually receive. several deductions may be made for items such as tax.60 − $144.40. superannuation and so on.40 Net pay = $429. is called gross pay or gross wage.40 (union fees). private health insurance.46 − $57.60 (gross pay) subtract $144. this is not the amount that is actually received.

Calculate the annual leave -loading by ﬁnding 17 1 % of 2 $1692. 2. When employees take their annual leave a loading is often paid. This means -that they are paid an extra 17 1 % of their gross pay.10 (annual leave loading) to $2124 (normal 4 weeks pay). a Calculate Russell’s pay for a normal working week.75 × 36 Normal pay = $531.00 2 = $371. Some deductions are calculated as a percentage of gross earnings.70 2 2 Multiply $531. When -on holidays. WORKED Example 21 Russell is a newspaper printer and is paid $14.70 = $2495. b 1 WRITE a Normal pay = $14. b Calculate Russell’s total pay for his 4 weeks annual leave if he -receives a 17 1 % annual leave 2 loading on the 4 weeks pay.75 (hourly rate) by 36 (hours worked).00 × 4 = $2124. 2 . 3 remember 1.00 + $371. 4. Net pay refers to the pay received after deductions have been taken out.00 -Annual leave loading = 17 1 % of $2124. Gross pay refers to pay before any deductions are made.70 Total holiday pay = $2124. Net pay = gross pay − deductions 3. Add $371. THINK a Multiply $14. Some deductions are calculated on an annual basis and then taken out in equal weekly or fortnightly amounts.26 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course When employees take annual leave.00 (weekly pay) by 4 to ﬁnd his normal pay for 4 weeks. they may receive an annual leave loading.00 b Normal 4 weeks pay = $531. such employees are paid an extra 17 1 % of their gross pay for up to 2 4 weeks.75 per hour for a 36-hour working week.00 -= 17 1 ÷ 100 × $2124. 5.

$32.50 for health insurance. Calculate Dorothy’s net pay.92 for tax.9 Increasing a quantity by a percentage SkillS 3 David works in a mine and is paid a wage of $15.95 for superannuation and $17. a Calculate Belinda’s fortnightly pay.45 $165.90 $1175. His deductions are $118.56 $765. 6 Yasmin is a salary earner who is paid fortnightly.73 for superannuation and $23.75 per week. If the annual premium for Yasmin’s health cover is $1456. 4 Belinda is on an annual salary of $65 500.Chapter 1 Earning money 27 1F WORKED Additions to and deductions from gross pay 1. Gross pay $345.00 Deductions $89. Calculate Trevor’s net pay each week.00 $563.02 for tax.40 Net pay HEET HEET HEET 1.00 per year and Lars has his fees deducted from his pay weekly. 7 Dorothy is paid a wage of $13. b Dorothy pays union fees of $265.68 $765. calculate Belinda’s net pay. His weekly deductions are $106.20 for tax. $226.50 as a contribution to a professional organisation.75 per hour for a 36-hour working week. WORKED Example 19 5 Lars works as a train driver and is a member of the union.50. c Dorothy has $98. Yasmin has her fees for private health insurance deducted from her pay fortnightly.45 per hour for a 38-hour working week.8 Expressing one quantity as a percentage of another SkillS 1.60 per annum. calculate the amount that needs to be deducted from Yasmin’s pay each fortnight.85 $429. Calculate the amount that should be deducted from her pay each week for union fees.73 deducted from her pay each week for tax and union fees.40 $231. $51. Belinda is paid fortnightly. a Calculate Dorothy’s gross weekly pay.70 for health fund contributions.00 for the miner’s social club. Calculate David’s net pay. $47. 2 Copy and complete the table below.03 for superannuation and $5.60 $2500.4 Finding a percentage of a quantity (money) SkillS Example 18 1 Trevor is a tiler and his gross pay is $532. . calculate the size of Lars’ weekly deduction. If Lars’ union fees are $394. b If Belinda has fortnightly deductions of $834.

75% of her gross salary in superannuation. as well as the above deductions. a Calculate Leon’s weekly wage. which is deducted from his gross salary. calculate his net pay for the 4-week holiday. WORKED 9 Sabrina earns a weekly wage of $623. 12 Raylene is on an annual salary of $75 000 and is paid fortnightly.22 in fortnightly tax. Calculate Rex’s weekly superannuation contribution. He pays 11% of his gross salary in superannuation.50. Calculate the amount that Arthur has deducted from his salary each fortnight for superannuation. d If Scott pays $1779. She puts 9% of this wage into a Example superannuation fund.24 in tax. d If Raylene pays $1009. Calculate the amount that Sabrina pays in superannuation. b Calculate how much holiday loading Scott will receive for this 4-week period if it -is paid at 17 1 %. Calculate how much health insurance Scott must pay for a 4-week period. calculate his net pay for his week’s holiday. a Calculate Raylene’s gross fortnightly salary.28 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 8 Patrick is on an annual salary of $56 000 and is paid fortnightly. Calculate Patrick’s net fortnightly pay. 21 b Calculate the total amount Liang-Yi will receive for his 4 weeks annual leave if he -receives a 17 1 % holiday loading. 16 Scott is paid an annual salary of $68 500.50. Calculate 2 the holiday loading. c Patrick has his health fund payment and tax (total $660. b Patrick pays fortnightly into a private health fund for which the annual premium is $1165.60 per hour for a 38-hour working week. a Calculate Paula’s gross weekly salary. a Calculate Rex’s gross weekly wage. .00 per annum and private health insurance of $1323. c Raylene has union fees of $486. 2 15 Leon is paid $12.5% of his gross weekly wage in superannuation.75.95 per hour for a 36-hour working week. 2 c Scott pays $1250 per annum in private health insurance.12 per hour for a 38-hour working week. Calculate the amount of the deduction made for both union fees and health insurance. b Calculate the total amount Paula will receive for her 4 weeks annual leave if she is -paid a 17 1 % holiday loading. a Calculate Patrick’s gross fortnightly pay.18 as well as his superannuation contribution.70 per annum deducted from her pay fortnightly. Calculate the amount that is deducted from Raylene’s salary each fortnight for superannuation. 2 14 Paula is paid an annual salary of $45 800. Calculate Rex’s weekly net wage. 20 10 Arthur earns a gross fortnightly salary of $1520. 11 Rex is paid $11. c Rex pays tax of $68. b Raylene pays 12. c If Leon pays $83. b Rex pays 10.60) deducted from his fortnightly pay. -b Leon takes one week’s holiday for which he is given a 17 1 % loading. calculate her net weekly pay. WORKED 13 Liang-Yi earns $13.92 in tax for this 4 weeks. Example a Calculate the amount Liang-Yi will earn in a normal working week. a Calculate Scott’s salary for a 4-week period. Calculate the fortnightly payment.

Double Time Hours and Deductions. download the Wages template from the Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM. . Load your spreadsheet Wages_2 and add the Deductions and Net Pay columns.) 4.(as can be seen below) where there are formulas. Alternatively. In cell I7 write the formula =G7 − H7. Normal Hours. Your spreadsheet will now calculate both a person’s Gross Pay and Net Pay. You should then have a spreadsheet set up with no data and $ . Time and a half Hours. Alternatively. E L Spre XCE ad sheet Wages template When a spreadsheet is in this form it is called a template. 3.Chapter 1 Earning money 29 Computer Application 3 Wages template 1. Save this as Wages_3. Now clear all the data from the columns Pay Rate. (You should now have three versions of the spreadsheet saved. The spreadsheet is now ready to accept new data and make new calculations. Save this version as Wages template. accesss the spreadsheet Wages_3 from the Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM. E L Spre XCE ad sheet Wages_3 2. This formula will calculate Net Pay by subtracting Deductions from Gross Pay.

However. for many accounts where we need instant access to our money. we use a bank or similar ﬁnancial institution to look after it until we need it. 1 What is the interest rate payable on the account? 2 Is there a minimum balance that must be maintained in the account? 3 What are the features of this account? (For example. When we deposit money in the bank the bank pays interest on that account. do you get a cheque book?) 4 Is there a monthly management fee on the account? 5 How many free transactions are you allowed each month? What are the charges for exceeding this number of transactions? 6 Are the transaction fees applied differently to deposits and withdrawals? Are they levied differently for over-the-counter and automatic teller and EFTPOS transactions? . Examining bank fees and taxes Find three bank accounts into which your pay could be deposited electronically. Answer the following questions about them. the interest paid is very low and there may be fees associated with using the account.30 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Costs of banking Once we have earned money.

Consider the budget below.74 per hour. otherwise. Calculate Veronica’s pay in a week where she assembles 45 radios. 8 Darren is a bank teller who is paid $9. 3 Rebecca is paid a commission of 7. 6 Matthew is paid $12. A budget is divided into two parts: income and expenditure. $13. 2 Budgeting Once we have earned money we need to allocate the money to cover our expenses. who earns a net wage of $700. Calculate David’s fortnightly pay. Calculate Zelko’s net wage.Chapter 1 Earning money 31 3 -1 Wendy works 37 1 hours per week at a rate of $12. She is paid $5. Calculate what Christy is paid for 2200 deliveries.68 per hour at ordinary rates. Calculate what Matthew earns per hour in overtime when he is paid at time and a half. 9 Zelko’s gross wage is $459. drawn up for Tanya. 5 Christy is paid $34.50 per week. Calculate what Darren will earn in a week where he works 37 hours at ordinary rates as well as 5 hours at time and a half.23 for every radio assembled. Calculate Rebecca’s pay in a week where her sales total $5700.45 per hour. He has deductions of $80.2% of the value of all sales she makes.25 for union fees. we may spend more than we earn! Allocating money to cover expenses is called making a budget. 4 Veronica works assembling radios.80 for superannuation and $11.40 per week and she is paid a 17 1 % holiday loading. A budget is balanced when income and expenditure are equal. Calculate Wendy’s 2 weekly wage.80 per hour.50 per 1000 letterbox deliveries. 2 David is paid an annual salary of $43 240.93 for tax. 7 Calculate Norman’s earnings for a 6-hour shift at double time when his ordinary rate of pay is $8. 10 Calculate what Melissa will receive for 4 weeks holiday pay if her normal pay is -$512. Income Wages $700 Expenditure Rent Groceries Bills Car loan Car running costs Entertainment Credit card Savings Total $150 $100 $100 $75 $50 $60 $50 $115 $700 Total $700 .

48 = $12. WORKED Example 22 Ben receives four electricity bills each year. The amount set aside should be based on the normal amount of the bill over a year.32 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course When designing a budget. with that amount divided into weekly or fortnightly amounts. as these are known in advance. electricity bills arrive every three months and money should be set aside each week so that when the bill does arrive you have the money to pay for it. How much should Ben budget for electricity bills out of each week’s pay? We should allow an extra 10% to cover the possibility of price increases or extra usage. . $187. To calculate the weekly amount. THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE Electricity = $110 × 6 Electricity = $660 Telephone = $95 × 4 Telephone = $380 Car insurance = $254 × 2 Car insurance = $508 Rates = $1250 Calculate the total annual amount for electricity. THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE Annual total = $136 + $187 + $169 + $105 Annual total = $597 Weekly amount = $597 ÷ 52 Weekly amount = $11.48 by 10%. allowing for an extra 10% to cover possible increases. For the previous year they were for $136.48 110% of $11. an extra amount should be allowed. so the simplest way to develop a budget is to calculate all bills over a year. it is important to look for all your expenses and set money aside for them. Calculate the total annual amount for rates. Calculate the total annual amount for car insurance. Make a practical approximation of the answer. Calculate the total of the previous years bills. Calculate the total annual amount for telephone. Electricity $110 every 2 months Telephone $95 per quarter Car insurance $254 every 6 months Rates $1250 per year Calculate the total amount that Marlene should budget for all of these bills each fortnight. divide $597 by 52. as you do not know the exact amount of the bill until it arrives.62 Ben should budget $12. Some bills are calculated over different lengths of time.50 per week to cover the electricity. $169 and $105. This is not necessary for bills such as council rates or insurance. WORKED Example 23 Marlene has the following bills. For example. Increase $11. Such an allowance covers the possibilities of a price rise or increased usage. For bills such as electricity and telephone.

92 b Total expenses = $276.38 Marlene should allow about $118 per fortnight to cover her bills. Find the annual total for all of these bills. Divide $3077.92 Savings = $950 − $786.92 Savings = $163. c Draw up a budget for Peter. b Calculate the amount of money Peter can save each fortnight. Round off and give a written answer. Income Wages $950 Expenditure Mortgage Bills Groceries Car Savings Total $276.92 $110. THINK a 1 2 WRITE a Annual mortgage = $600 × 12 Annual mortgage = $7200 Fortnightly amount = $7200 ÷ 26 Fortnightly amount = $276.08 c b 1 2 Calculate the annual mortgage amount.00 $163. $250 per fortnight for groceries. Calculate total expenses.00 Total $950 To do work on budgeting you will need to be able to interpret the information on various household bills. showing his income and expenditure. .92 + $110 + $250 + $70 + $80 Total expenses = $786.80 ÷ 26 Fortnightly allowance = $118. a Calculate the amount Peter should allocate each fortnight for his mortgage. c Draw up a budget by listing income and expenses in two columns.80 Fortnightly allowance = $3077.Chapter 1 Earning money 33 THINK 5 6 7 8 WRITE Total = $660 + $380 + $508 + $1250 Total = $2798 110% of $2798 = 110 ÷ 100 × $2798 110% of $2798 = $3077.00 $250. Increase $2798 by 10%. any money that is not spent can be saved.00 $70. Calculate the fortnightly amount by dividing by 26. He allows $110 per fortnight for his bills. The amount saved can be calculated by subtracting the expenses to which we are committed from the total earnings. WORKED Example 24 Peter earns $950 per fortnight. Calculate savings by subtracting all expenses from $950. $70 for car running costs and $80 per fortnight for entertainment.08 $950. Peter also has a mortgage for which the payment is $600 per month.80 by 26. To bring a budget into balance.

b Look at the dates following ‘Local Calls’. c The cost for service and equipment was $51. c Look at the amount next to ‘Service & Equipment’.34 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 25 Look at the extract from a sample telephone bill below.45. WRITE a The total of the bill is $154. b The calls were for the period 5 Jan to 4 Apr. a What is the total of the bill? b For what period are the call charges? c How much of the bill is for service and equipment? THINK a Look in the box labelled ‘Total amount payable’. .10.

4 Tristan’s mortgage repayments are $750 per month. 3. A budget is in balance when income and expenditure are equal. 2. $75 for bills. a Calculate the amount that Neville can save each week. 6 Mr and Mrs Duric have the following bills. $90 for groceries. $60 in entertainment and $50 for miscellaneous expenses. Electricity $130 every quarter Telephone $108 per quarter Car insurance $35 per month House insurance $29. $103. allowing approximately 10% to cover price increases or extra usage. WORKED Example 24 7 Neville earns $685 per week. Increasing 2 Christopher pays $1360 each year in council rates.50.30 and $95.9 $110. Calculate the amount that Vesna should budget for her telephone bill each week. $70 in car running costs.65 per month in car insurance. 1. E L Spre XCE ad sheet . Any unspent money should be set aside as savings to bring a budget into balance. Calculate the amount that Tristan Budgets should budget for each fortnight to cover his mortgage bill.00. allowing an extra 10% for extra usage or price increases.50 per month Council rates $1100 per year Calculate the amount that Mr and Mrs Banks should budget for each week. Last year her four bills were $89. to cover all these bills. His expenses are $100 for rent. A budget is a statement of income and expenditure. Calculate how much he should budget for each fortnight for council rates. 5. 1G WORKED Budgeting SkillS Example 22 1 Vesna gets her telephone bill quarterly. a quantity by a percentage HEET 3 Isabelle pays $34.40. To manage a budget. 4. you will need to be able to read a variety of household bills. to pay all these bills.Chapter 1 Earning money 35 remember 1. you should calculate weekly or fortnightly amounts based on annual expenditure. Electricity $105 every 2 months Telephone $115 per quarter Car insurance $287 every 6 months Home contents insurance $365 per year Private health insurance $1200 per year Rent $180 per week Calculate the total amount that Mr and Mrs Duric must budget for each fortnight. b Present the above information in the form of a budget for Neville. When preparing a budget. WORKED Example 23 5 Mr and Mrs Banks have the following bills. Calculate the amount that she should budget each week for car insurance.

If Petria budgets $250 per fortnight for groceries.36 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 8 Petria has the following bills. Calculate the amount that Petria must budget each fortnight for her mortgage. calculate the amount that Petria can save each fortnight. Electricity $120 every quarter Telephone $80 every quarter Council rates $800 per annum Water rates $700 per annum Insurance $70 per month a Calculate the amount that Petria must budget each fortnight for the above bills. c Petria has a net fortnightly pay of $1345. d Prepare the above information in a budget for Petria. b Petria has a mortgage with a monthly repayment of $900. $80 for entertainment. $30 for medical expenses and $70 for car running costs. 25 a b c d What is the total of the bill? For what period are the local calls charged? What is the charge for international calls? If four of these bills are received each year. what amount should be budgeted per week to pay them? . WORKED Example 9 Look at the extract from a sample telephone bill below.

Chapter 1 Earning money 37 10 Look at the extracts from a sample electricity bill below. a What is the amount due for this bill? b What was the amount charged for off-peak use on this bill? c How many days does this bill cover? d How many kWh of power were used under the Domestic heading? e What is the present reading of the domestic meter? f What was the previous reading of the off-peak meter? .

75 $ Gas Charge See over for details 143.166666 Consumption Charge: Tariff .75 $55.92 $0.75 Total Due Details Supply Address: 787 SAMPLE RD. multiply the Units by 39. North Sydney NSW 2059 03A MR BILL SAMPLE 787 SAMPLE RD SAMPLEVILLE VIC 3149 Account Enquiries 131 606 Gas faults and emergencies 24hrs 131 808 24 Hour Emergency (Gasfitters. ACN 074 839 464 PO Box 944.To convert Gas Units to megajoules.00 $1.00 $143.75 $143.38 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 11 Look at the extracts from a sample gas bill below.General Domestic Rate Total for 72 days was 11593 MJ.50 Gas Consumption: Type Meter Number Current Date Reading Date Previous Reading Units Consumed Megajoules Consumed Gas MS666421 / 09 / 07 1874 11 / 07 / 07 1578 296 11593 MJ1 1 .92 $55.75 a b c d What is the amount due for this bill? How many days does this bill cover? What is the cost per MJ on this bill? What is the daily gas consumption in MJ for this household? . charged at 1. Customer Number Invoice Number Date of Issue 00001 21 / 09 / 07 AGL Retail Energy Pty Ltd.2400¢ per MJ Total Gas Charge = $143. Electricians) 131 909 Sales 131 707 Callers Outside Victoria 1800 645 221 Payment Due 10 / 10 / 07 Last Bill Payments Received Balance This Bill Total Due $143. SAMPLEVILLE Average MJ Per Day 161 123 This Bill Same Bill Last Year Average Cost Per Day $2.

BLUE MOUNTAINS CITY COUNCIL GREAT WESTERN HIGHWAY. PLEASE ADVISE COUNCIL DIRECT IN WRITING J CITIZEN 10 BROWN ST SMITHVILLE NSW 2222 POSTING DATE 29/07/07 FIRST INSTALMENT OR FULL AMOUNT DUE DATE DESCRIPTION AND SITUATION OF LAND RATED 31/08/07 GENERAL MANAGER PARTICULARS OF RATES AND CHARGES • FOR IMPORTANT INFORMATION AND PAYMENT METHODS PLEASE SEE REVERSE CENTS IN $ RATEABLE VALUE BASE DATE 1791 AMOUNT Residential Faulconbridge Domestic Waste Charge 1. INTEREST ACCRUES ON A DAILY BASIS.m. As the owner. 1993. N. or other person liable to pay rates and charges in respect of the below-mentioned land (or the agent to any such person) you are hereby notified that such land has been rated by Council as shown hereunder.W. Box 189.30 a. RATES AND CHARGES NOTICE FOR PERIOD 1 JULY.. 2008 RATE NOTICE Section 546 Local Government Act.90 31/05/08 FOR PAYMENT IN FULL PAY THIS AMOUNT $1007.2 .S.Chapter 1 Earning money 39 12 Look at the extract from the sample bill for council rates below. 1st INSTALMENT 2nd INSTALMENT 3rd INSTALMENT 4th INSTALMENT Domestic 31/08/07 Teller’s Stamp 251. 22/7/07 a b c d What is the amount owed in council rates? What is the rateable value of the property? What is the domestic waste charge? The rates can be paid in how many instalments of what amount? Work T SHEE 1.90 28/02/08 251.00 p.O. 2007 TO 30 JUNE.50 90000 1 916.m.018000 91. to 5. Katoomba.50 • ACCRUAL OF INTEREST INTEREST ACCRUES ON RATES AND CHARGES THAT REMAIN UNPAID AFTER THE DUE DATE. 2780 Phone: (STD 047) 82 0777 DX: 8305 Katoomba RATE ENQUIRIES DIRECT (047) 82 0538 Office and Cashier’s Hours: Monday to Friday 8. KATOOMBA P. tenant. holder. INTEREST DOES NOT ACCRUE ON INSTALMENTS NOT YET DUE. BILLING NUMBER 246810 • SHOULD THE ADDRESS SHOWN ON THIS NOTICE BE INCORRECT. INTEREST RATE 10.5% PER ANNUM.90 30/11/07 251.70 Teller’s Stamp PLEASE DEDUCT ANY PAYMENTS MADE SINCE FOR PAYMENT BY QUARTERLY INSTALMENTS PAY ABOVE AMOUNTS BY DUE DATES.20 91.

• Payment by piece is payment to an employee according to the amount of work completed. This is usually based on an annual amount divided into weekly or fortnightly instalments. Additions and deductions • • • • Gross pay is the pay the employee receives before any deductions are taken out. The amount left from gross pay after deductions are taken out is called net pay. This is called 2 the annual leave loading. • Budgets are used to allocate money to various purposes and to ensure that expenditure does not exceed income. • A wage is an amount paid to an employee according to an hourly rate. Deductions are made from gross pay for tax. -Employees receive an extra 17 1 % when they take their annual leave. The weekly wage is the hourly rate multiplied by the hours worked. • If income and expenses are equal the budget is said to be balanced. Usually the employee will be paid at either: -time and a half — 1 1 times the normal hourly rate. union fees and so on.40 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course summary Methods of payment • A salary is a ﬁxed amount paid to an employee to do a job. superannuation. or 2 double time — twice the normal hourly rate. Budgeting • A budget is a list of income and expenses. • Commission or royalties are payments based on a percentage of sales. Overtime • Overtime is paid when the employee works more than the regular hours each week. .

who works 38 hours at $15.50 per hour b Darren. Calculate what she will earn per hour: a on Saturdays. Calculate what Svetlana will earn for delivering 5600 brochures. 13 Svetlana delivers brochures to the local neighbourhood and is paid $17.40. 1A 1A 1A 1A 1B 1B 1B 1B 1C 1C 1C 1D 1D 1E .30 per hour.Chapter 1 Earning money 41 CHAPTER review 1 Carole earns a salary of $39 600 per year and is paid weekly. Calculate her hourly rate of pay.65 per hour c Melissa. Calculate her weekly pay.5% commission on all sales. Calculate Len’s weekly wage. Calculate the hourly rate to which Paul’s annual salary is equivalent. Calculate what Hong is paid for detailing 29 cars.80 per hour. 9 Renee is a furniture salesperson who is paid 8% commission on all her sales. 4 Paul earns a salary of $51 000 per annum and works an average of 44 hours per week. Calculate Daryl’s pay in a week where his sales total $34 900. 14 Beatrice earns $14. Calculate Felicity’s commission in a week where her sales total $3560. Calculate his fortnightly pay. 3 Lainie earns a salary of $1326 per month. a Kevin is a full-time bartender who works a 36-hour week. Calculate his weekly wage. b Len is a casual bartender who works 16 hours a week. 12 Hong has an after-school job detailing cars. Calculate Renee’s pay in a week where her sales total $4940. a Sandra. 11 Felicity sells cosmetics and is paid $150 per week plus 15% commission on all sales in excess of $1000.20 per hour. 7 Charlotte works 36 hours for a wage of $410. Calculate the number of hours that Brian would need to work in a week if he wanted to earn $500. when she is paid double time.50 for every 1000 brochures delivered. 10 Daryl is a car salesman who is paid $275 per week plus 1. 5 Calculate the weekly wage of each of the following people. 2 Neil earns a salary of $67 400 per year and is paid fortnightly.75 for every car that he details. 8 Brian earns $11. Calculate her annual salary. Casual bartenders receive a casual rate of $13. Hong is paid $11.83 per hour. who works 36 hours at $14. when she is paid time and a half b on Sundays.68 per hour 6 Bartenders earn a standard rate of $12. who works 43 hours at $13.

42 1E 1E Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 15 Nicholas is a storeman who is paid a normal rate of $10. 21 Lance is paid $14. 1E 1F 1F 19 Anne works as a shop assistant. $73.54 per hour for a 36-hour working week.00 per week. b Lance has his private health cover deducted from his gross pay.5% of his gross fortnightly pay into a superannuation fund. Anne has her union fees deducted from her pay weekly. 1F 1G . 22 Ruth has a net income of $700 per week. $80 for entertainment. 18 Marella works as a seamstress and receives a gross wage of $439. b Harold pays 9. Calculate the size of Harold’s fortnightly superannuation contribution. Calculate Marella’s net wage. a Calculate Lance’s gross weekly pay.30 in tax. $125 for groceries and $30 for medical needs.70 per hour.40. Eddie is paid time and a half for the ﬁrst 4 hours overtime worked and double time for any hours beyond that.85 is deducted for tax. Calculate the amount of Lance’s superannuation contribution. 17 Eddie works as a shop assistant and is paid an ordinary rate of $10. The annual contribution is $689. $4. 16 A photographic chemicals ﬁrm pays its factory workers $9. Calculate what Nicholas will earn for: a 6 hours work at time and a half b 5 hours work at double time. From her pay.90 per hour.5% of his gross pay into superannuation. Calculate the amount that Ruth can allocate for savings in her budget. $90 for her bills. Calculate Eddy’s wage in a week where he works 47 hours. Her annual union fees are $210. d If Lance also pays $140. $39. 20 Harold earns a salary of $48 250 per annum and is paid fortnightly. Calculate what each of the following employees earns in a week where: a Chao-ping works 38 normal hours b Elizabeth works 38 normal hours and 4 hours at time and a half c Phillip works 38 normal hours and 3 hours double time d Charlie works 38 normal hours.86 per hour and works 38 hours at normal time and 3 hours overtime for which he is paid time and a half. a Calculate Harold’s fortnightly pay. Calculate the amount deducted weekly from Lance’s pay.51 for superannuation and $9. $50 for car running costs. She has expenses of $190 for her mortgage.60. 4 hours time and a half and 3 hours double time. calculate Lance’s net wage.20 for health insurance.80 for union fees. c Lance pays 11. Calculate the size of Anne’s weekly deduction.

is: A $20. he is paid a total of: A $17 B $423 C $673 D $923 . Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice Which of the following is the highest salary? A $961.Chapter 1 Earning money 43 1G 23 Amy has to budget for the following bills.12 per fortnight D $50 000 per annum 3 multiple choice Noel sells computer software and receives a $250 per week retainer plus a commission of 5% of all sales over $10 000.60 C $122.20 B $1923.60.40 D $163.00 per month 2 multiple choice Simone works as a ﬂorist and receives a normal hourly rate of $13. In a week where Noel’s sales reach $13 460. when she works 6 hours at a rate of time and a half.50 per month Rates $1050 per year Calculate the amount that Amy should budget for each week to pay all of these bills.40 B $81.48 per week C $4165. Simone’s pay for a Saturday night. Electricity $115 every 2 months Telephone $120 per quarter Insurance $62.

in addition to his normal hours. calculate his wage.40 per hour. a Calculate the amount that she will receive each fortnight.70 5 Ken works as a pest inspector. Ken is paid a wage of $15. When Janelle takes her 4 weeks -annual leave she is paid a loading of 17 1 %. when she takes her leave.38 in tax. d Calculate the total amount which Ken will receive for his 4 weeks annual leave if he is paid -an annual leave loading of 17 1 %.43 C $2204 D $2589.50 per hour. Calculate Ken’s wage in a week if he works his normal 36 hours. a If Ken works a normal 36-hour week. c If Danielle also has $485. Janelle’s weekly wage. c Ken receives an allowance of 79c per hour for working in conﬁned spaces. but 23 of those hours are spent working in conﬁned spaces.44 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 4 multiple choice Janelle works a 38-hour week at a rate of $14. 2 CHAPTER test yourself 1 6 Danielle is a preschool teacher who receives a salary of $47 600 per annum. $45. b Calculate Ken’s wage for a week if. calculate her net fortnightly pay. b Danielle pays 9% of her gross salary in superannuation. 2 is: A $551 B $647. .80 for health insurance and $15. he works 3 hours at time and a half and 2 hours at double time.60 in union dues deducted from her pay. Calculate her fortnightly superannuation contribution.

Units of measurement 2 syllabus reference Measurement 1 • Units of measurement In this chapter 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F Units of measurement Relative error Signiﬁcant ﬁgures Rates Percentage change Using ratios .

1 Conversion of units Are you ready? Try the questions below. 9 hours 2.2 Converting units of time 2 Complete each of the following conversions. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. a $750 increased by 12% c 3 kg increased by 7.5% 2. a 1 cm. a 5 m = ___ cm b 6.4 Rounding to a given number of decimal places 4 Round each of the following correct to the number of decimal places indicated in the brackets.2 km = ___ m d 2000 g = ___ kg e 6.3468 [1] 2. a 2.6 Simplifying ratios 6 Simplify each of the following ratios. a 48 : 20 b 1. 1 Complete each of the following conversions. 2 m b 0.65 d 1 -4 -:1 6 .5 m.25 L decreased by 12.001 563 4 [3] c 48. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy. a 48 hours = ___ days b 4 years = ___ weeks 2.2 : 0.186 486 [4] b 0.25 t = ___ kg READY? c 8500 mm = ___ m f 750 mL = ___ L c 8 hours = ___ min 2. If you have difﬁculty with any of them. 15 m c 5 min. Give your answers correct to 1 decimal place.5 m : 45 cm c 0.areyou 2.8094 [2] d 118.3 Writing one quantity as a percentage of another 3 In each of the following write the ﬁrst quantity as a percentage of the second.5 Increase or decrease by a percentage 5 Calculate the following.5% b $2500 decreased by 5% d 1.

d To change millimetres to metres: divide by 10 (to change to centimetres) then divide by 100 (to change to metres). kilometres metres ÷ 100 centimetres ÷ 10 millimetres ÷ 1000 WORKED Example 1 Complete each of the following. Units of length Units of length are based on the metre. Units of measurement can be compared under the metric system by examining the preﬁx.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 47 Units of measurement We deal with measurement every day of our lives.8 km c 6. The system we use for measurement is the International System of Units (SI system). 10 millimetres = 1 centimetre × 100 100 centimetres = 1 metre 1000 metres = 1 kilometre × 10 The ﬂow chart at right shows how to convert units of measurement. look at our watch. Each time we pick up a ruler. metre (m) × 1000 and kilometre (km).5 m = 6. The units used are the basis for the more complicated measurements of area and volume. capacity and time. b To change metres to kilometres: divide by 1000. There are four units commonly used for measuring length: the millimetre (mm). The quantities measured most often are length. a 30 mm = cm b 4800 m = THINK a Changing millimetres to centimetres: divide by 10. more commonly known as the metric system.5 m = WRITE a 30 mm = 30 ÷ 10 cm 30 mm = 3 cm b 4800 m = 4800 ÷ 1000 km 4800 m = 4.5 × 100 cm 6. km c 6. mass. centimetre (cm). or purchase a can of drink from the school canteen we are using measurement. The metric system is simpler to use because it is based on powers of 10.4 m cm d 8400 mm = m . This system was introduced in Australia in 1972 to replace the ‘Imperial’ system.5 m = 650 cm d 8400 mm = 8400 ÷ 10 cm 8400 mm = 840 ÷ 100 m 8400 mm = 8. c To change metres to centimetres: multiply by 100.

5 × 1000 L 10.65 t = kg Units of capacity Capacity is the measure of liquid volume. WORKED Example 3 Complete the following.8 L = WRITE a 6000 mL = 6000 ÷ 1000 L 6000 mL = 6 L b 2500 L = 2500 ÷ 1000 kL 2500 L = 2. litres (L) and kilolitres (kL). a 4000 g = kg b 9750 kg = THINK a To change grams to kilograms: divide by 1000. d To change kilolitres to litres: multiply by 1000.2 kg = WRITE a 4000 g = 4000 ÷ 1000 kg 4000 g = 4 kg b 9750 kg = 9750 ÷ 1000 t 9750 kg = 9. c To change kilograms to grams: multiply by 1000. t c 3. c To change litres to millilitres: multiply by 1000. d To change tonnes to kilograms: multiply by 1000.5 kL c 0.75 t c 3. There are three main units of mass: the gram (g).5 kL = 10. a 6000 mL = L b 2500 L = THINK a To change millilitres to litres: divide by 1000.8 L = 0. kL c 0. 1000 grams = 1 kilogram 1000 kilograms = 1 tonne × 1000 × 1000 grams tonnes kilograms ÷ 1000 ÷ 1000 Remembering these conversions can be aided by a ﬂow chart.65 t = 650 kg g d 0.5 kL = 10 500 L mL d 10. b To change litres to kilolitres: divide by 1000.2 × 1000 g 3.5 kL = L .48 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Units of mass The same method can be used to convert units of mass.8 × 1000 mL 0.8 L = 800 mL d 10.2 kg = 3.2 kg = 3200 g d 0. kilogram (kg) and tonne (t). b To change kilograms to tonnes: divide by 1000. WORKED Example 2 Complete the following.65 × 1000 kg 0. The three common units used to measure capacity are: millilitres (mL).65 t = 0. 1000 millilitres = 1 litre 1000 litres = 1 kilolitre × 1000 × 1000 millilitres kilolitres litres ÷ 1000 ÷ 1000 The ﬂow chart for converting these units is similar to that for mass.

We also say that there are 52 weeks in a year. there are always 12 months in a year but the number of days in each month varies. WORKED Example 4 Complete the following. capacity or time) and then to choose the most practical unit. e To change hours to seconds: multiply by 60 (to change to minutes) then multiply by 60 (to change to seconds). b To change minutes to hours: divide by 60.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 49 ÷7 ÷ 24 Units of time ×7 We use a more complicated system of units for time. to measure the diameter of a coin you would use length and the most practical unit would be millimetres. However. weeks days hours 60 seconds (s) = 1 minute (min) 60 minutes = 1 hour (h) 24 hours = 1 day 7 days = 1 week × 24 × 60 minutes × 60 seconds ÷ 60 ÷ 60 In each of the measures of time shown. For example. mass. . there are actually 52 weeks and either 1 or 2 days. but as we are so familiar with time. For example. Finally. There are. the conversions are straightforward. a 3 min = s b 300 min = d 1 day = min e 2h= s THINK a To change minutes to seconds: multiply by 60. there are 365 days in one year. h c 4 days = h WRITE a 3 min = 3 × 60 s 3 min = 180 s b 300 min = 300 ÷ 60 h 300 min = 5 h c 4 days = 4 × 24 h 4 days = 96 h d 1 day = 1 × 24 h 1 day = 24 × 60 min 1 day = 1440 min e 2 hours = 2 × 60 min 2 hours = 120 × 60 s 2 hours = 7200 s d To change days to minutes: multiply by 24 (to change to hours) then multiply by 60 (to change to minutes). however. When making a measurement it is important to ﬁrst determine the kind of quantity you are measuring (length. others which are not so precise. c To change days to hours: multiply by 24. except in a leap year when there are 366. this is not difﬁcult.

complete the conversion by multiplying. Choose the most appropriate unit for a measurement by choosing the type of measurement. a The thickness of a book b The amount of water in a glass c The amount of matter in a cricket ball d The length of a movie THINK a The thickness of a book is a measure of length.5 × 1000 kg = 2500 kg. mass.) 3. Remember the unit conversions for length. 2. d The length of a movie is a measure of time.1 Conversion of units WORKED Example 1 SkillS HEET 2. b The amount of water in a glass is a measure of capacity. 3 min = 3 ÷ 60 h = 0.2 cm = km m km mm HEET 2. remember 1. then the most practical unit.4 cm = mm k 11.2 km = j 6.05 h. c The amount of matter in a cricket ball is a measure of mass. When changing from a larger unit to a smaller unit. a 8000 g = kg b 3000 kg = d 5 kg = g e 9500 kg = g 5.8 L = Converting units of time reads L Sp he et Example 2 t t g c 7t= kg f 2350 g = kg EXCE Converting Example metric 3 units WORKED kL kL mL c 4 kL = L f 8650 mL = L .25 m = 2 Copy and complete the following. When changing from a smaller unit to a larger unit. complete the conversion by dividing.9 kL = L h 12. a 2000 mL = L b 11 000 L = d 15 L = mL e 4800 L = g 7.84 kg = 3 Copy and complete the following.) 4. (For example.5 t = 2. (For example. d Minutes is the most practical unit to use.50 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 5 Choose the most appropriate unit for each of the following measurements. 2.5 t = kg h 4. a 70 mm = cm b 600 cm = d 9 cm = mm e 12 m = g 86 mm = cm h 9. b Millilitres is the most practical unit to use. c Grams is the most practical unit to use. capacity and time. WRITE a Millimetres is the most practical unit to use.2 WORKED 1 Copy and complete each of the following. 2A SkillS Units of measurement m cm m cm c f i l 5000 m = 9 km = 2400 m = 2.

Chapter 2 Units of measurement 51 WORKED Example 4 4 Copy and complete the following. in millimetres? 6 Peter is a truck driver. a Copy and complete the following statement using the appropriate unit of capacity. how many hours will it take for all cars to be detailed? 9 multiple choice One litre of water has a mass of 1 kg. Peter’s truck. 2. If 15 people are employed to detail cars. What are the dimensions of the garage.2 m long. One kilogram of oranges will produce 400 mL of freshly squeezed juice. a The time taken to run 100 metres 5 b The amount of petrol in a car’s petrol tank c A person’s height d The distance between two cities e The mass of a truck 12 The Schneider family purchase a backyard swimming pool. The amount of water used to ﬁll the pool would be 150 . What would be the mass of 1 mL of water? A 1g B 10 g C 100 g D unknown 10 multiple choice The number of millimetres in 2. The garage is 5. however. is 3850 kg. including its load. It takes 20 minutes for a person to detail a car.4 km is: A 24 000 B 240 000 WORKED C 2400 000 D 24 000 000 Example 11 Choose the appropriate unit for each of the following measurements.5 m high. b The family decide to reduce household water consumption to compensate for ﬁlling the swimming pool. How many kilograms under the weight limit is the truck? 7 A factory is producing orange juice. a 240 s = min b 360 min = h d 5 days = h e 7h= min g 2 years = days h 3 years = months j 36 h = days k 1 week = h c f i l 72 h = days 3h= min 4 years = weeks 450 min = h 5 Richard is planning to have a garage built. When he is passing through a small country town a detour takes him to a road that has a 4 tonne weight limit on all vehicles. All builders. How many litres of orange juice can be produced from 4. How much less water must be used per day to make up for this water over 1 year? .4 m wide and 2.5 tonnes of oranges? 8 At a car sales yard there are 1200 cars. work in millimetres.

52 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Relative error How far is it from your house to school? If you live very close to school you may give your answer in metres. Between what two masses would the true mass of the trailer load actually be? THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE Maximum error = 5 kg Lower limit = 260 − 5 = 255 kg Upper limit = 260 + 5 = 265 kg The soil’s mass is between 255 kg and 265 kg. no measurement is exact. you may say that it is 4 km from your home to school. All measurements are approximations. This measurement is given to the nearest centimetre.5 cm and 164. The mass is given to the nearest 10 kg. Subtract 0. the measurement would be given to the nearest kilometre.5 km and 4. When rounding off measurements.5 = 163. In either case the answer you give would not be exact. Add 0. We are able to measure a quantity only to the degree of accuracy that our instruments allow. Give a written answer. or if you are a bit further away you would probably answer in kilometres. Between what values would her actual height be? THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE Maximum error = 0. In this case. WORKED Example 6 Hilary has her height measured at 164 cm. Give a written answer. The actual distance from your home to school could be anything between 3.5 cm. we usually choose a degree of accuracy that is convenient. The maximum error is half the degree of accuracy used (1 cm). .5 cm to ﬁnd the largest possible measurement. In practice. Add 5 kg to 260 kg to ﬁnd the largest possible measurement.5 = 164. For example.5 cm Upper limit = 164 + 0.5 cm from 164 cm to ﬁnd the smallest possible measurement. This measurement is probably given to the nearest 100 m. Someone who lives close to school may say it is 600 m to school. In fact. The actual distance would be between 550 m and 650 m. the maximum error possible is half the degree of accuracy stated.5 cm Hilary’s height is between 163. Subtract 5 kg from 260 kg to ﬁnd the smallest possible measurement.5 km.5 cm Lower limit = 164 − 0. The maximum error is half the degree of accuracy used (10 kg). WORKED Example 7 The mass of a trailer load of soil is given as 260 kg.

2. maximum error Percentage error = -----------------------------------. 2 3 4 The degree of accuracy as a percentage shows how accurate a measurement is. Divide the total by 8 to ﬁnd the average. This is half the degree of accuracy used (1 L). remember 1. No measuring instrument is perfect and different people can sometimes obtain a different reading from the same instrument. 169 cm. 169 cm. The maximum error of any measurement is half the degree of accuracy used.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 53 The true degree of accuracy in a measurement is found by determining the maximum percentage error. The true accuracy of a measurement is found by calculating the percentage error. we can average several readings of the same measurement. To do this we ﬁnd the greatest possible error and then write that as a percentage of the measurement given. To reduce the likelihood of error. Write the percentage error rule. WORKED Example 9 Taylor has her height measured by 8 people.77% The degree of accuracy is 0.× 100% 65 = 0. 169 cm. several readings can be averaged. What is the average result? THINK 1 2 WRITE Total = 169 + 169 + 168 + 170 + 169 + 169 + 168 + 168 Total = 1350 Average = 1350 ÷ 8 Average = 168. one person may measure a person’s height as 162 cm while another may get an answer of 163 cm.5 L 0. For example. 168 cm. 3.77%. THINK 1 WRITE Maximum error = 0. They obtain the following results: 169 cm. Calculate the percentage error to 2 decimal places. To obtain a more accurate measurement. . 168 cm. Give a written answer. All measurements are approximations that are limited by the accuracy of the measuring instrument.5 Percentage error = -----. ﬁnd the degree of accuracy as a percentage (answer correct to 2 decimal places). 4.75 cm Find the total of the 8 readings. Find the maximum error. 168 cm. If this capacity is given to the nearest litre.× 100% measurement WORKED Example 8 A car’s fuel tank has a capacity of 65 litres. 170 cm. This is the maximum error as a percentage of the measured reading.

State the limits between which the true length lies. write the degree of accuracy as a percentage. what is the maximum percentage error for each line? 8 Janice estimates that it takes 1 hour and 20 minutes to drive to a friend’s house. correct to the nearest kilogram.6 L. correct to the nearest 10 m. correct to 2 decimal places. b When the lines are measured correct to the nearest millimetre. correct to 2 decimal places.3 cm b 9.54 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 2B WORKED Relative error Example SkillS HEET 2.2 km d 5. a 40 m b 90 m c 250 m d 300 m e 1000 m f 2 km 3 Each of the following measurements are given correct to 1 decimal place. b The capacity of a bucket is 7 L.3 6 1 Each of the following measurements are given to the nearest centimetre. 6 a Measure each of the following lines to the nearest centimetre. 7 a Measure each of the lines in question 6.0 mm e 9. d The volume of water in a tank is 38. correct to the nearest kilometre. c The length of a park is said to be 180 m. between what two lengths of time does it take Janice to make the journey? b What is the maximum error in Janice’s estimate? c Find the degree of accuracy of Janice’s estimate. 5 For each of the following measurements. correct to the nearest litre. a A person’s mass is given as 67 kg. correct to the nearest 100 km. correct to 1 decimal place. a Between what two limits does the true distance lie? b What is the greatest possible error in the distance? c Write the degree of accuracy in this measurement as a percentage. correct to 2 decimal places. correct to 2 decimal places. ﬁnd the maximum percentage error in the measurement. State the limits between which the true length lies. correct to the nearest millimetre. State the limits between which the true length lies. . e The distance between Sydney and Melbourne is 1000 km. a If Janice’s estimate is to the nearest 10 minutes. as a percentage. iii iii iii b For each.9 km f 0.1 m Writing WORKED one Example quantity 7 as a percentage of another EXCE reads L Sp he et WORKED Calculations with percentages Example 8 4 The distance between two towns is given as 45 km.8 m c 7. a 5. a 5 cm b 12 cm c 34 cm d 59 cm e 90 cm f 2m 2 Each of the following measurements are given to the nearest 10 m.

5 s B 0. b By multiplying the largest possible length and width. 10 multiple choice The world record for 100 m is 9. This is the time correct to 2 decimal places. correct to 1 decimal place.1 s 11 multiple choice An aeroplane trip takes 17 hours.05 s C 0. 9 16 The distance between two towns is given on 4 different maps as 79 km.76% C 2. 749 mL.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 55 9 multiple choice The length of a house. correct to the nearest hour.29% B 1. C The length of the house is between 19. 13 A paddock needs a fence which is 30 m long and 20 m wide. D The length of the house is between 19.005 s D 0. is given as 19. Calculate the average of these 5 readings. The degree of accuracy. correct to the nearest litre. a Between what two measurements does the length lie? b Between what two measurements does the width lie? c What is the smallest possible length of fencing needed? d What is the greatest possible length of fencing needed? e What is the maximum error in the length of fencing needed? 14 For the paddock in question 13. correct to the nearest 50 g. c What is the maximum error in the area of the paddock? WORKED Example 15 The capacity of a jug is measured by 5 people to be 750 mL.96 m. C The distance from home to school is 1. D A roast is to cook for 1 hour and 30 min.95 m.955 m and 20 m.9 m and 20 m. What is the maximum possible error in this time? A 0. Calculate the average of these 4 readings.6 km.94 m and 19. a By multiplying the smallest possible length and width. correct to 2 decimal places. correct to the nearest 5 minutes. 77 km and 80 km. Which of the following statements is the most accurate? A The length of the house is between 19. the area is found by multiplying the length by the width. ﬁnd the largest possible area. is: A 0.88% 12 multiple choice Which of the following four measurements has the greatest degree of accuracy? A The mass of a bag of beans is 400 g. 752 mL. B A water container contains 10 L of water. when measured to the nearest metre. 81 km.77 s.955 m. B The length of the house is between 19. . 753 mL and 748 mL. ﬁnd the smallest possible area. correct to 2 decimal places.945 m and 19.94% D 5.

Between what two measurements does the person’s mass lie? 10 The distance between two houses is given as 360 m. correct to 1 decimal place. answer the following questions. without showing it to anyone else. 4 What was the smallest height measured? 5 What was the greatest height measured? 6 Calculate the average reading. Each person writes down their reading.7 kg. correct to the nearest 10 m. get each person to measure the height of one class member. .6 m (cm) 8 40 000 mm (cm) 9 The mass of a person is shown on a scale as 65. Find the degree of accuracy.56 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Measuring heights In your class. 1 What unit did you use to measure height? 2 What is the maximum error? 3 Calculate the percentage error using your reading.45 L (mL) 5 4 min (s) 6 3 days (h) 7 5. 1 Convert the following measurements into the units indicated. 1 450 cm (m) 2 6. When all readings are taken. correct to 1 decimal place.8 km (m) 3 6800 g (kg) 4 9.

In this example we have rounded the distance off. 1024 has 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. • A circle with a radius of 5 cm has an area of 78.539 816 34. • The distance between Sydney and Melbourne is 1040 km. for example.26 = 9 460 975 039 488 km Distance = 68. If the speed of light is 299 792 km/s and a year is taken to be 365. so that each signiﬁcant ﬁgure has its correct place value. • The distance from the Earth to the Sun has been given to the nearest one million kilometres. all measurements are approximations. Noone travelling between these two cities would need to know the distance with any greater degree of accuracy.54 cm2. however. Using 2 decimal places is usually a more practical way to answer such questions. When rounding off. correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. As already stated. .54 cm2 is also to 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. we must include them.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 57 Signiﬁcant ﬁgures Consider each of the following measurements. The accuracy of every measurement taken is limited by the accuracy of the instrument used to take the measurement. Measurements are usually given to a required number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. the zeros are not signiﬁcant ﬁgures. Signiﬁcant ﬁgures are the number of non-zero digits at the beginning of a number. Therefore: 1 light-year = 299 792 × 60 × 60 × 24 × 365. • Using the formula A = πr 2 the calculator gives the area of the circle as 78. We could say that the distance was approximately 644 000 000 000 000 km. • The distance from the Earth to the Sun is 149 000 000 km.04 light-years away from the Earth. In this example. (Note: Zeros between 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures are taken to be signiﬁcant. what is the distance from the Earth to the star. When rounding a number off to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.04 × 9 460 975 039 488 = 643 724 741 686 764 km With such large numbers it is not usually necessary to be so exact.) Consider the situation below. We then ﬁll out the remaining places with zeros. in kilometres? A light-year is the distance that light will travel in 1 year. we cut the number off after the ﬁrst three non-zero digits and round off using the same rules as for decimal places.26 days. • The distance between Sydney and Melbourne is given to the nearest kilometre. not 3. In the examples above: • 149 000 000 km is to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures • 1024 km is to 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures • 78. The measurement is then given to the most practical degree of accuracy. The zeros that ﬁll the remaining places are not signiﬁcant and are there to maintain the correct place values. In each of the above cases the measurement is not exactly correct. The distance to the nearest kilometre is needed only for very precise scientiﬁc work. A star is a distance of 68. Each of these measurements has had a sensible and practical approximation applied.

This digit is 3.005 25 b 0. so take the second signiﬁcant ﬁgure up by 1 and ﬁll out the remaining places with zeros.58 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 10 Round each of the following numbers off to the required number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. b 60 000 000 Signiﬁcant ﬁgures can also be used to round off decimals.014 725 8 (2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures) THINK a 1 WRITE a 2 b 1 2 Rounding off to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. WORKED Example 11 Round each of the following numbers off to the number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures indicated. This digit is 4. This digit is 8. so we look at the third signiﬁcant ﬁgure. so the second signiﬁcant ﬁgure must be increased by 1. a 0.015 . When rounding off decimals to a set number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. so it is ignored and the remaining places are ﬁlled out with zeros. so we look at the second signiﬁcant ﬁgure.000 254 878 the ﬁrst signiﬁcant ﬁgure is the 2. so we look at the fourth signiﬁcant ﬁgure. 0. For the decimal 0. Rounding off to 1 signiﬁcant ﬁgure. If we round off to 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures 0.000 25. Care must be taken when reading a question to see if you are being asked to round off using signiﬁcant ﬁgures or decimal places.000 254 878 ≈ 0. so it and the following digits are ignored. Rounding off to 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. the zeros at the front must be left in place but there is no need to ﬁll out remaining places with zeros. This digit is 7.005 254 8 (3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures) b 0. so we look to the third signiﬁcant ﬁgure. a 25 854 789 652 (2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures) b 63 879 258 (1 signiﬁcant ﬁgure) THINK a 1 2 WRITE a 26 000 000 000 b 1 2 Rounding off to 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. Zeros at the front of a decimal are not considered to be signiﬁcant ﬁgures.

so the third signiﬁcant ﬁgure must be increased by 1. correct to 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. This measurement has been given correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.00 × 102 .Chapter 2 Units of measurement 59 For very large or very small numbers we use signiﬁcant ﬁgures together with scientiﬁc notation. This digit is a 3. WORKED Example 12 Write each of the following measurements in scientiﬁc notation. the closest star you can see is approximately 41 600 000 000 000 kilometres away.16 × 1013 km. As this digit is a 9.000 004 583 12 g c 499. The appearance of this on the calculator display will vary with different types of calculators. we would write this as 4. An example of a very small measurement is the width of a human hair. so the third signiﬁcant ﬁgure must be increased by 1.1 × 10−8 mm. which is in scientiﬁc notation correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.16 × 1013 and is entered as 4. The decimal place must be moved 2 places left to be between the ﬁrst 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. In scientiﬁc notation. The decimal place must be moved 10 places left to be between the ﬁrst 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. the previous digit must be increased until a number other than 9 is reached.55 × 1010 b 1 2 3 b 4. correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 41 600 000 000 000 = 4. This digit is an 8. It can also be written as 4. Look at the fourth signiﬁcant ﬁgure. 2.16 EXP 13. Look at the fourth signiﬁcant ﬁgure.85 L THINK a 1 2 WRITE a 3 Look at the fourth signiﬁcant ﬁgure. so it and the following digits are ignored.58 × 10−6 c 1 2 c 3 5. This digit is a 7. a 25 473 269 000 km b 0.000 000 041 365 mm. The decimal place must be moved 6 places right to be between the ﬁrst 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. If you look up in the sky at night. This may be 0.

correct to a required number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures.03 B 0.4 WORKED Example 10 Rounding to a given number WORKED Example of 11 decimal places 1 Round each of the following off to the number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures indicated.5698 = 45. 3. this distance becomes: A 29 km B 2900 km C 2986.001 498 758 (3) d 6. a 0.036 WORKED Example 12 7 Write each of the following measurements in scientiﬁc notation.57 when it is rounded to which degree of accuracy? A 2 decimal places B 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures C Both A and B D Neither A nor B D 0.35 (3) 2 Round each of the following off to the number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures indicated. a 24 587 258 (2) b 236 500 258 (1) c 8 782 568 (3) d 4587 (1) e 654 200 (1) f 287. Rounded to 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.035 81 is equal to: A 0.002 369 g e 0.000 201 47 (1) 3 Write the distance 146 565 992 km correct to: a 1 signiﬁcant ﬁgure b 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures c 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures d 5 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. A measurement is usually given to a required number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. a 471 591 400 km b 7 415 200 000 000 mm c 12 850 t d 0. The same rules are used to round off signiﬁcant ﬁgures as for decimal places. Very large or very small measurements are written in scientiﬁc notation. 2. 2C SkillS Signiﬁcant ﬁgures HEET 2. We round off using signiﬁcant ﬁgures by counting the ﬁrst non-zero digits.00 km D 3000 km 6 multiple choice 45.254 (3) f 0.222 221 L f 0.002 99 s .04 C 0. with signiﬁcant ﬁgures zeros must be used to ﬁll places to make sure all digits have the same place value.032 579 81 (2) b 0. 4 multiple choice When rounded to 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 0.256 677 158 (4) e 68.60 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course remember 1.035 5 multiple choice The distance between two cities is 2986 km. However.003 658 (1) c 0. correct to 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.

9 × 105 kg = t e 3. and growing by 0. a Do you think this answer is correct to the nearest kilometre? Explain your answer. To win the match.000 000 000 5 mm/day. b To how many signiﬁcant ﬁgures has this distance been given? c Give this distance correct to 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. If light travels at 2.1 .991 × 105 km/s. How many runs per over do they need to score? Work T SHEE 2.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 61 8 The distance between the planet Mars and the Sun is given by the World Book Encyclopedia as 227 900 000 km.26 days) Rates It is the last day of a test cricket match between Australia and India. Australia need to make 280 runs in 80 overs.) 11 A light-year is deﬁned as the distance travelled by light in one year.6 × 106 cm = mm d 4.4 × 106 mm = m b 9. a 2. (1 year = 365. correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.1 × 108 m = km c 4.9 × 107 L = 10 h 1. What will be the diameter of the microbe in 10 days? (Answer in scientiﬁc notation.1 × 103 L = kg kL mL 10 Scientists in a laboratory measure the diameter of a certain microbe to be 0.45 × 107 t = 6 f 8.11 × 10 kg = g g 8.000 000 2 mm.09 × 10 kL = L i 7. calculate in scientiﬁc notation the size of a light-year. 9 Copy and complete each of the following measurement conversions.

Rates.96 ÷ 40) Write the answer as a simpliﬁed rate. Divide the ﬁrst quantity by the second quantity. c 1500 kL/year compares capacity with time. b $2. Divide the ﬁrst quantity by the second quantity. A rate is a comparison of two quantities of a different type. we divide the ﬁrst quantity by the second quantity. To simplify a rate.749 for 1 litre = 74. WORKED Example 13 What quantities are being compared in each of the following rates? a 60 km/h b $2. WRITE a 60 km/h compares distance with time.62 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course This question requires us to work with rates. like ratios. a 240 km in 3 hours b $29.50/kg compares money with mass. c A kilolitre is a measure of capacity. In this example we need to compare runs with overs. (29.5 runs in 1 over = 3. An hour is a measure of time.96 for 40 litres c 280 runs in 80 overs THINK a 1 2 WRITE a 240 km in 3 hours = 80 km in 1 hour = 80 km/h b $29. Rewrite the original rate.50/kg c 1500 kL/year THINK a A kilometre is a measure of distance. b $2. Kilograms is a measure of mass.9 c/L c 280 runs in 80 overs = 3. (280 ÷ 80) Write the answer as a simpliﬁed rate.96 for 40 litres = $0. Years are a measure of time.50 is an amount of money. WORKED Example 14 Simplify each of the following rates fully. 3 b 1 2 3 c 1 2 3 . (240 ÷ 3) Write the answer as a simpliﬁed rate. Divide the ﬁrst quantity by the second quantity. A rate is always simpliﬁed to a single unit. often need to be simpliﬁed.5 runs/over Rewrite the original rate. Rewrite the original rate.

6. Modify this recipe to serve 9. In such a case.50 × 4 = $90. Give a written answer. THINK 1 WRITE Multiplication factor = 9 ÷ 6 -Multiplication factor = 1 1 -bananas = 4 × 1 1 2 =6 -eggs = 2 × 1 1 2 =3 -coconut = 250 g × 1 1 2 = 375 g 2 -lemon juice = 10 mL × 1 1 2 = 15 mL -castor sugar = 20 g × 1 1 2 = 30 g -apricot jam = 20 g × 1 1 2 = 30 g Divide 9 by 6 to calculate the multiplication factor. WORKED Example 15 Giovanni is a plumber who charges $22. The concentration is the amount of one substance that is contained within another. In each example. 2 2 In a few examples a rate can compare two measurements of the same type.00 for 4 hours labour. What will be his labour charge for a job that takes 4 hours? THINK 1 WRITE $22.50/h for labour. 2 A common example of where a rate must be used is when modifying a recipe for a set number of people. A recipe may be given to serve 4 people but we may need to modify -it to serve. 4 bananas 10 mL lemon juice 2 eggs 20 g castor sugar 250 g coconut 20 g apricot jam Janice is having 9 people to dinner. 2 WORKED Example 16 Below are the ingredients to make a banana pudding for 6 people. Multiply each ingredient -by 1 1 .50 for 1 hour. This is where we are measuring the concentration of a certain substance. $22. so multiply by 4 to calculate the labour charge. say. we need to carefully think about which of these we need to do and clearly set out the working steps. . For example. a concentration of medicine may contain a mass/weight rate or a mass/ volume rate.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 63 Once we are able to simplify rates. we can use them to solve problems.00 Giovanni charges $90. Solving problems usually involves multiplying or dividing quantities and rates. each ingredient would need to be multiplied by 1 1 .

THINK 1 2 3 WRITE 20 m/s = 1200 m/min 20 m/s = 72 000 m/h 20 m/s = 72 km/h Convert 20 m/s to m/min by multiplying by 60.5 mg of pentoxyverine citrate in 1 dose. at each stage writing the equivalent rate. . If one dose of the cough medicine is 10 mL. Convert 72 000 m/h to km/h by dividing by 1000. 9 ÷ 1. A rate is a comparison of two quantities of a different type. Divide the maximum amount of pentoxyverine citrate that can be consumed per day by the amount in each dose. we compare the ﬁrst quantity with one unit of the second quantity. Rate questions need to be read carefully to see whether to multiply or divide to solve the problem. Rates are converted by changing each unit separately. This is done by changing each unit separately at each stage of the conversion while keeping the equivalent rate. 4. Give a written answer. remember 1. what is the maximum number of doses a person can have per day? THINK 1 WRITE 1 dose = 10 mL.64 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 17 The concentration of pentoxyverine citrate in a cough mixture is 15 mg/100 mL. 3. A person should not consume more than 9 mg of pentoxyverine citrate per day. so 100 mL = 10 doses 15 mg of pentoxyverine in 100 mL of cough mixture means 15 mg of pentoxyverine citrate in 10 doses or 1.5 = 6 Calculate the amount of pentoxyverine citrate in one dose of cough mixture. To simplify a rate. We need to be able to use the conversion facts for measurement to convert between rates. Convert 1200 m/min to m/h by multiplying by 60. 2 3 A person can have a maximum of 6 doses of cough mixture per day. WORKED Example 18 Convert the speed 20 m/s into km/h. 2. We should be able to convert km/h to m/s and other similar rates.

90/kg D $35.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 65 2D WORKED Rates Example 13 1 What quantities are being compared in each of the following rates? a 80 km/h b $2. At what rate has she been charged for labour? 2 WORKED Example 14 5 After 15 minutes of hard exercise.50/kg c $12.68 for 55 L 3 multiple choice George buys 600 g of bacon at the delicatessen for $5. The mechanic worked on the car and -charged Josie $68.9 c/L j 6 s/kg k 40 L/100 km l 2 m/year 2 Simplify each of the following rates (where necessary answer to 1 decimal place). fuel consumption is expressed in L/100 km.56/kg B 99 c/kg C $9.6 km she found that her car had used 48 L of petrol. Which of the above statements is true? A 1 only B 2 only C Both 1 and 2 D Neither 1 nor 2 WORKED Example 11 Jodie is paid $11. Statement 1: Hugo’s fuel consumption is 7. She needs to be in Sydney by 8:00 pm that evening. correct to 2 decimal places. What would be the fuel consumption in L/100 km? 10 multiple choice Hugo’s car used 56 litres of petrol on a trip of 400 km. What was the fuel consumption of Kristel’s car in km/L? 9 More commonly. Roula’s heart beat 520 times in the next 4 minutes.64/kg 4 Josie takes her car to the mechanic for a service. As a rate this is equal to: A $3. what speed must she average to arrive in time? (Answer to the nearest whole number. After travelling 345.94. a distance of 1040 km. a How many seconds did Kingston Rule take? b What was the average speed of Kingston Rule in metres per second. How much does she earn in a week if she works 42 hours? 15 . Statement 2: Hugo’s fuel consumption is 14 L/100 km. to 1 decimal place? 8 Kristel’s car is ﬁlled with petrol. a 270 km in 3 hours b $32 for 8 kg c 250 runs in 50 overs d 10 degrees in 2 h e $65 for 4 h f 90 m2 with 4 kg g 600 m in 80 s h $223 in 5 days i 500 km on 65 L j 23 goals in 8 games k 400 kL for 32 days l $42.23 per hour for her job at the bank. What is her heart rate in beats per minute? 6 Judy wants to leave Melbourne at 6:00 am bound for Sydney. If she allows for 2 hours as rest breaks.1 m/s h 200 g/m2 i 78.40/h d 50 g/L e 4 goals/game f 2°C/min g 5.14 km/L.50 for 2 1 hours labour. The Melbourne Cup is run over 3200 m.) 7 The race record for the Melbourne Cup is 3 min 16. A car travels 400 km on 48 L of petrol.9 s held by Kingston Rule.

How much medication will the patient receive in 4 hours? WORKED Example 13 Below are the ingredients for seafood mornay.60 per hour. 300 g of brown sugar 90 g of oil 120 g of self-raising ﬂour 120 g of plain ﬂour 60 g of white chocolate Modify the recipe to make 10 chocolate cookies. 14 The ingredients below make 15 chocolate cookies.66 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 12 A patient in hospital is placed on an intravenous drip.5 m/s to km/h d 8 km/L to L/100 km C 12 km/L D 12 L/100 km 21 The instructions on a 1 kg bag of lawn food say to use 125 g/m2 of lawn. Calculate the amount of the dietary supplement required for a 760 kg bull. If the intake of povidone must not exceed 3 grams per day and each dose of the sore throat treatment is 5 mL. The medication is given to the patient at a rate of 15 drips/min. 17 In his job as a sales assistant Jacob is paid $9. Nora buys 5 bags of the lawn food.25 mL. Modify the recipe so that it will serve 8 people. 22 A car uses 45 L of petrol on a 432 km trip.5 g/100 mL of povidone.5 g/kg weight. How much does he receive each hour for working on Saturday? b How much does Jacob earn on a Saturday if he starts work at 8:00 am and ﬁnishes at 1:00 pm? EXCE reads L Sp he WORKED Example 18 Convert a speed of 15 m/s to km/h. Does she have enough to do a lawn that is 43 m2 in area? Explain your answer. 17 calculate the maximum number of doses a person can take each day. a Write the fuel consumption in km/L. b How much fuel will the car use on a 324 km trip at the same rate? . a On Saturdays he is paid at a rate of time and a half. 19 Convert each of the following rates. Each drip is 0. a 90 km/h to m/s c 8 mL/m to L/km 20 multiple choice Which of the following is the most economical fuel consumption? A 10 km/L B 10 L/100 km Speed converter et 18 b 2. 30 g of cocoa powder 90 g of choc bits WORKED Example 15 A sore throat treatment contains 7. 600 g of rice 300 g of pink salmon 1 egg 16 60 g of butter 30 g of plain ﬂour 450 mL of milk 90 g of shredded cheese 75 g of breadcrumbs This recipe serves 6 people. 16 A dietary supplement for cattle requires that the bull be fed 2.

We will now examine consecutive percentage changes. 2 Decrease $144 by 20%. Consider the case of a pair of rollerblades that is usually priced at $120. The price rises by 20% but then a discount of 20% is applied. remember 1. . The price is increased by 20% and then decreased by 20%.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 67 Percentage change You should be familiar with increasing and decreasing an amount by a percentage. the quantity does not revert to the original amount. THINK 1 WRITE 120% of $120 = 120 ÷ 100 × $120 = $144 80% of $144 = 80 ÷ 100 × $144 = $115. The price does not revert to $120 because the increase and decrease are 20% of different amounts. Calculate the new price of the rollerblades. The increase and the decrease need to be calculated separately.20 Increase $120 by 20%. 2. WORKED Example 19 The price of a pair of rollerblades is $120. When we increase and decrease a quantity by the same percentage.

b 50 litres is increased by 20% and then the result is increased by 10%. b An accident then increases the travelling time on a particular day by 20%. He receives a 5% discount for paying cash and a further 2. 7 A carpenter purchases $600 worth of items from a hardware store. Calculate the percentage discount that has been applied. The price is increased by 10% and then decreased by 10%. Calculate the new price of the stereo. 5 Decrease 250 kg by 5% and then decrease the result by 5%. a Calculate the new price of the tool kit. A new section of road decreases the travelling time by 5%. 8 The price of a $200 tool kit is increased by 25%.5% trade discount. Calculate the time taken to travel between the two towns. 19 2 Calculate each of the following. 4 Increase $150 by 10% and then increase the result by 10%. Increase or decrease by a percentage . a Calculate the new travelling time between the two towns. b The price of the tool kit is then reduced back to $200 during a sale. 6 Are each of the following calculations equal? a 50 litres is increased by 10% and then the result is increased by 20%. a Increase 25 km by 5% and decrease the result by 5%.68 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 2E SkillS Percentage change HEET 2. Calculate what he pays for the items. b Decrease 560 kg by 15% and then increase the result by 15%. 3 The time taken to travel between two towns is 2 hours. c Increase 4 hours by 40% and then decrease the result by 40%.5 WORKED Example 1 The cost of a stereo system is $750.

correct to the nearest kilogram. Using ratios Zhong and Hasam invest money in a business.46 m = cm. we can’t use a ratio to compare quantities of different types. For example. . 6 Write 0. two distances in kilometres or two masses in grams. However. For example. how much should each of the partners receive? We need a simple method for comparing the investment of each partner. A ratio is a comparison of two or more quantities measured in the same units. 8 Convert the speed 56 km/h to m/s. correct to 3 decimal places.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 69 2 1 Copy and complete the following: 5. 5 Write 178 569 543 in scientiﬁc notation correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. Within what range could the actual mass of the horse lie? 3 Calculate the maximum percentage error in the weight of the horse. a ratio can be used to compare two quantities of money in dollars. If their proﬁt is to be fairly shared.028 34 cm correct to 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. We do this by using ratios. a ratio can’t compare a distance with a mass. correct to 1 decimal place. 2 The mass of a horse is found to be 725 kg. 7 Simplify the rate 45 kg in 3 hours. Zhong invests $25 000 and Hasam invests $30 000. 4 Write 0. The business made a proﬁt of $33 000 in the ﬁrst year.50 by 20% and then increase the result by 20%.000 001 011 03 in scientiﬁc notation correct to 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 10 Decrease $13. 9 Increase $280 by 10% and decrease the result by 5%.

Returning to the problem at the start of this section. If we know the value of one part of the ratio we can ﬁnd the value of one share and hence ﬁnd the other part of the ratio. Write down the question. Divide by the HCF (20). ignoring units. Brooke is 180 cm tall. Change metres to centimetres. we can use ratios to divide a quantity into unequal parts. Multiply 1 share by 10 to ﬁnd the unknown part of the ratio. We can consider each part of the ratio as consisting of a number of shares. Write both money quantities as cents. Compare the known part of the ratio (Jane’s height). This is known as the unitary method. Once we are able to write ratios.60:$2.10 360:210 12:7 c 3 m:80 cm 300:80 15:4 c 1 2 3 Write down the question. a 24 cm:32 cm b $3. We do this by comparing the two parts of the ratio. Divide both numbers by the HCF (8). how tall is Brooke? THINK 1 WRITE Jane:Brooke 9:10 162 cm:??? 9 shares = 162 cm s1 share = 18 cm 10 shares = 180 cm 2 3 4 5 Model the problem by comparing the ratio to the known information. . we say the ratio has been fully simpliﬁed. Write the question. The ratio is then easier to use in solving problems. Divide by 9 to ﬁnd 1 share.70 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course A ratio can be simpliﬁed by dividing each quantity by the highest common factor (HCF). When this is done.60:$2. WORKED Example 20 Fully simplify the following ratios. WORKED Example 21 Jane and Brooke’s heights are in the ratio 9:10.10 c 3 m:80 cm THINK a b 1 2 1 2 3 WRITE a 24:32 3:4 b $3. we can use them to compare quantities. Divide by the HCF (30). Give a written answer. If Jane is 162 cm tall.

To divide a quantity in a given ratio. 3. 5. Write down the whole ratio. we calculate the value of one share before calculating each part of the ratio. Ratios can be simpliﬁed by dividing each part by the highest common factor (HCF). A ratio is a comparison of two quantities of the same type. Zhong receives 5 shares so multiply 1 share by 5. a What is the ratio of these investments? b If the business makes a proﬁt of $33 000 in the ﬁrst year. Divide $33 000 by 11 to ﬁnd 1 share. . both quantities need to be in the same unit. To be compared. Zhong invests $25 000 and Hasam invests $30 000. how much should each of the partners receive? THINK a b 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 WRITE a $25 000:$30 000 5:6 b 11 shares = $33 000 s1 share = $3000 5 shares = $15 000 6 shares = $18 000 Zhong’s share is $15 000 and Hasam’s share is $18 000. Sum the parts and make this equal to $33 000. remember 1. 2. Hasam receives 6 shares so multiply 1 share by 6.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 71 WORKED Example 22 Zhong and Hasam invest money in a business. To do most ratio problems you will need to know your basic measurement facts. 4. Give a written answer. Divide by the HCF (5000).

the ratio of syrup to water is 2:15. what did she score in Maths? A 49% B 63% C 64% D 72% 11 Tom and Rachael divide $1000 in the ratio 7:3. how many girls are there? 5 In a school. the ratio of Liberal members to Labor members is 4:3. how many hours does each person work? .50 w 3.6 km:800 m 2 multiple choice The ratio 3 h:45 min fully simpliﬁed is: A 3:45 B 1:15 3 multiple choice The ratio 80 cm:2 km fully simpliﬁed is: A 40:1 B 1:2500 C 2:5 C 180:45 et WORKED D 4:1 D 1:125 Example 21 4 The ratio of boys to girls in a class is 5:4. If there are 63 Labor members of the Parliament. If the school has 60 teachers. what does the female elephant weigh? 7 In a cordial mixture. If she scored 56% in English. If their job is a 35 hour per week job. how many Liberal members are there? 10 multiple choice In her yearly exams. a How much water must be added to a 1 litre bottle of syrup? b How much cordial will this mixture make? 8 In a cricket match. how many did Australia make? 9 In Parliament. If the male elephant weighs 1400 kg. the ratio of students to teachers is 35:2.25 L:500 mL 3 t:450 kg HEET 2. If there are 15 boys in the class. how many students attend the school? 6 The ratio of the weight of a male elephant to a female elephant is 10:9. the ratio of Australia’s score to England’s score is 5:3. the ratio of Rita’s Maths mark to her English mark was 8:7. If England made 192 runs.72 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 2F SkillS Using ratios c f i l o r u x 300 g:800 g 375 mL:500 mL 800 mm:550 mm $1:60c 40 min:1 h 900 L:3 kL 1.6 Simplifying ratios WORKED Example 20 EXCE reads L Sp he Ratios 1 Fully simplify each of the following ratios. How much should each receive? 12 Natalie and Kathy share a job in the ratio 3:2. a $20:$4 b 50 cm:45 cm d 560 km:240 km e 35 t:21 t g 15c:80c h 4 weeks:52 weeks j 1250 mL:300 mL k 80 cm:1 m m 1 kg:250 g n 400 mL:1 L p $4:20c q 750 kg:2 t s 3 min:45 s t 600 g:10 kg v $10:$6.

If we want to ﬁll a 9 litre bucket with the punch. a Simplify the ratio of gold:silver:bronze medals. How many Collingwood supporters are at the game? 15 multiple choice A fruit punch drink is to be made for a party. The entry costs $24. a What is the ratio of Australian music to overseas music played during this hour? b If during a week this ratio is maintained. The goals were scored by the goal shooter and the goal attack in the ratio 7:2.9 L B 2. The ratio of Sydney supporters to Collingwood supporters is 11:5. b If at the Olympic Games medals were won in the same ratio.7 L C 3L D 5L 16 A radio station plays 14 songs in one hour.50 and Kevin the rest. how many tracks by Australian artists will be played if a total of 2100 tracks are played? WORKED Example 17 Sandra and Kevin purchase a Lotto entry.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 73 13 In a game of netball a team scored 45 goals. how much pineapple juice will be needed? A 0. It consists of orange juice. How much of each component will be needed to make 150 kg of concrete? 19 At the Commonwealth Games. how many gold medals would be won if Australia won a total of 33 medals? 20 Monica and Vicky share a two bedroom ﬂat. cement and gravel in the ratio 3:2:1. how much should each receive? 18 A concrete mix is made from sand.2 . Of these. a What is the ratio of the area of Vicky’s bedroom to Monica’s? b The rent on this ﬂat is $180 per week and they agree that the rent should be split in the ratio of their bedroom areas.80. 22 a How much does Kevin put towards the cost of the Lotto entry? b What is the ratio of their contributions? c If the entry wins a prize of $640 000 and they agree to share the winnings in the same ratio as their contributions. pineapple juice and apple juice in the ratio 5:3:2. Monica’s bedroom has an area of 15 m2. Australia won 60 gold. How many goals were scored by the goal attack? 14 A game of AFL at the Telstra Stadium attracts a crowd of 80 000 people. Sandra puts in $15. while Vicky’s has an area of 12 m2. 4 are by Australian artists. 75 silver and 30 bronze medals. How much should they each contribute to the rent? Work T SHEE 2.

• When more than one percentage change is to be done. we move the decimal point between the ﬁrst two non-zero digits and multiply by the negative power of 10 corresponding to the number of places the decimal point has moved to the right. 100 cm = 1 m. and this is done by dividing each part by the highest common factor. 1000 kg = 1 t • Measures of capacity:1000 mL = 1 L. • Ratios often need to be simpliﬁed. we compare the ﬁrst quantity with one unit of the second quantity. we add the parts of the ratio to ﬁnd the total number of shares. Each part of the ratio can then be calculated by multiplying this by the number of shares in each part. Rates • A rate is a comparison of two quantities of different types. • For positive numbers less than one. Every measuring instrument is limited in the degree of accuracy that it allows. • Many problems involve using rates and these questions must be read carefully to determine whether to multiply or divide to solve the problem. The maximum error is half the degree of accuracy used. Percentage change • Percentage change involves increasing or decreasing an amount by a percentage. 1000 m = 1 km • Measures of mass:1000 g = 1 kg. • To simplify a rate.74 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course summary Units of measurement • Measures of length:10 mm = 1 cm. • For numbers greater than one. we move the decimal point between the ﬁrst two digits and multiply by the power of 10 corresponding to the number of places the decimal point has moved to the left. Scientiﬁc notation • Scientiﬁc notation is a method for writing very large and very small measurements. A true gauge of the accuracy of a measurement is to calculate the maximum error as a percentage of the measurement we have taken. then divide the quantity by this number to ﬁnd the value of one share. • When a quantity needs to be divided in a given ratio. 1000 L = 1 kL Relative error • • • • All measurements are approximations. Ratios • A ratio is a comparison of two quantities of the same type. . each must be carried out separately.

a measurement and its degree of accuracy are given. correct to the nearest 100 km d 2. how much under the capacity is the total weight? 3 In each of the following.3 tonnes.50 for 10 L b 80 km in 2 h d 3 h for 2 kg kg c 3.84 kg = g 12. the refrigerator is sold at a discount of 10%. 12 Simplify each of the following ratios.005 874 g 6 Copy and complete each of the following. correct to 1 decimal place c 500 km.27/L. How far will it travel in 7 hours at this rate? 9 Eric earns $12. correct to 2 decimal places e 800 km.9 cm = mm g 9000 g = kg h 9500 kg = t j 11 000 L = kL k 4550 mL = L m 300 s = min n 240 min = h p 4 days = h q 4 years = days c f i l o r 6. How many hours does he need to work to earn more than $400? 10 If petrol costs $1. a 34 cm. correct to the nearest 10 km 4 For each of the measurements in question 3.1 × 107 g = 7 Simplify each of the following rates. how much petrol can be bought for $40? 11 The cost of a refrigerator is $900. State the limits between which the measurement lies.2 × 105 cm = mm b 9.7 km = m 11. The price is then increased by the manufacturer by 10%.45 × 107 t = c $42 for 5 h kg 2A 2B 2B 2C 2C 2D 2D 2D 2D 2E 2F 8 A car is travelling at 90 km/h. a 90 mm = cm b 6m= cm d 4800 m = km e 6. a 5.8739 t f 0. 5 Write each of the following measurements in scientiﬁc notation. If 18 people who each weigh an average of 66 kg are on the elevator. correct to the nearest centimetre b 8. Calculate the sale price of the refrigerator.Chapter 2 Units of measurement 75 CHAPTER review 1 Copy and complete each of the following. a 60 000 000 km b 400 000 mm c 147 000 000 m d 643 000 t e 0.9 kg.25 m = cm 4.45/h.002 874 mL h 0.25 L. ﬁnd the degree of accuracy as a percentage. When on sale. a 9:12 b 64:48 d 40 min:25 min e $5:80c g 40 min:3 h h 600 g:2 kg c 90 m:150 m f 500 m:3 km .8 L = mL 96 h = days 5 years = months 2A 2 An elevator has a capacity of 1. correct to 1 decimal place. a $2.000 574 g g 0.

a State this length in metres. d The width of the house is given as 8000 mm. the girth is: A 1. 7 At a certain point in the orbit of the planets Earth and Mars.76 2F 2F 2F Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 13 Jane and Allan share an amount of money in the ratio 5:3. What would be the mass of 1 mL of water? A 1g B 10 g C 100 g D unknown 2 multiple choice A tree’s height is measured to be 17. correct to 1 decimal place. Daryl calculates the area of the house as 164 000 000 mm2. If the height of the tree is 26. Calculate the speed of the spacecraft in kilometres per hour. Yasmin paid $3. In scientiﬁc notation this is equal to: A 4. b Calculate the percentage error when the distance is rounded to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. a What is the ratio of their investments in the ticket? b If the ticket won $250 000. correct to 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.50 for the ticket.3 m.50 and Carrie paid $1.56 × 104 D 4.56 × 10−5 C 4. what is Allan’s share? 14 Divide $2000 in the ratio 3:7.56 × 10−4 B 4.7% C 2. If Jane’s share of the money is $600.000 045 6 mm.9% D 17% 3 multiple choice The diameter of a human hair is 0. how much should each receive? Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice One litre of water has a mass of 1 kg.5 km/min 5 multiple choice The ratio of a tree’s height to its girth is 15:4. Give this measurement in scientiﬁc notation.3% B 1.5625 m C 7m D 98. c The spacecraft takes 2 years to travel to Mars. Give the percentage error correct to 1 signiﬁcant ﬁgure.56 × 105 4 multiple choice Which of the following is the greatest speed? A 100 km/h B 30 m/s C 1. 15 Yasmin and Carrie purchase a lottery ticket for $5. correct to 1 decimal place. The maximum percentage error in the measurement of the tree is: A 0.25 m.75 m B 6. b Daryl measures the length of the house in metres. the distance for a spacecraft to travel from Earth to Mars is 55 750 450 km. a Give this distance correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. c Calculate the maximum percentage error in Daryl’s measurement. State the maximum error of his measurement in millimetres.4375 m 6 On a set of building plans the length of a rectangular house is given as 20 500 mm. D 2500 km/day CHAPTER test yourself 2 .

Applications of area and volume 3 syllabus reference Measurement 2 • Applications of area and volume In this chapter 3A Review of area 3B Calculating irregular areas from a ﬁeld diagram 3C Solid shapes 3D Surface area 3E Volume of a prism 3F Volume of other solids .

5 Converting units of volume 4 Complete each of the following. a 6. .2 Converting units of area 2 Complete each of the following. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy.areyou 3.7 m 3.2 m d 3.6 5 Calculate the volume of the ﬁgures drawn in question 3. triangles and circles READY? b 0. If you have difﬁculty with any of them.7 m 11. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. Area of squares.6 m 1 Find the area of each of the following.3 Surface area of cubes and rectangular prisms 3 Find the surface area of: a b 8 cm 12 cm 19 cm 9 cm 3.1 Are you ready? Try the questions below. a 2 cm2 = ___ mm2 b 300 000 cm2 = ___ m2 c 50 000 m2 = ___ ha 3.5 m c 3. rectangles. a 2 cm3 = ___ mm3 Volume of cubes and rectangular prisms b 3 000 000 cm3 = ___ m3 c 5000 mm3 = ___ cm3 3.3 m 5.

25 m2 8. For example. WORKED Example 1 Find the area of the square at right. Rectangles The formula for the area of a rectangle is A = l × b where l = length and b = breadth. Square The formula for the area of a square is A = s2 where s represents the side length of the square. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE A = s2 A = 8. Calculate the area. The exception to this rule is hectares the hectare (ha).Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 79 Review of area Area is a measure of the amount of space km2 within a closed shape.5 m Write the formula.52 A = 72. 1 -2 × b × h where b is the base of the . Triangles The formula for the area of a triangle is A = triangle and h is the perpendicular height. A square unit is a space equal to that of a square with that particular side length. Substitute the length and the breadth. × 10 000 ÷ 10 000 100 mm2 = 1 cm2 m2 10 000 cm2 = 1 m2 × 10 000 ÷ 10 000 10 000 m2 = 1 ha cm2 1 000 000 m2 = 1 km2 = 100 ha × 100 ÷ 100 mm2 To convert between units we can use the ﬂow chart at right. a square centimetre is the amount of space contained within a square with each side 1 cm. Substitute the side length. Most common shapes have a formula that we can use to ﬁnd the area of that shape. THINK 1 2 3 19 mm WRITE A=l×b A = 62 × 19 A = 1178 mm2 62 mm Write the formula. Calculate the area. WORKED Example 2 Find the area of the rectangle at right. Area is expressed in × 1 000 000 ÷ 10 000 square units.

b = parallel sides. b 1 2 3 ×D×d × 18 × 26 A = 234 m2 c A= A= 1 -2 1 -2 c 1 2 3 × (a + b) × h × (5.2 A = 62. Calculate the area. Write the formula.80 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 3 Find the area of the triangle at right. Substitute the sides and height. rhombuses and trapeziums. ×b×h × 12. Calculate the area.2 cm 18 m 26 m THINK a 1 2 3 WRITE a A=b×h A = 14 × 9 A = 126 m2 b A= A= 1 -2 1 -2 Write the formula.4 cm c 5.4 12. h = height) WORKED Example 4 Find the area of each of the following shapes. Calculate the area.4) × 7.8 cm A = 60.4 cm Write the formula. .28 cm2 You should have seen all of these formulas in Years 7–10. Calculate the area.9 + 11. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE A= A= 1 -2 1 -2 9. h = height) Area of a rhombus Area of a trapezium A= A= 1 -2 1 -2 ×D×d × (a + b) × h (D. Write the formula.16 cm2 Other quadrilaterals Formulas are also used to ﬁnd the area of parallelograms. Substitute the diagonal lengths. Area of a parallelogram A = b × h (b = base. Substitute the base and the height.8 × 9. a b 9m 14 m 11. d = diagonals) (a. Substitute the base and height.9 cm 7. You will be expected to know these formulas in your exams as they will not be given to you on your formula sheet.

7 km 9m Area of a rectangle c 47 cm 62 cm 3. Rectangle 3.1 SkillS HEET 3A WORKED Review of area c Area of squares.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 81 remember You will need to remember each of the following area formulas.9 m WORKED Example 2 GC 2 Find the area of each of the rectangles below.6 km L Spre XCE ad sheet ry met 2. Trapezium A = s2 A=l×b A= A= A= A=b×h 1 -2 1 -2 1 -2 ×b×h ×D×d × (a + b) × h 3.3 m WORKED Example 3 3 Find the area of each of the triangles below.2 km 49. triangles and circles Example 1 1 Find the area of each of the squares below. a b 12 m 6.85 m am progr –C asio Mensuration d e f program GC –TI 6.4 cm 9m c Perimeter and area Cabri Geo E L Spre XCE ad sheet ry met 76 mm 82 mm Area of a triangle . rectangles.2 Converting units of area SkillS HEET 8 cm 29 mm d e 3. a b 3. Rhombus 6. Triangle 4.7 cm f 12. 1.5 cm Area converter (DIY) Cabri Geo E 3. a b 3m 27 mm 38 mm 2.4 m Mensuration 34 m 6. Square 2. Parallelogram 5.2 cm 9.

2 m 14 .2 m 5.7 m Cabr omet i Ge ry WORKED Example Area of a parallelogram 4a 4 Find the area of each of the parallelograms below.8 km 16.6 cm 5.9 km WORKED e 38 mm 87 mm f 80 cm 8m Example 4b 5 Find the area of each of the rhombuses below.2 5k 3m 39 cm 25 .25 Cabr omet i Ge ry WORKED Example Area of a trapezium 4c 6 Find the area of each of the trapeziums below.5 cm 3.4 cm .3 m d 12.4 m f 9.8 m m d e 20.7 m e 6.7 m 31 m 4 m 7m m m 8.4 m d 1m 12 m 9m e 2. a b 26 mm 3m 4m 7m 97 mm 58 mm c 3.9 m km f 10.6 m 8.65 m 0.2 m 9.4 km f 3.8 m 3.3 km 8.8 m 9. a b 6m 12 m 36 cm 17 cm c 7. a b c 15 c 9c m 7.82 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course d 4.

The lounge is rectangular with a length of 7.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 83 7m 7 Look at the ﬁgure at right. a Find the area of the outer rectangle.2 m and a width of 4. The rectangle and parallelogram have equal areas. Carpet costs $27.80/m2. b Calculate the cost of carpeting the room. a Calculate the area of the lounge room. Statement 2. c Find the shaded area by subtracting the area of the inner rectangle from the area of the outer rectangle. The rectangle and parallelogram have equal perimeters. 8 Find the shaded area in each of the following. . b Find the area of the inner rectangle. a b 14 m 8m 10 m 16 m 5 cm 5 cm 9 cm 3 m 12 m 20 m c 3m 8m 5m 9m 10 m d 8m 8m 12 m 12 m 9 multiple choice The area of the triangle at right is: A 36 cm2 B 54 cm2 2 C 108 cm D 1620 cm2 15 cm 12 cm 9 cm 10 multiple choice Which of the two statements is correct for the two shapes at right? 19 cm 38 cm 19 cm 38 cm Statement 1.8 m. A Statement 1 B Statement 2 C Both statements D Neither statement 11 multiple choice The area of the ﬁgure at right is: A 54 m2 B 165 m2 2 C 225 m D 255 m2 17 m 15 m 7m 15 m 12 Len is having his lounge room carpeted.

If Farmer Brown still uses 1000 m of fencing. b Find the area of the garden. She has 1000 m of fencing with which to build this paddock. only three sides need to be fenced. A concrete path 1. What dimensions should Farmer Brown build the paddock so it has the maximum possible area? 2 If one side of the paddock is a river.84 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 13 A rectangular garden in a park is 15 m long and 12 m wide. If she builds it 200 m long and 300 m wide. the area will be 40 000 m2.5 m wide is to be laid around the garden. Use the spreadsheet to ﬁnd the maximum area of the paddock. what dimensions should she now make the paddock to maximise the area? It is possible for you to set up a spreadsheet that will calculate the area of a rectangle and substitute different values for the length and width of the paddock. c What are the dimensions of the rectangle formed by the path? d Find the area of concrete needed for the path. the area will be 60 000 m2. 1 If Farmer Brown builds the paddock 100 m long and 400 m wide. Maximising an area of land Farmer Brown needs to build a paddock for her sheep to graze. . a Draw a diagram of the garden and the path.

C 100 The results of a traverse survey are displayed in a ﬁeld diagram. a diagonal (traverse) is constructed between two corners of the block. In this survey. called an offset. At the sides are the measurements from the diagonal to the corners. The measurements through the centre of the ﬁeld diagram are the points at which the offsets are taken. as shown on the following page. The diagonal is then measured. .Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 85 Calculating irregular areas from a ﬁeld diagram Surveyors are often required to draw scale diagrams and to calculate the area of irregularly shaped blocks of land. Each of these lines. These offsets then divide the block into triangles and quadrilaterals. B 45 75 40 70 D 20 30 E 0 A The ﬁeld diagram can then be drawn as a scale diagram and the area calculated. hence we can calculate the area. 100 metres is the length of the diagonal. This is done using a traverse survey. From this diagonal each other corner is sighted at right angles to the diagonal. is measured.

2.5 + 562.5 + 600 + 1750 + 300 = 4900 m2 When you draw a scale diagram of the block of land. A ﬁeld diagram can be used to make a scale drawing of the land. THINK a 1 2 WRITE a A2 B 45 3 4 Draw a 100 mm line. Write all measurements on your diagram. 3.86 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 5 Use the ﬁeld diagram on the previous page to: a draw a scale diagram of the ﬁeld (use 1 mm = 1 m) b calculate the area of the ﬁeld. The land can be broken up into triangles and quadrilaterals. C 25 5 50 A3 40 D A4 A1 20 30 E A5 A b 1 Calculate the area of the four triangles and the trapezium.5 m = 600 m2 1 -2 1 -2 × (a + b) × h × (40 + 30) × 50 A5 = = ×b×h × 20 × 30 2 Add the areas together. you can use measurement to ﬁnd the perimeter. . = 1750 m2 = 300 m2 Area = 1687. Calculate the area of the land. remember 1. Join all corners of the ﬁeld. Draw a scale diagram of the area of land.5 m 1 -2 1 -2 = 562. Find the perimeter of the block. Land survey 1 2 3 4 Find an area of land in or near your school and conduct a traverse survey of it. b A1 = = A4 = = 1 -2 1 -2 ×b×h × 75 × 45 2 A2 = = 1 -2 1 -2 ×b×h × 25 × 45 2 A3 = 1 -2 2 ×b×h -= 1 × 30 × 40 = 1687. The area can then be calculated. A traverse survey is used to calculate the area of irregularly shaped blocks of land. Draw in all offsets at the appropriate points on the traverse line.

B 50 25 40 Example 5 15 20 0 A D 2 For the ﬁeld diagram shown at right: a Draw a scale diagram of the block of land using the scale 1 mm = 1 m.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 87 3B WORKED Calculating irregular areas from a ﬁeld diagram C 1 At right is a surveyor’s ﬁeld diagram of a block of land. D 80 C 42 65 40 28 E B 35 10 0 A 3 Use the ﬁeld diagrams below to calculate the area of each block of land. a b c C D D 70 C B 75 23 70 40 30 20 20 0 A E C 100 30 90 50 30 E F 40 40 30 15 0 A D B B 30 40 20 0 A . using the scale 1 mm = 1 m. a Draw a scale diagram of the block of land. b Calculate the area of the block of land. c Use measurement to ﬁnd the perimeter. b Calculate the area of the block of land.

10 Using your answer to question 9.9 4. . 3 Calculate the side length of a square with an area of 49 cm2. 6 Calculate the area of the parallelogram below.9 m 7 Calculate the area of the rhombus below. 4 A rectangle has a length of 7 m and an area of 84 m2. 2 Calculate the area of a rectangle with a length of 14. cm 8.7 m. Calculate the breadth of the rectangle. 1.7 m. copy and complete the following: 1 cm2 = mm2.7 cm.88 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 1 1 Find the area of a square with a side length of 4.7 m and a height of 0.5 cm and a breadth of 9.5 cm 8 Calculate the area of the trapezium below.7 m 9. 17 mm 12 mm 39 mm 9 Calculate the area of a square with a side length of 10 mm. 5 Calculate the area of a triangle with a base of 4.

A prism is a solid shape with a constant cross-section. usually a polygon. WORKED Example 7 Name the pyramid at right. each of which is a square. A prism is named according to the shape of its base. the shape seen will be identical to the base. This means that if the solid is sliced parallel to the base of the prism. The net of a solid shape is how the shape would look if it were unfolded and laid ﬂat. WORKED Example 8 Use the diagram of a cube to help you draw its net. Draw the cube so that the six squares would fold up to form a cube. THINK 1 2 WRITE The cube has six faces. classify and draw 3-dimensional (solid) shapes. THINK The base shape is a square. We also need to be able to recognise.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 89 Solid shapes So far in this chapter we have dealt with 2-dimensional (plane) shapes. WRITE Square pyramid A solid can also be identiﬁed by its net. . A pyramid is also named according to the shape of its base. Most of the solid shapes that we will be dealing with in this chapter can be classiﬁed as either prisms or pyramids. THINK The shape has a common cross-section and the shape of the base is a triangle. WORKED Example 6 Name the prism at right. WRITE Triangular prism Pyramids have a plane shape as their base and have triangular sides that meet in an apex.

3. A pyramid is a solid shape with a base and triangular sides that meet in an apex. This point is best found by drawing the shape on isometric paper. the sides should slightly converge so that if they were extended they would meet at a similar vanishing point. This can best be done by using isometric paper. A prism is a solid shape where any cross-section parallel to the base is a polygon which is identical to that base shape. 4. 2. The net of a solid is how that shape would look if it were unfolded and ﬂattened. The point on the horizon where they appear to meet is called the vanishing point. When drawing a solid shape. they appear to get closer together. remember 1. . As you can see.90 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Imagine looking at a pair of railway tracks like those in the photograph below. Solid shapes when drawn in perspective converge on a vanishing point.

6 WORKED Example 2 Name the pyramid at right. a b c 4 Draw your own example of a prism and a pyramid. a b c ii ii iii .Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 91 3C WORKED Solid shapes Example 1 Name the prism at right. . 6 Name each solid in the top row then match it with a net in the bottom row. 7 3 Name each of the shapes below. Use the diagram to help you draw the 8 net of the rectangular prism. WORKED Example 5 Below is a diagram of a rectangular prism.

the surface area of a solid needs to be calculated by adding the area of each face separately. Surface area is measured in square units as are 2-dimensional area problems.94 cm2 4. a cube b rectangular prism c triangular prism d square pyramid Surface area Area usually refers to the space inside a 2-dimensional shape. a b c 8 Identify the solids from the nets below.92 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 7 Draw the net of each of the following solids.32 SA = 110. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE SA = 6s2 SA = 6 × 4. Each pair of opposite faces are equal. each of which is a square. Substitute the side length. a b c Work T SHEE 3.1 9 Draw an example of each of the following on isometric paper and on your diagram mark the vanishing point. Draw the solid in your book.3 cm Write the formula. In general. Surface area refers to the total area occupied by the faces of a 3-dimensional shape. Rectangular prism h Consider a rectangular prism with a length of l. l a breadth of b and a height of h. Using the formula for a rectangle: Front and back A=l×h Top and bottom A=l×b Left and right A=b×h b . we have the formula for the surface area (SA) of a cube: SA = 6s2 s WORKED Example 9 Find the surface area of the cube at right. Cube A cube has six identical faces. Consider a cube of side length s. However. Calculate the surface area. for some solids there is a unique formula. Therefore. Each face can have its area calculated using the formula A = s2.

7) SA = 173.02 m2 For other solid shapes the surface area is found by adding the area of each face separately.7 + 4.) Calculate the total surface area. 2 Calculate the area of a triangular side.3 × 9. (Note: Each side is identical and the height of each triangular side is 5 cm.7 m 3.2 m THINK 1 2 3 WRITE 4.) A= 2 1 -2 ×6×5 3 A = 15 cm2 SA = 36 + 4 × 15 SA = 96 cm2 You will be expected to know these formulas for surface area as well. . breadth and height. Substitute the length. (Note: There are 4 identical triangular sides. THINK 1 5 cm 4 cm 6 cm WRITE A=s A = 62 A = 36 cm2 -A= 1 ×b×h 2 Calculate the area of the square base. WORKED Example 11 Find the surface area of the square pyramid at right. 9. Calculate the surface area.3 m Write the formula.2 × 9. They do not appear on your formula sheet.2 + 3.3 × 3.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 93 Adding these gives the formula for the surface area of a rectangular prism: SA = 2(lh + lb + bh) WORKED Example 10 Find the surface area of the rectangular prism at right. SA = 2(lh + lb + bh) SA = 2(4.

The surface area of a solid shape is the total area of each face of the shape.3 Surface area of cubes and rectangular prisms WORKED Example 9 1 Find the surface area of each of the cubes below. The surface area of a cube or rectangular prism can be found using the formulas: Cube: SA = 6s2 Rectangular prism: SA = 2(lh × lb × bh) 3.5 m long.8 m high. Calculate the surface area of the box.5 m 2.2 m wide and 0. 4 Calculate the surface area of an open box in the shape of a cube. a b c 3m 7m 4m 7. a b 5 cm 9 cm 32 cm SkillS HEET 3.8 m Example 10 2 Find the surface area of each of the following rectangular prisms.1 cm 3.5 m 3. 2. 3D SkillS Surface area c HEET 3. The box is to be 2.94 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course remember 1.5 m 12 cm 42 cm 21 cm d 4 cm 4.4 Surface area of triangular prisms WORKED d 2.9 cm e f 20 cm 13 cm 14 cm 42 mm 7 mm 7 mm 3 Oliver is making a box in the shape of a rectangular prism. (Hint: Since the box is open there are only ﬁve faces. with a side length of 75 cm.7 cm e f 62 mm 2.) . The surface area of any other shape is found by adding the area of each face of the shape. 1.

Calculate the number of tiles needed. d Calculate the area to be painted white.25 m2. 5 cm 4 cm 3 cm 2 cm 10 Calculate the surface area of the prism below. The surface area of the larger cube will be: A twice the surface area of the smaller cube B four times the surface area of the small cube C six times the surface area of the small cube D eight times the surface area of the small cube 9 Calculate the surface area of the triangular prism below. The ﬂoor is 5 m long and 3. The ﬂoor is to be covered with slate tiles. b Each tile is 0.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 95 5 A room is in the shape of a rectangular prism. How many litres of paint are needed to paint the room? WORKED Example 6 Calculate the surface area of the square pyramid at right. Calculate the surface area. The room has a ceiling 2.5 m high. 3. the walls are to be painted blue and the roof is to be painted white. e One litre of paint covers an area of 2 m2. 11 13 cm 10 cm 7 A triangular based pyramid has four equal sides as shown at right. c Calculate the area to be painted blue.5 cm 8 multiple choice 4 cm Two cubes are drawn such that the side length on the second cube is double the side length on the ﬁrst cube.2 m 1m 2m 6m 4m . 3. a Calculate the area to be tiled.5 m wide.

96 m 56 m 32 m Name the solids below. 10 cm 6 cm 8 cm 20 cm 10 Find the surface area of the square pyramid below.4 m and a breadth of 1. a breadth of 5 cm and a height of 6 cm.96 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 2 1 Calculate the area of a rectangle with a length of 0. 6 cm 8 cm . 9c m 8 Find the surface area of a rectangular prism with a length of 8 cm. 3 Calculate the area of the trapezium at right. 9 Find the surface area of the triangular prism below.1 m. 2 Calculate the area of a triangle with a base of 12.3 m and a height of 4.8 m. 4 5 6 7 Find the surface area of the cube shown at left.

