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CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi Cambridge University Press 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia www.cambridge.edu.au Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521658652 © Cambridge University Press 2000 First published 2000 Reprinted 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2007 Reprinted 2009 with Student CD Typeset by Bill Pender Diagrams set in Core1Draw by Derek Ward Printed in Australia by the BPA Print Group National Library of Australia Cataloguing in Publication data Pender, W. (William) Cambridge mathematics, 3 unit : year 12 / Bill Pender… [et al]. 9780521658652 (pbk.) Includes index. For secondary school age Mathematics. Mathematics  Problems, exercises etc. Sadler, David. Shea, Julia. Ward, Derek. 510 ISBN 9780521658652 paperback Reproduction and Communication for educational purposes The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this publication, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under the Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact: Copyright Agency Limited Level 15, 233 Castlereagh Street Sydney NSW 2000 Telephone: (02) 9394 7600 Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601 Email: info@copyright.com.au Reproduction and Communication for other purposes Except as permitted under the Act (for example a fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review) no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher at the address above. Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLS for external or thirdparty internet websites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work are correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. Student CDROM licence Please see the file 'licence.txt' on the Student CDROM that is packed with this book.
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . How to Use This Book About the Authors . . Chapter One  The Inverse Trigonometric Functions
1A 1B 1C 1D IE IF 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 2G 2H 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E 3F 3G 3H 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F 4G Restricting the Domain . . . . . . . . . Defining the Inverse Trigonometric Functions Graphs Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Integration.................... General Solutions of Trigonometric Equations Trigonometric Identities The t Formulae . . . . . . Applications of Trigonometric Identities Trigonometric Equations . . . . . . . . . The Sum of Sine and Cosine Functions . Extension  Products to Sums and Sums to Products ThreeDimensional Trigonometry . . . . . Further ThreeDimensional Trigonometry
Vll
IX
. Xlll
1
1
9
14
19
25 32
Chapter Two  Further Trigonometry
37 37
42 45
49
56 64
67
73 79 80 86 93 99 .109
.116 .123 .132
Chapter Three  Motion
.............. .
Average Velocity and Speed . . . . . . . Velocity and Acceleration as Derivatives Integrating with Respect to Time . . . . Simple Harmonic Motion  The Time Equations Motion Using Functions of Displacement . . . . . Simple Harmonic Motion  The Differential Equation Projectile Motion  The Time Equations . Projectile Motion  The Equation of Path The Language of Polynomials . Graphs of Polynomial Functions Division of Polynomials The Remainder and Factor Theorems Consequences of the Factor Theorem The Zeroes and the Coefficients . . . Geometry using Polynomial Techniques
Chapter Four  Polynomial Functions . . .
.138 .138 .143 .147 .151 .155 .161
.168
iv
Contents
Chapter Five  The Binomial Theorem . . . . . . .
5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F The Pascal Triangle . . . . . . . . . . Further Work with the Pascal Triangle Factorial Notation . . . . . . . . . . . The Binomial Theorem . . . . . . . . . Greatest Coefficient and Greatest Term Identities on the Binomial Coefficients
.173 .173 .179 .185 .189 .197 .201 .208 .208 .213 .218 .222 .226 .233 .240 .240 .248 .253 .258 .262 .267 .270 .277 .282 .283 .292 .300 .310 .314 .321 .325 .329 .338 .344 .344 .352 .358 .364 .369 .377 .382
Chapter Six  Further Calculus
......... .
6A Differentiation of the Six Trigonometric Functions 6B Integration Using the Six Trigonometric Functions 6C Integration by Substitution . . . . . . . . . . 6D Further Integration by Substitution . . . . . . 6E Approximate Solutions and Newton's Method 6F Inequalities and Limits Revisited
Chapter Seven  Rates and Finance . . . .
7A 7B 7C 7D 7E 7F 7G 7H Applications of APs and GPs . Simple and Compound Interest Investing Money by Regular Instalments Paying Off a Loan . . . . . . . . . Rates of Change ~ Differentiating Rates of Change ~ Integrating .. Natural Growth and Decay Modified Natural Growth and Decay
Chapter Eight  Euclidean Geometry
8A 8B 8C 8D 8E 8F 8G 8H 81
.....
Points, Lines, Parallels and Angles Angles in Triangles and Polygons Congruence and Special Triangles . Trapezia and Parallelograms . . . . Rhombuses, Rectangles and Squares Areas of Plane Figures .. . . . . . . Pythagoras' Theorem and its Converse Similarity . . . . . . . . Intercepts on Tranversals
Chapter Nine  Circle Geometry . .
9A Circles, Chords and Arcs 9B Angles at the Centre and Circumference 9C Angles on the Same and Opposite Arcs 9D Con cyclic Points . . . . . . . . . 9E Tangents and Radii . . . . . . . . 9F The Alternate Segment Theorem 9G Similarity and Circles . . . . . .
Contents
v
Chapter Ten  Probability and Counting . .
lOA lOB 10C 10D 10E 10F lOG lOR lor 10J Probability and Sample Spaces Probability and Venn Diagrams MultiStage Experiments .. Probability Tree Diagrams . . . Counting Ordered Selections . . Counting with Identical Elements, and Cases Counting Unordered Selections Using Counting in Probability Arrangements in a Circle Binomial Probability
.389 .389 .398 .403 .409 .414 .421 .425 .432 .438 .442 .450 .502
Answers to Exercises Index . . . . . . . . .
Preface
This textbook has been written for students in Years 11 and 12 taking the course previously known as '3 Unit Mathematics', but renamed in the new HSC as two courses, 'Mathematics' (previously called '2 Unit Mathematics') and 'Mathematics, Extension 1'. The book develops the content at the level required for the 2 and 3 Unit HSC examinations. There are two volumes ~ the present volume is roughly intended for Year 12, and the previous volume for Year 11. Schools will, however, differ in their choices of order of topics and in their rates of progress. Although these Syllabuses have not been rewritten for the new HSC, there has been a gradual shift of emphasis in recent examination papers. • The interdependence of the course content has been emphasised. • Graphs have been used much more freely in argument. • Structured problem solving has been expanded. • There has been more stress on explanation and proof. This text addresses these new emphases, and the exercises contain a wide variety of different types of questions. There is an abundance of questions in each exercise ~ too many for anyone student ~ carefully grouped in three graded sets, so that with proper selection the book can be used at all levels of ability. In particular, both those who subsequently drop to 2 Units of Mathematics, and those who in Year 12 take 4 Units of Mathematics, will find an appropriate level of challenge. We have written a separate book, also in two volumes, for the 2 Unit 'Mathematics' course alone. We would like to thank our colleagues at Sydney Grammar School and Newington College for their invaluable help in advising us and commenting on the successive drafts, and for their patience in the face of some difficulties in earlier drafts. We would also like to thank the Headmasters of Sydney Grammar School and Newington College for their encouragement of this project, and Peter Cribb and the team at Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, for their support and help in discussions. Finally, our thanks go to our families for encouraging us, despite the distractions it has caused to family life. Dr Bill Pender Subject Master in Mathematics Sydney Grammar School College Street Darlinghurst NSW 2010 David Sadler Mathematics Sydney Grammar School Julia Shea Head of Mathematics Newington College 200 Stanmore Road Stanmore NSW 2048 Derek Ward Mathematics Sydney Grammar School
How to Use This Book
This book has been written so that it is suitable for the full range of 3 Unit students, whatever their abilities and ambitions. The book covers the 2 Unit and 3 Unit content without distinction, because 3 Unit students need to study the 2 Unit content in more depth than is possible in a 2 Unit text. Nevertheless, students who subsequently move to the 2 Unit course should find plenty of work here at a level appropriate for them.
The Exercises:
Noone should try to do all the questions! We have written long exercises so that everyone will find enough questions of a suitable standard each student will need to select from them, and there should be plenty left for revision. The book provides a great variety of questions, and representatives of all types should be selected.
Each chapter is divided into a number of sections. Each of these sections has its own substantial exercise, subdivided into three groups of questions: FOUNDATION: These questions are intended to drill the new content of the section at a reasonably straightforward level. There is little point in proceeding without mastery of this group. DEVELOPMENT: This group is usually the longest. It contains more substantial questions, questions requiring proof or explanation, problems where the new content can be applied, and problems involving content from other sections and chapters to put the new ideas in a wider context. Later questions here can be very demanding, and Groups 1 and 2 should be sufficient to meet the demands of all but exceptionally difficult problems in 3 Unit HSC papers. EXTENSION: These questions are quite hard, and are intended principally for those taking the 4 Unit course. Some are algebraically challenging, some establish a general result beyond the theory of the course, some make difficult connections between topics or give an alternative approach, some deal with logical problems unsuitable for the text of a 3 Unit book. Students taking the 4 Unit course should attempt some of these.
The Theory and the Worked Exercises: The theory has been developed with as much
rigour as is appropriate at school, even for those taking the 4 Unit course. This leaves students and their teachers free to choose how thoroughly the theory is presented in a particular class. It can often be helpful to learn a method first and then return to the details of the proof and explanation when the point of it all has become clear. The main formulae, methods, definitions and results have been boxed and numbered consecutively through each chapter. They provide a summary only, and
x
How to Use This Book
represent an absolute minimum of what should be known. The worked examples have been chosen to illustrate the new methods introduced in the section, and should be sufficient preparation for the questions of the following exercise.
The Order of the Topics:
We have presented the topics in the order we have found most satisfactory in our own teaching. There are, however, many effective orderings of the topics, and the book allows all the flexibility needed in the many different situations that apply in different schools (apart from the few questions that provide links between topics).
The time needed for the work on polynomials in Chapter Four, on Euclidean geometry in Chapters Eight and Nine, and on the first few sections of probability in Chapter Ten, will depend on students' experiences in Years 9 and 10. The Study Notes at the start of each chapter make further specific remarks about each topic. We have left Euclidean geometry, polynomials and elementary probability until Year 12 for two reasons. First, we believe as much calculus as possible should be developed in Year 11, ideally including the logarithmic and exponential functions and the trigonometric functions. These are the fundamental ideas in the course, and it is best if Year 12 is used then to consolidate and extend them (and students su bsequently taking the 4 Unit course particularly need this material early). Secondly, the Years 9 and 10 Advanced Course already develops elementary probility in the Core, and much of the work on polynomials and Euclidean geometry in Options recommended for those proceeding to 3 Unit, so that revisiting them in Year 12 with the extensions and greater sophistication required seems an ideal arrangement.
The Structure of the Course:
Recent examination papers have included longer questions combining ideas from different topics, thus making clear the strong interconnections amongst the various topics. Calculus is the backbone of the course, and the two processes of differentiation and integration, inverses of each other, dominate most of the topics. We have introduced both processes using geometrical ideas, basing differentiation on tangents and integration on areas, but the subsequent discussions, applications and exercises give many other ways of understanding them. For example, questions about rates are prominent from an early stage. Besides linear functions, three groups of functions dominate the course: THE QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS: These functions are known from earlier years. They are algebraic representations of the parabola, and arise naturally in situations where areas are being considered or where a constant acceleration is being applied. They can be studied without calculus, but calculus provides an alternative and sometimes quicker approach. THE EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS: Calculus is essential for the study of these functions. We have chosen to introduce the logarithmic function first, using definite integrals of the reciprocal function y = l/x. This approach is more satisfying because it makes clear the relationship between these functions and the rectangular hyperbola y = l/x, and because it gives a clear picture of the new number e. It is also more rigorous. Later, however, one can never overemphasise the fundamental property that the exponential
although there are many clues. of linear and exponential functions at integers. the rectangular hyperbola and the circle. Algebra. respectively. and therefore occur in almost every application of mathematics.hence the detailed study of simple harmonic motion in Year 12. stressed in recent examinations. The particular case of the binomial theorem then becomes the bridge from elementary probability using tree diagrams to the binomial distribution with all its practical applications. calculus is essential for the study of these functions.and the related numbers e and 7r are developed from the three most basic degree 2 curves . and the highly structured arguments used here contrast with the algebraic arguments used in the coordinate geometry approach to the parabola. coordinate geometry or algebra. and they are essential for the study of all periodic phenomena .How to Use This Book xi function with base e is its own derivative .the parabola.this is the reason why these functions are essential for the study of natural growth and decay. geometry. Thus the three basic functions of the course . . and these interrelationships need to be developed. The graphs of the sine and cosine functions are waves. Arithmetic and geometric sequences arise naturally throughout the course. Unfortunately. the geometry of the rectangular hyperbola is given special consideration in the context of a coordinate geometry treatment of general conics. is to encourage arguments that relate a curve to its equation. eX and sin x . is based on the circle. is easily related to everything else. The geometry of the circle is mostly studied using Euclidean methods. They are the values. THE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS: Again. whose definition. like the associated definition of 7r. everything in the course. but as a matter of routine. In this way. It is because sketches can so easily be drawn that this type of mathematics is so satisfactory for study at school.x 2 . and move the course a little beyond the degree 2 phenomena described above. the behaviour of a graph can often be used to solve an algebraic problem. students should draw diagrams for almost every problem they attempt. Projective geometry and calculus with complex numbers are even further removed. trigonometry. so it is not really possible to explain that exponential and trigonometric functions are the same thing. We have drawn as many sketches in the book as space allowed. Being able to predict the behaviour of a curve given only its equation is a constant concern of the exercises. whether in calculus. Graphs and Language: One of the chief purposes of the course. the power series that link polynomials with the exponential and trigonometric functions are too sophisticated for a school course. In the 4 Unit course. Polynomials constitute a generalisation of quadratics. Conversely. particularly in the context of applications to finance.
and we are fortunate that everything else in the course can be developed rigorously so that students are given that characteristic mathematical experience of certainty and total understanding. A warning here is appropriate ~ any machine drawing of a curve should be accompanied by a clear understanding of why such a curve arises from the particular equation or situation. but little agreement yet. and clarity of language and logic in argument. geometrically and intuitively developed. any solution should display elegant and errorfree algebra. the better able they are to interpret the mathematics correctly. the intermediate value theorem. given the wellbehaved functions that occur in the course. which states that a continuous function can only change sign at a zero. everything needed about them can be justified from this definition. and rigorous language and logic. and any attempt to provide a rigorous treatment of limits. and the more experience and intuitive understanding students have. is taken to be obvious. and the exercises give plenty of scope for this. but we encourage such investigation. about what role technology should play in the mathematics classroom or what machines or software may be effective. Continuity and the Real Numbers: This is a first course in calculus. The graphs of functions are at the centre of the course. and at other times to become involved in the interpretation provided by the applications. geometric intuition. . We would therefore urge the reader sometimes to pay attention to the details of argument in proofs and to the abstract structures and their interrelationships. We believe that the limits required in this course present little difficulty to intuitive understanding ~ really little more is needed than lim l/x = 0 and the occasional use of the sandwich principle in proofs. and provided that intuitive ideas about lines are accepted. and quite accessible. In particular. Theory and Applications: Elegance of argument and perfection of structure are fundamental in mathematics. This is the great contribution that mathematics brings to all our education. We have kept to these values as far as is reasonable in the development of the theory and in the exercises. It is not a course in analysis. Continuity and differentiability need only occasional attention. The real numbers are defined geometrically as points on the number line. continuity or the real numbers would be quite inappropriate. diagrams to display the situation. Ideally then. The application of mathematics to the world around us is equally fundamental. and we have given many examples of the usefulness of everything in the course. Technology: There is much discussion. This is a time for experimentation and diversity.xii How to Use This Book This course is intended to develop simultaneously algebraic agility. These unavoidable gaps concern only very subtle issues of 'foundations'. We have therefore given only a few specific recommendations about technology. Limits. Charx+oo acterising the tangent as the limit of the secant is a dramatic new idea. clearly marking the beginning of calculus. Calculus is particularly suitable for presenting this double view of mathematics.
.
.
but some further revision may be necessary. . and the associated derivatives and integrals. That material is summarised in Section lA in preparation for more detail about restricted functions. lA Restricting the Domain Section 2H of the Year 11 volume discussed how the inverse relation of a function mayor may not be a function.they therefore fail the horizontal line test quite seriously.cos. and briefly mentioned that if the inverse is not a function. Inverse Relations and Inverse Functions: First. This theory gives rise to primitives of two purely algebraic functions Jh 1 .CHAPTER ONE The Inverse Trigonometric Functions A proper understanding of how to solve trigonometric equations requires a theory of inverse trigonometric functions. here is a summary of the basic theory of inverse functions and relations.x2 dx = sin. Suppose that f( x) is a function whose inverse relation is being considered. Understanding inverse trigonometric functions therefore requires further discussion of the procedures for restricting the domain of a function so that the inverse relation is also a function.1 x (or . This section revisits those ideas and develops a more systematic approach to restricting the domain. the usual methods of differential and integral calculus can be applied to them. In Section IF these functions are used to establish some formulae for the general solutions of trigonometric equations. = log x in that in all three cases. in that some horizontal lines cross their graphs infinitely many times. then the domain can be restricted so that the inverse of this restricted function is a function. The examples given later will illustrate the various points. Once the functions are established. This theory is complicated by the fact that the trigonometric functions are periodic functions . STU DY NOTES: Inverse relations and functions were first introduced in Section 2H of the Year 11 volume. Sections IBIE then develop the standard theory of inverse trigonometric functions and their graphs.1 x) and dx which are similar to the earlier primitive J± J+ _1_2 dx 1 x = tan. a purely algebraic function has a primitive which is nonalgebraic.1 x.
2 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 INVERSE FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS: 1 • The graph of the inverse relation is obtained by reflecting the original graph in the diagonal line y = x. (writing y for x and x for y) y+2 xy + 2x = y .X .1 (J(x)) SOLUTION: =x and f(Jl(X)) = x.2( 1 .2 y(x ...Ix 1 X X 2+ +2 1 _ _=c~ 1 (2 + 2x) . x+2 x2 Then show directly that f. then the domain of the original function can be restricted so that the inverse of the restricted function is a function. and we say that a function f( x) is an increasing function if f( x) increases as x increases: f(a) < f(b). Then the composition of the function and its inverse. x2 x+2 y2 Let y=. 2(x2) x+2 X 2 X x2 X 2 x+2 + + 2(x + 2) + 2(x . .1) = 2x . x Then the inverse relation is =  and Then f(JI(X)) fl(x) = 2 + 2x 1x . write x for y and y for x every time each variable occurs. in either order. the inverse relation is a function.x) (2+2x)+2(1x) 4x 4 = x. 1x Since there is only one solution for y. • The domain and range of the inverse relation are the range and domain respectively of the original function. The following worked exercise illustrates the fourth and fifth points above. leaves every number unchanged: and • If the inverse is not a function.. Increasing and Decreasing Functions: Increasing means getting bigger. the inverse function is written as f.2 2 + 2x y=.. whenever a < b. • To find the equations and conditions of the inverse relation.. WORKED EXERCISE: Find the inverse function of f( x) = . • The inverse relation of a given relation is a function if and only if no horizontal line crosses the original graph more than once. • If the inverse relation is also a function. as required.2) (x+2)(x2) 4x 4 = x as required.I (x).. =f (2 + Ix 2X) 1x 2+2x 2+2x 2 .
and the inverse of a decreasing function is decreasing. and so an increasing function cannot possibly fail the horizontal line test. whenever a < b. • J(x) is called a decreasing function if every chord slopes downwards. To justify the second remark. The same argument applies to decreasing functions. . for all pairs of distinct numbers a and b. . The exact relationship between the global and pointwise definitions of increasing are surprisingly difficult to state. it generates a horizontal chord. whenever a < b. then provided J( x) is defined there. notice that reflection in y = x maps lines sloping upwards to lines sloping upwards. INCREASING OR DECREASING FUNCTIONS AND THE INVERSE RELATION: 3 • The inverse of an increasing or decreasing function is a function. INCREASING AND DECREASING FUNCTIONS: Suppose that J( x) is a function . thIS means that every chord slopes upwards. This means that the inverse relation of every increasing function is a function. J(b)J(a) must ba be positive. y y y x x x An increasing function NOTE: A decreasing function Neither of these These are global definitions. and maps lines sloping downwards to lines sloping downwards. because the ratIO .CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1A Restricting the Domain 3 For example. Throughout our course. looking at the graph of the function as a whole. The Inverse Relation of an Increasing or Decreasing Function: When a horizontal line crosses a graph twice. where a function J(x) was called increasing at x = a if 1'( a) > 0. • The inverse of an increasing function is increasing. as the examples in the following paragraphs demonstrate. But every chord of an increasing function slopes upwards. They should be contrasted with the pointwise definitions introduced in Chapter Ten of the Year 11 volume. but in this course it will be sufficient to rely on the graph and common sense. J( a) > J(b). 2 J(a) < J(b). a tangent describes the behaviour of a function at a particular point. and J(5) < J(10). that is. J(2) < J(3). In the language of coordinate geometry. if J( x) is an increasing function. if the tangent slopes upwards at the point. Decreasing functions are defined similarly. • J(x) is called an increasing function if every chord slopes upwards. that is. that is. whereas a chord relates the values of the function at two different points.
and since points on a mirror are reflected to themselves. e10g X = x. it follows that if the graph of the function intersects the line y = x.The Square and Square Root Functions: The two functions y = x 2 and y = yX give our first example of restricting the domain so that the inverse of the restricted function is a function. • f( x) = eX is an increasing function. the tangent to y = {jX at the origin is vertical. and so has an inverse which is written as fl(x) = yX. . and chords joining points on different branches 1 slope upwards. . • Define the restricted function f(x) by f(x) = x 2 .The Reciprocal Function: The function f(x) = l/x is its own Inverse. some slope downwards. and its inverse is a function. because every chord slopes upwards. increasing at every point. 1 1 x Example . and for x > 0. Hence it passes the horizontal line test. Correspondingly. and some are horizontal. because its derivative is J'(x) = eX which is always positive. then it intersects the inverse there too. which is also increasing. • f(x) = l/x is decreasing at every point. it passes the horizontal 1 line test.//' //' = r\x) : Further Examples of Restricting the Domain: These two worked exercises show the process of restricting the domain applied to more general functions. y • f( x) = 1/ x is neither increasing nor decreasing. where x ?: 0. Then f( x) is an increasing function. because the tangent at the origin is horizontal.4 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Example . log eX = x. because the reciprocal of the reciprocal of any nonzero number is always the original number. Nevertheless. :\. the number 1 has two square roots. which is always negative. and which is also increasing. This is the part of y = x 2 shown undotted in the diagram on the right. and its inverse (which is itself) is a function. • f( x) = x 3 is an increasing function. • For all x. because every chord slopes upwards. • For all x > 0. "" . \ \~ ) i'. Tx3 = x and (ifX)3 = x. Since y = x is the mirror exchanging the graphs of a function and its inverse.The Logarithmic and Exponential Functions: The two functions f(x) = eX and fl(x) = logx provide a particularly clear example of a function and its inverse. x Restricting the Domain .for example. which is also increasing. because chords joining points on the same branch slope downwards. Example . • f(x) is not. Hence it passes the horizontal line test. . its graph is symmetric in y = x. . • f( x) = eX is also increasing at every point. • y = x 2 is neither increasing nor decreasing. because its derivative is J'(x) = 1/x 2 . and its inverse is a function. H = x and (yX)2 = x. 1 and l. Its inverse x = y2 is not a function . Correspondingly. • For all x. because some of its chords slope upwards.The Cube and Cube Root Functions: The function f( x) = x 3 and its inverse function fl(x) = ifX are graphed to the right. however.
2. = 1 ~.2).3x 2 + 4. 3).) Restricting f( x) to the domain x ~ 1 gives the function g(x) = (x . (y . SOLUTION: For y y' = 3x 2 . 2)}.2)2 (x + 1). (2. {/ M 2 4 x Exercise 1A 1.2). then sketch g(x) and gI(X) on one set of axes.. 4 : : . and write down an equation satisfied by the xcoordinate of the point M where the function and its inverse intersect. so the xcoordinate of M satisfies the cubic x 3 . where x ~ 1.CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1A Restricting the Domain 5 Explain why the inverse relation of f( x) = (x . SOLUTION: The graph of y = f(x) ~'y=x 123 y=g\x) y Hence g(x) = 1 + ~ or 1 ~.1)2 + 2 is not a function. 2). 2). The curves y = f( x) and y = f. WORKED EXERCISE: Use calculus to find the turning points and points of inflexion of y = (x . WORKED EXERCISE: is a parabola with vertex (1.6x = (x .2).1). Consider the functions f = {(O. where 0 ~ x ~ 2. where y ~ 1. so the inverse is not a function. so y = 3 meets the curve twice. Solving for y.OJ. The part of the curve between the turning points is decreasing. = 3x(x  2).1)2 = X .0) (a minimum). (2. it has an inverse with equation x = (y . which is sketched opposite. and includes the value at x = o. Explain why the restriction f( x) of this function to the part of the curve between the two turning points has an inverse function.. x = x 3 ./: fI( ) " y= X V .1)2 + 2. I Y =f(x)! f2 .3x 2 .X + 4 = O. and substituting y = x into the function. /' // / . Define g( x) to be the restriction of f( x) to the largest possible domain containing x = 0 so that g( x) has an inverse function. y = f.4) (a maximum) and (2. Write down the equation of gI(X). f(O) = f(2) = 3. So there are zeroes at x = 2 and x = 1. since y ~ 1. has an inverse function f. and (after testing) turning points at (0. y ~ ~ and y" = 6x . Sketch y = f( x). using separate diagrams for f and g./ . This fails the horizontal line test. " j " /! / t·/ I : // /y=x . Since g( x) is a decreasing function.2)2(X + 1). where y ~ 1.1 (x) and y = x on one set of axes. (1.2)2(x + 1) = x 3  3x 2 + 4.1)2 + 2.1 (x). and a point of inflexion at (1. where y ~ 1.6 = 6 (x .1 (x) intersect on y = x. (b) Graph each function and its inverse relation on a number plane. which is also decreasing. . (1. (Alternatively. (a) Write down the inverse relation of each function. so the function f(x) = (x . (c) State whether or not each inverse relation is a function. then sketch the curve. 4)} and g = {(O.
(a) Solve the equation 1 . Is gl(x) increasing or decreasing? (c) Find any values of x for which g(x) = gl(X).4 3x + 2 and g(x) = ~(x  (e) f(x) (f) f(x) = 2x =~ 2). (a) State the range of F(x). decreasing or neither.In x by suitably transforming the graph of y (c) Hence sketch the graph of f. x ::. = In x. (d) Graph F and F.In x = O. (b) At what points do the graphs of the function and its inverse meet? (c) Sketch the situation. (b) Make x the subject and hence find (c) Hence show that dx dy X ~~ . 11. Consider the functions f(x) = (a) Find f (g(x)) and 9 (J(x )). dx dy = 1. (a) Find the equation of the inverse of y = _x 3 .1 (x) and state its domain and range. 2. 4. x+l (b) Find gl(x) and sketch it on the same diagram. 3. x::. Then use reflection in the line y = x to sketch the inverse relation.1 (x) and state its domain and range. (e) Classify f( x) and f. decreasing or neither. Why does this work?] 12.O  (c) g(x)=~. 10.x::.) (a) g(x)=x 2 . (b) What is the relationship between f(x) and g(x)? 6.6 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 2. state whether f( x) and f. The previous question seems to imply that the graphs of a function and its inverse can only intersect on the line y = x. Also. (b) State the domain and range of F1(x).(x) on the same diagram. (a) Sketch the graphs of F( x) and F. (c) Write down the rule for F1(x).1 (x) (if it exists) are increasing. (a) Carefully sketch the function defined by g( x) = . Sketch the graph of each function. (a) Write down dy for the function y = x 3 1.1 (x) as increasing. and find its equation if it is. (d) Find the equation of f. (b) Sketch the graph of f( x) = 1 . (b) Find the equation of F. (b) State the domain and range of fl(X). State whether or not the inverse is a function. x ::.. x2:0 dx (b) g(x)=x 2 +2. The function F( x) = x 2 + 2x + 4 is defined over the domain 1 x 2: 1. Each function g(x) is defined over a restricted domain so that gl(x) exists..2 7. Repeat the previous question for y = jX . _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 9. for x x+2 > 1. (c) Write down the rule for fl(X). (a) f(x) (b) f(x) = 2x = x3 + 1 (c) f(x) (d) f(x) 5. (Sketches of 9 and g1 will prove helpful. The function f( x) = x + 3 is defined over the domain 0 ::. =~ = x2 . 4. Find gl(x) and write down its domain and range. This is not always the case.1 (x) on the same diagram. . O::. (a) State the range of f( x). [HINT: The easiest way is to solve g( x) = x. The function F is defined by F( x) = jX over the domain 0 ::.1. 8.
16. The function f(x) is defined by f(x) = x .1 (x) increasing or decreasing? = 12 . What is the domain of gI(X)? Is gI(X) increasing or decreasing? (e) Find the equation of gI(X). sketch y (a) By considering the graphs of y (b) Sketch y = =x and y = ~ for = f(x).  = x3 15.CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1A Restricting the Domain 7 13. (c) Hence explain why f(x) is increasing for all x. 19. f.1 (x). (c) By completing the square or using the quadratic formula. (a) Sketch y (b) (c) State the domain of f. 1 + eX eX (b) Show that 1'( x) = (1 + eX )2 eX . Why could we have anticipated this? .for x o. showing the x and y intercepts and the vertex. show that fl(X)=!(x+~). and sketch it on the same diagram as part (a). (d) Find the rule for f.. (a) Show that F( x) 3x is an odd function. (c) (i) What is the largest domainofg(x) containing x for which gI(X) exists? whose domain is all real x.1 (x). (a) Show that any linear function f( x) = mx + b has an inverse function if m ~ (b) Does the constant function F( x) = b have an inverse function? 18.1 (x). (d) Explain why f( x) has an inverse function. > o. x > 0. (b) Hence explain why the inverse of g(x) is not a function. (e) Show that the two expressions for gl(x) in parts (c) and (d) are reciprocals of each other. The diagram shows the function g(x) = ~. (b) Hence sketch the graph of g( x). ~~ 1 1 1 =0 x (ii) Sketch gl(x) for this domain of g(x). (f) Classify 9 (x) and 9 1 ( x) as either increasing. for all a ~ o. showing the xintercepts and the coordinates of the two stationary points. Is F( x) increasing or decreasing? (c) What is the largest domain containing x = 0 for which F( x) has an inverse function? (d) State the domain of F.(x) 1 on the same diagram. 14. (iii ) Find the equation of gl(X) for this domain of g(x). (c) What is the largest domain containing x = 0 for which g( x) has an inverse function? (d) Let gI(X) be the inverse function corresponding to the domain of g(x) in part (c). decreasing or neither.~. (b) Sketch the graph of F( x). 1 (d) Repeat part (c) for the largest domain of g( x) that does not contain x = o. (a) Explain how the graph of f( x) = x 2 must be transformed to obtain the graph of g(x)=(X+2)2_4. (e) Is f. and sketch it on your diagram in part (b). and find its equation. (a) State the domain of f( x) = . and sketch it on the same diagram as part (b). 1+x (a) Show that g(~) = g(a). Is f( x) increasing or decreasing? 1+x What is the largest domain containing x = 1 for which f( x) has an inverse function? hence sketch f( x) = 1 + x 2 and 17.
8 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 20. f. Then the function g with domain R and range D is the inverse of f if f(g(x)) = x for every x in Rand = x for every x in D. 3. (a) Prove. then that inverse function is also odd. and g(x) = ~~.1 x on the same diagram as part (f). . (b) What sort of even functions have inverse functions? 22. and explain why the function has an inverse function sinh 1 x. and state its domain.1). d ( d) Find dx (sinh x) and hence show that sinh x is increasing for all x. (ii) Use the theorem to find the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = fl(X) at the point (4. = log (x + . showing the vertex and any x. If where 0:::. Use this information and the above theorem to prove that 3 ~ (eX) = eX. 0. 21. dx (b) (i) Show that the function f(x) = x + 3x is increasing for all real x.or yintercepts.Y) as a quadratic equation in e Y • (i) Find ~ (sinh. that if an odd function has an inverse function. Suppose that f is a onetoone function with domain D and range R. (b) Find the value of sinh o. Consider the function f(x) = t(x 2  4x + 24).2:::. are inverse functions. (b) State the largest domain containing only positive numbers for which f( x) has an inverse function fl(x). where . (c) Sketch fl(x) on your diagram from part (a).e. = eX is the inverse function of y (a) It is known that ddx (In x) = 1. (c) Show that y = sinh x is an odd function. x:::. 24. (g) Sketch the graph of sinh. and hence find 1 by treating the equation x = HeY . dx J~. then g' (x) = f' (. and hence that it has an inverse function. x:::.(J(N)).1 x The function sinh x is defined by sinh x = Hex  e. THEOREM: f is a differentiable function for all real x and has an inverse function g. (e) To which curve is y = sinh x asymptotic for large values of x? (f) Sketch y = sinh x. Use this characterisation to prove that the functions f(x) = i~. (a) Sketch the parabola y = f(x). (d) Find any points of intersection of the graphs ofy (e) Let N be a negative real number. fl(x). provided that l' (g( x)) :I o. and that y X = In x. (h) Show that sinh. [The hyperbolic sine function] (a) State the domain of sinh x.X ).1 x). Find 1 = f(x) and y = fl(x). ( c) Prove the theorem in general. + x2 g(J(x)) _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 23. both geometrically and algebraically.( x)) .Jx2+l).
:.4__ y 2: 1t 1 " _____ ~ 2: 1t x x y = sin x. For example. .1 x has domain 1 :s:. x :s:. the obvious choice is the arc BC from x = .1 x (which is read as 'inverse sine ex') is accordingly defined to be the inverse function of the restricted function = sin x. y A _K 2 1 C 31t 2 2n ~ n 1 B 2: 1t n D 2n x To create an inverse function from y = sin x. in that there are horizontal lines which cross each of their graphs infinitely many times. y ___ ~.~.:J ~~. the pieces AB. 1 and range f :s:. THE DEFINITION OF 4 Y = sin 1 x: • y = sin 1 x is not the inverse relation of y = sin x. Thus when the graph is reflected in y = x. and hence y = sin 1 x is verti cal at i ts endpoints. where  f :s:. The Definition ofsin. we need to restrict the domain to a piece of the curve between two turning points. and so it is also the tangent to y = sin. the line y = x does not move. f· • y = sin 1 x is an increasing function.CHAPTER 1 : The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 18 Defining the Inverse Trigonometric Functions 9 IB Defining the Inverse Trigonometric Functions Each of the six trigonometric fuuctions fails the horizontal line test completely.1 x at the origin. . f· The two curves are sketched below. Y = sin x is graphed below. Notice. x :s:. that y = x is a tangent to y = sin x at the origin.1 x: y The function y = sin. and clearly every horizontal line between y = 1 and y = 1 crosses it infinitely many times.f to x = f. • y = sin 1 x has tangent y = x at the origin. f· • y = sin. it is the inverse function of the restriction of y = sin x to .f :s:. For example. BC and CD all satisfy the horizontal line test. when sketching the graphs. . x :s:. Notice also that y = sin x is horizontal at its turning points. y :s:.f :s:. Since acute angles should be included. and is vertical at its endpoints. x :s:.
• y = cos. .' 1 X+y=~ /' 1 .1 X is a decreasing function.. Jr Y = cos. • Y = cos.1 x has domain 1 S. or at least not included in the formal working of problems. 0 S. it is the inverse function of the restriction of y = cos x to 0 S.I THE DEFINITION OF Y 1 = cos. the graph is vertical at its endpoints. Jr.. y 1 B D n 2n _:ill 2 _11 2 n 2" 11 2 311 2n x 1 A C IS Thus the function y = cos. The Definition of cos. The most satisfactory inverse function is formed by choosing the branch in the interval <x< i i.1 x (read as 'inverse cos ex') inverse function of the restricted function y defined to be the = cosx.////'Y=X . we need to restrict the domain to a piece of the curve between two turning points.1 x has gradient 1 at its yintercept. Reflection in y = x reflects this line onto itself.' x X y = cos x.X is not the inverse relation of y = cos x. x S. Jr.1 I> " y 2" 11 = x/" n 11 X 2 ./' Y n X+y=~ /. Y /" . To create a satisfactory inverse function from y = cos x. and is vertical at its endpoints. Calculations using degrees should be avoided.1 x: The graph of y = tan x on the next page consists of a collection of disconnected branches.10 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 NOTE: In this course. 5 RADIAN MEASURE: Use radians when dealing with inverse trigonometric functions. radian measure is used exclusively when dealing with the inverse trigonometric functions. where 0 S. The Definition of tan. Like y = sin.1 x. x S.I x: 6 • y = cos. i). 1 and range 0 S. Jr. y S. x S. Notice that the tangent to y = cos x at its xintercept (i. so t is also the tangent to y = cos. 0) is the line t: x + y = i with gradient 1.I x at its yintercept (0. • Y = cos. and the two curves are sketched below. Since acute angles should be included.1 x: The function y = cos x is graphed below. the obvious choice is the arc Be from x = 0 to x = Jr. x S.
Jr. /f .~ <x < ~. • y = tan 1 x has domain the real line and range .1 x means x = siny where ~:::.~ are reflected into the horizontal asymptotes y = ~ and y = ~.// n X 1 2 . • The lines y = ~ and y = ~ are horizontal asymptotes. sec. . n : 2 i. y:::. // : : tI" y = tanx. sec x and cot x: It is not convenient in this course to define the functions cosec.1 x and cot. Inverse Functions of cosec x. ~. :.x means x = cosy where 0:::. 1 Y = tan.1 x THE DEFINITION OF 7 Y = tan 1 x: • y = tan 1 x is not the inverse relation of y = tan x. Notice also that the vertical asymptotes x = ~ and x = . Calculations with the Inverse Trigonometric Functions: The key to calculations is to include the restriction every time an expression involving the inverse trigonometric functions is rewritten using trigonometric functions. where . it is the inverse function of the restriction of y = tan x to ~ < x < ~. INTERPRETING THE RESTRICTIONS: 8 • y • • = sin. ~ < x < ~ y = tan.CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 18 Defining the Inverse Trigonometric Functions 11 Thus the function y y = tan 1 x is defined to be the inverse function of = tan x. 1 y = cos. The line ofreflection y = x is the tangent to both curves at the origin.1 x because of difficulties associated with discontinuities. Extension questions in Exercises Ie and ID investigate these situations.x means x = tany where ~ < y < ~.1 x. • y = tan 1 x has gradient I at its yintercept.~ < y < ~. y:::. • y = tan 1 x is an increasing function.
cos a = t. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: 1) .~ ) . where 0 ~ a ~ 7l".1( .12 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Find: (a) cos1(_~) (b) tan. where . and sin 200 = 2 sin a cos a 3 4 = 2 XsXs = .4 (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) cos.1( 0·4) cos. (a ) L e t 00= sm 1 ( s.1 0·25 cos.1 (t) (b) sin(2cos."2 _ a <1r Hence a is in the fourth quadrant. (b) Let Then cos a = ~. and the related angle is J' 1r .1( . 1 (b) sm 1 2" (c) cosII (d) tanII (e) sin 1 ( . where  25· 24 Exercise 18 1.1( 0·75) (i) sin.1(5) (b) cos( d) sin 1 ( . the value of: (e)tan. Use your calculator to find.1(1) 1 Jz) 0) =1 1 x (1) cos. Find: (a) tansin.1( 2 n 2 2.s' were .~) (j) cos .1 5 (c) sinl~ (a) cos. Find the exact value of each of the following: (a) sin 10 .I < a < Hence a is in the second quadrant.1 0·8 cos. I. and the related angle is f.1(1) ( a) Let a = cos .1 t. Then tanoo = 1. Read off the graph the values of the following y 3 n correct to two decimal places: (a) cos. correct to three decimal places.1) (f) cos. so a = 23 so a = f. Hence a is in the fourth quadrant. · 1 h 1r< _ "2. 1 (b) Let Then 0~ a ~ Hence a is in the first quadrant.1 0.1 0 (g) tan 10 (h) tan.1( (k) tan.1 0·123 1( 0·123) (f) tan. Th en sm a = .112 V6· a = cos.~ ) .1 t) and tan a = V24 a a 7l".1( 1) 3.1( 0·1) cos.
for x < O. 4 cos2(J (c) COsl ~ 11 ..1 x) = ~ (ii) sin.1 (3tan 767r ) 6. 1T.1).1 (g)) (vi) tan (cos 1 ( . Use an appropriate doubleangle formula to find the exact value of: (a) cos(2cosl~) (b) sin(2cosl~) (c) tan (2tan.0) (c) tan(tan. show that 7 25 = 275.1 ~ (c) = 2 sin 1 ~.1 (2sin(~)) (f) tan.tan ~) (h) cos (2tan. 15. (b) 2cos..1 x and f3 = tan.1 (a) tan.1 ~ =~ = sinl~.1 _1_ V5 ViO 11.1 .1 ( ~)) (ii) tan(sin.cos.2).1 153 ) (iv) sin (cos. (b) Hence solve the equation tan. 1 1 =~ (J. (b) Show that tan.x) = tan x.~ ) ) (b) Use a rightangled triangle in each part to show that: (i) sin(cos. x::.1 (1)) (i) tan1(v'6sin~) _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 5. Let x be a positive number and let (J = tan.i) 1 (d) tan(sin. (c) Hence show that tan.1 1 g) 8.~ = ~. write down an expression for tan(a+f3) in terms of x.1 ~ 2tan. (d) Use the fact that tan. Find the exact value of: (a) sin 1 ( + cos 1 (  t) 1 t) (b) sin(cos.1 2x.1 t and f3 = tan.1 x = tan.1 + tan.sin 1 .1 19 44 (b) tanII . h = l.1(cos 347r) (g) tan 1 ( . Use techniques similar to that in the previous question to prove that: = 2tan. .1 (~) 7. x ::.(J).1 x + tan. (a) Explain why sinl(sin2) =/:2.1 2 = 1T .1(tan 567r) (d) cos.1 x + tanl~.1 (sin 437r ) (b) cos. (a) If(J = !'.for x > o.tanII = tanII 2 4 9 (d) sin. (b) Sketch the curve y symmetry to explain why sin 2 = sin( 1T . (a) If a = tan. 1 12.x + tan.1 1) (d) cos 1 (sin J) (e) sin(cos.1 ~) (a) sin(sin.1 2x = tanl 3.! 4  sin.] 0::.~ + cos.1 ~ (a) Simplify tan(~ . for 0::.1 ~~) t i (b) cos(tan 1 t + sin.1 (2)) 9.L + sin.1 tv'3) (f) cos.1 show that tan(a + (3) (b) Hence find the exact value of tan.1 ~ [HINT: Use the fact that tan(1T . (a) If a = tan.1 x .1 (2x2 (b) Hence show that cos.1(cos 5 7r) 4 (e) sin. Use an appropriate compoundangle formula and the techniques of the previous question where necessary to find the exact value of: (c) tan(tan.1 x is odd to find tan.CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1B Defining the Inverse Trigonometric Functions 13 4.1 + sin.1 x.1 (cos(~)) (c) tan. (c) What is the exact value of sin 1 (sin 2)? = sinx for and use 14.1 ~ + cos.1 t + tanl~. 13. (a) In each part use a rightangled triangle within a quadrants diagram to help find the exact value of: (i) sin(cosl~) (iii) cos(sin1~) (v) cos (tan. Use a technique similar to that in the previous question to show that: (a) sin. 10. Find the exact value of: (a) sin. = cos.
l (1 + 1+x +x ~2 4). (b) Determine the range of y = tan 1 (_12) 1+x 1+x and the range of y = tan 1 (c) Show that tan.l ~ ~_x2 17. (a) If u = tan1 V521 . solve for x: (a) tan. Show that tan. + tan 1 2X 22 1 1 .. Reflecting and Stretching: The usual transformation processes can be applied.+ tan 1 2X 12 2 1 . prove that the expression tan (1 :xbX ) 2 _ tan 1 independent of x.. (d) Hence determine the range of y = tan..= tanl~.1 ~ + tan.zr:.. x+1 1x 7 _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ x 21.l }. 4· 20.l (_12) 1+x + tan. show that tan(u + v) = *. Using an approach similar to that in the previous question.1 I = 3 5 7 8 19. 1+x 22.l .1 3x .. Graphs Involving Shifting.l x. tan 1 .1 x + tanl 2 = tanl 7 1 (b) tan. Prove by mathematical induction that for all positive integer values of n.1 ~ = ~.tan. Solve tan. In the case of tan. 23. Graphs requiring calculus will be covered in the next section.l ~ + tan.tan 2n 4 1 1 7r 1 2n 11 + (x ~ b) IS (~2).x. it is wise to take limits so as to confirm the horizontal asymptotes.(3=tanlxanda+(3=~.+ .showthatcos(a+(3)= Vf+X2 1 +x2 (b) Hence show that x 2 = 18.l (~).1 x = tan. (a) Show that x2 4 2 x+x+13' < .2 = . ..l (_12) 1+x + tan 1(~) = tan. Given that a + b = 1.1  x + tan. but substitution of key values should be used to confirm the graph. t and v = tan. (a) Ifa=sin.for all real x. ( b) Show that tanII + tanII + tanII + tan. 1+x 1C Graphs Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions This section deals mostly with graphs that can be obtained using transformations of the graphs of the three inverse trigonometric functions.14 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 16. .
1 (x). stating the domain and range: (b) y=7rtan.tan 1 3x is y = tan 1 x stretched horizontally by a factor of ~. sincecos(7ra)=cosa. then reflected in the yaxis.CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1C Graphs Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions 15 WORKED EXERCISE: 1 Sketch. and state its domain and range.1 ( x) = 7r . f). 9 • y = cos.1 x is odd. This should be confirmed by the following table of values and limits: x + 00 y 3" ___________ :1_____________ _ o 7r 1 3" + 00 y 1 ~~1f < y < 3:.1 (x .1 ( x) = . "3 1 3" n The domain is all real numbers. that is. This should be confirmed by making the following three substitutions: x Y o 7r 1 2 7r 1 2 x 0 n The domain is 0 ::.2x) could be obtained by transformations.1 x shifted right 1 unit. that is. (b) y = 7r . 7r. and the range is 7r ::.. then stretched vertically by a factor of 2. y Using a table of values: x t 1 o o 1 x "2 1 y The domain is 0 ::. Then x = cos a. and the range is x More Complicated Transformations: A curve like y = . 7r.1 ( x) = .1 x is odd. then shifted upwards by 7r.~ cos.1 x. Symmetries of the Inverse Trigonometric Functions: The two functions y = sin. cos. tan.cos.1 3x y n (a) y=2sin. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Sketch y = .1 x. a::. PROOF: . But the situation is so complicated that the best approach is to construct an appropriate table of values.(x1) SOLUTION: (a) y = 2sin.1) is y = sin. o. x ::.~ cos.tan. SYMMETRIES OF THE INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS: • y = sin.1 X Only the last identity needs proof. so cos(7ra)=x. sin. y ::.2x).1 x and y = tan 1 x are both odd. • y = tan. combined with knowledge of the general shape of the curve.1 (1 . f). but y = cos.1 x has odd symmetry about its yintercept (0. where 0::. that is.1 (1 . Y ::. Leta=cos. 1 and the range is  f ::.sin. 2.1 x has odd symmetry about its yintercept (0. x ::.
The Graph of cos. Since it is the function y = sin 1 x followed by the function y = sin x. 1. x 2n cos.here is an algebraic proof which makes this relationship clear. x :s.~ < 2 < 2' 2' 2 Then sin.1 x. Y n 3n A. sin 1 x = ~ .1 ~ 1r /2: The graphs of y = sin 1 x and y = cos. cos cos.a) = cosa.~ . 1 :s.~ .1 ~ + cos.1 cos~: The domain of this function is the whole real number line. Jr. and the graph is far more complicated. as required. = x. cos. .1 x are reflections of each other in the horizontal line y = ~. The Identity sin.a :s. Constructing a simple table of values is probably the surest approach.1 X y = tan tan 1 x The same remarks apply to y = cos cos. X = cos a.16 CHAPTER 1 : The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Jr  a = a = COS Jr  1 x. that is.a since . a :s. it should be clear that = Y n It "2 10 I COMPLEMENTARY ANGLES: sin. and the graph follows y = x. except that the domain of y = tan tan 1 x is the whole real number line. The Graphs of sin sin. Y 1 1 1 Y 1 Y'" 1 1 x 1 1 x x y = sin sin1 x y = cos cos.B) = sin B . Jr .1 ~ and tan tan1~: The composite function defined by y = sin sin 1 x has the same domain as sin 1 x. sinG .1 x and y = tan tan 1 x.a . since O:S. Jr. Jr.1 x +a =~. as required. 1.a) = x. where a :s. For O:S.1 x. but under the graph is an argument based on symmetries.1 X = ~ This is really only another form of the complementary angle identity cos( ~ .1 ~. Hence adding the graphs pointwise.1 cosx n n 2n :s. PROOF: Let a = cos.1 x + cos. the composite is therefore the identity function y = x restricted to 1 :s. since sin(~ . x :s.
1(x .1 x 2. Y = cos. (iii) Hence sketch the graph of the function. C.1 x. (a) y = sin. (a) y=cos.1 x . (a) Determine the domain and range of y = sin. odd or neither. X :::. and whether it is even. odd or neither: (a) y = tan. the graph in the interval 1T' :::.~ :::. 7.1) (b) y = cos. X :::.~ = tan. and hence sketch the graph of the function. 1T'. odd or neither: (c) y = tan.1 ~ (f) y = ~ cos. and then sketch: (a) y=2cos.1(2x + 1).~ on the same set of axes. stating the domain and range. State the domain and range. Since cos x is an even function.1 (1x) (b) y=tan. We now have the shape of the graph in the interval 1T' :::. The exercises deal with the other confusing functions sin 1 sin x and tan 1 tan x. and whether it is even.1(x .1 (3x + 2) (iii) y = 2tan. 0 is the reflection of the graph in the interval 0 :::.1 x + cos.3x (d) 3y = 2sin.1 x and y = sin. odd or neither. (a) (i) Sketch the graphs of y = cos. and whether it is even.CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1C Graphs Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions 17 B. Sketch each function. Sketch each function by reflecting in the x. Sketch each function by stretching y = sin 1 x. Find the domain and range.1 x + sin. ~ to find the range. using appropriate translations of y = sin. (c) About which line are the graphs of y = sin.1 x = ~.1 x (b) y = cos. y = cos. (ii) Hence show graphically that cos. Exercise 1C 1.1(V3x) (c) y= ~sin1(23x) .1 x (b) y=tan. and hence sketch it: (i) y = 3cos.2) 1 (b) y = ~ cos. (i) Solve 1 :::.1(x) (c) y=sin.1(x + 1) (c) Y . and whether it is even. (b) Use similar steps to find the domain and range of each function.x).or yaxis as appropriate. (b) Complete the table to the right. State the domain and range. State the domain and range. 1 to find the domain. and also with functions like y = sin.tan.1 (1 . ( a) y = 2 sin 1 x (b) y = cos 1 2x ( c) y = ~ tan 1 x 4. (a) Consider the function y = 4sin.1 x and y = tan 1 x horizontally or vertically as appropriate.1) .1( x) = . Since the graph has period 21T'.1) _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ *: :.1 (2x .1(x) 5. 1T'.1( x) = 1T' 8.1 cosx. odd or neither.1(x .x) and y = sin.1) (ii) y = ~ sin.1(4x .1(1. 2x + 1 :::.1 x 3. the rest of the graph is just a repetition of this section.1 X (c) Y = sin.1( x) h 6. stating the domain and range and whether it is even. (ii) Solve . x :::. (b) Use a graphical approach to show that: (i) tan.1 2x (e) = 2cos.~ (a) y = 3sin.1 x and y = tan 1 x.1 x (ii) cos.1 x symmetrical? 1 y 2 9. Sketch each function. Sketch each function. draw up a table of values if necessary.
odd or neither.1 x as defined above.1 x is as the inverse of the restriction of y = sec x to the domain 0 ::.1)) 11. (a) What is the domain of y = sin cos. 327r.cos.1 2x) (b) y=tan. J (a) State its domain and range. Simplify sin. range and period. 21['. 18.1 x? Is it even.1 (2) (c) Show that tan(sec. Use sin.1 (x) by reflecting in the line y of f. (b) Simplify tan 1 tan x for .1 x 1 2:: 0. y = cos.x2 • show that y = (d) Hence sketch y = sincos.18 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 10. and state its symmetry. (a) Sketch the graph of the function y = sec. Use the above information and a table of values if necessary to sketch the function. and sketch the function in this region. stating whether each function is even. for all x in its domain. 21['. 14.1 x. f ::. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 16. State its symmetry.1 (1x) (b) y = coS(cosl~) (c) y+~=~cosl(_X) (c) Y = tan (tan.x and using the identity sin 2 () + cos 2 () = 1. (b) What is the largest domain containing x = 1 3 7r 2 (c) Sketch the graph of f. x < f or 1[' ::.sin 1 t. One way (and a rather bizarre way!) to define the function y = sec. 15.1 cos x is sketched. Hence sketch y = cos. x::.(x) by reflection in y = x. (b) What is the largest domain containing x = 0 for which f( x) has an inverse function? f.1 (x).1 (x . explain why sin cos.1 sinx for for which f( x) has an inverse function? X ::. (b) Find the value of: (i) sec. 1['. for 1['::.1 (x+1) (a) y = sin(sin. Consider the function y = tan.1 sin x by making use of the fact that cos. (c) What is the period of the function? (d) Use the above information and a table of values if necessary to sketch the function. (a) Sketch f( x) = cos x. . and that if 1[' ::. Consider the function f(x) = sin2x.1 t = ~ .f < x < f. 17. odd or neither. odd or neither? (b) By considering the range of cos. and whether it is even. 1 . (c) By squaring both sides of y = sin cos. (e) Use similar methods to sketch the graph of y = cos sin 1 x. then 0 ::. x ::. Sketch these graphs. and whether it is even. 21[' (e) Hence find the equation of fl(X). f. x ::.1 2 (ii) sec. Sketch the graph of each function using the methods of this section: (a) y=sin. 13. x ::.1 tanx. x < 32 7r.1 t and simple transformations to sketch y = sin 1 cos x.1 sinx. (c) Sketch the graph of (d) Find the equation 1['. x ::. for 0 ::.x) = cos x. In a worked exercise. (a) Sketch the graph of f(x). Consider the function y = sin. odd or neither: 12. (d) Show that cos(21[' .1 t = ~ .1 x. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) State its domain. = x.1 x) = ~. Use the symmetry of sin x in x = f to continue the sketch for f ::.
: 1 VI  x2 . however. dy = . y:::.1 x and cos. 1 . = 1 + x2 1 ' dy dx . ~ :::. B.CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1D Differentiation 19 ID Differentiation Having formed the three inverse trigonometric functions. 1 vff=X2 1 . where dx so dy = cosy. .x 2 • Since y is in the first or second quadrant. which are needed later in the working to make a significant choice between positive and negative square roots.x 2 1 = 1 + x2 d dx cos 1 x = .~ < y < ~.= sec 2 y dy dx Hence dy and = 1 + tan 2 y. we can now apply the normal processes of calculus to them. so sin y = + Jricos=2y =~. ~. we need to keep track of the restrictions to the domain. Thus and Thus and dy dy dx dx = Vl. Let Y = sIn 1 x.1 x = x d Vl.1 x. sin y is positive.1 x.x 2 v'f=X2. Then x = cosy.. Then x = siny. dx so .x2 1 dx=_~ dy 1 dy dx VI = 1 x2 Hence dd sin 1 x x Hence d cos.x2 Differentiating tan. Since y is in the first or fourth quadrant.1 x. so dx Jr. cos y is positive. Differentiating sin. smy. where .:==:.sln x dx d 1 tan x dx = 1 VI .1 x can be differentiated by changing to the inverse function and using the known derivatives of the sine and cosine functions .1 x: The problem of which square root to choose does not anse when differentiating y = tan. Let y = cos. In this case. A.1 x and y = cos.1 + x 2 giving the standard form ~ tan 1 x dx = __ 1_2 . Then x = tan y.1 x: The functions y = sin. so cos y = + Jrlsin2y = Vl. 1 x + STANDARD FORMS FOR DIFFERENTIATION: 11 d . y:::. This section is concerned with their derivatives and its usual applications to curvesketching and maximisation. where 0:::.this same procedure was used in Section 13B of the Year 11 volume when the derivative of y = eX was found by changing to the inverse function x = log y. Let y = tan.
:::==c=======c~ dx y'1(ax+b)2 d a d cos 1 (ax + b) = .~v'3.. so the points are A(l + ~v'3. 5t).:==c======:=:~ x y'1(ax+b)2 d 1 a d tan (ax + b) = ( b)2 X 1 + ax + d sin 1 (ax + b) = WORKED EXERCISE: (a) Find the points A and B on the curve y = cos.x (b) y=sin.=:===c====.1)2 = 2 Y n 51[ (x . Put Then 1 (b) y'1(x1)2 1 .1 (x .1 (ax+b) 1 SOLUTION: (a) y = xtan.1)2 xI ~v'3. Then u' = 1 and Let t h en . giving a further set of standard forms. FURTHER STANDARD FORMS FOR DIFFERENTIATION: 12 a . x =i =~ = ~v'3 or ~v'3 = 1 + ~v'3 or 1  6 I[ B 2 ~ ___________ A 1 2 x .1) where the tangent has gradient 2. showing these points. .= a dx 1 dy and du .(x . 1 y = sm u. ~) and B(l . SOLUTION: (a) Differentiating. 1 v .V'f=U2' y'1(ax+b)2 Linear Extensions: The method used in part (b) above can be applied to all three inverse trigonometric functions.1+x2 • l+x = tan(b) y= dy dy du =xdx du dx 1 + 2 l+x sin 1 (ax + b) 1 x .~ X y'1  (ax a + b)2 a u = ax + b.1 x y' = vu' + uv' = tan 1 x X 1 +x x X 2 1 Let u = x and v = tan. du Hence .1 x.20 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 WORKED EXERCISE: Differentiate the functions: (a) y=xtan. (b) Sketch the curve.
The following identity is the clearest example . for some constant C. dy sin x dx VI . dx When sin x is negative. This means that the graph consists of a series of intervals. The following worked example applies calculus to sketching the curve y = cos.l x + cos.l X = ~. Curve Sketching Using Calculus: The usual methods of curve sketching can now be extended to curves whose equations involve the inverse trigonometric functions.x2 vT=X2 =0 (b) Hence sin. When sin x is positive. dy Hence dx = { 1. and sin. which was sketched without calculus in the previous section. + cos.cos 2 x ffinx Let then Hence and ~d u y du x = cos x.1 x + cos.l u.it has been proven already in Section Ie using symmetry arguments. dy du 1 v'f=1L2 .sin x Vsin 2 x .l x x + cos. each with gradient 1 or 1. 2n n n 2n x . Differentiating using the chain rule. = cos. 1 (a) dd (sin. for x in quadrants 3 and 4.l x.l x Substitute x = 0. then so C = ~. (b) Hence prove the identity sin.l X =~.CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1D Differentiation 21 Functions whose Derivatives are Zero are Constants: Several identities involving inverse trigonometric functions can be obtained by showing that some derivative is zero. A simple table of values gives some key points: x Y o o 11" "2 "2 11" 7r"2 11" 0 "2 11" 7r The shape of the curve joining these points can be obtained by calculus.l x SOLUTION: + cos. Vsin 2 x dy so ~ = 1. 27r. as required.l X = C. y for x in quadrants 1 and 2. =sin x.l cos x. SOLUTION: The function is periodic with the same period as cos x. = sin x.l cos x. WORKED EXERCISE: Use calculus to sketch y = cos. that is. and hence that the original function must be a constant. = . V sin 2 x dy so dx = 1. 0 + ~ = C. WORKED EXERCISE: (a) Differentiate sin.l x) = ~+ 1 . 1.
1) _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 7.. 1 8.22 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Exercise 10 1.1 e3x (e) sin 1 eX (c) sin. find the gradient of each tangent to two decimal places and fill in the second row of the table.1(x+2) (c) sin 1 2x 1 3x (j) cos.1 5x 1 (1) (1 + x 2 ) tan 1 x (f) sin.1 x (g) sin.7r).1 Ix 5 (n) tan 1 x (0) cos.x2  1 1 x (m) sin. and find the value of the constant. Find the derivative of each function in simplest form: (a) xcos. in the form y = mx + b. 1 x . Find the gradient of the tangent to each curve at the point indicated: (a) y = 2tan. at x = 0 (c) y = tan. Then carefully draw a tangent at each x value in the table.1 i(2x .1 (1 .1 x.x) (d) tan(k) x sin 1 x (e) cos. Use the method of the previous question to show that each of these functions is a constant function.1 x + cos.1 . at x = (b) y t = v3sin 1 x.1 x) = x 2.(x) vb 1 . at x = v3 4. 9. by measurement and calculation of rise/run.1 x (i) tan.3) (f) log Vsin. at x = v2 d 5..1 x must be a constant function. the equation of the tangent and the normal to each curve at the point indicated: (a) y = 2cos.1 Vlogx (h) Vxsin1~ x+2 (i) tan 1 12x .1 x) (b) Hence explain why sin. (a) Photocopy the graph of y = sin.1 x + cos. Then.1 ( x) (b) 2 sin 1 Vx .1 Vx t 1 I I  ~ 2 1 (q) tan 1 _ x 3.pn(l + x 2 ). Find. (a) Show that dx (sin.1 _ • l+x 2 Is the graph of y = f( x) concave up or concave down at x = I? .1 2x. show that J"(x) = .1 x . 1 0·7 0·5 0·2 0 0·3 0·6 0·8 1 dy dx (b) Check your gradients using dd (sin. Show that the gradient of the curve y = sm x at the point where x X =i is ~(2v3 .1 x 3 (b) tan.1 x (g) sin 1 x 2 (h) tan. at x =i (d) y = cosl~. (b) y = sinl~.1 x shown to the y n 2 right.1 x + cos.jX (p) tan.sin 1(2x . and use any convenient value of x in its domain to find the value of the constant. (a) If f(x) (b) = xtan. 6.~ (d) tan 1 _1_ Ix (b) sin.1 x.1 3x. at x = 0 = o. Differentiate with respect to x: (a) cos. (a) cos.
show that y" = + 2xsin1 . 11.xy' .1 Vi and y = vr=t (b) x=ln(1+t 2 )andy=ttan. Let the distance EP be x metres. (a) State the domain of f( x). 1m B 3m x (b) Show that 0 is maximised when the viewer is ~mt~will. (a) Show that 0 = tan 1 ~. h t.= 2 radIans per hour. gIVen tat: 15.x 2 )y" .] (b) Recalling that H = lxi. [HINT: Think about it rather than relying on algebra. satisfies the differential equation (1 .1 x + tan. Consider the function f(x) = cos. The angle 0 _____~__ _ o e evation 0 f t e pane rom teo server is fl. in radians per second.2 = O. and its symmetry. FIII d dy III terms 0 f ' dx (a) x = sin. dO 3600 . dt x + 36 (c) Hence find. Consider the function f(x) = cos. 14. 2 x  1 (c) Comment on f'(l) and 1'( 1).tan1~. What is the geometrical significance of this? (f) Sketch the graph of y = f(x). (a) (i) Ify = (sin.1 ~. (e) Show that 1'( x) is undefined at the endpoints of the domain.1 ~ . (d) Use the expression for f' (x) in part (b) to write down separate expressions for 1'( x) when x > 1 and when x < 1.y = O. A plane P at an altitude of 6 km and at a constant speed A x f!.CHAPTER 1 : The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1D Differentiation 23 2 10. the rate at which 0 is decreasing at the instant when the distance AP is 3 km. (d) Show that y = f(x) has a maximum turning point at x = o.x 2 )y" . (b) Show that y = e sin x 1 12. A is the point on the path of the plane 6 km dfirelctl y above 0h' anld thfe distahnce bAP is x k~n. show that 1'(x) = Ixl ~.xy' .1 x)2.1 t 16.1 ~.1 x 2 • (a) What is the domain of f(x)? (b) About which line is the graph of y = f(x) symmetrical? (c) Find 1'(x).x2 1 x VI=X2 (ii) Hence show that (1 . A picture 1 metre tall is hung on a wall with its bottom edge T 3 metres above the eye E of a viewer. P of 600km/h is flying directly away from an observer at 0 ~O~~~h on the ground. lor x · . (b) Show that 1'(x) = 0 for all values of x in the domain. and let 0 be the angle that the picture sub tends at E. and hence sketch the graph of f ( x ) . (a) State the domain of f(x) = tan. . 2v'3 metres E (c) Show that the maximum angle subtended by the picture at E is tan 1 13. ( c ) Show that f () x = ~' { _~ 2' for x > 0. (b) Show that . (a) Show that 0 = tan. ~ < 0.
