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STANDARDS PUBLICATION

KOC RECOMMENDED PRACTICE

FOR
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

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DESIGN, MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION DOC. NO. KOC-C-025

STANDARDS TEAM

Page 1 o f 65

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REV.l _IIl--

KUWAIT OIL COMPANY (K.S.C.)

STANDARDS PUBLICATION

KOC RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR DRAINAGE SYSTEMS DESIGN, MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION DOC. N 0 . KOC-C-025

STAN DARDS TEAM

KOC RECOMMENDED PRACTICE

FOR

DRAINAGE SYSTEMS -

DESIGN, MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION

(FORMERLY 015-SH-1004)

ISSUING AUTHORtTY:

STANDARDS TEAM

5 Types o f Drainage System Vented Pipe Gravity Drain System 8.1 General 8. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT BASIC ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS 7.6 Dike Area Flow Capacity 6 7 7 8 8 10 11 11 11 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 18 18 19 19 21 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 26 .4 Firewater Volumes 9.3 KOC Health & Environment Guidelines 4.TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No.2 Abbreviations REFERENCE STANDARDS.4 KOC Standard Drawings 4.5 Sanitary Sewer Volume 9.9 Pumped Drain System 8. FOREWORD SCOPE APPLICATION TERMINOLOGY 3.2 Basic Drainage Concepts DESIGN OF DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 8.5 Project Specifications ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS HEALTH.7 Open Channel Gravity Drain System 8.1 Definitions 3.3 Rainwater Volumes 9.10 Pressurized Drain System DESlGN VOLUMES 9.3 8.2 Effluent Volumes 9.8 Closed Gravity Drain System 8.2 List o f Standards and Codes 4.4 Effluent Segregation 8.1 Conflicts 4.2 Design Factors Types and Sources of Effluents 8.1 General 9. CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS 4.1 General Considerations 7.6 8.

8 Sanitary Sewage DRAINAGE LAYOUT OUTSIDE PROCESS AREAS 11.8 Treatment 11.3 Entry Points for Effluents 10.8 Settlement DESIGN OF ANCILLARY STRUCTURES 14.3 Flexible Pipes 13.1 General Considerations 13.5 Valves 10.1 General 12.3 Catch Boxes and Valve Pits 14.7 Drainage From Buildings 11.4 Clean-outs 14.4 Chemical Sewer From Battery Rooms.2 Oily Water From Storage Tanks 11.5 Thermal Expansion 13.1 General 11.4 Drains Crossing Foundations 10.4 Road Crossings 13.DRAINAGE LAYOUT WITHIN PROCESS AREAS 10.6 Manhole Locations 10.7 Submerged Pipes 13. Laboratory and Chemical Injection Facilities 11.9 Measurement HYDRAULIC DESIGN 12.2 Rigid Pipes 13.2 Gravity Based Drainage Systems 12.2 Process Plot Areas 10.6 Load During Testing 13.2 Gully Traps 14.1 Manholes 14.3 Closed Drainage Systems 12.7 Surface Water From Process Area 10.5 Presssurized Drain System DESIGN OF BURlED PIPEWORK 13.4 Pumped Drain System 12.5 Drainage From Dike Areas 11.5 Oily Water Collection Sumps .6 Surface Water From Area Land Drainage 11.1 General 10.3 Oily Water From Transformer Bays 11.

7 Installation of Soak-away Pits 17.1 General 22.8 Connection of Building Drainage t o Sewer System 17.1 General 18.2 Deliverables ACKNOWLEDMENT .7 Effluent Collection and Neutralization Pits 14.6 Open Channels and Ditches 14.1 Quality Plan 20.4 Manholes 17.10 Cesspools 14.5 Backfillling 17.11 Evaporation Ponds SELECTION OF PIPE MATERIAL 15.2 Quality Control Engineer QUALITY ASSURANCE DOCUMENTATION 22.9 Wastewater Evaporation Ponds TESTS AND RECORDS 18.2 Oily and Clean Water Sewer 15.4 Chemical Sewer CONSTRUCTlON MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION 17.1 Setting-out 17.8 Soak-awayPits 14.2 Field Tests 18.2 Excavation 17.3 Sanitary Sewer 15.1 General 15.6 Installation of Septic Tanks and Neutralization Pits 17.3 Installation of Pipes and Fittings 17.3 Test Records PERFORMANCE RECORDS QUALITY CONTROL 20.14.9 Septic Tanks 14.

reliable and economic system for the collection and transport of effluents and surface water to treatment areas and discharge points. Gopakumar Maged Madi Uppara Saibaba Standards Team Design Team Design Team Export Fac.FOREWORD This document "KOC Recommended Practice for Drainage Systems Design. Ahmadi 61008 State of Kuwait Task Force Responsible for this RP The preparation of this RP has been entrusted by the Standards Technical Committee (STC) to the Task Force No. engineering. 61 407 61322 61 15 2 66987 61388 66389 71 8 3 7 . Tel. Gen. Mr. To set out minimum technical requirements to monitor compliance of material. Tel. testing. Tel.TF Leader /Author .C). monitoring and rqaintenance are encouraged and should be directed to: The Team Leader Standards (Chairman.S. No.Member Tel. construction. e. No. This RP sets out t o achieve the following objectives: a. KOC P.9758. simple to operate and cost effective drainage systems with a view t o satisfy the wide-ranging safety and environmental concerns by meeting the local and KOC Regulations. No. Tel.O. Tel. Mr.Member . Materials and Construction" {KOC-C-025) is intended t o address the basic requirements of good drainage. Javaid Krishna Kumar Ahmed Al-Fenaini S. b. Tel. No. (TF-C/O6) comprising of the following members: Mr. Kumar Mohd.Member . Standards Technical Committee) Industrial Services Group. Proj. Feedback as well as any comments or suggestions from the application of this RP derived at any stage of conceptual design. Projects Projects Design HSE Team . No. - d. construction and workmanship with a contract. This KOC Recommended Practice (RP) has been approved by Standards Team in consultation with the Standards Technical Committee for use throughout the corporate engineering and operational functions of Kuwait Oil Company (K.Member . Mr.Member . To install reliable. Box .Member . generally by gravity flow systems for KOC Plants and Offsite Facilities (Onshore). c. Mr. No. To provide the design recommendations and technical inputs in order to develop the intended drainage system for the oil and chemical contaminated effluents and water before the final disposal. S. Mr. Mr. To cover the general guidelines of good drainage requirements with a view to provide a safe. To establish relevant design concepts for forming the basis of a detailed design package and project specification to be prepared prior to construction tender. No.

Page 7 of 65 REV. Oily Water c. a. materials. consideration and amendment by Standards Team (if required). Offshore platforms. Savitary e. Compliance with this RP does not of itself confer immunity from legal or statutory obligations.shall be brought t o the attention of KOC Controlling Team for their review. construction and workmanship of the drainage systems shall conform t o the requirements of this RP and the reference standards and codes mentioned herein. . t o one of the following segregated systems: a. and describes the minimum technical requirements of materi~lsand construction related t o the drainage systems in KOC Plants and Of-'site Facilities (Onshore) within Kuwait. and should form the basis of a detailed design specification t o be prepared prior to construction tender. b. which shall be collected and directed. Deep sea discharges. e. d. The extent of the Work shall be defined clearly on the Project drawings for the intended drainage systems and detailed specifications shall be provided by the Designer 1 Contractor for KOC approval. Chemical d. APPLICATION The design. Outfall requirements. c. Waste Water This Rf' does not include the drainage requirements for the following: Closed process drains for oil and gas production (to be regarded as part of process plant pipe-work). along with their merits and justific~tions. The content of this RP is intended to be adopted as a design guide to meet the minimum KOC requirements. Any exceptions or deviations from this RP. Dril!ing and Exploratory well fluid drainage. This RP covers the basic requirements of all drainage. Surface Water b.1 SCOPE This Recommended Practice (RP) provides guidance on the design of general drainage systems.

Adverse Environmental Impact That causes serious harm t o human. and where ground conditions prevent the use of a small sewage treatment works includir g septic tanks. and may generally include crude. partially or completely treated or in their natural state. additives. or would require remedial actions under governing regulations or operating practices. Designer Person or persons from KOC or from Contractor or any Consulting firm approved by KOC. gasoline. Effluents A discharge of waste material in the form of liquids or liquids mixed with solids irlto the environment. biological. sanitary and other harmful wastes. condensate. or contaminates soil. groundwater / sea water which would make the surrounding area unsuitable for its current or intended use. Used in conveyance systems t o facilitate inspection and maintenance of drainage systems that cannot be entered by personnel and are not scheduled for frequent inspection and maintenance. or radiological substance or matter that changes the naturally occurring make-up of the environment. natural flora and fauna. solvents. who are undertaking the responsibilities of the actual design and detailed specifications. marine life or wildlife. vegetation. . when disposed off unlreated. the following definitions apply. chemical. chlorides. related t o the drainage systems at the KOC Plants and Offsite Facilities. Contaminants Any physical.TERMINOLOGY Definitions For the purposes of this RP. Cesspools Covered watertight tanks used for receiving and storing sewage from premises which cannot be connected to a plant or public sewer. acids.

Screening A mechanical process. Good Drainage A network of open and / or closed system for conveying surface runoff. separate from others in the effluents for further processing and disposal.) or gases within its interconnected pore network by gravity. produced water and other products or effluents t o discharge safely from areas or plants and facilities without contaminating or flooding into natural watercourses or soil. bathrooms and kitchens etc. which keep certain wastes and reactive chemicals. tank water draws. and manifolds etc. pump base drains. Permeability Hydraulic property (conductivity) of a medium (soil) as a measure of its ability / capacity t o transmit fluids (water etc. Segregated Drainage System A network of collection and conveying system(s). Sanitary Sewage System A separate / segregated drainage system for handling and disposing of sanitary wastes from toilets.Fluid T:-eatment Center (FTC) Tempo-ary ponds for holding effluents and then recycling for further use or disposal. underground water. . Oily Water System A sepa-ate drainage system t o carry contaminated water frequently mixed with hydrocarbons from sources such as process drains. by permitting entry of the personnel. which accomplishes a division of particles on the basis c f sizes by accepting or removing relatively coarse floating and suspended solids by straining through a screening surface. laboratory sinks. Manhole Chamber with a removable cover used in conveyance systems to facilitate inspection and maintenance of the drainage pipe.

but does not escape t o the surface t o cause flooding. designed to carry wastewater and / or surface water from more than one source. Waste Water System Separate drainage system(s) dedicated t o dispose off all other types of foul water. bacterial action in the absence of dissolved oxygen. Septic Tank A type of settlement tank in which the sludge is retained for sufficient time for the organic matter to undergo anaerobic decomposition i. acids. 2ontaminated with process fluids. free from hydrocarbon or other chemicals. Sewer Pipeline or other construction.e. hydrocarbons or sanitary wastewater.1 Ability of the flow in a drain or sewer to carry away solid particles. Abbreviations EPA (K1V) EPA (USA) EWTP FTC GRE GRP HDPE HSE Environment Public Authority Environmental Protection Agency Effluent Water Treatment Plant Fluid Treatment Center Glass Reinforced Epoxy Glass Reinforced Plastics High Density Polyethylene Health. usually underground.DOC. Storm Water System Separate drainage system(s) for disposal of surface runoff. Safety and Environment . being either mainly clean rainwater from areas away from tanks and process facilities.NO. or rain water contaminated with fire water and wash down water containing other liquids from drips or spills. solvents. which would otherwise be deposited in the channel or pipe. Surcharge Flow condition in which waste water and / or surface water is held under pressure within a gravity drain or sewer system. KOC-C-025 Self-cleansing 1 Page 10 of 65 1 REV.