Substitute the area of the base and the height. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE V=A×h V = 63 × 5 V = 315 cm3 Write the formula. V=A×h V = s2 × s since A = s2 for a square. When prisms are drawn. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE V = s3 V = 6. A = 63 cm2 5 cm For some prisms we can develop a more speciﬁc formula for volume.8 cm Write the formula. Calculate the volume. Exploring the volume of a prism Build the prism that has been drawn above. they are usually drawn lying down so that we can see the base. The height of the prism is 3 cm. the height and ﬁnd the volume. Cube The front face of the cube is a square of side length s and the height is s. We can see by counting squares that the area of the base is 15 cm2. without separately calculating the area of the base. Build other prisms and count the area of the base. Calculate the volume.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 97 Volume of a prism The volume of a solid shape is the amount of space within that shape. Show that the volume can be found by multiplying the area of the front face (base) by the height perpendicular to the front face.432 cm3 6. Substitute the side length. . Count the number of cubes that have been used to build the prism. V = s3 This becomes the formula used for the volume of a cube. Consider the prism at right which has been built with cubes with sides of 1 cm. Hence.83 V = 314. s WORKED Example 13 Find the volume of the cube at right. using the above example we can see that the volume of a prism can be calculated using the formula: V=A×h where A is the area of the base and h is the height. and if we count the remaining cubes we ﬁnd that the volume of the prism is 57 cm3. WORKED Example 12 Calculate the volume of the prism at right.

Calculate the volume. h l b WORKED Example 14 Calculate the volume of the rectangular prism at right.412 × 1000 Capacity = 41 412 L Write the formula.8 m.3 m and a height of 7. Cylinders A cylinder can be considered to be a circular prism. Capacity refers to the amount of liquid that a container holds. Calculate the capacity by multiplying the volume by 1000. breadth and height. litres and kilolitres. Substitute the length.8 V ≈ 41. Capacity is measured in millilitres. Substituting into the formula: V=A×h V = l × b × h since A = l × b. The symbol indicates that this formula will be on the HSC exam formula sheet. a breadth of b and a height of h. THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE V = π r 2h V = π × (1. THINK 1 2 3 12 mm 47 mm 29 mm WRITE V=l×b×h V = 47 × 29 × 12 V = 16 356 mm3 Write the formula. . Substituting into h the formula r V=A×h V = π r 2h since for a circle A = π r 2.98 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Rectangular prism Now consider a rectangular prism with a length of l. We also need to be aware of the relationship between volume and capacity. Calculate the volume in m3. WORKED Example 15 Find the capacity of a cylinder with a radius of 1. A volume of 1 cm3 = 1 mL and 1 m3 = 1000 L. to calculate the volume we calculate the area of the base ﬁrst and then use the formula V = A × h. Consider the cylinder at right with a radius of r and a height of h.3)2 × 7. For any other prism.412 m3 Capacity = 41. Substitute the radius and the height.

The volume of a prism is found using the formula V = A × h. the volume is found by ﬁrst calculating the area of the base. The capacity of a container can be calculated using: 1 cm3 = 1 mL and 1 m3 = 1000 L 3E WORKED Volume of a prism 3. V=A×h A = 22.12 × 1. a A = 24 cm2 5 cm A = 19 cm2 12 cm HEET 12 b 3. Calculate the volume.93 mm2 f A = 77. .2 A = 26.7 cm L Spre XCE ad sheet Volume 2 A prism has a base area of 74.5 c Converting units of volume A = 57 cm2 4 cm SkillS Example 1 Calculate the volume of each of the solids below. Substitute the area and the height. Calculate the volume.544 cm3 remember 1. ×b×h × 5. Special volume formulas can be used for: Cube: V = s3 Rectangular prism: V = l × b × h Cylinder: V = π r 2h.9 5.6 × 7. 3.5 m2 and a height of 3.1 m.9 cm 1.6 cm A = 22.2 cm Calculate the area of the triangular base.7 cm2 7.2 m A = 27.9 m2 e 18 mm A = 15.12 cm2 2 3 4 Write the volume formula. 4. THINK 1 WRITE A= A= 1 -2 1 -2 7. then using the formula V = A × h. 2. For other prisms.6 Volume of cubes and rectangular prisms E SkillS HEET d 9.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 99 WORKED Example 16 Calculate the volume of the triangular prism at right.

5 m 9 mm 9 mm WORKED Example 5 Calculate the volume of each of the cylinders below.5 m 20.4 m 13 m 13 b c d 29 mm e f 8.2 m 5. a 3 cm 6 cm 4 cm 42 mm 6.7 m 4.100 WORKED Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Example 3 Calculate the volume of each of the cubes below.2 m 4. a 5 cm 2.5 cm f 3 mm 25 cm 47 cm . correct to 1 decimal place.5 m 16.5 m d 3.2 m e 50 mm f 12.64 m WORKED Example 4 Find the volume of each of the rectangular prisms below.3 m 13 mm 9 mm 14 b c 3. a 6 cm 12 cm 3m 15 b 12 m c 27 cm 13 cm d 9 cm 15 cm e 18.

a b 6 cm 8 cm 8 cm 3 cm 5 cm 12 cm c 3.5 m 2. a b 4 cm 4m 20 cm 16 cm 10 cm 10 cm 8m 9m c 15 cm 8 cm 12 cm 20 cm 6 cm d 3m 6m 12 m 18 m 12 m 9 multiple choice The shape at right could be described as a: A cube B square prism C rectangular prism D both B and C .5 m d 12. For each: i calculate the area of the front face ii ﬁnd the volume of the prism. a b 15 m 5m 5m 5m 15 m 20 m 10 m c 19 m 12 m 10 m d 3.4 cm 8 In each of the following. the prism’s front face is made up of a composite ﬁgure.1 cm 1.2 m 7.7 m 3.8 m 7 Find the volume of each of the following prisms by ﬁrst calculating the area of the front face.4 m 1.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 101 WORKED Example 16 6 For each of the following triangular prisms ﬁnd: i the area of the front face ii the volume of the prism.7 cm 2.

a Find the volume of the refrigerator in cm3.12 cm2 D 124. The internal dimensions of the prism are 60 cm by 60 cm by 140 cm. 16 A rectangular roof is 14 m long and 8 m wide. correct to 3 decimal places b the capacity of the tank. b The capacity of a refrigerator is measured in litres. The tank is cylindrical in shape.1 m. Find the capacity of the semitrailer in m3.27 cm3 C 124. Calculate the volume of 15 m concrete needed for the slab. in litres? d By how much does the depth of water in the tank rise when the rain falls? Answer in centimetres. 14 A petrol tanker is shown at right. The volume of the prism is: A 38. The radius of the tank is 2 m and the length is 12 m.8 m and is 2. Calculate: a the volume of the tank.4 m high. 13 A semi-trailer is 15 m long. 2.5 m wide and 2. the water is collected in a cylindrical tank. a Calculate the area of the slab.50/m3 to lay. to the nearest 100 litres. and the height is 3. (Hint: Write 10 cm as 0. When it rains.27 cm2 B 38.67 cm2.812 cm3 11 multiple choice The dimensions of a rectangular prism are all doubled. (1 m3 = 1000 L).7 m high. b How many litres of water does the roof collect? c The cylindrical tank has a radius of 1.5 m b The slab is to be 10 cm thick. .102 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 10 multiple choice The area of the front face of a prism is 34. ﬁnd the capacity of the refrigerator in litres.) 10 m c Concrete costs $45.6 cm. Calculate the cost of this slab. The volume of the prism will increase by a factor of: A 2 B 4 C 6 D 8 12 A refrigerator is in the shape of a rectangular prism. a Calculate the volume of water collected on the roof when 25 mm of rain falls. 2m 12 m 10 m 15 At right is a diagram of a concrete slab for a house. If 1 cm3 = 1 mL. 2. correct to 1 decimal place. What is the capacity of the tank.

V= V = 91.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 103 Volume of other solids Prisms are only one type of solid shape. Substitute the value of A and h. This leads us to the general formula for the volume of any pyramid: -V = 1 Ah 3 where A is the area of the base and h is the height of the pyramid.5 . we ﬁnd the formula for the volume of any cone. -A = π r 2 when substituted into V = 1 Ah becomes 3 -A = π r when substituted into V = 1 π r 2h 2 3 WORKED Example 18 Find the volume of the cone at right. THINK 1 2 3 8. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE -V = 1 Ah 3 7 cm Area = 45 cm2 We are given A and h.5 cm 3. Pyramids The volume of any pyramid is one-third of the volume of the corresponding prism. WORKED Example 17 Find the volume of the pyramid at right.15 cm3 3 1 -3 × π × 3.22 × 8.2 cm WRITE -V = 1 π r 2h Write the formula. Calculate the volume. By substituting the formula for the area of a circle into the general formula for the volume of a pyramid. correct to 2 decimal places. V= V = 105 cm3 1 -3 × 45 × 7 In other cases we may need to calculate the area of the base before we are able to use the general formula for the volume of a pyramid. Calculate V. Cones A cone is a circular pyramid. Substitute the radius and height. so use the general formula. In this section we ﬁnd the volume of pyramids. cones and spheres.

3 -3. The volume of a sphere is found using the formula V = 4 π r 3. THINK 1 2 3 WORKED Example 19 Write the formula. -2. where A is . The volume of a pyramid is found using the formula V = 1 Ah 3 the area of the base and h is the height. 3 . The volume of a cone is found using the formula V = 1 π r2h. To ﬁnd the volume of a sphere we need only the radius.53 remember -1. The volume is calculated using the formula: -V = 4 πr3 3 Find the volume of a sphere with a radius of 9.5 cm.104 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Spheres A sphere is a solid that looks like a ball. Calculate the volume. WRITE -V = 4 πr3 V= V = 3591 cm3 3 4 -3 × π × 9. correct to the nearest cm3. Substitute the radius.

5 m A = 13. 3 L Spre XCE ad sheet a b 6 cm 10 cm A = 30 cm2 A = 46 cm2 Volume of a cone c 14 cm d 52 mm A = 12 mm2 A = 150 cm2 .Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 105 3F WORKED Volume of other solids b Example 1 Find the volume of each of the pyramids below. calculate the volume by ﬁrst calculating the area of the base shape. a 8m 17 6m A = 25 cm2 A = 47 cm2 c 9 cm A = 62 cm2 d 2. a 8 cm 6 cm b 15 cm 14 cm 8 cm c 12 m d 8 cm 6 cm 5 cm 6m 10 m 12 cm E -3 Use the formula V = 1 Ah to ﬁnd the volume of the following cones.5 m2 2 For each of the following pyramids.

106 WORKED Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Example 18 4 Find the volume of each of the following cones.2 m 7 Calculate the volume of a sphere with a diameter of 2. correct to the nearest whole number. correct to 1 decimal place. correct to 1 decimal place.3 cm. 8 multiple choice Which of the following solids could not be described as a pyramid? A B C D 9 multiple choice A triangular pyramid and a square pyramid both have a base area of 20 cm2 and a height of 15 cm. a b 10 cm 5 cm 12 cm 12 cm c 33 mm 8 mm d 42 cm 42 cm 5 A cone has a base with a diameter of 9 cm and a height of 12 cm. Which has the greater volume? A The triangular pyramid B The square pyramid C Both have equal volume D This can’t be calculated. Answer correct to 2 decimal places. . Calculate the volume of that cone.5 m d 3. a b 6 cm 8 cm c 12. WORKED Example 19 6 Calculate the volume of each of the following spheres.

b The portion cut off was itself a cone.5 cm 8 cm Work T SHEE 3. that is. The volume of the balloon will now be: A 1000 cm3 B 2000 cm3 C 3000 cm3 D 4000 cm3 11 Find the volume of the solid at right. c Calculate the total volume of the shape. 13 The ﬁgure at right is a truncated cone. a Calculate the volume of the cone. It is then inﬂated so that the diameter of the balloon is doubled.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 107 10 multiple choice A spherical balloon has a volume of 500 cm3. d Calculate the amount of rubber (in cm3) needed to make the ball. and the rubber to be used is 1 cm thick. a cone with the top cut off. a What would be the radius of the hollow inside? b Calculate the volume of the ball. c Calculate the volume of the truncated cone.2 . c Calculate the volume of space inside the ball. Calculate its volume. b Calculate the volume of the scoop of ice-cream. a Calculate the volume of the cone before it was truncated.) 2. 15 cm 3 cm 6 cm 6 cm 4 cm 12 cm 5 cm 14 Use the same method as in question 13 to ﬁnd the volume of the truncated pyramid shown at right. containing a spherical scoop of ice-cream. Answer correct to 1 decimal place. (Hint: Only half the sphere sits above the cone. 12 A hollow rubber ball is to be made with a radius of 8 cm. 1 cm 3 cm 3 cm 15 The ﬁgure at right is of an ice-cream cone.

• Surface area formulas: Cube SA = 6s2 Rectangular prism SA = 2(lh + lb + bh) • Many solid shapes have their surface area calculated by separately calculating the area of each face. The net of a solid is what the shape would look like if it were unfolded and laid ﬂat. • Any formula without the icon you should have seen in years 7–10 and will be expected to remember. Surface area • The surface area is the total area of all faces on a solid shape. Solid shapes can be drawn on isometric paper to locate the vanishing point.× (a + b) × h 2 • Irregular areas have their area calculated using a survey. Pyramids have a plane shape as a base and triangular sides that meet in an apex. Volume • The volume is the amount of space inside a solid shape. • Any other pyramid has its volume calculated using the formula V = 1 -3 × A × h.108 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course summary Area • Area formulas that you will need to remember are: Square A = s2 Rectangle A=l×b -Triangle A= 1 ×b×h 2 Parallelogram A=b×h -Rhombus A= 1 ×D×d 2 1 Trapezium A = -. then the area is calculated. Three-dimensional shapes • • • • Prisms are solids with a constant cross-section. where A is the area of the base and h is the height. • Volume formulas that you will need: Cube V = s3 Rectangular prism V=l×b×h Cylinder V = π r 2h Cone Sphere -V = 1 π r 2h 3 3 -V = 4 πr3 • Any other prism has its volume calculated by using the formula V = A × h. a ﬁeld diagram is drawn that will allow the shape to be divided into triangles and quadrilaterals. A traverse survey is done. . as they will not appear on your formula sheet in the HSC exam.

a b 6.2 cm 74 mm c 32 mm 3A d 43 e 35 cm 15 cm 70 cm f 80 cm 3m mm 2 Find the area of each of the triangles drawn below. a b 9 cm 40 cm 15.9 cm 5. B C 95 70 25 D 3B 36 30 0 A 4 Calculate the area of the block of land represented by the ﬁeld diagram at right.5 cm 12.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 109 CHAPTER review 1 Find the area of each of the ﬁgures drawn below. a Use the scale 1 mm = 1 m to draw a scale diagram of the block of land. b Calculate the area of the block of land.3 cm 17. 82 46 45 32 37 15 26 3B 5 Name each of the solids below. a b 0 c 3C .5 cm d 40 m 35 m 3 At right is the ﬁeld diagram for a block of land.2 cm 26 m m 3A c 12.5 cm 18.

how many will be needed to complete the job? 2. 8 Find the surface area of each of the following solids. by calculating the area of each face separately and adding them. How many litres of water will it take to ﬁll the pool? (1 m3 = 1000 L) The walls and ﬂoor of the pool need to be painted.) a Calculate the area that will need to be bricked. a b c 3C 3D 7 Name the solid shape for which the net is given at right.1 m 0. 50 m 22 m 2m 1m a b c d Calculate the area of one side wall.5 m 4 cm 12 cm 3m 6 cm 5 cm 15 m 2m 3m 12 m 3D 10 Below is a diagram of an Olympic swimming pool. a b c 10 cm 5m 5m 4m 3. to calculate the volume of the pool. Calculate the area to be painted. a b 3. b If each brick is 20 cm long and 8 cm high.110 3C Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 6 Draw the net of each of the following solids. 3D 11 At right are the plans for a garage that Rob is building.2 cm 2.9 m 1.9 m 4. (Note: The garage has an iron roof and is closed at one end.5 m 3m 6m . Use the formula V = A × h.6 m 0.8 m c d 4.8 m 3D 9 Calculate the surface area of each of the ﬁgures below.

5 mm 23.5 cm 11.9 m2 15 Calculate the volume of each of the pyramids. a 25 m b 2.Chapter 3 Applications of area and volume 111 3E 12 Use the formulas to calculate the volume of each of the following cubes.8 m 29 mm 6. 3 3E 3F a 9 cm b 19 mm c 2.9 m 3F c d 19.3 m A = 16 cm2 A = 126 mm2 A = 6.6 m 4.5 mm 52 mm 19 mm e 23 mm f 70 cm .6 m 36 m 3. -14 Use the formula V = 1 Ah to calculate the volume of each of the pyramids below.2 m 7. Calculate the volume. cones and spheres below. rectangular prisms and cylinders. a b c 3.6 m d 41 cm e 13 cm 3 cm 8 cm f 18 mm 32 mm 3 cm 13 A prism has a base area of 45 cm2 and a height of 13 cm.

The height of the prism is 5 cm. I: The surface area of the cube is 64 cm2. correct to 1 decimal place. b Calculate the capacity of the cone in millilitres. Which of the above statements is correct? A I only B II only 3 multiple choice A prism and a pyramid both have a rectangular base of area 50 cm2 and have equal volumes. The height of the pyramid is: A 5 cm B 10 cm C 15 cm D 20 cm 4 The ﬁgure at right is a square pyramid.5 cm and a height of 12 cm. a Calculate the volume of the cone. Calculate the volume of the scoop. 13 cm C Both I and II D Neither I nor II 12 cm 10 cm CHAPTER test yourself 3 5 A ice-cream cone has a base radius of 2. c A scoop of ice-cream in the shape of a sphere is to sit inside the cone. II: The volume of the cube is 96 cm3. d How many scoops can be obtained from a 4 litre tub of icecream? . c Calculate the surface area of the pyramid. a Calculate the area of the base. d Draw the net of the pyramid.112 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice Which of the solids below is not a prism? A B C D 2 multiple choice A cube has a side length of 4 cm. b Calculate the volume of the pyramid.

Basic algebraic skills 4 syllabus reference Algebraic modelling 1 • Basic algebraic skills In this chapter 4A General number patterns 4B Number pattern notation 4C Adding and subtracting like terms 4D Substitution 4E Multiplication and division of algebraic expressions 4F Solving linear equations 4G Equations arising from substitution .

a 4x × 3 b 3a × 4b Dividing algebraic terms c –5k × p d 2mn × 3m 4.4 4 If x = 2 and y = 5. . . Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy.areyou 4. . 12. If you have difﬁculty with any of them. 38. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. d 16. 30. a 3g + 4g d 20x – 19x + 11 Substituting into algebraic expressions b y + 2y + 3y e 7g + 8g + 8 + 9 c 6gy – 3gy f 7h + 4t – 3h 4. 6. a x y 0 3 1 4 y = x + ___ c x y 0 3 1 7 y = 4x + ___ y = ___ – 2x 4. 7. 4. READY? 2 5 3 6 4 7 b x y 0 0 1 3 2 6 3 9 4 12 y = ___x 2 11 3 15 4 19 d x y 0 8 1 6 2 4 3 2 4 0 1 Write down the next three numbers in each of the following sequences. 2. 22.5 5 Simplify the following expressions.= 8 3 .1 Number patterns Are you ready? Try the questions below. 24.7 7 Solve each of the following equations.6 6 Simplify the following expressions. .2 2 Complete the algebraic rule for each of the following tables. . –3. Completing a formula for a table of values 4. b 12. 2. . . a x + 28 = 67 b 6x = 102 c 3x – 7 = 20 2x d ----. a 12x ÷ 4 b 15y ÷ y Solving equations c 8a ÷ 2a d –21xy ÷ 3 4. 8. evaluate each of the following. . . . .3 Adding and subtracting like terms 3 Simplify the following expressions. c 3. . a 14. a 9x b –3y c x–y e 7y – 10 f 8xy g 3x2y Multiplying algebraic terms d 2x + 5 h 6x – 2y 4.

. 45 are the next three terms. a What is each number multiplied by to get the next? b What are the next three terms in the sequence? THINK a 1 2 3 WRITE a 4 ÷ 1 = 4. WORKED Example 2 For the sequence 1. The dots at the end of a sequence indicate that the pattern can be continued indeﬁnitely. 22. 4096 Divide consecutive terms. There are also examples in which you will be asked to describe a number pattern in words. so multiply each term by 4 to get the next. each number is 4 more than the previous one. we state the ﬁrst term and then describe what is done to the previous term to get the next. b 256. 27. 21 − 15 = 6 Add 6 to each term to get the next term. Some sequences are generated by multiplication rather than addition. however. 1024. 39. In this pattern (sequence). In the sequence above. Give a written answer. . the ﬁrst term is 6. 10. WORKED Example 1 For the number pattern 9. all number patterns (sequences) follow a rule. . Each term differs by 6. b 33. Give a written answer. the third term is 14 and so on. . To do this. 15. . 18. 16 ÷ 4 = 4 Multiply each number by 4 to get the next. b Each term is 4 times the previous. b Each term is 6 more than the previous. Subtract consecutive terms. a What number is added to one term to get the next? b Find the next three terms.Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 115 General number patterns There are many different types of number patterns. . Consider the number pattern 6. 4. . 21. The numbers in a sequence are called terms. . THINK a 1 2 3 WRITE a 15 − 9 = 6. Each term is 4 times the previous. . 14. As we go through the following exercise you will discover sequences that are formed by subtraction and division. so add 6 to each term to get the next. 64. 16. . the second term is 10.

63. −6. This number can then be added to each term to get the next. we ﬁnd that amount by dividing consecutive terms. 18 ÷ (−6) = −3 b 1 2 The pattern has a ﬁrst term of 2 and then each term is found by multiplying the previous term by −3. Divide consecutive terms to check that each term is multiplied by the same amount. A number pattern is a sequence of numbers that obey a certain rule. . . 57 − 51 = 6 2 Check to see that each term increases by the same amount by subtracting consecutive terms. Describe the sequence by stating the ﬁrst term and the rule to get each consecutive term. Describe the sequence by stating the ﬁrst term and the rule to obtain each consecutive term. If each term in a sequence appears to be found by multiplying or dividing the previous term by a constant amount. Patterns also occur in nature. . b 2. If a pattern appears to be increasing (or decreasing) by a constant amount. b (−6) ÷ 2 = −3. 3. a 45. 51. 4. 2. . 57. To describe a pattern in words. The pattern has a ﬁrst term of 45 and then each term is found by adding 6 to the previous term. subtract consecutive terms to ﬁnd that amount. . . . remember 1. −54. state the ﬁrst term and then describe what is done to the previous term to get the next term.116 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 3 Describe each of the following patterns in words. THINK a 1 WRITE a 51 − 45 = 6. 18.

i 3. 8. 19. the ﬁfth term and calculate the tenth term. 0. −500. 16. . . . b 2.4. . 36. 9. . 9. . 5. −13. . e 2. ﬁnd the number which each term is -multiplied by to get the next. 7. 507. . d 2. . 1 . . 16. . . j 1. h −48. . . a 3. 30. 80. g −2. . . 50. . 98. write down the next three terms. . 400. e −25. Number d 9. −50. 9. −12. . 150. 250. 24. 200.9. 48. . 24. − 1 . 28. 0. −9. . 800. 1000. write down the next three terms. 1 . 3 In each of the following number patterns. . .5. . . 27. 8. . g 65. . 320. . . f 22. 8. write down the ﬁrst term. f −4. . -. . . . 10. (Hint: Dividing by 2 is the same as multiplying by 1 . . . . 3. c 4.6. . . . ﬁnd the number which is subtracted from one term to get the next. 28. 96.8.1 get the next. a 10. b 30. 32. . 11. −12. 47. . . −1. 34. 11. .. i −100. c 1600. . . 6. 8. 1 . -. 56. 0. 22. . 1. 2 4 8 2b j −5000. . 6. . f 400 000. . . f −6. . 1 . 6. b 45. 0. 1. ﬁnd the multiplied by to get the next. . . . 14. . −18. 19.-. 10. 27. . . −11. g −3. ﬁnd the number that is added to one term to 4. 10. . . −54. 26. write down the next three terms. . . 16. e 19. 64. 28. .. 2. . -.-. . . 81. . . . 3. 20. . 14. . 1. WORKED Example 2a 5 In each of the following number patterns. 243. . . .-.) 2 9 For each of the sequences in question 7. 22. −17. g 512. . . ﬁnd the number that each term is divided by to get the next term. . 10. −4. . 24. i 5. c 40. h 0. . . . i 2. e 0. 686. . . −32. . 7. 9. . −6. 37. . 30. −18. 45. . . . 3. . 10 In each of the following sequences. a 1600. . 1000. 33. 8 For each of the sequences in question 7. . h 3. 12. 1 . . a 2. −12. .3.-. 5. . 36. number which one term is c 5. 6. . . 6. . c 4. 100. 23. 4. 32. 108. . . . . 14.h 1. 13. 9. . 38.1. 39. . −9. −8. .5. . . 9. . 8. i 1. −128. . 100. −5. patterns g 6. . 15. 4 2 4 1b 4 For each of the sequences in question 3. . . 14. −1. . 25. j 4. 4. 7 In each of the following sequences. . . 3 . . 24. . d 750. 41.-. −15. 6. . −9.5. 4. 23. . . 9. .2. . . . . . 12. 4 2 4 HEET WORKED Example 2 For each of the sequences in question 1. 6. 20 000. . . . . write down the next three terms. . b 1. . 33. 4. . WORKED Example 6 For each of the sequences in question 5. . . e 729. 14. a 2.-j 2. 10. . 6591. . . −5. 1 1 . .j 1 . .1. .Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 117 4A WORKED General number patterns SkillS Example 1a 1 In each of the following number patterns. . . . 4. . . . 50. 9. d 192. . f −2. 400. h −17. . . b 10 000. . . d 40.

−3. . . 18. − 1 . 12. . −1. we can see the inside walls of the spiral of a shell. . 15. 10 240 ---j − 1 . .25. . -. . 18. 10. ___. 72. . −5. 12. 53. 160.) . ___. b d f h j 2. 26. 10. 1. 14 In each of the following number patterns. 2. 729.. . . 12. . 54. . . 90. −3. 54. . . 4. 48. . 10. . 56. . 162. 36.5. 30 d 62.___.8. 5. . ___. i −14. 29. 8.-. 18. . 70. . e 8. −768. 19. . . 1. 26. . 1 h 100. . . −20. ___. 50. . −3. . . 91. 31. 1024 f 2. . 24. Can you ﬁnd a number pattern? (Hint: Measure the length of each dividing wall using a length of cotton and a ruler. . 44. 40. 71. . . −192. −48. . 38. . . 30.118 WORKED Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Example 11 Describe the rule for each of the following number patterns. 40. c 6. 40. a 6. 15. . .. . 45. . . . . 22. 8 e 1. . −5. . −14. . 12. 9. . 1 . . −9. 7. 0. . . f 84. . 18. 24. ___. 20. 74 c 100.. −20. .. 50. −128 8 4 2 15 In the photograph at left. . . . . . ___. . . . . 49. −19. 94. 2. 2187.. 9. 18. 1. 4. 3 9 9. ___. . 8.. . . 45. − 1 . 20. 144.000 256 i −5. . . 80. . 320. .. 243. 14. 2. ___.. . . calculate how many terms are in the sequence. 58. 3 12 Find the missing term in each of the following sequences. 59. 40. 0. 97. 6. 33. . . 20. . . . a d g j 5. . −8. ___. 60 b 4. −11. . 1. . a c e g i 5. . . . . .. h 343. . 6. b 100. . . 13 Write down the ﬁrst three terms of a number sequence with: a a ﬁrst term of 2 and the next term found by adding 6 to the previous term b a ﬁrst term of 2 and the next term found by multiplying the previous term by 5 c a ﬁrst term of 45 and the next term found by subtracting 8 from the previous term d a ﬁrst term of 2000 and the next term found by dividing the previous term by 5 e a ﬁrst term of −12 and the next term found by adding 5 to the previous term f a ﬁrst term of 15 and the next term found by subtracting 9 from the previous term g a ﬁrst term of 20 and the next term found by dividing the previous term by −5 h a ﬁrst term of 6 and the next term found by multiplying the previous term by −5 i a ﬁrst term of 80 and the next term found by multiplying the previous term by 1 -2 4 -j a ﬁrst term of 6 and the next term found by multiplying the previous term by − 1 . − 1 . . .. 13 122 g 6561. 13. 5. . .

. . The ﬁrst term is found substituting n = 1. For example the 87th term: Find the sequence generated by the rule Tn = 7n. Two important pronumerals used in number patterns are ‘n’ and ‘Tn’. Give a written answer. 21. 18. The second term is found substituting n = 2. . 9. Consider worked example 4. For example. 3n is said to be the general term of the sequence. 15. more convenient method than using words. The fourth term is found substituting n = 4. . For example. From the MENU select TABLE. . in this sequence: T1 = 3 × 1 =3 T87 = 3 × 87 = 261 T2 = 3 × 2 =6 T3 = 3 × 3 =9 T4 = 3 × 4 = 12 T5 = 3 × 5 = 15 We could then go on to ﬁnd any other term in the sequence. 6. the sequence 3. 12. 12. . Graphics Calculator tip! Using the TABLE function You can use the table function on your Casio graphics calculator to generate the terms of a sequence once given the rule. 14. Terms in the sequence are found by substituting the position number for n. . The third term is found substituting n = 3. 9. 6. 3n. could be written as Tn = 3n. . 15. while Tn is the value of that term. .Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 119 Number pattern notation Usually we describe number patterns using pronumerals as this provides us with a shorter. The pronumeral n usually stands for the position of the term in the sequence. In this example. 28. . . THINK 1 2 3 4 5 WORKED Example 4 WRITE T1 = 7 × 1 T1 = 7 T2 = 7 × 2 T1 = 14 T3 = 7 × 3 T1 = 21 T4 = 7 × 4 T1 = 28 The sequence is 7. We could therefore also write this sequence as 3. 1.

End = 100 and Pitch = 1 you will rarely need to change this setting. For example. In many cases. n Tn THINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 WORKED Example 5 1 2 3 4 5 WRITE T1 = 5 × 1 − 3 =2 T2 = 5 × 2 − 3 =7 T3 = 5 × 3 − 3 = 12 T4 = 5 × 4 − 3 = 17 T5 = 5 × 5 − 3 = 22 n Tn 1 2 2 7 3 12 4 17 5 22 The ﬁrst term is found substituting n = 1. All I need to do is substitute n = 100 into the general term. You can then read off the result of each substitution. By having Start = 1. The major advantage of writing sequences algebraically is that it allows us to calculate the value of any term in the sequence without working out all the terms that come before it. 4. Note that you must use the X on the X. The second term is found substituting n = 2. This method makes the connection between the term and its position in the sequence clearer. if I want to calculate the 100th term of a sequence. i. . Complete the table below for the sequence Tn = 5n − 3. Y1 = 7X. 3. Use the arrow button to scroll down and see the values of X greater than 4. The ﬁfth term is found substituting n = 5.q. Press EXE after entering these settings to return to the previous screen.e. The fourth term is found substituting n = 4. the sequence will be presented in table form.120 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 2. This shows the ﬁrst and last number in your table as well as what to increase the values of X by. Press EXE once you have entered the rule. Enter the rule for the number pattern using Y1 to represent Tn and X to represent n. I do not need to write out the ﬁrst 99 terms. Press F6 for TABL to display the table.T button and NOT the red X which is accessed by pressing ALPHA +. Complete the table. The third term is found substituting n = 3. Press F5 for RANG.

. could be written in the general form Tn = 3n. . Testing Tn = 5n − 2 2 3 T2 = 5 × 2 − 2 T1 = 8 T3 = 5 × 3 − 2 T1 = 13 T4 = 5 × 4 − 2 T1 = 18 T5 = 5 × 5 − 2 T1 = 23 Tn = 5n − 2 4 5 6 7 .Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 121 Find the 1st. Substitute n = 2. WORKED Example 7 Find the general term from the sequence given below. Substitute n = 3. 2 3 We can also look at sequences presented in table form and from there calculate the general term. 35th and 100th term of the sequence Tn = 6n − 15. The 35th term is found substituting n = 35. 5 × 1 = 5 and 5 − 2 = 3. Each term in this sequence increases by 3. Substitute n = 5. We then suspect Tn = 5n − 2. n Tn THINK 1 1 3 2 8 3 13 WRITE 4 18 5 23 Terms are increasing by 5 so the general term includes 5n. 9. The 100th term is found substituting n = 100. Give a written answer. . Earlier we saw that the sequence 3. THINK 1 WORKED Example 6 WRITE T1 = 6 × 1 − 15 = −9 T35 = 6 × 35 − 15 = 195 T100 = 6 × 100 − 15 = 585 The 1st term is found substituting n = 1. 12. Test the other values in the table. Any sequence that increases by 3 will have 3n as part of its general term. 15. Substitute n = 4. 6.

2 h Tn = 2. 4B WORKED Number pattern notation c Tn = 9n f Tn = 4n + 3 i Tn = 10 − n l Tn = 2 − 5n c f i l Tn = (−5)n Tn = 2 n + 5 Tn = (−1)n Tn = (−2)n + 3 Example 4 1 Find the sequence generated by each of the following. When the sequence is written. by substituting n = 2 and so on. When a sequence is written in this form.3n n n j Tn = (−1) × 3 k Tn = (−4)n WORKED SkillS HEET 4. the general term can be found by looking at the sequence and ﬁnding a pattern that can then be written in algebraic form. 2. a Tn = n b Tn = 4n d Tn = −6n e Tn = 2n − 1 g Tn = 23n + 13 j Tn = 20 − 3n -h Tn = 1 n + 2 1 -2 k Tn = 100 − 7n 2 Find the sequence generated by each of the following. a Tn = 2 n b Tn = 3 n n d Tn = 10 e Tn = 4 n − 3 n g Tn = 3. copy and complete the table. which is written in terms of n. 3. A sequence can be written algebraically. T1. the terms of the sequence are found by substituting values of n. n is the position of the term in the sequence and Tn is the value of that term.2 Completing a formula for a table of values Example 5 3 In each of the following. a Tn = 7n b Tn = 4n − 3 n Tn c Tn = 5n + 4 n Tn e Tn = 3 n Tn g Tn = (−2) n Tn i Tn = n n Tn 2 n n 1 2 3 4 5 n Tn 1 2 3 4 5 d Tn = 7n + 2 2 3 4 5 n Tn f Tn = 2 n + 2 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 n Tn 1 2 3 4 5 h Tn = −(5)n 2 3 4 5 n Tn j Tn = n(n − 3) 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 n Tn 1 2 3 4 5 . the ﬁrst term. is found by substituting n = 1.122 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course remember 1. T2. the second term. This is done using a general term called Tn. For example. In this statement.

Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 123 25 4 For each of the following. ﬁnd the value of: a T1 b T15 c T25 -9 For the sequence Tn = 100 1 . copy and complete the table. ﬁnd the value of: a T1 b T12 c T46 7 For the sequence Tn = 4. ﬁnd the value of: a T1 b T5 c T8 8 For the sequence Tn = (−1)n4n. ﬁnd the value of: a T1 b T10 c T38 6 For the sequence Tn = 30 − 4n. ﬁnd the value of: 2 a T1 b T2 c T5 n d T50 d T10 d T1 d T56 d T10 10 multiple choice For the sequence Tn = 4n − 1.2n. the value of T9 is: A 3 B 35 C 48 11 multiple choice Which of the following is not a term of the sequence Tn = n2 + n? A2 B 6 C 100 D 110 12 multiple choice In which of the following sequences is 100 not a term? A Tn = n 2 B Tn = 10n C Tn = 5n − 5n D Tn = 2n2 + 10n D 49 . a Tn = 9n b Tn = 3n + 2 n Tn c Tn = 6n − 1 n Tn e Tn = 2 n n Tn g Tn = (−3)n n Tn i Tn = n n Tn WORKED 3 1 4 9 10 20 n Tn 1 5 9 10 d Tn = 8n + 5 3 6 12 50 n Tn f Tn = 3 n − 1 1 10 20 50 100 1 1 2 5 9 12 n Tn 1 3 6 8 10 h Tn = (−5)n 4 7 10 15 n Tn j Tn = n(2 − n) 1 2 6 9 10 1 1 3 5 10 20 n Tn 1 2 6 10 20 Example 6 5 For the sequence Tn = 3n + 8.

. . 21. . 5. 9. 8 Copy and complete the table below for the sequence Tn = 4n − 5. 225? 6 Find the ﬁrst ﬁve terms of the sequence generated by Tn = n2 + n. 20. what do I do to a term to get the next? 3 In the sequence 40. . . . n Tn 9 Is 98 a term of the sequence Tn = 5n + 3? If so. Find the ﬁrst ﬁve terms. . 2 In the sequence 5. . a b 7 n 1 2 3 4 5 n 1 2 Tn 4 8 12 16 20 Tn 2 5 c n Tn e n Tn 1 49 1 2 2 48 2 4 3 47 3 8 4 46 4 16 5 45 5 32 f d n Tn n Tn 1 33 1 2 2 30 2 8 3 8 3 27 3 26 4 11 4 24 4 80 5 14 5 21 5 242 1 1 Write the next three terms of the sequence 1. 16. .124 WORKED Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Example 13 For each of the tables below try to discover the algebraic rule. what is each term multiplied by to obtain the next? 4 A number pattern begins with 2 and to get the next term we add −8 to the previous one. which term? 10 Find an algebraic rule for the table below. 4. 29. 5. 13. n Tn 1 38 2 36 3 34 4 32 5 30 1 3 7 10 15 . 7 In the sequence Tn = 3n + 2. . −3. 5 How many terms are in the number sequence 1. −7. ﬁnd the value of T6. . 10. .

We can only simplify the like terms. 2 Write q + q + q + q + q + q as a multiplication. b 1 Write p + p + p as a multiplication. THINK WORKED Example 9 WRITE 5k + 9k − k = 13k Each term uses the same pronumeral so we add and subtract the coefﬁcients. we collect all the like terms (the same pronumeral). THINK a Write the repeated addition as a multiplication. Now consider the expression 9+9+9+9+9+9+4+4+4+4+4 We can not write this as a single expression because the terms are not like. that is. . The addition or subtraction sign in such expressions belongs with what follows it. 9+9+9+9+9+9+4+4+4+4+4=6×9+5×4 Similarly: x + x + x + x + x + y + y + y = 5x + 3y Only like terms. we can simplify a similar expression using pronumerals: a + a + a + a + a + a + a + a = 8a Note that we do not use the multiplication sign in algebra. The multiplication sign is implied when it is not used. In each expression where more than one different pronumeral is used. can be added together. Similarly. For example. Consider the expression: 5+5+5+5+5+5+5=7×5 We can write this addition as a multiplication because the same number is being added. in 4x − 6y + 2x the minus sign belongs to the 6y and the plus sign to the 2x. the same pronumerals. We can say that ‘like terms’ are used. WRITE a m + m + m + m + m + m + m = 7m b p + p + p + q + q + q + q + q + q = 3p + 6q We are able to add or subtract any expressions that use the same pronumerals. WORKED Example 8 Simplify the expressions: a m+m+m+m+m+m+m b p + p + p + q + q + q + q + q + q. Simplify 5k + 9k − k. each pronumeral used stands in place of a number.Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 125 Adding and subtracting like terms In algebra. Remember that where no coefﬁcient is written it is assumed to be 1.

Like terms occur when the same pronumeral is used.126 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 10 Simplify: a 5b + 2 + 2b − 6 THINK a 1 2 b 4m − 3n + 2m − 5n.3 WORKED Example Adding and subtracting like terms 1 Simplify each of the following. b 1 2 remember 1. grouping like terms. 4C SkillS Adding and subtracting like terms b r+r+r d x+x+x+x f n+n+n+n+n+n+n+n e 3y c f i l o c f i l o r HEET 4. a 5y + 7y 9 d 34j + 13j g 14r − 6r j −4w + 6w m 4j − 2j − j b e h k n 15x + 4x 17k + 8k 9w − 8w −2s − 5s −2p − 17p + 25p f 4r WORKED Example 15e + 24e 14k − 10k m − 5m 14m + 5m + 3m 5z − 15z + 9z 7k + 5k + 3k − 2k 2t + 7t + 4t 5b − 16 + 11b − 10 6r − 17 − 2r 9d − 15 + 4d + 7 8z − 4w − 8z + 6w WORKED Example 4 Simplify the following by collecting like terms. Complete each addition and subtraction separately. 3. the sign belongs with the term that follows it. Rewrite the expression. a t+t 8 c w+w+w+w+w+w e q+q+q+q+q+q+q 2 Write the following algebraic terms as additions. Like terms can be added or subtracted. unlike terms cannot. a 2m b 6n c 9s d 8w 3 Simplify the following. grouping like terms. 2. Complete each addition and subtraction separately. In any expression. a 8x + 2x + 7 b h − 4 + 3h 10 d 5p + 9q − 2p − 2q e 5 + 6w − 2w g 9j + 6k − 5j + 2k h 16x − 15 − 13x j 4 + 5a − 12 − 2a k 7b − 4 − 2 + 10b m 4y − 4 + 6y − 2 n 8c − 3b − 5c + 2b p 15e − 8p + 4e + 4p q 16t − 12s + 4t − 11s . WRITE a 5b + 2 + 2b − 6 = (5b + 2b) + (2 − 6) = 7b − 4 b 4m − 3n + 2m − 5n = (4m + 2m) + (−3n − 5n) = 6m − 8n Rewrite the expression.

9. Graphics Calculator tip! Substitution Your Casio graphics calculator can be used to complete substitutions. From the MENU select RUN. 2.8 → ALPHA U EXE To do this.8 for u. WORKED Example 11 THINK 1 2 3 WRITE -V = 4 πr3 3 4 -3 Write the formula.8.5 → ALPHA T EXE . press 22. a = 9. THINK 1 2 3 WORKED Example 12 WRITE v = u + at v = 12. We need to assign the values u = 12. 1.7. In the formula v = u + at. Substitute 4. V= × π × (4. press 12. When using a formula. we substitute for one unknown to allow us to calculate the value of another. -The formula V = 4 π r3 is used to calculate the volume of a sphere. Substitute 12. Calculate the value of v. Calculate the value of 3 V.7 for r.89 In many such examples you will be required to do calculations that require more than one substitution.8 Write the formula. we replace a pronumeral with a number and then calculate the value of the entire expression.8 and t = 5. when r = 4. press 19. Consider worked example 12.8 for a and 5 for t.8 → ALPHA A EXE To do this. calculate the value of v when u = 12. correct to 2 decimal places.8 + 9. Calculate the value of V and round off to 2 decimal places. When substituting into a formula.8.7)3 V = 434. To do this.Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 127 Substitution An algebraic expression has little or no meaning without a value being substituted for the pronumeral. a = 9.8 and t = 5. An algebraic expression that is used in common calculations is called a formula.8 × 5 v = 61.

8 and h = 6. ﬁnd the value of the subject given the variable. Press EXE to obtain the value of the expression. enter the expression to which v is equal. ﬁnd c when a = 12 and b = 22.128 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 3. Use the 5 formula to convert the following temperatures to degrees Fahrenheit.5 and h = 5.3) c L = l 2 (l = 4. ﬁnd A when b = 9.. When calculating the value of an expression.) PRT 4 a Given that I = ----------. ﬁnd T when a = −23. T g Given that C = 5 -9 (F − 32).7.075 and n = 4. rewrite the expression substituting the known values for the pronumerals.6. ﬁnd S when u = 8. 2 -h Given that S = ut + 1 at2. ﬁnd S when D = 900 and T = 12. ﬁnd V when l = 6.4 WORKED Example 11 Substituting into algebraic expressions 9C 1 The formula F = -----. a 20°C b 35°C c −5.9) d C = 45 + 65d (d = 1.4.+ 32 converts degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit. c Given that P = 2l + 2w. a C = 6r (r = 5) b P = 4s (s = 7. that is U + AT. . (Give your answer correct to 3 decimal places. -d Given that A = 1 bh.5.8 ( p = 6.4) e S = 4π r 2 (r = 8.. 100 b Given that T = a + 8d. give your answer correct to 2 decimal places. 2. To evaluate v. n = 27 and d = −2. Where necessary. t = 4 and a = 6. remember 1. 2 et e Given that V = lbh. 4D SkillS Substitution HEET 4. 3. b = 6. ﬁnd P when l = 34 and w = 54.5) EXCE reads L Sp he Substitution EXCE reads L Sp he Substitution game et WORKED Example 12 3 In the formula A = (1 + r)n. then calculate.3°C 2 For each of the following formulas. i Given that T = a + (n − 1)d. ﬁnd I when P = 2000. A formula is an algebraic rule for a calculation.8) p2 f Q = -----9. j Given that c2 = a2 + b2. D f Given that S = --.5. ﬁnd the value of A when r = 0. ﬁnd T when a = 56 and d = −8. R = 6 and T = 5. A pronumeral stands in place of a number and so numbers can be substituted for pronumerals. ﬁnd C when F = 212.

6 cm and the height is 9. where: a the radius is 4 cm and the height is 8 cm b the radius is 32 mm and the height is 17 mm c the radius is 4. yA 11 Young’s rule for the calculation of a child’s dose of medicine is D = -------------. Calculate the dosage for a three-year-old child taking a medicine for which the adult dose is 45 mL. In this y + 12 formula. ﬁnd the value of D when: y + 12 a y = 6 and A = 2 b y = 4. 10 Fried’s rule to calculate the infant dosage of a medicine is given by the mA formula D = -------.. where the adult dosage is 50 mL b an 18-month-old child. y is the age of the child in years and A is the adult’s dose. a Write a formula for the cost of a taxi journey. where the adult dose is 40 mL.. yA 9 In the formula D = -------------. C.24 and A = 96.. where D is the 150 infant dosage.8. .6 and h = 0. correct to 2 decimal places.7 cm. If m = 2 and p = 5 then c is equal to: A3 B 7 C 10 D 25 -7 The formula V = 1 π r 2h is used to calculate the volume of a cone.50 plus 60c per kilometre. D is the child’s dose.. in terms of distance travelled. Calculate the dosage of medicine given to: a a nine-month-old baby. where the adult dose is 30 mL c a two-year-old child. d.6 and h = 6 c m = 1. where r is the 3 radius and h is the height. m is the infant’s age in months and A is the adult dosage. m 8 In the formula B = ---. 6 multiple choice A formula is given as c = mp. Use the formula to calculate the volume of a cone. calculate the value of B when: h2 a m = 56 and h = 2 b m = 3. b Use the formula to calculate the cost of a taxi journey of: i 5 km ii 20 km iii 50 km.Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 129 5 The cost of hiring a taxi is $4.2 and A = 7 c y = 0.

where m is a person’s mass in kilograms and h is a person’s height in metres. 5 Simplify 4m + 6m − 11m. The formula is m B = ---. The adult dosage of a medicine is 30 mL.7 m tall b Neil. 4 Simplify the expression p + p + p + p + q + q. who is 42 kg and 1. -9 In the formula V = 4 π r 3..65 m tall c Bronwyn. 14 The Body Mass Index. where k is the mass of the child in 70 kilograms and A is the adult dose. correct to 1 decimal place.6 and h = 9. a Caroline. r = 0. .1. 9. where the adult dosage is 35 mL. .09 and n = 5.130 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course kA 12 Clark’s rule for calculating a dosage is D = ----. Calculate the dosage required for a child who weighs 20 kg. 3 10 In the formula S = 4π r 2.1 2 1 Write the next three terms in the sequence 3. who is 86 kg and 1. 13 Gavin is eight years old and weighs 28 kg. of the following people and comment on the health of each person.1. Calculate the dosage of medicine that should be given to Gavin according to: a Fried’s rule b Young’s rule c Clark’s rule. B. h2 A person is considered to be healthy if 21 ≤ B ≤ 25. ﬁnd the value of S correct to 1 decimal place when r = 9. -7 In the formula A = 1 bh. who is 71 kg and 1. ﬁnd the value of A when b = 7. 2 8 In the formula A = P(1 + r)n. 15.68 m tall Work T SHEE 4. ﬁnd the value of V correct to 1 decimal place when r = 9. ﬁnd the value of A when P = 5000. 6 Simplify 3v − 4w − 6v − 7w.. Calculate the Body Mass Index. . is a measure of how healthy a person is. 3 Simplify the expression r + r + r + r + r. 21. .3. 2 Write an algebraic rule for the sequence in question 1.

Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 131 Multiplication and division of algebraic expressions When we are multiplying and dividing algebraic expressions. the indices of the same base are added in turn. WORKED Example 14 Simplify each of the following. WRITE a 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 36 b m × m × m × m = m4 We can use index laws to simplify expressions already in index form. then add the base ‘b’ indices. provided they are like terms. 4 is the base and 8 is the index. a 3×3×3×3×3×3 b m×m×m×m THINK a 3 is shown 6 times. If there are coefﬁcients (numbers in front of the pronumerals) in the expression. c Multiply coefﬁcients. Index Law 1: ax × ay = ax + y When using the index laws. We can write: p × p × p × p × p = p5 WORKED Example 13 Simplify each of the following. these are multiplied. b Multiply the coefﬁcients and add the indices. b m is shown 4 times. The same method applies to pronumerals. Earlier. we use indices: 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 = 48 In this expression. We said: 4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4=8×4 For multiplication. we saw the shorthand way of writing a repeated addition. a t5 × t4 b 4m3 × 6m2 THINK a Add the indices. add the base ‘a’ indices. Consider: a3 × a4 = (a × a × a) × (a × a × a × a) = a7 This leads us to the ﬁrst index law. c 12a2b × 4a5b3 WRITE a t5 × t4 = t9 b 4m3 × 6m2 = 24m5 c 12a2b × 4a5b3 = 48a7b4 . care needs to be taken with the notation of multiplication and division. however. the same rule about like terms applies.

c Calculate 22 then calculate ( p3)2 and (q4)2 by multiplying the indices. This may involve simplifying a fraction as well as applying this law. b Calculate 33 then multiply the indices. . Index Law 3: (a x) y = a xy WORKED Example 16 Simplify each of the following. a (n5)2 b (3w4)3 THINK a Multiply the indices. quadratic and cubic in particular. Consider: (a3)4 = a3 × a3 × a3 × a3 Adding indices: = a12 In these cases we are able to simply multiply the indices. WORKED Example 15 Simplify each of the following. THINK WORKED Example 17 WRITE 2x3(4x5 − 3y2) = 8x8 − 6x3y2 Multiply both terms inside the brackets by 2x3.= a x – y ay Division questions can be written as either a division or in fraction form. a w 8 ÷ w3 b 24d 4 ÷ 6d THINK a Subtract the indices. Expand 2x3(4x5 − 3y2). In such examples every term inside brackets must be multiplied by the term immediately outside. We need to be able to divide terms which are linear. b Divide the coefﬁcients then subtract the indices.132 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course The reverse to the index law for multiplication is the index law for division. Index Law 2: a x ÷ ay = a x − y or ax ---. This leads to our third index law. as well as higher powers. c (2p3q4)2 WRITE a (n 5)2 = n 10 b (3w4)3 = 27w12 c (2p3q4)2 = 4p6q8 These rules can also be used when required to expand brackets. WRITE a w 8 ÷ w3 = w 5 b 24d 4 ÷ 6d = 4d 3 We are also expected to be able to simplify expressions that raise an index to a further index.

• Index Law 1: a x × ay = a x + y ax • Index Law 2: a x ÷ ay = a x − y ---.= a x – y ay • Index Law 3: (a x) y = a xy 2. a (a3)4 b (g4)5 16 4 3 d (2k ) e (7m6)2 g (5p3q4)2 h (6r3s)5 c (h2)2 f (8n2)3 i (5xy5)2 . Apply the index laws separately to each pronumeral. a q3 × q4 b 14 d 45 × 42 e 4 2 g 3b × 2b h j 9 × 3j 6 k m 4x4y3 × 5x3y6 n p 6jk 4 × 8j3k 6 q 4 Simplify each of the following. a a5 ÷ a d e5 ÷ e g 56j7k 5 ÷ 7j 4k 3 72r 6 j ---------8r 3 x5 × x6 a5 × a 5d 4 × 2d 4 8k 3 × k 5m2n4 × 4m3n5 10p4q3 × 5p WORKED Example 15 b b8 ÷ b4 18g 5 e ----------3g 3 64m 7 n 3 h -----------------16m 4 n 2 84s 7 k ---------7s 5 c9 c ---c7 f 24h6 ÷ 4h2 i 42p9q4 ÷ 6pq l 6t 8 --------18t 5 WORKED Example 5 Simplify each of the following. a 2×2×2×2 13 c 9×9 e p×p×p×p×p 4.Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 133 remember 1. Learn the index laws. 4E WORKED Multiplication and division of algebraic expressions b 7×7×7×7×7×7 d q×q×q×q×q×q×q f w×w×w c 87 f j9 c f i l o r y7 × y8 s × s2 7g4 × 5g6 4m × 6m 9a3b7 × 7a2b2 9r3s2t 4 × 6rst 6 Example 1 Write each of the following in index form.5 Multiplying algebraic terms SkillS HEET 2 Write each of the following in expanded form.6 Dividing algebraic terms SkillS HEET Example 3 Simplify each of the following. a 36 b 45 d m3 e y2 WORKED 4.

= 29 d 13 q = 377 Write the equation. to ﬁnd a value for the pronumeral which makes the sentence true. a m6 × m3 ÷ m5 b 5 2 d 14q ÷ 7q × 6q e g (4w4)2 × (2w3)6 h 4 × 4m 5 12m j ---------------------------k 8m 3 WORKED (n3)5 × n4 3r3 ÷ (2r4)2 (8v5)2 ÷ (2v3)3 3y 4 ---------------------2 × 7y 6 9y c ( p3)6 ÷ p12 f (6s6)2 ÷ 9s7 i (2x5)3 × (4x4)2 ÷ x3 9z 4 × 6z 7 l --------------------( 3z 4 ) 3 c f i l o r m(5m + 6n) p5( p5 − 5q) 9a4(a − 2b4) 9t2(2s3 + 6t4) 8pq( p2 − q) 7pq4r(2p4q − 7r5) Example 7 Expand the brackets in each of the following. . We do this by writing an equivalent equation made by using one of four possible steps. our task is to solve it.134 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 6 Simplify each of the following. The solution to these equations uses only one of the above four steps. Multiply both sides by 13. Subtract 48 from both sides. When we are given an equation. Step 3. We can divide both sides of an equation by the same number. That is. Step 4. The simplest type of equation is the one-step equation. Write the equation. Write the equation. WORKED Example 18 Solve each of the following equations.= 29 13 WRITE a x + 48 = 75 x = 27 b y − 43 = 56 y = 99 c 7d = 91 d = 13 q ----. Step 2. Add 43 to both sides. The basic idea to follow when solving an equation is to undo those operations performed on the pronumeral. We can add the same number to each side of an equation. We can multiply both sides of an equation by the same number. Write the equation. We can subtract the same number from each side of an equation. a m(m + 1) b 2f( f − 4) 17 d w(w3 − 4) e r2(r5 + s) g 4q(5q3 − 9) h 7y5(3y4 + z2) 6 j 3x (4 + 2x) k 5h(g − 4h4) m 3xy(2x + 2y) n 4ab(ab + 7) p 5m2n5(5m3 − 3n2) q 6r4s6(3r3s2 − 3) Solving linear equations An equation is an incomplete mathematical sentence. Divide both sides by 7. a x + 48 = 75 c 7d = 91 THINK a b c d 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 b y − 43 = 56 q d ----. Step 1.

Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 135 When solving equations that involve more than one step to the solution. LHS = 12 + 3 × 11 = 45 = RHS Since x = 11 gives a true number sentence. . Write the equation. Multiply both sides by 7. it is necessary to gather all the pronumerals on one side of the equation. a 12 + 3x = 45 THINK a 1 2 3 m b --. Divide both sides by 3.− 14 = −25 7 m --. Divide both sides by 3. if we check x = 11 in 12 + 3x = 45. b 1 2 3 The solution to an equation can be checked by substituting the value found into the equation.= −11 7 m = −77 Write the equation. A more difﬁcult type of equation is one that has the pronumeral occurring on both sides. This is done by adding or subtracting one pronumeral expression to each side of the equation. The substitution can be written. In these examples. although this is not usually necessary. Subtract 3e from both sides. This is normally done mentally or on the calculator as a check that the value we have is correct. For example. Add 4 to both sides.− 14 = −25 7 WRITE a 12 + 3x = 45 3x = 33 x = 11 m b --. Write the equation. Solve the equation 6e − 4 = 3e − 43. WORKED Example 19 Solve the equations. Check the answer by substitution. Add 14 to each side. THINK 1 2 3 4 5 WORKED Example 20 WRITE 6e − 4 = 3e − 43 3e − 4 = −43 3e = −39 e = −13 LHS = 6 × (−13) − 4 RHS = 3 × (−13) − 43 = −82 RHS = −82 Solution e = −13 is correct. Subtract 12 from each side. we must show the equivalent equation formed after using each of our chosen steps. we know the solution x = 11 is the correct solution to this equation.

1. Expand the brackets. If you do not understand the manual method of solution. Add 56 to each side of the equation. Important note: Although your graphics calculator can be used to solve equations. 3. 2. Press F3 for Solver. In your exams. Lft = –82 and Rgt = –82 shows the result of substituting the solution E = –13 into both sides of the equation. THINK 1 2 3 4 WORKED Example 21 WRITE 8(3x − 7) = −152 24x − 56 = −152 56 – 24x = −96 56 – 24x = −4 Write the equation. as it will be a previously stored value. you will be unable to answer such a question. Delete any existing equation and enter the equation 6e – 4 = 3e – 43 by pressing 6 ALPHA E – 4 SHIFT = 3 ALPHA E – 43 then press EXE to store the equation. You can see the solution E = –13. At this stage ignore any value of E that is shown. From the MENU select EQUA. it is possible that you will be given a question that asks you to explain the steps of solving an equation. Divide both sides of the equation by 24. Many equations involve the use of brackets. Solve 8(3x − 7) = −152. The calculator also displays the checking of the solution. we need to expand brackets before solving the equation. 4. Press F6 to solve the equation.136 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Graphics Calculator tip! Solving equations Your Casio graphics calculator can be used to solve equations using the EQUA function. . it is important that you learn to solve equations without using the calculator as well. With such equations. Consider worked example 20.

7 Solving equations SkillS Equation solver E L Spre XCE ad HEET sheet .5 3.= -------------.5 = 13. our task is to ﬁnd a value for the pronumeral that will make the sentence true. 3.2 4..= 9. 5 8 THINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 WRITE k + 2 3k – 8 ----------. Subtract 16 from each side. WORKED Example 22 k+2 3k – 8 Solve the equation ----------. Expand the brackets. You can use a graphics calculator to solve an equation but it is very important that you understand manual methods as well. 6. Write out the equivalent equation formed after each step in the solution. Divide both sides by 7. 8. we multiply by the lowest common multiple of the denominators in the equation.= 851 23 j k − 56 = −34 k 15b = −240 u f m ----. 4. Check your answer to each equation by substitution.= −4 n – -. Remember the four steps that can be taken in solving an equation. When solving an equation. we ﬁrst multiply by the lowest common multiple of the denominators in the equation. This can be done mentally or on the calculator and does not always need to be written. An equation is an incomplete mathematical sentence.= 19 e r + 387 = 435 14 p g 17x = 306 h ----.= 8 45 5 v p 5c = 17 q -----. If an equation has fractions. 2. expand the brackets before solving the equation. a z + 24 = 67 b w − 34 = 54 y d ----. 4F WORKED Solving linear equations c 9q = 162 f t − 253 = 78 i e + 79 = 45 l −7a = 84 o d + 8.7 --r t − 24 = 31 5 2 Example 18 1 Solve each of the following one-step equations. Multiply by the lowest common multiple of 5 and 8 (40). 5.Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 137 A similar approach must be used to solve equations that use fractions. If an equation involves the use of brackets. Subtract 15k from each side. 7. When the equation involves the use of fractions. remember 1.= -------------5 8 8(k + 2) = 5(3k − 8) 8k + 16 = 15k − 40 −7k + 16 = −40 −7k = −56 k=8 Write the equation.

+ 20 = 27 h -.= 10 5 9 sio r c -.+ 1 = 7 (e = 9) 3 4 3 WORKED Example 20 8 Solve each of the following equations.= – 8 e -----.− 10 = −4 6 2q c ----.8) f 7y + 13 = −65 ( y = −11.+ 35 = −4 10 7 6 Solve each of the following equations.− 8 = 9 3 7 f p d -.− 1 = −1 8 m l --.29 c 6x = 37 f 9x = 2 c f i l o r 3z + 6 = 27 13x − 85 = 227 4c + 70 = 2 9v − 10 = 5 23 − 2b = −1 1 − 7h = −65 3 Solve each of the following.+ 7 = 12 b -. a 8a + 7 = 7a + 9 b 7b + 5 = 6b + 14 d 6d + 8 = 3d + 17 e 5e − 10 = e + 10 g 12g + 14 = 6g + 44 h 11h − 18 = 2h j 20 + 2j = j + 54 k 9k − 2 = 28 − k 9 multiple choice c f i l 9c − 2 = 8c + 2 7f − 2 = 2f + 13 10i + 11 = 8i − 7 32 − 5l = 5 − 2l For which of the following equations is x = 12 not a solution? 5x x–4 A ----. a 5a + 11 = 41 b 2q − 9 = 25 d 9s − 14 = 22 e 7w + 74 = 193 g 5e − 9 = −19 h 8d + 45 = 29 j 5r − 14 = 44 k 7f + 6 = −14 m 12 + 6t = 48 n 35 − 5g = 50 --p 4s + 8.= 8 3 12m f --------.= 8 b -----.8 = 45. a x + 67 = 98 (x = 31) b r − 6.5 = 2.= 9 5 2 2s 5w d ---. s v a -.= 3 (w = 4 2 ) h ----.28 23 7 Solving equations am – rogr Ca et D x = 3.= -(b = 6 3 ) 4 9 4 e 5t − 98 = 56 (t = 30.+ 3 = 11 4 11 k v g ----.+ 1 = 16 B 4x − 7 = 53 − x C 4x − 12 = 48 − x D ----------.3 q 8y − 3 = 2 1 4 2 GC p am – rogr Ca WORKED Example Expanding 19b GC p am – rogr TI Expanding 5 Solve each of the following equations.− 10 = 2 4 g i -.138 EXCE Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course reads L Sp he 2 multiple choice Which of the following is the exact solution to 7x = 23? 7 -A x = ----B x = 32 C x = 3.− 1 = 12 e ----. check by substitution if the answer given is correct.1) 3w – 2 2e -g --------------.= – 6 5 7 In each of the following equations.− 13 = −11 k -.− 4 = 0 15 3 j p j ----.9 (r = 51. a 5x = 23 b 7x = 45 d −3x = 20 e 13x = 45 WORKED sio Example GC p Equations 19a GC p am – rogr TI Equations 4 Solve each of the following equations.= 4 − x 4 2 . 4y 3p a ----.+ 5 = 11 8 s f -.7) b 3 -c 32p = −256 ( p = −8) d -.

a -.– 4 3 2 2 x+1 x 2m – 3 g ----------. Use 5 the formula to convert 68° Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius.+ 3 b --------.= -.= ----------2 5 x+3 3x + 2 f ----------.+ 32 5 340 = 9C + 160 180 = 9C C = 20 Write the formula.= -. the solution will require you to solve an equation. WORKED Example 23 9C The formula F = -----. a 3(b + 5) = 30 b 5(n + 6) = 40 c 7(h − 5) = 56 21 d 9( p − 4) = 54 e 4(k − 8) = 72 f 3(m − 16) = 45 g 6(t + 9) = 84 h 4(2n + 5) = 52 i 9(3r − 7) = 72 j 6(6g + 5) = 210 k 4(5g − 1) = −44 l 7(3v − 11) = −161 m 6(z − 2) = 44 n 3(6y + 13) = 76 o 5(4u − 9) = 34 11 Solve each of the following equations.+ 32 is used to convert degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit. Hence. They also divided their money equally. Equations arising from substitution Earlier in this chapter we covered substitution of values into a formula.= 3 4 5 v+5 v 9w d ----------. THINK 1 2 3 4 5 WRITE 9C F = -----. At the end of the day all 9 people had the same amount of money. Team A had 5 people who detailed 30 cars and received $20 in tips. Team B had 4 people who detailed 25 cars and received $4 in tips.− 3 h --------------5 2 3 t–2 --------6 = 6 1 + 6m = ---------------7 2u – 1 u–1 c -------------.− -4 8 4 WORKED Example 12 Two teams of people worked at two different car washes detailing vehicles. In many cases. s s t–3 22 . Subtract 160 from each side. Substitute 68 for F. In each of these examples we calculated the value of the subject of the formula. The cost of detailing each car is the same. after substitution we may be left with a value to calculate that is not the subject of the formula. Divide both sides by 9. .Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 139 WORKED Example 10 Solve each of the following equations by ﬁrst expanding the brackets. b Solve the equation to ﬁnd the cost of getting one car detailed. Multiply both sides of the equation by 5. They divided their money equally.= -------------4 8 i p 3p 1 -.+ 32 5 9C 68 = -----. a Write an equation for this situation.= 5 – -e -----.= -----.

From the MENU select RUN. At this stage F = 68 is displayed as well as any previously stored value of C. Enter the equation by pressing ALPHA F SHIFT = 9 ALPHA C ÷ 5 + 32 EXE . 2. 5. We can assign the value in the RUN mode of the calculator and then switch to equation solving mode as shown below. Press F6 to solve the equation for C. Note that if you mistakenly highlight F in the previous step the equation will be solved for F using the previously stored value of C. Press F3 for Solver. Delete any equations on screen. More difﬁcult questions involve the substitution of more than one unknown. 1. From the MENU select EQUA. 4.140 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Graphics Calculator tip! Solving an equation arising from substitution Earlier in the chapter we learned how to assign a value to a variable. There must be only one unknown remaining for the equation to be solved. Consider worked example 23. Assign the value F = 68 by pressing 68 → ALPHA F EXE . 6. . Use the arrow keys to highlight C as shown. 3.

Calculate the value of l when: a P = 64 and w = 18 b P = 142 and w = 17 c P = 12. calculate: a l. A trapezium with 2 parallel sides 16 cm and 9 cm has an area of 150 cm2. 3 The formula P = 2l + 2w is used to calculate the perimeter of a rectangle. when A = 437 and b = 23 b b. Substitute each known value into the formula.4 and w = 3. ﬁnd C given that F is equal to: a 50° b 80° c 100° d −10° e 15° f −5. 4G WORKED Equations arising from substitution Example 1 The formula A = lb can be used to calculate the area of a rectangle. Solve the equation formed. when A = 36. .3. In each of the following. Substitute A = 150. 9C 4 The formula F = -----.4.Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 141 WORKED Example 24 h The formula A = -. Calculate the value of b when A = 56 and l = 8.3°. Divide both sides by 25. 3. a = 16 and b = 9. 2. THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE h A = -. Calculate the height of the trapezium.(16 + 9) 2 300 = 25h h = 12 Write the formula.+ 32 converts 5 degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit. Begin each question by writing the formula. Multiply both sides of the equation by 2.225 and l = 6.(a + b) is used to calculate the area of a trapezium.(a + b) 2 h 150 = -. remember 1. 23 2 In the formula A = lb.

c Calculate the length of a call for which the charge is: iii $8. C. m. ﬁnd n when T = −3. n = 54 and d = −8 c n. T 5 ( F – 32 ) g Given that C = ----------------------. c Given that P = 2l + 2w. a = 1 and d = 1 d n. 1 = 2.5. ﬁnd a when c = 17 and b = 15. when T = 454. a = −56 and d = 6. WORKED Example PRT 6 a Given that I = ----------.142 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 5 Use the formula T = a + (n − 1)d to ﬁnd: a a. P = 2500 and T = 2. ﬁnd R when I = 500. a Write a formula connecting the cost of the call. D f Given that S = --. Work T SHEE 4. ﬁnd D when S = 90 and T = 12. 2 e Given that V = lbh. j Given that c2 = a2 + b2. when T = 5050.5 and h = 3. ﬁnd u when S = 120.5d.00 c $25.2 8 An operator connected phone call costs $1. ﬁnd F when C is 15.50 connection fee plus $2. b Calculate the cost of a call lasting: iii 1 minute iii 5 minutes iii 8 minutes. 7 The cost of hiring a taxi can be found using the formula C = 4 + 2. to the length of the call.43 and b = 5. 100 24 b Given that T = a + 8d.50. 9 -h Given that S = ut + 1 at 2. when T = 30. -d Given that A = 1 bh.20 per minute..25. ﬁnd d when T = 59 and a = 11. where d is the distance travelled in kilometres. ﬁnd w when l = 34 and P = 176. ﬁnd b when V = 74.10 iii $16.8. t = 5 and a = 8. . Find the distance travelled if the taxi fare was: a $29. a = 57 and d = −4. ﬁnd h when A = 19..90 iii $34. n = 8 and d = 4 b a..00 b $49.375. 2 i Given that T = a + (n − 1)d. when T = −447.

Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 143 summary Number patterns • A number pattern is a sequence of numbers that obey a certain rule. but it is very important to understand the manual methods as well. we treat each pronumeral separately. • A number pattern can be continued by following a rule that shows how to move from one term to the next. Equations • An equation is a mathematical sentence with a missing value. • Equations can be formed when substituting into a formula. applying the index laws when necessary. • When writing an algebraic rule for a sequence. • You can use a graphics calculator to ﬁnd the solution to an equation. • In solving an equation. or by ﬁnding an algebraic rule that connects the value of a term with its position in the sequence. • We can only simplify expressions involving addition and subtraction that contain like terms. then write each step in the solution. Index Law 1: a x × ay = a x + y ax Index Law 2: a x ÷ ay = a x − y or ---. we can add. The object of solving an equation is to ﬁnd the missing value that makes the sentence correct. n is the position of a term in the sequence and Tn is the value of that term. • Always begin by writing the equation. • When an expression involves the use of brackets. This occurs when the subject of the formula is not the value we need to ﬁnd. . A number can be substituted for a pronumeral in an expression before the expression is calculated. we multiply each term in the brackets by the term immediately outside. Multiplication and division of algebraic expressions • When multiplying and dividing algebraic expressions we need to use the index laws. subtract. • The answer to an equation can be checked by substituting the value found into the equation.= a x – y ay Index Law 3: (a x) y = a xy • When multiplying or dividing expressions. • Whatever is done to one side of an equation must be done to the other to maintain the equality. Addition and subtraction of like terms • Like terms are those which use the same pronumeral. Substitution • Pronumerals stand in place of numbers. multiply or divide both sides of the equation to make the unknown value the subject of the equation.

. . . 4. −2. 2. −45. c 12. . −9. . . a 8m + 4n − 3m b 6a + 4 − 3a − 9 d 15m − 7 + m + 1 e 5x + 20 + 3x − 6 a -8 In the formula S = ---------. f 3. a y+y+y+y b 8w + 9w d 15t − 9t e 6q − 5q 7 Simplify each of the following. 10. . 5. 48. h 1. 48. . . i −54. 16. . .144 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CHAPTER review 4A 1 Write down the next three terms of each of the following sequences. . 2 Describe in words each of the sequences in question 1. 3 Write down the ﬁrst ﬁve terms of a sequence which: a starts with 45 and each term is 8 less than the previous b starts with 6 and each term is 3 times the previous c starts with −34 and each term is 12 more than the previous -d starts with 243 and each term is 2 the previous. . . . . 3. e 1. 24. 2 1–r 3e + 18 9 The formula N = ----------------. . 12. 100. 8. . 192. . . 3 4A 4A 4B 4B 4 Write down the ﬁrst ﬁve terms of each of the sequences given by the following algebraic rules. 12. j 1. .+ 70 is used to calculate the number of video-recorders. . 200. 12. ﬁnd the value of S when a = 20 and r = 1 . . a Tn = 9n b Tn = 2n + 9 n Tn c Tn = 2 n Tn n 1 3 4 7 10 n Tn 1 4 7 9 12 d Tn = (−3)n 1 2 5 8 10 n Tn c 6r + 9r − r f 9x + 6x − x c 12k − 5l + 3l − 8k f 12m − 20 − 2m + 4 1 3 6 9 10 4C 4C 4D 4D 6 Simplify each of the following. 3. that 5 can be produced by ‘e’ employees. . 16. g 1000. 10. 1. 50. 1. . . Calculate the number of video-recorders that can be produced by 89 employees. a Tn = 7n b Tn = 5 n c Tn = 8n − 3 d Tn = (−1)2n n n e Tn = 20 − 6n f Tn = 3 g Tn = 10 − 1 h Tn = (−6)n − 13 5 Use the given rule to copy and complete the table in each of the following. . 6. 9. . −27. . . 12..5. d 800. N. −36. . a 4. b 6.

5 and b = 6.= 15 4 c x3(4x5 − 2) f 7a6(3a8 − 9b2) c 43c = 3827 f f – -. ﬁnd S when u = 9.= -------------6 10 4E 16 Solve the following equations by substituting the given values. a a + 98 = 165 b b − 76 = 84 d d ----.= – 15 7 4E 4E b 3(2t − 7) = 84 e 8w − 5 = 25 − 2w h 3(3z + 5) = 7(z − 4) 6c k ----.= 42 e −8e = −96 23 g g + 45 = 12 h 9h = 25 j 4j − 17 = 47 k 7k + 13 = 76 m 45 + 3m = 18 p p 8 – -. 2 12 Simplify each of the following.5.+ 9 = 17 5 3r r – ----. a m(m + 3) b 5p(2p − 6q) d 2w3(3w2 − 3) e 4pq(3p2 − 2q4) 14 Solve each of the following equations.= 19 4 i 12 − i = 23 l 5l + 43 = −2 t o -. l = 16) -c C = 5 (F − 32) 9 4F (C = 25) (S = 6. w = 7) b P = 2l + 2w (P = 94.+ 1 4 5 d+4 3d – 4 l ----------. a A = lw (A = 56.= – 5 5 15 Solve each of the following. a = 8. a w 3 × w5 b d 9 × 4q3 e g 6x2 × 8x4 h j 5ab3 × 4a3b2 k m b6 ÷ b2 n p 63y5 ÷ 7y q 64a 6 s ----------t 16a 4 v (a3)4 w y k5 × k4 ÷ k3 z a × a6 5p3 × p 4r4 × 3r4 7g3h2 × 4gh f4 ÷ f 45r5s2 ÷ 5r4s3 32m 6 -----------8m 4 (5m4)3 (8q4)2 ÷ 4q3 4x5 × 6x3 5y × 6y 5x5y4 × 6x7y6 12m4n3 × 4mn3 45r6 ÷ 5r3 36s3t5 ÷ 9st 28 p u ----------12 p 4 x (3p3q5)3 c f i l o r 13 Expand each of the following.( a + b ) . a 4(s + 9) = 56 d 7v − 2 = 2v + 23 g 7( y − 3) = 4( y − 9) b–3 b–2 j ----------.+ 4 = 16 4 c 7u − 8 = 6u + 34 f 35 − 6x = 8 − 3x a a i -.8.= ----------5 6 n 33 − 4n = 7 5q q ----. a = 3) a d S = ---------1–r . calculate the value of A when h = 5. t = 5 and a = 5.2.Chapter 4 Basic algebraic skills 145 4D 4D 4E h 10 In the formula A = -. 2 -11 Given that S = ut + 1 at2.= -.

8. 8. . 16. 8x 5 y 9 d Solve the equation 7x + 15 = 113 + 9x.6. can be described by the algebraic rule: A Tn = 2n B Tn = 2 n C Tn = n + 2 D Tn = n2 2 multiple choice 7x − 5y − 6x + 4y = Ax+y 3 multiple choice 5x4y × (2x3)2 = A 10x10y 4 multiple choice The solution to the equation 3(2x + 4) = 4(2x − 7) is: --A x = −1 B x = 26 Cx=8 2 7 -5 In the formula v = ut + 1 at2: 2 B x−y C x + 9y D x − 9y B 20x10y C 10x14y D 20x14y D x = 20 a calculate the value of v when u = 0. . . 4.146 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice The number pattern 2... 6 a Simplify 4x + 9y − 5x − 8y. t = 4 and a = 1. t = 12 and a = 6 b calculate the value of u when v = 100. 4x 3 y 2 × 6x 2 y 4 b Simplify ---------------------------------. . 3xy 8 CHAPTER test yourself 4 ( 2x 3 y ) 2 c Simplify the expression -----------------.

Statistics and society 5 syllabus reference Data analysis 1 • Statistics and society In this chapter 5A 5B 5C 5D Collecting data Organising data Displaying data Quality control .

2 Reading column graphs 2 This is a graph of preferred leisure activities of a Year 8 class. 6. 500 d 6. 500 b 4. If you have difﬁculty with any of them. 3. write the ﬁrst quantity as a percentage of the second.1 Presenting data in a frequency table Are you ready? Try the questions below. 3.5 Writing one quantity as a percentage of another 4 In each of the following. 3. 2. 4. 2000 . 4. 2500 c 245. 6. 3. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. 2. 5. 2. 1. 4 Score (x) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Number preferring (frequency) READY? Tally III Frequency (f) 3 Favourite leisure activity 10 8 6 4 2 0 Reading Television Sport ‘Hanging Other out’ 5.areyou 5. 3.3 Drawing sector graphs 3 For the following table of values showing the number of kilograms of meat of various types that a butcher sold in a day: a copy and complete the table of values b construct a sector graph to display the data.4 5. 2. 1 Copy and complete the frequency table at right for the scores listed below. 1. 2. a 18. 3. 4. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy. 5. 3. You could use a spreadsheet program such as Excel to generate a sector graph Type of meat Lamb Beef Pork Chicken Turkey Rabbit Total Amount sold (kg) 10 45 5 15 10 5 90 Fraction Angle size (°) 5. a How many students preferred sport as a leisure activity? b How many students were in the class? c Which was the most favoured activity? d How many times more popular than reading was watching television? e Which two activities are closest in popularity? Leisure activity 5. 6. 1.

These data are analysed and decisions are then made about what areas need to have roadworks and what places need greater police supervision. Consider the case of a government department such as the Roads and Trafﬁc Authority. and are used by coaches when selecting their teams and planning tactics against opposition teams. answer the following questions. the gathering of statistics is used to measure player performance. A statistical investigation – 1 Choose an area of interest for which you would like to do a statistical analysis. Now consider a business example. For the analysis you have chosen. Why statistical investigation? Below are some common examples of statistical analysis. A department store analyses sales ﬁgures throughout the year to determine its stock orders and stafﬁng requirements. The discovery of these trends allows for predictions of future outcomes. When analysing data. 1 What information do you intend to collect? 2 Of what use is this information and to whom would it be useful? 3 What predictions or decisions could be made based on your analysis? . trends need to be observed. Governments and businesses have data analysed regularly to try and make accurate predictions about future trends. In sport. (a) Weather records (b) Unemployment and inﬂation ﬁgures (c) Sales records (d) Hospital admissions (e) World records in sport For each of the above discuss: 1 the reason that such records are kept 2 the methods that are used to collect the information 3 what information could be gained from the analysis 4 what future predictions could be made as a result of the analysis.Chapter 5 Statistics and society 149 Analysing data There are many cases in society where data need to be analysed. These are kept as a matter of interest to followers of the sport. This department needs to gather data about places where accidents occur.

Posing questions The initial stage of the statistical process is to determine the ﬁnal information required. A statistical investigation – 2 For the area that you are going to investigate. Organising data Stage 4. When we set out to complete a statistical investigation. if answered. 2 A local council wants to ﬁnd out what new sporting facilities the community wants and needs. you will be ready to make a conclusion. list the questions you will need to answer in order to draw a conclusion. Writing a report. Posing questions For each of the following. For example. Posing questions Stage 2. Summarising and displaying data Stage 5. 1 A department store manager wants to know the number of extra staff that should be hired to work in the weeks leading up to Christmas. lift tickets and ski hire at each resort? • What facilities are available at each resort? When you have ﬁnished collecting data and can answer each question. Analysing data and drawing conclusions Stage 6. 5 A potential investor wants to know which shares represent the best potential gains. suppose that you want to ﬁnd out the best time of year to plan a skiing holiday and the best location to take that holiday? Questions that may need to be posed include: • When during the year do the best skiing conditions occur? • Which resort has the best skiing conditions on a regular basis? • What is the cost of accommodation. The whole process needs to be well planned as what can be achieved at the later stages of the process depends upon what has been done in the earlier stages. would allow you to make a conclusion. Data are a set of facts that are collected. but limited data taken alone can have very little meaning. the data become more useful information. there are six stages that need to be completed: Stage 1. . When lots of data are collected and presented and conclusions are drawn. pose some questions that.150 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Statistical processes The purpose of completing a statistical inquiry is to turn raw data into meaningful information. 6 A newspaper wants to try and predict the winner of the next federal election. 4 The Australian test cricket selectors need to choose a new opening batsman. Collecting data Stage 3. 3 The NRMA wants to know which model cars are the most secure against theft.

Observation — this is used if the data collection does not require a response from people. you may be surveying the number of customers that enter a certain shop during the day or the number of students at your school who are out of uniform. Questioning — this is used when the data are obtained by getting a response from people. It is easier to organise information if the questions asked are not open-ended. Soccer field Other WORKED Example 1 ‘What is your annual income?’ Redesign this question so that the results are easier to tabulate. This means that the responses are limited. when there could be a large range of Golf course responses to a question it is easier to group these Netball courts responses. WRITE Within what range does your income fall? $0 – $9999 $10 000 – $19 999 $20 000 – $29 999 $30 000 – $39 999 $40 000 – $49 999 $50 000 or more . the NRMA and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. If data are not available from an external source. the questions need to be well organised and thought needs to go into how the data are going to be tabulated. For example. data would be available from the stock exchange. This is called using internal sources. There are two methods of acquiring data internally. For example. Tennis courts Similarly. To collect data from an external source means that the data are available by doing some research. A better method Please rank the following would be to list a few options that are likely to prove sporting needs in this area. 2. THINK The range of responses could be simpliﬁed by putting them into income brackets. if you were researching share prices. For example.Chapter 5 Statistics and society 151 Collecting data Data can be collected using either external or internal sources. you will need to generate the data yourself. you may be investigating what sporting facilities are needed in your local area. ‘A survey form’ ‘What sporting facilities do you think are needed in this area?’ This question invites a range of responses that may be difﬁcult to tabulate. Other types of data can be obtained from organisations such as the CSIRO. popular and ask people to rank them in order of Cricket nets priority. 1. local councils. When designing a survey for your investigation.

state whether the data would be gathered using observation or questioning. Observation is used when the data can be obtained without a response from other people. Questioning is used when the data are found by getting people’s responses. 1 a Where is your favourite holiday destination? b What is your weekly income? c How many movies have you seen at the cinema this year? d Who is your favourite singer or group? e How many hours study do you do each week? 4 Design a questionnaire that will provide the following information. 5. 2. a The number of cars stolen in NSW each year b The rise or fall in a share price over the past year c The number of people who rode bikes to school today d The number of people who voted in the last federal election e Who people intend to vote for in the next federal election f The most popular band among Year 11 students at your school g The number of Holden cars sold each week in Australia h The batting average of each player in the Australian cricket team 2 For each of the following. Data can be collected from internal or external sources. a The sporting facilities that people would like to see in your area b The amount of income and source of income among Year 11 students . 3. An external source is where the data have been collected and are available by doing research. 5A Collecting data 1 For each of the following. 6. state whether the data source would be internal or external. 4. An internal source is where you need to gather the data yourself.152 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course remember 1. a The number of sets of trafﬁc lights in a country town b The number of students in Year 11 at your school who started high school at a different school c The most popular football team in Year 11 d The football team that attracts the largest crowds e The number of students in your class with a learner’s permit f The number of trees in your school grounds g The average weekly income of Year 11 students h The number of people who speed through an intersection WORKED Example 3 Rewrite the following open-ended questions so that the responses will be easier to tabulate. Internal data gathering can be done by observation or questioning.

Every ﬁfth tally mark becomes a gatepost. WORKED Example 2 A survey is conducted among 24 students who were asked to name their favourite spectator sport. 2 If you are using an internal source. You are now ready to collect your data. This is often done with tally marks and using the gatepost method.Chapter 5 Statistics and society 153 A statistical investigation – 3 For your investigation: 1 State whether your data will be obtained from external or internal sources. Their responses are recorded below. Usually the results are ﬁrst organised into a table and the number of responses in each category recorded. accurately recording your observations or tabulating the results of your research. Organising data Once data have been collected. Regardless of what method you are using. they need to be put into an organised form. This task is made easier if the questionnaire is designed with ease of tabulation in mind. This involves tallying the responses to a questionnaire. give details on how you are going to collect your data. WRITE Sport AFL Basketball Cricket Netball Rugby League Rugby Union Soccer Tennis Tally |||| | || |||| || || ||| | || | Frequency 6 2 7 2 3 1 2 1 . AFL Cricket Cricket Soccer Rugby League Cricket Tennis Cricket AFL Rugby League AFL AFL Rugby Union Soccer Netball Basketball Basketball Netball AFL Cricket Cricket AFL Rugby League Cricket THINK Draw a table and beside each sport put a tally mark for each response. state if you will use observations or questioning.

154 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course For simplicity. $75 $115 $60 $54 $88 $0 $98 $102 $56 $45 $83 $71 $40 $37 $87 $117 $43 $79 $58 $89 $70 $105 $99 $55 Complete the table below. . Income $0–$20 $21–$40 $41–$60 $61–$80 $81–$100 $101–$120 Tally Frequency THINK Count the number of responses within each category and put a tally mark in the column. numerical data may be tabulated in groups. These tables will be dealt with in greater depth in chapter 9. WORKED Example 3 A Year 11 class was surveyed on their weekly income. WRITE Income $0–$20 $21–$40 $41–$60 $61–$80 $81–$100 $101–$120 Tally | || |||| || |||| |||| | |||| Frequency 1 2 7 4 6 4 Here we have done some very simple tables. When data are collected they are usually ﬁrst organised into table form. 3. 2. Sometimes numerical data are better organised into categories. remember 1. The responses are shown below. Data can be easily counted using a tally column and the gatepost method.

A statistical investigation – 4 Organise the data for your investigation into a suitable table. 5. by 25 Year 11 students are shown 78 66 69 69 77 70 66 79 57 92 66 78 71 Copy and complete the table below. 6 5 4 7 7 7 6 8 8 8 10 8 4 5 7 6 9 8 6 7 6 7 7 5 5 7 9 9 6 7 Frequency tables Put these results into a table. out of 100. Work 5. Mark 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 80–89 90–99 4 The data below show the number of customers that entered a shop each day in a certain month.1 Presenting data in a frequency table SkillS 2 The results of a spelling test done by 30 students are shown below. Their Toyota Toyota Toyota Holden Ford Holden Toyota Mazda Ford Toyota Example 1 A class of students was asked to identify the make of responses are shown below.1 HEET sheet . 2 Holden Ford Nissan Mazda Ford Holden Ford Mitsubishi Nissan Holden Holden Ford Mazda Toyota Ford Holden Mitsubishi Toyota Holden Ford Put these results into a table. WORKED Example 3 The marks scored on below. 3 87 44 95 66 54 60 66 69 71 83 74 81 a Maths exam.Chapter 5 Statistics and society 155 5B WORKED Organising data car their family owned. 114 178 169 141 195 216 185 155 175 200 173 132 163 147 164 143 180 168 130 190 120 173 119 179 204 102 158 200 199 150 163 T SHEE Tally Frequency E L Spre XCE ad Choose suitable groupings to tabulate these data.

l e l t n r s FL al e al u o e ni A etb rick etb eag Uni occ Ten S sk C N y L by Ba gb ug Ru R Sport . Categories are written on the horizontal axis and frequencies on the vertical axis.156 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Displaying data The most common way for displaying data is by using a graph. THINK 1 2 3 Frequency 6 2 7 2 3 1 2 1 WRITE 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Draw the horizontal axis showing each sport. For now. WORKED Example 4 The table below shows the results of the survey on favourite sports. Different graphs have different purposes. A column graph is used when we wish to show a quantity. Sport AFL Basketball Cricket Netball Rugby League Rugby Union Soccer Tennis Show this information in a column graph. Draw the columns. we will look brieﬂy at column graphs and sector graphs. which we will look at in more detail in chapter 9. Frequency Draw a vertical axis to show frequencies up to 7.

6. arrow down to Graph Type and press F1 for Hist. 3. Consider worked example 4. Press F6 for SET. Press F6 to draw the column graph. 5. Then arrow down to Xlist and press F1 for List 1. it is probably easier to draw the column graph manually but knowing how to do this will be of use later in this course. Press F1 for GRPH. The calculator will not recognise any words so we will need to replace the names of the sports with the numbers 1–8. An angle is drawn at the centre of the circle that is the same fraction of 360°.Chapter 5 Statistics and society 157 Graphics Calculator tip! Drawing graphs Your Casio graphics calculator can be used to draw some types of graphs. 4. which has no gaps between the columns. 1. Delete any existing data. then arrow down to Frequency and press F3 for List 2. Enter a Start = 1 and a Pitch = 1. A sector graph is used when we want the graph to display a comparison of quantities. 2. as the fraction of people making each response. It will be drawn as a histogram. In practice. including column graphs. Write these numbers in List 1 and the Frequencies in List 2. Press EXE to return to the previous screen then F1 for GPH1. . Your display should be as shown on the right. From the MENU select STAT.

A sector graph is drawn when we want to compare quantities. . Column graphs and sector graphs can also be drawn using a spreadsheet and the charting tool. A column graph is drawn when we want to display quantities. draw a sector graph. remember 1. × 360° × 360° 3 ----24 Basketball = Netball = × 360° 2 ----24 2 ----24 × 360° × 360° = 90° = 105° Rugby League = Rugby Union = Soccer = 2 ----24 = 30° = 30° Rugby League = 45° 1 ----24 × 360° Tennis = 1 ----24 Rugby Union = 15° × 360° × 360° = 30° 2 = 15° Sport AFL Basketball Cricket Netball Rugby League Rugby Union Soccer Tennis Draw the graph. THINK 1 WRITE AFL = Cricket = 6 ----24 7 ----24 Calculate each angle as a fraction of 360°. 2.158 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 5 For the table in worked example 4.

3 Reading line graphs SkillS HEET HEET 5. Column graphs (DIY) E L Spre XCE ad sheet Sector graphs (DIY) GC am progr –C asio A statistical investigation – 6 What conclusions and recommendations can you make based on your study? UV stats program GC –TI Writing the report The ﬁnal stage is to collate all earlier stages into a written report. 3 Draw a column graph to display the data from question 2 of Exercise 5B. UV stats A statistical investigation – 7 Complete a written report for your statistical inquiry. they need to be studied and conclusions drawn. You may prefer to do so using a spreadsheet. These conclusions should be written in point form and from them recommendations can be made to the relevant bodies. . by entering your results and using the charting function to produce your graphs.Chapter 5 Statistics and society 159 5C WORKED Displaying data 5. 4 Draw a column graph to display the data from question 3 of Exercise 5B. The conclusions and recommendations should be written and include reasons why these conclusions were reached. what type of data were collected and from what sources they were collected. 6 Draw a sector graph to compare the number of people in each category from question 3 of Exercise 5B.2 Reading column graphs SkillS Example 1 Draw a column graph to display the data from question 1 of Exercise 5B. The written report should: 1. 3. The tables used should be included. It is at this stage that those making the statistical inquiry can reﬂect on the results and decide what the data mean. 2 Draw a sector graph to display the data from question 1 of Exercise 5B. 2. Relevant graphs should be used to display the data.4 Drawing sector graphs E SkillS A statistical investigation – 5 For your investigation draw suitable graphs. 5. 4 WORKED HEET Example 5 5. Pose the questions that the statistical analysis is examining. Explain how data were collected. 5 Draw a column graph to display the data from question 4 of Exercise 5B. 4. L Spre XCE ad sheet Analysing data and drawing conclusions Once the data have been organised and displayed.

the batch is rejected. If more than 3% of the matchboxes have less than 50 matches in them. WORKED Example 6 A batch of matchboxes is tested for its contents. 10 -------300 Calculate 10 as a percentage of 300. as there are more than 3% of boxes with less than 50 matches. . This is known as quality control. ‘Minimum contents 50 matches’. If 300 matchboxes are tested and 10 have less than 50 matches. Make a conclusion. If more than 3% of the boxes have less than 50 matches. a sample of matchboxes from the batch is tested. The cover of the matchbox says. is the batch accepted or rejected? THINK 1 2 WRITE -× 100% = 3 1 % 3 The batch is rejected. To ensure that this statement is correct. Consider the example of a company that produces matches.160 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Quality control Companies use statistics to ensure that their product is of a required standard. the batch is said to be unsatisfactory and the entire batch is rejected.

6% The batch is accepted. Calculate the percentage that go ﬂat in less than 400 hours. You should be able to obtain this information from a table. 29 batteries went ﬂat in less than 400 hours. Determine whether this batch is accepted or rejected. Count the number of batteries that take less than 400 hours to go ﬂat. remember 1. WORKED Example 7 From a batch of batteries a sample is tested to see how long it will take for them to go ﬂat. Life (hours) 200–249 250–299 300–349 350–399 400–449 450–499 500–549 550–599 600–649 650–699 Frequency 2 5 7 15 42 38 36 20 7 3 If more than 20% of batteries go ﬂat in less than 400 hours. Make a conclusion about the batch. 29 -------175 Count the number of batteries in the sample. The results are shown below. the batch is rejected.Chapter 5 Statistics and society 161 In some cases you will need to be able to tabulate the results before making a conclusion. Statistical methods are used in quality control. 2. You will need to calculate the percentage of a sample that meets the requirements. THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE 175 batteries in the sample. . × 100% = 16. 3.

1 mm. If 17 tyres lose their tread in less than 15 000 km.1 4. 95% of the screws must have a diameter between 3. The results are shown in the table at right. Determine if the batch is satisfactory.0 4. . If more than 5% of the tyres lose their tread in less than 15 000 km.8–3. To be considered satisfactory. The contents of the boxes are given below. Hours 0–249 250–499 500–649 750–999 1000–1249 1250–1499 No. 2 One kilogram bags of sugar are tested to check their mass. of screws 3 14 58 46 1 5 Boxes of toothpicks contain a minimum of 100 toothpicks. The results are shown in the table at right. A sample of globes are taken and tested to see how long 7 they will burn. If more than 2% of the bags have a mass less than 1 kg. 102 101 100 102 98 103 102 101 99 101 105 102 101 100 101 100 101 102 103 100 101 100 103 100 103 101 100 100 101 99 102 100 104 102 100 99 101 103 102 101 100 101 105 103 105 103 100 106 101 102 100 100 101 100 103 100 100 100 102 100 Determine if the batch is satisfactory.5 WORKED Example Writing one quantity as a percentage of another 1 A batch of 400 tyres is tested. If more than 4% of the boxes contain less than 100 toothpicks. 60 boxes of toothpicks are selected and their contents counted. cal6 culate if the batch is accepted or rejected. If 246 bags have a mass of 1 kg or more.9 3. the batch is rejected. Diameter 3. A batch of 250 bags is tested. the batch is rejected. A sample of the batch is tested. the batch is rejected. 3 A batch of light globes is tested. at least 90% of the batch must burn for more than 1000 hours. Determine if the batch is satisfactory. of globes 1 6 15 46 89 65 WORKED Example 4 The diameter of a batch of screws is given as 4 mm. For the batch to be considered satisfactory.2 No.0–4.162 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 5D SkillS Quality control HEET 5.9 mm and 4.1–4. From a batch.7–3.9–4.8 3. calculate if the batch is accepted or rejected.

5. From a batch of bottles. If this information were then sold to an insurance company. which. This can be done by doing the survey anonymously. Examples of this are: • information on people’s income • information about people’s voting intentions. the participant can be sure that the information provided cannot be tracked back to them. For example. In this case there must be some guarantee to the participants that the information will remain conﬁdential. Ethical issues arise when organisations sell their data to other organisations. 599 606 600 615 602 600 603 607 598 598 602 600 602 594 600 598 615 602 610 597 585 602 590 595 604 592 588 610 604 605 604 595 602 601 606 603 608 608 600 600 Work T SHEE Determine if the batch is satisfactory. To be considered satisfactory. it is necessary for those conducting the inquiry to take steps to ensure that the privacy of the participants in the survey is maintained. and when the data have been collated that response forms will be destroyed. or the use of grouping the data so speciﬁc details do not need to be revealed. This may include anonymous surveying. 2 Try to create a set of conditions under which people may be more willing to reveal more detailed private information. In your class make a list of all such issues.2 Privacy and ethical issues Many of the questions that are the subject of statistical analysis ask people to provide information that may be considered private. The volumes found are shown below. When such questions need to be asked. 90% of the bottles must contain between 590 mL and 610 mL. Privacy issues 1 Discuss with your family and friends the information they consider too private to reveal for the purposes of a survey.Chapter 5 Statistics and society 163 6 The label on a soft drink bottle states that it contains 600 mL. . in turn. 40 are selected and their volumes measured. large organisations doing major research are unable to do anonymous studies. a bank needs to keep information on its mortgage customers. privacy guarantees. There are other issues associated with the use of statistical information. was able to approach these people seeking their business. a major ethical breach would have occurred. In some cases. In this way.

and NRMA. Morgan Gallup Polls. the source of the statistics will be given. These organisations include: Australian Bureau of Statistics. magazine or newspaper. World Health Organization. In many cases the methods used by the organisation will also be explained. 2 For what purpose is this information collected? 3 What conclusions do they hope to draw? 4 For whom is the information collected and who is going to act on the results? . United Nations. From this you can ﬁnd out the names of many similar organisations.164 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Statistical organisations Many major organisations carry out regular statistical analysis. Organisations that use statistics Choose an organisation that regularly collects statistical data. If you look at any statistical analysis in a book. 1 Give an example of the type of information it aims to collect. These organisations collect data for a wide variety of purposes.

Australian Bureau of Statistics and the World Health Organization use statistics for the beneﬁt of the communities they serve.Chapter 5 Statistics and society 165 summary Analysing data • Data are analysed by various groups for many reasons. Quality control Statistical methods are used by companies to maintain standards in their products and to determine consumer satisfaction. • When data are put into a meaningful form they become more meaningful as information. Summarising and displaying data — the display of the tables used and the drawing of graphs. Statistical processes There are six stages to a statistical inquiry. Analysing data and drawing conclusions — reading and interpreting the results to answer the original problem. Major organisations Organisations such as the United Nations. Stage 4. Stage 6. Stage 2. Collecting data — this can be done: externally — this involves obtaining data from outside sources internally — this involves researchers generating information. Posing questions — questions are set to ﬁnd the information that will help solve the problem. Internal collection of data can be done by observation or questioning. In each case the aim is to provide a useful conclusion to a problem. readable form. . Stage 1. • Facts that are gathered are called data. Stage 5. Organising data — putting the results into an organised. Stage 3. Writing a report — the explanation of the above processes and how the conclusions were reached.

test yourself 5 . state whether the data source would be external or internal. 5B 5 A group of Year 11 students were asked to state the number of CDs that they had purchased in the last year. The results are shown below. a What is the distance from your home to school? b Describe the type of house you live in. state whether the data would be gathered using observation or questioning. 5C 5C CHAPTER 6 Draw a column and a sector graph to represent the results to question 4. 10–14 etc. 1 6 3 4 4 3 5 4 4 2 6 2 2 3 2 3 2 4 3 6 5 1 1 2 3 5 4 5A 5A 5B Put these results into a table.166 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CHAPTER review 5A 1 For each of the statistical investigations below. a The number of surfers on various beaches b The brand of surfboard preferred by surfers c The average height of Year 11 students at your school d The most popular movie among Year 11 students at your school 3 Rewrite each of the following questions so that the results are easier to tabulate. The results are shown below. 5–9. c What is the number of kilometres that your family car travels in one year? d What is your favourite sport? 4 A survey is conducted on the number of people living in each household in a street. a The wins recorded by a major football team b The number of brick homes in an area c The number of sales made by a department store in a month d The amount of trafﬁc passing through an intersection in one hour 2 For each of the following. 7 Draw a column and a sector graph to represent the results to question 5. 12 9 12 1 5 6 13 11 18 20 0 7 5 14 10 22 25 9 35 3 6 12 8 23 17 10 14 20 9 19 Put the results into a table using the categories 0–4.

Data collection and sampling 6 syllabus reference Data analysis 2 • Data collection and sampling In this chapter 6A Target populations and sampling 6B Population characteristics 6C Bias 6D Types of data 6E Estimating populations .