1 x = sin~. and whether it is even. excluding x = o. Look back and compare. you proved that dd tan.1 ~ = log Jx 2 + y2 21. [The inverse cotangent function] The function y = coC I x can be defined as the inverse function of the restriction of y = cot x: (i) to 0 < x < Jr. What is going on? dy . for x 2: 1 or x ::. (a) What is the domain of g(x) I 1 (b) Show that g (x) = ~ vI. [The inverse cosecant function] The most straightforward way to define cosec. (a) Starting with sec y In the previous exercise. 3. [N OTE: This function was sketched in the previous exercise using a different approach. ~. F m d dx by d·alllerentlatmg Imp1·· 1y: IClt (a) sin1(x + y) = 1 (b) cas.1 x. and state their domains.1 x + sinl~? x Ix lVf=X2· (c) Hence determine the interval over which g( x) is constant.x 2 = sin. x y = sec 1 x. or (ii) to ~ < x ::. 19. Jr. Graph this version of sec.l x = ~ (except at endpoints). .24 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (e) Explain why f(x) is increasing for x> 1 and for x <l. .1 x = . 1). excluding x = ~. 17.1 x. range and symmetry. (a) Graph y = cosec.1 x) = ~. The function f(x) is defined by the rule f(x) = sin1sinx. x ::. = x.l ~. x x x2 .excluding x = o. [The inverse secant function] stricted to the domain 0 ::. cos x (b) Show that 1'( x) = II· (c) Is l' (x) defined whenever cos x = o? cos x (d) What are the only two values that 1'(x) takes if cosx i 0.1 Jx2 x xv x 2 .1 x is as the inverse function of the restriction of y = cosec x to .2 (except at endpoints). d 1 (b) Show that d cosec.which is also the derivative x 1 . l.] _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 18.1 x + 2 was _1_2 . and find this constant.1 (c) Show that cosec.. show that dd Y = ____ I x sec y tan y (b) Hence show that dd (sec. · 20. and when does each of these values occur? (e) Sketch the graph of f( x) using the above information and a table of values if necessary. (c) Find dd (sec. (a) State the domain and range of f( x). (f) Find: (i) lim f( x) (ii) lim f( x) (g) Sketch the graph of y x+co x+co = f( x).~ ::. x ::.2x 1+x of tan.1 x (d) The more straightforward definition of sec. ~. odd or neither. d cot.. and state its domain. In question 9(i).. the function y = sec x was re< ~ or Jr ::.for x i o? (d) What are the advantages of each definition? 23. 22. d 1 (b) Show that in both cases.1 x.1 xy = x2 (c) tan.. ( a) Graph both functions. and state its domain.1 x restricts sec x to 0 ::. range and symmetry. x I+x (c) Is it true that in both cases caC 1 x = tan. X < to produce an inverse function. ranges and symmetries.
.
..tan 1 a + C a X J+ (d) 1 du . a du dx 1 a x PROOF: A. but in parts (c) and (d).. With these more general forms.=:::.1 x a +C dx 1 X .(~)2 Jl .: 1 1. x2 dx = = J J aJl . In parts (a) and (b)..tan 1 x a a +C = .. The standard integrals given in the HSC papers are: STANDARD FORMS WITH ONE CONSTANT: For some constant C. the calculation of the primitive becomes fiddly. + C a  a +C 1 a +x dx 1 = . 14 J J J yla 2 1 yla 2 2 1  x2 2 dx = sin 1 :. or they can be developed from those forms in the same way as was done in parts (c) and (d) above (and they are proven by differentiation in the following exercise). + C ( a) 2 2 9.sm 1 . J J+ 1 J Let 1 du .:. bx dx = . J 1 dx = a 2 +x 2 1 = .b a 1 1 bx +C These forms can be proven in the same manner as the forms with a single constant.. or . . 1 ~ d dx = sm u 2 1.+C a +b x a a or cos. the coefficients of x 2 need to be taken out first. some prefer to remember these fuller versions of the standard forms: = ~J 25 J J= J V~ 1 d yl5 _ 3x 2 x +C xfi STANDARD FORMS WITH TWO CONSTANTS: 15 J J r=ii====.. parts (c) and (d) can be written down without any intermediate working..1 +C 25 7 7/5 6 = tan 1 5x +C 35 7 Because manipulating the constants in parts (c) and (d) is still difficult.26 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 More General Standard Forms: When constants are involved.+C = ~y13 sin.x 3 8 +x 2yi2 2yi2 (c) Jh J 49 +625x2 dx _1_ 1 dx 1 dx ~.dx 1 u 2 dx = tan 1 u WORKED EXERCISE: Here are four indefinite integrals. + x 2 2 yI3 x 6 5 1 X = .:. the formulae can be applied immediately.tan (b) dx = 2 sin 1 :.(~)2  1 dx X Let Then u 1 ~ dx a = sin.cos 1 :.dx = . 1 1 1 X ..+ C yla 2 b 2x 2 b a 1 1 1 bx 2 2 2 dx = b tan . B.X tan .u X x u a a 2 (1+(n2) 1 1 (~)2 dx Then du dx 1 a 1 = .
SOLUTION: (a) Let y = x sin.u 2 X 1 du . this allows the primitives of the inverse trigonometric functions to be obtained. (b) Find the shaded area under the curve y = sin 1 x from x = 0 to x = 1. the result of a productrule differentiation can be used to obtain an integral.xdx = xsin..= 2x.u + C 1.x 2 Hence sin..1 x.CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1E Integration 27 Reverse Chain Rule: In the usual way. 1 du 1 . . sin. Find an Integral: As always.2  for some constant C.1 x y 1[ 2" 1 1 2 1 1 x 1 X "II  x 1 2 sin.(0 + 1) . Using the product rule with u = x and v = sin 1 x.cos. THE REVERSE CHAIN RULE: 16 1 SOLUTION: 1 1 du 1 yT=U2d dx = sin. Using the reverse chain rule.x2• du Then . WORKED EXERCISE: (a) Differentiate x sin.dx = tan u 1 + u dx Given a Derivative. 11 sin.1 xdx = [x sin1 x = (1 = ~ X + ~]~ ~ + 0) . or .1 xdx = x sin1 x + ~ + c.1 . dx so and 1 =~.2 (1  x 2) 2" X ~ 1 1 u = 1 . In particular. 1 + x d =Sln x ~.1 tan. x vI .1 x 2 + C ' .1 x dx + x dx = x sin.2 d dx = tan 1 u + C l+u x x 4 .1 U +C WORKED EXERCISE: Find a primitive of l+x 1~ l+x dx 11~dx 2 1 + x4 .1 x. the standard forms can be extended to give forms appropriate for the reverse chain rule.2.1 x. 1 Let u = x2• Then u' = 2x. and hence find a primitive of sin.1 square units. dy . 1 vI x x2 dx=11(IX2r~(2X)dX ..x  1 1~ Let dx.
yo (b) Given that y' =~ 4 +X and that y =I when x = 2. 2 1 x2 3 1 dx 1 +x2 1 2. (a) If y' V36 . (b) Check your answers to (a) by using the fact that tan 1 x is a primitive of l+x 2. This means that the area between y = sin 1 x and the yaxis is 1. .x 2 and y = i when x = 3.x 2 )! and the curve passes through the point (0. Find the equation of the curve. (a) y 1 I I I I I I I 1 Y = l+x2 ? . and subtracting this area from the rectangle of area ~ in the diagram above gives the same value ~ . Find the exact value of: (a) (b) 1 vg 12 + o 1 x2 dx (c) 11 V2 1 o x2 dx (e) {i hV3 J~ . find the value of y when x = 3V3.x J~ 1 1 dx 2 1 dx o 4 x2 (d) 1!V3 1 dx 2 ! i + x2 (f) } fV2 _ x 2 dx 4. Exercise 1E 1. find y when x = ~3. given that: (a) y' (b) = (1.0). Find: (a) (b) JV1=X2 JvI4=X2 1 1 3 dx dx (c) (d) J+ JV! 1 dx 1 9 x2 d x2 x (e) (f) J2: JV5 {f x 2 dx x2 1 dx 3.I 9 (iii) (iv) t ! 1 1 x Find each of the following to two decimal places from the graph by counting the number of little squares in the region under the curve: (i) (ii) 11 12 1 dx o 1 + x2 1 dx o 1 + x2 1 ~dx 1+ 1_1.28 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 NOTE: We have already established in Section 141 of the Year 11 volume that the area under y = sin x from x = 0 to x = ~ is exactly 1 square unit.1 for the shaded area. = 1 5.1f). y' = 4(16 + X 2 )1 and the curve passes through the point (4.
(b) Hence find x V4xx 2 3 d 1 J2 1 1 dx. (a) Show that d (cos.+ C a 9.~ to x = b/3 is rotated about the xaxis. the xaxis and the vertical line x = ~. (a) Shade the region bounded by y = sin.1(2 . 6 4+x 13. prove the extended standard forms with two constants given in Box 15 of the text: (a) J 1 1.+ C va 2 b 2 x 2 a (b) J a + 2 1 b2 x 2 dx = 1 b a tan 1 bx . (a) The portion of the curve y = from x = 0 to x = V7 is rotated about the 7+x xaxis through a complete revolution. the yaxis and the line y = ~. Without finding any primitives.x 2 dx . (a) Differentiate tan. (c) Hence find the exact area of the region. (c) Hence use an alternative approach to confirm the area in the previous question. 14. 16. (a) Differentiate xtan.1 ~x3.x)) = .!~ 3 (f) 1 6 6 V36 . 15. (b) Show that :x(xsin1x+~)=sin1x. Find: (a) (b) J J 1 d V1. V4xx 2 3 12. (b) Hence find J x 2 1 + 6x + 10 dx. use symmetry arguments to evaluate: (a) (b) 1 1 3 1 3 1 sin 1 x dx tan1 x dx (e) ( d) J3 3 _x_dx 1 +x2 5 J~ 5 x dx :. (b) Hence find J X2 dx. (a) Shade the region bounded by the curve y = sin. 10.1 x. Find exactly the volume generated. Find the exact value of: (a) (b) it 1 1 1!v'3 1 + 2 2 o V1 .2X2 (e) (f) 1 d V4 _ 9x 2 x J J dx 1 25 + 9x 2 1 dx V3 .1 x. bx dx = b SIll 1 . ~ 2 (b) Find the volume of the solid formed when the region between y = (1 . By differentiating each RHS. (b) Find the exact area of this region.3x 12V2 1 _1 3 1 2 dx dx (e) (f) 12 _1 2 3 1 dx 3 + 4x 2 ' 1 2 dx 5 + 2x _2 4 V9 .1 x.4x 2 x 1 d 1 + 16x2 x (c) (d) J J 1 dx V1 . (b) Hence find 11 tan.16x 2 )! and the xaxis from x = .1 xdx.4x 2 7.4x 2 1!V30 1v'IO 8.CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1E Integration 29 DEVELOPMENT 6. (a) Show that x 2 + 6x + 10 = (x + 3)2 + 1.9x 2 4x 2 dx dx (c) (d) 12 1 2V1 . 11.
[NOTE: This is an example of an unbounded region having a finite area. = 2V3 to x = ~V3 . the yaxis and the tangent to the curve at the point ('!f. (e) Find the total area between the curve and the xaxis.] 19. and describe its symmetry. Consider the function f(x) = ~. (a) Show that the area of the region is ! unit 2 • 1 (b) Show that the volume of the solid formed when the region is rotated about the yaxis is ~ (9V3 . 6 2 • X 21. (b) What are the domain and range? On the same axis. (a) Show that d (tanI(~tanx)) x d 5 SIll X + 4 (b) Hence find. (i) explain why f(x) < 0 for all x > 0. (d) Find the area between the curve and the xaxis from x = 1 to x = l. (c) Write down the domain and range of f(x). [NOTE: This is another example of an unbounded region having a finite area. to x = a (g) By letting a tend to infinity. = . To how many decimal places 23. sketch y (c) Show that the graph of f(x) has a maximum turning point at (0. expressing your (b) Find the exact value of I.] 20. x +4 (a) What is the axis of symmetry of y (d) Find lim f(x). and hence show that rr ~ ~~~6. where a (e) Calculate the area bounded by the curve and the xaxis from x (f) Find the exact area between the curve and the xaxis from x is a positive constant. (a) Use Simpson's rule with five points to approximate I answer in simplest fraction form. = !(x 2 + 4). Find. = a. and hence sketch y x+oo = f(x)? = f(x). (b) Hence sketch the graph of y = f(x). 2 4. Show that jt 1 2 _2 4 1 + dx = ~. (a) Given that f(x) = (b) Hence: ~tanI x: l+x 1 (i) find f(O). x 18.30 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 17. correct to three significant figures. find the total area between the curve and the xaxis. The diagram shows the region bounded by y = sin 1 x. = 22.. using the reverse chain rule: x (a) J y'x (11 + x) dx 1 (b) 1 10 dx X e + eX . Consider the function f(x) = 4 2. the area bounded by the curve y = 21 5 sin x +4 and the xaxis from x = 0 to x = 7.x (a) Sketch the graph of y = ~. 24. (ii) show that f'(x) = ( 2X:)2.1). (1·1·) fi n d 11 o l+x 2 ( d l+x 2)2 x.4rr) unit 3 . is this approximation accurate? 1+ o 1 1 1 x 2 dx. ¥).
·+t 4n . 357 (e) Use the fact that tan 1 x is an odd function to prove this identity for 1 ::. the sum of the areas of the n rectangles.tln(n2 + 1) (d) Deduce that 1562 < Sn < (n+ l)tan. and 8 lx3 5x7 9xll use the calculator to find how close an approximation to 1f can be obtained by taking 10 terms.t 2 + t 4 . x ::.1) in the interval 1 ::.. ntan1n . n rectangles are constructed between the two curves y y = tan.+ 5 ..t 2 + t 4 _ t 6 + . + t 4n ..+ . 1 < 2 1 +t 1 . 2:: 1.l 1000 < 1565. x ::...t 6 + ...1 x] Suppose that x is a positive real number. +3 (d) By taking limits as n tan.. [A sandwiching argument] 1 2 3 n n+l x In the diagram.. (a) Find the sum of the geometric series 1 .+ .1 x and hence find a primitive of tan. (c) Show that for all n = tan 1 x and (a) Write down an expression for Sn.... x3 x5 X7 x4n+1 4n +1 < tan. and hence show that for 0 < t < x..1 3 + . =x  x3 x5 x7 .+ . x (f) [Gregory's series] 1f < o.t 6 + . and hence show that for 0 1 ..t 6 + . (b) Find 1 .1 (x .tln(~2 +n+ 1) .~ < tanII + tan.... 3 7 (g) By combining the terms in pairs. + t 4n .. [The power series for tan..+ ..+ .t 2 + t 4 .CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1E Integration 31 _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 25...+ . 2 1 < t < x.l x = 0 to t = x.t 4n +2 . 1f 26. + 3 5 7 + 00. Use a suitable substitution to prove that 111 4=1.. n + l.l x.1 x + .t 2 +t 4 .+ .1 2 + tan.. show that x4n+3 4n < x . +t (c) By integrating the inequalities of parts (a) and (b) from t tan.l x show that for 0 ::. .. (b) Differentiate xtan.. + t 4n 1 < __ + t4n+2. 1.+ . + tan. ..1 (n+ 1) . show that 1 1 1 .
where n is an integer.1 a + 2n7r. This section will later develop formulae for those general solutions. where 1 ~ a ~ 1. Since cos x has period 27r. because cos x is an even function.cos.3 are b 0 th soIu t'IOns. where n is an integer. x = cos. The key to general solutions is provided by the periods of the trigonometric functions: PERIODS OF THE TRIGONMETRIC FUNCTIONS: 17 sin x and cos x have period 27r. Also. Hence x = i and x = are the solutions within a revolution. Hence x = ~ and x = . Also.21r H ence x .) 1t x x 4 4 1t 5. any unrestricted trigonometric equation that has one solution must have infinitely many.7r . the general solution is x = ~ + 2n7r or + 2n7r. . but they can always be found using the methods already established. (b) Since tan x is positive. Solving Trigonometric Equations Without Restrictions: Because each of the trigonometric functions is periodic. x = . where n is an integer. (N otice that this includes the other solution x = 541r. the related acute angle is ~.32 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 IF General Solutions of Trigonometric Equations Using the inverse trigonometric functions. where n is an integer."3 an d· . tan x has period 7r. where n is an integer. which is obtained by putting n = 1. This gives two solutions within a revolution. Also."3 . so the general solution is x = cos. as is demonstrated in the following worked exercise. the general solution is x = i + n7r. the related acute angle is ~. Since tanx has period 7r. . First. x must be in the 1st or 4th quadrants.~ are the solutions within a revolution. the general solution is x = ~ + 2n7r or . we can write down general solutions to trigonometric equations of the type sin x = a and sin x = sin a. WORKED EXERCISE: (a) cos x SOLUTION: =t Find the general solution.a is a solution. THE GENERAL SOLUTION OF cos x = a: x The general solution of cos x = a is 18 x = cos.1r x Since sin x has period 27r. suppose that cos x = a. Secondly. the related angle is i.cos. of: (b) tanx =1 (c) smx = tV'3 x (a) Since cos x is positive.1 a + 2n7r or x = .1 a + 2n7r. in radians. x (c) Since sin x is positive. x must be in the 1st or 3rd quadrants. 2.1 a + 2n7r or = cos. x must be in the 1st or 2nd quadrants.~ + 2n7r. The Equation cos x =a: 1 More generally. 1r .1 a is a solution.
then sin( 7r . 20 [Alternatively.CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions 1F General Solutions of Trigonometric Equations 33 The Equation tan x =a: Suppose that tan x 1 = a.1 ( t) + 2n7r 1r 1r or . + 2n7r or . First.a. THE GENERAL SOLUTION OF tan x = a: The general solution of tan x = a is 19 x = tan 1 a + n7r. but it is not at all easy to use or to remember. where m is an integer.1 a.sin. where n is an integer.1 x = a is very elegant. where n is an integer. Also. so the general solution is 1 1 x = sin. In this text. The Equation sin x =a: 1 Suppose that sin x = a. where n is an integer.sin 1 a. so x = 7r . where n is an integer.1 ( t) + 2n7r.B) = a.sin 1 a is a solution. where m is an integer. (b) x = 2. and the second can be written as x = m7r . where n is an integer. where n is an integer. NOTE: WORKED EXERCISE: Use these formulae to find the general solution of: (b) sinx (a) cos x SOLUTION: = t = tv0 (c) tanx = 2 (a) x = cos. = . .a) + 2n7r. if sin B = a.1 a + m7r. where m is odd. and is very quick if properly applied. we can write x = 2n7r + sin.] The alternative notation for solving sin. This gives two solutions within each revolution.a + 2n7r or x = (7r . But tan x has period 7r. where n is an integer.] THE GENERAL SOLUTION OF sin x = a: or x The general solution of sin x = a is x = sin 1 a + 2n7r = (7r  sin 1 a) + 2n7r. x (c) x = (_1)m~ + m7r.tan. and only one solution within each period. = sin 1 tv0 + 2n7r or (7r = ~ + 2n7r or 34 + 2n7r.1 a + m7r. we can write both families together as x = (_1)m sin. One solution is x = tan.] = tan. which can be approximated if required. where m is even. [Alternatively.1 2 + n7r. sin 1 tv0) + 2n7r. which changes sign according as m is even or odd.1 a + n7r.a is a solution.1 a. we will enclose it in square brackets when it is used.23 + 2n7r. where 1 :S a :S l. [Alternatively. Using the switch (_1)m. so the general solution is x = tan. The first can be written as x = m7r + sin. where a is a constant.sin.cos. we can write these two families together using the switch (_1)m: x = (_1)m sin. where m is an integer.1 a or x = (2n + 1)7r .1 (2) + n7r. x = sin.
x = tnIT. so x = IT . One solution of tan x = tan a is x = a. Hence. B. Also.x). so the general solution is x = a + nIT. One solution of sin x = sin a is x = a. where n is an integer.a is also a solution. so the general solution is x = a + 2nIT or x = a + 2nIT. 4x = x + 2nIT. x = mIT + (l)ma. The general solution of sin x = sin a is x = a + 2mr or x = (IT . cos x cos a and tan x tan a: Using similar methods. 4x = I . GENERAL SOLUTIONS OF = = = sin x = sin a. cos x The general solution of cos x = cos a is x = cos a and tan x = tan a: = a + 2nIT or x = a + 2nIT. One solution of cos x = cos a is x = a. where n is an integer.] (b) sin 4x = cos x Solve: (a) cos 4x = cos x (a) Using the general solution of cos x 4x = x + 2nIT or or 3x = 2nIT x . 1r where n is an integer. This gives the required one solution within a single period of IT. [Alternatively. where n E Z. the general solutions of these three equations can be written down. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Use these formulae to find the general solution of sin x x x = sin f. = f + 2nIT = f + 2nIT or or x x [Alternatively. The general solution of tan x = tan a is 21 x = a + nIT. First. C.~nIT (b) = cos a from Box 21. where n is an integer. This gives the required two solutions within a single period of 2IT. where n is an integer. where n is an integer. 5x = (2n + t)IT or 4x = x + I + 2nIT. sina = sin(IT . 5x = 2nIT. so x = a is also a solution.34 CHAPTER 1: The Inverse Trigonometric Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 The Equations sin x sin a.3 or . x = (l)mf WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: + mIT.] PROOF: A.a).x) + 2nIT. using the identity cos x = sin( I .a) + 2nIT. using the general solution of sin x = sin a from Box 21.a) + 2nIT. where m is an integer. x = (4n + 1)~. sin 4x = sin( I . since cosine is even. x = (4n + 1):0 or 3x = (2n + } )IT. where nEZ. . Also.x + 2nIT or 4x = IT . cosa = cos(a). = 4S + 2nIT. so the general solution is x = a + 2nIT or x = (IT . where nEZ. where n is an integer. This gives the required two solutions within a single period of 2IT. = (IT . where n is an integer. where nEZ.f) + 2nIT. where n E Z. where nEZ.(I .x). where nEZ.
Write down the first six negative solutions. Consider the equation sin x = t. t 4. Carefully observe that each of these twelve solutions can be written as an integer multiple of 1f plus f.CHAPTER 1 : The Inverse Trigonometric Functions lF General Solutions of Trigonometric Equations 35 Exercise 1F 1. Carefully observe that each ofthese twelve solutions can be written either as a multiple of 21f plus f or as a multiple of 21f plus 5611". (b) Write down the first six positive solutions.f) = v'3 (j) tan(x + f) = tan 5811" L. (d) Carefully observe that each of these twelve solutions can be written either as an integer multiple of 21f plus ~ or as an integer multiple of 21f minus ~. t. and hence write down a general solution of tan x = 1. (a) cos 2x = 1 (e) cos(x + f) = tv'2 (i) tan4x = tan I . Consider the equation tan x = 1. t 3. (f) SIn x = t 1 =z 5.l~) (d) sin(x .sin 41r 3 • {) • 11" (e) tanO = tan( ~) (f) cos 0 = cos 5611" 6. (a) sinx (b) cos x =0 =1 (c) tanx (d) cosx =0 =0 (e) sin x = 1 (f) sin x = 1 _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 7. Write down a general solution of: (a) tanx (b) cos x = v'3 = tv'2 (c) sinx = tv'3 (d) tan x = 1 (e) cos x . Write down a general solution of: ( a) cos 0 = cos f (b) tan 0 = tan f (c ) (d) SIn u = sIn 5 sin 0 . (a) (b) (c) (d) Draw a diagram showing x in its two possible quadrants. (ii) write down all solutions in 1f :S x :S 1f. (c) Write down the first six negative solutions. and show the related angle. 2. 1 of sIn x = z' (e) Sketch the graphs of y = sin x (for .f) = 0 4r . Write down the first six negative solutions. and hence write down a general solution of cos x = (e) Sketch the graphs of y = cos x (for . and show the related angle.21f :S x :S 21f) and y = on the same diagram and show as many of the above solutions as possible. Write down the first six positive solutions. (a) (b) (c) (d) Draw a diagram showing x in its two possible quadrants. and show the related angle. In each case: (i ) find a general solution. (g) cos2x = cos ~ (k) cos(x ~) = cos (c) tan 3x = tv'3 (h) sin3x = sin f (1) sin(2x + ~~) = sin( .21f :S x :S 21f) and y = 1 on the same diagram and show as many of the above solutions as possible. (e) Sketch the graphs of y = tan x (for . Write down the first six positive solutions. t. Write down a general solution for each of the following by referring to the graphs of y = sin x. Consider the equation cos x = (a) Draw a diagram showing x in its two possible quadrants. 1 1 (b) sm ZX = zV£2 (f) tan(2x .21f :S x :S 21f) and y = on the same diagram and show as many of the above solutions as possible. and hence write down a general solution . y = cos x and y = tan x.
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Along the way. STUDY NOTES: Trigonometric identities and equations are closely linked. Most of the identities have been established already. and on the application of trigonometry to problems in two dimensions. and are listed here for reference. and so are the tformulae in the next section. there has been much work on trigonometric equations. 2A Trigonometric Identities Developing fluency in trigonometric identities is the purpose of the first three sections. Although the sine and cosine waves are not so prominent here. Sections 2A2C deal systematically with identities. But the tripleangle formulae in this section are new (although it is not intended that they be memorised).they require the new ideas of the angle between a line and a plane. Section 2D applies these identities to the solutions of trigonometric equations. Section 2F is an extension on some 4 Unit identities called sums to products and products to sums that are best studied in the context of this chapter by those taking the 4 Unit course. and are listed again here for reference.CHAPTER TWO Further Trigonometry We have now established the basic calculus of the trigonometric functions and their inverse functions. Finally. and that the secant and cosecant functions arise when these tangent and cotangent functions are differentiated. and then extend the applications of trigonometry to problems in three dimensions. and the angle between two planes. Much of this material will be used when the methods of calculus are consolidated and developed further in Chapter Three on motion and in Chapter Six on further calculus. This chapter will give a systematic account of trigonometric identities and equations. Remember that the tangent and cotangent functions are the ratios of the heights of the two waves. with particular emphasis on compound angles. it is important to keep in mind that they are the impulse for most of the trigonometry in this course. Sections 2G and 2H develop the application of trigonometry to problems in threedimensional space . because the solution of trigonometric equations so often comes down to the application of some identity. Identities Relating the Six Trigonometric Functions: Four groups of identities relating the six trigonometric functions were developed in Chapter Four of the Year 11 volume. . Section 2E deals with the sum of sine and cosine waves in preparation for simple harmonic motion in Chapter Three.
=.X  = sin 60° cos 1° + cos 60° sin 1° For small angles.0) = tan 0 cosec(90° . using the Pythagorean and reciprocal identities. and sin 0 '*' 0. cos 0 '*' 1. using the ratio identities.:1 .38 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 THE RECIPROCAL IDENTITIES: THE RATIO IDENTITIES: cosec 0 = ~O sm secO = 0 cos 1 1 sin 0 tan O = .. = RHS..cosO cos 0 cotO = '0 SIn 1 cot 0 = 0 tan THE PYTHAGOREAN IDENTITIES: THE COMPLEMENTARY IDENTITIES: 1 sin 0 + cos 0 = 1 tan 2 0 + 1 = sec 2 0 cot 2 0 + 1 = cosec 2 0 2 2 cos(90° .tan 45° tan 30° '. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Show that tan 0 + cot 0 = sec 0 cosec O.0) = sec 0 Each of these identities holds provided both LHS and RHS are well defined. 0 . LHS = tan 0 + cot 0 sin 0 cos 0 = . THE COMPOUNDANGLE FORMULAE: 2 + (3) = sin 0: cos (3 + cos 0: sin (3 + (3) = cos 0: cos (3 . (a) tan 75° = tan(45° + 30°) tan 45° + tan 30° 1 .0) = sin 0 cot(90° . sin 61 ° 1+~ 1~ = V3+1 V31 =2+V3 X V3 V3 V3+1 .sin 0: sin (3 tan 0: + tan (3 tan ( 0: + (3) = . 0 sm cos = 1 X cosec 0 sec 0.cos 0: sin (3 (3) = cos 0: cos (3 + sin 0: sin (3 tan 0: . = H4 + 2V3) .tan (3 (3 ) = . .usmg a common denommator. SOLUTION: (b) Use smallangle theory to approximate sin 61 0.tan 0: tan (3 sin( 0: cos( 0: sin( 0: cos( 0: tan( 0:  (3) = sin 0: cos (3 . · 1r SInce 1° = 180 ra d'lans. .+ . where 0 is in radians. cos 0 sin 0 sin 2 0 + cos 2 0 . as required.V3+1 '*' tV3 X 1 + t X 1~0 '*' 3~0 (180V3 + 7r). The CompoundAngle Formulae: These formulae were developed in Chapter Fourteen of the Year 11 volume.1 + tan 0: tan (3 WORKED EXERCISE: ( a) Find tan 75°.
CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2A Trigonometric Identities 39 DoubleAngle Formulae: These formulae are reviewed from Chapter Fourteen of the Year 11 volume .4 sin 3 () cos 38 = 4 cos 3 () .2 sin 2 () () tan 2() = . in accordance with the Pythagorean identities.2" cos 1 1 = sin 2 x. WORKED EXERCISE: (t .) sin 3() = 3 sin () .1.4 sin 3 ().t cos 2() Y Notice that cos 2 () +sin 2 () = (} + } cos 2()) + cos 2()) = 1. From cos 2() = 2 cos 2 () .2 sin 2 ()) sin (). EXPRESSING From cos 2() = 1 .the proofs of the other two are left to the following exercise. = 3 sin () . = 2 sin ()(1 .sin 2 ()) + (1 . This observation may help you to memorise them. since cos 2 () = 1 . THE TRIPLEANGLE FORMULAE: 5 (Memorisation is not required. using the doubleangle formulae.1 = 1 .tan 2 Expressing sin2 8 and cos2 8 in terms of cos 28: The second and third forms of the cos 2() formula above are important because they allow the squares sin 2 () and cos 2 8 to be expressed in terms of the simple trigonometric function cos 2(). y S. but their proof and their application can reasonably be required. Using the identities above. its range is 0 S.they follow immediately from the compoundangle formulae by setting a and (3 equal to ().tan 3 () tan 3() = ~1 . followed by the proof of the sin 3() formula .} cos 2(). = 2 sin () cos 2 () + (1 .cos 2() sin 2 () = } . after expanding and collecting terms. T(. Here are the three formulae. using the formula for sin( a + (3). 1 I ~~+~~~~~+ SOLUTION: 2 2 X. then shifted up }.2 sin 2 ()) sin (). t.t Without using calculus. period and range. sketch y and state its amplitude. Its period is Jr.sin 2 = 2 cos 2 () . 1. Y = 2" . THE DOUBLEANGLE FORMULAE: 3 sin 2() = 2 sin () cos () cos 2() = cos 2 () .2 sin 2 (). 2 cos 2 8 = 1 + cos 2() cos 2 () = } + } cos 2(). and its amplitude is Since it oscillates around} rather than 0. 2 11 2 11 x This is the graph of y = cos 2x turned upside down.~ () 2 tan () 1 . There are three forms of the cos 2() formula because sin 2 () and cos 2 () are easily related to each other by the Pythagorean identities.sin 2 ().3tan 2 () PROOF OF THE FORMULA FOR sin 3(): sin 3() = sin(2() + ()) = sin 2() cos () + cos 2() sin (). 2 sin 2 () = 1 . The TripleAngle Formulae: Memorisation of tripleangle formulae is not required in the course. IN TERMS OF 4 cos 2 () = t + t cos 2() sin 2 () AND cos 2 () cos 2(): () sin 2 = t .3 cos () 3 tan () . then stretched vertically by the factor }. .
tan A 1 + tan A . using the compoundangle results: (a) cos 3(} cos () + sin 3(} sin () (d) cos 15° cos 55° .1 tan 257r .cos 2a = tan 2 a (i) 1 + cos 2a (j) tan 2A( cot A .sin2a (b) cos 4 x .A) 4.cos 2 75° = sin 60° (iv) sin 2 75° + cos 2 75° = 1 5.40 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Exercise 2A 1. Simplify. (a) By writing 75° as 45° + 30°.cos lOx) (b) t(1.2 sin 2 221 ° cos 2 671 ° _ sin 2 67 1 ° 2 2 2 7r sm 12 ° 7r (e) cos 12 2 cos 2 27r .tan 110° tan 25° sin 105° cos 105° (i) (d) 1 .2 sin 2 25 ° 2 tan 4x 2 tan 35° 2 2 (b) cos tx .cos 2a = 1 1 1 (f) = tan2A 1.cos 2x) and cos 2 x = ~(1 + cos 2x).tan ~ (b) cos 35° cos 5° + sin 35° sin 5° 18 ( h) 1 + tan 257r tan 18 tan 110° + tan 25° ~ (c) 18 18 1 . t(1 .sin tx (d) 1 _ tan2 350 (f) 1 _ tan 2 4x 3.cos2A = 2sin 2 A and 1 + cos2A = 2cos 2 A: (a) sin = t sin 2A.cos 50° sin 10° (e) sin 4a cos 2a + cos 4a sin 2a 1 + tan 2(} tan () tan41°+tan9° (c) (f) tan 2(} . Suppose that () is an acute angle and cos () = Using the results sin 2 x = t(1 . show that: 0) (1 sm 750 ° = (ii) cos 75° = y 0/2 '31 2 2 (b) Hence show that: (i) sin 75° cos 75° = (ii) sin 75° .cos 75° = sin 45° t (iii) sin 2 75° .1 (j) 5 (f) sin 87r cos 27r _ cos 87r sin 27r 9 9 9 9 1 .sin 2A sin A = cos A cos 2A (d) sin 2(}( tan () + cot (}) = 2 (e) cot a sin 2a . Simplify. find the exact value of: ~ cos ~ (c) t(1 + cos4x) (e) vt(1 + cos 40°) (g) V to (a) cos~(} (b) sint(} (c) tant(} 1tan 2 () 2 = cos 2(} 1 + tan () sin 2x (h) = tanx 1 + cos 2x 1 .2sin 2 ~ 10 6.sin 15° sin 55° (b) sin 50° cos 10° . Given that the angles A and B are acute.cos2x) (d) 1.sin 4 x = cos 2x (c) cos A .1 ( e) 1 . Prove each of the following identities: (a) (sin a .tan A) = 2.tan () 1 . Use the compoundangle and doubleangle results to find the exact value of: (a) 2sin15°cos15° (g) 2cos2~. and that sin A (a) cosA (b) cos 2A (c) cos(A + B) (d) sin 2B V3+1 2/2 =~ and cos B 5 = 13' find: (e) tan2A (f) tan(B . Simplify the following using the three doubleangle results sin A cos A 1.tan 41 ° tan 9° 2. (provided cot A f:: tan A) (g) 8.cos6(} (f) 1 + cos a (h) sin 2 a cos 2 a 7. using the doubleangle results: (a) 2sin2(}cos2(} (c) 2cos 2 3a .cosa)2 = 1.
. Use the compoundangle results and smallangle theory (see the appropriate worked exer (a) cot 2a + tan a = cosec 2a sin 3A cos 3A 4 2A (b) . (a) Write down the exact value of cos 45°.7r) (b) tan 61 ° (c) sin 59° ~ 3~O (180V3 ..3) (1) (cos A + COSB)2 + (sin A + sinB)2 = 4cos 2 ~(A . find the exact value of: ( a) sin B (b) cos 2B ( c) sin 2B (d) sin 3B (e) sin 4B (f) cos 4B (g) tan 3B (h) tan 4B (i) cos ~B (j) tan ~B 13. y = 6sin2B ~ 180V3 + 7r 180 . II = 2 .+ .3 ...3 = ~(cos2a + (k) cos 1[" ) 1 + sin 2a _ 1 ( )2 (f) . (b) Hence show that cos 40° is a root of the equation 8x 3 ..3 tan 2 x 12.sm2u (c) sin B + cos B (d) tan 2x cot x = 1 + sec 2x sin 2B ... If B is acute and cos B = ~. tan 82 ~ ° = v'6 + V3 + (b) Show that tan 165° = V3 .tan 3 x tan 3x = . + 2. (a) Show that sin3x = 3sinx .. (a) IfsinB = ~ and cosB 1[" < 0.2. .= cosec a 2 cos a + sin a .4sin 3 x... find the exact value oftan2B.B) sin 2a + cos 2a (m) .6x + 1 = O."2 1 +tana 1 + cos 2a (g) cos 4B = 8 cos 4 B . 10.4V3 = (c) Hence show that v'6 . if tan B = hand 7r < B < 32 11. (a) By writing 3B as 2B + B and using appropriate compoundangle and doubleangle results..7rV3 15....h . (b) Hence show that: 17. (b) If 32 < B < 27r and cos B = ~6' find cos~.= cos sin A cos A 2 sin 3 B + 2 cos 3 B .cos 2B + 1 (ll (e) . (c) Show also that cos 3B = ~V3 .. (a) Show that (i) cos 22f = ~J2 + h h (ii) cos ll!/ = ~J 2 + J 2+ h J 8 .2( cos 3 a + sin 3 a) (n) (tan B + tan 2B)( cot B + cot 3B) = 4 [HINT: Use the tan 3x identity in question 11.tan A) (j) tan( ~ + x) = sec 2x + tan 2x H cise in the notes) to show that: (a) cos 46° ~ 3~O h(180 . Eliminate B from each pair of parametric equations: (a) x=2+cosB.y=cos2B (b) x = tanB + 1.8 cos 2 B + 1 (h) 8 cos 4 X = 3 + 4 cos 2x + cos 4x [HINT: cos 4 x = (HI + cOS2x))2] (i) cosec 4A + cot 4A = cot A .= tan u + 4 sin 2B + cos 2B .= . 180V3 + 7r (c) x=2tan~B..1 2 acos 2 .1 .y=cosB (d) x = 3sinB. prove that cos 3B = 4 cos 3 B3 cos B...CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2A Trigonometric Identities 41 _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 9. Prove each of the following identities: cos 2.7r) 360 (d) sec29° == .= .sin 2 asin 2 .. (b) Use the identities for cos 3x (see the previous question) an d sin 3x to show that 3 tan x .] 14.. 1[". y = tan2B 16.
1 = 0. 2 tan ~() 2 1 ' by the doubleangle formula. cos 2 l() . 2 1 + tan ~()' i .t PROOF: Let First. (d) Hence show that sin 18° is a root of the equation 4x 2 + 2x . . In the proliferation of trigonometric identities. Hence fi n d an expreSSIOn convergmg to 2 7r. cos 2() = b. (a) Pmvc by indudion that co. (a) Explain why sin 54 ° 3 + sin () = a.n . 1 .2_ dividing through by cos 2 ~(). cos () Then: 1 . cos () + cos ¢ = band cos( () 2 ¢) = c. . t tan () We seek to express sin ().tan 2 l() _ _. = 2 2 \. (b) F m d sm .42 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 18. + V2. by the doubleangle formula. (f) Show that V8 + 2VI0  2V5 = V5 + V5 + V3  V5.tan 2() • (1) Secondly. this can sometimes provide a systematic approach that does not rely on seeing some clever trick. i ' .3sinl8° + 1 = O.t2 2t = 1 + t2 tan() = 2t 2 1. . (g) Hence show that cos 27° =i ( V 5 + V5 + V 3 . (e) Show that: (i) sin 54° = V5 + 1 4 (ii) cos 54° = iVI0 .. THE tFORMULAE: sin () Let t = tan ~(). The other two formulae follow quickly from it. cos 2 2() + sm 2() 1 . The tFormulae: The first of the tformulae is a restatement of the doubleangle formula for the tangent function. 2B The tFormulae The t.1 .4 sin 3 (). (c) Hence show that 4sin 18° .formulae express sin (). cos() = cos 2 ~()  sin 2 ~().t2 6 = 1 + t2 = tan ~()..2sin 18° .sin 2 l() 2 by the Pythagorean identity. sin () + sin ¢ = a. . 20.:. = 2t . cos () and tan () in terms of t. 90° . cos () and tan () as algebraic functions of the single trigonometric function tan ~(). and find its value.V5 ) .2V5 = cos 36°. v .I n terms · . (b) Prove that sin 3() = 3 sin () . 92~o 1~ + J2 + V+ J. (a) Eliminate () from the equations cos () (b) Eliminate () and ¢ from 19.. 't an d mvestIga t e 1 as a means of approximating 7r.
1 + t2 . and the algebra rests on the quadratic identity (1 .by the Pythagorean identity.t2 (1 + _1___t_2)1 + 1 t2 = LHS Notice that we have proven the further identity 1 . 2 1. sin () = 2 sin t() cos t(). This diagram may help to memorise the tformulae.tan x X 1 1 t 1. The three sides are related by Pythagoras' theorem..t ) 2t LHS = ( 1 .cos () sin () (b) Let t = tan x. cos 2 2() + sm 2() 2 tan t() 1 dividing through by cos 2 2 ().t 2)2 + (2t)2 = (1 + t 2)2. 2 1 +t2 • 2t (3) The proofs given above for these identities rely heavily on the idea of expressions that are homogeneous of degree 2 in sin x and cos x.t + = LHS 1t .t2 1 + 2t + t 2 (1 + t)(l . 1 + tan 2 l() . cos () _sin () (b) sec 2x (a) sm () 1 + cos () + tan 2x = X tan( x + f) SOLUTION: (a) Lett=tantx. g1 .t) (1 + t? (1 + t)(l . WORKED EXERCISE: Use the t. NOTE: An Algebraic Identity.1 + t2 1 +t2 ~~. by the doubleangle formula.t2 ~ RHS = tan x + 1 1 . 1 + cos LHS = 1+t2 =t + 1 .such expressions are easily converted into expressions in tan 2 x alone.1 + t2 1 +t2 .t2 1 t2 + • (2) Thirdly. and a Way to Memorise the tformulae: On the right is a right triangle which demonstrates the relationship amongst the three formulae when () is acute. Homogeneous equations will be reviewed in Section 2D.X 1 +t2 2t 2t2 2t RHS = __ 2_t_ 1 +t 2 = . meaning that the sum of the indices of sin x and cos x in each term is 2 . sin () 1 ::() = tan 2 () .X 2t 2t 2 =t 1 +t2 1 + t2 1 + t2 + 1 .t) 1 +t 1 .formulae to prove: 1 .CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 28 The tFormulae 43 1 . 2 sin l() cos l() 1 2 .
cos 2 ~O.44 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Exercise 28 1.. = sm 0 tan 0 . sec 20 1 +t (b) (i) Write sin 0 in terms of sin ~O and cos ~O. Write in terms of t. . (ii) What does the other root of the equation represent? (a) tan 15° = 2  ~2 = 1.cos 0 1 Ll = tan 2 u (c) 1 + cos 0 2 1 + cosec 0 1 + tan }O (d) cot 0 1 . [Alternative derivations of the tformulae] Let t = tan }O.tan 2 10° (a) (c) 2 1 .sin 20 3. where t = tan 0: (a) cos 20 (b) 1 .and hence show that cos 0 = . Find the exact value of: (c) cos2a (d) tan ~a (b) sin2a 9.~ (b) tan and 7811" = 1/2 I < a < 1r. Use the method of the previous question to show that: 8. where t = tan }O: (c) tanO (d) sec 0 (e) 1 .sin 0 + 1 2 tan 2a + cot a 2 = cot a (g) tan 2a .tana (h) tanax +~) + tan(}x ~) (e) = 2tanx 1t (b) (i) Hence show that tan 112} ° = /2 . show that tan 0 tan ~O . Use the t = tan}O results to simplify: 2 tan 10° 1 . (a) (i) Express cos 0 in terms of cos }O.1.tan 2 75° (a) (c) 1tan 2 15° 1 + tan 2 75° 2tan112}0 2 tan 15° (b) (d) 2 1 + tan 15° 1 + tan 2 112} ° DEVELOPMENT (e) 1 + tan 2 311" 8 2 tan I h 12 (f) 1 .cos 2x (b) = tan x sin 2x 1 .1 1 (f) = tan 0 cos 0 . Use the t = tan} 0 results to find the exact value of: 2tan15° 1 . Write in terms of t.tan }O cos 0 + sin 0 .2 .2 cos 20 1 +t . (a) Given that t = tan 112r. 7.tan 10° 1 + tan 2 10° 2 tan 10° 2tan 2x (b) (d) 1 + tan 2 10° 1 + tan 2 2x + sec 20 (c) 2 tan 2x 1 . Prove each of the following identities using the t = tan }O results: ( a) cos O(tan 0 .cos 0 (f) sin 0 (c) tan 20 (a) sin 0 (b) cos 0 2. and hence show that sin 0 = .tan 2 311" 8 4..t2 (ii) Write cos 2 ~O as 2 1 . 1 1 .tan 2 2x 1tan 2 2x (f) 1 + tan 2 2x 1 .tan 10 2 6.tan 10) = tan 10 2 2 1 . sin 10 2t (ii) Write sin ~O cos ~O as . Suppose that (a) tan2a v'3 tan a = .cos 0 1 ..tan 2 I h 12 5.
Find: ( a) WORKED EXERCISE: 13: sin 2 x dx (b) 1'.. Consider the integral 1= J+ 1 1 cos x = tan tx. use the tformulae to show that x2 .1 2x +1 = sin (). (a) If x = tan () + sec (). If cosx = 5cos y .x +2 1) . The Integration of cos2 :v and sin 2 :v: The identities expressing sin 2 () and cos 2 () in terms of cos 2() provide the standard way of finding primitives of sin 2 x and cos 2 x. dx (a) Show that d t = 2 . show that 1= J dt = tan ~x + C. SOLUTION: (a) 13: sin 2 x dx = 13: (~ . t io 2C Applications of Trigonometric Identities The exercise of this section contains further examples of trigonometric identities.3 . deduce that r . I Ix 11. (b) If x ~ cos 20. (c) Using the approach of question 12. 2x 14. 1 +t 2 (b) By writing dx as ~~ dt. (b) Hence show that (x + 2)(2x + 1)dx = ~ log 2.~ cos 2x ) dx nX 7r = [t x .] dx.cos 2 x dx Explain from their graphs why these integrals are equal.t sin 2X]: = G .. but it also seeks to relate the trigonometric identities of the previous two sections to geometric situations and to calculus. 13. Use the same approach as in the previous question to show that J cosec x dx = loge(tan ~x) + C.prove that tan 2 5 . ..3 cos y and t2 = tan [HINT: Let tl = tan tx = 4tan 2 ty· tx h. . .t sin 1r) .CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2C Applications of Trigonometric Identities 45 10. (a) Show that (x + 2)(2x + 1) 1 = 3" 1( 2 + 1.c tbetfmm" lac to sbow that V+ x ~ Icot 01. and let t _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 12.(0 .t sin 0) 4 . io 3: 4 + 53sm x dx = log 2.
The worked exercise below involves the expansion of sin 20 and the range of cos O..x).A 0 e = ~ ac sin 20.46 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (b) 1~ cos 2 X dx = 1~ 0 1r + ~ cos 2x) dx :rr: = [~x + i..AOe in terms of a. (b) Hence show that cos 0 = b( a + e) .. Also. cosO = b(a + e) 2ae b X 3b 2b X 2b 4" 3 b b so sinO = iv'7. Geometric Configurations and Trigonometric Identities: There is an endless variety of geometric configurations in which trigonometric identities playa role. . From part (a). e and O.BOe = ~be sin 0. area l:. If b were the longest stick.AOB.sin2X]: =(~+isin7l")(O+isinO) 4: n "2 4 i Since cos 2 x = sin 2 G . and so cos 0 would be greater than 1. cos 0 = ''2ae cos 0 = = 2e + 2a .. SOLUTION: ABC ~ o (a) Using the formula for the area of a triangle. l:.BOe and l:.AOe = aesinOcosO = b X 2b X iv'7 X = ~b2V7. the answer ~ can easily be seen by taking advantage of the symmetry of each graph to cut and paste the shaded region to form a rectangle. the regions represented by the two integrals are reflections of each other in this vertical line x = ~. 2ae b(a + e) (c) From part (b). b. area l:.. then both terms would be greater than ~. (a) Find the areas of l:..AOe is the sum of the areas of l:. Let 0 = LAOB = LBOe. (d) If a = band e = 2b.AOe in terms of b. find the area of l:.. (b) Since the area of l:.AO Band l:. Band e respectively are collinear. which is impossible. area l:. 2ae (c) Show that the middle stick 0 B cannot be the longest stick.. WORKED EXERCISE: Three sticks of lengths a. (d) From part (b).BOe. ~ .. band e extend from a point 0 so that their endpoints A.. ~ac sin 20 = ~ab sin 0 + ~be sin 0 2ae sin 0 cos 0 = ab sin 0 + be sin 0 b(a+ e) . as requued. and so that OB bisects LAOe..AOB = ~absinO. area l:. and so have the same area.
(b) Hence sketch.show that x x cos ¢ . lorm m 'Y. c (d) Hence show that b = . 3c . (a) Sketch the graph of y = cos2x. .sin 6 2 (x7[. = sm (() + ¢)" . 1 . (b) I f a Iso tan'Y = y sin () ()' fi n d . (a) Using the diagram opposite.a2 a • (c) Hence chow that x~ aVb .a a 2 c b (c) Write down an alternative expression for tan( 0: + (3). sin 0 = 1 x sin ¢ . terms 0 f () an d'+' x.cos 2()) x ( d) Why is it necessary to assume that b > 2a? _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 5. 211". !. the angle of depression of the worm is 2().b . (a) Write down an expression for tan 0:.3c . (b) Use the doubleangle formula for tan 20: to show that b x 2ax x 2 . Points A. .. (b) Use the two rightangled triangles to write two equations in hand O. G and W lie in the same vertical plane.CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2C Applications of Trigonometric Identities 47 Exercise 2C 1. suppose that tan (3 = ~. . using appropriate compoundangle results: A (a) sin LBAG (b) cos LBAG 2.)dx 6.m SImp Iest . If the bird flew another 10 metres horizontally it would be directly above the worm. 2a = !(l. Use the results sin 2 0 and cos 2 () = !(l + cos 2()) (e) to find: (a) l1rsin2xdx 1r (c) 17[. Explain why cos x sin x cannot exceed 8.. h 60h (c) Use parts (a) and (b) to show that 10 = 900 _ h 2 • A~C ~h W (d) Hence show that h = 10V3 metres. (c) Hence show graphically that cos x 7. x ::. (a) Iftan() 2 + sin 2 x = l.+. 4. for 0::. write down expressions for tan 0: and tan 20:. (a) Write tan 2() in terms of tan o. y = + cos 2x) and y HI = ! (1  cos 2x).a +c 2 a 3. In the diagram opposite.. (b) Use an appropriate compoundangle formula to show 3a + c that tan(o: + (3) = . A bird at A observes a worm at W at an angle of depression ().y cos y . B. After flying 20 metres horizontally to B. Find. Let WG = h metres.sin 2 !xdx 1r 1:coS 6 2(x+I".)dX (b) fo"4 io cos 2 X dx (d) fo in 16 cos 2 2x dx (f) (i i!J. on the same diagram.
.= . 1 . while a balloon B directly above the car has an angle of elevation 2a. h x .. 1': =~ ~ cos2x + kcos4x. and LBAD = ¢.ABC to show that sin 2() = 2 sin () cos ().. show that sinC = 3 (a) If B = 2C. 3 .x (b) Hence show that AC = 120 metres. An officeworker is looking out a window W of a building standing on level ground. B (c) If 0 < () < I' show that B sin 2() + sin 2() cos 2 () + sin 2() cos 4 () + . + (). From W. The height of the balloon above the car is x.ABC is isosceles with AB = C B. 15.= cot ~B r a + cot ~C .3 tan () (b) A tower AB has height h metres. (a) Show that tan(135° . (c) Hence prove that  a r = . sm "2 B sm "2C 14. 12. show that sin 4 x (b) Find a similar result for cos x.l AC. cos lA 1 2. and D lies on AC with BD . show that tan 3() = () 130m . l::. (a) Prove that LOBP = LOBQ. and the height of the window above the ground is h.  = 1tan 2 a 2 x. . Let AC = x and LACP = a. a car C has an angle of depression a. (a) By expressmg 3() as 2() = E A ic: 3tan()tan 3 2 1 . The angle of elevation of the top of the tower at a point C 20 metres from its base is three times the angle of elevation at a point D 80 metres further away from its base. P and Q are landmarks which are 160 metres and 70 metres due north of points A and B respectively. Let LABD = LCBD = (). Use the identity in part ( a) to show that h = l~O V7 metres. = 2 cot (). 4 (c) Hence find: (i) 101': sin 4 xdx (ii) 10 4 cos 4 xdx A 13. In the diagram opposite.. C is a point on the road between A and Band LPCQ = 45°. (a) By writing sin 4 x as (sin 2 x)2.tan a c b 4 (b) If B = 3C.ABC. tan a tan 2a (a) Sh ow t h at . 10. (b) Prove that . c iVIS.48 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 9. (b) Use the sine rule in l::.h x h (b) Hence show that h 11. show that cosC =~.a) Q 160m 70m +C=Ox~~'B~ 70 130 . A and B lie 130 metres apart on a westeast road. In l::.. The diagram shows a circle with centre 0 and radius r inscribed in a triangle ABC. (a) Show that sin¢ = cos().
1 : V7 : V7 + 1. Show that the lengths of the sides of the triangle are in the ratio V7 . where n is an integer? _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 17. The methods here should be familiar by now. Show that tan 2x = 2 sin a sin.27r :::. on the same diagram.t sin 2x.V3.CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 20 Trigonometric Equations 49 16.] 18. 27r. [HINT: One possible approach makes use of both the sine and cosine rules.. the graphs of y = F( x) and y = F'( x) over the given domain. draw a quadrants diagram.? k 10 sin 2 x dx = n21r. tx by more than t.27r :::. for .6 . Define F( x) = 10 x sin 2 t dt.6). x :::. Otherwise. X :::. read the solutions off a sketch of the graph. (b) Explain why F'(x) = sin 2 x. This section presents a systematic approach to their solution. Suppose that tan 2 x = tan( x . (c) Explain why F(x) never differs from (d) Find any points of inflexion of F( x) in the given domain. and observe how they are related. (iii) decreasing. 27r .a) tan( x . 19. Simple Trigonometric Equations: More complicated trigonometric equations eventually reduce to equations like cos x = 1. [Harmonic conjugates] In 6ABC. ( . Hence state the values of x in the given domain for which F( x) is: (i) stationary. where 0 :::. SIMPLE TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS: 7 If a trigonometric equation involves angles at the boundaries of quadrants. X :::. (f) (i) For what value of k is (ii) For what values of k is 10 k sin 2 x dx = 3.6) sm a+ 2D Trigonometric Equations Trigonometric equations occur whenever trigonometric functions are being analysed. Prove that Q divides BC externally in the same ratio as that in which P divides BC internally. and careful study of them is essential. (a) Show that P(x) = tx . The lengths of the sides of a triangle form an arithmetic progression and the largest angle of the triangle exceeds the smallest by 90°. (e) Sketch. or tan x = V3. where there mayor may not be a restriction on the domain. and begins with the account given in Chapter Four of the Year 11 volume when the compoundangle formulae were not yet available. the bisectors of the internal and external angles at A meet BC produced at P and Q respectively. and read the solutions off it. 27r. (ii) increasing. for . Solve: (a) cos x WORKED EXERCISE: = 1 (b) tan x = .
or 511" 2' 2 2 _.. 4 1711". or _ 411" 3' 3' 3 3 Simple Trigonometric Equations with a Compound Angle: Most troubles are avoided by substitution for the compound angle. for < 1f ::. then solve each of the resulting trigonometric equations. where n is an integer.50 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 SOLUTION: y 1 3n n 2n 1 3n x 2n ~ _K 3 3' (a) Reading from the graph of y = cos x. _ 311" or 511" 4' 4 4 1111" 11" 511" < < 171r 4 3f n 2n ¥ u 4 or 12· Equations Requiring Algebraic Substitutions: If there are powers or reciprocals of the one trigonometric function present. x ::. 3 or 3· .u 4 311" 2':. 3x ::. 31f. .. 21f. for u = cos x. From the given restrictions on x. Then I + 5411" I Hence . 211" 411" = O.31f ::. x = 1f.. find the resulting restrictions on u. solve the resulting algebraic equation. for _ = 3x + 511" 4 X  3x = = 12' 71r . 31f... 1f. x = (2n + 1)1f. y Let u = 3x + 5411". 31f _ 71r < 3x + 511" 4 U 4 2 3n sin u = 1. ALGEBRAIC SUBSTITUTION FOR A TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTION: 9 Substitute u for the trigonometric function. 1 2u = 1 +u U . it is usually best to make a substitution for that trigonometric function. (b) The related angle is J' and x is in quadrants 2 or 4. T (2u+1)(u1)=O u = 1 or u . 21f.. 2n x 1 = 1 or cos x = .~ ._1 2' so Hence _____________ 1 ______ . 8 SIMPLE EQUATIONS WITH A COMPOUND ANGLE: Let u be the compound angle. y 1 T _~ 2n 4n . 1f. Sol ve 2 cos x WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Let Then 2u 2  = 1 + sec x. Solve sin(3x WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: + 5411") = 1.1 =0 cos X X 0 ::.. Any given restrictions on the original angle must then be carried through to restrictions on the compound angle.!!:Jr. or 511" 2 '2 2 _ 311" 2':.. x ::. so x = 211" 511" _ 2':.
SOLUTION: (a) cos 2 X  cos2x sin 2 x 15 cos 2 x tan x x = 4sin 2 x . 11 EQUATIONS INVOLVING DIFFERENT ANGLES: Use compoundangle identities to change all the trigonometric functions to functions of the one angle. Solve the equation 2tanB WORKEOExERCISE: = secB. x2 = 9 so Here x (b) Suppose that Squaring. x ::. as it did in part (b) above. for 0° ::.CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 20 Trigonbmetric Equations 51 Equations with More than One Trigonometric Function.14 cos 2 x cos 2x = 4( ~ . B::. If an equation does have to be squared. for 0::. each solution must be checked in the original equation to see whether it is a solution or not. . not 5. 8 11" or 1~1I" 3 _ 11" 211" 411" or 511" x . Frequently such an equation can be solved by more than one method.4 = sec 2 B sec B = ~ 2 = '2 1 B = 30° or 150° cos B = ~V3 or ~V3 B = 30°.14cos 2 X = 4sin 2 x . because squaring may introduce extra solutions. Here are two very simple equations. {] SIn u (b) Squaring. Vx = 5. = or x = 3. 3 is a spurious solution. Checking each solution. (a) Suppose that x = 3. In fact. both purely algebraic.14(t 10cos2x=5 cos 2x = } 2x = 4311". there are no solutions.150°. 10 EQUATIONS WITH MORE THAN ONE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTION: This IS Trigonometric identities can usually be used to produce an equation in only one trigonometric function. (a) 2 tan B = sec B 2 sin B 1 cos B cos B . SOLUTION: (b) by squaring both sides. ( a) by changing all the angles to x. B = 30° or 150°. the usual approach is to use compoundangle identities to change all the trigonometric functions to functions of the one angle. x = 25.V3 11" 211" 511" = 3' 3 ' 411" or 3 3 (b) cos 2x = 4 sin 2 x . 4 tan 2 B = sec 2 B 4 sec 2 B . Squaring.3' 3 ' 3 3 + ~ cos 2x) 2. 27r: (b) by changing all the angles to 2x.~ cos 2x) . x =3 But v'25 = 5. Equations Involving Different Angles: When different angles are involved in the same trigonometric equation. where the effect of squaring can easily be seen.. WORKEOExERCISE: Solve cos2x = 4sin 2 x  14cos 2 x. The Dangers of Squaring an Equation: Squaring an equation is to be avoided if possible. 360°: (a) using the ratio identities.210° or 330°. but the Same Angle: where trigonometric identities come into play.14cos 2 x = 5 sin 2 x = V3 or .