Black and Hot-Dipped.S.8 ASTM A 5 3 A S T M A ? 53 A S T M C? 50 A S T M I31556 . the subject shall be brought t o the attention o f KOC Controlling Team. In case further clarifications are required. or other contractual requirements. Steel. CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS Conflicts In the event o f conflicts between this RP and the standards / codes referenzed herein.KOC PVC QA/QC RTRP UPVC Kuwait Oil Company (K.3 ASME H31. ZincCoated. codes and specifications shall apply: Nationsl / International Standards API 5 L API 15 LR Specification for Line Pipe Specification for Low Pressure Fiberglass Line Pipe and Fittings Specification for High Pressure Fiberglass Line Pipe and Fittings Process Piping Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems Specification for Pipe.4 ASME B31.C) Plasticized Polyvinyl Chloride Quality Assurance / Quality Control Reinforced Thermo resin Plastics Un-plasticized Polyvinyl Chloride REFERENCE STANDARDS. List of Standards and Codes The latsst edition o f the following standards. the most stringent requirement shall apply. Welded and Seamless Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) o n Iron and Steel Hardware Specification for Portland Cement Test Method for Density and Unit Weight o f Soil in place b y the Sand Cone Method API 15 HR ASME 1331.

KOC-C-025 r REV-1 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Efforts Standard Test Method for Oil and Grease and Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water Vitrified Clay Pipes. NO.DOC. Fittings and Ducts. Joints and Specials for Water and Sewage Galvanized Ferrous or Stainless Steel Manhole Steps Unplasticized PVC Pipes for Industrial purposes Thermoplastics Ancillary Fittings of Nominal Sizes 1 10 and 1 6 0 for Below Ground Gravity Drainage and Sewerage Ductile Iron Pipes and Fittings Propylene Copolymer Pressure Pipe Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP) Pipes. Joints and Fittings for Use for Water Supply or Sewerage Concrete Pipes and Ancillary Concrete Products Part 1: Specification for Un-reinforced and Reinforced Concrete Pipes (Including Jacking Pipes) and Fittings with Flexible Joints Specification for Un-reinforced and Reinforced Part 4: Concrete Inspection Chambers Pre-cast Concrete Pipes and Ancillary Concrete Products Specification for Inspection Chambers and Part 2: Street Gullies Part 200: Specification for Un-reinforced and Reinforced Manholes and Soak-ways of Circular Cross Section Part 230: Specification for Road Gullies and Gully Cover Slabs Code of Practice for Site Investigations Code of Practice for Earthworks . Also Flexible Mechanical Joints for Use Solely with Surface Water Pipes and Fittings ASTM 015 5 7 ASTM D3921 8 s 534 BS 1 2 4 7 Part 1 8 s 3506 BS 4660 Steel Pipes.

Type Testing. Marking.Requirements and Test Methods Ductile lron Pipes. Fittings and Joints for Process Plants Design of Concrete Structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids Code of Practice for Pipelines Part 1: Pipelines on Land: General Part 2: Pipelines on Land: Design. Fittings and the System .Materials Requirements for Seals Used in Pipes and Fittings Carrying Gas and Hydrocarbon Fluids Drain and Sewer Systems Outside Buildings Part 1 : Generalities and Definitions Part 2: Performance Requirements Part 4: Hydraulic Design and Environmental Considerations Plastics Piping Systems for Non-Pressure Underground Drainage and Sewerage Un-plasticized Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC-U) Part1 : Specifications for Pipes.Requirements and Test Methods Elastomeric Seals . Accessories and Their Joints for Sewerage Applications . Accessories and Their Joints for Water Pipelines . Fittings.Design Requirements. Construction and Installation Code of Practice for Protection of Structures against Water from the Ground Structural Use of Concrete Part 1 : Code of Practice for Design and Construction Gully Tops and Manhole Tops for Vehicular and Pedestrian Areas .Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Small Sewage Treatment Works and Cesspools Polyethylene Pipes (Type 50) in Metric Diameters for General Purposes Reinforced Plastic Pipes. Fittings. Quality Control Ductile lron Pipes.

Layout and Calculation BS I S 0 4 0 6 5 NFPA 2 0 Thermoplastics Pipes .l Gravity Drainage Systems Inside Buildings Part 1 : General and Performance Requirements Part 2: Sanitary Pipe-work.Universal Wall Thickness Table Standard for the Installation o f Stationary Pumps 4. KOC-GO25 Page 14 of 65 I REV.DOC.2 KOC S-tandards KOC-(2-001 KOC-C-002 KOC Standard for Basic Civil Engineering Design Data KOC Recommended Practice for Engineering Design Basis o f Civil and Structural Work KOC Standard for Geotechnical Investigation (Onshore) KOC Standard for Materials and Workmanship Preparation and Earthwork KOC Standard for Concrete Work Construction KOC-C-024 Part 2 - Site - Materials and KOC Standard for Materials and Workmanship Roadways. Parts 1-8 .2. Paving and Hard Standing: Part 2 Miscellaneous Works & Rigid Pavement - KOC Standard for Materials and Workmanship Wail for Storage Tanks KOC Standard for Hazardous Area Classification KOC Standard for Basic Design Data KOC Standard Equipment for Fire Protection and - Bund Safety KOC Recommended Practice for RTRP Pipes and Fittings Part 1 : Materials Part 2: Engineering Design and Installation KOC Standard for HDPE Pipes and Fittings Part 1 : Materials Part 2: Engineering Design and Installation KOC Standard for External Coating of Pipelines. NO.

KOC-P-005 KOC Standard for Internal Coating o f Pipelines KOC Fire & Safety Regulations 4. Cathodic Protection Design Requirements c. which should be designated b y the Controlling Team in KOC.2 1 6 0 4. Pipirg Material Classes b. 3 ~ Quality Assurance and Quality Control Requirements .5 Praiect Specifications This RP makes also reference t o other specifications.213 0 KOC . P r o j e .4 KOC Standard D r a w i n q s 1 5-1 -22 15-4-14 15-4-2? 1 5-4-28 15-5-7' 15-14-' 0 15-25-' 1 5-30-'113 15-39-28 Standard Pipe Culvert Typical Details o f Shallow Manholes Standard Gullies Typical Manholes for Drain Pipes Standard Septic Tank Standard Valve Pit for Pipe Lines Standard Soak-away Details Oil and Gas System Standard Drain Pit Details Oil Drain Pond. in absence o f any Standard IRP for the subjects listed as below: a.3 KOC Health & Environment Guidelines KOC KOC - 2100 Guideline for Evaporation Pits Guideline for Spill Prevention Ministry o f Oil Regulations . Waste Water Disposal Pond and Tank Bund Details Standard Manholes Details for Sanitary Systems Standard Soak-away Pit 15-39-30 15-39-31 4.

Permits are essential prior t o fieldwork within hazardous areas in compliance with "KOC Standard for Hazardous Area classification" (KOC-G-002) and KOC Fire and Safety Regulations in any KOC facilities. BASIC ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS General Considerations Prior t o commencing preliminary design activities on drainage work for any new or existing KOC Plant. . Offsite and / or Field Facilities.- DOC. The overall system should be provided as simple as possible in terms of construction. economic and simple to operate drainage system for the collecticm and transport of all effluents and surface runoff t o treatment areas and discharge points for safe disposal.1 Refer t o KOC Standard for "Basic Design Data" IKOC-G-007). site and utility supply conditions prevailing throughout the KOC facilities. As a measure t o prevent the unwarranted pollution of natural water bodies by harmful substances in quantity or concentration in water. All relevant safety requirements of KOC Fire & Safety Regulations and KOC Health. and shall be assessed for the basic requirements to provide a reliable. the Site should be thoroughly surveyed t o establish its natural topography including surrounding areas. while designing the drainage systems for the Plant and Offsite Facilities within KOC areas. KOC-C-025 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS REV. the quality of discharged water should meet the requirements given in Table I of this RP in compliaxe with Kuwait Ministry of Oil Regulations. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT The ergineering design should meet all the applicable Kuwait EPA Regulations and should conform t o the KOC Health and Environment (H&E) guidelinss with a view t o protecting its personnel and surrounding environment. and gravity based open system should be considel-ed for wastewater effluents where permitted. HEALTH. operation and maintenance.0 of this RP. NO. Due regard should also be given t o the effect of effluent(s) beyond the point of discharge with respect t o quality and quantities of the effluent(s) and contaminated water t o meet the regulations as mentioned in clause 6. Safety and Environment Management System (HSEMS) shall be adhered to. by the designer / contractor. which provides the detailed design information regarding the environmental. usually by means of open or closed systems as required.

before entering into the drains.) of the soil required for proper working of the drainage systems. by taking into consideration the actual ground conditions and subsurface data from the latest soil investigation report. .p~ value The drainage system should be kept free as practicable from the unnecessary mixing of water. Otherwise. a soil exploration program shall be conducted at various locations in accordance with KOC-C-003 "KOC Standard for Geo-technical Investigation (Onshore)" t o determine the general soil properties and specific characteristics (porositylpermeability/corrosivity/electrical resistivity etc. 5 rng / litre 1 . safety and environment related issues within Kuwait.6 m g / litre 0. and every effort should be made t o minimize the waste by suitable provisions of mechanical means such as slop tanks.S) Hydrocarbons (Oil) Free Available Chlorine Mercury Lead Phenol Phos~hates Chromium (Total) Copper Nickel Iron Suspended Solids C3issolved Solids (Total) 1 5 mg / litre 2 5 mg / litre 0.Table I -Water Pollution .5 1 I 1 7 8 9 10 11 I 12 13 14 15 k Biological Oxygen Demand (BOO) at 5 day 6.01 mg / litre 0.5 -8. oils and chemicals. and should satisfy the growing concerrrs of health.05 pprn 5 ma / litre 0 .Requirements for Qualitv of Discharqed Water (As per Kuwait Ministrv of Oil RequlationslKOC-2160) // 2 3 4 5 6 1 Sulfides (as H. where available.5 rng / litre 0.5 rng / litre 25 mg / litre 1 0 0 0 mg / litre 1 0 mg / litre 6.5 mg / litre 0. processing and storing of hydrocarbons and other chemicals becomes an important part of both fire and environment protection. screens and local separators etc. The drainage system shall be developed.5 m g / litre 0. Basic Drainage C o n c e ~ t s Drainage system for any Plant / Facility involved in the handling.

Need little maintenance. Normall-q a network of suitable drainage systems should be selected at the early stage of design. and should isolate also flammable vapours in drainage piping from ignition sources. liquids c:an drain into open basins or sumps for later release or treatment. Route burning liquids away from equipment that might rupture and add fuel t o the flames. the maximum temperatures. Kee3 wastes out of soil. Seg-egate clean and contaminated water to reduce the amount of water t o be treated. It also minimizes exposure of adjacent property. groundwater. Develop catchments. DESIGN OF DRAINAGE SYSTEMS General. Minimize air emissions from evaporation of volatile fluids by capturing them in closed drains. Surface drainage should route contaminated water and wastes into an undergr~und drainage system that take those liquids t o a treatment facility if necessary. assessing all the sources and characteristics of effluents to be present. the estimated rates and volumes of flow. Natural ground slopes shall be utilized as much as possible t o minimize the depths of sewer or channels. Drain off rainwater quickly and prevent flooding from outside sources. The system should also take into account the basic requirements as described in clause 7. . Efforts should be made t o segregate clean and contaminated water on the basis of effluent types and degree of segregation required inside and outside the process areas and offsite prior to disposal.0 of this RP.A good drainage system should consider the following basic concepts in the layout and early design phase as below: Route flammable fluids away from ignition sources and into closed drains. and surface water. including possible contaminations and chemical reactions of the effluents generated. Where there is no potential for contamination 1 pollution. in case of emergency t o prevent flow towards the Plants or Facilities.