250 c 45. Writing one amount as a percentage of another READY? b 15% of it is 126 c 2. . 527 6. 200 b 54. 1 In each of the following write the ﬁrst quantity as a percentage of the second.4% of it is 28. a 12.1 Are you ready? Try the questions below.areyou 6. If you have difﬁculty with any of them. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET.3 Finding a percentage of a quantity 3 Find: a 15% of 900 b 6% of 1150 c 8.25% of 1327. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy.8.2 Unitary method of percentages 2 Find the total quantity given that: a 5% of it is 230 6.

2. Does the company need to ﬁnd out what every household is watching? Obviously they do not.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 169 Target populations and sampling In the previous chapter we looked at statistics and the role they play in society. Find out about Gallup and his work and how Gallup polls are used today. For such a survey. 3 A newspaper wants a survey to predict the winner of a forthcoming election. To gather data we conduct a poll. we would not conduct our survey at the local ﬁtness club. 2 The local council wants to know what sporting facilities are needed in the local area. In a census an entire population is counted. For example. In this case it is reasonable to ask every Year 12 student their opinion. A sample is a more practical method for doing most surveys. we would survey doctors and other medical personnel. For the purposes of most statistical investigations. 4 A group of people planning to build a preschool would like to know what facilities attract people to a particular preschool. Gallup poll The most famous poll is named after its founder. Census. the American statistician. This means identifying the sections of the population for whom the statistical investigation will have meaning. such as the Year 12 example above. Australians complete ‘The Census’ every ﬁve years. band and meals for the Year 12 farewell. Now consider the case of selecting a band to play at the Year 12 farewell. Identifying the target population For each of the following statistical investigations. 5 A recording label wants to estimate the potential success of a ‘grunge’ band. A poll is the recording of responses to a set of questions known as a questionnaire. as well as a selection of patients who use the existing facilities. The TV ratings example is one where a sample is used. . 1 The school ‘End of Year’ Committee wants to ﬁnd out the preferred venue. if investigating the medical needs of a community. George Gallup. a census surveys everyone in the target population. The ﬁrst step in gathering the relevant data for a statistical investigation is to target the population to be investigated. In this chapter we investigate in more detail how data are collected. who was born in 1901. identify the population that you would target for a survey. Only a selection of the target population is surveyed. with the results taken to be representative of the whole group. This is a survey of every household in the nation conducted by the Bureau of Statistics. they ask a selection of homes to record their TV viewing. When starting an investigation. Sample. we must determine the quantity of data needed for the database. Data can be collected in one of two ways: 1. Consider the case of a company calculating the TV ratings.

every person in the target population should have an equal chance of being selected. If this method is used.170 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 1 In each of the following. stratiﬁed sample and systematic sample. c A light globe manufacturer tests every hundredth light globe off the production line. THINK a Every student is counted at roll call each morning. a A school uses the roll to count the number of students absent each day. To get a genuinely random sample. 20% of the students at this 2 school are in Year 7. In a random sample those to be surveyed are selected by chance. . b Not every family is asked to complete a ratings survey. state if the information was obtained by census or sample.% of the survey Year 10 185 3 participants are in Year 7. but if we did this the survey Year 8 180 would not have the correct proportion of students from Year 9 190 each year. For example. Method 1. When a random sample is conducted. the method of sampling is important. Each random number is multiplied by 1000 and then rounded up to give a whole number between 1 and 1000. but only 16 -. Random sample. the names of the people to complete your survey may be drawn from a hat. in which 2000 families complete a survey on what they watch over a one week period. c Not every light globe is tested. We could select 10 from each year. Year 11 135 If we randomly select the 60 participants. d A teacher records the examination marks of her class. you could use the random number generator on your Total 1000 calculator. Year 7 200 Suppose we decide to survey 60 students. We could then take the roll number of the student corresponding to this number. The calculator will give you a random decimal number between 0 and 1. There are three main methods of choosing a sample: random sample. We want a mixture of students and could choose a ﬁxed number of students from each year. b The television ratings. you should get a good mixture of people in your survey. we could expect those chosen to resemble the overall Year 12 110 population. of Year students a school. For example. d The marks of every student are recorded. WRITE a Census b Sample c Sample d Census To ensure that the results of your sample are representative of the whole population. Repeating this 60 times will give us a genuinely random sample. Suppose that we are going to survey students in No.

Round up to whole numbers. There are 750 students at the school.47 × 60 47% of 60 = 28. To choose the participants. For example.2 53% of 60 = 0. Stratiﬁed sample. This method is mostly used in quality control situations discussed in the previous chapter. Find 47% of 60. .Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 171 WORKED Example 2 Three students from a school are to be selected to participate in a statewide survey of school students.421 × 750 = 315.25 0.983.911 × 750 = 683. In doing a survey. 20% of the school population are in Year 7 and so 20% of your sample should be from Year 7. how many students of each sex should he choose if he decides to use a stratiﬁed sample? THINK 1 WRITE 47% of 60 = 0. Find 53% of 60. The quality control department may test every 20th pair of shoes that come off the production line.53 × 60 53% of 60 = 31. What are the roll numbers of the students who should be selected? THINK 1 WRITE 0. Method 2. In this type of sample you deliberately choose people to complete your survey who are representative of the whole population.983 × 750 = 737.75 The 738th. a random number generator is used with the results 0. WORKED Example 3 Adrian is conducting a survey of school students. For example. 0.8 There should be 28 males and 32 females in Adrian’s survey. 47% of the population are male and 53% are female. Systematic sample. if you survey people in the playground you may: • have a tendency to ask people you know • choose an area where a lot of students from a particular year tend to sit • choose more of one sex than the other.421. 684th and the 316th people on the roll would be surveyed.25 0. Make a conclusion about how many of each sex should participate in the survey. 2 3 The population is 47% male and so 47% of the sample should be male. In the school survey you would need to select six strata that had the correct proportion of students from each year. every 20th person on the school roll may be surveyed.911 and 0. At his school. 2 Multiply the results of the random number generator by the size of the population. rounding off your answers. Method 3. In this example. suppose that the quality and strength of sports shoes is being tested. Any other method may not give a truly representative sample. If Adrian decides to survey 60 students. Systematic sampling is where those chosen for the sample are chosen in a systematic or organised way. The population is 53% female and so 53% of the sample should be female.

6A WORKED Target populations and sampling Example 1 1 A school conducts an election for a new school captain.172 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course remember 1. state whether a census or a sample has been used. Stratiﬁed sample — those sampled are chosen in proportion to the entire population. There are three methods for selecting a sample. Before beginning a statistical investigation it is important to identify the target population. recommend whether you would use a census or a sample to obtain the results. 2 A survey is conducted by a council to see what sporting facilities the community needs. a Two hundred people in a shopping centre are asked to nominate the supermarket where they do most of their grocery shopping. Two thousand people are telephoned and asked about their voting intention. This is best done using a random number generator. Systematic sample — a system is used to choose those who are to be in the sample. is this an example of a census or a sample? 3 For each of the following surveys. 2. Random sample — chance is the only factor in deciding who is surveyed. every 100th tyre is road tested. c To ﬁnd the most popular new car on the road. Method 1. The survey can be conducted either by: (a) Census — the entire target population is surveyed. Every teacher and student in the school votes. Is this an example of a census or a sample? Explain your answer. Is this an example of a census or a sample? . Method 3. or (b) Sample — a selection is surveyed such that those selected are representative of the entire target population. e To test the quality of tyres on a production line. every student’s mark is recorded. If 500 people who live in the community are surveyed. 500 new car buyers are asked what make and model car they purchased. Method 2. the make and model of every new car registered are recorded. 3. 4 For each of the following. d To ﬁnd the average mark in the Mathematics half-yearly exam. a To ﬁnd the most watched television program on Monday night at 7:30 pm b To ﬁnd the number of cars sold during a period of one year c To ﬁnd the number of cars that pass through the tollgates on the Sydney Harbour Bridge each day d To ﬁnd the percentage of computers produced by a company that are defective 5 An opinion poll is conducted to try to predict the outcome of an election. b To ﬁnd the most popular new car on the road.

498 0.031 0. state whether the sample used is an example of random. b Calculate the electoral roll numbers of the people who should be chosen for the survey.251 0. Five employees are selected to participate in an Occupational Health and Safety survey. 0. D An advertising agency wants to know the most watched program on television. At her work 68% of the workers are male and 32% are female. a Every 10th tyre coming off a production line is tested for quality. if she chooses to use a stratiﬁed sample? . If Zara decides to survey 50 workers. 0. WORKED Example 12 Zara is conducting a survey of the people at work. B A local council wants to know if a skateboard ramp would be popular with young people in the area. A survey of 10 students in the school is to be conducted. c The police breathalyse the driver of every red car. b A company employs 300 men and 450 women. C An author wants a cricket player’s statistics for a book being written.326.229 0. how many of each sex 3 should she choose.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 173 WORKED Example 2 6 A factory has 500 employees.352. 9 For each of the following.932 0. a random number generator is used.988 0.018. B Twenty students to participate in the survey are chosen by a random number generator.247 0. A random number generator is used to select the participants. The results are 0. stratiﬁed or systematic sampling. C Twenty students to participate in the survey are selected in proportion to the number of students in each school year. 11 multiple choice Which of the following statistical investigations would be practical to complete by census? A A newspaper wants to know public opinion on a political issue. e Fans at a football match ﬁll in a questionnaire.989 and 0.661 0. Those selected are to be chosen using a random number generator. What are the employee numbers of those to participate in the survey? 7 A school has 837 students.443 what are the roll numbers of the students who should be selected? 8 A survey is to be conducted of 20 out of 50 000 people in a country town. The questionnaire is then given to 40 people in the grandstand and 100 people who paid for a general admission seat. To choose the participants. Each employee has an employee number between 1 and 500. D Ten boys and 10 girls are chosen to participate in the survey. d The names of the participants in a survey are drawn from a hat.762. 10 multiple choice Which of the following is an example of a systematic sample? A The ﬁrst 20 students who arrive at school each day participate in the survey. The sample of employees chosen for a survey contains 20 men and 30 women. a Use your calculator to generate 20 random numbers.967 0. If the random numbers chosen are: 0. The ground contains 8000 grandstand seats and 20 000 general admission seats. 0.

state the best method for selecting the sample. . 4 A theme park wants to know from which state and suburb its visitors come. In such cases we use the stratiﬁed sampling technique.. the sample should have an equal number of males and females. state whether you would gather data using a census or sample. it is important that the sample taken has similar characteristics to the entire population. 3 A market research company wants to determine the most popular brand of toothpaste. and the ages of those in the sample should be in the same proportion as for the whole population. Percentage of students 20% 19% 21% 16% 13% 11% Year 7 8 9 10 11 12 If 40 students are to participate in a survey. if we expect our sample to have incomes in the same proportions as those of the general population. For example. To get an accurate estimate. Census or sample For each of the following statistical investigations. 1 A company wants to test the life of its batteries. For those for which you would use a sample. to estimate the average income of Australians we could conduct an anonymous survey of a sample of the Australian population. For example.174 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 13 The table below shows the percentage of students that are in each year of a school. religion etc. Population characteristics Characteristics about a population can be estimated by taking a sample of that population. 5 A Gallup poll is conducted to determine the preferred prime minister. Characteristics (such as sex and age) of the population and the sample must also match. ﬁnd the number chosen from each year group if stratiﬁed sampling is used. ethnic background. The area sampled should include a cross-section of people according to socio-economic level. similar to that of the whole population. 2 A sporting club wants to elect a new club president.

what would be the effect if our sample: 1 contained a majority of one sex? 2 contained only people in the 15–21 age group? 3 contained only people who live in a small country town? To calculate the number of participants in a sample from each strata of the population.18 ≈ 5.30 ≈ 5. Sam is conducting a music survey for the school disco. Year 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total Grand total WRITE Year 7 boys = Year 7 girls = Year 8 boys = Year 8 girls = Year 9 boys = Year 9 girls = Year 10 boys = ≈ 5. He plans to survey 60 students.61 ≈ 5.22 ≈ 5. WORKED Example 4 The table at right shows the enrolment at a high school.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 175 Population characteristics If we are trying to estimate the average income of Australian families.88 . we calculate each strata as a fraction of the total population and multiply this fraction by the total number to be chosen in the sample. × 60 × 60 × 60 × 60 × 60 × 60 × 60 Continued over page ≈ 6. Show how Sam should break down his sample in terms of year and sex.85 102 -------984 85 -------984 87 -------984 92 -------984 88 -------984 80 -------984 96 -------984 Boys 96 85 92 80 71 69 493 Girls 102 87 88 74 75 65 491 984 THINK 1 Write each strata as a fraction of the total and then multiply by the 60 to be chosen in the sample.37 ≈ 4.

round off each of these answers to the nearest whole number. Stratiﬁed sampling is used to ensure that a sample chosen is representative of the entire population. remember 1.176 THINK Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WRITE Year 10 girls = Year 11 boys = Year 11 girls = Year 12 boys = Year 12 girls = 74 -------984 71 -------984 75 -------984 69 -------984 65 -------984 × 60 × 60 × 60 × 60 × 60 ≈ 4. write each stratum as a fraction of the total population.21 ≈ 3. the total number of people to participate in the sample may add to one more than the number that we planned to select. . Note that on some occasions after rounding off each of the answers. the person doing the sample should include this extra person as it gives a better sample of the overall population.57 ≈ 4. as a result of rounding off.96 Number of students to be sampled Year 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total Grand total Boys 6 5 6 5 4 4 30 Girls 6 5 5 5 5 4 30 60 2 To complete the table. Round off each of the answers to this multiplication to the nearest whole number. In such cases. 2.33 ≈ 4. and then multiply by the number of people you intend to select in the sample. To choose the number of participants from each stratum in the population.51 ≈ 4. Sometimes. there may be one more to be chosen in the sample than was originally intended. 3.

Using a stratiﬁed survey.3 Finding a percentage of a quantity SkillS If a survey is to be given to 50 students at the school. How many employees at each level should be surveyed? 5 The Department of Education wants to survey a school population. 60 are middle management and 180 are employed as clerks. A survey is to be conducted of 50 staff members. If the department is to survey a total of 50 people.1 Writing one amount as a percentage of another SkillS Example 1 The table below shows the number of students in each year at a school. The business intends to survey 40 of their employees. how many people of each sex participated? 3 A business has 400 employees of which 250 are female and 150 are male.2 Unitary method of percentages SkillS 6. At the school there are 93 teachers and 1248 students. how many teachers and how many students should participate in the survey? 6 The table below shows the age and sex of the staff of a corporation. how many employees of each sex should be surveyed? 4 In the head ofﬁce of a bank there are 250 employees. Ten of these employees are senior management. . 4 Year 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total No. suggest the breakdown of people to participate in terms of age and sex. how many from each year should be chosen if a stratiﬁed sample is used? 2 A company employs 300 men and 200 women. If a stratiﬁed survey is to be conducted. If a survey of 60 employees using a stratiﬁed sample is completed. Age 20–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 Male 61 40 74 5 Female 44 50 16 10 A survey of 50 employees is to be done. of students 90 110 90 80 70 60 500 HEET HEET HEET 6.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 177 6B WORKED Population characteristics 6.

Complete the table below to show the number of students from each year and sex who should participate in a stratiﬁed sample. Given that there are 200 votes to be distributed. two smaller department stores of 750 m2 and 40 small stores of 50 m2. how many votes should each business get? 9 The table below shows the population of a school.178 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 7 The table below shows the number of students who are in each year level at a school. how many should be chosen from each year level? 8 A shopping centre has a ﬂoor area of 5000 m2. The management of the centre assigns voting rights in the shopping centre in proportion to the ﬂoor area of each business. There is one major department store with an area of 1500 m2. Year 7 8 9 10 11 12 Boys 104 112 107 97 75 68 Girls 98 119 110 88 82 66 A survey of 100 students is to be conducted. Year 7 8 9 10 Work T SHEE Boys Girls 6. Year 7 8 9 10 11 12 Number of students 187 192 168 157 137 108 If 80 students are to be selected to participate in a survey.1 11 12 .

3 Every insurance customer completes a questionnaire when renewing their policy. how many students should participate? 8 In the Parliament there are 90 Liberals and 60 Labor members. 6 Private and business telephone numbers are chosen in proportion to the number of private and business listings. 9 For question 8. For each of the following. If a stratiﬁed sample is chosen. . Calculate the percentage of the whole school population in each year for both boys and girls. 3 Liberal and 3 Labor members are selected. 5 Every 1000th person in the telephone book. Choose a suitable sample size and calculate the number of boys and girls needed from each year to complete your survey. 1 A school votes to elect a school captain.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 179 Choosing a sample Consider how you would choose your sample if you wished to conduct a survey for your next school disco. Step 3. For a committee. state the type of sample that has been taken. Step 2. 7 In a school there are 1000 students and 100 teachers. 10 Give an advantage that stratiﬁed sampling has over random sampling. Explain why this is not a stratiﬁed sample. Step 1. Use the method in worked example 4 to select the number of boys and girls that should be chosen from each year to do your survey. state whether a census or sample has been used. 2 Five hundred drivers complete a survey on the state of a major highway. 1 For each of the following. A sample of 20 members of the school is to participate in an Occupational Health and Safety review. Find out the number of boys and girls enrolled in each year at your school. calculate the correct number of people who should have been selected from each party. 4 A computer selects 500 phone numbers.

Sampling bias As discussed previously. kangaroos cause massive damage on many farming properties. Indeed. as discussed earlier. ‘As you know. Statistical calculations performed on the sample would then be a reliable indication of the population’s features. ‘There are lies. Selecting a sample using a non-random method. If the survey was conducted by an interviewer. would almost certainly encourage a negative response. an ideal sample should reﬂect the characteristics of the population. the interpretation of results.180 Bias Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course No doubt you have heard the comment. Posing a question in the form. sampling bias 3. we should always make informed decisions of our own and not simply accept the mass of statistics that bombards us through the media. would encourage a positive response. generally tends to introduce an element of bias. . Using a leading question (one which leads the respondent to answer in a particular way) can cause bias to creep into responses. Respondents in these situations feel obliged to show compassion. would cause most respondents to answer according to their understanding of the terms used. questionnaire design 2. This implies that we should be wary of statistical ﬁgures quoted. ‘Do you think we need to cull herbivorous marsupial mammals in Australia?’. In the case of a self-administered survey. Using terminology that is unfamiliar to a large proportion of those being surveyed would certainly produce unreliable responses. The questions may be designed to be emotive in nature. Would you be in favour of culling kangaroos in Australia?’. damned lies and statistics’. there would be no indication of whether the question was understood or not. the term could be explained. not found anywhere else in the world. You’d agree that their numbers need culling. Bias can be introduced into statistics by: 1. Bias in questionnaire design Consider a survey designed to collect data on opinions relating to culling kangaroo numbers in Australia. wouldn’t you?’. ‘The kangaroo is identiﬁed as a native Australian animal. Rephrasing the question in the form.

When data are collected from mailing surveys. recording multiple votes.1% ‘for’ and 49. This type of sampling does not produce a representative sample of the population. the true ﬁgures have been hidden behind words with very broad meanings. a sample could be chosen to support the issue. an interviewer on a street corner may record responses from many passers-by. In collecting information on a local issue. magazines or any printed material to collect instances of quoted statistics that you believe to be biased. Although we would probably not learn the real facts. while the ‘No’ respondents are asked to ring a different phone-in number. Conduct a search of newspapers. From all the data collected. we should be wary of statistical issues quoted in such terms. Bias in statistics The aim of this investigation is to study statistical data that you suspect to be biased. A ‘Yes’ response is recorded on a given phone-in number. Statistical interpretation bias Once the data have been collected. Consider a survey to determine which lemonade was more popular — Kirks or Schweppes. Misleading graphs can be drawn leading to a biased interpretation of the data. while those with more moderate views tend to lack representation in their correct proportion. Graphical representations of a set of data can give a visual impression of ‘little change’ or ‘major change’ depending on the scales used on the axes. bias results if the non-response rate is high (even if the selected sample was a random one). discuss: 1 the purpose of the survey 2 how the data might have been collected 3 the question(s) that may have been asked (try to pose the question(s) in a variety of ways to inﬂuence different outcomes) 4 ways in which bias might be introduced 5 variations in interpretation of the data. ‘almost all’ and ‘most’ are open to interpretation. collated and subjected to statistical calculations. There are occasions when television advertisements quote statistical ﬁgures as a result of questionable sampling techniques. A sample may be selected under abnormal conditions. The responses received often represent only those with strong views on the subject. When we consider that 50. The use of terms such as ‘majority’. bias may still occur in the interpretation of the results. For each example. . Collecting data one week when one of the brands was on special at half price would certainly produce misleading results.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 181 Particular responses can be selected from all those received. Only those who are highly motivated tend to ring and there is no monitoring of the number of times a person might call. Data are often collected by radio and television stations via telephone polls.9% ‘against’ represents a ‘majority for’ an issue. or alternatively another sample could be chosen to refute the same issue.

1 A survey is to be conducted to decide the most popular sport in a local community.5 66 2005 20 54 5 100 Graph 2 We shall use a spreadsheet to produce misleading graphs based on these data. Graph 3 .5 50 2000 13 44 2. Spreadsheets creating misleading graphs Let us practise producing misleading graphs. Year Wages ($m) % increase in wages Proﬁts ($m) % increase in proﬁts Graph 1 1990 6 25 1 20 1995 9 50 1. Consider the data in this table. 2 A music store situated in a shopping centre wants to know the type of music that it should stock. The sample was taken from people who passed by the store between 10 and 11 am on a Tuesday.182 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Biased sampling Discuss the problems that would be caused by each of the following biased samples. 3 A newspaper conducting a Gallup poll on an election took a sample of 1000 people from Sydney. A sample of 100 people was surveyed. A sample of 100 people was questioned at a local football match.

Experiment with shortening the horizontal length and lengthening the vertical axis. THINK a 1 WRITE a Phoning two randomly selected households per page of the telephone directory is possibly a representative sample. This effect was obtained by lengthening the horizontal axis and shortening the vertical axis. However. 3 Copy and paste the graph twice within the spreadsheet. A form beneath the article invited responses to the article. 5 In Graph 3 we get the impression that the wages and proﬁts are not very different. 3 . This effect was obtained by reducing the horizontal axis. those without a home phone and those with unlisted numbers could not form part of the sample. enter the Format axis option. a committee phoned two households (randomly selected) from each page of the local telephone book during the day. Another method which could be used to change the shape of a graph is to change the scale of the axes. click on the Scale tab. 4 Graph 2 gives the impression that the wages are a great deal higher than the proﬁts. 2 Graph the data using the Chart Wizard. 6 Print out your three graphs and examine their differences.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 183 1 Enter the data as indicated in the spreadsheet (see page 182). Techniques such as these are used to create different visual impressions of the same data. 8 Use the data in the table to create a spreadsheet. 2 Consider those with no phone contact. a In order to determine the extent of unemployment in a community. then experiment with changing the scale values on both axes. b A newspaper ran a feature article on the use of animals to test cosmetics. An unanswered call during the day would not necessarily imply that the resident was at work. Continued over page Consider phone book selection. Note that all three graphs have been drawn from the same data using valid scales. 7 Right click on the axis value. Experiment with various combinations. Consider the hours of contact. then produce two graphs depicting the percentage increase in both wages and proﬁts over the years giving the impression that: a the proﬁts of the company have not grown at the expense of wage increases (the percentage increase in wages is similar to the percentage increase in proﬁts) b the company appears to be exploiting its employees (the percentage increase in proﬁts is greater than that for wages). it is important to look carefully at the scales on the axes of graphs. WORKED Example 5 Discuss why the following selected samples could provide bias in the statistics collected. A cursory glance leaves us with three different impressions. Clearly. You should obtain a graph similar to Graph 1.

You’d agree with this. experience great hardship during the freezing winter months. questionnaire design 2. Would you contribute to a fund to build a shelter to house our homeless? b Most people think that. 6C Bias 1 Rewrite the following questions. sampling bias 3. interpretation of results. In emotive issues such as these. Consider the newspaper circulation.184 THINK b 1 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WRITE b Selecting a sample from a circulated newspaper excludes those who do not have access to the paper. through no fault of their own. wouldn’t you? 2 Rewrite parts a to d in question 1 so that the expected response is reversed. WORKED Example 3 What forms of sampling bias can you identify in the following samples? a Choosing a sample from students on a bus travelling to a sporting venue to answer a 5 questionnaire regarding sporting facilities at their school b Sampling using ‘phone-in’ responses to an issue viewed on a television program c Promoting the results of a mail-response survey when fewer than half the selected sample replied d Comparing the popularity of particular chocolate brands when one brand has a ‘two for the price of one’ special offer e Choosing a Year 7 class and a Year 12 class to gather data relating to the use of the athletics oval after school . By comparison. since we’ve developed as a nation in our own right and broken many ties with Great Britain. wouldn’t you? c You’d know that our Australian 50 cent coin is in the shape of a dodecagon. You’d agree. remember Bias can be introduced at each of the following stages: 1. only those with strong views will bother to respond. so the sample will represent extreme points of view. removing any elements or words that might contribute to bias in responses. a The poor homeless people. politicians seem to get life pretty easy when you take into account that they only work for part of the year and they receive all those perks and allowances. 2 Consider the urge to respond. wouldn’t you? d Many in the workforce toil long hours for low wages. we should adopt our own national ﬂag.

Questions can also create bias. Consider each of the following surveys and discuss: a any advantages. disadvantages and possible causes of bias b a way in which a truly representative sample could be obtained. ‘Is football your favourite sport?’ The question invites the response that football is the favourite sport rather than allowing a free choice from a variety of sports by the respondent. It is also unlikely that the survey will be representative of the whole population in terms of equality between men and women.’ 6 Surveys are conducted on samples to determine the characteristics of the population. To do this. Discuss whether the samples selected would provide a reliable indication of the population’s characteristics. The government wants to improve sporting facilities in Sydney. Consider asking the question. Sample Population a Year 11 students Student drivers b Year 12 students Students with part-time jobs c Residents attending a Residents of a suburb neighbourhood watch meeting d Students in the school choir Music students in the school e Cars in a shopping centre car park Models of Holden cars on the road f Males at a football match Popular TV programs g Users of the local library Popular teenage magazines Bias It is important that a sample is chosen randomly to avoid bias. . age of the participants and ethnic backgrounds. they choose the ﬁrst 1000 people through the gate at a football match at the Sydney Cricket Ground. In this situation it is likely that the results will be biased towards improving facilities for football. Consider the following situation.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 185 4 Why does this graph produce a biased visual impression? Australian currency Value of A$ compared with US $1 71c 70c 69c 9 May 11 May 12 May Date 5 Comment on the following statement: ‘University tests have demonstrated that Double-White toothpaste is consistently used by the majority of teenagers and is more effective than most other toothpastes. They decide to survey 1000 people about what facilities they would like to see improved.

5 An interview survey about violence in sport taken at a rugby league football venue as spectators leave. . Types of data Data can be put into two categories. Holden. 2 Researching the popularity of a government decision by stopping people at random in a central city mall. For example. 3 Using a telephone survey of 500 people selected at random from the phone book to ﬁnd if all Australian States should have Daylight Saving Time in summer. 4 A bookseller uses a public library database to survey for the most popular novels over the last three months. They are data to which we can assign a numerical value. An example of categorical data is makes of cars. Quantitative data are collected either by measurement or by counting. Other questions that would lead to categorical data would be things such as: • What is your hair colour? • Who is your favourite musical performer? • What method of transport do you use to get to school? 2 — Quantitative data Quantitative data can be measured.00 am and 2. they can only be put into categories. Mazda etc.186 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 1 Surveying food product choices by interviewing customers of a large supermarket chain as they emerge from the store between 9. The categories for the data would be all possible makes of cars such as Ford. the data collected by measuring the heights of students are quantitative data. Toyota.00 pm on a Wednesday. 1 — Categorical data Categorical data cannot be measured. The data collected by counting the ages of students in years are also quantitative data.

length and so on. such as achievement levels: very high. discrete and continuous. Values are often. represented by a number. Discrete Counted in exact values. type of vehicle. whole numbers. ordinal. There are two types of categorical data and two types of quantitative data. high. Data Categorical Data which are placed in categories. quantitative. such as hair colour. but not always. Continuous Measured in a continuous decimal scale. that is. b The breeds of dog at a show cannot be measured. and so on. such as hair colour: blond. Nominal Need sub-groups to complete the description.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 187 WORKED Example 6 State whether the following pieces of data are categorical or quantitative. The data are discrete as the number of absences 2 Determine whether the data are discrete or continuous. b The breeds of dog are categorical data. such as height. Quantitative Data which are in numerical form. Continued over page WORKED Example 7 . and so on. satisfactory and so on. number of children in the family. such as goals scored in a football match. nominal. temperature. shoe size and so on. non-numerical form. WRITE a The value of sales are quantitative data. brown and so on. can be counted and is an exact value. Classify each of the following data using two selections from the following descriptive words: categorical. such as mass. a the number of students absent from school b the types of vehicle using a certain road c the various pizza sizes available at a local takeaway d the room temperature at various times during a particular day THINK WRITE a 1 Determine whether the data are a The data are quantitative as absences are categorical or quantitative. Ordinal Need a ranking to order the description. a The value of sales recorded at each branch of a fast-food outlet b The breeds of dog that appear at a dog show THINK a The value of sales at each branch can be measured.

e The actual temperature for each day in January is recorded. Data can be classiﬁed as either: (a) categorical — the data are in categories. d 1 2 remember 1. usually whole numbers. 3. or (b) ordinal — the categories have a logical order. b The sex of respondents to a questionnaire is recorded as either M or F. 2. or (b) continuous — the data can take any value depending on the degree of accuracy. Quantitative data can be either: (a) discrete — the data can take only certain values.188 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course THINK b 1 Determine whether the data are categorical or quantitative. The data are nominal as there is no ranking or order involved. d The occurrence of hot. . The data are ordinal as pizzas are ranked in order of size. The data are continuous as temperature can assume any value and measurement is involved. or (b) quantitative — the data can be either measured or counted. 6D WORKED Types of data Example 6 1 State whether the data collected in each of the following situations would be categorical or quantitative. a The number of matches in each box is counted for a large sample of boxes. f Cinema critics are asked to judge a ﬁlm by awarding it a rating from one to ﬁve stars. Categorical data can be either: (a) nominal — where the order of the categories is not important. Determine whether the data are categorical or quantitative. warm. Determine whether the data are discrete or continuous. c A ﬁsheries inspector records the lengths of 40 cod. Determine whether the data are nominal or ordinal. c The data are categorical as the pizza sizes need to be ranked in order ranging from small to family. mild and cool weather for each day in January is recorded. c 1 2 WRITE b The data are categorical as the types of vehicle need to be placed in non-numerical categories. 2 Determine whether the data are nominal or ordinal. d The data are quantitative as room temperature is represented by a number. Determine whether the data are categorical or quantitative.

If quantitative. 3 State whether the quantitative data formed by each of the following situations are discrete or continuous. a The heights of 60 tomato plants at a plant nursery b The number of jelly beans in each of 50 packets c The time taken for each student in a class of six-year-olds to tie their shoelaces d The petrol consumption rate of a large sample of cars e The IQ (intelligence quotient) of each student in a class WORKED Example 7 4 Classify each of the following data using two words selected from the following descriptive words: categorical. Above average or Outstanding. ordinal. quantitative. c Visitors to a museum are recorded as being either male or female. state if the data are categorical or quantitative. state if the data are discrete or continuous. d The colour of each trafﬁc light on a journey is recorded. a The number of students in each class at your school b The teams people support at a football match c The brands of peanut butter sold at a supermarket d The heights of people in your class e The interest rate charged by each bank f A person’s pulse rate . Satisfactory.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 189 2 State whether the categorical data formed by each of the following situations are nominal or ordinal. nominal. a The population of your town or city b The types of motorbike in a parking lot c The heights of people in an identiﬁcation line-up d The masses of babies in a group e The languages spoken at home by students in your class f The time spent watching TV g The number of children in the families in your suburb h The air pressure in your car’s tyres i The number of puppies in a litter j The types of radio program listened to by teenagers k The times for swimming 50 metres l The quantity of ﬁsh caught in a net m The number of CDs you own n The types of shops in a shopping centre o The football competition ladder at the end of each round p The lifetime of torch batteries q The number of people attending a rock concert r Exam grades s The types of magazine sold at a newsagency t Hotel accommodation rating 5 For each of the following. e The make of each television in an electronics store is recorded. b The day of the week that a business has the most customers is recorded. discrete and continuous. a On a school report students are ranked as Unsatisfactory.

11 The graph at right shows a girl’s height each year for 10 years. 180 Height (cm) 160 140 120 100 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Age . Describe the data type used. Number of days in January 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 H ot m ild ar M W Weather Co ol Describe the data in this example.190 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 6 An opinion poll was conducted. C. D. 8 A teacher marks his students’ work using a mark out of 100. unsure. or E. A thousand people were given the statement ‘Euthanasia should be legalised’. Describe the data type in this example. Describe the data type used. disagree and strongly disagree. Each person was offered ﬁve responses: strongly agree. 9 multiple choice The number of people who are using a particular bus service are counted over a two week period. The data formed by this survey would be an example of: A categorical and ordinal data B cateorical and nominal data C quantitative and discrete data D quantitative and continuous data 10 The following graph shows the number of days of each weather type for the Gold Coast in January. 7 A teacher marks her students’ work with a grade A. agree. Describe the data in this example. B.

4 Explain a better method of getting public opinion on this issue. a sample of the population is captured. to allow the poorer families to have access to better services. In this technique. 9 Give an example of categorical data which is ordinal. and if quantitative. state whether the data are nominal or ordinal. wouldn’t you agree?’ Explain why this question is biased. For each of the following. 5 Customers in a video shop vote for their favourite movie. An example of this is the number of ﬁsh in a lake. state if they are continuous or discrete. If categorical. 3 A television program has a phone-in survey asking the question. recaptured) becomes an estimate of the percentage of the entire population that has been tagged. 10 Give an example of quantitative data which is discrete. 6 Customers in a video shop have records kept on the number of movies they hire each year. 2 Rewrite the above question to eliminate bias. Estimating populations Statistics are used to estimate populations that are too difﬁcult to count accurately.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 191 2 1 ‘The rich should pay more in tax. The method used to estimate the population is the ‘capture–recapture’ technique. The percentage of the second sample that have been previously tagged (that is. 8 The video shop keeps records of the length of each movie. tagged and then released back into the population. ‘Should criminals receive tougher sentences?’ Explain why telephone phone-in surveys have a sampling bias. . state if the data are categorical or quantitative. A second sample is then captured. 7 The video shop keeps records of the number of times each movie has been hired.

4 Estimate the total number. What would be their estimate of the population? THINK 1 WRITE 10 Percentage tagged = -------. jelly beans. To do this. 5% of population = 100 so 1% of population = 20 and 100% of population = 2000 Their estimate of the ﬁsh population in the lake is 2000. 1 Select a sample of these items and identify/tag them with a dab of liquid paper. Give a written answer. . The next day. 3 Select another sample and see how many are tagged. 6 Count the number of items to see how accurate your estimates were. they catch 100 ﬁsh. Use this percentage to calculate what 100% of the population would be. remember 1. 2 Put those selected back in with the others and mix them thoroughly. A second sample is then captured and the percentage tagged is an estimate of the percentage of the entire population that has been tagged. tag them and release them back into the lake. 4.192 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Estimating a population Make a large collection of marbles. 5 Put those selected back and repeat the process to see if you get a similar answer. 3. tagged and released back into the population. The capture–recapture technique is used to estimate populations that cannot be accurately counted with ease. A sample of the population is captured. The unitary method of percentages is then used to estimate the entire population.× 100% 200 Percentage tagged = 5% 2 3 Calculate the percentage of the second sample that has been tagged. WORKED Example 8 A group of marine biologists want to estimate the ﬁsh population in a lake. 2. they catch 200 ﬁsh and ﬁnd that 10 of them have been previously tagged. matches or toothpicks.

tagged and released. A second sample of ﬁsh were then caught. Estimate the population. The next day another 1000 ﬁsh are caught. The next day another sample of 400 ﬁsh are caught and 40 of them 8 have tags.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 193 6E WORKED Estimating populations Example 1 The ﬁsh population of a river is to be estimated. Calculate this average. This time 200 were caught and 20 had tags. c A third estimate was done by catching 150 and this time 17 had tags. and of 100 perch. 24 had tags. b The following day another estimate was done. The next day another sample of 1200 ﬁsh are caught. 2 A colony of bats live near a school. 3 A river’s ﬁsh population is to be estimated. 9 of which had tags. tagged and released. b Estimate the number of bream in the lake. On one day. 8 had tags. 100 bream and 50 perch) were tagged and released. Estimate the size of the bat population living near the school. 20 had tags. A sample of 1000 ﬁsh are caught. tagged and released. the average of the three estimates is taken. (Note: For each sample taken. On one day 1000 ﬁsh are caught. c Estimate the number of perch in the lake. Estimate the ﬁsh population of the river. What will the third estimate for the population be? d For a report. A sample of 400 ﬁsh are caught. Work T SHEE 6. Of 100 trout. the kangaroos are released after the number with tags is counted.) a The next day 100 were caught. Is the ﬁsh population endangered? 5 To estimate the ﬁsh population of a lake. Wildlife ofﬁcers try to estimate the bat population by catching 60 bats and tagging them. a Estimate the number of trout in the lake. 300 ﬁsh were caught. 4 A certain ﬁsh population is said to be endangered if the population falls below 15 000. These 300 ﬁsh (150 trout. 12 of which had tags. Estimate the population of the river if in the second sample of ﬁsh: a 100 had tags b 40 had tags c 273 had tags. Estimate the population again. of 100 bream.2 . 100 kangaroos were caught and tagged before being released. These bats are then released and another 60 are caught. 60 of which had tags. 6 The kangaroo population in a national park is to be estimated.

A poorly chosen sample. • Discrete data can take only certain values such as whole numbers. Classiﬁcation of data • Data can be classiﬁed as being categorical or quantitative. a survey of car types is not numerical. Estimating populations Populations that can’t be accurately counted with ease are estimated by using the capture–recapture technique. 3. Round off the answer for each stratum to the nearest whole number. 3. • Quantitative data are data that can be either counted or measured. Misinterpretation of results. but this may be necessary to get the best representation possible in your sample. • To select a stratiﬁed sample: 1. • Categorical data are data that are non-numerical. Systematic sample — there is a method for deciding who participates in the sample. • Sometimes this method increases the sample size. Write each number in each stratum as a fraction of the whole population. For example. Random sample — chance is the only factor in deciding who participates. For example. 2. Population characteristics • A stratiﬁed sample can be used to ensure that the characteristics of your sample match the characteristics of the whole population. a survey of the daily temperature is quantitative. Bias • Bias occurs when the results of an investigation are skewed to one side. • Continuous data can take any value within a certain range. 1. Stratiﬁed sample — the sample taken is chosen so that it has the same characteristics as the whole population. 2. This can occur when a graph is drawn to give a certain impression. 2. Those participating in the investigation may not represent the whole population and be more inclined to a certain point of view. This can occur because of: 1. A poorly worded question that can lead the responder into a response favouring one side. • A sample is when a small group takes part in the investigation and the results are taken to be representative of the whole group. • A census is when an entire population takes part in the investigation. . Multiply by the size of the sample that you wish to take. 3. • Quantitative data can be either discrete or continuous. • There are three types of sample.194 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course summary Data collection • A statistical investigation can be done by either census or sample.

In a survey of the school population. a The television program that people watch at 7:00 pm b The number of pets in each household c The amount of water consumed by athletes in a marathon run d The average distance that students live from school e The mode of transport used between home and school 6D . if a sample of 60 is selected using a stratiﬁed sample? 6 Bias can be introduced into statistics through: a questionnaire design b sample selection c interpretation of statistical results. of students 6C 7 State whether each of the following data types are categorical or quantitative. a The average price of petrol in Sydney was estimated by averaging the price at 40 petrol stations. c An equal number of men and women are chosen to participate in a survey on fashion. a spreadsheet random number generator selects the roll numbers of 50 students. d Public opinion on an issue is sought by a telephone poll of 2000 homes. b The Australian Bureau of Statistics has every household in Australia complete an information form once every ﬁve years.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 195 CHAPTER review 1 For each of the following statistical investigations. 2 Name and describe three different methods for selecting a sample. 4 Use a random number generator to select 10 numbers between 1 and 1000. Discuss how bias could be a result of techniques in the above three areas. b To select the students to participate in a survey. 5 The table at right shows the number of students in each year of school. state whether a census or a sample has been used. c The performance of a cricketer is measured by looking at his performance in every match he has played. 6A 6A 6A 6A 6B 212 200 189 175 133 124 Year 7 8 9 10 11 12 No. how many students from each year should be chosen. 3 Which method of sampling has been used for each of the following? a The quality-control department of a tyre manufacturing company road tests every 50th tyre that comes off the production line.

Later Barry.196 6D Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 8 For each of the quantitative data types below. tagged and released. The next day another 100 are caught and it is noted that 5 have tags. tagged and released back into the population. B A product survey of 1000 homes to determine what brand of washing powder is used C Every 200th jar of Vegemite is tested to see if it is the correct mass. Viet and Mustafa each catch a sample of ﬁsh. Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice Which of the following is an example of a census? A A newspaper conducts an opinion poll of 2000 people. Barry caught 40 ﬁsh and 3 had tags. she catches 150 worms and tags them before releasing them. Estimate the population of the lake. a Find the estimate of the population that each would have calculated. Mustafa caught 55 ﬁsh and 7 had tags. C Ten students from each year of the school are asked to complete a survey. To estimate the population of her farm. she catches 120 worms and ﬁnds that 24 of them have tags. . The next day. Viet caught 75 ﬁsh and 9 had tags. 11 A sample of 200 ﬁsh are caught. D A federal election 2 multiple choice Which of the following is an example of a random sample? A The ﬁrst 50 students to arrive at school take a survey. based on all three samples. determine if the data are discrete or continuous. b Give an estimate for the population. 10 Kimberley has a worm farm. B Fifty students’ names are drawn from a hat and those drawn take the survey. 100 ﬁsh are caught. D One class in the school is asked to complete the survey. Estimate the population of the worm farm. a The dress sizes of Year 11 girls b The volume of backyard swimming pools c The amount of water used in households d The number of viewers of a particular television program e The amount of time Year 11 students spent studying 6E 6E 6E 9 To estimate the ﬁsh population of a lake.

. a Are Carolyn’s data categorical or quantitative? b The ﬁsh are tagged and released back into the school from which they were caught. There are 173 blackﬁsh. She spends the day on a boat and 500 ﬁsh are netted. Carolyn notes the types of ﬁsh netted. 219 drummer and 108 mullet. Another 250 are then caught and it is noted that 63 have tags.Chapter 6 Data collection and sampling 197 3 multiple choice Which of the following is an example of categorical data? A The type of car that is in each home B The number of cars in each home C The distance travelled by a person’s car in a one year period D The amount of money spent on petrol in a one year period 4 multiple choice Which of the following is an example of continuous data? A The type of car that is in each home B The number of cars in each home C The distance travelled by a person’s car in a one year period D The amount of money spent on petrol in a one year period 5 Carolyn is a marine biologist. Estimate the population of the school.

Every can tested therefore comes from the same machine. A quality control ofﬁcer then says that the data are biased. What is meant by the term bias? d Explain what could be done to prevent the data from being biased. To test this. every 100th can is tested to see that it will cover at least 4 m2. a Are the data categorical or quantitative? If they are quantitative. CHAPTER test yourself 6 . are the data discrete or continuous? b What type of sample has been used? c The paint is mixed in one of ﬁve machines.198 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 6 A paint company says that 1 litre of paint can paint an area of 4 m2.

Modelling linear relationships 7 syllabus reference Algebraic modelling 2 • Modelling linear relationships In this chapter 7A Graphing linear functions 7B Gradient and intercept 7C Drawing graphs using gradient and intercept 7D Graphing variations 7E Step and piecewise functions 7F Simultaneous equations .

ﬁnd the value of y when x = 0.3 Substitution 3 Complete the following.2 Gradient of a straight line 2 Find the gradient of each of the following. 1 Which of the functions below are linear functions? a y = x2 b y = 2x x c y = -2 2 d y = -x READY? b y 7. If you have difﬁculty with any of them. 10 – 2x c Given that y = ----------------. 7.4 4 Draw the graph of: a y=x+1 Solving linear equations b y = 2x – 4 c y = 6 – 2x.. a 2x – 8 = 0 b 12 – 4x = 0 c 5x – 2 = 0 . b Given that y = 4x + 7.areyou 7. 5 Graphing linear equations 7. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. ﬁnd the value of y when x = –3. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy.1 Recognising linear functions Are you ready? Try the questions below. a Given that y = 5 – 2x. a y c y 6 2 x −1 3 x 2 x −6 7.5 5 Solve each of the following equations. ﬁnd the value of y when x = 6.

In the above example time. D. A. t. In many examples we are required to draw a graph from an algebraic rule. The graph at right compares 600 500 the distance travelled with time. is the dependent variable as its value depends on the value substituted for t. to US dollars. against hours. 255) (40. 85) (20. THINK 1 DRAW W 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 H 2 3 Draw the graph with H on the horizontal axis and W on the vertical axis. H.8A. A linear function is a graph that. is represented by a straight line. Distance. we can choose any sensible value to use for the independent variable. 425). A. W. This is the variable for which we can substitute any value. when drawn. The independent variable is graphed on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable is graphed on the vertical axis. Plot the points (10. Continued over page . 170) (30. THINK 1 WRITE/DRAW Draw a table choosing several values to substitute for the independent variable. Join the points with a straight line. U. Linear functions are drawn from a table of values. can be given by the rule U = 0. This relation is an 100 0 example of a function. To do this. Hours (H) Wage (W) 10 85 20 170 30 255 40 340 50 425 Draw the graph of wage. Draw the graph of this function. WORKED Example 1 The table below shows the amount of money earned by a wage earner. 400 This graph can be given by the 300 200 relation D = 60t. In such an example we need to create our own table. 340) and (50.Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 201 Graphing linear functions Imagine a car travelling at a constant speed D of 60 km/h. A function is 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t a rule with two variables. WORKED Example 2 The conversion of Australian dollars. is the independent variable.

T button for X. Delete any existing functions and enter the rule.q. .202 THINK 2 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WRITE A U 10 8 20 16 30 24 40 32 50 40 Calculate the value of U for each value of A in the table.8X. From the MENU select GRAPH. 3. The calculator always uses Y as the dependent variable and X as the independent variable. 5. Enter Y1 = 0. Enter the settings shown on the screen at right. which replicate the axes that are drawn in the worked example. Finish by pressing EXE . Next we need to rule up our coordinate axes. Press SHIFT F3 . This is done using the V-Window function. Press EXE to return to the previous screen and then F6 to draw the graph. This sets the minimum and maximum values for both X and Y as well as the increments on each axis. 1. Consider worked example 2. 4. Press SHIFT F1 and use your arrow keys to see the points drawn. 3 Draw the axes. plot the points generated and join each point with a straight line. Be sure to use the X. 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 U 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 A Graphics Calculator tip! Graphing linear equations The Casio graphics calculator can be used to draw both the table of values and the graph of a linear equation. 2. extending the line as required. To see the points on the graph use the Trace function.

An independent variable is substituted (input). n C 0 80 50 230 100 380 150 530 200 680 2 3 Draw the axes. THINK 1 WRITE/DRAW Draw a table choosing ﬁve values for n to substitute. 4. the independent variable is shown on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable on the vertical axis. plot the points generated and join with a straight line. The cost of staging the concert is given by the function C = 80 + 3n. a calculation is made which is the process and the output is the value of the dependent variable. 5. Calculate the values of C for each value of n chosen. Draw the graph of this function. To graph a linear function we draw up a table of values. . 2. The independent variable is the input. A linear function is represented by a straight line when graphed. a calculation is made (process) according to the rule deﬁned by the function and the dependent variable (output) is the result. C 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 150 200 n remember 1. 3. When graphing a linear function.Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 203 When applying a function we need to understand the idea of: input process output. where C is the cost and n is the number of children attending the concert. Values are substituted for the independent variable and a value for the dependent variable is generated. WORKED Example 3 A preschool has hired an entertainment group to entertain their children at a concert. A function is a rule for a calculation that consists of an independent and dependent variable. plot the points generated by that table then join these points with a straight line.

Bill charges $8 to develop a roll of ﬁlm. Draw a graph showing the distance travelled by the cyclist against time. to letterboxes. Draw a graph showing the cost of a taxi journey. 5 Use the graph from question 4 to calculate the cost of a telephone call that lasts for: a 17 minutes b 45 minutes. where d is the distance of the journey in kilometres. where C is the cost of the call and t is the length of the call in minutes. Draw a graph that will show the money earned against hours worked. 4 The cost of an international telephone call can be given by the rule C = 1. P. . 10 It costs Bill $1850 per week to operate his business developing photographs. where t is the time in hours that the cyclist has been riding. the table below is used. To draw a conversion graph. 2 Use the graph drawn in question 1 to ﬁnd the amount of money earned by a person delivering: a 8000 pamphlets b 9500 pamphlets. It then grows at an average rate of 12 cm per year. of a taxi journey can be given by the rule C = 4 + 1. M. 6 The distance. earned for delivering a number of pamphlets. 3 Australian dollars can be converted to Japanese yen using the algebraic rule Y = 80A.5t. A Y 100 8000 200 16 000 300 24 000 400 32 000 500 40 000 Graph paper am – rogr Ca GC p Linear GC p am – rogr TI Linear GC p am – rogr Ca Myrule Example Draw a graph converting Australian dollars to Japanese yen. WORKED GC p am – rogr TI 2 Myrule Example 3 7 The cost. d.1 Example 1 1 The table below shows the amount of money. Draw a graph showing the cost of a telephone call. 8 A tree bought as a seedling is 80 cm tall. Draw a graph that shows the proﬁt or loss he makes against the number of rolls of ﬁlm developed. travelled by a cyclist can be given by the algebraic rule d = 15t. 9 Casey has a job that pays $10 per hour.5d. Draw a graph that will show the height of the tree each year. P M 1000 50 2000 100 3000 150 4000 200 5000 250 Recognising linear functions EXCE reads L Sp he et sio sio WORKED Draw the graph of this function. C.204 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 7A WORKED Graphing linear functions SkillS HEET 7.

Earlier we drew 600 500 the graph of this as a linear function. 6) 6 Using this formula. 400 Two points on this graph are (1. 3 The graph will ﬂatten where people stop growing and so does not continue to rise indeﬁnitely. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 d On the graph. Between these two points the vertical rise = 3 and the horizontal run = 6. 1 Find a person of each age from 1–20.Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 205 Graph of height versus age Not all graphs can be drawn as a straight line. there is a 60 unit increase in the dependent variable. 3) and (8. the two points (2. Measure their height and plot their age and height as a pair of coordinates. The gradient (m) is the rate of change in the dependent variable for a one unit increase in the independent variable. 6) are marked. A simple formula that can be used to calculate gradient is: vertical change in position m = --------------------------------------------------------------------C = 2 + 0. the gradient can be 5 3 units calculated by measurement from a graph 4 (2. Suggest a point at which this graph should stop.5d. For this function we can say that the gradient is 60. From the graph we can 100 0 see that for a one unit increase in the 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t independent variable. 120). Gradient and intercept Consider the graph of a car that is D travelling at 60 km/h.5d horizontal change in position C (8. 2 Draw a line of best ﬁt for the points plotted. Consider the case of height and age. 3) 3 by choosing any two points on the graph. 2 6 units The graph at right shows the function 1 0 C = 2 + 0. Using the gradient formula: -gradient = 3 gradient = 6 1 -2 . 60) 300 200 and (2.

Calculate the gradient. WORKED Example 5 For the function drawn at right calculate the gradient. In such cases when calculating the gradient.206 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 4 For the linear function drawn at right. A decreasing function has a negative gradient. In this case we choose (0. Measure the vertical rise and the horizontal run. 4) 4 2 0 0 1 D = 4t (5. 4) and (4. 0). vertical change in position gradient = --------------------------------------------------------------------horizontal change in position ----gradient = 16 gradient = 4 4 A function with a positive gradient is called an increasing function. . D 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 D = 4t 5 6 t D 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 (1. THINK 1 2 WRITE Choose two points on the graph: (1. 4) and (5. calculate the gradient. we take the vertical rise to be negative. 20) for example. the value of the dependent variable decreases as the value of the independent variable increases. In a decreasing function. 20) 16 4 2 3 4 5 6 t 3 4 5 Write the gradient formula. y 5 4 3 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 x y=4–x THINK 1 WRITE Choose two points on the graph. That means that the value of the dependent variable increases as the value of the independent variable increases. Substitute for the rise and the run.

it costs $80 to hire the entertainment group without 400 any children attending the concert. No. for this function the y-intercept is 4. Consider worked example 3. 0) 1 2 3 4 5 x y=4–x 3 4 5 Write the gradient formula.Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 207 THINK 2 WRITE y 5 (0. Here the cost of hiring the C entertainment group was given by the function C = 80 + 3n. 600 500 that is. Therefore. Calculate the gradient. the graph cuts the y-axis at 4. 4) 4 4 3 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 Measure the vertical rise and the horizontal run. the intercept on the vertical axis is 80. vertical change in position gradient = --------------------------------------------------------------------horizontal change in position ----gradient = –4 4 gradient = −1 The gradient of −1 in the example above means that for every one-unit increase in x. The $80 is a ﬁxed cost. –4 (4. In the example above. b Calculate the gradient and explain its meaning in this context. of students Cost 20 $200 40 $300 60 $400 80 $500 100 $600 a Draw a graph of the cost of this excursion. c Use your graph to ﬁnd the intercept on the vertical axis and explain its meaning in this context. Continued over page . 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 150 200 n WORKED Example 6 The table below shows the cost of running an excursion for a given number of students. 800 700 In this example. there is a one unit decrease in y. Substitute for the rise and the run.

vertical change in position gradient = --------------------------------------------------------------------horizontal change in position -------gradient = 100 20 3 The gradient is the increased cost of the excursion per student. . c Intercept = 100 The excursion has a ﬁxed cost of $100. meaning it would cost $100 even if no children attended. 2 Join with a straight line. Choose two points on the graph and measure the vertical change in position and horizontal change in position.208 THINK a 1 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WRITE/DRAW a 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Number of students Draw a set of axes and plot the points given. gradient = 5 A gradient of 5 means that the cost of the excursion increases by $5 for every student who attends. c 1 2 Find the point where the graph cuts the vertical axis. The intercept is the ﬁxed cost of running an excursion without considering the number of students. b 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 b 1 Cost ($) Cost ($) 100 20 20 40 60 80 100 Number of students 2 Calculate the gradient.

and is found using the formula: vertical change in position m = --------------------------------------------------------------------horizontal change in position 3. 5. a y 4 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 01 23 45 6 x 7.2 Gradient of a straight line E SkillS L Spre XCE ad HEET sheet Gradient 01 23 45 x Cabri Geo WORKED Example c y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 01 23 4 x d y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x ry met 5 Gradient Cabri Geo ry met sheet Linear graph intercepts E L Spre XCE ad 2 multiple choice Which of the functions below has a negative gradient? A B y y Graph paper x x . The gradient is denoted m. ﬁnd the gradient. The intercept on the vertical axis gives us the value of the dependent variable when the independent variable is equal to zero. 7B WORKED Gradient and intercept b y 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Example 1 For the functions below. 4. A positive gradient occurs when the value of the dependent variable increases as the value of the independent variable increases. The gradient is the increase in the dependent variable for every one unit increase in the independent variable.Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 209 remember 1. A negative gradient occurs when the value of the dependent variable decreases as the independent variable increases. 2.

c Find the gradient and intercept of this function. Explain its meaning in this context. Explain the meaning of the gradient in this context. Deliveries Payment 200 120 400 180 600 240 800 300 1000 360 6 a Draw the graph of the function. 5 A function is given by the rule y = 5x − 4. b Find the gradient of the function. 4 The table below shows the proﬁt or loss made by a cinema for showing a movie. x y b Draw the graph of this function. of people 20 50 100 150 200 Proﬁt −60 0 100 200 300 a Draw the graph of the function. c Find the intercept on the vertical axis. No. 0 1 2 3 . c Find the intercept on the vertical axis. a Copy and complete the table below.210 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course C y D y x x WORKED Example 3 The table below shows the payment made to a person on a newspaper delivery round. b Find the gradient of the function.

We can use the gradient and y-intercept to draw the graph of a function in the form y = mx + b. Count a rise of 3 and a run of 1 to mark the point (1. Consider the graph of y = 2x + 1 drawn at right. Comparing the gradient and y-intercept with the function. The y-intercept is the constant term (−4). Therefore. This function has a gradient of 2. Continued over page . from the y-intercept we count a rise of 2 units and a run of 1 unit to plot the next point. The gradient is the coefﬁcient of x (−2). Find the y-intercept (−2). The y-intercept is the constant term (7). THINK 1 2 3 4 WORKED Example 8 WRITE gradient = 3 y-intercept = −2 Find the gradient (3). THINK a b 1 2 1 2 WRITE a b gradient = 3 y-intercept = −4 gradient = −2 y-intercept = 7 The gradient is the coefﬁcient of x (3). Draw the graph of y = 3x − 2. For example. By plotting the y-intercept we are able to use the gradient to plot other points.Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 211 Drawing graphs using gradient and intercept Most linear functions are represented on a number plane. The intercept on the vertical axis (called the y-intercept) is 1. Any linear function can be written in the form y = mx + b . we can see that the number with x (called the coefﬁcient of x) is 2 (the gradient) and we then add 1 (y-intercept) to complete the function. The points plotted can then be joined by a straight line that is the graph of the function. y 5 4 3 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 y = 2x + 1 1 2 3 4 5 x WORKED Example 7 Find the gradient and y-intercept of: a y = 3x − 4 b y = 7 − 2x. It is a useful check to repeat this process from the next point plotted. where m = gradient and b = y-intercept. a gradient of 2 means a rise of 2 units for a 1 unit increase in x. Mark the y-intercept on the axis. 1).

4). Count a rise of 2 and a run of 3 to mark the point (3. Mark the y-intercept on the axis. The method of drawing the graph then remains unchanged. 0) count a rise of 2 and a run of 3 to mark the point (6. 3 WORKED Example 9 WRITE -gradient = 2 3 y-intercept = −2 -Find the gradient ( 2 ). From (3. 3 Find the y-intercept (−2).212 THINK 5 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WRITE y 5 4 3 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 From (1. x 6 Join these points with a straight line. 2). THINK 1 2 3 4 5 y 5 4 3 2 1 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 6 x . the numerator indicates the vertical change in position and the denominator the horizontal change in position. y 5 4 3 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 y = 3x – 2 1 2 3 4 5 x If the gradient is a fraction. 1) count a rise of 3 and a run of 1 to mark the point (2. -Sketch the graph of y = 2 x − 2. 0).

Sketch the function y = 3 − 2x. y 5 4 3 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 x y = 3 – 2x . that is. 1 2 3 4 5 6 x When sketching functions with a negative gradient we need to remember to treat the rise as negative. −1). the function decreases. From (1. THINK 1 2 3 4 5 WORKED Example 10 WRITE gradient = −2 y-intercept = 3 Find the gradient (−2). Count a rise of −2 and a run of 1 to mark the point (1. 1). Mark the y-intercept on the axis. y 5 4 3 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 x 6 Join these points with a straight line. 1) count a rise of −2 and a run of 1 to mark the point (2. Find the y-intercept (3).Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 213 THINK 6 WRITE y 5 4 3 2 1 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 – y = 2x – 2 3 Join these points with a straight line.

214 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course remember 1. a y = 2x + 2 b y = 3x − 8 c y = 2 − 4x x --d y = 3x + 3 e y = -. A function is written in the form: y = mx + b where m equals the gradient and b equals the y-intercept. A function can be graphed when in this form by plotting the y-intercept. which can then be joined with a straight line. 2. 3 Sketch the functions: a y = 2x + 1 2 Linear graphs WORKED EXCE reads L Sp he Graph paper omet i Ge ry WORKED et WORKED Example 8 b y = 3x − 6 c y = 5x. state the gradient and the y-intercept. Example -4 Sketch the function y = 1 x + 2. -a y = 3x − 1 4 -b y = 1x 3 -c y = 3x − 4 2 Cabr Example 6 Sketch the function y = 4 − 3x. 7C EXCE reads L Sp he WORKED Drawing graphs using gradient and intercept Example Equation of a straight line EXCE reads L Sp he et et 7 1 For each of the functions below.+ 1 f y = 3 − 3x 4 2 2 2 Sketch the function y = 2x − 3. 7 Sketch the graphs of: a y = 6 − 3x b y = −2x − 3 -c y = −1 x + 4 2 10 Linear graphs 8 multiple choice -Which of the following could be the graph of y = − 1 x + 1? 2 A B y y x x C y D y x x . 9 5 Sketch the graph for each of the functions below. then using the gradient to plot two other points.

9 Draw an example of a linear function with a negative gradient. state the y-intercept.1 . a b y y c 2 −1 x y x x x 1 1 For the function y = 2x − 3. state the gradient. 3 For the function y = 5 − 3x. 10 Draw an example of a linear function with a y-intercept of 0. 6 Write the equation of a linear function with a gradient of −2 and a y-intercept of 4. Work T SHEE 7. 2 For the function y = 2x − 3. state the y-intercept. 5 Write the equation of a linear function with a gradient of 3 and a y-intercept of 6. 11 Write an equation that could ﬁt the following sketches. 4 For the function y = 5 − 3x. 7 Write the equation of a linear function with a gradient of 1 -2 and a y-intercept of −3. state the gradient.Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 215 9 multiple choice The equation of the graph drawn at right could be: A y = 2x − 1 B y = 2x + 1 --C y = 1x − 1 D y = 1x + 1 2 2 y 10 Write and draw an example of a linear function with: a a positive gradient b a negative gradient c a positive y-intercept d a y-intercept of 0 e a negative gradient and negative y-intercept f a gradient of 0 g a positive gradient and negative y-intercept. 8 Draw an example of a linear function with a positive gradient.

we need to know only one other point on the graph. 0). THINK 1 WRITE 2 3 Draw a set of axes showing time on the horizontal axis and distance on the vertical axis. This is known as a direct linear variation. 225). the gradient. No. we can determine that the number of cars produced each week will be 1. In any example where one quantity varies directly with another. 0) and (3. of cars produced (C) 10 15 20 30 30 45 C 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 N 40 60 50 75 These ﬁgures are plotted on the axes at right. To draw the function. we see that the gradient is equal to the constant of variation. The number of cars produced on an assembly line varies directly with the number of workers employed on the line. Any variation can be graphed using the form y = ax where a. Distance 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time If we examine the gradient of a variation function. WORKED Example 11 The distance travelled by a car is directly proportional to the speed at which it is travelling. the gradient is 75.216 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Graphing variations A variation occurs when one quantity is proportional to another. we can draw the table below. Plot the points (0. of workers (N) No. If the car travels 225 km in 3 hours. . From this information.5 times the number of workers employed on the assembly line. Join them with a straight line. draw a graph of distance travelled against time. Using this. Twenty workers can produce 30 cars per week. the graph that is drawn will be a linear function through the origin (0. Consider the following variation problem. is also the constant of variation. This is the speed at which the car is travelling. For example in worked example 11.

3. n.3 elling. horizontal change in position 2 Simplify. a Draw the graph of y against x. 11 Substitution 2 A team of 6 people can unload 9 containers from a wharf per day. p. 0).7. Example a Draw the graph of y against x.. WRITE a y 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 12 ----30 WORKED Example 12 x vertical change in position Gradient = --------------------------------------------------------------------. together with (0.4 c y = 0.4 c Write an equation linking n and p. y = 40. c The equation is in the form y = ax. y = 12. 12 b What is the gradient of the graph? c Write an equation linking y and x. b 1 b Gradient = Gradient = 0. a Draw a graph showing the number of containers. The gradient of the function is the constant of variation. 0) and (30. b What is the gradient of the graph? c Write an equation linking y and x. where a is the gradient.Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 217 It is known that y is directly proportional to x. When two quantities vary directly with each other.4x remember 1. To graph the function we need to know only one point on the graph. 7D WORKED Graphing variations SkillS Example 1 The distance travelled by a car varies directly with the time that the car has been trav. When x = 5. THINK a Draw a straight line graph through (0. the variation is graphed using a linear function that can be written in the form y = ax. 2. that can be unloaded by a team of people. the variation can be graphed as a linear function. When x = 30. WORKED . 12). draw the graph of distance against time. Graphing linear equations SkillS HEET HEET 3 It is known that y varies directly with x. If the car travels 400 km in 5 hours. Hence. b What is the gradient of the graph drawn? 7. A straight line is then drawn through these two points.

earned by a worker is directly proportional to the hours. The graph is called a step graph because it looks like a staircase. b Use the graph to ﬁnd the quantity of petrol needed to travel 240 km. 6 The quantity of petrol. 7 The height of a tree. The charge to park is $3 for the ﬁrst 2 hours and $1 per hour after that. g. A person who works 35 hours earns $306. 5 The wage. D. b Use the graph to ﬁnd the height of a tree with a girth of 3 m. l. W. c Use the graph to ﬁnd the girth of a tree that is 9 m tall.5 L of fuel. travelled by a car in a certain period of time will be directly proportional to the car’s speed. is directly proportional to the girth. A car that travels 100 km uses 12. travelled by the car. a Draw the graph of D against s. b Write an equation linking D and s. h. Draw the graph of W against h. d. Consider the case of a parking lot. a Draw the graph of l against d. s. 1 US dollars 2 Euro 3 Pound Sterling 4 Japanese yen 5 New Zealand dollars Step and piecewise functions A step function is a linear function for which the rule changes as the value of the independent variable changes. A tree with a girth of 2. Currency conversions Find out the current rate of conversion for each of the following foreign currencies and draw a linear function that will convert between Australian dollars and each currency. correct to 1 decimal place. The graph for the parking charges is shown at right. 8 It is known that A$100 will buy US$67. worked.218 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 4 The distance. Draw a conversion graph between Australian and US dollars. h.50.25. a Draw the graph of h against g. 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Number of hours Parking fee ($) .5 m has a height of 14 m. A car moving at 40 km/h travels 120 km. used by a car varies directly with the distance.

THINK 1 2 3 DRAW 480 440 400 360 320 280 240 200 160 120 80 40 0 01 23 45 6 Time (h) Draw axes with time on the horizontal axis and cost on the vertical axis. 2. 4 hours $440. A piecewise linear function is similar to a step graph. WORKED Example 14 A catering company charges $140 per hour for the ﬁrst 2 hours and $80 per hour thereafter.00 1.75 0. A piecewise function consists of more than one piece.00 0.50 0.25 2. Show this as a piecewise linear graph. In such examples we draw each linear function separately for the section of the graph to which it applies. Three hours will cost $360. remember 1. .25 1. Plot these points and join them with a straight line.00 2.75 2. Draw a graph of the cost of the telephone call.25 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time (min) Draw axes with time on the horizontal axis and cost on the vertical axis. A step function shows the increase in a quantity in steps.Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 219 WORKED Example 13 A telephone call is charged at 75c for the ﬁrst minute and 25c per minute after that.50 2.75 1.50 1. A piecewise function follows different rules for different values of the independent variable. For the ﬁrst 2 hours draw the graph at $140 per hour. THINK 1 2 DRAW Cost of telephone call ($) Cost ($) 3. Draw a step function at 75c with increases of 25c every minute.

6 Chandra earns $12 per hour for the ﬁrst 35 hours worked each week.50 Draw this information in a step graph.50 $3. Draw a graph showing the cost of having these business cards printed. 3 A mobile telephone plan has a base charge of $25 per month. Mass 500 g or less 500 g to 2 kg Over 2 kg Cost $2. Draw a graph of distance travelled against time.50. Any overtime is paid at time-and-a-half. which includes 10 free calls. 13 2 The cost of posting a parcel is shown in the table below. Income $1 to $6000 $6001 to $25 000 $25 001 to $75 000 $75 001 to $150 000 In excess of $150 000 $0 15% of each $1 over $6000 $2850 plus 30% of each $1 over $25 000 $17 850 plus 40% of each $1 over $75 000 $47 850 plus 45% of each $1 over $150 000 Tax payable Draw a piecewise function showing the amount of tax payable on income. Every call thereafter costs $1. 7 The PAYE tax rates in Australia are shown below. WORKED Example 4 A cyclist rides at an average 9 km/h uphill for 2 hours and then at 15 km/h for the next 14 3 hours. Show this in a step graph. then 20c each thereafter. Show this information in a step graph. 5 The cost of having business cards printed is $100 plus 50c each for the ﬁrst 100. . Draw a piecewise graph that will show Chandra’s pay.75 $5.220 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 7E WORKED Step and piecewise functions Example 1 The cost of a bus fare is $1.20 for one section and 40c per section thereafter.

12 9 We can say that G = 30 − B and G = 30 – B 6 G = 2B. which match the axes drawn above. the point of intersection can be found using your graphics calculator. The point of intersection on these lines is (10. . How 27 24 many boys and girls are in this class? (10. 4. Press F5 for ISCT to ﬁnd the intersection of the two graphs. This may take a moment for the calculator to ﬁnd. Enter the settings shown at right. Therefore the solution to this problem is 10 boys and 20 girls. 2. 5. Consider the functions drawn previously.Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 221 Simultaneous equations Consider the problem below. There are 30 twice as many girls as boys. G G = 2B A class has 30 students. Graphics Calculator tip! Finding the point of intersection Once you have graphed two functions. 1. From the MENU select GRAPH. To ﬁnd the intersection press SHIFT (a graph-solving function). F5 for G-Solv 6. where G represents the 3 0 number of girls and B represents the 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 B number of boys. Delete any existing functions and enter the functions Y1 = 2X and Y2 = 30 – X. Press EXE to return to the previous screen. 20) 21 We solve this problem by modelling 18 15 two linear relationships. 20). The solution to the problem will be the point of intersection of these linear relationships. Press SHIFT F3 for V-Window. 3. and then press F6 to draw the graphs.

15 This can be represented by the linear functions at right. 7F SkillS Simultaneous equations b 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 HEET 7. This is represented by the linear model below. where a represents the number of apples and b represents the number of bananas.222 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 15 Car A is travelling at a constant speed of 60 km/h. remember The point of intersection of two linear models will give the point where both conditions hold true. How far from the starting point does car B overtake car A? Distance (km) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 B A 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time (h) THINK 1 2 WRITE Point of intersection (6. 360).5 Solving linear equations WORKED Example EXCE reads L Sp he 1 At the grocery store. Look for the point of intersection of the two graphs. Car B overtakes car A 360 km from the starting point. Use the graph to ﬁnd the mass of apples and bananas that Rhonda bought. apples cost $5 per kg and bananas cost $2 per kg. Car B leaves 2 hours later and travels at a constant speed of 90 km/h. Rhonda spends $30 on 9 kg of fruit. Read the distance of this point on the y-axis. 5a + 2b = 30 Simultaneous equations omet i Ge ry et a+b=9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 a Cabr Simultaneous linear equations .

b Tanya’s English mark was 21 marks higher than her Maths mark.2 . Write a linear function to represent this piece of information and draw the graph on the same set of axes. This can be represented by the linear function 2x + 2y = 22. This can be represented by the linear function y = x − 5. 4 a Steve earns twice as much money each week as Theo. a Write a linear function that represents this information and sketch the function. a The perimeter of the rectangle is 22 cm. Draw this function on the same set of axes. b Write down the point of intersection of the two graphs. On the same set of axes graph this function. sketch the graphs of y = 2x + 1 and y = 7 − x. This can be represented by the linear function t + s = 750. Draw the graph of this function. Graph this function. where s represents the amount of money Steve earns and t represents the amount of money Theo earns. 3 A rectangle has a length of x and a width of y. b The total of Theo and Steve’s wages is $750. b The length of the rectangle is 5 cm longer than the width. 5 The sum of Tanya’s English and Maths marks is 135. c Use the intersection of your two graphs to ﬁnd Tanya’s mark in both English and Maths. c Use the intersection of these graphs to ﬁnd Theo’s wage and Steve’s wage. Work T SHEE 7.Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 223 2 a On the same set of axes as question 1. This can be represented by the linear function s = 2t. c Use the intersection of the two graphs to determine the length and width of the rectangle.

• The gradient of the linear function will equal the constant of variation. • The independent variable is shown on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable on the vertical axis. • The gradient (m) can be found using the formula vertical change in position m = --------------------------------------------------------------------. • The function can be graphed by drawing a table of values and then plotting the points generated. • The intercept on the vertical axis gives the value of the dependent variable when the independent variable is equal to zero. 0) to one other point that is given. Variation • When two quantities vary directly with one another. the variation can be graphed as a linear function. • The variation will be in the form y = ax. . • The graph is drawn from the point (0. • This is known as solving simultaneous equations.. • A piecewise function occurs when the function has different rules applying for different values of the independent variable. • The gradient and the y-intercept can be used to help draw the graph of a function. joining them with a straight line.224 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course summary Linear functions • A function is a rule for calculation that involves an independent variable and a dependent variable. Gradient and intercept • The gradient is the increase in the dependent variable per one unit increase in the independent variable. • A function is written in the form: y = mx + b where m equals the gradient and b equals the y-intercept. then the gradient will be negative. horizontal change in position • If the function is decreasing. Step and piecewise functions • A step function occurs when the value of the dependent variable increases in steps rather than continuously. Simultaneous equations • The point of intersection of two linear functions gives the point where both functions hold true simultaneously. • If the function is a straight line when graphed. then the function is called a linear function.

State the meaning of the vertical intercept in this context. b Use the graph to determine the cost of having the parcel delivered a distance of 12 km. Draw the linear function that will convert between the two currencies. 3 The cost. b State the gradient of this function. 2 The conversion rate between Australian dollars. C. E. and Euro. a Draw a graph of this function. ﬁnd the gradient and vertical intercept. 4 For the functions below. A. b Use the graph to ﬁnd the labour charge for 8 hours work. Hours (h) Cost (C) 1 55 2 80 3 105 4 130 5 155 7A a Draw the graph of this function.Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 225 CHAPTER review 1 The table below shows the labour charge for working on a motor vehicle. c State the vertical intercept for this function. Number Proﬁt −20 −30 40 20 60 70 80 120 100 170 7B a Draw the graph of this function. 7) 7A 7A 7B y 3 1 x –4 x –2 3 x 5 The table below shows the proﬁt or loss that would be made from a cake stall given the number of cakes sold. where k is the number of kilometres the parcel must be delivered.7A. a b c y y (3. . can be deﬁned by the rule E = 0. State the meaning of the gradient in this context. of having a parcel delivered by courier is given by the linear function C = 20 + 3k.

b The perimeter of the rectangle is 40 cm. and 40 cm per year thereafter. b What is the gradient of the graph? c Write an equation linking p and q.226 7C 7C Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 6 For each of the linear functions below. . (Hint: Use the perimeter formula. 7D 7E 9 It is known that p varies directly with q.) c Use the point of intersection of your two functions to ﬁnd the length and the width of the rectangle. This can be represented by the linear function w = l − 10. This can be represented by a linear function. Show this by way of a piecewise graph. a Draw the graph of q against p. a The length of the rectangle is 10 cm longer than the width. a y = 3x − 2 c y=5−x 7 Sketch each of the functions shown below. 10 The table below shows the cost per minute of a long distance telephone call. When p = 5.25. Cost per minute 30c 65c 90c 7E 7F 11 A tree has an initial height of 75 cm. state the gradient and the y-intercept. 12 A rectangle has a length of l and a width of w. Draw this function. On the same set of axes draw this function. q = 15. The growth rate of the tree is approximately 75 cm per year for the ﬁrst 4 years. a y = 2x − 1 c y= 1 -. If 25 L of petrol costs $21. graph the variation. Distance of call Less than 150 km 150 km – 750 km Over 750 km Show this information in a step graph.x 2 -b y = 3x + 7 4 b y = 6 − 3x +3 8 The cost of a tank of petrol varies directly with the amount of petrol purchased.

x y −0 −3 −1 −1 2 1 3 3 4 5 .Chapter 7 Modelling linear relationships 227 Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice Look at the linear function drawn at right.x 2 1 –2 x 5 The table below shows the values of x and y in a linear function. The gradient of this function is: A −2 -C 1 2 -B −1 2 D2 y 2 –4 x 2 multiple choice The function y = 6 − x has a gradient of: A −6 3 multiple choice For which of the functions drawn below is the gradient the greatest? A y B −1 C1 D6 B y x x C y D y x x 4 multiple choice The linear function drawn at right is the graph of: -A y = 1x − 1 2 -B y = 1x + 1 2 2 -D y = 1x − 2 y Cy=1− 1 -.

draw the graph of y = 5 − 2x. When m = 2. On the same axes. Write the solution to the pair of simultaneous equations represented on your diagram. varies directly with n.5. m. What is the gradient of the function? What is the y-intercept? Write the equation of this function. b What is the gradient of the function? c What is the equation of this linear function? . n = 1. CHAPTER test yourself 7 6 It is known that a quantity.5. a Draw a graph of n against m.228 a b c d e f Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Plot the points and draw the graph of the linear function.

Investing money 8 syllabus reference Financial mathematics 2 • Investing money In this chapter 8A Calculation of simple interest 8B Graphing simple interest functions 8C Calculation of compound interest 8D Calculating compound interest from a table of compounded values 8E Graphing compound interest functions 8F Share dividends 8G Graphing share performance 8H Inﬂation and appreciation .

ﬁnd I when P = 12 000. Finding a percentage of a quantity 8. a 12% b 8% c 4. ﬁnd A when b = 6. . Graphing linear and non-linear relationships 8. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy.065 and n = 7.5% of $2350 c 0. r = 0. 8. Time Population 0 10 000 1 12 000 2 14 400 3 17 280 8.6 Writing one quantity as a percentage of another 6 Write: a $56 as a percentage of $800 b $1050 as a percentage of $2800 c $625 as a percentage of $250 000.2 2 b T = a + (n – 1)d. n = 19 and d = 5 c I = Prn.5 5 Find: a 6% of $1200 b 8.4 Converting units of time 4 Convert: a 0 months into years b 15 months into years c 78 weeks into years. 1 Convert each of the following percentages to decimals.1 Converting percentages to decimals Are you ready? Try the questions below.6% of $12 500. ﬁnd T when a = 7.8 and h = 18.3 3 Use the data in the table to draw a graph of the relationship between population and time. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET.5% Substitution into formulae READY? -d 61 % 4 8. If you have difﬁculty with any of them.2 2 Given: -a A = 1 bh.areyou 8.

together with interest. Even though all interest rates are expressed in the same way. Calculate. A measure of the interest paid is called the interest rate. interest can be calculated by using several different methods. for 3 years. Whether depositing or borrowing. The simplest method of interest calculation is called simple interest. you must pay back the original sum.Chapter 8 Investing money 231 Calculation of simple interest When you deposit money in a bank. The interest rate is a percentage of the amount of money invested or borrowed and is paid each year. Interest is calculated as a percentage of the initial deposit or borrowing (called the principal) and multiplied by the period the money was invested. Since you are lending them money you expect to receive your money back. The total amount (A) that your deposit or debt has become after interest is added can be found using the formula: A=P+I where: A = total amount at the end of the term P = initial quantity I = simple interest . The formula used to calculate simple interest is: I = Prn where: I = simple interest P = initial quantity r = percentage interest rate per period. r (converting the percentage to a decimal) and n. building society. Substitute into the formula. Write down the values of P.04 n=3 I = $5000 × 0. THINK 1 2 WRITE I = Prn P = $5000 r = 0.a. plus an extra amount commonly known as interest. it is important that you understand how the interest is calculated. or other ﬁnancial institution you are actually lending them your money.04 × 3 = $600 3 4 Write down the simple interest formula. if you borrow money from an institution. Similarly. = expressed as a decimal n = number of periods WORKED Example 1 Calculate the simple interest earned on an investment of $5000 at 4% p.

THINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 WRITE I = Prn P = $12 000. Calculate the simple interest. it is worth familiarising yourself with this method. 1. . However. Calculate. press SHIFT SET UP. Press F1 to select Simple Interest. Write down the value of P. simple interest.5% p. If not. Substitute the values into the given formula. for some of the more complex questions later in this chapter.a. highlight DATE MODE and press F1 for 365. One of the options in this mode is to calculate simple interest.095 × 5 = $5700 A=P+I = $12 000 + $5700 = $17 700 Write down the formula for simple interest. r = 0. You need to make sure that it is on 365 day mode.232 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 2 $12 000 is invested for 5 years at 9. rather than using the TVM mode of your graphics calculator. 3. Examples such as worked example 2 are solved more simply by using the method above. The calculator has two modes of calculating interest: 360 day mode or 365 day mode. Substitute the values into the given formula.095. Write down the formula for the total amount. n = 5 I = $12 000 × 0. r and n. 2. From the MENU select TVM. Graphics Calculator tip! Calculating simple interest Your Casio graphics calculator can perform a number of ﬁnancial functions by using the TVM mode. Calculate the value of this investment at the end of the term.

r and n 9 -(converting 9 months to ----. it must be converted to years by writing the number of months as a fraction over 12. for 9 months.a.40 3 -4 3 -4 Write down the formula for simple interest.25% p. as we want the simple interest. THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE I = Prn P = $7600. F2 : SFV is future value. The calculator gives you two options.2% p. In this example. will it take to earn $650 simple interest if $8375 is invested at 6.052.) 5. WORKED Example 4 How long. P and r. we press F1 for SI. in other words the principal plus interest. Write down the value of I.? THINK 1 2 WRITE I = Prn I = $650. Calculate the simple interest.Chapter 8 Investing money 233 4.052 × I = $296. n = 3 × 365 (as n is in days) I% = 4 PV = –5000 (Principal or present value is entered as a negative.a. 18 months = 18 ----12 -= 1 1 years. Write down the value of P. Care must be taken with simple interest questions when the length of the investment is not given in years. r = 0. r = 0. 2 WORKED Example 3 Calculate the simple interest earned on an investment of $7600 at 5. to the nearest month.0625 Continued over page Write down the formula for simple interest. for example. F1 : SI is simple interest. 12 4 Substitute the values into the given formula. P = $8375. If the investment is given as months. . n = I = $7600 × 0.= 3 year). Press EXE to return to the previous screen and enter the data for worked example 2. Some examples will ask you to calculate the length of time for which money must be invested in order to earn a given amount of interest.

quarterly. Examples of investments involving simple interest include investment bonds and debentures.a. 2.a. 1 Converting percentages to decimals SkillS HEET 8. Bonds are traded on ﬁnancial markets.1 WORKED Example 1 Veronica invests $4000 for 3 years at 5% p.4375 × n $650 n = ------------------------$523. and larger organisations such as Telstra. either State or federal. while the interest earned is again paid at varying intervals. Simple interest is calculated by using only the initial investment.45% p. Substitute the values into the given formula. r is the interest rate per period expressed as a decimal and n is the number of periods.5% p. Answer the question. If using the formula to ﬁnd a value other than I. The simple interest formula is: I = Prn where P is the initial quantity. remember 1.4375 n = 1. 8A SkillS Calculation of simple interest HEET 8. they can be bought or sold prior to the term expiry date (also known as bond maturity). 4. Investment bonds are offered by the government. Interest earned on investment bonds can be paid at varying intervals. for example monthly. the principal (or face value) is returned to the investor. every six months (semi-annually) or yearly. 2 In each of the following.0625 × n = $523. d $9862 for 6 years at 11. c $126 000 for 2 years at 8.2418 years to months by multiplying the decimal by 12. Debentures are similar to investment bonds but are issued by private companies to investors to raise capital. 2 4 -f $1750 for 5 1 years at 7.234 THINK 3 4 5 6 7 8 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WRITE $650 = $8375 × 0.2418 years ≈ 15 months It will take approximately 1 year and 3 months to earn $650 in simple interest. Simplify the RHS of the equation.a. That is.25% p. Calculate the simple interest earned. -e $1000 for 1 1 years at 6% p. Interest is an amount of money paid to an investor or by a borrower for the use of money.a.2 Substitution into formula . 3.a.a. a $1200 for 1 year at 10% p. At the end of the term. Make n the subject of the equation. calculate the amount of simple interest earned. b $2460 for 5 years at 5% p. Convert 0. substitute the known values into the formula and solve the resulting equation.a. Calculate the value of n in years.

6% p. What principal will Janine need to invest? 14 multiple choice What sum.17 C $6291. if $4650 is invested on a term deposit for 180 days at 5.50 B $826.75% p.6% p. interest. interest on a 4 year investment.50 D $3975. 9 multiple choice The simple interest paid on an investment of $5750 at 4.95% p.a. He invests his money in program GC government bonds for 3 years at 8% p. She invests it for 5 years in a State Government bond that am progr –C pays 5. to the nearest month. calculate the amount of interest Frank will receive after 4 one year. Janine wants to earn $2000 interest. Calculate the simple interest earned on this investment. Calculate the size of each payment. will it take to earn $2400 simple interest.a.a.17 D $6279. in order to earn $1200 interest? A $2000 B $12 200 C $20 000 D $21 200 E L Spre XCE ad asio –TI sheet .00 B $541. to the nearest dollar. (Hint: Write 180 days as a fraction of 1 year. for investments over 2 years.75% p.) WORKED Example 12 How long.a. is: A $437. 6 Frank is 7 years old and starts a savings account with the local bank.50 11 Calculate the simple interest that has to be paid. Calculate the simple interest that Julie will earn: Interest a each year b for the whole 5 years of the investment.00 10 multiple choice The total value of an investment of $3500 after 2 years and 6 months if simple interest is paid at the rate of 5% per annum.a. a Calculate the simple interest that Loretta will earn in her ﬁrst year.a. b What will be the balance of Frank’s bank account after one year? 7 Loretta invests $7540 at 5. Calculate the total value of Karelle’s investment on maturity.a. 5 Karelle invests $7600 in a debenture that pays 6. WORKED Example 2 4 Brian has a $10 000 inheritance that he wants to invest. -a If the interest rate is 3 3 %.? 4 13 A debenture offers to pay 8% p. He has $140 with which to start the account. Calculate: a the simple interest earned Interest b the value of his investment on maturity. 2 Interest WORKED Example 3 8 Kath invests $9450 in a government bond that pays 6% p.a. if $16 410 is invested at 9. b Loretta receives two interest payments per year.a. must be invested for one year at 6% per annum simple interest.25 C $3937.9% p. for 2 years is: A $529. -c Find the total value of the investment after 4 1 years.Chapter 8 Investing money 235 GC 3 Julie has $40 000 to invest. simple interest for an 18 month investment.

No.5% p.6% p. 16 Mrs Williams invested $60 000 in government bonds at 7.1% p. for 2 years 3 $15 000 at 6% p. of years Interest 1 $500 2 $1000 3 $1500 4 $2000 5 $2500 . simple interest. every six months). for 2 years 5 $40 000 at 3. every 6 months).a. for 3 years 4 $950 at 0. for 4 years 2 $9000 at 7% p. for 1 year 4 8 $32 500 at 4. for 6 months 10 $3330 at 6.a.1% p.a. The investment is for 10 years and the interest is paid semi-annually (that is.65% p. for 9 months Graphing simple interest functions Suppose that we invest $10 000 at 5% p. for 5 years -6 $1200 at 4.a.a.a. They invest a sum of money at 8% p.95% p. The value of the scholarship is $1500.a. so that each year $1500 in interest is earned.a.236 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 15 Sue and Harry invested $14 500 in State Government bonds at 8.2% p. The table below shows the amount of interest that we will receive over various lengths of time. Calculate how much interest: a they receive every payment b will be received in total.a.a. for 18 months 9 $532 at 0. with interest paid semi-annually (that is.a. 1 $4000 at 5% p.5% p. for 2 1 years 2 -7 $5745 at 3 3 % p.a. a How much interest is she paid each 6 months? b How much interest is she paid over 3 years? c How long would the money need to be invested to earn a total of $33 750 in interest? 17 Mr and Mrs Tyquin donate money for a scholarship at the local high school.a. How much will Mr and Mrs Tyquin need to invest? 1 Find the simple interest on each of the following investments.a.

Substitute the known values of P = $6000 and r = 0. WRITE/DRAW a No. From the MENU select GRAPH. b Draw the graph with Years on the horizontal axis and Interest on the vertical axis. which is the amount of one year’s interest. Interest ($) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 WORKED Example 5 $6000 is invested at 4% p. Simplify the expression. THINK a Use the simple interest formula to calculate the interest earned on $6000 at 4% p.04 × n I = 240n . 4 and 5 years. 3. for 1. I = Prn I = 6000 × 0. Consider worked example 5.a. 3. of years Interest 1 $240 2 $480 3 $720 4 5 $960 $1200 1 2 3 4 5 Interest ($) b 1500 1000 500 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 Graphics Calculator tip! Graphing a simple interest function By using the simple interest formula we can create a function that can be graphed using the GRAPH function on the graphics calculator. 2. Write the simple interest formula 2. 1.a.Chapter 8 Investing money 237 The amount of interest earned can be graphed by the linear function at right. or 5% of the principal. of years Interest b Graph the interest earned against the number of years the money is invested. Note that the gradient of this graph is 500. a Complete the table below to calculate the interest that will have been earned over 5 years. No.04.

THINK a Use the simple interest formula to calculate the interest earned on $12 000 at 4% p. b Draw a line graph for each investment. WORKED Example 6 Kylie has $12 000 to invest. No. for 1. of years Interest (4%) Interest (5%) Interest (6%) 1 2 3 4 5 $480 $960 $1440 $1920 $2400 $600 $1200 $1800 $2400 $3000 $720 $1440 $2160 $2880 $3600 b Interest ($) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 Interest (6%) Interest (5%) Interest (4%) . 2.a. We are able to compare the interest that is earned by an investment at varying interest rates by graphing the interest earned at varying rates on the one set of axes. 2. 4 and 5 years. 2 Use the simple interest formula to calculate the interest earned on $12 000 at 5% p. 4 and 5 years. Delete any existing function and enter Y1 = 240X. F3 for V-Window and 6. 5% and 6%. 3. 1 1 2 3 4 5 WRITE/DRAW a No. Three different banks offer interest rates of 4%. for 1. 2. Press EXE to return to the previous screen and then press F6 to DRAW the graph. of years Interest (4%) Interest (5%) Interest (6%) b Show this information in graph form. 3. 3.a. a Complete the table below to show the interest that she would earn over 5 years. 5. 3 Use the simple interest formula to calculate the interest earned on $12 000 at 6% p.a. To draw up the axes press SHIFT enter the setting shown at right.238 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 4. 4 and 5 years. for 1.

a. of years Interest b Draw a graph of the interest earned against the length of the investment. 4 A graph is drawn to show the interest earned on $6000 at 4. a Copy and complete the table below to calculate the interest for various lengths of time. 2. b Graph the total value of Darren’s investment at the end of each year. a Copy and complete the table below to calculate the interest over 5 years. 8B WORKED Graphing simple interest functions 8. b $2000 at 10% p. Without drawing the graph.2% p. state the gradient.a. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 HEET . 2 $20 000 is to be invested at 8% p.a. 5 Darren invests $3200 at 2. The gradient of the linear function will be equal to one year’s interest.a. a Graph the amount of interest that Darren would have earned at the end of each year for the 5 years. No. 3. c What is the gradient of the linear graph drawn? d Use your graph to ﬁnd the amount of interest that would have been earned after 10 years.a. To compare the interest earned at various rates. No. The amount of simple interest earned on an investment for various lengths of time can be graphed as a linear function. c $8600 at 7.8% p. of years Interest b Draw a graph of the interest earned against the length of the investment. we can graph several functions on the one set of axes.5% p. d $50 000 at 8.a.3 Graphing linear and non-linear relationships SkillS Example 5 1 $8000 is invested at 5% p. for 5 years. a $15 000 at 7% p.a. 3 Draw a graph to represent the interest earned by each of the following investments over 5 years.a.5% p. for various lengths of time.Chapter 8 Investing money 239 remember 1.

8% p.5% or 3.a. of years Interest (3%) Interest (3..a. which has an interactive component.5% p.5%) Interest (3. and 6.a. 6% or 8%.2% p. 5.5% p. 3. No. Draw a graph of the value of the debentures at maturity against the number of years of the debenture. a Complete the table below to show the interest that he would earn over various lengths of time.a. 1 2 3 4 5 .240 WORKED Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Example 6 6 Julieanne has $25 000 to invest at 5%. is worth after 10 years than the 4.a. b Use your answer to a to calculate the interest rate paid by each of the three banks. of years Interest (5%) Interest (6%) Interest (8%) b Show this information in graph form.whichbank. 10 Three banks offer $4000 debentures at rates of 5. No.2% p. 7 Theo has $50 000 to invest. Use the graph to ﬁnd: a the amount of interest earned by each investment after 8 years b how much more the investment at 5..a. Theo enters the ﬁgure $50 000 and the following graph is displayed. investment. 40 000 35 000 30 000 25 000 20 000 15 000 10 000 5000 0 0 1 The Whichbank advantage 1 2 3 4 5 Interest ( ) Whichbank Eastpac NZA bank 2 3 4 5 6 Years 7 8 9 10 a Find the amount of simple interest earned after 10 years by investing with each of the three banks listed.au. 9 Draw a graph to show the interest earned on an investment of $12 500 at 4.com. 5% p.a.a.2% p.75%) b Show this information in graph form. 8 Mark has $5500 to invest at 3%. and 5. Theo investigates the website www. a Complete the table below to show the interest that she would earn over 5 years.2% p.75%.

The spreadsheet ‘Simple Interest’ (Sheet 1) models an investment of $10 000 at 5% p. most investments are not calculated using simple interest. The amount to which the initial investment grows is called the compounded value or future value. 3. E L Spre XCE ad sheet Interest 2. Save the spreadsheet as Simple Interest. this is called compound interest. you would know that when interest is paid the balance of your account grows and it is on this new balance that your next interest payment is calculated.Chapter 8 Investing money 241 Computer Application 1 Simple interest spreadsheets Throughout this chapter we will use some spreadsheets that allow us to track the growing value of an investment over time. If you have a bank account. 4. Change the amount of the principal and the interest rate. Calculation of compound interest In practice. 1. . and note the change in the ﬁgures displayed and the chart. We can calculate compound interest by calculating simple interest one period at a time.a. From the Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM open the spreadsheet ‘Interest’. 5. 6. Use the graphing function on your spreadsheet to draw a line graph for the amount of interest earned each year and the value of the investment after each year. When interest is added to the principal and this new balance is used to calculate the next interest payment. Use this function to check your answers to Exercise 8B.

Calculate the 2nd year’s principal by adding the 1st year’s interest to the initial principal.1 (substituting the value of A1) = 10 000 × 1. After 1 year A1 = 10 000 × 1. we subtract the initial principal from the future value. Calculate the interest for the 1st year. I = Prn = $10 000 × 0.12 .1 (increasing $10 000 by 10%) After 2 years A2 = A1 × (1. Let the compounded value after each year be An.a.1 × 3 = $3000 The table below shows a comparison between the value of an investment of $10 000 earning 10% p. Year Simple interest Compound inteerest 1 $1000 $1000 2 $2000 $2100 3 $3000 $3310 4 $4000 $4641 5 $5000 $6105 6 $6000 $7716 7 $7000 8 $8 000 $9487 $11 436 We can develop a formula for the future value of an investment rather than do each example by repeated use of simple interest. Calculate the 3rd year’s interest. Calculate the 2nd year’s interest.1 × 1. 4 5 6 7 To calculate the actual amount of interest received. by calculating the simple interest for each year separately. Consider worked example 7.242 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 7 Calculate the future value of an investment of $10 000 at 10% p. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE Initial principal = $10 000 1st year’s interest = 10% of $10 000 1st year’s interest = $1000 2nd year’s principal = $10 000 + $1000 2nd year’s principal = $11 000 2nd year’s interest = 10% of $11 000 2nd year’s interest = $1100 3rd year’s principal = $11 000 + $1100 3rd year’s principal = $12 100 3rd year’s interest = 10% of $12 100 3rd year’s interest = $1210 Future value = $12 100 + $1210 Future value = $13 310 Write the initial principal. Calculate the future value of the investment by adding the 3rd year’s interest to the 3rd year’s principal. Calculate the 3rd year’s principal by adding the 2nd year’s interest to the 2nd year’s principal.a. at both simple interest and compound interest. In the example above CI = $13 310 − $10 000 = $3310 To compare this with simple interest earnings at the same rate.1) = 10 000 × 1. for 3 years with interest paid at the end of each year.

monthly or even daily. . This is called the compounding period.07. in this example the rate is 2% per quarter. In the above example. Write down the value of P. the terms future value (FV) and present value (PV) are sometimes used instead of amount and principal. however.a.62 Write down the formula for the future value. It may be paid six-monthly. n = 5 A = $12 000 × 1. WORKED Example 8 Calculate the future value of an investment of $12 000 at 7% p.1n We can generalise this example to any investment. expressed as a decimal n = number of compounding periods.02. In many cases interest is paid more often. r = 0. Calculate. Therefore.Chapter 8 Investing money 243 A3 = A2 × 1. interest is paid annually. For example.13 The pattern then continues such that the value of the investment after n years equals: $10 000 × 1.075 = $16 830. consider an investment of $6000 at 8% p.a. where interest is compounded annually. After 3 years In the ﬁnancial world. hence r = 0. quarterly. for 5 years. The interest rate then needs to be converted from a rate per annum to a rate per compounding period. Substitute into the formula.1 = 10 000 × 1. A = P(1 + r)n where A = ﬁnal balance P = initial quantity r = percentage interest rate per compounding period. THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE A = P(1 + r)n P = $12 000. Interest is paid four times per year and therefore eight times in 2 years. Therefore n = 8. This is done by dividing the annual rate by four. for 2 years with interest compounded quarterly. this is not always the case. The interest rate must be calculated per quarter. the value of n is the number of compounding periods during the investment.1 = 10 000 × 1. r (as a decimal) and n. If interest is paid more often than annually.12 × 1.

expressed as a = decimal. Calculate. 3 Kiri has $2000 to invest. Use the formula A = P(1 + r)n to calculate the future value of Kiri’s investment. with interest paid annually. Write down the value of P. for 5 years with interest compounded annually. Substitute into the formula. SkillS HEET 8. To ﬁnd r. Calculate the future value of the investment by calculating the simple interest on each year separately. 2.028 = $7029. She invests the money at 8% p.244 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 9 Calculate the future value of an investment of $6000 at 8% p. Graphics Calculator tip! Compound interest warning! The TVM function on a graphics calculator can calculate compound interest. He invests it for 3 years at 10% p. remember 1. 2 Suzanne is to invest $15 000 for 2 years at 7% p. THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE A = P(1 + r)n P = $6000. In the formula. Further. with interest paid annually. This is somewhat more complicated than using the formula A = P(1 + r)n. divide the interest rate per annum by the number of compounding periods per year. Calculate the future value of the investment by calculating the simple interest for each year separately.a. r = 0. The formula used to calculate the future value of an investment is: A = P(1 + r)n where A = ﬁnal balance P = initial quantity n = number of compounding periods r = percentage interest rate per compounding period. n = 8 A = $6000 × 1.a. for 2 years with interest compounded quarterly.5 Finding a WORKED percentage Example of a 8 quantity . For this reason we recommend not using a graphics calculator for these calculations.4 Converting units of time WORKED Example 7 1 Ray has $5000 to invest.02. a graphics calculator uses an imprecise method and answers may vary by up to $1 from the correct answer. n is the number of compounding periods over the term of the investment and r is the interest rate per compounding period.a.a. 8C SkillS Calculation of compound interest HEET 8. The future value of an investment under compound interest can be calculated by calculating the simple interest for each year separately. 3. r (as a decimal) and n.96 Write down the formula for the future value.

if interest is compounded quarterly.a.a.2% p.6 following investments with interest compounded annually. for 3 years percentage of e $8750 at 6.a. 8 Vicky invests $30 000 in a one-year ﬁxed deposit at an interest rate of 6% p. for 4 years d $11 500 at 5. with interest compounded six-monthly.a.50% p. 10 multiple choice A sum of $5000 is invested for 2 years at the rate of 4.. The interest paid on this investment. with interest compounded six-monthly D compound interest at 7. Luke has $500 in such an account. will have a future value closest to $15 000? A $900 B $8500 C $9400 D $11 000 Compound interest E L Spre XCE ad sheet .2% p. Calculate the future value of the account after 2 years.a.a. a Convert the interest rate of 6% p. They plan to invest it at 6% p.a. to be invested for 6 years and compounded semiannually at 8% p.5% p.a. The following investment alternatives are suggested to him. for 6 years another WORKED HEET Example 9 5 Carla is to invest $45 000 at 9. e $120 000 for 20 years at 11.a. 9 Calculate the compounded value of each of the following investments. for 3 years b $8000 at 3% p.75% p. with interest compounded quarterly 13 multiple choice Which of the following investments.a.a. with interest compounded quarterly. with interest compounded monthly. 2 d $14 000 for 4 years at 9% p.a. 6 A passbook savings account pays interest of 0. compounded quarterly. for 5 years Writing one quantity as a c $18 000 at 8% p.6% p.a. b Calculate the future value of the investment upon maturity.a. a $960 for 1 year at 4. Calculate the future value of the investment. Calculate the future value of the investment. for 5 years with interest compounded sixmonthly.a.8% p.. 7 Noel is to invest $12 000 at 8% p.a. is: A $475 B $495 C $5475 D $5495 11 multiple choice After selling their house Mr and Mrs Dengate have $61 800.a. The value of their investment will ﬁrst exceed $100 000 after: A 8 years B 9 years C 10 years D 11 years 12 multiple choice Warren wishes to invest $10 000 for a period of 5 years. with interest compounded six-monthly.a. to the nearest dollar. with interest compounding monthly. 2 -c $152 000 for 2 1 years at 7. for 2 years with interest compounded quarterly. with interest compounded quarterly. -b $7500 for 3 1 years at 5.25% p.a. with interest compounded annually C compound interest at 7. to a rate per month.2% p.95% p.a.2% p. with interest compounded annually. B compound interest at 8% p. a $4000 at 5% p. The best investment would be: A simple interest at 9% p..Chapter 8 Investing money 245 SkillS 4 Use the compound interest formula to calculate the future value of each of the 8.a.a.