Hence tan 2x = 0 or tan 2x = vf:3 or tan 2x = . where n is an integer. x ::. 2 sin x cos x + (cos 2 X . The Equations sin x = sin a. where n is an integer.tan 2x t=tan2x. (b) tan 4x = . or X '* 0·588 or 3·730. 2t =t 1 . then x = n1f + a. Here is another approach through alternative solutions of trigonometric equations. (a) Let Then tan 4x = . 1f or 21f. tan 4x = tan( 2x) 4x = 2x + n1f. To solve an equation homogeneous in sin x and cos x. 21f. 2 t(t . Since tan () is an odd function. where n is an integer. then x = 2n1f + a or 2n1f ."6n1f.:3. sin x Solve tan 4x WORKED EXERCISE: = tan 2x: (b) using solutions oftana ( a) using the tan 2() formula. =0 tanx(3tanx . divide through by a power of cos x to produce an equation in tan x alone. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: + cos 2x = sin 2 x + 1. cos x = cos a AND tan x = tan a: If tan x = tan a.sin 2 x) = sin 2 x + (sin 2 x + cos 2 x) Sol ve sin 2x 3 sin 2 x .2 or t an x .a.vf:3 2x = k1f or ~ + k1f or ~ + k1f.n1f. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS: 12 The expansions of sin 2x and cos 2x are homogeneous of degree 2 in sin x and cos x. If sin x = sin a. then x = 2n1f + a or (2n + 1)1f .3t = 0 X . THE GENERAL SOLUTIONS OF 13 • • • = sin a. cos x = cos a and tan x = tan a: The methods associated with general solutions of trigonometric equations from the last chapter can often be very useful.2 tan x . .2 sin x cos x = 0 I I 7 cos 2 X Hence x = 0.52 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Homogeneous Equations: Equations homogeneous in sin x and cos x were mentioned earlier as a special case of the application of trigonometric identities. where n is an integer an integer. Also. 1 = sin 2 x + cos 2 x can be regarded as being homogeneous of degree 2. SOLUTION: = tanf3. where n is an integer. If cos x = cos a. Another Approach to Trigonometric Functions of Multiples of 18°: In Chapter Four of the Year 11 volume.3) = O. where k is x = !. Expanding.tan 2x. An equation is called homogeneous in sin x and cos x if the sum of the indices of sin x and cos x in each term is the same. we used a construction within a pentagon to generate trigonometric functions of some multiples of 18°.2) = 0 t an x = 0 3 tan 2 x .t2 2t = t + t 3 6x = n1f _ 1 t 3 . for 0 ::.a.
162 0 . (b) using solutions of cos a = cos.2u 2 . so the three solutions of the cubic are u = 1 or u = 1 0 Now sinx = 1 has the one solution x = 90 . Solve each equation for 0 0 ::. Begin solving using compoundangle formulae. 54 ° and 72 0 can be calculated. an d from the gr a ph. sin x 4.] SOLUTION: y (a) The graphs of the two functions are sketched opposite. sin 234 = sin 306 = ~(1NOTE: H1 + v's). f or 0 ::.. since sin () = cos(90° . From part (b).()).CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 20 Trigonometric Equations 53 WORKED EXERCISE: Solve sin3x = cos2x. one sol u ti on is 90 0 .3. [HINT: Use the factorisation 4u 3 . See the Extension to the following exercise.3x) 2x 5x Hence = = = = x = fI.4sin 3 x = 1 . so sin 54 = ~(1 36 0 . (c) cot x = v'3 (d) sin 2 x=1 a ::. Use t h e b aSlC trIgonometrIc 1d entitles suc h as . + v's). 2 7r: cos x ( a) sin x . 810 0 . for 0 ::. They make it clear that there are fi ve sol u ti ons.3 = 0 (f) sec 2 x . 234 0 or 306 0 • + 3x + 360n o Alternatively.{+'Tf+_ cos 2x cos 2x. 230 0 and 310 0 • (b) sin 3x cos(90° . and sin x = ~(1 0 + v's) 0 and sin x = H1 0 each have two solutions. 450 0 .t ·· . 90 0 . () ::. 27r: (a) v'2 sin x = 1 (b) 2cosx+1=0 2. Solve.1) = 0. From these results. . Solve each equation for 0 ::.1)( 4u 2 + 2u .3x + 360n o or 2x = 90 0 90 0 . the values of all the trigonometric functions at 18 0 ..\++I'\'l. v's).3u + 1 = (u . 360 0 : (c) sin 3a = t (b) cos 2a = 1 (e) 4 cos 2 X . 3 2 Then 4u . we conclude that sin 18 = sin 162 = Also. using compoundangle identities. Let u = SIn x.1)(4u 2 + 2u . 1170 0 . 360 0 : (a) graphically.2 = 0 (d) tan 3a = 1 ( a) tan 2a = v'3 3.v'3 cos x = 0 (b) 4 sin x = cosec x ( c) 4 cos 2x = 3 sec 2x 2 2 (d) sin tx = 3cos tx . The quadratic has discriminant 20. Exercise 20 1. x::. and the other four are approximately 20 0 .2u .= tan x to so1ve. H + V's) v's) 0 0 or u = H1  v's). for 0 0 ::. 160 0 . 27r: (a) sin(() ~) = ~v'3 (b) cos(() + f) = tv'3 (c) sin(2()I)=~v'2 (d) cos(2() + ~) = . 1530 0 or x = 90 0 • 18 0 . x::.3u + 1 = 0 (u . x ::.2sin 2 x. and hence find sin 18 0 and sin 54 o. 90 0 . sin 3x = cos 2x 3sinx . by the given factorisation.1). .
] 2sin2()+cos()=0 2cos 2 ()+cos2()=0 2 cos 2() + 4cos() = 1 8sin 2 ()cos 2 () = 1 3 cos 2() + sin () = 1 cos 2() = 3 cos 2 () . (a) Show that x = ~7rn. Solve. Use compoundangle formulae to solve. for 0° (a) (b) ( c) (d) (e) (a) (b) (c) (d) ( e) (f) 2 ~ A ~ 360°. for 0 ~ x ~ 27r: _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 9.] (c) Similarly. Use a sketch of the LHS in each case to help solve.4 = 0 (f) (g) (h) (i) ~ 2 sin 2 a + 3 cos a = 3 sec 2 a .5cosA .~) (b) cos(() ~) = 2cos(() +~) 7.~) ~ ~ (f) tan 2x 2: 1 8.2 sin 2a + 2 = 0 cosec 3 2a = 4 cosec 2a ~ (e) 2sin a = sina + 1 6.1) 3 tan A . for 0 ~ x ~ 27r. (b) Find all solutions in the domain 0 ~ x ~ 27r. for 0 (j) V3cosec 2 ~a + cot ~a = V3 () 27r: ( c) cos 4() cos () + sin 4() sin () = ~ (d) cos3() = cos 2() cos () ~ ( a) sin( () + ~) = 2 sin( () . Consider the equation cos 3x = cos 2x.l)(u . solve sin 2 x = (V3 . 12. (b) Hence solve the homogeneous equation V3 sin 2 x + cos 2 X = (1 + V3) sin x cos x.3cos 2 A = 0 2 (j) tan A + 8 cos 2 A = 5 2sin A .tan a .~) 13.(1 + V3)u + 1 = (V3u .] ~ 27r: (c) tan2x + tanx = 0 (d) sin 2x = tan x ( e) cos( x . Find general solutions of: (a) cos 2x = cos x (b) 2sin2x cos x = V3sin2x ( c) sin x + cos 2x = 1 (d) sin(x + ~) = 2cos(x .54 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 5.1).3 = 0 cos 2 2a . Give answers to the nearest minute where necessary. for 0 (a) sin2x = sinx (b) cos 2x = sin x (a) sin x > 0 (b) sin 2x > 0 ( c) cos x ~ ~ (d) cos 2x ~ ~ x [HINT: In part (d). .4 = 0 tan 2 A = 3(secA . (a) Show that V3u 2 . write cos 3() as cos(2() + ()). Use Pythagorean identities where necessary (such as sin 2 x + cos 2 X = 1) and factoring to solve the following for 0° ~ a ~ 360°. Use doubleangle formulae to solve.2sinAcosA . for 0° () ~ 360°. Solve. giving solutions correct to the nearest minute where necessary: (g) 10cos()+13cos~()=5 (h) tan()=3tan!() (i) cos 2 2()=sin 2 () [HINT: Usesin 2 ()=}(1cos2()).cot A = 2 V3cosec 2 A = 4cotA 2 cos 2A + sec 2A + 3 = 0 ~ 10. giving solutions correct to the nearest minute where necessary: (f) (g) (h) (i) tan 2 A + 3cot 2 A = 4 2(cosA .] (j) cos 2() + 3 = 3 sin 2() 2 2 [HINT: Write 3 as 3 cos () + 3 sin (). ( a) (b) (c) (d) sin 2 a = sec 2 a = cos 2 a = tan 2 a 2 sin a 2 sec a sin a cos a 3 tan a . [HINT: Divide both sides by cos 2 x.secA) = tan A cot A + 3 tan A = 5 cosec A sin 2 A . where n is an integer.1) sin x cos x + V3 cos 2 x.2 sin 2 () 11. for 0 ~ x ~ 27r.
the vertical 1 + tan x asymptotes and the stationary points. 21.sin 2 B = sin2B. By substituting x = 2 cos B.1) (f) y = 2x .12x = 8V3. after findmg the xmtercepts. Consider the equation tan( ~ (a) Show that tan B  2 + B) = 3 tan( ~ 4tanB + 1 = o. (a) Show that the function y = eX tan x is increasing for all x in its domain. . (a) sin 2 x 2: 2 + f3) sin(a . (a) Show that cos3x (b) = 4cos 3 x . for 0 :S B :S 7r. using the calculator. for 0 :S x :S 27r. (d) Sketch the curve.vis). Find the values of k for which: (a) lk sin 2 x dx lk cos 2 X dx 20. It was proven in the notes that sin 18 0 = H + vis) and sin 54 ° = HI + vis ).0)7 e 22. correct to three decimal places. 16. . show that sin 2 2B . Sketch the curve y = sin x . 0) and 2 '''".~ < x < and the gradient at each xintercept. 1 0 . (b) Hence solve the equation sin 2 3B . (a) y = etanx4x ( d) y = sin x cos 2x (b) y = In cos x + tan x . (b) Hence use the quadratic formula to solve the equation for O:S B :S 7r. B).sin 2x + 2 sin 2 x i i 15.~ < x < 3 1r.1 = o. Find the xcoordinates of any stationary points on each of the following curves in the interval 0 :S x :S 27r. (b) Find the xintercepts for . 0 3x 1 = 0 has roots 2 cos 20 0 . for 0 0 :S B :S 360 0 • (a) By squaring both sides.f3) = sin 2 a 18. show that the equation x 3 2sin 10 and 2cos40°. (c) Show that the curve is concave up at each xintercept.sin2B . (b) Hence solve for B over the given domain.x (e) y = sin x + sin 2x (c) y = x + cos(2x . Use sketches to help solve. (c) Use a similar technique to find. Why are there open circles at (~. cosine and tangent of 18 36 0 . giving solutions to the nearest minute. Given the equation 2 cos x . Sketch the curve y = eCos x. Use these results to find the sine.I (a) Show that (b) Hence solve the equation for 0 :S x :S 360 0 . 2 3r _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 23. Consider the equation sin B + cos B = sin2B.3cosx. for . 17.CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 20 Trigonometric Equations 55 14. for O:S x :S 27r: i = (b) tan x < tan x (c) sin 2 x 2: cos 2 X ( d) 2 cos 2 X + cos x :S 1 (e) 2 cos 2 X 2: sin x 2 +2 (f) sec x 2: 1 + V3tanx 19. .sin 2 f3. [HINT: Beware of the fact that squaring can create invalid solutions. . the three real roots of the equation x 3 . 54 and 72 0 0 • 24. for 0 :S x :S 27r. (a) Show that sin(a = 2 cos 2x: cosx = ~(1 + vis) or cosx = Hl. after finding the stationary point and the two inflexion points (approximately).] 25.
but shifted sideways so that the zeroes no longer lie on multiples of ~. This would indicate that the resulting sum function is y = V2 sin( x + f). These forms for a sin x + b cos x give a systematic method of solving any equation of the form a cos x + b sin x = c. • The new graph has the same period as y = sin x and y = cos x. and within 0 :::. (e) Hence write down. This section analyses what happens when the sine and cosine curves are added.the crosses represent obvious points to mark on the graph of the sum . and. show that tan 4x = 4t(1t 2 ) 1 (b) (c) + t4 . so if the maximum occurs there. show that 5t 4 . 7. x :::. 2E The Sum of Sine and Cosine Functions The sine and cosine curves are the same. that is.B) + cos(A + B)). . • The new amplitude is bigger than 1. 3. except that the sine wave is the cosine wave shifted right by ~. as seems likely. as expected. the amplitude is V2. since it is the stretched sine curve shifted left f. The General Algebraic Approach . the sum function y = sin x +cos x has been drawn on the same diagram .10x 2 + 1 = o. 27f.B) . There are four possible forms in which the wave can be written. Checking this by expansion: V2 sin( x + f) = V2 (sin x cos f + cos x sin f) 1 = sin x + cos x. the four real roots of the polynomial equation 5x 4 . since cos f = sin f = V2. It looks like a wave. 6t 2 and that (d) Hence show that :a and ~~ both satisfy tan 4x tan x = 1.cos(A + B)) cos A cos B = ~ (cos(A . when multiples of the two curves are added. The value at x = f is ~V2+ ~V2 = V2. (a) If t = tan x. From these two graphs. y Sketching y = sin x + cos x by Graphical Methods: The diagram to the right shows the two graphs of y = sin x and y = cos x.. and the process is done by expanding the standard form and equating coefficients of sin x and cos x. 27f there are zeroes at the two values x = and x = where sin x and cos x take opposite values .56 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 26. Show that sinAsinB = ~ (cos(A .10t 2 + 1 = O. an alternative method of solution using the tformulae is developed. If tan 4x tan x = 1. more generally. The surprising result is that y = a sin x + b cos x is still a sine or cosine wave. in trigonometric form. Later in the section.The Auxiliary Angle: It is true in general that any function of the form f( x) = a sin x + b cos x can be written as a single wave function.
Squaring and adding. where a and b are constants (not both zero). (1) (2) =2 R = V2 . Rcosa equating coefficients of cos x. = R sin x cos a = Rsinxcosa = 1. can be written in anyone of the four forms: y=Rsin(xa) y = Rcos(x  a) 14 y = Rsin(x + a) y=Rcos(x+a) where R > 0 and 0° ::. R2 and since R > 0. R cos a = 1. Expanding. sin x + cos x = R cos x cos a . x ::. a < 27l'. . where. = sin x + cos x = V2 sin( x +"i} Y /2 shifted left by f and stretched vertically by a factor of y'2. sinx + cos x Equating coefficients of sinx. and shows the systematic algorithm used to obtain the required form. 27l'. in each case. x 211: there is a maximum of equating coefficients of sin x. but the auxiliary angle a depends on which form is chosen . = 1. R sin (x + a) so for all x. (lA) (2A) 1 cos a = y'2' sin a = ~. • To begin the process. so a is in the 1st quadrant. expand the standard form and equate coefficients of sin x and cos x. (lA) " 4 7" 1 cos a = y'2' 4 . and from (2). SOLUTION: (a) Expanding. R2 = 2 and since R > 0. The constant R = a 2 + b2 is the same for all forms. + R cos x sin a. Thus the xintercepts are x = and x = . WORKED EXERCISE: J Express y = sin x + cos x in the two forms: (a) Rsin(x + a). From (1). with related angle Hence The graph is y sin x f. (b) 1 V2 when x = i. showing all intercepts and turning points in the interval 0 ::. :From (1). Rcos(x + a) = Rcosxcosa . (1) 3: 7:.V2 when x = 5:. Equating coefficients of cos x.Rsinxsina. a < 360°. R (2) = V2 . R sin a Squaring and adding. Ii and a minimum of . The following worked exercise continues with the example given at the start of the section. R sin a = 1. R > 0 and 0 ::.R sin x sin a. so for all x. (b) Rcos(x + a).CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2E The Sum of Sine and Cosine Functions 57 AUXILIARYANGLE METHOD: • Any function of the form f(x) = asinx + bcosx. Be careful to identify the quadrant in which a lies. + Rcosxsina. Then sketch the curve. .
). (lA) From (1).cos. this value should be stored in memory and used whenever the auxiliary angle is required. R = 5. Equating coefficients of cos x. x :s. It is always important to keep track of the restriction on the compound angle. all intercepts and turning points in the interval 180 0 :s. so 0: sin 0: = . Approximating the Auxiliary Angle: Unless special angles are involved. so 0: is in the 2nd quadrant. sin 0: = ~. so for all x. but the next worked exercise uses degrees to make the working a little clearer. showing. with related angle about 37 0 • y Hence 3 sin x . Degrees or radian measure may be used. R cos (x . WORKED EXERCISE: (a) Express y = 3sinx . (b) The graph is y = cos x shifted right by 0: ~ 143 0 and stretched vertically by a factor of 5. The worked exercise below continues with the previous example. It is y = cos x shifted left by 7.4cosx in the form y = Rcos(x . 5 0 where 0: ~ 143 • 4 g. and a minimum of 5 when x ~ 37 0 • x A Note on the Calculator and Approximations for the Auxiliary Angle: In the previous worked exercise. and stretched vertically by a factor of V2 . Solving Equations of the Form a sin x + b cos x = c.4 cos x = R cos x cos 0: + R sin x sin 0:. R2 = 25 and since R > 0. Reentry of the approximation may lead to rounding errors. 180° Thus the xintercepts are x ~ 53 0 and x ~ 127 0 . cos 0: = (2A) and from (2).~. where R > 0 and 0 0 :s. 180 0 • SOLUTION: (a) Expanding. there is a maximum of 5 when x ~ 143 0 . and if there are subsequent calculations to do. g.58 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 and from (2). (b) Sketch the curve.0:) = R cos x cos 0: + R sin x sin 0:. as in the equation solved below. (1) equating coefficients of sin x. and Inequations: Once the LHS has been put in one of the four standard forms.4 cos x = 5 cos ( x .0:). The graph above could equally well be obtained from this. 0: < 360 0 . R sin 0: = 3. V2cos(x (2A) is in the 4th quadrant. the exact value of 0: is 0: = 180 0 sin 1 ~ (or 0: = 180 0 .1 because 0: is in the second quadrant. . giving 0: correct to the nearest degree. 3 sin x .. R cos 0: = 4.0:). (2) Squaring and adding. f. the auxiliary angle will need to be approximated on the calculator. It is this value which is obtained on the calculator. correct to the nearest degree. with related angle sinx Hence + cosx = + 747r). the solutions can easily be obtained.
4cosx ~ 2 is 103° ~ x ~ 30°.0:) = 2. for 180° ~ x ~ 180°. and be prepared to add this answer to the final solution. which has discriminant ~ = 21.5 Using the tformulae to Solve a sin x + b cos x = c: The tformulae provide a quite different method of solution by substituting t = tan The advantage of this method is that only a single approximation is involved. ° or 51.4 + 4t 2 = 2 . ° 3t 2 + 3t  1 tan tx Since 180° ~ x ~ 180°. for 180° ~ x ~ 180°.0: =* 114° or 246° 114 x=*30° or 103°.323° ~ x . if x = 180° happens to be a solution. Hence x ..CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2E The Sum of Sine and Cosine Functions 59 WORKED EXERCISE: (a) Using the previous worked exercise. where 0: =* 143°.2t2 6t 2 + 6t . The Problem when x = 180° is a Solution: The substitution t = tan fails when x = 180°. 5cos(x . The situation can easily be recognised in either of the following ways: • The terms in t 2 cancel out.0: ~ 37° cos(x  0:) = ~. the restriction on tx is 90° ~ tx ~ 90°. tx. = . (b) Hence use the graph to solve 3 sin x . 180 . tx . with related angle about 66°. One must always be aware. therefore. Solve 3 sin x .~v'2I.2 = 0 f. so x .4 cos x ~ 2.. solve the equation 3 sin x . correct to SOLUTION: Using sin x = 2 2t and cos x l+t = 2 ' l+t 1 .4 cos x = 2. correct to the nearest degree. 0 (b) The graph to the right shows the previously drawn graph of y = 3 sin x . Secondly.t2 the equatIOn becomes • 2  2 6t 4 . First.4 cos x with the horizontal line y = . There are two disadvantages. y Be careful to use the calculator's memory here.645859 .4 cos x = 2. leaving a linear equation in t . where .0:). provided that x l+t l+t 6t .4cosx = 5cos(x . because tan 90° is undefined. because tan tx is not defined at x = 180°. 4 . for 180° the nearest minute. ~ x ~ 180°. • The coefficient of cos x is the opposite of the constant term. ° x=*29°33' or 103°18'. SOLUTION: (a) Using 3sinx . This roughly verifies the two answers obtained in part (a). = 0..0: is in quadrant 2 or 3. It also shows that the solution to the inequality 3sinx . so tx = 14·775961 . it will not be found by this method.4t 2 = 2. of this possibility..t + ~v'2I or t . the intuition about the LHS being a shifted wave function is lost. using the substitution t = tan WORKED EXERCISE: tx.2 added. 5 Never reenter approximations of the angles.
by using the substitution t SOLUTION: = tan ~x.1 + t2 14t  = 4. 0: < 27r. Exercise 2E 1.sin x. Substitute t = tan ~x and then solve the resulting quadratic in t. show that Acoso: = 1 and Asino: = l. by taking differences of heights. and: = 5 and R cos 0: = 12. = tan ~x gives that x Substituting t 14t 44t 2 1 + t2 . = 3 and Rcoso: = 3. Hence sketch y = cos x . A Summary of Methods of Solving a sin x + b cos x = c: Here then is a summary of the two approaches to the solution. 0: 2.sinx and the first positive values of x for which they occur. provided 2 4 + 4t = 4 + 4t 2 14t = 8.7 X ~ 59°29'. (d) State the maximum and minimum values of cosx . (b) R cos 0: = 2 and Rsino: = 4. SOLVING EQUATIONS OF THE FORM a • sin x + b cos x = c: THE AUXILIARYANGLE METHOD: Get the LHS into one of the forms Rsin(x + 0:).4 X (1) = RHS.sin x. Sketch y = cos x and y = sin x on one set of axes. 27r.4 cos x 4. Find Rand 0: exactly. for 0 :::. .sin x = 1. Rcos(x + 0:) or Rcos(x . 0: < 27r. But x = 180° is also a solution. x :::. (f) Write down the amplitude and period of cos x . and: (b) Rsino: (a) Rsino: = V3 and R cos 0: 0: = 1. If cosx . * the coefficient of cos x is the opposite of the constant term. f: 180 . ° [WARNING: The terms in t 2 cancelled out . x :::.sin x. or equivalently. Be aware that x = 180° will also be a solution if: * the terms in t 2 cancel out. sketch y = cos x . < 360°. Indicate on your sketch the line y = 1 and the solutions to the equation in part (e). 0:. if R > 0 and 0 :::. (a) (correct to the nearest minute). for 0° < x < 360°. Then. Rsin(x . 27r. (e) Solve the equation cos x .sinx = Acos(x + 0:).check t = 180°!] tan lx . (b) Find the positive value of A by squaring and adding. since then LHS = 7 X 0 . Find R (exactly) and (a) Rsino: 3.0:). 15 • USING THE tFORMULAE: then solve the resulting equation . for 0 :::. 4. Compare your sketch with that in the previous question.0:).1 Hence 2 . leaving a linear equation in t.60 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 WORKED EXERCISE: Solve 7 sin x . (c) Find if 0:::. if R > 0 and 0°:::.
by squaring and adding. Indicate on your diagram the solutions to the equation in part (e).t2 = tan ~x. x ::s. . (c) Hence solve the given equation for x. 7. where 0 ::s. Give the solutions correct to the nearest minute where necessary. if B > 0.1 ~. for 0° ::s. (c) Find B. (a) Show that the equation can be written as t 2 (b) Hence solve the equation. Give solutions correct to the nearest minute. x ::s. 0: < 360°. where B > 0 and Oo::s. where t = tan ~x. for Oo::s. Show that A = 5 and 0: = tan1~. (b) Hence find. 360°.sin x. x ::s. Consider the equation v'3 sin x + cos x = 1. for 0° ::s. x ::s. (e) Solve the equation v'3 cos x . 1 . 12. 360°. 2IT. show that B cos B = v'3 and B sin B = 1.1) = 0. 13. Consider the equation cos x . Show that A cos 0: = 4 and A sin 0: = 3. ~x ::s. for 0 ::s. (b) Find. Consider the equation 2 cos x + sin x = 1. Consider the equation v'5 sin x + 2 cos x = 2.sin x and the values of x closest to x = 0 for which they occur. ¢ < 360°. 360°.sin x = 1. 360°. for 0 ::s. (a) Let 2cosx+sinx = Bcos(xB). Give the solution(s) correct to the nearest minute. 2IT. where 0 ::s.. 10. 2IT. x ::s. Show that B = v'5 and B = tan. correct to the nearest minute where necessary. if O::S. where t = tan ~x. for 0 ::s. 2IT. B < 360°. x ::s. 6. ( a) 3 sin x + 5 cos x = 4 ( c) 7 cos x . (a) Show that the equation 4 cos x + sin x = 1 can be written as (5t + 3)(t . where 9.2 sin x = 5 ( d) 9 cos x + 7 sin x = 3 (b) 6 sin x . IT. correct to the nearest minute where necessary. 8. sketch the Ene y = 1. (a) If v'3 cos x .3cosx = 5. Let (a) (b) (c) 4sinx . (a) Show that D = Fa and ¢ = tan 1 3. (d) State the greatest and least possible values of v'3 cos x .2 ' where t l+t 1 +t 2 that the equation can be written as t + t = O. the solutions of the equation. 2t 2 an d cos x . 360°. where A > 0 and Oo::s.sin x = B cos( x + B). On the same diagram. Give the solutions correct to the nearest minute where necessary. (b) Find B. for 0° ::s. for 0° ::s.3 sin x = 3. (b) Hence solve the equation. where C > 0 and 0° ::s. 360°. (a) Transform the LHS into the form Csin(x + 0:). B < 2IT. the solutions of the equation. x ::s. x ::s. x ::s. Solve each equation.3sinx = Dcos(x D> 0 and 0° ::s.CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2E The Sum of Sine and Cosine Functions 61 5. Let cos x .sin x · stltutlOns sm x = (a) U smg t h e sub ' " = 1. show = v'3 t. x::S. (f) Sketch y = v'3 cos x . (b) Hence solve cos x . 0: < 360°.0:). (b) Hence show that tan ~x = 0 or 1. + ¢). Hence solve the equation 4sinx .3cosx = Asin(x . by transforming the LHS into a singleterm sine or cosine function. for 0° ::s.5 cos x = 7 11.
sinx in the form Rsin(x + a).f). if A > 0 and 0 (a) Asina=landAcosa=v'3. Find A (exactly) and a (correct to the nearest minute).) (ii) Hence solve 3 sin x . (Write a to the nearest minute. for 0 ~ x < 211'.cosx . (c) (i) Express sin x .4 cos x = 5 can be written as t 2 t = tan ix.cosx . 16.6 sin x = 2 ( c) 3 sin x . where D > 0 and 0 < ¢ < 211'.cos x > 1. (ii) Hence sketch the graph of y = sinx .) ix. (b) Use a similar approach to that in part (a) to solve.sinx in the form Dcos(x . if A> 0 and 0° ~ a < 360°.4 cos x = 2. 21. for 0 ~ x < 211'.sinx = 1. Find A and a exactly.2 cos x = 2 can be written as 3t . where C > 0 and 0 < f3 < 211'.2 = 0.cos x = hsin(x . where (b) Show that tan = 6 + 3v'3 or 6 . Solve each equation.3v'3. Hence solve v'3 cos x + sin x = 1. ~ x < 211'. ( a) 5 sin x + 4 cos x = 5 (b) 7 cos x . and: (a) Acosa = 5 and Asina = 4. giving solutions correct to the nearest minute where necessary. (iii) Use your sketch to determine the values of x in the domain 0 ~ x ~ 211' for which sin x . where B > 0 and 0 < a < 211'. (ii) Hence solve . 19.) (ii) Hence solve 2cosx . (a) (b) Asina = 11 and Acosa = 2. (d) (i) Express . Give the solutions correct to the nearest minute where necessary.  12t +9 = 0.2 cos x = 1 (d) 5 cos x + 6 sin x = 5 _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 17. Give solutions ix correct to the nearest minute where necessary. (a) (i) Express 2cosx . (c) Hence show that 77°35' and 169°48' are the solutions (to the nearest minute) of the given equation over the domain 0° ~ x ~ 360°.sinx in the form Bsin(x + a).v'3 cos x = 1.v'3cosx < 1 <1 sinx 2: ~h + cos xl . given that the resulting equation in t is linear.v'3 cos x in the form C sin(x + (3).(3). 20.¢). where R > 0 and 0° < a < 360°. where A > 0 and 0 < B < 211'. and: (b) Acosa=5andAsina=5. (ii) Hence solve sin x . where S > 0 and 0 < f3 < 211'. for 0° ~ x < 360°. for 0 ~ x ~ 211': (i) sinx + v'3cosx ~ 1 (iii) lv'3sinx (iv) cos x  (ii) sinx . by using the t = tan ix results.cos x. Give the solutions correct to two decimal places. for 0° ~ x ~ 360°.sinx = 1.62 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 14. (b) (i) Express 3sinx . 15. 18. (a) (i) Show that sinx . for 0 ~ x < 211'. (Remember to check x = 180° as a possible solution. for 0 + sin x in the form A cos(x + B). (Write f3 to four decimal places. ~ a < 211'.4cosx in the form Scos(x . Express cos x . for 0 ~ x ~ 211'. where t = tan (b) Hence solve the equation for 0° ~ x ~ 360°. (i) Express v'3 cos x (ii) (b) (i) (ii) Hence solve cos x . (a) Show that the equation 6 sin x .sin x = 1. for 0 ~ x < 211'. (a) Show that the equation 3 sin x .
where a. use appropriate reflections in the x. 0 M. Consider the equation acosx + bsinx = c. Suppose that a cos x = I + sin x. Prove that tan ~(a + f3) = bla. where 2 2 2 t = tan ~x.cos 2x = 2 ( c) sin 4x + cos 4x =1 23. 26.v'3 sin x . (iii) State which part of the general solution in part (b) contains LMOQ. (b) Show that the equation becomes cos ( x .2 tan x = 5 24.= t. (a) Show that the equation can be written in the form (a + c )t 2 . the acute angle x that satisfies 2 cos x . band c are positive constants. 25. (b) Hence find the general solution of (v'3 + I) cos 2x + (v'3 . 30.sin x = v'2 cos( x + ~).0) hence write down the general solution. for 0 S. (ii) Show that cos LNOQ = cos LNOQ' = clr. where a.). Then sketch the functions y = v'2 cos x and y = v'2 sin x. ~. 360°. x S.cos x = 2 sin(x + 7611") (iii) v'3sinx . (i) State the size of LMOP.2bt .sin x = l. EXTENSION _~~~~_ 27. and part ( a) to prove that: (i) . (a) Show that (v'3 + I) cos 2x + (v'3 . Suppose also that ON = c and the chord QNQ' is drawn perpendicular to OP. the fact that sin x is odd and cos x is even. Solve.I) sin 2x = 2v'2 cos(2x  1.and yaxes. to the nearest minute. (a) Show that a 2 + b2 = r2 and that tan 0 = ~. Consider the equation a cos x + b sin x = c.cos x = vT5 (b) v'3 sin 2x .and Q (c) Show that there are no real roots if c > + ~(d) In the diagram opposite. and which part contains LMOQ'.v'3 sin x + cos x (ii) .. the circle has centre 0 and radius OP = r. (a) Prove that sin(O+ = cos(O ~) (ii) sin x + v'3 cos x = 2 sin( x + cosO = sin(O +~) 1r) = sinO. Let a = rcosO and b = rsinO. a+1 (b) Hence find. (c) Repeat part (b) using the result cos x . where t = tan ~x.l)sin2x _~~~~_ = 2. where 0° aI (b) 2 cosec x + 5 cot x = 3 < x < 90°: (a) Prove that ~. 21r. (a) Prove that: (i) sinO (b) Use the result ~) to express sin x + v'3 cos x in each of the other three standard forms.c) = 0. = 2 sin(x + 5 11") 6 (b) Given thatV3 sin x + cos x = 2 sin( x + ~). a + b • (c) Suppose that tan ~a and tan}f3 are distinct real roots of the quadratic equation in part (a). 28. for 0 S. band c are constants. 0 S. (b) Show that the root( s) of the equation are real if c S. where 0 is acute. a2 J b2 • (e) What condition corresponds geometrically to the condition c > the equation has no real roots? Ja 2 + b2 . M P = band M P J. Solve. for 0° S. x S. 21r: ( a) sin x . Solve the equation sinO+ cosO = cos 20.CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2E The Sum of Sine and Cosine Functions 63 22. for which . Suppose that OM = a.cos x = 2sin(x ~) 29. Give solutions correct to the nearest minute: (a) 2 sec x .(a .
we shall show that sin 3x + sin llx = 2 sin 7x cos 4x. B Then adding and subtracting these formulae gives A = t(S + T) and = ~(S  T).cos(A Fin d B) B) B) B) WORKED EXERCISE: 1o:If sin 7x cos 4x dx. These identities form part of the 4 Unit course.sin A sin B cos(A . The product form on the right is important for purposes such as finding the zeroes of the function.cos A sin B (1B) (1C) cos(A + B) = cosAcosB .B.6" cos 0 + 6" cos 7r = _1_ l _22 + l44 l 6 6 47 132 Sums to Products: The previous formulae can be reversed to become formulae for sums to products by making a simple pair of substitutions.B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B (1D) Adding and subtracting equations (1A) and (1B). then adding and subtracting equations (1C) and (1D). and reversing them: . gives the four productstosums formulae: PRODUCTS TO SUMS: 16 2 sin A cos B = sin(A + B) + sin(A 2cosAsinB = sin(A + B) . Substituting these into the productstosums formulae. Let and T = A.l 6 22 cos llx] 0 :If 1 22 1 cos 0 + 22 cos 1111" 3 1 1 = . The sum form on the left is important.64 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 2F Extension . For example.Products to Sums and Sums to Products This section concerns a set of identities that convert the sum of two sine or cosine functions to the product of two sine or cosine functions. for example. The worked exercises give only the examples mentioned above of their use. but the exercise following gives a fuller range of their applications. but are not required in the 3 Unit course. SOLUTION: 1o:If sin 7x cos 4x dx = t 1o:If (sin 3x + sin 11 x ) dx = [_1 cos 3x . when integrating the function. and vice versa.B) = sin A cos B . Products to Sums: We begin with the four compoundangle formulae involving sine and cosine: sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B (1A) sin(A .sin(A 2 cos A cos B = cos(A + B) + cos(A 2sinAsinB = cos(A + B) .
CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2F Extension  Products to Sums and Sums to Products 65 SUMS TO PRODUCTS: 17 sin S + sin T sin S .cos(2x . 7 x = n 7r or 4x = (n + t)7r.cos(A + B) (b) Hence express as a sum or difference of trigonometric functions: (iii) 2sin3acosa (i) 2cos35°cos15° (ii) 2cos48°sin32° (iv) 2sin(x + y)sin(x .T) S = 2 cos t(S + T)sin t(S . using the solutions of sin a = sin.sin 20° (iv) cos(2x + 3y) .B) (ii) 2cosAsinB = sin(A + B) .sinT cos S + cosT cos S . = A + Band Q = A . llx = 3x + 2n7r or llx = 3x + (2n + 1)7r. 57r. where n is an integer. 67r. SOLUTION: (b) using solutions to sin a = sin.B) (iv) 2sinAsinB = cos(A . giving the same answers as before.Q) HP  (i) cos 16° + cos 12° (iii) sin 6x + sin 4x (ii) sin 56° . sin 7x = 0 or cos 4x = 0 7x = 0.B) (iii) 2 cos A cos B = cos(A + B) + cos(A .T) WORKED EXERCISE: Solve sin 3x + sin llx = 0. (a) sin 3x + sin llx = 0 2 sin 7 x cos 4x = 0. 5 1r. since sin () is odd.3.B) .T) = 2 cos t(S + T)cos HS . (a) Establish the following identities by expanding the RHS: (i) 2 sin A cos B = sin(A + B) + sin(A .sin(A . 77r or 4x = ~. for 0 ~ x ~ 7r: (a) using sums to products. 2 2 (b) Alternatively.sin Q = 2 cos P + Q) sin (iii) cos P + cos Q = 2 cos P + Q) cos (iv) cos P . (a) Let P to establish these identities: (i) sin P + sin Q = 2 sin ~ (P + Q) cos (ii) sin P .cosT = 2 sin H + T) cos ~ (S .3. 721r.B in the identities in part 2 sin 3() cos 2() (a) of the previous question H H Hp Q) HP . 37r. 47r . sin llx = sin( 3x).Q) HP . Exercise 2F 1. _ 0 1r 21r 31r 41r 51r 61r 1r 31r 51r • 71r so X '7'7'7'7'7'7.Q) ~(P . using sums to products. so. 7r.7r'8'S'S OJ S' 3 1r .3y) (c) Use the sumstoproducts identities to prove that: sin 3() + sin () (i) sin 35° + sin25° = sin 85° (ii) = tan2 () cos 3() + cos () .y) (c) Use the productstosums identities to prove that 2. 27r.cos Q = 2 sin + Q) sin (b) Hence express as products: + 2 cos 6() sin () = sin 7() + sin ().T) = 2 sin ~(S + T)sin t(S .
sinx.. 0.sm40: + sm20: (b) 4 cos 4x cos 2x cos x = cos 7x + cos 5x 6. [Write cos 2x as sin( ~ . find J 2 cos 3x cos x dx. (a) (i) Show that 2sin3xcosx = sin4x (ii) Hence find J + sin2x. . x ::. .x . (ii) Hence solve the equation sin 3x + sin x = 0. x ::. + cos 31': + cos 51': 7 7 7 2 7 7 7 Use the result sinAsinB = ~ (cos(A . Evaluate: (a) + cos 3x + cos x lT2 cos 4x sin 2x dx (b) 1?4 sin 5x sin x dx 7. . for 0 ::. [Write sinx as cos(f .. (ii) Deduce that cos 21': + cos 47r + cos 61': = _1 and hence cos 1!. (a) Express sin 3x + sin x as a product. 4. Prove the following identities: cos 60: . ) SIn SIn 17. Jr. (b) Hence solve the equation sin 3x + sin 2x (a) cos5x + cos x = 0 (b) sin 4x . (a) (i) Use the result 2sinBcosA= sin(A+B)sin(AB) to show that (b) + cos4x + cos6x) = sin 7x . for m = n.) /1': cos mx cos 17. 10. for 0::. and g( x) = cos x + 2 cos 2x + 3 cos 3x + 4 cos 4x.x d x 1': ={ (i) I: f(x)g(x)dx (ii) I: (J(x))2 dx (iii) I: (g(X))2 dx 8. (b) The functions f( x) and g( x) are defined by f( x) = sin x + 2 sin 2x + 3 sin 3x + 4 sin 4x. 5x + . x::. for m =f 17" Jr. for m = 17. x 9. (a) (i) Show that sin 3x + sin x = 2 sin 2x cos x.1.1 1 x =.B) .] (b) Find general solutions of the equation sin 3x = cos 2x. (ii) and (iii) to find: (1. [These identities are known as the orthogonality relations. + sm ( 217.cos 40: + cos 20: (a).sin x = 0 ( c) cos 3x + cos 5x = cos 4x + sin x = 0. x < 2Jr. (b) Using a similar method. = cot 40: sm60: . for 0 ::. + sm • 2 2· . x ::. solve cos 3x + cos x = 0.] . for 0 ::. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 5.66 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 3. for 0 ::. Solve each of the following equations.x dx = 0 I: (ii) /1': sin mx sin 17. + sm 3x . are positive integers...] (a) If m and 17. (a) Solve the equation cos5x = sinx. Jr. use the productstosums identities to prove: (i) sin mx cos 17.2x ).1.x dx = { 1': ~' for m =f 17" .x).cos(A + B)) to prove that 2sinx(cos2x sm x . Jr. Use parts (a)(i). . Jr: ( d) cos 4x + cos 2x = cos 3x + cos x (e) sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x + sin 4x = 0 (f) sin 5x cos 4x = sin 3x cos 2x 11. (b) Using a similar method. 2 sin 3x cos x dx.
[The three angles of a triangle] If A. 2. (c) Find the length of the space diagonal AG.::p n.sin 2 A = 2 cos A sin B sin C sin 2A . (d) Is 7r the maximum value of IDI. Threedimensional work. for A a positive integer. Trigonometry and Pythagoras' Theorem in Three Dimensions: As remarked above. > WORKEOExERCISE: of length AB = 5 cm. (a) Show that D = { (_l)n 2A sin A7r A2  o' n2 ' for A not an integer.the angle between a line and a plane. IDI < 7r. t t t 1: cos AX cos nx dx. in its application to mensuration problems. 4. (b) Show that when 0 < A < n. Consider the definite integral D = A is any positive real number. Note carefully all the triangles in the figure. (c) Show that when A > n+ h IDI < 3. A . for all positive integers n and all positive reals A? 2GThreeDimensional Trigonometry Trigonometry. Always state which triangle you are working with. essentially deals with triangles. and for A = n. Band C are the three angles of any triangle.CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2G ThreeDimensional Trigonometry 67 _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 12. requires two new ideas about angles . and the angle between two planes .sin 2B + sin 2C C ( d) = 2 cot A Bcot tan sin 2 A . which are twodimensional objects. the diagram must be broken up into a collection of triangles in space. . (b) Find the angle LC AF between the diagonals AC and AF. The rectangular prism ABCDEFGH sketched below has sides and AE = 3 cm.and these angles will need to be defined and discussed. every threedimensional problem in trigonometry requires a careful sketch showing the triangles where trigonometry and Pythagoras' theorem are to be applied. AF and FC. (d) Find the angle between the space diagonal AG and the edge AB.sin 2 B + sin 2 C 13. however. where n is a positive integer. TRIGONOMETRY AND PYTHAGORAS' THEOREM IN THREE DIMENSIONS: 18 1. and trigonometry used for each in turn. prove: ( a) sin A + sin B + sin C = 4 cos A cos B cos C (b) sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C = 4 sin A sin B sin C ( c) sin 2 B + sin 2 C . BC = 4 cm (a) Find the lengths of the three diagonals AC. Draw a careful sketch of the situation. Mark all right angles in these triangles. 7r. 3. Hence when trigonometry is applied to a threedimensional problem.
68 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 SOLUTION: (a) In 6ABC. (b) In 6CAF.1 CG. The Angle Between a Line and a Plane: In threedimensional space. since AC . and then construct the point M in the plane P so that AM .1 BG. AC 2 so In 6ABF. so In 6F BC. = 52 + 4 2 . it can do so in two distinct ways. AC = v'4i cm. the line f is perpendicular to every line in the plane through P. 50 2xJ4Ixv'34' so LCAF ~ 47°58'.25 = 2 X v'4I X v'34' 41 34 using the cosine rule.. 5y2 1 (d) In 6BAG. WORKED EXERCISE: Find the angle between a slant edge and the base in a square pyramid of height 8 metres whose base has side length 12 metres. and we define the angle () between the line and the plane as follows. When the line f meets the plane P in the single point P. (c) In 6ACG. and the plane and the line are said to be parallel. the line never meets the plane. using Pythagoras. the line meets the plane in a single point P called the intersection of P and f. In the second diagram. . In the lower diagram to the right. 5 IC\' since AB . AF = v'34 cm. FC 2 = 32 + 4 2 . using Pythagoras. Then LAP M is defined to be the angle between the plane and the line. f is not perpendicular to P. = 41 + 9. using Pythagoras. so FC = 5cm. and we say that f is perpendicular to the plane P.1 P. a plane P and a line f can be related in three different ways: In the first diagram above. AF2 = 52 + 3 2 . Choose any other point A on f.. In the third diagram. AG 2 = AC 2 + CG 2. the line lies wholly within the plane. so AG = 5V2. In the upper diagram to the right. cos LBAG = y'2' so LBAG = 45°. cos LCAF 41 + 34 ..
called the line of intersection of the two planes. Let F be the midpoint of CD. The vertical line down the wall from A meets the floor at M.. Then the angle between the planes is the angle between the lines p and q. so LACM ~ 41°49'. any two planes that are not parallel meet in a line f. sin LACM = ~. WORKED EXERCISE: In the pyramid of the previous worked exercise. (b) How far is the bottom edge of the sheet from the corner of the floor? SOLUTION: (a) The diagram shows the piece of metal AB CD and the corner a of the floor. SOLUTION: WORKED EXERCISE: A [A harder question] A 2 metre X 3 metre rectangular sheet of metal leans lengthwise against a corner of a room.1 CD. tan LMAV = M 6y2 = ~\12. THE ANGLE BETWEEN TWO PLANES: 19 Suppose that the line p in the plane P and the line q in the plane Q meet at the point P on the line f of intersection of the planes.. Now tan LVPM = ~ so LVPM ~ 53°8'. and are both perpendicular to f. find the angle between an oblique face of the pyramid and the base. The perpendicular from the vertex V to the base meets the base at the midpoint M of the diagonal AC.1 CD and MC . with its top vertices equidistant from the corner and 2 metres above the ground. so LM AV ~ 43°19'.. (a) What is the angle between the sheet of metal and the floor.l BC and MP. The Angle Between Two Planes: In threedimensional space. The angle between the planes P and Q is defined to be the angle between these two lines. 8 In 6MAV. . (b) Let the vertical line down the wall from B meet the floor at N.. Then OGF is the closest distance between the bottom edge CD of the sheet and the corner a of the floor. Let P be the midpoint of the edge BC. Notice that AC . and G be the midpoint of M N. In 6ACM.CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2G ThreeDimensional Trigonometry 69 SOLUTION: Using Pythagoras' theorem in the base AB CD. and this is the angle between the edge and the base. and construct the lines p and q perpendicular to this line of intersection and lying in the planes P and Q respectively. Take any point P on this line of intersection. the diagonal AC has length 12\12 metres. so LACM is the angle between the sheet and the floor. so LV PM is the angle required. Then V P.l BC.
The diagram shows a box in the shape of a rectangular prism. correct to the nearest millimetre. and hence that cos a = ~. correct to the nearest minute. correct to the nearest minute. OF = 1 +/5 metres. correct to the nearest degree. The helicopter is due north of P. correct to the nearest minute. V3 X. 2x (c) Hence show that EP = (d) Hence show that (e) By using an appropriate doubleangle formula. Exercise 2G 1. 400 sin 48° (a) Show that T A = . The angle of depression of A from the top T of a vertical tower standing on the plane is 18°.0 M N is an isosceles right triangle with hypotenuse M N = 2. 4. correct to the nearest metre. ( a) Find. while Q is due east of P.sin 57° (b) Hence find the height h of the tower. in L. A helicopter H is hovering 100 metres above the level ground below. 2.70 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 First.. (a) Find the angles of elevation of the helicopter from P and Q. The points A and Bare 400 metres apart in a horizontal plane.0. (b) Show that EQ = V2 X. the angle of depression of B from T.~. the angle that the diagonal plane AEGC makes with the face BCGF.AP E. (c) Find. Secondly.. the angle that the diagonal AG makes with the base AEF B. deduce 2x that cos LE PG = . . (b) Find the length of the diagonal AG of the box. and LT BA = 48°. correct to the nearest minute. so the altitude OG of . Q is the midpoint of the diagonal EG of the top face.~!m p 3. H G Die A ~ 6cm B 4cm //'E. Two observers P and Q on the ground are 156 metres and 172 metres respectively from H. . MC = vis. = 5. MC 2 = 3 2 . Suppose that 2x is the side length of the cube and a is the acute angle between the diagonals AG and CEo (a) State the length of PQ.22 Since M N DC is a rectangle.0 M N has length l. correct to the nearest metre.0. The diagram shows a cube ABCDEFGH. (g) Find.AMC. A B (f) Confirm the fact that cos a = ~ by using the cosine rule in L. (c) Find. The diagonals AG and CE meet at P. cos LEPQ = ~V3. the angle that the diagonal AG makes with the base ABCD of the cube. (b) Find the distance between the two observers P and Q.
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T AF. 4. assign a pronumeral to what is to be found. 32 = h 2 cot 2 10° + h 2 cot 2 12° . and let the motorist be driving from A to B.cot 10° cot 12°) . then work from it around the diagram until the problem is solved. there is little difference in the methods used. BF = h cot 12°. 1.cot 2 10° + cot 2 12° . 5. sm () = h cot 12 ° X X cos 60° h2 _ 9 V3 6 () ~ 51 0. The General Method of Approach: Here is a summary of what has been said about threedimensional problems (apart from the ideas of angles between lines and planes and between planes and planes). 2. is usually a great help.AB F. (a) Let h be the height of the tower.74 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Let the tower be T F. until an equation can be formed. (b) Let ()=LFAB. In 6. Problems Involving Pronumerals: When a problem involves pronumerals. h cot 12° 3 . We now have expressions for four measurements in 6. 3. to see whether it can be solved. A map shows a straight road on the hillside going in the direction D: east of north. none of which can be solved. Identify every triangle in the diagram. marking all right angles. There are four triangles.T BF.AFB. If no triangle can be solved. so we can use the cosine rule to form an equation in h.cot 10° cot 12° ' so the tower is about 571 metres high. The solution will usually require working around the diagram. In 6. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: B A N . If one triangle can be solved.2h2 cot 10° cot 12° 9 = h 2 ( cot 2 10° + cot 2 12° . AF = h cot 10°. [A harder example] A hillside is a plane of gradient m facing due south. THREEDIMENSIONAL TRIGONOMETRY: 20 Draw a careful diagram of the situation. beginning with a triangle in which expressions for three measurements are known. so her direction is about N51°E. sin () sin 60° In 6. In 6. looking down. Find the gradient of the road in terms of m and D:. then work around the diagram until an equation in that pronumeral can be formed and solved. A plan diagram.ABF.
the angle of elevation of the top of a tower AB of height h metres is 42°. From Q. In 6ABM. In 6AMN. which is due west of B. The points P. the angles of elevation of Tare 22° and 27° respectively. 40 (b) Show that h = . From another observer Q 100 metres from P. T F represents a vertical tower of height x metres standing on level ground. h B . the angle of elevation is 35°. In 6BMN. an d AM = £ cos B.cot 2 62° + cot 2 55° . (a) Show that PC = hcot62°. _ 2 (d) Hence find h. correct to the nearest metre. 4.2 cot 22° cot 27° cos 51 ° (c) Use a calculator to show that x '* 32. Let B = LBAM be the angle of inclination of the road. so the gradient of the road is m cos 0:. the angle of elevation of the top of the tower is 35°. (a) Show that P F = x cot 22° and write down a similar expression for QF. PQ = 63 metres and LP FQ = 51 0. and write down a similar expression for QC. From P. which is on a bearing of 196° from the tower. From a point P due south of a vertical tower. and evaluate h. Q and B lie in a horizontal plane. (b) Explain why LPCQ = 90°. Let the height of the balloon be h metres and let C be the point on the level ground vertically below B. But tan B and tan f3 are the gradients of the road and hillside respectively. MN = AM coso: = £ cos Bcos 0:. BM = NMtanf3 £Sin B = £ cos Bcos 0: tan f3 tan B = cos 0: tan f3. From P and Q at ground level. (c) Use Pythagoras' theorem in 6CPQ to show that h2 100 . In the diagram.CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2H Further ThreeDimensional Trigonometry 75 The diagrams above show a piece AB of the road of length £. BM = £Sin B. From a point Q situated 40 metres from P and due east of the tower. 2 v'tan 70° + tan 2 55° 3. and let f3 = LB N M be the angle of inclination of the hillside. 2. Let h metres be the height of the tower. A balloon B is due north of an observer P and its angle of elevation is 62°. (a) Draw a diagram to represent the situation. the balloon is due west and its angle of elevation is 55°. the angle of elevation of the top of the tower is 20°. correct to the nearest metre. Exercise 2H 1. 63 2 (b) Use the cosine rule to show that x 2 = . The distance PQ is 200 metres. cot 2 22° + cot 2 27° .
B AT to show that h = . Also. T 7.sin 2 40° (d) Hence find the height of the tower. AQ = x. The diagram shows two observers P and Q 600 metres apart on level ground. flat road passes by three observation points P. 6.=~=====. (b) (i) Find. the respective angles of elevation of the top of a vertical tower are 30°. 45° and 45°.===~ Jsin(a + (3) sin(a . The angles of elevation of the top of the tower from P and Q are a and (3 respectively. The angles of elevation of the top T of the tower from two points A and B on the ground nearby are 55° and 40° respectively. J(x 2 + h 2)(y2 + h 2) ( c) Hence show that sin a sin (3 = cos (). A man walking along a straight. (b) Show that x 2 + h 2 cot 2 a = h 2 cot 2 (3. and hence find the height of the tower. The angles of elevation of the top T of a landmark T L from P and Q are 9° and 12° respectively. Q and R at intervals of 200 metres. The diagram shows a tower of height h metres standing on level ground. (a) Show that LPLQ = 86°. 2 _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 2 (c) Hence find the height of the tower. . (a) Draw a diagram representing the situation. in terms of h. Find two different expressions for cos a in terms of h. where F is the foot of the tower. (b) Use Pythagoras' theorem and the cosine rule to show h2 that cos () = . (b) Show that h 2 = cot 2 42° + cot 2 35° 200cot 35° cot 42° cos 74° . In the diagram of a triangular pyramid. (b) Find expressions for P Land QL in terms of h. the distances from P. 8. (a) Find AT and BT in terms of h. The bearings of the landmark from P and Q are 32° and 306° respectively. (c) Hence show that h ~ 79 metres. Q and R to the foot F of the tower.76 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (a) Explain why LPBQ = 74°. LAPB (). (ii) Let LF RQ = a. (b) What is the size of LBAT? 50 sin 55° sin 40° ( c) Use Pythagoras' theorem in 6. BQ = y. The distance AB is 50 metres and the interval AB is perpendicular to the interval AF. PQ is a straight level road. ( a) Show that x = h cot a and write down a similar expression for y.===::. (a) Draw a diagram representing the situation. 5. Q is x metres due east of P. A vertical tower of height h metres is situated due north of P.(3) h. correct to the nearest metre. x sin a sin (3 ( c) Hen ce show th at h = .=:==::. correct to the nearest metre. Let h = T L be the height of the landmark. B 9. From these three points.===::. there are three right angles at Q. Let h metres be the height of the tower.~= Jsin 2 55° . PQ LPAQ = a and LP BQ = (3.
"_:_. (a) Show that BJ(2 = h 2 +f 2 +V2hf. Let x metres be the distance between two adjacent poles. From a point P on level ground. The diagram shows a rectangular pyramid. The p diagonal AC of the base is extended to J(.cot 8° (c) Hence calculate the distance between adjacent poles. The base ABCD has sides 2a and 2b and its diagonals meet at M. Soon after it was sighted again in a northeasterly direction at an angle of elevation of 60°. x h h h D Write the result of the previous part as a quadratic equation in u. After walking 3 km in a direction N500E to a point Q. a man observes the angle of elevation of the summit of a mountain due north of him to be 18°.. 13. and hence show that B x 4 11.f2 (c) Deducethat h l = V2 hf. = V2 + ViO . band h. (a) Show that (cot 2 13° . (b) Use the cosine rule to find cos 0:. correct to the nearest metre. (b) Hence show that 2h2 . = 0:.V A 2a B 2b 12. 15.cot 2 18° )h 2 + (6000 cot 18° cos 500)h . ( a) Show that h 2 = x 2 + 20 2 cot2 120 . h 202( cot 2 8° . (b) Hence find the height. LBTC = f3 e '?i\3>c (c) Show that cos 0: + cos f3 = 1 + cos e. the angles of elevation of the tops of the other two poles are 12° and 8° respectively. band h.cot 2 12°) (b) Hence show that x 2 = 2 2 4 cot 12° . where h metres is the height of the mountain. cos f3 and cos in terms of a. the man finds that the angle of elevation of the summit is now 13°. (b) Use the cosine rule to show that 2h2 (c) Let u A = x2  v'3 hx.3000 2 = 0. = . and with constant speed. The diagram shows three telegraph poles of equal height h metres standing equally spaced on the same side of a straight road 20 metres wide. (a) Find BD and CD in terms of h. the respective angles of elevation of F and G are 30° and 45°. correct to the nearest metre. ABCD is a triangular pyramid with base BCD and perpendicular height AD. (a) Use Pythagoras' theorem to find AC. A plane is flying at a constant height h. AM and AT in terms of a. Let LAT B and LATC = e. The perpendicular height T M is h. An observer at P sighted the plane due east at an angle of elevation of 45°. A . and from J(. It stands on level ground.CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry 2H Further ThreeDimensional Trigonometry 77 10. 4 14. A building is in the shape of a square prism with base edge f metres and height h metres. From an observer at P on the other side of the road directly opposite the first pole. h E p .
From three observation points P. (c) Find. the direction in which the plane is fiying. P Rand Q Rare 60 metres.78 CHAPTER 2: Further Trigonometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (a) Write down expressions for PC and P D in terms of h. SIn B (b) A vertical tower stands on level ground. Three tourists T 1 . (b) Show that CD 2 = ~h2(4 v'6). 16. T2 and T3 are 25°. (i) Explain why the foot of the tower is the centre of the circumcircle of 6. Tl is due north of L. c p .LT1 T2 to find.32° and 36° respectively. as a bearing correct to the nearest degree. T2 and T3 at ground level are observing a landmark L. 50 metres and 40 metres respectively. Q and R on the ground. The angles of elevation to the top of L from Tl. correct to the nearest minute..cot 25° (b) Use the sine rule in 6.ABC is :A . _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 17. (ii) Use the result in part (a) to show that the height of the tower is ~~ v'2i metres. and T2 is on the line of sight from Tl to T3 and between them. (a) Use the diagram on the right to show that the diamea ter B P of the circumcircle of 6. T3 is due east of L. the top of the tower has the same angle of elevation of 30°.PQ R. the bearing of T2 from L. cot 36° (a) Show that tan LLTIT2 = . The distances PQ.
but highly predictable. and this allows a second discussion of simple harmonic motion in Section 3F. A thrown ball traces out a parabolic path. The last two Sections 3G and 3H pass from motion in one dimension to the twodimensional motion of a projectile. This chapter will begin the application of mathematics to the description of a moving object. and proceeds by thought. exponential and trigonometric functions. its results and methods quite independent of the nature of the world. some physical understanding of Newton's second law F = mx would greatly aid understanding of what is happening. These patterns are related to the simplest objects in geometry and arithmetic. Although forces and their relationship with acceleration are only introduced in the 4 Unit course. imagination and argument alone. STUDY NOTES: The first three sections set up the basic relationship between calculus and the three functions for displacement. particularly in simple harmonic motion and projectile motion. The stars and planets move in more complicated. Section 3E deals with situations where velocity or acceleration are known as functions of displacement rather than time. . We will be applying the wellknown linear. Physics asks questions about the nature of the world and is based on experiment. The relationship between physics and mathematics. remain quite distinct disciplines. A cork bob bing in flowing water traces out a sine wave. Our principal goal will be to produce a striking alternative interpretation of the first and second derivatives as the physical notions of velocity and acceleration so well known to our senses. so that some of the motions described here can be observed and harmonised with the mathematical description. based on its characteristic differential equation. Students without a good background in physics may benefit from some extra experimental work. but mathematics asks questions about logic and logical structures. begins with these and many similar observations. But because this is a mathematics course. A rolling billiard ball moves in a straight line. Simple harmonic motion is then discussed in Section 3D in terms of the time equations. briefly introducing vectors. our attention will not be on the nature of space and time. paths across the sky. logically and historically. Mathematics and physics. rebounding symmetrically off the table edge. however. but on the new insights that the physical world brings to the mathematical objects already developed earlier in the course. quadratic. velocity and acceleration.CHAPTER THREE Motion Anyone watching objects in motion can see that they often make patterns with a striking simplicity and predictability.
x B 20 15 10 5 20 15 10 5 2 3 Most equations of motion have this sort of restriction on the domain of t. and the units of time are seconds. Motion in One Dimension: When a particle is moving in one dimension along a line. This vertical line has been made into a number line. and the ball is back on the ground. at what times is the . Average velocity is described as the gradient of the chord on this displacementtime graph. For example. When t = 4. We can specify that position at any time t by a single number x. 20. using a function to describe the relationship between time and the position of an object in motion. it is a convention of this course that negative values of time are excluded unless the question specifically allows it. The diagram to the right shows the path of the ball up and down along the same vertical line.t) x o o 1 2 3 15 4 15 20 0 Here x is the height in metres of the ball above the ground t seconds after it is thrown. The curve is a section of a parabola with vertex at (2. This will lead. Motion III one dimension is specified by giving the displacement x on the number line as a function of time t after time zero.this graph must not be mistaken as a picture of the ball's path. its position is varying over time. The equation of motion therefore has quite restricted domain and range: and 0':::. The origin of time is when the ball is thrown. and the whole motion can be described by giving x as a function of the time t.:::. x . where x ball 8~ metres above the ground? = 5t( 4  t).80 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 3A Average Velocity and Speed This first section sets up the mathematical description of motion in one dimension. to the description of instantaneous velocity as the gradient of a tangent. MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION: 1 WORKED EXERCISE: In the example above. which means that the ball achieves a maximum height of 20 metres after 2 seconds. Its motion can be described approximately by the following equation and table of values: t x = 5t( 4 . and metres as the units of distance. Negative values of time are excluded unless otherwise stated. In particular. and lands 4 seconds later in the same place. in the next section. the height is zero. called the displacement. suppose that a ball is thrown vertically upwards from ground level. The displacementtime graph is sketched to the right . upwards as the positive direction.20). with the origin at the ground.
because there are different scales on the two axes). however. average velocity = gradient of the chord.20 = 20 metres. on the displacementtime graph. and is equal to the gradient of the chord BD. AVERAGE VELOCITY: Suppose that a particle has displacement x Xl at time t = tl. Hence the formula for average velocity is the familiar gradient formula.7) = 0 t =~ Average Velocity: During its ascent. This is a change in displacement of +20 metres in 2 seconds.5t 2 = 2 20t . This is the gradient of 0 A.t) = 20t . the ball moved 20 metres downwards in 2 seconds. change in displacement average velocIty = h . The distance travelled by a particle also takes into account any journey and return. and displacement x = X2 at time t = t2. + 35 = 0 . The average velocity is therefore 10 metres per second.Xl 15 . WORKED EXERCISE: Find the average velocities of the ball during the first second and during the third second. . This is the gradient of BG. which is a change in displacement of 0 . Then 2 . and takes into account any journey and return. In our previous example. The average velocity is thus the gradient of the chord OB on the displacementtime graph (be careful.tl Velocity during 3rd second X2 . but the distance travelled is 20 metres. giving an average velocity of 10 metres per second. Then 8~ 35 4 5t( 4 . SOLUTION: Velocity during 1st second t2 . is always positive or zero..CHAPTER 3: Motion 3A Average Velocity and Speed 81 SOLUTION: Put x = 8~.Xl t2 . the ball in the example above moved 20 metres upwards. Distance. c ange III tIme That is.16t + 7 = 0 1 )(2t .0 10 = 15m/s. Distance Travelled: The change in displacement can be positive. 15 . even though the ball's change in displacement over the first 4 seconds is zero because the ball is back at its original position.80t 4t (2t  2 or 3~. 3 DISTANCE TRAVELLED: Distance travelled is always positive or zero. negative or zero.tl X2 . During its descent. the change in displacement during the third and fourth seconds is 20 metres. Thus the distance travelled by the ball is 20 + 20 = 40 metres.20 32 = 5m/s. Hence the ball is 8~ metres high after ~ seconds and again after 3~ seconds.