The safety of proposed system in relation to the effluents and the site. f. paved and surfaced areas. environmental and safety regulations. of Location of existing buildings and services t o be connected or modified. Secondary containment requirements (catchments.2.1 Desiqn Factors When planning a suitable drainage system. I. Nature and quantity of additives for chemical treatment of effluents 8. g. i.3. Costs related t o construction. Site ground conditions that may affect the method of installation and materials of construction and consequent increase in the cost. length and depth of pipe-work. Design life of the proposed system. . operation and maintenance. the Designer 1 Contractor should take in:o account many process and site specific design factors.2 8. c. Method of construction. The segregation requirements of the effluents. lining etc. and should assess the following technical and financial aspects of the proposed system t o be effective as below: a. C o ~ d i t i o n existing services. access-ways. Compliance with local. Topography of the site. KOC-C-025 / Page 19 of 65 REV. Material. and can generally be collected as rainwater from building roofs.DOC. o. NO. The nature and quantity of effluents to be conveyed. j.).3 8. d. roadways. I t can be discharged from the Site without further treatment.? I 8. h. jointing method.1 Tvpes and Sources of Effluents Clean Water The system should deal with surface water that is clean and uncontaminated under normal conditions. b. k. e. size. Ground contamination (soil & groundwater). m. n.

etc.2 /I Page 20 of 65 REV.3. 8.).3 Oily Water The system should deal with water contaminated with varying degrees of oil that may be originated from the following sources.l Contaminated Water The system should deal with surface water from areas liable to be contaminated from the following sources: a. Wayer from transformer bays. Laboratory sinks. Spillages and leaks from process equipment (valves. Wash water from Desalters. c.. Kncckout drums drainage. and should be referred to P&l diagrams for details. 8. and should be diverted to the closed drain after collection. Wa'. KOC-C-025 8. b. Battery rooms. Dralnage from sample points. b.4 Chemicals. c.er cuts from separators. Rurl-off from the contaminated paved areas.3. Chemical Injection Facilities. meter-proving stations and pipe manifolds. level gauges.3. pumps. . Solvents and Other Process Fluids The system should deal with discharges of these effluents t o be regulated generally as part of production process. Use of hoses for wash-down and fire fighting in contaminated areas. Laboratory wastes. Drainage from pipe trenches. bottom drains (water draw-off) from crude storage tanks. roof drains from floating storage tanks. The chemical sewer system should collect effluents from the following: a. drain cocks etc. Pump stations.

Laboratory sinks and floor drains (except where oily and chemical spills may occur). The waste treatment facility should also be effluent specific. Building floor drains (except where oily and chemical spills may occur) d. KOC-C-025 Sanitary Sewage REV. Kitchens. Condensate drains from HVAC equipment. Effluent Seqreqation The effluents should be segregated as practicable t o achieve the optimum number and types of systems that shall be specified in relation to the capacity. acids. eating room and cleaners' sinks. c. solvents. The degree of effluent segregation will depend on the following factors as below. hydrocarbons or sanitary wastewater by evaporation and percolation in the ground. process goals with the Flow rates with a minimum velocity t o prevent silting and blocking in the drainage pipes. thereby more reliable and cost effective. . washroom and toilet facilities. All sanitary. Reaztions (physical/chemical/biological) between effluents t o restrict the amount of intermixing. System specification t o attain the desired levels of integrity and treatment.l The system should deal with the sanitary waste that shal I be collected from the fol:owing: a.- -Page 21 of 65 DOC. Treated effluents. provided all necessary precautions against contamination from the sewer has been built into the system. fittings and materials in accordance with the particular requirements of that effluent. b. if permitted. NO. Waste Water The system should be dedicated t o dispose off all other types of foul water. Treatment necessary t o achieve the effectiveness of the treatment process. e. ancillary structures. or should be treated in the treatment plant as necessary before final disposal. contaminated with process fluids.

Open Channel Gravitv Drain Svstem In this :system. Process information should be used t o identify which effluent streams shouid also be closed. t o prevent spread of fire. Closed Drainage Systems. and laic t o fatls or level. wherever necessary. b. Vented Pipe Gravitv Drain System In this system. c. . The channels / drains shall be trapped. b. Open Gravity Drainage Systems can be provided as one of the following: a.surized Drain System. and the manhole inlets shall be trapped to prevent the spread of fire when the effluent system contains flammable gases cr liquids. Open Gravity Drainage Systems. Gullies shall also be trapped and vapours expelled from the system should be kept to the minimum. Closed Drainage Systems can be provided as one of the following: a. Pre:. Verrted Pipe Gravity Drain System. the effluent flows in pipes laid t o suitable gradients between manholss. b. the effluent flows in open channels or drains normally lined.T v ~ e s Drainaqe System of Depending on the basic requirements of drainage system t o be provided for the effluents discharge and surface runoff from the KOC plants and facilities and the desired levels of meeting the local environmental and safety regulations. Clo::ed Gravity Drain System. the drainage systems should be as below: a. Open Channel Gravity Drain System. Pumped Drain System. avoiding pressure locks developing in the system. Vents shall be provided to maintain atmospheric pressure in each section of pipe. Closed Drainage Systems shall be considered due t o legislation or safety reasons t o restrict gaseous emissions t o atmosphere from open gravity drainage systems. which shall be vented.

Closed Gravity Drain Svstem
This system shall be configured as a conventional gravity system with sealed access manholes and with a gas vent collecting system. The materials and construction techniques to be used shall be of higher integrity than with open gravity drain systems. Joints shall generally be welded and tested -10 higher standards. Connections t o the drainage system shall be airtight at process units, tanks and dikes etc. and bends shall be used instead of manholes at changes of gradient and direction. Pipe sizes shall be changed by using flat backed tapers and connections from laterals to the main sewer line shall be by branches or flat tees. To ease cleaning of the system, rodding points (clean outs) shall be provided at minimum 50 m intervals in the form of a 'Y' branch on the sewer pipe with the branch pointing upwards and extended to a suitable access point.

Pumped Drain Svstem
Pumped drain system shall be closest t o the normal process lines and may be run below or above ground. Two (2) types of pumped drain system may be considered in the drainage design: a. Effluent lift stations t o lift flow from one gravity system and deliver to a second similar system. Such stations should contain only short lengths of pressurized pumping main local t o the lift station. b. Pumping stations with associated pumping mains t o lift and deliver to a distsnt treatment facility. Such systems shall have long lengths of pressurized pumping main, normally located above ground but if necessary can be buried. The main components of pumped drain system should comprise the followir g: a. Localized gravity system feeding to the lift / pumping station sump.

b. The effluent lift / pumping station. c.

A pvessurized pumping main.

Pressurized Drain Svstem In the pressurized drain system, the effluents flow under gravity but without the access manholes and without conventional vents. The vapour space above the liquid flow shall be sufficient enough t o allow displacement of gases above the liquid level. This space shall then be filled with an inert gas at .ow positive pressure. The inert gas shall be injected at discreet points in this system to prevent accumulation of hazardous vapours. Venting of the inert vapour mixed gas shall be provided at a controlled vent facility, where the gases shall be removed for treatment. Connections t o the drains in this system shall be airtight by providing pressure reducing and isolating valves. These connections shall generally be made above ground for ease of access. Bends, pipe size changes, connections to laterals and rodding points shall be simi ar to the closed gravity system as specified in clause 8.7 of this RP. DESIGN VOLUMES Genera! The intended systems draining paved and / or unpaved areas shall be designed for the greater volume of the either cases as follows: a. Casz 1: Effluent volume b. Case 2: Effluent volume Effluent Volumes Effluent volumes shall be determined from process information or standard tables; and usually flow continuously in limited quantities from process plants and non-plant / offsite facilities. Effluents including all dry-weather flows shall run through the drainage systems, which shall not be allowed t o flood the adjoining areas for adverse environrnental impact. However when the effluent is mixed with surface runoff, the volumes generated from rain and firewater should be assessed with adequate margins to be built in the drainage systems for future development.

+ Rainwater volume, + Firewater volume.

or

DOC. NO. KOC-C-02

Page 25 of 65

REV.l
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Rainwater Volumes Rainwater volumes shall be derived from the rainfall intensity as specified in "KOC Standard for Basic Design Data" (KOC-G-007), t o assess surface runoff frorn the areas using the appropriate permeability factors given in Table II of this RP. Table 11: Permeabilitv Factors

I
2

I Roofs 1 Paved Areas
(Concrete or Tarmac) Gatched Areas Gravelled Areas

I

0 0 0 0.2

I
0.9

-

3 4

0.8 5

The contributing areas for rainfall drainage to the sewers shall be considered t o be 1 0 0 % of the paved area. However, the contribution of runoff -from unpaved areas should be considered on a case-by-case basis using the relevant permeability factors as given in Table II of this RP. Firewater Volumes In case of emergency, the fire water runoff t o be generated from a dike area of storage tanks or from a part of process unit t o contain and control fire shall be in accordance with the appiication rates of water and other fire fighting facilities as specified in the relevant KOC Standards in clause 4.2.2 of this I3P. Normally as a guide, the total firewater demand for hydrocarbon related installa1:ions having a fire risk should be as per NFPA 20, or more if the risk levels are high or process requirements demand for higher protection. However, it should generally vary between 800 m3/hr and 2 0 0 0 m3/hr and usually an average of 1 3 6 0 m3/hrshould be considered adequate. Firewater should not cause spread of fire by flowing into the adjacent areas, and should be directed as fast as possible into the drainage system and / or to areas where the water can cause no harm. The drainage system should be assumed for design purposes that water will be applied as follows: a.

1 0 0 % evenly distributed over the whole of the process area; or

b. 7 0 % evenly distributed over an area of 1 0 0 0 within the process area.

rn2 located anywhere

ground type. the drainage systems should be configured at the same time as a part of Site development. Main drain lines should run along the edges of plant areas and roads wherever possible. Dr~inage all accumulated rainwater within the dike in less than four of (4) hours. b. the daily volume of sewage shall be calculated on the basis of 135 litre / person / shift. They should be assessed on a case-by-case basis. The tank base should not become submerged in both cases. Continuous drainage of firewater used for cooling purposes. . Due allowance shal! be made for future expansion and development of the area in designing the capacity of sewers. DRAINAGE LAYOUT WITHIN PROCESS AREAS General When . KOC-C-025 1 I Page 26 o f 65 L REV. duration of water applica-tion & application type and structure types. NO. with ten (10) person per shift of work.:he plant layout is being finalized. evaporation and percolation into the surrounding ground. Sanitarv Sewer Volume The anticipated flow in sanitary sewers shall be based on the Probability Data and Discharge Unit System in accordance with BS EN 7 5 2 Parts 1-4. Surface drainage in process areas must route surface liquids away from equipment and into underground drainage systems.hould enter storm water rather than process sewers. The impact on drainage systems of future developments in plant and wastewater treatment facilities should also be considered. and they will be influenced by factors such as climatic conditions. Uncontaminated surface runoff :. Dike AI ea Flow Capacity The flow capacity of drainage system in a diked tank area shall take into consideration the greater flow rate of the following conditions as below: a. In addkion.l Firewater Losses Some losses should be considered between the firewater being applied and the wa-ter being entering the drainage system due t o over-spray.DOC. t o minimize the impact of future drainage work on the operational areas.

. Entry Points for Effluents Effluents should enter into the drain system through four f4) main types of collection points as below: a. Around pumps and other areas where leaks and spills are anticipated. buildings and maintenance areas in accordance with clause 12. Within process plot areas.0 "Paving and Access-ways" of KOC Recommended Practice for Engineering Design Basis of Civil and Structural Work (KOC-C-002). However. Ch~nnels All marhole gullies.All oily water within process area shall have dedicated drainage system and shall be treated as part of the process system. Bituminous paving wherever provided. Turdishes d. Process Plot Areas Process plot areas shall be provided with concrete paving as necessary to meet the requirements of drainage and/or access t o equipment(s). The use of kerbing / bunding. paving should be generally laid t o falls sloping with a gradient 1 in 100 (1 %) t o the drainage points. draining to manhole / gully around the process equipment so that any leakage and / or spilled of liquids should be directed towards the drainage points. Process plot areas should be divided into catchments. minimum 1 0 0 m m high should be considered around the perimeter of the catchments and around sensitive process units or group of equipment t o separate leaked / spilled effluents and contain firewater flow carrying them further. Manhole Gullies b. gully traps and tundishes shall be provided with rodding points. care should be taken in the layout to avoid any trip hazards or obstructions to safe and convenient access paths for vehicles and people. Gul y Traps c. the minimun slope should be increased t o 1 in 5 0 (2%) for quicker draining from the area. The catchments should also drain in a fire incident to prevent the spread of firewater and / or flammable liquids to unaffected areas. should have minimum slopes not less than 1 in 6 0 t o ensure adequate drainage without ponding.