1 Computer Application 2 Compound interest spreadsheets Earlier we wrote a spreadsheet to show the growth of an investment over a number of years. From the Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM open the spreadsheet ‘Interest’.a. 1. but her interest rate is 5. correct to 4 decimal places. 16 Simon invests $4000 for 3 years at 6% p. We will now write a similar spreadsheet to show the growth under compound interest. ‘Compound Interest’. 15 Kerry invests $100 000 at 8% p. despite receiving a lower rate of interest. compared with the interest calculated at the end of the year. This spreadsheet models a $10 000 investment at 5% p. Work T SHEE 8. d Calculate the extra amount of interest earned. a Calculate the daily percentage interest rate. Calculate the compounded value of Brittany’s investment if the compounding period is: a one year b six months c three months d monthly.246 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 14 Brittany has $13 500 to invest. c Calculate the amount of interest paid on this investment.a. b Show that the compounded value of Monica’s investment is greater than Simon’s investment. For such large investments interest is compounded daily. . An investment over a 2-year term will pay interest of 8% p.a.a. with interest compounded quarterly. EXCE reads L Sp he et Interest 2.a. interest with interest compounded annually (one compounding period per year). for a one-year term.6% p. Select Sheet 2. Monica also invests $4000 for 3 years. a Calculate the value of Simon’s investment on maturity. c Explain why Monica’s investment is worth more than Simon’s. b Calculate the compounded value of Kerry’s investment on maturity. simple interest.

Chapter 8 Investing money 247 3. to see the change in your graph. . Use the graphing function to draw a graph showing the growth of this investment over 10 years. Calculate the size of each quarterly interest payment. Save this spreadsheet as Compound Interest. Compare this graph with the graph drawn for the corresponding simple interest investment.25% p. 5. Change other information. 3 Emma invests $27 500 in investment bonds which pay 6. for 18 months with interest compounded monthly. 2 Corey invests $14 200 for 5 years in debentures that pay 4. Calculate the compounded value of Vladimir’s investment. simple interest. simple interest for 2 years. for 2 years with interest compounded annually. for 3 years with interest compounded annually. 6 Calculate the amount of interest earned by Vladimir. Calculate the interest earned in this investment.a.3% p. 2 1 Calculate the simple interest earned on an investment of $9240 made at 7. 7 Calculate the compounded value of an investment of $6000 at 6.2% p. for 2 years with interest compounded six-monthly. 4.4% p. Calculate the total value of Corey’s investment at maturity. 9 Calculate the compounded value of an investment of $6000 at 6. Change the number of compounding periods per year to see the change in the value of the investment.a. 8 Calculate the compounded value of an investment of $6000 at 6. Your graph should change as you change the information. for 3 years. 4 The interest that Emma receives is paid in quarterly instalments.4% p.4% p.a. 10 Calculate the compounded value of an investment of $13 200 at 7. 5 Vladimir invests $2000 at 5% p.a. 6.a.a.a.a. for 2 years with interest compounded quarterly. such as the principal and interest rate.4% p.

PV and r.265 1.403 1.587 1.967 8% 1.464 1.504 1. having been given the values of CV. Interest rate per period Periods 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1% 1.360 1.344 4% 1.260 1.159 9% 1.262 1.501 1. A compound value interest factor (CVIF) is the compounded value that $1 will amount to under a certain investment.216 1.159 1. We can therefore use the formula: CV = PV × CVIF This formula simply states: compounded value = present value × interest factor.194 1.172 1.040 1. to calculate the compounded value of the investment we multiply $7600 by the CVIF which is 1.072 1.331 1.126 1.993 2.060 1.080 1. so that it will have a compounded value of $15 000.539 1.407 1.305 1.419 1.225 1.216.60 is the compounded value (CV).551 1. The best interest rate for investing the money is at 8%. The best way to do this is to use a table showing the compound value interest factor for various investments.369 1.158 1. compounded quarterly.061 1.090 1.082 1. for 4 years.594 We can now use this table to solve compound interest problems.469 1.338 1.040 1.838 1. compounded annually.105 2% 1.195 1.041 1. Therefore CV = $7600 × 1.949 2.070 1.267 1.828 1.172 2.050 1.a.104 1.311 1.216.594 1.062 1. for 4 years.689 1.144 2.188 1.999 2.791 7% 1.629 6% 1.020 1.191 1. For example.093 1.030 1.210 1.248 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Calculating compound interest from a table of compounded values So far we have looked at the calculation of compounded values and the amount of compound interest paid.340 1.170 1.851 1. .606 1. We want to know how long we need to invest the $10 000.061 1.477 1. The CVIF table below shows the interest factors.276 1.125 1.a.714 1.100 1.480 5% 1.030 1.051 1.316 1.083 1. which is going to cost $15 000.230 1. its compounded value would be $1.010 1.145 1. To solve this example we need to calculate the value of n.718 1.677 1.412 1. if $7600 were invested at 5% p.611 1.126 1.020 1.166 1.358 2.094 1.149 1.217 1.60 In this example $7600 is the present value (PV) of the investment and $9241.295 1.219 3% 1.103 1.124 1. We can use this to calculate the value of other amounts of money under the same investment pattern.423 1.367 10% 1.216 = $9241. Suppose we have $10 000 saved for a world holiday.772 1. For example. if $1 were invested at 5% p.082 1.

20 Calculate the interest rate per period and number of interest periods. .194).194 $3000 PV = -------------1. with interest compounded six-monthly. Make PV the subject of the equation (by dividing by 1.a. you will need to solve the equation to ﬁnd the value of PV.a. Calculate. THINK 1 WRITE Interest rate per period = 3% Interest periods = 6 CVIF = 1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 We can also use the table to determine the length of time that a given present value will take to reach a certain compounded value. Calculate the amount of money that Liz must invest to generate a compounded value of $3000 in 3 years.Chapter 8 Investing money 249 WORKED Example 10 Use the CVIF table to ﬁnd the compounded value of $4560 invested at 8% p. however. Substitute for CV and CVIF. She ﬁnds an investment of 6% p. at the given interest rate.56 to generate $3000 in 3 years. She hopes to have $3000 in 3 years to buy a used car. This is done using the same formula.194 CV = PV × CVIF $3000 = PV × 1. Look up the CVIF for 3% with 6 interest periods. for 2 years with interest compounded six-monthly.56 Liz will need to invest $2512. Look up the CVIF for 4% with 4 interest periods. THINK 1 WRITE Interest rate per period = 4% Interest periods = 4 CVIF = 1.170 CV = PV × CVIF CV = $4560 × 1. Give a written answer. 2 3 4 5 This table can also be used to help us calculate the present value of an investment that is required to produce a given compounded value.170 CV = $5335. Calculate. Write the formula. Substitute the PV and the CVIF. WORKED Example 11 Liz is 16 years old. Write the formula. greater than that required. Calculate the interest rate per period and number of interest periods.194 PV = $2512. This is done by calculating the required CVIF and looking for the ﬁrst CVIF in the table.

We can use CVIF tables to calculate the length of time an investment will take to reach a certain compounded value. 2. 3. Substitute the values of PV and CV. or the interest rate required to reach a certain compounded value.a. Write the value of PV and CV. The ﬁrst CVIF greater than 1. Calculate the interest rate per period. 8 -It will take 3 1 years for $2500 to grow to 2 $3200. Calculate the value of CVIF. Write the formula. Make CVIF the subject of the formula.28 Seven interest periods will be required. The compounded value of $1 under a particular investment is called the compounded value interest factor (CVIF). 1. . The compounded value of any investment can be calculated by using a CVIF table and the formula CV = PV × CVIF.250 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 12 How long will it take $2500 to grow to $3200 when invested at 8% p. CV = $3200 CV = PV × CVIF $3200 = $2500 × CVIF $3200 CVIF = -------------$2500 = 1. The same method can be used to ﬁnd the interest rate required to achieve a certain compounded value over a ﬁxed period of time. remember 1. Calculate the length of time for seven interest periods. Look at the 4% column of the CVIF table.28 (that is. with interest compounded six-monthly? THINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 WRITE Interest rate per period = 4% PV = $2500.316) will be the minimum number of interest periods required to produce the required growth.

Use the CVIF table to calculate the compounded value of Marlene’s investment.5% for: a 1 interest period b 2 interest periods c 3 interest periods d 4 interest periods e 6 interest periods f 8 interest periods.a. a $5000 at 9% p. for 1 year with interest compounded quarterly d $11 000 at 10% p. for an investment at 2.a. Use the CVIF table on page 248 to calculate the compounded value of Toshika’s investment. correct to the nearest dollar.a.Chapter 8 Investing money 251 8D WORKED Calculating compound interest from a table of compounded values Example 10 1 Toshika has $10 000 to invest for 4 years.a. for 2 years with interest compounded quarterly e $13 250 at 8% p. for 3 years with interest compounded annually b $2340 at 5% p.a. A building society offers 8% p. for 1 1 years with interest compounded quarterly 2 8 multiple choice One dollar invested at 3.a.5% p. interest with interest paid quarterly.a. for 6 months with interest compounded monthly 6 Use the formula A = P(1 + r)n to calculate the CVIF.a. for 18 months with interest compounded quarterly f $115 000 at 12% p. for 6 years with interest compounded annually b $6700 at 10% p. with interest compounded annually.188 9 multiple choice For a certain investment the CVIF = 2.5% for 5 interest periods amounts to: A 0. will be: A $15 158 B $15 159 C $69 876 D $69 877 .a.175 D 1. the compounded value. 4 Roger invests $2400 for 2 years in an ‘at call’ account.035 C 1. for 2 years with interest compounded six-monthly c $7200 at 10% p. 3 Marlene invests $40 000 for 2 years at 8% p. 7 Using the CVIFs found in question 6 will allow you to calculate each of the compounded values of the following investments.a. for 4 years with interest compounded six-monthly c $250 at 6% p. with interest compounded quarterly.175 B 1. If the present value of the investment is $32 546. a $900 at 2.147. 2 Greg has $8500 to invest for 5 years.a. correct to 3 decimal places. which pays 4% p. for 2 years with interest compounded quarterly -e $5750 at 10% p. for 5 years with interest compounded six-monthly d $23 670 at 4% p.a.a.a.a. Use the CVIF table to calculate the future value of this investment. The bank offers her 7% p. Use the CVIF table to calculate the compounded value of Greg’s investment. with interest compounded twice a year. 5 Use the CVIF table to calculate the compounded value of each of the following investments.

to the nearest whole number. He needs to have $10 000. with interest paid quarterly e $12 000 to grow to $17 500 at 10% p. with interest 11 compounded annually.a. using the CVIF table. Calculate the value of Max’s investment at maturity. with interest paid six-monthly. Use the CVIF table to calculate the amount of money that he will need to invest at 5% p. 11 How long will it take $2000 to grow to $2500 when invested at 8% p. with interest paid annually c $3000 to grow to $4000 at 6% p. WORKED Example . with interest paid annually b $1000 to grow to $1500 at 7% p. with interest paid six-monthly d $9000 to grow to $10 000 at 8% p.a.252 WORKED Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Example 10 Jason wants to save for a car in 3 years. Calculate the value of Bruce’s investment at maturity. with interest compounded six-monthly. if interest is compounded quarterly. Give your answer correct to the nearest dollar. b Keith invests at 10% p.a.a. 13 Calculate the interest rate required for $1000 to grow to $1300 in 2 years. using the CVIF table. Calculate the value of Keith’s investment at maturity. with interest compounded six-monthly? 12 12 Calculate the length of time that it will take: a $1000 to grow to $1100 at 10% p. required for each of the following investments. d Calculate the total amount of interest each man received. with interest compounded annually.a. a Bruce invests at 10% p. Keith and Max each have $10 000 to invest over a 5-year term.a.a.a.a. simple interest. a $1000 to grow to $1200 in 3 years with interest compounded annually b $2000 to grow to $2600 in 4 years with interest compounded six-monthly c $500 to grow to $650 in 1 year with interest compounded quarterly d $10 000 to grow to $20 000 in 8 years with interest compounded annually e $3500 to grow to $6000 in 5 years with interest compounded six-monthly 15 Bruce. to have $10 000 in 3 years.a. e Write down the amount of interest each received as a percentage of their original investment. (Hint: Find the CVIF required and use the table for 8 interest periods.) 14 Use the CVIF table to calculate the interest rate. c Max invests at 10% p.

a Use the table of compounded values to complete the table below to show the future value at the end of each year. of years Future value b Draw a graph of the future value of the investment against time.a. b Draw the graph..Chapter 8 Investing money 253 Graphing compound interest functions Earlier. the interest earned in each interest period increases. We can use the compounded values of $1 to complete tables that will then allow us to graph a compound interest function. of years b Future value ($) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Future value $5250 $5515 $5790 $6080 $6380 7000 6000 5000 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 . and so when we graph the future value of the investment. This occurred because the amount of interest earned in each interest period was the same. by drawing a smooth curve between the marked points. With compound interest. WRITE/DRAW a No. an exponential graph results. THINK a Use the table of compounded values of $1 to complete the table. we drew graphs of the simple interest earned by various simple interest investments and found that these graphs were linear. with interest compounded annually. No. WORKED Example 13 Pierre invests $5000 at 5% p.

To graph the interest earned. A = P(1 + r)n A = 5000(1 + 0. 1. 2. 5. 6% or 7%. Write the compound interest formula. compounded annually. we can both calculate and draw a graph of the compound interest formula.05)^X. such graphs can be used to compare various investments. of years Future value (5%) Future value (6%) Future value (7%) b Draw a graph that will allow the investments to be compared. WORKED Example 14 Amy is to invest $2000 at 5%. As with simple interest. Simplify the expression. No. From the MENU select GRAPH. Substitute the known values of P = $5000 and r = 0. Delete any existing function and enter Y1 = 5000(1.05)n A = 5000(1. Press EXE to return to the previous screen and then press F6 to DRAW the graph. To draw up the axes. a Copy and complete the table below to ﬁnd the future value of each investment at the end of each year.05)n 4. the principal must be subtracted from the future value of the investment. 3.254 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Graphics Calculator tip! Graphing a compound interest function By using a graphics calculator.05. 1 2 3 4 5 . F3 for V-Window and 6. press SHIFT enter the setting shown at right.

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 . can be used to calculate the future value of an investment. of years Future value b Draw a graph of the future value against the length of the investment. WRITE/DRAW a No.a. to calculate the 13 future value of the investment at the end of each year.a. Graphing the future value of a compound interest investment results in an exponential graph. By drawing the graphs of several investments on one set of axes. 2 An amount of $12 000 is to be invested at 8% p. To graph the amount of compound interest paid. 2. No. No. c Use your graph to ﬁnd the future value of the investment after 10 years. 4. a Copy and complete the table below. of years 1 2 3 4 5 Future value (5%) $2100 $2206 $2316 $2432 $2552 Future value (6%) $2120 $2248 $2382 $2524 $2676 Future value (7%) $2140 $2290 $2450 $2622 $2806 2800 2700 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 0 0 1 2 3 Years 4 5 b Future value ($) Future value (7%) Future value (6%) Future value (5%) remember 1. at various interest rates for various compounding periods. we can compare the investments. 8E WORKED Graphing compound interest functions Example 1 An amount of $8000 is invested at 5% p.Chapter 8 Investing money 255 THINK a Use the table of compounded values of $1 to complete the table. using the formula A = P(1 + r)n. 3. a Copy and complete the table below to calculate the future value at the end of each year. of years Future value b Draw a graph of the interest earned against the length of the investment. A table that shows the compounded value of $1. with interest compounded annually. we need to subtract the principal from the future value. b Draw each graph by joining the points with a smooth curve. with interest compounded annually.

compounding annually. 6% or 8%. with interest compounding quarterly.a. 7 Petra has $4000 to invest at 6% p. with interest compounded annually 4 A graph is drawn to show the future value of an investment of $2000 at 6% p. WORKED 0. 14 a Complete the table below to show the interest that he would earn over 5 years.a. a Complete the table below to show the future value of the investment at the end of each year.5 4 4. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 .5 3 3.5 2 2. with interest compounding six-monthly.. of years Interest (4%) Interest (6%) Interest (8%) b Show this information in graph form.5 5 Example 6 James has $8000 to invest at either 4%.a.a. Years FV b Use the table to draw a graph. with interest compounded annually b $2000 at 10% p.5 1 1. a Complete the table below. 5 An amount of $1200 is invested at 4% p. if interest is compounded annually. No. No. a $15 000 at 7% p. of years Annually Six-monthly b Show this information in graph form.256 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 3 Draw a graph to represent the future value of the following investments against time.a. or six-monthly. a Graph the future value of the investment at the end of each year. b Graph the compound interest earned by the investment at the end of each year.

For the income part of a share investment. we need to calculate that return as a percentage of the amount invested. An alternative to investing in a bank is to purchase shares.61% . We can’t accurately compare the values of investments from the dividend alone. The proﬁt made by a company will be paid to the company’s owners (the shareholders).2 million.25 Dividend yield = --------. WORKED Example 16 A company with a share price of $5.50. A dividend is calculated by dividing the proﬁt that is to be distributed by the number of shares in the company. We need to consider the money that was invested in order to earn that dividend. The value of shares changes daily. You can earn money from shares in two ways: 1. The risk is that the shares may fall in value.× 100% 5.Chapter 8 Investing money 257 Share dividends Investing money in banks and similar ﬁnancial institutions is the most common type of investment. The dividend is calculated by dividing the proﬁt by the number of shares. Give a written answer. People invest in the share market with the expectation that the value of shares will rise and they can be sold at a proﬁt. A 38c dividend paid by a company with a share value of $12. When buying shares you are purchasing a share of the company. WORKED Example 15 A company has an after-tax proﬁt of $34.42 declares a dividend of 25c. To calculate the dividend yield for any share. WRITE 0. What dividend will the company declare if all the proﬁts are distributed to the shareholders? THINK 1 2 WRITE Dividend = $34 200 000 ÷ 90 000 000 Dividend = $0. correct to 2 decimal places. the remainder being distributed to the shareholders as dividends. There are 90 million shares in the company. you become a part owner of that company.25 (the dividend) over $5. Shares have a risk associated with them and there is no ﬁxed return. To compare the true return from any investment.42 Dividend yield = 4. Calculate the dividend yield. That part of the proﬁt distributed to shareholders is called a dividend. Once or twice a year the directors of a company calculate the company’s proﬁt. In other words. as it is safe and the return can be calculated in advance. The dividend is then declared on a per-share basis. this percentage is called the dividend yield.38 The dividend is 38c per share. 2. THINK Write 0. they have the potential to return more money to the investor than through a bank.42 (the share price) and multiply by 100%. A certain proportion of the proﬁt may be spent on developing the company. we calculate the dividend as a percentage of the share price. however.00 is a lower return than a company that pays a 15c dividend and has a share value of $2.

correct to 2 decimal places.5 million shares in the company. calculate the dividend that the company will declare. Calculate the dividend the company will declare. 7 A company declares a dividend of 78c. 5 A company makes a before-tax (gross) proﬁt of $3. 3 A company makes an after-tax proﬁt of $150 000. for the calculations in this exercise. Calculate the dividend yield for this company. 3. Calculate the dividend that will be declared. An investment in shares earns money through dividend payments and by increasing in value. SkillS HEET 8. The dividend yield is found by writing the dividend as a percentage of the share price. If there are 2.2 million is to be reinvested in the company. . c Calculate the dividend that this company will declare.5 million and there are 8 million shares in the company. 6 A company makes a gross proﬁt of $14. assume that companies distribute all their proﬁts as dividends.258 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course remember 1. Calculate the dividend to be declared by the company. A dividend is a payment made to shareholders. we calculate the dividend yield. To calculate the true worth of an investment. calculate the amount of money that is to be distributed to the shareholders. 4 A company with an after-tax proﬁt of $1. If there are 4.2 million shares in the company. b If $3. calculate the dividend that the company will declare.2 million consists of 4.50 declares a dividend of 48c per share. b What will be the after-tax proﬁt of the company? c If there are 5 million shares in the company. It is calculated by dividing the proﬁt to be distributed to shareholders by the total number of shares in the company.1 million shares. a If the company is taxed at the rate of 36%. 2. a Calculate the after-tax proﬁt if company tax is paid at the rate of 36%. 1 A company has issued 20 million shares and makes an after-tax proﬁt of $5 million. 2 A company that has 2 million shares makes a proﬁt of $3 million.5 Finding a percentage of a quantity WORKED Example 15 Unless stated otherwise.4 million. calculate the after-tax proﬁt of the company. calculate the amount of tax it must pay. in cents. 8F SkillS Share dividends HEET 8.6 Writing one quantity as a percentage of another WORKED Example 16 8 A company with a share price of $10.

Calculate the dividend yield.7%. B Company B has a share value of $6.30 and pays a dividend of 62c/share. The dividend yield for that company was 6.40 $23.4c.6c/share.Chapter 8 Investing money 259 9 Copy and complete the table below.10/share. 15 Janice buys shares in a company at $5. b One year later the share value is $12. The company pays a dividend in July of 22. 11 multiple choice Which of the following companies paid the highest dividend yield? A Company A has a share value of $4.2 million shares in the company.78 per share. 14 A company’s prospectus predicts that the dividend yield for the coming year will be 6. 12 George bought $5600 worth of shares in a company.76. .40 $7.50 each. 16 The dividend paid by a company for the 2008–09 ﬁnancial year was 5. Calculate the dividend yield for the whole ﬁnancial year (July to the following June).12. Its share price is $21. C Company C has a share value of $12. a Calculate the dividend yield for this company. b If there are 5.76 $0.56 and pays a dividend of 35c/share.20 $1. The company paid Hsiang a dividend of 11c per share.78 $1. c In 2009–10 the dividend paid to shareholders increased by 15%. Calculate the dividend paid. b In the 2009–10 ﬁnancial year the share price rose by 12%. calculate the after-tax proﬁt of the company.56 $0. Calculate the share price for this year.40 and pays a dividend of $1. a Calculate the dividend paid if the dividend yield in the prospectus is paid. Calculate the dividend per share. in cents. d Calculate the dividend yield for 2009–10. a Calculate the dividend yield for 2008–09.04 Share price $8.09 $0.7c and a dividend in February of 26. D Company D has a share value of 85c and pays a dividend of 7.65c/share.76 Dividend yield 10 Hsiang purchased shares in a company for $3.50.50. The company then has a dividend yield of 8. correct to 1 decimal place. 13 Andrea bought shares in a company for $11.5%. Calculate the amount that George receives in dividends. The company paid a dividend of 76c/share. with a share price of $9. correct to 2 decimal places.40 $15. Dividend $0.75%.

00 3.80 3. Share price ($) 4.40 4. By continuing the line of best ﬁt you can make a prediction for future share prices. You should be able to produce your own graph to answer this type of question from a set of data that you have been given or have researched. we can only use the past performance of a share to try to predict its future performance.80. THINK a Draw a line on the graph. b Use your line of best ﬁt to estimate the share price after another three months.40 4.60 1– Se pt a On the graph draw a line of best ﬁt. which best ﬁts between the points marked. This is done by graphing the value of the share at regular intervals and then drawing a line of best ﬁt to try to monitor the trend.80 4.260 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Graphing share performance Because shares offer no guaranteed returns.60 1– Oc t 1– No v 1– De c Month 1– Se pt b Extend the line of best ﬁt for three months and read the predicted share price. This is called extrapolating information from the graph. b The predicted share price is $4.20 4. WRITE a Share price ($) 4. Interpolate is the opposite of extrapolate and occurs when drawing a graph using data found at the end points. WORKED Example 17 The graph shows the share price of a company over a 3-month period.00 3.80 3.20 4.60 4. 1– Oc t 1– No v 1– De c 1– Ja n Month 1– Fe b 1– M ar .

an F 1.60 11. b Predict the share price in June of the following year.40 10.Jul A 1.60 10. Predict the share price by reading from the line of best ﬁt.ep O 1. 1J 1.10 Month July August September October November December Share price $10.89 $10.54 $10.Chapter 8 Investing money 261 WORKED Example 18 Below is the share price of a company taken on the ﬁrst day of the month for one year.an F 1.eb M 1.40 11.pr M 1.34 $11. Month January February March April May June Share price $10.80 10.ar A 1.80 11.20 12.ug S 1.ec J 1.ay Ju n Month Month .72 a On a set of axes plot the share price for each month and draw a line of best ﬁt.Jul A 1.n 1.an Fe 1.34 $10.00 10.60 11.ct N 1.ay Ju 1.ay Ju n b 1 2 Extend the line of best ﬁt for six months. b The predicted share price is $12.20 11.b M 1.48 $11.pr M 1.65 $10.ar A 1.00 10. THINK a 1 WRITE a 12.ov D 1.an Fe 1.pr M 1.35.40 12.20 12.20 11.60 10.72 $11.20 1J 1.40 11.56 $11.ec J 1.00 11.ov D 1.98 $11.23 $11.ay Ju 1.b M 1.80 11.pr M 1.ar A 1.00 11.ep O 1.ar A 1.n 1.80 10.eb M 1. 12.40 10.20 Share price ($) Draw up a set of axes and plot the data.ct N 1.40 12.ug S 1. 2 Share price ($) Draw a straight line on the graph that best ﬁts in with the marked points.

b Use your graph to predict the value of the share on 1 November.90 5.02 1– Ja n 1– Fe 1– b M a 1– r Ap 1– r M a 1– y Ju n 1– Ju 1– l Au 1– g Se p 1– t Oc t Month . We can then use the line of best ﬁt to predict the future price of a share. Graphing the past share price allows us to examine trends by drawing a line of best ﬁt on the graph. 2 The graph at right shows the movement in a share price over a 6-month period. Month 4. b Use your graph to predict the value of the share after a further 12 months.70 M ay n Ju 11l 1Ju Example 1 The graph at right shows the movement in a share price over a 2-month period. a Copy the graph into your book and on it draw a line of best ﬁt. 8G WORKED Graphing share performance Share price ($) 6.50 4. 2. a Copy the graph into your book and on it draw a line of best ﬁt.00 2.10 1.t N ov 1D ec M ay 111Ju l Share price ($) Month Share price ($) 3 The graph at right shows the movement in a share price over a 9-month period. 3.10 5.14 1. 17 a Copy the graph into your book and on it draw a line of best ﬁt.04 1.00 3.08 1.g Se pt 1O c 1. To try to predict possible future movement in share prices.30 6. we use the past performance of the share.262 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course remember 1.50 6.50 3.12 1. b Use your graph to predict the value of the share on 1 February. 1.06 1.50 n Ju 1A u 1.

86 $13.Chapter 8 Investing money 263 WORKED Example 18 4 The table below shows the share price of a large multinational company over a 12-month period.46 $13. Include the highest and lowest point of the share price over the past year. .40 $13.82 $12. Researching share prices 1 Choose three companies from the business section of the newspaper. b Use your line of best ﬁt to predict the share price in December of the next year.06 $12. the newspaper or the Internet.10 $12. 6 Find the share price each week for six months and see if your line of best ﬁt accurately predicts the share price.86 $14. Month January February March April May June Share price $12.45 $13.67 $13. draw a line of best ﬁt to ﬁnd the overall trend in the movement of the share price.11 $12.30 $13.20 a Graph the share price for each month and show a line of best ﬁt.20 $12.65 $13.40 $12.98 $12. b Use your graph to predict the value of the share after a further 6 months. Month January February March April May June Share price $12.86 a Plot the share prices on a set of axes and on your graph draw a line of best ﬁt. 3 Graph the information on the share price that you have found. 5 Try to predict the share price in six months from now by extending the line of best ﬁt.17 $13.62 $13.05 $13.98 Month July August September October November December Share price $13. 4 On your graph.89 Month July August September October November December Share price $13. 5 The table below shows the share price of BigCorp Productions Ltd over a period of one year.43 $11.41 $13. 2 Determine the movement of each share over the past year using ﬁnancial journals.

Remember the compound interest formula is A = P(1 + r)n and so in these examples P is the original price. If the inﬂation rate is 5%. If the average inﬂation rate is 4%. Substitute the values of P. WORKED Example 19 The cost of a new car is $35 000. estimate the cost of the television set after 5 years. A similar calculation can be made to anticipate the future value of collectable items. THINK Increase $35 000 by 5%. The amount by which an item grows in value over time is known as appreciation. WORKED Example 20 The cost of a television set is $800. such as stamp collections and memorabilia from special occasions. we can estimate what the cost of various goods and services will be at some time in the future. r = 0. r is the inﬂation rate expressed as a decimal and n is the number of years. Calculate. r and n. we increase the price of an item by the rate of inﬂation. and rises at a much greater rate than inﬂation. Write down the compound interest formula. By looking at the inﬂation rate. estimate the price of the car after one year. the method of calculation is the same as for compound interest.264 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Inﬂation and appreciation One of the measures of how an economy is performing is the rate of inﬂation. This is because we are adding a percentage of the cost to the cost each year. To estimate the future price of an item one year ahead. In Australia this percentage is called the Consumer Price Index (CPI). r and n.04.32 Write the values of P. Inﬂation is the rise in prices within an economy and is generally measured as a percentage. . n = 5 A = P(1 + r)n A = $800 × (1. WRITE Future price = 105% of $35 000 Future price = 105 ÷ 100 × $35 000 Future price = $36 750 When calculating the future cost of an item several years ahead.04)5 A = $973. THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE P = $800. This type of item increases in value over time if it becomes rare.

Calculate and round off to the nearest $10.2)10 = $1550 Write the values of P. Write down the compound interest formula. Inﬂation is the measure of the rate at which prices increase. Substitute the values of P. THINK 1 WRITE P = $250. correct to the nearest $10. 3. estimate the cost of the item after one year. we increase the price by the percentage inﬂation rate. r and n. If the inﬂation rate is 4%. r and n. r = 0.2. It is anticipated that the value of the stamp will rise by 20% per year. a An MP3 player costing $600 with an inﬂation rate of 3% b A toaster costing $45 with inﬂation at 7% . Rare items such as collectibles and memorabilia increase in value as time goes on at a rate that is usually greater than inﬂation. 2 For each of the following. we use the compound interest formula. using the inﬂation rate as the value of r. To estimate the cost of an item after several years. 8H WORKED Inﬂation and appreciation Example 19 1 The cost of a motorcycle is $20 000. 2.Chapter 8 Investing money 265 WORKED Example 21 Jenny purchases a rare stamp for $250. 4. with the given inﬂation rate. The inﬂation rate is given as a percentage and is called the Consumer Price Index. To estimate the cost of an item after one year. 2 3 4 remember 1. n = 10 A = P(1 + r)n = $250 × (1. Calculate the value of the stamp after 10 years. estimate the cost of the motorcycle after one year. 5.

estimate the cost of the lawnmower after 4 years. With an average inﬂation rate of 3.. 8 If a basket of groceries costs $98. 7 A daily newspaper costs $1. the cost of the soft drink in ﬁve years will be: A $2.00.3% p.50.50.2%? 9 multiple choice A bottle of soft drink costs $2. estimate the cost of a newspaper after 5 years (to the nearest 5c). estimate the value of the wine in 20 years (to the nearest $10). what would the estimated cost of the groceries be in 2015 if the average inﬂation rate for that period is 3. If the average inﬂation rate is predicted to be 3%.8% for the next year.a. 11 Ken purchased a rare bottle of wine for $350. The inﬂation rate is predicted to be 4.70.266 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course c A loaf of bread costing $1. 4 When the Wilson family go shopping. Estimate the cost of the guitar at the beginning of 2010. If the value of the wine is predicted to increase at 10% per annum. 6 The cost of a litre of milk is $1.5% e A washing machine costing $925 with inﬂation at 0.60 B $2. If a coin collector purchased one in 2006 for $400 and the value of the coin increases by 15% per year.50 in 2008.2 12 The 1968 Australian 2c piece is very rare.4%. calculate its value in 2019 (to the nearest $10). .75 D $2. calculate the value of the shirt (to the nearest $10). If the inﬂation rate is predicted to average 2% for the next ﬁve years. If the value of the shirt increases by 20% per annum for the next 21 5 years. b The government predicts inﬂation will fall to 2.7% in 2009. estimate the cost of the guitar at the beginning of 2009.70 C $2. Work T SHEE 8.76 WORKED Example 10 Veronica bought a shirt signed by the Australian cricket team after it won the 2007 World Cup for $200. estimate the cost of a litre of milk after 10 years. If the inﬂation rate is an average 4%. a If the inﬂation rate is 3. How much should the Wilson’s budget per week be for groceries for the next year? WORKED Example 20 5 The cost of a lawnmower is $550. the weekly basket of groceries costs $112.8% 3 An electric guitar is priced at $850 at the beginning of 2008.80 with inﬂation at 6% d An airline ticket costing $560 with inﬂation at 3.

• When a compound interest function is graphed. we can graph the past movement in the share price and draw a line of best ﬁt on the graph.Chapter 8 Investing money 267 summary Simple interest • Simple interest is interest paid where the interest is not added to the principal before the next interest calculation. Compound interest • Compound interest is the interest added to the principal before the next interest calculation is made. • To try to predict the future movement in share prices. • Compound interest can be calculated by using a table of compounded values of $1. although there is a greater potential for proﬁt than with investments such as banking and property. Inﬂation • The price of goods and services rise from year to year. • It is calculated using the formula: I = Prn where P is the initial quantity. r is the percentage interest rate per interest period expressed as a decimal and n is the number of compounding periods. (b) The company may pay a dividend to its shareholders. it is an exponential function. r is the percentage interest rate per annum expressed as a decimal and n is the number of periods. To predict the future price of an item. Shares • When you buy shares you purchase a share in the company. The dividend when written as a percentage of the share price is called the dividend yield. There is no guaranteed return with shares. we can use the compound interest formula taking the rate of inﬂation to be r. which tend to rise at a rate greater than inﬂation. . • Proﬁt can be made from buying shares in two ways: (a) The value of the share could rise over time. • The same method is used to predict the future value of collectibles and of memorabilia. but with that comes a higher risk. P is the initial quantity. • It can be calculated by using the formula: A = P(1 + r)n where A is the ﬁnal balance. • It can be graphed as a linear function. This line of best ﬁt can be extrapolated to estimate the future price. • The amount of compound interest paid is found by subtracting the principal from the future value of the investment.

6% p. c What is the gradient of the linear graph drawn? d Use your graph to ﬁnd the amount of interest that would have been earned after 10 years.25 in interest.2% p.a.a.268 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CHAPTER review 8A 8A 1 Calculate the simple interest earned on an investment of $5000 at 4% p. Calculate the compounded value of the investment at the end of the term. 4 Bradley invests $15 000 for a period of 4 years. 9 Calculate the compounded value of each of the following investments. calculate the length of time for which the money was invested.2% p. for 5 years. No.a. for 3 years with interest compounded annually. a $3600 at 9% p.a.a. 1 2 3 4 5 8A 8A 8C 8C 8C 8C 7 Vicky invests $2400 at 5% p.a. a $3000 at 7% p.2% p. for 18 months with interest compounded six-monthly -e $5000 at 2. given that Bradley earned a total of $3900 interest.6% p. Calculate the value of the investment in 4 years. The investment is made at 6% p. calculate the value of each interest payment.a. for 2 1 years with interest compounded quarterly 2 8C 10 Dermott invested $11 500 at 3. for 2 years d $1350 at 0. a Copy and complete the table below to calculate the simple interest over 5 years.5% p.a.a. a Calculate the interest earned by Dion. for 3 years with interest compounded quarterly d $21 450 at 7. 6 An amount of $7500 is to be invested at 6% p.a. for 4 years b $23 500 at 6% p.a. for 2 years with interest compounded quarterly. 5 Kerry invests $23 500 at a simple interest rate of 4.a. c If the debenture payed Dion in quarterly instalments. for 2 years c $840 at 2.75% p. for 3 1 years 2 8A 3 Dion invests $32 500 in a debenture paying 5.a. 8 Barry has an investment with a present value of $4500.6% simple interest for 4 years. for 18 months -e $45 820 at 4. If he earned $1351.a. 2 Calculate the simple interest earned on each of the following investments. b Calculate the total value of Dion’s investment after 4 years. for 3 years with interest compounded six-monthly c $11 400 at 8% p. with interest compounded six-monthly. Calculate the simple interest rate. Calculate the total amount of interest paid on this investment.a. . for 4 years with interest compounded annually b $9400 at 10% p.a. of years Interest b Draw a graph of the interest earned against the length of the investment.

98 1 2 3 4 5 8C 8E 8F 8F 8F 8F 8F 8G a On a set of axes plot the share price for each month.51 $16. Calculate the dividend yield on this investment.a. for 2 years with interest compounded quarterly 13 $20 000 is to be invested at 4% p. for 4 years with interest compounded annually b $7230 at 9% p. . 17 A company with a share price of 45c declares a dividend of 0.a. 19 The table below shows the ﬂuctuations in a share price over a period of 1 year.77 $16. for 3 years with interest compounded six-monthly d $12 400 at 10% p.9% p. No.62. b Draw a line of best ﬁt on your graph and use your line to predict the share price after a further year. c Explain why Glenn’s investment has a greater compounded value than Kim’s. 16 A company has a share price of $8.48 is 4.a. Calculate the dividend paid by the company. Calculate the compounded value of Glenn’s investment. correct to the nearest cent.69 $16. If this entire amount is distributed among the shareholders. calculate the dividend that will be declared. 18 The dividend yield from a share valued at $19.7c per share. with interest compounded annually.49 $16.9 million shares makes a proﬁt of $21 million. of years Future value b Draw a graph of the interest earned against the length of the investment.2%. b Glenn invests his money at 9.6% p. for 7 years with interest compounded annually c $3695 at 6% p.a. a Kim invests her money at 9. c Use your graph to ﬁnd the future value of the investment after 10 years. 12 Use the table of CVIF values on page 248 to calculate the compounded value of each of the following investments. Month January February March April May June Share price $15.60 $16.76 $16. a Copy and complete the table below.a.39 Month July August September October November December Share price $16.a.12 $16. for 5 years with interest compounded six-monthly e $2400 at 4% p. Calculate the compounded value of Kim’s investment. with interest compounded annually. a $6000 at 7% p. with interest compounded quarterly.a. 15 A company that has an after-tax proﬁt of $2.3 billion distributes this among its 156 million shares. It declares a dividend of 45c per share. 14 A company that has 10. Calculate the dividend yield on this share. Calculate the dividend that this company will declare.04 $16.a.27 $16.Chapter 8 Investing money 269 8C 11 Kim and Glenn each invest $7500 for a period of 5 years. using the compound interest formula to calculate the future value at the end of each year.71 $16.

95 B $1.46 C $6540.2% p.7%. calculate the money that Frank has at the end of the investment. The dividend yield on Greg’s investment is: A 0.a. e Calculate Jaclyn’s proﬁt as a percentage of her initial investment.a.9% for the next year. If the current inﬂation rate is 4. for two years with interest compounding quarterly.6% for 3 years with interest compounded annually is: A $940.50. the average dividend yield for this company was 4. Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice The simple interest paid on $5600 at 5. estimate the price of the MP3 player after one year.1%.5% D 5. Would this be a better investment? Explain your answer.a. Cherie bought a limited edition photograph autographed by Sir Donald Bradman for $120. 6 Frank has saved $30 000 to buy a new car. Is this a safe investment for Jaclyn? d After two years.6% for 3 years is: A $940.2% p.46 5 Jaclyn has $7500 saved for a holiday that she plans to take in two years time. for two years with interest compounded annually. b Over the two years that Frank has invested his money. If the inﬂation rate is predicted to be 2. Calculate the cost of the car at the end of this two years if the price rose at the same rate as inﬂation (to the nearest $100).270 8H 8H 8H Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 20 A MP3 player is currently priced at $80. at the end of the ﬁnancial year. b An alternative investment for Jaclyn would be to invest her money at 4% p. by how much can we expect the cost of the basket of groceries to rise? A $1. c Jaclyn ﬁnally decided to buy 1500 shares in a company at $5.55% B 1.00 each. For the past year the dividend yield for this company was 5. 21 It is predicted that the average inﬂation rate for the next ﬁve years will be 3. calculate the amount of money that Jaclyn will have after two years.47 2 multiple choice The compound interest paid on $5600 at 5. He decides to try to get another two years use out of his old car and in the meantime invest the money he has saved.46 C $6540. Greg buys 4000 shares and.80 B $994.40.a.3% 4 multiple choice In 2008. Calculate the total value of Jaclyn’s investment.8% p. simple interest.80 D $6594. a If Jaclyn invests the money in a debenture that pays 4.80 B $994. c How much more money does Frank now need to buy the new car? CHAPTER test yourself 8 .a. calculate the value of the photograph in 2009 (to the nearest $100).47 3 multiple choice A share is valued at $23. a basket of groceries costs $67. a If Frank invests the $30 000 at 3. If a skateboard currently costs $125.5% p.80 D $6594.053% C 4.96 C $69. Greg receives a dividend of $4212.3%.45 D $69. of Jaclyn’s initial investment and the shares were valued at $5. the inﬂation rate has averaged 4.75 each. 22 In 1979. If the photograph appreciates in value by 15% per annum. estimate the cost of the skateboard after ﬁve years.

Displaying single data sets 9 syllabus reference Data analysis 3 • Displaying single data sets In this chapter 9A 9B 9C 9D Frequency tables Types of graphs Statistical graphs Range and interquartile range 9E Stem-and-leaf plots 9F Five-number summaries .

19. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. 17. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy. 12 c 52. 9.3.2. 8. 9. 10. 6. 6. 9.9. 12. 183 d 9.areyou 9.6 Finding the median of a small data set 4 Find the median of each of the following data sets. 9. 9. 71. 27. 9. 6. 5. 11. 90.8. 10. 8. 9. 4. 12. 5.4 Presenting data as a dot plot 2 Copy and complete the dot plot at right for the data shown below.4.7.3 Reading a line graph Are you ready? Try the questions below.0. 6. 33. 6. 84. 15. If you have difﬁculty with any of them. 9. 52. 170 160 Height (cm) 150 140 130 120 110 100 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Years Increase in Timmy’s height between 1990 and 1995 READY? 1 The line graph at right shows the height of a child (Timmy) over 5 years. 34. 9. 9. 45.9 Presenting data as a stem-and-leaf plot 9. a How tall was Timmy at the start of the measurement period? b How much did Timmy grow in the ﬁrst year? c How much did Timmy grow over the ﬁve years? d How many years did it take for Timmy to grow 10 cm? 9. 38. 10. 6.5. 23. 83.7 5 Copy and complete the following stem-and-leaf plot for the given data.4. 6. 7. 3. 9. 5. 45. 6. 9. 7. 7 b 13. 45. 9. 12.0. 46 Key: 2 | 3 = 23 Stem Leaf 1 _9 2 _ 3 3_4_ 4 5_ 5 _ .4. Score (x) 20 21 22 23 24 Frequency Frequency (f) 5 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 20 21 22 23 24 Score 9. 9. 3. 5. 9. a 2.3. 4. 18.5 3 Copy and complete the following frequency table to show the data represented in the frequency histogram.2. 9. 33.4. 7 Producing a frequency table from a frequency histogram 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 9.

The gatepost method of tallying (the ﬁfth tally mark crosses the previous four like a gatepost) allows us to easily count up the frequency at the end. A frequency table usually has a tally column that allows us to enter a tally mark for each score as it is entered into the table. Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| Tally || || |||| |||| | |||| || Frequency 7 7 9 11 9 7 2 3 . It is an example of ungrouped 2 4 data because each score is a separate group in itself. Enter a tally mark for each score. The table at right shows the number of cinema visits during a month by each 1 7 of 20 students. Count the tally marks for each score and enter the result in the frequency column. each No. of visits Frequency piece of data is known as a score. When working with quantitative data. 3 2 Ungrouped data are suitable for discrete data 4 1 that do not have a wide range of scores.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 273 Frequency tables A frequency table is used to tabulate statistical data. THINK 1 WRITE/DRAW Draw a table with three columns and with scores from 0 to 5. In this chapter we are concerned with the tallying of quantitative data. Quantitative data may be presented as either grouped or 0 6 ungrouped data. WORKED Example 1 Fifty people were surveyed and asked the number of videos that they had hired from a video store in the past month. The results are shown below. A well-designed table allows the person doing the statistical investigation to easily tally up the data. 2 1 3 0 0 4 3 4 1 2 5 3 4 5 0 3 0 2 5 4 3 5 0 1 4 3 2 1 2 4 3 2 4 3 2 0 1 0 5 2 5 3 3 3 4 1 1 2 4 5 Enter the information in a frequency table.

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When the data are continuous or if the data are spread over a wide range, it is useful to group the scores into groups or classes. The following table contains grouped data. It shows the number of passengers on each of 20 bus trips. No. of passengers 5–9 10–14 15–19 20–24 25–29

Frequency 1 6 8 4 1

When making the decision to summarise some raw data by grouping them in a frequency table, the choice of class size (group size) is important. As a general rule, try to choose a class size so that 5 to 10 groups are formed. Choosing a suitable data label is also important. Consider the following data that give the number of nails in each of a sample of 40 boxes. 130 132 137 137 122 138 134 124 118 129 126 134 139 139 129 134 126 116 127 120 128 123 118 137 119 126 130 141 124 128 132 118 122 131 134 125 123 142 132 129

Let’s say that we wish to represent the data in a frequency table. It would be pointless trying to tally the data as individual (ungrouped) scores, as most scores would occur only once or twice in the whole distribution. It makes good sense to group the scores. A class size of ﬁve would be appropriate as this leads to the formation of six classes. With grouped data, an extra column is shown for the class centre. The class centre is the middle of each class. No. of nails 115–119 120–124 125–129 130–134 135–139 140–144 Class centre 117 122 127 132 137 142 Tally |||| |||| || |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| | || Frequency 5 7 10 10 6 2

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WORKED Example 2

The height of 40 students was measured and the results are shown below. 146 141 155 166 168 158 169 164 141 154 159 143 152 156 146 146 161 150 141 153 152 148 152 142 162 159 141 151 169 169 164 148 168 169 146 162 151 150 143 140 Put the above results into a frequency table.

THINK

1

WRITE

2 3 4

5

The data range from 140 cm to 168 cm. Choose a group of 5 cm beginning at 140 cm. Calculate the class centres. Draw a frequency table with four columns and room for six classes. Enter a tally mark in the appropriate class as each height is read. Complete the frequency table by counting the tally marks.

Height 140–144 145–149 150–154 155–159 160–164 165–169

Class centre 142 147 152 157 162 167

Tally |||| ||| |||| | |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||

Frequency 8 6 9 5 5 7

In some examples the class groupings overlap at the boundary. For example, if we are collecting information on people’s mass, the categories used may be 50–55, 55–60, 60–65, etc. In such examples, the class centres would be 52.5, 57.5, 62.5, . . . etc. When tabulating such data, convention is that a score on the boundary is placed in the higher class. For example, a person with a mass of 60 kg would be placed in the 60–65 class.

remember

1. 2. 3. 4. Statistical information may be tabulated using a frequency table. A frequency table has three columns for score, tally and frequency. The data can be entered as either grouped or ungrouped data. Ungrouped data are where each score becomes a group on its own and is suitable for a small range of scores for which the data are discrete. 5. Grouped data are put into classes. They are suitable for continuous data or discrete data for which there is a wide range of scores. For grouped data the class centre should be shown.

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9A

SkillS

Frequency tables

HEET

9.1

Presenting data in a frequency table

WORKED

Example

1 Twenty households were surveyed to ﬁnd the number of people in that household. The results are shown below. 1 4 3 4 6 3 2 5 2 7 4 5 6 4 3 5 4 6 2 3 4 Use this information to complete a copy of the frequency table below. Score 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 The marks of 25 students on a spelling test are shown below. 4 5 8 5 10 7 6 9 7 6 5 7 6 4 7 5 6 7 5 7 8 4 6 8 7 Put this information into a frequency table. 3 The scores of 50 professional golfers in a round of golf are shown below. 72 70 69 75 78 68 66 68 67 72 72 71 68 73 72 71 74 77 72 73 72 72 72 74 70 71 73 72 77 74 76 68 69 68 77 75 72 72 72 71 73 72 70 74 72 71 73 68 67 67 Display this information in a frequency table. Tally Frequency

EXCE

reads L Sp he

Frequency tables

et

WORKED

Example

4 A class of 30 students sat for a Mathematics test. Their results out of 100 are shown below. 2 68 72 58 45 69 92 38 51 70 65 69 73 52 76 48 69 73 41 42 73 80 50 60 49 65 94 88 85 53 60 Use these results to copy and complete the frequency table below. Score 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 80–89 90–99 Class centre Tally Frequency

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5 A farmer measures the heights of his tomato plants. The results, in metres, are shown below. 0.93 1.21 2.03 1.40 1.17 1.53 1.82 1.77 1.65 0.63 1.24 1.99 0.80 2.14 1.53 2.07 1.96 1.05 0.94 1.23 1.72 1.34 0.75 1.17 1.50 1.41 1.74 1.86 1.55 1.42 1.52 1.39 1.76 1.67 1.28 1.43 2.13 Use the class groupings 0.6–0.8, 0.8–1.0, 1.0–1.2, . . . etc. to complete a frequency distribution table for these data. 6 The following data give the times (in seconds) taken for athletes to complete a 100 m sprint. 12.2 12.0 11.9 12.0 12.6 11.7 11.4 11.0 10.9 11.7 11.2 11.8 12.2 12.0 12.7 12.9 11.3 11.2 12.8 12.4 11.7 10.8 13.3 11.7 11.6 11.7 12.2 12.7 13.0 12.2 Construct a frequency distribution table for the data. Use a class size of 0.5 seconds.

Types of graphs

Once statistical information has been tabulated, the next step is to display the data in some type of graph. The type of graph that is chosen depends on the purpose of the graph.

Dot plots

A dot plot is used to display a set of scores on a number line. This graph is useful for showing a small number of scores.

WORKED Example 3

Below are the scores out of 10 achieved by 11 students on a Maths quiz. 7 4 8 7 6 7 6 5 8 9 5 Show this information on a dot plot. THINK

1 2

WRITE

Draw a number line showing all numbers from 0 to 10. Place a dot on the appropriate number for each score, stacking the dots to show where more than one of the same score has occurred.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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**Sector graph (pie chart)
**

A sector graph is used to compare quantities. A circle is divided into proportions to be shown on the graph. To calculate the angles at the centre of the circle, the fraction of the total quantity is multiplied by 360°.

WORKED Example 4

A poll was conducted on an issue of justice based on the statement ‘Penalties for serious crime should be increased’. The responses were: Agree 35 Disagree 20 Unsure 5. Show this information in a sector graph. THINK

1 2

**WRITE 35 + 20 + 5 = 60 ----Agree = 35 × 360° 60 = 210° 5 Unsure = ----- × 360° 60 = 30°
**

----Disagree = 20 × 360° 60 = 120°

Calculate the total number of responses. Calculate the angles at the centre of the circle by multiplying each fraction by 360°. Draw the graph.

3

Agree Disagree Unsure

Line graph

A line graph is used to compare the change in one quantity with the change in another. It is suitable for quantitative data.

WORKED Example 5

The table below shows the temperature taken in a school playground over a day. Time Temp (°C) 9:00 am 15 10:00 am 11:00 am 12:00 pm 17 20 22 1:00 pm 23 2:00 pm 25 3:00 pm 22

**Show this information in the form of a line graph. THINK
**

1 2 3

DRAW

Temperature 25 20 15 0 m m m m m m m 0a 0a 0a 0p 0p 0p 0p 9:0 10:0 11:0 12:0 1:0 2:0 3:0 Time

Show time on the horizontal axis and temperature on the vertical axis. Plot the points for the hourly temperature. Join each point with a straight line.

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**Bar and column graphs
**

A bar graph or a column graph is used when we want to show a quantity and compare it to other quantities. This is particularly suitable for categorical data. In a bar graph, the categories are shown on the vertical axis and the results are shown on the horizontal axis. The bars are then drawn horizontally. These axes are reversed for a column graph.

WORKED Example 6

The information shown below represents the unemployment rates in various NSW regions. Hunter 12.9% Illawarra 11.8% Mid North Coast 16.4% Western NSW 9.1% Riverina 8.4% Show this information in a bar graph. THINK

1

DRAW

Riverina Region Western NSW Mid North Coast Illawarra Hunter 0 5 10 15 20 Percentage unemployed

2

Draw the categories on the vertical axis and the percentages on the horizontal axis. Draw horizontal bars for each category.

Graphs can be used to misrepresent information. This can be done by adjusting the scale on the horizontal axis. The graph at right shows the same information as worked example 6.

Riverina Region Western NSW Mid North Coast Illawarra Hunter 7 9 11 13 15 17 Percentage unemployed

Radar charts

A radar chart is similar to a line graph except it is circular. It is particularly suitable for showing data trends that repeat. The ‘radar’ is drawn with the data being measured placed in equal sectors around the circle and the results having a scale emanating from the centre. The points are then plotted and joined.

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WORKED Example 7

The information below shows the sales in a department store over a year. Month January February March April May June Sales ($m) 2.8 1.7 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.6 Month July August September October November December Sales ($m) 1.8 1.1 1.6 1.9 2.5 3.4

**Show these data in a radar chart. THINK
**

1 2 3 4

WRITE

Sales ($m) January 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Draw equal sectors of 30°. Draw the sales from the centre using 1 cm = $0.5 million. Plot the points. Join each point with a straight line.

December November

February March

October

April

September August July June

May

remember

1. A graph is used to visually display data that have been tabulated. 2. You should choose the most appropriate graph for the purpose of the display and the data type. 3. You should be able to draw dot plots, sector graphs, line graphs, bar graphs and radar charts.

9B

SkillS

Types of graphs

HEET

9.2

Reading a column graph

WORKED

Example

3

1 Below are the scores out of 10 on a spelling test as achieved by a small class of students. Show the information on a dot plot. 4 5 3 7 8 10 9 6 7 7 8 6 8 6 7 2 Below is the maximum temperature in Sydney each day during February. 28 35 33 34 30 27 28 29 30 26 28 30 31 33 32 31 30 31 29 29 28 25 26 30 31 30 29 29 Show this information on a dot plot.

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9.3

Reading a line graph

SkillS

WORKED

Example

4

3 During a season, a soccer team has 10 wins, 4 draws and 6 losses. Show these results in a sector graph. 4 Gary earns $600 per week. His weekly budget is: Rent $200 Bills $150 Groceries $120 Car running costs $70. The balance is put away for savings. Display Gary’s budget in a sector graph.

HEET

WORKED

Example

5 The population over 8 years in a small town is shown in the table below. Year Pop. 2000 12 000 2001 12 500 2002 13 250 2003 13 500 2004 13 600 2005 14 100 2006 15 000 2007 16 000

9.4

Presenting data as a dot plot

E

SkillS

HEET

5

Show this information in a line graph. 6 Tania has a savings account. The balance of the account at the beginning of each month for a year is shown in the table below. Month January February March April May June Balance $200 $270 $320 $260 $380 $430 Month July August September October November December Balance $500 $460 $570 $625 $570 $700

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Column graphs

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Line graphs

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Bar graphs

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**Show this information in a line graph.
**

WORKED

Example

6

7 Below are the average weekly earnings of people in different categories of employment. Labourers $543 Plant operators $598 Salespersons $607 Clerks $620 Tradespersons $640 Para-professionals $780 Professionals $865 Managers $906 Show this information in a horizontal bar graph. 8 The table below shows the number of Olympic gold medals Australia has won since 1952. Year and venue 1952 Helsinki 1956 Melbourne 1960 Rome 1964 Tokyo 1968 Mexico City 1972 Munich 1976 Montreal No. of gold medals 6 13 8 6 5 8 0 Year and venue 1980 Moscow 1984 Los Angeles 1988 Seoul 1992 Barcelona 1996 Atlanta 2000 Sydney 2004 Athens No. of gold medals 2 4 3 7 9 16 17

Sector graphs

Show this information in a column graph.

E

E

E

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Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course

Example

9 The table below shows the average monthly temperature in Sydney. Month January February March April May June Temp (°C) 28 30 26 24 20 17 Month July August September October November December Temp (°C) 15 16 20 22 25 27

7

Show this information in a radar chart.

10 The table below shows the percentage of televisions that are being watched over a 24-hour period. Time 12:00 am 2:00 am 4:00 am 6:00 am 8:00 am 10:00 am Percentage 12% 1% 2% 8% 15% 24% Time 12:00 pm 2:00 pm 4:00 pm 6:00 pm 8:00 pm 10:00 pm Percentage 30% 33% 45% 60% 78% 55%

Show this information in a radar chart.

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Choice of graph

For different statistical investigations, some graphs may be more suitable than others. Depending on the information that needs to be displayed, each graph has its strengths and weaknesses. In the above exercise, you drew a dot plot, sector graph, line graph, column graph and radar chart. For each of these graph types describe: a The advantages of this type of display. b The disadvantages of this type of display. c An example of when this type of display would be most suitable.

**Producing graphs using technology
**

Each of the graph types described in this section can be drawn using a spreadsheet or a graphics calculator. From the Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM, click on each of the spreadsheet icons in the margin to practise using a spreadsheet to produce a graph.

Column graphs

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E E E E

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Line graphs

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Bar graphs

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Sector graphs

Statistical graphs

When displaying statistical, or quantitative data, the most useful graphs are a frequency histogram and frequency polygon. A histogram is similar to a column graph with the following essential features. • Gaps are never left between the columns, except for a half unit space before the ﬁrst column. • If the chart is coloured or shaded then it is done all in one colour. (The columns are essentially all representing different levels of the same thing.) • Frequency is always plotted on the vertical axis. • For ungrouped data, the horizontal scale is marked so that the data labels appear under the centre of each column. For grouped data, the horizontal scale is marked so that the class centre of each class appears under the centre of the column.

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WORKED Example 8

The table below shows the number of people living in each house in a street. No. of people 1 2 3 4 5 Show this information in a frequency histogram. THINK

1

Frequency 1 4 10 15 8

DRAW

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

2

Draw a set of axes with the number of people living in a house on the horizontal axis and frequency on the vertical axis. Draw the graph, leaving half a column width space before the ﬁrst column.

Frequency

1 2 3 4 5 Number of people in a house

Frequency

A frequency polygon is a line graph that can be drawn by joining the centres of the tops of each column of the histogram. The polygon starts and ﬁnishes on the horizontal axis a half column width space from the group boundary of the ﬁrst and last groups. The ﬁgure at right shows the frequency polygon 16 drawn on top of the histogram for the previous 14 12 worked example. 10 It is common practice to draw the histogram and 8 6 the polygon on the same set of axes.

4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of people in a house

WORKED Example 9

The frequency table below shows a class set of marks on an exam. Draw a frequency histogram and polygon on the same set of axes. Mark 51–60 61–70 71–80 81–90 91–100 Class centre 55.5 65.5 75.5 85.5 95.5 Frequency 3 5 12 7 3

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THINK

1

DRAW

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Frequency

2 3

Draw a set of axes with the exam mark on the horizontal axis and frequency on the vertical axis. Show the class centres for the exam marks. Draw the columns, leaving a half column width space before the ﬁrst column. Draw a line graph to the centre of each column.

.5 .5 .5 .5 .5 55 65 75 85 95 Exam mark

For further analysis of statistical data it is useful to draw cumulative frequency graphs. The cumulative frequency is a progressive total of the frequency column. Consider the table from worked example 8. No. of people 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency 1 4 10 15 8 Cumulative frequency 1 5 15 30 38

Cumulative frequency 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of people in a house

Once the cumulative frequency has been calculated, a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon (ogive) can be drawn. The cumulative frequency histogram is drawn without the half column space before the ﬁrst column. The cumulative frequency polygon is drawn to the top right-hand corner of each column.

WORKED Example 10

The frequency table below shows the heights of people in a basketball squad. Height (cm) 170–174 175–179 180–184 185–189 190–194 195–199 Class centre 172 177 182 187 192 197 Frequency 3 6 12 10 8 1

**a Add a cumulative frequency column to the table. b Draw a frequency histogram and polygon.
**

Continued over page

286

THINK a

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Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course

WRITE/DRAW a

Height (cm) 170–174 175–179 180–184 185–189 190–194 195–199 Class centre 172 177 182 187 192 197 Cumulative frequency 3 9 21 31 39 40

Add a fourth column to the table. Complete the column by keeping a running total of the frequencies.

Frequency 3 6 12 10 8 1

2

1

Cumulative frequency

b

Draw the axes with height on the horizontal axis and cumulative frequency on the vertical axis. Show the class centres for the height. Draw the columns for the cumulative frequency histogram. Draw the cumulative frequency polygon by joining the lines to the top right-hand corner of each column.

b

2

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

172 177 182 187 192 197 Height (cm)

3

When drawing histograms. 9. If the histogram is illustrating ungrouped data. A piece of numerical data is known as a score. 7.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 287 remember 1. the data labels on the horizontal axis are placed under the centre of each column. the data labels on the horizontal axis (that is. If the histogram is illustrating grouped data. The number of mistakes each made was recorded and the results are shown in the frequency distribution table at right. always put frequency on the vertical axis and never leave gaps between columns. The results are shown in the frequency distribution table at right. frequency polygon (DIY) . 9C WORKED Statistical graphs No. No.5 Producing a frequency table from a frequency histogram E SkillS L Spre XCE ad HEET sheet sheet Histogram. of children in a family 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frequency 3 5 8 4 2 1 Histogram. 5. The cumulative frequency is a running total of the frequency column. 6. Quantitative data can be graphed using histograms and polygons. 2. frequency polygon E L Spre XCE ad 2 Each student in a class was asked the number of children in their family. 3. the class centres) are placed under the centre of each column. A polygon is a line graph that can be drawn by joining the centres of the tops of each column of the histogram. Show this information in a frequency histogram. 4. Show this information in a frequency histogram and polygon. of drivers (frequency) 5 8 13 4 3 1 Example 8 1 A survey was done on young drivers taking the written test for their licence. The cumulative frequency can also be graphed using a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon. of mistakes (score) 0 1 2 3 4 5 No.

48 50 50 51 50 49 53 52 48 51 50 50 51 49 48 53 52 50 49 49 49 50 50 51 53 52 54 47 50 49 48 49 47 53 49 52 50 51 50 50 50 48 47 50 51 49 50 49 52 51 a Put this information into a frequency table. b Show the results on a frequency histogram and polygon. Age 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 No. WORKED Example 5 The table below shows the length of 71 ﬁsh caught in a competition.5 314.5 324.5 354. Quality control surveyed 50 boxes for the number of matches and the results are shown below. 4 The label on a box of matches states that the average contents of a box is 50 matches.5 334.5 Frequency 9 15 20 12 8 7 9 Show this information in a frequency histogram and polygon. .5 344. of members 3 5 8 13 15 10 8 5 Show this information on a frequency polygon. Length of ﬁsh (mm) 300–309 310–319 320–329 330–339 340–349 350–359 Class centre 304.288 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 3 The table below shows the age in years of the members of a surf club.

Time taken (seconds) 6–8 8–10 10–12 12–14 14–16 16–18 18–20 Class centre Frequency 1 4 16 18 12 8 2 a Copy the frequency table and complete the class centre column. of jelly beans 48 49 50 51 52 53 Frequency 2 10 32 9 5 2 a Add a cumulative frequency column to the table. b Show the information in a frequency histogram and polygon. No.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 289 6 Sixty people were involved in a psychology experiment. 8 The following table shows the number of jelly beans in each of 60 packets. The following frequency table shows the times taken for the 60 people to complete a puzzle for the experiment. b Draw a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon. b Draw a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon. of cars 0 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency 2 8 11 6 2 1 a Copy the table and add a cumulative frequency column. No. WORKED Example 10 7 The following data show the number of registered cars normally kept at each of 30 households. .

. 10 The following frequency table gives the results of testing the lives of 200 torch batteries. including a column for class centre and cumulative frequency.1 45–50 a Redraw the table. Length (cm) 4–5 5–6 6–7 7–8 8–9 9–10 Class centre Frequency 6 10 60 58 8 4 Cumulative frequency a Copy and complete the table. b Draw a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon. b Show the information in the form of a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon.290 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 9 The following frequency table gives the number of oysters of different lengths from a tray in a marine farm. Lifetime (hours) 20–25 25–30 30–35 35–40 40–45 Work T SHEE Frequency 6 25 70 61 30 8 9.

draw a polygon for this data set.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 291 1 Class 1–10 11–20 21–30 31–40 41–50 1 Copy the frequency table above and complete the class centre column. 9 On your cumulative frequency histogram. 2 Complete the cumulative frequency column. 10 Copy and complete: Another term for a cumulative frequency polygon is an . 8 Draw a cumulative frequency histogram for the data set. Class centre Frequency 5 15 29 37 11 Cumulative frequency . draw a cumulative frequency polygon. 7 On your histogram. 3 How many scores in the data set were above 30? 4 How many scores in the data set were 40 or less? 5 Is the data set an example of grouped or ungrouped data? 6 Draw a frequency histogram for the data set.

tabulated and graphed. When the data are presented in grouped form. Calculate the range by subtracting the lowest score from the highest score. 2 6 12 8 1 4 8 9 24 4 5 11 14 6 11 15 10 What is the range of this distribution? THINK 1 2 3 WRITE Lowest score = 1 Highest score = 24 Range = 24 − 1 Range = 23 The lowest number of matches played is 1.292 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Range and interquartile range Once a set of scores has been collected. WORKED Example 12 The frequency distribution table at right shows the heights of boys competing for a place on a basketball team. The number of State of Origin matches played by each member of the squad is shown below. Find the range of these data. We do not use any information from the frequency column in calculating the range. A smaller range will usually represent a more consistent set of scores. When we are calculating the range from a frequency distribution table. The highest number of matches played is 24. Range = highest score − lowest score WORKED Example 11 There are 17 players in the squad for a State of Origin match. The range is the difference between the highest and the lowest score. we are ready to make some conclusions about the data. the range is found by taking the highest score from the highest class and the lowest score from the lowest class. Height 170–175 175–180 180–185 185–190 190–195 195–200 Frequency 3 6 12 10 8 1 . Exceptions to this are when one or two scores are much higher or lower than most. The range and interquartile range are used to measure the spread of a set of scores. we ﬁnd the highest and lowest score from the score column.

Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 293 THINK 1 2 3 WRITE Lowest score = 170 Highest score = 200 Range = 200 − 170 Range = 30 The lowest score is at the bottom of the 170–175 class. The highest score is at the top of the 195–200 class. 69. 88. $250. 69. $200. $500. we must ﬁrst be able to calculate the median. To calculate the median. --The lower quartile is 1 of the way through the distribution and the upper quartile is 3 4 4 of the way through the distribution. 8. $260. 92. $290. To calculate an interquartile range. $400. the upper quartile is the highest 25% of scores. $245. $240.5 The interquartile range is the difference between the upper quartile and the lower quartile. b There are 8 scores so the median is the average of the 4th score and the 5th score. The interquartile range is usually a better measure of dispersion (spread). $350. Consider the two sets of scores below showing the wages of people in two small businesses. we must ﬁrst arrange the scores in ascending order. WORKED Example 13 Calculate the median of: a 2. Range = highest score − lowest score. The lower quartile is the lowest 25% of scores. $250. 8. WRITE a Median = 8 87 + 88 b Median = ----------------2 = 87. we can see that the wages in business B are generally more spread. by looking at the wages in the two businesses. 11. 100. 12 b 45. The quartiles are found by dividing the data into quarters. . To ﬁnd the lower and upper quartiles we arrange the scores in ascending order. In many cases. $600 The range for business A = $800 − $240 = $560 and for business B = $600 − $180 = $420 While the range for business A is greater. $240. A: $240. 87. The range uses only two scores in its calculation. THINK a There are 7 scores so the median is the 4th score. $240. 5. $800 B: $180. the range is not a good indicator of the overall spread of scores. 99. The median is the middle score (if there is an odd number of scores) or the average of the two middle scores (if there is an even number of scores). 8.

6. the middle will be halfway between two scores and this will divide the data neatly into two sets. The lower quartile is the median of the lower half. 10. The interquartile range is the upper quartile minus the lower quartile. 4. 5. 4. 4. 8. 6. 12 Lower quartile = 4 Upper quartile = 9 Interquartile range = 9 − 4 Interquartile range = 5 Write the data in ascending order. 9. The interquartile range will be the difference between the medians of the two halves of the data. WORKED Example 14 Find the interquartile range of the following data. 4. The upper quartile is the median of the upper half. 9. 2. 9. Divide the data into two equal halves. Arrange the data in ascending order. the median score should not be included in either half of the scores. 1. 4. 10. 2 THINK 1 2 3 4 5 WRITE 2. (a) If there is an odd number of scores. 12.294 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course To ﬁnd the interquartile range we follow the steps below. 4. 5. which show the number of home runs scored in a series of baseball matches. . 6 8. 3. 8. 5. The lower quartile will be the median of the lower half of the data. 4. 10. Divide the data into two halves by ﬁnding the median. 5. 9. The upper quartile will be the median of the upper half of the data. 9. 12 2. (b) If there is an even number of scores. 9.

For example. Delete any existing data from all lists and then enter the scores into List 1. Range = 12 – 2 Range = 10 7. Enter the settings as shown at right. 3. The value for the quartiles can then be calculated. This requires us to draw a cumulative frequency polygon and ﬁnd the 25th and 75th percentile. range and interquartile range When data are entered into the statistics function on a graphics calculator. Consider the data in worked example 14. Press F2 for CALC and then F6 for SET. The range is found by subtracting MinX from MaxX. To ﬁnd the range. all essential summary statistics can be found. A percentile is a measure of where in a set of scores an individual score lies. 1. . Press EXIT to return to the previous screen and then press F1 for 1Var and all the summary statistics will be displayed.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 295 Graphics Calculator tip! Finding the median. 4. To ﬁnd the interquartile range. 50th. The median is the score that is found at the 50th percentile. 1Var Xlist:List 1 shows that the scores are stored in List 1. subtract Q1 from Q3. From the MENU select STAT. On this screen you will see the value of the upper quartile Q3 and the lower quartile Q1. A line is drawn from the 25th. 5. IQR = 9 – 4 IQR = 5 In most cases we are asked to ﬁnd the interquartile range of a grouped distribution. and 75th percentile. 50th and 75th percentile to the ogive and then down to the horizontal axis. Scroll down using the arrow keys until you can see the median. draw a second vertical axis that shows the 25th. the 25th percentile has 25% of scores below it and 75% above it. 6. we need to ﬁnd the lowest and the highest score. which is equal to 7. To ﬁnd the interquartile range. 1Var Freq:1 shows that each score in List 1 is an individual score with a frequency of 1. Scroll down further to ﬁnd MaxX. On the previous screen you will see the lowest score denoted MinX. 2.

2 0.4 = 1.296 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Cumulative frequency 0 WORKED Example 15 The cumulative frequency histogram and polygon at right shows the number of customers who order different volumes of concrete from a readymix concrete company during a day.6 − 0. Find the: a median b interquartile range for this distribution.7 Volumes of concrete THINK a 1 WRITE/DRAW a 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% 50 40 30 20 10 Draw a vertical axis showing the percentiles. the top decile would be found using the 90th percentile.7 1. using the appropriate percentage on the vertical scale.2 2. .9 b 1 b Lower quartile = 0. Draw a line for the 25th and 75th percentiles and estimate these values.6 Interquartile range = 1. Median = 0.2 0. For example.7 2.7 Volumes of concrete 2 Draw a line for the 50th percentile to the ogive and estimate the median.2 2. 50 40 30 20 10 0 5 5 5 5 5 5 0. 5 5 5 5 5 5 0. A decile is a band of 10% of all scores.4 Upper quartile = 1.2 1. Calculate the interquartile range by subtracting the lower quartile from the upper quartile.7 1. The deciles can be calculated in the same way as the quartiles.2 2 A data set can also be divided into deciles.2 1.7 2.

a 2.5. 3. 4. 111. 4. The interquartile range is estimated from a grouped distribution by drawing a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon.6.45. 3 b 103. 96. 47. The median of the lower half is the lower quartile and the median of the upper half is the upper quartile. 76.29.8 d 3. The lower and upper quartiles are found by dividing the scores into two equal halves.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 297 remember 1.25. 7. 23. 48.8. 9D WORKED Range and interquartile range 9. 7.7. A single outlying score can enlarge the range. 2.39 e 45.9. 5. 2. 3.20.5. also called measures of dispersion. 2. 102. a Score 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency 2 6 12 10 7 b Score 38 39 40 41 42 43 c Score 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 Frequency 12 25 36 34 11 9 4 Frequency 23 46 52 62 42 45 am progr –C program GC HEET –TI asio UV stats . 6. 66 WORKED Example 12 2 Use the frequency distribution tables below to ﬁnd the range for each of the following UV stats sets of scores.90. are used to measure the spread of a set of scores. 89. 7. 2. 3. The interquartile range is found by subtracting the lower quartile from the upper quartile. 2. 87. 76. 111. 4. 2. 2. 108. The range is calculated by subtracting the lowest score from the highest score. 8.6. 1.4.4.77. 2. The range and interquartile range. 2. 5.6 Finding the median of a small data set GC SkillS Example 11 1 Find the range of each of the following sets of data. 4. 110 c 2. 107. 2. 5. The interquartile range is therefore a better measure of dispersion.

b Based on the results above. 100. 7. Explain why. 5. The results are shown below. 97. which team would you say is the more consistent? 5 Two machines are used to ﬁll boxes with approximately 100 Smarties. 4. 73. 101. 100. 90 et . 104. 101. 103. state the range. a 3. 96. Ten boxes ﬁlled by each machine have the number of Smarties in them counted. A check is made on the operation of the two machines. 52. 29. 93. 47. 9.298 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 3 For the grouped dispersions below. 18. 19. 27. 20. 54. 35. 104 a What is the range in the number of Smarties from machine A? b What is the range in the number of Smarties from machine B? c Ralph is the quality control ofﬁcer and he argues that machine A is more consistent in its distribution of Smarties. 53. 25. 84. 29 c 52. 101. 83. 53. 83. 52 d 12. 20 e 56. 4. 28. 54. 19. 100. 10 b 17. 20. 100. 66. 15. 14. Machine A: 100. 75. 55. 99. 15. 55. 12. 25. 102. a Class 51–60 61–70 71–80 81–90 91–100 Frequency 2 8 15 7 1 b Class 150–155 155–160 160–165 165–170 170–175 175–180 c Class 40–43 44–47 48–51 52–55 56–59 60–63 Frequency 48 112 254 297 199 84 Frequency 12 25 38 47 39 20 4 The scores below show the number of points scored by two AFL teams over the ﬁrst 10 games of the season. 17. Sydney: 110 95 74 136 48 168 120 85 99 65 Collingwood: 125 112 89 111 96 113 85 90 87 92 a Calculate the range of the scores for each team. 53. 99. 14. 108 Machine B: 98. 96. 97. WORKED EXCE reads L Sp he Median Example EXCE reads L Sp he Median (DIY) et 13 6 Find the median for each of the data sets below.

c Find the upper quartile. 17. a Use the ogive to ﬁnd the median of the distribution. 25 A 3 B 4 C 5 D 8 B 5 C 6 Frequency 14 12 19 25 19 D 17 . 20. of speeding fines received by drivers 9 The frequency distribution table below shows the result of a survey of 90 households who were asked about the number of times they had been the victim of crime. b Find the lower quartile. what is the range? Score 25 26 27 28 29 A 4 11 multiple choice Calculate the interquartile range of the following data. 18. 14 Cumulative frequency WORKED Example 15 8 The frequency histogram and polygon at right displays the results of a survey of 50 drivers who were asked about the number of speeding ﬁnes they have received. Calculate the interquartile range. Draw a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon. 21. 10 multiple choice For the frequency table below. 21. Use your graph to ﬁnd the median of the distribution. d Calculate the interquartile range. 18. e Calculate the top decile. 23.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 299 WORKED Example 7 For each of the data sets in question 6. 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 No. Score 0 1 2 3 4 a b c d Frequency 26 31 22 8 3 Add a column for cumulative frequency to the table. calculate the interquartile range. 19.

b Draw a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon.5 164. C The range of the distribution is 9.5 Frequency 2 5 10 7 1 Cumulative frequency 2 7 17 24 25 Which of the statements below is correct? A The range of the distribution is 40. B The range of the distribution is 49.5 154. 13 multiple choice The distribution below shows the ranges in the heights of 25 members of a football squad.5 184. 14 The frequency distribution table below shows the marks obtained by a group of people on an IQ test. d Use the graph to estimate the interquartile range. Height (cm) 140–149 150–159 160–169 170–179 180–189 Class centre 144. c Find the range. D The interquartile range can only be estimated using a cumulative frequency polygon. .5 174. IQ score 75–85 85–95 95–105 105–115 115–125 Frequency 12 25 50 24 13 a Redraw the frequency distribution table to include columns for class centre and cumulative frequency.300 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 12 multiple choice The interquartile range is considered to be a better measure of the variability of a set of scores than the range because it: A takes into account more scores B is the difference between the upper and lower quartiles C is easier to calculate D is not affected by extreme values.

Use the ogive to ﬁnd the median. Find the upper and lower quartiles of the data and calculate the interquartile range. Draw an ogive of the data. Find the interquartile range of the data. 45 81 60 a b c d 48 73 53 52 46 54 36 48 58 38 44 41 72 39 44 36 52 47 74 58 76 56 57 68 46 65 55 Complete a frequency distribution table for the data. Maximum temperature (°C) 0–5 5–10 10–15 15–20 20–25 25–30 30–35 35–40 a b c d e Number of days 4 22 95 124 94 19 5 2 Add a cumulative frequency column to the table. Draw an ogive of the data. lower quartile and upper quartile of the data.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 301 15 The following frequency distribution table shows the distribution of daily maximum temperatures during the course of a full year. . Find the bottom decile of the data (the scores between which the lowest 10% of scores lie). Use the ogive to ﬁnd the median (50th percentile of the data). 16 The following data give the number of fruit that have formed on each of 30 trees in an orchard.

1 2.8 2.302 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Stem-and-leaf plots As an alternative to a frequency table.2 3.7 2.8 0.5 1. The stem of this number could be considered to be 1 and the leaf 0. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE Make the ‘tens’ the stem and the ‘units’ the leaves.0 2.2 1. rule a vertical column of stems then enter the leaf of each piece of data in a neat row beside the appropriate stem.9 etc. The ﬁrst piece of data was 1.5 2.8 kg. so this stem-and-leaf plot should be written in such a way that the numbers in each row of ‘leafs’ are in ascending order. A stem is made using the ﬁrst part of each piece of data.7 The stem is made from the whole number part of the mass and the leaves are the decimal part. it is important to try to keep the numbers in neat vertical columns because a neat plot gives the reader an idea of the distribution of scores.7 3.8. The second piece of data was 0.3 1. The plot itself looks a bit like a histogram turned on its side.1 2.9. a stem-and-leaf plot may be used to group and summarise data. To compose a stem-and-leaf plot for these data. Write a key.7 1. 65 45 56 57 58 54 61 72 70 69 61 58 49 52 64 71 66 65 66 60 Show this information in a stem-and-leaf plot. Key: 5 | 6 = 56 kg Stem 4 5 6 7 Leaf 5 9 2 4 6 7 8 8 0 1 1 4 5 5 6 6 9 0 1 2 . Complete the plot.9 1. weighed then released by a wildlife researcher. Attach a key to the plot to show the reader the meaning of each entry. It has a stem of 0 and a leaf of 0. It is convention to assemble the data in order of size. Key: 0 | 7 = 0.3 2.9 0. The second row records data from 1. Consider the case below.2 1.9. WORKED Example 16 The information below shows the mass.0 to 0. of twenty 16-year-old boys. The following data show the mass (in kg) of 20 possums trapped. The ﬁrst row of the stem-and-leaf plot records all data from 0. 1. in kilograms.0 to 1. The second part of each piece of data forms the leaves.4 1.9.6 2.7 kg Stem 0 1 2 3 Leaf 7 9 1 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 1 2 2 3 3 5 7 7 0 2 When preparing a stem-and-leaf plot.

Enter the leaves in pencil at ﬁrst so that they can be rearranged into order of size.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 303 It is also useful to be able to represent data with a class size of 5. 1. • The plot itself gives a graphical representation of the spread of data.) • All the original data are retained. In a grouped frequency distribution table some generalisations are made when these values are calculated. 2.5 to 1. so there is no loss of accuracy when calculating statistics such as the mean and standard deviation. 27. WORKED Example 17 The following data give the length of gestation in days for 24 mothers.4 and stem 1* contains the data from 1. Continued over page . The stem-and-leaf plot for the ‘possum’ data would appear as follows. Key: 1 | 1 = 1. 28*. 29*. Prepare a stem-and-leaf plot of the data using a class size of 5.0 to 1. 2*. 27*. 3. (It is rather like a histogram turned on its side. 280 288 292 281 287 273 288 292 285 295 279 268 276 279 281 282 266 284 270 275 292 271 278 281 WRITE THINK 1 2 A class size of 5 is required. This could be done for the stem-and-leaf plot on the opposite page by choosing stems 0*. 28.1 kg 1* | 5 = 1. 29. where the class with stem 1 contains all the data from 1. Enter the data piece by piece. Check that 24 pieces of data have been entered.9 etc.5 Stem 0* 1* 1* 2* 2* 3* Leaf 7 9 1 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 1 2 2 3 3 5 7 7 0 2 A stem-and-leaf plot has the following advantages over a frequency distribution table. 1*. The smallest piece of data is 266 and the largest is 295 so make the stems: 26*. The key should give a clear indication of the meaning of each entry. If stems are split in this way. it is a good idea to include two entries in the key.

1 Median = -------------------2 Median = 2.55 .5 + 1. So the position of the lower quartile is given by the average of the 5th and 6th scores. we can see that the 10th score is the number 1.9 + 2. 1.9 and the 11th score is the number 2. which has ten scores in it.6. The 5th score is the number 1. Counting each score as it appeared in the stem-and-leaf plot.6 The lower quartile = -------------------2 The lower quartile = 1. The lower quartile is the median of the lower half.304 THINK 3 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WRITE Key: 26* | 6 = 266 27 | 0 = 270 Stem Leaf 26* 6 8 27* 0 1 3 27* 5 6 8 9 9 28* 0 1 1 1 2 4 28* 5 7 8 8 29* 2 2 2 29* 5 Now arrange the leaves in order of size.7 kg Stem 0 1 2 3 Leaf 7 9 1 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 1 2 2 3 3 5 7 7 0 2 There were 20 pieces of data so the median is the average of the 10th and 11th scores. the plot can be used to locate the upper and lower quartiles and the median.1. Using the ‘possum’ weight data as an example: Key: 0 | 7 = 0.0 The median divides the data into two halves.5. The 6th score is the number 1. As was discussed earlier in the chapter: • the median is the middle score or the average of the two middle scores • the lower quartile is the median of the lower half of the data • the upper quartile is the median of the upper half of the data. Since all the original data are recorded on the stem-and-leaf plot and are conveniently arranged in order of size. 1.

3 + 2. 2. The 5th score in this half is the number 2. . There are 15 scores in each half and so the lower and upper quartiles will be the 8th score in each half.3.5.5 The upper quartile = -------------------2 = 2. 1. The 6th score is the number 2. observe the following points. remember When presenting the stem-and-leaf plots.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 305 The upper quartile is the median of the upper half. Choose a suitable class size. The interquartile range is the difference between the upper and lower quartiles. 2. After initially recording each score. rearrange the leaves so that they appear in ascending order.4 WORKED Example 18 Find the interquartile range of the data presented in the following stem-and-leaf plot. Key: 15 | 7 = 157 kg Stem 15 16 17 18 19 20 THINK 1 Leaf 4 8 8 1 3 3 6 8 0 0 1 4 7 9 9 9 1 2 3 3 5 7 8 8 9 2 7 8 0 2 WRITE 179 + 179 Median = ----------------------2 Median = 179 The lower quartile = 168 The upper quartile = 188 Interquartile range = upper quartile − lower Interquartile range = quartile Interquartile range = 188 − 168 Interquartile range = 20 2 3 There are 30 scores and so the median will be the average of the 15th and 16th scores. 3. Always include a key to assist in the interpretation of the plot. which also has ten scores in it. A class size of 5 is possible by using * notation on class stems.

20.1 14. Prepare a stemand-leaf plot of the data using a class size of 0. etc.0 14.306 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 9E SkillS Stem-and-leaf plots HEET 9.2 13.3 14.6 14. Prepare a stem-and-leaf diagram for the data using a class size of 10 minutes.2 WORKED Example 18 5 The stem-and-leaf plot at right gives the exact Key: 248 | 4 = 248. Find the interquartile Stem Leaf range of the data.4 g mass of 24 packets of biscuits.5 14.7 14.6 15.6 s The results are represented by the stem-and-leaf plot Stem Leaf at right. The maximum voltage that each could withstand is recorded below.3 14.5 15.9 14.8 15.9 15.7 Presenting data as a stem-andleaf plot WORKED Example 16 1 The data below give the number of errors made each week by 20 machine operators. 8* 5 5 6 8 9 9* 2 2 3 9* 0 2 .5. 8* 0 0 1 2 4 4 4 c Find the interquartile range of the data.2 s 0 to 100 km/h is recorded during 24 trials. 14.2 15.8 14. 7* 2 4 4 a Find the median of the data. Key: 7* | 6 = 7. 96 102 92 96 95 102 95 115 110 108 88 86 107 111 107 108 103 121 107 96 124 95 98 102 108 112 120 99 121 130 4 Twenty transistors are tested by applying increasing voltage until they are destroyed.7 14. 6 15 20 25 28 18 32 43 52 27 17 26 38 31 26 29 32 46 13 20 2 The data below give the time taken for each of 40 runners on a 10 km fun run. Prepare a stem-and-leaf diagram of the data using stems of 0. 248 4 7 8 249 2 3 6 6 250 0 0 1 1 6 9 9 251 1 5 5 5 6 7 252 1 5 8 253 0 6 The time taken for a test vehicle to accelerate from Key: 7 | 2 = 7. 7* 5 5 7 9 b Find the upper and lower quartiles of the data. 10.8 15. 36 66 42 71 42 75 58 42 52 45 40 50 38 42 41 46 47 55 47 40 59 38 53 52 72 42 68 37 68 46 43 54 57 48 39 48 82 39 48 52 WORKED Example 17 3 The typing speed of 30 word processors is recorded below.6 13.7 15. Prepare a stem-and-leaf diagram of the data using a class size of 5.

c Find the upper and lower quartile of the data.7 23.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 307 Questions 7 to 10 refer to the stem-and-leaf plot below.1 24.2 23.6 21.4 B 14 10 multiple choice The interquartile range of the data is: A 14 B 100 C 1290 D 1390 C 1335 D 1340 D 1410 D 50 Leaf 1 2 4 5 7 7 0 1 1 5 6 6 0 2 3 0 1 9 9 2 3 4 4 7 9 9 4 11 The maximum hand spans (in cm) of 20 male concert pianists is recorded as follows: 23.2 22. d Find the interquartile range of the data. Key: 12 | 1 = 1210 Key: 12* | 5 = 1250 Stem 12* 12* 13* 13* 14* 14* 7 multiple choice The class size used in the stem-and-leaf plot is: A 1 B 10 C 33 8 multiple choice The number of scores that have been recorded is: A 27 B 33 C 1210 9 multiple choice The median of the data is: A 13. b Find the median of the data.1 24.4 25. 12 The heights (in cm) of a sample of 30 plants are recorded as follows.8 24.2 21.6 21.6 20.7 22.7 24.8 23. 93 88 94 99 91 85 126 107 110 111 98 96 117 101 97 92 101 132 103 82 114 84 96 103 108 115 90 110 126 85 a Complete a stem-and-leaf plot to represent the data.8 21. d Find the interquartile range of the data.0 a Complete a stem-and-leaf plot to represent the data. . c Find the upper and lower quartile of the data.6 22.8 22.8 23. b Find the median of the data.6 20.

64. 12 15 46 9 36 85 73 29 64 50 THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE 9 12 15 29 36 46 50 64 73 85 Lower extreme = 9 Lower quartile = 15 36 + 46 Median = ----------------2 Median = 41 Upper quartile = 64 Upper extreme = 85 Five-number summary = 9. Calculate the upper quartile. Write the upper extreme. Cumulative frequency 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0% 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Number of seeds 50% 100% Use the ogive to develop a ﬁve-number summary. Calculate the median. 15. WORKED Example 20 The ogive below shows the number of seeds found in each of 60 pumpkins. . 5 6 In most cases you will need to calculate the ﬁve-number summary from an ogive. 85 Re-write the list in ascending order. Write the lowest score. develop a ﬁve-number summary. we are able to summarise a data set using ﬁve numbers. WORKED Example 19 For the set of scores below. 41. This ﬁve-number summary consists of: • lower extreme — the lowest score in the data set • lower quartile — the score at the 25th percentile • median — the middle score • upper quartile — the score at the 75th percentile • upper extreme — the highest score in the data set.308 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Five-number summaries Once the median and quartiles have been calculated. Calculate the lower quartile.

50th and 75th percentiles on the ogive. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Scale . Use the ogive to estimate the median. lower lower extreme quartile median upper upper quartile extreme Box-and-whisker plots are always drawn to scale. State the upper extreme. Use the ogive to estimate the upper quartile. This can be drawn with the ﬁvenumber summary attached as labels: 15 21 23 4 28 or with a scale presented alongside the box-and-whisker plot. 38. 47. 31. 2 3 4 5 6 Write the lower extreme. a powerful way to display the spread of the data. The box-and-whisker plot consists of a central divided box with attached whiskers. the vertical line inside the box marks the median and the whiskers indicate the range. Lower extreme = 10 Lower quartile = 31 Median = 38 Upper quartile = 47 Upper extreme = 70 Five-number summary = 10. it can be graphed using a box-andwhisker plot.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 309 100% THINK 1 WRITE/DRAW 60 Cumulative frequency 50 40 30 20 10 0 0% 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Number of seeds 50% Draw the 25th. 70 Once a ﬁve-number summary has been developed. The box spans the interquartile range. Use the ogive to estimate the lower quartile.

The lowest score is 82. Subtract the lower quartile from the upper quartile. WORKED Example 22 After analysing the speed of motorists through a particular intersection. Draw the box from 84 to 95. b 1 WRITE a Median = 72 The lower end of the box shows the lower quartile (63). Mark the median at 89. THINK 1 DRAW Draw a scale from 70 to 120 using 1 cm = 10 km/h. The highest score is 114. the following ﬁvenumber summary was developed.310 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 21 The box-and-whisker plot drawn below shows the marks achieved by a class on their end of year exam. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 a State the median. The median is 89. Show this information in a box-and-whisker plot. Draw the whiskers to 82 and 114. The upper end of the box shows the upper quartile (77). b Find the interquartile range. The upper quartile is 95. The lower quartile is 84. b Lower quartile = 63 Upper quartile = 77 Interquartile range = 77 − 63 Interquartile range = 14 c Top mark = 92 2 3 c The top end of the whisker gives the top mark (92). 70 80 90 100 110 120 2 3 4 . c What was the highest mark in the class? THINK a The mark in the box shows the median (72).

10 and 2. 3. Use the same data set that we used earlier. 4. 8. 2. which was taken from worked example 14. 4. You can then use the left and right arrow keys to display the values of the ﬁve-number summary used to draw the box-and-whisker plot. 3. and used them to ﬁnd the range and interquartile range. Press SHIFT F1 for Trace. Once the data are entered. 9. 2. The scores were 12. 6.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 311 Graphics Calculator tip! Drawing a box-and-whisker plot Earlier in the chapter we used a graphics calculator to ﬁnd each number in a ﬁvenumber summary. 5. The ﬁve numbers used in a ﬁve-number summary are the lower extreme. . Delete any existing data from all lists and then enter the scores into List 1. then F6 for SET. 4. The whiskers then extend to show the range of the data set. 1. 9. which will make MedBox appear in the display. upper quartile and upper extreme. The box-and-whisker plot then appears on the screen. The box is used to show the interquartile range and the median is marked with a line in the box. Press F1 for GRPH. 4. Make sure that Xlist is set to List 1 and Frequency is set to 1 as shown at right. Press EXIT to return to the previous screen. A box-and-whisker plot can be used to graph a ﬁve-number summary. 5. remember 1. we can then get the graphics calculator to draw the boxand-whisker plot. Use the arrow keys to highlight Graph Type and press F2 for Box. From the MENU select STAT. A ﬁve-number summary is a summary set for a distribution. then F1 for GPH1. lower quartile. median.

16. Write a ﬁve-number summary of the data set. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 45 55 65 75 85 95 Score WORKED Example 21 5 From the ﬁve-number summary 6. 125. 8 The box-and-whisker plot at right shows the distribution of ﬁnal points scored by a football 50 70 90 110 130 150 Points team over a season’s roster. write a ﬁve-number summary. 11.0 Upper quartile = 52. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 Score 6 7 4 A cumulative frequency histogram and polygon is shown at right. a What was the team’s greatest points score? b What was the team’s smallest points score? c What was the team’s median points score? d What was the range of points scored? e What was the interquartile range of points scored? .2 Lower quartile = 46. 15 17 16 8 25 18 20 15 17 14 2 For each of the data sets below.312 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 9F GC p am – rogr Ca WORKED Five-number summaries Example UV stats 19 1 Write a ﬁve-number summary for the data set below. 13. a 23 45 92 80 84 83 43 83 b 2 6 4 2 5 7 1 c 60 75 29 38 69 63 45 20 29 93 8 29 93 GC p am – rogr TI UV stats Example 20 Cumulative frequency Cumulative frequency sio WORKED 3 A cumulative frequency histogram and polygon is shown at right. 32 ﬁnd: a the median b the interquartile range c the range. 6 From the ﬁve-number summary 101.8 Draw a box-and-whisker plot of the data.5 Median = 49. 128 ﬁnd: a the median b the interquartile range c the range. 122. Write a ﬁve-number summary of the data set.3 Upper extreme = 57. Lower extreme = 39. 119. WORKED Example 22 7 A ﬁve-number summary is given below.

C The lowest quarter of the data is spread over a wide range. 48. 45 30 C 5 D 20 to 25 C 35 D 31 a Provide a ﬁve-number summary of the data. 10 Feb. In any pack. what was: a the largest number of honey bears? b the smallest number of honey bears? c the median number of honey bears? d the range of numbers of honey bears? e the interquartile range of honey bears? 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Scale Questions 10. 11 and 12 refer to the box-and-whisker plot drawn below. Dec. 21 Apr. 23 May 39 June 22 July 15 Aug. 45. 31. b Draw a box-and-whisker plot of the data. . 25. 37. Sept. 22.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 313 9 The box-and-whisker plot at right shows the distribution of data formed by counting the number of honey bears in each of a large sample of packs. 11 22 37 Nov. 12 Mar. 5 10 15 20 25 30 Scale 10 multiple choice The median of the data is: A 20 B 23 11 multiple choice The interquartile range of the data is: A 23 B 26 12 multiple choice Which of the following is not true of the data represented by the box-and-whisker plot? A One-quarter of the scores is between 5 and 20. Oct. 33 a Write a ﬁve-number summary of the data. 43. 28. 14 The data below show monthly rainfall in millimetres. 43. 13 The data below show the number of sales made each day by a salesperson over a fortnight. b Draw a box-and-whisker plot of the data. D Most of the data are contained between the scores of 5 and 20. B One-half of the scores is between 20 and 25. Jan.

172 183 182 179 Sun.2 . d Draw a box-and-whisker plot of the data.) b Draw a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon for the data. 125 134 131 152 Tues. 187 155 143 152 Sat. What does the distribution say about the age that mothers have their ﬁrst baby? Work T SHEE 9. 144 157 121 163 Wed. 181 188 181 181 a Draw a frequency table of the data. (Use a class size of 10. (Use a class size of 5. 22 21 18 33 17 23 22 24 24 20 25 29 32 18 19 22 23 24 28 20 31 22 19 17 23 48 25 18 23 20 a Prepare a frequency table for the data.) b Draw an ogive for the data. 148 126 129 148 Fri. 132 152 165 150 Thur.314 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 15 The following data detail the number of hamburgers sold by a fast food outlet every day over a 4-week period. c Draw a box-and-whisker plot of the data. Mon. d Describe the distribution in words. c Use the ogive to ﬁnd approximations for the: i median ii lower quartile iii upper quartile. 16 The following data show the ages of 30 mothers upon the birth of their ﬁrst baby.

• A bar or column graph is used to show quantities associated with categorical data. • The median is the score in the middle of the distribution (50th percentile). • A box-and-whisker plot shows the spread of a data set on a scale. lower quartile and upper quartile can be calculated by using an ogive (cumulative frequency polygon). Five-number summary • A ﬁve-number summary of a data set is the lower extreme.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 315 summary Frequency tables • A frequency table is used to display a set of data in table form. • Grouped data are used for continuous data or when the scores are spread over a large range. • A ﬁve-number summary can be graphed using a box-and-whisker plot. Graphs • A dot plot is used to display a set of scores on a scale. upper quartile and upper extreme. • The interquartile range is the difference between the score at the 25th percentile and the 75th percentile. Statistical graphs • Quantitative data are best displayed by a frequency histogram and polygon. • A frequency histogram is a column graph that is drawn with a 0. Range and interquartile range • The range is the difference between the highest score and the lowest score.5 unit (half column) space before the ﬁrst column and no other spaces between the columns. • Ungrouped data are placed in a table and every score is displayed in the table. • A line graph is used to show the way a quantity changes over time. lower quartile. • The median. median. • A cumulative frequency histogram and polygon graphs the cumulative frequency. There is no space before the ﬁrst column and the polygon is drawn from the corner of the axes to the top right-hand corner of each column. • A sector graph (pie chart) is used for a display that allows comparison of categorical data. • A radar chart is a type of line graph that shows the way in which a quantity changes over time. . It is best to group data to create ﬁve to six classes. the table should display a column for class centre. If the data are grouped. • A frequency polygon is drawn as a line graph from the corner of the axes to the centre of each column. It is most appropriate for a period of time that repeats.

8 Show these data in a frequency table using a class size of 0.1 5.3 4. 5 The table below shows the number of sales made each day over a month in a car yard.6 4.2 4.5 6. The results are shown below.8 5.2 5.5 kg. 4.0 3. 9B 3 A survey is taken about the television stations being watched at 7:30 pm on a Monday night.0 4.5 6.8 5. .0 4.9 5.8 4.8 5.316 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CHAPTER review 9A 1 A cricketer keeps track of the number of wickets he took in each innings in which he bowled during a season.7 4. 9B 9C 4 The number of absences from a school is taken over a week. ABC – 27 SBS – 5 Channel 7 – 48 Channel 9 – 72 Channel 10 – 28 Show this information using a sector graph. 0 2 3 1 0 6 4 1 1 2 0 0 4 3 2 2 3 1 0 1 1 1 2 0 1 0 Show this information in a frequency table. Number of sales 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frequency 2 7 12 6 2 0 1 Show this information in a frequency histogram and polygon.3 4.2 6. 9A 2 The following data give the amount of cut meat (in kg) obtained from 20 lambs. Monday – 43 Tuesday – 55 Wednesday – 34 Thursday – 45 Friday – 63 Show this information using a radar chart.9 6.

4 9 For each of the data sets in question 8 calculate: i the median iii the lower quartile iii the upper quartile iv the interquartile range. Use the graph to calculate: a the median b the lower and upper quartiles c the interquartile range.5 1. Class 5000–9999 10 000–14 999 15 000–19 999 20 000–24 999 25 000–29 999 30 000–34 999 Class centre Frequency 1 5 9 3 2 2 a Copy and complete the class centre column for the frequency table. a 28 24 26 24 25 29 22 27 25 b 118 2 56 45 72 43 69 84 159 0 c 1.Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 317 9C 6 The frequency table below shows the crowds at football matches for a team over a season.8 1. 10 The cumulative frequency histogram and polygon at right shows the number of goals scored by a soccer team in each match over a season. Cumulative frequency 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 9D 9D 9D 0 1 2 3 4 Number of goals scored in a soccer match .5 0. b Show the information on a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon. 8 Find the range of each of the following sets of scores. 7 The frequency table below shows the marks achieved by Year 11 students on their English exam. b Show the information in a frequency histogram and polygon.9 0.1 1.7 0. Class 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 80–79 Class centre Frequency 3 6 12 15 18 10 Cumulative frequency 9C a Copy and complete the frequency table.