(c) Sketch the displacementtime graph. Distance travelled = 25 metres. unlike velocity. . (a) Copy and complete the table to the right. distance travelled . (iii) during the first three seconds. SOLUTION: ( a) During the fourth second. st Exercise 3A 1. (a) during the fourth second. average speed = 40 4 = 10 m/s. where distance is in metres and 1 2 3 4 (b) Hence find the average velocity as the particle moves: = 0 to t = 2. What does the equality of the answers to parts (ii) and (iv) of part (b) tell you about the corresponding chords? 3. but the distance travelled is 40 metres. and add the chords corresponding to the average velocities calculated in part (b).  (b) Hence find the average velocity: (i) during the first second.82 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Average Speed: The average speed is the distance travelled divided by the time taken. change in displacement = 15 metres. can never be negative. Speed. 1 2 3 (a) Copy and complete the table to the right of values of the displacement at certain times. Distance travelled = 15 metres. so average velocity WORKED EXERCISE: = ~ = 0 mis. so average velocity = 15 m/s. (b) From t = 1 to t = 4. the change in displacement of the ball is zero. (ii) from x = 2 to x = 4. for t 2: 0. A particle moves according to the equation x = t 2 4. 2. (iv) from x = 0 to x = 6. 2Vt. where x is the displacement in metres from the origin 0 at time t seconds after time zero. A particle moves according to the equation x = centimetres and time is in seconds. (iii) from t = 0 to t = 4. (c) Sketch the displacementtime graph. (iii) from x = 4 to x = 6. (iv) during the third second. so average speed = 15 m/s. Find the average velocity and average speed of the ball: (b) during the last three seconds. A particle moves according to the equation x time is in seconds. so average velocity = 5 m/s. (i) from t = 4t  t 2 . where distance is in (b) Hence find the average velocity as the particle moves: 2 4 6 8 (i) from x = 0 to x = 2. k tIme ta en 4 AVERAGE SPEED: average spee d = During the 4 seconds of its flight. (ii) during the first two seconds. and add the chords corresponding to the average velocities calculated in part (b). (ii) from t = 2 to t = 4. (a) Copy and complete the table to the right. change in displacement = 15 metres. so average speed = m/s.
(ii) at x = 1. and when does it occur? (e) What happens to the weight eventually? (f) What is its average velocity: (i) during the first 4 seconds. (c) What is his average speed over the total 2 km journey? (d) What is the average of the speeds up and down the hill? 6. (iii) over the first 17 seconds. and pauses. (iii) at x (b) At what times is the weight: x 4 2 1 = p (i) at the water surface. with the time axis in minutes. and pauses. 4. playing with a weight on the end of a spring. (iii) 17 seconds? . Then she drives forward 20 metres. (ii) down the hill? (b) Draw a displacementtime graph. (d) Find her average speed if she had not paused at the gate and at the garage. The graph to the right shows her distance x metres from the front gate after t seconds. x 20 8 (a) What is her velocity: (i) during the first 8 seconds. She takes an hour to crawl up 3 metres. then falls asleep for an hour and slides down 2 metres. 8 12 17 24 30 t (ii) while she is driving forwards. 5. (d) Find the total distance travelled during the first 4 seconds.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3A Average Velocity and Speed 83 (c) Sketch the displacementtime graph. repeating the cycle until she reaches the top of the wall. and add the chords corresponding to the average velocities calculated in part (b). and when does it reach this greatest height? (d) What is its greatest depth under the water. Eleni is practising reversing in her driveway. and the average velocity. over the 30 seconds. (b) How long does Sadie take to reach the top? (c) What is her average speed? (d) Which places does she visit exactly three times? 7. (ii) 8. (a) Sketch the displacementtime graph. (iv) eventually? (h) What is its average speed over the first: (i) 4. (iii ) while she is reversing the second time? (b) Find the total distance travelled. (ii) from t = 4 to t = 8. (c) Find the change in displacement. over the 30 seconds. Starting 8 metres from the gate. Then she reverses to her starting point. (ii) over the first 8 seconds. Michael the mailman rides 1 km up a hill at a constant speed of 10 km/hr. (a) How many minutes does he take to ride: (i) up the hill. and the average speed. (ii) above the water surface? (c) How far above the water does it rise again after it first touches the water. The diagram graphs the height x in metres of the weight above the water as a function of time t after she first drops it. she reverses to the gate. A girl is leaning over a bridge 4 metres above the water. Sadie the snail is crawling up a 6metrehigh wall. (iii) from t = 8 to t = 177 (g) What distance does it travel: (i) over the first 4 seconds. and the average speeds over the time intervals specified in part (b). and then rides 1 km down the other side of the hill at a constant speed of 30km/hr. ( a) How many times is the weight: (i) at x = 3.
Hence show that its average speed during the first second is twice its average speed during the next 2 seconds. (a) Use T x 3 1 n (b) Find the first two times when the displacement is max3 lmum. during the first minute. Then find the total distance travelled between these two times. is the particle 10 metres from its initial position? to copy and complete this table of values: (f) Use the fact that cos I = t t x 8 12 16 20 24 (g) From the table. 9. A particle is moving on a horizontal number line according to the equation x = 4 sin ~t. correct to three significant figures. the first two positive solutions of the trigonometric equation sin ~t = ~ [HINT: Use radian mode on the calculator. h (c) Sketch the displacementtime graph of the motion. during the first 20 seconds.O. and what is its average speed? (e) When. and the third 4 seconds. in units of centimetres and seconds. the second 4 seconds. (c) When. A particle is moving according to x = 3 sin ~t. and what happens to the height as t + oo? (b) Copy and complete the table to the right. = 27r to confirm that the period is 16 seconds. A particle moves according to x = 10 cos . . find the average velocity during the first 4 seconds. (b) How many times does the particle return to the origin by the end of the first minute? (c) Find at what times it visits x = 4 during the first minute.. (h) Use the graph and the table of values to find when the particle is more than 15 metres from its initial position. (c) What is the maximum distance the particle reaches from its initial position.e. t.84 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 8. correct to the t 10 20 30 nearest metre. A balloon rises so that its height h in metres after t minutes is h = 8000(1 . in units of metres and seconds. is the particle on the negative side of the origin? (d) Find the total distance travelled during the first 16 seconds. (b) Sketch the displacementtime graph over the first 60 seconds. in units of metres and seconds. the first two times when x = 1. is it there? (d) How far does the particle move during the first minute.] (ii) Hence find. 11.06t ). (a) What height does it start from. correct to three significant figures. (d) Find how far it travels during the first 12 seconds. and its average speed in that time. (e) (i) Find. (a) Sketch the displacementtime graph. 10. t = 1 and t = 3. and the average speed. and when. (a) Find the amplitude and period of the motion. during the first minute. Its displacementtime graph is sketched opposite. (e) Find the values of x when t = 0. and the average speed during this time.
then the cyclist's average speed W over the total distance Ae is the harmonic mean of U and V. 300 (b) Show that k = . (a) Prove that if town B lies midway between towns A and e. [The arithmetic mean. (i) Show that if W is the arithmetic mean of U and V. A toy train is travelling antic10ckwise on a circular track of radius 2 metres and centre O. move on close parallel tracks. . Thomas' displacementtime equation. the size of LAOP and the length of the chord AP (in exact form. the average speed from A to P. Two engines. Hence find. e. 0·06 (f) Hence find how long (correct to the nearest minute) the balloon takes to reach 99% of its final height. Thomas and Henry. ( d) Explain whether the train will return to A finitely or infinitely many times. and then correct to the nearest second. find LAOP as a function of t. and t seconds later it is at the point P distant x = 410g(t + 1) metres around the track. a b Suppose that town B lies on the road between town A and town e. (a) Sketch the two graphs. and then correct to the nearest metre or the nearest second). ~A (a) Sketch the graph of x as a function of t. (ii) Show that if W is the geometric mean of U and V.. = vIu : fl. and that a cyclist rides from A to B at a constant speed U. the position of the point P.e O. then correct to four significant figures). and the time when it occurs (in exact form. (b) Now suppose that the distances AB and Be are not equal. (b) Find. then AB: Be = U: V.99 is t = log 100.1 (c) Use calculus to find the maximum distance between Henry and Thomas during the first e . in units of metres and minutes. for some constant k. (c) More generally.1 minutes.IS h · metIc 1 1 t h e ant h · mean 0f . They start at the origin. At time zero the train is at a point A.. in exact form. correct to the nearest metre per minute. then AB : Be . 13. and then rides from B to e at a constant speed V. the second 10 minutes and the third 10 minutes. is x = 300 log(t + 1). (e) Show that the solution of 1 . the geometric mean and the harmonic mean] of two numbers a and b is defined to be the number h such that The harmonic mean 1. when t = 2.1. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 14. the first three times when the train returns to A.an d .CHAPTER 3: Motion 3A Average Velocity and Speed 85 (d) Find the balloon's average velocity during the first 10 minutes. and Henry's is x = kt. 12. and are together again at time t = e .06t = 0.
Band C on the displacementtime graph. my instantaneous velocity during the journey. so the ball hits the ground at 20m/s. or over any symbol. The notation is yet another way of writing the derivative. (c) With what velocity was the ball originally thrown? (d) What is its impact speed when it hits the ground? WORKED EXERCISE: x x 20 15 10 5 I B A C 1 2 3 4 t SOLUTION: 20 v (a) The equation of motion is x = 5t(4 . and compare your answers with the table of values in part (a). . at 20 m/s. and sketch the velocitytime graph. Here again is the displacementtime graph of the ball moving with equation x = 20t . (Be careful to take account of the different scales on the two axes. may range from zero at traffic lights to 110 km per hour on expressways. Just as an average velocity corresponds to the gradient of a chord on the displacementtime graph. my average velocity is 80km per hour. v = 20 . (b) Measure the gradients of the tangents that have been drawn at A. Instantaneous Velocity and Speed: From now on. so an instantaneous velocity corresponds to the gradient of a tangent.5t 2 • Differentiating. INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY: The instantaneous velocity v of the particle is the derivative of the displacement with respect to time: dx v = dt dx (This derivative dt can also be written as x. v = 20.lOt. However. as displayed on the speedometer. and at C where x = 3.) (c) When t (d) = 0. The dot over the x.86 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 3B Velocity and Acceleration as Derivatives If I drive the 160 km from Sydney to Newcastle in 2 hours. stands for differentiation with respect to time t. dx / dt and x are alternative symbols for velocity. at B where x = 2. the words velocity and speed alone will mean instantaneous velocity and instantaneous speed.t) x = 20t . so the ball was originally thrown upwards When t = 4.5t 2 • (a) Differentiate to find the equation of the velocity v. draw up a table of values at Isecond intervals. so that v. with vintercept 20 and gradient 10. t 4 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 20 v 20 10 0 10 20  (b) These values agree with the measurements of the gradients of the tangents at A where x = 1. 5 That is. v = gradient The instantalleous speed is the absolute value Ivl of the velocity. v = 20.) of the tangent on the displacementtime graph. which is linear.
.. This is is the origin of the word 'stationary point'.. (b) When the particle is at the origin. when dx = o.. 3. x v 2n 2 t 2n v=O 27r cos 7rt t When t = ~. and moving first to x = 2.they measure only the magnitude of displacement and velocity respectively.. or 'as time goes on'.. x Hence the particle is stationary when t = ~. 2.3. v SOLUTION: (a) Differentiating. introd uced in Chapter dt Ten of the Year 11 volume to describe a point on a graph where the derivative is zero. = 2.. .. = 27r cos 7rt. and graph both equations. . Find when and where the particle is stationary.2.2~. We are given that x = 2 sin 7rt. meaning that they have a direction built into them. (c) When the particle is stationary. a negative velocity means the ball is going downwards. Stationary Points: A particle is stationary when its velocity is zero. and its speed then. For example. Briefly describe the motion. Distance and speed. and a negative displacement would mean it was below ground level. and the graphs are drawn opposite.. 2~. and is alternately 2 units right and left of the origin. Hence the particle is at the origin when t=0. In the example above. 6 STATIONARY POINTS: To find when a particle is stationary (meaning momentarily at rest). . put v = 0 and solve for t. that is. V = 27r.CHAPTER 3: Motion 38 Velocity and Acceleration as Derivatives 87 Vector and Scalar Quantities: Displacement and velocity are vector quantities. = 2. Find the equation for its velocity. . 3~.. are called scalar quantities .1. . however.. . . . When t = 0. =0 = ~. ... . . . and therefore cannot be negative. 1~. 2~. the thrown ball was stationary for an instant at the top of its flight when t = 2. and the speed then is always 27r. and when t = 1. WORKED EXERCISE: (a) (b) (c) ( d) A particle is moving according to the equation x = 2 sin 7rt. 1~.. 2.2. v = 27r. . because the velocity was zero at the instant when the motion changed from upwards to downwards. x and when t = 1~... . Limiting Values of Displacement and Velocity: Sometimes a question will ask what happens to the particle 'eventually'. =0 =0 t = 0. t 2 sin 7rt and since conventionally t 2 0.. ..1. Find when the particle is at the origin. (d) The particle oscillates for ever between x = 2 and x beginning at the origin. This simply means take the limit as t + 00. with period 2.
v When t = 0. WORKED EXERCISE: In the previous worked exercise.3t • 3t • v x = 1 and v = 3. and eventually. (a) Show that its acceleration is a constant function. x = _ge. this means that it is always slowing down. so the acceleration is 2 the second derivative d dt x2 of displacement. The height x of a ball thrown in the air is given by x = 5t( 4 . and the second derivative of displacement: acceleration = v = x. so the particle is accelerating downwards. t Acceleration: A particle whose velocity is changing is said to be accelerating. = 2 .3t . ACCELERATION AS A SECOND DERIVATIVE: 7 Acceleration is the first derivative of velocity with respect to time. (b) State when the ball is speeding up and when it is slowing down. in units of metres and seconds. (a) Find displacement and velocity initially. and moves towards its limiting position at height 2 metres with speed tending to O.3t and v = 3e.) (c) Since e. dt But the velocity is itself the derivative of the displacement.3t WORKED EXERCISE: 7 9 0 as t 7 00.t). and sketch its graph. x =2 e. As t 7 00. x (b) The acceleration is always negative. the acceleration tends to zero as time goes on.88 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 WORKED EXERCISE: A particle moves so that its height x metres above the ground t seconds after time zero is x = 2 _ e. 3 2 1 (b) Hence the particle starts 1 metre above the ground with initial velocity 3 m/s upwards.3t • (a) Find the acceleration function. meaning the derivative dv with respect to time. (b) In what direction is the particle accelerating? (c) What happens to the acceleration eventually? SOLUTION: (a) Since v = 3e. SOLUTION: t (a) We are given that x Differentiating. x 2 1 (b) Briefly describe the motion and sketch the graphs of displacement and velocity. and the value of the acceleration is defined to be the rate of change of the velocity.3 t. explaining why this can happen when the acceleration is constant.e= 3e. and can therefore be written as x. X 7 2 and v 7 O. Thus the acceleration is V.3t . . (Since it is always moving upwards. and sketch the accelerationtime graph.
the ball has positive velocity.2 • d2 x The units correspond with the indices of the second derivative dt 2 ' Acceleration should normally be regarded as a vector quantity. and show that the acceleration is constant.) This means that acceleration is felt in our bodies as a force. the ball has negative velocity. but the physical interpretations can be confusing. Although these things are only treated in the 4 Unit course. and F is the force applied. 1. however. where m is the mass of the body. the units of force are. x = 20 . it has a direction built into it. and the ball is speeding up by 10m/s every second. called newtons. (b) What are the displacement. x= lOt. In this way. meaning that it is falling. A particle moves according to the equation x 8t.lOt x 10. (b) During the first two seconds. The mathematics should be wellknown.says that when a force is applied to a body free to move.in units of kilograms. Units of Acceleration: In the previous example. and where is it then? = t2  . velocity. that i::l. meaning that it is rising. not of mathematics . During the third and fourth seconds. and we therefore say that the ball is accelerating at '10 metres per second per second'. the ball's velocity was decreasing by 10 m/s every second. The ball's acceleration should therefore be given as 10m/s 2 .CHAPTER 3: Motion 38 Velocity and Acceleration as Derivatives 89 SOLUTION: (a) Differentiating.5t 2 . and the ball is slowing down by 10 m/s every second. velocity and acceleration after 5 seconds? (c) When is the particle stationary. Hence the acceleration is always 10 m/s 2 downwards. is observable to our sight.a law of physics. or as 10m/s 2 downwards if the question is using the convention of upwards as positive. Extension . F= mx. Exercise 38 NOTE: Most questions in this exercise are long in order to illustrate how the physical situation of the particle's motion is related to the mathematics and the graph. appropriately. just as the first derivative. as we all know when a motor car accelerates away from the lights. and inversely proportional to the mass of the body. Written symbolically. (The units of force are chosen to make the constant of proportionality 1 . (a) Differentiate to find the functions v and X.Newton's Second Law of Motion: Newton's second law of motion . it is helpful to have an intuitive idea that force and acceleration are closely related. written shorthand as 10m/s 2 or as lOms. the second derivative becomes directly observable to our senses as a force. or comes to a stop quickly. x = 20t . the body accelerates with an acceleration proportional to the force. in units of metres and seconds. metres and seconds.
v and x against t. when t = !? 4. (b) Find the speed at which the ball was thrown. find when it returns to the ground.4 t. and the time to reach this height. the next 3 seconds and the first 6 seconds are all the same.6t 2 . Then sketch graphs of x. (ii) eventually? = e. (ii) accelerating. (a) Differentiate to find v and x as functions of t. and is it accelerating then? (d) Find the average velocity over the first 2 seconds. and what are its speed and acceleration? (c) At time t = 3: (i) Is the particle left or right of the origin? (ii) Is it travelling to the left or to the right? (iii) In what direction is it accelerating? (d) When is the particle's acceleration zero. (ii) eventually? What are the particle's velocity and acceleration: (i) initially. and when does it occur: (i) during the first 2 seconds. (ii) during the first 6 seconds. and its height x in metres at time t seconds after it is thrown is given by x = 20t .t + 2. (b) When is the particle: (i) at the origin. and show that the ball is always accelerating downwards. A cricket ball is thrown vertically upwards. as shown to the right. Find the functions v and x for a particle P moving according to x = 2 sin 7ft. and explain why the acceleration can be nonzero when the ball is stationary. (c) Find its maximum height above the ground.5t 2 • (a) Find v and x as functions oft.t 2 • (a) Find the functions v and x. and what are its velocities then? 6. If x (a) (b) (c) v and x. and find its velocity and acceleration then. (ii) stationary? (c) What is the maximum distance from the origin. A smooth piece of ice is projected up a smooth inclined "'~ x~ surface. and the time and place where the instantaneous velocity equals this average velocity. Explain why neither x nor v nor x can ever change sign. and what is its average speed? 7. A particle moves according to x = t 2 . (b) Where is the particle initially. (a) Show that P is at the origin when t = 1. (d) Find the acceleration at the top of the flight. find the functions 5. then sketch graphs of x. Its distance x in metres up / / the surface at time t seconds is x = 6t . v and x against t. in units of metres and seconds. where is it then. (e) When is the ball's height 15 metres. (b) In which direction is the ice moving. (b) In what direction is the particle: (i) moving. A particle moves on a horizontal line so that its displacement x cm to the right of the origin at time t seconds is x = t 3 .8t + 7. (e) Show that the average speed during the first 3 seconds.90 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 2. and in which direction is it accelerating: (i) when t = 2. for how long is it stationary. and show that its speed then is equal to the initial speed. and state their signs. (a) Find v and x as functions of t. Where is the particle: (i) initially. and sketch x and v. . and what is its speed then? 3. (iii) during the first 10 seconds? (d) What is the particle's average velocity during the first 7 seconds? When and where is its instantaneous velocity equal to this average? (e) How far does it travel during the first 7 seconds. (ii) when t = 4? (c) When is the ice stationary.
t ::. what is its maximum distance 4 from the origin. A stone was thrown vertically upwards. is: (i) x = 2. for some constant k. A particle is moving horizontally so that its displacement x metres to the right of the origin at time t seconds is given x 8 by the graph to the right. What does the graph tell you about what happened to the velocity during these 6 seconds? I 45 40  . and what was its average speed during this time? 25 (b) Draw tangents and measure their gradients to find the velocity of the stone at times t = 0. A particle is oscillating on a spring so that its height is x = 6 sin 2t cm at time t seconds. v and x. x (b) What are the particle's maximum displacement. (iii) the speed. 9. and when. (a) What was the stone's maximum height. and the graph to the right shows its height x mex tres at time t seconds after it was thrown. is the particle: (i) at the origin. (ii) stationary. (c) When. . 10. during the first 8 seconds. (a) Find v and x as function of t. (ii) moving downwards. (a) Find v and X. (ii) moving to 3 6 9 12 t the right. (b) Show that x = kx. is the particle: (i) below the origin. 0 How is this relevant to the motion? (e) Draw a graph of the instantaneous velocity of the stone from t = 0 to t = 6. and in what direction is it moving? (e) During what time is its acceleration negative? (f) At about what times is: (i) the displacement. t ::. (c) For what length of time was the stone stationary at the top of its flight? 1 3 4 5 2 6 t (d) The graph is concave down everywhere. 2. 27r. during the first 7r seconds. is: (i) v = f. do they occur? (c) How far does it travel during the first 20 seconds. (iii) moving to the left? (c) When does it return to the origin. (ii) the velocity. (ii) x < 2? (e) When. (iii) accelerating downwards? (e) Find the first time the particle has: (i) displacement x = 3. where is it then. in units of metres and seconds. (ii) v> f? 11. 3. A particle is moving according to x = 4 cos ~t. and what is its average speed? (d) When. how long did it take to reach it. v and against t. 4. and in which direction is it accelerating? (d) When is its acceleration zero. and when does it occur? (b) When is the particle: (i) stationary. 8. what is its velocity then. about the same as at t = 2? (g) Sketch (roughly) the graphs of v and x. during the first 8 seconds. 5 and 6. (iii) moving with zero acceleration? (d) When. (a) In the first 10 seconds. and sketch graphs of x. for 0 ::. (ii) speed Ivl = 6.CHAPTER 3: Motion 38 Velocity and Acceleration as Derivatives 91 _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 8. for 0 ::. and find k. during the first 7r seconds. during the first 8 seconds. velocity and acceleration. 1. and sketch graphs of x.
and sketch graphs of x. at these values of (). 5 (ii) velocity. whose midpoint M has position x M at time t. find when M returns to the origin. will it take for the stone to reach within 1mm of its final position? 14.t and X B = 4t 2 e. (a) Explain why X M = 2e. The particles are joined by a piece of elastic. where upwards has been taken as positive. (e) How long.12e. v and (b) In which direction is the stone: (i) travelling. Show that its speed is then half its initial speed. (ii) moving downwards. (a) Find v and x as functions of t. . and the mass M is at the point O. 13. A particle is moving vertically according to the graph shown to the right. (ii) accelerating? (c) What happens to the position. and find its speed and direction at this time. . where A is distant r above the top T of the circle. about the same as at t = 3? 12 16 (d) How many times between t = 4 and t average velocity during this time? (f) Sketch the graphs of v and = 12 is the instantaneous velocity equal to the (e) How far will the particle eventually travel? x as functions of time.4 cos ()) 2" Find for what values of () the speed of M is maximum.o. A large stone is falling through a layer of mud..t (t . A string passes over fixed pulleys at A and B. (a) Show that x = r (b) Find A . and connects P to a mass M on the end of the string. and find ~. Band M eventually? (d) When are A and B furthest apart? _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 15. The diagram to the right shows a point P that is rotating anti clockwise in a circle of radius r and centre C at a steady rate. correct to the nearest minute. with their distances X A and X B to the right of the origin a at time t given by X A = 4te. P is at T. and find for what values of () the mass M is travelling: (ii) downwards. ~. x. Two particles A and B are moving along a horizontal line.92 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 12. (iii) speed. and its depth x metres below ground level at time t minutes is given by x = 12 . (iii) accelerating downwards? (b) At about what time is its speed greatest? x 5 4 3 (c) At about what times is: (i) distance from the origin. At time zero.t 2 ).St . velocity and acceleration of the particle as t + oo? (d) Find when the stone is halfway between the origin and its final position. and its acceleration is half its initial acceleration. and find the range of x. (c) What happens to A. B l' p :T M o~ ::x + n/5  4 cos (). 5 cos () + 2) 3 . (b) Find at what times M is furthest right and furthest left of O. (a) At what times is this particle: (i) below the origin.t . d2 x d()2  2r(2 cos 2 ()  (5 . Let x be the height of the mass above the point a at time t seconds later. ( c) Show that (i) upwards. and () be the angle LTC P through which P has moved.
(b) Find the displacement function. 1 1 I2 and (3) X = 4 cos Jr = . and sketch the displacementtime graph.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3C Integrating with Respect to Time 93 (d) Explain geometrically why these values of () give the maximum speed. 1 v = sm 4 t .4 X cOSJr = 8 metres. Integrating again. Therefore if the acceleration function is known. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Given: x=e v . When t = 0. (c) Find the displacement when t = 10. (b) Find the acceleration function. (a) Find the velocity function.2" e 2t + 2" . 1 2t 1 1 so D = . When t = 0.] At what angle a should the surface in question 7 be inclined to the horizontal to produce these equations? 3C Integrating with Respect to Time The inverse process of differentiation is integration. and integration of the velocity function will generate the displacement function. and the particle is initially stationary at the origin.4 m s .. [This question will require resolution of forces. integration will generate the velocity function. so 0 = ~ + C. The particle oscillates between x = 0 and x = 8 with period 8Jr seconds. (c) When t x = i cos tt. 1 1 1 so C = 2"' an d v = . . (d) Briefly describe the motion..4 cos (2) it it. Initial or Boundary Conditions: Taking the primitive of a function always involves an arbitrary constant. (b) = _~e2t + C. v = sin Jr = Om/s. x = 4 cos + C. and why they give the values of ~~ they do. WORKED EXERCISE: The velocity of a particle initially at the origin is v = sin ( a) Find the displacement function. = 4Jr. (b) Differentiating. and substituting x = 0 when t = 0: 0= 4 xl + C. 2t . Given: . (d) Briefly describe the velocity of the particle as time goes on. so 0 = t + D. an d x = 4 . so C = 4. v = 0.I d 4' an x = 4e + 2" t . (1) (a) Integrating.. SOLUTION: (1) (a) Integrating.4' (2) (3) . x = ie2t + ~t + D. x 8 4 411: 811: 1211: 1611: 2t The acceleration of a particle is given by x e. X (d) = 4 . for some constant C. velocity and acceleration when t = 4Jr. x = 0. it. (c) Find the values of displacement. 16. Hence one or more boundary conditions are required to determine the motion completely.
x WORKED EXERCISE: A cricketer is standing on a lookout that projects out over the valley floor 100 metres below him. The value of this acceleration is about 9·8m/s 2. How far has it travelled. and increases with limit ~ m/s. Then x = 9·8 (given). so that the arithmetic is as simple as possible. In all such problems.~ = 4~ + ~e20 metres. This puts the origin of space at the valley floor and the origin of time SOLUTION: . or in round figures. a body free to fall accelerates downwards at a constant rate. Making a Convenient Choice of the Origin and the Positive Direction: Physical problems do not come with origins and directions attached. and with what speed does it strike the ground? (Take 9 = 10 m/s2. (3) x = 4·9t 2 • so D = 0.) o Let x be the distance travelled t seconds after the stone is dropped. This puts the origin of space at the top of the building and the origin of time at the instant when the stone is dropped. v = 49 and x = 122·5. Since the stone was dropped. the physical interpretation of negatives and displacements is the responsibility of the mathematician. and how fast is it going. The previous worked exercise made reasonable choices.94 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (c) When t = 10. He throws a cricket ball vertically upwards at a speed of 40 mis. and whatever its velocity (neglecting air resistance). and the positive direction.) Let x be the distance above the valley floor t seconds after the stone is thrown. and v = 9·8t. t The Acceleration Due to Gravity: Since the time of Galileo. and When t = 5. for some constant C. and it falls back past the lookout onto the valley floor below. and the final answer should be free of them. This acceleration is called the acceleration due to gravity. How long does it take to fall. x = ~e20 + 5 . Integrating again. but the following worked exercise makes quite different choices. and is conventionally given the symbolg. whatever its mass. SOLUTION: x (1) (2) 0= 0 + D. and substituting. Hence the stone has fallen 122·5 metres and is moving downwards at 49 m/s. so C = 0. Integrating. for some constant D. it has been known that near the surface of the Earth. v = 9·8t + C. and makes downwards positive. x = 4·9t 2 + D. 0 = 0 + C. 10 m/s2. v "2 1 (d) The velocity is initially zero. and it is up to us to choose the origins of displacement and time. its initial speed was zero. Since the initial displacement of the stone was zero. WORKED EXERCISE: A stone is dropped from the top of a high building. after 5 seconds? (Take 9 = 9·8m/s 2.
USING DEFINITE INTEGRALS TO FIND CHANGES IN DISPLACEMENT AND VELOCITY: Given velocity v as a function of time. find the change in displacement during the third second. = 0. for some constant C. Using Definite Integrals to find Changes of Displacement and Velocity: The change in displacement during some period of time can be found quickly using a definite integral of the velocity. Formulae from Physics Cannot be Used: This course requires that even problems where the acceleration is constant. 2 so D = 100. x = 5t Since x = 100 when t = 0. and x = 5t + 40t + 100.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3C Integrating with Respect to Time 95 at the instant when the stone is thrown. This avoids evaluating the constant of integration. 5t 2 + 40t + 100 = 0 t 2 . (1) Integrating. x = 10.10)(t + 2) = 0 t = 10 or 2. (3) The stone hits the ground when x = 0. 40 v = 0 + C. tl to t = t2. so that x = 10. using a definite integral of the acceleration. Questions in Exercises 3C and 3E develop proper proofs of these results. Many readers will know of three very useful equations for motion with constant acceleration a: v = u + at and 3 = ut + ~at2 and These equations automate the integration process. change in velocity = Ix tl dt. and is therefore useful when no boundary conditions have been given. Since v = 40 when t so C = 40. It also makes upwards positive.t . the units are metres and seconds. (b) Given x = 12 sin 2t. At that time. the ball hits the ground after 10 seconds. must be solved by integration ofthe acceleration function. and Integrating again. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: . 100 = 0 + 0 + D. = t2 8 Given acceleration x as a function of time. As discussed. v = lOt + C.20 = 0 (t . find the change in velocity during the first f seconds. for some constant D. so it hits the ground at 60 m/ s.60. and so cannot be used in this course.8t .e 4 . then from t = tl I t2 v dt. (2) 2 + 40t + D. v = 100 + 40 = . such as the two above. = lOt + 40. that is. The disadvantage is that the displacementtime function remains unknown. because the acceleration is downwards. In these questions. (a) Given v = 4 . then from t change in displacement = tl to t = t2. Since the ball was not in flight at t = 2. Change in velocity can be calculated similarly.
and downwards as positive. v = 0 and x = O. (a) Using the lookout as the origin. and how far does the car go altogether? (b) Sketch the graphs of acceleration. A stone is thrown downwards from the top of a 120metre building. and when does it occur? (d) Find x when t = 0. and what is its speed. = . 3 and 4. so that x = 10. and what is its speed then? 4. find the velocity and displacement as functions of t. Take 9 = 10 m/s2. it has zero acceleration during the next 30 seconds. [HINT: When t = 0. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 6. halfway through its flight time? (d) How long does it take to go halfway down. A particle is moving with acceleration x = 12t. Exercise 3C 1.3t (e) (f) x = 8 sin 2t x = cos 7ft (g) x = Vi (h) x=12(t+1)2 2. (b) When does the particle return to its initial position. Find the velocity and displacement functions of a particle whose initial velocity and dis placement are zero if: (a) (b) x = 4 x = 6t (c) x=e!t (d) x = e. (a) Using the ground as the origin.96 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (a) Change in displacement = = 1 3 (b) Change in velocity (4 . velocity and height x of the stone t seconds after it is thrown. A car moves along a straight road from its front gate. A stone is dropped from a lookout 80 metres high.J Hence find: (i) the time it takes to reach the ground. (a) What is the maximum speed. and take upwards as positive. (c) Where is it. 5. During the first 10 seconds. with an initial speed of 25 m/s.1) = 12m/s. (b) Rework part (a) with the origin at the top of the building. and sketch the displacementtime graph. (a) Find the velocity and displacement functions. Take 9 = 10 m/ S2. [HINT: When t = 0. Find the acceleration and displacement functions of a particle whose initial displacement is 2 if: (a) v = 4 (c) (e) v = 8 sin 2t (g) v = Vi (h) v = 12(t+ 1)2 (d) (f) v = cos 7ft (b) v = 6t 3. and it decelerates at 1 m/s 2 for the final 20 seconds.e4 4  t ) dt = if! 12sin2tdt [4t+e t ]: 2 =(12+e)(8+e ) = 4 + e .e2 metres. (ii) its impact speed. it has a constant acceleration of 2 m/ s2 . (ii) the impact speed. v = 25 and x = 120. so that x = 10. . find the acceleration.6 [cos 2t] : = 6( 1 . and downwards positive. 1. 2.J (b) Find: (i) the time the stone takes to fall. and what is its speed then? (c) What is the minimum displacement. velocity and distance from the gate. where it is initially stationary. Initially it has velocity 24m/s. and is 20 metres on the positive side of the origin.
and when does it occur? (d) If a video of these 6 seconds were played backwards. and when t = 2. using the usual constant C of integration. A mouse emerges from his hole and moves out and back along a line. When t = 1. Otherwise. and find when the body is stationary. it is thrown upwards with speed 15 m/s. If a particle moves from x = 1 with velocity v = 1. A body falling through air experiences an acceleration x = 40e. Initially. Then integrate. and how fast is he then going? (b) How far does he travel during this time. where k is the constant of proportionality. A body is moving with its acceleration proportional to the time elapsed. giving your answers correct to three significant figures. Its initial velocity is u. [HINT: Let x = kt.6) = 4t 3 . Then find C and k by substituting the two given values of t. v .3)( t . 2 2 2 10. and at time t it is moving with velocity v and is distant s from its initial position.not to be used elsewhere] (a) A particle moves with constant acceleration a. find the functions v and x.] (b) When does the body return to its original position? 9. use the trapezoidal rule with three function values in part (a). and the acceleration then. v = 3. (a) Taking the origin at the point where it is thrown. and what are its speed and acceleration then? Describe its subsequent motion.2t m/s 2 (we are taking upwards as positive). and again using (iii) and (i). The graph to the right shows a particle's velocitytime graph. assuming that the particle starts at the origin. 11. could this be detected? 13. (a) When is the particle moving forwards? (b) When is the acceleration positive? (c) When is it furthest from its starting point? (d) When is it furthest in the negative direction? (e) About when does it return to its starting point? (f) Sketch the graphs of acceleration and displacement. (a) Find the change in displacement during the 2nd second of motion of a particle whose velocity is: (i) v = _4_ t +1 C) v = log( t4+ 1) 11 (b) Find the change in velocity during the 2nd second of motion of a particle whose acceleration is: (i) x = sin 1ft (ii) x = t sin 1ft 8.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3C Integrating with Respect to Time 97 7. (b) Find its maximum height. 12. v = 6. Show that: (i) v = u + at (ii) s = ut + !at (iii) v = u + 2as (b) Solve questions 3 and 4 using formulae (ii) and (i). evaluate it exactly. and Simpson's rule with five function values in part (b). (c) Describe the velocity of the body as t + 00.36t 2 + 72t cm/s. (a) When does he return to his original position. (a) Find the functions x and v. and what is his average speed? (c) What is his maximum speed. how long t+l does it take to get to the origin. If possible. His velocity at time t seconds is v = 4t( t . [A proof of three constantacceleration formulae from physics . Write down a definite integral for each quantity to be calculated below..
. a stone is fired vertically upwards from the valley floor with speed V m/s. (a) Find x and x.2t. X2 and the difference D = Xl  X2. and what is its average speed? 15. moving with velocity 1 mis. and when is it moving backwards? (d) What are the maximum and minimum velocities. it is at x = 2. the time and the height when collision occurs. if they start at the origin. Take g = 10 m/s2. (a) By writing x= dv and taking reciprocals. V2 = 4 . find t as a function of v. Once again. Find. and find the minimum distance between them. At the same time.2v m/s2. (c) Use your calculator to find during which second the trains are level. (b) Prove that the particles never meet. and by how much? (b) Find the displacements XT and x H of the two trains. and find its distance from each particle after 3 seconds. the trains Thomas and Henry are on parallel tracks. A moving particle is subject to an acceleration of = 2 cos t m/s2. (b) When is the acceleration positive? (c) When and where is the particle stationary. PI is at x = 2 and P2 is at x = 1. level with each other at time zero. in units of metres (a) Find Xl. and when and where do they occur? (e) Find the change in displacement and the average velocity. and prove that the collision speed is V m/s. 17. (c) Prove that the midpoint M between the two particles is moving with constant velocity. in terms of V. and what is its speed then? (c) When is the particle stationary? Find the maximum distances right and left of the initial position during the first 10 seconds. x Suppose that the body is dropped from the origin.98 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 14. Initially. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 19. and hence find v dt as a function of t. Initially. A ball is dropped from a lookout 180 metres high.) (b) When does it return to its original position. Then find x as a function of t. (a) Find for what values of V a collision in the air will occur. (d) When is Henry furthest behind Thomas. (The function x will have a constant of integration.4t cm/s on a horizontal number line. x (a) Find the functions v and x. A particle is moving with velocity v = 16 . Thomas is moving with velocity VT =~ t+l and Henry with velocity VH = 5. Particles PI and P 2 move with velocities VI = 6 + 2t and and seconds. Thus a typical equation of motion is = 10 . 16. and it travels for 21T seconds. (b) Describe the motion of the particle. (d) How far does it travel in the first 10 seconds. and hence find the distance travelled and the average speed. and find the speed at which the trains are drawing apart at the end of this second. and by how much (to the nearest metre)? 18. A falling body experiences both the gravitational acceleration g and air resistance that is proportional to its velocity. (a) Who is moving faster initially. and the time taken. and the corresponding times and accelerations. (b) Find the value of V for which they collide halfway up the cliff. (f) Sketch the displacementtime graph.
period. and accordingly. and the particle is confined in the interval a :::. light waves. and therefore a is called the initial phase. Simple Harmonic Motion: Simple harmonic motion (or SHM for short) is any motion whose displacementtime equation. Simple Harmonic Motion about Other Centres: The motion of a particle oscillating about the point x = Xo rather than the origin can be described simply by adding the constant Xo.and are therefore governed by sine and cosine functions.sound waves.The Time Equations As has been mentioned before. either the sine or the cosine function can be used for any particular motion. with a and n positive. because the algebra is easier when a = o. a. our course makes a detailed study of motion governed by such a function. tides.a :::. is a single sine or cosine function. it is best to choose the function with zero initial phase. where a. and where is the particle at t = O? . n and a are constants. and the particle is confined to the interval Xo . The amplitude of the motion is still a. x :::. but the topic will be studied again in Section 3F using the motion's characteristic accelerationdisplacement equation. x = a and x = a. n • At any time t. some of the most common physical phenomena around us fluctuate . 9 • The constant a is called the amplitude of the motion. Xo + a with centre at the midpoint x = Xo. called simple harmonic motion. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION ABOUT x = Xo: A particle is said to be moving in simple harmonic motion with centre x = Xo if x = Xo 10 + asin(nt + a) or x = Xo + a cos(nt + a). The simplest such phenomena are governed by a single sine or cosine function. heartbeats . apart from the constants. Since cos () = sin( () + ~). In particular. This section approaches the topic through the displacementtime equation. x :::. amplitude and extremes of the motion. A particle is moving in simple harmonic motion according to the equation x = 2 + 4 cos(2t + J). because it is the midpoint between the two extremes of the motion. the phase at time t = 0 is a. 27r • The period T of the motion is given by T = . WORKED EXERCISE: (a) Find the centre. (b) What is the initial phase. The origin is called the centre of the motion. More precisely: SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION  A particle is said to be moving in simple harmonic motion with centre the origin if THE DISPLACEMENTTIME EQUATION: x = a sin(nt + a) or x = acos(nt + a). the quantity nt + a is called the phase.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3D Simple Harmonic Motion  The Time Equations 99 3D Simple Harmonic Motion . If the question allows a choice.
the amplitude is 4 and the period is The motion therefore lies in the interval 2 ::. Let x = a cos(nt + a).2 .~ 3 . Doing this in the case when the centre is at the origin results in a most important relationship between acceleration and displacement: x = asin(nt + a). then n 11 This means that the acceleration is proportional to the displacement.12· ° t 2. In Section 3F. and can be used to test whether a given motion is simple harmonic. x = n 2 x. The centre is x = 2. . but acts in the opposite direction. (ii) the origin. (b) The initial phase is ~.100 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (c) Find the first time when the particle is at: (i) the centre of motion. Then cos(2t + ~) = 2t + %= t (iv) Put 2 + 4cos(2t +~) = 2. meaning that the acceleration is proportional to the displacement. When t (c) (i) Put 2 + 4cos(2t Then 221r = 7f. x = 2 + 4cos ~ = 4. 6. (iv) the minimum displacement. (ii) Put 2 + 4cos(2t + ~) = 0. THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION FOR SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION: If a particle is moving in 27f simple harmonic motion with centre the origin and period . Then cos(2t + = 1 V 2t + %= 7f = ~. x ::. It is called a secondorder differential equation because it involves the second derivative of the function. Then cos(2t + ~) = 1 2t + ~ = 27f t = 561r. In both cases. (iii) Put 2 + 4cos(2t +~) = 6. but acts in the opposite direction. 6 x » + ~) = 2. Hence x = n 2 x.. • 2 2 • I = 0. Then 1) = ansin(nt + a) and x = an 2 cos(nt + a). This equation is usually the most straightforward way to test whether a given motion is simple harmonic with centre the origin. This equation is characteristic of simple harmonic motion.1r t . Let Then 1) = an cos( nt + a) and x = an 2 sin( nt + a). Hence x = n 2 x. SOLUTION: (iii) the maximum displacement. Finding Acceleration and Velocity: Velocity and acceleration are found by differentiation in the usual way. t = ~. cos(2t + ~) = 2t + ~ . we will use this as the starting point for our second discussion of simple harmonic motion. (a) The equation has the correct form for SHM.
3 11" 2 (d) Since x = 2 sin(3t + 3t) and x = 18 sin(3t + 3411"). and use x = a cos nt if the particle starts at the negative extreme. and cos t is initially maximum. The key to this is that sin t is initially zero and rising. CHOOSING THE ORIGIN OFTIME AND THE FUNCTION: 12 Try to make the initial phase zero: • Use x = a cos nt if the particle starts at the positive extreme of its motion. this agrees with the general result x = n 2 x.ximum of 1. x = 18 sin(3t + 3411"). (ii) maximum. sin(3t + 3. Find the times and positions when the velocity is first: (i) zero. Express the acceleration x as a multiple of the displacement x. x = 2 sin 27r = 4' x = 2 SIn 2 = O. Otherwise. the reader should set up the axes for displacement and time.) (i) When v = 0.) = 0 (ii) When x = 18. 6 cos(3t + 3411") = 6 3t + 311" . 4 (b) Differentiating. 18sin(3t + 3411") = 18 3t + 311" . • Use x = a sin nt if the particle starts at the middle of its motion with positive velocity. it follows that x = 9x. centre. and then substitute the boundary conditions to find a and a. x = 2 sin = 2. be chosen so that the initial phase a = O. 3 11". In these cases.. x = 2 sin 7r = O.. Find the times and positions when x is first: (i) zero. the centre is x = 0. (ii) maximum. so the maximum acceleration is 18.this makes Xo = 0. to make the equations as simple as possible. and the initial phase is SOLUTION: (a) The amplitude is 2. 4 Wh en t t  12' 11" When t = . . cos(3t + 3411") = 0 (ii) When v = 6.The Time Equations 101 WORKED EXERCISE: (a) (b) (c) (d) Suppose that a particle is moving according to x = 2 sin(3t + 3t). = 2.. (c) 11" .7r 3t + 3t = 3. if possible.) (i) When x = 0. Differentiating. Write down the amplitude. (This is because cos(3t + 3411") has a maximum of 1. use x = acos(nt + a) or x = asin(nt + a). 311" When t = ~. the period is 2311". Choosing Convenient Origins of Space and Time: Many questions on simple harmonic motion do not specify a choice of axes. and choose the function. Since n = 3.27r 3t + 311" _ 311" 4 4 2 t = ~.. period and initial phase of the motion. so that the constant term disappears.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3D Simple Harmonic Motion . try to change the origin of time. v = 6 cos(3t + 3411"). (This is because sin(3t + 3411") has a ma. • If the particle starts anywhere else. the function and the origin of time should. First.. choose the centre of motion as the origin of displacement . Secondly. so the maximum velocity is 6. When t = ~. and use x = a sin nt if the particle starts at the middle of its motion with negative velocity.
.
.f). t:S... .. .. 'i .. x .. . y = 3sin (f) = ~v'2..). shifted right by t 3 4 1r. : 3n _________ ... 31[1 ··r········r······i·········· .. Use the form x = a sin( nt .. .. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Sketch y = 3 sin Ox . .... for Jr :s. by a/no Write nt+a = a sin nt shifted left THEGRAPHSOFx = acos(nt+a)ANDx Then the equations become = asin(nt+a): = n(t+a/n).L __________ .! . 2. The key step here is to take out the factor of n and write = = = acosn(t + a/n) These graphs are x = a cos nt x and and x x = asinn(t + a/n)...) reflected in the xaxis. the graphs can be sketched by shifting the graphs of x = a cos nt and x = a sin nt... = 0.. .. are x = acosnt and x = asinnt shifted left by a/no x Sketch x = 5cos (2t + 3.. .f) = 3 sin (x .....3... . moving upwards at 60 cm/s... . .. . i·········r······· i········ 91[1 ____ ...1_ _ _ _ _ 'I . Also when x = 0... Jr.. . x = 5 cos (2t + 341r) = 5 cos 2 (t + 381r) 3 8 This is a cosine wave with amplitude 5 and period Jr....! __________ J ______________ _ 7rr : 7t t •! 5 .!..341r) This is y = 3 sin ~ (x . ...... .J ________ _ 3 WORKED EXERCISE: A weight on a spring is moving in simple harmonic motion with a period of seconds.. .. y 3 ··t . ·········1········r······· ..0'). and period 6Jr.!.. . ..CHAPTER 3: Motion 3D Simple Harmonic Motion  The Time Equations 103 The Graphs of x a Cos(nt + a) and x a sin(nt + a): When the initial phase 0' is nonzero. .. . 13 which WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: and = acosn(t + a/n) x = a sin n(t + a/n). shifted left by Also when t 1r units. ..J __________ . 'i .... .. '1. . x = 5 cos 341r = !v'2. !.. _ ___ . A laser observation at a certain instant shows it to be 15 cm below the origin..: (a) Find the displacement x of the weight above the origin as a function of the time t after the laser observation... This is a sine wave with amplitude 3..J_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 271[: 45rr: x _ ________ . y = 3 sin (~x .
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(b) Find how long the weight takes to reach the origin (three significant figures). ( c ) [A harder question] Fin d when the weight returns to where it was first observed. Use the sin A = sin E approach to solve the trigonometric equation.
SOLUTION:
(a) We know n = 27r/T and T = 257r , so n = 5. Let x = asin(5t  0:), where a > 0 and 0:::; 0: then differentiating, v = 5acos(5t  0:). When t = 0, x = 15, so 15 = a sin( 0:), and since sinO is odd, 15=asino:. When t = 0, v = 60, so 60 = 5a cos ( 0:), and since cos 0 is even, 12 = a coso:. Squaring and adding, 369 = a 2 ,
a = 3V41
< 27r,
(1)
(2)
(since a > 0).
Substituting, and Hence 0: is acute with and so
sin 0: = 5/V41, cos 0: = 4/V41. 0: = tan 1 ~ ~ 0·896 ...
(IA) (2A)
(store in memory)
x = 3V41 sin(5t  0:).
(b) When x = 0, sin(5t  0:) = 0, so for the first positive solution, 5t  0: = 0
t ~
10: 5
0·179 seconds.
(c) To find when the weight returns to its starting place, we need the first positive solution of x(t) = x(O). That is, sin( 5t  0:) = sin( 0:) 5t  0: = 7r  (0:) (using solutions to sin A = sinE)
5t
t
= 7r + 20: = f + ~o:
~
0·987 seconds.
Using the Standard Form x
b sin nt+c cos nt: We know from Section 2E that functions of the form x = a sin( nt + 0:) or x = cos( nt + 0:) are equivalent to functions of the form x = b sin nt +c cos nt. This standard form is often easier to use. First, it avoids the difficulties with the calculation of the auxiliary angle. Secondly, it makes substitution of the initial displacement and velocity particularly easy.
THE STANDARD FORM
=
14
x = b sin nt + c cos nt FOR SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION: When a particle starts neither at the origin nor at one extreme, it may be more convenient to use the standard form x
= bsinnt+ ccosnt.
Xo
[This becomes x =
+ b sin nt + c cos nt if the centre is not at the origin.]
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The Time Equations
105
Provided that the centre is at the origin, the displacement still satisfies the differential equation x = n 2 x. To check this: x = b sin nt + c cos nt x = nb cos nt  nc sin nt x = n 2 bsinnt  n 2 ccosnt = n 2 x, as required. This is hardly surprising, since the function is the same function, but written in a different form.
WORKED EXERCISE:
Repeat the previous worked exercise using the standard form x = b sin nt + c cos nt. Use the tformulae to solve part (c).
SOLUTION:
(a) Let x = bsin5t + ccos5t. Differentiating, v = 5b cos 5t  5c sin 5t. When t = 0, x = 15, so 15 = 0 + c c = 15. When t = 0, v = 60, so 60 = 5b + 0 b = 12 Hence x = 12sin5t 15cos5t. (b) When x = 0, 12 sin 5t = 15 cos 5t
tan5t=~,
so the first positive solution is t =
~
tan 1 ~ 0·179 seconds.
t
(c) Put
12 sin 5t  15 cos 5t = 15 4sin5t  5cos5t = 5. Let T = tan ~t. (Here B = 5t, so !B = ~t.) 2 8T _,5(IT )=_5 Then 1 + T2 1 + T2 8T  5 + 5T2 = 5  5T2 10T 2 + 8T = 0
2T(5T + 4) = 0, 5 5 4 so tan 2 t= 0 or tan 2 t=s' Hence the first positive solution is t = ~(1f  tan 1 ~ 0·987 seconds.
t)
Exercise 3D
1. A particle is moving in simple harmonic motion with displacement x = ~ sin 1ft, in units of metres and seconds. (a) Differentiate to find v and x as functions of time, and show that x = 1f 2 x. (b) What are the amplitude, period and centre of the motion? (c) What are the maximum speed, acceleration and distance from the origin? (d) Sketch the graphs of x, v and x against time. (e) Find the next two times the particle is at the origin, and the velocities then. (f) Find the first two times the particle is stationary, and the accelerations then.
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2. A particle is moving in simple harmonic motion with period 4 seconds and centre the
origin, and starts from rest 12 cm on the positive side of the origin. (a) Find x as a function of t. [HINT: Since it starts at the maximum, this is a cosine function, so put x = a cos nt. Now find a and n from the data.] (b) Differentiate to find v and x as functions of t, and show that (c) How long is it between visits to the origin?
x = n 2 x.
3. A particle moving in simple harmonic motion has speed 12 m/s at the origin. Find the displacementtime equation if it is known that for positive constants a and n:
(a) x = asin3t (b) x = 2sinnt (c) x = acos8t (d) x = 16 cos nt [HINT: Start by differentiating the given equation to find the equation of v. Then use the fact that the speed at the origin is the maximum value of Ivl.]
4. [HINT: Since each particle starts from the origin, moving forwards, its displacementtime equation is a sine function. Thus put x = a sin nt, then find a and n from the data.]
(a) A particle moving in simple harmonic motion with centre the origin and period 7r seconds starts from the origin with velocity 4m/s. Find x and v as functions of time, and the interval within which it moves. (b) A particle moving in simple harmonic motion with centre the origin and amplitude 6 metres starts from the origin with velocity 4 m/s. Find x and v as functions of time, and the period of its motion.
5. (a) A particle's displacement is given by x
x as functions of t.
Then show that
x=
= bsinnt + ccosnt, where n > o.
Find v and n 2 x, and hence that the motion is simple
harmonic. (b) By substituting into the expressions for x and v, find band c if initially the particle is at rest at x = 3. (c) Find b, c and n, and the first time the particle reaches the origin, if the particle is initially at rest at x = 5, and the period is 1 second.
6. A particle's displacement is x
= 12 
2 cos 3t, in units of centimetres and seconds.
(a) Differentiate to find v and x as functions of t, show that the particle is initially stationary at x = 10, and sketch the displacementtime graph. (b) What are the amplitude, period and centre of the motion? (c) In what interval is the particle moving, and how long does it take to go from one end to the other? (d) Find the first two times after time zero when the particle is closest to the origin, and the speed and acceleration then. (e) Find the first two times when the particle is at the centre, and the speed and acceleration then. 7. A particle is moving in simple harmonic motion according to x (a) What are the amplitude, period and initial phase? (b) Find :i: and
= 6 sin(2t + I).
x, and show that x = n 2 x, for
some n >
o.
(c) Find the first two times when the particle is at the origin, and the velocity then. (d) Find the first two times when the velocity is maximum, and the position then. (e) Find the first two times the particle returns to its initial position, and its velocity and acceleration then.
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The Time Equations
107
8. (a) Explain why sin(t
+ ~) = cos t,
and cos(t  ~)
= sin t:
(i) alge brai cally, (b) Simplify x = sin(t  ~) and x
= cos(t + ~):
(ii) by shifting. (i) algebraically, (ii) by shifting.
_ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __
9. A particle is travelling in simple harmonic motion about the origin with period 24 seconds and amplitude 120 metres. Initially it is at the origin, moving forwards. (a) Write down the functions x and v, and state the maximum speed. (b) What is the first time when it is 30 metres: (i) to the right of the origin, (ii) to the left of the origin? (Answer correct to four significant figures.) (c) Find the first two times its speed is half its maximum speed. 10. A particle moves in simple harmonic motion about the origin with period ~ seconds. Initially the particle is at rest 4 cm to the right of o. (a) Write down the displacementtime and velocitytime functions. (b) Find how long the particle takes to move from its initial position to: (i) a point 2 cm to the right of 0, (ii) a point 2 cm on the left of o. (c) Find the first two times when the speed is half the maximum speed. 11. The equation of motion of a particle is x = sin 2 t. Use trigonometric identities to put the equation in the form x = xo  a cos nt, and state the centre, amplitude, range and period of the motion. 12. A particle moves according to x = 3  2 cos 2 2t, in units of centimetres and seconds. (a) Use trigonometric identities to put the equation in the form x = Xo  acosnt. (b) Find the centre of motion, the amplitude, the range of the motion and the period. (c) What is the maximum speed of the particle, and when does it first occur? 13. A particle's displacement is given by x = b sin nt + c cos nt, where n > O. Find v as a function of t. Then find b, c and n, and the first two times the particle reaches the origin, if: (a) the period is 41f, the initial displacement is 6 and the initial velocity is 3, (b) the period is 6, x(O) = 2 and X(O) = 3. 14. By taking out the coefficient of t, state the amplitude, period and natural shift left or right of each graph. Hence sketch the curve in a domain showing at least one full period. Show the coordinates of all intercepts. [HINT: For example, the first function is x = 4 cos 2( t V, which has amplitude 4, period 1f, and is x = 4 cos 2t shifted right by %.J
(a) x=4cos(2t~)
(c) x=3cos(~t+1f)
(b) x = ~ sin(~t +~) (d) x = 2sin(4t  1f) How many times is each particle at the origin during the first 21f seconds? 15. Use the functions in the previous question to sketch these graphs. Show all intercepts.
(a) x=4+4cos(2ti)
(c) x=33cos(~t+1f)
(b) x = 1 + ~sin(~t +~) (d) x = 3  2sin(4t 1f) How many times is each particle at the origin during the first 21f seconds? 16. Given that x = a sin( nt + a) (in units of metres and seconds), find v as a function oftime. Find a, n and a if a > 0, n > 0, 0 ::::: a < 21f and: (a) the period is 6 seconds, and initially x = 0 and v = 5, (b) the period is 31f seconds, and initially x = 5 and v = 0, (c) the period is 21f seconds and initially x = 1 and v = 1.
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17. Given x
(a)
= a cos(2t  [), find the function initially x = 0 and v = 6,
v. Find a and [ if a
> 0, 0 ~ [ < 27r and:
(b) initially x
18. A particle is moving in simple harmonic motion where a > 0 and 0 ~ 0: < 27r. When t = 2 it passes through the origin, and when t = 4 its
= 1 and v = 2V3. according to x = a cos( it + 0:),
velocity is 4cm/s in the negative direction. Find the amplitude a and the initial phase 0:.
19. A particle is moving in simple harmonic motion with period 87r seconds according to x = a sin( nt + 0:), where x is the displacement in metres, and a > 0 and 0 ~ 0: < 27r. When t = 1, x = 3 and v = 1. Find a and 0: correct to four significant figures. 20. A particle moving in simple harmonic motion has period is at x = 3 with velocity v = 16 m/s.
i
seconds. Initially the particle
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Find x as a function of t in the form x = bsinnt + ccosnt. Find x as a function of t in the form x = a cos( nt  [), where a > 0 and 0 ~ [ < 27r. Find the amplitude and the maximum speed of the particle. Find the first time the particle is at the origin, using each of the above displacement functions in turn. Prove that the two answers obtained are the same.
21. A particle moves in simple harmonic motion with period 87r. Initially, it is at the point P where x = 4, moving with velocity v = 6. Find, correct to three significant figures, how long it takes to return to P:
(a) by expressing the motion in the form x = b sin nt + c cos nt, and using the tformulae. (b) by expressing the motion in the form x = a cos( nt  0:), and using the solutions to
~ = cos 0:.] v37 22. A particle moves on a line, and the table below shows some observations of its positions at certain times:
cos A = cos B. [HINT: You will find that
t (in seconds)
x (in metres)
o o
7
9
11
2
18
o
(a) Complete the table if the particle is moving with constant acceleration. (b) Complete the table if the particle is moving in simple harmonic motion with centre the origin and period 12 seconds.
23. The temperature at each instant of a day can be modelled by a simple harmonic function
oscillating between 9° at 4:00 am and 19° at 4:00 pm. Find, correct to the nearest minute, the times between 4:00 am and 4:00 pm when the temperature is: (a) 14° (b) 11° (c) 17°
24. The rise and fall in sea level due to tides can be modelled by simple harmonic motion. On
a certain day, a channel is 10 metres deep at 9:00 am when it is low tide, and 16 metres deep at 4:00 pm when it is high tide. If a ship needs 12 metres of water to sail down a channel safely, at what times (correct to the nearest minute) between 9:00 am and 9:00 pm can the ship pass through?
25. (a) Express x = 4cos37rt + 2sin37rt in the form x = acos(37rt  E), where a > 0 and o ~ [ < 27r, giving [ to four significant figures. (The units are em and seconds.) (b) Hence find, correct to the nearest 0·001 seconds:
(i) when the particle is first 3 em on the positive side of the origin. (ii) when the particle is first moving with velocity 1 cm/s.
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3E Motion Using Functions of Displacement
109
26. A particle is moving in simple harmonic motion with period 27f In, centre the origin, initial position x(O) and initial velocity v(O). Find its displacementtime equation in the form x = b sin nt + c cos nt, and write down its amplitude. 27. Show that for any particle moving in simple harmonic motion, the ratio of the average speed over one oscillation to the maximum speed is 2 : 7f.
_ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __
28. [Sums to products and products to sums are useful in this question.] ( a) Express sin nt + sin( nt + 0:) in the form a sin( nt + E), and hence show that sin nt + sin(nt + 7f) == O. (b) Show that sin nt + sin( nt + 0:) + sin( nt + 20:) == (1 + 2 cos 0:) sin( nt + 0:), and hence sin nt + sin( nt +
2311")
+ sin( nt +
4311")
== O.
(c) Prove sin nt+sin( nt+o:)+ sin( nt+20: )+sin( nt+30:) == (2 cos to:+2 cos ~o:) sin( nt+ ~o:). Hence show that sin nt + sin(nt + ~) + sin(nt + 7f) + sin(nt +
32 11")
== O.
(d) Generalise these results to sin nt + sin( nt + 0:) + sin( nt + 20:) + ... + sin (nt + (k  1)0:), 27f and show that if 0: = k' then sin nt + sin(nt + 0:) + sin(nt + 20:) + ... + sin (nt + (k  1)0:) == O.
3E Motion Using Functions of Displacement
In many physical situations, the acceleration or velocity of the particle is more naturally understood as a function of where it is (the displacement x) than of how long it has been travelling (the time t). For example, the acceleration of a body being drawn towards a magnet depends on how far it is from the magnet. In such situations, the function must be integrated with respect to x rather than t, because x is the variable in the function. This section deals with the necessary mathematical techniques.
Velocity as a Function of Displacement:
Suppose that the velocity is given as a function of displacement, for example v = e x . All that is required here is to take dx dt reciprocals of both sides, because the reciprocal of v = dt is dx .
VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF DISPLACEMENT:
15
If the velocity is given as a function dt . of displacement, take the reciprocal to give dx as a functIOn of x, and then
integrate with respect to x. Suppose that a particle is initially at the origin, and moves according to v = e x m/s. Find x, v and x in terms of t, and find how long it takes for the particle to travel 1 metre. Briefly describe the subsequent motion.
WORKED EXERCISE:
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SOLUTION:
Given
dt = e
dt
dx
x
x
,
Solving for x,
eX = t
+1
1
x
= log(t + 1).
t+1
=e dx t = eX
Differentiating, v =  
+ C.
and
When t = 0, x = 0, 0= 1 + C, soC=l,and t=e x 1, and it takes e  1 seconds to go 1 metre.
WORKED EXERCISE:
x
..
=
(t
+ 1)2 .
1
The particle moves to infinity. Its velocity remains positive, but decreases with limit zero.
A particle moves so that its velocity is proportional to its displacement from the origin o. Initially it is 1 cm to the right of the origin, moving to the left with a speed of 0·5 cm/s. Find the displacement and velocity as functions of time, and briefly describe its motion.
v = kx, for some constant k. When x = 1, v = ~, so  ~ = k X 1, v =  ~x. so k =  ~, an d dt 2 Taking reciprocals, dx x and integrating, t = 2logx + C, for some constant C. Wh en x = 1, t = 0, so 0= 0 + C, t = 2logx. so C = 0, and x = e~t, Solving for x,
SOLUTION:
x=l
0
t= 0
v = 0·5
•
" x
an d differentiating, v =  ~ e ~ t Thus the particle continues to move to the left, its speed decreasing with limit zero, and the origin being its limiting position.