Manhole Gullies a. Where rainwater and / or firewater are t o be drained from paved areas. Drains Crossinq Foundations Drains shall not be laid below or through structural foundations. Drainage Channels a. Precautions should be taken to allow for any differential settlement where drains are t o be laid in soft or unsupported ground outside the foundations. which shall be trapped on entry to t i e manhole. In such cases the collector drain shall be connected direct t o a manhole. b. When the risk of fire spreading due to flammable liquids and vapours is minimal. a combined drainage system may be appropriate. Refer t o clause 14.1 -9 of this RP for details of combined manhole gull es. The drainagz system and foundations shall be designed in such a way that drains can be laid above the upper surface of any foundation. Collector drains and branches may be used. Where lower volumes of effluent are t o be collected. drainage channels shall generally be used. which they cross. Process drain connections should be provided through tundishes. b. individual trapped gullies should be used. In case large volumes of water are t o be conveyed. Gully Trap Connections a. and trapped on entry. and that should act as a simpler sysF:em than a number of smaller gullies leading t o a trapped manhole. Process Drain Connections a. b. . if several process drains conrlect t o the underground drain system at the same or closely adj~cent locations. Gullies within process plot limits should generally be connected by indi-~idual lines from each to a manhole. b. combined manhole gully shall be provided in the centre of each catchment area for greater capacity.

Valves Valves should be installed into open and closed systems t o isolate sections of p i p ~ ( s ) . or as the holding basins at a designated location outside the Facility. A t a junction with incoming pipes. manholes should not be located in access-ways within process units o* where crane outriggers may be placed. where solids may be present. Surface Water From Process Area Clean and uncontaminated surface water under normal conditions as described in clause 8. However as guidance.1 of this RP shall be collected and discharged to the clean water drainage system. manholes on sewers and drains shall be provided as below: a. At changes in pipe direction in vertical and horizontal planes. A t :lead of runs. . d. which will allow vents t o discharge in safe area with the minimum length of underground vent pipe. they shall be mounted in suitable valve pits made of concrete. Generally.3. b. c. wherever possible. Underground valves that are required frequently t o operate manually shall be providsd with extended spindles t o avoid entry into the valve pit. Where located underground. that does not have cleaning access w i t i n 1 0 m. At a maximum spacing of 25 m for sewers less than 9 0 0 mm ( 3 6 in. by grading to falls onto the surrounding areas.). When located outside or on the edge of process units. at least 5 m (16 ft) away from the edge of any road. At a maximum spacing of 100 m for sewers of diameter greater than 900 m m ( 3 6 in. f. A t changes of main sewer diameter. or where no solids are present.) pipe diameter. they should be. Manhole Locations Manhole locations should be established at an early stage in initial layout design. The system may be provided either simply as the graded areas located outside the Facility boundary. e.

T3e water from the separator shall be drained to a wastewater pond or ground disposal. DRAINAGE LAYOUT OUTSIDE PROCESS AREAS General Drainace outside process plot area limits but including from offsite areas and field facilities should be collected and directed into the following segregated systems as described below. . be it natural or from any other sources. should be directed onto / into any drilling location or drilling site reserve pit(s). Sanitary sewers shall not be installed in the proximity of potable water lines less than the following separation distances as below: a. final effluent soak-away from sewage treatment system in field areas. No discharge point from any collected drainage. Vertical - . NO. This drain line from the collecting sump shall be provided with a shut-off valve adjacent t o the sump.9 or 14. b. Oily water drained through the oily water drain piping shall be routed to the oily water separator at the tank farm or effluent water treatment plant (EWTP). KOGC-025 I Page 30 of 6 5 REV. e.g. Sanitarv Sewaqe The sanitary sewage collected from the sources (buildings etc.Minimum 300 m m below the potable water line. in the process areas) shall be handled and discharged through U-PVC pipes t o the septic -:anks or to the cesspools as described in clauses 14. Oily Water From Storaqe Tanks All the water draw-off from the oil storage tanks shall be drained / piped to a common collecting sump (drain pit) that shall be located by the side of the tank with vehicular access-way. and then be discharged to the swales constructed outside the Facility for further disposal.- DOC.10 and 15. Disposal of the effluents from these areas should meet the requirements of KOC HSE and / or Kuwait EPA as given in clause 6.l Clean water may also be piped from the collecting manholes.0 of this RP. Lateral Minimum 900 m m horizontally from the potable water line.3 of this RP. which will be normally closed except when draining oily water under control from the area. and the separated oil shall then be pumped back t o the oil storage tank.

Where transformer bays are remote from an oily water sewer. Drainaqe From Dike Areas Storm water (rain) drainage and / or firewater used in dike areas for cooling around tanks containing crude oils and oily products. and the neutralized effluent shall then be drained t o the sanitary sewer or to a soak-away pit. Oilv Water From Transformer Bavs Generally drainage from transformer bays will be t o the oily water system via a trapped gully. The requirement of oily water drainage can be waived. . Soak-away pit shall be made in accordance with KOC Standard drawings 15-25-1 and 15-39-31 . laboratory sinks and chemical injection facilities should be routed through the chemical sewer system to a neutralization sump. if a roof is provided over the transformer bay(s) and a sump is used t o collect intermittent spills. The top level@) of any sump walls shall be made sufficiently high from ground t o prevent any rainwater within the dike from flooding into the sumps during periods of heavy rain. which can then be pumped out. instead of the clean water system. shall be collected in one or more reinforced concrete catch boxes located at the internal toe of the dike walls as remote from the tank as practicable. Chemicals from the injection facilities shall be routed to a sump through a drain piping. This sump shall have provisions for being drained through either vacuum tanker or pumping system as specified.The oily water separator shall have high / low detection device linked to the on / off action of oil transfer pump t o maintain an optimum level in the separa1:or. If there are areas within the diked area which are heavily contaminated with oil drips under valves and manifolds. A collecting sump shall be provided so that operatork) may inspect the effluent before release t o the clean sewer. Chemical Sewer From Battery Rooms. discharge may be to a clean sewer through a trapped gully and normally closed valve. Laboratorv and Chemical lniection Facilities Wastes from battery rooms. they should be paved and connected to the oily water system.

The discharge from the gate valve shall be visible to contamination. land drains should be provided. the surface should be graded to suitably located trapped gullies discharging t o a buried pipe system. Contaminated effluent shall not be discharged into the surface water system. under the dike wall to a gate valve. that shall be normally closed and kept inside a dike outlet valve pit. outside the dike wall in a readily accessible location.The run-off shall be directed t o the catch boxes by grading the surrounding ground away from the tank with the slopes as specified in "KOC Standard for Layout. The valve pit shall be of reinforced concrete construction and should be locatec. Surface Water From Area Land Drainaqe Rainwater falling on unpaved uncontaminated ground outside process plot areas should normally be disposed off by natural percolation into the subsoil and evaporation. detect any Flow from the dike outlet valve pit shall be routed through a valve outlet to an impounding basin located outside the facility boundary at a KOC approvl3d location. Where this is not practicable. therefore be selected adjacent to access roads to facilitate removal of any contaminated effluent by road tankers. . Spacing and Diking of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tanks" (KOC-L-027). The location of valve pits shall. Where the natural percolation is not sufficiently effective without undue ponding due to subsoil characteristics (impermeable or less permeable) of the surrounding land. The effluent shall be drained through a minimum 3 0 0 m m (12-inch) diameter carbon steel pipe. The impounding basin when provided shall meet the requirements as specified in KOC-L-027.

Normally.7. be b.7. b. when only domestic type wastes are being drained. liquids can be drained to the sewage 1 1. subject to there being no possibility of polluting underground potable water.1 Drainaqe From Buildinqs Plant Buildings a.2 Control Buildings a.4 Other Buildings a. Cesspools may be used as an acceptable alternative. b. laboratory collection points s h o ~ l d used. In other areas of control buildings. Canteen wastes shall be connected via a grease trap. c. . disposal by septic tank and subsoil irrigation s h o ~ l dbe preferred. In case of isolated buildings.3 Laboratory Drainage a.11. with due regard t o wind direction and vehicular access for periodic removal of sludge. Adequate precautions shall also be taken to eliminate any possible ingress of hazardous gases entering building from the drainage system.7. 1 1. No drains shall be permitted within control rooms of any control buildings. b. 11. other buildings can be connected to the sewage wastewater sysl:em. Floor drains in plant buildings such as pump or compressor houses shall be connected t o fully trapped and vented manholes when they form part of a system draining oily or chemically contaminated water.7 11. Uncontaminated waste wastewater system. electric substations and switchgear rooms. Sanitary flows shalt be discharged into a septic tank and design of t r e ~ t m e n units shall be in accordance with BS 6297. the appropriate drainage systems for sewage wastewater shall be provided.7. d. c. To maintain control over waste disposal. t Septic tanks shall be located outside the facility fence but not less than 15 m from manned buildings.

But if this is not practicable. The evaporation pond shall meet the other requirements as given in KOC Guideline No. The drainage should preferably be discharged t o the nearest sewer (KOC / S-tate) where available. c. In that case. Fluid Treatment Centers (FTC) Effluenl:~. may be discharged temporarily to the fluid treatment centers such as lined ponds for evaporation and treatment for further recycle and / or disposal. All means of sewage handling and treatment should conform t o the State Public Health requirements. 21 00 and satisfy the Kuwait EPA Regulations. These ponds should be located outside the boundary of the KOC Facility and shall be made by gradivg and diking the required areas. NO. Measurement A simple weir or monitoring device to measure the effluent discharge rate should be installed at or near the final effluent discharge point. disposal or injection. b. b. Wastewater Evaporation Ponds a. Wastewater where it is necessary to dispose off by evaporation and / or soakage shall be discharged t o the designated ponds. Holding Basins Holding basins may be provided. biological treatment may be considered and septic tanks or cesspools shall be provided for isolated or remote buildings. the location should not cause any potential contamination to any iearby fresh water aquifer. . if permitted.DOC. KOC-C-025 I Page 34 of 65 REV. if necessary to capture and retain some part of rainfall or firewater from paved areas in order t o avoid flooding the adjoining areas due t o ground conditions. and the treated outflow should satisfy also the Kuwait EPA Regulations prior t o discharge. However. consideration should be given t o alternate site or other appropriate measures to prevent it.1 Treatment Effluen-t Treatment Plants Effluene:s containing oily and chemical waste should be treated as necessary t o meet KOC HSE requirements. Sewage Treatment a.

and operating at or near t o atmospheric pressure. However. d.0 12. 12.3 Hydraulic design should consider the following factors as below: a. gradient and condition. closed drainage system may be more appropriate because of tech7ical.1 HYDRAULIC DESIGN General Page 35 of 65 12.2. Sediment transport capacity. Degree of surcharge. Intended hydraulic capacity which requires selection of pipe size. Drainage sewers shalt be designed to be dry under no flow conditions. 12. Drainage sewers shall be designed in open and / or closed gravity systems assuming a maximum flow depth of 70% of pipe diameter. and the effect of pipe joints on the flow regime. Rational Area Method or Modified Manning's Equation) employing simple hand calculations or approved software for designing the system. or controlled flooding within tolerable limits. NO. Recommended maximum and minimum velocities and flows.DOC. c. safety or environmental requirements.2 Gases or vapours that may be carried forward with the effluent or evolved during the course of treatment may affect the flow regime of the system. 12.2. they should neither deposit excessive silts nor scour the bed channels.2. Occasionally for process reasons. the design methods and criteria for both open and closed systems are closely related.1 .e. 12.2 12. Due allowance shall also be made for roughness factors of piping and / or channel bed materials. The minimum flow depth shall not be less than 30 m m for pipes likely t o transport solids.1 Gravity Based Drainaqe Systems Flow in pipes and channels shall be evaluated using the standard design methods (i. KOC-C-025 12. Velocities shall be kept within a range that prevents damage t o the pipes and fittings and should be self-cleansing as much as possibie. nature of liquid to be carried and vapour pressure likely to develop in the system.1 -1 Drainage systems in most cases shall be provided as gravity based open systems in compliance with clause 8. Flow Velocities a. b.1. and in case of open channels.2 of this RP.4 .2 12.5.3 12i2.