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Cumulative frequency 45 20 25 . 14 For the data set below. 12 Display the following scores in a stem-and-leaf plot.318 9D Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 11 The cumulative frequency histogram and polygon at right shows the number of apples on each tree in an orchard. Use the graph to ﬁnd: a the median b the lower and upper quartiles c the interquartile range. .5 . Lower extreme = 1 Upper quartile = 16 Lower quartile = 8 Upper extreme = 18 Median = 14 Show this information in a box-and-whisker plot. 5 10 15 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 9F 17 The number of babies born each day at a hospital over a year is tabulated and the ﬁvenumber summary is given below.5 34 44 54 64 74 84 Number of apples on a tree 9E 45 21 38 46 42 41 42 49 35 29 24 28 36 21 38 45 44 40 29 28 35 35 33 38 40 41 48 39 34 38 45 28 23 29 30 40 13 Use the stem-and-leaf plot drawn in the previous question to ﬁnd: a the range b the median c the interquartile range.5 . 24 53 91 57 29 69 29 15 84 6 15 Use the ogive to develop a ﬁve-number summary for the data set below. give a ﬁve-number summary. Cumulative frequency 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 9E 9F 9F 5 15 25 35 Score 9F 16 For the box-and-whisker plot drawn at right: 0 a state the median b calculate the range c calculate the interquartile range.5 .5 .5 .

Chapter 9 Displaying single data sets 319 Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice The frequency table below shows the marks achieved on a test by a group of students. Score 15 16 17 18 19 20 How many students received a mark higher than 17? A 3 B 10 C 11 2 multiple choice Which of the following would be greatly affected by the addition of an extreme score to the data set? A the median B the range C the interquartile range D all would be greatly affected Cumulative frequency 25 20 15 10 5 0 0% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Weight 50% 100% Cumulative frequency % Frequency 12 15 10 6 3 2 D 18 3 multiple choice For the cumulative frequency polygon at right. 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Scale 4 multiple choice The upper quartile of the data is: A 24 B 28 5 multiple choice The interquartile range is: A 12 B 28 C 14 to 42 D 24 to 36 C 36 D 42 . the interquartile range of the data is: A 12 B 17 C 24 D 12 to 24 Questions 4 and 5 refer to the box-and-whisker plot shown below.

etc. . 20–24.320 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 6 The data set below shows the number of admissions to a hospital each day over a month. 15–19. Use the ogive to ﬁnd: i the median ii the interquartile range. State the range of the data set. 7 The box-and-whisker plots below show the sales of two different brands of washing powder at a supermarket each day. Brand A Brand B 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Scale CHAPTER test yourself 9 a b c d e State the range for Brand A. State the range for Brand B. State the interquartile range for Brand B. 25 20 33 41 15 18 24 40 12 29 30 38 26 20 17 23 10 11 16 23 22 27 14 11 12 14 32 24 29 33 a b c d e Using classes 10–14.. Describe the spread of the sales for each brand of washing powder. Draw a frequency histogram and polygon for the data. show this information in a frequency table. Draw a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon. State the interquartile range for Brand A.

Summary statistics 10 syllabus reference Data analysis 4 • Summary statistics In this chapter 10A Calculating the mean 10B Standard deviation 10C Median and mode 10D Best summary statistics .

10–19. 48 31 20 20 46 20 25 41 32 49 24 31 31 28 46 48 41 46 27 46 29 24 36 44 29 40 41 20 39 41 . If you have difﬁculty with any of them. 4. 6.1 Finding the mean of a list of scores Are you ready? Try the questions below.8. a 1. 3. 1.2. 104. 111 10. 1. 2.2 Presenting data as a dot plot 2 Draw a dot plot to represent the following data.3. 1. 20–29. 45. 32.areyou 10.2. READY? 1 Find the average of each of the following sets of scores.3 Presenting data in a frequency table 3 a Display the following sets of scores in a frequency table.1. 1. 84. 1.5 Presenting data as a stem-and-leaf plot 4 Place the scores shown below in a stem-and-leaf plot. 96. 8. 15 16 18 19 15 13 14 13 12 18 15 19 18 12 14 13 17 18 14 16 b Use the classes 0–9. 6 8 7 9 4 6 7 8 3 5 7 10. 8 b 1. 45 13 9 12 28 19 36 37 28 42 28 18 39 28 36 40 28 37 28 48 10. to display the scores below in a frequency table.5. 1. 92. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy.7 c 180.5. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. … etc. 1.

The sum is divided by n. The formula for the mean is – = ∑ . 16. The average is a ﬁgure that describes a typical score.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 323 Calculating the mean Average — what does it mean? Survey a group of people about what they believe is meant by the word ‘average’. Use their answers to describe what the word is generally understood to mean. Divide the total by 8 (the number of scores).25 Find the total of all scores. 13. which represents the number of scores.. x x n In Mathematics. 15. the symbol Σ (sigma) means sum or total. x ------The statistical symbol for the mean is –. 2 . The others are the median and the mode. 10. THINK 1 WRITE Total = 17 + 16 + 13 + 15 + 16 + 20 + 10 + 15 Total = 122 122 Mean = -------8 Mean = 15. 20. WORKED Example 1 Find the mean of the scores 17. The mean is the ﬁrst of three measures of central tendency that we will be studying. When looking at a set of statistics we are often asked for the average. x represents each individual score in a list and Σ x is therefore the sum of the scores. 15. the correct term for the average is the mean. In statistics. 16.

3. This means that the scores are stored in List 1. then calculate the mean. Written as a formula this is: –= ∑f ×x x ----------------∑f WORKED Example 2 Complete the frequency table at right. Press F1 for 1Var to display all summary statistics. In this column. Press F2 for CALC. This means every score entered has a frequency of 1. For 1Var Xlist. 2. then F6 for SET. Delete any existing data and enter the scores into List 1. In this chapter we are going to explore that function further.324 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Graphics Calculator tip! Finding the mean from a list of scores In the previous chapter we introduced putting a data set into a graphics calculator and extracting certain summary statistics. Consider worked example 1. To calculate the mean in such a case. This column is the f × x column. we need to add an extra column to the table. – The mean (x ) is the ﬁrst summary statistic displayed. large amounts of data are often presented in a frequency table. Press EXIT to return to the previous screen. 4. Score (x) 4 5 6 7 8 9 Frequency (f ) 3 7 11 13 10 6 Σf = Σf × x = f×x . We then total this column to ﬁnd the total of all scores and divide this by the sum of the frequency column. As we have seen. 1. enter List 1 by pressing F1 . For 1Var Freq. From the MENU select STAT. we multiply each frequency by the score. enter 1 by pressing F1 .

4. then F6 for SET. Score (x) 4 5 6 7 8 9 –= ∑f ×x x ----------------∑f 338 x = -------50 x = 6. Press F2 for CALC. This means the entries in List 2 are the frequencies corresponding to the entries in List 1.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 325 THINK 1 2 WRITE Complete the f × x column by multiplying each score by the frequency. . 1. The calculator needs to be told that this is how the data are presented. enter List 1 by pressing F1 . 3. 2. For 1Var Freq. – The mean (x ) is the ﬁrst summary statistic displayed. Delete any existing data and enter the scores in List 1 and the frequencies in List 2. From the MENU select STAT. Graphics Calculator tip! Finding the mean from a frequency table When data are presented in the form of a frequency table. enter List 2 by pressing F3 .76 Frequency (f ) 3 7 11 13 10 6 Σ f = 50 f×x 12 35 66 91 80 54 Σ f × x = 338 3 Use the formula to calculate the mean. the set up of the calculator is slightly different when ﬁnding summary statistics. Sum the frequency and f × x columns. Consider worked example 2. For 1Var Xlist. This is because we enter the scores in List 1 and the frequencies in List 2. Press F1 for 1Var to display all summary statistics. Press EXIT to return to the previous screen.

In these cases. when calculating the mean you will use your calculator and will need to set it to statistics mode. however. Class 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–50 –= ∑f ×x x ----------------∑f 1710 x = ----------45 x = 38 Class centre (x) 27 32 37 42 47 Frequency (f ) 4 9 13 12 7 Σ f = 45 f×x 108 288 481 504 329 Σ f × x = 1710 4 Use the formula to calculate the mean. Once this is done. WORKED Example 3 Complete the frequency distribution table and use it to estimate the mean of the distribution. Class 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–50 Class centre (x) Frequency (f ) 4 9 13 12 7 Σf = THINK 1 2 f×x Σf × x = WRITE 3 Calculate the class centres. In these cases. the mean is found by using the x function. Sum the frequency and the f × x column. each score is entered and the M+ function – pressed. Multiply each class centre by the frequency to complete the f × x column. to calculate the f × x column we use the class centre multiplied by the frequency. When all scores are entered. . we obtain an estimate of the mean rather than an exact mean. In most cases.326 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course The same method is used when the frequency table is given in terms of grouped data.

. 2. you will need to check how to enter multiple scores. a column for frequency × score ( f × x) is added. If the frequency distribution uses grouped data. 56 b Score Frequency 67 68 69 70 71 THINK a 1 2 3 10 23 35 28 12 WRITE a Mean = 30. 23. when using your calculator clear the memory at the beginning of each question. The mean can be calculated using your calculator. 47. The mean is then calculated using the f ×x formula: – = ∑ x ----------------.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 327 If the data are presented in the form of a frequency distribution table. The mean is the statistical term for average.2 b Mean = 69. set the calculator to statistics mode. but check with your teacher as to how your calculator works. ∑f 4. enter the scores using the M+ function and make sure you – know how to retrieve the mean using the x function. x Set your calculator to statistics mode and clear the memory. On many calculators. 5. you press score × frequency followed by M+. Most calculators will display the number of scores you have entered after each entry. 3. Get the mean by pressing –. WORKED Example 4 Use your calculator to ﬁnd the mean of: a 10. x remember 1. Press each score followed by M+.1 b 1 2 3 Put your calculator on to statistics mode and clear the memory. The mean is calculated by adding all scores then dividing by the number of scores. the f × x column is calculated using class centres. Get the mean by pressing –. This is a useful check that you have cleared the memory and entered the data correctly. When calculating the mean from a frequency distribution table. For all statistical questions. . 15. To do so. Press each score × frequency then M+.

23. ∑f .4 e 356. f ×x b Use the formula: – = ∑ x ----------------.60. 5.5 Presenting data as a stem-and.to calculate the mean. 6.0. 432. 5 A golf ball manufacturer randomly tests the mass of 10 golf balls from a batch. 611. The results are below. The mass. The batch will be considered satisfactory if the average mass of the balls is between 44. 8. 1.06.75 m.9 c/L Campbelltown 125.3 Presenting data in a frequency table HEET 10.88 m. calculate the mean price of petrol in cents per litre in Sydney.328 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 10A SkillS Calculating the mean HEET 10.78 m. 67%. 92.9 c/L Lakemba 121. 44.35. 3 An oil company surveys the price of petrol in eight Sydney suburbs. 45. of those tested are: 45. Calculate the mean height of the players on this team. 44. Calculate Majid’s mean mark on the ﬁve tests. 11. 355 2 Majid sits for ﬁve tests in Mathematics. 35.47. a 4.9 c/L Liverpool 119. 56.1. 44. 6.5. 45. Score 4 5 6 Frequency 2 4 5 9 3 5 2 Σf = Σf × x = f×x SkillS SkillS SkillS HEET 10.6.8.19. 30. 316. 84 d 9.68.9 c/L Wentworthville 125.9 c/L Cronulla 129.1 WORKED Example 1 Finding the mean of a list of scores SkillS HEET 10. 1.78. 9. 8.92 m and 1. His marks on the tests were 45%.65 m. 7. correct to 2 decimal places.8 g and 45. 457. 45. 8. 24. 1.9 c/L Based on these results.2. 5. 1.4 Organising data into class intervals HEET 10. 28 c 65. 90%.95.2 Presenting data as a dot plot 1 Calculate the mean of each of the following sets of scores.81 m. 44. in grams. 45. 1.5. 299. Will the batch be passed as satisfactory? 6 The marks out of 10 on a spelling test are recorded in the frequency table below. 44.32. Manly 132.5 c/L Epping 128.4.86 m.95. 3. 182.9 c/L Penrith 120. 45. 86% and 75%. 5 b 16.WORKED leaf plot Example 2 EXCE reads L Sp he Mean EXCE reads L Sp he Mean (DIY) et et 7 8 9 10 a Copy and complete the table. 8. 7.2 g. 4 The seven players on a netball team have the following heights: 1.7.

of matches 0 4 1 9 2 18 3 10 4 5 5 4 a Redraw this table in the form of a frequency distribution table. No. of televisions sold 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 No. 12 14 10 12 8 12 16 10 8 12 10 12 18 10 12 14 16 10 12 12 12 14 18 10 14 12 12 14 14 10 a Present this information in a frequency table. The results are shown below. 9 A clothing store records the dress sizes sold during a day. Give your answer correct to 1 decimal place. The number of goals scored in each match is shown in the table below.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 329 7 An electrical store records the number of televisions sold each week over a year. b Use your table to calculate the mean number of goals scored each game. No. 8 In a soccer season a team played 50 matches. 10 multiple choice There are eight players in a Rugby forward pack. of goals No. The total mass of the forward pack is: A 13 kg B 104 kg C 112 kg D 832 kg . of weeks 4 4 3 6 7 12 8 2 4 2 Σf = f×x Σf × x = a Copy and complete the table. The mean mass of the players is 104 kg. b Calculate the mean number of televisions sold each week over the year. The results are shown in the table below. b Calculate the mean dress size sold this day.

82 m C 1.84 m D 1.00 51. b Use the table to calculate the mean time.78 m B 1.00 52. the times of the swimmers were recorded in the table below. During a time out. b Use the table to calculate the mean class mark. What is the mean wage of the six employees? A $580 B $600 C $680 D $3600 12 multiple choice The mean height of ﬁve starting players in a basketball match is 1.01–54. 14 In the heats of the 100 m freestyle at a swimming meet. Class 31–40 41–50 51–60 61–70 71–80 81–90 91–100 Class centre (x) Frequency (f ) 1 3 4 7 11 2 2 Σf = a Copy and complete the frequency distribution table.82 m.01–55. What is the mean height of the players after the replacement has been made? A 1. A manager is then employed and receives $700 per week. Σf × x = f×x Σf × x = f×x 3 .01–51.01–56.00 55. of swimmers 4 12 23 38 15 3 Σf = a Copy and complete the frequency distribution table.00 54.330 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 11 multiple choice A small business employs ﬁve people on a mean wage of $580 per week.01–53.00 53. Time 50.88 m tall.88 m WORKED Example 13 The table below shows a set of class marks on a test out of 100.78 m tall is replaced by a player 1.00 Class centre No. a player who is 1.01–52.

45. 45. 8.5. 41.6. 41. 21. 2. 4 a 11. 3. 46.2 c 41.9. 45. 43. correct to 1 decimal place. 12.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 331 15 A cricketer played 50 innings in test cricket for the following scores. 15.8. 23 65 8 112 54 0 84 12 21 4 25 105 74 40 1 15 33 45 21 47 16 70 22 33 21 8 34 36 5 7 69 104 57 78 158 0 51 16 6 16 0 49 0 14 28 52 21 3 3 7 a Put the above information into a frequency distribution table using appropriate groupings. 45. 2. a Score 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency 7 10 18 19 38 27 10 5 b Score 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Frequency 5 18 25 25 14 10 3 .3. 42. 49. 4. 19. WORKED Example 16 Use the statistics function on your calculator to ﬁnd the mean of each of the following scores. b Use the table to estimate the batting average for this player. 13. 50 17 Use your calculator to ﬁnd the mean from each of the following tables. 4. 14 b 2.

The number of cans sold each day over the ﬁrst 10 weeks after its installation is shown below. The results are shown in the table below. b Use your calculator to ﬁnd the mean of the distribution. class. Height (cm) 150–154 155–159 160–164 165–169 170–174 175–179 Calculate the mean of this distribution. 19 Seventy students were timed on a 100 m sprint during their P. . 11–20.332 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 18 The table below shows the heights of a group of people. 21–30 etc. b Calculate the mean number of cans sold per day over these 10 weeks.E. Time (s) Number 12–13 13 13–14 17 14–15 25 15–16 15 16–17 10 Class centre 152 157 162 167 172 177 Frequency 7 14 13 23 24 12 a Calculate the class centre for each group in the distribution. 4 39 31 31 50 43 70 45 57 71 18 26 3 52 51 59 33 51 27 62 30 90 3 30 97 59 33 44 99 62 72 6 42 83 19 49 11 6 63 4 53 20 45 58 1 9 79 41 2 33 97 71 52 97 69 83 39 84 92 43 71 98 8 97 18 89 21 9 4 17 a Put this information into a frequency distribution table using the classes 1–10. 20 A drink machine is installed near a quiet beach.

we discussed using the range and the interquartile range as a measure of the spread of a data set. WORKED Example 5 Below are the scores out of 100 by a class of 20 students on a Science exam.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 333 Standard deviation In the previous chapter. Delete any existing data and enter the scores into List 1. Press F2 for CALC. The most commonly used measure of spread is the standard deviation. σn.05 x σn = 13. is the population standard deviation. This function is used when the statistical analysis is conducted on the entire population. Calculate the mean and the standard deviation. The standard deviation is a measure of how much a typical score in a data set differs from the mean. Consider worked example 5. Set the calculator up for a list of scores as shown earlier and as shown at right. Retrieve the standard deviation using the σn function. 3. Your calculator will have a function that gives the standard deviation. then F6 for SET.07 Enter the data set into your calculator. From the MENU select STAT. The ﬁrst. There are two standard deviation functions on your calculator. – Retrieve the mean using the x function. 2. just as you do when you are ﬁnding the mean. Graphics Calculator tip! Finding the population standard deviation The summary statistics displayed by your graphics calculator include the two standard deviation functions. 87 69 95 73 88 47 95 63 91 66 59 70 67 83 71 57 82 65 84 69 THINK 1 2 3 WRITE – = 74. 1. . The standard deviation is found by entering a set of scores into your calculator.

70 x σn − 1 = $15. WORKED Example 6 Ian surveys twenty Year 11 students and asks how much money they earn from part-time work each week. 1. Called the sample standard deviation.334 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 4. Delete any existing data and enter the scores into List 1. Population standard deviation When the statistical analysis is done using a sample of the population. $65 $82 $47 $78 $108 $94 $60 $79 $88 $91 $50 $73 $68 $95 $83 $76 $79 $72 $69 $97 Calculate the mean and standard deviation. Retrieve the standard deviation using the σn − 1 function. this value will be slightly higher than the population standard deviation. 2. 3. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE – = $77. – Retrieve the mean using the x function. then F1 to display the summary statistics. a slightly different standard deviation function is used. Graphics Calculator tip! Finding the sample standard deviation The summary statistics displayed by your graphics calculator include the sample standard deviation. The sample standard deviation will be found on your calculator using the σn − 1 or the sn function. then F6 for SET.56 Enter the statistics into your calculator. Press EXIT to return to the previous screen. Set the calculator up for a list of scores as shown earlier and as shown at right. Press F2 for CALC. The population standard deviation is displayed by the symbol xσn. as a sample has been used. Consider worked example 6. From the MENU select STAT. . The results are given below.

This is done by entering the data in the same way as they were when calculating the mean earlier in this chapter. The standard deviation is the best measure of this because. we can determine whether a set of scores is more or less consistent (or reliable) than another set. the standard deviation considers the distance of every score from the mean. we can make conclusions about the reliability and consistency of the data set. The sample standard deviation is displayed by the symbol xσn – 1. Press EXIT to return to the previous screen. you will need to read the question carefully to decide whether to use the population or the sample standard deviation. the less spread out the data set is.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 335 4. Retrieve the standard deviation using the σn function. unlike the range or interquartile range as a measure of dispersion. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE Enter the data into your calculator using score × frequency. By using the standard deviation. . The lower the standard deviation. then F1 to display the summary statistics.4 Once we have calculated the standard deviation. – = 7.4 x σn = 1. Sample standard deviation For most examples. Score 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency 1 2 4 9 6 7 1 Calculate the mean and standard deviation. – Retrieve the mean using the x function. The standard deviation can also be calculated when the data are presented in table form. WORKED Example 7 The table below shows the scores of a class of thirty Year 3 students on a spelling test. as the whole population is included in the statistics.

Choose the sample standard deviation because a sample of each light globe brand has been chosen. 3. . This concept will be discussed further during the HSC course.4 Brand Y is the more reliable as it has a lower standard deviation. For example. The sample standard deviation is used when a sample of the population is used in the analysis and can be found using the σn − 1 function. Student B is more inconsistent but is probably capable of scoring a higher mark than student A. student A has a standard deviation of 5 and student B has a standard deviation of 15.4 Brand Y: σn − 1 = 62. The brand with the lower standard deviation is the more reliable. 4. The standard deviation is a measure of the spread of a data set.336 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course A higher standard deviation means that scores are less clustered around the mean and less dependable. However. Write down the sample standard deviation for each brand. Brand X: Brand Y: 850 950 1400 1150 1000 900 975 1100 1050 950 1075 1025 875 1200 850 825 1000 950 975 900 Which of the two brands of light globe is more reliable? THINK 1 2 WRITE 3 4 Enter both sets of data into your calculator. remember 1. Student A is far more consistent and can conﬁdently be expected to score around 60 in any future exam. 2. The population standard deviation is used when an entire population is considered in the statistical analysis and can be found on the calculator using the σn function. Brand X: σn − 1 = 190. Standard deviation is found on your calculator by entering the data set using the calculator’s statistical mode. consider the following two students: Student A: – = 60 x σn = 5 Student B: – = 60 x σn = 15 Both students have the same mean. WORKED Example 8 Two brands of light globe are tested to see how long they will burn (in hours).

85. 0. The recording company needs to predict the number of copies that will be sold at various music stores throughout Australia. 48. Assume that the scores represent an entire population and answer correct to 2 decimal places. state whether it is appropriate to use the population standard deviation or the sample standard deviation. 5 b 11. 42.0 e 56. 258. b Should the population or sample standard deviation be used in this case? c What is the value of the appropriate standard deviation? WORKED Example 6 .1. 2. 0. 6. 0. 0. 7. 78. e The score of every HSC student in Mathematics is recorded. 49. 7. 35. a 25. c The number of people who attend every football match over a season is analysed. 56. 66 b 4.7. 5. 1. 246 3 For each of the following. 10. calculate the sample standard deviation. 14 c 25. 580 695 547 236 458 620 872 364 587 1207 a Calculate the mean number of sales at each store. 7. 5. 178. 11. 0. a A quality control ofﬁcer tests the life of 50 batteries from a batch of 1000. calculate the standard deviation. 41 d 0. 7.0. 80. 0. 6.8.2 c 112. 35. 77.5 2 For each of the sets of scores below.3.4.8. 15. 25.1.2. 0. 0. 9.3. 58. d A survey of 100 homes records the number of cars in each household. 6. 45.8. 0. a 3. 4.8.6.1. 56. 23. 81. 0. 37. To do so. a sample of 10 music stores supplied information about the sales of the previous CD released by Aquatron. as shown below.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 337 10B WORKED Standard deviation Example 5 1 For each of the sets of scores below. 8.8. b The weight of every bag of potatoes is checked and recorded before being sold. 36. 3. 4 The band ‘Aquatron’ is to release a new CD. 75. 8. 24 d 5.5.6. 4.6. 12.3. 99. 1.9.8 e 114. 17. 12. 12. 4.9. 5. 41. correct to 2 decimal places. 9. 1.3. 0.

In each case use the population standard deviation. In each case.1 1.6 2.3 a Calculate the mean sales for the week.0 0.8 0. a Class 10–12 13–15 16–18 19–21 22–24 b Class 31–40 41–50 51–60 61–70 71–80 81–90 91–100 Class centre Class centre c Frequency 12 16 25 28 13 Class 0–4 5–9 10–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 Frequency 15 28 36 19 8 7 2 Class centre Frequency 15 24 31 33 29 17 .8 1.4 1.7 1. b Should the population or sample standard deviation be used in this case? c What is the value of the appropriate standard deviation? WORKED Example 7 6 Use the statistical function on your calculator to ﬁnd the mean and standard deviation (correct to 1 decimal place) for the information presented in the following tables.5 2.4 1.1 0. use the population standard deviation. a Score 3 4 5 6 7 Frequency 12 24 47 21 7 b Score 45 46 47 48 49 50 Frequency 1 16 39 61 52 36 c Score 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Frequency 22 17 8 10 12 21 29 7 Copy and complete the class centre column for each of the following distributions and use your calculator to ﬁnd an estimate for the mean and standard deviation (correct to 2 decimal places).1 2. The chain has 15 stores and the sales for each store for the past week were (in $million): 1.338 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 5 A supermarket chain is analysing its sales over a week.2 1.9 1.7 1.

the standard deviation used is: A 9. 55 a Calculate the mean and standard deviation for each student. 70. Class 10–20 20–30 30–40 40–50 50–60 Frequency 1 6 9 4 1 When preparing an analysis of the typical performance of Year 11 students on the test.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 339 WORKED Example 8 8 Below are the marks achieved by two students in ﬁve tests. English: 63 85 78 50 Maths: 69 71 32 97 Biology: 45 52 60 41 Geography: 65 78 59 61 In which subject does Ian achieve the most consistent results? A English B Maths C Biology D Geography 11 The following frequency distribution gives the prices paid by a car wrecking yard for a sample of 40 car wrecks. 78 Katie: 50. . 21 students are chosen to complete a test.437 C 21 D 34. 95. 9 multiple choice From Year 11. 72. b Which of the two students is more consistent? Explain your answer. The scores are shown in the table below.048 10 multiple choice The results below are Ian’s marks in four exams for each subject that he studies. Price ($) 0–500 500–1000 1000–1500 1500–2000 2000–2500 2500–3000 3000–3500 Frequency 2 4 8 10 7 6 3 Find the mean and standard deviation of the price paid for these wrecks. 80.209 B 9. 90. Brianna: 75. 80.

b Use the class centres to ﬁnd the mean and standard deviation in the lifetimes of this sample of light globes.1 . The standard deviation of the masses of Crunch is. it is found that Crunch and Crinkle have the same mean mass (25 g). 13 Crunch and Crinkle are two brands of potato crisps. Life (hours) 200–250 250–300 300–350 350–400 400–450 450–500 500–550 550–600 600–650 650–700 Frequency 2 5 12 25 42 38 26 15 7 3 a Find the range of the data. 5 g and the standard deviation of the masses of Crinkle is 2 g. Each are sold in packets nominally of the same size and for the same price. however.340 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 12 The table below shows the life of a sample of 175 household light globes. Which brand do you think represents better value for money under these circumstances? Why? Work T SHEE 10. Upon investigation of a sample of packets of each.

For such data sets. 18. 6. 13. 16. 19. 9 Median = 5 The median becomes more complicated when there is an even number of scores because there are two scores in the middle. For the above data set. 9. 3. a much better measure of the typical house price in this area. Score 4 5 6 7 8 9 Frequency 1 6 9 8 4 2 Cumulative frequency 1 7 16 24 28 30 The 1st score is 4. . 20 16 + 18 Median = ----------------2 Median = 17 The median can also be calculated from the cumulative frequency column of a frequency table. 13. 8. ﬁve houses are sold in the area for the following prices: $375 000 $349 000 $360 000 $411 000 $1 250 000 For these ﬁve houses the mean price is $549 000. we introduced the median as the middle score in a data set. 4. the median is the average of the two middle scores. 4. WRITE 1. 6. when all scores are arranged in order. The 8th–16th scores are 6. Consider the frequency distribution table below. 19. 6. 4. WORKED Example 9 Calculate the median of the scores 3. 8. 18. This is because there is one score that is much greater than all the others.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 341 Median and mode So far we have used the mean as a measure of the typical score in a data set. 5. WRITE 12. 18. the median house price is $375 000. 1. The 29th and 30th scores are 9. In the previous chapter. 18. When there is an even number of scores. The 2nd–7th scores are 5. 20. The cumulative frequency column puts the scores into order and tells us what score is in each position. WORKED Example 10 Find the median of the scores 13. 12. On a particular day. THINK 1 Rewrite the scores in ascending order. THINK 1 Write the scores in ascending order. The 17th–24th scores are 7. 6. we need to use a different measure of central tendency. 2 The median is the middle score. Consider the case of someone who is analysing the typical house price in an area. 4. 13. The mean is much greater than most of the houses in the data set. so average the two middle scores. 2 There is an even number (8) scores. 5. The 25th–28th scores are 8. 16.

Median = 23rd score Median = 36 Graphics Calculator tip! Finding the median Once the data are entered into the graphics calculator. Delete any existing data and enter the scores in List 1 and the frequencies in List 2. 6 is the median of this distribution. WORKED Example 11 Find the median for the frequency distribution at right. Score 34 35 36 37 38 39 Frequency 3 8 12 9 8 5 THINK 1 WRITE Score 34 35 36 37 38 39 Frequency 3 8 12 9 8 5 Cumulative frequency 3 11 23 32 40 45 Redraw the frequency table with a cumulative frequency column. By looking down the cumulative frequency column we can see that these scores are both 6. Consider worked example 11. Look down the cumulative frequency column to see that the 23rd score is 36. . Therefore. 1. the display of summary statistics gives us the median. 2 3 There are 45 scores and so the middle score is the 23rd score. From the MENU select STAT.342 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course There are 30 scores in this distribution and so the middle two scores will be the 15th and 16th scores. This is a function that most scientiﬁc calculators do not have. 2.

Consider worked example 12. There are many examples where neither the mean nor the median is the appropriate measure of the typical score in a data set. To know what sizes to order it looks at past sales of this particular style and gathers the following data: 8 12 14 12 16 10 12 14 16 18 14 12 14 12 12 8 18 16 12 14 For this data set the mean dress size is 13. Press F2 for CALC. 4 THINK The score 4 occurs most often and so it is the mode. From the MENU select STAT. Median When the frequency table presents grouped data. To see the median you will need to use the arrow keys to scroll down the screen by three lines. the median is estimated from the ogive as shown in the previous chapter. Press EXIT to return to the previous screen. What is most important to the clothing store is the dress size that sells the most. 7. WRITE Mode = 4 Graphics Calculator tip! Finding the mode Once the data are entered into the graphics calculator. so this has very little meaning. It needs to re-order a supply of dresses. the display of summary statistics gives us the mode. 8. Consider the case of a clothing store.2. Dresses are not sold in size 13. 6. 6. 4. 9. 8. This is a function that most scientiﬁc calculators do not have. WORKED Example 12 Find the mode of the scores below. 5. which also has little meaning as dresses are sold only in even-numbered sizes. Set the calculator up for data stored in a frequency table as shown earlier in the chapter and as shown by the screen at right. The median is 13.2. The score that has the highest frequency is called the mode. then F6 for SET. In this case size 12 occurs most frequently. .Chapter 10 Summary statistics 343 3. 4. 4. then F1 to display the summary statistics. 5. 4. 1.

. The Casio FX-9860GAU shows all modes. The mode is the score that occurs the most. state the mode. If all scores occur an equal number of times. 4. To see the mode you will need to use the arrow keys to scroll down to the last line of the display. The Casio CFX-9850 shows only the highest mode. the class with the highest frequency is called the modal class. both scores are given as the mode. then F1 to display the summary statistics. which belongs to the score 17 and so 17 is the mode. as well as the number of modes and the frequency of each. up for a list of scores as shown earlier and as shown at right. we do not have a single mode. WRITE Mode = 17 When a table is presented using grouped data. 3. 2. Press F2 for CALCthen F6 for SET Set the calculator . To ﬁnd the mode from a frequency distribution table. In these cases. then the distribution has no mode. remember 1. Score Frequency 14 3 15 6 16 11 17 14 18 10 19 7 THINK The highest frequency is 14. . we simply give the score that has the highest frequency. Delete any existing data and enter the scores into List 1 .344 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 2. Mode When two scores occur most often an equal number of times. Press EXIT to return to the previous screen. The median can be found using the cumulative frequency column of a frequency table. The median is the middle score in a data set or the average of the two middle scores. 3. In this situation the scores are bimodal. WORKED Example 13 For the frequency distribution below.

4. 75 d 102. 25. 101. 5 a Calculate the median number of people absent from work each day. 5.4. 39. 99. b Calculate the mean number of people absent from work each day. 5. 5. 106. 3 Find the median for each of the following sets of scores.2. 88.3. 9 b 5. 102. 75 80 81 76 84 83 81 82 Calculate the median for this set of scores.3. 4. 102. Over a two-week period the number of people absent from work each day was recorded and the results are shown below. 5. 5. 5 6 5 8 5 9 8 Calculate the median of these marks. 5. a 3. 1. 5. 108. 3. 3.6. 2. 5.4 c 45. 6. 4. 5. L Spre XCE ad WORKED L Spre XCE ad sheet sheet Example 10 Median (DIY) L Spre XCE ad sheet sheet Mode L Spre XCE ad Mode (DIY) . 103. 4. 105. 5. c Does the mean or the median give a better measure of the typical number of people absent from work each day? Explain your answer. 101 4 A factory has 80 employees. 5.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 345 10C WORKED Median and mode Median E E E E Example 9 1 The scores of seven people on a spelling test are given below. 62. 4.8. 2 Below are the scores of eight people who played a round of golf.

The median score will be the: A 12th score B 12. No. of accidents 2 3 4 5 6 No. of errors per day 0 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency 9 18 13 6 3 1 8 multiple choice There are 25 scores in a distribution. of days 4 12 3 1 1 7 The table at right shows the number of errors made by a machine each day over a 50-day period. Score 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Frequency 4 9 6 12 8 5 4 2 Cumulative frequency 6 The table at right shows the number of accidents a tow truck attends each day over a three-week period.5th score C 13th score D average of the 12th and 13th score. Calculate the median number of accidents attended to by the tow truck each day. No. b Use the table to calculate the median number of cans of drink sold each day from the vending machine.346 WORKED Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Example 11 5 The table at right shows the number of cans of drink sold from a vending machine at a high school each day. . a Copy and complete the frequency distribution table. Calculate the median number of errors made by the machine each day.

3. The median of these scores is: A 2 B 3 C 8 D 13 Score 1 2 3 4 5 D 7 Frequency 12 13 8 7 5 11 The frequency distribution table below shows the number of sick days taken by each worker in a small business.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 347 9 multiple choice For the scores 4. 0. 10 the median is: A 5 B 6 C 6. WORKED Example 13 For each of the following sets of scores ﬁnd the mode.6. 73. 7. 5. 71. 9.5. 5. 9. 113. 72. 2. 150. 7. 7. 10. 68 e 2. 5 12 b 8. 72. 3.6. 0. 17. 2. 12.9. 0.4.4. 2.9. 0.5.4. 4. 151. 2. 14.6 . 14. 17 b 147. 2.5 10 multiple choice Consider the frequency table at right. a 2. 9. 148. 8 c 11. b Calculate the median class for this distribution. 110 14 Find the mode for each of the following. 5. 113. 2. 8 d 68.5. 148. 110.6. 17. 72.3. 19. 68. 112.2. 152. Days sickness 0–4 5–9 10–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–34 Frequency 10 12 7 6 5 3 2 Cumulative frequency a Copy and complete the frequency distribution table. 13 d 0. 2. 15. 15. 0.4 e 110. 11. 1.) a 16. 12 For the frequency distribution table in question 11: a make a list of the class centres for the distribution b draw a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon c use the cumulative frequency polygon to estimate the median of the distribution.3. 6. 6. 10. 2. 0. 0. 8. 0. 7. 151 c 2. 19.6. 71. 100. 16. 72. (Hint: Some are bimodal and others have no mode.4.

a b Class Frequency Class Frequency 1–4 5–8 9–12 13–16 17–20 21–24 25–28 6 12 30 23 46 27 9 1–7 8–14 15–21 22–28 29–35 36–42 43–49 Depth (cm) 0–50 50–100 100–150 150–200 200–250 250–300 300–350 350–400 3 8 9 25 12 11 2 Frequency 8 9 12 15 6 4 2 2 18 The table at right shows the depth of snow during every day of the ski season. 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Frequency 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Score 17 For each of the following grouped distributions.348 WORKED Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Example 15 Use the tables below to state the mode of the distribution. state the modal class. b Draw a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon. a b c 13 Score Frequency Score Frequency 1 2 3 4 5 2 4 5 6 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 3 5 8 5 3 Score 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Frequency 2 4 1 5 6 3 6 2 16 Use the frequency histogram below to state the mode of the distribution. . c Use the graph to estimate the median depth of snow for the ski season. a Redraw the table to include the class centres and cumulative frequency.

$300–$350 etc. 7. and use it to estimate the median wage in the group. 9. b From your table. $250–$299. For the table of scores below ﬁnd: Score 75 76 77 78 79 80 6 the mean 7 the median 8 the mode 9 the population standard deviation 10 the sample standard deviation. c Draw a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon. Frequency 12 19 52 64 33 1 Cumulative frequency 12 31 83 147 180 181 . 7. 5. 10 ﬁnd: 1 the mean 2 the median 3 the mode 4 the population standard deviation 5 the sample standard deviation. calculate the median class. 6. 1 For the set of scores 2. 376 592 299 501 375 366 204 359 382 274 223 295 232 325 311 513 348 235 329 203 556 419 226 494 205 307 417 204 528 487 543 532 435 415 540 260 318 593 592 393 a Use the classes $200–$249. to display the information in a frequency distribution table. 5. 5.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 349 19 The weekly wage (in dollars) of 40 people is shown below.

d The mean is larger than what is typical because of one very large wage: the mode is the lowest wage and so this is not typical.63 median size is 8. In some circumstances. The mean and median are of less use to the manufacturer.350 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Best summary statistics Having now examined all three summary statistics. Therefore. a shoe manufacturer notes that in a new style of sporting footwear: mean size sold is 8. WORKED Example 14 Below are the wages of ten employees in a small business. b 1 Write the wages in ascending order. Does the mean. For example. 2 c $420 is the score that occurs most often and so this is the mode. Divide the total by 10. median or mode give the best measure of a typical wage in this business? WRITE a Total = $5710 Mean = $5710 ÷ 10 Mean = $571 b $420 $420 $420 $430 $440 $450 $465 $475 $490 $1700 $440 + $450 Median = ----------------------------2 Median = $445 c Mode = $420 d The median is the best measure of the typical wage as the mode is the lowest score. THINK a 1 2 Total all the wages.75 mode size is 9. which is not typical. $420 a b c d $430 $490 $475 $465 $450 $1700 $420 $420 $440 Calculate the mean wage. one summary statistic may be more appropriate than the others. the mode is the most useful measure as the manufacturer needs to know which size sells the most. For each of these examples you will need to think carefully about the relevance of each summary statistic in terms of the particular example. Calculate the median wage. . it is important to recognise when it is appropriate to use each one. and the mean is inﬂated by the $1700 wage. Average the 5th and 6th score to ﬁnd the median. the median is the best measure. Calculate the mode wage. In this case.

Which measure of central tendency has the most meaning to the shoe store proprietor? . A real-estate agent values each house with the am progr –C following results. When the mean is not a good measure of central tendency. 4. 14 UV stats $350 000 $390000 $375000 $350000 $950000 $350000 $365000 $380000 $360000 $380000 a b c d Calculate the mean house valuation. Calculate the median house valuation. the median is used. then dividing by the number of scores median — the middle score or average of the two middle scores mode — the score with the highest frequency. Calculate the mode house valuation. Calculate the mode of the data set. The three summary statistics are: mean — calculated by adding all scores. 10D WORKED Best summary statistics GC Example 1 There are ten houses in a street. Be careful when using the mean. Calculate the median shoe size sold. Which of the above is the best measure of central tendency? program GC asio –TI UV stats 2 The table below shows the number of shoes of each size that were sold over a week at a shoe store. 3. 2.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 351 remember 1. The mode is the best measure in some examples where discrete data means that the mean and median may have very little meaning. One or two extreme scores can greatly increase or decrease its value. Size 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 a b c d Frequency 5 7 19 24 16 8 7 Calculate the mean shoe size sold.

d Find the modal class for hours spent by the men at housework. Calculate the median class. The results are shown 52 42 52 38 71 48 34 40 . 5–9. The results are given below. while the sixth is priced at $80 000. Which measure of central tendency would best describe the typical crowd at football matches over the season? 4 multiple choice Mr and Mrs Yousef research the typical price of a large family car.) b Find the mean number of hours that the men spend doing housework. 1 5 2 12 2 6 2 8 14 18 0 1 1 8 20 25 3 0 1 2 7 10 12 1 5 1 18 0 2 2 a Represent the data in a frequency distribution table. 10–14 etc. 5 Thirty men were asked to reveal the number of hours they spent doing housework each week.352 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 3 The table below shows the crowds at football matches over a season. What would be the best measure of the price of a typical family car? A Mean B Median C Mode D All are equally important. (Use classes 0–4. Crowd 10 000–20 000 20 000–30 000 30 000–40 000 40 000–50 000 50 000–60 000 60 000–70 000 70 000–80 000 a b c d e f Class centre 15 000 25 000 35 000 45 000 55 000 65 000 75 000 Frequency 95 64 22 15 3 0 1 Calculate the mean crowd over the season. Use the ogive to estimate the median. At one car yard they ﬁnd six family cars. Calculate the modal class. c Find the median class for hours spent by the men at housework. 50 62 48 61 30 45 43 47 51 61 44 54 were measured. 6 The resting pulse rates of 20 female athletes below. Five of the cars are priced between $30 000 and $40 000. Draw a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon.

1. 0. of employees 50 15 10 4 1 . Find the median class of the data. d Use the ogive to determine the median age. (Use classes 0–14. Use the ogive to determine the median pulse rate.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 353 a b c d e f Represent the data in a frequency distribution table using appropriate groupings. 30–44. Find the modal class of the data. 0 Find the mean score for each player. c Draw an ogive of the data. 30. 7 The following data give the age of 25 patients admitted to the emergency ward of a hospital. Which player appears to be better when the decision is based on the median result? Which player do you think would be more useful to have in a cricket team and why? How can the mean result sometimes lead to a misleading conclusion? 9 The following frequency table gives the number of employees in different salary brackets for a small manufacturing plant. 250. 0. 15–29. Position Machine operator Machine mechanic Floor steward Manager Chief Executive Ofﬁcer Salary ($) 38 000 40 000 44 000 82 000 100 000 No. 28. 42.) b Use the table to ﬁnd: iii the mean age of patients admitted iii the median class of age of patients admitted iii the modal class for age of patients admitted. Draw an ogive of the data. 41 0. etc. median or mode) give a clear representation of the typical age of an emergency ward patient? f Give some reasons that could explain the pattern of the distribution of data in this question. 8 The batting scores for two cricket players over six innings are as follows: Player A: Player B: a b c d e 31. Which player appears to be better if the mean result is used? Find the median score for each player. 18 23 43 74 80 16 82 19 24 20 6 74 84 20 23 75 25 72 63 17 24 21 31 79 19 a Represent the data in a frequency distribution table. 34. Find the mean of the data. e Do any of your statistics (mean.

• The typical mark in Maths among Year 11 students.354 Work T SHEE Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 10. 1 What was the mean wage rise received in the ofﬁce last year? 2 What was the median wage rise received in the ofﬁce last year? 3 What was the modal wage rise received in the ofﬁce last year? 4 The company is trying to avoid paying the rise. • The number of attempts taken by Year 11 and 12 students to get their driver’s licence. but the management of the factory claims that workers are well paid because the mean salary of the factory is $42 100.2 a Workers are arguing for a pay rise. 4 In each case. which ﬁgure would you quote? 4 Which ﬁgure would you quote to a person who wanted to buy a house in the area? Best summary statistics and comparison of samples Examine each of the following statistics. gather your data by selecting a random sample. median and mode price for houses in the area. Are they being honest? b Suppose that you were representing the factory workers and had to write a short submission in support of the pay rise. • The typical number of days taken off school by Year 11 students so far this year. 2 Calculate the mean. Quoting different averages can give different impressions about what is normal. In the previous year. Try the following task. Wage rise The workers in an ofﬁce are trying to obtain a wage rise. 2 Calculate the mean. 3 Compare your results with other students who will have selected their samples from the same population. 3 If you were a real estate agent and a person wanting to sell their home asked what the typical property sold for in the area. state the best summary statistic and explain your answer. What statistic do you think they would quote about last year’s wage rises? Why? 5 What statistic do you think the trade union would quote about wage rises? Why? 6 Which statistic do you think is the most ‘honest’ reﬂection of last year’s wage rises? Explain your answer. the ten people who work in the ofﬁce received a 2% rise while the company CEO received a 42% rise. 1 For each of the above. 1 Visit a local real estate agent and study the properties for sale in the window. median and mode for each topic. How could you explain the management’s claim? Provide some other statistics to support your case. .

the mean can be calculated using the formula: – = ∑f × x. Standard deviation • • • • The standard deviation is a measure of the spread of a data set. the population standard deviation (σn) is used. Median and mode • The median is the middle score of a data set. or the average of the two middle scores. The standard deviation is found using the statistical function on your calculator.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 355 summary The mean • For a small number of scores. the sample standard deviation (σn − 1) is used. The smaller the standard deviation. • Each summary statistic must be examined in the context of the statistical analysis to determine which is the most relevant. • When the analysis is conducted on a sample of the population. the smaller the spread of the data set. median and mode. . When the analysis is conducted on the entire population. the mean is calculated using the formula: – = ∑x x ------n • When the data are presented in a frequency table. Summary statistics • The summary statistics are the mean. x ----------------∑f • The mean can also be calculated using the statistical function on your calculator. • The mode is the score with the highest frequency.

1. 5.9. 23 7. 67. 114.8 9. 9. 8. 7.2.5. 87. 45.6 9. 50.5. 7.0.9 Frequency (f ) 36 48 74 65 51 32 14 2 Σf = f×x Σf × x = . 10 65. 5.2 9. a Score (x) 5 6 7 8 9 Frequency (f ) 11 15 24 21 9 Σf = Σf × x = f×x b Score (x) 9.4 9.3 9. 3. 23. 25 10A 2 Copy and complete the tables below and then use them to calculate the mean. 92. 8.356 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CHAPTER review 10A 1 Calculate the mean of each of the following sets of scores.7 5. 6. 90.5 9. 2. a b c d 4.7 9. 7. 7. 12. 7. 1.

96.3.2. 0. 0. 47. 0. 0 b 2. 58 c 0. 0. a Score 10 20 30 40 50 Frequency 23 47 68 56 17 b Score 24 25 26 27 28 29 c Class 10–12 13–15 16–18 19–21 22–24 25–27 28–30 Class centre 11 14 17 20 23 26 29 Frequency 18 32 34 40 28 14 6 Frequency 45 89 124 102 78 46 10A 10A . Class 21–24 25–28 29–32 33–36 37–40 41–44 45–48 49–52 Class centre (x) Frequency (f ) 3 9 17 31 29 25 19 10 Σf = Σf × x = f×x 4 Use the statistics function on your calculator to ﬁnd the mean of each of the following sets of scores. 26.1 5 Use the statistics function on your calculator to ﬁnd the mean of the following distributions. 2. 14. 0. 0. 32. 2. 0.6.3. 0.6. 12.4. 32. 18.7.5. Where necessary. give your answers correct to 1 decimal place.4.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 357 10A 3 Complete the frequency distribution table below and use it to estimate the mean of the distribution. 121. 0. 0. 12.8. 0. 32. a 2. 12.

b Should the population or sample standard deviation be used in this case? c Write the value of the appropriate standard deviation.9. 1.5 b 23. 1.2.5. 66 47 43 80 42 92 92 90 92 77 67 87 75 72 42 60 86 53 95 78 46 87 49 70 82 92 93 71 62 67 a Calculate the mean. 0. b Should the population or sample standard deviation be used in this case? c Write the value of the appropriate standard deviation.0. The results are shown below. 10B 7 To ﬁnd the number of attempts most people take to get their driver’s licence. 0.7.1. 74. 12. 89. 26. 1. 1. 10B 8 Use the statistics function on your calculator to ﬁnd the mean and population standard deviation of each of the following distributions.4.3. a sample of twenty Year 12 students is chosen.358 10B Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 6 The marks of 30 students in a Geography test are shown below. Give each answer correct to 3 decimal places. 0. 0. 254. 15. 1 2 3 3 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 a Calculate the mean.5. 0. a 0. 45 c Score Frequency 26 27 28 29 30 d Class 10–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 12 25 29 28 14 Class centre 12 17 22 27 32 37 42 Frequency 8 12 32 45 40 19 6 .

2. 3. 8. 8. 6.6 d 2. 3. 26. 7. a 25. 5. 4. 7. 111. 32.2.5. 30. 7. 3. 27. 8. 4. 10. 3.1. 35 b 4. 3. 165. 7. 3. 108 10 Copy and complete each of the following frequency tables and then use them to ﬁnd the median. 6 e 121. a Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 b Score 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 c Score 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 Frequency 8 10 12 14 7 5 4 Frequency 2 5 14 11 6 1 1 Cumulative frequency Frequency 2 6 11 7 6 3 Cumulative frequency Cumulative frequency 10C . 8. 3. 147. 27. 5. ﬁnd the median. 28.2. 4. 3. 135. 26. 5. 4 c 3. 101.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 359 10C 9 For each of the following sets of scores.0. 154.2.

8. 5. d Use your graph to estimate the median of the distribution. 4. state the mode. 23. 24. 27. 6. a Score Frequency 1 2 3 4 5 b Score 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 23 35 21 19 8 Frequency 9 15 8 12 15 7 1 10C . 27. a 2. 2. 27 c 1. 4.5. 4.360 10C Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 11 a Copy and complete the frequency distribution table below. 2 b 23.8. 6. state the mode. 5.7. 2. Class 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 80–89 90–99 Class centre Frequency 18 34 39 45 29 10 5 Cumulative frequency b What is the median class of this distribution? c Display these data in a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon.1 13 For each of the frequency tables below. 3. 2. 6. 19. 24.2. 23. 31. 25.6. 4. 10C 12 For each set of scores below.

15. 18. which of the statements is correct? 3. Calculate the mode.98. 85. 4. 15. 16. 4. 6. 4. 14. 14. 7 A B C D The mean is 5. 15. 22 12. 18 1. 15.625. The mode is 5. 9. Calculate the median.29. 64. 3. all of the above 2 multiple choice For which of the following data sets is the median greater than the mean? A B C D 2. 5.5 35. The median is 5. 3.5 Frequency 12 26 34 45 52 23 15 Below are the number of goals scored by a netball team in ten matches in a tournament. D all of the above . 49 3 multiple choice For the data set below. 36. 25. which statement is correct? 25.Chapter 10 Summary statistics 361 10C 14 Use the frequency table below to state the modal class.5 39.5 47. 8.5 51. 13. 48. 10D Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice For the following data set. 10D 16 Give an example of a statistical analysis where the best summary statistic is: a the mean b the median c the mode. 14. 14. 14.5 43. 25 26 19 24 28 67 21 22 28 18 a b c d Calculate the mean. 6. Which of the above is the best summary statistic? Explain your answer. 45. 45. 66. 16. 15. 7. B The sample standard deviation is 20. Class 30–33 34–37 38–41 42–45 46–49 50–53 Class centre 31. 27 A The mean is 50. C The population standard deviation is 18. 18 12.

Calculate the mean.362 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 4 multiple choice Tracey compiles a sample of new car prices. To measure the spread of the distribution Tracey should use: A the population standard deviation B the sample standard deviation C both standard deviations D the mean 5 multiple choice For the statistical analysis in question 4 which summary statistic would be the most appropriate? A mean B median C mode D standard deviation 6 The table below shows the gross annual income for a sample of 100 company executives. Text A 44 52 95 76 13 94 83 72 55 81 22 25 64 72 35 48 56 59 84 98 84 21 35 69 28 Text B 65 72 48 63 68 59 68 62 75 79 81 72 64 53 58 59 64 66 68 42 37 39 55 58 52 82 79 55 Calculate the mean and standard deviation for each class group. Which standard deviation did you use in part a? Explain why. Which summary statistic best describes the typical income for a company executive? 7 In order to compare two textbooks. a teacher recommends one book to one class and another book to another class. CHAPTER test yourself 10 a b c d e . Calculate the standard deviation. the results are detailed below. Income $50 000–$75 000 $75 000–$100 000 $100 000–$125 000 $125 000–$150 000 $150 000–$175 000 $175 000–$200 000 a b c d e f Class centre Frequency 12 18 26 24 12 8 Cumulative frequency Copy and complete the frequency table. Calculate the median class Calculate the modal class. Which class performed better? Which class had the more consistent results? Could a conclusion be drawn about the better textbook from the above information? Explain your answer. She selects 100 new car buyers and asks what price they paid for their car. At the end of the year the classes are each tested.

Similarity of twodimensional ﬁgures 1 1 syllabus reference Measurement 3 • Similarity of twodimensional ﬁgures In this chapter 11A Similar ﬁgures and scale factors 11B Solving problems using similar ﬁgures 11C House plans .

8 : 1.areyou 11. a Which side in ∆XYZ corresponds to BC? b Which angle in ∆ABC corresponds to ∠XZY? B C Z 11. a 15 : 12 b $56 : $49 11. .3 Similar triangles 3 Find the value of the pronumeral in the ﬁgure at right.1 Simplifying ratios Are you ready? Try the questions below. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy. A 11.4 Using tests to prove similar triangles 4 Using the ﬁgure at right. If you have difﬁculty with any of them.5 Finding the scale factor B X C 5 Find the scale factor given that: a AB = 6 cm and A′B′ = 18 cm b AB = 3 cm and A′B′ = 27 mm.2 Corresponding sides of congruent and similar triangles 2 Consider the similar triangles drawn at right. prove that ∆ABX is similar to ∆ACX. READY? c 0.25 d 40 cm : 2 m X Y A 1 Simplify each of the following ratios. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. a 6 6 9 11.

∠ACB and ∠XZY are equal. The scale tells us how many times larger an object is in reality compared to the plan. All the angles shown on the plan are the same as in reality. Make a conclusion. show that LABC ||| LXYZ. we can show that either of the above conditions is true. The symbol for similarity is three vertical lines (|||). except one is a reduction or an enlargement of the other. . If two walls meet at right angles on the plan.Chapter 11 Similarity of two-dimensional ﬁgures 365 Similar ﬁgures and scale factors Have you ever read a road map or looked at plans for a house? The map or the plan is a scaled down version of the roads or house. L 4 cm P 15 cm 12 cm 5 cm Q THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE Simplify the ratio LM:PQ. WORKED Example 2 Show that the triangles LMN and PQR are similar. A WORKED Example 1 X B C Y Z THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE ∠BAC = ∠YXZ ∠ACB = ∠XZY ∠ABC = ∠XYZ LABC ||| LXYZ (3 pairs of equal angles) ∠BAC and ∠YXZ are equal. we need to examine the ratio of sides. Maps and plans both use a scale. For triangles. if two pairs of corresponding sides are in the same ratio and the angles they include are equal then they are similar. it is 100 cm (or 1 m) in reality. That is. Maps and plans are practical examples of similarity. a house plan may use a scale of 1:100. When two objects are identical. LM:PQ = 4:12 = 1:3 MN:QR = 3:9 = 1:3 LN:PR = 5:15 = 1:3 LLMN ||| LPQR (3 pairs of sides in equal ratio) M 3 cm N 9 cm R To determine if other ﬁgures are similar. To show that two triangles are similar. the objects are said to be similar. Similar ﬁgures are in proportion and have the same shape. For example. ∠ABC and ∠XYZ are equal. Make a conclusion. Simplify the ratio MN:QR. In the ﬁgure at right. they meet at right angles in reality. each pair of corresponding sides are in the same ratio and each pair of corresponding angles are equal. This means that if a wall is 1 cm long on the plan. Simplify the ratio LM:PR.

. Make a conclusion. Simplify the ratio of corresponding sides CD and QR.366 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 3 Determine if the rectangles ABCD and PQRS are similar. a What is the ratio of their sides? b What is the scale factor? THINK a 1 7. The number by which we multiply measurements on the ﬁrst ﬁgure to get the measurements on the second ﬁgure is called the scale factor.5 = 30:75 = 2:5 15 cm 2 3 The 6 cm side corresponds to the 15 cm side.5 cm 3 cm 6 cm WRITE a 6:15 = 2:5 3:7. -b 2:5 = 1:2 1 2 b 1 2 -The scale factor is 2 1 . The similar ﬁgures are in the ratio 2:5. The scale factor is calculated by replacing the ﬁrst part of the ratio of sides with one. Make a conclusion. AD:RS = 4:6 = 2:3 CD:QR = 10:15 = 2:3 The rectangles are similar as their corresponding sides are in equal ratio.5 cm side. Write this as a ratio and simplify. WORKED Example 4 The two ﬁgures at right are similar. The 3 cm side corresponds to the 7. Check that this simpliﬁes to the same ratio. Make a conclusion. A 4m D 10 m C B P Q 15 m THINK 1 2 3 WRITE S 6m R Simplify the ratio of corresponding sides AD and RS. The scale factor is written by comparing one unit on the ﬁrst ﬁgure with the second. The second part of the ratio is then calculated and is the scale factor. When we examine similar ﬁgures we can state the ratio of sides between the two ﬁgures. These shapes are identical and are called congruent ﬁgures. 2 A special case of similarity occurs when the scale factor is 1.

11A WORKED Similar ﬁgures and scale factors A X Y Example 1 Prove that LABC ||| LZYX. 5 cm M 2 11. 3.5 SkillS 12 cm E R Finding the scale factor Cabri Geo HEET B 9 cm C 16 cm 5 Prove that LLMN ||| LRST.1 SkillS Simplifying ratios B C A C B Z 11. 11. Similar ﬁgures have all pairs of corresponding angles equal and all pairs of corresponding sides in equal ratio. 12 cm A 12 cm F 11. If the scale factor is 1 then the ﬁgures are congruent. To prove that triangles are similar.3 SkillS D WORKED HEET E P L 10 cm 4 cm 6 cm N Q 12 cm D 16 cm Similar triangles 8 cm R Example 3 Prove that LLMN ||| LPQR.2 SkillS Corresponding sides of congruent and similar triangles HEET HEET 2 Prove that LABC ||| LEDC. we need to prove only that either the corresponding angles are equal or that the corresponding sides are in equal ratio. 1 11.Chapter 11 Similarity of two-dimensional ﬁgures 367 remember 1. The ratio of the corresponding sides in similar ﬁgures can be used to calculate the scale factor. L ry met Similar triangles M N S T .4 SkillS Using tests to prove similar triangles HEET 4 Prove that LABC ||| LFED. 2. 4.

V W Y WORKED X Z W 15 cm X Example 3 7 Determine if the rectangles ABCD and WXYZ are similar. a distance of 3 cm represents an actual distance of 60 km. LMNO ||| LMPQ. a What is the ratio of sides? b What is the scale factor? 10 The ﬁgures at right are similar. a measurement of 5 cm represents a wall which is 10 m long. M 6 cm N 3 cm P O Q 12 On a set of house plans. 13 On a map. A 5 cm B 2 cm D C L 3 cm K A 4 cm E B 8 cm 16 cm D 7 cm 6 cm Z P M N 4 cm S P 6 cm T Q 12 cm 40 cm S R R 8 cm Y Q 8 Determine if the rectangles KLMN and PQRS are similar. Calculate the scale factor. a What is the ratio of sides? b What is the scale factor? WORKED Example C 4 4 cm 10 cm 6 cm 15 cm 11 In the ﬁgure below.1 . 9 The ﬁgures at right are similar. Calculate the ratio of sides. Calculate the scale factor.368 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 6 Prove that LVWX ||| LVYZ. Work T SHEE 11.

3 Repeat step 2 for the vertices 4 B and C. 1 Mark a point. Label this point A′. . P. A. This point is called the centre of enlargement. 3 Repeat step 2. B′ and C′. 4 Determine if there is a relationship between the scale factors and the distance from the projector to the screen. placing the overhead projector 3 m.Chapter 11 Similarity of two-dimensional ﬁgures 369 Enlarging a ﬁgure We can draw similar ﬁgures using an enlargement factor. Mark a point twice this distance away in a straight line. external to the ﬁgure. 6 Investigating scale factors 1 Draw a ﬁgure on clear plastic so that it can be placed on an overhead projector. P B C A' A P B C A' A P B B' C C' A' A P B B' C C' A 2 Measure the distance from P to the vertex. 2 Place the overhead projector 2 m from the screen and focus the image. Measure the lengths on the image and state the scale factor. 4 m and 5 m from the screen. 5 Join the points A′. We will enlarge the triangle below by a scale factor of 2.

= -------. drawing LXYZ smaller than LABC.. What do you conclude? 4 Draw the right-angled triangles KLM and NPU to the dimensions given. What do you conclude? 5 Summarise the results of your investigation. Let us investigate. A Draw LXYZ. What are the minimum requirements to ensure the similarity of two triangles? L T 2 cm V 3 cm W Q G 3 cm H 30° 4 cm 6 cm R 30° 4 cm N S 2 cm J K 7. Is ∆XYZ similar to ∆ABC? 2 Construct the two triangles shown where LTVW is twice the size of LDEF. Are these ratios constant (within the limits of the accuracy of the CA constructions)? Does it appear that ∆XYZ is a true enlargement of LABC? Repeat the process. Certain minimum information is sufﬁcient. ﬁnd the ratio of their corresponding sides (as in part 1) and measure all angles. Find the ratio of their corresponding sides (as in part 1) and measure all angles. Are the two triangles similar? 3 Construct LGHJ and LQRS to the measurements shown at right. Determine the ratios XY YZ of the lengths of the corresponding sides ------.5 cm U . larger than ∆ABC with ∠X = ∠A.= 2. Measure the lengths of the sides of the two triangles. One is an enlargement or reduction of the other. D The ratio of their corresponding sides is 1 cm E TV VW WT 2 cm constant as ------. Measure 1. we do not need to know all the information about the three sides and three angles to determine if a pair of triangles is similar. This means that the corresponding angles of the triangles have to be equal (to make them the same shape) and the ratio of their corresponding sides must be constant (making one smaller or larger than the other).. 70° ∠Y = ∠B and ∠Z = ∠C.= --------.5 cm DE EF FD F their corresponding angles. Again. ------AB BC 60° 50° B C ZX and ------. As with congruent triangles.370 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Similar triangles Two triangles are similar if they have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. 1 Draw the LABC shown (it is not drawn to scale).5 cm 5 cm 3 cm M P 4.

Chapter 11 Similarity of two-dimensional ﬁgures 371 Solving problems using similar ﬁgures We can use similar ﬁgures to solve many problems.5 m 60 cm The triangles are similar because all three angles are equal. WORKED Example 5 A tree casts a shadow 7. The scale on a road map is given as 1 cm = 5 km.5 m:60 cm = 750:60 7. Consider the case where we want to measure the height of a tree too tall for us to physically measure. Write a proportion and solve to ﬁnd the height of the tree.= ----1 2 h = 12. which we are unable to physically measure. In the case of plans. Calculate the height of the tree. Multiply 6. Jodie uses her ruler and ﬁnds the distance between the towns Huxley and Brownville is 6. At the same time a 1-metre ruler casts a shadow 60 cm long. Write the shadow lengths as a ratio and simplify. Calculate the distance between these two towns. the scale is often stated as a ratio.2 cm × 5 cm/km = 31 km The actual distance between Huxley and Brownville is 31 km.5 m:60 cm = 25:2 h 25 -.2 cm. . Using shadows we can create two similar triangles. We use the scale given on the map to calculate the distance between two places. The method of solution is the same. 3 7. the ratio of sides becomes the scale of the plan making it similar to the house itself. The map is a similar ﬁgure to the place being mapped. In this case.5 m long.2 cm by the given scale. THINK 1 2 WORKED Example 6 WRITE 6. By setting up similar triangles we can calculate measurements of objects such as trees.5 m We use a similar method when reading maps or plans. Give a written answer. Another example is house plans. h 1m THINK 1 2 WRITE 7.

5 m long. Give a written answer. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE 8. remember 1. a Draw a diagram to represent this situation.5 m 40 cm 2 A building casts a shadow 9. b What is the ratio of sides in the similar triangles formed? c Calculate the height of the ﬂagpole.372 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 7 The scale on a house plan is 1:150.5 m long. b Calculate the height of the building. The brush is 10 cm long and is held 1 m away from the artist’s eye. 1m 100 m . 3 Kerry is 170 cm tall and her shadow measures 50 cm. Change the units from cm to m. Calculate the actual length of the front of the house. Multiply the measurement by the scale. Maps and plans are similar to the actual object. 11B WORKED Solving problems using similar ﬁgures Example 5 1 A tree casts a shadow 2. At the same time a 1-metre ruler casts a shadow 40 cm long.75 m long. a Draw a diagram to represent this situation. 3. At the same time a ﬂagpole casts a shadow which is 3 m long. We can calculate measurements of objects by setting up similar triangles. 4 An artist holds his brush so that the top and bottom of the brush line up with the top and bottom of a tree. At the same time a 1-metre ruler casts a shadow 25 cm long.5 cm × 150 = 12.5 cm on the plan. The front of the house measures 8. The tree is 100 m away from the artist. 1m 2. 2. The scale is the ratio of sides on the plan to those on the object. Calculate the height of the tree. Calculate the height of the tree.75 m The front of the house is 12. This scale can be used to make calculations. as shown in the ﬁgure.5 cm × 150 = 1275 cm 8.

078 125 cm B 12.8 km 10 multiple choice On a map the scale is given as 1 cm = 5 km. How far apart should they be drawn on the map? A 0. 7 12 A set of house plans is to be drawn using a scale of 1:400.8 km C 4 km D 15. what should the distance on the map be when the actual distance is: a 20 km? b 45 km? c 22 km? d 340 km? e 8 km? f 37.2 m long.5 km? 9 multiple choice The scale on a map is given as 1 cm = 4 km. .9 cm f 4 mm.8 cm C 320 cm D 12. At the same time a 1-metre ruler casts a shadow 1. then the actual distance between these two points is: A 15. The side of the house is to be 16 m long.5 cm d 12.8 cm. Calculate the length of the house frontage if it is shown as 4 cm on the plans. calculate the actual distance where the distance on the map is measured as: a 5 cm b 9 cm c 6.Chapter 11 Similarity of two-dimensional ﬁgures 373 5 multiple choice A tree casts a 6 m shadow. What is the actual distance between the two towns? 7 On a map where the scale is given as 1 cm = 4 km. Two towns are shown as being 6 cm apart on the map. cupboards. On your diagram show the location of all desks. Calculate the length that this should be drawn on the plans.2 km WORKED Example 11 The scale on a set of house plans is given as 1:500. Scale drawing of the classroom Draw a scale diagram showing the ﬂoor plan of the classroom you are now in. If the distance between two points on the map is 3.2 cm B 3. The ratio of sides in the similar ﬁgures formed is: A 5:6 B 5:1 C 6:1 D 10:1 WORKED Example 6 6 A map gives the scale as being 1 cm = 10 km.8 cm e 0. the blackboards and any other features of the room. The distance from Freewell to Taleton is 64 km. 8 On a map where the scale is given as 1 cm = 5 km.

THINK a 1 Scale 1:100 WRITE a Length of house on plan = 12 cm Width of house on plan = 10 cm Actual length of house = 12 cm × 100 = 1200 cm = 12 m Actual width = 10 cm × 100 = 1000 cm = 10 m The dimensions of the house are 12 m by 10 m. b Calculate the area of the lounge room. 2 Measure the length and width of the house on the plan. WC Kitchen/Dining Bathroom Bed 3 Bed 2 Lounge Bed 1 a Calculate the dimensions of the house. 3 Write your answer. Measurement enables us to calculate all dimensions within the house. Corresponding angles on similar ﬁgures are equal and so the angles on the plans will be the same as the angles in reality.374 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course House plans House plans are a very common application of similar ﬁgures. As we saw in the previous section. plans are drawn using a ratio as the scale factor. WORKED Example 8 Below is a plan for a house. Multiply each of these measurements by 100. .

House plans are also drawn with a view of what the house will look like from the outside. Scale 1:100 a Calculate the height of the eaves on the lower side of the house.5 cm × 100 Actual height = 350 cm Actual height = 3. WRITE a Height on the plan = 3. For example. THINK a 1 Measure the height on the plan for the lower side of the house. b Angle to horizontal = 45° The angle of the pitch of the roof is 45°. These diagrams are called elevations. Write your answer.5 m The height of the eaves is 3. Elevations are also drawn using a scale. 3 4 Calculate the area of the lounge room. WRITE b Length of lounge room on plan = 6 cm Width of lounge room on plan = 6 cm Actual length of lounge room = 6 cm × 100 = 600 cm =6m Actual width of lounge room is also 6 m. 2 Multiply the plan measurement by 100. b Measure the angle of the pitch of the roof. WORKED Example 9 The diagram below shows the front elevation of a house.5 m.Chapter 11 Similarity of two-dimensional ﬁgures 375 THINK b 1 Measure the length and width of the lounge room on the plan. Write your answer. Measure the angle that the slope of the roof makes with the horizontal. . the front elevation is what the house will look like from the front. A = 62 A = 36 m2 The area of the lounge room is 36 m2. 3 b 1 2 Write your answer. 2 Multiply each of these measurements by 100.5 cm Actual height = 3.

From an elevation. we can measure all lengths and angles and use the scale to calculate the actual measurements. we can calculate the dimensions for the house from the plans. 4. 3. 2. N 8 Shed House Garden bed Garage Driveway Garden bed Scale 1:250 a What are the dimensions of the block of land? b What are the dimensions of the house? .376 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course remember 1. House plans are drawn with a ratio as the scale factor. Using the scale factor. An elevation is the view of a house from one side. 11C WORKED House plans Example 1 Below is the site plan for a block of land.

b What are the dimensions of the lounge room? c Which bedroom is the largest? What are its dimensions? WORKED Example 3 Below is the front elevation of a house. drawn to scale.Chapter 11 Similarity of two-dimensional ﬁgures 377 2 A house plan is shown below. b Calculate the height of the eaves. c Measure the angle of the pitch of the roof. . Lounge Bed 3 Bed 4 Family Pantry Kitchen Bed 1 Bed 2 Toilet Laundry Scale 1:150 Bathroom a Calculate the dimensions of the house. 9 Scale 1:100 a Calculate the height of the peak of the roof.

. Draw a plan of the south and east elevations of these houses. a What is the scale on the plans? b What are the dimensions of the house? c What is the total area of the house? 2 What symbols are used on the house plans to indicate the following: a a door b a window c cupboards d any other signiﬁcant features? 3 Using a suitable scale.378 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 4 Trace the front elevation of the house at right into your book. Include a ﬂoor plan of your house and a front elevation. a b N Gable roof Boxed gable roof N c d N N Gambrel (a roof combining the addition of small gables to a hip roof) Work T SHEE 11. draw a set of plans for your house. The direction of north is given. On your diagram write all lengths and angles necessary for the construction of the house. Scale 1:200 5 The following diagrams are representations of houses with a variety of roof types.2 Hip roof House plans 1 Try to obtain a set of plans to a house.

House plans • House plans are similar to the house being built. that are not easily measured can be determined by constructing similar triangles. • To show that triangles are similar. we show either that all pairs of corresponding angles are equal or that all pairs of corresponding sides are in equal ratio. • Heights of objects. . such as trees.Chapter 11 Similarity of two-dimensional ﬁgures 379 summary Similar ﬁgures • Similar ﬁgures have all pairs of corresponding angles equal and corresponding sides in equal ratio. Scale factors • The scale factor allows us to solve problems using similar ﬁgures. • We can measure all lengths and angles on a house plan and use the scale to calculate the actual measurements. • For other ﬁgures it is necessary to show that both properties are true.

a building casts a 15 m shadow. . b State the ratio of sides in the two similar ﬁgures. Calculate the height of the building. How high up a wall will a 25 m ladder reach. 18 cm P M 2 cm O N 4 cm 9 cm Q V 8 cm X 12 cm Y 18 cm Z 12 cm W 11A 2 Prove that LVWX ||| LYZX. Use this to ﬁnd the length of the side marked x. if it is placed at the same angle to the ground? 8 A map has a scale of 1:40 000. A 2 cm D 6 cm B 15 cm C Z 5 cm Y 11B 5 The two triangles at right are similar. E A D 5 cm C 10 cm B W X 11A 4 ABCD and WXYZ are rectangles. prove that LABC ||| LEDC.380 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CHAPTER review 11A 1 Prove that LMNO ||| LPQO. Calculate the actual distance between two places if they are shown on the map as: a 1 cm apart b 6 cm apart c 8. 7 A 10 m ladder will reach 9 m up a wall. 15 cm x 9 cm 12 cm 11B 11B 11B 6 When a 1-metre ruler casts a shadow 75 cm long.5 cm apart. 11A 3 Given that E is the midpoint of the line AC. a Prove that the two rectangles are similar.

The dimensions of a property are shown as 10 cm × 16 cm on the plan. What are the actual dimensions on the property? 10 The scale diagram below is a site plan for a block of land on which a house is to be built.Chapter 11 Similarity of two-dimensional ﬁgures 381 11B 11C 9 A surveyor’s plan has a scale 1:800. c Calculate the area of the house in square metres. Garden bed . b Calculate the dimensions of the house. Garden bed Swimming pool House Garage Driveway N Scale 1 cm = 4 m a Calculate the dimensions of the block of land.

D Neither statement CHAPTER test yourself 11 5 A rectangular block of land is 20 m wide and 32 m long. Which of the above statements is correct? A Statement I B Statement II C Statements I and II 3 multiple choice On a set of house plans a room that measures 4. b Calculate the length of the shadow that would be cast by a building that is 20 m tall.5 m × 3. All rhombuses are similar.2 m is shown as 9 cm × 6. Statement I. a Using a scale of 1:200.2 cm long and 5.4 cm. b On the same diagram. . II and III Consider the statements below. a house is shown as 6. a Calculate the height of a tree.9 cm wide. He casts a shadow 1 m long. Statement II.382 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice Which of the triangles below are similar? I 9 cm II 3 cm III 6 cm 4 cm 2 cm 4 cm A I and II 2 multiple choice B I and III C II and III D I. which at the same time casts a shadow 4. Calculate the actual dimensions of the house. All parallelograms are similar. make a scale drawing of the block of land.8 m long. The scale of the plans is: A 1:2 B 1:50 C 1:100 D 1:200 4 Harley is 160 cm tall.

Taxation 12 syllabus reference Financial mathematics 3 • Taxation In this chapter 12A Calculating allowable deductions 12B Taxable income 12C Medicare levy 12D Calculating tax 12E Calculating GST and VAT 12F Graphing tax functions .

3 Writing one quantity as a percentage of another 3 Write: a $45 as a percentage of $180 c $135 as a percentage of $90 b $52.4 Unitary method of percentages 4 Find the amount given that: a 10% of the amount is $7.5 Sketching straight lines 5 Draw the graph of: a y = 2x + 1 b y = 4x – 2 c y = 5 – x. If you have difﬁculty with any of them.2 Increase or decrease by a percentage 2 Complete the following. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy. b Increase $750 by 15% d Decrease $945 by 25% 12.1 Finding a percentage of a quantity Are you ready? Try the questions below.50 b 40% of the amount is $560 c 110% of the amount is $275. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET.5% of $67 500. . 1 Find: a 42% of $4900 READY? b 48% of $52 000 c 1.50 as a percentage of $420 d $48 as a percentage of $750 12.areyou 12. 12. a Increase $450 by 10% c Decrease $600 by 12% 12.

a builder is allowed a tax deduction for the cost of tools or a bank teller who wears a uniform may be allowed a deduction for the dry-cleaning of that uniform. We learned that the gross pay was the wage or salary paid by the employer. Before the employee receives this money. The taxpayer then either receives a refund or must pay the amount owing. In chapter 1. however. A tax return is used to calculate the amount of tax that should have been paid and compares this with the amount of PAYE tax paid. insurance. For example. The amount actually received by the worker is called the net pay.50 per week for work-related telephone calls.50 × 52 = $78 Deductions = $1400 + $25 + $200 + $260 + $78 = $1963 Calculate Ken’s total dry-cleaning and telephone deductions. Everyone who earns over a certain amount must pay income tax. This is called Pay As You Earn tax (PAYE tax). . The tax deduction covers the cost of the fuel and a portion of the long-term costs of running a car such as registration. Deductions are allowed for expenses incurred while earning an income. people who earn income must submit a tax return. there are several other forms of tax used by the government to collect money. depreciation and maintenance. $5 per week for dry-cleaning the overalls and $1. but for most people the largest deduction is income tax. There are several different ways in which the government collects these taxes. deductions are taken out. depending on the amount you earn. WORKED Example 1 A large company employs Ken as a plumber. In this chapter. $200 for two pairs of work overalls. Calculate Ken’s total deductions. Income tax is paid on an increasing scale. The amount of tax paid is calculated using your taxable income. People who use their own car for work are entitled to claim a portion of the running costs as a deduction. At the end of each ﬁnancial year. THINK 1 WRITE Dry-cleaning = $5 × 52 = $260 Telephone = $1. The one with which we are most familiar is income tax. The amount of the deduction is based on the size of the engine and the number of kilometres travelled. Most people pay income tax in each pay period. we look at how taxes are calculated and collected. which runs from July 1 of one year to June 30 the following year.C h a p t e r 1 2 Ta x a t i o n 385 Calculating allowable deductions The government collects taxes in order to pay for government services. There may be several payments taken out of a person’s gross pay. 2 Add up all of Ken’s deductions. $25 for gumboots. Deductions are also allowed for donations to charity over $2. Taxable income is your gross pay less any allowable tax deductions. Ken claims deductions of $1400 to buy tools. we looked at earning money.

33 × $2144 Tax deduction = $707. This includes expenses such as rent.33 × $3200 Tax deduction = $1056 b Computer value = $3200 − $1056 Computer value = $2144 Tax deduction = 33% of $2144 Tax deduction = 0. Trevor bought a new computer on 1 July 2007 for $3200. interest on a loan if buying the property. If the business is run from the family home. If you run a business from a shop or house. electricity and telephone. As part of her job she uses her own car to travel to visit clients and to attend training seminars. Another form of tax deduction comes for the cost of property needed while working. WRITE Travel deduction = 2547 × 0. by subtracting the depreciation from the purchase price. Each year he is allowed a 33% deduction for the depreciation of the computer. Be sure to convert the rate in cents to dollars.4 litre Mitsubishi Lancer. WORKED Example 3 Trevor is an accountant who works from home. For example. The computer loses value as it becomes older and so a tax deduction is allowed for this. The depreciation was 33% of its value at the end of the last ﬁnancial year. WRITE a Tax deduction = 33% of $3200 Tax deduction = 0. a teacher may own a home computer that is used to prepare lessons and store marks.89 Tax deductions are also allowed for the depreciation of major equipment. Calculate the size of the tax deduction in a year where she travels 2547 km on work-related matters. the cost of these premises is tax deductable. then a percentage of these expenses is allowed. Calculate the tax deduction allowed in: a the 2007–08 ﬁnancial year b the 2008–09 ﬁnancial year.519).386 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 2 Raylene is a computer programmer. . rates. THINK Multiply the number of kilometres (2547) by the rate per kilometre (0. for which she is allowed a deduction of 51. THINK a The depreciation was 33% of the purchase price.52 b 1 2 Calculate the value of the computer at the beginning of 2008–09. He owns a personal computer that is used as part of his job. Raylene’s car is a 2.519 Travel deduction = $1321.9 c/km.

Tax deductions are allowed for work-related expenses as well as other expenses such as charity donations. She pays rent of $400 per week. Calculate Wendy’s annual electricity bill. A tax deduction is an amount of money deducted from gross income before tax is calculated. A tax deduction can be claimed on: (a) the cost of expenses incurred while earning an income (b) travel that is part of your job (c) depreciation of equipment used in performing your job (d) expenses associated with maintaining the premises used for your work (e) miscellaneous other costs. . remember 1. Calculate Wendy’s annual telephone bill. has an electricity bill of $326 per quarter and a telephone bill of $276 per month. 3.C h a p t e r 1 2 Ta x a t i o n 387 WORKED Example 4 Wendy runs a confectionery shop in a shopping centre. Add these expenses to calculate the tax deduction allowed. Calculate the deduction that Wendy is entitled to. 2. THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE Rent = $400 × 52 Rent = $20 800 Electricity = $326 × 4 Electricity = $1304 Telephone = $276 × 12 Telephone = $3312 Total tax deduction = $20 800 + $1304 + $3312 Total tax deduction = $25 416 Calculate the amount of rent that Wendy pays for a year.

6 L engine.75).6 L More than 1. belt and bow tie. two pairs of goggles at $34 each and four face masks at $13. Engine capacity Up to 1. calculate his deduction. WORKED Example 3 6 Bruce is a teacher with a home computer that he purchased for $2500. Calculate Jasmine’s total tax deductions.2 Increase or decrease by a percentage HEET 12. 2 Jasmine is a dressmaker.3 Writing one quantity as a percentage of another SkillS HEET 12.90.70.6 L More than 2.60 each. needles and cotton ($134.4 WORKED Example 2 Unitary method of percentages Calculate the total tax deduction allowed for a person who claims: a 2000 km in a Mazda-2 with a 1.6 L and up to 2.00 each. Kevin’s uniform must be dry-cleaned each week at a cost of $5.9 c/km 53. a belt for $15 and a bow tie for $14.8 L engine c 1564 km in a Ford Focus with a 2. Kevin has other tax deductions of $345 for union fees.80 for dress patterns. calculate the tax deduction that Bruce is allowed in: a the ﬁrst ﬁnancial year b the second ﬁnancial year c the third ﬁnancial year.6 L Allowable deduction 45. two pairs of pants at $76.7 c/km 51. If a 40% tax deduction is allowed for depreciation. Jasmine claims a tax deduction for the cost of her sewing machine ($560). 3 Kevin works as a waiter. Jasmine also claims to make $5 worth of work-related telephone calls per week. He has a 1.3 L engine b 2645 km in a Toyota Corolla with a 1. 5 The table below shows the rate per kilometre allowed as a tax deduction for travel in a private vehicle (for cars using up to 5000 km/year on work-related travel). Calculate Kevin’s total tax deductions. .90 each. $60 for having his tax return prepared by an accountant and makes $50 in charity donations. and $349.50 each. Kevin buys three shirts at $45.1 WORKED Example 1 Finding a percentage of a quantity 1 Darren is a pest exterminator. He also uses a spray tank costing $269 and pays $5 per week to have his clothing professionally cleaned. 4 Rajid uses his car as part of his job as an insurance assessor. an overlocker ($320). Calculate Darren’s total tax deductions.388 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 12A SkillS Calculating allowable deductions HEET 12.8 c/km SkillS SkillS HEET 12. Kevin must wear a white shirt with black pants. Calculate the tax deduction Rajid is allowed in a year where he claims 3176 km in work-related travel. At the end of the 2006–07 ﬁnancial year Jeff’s building equipment was valued at $12 350. He is allowed tax deductions for three sets of protective clothing at $167. 7 Jeff is a builder.6 L Nissan Tiida for which he is allowed a deduction of 45. If Jeff is allowed a tax deduction of 25% for depreciation of his equipment.7 c/km.5 L engine d 2900 km in a Holden Commodore with a 3.

. is allowed for 12 8 depreciation of the computer. Calculate the total allowed in tax deductions for running this business. $128. In one ﬁnancial year his household bills are: • $4500 in interest on the home mortgage • $1200 in council rates • electricity bills of $129.40 for building and contents insurance.of the ﬁnancial year. but Catherine can claim only ----. Calculate Henry’s total tax deductions. Henry has the following work-related expenses: • $250 per week for rent on the garage • $290 per quarter for the electricity bill • $190 per quarter for the telephone bill • $25 per month for his mobile telephone • plan. which includes items such as tractors. trucks etc. b When the value of the capital equipment falls below $5000. He travels 2750 km on work-related trips in his van. $187. He has set up one room in the house as his ofﬁce. She therefore owned the 8 computer for only ----. 12 Henry is a motor mechanic who runs his own garage. Her operational expenses are: • $325 per week rent 4 • $280 per quarter in electricity • $185 per quarter in telephone bills. Henry also has $85 000 in capital equipment that he depreciates at a rate of 27. WORKED Example 10 Gabrielle owns a small boutique in a shopping mall.of this.50. he can claim 10% of all these bills as deductions.a. A deduction of 40% p. As Greg’s ofﬁce is 10% of the area of the house.a. $165 and $119 • telephone bills of $98. Their capital equipment.0 L engine.30 and $106. the entire balance can be tax deducted and the equipment is said to be ‘written off’.90 • $378. $110. Each year they are allowed a 40% tax deduction for depreciation of capital equipment. In what ﬁnancial year will this occur? 9 Catherine is a fashion designer who uses a computer to assist her with drawing. 11 Greg is a graphic designer who works from home.60.C h a p t e r 1 2 Ta x a t i o n 389 8 Mr and Mrs Williams own a farm. is valued at $75 000 at the beginning of the 2007–08 ﬁnancial year.5% p. 12 Calculate Catherine’s allowable tax deduction for the computer. which has a 3. a Calculate the tax deduction allowed for the: i 2007–08 ﬁnancial year ii 2008–09 ﬁnancial year iii 2009–10 ﬁnancial year. Calculate Greg’s tax deduction. Catherine buys a new computer on 1 November for $3600.

During the year Murray also earned $87.13 Taxable income = $34 927.50 + $148. rental income etc. Michael also earned $278.7 c/km for travel. the amount of tax that should have been paid is calculated based on their taxable income.50 for working as a polling ofﬁcer during a State election and received $148. Taxable income is the gross income earned from all sources less any tax deductions. The amount of PAYE tax deducted each week or fortnight is the amount that would be paid. If Murray is allowed a tax deduction of 45.30. When calculating the amount of PAYE tax to deduct from an employee’s pay.390 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Taxable income A person’s taxable income is the income on which their tax is calculated.33 Calculate the total gross income. THINK 1 2 WRITE Total income = $34 500 + $278.52 per week from his full-time job and $118. Murray earns $471.63 in interest from his bank accounts. WORKED Example 6 Murray works as a full-time jackeroo and plays two evenings per week in a band. the cost of travel between jobs is tax deductable. if this amount was earned each week for the entire ﬁnancial year. When a taxpayer completes a tax return at the end of the ﬁnancial year. In order to calculate a person’s taxable income. WORKED Example 5 Michael is a carpet layer who earned a gross pay of $34 500 during the 2007–08 ﬁnancial year.50.63 − $1846. you may need to calculate their income from a variety of sources and make a number of calculations about tax deductions. proﬁts from shares. Most people have PAYE tax deducted from their wage or salary throughout the year.30 Taxable income = $33 081.53 per week from playing in the band. calculate the travel deduction that he is entitled to claim. Calculate Michael’s taxable income. . a Calculate Murray’s total gross income. Michael’s total tax deductions for the year were $1846. c If Murray has other tax deductions of $948. the employer makes no consideration of possible tax deductions or other sources of income.63 Total income = $34 927. b It is 15 km from the property where Murray works to the club where he plays. Calculate the taxable income by subtracting tax deductions from gross income. When calculating total income you must include your income from all sources. This means that you include any job for which you received payment throughout the year and other incomes such as interest. When someone has two jobs. calculate his taxable income.52 in interest from his bank accounts.

Calculate the total kilometres travelled.12 − $1661.C h a p t e r 1 2 Ta x a t i o n 391 THINK a 1 WRITE a Jackeroo earnings = $471. To calculate taxable income.92 c Total deduction = $948.52 × 52 = $24 519.42 Taxable income = $30 770.56 + $87.56 Total earnings = $24 519.53 × 52 = $6163.04 + $6163. Add the total of each job with the interest earned to calculate total earnings.42 Taxable income = $29 108.50 + $712. Calculate the taxable income by subtracting the tax deductions from the total income. Taxable income is the income on which your tax is calculated.52 Total earnings = $30 770. Calculate the total number of trips made between jobs.12 b Number of trips = 2 × 52 Number of trips = 104 Total km = 104 × 15 Total km = 1560 km Travel deduction = 1560 × 0. add income from all sources and subtract all tax deductions.92 Total deduction = $1661. .70 Multiply Murray’s weekly earnings in each job by 52 to calculate the yearly total.04 Band earnings = $118.457 Travel deduction = $712. 2. Calculate the total tax deduction. 2 b 1 2 3 c 1 2 remember 1. Calculate the deduction by multiplying kilometres travelled by the allowable rate.

7 c/km. a Calculate Tony’s gross yearly pay. He also worked part-time at TAFE for a wage of $112. 2 Tony’s gross fortnightly pay is $649. Tavit makes sales that total $850 000. b If Paula had tax deductions totalling $1956. c Calculate Andrew’s taxable income.70. and $287. a Calculate Andrew’s gross annual income.50 per week. $4325 in interest on his loan for the property. a Calculate Janine’s gross annual income. b If Janine claims tax deductions of $428. calculate her taxable income. a Calculate the gross commission that Tavit earned. 80 times during the year.40 in interest. c If Tavit has no other tax deductions.60 per fortnight. Stefan’s income from various investments was $425.45. calculate his taxable income. b Tavit makes $10 worth of phone calls that are tax deductable per day (5 days per week). Paula had a bank account that paid her $117. She also had tax deductions totalling $2340. His tax deductions total $2145. Andrew is also entitled to a deduction of $1200 for the council rates. Calculate Fernando’s taxable income. calculate the amount that Stefan will claim. Calculate the tax deduction that he will claim. 6 Tavit is a telephone salesman. Calculate Janelle’s taxable income.90 per week. Janelle also earned $238. 4 Paula worked as a receptionist and earned a gross wage of $418.80. calculate Stefan’s taxable income. b Stefan travelled 12 km between the hairdressing salon and TAFE. He is paid a commission of 5% of all sales.50 for insurance. . a Calculate Paula’s total income.50 per week and for the other she is paid $395. calculate his taxable income. c If Stefan has other tax deductions totalling $1560. WORKED Example 6 7 Stefan worked as a hairdresser and earned a gross wage of $537.80 per week. He also earns $165 per week from a rental property that he owns in Newcastle. Over the year. b Andrew travels 320 km to Newcastle and back four times a year to inspect his property and is allowed a tax deduction of 45. a Calculate Stefan’s gross annual income. If he is allowed a tax deduction of 51.392 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 12B WORKED Taxable income Example 5 1 Fernando earns a gross salary of $45 900 per year. 3 During the last ﬁnancial year Janelle had a gross income of $45 670 from her job as a physiotherapist. Andrew claims $2340 in other deductions associated with his work.40.20.9 c/km for travel.79 in interest from her bank accounts.90 for the year. For one job she is paid $196. Paula also earned $45 per week from a second job conducting telephone surveys. calculate her taxable income. b If Tony’s tax deductions total $1142. Calculate his total deductions.75. 5 Janine has two part-time jobs. 8 Andrew earns a gross annual salary of $65 700.

calculate the deduction that she can claim for her home ofﬁce. If Sandra claims 40% of this value as a tax deduction for depreciation.20 Computer Application 1 Calculating taxable income We are going to use a prepared spreadsheet to calculate a person’s taxable income. Wayne’s taxable income is: A $28 863.9 c/km. b Sandra has one room of her house set up as an ofﬁce. Sandra is paid $986. e Calculate Sandra’s taxable income. If the distance is 50 km and Sandra is allowed a deduction at the rate of 51. c Sandra bought a $3850 computer.50 per fortnight. calculate the amount claimed. . E L Spre XCE ad sheet Tax calculator 1. Enter the following data for income into Sheet 1. d Sandra is allowed to claim travel expenses from her home to the book company’s ofﬁce once a week.50.50 and interest $258. a Calculate Sandra’s annual gross income. From your Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM.60 B $29 653 C $29 668. calculate the amount that Sandra can claim for a travel deduction.C h a p t e r 1 2 Ta x a t i o n 393 9 Sandra works from home as an editor for a book company. He has tax deductions of $5 per week for dry-cleaning his work uniform. ‘Taxable Income’: salary $44 500.60. $50 per month in work-related travel expenses and $348 per year in union dues. 10 multiple choice Wayne’s gross fortnightly pay is $1156. load the spreadsheet ‘Tax Calculator’. This room is 15% of the area of the house. You should now see a total income of $46 017. If Sandra’s total household expenses are $9800 per year. casual work $1258.60 D $60 143.

00 Electricity $ 800. . You should now see the total of all allowable deductions and the taxable income. (a) In cell B24 enter 2200 for the kilometres travelled and in B25 enter 3 for the engine capacity of the car. For Union fees enter $352.00 Rates $1150. The results appear in the main calculation section. Home Ofﬁce Calculator House area (m2) 170 Ofﬁce area (m2) 17 Interest/rent $4500. Enter the following data for depreciation. where you will see calculation areas for travel.394 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 2. Scroll down to row 23. (b) We will now do a similar calculation to ﬁnd the home ofﬁce deduction. for Charity donations enter $90.00 Telephone $ 600.00 Other (c) The ﬁnal section we will include is a depreciation calculator. Scroll up to the top of your spreadsheet. Enter the following data for home ofﬁce. and for Other enter $125. Depreciation Calculator Item Value Rate Amount Computer $4000 40% Car Capital equipment $5000 25% Other $ 500 25% 3.00 Gas Insurance $ 350. The spreadsheet has a section that calculates the size of various deductions. home ofﬁce and depreciation.

Calculate the tax deduction that Brendon is entitled to if he can claim 45. 3 Noeline has a computer that is valued at $5000 at the beginning of the ﬁnancial year. She also earns $3450 per year from various investments. Calculate Ravi’s taxable income.5% of taxable income.50 per week. This is the rate that the majority of people pay.C h a p t e r 1 2 Ta x a t i o n 395 1 1 Candice has the following tax deductions: $1200 for travel. If Noeline depreciates the computer at 33% p. x-rays and pathology. Calculate Vicky’s annual taxable income. 8 Vicky earns a gross wage of $482. 7 Indira has a gross annual salary of $43 000. Calculate Megan’s gross annual income. $800 for home ofﬁce and $260 for depreciation. . given that his tax deductions total $2119. such as visits to your local doctor. if her tax deductions for the year total $2430.a.40 per week from a second part-time job. 9 Shoaib earns $650 per week from his day job and another $112. calculate the tax deduction that Noeline can claim in the ﬁnancial year. Medicare levy Medicare is Australia’s national health care scheme. Calculate her total deductions. As part of our tax. If Indira’s tax deductions total $4679. Calculate Shoaib’s taxable income. 2 Brendon has used his own car for a total of 3460 km on work-related matters during the ﬁnancial year. People who are on low incomes do not pay any Medicare levy or pay the levy at a reduced rate. 10 Megan has a taxable income of $23 900. In return for this.. The basic Medicare levy is 1. calculate her taxable income. we pay the Medicare levy.7 c/km. 5 How many years will it take for the value of Noeline’s computer to fall below $500? 6 Ravi has a gross annual income of $39 000. Her tax deductions totalled $670. Ravi’s tax deductions total $2480. 4 Calculate the tax deduction that Noeline can claim for the same computer in the next ﬁnancial year. Medicare pays for basic health care services.

1. Calculate the total Medicare levy by adding the surcharge to the regular levy. Surcharge = 1% of $164 000 Surcharge = $1640 Total Medicare levy = $2460 + $1640 Total Medicare levy = $4100 Calculate the regular Medicare levy. Number of dependent children 0–1 2 3 4 More than 4 dependent children Surcharge income threshold $100 000 $101 500 $103 000 $104 500 $104 500 plus $1500 for each additional child For a single person the surcharge applies if their income exceeds $50 000 per annum.015 × $164 000 Medicare levy = $2460 This person’s income is over the $101 500 threshold for a person with two children. This surcharge is a further 1% of taxable income. THINK 1 WRITE Medicare levy = 1. Calculate the Medicare levy surcharge. The government provides a 30% rebate (refund) on the cost of the private health insurance. . no private health insurance and a taxable income of $164 000 per annum.015 × $44 300 Medicare levy = $664. They encourage people to do this in two ways. WORKED Example 8 Calculate the total Medicare levy (including surcharge) paid by a person who has two children. THINK Calculate 1.5% of $164 000 Medicare levy = 0.50 In Australia the government encourages people to take out private health insurance in addition to Medicare.5% of $44 300.5% of $44 300 Medicare levy = 0. 2. This is to take the pressure off the public health system.396 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 7 Calculate the Medicare levy for a person with an annual taxable income of $44 300. 2 3 4 Decide if the person must pay the Medicare levy surcharge. WRITE Medicare levy = 1. People on higher incomes who do not have private health insurance are charged the Medicare levy surcharge. The income threshold upon which families are charged the Medicare levy surcharge is shown by the table below.

Calculate how much James would save each year by joining a private heath fund as opposed to having to pay the Medicare levy surcharge. no private health insurance and a taxable income of $140 000 per annum.75.C h a p t e r 1 2 Ta x a t i o n 397 remember 1. 2 Calculate the Medicare levy for a person with a taxable income of: a $43 250 b $56 745 c $94 000. 3. The Medicare levy is 1. 8 7 Calculate the total Medicare levy (including surcharge) paid by a person who has eight children. 3 Simon has a gross weekly wage of $451. This is reviewed each year in the federal budget. the Medicare levy was 1. Allowances are made for people on low incomes who do not have to pay the levy or pay it at a reduced rate. 12C WORKED Medicare levy 12.1 SkillS Finding a percentage of a quantity HEET Example 1 Calculate the Medicare levy for a person whose taxable income is $39 870. Work T SHEE 12.4 SkillS Unitary method of percentages HEET Which of the following families do not have to pay the Medicare levy surcharge. assuming that none of them have private health insurance? A Income of $100 000 with no children B Income of $101 000 with one child C Income of $102 000 with two children D Income of $104 000 with four children 5 Mr and Mrs Wyatt have ﬁve children. What is the threshold for the Medicare levy surcharge for this family? WORKED Example 6 Calculate the total Medicare levy (including surcharge) paid by a person who has three children. Find out the current Medicare levy.5% of gross income. a Calculate Simon’s gross annual wage. 2 What is the lower income threshold at which no Medicare levy is paid? .1 Medicare levy 1 At the time of writing.5% of taxable income. The Medicare levy is a payment made as part of our tax that pays for basic health care services. no private health insurance and a taxable income of $184 000 per annum. 8 James has an annual income of $250 000 and is single with no children. 4 multiple choice 7 12. 2. The cost of private health insurance for James would be $950 per year. b Calculate the amount of Medicare levy that Simon pays annually.

Tax payable is $3600 plus 30c (0. People who earn over $180 000 pay $58 600 plus 45c for every dollar over $180 000. People who earn between $30 001 and $80 000 pay $3600 plus 30c for every dollar over $30 000. Taxable income is broken into ﬁve tax brackets. To calculate the amount of PAYE tax that should be deducted from a person’s income.398 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Calculating tax The amount of PAYE tax payable is based on a table that shows the annual tax payable. Apply the rule $3600 plus 30c for each $1 over $30 000. we need to see what tax bracket they are in and then apply the appropriate rule. $36 600 − $30 000 = $6600 Tax payable = $3600 + 0. as shown in the table below. Calculate the amount over $30 000 by subtracting $30 000 from $36 600.3 × $6600 Tax payable = $5580 . Bracket 5. Bracket 1. Note that we do not round off when ignoring cents. People who earn between $80 001 and $180 000 pay $18 600 plus 40c for every dollar over $80 000. Bracket 3. Bracket 4.3) for each $1 over $30 000. This annual amount is then divided into a weekly or fortnightly amount. People who earn less than $6000 per year pay no tax. WORKED Example 9 Calculate the annual tax payable on a taxable income of $36 600. Calculate. Bracket 2. a person who earns $35 956. THINK 1 2 3 4 5 WRITE $36 600 is in the $30 001 to $80 000 tax bracket. People who earn between $6001 and $30 000 pay 15c for every dollar over $6000. The table is based on whole dollar amounts and so any cents earned are ignored for the purposes of calculating tax. As you earn more money the rate of tax increases. we always round down. For example. Taxable income $1 to $6000 $6001 to $30 000 $30 001 to $80 000 $80 001 to $180 000 Over $180 000 $0 15c for each dollar over $6000 $3600 plus 30c for each $1 over $30 000 $18 600 plus 40c for each $1 over $80 000 $58 600 plus 45c for each $1 over $180 000 Tax payable From the table we can see that there are ﬁve tax brackets.90 has their tax calculated on $35 956.

a Calculate the income tax that Christian must pay. WORKED Example 11 Trevor earns a gross wage of $772. this income tax must be added to the Medicare levy. WORKED Example 10 Christian has a taxable income of $85 000 per year. The yearly amount of tax is then calculated using this amount. b Calculate the Medicare levy as 1. c Add the Medicare levy to the income tax to ﬁnd the total tax payable. then divided into a weekly payment. THINK 1 WRITE $772. Calculate the amount of PAYE tax that is deducted by his employer. When calculating the weekly tax payable. $40 180 is in the $30 001 to $80 000 tax bracket. 2 3 4 Calculate $772.3 × $10180 Annual tax = $6654 Continued over page . Apply the rule to calculate the annual tax payable. it is assumed that the gross amount earned that week is earned for the whole year. c Calculate Christian’s total tax for the year. b Calculate the Medicare levy for Christian if he is in a private health fund.5% of $85 000. Calculate the amount over $30 000. without consideration of tax deductions.70 per week.C h a p t e r 1 2 Ta x a t i o n 399 When calculating the total amount of tax payable. Subtract $80 000 from $85 000 to calculate the amount over $80 000.5% of $85 000 Medicare levy = 0. Apply the rule $18 600 plus 40c for each $1 over $80 000. $40180 − $30000 = $10180 Annual tax = $3600 + 0. THINK a 1 2 3 WRITE a $85 000 − $80 000 = $5000 Income tax = $18 600 + 0.4 × $5000 Income tax = $20 600 b Medicare levy = 1. by subtracting $30 000 from $40 180.70 per week as an annual amount by multiplying by 52 (ignore any cents).70 per week = $40 180 per year.015 × $85 000 Medicare levy = $275 c Total tax = $20 600 + $1275 Total tax = $21 875 $85 000 is in the $80 001 to $180 000 tax bracket. The Medicare levy is taken out as part of PAYE tax.