Acceleration as a Function of Displacement:
Acceleration has been defined as the rate dv of change of velocity with respect to time, that is as x = dt. Dealing with
situations where acceleration is a function of displacement requires the following alternative form for acceleration.
ACCELERATION AS A DERIVATIVE WITH RESPECT TO DISPLACEMENT:
16
The acceleration is given by [Examinable1
(lv 2) X dv
x=
dx (~v2).
d
PROO F :
First, using the chain rule:
~(lv2) = ~
dx
2
dv 2 dv =v.
dx
dx
Secondly, using the chain rule again, dv dx dv v=xdx dt dx dv dt = x.
The method of solving such problems is now clear:
CHAPTER
3: Motion
3E Motion Using Functions of Displacement
111
ACCELERATION AS A FUNCTION OF DISPLACEMENT:
If the acceleration is given as a
17
function of displacement, use the form integrate with respect to x.
x = :x (tv2) for acceleration, and then
NOTE:
The intermediate step in the proof above shows that
x=
dv . v dx IS yet
another form of the acceleration. This form is very useful when acceleration is a function of velocity  air resistance is a good example of this, because the resistance offered by the air to a projectile moving through it is a function of the projectile's speed. Such equations are a topic in the 4 Unit course, not the 3 Unit course, but a couple of these questions are offered in the Extension section of the following exercise. Suppose that a ball attached to the ceiling by a long spring will hang at rest at the point x = O. The ball is lifted 2 metres above x = 0 and dropped, and subsequently moves according to the equation x = 4x. Find its speed as a function of x, and show that it comes to rest 2 metres below x = o. Find its maximum speed and the place where this occurs.
WORKED EXERCISE:
SOLUTION:
We know that
x=2
so Integrating with respect to x,
o
tv2
2 2
t=
•
0
x
V=O
v (NOTE: It is easier to work with v as the subject, so it is easier to take the constant of integration as rather than C.) When x = 2, v = 0, so 0 = 16 + C v 2 = 16  4x 2 • so C = 16, and Hence v = 0 when x = 2, as required. The maximum speed is 4 m/s when x = O.
= _2x2 + t c, = 4x 2 + C.
for some constant C,
tc
Acceleration as a Function of Displacement  The Second Integration: Integrating usd ing x =  (tv2) will straightforwardly yield v 2 as a function of x. Further intedx
gration, however, requires taking the square root of v 2 , and this will be blocked or very complicated if the sign of v cannot be determined easily.
ACCELERATION AS A FUNCTION OF DISPLACEMENT 
18
The first integration will give v as a function of x. If the sign of v can be determined, then take square roots to give v as a function of x, and proceed as before.
THE SECOND INTEGRATION:
2
WORKED EXERCISE:
A particle is moving with acceleration function
x
= 1 and v = V2.
x = 3x 2 • Initially
(a) Find v 2 as a function of displacement. (b) Assuming that v is never positive, find the displacement as a function of time, and briefly describe the motion, mentioning what happens as t + 00. (c) [A harder question] Explain why the velocity can never be positive.
112
CHAPTER
3: Motion
CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS
3
UNIT YEAR
12
SOLUTION:
(a) Since acceleration is given as a function of displacement, we write: d (lv 2 ) = 3x 2 dx 2 ~V2 = x 3 + ~c, for some constant C. v 2 = 2x 3 + C, for some constant C. When x = 1, v = so C = 0, and
V2, so
2 = 2 + C, v 2 = 2x 3 •
o
• 0 v=Vl
t=
x=l
x
(b) Taking square roots, Taking reciprocals,
v = 
V2 x ~,
2
assuming that v is never positive.
dt 1 ~  = y2x _2 dx 2 t=V2x~+D, for some constant D. 0= V2 + D, t = V2x~ x2
1
When t so D
= 0, x = 1, so = V2, and
V2
=
=::
t+V2
v'2
(t+v'2)2· Hence the particle begins at x = 1, and moves backwards towards the origin. As t + 00, its speed has limit zero, and its limiting position is x = o.
(c) Initially, v is negative. Since v 2 = 2x 3 , it follows that v can only be zero at the origin; but since x = 3x 2 the acceleration at the origin would also be zero. Hence if the particle ever arrived at the origin it would then be permanently at rest. Thus the velocity can never change from negative to positive.
x =
2
=:
Exercise 3E
1. In each case, v is given as a function of x, and it is known that x
Express: (i) t in terms of x, (ii) x in terms of t. [HINT: Start by taking reciprocals of both sides, which gives dt/dx as a function of x. Then integrate with respect to x.]
= 1 when t = O.
(a) v=6
(b) v = 6x 2
(c) v=2x1
(d) v = 6x 2
(e) v=6x 3
(f) v = e 2x
(g) v=1+x 2
(h) v = cos 2 X
2. In each motion of the previous question, find
x using the formula x =
:x
Ov 2 ).
3. In each case, the acceleration
x is
given as a function of x. By replacing
x by ~(lv2) dx 2
and integrating, express v 2 in terms of x, given that v = 0 when x = O.
(a)x=6x 2
(c)x=6
(e)x=sin6x
(b) x =
~ e
(d)
x=
_12x + 1
(f)
x=
_I_ 4 + x2
4. A stone is dropped from a lookout 500 metres above the valley floor. Take g = 10 m/s2, ignore air resistance, take downwards as positive, and use the lookout as the origin of displacement  the equation of motion is then x = 10. d (a) Replace x by dx Ov 2 ) and show that v 2 = 20x. Hence find the impact speed.
CHAPTER
3: Motion
3E Motion Using Functions of Displacement
113
(b) Explain why, during the fall, v
= V20x
rather than v
= V20x .
(c) Integrate to find the displacementtime function, and find how long it takes to fall. 5. [An alternative approach to the worked exercise in Section 3B] A ball is thrown vertically upwards at 20m/s2. Take 9 = 10m/s, ignore air resistance, take upwards as positive, and use the ground as the origin of displacement  the equation of motion is then x = 10. (a) Show that v 2 (b)
= 400  20x, and find the maximum height. Explain why v = V400  20x while the ball is rising.
( c) Integrate to find the displacementtime function, and find how long it takes the ball to reach maximum height. 6. [A formula from physics  not to be used in this course] A particle moves with constant acceleration a, so that its equation of motion is x = a. Its initial velocity is u. After t seconds, its velocity is v and its displacement is s. d (a) Use dx v2 ) for acceleration to show that v 2 = u 2 + 2as.
(t
(b) Verify the impact speed in the previous question using this formula. 7. The acceleration of a particle P is given by and the particle starts from rest at x = 2.
x = 2x (in units of centimetres and seconds),
(a) Find the speed of P when it first reaches x = 1, and explain whether it must then be moving backwards or forwards. (b) In what interval is the motion confined, and what is the maximum speed? 8. A particle moves according to v
= ~X2, where t 2::
1. When t
= 1, the particle is at x = 2.
(a) Find t as a function of x, and x as a function of t. (b) Hence find v and x as functions of t. d (c) Use x = dx (tv2) to find x as a function of x.
d 9. (a) Prove that dx (xlogx) = log x
(b)
Initially it is stationary at x = 1. Find v 2 as a function of x. (c) Explain why v is always positive for t > 0, and find v when x = e 2 •
+ 1. A particle moves according to x = 1 + log x.
1
10. A particle moves according to
x=
36
+x2 '
and is initially at rest at O.
(a) Find v 2 as a function of x, and explain why v is always positive for t > O. (b) Find:
(i) the velocity at x
= 6,
(ii) the velocity as t
+ 00.
__________ DEVELOPMENT __________
11. A plane lands on a runway at 100 m/s. It then brakes with a constant deceleration until it stops 2 km down the runway. (a) Explain why the equation of motion is x = k, for some positive constant k. By integrating with respect to x, find k, and find v 2 as a function of x. (b) Find: (i) the velocity after 1 km, (ii) where it is when the velocity is 50 m/s. (c) Explain why, during the braking, v = VlO 000  5x rather than v = VlO 000  5x. (d) Integrate to find the displacementtime function, and find how long it takes to stop.
and initially v = 2 and x = O. (b) Explain why the velocity can never be positive. A particle moves with acceleration function (a) Find v as a function of displacement.114 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 12. 18.x . 20. For a particle moving on the xaxis. (a) Initially it is at the origin with velocity 1m/s. where should B be released from. and find the limiting position as t (c) Show that x= 4cos 2xsin2x. What happens to the velocity as time goes on? 13. v 2 2 x = 3x 2 . (b) Where is Ixl :S 3? . Find what the initial velocity V was if the particle first goes backwards. The velocity of a particle at displacement x is given by v = x 2 e. Find an expression for v 2 • (b) Explain why v is always positive for t > O. (b) Show that t = pog(l kx).1. then find its maximum speed and where this occurs. but turns around at x = 1. (b) Explain why the time T for the particle to travel to x = 1 is T = t J~ 2" x2 e x 2 dx. and hence find the maximum velocity and where it occurs. x2 (c) Describe the behaviour of the particle as t 15. and find t. if they are to be released together and reach the origin together? 19. and describe the subsequent motion. Then briefly explain what happens as time goes on. x= 2x . (a) A particle has acceleration x = e. and briefly describe the motion.2x. and describe what happens to the particle as t + 00. Find v 2 as a function of x. and initially the particle is at rest at x = 5. Initially x = 1 and v = h. (b) Find where Ivl = 2Vs. Then find the displacementtime function. A particle's acceleration is (a) Find v 2 . (b) Find x and v as functions of t. find the section of the number line where the particle is confined. (a) Explain why the particle can never be in the same place at two different times. giving your answer correct to four significant figures. t. the particle is at the origin. Then use Simpson's rule with three function values to approximate T. + 00. 14. justifying your answer. and initially is also at x = O. v and 3 x when x =~.x 2 • If A is released from x = 4. and explain why v is always positive and at least 2. A particle moves with acceleration t e x m/s2. = 14x  x2• ( a) By completing the square. (a) Find the acceleration at the origin. 16. (b) Another particle has the same acceleration x = e. Two particles A and B are moving towards the origin from the positive side with equations 2 VA = (16 + x ) and VB = 4V16 . + 00. and initially the particle is at x = (a) Explain why the particle can never be on the negative side of x = Then find the acceleration as a function of x. Suppose that v = 6 . Hence find the displacement as a function of time. and explain why the particle can never be at the origin. and find x as a function of t. 17.x . The velocity of a particle starting at the origin is v = cos 2 2x. t.. and that initially.
and when t = 10. fired at 1 km/s. When t = 0. (b) If the electron's maximum velocity is 2 X 10 7 mis. for some positive constant k. when fired under water. 22. t . and find where the electron will have this minimum velocity and where it will have maximum velocity. and find the displacement when t = 25. where x is the distance from the centre of the planet. so that x = _kV2. where R is the radius of the Earth. (a) If the velocity after 100 metres is 10m/s. (b) Show that it takes log 2 seconds to go the first 50 metres. x = 2. (a) Show that v 2 x = x(3x  14). Describe the motion of the particle. moves through water with deceleration proportional to the square of the velocity. for some positive constant k. and describe the su bsequent motion of the bullet. t (a) Use x = v dx dv to find v as a function of x. then its . · spee d at a dIstance x f rom t h e centre IS V 2k (D . Another type of bullet. use velocity 1 m/s.2 . and its speed after it has gone 50 metres is 250m/s. so that x = kv.xl Dx. for some positive constant k. (b) Find v 2 in terms of x and hence find the maximum height of the projectile. and initially it is at the origin with = 2(x + 2)(x  3)(x . and ignoring air resistance. x = 4. and sketch the graph of v 2 • (b) Find the velocity and acceleration at x = 3. Its initial speed is km/s. Newton's law of gravitation says that an object falling towards a planet has acceleration x = kx.6). Show that if the body starts from rest at a distance D from the centre. An electron is fired with initial velocity 10 7 m/s into an alternating force field so that its acceleration x metres from its point of entry is br sin 7rX.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3E Motion Using Functions of Displacement 115 21. moves with deceleration proportional to its velocity. 23. The velocity of a particle is proportional to its displacement. Assume that a bullet. and hence find the maximum acceleration and where it occurs. = 9·8 m/s2. 25. start with bullet is when its velocity is 1 m/s. and where it occurs. x= dv to find at what time the bullet has dt 27. show that k = gR 2 . find 26. (a) Find v 2 in terms of x and k. (a) Assuming the same equation of motion as in the previous question. (c) [The escape velocity from the Earth] Given that R = 6400 km and g the least value of V so that the projectile will never return. then find x as a function of t. for some positive constant k. find k. A projectile is fired vertically upwards with speed V from the surface of the Earth. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 24. In which direction does the particle move off from x = 37 (c) Find the maximum speed. A particle's acceleration is given by velocity 6. x = v ~~ and find where the (b) If the velocity after 1 second is 10 mis.)2. explain why its velocity never drops below its initial velocity. Find the displacementtime function.
but oppositely directed. the . the acceleration has a particularly simple form x = n 2 x when it is expressed as a function of displacement . where n is a positive constant. we showed that a particle in simple harmonic motion with the centre of motion at the origin satisfies the differential equation x= n 2 x. we proved in Section 3D that motion satisfying x = a cos( nt + a) or x = a sin( nt + a) satisfied the differential equation x = n 2 x. its proof is rather difficult and is not required in the course.116 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 3F Simple Harmonic Motion . The acceleration is thus proportional to displacement. it is convenient to introduce an alternative definition of simple harmonic motion as motion satisfying this differential equation.The Differential Equation In Section 3D. This equation is usually the most straightforward way to test whether a given motion is simple harmonic with centre the origin. we shall use this differential equation as the basis of a further study of simple harmonic motion. Although this converse is intuitively obvious.this is a linear function of x with acceleration proportional to x but oppositely directed. For these reasons. Having two definitions of the one thing may be convenient. where band c are constants. it is this accelerationdisplacement function that can be measured accurately by measuring the force at various places on the number line.THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION: The motion of a particle is called simple harmonic motion if its displacement from some origin satisfies 19 x= n 2 x. so the following theorem can be assumed without proof whenever it is required in an exercise. but it does require a theorem proving that the two definitions are equivalent. (t An Alternative Definition of Simple Harmonic Motion: For a particle moving in simple harmonic motion. 20 where a. Since x is now given as a function of displacement rather than time. n Alternatively. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION . In this section. with n > 0 and a > O. peno d 0 f t h e motlOn IS T =21f. n and a are constants. The following worked exercise extracts the period from the differential equation. . which used d the identity x = dx v2 ) before performing the integration. Extension questions in the following exercise prove that the differential equation has no other solutions. the solution of the differential equation can be written as x = b sin nt + c cos nt. First. . In particular. Conversely. As with many motions. we will need the techniques of the previous section. THE SOLUTIONS OF If a particle's motion satisfies displacementtime equation has the form x = a sin( nt x= _n 2 x: x + a) or x = acos(nt + a)..
:x(tv2) 2 = 4x. and the particle was (a) Find v 2 as a function of x. 2. The proof of the following result is left to the exercises. initially stationary at x = 6. so n = 2 and the period is 2. = 7L Since it starts stationary at x = 6. we know that a = 6. When x = 6. and not quoted as a known result. x = 6 cos 2t (cosine starts at the maximum).9) = 4 X 27.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3F Simple Harmonic Motion  The Differential Equation 117 WORKED EXERCISE: A particle is moving so that x and seconds. X (c) When x Also. WORKED EXERCISE: In the previous worked exercise. using the methods of the previous section. SOLUTION: (a) Replacing x by :x(tv 2). in units of centimetres (a) Write down the period and amplitude. as given by the differential equation._2x2 2  e + Ie ' 2 v = 4x + e. When t =~. but the result should be derived by integration each time. This integration can easily be done in the general case. x = 4 3 = 12cm/s2. and the displacementtime function. so = 144.4x 2 v2 (b) = 4(36 . = 4x. and so Iv 2 . 2 e v 2 = 144 . and v = 12 sin 2311" = 6V3 cm/s. we know n 2 = 4. x = 4x. v 2 so = 4(36 .x 2 ). This integration gives v 2 as function of x. v = 6V3 or 6V3. Notice that at x = ~. x = 4x. Hence (b) Differentiating. This can be confirmed by substituting x = 6 cos 2t and v = 12 sin 2t: RHS = 4(36 . Integrating the Differential Equation: It is quite straightforward to integrate the differential equation once. 0= 144 + e. v = 0.36 cos 2 2t) LHS = 122 sin 2 2t = 4 X 36 sin 2 2t = RHS = 3. and x = 24 cos 2t. and x = 24 cos 2. velocity and acceleration of the particle at t SOLUTION: = ~. Initially. (b) Find the position. for some constant Then integrating. x = 6cos = 3. v = 12 sin 2t. it is stationary at x = 6. (a) Since x= 4x. (b) Verify this using the previous expressions for displacement and velocity. = 12 cm/s 2. (c) Find the velocity and acceleration when the particle is at x = 3. .
and x and v 2 as functions of x. (3) ( 4) (5) . v = 12 cos 3t. moving up). v = 0. = 2. (e) Find the displacement. so so n 2 = 9 and Hence and = _ln 2 x 2 + lC 2 2 v = _n 2 x 2 + C. v = 12. d 2 Hence dx v2 ) = n x. acceleration and times when the particle is at rest. (1) v 2 = 9(16 . v and x as functions of t. 144 = 0 + C. moving with velocity 12 mis. hence C = o = . When x = 0. (a) We know that x = n 2 x. velocity and acceleration when t (f) Find the acceleration and velocity and times when x SOLUTION: 1r. x. because v is positive half the time and negative the other half . since n > o. (2) and by a factor of 12 in the vdirection. Instead. quote the solutions of the differential equation. and x = 36 sin 3t. as explained. since the amplitude a is 4 and n = 3. and not quoted.118 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 THE FIRST INTEGRATION OF n 2 x: motion with amplitude a. Differentiating.taking the square root of v 2 requires cases. v and x as functions of t. (b) Also. = 4g (c) Find the displacement. This result should be derived by integration each time. WORKED EXERCISE: (a) Find (b) Find x and v 2 as functions of x. so When x = 4. (d) Find the velocity. x = 9x lv 2 2 2 144. A particle P moves so that its acceleration is proportional to its displacement x from a fixed point 0 and opposite in direction.and should not be attempted.+ = 1. The Five Functions of Simple Harmonic Motion: We now have x. where n > 0 is a constant of proportionality.x 2 ). x2 v2 This can also be written as . and the particle is stationarywhen x = 4. 16 144 which is the unit circle stretched by a factor of 4 in the xdirection. (t Integrating. This gives altogether five functions.n 2 X 16 + 144. Initially the particle is at the origin. acceleration and times when the displacement is zero. then v 2 = n 2 (a 2 _ x= If a particle is moving in simple harmonic 21 x 2 ). n = 3. The second integration is blocked . x = 4sin3t (sine starts at the origin.
and find the centre..12. 561r. (f) Substituting x = 2. from (1). = 2V3. from (2). Hence the motion is simple harmonic. = x + 3~. so x=(x3~). t = 18' 18' 18' . so the velocity and acceleration functions are unchanged if the centre of motion is shifted from the origin. [This question involves a situation where the centre of motion is at first unknown. if x= WORKED EXERCISE: 2 n (x .. and acceleration is now proportional to the displacement from x = Xo but oppositely directed. but v and x will be unchanged. and so the amplitude is !.xo). from (4). J' 1r. (b) Find where the particle is when its speed is half the maximum speed. that is. This means that if the origin is shifted from x = to x = Xo.. (e) Substituting t = from (3). Put v = (to find where the particle stops at its extremes) _x 2 + 7x  x = 3 or x = 4. which is in the form x = n 2(x . from (1). t = i. ~. from (2).Xo from x = Xo but oppositely directed. ..Xo in the equations of motion.xo).. 1r 51r 131r f rom (3) . x = 4 or 4. x = 18V3. where n is a positive constant. (a) Show that the motion is simple harmonic. x = 18.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3F Simple Harmonic Motion  The Differential Equation 119 (c) Substituting v = 0. t = 0. Now both speed and acceleration are independent of what origin is chosen. from (3). Moving the Origin of Space: So far in this section. only simple harmonic motion with the centre at the origin has been considered. with Xo = 3~ and n = 1. = 6. from (2). v = 6V3 or 6V3. so the extremes of the motion are x ° 12 = ° = 3 and x = 4. v = 12 or 12. .] A particle's motion satisfies the equation v 2 = _x 2 + 7x . period and amplitude of the motion. x = 0. and must be found by expressing x in terms of x. x from (4). SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION WITH CENTRE AT o X=Xo x 22 x = Xo: A particle is moving in simple harmonic motion about x = Xo if its acceleration is proportional to its displacement x . SOLUTION: ( a) Differentiating. from (1). v from (5). with centre x = 3~ and period 271". x = 36 or 36. ° Hence the equation of simple harmonic motion with centre x = Xo becomes x = n 2 (x .xo). then x will be replaced by x . 4g (d) Substituting x = 0. .
] (a) A particle moving in simple harmonic motion has period ~ minutes. (b) Find the speed and acceleration of the particle at x 2. and it starts from the mean position with velocity 4 m/min. A particle is oscillating according to the equation seconds). How far was it pulled down from the origin before it was released? 6. the period and the maximum speed. find the buoy's greatest speed and acceleration. (a) Integrate this equation to find an equation for v 2 • = 3. and its speed at the origin is 24cm/s. 4. A particle is moving with amplitude 6 metres according to and seconds). and its speed at the equilibrium position is 4 cm/s. x= 4x (the units are metres (a) Find the velocitydisplacement equation. x in terms of x. (iv) at the origin with negative velocity. (b) What are the amplitude and the period? (c) Find the speed and acceleration when x x = 16x (in units of centimetres and (a) Integrate this equation to find an equation for v 2 • = 2. and _x 16x so 6. (b) Find the velocity and acceleration when x x= 9x (in units of metres and seconds).3)(x . A particle is oscillating according to the eq uation and is stationary when x = 5.4). and what is the period? 3. v so speed Ivl = ~. = i. To find where the particle is when it has half that speed. (a) A ball on the end of a spring moves according to x = 256x (in units of centimetres and minutes). 5. then find the displacement and velocity as functions of time.120 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (b) The maximum speed occurs at the centre x 2 2 Substituting into v = (x . 2  2 + 7x . (c) What is the speed at the origin. (b) Find the simplest form of the displacementtime equation if initially the particle is: (i) stationary at x (ii) stationary at x = 6. put v = = 3~. the differential equation will need to be formed first.12 = /6 112x + 193 = 0 i: =8 2 X 3. Find the speed at the centre of motion. A particle is moving according to x (a) Derive expressions for v and = 3 cos 2t (in units of metres and seconds). v 2 and x as functions of t. and Exercise 3F 1. ix . (iii) at the origin with positive velocity. If the waves rise and fall 2 metres about their mean position. (b) Another ball on a spring moves according to x + = 0 (in units of centimetres and seconds). The ball is pulled down 2cm from the origin and released. [In these questions. (b) The motion of a buoy floating on top of the waves can be modelled as simple harmonic motion with period 3 seconds. = 6. Find the amplitude. and for = 2.
range and period of the motion. (a) A particle is moving with simple harmonic motion of period 7r seconds and maximum velocity 8 m/s. Find the amplitude of the motion. (b) Find the speed and acceleration when the particle is 6 em from o.3x 2 Show that the motion x = sin 2 5t (in units of metres and minutes) is simple harmonic by showing that it satisfies x = n 2 (xo . (b) Find expressions for: (i) the speed at the origin. (a) = 80 + 64x . (a) A particle moving in simple harmonic motion on a horizontal line has amplitude 2 metres. find a. [The general integral] Suppose that a particle is moving in simple harmonic motion with amplitude a and equation of motion x = n 2 x. and the next time it visits the origin. By integrating x = n 2 x. moving in simple harmonic motion with period 8 seconds. 9.l6x 2 (iii) v 2 = 2X2 . and the places where they occur. (b) Repeat part (a) for: 15. and find the centre of motion. When 4cm on the positive side of 0. . the period and the amplitude. then find the velocity when the particle is distant 3 metres from the mean position. where n > o.6 = 9x 2 + 108x . A particle moving in simple harmonic motion starts at the origin with velocity V. A particle moves in simple harmonic motion with centre 0. If its speed passing through the centre 0 of motion is 15 m/ s. 11.t cos lOt. Let 0 be the midpoint of AB. Prove that the motion is simple harmonic.lOx . 12. 13. (b) A particle moves so that its acceleration is proportional to its displacement x from the origin O. (a) Prove that v 2 = n 2 (a 2  x 2 ). (ii) by differentiating x directly without any use of doubleangle identities. (ii) the speed and acceleration halfway between the origin and the maximum displacement.180 (iv) v 2 = 8 . and its acceleration when 2 metres from its mean position is 4m/s2.x). Find the speed of the particle at the mean position and when it is 4 metres from the mean position.8x . 14. Find its speed and acceleration 1·5 metres from O. 8. Prove that the particle first comes to rest after travelling a distance V In. It passes through 0 with speed 5m/s. its velocity is 20cm/s and its acceleration is 6~ cm/s2. (a) Aparticlemovinginastraightlineobeysv 2 = 9x 2 +l8x+27. If the particle started from rest at x = a. for some Xo and some n > 0: (i) v 2 (ii) v 2 (i) by first writing the displacement function as x = t . The amplitude of a particle moving in simple harmonic motion is 5 metres. (b) A point moves with period 7r seconds so that its acceleration is proportional to its displacement x from 0 and oppositely directed. (b) Find the centre. and find the velocity and the acceleration of the particle when it is ~ metres to the right of O.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3F Simple Harmonic Motion  The Differential Equation 121 _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 7. calculate the speed when the particle is halfway between its mean position and a point of instantaneous rest. A particle oscillates between two points A and B 20 em apart. find v 2 as a function of the displacement x to the right of 0. 10. (a) Find the maximum speed and acceleration. and passes through 0 with speed 10v3cm/s.
(b) Find. (b) The particle has speeds VI and V2 when the displacements are Show that the period T is given by T Xl and X2 respectively. 17. (c) The particle has speeds of 8cm/s and 6cm/s when it is 3cm and 4cm respectively from O. (b) Find expressions for x. it is nevertheless able to move away from the origin. A particle moves in simple harmonic motion according to x = n 2 x. Find the amplitude. amplitude and maximum speed of the particle. A particle moves according to the equation x = 10 + 8 sin 2t + 6 cos 2t. (a) Prove that the motion is simple harmonic. [Simple harmonic motion is the projection of circular moy 8 tion onto a diameter. The motion of a particle is given by x = 3 + sin 4t + V3 cos 4t.] A Ferris wheel of radius 8 metres mounted in the northsouth plane is turning anti clockwise at 1 revolution per minute.x 2 ). and hence that the motion is simple harmonic. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 20. A particle moves in simple harmonic motion according to x = 9(x .122 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 16. the period and the maximum speed of the particle. (a) Prove that 17 2 = n 2 ( a 2 . and what is its speed there? < 27f. and hence find the maximum speed. . Zorba is level with the centre of the wheel and north of it. (c) Find how far (in radians) the wheel has turned during the first revolution when: (i) X x:y=V3:1 (ii) x:iJ=V3:1 (iii) x=iJ 21. (b) Express the motion in the form x = Xo + a sin(4t + a). At time zero. A particle is moving according to x = 4 cos 3t . (b) Integrate to find v 2 as a function of x. although the particle is stationary at the origin. (c) Explain how. and find the centre of motion. in units of centimetres and seconds. and write down the centre and period of the motion. correct to four significant figures. and show that x = 47f2 x and y = 47f2 y.6 sin 3t. 8 (a) Let x and y be Zor ba's horizontal distance north of the centre and height above the centre respectively.7). = 27f X1 2  X2 2 1722  1712 ' and find a similar expression for the amplitude. complete the square in this expression. (a) Prove that the acceleration is proportional to the displacement but oppositely directed. (a) Prove that x = 16(3 . (a) Find the centre of motion. (b) Find the period. where a > 0 and 0 :S a (c) At what times is the particle at the centre. and find the acceleration when the particle is halfway between its mean position and one of its extreme positions. and hence explain why the velocity at the origin is zero. where a is the amplitude of the motion. the period and the amplitude.x). Show that x = 8 cos 27ft and y = 8 sin 27ft. x and y. 18. when the particle first reaches the origin. 19. Its amplitude is 7 cm. iJ.
(a) Show that dt(x y .(0) = O. where n is a positive constant. (c) Write iL x = n 2 x.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3G Projectile Motion  The Time Equations 123 22. Prove also the more general results and 23.a). and show that iL = n 2 u. and hence that x = 2 _n 2u. [An alternative proof] = 0 for Y . c 4 What are the maximum and minimum values of A. we shall consider one case of motion in two dimensions the motion of a projectile. = xy. A projectile is something that is thrown or fired into the air. (b) Show that the greatest vertical difference A between the balls is A = v'cScosa. = a cos nt + b sm nt. where a = x(O) and b = (c) Hence show that x X(O) . Show that u(O) = 0 and it. like a thrown ball or a shell fired from a gun.. then integrate to show that it.xy) d and hence that xy for all t.(acosnt+bsinnt). Notice that missiles and aeroplanes are not projectiles. and hence that x is also simple harmonic with period 27f. and x(O) and X(O) are not both zero. and what form does x then have? 4T (c) Show that the balls are level when tan t = 2' where T = tan How many 1. x(O) = y(O). n 3G Projectile Motion . (d) Hence show that u 25. = 0.2 all t. (a) Show that x = x. and let a = x(O) and bn = x(O). [This is a proof that there are no more solutions of the differential equation Suppose that x = n 2 x. A particle moving in simple harmonic motion has amplitude a and maximum speed V. Everyone can see that a projectile moves in a parabolic path.3T times are they level in the time interval 0 t < 27f? (d) For what values of a is the vertical distance between the balls maximum at t = 0. for all t. x(O) = y(O).The Time Equations In these final sections. with twice the amplitude. and subsequently moves under the influence of gravity alone. and hence that y = x. and Suppose that x and yare functions of t satisfying = n 2 y. so their equations are s: xl=sint and X2 = 2sin(t . Two balls on elastic strings are moving vertically in simple harmonic motion with the same period 27f and with centres level with each other. where 0 a < 27f. because they have motors on them that keep pushing them forwards. so we will not be dealing with things like leaves or pieces of paper where air resistance has a large effect. . Find its velocity when x = ta.. (b) Find iL.] = :u (!it.2 sin( t . where n > 0. = a cos nt + b sin nt.a) be the height of the first ball above the second.2). . (b) Show that ~t (~) = 0. Let x = sin t . We shall ignore any effects of air resistance. Our task is to set up the equations that describe this motion. and its displacement when v = tV. The second ball was set in motion a seconds later. (a) Let u = x . and what form does x then have? tao s: 24.
y and t for horizontal distance. a ball may at some instant be moving at 12 m/s with an angle of inclination of 60 0 or 60 0 • This angle of inclination is always measured from the horizontal. but this would require a third dimension for the taxis. because every point on the path corresponds to a unique time after projection. We could put time t on the graph. The angle of inclination is the acute angle between the path and the horizontal.124 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 The Coordinates of Displacement and Time: The diagram on the right shows the sort of path we would expect a projectile to move in. y o x These pronumerals x. Velocity and the Resolution of Velocity: When an object is moving through the air. vertical distance and time respectively will be used without further introduction in this section. WORKED EXERCISE: Find the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity of a projectile moving with speed 12 m/s and angle of inclination: (a) 60 0 SOLUTION: (b) 60 0 12 cos 60 0 60° (a) x= y 12 (b) x= = 6m/s y=12sin60° = 6V3m/s WORKED EXERCISE: 60° i 12 cos 60 0 = 6m/s y=12sin60° = 6V3m/s y 12 i Find the speed v and angle of inclination () (correct to the nearest degree) of a projectile for which: (a) x= 4m/s and y = 3m/s. It is positive if the object is travelling upwards. The velocity of a projectile can be specified by giving its speed and angle of inclination.in this case the point from which the projectile was fired and measuring horizontal distance x and vertical distance y from this origin. we can describe its velocity by giving its speed and the angle at which it is moving. SPECIFYING MOTION BY SPEED AND ANGLE OF INCLINATION: 23 But we can also specify the velocity at that instant by giving the rates x and y at which the horizontal displacement x and the vertical displacement yare changing. (b) x= 5m/s and y = 2m/s. SOLUTION: (a) v 2 =4 2 +3 2 v = 5m/s tan () = ~ () ~ 37 0 (b) v2 = 52 + 22 V = v'29m/s () ~ tan () = . and negative if the object is travelling downwards. But we can treat t as a parameter. The twodimensional space in which it moves has been made into a number plane by choosing an origin . For example.~ 220 YO2~ i==5 . The conversion from one system of measurement to the other requires a velocity resol u tion diagram like those in the worked exercises below. and is taken as negative if the object is travelling downwards.
every question on projectile motion should begin with these equations. Integrating. and velocity given in terms of horizontal and vertical components x and y. what its speed is then. y=5t 2 +20t+C4 . where g is about 9·8 m/s2. It has no effect. Unless otherwise indicated. find the six equations of motion. or 10 m/s 2 in round figures. y=10. This will involve four integrations and four substitutions of the boundary conditions. When t so Integrating. so = 0. (b) At the top of its flight. x = y = 0. y = 20 20 = C 3 . x = 20tvf:3 + C 2 • x=O 0= C 2 . (4) Integrating. x = O. and thus x = O. (3) To begin. so (6) Y = 5t 2 + 20t. Every projectile motion is governed by this same pair of equations.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3G Projectile Motion  The Time Equations 125 24 To convert between velocity given in terms of speed v and angle of inclination (). (a) To begin. so put From (5). ( a) Using the stand as the origin and g = 10 m/ s2. it affects the vertical component iJ of the velocity according to y = g. x = C1. SOLUTION: Initially. (2) X = 20tvf:3. (b) Find how high the ball rises. Integrating. (1) iJ = 40 sin 30° = 20. use a velocity resolution diagram. When t = 0. on the horizontal component x. x = 20vf:3 20vf:3 = C1. WORKED EXERCISE: A ball is thrown with initial velocity 40 m/s and angle of inclination 30° from the top of a stand 25 metres above the ground. however. lOt + 20 =0 . When t = 0. When t = 0. use the conversion equations RESOLUTION OF VELOCITY: X = v cos () { iJ = v sin () and V2 { = x2 + y2 y/x tan () = The Independence of the Vertical and Horizontal Motion: We have already seen that gravity affects every object free to move by accelerating it downwards with the same constant acceleration g. Alternatively. the vertical component of the ball's velocity is zero. y=O 0= C 4 . so (5) Y = lOt + 20. THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF PROJECTILE MOTION: Every projectile motion is gov erned by the pair of equations 25 x=O and y = g. and the impact speed and angle. and how far it is horizontally from the stand. y = O. how long it takes to get there. the horizontal range. (c) Find the flight time. X = 20vf:3. Because this acceleration is downwards. iJ = lOt + C 3 . and x = 40 cos 30° = 20vf:3.
jj = 10.)3 . WORKED EXERCISE: A gun at 0 fires shells with an initial speed of 200m/s but a variable angle of inclination Q. 2 From (6). x = 20v3 and iJ = 50 + 20 = 30.. but the angle at which it is fired can be easily altered in such situations there are usually two solutions. so and x = 5. corresponding to a lowflying shot and a 'lob bed' shot that goes high in the air. (2) (3) . (4) Integrating. Integrating. so y = 5t 2 + 200t sin Q. x = 40v3 metres (the horizontal distance). y = 5t + 200t sin Q + C 4 • When t = 0. v 2 = 1200 + 900 y = 30 x v v = 10v21 m/s (the impact speed). Integrating. x = 200 cos Q. SOLUTION: Place the origin at the gun. y = 0 0= C 4 . x = 0 0= C 2 . t Because the vertical component of velocity is zero. x = y = o. so X = 200 cos Q. Take 9 = 10 m/s2. so X = 200t cos Q. ():. and the impact angle is about 40°54'.126 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 When t = 2. iJ = 200 sin Q 200 sin Q = C 1 . (6) To begin. so that initially. x = C 1 • When t = 0.:: 40°54'. so iJ = lOt + 200 sin Q. When t = 2. When t = 0. iJ = 200 sin Q. When t Also. (c) It hits the ground when it is 25 metres below the stand. (b) Show that the two angles are equally inclined to 0 F and to the vertical. = 2 seconds (the time taken). from (6). (5) 2 Integrating. = 100v3 metres (the horizontal range). Resolving the initial velocity.5 = 0 (t5)(t+1)=0 so it hits the ground when t = 5 (t = 1 is inadmissable). x = O. tan () = 30 20Vi X = 20. Using Pronumerals for Initial Velocity and Angle of Inclination: Many problems in projectile motion require the initial velocity or angle of inclination to be found so that the projectile behaves in some particular fashion. (c) Find the corresponding flight times and the impact speeds and angles. from (3). 5t + 20t = 25 t 2 . x = 200coSQ 200 cos Q = C 1 . (a) Find the two possible angles at which the gun can be set so that it will hit a fortress F 2 km away on top of a mountain 1000 metres high. from (3). so put y = 25. y = 20 + 40 = 20 metres (the maximum height).4t .. (1) To begin. the speed there is y x = 20v3 m/s. x = 200tcoSQ + C 2 • When t = 0. iJ = lOt + C 3 . Often the muzzle speed of a gun will be fixed.
x 200t cos a so from (3).= 10y'iO seconds. Use a velocity resolution diagram to find x and iJ. the shell hits horizontally at 100J2 m/s.1 t ~ 26°34'. () = .1000 = 0 cos a cos a sec 2 a . cosa and when t = 1Ov2. so from (2). 1 d' 3 Wh en a = tan. given that x and iJ are: (a) x=6 iJ=6 (b) x=7 iJ=7y3 (c) X = 5 iJ=7 . so and t 10 = . Exercise 3G 1. v 2 = 16000 + 4000 = 20000 v = 100v2m/s. 3 so from (a).. y = 1000 y so from (6). t=. cos a = yIIO an SIn a = y'iO' = 45°. (This calculation can also be done using exact values. 5t 2 + 200t sin a = 1000. x = 20yfiQ.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3G Projectile Motion  The Time Equations 127 (a) Since the fortress is 2 km away.1 3.= 10v2 seconds. and the 71 °34' shot is inclined at 18°26' to the vertical.3)(tana 1) = 0 tan a = 1 or 3 a = 45° or tan 13 [ ~ 71°34']. tan () = iJ/x = 2. from (a). o so tan 2 a . cosa iJ = 100v'lQ + 6000 = 4000. 2000 x (b) LOFX = tan. iJ = 100v2 + 200 X tv2 = 0. from (5). and when t = 1000.tan 12 [ ~ 63°26']' so the shell hits at 100v2 m/s at about 63°26' to the horizontal. Use a velocity resolution diagram to find the speed v and angle of inclination () of a projectile. from (5).4 tan a + 3 = 0 (tan a . = 2000 = 2000 10 cosa Since the mountain is 1000 metres high.1 ~ 2.2 + .. 500 2000 sin a Hence . and from (2). But sec 2 a = tan 2 a + 1.4 tan a + 2 = 0 . given that the projectile's speed (c) v v and angle of inclination () are: (a) v = 12 (b) v () = 30° =8 () = 45° = 20 () = tan.) (c) When a 10 t = . so the 45° shot is inclined at 18°26' to OF.
Take g = 10 m/s2. to find the equations of x. Hence use a velocity resolution diagram to find the speed (to the nearest m/s) and the acute angle (to the nearest degree) at which the pebble hits the water. x. The cliff is 75 metres high and overlooks a river. 5. 4. find the greatest height and the time taken to reach it. Suppose that the initial speed of the apple is V = 5 mis. find its equation in Cartesian form. By eliminating t from the equations for x and y. Steve tosses an apple to Adam who is sitting near him. (b) Beginning with x = 0 and jj = 10. y and y in terms of t. (f) Find x and y at the time Adam catches the apple. and the initial angle 0: of elevation is given by tan 0: = 2. (e) Show that the flight time is V5 seconds. x. and take g = 10 m/s2. Then use a velocity resolution diagram to show that the final speed equals the initial speed. (i) Hence find how far the stone is from the point of projection when t = 0·5. and the final angle of inclination is the opposite of the initial angle of elevation. Adam catches the apple at exactly the same height that Steve released it. substituting boundary conditions each time. (b) Find x. ( c) Find the greatest height that the pebble reaches above the river. find the horizontal distance travelled. (a) Use a velocity resolution diagram to find the initial values of x and y. A projectile is fired with velocity V = 40 m/s on a horizontal plane at an angle of elevation 0: = 60°. (a) Derive expressions for the horizontal and vertical components of the displacement of the pebble from the top of the cliff after t seconds. (d) Find the values of x and y at the instant when the pebble hits the water. (d) Find the greatest height above the point of release reached by the apple. A stone is projected from a point on level ground with velocity 100 m/s at an angle of elevation of 45°. (e) Find x. (c) By substituting y = 0. (g) The path of the apple is a parabolic arc. integrate each equation twice. .128 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 3. (ii) Use a velocity resolution diagram to find its speed (to the nearest m/s) and its direction of motion (as an angle of elevation to the nearest degree) when t = 0·5. and the time taken to reach it. (d) By substituting y = 0. A pebble is thrown from the top of a vertical cliff with velocity 20m/s at an angle of elevation of 30°. x. (a) Use a velocity resolution diagram to determine the initial values of x and y. and find x and y. y and y by integrating x = 0 and jj = 10. t 6. and the flight time. Find the maximum height reached. Investigate this claim by reworking the question with 0: = 30°. and the horizontal range of the projectile. taking the origin at Steve's hands. Find the flight time. (a) (b) (c) (d) Show that x = 20 and y = lOt + 200. (Take g = 10 m/s2. (c) Show by substitution into y that the apple is in the air for less than 1 second. y and y when t = 0·5. An observer claims that the projectile would have had a greater horizontal range if its angle of projection had been halved. Let x and y be the respective horizontal and vertical components of the displacement of the stone from the point of projection. and hence find the horizontal distance travelled by the apple.) (b) Find the time it takes for the pebble to hit the water and the distance from the base of the cliff to the point of impact. and let the origin be the point of projection.
0) fires a shell across level ground with muzzle speed V and angle Q of elevation. (ii) If V is constant and Q varies. (d) Find. where Q = tan 1 ~. (c) Assuming that the ball rebounds off the hoarding at an angle of elevation Q with a speed of 20% of v. find the greatest value of H and the corresponding value of Q. from x = 0 and jj = g. Take g = lOm/s2. correct to the nearest metre. (b) Show that the speed v of the ball when it strikes the hoarding is 5J58 m/ s at an angle of elevation Q to the horizontal. Take g = 10 m/s2. Antonina threw a ball with velocity 20m/s from a point exactly one metre above the level ground she was standing on. (b) Show that V cos B = 12V5 and V sin B = 24. ( a) Show that the ball hits the hoarding after ~v'2 seconds at a point 52·5 metres high. the other four equations of motion. correct to the nearest metre. A plane is flying horizontally at 363·6km/h and its altitude is 600 metres. (Take g = 10 m/s2.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3G Projectile Motion  The Time Equations 129 (e) The path of the pebble is a parabolic arc. What value of Q gives half this maximum value? 10.) (c) Show that the food parcel will be in the air for 2J30 seconds. y 11. Gee Ming the golfer hits a ball from level ground with an initial speed of 50 m/s and an initial angle of elevation of 45°. (c) By squaring and adding. [The general case] A gun at 0(0. Then find B. find how far from Gee Ming the ball lands. Take g = 10 m/ s2 . (ii) If V is constant and Q varies. The ball rebounds off an advertising hoarding 75 metres away. . how far Jeffrey hit the ball. find the greatest value of R and the corresponding value of Q. The ball struck the wall 16 metres above the ground. The plane in which the ball travelled was perpendicular to the wall. find V. (d) Find the speed and angle at which the food parcel will hit the ground. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 9. ( a) Convert the speed of the plane into metres per second. correct to the nearest minute. and let B be the angle to the horizontal at which the ball was hit. should the plane drop the food parcel? 8. find its equation in Cartesian form. Two seconds into its flight. 7. (b) (i) Find the maximum height H. (a) Derive. Let V m/s be the initial velocity of the ball. By eliminating t from the equations for x and y. the ball just cleared a 2Smetretall tree which was exactly 24V5 metres from where the ball was hit. ( a) Show that the horizontal and vertical components of the displacement of the ball from its initial position are x = VtcosB and y = 5t 2 + VtsinB. and the time taken to reach it. Jeffrey the golfer hit a ball which was lying on level ground. The ball travelled towards a wall of a tall building 16 metres away. (b) Derive expressions for the horizontal and vertical components of the food parcel's displacement from the point where it was dropped. (e) At what horizontal distance from the cross. What value of Q gives half this maximum value? (c) (i) Find the range R and flight time T. It is to drop a food parcel onto a large cross marked on the ground in a remote area.
VI = 30m/s. where AB is horizontal. (i) Show that V2 = 40m/s. Show that 4 = 5T cos () and 3 = 4T sin () . (a) Show that the condition for the particles to collide is VI sin ()I = V2 sin ()2. and that the particles collide after 4 seconds. Take the origin at the point where the ball was hit.5t 2 • o x (b) How long will it be (to the nearest 0·01 seconds) before the ball hits the pitch? (c) Calculate the angle (to the nearest degree) at which the ball will hit the pitch. Take the origin to be the point where the ball is released. Glenn the fast bowler runs in to bowl and releases the ball 2·4 metres above the ground with speed 144km/h at an angle of 7° below the horizontal. 1m (b) The ball hit the wall after T seconds. Is this particular delivery shortpitched? 13. You may assume that the equations of motion of a particle projected with velocity V at an angle () to the horizontal are x = Vt cos () and y = _~gt2 + Vtsin(). t seconds after the ball was thrown."C'  144kmJh x = 40t cos 7°. and take g = 10m/s2. The motion takes place in the vertical plane through A and B. ()I = sin. (e) Find the speed and angle (to the nearest minute) at which the ball hits the wall. Show that.. where () is the angle to the horizontal at which the ball was originally thrown. (d) The batsman is standing 19 metres from the point of release. If the ball lands more than 5 metres in front of him. g = 10m/s and that the particles collide. It flies towards a high wall 20 metres away on level ground. do: I__~ 20m Show that the maximum value of h occurs when tan 0: = 2. 16m (d) Hence find the two possible values of (). Y = 2·4  40t sin 7° . it will be classified as a 'shortpitched' delivery. (a) Show that the coordinates of the ball t seconds after its release are given by y 24 '. x = 20t cos () and y = 5t 2 + 20t sin () + 1. The initial velocity of PI is VI at an angle ()I to the horizontal. correct to the nearest minute. (iii) Find. correct to the nearest degree. Two particles PI and P 2 are projected simultaneously from the points A and B. the obtuse angle between the directions of motion of the particles at the instant they collide. and the initial velocity of P 2 is V2 at an angle ()2 to the A B horizontal.. (ii) Find the height of the point of collision above AB. Ol.I ()2 = sinl~. (b) Show that (sec 0:) = sec 0: tan 0:.80 tan () + 91 = o.. (a) Show that the ball hits the wall when h d = 20 tan 0:  5sec 2 0:. t. 2 (b) Suppose that AB = 200 metres.~_ _ _~~ x (c) Hence show that 16 tan 2 () .. 12.130 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 ( a) Let the origin be the point on the ground directly below y the point from which the ball was released.T2. X . (c) (d) Find the maximum height. A cricketer hits the ball from ground level with a speed of 20 m/s and an angle of elevation 0:. 14. and take g = 10 m/ S2 .
the horizontal and vertical components of the stone's displacement from the top of the cliff.. show that the particle reaches a maximum .cos a). (b) If the stone hits the lake at time T seconds. A projectile was fired from the origin with velocity U at an angle of a to the horizontal.()) . show that (x(T))2 = 400T 2  (5T2 . The speed of propulsion is 20 m/s. show that IJ = cos' = 2sin(x ()).~gt2. y 17. (a) Consider the function y (i) Show that dy dx = 2 cos(2x  2 sin( x ()) cos x = sin(2x . Take g = 10 m/s2. At time TI on its ascent. y(t) = 5t 2 + 20tsin(). (c) Hence find.cot a (b) (i) Explain why V cos (3 = Ucosa. show that 18. g y v . Assume that the horizontal and vertical components of the projectile's displacement are given by x = Vtcosa and y = Vtsina .40)2. (III ) D e d uce t h at "4 < a < 2"' .tan (3) X= . heIg ht 0 f 2g (b) A second particle P2 is projected from the origin with velocity ~ V at an angle ~() to the horizontal. (i) Show that () = cosl~. 16. (1'1') H ence sh ow t h at T 2 = .CHAPTER 3: Motion 3G Projectile Motion  The Time Equations 131 15. V 2 SIn 2 () . (a) Show that x(t) and y(t). h x TI 1 . (b) A projectile is fired from the origin with velocity V at an angle of a to the horizontal up a plane inclined at (3 to the horizontal. (a) (i) Show that Tl v = 2U (sin a g . At time T2 the projectile returned to the horizontal plane from which it was fired. show that 2V 2 cos 2 a( tan a . Y). (ii) Hence. (a) Assuming the usual equations of motion. the value of T that maximises (X(T))2. A stone is propelled upwards at an angle () to the horizontal from the top of a vertical cliff 40 metres above a lake. The two particles reach the same maximum height. are given by x(t) = 20tcos(). it passed with velocity V through a point whose horizontal and vertical distances from the origin are equal. A particle PI is projected from the origin with velocity V at an angle of elevation ().. or otherwise. and then find the value of () that maximises the distance between the foot of the cliff and the point where the stone hits the lake. (i) If the projectile strikes the plane at (X. 1f 1f (iil If fl = t". (ii) Do the two particles take the same time to reach this maximum height? Justify your answer. by differentiation. and its direction of motion at that time was at an angle of (3 to the horizontal. ())cosx.sin (). (V + v':T~ +8Tl').
When t = 0. t (3) x . so (6) = V cos a =V2 Substituting into (6). Unless the question gives it. x = Vtcosa. prove that the water can reach the wall above ground level. (a) If V > (b) J!id. Water sprays from the nozzle with speed V and the nozzle can be pointed in any direction from P. (1) To begin. Many questions are solved more elegantly by consideration of the equation of path. which is simply an upsidedown parabola. x = V t cos a + C 2. y = _~gt2 + Vtsina + C 4 • When t (2) = 0. Y = . A tall building stands on level ground. Integrating. . 2 2V (1+tan 2 a) + xtana. x= V cos a and y = V sin a. Integrating. y = gt + C 3 . y which becomes gx 2 y= 2 cos a gx 2 2 + Vx sina V cos a .gt + V sin a. The General Case: The following working derives the equation of path in the general case of a projectile fired from the origin with initial speed V and angle of elevation a. jj = g. x = 0. (4) Integrating. x = 0 so From (3). Show that the portion of the wall that can be sprayed with 15 8 water is a parabolic segment of height d and area ~d\/15. the equation of path must be derived each time. so Y = .The Equation of Path The formulae for x and y in terms of t give a parametric equation of the physical path of the projectile through the x~y plane.(3) (iii) Use part (a)(ii) to show that the maximum possible value of R is 9 1 ( + sm(3 V • ) (iv) If the angle of inclination of the plane is 14 0 .~ gt 2 + V t sin a.132 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (ii) Hence show that the range R of the projectile up the plane is given by R=c''. 9 cos 2 (3 2 2V 2 cos a sin( a . When t = 0. at what angle to the horizontal should the projectile be fired in order to attain the maximum possible range? _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 19. x = V cos a V cos a = C l . Resolving the initial velocity. y = 0 0= C 4 . x = C l .. 0= C 2 . When t = 0. using the Pythagorean identity _1_2cos a = sec 2 a = 1 + tan 2 a. The nozzle of a water sprinkler is positioned at a point P on the ground at a distance d from a wall of the building. however. Suppose that V = 2J!id. 3H Projectile Motion . To begin. (5 ) Integrating. Eliminating t will give the Cartesian equation of the path. y = V sin a V sina = C3 . so X = V cos a.
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A cricket ball is thrown from the origin on level ground. ( a) Show that the Cartesian equation of the path is y = ~x x 2• (b) Find the horizontal range R and the greatest height H. t seconds after release. and hence find the initial angle of projection. Then. Hence find the Cartesian equation of path. (e) The general equation of path is y= gx 2 0:. (a) Find the horizontal range of the ball. (d) Find x and y when t = O.410 x 2 . _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 5. (c) Suppose first that the stone hits a wall 8 metres away. [HINT: Put y = 45.x). (ii) Differentiate the equation of path. (b) Find the greatest height. and the equation of the path of its motion is y = x . and hence find the angle of inclination when the stone hits the wall. (i) Find how far up the wall the stone hits. by substitution. (c) Find the horizontal distance that the bullet travels. and the horizontal displacement then. where V is the initial velocity. x. A stone is fired on a level floor with initial speed V = 10 mls and angle of elevation 45°. Assume that. where x and yare in metres.134 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Exercise 3H 1. (c) Find the gradient at x = 0. 2V2 cos 2 0: + xtano:. Hence use a velocity resolution diagram to find the initial velocity. (e) Find when the particle is 4 metres high. (b) Taking 9 = 10 m/s 2 and the origin at the window. 1!4 4. and hence find the angle of projection (d) Find. Taking 9 (b) Use the theory of quadratics to find the range and the maximum height. ( a) Find x. whether the ball goes above or below the point A(10. 2.8). It doesn't hit anything and falls harmlessly to the ground. 3. . find x.5t 2 (where x and yare in metres). by eliminating t. (a) Write down the initial values of x and y. if and y. (i) Find the horizontal distance before impact. (d) Suppose now that the stone hits a ceiling 2·1 metres high. y and y by integration from x = 0 and jj = 10.~gt2. show that the equation of path is y = /ox 2 + X = /ox(10 . (ii) Find the angle at which the stone hits the ceiling. and to confirm the initial angle of projection.] (d) Find. the horizontal and vertical displacements are given by x = Vtcoso: and y = Vt sin 0: . A ball is thrown on level ground at an initial speed of V mls and at an angle of projection 0:. A particle is projected from the origin at time t = 0 seconds and follows a parabolic path with parametric equations x = 12t and y = 9t . find V. correct to the nearest minute. the angle at which the bullet hits the ground. (c) Find the gradient of the tangent at x = 0. x. A bullet is fired horizontally at 200 mls from a window 45 metres above the level ground below. = 10 m/s 2 . ( a) Show that the trajectory has Cartesian equation y = co:2 a (sin 0: cos 0:  2~2 ) .
Assume that t seconds after being fired. Show that tan 0: = 4 ±3 y'3 . A gun can fire a shell with a constant initial speed V and a variable angle of elevation 0:. (ii) the time of flight is 2·72 seconds. (i) Find the two possible values of (ii) A 2.V2 .. the initial speed and angle of elevation. gx 2 (b) Hence show that the Cartesian equation of the path of the ball is y = x . (c) Suppose that.1 V2 V2 1. and the time each droplet of water is in the air.high fence is placed 40 metres from the thrower. 6. Examine each trajectory to see whether the ball will still travel 45 metres. and find. away. the horizontal and vertical displacements x and y of the shell from the gun are given by the same equations as in the previous question. horizontally and 0·5 km vertically from the gun. y 7. the distance the ball has been thrown up the road. (a) Show that the Cartesian equation of the shell's path may be written as gx 2 tan 2 0: (b) Suppose that V  2xV2 tan 0: + (2yV 2 + gx 2 ) = o. and its greatest height. using 9 = 10 m/s2. as shown opposite. correct to the nearest tenth of a metre.CHAPTER 3: Motion 3H Projectile Motion  The Equation of Path 135 (b) Hence show that the honzontal range (c) When V . 9 = 10 m/s 2 and 0:. Take 9 = 10m/s2. Show that: x t (i) the ball is about 9 metres above the road when it reaches its greatest height. the ball is thrown up a road inclined at tan 1 to the horizontal. He throws the ball at the same angle of elevation of 45° and at the same speed of V m/s.metre. and hence find the two possible values of correct to the nearest minute.. use the result in part (b) to show that tan () _ _ 30g cos () _ 60g cos () _ .5t 2 • (b) Hence find the horizontal range of the ball. (a) Show that the parabolic path of the ball has parametric equations x = 12t and y = 16t . . 8. If he can throw the ball 60 metres down the hill but only 30 metres up the hill. A ball is thrown with initial velocity 20 m/s at an angle of elevation of tan 1 !. ( c) The boy is now standing on a hill inclined at an angle () to the horizontal. V sin 20: IS . A boy throws a ball with speed V m/s at an angle of 45°to the horizontal. and hence that () = tan 1 i. Talia is holding the garden hose at ground level and pointing it obliquely so that it sprays water in a parabolic path 2 metres high and 8 metres long. the shell hits a target positioned 3 km = 200 mis. Find. 2 . Where is the latus rectum of the parabola? 9. the ball lands 45 metres 0:. 9 = 30m/s. (a) Derive expressions for the horizontal and vertical components of the displacement of the ball from the point of projection.
(i) Show that Xl and X2 are the roots of the equation X2 .~) tan 0:. show that the angle between OP and 0: equals the angle between f3 and the vertical. and Rinaldo catches it in flight as it descends. I . A projectile is fired from the origin with velocity V and angle of elevation 0:. V 2 sin 20: range R 0 f t h e part1c e IS . Rinaldo. 2g 2 Show that the Cartesian equation of the parabolic path of the projectile can be written as x 2 tan 2 0: . (a) Ferdinand aims the device at the bird and fires. 11. at an angle of 0: to the horizontal. (b) Rinaldo returns to his perch. who is sitting on the branch of a tree. Y) in the first quadrant by firing at two different initial angles 0:1 and 0:2 only if X2 < 4k2 . 13. Vt sin 0: .. Assume the usual equations of motion. Show that tan 0:1 tan 0:2 > 1.. = (X2 + xI)2 .g (b) Hence prove that the path of the particle has equation y x 6 =x (1 . Rinaldo flies off horizontally away from Ferdinand at a constant speed. where 0: is acute. and hence explain why it is impossible for 0:1 and 0:2 both to be less than 45°.Rx (ii) Use the identity (X2 .4kx tan 0: + (4ky + x 2) = O. (b) Show that the projectile can pass through the point (X.4kY. At the same instant. (a) If the gun can hit a target at P( a. Rinaldo drops off his branch and falls under gravity.4X2X1 to find R. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 12. (a) Let k V = .tgt 2 ).. (c) Suppose that tan 0:1 and tan 0:2 are the two real roots of the quadratic equation in tan 0: in part (a). A particle is projected from the origin with velocity V mls y 4 .136 CHAPTER 3: Motion CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 10. Prove that Rinaldo will catch the meat. (a) Assuming that the coordinates of the particle at time t are (Vt cos 0:. Let Xl and X2 be the xcoordinates of the two points. [Some theorems about projectile motion] y x Ferdinand is feeding his pet bird. by firing pieces of meat to him with a meatfiring device. (c) Suppose that 0: = 45° and that the particle passes through two points 6 metres apart and 4 metres above the point of projection. What is the ratio of the horizontal component of the meat's speed to Rinaldo's speed? . and Ferdinand fires a piece of meat so that it will hit the bird. The meat rises twice the height of the perch.xI)2 + 4R = O. b) with two different angles of elevation 0: and /3. prove that the horizontal . show that the maximum range is obtained when the gun is fired at the angle that bisects the angle between the plane and vertical. (b) If the gun is firing up a plane of angle of elevation 1j. A gun at 0(0.0) has a fixed muzzle speed and a variable angle of elevation. as shown in the diagram. At the same instant.
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is probably quite new except in the context of quadratics. and so is the yintercept of the graph. and a variety of alternati ve approaches are developed through these sections. graphs are drawn in Section 4B . where the coefficients ao.. . They have occurred routinely throughout the course so far. 4A The Language of Polynomials Polynomials are expressions like the quadratic x 2 . The work in these sections may have been introduced at a more elementary level in earlier years. . to reinterpret all these ideas geometrically by examining curves defined by algebraic equations. The intention is first to study the interrelationships between their factorisation..1 + . so that every term is then a multiple akxk of a power of x in which the index k is a cardinal number. the remainder and factor theorems. The final Section 4G applies the methods of the chapter to geometrical problems about polynomial curves. This allows sigma notation to be used. Section 4F. their graphs. however. machine drawing of some of these examples may illuminate the wide variety of possible curves generated by polynomials.~x3 + 4x + 7. The constant term can also be written as aox o . and so on. circles and rectangular hyperbolas. and secondly.5x + 6 or the quartic 3x 4 .as always. an are constants. + alx + ao. Sections 4C4E concern the division of polynomials. STUDY NOTES: After the terminology of polynomials has been introduced in Section 4A.CHAPTER FOUR Polynomial Functions The primitive of a linear function is a quadratic. and n is a cardinal number. POLYNOMIALS: A polynomial function is a function that can be written as a sum: 1 P(x) = anx n + an_Ix n . aI.. but in order to speak about polynomials in general. our language and notation needs to be a little more systematic. which deals with the relationship between the zeroes and the coefficients. and their consequences. so ultimately the study even of linear functions must involve the study of polynomial functions of arbitrary degree. their zeroes and their coefficients. linear and quadratic functions are studied in great detail. This is the value of the polynomial at x = 0. but this chapter begins the systematic study of polynomials of higher degree.. The problem of factoring a given polynomial is common to Sections 4B4F. the primitive of a quadratic function is a cubic. In this course. and we can write . The term ao is called the constant term.