or from combined process and rainwater flows to achieve periodic cleansing of the drains.75 m/s. b.5 m/s t o avoid high friction losses and thereby more head-losses.2. For some lengths of drain the flow from emergency use of fire hoses may exceed the normal process and rainwater flows. b. Where the velocity is likely t o be higher than 0.DOC. Pipe runs should be designed to accommodate the maximum expected flow when running just full. The maximum velocity shall not exceed 2. however velocities from firewater or emergency flows may exceed this. but should be capable of carrying them with minimum maintenance effort.2.20 m/s to prevent emulsification.6 Maximem Velocity a.2. KOC-C-025 Page 36 of 65 REV.5 mini mu^ Velocity a.0 m/s. b. 12. NO. c.9 Siltation a. In case of unlined open channels. 12. 12.l 4 b. the minimum velocity should be about 0.8 Open Channels a. .2. This velocity should be selected as per local soil conditions and construction.2.9 m/s to limit. and may be in the ranges between 0. 12. In oily water drains. All ~ i p e d drains shall be designed to attain a minimum velocity of 0.5m/s t o 0.7 Design 'Jelocity The design velocity from combined process and rainwater flows shall be about 1. the velocity should be kept sufficiently low t o prevent scouring. All channels in fine sands or silts shall be lined with concrete or asphalt t o prevent erosion. In cily water systems. the maximum velocity under normal operating condition shall not exceed 1.75 m/s around bends. concrete or asphalt lining shall be provided t o prevent scouring of the bed or sides. 12. The drainage system shall be free from ingress of any solids as much as possible.75 m/s either from process flows alone. both silting and emulsion.

each drainage catchment area should be ass3ssed using an accepted risk assessment technique.020 for 3. In assessing the frictional head-loss of the effluents flowing in the drains.2. the hydraulic gradient within the drainage system can extend no higher than 3 0 0 m m below any point of entry into the system.75 mls in each pipe run of the system. Concrete. Fine solid particulate matters such as silt or clay particles from storm wacer runoff on unpaved areas should be prevented wherever possible frorn entering into oily water drains.b.10 Surcharging and Flooding a.01 4 for 3. d. Surcharging of the drains may be considered in open gravity systems only. b. 12. . c. straight and uniform. the roughness factors (k. Channels with earth having some vegetation. Plastic Pipes.01 3 for 3.) may be used in calculating the flow rate as follows: - - 3. As guidance. Concrete lined channels.1 1 Roughness Factors a.01 2 for 0. b. provided that surface flooding should not be increased thereby.2. roughness factors (k. flushing facilities should be installed t o provide a flow of 0. If there be a risk of flooding. Where lengths of drainage sewer are designed t o be permanently flooded for hydraulic reasons or for safety reasons. In those cases where some flooding can be acceptable. the design flows should be increased by 1 0 % as an allowance for siltation. any sensitive areas should be diked or kerbed. Cement-lined and Vitrified Clay Pipes. c. Under these maximum flow conditions.) shall be selected on the basis of likely mature condition of the pipes Ichannels with due regard t o the materials of c:onstruction and the nature of the effluents drained. 12. Channels with earth.030 for Steel. Where minimum velocities for periodic cleansing of the system cannot be abtained through process or rainwater flows. d. for emergency conditions or high rainfall in order to ensure sufficient hydraulic capacity. and the water directed away by using paving falls.

Pipes should be laid as per the recommended minimum gradients given in Table II! of this RP.2 of this RP. 12. External corrosion on the metallic pipe materials due to adverse effects of soil / ground water and internal corrosion due to effluents or contaminated water shall be properly accounted in the pipe materials thickness as necessary in conformity with the design practices. fittings and accessories. NO. . especially where water tables are found to be high.1 4 Recommended Gradients for Pipe Laying a. the deterioration by corrosion.2.- DOC. Suitably designed cathodic protection system shall be installed t o prevent or minimize further. * - A ( 1 in XU !l 'I Less than 7 50 mm - 150 mm t o 450 mm Greater than 450 mm - 1 - 1 (-I in 500 2 1 in 250 il . enlargements and contractions of open channel / pipes as well as pipe connections to tanks and equipment(s) including valves. Appropriate coating / lining of external and internal surfaces of metallic pipss shall be decided as per KOC Standards in clause 4. ' I .2.l All likely head losses due to bends. Table Ill:Recommended Minimum Gradients 1. . . 2 1 J1-I. Corrosion allowance shall be considered minimum 1. 12.13 Corrosion a. For details refer t o standard design handbook for hydraulic str ~ c t u r e s . Trench excavation should generally be limited t o 6 m depths because of construction difficulties and associated high cost. and at manholes should be duly considered into the hydraulic design of the drainage systems.. and should be provided as applicable. 1. KOC-C-025 REV. b.<.5 mm or more as specified by KOC in the designated project specification for material classes of metallic pipes.2. . b. c.

4 and 12. An extra-high-liquid-level switch shall be appropriately provided in the centre section of the drum.1 Closed Drainaqe Systems The closed gravity drainage systems shall conform t o the hydraulic design as given in clause 12.4.4.2. .3.2 of this RP. Closed drain drum should be sized. Equipment Requirements for Closed Gravity Systems Backflow from high pressure to low pressure systems across common dra-n systems in the event of mal-operation should be considered during design.2 of this RP for the open gravity drainage systems.5 of this RP respectively. where required t o maintain the temperature of the liquid in the drum. 12. Closed drain drum shall have a properly sealed type sight 1 gauge glass t o check the physical level at location. if metallic pipes were used.3 12. shall be protected against corrosion as per relevant KOC Standards specified in clause 4. Pumps should be located i n the dry wells or above ground t o facilitate maintenance and removal.3 12. Wet wells shall be of airtight construction with adequate venting to provide hydraulic stability.4 . based on the largest item of equipment likely t o be drained t o the closed drain drum and contents of inlet drains. 12. whenever required. 12.2 . Piping. Pumped and pressurized systems should comply with clauses 12. Wet wells and pumping mains shall not be oversized in order t o avoid excessve retention times of the effluent. drains etc.2 12. are fed by short gravity sections designed by conventional methods t o the pumping station wet well. in addition to the equipment requirements below. All drainage lines should fall towards a closed drain drum.4.4 12. Pumping station design should be in accordance with BS EN 752 or other suitable codes.12. tanks.3.1 Pumaed Drain Svstem Flows from process units. Electric heaters should be considered.4. Operation of this switch should open an emergency dump valve t o discharge the drum contents and should be designed t o avoid the risk of liquid carry-over t o the flare system.

when assessing the frictional head losses of the effluents.1 2 All mec:hanical and electrical equipment shall be designed for the required hazardcus area classification in compliance with "KOC Standard for Hazardaus Area Classification" (KOC-G-002). with due regard t o the materials of construction and the nature of the effluents drained. Separate pumps may be needed for each of these duties. Pump and pipe capacities shall be defined as peak flows in the system. All pumping mains shall be designed to limit both silting and emulsion for a velocity between 0.4. Emulsification of oil globules can make treatment and separation more difficult. consideration should be given to the use of Archimedean screw pumps. venting shall be provided at all entry points t o the pumped system and to wet wells in the pumping station.4. thereby more head losses.8 m/s and 1. Computer aided analysis should be used to determine transient pressures due to pump operation or failure. Pump and pumping pipe-work design should be carried out by normal hand methods of calculation. high velocities present more problems due t o the high friction losses and.4. For liquids containing oils.1 1 Where hazardous vapours are generated. 12. pumping stations shall be designed using low speed screw impeller pumps t o minimize emulsification. Normally. However. . 12. particular care being taken in the design t o achieve adequate venting of the screw. or from c ~ m b i n e d process and rainwater flows. Pumping plant should generally be low speed centrifugal pumps w i t h operating speeds below 970 rpm.1 0 Appropriate pipe roughness factors should be chosen t o take account of the likely mature condition of the pipe. however no less than 33% standby capacity shall be provided at all pumping stations.Pump heads and capacities should be selected t o accommodate both normal process flows and emergency firewater flows or rainwater flows. All hazardous vapours should be removed and transferred by a closed piping system t o the treatment plant.2 m/s for maximum process flows alone. 12.

ii. velocities shall be limited to less than 1.2 of this RP with the adcitional criteria described as below: Careful consideration shall be given t o the design flows in the system t o maintain the continuous gas phase in the system.1d.5 m/s t o limit siltation within the sewers and maintain self-cleansing. The system shall be designed for a maximum operating depth of flow in the sewer limited to 0. Total flows from all connections or a combination of the flows shall be considered in the design. Detailed design of pipe bends and junctions should be made t o avoid high local head-losses and consequent surcharge of the system. KOC-C-025 Page 41 of 65 REV. and angles to be 45" or less. The pressurized system shall be designed in the similar manner to an open gravity drainage system except that the pipes shall always run part full t o maintain the continuous gas phase above the liquid flow. Minimum flow velocities shall be 0. branches t o be used with level soffits. if the flows can be adequately regulated. A t junctions. Detailed design and management of the gas phase is critical t o the operation of the system. and losses to be limited t o O.2 m/s. NO.DOC.7 times the pipe diameter (d) t o avoid surcharge and hydraulic instability.l Pressurized Drain Svstern The main design requirement of this system shall be that all liquids and gases entering and/or generated within the system should be contained and released from the system through the controlled outlets. The design criteria for the pressurized system shall be adopted similar to those detailed for gravity drainage systems in clause 12. kt bends. pipe bends of radius > 3 d to be used. Full pipe flow or surcharge conditions shall not be permitted to occur in the design of this system. Excessive head-losses should be recommended measures as below: avoided with the following i. iii. and the main design features for gas systems should be as follows: . flat-backed tapers shall be used with level soffits. For change in pipe diameter. 45" junctions to be used.

.DOC. t DESIGN OF BURIED PIPEWORK General Considerations The pipe-work when installed underground. should take into account the composite soil-pipe interaction on the basis of bedding class. Effl ~ e n sampling points should be provided at connection points. Pressure reducing arrangements by valves or liquid seals shall be used at each connection point t o prevent over-pressurizing the drainage system. c. The rodding points shall be located upstream of all connections to the system. lnert gas /liquid vapour shall be removed at the pumping station and treatment works located at the downstream end of the system. Superimposed loads including impact from moving loads.2 of this RP. Soil loads. Rodding 1 cleaning points shall be provided with an isolating valve and an inert gas purging system t o prevent release of vapours during use. b. bedding / backfill materials and frictional surface of pipes in the design t o ensure the integritv of the pipe system. KOCC-025 1 Page 42 o f 65 I REV. at major changes in direction of the main sewers when greater than 45" and at appropriate points along the length of the sewers adjacent t o branches and at a maximum spacing of 5 0 m. NO. lnert gas injection points shall be provided at the connection points t o maintain the inert gas levels. The gas pressure system shall be designed t o operate at low pressures between 1 t o 5 psi. The pipe material. Settlement loads (if any anticipated). The drainage pipe-work should support any combination of the following design loads as below: a. Valves shall be used for connections t o the drainage system t o ensure controlled discharge into the system.l I All tapers for changes of pipe size and tees of branches shall be designed with level soffits to ensure continuous gas phase being ma ntained above the liquid surface. its strength class or wall thickness shall be selected with due regard t o the actual or anticipated design loads and conditions in accordance with the relevant standarddcodes listed in clause 4.