Calculate the total tax payable for the year. All allowable deductions are then subtracted to calculate taxable income.70 Total yearly tax = $6654 + $602. . by dividing by 52. The correct amount of tax is then calculated.70 Total yearly tax = $7256. For this reason. Based on this calculation. all group certiﬁcates are collected to ﬁnd the total gross income and total PAYE tax already paid.55 Calculate the Medicare levy as 1. In most cases this means that the amount of tax paid by the end of the year will not be correct.015 × $40180 Medicare levy = $602. every taxpayer must complete a tax return.400 THINK 5 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WRITE Medicare levy = 1. Before completing a tax return the taxpayer must collect a group certiﬁcate from each of their employers. the taxpayer will then either receive a refund or pay the difference.5% of $40180 Medicare levy = 0.5% of $40 180.70 ÷ 52 Weekly tax = $139. A group certiﬁcate is a statement of gross earnings and the amount of PAYE tax that has been deducted from those earnings.70 into weekly instalments. In a tax return. Divide $7256. 6 7 PAYE tax taken out by an employer is based on the pay being the employee’s only source of income without tax deductions.70 Weekly tax = $7256.

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WORKED Example 12

Catherine’s gross annual salary as a veterinarian’s assistant is $44 500. She has paid $8617.50 in PAYE tax. Catherine has also earned $560.40 in interest from an investment and has tax deductions totalling $2345. a Calculate Catherine’s taxable income. b Calculate the tax payable on Catherine’s taxable income, including the Medicare levy. c Calculate the amount that Catherine should receive as a tax refund or the amount of Catherine’s tax debt. THINK a

1

WRITE a Taxable income = $44 500 + $560.40 − Taxable income = $2345 Taxable income = $42 715.40 Taxable income = $42 715 b $42 715 − $30 000 = $12 715 Income tax = $3600 + 0.3 × $12 715 Income tax = $7414.50 Medicare levy = 1.5% of $42 715 Medicare levy = 0.015 × $42 715 Medicare levy = $640.73 Total tax = $7414.50 + $640.73 Total tax = $8055.23 c $8617.50 − $8055.23 = $562.27

2

b

1 2

3 4

Calculate taxable income by adding all incomes and subtracting any tax deductions. Ignore cents in stating the taxable income. $42 715 is in the $30 001 to $80 000 tax bracket. Subtract $30 000 from $42 715 to calculate the amount earned over $30 000. Apply the rule $3600 plus 30c for each $1 over $30 000. Calculate the Medicare levy.

5

c

1 2

3

Calculate the total tax payable by adding the income tax to the Medicare levy. Catherine has paid more tax than she needed to. So she gets a refund. Calculate the size of the refund by subtracting the amount she should pay ($8055.23) from the amount that she paid ($8617.50). Give a written answer.

Catherine receives a refund of $562.27.

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remember

1. PAYE tax is the tax calculated based on your weekly or fortnightly earnings ignoring other income sources or tax deductions. 2. At the end of the ﬁnancial year each taxpayer must complete a tax return, which compares the PAYE tax paid with the correct amount of tax. The taxpayer then either receives a refund or must pay the difference. 3. The rate of tax payable increases with income. The income tax scales are based on tax brackets. To calculate tax, use the tax table to determine the appropriate tax bracket and apply the rule for that bracket. 4. To calculate the total tax payable, the income tax component must be added to the Medicare levy. 5. A refund or tax debt is calculated by ﬁnding the difference between the tax that has been paid over the year and the tax that should be paid.

12D

SkillS

Calculating tax

HEET

12.1

WORKED

Example

9 Finding a percentage of a quantity

1 Use the income tax table on page 398 to calculate the income tax payable on an annual taxable income of $35 450. 2 Calculate the income tax payable on each of the following taxable incomes. a $5500 b $18 675 c $31 250 d $44 320 e $92 850 f $208 000 3 Julie receives a gross pay of $627.68 per week. a Calculate Julie’s gross annual pay (remember to ignore cents). b Calculate the annual amount of tax that Julie must pay, based on this amount (remember to ignore cents). 4 Gregory earns a gross pay of $1963.80 per fortnight. Calculate the annual amount of tax that Gregory must pay, based on this amount.

SkillS

HEET

12.4

Unitary method of percentages

WORKED

Example

10

5 Johann has an annual taxable income of $35 600. a Calculate the amount of income tax Johann must pay. b Johann is married with one child. Calculate the Medicare levy for Johann. c Calculate the total amount of tax that Johann must pay for the year. 6 For each of the following taxpayers, calculate the total amount of tax that they must pay (assume each must pay the 1.5% Medicare levy). a Andre, whose taxable income is $23 500 b Brianna, whose taxable income is $72 000 c Catelyn, whose taxable income is $106 000

WORKED

Example

11

7 Sandy earns a gross weekly pay of $478.60. Calculate the amount of PAYE tax deducted each week by her employer. 8 Ashley earns a gross fortnightly pay of $2174.35. Calculate the amount of PAYE tax that Ashley’s employer should deduct each fortnight.

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9 multiple choice Frieda’s taxable income is $50 000 per year. The total amount of tax that she should pay for the year, including the Medicare levy is: A $3600 B $9600 C $10 350 D $20000 10 multiple choice Henry earns a gross pay of $1295.60 per fortnight. The amount of PAYE tax incuding the Medicare levy that will be deducted from Henry’s pay over a full year will be: A $4701.00 B $5210.78 C $10 101.00 D $33 670.00 11 multiple choice Ian receives a gross pay of $822.50 per week. The only deduction that Ian has taken from his gross pay is tax. Ian’s net weekly pay will be: A $142.90 B $155.24 C $667.26 D $679.60

WORKED

Example

12 At right is a group certiﬁcate for Wendell Hancock. GROUP CERTIFICATE Wendell has also earned $372.10 in interest from 12 an investment and has tax deductions totalling $1298. Wendell Hancock Gross income: $39 600.00 a Calculate Wendell’s taxable income. PAYE tax deducted: $7 074.00 b Calculate the tax payable on Wendell’s taxable income, including the Medicare levy. c Calculate the amount that Wendell should receive as a tax refund or what he must pay in tax. 13 Raymond earns a gross weekly pay of $1748.90. a Calculate Raymond’s gross annual pay. b Calculate the amount of PAYE tax including the Medicare levy (but not the surcharge) that would be deducted from Raymond’s pay each week. c During the year Raymond earned $45.15 in bank interest, and had tax deductions totalling $1296. Calculate the amount of tax that Raymond should pay for the year, based on his annual taxable income. d Calculate his refund or tax debt. 14 Vonda Flockhart is employed by day as a journalist and by night as a radio announcer. Her group certiﬁcates are shown at right. a Calculate Vonda’s gross annual pay from both jobs and the total amount of PAYE tax that Vonda has paid. b Vonda earned $184.40 in interest from bank accounts and had $3276 worth of tax deductions for the year. Calculate Vonda’s taxable income. c Calculate the amount of tax that Vonda should have paid throughout the year, including the Medicare levy, but not the surcharge. d Calculate the tax refund that Vonda is owed.

Job 1

GROUP CERTIFICATE

**Vonda Flockhart Journalist Gross income: $35 000.00 PAYE tax deducted: $5 625.00 Job 2
**

GROUP CERTIFICATE

Vonda Flockhart Radio announcer Gross income: PAYE tax deducted:

$9605.00 $4466.33

15 Jelena receives a gross weekly pay of $1350.52. a Calculate the amount of PAYE tax, including the Medicare levy, that Jelena should have deducted from her pay for the year. b If at the end of the ﬁnancial year Jelena earned $11 274.56 from other sources and had tax deductions totalling $3650, calculate Jelena’s tax refund or tax debt.

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Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course

**Computer Application 2 Tax calculation
**

Tax calculator

We are now going to continue our tax calculation spreadsheet. In the previous computer application we used the spreadsheet to calculate a person’s taxable income. We will now use it to calculate income tax and the Medicare levy. 1. From your Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM, open the spreadsheet ‘Tax Calculator’.

et

EXCE

If you saved your information from the taxable income, then the second spreadsheet, ‘Income Tax’, reads the taxable income and does the appropriate calculations for income tax and the Medicare levy. 2. The formula in cell B7 calculates the Medicare levy by taking 1.5% of the taxable income. 3. The income tax is calculated by making a calculation for the appropriate tax bracket only. This ﬁgure is then transferred to the top of the spreadsheet and added with the Medicare levy to calculate the total tax payable.

2

Calculate the Medicare levy for a person with a taxable income of: 1 $40 000 2 $24 000 3 $29 467 4 $25 670 5 $33 508 Use the table on page 398 to calculate the income tax payable (without Medicare levy) on an annual taxable income of: 6 $5000 7 $19 560 8 $32 500 9 $93 675 10 $182 000

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**Calculating GST and VAT
**

When you purchase most items you must pay the GST on that item. GST stands for Goods and Services Tax. The GST is a tax amounting to 10% of the purchase price of that item. There are some items that are exempt from the GST. These include fresh food, some educational costs and some medical costs. The GST is an example of an indirect tax. This is because the individual does not pay the tax directly to the government and there is no record kept of who is paying the tax. The tax is collected at the point of sale. To calculate the amount of GST payable on an item, we simply calculate 10% of the purchase price.

WORKED Example 13

A cricket bat has a pre-GST price of $127.50. Calculate the GST payable on the purchase of the bat. THINK Calculate 10% of $127.50. WRITE GST payable = 10% of $127.50 GST payable = 0.1 × $127.50 GST payable = $12.75

When calculating the amount required to purchase an item, you will need to add the GST to the pre-tax price. The quickest way to do this will be to calculate 110% of the pre-tax price. By using this method we add the 10% GST to 100%, which represents the cost of the item. In this way there is only one calculation to make.

WORKED Example 14

The Besenko family goes to McDonald’s for lunch. The cost of the meal before GST is $19.80. How much will the Besenkos have to pay for the meal, including the GST? THINK

1

WRITE Total cost = 110% of $19.80 Total cost = 1.1 × $19.80 Total cost = $21.78 The cost of the meal will be $21.80.

Calculate 110% of $19.80.

2

Give a written answer, rounding your answer to the nearest 5c.

When we are given the total cost of an item including GST, we need to reverse the above process to calculate the pre-tax price of the item. This means that we need to divide the total cost by 110%, written as a decimal.

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WORKED Example 15

Calculate the pre-tax price of a car that costs $31 350, including GST. THINK

1 2

WRITE Price = $31 350 ÷ 1.1 Price = $28 500

Total cost is 110% of the price. Price is total cost divided by 1.1.

Taxes similar to the GST apply in many countries. These taxes are levied at different percentages in different countries and in many cases are called value added tax (VAT). The methods used to calculate the amount of VAT are the same as for Australia’s GST; however, the rate must be checked for each question.

WORKED Example 16

New Zealand has a VAT levied at a rate of 12.5%. Vanessa goes on holidays to New Zealand and rents a car for ﬁve days at a rate of NZ$56.50 per day (before VAT). Calculate the total cost of renting the car including the VAT. THINK

1

WRITE Cost = $56.50 × 5 Cost = $282.50 Total cost = 112.5% of $282.50 Total cost = $317.81

2

Calculate the cost of the car by multiplying the daily rate by the number of days. Add the VAT by calculating 112.5% of the cost.

Note that in other countries there may be 1c and 2c pieces and so we do not take the answer to the nearest 5c.

remember

1. The GST is a tax of 10% of the purchase price of all items other than a few exemptions. 2. To calculate the amount of GST payable, calculate 10% of the purchase price. 3. To calculate the total cost of an item including the GST, calculate 110% of the pre-tax price. 4. To calculate the price of an item when you are given the total cost including the GST, divide the total cost by 110%. 5. A value added tax (VAT) is a tax similar to the GST that is applied in many countries. The VAT rate varies between countries; however, the same methods of calculation are used as for the GST.

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12E

WORKED

**Calculating GST and VAT
**

12.1 SkillS

HEET

Example

1 Calculate the GST payable on a book that has a pre-tax price of $35.60.

13

2 Calculate the GST payable on each of the following items (prices given are pre-tax): Finding a a a bottle of dishwashing liquid at $2.30 percentage of b a basketball at $68.90 a quantity c a pair of cargo pants at $98.50 d a bus fare at $1.30 12.2 e a restaurant meal for which the bill totals $89.90. 3 Calculate the GST payable on each of the following items (correct to the nearest Increase or cent): decrease by a a a barbecued chicken with a pre-tax price of $7.99 percentage b a tin of shoe polish with a pre-tax price of $4.81 c a tin of dog food with a pre-tax price of 93c 12.4 d a pack of toilet rolls with a pre-tax price of $6.25 e a pack of frozen pies with a pre-tax price of $3.36. Unitary

SkillS

SkillS

HEET HEET

WORKED

Example

14

4 A pair of sports shoes that cost $112.50 has 10% GST added to the cost. Calculate the of percentages total cost of the sports shoes. 5 Calculate the total cost of each of the following items after the 10% GST has been added (prices given are pre-tax): a a football jersey priced at $114.90 b a CD priced at $29.90 c a bunch of ﬂowers priced at $14.70 d a birthday card priced at $4.95 e a jar of coffee priced at $5.88. 6 Jia travels to New Zealand where the VAT is set at 12.5%. Calculate the amount of tax payable on each of the following items: a a camera priced at $240 b a bus fare for $7.50 c a whitewater rafting tour costing $376 d a ski lift ticket costing $23.50 e a new suitcase priced at $78.90.

method

408

WORKED

Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course

Example

15

7 A restaurant bill totals $108.35 including the 10% GST. Calculate the actual price of the meal before the GST was added.

8 A bus fare was $2.09 including the 10% GST. Calculate: a the bus fare without the GST b how much GST was paid.

WORKED

Example

16

9 Austin travels to the USA. In the state of Utah a VAT is levied at 11%. Calculate what Austin will pay for four nights accommodation in a hotel that charges $78.40 per night before VAT. 10 Nancy travels to the USA. In California, the VAT is 7.5% of the price of the item. Calculate what Nancy will pay for each of the following items: a a postcard that has a ticketed price of $1 b Disneyland entry that is $75 c two nights accommodation at a hotel for $89.90 per night d a restaurant meal for which the bill totals $45.78 e a taxi fare that costs $6.46. 11 Sachin decides to purchase a new car. The pre-tax cost for the basic model of the car is $30 500. It is an extra $1200 for an automatic car, an extra $1600 for airconditioning, $1000 for power steering, $600 for a CD player and $450 for alloy wheels. Calculate the cost of each of the following cars, after the 10% GST has been added: a the basic model car b an automatic car with airconditioning c a car with a CD player and alloy wheels d a car with all of the above added extras.

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**Graphing tax functions
**

We can draw linear graphs to display the tax payable. This is possible for both the GST and income tax.

12F

**Graphing tax functions
**

50 40 GST ($) 30 20 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Price ($) Sketching straight lines

1 Draw a set of axes with the price on the horizontal axis and GST on the vertical axis, as shown. a Calculate the GST payable on items that cost: i $100 ii $200 iii $500. b Join these points with a straight line to show the GST function.

12.5 SkillS

HEET

2 Draw a set of axes with ‘Income’ on the horizontal axis and ‘Income tax’ on the vertical axis, as shown below.

80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 200 195 190 185 180 175 170 165 160 155 150 145 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Income ($' 000)

Income tax ($' 000)

a What is the tax payable on gross incomes up to $6000? Show this on the axes. b Calculate the tax payable on a gross income of: i $10 000 ii $30 000. This is the second tax bracket. Mark these points on the axes and join these points with a straight line. c Calculate the tax payable on a gross income of: i $30 000 ii $50 000 iii $80 000. This is the third tax bracket. Mark these points on the axes and join these points with a straight line.

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T SHEE

12.2

d Calculate the tax payable on a gross income of: i $100 000 ii $180 000. This is the fourth tax bracket. Mark these points on the axes and join these points with a straight line. e Calculate the tax payable on a gross income of: i $180 000 ii $190 000 iii $200 000. This is the ﬁfth tax bracket. Mark these points on the axes and join these points with a straight line.

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summary

Allowable deductions

• Allowable tax deductions are amounts that are deducted from gross income, as they are not taxable. • Deductions are allowed for work-related expenses and other items such as charity donations.

Taxable income

• Taxable income is the income on which income tax is assessed. • Taxable income is calculated by subtracting any allowable deductions from gross income.

Medicare levy

• • • • The Medicare levy is part of the tax system that funds basic health care services. For most people the Medicare levy is 1.5% of gross income. People on low incomes either pay no Medicare levy or pay it at a reduced rate. People on high incomes with no private health insurance must pay a Medicare levy surcharge of an extra 1% of taxable income.

PAYE tax

• Pay As You Earn (PAYE) tax is deducted from your gross pay each week or fortnight. • Tax is calculated on the taxpayer’s gross annual income. This is then divided into weekly or fortnightly amounts. • At the end of the ﬁnancial year the taxpayer submits a tax return. • In a tax return the correct amount of tax for the year is calculated. The taxpayer then either receives a tax refund or pays a tax debt.

GST

• The most common indirect tax is the GST, which began in Australia on 1 July 2000. • The GST is a 10% tax paid on the cost of all goods and services with the exception of some basic foods. • Some other countries have a value added tax (VAT), which is similar to the GST but levied at different rates.

Calculate the tax deduction that Catherine can claim if she is entitled to claim at the rate of 47.50 per fortnight and the other $190. Jana earns a gross annual salary of $72 000. 3 Brian runs a small bakery and has equipment in his bakery to the value of $45 000 at the beginning of the 2006–07 ﬁnancial year. Catherine travelled 4523 km on work-related trips during the year. One earns him $938. 2 Catherine is a computer consultant who uses her own vehicle for work. 6 Eddie has a gross annual salary of $46 000 and has tax deductions that total $2117.50 per week for work-related telephone calls.a. 12A 12A 12B 12B 12B 12B . how many years will it take for its value to fall below $500? 5 Verity is employed as a vet. Calculate Raymond’s taxable income for the year.10 in interest throughout the year. given that she had deductions that total $2018. 9 Raymond has two jobs. Tony claims deductions of $1800 to buy tools. For tax purposes he depreciates these items at a rate of 28% p.5c per kilometre.50. He also earned $97. b In travelling between jobs. Raymond had other tax deductions totalling $950. Calculate Tony’s total tax deductions. For this he was entitled to claim a tax deduction at the rate of 45. Each week she must make several visits to businesses that use her computer systems.a.412 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CHAPTER review 12A 12A 12A 1 Tony is employed as a motor mechanic. If Jana has tax deductions totalling $5120. calculate her taxable income.7 c/km. $5 per week for dry-cleaning of these overalls and $2. Jana also earns $3540 per year from her investments. 7 From her job as a journalist. a Calculate Raymond’s gross annual income. Calculate: a Allison’s total earnings for the year b Allison’s taxable income. 4 If a $5000 computer can be depreciated at a rate of 33% p.45 per month in telephone calls (g) $318 per quarter for electricity Calculate Verity’s total tax deductions. $225 for three pairs of work overalls. Allison also earned $107. 8 Allison’s gross weekly wage is $539.. Calculate Eddie’s taxable income. Calculate the tax deduction that Brian can claim for depreciation in: a 2007–08 b 2008–09 c 2009–10.9 c/km) (f) $127.60 per week.40 per quarter in interest from a ﬁxed term deposit. (a) $1500 for appropriate clothing (b) $5 per week for dry-cleaning (c) $2590 for new equipment (d) 28% depreciation on major equipment currently valued at $65 000 (e) 3287 km in travelling expenses (at a rate of 51. Raymond made 104 trips at 23 km per trip. Verity has the following tax deductions.

Calculate the amount of PAYE tax that would be deducted from Fiona’s pay each fortnight.75. c Calculate the Medicare levy payable on this annual amount. a Calculate Brett’s gross annual pay.25 deducted in PAYE tax. a Calculate Neville’s taxable income. During the year Neville has had $8381.5% of taxable income. 21 The total cost of a restaurant meal was $123.50 e a $12. 15 Brett earns a gross weekly wage of $653.30 b a lawnmower at $369. e Holly has a taxable income of $99 000 and is in a private health fund. Calculate the total cost of the game after the 10% GST is added. d Calculate the total annual tax payable. no private health insurance and a taxable income of: a $87 600 b $101 000 c $156 000. e Calculate the weekly PAYE tax that would be deducted from Brett’s wages.C h a p t e r 1 2 Ta x a t i o n 413 12C 12C 10 The Medicare levy is paid at a rate of 1. b Calculate annual tax that would be payable on this annual amount. b Sam has a taxable income of $29 000. 17 Neville has a gross annual salary of $43 750.50 movie ticket. 20 A round of golf costs $20 before tax. 12 Use the table on page 396 to determine the Medicare levy paid by a family with 3 children.20 d a hair style priced at $37.00 c a bus fare costing $1. 14 Use the tax table on page 398 to calculate the tax payable on an income of: a $5000 b $19 357 c $35670 d $89 562 e $278 000. 11 Calculate the amount of Medicare levy that is payable by each of the people below. c Emma has a taxable income of $47 500. c Calculate the tax refund that Neville should receive. Calculate the amount of GST payable on the guitar. He has tax deductions totalling $3495. 16 Fiona has a gross fortnightly salary of $3367. a Tanya has a taxable income of $15 500. 19 Calculate the amount of GST payable on each of the following items (prices given are pretax): a a takeaway meal at $11. 13 Use the tax table on page 398 to calculate the tax payable on a taxable income of $44 500. Calculate the Medicare levy that must be paid by a person whose taxable income is $39 000 per year. including the Medicare levy. including GST. 12C 12D 12D 12D 12D 12D 12E 12E 12E 12E . Calculate the actual cost of the meal without the tax. b Calculate the total tax payable on this amount. 18 An electric guitar has a pre-tax price of $990. d Gavin has a taxable income of $83 507 and is in a private health fund.90.60.

the cost is NZ$80 per night. Slavisa’s taxable income is: A $44 858.5% VAT on the hotel room. calculate Lleyton’s taxable income.50 D $46 491.20 in PAYE tax through the year.50 in interest from his bank accounts and has allowable deductions of $680. b If Lleyton has tax deductions totalling $1194 and has earned $75. c Calculate the Medicare levy for Lleyton.55 B $445.50 D $538. He has earned $136.414 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice Slavisa is a nurse with a gross annual income of $45 675. e If Lleyton’s employer has deducted $5083.50 2 multiple choice Allan’s taxable income is $48 000. b If Vicky ﬂies to New Zealand and books the hotel on arrival. Allan’s tax for the year is (use the PAYE tax table on page 398): A $720 B $3600 C $9000 D $9720 3 multiple choice Bradley receives a bill for $489. a Calculate Lleyton’s gross annual wage. What is the cheapest way to book the accommodation and by how much is it cheaper? CHAPTER test yourself 12 .45 4 Lleyton is employed as a forklift driver and receives a gross weekly wage of $970. c A$1 = NZ$1. 5 Vicky goes to a travel agent to enquire about a holiday in New Zealand. which includes GST. calculate the total cost of four nights in New Zealand dollars. If there is a 12.50 C $46 218. The cost of accommodation in a New Zealand hotel is A$75 per night. The cost of the repairs without the tax was: A $440.50 B $45 131. a If Vicky books this at the travel agent she must pay the 10% GST on the cost of the accommodation.80 from other sources. calculate Lleyton’s tax refund or tax debt.00 C $489. d Use the table on page 398 to calculate the income tax due for Lleyton.12. Calculate the total cost of four nights in Australian dollars.50 for car repairs.

Right-angled triangles 13 syllabus reference Measurement 4 • Right-angled triangles In this chapter 13A Pythagoras’ theorem 13B Calculating trigonometric ratios 13C Finding an unknown side 13D Finding angles 13E Angles of elevation and depression .

9 cm 27 cm x 13.215o c 27o24′34″ d 86o45′12″ .7328 = -----4. correct to 1 decimal place.4 4 Solve each of the following equations. 1 In each of the following.7 a 0.7 Rounding angles to the nearest degree 6 Round each of the following to the nearest degree.5 cm 5. If you have difﬁculty with any of them. x x a 0.182 09 [3] e 10.539 [1] c 0.7368 [2] b 18.797 [2] f 0. a 23. name the opposite side.1 Labelling sides of a right-angled triangle Are you ready? Try the questions below.45 = -20 9 x c 0. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. adjacent side and the hypotenuse.764 281 [4] x Solving equations of the type a = -.3 Rounding to a given number of decimal places 3 Round each of the following numbers to the number of decimal places indicated in brackets.to ﬁnd x x 5 Solve each of the following equations.1425 = -----------x 13.698o b 47.5 b Solving equations of the type a = -. a 4.377 51 [3] d 507.6 = ----b 1.to ﬁnd x b 13. 10 cm a b x 3. a A b c X P READY? Y Q R Z B C 13.areyou 13. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy. 6 2.7 13.5 = -----x x 76.2 Using Pythagoras’ theorem 2 Find the value of x.95 c 0.25 = -b 7.

He stretched a string tightly and found that it produced a certain sound and then found that if he halved the Questions 1. He founded a cult with the idea that ‘the essence of all things is a number’. it produced a sound that was in harmony with the ﬁrst.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 417 History of mathematics P Y T H AG O R A S O F S A M O S ( c i rc a 5 8 0 B C – 5 0 0 B C ) a During his life: • Taoism is founded • Kung-Fu-tse (Confucius) is born • Buddhism is founded. near Greece. What did he start to investigate about patterns in nature? 5. What is a Pythagorean triple? . but we know that he had a wife. but because of the way dates were recorded then. however. Other people knew of this idea long before he announced it. c which has a set of these b sort of values (which are now called Pythagorean a triples). Pythagoras showed that musical notes had a mathematical pattern. When Pythagoras was a young man. He is credited with the discovery now known as ‘Pythagoras’ theorem’. He also found that if it was not exactly half. They found. 99 and 101. This approach is still used in musical instruments today. various dates are given for his life. length of the string. and there is a Babylonian tablet known as ‘Plimpton 322’ (believed to have been made about 1500 years before Pythagoras was born). 15 and 17 and a more difﬁcult example: 20. Not much is known about his personal life. 4 and 5 8. Pythagoras was a famous Greek mathematician and mystic who is now best known for his theorem about the sides of a triangle. son and daughter. that some numbers could not be expressed as rational numbers. the square of the hypotenuse (long side) is equal to the sum of the squares of the two short sides’ and is normally written as c2 = a2 + b2. This group believed that all nature could be expressed in terms of numbers. This states that ‘For a right-angled triangle. such as 2 . or a multiple of a half. Where did he travel to and learn most of his mathematics? 3. It is believed that he was born about 580 BC and died about 500 BC. What is the formula for his famous theorem? 4. Some examples of Pythagorean triples are: 3. Where was Pythagoras born? 2. What is the name of the ancient tablet that contains Pythagorean triples? 6. They kept this information to themselves and there is a story that they killed one member who told somebody else about this problem. He used a string with knots in it to demonstrate and make right angles. then it was a clashing sound. he travelled to Egypt and Babylonia (Mesopotamia) where he learned much of his mathematics and developed an interest in investigating it further. He was born on Samos Island.

we could have named the hypotenuse ‘c’. A side can be named by the two capital letters given to the vertices at each end. Note that the sides of a triangle can be named in either of two ways. Substitute the lengths of the shorter sides. WORKED Example 1 Name the hypotenuse in the triangle at right. Writing this result as a formula we say: c2 = a2 + b2 This is the formula used to ﬁnd the length of the hypotenuse in a right-angled triangle when we are given the lengths of the two shorter sides. c2 = 64 + 225 c2 = 289 2 c = 289 c2 = 17 cm . We can also name a side by using the lower-case letter of the opposite vertex. if we know the lengths of hypotenuse the other two sides. It is opposite the B C right angle. AB is the hypotenuse (the longest side). Evaluate the expression for c2. THINK 1 2 P WRITE Q R The hypotenuse is opposite the right angle. Pythagoras’ theorem In any right-angled triangle the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the two shorter sides. 1. The hypotenuse is QR or p. This is what has been done in the ﬁgure above to name the hypotenuse AB.418 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Pythagoras’ theorem Pythagoras’ theorem allows us to calculate the length of A a side of a right-angled triangle. THINK 1 2 3 4 8 cm c 15 cm WRITE c =a +b c2 = 82 + 152 2 2 2 Write the formula. Find the value of c by taking the square root. The vertices at each end or the lower case of the opposite vertex can be used to name the side. In the ﬁgure above. WORKED Example 2 Find the length of the hypotenuse in the triangle at right. Consider LABC at right. 2.

This is a method used by builders to ensure that a structure is ‘square’. 2 3 Write down an equality or inequality statement. c2 = a2 + b2. Therefore the triangle is not right angled. In most examples this will not be possible. The converse of this theorem states that if c2 = a2 + b2 then the triangle is right angled. WORKED Example 4 Determine whether the triangle at right is right angled. . except we use subtraction instead of addition. we can write the formula to ﬁnd the length of a shorter side of a triangle.2 m Pythagoras’ theorem states that in a right-angled triangle. If c2 = a2 + b2 then and a2 = c2 − b2 b2 = c2 − a2. WORKED Example 3 Find the length of side PQ in triangle PQR. The method of solving this type of question is the same as in the previous example. = 256 − 81 = 175 a = 175 = 13. For this reason. Find the answer by ﬁnding the square root. THINK 1 4 cm 7 cm 5 cm WRITE c2 = 72 = 49 2 2 a + b = 52 + 42 = 25 + 16 = 41 c2 ≠ a2 + b2 Calculate c2 and a2 + b2 separately. correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 419 In this example. it is important to look at each question carefully to determine whether you are ﬁnding the length of the hypotenuse or one of the shorter sides. Substitute the lengths of the known sides. the answer was a whole number because we are able to ﬁnd 289 exactly. we are asked to write the answer correct to a given number of decimal places or signiﬁcant ﬁgures. By rearranging Pythagoras’ theorem. In such cases. Evaluate the expression. Write a conclusion. THINK 1 2 3 4 R 16 m P 2 9m Q WRITE a =c −b a2 = 162 − 92 2 2 a Write the formula.

Read the question carefully to make sure that you give the answer in the correct form. 3.62 m The ladder will be long enough to make the rescue. Substitute the lengths of the known sides. WORKED Example 5 The ﬁre brigade attends a blaze in a tall building. .420 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course These formulas can be used to solve more practical problems. it does not need to show details of the situation described. 30 c fire engine 10 2 3 4 Write the formula after deciding if you are ﬁnding the hypotenuse or a shorter side. c2 = a2 + b2 c2 = 302 + 102 = 900 + 100 = 1000 c = 1000 ≈ 31. Find the answer by taking the square root. Make sure that you can identify the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle. 5 6 remember 1. If you are ﬁnding the length of the hypotenuse use c2 = a2 + b2. Evaluate the expression. 4. Begin written problems with a diagram and ﬁnish with an answer written in words. If you are ﬁnding the length of a shorter side use either a2 = c2 − b2 or b2 = c2 − a2. it is necessary to draw a diagram that will help you to see which method for ﬁnding a solution is required. Give a written answer. The diagram simply needs to represent the triangle. 2. 5. In these cases. It is the side opposite the right angle. which is 30 metres above ground level. Their ladder is 32 metres long and must be at least 10 metres from the foot of the building. Can the ladder be used to reach the people needing rescue? THINK 1 WRITE burning building Draw a diagram and show all given information. They need to rescue a person from the 6th ﬂoor of the building.

75 m . correct to 1 decimal place.9 m 8.9 m 4.5 cm 8 cm m 24. a b c 2. ﬁnd the length of the side marked with a pronumeral.5 cm z 4 cm c 33 mm d 37.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 421 13A WORKED Pythagoras’ theorem 13.2 m 2.25 m p 34 mm a 52.6 km 11. a b c 4.9 m am progr –C 6 cm WORKED GC asio Example 3 4 Find the length of each shorter side in the right-angled triangles below.37 m q t Pythagoras program GC –TI Pythagoras 2 cm 5 In each of the following right-angled triangles.2 SkillS Using Pythagoras’ theorem HEET Example 2 2 Find the length of the hypotenuse in each of the following triangles.1 SkillS B HEET Example 1 1 Name the hypotenuse in each of the following triangles.3 km E L Spre XCE ad Cabri Geo sheet ry met Pythagoras 9 cm a 4. a b 10. a b c x 12 cm 150 mm 5 cm 80 mm m z 60 m 11 m Pythagoras 3 In each of the following. correct to 1 decimal place. a b c X P Y A Labelling sides of a right-angled triangle Z C Q WORKED R 13.01 m 6 cm p 2. correct to 2 decimal places. ﬁnd the length of the hypotenuse.

10 Susie needs to clean the guttering on her roof.422 WORKED Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Example 4 6 Use the converse of Pythagoras’ theorem to determine if the following triangles are right angled.5 m 84 m 87.4 m 35.5 m 32.3 m WORKED Example 5 9 A television antenna is 12 m high. How long should the brace be (correct to 2 decimal places)? 3. The gate is to be strengthened by a diagonal brace as shown at right. correct to 1 decimal place.5 m 20.5 m ladder learns against a brick wall. wires are attached to the ground 5 m from the foot of the antenna. How long will Susie’s ladder need to be (correct to 2 decimal places)? 11 A rectangular gate is 3.3 m wide.2 m back from the edge of the guttering that is 3 m above the ground. 7.4 m .5 m Z X Y 5m 25 m 24.5 m 25.5 m 1. How high up the wall will the ladder reach (correct to 1 decimal place)? 13 Use the measurements in the diagram at right to ﬁnd the height of the ﬂagpole. The foot of the ladder is 1.2 m from the foot of the wall. She places her ladder 1. To support it.5 m long and 1.5 m C 24.3 m 12 A 2. a b c 31 m 10 cm 8 cm 6 cm 41 cm 40 cm 38 m 16 m 9 cm 7 multiple choice The hypotenuse in LXYZ at right is: A XY B XZ C YZ D impossible to tell 8 multiple choice Which of the following triangles is right angled? A B 24.5 m D 24. Find the length of each wire.9 m 2.

such as those in the G diagram. b Use Pythagoras’ theorem to calculate the perimeter of the block of land. ∠BAC is common to each triangle E and is equal to 30°. We are going to look at the C ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side in each triangle. What do you notice about each of these answers? Tangent E L Spre XCE ad sheet . B 30 40 0 A Calculating trigonometric ratios In the previous section we looked at Pythagoras’ theorem. Complete each of the following measurements and calculations.= AH Remember that ∠BAC is common to each triangle. θ. This enabled us to ﬁnd the length of one side of a right-angled triangle given the length of the other two. BC 1 a BC = mm b AB = mm c ------. we need to be able to name the two hypotenuse shorter sides as well.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 423 C 160 120 50 D 14 An isosceles. a Draw a scale diagram of the block of land. Calculate the length of the shorter sides.) 15 A block of land was surveyed and the ﬁeld diagram is shown. part c is the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side of ∠BAC. correct to the nearest metre.= AD FG 3 a FG = mm b AF = mm c ------.= AF HI 4 a HI = mm b AH = mm c -------. (Hint: Call both shorter sides x. and label them opposite and adjacent. In each of the above.= AB DE 2 a DE = mm b AD = mm c -------. In trigonometry. They are the θ sides opposite and adjacent to the given angle. The diagram adjacent shows the sides labelled with respect to the angle. To use Pythagoras’ theorem. You can do this either on your calculator or by completing the spreadsheet A H F D B ‘Tangent’ from the Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM. Looking at the tangent ratio The tangent ratio is a ratio of sides in similar I right-angled triangles. We do this with reference to a given opposite angle. we had to recognise the hypotenuse in a right-angled triangle. right-angled triangle has a hypotenuse of 10 cm.

WORKED Example 6 Using your calculator.981 8 c ---------------. Graphics Calculator tip! Calculating trigonometric ratios involving degrees and minutes Setting calculator to degrees mode To calculate the value of a trigonometric ratio. × b Enter 15. press and enter 75. 8 a tan 60° b 15 tan 75° c ----------------d tan 49°32′ tan 69∞ THINK a Press tan and enter 60. can be found using the result: opposite side tan θ = -----------------------------adjacent side In the investigation on page 423. We can ﬁnd a more accurate value for the tangent ratio on a calculator by pressing tan and entering 30. ﬁnd the following. Seconds) button or a ° ’ ” button. CASI O . a tan 60° = 1. the value is found in exactly the same way as if using a scientiﬁc calculator. For most calculators you can check this by looking for a DEG in the display. if the angle is in degrees only. we found that for a 30° angle the ratio was 0.424 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Trigonometry uses the ratio of side lengths to calculate the lengths of sides and the size of angles. put the calculator into RUN mode and. Click on the icon to see how to check if your calculator is set to degrees mode and how to change it if it is not. press DMS . For all calculations in trigonometry you will need to make sure that your calculator is in DEGREES MODE. When measuring angles: 1 degree = 60 minutes 1 minute = 60 seconds You need to be able to enter angles using both degrees and minutes into your calculator. .071 tan 69° d tan 49°32′ = 1.172 and d Press tan . press enter 32. enter 49. The ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side is called the tangent ratio. If you get a different answer it may be because the calculator is not set to degrees.= 3.732 b 15 tan 75° = 55. Check you can do this by ﬁnding the value of tan 60° as shown above in worked example 6. Most calculators use a DMS (Degrees. θ. press enter 69.58. ÷ tan tan WRITE/DISPLAY . The tangent ratio for any angle. correct to 3 decimal places. This ratio is ﬁxed for any particular angle. DMS . c Enter 8. Minutes. Check with your teacher to see how to do this.

The sine ratio is the ratio of the opposite side and the hypotenuse.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 425 Now consider worked example 6 d. You should again notice that the answers are the same (or very close. enter 32 and press F4 for minutes. then press EXE . then F5 for ANGL. To set the calculator up to accept degrees. The tangent ratio does not allow us to solve problems that involve the hypotenuse. The sine ratio (abbreviated to sin) is the name given to the ratio of the opposite side and the hypotenuse. F6 for more options. The tangent ratio is used to solve problems involving the opposite side and the adjacent side of a right-angled triangle. and so in this exercise. The screen should appear as shown. Now to ﬁnd the trigonometric ratio. 4 a HI = mm b AI = mm sheet E Sine . From the MENU select RUN. 2. we look at the ratio of the side opposite ∠BAC to the hypotenuse of each triangle. press OPTN .= AG HI c ----. BC 1 a BC = mm b AC = mm c ------. allowing for measurement error). part c is the ratio of the opposite side to ∠BAC to the hypotenuse. As we saw earlier.= AI In this exercise.= AE FG 3 a FG = mm b AG = mm c -------.= AC DE 2 a DE = mm b AE = mm c ------. minutes and even seconds. Look back to the right-angled triangles used in the tangent investigation on page 423. L Spre XCE ad Looking at the sine ratio The tangent ratio is the ratio of the opposite side and the adjacent side in a rightangled triangle. Complete each of the following measurements and calculations by using your calculator or the spreadsheet ‘Sine’ from the Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM. enter tan 49 and press F4 for degrees. ∠BAC is common to all of these similar triangles. 3. 1.

et . regardless of the size of the triangle. enter 26. WORKED Example 7 Find.= AI Again for part c.364 18 c ---------------. You may do so by using the spreadsheet ‘Cosine’ from the Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM. this is the cosine ratio of the common angle BAC. press c Enter 18.5 Check this on your calculator. This ratio compares the length of the adjacent side and the hypotenuse. AB 1 a AB = mm b AC = mm c ------. EXCE reads L Sp he Cosine Looking at the cosine ratio Look back to the right-angled triangles used in the tangent investigation on page 423.912 sin 44° d 9. enter 12.6 sin 26°12′. A third trigonometric ratio is the cosine ratio. × ÷ a sin 57° = 0. the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse will remain the same.= AE AF 3 a AF = mm b AG = mm c -------. The formula for the sine ratio is: opposite side sin θ = -----------------------------hypotenuse The value of the sine ratio for any angle is found using the sin function on the calculator.839 sin sin b Enter 9.426 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course In any right-angled triangle with equal angles. enter 44. correct to 3 decimal places: a sin 57° THINK a Press sin b 9 sin 45° 18 c ----------------sin 44∞ d 9. In each case. WRITE/DISPLAY and enter 57. .6. Complete each of the following measurements and calculations.6 sin 26°12′ = 4.= 25.= AG AH 4 a AH = mm b AI = mm c -------. press DMS .= AC AD 2 a AD = mm b AE = mm c -------. sin 30° = 0. you should get the same answer for each triangle. press DMS . enter 45.238 × d Enter 9. press and and . press and sin . b 9 sin 45° = 6.

On your calculator check the calculation: cos 30° = 0.738..3. On most calculators these are the 2nd function of the sin.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 427 The cosine ratio is found using the formula: adjacent side cos θ = -----------------------------hypotenuse To calculate the cosine ratio for a given angle on your calculator. enter b 6 cos 55° = 3.275 cos 74° 4. You need to be able to make calculations using minutes as well. Minutes. θ = 48° So far. press 74. we have dealt only with angles that are whole degrees.740 cos 82°46′ and cos × and cos . and . cos−1 and tan−1. correct to 3 decimal places: a cos 27° THINK a Press cos b 6 cos 55° 21.3 c ----------------. We do this using the inverse functions.3 c ----------------cos 74∞ 4.= 77. THINK 1 2 WORKED Example 9 –1 WRITE/DISPLAY Press 2nd F [sin ] and enter 0.5. . Seconds) function or the ° ’ ” function. press enter 82.= 35. enter 46.866 WORKED Example 8 Find. enter 55. press c Enter 21. given that sin θ = 0.5 d ------------------------.738. Round your answer to the nearest degree. you will use the DMS (Degrees. we are able to calculate the size of that angle using the calculator. d Enter 4. Find θ. × ÷ a cos 27° = 0.441 21. press DMS . cos 82∞46¢ WRITE/DISPLAY and enter 27. DMS .5 d ------------------------.891 cos b Enter 6. press Similarly. use the cos function. cos and tan functions and are denoted sin−1. correct to the nearest degree. . if we are given the sin. cos or tan of an angle. On most calculators.

The angle can be found when given the trigonometric ratio using the sin−1. .647. Display the angle options by pressing OPTN . From the MENU select RUN. The function for getting the answer displayed in degrees. calculate θ to the nearest minute. minutes and seconds is accessed by pressing F5 . The sine ratio is the ratio of the opposite side and the hypotenuse.647. adjacent side cos θ = -----------------------------hypotenuse 4. then press EXE . 1. 2. opposite side sin θ = -----------------------------hypotenuse 3. minutes and Consider worked example 10. 3. cos and tan functions on your calculator. and then F5 for ANGL. As with a scientiﬁc calculator. The tangent ratio is the ratio of the opposite side and the adjacent side. cos−1 and tan−1 functions on your calculator. Convert your answer to degrees and minutes by pressing DMS . F6 for more choices. 5. THINK 1 2 WORKED Example 10 WRITE/DISPLAY Press 2nd F [tan–1] and enter 1. press SHIFT [tan-1] and enter 1. The value of the trigonometric ratios can be found using the sin. 4. opposite side tan θ = -----------------------------adjacent side 2. θ = 58°44′ answer Graphics Calculator tip! Displaying anseconds in degrees.428 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Given that tan θ = 1. The cosine ratio is the ratio of the adjacent side and the hypotenuse.647. remember 1.

correct to 3 decimal places.698 b cos θ = 0. correct to 3 decimal places.277.39 tan 8°59′ 19 49. WORKED Example 8 Find θ. .517.854 c 10 sin θ = 0. correct to 3 decimal places. correct to 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.6 ---------------tan 12° d tan 33°19′ 6 HEET WORKED Example 2 Calculate the value of each of the following.5 ---------------sin 72° 48 d -----------------------sin 67°40′ 7 WORKED Example 3 Calculate the value of each of the following. correct to the nearest minute. a cos 45° b 0. a sin 37° b 9.3 sin 13° c 14.3 SkillS Rounding to a given number of decimal places Cabri Geo ry met Example 1 Calculate the value of each of the following. a sin 30° b cos 15° c tan 45° d 48 tan 85° e 128 cos 60° f 9. 7 Find θ.167. given that: a sin θ = 0.25 cos 9° c 6 ----------------cos 24° d 5.173 c 9 tan θ = 1.6 g ------------------------h ------------------------tan 67°45′ cos 47°25′ 0. 9 Find θ. correct to the nearest degree. given that: a tan θ = 0. correct to 2 decimal places.35 sin 8° 4.931 b cos θ = 0.84 i --------------------sin 75°5′ WORKED Example 6 Find θ. correct to the nearest degree.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 429 13B WORKED Calculating trigonometric ratios 13. given that sin θ = 0. a sin 24°38′ b tan 57°21′ c cos 84°40′ d 9 cos 55°30′ e 4.5 g ----------------h ---------------cos 32° tan 20° 15 i ---------------sin 72° 5 Calculate the value of each of the following.5 0.058.9 sin 35°50′ f 2. correct to the nearest minute. given that cos θ = 0.9 cos 2°3′ Sin–cos–tan ratios 8 4 Calculate the value of each of the following. a tan 57° b 9 tan 63° c 8.

correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 6 Calculate 9. given that cos θ = 0. . 8 Find θ.430 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 1 1 Find the length of the hypotenuse in the triangle at right. 9 Find θ to the nearest degree. given that sin θ = 0. 10 Find θ to the nearest minute. correct to 1 decimal place.2 tan 50°. 5 cm 12 cm 2 Find x. 20 cm 30 cm y 4 Find z. 3.5. given that tan θ = 2. correct to 4 decimal places.4 m z 5 Calculate sin 56°.. 12 cm x 12 cm 3 Find y.7 m 7.299. cos 8°45′ correct to 2 decimal places. correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 132 7 Calculate ---------------------. correct to 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.

THINK 1 h 55° 17 m WRITE Label the sides of the triangle opp. opposite x We know from the formula that: tan θ = ------------------. adj and hyp. .28 cm In the example above. opp tan θ = -------adj h tan 55° = ----17 h = 17 tan 55° = 24. correct to 2 decimal places. we were told to use the tangent ratio. We can set up an equation that will allow us to ﬁnd the value of x.. cos or tan ratio. Consider the triangle at right. In practice. opposite side tan θ = -----------------------------adjacent side We use the tan ratio when we are ﬁnding either the length of the opposite or adjacent side and are given the length of the other. Make h the subject of the equation.577. opp tan θ = -------adj x tan 30° = ----14 x = 14 tan 30° = 8.. tan 30° = ----. Calculate. In this example. hyp 55° 17 cm adj h opp 2 3 4 5 Write the tangent formula. From adjacent 14 our calculator we know that tan 30° = 0. 14 cm In this triangle we are asked to ﬁnd the length of the opposite adj side and have been given the length of the adjacent side.083 cm WORKED Example 11 Use the tangent ratio to ﬁnd the value of h in the triangle at right. Substitute for θ (55°) and the adjacent side (17 m). we need to be able to look at a problem and then decide if the solution is found using the sin. To do this we need to examine the three formulas.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 431 Finding an unknown side We can use the trigonometric ratios to ﬁnd the length of one hyp x opp side of a right-angled triangle if we know the length of another 30° side and an angle.

adjacent side cos θ = -----------------------------hypotenuse The cos ratio is for problems where we are ﬁnding the length of the adjacent side or the hypotenuse and are given the length of the other. after substitution you will be left with an equation to solve to obtain your ﬁnal answer. From the MENU select EQUA. Press F3 for Solver. To make the decision we need to label the sides of the triangle and make a decision based on these labels. The solution steps can be cut out by using the equation solver. . correct to 2 decimal places. THINK 1 24 m 50° WRITE hyp 24 m 50° adj opp x x Label the sides of the triangle. therefore use the sin formula. WORKED Example 12 Find the length of the side marked x.39 m 3 4 5 Graphics Calculator tip! Using the equation solver In each example when ﬁnding the length of a side.432 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course opposite side sin θ = -----------------------------hypotenuse The sin ratio is used when we are ﬁnding the length of the opposite side or the hypotenuse and are given the length of the other. At step 3 of the solution we are left with sin 50° = ----.. x Consider worked example 12. 1. 24 which can be solved as shown below. Substitute for θ and the hypotenuse. Calculate. Make x the subject of the equation. opp sin θ = -------hyp x sin 50° = ----24 x = 24 sin 50° x = 18. 2. 2 x is the opposite side and 24 m is the hypotenuse.

60 m 3 4 5 6 Calculate. the ﬁnal step is done by division. In worked example 13 ----above. opp adj opp sin θ = -------cos θ = -------tan θ = -------hyp hyp adj Care needs to be taken at the substitution stage. Do not worry about a different value of X in the display at this stage as it is a previously stored value. the unknown side was the numerator in the fraction. If after substitution. adj and hyp. In the above examples. Write the formula.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 433 x 3. THINK 1 23°15' z 12.5 12. 23°15' opp 2 Choose the cosine ratio because we are ﬁnding the hypotenuse and have been given the adjacent side. we can use this acronym: SOHCAHTOA We pronounce this acronym as ‘Sock ca toe her’. If you are using the graphics calculator to solve an equation that involves the use of degrees and minutes. WORKED Example 13 Find the length of the side marked z in the triangle at right.5 m adj Label the sides opp. 4. Make z the subject of the equation.5 m WRITE hyp z 12. Press F6 for SOLV to solve this equation. hence we multiplied to ﬁnd the answer.5 z = ------------------------cos 23°15′ = 13. The initials of the acronym represent the three trigonometric formulas. Substitute for θ and the adjacent side. the angle needs to be entered as a fraction. minutes and seconds function. . To remember each of the formulas more easily. adj cos θ = -------hyp 12.5 cos 23°15′ = --------z z cos 23°15′ = 12.by 24 pressing sin 50 SHIFT = X ÷ 24 EXE . Delete any existing equation and enter sin 50° = ----. the unknown side is in the denominator. cos 23o15′ needs to be entered as cos 23 15 as the equation solver does not allow 60 access to the degrees.

The ﬂying fox is supported by a cable that runs from the top of a cliff face to a point 100 m from the base of the cliff. 2. 4 5 6 7 8 Calculate. Substitute carefully and note the change in the calculation. 7. it is necessary to give the answer in words. remember 1. 2 3 Label the sides of the triangle opp. WORKED Example 14 A ﬂying fox is used in an army training camp. In these cases. Make f the subject of the equation. Write the formula.5 m The cable is approximately 103. Worded problems will require you to draw a diagram and give a written answer. Find the length of the cable used to support the ﬂying fox.434 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Trigonometry is used to solve many practical problems. The cable makes a 15° angle with the horizontal. Be sure that you know how to enter degrees and minutes into your calculator. Trigonometry can be used to ﬁnd the length of a side in a right-angled triangle when we are given the length of one side and the size of an angle. check that it is in degrees mode. 5. 4. The trigonometric formulas are: opp adj opp sin θ = -------cos θ = -------tan θ = -------hyp hyp adj 3. it is necessary to draw a diagram to represent the problem and then use trigonometry to solve the problem. Substitute for θ and the adjacent side.5 m long. Before using your calculator. Take care to choose the correct trigonometric ratio for each question. Give a written answer. With written problems that require you to draw the diagram. 6. THINK 1 WRITE f 15° 100 m Draw a diagram and show information. adj cos θ = -------hyp 100 cos 15° = -------f f cos 15° = 100 100 f = ----------------cos 15° = 103. . Choose the cosine ratio because we are ﬁnding the hypotenuse and have been given the adjacent side. depending upon whether the unknown side is in the numerator or denominator. adj and hyp.

13.6 SkillS HEET 4 Use the cosine ratio to ﬁnd the length of the side marked d (correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures). 35 cm d 31° Rearranging formulas Cabri Geo ry met Sine ratio Cabri Geo WORKED Example 12 5 The following questions use the tan. a 21° t b p 87 mm 77° c q 36° 8. a b c Solving mmm α γ equations mmmm of the type mmym x a = -b to find x WORKED Example 11 2 Use the tangent ratio to ﬁnd the length of the side marked x (correct to 1 decimal place).5 km 41° z Tangent ratio Cabri Geo ry met WORKED Example 13 6 Find the length of the side marked with the pronumeral in each of the following Sin–cos–tan (correct to 1 decimal place). with respect to the angle marked 13. a x 13 cm 68° ry met Cosine ratio Cabri Geo b 49° 48 m y c ry met 12.8 m .Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 435 13C θ Finding an unknown side SkillS 1 Label the sides of each of the following triangles. correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. Find the size of the side marked with the pronumeral.2 m 4. sin or cos ratios in their solution.4 with the pronumeral. 13.1 13.5 SkillS Solving equations 71° of the type b 51 mm a = -x to find x 13 m 23° a x H T HEET HEET 3 Use the sine ratio to ﬁnd the length of the side marked a (correct to 2 decimal places).

75 m 13° 16.436 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 7 Find the length of the side marked with the pronumeral in each of the following (correct to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures).2 cos 69° D x = ----------------cos 69° 9 multiple choice Study the triangle at right and state which of the following is correct. B The value of sin θ can never be greater than 1. A tan φ = 8 ----15 x 69° 9.2 φ 8 ----17 B tan φ = 15 ----8 C sin φ = 15 ----17 D cos φ = 17 15 8 10 multiple choice Which of the statements below is not correct? A The value of tan θ can never be greater than 1.2 sin 69° B x = ---------------sin 69° 9.85 km 8.75 km i 84°9' m 2. C The value of cos θ can never be greater than 1.34 m j q 60°32' 84.6 km k t 75°19' 21. 9.3 m 83° x h g 20° 15.4 m l r 26.75 cm 11° g 44.3 m b 0. a b c x 23° 76° a 39° 2. D tan 45° = 1 .2 C x = 9.5 km d m 116 mm 9° e d f f x 64.2 A x = 9.8 cm 29°32' 8 multiple choice Look at the diagram at right and state which of the following is correct.

A and B. a Draw a diagram of this situation. 16 A wooden gate has a diagonal brace built in for support. How far from the foot of the wall is the ladder (correct to 1 decimal place)? WORKED 14 The diagram at right shows the paths of two ships.4 m high and the diagonal makes a 60° angle with the horizontal. b Calculate the length that the diagonal brace needs to be. 22 A w = 22 cos 36° B w = ---------------22 mm sin 36° w C w = 22 cos 54° D w = 22 sin 54° 36° 12 A tree casts a 3. correct to 1 decimal place. how far must ship A sail to give assistance (to the nearest kilometre)? Port 60° 23 km A 15 A rectangle 13. 18 A ship drops anchor vertically with an anchor line 60 m long. correct to the nearest metre.6 m shadow when the sun’s angle of elevation is 59°.5 cm wide has a diagonal that makes a 24° angle with the horizontal. a Draw a diagram of the gate. b Calculate the length of the rectangle. correct to the nearest metre. c Calculate the distance that the ship has drifted. after they have left port. 17 The wire support for a ﬂagpole makes a 70° angle with the ground. Calculate the Example height of the tree. If the support is 3. a Draw a diagram of this situation. T SHEE B Work 13. b Calculate the depth of water. After one hour the anchor line makes a 15° angle with the vertical. If ship B sends a distress signal.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 437 11 multiple choice Study the diagram at right and state which of the statements is correct.3 m from the base of the ﬂagpole. calculate the length of the wire support (correct to 2 decimal places). 14 13 A 10 m ladder just reaches to the top of a wall when it is leaning at 65° to the ground. correct to 1 decimal place. The gate stands 1.1 .

Where necessary. 5 cm θ .2 cm 6 42.438 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 2 Find the length of the side marked with the pronumeral in each of the following. We need to reverse our previous processes.9 mm g 8 119 mm 50° 42° h 9 93.2 m 17° i 10 j 45° 17 m Finding angles In this chapter so far. we have concerned ourselves with ﬁnding side lengths. We want to ﬁnd the size 10 cm of the angle marked θ. give your answer correct to 1 decimal place.1 m f 37° 7 14. 1 a 15 cm 2 10 m b 20 m 8 cm 3 c 30 km 4 21° d 23 m 40 km 5 e 40° 39. We are also able to use trigonometry to ﬁnd the sizes of angles when we have been given side lengths. Consider the triangle at right.

in the triangle at right. . THINK 1 WORKED Example 15 Label the sides of the triangle and choose the tan ratio.3 = -----6.we know that in this triangle hyp sin θ = = 5 ----10 1 -2 = 0. Make θ the subject of the equation. 1.5 = 0.3 opp θ 6.5 We then calculate sin−1 (0.5) to ﬁnd that θ = 30°. As with all trigonometry it is important that you have your calculator set to degrees mode. From the MENU select EQUA.6615 θ = tan−1(0. Find the size of angle θ. Calculate. 4.5 adj 2 Substitute for the opposite and adjacent sides in the triangle and simplify.3 m θ 6. correct to the nearest degree. 2. 3 4 opp tan θ = -------adj 4.6615) = 33° (to the nearest degree) Graphics Calculator tip! Using equation solver to find an angle The equation solver can be used to ﬁnd an angle in the same way that it can be used to ﬁnd the length of a side. Consider worked example 15. Press F3 for Solver.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 439 opp Using the formula sin θ = -------.5 m WRITE hyp 4.

To obtain the solution in degrees and minutes.1 cm θ 7. Press F6 for SOLV to solve this equation. THINK 1 WORKED Example 16 Label the sides of the triangle and choose the sin ratio.1 = 0.5 EXE . 3 4 opp sin θ = -------hyp 4. however.1 cm θ 2 Substitute for the opposite side and adjacent in the triangle and simplify.6 cm WRITE opp 4.6479) = 40°23′ (to the nearest minute) Graphics Calculator tip! Finding a solution in degrees and minutes If using the equation solver. you will need to use your calculator to convert to degrees and minutes. .5 pressing tan X SHIFT [=] 4.6 cm adj hyp 7.440 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 4. Consider worked example 16. Find the size of the angle θ. which gives an answer in degrees as a decimal.6479 θ = sin−1(0.by 6. Calculate and convert your answer to degrees and minutes. use the steps shown here.3 ÷ 6. Solve the equation as shown previously. correct to the nearest minute. In many cases we will need to calculate the size of an angle. the solution can only be displayed in degrees as a decimal. 4. 1.3 3.6 = -----7. The same method for ﬁnding the solution is used. 4. Delete any existing equation and enter tan x = -----. Make θ the subject of the equation. correct to the nearest minute.

we set the question up by drawing a diagram of the situation. and F5 again to convert to degrees. then simplify. To access the angle functions. F5 for ANGL. EXE to recall the value of X from the 4. The same methods can be used to solve problems. As with ﬁnding sides.5 3 4 5 6 θ = tan−1(2.5) = 68°12′ The ladder makes an angle of 68°12′ with the ground. minutes and seconds. Substitute for the opposite and adjacent side. Calculate. WORKED Example 17 A ladder is leant against a wall. 3. press OPTN F6 . The foot of the ladder is 4 m from the base of the wall and the ladder reaches 10 m up the wall. Press MENU and select RUN. opp 10 m hyp θ 4m adj 2 Choose the tangent ratio and write the formula. opp tan θ = -------adj 10 = ----4 = 2. THINK 1 WRITE Draw a diagram and label the sides.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 441 2. . Calculate the angle that the ladder makes with the ground. Give a written answer. Press X equation. Make θ the subject of the equation.

correct to the nearest degree. 3. 2. 5.7 Rounding angles to the nearest degree 1 In each of the following. a 13 m 24 m b 4. correct to the nearest minute. 4.6 m c 27. a 15 cm Cabr b 4.8 Rounding angles to the nearest minute θ 12 m 11 m φ 3m SkillS HEET 13.6 km Sine ratio omet i Ge ry 3 In each of the following. Be sure to know how to get your calculator to display an answer in degrees and minutes. correct to the nearest minute.5 cm .442 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course remember 1.6 m c α 9. 13D SkillS Finding angles HEET 13. use the tangent ratio to ﬁnd the size of the angle marked with the pronumeral. a 7m b c 25 mm γ 162 mm SkillS HEET 13.6 m 2. In worded problems draw a diagram and give an answer written in words.9 Rounding angles to the nearest second 2 In each of the following. When rounding off minutes. use the sine ratio to ﬁnd the size of the angle marked with the pronumeral. check if the number of seconds is greater than 30.5 m Cabr omet i Ge ry θ 5.8 cm Cosine ratio θ 9 cm β 19. press SHIFT and then the appropriate ratio button. Make sure that the calculator is in degrees mode.7 km θ 6. use the cosine ratio to ﬁnd the size of the angle marked with the pronumeral. To ﬁnd an angle given the trigonometric ratio. When solving triangles remember the SOHCAHTOA rule to choose the correct formula.

Find the Cabri Geo size of the angle marked θ. ﬁnd the size of the angle marked θ.5 m θ 6 multiple choice Look at the triangle drawn at right.2 m θ WORKED Example 16 5 In each of the following. Tangent a b c 14 cm θ θ ratio 11 cm 15 cm 9 cm Cabri Geo ry met θ 7 cm 8 cm Sin–cos–tan d 3.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 443 ry met WORKED Example 15 4 In the following triangles. correct to the nearest degree.3 m 12.3 m f θ 18.2 m θ 10 cm 3. a θ 30 m 63 cm b c 0.6 m e 196 mm f θ 32 mm 26. Which of the statements below is correct? A ∠ABC = 30° B ∠ABC = 60° C ∠CAB = 30° D ∠ABC = 45° 7 multiple choice Consider the triangle drawn at right.3 m θ 18..8 m 14.6 m 2. correct to the nearest minute. θ is closest to: A 41°55′ B 41°56′ C 48°4′ 8 multiple choice 3 The exact value of sin θ = -----.3 m 16.5 m D 90° .5 m d e 8. you will need to use all three trigonometric ratios.9 m 9.9 m 6. The angle θ = 2 A 30° B 45° C 60° θ A 5 cm C 10 cm θ B D 48°5′ 9.5 m θ 19.

correct to the nearest degree. Calculate the angle at which the ball deviated from a straight line. the angle within which the footballer must kick to get the ball to go between the posts.5 nautical miles off course as shown in the ﬁgure below. it is found that the ship is 1.444 WORKED Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Example 17 9 A 10 m ladder leans against a 6 m high wall. . correct to the nearest minute. correct to the nearest minute. 40 m kite 11 A ship’s compass shows a course due east of the port from which it sails. 12 The diagram below shows a footballer’s shot at goal. 13 A golfer hits the ball 250 m. calculate. correct to the nearest minute. The kite is ﬂying 10 m away from the vertical as shown in the ﬁgure at right. Find the angle that the ladder makes with the horizontal. After sailing 10 nautical miles. Find the angle the string makes with the horizontal. 10 nm 1.5 nm 10 m Find the error in the compass reading. but 20 m off centre. to the nearest degree. 7m 30 m By dividing the isosceles triangle in half. 10 A kite is ﬂying on a 40 m string.

h. of the building. Similarly.6 m WRITE Label the sides opp. the angle of elevation to the top of the building is measured as 40°. THINK 1 2 h 40° 50 m WRITE Label the sides of the triangle opp. Calculate. correct to the nearest metre. adj and hyp. Make h the subject of the equation. WORKED Example 18 From a point 50 m from the foot of a building. We are able to use the angles of elevation and depression to calculate the heights and distances of objects that would otherwise be difﬁcult to measure. Write the formula. h opp hyp 64° 10 m adj Continued over page . In practical situations. the height at eye level must be added to the calculated answer. hyp 40° 50 m adj h opp 3 4 5 6 7 opp tan θ = -------adj h tan 40° = ----50 h = 50 tan 40° = 42 m The height of the building is approximately 42 m.6 m. calculate the height of the tree. Substitute for θ and the adjacent side. adj and hyp. the angle of elevation is measured using a clinometer. WORKED Example 19 Bryan measures the angle of elevation to the top of a tree as 64°. For this reason.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 445 Angles of elevation and depression The angle of elevation is measured upwards from a horizontal and refers to the angle at which we need to look up to see an object. correct to 1 decimal place. the angle of elevation is measured from a person’s height at eye level. THINK 1 2 64° 10 m 1. Choose the tangent ratio because we are ﬁnding the length of the opposite side and have been given the length of the adjacent side. from a point 10 m from the foot of the tree. Therefore. the angle of depression is the angle at which we need to look down from the horizontal to see an object. If the height of Bryan’s eyes is 1. Choose the tangent ratio because we are ﬁnding the length of the opposite side and have been given the length of the adjacent side. Give a written answer. Calculate the height.

adj and hyp. Give a written answer. Substitute for θ and the adjacent side. Make h the subject of the equation. Make h the subject of the equation. 2 km 10° h THINK 1 WRITE adj 2 km 10° opp h hyp Label the sides of the triangle opp.5 m 20. Calculate the altitude of the aeroplane.5 + 1. 4 5 6 7 8 A similar method for ﬁnding the solution is used for problems that involve an angle of depression. Write the formula. because we are ﬁnding the length of the opposite side given the length of the adjacent side. This is done by drawing a right-angled triangle to represent a situation. Calculate h. 4 5 6 7 Angles of elevation and depression can also be calculated by using known measurements. converting 2 km to metres. WORKED Example 20 When an aeroplane is 2 km from a runway. 2 3 opp tan θ = -------adj h tan 10° = ----------2000 h = 2000 tan 10° = 353 m The altitude of the aeroplane is approximately 353 m. Choose the tan ratio. correct to the nearest metre.6 = 22. Add the eye height.446 THINK 3 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WRITE opp tan θ = -------adj h tan 64° = ----10 h = 10 tan 64° = 20. Give a written answer.1 The height of the tree is approximately 22. the angle of depression to the runway is 10°. Write the formula. .1 m. Substitute for θ and the adjacent side. Calculate.

Worded problems should be given an answer written in words.2 m 5. remember 1.6 m hyp θ 3. .Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 447 WORKED Example 21 A 5. The angle of depression is the angle at which you look down to see an object. 3.2 m Label the sides opp.6 m adj 3 4 5 6 7 Write the formula. Make θ the subject of the equation. Substitute for opposite and adjacent. correct to the nearest degree. Calculate. θ 3. 2. THINK 1 2 WRITE opp 5. Give a written answer. opp tan θ = -------adj 5.6 m shadow.2 tan θ = -----3. Calculate the angle of elevation of the sun.2 m building casts a 3.2 θ = tan−1 -----3. 4. The angle of elevation is the angle at which you look up to see an object. Problems can be solved by using angles of elevation and depression with the aid of a diagram. Choose the tan ratio because we are given the length of the opposite and adjacent sides.6 5.6 = 55° The angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 55°. adj and hyp.

5 m 37° 50 m x 40 m 65° 1. correct to the nearest 10 m. 60° 2300 m 3 From a point out to sea. If the ﬁre truck has a 30 m ladder. the runway is sighted at an angle of depression of 15°. Calculate the length of string the kite is ﬂying on. 70 m above sea level. correct to 1 decimal place. 1. Calculate the distance of the ship from shore. 15° 100 m 2 The angle of elevation from a ship to an aeroplane is 60°.8 m. The altitude of the kite is 40 m and Richard’s eyes are at a height of 1. The closest a ﬁre truck can get to the building is 10 m. Calculate the distance of the aeroplane from the runway. can the ladder be used to make the rescue? 69° 10 m . calculate the height of the building. 7 From an aeroplane ﬂying at an altitude of 4000 m.8 m WORKED Example 20 6 Bettina is standing on top of a cliff. She looks directly out to sea and sights a ship at an angle of depression of 35°. The angle of elevation from this point to where people need to be rescued is 69°. The aeroplane is 2300 m due north of the ship.448 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 13E WORKED Angles of elevation and depression Example 18 1 From a point 100 m from the foot of a building. a ship sights the top of a lighthouse at an angle of elevation of 12°. WORKED 40 m 12° x Example 19 4 From a point 50 m from the foot of a building. correct to 1 decimal place. Calculate the distance of the ship from the lighthouse.5 m. Calculate the altitude of the aeroplane. to the nearest metre. correct to 1 decimal place. 5 Richard is ﬂying a kite and sights the kite at an angle of elevation of 65°. correct to the nearest metre. Rod sights the top of a building at an angle of elevation of 37°. Given that Rod’s eyes are at a height of 1. Calculate the height of the building. It is known that the top of the lighthouse is 40 m above sea level. 35° 70 m 15° 4000 m 8 There is a ﬁre on the ﬁfth ﬂoor of a building. correct to the nearest kilometre. the angle of elevation to the top of the building is 15°.

Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 449 9 From a navy vessel. 5° 60° C A B Use the diagram on the right to complete the following. 4000 m θ 1500 m Calculation of heights To measure the heights of trees and buildings around your school. 3 Measure your distance from the foot of the tree or building. b Calculate the height of the tower. b Calculate the distance that the vessel sailed in the 30 minutes between the two readings. 1 Measure your height at eye level. 12 The angle of elevation to the top of a tower is 12° from a point 400 m from the foot of the tower. to the nearest degree. to the nearest degree. Calculate the angle of depression from the aeroplane to the ship. 2 Take a clinometer and from a point measure the angle of elevation to the top of the tree or building. c Calculate the angle of elevation to the top of the tower from a point 100 m from the foot of the tower. Calculate the angle of elevation of the sun. correct to 1 decimal place. a beacon which is 80 m D above sea level is sighted at an angle of elevation of 5°.2 . as shown at right. try the following. 4 Use trigonometry to calculate the height. 21 12 m θ 15 m 11 An aeroplane that is at an altitude of 1500 m is 4000 m from a ship in a horizontal direction. Work T SHEE 13. a Draw a diagram of this situation. a Calculate the distance that the vessel was from the beacon when the angle of elevation to the beacon was 5° (the distance AC). WORKED Example 10 A 12 m high building casts a shadow 15 m long. remembering to add your height at eye level to the result of the calculation. The vessel sailed towards the beacon and 80 m thirty minutes later the beacon is at an angle of elevation of 60°.

450 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Proportional diagrams In many cases. You were then told that this ship is 1 km from shore. cross-country running courses and orienteering events. In such cases the drawing would need to be only approximately to scale. Suppose that the angle of elevation to the top of a tree is 40° from a point 12 m from the foot of the tree. 15° 50 m Using this diagram. 4 km With a protractor. the height of the tree is approximately 10 m. 1 Measure the length of each leg and the angle involved in each turn. Checking with a proportional diagram Draw diagrams roughly to scale to check the results to the previous investigation. 2 On a scale diagram. Consider the situation where a hiker walks 6 km due north.2 km. we can see that the distance the hiker is from the starting point is approximately 7. we can draw a scale diagram to solve problems involving angles. we need only an approximate measurement for a practical problem. Suppose that you were told that the angle of depression from the top of a 50 m cliff to a ship out to sea was 15°. we would estimate that the ship is only 190 m from shore. 3 By measuring your diagram. we can obtain an approximate measurement for the distance the hiker is from the starting point. Using proportional diagrams Plan a track for a cross-country run or orienteering event around your school. Such a diagram is a useful check to a calculation. turns and walks 4 km due east. h By measurement. Such diagrams are used to develop car rally courses. draw the course. calculate the approximate length of the course. By measurement. By 6 km drawing a diagram using a scale of 1 cm = 1 km. 40° 12 m In many situations a quick check of the accuracy of an answer is useful and can be made by using a scale drawing. . This type of answer can be obtained by drawing a scale diagram.

• Problems are solved using angles of elevation and depression by the same methods as for all right-angled triangles. Proportional diagrams • A scale diagram can be drawn to obtain a reasonable estimate of a distance or angle. Angles of elevation and depression • The angle of elevation is the angle we look up from the horizontal to see an object. Substitute given information. . Calculate. Steps to ﬁnd a side of a right-angled triangle • • • • • Label the sides of the triangle opposite. Steps to ﬁnd an angle in a right-angled triangle • • • • • Label the sides of the triangle opposite.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 451 summary Pythagoras’ theorem • When ﬁnding the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle. Choose the correct ratio. • The angle of depression is the angle we look down from the horizontal to see an object. Make the unknown side the subject of the equation. use the formula: c2 = a2 + b2. Substitute given information. adjacent and hypotenuse. Make the unknown angle the subject of the equation. • To ﬁnd a shorter side of a right-angled triangle use: a2 = c2 − b2 or b2 = c2 − a2. Choose the correct ratio. Calculate by using the inverse trigonometric functions. Trigonometric formulas for right-angled triangles opp • tan θ = -------adj opp • sin θ = -------hyp adj • cos θ = -------hyp • SOHCAHTOA — this acronym will help you remember trigonometric formulas. adjacent and hypotenuse. • A diagram that is drawn roughly to scale can be used to check that an answer is reasonably accurate.

5874 b tan θ = 1. 45 m from the base of the cliff.5 c c sin θ = 0.6 cm 22° e 32° q n f 6.8. to the nearest metre.25 cm r p d e 1. 3 A rope is 80 m long and runs from a cliff top to the ground.199 b tan θ = 0. given that: a cos θ = 0.9 cos 56° 5.25 cm 17.9 sin 67°3′ cos 75° tan 9°55′ 5 Calculate θ.8 m 26 cm 3. 4 Calculate each of the following.69 2. a b c 6 cm 3. you need to travel west along a road for 45 km. correct to 1 decimal place.6 m t 2.8 m 65° t 7.2 m q 7.9 m 9° q 78° x m 22° 12.257. Calculate the height of the cliff. correct to the nearest minute.2 m 9.2 m n 32 cm 4. a sin 46° b tan 76°42′ c 4. correct to 4 decimal places.4 m 13A 13A 13B 13B 13B 13C 2 To travel between the towns of Bolong and Molong.5 e ----------------f ---------------------d 8. Calculate the straight-line distance between the two towns.23 6 Calculate θ. in each case writing your answer correct to 2 decimal places. 7 Find the length of each side marked with a pronumeral. a b c m 9. then north along another road for another 87 km.452 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CHAPTER review 13A 1 Find the length of the side marked with a pronumeral.6 cm d 12. sin θ = 0. correct to the nearest degree. given that: a cos θ = 0.9 km 1.8 cm .3 km f 0.

Calculate the angle that the ﬁshing line makes with the vertical. correct to 1 decimal place. a b c 2.6 m 6. when an observer is 27 m back from the base. If the rope is tied down 3.8 m 2.6 m 13C 13C 13C 13D θ θ 12 Find the size of the angle marked θ in each of the following. 9 A dirt track runs off a road at an angle of 34° to the road. The ﬁre brigade’s ladder must reach a height of 60 m and must be angled at 70° to the horizontal. 14 There is 50 m of line on a ﬁshing reel. what is the shortest distance back to the road (correct to 1 decimal place)? 10 A ﬁre is burning in a building and people need to be rescued.9 m θ θ 4. Calculate the angle the string makes with the horizontal. Calculate the height of the building.9 cm 13.3 m θ 43 cm 116 cm 16 m 19 m 4. 15 The top of a building is sighted at an angle of elevation of 40°. giving your answer correct to the nearest minute.8 cm 13 A kite on an 80 m string reaches a height of 50 m in a strong wind.1 m 13D θ 11.1 m from the foot of the ﬂagpole.8 cm 77°18' j 4. 27 m 13D 13D 13E 40° . ﬁnd the height of the ﬂagpole.5 km along the dirt track. giving your answer correct to the nearest degree. the bait sits on the bed of a lake and has drifted 20 m from the boat. h correct to the nearest metre.5 m j 16°8' k l 63 km 85°12' m 29°51' 8 A rope that is used to support a ﬂagpole makes an angle of 70° with the ground. When all the line is out. a b c 10.32 m k 38.Chapter 13 Right-angled triangles 453 g g h h i z 83°30' 138 mm 2. How long must the ladder be to complete the rescue? 11 Find the size of the angle marked θ in each of the following. If I travel for 4.9 m 26°42' 4.

cos θ = ----Statement 2. correct to the nearest degree.454 13E Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 16 Hakam stands 50 m back from the foot of an 80 m telephone tower. a Calculate the distance. The angle θ = 2 A 30° B 45° C 60° 5 On a bushwalk starting at point A. Hakam’s eyes are at a height of 1. 41 m θ 40 m D neither statement D 90° B 3. b Calculate the direction that Sally must walk.1 km to point C. b Calculate the angle of depression to the launch pad after the balloon has travelled 15 km in one direction (assuming that it maintains its altitude of 2000 m). the angle of depression to 15° its launch pad is 15°. that Sally must walk to return to her starting point. represented by the angle θ. 1. .. At that time. AC. Calculate the angle of elevation that Hakam must look to see the top of the tower.1 km 4. tan θ = ----41 40 Which of the above statements is true? A 1 only B 2 only C both 1 and 2 3 multiple choice Which of the following statements is correct? A cos 30° = tan 60° B cos 30° = sin 60° C cos 30° = sin 30° D cos 60° = sin 60° 4 multiple choice 3 The exact value of cos θ = -----.57 m 80 m θ 50 m Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice Which of the triangles drawn below is not right angled? A B 13 cm 5 cm 12 cm 3 cm 5 cm 4 cm C 7m 19 m D 8 cm 17 cm 15 cm 9m 2 multiple choice Look at the triangle at right. Sally walks 4.57 m. 2000 m a Calculate the horizontal distance that the balloon has travelled in that half-hour (correct to the nearest 100 m).2 km due west to point B then turns due south for a distance of 3. 9m 9 9 Statement 1.2 km A θ C CHAPTER test yourself 13 6 A hot-air balloon takes off and after 30 minutes of ﬂying reaches an altitude of 2000 m.

The language of chance 14 syllabus reference Probability 1 • The language of chance In this chapter 14A Informal description of chance 14B Sample space 14C Tree diagrams 14D Equally likely outcomes 14E Using the fundamental counting principle .

14. e The maximum temperature on a summer’s day in Sydney will be greater than 0oC. b A fair die is rolled and a number less than 5 is obtained.4 Probability scale II 4 List the events A. 14.1 Understanding chance words Are you ready? Try the questions below. ﬁfty-ﬁfty.areyou 14. READY? 1 For each of the following events. If you have difﬁculty with any of them.2 Understanding a deck of cards 2 For a standard deck of 52 playing cards.9 14.2 b 0. likely.5 Listing the sample space 5 List the sample space (possible outcomes) for each of the following. specify whether the chance of the event occurring is certain. a rolling a die b tossing a coin c spinning a circular spinner numbered from 1 to 5 . state the number of: a red cards b jacks c black queens d kings of diamonds e eights f number cards greater than 7. ﬁftyﬁfty. B and C below in order from least likely to occur to most likely to occur. c Two dice are rolled and a total of 1 is obtained. d Your family wins the lottery. unlikely or impossible. likely. a 0. A – tossing a coin and having it land Heads B – winning Lotto C – a baby being born on either Saturday or Sunday 14.3 Probability scale I 3 For each of the probabilities listed below. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET.5 c 0 d 1 e 0. state whether the event would be certain. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy. unlikely or impossible. a A coin is tossed and it lands on Heads.

. fifty-fifty 1 1 2 unlikely The chance of any event occurring will often be somewhere between being certain and impossible. the probability of that event occurring is 1. We use these terms based on our general knowledge of the world. We know that this cannot be done. To win the game you need to roll a number less than 7. the total possible outcomes and how often an event occurs. an event is the outcome of an experiment that we are interested in. Terms such as ‘very likely’. b It is unlikely that you will roll a 6. We can describe an outcome as a possible result to the probability experiment. WRITE a The chance of tossing a head is ﬁfty-ﬁfty. and we use a variety of very unlikely terms to describe where the chance lies in this range as shown in impossible 0 the ﬁgure at right. Now let’s consider an impossible situation. For the purposes of probability. the probability of the event is 0. Imagine that you are playing a board game and it is your turn to roll the die. We would say that probable this is impossible. If you roll one die. ‘almost certain’. but by looking at the amount of snow in Thredbo during July over past years. WORKED Example 1 Describe the chance of each of the following events occurring. d There are more spot cards than picture cards in a deck. We can say that it is very likely that we will be able to ski during July at Thredbo. b There is only one chance in six of rolling a 6. a Tossing a coin and it landing Heads b Rolling a 6 with one die c Winning the lottery d Selecting a spot (numbered) card from a standard deck THINK a There is an equal chance of the coin landing Heads and Tails. ‘unlikely’ and ‘ﬁfty-ﬁfty’ are used in everyday language to describe the chance of an event occurring. When an event is certain to occur. c It is very unlikely that you will win the lottery. c There is only a very small chance of winning the lottery. When an event is impossible. We would describe the chance of this event occurring as certain. To win you almost certain must roll a 7.Chapter 14 The language of chance 457 Informal description of chance You have booked a ski holiday to Thredbo for the middle of July. certain In a board game you have one last throw of the die. we know that there is a very good chance that there will be enough snow to ski again this year. What is the chance that there will be enough snow on the ground for you to ski? There is no exact answer to this question. you must get a number less than 7. d It is probable that you will select a spot card.

We use our knowledge about possible outcomes to order outcomes from the most frequent to the least frequent. WRITE It is more likely that Mrs Graham’s baby will be born on a weekday. This is not always possible. Is it more likely that her baby will be born on a weekday or a weekend? THINK There are 5 chances that the baby will be born on a weekday and 2 chances that it will be born on a weekend. There are 13 diamonds in the deck. WORKED Example 2 Mrs Graham is expecting her baby to be born between July 20 and 26. we have been able to calculate which event is more likely by counting the number of ways an event may occur. There are 26 black cards in the deck. E or Q?’ .458 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course You will need to use these terms to describe events that are more likely to occur than others. The order of events in ascending order of likelihood: Selecting an Ace Selecting a picture card Selecting a diamond Selecting a black card. ‘Stacey sticks a pin into a page of a book and she writes down the letter nearest to the pin. Selecting a picture card Selecting an Ace Selecting a diamond Selecting a black card THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE There are 12 picture cards in the deck. There are 4 aces in the deck. In the above examples. List the following outcomes in order from least likely to most likely. In some cases we need to use general knowledge to describe the chance of an event occurring. Which letter has the greatest chance of being chosen. Which letter has the greater chance of being chosen. ‘The letters of the alphabet are written on cards and one card is selected at random. E or Q?’ Each letter has an equal chance of being chosen because there is one chance that E will be chosen and one chance that Q will be chosen. The term frequency refers to how often an event occurs. Consider the following probability problems. WORKED Example 3 A card is chosen from a standard deck.

4. WRITE It is unlikely that it will rain on Christmas Day this year. we know from our experience with the English language that Q will occur much less often than most other letters. (a) An event that is certain has a probability of 1. In Round 13 they played South Sydney who had won 0 of their ﬁrst 12 games. We can therefore say that E will occur more often than Q. likely and probable. we make predictions about everyday things such as the weather and which football team will win on the weekend. This is an example of using your knowledge of the world to make predictions about which event is more likely to occur. . This is much less than half of all Christmas Days. (b) An event that is impossible has a probability of 0. The chance of an event occurring ranges from being certain to impossible. (Footy note: South Sydney won the game 34–14. such as improbable. 2.) This is one example of past results being used to predict future happenings. THINK It has rained only 12 times on the last 80 Christmas Days. In this way. Describe the chance of it raining on Christmas Day this year. based on their previous results. Who would be more likely to win? THINK Brisbane Broncos have won more games than South Sydney. unlikely. the Brisbane Broncos won 9 of their ﬁrst 12 games. There are many terms that we use to describe the chance of an event occurring. 3.Chapter 14 The language of chance 459 This question is more difﬁcult to answer because each letter does not occur with equal frequency. while other times we need to rely on our general knowledge to make such a description. There are many other such examples. remember 1. WORKED Example 4 During the 2006 NRL season. WORKED Example 5 Weather records show that it has rained on Christmas Day 12 times in the last 80 years. However. Brisbane was more likely to win the game but nothing in football is certain. ﬁfty-ﬁfty. WRITE Brisbane Broncos would be more likely to win. Sometimes we can describe the chance of an event occurring by counting the possible outcomes.

3 Probability scale I HEET 14. SkillS SkillS HEET 14. 3 green and 6 blue marbles 3 Give an example of an event which has a probability that could be described as: a certain b probable c even chance d unlikely e impossible.4 Probability scale II WORKED Example 2 4 Is it more likely that a person’s birthday will occur during a school term or during the school holidays? 5 For each event on the left. using an appropriate probability term. Rolling an even number Rolling a number less than 3 Rolling a 6 Rolling a number greater than 2 7 Write the following events in order from least to most likely.1 WORKED Example 1 Understanding chance words SkillS HEET 14. a Fine weather Christmas Day Wet weather Christmas Day b A coin landing Heads A coin landing Tails c Rolling a total of 3 with two dice Rolling a total of 7 with two dice d Winning a rafﬂe made up of 50 tickets Winning a rafﬂe made up of 200 tickets e Winning a prize in the Lotto draw Not winning a prize in the Lotto draw WORKED Example 3 6 A die is thrown and the number rolled is noted. state whether it is more likely. List the following events in order from least likely to most likely. Winning a rafﬂe with 5 tickets out of 30 Rolling a die and getting a number less than 3 Drawing a green marble from a bag containing 4 red. a Selecting a ball with a double-digit number from a bag with balls numbered 1 to 40 b Selecting a female student from a class with 23 boys and 7 girls c Selecting a green marble from a barrel with 40 blue marbles and 30 red marbles d Choosing an odd number from the numbers 1 to 100 2 For each of the events below. 5 green and 7 blue marbles Selecting a court card (ace. king. describe the chance of it occurring as impossible.460 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 14A SkillS Informal description of chance HEET 14. even chance (ﬁfty-ﬁfty).2 Understanding a deck of cards 1 Describe the chance of each of the following events occurring. unlikely. queen. probable or certain. a Rolling a die and getting a negative number b Rolling a die and getting a positive number c Rolling a die and getting an even number d Selecting a card from a standard deck and getting a red card e Selecting a card from a standard deck and getting a spot (numbered) card f Selecting a card from a standard deck and getting an ace g Reaching into a moneybox and selecting a 30c piece h Selecting a blue marble from a bag containing 3 red. jack) from a standard deck Tossing a coin and having it land Heads . less likely or equally likely to occur than the event on the right.

1500 had a major mechanical problem during the ﬁrst year. If one person is chosen at random. 15 During an election campaign. The probability of selecting a card that has a vowel written on it could best be described as: A unlikely B even chance C probable D almost certain 11 multiple choice Which of the following events is the most likely to occur? A Selecting the ﬁrst number drawn from a barrel containing 20 numbered marbles B Selecting a diamond from a standard deck of cards C Winning the lottery with one ticket out of 150 000 D Drawing the inside lane in the Olympic 100-metre ﬁnal with eight runners 12 multiple choice The ski season opens on the ﬁrst weekend of June. Describe the chance of the light globe burning for more than 1500 hours. 2000 people were asked for their voting preferences.Chapter 14 The language of chance 461 WORKED Example 4 8 Before meeting in the cricket World Cup in 2007. Australia had beaten Bangladesh in 10 of the last 11 matches. Which of the following statements is true? A It is unlikely to snow at the opening of the ski season this year.06 s and 3rd in his semi-ﬁnal Give an explanation for your answer. Wendy 5 purchases a light globe. C It is probable that it will snow at the opening of the ski season this year. After testing 1000 light globes. 14 Of 12 000 new cars sold last year. D It is certain to snow at the opening of the ski season this year.92 s and won his semi-ﬁnal Ben Christie — best time 10. . B There is a ﬁfty-ﬁfty chance that it will snow at the opening of the ski season this year. 10 multiple choice A stack of 26 cards has the letters of the alphabet written on them. Describe the chance of Edwin having a major mechanical problem in the ﬁrst year. Who would be more likely to win on this occasion? 9 Which of the following two runners would be expected to win the ﬁnal of the 100 m at the Olympic Games? Carl Bailey — best time 9. light globes are tested to see how long they will last. Vesna draws a card from that stack. Edwin purchased a new car. At a particular ski resort there has been sufﬁcient snow for skiing on that weekend on 32 of the last 40 years. WORKED Example 13 On a production line. describe the chance that they would vote for the government. One thousand said that they would vote for the government. it is found that 960 will burn for more than 1500 hours.

we need to be able to list all possible outcomes in a situation. This is called listing the sample space. 5.462 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Common descriptions of chance The English language has many colourful expressions to describe the chance of an event occurring. the sample space has two elements: Heads and Tails. WORKED Example 6 List the sample space for rolling a die. we need to know the elements of the sample space and how many elements are in the sample space. We need to develop a method of accurately describing the probability of an event. 3. THINK The sample space is the numbers 1 to 6.’ a What is a blue moon? b How often does a blue moon occur? 2 ‘There is Buckley’s chance of that happening. What is the chance that the coin will land on Heads? Most people would correctly say ﬁfty-ﬁfty. To calculate a probability. Before we can calculate probability. WRITE S = {1. 4. When tossing a coin. Consider the following expressions and research them to answer the questions. 6} . Many sports begin with the toss of a coin. most of us have tossed or will toss a coin. 2.’ a Who was Buckley? b How did this saying originate? Are there any similar expressions that you can think of? What are their origins? Sample space At some time in our lives. 1 ‘That will happen once in a blue moon.

We may be asked to count the number of distinct (different) elements in the sample space. 4. yellow. To win the game.Chapter 14 The language of chance 463 In many cases. green. One marble is drawn from the barrel. WRITE a S = {red. we can distinguish between the number of elements in the sample space and the number of distinct (different) elements. WORKED Example 8 Tegan is playing a board game. yellow. 4. 6} remember 1. there are sometimes several elements that are the same. a List the sample space. red. yellow} b The sample space has 12 elements. green. b Count the number of elements in the sample space. Favourable outcomes are the elements from the sample space that will meet the requirements for an event to occur. In the sample space. red. 2. The sample space is the list of all possible outcomes in a probability experiment. In some probability elements there may be more than one element in the sample space that gives us the desired outcome. WORKED Example 7 In a barrel there are 4 red marbles. THINK a List all possible outcomes for one roll of a die. . green. a List the sample space. S = green. 6} b E = {3. The number of elements in a sample space is the total number of possible outcomes. 4. b List the favourable outcomes. 5. c The sample space has 3 distinct elements. In such cases. 2. c Count the number of different elements in the sample space. Favourable outcomes are the elements from the sample space that meet the requirements for a certain event to occur. 3. several elements of the sample space may be the same. red. b List all elements of the sample space that are greater than 2. WRITE a S = {1. 5 green marbles and 3 yellow marbles. Tegan must roll a number greater than 2 with one die. b How many elements are in the sample space? c How many distinct elements in the sample space? THINK a List each marble in the barrel. 5. green. 3.

a How many elements does the sample space have? b How many different elements are in the sample space if we are interested in: i the suit of the card? ii the colour of the card? iii the face value of the card? WORKED Example 8 6 Jane is playing a game of snakes and ladders. List the sample space. inclusive f Drawing a ball from a bag containing 3 yellow. How many elements are in the sample space? A 3 B 6 C 14 D 20 .5 Listing the sample space Example 6 1 The numbers 1 to 10 are written on cards that are turned face down. 7 A bag holds 60 black marbles and 40 white marbles. a List the sample space. To win a game. Tony is to choose one of these marbles from the bag. Tony wants to select a white marble. 4 red and 4 blue balls WORKED Example 7 4 The letters of the word MISSISSIPPI are written on cards and turned face down.) d Drawing a rafﬂe ticket from tickets numbered 1 to 1500 e Selecting a number between 100 and 1000. b List the favourable outcomes for this roll of the die. state the number of elements in the sample space. a Tossing a coin b Rolling a die c The total when rolling two dice d Choosing a letter of the alphabet e The day of the week on which a baby could be born f The month in which a person’s birthday falls 3 For each of the following probability experiments. A card is then selected at random. 2 For each of the following probability experiments. a How many elements are in the sample space? b How many favourable outcomes are contained in the sample space? 8 multiple choice A bag contains 5 blue discs. 9 red discs and 6 yellow discs.464 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 14B WORKED Sample space SkillS HEET 14. state the sample space. Jenny needs to draw a yellow disc from the bag. It is her turn to roll the die and to win she needs a number greater than 4. b How many elements are in the sample space? c How many distinct elements in the sample space? 5 A card is to be selected from a standard deck. a Choosing a card from a standard deck b Selecting the winner of a 15 horse race c Selecting the ﬁrst ball drawn in a Lotto draw (The balls are numbered 1–44. a List the sample space for this roll of the die. The cards are shufﬂed and one is chosen.

How many elements does the sample space have? b Assume that the ﬁrst coin chosen was a 20c piece. 2 How many times in 100 trials would you expect each element of the sample space to occur? 3 Conduct 100 trials of the experiment and see how closely your results match the expected results. List the sample space for the second coin chosen. How many favourable outcomes are there? A 3 B 6 C 14 D 20 10 multiple choice A rafﬂe has 100 tickets. a List the sample space for the ﬁrst coin selected. 12 A bag contains ﬁve 20c pieces. List the sample space for the second coin chosen. Rolling a die Experiment 3. Chris buys 5 tickets in the rafﬂe. 14 Write down an example of an event that has 10 elements in the sample space but only 4 distinct elements. a List the sample space for the possible outcomes of the match. Selecting a card from a standard pack and noting its suit E E E L Spre XCE ad sheet sheet sheet Coin toss lister L Spre XCE ad Dice L Spre XCE ad Die rolling . Tossing a coin Experiment 2. B There are ﬁve favourable outcomes. a second coin is then selected. b How many elements in the sample space? c Is each element of the sample space equally likely to occur? Explain your answer. Experiment 1. Selecting a card from a standard deck and noting its face value Experiment 4.Chapter 14 The language of chance 465 9 multiple choice To win a game Jenny needs to draw a yellow disc from the bag in question 8. Which of the following statements is correct? A There are two elements in the sample space. four 10c pieces and one 5c piece. A coin is selected at random from the bag. D Both B and C 11 New South Wales are playing Queensland in a State of Origin match. d Assume that the ﬁrst coin chosen was the 5c piece. C There are 100 elements in the sample space. answer the following questions. 1 List the sample space. 13 Write down an example of an event that has 4 elements in the sample space. Matching actual and expected results For each of the four probability experiments below. List the sample space for the second coin chosen. c Assume that the ﬁrst coin chosen was a 10c piece. Without replacing the ﬁrst coin.

If an event is certain. How many elements are in the sample space? 6 For the example in question 5. 10 If Jane needs to select an ace from a standard deck to win the game. 2 A card is drawn from a standard pack. 4 A barrel containing balls numbered 1 to 100 has one ball selected at random from it. A book is chosen at random from the shelf. how many favourable outcomes are there? . Describe the chance that the uppermost face is 4. 9 Copy and complete. How many elements are in the sample space? 5 Five history books. three reference books and ten sporting books are arranged on a shelf. how many distinct elements does the sample space have? 7 For the example in question 5. Describe the chance of selecting a black card. then the probability of it occurring is . 3 A bag contains four $1 coins and seven $2 coins. If an event is impossible. if you want a sporting book.466 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 1 1 A die is rolled. how many favourable outcomes are there? 8 Copy and complete. then the probability of it occurring is . Describe the chance that a coin drawn at random from the bag will be a $2 coin.

T6} Click on the PowerPoint icon on the Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM to see worked example 9 appear step by step. THINK 1 2 WRITE Coin toss Head Die roll 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Draw the branches for the coin toss. S = {H1. T4. Heads-Tails. Tail 3 List the sample space by following the path to the end of each branch. Tree diagrams are used to ﬁnd the elements in the sample space in a multi-stage probability experiment. In many cases. S = T5. one element of the sample space is found by following the branches that lead to that point. At the end of each branch. Tails-Tails} There are four elements in the sample space. . T2. Tails-Heads. List all elements of the sample space. when two coins are tossed. H2. draw the branches for the die roll. Therefore. T1. From each branch for the coin toss. WORKED Example 9 A coin is tossed and a die is rolled. H5. where the ﬁrst event has an inﬂuence on the second event. Heads-Tails and Tails-Heads are distinct elements of the sample space. How many elements are there in the sample space? We draw a tree diagram to develop a system that will list the sample space for us. T3. 1st coin Heads Tails 2nd coin Heads Tails Heads Tails The tree diagram branches out once for every stage of the probability experiment. The card chosen ﬁrst can then not be chosen in the second event. This occurs in situations such as those outlined in the following worked examples. H6. the second branch of the tree diagram will be different from the ﬁrst branch. H4. H3. Consider the case of tossing two coins.Chapter 14 The language of chance 467 Tree diagrams A multi-stage event is where there is more than one part to the probability experiment. the sample space can be written: S = {Heads-Heads.

there Tails would be three levels to the diagram. 78. List the sample space by following the tree to the end of each branch. 82. as shown Heads Heads at right. the tree needs Heads to branch once for every stage of the experiment. THINK 1 WRITE 1st digit 2nd digit 4 7 2 8 2 7 4 8 2 4 7 8 2 4 8 7 2 Draw the ﬁrst branch of the tree diagram to show each possible ﬁrst digit. to see if repetition is possible or not. 84. 72. 27. there are two levels to the Heads Tails tree diagram. 3 S = {24. the numbers cannot be repeated because we are drawing two cards without replacing the ﬁrst card. Each question must be read carefully. When drawing the second branch. 1st coin 2nd coin 3rd coin When drawing a tree diagram. 4. Heads Tails Heads When we roll two dice. 42. 48.468 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WORKED Example 10 The numbers 2. 87} By clicking on the PowerPoint icon on your Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM. In examples such as tossing two coins. it is possible for the same outcome on both coins. 7 and 8 are written on cards and are chosen to form a two-digit number. If we were to toss three coins. List the sample space. 47. In the above example. 28. the digit from which the tree branches can’t be repeated. Tails Tails Tails Heads Tails . 74. Draw the second branch of the tree diagram to show each possible second digit. you can see the tree diagram drawn step by step.

b How many elements are in the sample space? c How many elements of the sample contain 3 boys and a girl? THINK a Draw the tree diagram. b S = {BBBB. GBBG. you can see the tree diagram drawn step by step. A tree diagram is necessary in any example where there is more than one stage to the probability experiment. BBGB. BGGB.Chapter 14 The language of chance 469 WORKED Example 11 Four children go exploring. S = BGBG. Once the tree is drawn. S = GGGG} c There are four elements of the sample space which contain 3 boys and 1 girl. S = GBGB. WRITE a 1st child 2nd child 3rd child Boy Boy Girl Boy Boy Girl Girl Boy Boy Girl Girl Boy Girl Girl 4th child Boy Girl Boy Girl Boy Girl Boy Girl Boy Girl Boy Girl Boy Girl Boy Girl b List the sample space by following the paths to the end of each branch. GGBG. the sample space is found by following the branches to each end. By clicking on the PowerPoint icon on your Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CD-ROM. GBBB. c Count the number of elements that contain 3 boys and 1 girl. GGBB. 3. GGGB. GBGG. remember 1. The tree diagram must branch out once for every stage of the probability experiment. a Draw a tree diagram to list all possible combinations of boys and girls. 2. BGBB. . BBBG. BBGG. BGGG.