To overcome this. • Polynomials of higher degree are called cubics (degree 3).3x 4 = 2x 3 + x 2 . all constant polynomials have degree 0.. and therefore has no leading term.x + . It has a constant term O.. • A constant polynomial is a polynomial whose only term is the constant term. x an an an Some Names of Polynomials: Polynomials of low degree have standard names. Notice that the coefficient of x 2 must be nonzero for the degree to be 2. however.. P(x) = 4. A monic polynomial is a polynomial whose leading coefficient is 1. which is written as 'degF(x) = 6'. P( x) = x 3 . Careful readers may notice that aoxo is undefined at x = o. so that every real number is a zero of the zero polynomial. leading coefficient 5 and degree 6. • A linear polynomial is a polynomial whose graph is a straight line: P(x)=4x3. and most importantly. quartics (degree 4). Q(x) = t. Linear polynomials have degree 1 when the coefficient of x is nonzero. Apart from the zero polynomial. Notice that every polynomial is a multiple of a monic polynomial: anx n + anIx nl . .3x + 4 is monic. It is also quite exceptional in that its graph is the xaxis. • The zero polynomial Z( x) = 0 is a special case. and are equal to their leading term and to their leading coefficient. the polynomial P( x) = 5x 6 . But it has no term with a nonzero coefficient.2X2 .X + 9 has leading term 5x 6 .. for example. no leading coefficient. quintics (degree 5). • A polynomial of degree 2 is called a quadratic polynomial: P(x)=3x 2 +4x1. and questions involving sigma notation are usually best converted into the longer notation before proceeding. Z(x)=O. the convention is made that the term aoxo is interpreted as ao before any substitution is performed. no degree. + .CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 4A The Language of Polynomials 139 P(x) =L k=O n akxk. and so on.Xnl + . we will need such notation. R(x)=9x2. Z(x)=O. NOTE: Leading Term and Degree: The term of highest index with nonzero coefficient is called the leading term. Such notation is very elegant. and are constant polynomials when the coefficient of x is zero. In the next chapter. but it can also be confusing. R(x) = 7r. for example. This means that rewriting the quadratic x 2 + 3x + 2 as x 2 + 3xI + 2x o causes a problem at x = o. R(x) = 2.. Q(x) = ~x. Its coefficient is called the leading coefficient and its index is called the degree. anI al a + . + alx + ao = an (n + . For example.o ) . Q(x)=_~xx2.
.
3)2 = X4 . state: (i) the degree. d and e ifax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 + dx + e == (x 2  3)2. x(x + 2)2(x .ex 2 + 7rX 3 (k) 5 x2 (1)  x+1 2. (v) whether or not the polynomial is monic.6x 3 (e) x 2(x . (ii) the leading coefficient. for all x. written as P(x) == Q(x). x = 2 and x = 2. The solutions of a polynomial equation are called roots. the corresponding coefficients in the two polynomials must all be equal. Notice that the quadratic factor x 2 + x + 1 has no zeroes. b = 0.5x + 1) . Expanding. Now comparing coefficients. using the polynomial in the previous paragraph. so the solutions are x = 0. (a) 3x 2 . Solving polynomial equations and factoring polynomial functions are very closely related. b. because its discriminant is ~ = 3. we can form the equation x 7 + x 6 . (x 2 . IDENTICALLY EQUAL POLYNOMIALS: Two polynomials P(x) and Q(x) are called identically equal.6x 2 + 9. (a) 4x 3 + 7x 2 11 (d) x 12 (g) (b) 10 . If P(x) (a) (b) = 5x + 2 and Q(x) = x 2 P(x) + Q(x) (c) Q(x) + P(x) (d) 3x + 1. whereas the zeroes of a polynomial function are the values of x where the value of the polynomial is zero. (iv) the constant term.CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 4A The Language of Polynomials 141 Identically Equal Polynomials: We need to be quite clear what is meant by saying that two polynomials are the same. d = ° and e = 9.2) (i) 6x 7 .P(x) . if they are equal for all values of x: 4 P(x) == Q(x) means P(x) = q(x). For example.(2 x 5 + 1)(5 + 3x 2) (c) 2 (f) (x 2 .Q(x) Q(x) . using the factoring of the previous paragraph. ° Exercise 4A 1. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Find a. c.x 3 ) ° 3. State whether or not the following are polynomials. The distinction between the words is not always strictly observed. Polynomial Equations: If P( x) is a polynomial.2) (h) x(x 3 . find: (e) P(x)Q(x) (f) Q(x )P(x) P(x) . a = 1.8x 4 + 8x 3 + 16x 2 + 16x = 0.3x)(1.2)2(X 2 + X + 1) = 0.7x 5 .4x . For each polynomial. (iii) the leading term.1 (g) (x+1)3 13 (h) 7x + 3x 4 (i) loge x (j) ±x3 .x 2(X 2 .7x 1 (b) +x x2 (c)Jx2 (d) 3x 3 2  5x + 11 (e) V3x2+VsX (f) 2 x . Expand the polynomial first where necessary. c = 6. For two polynomials to be equal. For example. then the equation formed by setting P( x) = is a polynomial equation.4x 6 .
(a) If P(x) is even. .3b)x 7 (c) a(x1)2+b(x1)+c=:x2 (a) ax 2 + bx + c =: 3x 2 . show. We have assumed in the notes above that if two polynomials P( x) and Q( x) are equal for all values of x (that is. 13. Q( x) = x 2 . Find the values of a. P(x). Suppose that P(x) = ax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 + dx + e and P(3x) =: P(x). (a) Show that if P(x) = ax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 + dx + e is even. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 14. 4 (a) Show that 81ax 4 + 27bx 3 + 9cx 2 + 3dx + e =: ax + bx 3 + cx 2 + dx (b) Hence show that P( x) is a constant polynomial. leading coefficient. then b = d (c) Give a general statement of the situation in parts (a) and (b). (a) What can be said about two polynomials if they are multiplicative inverses. Q(x). 15. giving reasons for your answers. For the polynomial (a .1). then b = d = o. (a) x 3 8x 2 20x (b) 2x 4 _x 3 _x 2 7. Factor the following polynomials completely. Real numbers a and b are said to be multiplicative inverses if ab = ba = l. (d) the zero polynomial. (b) of degree 0. (b) Explain why differentiating k times and substituting x = 0 proves that the coefficients of xk are equal. and state all the zeroes. Indicate whether the following statements (c) If R(x) is odd. + e. which have a sum of degree O. then P'(x) is odd. are true or false. band c if: =: 2x2 + 8x + 6 3 + (5c . Here is a proof using calculus. (a) The polynomials is the degree of: (b) What differences (c) Give an example are all equal. then their degrees are equal and their corresponding coefficients are equal.4)x + (2 . if their graphs are the same). (ii) P(x) + Q(x)? would it make if P(x )and Q( x) both had the same degree p? of two polynomials.142 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 4. then S(x) is even. 8. (b) If Q'(x) is even.3x the LHS and RHS. then Q(x) is odd. (a) Explain why substituting x = 0 proves that the constant terms are equal. If P( x) = 5x + 2. both of degree 2.4x + 1 2 +(2a+b)x=:7xx 2 (d) a(x + 2)2 + b(x + 3)2 + c(x + 4)2 (b) (ab)x (a) of degree 3. by expanding separately (a) P(x)(Q(x) + R(x)) = P(x)Q(x) + P(x)R(x) (b) (P(x)Q(x))R(x) = P(x)(Q(x)R(x)) (c) (P(x) + Q(x)) + R(x) = P(x) + (Q(x) + R(x)) 5. (d) If S'(x) is odd. R(x) and S(x) are polynomials. = f = o. and p oF q. (b) Explain why a polynomial of degree 2: 1 cannot have a multiplicative inverse. (b) Show that if Q(x) = ax 5 + bx 4 + cx 3 + dx 2 + ex + f is odd. Express each of the following polynomials as a multiple of a monic polynomial: (a) 2x2 . band c if it is: 10. and constant term 9. that: + 1 and R( x) = 2x2  3. (c) of degree 7 and monic. (c) x 4 5x 2 36 (d) x 3 8 (e) x481 (f) x 6 1 P( x) and Q( x) have degrees p and q respectively. find the values of a. 12. Write down the monic polynomial whose degree. then R'(x) is even. What (i) P(x)Q(x).3x + 4 (b) 3x 3 6x 2 5x+1 (c) 2x 5 + 7x4 .4x (d) ~x34x+16 _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ + 11 6. 11.
whose domain is all real numbers. then P(x) 7 00 on either the left or right side. Let then As x P(x) an. how does the graph behave near its various xintercepts? We will not be concerned here with further questions about turning points and inflexions which are not zeroes. On the other hand. should it be required. • As x 7 00. BEHAVIOUR OF POLYNOMIALS FOR LARGE 5 x: Suppose that P( x) is a polynomial of degree at least 1 with leading term anxn. This section will concentrate on two main concerns. . xn Hence for large positive x. P( x) must cross the xaxis somewhere. and P(x) 7 00 if an is negative.7 when n is odd. P(x) 700 if an is positive. P( x) has the same sign as an when n is even. Hence. We know already that the graph of any polynomial function will be a continuous and differentiable curve. given the full factorisation of the polynomial. but P( x) behaves in the opposite way if the degree is odd. and P( x) 7 00 on the other side. but is negligible compared with the far bigger negative values of the term x 3 • Hence P(x) 7 00 as x 7 00. every polynomial of odd degree has a graph that disappears off diagonally opposite corners. P(x) behaves the same as when x 7 00 if the degree is even. First. Here is the general situation. the cubic graph sketched on the right below is P(x) = x3  4x = x(x  2)(x + 2). P(x) has the same sign as an. For example. • It follows that every polynomial of odd degree has at least one zero. only two zeroes could ever be removed. how does the graph behave for large positive and negative values of x? Secondly. A. Being continuous. . and the opposite sign to an 7 00 or x 7 00. being a continuous function. For large negative x.. it must therefore be zero somewhere. Clearly the leading term dominates proceedings as x but here is a more formal proof. • As x 7 00. but is completely swamped by the positive values of the degree 3 term x 3 . and which possibly intersects the xaxis at one or more points.CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 4B Graphs of Polynomial Functions 143 4B Graphs of Polynomial Functions A lot of work has already been done on sketching polynomial functions. Our example actually has three zeroes. B. The Graphs of Polynomial Functions: It should be intuitively obvious that for large positive and negative values of x. the behaviour of the curve is governed entirely by the sign of its leading term. but however much it were raised or lowered or twisted. Hence P( x) 7 00 as x 7 00. 7 00 PROOF: and as x 7 00. If P(x) is a polynomial of odd degree. the term 4x is positive. In the same way. the degree 1 term 4x is negative. for large negative values of x. x For large positive values of x.
P(x) 6 = (x .2 corresponding to the factor (x + 2)3 of odd degree. but not around x = 0 where the factor x 2 has even degree. and a turning point on the xaxis at x = 0 corresponding to the factor x 2 of even degree . A zero of multiplicity 1 is called a simple zero. • If x = Q is a simple zero. then the curve crosses the xaxis at x = Q and is not tangent to the xaxis there. • If x = Q has even multiplicity. the zero x = 0 is called a double zero. and the zero x MULTIPLE ZEROES: = 2 is called Q a simple zero. and Q.2) is called a triple zero. 1 2 3 3 2 1 0 9 0 27 0 1125 y The function changes sign around x = 2 and x = 2. and does not cross the xaxis there. x Multiple Zeroes: Some machinery is needed to describe the situation.Q)mQ(x). where Q(x) is not divisible by x  Then x = Q is called a zero of multiplicity m. showing the behaviour near any xintercepts: (a) P(x)=(x1)2(x2) (b) Q(x) = x 3(x + 2)4(x 2 + X + 1) (c) R(x) = 2(x  2)2(x + 1)5(x  1) . then its zeroes can be read off very quickly. Behaviour at Simple and Multiple Zeroes: In general: MULTIPLE ZEROES AND THE SHAPE OF THE CURVE: Suppose that x = Q is a zero of a 7 polynomial P(x). for example. • If x = Q has odd multiplicity at least 3. Y = x 3 and y = x4. The zero x = 2 of the polynomial P(x) = (x + 2)3 x2(X . where the associated factors (x + 2)3 and (x . and a zero of multiplicity greater than 1 is called a multiple zero. although the result is fairly obvious by comparison with the known graphs of y = x 2. The curve has a horizontal inflexion on the xaxis at x = . Sketching the curves at the outset seems more appropriate than maintaining logical order. Here. the curve is tangent to the xaxis at x = Q. Suppose that x  is a factor of a polynomial P( x). Because the proof relies on the factor theorem.144 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Zeroes and Sign: If the polynomial can be completely factored. WORKED EXERCISE: Sketch.proving this will require calculus. it cannot be presented until Section 4E (where it is proven as Consequence G of the factor theorem).2) have odd degrees. and our earlier methods would then have called for a table of test values to decide its sign. the curve has a point of inflexion on the xaxis at x = Q. is the table of test values and the sketch of P(x) x y = (x + 2)3 x2(x 45 0 2).
x 2)(X 2 . clearly indicating all intercepts with the axes.x 2) _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 5. sketch graphs of the following polynomial functions. stating how many zeroes there are. Without the aid of calculus. Without the aid of calculus.10) < 0 . clearly indicating all intercepts with the axes: (a) P(x) =2 (b) P(x) =x (c) P(x) =x 4 (d) P(x) =3 2x 2.x) 4.10) 7.4) (h) y=x 2(1x) (e) y=x(2x+1)(x5) (f) y=(1x)(1+x)(2+x) (i) y = (2 .7)(x + 3) F(x)=x2(x+4)(x3) (f) (g) (h) (i) F(x) = (x + 2)3(X . (a) y = x2  3x + 1 (b) y 1 2 3 4 = 1 + 3x  x3 1 0 o 123 6.3)2(X + 1)2 F(x) = (1 . sketch graphs of the following quartic polynomials. (c) P(x) = x(2x + 3)3(1. and sketch a graph. clearly indicating all intercepts with the axes: (a) P(x)=x 2 (b) P(x)=(x1)(x+3) (c) P(x)=(X2)2 (d) P(x)=9x 2 (e) P(x)=2x 2 +5x3 (f) P( x) = 4 + 3x .x 2)(X 2 . x 2 y + X + 1 is irreducible.CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 46 Graphs of Polynomial Functions 145 SOLUTION: In part (b).2)3(x + 1)2 > 0 (c) x(2x + 3)3(1 . (a) (c) x x x Exercise 48 1.3x . clearly indicating all intercepts with the axes: (a) y=x 3 (b) y=x 3 +2 (c) y=(x_4)3 (d) y=(x1)(x+2)(x3) (g) y = (2x + 1)2(x .2)3(x + 1)2 (b) P(x) = (x + 2)2(3 .x)4 (a) P(x) = x(x . Without the aid of calculus.x)2(1 . (a) x(x . Without the aid of calculus. sketch graphs of the following linear polynomials. These polynomials are not factored.5) F(x) = (2x . Without the aid of calculus. Copy and complete each tables of values. sketch graphs of the following quadratic polynomials. clearly indicating all intercepts with the axes: (a) (c) (d) (e) F(x)=x 4 (b) F(x)=(x+2)4 F(x) = x(3x + 2)(x . because tl = (b) y 1 4 < O.X)4 2: 0 (b) (x + 2)2(3 . sketch graphs of the following cubic polynomials. and between which integers they lie.X)3(x .3x .X)3 2: 0 (d) (x + 1)(4 .x)2(5 .x)(x + 5)(x .3) F(x) = (2 . but the positions of their zeroes can be found by trial and error.X)3 (d) P(x) = (x + 1)(4 .x 2 3. Use the graphs drawn in the previous question to solve the following inequalities.3)(x + 2) F(x) = (1 .
0).5x) . You will not be able to find the xintercepts or yintercepts accurately. (a) Sketch graphs of the following polynomials. Without using calculus.1 and 2. draw graphs of the derivatives of each of the polynomials in part (a). and arguments based on translations. Sketch.146 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 8. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 16.1) (iv) V(x)=(x+3)(x+l)2(x+4) 9. and has one zero at x = 2. over 7r = x(x . (b) Hence by translating or reflecting this graph. (ii) Hence prove that if £. (a) Prove that every odd polynomial function is zero at x = 0. then I is the midpoint of AB. [Every cubic has odd symmetry in its point of inflexion. then the midpoint of the interval joining them is the point of inflexion. By making a suitable substitution.13x 2 + 36 (b) P(x) = 4x4 13x 2 + 9 13.2)(x .6).3)3(X .7) (ii) F(x) (b) Without the aid of calculus.x) (iv) F(x) = x 2(x . (b) Prove that every odd polynomial P( x) is divisible by x. 10. and passes through the point (1. (a) Without using calculus. (c) Suppose that G(x) is a primitive of F(x).4)(x + 1) = (x 1)2(x + 3) < X < 7r: (a) y = cos x (b) y = cos 2 X (c) Y = cos 3 x 15.2)2(x + 1) (ii) Q(x)=x(x2)2(x+l) (iii) U(x) = (x . 11.24 (d) P(x) = (x 2 3x+l)24(x 23x+l)5 12. (c) P(x) = (x 2 . is a line through the origin crossing the curve again at A and B. Consider the polynomial P(x) = ax 5 + bx 4 + ex 3 + dx 2 + ex + f. 6) and the xaxis at (3. to prove that if £. Do not use calculus to find further turning points. For each of the polynomials in part (a). (c) Prove that if a cubic has turning points. ( a) What condition on the coefficients is satisfied if P( x) is: (i) even. (i) F(x) 14. sketch the following functions: + (i) R(x) = x(x .5x)2 . (c) Find the odd quintic with zeroes at x = 1 and x = 2 and leading coefficient 3. (ii) odd? (b) Find the monic. At what points do the graphs of the polynomials f(x) and g(x) intersect? [HINT: Consider the cases where m and n are odd and even. (a) P(x) = x4 . (a) Find the monic quadratic polynomial that crosses the yaxis at (0. (c) Find the polynomial P( x) that is known to be monic.2)2(x 1). state for what values of x the function G( x) is increasing and decreasing. sketch graphs showing all intercepts with the axes. (b) Find the quadratic polynomial that has a minimum value of 3 when x = 2.4)2(x . (iii) F(x) = x(x + 3)2(5 . clearly labelling all intercepts with the axes. and hence that f (x) is an odd function.] (a) Suppose that the origin is the point of inflexion of f(x) = ax 3 + bx 2 + ex + d. even quartic that has yintercept 9 and a zero at x = 3. sketch a graph of the function P(x) = x(x . (c) Find the cubic polynomial that has zeroes 0. (i) Prove that b = d = 0.] = (x + It = (x + l)m .2(x2 . and in which the coefficient of x 3 is 2. (b) Use part (a). is a line through the point of inflexion I crossing the curve again at A and B. then 0 is the midpoint of the interval AB. factor the following polynomials. of degree 3. and an odd function.
[The motivation for this question is the power series eX = 1 + I" + . 4C Division of Polynomials The previous exercise had examples of adding. as in 23 . (c) Suppose that n is even. The number 12 is called the divisor. (ii) Show that En(x) has exactly one point of inflexion. subtracting and multiplying polynomials.. The result of the division can be written as \927 = 16 152 . show that En( n) < o.1 (x) + . but we can avoid fractions completely by writing the result as: 197 1 6 remainder 5 121197 12 77 72 5 = 12 X 16 + 5.+ . + .. 2. 197 is called the dividend. 3. The division of one polynomial by another. there is a very close analogy between the set Z of all integers and the set of all polynomials.5 = 4~... xn X x2 x3 x4 For each integer n > 0. (d) Suppose that n is odd. and 5 is called the remainder. and has exactly one zero. for all x. let En(x) = 1 + I" (a) Show that: (i) En(x) + .. For example. everything works nicely for addition. and concave up. 1. but the results of division do not usually lie within the set.1 (x) an (b) Show that if x =a is a zero of En'(x). for all x..2. But usually. 6x 3 + 4x 2 .. + . (iv) Show that the inflexion is above the xaxis. (i) Show that every stationary point of En (x) lies above the xaxis. The Division Algorithm for Integers: On the right is an example of the wellknown long division algorithm for integers. n.CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 4C Division of Polynomials 147 17. (i) Show that En (x) is increasing for all x. applied here to 197 . however.. division results in rational functions. requires some explanation. operations which are quite straightforward. subtraction and multiplication. then En(a) = . In both cases.+ . n. Division of Polynomials: It can happen that the quotient of two polynomials is again a polynomial. for example. J 1. although 20 . (iii) By factoring in pairs.5 = 4 is an integer. . n. xn X x2 x3 = E n .4..9 ::2x + = X +4  2 9 2 x and x +4 x+3 = 1+. . + . + .9x = 2x2 + ix 3x 3 3 and x 2 + 4x x+5 5 =x _ 1. (ii) En'(x) = E n . x+3 1 In this respect. (iii) Show that En(x) has one stationary point. (ii) Show that En(x) is positive.12. the division of two integers usually results in a fraction rather than an integer.3. which is a minimum turning point.. not polynomials: x4 4x 2 .... 16 is called the quotient.
2 by (divide x into 2x 3 .2 by 12 and then subtract) (this is the final remainder) (divide x into 3x\ (multiply x . or.4x 3 + 4x .4x + 4 (divide x 2 into 6x 2 ... writing the result using rational functions. THE METHOD OF LONG DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS: 9 • At each step. with d > o.. 3x 4 . divide the leading term of the remainder by the leading term of the divisor.2 by 4x and then subtract) (divide x into 12x.4x 3 x + 4x ..8 by: (a) x .2 Give results first in the standard manner.4x 3 + 4x . The Division Algorithm for Polynomials: The method of dividing one polynomial by another is similar to the method of dividing integers. WORKED EXERCISE: Divide 3x 4 .6x 3 2x 3 2x 3  + 4x 2 4x 2 4x 2 4x 4x  8 8 + + 4x .148 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 The remainder 5 had to be less than 12.8 12x . x2 x2 2 .4x 3 + 6x 2 + 4x . giving the 4x above) .12 6x 2 .8 (divide x 2 into 3x 4 . Continue the process for as long as possible. When the remainder r is zero.4x 3 + 4x .2 by 4x and then subtract) 6x 2 . giving the 3x 2 above) 2 . (a) The steps have been annotated to explain the method.2 by (divide x into 4x 2 .= 3x 3 + 2x2 + 4x + 12 + .4x . then using rational functions.. express the answer in the form dividend = divisor X quotient + remainder. r < d.. giving the 3x 3 above) 3x 3 and then subtract) giving the 2X2 above) 2X2 and then subtract) Hence 3x 4 .8 16 .8 = (x . (multiply x .2)(3x 3 + 2X2 + 4x + 12) + 16. and the integer p factors into the product p = d X q. 3x 3 + 2x2 + 4x + 12 (leave a gap for the missing term in x 2 ) SOLUTION: x . giving the 6 above) (multiply x 2 . Then there are unique integers q (the quotient) and r (the remainder) such that 8 p = dq +r and o ::.6x 3x 4 (multiply x 2 .4x 3 + 8x (multiply x 2 .213x4 .2 by 6 and then subtract) (this is the final remainder) .8 (divide x 2 into 4x 3 . giving the 12 above) (multiply x .. otherwise the division process could have been continued.8 ..2 by 3x 2 and then subtract) . • Unless otherwise specified.24 16 giving the 4x above) (multiply x . Thus the general result for division of integers can be expressed as follows: DIVISION OF INTEGERS: Suppose that p (the dividend) and d (the divisor) are integers.4x + 6 (b) 3x 2 .8 8x 12x .2 (b) x 2 .213x4 .4x 3 3x 4 . then d is a divisor of p.
and write the result in the form p = dq + r.4x 3 + 4x .4) (g) (6X4 .3x . then D(x) is called a divisor of P(x). For example. 2.2 was the constant polynomial 16. • the remainder after division by the degree 2 polynomial x 2 . or + 4). P(x) = D(x)Q(x) 10 + R(x). What are the possi ble degrees of D (x)? . Express the answers to parts (a)(d) of the previous question in rational form. Express each result in the form P(x) = D(x)Q(x) + R(x).5x 3 + 9x 2 . and hence find the pnmltIVe of the quotient D(x) .4x 2 .4x 2 + 7x + 14) 7 (2x + 1) (f) (x4+x3. in the two worked exercises above: • the remainder after division by the degree 1 polynomial x . and the polynomial P(x) factors into the product P(x) = D(x) X Q(x).2) 7 (5x + 2) (d) (2x 3 .10x 2 + 7x + 9) 7 (x 2 .5x 4 + 12x 3 .x 3 + 3x 2 .O.4x + 6 + x2 _ 2 .4x + 6) + (4x 3x 4 . For example.x 2 .17 x + 24) 7 (x . Express each result in the form P(x) = D(x)Q(x) + R(x).. Use long division to perform each of the following divisions. Perform each of the following integer divisions.8 2 4x + 4 x2 _ 2 = 3x . either degR(x) < degD(x). (a) (x24x+1)7(x+1) (e) (4x 3 . = O. where 0 ::. Exercise 4C 1.4x 3 + 4x .X + 2) 5. The Division Theorem: The division process illustrated above can be continued until the remainder is zero or has degree less than the degree of the divisor. or R(x) When the remainder R(x) is zero. (a) (x 3 + x 2 . as P(x) R(x) .CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 4C Division of Polynomials 149 Hence 3x 4 . what are the possible degrees of the remainder? (b) On division by D( x). (a) 63 7 5 (b) 12578 (c) 324711 (d) 1857723 2. (a) If the divisor of a polynomial has degree 3. 4.3) 3. Use long division to perform each of the following divisions. r < d.8 = (x 2 .1) (b) (x 3 . a polynomial has remainder R( x) of degree 2.8x + 2) 7 (2x .6x + 5) 7 (x . Thus the general result for polynomial division is: DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS: Suppose that P( x) (the dividend) and D( x) (the divisor) are polynomials with D(x) i.2x + 3) 7 (x 2 .1) (c) (x (h) (10x4 .x 25x3)7(x1) (b) (x 2 .2 was the linear polynomial 4x + 4.5) 3 .14) 7 (x .7x + 6) 7 (x 2 + 3x . Then there are unique polynomials Q(x) (the quotient) and R( x) (the remainder) such that 1. . .5x + 3) (c) (x 4 3x 3 +x 2 7x+3)7(x 2 4x+2) (d) (2x 5 . 30 = 4 X 7 + 2.2)(3x2 . that is.10x 2 + 15x . P(x) D(x) = Q(x) + D(x) .
_ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 14. For example 51 and 44 are relatively prime. (b) Find the values of x for which P( x) > o.2) (d) (2x4 .1) (b) (2x 3 +x 2 11)T(x+1) (e) (2 x 3_3)T(2x4) 3 . If x4 . (b) Division of the polynomial P( x) by D( x) results in the quotient Q( x) and remainder R( x).3) T (x 2 + 1) Write the answers to parts ( c) and (f) above in rational form. needed throughout the calculations. the remainder will still be R( x). 12. (a) Use long division to show that F(x) = 2X4 + 3x 3 . that is.3 X 44 = 19( 51 .x 3 + x 2 . (a) Write down the division identity statement when 30 T 4 and 30 T 7.llx . (b) Find the values of x for which F( x) ~ o.20x 2 + ax + b is exactly divisible by x 2 .12x2 .1.5. Express your answer in the form f( x) = d( x )q( x) + r( x). (b) Find a and b if x4 .x 2 + 4x .2X2 .2) T (3x .2x 3 + x 2 + 8x .2x 3 . Repeated use of the division identity leads to: Reversing these steps leads to: 1=73x2 51 = 44 44 X 1+ 7 = 7 X 6 +2 =7 3(44. (b) Hence find the values of a and b such that x4 .7 X 6) X = 19 X 7=3x2+1 7 .2) T (x 2 + 3x . (a) Use long division to divide the polynomial f(x) = x4 _x 3+x 2 x+ 1 by the polynomial d( x) = x 2 + 4.2x 3 + x 2 + ax + b is exactly divisible by x 2 + X .5x + 7 is divided by x 2 + X . (a) Use long division to show that P(x) = x 3 + 2x2 . (c) Hence factor x4 . If a and b are relatively prime it is possible to find integers x and y such that ax + by = 1.5x + 3) T (x .4x . 13. 9.3x 2 + 5x .3. (a) (x 3 .2.1) (c) (x3.x 3 + x 2 + ax + b is divisible by x 2 + 4. P(x) D(x) = Q(x) + D(x)' and hence find the pnmItIVe of the quotIent D(x)· 7.12 is divisible by x . Express each result in the form P(x) = D(x )Q(x) + R(x).12.150 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 6.2x 3 + x 2 . Find the quotient and remainder in each of the following divisions. .22 X 44 44 . Fractions will be (a) (x2+4x+7)T(2x+1) (b) (6x 3 . .44 xl) .7x + 6 is divisible by x 2 . (a) Find the quotient and remainder when x4 .3 = 19 X 51 . Show that if P( x) is divided by Q( x). and hence express P(x) as the product of three linear factors.X .x 2+x+1)T(2x3) 8.5x + 2. (c) Hence factor x4 . Take care to ensure that the columns line up correctly. find a and b. 10.5x 2 + X . Two integers are said to be relatively prime if their highest common factor is 1. in the form P(x) R(x) . Use long division to perform each of the following divisions. What is the quotient? 11.4) T (x 2 + 2) (c) (x (f) (x 5 + 3x 4 . and hence express F( x) as the product of four linear factors..1.
Substituting x = 0: gives P(o:) = (0: . Q'(x).0: is a polynomial of degree 1. . which we can simply write as r. substituting x = 2 into P(x). .2: (a) by long division.4x 3 + 4x .o:)Q(x) + r.8 = (x  2)(3x 3 + 2x2 + 4x + 12) + 16.0: is P( 0:). where p.8 = 16. r < d and 0 ::. and rearranging. D(x). where P(x).o:)Q(o:) + r r = P( 0:). rand r' are integers with d of 0. q'. 15. the factor theorem gi ves a simple test as to whether a particular linear function is a factor or not. It is therefore very useful to have the remainder and factor theorems. that is. performing the division showed that SOLUTION: 3x 4 . the division theorem tells us that there are unique polynomials Q( x) and R( x) such that and Hence R( x) is a zero or nonzero constant. Then the remainder after division of P( x) by x . Alternatively. Prove that q = q' and r = r'. Q(x). WORKED EXERCISE: o:)Q(x) + R(x).8 is divided by x . d. 11 THE REMAINDER THEOREM: Suppose that P( x) is a polynomial and 0: is a constant. and where 0 ::.CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 40 The Remainder and Factor Theorems 151 (a) Use this method to find integers a and b such that 87a + 19b = 1 (b) Find polynomials A(x) and B(x) such that 1 = A(x)(x2 x)+B(x)(x 4+4x 2 4x+4). as expected. (b) Suppose that P(x) = D(x)Q(x) + R(x) and P(x) = D(x)Q'(x) + R'(x). Prove that Q(x) = Q'(x) and R(x) = R'(x). remainder = P(2) (this is the remainder theorem) = 48 . allows the remainder to be calculated without the long division being performed. Find a and b.32 + 8 . as required. that the remainder is 16. r' < d. In the previous worked exercise. q. WORKED EXERCISE: The polynomial P( x) = x4 . and so P(x) = (x . either R(x) = 0 or degR(x) = O. 4D The Remainder and Factor Theorems Long division of polynomials is a cumbersome process. In particular. (b) by the remainder theorem. The Remainder Theorem: The remainder theorem is a remarkable result which. P(x) = (x  Find the remainder when 3x 4 . and where R(x) and R' (x) each has degree less than D( x) or is the zero polynomial. PROOF: Since x . R(x) and R'(x) are polynomials with D(x) of 0. and has remainder 5 after division by x + 1.4x 3 + 4x .2x 3 + ax + b has remainder 3 after division by xI. which provide information about the results of that division without the division actually being carried out. [The uniqueness of integer division and polynomial division 1 (a) Suppose that p = dq + rand p = dq' + r'. in the case of linear divisors.
• Then use long division to factor P(x) in the form P(x) = (x . But x . This is a very quick and easy test as to whether x .a)Q(x)... ° Factoring Polynomials . P(I) a =3 (1) 12+a+b=3 + b = 4. ao are all integers. ) and so ao is an integer multiple of a.an_Ia n . P(3) SOLUTION: = 27  18 +3  P( 1) = 1 .  al . Let P(x) = anx n + an_lX n . then all the integer zeroes of P( x) are divisors of the constant term.12 = 16 Long division of P(x) = x3  so x . = 1 . 2a Also P(I) =5 1+2 .1 .a being a factor means that the remainder after division by x .+ ... 2x2 + X . where the coefficients an. Then x .. anI.ala ° ° = a ( ana nl .6.a is a factor if and only if f( a) = 0. FACTORING POLYNOMIALS THE INITIAL APPROACH: 13 • Use trial and error to find an integer zero x = a of P(x).12. Then use long division to factor the polynomial completely.The Initial Approach: The factor theorem gives us the beginnings of an approach to factoring polynomials. WORKED EXERCISE: Show that x .1 . + ala + ao = ao = ana n . and since . and x + 1 is not.3 is a factor.1 + .. This approach will be further refined in the next two sections. 2b subtracting them. and let x = a be an integer zero of P( x).. + b = 5 + b = 8.a a (2) Adding (1) and (2).3 is a factor of P( x) = x 3 .16 = 15 < for the quadratic.2 . PROOF: We must prove the claim that if the coefficients of P( x) are integers. = 12... Hence a = 6 and b = 2.a is a factor of P(x) or not.. so x + 1 is not a factor. + alx + ao.12 by x .3)(x 2 + X + 4). then every integer zero of P( x) is a divisor of the constant term.a is zero..3 (which we omit) gives 12 = 0.152 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 SOLUTION: Applying the remainder theorem for each divisor. If the coefficients of P( x) are all integers. The Factor Theorem: The remainder theorem tells us that the number P( a) is just the remainder after division by xa. aI. . . so: 12 THE FACTOR THEOREM: Suppose that P( x) is a polynomial and a is a constant. .. n n 1 Substituting into P(a) = gives ana + an_Ia . ::f 0. = 4. P(x) = (x .2X2 + X . this factorisation is complete.anIa n2 .
1. You do not need to find any other turning points. P(1) = 1 + 1 . Let Q(x) = x 3 + 2x2 .1 is divided by x . express P( x) in terms of three linear factors and hence solve P(x) 2 0. (c) When the polynomial P( x) = 2x 3 . (a) Show that P( x) = 2x 3 .4x + 5 is divided by: (a) 2x . NOTE: In the next two sections we will develop methods that will often allow long division to be avoided. find which of the following are factors of F(x) = x 3 + 4x 2 + X . x.1)(x . (b) By considering the leading term and constant term.2.3.3 and x + 1. find the remainder when P( x) = x 3 + 2X2 . the remainder is 2.13x . Without division. (b) Find m. P(x) = (x 1)(x 3 + 2x2 .3 and 2x + 1. After long division (omitted).4 = 0.CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 40 The Remainder and Factor Theorems 153 WORKED EXERCISE: Factor P( x) = x4 + x3  9x 2 + 11x  4 completely. if . P(x) = (x . Without division.2 5.12x .4). Again after long division (omitted).x 2 . that is 1. 4. Factoring the quadratic.9 + 11 . = 0.35x 2 . if x  3x 2 + kx . find the remainder when P(x) = x3  x 2 + 2x + 1 is divided by: (a) (b) (a) x.2 divisible by x + 1? _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ +3 1 is a factor of P(x) = x 3 (b) 2x ( c) 3x . Find p.7x + 4. indicating all intercepts with the axes.x 2 + px .1 is a factor.2 is a zero of the function F( x) = x 3 + mx 2 . Factor each of the following polynomials and sketch a graph. (a) Show that P( x) 8x 2 + 9x + 18 is divisible by x . express P( x) in terms of three linear factors and hence solve P( x) :::. then Q(1) = 1 + 2 . the only integer zeroes are the divisors of the constant term 4. = x3  6. (b) By considering the leading term and constant term.5 (f) x + 3 2.1 4. (a) Find k.3x + 4. 2.6. (d) For what value of a is 3x 4 + ax 2 . P(x) = (x . 0.1)3(x + 4).2 (d) x + 2 (e) x.3 (c) (d) (c) x x +2 +1 (e) x.7 + 4 so x .6 is divisible by x .1 x.7x + 4).1 (b) x + 1 x. 7. Without division.1 is a factor.1)(x 2 + 3x . (a) P(x)=x 3 +2x 2 5x6 (d) P(x)=x 4 x 3 19x 2 11x+30 (b) P(x)=x 3 +3x 2 25x+21 (e) P(x)=2x 3 +11x 2 +10x8 (c) P(x) = _x 3 + x 2 + 5x + 3 (f) P(x) = 3x 4 + 4x 3 .3 (f) x + 3 3. SOLUTION: Since all the coefficients are integers. so x . 2 and 4. Exercise 40 1.
the position of a particle moving along the xaxis is given by the equation x = t4 t 3 + 8t 2 . (a) If P(x) = 2x 3 + x 2 .5)x + 6.] . by evaluating P(l). Find the times at which the particle is stationary. (a) Express this in terms of a division identity statement. (d) Find p such that x . Solve the equations by first factoring the LHS: (a) x 3 +3x 2 6x8=0 (b) x 3 4x 2 3x+18=0 (c) x 3 + x 2 . where n is a positive integer? 17. 10.t = o. \7 12. (c) When a polynomial P( x) is divided by x 2 . (b) Hence determine the highest monic common factor of P( x). Express P( x) in factored form. find the value of t.t2) is 3 x + ty . Find b. (a) When a polynomial is divided by (2x + l)(x . (b) Hence. evaluate P (. (a) Is either x (b) Is either x + 1 or x + a or x  1 a factor of xn + 1. (a) The polynomial 2x 3 .3x 2 + 4.1.] (b) The polynomial U(x) is divided by (x + 4)(x .13x + 6.5x . 3 and 3. the remainder is x + 4. (b) If P( x) = 6x 3 + x 2 . Q( x) and R(x)? Write the answer in factored form. Find a and b.3x . A polynomial is given by P( x) = x 3 + ax 2 + bx .p is a factor of 4x 3 . x2 .(lOp . [HINT: The remainder may have degree 1.1 and a remainder of 17 on division by x + 2. given that U( 4) = 11 and U(3) = 3. given that P(l) = 2 and P( 2) = 5. 11. (b) If the normal passes through the point (2. where n is a positive integer? a a factor of xn + an.2t . What is the remainder when the polynomial is divided by 2x + 1? (b) When x 5 + 3x 3 + ax + b is divided by x 2 .5. Q( x) and R( x). [HINT: Write down the division identity statement. When a polynomial is divided by (x .5). Use long division to express P(x) in factored form.7x + 2 = 0 (d) x 3 2x 2 2x3=0 (e) 6x 3 5x 2 12x4=0 (f) 2x4 + 11x 3 + 19x 2 + 8x . (c) P( x) is an odd polynomial of degree 3. find the remainder when the polynomial is divided by xI.5. (c) What is the monic polynomial of least degree that is exactly divisible by P( x).9 (b) Sketch a graph of y = P( x).~). the remainder is 3x . 16. e and d.7. if x + 2 is a factor (b) and 24 is the remainder when P(x) is divided by xI. (c) Hence solve .l)(x + 2). evaluate P a). Find P( x ). x 15.5x .2. (a) Factor each of the polynomials P( x) = x 3 . and when it is divided by x .1 )x 2 + (6p2 .6 and R( x) = x 3 .154 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 8.3). 18.> o. Find the remainder when P( x) + P( x) is divided by x 2 . the remainder is 2x . Find a and b.1.3). It has x + 4 as a factor. (a) The polynomial P( x) = x 3 + bx 2 + ex + d has zeroes at 0.18.l)(x + 3).x 2 + ax + b has a remainder of 16 on division by x .. Find a and b.1.4 = 0 9. At time t. Q( x) = x 3 + 2x2 . 13. 14. (a) The polynomial P(x) is divided by (x . Find the remainder. (a) Show that the equation of the normal to the curve x 2 = 4y at the point (2t. the remainder is 2x .3t + 5.3 the remainder is 21.2. Find the remainder.
. (b) Hence write down the general form of the equation of g( x) in factored form...CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 4E Consequences of the Factor Theorem 155 19. Use this fact to show that g(9) = 4. is added to the corresponding 2 . Several Distinct Zeroes: Suppose that several distinct zeroes of a polynomial have been found. the remainder is p3. ba terms are 1. a2. (c) Hence show that the nth term of S is given by Tn (b) Find a. the remainder is q3.. (d) In Exercise 4B. 22.. a + 2d.p. ba. 21. (a) If all the coefficients of a monic polynomial are integers. [HINT: Regard it as a polynomial in a.al)(x . given its two stationary pointsJ Let Yl cubic polynomial with stationary points at (6. you proved that a cubic has odd symmetry in its point of inflexion. (c) Find the value of g(6). 4E Consequences of the Factor Theorem The factor theorem has a number of fairly obvious but very useful consequences. 2 and 6. Then (x . 14 DISTINCT ZEROES: Suppose that a1. [Finding the equation of a cubic. . (f) Hence find the equation of the cubic through the stationary points (6.4 + (2t. whose first three term of the geometric sequence b. a + d.J (b) If all the coefficients of a polynomial are integers. (a) Write down the coordinates of the minimum turning point of g(x).q. (e) Hence use simultaneous equations to find a and k and the equation of g( x). [HINT: Look carefully at the proof under Box 13.12) and (12. (x .a2 .p)(x . (g) In Chapter Ten of the Year 11 volume. you solved this type of question by letting f( x) = ax 3 + bx 2 + ex + d and forming four equations in the four unknowns. Check your answer by this method.1 • _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 20. prove that all the rational zeroes are integers.4). given that a is real. = 2n .) (a) Show that a3 .(2) . When a polynomial is divided by x . (a) Use the remainder theorem to prove that a of a3 Then find the other factor. Let Y2 = f(x) = g(x) = f(x) be a ..q). Find the remainder when the polynomial is divided by (x . as are distinct zeroes of a polynomial P(x). A. (b) Factor ab3 ae 3 + be 3  ba 3 + ea 3  eb 3 . to form a third sequence S. . probably using test substitutions into the polynomial..4. Each term of an arithmetic sequence a.a + 10 = o.. prove that the denominators of all the rational zeroes (in lowest terms) are divisors of the leading coefficient.4). . (Note that the common ratio of the geometric sequence is equal to the first term of the arithmetic sequence. 23. When the polynomial is divided by x .12) and (12.as) is a factor of P(x)..J  + b + e is a factor + b3 + e3  3abe. which are presented here as six successive theorems.
02 is a factor of P1(X). and the polynomial is the product of distinct linear factors. WORKED EXERCISE: Factor P(x) = X4 .4 = 0..(2) . one rather than two long divisions is required.Os) is a factor of P( x).1)3(x + 4).. and P1(X) = (x .(2) . (x . 1.(2) . P(x) = (x l)(x . If the coefficients of P( x) are all integers. NOTE: The methods of the next section will allow this particular factoring to be done with no long divisions.4)(x 2 . FACTORING POLYNOMIALS FINDING SEVERAL ZEROES FIRST: 16 • Use trial and error to find as many integer zeroes of P( x) as possible.(1)(X . Then OJ.4 (omitted).Finding Several Zeroes First: If we can find more than one zero of a polynomial. the constant Q( x) must be the leading coefficient.144 . PI (02) must be zero.On) is a factor of P(x). (x . As before.(1)(X . divide P( x) by the product of the known factors.(2)P2(X). and the long divisions required can be reduced or even avoided completely. Since P( (2) = but 02 .4 completely. ·(x .(2) .1)2 = (x .x 3  7x 2 + X + 6 completely. 2. ..4. so the only integer zeroes are the divisors of the constant term 4.On). By the previous theorem. so xI is a factor. so Q(x) is a constant. After long division by (x .2x + 1). P( 1) = 1 + 1 . for some polynomial Q(x). The following worked exercise involves a polynomial that factors into distinct linear factors.(1)( X . (x . All Distinct Zeroes: If n distinct zeroes of a polynomial of degree n can be found. (x ..(1)(X .64 ..On) both have degree n. that is 1.l)(x + 4) = x 2 + 3x . When this procedure is applied to the polynomial factored in the previous section.01 is a factor.Odp1(X). PROOF: Factoring Polynomials . 02. x . Equating coefficients of x n . PROOF: Since ° 01 B. Continuing similarly for s steps. so P(x) = (x . .(1)P2(X). ALL DISTINCT ZEROES: Suppose that nomial P( x) of degree n. Factoring the quadratic. P(x) = (x 2 + 3x . so that nothing more than the factor theorem is required to complete the task.44 .. 2 and 4. On are n distinct zeroes of a poly 15 P(x) = a(x . and P(x) = (x . then the factorisation is complete. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Factor P( x) = x4 + x 3  9x 2 + 11x . P( 4) = 256 .(2) ... so x + 4 is a factor. then we have found a quadratic or cubic factor. then any integer zero of P( x) must be one of the divisors of the constant term..(1)(X ..on)Q(x). • Using long division. all the coefficients are integers.156 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 is a zero. But P(x) and (x ..9 + 11 .4) X (x . (x . where a is the leading coefficient of P( x).01 =I 0.4 = 0.od(x . Hence x . (x . and thus P(x) = (x .
F(x) is the zero polynomial. Then P( x) is the zero polynomial. 1. then by the first theorem above. C.7 . This is a contradiction. that is. NOTE: Once again.CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 4E Consequences of the Factor Theorem 157 SOLUTION: The divisors of the constant term 6 are 1.a )Z( x) (which is trivially true. 17 MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ZEROES: A polynomial of degree n has at most n zeroes.7 + 1 + 6 = 0. 2. We now have four distinct zeroes of a polynomial of degree 4.28 + 2 + 6 = 12 =I.2 + 6 = 0. PROOF: . Associated with this is the fact that x .a is a factor of Z( x) for all real values of a. It is the only polynomial with an infinite number of zeroes. and P(x) == Q(x). 3 and 6. Then the polynomials P(x) and Q(x) are identically equal. they are equal for all values of x.3. so x . A Condition for Two Polynomials to be Identically Equal: A most important consequence of this last theorem is a condition for two polynomials P( x) and Q(x) to be identically equal. It is no wonder then that the zero polynomial does not have a degree.1 .1 + 6 = 0. the zero polynomial Z(x) = is seen to be quite different in nature from all other polynomials. and is therefore the zero polynomial.3) (notice that P(x) is monic). it follows that F( x) is zero for at least n + 1 values of x.28 . so x + 2 is a factor.27 . so xI is a factor. A Vanishing Condition: The previous theorem translates easily into a condition for a polynomial to be the zero polynomial.0. so P( x) has no degree. The Maximum Number of Zeroes: If a polynomial of degree n were to have n +1 zeroes. P(2) = 16 . Let F(x) = P(x) . Since F(x) is zero whenever P(x) and Q(x) have the same value. it would be divisible by a polynomial of degree n + 1. Hence P(x) = (x . so x . in fact every real number is a zero of Z( x). A VANISHING CONDITION: 18 Suppose that P( x) is a polynomial in which no terms have degree more than n.2 is not a factor. D. so by the previous theorem. yet which is zero for at least n + 1 distinct values of x.Q(x). so x + 1 is a factor. P(3) = 81 .6. because both sides are zero for all x). ° E.63 + 3 + 6 = 0.1) (x + l)(x + 2)(x .3 is a factor. But the degree must also be at least n + 1 since there are n+ 1 distinct zeroes.2. AN IDENTICALLY EQUAL CONDITION: 19 Suppose that P(x) and Q(x) are polynomials of degree n which have the same values for at least n + 1 values of x. P( 1) = 1 + 1 . written as P(x) == Q(x). since Z( x) = (x .written as P(x) == Q(x). which is impossible. P( 1) = 1 . This degree must be at most n since there is no term of degree more than n.8 . PROOF: Suppose that P( x) had a degree. and meaning that P(x) = Q(x) for all values of x. P( 2) = 16 + 8 .
= 1. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION:  x = a( x .c = 5. if x 3 for at least four values of x.2.they are translations of the consequences given above into the language of coordinate geometry.3 + 2 = 0.2c + 6 2b . 6 = d. so x + 2 is a factor. and secondly that complex points of intersection are also counted.2)2 + c( X  2) + d Since they are equal for four values of x. WORKED EXERCISE: By factoring the difference F(x) = P(x) . The graph of a polynomial function of degree n is completely determined by any n + 1 points on the curve. 1 = a. describe the intersections between the curves P(x) = x4 + 4x 3 + 2 and Q(x) = x4 + 3x 3 + 3x. As its name implies. Since F(x) is positive for 2 < x < 1 or x > 1. 2.2)3 + b( x . °= Hence b = 6 and c F. but cannot be proven. Equating coefficients of x 3 . where they cross at an angle. but do not cross there. and find where P(x) is above Q(x). F( 2) = 8 + 6 + 2 = 0. A NOTE FOR 4 UNIT STUDENTS: The fundamental theorem of algebra is stated. and below it for x < 2. The graphs of two distinct polynomial functions cannot intersect in more points than the maximum of the two degrees. Substituting x Substituting x = 0. SOLUTION: and intersect also at x = 2. so xI is a factor. points where the two curves are tangent to each other count according to their multiplicity. F(x) = (x . Substituting. and allows the . It tells us that the graph of a polynomial of degree n intersects every line in exactly n points. Geometrical Implications of the Factor Theorem: Here are some of the geometrical versions of the factor theorem . In parts (2) and (3). in the 4 Unit course.3x + 2. b. F( x) = x 3 . P(x) is above Q(x) for 2 < x < 1 or x > 1.Q(x).1)2(x + 2). 3.c = 1. F(I) = 1 . 8 + 4b . this most important theorem provides the fundamental link between the algebra of polynomials and the geometry of their graphs. They are simply generalisations of the similar remarks about the graphs of quadratics in Box 25 of Section 81 of the Year 11 volume. Subtracting. A line cannot intersect the graph of a polynomial of degree n in more than n points.1)(x + 2) = x 2 + X . they are identically equal. Hence y = P(x) and y = Q(x) are tangent at x = 1. and negative for x < 2. c and d.158 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Find a. provided first that points where the curves are tangent are counted according to their multiplicity. = 11. After long division by (x . GEOMETRICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE FACTOR THEOREM: 20 1. 0=I+bc+6 b . Substituting x = 2.
 t and 1.2)(x . c and d? (b) P(x) = 2x4  5x 3  . the curve is tangent to the xaxis at x = 0: if and only if rn 2: 2.12 (d) P(x) = 9x 4 . the curve is tangent to the xaxis at x = 0:.2)x 2 + (1. a monic quartic polynomial with zeroes 0. where Q(o:) i 0.20 5x 2 + 20x . Using the product rule. as the number of times every line crosses it. which is not zero since Q(o:) i 0.o:)mlQ(x) + (x . where (x . 3. Exercise 4E 1. the curve is tangent to the xaxis at x = 0:.3x 3 . and crosses the xaxis there at a point of inflexion. (b) Hence explain why (x .o:)mQ'(x) = (x . Behaviour at Simple and Multiple Zeroes . (a) P(x) = 2x4 . Use (a) (b) (c) the factor theorem to write down in factored form: a monic cubic polynomial with zeroes 1.o:)Q'(x)). • If x = 0: has odd multiplicity at least 3.2c) has three zeroes.] A. • If x = 0: is a simple zero. P'(x) = rn(x .4d) has four zeroes. When rn = 1. but when rn 2: 2.o:)mQ(x) will change sign around x = 0: when rn is odd. 2. Hence x = 0: is a zero of P' (x) if and only if rn 2: 2. a cubic polynomial with leading coefficient 6 and zeroes at ~. What are the values of a.0:) is not a factor of Q(x). This completes the proof. G. or geometrically.5x 3 .o:)mQ(x).l)x + (5 . P'(o:) = O. as the highest index. Use trial and error to find as many integer zeroes of P( x) as possible. Let P(x) = (x .o:)ml (rnQ(x) + (x . That is. (a) The polynomial (a . B. then the curve crosses the xaxis at x = 0: and is not tangent to the xaxis there. band c? (b) The polynomial (a + 1)x 3 + (b . 2.25x 3 + 17x2 + 28x . and will not change sign around x = 0: when rn is even.41x + 6 4.5) is a factor of P(x). P'(o:) = Q(o:).2)(x . • If x = 0: has even multiplicity. Differentiation is required since tangents are involved.A Proof: We can now give a satisfactory proof of the theorem stated in Box 7 of Section 4B: 'Suppose that x = 0: is a zero of multiplicity rn 2: 1 of a polynomial P( x). and does not cross the xaxis there. b. What are the values of a.5x 2 + 5x + 3 (c) P(x) = 6x 4 .3)x 2 + (2c . Use long division to divide P(x) by the product of the known factors and hence express P(x) in factored form. 3 and 1. Since Q(o:) i 0. P(x) = (x .5) and hence express P(x) as the product of four linear factors. (a) Show that 2 and 5 are zeroes of P(x) = x4 .51x 3 + 85x 2 .15x 2 + 19x + 30.' PROOF: [The proof here is more suited to those taking the 4 Unit course. that is.3b)x + (5 .CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 4E Consequences of the Factor Theorem 159 degree of a polynomial to be defined either algebraically. (c) Divide P(x) by (x .3 and 4.
.
(b) By substituting x = into the expression in part (a).CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 4F The Zeroes and the Coefficients 161 (a) Here is a wildly invalid.X .. and (1 ::) is a factor for all n.f3): P(x) = a(x = ax 2  a)(x .a)( x . derive from it the identity called Wallis' product (which is. Writing this another way.X . but still interesting. = .. The Zeroes of a Quadratic: Reviewing the work in Chapter Eight of the Year 11 vol ume.. and each of the other factors on the RHS has limit 1 as x + o. By the factor theorem (see Box 15). prove that V2=xxx 1X 3 5X 7 9 X 11 22 22 62 10 2 142 13 X 15 3 35 99 195 10 2 142 4 16 64 100 196 =xxxx x···=xxxxx··· 2 1X 3 3X 5 7X 9 9 X 11 13 X 15 3 15 63 99 195 3 42 X···=XXXX··· 4 36 100 196 82 4F The Zeroes and the Coefficients We have already shown in Chapter Eight ofthe Year 11 volume that if a quadratic P(x) = ax 2 + bx + c has zeroes a and /3.f3) a(a + f3)x + aaf3 a(af3)=c Now equating terms in x and constants gives the results obtained before: a(a +f3) =b b a and a+f3= af3 c =a .X X X X··· 1X 3 3X 5 5X 7 7X 9 3 15 35 63 22 42 62 82 4 16 36 64 ' and use a calculator or computer to investigate the speed of convergence. First. then their sum a + /3 and their product a/3 can easily be calculated from the coefficients without ever finding a or /3 themselves...a and af3 = +. cubic and quartic polynomials first. the function sin 7rX is zero at every integer value of x.. justification inspired by the factor theorem for polynomials. suppose that a and f3 are the zeroes of a quadratic P( x) = ax 2 + bx + c. in contrast.X . Secondly. so we shall deal with quadratic. SUM AND PRODUCT OF ZEROES OF A QUADRATIC: 21 a b + f3 = . x is a factor.n) must be a factor for all n. (c) By other substitutions into part (a).. accessible by methods of the 4 Unit course): 7r t  2 = . (x . so regarding sin 7rX as a sort of polynomial of infinite degree. the constant multiple 7r can be justified (invalidly again) because sin 7rX + 7rX as x + 0. and using part (b).X . The general result is a little messy to state. a c This section will generalise these results to polynomials of arbitrary degree. P( x) is a multiple of the product (x .
.. x 2 . Suppose that the n zeroes of the degree n polynomial P(x) = anx n + an_IX n ..b + . a{3 23 + a.(3)(x . x and constants now gives: ZEROES AND COEFFICIENTS OF A QUARTIC: a + {3 + .ba + ba(3)x + aa{3. + b)x 3 + a( a{3 + a. Again by the factor theorem (see Box 15).b = +a d a e The second formula gives 'the sum of the products of pairs of zeroes'. and b.b.): P(x) = a(x .b = + a a{3. an. and the third formula gives 'the sum of the products of triples of zeroes'. a2. + b = . {3 and.a)(x . {3. )(x . notation is a major difficulty here.a)(x .a(a + {3 + . and the results are better written in sigma notation.)x 2 + a(a{3 + {3.. + . Using similar methods gives: .b): P(x) = a(x . + (3.b) = ax 4  a( a  + {3 + .a e 22 a{3 + (3. b Equating coefficients of terms in x 3 .162 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 The Zeroes of a Cubic: P( x) Suppose now that the cubic polynomial = ax 3 + bx 2 + ex + d has zeroes a. . d = a The middle formula is best read as 'the sum of the products of pairs of zeroes'.(3)(x . . + {3b + . + . = . + ab + {3.(3)(x . + ab + {3.. P(x) is a multiple of the product (x .ba + ba{3 = a{3.a e . By the factor theorem (see Box 15).1 + . P(x) is a multiple of the product (x .a)(x .a = + a a{3.b + . Now equating coefficients of terms in x 2 .)(x . x and constants gives the new results: ZEROES AND COEFFICIENTS OF A CUBIC: a b + {3 + .(3)(x . The Zeroes of a Quartic: P( x) Suppose that the four zeroes of the quartic polynomial = ax 4 + bx 3 + ex 2 + dx + e are a. The General Case: Apart from the sum and product of zeroes.) = ax 3 . + {3b + . + a1x + aD are a1.b)x 2 a(a{3.a)x  aa{3.. + {3.a )(x .
a2 Check the result with the factorisation x 3 .2 a + . = 1 X 1 X (2) = 2 (c) a(3 + (3. + 2. 1 and 2. so 02 = a 2 + (32 + . + (3. = (a(3 + (3.a 2 = a(3(a + (3 +. +.) + (3.a)( a + (3 + .a 2 = 1 X 1 + 1 X 1 + 1 X (2) + 1X 4+4 X ~+~+~ a (3 =1+ 1_ 1 2 = 11 2 1 + (2) X 1 'Y I = 6. The full menu for the 3 Unit course now runs as follows: .CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 4F The Zeroes and the Coefficients 163 ZEROES AND COEFFICIENTS OF A POLYNOMIAL: 24 It is unlikely that anything apart from the first and last formulae would be required. +.2 + 2a(3 + 2(3.3 X (2) =6 Since x 3  3x + 2 = (x .2 .2 = 1 + 1 + 4 = 6 (f) a 2(3 + a(32 + (32. (f) a 2(3 + a(32 + (32. + a) + .2 + . (e) a 2 + (32 +. WORKED EXERCISE: Let a.2 +.2 (f) a 2(3 + a(32 + (32. = o.+ .f = . hence (a) a + (3 + .((3 +. Factoring Polynomials Using the Factor Theorem and the Sum and Product of Zeroes: Long division can be avoided in many situations by applying the sum and product of zeroes formulae after one or more zeroes have been found. the actual roots are 1.+. = .3a(3. = .) .2=0 (b) a(3. ( d) .2 + 2 X ( 3) a 2 + (32 + .+ a (3 .a = 1. + 2) obtained in (a) a + (3 +. be the roots of the cubic equation x 3 3x+2 Use the formulae above to find: (a) a+(3+.a(.0 = 0 (b) a(3.3x + 2 = (x .2 = 3 (d) (e) a 2 + (32 + .2 + .)2 = a 2 + (32 +.2 (c) a(3 + (3. + .a = ]3 = 3 SOLUTION: (e) (a + (3 + .2 = 6.a 1 1 1 (b) a(3. (c) a(3+(3.a.1)2(x + 2). (3 and. + (3. + a + (3) . =1+ 1. all of which agree with the previous calculations.3a(3.2a + . = (3) X 0 .2a + .1)2 (x the last worked exercise of the previous section. + (3.
If the coefficients of P( x) are all integers. Then 0: + f3 + 1 . 0:( 1 .THE FULL 3 UNIT MENU: 25 • Use trial and error to find as many integer zeroes of P( x) as possible.4 . ~d 2xo:xf3=4 0:f3 = 4.0: = f3 = 1. WORKED EXERCISE: Factor F( x) SOLUTION: As before.64 . SOLUTION: First. and so F(x) = (x . C (1) Secondly. G(2) = 8 .2)(x 2 NOTE: 2 + X + 2). F(l) and F( 4) = 256 .44 . This procedure . In the following worked exercise. Factor completely the cubic G( x) = x3  x2  4. Substituting (1) into (2). b 0:0:+f3=a af3 2 = b. WORKED EXERCISE: = x4 + x 3 . we factor a polynomial factored twice already. 0: . • Use sum and product of zeroes to find the other zeroes. Let the zeroes be 1. so the complete factorisation is G(x) = (x . Let the zeroes be 2. use long division of P( x) by the product of the known factors.4 = 1 0:+f3=2. then any integer zero of P( x) must be one of the divisors of the constant term.0:f3 + f30: =  a a0: 2 = c. If one root of the cubic f( x) = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d is the opposite of another. it may be possible to form an identity with the coefficients of the polynomial. (1) Also 0:f3 X 1 X (4) =4 0:f3 = 1.9x 2 + 11x = 1 + 1 .1)3(x + 4). (2) From (1) and (2). but this time there is no need for any long division.164 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 FACTORING POLYNOMIALS . • Alternatively.developing the irreducible quadratic factor from the sum and product of zeroes .4 = 0. 2 + 0: + f3 = 1 0:+f3=1.0:) = 2 Then (1) (2) 0: + 0: + 2 = 0 This is an irreducible quadratic. 0: and f3. 0: and f3.4 = O. prove that ad = bc.9 + 11 . because L). Let the zeroes be 0:. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: First.144 .is really little easier than the long division it avoids. Forming Identities with the Coefficients: If some information can be gained about the roots of a polynomial equation. = 7.4 = O. (2) . 4 completely. 4. 0: and f3.
7x + 6 (b) P(x) = 2x 3 + 3x 2 . Note any multiple zeroes. 2 and l. (f) (a + 1)((3 + 1)(. (b) Form a cubic equation with roots 3. A NOTE FOR 4 UNIT STUDENTS: The 4 Unit course develops one further technique for factoring polynomials. In each of the following questions.llx  (e) + (00.+(00. and it was implicit in paragraph G of Section 4E. Then use the sum and product of zeroes to find any other zeroes.2 (d) P(x) = 3x 4 . Use trial and error to find two integer zeroes of F(x).)2 the LHS. 2.4x +2 = (g) 0.)2(3+((3. + 1) the roots of the equation x 3 + 2x2 .2 (i) (00(3)2 12 Now find check your answers for expressions (a )(i). and use the sum and product of zeroes to find the other one or two zeroes.12 (a + ±) = 0. (a) P(x) = x 3 . as required. Exercise 4F 1. 111 ++00(3 a. Note any multiple zeroes. find: (a) Lai (c) L aiajak i<j<k (e) L(ai)l (f) L(aiaj)l i<j (g) L (aiajak)l i<j<k 4. (3 and. (a) Form a quadratic equation with roots 3 and 2. 1 and l. . find each coefficient in turn by considering the sums and products of the roots. It is proven that if a is a zero of P( x). a = d (3) ad = be. a2. but it is not required at 3 Unit level.4x .llx . Thus multiple zeroes can be uncovered by testing whether a known zero is also a zero of the first derivative. (b) 00(3+00.3x 2 . (3.2X2 .)2 + ((3. are the roots of the equation x 3 + 2x2 .5x 3 10x2 + 20x .a (3 = . Question 14 in Exercise 4E presented this idea. (c) 00(3. 5. (c) Form a quartic equation with roots 3.3 = 0.8 6. If a.CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 4F The Zeroes and the Coefficients 165 Thirdly.a aoo 2 (3 = d. be (2) 7 (3).5x 3 + 2x2 .5x + 6 (c) P(x) = x4 + 3x 3 . Hence = 0 by factoring 3. then a is a zero of P'( x) if and only if it is at least a double zero of P( x). (d) ±+*+~ (g) (00(3)2. a3 and a4 are the roots of the equation x4 . find: + *) (a) 00+(3+.+(3. Taking (1) X 2 d .)2 00 (h) 00 2 +(32+. find: (a) 00+(3 (b) 00(3 ( d) (3 (e) (a + 2)((3 a ~ +~ ~ +~ (3 a + 2) (h) 00(33 + 003(3 ((3 (i) 2. If aI.3x . Show that x = 1 and x = 2 are zeroes of P(x). If a and (3 are the roots of the quadratic equation x 2 .