The maximum deflection should be limited to 5 0 % of the maximum value specified by the manufacture. RTRP. using suitable bedding types with acceptable excavated materials to transfer the superimposed loads without any damages and deformations to the pipes. Risid Pipes Rigid pipes such as concrete. pipe material strengths and type of soils supporting the pipes as per the details shown in the approved design Iconstruction drawings. grey iron. 1 2 0 0 m m below the natural ground level for flexible pipes. clayware. Internal pressure (if any). Filling materials shall be compacted to 9 5 % of modified Proctor Density to achieve the desired cradlelsupport to the pipes so that they could withstand the total external loads without any appreciable deflection.Site Preparation and Workmanship" (KOC-C-005). The drainage pipe-work shall be buried in the ground at a minimum depth as below: a. Appropriate bedding types or classes should be selected. Temperature changes. Flexible pipes such as low strength materials and non-metallic pipes (HDPE. based on the type of loads.d. flexible pipes should be laid over the bedding and backfill by use of imported soil of approved quality as per KOC-C-005 for the support required for the type and thickness of pipe being used.) shall be properly embedded into the selected materials of approved variety and fineness to provide reliable support to the pipes. hall be supported directly on the soil. 1 0 0 0 m m below the natural ground level for rigid pipes. In case of poor soil conditions. e. . ductile iron and carbon steel. f. Thrust due t o water dynamics. Filling materials shall conform to the requirements as described in the relevant clauses of "KOC Standard for Materials and Workmanship . GRP. b. PVC etc.

movement joints comprising of a minimum 25 m m thick compressible packing should be provided in the concrete at each flexible joint of the pipe. or a reinforced concrete slab over the pipe shall be provided for protection. structural concrete surround or arched capping may be used as acceptable alternative t o pipe sleeving. Load Durinq Testinq Pressure pipelines such as pumped effluent lines shall be tested t o a minimum specified pressure equal to either 1. an adequate load-bearing sleeve. Otherwise pipes shall be laid at such levels and gradients that tiquids are not retained in any part of the system. Pipes Submer~ed If some sections of pipes are intended t o remain always full acting as traps. Thermal Expansion Sufficient movement joints should be provided in the pipe so that the pipe may freely expand and contract.5 times the maximum expected applied load. The p i ~ structural design should take into account the hydrostatic pressure e in combination with the other possible external loads.5 times the working pressure or the sum of working pressure and the surge pressure. Where this is not possible. then the method of jointing should be assessed t o ensure integrity. except manholes. manholes shall be designed t o resist thrusts applied to the walls by such thermal expansion or contraction. Where such concrete protection be used. not less than 1. whichever is the greater as per BS 8010. Wherever required.Road Crossinqs Where pipe runs laid in open cut trenches cross under roads. Settlement Due consideration should be taken of likely future ground settlements particularly where pipeline construction passes through filled-up or reclaimed land. pipes and their bedding should be designed with an adequate factor of safety. . For rigid pipes of 3 0 0 m m diameter or less.

1 . 15-4-28 & 15-39-30 listed in clause 4. b. or KOC approved equivalent.I DOC. Top slab shall be designed for the vehicular loads or mobile equipment as necessary. Page 45 o f 65 REV. and in offsite areas on manholes. 14.6 of this RP. Walls shall not be less than 225 m m thick and all pipes through the walls shall be sealed. NO. . against attack by the effluent being carried by the sewer. KOC-C-025 1 . wh-ch are trapped or located near roadways. Covers for oily water sumps shall be heavy-duty double sealed in all areas. The influent drains in all manholes. The design shall take into account both external water pressures from groundwater and internal water pressure from the effluents in the manhole.4 of this RP. where possible. Manholes shall be of size and configuration that allow easy access for cleaning and maintenance activities. gradient. minimum being 1200 mm internal diameter.l 14. Manholes shall be watertight. Manhole top slabs (roof) should be constructed as removable slabs with cast-in lifting lugs to facilitate easy removal for major repairs or future modifications. 14.1 DESIGN OF ANCILLARY STRUCTURES Manholes Genera: Manholes in open drainage systems shall be located where pipe diarneter. Manhole covers shall be selected to suit the class of loading as per their locations in conformity with BS EN 124.2 Manhole Protection Manholes shall be protected externally with three layers of INERTOL THICKL against attack from aggressive soils and ! or groundwater and coated internally with three layers of D-FLUAT-R. or direction change and at all major junctions as per clause 10. and shall be constructed in pre-cast or insitu concrete sections as specified in accordance with KOC Standard Drawings 15-4-1 4. other than manholes on sanitary drains and certain chemical drains shall be effectively trapped.1.3 Manhole Covers a. Puddle flanges should be used for sealing. Sealed manhole covers shall be used within or adjacent t o process area limits and other hazardous areas.1 14.0 14..1.

sumps should be provided into the base of manholes to improve collection and periodic removal. Where considered necessary. 14. x 2 4 in. d.5 Roddins Points Rodding points should preferably be provided.7 Access a. Access t o manholes should be by portable wooden ladders.). In case volatile vapours be vented.1. or land drains. 14. minimum sizes should provide a clear opening of 6 0 0 m m ( 2 4 in. e. Vent pipes shall discharge in open air.1. 14.) as access will be required for personnel wearing breathing apparatus. For clean water drains.6 Sumps Where volumes of sludge and grit are quite large enough to necessitate regular =leaning of the manholes. . step irons shall also be provided in all manholes to allow escape in emergencies. Vent pipes shall be at least a minimum of 5m away from such openings as windows and / or air intakes of a building t o ensure that vapours can not be admitted to the building.4 Venting Venting to the sanitary sewers shall be provided by soil and vent pipe at the head of each run.c. For oily water and chemical drains.1.) diameter or 6 0 0 m m x 6 0 0 m m ( 2 4 in x 2 4 in.1. However. manhole covers should provide a min mum clear opening of 7 5 0 m m x 600 m m (30 in. manholes shall be fitted with a 1 0 0 m m (4") minimum diameter vent pipes to release gas from the effluents. reasonable protection from ignition by lightning strike should be provided. The sealant shall be selected with due regard to any solvents that may corrle into contact and shall be of the type in conformity with BS EN 124. 14. clear of areas accessible to personnel and at least 75 m (50 ft) away from any permanent source of ignition. where access is not normally required t o the manholes.

c. Design for Maintenance A t the initial design stage. The pipe downstream of the gully shall act as the major hydraulic control of t i e flow. other hazardous areas. Gully Traps Gullies shall be capable of draining the maximum water volume without extensi~~e flooding of paved areas. The grating over the open areas of the gully shall be arranged for easy removal. b. In other non-hazardous areas. Within hazardous process area limits. which should be encased in concrete. Step irons should be of galvanized steel and set into the wall of the manhole a t 3 0 0 m m centres. drainags gullies shall be trapped with a depth of seal n o t less than 1 5 0 m m and should have adequate provision for rodding. such as administration areas. and such nonhazardous areas as may be connected to an oily water drainage system. - Gully The sealed area of the gully shall be not less than the open grated area of -the gully. Access space in the manhole for suction cleaning should also be considered a t the design stage. . b. The hydraulic capacity of each gully shall be defined as that flow which passes through the gully grating without surcharge. The cover over the sealed part of the gully shall be secured to prevent removal during normal operations. Gullies should be designed to meet the following requirements: a. There should be no corner within a manhole less than 3 0 0 m m square. NO. vertically and staggered as per BS 1247 Part I.- DOC. KOC-C-025 REV. Combired Manhole a. The depth from the top of the gully grating t o the top of the gully outlet pipe shall be greater than 2 3 0 m m in order t o allow full flow to pass thrcugh the outlet pipe and prevent escape of vapours. gullies may be of conzrete construction or stoneware. allowance for additional connections within manholes should be made for the future work.1 - b. t o reduce the seal depth necessary t o prevent vapour escape and effects of evaporation in hot climates.

a 1 0 0 mm diameter clean-out shall be provided at 6 0 m centres along the sewer.DOC. Clean-outs shall be installed at the following places as below: a. Change in direction of sewers in excess of 45".1.Materials and Construction" (KOC-C-006) and KOC Standard Drawing 15-14-10 "Standard Valve Pit for Pipe Lines". In 1:he absence of manholes. N0. Any other location where rodding access is required.2 of this RP. d. Collection sumps shall be required for the effluent from the scrapper / receiver areas. where no manhole is provided. c. b. KOC-C-025 e = = - Catch Boxes and Valve Pits Catch boxes and valve pits shall be of reinforced concrete construction in accordance with "KOC Standard for Concrete Work . Clean-cuts shall be provided t o facilitate rodding of sewers in the direction of flow. Sumps shall be made of reinforced concrete construction as per KOC-C-006. Oily Water Collection S u m ~ s The oily water collection sumps shall be located inside the Facility boundary with an additional sump for emergencies to be located outside the boundary. Condensed water from the flares shall be discharged to soak-away pits located in the vicinity of the flares. Precautions against attack of materials by aggressive water and soils on concrete shall be taken as per clause 14. The head of sewers unless a manhole is provided. .

Grating Covers Recesssd channel grating covers should be provided t o suit the conditions specified in the plant specification and shall be of sufficient mechanical strengti t o support the loads as defined in KOC-C-002. Bottom of the swales shall be left unpaved to provide some seepage of surface water into the ground. the bottoms may be lined with concrete t o facilitate cleaning. NO. bedded and jointed in a compatible chemical resistant mortar. with the side slopes protected by an asphalt prime coat and wearing course as specified for the roadways.DOC. Effluen-: collection and treatment pits shall be designed and protected internally as described below.4 of KOC Standard KOC-C-024 Part 2 for further details of open channels and unlined ditches. Depth of swales shall be maintained at least 1 5 0 m m by suitably grading the adjacent ground. Neutralized effluent shall then be routed directly t o a soak-away pit or to the sanitary sewer for disposal. Refer t o clause 9. A suitable continuous chemical resistant membrane should be applied t o the walls and base slab. and 7 . Effluent Collection and Neutralization Pits The acidic effluents from the chemical sewer system as per clause 8. Swales should be trapezoidal in cross section. Where the velocity is likely to be higher than 0. either: a. or b.75 m/s that can cause scouring of the beds or sides. channels and ditches in cohesive soils or coarse sands should be suitably riveted. All ditches in fine sands or silts should be lined. The walls and base slab should then be lined w i t 1 minimum 105 m m thick chemical resistant bricks / tiles. Sui-table protective tanking / coating for the effluents t o be drained should be applied t o the internal surfaces of the manholes in accordance wit? the manufacturer's instructions. and neutralized by chemical treatment as a retained batch in a neutralization pit / sump. KOC-C-025 Page 49 of 65 Open Channels and Ditches Open channels and ditches should be permitted for clean surface water drainage except areas within or adjacent t o process areas.2. The joints should not exceed more than 3 mm thickness. Swales as open channels shall be provided for routing clean surface water for disposal.2.4 of this RP should be collected in the collection pits at or near the source. If considered necessary.

and shall comply with the general requirements of BS 6297. Septic ranks shall be constructed in accordance with KOC Standard drawing 15-5-71. Design of treatment units shall be in accordance with BS 6297. with a Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of 23 gm / person 1' 8 hr shift.5 of this RP shall be discharged into the septic tanks. The design shall be based on the tested permeability of the soil in which it is t o be constructed. In-situ permeability tests shall be conducted at one (1) m intervals from the proposed invert level of the inlet pipe t o the bottom of the soak-away pit in accordance with BS 5930 and as specified in "KOC Standard for Geo-technical Investigation (Onshore)" (KOC-C-003). The septic tank shall be designed for 135 litre / person / shift for ten (10) people per shift. and should have adequate storage and draining capacity to handle large amount of water from a severe. The underside of the roof slab should be protected with a suitable chemical resistant membrane. The e f f x t i v e depth of the soak-away i. The effluent from the septic tank shall be disposed off into the ground. the depth below the invert of the lowest pipe should be approximately equal to the diameter of the chamber. Septic tanks shall be located outside the Facility fence but not less than 15 m from manned building with due regard t o wind direction and t o vehicular access for periodic removal of sludge. They should be designed / constructed t o disperse water at the average rate of flow into it. Soak-awav Pits Soak-af~ay pits shall be provided for clean water use only.e. and shall comply with the general requirements of BS EN 752-4. Soak-away pits shall be constructed in accordance with KOC Standard drawings 15-25-1 and 15-39-31. .5 and 9.2.c. The tank shall be adequately sized for desludging on a t w o (2) month interval. via a soak-away pit. but comparatively rare storm. Septic Tanks Sanitary sewage collected from the locations with the anticipated volume as per c:lauses 8.