Zeng. Use a tree diagram to list the sample space. 2 and 3 are written. Levi and Kiri are on a Landcare group. Aminta. 8 Chris. Pat and Yevgeny. Use a tree diagram to list the sample space for the different ways the two positions can be ﬁlled. 6 Darren. If the same number can be repeated. Kate and Susan are on a committee. the number of elements in the sample space is: A 3 B 6 C 8 D 9 12 multiple choice A two-digit number is formed using the digits 4. Use a tree diagram to list all the different pairs that could be chosen. If the same number cannot be used twice. Stefﬁ and Lindsay. a pairing of Chris and Aminta is the same as a pairing of Aminta and Chris. List the sample space. 2 On three red cards. A male and a female must be chosen for a mixed doubles match. Draw a tree diagram to list the sample space. 6 and 9. Rohin. A red card and a blue card are then chosen to form a two-digit number. The three males are Andre. Use a tree diagram to list all possible combinations of boys and girls. c How many elements have an equal number of Heads and Tails? 10 multiple choice Three coins are tossed into the air. the same numbers are written. Two cards are then chosen to form a twodigit number. On three blue cards. Two of them are to represent the group on a ﬁeld trip. 3 A family consists of 3 children. they must select a chairman and a secretary. 4 and 8 are written on cards. the number of elements in the sample space is: A 3 B 6 C 8 D 9 . The number of elements in the sample space is: A 3 B 6 C 8 D 9 11 multiple choice A two-digit number is formed using the digits 4. 6 and 9. a Draw a tree diagram for this experiment. b Use your tree to list the sample space. Melina. 4 A coin is tossed and then a die is rolled.470 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 14C WORKED Tree diagrams Example 1 Two coins are tossed. the numbers 1. The three females are Monica. From among themselves. three males and three females. a How many elements are in the sample space? b Does it make any difference to the sample space if the die is rolled ﬁrst and then the coin is tossed? 9 WORKED Example 10 5 The digits 1. 7 A tennis team consists of six players. (Hint: In this example. The same person cannot hold both positions.) WORKED Example 11 9 Four coins are tossed into the air. Use a tree diagram to list the sample space. 3.

list the sample space. Copy and complete the table below. how many elements are there? 17 Two dice are rolled. 2 Tails or 1 Head and 1 Tail. of times E E L Spre XCE ad sheet sheet Coin toss lister L Spre XCE ad Die rolling . The three female candidates are Tracey.Chapter 14 The language of chance 471 13 When two coins are tossed there are three elements in the sample space. No. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 No. There are ﬁve candidates.1 Two-stage experiments 1 Toss two coins 100 times. Total No. Copy and complete the table below. b If the same number cannot be repeated. how many elements are in the sample space? b If three cards are chosen and used to form a three-digit number. 5 and 8 are written on cards and placed face down. 15 The numbers 1. how many elements are there? e If students of the opposite sex ﬁll the positions. a If the same number can be used twice. how many elements are in the sample space? c How many four-digit numbers can be formed using these digits? 16 A school captain and vice-captain need to be elected. b Steve is interested in the number of elements for each total. 14 A two-digit number is to be formed using the digits 2. 5. b How many elements are in the sample space? c If boys are ﬁlling both positions. 2 Heads. a If two cards are chosen and used to form a two-digit number. 7 and 8. Is this statement correct? Explain why or why not. 2. a Draw a tree diagram to ﬁnd all possible combinations of captain and vice-captain. a Use a tree diagram to calculate the number of elements in the sample space. how many elements are there? d If girls are ﬁlling both positions. Jenny and Svetlana and the male candidates are Richard and Mushtaq. Result 2 Heads 1 Head. 1 Tail 2 Tails Does this match your expected outcome? 2 Roll two dice 100 times and record the total of the two dice in a copy of the table below. list the sample space. of elements c How many elements of the sample space have a double number? Work Total 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 T SHEE 14. of times Percentage Compare your results with your answer to question 17 in the previous exercise.

However. Each outcome is not equally likely as there are many factors to consider. Some horses have a greater chance of winning than others. each outcome is not equally likely. The sample space therefore has 23 elements. This is because each horse in the race is not of equal ability.472 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Equally likely outcomes Below is the ﬁeld for the 2006 Melbourne Cup. such as the time of year and the current weather patterns. Melbourne Cup Odds Horse Yeats Delta Blues Railings Tawqeet Geordieland Headturner Short Pause Activation Land ‘n’ Stars Mahtoum On a Jeune Pop Rock Odds 11-2 16-1 50-1 5-1 15-1 66-1 200-1 20-1 200-1 200-1 20-1 5-1 Horse Zipping Dizelle Ice Chariot Kerry O’Reilly Zabeat Art Success Demerger Glistening Mandela Dolphin Jo Maybe Better Efﬁcient Odds 9-1 25-1 200-1 50-1 200-1 40-1 100-1 80-1 20-1 80-1 9-1 SCR There were 23 horses in this race after Efﬁcient was scratched. . in this case. It is true in many practical situations that each outcome is not equally likely to occur. The weather on any day could be wet or ﬁne.

WRITE Each outcome is not equally likely as the teams may not be of equal ability and draws are fairly uncommon in rugby league. In general.Chapter 14 The language of chance 473 In each probability example. we can not be sure. A statement may seem logical. Is each outcome equally likely? THINK 1 WRITE 1st coin Heads Tails 2nd coin Heads Tails Heads Tails There is more than one coin being tossed and so a tree diagram must be drawn. Therefore each of the outcomes mentioned is not equally likely to occur. each outcome is not equally likely. 2. . There are two chances of getting one Head and one Tail. 2 Heads. two of which involve 1 Head and 1 Tail. Is each outcome equally likely? Explain your answer. 3. when the selection is made randomly then equally likely outcomes will result. When other factors inﬂuence the selection. but unless further analysis is conducted. 2 Tails and one of each. Parramatta win and a draw. In some cases we need to use tree diagrams to calculate if each outcome is equally likely. remember 1. THINK Each team may not be of equal ability and draws occur less often than one of the teams winning. There is only one chance of getting 2 Heads and one chance of getting 2 Tails. Each outcome is not equally likely. it is important to consider whether or not each outcome is equally likely to occur. Outcomes will be equally likely if a selection is random. WORKED Example 13 When two coins are tossed there are three possible outcomes. 2 There are actually four outcomes. examine the tree diagram to determine if events described are equally likely. Each element of the sample space will not always be equally likely. WORKED Example 12 In a rugby league match between Brisbane and Parramatta there are three possible outcomes: Brisbane win. When there is more than one event involved.

There are 40 elements to the sample space. B A bag contains 4 red counters and 2 blue counters. state whether each element of the sample space is equally likely to occur. Is each outcome equally likely? Explain your answer. lose or draw. c It will either rain or be dry on a summer’s day. b A book is opened on any page and a pin is stuck in the page. D A rose that may bloom to be red. Each letter of the alphabet has an equal chance of being selected. a Twenty-six cards each have one letter of the alphabet written on them. The letter closest to the pin is then noted. Give a reason for your answer. One counter is selected from the bag. b The result of a volleyball game between two teams. 2 There are 80 runners in the Olympic Games marathon. . The sample space for the winner of the race therefore has 80 elements. Each letter of the alphabet has an equal chance of being selected. a A card is chosen from a standard deck.474 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 14D WORKED Equally likely outcomes Example 12 1 A tennis match is to be held between Lindsay and Anna. d A rafﬂe with 100 tickets has one ticket drawn to win ﬁrst prize. Is each outcome equally likely? Explain your answer. Lindsay to win and Anna to win. yellow or white is planted in the garden. Is each outcome equally likely? Explain your answer. 5 For each of the following. The marbles are then placed in a bag and one is chosen from the bag. There are two possible outcomes. One card is then chosen at random. 6 multiple choice In which of the following is each member of the sample space equally likely to occur? A Kylie’s softball team is playing a match that they could win. state whether the statement made is true or false. C The maximum temperature on a January day will be between 20°C and 42°C. 4 For each of the following. 3 The numbers 1 to 40 are written on 40 marbles.

The menu is shown below. How many elements are in the sample space if the same digit cannot be used twice? 10 A student has an exam in Mathematics that she could either pass or fail. how many favourable outcomes are there? 5 Is each element of the sample space equally likely to occur? 6 A pair of twins is born. 8 In a game two dice are rolled and the total of the two dice is the player’s score. 2 How many elements in the sample space? 3 How many distinct elements in the sample space? 4 If Julie needs to draw a red marble from the bag. They could have two boys. Draw a tree diagram to determine the number of elements in the sample space. Is this statement correct? Explain your answer. and 7. For questions 2–5: A bag contains 3 black marbles. Matthew and John are in Year 12. a What is the sample space for the totals of two dice? b Is each element of the sample space equally likely to occur? 9 A restaurant offers a three-course meal. a How many elements in the sample space? b Is each element of the sample space equally likely to occur? Explain your answer. 7 Amy and Katherine are in Year 11. two girls or one of each. 8 A two-digit number is formed using the digits 1. Ken hopes to select the winner of the race. Entree Prawn cocktail Oysters Soup Main course Seafood platter Chicken Supreme Roast beef Vegetarian quiche Dessert Pavlova Ice-cream a A diner selects one plate from each course. 2 1 Describe the chance of selecting an ace from a standard deck of cards. is the sample space the same? Is each element of the sample space equally likely to occur? Explain your answer. In this case. 4 white marbles and a red marble. 6. b Is each element of the sample space equally likely to occur? 10 There are 10 horses in a race. The sample space therefore has three elements that are all equally likely.Chapter 14 The language of chance 475 WORKED Example 13 7 A couple have two children. How many elements does the sample space have if the same digit can be used twice? 9 A two-digit number is formed using the digits 5. Is each element of the sample space equally likely to occur? . c Loretta selects her horse by drawing the names out of a hat. One Year 11 student and one Year 12 student are to represent the school at a conference. Draw a tree diagram and then list the sample space for all possible combinations of boys and girls. 2 and 3. while Luke. List the sample space for all pairs that could be chosen.

That is. To ﬁnd the sample space for all possible outcomes. Calamari Main course Spaghetti Roast chicken Pasta salad Dessert Ice-cream Banana split Strawberries Ice-cream Banana split Strawberries Ice-cream Banana split Strawberries Ice-cream Banana split Strawberries Ice-cream Banana split Strawberries Ice-cream Banana split Strawberries Ice-cream Banana split Strawberries Ice-cream Banana split Strawberries Grilled fish Spaghetti Roast chicken Pasta salad The total number of ways that a succession of choices can be made is found by multiplying the number of ways each single choice could be made. Number of elements = 2 × 4 × 3 Number of elements = 24 There are 24 ways in which the three-course meal can be chosen. Guests choose one plate from each course. Grilled fish The fundamental counting principle is used when each choice is made independently of every other choice. Entree Beef broth Calamari Main course Spaghetti Roast chicken Pasta salad Grilled fish Dessert Ice-cream Banana split Strawberries In how many different ways can the three courses for the meal be chosen? There are two possible choices of entree. when one selection is made it has no bearing on the next selection. the entree that is chosen has no bearing on what main course or dessert is chosen. four choices for main course and three Entree dessert choices. This multiplication principle is called the fundamental counting principle.476 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Using the fundamental counting principle A three-course meal is to be served at a 21st birthday party. we multiply the number of possible choices at each level. as shown in the menu below. If we simply need to know the number of elements in the sample space. . In the case above. By following the path to the end of each branch we can see that there are 24 Beef broth elements in the sample space. we draw a tree diagram.

. there are four classes with 20. There are 8000 different ways in which the wheels of the poker machine can land. 20 for the second wheel and 20 for the third wheel. 18 and 25 students in them respectively. Give a written answer. There are 20 symbols on each wheel. 22. Multiply each of these possibilities together. In how many ways can this group of four people be chosen? THINK 1 WRITE Total possible outcomes = 20 × 22 × 18 × 25 Total possible outcomes = 198 000 2 There are 20 possible choices from the ﬁrst class. one from each class to represent Year 11 on the SRC. 22 from the second. 18 from the third and 25 from the fourth class. The committee of four people can be chosen in 198 000 different ways. Multiply these possibilities together. WORKED Example 15 In Year 11 at Blackhurst High School. A committee of four people is to be chosen. Give a written answer.Chapter 14 The language of chance 477 WORKED Example 14 A poker machine has three wheels. In how many different ways can the wheels of the poker machine ﬁnish. once they have been spun? THINK 1 WRITE Total outcomes = 20 × 20 × 20 Total outcomes = 8000 2 There are 20 possibilities for how the ﬁrst wheel can ﬁnish.

There are 10 possible second and third digits. To use this method. There are 8 possible ﬁrst digits. WORKED Example 16 If number plates consist of 3 letters and 3 digits.478 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Sometimes we need to reconsider examples that have some type of restriction placed on the possible selections. Give a written answer. and the ﬁrst digit cannot be 0 or 1? THINK 1 2 3 4 5 6 WRITE There are 3 possible ﬁrst letters. B or C. This method can be used only when each selection is made independently of the others. remember 1. The fundamental counting technique allows us to calculate the number of different ways that separate events can occur. There are 26 possible second and third letters. we multiply the number of ways that each selection can be made. how many different plates are possible if the ﬁrst letter must be A. Total number plates = 3 × 26 × 26 × 8 × 10 × 10 Total number plates = 1 622 400 There are 1 622 400 possible number plates under this system. 2. . Multiply all these possibilities together.

Of these.Chapter 14 The language of chance 479 14E WORKED Using the fundamental counting principle Example 14 1 A poker machine has four reels. How many possible outcomes are there? 3 A briefcase combination lock has a combination of three dials. If the wheels are spun. In how many different ways can the boy and girl school captain be chosen? 9 A travel agency offers Queensland holiday packages ﬂying with QANTAS and Virgin Blue. travelling in First. with 15 symbols on each wheel. six main courses and three desserts. how many more combinations of meal are possible? A 3 B 68 C 72 D 140 WORKED Example 15 8 There are 86 students in Year 11 at Narratime High School. Business and Economy class to Brisbane. ﬁve dice are rolled. 47 are boys and 39 are girls. One boy and one girl are to be chosen as school captains. How many holiday packages does the traveller have to choose from? . How many of this style of plate are possible? 6 multiple choice Personalised number plates have six symbols that can be any combination of letters or digits. In how many ways can they land? b A red die and blue die are cast. If one extra choice is offered in each of the three courses. the Gold Coast. How many ways can the two dice land? c A coin is tossed and a die is rolled. How many of these are possible? A 1 000 000 B 17 576 000 C 308 915 776 D 2 176 782 336 7 multiple choice A restaurant menu offers a choice of four entrees. 10 and 14 days. The Great Barrier Reef and Cairns for periods of 7. in how many ways can they ﬁnish? 2 Consider each of the following events. In how many different ways can they land? 5 Some number plates have two letters followed by 4 numbers. each with 10 digits. How many possible combinations to the lock are there? 4 In the game of Yatzee. a A 10c coin and a 20c coin are tossed.

He knows that it has four digits. a class of 25 students and a class of 20 students. a How many radio stations could there be under this system? b In NSW all stations begin with a 2. How many numbers can this network have? WORKED Example 15 Madako can’t remember his PIN number for his bank account. In how many ways can ﬁve aces be spun on this machine? 12 Radio stations on the AM band have a call sign of a digit from 2 to 9. 6. How many possible choices can she make without choosing a garlic dish? 18 Bill is trying to remember Tom’s telephone number. How many different pairs of shoes are possible? 14 Home telephone numbers in Australia have eight digits. 5. a How many possible home telephone numbers are there? b If a telephone number can’t begin with either a 0 or 1. How many committees are possible? Work T SHEE 14. how many are possible? c Freecall 1800 numbers begin with 1800 and then six more digits. 15 main courses and 10 desserts. This requires her to pick the winner of race 6 and race 7. does not begin with nine. is an odd number and that all digits are greater 16 than ﬁve. It has eight digits and Bill can remember that it starts with 963 and ﬁnishes with either a 4 or a 6. How many possible PIN numbers could he try? 16 multiple choice Postcodes in Australia begin with either 2. 5 on the second wheel. There are four classes of 28 students. a How many combinations of entree. How many selections of two horses can she make if there are: a eight horses in each race? b 12 horses in each race? c 14 horses in race 6 and 12 in race 7? d 16 horses in race 6 and seven in race 7? e 24 horses in race 6 and 16 horses in race 7? 11 A poker machine has ﬁve wheels and 20 symbols on each wheel. How many of these are possible? d A certain mobile network has numbers beginning with 015 or 018 followed by six digits. How many of these postcodes can there be? A 70 B 1000 C 7000 D 10 000 17 Nadia goes to a restaurant that has a choice of 8 entrees. brown or grey. 4. When she examines the menu she ﬁnds that three entrees and four main courses are seasoned with garlic. 3. a In how many ways can the wheels of the poker machine ﬁnish when spun? b There are 4 aces on the ﬁrst wheel. main course and dessert are possible? b Nadia is allergic to garlic.480 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 10 A punter at the racetrack tries to pick the daily double. 2 on the third wheel.2 . and in six different sizes. How many stations are possible in NSW? 13 At a shoe store a certain pair of shoes can be bought in black. lace up or buckle up. 7 or 8 followed by three more digits. followed by two letters. How many possible telephone numbers are there for Tom? 19 A representative from each of six classes must be chosen to go on a committee. 6 on the fourth wheel and 1 on the ﬁfth.

• Terms used to describe the chance of an event occurring include improbable. • The tree must branch out once for each stage of the probability experiment. as each runner will be of different ability. Tree diagrams • Tree diagrams are used to list the sample space when there is more than one stage to a probability experiment. • The chance of an event occurring can be described by counting the possible outcomes and sometimes by relying on our general knowledge.Chapter 14 The language of chance 481 summary Informal description of chance • The chance of an event occurring can be described as being from certain (a probability of 1) to impossible (a probability of 0). likely and probable. ﬁfty-ﬁfty. • Events will not be equally likely when other factors inﬂuence selection. Sample space • A sample space is a list of all possible outcomes to a probability experiment. The fundamental counting principle • This principle can be used to count the number of elements in a sample space of a multi-stage experiment. in a race each person will not have an equal chance of winning. unlikely. • It includes every possible outcome even if some outcomes are the same. • The total number of possible outcomes is calculated by multiplying the number of ways each stage of the experiment can occur. Equally likely outcomes • Equally likely events occur when the selection method is random. . For example.

b Anne selects a card from a standard deck and needs a number less than 9. a List the sample space. unlikely or impossible. who is more likely to win? Explain your answer. . c The four aces from a deck of cards are selected.482 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course CHAPTER review 14A 14A 1 Graham and Marcia are playing a game. 10 For each of the following. One of these cards is then chosen. Graham takes a ﬁve. 4 The Chen family are going on holidays to Queensland during January. List the sample space. even chance (ﬁftyﬁfty). When they play their ninth match. Are they more likely to experience hot weather or cold weather? 5 List each of the events below in order from most likely to least likely. One card is then selected at random. 2 Describe each of the following events as being either certain. d A bag contains 4 black marbles. a At the start of a cricket match. 7 The letters of the word SAMPLE are written on cards and placed face down. a coin is tossed and Steve calls Heads. Mark has won six of these matches. 8 List the sample space for each of the following probability experiments. Winning a lottery with 1 ticket out of 100 000 tickets sold Rolling a die and getting a number greater than 1 Selecting a blue marble out of a bag containing 14 blue. Florian draws a disc from the bag and must not draw a black disc. To see who starts they each take a card from a standard deck. 8 blue and 4 black discs. a Rolling a die and getting a number less than 6 b Choosing the eleven of diamonds from a standard deck of cards c Tossing a coin and it landing Tails d Rolling two dice and getting a total of 12 e Winning the lottery with one ticket 3 Give an example of an event which is: a certain b impossible. a A coin is tossed. state: i the number of elements in the sample space ii the number of favourable outcomes.) c A bag contains 3 red. (Aces count as 1. 14A 14A 14A 14A 14B 14B 14B 9 To win a game. 15 red and 21 green marbles Selecting a picture card from a standard deck 6 Mark and Lleyton are tennis players who have played eight previous matches. One marble is then selected from the bag. b A number is selected from the numbers 1 to 18. b List the favourable outcomes. probable. Sarah must roll a number greater than 4 on the die. 3 white marbles and 5 green marbles. Describe Marcia’s chance of taking a higher card. The player with the higher card starts.

b There are twelve teams contesting a hockey tournament. In 11B the candidates are Cara. 12 Two dice are rolled. and ﬁve roads that lead from town B to town C. with 10 digits on each wheel. without repetition. Melina and Zelko. how many elements are in the sample space? 16 A greyhound race has eight runners. and the last digit is odd. In 11A the candidates are Tran and Karen. How many different combinations could there be to his chain? 23 The dial to a safe consists of 100 numbers. how many elements are in the event space? 15 A school must elect one representative from each of three classes to sit on a committee. a List the sample space. Draw a tree diagram to ﬁnd the sample space. b If there is to be at least one boy and at least one girl on the committee. Each wheel has 15 symbols on it. 17 For each of the following. a Use a tree diagram to list the sample space. 6. how many favourable outcomes are there? 14 Mary. a How many different combinations to the safe are possible? b How many different combinations are possible if no number can be used twice? 14D 14D 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E . One ticket is drawn to win ﬁrst prize. b If Dan wants to make a number greater than 60. In how many ways can they choose their meal? 22 Jake has a bike chain that has a dial with four wheels. Daisy. Henry and Ian. How many elements are in the sample space? 13 A two-digit number is formed using 5. a How many different combinations are possible? b Jake has forgotten his combination. He can remember that the ﬁrst digit is 5. Neville. One person cannot hold both positions. In 11C the candidates are Bojan. explain if each element of the sample space is equally likely to occur. a How many elements are in the sample space? b Is each element of the sample space equally likely to occur? Explain your answer. a There are 150 000 tickets in a lottery. How many selections are possible if there are 16 horses in the ﬁrst leg and 17 in the second leg? 21 At a restaurant. 7 and 9. c A letter is chosen from the page of a book.Chapter 14 The language of chance 483 14C 14C 14C 14C 14C 11 Two coins are tossed. In how many different ways can I travel from town A to town C? 20 The daily double requires a punter to select the winner of two races. 18 A poker machine has ﬁve wheels. a List the sample space. eight main courses and four desserts. To open the safe. president and vice-president. One team is to win the tournament. you must turn the dial to each of four numbers that form the safe’s combination. Rachel and Simon are candidates for an election. There are two positions. In how many ways can the wheels land? 19 There are four roads that lead from town A to town B. a patron has the choice of ﬁve entrees. Paul. b If Paul is to hold one of the positions.

D The sample space has 6 elements and there are 6 favourable outcomes. a Draw a tree diagram to show all possible relay teams. 20. If there are four classes in Year 11 with 23. B The sample space has 3 elements and there are 6 favourable outcomes. Rhonda must roll a number greater than 3 with a single die. you roll two dice and move the same number of places as the total of the two dice. b How many elements are in the sample space? c If Ned is to be in the relay team. Kylie needs a total of 7 to land on Mayfair. c If the two selected players are to play two players selected from a group of six from another club. C The sample space has 6 elements and there are 3 favourable outcomes. the number of possible combinations of four representatives is: A 87 B 348 C 218 500 D 874 000 6 At a school athletics carnival. to ﬁnd the sample space for all possible teams. a Draw a tree diagram. b List the favourable outcomes if Colin is to be in the team. 3 multiple choice A three-digit number is to be formed using the digits 3. The same number cannot be used more than once. Dennis. The chance of Kylie rolling a 7 could best be described as: A impossible B unlikely C ﬁfty-ﬁfty D probable 2 multiple choice To win a game. To move your piece. in how many ways can the ﬁnal four players be chosen? CHAPTER test yourself 14 . 19 and 25 people in these classes. 7 Gino. Kurt and Colin make up a tennis team. a RED YELLOW BLUE GREEN relay team must be selected. Which of the following statements is correct? A The sample space has 3 elements and there are 3 favourable outcomes. 6. How many three-digit numbers can be formed? A 4 B 12 C 24 D 64 4 multiple choice For which of the following events is each element of the sample space equally likely to occur? A The likelihood of selecting the winning Lotto combination B The likelihood of the weather being wet or ﬁne C The likelihood of passing your next Maths exam D The likelihood of being successful in a job interview 5 multiple choice One person from each Year 11 class is to be elected to the Student Representative Council.484 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice Jason and Kylie are playing a game of Monopoly. Below is the list of students who Richard Andrew Boris Milan qualiﬁed and the house for which Stan Frank Harry they compete. how many favourable outcomes are there? d Describe the chance of Milan being in the relay team. Two of them are to represent the club at a tournament. 7 and 8. There must be one Ned Danny member of the relay team from Voula each house. e Is each element of the sample space equally likely to occur? Explain your answer.

Relative frequency and probability 15 syllabus reference Probability 2 • Relative frequency and probability In this chapter 15A Relative frequency 15B Single event probability 15C Writing probabilities as decimals and percentages 15D Range of probabilities 15E Complementary events .

3 3 Simplify each of the following fractions.5 Probability scale 5 For each of the following events.125 15. ﬁfty-ﬁfty or impossible. a What is the probability of selecting a hard-centred chocolate? b What is the probability of selecting a soft-centred chocolate? c What is the probability of selecting a nut-centred chocolate? d What is the sum of the probabilities calculated in parts a.3 b 0. a 5 ----20 b 28 ----32 c 160 -------200 d 18 ----50 15.65 c 0.04 Simplifying fractions d 0. 4 hard-centred chocolates and 5 nutcentred chocolates. extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. specify whether the chance of the event occurring is certain.2 Converting decimals to percentages 2 Convert each of the following decimals to percentages. e A fair die is rolled and a number less than 4 is obtained. b A coin is tossed and it lands on Tails. there are 6 soft-centred chocolates. 1 Convert the following fractions to decimals. b and c? . Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest Preliminary Course CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy. A chocolate is selected at random. a 0.1 Converting fractions to decimals Are you ready? Try the questions below. a 1 -4 b 3 -5 c 5 -8 d 1 -3 15. d The maximum temperature on a summer’s day in Sydney will be less than 0°C. c The month of July will follow June. Theoretical probability 15. a 1 -5 READY? b 3 -4 c 3 ----10 d 17 ----20 15.areyou 15. a Two dice are rolled and a total of 14 is obtained.6 6 In a box of chocolates. If you have difﬁculty with any of them.4 Converting fractions to percentages 4 Write each of the following fractions as percentages.

The relative frequency is usually expressed as a decimal and is calculated using the formula: number of times an event has occurred Relative frequency = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------number of trials In this formula.8 The relative frequency is used to assess the quality of products. Convert the relative frequency to a percentage. So what is the chance of it snowing on that weekend? We can use past records to estimate that chance. This is done by ﬁnding the relative frequency of defective products. WRITE Relative frequency = number of times an event has occurred -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------number of trials ----Relative frequency = 32 40 2 3 Substitute the number of ﬁne Christmas Days (32) and the number of trials (40). Calculate the relative frequency of ﬁne weather on Christmas Day. WORKED Example 1 The weather has been ﬁne on Christmas Day in Sydney for 32 of the past 40 years.96 Relative frequency = 96% . The trip is costing you a lot of money and you don’t want your money wasted on a weekend without snow. a trial is the number of times the probability experiment has been conducted. THINK 1 Write the formula. THINK 1 Write the formula. we calculate the relative frequency of snow on that weekend.Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 487 Relative frequency You are planning to go skiing on the ﬁrst weekend in July. In this case.9. Give the answer as a percentage. If we know that it has snowed on the ﬁrst weekend of July for 54 of the last 60 years. Calculate the relative frequency as a decimal. we could say that the chance of snow this year is very high. WORKED Example 2 A tyre company tests its tyres and ﬁnds that 144 out of a batch of 150 tyres will withstand 20 000 km of normal wear. we can say the relative frequency of snow on the ﬁrst weekend in July is 54 ÷ 60 = 0. Relative frequency = 0. WRITE Relative frequency = number of times an event has occurred -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------number of trials -------Relative frequency = 144 150 2 3 4 Substitute 144 (the number of times the event occurred) and 150 (number of trials). Find the relative frequency of tyres that will last 20 000 km. Calculate the relative frequency. We do this by dividing the number of times it has snowed by the number of years we have examined. To measure that chance. Relative frequency = 0.

155 Relative frequency = 15. Write the formula. The relative frequency is used to estimate the probability of an event. The relative frequency can also be written as a percentage and is used to solve practical problems. 3. 3 4 5 6 Substitute 31 (number of times the event occurs) and 200 (number of trials). Relative frequency = 0. WORKED Example 3 A batch of 200 light globes was tested.. . The relative frequency. Make a conclusion about the quality of the batch of light globes. Relative frequency = number of times an event has occurred -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------number of trials 31 Relative frequency = -------200 Count the number of light globes that burn for less than 1000 hours.5% More than 15% of the light globes burn for less than 1000 hours and so the batch is unsatisfactory. The relative frequency is calculated using the formula: number of times an event has occurred Relative frequency = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.488 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Relative frequencies can be used to solve many practical problems. is a ﬁgure that represents how often an event has occurred. 2. The batch is considered unsatisfactory if more than 15% of globes burn for less than 1000 hours. number of trials 4. remember 1. usually expressed as a decimal. No. Convert the relative frequency to a percentage. of globes 4 12 15 102 32 35 WRITE 31 light globes burn for less than 1000 hours. The results of the test are in the table below. of hours less than 500 500–750 750–1000 1000–1250 1250–1500 more than 1500 Determine if the batch is unsatisfactory. THINK 1 2 No. Calculate the relative frequency.

Calculate the relative frequency of: a having mechanical problems in the ﬁrst year b not having mechanical problems in the ﬁrst year. Give the answer as a percentage.2 SkillS HEET HEET decimals to percentages WORKED Example 2 5 Of 300 cars coming off an assembly line. it is found that 960 will burn for more than 1500 hours. Which result has the highest relative frequency? A Of 1500 P-plate drivers. D Of 50 trucks inspected. 2 were found to be unroadworthy. Wendy purchases a light globe. C Of 20 000 people at a football match. 48 had to be hospitalised. there has been sufﬁcient snow for skiing for 37 out 15. 7 On a production line. Calculate the relative frequency of Peter topping the class.Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 489 15A WORKED Relative frequency SkillS Example 1 1 At the opening of the ski season. 36 batted left handed.76 9 multiple choice Four surveys were conducted and the following results were obtained. What is the relative frequency that the light globe will: a burn for more than 1500 hours? b burn for less than 1500 hours? 8 multiple choice A study of cricket players found that of 150 players. fractions 15. 6 A survey of 25 000 new car buyers found that 750 had a major mechanical problem in the ﬁrst year of operation. 4 Farmer Jones has planted a wheat crop. Peter has topped the class three Converting times. .24 B 0. For the wheat crop to be successful.1 of the past 50 years. farmer Jones needs 500 mm of rain to fall over the spring months. Find the relative frequency of: a sufﬁcient rainfall b insufﬁcient rainfall. 12 are found to have defective brakes.36 C 0. Calculate the to decimals relative frequency of the coin landing Heads. Converting 2 A biased coin has been tossed 100 times with the result of 79 Heads. After testing 1000 light globes. 950 were attending their ﬁrst match. What is the relative frequency of left-handed batsmen? A 0. Calculate the relative frequency of sufﬁcient snow at the beginning of the ski season. Calculate the relative frequency of a car having defective brakes.64 D 0. Past weather records show that this has occurred on 27 of the past 60 years. 75 had been involved in an accident. 3 Of eight Maths tests done by a class during a year. light globes are tested to see how long they will last. B Of 1200 patients examined by a doctor.

875 said they would vote for the opposition and the remainder were undecided. What is the relative frequency of: a government voters? b opposition voters? c undecided voters? 11 Research over the past 25 years shows that each November there is an average of two wet days on Sunnybank Island. of cars 5 12 37 49 62 35 The assembly line will need to be upgraded if the relative frequency of cars needing mechanical repair in the ﬁrst year is greater than 25%. with a money back guarantee against rain. how many refunds would they expect to give? 12 An average of 200 robberies takes place each year in the town of Amiak. 3 Time taken 0–3 months 3–6 months 6–12 months 1–2 years 2–3 years more than 3 years No. Determine if this will be necessary. . as a percentage. There are 10 000 homes in this town. 2000 people were asked for their voting preferences. One thousand and ﬁfty said that they would vote for the government. the relative frequency of: a a car needing mechanical repair in the ﬁrst 3 months b a car needing mechanical repair in the ﬁrst 2 years c a car not needing mechanical repair in the ﬁrst 3 years. Travelaround Tours offer one-day tours to Sunnybank Island at a cost of $150 each. What would be the minimum premium that the insurance company would need to charge to cover these claims? WORKED Example 13 A car maker recorded the ﬁrst time that its cars came in for mechanical repairs. 14 For the table in question 13 determine. a What is the relative frequency of robberies in Amiak? b Each robbery results in an average insurance claim of $20 000.490 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 10 During an election campaign. a What is the relative frequency of wet November days as a percentage? b If Travelaround Tours take 1200 bookings for tours in November. The results are in the table below.

losses and draws) are shown below. b Calculate the relative frequency of each result over a season. The results are in the table below.97? 16 A soccer team plays 40 matches over a season and the results (wins. No. Researching relative frequencies Choose one of the topics below (or another of your choice) and calculate the relative frequency of the event. of shock absorbers 1 2 46 61 90 The relative frequency of the shock absorber lasting is 0. of kilometres 0–20 000 20 000–40 000 40 000–60 000 60 000–80 000 80 000–100 000 No.97 for a certain guaranteed distance. losses and draws. Most of the information needed can be found from books or the Internet. What is the maximum distance the manufacturer will guarantee so that the relative frequency of the shock absorbers lasting is greater than 0. . Find the relative frequency of them winning over the past three seasons. 4 Check the NRL or AFL competitions and ﬁnd the relative frequencies of win. 1 Examine weather records and ﬁnd out the relative frequency of rain on New Year’s Eve in Sydney. W W W D L L L D W L W D L D W W L L L D W W D L L W W W L D L D D L W W W D D L a Put this information into a table showing the number of wins.Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 491 15 A manufacturer of shock absorbers measures the distance that its shock absorbers can travel before they must be replaced. 2 Choose your favourite sporting team. 3 Find the relative frequency of the stock market rising for three consecutive days. loss and draw for each team.

There are 4 aces (number of favourable outcomes). 4. 5. We also said that: • if an event is impossible the probability was 0 • if an event is certain the probability was 1. WORKED Example 5 Andrea selects a card from a standard deck.492 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Single event probability In chapter 14 we discussed the chances of certain events occurring. P(ace) = P(ace) = 4 ----52 1 ----13 . Write the probability. there is 1 favourable outcome out of a total of 2 possible outcomes. THINK 1 2 WRITE S = {1. To win a game. In doing so. It therefore follows that the probability of any event must lie between 0 and 1 inclusive. Find the probability that she selects an ace. 3. The favourable outcomes are to roll a 3. This method is used to calculate the probability of any 2 single event. Consider the case of tossing a coin. We stated earlier that the chance of any event occurring was somewhere between impossible and certain. he must roll a number greater than 2. To do this. If we are calculating the probability that it will land Heads. 4. There are 6 possible outcomes. List the sample space and state the number of favourable outcomes. Probability is calculated using the formula: number of favourable outcomes P ( event ) = --------------------------------------------------------------------------total number of outcomes The total number of favourable outcomes is the number of different ways the event can occur. 5 or 6. we used informal terms such as probable and unlikely. All probabilities are calculated as fractions but can also be written as decimals or percentages. A probability is a number that describes the chance of an event occurring. WORKED Example 4 Zoran is rolling a die. they do not tell us how likely they are. THINK 1 2 3 WRITE There are 52 cards in the deck (total number of outcomes). we need an accurate way of stating the probability. while the total number of outcomes is the number of elements in the sample space. 6} There are 4 favourable outcomes. While these terms give us an idea of whether something is likely to occur or not. Hence we -can then write P(Heads) = 1 . 2.

5 are written on cards and these cards are then used to form a four-digit number. Calculate the probability that the number formed is: a even b greater than 3000. WORKED Example 7 On a bookshelf there are 4 history books. WORKED Example 8 The digits 1. only the sample space for a small part of the experiment. 3 Write the probability. In these cases. 3. Write the probability. THINK a 1 2 3 4 If the number is even the last digit must be even. meaning that 11 of them are not novels (number of favourable outcomes). 2 green marbles and 4 yellow marbles. 4. Write the probability. Only one of these cards (the 4) is even (number of favourable outcomes). WRITE a P(even) = 1 -4 Continued over page . THINK 1 There are 12 marbles in the barrel (total number of outcomes). Calculate the probability that the marble drawn is red. If I select one at random. One marble is drawn at random from the barrel. we need to add together each of these outcomes to calculate the number of which are favourable. WRITE P(red) = P(red) = 6 ----12 1 -2 Some questions have more than one favourable outcome. There are four cards that could go in the ﬁnal place (total number of outcomes). There are 6 red marbles in the barrel (number of 2 favourable outcomes). 2 dictionaries and 5 sporting books.Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 493 WORKED Example 6 In a barrel there are 6 red marbles. 7 novels. 3 WRITE P(not a novel) = 11 ----18 Some questions do not require us to calculate the entire sample space. 2 Seven of these books are novels. what is the probability that the one chosen is not a novel? THINK 1 There are 18 books on the shelf (total number of outcomes).

state the number of favourable outcomes. The probability of an event is calculated using the formula: number of favourable outcomes P(event) = --------------------------------------------------------------------------total number of outcomes 15B SkillS Single event probability HEET 15.494 THINK b 1 2 3 4 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WRITE b If the number is greater than 3000. Write the probability. The sample space is the list of all possible outcomes in a probability experiment. There are four cards that could go in the ﬁrst place. Three of these cards are a 3 or greater. 3. 2.3 Simplifying fractions WORKED Example 4 1 A coin is tossed at the start of a cricket match. then the ﬁrst digit must be a 3 or greater. Manuel calls Heads. List the sample space and the number of favourable outcomes. P(greater than 3000) = 3 -4 remember 1. a Rolling a die and needing a 6 b Rolling two dice and needing a total greater than 9 c Choosing a letter of the alphabet and it being a vowel d The chance a baby will be born on the weekend e The chance that a person’s birthday will fall in summer . 2 For each of the following probability experiments. The event space is a list of all favourable outcomes to a probability experiment.

The probability that the number on the uppermost face is less than 4 is: A 1 -6 WORKED Example B 1 -3 C 1 -2 D 2 -3 2 2 2 2 .Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 495 3 For each of the following probability experiments. Find the probability that the coin will show Tails. 5 and 9 are written on cards. 3. One card is then chosen at random. 12 multiple choice A die is cast. a Choosing a red card from a standard deck b Selecting the winner of a 15 horse race c Selecting the ﬁrst ball drawn in a Lotto draw (The balls are numbered 1 to 44. Calculate the probability that the uppermost face is: a 6 b 1 c an even number d a prime number e less than 5 f at least 5. 6 A barrel contains marbles with the numbers 1 to 45 written on them. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 09 J1 Q 5 Q Q 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 09 J1 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 09 J1 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 09 J1 K K K A A A A K Q A card is chosen from a standard deck. Find the probability that the card chosen is: a the number 2 b the number 5 c even d odd e divisible by 3 f a prime number. One counter is selected at random from the bag.) d Winning a rafﬂe with 5 tickets out of 1500 e Selecting a yellow ball from a bag containing 3 yellow. Find the probability that the counter chosen is: a yellow b red c orange. 5 A regular die is cast. WORKED Example 10 In a bag of fruit there are 4 apples. 4 are red and 1 is yellow. They are then used to form a four-digit number. WORKED Example 6 8 A bag contains 12 counters: 7 are orange. Larry chooses a piece of fruit from the bag at random but he does not like pears. 3. One marble is drawn at random from the bag. Find the probability that the marble drawn is: a 23 b 7 c an even number d an odd number e a multiple of 5 f a multiple of 3 g a number less than 20 h a number greater than 35 i a square number. 5 and 9 are written on cards. 6 oranges and 2 pears. You should know the cards making up a standard deck. 4 red and 4 blue balls WORKED Example 4 A coin is tossed. 9 The digits 2. Find the probability that the card chosen is: a the ace of diamonds b a king c a club d red e a picture card f a court card. 7 Many probability questions are asked about decks of cards. 11 The digits 2. Find the probability that Larry 7 does not select a pear. Find the probability that the number formed is: 8 a even b odd c divisible by 5 d less than 3000 e greater than 5000. state the number of favourable outcomes and the total number of outcomes.

4 and 7. What is the probability that the number formed: a begins with the digit 3? b is even? c is odd? d is divisible by 5? e is greater than 30 000? f is less than 20 000? 19 Write down an example of an event which has a probability of: ---a 1 b 1 c 2. Janice buys one ticket. If Craig won ﬁrst prize.496 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 13 multiple choice When a die is cast. a Explain why it is more likely that an even number will be formed than an odd number. a What is the probability of Janice winning a cash prize? b If there are 6768 consolation prizes of a free ticket for being one number off a cash prize. b After the ﬁrst prize has been drawn. what is the probability that Janice wins a consolation prize? c What is the probability that Janice wins either a cash prize or a consolation prize? 18 A number is formed using all ﬁve of the digits 1. 14 multiple choice A card is chosen from a standard deck. C The number on the uppermost face is at least a 3. 2 4 5 20 A three-digit number is formed using the digits 2. There are 3384 cash prizes in the lottery. what is the probability that he now also wins second prize? 17 A lottery has 160 000 tickets. The holder of that ticket wins ﬁrst prize. a second prize is drawn. 5. D The number on the uppermost face is a prime number. 3. which of the following outcomes does not have a probability equal -to 1 ? 2 A The number on the uppermost face is greater than 3. 7 and 8. which of the following events is most likely to occur? A choosing a seven B choosing a club C choosing a picture card D choosing a black card 16 One thousand tickets are sold in a rafﬂe. B The number on the uppermost face is even. The probability that the card chosen is a court card is: A 1 ----52 B 1 ----13 C 3 ----13 D 4 ----13 15 multiple choice When a card is chosen from a standard deck. Find the probability of Craig winning ﬁrst prize. b Which is more likely to be formed: a number less than 400 or a number greater than 400? . a One ticket is drawn at random. Craig buys ﬁve tickets.

how many 2 Heads would you expect in: i 4 tosses? ii 10 tosses? iii 50 tosses? iv 100 tosses? b Now toss a coin 100 times and record the number of Heads after: i 4 tosses ii 10 tosses iii 50 tosses iv 100 tosses. Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Occurrences Percentage of throws L Spre XCE ad L Spre XCE ad sheet sheet Rolling a die How close are the results to the results that were expected? 3 Rolling two dice Roll two dice and record the total on the faces of the two dice. what is the probability of rolling a 1? The probability for each number on the die is the same. we compare the probability of certain events to practical results. Number 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Occurrences Percentage of throws L Spre XCE ad sheet Rolling two dice Do you notice anything different about the results of this activity. Therefore.Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 497 Tossing a coin E E E Comparing probabilities with actual results In this activity. You may be able to do a simulation of these activities on a spreadsheet. How close to 50% is the total number of Heads thrown by the class? 2 Rolling a die When you roll a die. 1 Tossing a coin -a If we toss a coin P(Heads) = 1 . Roll a die 120 times and record each result in the table below. compared to the others? . if you toss a coin. Combine your results with the rest of the class. Repeat this 100 times and complete the table below.

7. 3 reference books and 10 sporting books are arranged at random on a shelf. the relative frequency that the paintwork is faulty. Find the probability that the ball selected is a multiple of 3. as a percentage. there have been 12 sixes.498 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 1 1 A die is rolled.. The relative frequency of this coin landing Heads is 0. true or false? 10 8 In 60 rolls of a die. What is the relative frequency of rolling a six? 9 During a football season a team has won 15 matches and lost 5. true or false? 7 A coin is tossed 10 times with a result of 7 Heads and 3 Tails. What is the probability of a sporting book being on the left-hand end of the bookshelf? 6 A coin is tossed 10 times with a result of 7 Heads and 3 Tails. If I purchase one of these cars. 4 A barrel. containing balls numbered 1 to 100. . has one ball selected at random from it. Find the probability that a coin drawn at random from the bag will be a $2 coin. 3 A bag contains four $1 coins and seven $2 coins. ﬁnd. Find the probability of selecting a jack. 10 A car assembly line ﬁnds that ﬁve in every 1000 cars have faulty paintwork. Find the probability that the uppermost face is 4. 5 Five history books. The probability of this 7 coin landing Tails is ----. Calculate the relative frequency of the team winning. 2 A card is drawn from a standard pack.

WORKED Example 10 In a bag there are 20 counters: 7 are green. To write a probability as a decimal. we calculate the probability as a fraction. 2. Therefore. we take the fractional answer and multiply by 100% to convert to a percentage. THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE There are 20 counters in the bag (elements of the sample space). There are 9 yellow counters in the bag (elements of the event space). then divide the numerator by the denominator to convert to a decimal. When writing a probability as a decimal. then multiply by 100% to convert to a percentage.Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 499 Writing probabilities as decimals and percentages In our exercises so far. ﬁnd the probability (as a percentage) that the counter is yellow. what is the probability of selecting a heart. When writing a probability as a percentage. we have been writing probabilities as fractions. in day-to-day language.× 100% 20 P(yellow counter) = 45% remember 1. we calculate the probability as a fraction. If I select one at random. This is the way that most mathematicians like to express chance. we use the same formula and divide the numerator by the denominator to convert to a decimal. we need to be able to write probabilities as both decimals and percentages. 4 are blue and the rest are yellow. 9 P(yellow counter) = ----. However. Write the probability.25 The chance of an event occurring is commonly expressed as a percentage. Write the probability. WORKED Example 9 If I select a card from a standard deck. ----P(heart) = 13 52 P(heart) = 0. expressed as a decimal? THINK 1 2 3 4 WRITE There are a total of 52 cards in the deck (elements of the sample space). To write a probability as a percentage. decimals and percentages are also used. . Convert to a decimal. 3. This is the percentage chance of an event occurring. There are 13 hearts in the deck (elements of the event space). Convert to a percentage. Sometimes it is necessary to write a probability as a decimal or a percentage.

What is the probability of rolling an even number. There are 10 blue marbles.500 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 15C SkillS Writing probabilities as decimals and percentages HEET 15. write down the following probabilities as percentages. 3 Write down the probability that a tossed coin will land Tails: a as a decimal b as a percentage. 15 red marbles and 15 white marbles. what would be the probabilities of the following.1 WORKED Example 9 Converting fractions WORKED Example to 10 decimals 1 A die is rolled. a Getting a 3 b Getting an even number c Getting a number less than 6 6 From a standard deck of cards.4 Converting fractions to percentages . the probability of selecting a red marble. Give your answers correct to 1 decimal place. A marble is selected at random from the barrel. 4 A student is rolling a die. a Selecting a jack of clubs b Selecting a diamond c Selecting any 2 d Selecting a black card e Selecting a court card SkillS HEET 15. written as percentages? Give your answers correct to 1 decimal place. queen or jack — the jack is also called a knave) 7 When selecting a card from a standard deck. one card is selected at random. a Getting a 1 b Getting an odd number c Getting a number greater than 4 5 For rolling a die. Write down each of the following probabilities as decimals. correct to 2 decimal places. a Selecting the king of hearts b Selecting a spade c Selecting any 5 d Selecting a red card e Selecting a court card (any king. as a percentage. expressed as a decimal? 2 A barrel contains 40 marbles. Write down the probability of each of the following as a decimal (correct to 2 decimal places where necessary). Calculate.

13 C 0. the probability that the student is a boy is: A 10% B 15% C 40% D 60% 10 multiple choice Which of the following does not describe the chance of selecting a diamond from a standard deck of cards? ----A 13 B 0. there are 15 boys and 10 girls.Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 501 8 multiple choice A rafﬂe has 400 tickets.2 D 0. When the player spins the spinner. what is the probability of getting the following results (expressed as a decimal)? a A5 b An even number c An odd number d A number greater than one 5 4 3 1 2 12 The board game in question 11 has the following rules.25 D 25% 52 11 The diagram on the right shows a spinner that can be used in a board game. If a student is chosen at random from the class.08 C 0. as a percentage. A player spinning a 3 collects a treasure and automatically wins the game.8 9 multiple choice In a class of 25 students.02 B 0. that with the next spin a player: a wins the game b is out of the game c neither wins nor is out of the game. Sonya has bought 8 tickets. A player spinnning a 2 or a 5 is out of the game. The probability that Sonya wins ﬁrst prize in the rafﬂe is: A 0.1 . Work T SHEE 15. Write down the probability.

2 a 4 -9 . WRITE a The event is unlikely as it has a probability -of less than 1 . Therefore: P(no. Calculate the probability that the uppermost face is a number less than 7. The closer the probability is to 1. Now let’s consider an impossible situation: A die is cast. Therefore: P(no. the more likely it is to occur. less than 7) = 6 -6 =1 When the probability of an event is 1. Calculate the probability that the uppermost face is a number greater than 7. This ﬁgure allows us to make a connection between the formal probabilities that we calculated in the previous exercise. describe whether the event would be certain. unlikely or impossible. greater than 7) = 0 -6 =0 When the probability of an event is 0. All probabilities therefore lie in the range 0 to 1. the event is certain to occur. -----a 4 b 0 c 18 9 36 THINK -is less than 1 and is therefore unlikely 2 to occur. and the informal terms we used in chapter 14. An event -with a probability of 1 has an even chance of occurring or not 2 occurring. 0 ≤ P(E) ≤ 1 certain almost certain probable fifty-fifty unlikely very unlikely impossible 0 1 2 1 WORKED Example 11 For the following probabilities. the event is impossible. We know this is certain to occur but we will look at the solution using the probability formula. -----c 18 = 1 . ﬁfty-ﬁfty. c The event has an even chance of occurring as -the probability = 1 . There are 6 elements in the sample space and there are 0 elements in the event space.502 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course Range of probabilities Consider the following problem: A die is cast. There are 6 elements in the sample space and 6 elements in the event space. Therefore. b A probability of 0 means the event is impossible. probable. The closer a probability is to 0. the event has an even 36 2 chance of occurring. the less likely it is to occur. The range of probabilities can be seen in the ﬁgure at right. 2 b The event is impossible as it has a probability of 0.

It is very probable that the television chosen will not be defective. There are many situations where this will occur. There are 380 televisions that are not defective (number of favourable outcomes). because each number is equally likely to be selected. By calculating the probability. ﬁnd the probability of it not being defective and describe this chance in words. WRITE a True. P(not defective) = P(not defective) = 380 -------400 19 ----20 4 Since the probability is much greater -than 1 and very close to 1. 10 2 -b The weather tomorrow could be ﬁne or rainy. b False. b Each outcome is not equally likely. THINK 1 2 WRITE 3 There are 400 televisions (elements of the sample space). because there is not an equal chance of the weather being ﬁne or rainy. 3. a The probability of correctly selecting a number drawn out of a barrel between 1 and 10 is 1 ----. 20 are defective. therefore the probability of rain is 1 . remember 1. Write the probability. it is very 2 probable that it will not be defective. A probability of 0 means that the event is impossible. Probabilities range from 0 to 1. If one television is chosen. we are able to make a connection with the more informal descriptions of chance. while a probability of 1 means the event is certain. . You need to be able to recognise when you can and cannot measure the probability. and give a reason for your answer.Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 503 WORKED Example 12 In a batch of 400 televisions. You cannot measure probability when each outcome is not equally likely.. WORKED Example 13 State whether the following statements are true or false. The rules of probability can be applied only when each outcome is equally likely to occur. THINK a Each outcome is equally likely. 2.

probable or certain. Write these in order from the most likely to the least likely event. 7 ----13 8 ----19 9 ----18 13 ----20 6 ----25 5 By calculating the probability of each. The probability of selecting a card that has a vowel written on it could best be described as: A impossible B unlikely C even chance D probable . 4 The probabilities of ﬁve events are given below. even chance. 5 green and 7 blue marbles D — Selecting a court card from a standard deck E — Tossing a coin and having it land Heads 6 multiple choice The probabilities of several events are shown below.504 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 15D SkillS Range of probabilities HEET 15. A — Winning a rafﬂe with 5 tickets out of 30 B — Rolling a die and getting a number less than 3 C — Drawing a green marble from a bag containing 4 red. unlikely. unlikely. a 7 ----14 b e 10 ----13 37 ----40 c f i 3 -8 25 ----52 12 ----25 d 1 g 19 ----36 h 0 2 For each of the events below. Which of these is the most likely to occur? A 1 -2 B 19 ----36 C 22 ----45 D 20 ----32 7 multiple choice Cards in a stack have the letters of the alphabet written on them (one letter per card). calculate the probability and hence state whether the event is impossible. probable or certain. write the following events in order from least to most likely. state whether the event would be impossible. a Rolling a die and getting a negative number b Rolling a die and getting a positive number c Rolling a die and getting an even number d Selecting a card from a standard deck and getting a red card e Selecting a card from a standard deck and getting a spot card f Selecting a card from a standard deck and getting an ace g Reaching into a moneybox and selecting a 30c piece h Selecting a blue marble from a bag containing 3 red. Vesna draws a card from the stack.5 Probability scale WORKED Example 11 1 For each of the probabilities given below. 3 green and 6 blue marbles 3 Give an example of an event with a probability which is: a certain b probable c even chance d unlikely e impossible. even chance.

the probability that Sam tops the class in a Maths test is 1 ----. giving a reason for your answer. Find the probability that a box contains at least 50 matches and describe this chance.. 30 . b Describe the chance of buying a car with faulty paintwork. Describe the chance of getting a card labelled: a new car b free box of cereal c any prize d ‘Second Chance Draw’. 52 1 b The probability of selecting the letter P randomly from a page of a book is ----. 10 A box of matches has on the label ‘Minimum contents 50 matches’. 50 have faulty paintwork. 30 d In a class of 30 students the probability that Sharon’s name is drawn from a hat is 1 ----. The quality control department of the match manufacturer surveys boxes and ﬁnds that 2% of boxes have less than 50 matches. A car is chosen at random. 26 c In a class of 30 students. 13 4 a The probability of selecting an ace from a standard deck of cards is ----..Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 505 8 multiple choice For which of the following events can the probability not be calculated? A Selecting the ﬁrst number drawn from a barrel containing 20 numbered marbles B Selecting a diamond from a standard deck of cards C Winning the lottery with one ticket out of 150 000 D Selecting the winner of the Olympic 100-metre ﬁnal with 8 runners WORKED Example 12 9 In a batch of 2000 cars that come off an assembly line. 11 A box of breakfast cereal contains a card on which there may be a prize. In every 100 000 boxes of cereal the prizes are: 1 new car 5 Disneyland holidays 50 computers 2000 prizes of $100 in cash 50 000 free boxes of cereal All other boxes have a card labelled ‘Second Chance Draw’... WORKED Example 12 For each of the following determine whether the statement is true or false. a Find the probability that it has faulty paintwork.

(If you are using a spreadsheet. Choose an appropriate graph to display the results. Find the probability that the card selected is a picture card (as a percentage to 1 decimal place).) 3 Topic of interest Choose a topic of interest. Use the current or most recent season to calculate the relative frequency of each team winning. Year No.. If one member is chosen at random. 8 If an event is certain then the probability of it occurring is 9 If an event is impossible then the probability of it occurring is 10 An event has a probability of described as . Find the probability that the card selected is a diamond. 7 A card is drawn from a standard deck. 3 Three events have probabilities most likely. Find the probability that the card selected is either a king or a queen (as a decimal to 3 decimal places). 9 List these from the least likely to the 4 A tennis club has 40 members. 1 10 -. The likelihood of the event occurring could be Graphing results 1 Weather statistics Use the internet to ﬁnd the number of wet days in Sydney during each month of the last ﬁve years. 2 A card is drawn from a standard deck. Find the probability of the coin landing Heads. of which 25 are female.. 9 ----. ﬁnd the probability (as a percentage) that the member is female. . . you can easily update your results each week. Copy and complete the table below for each month of the year. Copy and complete questions 8–10. what is the probability (as a decimal) that the member chosen is male? 6 A card is drawn from a standard deck. of wet days Relative frequency Draw a radar chart to graph the month against the relative frequency of rain. 5 For the tennis club in question 4.506 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 2 1 A coin is tossed. 2 Sporting results Choose a sporting competition such as the AFL or NRL. 10 . Research your area thoroughly and display your ﬁndings in graph form. ----2 19 and 4 -..

WRITE a The complementary event is that the coin lands Tails. Complementary events are two events for which the probabilities have a total of 1. 3 7 c Add ----. WORKED Example 15 For each of the following events. and 3 white counters. a Tossing a coin and getting a Head b Rolling a die and getting a number less than 5 c Selecting a heart from a standard deck of cards THINK a There are two elements to the sample space. In the above example.Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 507 Complementary events When tossing a coin. WORKED Example 14 In a bag with 10 counters. we know there are two elements in the sample space. the chance of selecting a black counter and the chance of selecting a white counter are said to be complementary events. it must land Tails.and ----. When we are given one event and asked to state the complementary event. we need to describe what must happen for the ﬁrst event not to occur. Continued over page .+ 10 Total = 1 In any probability experiment the total of all probabilities equals 1. complementary events cover all possible outcomes to the probability experiment.together. We can use this rule to help us make calculations. Heads and Tails. In other words. Now consider a 2 2 slightly more difﬁcult problem. THINK a There are 10 counters of which 3 are white. b There are 10 counters of which 7 are black. there are 7 black. If one counter is selected at random from the bag. If the coin does not land Heads. calculate: a the probability of selecting a white counter b the probability of selecting a black counter c the total of the probabilities. 10 10 WRITE a P(white) = b P(black) = 3 ----10 7 ----10 7 ----10 3 c Total = ----. --P(Heads) = 1 and P(Tails) = 1 . The total of the probabilities is 1. write down the complementary event.

20 are by a rap artist. Subtract the probability of selecting a heavy metal CD from 1. 2. If we do not get a number less than 4 we must get either a 5 or a 6. The complement of an event is the event that describes all other possible outcomes to the probability experiment. 2. We can use the result: P(an event does not occur) = 1 − P(the event does occur) WORKED Example 16 Jessie has a collection of 50 CDs. b There are 6 elements to the sample space — 1. The sum of the probability of an event and its complement equals 1. 3. clubs and spades. 4. there are four elements to the sample space: hearts. 5. b This is the complement of selecting a heavy metal CD. 3.508 THINK Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course WRITE b The complementary event is that we get a number greater than 4. To calculate the probability of an event. Of these. If we do not get a heart we can get any other suit. . 10 are by heavy metal performers and 20 are dance music. WRITE a P(heavy metal CD) = = 10 ----50 1 -5 1 -5 b P(not heavy metal) = 1 − P(heavy metal) =1− = 4 -5 remember 1. The probability of an event and its complement will always add to give 1. what is the probability that it is: a a heavy metal CD? b not a heavy metal CD? THINK a Of 50 CDs. 10 are by heavy metal performers. We can use our knowledge of complementary events to simplify the solution to many problems. c As we are concerned with only the suit of the card. and 6. If we select one CD at random. c The complementary event is that we do not get a heart. subtract the probability of its complementary event from 1. diamonds.

WORKED Example 15 3 For each of the following. calculate: a the probability of the event in the left-hand column b the probability of its complementary event c the total of the probabilities. Calculate the probability that it is: i blue ii red iii yellow. a Winning a race b Passing a test c Your birthday falling on a Monday 4 Match each event in the left-hand column with the complementary event in the righthand column. 6 You are rolling a die. a List the sample space. What is the complementary event to selecting: a a black ball? b a coloured ball? c a pink ball? . write down the complementary event. a Rolling an even number b Rolling a number greater than 3 c Rolling a number less than 3 d Rolling a 6 e Rolling a number greater than 1 7 In a barrel there are balls numbered 1 to 45.Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 509 15E WORKED Complementary events 15. We know that 7 of them are blue. A coin landing Heads A coin landing Tails An odd number on a die A spot card from a standard deck A picture card from a standard deck Not winning 1st prize in the rafﬂe A red card from a standard deck A team not making the last 4 Winning 1st prize in a rafﬂe with 100 tickets An even number on a die Making the last 4 teams in a 20 team tournament A black card from a standard deck 5 For each pair of events in question 4. b Write down the probability of each event in the sample space. c What is the total of the probabilities? 2 A barrel contains 20 marbles. The rest are black. a One marble is selected from the barrel. For each of the following. b Calculate the total of these probabilities. Write down the complementary event to each of the following. 15 of which are coloured (10 pink and 5 orange). 8 are red and the rest are yellow. state the complementary event. a Choosing an odd-numbered ball b Choosing a ball numbered less than 20 c Choosing a ball that has a number greater than 23 d Choosing a ball that is a multiple of 5 8 In a barrel there are 25 balls.6 SkillS Theoretical probability HEET Example 14 1 A die is rolled.

13 There are 40 CDs in a collection. 36 What is the probability of the compleD 1 B 11 ----36 C 25 ----36 WORKED Example 11 In a barrel with 40 marbles..510 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 9 multiple choice Wilson rolls two dice. He needs to get a 6 on at least one of the dice. ﬁnd the probability that the tournament is: a won by an Australian b won by an American c not won by an Australian d not won by an American e not won by an Australian or an American. 12 In a barrel there are 40 balls numbered 1 to 40. Of these. 20 are yellow. . They can be classiﬁed as follows. What is the complementary event? A Rolling no sixes B Rolling 2 sixes C Rolling 1 six D Rolling at least 1 10 multiple choice The probability of rolling at least one six is mentary event? A 9 ----36 11 ----. b Use your knowledge of complementary events to ﬁnd the probability that the number is not a multiple of 5. One ball is chosen at random from the barrel. If they are all of the same skill level. 18 heavy metal 6 rock 10 techno 6 classical If one CD is chosen at random. 15 are green and 5 are orange. calculate the probability that it is: a heavy metal b not heavy metal c classical d not classical e heavy metal or rock f techno or classical. 14 In a golf tournament there are 40 players. If one marble is selected from the bag ﬁnd the probability that it is: 16 a orange b not orange. 16 are Australian and 12 are American. a Find the probability that the number is a multiple of 5.

Find the probability that he can correctly guess the number. If you were to approach this set of lights calculate the probability that: a they will be green b you will need to stop. Find the probability the number chosen is a multiple of 5. Find the probability that the bead selected is blue. These tiles include 9 ‘A’s. Find the probability that it is: a an ‘E’ b a vowel c a consonant.Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 511 15 After studying a set of trafﬁc lights. amber for 5 seconds and green for 35 seconds. What would be the relative frequency (as a percentage) of his: a being successful with the shot? b missing the shot? 3 1 A card is drawn from a standard deck and its suit noted. Work T SHEE 15. What is the probability that he misses the putt? 18 A basketballer is about to take a shot from the free-throw line. His past record shows that he has a 91% success rate from the free-throw line.7 of sinking a putt. 4 yellow beads and 8 blue beads. 2 Andrew needs to ring Sandra but he has forgotten the last digit. 16 In a game of Scrabble there are 100 lettered tiles. 8 ‘O’s and 4 ‘U’s. 12 ‘E’s. List the sample space for this experiment. what is the probability of guessing the number? 4 What is the probability of correctly guessing the 4-digit PIN number to a bank account card? 5 A bead is selected from a bag containing 3 red beads. 9 Find the probability that the number chosen is not a multiple of 5. One tile is chosen. Karen found that in every 100 seconds they were red for 60 seconds.2 . 8 A number is chosen between 1 and 20. 10 Find the probability that the number chosen is not a square number. 3 If Andrew knows that the last digit of a telephone number is not a 7 or a 0. 6 What is the probability that the bead selected in question 5 is not blue? 7 A number is chosen between 1 and 20. 9 ‘I’s. Find the probability the number chosen is a multiple of 3. 17 From past performances it is known that a golfer has a probability of 0.

The use of a fraction for a probability can help us describe. . Single event probability • The probability of an event can be found using the formula: number of favourable outcomes P(event) = --------------------------------------------------------------------------total number of outcomes • Probabilities are usually written as fractions but can also be expressed as decimals or percentages. • The probability of an event can often be calculated by subtracting the probability of its complementary event from 1.512 Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course summary Relative frequency • Relative frequency describes how often an event has occurred. Range of probabilities • Probabilities range from 0 (impossible) to 1 (certain). • The probability of an event and its complement add to give 1. in words. the chance of an event occurring. Complementary events • The complement of an event is the event that describes all other possible outcomes to the probability experiment. • It is found by dividing the number of times an event has occurred by the total number of trials.

4 A barrel contains 25 balls numbered from 1 to 25. ﬁnd the probability that the movie chosen is: a a comedy b a horror c not romance. If one is chosen at random from the batch. One ball is drawn from the barrel. Find the probability that the number formed is: a 7895 b odd c divisible by 5 d greater than 7000 e less than 8000. it is found that 350 have the defect. Michelle then chooses one card at random. the probability that the number drawn is: a 26 b even c greater than 10. ﬁnd the probability. b If Michelle wins 1st prize. a What is the relative frequency of a 17-year-old driver having an accident? b If the average cost to an insurance company of each accident is $5000. If a can is chosen at random. would the event be unlikely. -11 If an event has a probability of 5 . 8 orange and 4 lemonade drinks. that the can chosen is: a cola b orange c not orange. ﬁnd the probability that it has the defect and hence describe the chance of the car having the defect. List the sample space and all favourable outcomes. 14 comedies. what is the probability that she also wins 2nd prize? 9 A barrel contains marbles with the numbers 1 to 40 on them. If I choose a movie at random from the collection. 10 A carton of soft drinks contains 12 cola. 8 A rafﬂe has 2000 tickets sold and has two prizes.Chapter 15 Relative frequency and probability 513 CHAPTER review 1 From every 100 televisions on a production line. what would be the minimum premium that an insurance company should charge a 17-year-old driver? 3 The numbers 1 to 5 are written on the back of 5 cards that are turned face down. 7. 5 A card is to be chosen from a standard deck. Find the probability that the card chosen is: a the 2 of clubs b any 2 c any club d a black card e a court card f a spot card. 8 and 9 are written on cards. ﬁfty-ﬁfty or probable? 9 15A 15A 15B 15B 15B 15B 15B 15B 15C 15C 15D 15D 12 When 400 cars are checked for a defect. 7 The digits 5. Michelle buys ﬁve tickets. 4 horror and 10 romance movies. as a percentage. They are then arranged to form a four-digit number. a Find the probability that Michelle wins 1st prize. 2 It is found that 150 of every thousand 17-year-old drivers will be involved in an accident within one year of having their driver’s licence. as a decimal. If one marble is chosen at random ﬁnd. two are found to be defective. If you choose a television at random. 6 A video collection has 12 dramas. Find the probability that the marble drawn is: a 13 b 7 c an odd number d a square number e a prime number f a double-digit number. Michelle wants to choose a number greater than 2. ﬁnd the relative frequency of defective televisions. .

The probability that a multiple of 3 is chosen is: A 3 ----50 B 8 ----25 C 16 ----34 D 34 ----50 2 multiple choice -The probability of a footballer kicking a goal is 5 . . a Find the relative frequency of a missile hitting its target. The ﬁrst name will win two tickets to a ‘Silverchair’ concert. 15 The probability that a person must stop at a set of trafﬁc lights is of not needing to stop at the lights? 7 ----.92 4 multiple choice The probability of a missile hitting its target is A 1 ----25 17 ----.46 C 0. a What is the probability that Marcus wins the Silverchair tickets? b Ben and Kelly agree that if either win a prize. Of these.. If one book is chosen at random. 5 red balls and 7 yellow balls 14 A barrel contains 20 marbles of which 6 are black. seven are ﬁction.. The relative frequency of him hitting his target is: A 0. Olivia. One marble is selected at random. what is the probability that the book chosen is non-ﬁction? Practice examination questions 1 multiple choice A number is chosen at random from the numbers 1 to 50. b What is the relative frequency of a missile missing its target? c Describe in words the chance of a missile hitting its target.03 B 0.50 D 0. a Tossing a coin that lands Tails b Rolling a die and getting a number less than 5 c Choosing a blue ball from a bag containing 4 blue balls. The chance of him kicking the goal could 8 best be described as: A unlikely B ﬁfty-ﬁfty C probable D certain 3 multiple choice An Olympic Games shooter hits a target with 46 out of 50 shots. Find the probability that the marble selected is: a black b not black. What is the probability that Ben and Kelly will attend the concert? c What is the probability that neither Ben nor Kelly win the tickets? CHAPTER test yourself 15 6 A navy ship ﬁres 60 missiles at a target and hits the target 42 times. they will take the other to the concert.514 15E 15E 15E 15E Maths Quest General Mathematics Preliminary Course 13 State the event that is complementary to each of the following. Ben and Kelly are the ﬁnalists in a contest run by a music store. 25 The probability of missing the target is: D 1 B 8 ----25 C 17 ----25 5 Theo. Marcus. 12 What is the probability 16 On a bookshelf there are 25 books. Two names will be drawn.

Central tendency — A method for describing a typical score in a data set. The sum of the probabilities of complementary events is 1. Compounded value — see Future value. Angle of depression — The angle through which you must look down from the horizontal to sight an object. Congruent ﬁgures — A special case of similar ﬁgures where the scale factor is equal to 1. Commission — Payment made to a salesperson. Compound interest can be calculated using the formula A = P(1 + r)n. Bimodal — A set of scores for which two scores occur most often. Budget — A list of a person’s income and expenses. Congruent ﬁgures are identical in shape and size. Box-and-whisker-plot — A method of graphically displaying a ﬁve-number summary. In such a case. There are three measures of central tendency — mean. Cosine ratio — The ratio of the adjacent side and hypotenuse in a right-angled triangle. Cumulative frequency — A progressive total of the frequencies. Appreciation — The amount by which an item grows in value over time. Cubic — A function where x is raised to the power of 3. Annual leave loading — An extra payment of -17 1 % of the gross pay made to employees 2 when they take their annual leave. The plot is drawn to scale with the box representing the interquartile range and the whiskers representing the range. Census — Data gathered from the entire population. but the data are displayed in vertical columns. Annual leave — A period of time that each permanent employee is allowed each year for holidays. Allowance — An extra payment made to a worker for working in unfavourable conditions. . Compound interest — A form of interest payment. Categorical data — Data which are not numerical and are put into categories such as types of car. one set of circumstances is more prevalent than in the wider population. Concentration — The amount of one substance that is contained in another. Compounding period — The length of time between interest payments in a compound interest investment. Continuous data — Data that can take any value within a given range. Within the box. The concentration of a mixture is usually stated as a mass/mass rate or a mass/volume rate. Complementary events — Two events that cover all possible outcomes to a probability experiment. A commission is usually paid as a percentage of sales. Bias — Bias occurs when the results of a survey are inﬂuenced by outside factors such as a poorly chosen sample. A balanced budget is where income equals expenditure. Bar graph — A graph where categorical data are displayed in horizontal bars.Glossary 515 Glossary Adjacent — The side next to the angle used for reference in a right-angled triangle. Angle of elevation — The angle through which you must look up from the horizontal to sight an object. the median is also shown. with the categories on a vertical axis and quantity on the horizontal axis. Compound value interest factor — The amount to which $1 will amount under a compound interest investment. median and mode. Casual rate — A higher rate of pay to compensate casual workers for the lack of holiday and sick pay. The interest paid at the end of one period is added to the principal before the next interest calculation is made. A personal budget is made to try to avoid spending more than is earned. Column graph — Similar to a bar graph.

External sources — Data sources that are used when data previously gathered. Frequency table — A table displaying statistical data. Decreasing function — A function for which the dependent variable decreases as the value of the independent variable increases. frequency and possibly cumulative frequency. It is a column graph drawn with scores or class centres on the horizontal axis and frequency on the vertical axis. Deductions — A sum of money that is deducted from an employee’s gross pay before receiving net pay. Elevation — A scale drawing of what a building will look like from one side. often by a different person. tally. The line is drawn from the corner of the axes to the centre of each column. For grouped data the score column will be replaced with a class column and a class centre column. Function — A rule that connects an independent variable with a dependent variable such that there is at most one value of the dependent variable for every value of the independent variable. Extrapolating — Extending a graph so as to make a prediction about future trends. Discrete data — Discrete data are where the data can take only certain values. Debenture — A form of investment offered by private companies to raise money. Frequency polygon — A line graph often drawn on the same axes as a frequency histogram. lower quartile. Event — An occurrence that is being examined in a probability experiment. usually whole numbers. are used in the statistical investigation.516 General Mathematics Cumulative frequency histogram — A histogram drawn of the cumulative frequencies. In other words. Dependent variable — In a function. upper quartile and upper extreme. The corresponding sides will be in equal ratio and all corresponding angles will be equal. No space is left before the ﬁrst column of a cumulative frequency histogram. the independent variable. Frequency — The number of times an event occurs. Cumulative frequency polygon — A line graph drawn from the corner of the axes to the top right corner of each column on a cumulative frequency histogram. Double time — A penalty rate that pays the employee twice the normal hourly rate. Favourable outcomes — Elements from the sample space that meet the requirement for an event to occur. Decile — A band of 10% of scores in a data set. The graph of a decreasing function decreases from left to right. but larger than the original. Debentures are for a ﬁxed period of time and simple interest is paid. Equally likely outcomes — These occur when each element of the sample space for a probability experiment is equally likely to occur. The company distributes all or part of its proﬁt by paying an amount per share called a dividend. This is the fundamental counting principle. Direct linear variation — This occurs when one quantity varies directly with another. Data — Information before it is organised. Dividend — A payment made to a shareholder in a company. the value of one quantity can always be calculated by multiplying the other quantity by a constant amount. Enlargement — A ﬁgure is drawn similar to. Five-number summary — A summary of a data set consisting of the lower extreme. For ungrouped data the table will have columns for score. Frequency histogram — A graph suitable for statistical (quantitative) data. Fundamental counting principle — The number of elements of the sample space for a multi-stage probability experiment is found by multiplying the number of ways each stage can occur. Dot plot — A graph where the data set is displayed as dots on a number line. median. Database — An organised set of data on a population. A half unit (half column width) space is drawn before the ﬁrst column with no other gaps between columns. the dependent variable is the variable for which the value is obtained by substitution of another variable. Dividend yield — This is the company dividend expressed as a percentage of the value of each share. .

Investment bonds — A form of investment offered by the State or federal government to raise money. Mean — The average of a data set. found by totalling all the scores then dividing by the number of scores.5% of gross income. Interquartile range — A number that represents the spread of a data set. Histogram — A column graph that displays the frequency for a set of scores. therefore there are two parts to this experiment.Glossary 517 Future value — The amount to which an investment will grow under compound interest. Income tax — Tax that is paid on all income received. Interpolate — Drawing a graph using data found at the end points. the dependent variable. Lower extreme — The lowest score in the data set. Multi-stage event — This occurs when there is more than one part to a probability experiment. presented and conclusions have been drawn they become information. For example. It is given to the employee by the employer at the end of each ﬁnancial year. Gross pay — A person’s earnings before any deductions are taken out. Linear function — A function that is a straight line when drawn. usually in exchange for labour or the result of an investment. Median — The middle score or the average of the two middle scores in a data set. tossing two coins can be considered as tossing one coin then tossing another. Lower quartile — The lowest 25% of scores in a data set. Goods and Services Tax — A tax that is levied on the price of all items other than fresh food. Interest — A payment made for the use of money. Money is invested for a ﬁxed amount of time and simple interest is paid. Independent variable — In a function. Medicare levy — A payment made as part of our tax system that covers the cost of basic health care services. The GST is levied at a rate of 10%. The interquartile range is calculated by subtracting the lower quartile from the upper quartile. Ogive — Another term for cumulative frequency polygon. Net pay — The amount of money actually received by an employee after all deductions have been subtracted from the gross pay. The basic levy is 1. The graph of an increasing function increases as we look at it from left to right. Offset — In a traverse study. the GST is an indirect tax because it is paid to the retailer who then passes it on to the government. however. Income — Money received by a person. Information — When data are processed. Interest is usually expressed as a rate per annum. Internal sources — The person conducting the statistical investigation gathers the data. Grouped data — A data set tabulated in small groups rather than as individual scores. an offset is a line perpendicular to the transversal. Line graph — A graph used to show the way in which one quantity changes with respect to another. Group certiﬁcate — A statement of gross income and the PAYE tax deducted from that income throughout the ﬁnancial year. Increasing function — A function for which the dependent variable increases as the value of the independent variable increases. Indirect tax — Any tax that is not paid directly to the government by the taxpayer. Gradient — The rate of increase (or decrease) in the dependent variable per one unit increase in the independent variable. Hypotenuse — The longest side of a rightangled triangle. Mode — The score in a data set with the highest frequency. It is drawn from the transversal to a vertex on the area being surveyed. Interest rate — The percentage amount of interest paid per annum. low income earners pay the levy at a reduced rate. Inﬂation — A percentage amount that describes the average rise in prices over one year. the independent variable is the variable for which any value can be substituted and which will produce the value of another variable. The graph is drawn by marking the data points on a set of axes and joining them with straight lines. The hypotenuse is opposite the right angle. For example. It is paid to a depositor by a ﬁnancial institution or by a borrower to a ﬁnancial institution. .

Penalty rate — A higher rate of pay made to a person who is working overtime.518 General Mathematics Opposite — The side opposite to the angle used for reference in a right-angled triangle. The number to which a base is raised. Quantitative data — Data that can be measured. Probability — A number between 0 and 1 that describes the chance of an event occurring. Rate — A comparison of two quantities of a different type. Relative frequency — A number between 0 and 1. The method usually applied to the collection of tax. Overtime — This is when a person earns more than the regular hours each week. indicating the number of times the base is multiplied by itself. Radar chart — A type of line graph drawn around a central point. Questionnaire — A set of questions completed for a statistical investigation. . The categories are labelled in a circle and data points marked on each line emanating from the centre. Per annum — per year Percentage chance — The probability of an event expressed as a percentage. In measurement. Percentage error — The maximum error in a measurement as a percentage of the measurement given. The points are then joined. Quartile — 25% of the data set. which describes how often an event has occurred. Preﬁx — The ﬁrst part of a word. Piecework — see Payment by piece. Quality control — A statistical process used by companies to ensure that their product meets the required standard. Present value — The current value of an investment. sales made during each month of the year. For example. They receive the retainer regardless of the number of sales made. usually a decimal. The range is calculated by subtracting the smallest score from the largest score. Poll — A collection of information obtained by questionnaire. Power — An index. Payment by piece (Piecework) — Payment for the amount of work completed. A radar chart is suitable to show a pattern that is likely to repeat. The upper quartile is the top 25% of the data set and the lower quartile is the bottom 25% of the data set. Prism — A solid shape with a constant crosssection. Retainer — A ﬁxed payment usually paid to someone receiving commission. Outcome — A possible result to a probability experiment. Proportional to — Two quantities are proportional to each other (in proportion) when one quantity can be found by multiplying the other by a constant amount. The relative frequency is found by dividing the number of times an event has occurred by the total number of trials. drawn smaller in size than the original. Polygon — A line graph displaying the frequency for a set of scores. Quadratic — A function with a greatest power of 2. Ratio — A comparison of two quantities of the same type. Principal — The amount on which interest calculations are made. Pyramid — A solid shape with a plane shape as its base and triangular sides meeting at an apex. Random sample — The members of the sample are chosen by a method in which luck is the only factor in deciding which members are to participate in the sample. Relation — A rule connecting two variables. Ordinary rate — The normal hourly rate for a wage earner. Range — A number that represents the spread of a data set. A numerical value can be assigned to them. Rate of change — The change in one quantity per one unit change in another. Reduction — A similar ﬁgure. Piecewise linear function — A linear function that follows different rules for different values of the independent variable. PAYE — Pay As You Earn. Population — An entire group of people or objects to which a statistical inquiry is applied. the preﬁx indicates the relative size of the units of measurement.

Shares are traded on the stock exchange and ﬂuctuate in value daily. Shares — A share is a part ownership of a company. Score — Each piece of quantitative data is a score. Similar ﬁgures — Two or more ﬁgures with corresponding angles equal and corresponding sides in the same ratio.Glossary 519 Royalty — A royalty is a payment made to the owner of a copyright such as a musician or author. for example the same percentage of men and women. Stem-and-leaf plot — A method of displaying a data set where the ﬁrst part of a number is written in the stem and the second part of the number is written in the leaves. Tax deduction — An amount that can be deducted from gross income before income tax is calculated. Salary — A form of payment where a person is paid a ﬁxed amount to do their job. Stratiﬁed sample — The group to participate in the sample is chosen so that is has similar characteristics as the entire population. The royalty is usually a percentage of sales. Signiﬁcant ﬁgures — The number of non-zero digits to which a number is approximated. Scale factor — A number by which the side lengths on the ﬁrst of two similar ﬁgures is multiplied by to obtain the measurements on the second of the ﬁgures. Taxable income — The amount of income upon which the amount of tax due is calculated. Sine ratio — The ratio of the opposite side and the hypotenuse in a right-angled triangle. Each sector is the same proportion of the circle as the part of the data set it represents. Statistics — Numerical facts compiled to describe a data set. The taxpayer then either receives a tax refund or must pay a tax debt. Tax return — A form completed by every taxpayer at the end of the ﬁnancial year. Systematic sample — The members of the sample are chosen according to some organised pattern. Sector graph — A graph where a circle is cut into sectors. Tax deductions are allowed for work-related expenses and other items such as charity donations. The return from investing in shares comes from both the dividend and the share rising in value. A diagonal is constructed and offsets divide the shape into triangles and quadrilaterals from which the area can be calculated. Simple interest — Interest that is paid without any interest payments being added to the principal before the next interest calculation. Taxable income is calculated by subtracting any allowable tax deductions from the total gross income. . The diagram branches once for each stage of the experiment at each level showing all possible outcomes to each stage. Simple interest is calculated using the formula I = Prn. any allowable tax deductions and all taxes already paid. Tree diagram — A method of listing the sample space for a multi-stage probability experiment. Time and a half — A penalty rate where the -employee is paid 1 1 times the normal hourly 2 rate. Traverse survey — A survey done to calculate the area of an irregularly shaped block of land. A salary is usually based on an annual amount divided into weekly or fortnightly instalments. Tangent ratio — The ratio of the opposite side and the adjacent side in a right-angled triangle. The standard deviation is found on a calculator using either the population standard deviation or the sample standard deviation. median or mode which describes a data set. Sample — When data are gathered from a portion of the population. that is taken to be representative of the whole population. Summary statistic — A number such as the mean. Sample space — A list of all possible outcomes to a probability experiment. Statistical inquiry — The process of gathering statistics. Step function — A linear function for which the rule changes as the value of the independent variable changes. Standard deviation — A measure of the spread of a data set. which states all income earned. Each sector then represents a section of the data set. The total amount of tax that should have been paid is then calculated. Strata — A group within a population that reﬂects the characteristics of the entire population.

Upper extreme — The highest score in a data set. Upper quartile — The highest 25% of scores in a data set. y-intercept — The value of y when a function crosses the vertical axis. a VAT is levied on the cost of goods and services in many countries. Wage — A form of payment that is based on an hourly rate. The rate of VAT varies from country to country. Value Added Tax — Similar to the GST. Unitary method — A method used in ratio and percentages. . Trigonometry — A branch of mathematics in which sides and angles of triangles are calculated.520 General Mathematics Trial — The number of times a probability experiment has been conducted. Ungrouped data — Data for which each score is individually tabulated.

Smith B.87 8 $4706.75 b $125.44 d $876.72 8 39 Hours worked 36 40 37 42 15 38 Hourly rate $11.56 $13. Scarlet F. Green D.5 c $600.50 b $225.40 b $499.52 $16.80 a $11 b $27. Black C.50 b $327 b $1200 5 $4140 8 $8125 b $5375 b $490 b $500 b $345 b $372. White B.00/h $455.44 Exercise 1A — Calculating salary payments 1 $1700 4 a $745 5 $1653.17 $7206.13 $824.75 1A 1D answers 521 .78 2 $518. Brown N.75/h c $29.04 d 0.20 $344.95 $20.19 $1662.65 a $471.25 6 12.80 b 43 hours b $11.79 c $1360 6 B 9 $800 c $16 875 c $649 c $8000 d $8125 8 $32 500 9 $69 600 11 $14.33 Fortnightly pay $1153.32 a $134.50 c $568.10 $598.80 4 a $432 5 a $17.63 b Karina ($16.50 c $85.85 $1519.96 $231.5 36.55 3 $740.25 5 a $12.34 b 0.Answers Answers CHAPTER 1 Earning money Are you ready? 1 a 24 months b 156 weeks c 21 fortnights d 5 years 2 a $611 b $2619.10 $649.5 38.44 10 Quick Questions 2 c $501.28 b $17.80 $625.38 per hour) c $406.40 d $114.95 $22.42 $20.45 $15.13 c $103.23 $1625.672 e 0.40 6 $903.16 $95.62 $812.67 3 $218.80 c $19.15 5 $32 406. Brown E.98 3 $4500 c $3228.39 c $27 493.67 $3520.175 4 a $35 b $356 c $1620 d $571.04 b $566.69 $570 $1840 2 $346.5 41.47 $9.30 $776.25 11 C 12 D 14 $548.84 6 Annual salary $30 000 $39 500 $42 250 $54 350 $86 475 7 10 12 13 14 $23 920 C a $634.38 $3325.34 Hourly rate $14.40 8 $208.10 $18.92 $759.50 $1045.85 9 $846.79 c 0.08 a $57.5 Exercise 1D — Payment by piece $75. Milosevic L. Tran A. Grey 10 13 15 16 1 4 7 10 $12.84 $3307.96 Monthly pay $2500.68 Wage $416.99 $19. McTavish 3 a $424.70 5 $12.83 $4529.50 b $94.80 a $174 b $21.80 $369.62 a $349.84 b $32.18 7 $9.62 a $688 45 hours 2 $960 b $1490 Weekly pay $576.30 Wage $580.5 37.42 Hours worked 40.00 $3291.80 c Bonito ($705) Exercise 1B — Calculating wages 1 $518 2 Name A.50 6 $327 a $92 b $138 c $87.92 3 a 0.20 9 $60.40 b $16.50 d $81 $175 4 $135 5 $325.04 $2692.15 10 Quick Questions 1 Exercise 1C — Commission and royalties 1 2 3 4 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 2 3 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 4 7 10 $2000 a $260 a $400 $1425 C a $4125 $950 a $390 B a $400 $625 a $300 D a $462.95 a $103.38 $15.0825 f 0.16 $538.54 $422.63 $813.31 $24.25 hours or 12 hours and 15 minutes 7 a 14% b 65% c 20% 8 a $616 b $1176 c $2944 6 D 9 Name A.00 $2090.38 6 $487.

3 d 1.5 m 0.57 c $1119. Milosevic J.60 Time and a half Double time Time and a half Time and a half Double time 4.30 a $631.40 $231.40 b $685.36 $135 23 $57.17 b $60.40 b $1434.54 2 $2592.60 $2500.90 $761.23 D.70 $1518.68 6 a $1830.75 b 72 c 1.10 3 $410.80 $11.02 a $511.20 $121. Colley $24.00 $563.85 $14.84 b $44.24 18 $311.77 b $4139.35 d $14 a $198.11 b $44.28 18 $455.90 $1175.77 CHAPTER 2 Units of measurement Are you ready? 1 a d 2 a 3 a 4 a 5 a 6 a 500 cm b 6200 m c 2 kg e 6250 kg f 2 days b 208 weeks c 0.12 c $96.40 8 43 hours 9 $395.77 b $415.40 $112.5 7.45 $165.59 c $464.07 Net pay $255.65 $717.20 $798.70 Ordinary Overtime Hours rate rate Worked $8.80 c $426.60 b 5 Oct.08 5 $75.50 Normal hours 38 37 38 37.5 5.5% b 3.42 2 $52.60 Practice examination questions 1 B 2 C 3 B 5 a $554.02 9 $353.5 36 Total pay $378.05 $746.30 d $2605.24c d 161 a $1007.28 $534. a $181.60 b $426.25 Double time hours Name W.45 a $2519.23 $7. rate $8.40 $2408.38 c $378.225 12 : 5 b 10 : 3 c 4 : 13 8.00 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 $360.52 13 8 A 11 $721. Robinson 10 Quick Questions 3 $477.002 c 48.55 $5269.80 b $2428.81 $840 b $2375 c 3.79 Union fees = $18.15 $4315.58 $56.84 5 $157.5 6.19 a $240 b Check with your teacher.85 d Check with your teacher.31 3 $8.answers 522 1 $16. Gannon Ord.75 $754.90 d 4.093 75 L d 3:2 . Carides Y.69.37 c $407.78 15 A b $788.78 6 $484.95 4 $142.90 2 Gross pay $345. health insurance = $50.35 $11.24 a $442.28 2 $1663.35 $101.22 7 C 10 $543. McDonnell F.12 $167. Dymock $16.5 5 4 6 9 B 12 $596.80 b $220.00 $346. $251.9% d 118.5 8 $482.75 $98 a $21.38 $135.12 4 B c $572.20 c $928 Exercise 1F — Additions to and deductions from gross pay 1 $360.60 12 a c d 13 a 14 a 15 a 16 a d 1 4 7 10 1 4 7 8 9 $2884.56 Deductions $89.40 6 $19.70 b $90 000 c $91. to 4 Jan.14 $248.80 16 $595.56 $13.04 $1734.55 b $13.29 a $522 b $594.60 $9.10 b $109 a $368.26 c $1448.63 d $405.23 b $922.70 c $588.90 14 C 17 a $705. Nguyen Answers Exercise 1E — Working overtime 2 $22.90 $9.56 6 Name A. Hurst S.75 L 480 min 0.61 $466.3% c 2.5 6.26 a $422.28 Exercise 1G — Budgeting $8.05 a $1855.1865 b 0.52 M.90 Chapter review 1 5 6 7 10 13 14 15 16 17 20 21 22 G.90 8 $436.50 11 $534 12 $340.20 b $81.40 10 11 12 6 2 1.01 $516.60 Time and a half hours 4 .96 $880.20 3 $28.62 b $367.56 $765.55 $398.41 c $310.26 c $72.40 a $98.08 b $5.10 a $2153.64 19 $4.70 c 55 d 1753 e 10 000 f 58 552 a $143.80 d $485 $590.77 b $164.5 Pay $53.75 $235.85 $429.30 b $28.68 $765.15 5 $59.85 $56.77 b $176.86 $22.91 $1438. a $120. c $29. Clark A.31 3 $15 912 4 $22.

2 km/L 9 12 L/100 km 10 C 11 $471.60/day i 7.3 f 0.001 50 6. each equals 66 kg.40/h 5 130 beats/min 6 87 km/h 7 a 196.0002 100 000 000 km b 150 000 000 km 147 000 000 km d 146 570 000 km 10 Quick Questions 2 1E 2E answers 523 .35 kg g 5500 kg h 4840 g 2L b 11 kL c 4000 L 15 000 mL e 4.40 b $72 18 54 km/h 19 a 25 m/s b 9 km/h c 8 L/km d 12. 22 a 9.4% Exercise 2E — Percentage change 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 3 5 7 9 $742.7 × 108 km b 7.5 cm c 33.9 kg 17 a $14.9 × 102 t 10 e 3. she has enough lawn food for only 40 m2.65 L 7900 L h 12 800 mL 4 min b 6h c 3 days 120 h e 420 min f 180 min 730 or 731 days h 36 months i 208 weeks --1 1 days k 168 h l 71 h 2 2 4 D 5 D 6 C 7 a 4.1 × 106 mL 10 2.43 × 1012 km 5200 mm long.50 a 24.1 × 105 km c 4.95 km f 0.79 × 108 15 kg/h $292.5 L/100 km 20 C 21 No.2 × 10−1 L f 3 × 10−3 s 8 a Check with your teacher.Answers Exercise 2A — Units of measurement 1 a e i 2 a e 3 a d g 4 a d g j 5 6 8 9 11 7 cm b 6m c 5 km d 90 mm 1200 cm f 9000 m g 8.75 a $250 b 20% 546 cm 0.25 m2 c 25.96% 8 a 1 h 15 min to 1 h 25 min b 5 minutes c 6.5 cm f 199.4 km j 64 mm k 1125 cm l 22 mm 8 kg b 3t c 7000 kg d 5000 g 9.8 kL f 8.25 cm to 5.5 cm to 34.5 m/s h $44.004 c 0.05 m to 0.5 cm 2 a 35 m to 45 m b 85 m to 95 m c 245 m to 255 m d 295 m to 305 m e 995 m to 1005 m f 1995 m to 2005 m 3 a 5.5 cm d 58.15 km to 7.3 m/s 8 7.5 m 2 6800 m 9450 mL 5 240 s 560 cm 8 4000 cm 65.6 km/L b 33.5 cm to 5.257 e 68.25% ii 1.6 × 107 mm d 4.75% b 7.95 mm to 5.5 cm e 89.0 × 10−6 15.13% e 5% 6 a i 4 cm ii 3 cm iii 5 cm b i 12.11% 5 a 0.67% iii 10% 7 a i 40 mm ii 27 mm iii 52 mm b i 1.85% iii 0.4 kg c 3 h 21 min 36 s a 1 h 54 min b 2 h 16 min 48 s $181.5 cm b 11.5 t f 2.6 c/L 3 C 4 $27.625 kg Yes.6 m/s $12.5 kg 0. 7 $555.5 m2/kg g 7.9375 km b 547.5 cm to 59.25 m2 b 625.25 km 10 Quick Questions 1 1 4 7 9 4.5 m b 19.50 5 225.5 m to 30.78% d 0. 2400 mm wide and 2500 mm high 150 kg 7 1800 L 26 hours and 40 minutes A 10 C a Seconds b Litres c Centimetres d Kilometres e Tonnes 12 a Kilolitres b 410 litres per day Exercise 2D — Rates 1 a Distance/time b Money/mass c Money/time d Mass/capacity e Goals/games f Temperature/time g Distance/time h Mass/area i Money/capacity j Time/mass k Capacity/distance l Distance/time 2 a 90 km/h b $4/kg c 5 runs/over d 5°/h e $16.45 × 10 kg f 8.05 × 10−7 mm 11 9.4 mL 16 79.05 mm e 9.25% 9 B 10 C 11 C 12 D 13 a 29.875 goals/game k 12.96 Exercise 2C — Signiﬁcant ﬁgures 1 a c e 2 a d 3 a c 25 000 000 b 200 000 000 8 780 000 d 5000 700 000 f 287 0.85 m c 7.5 kg to 725.3 × 104 t d 2.5 km to 45.25/h f 22.4 × 10−3 g e 2.033 b 0. b 4 c 230 000 000 km 9 a 2.75 m to 9.028 cm 1.25 m2 15 750.5 km c 1.11 × 109 g g 8.60 2 4 6 8 10 724.35 cm b 9.4 × 1012 mm c 1.25 km d 4.9 s b 16.5 cm to 12.5 cm to 90.4 × 103 m b 9.5 m c 98 m d 102 m e 2m 14 a 575.15 m 4 a 44.6 cm h 9200 m 2.5 km b 0.5 kL/day l 77.069% 1.75 L Exercise 2B — Relative error 1 a 4.5% ii 16.8 kg 6 72 h 10 1.7 km/L j 2.65 kg to 65.14% c 2.5 cm to 200.75 kg 3 6.5 m to 20.66 12 900 mL 13 800 g of rice 400 g of pink salmon 1 egg (nearest whole number) 80 g of butter 40 g of plain ﬂour 600 mL of milk 120 g of shredded cheese 100 g of breadcrumbs 14 200 g of brown sugar 60 g of oil 20 g of cocoa powder 80 g of self-raising ﬂour 80 g of plain ﬂour 60 g of choc bits 40 g of white chocolate 15 8 16 1.09 × 1013 L i 7.85 km to 9.9 × 104 kL h 1.

245 L to 2. 12 Natalie works 21 hours and Kathy works 14 hours.14 cm2 26.24% d 1.739 × 10−1 t f 5.255 L e 795 km to 805 km 4 a 1.96 km2 156.37 m2 72 m2 216.32 m2 3116 mm2 6.45 × 10 kg 7 a 25 c/L b 40 km/h c $8.5 cm to 34. 13 10 14 25 000 15 B 16 a 2:5 b 600 17 a $9.25 cm2 2914 cm2 40.5 mm2 106.09% c 3200 km/h 11 B b $960.30 b 5:3 c Sandra — $400 000.6% 5 a 6 × 107 km b 4 × 105 mm 8 c 1.85 kg to 8.59 m2 4074 mm2 5.2% e 0.41 m2 27 m2 109.91 km2 20 m2 60 m2 140 m2 144 m2 80 m2 34.88 m2 0.74 × 10−4 g −3 g 2.34 km2 54 m2 20.025 cm 8 336 mm2 1 cm2 = 100 mm2 Exercise 3C — Solid shapes 1 Triangular prism 2 Triangular pyramid 3 a Rectangular prism b Rectangular pyramid c Hexagonal prism 4 Check with your teacher.4 m2 33.5% b 0.874 × 10−3 g 6 a 5.5 m2 c 3650 m2 3 7 cm 6 16.2 m2 b 30 m2 c 5 ha b 952 cm2 6 a iii b i c ii . Carrie $75 000 Practice examination questions 1 A 2 A 3 B 4 B 5 C 6 a 20.874 × 10 mL h 5.5 cm2 c 5 cm3 Exercise 3A — Review of area c f c f c f c f c f c f c c 12. Kevin — $240 000 18 Sand 75 kg.65 cm2 12 m 5 1.2 × 106 mm b 9.5 m 12 m 15 m Chapter review 1 a 9 cm b 600 cm c 6700 m d 4.9 m2 29.54 m2 6.46 km2 612 cm2 3306 mm2 728.5 m b 50 mm c 0.5 cm2 179.12 m2 200 mm2 486 cm2 b 8. 4 a 2000 mm3 5 a 729 cm3 1 a d 2 a d 3 a d 4 a d 5 a d 6 a d 7 a 8 a d 9 B 12 a 13 a 64 cm2 8.answers 524 Answers Exercise 2F — Using ratios 1 a 5:1 b 10:9 c 3:8 d 7:3 e 5:3 f 3:4 g 3:16 h 1:13 i 16:11 j 25:6 k 4:5 l 5:3 m 4:1 n 2:5 o 2:3 p 20:1 q 3:8 r 3:10 s 4:1 t 3:50 u 5:2 v 20:13 w 9:2 x 20:3 2 D 3 B 4 12 5 1050 6 1260 kg 7 a 7.95 kg c 450 km to 550 km d 2.6% c 10% d 0.5 m2 c 234 m 3 a 1925 m2 b 2667.25 m2 9.84 m2 36 m2 68.5 h/kg 8 630 km 9 33 h 10 31.56 m2 b 3 m3 b 1824 cm3 b e b e b e b e b e b e b b 841 mm2 13.645 m2 2 20.32 km2 67.40/h d 1.64 × 108 7 a 55 800 000 km b 0.845 m2 72.09 m2 2 140.5 L b 8. cement 50 kg and gravel 25 kg 19 a 4:5:2 b 12 20 a 4:5 b Vicky pays $80 and Monica pays $100.5 t i 4840 g j 11 kL k 4.1 × 104 kg 10 c 3.47 × 10 m d 6.77 b 180 m2 c 18 m long and 15 m wide d 90 m2 Exercise 3B — Calculating irregular areas from a ﬁeld diagram 1 a B 25 25 20 15 A D C 10 b 1125 m2 2 a Check with your teacher. b 3727.43 × 105 t e 8.12 m2 d 34.55 L l 12 800 mL m 5 min n 4h o 4 days p 96 h q 1461 days r 60 months 2 112 kg 3 a 33.82 cm2 104 m2 10 m2 10 A 1.585 m2 22.83 m2 9 100 mm2 10 Quick Questions 1 1 4 7 10 22. 5 CHAPTER 3 Applications of area and volume Are you ready? 1 a c 2 a 3 a 42.5 cm b 8.8 km e 69 mm f 1125 cm g 9 kg h 9.69 cm2 1026 mm2 130.5 L 8 320 9 84 10 C 11 Tom gets $700 and Rachael gets $300.5 L 11 $891 12 a 3:4 b 4:3 c 3:5 d 8:5 e 25:4 f 1:6 g 2:9 h 3:10 13 $360 14 $600:$1400 15 a 7:3 b Yasmin $175 000.4 m2 26.

7 cm3 c 85.15 cm3 Exercise 3D — Surface area 1 a 150 cm2 d 43.125 m3 c 29 772.7 cm3 b 84.0 cm3 f 13.5 m2 c 3276 cm2 1444 cm2 f 1274 mm2 4 28 125 cm2 2F 3F answers 525 .5 cm3 6 a 904.Answers 7 a 5 a 17.59 m2 d i 12.406 144 m b e b e 4914 mm3 4050 mm3 339.1 cm3 12 a 7 cm d 707.37 cm3 8 A 11 335.6 m2 2 4 6 8 10 c 42.324 cm3 8 a i 200 cm2 b i 99 m2 c i 204 cm2 d i 153 m2 9 B 12 a 504 000 cm3 13 101.2 m3 10 D c 1436.824 m3 c 2197 m3 3 e 179.7 cm3 d 11.5 m2 d 17.8 cm3 b 65.5 cm3 c 186 cm3 c 120 m3 c 700 cm3 c 2212 mm3 c 8181.4 cm3 b 228 cm3 e 286.5 m2 6 360 cm2 9 36 cm2 1 3 5 7 9 b 70 e 30 L 7 28 cm2 10 95.3 cm3 ii ii ii ii b 875 m3 ii ii ii ii 10 D b 504 L c 104.74 mm3 8 a Square pyramid b Triangular prism b 13.68 m3 2 230.74 cm2 2 a 122 m2 d 95.76 cm3 c 480.895 m3 f 4228.48 m2 7 a 187.5 cm3 14 14 cm3 15 a 52.04 m2 107.25 c 24 429 L Exercise 3F — Volume of other solids b 9400 cm3 b 560 cm3 b 92 cm3 b 1810 cm3 b 2144.2 cm3 d 3817.8 cm3 d 137.98 cm2 3 11.29 cm3 c Exercise 3E — Volume of a prism 1 a 120 cm3 d 256.885 m3 156 m3 c 2280 m3 2000 cm3 792 m3 1224 cm3 1836 m3 11 D c d b 150 800 L b 17.8 m3 d 27.5 m2 8 B 10 Quick Questions 2 b 0.25 m3 14 a 150.5 m3 b 2800 L c $796.448 m3 5 a 1357.368 m3 4 a 72 cm3 d 56.25 m3 2 a 96 cm3 d 100 cm3 3 a 100 cm3 d 208 mm3 4 a 262 cm3 d 77 585 cm3 5 254.3 cm3 6 a i 12 cm2 b i 24 cm2 c i 4.7 cm3 9 C b 2144.796 m3 15 a 175 m2 16 a 2.95 m3 3 a 125 cm3 d 24 389 mm3 f 551.44 m2 4224 m2 Square pyramid 486 cm2 568 cm2 29.92 m2 b e b e 486 cm2 c 6144 cm2 23 064 mm2 f 47.52 m2 Triangular prism Triangular pyramid 236 cm2 160 cm2 c 228 cm3 f 598.9 cm3 c Cone 9 a b 60 cm3 288 cm3 6.5 m3 d 6.5 cm 1 a 6666.9 cm3 13 a 565.3 m3 26 880.3 m3 7 6.