X + 10. 3A = 0. and then factor the cubic. given that the sum of two of the roots is zero. Find a and b.27 x 2 + llx + 7. a ~ and (3. (b) Given that the zeroes of P(x) are 2. The polynomial P(x) = x3  Lx 2 + Lx .4 _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 7. a and (3.8x 3 + 6x 2 + 40x + 25 = x4  15x 2 + lOx + 24 (d) F(x) = X4 + x 3  3x 2 . given that one zero is the product of the other two. (b) Find values of a and b for which x 2 .8x 2 . and hence use sum and product of zeroes to factor the polynomial. a and ar.13x 2 + 22x . [HINT: Let the roots be a .t A2 • = 2V6. a and (3. (a) Find values of a and b for which x 3 + ax 2 lOx + b is exactly divisible by x 2 + X . [HINT: Let the zeroes be a.5x 2 . (b) Use the sum of the products of pairs of roots to show that a(3 (c) Show that A = .48x + 16 = 0.] (c) Find the roots of the equation 2x 3 . and then find all the zeroes. 9. (a) Find the roots of the equation 9x 3 . a and a + d.] 14.12.M has zeroes a. (3 and a + (3. 10.3 and x + 1 are factors of x 3  6x 2 + ax + b. The cubic equation x 3  M = Ll.] r = 8x 3 .46x + 24 = 0. if the roots form an arithmetic sequence. (3 and a(3.] (b) Find the roots of the equation 3x 3 .8.] (d) Find the zeroes of the polynomial P( x) = 2x 3 .27x2 + llx + 7 = 0.4x . (b) Find the zeroes of the polynomial P( x) .] Then find the point of inflexion of y = 9x 3 . (c) Solve simultaneously the two equations in part (b) (you will need to form a quadratic in a). given that the product of two of the roots is 3.x20 is a factor of x4 + ax 3 . has roots a. (d) Hence state how many times the graph of the cubic crosses the xaxis. given that two of the roots are equal. if the zeroes form a a geometric sequence. and hence use sum and product of zeroes to find the other zero. find: (a)a+(3 (b)a(3 (c)a 2 +(32 (d)a 3 +(33 8. 11.14x2 + 7 xI. (a) Find the roots of the equation 4x 3 . i a and (3. (b) Suppose that 2x 3 + ax 2 . If a and (3 are the roots of the equation 2x2 + 5x . 13.166 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (a) F(x)=x 4 6x 2 8x3 (b) F(x) (c) F(x) = x4 . Consider the polynomial P( x) (e) la(31 = x3  x 2 . a and (3. where A > 0. [HINT: Let the roots be a. and hence show that there are no such real numbers a and (3. (a) Use the sum of the roots to show that a + (3 = ~A. show that a + (3 = 3 and a(3 = 5. [HINT: Let the roots be a.4 = 0. [HINT: Let the zeroes be .14x + b has zeroes at 2 and 4. Find a and b.23x 2 + bx + 60. [HINT: Let the roots be a. (a) Suppose that x . (a) Show that 2 is a zero of P(x).d.3x + 9 = 0. (a) Show that: (i) a + ~ + (3 = L a = lor Ax2 + (ii) 1 + a(3 + ~ =L a (iii) (3 =M (b) Show that either M 12.x 2 . and show that its xcoordinate is one of the roots.
If a.4ab + 8e = O..4 = 0. (a) Show that cos 30 3cosO. which has zeroes a. Find the value (b) Two of the roots of the equation 4x 3 + ax 2 . (ii) a{3 + a. {3 and.an)? 22. (d) The polynomial P(x) = x4 + ax 3 + bx 2 + ex + d has two zeroes which are opposites  and two zeroes which are reciprocals. 18. 16. (a) Two of the roots of the equation x 3 of a and the three roots. If Xn .1 = 0 has n roots. 2d b (a) Show that a + (3 = .d = 0 is equal to the product of the other + 1)2. express d and e in terms of band e.. (c) If the roots of the equation x 3 + ax 2 + bx + e = 0 form a geometric sequence. are the roots of the equation x 3 + 5x . a2. (iv) a 2(3. . Find the value of a and the three roots. 2a (c) Hence show that a and {3 are also the roots of the equation 2abx 2 + b2x + 4ad = O. = a + {3.] 23. Evaluate: (i) a + {3 +. {3 and . + a{32. evaluate a 3 + {33 + . (iii) a{3.1 = 0 has roots cos a. If. . {3 and . Using the results in (a).4C. 17. . 2a.6x + 1 = 0 reduces to the form cos 30 = substituting x = cos O. 3 (b) If the roots of the equation x + ax 2 + bx + e = 0 form an arithmetic sequence. cos b and cos e. (1 .2 (b) The equation 2 cos 3 0 . (b) Show that a{3 = b.. what is (1 . and that one of the roots is . show that the point of inflexion lies on the xaxis. {3 and 2{3. show that b3 = a 3 e.47 x + 12 = 0 are reciprocals..(2) .an. (a) If one root of the equation x 3 two. (b) Show that the cubic equation 8x 3 . = a + {3. show that gab = 2a 3 + 27 e.. [HINT: Use your work in question 17. aI.sec ~ 9 9 9 2 2 (iv) cos2 211" + cos 411" + cos ~ 9 9 9 = 4cos 3 0  t by _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 20. + a = 0 are opposites.3x 3 . show 21.3x +2 = + 3x 2  0. (c) Hence find the three solutions to the cubic equation. show that (e + d)2 = d(b bx 2 + ex . + a{3.3. Suppose that the equation x 3 + ax 2 + bx + e = 0 has roots a. Consider the cubic polynomial P( x) = ax 3 + bx 2 + ex + d.. given that the roots are in geometric 4x 15. such that.  3x 2 .. and that one of the roots is . If y = X4 + bx 3 + ex 2 + dx + e has two double zeroes. (c) Find a and {3 if the zeroes of the polynomial x4 .CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions 4F The Zeroes and the Coefficients 167 (c) Solve the equation 2x 3 progression. (d) Use the sum and product of roots to evaluate: (i) cos 211" + cos 411" . (a) The cubic equation 2x 3  (i) b = 1 + d (ii) e = ad x 2 + xI = 0 has roots a.. 19.cos 2 0 + cos 0 . {3 and. that a 3 .(1)(1. Show that: (e) If the zeroes of the cubic y = x 3 + ax 2 + bx + e = 0 form an arithmetic sequence. prove that sec a + sec b + sec e = l.~a. + {3.8x 2 + 12x + 16 = 0 are a.cos ~ 9 9 9 (ii) cos 211" cos 411" cos ~ 9 9 9 (iii) sec 211" + sec 411" .
2 WORKED EXERCISE: The line y = 2x meets the parabola y = x . and find the point T of contact. (b) Use the identity (a . Suppose that P( x) = x 3 + ex + d has zeroes a.0')2 is called the discriminant. we can form the equation whose solutions are the x. The midpoint of two points of intersection can then be found using the average of the roots. Show that: (a) O'(3=e+.(3)2 ((3 .168 CHAPTER 4: Polynomial Functions CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 24. .8 at the two points A( 0'.40'(3 to find the horizontal distance 10' .. to the available techniques for studying the geometry of various curves.4).(3)2 = (a = = + (3)2 16 + 32 .(31 = 4v3 . The standard technique is to examine the roots of the equation formed in the process of solving two curves simultaneously.24e (c) (O'(3)2((3. Hence 0'+(3 = 4. M = (2. but it is a very clear example of the use of sum and product of roots. NOTE: For any monic cubic. the vertical distance is 8v3. (3 and . Averaging the roots.2x . (b) We know that (a .4x .2 (b) (O'(3)2=3. 2(3). Tangents can be identified as corresponding to double roots.(3)2 = (a + (3)2 .8 = 2x x 2 .(31 from A to B. x 2 .. (c) Find the value of b for which y = 2x + b is a tangent to the parabola. Then use Pythagoras' theorem and the gradient of the line to find the length of AB.20') and B((3. Students taking the 4 Unit course may like to prove that the cubic has three distinct real zeroes if and only if the discriminant is positive. AB2 Since the line has gradient 2. M has xcoordinate x = 2.40'(3 and so so using Pythagoras.1)(x . The following worked exercise could also be done using quadratic equations. (a) Show that a and (3 are roots of x 2 .8 = 0.2)(x + 3). = (4v3)2 + (8v3)2 = 16 X 15 AB = 4yfi5.4x .or ycoordinates of points of intersection of the two curves. particularly the sum and product of roots. Midpoints and Tangents: When two curves intersect. 48 10' .8 = 0. and hence find the coordinates of the midpoint M of AB. SOLUTION: (a) Solving the line and the parabola simultaneously. and substituting into the line.O')2=4e 3 27d 2 Check these results for the polynomial P(x) = (x . 4G Geometry using Polynomial Techniques This final section adds the methods of the preceding sections.)2 (.2x . and 0'(3 = 8.)2(. the expression (a . .
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169
(c) Solving y
= x2 
2x  8 and y x
2 
= 2x + b simultaneously,
4x  (8
+ b)
= 0
Since the line is a tangent, let the roots be () and (). Then using the sum of roots, () + () = 4, () = 2, so ()2 = 8  b Using the product of roots, and since () = 2, b = 12. So the line y = 2x  12 is a tangent at T(2, 8).
Locus Problems Using Sum and Product of Roots:
WORKED EXERCISE:
The preceding theory can make some rather obscurelooking locus problems quite straightforward.
A line through the point P( 1, 0) crosses the cubic y = x 3  x at two further points A and B. (a) Sketch the situation, and find the locus of the midpoint M of AB. (b) Find the line through P tangent to the cubic at a point distinct from P. (a) Let y = m(x + 1) be a general line through P(l,O). Solving the line simultaneously with the cubic,
x3 x
3 
SOLUTION:
(m + l)x Let the xcoordinates of A and B be a and 13 respectively. Then a + 13 + (1) = 0, using the sum of roots, a+j3=l. Hence the midpoint M of AB has xcoordinate !(a + 13) = and the locus of M is therefore the line x = ~. But the line does not extend below the cubic, so y 2:: ~.
(b) For the line to be a tangent, and since a + 13 = 1, we must have Using the product of roots, a so m = ~, and the line is
X
= mx + m m = o.
x
t,
aj3 , a
= 13 = t.
13
X
(1) = m,
y
= ~(x + 1).
Exercise 4G
NOTE: These are geometrical questions, and sketches should be drawn every time the algebraic result should look reasonable on the diagram. Questions 111 have been carefully structured to indicate the intended methods, and questions 1215 should be done by similar methods.
1. (a) Show that the xcoordinates of the points of intersection of the parabola y = x 2 and the line y = 2x  16 satisfy the equation x 2  8x 16 = O.

6x
+
(b) Solve this equation, and hence show that the line is a tangent to the parabola. Find the point T of contact. 2. (a) Show that the xcoordinates of the points of intersection of the line y = b  2x and the parabola y = x 2  6x satisfy the equation x 2  4x  b = o. (b) Suppose now that the line is a tangent to the parabola, so that the roots are a and a.
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(i) Using the sum of roots, show that
0:
= 2.
0: 2
(ii) Using the product of roots, show that
= b, and hence find
b.
(iii) Find the equation of the tangent and its point T of contact. 3. The line y = x + 1 meets the parabola y = x 2  3x at A and B. (a) Show that the xcoordinates 0: and (3 of A and B satisfy the equation x 2  4x 1 (b) Find (c)
0:
= O.
(31
+ (3, and hence find the coordinates of the midpoint M of AB. Use the identity (0:  (3)2 = (0: +(3)2  40:(3 to show that the horizontal distance 10: 
between A and B is 2v's. (d) Use the gradient to explain why the vertical distance between A and B is also 2v's , and hence use Pythagoras' theorem to find the length AB.
NOTE:
4. (a)
(b) (c) Explain why the line is a tangent to the cubic, find the point of contact and the other point of intersection. 5. (a) Show that the xcoordinates of the points of intersection of the line y = mx and the cubic y = x 3  5x 2 + 6x satisfy the equation x 3  5x 2 + (6  m)x = O. (b) Suppose now that the line is a tangent to the cubic at a point other than the origin, so that the roots are 0, 0: and 0:. (i) Using the sum of roots, show that
0:
= x( x  2)( x  3). Show that the xcoordinates of the points of intersection of the line y = 3  x and the cubic y = x 3  5x 2 + 6x satisfy the equation x 3  5x 2 + 7x  3 = O. Show that x = 1 and x = 3 are roots, and use the sum of roots to find the third root.
Sketches in question 46 require the factorisation x 3

5x 2 +6x
= 2t.
(ii) Using the product of pairs of roots, show that 0: 2 = 6  m, and hence find m. (iii) Find the equation of the tangent and its point T of contact.
6. The line y = x  2 meets the cubic y = x 3

5x 2
+ 6x
at F(2,0), and also at A and B.
(a) Show that the xcoordinates 0: and (3 of A and B satisfy x 3  5x 2 + 5x (b) Find 0: + (3, and hence find the coordinates of the midpoint M of AB. (c) Show that 0:(3 = 1, then use the identity (0:  (3)2 the horizontal distance 10:  (31 between A and B is
+ 2 = O.
m.
= (0: + (3)2
 40:(3 to show that
( d) Hence use Pythagoras' theorem to find the length AB.
_ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __
7. Suppose that the cubic F(x) = x 3 relative maximum at x = (3.
+ ax 2 + bx + c has a relative minimum at
0:
x =
0:
and a
8.
+ (3 = ~a. (b) Deduce that the point of inflexion occurs at x = H0: + (3). A line is drawn from the point A( 1, 7) on the curve y = x 3  3x 2 + 4x + 1 to touch the
(a) By examining the zeroes of F'(x), prove that curve again at P. (a) Write down the equation of the line, given that it has gradient m. (b) Find the cubic equation whose roots represent the xcoordinates of the points of intersection of the line and the curve. (c) Explain why the roots of this equation are 1,0: and 0:, and hence find the point T of contact and the value of m.
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171
9. The point p(p,p3) lies on the curve y = x 3. A straight line through P cuts the curve again at A and B. (a) Find the equation of the straight line through P if it has gradient m. (b) Show that the xcoordinates of A and B satisfy the equation x 3  mx + mp  p3 = O. (c) Hence find the xcoordinate of the midpoint M of AB, and show that for fixed p, M always lies on a line that is parallel to the yaxis. 10. (a) The cubic x 3  (m + l)x + (6  2m) = 0 has a root at a double root at x = 0:. Find m and 0:. (b) Write down the equation of the line f passing through the point P( 2, 3) with gradient m. (c) The diagram shows the curve y = x 3  X + 3 and the point P( 2, 3) on the curve. The line f cuts the curve at P, and is tangent to the curve at another point A on the curve. Find the equation of the line f.
x
= 2 and
y
3
x
II. (a) Use the factor theorem to factor the polynomial y = x4  4x 3  9x 2 + 16x + 20, given that there are four distinct zeroes, then sketch the curve. (b) The line f: y = mx + b touches the quartic y = x4  4x 3  9x 2 + 16x + 20 at two distinct points A and B. Explain why the xcoordinates 0: and (3 of A and B are double roots of x4  4x 3  9x 2 + (16  m)x + (20  b) = O. (c) Use the theory of the sum and product ofroots to write down four equations involving 0:, (3, m and b. (d) Hence find m and b, and write down the equation of f. 12. (a) Find k and the points of contact if the parabola y = x 2  k touches the quartic y = x4
(b) (c) (d)
13. (a)
at two points. Find c > 0 and the points of contact if the hyperbola xy = c 2 touches the cubic y = _x 3 + x at two points. Find k and the point T of contact if the parabola y = x 2  k touches the cubic y = x 3 • Find 0: if the quadratic y = ax(x  1) is tangent to the circle x 2 + y2 = 1 at x = 0:. [HINT: The curves always intersect when x = 1.J The variable line y = 3x + b with gradient 3 meets the circle x 2 + y2 = 16 at A and B. Find the locus of the midpoint M of AB. The fixed point F(0,2) lies inside the circle x 2 + y2 = 16. A variable line f through F meets the circle at A and B. Find and describe the locus of the midpoint M of AB. The parabola y = x(x  a) meets the cubic y = x 3  3x 2 + 2x at 0(0,0), A and B. Find, including any restrictions, the locus of the midpoint M of AB as a varies. The line y = mx + b meets the hyperbola xy = 1 at A and B. Find the locus of the midpoint M of AB if: (i) m is constant, (ii) b is constant. The parabola with vertex at F( 1, 1) meets the hyperbola xy = 1 again at A and B. Find the locus of the midpoint M of AB. Find a and the points of contact if the parabola y = x 2  a touches the circle x 2+y2 = 1
(b) (c) (d) (e)
14. (a)
at two distinct points. (b) Find a and any other points of intersection if the parabola y = x 2  a touches the circle x 2 + y2 = 1 at exactly one point. 2 (c) Find a if the circle x 2 + (y  a)2 = a 2 intersects the parabola y = x at a point which is a fourfold zero of the quartic formed when solving the two equations simultaneously.
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(d) By solving the line y = mx + b simultaneously with the cubic y = x 3  6x 2  2x + 1 and insisting that there be a triple root, find the point of inflexion of the cubic without using calculus. (e) Find the line which touches the quartic y = x 2(x  2)( x  6) at two distinct points A and B, and find the distance AB.
15. [A cubic has odd symmetry in its point of inflexion.] The line y = mx + n meets the cu bic y = ax 3 + bx 2 + ex + d in three distinct points A, Band G. Show that if AB = BG, then B is the point of inflexion.
_ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __
16. A circle passing through the ongm 0 is tangent to the hyperbola xy
= 1 at A, and intersects the hyperbola again at two distinct points Band G. Prove that OA ..L BG.
17. The diagram to the right shows the circle x 2 + y2 = 1 and the parabola y = (AX  1)( xI), where A is a constant. The circle and parabola meet in the four points
P(l,O),
Q(O,l),
A(a,¢;),
x
The point M is the midpoint of the chord AB. (a) Show that the xcoordinates of the points of intersection of the two curves satisfy the equation A2X4  2A(1 + A)X 3 + (A2 + 4A + 2)x 2  2(1 + A)X = O. (b) Use the formula for the sum of the roots to show that · A+2 t h e xcoor d mate 0 f M·IS ~ .
(c) Use a similar method to find the ycoordinate of M, and hence show that the locus of M is the line through the origin 0 parallel to PQ. (d) For what values of A is the parabola tangent to the circle in the fourth quadrant? (e) For what values of A are the four points P, Q, A and B distinct, with real numbers as coordinates.
18. [Harmonic conjugates]
The line £: y = mx  mb through the point P(b,O) outside the circle x 2 + y2 = 1 meets the circle at the points A and B with xcoordinates a and (3. (a) Show that a and (3 satisfy the equation (m 2 + 1)x 2  2m 2bx + (m 2b2  1) = o. (b) Show that if £ is a tangent to the circle, then m 2 (b 2 1) = 1. Hence find the equation of the line ST joining the points Sand T of the tangents to the circle from P. (c) The general line £ meets ST at Q. Prove that Q divides AB internally in the same ratio as P divides AB externally.
CHAPTER FIVE
The Binomial Theorem
In the previous chapter we discussed the factoring of a polynomial into irreducible factors, so that it could be written in a form such as P(x) = (x  4)2(x + 1)3(x 2 + X + 1). In this chapter we will now study in more detail the individual factors like (x4)2 and (x + 1)3 which appear in such a factorisation. For example, we know already that (x + 1)3 = x 3 + 3x 2 + 3x + 1.
The coefficients in the general expansion of (x + at will be investigated through the patterns they form when they are written down in the Pascal triangle. These patterns lead to a formula for the coefficients, called the binomial theorem, and this formula is the key to further study of the binomial expansion and its coefficients. We will be able to apply much of this work in Chapter Ten on probability, because the systematic counting required there turns out to be closely related to the binomial theorem. STUDY NOTES: Sections 5A and 5B develop the Pascal triangle and apply it to numerical problems on binomial expansions, first of (1 + x)n and then of (x + y)n. Section 5C introduces the notation n! for factorials in preparation for the binomial theorem itself in Section 5D. Section 5E uses the binomial theorem to find the maximum coefficient and term in a binomial expansion, then Section 5F turns attention to some of the identities relating the binomial coefficients and to the resulting patterns in the Pascal triangle. The notation nCr is introduced in a preliminary manner in the notes of Section 5B, but Exercise 5B has been written so that use of the new notation can be delayed until Exercise 5D.
SA The Pascal Triangle
This section is restricted to the expansion of (1 + x)n and to the various techniques arising from such expansions. The techniques are based on the Pascal triangle and its basic properties, but the proofs of these properties will be left until Section 5B.
Some Expansions of (1 + x )n:
Here are the expansions of (1 + x for low values of n. The calculations have been carried out using two rows so that like terms can be written above each other in columns. In this way, the process by which the coefficients build up can be followed better.
t
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UNIT YEAR
12
+ x)3 = 1(1 + x)2 + x(1 + x? = 1 + 2x + x 2 (1+x)l=1+x + X + 2x2 + x 3 3 2 (1 + X)2 = 1(1 + x) + x(1 + x) = 1 + 3x + 3x + x =1+ x (1 +x)4 = 1(1 + x)3 + x(1 + x)3 + x +x2 = 1 + 3x + 3x 2 + x 3 2 = 1 + 2x + x + X + 3x 2 + 3x 3 + x4 = 1 + 4x + 6x 2 + 4x 3 + x4 Notice how the expansion of (1 + x)2 has 3 terms, that of (1 + x)3 has 4 terms, and so on. In general, the expansion of (1 + x r has n + 1 terms, from the constant term in xO = 1 to the term in x n. Be careful  this is inclusive counting  there
(1
+ x)O = 1
(1
are n
+ 1 numbers from
0 to n inclusive.
The Pascal Triangle and the Addition Property: When the coefficients in the expansions
of (1 + x are arranged in a table, the result is known as the Pascal triangle. The table below contains the first five rows of the triangle, copied from the expansions above, plus the next four rows, obtained by continuing these calculations up to (1 + x)8. Coefficient of:
n
r
xO
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
xl
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
x2
x3
x4
x5
x6
x7
x8
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1
W IT]
6 10 15 21 28 10 20 35 56
[i]
1 5 15 35 70
1 6 21 56
1 7 28
1 8
1
Four properties of this triangle should quickly become obvious. They will be used in this section, and proven formally in the next.
BASIC PROPERTIES OF THE PASCAL TRIANGLE:
1
1. 2. 3. 4.
Each row starts and ends with 1. Each row is reversible. The sum of each row is 2n. [The addition property] Every number in the triangle, apart from the 1s, is the sum of the number directly above, and the number above and to the left.
The first three properties should be reasonably obvious after looking at the expansions at the start of the section. The fourth property, called the addition property, however, needs attention. Three numbers in the Pascal triangle above have been boxed as an example of this  notice that 1 +3
= 4.
CHAPTER
5: The Binomial Theorem
5A The Pascal Triangle
175
The expansions on the first page of this chapter were written with the columns aligned to make this property stand out. For example, 1 + 3 = 4 arises like this  in the expansion of (1 + X)4, the coefficient of x 3 is the sum of the coefficients of x 3 and x 2 in the expansion of (1 + x)3. The whole Pascal triangle can be constructed using these rules, and the first question in the following exercise asks for the first thirteen rows to be calculated.
Using Pascal's Triangle:
WORKED EXERCISE:
The following worked exercises illustrate various calculations involving the coefficients of (1 + x)n for low values of n. Use the Pascal triangle to write out the expansions of:
(a) (1x)4
SOLUTION:
(b) (1+2a)6
(c) (1~x)5
(a)
(1 x)4 = 1 + 4(x) + 6(x)2 + 4(x? = 1  4x + 6x 2  4x 3 + x4
+ (_x)4
(b) (1
(c)
+ 2a)6 = 1 + 6(2a) + 15(2a)2 + 20(2a)3 + 15(2a)4 + 6(2a)5 + (2a)6 2 3 4 5 6 = 1 + 12a + 60a + 160a + 240a + 192a + 64a (1  ~X)5 = 1 + 5(  ~x) + 10(  ~x)2 + 10(  ~x)3 + 5(  ~x)4 + ( ~x)5 = 1 _.!2. x + 40x2 _ SOx3 + SOx4 _ Rx 5 3 9 27 81 243
WORKED EXERCISE:
(a) Write out the expansion of the expansion of (1  x)8 .
(1 + ~)
2,
then write out the first four terms in
(b) Hence find, in the expansion of (i) the term independent of x,
SOLUTION:
(1 + ~ ) (1  x)8:
2
(ii) the term in x.
(a)
(1 + ~) 1 +
2
=
10x 1 8x
+ 25x 2
56x 3 + ...
2
(1  x)8
=1
+ 28x 2 
(b) Hence in the expansion of (i) constant term
(1 + ~)
(1 _ x )8:
(ii) term in
imation of 1.028 correct to five decimal places.
SOLUTION:
WORKED EXERCISE:
= 1 X 1 + (lOXI) X (8x) + (25x 2) X (28x 2) = 1  80 + 700 = 62l. x = 1 X (8x) + (10x 1 ) X (28x 2) + (25x 2) X (56x 3 ) = 8x + 280x  1400x = 1128x. By expanding the first few terms of (1 + 0·02)8, find an approx(0·02)4
(1
+ 0.02)8 = 1 + 8 X 0·02 + 28 X (0·02)2 + 56 X (0·02)3 + 70 X = 1 + 0·16 + 0·0112 + 0·000448 + 0·00001120 + ...
::;:: 1·17166
+
176
CHAPTER
5: The Binomial Theorem
CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS
3
UNIT YEAR
12
Find the value of k if, in the expansion of (1 + 2kx )6: (a) the terms in X4 and x 3 have coefficients in the ratio 2 : 3, (b) the terms in x 2 , x 3 and x4 have coefficients in arithmetic progression.
WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION:
(1 + 2kx)6 = ... + 15(2kx)2 + 20(2kx)3 + 15(2kx)4 + ... = ... + 60k 2x 2 + 160k 3x 3 + 240k 4x 4 + ...
240k 4
(a) Put Then (b) Put Then
2
160P  3·
~k
 4 k  g.
=~
240k 4  320k 3 + 60k 2 = 0 12k4  16k 3 + 3k 2 = O. Either k = 0, or 12k2  16k + 3 = o. For the quadratic, ~ = 256
so
 144 = 112 = 16 X 7, 16 +4y17 16  4y17 k = 0 or or 24 24
= 0 or
WORKED EXERCISE: [A harder example] Expand (1 triangle, by writing 1 + x + x 2 = 1 + (x + x 2), and writing x SOLUTION:
+ yI7) + x + x 2)4
t(4
or t(4  V7). using the Pascal
+ x 2 = x(l + x).
(1 + x + x 2)4 = (1 + (x (x + 1))) 4 = 1 + 4x(1 + x) + 6x 2(1 + x)2 + 4x 3(1 + x)3 + x4(1 + x)4 = 1 + 4x(1 + x) + 6x 2(1 + 2x + x 2 ) + 4x 3(1 + 3x + 3x 2 + x 3 ) + x4(1 + 4x + 6x 2 + 4x 3 + x 4 ) = 1 + (4x + 4x 2) + (6x 2 + 12x 3 + 6x 4) + (4x 3 + 12x4 + 12x 5 + 4x 6 ) + (x 4 + 4x 5 + 6x 6 + 4x 7 + x 8 ) = 1 + 4x + 10x 2 + 16x 3 + 19x 4 + 16x 5 + 10x 6 + 4x7 + x 8
Exercise 5A
1. Complete all the rows of Pascal's triangle for n
= 0, 1, 2,
~)8
X
3, ... ,
12.
Keep this in a
prominent place for use in the rest of this chapter. 2. Using Pascal's triangle of binomial coefficients, give the expansions of each of the following: (a)
(1 + x)6
(f) (1 + 2y)4
(x)
7
(i) (1 _
(j)
(k) (1 + 1!.)
X
5
(b) (1  x)6 (c) (1 + x?
(d) (1x)9 (e) (1+c)5
(g) 1 + 3" (h) (13z)3
(1 + ~)5
X
(1) (1 + 3X)4
y
3. Continue the calculations of the expansions of (1 + x at the beginning of this section, expanding (1 + x)5 and (1 + x)6 in the same manner. Keep your work in columns, so that the addition property of the Pascal triangle is clear. 4. Find the specified term in each of the following expansions. (a) For (1
t
+ X)ll:
(i) find the term in x 2 ,
(ii) find the term in x 8 .
CHAPTER
5: The Binomial Theorem
SA The Pascal Triangle
177
(b) For (1  x) 7 : (c) For (1 ( d) For
(i) find the term in x 3 , (i) find the term in X4, (i) find the term in
XI,
(ii) find the term in xS. (ii) find the term in x 5 .
+ 2x)6:
4:
(1 _~)
+ x)9
(ii) find the term in x 2 •
5. Sketch on one set of axes:
(a) y=(lx)O, y=(1x)2, y=(1x)4, y=(1x)6. (b) y = (1  x)l, Y = (1  x)3, Y = (1 _ X)5.
6. Expand (1
and (1 + x)lO, and show that the sum of the coefficients of the second expansion is twice the sum of the coefficients in the first expansion.
_ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __
7. Without expanding, simplify:
1)3 (b) 1 6(x + 1) + 15(x + 1)2  20(x + 1)3
8. Find the coefficient of X4
(a) 1 + 3(x  1) + 3(x  1)2
+ (x 
+ 15(x + 1)4  6(x + 1)5 + (x + 1)6 in the expansion of (1  x)4 + (1  X)5 + (1  x)6.
(c) (1 + 3V2)4 = (d) (1  2v'3)6 =
9. Find integers a and b such that:
(a) (l+v'3)s=a+bv'3 (b) (1 v's)3 = a + bv's
10. Expand and simplify:
+ bV2 a + bv'3
a
(a) (1
+ v'3)5 + (1 + X)4
 (1
v'3)5 (b) (1
11. Verify by direct expansion, and by taking out the common factor, that:
(a) (1
+ x)3 = x(l + x)3
+ X)7 
(1
+ x)6 = x(l + x)6
12. (a) Expand the first few terms of (1
1.003 6 to five decimal places. (b) Similarly, expand (1  4x)5, and hence evaluate 0.96 5 to five decimal places. ( c) Expand (1 + X )8  (1  X )8, and hence evaluate 1.0028  0.998 8 to five decimal places.
(ii) as far as the term in x 2 • Hence find the coefficient of x 2 in the expansion of (1  5x )(1 Expand (1 + 2x)5 as far as the term in x 3. Hence find the coefficient of x 3 in the expansion of (2  3x)(1 Expand (1 3X)4 as far as the term in x 3 .
+ X)6, hence evaluate
13. (a) (i) Expand (1
+ X)4
+ x)4.
(b) (i) (ii) (c) (i)
+ 2X)5.
(ii) Hence find the coefficient of x 3 in the expansion of (2
14. Find the coefficient of:
+ x)2(1 3x)4.
3 2
(a) x 3 in (3  4x)(1
+ X)4
(d)
X
O
in
(1 _~) (1 + ~)
+ 5x)4(1  3X)2 + 3x)3(1 x)7
(b) x in (1 + 3x + x 2)(1  x)3 (c) x4 in (5  2x 3 )(1 + 2X)5
(e) x 5 in (1 (f) x 3 in (1
15. Determine the value of the term independent of x in the expansion of:
(a) (1+2X)4(1 :2)6
(b)
(l_~)S (1+~)3
178
CHAPTER
5: The Binomial Theorem
CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS
3
UNIT YEAR
12
16. (a) In the expansion of (1
+ X)6:
2
(i) find the term in x , (ii) find the term in x 3 , (iii) find the ratio of the term in x 2 to the term in x 3 , (iv) find the values of (i), (ii) and (iii) when x = 3. (b) In the expansion of
(1 + :x)
7:
(i) find the term in x 5 , (ii) find the term in x 6 , (iii) find the ratio of the term in x 5 to the term in x 6 , (iv) find the values of (i), (ii) and (iii) when x
= 2.
17. (a) When (1 + 2x)5 is expanded in increasing powers of x, the third and fourth terms in the expansion are equal. Find the value of x. (b) When (1 + x)5 , where x i= 0, is expanded in increasing powers of x, the first, second and fourth terms in the expansion form a geometric sequence. Find the value of x. (c) When (1 + x) 7 is expanded in increasing powers of x, the fifth, sixth and seventh terms in the expansion form an arithmetic sequence. Find the value of x. 18. (a) Find the coefficients of x4 and x 5 in the expansion of (1 + kX)8. Hence find k if these coefficients are in the ratio 1 : 4. (b) Find the coefficients of x 3 and x4 in the expansion of (1 + kx)6. Hence find k if these coefficients are in the ratio 8 : 3. (c) Find the coefficients of x 5 and x 6 in the expansion of (1 ikx)9. Hence find k if these coefficients are equal. 19. Use Pascal's triangle to help evaluate the integrals arising from the following questions. (a) Find the area bounded by the curve y = x(1  x)5 and the xaxis, where 0:::; x :::; 1. (b) Find the area bounded by the curve y = x4(1  x)4 and the xaxis, where 0 :::; x :::; 1. (c) Find the volume of the solid formed when the region between the xaxis and the curve y= x(1  x)3, for 0 :::; x :::; 1, is revolved around the xaxis.
J
20. If $P is invested at the compound interest rate R per annum for n years, and interest is compounded annually, the accumulated amount is $A, where A = P (1 + Rt. (a) Write down as decimals all terms in the expansion of (1 + 0.04)3. (b) Hence find the amount to which an investment of $1000 will grow, if it is invested for 3 years at a rate of 4% per annum, and interest is compounded annually. 21. By writing (1 + x + 3x 2 )6 as (1 + A)6, where A = x + 3x 2 , expand (1 as the term in x 3 . Hence evaluate (1·0103)6 to four decimal places.
+ x + 3x 2 )6
as far
22. [Patterns in Pascal's triangle] Check the following results using the triangle you constructed in question 1. (These will not be proven until later. ) (a) The sum of the numbers in the row beginning 1, n, ... is equal to 2n. (b) If the second member of a row is a prime number, all the numbers in that row excluding the Is are divisible by it. (c) [The hockey stick pattern] Starting at any 1 on the left side of the triangle, go diagonally downwards any number of steps. Then the sum of these numbers is the number directly below the last number. For example, if you start at the 1 on the left hand side of the row 1, 3, 3, 1 and move down the diagonal 1, 4, 10, 20 the total of these numbers, namely 35, is found directly below 20.
Here are the expansions of (x + yt for low values of n. 6. the pattern gets confused by carrying). 4. The Pattern of the Indices in the Expansion of {x + y)n. Similarly the expansion of (x + y)4 has five terms. the expression (x + y is homogeneous of degree n in x and y together. (x + y)n: t . and in each term the indices of x and yare whole numbers adding to n. for example. The useful phrase for this is that (x + y is homogeneous of degree n in x and y together. the symmetries of the expansion will be more obvious. (X+y)l =x+y (x + y)2 = x(x + y) + y(x + y) = x 2 + xy + xy + y2 2 + 2xy + y2 = x + y)3 = x(x + y)2 + y(x + y)2 = x 3 + 2x 2y + xy2 + x 2y + 2xy2 + y3 3 + 3x 2y + 3xy2 + y3 = x (x +y)4 = x(x + y)3 + y(x + y)3 = x4 + 3x 3y + 3x 2y2 + xy3 + x 3y + 3x 2y2 + 3xy3 + y4 = x4 + 4x 3 y + 6x 2y2 + 4xy3 + y4 (x (x + y)3. How many segments. t. 23. SB Further Work with the Pascal Triangle We pass now to the more general case of the expansion of (x + y Because x and yare both variables. + x + y t. 4. 1. and show that adding adjacent pairs gives the square numbers. [The Pascal pyramid] By considering the expansion of (1 calculate the first five layers of the Pascal pyramid. the number is a power of 11 (except that after the row 1. t THE TERMS OF 2 The expansion of (x + y)n has n + 1 terms. (d) How many pentagons could you form if you placed seven points on the circumference of a circle? ~~~~~_EXTENSION ~~~~~_ 24. triangles and quadrilaterals can be formed using these four points? (c) What happens if five points are placed on the circle. and this section offers proofs of the addition property and the other basic patterns in the Pascal triangle. the calculations have been carried out with like terms written in the same column so that the addition property is clear. How many line segments and triangles can be formed using these three points? (b) Place four points on the circumference of a circle. The expansion of and in each term the indices of x and yare whole numbers adding to 4.CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 5B Further Work with the Pascal Triangle 179 (d) [The powers of 11] If a row is made into a single number by using each element as a digit of the number. Again. has four terms. and so also is its expansion. 4. That is. where 0 ::. and in each term the indices of x and yare whole numbers adding to 3. [These geometrical results should be related to the numbers in the Pascal triangle. n ::. The pattern for the indices of x and y is straightforward.] (a) Place three points on the circumference of a circle. (e) Find the diagonal and the column containing the triangular numbers.
SOLUTION: (a) (1+x)2=2C o + 2C l x + 2C 2 x 2 and(1+x)3=3C o + 3C l x + 3C 2 x 2 + 3C 3 x 3 (b) But (1 + x)2 = 1 + 2x + x 2. (1 + x t = nco + nC l X + nC 2 x 2 + . 3C 3. This definition will need some thought. THE EXPANSION OF U sing the notation nCr for the coefficients. 2C 2 and of 3C O. the terms of the previous expansion are multiplied first by x and then by y. .. 3C l . so 3CO = 1. 2C l = 2 and 2C 2 = 1. + nC n xn. In each successive expansion. r=:O WORKED EXERCISE: (a) Write out the expansion of (1 + x)2 and (1 + x)3 using nCr notation. so 2C O = 1. Defining a number as a coefficient in an expansion is standard practice in mathematics. as can be seen by replacing x and y by 1 and x in the expansion of (x + y and we will first deal with the special case of the expansion of (1 + x To investigate these coefficients further. where * denotes the different coefficients.2y 2 + . Also (1 + x)3 = 1 + 3x + 3x 2 + x 3 . the expansion can be written as n (1 + xt = I:ncrxr. but it seems very strange the first time it is encountered.. we take the approach of giving names to the things we want to study. We now know that in general (x + yt = *x n + *xnly + *x n . of course. 3C l = 3. and the notations nCr and (. 3C 2 = 3 and 3C 3 = 1. and formal proof by induction should not be necessary. We can now write out the expansion of (1 + x t. 3C 2. (b) Hence give the values of 2C O .. t.) are both used for these coefficients. so the sum of the indices goes up by 1. A Symbol for the Coefficients: The coefficients here are.180 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 The reason for this is clear. t. the same as in the previous section. (1 + x t: There are n + 1 terms.. and the general term of the expansion is 4 Alternatively. The symbol is usually read as 'n choose r'. + *x 2y n2 + *xynl + *yn. THE DEFINITION OF 3 nCr: Define the number nCr to be the coefficient of xr in the expansion of (1 + x)n. using sigma notation. 2C l .
leaving the terms unsimplified.. Thus we can now write out the expansion of (x + y as well.216x 3 + 81x 4 (5x + }a)5 = (5X)5 + 5 X (5x)4 X }a + 10 X (5x)3 X {ta)2 + 10x (5x)2 X (ia)3 + 5x(5x)x(ta)4+(ia)5 . t t THE EXPANSION OF (x + yt: Using the nCr notation.2)6. (b) the term in x 3. and the general term of the expansion is (x 5 Alternatively. the expansion can be written as (x + yt = L 1'==0 n nCr xnryr. + There are n + 1 terms. using sigma notation. WORKED EXERCISE: . and will be discussed further below. + yt = nco xn + nC 1 xnly + nC 2 xn2y2 + .96x + 72x 2 .. Using the General Expansion: The general expansion of (x + y t is applied in the same way as the expansion of (1 WORKED EXERCISE: + x t. Use the Pascal triangle to write out the expansions of: (a) (2 .3x)4 SOLUTION: (b) (5x + ia)5 (a) (b) + 4x2 3 X(3x) + 6X2 2 X(3x)2 + 4 X 2 X ( 3x)3 + (3x)4 = 16 . nC n yn. The Pascal Triangle: nCr 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The Pascal triangle of the previous section now becomes the table of values of the function ncr.CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 5B Further Work with the Pascal Triangle 181 The Expansion of(x + y)n: The coefficients in the expansion of (x + y are the same numbers nCr as in the expansion of (1 + x t.3125x 5 + 625ax 4 + 50a 2x 3 + 2a 3x 2 + la 4x + 3125 5 _1_a 25 (23x)4=2 4 Use the Pascal triangle to write out the expansion of (2x+x. Hence find: (a) the term independent of x. with the rows indexed by n and the columns by r: 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 3 GJ [ill 15 21 28 ITQ] 1 4 10 20 35 56 1 5 15 35 70 1 6 21 56 1 7 28 1 8 1 The boxed numbers provide another example of the addition property of the Pascal triangle.
3x)7 = 5 X 6048 x 2 .7 X 26 X (3x) + 21 X 25 X (3x)2 = 128 .x X 1344 x = 28896 x 2 • Proofs of the First Three Basic Properties: The first three basic properties of the Pascal triangle can now be expressed in nCr notation and proven straightforwardly... and part 2 by equating coefficients.4 = 240.. + 0 + nC n + .. that is.3x) 7 .1 . that is. PROOF: Each proof begins with the general expansion (x + yt = nco Xn + nC 1 xnIy + nC 2 xn2y2 + .. . Substituting x = 1 and y and so as required. = 1.. WORKED EXERCISE: = 160... and hence find the 2 in the expansion of (5 + x)( 2 . = 0.. 3..3x)7 = 27 ...3 = 20 X (2x)3 X (x. + nC n _ 1 xynl + . Each row starts and ends with 1.2)3 + (2X)5 X (X. (1 (0 + O)n = nco + 0 + .. 2. term in x SOLUTION: (2 . 1 = nco. nco = nC n = 1. Hence the term in x 2 in the expansion of (5 + x)(2 .. nco + nC 1 + nC 2 + . + nC n yn..6 + (X.182 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 SOLUTION: (2x + X.. that is.. = 1. for all cardinals nand r with r n :S n... BASIC PROPERTIES OF THE PASCAL TRIANGLE: 6 1.. 1. for all cardinals n. Substituting x = 1 and y and so as required.2)4 + 6 X (2x) X (X. nCr = nc n _ r . Parts 1 and 3 then proceed by substitution.2)6 = (2X)6 + X 6 X + 20 (2X)3 X (X. (1 + It = nco + nC 1 + nC 2 + . and in general nC n _ r = nCT) for r = 0. We know that (x + yt = (y + xt. 1. Substituting x = 0 and y and so as required. for all cardinals n. . Now (x + yt = nco xn + nC 1 xnly and (y + x t = nco yn + nC 1 ynlx Equating coefficients of like terms in the two expansions. + It = 0 + 0 + . + nC n = 2 n . These methods are both commonly required for solving problems. Each row is reversible. The sum of each row is 2 .3x) 7 as far as the term in x 2.. 2.2) + 15 X (2X)4 X (X2)2 15 X (2X)2 X (X. + nC n _ 1 yx n . Expand (2 . .2)3 = 20 X 23 X x 3 X x. + 0. n. 2. 3.2)6 (a) Constant term = 15 X (2X)4 X (X.2)2 = 15 X 24 X x4 X x.2)5 (b) Term in x. . + nc n . and they should be studied carefully..1344x + 6048x 2 .
In words. then for 1 ::.!b)3 2. 1. Simplify the following without expanding the brackets: (a) yS + Sy4(x _ y) + 10y3(x _ y)Z + 10y2(x _ y)3 + Sy(x _ y)4 (b) a4 .they show that sC 2 = 4C 2 + 4C I (that is.J (b) Hence find: (i) 4C O + 4C I + 4C 2 + 4C 3 + 4C 4 (ii) 4C O . On the LHS.4C I + 4C 2 . (a) Expand (1 + x)\ and hence write down the values of 4C O . Exercise 58 NOTE: Questions 3 and 4 should be omitted by those wanting to delay the introduction of nCr notation until Section SD. The boxed numbers in the Pascal triangle above provide an example of this . is therefore: THE ADDITION PROPERTY: If nand r are positive integers with r ::. n. the term in x r in the first expression is nCr XT. r::.. Use Pascal's triangle to expand each of the following: (a) (x + y)4 (d) (p + q)IO (g) (p _ 2q)7 (b) (X_y)4 (e) (ab)9 (h) (3x+2y)4 (c) (r . Use Pascal's triangle to expand each of the following: (a) (1 + x 2 )4 (c) (x 2 + 2y 3)6 (j) (k) a+ r ~s)S 6 (x + ~) 2 ) S (e) (.4a 3(a . A formal proof will require examination of the coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x t+l.4a(a . We begin by noticing that (1 + xt+ 1 = (1 + x)(l + xt = (1 + x)n + x(l + x )n.b)4 + (x _ y)S . The general statement.4C 3 + 4C 4 4.b)3 + (a .CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 5B Further Work with the Pascal Triangle 183 Proof of the Addition Property of the Pascal Triangle: The addition property also needs to be restated in nCr notation.JX+vfYf (b) (1.S)6 (f) (2x + y)s (i) (a . [N OTE: nCr is defined to be the coefficient of xr in the expansion of (1 + x)n. in symbolic form. and the term in xr in the second expression is X X nc rI XrI = nc rI Xr . Use the values of nCr from the Pascal triangle in the notes above to find: (a) 6C O + 6C 2 + 6C 4 + 6C 6 (c) 2C Z + 3C Z + 4C Z + sC z (b) 6C I + 6C 3 + 6C S (d) (SC o + eCI)Z + eC z )2 + (SC 3 + eC 4)Z ? ? + eCs)Z 5. the general term in xr is On the RHS. 4C 2. PROOF: Equating coefficients of these two terms proves the result. 4C 3 and 4C 4. so the general term in xr on the RHS is the sum (nCr + nCr_l)x r .b) + 6a z (a . it says that every number in the triangle is the sum of the number directly above it.3XZ)3 (d) (x _ ~) 9 (f) (~+ 3X 3. 10 = 6 + 4). The expansions at the start of Sections SA and SB were written so that the columns aligned to make the addition property obvious. and the number above and to the left of it (apart from the first and the last numbers of each row). 7 n+lC r = nCr + nCr_I. 4C I .b)2 . n.
3x)(1 . _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 7. (b) Similarly. (ii) Hence find the coefficient of x 3 in the expansion of (3 . Simplify (5 + v'2)5 . the coefficient of x4 in the expansion of (1 . (iii) Hence use the definition J'(x) = lim htO f(x + h~  f(x) to differentiate x 3. find the value of a. Show that (2 + v'7)4 + (2 .y)2(3 _ y)7. (a) (i) Expand (4 + x)5 as far as the term in x 3. By starting with ((x 13. (ii) If f(x) = x 3. + 1). (a) + Vs)6 + (3 . 10. .f(x). (b) (0·98)5 correct to to five decimal places. (a) (i) Use Pascal's triangle to expand (x + h)3.x)3 (d) (x + y)6 _ 6(x + y)5(x _ y) + 15(x + y)4(x _ y)2 _ 20(x + y)3(x _ y)3 + 15(x + y)2(x . (iii) (x (ii) x + ~) 7 +5 x 1 COO) x+ 1 7 1ll 7 x . If x (X+~)3 (ii) (x+~)5 (i) x 3 + .3x (c) xO in (3 _ 2x)2 (x (d) x 9 in (x + ~) 5 2)7 + 11)(4 + x 3)3 + 2)3(x  9. and hence evaluate: (a) (1·02)5 correct to to five decimal places.) 5. expand (x + y + z)3. If (V6 + v'3)3 .2x)6. Expand (x v'7 y5 )5 + (7 + y5 )5 .= 2. v'7 ( 75 5 1 1 + y) + z)3. simplify f(x + h) . where a is an integer. (b) (i) (ii) (c) (i) (ii) Expand (1 Hence find Expand (3 Hence find .Vs)6 = 20608.y)7 as far as the term in y4.v'2)5. (i) + 2y)5 14.184 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (c) X3 + 3x2(2y .v'7)4 is rational. (a) Expand and simplify (x (b) Hence (and without a calculator) prove that 56 + 55 X 33 + 53 X 35 + 36 = 25(2 12 8.x) + 3x(2y .y)4 _ 6(x + y)(x _ y)5 + (x _ y)6 6. evaluate: x 5 x 15.X)2 + (2y . the coefficient of y4 in the expansion of (1 .3 in the expansion of (3X . Find the coefficient of: + y)6 + (x _ y)6. (a) Expand: (b) Hence. Find the coefficients of x and x.v'3)3 = av'3.1)4 a common denominator. 1 1 (v'3 + 1)4 + (v'3 . simplify 12. Then simplify the expression using Pascal's triangle.2x)6 as far as the term in x4.1)4( v'3 + 1)4 by puttmg the LHS over v'3 v'3 3 ( 3 .(V6 . (a) x 3 in(25x)(x 2 3)4 (b) x 5 in (x 2 .(5 . differentiate x 5 from first principles.2)5 correct to four significant figures. (b) Similarly. Show that v'3 + (3 + 1)4 = (3 .x)( 4 + x)5.1)4 . (c) (2.. Hence find the values of a if these coefficients are in the ratio 2 : 1. . 1 + . (a) Show that (3 (b) (c) (d) 11.
(a) Expand (x : +~)6 6 are equal. The notation 7!. for n 2': 1. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 18. used here for this product is new.• X 2 X 1.2) X •. Band C. in preparation for the formula for nCr in the next section. { n! = n X (n . Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (x + 1 + Xl)4. This form of the definition gives more insight into how to manipulate factorial notation.. The coefficients of the terms in a3 and a. Prove that m 2 17.3 in the expansion of ( ma where m and n are nonzero real numbers.perhaps use a computer program to generate 100 rows of Pascal's triangle. What do you notice? This pattern will be more evident if you take at least the first 16 rows .I)!. written as n! . There is a formula for nCT) but it involves taking products like 7! =7X 6 X 5 X 4 X 3 X 2 X 1 = 5040.2) X ••. express x +:6 in the form U 6 State the values of A. we have been using the Pascal triangle to supply the binomial coefficients. For each cardinal n.1) X (n . Join the midpoints of the sides of this triangle to form a smaller triangle.I)!. and it also avoids the dots . define n! to be the product of all positive integers from n down to 1: 8 n! =n X (n . 2. X 3 X 2 X 1. Repeat this process on all white triangles that remain. then colour all the even numbers black and leave the odd numbers white. for n 2': 1. read as 'seven factorial'. and then saying exactly how to proceed from (n .I)! to n!: O! = 1.1) X (n . This means first defining O!. . Colour it black. +AU 4 +BU 2 +C. 5C Factorial Notation So far. But it is better to define n! recursively.CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 5C Factorial Notation 185 16. The Definition of Factorials: n! The number 'n factorial'. Define the function n! recursively by O! = 1. in the first definition. Two DEFINITIONS OF n! (CALLED n FACTORIAL): 1. + ~) 6 (b) If U = x+~.. This section will develop familiarity with the notation and some algorithms for handling it. 19. n2 = 10 : 3. [The Sierpinski triangle fractal] (a) Draw an equilateral triangle of side length 1 unit on a piece of white paper. { n! = n X (n . is the product of all the positive integers from n down to 1: =n X (n . What do you notice? (b) Draw up Pascal's triangle in the shape of an equilateral triangle.
whose principal purpose is to assist in the proof of a later theorem. So using the recursive definition. 1. WORKED EXERCISE: (a) 17~1 10 X Simplify the following using unrolling techniques: (n + 2)1 n1 (b) (n1)1 9 8 71 (c) (nr)1 SOLUTION: (a) 101 71 X X 71 = 10 X 9 X 8 (b) (n+2)1 (n1)1 (n+2)(n+1)n(n1)1 (n1)1 =(n+2)(n+1)n = 720 (c) n1 (nr)1 n(n1)(n2)···(nr+1)(nr)1 (nr)1 = n(n . J V r factors A Lemma to be Used Later: A lemma is a theorem. with 1 :S r :S n. (n .. This idea is vital when there are fractions involved.l)(n . 01 =1 11 = 1 X 21 = 2 X X 41 = 4 X 31 = 24 31 = 3 =1 11 = 2 21 = 6 01 51 61 = 5 X 41 = 120 = 6 X 51 = 720 X 71 = 7 61 = 5040 = 8 X 71 = 40320 91 = 9 X 81 = 362880 101 = 10 X 91 = 3628800 111 = 11 X 101 = 39916800 81 and so on.the domain of the function n1 is N = {O.2)· . A LEMMA ABOUT FACTORIALS: Let nand r be cardinal numbers. an empty sum is 0. 9 Then n1 (nr)1r1 + n1 (n+1)1 (nr+1)1(r1)1=(nr+1)1r1· . In a similar way. Its proof is not easy. In any case. because if nothing has yet been added. because if nothing has yet been multiplied.. the register has been set back to O. the register has been set back to 1. 0 0. usually of a technical nature. An empty product is 1. Unrolling Factorials: The recursive definition of n1 given above is very useful in calculations. 2. increasing very quickly indeed. The following lemma will be used in the proof of the binomial theorem in the next section. 01 is defined to be equal to 1. Notice also the error message if n is not a cardinal number . but it is an excellent example of the unrolling technique.. Calculators have a factorial button labelled or Use it straight away to convince yourself that at least the calculator believes that 01 = 1.r + 1) . }. . Successive applications of the definition can be thought of as unrolling the factorial further and further: 81 =8 X =8 X =8 X 71 (unrolling once) X X 7 7 61 (unrolling twice) X 6 51 (unrolling three times) and so on.186 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 The fact that 01 = 1 requires some thought.
r)! X r X (r . find: (b) If f(x) (i) J'(x) (i) f'(x) (ii) f"(x) (ii) f"(x) 1 ( c) (n + I)! 1 1 (n .I)! (n . (a) Show that k X k! = (k + I)! .. sum the series 1 X I! + 2 X 2! + 3 X 3! + . (a) If f(x) = x n .CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 5C Factorial Notation 187 PROOF: A common denominator for the two fractions is required: n! n! LHS = + (nr+1)!x(r1)! (nr)!xr! n! n! = + (n .I)! 4.I)! (n + I)! (a) 8! .I)! (f) (d) n! (n .2)! (n+ I)! (b) n X (n .I)! (iii) in)(x) (iv) f(k)(x). = . find: (a) f'(x) (b) f"(x) (d) f""(x) (e) f(5)( x) (f) f(6)(x) (g) f(7)(x) 3.r + 1) X (n . = Exercise 5C 1.n! (c) 8! + 6! (d) (n + I)! + (n  I)! (e) 9! + 8! + 7! (f) (n + I)! + n! + (n  I)! _________ DE VEL 0 P MEN T ________ 5. find: x 7. Evaluate the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3! 7! 10! I! O! 9! 4! 15! (g) 14! 8! (h) 3! (f) (c) f"'(x) (i) 10! 8! 3! 4! X 2! 9! 4! (j) (k) 12! X 8! X 10! 5! X 3! X 2! 15! (m) 3! X 5! X 9! 12! (n) 2! X 3! X 4! (1 ) X 5! 2.. + n X n! .r + I)! (n+1)xn! = r!x(nr+1)! (n + I)! = :.k! (b) Hence by considering each individual term as a difference of two terms. where k (iii) i5)(x) (iv) in)(x).: r! X (n . Simplify by unrolling factorials appropriately: n(n1)! (n + 2)! n' (c) (e) (a) (n '1)! n! n! (n . Simplify by taking out a common factor: (g) (n2)!(n1)! n! (n .r + I)! = RHS.I)! (nr+1)xn! + = r X (r1)! X (nr+1)rxn!(nr)! X ~~~~~~ (( n .r)! X (r . Write each expression as a single fraction: 1 1 1 1 (a) n! + (n _ I)! (b) n! ( n + I)! 6.7! (b) (n + I)! . n.r + 1) + r) X n! r! X (n . If f(x) = x 6. :s.3)! (h) n! (n .
1.. (iii) 7. Express using factorial notation: ( a) 30 X 28 X 26 X .x). . 10.. 3. using a collapsing sequence... for k > n. . 2. .. (a) Evaluate (k + I)! ' for k = 1. 4 and 5. =7X 2! 3 Hence explain why J(x) can be written J(x) (b) Show that if J(x) = anx n + an_IX n. and hence explain why J( x) k for k = 0.. . _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 12. 3. (iv) 13.. Ix (ii) For what values of x does this series converge. (a) Find what power of: (b) Find what power of: (i) 2. (ii) 5. n. X X . k! k +1 .. Prove that n! r!(nr)! n! (n+1)! + (r1)!(nr+1)! = r!(nr+1)! . 2. and what is its limit? (b) Find the Maclaurin series for J( x) = 10g(1 .. (i) 2.1 = . + alx + ao J(k)(O) = { ak k!. 0.. (a) (i) Find the Maclaurin series expansion of J(x) k=O = 1 . 2. X 2 1 13. The resulting series is called the Maclaurin series of J( x). 3. if the Maclaurin series does converge. 1. Refer to the last question in Exercise 12D of the Year 11 volume for a discussion of the convergence of this series. (k (b) Evaluate L k=l n + I)! ' for k n = 1. J'(O) x .. it converges to the original function J( x). n (c) Make a reasonable guess about the value of ~ (k n + 1)! ' k and prove this result by k mathematical induction. (d) Prove that ( k )' 1 ( 1 )"andhenceproduceanalternativeproofofpart(c) k + 1. is any polynomial.. 4 and 5.. [A relationship between higher derivatives of polynomials and factorials] (a) If J(x) (i) (iv) = 11x 3 + 7x 2 + 5x + 3.+ 1"(0) x + 1"'(0) x . X 1 X 30 ( c ) 29 X X 28 27 X X 26 25 X . 2. and for most straightforward functions. then 2 + .+ O.188 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 8. for J(O) (iii) J"(O) all k > 4. X 2 (b) 29 X 27 X 25 X . . Hence find lim "(k n+oo k=l 6 + 1)'. (ii) 10. =L 00 J(k)(O) k! X xk k=O 11. [Maclaurin series] The infinite power series L 00 J(k)(O) k! xk at the end of question 10(b) can also be generated by a function J( x) whose higher derivatives do not eventually vanish. is a divisor of 10! is a divisor of 100! 9. show that: J(O) = 3 X O! (ii) J'(O) = 5 X I! 1"'(0) = 11 X 3! (v) J(k)(O) = 0.
in the sense that the percentage error ). For the final entry 1. Now we can write each entry 7 C r as a product of fractions: 7 Co =1 7 =. 14. mnltiply by t. J r factors .0 as n ) 1 00. For the entry 7.. but it is most important because it provides a continuous function that approximates n! for integer values of n: n! '*' v"27rn n +2 e. 1x2x3x4x··· .. t.: 7 C 7• Here is the line corresponding to n 3 35 4 35 5 21 6 7 7 1 = 7: 0 1 1 7 2 21 7 And here is how to work along the line: The first entry in the line is l. Refer to the last two questions in Exercise 13C of the Year 11 volume to see why this series always converges to eX. (ii) Find the Maclaurin series for f( x) = eX. multiply by ~ = ~. = f. An Investigation for a Formula for 7C. For the entry 7. For the entry 35. multiply by For the entry 35. [Stirling's formula] The following formula is too difficult to prove at this stage (see question 24 of Exercise 6F for a preliminary lemma). It can be discovered by looking along a typical line of the Pascal triangle to see how each entry can be calculated from the entry to the left. = '''''''~ . (iii) Hence find the first four nonzero terms of the Maclaurin series for eX sin x. 3 = ~.CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 50 The Binomial Theorem 189 (c) (i) Find the Maclaurin series for f( x) = sin x.. Show that the formula has an error of approximately 2·73% for 3! and 0·83% for 10! Find the percentage error for 60! SD The Binomial Theorem There is a rather straightforward formula for the coefficients nCr. multiply by ~. multiply by 1 = For the entry 21.. multiply by 7 For the entry 21.n . multiply by ~.=7 1 7 C1 7C Z 7C 3 = 7X 1 X 6 2 = 21 = 35 =7X 6X 5 1x2x3 5 1x2x3x4 7x6x5x4x3 7C 5 = =21 1x2x3x4x5 7x6x5x4x3x2 7C 6 = =7 1x2x3x4x5x6 7C = 7 X 6 X 5 X 4 X 3 X 2 X 1 = 1 7 1x2x3x4x5x6x7 4  7C _ 7X 6X 5 X 4 _ 3 Statement of the Binomial Theorem: the general formula for nCr is ~ By now one should be reasonably convinced that r factors _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~ _ n Cr ~X(n1)X(n2)X(n3)x . Refer to the last question in Exercise 141 of the Year 11 volume to see why this series always converges to sin x.
.2)(n .1 r X 220 .r + 1). X (n . which is (n _ r)! ' by the unrolling procedures.! (n(nr))! (nr)!r! = nc r. Alternatively.1) X . ...! n.190 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 This is not yet very elegant.. SOLUTION: (a) General term = 20Cr = 20Cr X (2x 2 )20r X (_x. This gives a very concise formulation of the binomial theorem. See the Extension section of Exercise SE for an alternative and easier proof using differentiation. Examples of the Binomial Theorem: WORKED EXERCISE: Here are some worked examples using the formula to calculate nCr for some values of nand r._8_!_ s3!xS! 8 X 7 X 6 X $! 3 X 2 X 1 X $! = S6 (b) nC = n(n .1)(n .. X (n . (b) (i) Find the term in X 34 . The difficult proof will be given at the end of this section.r: n C n  r = (nr)! n.1)(n . n.. Notice that the formula for nc. ! r!(nr)! " r lor = 0. The denominator is 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X ..3)! (n3)!x3! n(n . X r n! numerator is n X (n .2r X (lr X x. leaving your answer factored into primes. Scientific calculators have a button labelled Incrl which will find values of nCr. remains unchanged when r is replace by n . .) WORKED EXERCISE: (a) Find the general term in the expansion of (2x2 _ X.. SOLUTION: 16CS = 16 X IS X 14 X 13 X 12 lx2x3x4xS = 2 X 14 X 13 X 12 = 24 X 3 X 7 X 13 (Check this on the calculator.1 )20.2) 6 WORKED EXERCISE: Find 16Cs.1) X . the answers are exact. using the binomial theorem: 3 (a) 8C 5 (b) nC 3 SOLUTION: (a) 8C . For low values of nand r. . 1. but for high values they are only approximations. as proven in Section SB..r lx2X···Xr + 1) . A further interesting proof by combinatoric methods will be given in Chapter Ten. Give each coefficient as a numeral. and factored into primes.r X (It X x 40 . 10 nc r _ n. nCr = n X (n . THE BINOMIAL THEOREM: = r! The For all cardinal numbers n.. confirming the symmetry of each row in the Pascal triangle. Evaluate.r X x 40 . (ii) Find the term in x 5 .3r .r = 20Cr X 220 .