and should be used for limited users for limited capacity.3 Cesspo3ls shall be cylindrical in shape and shall meet the requirements of BS 6297. RP.3 A separate inlet section shall be provided in the pond t o retain the contaminated wastewater therein. 14. 14.1 0.1. through evaporation and percolation while protecting of the quality of ground water.1 0.10 Cesspools 14.1 1.1 1.1 Cesspods shall be designed impervious to ingress of ground / surface water and to leakage. 14.10. and should be sited at lower level.1 1.1 Evaporation ponds shall be used for the disposal of wastewater associated with p r ~ d u c t i o n oil.2 of this . 14. and shall be tested regularly in accordance with ASTM 03921 t o ensure the quality as per KOC .14. surface water and lands.2 Evaporation ponds shall be designed for the easy removal of any free oil that may be accumulated on the water surface by skimming with vacuum tankers or by installing weir type skimmer or by any other suitable means so that the evaporation of water shall not be suppressed by the thin film of oil.1 1. 14. 14.1 1 Evaporation Ponds 14.21 00 "Guideline for Evaporation Pits" .2 Cesspo3ls shall be located at a distance not less than 1 5 m from any nearby inhabited building. . Cesspools shall be ventilated t o avoid foul sewage and should not pollute any groundwater. and allow only clean water through underflow piping t o enter the main evaporation section.4 Wastewater effluent shall not exceed the acceptable limit of 25 mg/l of hydrocarbon before discharge in compliance with Table I clause 7.

b. Durability. c. (100 mm) diameter. Aggressive conditions in the soil and its effects on the pipe materials against various types of corrosion and speed of degradation.: provisions of BS 65. Physical and chemical effects of effluents t o the specific properties of pipe materials.SELECTION OF PIPE MATERIAL General The choice of suitable pipe materials for underground drainage by open / closed systems to the selected disposal points will depend on the following criteria as below: a. The minimum pipe size used shall be not less than 4 in. some of the pipe materials for drainage systems shall be selected and used in compliance with the design requirements as described below. However. using flexible ring joints. Chemical Sewer Vitrified clay pipes and pipelines fittings for sewers shall comply with the relevanxequirements of BS 65 and be of "normal" type with flexible mechar ical joints. Sanitarv Sewer Unplasticized PVC (U-PVC) pipes with joints and fittings for gravity sewers shall be in compliance with the relevant provisions of BS 4660 and BS EN 1401. e. f. Type of joint and jointing material shall be corrosion proof and shall be approved by KOC.5 of this RP. Extra chemically resistant pipes and fittings shall also comply with the relevan. Jointing systems. . Rerrledial measures and costs of protective systems (external and / or internal) for pipe materials. Oily and Clean Water Sewer Refer to the project specification" Piping Material Classes" as listed in clause 4. strength and costs of the pipe materials. Type and nature of effluents to be drained. their mechanical I chemical strengths and long-term integrity. d.

t o suit the specific influents and applications. ar pre-cast concrete square / rectangular section. Concrete of Grade C30 shall be used for pipe cradles and relieving arches. access shaft and manhole and manhole cover and frame by an KOC approved Manufacturer. dilrable. including integral inlet and outlet connections.Polypropylene pipes and fittings shall comply with BS 4991 & BS IS0 4065. and cover slabs conforming t o BS 591 1 Part 2 0 0 or equal. access shafts. Septic tanks shall be in preformed units made from glass reinforced plastic (GRP). which are clay and shall be in conformity with the in conformity with "KOC Standard for Preparation and Earthwork" (KOC-C-005).3 of this RP. A man-way with a sealed cover shall be provided to facilitate the addition of neutralizing medium and the removal of the treated effluent.1. Manholes shall be built with pre-cast reinforced concrete rings.Materials and Construction" (KOCC-006). Step irons of galvanized ferrous or stainless steel shall be cast into the manhole rings during casting or pre-casting and shall comply with BS 1247 Part 1. and shall be of appropriate traffic grade with a minimum opening (circular or square) as specified in clause 14. Selected granular materials shall hard. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS Concrete where used for drainage works shall be specified in accordance with KOC Standard for Concrete Work .Site be used as bedding of pipes. ! Manholes of in-situ concrete construction shall have prior approval from KOC before construction being commenced. Manhole covers and frames shall conform to BS EN 124. rectangular section. free from silt and suitable approved fill materials Materials and Workmanship . Neutralization sumps shall be in preformed units made of Polypropylene or GRP etc. Neutralization sumps shall be vented in safe area. or in-situ concrete square . reducing slabs. . or reinforced concrete as per KOC Standard drawing 15-5-71.

The slope shall not be extended below a plane level with the top of the pipe.3 commencing any work.). 1 5 0 m m extra excavation and backfilling for pipe diameters exceeding 3 0 0 mm (12 in.Site Preparation and Earthworks" (KOC-C-005).0 to 12.). 1 0 0 m m extra excavation and backfilling for pipe diameters exceeding 1 5 0 mm ( 6 in. . The trench base shall be free of any protrusions and hard spots. b. Excava-:ion in trench shall be carried out to ensure that the drains can be laid in straight lines to the required gradients and invert levels as established during the design. c. Trench excavations for all pipes (except stoneware sewer pipes laid over concrete beds) shall be taken down to the extra depths below the required underside elevation of pipe for bedding.0 of this RP. and any unsuitable material shall be removed and replaced with compacted suitable material as specified in KOC-C-005.CONSTRUCTION Prior t. the Contractor shall submit for KOC approval his proposals for meeting the basic requirements and systems as described in clauses 7. Trench depths shall be kept t o a minimum as per clause 13.3 of this RP. or the trench sides shall be benched / battered back t o ensure stability of the excavation. 75 mm extra excavation and backfilling for pipe diameters up to 1 5 0 mm ( 6 in.) and up to 300 mm (12 in. and for setting-out the work and for controlling the locations and levels of the drainage systems to the dimensLonsand levels as established during the survey.). and shall also meet the KOC requirements as described in the relevant: clauses of "KOC Standard for Materials and Workmanship .1. Sides of trenches and other excavations deeper than 1 5 0 0 mm shall be suitably supported by timbering or other means acceptable to KOC. Excavation of trenches and pits shall comply with BS 6031 for safety precautions. and then shall be backfilled with fine sandy material and compacted t o provide continuous bearing of pipe throughout the length as below: a.

Drain lines around buildings. and then refilled to the formation level with a suitable selected fill material and properly compacted. where the cover is less than 4 6 0 m m for carbon steel pipes and 9 0 0 m m for all other materials shall be protected by a minimum 1 5 0 m m thick concrete bed and surround.II temporary supports of the pipes during laying shall be removed prior to backfilling. through suitable or unsuitable material and / or rock. Proper arrangements shall be made for the rapid disposal of water entering into the excavated area or trench when the water table is high. Clean-cut points shall be located where established during the planning and design. by pumping or bailing out to maintain the excavation free from standing water during pipe laying and backfilling operations.1 Soft spots shall be removed from the bottom / base of trenches. KOC-C-025 I) I Page 55 of 65 1 a- REV.4 above.2 of this RP shall be evenly spread on the prepared trench base so that the pipe barrels could receive continuous support at the required gradient.DOC. NO. Installation of Pipes and Fittinqs Selected granular bedding material as specified in clause 16. All access covers and frames shall be installed. All pipes and fittings shall be jointed strictly in compliance with the approved Manufacturer's instructions. P. Open pipe ends shall be temporarily closed. Branches and drain lines for future use shall be permanently sealed off with proper stoppers t o prevent the ingress of harmful matter. All drain lines under roads where the cover is less than 1 2 0 0 m m shall be protected by the same method as described in clause 17. . Each pipe shall be checked for correct position before laying the next pipe. Surplus excavated material shall be removed t o a KOC approved disposal area. All pipes shall be laid true t o the line and level as established during the design. Any void resulting from over-excavation below formation level shall be refilled in the same manner and re-compacted. Trench excavations shall be made through all types of ground materials i.e.3. all in accordance with KOC-C-005.

and shall be built in pre-formed. The cast iron access cover and frame shall be set over the opening in the cover slab. with a 3:1 sand cement mortar mix on the topmost pre-cast ring section.10 All branch channels shall be swept into the direction of the main channel flow. the frame shall be set on regulating courses of brickwork t o achieve the cover levels as determined and established during the design. semi-circular channel sections of vitrified clayware or granolithic finish on concrete benching or suitable chemically resistant material. as ordered.Materials and Construction" (KOC-C-005). bedded and haunched in 3:1 sand cement mortar. 17. the chamber shall be completed using a reducing slab and access shaft ring sections up t o the underside of the cover assembly. Haunching of the channels shall be vertical up t o the soffit level of the discharge pipe from the manhole and then sloped upward t o the walls of the manholes at a gradient of 1 t o 12. Flow cclannels t o or from the manholes shall be in accordance with BS EN 752. or shall be cut onsite for entry of the sewer pipes. . Manholes made of pre-cast reinforced ring sections shall be placed on a concrete base slab and jointed together with a sand cement mortar of 3:1 mix. Pipe entries should be made good around the pipes with mass concrete. The joints where pipes enter or leave the manhole shall be sealed with KOC approved non-setting sealer. The pre-cast reinforced concrete cover slab shall be bedded. Where the depth of the manhole exceeds 3 3 0 0 m m as established in the project construction drawing. The pre-cast concrete ring sections shall be supplied. with holes for pipe entries. Branch channels shall discharge into the main channel section at horizontal diameter level of this main channel.4.Manholes Manholes of in-situ and / or pre-cast concrete construction shall be made in accordance with "KOC Standard for Concrete Work . An external surround made of 150 m m thick mass concrete shall then be cast upon completion of the manhole(s). If necessary.

A layer of selected fill material shall be placed up to the crown of the pipe.2 of this RP. filled with water. septic tank or sump. shall then be placed above the crown af the pipe and lightly compacted. The remaining backfill shall be built up with suitable fill material in compliance with KOC-C-005 in layers not exceeding 1 5 0 m m loose thickness. Compaction tests on backfilling shall be conducted by the Contractor one (1) minimum per every 50 m of trench and one (1) at every manhole. and the final finish shall be left 1 5 0 mm above the surrounding ground level. connected t o the sewer lines and completed all in compliance with the approved Manufacturer's instructions. Backfilling may be carried out in sections as work progresses with prior KOC approval. Installation o f S e ~ t i Tanks and Neutralization Pits c Preformed GRP chambers when recommended t o use shall be set on a 1 5 0 mm thick mass concrete base. backfilled. A cushion layer of 4 5 0 m m thick selected fill as specified in clause 16. The backfill in trenches crossing existing roads shall be thoroughly compacted and the road pavement shall be temporarily reinstated and maintained until settlement has finally ceased. Backfilling around manholes shall generally be carried out as described for trenches. The preformed chamber shall be lowered into the excavation. Care should also be taken t o raise the fill level equally all around the chamber. After testing being completed. bedding material shall be further placed by hand up t o the horizontal diameter of the pipe and compacted by hand ramming. Each layer shall be thoroughly compacted by hand to give a cover of 4 5 0 m m over the crown of the pipe. around manholes and concrete septic tanks shall not begin until the sewer system has been successfully tested and accept3d by KOC.Backfillinq Backfilling of the pipe trenches. . Each s~bsequentlayer shall be compacted by light mechanical equipment before further fill being added. and compacted by hand ramming. Permanent reinstatement shall b~ carried out as directed by KOC.

lected t o the building drainage using inspection chambers. Sewer pipes shall comply with the requirements as described in BS EN 7 5 2 for the drain and sewer connections outside the buildings.NO.KOC-C-025 1 Page 58 o f 65 REV. . The soak-away pits shall be constructed in a honeycomb pattern by sand cement blocks as per KOC Standard drawings 15-25-1 and 15-39-31. or shallow manholes. concrete or sand bitumen coating or asphalt lining in accordance with KOC-C-033.Materials and Construction" (KOC-C-005) and KOC Standard drawings listed in clause 4.1 In-situ concrete chambers shall be constructed in accordance with "KOC Standard for Concrete Work .DOC.Bund Walls for Storage Tanks" (KOC-C-033). The protective surface shall be provided as approved by KOC. A concrete apron shall be provided to prevent scour around the inlet pipe. and a circular concrete base shall be constructed. Wastewater Evaporation Ponds The wastewater ponds shall be graded to the required level area and then dikes shall be constructed all around to the required levels for adequate storage capacity as per the design requirements. The inside face and top of the dike walls shall be protected with an impervious surface. Forming of the dikes and grading works shall be carried out in accordance with "KOC Standard for Materials and Construction .e. Connection o f Buildinq Drainaqe t o Sewer System Sewer pipes shall be installed within one (1) metre of each building and shall be con.2 of this RP. i.2. Installation of Soak-away Pits Soak-away pits shall be excavated t o the required depths.