10. 96.1. 0.98 m2 b 352 cm2 b 1650 m3 b 2344 b 24 389 mm3 e 368 cm3 b 798 mm3 b 10. 4 e −1. −20 29. −13.375. −0.5 m2 5 a Rectangular prism c Square pyramid 6 a b Triangular prism Exercise 4A — General number patterns 1 a e i 2 a d g j 3 a d g j 4 a d g i 5 a d g j 6 a c e g i j 7 a d g j 8 a d 3 b 4 c 5 11 f 9 g 13 -2.05. –18 -. 30.. 0. −1458 −48. 20. 1 . 96.625 cm3 d 984 cm3 13 585 cm3 14 a 48 cm3 15 a 10 800 m3 d 2339 mm3 b 25.-d 1. 10th term = 29 b 1st term = 45. 0. -------8 64 512 5 a 78.01.04 cm2 559 cm2 180 cm2 700 m2 C 25 25 40 B 36 30 A D b 112. 20. 25 c 6.125. 18 c 24.8 j −1. 71.24. 5th term = 14. 41.5.005 10 a 1st term = 2. 729 1280. 11 h −25. –13. 0.2.5625 2 b 10 c 4 5 e 3 f 20 8 h 2 i −10 10 1 1 --b ----c 1 2 10 4 1 -5 1 -8 1 ----10 Practice examination questions 1 D 2 D 4 a 100 cm2 b 400 cm3 d e h 1 -3 1 -2 f 1 ----20 g j 1 i − ----10 9 a 100.5 m2 4 3417.5 32. 1.5 m2 12 a 274. 3.0001 j −0. 6. 17 c 4 f 7 i 0.4 m2 c 78. 55. 128 b 81. 1 1 1 -g 1 .125 cm2 CHAPTER 4 Basic algebraic skills Are you ready? 1 a 46.25. 4 b 22. 1.2. −192 h 1.390 625 e 9.answers 526 1 a d 2 a d 3 a Answers Chapter review 27. 0. −2 1 4 2 2 b 3 c 4 5 e 7 f 3 −2 h 2 i 13 1. 5. 31 250 4802. 18. 192 2 a c 3 a d 4 a e 5 a 6 a 7 a y=x+3 y = 4x + 3 7g x + 11 18 b 25 f 12x b 3x b x = 39 b b –8. 66 58. 11 . 5120. 20. 45. 29. 3. −11 f −6.048 f 2. −0. 22. 50 i 12. −39 --2.006 25 1 1 1 h ----. 20 480 d 1250. 54.768 m3 f 57 906 mm3 c 5.77 cm2 e 787.5. 44. 3. −1 3 .6. 34 f 32.2.. ----.18 m2 9 a 54 m2 10 a 75 m2 d 1316. 0. −486.95 m3 e 50 965 mm3 c 19.5625.5. 0. 0. 6250. ----.001. 1 113 879. 235 298 f −162.7 b c 7 Triangular prism 8 a 105.25.5 mL d 61 b 1. 10th term = 9 . 243. 51 e 44.01 d 1. −32. 26 37.4 85 683. 84 h −1.8 m2 11 a 37. 16 16. 64. 21 b 18. −0. ----16 32 64 i −0.05 cm2 c 2368 mm2 f 2. 1 2 4 b y = 3x d y = 8 – 2x b 6y c 3gy e 15g + 17 f 4h + 4t –15 c –3 d 9 80 g 60 h 2 12ab c –5kp d 6m2n 15 c 4 d –7xy x = 17 c x=9 d x = 12 b 2897. 14..5. 14 480 427 20.4 cm3 b 78. 0. 33 614. 13 4 2 4 1 b 2 6 e 5 9 h 7 3 -4 d 7 h 4 c 24.5 cm3 c 65. 50.29 m3 c 19 658 mm3 f 179 594 cm3 3 C c 360 cm2 6.5 j 1 4 15. 62 c 48. 7 ---11 . −6. 5th term = 29.84 cm2 d 18.44 m2 c 340 m2 c 1 650 000 L c 202.5 cm2 b 141.

. −24. . 80 −12. −3. 11. 5th term = −3. 20 j 6. . 4. 81. 10. 3. 9. 150 -. 36. 1. 93. 16. . 82. 50 45. 10. . 2 2 17. . . . --1. −27. . . 10 000 7. . 7. . . 15. . 37. −18. −8. 13. 19. . 625. 4. 1. 27. 9. 5th term = 25. . 36. 18. . . 256. . 8. −3 20. . −12. 1000. 10th term = 100 Add 5 to the previous term. 16. 14. 54. 10th term = 0. 59. 79. 105. . Multiply the previous term by −2. . 81. −4. . Divide the previous term by 2. 8. 1. . 9. 8. 9. 10th term = 47 1st term = −6. 72. 21. −1. 2 1 . . 2. 24. −13. 1. −18. 86. . 13. 5th term = −512. 1. 3. . . 7.-80. 8. −6. Add 3 to the previous term. . 10th term = 55 1st term = 1. 10th term = 78 732 1st term = 192. . . . . −2 f 15. 0. 5th term = 7. 27. −4. 61. .8 h 6. . 8. . . . . . . 14 b 2. −125. −5. . 1 1 . 12. . Multiply the previous term by 2.093 75 1st term = 1. −1 1 . 11. . . 10th term = −524 288 1st term = −48. 12. 6. 25. . . 40. 6. Divide the previous term by 7. b n Tn c Exercise 4B — Number pattern notation 1 a c e g i k 2 a c e g i k 3 a 1. . . . 19.375 1st term = −25. . 2. . 10th term = −33 1st term = −2. −5. −30.5. . 100. 9. Subtract 3 from the previous term. 5th term = 324. 2. −64. 5th term = 12. . 7. . . 19 b 6 c 32 80 e −11 f −4 −12 h 9 i 27 36 2. . 4 28 4 13 4 24 5 35 5 17 5 29 d n Tn e n Tn f n Tn g n Tn −2187 59 010 −2187 59 049 15 626 15 625 5 125 b n Tn h n Tn −1 953 129 −1 953 125 10 20 c n Tn i n Tn 1000 8000 4A 4B answers 527 . 5. 48. 3 2 8 c 8 f 9 i 12 d n Tn 1 9 1 3 1 4 −1 −2 −1 −5 1 1 −1 −2 1 9 1 5 1 5 1 13 1 2 1 2 −1 −3 −1 −5 1 1 2 16 2 9 2 6 2 4 −62 −25 2 4 −2 −2 4 36 5 17 3 17 10 85 2 4 3 26 4 81 2 25 3 27 3 23 3 27 3 10 −3 −8 4 30 4 81 4 18 4 16 5 37 5 243 5 34 − 5 −32 −3125 −3125 5 25 5 10 20 180 25 77 50 299 100 805 12 4096 59 010 59 048 −14 348 915 −14 348 907 9 765 610 9 765 625 e n Tn f n Tn g n Tn h n Tn −623 −624 −125 −625 3 9 3 0 9 81 9 29 6 35 20 165 5 32 6 728 4 16 4 4 10 90 10 32 12 71 50 405 9 512 8 6560 i n Tn j n Tn 4 a n Tn 14 a 10 b 15 d 19 e 11 g 9 h 9 j 11 15 Check with your teacher. . . . . . 400. 253. 3. 5th term = −18. 10th term = 0.Answers c d e f g h i j 11 a b c d e f g h i j 12 a d g j 13 a c e g i 1st term = 4. 6. 7. −1. Add 7 to the previous term. 6. . Multiply the previous term by 2. . 18. n Tn 1 7 1 1 1 9 2 14 2 5 2 14 3 21 3 9 3 19 n Tn b d f h j l b d f h j l 4. . −3. 16. . . . −7. 29 d 2000. . 162. 5th term = 15. Subtract 13 from the previous term.

12 3 5r 6 −3v − 11w 9 3156.6d b i $7.4 iii $34.097 656 25 Tn = 4n Tn = 36 − 3n 38 −18 128 −60 25 c c c c c 122 −154 1024 −100 3.88 c 6.125 d d d d 158 −370 4096 224 9 10 11 12 13 14 -a 2 b 1.2 mL b 12 mL a 24. it is the 19th term. 12.6 10 Quick Questions 1 1 9.94 c 2.9 — severely underweight c 1.6 11 C b Tn = 3n − 1 e Tn = 2n 2 Tn = 6n − 3 5 −m 8 7693.1 7 a m2 + m b d w4 − 4w e g 20q4 − 36q h j 12x6 + 6x7 k m 6x2y + 6xy2 n o 8p3q − 8pq2 p q 18r7s8 − 18r4s6 r 14p5q5r − 49pq4r6 1 a d g j m p z = 43 y = 266 x = 18 k = 22 u = −180 -c = 32 5 b e h k n q g c 49m12 f 7776r15s5 i n19 c 3 ------f 5 4r 8v i 1 ---------l 21y 4 2f 2 − 8f c r7 + r2s f 21y9 + 7y5z2 i 5gh − 20h5 l 4a2b2 + 28ab 25m5n5 − 15m2n7 y15 s3 35g10 24m2 63a5b9 54r4s3t10 c2 6h4 7p8q3 t3 --3 4 h 512n6 25x2y10 p6 4s5 128x20 2 -z 5m2 + 6mn p10 − 5p5q 9a5 − 18a4b4 18t2s3 + 54t 6 Exercise 4F — Solving linear equations w = 88 r = 48 p = 19 573 b = −16 f = −40 v = 30.2 973. 13 -3 1 2 5 15 7 731 8 2 Add 8 to the previous term.93 f 4. 30 −1 −1 3 7 7 23 10 35 15 55 Exercise 4E — Multiplication and division of algebraic expressions 1 a 24 b 76 7 d q e p5 2 a 3×3×3×3×3×3 b 4×4×4×4×4 c 8×8×8×8×8×8×8 d m×m×m e y×y f j×j×j×j×j×j×j×j×j 3 a q7 b x11 d 47 e a6 6 g 6b h 10d 8 j 27j 6 k 8k4 7 9 m 20x y n 20m5n9 p 48j 4k10 q 50p5q3 4 4 a a b b4 d e4 e 6g2 3 2 g 8j k h 4m3n j 9r3 k 12s2 b e h b e h k 20 c 92 f w3 n Tn 9 Yes.5 5 a d g 6 a a 8k12 25p6q8 m4 12 d 12q4 g 1024w26 j 6m6 Exercise 4D — Substitution 1 a 68°F b 2 a 30 b d 136 e 3 1.answers 528 j n Tn Answers 1 1 2 0 −96 −24 −10 −80 −920 −360 a a a a a d 10 B 13 a d 5 6 7 8 9 11 b 26 b 8 b −4 b 50 b 0. 20. −14.5 5 a C = 4.4 mL c 12 mL 10 Quick Questions 2 12 C c Tn = 50 − n f Tn = 3n − 1 1 4 7 10 27.34 1040.6 mL 9 mL 10 mL a 19. −6.46°F c 6. 39 4p + 2q 35.5 + 0.335 4 a 600 b d 32. −11.61 0. −22.83 e g 100 h j 25. 33.14 −8 236.6 — overweight c 14.50 18 229.6 80 $16. 10 Tn = 40 − 2n Exercise 4C — Adding and subtracting like terms 1 a 2t b 3r c d 4x e 7q f 2 a m+m b n+n+n+n+n+n c s+s+s+s+s+s+s+s+s d w+w+w+w+w+w+w+w e y+y+y f r+r+r+r 3 a 12y b 19x c d 47j e 25k f g 8r h w i j 2w k −7s l mj n 6p o 4 a 10x + 7 b 4h − 4 c d 3p + 7q e 5 + 4w f g 4j + 8k h 3x − 15 i j 3a − 8 k 17b − 6 l m 10y − 6 n 3c − b o p 19e − 4p q 20t − 23s r 6w 8n c f i l o r c f i l 39e 4k −4m 22m −z 13k 13t 16b − 26 4r − 17 13d − 8 2w c 22. −30 6 2.31 c 176 f 75 i −85.50 ii 6 C 7 a 134.81 3 a 3 mL b 3.04 b 8 a 14 b 95°F 29.4 c f i l o r q = 18 t = 331 e = −34 a = −12 d = 5.50 c 214. 6. 4 2.6 — ideal weight b 31.2 3 t = 6 ----10 .

55 5 a s = 15 d f = 52 g k = 105 j j = 20 6 a y = 10 d s = −20 7 a Correct d Correct g Correct 8 a a=2 d d=3 g g=5 j j = 34 9 D 10 a b = 5 d p = 10 g t=5 j g=5 -mz = 9 1 3 11 a s = 36 dv=4 -g x = 10 2 3 n g = −3 ----q y = 13 32 b e h k b e b e h b e h k b e h k n v = 119 p = 88 v = 12 p = −273 p=6 w = 18 Incorrect Correct Correct b=9 e=5 h=2 k=3 n=2 k = 26 n=4 g = −2 1 y = 2 ----18 o b = 12 -r h = 93 7 c f i l c f c f c f i l c f i l o r = 48 s = 48 g=0 m = 36 q = 12 m = −2. −30 3.5 g F = 59 h u=4 j a=8 a 10 km b 18 km a C = 1. 486 −34.75 12 a w8 b a7 d 36q3 e 5p4 g 48x6 h 12r8 j 20a4b5 k 28g4h3 mb4 n f3 9r p 9y4 q ----s s 4a2 v a12 y k6 t 4m2 w 125m12 z 16q5 c f c f c f i l o 14r 14x 4k − 2l 10m − 16 11 120 24x8 30y2 30x12y10 48m5n6 9r3 r 4s2t4 7 u -------3 p3 x 27p9q15 4C 4G answers 529 . −229. 35 b 5. 28 −18. −9.3 e −9.75 a l = 14 b l = 54 a 10 b 26.6 b e h k q = 17 w = 17 d = −2 -f = −2 6 7 z=7 x = 24 c = −17 -v = 12 3 e f g h i j 2 a b c d e f g h i j 3 a c 4 a c e g h 5 a mt = 6 p s = −1. −8. 384 −16.= ----------------5 4 c n Tn Exercise 4G — Equations arising from substitution 1 2 3 4 5 6 b=7 a l = 19 b b = 5. Begin with 12 and to get the next term subtract 7 from the previous.001 15.2m b i $3.193 125 6 a 4y b 17w d 6t e q 7 a 5m + 4n b 3a − 5 d 16m − 6 e 8x + 14 8 40 9 127 10 36. 21. 999.5 km iii $19. 23. −32 14. 27. The square numbers.7 d −23. 0 5. 32 7. 25. 99. 192. 28 96. 37 d −2.781 25. 3072. Begin with 1 and to get the next term add the two previous terms. Begin with 3 and to get the next term multiply the previous by 4. 28. 29. 21. −22. 24.4 a a=2 b a = −23 d n = 86 a R = 10 b d=6 d h = 6. −4. −10 f 3.5 + 2.8 37.50 c i 3 min ii 7 min d c c f c l = 2.7 e b = 8. −16. 45. 108. −4. 0. 36. 625. Begin with −54 and to get the next term add 9 to the previous. 72. 0.1.Answers 2 B -3 a x = 43 5 -d x = −6 2 3 -b x = 63 7 6 e x = 3 ----13 -c x = 61 6 f x= c f i l 2 -9 4 a d g j a=6 s=4 e = −2 r = 11. 54. 21. 81. −23.125. 8. 3125 5. 14. The triangular numbers.7 n = 5050 n Tn −19 689 59 010 −19 683 59 049 c w = 54 f D = 1080 i n = 16 c 8. 9999. 1283. 99 999 −19. Begin with 1000 and to get the next term divide the previous by 10. 0. 8. 9. 13.8 −20.5 Correct Incorrect c=4 f=3 i = −9 l=9 h = 13 m = 31 r=5 v = −4 u = 3. 29. 13 b 6. 0. 48. 2. 49 768. 162.95 3 -8 25. 162. Begin with 800 and to get the next term divide the previous by 4. −7789 n Tn 1 9 1 11 1 2 −1 −3 3 27 4 17 2 4 −23 −27 4 36 7 23 5 32 6 729 7 63 9 27 8 256 10 90 12 33 10 1024 b t=8 -e w = 22 9 c u= f x=4 i p=2 b $12 b h m = −6 n Tn 30x + 20 25x + 4 12 a -------------------. 12 288 0. Begin with 6 and to get the next term multiply the previous by 2. 37. 2. 21. 18.70 ii $12. −10.10 iii 15 min 7 8 Chapter review 1 a b c d 20. 243 9. 14 d 243. 125. 13 Begin with 3 and to get the next term add 4 to the previous.01.

5 c u = 42 w=3 f x=9 z = −21.answers 530 Answers 13 a m2 + 3m c 4x8 − 2x3 e 12p3q − 8pq5 14 a a = 67 d d = 966 g g = −33 j j = 16 mm = −9 p p = 65 15 a s = 5 dv=5 g y = −5 j b=8 16 a l = 8 -dr= 1 2 b e h k n q b e h k b b 10p2 − 30pq d 6w5 − 6w3 f 21a14 − 63a6b2 b = 160 c c = 89 e = 12 f f = −76 -h = 27 i i = −11 9 k=9 l l = −9 n = 6.8 8x 4 x 6 a −x + y b ------c ------y2 2y 7 d x = −49 CHAPTER 5 Statistics and society Are you ready? 1 Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 a 7 d 3 3 a Type of meat Lamb Beef Pork Chicken Turkey Rabbit Total b Tally III III| II|| || IIII II III Frequency 3 5 7 4 2 3 b 26 c Television e Reading and other Amount sold (kg) 10 45 5 15 10 5 90 Fraction 1 -9 1 -2 1 ----18 1 -6 1 -9 1 ----18 Angle size (°) 40 180 20 60 40 20 360 4 Check with your teacher.5 i a = 20 c=8 l d=8 w = 31 c F = 77 Exercise 5A — Collecting data 1 a External b External d External e Internal g External h External 2 a Observation b Questioning d Observation e Questioning g Questioning h Observation 3 Check with your teacher.3% Make of car Holden Ford Nissan Mazda Toyota Mitsubishi .6% b 0.16% c 49% d 0.5 o t = 40 q = 12 r r = 35 t = 17. 1 Make Holden Ford Nissan Mazda Toyota Mitsubishi 2 Mark 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 Mark 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 80–89 90–99 c Internal f Internal c Questioning f Observation Exercise 5B — Organising data Tally |||| ||| |||| ||| || ||| |||| || || Tally || |||| |||| | |||| |||| |||| ||| | Tally | || |||| |||| |||| ||| ||| || Frequency 8 8 2 3 7 2 Frequency 2 4 6 9 5 3 1 Frequency 1 2 9 8 3 2 Practice examination questions 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 D 5 a 441. Exercise 5C — Displaying data 1 Frequency 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 i a ta n n d de For issa azd yo bish N M To itsu H Make of car M ol 1 2 Type of meat sold Rabbit (5) Lamb (10) Turkey (10) Chicken (15) Pork (5) Beef (45) 4 a 3.6 b 21. 4 Check with your teacher.

Answers 3 Number of students 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 Spelling test results 10 4 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Number of students 4 Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 Number of CDs 0–4 5–9 10–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 6 Tally ||| |||| | |||| | |||| | ||| ||| Tally ||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||| |||| | | Frequency 3 6 6 6 3 3 Number of students 3 9 9 3 4 1 0 1 –4 50 9 –5 60 9 –6 70 9 –7 80 9 –8 90 9 –9 9 40 Maths exam mark 5 10 9 8 Frequency 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Number of people in a household Number of people in a household 1 2 3 9 9 9 9 0– 11 9 9 Frequency 0– 13 0– 15 0– 17 10 12 14 16 18 20 0– 19 0– 21 4 5 6 Number of customers 6 Number of students Marks on maths exam 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 80–89 90–99 7 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Number of students Exercise 5D — Quality control 1 Accepted 2 Accepted 3 Unsatisfactory 4 Unsatisfactory 5 Unsatisfactory 6 Satisfactory 0– 4 5 10 –9 – 15 14 – 20 19 – 25 24 – 30 29 – 35 34 –3 9 Number of CDs purchased Number of CDs purchased 0–4 5–9 Chapter review 1 a External b Internal d Internal 2 a Observation b Questioning d Questioning 3 Check with your teacher. c External c Observation 10–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 5A 5D answers 531 .

Exercise 6B — Population characteristics 1 Year 7 — 9. Year 12 — 9 8 Major department store 60 votes. 11 May. e The composition of cars in a shopping centre car park is not representative of the cars on the road. especially if the sample is small. 207. 26. continuous Quantitative. discrete Categorical.6% b 840 b 69 c 8. ‘more effective’. Year 10 — 8. small department store 30 votes and small stores 2 votes 9 Year Boys Girls 7 8 9 10 11 12 9 10 10 9 7 6 9 11 10 8 7 6 Exercise 6D — Types of data 1 a d 2 a d 3 a d 4 a b c d e f g h Quantitative b Categorical Categorical e Quantitative Ordinal b Ordinal Nominal e Nominal Continuous b Discrete Continuous e Continuous Quantitative. Year 11 — 5. Year 9 — 9. 371 8 Check with your teacher. 176. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Exercise 6A — Target populations and sampling 1 Census — every member of the population participates. g Users of the local library would not reﬂect the views of teenagers.answers 532 Answers CHAPTER 6 Data collection and sampling Are you ready? 1 a 6% 2 a 4600 3 a 135 b 21. 3 a Sample does not represent characteristics of population b No control over responses c Unrepresentative sample d Abnormal conditions e Only extreme groups in sample 4 The decrease in the value of the Australian dollar compared with the American dollar is accentuated by the large scale on the y-axis. Year 10 — 6. Year 12 — 4 Exercise 6C — Bias 1 Check with your teacher. b Students with part-time jobs are in lower year levels as well. discrete Quantitative. Year 11 — 7. 12 May). 192. 6 a There would be many more student drivers in Year 12 than in Year 11 — perhaps also some in Year 10. continuous c Quantitative f Quantitative c Nominal c Continuous . whereas a random sample may not do this. ‘majority’. 2 Sample 3 a Sample b Sample c Census d Census e Sample 4 a Sample b Census c Census d Sample 5 Sample 6 163. 9 7 827. nominal Quantitative. 5 3 teachers and 47 students 6 Age Male Female 20–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 10 7 12 1 7 8 3 2 7 Year 7 — 16. 781. Year 8 — 11. 211. 12 middle management and 36 clerks. 9 4 Liberal and 2 Labor 10 A stratiﬁed sample is chosen to fully represent the characteristics of the whole population. d Other music students who play instruments and don’t belong to the choir have been excluded. nominal Quantitative. continuous Quantitative.4775 10 Quick Questions 1 Census Sample Census Random sample Systematic sample Stratiﬁed sample 18 The members of the committee are not in the same proportion as the members of the parliament. 9 a Systematic b Stratiﬁed c Systematic d Random e Stratiﬁed 10 A 11 C 12 34 males and 16 females 13 Year 7 — 8. Year 9 — 8. continuous Categorical. Year 8 — 8. ‘most other’ mean? No hard evidence has been provided to support the claim. Year 8 — 16. 554. Year 12 — 6 2 36 men and 24 women 3 25 females and 15 males 4 2 senior management. 2 Check with your teacher. 810.54% c 1200 c 109. 495. Year 9 — 14. Year 10 — 13. c Residents not at the neighbourhood watch meeting have been ignored. 417. 381. The decrease is actually only 2 cents. 5 What type of university tests? What do the terms ‘consistently’. The scale on the x-axis is not uniform (9 May. Year 11 — 12. f Females have been excluded.

and low income groups may not feel they want to waste money on the phone call. discrete n Categorical. ordinal s Categorical. 7 a Categorical b Quantitative c Quantitative d Quantitative e Categorical 8 a Discrete b Continuous c Continuous d Discrete e Continuous 9 2000 10 750 11 a Barry — 2667 Viet — 1667 Mustafa — 1571 b 1968 Practice examination questions 1 D 2 B 3 A 4 C 5 a Categorical b 1984 6 a Quantitative and continuous b Systematic c The data are inﬂuenced by factors that don’t make them representative of the whole population. nominal t Categorical. Year 8 — 12. nominal k Quantitative. CHAPTER 7 Modelling linear relationships Are you ready? 1 a Not linear c Linear 2 a 3 3 a –7 4 a 1 -3 10 Quick Questions 2 1 The question leads the responder to an expected answer of yes by using emotional words and ideas. Year 12 — 7 b y Chapter review y = 2x − 4 2 x −4 6A 6E answers 533 . continuous l Quantitative. 4 Random sample 5 Categorical and nominal 6 Quantitative and discrete 7 Quantitative and discrete 8 Quantitative and continuous 9 Check with your teacher. Year 10 — 10. 10 Check with your teacher. nominal o Categorical. continuous q Quantitative. discrete m Quantitative. b y b Linear d Not linear c –3 c 2 b –5 y=x+1 1 −1 x Exercise 6E — Estimating populations 1 3 4 5 6 4000 2 400 a 10 000 b 25 000 c 3663 No — estimated population 20 000 a 625 b 500 c 625 a 833 b 1000 c 882 d 905 1 a Sample b Census c Census d Sample 2 Random sample — where the participants are chosen by luck Stratiﬁed sample — where the participants are chosen in proportion to the entire population Systematic sample — where a system is used to select the participants 3 a Systematic b Random c Stratiﬁed 4 Check with your teacher. ordinal a Quantitative and discrete b Categorical c Categorical d Quantitative and continuous e Quantitative and continuous f Quantitative and discrete Categorical and nominal Categorical and ordinal Quantitative and discrete C Categorical and ordinal Quantitative and continuous 6 Check with your teacher. discrete r Categorical. certain groups of the population may be misrepresented among viewers of this program. ordinal p Quantitative. 2 Should the tax rates for upper incomes be raised? 3 One side of the debate may be more motivated to call in. 5 Year 7 — 12. Year 9 — 11. Year 11 — 8. discrete j Categorical. d Take cans of paint from each of the ﬁve machines.Answers 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 i Quantitative.

8 1.2 1 0. 250) Exercise 7B — Gradient and intercept 1 a 2 2 D 3 a Payment ($) 0 00 00 00 00 00 P 20 40 60 80 10 0 b 16 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 c −3 d 0. 94) b 7 C 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 –5–4–3–2–1 1 2 3 4 5 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 x 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 d c Gradient = 5.8 0. 300) 50 100 150 200 No. 6) y = 5x – 4 1 1 2 6 3 11 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 t C = 4 + 1.3 4 a 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 –50 –100 Profit ($) c 60 (200. 90) 4 C 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 b 0.answers 534 c Answers y 6 8 Height (m) 2 1. 5 a x y −0 −4 y 6 5 4 3 2 1 (2. 150) b 2: $2 increase in proﬁt per person attending c −100: $100 cost is incurred before anybody attends the movie. 6150) Profit ($) 0 0 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Number of rolls of film (5000.2 0 (10.50 6 d 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 b $67.6 1.50 d = 15t (10. of patrons in a cinema 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 t 5 a $25. 40 000) 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 2 4 6 8 100 10 No. 2) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 Years y = 6 − 2x Money earned ($) 3 x 9 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 (60.4 0. 360) (500.5 2 a $400.4 1.5d (60. y-intercept = −4 .00 Y = 80A (1000. of newspapers delivered 0 00 00 00 00 00 A 2 4 6 8 10 C = 1.6 0.00 3 Y 90 000 80 000 70 000 60 000 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 b $475.5t (60. 600) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Hours worked 10 5 a x=4 b x=3 c x= 2 -5 Exercise 7A — Graphing linear functions 1 M 500 400 300 200 100 0 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 –1000 –2000 (1000.

y-intercept = 2 -d Gradient = 3 . 3) x −3 5 y = 4 − 2x Check with your teacher. y-intercept = 3 2 6 y 4 (1. –1) x 1 b – –1 1 2 y x –3 (1. 3) x c y 4 y = −–x + 4 2 8 x 1 b y y = 3x – 6 –6 2 (1. 3) 2 y = 6 – 3x x 2 y y = 2x – 3 1– 2 (1.5 c n = 1. y-intercept = 2 b Gradient = 3. –1) 4 – 3 x y = 4 – 3x 7 a y 6 (1. 1 D 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 10 Line must pass through one origin. 4 y 2 –4 – y = 1x + 2 2 10 Quick Questions 1 1 3 5 7 2 −3 y = 3x + 6 -y= 1x−3 2 2 4 6 8 (2. 5) 0 y = 5x x 8 C 9 C 10 Some possible answers are: a y = 2x + 1 b y = –2x + 1 c y = –3x + 5 d y = 6x e y = –2x – 1 f y=6 g y = 2x – 1 Check other answers with your teacher. y-intercept = 3 4 -e Gradient = 1 .Answers Exercise 7C — Drawing graphs using gradient and intercept 1 a Gradient = 2. 2) –1 4 – 3 Exercise 7D — Graphing variations x b y (3. –5) y = –2x – 3 –3 3 a y 1 – –1 2 y = 2x + 1 (1.5p 7A 7D answers 535 . y-intercept = 1 2 -f Gradient = − 3 . 11 Some possible answers are: -a y = –x + 1 b y = 2x c y = –1 x + 1 2 Check other answers with your teacher. (4. –3) x c y (1. 5 a y – y = 3x – 1 4 9 Check with your teacher. –1) –4 2 x n 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 p b 1. 1) 0 – y = 1x 3 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 t 2 a c y – y = 3x – 4 2 2– 3 (2. y-intercept = −8 c Gradient = −4.

5 1 1.50 3.00 1.50 0.40 2.50 2.80 2.answers 536 3 a y 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Answers 3 Cost ($) 40 35 30 25 4 8 12 16 20 Number of calls Distance (km) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 x b 8 4 a D 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 s c y = 8x 4 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 Time (h) 5 Cost of printing ($) Pay ($) Tax payable ($000) 5 b D = 3s 5 W 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 h L (L) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100150200 No.00 5. of hours worked 0 00 00 00 00 00 d (km) 1 2 3 4 5 b 30 L 7 a h (m) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 g (m) 7 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 b 16.20 0.00 2.8 m 8 $US 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 c 1. 5) 3 a b 2x + 2y = 22 10 8 6 4 2 c Length = 8 cm.00 0.50 5. width = 3 cm 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 110 0 12 0 13 140 0 15 0 Income ($000) y x 0 –10–8–6–4–2 2 4 6 8 10 –2 –4 –6 –8 y = x – 5 –10 .50 4.6 m 0 00 00 00 00 00 A$ 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 7F — Simultaneous equations 1 4 kg of apples and 5 kg of bananas y 2 a y = 2x +1 10 8 6 4 2 Exercise 7E — Step and piecewise functions Fare ($) 1 2.5 2 2.60 1. of business cards 6 a 6 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 No.00 1.5 3 Mass of parcel (kg) b (2.00 3.80 1 2 3 4 Sections 5 0 –10–8–6–4–2 2 4 6 8 10 x –2 –4 –6 y=7–x –8 –10 2 Posting charge ($) 6.00 4.50 1.

50 proﬁt is made for every cake sold. 4) x c English = 78. 6 a Gradient = 3. Theo = $250 5 ab M M = E – 21 200 150 100 50 0 E + M = 135 y = 6 – 3x c y E 50 100 150 200 –6 – y = 1x + 3 2 3 0 (2. means that there is an initial cost of $80 to run the stall which will be lost if no cakes are sold. 3) 2 x c Steve = $500. y-intercept = 5 c l = 15. of cakes sold 12 a b w 20 15 10 5 l 0 5 10 15 20 2l + 2w = 40 w = l – 10 b 2. w = 5 7E 7F answers 537 . c −80. y-intercept = 7 4 c Gradient = −1. y-intercept = −2 2 0 00 00 00 00 00 2 4 6 8 10 Distance of call (km) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 012 3456789 Time (years) 11 40 80 120 160 200 No.Answers 4 ab s 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 s = 2t 7 a y y = 2x – 1 1 – 2 t + s = 750 t 0 –1 x 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 b 6 0 y (1. y-intercept = 3 5 a 500 400 300 200 100 0 –100 Height (m) b $56 4 a Gradient = 2. means that an extra $2. y-intercept = 1 -b Gradient = − 1 . y-intercept = −2 -b Gradient = 3 . Maths = 57 Chapter review 1 a c 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 8 Cost ($) 01 2 3 45 67 8 h 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Amount of petrol (L) b $230 2 E 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 9 a q 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 A 2 4 6 8 10 0 4 8 12 16 20 p b 3 Cost per minute (cents) 3 a c q = 3p C ($) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 k (km) 10 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Profit ($) c Gradient = −1.5.

1) Interest ($) 0 –5–4–3–2–1 1 2 3 4 5 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 y = 5 – 2x x b 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 2 a c n = 0. of years Interest 16 000 14 000 12 000 10 000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1 2 3 4 5 b 0. of years Interest 1 $400 2 $800 3 4 5 $1200 $1600 $2000 b 2 d y = 2x − 3 6 a n 5 4 3 2 1 0 012 3456 m c −3 f (2.6 $1600 $3200 $4300 $6400 $8000 Are you ready? 1 a 0.47 c Interest ($) 4000 3000 2000 1000 b $145. 17280) (2.08 b 97 c 0.045 c 5460 (5.25% Exercise 8A — Calculation of simple interest 1 $600 2 a $120 d $6656.25 b $199.84 11 $131. 14400) (1.6m b No.90 8 $1998.58 3 $2700 7 $215. 12000) c 1600 d $16 000 3 a 6000 4000 2000 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 b Interest ($) 800 600 400 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 4 a 5 5 a $72 6 a 7% b 1.86 14 C -c 7 1 years 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 d Interest ($) 20 000 15 000 10 000 5000 10 Quick Questions 1 2 $1260 6 $138 10 $173.5 c $75 c 0.75 b 37.75 4 288 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 .63 8 $850.5% c 1. 24883) d 0.50 $13 500 c $9558.0625 Interest ($) CHAPTER 8 Investing money 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Years Interest ($) (4.80 6 a $5.50 9 A 12 18 months 15 a $627.44 4 $1.13 16 a $2250 17 $18 750 1 $800 5 $7000 9 53c b e b b $615 $90 $11 200 $12 400 c $21 420 f $684. 20736) (3.answers 538 Answers Practice examination questions 1 C 2 B 3 D y 5 ae y = 2x – 3 5 4 3 2 1 4 B Exercise 8B — Graphing simple interest functions 1 a No.88 3 25000 Population 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1 2 3 4 Time (years) 5 b 0.32 10 13 b b C $6250 $12 542.25 7 a $448.25 b $224.12 2 a 61.85 3 a $2240 4 a $2400 5 $8648.

80 7 $14 059.5%.00 $330.72 $8320.75%) $206.0219% b $108 320.00 $1031.19 e $12 588.5% 3% Exercise 8E — Graphing compound interest functions 1 a No.50 $770.72 6 $502 b $31 850. Keith $6100.25 b Interest ($) 1500 1000 500 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 3.72 d $320.75% 3.25 8 a 0. $5000. of years b Future value ($) 1 2 3 4 5 Future value $12 960 $13 997 $15 117 $16 326 $17 632 30 000 25 000 20 000 15 000 10 000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Years Exercise 8C — Calculation of compound interest 1 $6655 4 a $4630.25 $412.80 d $13 398 e $6670 8 D 9 C 10 $8636 11 3 years 12 a 1 year b 6 years c 5 years d 18 months e 4 years 13 16% 14 a 7% b 8% c 28% d 10% e 12% 15 a $15 000 b $16 110 c $16 290 d Bruce $5000.69 $6792.50 f $122 130 6 a 1.24 Compounding interest 10 Quick Questions 2 1 4 7 10 $2051.50 $385.75 $825.8% 5.72 $4720 b $4726.051 c 1.61 e $14 919.00 $577. NZA bank = $30 000 b Whichbank = 7.28 $429.00 $495.5% 2 $17 173.41 6 a No.99 0.104 e 1. of years b 1 Future value $8400 Future value ($) 10 000 9500 9000 8500 8000 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 2 $8820 3 $9261 4 5 $9724 $10 210 9 a $4500.1%. of years Interest (3%) Interest (3. Max $6290 e Bruce 50%.78 5 $70 555.67 e $1 264 568.09 $15 817.58 $14 700.50 b $9274. Keith 61.33 3 $2938.00 $962.50 d $13 503.160 f 1. Eastpac = 7%. $5200 b $875 10 Interest ($) 5000 4500 4000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Years 6.91 c $25 900 8A 8E answers 539 .36 c $7948.00 $192. Max 62.5%) 1 2 3 4 5 $825.025 b 1.40 d $15 833.40 b $15 793.69 2 $17 253 5 $2315.50 $165.50 $618.2% 5.20 5 a $8385 b $9895.69 b $9111.218 7 a $969.9% 7 a Whichbank = $37 500.66 3 $3437. NZA bank = 6% 8 a No.56 c $181 402.077 d 1.50 6 $315.25 8 $6805. of years 1 2 3 4 5 Interest (5%) $1250 $2500 $3750 $5000 $6 250 Interest (6%) $1500 $3000 $4500 $6000 $7 500 Interest (8%) $2000 $4000 $6000 $8000 $10 000 Interest ($) 10 000 5000 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 8% 6% 5% b Exercise 8D — Calculating compound interest from a table of compounded values 1 $13 110 2 $12 580 3 $46 800 4 $2599.12 $20 039. Eastpac = $35 000.00 $660.30 b $2583.Answers 5 a Interest ($) 400 300 200 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 Investment ($) b 4000 3500 3000 0 0 1 2 3 Years 4 5 9 a d 10 B 14 a c 15 a c 16 a c $1003.66 c $24 488.25 9 $6812.2% 2 a No.00 Interest (3.90 c $336 d $25 634.95 11 B 12 B 13 C $15 746.

64 Exercise 8G — Graphing share performance 1 a 7.18 1.76 Dividend yield 6.61% b $10.40 $23. of years 1 Annually $4240 Six-monthly $4244 2 $4494 $4502 3 $4764 $4776 4 $5050 $5067 5 $5353 $5376 Share price ($) Interest (8%) Interest (6%) Interest (4%) b Approximately $1.04 Share price $8.224 million b $2.5 4 4.00 1.04 2.02 2.5 4 4.7% 10. of years Interest (4%) Interest (6%) Interest (8%) 1 $320 $480 $640 2 $653 $988 $1331 3 $999 $1528 $2078 4 $1359 $2100 $2884 5 $1733 $2706 $3755 b Approximately $2.06 1.91% a 6.50 6 a No.57% Dividend $0.16 1.56 $0.70 6.176 million c 43.5 2 2.10 1.90 6.70 Future value ($) 1800 1600 1400 1200 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Years Share price ($) 5 a Compound interest earned ($) b Share price ($) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Years b Approximately $7.50 3.276 million 8 4.6% a $1.44 8.5 5 $2060 $2122 $2186 $2252 $2318 $2388 $2460 $2534 $2610 $2688 b 2700 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2000 0 0 0.30 7.08 million c $0.27c/share a $1.40 $15.30 6.3% 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 4 a Years FV 0.5 1 1.20 1– Ju 1– n J 1– ul A 1– ug Se 1– pt O 1– ct N 1– ov D e 1– c Ja 1– n Fe 1– b M 1– ar A 1– pr M ay Month 1– M ay 1– Ju n 1– Ju l 1– Au g 1– Se pt 1– Oc t Month .5 2 2.5 3 3.5 3 3.04 1.59% 11 B 12 $364 b $1.50 6.02 1.90 5.52c/share a $9.00 2.06/share b $7.20 $1.76/share $3.9% 5.5 1 1.09 $0.14 1.50/share 6c/share 4 29.4c/share d 0.5 5 Future value ($) 10 13 14 15 16 Years 2.5% 5.28 million b $6.76 $0.10 5.5% a 0.10 6.answers 540 Future value ($) Answers Future value ($) 3 a 25 000 20 000 15 000 b 5500 5000 4500 4000 0 0 1 2 3 Years 4 5 Annually Six-monthly 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 b Future value ($) 4000 3000 2000 0 Exercise 8F — Share dividends 1 3 5 6 7 9 25c/share 2 $1.00 3.50 4.00 1– J 1– an F 1– eb M 1– ar A 1– pr M 1– ay J 1– un 1– Jul A 1– ug Se 1– pt O 1– ct N 1– ov D 1– ec J 1– an F 1– eb M 1– ar A 1– pr M 1– ay J 1– un 1– Jul A 1– ug Se 1– pt Oc t b Interest ($) 12 000 10 000 8000 0 0 1 2 3 4 Years 5 7 a No.40 $7.4906 million c 6.08 1.00 3 a 2.78 $1.1% 6.12 1.60 2 a 4.

50 12.6% 18 81.00 5 a 14.67 $756.50 16. d $9345 e 24.74/share 16 5.50 13.5 d 9.00 Share price ($) c Approximately $29 600 14 $1.00 10.15 e $932.00 12.44 21 $149.47 a $3932.96 d $23 851.00 1– Ja 1– n Fe 1– b M 1– ar A 1– pr M 1– ay Ju 1– n J 1– ul Au 1– g Se 1– p O 1– ct No 1– v De 1– c Ja 1– n Fe 1– b M 1– ar A 1– pr M 1– ay Ju n b 28 000 27 000 26 000 25 000 24 000 23 000 22 000 21 000 20 000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Years 8 9 10 Month Share price ($) b Approximately $15.90 7 $1.00 e $5334.20 10 $500 b $48.5 5 Key: 2 | 3 = 23 Stem Leaf 1 09 2 7 3 3348 4 56 5 2 1– Ja 1– n Fe 1– b M 1– ar A 1– pr M 1– ay Ju 1– n J 1– ul Au 1– g Se 1– pt O 1– ct No 1– v De c Month 22 $7900 Frequency 5 8 7 2 4 c 61.60 e $2599.22% 17 1.83 d $20 199.00 14.43.17 Chapter review 1 $1000 2 a $1296 d $4.00 20 $83.6% 6 a $32 136.00 16.00 13.05 4 $117. of years Interest $1350 $1800 $2250 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 b Interest ($) 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Years 3 Score 20 21 22 23 24 7 9 10 11 12 13 c 450 d $4500 $2778.39 b $12 596.58 b $39 780 c $455 5 15 months 1 $450 2 $900 3 4 5 CHAPTER 9 Displaying single data sets Are you ready? 1 a 145 cm c 20 cm 2 b 5 cm d 2 years No.50 b Approximately $18.90 c $14 457.94 a $12 024.50 14. of years 1 2 3 4 5 Future value $20 800 $21 632 $22 497 $23 397 $24 333 4 a 6 b 12.04 c Compounding interest a $7866 b $13 216.Answers Future value ($) 4 a Share price ($) 16. The investment will be worth only $8121. Jaclyn could lose the money she has saved for her holiday.76 5 $619 8 $122.00 15.20 a No.40 b $901.44 c $4411.30 8 $5700.8 c/share 19 a 17.60 3 a $878.50 1– Ja 1– n Fe 1– b M 1– ar A 1– pr M 1– ay Ju 1– n J 1– ul Au 1– g Se 1– pt O 1– ct No 1– v De c Month b $14.5% 6 a b $2820 c $42 e $7617.00 12.02 b $12 052.4 8F 8H answers 541 .80 11 $2350 c $1.05 3 a $7280 4 6. c No.90 Exercise 8H — Inﬂation and appreciation 1 $20 800 2 a $618 d $579.52 9 D 12 $2460 Practice examination questions 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 B 5 a $8130 b No.75 b $32 600 c $436.93/share 15 $14.91 6 $2.

answers

542

1

Score 2 3 4 5 6 7

Answers

**Exercise 9A — Frequency tables
**

Tally ||| |||| |||| ||| ||| | Tally ||| |||| |||| |||| ||| | | Tally | ||| |||| || ||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| || | ||| | Class centre 34.5 44.5 54.5 64.5 74.5 84.5 84.5 Class centre 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||| || Tally || ||| ||| |||| | |||| | Tally | |||| |||| ||| | |||| | || | Frequency 3 4 6 3 3 1 Frequency 3 5 5 7 3 1 1 Frequency 1 3 6 2 3 5 14 5 4 2 1 3 1 Frequency 1 5 5 8 6 3

6

Class 10.5–10.9 11.0–11.4 11.5–11.9 12.0–12.4 12.5–12.9 13.0–13.4

Class centre 10.7 11.2 11.7 12.2 12.7 13.2

Frequency 2 5 8 8 5 2

2

Score 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

**Exercise 9B — Types of graphs
**

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Scores

2

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Maximum temperature

3

Score 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78

3

Wins (180°) Draws (72°) Losses (108°)

4

Rent (120°) Bills (90°) Groceries (72°) Car running costs (42°) Savings (36°) Population

4

Class 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 80–89 90–99

5

16 000 14 000 12 000

Account balance ($)

2 Frequency 2 3 3 6 9 6 4 4

6

5

Class 0.6–0.8 0.8–1.0 1.0–1.2 1.2–1.4 1.4–1.6 1.6–1.8 1.8–2.0 2.0–2.2

700 600 500 400 300 200 J FMAM J J A S O N D Month

Categories of employment

7

Managers Professionals Para-professionals Tradespersons Clerks Salespersons Plant operators Labourers 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Weekly average earnings ($)

20 0 20 0 0 20 1 0 20 2 0 20 3 0 20 4 05 20 0 20 6 07

Year

Answers

8

No. of gold medals

18 16

4 a

9

September August July June

May

Frequency

Average monthly temperature (°C) January 30 February December 25 20 March 15 November 10 5 0 October April

Frequency

l l i s s nk rne me yo ity ich ea ow le ou na nta ey en lsi ou Ro Tok o C un ntr osc ge Se elo tla ydn th He elb 960 64 exic 2 M Mo 0 M s An 988 Barc 96 A 0 S 04 A 52 M 1 19 M 97 976 98 Lo 1 92 19 200 20 1 1 1 84 19 956 68 19 1 19 19

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

**No. of matches in a box 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
**

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Frequency 3 5 10 15 7 5 4 1

b

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 No. of matches in a box

5

20 15 10 5 0

4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 30 31 32 33 34 35 Length of fish (mm)

6 a

10

Percentage of televisions being watched 12.00 am 80% 2.00 am 10.00 pm 60% 8.00 pm 6.00 pm 40% 20% 0% 6.00 am 8.00 am 10.00 am 12.00 pm 4.00 am

Time taken (seconds) 6–8 8–10 10–12 12–14 14–16 16–18 18–20

Class centre 7 9 11 13 15 17 19

Frequency 1 4 15 18 12 8 2

4.00 pm 2.00 pm

b

**Exercise 9C — Statistical graphs
**

Number of drivers (frequency)

1

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 Time taken (s)

7 a

No. of cars 0 1 2 3 4 Frequency 2 8 11 6 2 1

Frequency

0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of mistakes (score)

Cumulative frequency 2 10 21 27 29 30

2

Frequency

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 No. of children in family Cumulative frequency

5

No. of members

3

b

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Age

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 No. of cars

9A 9C

answers

543

answers

544

8 a

Answers

**No. of jelly beans 48 49 50 51 52 53
**

Cumulative frequency

Frequency 2 10 32 9 5 2

Cumulative frequency 2 12 44 53 58 60

**10 Quick Questions 1
**

1 5.5, 15.5, 25.5, 35.5, 45.5 2 5, 20, 49, 86, 97 3 48 4 86 6 40 7

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Frequency Frequency

5 Grouped

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

5. 15 5 25.5 35.5 45.5 .5

5. 15 5 2 5 .5 3 5 .5 4 5 .5 .5

Score Cumulative frequency Cumulative frequency

Score

8

b

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

5 .5 15 .5 25 .5 35 .5 45 .5

9 a

Score

Cumulative Length (cm) Class centre Frequency frequency 4–5 5–6 6–7 7–8 8–9 9–10 Cumulative frequency 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 6 10 60 58 8 4 6 16 76 134 142 146

10 Ogive

**Exercise 9D — Range and interquartile range
**

1 a d 2 a 3 a 4 a b 5 a c 6 a d 7 a d 8 a d 9 a 5 b 9 c 1 6.94 e 89 4 b 5 c 6 49 b 30 c 23 Sydney — 120 Collingwood — 40 Collingwood, because the range is lower. 9 b 8 The range for machine A is large, only because of one extreme score. 5 b 25 c 53 15 e 74 5 b 9 c 2 4 e 32 2 b 1 c 2 1 e 4

Score 0 1 2 3 Frequency 26 31 22 8 3 Cumulative frequency 26 57 79 87 90

b

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 Length of oysters (cm) Class centre Frequency 22.5 27.5 32.5 37.5 42.5 47.5 6 25 70 61 30 8 Cumulative frequency 6 31 101 162 192 200

10 a

**Lifetime (hours) 20–25 25–30 30–35 35–40 40–45 45–50
**

Cumulative frequency

4

Cumulative frequency

b

b

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

22 .5 27 .5 32 .5 37 .5 42 .5 47 .5

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

0

1

2 3 Score

4

Lifetime of battery (hours)

c 1 10 A

d 2 11 B

12 D

5.5 15 .5 25 .5 35 .5 45 .5

48 49 50 51 52 53 No. of jelly beans

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

9

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Score

13 B

Answers

14 a

IQ score 75–85 85–95 95–105 105–115 115–125

Cumulative frequency

Class centre Frequency 80 12 90 25 100 50 110 24 120 13

Cumulative frequency 12 37 87 111 124

3 Key 10 | 1 = 101 Stem 8* 9* 9* 10* 10* 11* 11* 12* 12* 13*

10* | 6 = 106

b

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Leaf 6 8 2 5 5 5 6 6 6 8 9 2 2 2 3 7 7 7 8 8 0 1 2 5 0 1 1 4 0 14* | 8 = 14.8

80 90 100 110 120 IQ Score

4 Key 14 | 3 = 14.3

c 50 d 10 15 a Maximum

temperature (°C) 0–5 5–10 10–15 15–20 20–25 25–30 30–35 35–40

Cumulative frequency

No. of days 4 22 95 124 94 19 5 2

Cumulative frequency 4 26 121 245 339 358 363 365

5 6

7 11

Stem Leaf 13* 8 9 14* 0 2 3 3 14* 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 15* 1 2 2 15* 5 6 7 9 1.95 a 8.4 s b Lower quartile = 7.8 s, upper quartile = 8.85 s c 1.05 D 8 A 9 D 10 B a Key 20 | 6 = 20.6 Stem Leaf 20 2 7 21 4 6 7 8 22 2 8 8 8 23 0 1 2 6 6 24 6 6 7 8 25 1 22.9 Lower quartile = 21.75, upper quartile = 24.1 2.35 Key 8 | 2 = 82

b

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

2.5 7.5 12.5 17.5 22.5 27.5 32.5 37.5 Maximum temperature (°C)

c Lower quartile = 13, upper quartile = 22, interquartile range = 9 d Median = 17.5 e 0–11 16 Check with your teacher. Answers depend on class size.

b c d 12 a

**Exercise 9E — Stem-and-leaf plots
**

1 Key 0 | 6 = 6 Stem Leaf 0 6 1 3 5 7 8 2 0 0 5 6 6 7 8 9 3 1 2 2 8 4 3 6 5 2 2 Key 3 | 6 = 36 Stem 3 4 5 6 7 8 Leaf 6 7 8 8 9 9 0 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 5 6 7 7 8 8 8 0 2 2 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 6 8 8 1 2 5 2

Stem Leaf 8 2 4 5 5 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 10 1 1 3 3 7 11 0 0 1 4 5 12 6 6 13 2 b 100 c Lower quartile = 92, d 18

6 6 7 8 9 8 7

Upper quartile = 110

**Exercise 9F — Five-number summaries
**

1 8, 15, 16.5, 18, 25 2 a 23, 44, 81.5, 83.5, 92 b 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 c 8, 29, 45, 72, 93 3 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 4 40, 65, 72, 78, 100 5 a 13 b 5 6 a 122 b 6 7

35 40 45 50 55 60

c 26 c 27

9D 9F

answers

545

answers

546

8 a d 9 a d 10 B 13 a b 148 92 58 27

Answers

b 56 e 28 b 31 e 8 11 C 22, 28, 35, 43, 48

20 25 30 35 40 45 50

c 90 c 43 12 D

Chapter review

1

Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Class 3.5–4.0 4.0–4.5 4.5–5.0 5.0–5.5 5.5–6.0 6.0–6.5 6.5–7.0 Frequency 6 8 5 3 2 0 1 Class centre 3.75 4.25 4.75 5.25 5.75 6.25 6.75 Frequency 1 4 5 2 4 3 1 ABC (54°) SBS (10°) Channel 7 (96°) Channel 9 (144°) Channel 10 (56°)

14 a 10, 13.5, 22, 33.5, 45 b

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

15 a

Class 120–129 130–139 140–149 150–159 160–169 170–179 180–189

2

Cumulative Class centre Frequency frequency 124.5 134.5 144.5 154.5 164.5 174.5 184.5 4 3 4 6 2 2 7 4 7 11 17 19 21 28

3

b

Cumulative frequency

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

12 4. 13 5 4. 14 5 4. 15 5 4. 16 5 4. 17 5 4. 18 5 4.5

4 iii 182

Friday

No. of hamburgers sold

c i 155 d 16 a

Class 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49

ii 140

120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

Monday 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Tuesday

Class centre Frequency 17 22 27 32 37 42 47 7 15 4 3 0 0 1

Cumulative frequency 7 22 26 29

Frequency

Thursday Wednesday

5

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Number of sales

29 29 30

b

Cumulative frequency

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 17 22 27 32 37 42 47 Age

6 a

Class 5000–9999 10 000–14 999 15 000–19 999 20 000–24 999 25 000–29 999 30 000–34 999

Class centre 7 500 12 500 17 500 22 500 27 500 32 500

Frequency 1 5 9 3 2 2

c

15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

d Check with your teacher.

Answers

b

Frequency

00 00 00 00 00 0 0 75 12 5 17 5 22 5 27 5 32 5

No. of people at a football match

7 a

Class 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 80–89

Cumulative frequency

Class centre Frequency 34.5 44.5 54.5 64.5 74.5 84.5 3 6 12 15 18 10

Cumulative frequency 3 9 21 36 54 64

c

Cumulative frequency 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

b

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

34.5 44.5 54.5 64.5 74.5 84.5 English exam mark

8 a 7 9 a i 25 b i 62.5 c i 1.1 10 a 2 11 a 61

ii ii ii b b

b 159 c 1.4 24 iii 27.5 iv 3.5 43 iii 84 iv 41 0.7 iii 1.5 iv 0.8 Lower = 1, upper = 3 c 2 Lower = 54, upper = 70 c 16

d e 7 a d

34 i 23 45 7

Frequency

10 8 6 4 2 0

b

12 17 22 27 32 37 42 No. of admissions to hospital in a day

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

12 17 22 27 32 37 42 No. of admissions to hospital in a day

ii 13 b 15 c 35 e Check with your teacher.

**CHAPTER 10 Summary statistics
**

Are you ready?

1 a 4.4 2

3 4 5

**12 Key 2 | 1 = 21 Stem Leaf 2 1 1 3 4 8 8 8 9 9 9 3 0 3 4 5 5 5 6 8 8 8 8 9 4 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 4 5 5 5 6 8 9 a 28 b 38 c 12.5 6, 24, 41, 69, 91 0, 21, 26, 32, 50 a 43 b 43 c 14
**

0 2 4 6 8 1012 14 16 18 20

b 1.4125

c 75.4

6

7

8

9

10

13 14 15 16 17

3 a

Score 12 13 14 15

Frequency 2 3 3 3 2 1 4 2 Frequency 1 4 6 5 4

**Practice examination questions 1 C 2 B 4 C 5 A 6 a
**

Class 10–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44

3 A

Cumulative frequency 7 11 18 23 27 28 30

16 17 18 19 b Class 0–9 10–19 20–29 30–39 40–49

Class centre Frequency 12 17 22 27 32 37 42 7 4 7 5 4 1 2

9F 9F

answers

547

answers

548

Answers

4 Key 2 | 1 = 21 Stem Leaf 2 0 0 0 0 4 4 5 7 8 9 9 3 1 1 1 2 6 9 4 0 1 1 1 1 4 6 6 6 6 8 8 9

9 a

Score (x) 8 10 12 14 16 18

Frequency (f) 2 7 11 6 2 2 Σ f = 30

f×x 16 70 132 84 32 36 Σ f × x = 370

**Exercise 10A — Calculating the mean
**

1 a 5 b 26.5 d 7.72 e 376 2 72.6 3 125.7 c/L 5 Yes, mean mass is 45.035 g. 6 a Score Frequency

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 4 5 9 3 5 2 Σ f = 30

c 74.25 4 1.81 m

f×x 8 20

-b 12 1 3 10 D 13 a

11 B

Class centre (x) 35.5 45.5 55.5 65.5 75.5 85.5 95.5 Frequency (f) 1 3 4 7 11 2 2 Σ f = 30

12 C

f×x 35.5 136.5 222.0 458.5 830.5 171.0 191.0 Σ f × x = 2045

Class 30 63 24 45 20 Σ f × x = 210 31–40 41–50 51–60 61–70 71–80 81–90 91–100

b 7 7 a

No. of televisions sold 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

No. of weeks 4 4 3 6 7 12 8 2 4 2 Σ f = 52

f×x 64 68 54 114 140 252 176 46 96 50 Σ f × x = 1060

b 68.17 14 a

Time 50.01–51.00 51.01–52.00 52.01–53.00 53.01–54.00 54.01–55.00 55.01–56.00

Class centre 50.5 51.5 52.5 53.5 54.5 55.5

No. of swimmers 4 12 23 38 15 3 Σ f = 95

f×x 202.0 618.0 1207.5 2033.0 817.5 166.5 Σ f × x = 5044.5

15 16 17 18 19 20

**b 53.1 Check with your teacher. a 14.1 b 3.4 a 6.6 b 30.67 166.25 a 12.5, 13.5, 14.5, 15.5, 16.5 a Class Class centre
**

1–10 5.5 15.5 25.5 35.5 45.5 55.5 65.5 75.5 85.5 95.5 11–20 21–30 31–40 41–50 51–60 61–70 71–80 81–90 91–100

c 44.4 b 14.4

Frequency 12 6 5 7 9 9 5 5 5 7

b 20.4 8 a Score (x)

0 1 2 3 4 5

Frequency (f) 4 9 18 10 5 4 Σ f = 50

f×x 0 9 36 30 20 20 Σ f × x = 115

b 2.3

b 46.4

Answers

Cumulative frequency

**Exercise 10B — Standard deviation
**

1 a d 2 a d 3 a d 4 a 5 a 6 a c 7 a c 8 a 2.29 b 2.19 c 20.17 3.07 e 42.44 26.94 b 2.14 c 57.51 0.26 e 96.04 Sample b Population c Population Sample e Population 616.6 b Sample c 270.97 1.44 b Population c 0.48 – – x = 4.9, σn = 1.0 b x = 48.2, σn = 1.2 – x = 78.3, σn = 2.3 – – x = 17.45, σn = 3.69 b x = 14.95, σn = 7.49 – x = 56.02, σn = 14.26 – Brianna: x = 75, σn = 3.69 – Katie: x = 74, σn = 18.28 b Brianna is more consistent because she has a lower standard deviation. B 10 C – x = $1825, σn − 1 = 797 – a 500 b x = 455.3, σn − 1 = 88.9 Crinkle, because the standard deviation in the weight of each pack is lower and therefore you are more likely to get the correct amount.

b

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

c 10

2

7 12 17 22 27 32 No. of sick days

**13 a 5 d 0.4 14 a 17 d 72 15 a 4 16 17 17 a 17–20 18 a Depth
**

(cm) 0–50 50–100 100–150 150–200 200–250 250–300 300–350 350–400

Cumulative frequency

b e b e b

8 110 148, 151 2.6 8

c 11 c No mode c 42, 44

b 22–28

Class centre 25 75 125 175 225 275 325 375 Frequency 8 9 12 15 6 4 2 2 Cumulative frequency 8 17 29 44 50 54 56 58

9 11 12 13

**Exercise 10C — Median and mode
**

6 81 a 5 b 5.4 c 62 d 102 a 4 b 5.6 c The median is a better measure because one large score makes the mean larger than what is typical. 5 a Cumulative 1 2 3 4

Score 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Frequency 4 9 6 12 8 5 4 2 frequency 4 13 19 31 39 44 48 50

b

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

25 75 125 175 225 275 325 375 Depth of snow (cm)

c 152 19 a

Class $200–$249 $250–$299 $300–$349 $350–$399 $400–$449 $450–$499 $500–$549 $550–$599

Cumulative frequency

Class centre 224.5 274.5 324.5 374.5 424.5 474.5 524.5 574.5

Frequency 8 4 6 6 4 2 6 4

Cumulative frequency 8 12 18 24 28 30 36 40

b 20 6 3 11 a

7 1

8 C

9 C

10 A

Cumulative frequency 10 22 29 35 40 43 45

Days sickness 0–4 5–9 10–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–34

Frequency 10 12 7 6 5 3 2

b $350–$399 c 40

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 22 27 32 37 42 47 52 57 Weekly wage ($)

$360

**10 Quick Questions 1
**

1 6.2 6 77.5 2 6 7 78 3 5 8 78 4 2.25 9 1.12 5 2.39 10 1.12

b 10–14 12 a 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, 32

10A 10C

answers

549

answers

550

Answers

**Exercise 10D — Best summary statistics
**

1 a $425 000 b $370 000 c $350 000 d The median, as the mean is inﬂated by one large score and the mode is the lowest price. 2 a 7.1 b 7 c 7 d The mode, as it is the size that sells the most. 3 a 23 550 b 20 000–30 000 c 10 000–20 000 d 200

Cumulative frequency 150 100 50 0

Chapter review

1 a 5.2 2 a 7.025 3

Class 21–24 25–28 29–32 33–36 37–40 41–44 45–48 49–52

b 64.875 b 9.46

Class centre 22.5 26.5 30.5 34.5 38.5 42.5 46.5 50.5

c 7.7

d 35.8

Frequency 3 9 17 31 29 25 19 10 Σ f = 143

f×x 67.5 238.5 518.5 1069.5 1116.5 1062.5 883.5 505.0 Σ f × x = 5461.5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 Crowd number

e 21 000 4 B 5 a

Class 0–4 5–9 10–14 15–19 20–24 25–29

f Median

Class centre 2 7 12 17 22 27 Cumulative frequency 16 22 26 28 29 30

Frequency 16 6 4 2 1 1

**b 6.8 c 0–4 d 0–4 6 Check with your teacher; answers depend on groupings used. 7 a Class Cumulative
**

Class 1–15 16–30 31–45 46–60 61–75 76–90

Cumulative frequency

**Mean = 38.2 a 31.1 b 23.2 c 0.445 a 29.9 b 26.4 c 18.6 a 71.8 b Population c 17.3 a 1.95 b Sample c 0.89 – – a x = 0.81, σn = 0.42 b x = 67.25, σn = 75.3 – – c x = 28.1, σn = 1.2 d x = 27.5, σn = 7.03 9 a 27 b 6 c 3.2 d 5.5 e 128 10 a 2 b 56 c 68.5 11 a Class Cumulative 4 5 6 7 8
**

Class 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 80–89 90–99 centre 34.5 44.5 54.5 64.5 74.5 84.5 94.5 Frequency 18 34 39 45 29 10 5 frequency 18 52 91 136 165 175 180

centre 8 23 38 53 68 83

Frequency 1 13 2 0 5 4

frequency 1 14 16 16 21 25

20 15 10 5 0

Cumulative frequency

b i 42.2 c 25

ii 16–30

iii 16–30

b 50–59 c 180

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

8 23 38 53 68 83 Age of patients

d f 8 a b c d e 9 a

27 e No Check with your teacher. Player A: 34.3 Player B: 41.8 Player B Player A: 32.5 Player B: 0 Player A Check with your teacher. 65 out of 80 earn less than the mean and another 10 only slightly more than the mean. Hence it is misleading. b The median and the mode would be useful in your submission as they are not distorted by the larger salaries as the mean is.

.5 .5 .5 .5 .5 .5 .5 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 Score

d 58 a 2 b 23, 27 a 2 b 15, 18 46–49 a 27.8 b 24.5 d Median 16 Check with your teacher. 12 13 14 15 Practice examination questions 1 A 2 A 3 D 4 B

c No mode

c 28

5 B

Answers

6 a

Income $50 000– $75 000 $75 000– $100 000 $100 000– $125 000 $125 000– $150 000 $150 000– $175 000 $175 000– $200 000 Class centre $62 500 Frequency 12 Cumulative frequency 12

11 2:3 12 200 13 2 000 000

**Exercise 11B — Solving problems using similar ﬁgures
**

1 6.25 m 2 a

$87 500

18

30

$112 500

26

56

h

$137 500 24 80

1m 9.5 m b 38 m 3 a 25 cm

$162 500

12

92

$187 500

8

100

h 170 cm 3m b 1:6 10 m a 20 km d 51.2 km a 4 cm d 68 cm D B 20 m 4 cm 50 cm c 10.2 m 5 B b 36 km e 3.6 km b 9 cm e 1.6 cm c f c f 6 60 km 26 km 1.6 km 4.4 cm 7.5 cm

b d f 7 a b c d e

$120 000 c 35 622 $100 000–$125 000 e $100 000–$125 000 mean – Text A: x = 58.6, σn = 25.1 – Text B: x = 62.25, σn = 11.8 Population because the whole classes’ results have been used. Text B Text B — lower standard deviation Check with your teacher.

4 7 8 9 10 11 12

**CHAPTER 11 Similarity of two-dimensional ﬁgures
**

Are you ready?

a 5:4 b 8:7 c 16 : 25 d 1:5 a XY b ∠CAB 4 ∠ABX = ∠ACX (given) ∠AXB = ∠AXC (given) ∠XAB = ∠XAC (angle sum of a triangle) ∴ LABX ||| LACX (equiangular) 5 a 1:3 b 10 : 9 1 2 3 4

Exercise 11C — House plans

1 a 20 m × 25 m b 10 m × 15 m 2 a 18 m × 12 m b 6.75 m × 4.5 m c Bed 1 — 4.5 m × 4.5 m 3 a 8.5 m b 3.5 m c 40° 4 Check with your teacher. 5 Check with your teacher.

Chapter review

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Check with your teacher. Check with your teacher. Check with your teacher. a Check with your teacher. b 2:5 20 cm 20 m 22.5 m a 400 m b 2.4 km c 3.4 km 80 m × 128 m a 30 m × 34 m b 10.8 m × 14 m c 151.2 m2 3 B

**Exercise 11A — Similar ﬁgures and scale factors
**

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Corresponding angles equal Corresponding angles equal Corresponding sides in equal ratio Corresponding sides in equal ratio Corresponding angles equal Corresponding angles equal They are similar. They are not similar. -a 2:3 b 11 2

-b 21 2

10 a 2:5

Practice examination questions 1 C 2 D 4 a 7.68 m b 12.5 m 5 a Check with your teacher. b 12.4 m long and 11.8 m wide

10D 11C

answers

551

answers

552

1 2 3 4 5 a a a a a $2058 $495 25% $75

Answers

CHAPTER 12 Taxation

Are you ready?

b b b b

y y = 2x + 1 –1 2 x –2 y 5 x y=5–x 5 1 2

4 D 7 $3500

5 $106 000 8 $1550

6 $4600

$24 960 $862.50 12.5% $1400

c c c c b

**$1012.50 $528 d $708.75 150% d 6.4% $250
**

y y = 4x – 2 x

**Exercise 12D — Calculating tax
**

1 $5235 2 a Nil b $1901.25 c $3975.00 d $7896.00 e $23 740 f $71 200 3 a $32 639 b $4391.70 4 $9917.40 5 a $5280.00 b $534.00 c $5814.00 6 a $2977.50 b $17 280.00 c $30 590 7 $61.66 8 $477.23 9 C 10 B 11 C 12 a $38 674 b $6782.31 c $291.69 13 a $90 942.80 b $468.09 c $23 821.78 d $519.16 14 a Gross annual pay = $44 605 Total tax = $10 091.33 b $41 513.40 c $7676.60 d $2414.73 15 a $16 721.51 b Debt of $2401.56

c

**10 Quick Questions 2
**

1 4 7 10 $600 $385.05 $2034 $59 500 2 $360 5 $502.62 8 $4350 3 $442.01 6 Nil 9 $24 870

**Exercise 12A — Calculating allowable deductions
**

1 $1153.90 3 $1070.10 5 a $914 d $1560.20 6 a $1000 7 $3087.50 8 a i $30 000 b 2012–2013 9 $960 11 $712.27 2 $1624.55 4 $1451.43 b $1208.77 c $811.72 b $600 ii $18 000 c $360 iii $10 800

**Exercise 12E — Calculating GST and VAT
**

1 $3.56 2 a 23c d 13c 3 a 80c d 63c 4 $123.75 5 a $126.39 d $5.45 6 a $30.00 d $2.94 7 $98.50 8 a $1.90 9 $348.10 10 a $1.08 d $49.21 11 a $33 550 d $38 885 1 a i $10 b 50

40 GST ($) 30 20 10 0

b e b e b e b e

$6.89 $8.99 48c 34c $32.89 $6.47 $0.94 $9.86

c $9.85 c 9c c $16.17 c $47.00

10 $18 760 12 $40 074.50

**Exercise 12B — Taxable income
**

$43 754.25 a $16 879.20 $43 568.34 a $24 219.40 a $20 503.60 a $42 500 a $34 262.30 a $74 280 a $25 649 d $1349.40 10 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 b $15 736.50 b b b b b b e $22 262.60 $20 075.20 $2600 $498.24 $8737.46 $1470 $21 289.60

b 19c b $80.63 e $6.95 b $36 630 c $193.29 c $34 705

c c c c

$39 900 $32 204.06 $65 542.54 $1540

**Exercise 12F — Graphing tax functions
**

ii $20 iii $50

**10 Quick Questions 1
**

1 4 7 10 $2260 $1105.50 $41 771 $24 570 2 $1581.22 5 6 years 8 $22 660 3 $1650 6 $36 520 9 $37 525.80

0 50 00 50 00 50 00 50 00 50 00 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 Price ($)

**Exercise 12C — Medicare levy
**

1 $598.05 2 a $648.75 3 a $23 491 b $851.18 b $352.37 c $1410

2 a Nil b i $600 ii $3600 c i $3600 ii $9600 d i $26 600 ii $58 600 e i $58 600 ii $63 100 See graph at top of page 553

iii $18 600 iii $67 600

6 g 5.91 e $102.0 9 73° 10 Quick Questions 1 12A 13B answers 553 .1 cm 4. hypotenuse QR Opposite YZ.4 cm 6 11.602 d 51. hypotenuse XZ 6.Answers 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 200 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Income ($' 000) 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 Income tax ($' 000) Chapter review 1 3 4 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 $2865 2 $2148.60 a $34 409.28 a $40 255 b $7280.2 m 13 7.00 d $22 424.7 cm b 1.9 m 47.0 cm 5 0.460 c 15.55 c $5301.657 2 a 0. adjacent PQ.30 b $32 366.20 b $4796.540 d 0.38 0.00 a Nil b $2003.93 m a 5.306 5 a 0.05 c x = 3.301 15.35 $43 883 7 $70 420 a $28 483.20 km 3.43 a $12 600 b $9072 c $6531.374 1.092 b 0.82 cm b 6.90 c 12c d $3.60 cheaper to pay on arrival in New Zealand CHAPTER 13 Right-angled triangles Are you ready? 1 a b c 2 a 3 a d 4 a 5 a 6 a Opposite AB.42 d 5.1 cm d 37.10 g 7.9659 64 1.378 507.33 c $1100.73 m 12 2.25 $22 21 $112.50 d $1252.9 cm b 22.4 mm Exercise 13A — Pythagoras’ theorem c No 10 3.56 2.9 cm b 25. adjacent BC.9 m a 8.07 cm b 368 m Exercise 13B — Calculating trigonometric ratios 1 a 1.8290 8 30° c 57° c 16°5′ 3 22.77 6 10° 7 a 44° 8 86°40′ 9 a 42°57′ 1 4 7 10 13 cm 6.893 3 a 0.15 $585 a $232.409 m 133.896 4 a 0.3 m a Yes b Yes B 8 C 9 13 m 3.5 m a Check with your teacher.5 d 548.87 73.80 c $482.74 b 18.00 c $509.60 b $26 456.663 b 2.7643 x = 12 b x = 13.13 b $36.81 d $5305. adjacent XY.55 63°26′ b 17.09 0.182 e 10.707 d 5.444 16 x = 24 b x = 0.80 f 0.77 0.04 $882.92 $99 a $1.43 d $4248.90 refund 5 a $330 b $360 c NZ$9.246 c 6. c c c c c AB 61 m 14.84 6 years 5 $27 057.61 e $1485 a $1314 b $1515 c $3900 $7950.568 c f i c f i 1 1.23 m 14 7.87 Practice examination questions 1 B 2 D 3 B 4 a $33 280 b $32 161.75 e $1.80 e $102 700 a $33 987.36 c x = 540 24° b 47° c 27° d 87° b 80° b 31°21′ 2 17.30 c 40.5 c 0. hypotenuse AC Opposite PR.50 History of mathematics 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 15 Samos Island Egypt and Babylonia c2 = a2 + b2 Patterns in music Plimpton 322 A set of numbers that obeys Pythagoras’ theorem a PR b YZ a 13 cm b 170 mm a 10.30 e $834.247 b e h b e h 0.50 b $435 c $712.

6 km k 84.5 m g 5. T} c S = {1. the ladder needs to be only 28 m long.9845 5 a 54° b 51° 6 a 78°31′ b 26°34′ 7 a 37.5 cm 16 a 1.2 cm 8 D 9 A 10 A 11 C 12 6 m 13 4.35 km c 2. 4. 4 More likely during school term 5 a More likely b Equally likely c Less likely d More likely e Less likely 6 Rolling a 6 Rolling a number less than 3 Rolling an even number Rolling a number greater than 2 7 Winning a rafﬂe with 5 tickets out of 30 Selecting a court card from a standard deck Drawing a green marble from a bag containing 4 red.8 m 2 3984 m 3 190 m 4 39.5 m 10 Quick Questions 2 1 4 7 10 1 2 3 4 17 cm 21.42 m b 1.7193 b 4.5 m h 4.4 m 5 32.9 m c 68° c 59°35′ 16 57° 4 A c adj γ hyp opp 148.0 cm a 12.6 m i 15.240 m j 41.2 m 42.9 cm 8 177.5 m 6 25.4 m l 13.1 cm b 55.01 m b 18. 5} c 15.2 m 14 20 km 15 a b 30. 4. 3.20 cm f 66.7400 f 14.4 mm e 3. 5 green and 7 blue marbles Rolling a die and getting a number less than 3 Tossing a coin and having it land Heads Exercise 13D — Finding angles a 30° b a 32°48′ b a 53°8′ b a 50° b d 21° e 5 a 39°48′ b d 79°6′ e 6 A 7 B 10 75°31′ 11 8°38′ 75° 45°3′ 55°35′ 32° 81° 80°59′ 63°1′ 8 C 12 13° c c c c f c f 81° 35°16′ 45°27′ 33° 34° 13°30′ 19°28′ 9 37° 13 4°35′ Exercise 13E — Angles of elevation and depression 1 5 8 9 10 26.2998 c 53° c 14°54′ c 13.9 cm b 3.43 km a 12. 5.6 m CHAPTER 14 The language of chance b 58 m 17 9.5 m k 10.3 m 9 97.6 mm l 5.65 cm e 2.5 m b 89.9 cm j 7.1 mm 3 5.5 m 12.1 m 6 100 m 7 15 km Yes.47 m c 2.2 m c 9.4 m 60° b 1.1955 e 21.30 km 2 98 km 3 66 m 4 a 0. a 914 m b 868 m 39° 11 21° .3 km 10 63.58 m f 2.5 km 11 a 57° b 27° 12 a 23°4′ b 61°37′ 13 39° 14 24° 15 23 m Practice examination questions 1 C 2 B 3 B 5 a 5.65 cm d 15.22 km b 54° 6 a 7500 m b 7°36′ c 3.7 cm e 14. 6} b S = {H.5 m 9 2.08 m 4 30. 2.answers 554 1 a opp Answers Exercise 13C — Finding an unknown side hyp 12 a 12° 400 m b 85 m b α adj hyp opp θ adj c 40° Chapter review 1 a 13.7 m 8 8.3 mm c 10.40 m h 5.3 cm 2 5 6 7 24° 13. 3.5 m Exercise 14A — Informal description of chance 1 a Probable b Unlikely c Impossible d Fifty-ﬁfty 2 a Impossible b Certain c Even chance d Even chance e Probable f Unlikely g Impossible h Even chance 3 Check with your teacher.39 km i 0. 2.5 mm 17 m 2 22.7 cm g 1.8 m d 11.06 km d 18.2303 d 8.65 m 18 a 15° 60 m Are you ready? 1 a Fifty-ﬁfty b Likely c Impossible d Unlikely e Certain 2 a 26 b 4 c 2 d 1 e 4 f 12 3 a Unlikely b Fifty-ﬁfty c Impossible d Certain e Likely 4 B–C–A 5 a S = {1.8 mm 3 26.1 m a 5.6 cm f 14.

9. PM. 83. 7. HTHH. The chance of each combination depends on people’s taste. S. Each horse has a different rider and ability. ZD. GGG} 4 a 12 b No 5 S = {13. AJ. MZ. The runners are not of equal ability. 28. 3. B No. SD. CK. 10} 2 a S = {Heads. . 75. 33} 3 S ={BBB. 10. 38. 10.Answers 8 9 10 13 Australia Carl Bailey because he has better past performances. 10 b S = {20. 27. 12 a S = {20. The players are not of equal ability. 20. 10 Quick Questions 1 1 4 7 10 Unlikely 100 10 4 2 Fifty-ﬁfty 5 18 8 1 3 Probable 6 3 9 0 10 Quick Questions 2 1 4 6 7 8 Unlikely 2 8 1 5 Yes S = {BB. AM. 20. GBB. 72. 18. I. The number is chosen randomly. 10. 25. RJ. 20. 8. a 10 b No. Fri. 81. 10. RM. z} e S = {Sun. 20. 8. there are two chances of a boy and a girl. Qld win. BGG. 2. YM. 58. 3. 87. 32. 8. HT. PS. b. Wed. draw} b 3 c No. AK. 31. 13. 5. because the teams may not be of equal ability. Tails} b S = {1. 12} d S = {a. KJ} 9 9 6 3 3 Exercise 14C — Tree diagrams 10 No 1 S = {HH. 9. 3. 20. 20. 6. 4. 3. S = 82. 52. 6} c S = {2. MT. 20. 12. Sat} f S = {Jan. 20. HTTT. MS. No. JT. RS. BGB. AS. Mar. . . S = THTT. . 5. I. 85. 10. JS. 10} 13 Check with your teacher. JR. c Yes. AR. 87} 15 a 12 b 24 c 24 Exercise 14E — Using the fundamental counting principle 1 2 3 6 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 50 625 a 4 1000 D 72 a 64 d 112 a 3 200 000 a 5408 36 a 100 000 000 c 1 000 000 96 a 1200 20 000 b 36 4 7776 7 B b e b b 144 384 240 676 c 12 5 6 760 000 8 1833 c 168 b 80 000 000 d 2 000 000 16 C b 550 19 307 328 000 Chapter review 1 Marcia will probably get a higher card. CL. Tue. THHH. HHTH. 20. ZS. RL. I} b 11 c 4 5 a 52 b i 4 ii 2 iii 13 6 a S = {1. Yes. A 11 B 12 C Probable 14 Unlikely 15 Fifty-ﬁfty Exercise 14B — Sample space 16 a S = {TJ. S. 14 Check with your teacher. SJ. TS. RK. The selection of horse is made randomly. b S = {HHHH. P. PL. each letter of the alphabet does not occur equally often. BBG. 20.. 3. a Yes b No c No d Yes a True. DM. 10. 10. S = MK. CR. YL} 8 S = {CA. AL. 10. ST. 20. 5} c S = {20. 6. 10. Feb. KM. ZM. 14 a S = {22. MS. 55. SR. MD. 78. 5. 14. 10. 5} d S = {20. KD. 41. BG. GBG. 5}. TT} 2 S = {11. Yes. 21. 10. 10. 48. 58. ZK. Thu. TTTT} c 6 10 C 11 D 12 B 13 The statement is not correct because there are four elements to the sample space. 12} b No a 24 b No. P. AL. 2. 4. 20. . JM. KZ. 57. 85. THTH. 9. S = HTHT. 4. 10. RT. S. Mon. 28. Dec} 3 a 52 b 15 c 44 d 1500 e 901 f 11 4 a S = {M. 82. TTHH. 5. No. 57. 7. KL. y. HHTT. 10. 84} 6 S = {DZ. TTHT. . 10. GGB. 22. 11. 10. KM. 20. 43. 20. 77. S. . MJ. d. YS. 4. 23. 27. TR. of elements 1 c 6 Exercise 14D — Equally likely outcomes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 No. 20. 78. TTTH. The letter is chosen randomly. MR} b 20 c 2 d 6 e 12 17 a 36 b Total 2 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 7 6 8 5 9 10 11 12 4 3 2 1 1 S = {1. THHT. KS. 5. a S = {2. c.. DS. LK} 9 a Check with your teacher. 6} b E = {5. 4. DK. TH. 6} 7 a 100 b 40 8 D 9 B 10 D 11 a S = {NSW win. . HTTH. GG} S = {AL. 11. 2 a Probable b Impossible c Even chance d Unlikely e Unlikely 13C 14E answers 555 . TM. On a page of writing. GB. as they could be born in either order. 88} b S = {25. b False. 6. 72. 2. S = SM. 75. SZ. 31. 7. SK} 7 S = {AM. 34. I. 52. SM. The one Head and one Tail can occur in either order. HHHT.

Draw = 0. 44 d 5. 2. KIM. SAHM. SM. 3. 7. 4. Mar. 18} c S = {club. 12. 3 3 a 26. TT} 12 36 13 a S = {56. RAHM. 14. TIZ. 6. THB. 17. SN. 17 a Each is equally likely. 5. diamond.375. 1500 e 3. black. b Each outcome is not equally likely. KC} b E = {GC.525 b 0. SVHM. THZ. c. 5. Tails}. P. KC} c 90 CHAPTER 15 Relative frequency and probability Are you ready? 1 a 0. SNDM.275 Exercise 15B — Single event probability 1 S = {Heads. RVHM..2 2 a 30% -3 a 1 4 4 a 25% b 0. RFHM. 4. 18 759 375 19 20 20 272 21 160 22 a 10 000 b 500 23 a 100 000 000 b 94 109 400 Practice examination questions 1 B 2 C 3 C 4 A 5 C 6 a S = {RABM. the relative requency is 27%. 15. S = KIB. 3. PM. 3. SVBM.03 b 0. TDB. c Each letter is not equally likely. RADM. . 57. SNHM. HT. RS. 6} 10 a i 2 ii 1 b i 52 ii 32 c i 15 ii 11 11 S = {HH. KCB. Tails} b S = {1. 11 -4 1 2 5 a d 6 a d g 7 a d 8 a 1 -6 1 -2 1 ----45 23 ----45 19 ----45 1 ----52 1 -2 1 ----12 b e b e g b e b 1 -6 2 -3 1 ----45 1 -5 2 -9 1 ----13 12 ----52 4 ----12 c f c f i c f c 1 -2 1 -3 22 ----45 1 -3 2 ----15 1 -4 3 ----13 7 ----12 . black. RM. white. 8. 2 e S = {Jan. Thu. TIB.55 4% a 0. 15 c 1. KHB. L. 97} b 9 14 a S = {MN. 5. 69. 4. RFDM.02 b $400 Yes. DC. KIZ} b 15 16 a 8 b No. green. 11. Each runner is of different ability.0375 a 6.96 b 0. 7 a S = {GD.74 2 0. . 1 2 a S = {1. NP. 2. PR. S = 16. 67. 12}. RNHM. 6} b E = {5. GC.5% b 51.5% c 17. green. M. NR. PS. S = SR} b 8 15 a S = {TCB. TCZ.. TH. KCM. heart} d S = {black. 2. Mon.375 a 0.67% b 80 a 0. 95. A.75 b 65% -b 7 8 b 60% c 0. RNDM.5% 40 000 km a Result Number Win Loss Draw 15 14 11 b Win = 0. S = KCZ. 15 red and 21 green marbles Winning the lottery with 1 ticket out of 100 000 tickets sold 6 Mark is most likely to win based on past performances.4375 c 0. 11. MP. SADM. 6. SNBM. SFDM. S = PN. RVBM. 5. 76. KHM. Tue. . 3 c S = {a. 59.5% d 0. MS. 79. 10. 9. Nov. S = THM. SFBM. 1 b S = {2. 13. SVDM} b 24 c 6 d Certain e No.97 a 0. . a 2. NM. RFBM. KDB. RN.5% 9 d ----25 -d 33 1 % 3 5 a Impossible b Fifty-ﬁfty d Impossible e Fifty-ﬁfty 4 --6 a ----b 2 c 1 15 5 3 c Certain d 1 Exercise 15A — Relative frequency 1 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0. Dec}. . as the teams have different abilities. MR. spade. SFHM. SABM. green} 9 a S = {1. 7. 10. white. green. 4. as the winning ticket is selected randomly. DK. green. KDZ. 96. TDM. 8. 6}. GK. z}. 9. KDM.04 A 9 A a 0. RNBM. b. 52 b 1. 7 S = {S. RVDM. . as each letter is not used equally often. 3. TIM. Each greyhound is not of equal ability. e.79 3 0.85 d 12. black. E} 8 a S = {Heads. 5 d S = {Sun. Fri. 4 Hot weather 5 Rolling a die and getting a number greater than 1 Selecting a picture card from a standard deck Selecting a blue marble from a bag containing 14 blue. Wed. RP. y. TDZ. d. Loss = 0.answers 556 Answers 3 Check with your teacher. SP. 65. S = white. 75.45 b 0. Sat}. DC.3 c 4% -c 4 5 c 62. TCM. KHZ. NS. Feb.35.

D. probable f h 4 ----52 6 ----12 . very probable b Even chance 11 a Very unlikely d 15A 15E answers 557 . even chance ----d 26 .. as each letter does not occur equally often. impossible b 1.7% 10 B c 0. 1. 2..1% 9 D b 0.5% 8 1 5 ----------1000 3384 -----------------160 000 1 -5 1 -5 5 0.9% d 50% A a 0. 1 .1% Exercise 15E — Complementary events 1 a S = {1. 11 a d 12 C 16 a 17 a 18 a d 1 -4 1 -4 b e 13 C b b b e 3 -4 2 -4 c 1 -4 10 Quick Questions 2 1 1 -2 2 14 C 4 -------999 6768 -----------------160 000 1 -5 4 -5 15 D c c f 10 152 -----------------160 000 4 -5 1 -5 1 -4 3 4 -9 -. 2 10 ----19 4 62. C. ----.5 37.7% a 0.5% Exercise 15C — Writing probabilities as decimals and percentages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 11 12 0. False. unlikely . b A number greater than 400 ii 8 ----20 10 Quick Questions 1 1 1 -6 2 1 ----13 3 7 ----11 4 33 -------100 5 5 -9 6 True 7 False 8 0. 2 99 -------100 ..Answers 9 a d 10 10 ----12 1 -4 3 -4 b e 1 -4 1 -2 c f 1 -4 3 -4 c 12 a b c d Probable d Unlikely True. 7 9 8 6 ----4 13 . as the name is chosen randomly.5 b 50% b 0. 3. as each student is not of equal ability. even chance 6 52 40 ----52 . -------.-.5% a 0.02 d 0.23 b 25% e 23. B. even chance g 0.25 e 0. 2 10 ----13 -..17 a 16..154 10 Probable 7 23. 4 -5 Exercise 15D — Range of probabilities 1 a d g 2 a c e Even chance b Probable c Unlikely Certain e Probable f Unlikely Probable h Impossible i Unlikely 0.2 d 0. 1.8 a 20% b 50% b 0.75 10 0.-5 a 1 . impossible 3 Check with your teacher. 5. ----20 13 18 19 25 5 A. 4. ----. 1 . certain 3 -. 6} -b 1 6 2 a i 7 ----20 c 1 5 iii ----20 19 Check with your teacher. as there are 4 aces from 52 cards in the deck. 20 a Because there are two numbers which could go in the last place. 1 2 2 13 2 100 5 b 1 -2 -.. ----. ----. E 6 D 50 9 a ----------2000 10 98 -------100 c 1 6 a Rolling an odd number b Rolling a number less than 4 c Rolling a number greater than 2 d Not rolling a 6 e Rolling a 1 7 a Choosing an even-numbered ball b Choosing a ball numbered greater than 19 c Choosing a ball that has a number less than 24 d Choosing a ball that is not a multiple of 5 8 a Selecting a coloured ball b Selecting a black ball c Not selecting a pink ball 9 A 10 C --11 a 1 b 7 8 8 12 a 13 a 1 -5 9 ----20 17 ----20 2 -5 7 ----10 b b e b e 4 -5 11 ----20 3 -5 3 ----10 3 ----10 c f c 7 B 8 D b Unlikely 3 ----20 2 -5 3 -5 d 14 a .6 c 40% b1 3 a Losing a race b Failing a test c Your birthday not falling on a Monday 4 A coin landing Heads A coin landing Tails An odd number on a die An even number on a die A picture card from a A spot card from a standard deck standard deck A red card from a A black card from a standard deck standard deck Winning 1st prize in a Not winning 1st prize in rafﬂe with 100 tickets the rafﬂe Making the last 4 teams A team not making the in a 20 team last four tournament 3 1 -. True. False.375 9 0 6 0.3% c 0.08 c 7.33 c 83.5 a 0. 1.-.5 a 1.2 9 0.4 b 40% c 0.

.025 10 a 50% b 0.3 c The missile will probably hit its target.75 -c 66 2 % 3 6 9 7 ----15 4 -5 11 Probable -12 7 . 3. 5} 1 1 a ----b ----25 25 d 5 a d 1 -5 1 ----52 1 -2 16 c f c f 13 ----25 16 ----25 1 -4 10 ----13 18 ----25 e b e 9 ----25 1 ----13 4 ----13 Practice examination questions 1 B 2 C 3 D --5 a 1 b 2 5 5 4 B c 3 -5 6 a 0. 4.3 18 a 91% b 9% 10 Quick Questions 3 1 S = {heart. 5}. 2.15 b $750 S = {1.answers 558 15 a 16 a 7 ----20 3 ----25 Answers b b 13 ----20 21 ----50 6 a c 29 ----50 7 ----20 1 ----24 3 -4 1 -------400 b b e b 1 ----10 3 -4 1 -2 4 ----------1999 c c 3 -4 1 -4 7 a d 8 a 17 0. diamond. spade} 1 -2 ----3 1 10 8 5 8 8 ----15 1 -5 4 7 10 1 --------------10 000 3 ----10 4 -5 9 a 0. 8 13 a Tossing a coin that lands Heads b Rolling a die and getting a number greater than 4 c Not choosing a blue ball 3 7 14 a ----b ----10 10 15 5 ----12 Chapter review 1 2 3 4 0.5 -b 33 1 % 3 c 0. club. E = {3. It is probable that the car will have a defect. 4.02 a 0.7 b 0.

volume 103 congruent figures 366 constant of variation 216 Consumer Price Index (CPI) 264 continuous data 187 cosine ratio 426–7 calculating 427 cube surface area 92 volume 97 cumulative frequency 285 calculating median from 341–2 cumulative frequency histogram 285 cumulative frequency polygon 285 cylinders. 446 angle of elevation 445–6. 206 direct linear variation 216 direct proportion 216 discrete data 187 displaying data 156–8 dividend yield 257 dividends 257–8 division algebraic expressions 132–3 index law 132 dot plots 277 double time 19 drawing conclusions 159 drawing graphs using gradient and intercept elements (in a sample space) 462–3 enlargement factor 369 equally likely outcomes 472–3 equations arising from substitution 139–41 estimating populations 191–2 events (probability) 457–9 external sources (of data) 151 favourable outcomes 463 field diagrams 85–6 finding an unknown side (trigonometry) finding angles (trigonometry) 438–42 five-number summaries 308–10 frequency (of event) 458 frequency histograms 283–4 frequency polygon 284–5 frequency tables 273–5 calculating mean from 324–6 functions 201 fundamental counting principle 476–8 211–14 431–4 . graphing 253–5 compound value interest factor (CVIF) 248–50 compounded value of an investment (CV) 241–4 calculating compound interest from a table of compounded values 248–50 compounding period 243 concentration (of a substance) 63–4 cones.Index 559 Index abnormal conditions (sampling) 181 addition. 183–4 in questionnaire design 180 sampling 180–1. substitution into 127 allowances 6 analysing data 148 and drawing conclusions 159 angle of depression 445. 279 commission 11–13 complementary events 507–8 compound interest 241–4 calculating from a table of compounded values 248–50 compound interest formula 243. 183–4 statistical interpretation 181 bimodal scores 344 box-and-whisker plots 309–11 budgets 31–4 capacity. volume 98–9 data 150 analysing 149. 169–72 displaying 156–8 organising 153–4 types of 186–8 database 169 debentures 234 decile 296 decreasing function 206 deductions 25 see also tax deductions dependent variable 201. units of 48 casual rate 7 categorical data 186. 264 compound interest functions. 205. 169–72 column graphs 156–7. 159 collecting 151. 187 census 169 chance common descriptions of 462 informal description of 457–9 see also probability experiments classes 274 collecting data 151. algebraic expressions 125–6 adjacent 423 algebraic expressions adding and subtracting like terms 125–6 multiplication and division 131–3 algebraic formulas. 447 annual leave 26 annual leave loading 26 appreciation 264–5 area 79–80 calculating irregular areas from a field diagram 85–6 area formulas 79 bar graphs 279 bias 180.

404 misleading graphs 181. 390 calculating 398–402 payment by piece 16–17 payment methods 3 penalty rates 19 per annum 3 percentage change 67 percentage error 53 pie charts 158. 350 calculating from cumulative frequency 341–2 Medicare levy 395–7. 206 index laws 131–3 indirect tax 405 inflation 264 inflation rate 264 information 150 intercept 207–8 and gradient to draw graphs 211–14 interest 231 interest rate 231 internal sources (of data) 151 International System of Units (SI system) 47 interquartile range 293–4. 278 statistical 283–7 types of 277–80 gross pay 385 additions and deductions from 25–6 grouped data 273 calculating mean from 326–7 groups 274 GST (Goods and Services Tax) 405–6 histograms 283–4 history of mathematics house plans 374–6 hypotenuse 418 417 gradient and intercept 205–9 graphing 201–3 piecewise 219 point of intersection of two linear functions step functions 218–19 lower extreme 308 lower quartile 293. 182–3 mode 343–4. 404 see also tax payable (PAYE) increasing function 206 independent variable 201. 279 dot plots 277 drawing using gradient and intercept 211–14 line 278 radar charts 279–80 sector 158. 308. area 80 particular responses (sampling) 181 PAYE tax 385. 305 investment bonds 234 irregular areas. solving 134–7 linear functions drawing using gradient and intercept 211–14 85–6 . 304. 205. 350 calculating from a frequency table 324–6 calculating from grouped data 326–7 measurement maximum error 52–3 percentage error 53 significant figures 57–60 units of 47–50 measures of central tendency 323 median 293. 278 piecewise linear functions 219 piecework 16–17 polls 169 income 3 income tax 385. 295–6.560 Index future value of an investment 241–4 general term of the sequence 119–22 gradient 205–7 and constant of variation 216 and intercept to draw graphs 211–14 graphing compound interest functions 253–5 linear functions 201–3 share performance 260–2 simple interest functions 236–9 tax functions 409 variations 216–17 graphs bar 279 column 156–7. 304. solid shapes 89–90 nominal data 187 non-random sampling methods 180 non-response rate 181 number pattern notation 119–22 number patterns 115–16 observation 151 offset 85 ogive 285 opposite 423 ordinal data 187 ordinary rate (wages) 6 organising data 153–4 outcome 457 overtime 19–21 parallelogram. 295–6. units of 48 maximum error 52–3 mean 323–7. 341–3. calculating from a field diagram leading questions 180 length. 350 multi-stage events 467 multiplication algebraic expressions 131–3 index law 132 negative gradient 206 net pay 25. 385 nets. adding and subtracting 125–6 line graphs 278 linear equations. 308 221–2 mass. units of 47 like terms.

area 80 right-angled triangles angles of elevation and depression 445–7 calculating trigonometric ratios 423–8 finding an unknown side 431–4 finding angles 438–42 proportional diagrams 450 Pythagoras’ theorem 418–20 royalties 11 salary payments 3–4 sample 169 sample space 462–3 favourable outcomes 463 tree diagrams 467–9 sample standard deviation 334–5 sampling bias 180–1. graphing 260–2 shares 257 significant figures 57–60 similar figures 365–7 to solve problems 371–2 similar triangles 365. 278 sequences 115–16 general term 119–22 share dividends 257–8 share performance. in algebraic expressions 125–6 summary statistics 350–1 surface area 92–4 surveys 169–70 privacy and ethical issues 163 sampling methods 170–2 systematic sampling 171 tangent ratio 423–5 calculating 424–5 . bias in 180 questionnaires 169 radar charts 279–80 random sample 170–1 range 292–3. 183–4 sampling methods 170–2 scale factors 366. graphing 236–9 simultaneous equations 221–2 sine ratio 425–6 calculating 426 single event probability 492–4 SOHCAHTOA 433 solid shapes 89–90 spheres. 418–20 quality control 160–1 quantitative data 186–7. area 70 standard deviation 333–6 interpreting 335–6 population 333–4 sample 334–5 statistical graphs 283–7 statistical interpretation bias 181 statistical organisations 164 statistical processes 150 collecting data 151 organising data 153–4 posing questions 150 statistics 149 stem-and-leaf plots 302–5 step functions 218–19 strata 171 stratified sample 171 substitution equations arising from 139–41 into algebraic formulas 127 subtraction. 370 simple interest 231–4 simple interest formula 231 simple interest functions.Index 561 polygon. 369. area 79 rectangular prism surface area 92–3 volume 98 relations 201 relative error 52–3 relative frequency 487–8 report writing 159 retainer 13 rhombus. 374–6 scores 273 sector graphs 158. volume 104 square. 492 range of 502–3 writing as decimals and percentages 499 probability experiments complementary events 507–8 equally likely outcomes 472–3 multi-stage events 467–9 relative frequency 487–8 sample space 462–3 single-event probability 492–4 using the fundamental counting principle 476–8 proportional diagrams 450 pyramids 89 surface area 93 volume 103 Pythagoras of Samos 417 Pythagoras’ theorem 417. 273 quartiles 293 questioning 151 privacy and ethical issues 163 questionnaire design. 295 rate of change 205 rates 61–4 ratios 69–71 rectangle. frequency 284–5 population standard deviation 333–4 populations 169 characteristics 174–6 estimating 191–2 posing questions 150 positive gradient 206 present value (PV) 248 principal 231 prisms 89 surface area 92–3 volume 97–8 privacy and ethical issues 163 probability 457.

graphing 409 tax payable (PAYE) 385. units of 49 time and a half 19 trapezium.562 Index target populations 169 tax deductions 385–7 tax functions. 390. 398–402 tax return 385 taxable income 385. 404 tax payable 398–402. graphing 216–17 volume cones 103 cylinders 98–9 prisms 97–8 pyramids 103 spheres 104 wages 6–7 working overtime 19–21 written reports 159 y-intercept 207 . area 80 traverse survey 85 tree diagrams 467–9 equally likely outcomes 473 trial (probability experiments) 487 triangle. 308 value added tax (VAT) 406 vanishing point 900 variations. 426. 427. 393–4 and Medicare levy 395–7. 304. area 79–80 trigonometric formulas 424. 433 trigonometric ratios calculating 423–8 finding an unknown side 431–4 finding angles 438–42 ungrouped data 273 units of measurement 47–50 capacity 48 length 47 mass 48 time 49 upper extreme 308 upper quartile 293. 390–1. 404 telephone polls 181 time.

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