DOC. Gravity sewers shall be air tested by pumping air inside by a suitable means until a pressure of 1 0 0 m m head of water is indicated on a U.the construction is completed. The quantity required t o maintain the original level shall be recorded.8 m head of water above the pipe soffit at the highest point and not more than 6 m head at the lowest point. NO. and sewers larger than 7 5 0 m m nominal diameter by a visual examination. . Before handing over t o KOC. The drainage systems should be maintained in a clean and serviceable condition until they are handed over t o KOC on completion of the Contract. and before commencing any concreting or backfilling other than that required for structural stability during test. KOC-C-025 - TESTS AND RECORDS General When . The pipeline shall be acceptable. Drains shall be tested after 48 hours from being jointed. branches or pipeline ends are transfel-red t o the ground.2 of this I3P. Prior to testing any pipeline. if the air pressure remains constant above 75 m m head of water after a period of 5 minutes without further pumping. caps or blank flanges properly jointed. or suitable temporary anchorage. the drainage systems at completion of the works shall be retested to KOC satisfaction. the internal surfaces of sewers and manholes shall be thoroughly cleansed t o remove all dirt and deleterious matter.tube connecred t o the system. and the thrusts from bends. after which water shall be added from a measuring vessel at five (5) minutes interval. The pipeline shall be filled with water and kept for absorption for a minimum period of t w o (2) hours. Field T e m Drains up t o and including 7 5 0 m m nominal diameter shall be tested by means of air or water. Failure to pass the test shall not eliminate the acceptance of the pipeline if a subsequent water test can be successfully carried out. Open ends shall be closzd with plugs. All defects shall be rectified and retested until the results are found to be satisfactory as per clause 18. the Contractor shall ensure that it is anchored properly. The pressure for gravity sewers shall not be less than 1.

The pipe-work shall operate without any blockage in the drain line. valves etc. and the test shall be repeated until leakage is stopped. e.7 The length of pipeline shall be acceptable if the quantity of water added over a period of 3 0 minute is less than 0. f.18. The discharged water / effluents should meet the acceptable limits of p o l l ~ t a n t s per Table I of this RP by appropriate tests. b.8 18. 18.2. However if any leakage of water is detected from any point on the pipe or from any joint. as well as KOC H&E Guidelines. The drainage requ-rements.9 18. A minimum period of t w o (2) hours shall be allowed for absorption after which water shall be added to restore the level to the underside of the cover slab. c. and structural and chemical resistance to the groundwater and effluents. to which drain and sewer systems shall operate. The drainage system should not create odour nuisance and toxicity.2. should comply with the following checklists and shall be properly recorded for future reference and for any rectifications as below: a. systems shall be watertight as per the testing . PERFORMANCE RECORDS The basic performance requirements.2. Test Records All laboratory tests for the materials to be used. approved by KOC. and should be free from any leakage through joints. Manholes shall be tested for leaks by closing the pipes with stoppers and filling with water to the underside of the cover slab. the pipe shall be replaced and / or the joint remade as approp-iate.2. as well as for the quality of discharged water or effluents shall be furnished within 72 hours after the tests being conducted from the reputed testing laboratory.5 litre per lineal metre per metre of nominal diameter. The drainage systems installed shall have adequate hydraulic capacity. All field test records shall be submitted by the Contractor to KOC for acceptsnce within 48 hours after the tests being conducted. (to be specified as by the Designer / Contractor and approved by KOC) d.10 The manhole shall be acceptable if the water level does not drop further. The drainage systems shall satisfy the Kuwait EPA and KOC Fire & Safety Regulations.

all the responsibilities and duties of quality control by verifying.g. The systems shall satisfy the structural integrity and strengths as specified in the relevant National / International and KOC Standards listed in clause 4. The Contractor shall prepare and submit a detailed quality plan for KOC a p p r o v ~ l prior t o implementation. as well as testing of all samples in a sequentiaf order. the governing standards / codes and whether a document or report is produced for each activity. The systems should purposes as required. provide appropriate access for maintenance i. that shall meet fully the quality control requirements of drainage work as described in this RP.5. co-rect positioning and placement of pipe-work. formwork. . showing the frequency of control tests. Drains and sewers shall not endanger existing structures and utility services. The quality plan shall consist of the following: a. QUALITY CONTROL Quality Plan The Contractor shall perform at different stages of the Work. inspection and testing activities for the Work. h. The plan shall detail submittals of all the test certificates for each cowignment of construction materials and piping materials including all other components as required for records and approval prior to conmencing the work.0 of this RP. The plan shall also include inspection of storage facilities. inspecting and testing through his dedicated quality control system in conformity with the designated project specification in clause 4. and clause 21 -0of this RP. co-tcrete and asphalt etc. the acceptance criteria. Inspection and Test Plan (ITP) The ITP shall list the sequence of all verification. reinforcing bars / fabric.

During the PIM the Contractor and KOC will review and finalize the mark-up of the ITP. Quality Control Engineer The Contractor shall appoint a full-time. inspection. . qualified and experienced "Quality Control Engineer". confirm the requirements for witnessing (W). dedicated to this work only and shall be acceptable t o KOC. Reject materials or workmanship that do not conform t o this RP. in the plan. The Quality Control Engineer shall be independent of the Contractor's Site Construction Management and shall report direct t o his Corporate Management and KOC Controlling Team. surveillance (S). Pra-inspection Meeting (PIM) PIM shall be held by the Contractor with KOC before commencing the construction of drainage work. Stop any work that is not being done in conformity with the accepted construction practices. However. reviewing (R).2 of this RP. The Quality Control Engineer shall be authorized by the Contractor to discharge his responsibilities in the unhindered manner as below: Postpone further operation(s) until the outstanding issues affecting the quality construction have been resolved.b. specifications and KOC Standards as well as other National I International standards and codes referenced in clause 4. The Quality Control Engineer shall be responsible to oversee that the quality control measures have been properly implemented in the actual fieldwork and shall keep all the necessary records for further reference. and testing period. Report within 2 4 hours and provide records t o KOC as required upon discovery of any noncompliance. The approved quality plan shall be strictly adhered to throughout the entire drainage work. KOC reserves the right of independent inspection of the material and workmanship at all times t o assure conformance t o the approved construction drawings. monitoring (M). Prevent the use of equipment that can cause improper construction and safety problems.

levels. instructions. shall be in SI units unless otherwise specified.1 Genera: All corrsspondence. -:herefore. specifications etc. 22.1. drawings or any other written information shall be in English language. In case of dual languages. All calculations shall be submitted in approved and widely used software(s) agreed upon by KOC. and details with dimensions. (Nominal bore pipe sizes t o be generally mentioned in inches). 22.3 All documents (text. sizes.1. The designer / contractor shall demonstrate compliance by providing a copy of the acc-edited certificate or its quality manual. data sheets. but is not limited -to the following only: Geo-technical Investigation Report Topographical Survey Contour Maps Plot Layout Block Diagrams Area Drawings Grading Plans Drainage Plan Drainage Layout Drawings Risk Assessment studies Design Calculations Design Drawings showing plans. 22.1 22. physical constants etc.1 .). not detailed in the core text of this RP. Auto Cad etc.2 Deliverables The designer I contractor shall submit the necessary documents as a minimum to KOC for review and acceptance as given below.) shall be provided with electronic files in the approved and widely used software (MS Word. materials and connections Master List of all Submittals Master List of Schedules for Planned Progress Work Breakdown Schedules (WBS) All Test Records (laboratory / field) Any other as required. Verification of the designer / contractor quality system is normally part of the pre-qualification procedure and is.1 DOC. . KOC-C-025 21-0 QUALITY ASSURANCE Page 63 of 65 The designer / contractor shall operate a quality system preferably based on IS0 9000 series of standards t o satisfy the requirements of this RP. Excel. one language shall be English. units of measurement. NO.2 22. All dimensions. data sheets.

Ramanathan Mr. Henry S. Team Leader Maintenance. Hill Mr. . Tech. Moataz Khalaf Standards Team Insp. Mgmt. S. N. Khalaf Hamada Mr. Team (S&EK) Standards Team Opns. Svcs Team (SK) Gen. Amina Rajab Mr.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This Recommended Practice has been approved by the Standards Technical Committee (STC) consisting of the following: Mr. Team Leader Opns. Team (NK) Information System Team Chairman Deputy Chairman Secretary/ Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member The draft of this RP has been circulated to the KOC User Teams for their review. Svcs Team Leader Maintenance HSE GROUP Team Leader HSE Systems Team Leader Safety Team leader Health & Environment OPERATIONS GROUP (EKL Team Leader Prod. Opns. (S&EK) DIVIDED ZONE GROUP Team Leader Proj. Tech. Svcs DRILLING WNS. Khalid Al-Ahmad Mrs. Abdul Aziz Akbar Mr. GROUP Team Leader Export Svcs. Proj. Svcs INDUSTRIAL SERVICES GROUP Team Leader Insp. & Corr. and responses were received from the following: - ENGINEERING GROUP Team Leader Construction Team Leader General Projects MAJOR PROJECTS GROUP Team Leader Project Support Team Leader Export Facilities AHMADI SERVICES GROUP Team Leader Project Design Team Leader Utilities OPERATIONS GROUP (WKJ Team Leader HSE Team Leader Opns. A/Redha Al-Haddad Mr. GROUP EXPORT & MARINE OPNS. Engg.& Facilities OPERATIONS GROUP (SEK) Team Leader HSE OPERATlONS GROUP (NKl Team Leader Opns.& Corr. Kumar Mr. Tech. & Corr Team (N&WK) Proj. Mohammac Emam Mr. Ali Hassan Al-Failakawi Dr. Daniel Pino Mr. Team Leader Drilling Svcs. Tech. Modistaba Araghi Mr. Team Design Team Design Team Major Projects-EFP Utilities Team HSES Team Insp.

Mr. Tel. No. Tel. No. Tel. Tel. Mr. Proj. No. (TF-C/O6) comprising of the following members: Mr. No. Gopakumar Maged Madi Uppara Saibaba Standards Team Design Team Design Team Export Fac. No. No.l The preparatiorr of this RP has been entrusted by the Standards Technical Committee (STC) t o the Task Force No. No. Mr. Javaid Krishna Kurrar Ahmed Al-Fenaini S. Projects Projects Design HSE Team TF Leader / Author Member Member Member Member Member Member Tel. NO. S.DOC. 6 1 407 61322 61 1 5 2 66987 61 388 66389 71837 . Mr. Tel. Tel. Gen. Mr. KOC-C-025 1 Page 65 of 65 REV. Kumar Mohd. Mr.