1 and 2 n! n Co = 0'. .CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 50 The Binomial Theorem 191 (b) (i) To obtain the term in Hence the term in X 34 X 34 .) WORKED EXERCISE: In the expansion of ( + . 1) 40 .1 )2 20 X 19 . n. 11 nco nC 1 = nC n = 1. Give your answer in the form ncr.3r = 34 X = 20C2 = = 49 807 360 X 34 • r = 2.3r = 5 r Hence the term in x.. nC 2 = nC n _ 2 = ~n( n  1). = nC n _ 1 = n. n! =1 n! n C1 = :.5 = 496 128x 5. nC n _ 1 and nc n _ 2 • SOME PARTICULAR VALUES OF nCr: For all cardinals n.1 )15 20X19X18X17X16 10 15 X 2 5 Xx Xx lx2x3x4x5 = 19 X 3 X 17 X 16 X 2 5 X x.: 1!(nl)! =n C2 = 2! (n 1 X 2)! nx(nl) 2 =~n(nl) By the symmetry of the rows.5 = 20C15 = X = 15. these are also the values ofnc n .. (Check this on the calculator using 20C15 X 25... The Values of nCr for l' 0.2 )20 ~ 1·378 X 1011 (using the calculator). (2x 2 )202 X (_x. SOLUTION: We can write ( + .. and also as a numeral.. 1 and 2: The particular formulae for nCr for n are important enough to be memorised: n = = 0. 40 ( x . (2x 2 )2015 X (_x.2 1X2 19 2 X 5 X 19 X x 34 (Check this on the calculator using 20 C 2 X 218 .. Hence the term independent of x = 40C20 = 40CZO (x 2 )20 X (_x.5 . .1) x x . 40 . 40 ..2 )40.) (ii) To obtain the term in x...1) x 40 ( 1 X )40 = (x 2 _ x. find the term inde pendent of x.5 = _2 9 X 3 X 17 X 19 X x.X 2 18 X x 36 X x.
and the second part proves it true for the other values r = 1. r = 0 is Here LHS Also RHS = 1. The first part confirms that the formula is true for the two ends of the row when r = 0 and r = k + 1.. .lor r = 0.. .1) + n + 1 = 29 n . The 'result' that the proof keeps referring to is the statement that nc r _ n. about adding two fractions involving factorials..(k _ )' I ' for r = 0. A.. k Cr ( **) The proof of this will be in two parts.110 = 0 2 = 1 and nC 1 = nand nC 2 = tn(n  1). k+1 _ (k + I)! That IS. X o. = O... 1) When r = 0. because it allows k+lC r to be expressed as the sum of kC r and kC r _ 1 • Towards the end of part B. 2. r We now prove the result for n = k + 1.. Suppose that k is a value of n for which the result is true. the proof uses the technical lemma. 1. . n. PROOF: The proof is by mathematical induction on the degree n. proven in Section 5B. 1. In other words.56 = 0 (n . (k+ I)! = 1. (a) (b) nC 2 (n11)(n+l0)=0 Since n 2': 0. X O! since O! = 1. = 1.n + 2n + 2 = 58 n 2 + n .. and so there is only a single formula to prove. . r.r ! r! . = k+1C O = 1. 1." for r = 0. o. .. . we prove Cr . because of the expansion (x since O! = 1 by definition. We prove the result for n the only possible value o O! of r. That is. . . as proven in RHS = (k+ I)! LHS Section 5B. 2. + y)o = 1. 2. we shall prove that if anyone row of the triangle obeys the theorem. k. then the next row also obeys it. In this case.7)( n + 8) = 0 Since n 2': 0. 2. r. r + 1 . proven in the previous section. .n . namely Co = . n = 11. n = 7. Proof of the Binomial Theorem: The demanding proof of the binomial theorem uses mathematical induction.. k + 1. .192 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 WORKED EXERCISE: Find the value of n if: SOLUTION: We know that nco ~n(nl)=55 n . B. + nC 1 + nco = 29 tn(2n . which says that the formula holds for all values of r from 0 to n. k. n . = (k _k! )'.I . The key to the proof is the addition property of the Pascal triangle. + ( ) .
(a) Evaluate: (e) (f) n! to evaluate the following. (k RH S = O! X = 1. by the addition property with n = k + 1..CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 50 The Binomial Theorem 193 When r = k + 1. (k Hence the formula is true for r = 0 and r = k + l. by t h e III d uctlOn h ypot h ' )" eSIS r. (a) Use the binomial theorem to obtain formulae for: (b) Hence solve each of the following equations for n: (i) 9C 2 . I3C 5 (g ) 9C I (j) lOC 6 (k) Sc _5 I2C7 (h) l1C lO 7C 2 4C 3 sC s (i) 7C 3 (i) sC 3 and sC 5. . (a) By evaluating the LHS and RHS. (b) If nC 3 = nc 2 . = 1. 2. ) (k+1)! by the lemma in Section 5C.+ (_ r + 1)'. (ii) find the term in a 2 b9 • 5. . + X)7: (i) find the term in (ii) find the term in X4. Find the specified terms in each of the following expansions.nC 1 = 6C 3 (iii) nC 2 + 6C 2 = 7C 2 (v) nC I + nC2 = 5C 2 (ii) nC 2 = 36 (iv) nC 2 + nC 1 = 22 . It follows now from A and B by mathematical induction that the result is true for all cardinals n. (ii) find the term in x 5 y 12. k! . again as proven in Section 5B. k ( **. C. find the value of n. and verify the result on the third column of the Pascal triangle. (r _ 1. (i) find the term in xlOy2. verify the following results for n = 8 and r (i) nCr = nC n _ r (ii) nC r _ 1 + nCr = n+IC r (b) Use these two identities to solve the following equations for n: (i) 5C 3 + 5C 4 = nC 4 (ii) nC 7 + ncS = l1C S (a) For (2 (iii) nclO = nC 20 (iV) I2C 4 = I2C n X 2 . .3y2)11: (d) For (a_b~)20: (i) find the term in x y 5.(k . Check your answers for parts r!(nr)! Pascal triangle you developed in Exercise 5A.r + I)! r!' = RHS. = (k _k! )' r.. LHS = k+ICk+1 = 1. . Exercise 50 1. = 3: 4. (i) find the term in a 3 b¥. (ii) 7C 4 and 7C 3 .nco (vi) nC 3 + nC 2 = 8 nC I (c) Use the formula for nC 2 to show that nC 2 + n+lC 2 = n 2 . . + kC r _ l . 9 (ii) find the term in x 5 y 9. k. Use the result nCr = (a)(i) against the (d) ( a ) 5C 2 (b) IOC 4 (c) 6C 3 2. (b) For (x+h)14: (c) For ax . 3.. 2) Now suppose that r LHS = k+IC r = kC r + I)! + I)! since O! = l.
Coneiciedhe expa"ion (x' + ±)' ~ t 9Ci (X 2 )9. (a) In the expansion of (1 the ratio of the term in x 13 to the term in xlI .5.5 (iii) xO 9. 11.(3X2)k.15 x I5 . without simplifying.3X.2j . the general term is lOCk (2x 3/ O k . (i) find the term in x 7 .3 8.5 (a) ( 3)8 x+. (b) (1)12 3 2x . (b) Hence find the coefficients of the following terms.2 )1O. Find the term independent of x in each expansion: (i) XlI (ii) x (iii) x. find 7.. Find the coefficient of the power of x specified in each of the following expansions (leave the answer to part (f) unsimplified): (a) xIS in (x3 _ ~) 9 1 ) 20 (d) X7 in (5x2 (b) the constant term in ( .2 .4)11 (c) x(a) For (3 (b) (c) (e) xI + 2~) 8 in (x.ib)lI 1 b)9 (iv) ( . (i) find the term in x 9 . find the ratio of the coefficients of XIO and x 16 .. (c) In the expansion of (2 + x )18.. + x) 16. G). (a) Show that the general term in the expansion of ( "2 . (d) For(1_2X_4X 2)(1_*)9: (i) findtheterminxo. (b) Find the ratio of the coefficients of X14 and x 5 in the expansion of (1 + x )20. (a) Find the middle term when the terms in the following expansions are arranged in increasing powers of y. (ii) find the term in x. Determine the coefficients of the specified terms in each of the following expansions: + x)(l. the coefficients of: 10. X 5) 15 can be written as 15Cj (l)j 5j 2 j . (ii) find the term in x 3.194 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 6. (a) Show that this general term can be written as 10Ck2l0k3kx305k. (i) (2x3y)10 (b) Find the two middle terms when the terms in the following expansions are arranged in increasing powers of b..X)15: For (2 . (iii) XO (a) Show that each term in the expansion of (X2 (b) Hence find the coefficients of: + ~) 9 (i) x 3 (ii) x. (i) (a + 3b)5 (ii) (~a. giving your answer factored into primes: (i) xlO (ii) x.. .+ x 2x 3 14 in (x .3)(x + 2)15: (i) find the term in x4. can be written as 9Ci x 18 . (ii) find the term in x 12 . (b) Hence find. In the expansion of (2 x 3 + 3x.3i .1 + ~x)5 (f) xlI in (3~2 _~) 19 (ii) find the term in x 13 .5x + x 2)(1 + x)lI: For (x . 13. 12.
Find the value of n. Find the values of a and b.21n + 98 = o. the coefficients of x 5 and x 6 are in the ratio 4 : 9. 22. the ratios of three consecutive coefficients are 9 : 24 : 42. . r 18. Use binomial expansions and the binomial theorem to find the value of: (a) (0·99)13 correct to five significant figures.130 X + 5x 2 . x 2 and x 3 form an arithmetic progression. the coefficients of x 8 and x lO are in the ratio 1 : 2.. where n is a positive integer.y 16. .x (ii) Hence find the two possible values of n. 15. 19. 21. the ratio of the 7th and 8th terms is 35 : 2. 20. The expression (1 + ax is expanded in increasing powers of x. the coefficients of XO. and hence find the coefficient of x lO . and hence show that n 2 . the coefficients of x. If n is a positive integer. By writing it as ((1. use the binomial theorem to prove that (5 + m)n + (5 is an integer. . Find the values of a and n if the first three terms are: (a) 1 + 28x + 364x 2 + . Find the value of n. Show that there will always be a term independent of x in the expansion of ( x P + x2p . Find the value of n by trial and error. (a) Find x if the terms in x lO and xlI in the expansion of (5 + 2x )15 are equal. and find that term. (a) Find the coefficient of x in the expansion of (x + ~) 5 (x _ ~) 4 (b) Find the coefficient of x 2 in the expansion of (x _ (c) Find the coefficient of y3 in the expansion of ( y ~) 9 (x + ~) 5 1)10 1)7 +Y ( y . Explain why 2 X nC 5 = nC 4 + nc 6 . (a) In the expansion of (2 + 3x)n.CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 50 The Binomial Theorem 195 14. Find the value of n. (b) In the expansion of (1 + 3x)n. 17. the coefficients of x\ x 5 and x 6 form an AP. + X2)4. (b) 1 . (c) The expression (3 + ~) n is expanded in increasing powers of x. (a) In the expansion of (2 + ax + bx 2)(1 + x )13. (b) Find x if the terms in x 13 and x14 in the expansion of (2 . (b) (1·01)11 correct to four decimal places. Find the value of n.x) the term containing x4..3x )17 are equal. the coefficient of x5 is 1287. (b) In the expansion of (1 + xr.. + X2)4 in ascending powers of x as far as 1 )3n 23. (c) In the expansion of (1 mr r (i) + x r. expand (1. (b) In the expansion of (1 + x)n. (a) When (1 + x is expanded in increasing powers of x. (c) (0·999)15 correct to five significant figures. Xl and x 2 are all equal to 2. When x = 2. Find the value of n.
(a) Use the binomial theorem to expand (x (b) Hence use the definition J'(x) = lim h+O + h t.bx)12. the coefficient of x 2 is O. + n(: =~) = n(2 n  1  2). in terms of n. and a = b+ e. 1'1 nC 1 nC 2 nC 3 nC n (b) Evaluate C + 2 .4rn n .1(b + en) is divisible by e2. (b) Hence prove that nC 1 2 X nC 2 nCo + nC 1 28. 2 4r2 .bx )12. > p + 1. (b) Hence find three consecutive coefficients of the expansion of (1 + X)14 which form an arithmetic sequence. Use the binomial expansion of (b + e t to show that an .+ .1. 1) + .. and verify it using the row indexed by n = 4: . (a) Given that nCr = r.. In the expansion of (1 + 3x + ax2t. [HINT: Write 7 = 6 + 1.+ 3 . 26. [Divisibility problems] (a) Use the binomial theorem to show that 7 n + 2 is divisible by 3. show that nC 1'1 = n . (b) In the expansion of (1 + x)( a .r + 1. where n is a positive integer. 25. (a) Show that n(n ~ 1) + n(n . 31. (a) Find the value of nnCC . [APs in the Pascal triangle . 27. (a) Write down the term in xr in the expansion of (a . + nc p = n+1 C p+1.] (b) Use the binomial theorem to show that 5 n + 3 is divisible by 4..l) + +n(:=~) .rC p+1.. (b) the coefficient of x 3 • 29. f(x + h) h r X nCr f(x) to differentiate xn from first principles. Find.. where n is a positive integer.bn . Hence show that 542 . (b) Hence use trial and error to find the smallest positive integer n such that n(n~l) +n(n. (b) Hence deduce that for n > p. the value of: (a) a. xr and xr+1 form an arithmetic sequence.. (c) Suppose that b. show that rcp = 1'+1 C p+1 . the coefficients of x r .248 is divisible by 9. PCp + p+1 C p + p+2 C p + . the coefficient of x 8 is zero..n _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 30. + n C . Prove that + 2 = O. Find the value of the ratio ~ in simplest form.. e and n are positive integers.196 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 24. n o n C1 nC2 n n1 (C) Prove the following identity.] (a) In the expansion of (1 + x)n.see the last question in Exercise 5F for the general case. (a) If r > 15000. where n is a positive integer. (c) What is the significance of this result in the Pascal triangle? r 32. )" .'( nn~ r.
L. of course. WORKED EXERCISE: n (a) Write the expansion of (1 + 2x)4 in the form'""' tk xk. in the sense that the infinite series on the RHS converges to (1 + x)n. If we now make a substitution like x (1 + ~)4 = ~. x 2 + n(n1)(n2) 3. using the convergence of geometric series. (a) Prove.. In the following worked exercise. the coefficients of successive terms rise and then fall. of finding these greatest terms and greatest coefficients. and it does the job of clearly displaying the general term. . designed to be used with expansions of much higher degree.it is. which is 32. This ratio will be greater than 1 when the coefficients or terms are increasing. based on the binomial theorem. the theorem is true even when n is fractional or negative. x 3 + . [A more general form of the binomial theorem] a power series: (1 The binomial theorem can be written as + x )n = 1 + nx + n(n1) 2. that the result is true for n = l.. and it will be less than 1 when the coefficients or terms are decreasing.. There are two greatest terms. (b) Generate the binomial expansions of: ( .CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 5E Greatest Coefficient and Greatest Term 197 33. In this form.all that is needed is the general term but we shall need the notation in the next section. the expansion becomes = 1 + 6 + 13~ + 13~ + 5/6.J k=O n Find the ratio tk+1 . will have a particular role in some probability questions in Chapter Ten. provided that Ixl < 1. ) 11 1 (1x)2 (iii) (1 + x)2 1 (iv) VI+X SE Greatest Coefficient and Greatest Term In a typical binomial expansion like (1 + 2x)4 = 1 + 8x + 24x2 + 32x 3 + 16x 4 . the general method is applied to the two very simple expansions above . . These methods... tk and hence find the greatest coefficient. The purpose of the this section is to develop a systematic method. (b) Write the expansion of (1 + 2x)4 in the form '""' T .) 1 1 l+x ( . both 13~. ..J k k=O Find the ratio Tk+l ' Tk and hence find the greatest term if x = ~.. and the results. where writing out all the terms would be impossible. and again the terms rise and fall.. A Systematic Method: We will use the binomial theorem to find the ratio of successive coefficients or terms. It is not necessary to use sigma notation . The greatest coefficient is the coefficient of x 3 . L.
= 4C 3 X where Tk 23 = 32. 1 and 2.k)! (4k)x2 k+1 X k! ( 4 . To find where the coefficients are increasing.> 1 k+1 tk+l tk 8 . (b) From above.k)! X 2 4! k+T. k=O 4Ck+l 2 k +1 X k+1 4Ck 2k xk (8 . Tk+l = Tk for k = 2.2k . >1 > 2k + 2 < 2..198 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 SOLUTION: 4 4 (a) Expanding. From above. Tk is positive). Hence and To From above.. where tk so Hence (1 + 2X)4 = L = 4Ck 2k.2k (notice that tk is positive).3k 2k + 2 12 . and tk+l < tk for k Hence and the greatest coefficient is t3 4 = 3.3k k so Tk+l > Tk for k = 0 and 1. we solve tk+l > tk.> 1 8 .2k) using the previous working. = 13~. 12 .4:!. substituting x = ~.:(k + 1)! (3 . so tk+l > tk for k = 0. 4(k + 1) . k=O tk xk. . (1 + 2x)4 = LTk. .3k after cancelling the 2s. 8 . Tk+l that is. 2k + 2 ' To find where the terms are increasing. < Tl < T2 = T3 > T 4. Tk+l Tk = 4Ck 2k xk. and the greatest terms are T 2. and Tk+l < Tk for k = 3.2k)x k+1 3(8 .2k > k + 1 k < 2~ (remember that k is an integer).13 1 2 2 T3 = 4C 3 X a)3 .4C 2 X (l)2 . (1 +2X)4 = L4Cd2x)k = L k=O 4 4 ck2kxk. k=O 4C k+l 2 k +1 4C k 2k ::_. that is.. we solve T k +1 > T k . Tk 12 .> 1 (again.
Tk+l 4x(13 . an d s h ow t h at . Let (2+ 3x?2 = Ltkxk. There is no real need to make qualifications about this in the working. 25 2. (c) Write down the greatest term when x = ~ (and leave it factored).tk (b) Hence show that t7 is the greatest coefficient. an d sh ow t h at w h en x own Tk T !. (iii) Write down the greatest term when x = & (and leave it factored). an d sh ow t h at . Let (7+3x)25 = LCkXk. k=O (1·) Write d dan k+l.= . (iii) Write down the greatest coefficient (and leave it factored).Tk . (a) Let (5+2x)15 = LtkXk. . Let (1 + 5x )21 = LTk. k=O Tk+l 5x(21 . t...3k 2k + 2 . t k+ 1 nte (1·) W· d own expreSSIOns f or tk an d t k+1.. (c) Write down the greatest coefficient (and leave it factored). t k+ 1 · ( a ) W nte d own expreSSIOns f or tk an d tk+l.30k .. 5 Tk+l = 3' .CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 5E Greatest Coefficient and Greatest Term 199 Equality of successive terms or coefficients arises when the solution of the inequality is k > some whole number. . Tk 3 +1 (b) Hence show that when x = T5 is the greatest term in the expansion.k X (4x)k is the term in xk. 13 = 75 .2k .tk 5k+5· (ii) Hence show that t4 is the greatest coefficient. 3 +3 (ii) Hence show that when x = T6 is the greatest term in the expansion. Tk +1 (b) Hence show that when x = T 16 is the greatest term in the expansion.= (k ). Let (3 + 4x)13 = LTk .= .3k 7k + 7 . (c) Write down the greatest term when x = (and leave it factored). where Tk is the term in Xk. and show that . NOTE: Exercise 5E 12 1.k) (a) Write down expressions for Tk and Tk+l.. and show that Ck+l Ck (b) Hence show that C7 is the greatest coefficient. 3. (c) Write down the greatest coefficient (and leave it factored). k=O where tk = 12Ck X 212 . !. because then that whole number is the solution of the corresponding equality. t 15 5. 36 . 15 (b) Let (5 + 2x )15 = LTk . which is already complicated.2k .= k .k) (a) Wnte down expreSSIOns for Tk and Tk+l. k=O . 21 4. k=O (a) Write down expressions for Ck and Ck+l. where Tk is the term in xk. where Tk = 13Ck X 313 .k X 3 k is the coefficient of xk. and show that . k=O 30 .
Show that in the expansion of (1 + X)14.01)12 = 2: Tn 12 (o·my. d dh h h Tr+l (nr)y () Wnte down expreSSIOns for Tr an Tr+l an a ence s ow t at ~Tr = (r+1)x· (b) Consider the expansion of (a + 3b)8.show that = 72 +9r 8r 8 T Hence show that T4 is the numerically greatest term in the expansion. (ii) the term with greatest absolute value if x = ~ and y = 3. where a = 2 and b = ~. + x)n = 12. find: (i) the greatest coefficient. By substituting the . Let (1 2:trXr. 10. For each of the following expansions. For each expansion.k () cos k (). Let (x + y)n = 2: Tn where Tr r=O n . (a) Show that in the expansion of (1 + x)n. . 3) 10 (b) (2x+3y)12 9. Find the first value of r for 13. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 15. [An alternative proof of the binomial theorem by differentiation] Let f(x) = (1 + x)n. Tr 20 + 0. (b) By considering the expansion of (1 + X )2n. prove that the largest value of 2nCr is 2ncn. (ii) the greatest (a) ( 2x2 + . to the nearest k=O degree. the first positive angle for which T14 > TIS. . r=O (a) Find the values of nand r if tr+l = 5tr and tr+4 = 2t r+3 . two consecutive terms is the term in xnryr. find: (i) the coefficient with greatest absolute value. Let (sin () +cos ())20 = 2:Tk' where Tk is the term in sin 2o . . Let (1 where Tr is the term in r=O which the ratio Tr+l < 0. Find.200 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 6. (c) Find the greatest term in the expansion (p + q)lO. n 11. For each of the following expansions. (a) Find the kth derivative of f(x). where n is an even integer. where p = q = ~. the term with the 1 greatest coefficient is the term in x '2 n. are equal to each other and greater than any other term. (a) (17x)9 (b) (72x)14 (c) (x_2y)12 (d) (2x_y)IS 8. for any positive integer n. where x = ~. (a) (1 + 4x)1l (b) (2+~x)9 (c) (5x+3)12 (d) (5 + 6x)1l 7. find: (i) the greatest coefficient. . term if x = ~ and y = ~.005. (b) Hence find the greatest coefficient in the expansion. (. (ii) the greatest term if x = ~. y and n mto the expreSSIOn m 1 . and show that f(k)(O) n' = (n ·k)! . 14.) Tr+l appropnate values for x.
6 .2 .. prove that nC k = k!(nn~ k)!' .:l 2': 1. Each proof begins with some form of the binomial expansion (x + yt = L nC k x n. Some are quite straightforward to recognise and to prove. n\r 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 10 1 3 6 10 15 21 28 36 45 1 4 10 20 35 56 84 120 1 5 15 35 70 126 210 1 6 21 56 126 252 1 7 28 84 210 1 8 36 120 1 9 45 1 10 1 The First Approach . others are more complicated. . . By considering values of n for which P. [The Poisson probability distribution] The probability that n car accidents occur at a given set of traffic lights during a year is Pn = e.. k=O n Three approaches to generating identities from this expansion are developed in turn: substitutions. and it is important to take the time to interpret each identity as some sort of pattern in the Pascal triangle. and many of them will reappear in Chapter Ten on probability.for n = 0.CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 5F Identities on the Binomial Coefficients 201 (b) Expand f(x) using the binomial theorem. methods from calculus. and equating coefficients. (c) By equating these two expressions for lk)(O).Substitution: Substitutions into the basic binomial expansion or any subsequent development from it will yield identities. and show that f(k)(O) = k!nc k . 16. They can be very important in any application of the binomial theorem. SF Identities on the Binomial Coefficients There are a great number of patterns in the Pascal triangle. determine the most likely number of accidents at this intersection in a given oneyear period.these identities have a rather forbidding appearance. X 2·6 n .k yk. Each pattern in the Pascal triangle is described by an identity on the binomial coefficients nC k . Each identity that is obtained should be interpreted as a pattern in the triangle and verified there.. Methods of proof as well as the identities themselves are the subject of this section. 1. either before or after the proof is completed. 2. n. Here again is the first part of the Pascal triangle.
0 X nco + nCr + 2 X nC 2 + 3 X nC 3 + . 1 . For example. n X (b) Integrating.1 = L k X nc k . 4.. integration involves finding an unknown constant. o X 1 + 1 X 4 + 2 X 6 + 3 X 4 + 4 X 1 = 32 = 4 X 23 .6 + 15 . In the Pascal triangle. 1 . 6.. . nco + nC 1 + nC 2 + . n SOLUTION: We begin with the expansion (x + y)n n = L nC k x n . + nC n = 2n. WORKED EXERCISE: Consider the expansion (1 + x)n = SOLUTION: n ( a) Differentiating. + 2n X nC n = 3n . 1 X nco + 2 X nCr + 22 X nC 2 + . nco .10 + 5 . n L nC k xk.. x kr .. k=O that is. then substitute x = 1 to obtain an identity. 1. Then give an example of each identity on the Pascal triangle. + n X nC n = O. k=O that is.20 + 15 .k yk. k=O (a) Substituting x = 1 and y = 1 gives 2n = L nCk.. k=O n 2n . 1. this is trivial: but for even n. 4.202 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 WORKED EXERCISE: Obtain identities by substituting into the basic expansion: (a) x=landy=1 (b) x=landy=1 (c) x=landy=2 Then explain what pattern each identity describes in the Pascal triangle. As always. then substitute x = 1 to obtain an identity. (1 + X )n+l '. k=O that is. (b) Integrate the expansion. 6. 1X1 + 2X4 + 4X6 + 8X4 + 16 X 1 = 81 = 3 4 • Second Approach .1 = 0. Taking as an example the row 1. For odd n. this means that the sum of every row is 21£.5 + 10 .= C n+l + '"' 0 k=O n nC k xk+r k+l .••• + (It nC n = o. 1 + 5 + 10 + 10 + 5 + 1 = 32 = 25 (as proven in Section 5A). n (b) Substituting x = 1 and y = 1 gives 0 = LnCd1)k. 4. Substituting x = 1. for some constant C. This means that the alternating sum of every row is zero. k=O that is. n (c) Substituting x = 1 and y = 2 gives 3n = L nCk 2k. 4.6 + 1 = O.Differentiation and Integration: The basic expansion can be differentiated or integrated before substitutions are made. Taking as an example the row 1.nC 1 + nC 2 .. k=O (a) Differentiate the expansion.
and expanding and X equating constants.. 3. This means that if the entries of any row are squared and added.CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem SF Identities on the Binomial Coefficients 203 To find the constant C of integration. 1. SOLUTION: The constant term on the RHS is 2ncn. 3. the sum is the middle entry in the row twice as far down. this constant term is Equating the two constant terms. and with the row 1. . with the row 1. Taking WORKED EXERCISE: (x + ~) (x + ~) n n 1)2n ( + . prove that Then interpret the identity on the Pascal triangle. 1 IS. su bstitute x = 0. k=O ~ Substituting x = 1.tx4 + !x6 . that .. For example.Equating Coefficients: The third method involves taking two equal expansions and equating coefficients.5· 1 Third Approach . by the symmetry of the row. 4. and n+l 1 (1 + X)n+l ''n+l 1 n '""'0. 1 n+l lxl .. 1. The constant term on the LHS is the sum of the products and because nCn_k = nCk. 4. 4. n+l IX(I)1 Taking as an example the row 1. then so C =C + n+l = . 6. 4. 1.~x4 + tX1=12+21+t . . 6.
(1 n+l + x r+ 1 + J( = '" nc k . (c) (i) Differentiate both sides of the identity. show that nco + nC 2 + nC 4 + . = 23 • X 23 . using n = 3 and n = 4. (b) (i) By substituting x = 1. (ii) By substituting x = 1. show that ~(_I)k knCk = _1_. show that 4C o + 4C 1 + 4C 2 + 4C 3 + 4C 4 = 24.. (ii) By substituting x = 1. (d) (i) By integrating both sides of the identity. o.204 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Exercise SF 1. = 2n .2 4C 2 + 3 4C 3 . show that and explain each result L n nC k = 2n. (ii) Hence. n+l k=O (i)... (b) Show that 2nC1 +2nC3+2ncs+·· . r=O 2n (a) Show that 2nCr = 22n. J(. show that L k nCk = n 2n k=l n n 1 • (iii) By substituting x = 1. Prove the following.1. Consider the identity (1 + x)n = L nC k xk. + x? + J( = 4C OX + 4C 1 x 2 + ~ 4C 2 x 3 ~4C3 X4 + 4C 4 xs. = nC 1 + nC 3 + nc s + .. k=l (d) (i) By integrating both sides of the identity. by using the result of part (a). show that for some constant J(. show that J( = to = 1 in part (i). and explain each result in terms of the row indexed by n = 4 in Pascal's triangle. . show that 4C 1 . show that 4C 1 + 2 4C 2 + 3 4C 3 + 4 4C 4 = 4 (iii) By substituting x = 1. show that 4C o + 4C 2 + 4C 4 (c) (i) Differentiate both sides of the identity. HI t + t (ii) By substituting x (iii) By substituting x 4Co _ = 0. ~ +1 n+l 3. show that 1 4C 1 + 1 4 C 2 _ 1 4C 3 + 1 4 C 4 = 1 2 3 4 5 5· n 2. L L = 22n . show that = 1 in part = __1_ .. show that for some constant 1 . (ii) Hence. Consider the identity (1 Prove the following. by using the result of part (a).. (a) By substituting x = 1. (a) By substituting x = 1. show that nco + nC 2 + nC 4 + . k=O in terms of the row indexed by n = 5 in Pascal's triangle.• ~ k+l k=O J( n xk+1 (ii) By substituting x (iii) By substituting x = 0.1. show that 4C o + 4C 2 + 4C 4 = 4C 1 + 4C 3 ... 2n Consider the identity (1 + X )2n = 2nCr Xr. show that L( _1)kl k nC k = o. k=O (b) (i) By substituting x = 1.+2nC2n_l r=O Check both results on the Pascal triangle. This question follows the same steps as question 2.4 4C 4 = + X)4 = 4CO + 4C 1 X + 4C 2 X2 + 4C 3 X3 + 4C 4 X4.
5 and 6. (b) Generalise this result. l)n (1+x 1 = (1 + xn X )2n.(4C )2 (1 + ~) (1 _~) 4 4 d2 + (4C 2)2  (4C 3)2 + (4C 4)2 = 4C 2. . (d) By comparing coefficients of x n+1 on both sides of (1 + x )n(1 + x)n that = (1 + X )2n. and prove it. (d) By integrating both sides of the identity. + x)m(1 + xt = (1 + x)m+n. by considering the expansion of ( 1) 1+x 2n ( 1X 1 ) 2n ( I2 1) 2n x Check your identity on the Pascal triangle. (b) By comparing coefficients of x lO on both sides of (1 10 OC k)2 = 20C1O. 5 and 6 of the Pascal triangle. using n 3 = 4. show that: 2n (i) L r 2n C r 2n = n22n (ii) L(ly.':0:':: (nl)!(n+ I)!· 1 Check this identity on the rows indexed by n (e) Prove that (1 = 3. show that: 2n 1 22n+l_l 1 (i) " 2n C .. for n = 4..[HINT: The constant of integration is ~ r r +1 2n + 1 2n + 1 r=O .l r 2n c r r=l =o Check both results on the Pascal triangle. = 3 and n Check both results on the Pascal triangle. mc o nC 3 + mCl nC 2 + mC 2 nC l + mC 3 nco = m+nc 3.I t _ r ~ r +1 r=O = 1 2n + 1 . (a) Show that nC k = nc n _ k ..CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem 5F Identities on the Binomial Coefficients 205 (c) By differentiating both sides of the identity. 3. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ (b) By equating the coefficients of x 3 on the RHS and LHS of the identity (1 show that 5. By equating coefficients of . 4. show Le k=O (c) By comparing coefficients of xn on both sides of the identity (1 +x t(1 +x t = (1 +x )2n. 5 and 6. (a) By equating the coefficients of x on the RHS and LHS of the identity (1 show that + x)3(1 + x)9 = (1 + x)12. 2nc (ii) " ( . 2. + nC n _ 1 X nC n (2n )! = . n show that L(nc k )2 k=O = 2ncn. Check this identity on the Pascal triangle by adding the squares of the rows indexed by n = 1.J 2n .. give an x alternative proof of the result in part (d). (a) By equating coefficients of x14 in the expansion of prove that (4C O . 3C O9C 3 + 3C l 9C 2 + 3C 2 9C l + 3C 3 9C O = l2C 3. that + x )10(1 + x )10 = (1 + x )20. 4. using n = 3 and n = 4. show nco X nC 1 + nC l +xt X nC 2 + nC 2 X nC 3 + . 4. 6.
and prove it using the binomial theorem. and prove it using the binomial theorem. 1. 13. Formulate this result algebraically. 3.1 (n + 2).: k nCk = n 2 k=l n  1 (b) Hence show that 2. 1 indexed by n = 5 in Pascal's triangle are multiplied by 0. 30. 9. show that and state the necessary restriction on r.. 6. If you add ~ at the start. ~. 5."r+1 n+1 r=O Check this identity on the Pascal triangle.. 4. prove that for °< r S. 1. show that . this is ~th of the row 1. (a) When the entries of the row 1.: nCk = 2n k=O n (ii) 2. (a) By expanding both sides of the identity (1 + xr+4 = (1 + xr(1 + x)4.1 (b) By expanding (1 + x r and then integrating. Ignoring the zero. Check this identity on the Pascal = 4. Formulate this result algebraically.. 2.nCr = L. show that (2n )1 . 8. 2. 1.206 CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 7. (b) By expanding both sides of the identity (1 + x )p+q = (1 + x )P(1 + x)q. using n = 2n . Check this identity on the Pascal triangle. 1. Check this identity on the Pascal triangle. (b) By writing (1 + x)3n as (1 + x)n(l + x)2n.. 4. 2~. . 2~. using n = 4 and r = 3. 12. 15. (a) Evaluate 1\1 + xr dx.. using n = r = 5 and using n = 6 and r = 4.. 5 and k=O 6. 3~. + cnx n . If (1 + xr = Co + CIX + C2x2 + . 10. 10. 5 respectively. 3. 20. n. 1 are divided by 1. n 4r + 1 5n + 1 . 5 and 6 respectively. (b) Hence prove that 1 + (~) 2 + (~) 2 + . show that and state the necessary restriction on r. 15. 10.. for n = 3 and n = 4. 10. 20. for n = 5 and then for generally n. + (:) 2 = (2:). (a) Showthatxn(1+x)n(l+~)n =(1+x)2n. 6. (a) Find the coefficient of xn+r in the expansion of (1 + x)3n. 5.. 20. 6. show that: n n (i) 2. (b) When the entries of the row 1. (a) By considering the expansion of (1 + x)n.:(k + 1) nC k triangle. 5. . 5. the result is 1. 4. 4. for n = 5 and then for general n. the results are 0.5.. 11. this is five times the row 1. 5. 10.
That is.r nCr. show that b + d = b.. 21. 7. 7. 17. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 16. prove that X k is a positive integer.. You will need to use the addition property of Pascal's triangle. x (b) By considering the coefficient of xr on both sides of this identity. 20. 35. b = ncr. show that (d) Hence evaluate 1 2!:. 1 from Pascal's triangle. + x)n+l  19. . (a) Consider the row 1. 21. By considering the identity (1 . [APs in the Pascal triangle] r nCr and nC r+1 = n . nr+1 r+1 Show that if nCr_I. when n is odd.2r)2 is a perfect square.l)knc k k=O 2 +1 k • iff cos 5 x dx. C = nC r+ I and d = nc r+2 . for any fixed value of nand p. ((2nl))~' 18. show that cos X = (1 . and (a) Show that nC r _ 1 = (ii) r = ~(n .x2)n = (1 + x t(l  xt or otherwise. (d) Prove that four consecutive terms in a row of the Pascal triangle cannot form an AP.1+ 2 n. and identify those terms. show that nCr + n1C r + n. (a) By using the substitution u = sinx. its value is (l)~(n + 2)(n + 4)··· (2n) 2x4x".xn (l)~n! ((~)!)2 ..2C r + . If a. (c) Prove the identity by letting a = nCr_I.CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Theorem SF Identities on the Binomial Coefficients 207 14. Jo 2k t cos x. prove that (1 You will need to use the addition property of Pascal's triangle. prove that nco + n+IC 1 + n+2C 2 + .sin 2 x = 2:= nC k(l)k k=O sin 2k x cosx. c and dare . (c) Hence. by using part ( a). + rC r = n+lc r+1 . where n < p. a+ c+ +c (b) Choose four consecutive terms from any other row and show that the identity holds. (a) Show that 1+(1+x)+(1+x)2+"'+(1+xt= . nCr and nC r+1 form an AP. but that when n is even. By substituting x t r=O 2n Cr 1 = 2 2n . 15. b. 2 cos 2n +1 X dx = o n 2:= ( .. then (b) (i) n + 2 = (n . a c 2b any four consecutIve terms from this row. (b) By writing cos 2n +1 X = cos2n n 2 COS n+1X rf (sinx)2k cosxdx = __+ 1 where 1_. show that is zero. (c) Hence find the first three rows of the Pascal triangle in which three consecutive terms form an AP. 35. [The hockey stick pattern] Use induction to prove the result from question 22( c) of Exercise 5A. + n+PC p = n+p+IC p' = linto the expansion of(1+x)2n..In+2) or r = ~(n + In+2).
some of the earlier material on limits and inequalities is reviewed and summarised. Secondly. on geometry. y = cosec x and y ating the reciprocal of a function: U = cot x The differentiation of the three funcdepends on the formula for differenti . While the derivatives of the other three trigonometric functions can be calculated when needed. and involves arguments based on the derivative. Fourthly. 6A Differentiation of the Six Trigonometric Functions So far. The final Section 6F is very demanding. cosec x and cot x are not central to the course. Section 6E develops two methods of finding approximate solutions of equations called halving the interval and Newton's method. apart from the extra work on rates of change in the next chapter. Differentiating the Three Reciprocal Functions: tions y = sec x. It is intended for 4 Unit students and for the more ambitious 3 Unit students.2 X U . on bounding a carefully chosen integral. and many students may not want to pursue the exercises very far. 1 dy du/dx If y = . and could well be left until final revision. and on algebra. and they should also provide a good summary of the previous methods of integration.CHAPTER SIX Further Calculus This chapter deals with four related topics which complete the treatment of calculus at 3 Unit level. the derivative is used to develop a very effective method. but Sections 6A and 6B are intended to teach sufficient familiarity with them. The section reviews and develops previous approaches to inequalities and limits. STUDY NOTES: The reciprocal trigonometric functions secx. the reverse chain rule is extended to a more general method of integration called integration by substitution. of finding approximate solutions of equations. the systematic differentiation and integration of trigonometric functions is completed. It is suggested that 4 Unit students study Sections 6A6D before or while they embark on the systematic integration of the 4 Unit course. and it is recommended that they all be memorised. . then by the chain rule... First. the derivatives of sin x. Sections 6C and 6D develop integration by substitution. d = . the patterns become clearer when all six derivatives are listed. as well as reviewing and summarising the previous approaches to the calculus of trigonometric functions. Later questions in Exercises 6A and 6B become difficult. called Newton's method. Thirdly. cos x and tan x have been established. extending the reverse chain rule presented first in Chapter Ten of the Year 11 volume.
CHAPTER
6: Further Calculus
6A Differentiation of the Six Trigonometric Functions
209
A. Let
y = secx 1 cos x '  sin x Th en y =cos 2 X = sec x tan x.
B. Let
y
= cosec x
1
SIll X
C. Let
y
= cot x
' cosx Th en y =  2 sin x =  cosec x cot x.
1 tanx , sec 2 x Then y =   2 tan x =  cosec 2 x.
Here then is the list of all six derivatives.
THE DERIVATIVES OF THE SIX TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS:
1
dx sIn x
d
= cos x
d dx cos x =  SIn x
 tan x dx d dx cot x
d
= sec 2 x =cosec x
2
d dx sec x = sec x tan x d dx cosec x =  cosec x cot x
The extensions of these standard forms to trigonometric functions of linear functions of x now follow easily. For example,
dx sec(ax
d
+ b) = asec(ax + b)tan(ax + b).
Remarks on these Derivatives: There are two patterns here that will help in memorising the results. These patterns should be studied in comparison with the graphs of all six trigonometric functions, reproduced again on the next full page. First, the derivatives of the three cofunctions  cosine, cotangent and cosecant  all begin with a negative sign. This is because the three cofunctions all have negative gradient in the first quadrant, as can be seen from their graphs on the next page. Secondly, the derivative of each cofunction is obtained by adding the prefix 'co', as well as adding the minus sign. For example,
dx tan x = sec x
WORKED EXERCISE:
d
2
and
d 2 dx cot x =  cosec x.
(a) If y (b) If y
SOLUTION:
= tan x, show that y" = sec x, show that y" 
= O. 2y 3 + y = O.
2y 3

2y
(a) If y = tanx, t hen y ' = sec 2 x. Using the chain rule, y" = 2 sec x X sec x tan x = 2 sec 2 x tan x Hence
= 2(tan 2 x + 1) tan x. y" = 2 y 3 + 2y.
(b) If y = sec x, then y' = sec x tan x. Using the product rule, y" = (sec x tan x) tan x + sec x sec 2 x = sec x( sec 2 xI) + sec 3 x = 2 sec 3 x  sec x. Hence y" = 2y 3  y.
210
CHAPTER
6: Further Calculus
CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS
3
UNIT YEAR
12
Y
= SlnX
y
1
n
2n
T
5"
3n x
 1
Y
= cOSX
y
1
n
3n
2n
3"
T
n
1t
i
2n
T
5"
3n x
1 
y
= tanx
y
= cotx
y
1
x
1 y = secx
1
3n
5;
2n
T
3"
n
2:
"
" 2
n
3" T
2n
1
i'/~
5"
:51t
3 x
y
= cosec x
3n
_3"
2
,
,:::::n
n'
:
,
2
"
n
2n
T
3n
x
CHAPTER
6: Further Calculus
6A Differentiation of the Six Trigonometric Functions
211
WORKED EXERCISE:
Find any points on y
has gradient
SOLUTION:
V2.
= sec x, for 0 ~
y'
x
~
271", where the tangent
Differentiating,
Put y'
= V2, then
2
X
I
X
cos
I
2
Since cos x Since 6. =
= 1  sin 2 x, 1 + 4 X 2 = 9,
= sec x tan x. sec x tan x = V2 sin x = V2 cos 2 x. V2 sin 2 x + sin x  V2 = o. 1+3 sin x = M or 2y2 = V2
1
13
2y2
M
or
V2.
The second value is less than 1 and so gives no solutions. Hence x
=f
or
3;, and the points are (f, V2) and e V2).
1r
4
,
Exercise 6A
1. Differentiate with respect to x:
(a) secx (b) cosec x
(c) cot x ( d) cosec 3x
(e) cot( 1  x) (f) sec(5x  2)
2. Find the gradient of each curve at the point on it where x ( a) y ( a) y (b) y
= i:
= sec 2x = cot 3x at x = 1; = cosec x at x = f
(c) x cosec x (d)
(b) y
= cot 2x
at x
3. Find the equation of the tangent to each curve at the point indicated:
(c) y = cos x + sec x
(d) y = sec 5x
(e) sec 4 x (f) log( cot x) at x
=~
=f
(g) e 2x sec 2x
(h)
cosec 2 x x2
4. Differentiate with respect to x:
(a) ecot x
(b) loge(sec x)
5. Consider the curve y = tan x + cot x, for 71" < X < 71". (a) For which values of x in the given domain is y undefined? (b) Is the function even or odd or neither? (c) Show that the curve has no xintercepts, and examine its sign in the four quadrants. (d) Show that y' = 0 when tan 2 x = l. (e) Find the stationary points in the given domain and determine their nature. (f) Sketch the curve over the given domain. (g) Show that the equation of the curve can be written as y = 2 cosec 2x.
_ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __
6. Show that: d (a)  (x sec 2 x  tan x) = 2x sec 2 x tan x dx d (b) dx In(secx + tanx) = secx 7. If y
(c) ~ + tanx) = tanx dx secx secx d (d) d tanl (cosec x + cotx) x
(1
1
=1
= cosec x,
show that y"
= 2 y3

y.
212
CHAPTER
6: Further Calculus
CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS
3
UNIT YEAR
12
d 8. (a) Show that dx (secxtanx)
= secx(2sec 2 x1).
(b) Hence find the values of x for which the function y = sec x tan x is decreasing in the interval 0 :S x :S 27r. 9. Consider the function f( x) = tan x  cot x  4x, defined for 0 < x < 7r. (a) Show that J'(x) = (tan x  cotx)2. (b) For what value of x in the domain 0 < x < 7r is f(x) undefined? (c) Find any stationary points and determine their nature. (d) Sketch the graph of f( x).
10. Consider the curve y = 3v3 sec x  cosec x over the domain 0
<
x
< 27r.
(a) For what values of x is y undefined?
(b) Show that y' = 0 when tan x =  ~.
(c) Find the stationary points and determine their nature. ( d) Use a calculator to examine the behaviour of y as x t 0+, as x t ~ +, as x t 7r+, and as x t 32 11"+, and also as x t ~, as x t 7r, as x t 32 11", and as x t 27r. (e) Hence sketch the curve.
11. Use a similar approach to the previous question to sketch y = cosec x+sec x for 0
<
x
< 27r.
d 12. (a) Show that dx tan1(cotx) =l.
(b) Show that
~ cos 1(sin x) = 1, provided
dx
that cos x > O.
(c) Hence explain why each piece of y = cos1(sinx)  tan1(cotx) is horizontal for cos x > 0, and find the value of the constant when: (i) x is in the first quadrant, (ii) x is in the fourth quadrant.
13. Differentiate with respect to x:
(a) cot ~
(b) log log sec x
1 ( c) tan 3x  sec 3x
14. A curve is defined parametrically by the equations x
= 2sec(), y = 3tan(). 3sec() = () . x 2tan (b) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point where () = ~.
dy (a) Show that d
15. (a) Using the iformulae, or otherwise, show that:
.) 1 (1 1. cos x = tan '2x SIn x (b) Hence show that:
(1'1') 1 + sinx  tan (X _ '2
cos x
11") + "4
. d (1) dx (In tan !x)
= cosec x
(ii)
:x log tan( I + f) = sec x
16. In the diagram, AB is a major blood vessel and PQ is a
minor blood vessel. Let AB = funits, BQ = dunits and LPQB = (). It is known that the resistance to blood flow in a blood vessel is proportional to its length, and that the constant of proportionality varies from blood vessel to blood vessel. Let R be the sum of the resistances in AP and PQ. (a) Show that R = cl(f  dtan()) + C2dsec(), where Cl and C2 are constants of proportionality. (b) If C2 = 2Cl, find the value of () that minimises R.
A
~c:;;
___
CHAPTER
6: Further Calculus
68 Integration Using the Six Trigonometric Functions
213
17. In the diagram, a line passes through the fixed point P( a, b), where a and b are both positive, and meets the xaxis and yaxis at A and B respectively. Let L0 AB = (). (a) Show that AB = asec() + b cosec ().
I
y
P(a,b)
(b) Show that AB is minimum when tan () = b: .
a3
e
o
A
(c) Show that the minimum distance is
(a ~ + b~) ~ .
(b) xy
x
_ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __
'n. . dy . 8 1. D Illerentlate Imp1" 1 to fi n d dx' gIven: ICIt y
( a) cot y
= cosec x
= sec( x + y)
4 19. Sketch the graph of the function y =       , for 0 < x < 27T. cosec x  sec x [HINT: First find any xintercepts, vertical asymptotes and stationary points.] 20. Use the result in question 6( d) to sketch y = tan 1 (cosec x
+ cot x).
6B Integration Using the Six Trigonometric Functions
Systematic integration of the trigonometric functions is not easy. The point of this section is learning the methods of integration  memorising results other than the six standard forms below is not required.
The Six Standard Forms: The first step is to reverse the six derivatives of the previous
section to obtain the six standard forms for integration.
THE SIX STANDARD FORMS:
2
J J
cos x dx sin x dx
= sin x =cos x
J J
Omitting constants of integration, sec 2 x dx
= tan x =cot x
cosec 2 x dx
J J
sec x tan x dx
= sec x =cosec x
cosec x cot x dx
Again, linear extensions follow easily. For example,
J
sec( ax
+ b) tan( ax + b) dx
=
~ sec( ax + b) + C.
The Primitives of the Squares of the Trigonometric Functions: We have already integrated the squares of the trigonometric functions. First, the primitives of sec 2 x and cosec 2 x are standard forms:
J
sec 2 x dx
= tan x + C
and
J
cosec x dx
2
=
cot x
+ C.
Secondly, tan 2 x and cot 2 x can be integrated by writing them in terms of sec 2 x and cosec 2 x using the Pythagorean identities: tan 2 X cos 2
= sec 2 x  I = 1 + 1 cos 2x 2 2
and
cot 2 x = cosec 2 x  1.
. sm 2 x 1 = "2 1  "2 cos 2 x.
Thirdly, sin 2 x and cos 2 x can be integrated by writing them in terms of cos 2x:
X
and
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The six results, and the methods of obtaining them, are listed below.
PRIMITIVES OF THE SQUARES OF THE SIX TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS:
J
J
cos x dx sin xdx
2 2
2
= =
Ja + t
J(t  ~
cot x
2
cos 2x) dx
cos2x)dx
= tx + :t sin 2x + c = ~x
3
J J J J J
J
:t sin2x + C
sec x dx
2
= tan x + C ==
cosec x dx tan x dx cot 2 x dx
2
+C
= tan x = x
J =J
(sec xI) dx
+C
+C
(cosec 2 xI) dx
cot x  x
The Primitives of the Six Trigonometric Functions:
Surprisingly, it is harder to find primitives of the functions themselves than it is to find primitive of their squares. First, the primitives of sin x and cos x are standard forms: cos x dx
= sin x + C
and
J
sin x dx =  cos x
+ C.
= cos x.
Secondly, tan x and cot x can be integrated by the reverse chain rule: tan x dx
=
J
sin x dx cos x
Let
= log( cos x)
+C
Then and
J
u
u' =  sin x, 1 du   dx = log u.
u dx
J
cot x dx
cosx = . dx SIn x = log( sin x) + C
J
Let Then and
u = SIn x. u' = cos x,
J~
du dx u dx
= log u.
Thirdly, the primitives of sec x and cosec x require some subtle tricks, whatever way they are found, and are beyond the 3 Unit course. One method is given here, but further details are left to the following exercise.
J J
sec x d x
sec x + secxtanx dx sec x + tan x = log(secx + tanx) + C cosec x ( cosec x + cot x) d cosecx d x = x cosec x + cot x = cosec 2 x + cosec x cot x dx cosec x + cot x = log( cosec x + cot x) + C
2
J =J
=
secx(secx tan x) d x sec x tan x
+
+
Let u = sec x + tan x. Then u' = sec x tan x + sec 2 x, and
J J
:;;, dx dx
1 du
= logu.
cosec 2 x,
J J
Let u Then u' and
= cosec x + cot x. =  cosec x cot x u ~ dd x dx = logu. u
CHAPTER
6: Further Calculus
68 Integration Using the Six Trigonometric Functions
215
Here are the six results and the methods of obtaining them.
PRIMITIVES OF THE SIX TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS:
4
x dx = log( sin x) + C smx sec2 x + sec x tan x * sec x dx dx = log( sec x + tan x) + C sec x + tan x cosec2 x + cosec x cot x * cosec x dx dx = log( cosec x + cot x) cosec x + cot x *These forms are not required in the 3 Unit course.
cot x dx
J J J J J
n
J
cos x dx sin x dx
= sin x + c
tan x dx
J = Jc~s = J = J
=
=
cos x
+c
= log( cos x) + C
sm x dx cos x
+ C~
A Special Case of the Reverse Chain Rule:
WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION:
The two functions y = cos x sin n x and y = sin x cos x can be integrated easily using the reverse chain rule. Find primitives of: (a) y
= sinx cos 4 x
Let
(b) y
= cos x sinn x
(a)
J
sin x cos x dx = 
4
sin x) cos  _1 cos s x + C s
J(
4
X
dx
u
du Then dx
and
= cosx. =  sin x,

J J
u4
du dx dx
= }u S •
(b)
J
cos x sin n x dx =
sinn+l x n +1
+C
u du Then dx
Let and
= smx. = cos x, = . n +1
un
du un  dx dx
WORKED EXERCISE:
[A harder question]
(a) Find 1!J;: cos 2 x dx by writing cos 2 x =
t + t cos 2x.
(b) Find 1!J;: cos 3 x dx by writing cos 3 x = cos x(1  sin 2 x). (c) Find 1!J;: cos 4 x dx by writing cos 4 x =
SOLUTION:
(t + t cos 2x)2.
(a) 1!J;: cos 2 xdx= 1!J;:(t+tcos2x)dx
= [t x + t sin 2x] :
4"
1r
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CHAPTER
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3
UNIT YEAR
12
(b)
1~
=
cos 3
X
dx
( c) sin 2 x) dx
= ~ cos x (1 [sin
1
2
1~
cos 4
X
dx
=
x  ~ sin 3 x] :
~)  (0  0)
(using the previous worked exercise)
= (1 3
l"i = l"i (t + t =1 t + ~ \ = l"i (t + ~
311"
(cos 2 x)2 dx cos 2x )2 dx cos 2x cos 2x
+ t cos 2 2x) dx + ~ + ~ cos 4x ) dx
~
1 1 l' x 0 = [ "4 x + 1· 2x + 8" x + 32 sm 4]2 "4 sm = (f + 0 + rr, + 0)  (0 + 0 + 0 + 0)
_
16
NOTE: Almost all the arguments above using primitives could have been replaced by arguments about symmetry. In particular, horizontal shifting and reflection in the xaxis will prove that
1~ cos 2x dx = 1~ cos4xdx = 0,
and arguments about reflection in y
= t will prove that
= 1~ cos 2 4x dx = f·
1~ cos
2
x dx =
1~ cos
2
2x dx
Students taking the 4 Unit course may like to investigate the symmetries involved.
Exercise 68
1. Find:
(a) J cos 2x dx (b) J sin 2x dx 2. Find: (a) J cos ix dx
(c) J sec 2x dx (d) J cosec 2 2x dx
2
( e) J sec 2x tan 2x dx (f) J cosec 2x cot 2x dx
(d) J cosec t(2x (e) J sec( ax
2
+ 3)dx
(b)
JSin~(1x)dX
+ b) tan( ax + b) dx
(c) J sec 2 (4  3x)dx
(f) J cosec(a  bx)cot(a  bx)dx
3. Calculate the exact area bounded by each curve, the xaxis and the two vertical lines. NOTE: In each case, the region lies completely above the xaxis. 1 1  11" 311" ( ) Y  cosec 3 x co t 3 x, x  "2 an d x = T' (a) y = secxtanx, x = f and x = ~, C
(b) y = cosec 2 2x, x
=~
and x
= f,
(d) y
= tan x, x = f
and x
= ~.
CHAPTER
6: Further Calculus
68 Integration Using the Six Trigonometric Functions
217
d
4. ( a) Show that dx (In sec x)
= tan x,
and hence find
fa
~
3
tan x dx.
(b) Show that  (1n sin 3x) dx (c) Show that d (In( sec x dx
d
= 3 cot 3x,
and hence find [
i
JJ 12
cot 3x dx.
+ tan x))
= sec x, and hence find
1~ sec x dx.
4
0
d
(d) Show that dx
(~ In( cosec 2x 
cot 2x))
= cosec 2x,
and hence find
JE "6
[3
~
cosec 2x dx.
5. Express sin 2 x in terms of cos 2x, and hence find: (a)
J
sin x dx
2
(b)
J
sin 2x dx
2
(c)
J J
2
2 sin ix dx
6. Express cos 2 x in terms of cos 2x, and hence find:
(a)
J
2 cos x dx
(b)
J
cos 6x dx
2
(c)
2 cos !x dx
(d )
fa f
cos 2 2x dx
7. (a) Find:
(b) Evaluate: 8. (a) Ify' = sin 2 x (b) Given that
(i)
(i)
J
12
J:
2
2 tan 2x dx 2 3 tan 3x dx
x and y
(i i)
(ii)
J
24
J:
2 cot tx dx cot 4x dx
+ tan
1'( x)
= 
= 1 when x = 0, find y when x =~. cosec 2x( cot 2x + cosec 2x) and f( ~) = 1, find
f( 1; ).
9. Find the volume of the solid generated when the given curve is rotated about the xaxis. [HINT: In part (f), use the reverse chain rule.) (a) y (b) y (c) y
= sec 2x between x = i and x = i, = tan ~x between x = 0 and x = ~, = cOSJrX between x = 0 and x = !,
(d) y (e) y (f) y
= ~cotx between x = i and x = ~, = cot ~x between x = ! and x = 1, = sec x tan x between x = 0 and x = l'
_ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __
10. Use the reverse chain rule to find: (a) (b) ( c) ( d)
J J J
sin3 x cos x dx
[Let u = sin x.) [Let u
cot 4 x cosec 2 x dx
7
= cot x.)
and write sec 7 x tan x
~
sec x tan x dx
[Let u
= sec x,
(e)
= sec 6 x
(f)
6
X
sec x tan x.)
fa1r cos 6 x sin x dx
sec x dx J~ tan 3 x 4
[3
2
if
cosec 3 x cot x dx
11. Find:
(a)
(b)
J J+
2x sec x 2 tan x 2 dx
( c) (d)
cosec2 x dx 1 cot x
J J
eX
cot eX dx
sec 2x tan 2x esec 2x dx
218
CHAPTER
6: Further Calculus
CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS
3
UNIT YEAR
12
12. Evaluate:
(a)
(b)
1 r
i
6
dx o sec 2x f 1 + sin x ~ cos2 X dx
%
1
(c)
( d)
i
r!fx 1+sin 3 x ~ sinn2x dx
3
r!fx cosec x cot x dx i~ 1 + cosec x 6
13. In each part, sketch the region defined by the given boundaries. Then find the area of the
region, and the volume generated when the region is rotated about the xaxis. ( a) y = 1 + sin x, x = 0, x = 1[", Y = 0 (b) y = sin x + cos x, x = 0, x = ~, y = 0 (e) y = 1 + cosec x, x =
14. (a) Show that 
( c) y = sin x cos x, x = f, x = Y= 0 ( d) y = tan x + cot x, x = ~, x = ~, y = 0
3;,
~, x
=
5;, Y = 0
[HINT: J cosec x dx = In( cosec x + cot x) + C]
d
~
d
(In sin x  x cot x) = x cosec 2 x, and hence find
1
r!fx x cosec 2 x dx. i,
"6
, and hence find (b) Show that (cosec x  cot x) = dx 1 + cos x
ir ~
6
!fx
1
1 + cos X
dx.
d
(c) Show that dx
(t sec 5 x  ~ sec3 x) = sec3 x tan 3 x, and hence find
i
~
~
3
sec 3 x tan 3 x dx.
d
(d) Show that 
~
d
(! sec x tan x + ! In( sec x + tan x)) = sec 3 x, hence find
(e) Show that dx (cot 3 x) = 3 cosec 2 x  3 cosec 4 x, and hence find
14
6
r sec h
4
~
3
x dx.
cosec 4 x dx.
4
(f) Show that (cos 3 xsinx) = 4cos 4 x  3cos 2 x, and hence find dx io
15. Find the value of lim
R>=
d
r!fx cos
xdx.
(~ r Rio
R
sin 2 t dt) , explaining your reasoning carefully.
16. Starting with J cosec x dx = In( cosec x  cot x) + C, show that
J
cosecxdx=ln(l.COSX) +C=ln( sinx ) +C=lnt+C, wheret=tan!x. smx 1 + cos x
_ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __
17. (a) Show that :x
(n~l
n 2 n 2 (tanxsec  x+(n2) Jsec  xdX)) =secnx, for n2:
(b) Hence find the value of
if
2.
sec 7 x dx.
6C Integration by Substitution
The reverse chain rule as we have been using it so far does not cover all the situations where the chain rule can be used in integration. This section and the next develop a more general method called integration by substitution. The first stage, covered in this section, begins by translating the reverse chain rule into a slightly more flexible notation. It involves substitutions of the form 'Let u = some function of x.'
SOLUTION: J xvr=x dx J = J(u~ = (1 . Some integrals which can be done in this way could only be done by the reverse chain rule in a rather clumsy manner.cos X.CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus BC Integration by Substitution 219 The Reverse Chain Rule . = . WORKED EXERCISE: Find J x(1 .x 2)4 dx.x 2)4 dx = t = = J (2x)(1 . = 1 .1l. Rewriting this Example as Integration by Substitution: We shall now rewrite this using du a new notation.cos x ) ~ I +C = 1 . using the substitution u = 1. C sU + 2 Let 1l Then d1l and x = 1 . Let u Then du SOLUTION: J sin x VI  cos x dx = = Ju~ du = An Advance on the Reverse Chain Rule: ~u~ + C ~ (1 . SOLUTION: J x(1 . SOLUTION: J x(1  X )4 dx = J u 4 (t) du = _1 X 1u 5 2 5 =11o(1X +C 2 )5+C Then du = 2x dx.x 2 )4 dx. and x dx = duo ! WORKED EXERCISE: Find sin x \/1. = sin x dx. The working is set out in full on the right.dx. .x 2)5 + C 11o(1X )5+C u du Then dx Let = 1 .x 2)4 dx 2 t X HI . using the substitution u =1 x2.~(Ix)~ +C .An Example: Here is an example of the reverse chain rule as we have been using it.x2• = 2x. Find WORKED EXERCISE: J xvr=x dx. WORKED EXERCISE: Find 2 J J x(1 . and J 4 u ~: dx = tu5 . The new variable u no longer remains in the working column on the right.cos x dx.X. but is brought over into the main sequence of the solution on the left.= 2x dx du du = 2x dx. The key to this new notation is that the derivative dx is treated as a fraction the du and the dx are split apart.cos X. so that the statement is written instead as .u h/u du 2 2 = 3U2 = ~(Ix)~ u~) du 2!!. using the substitution 1l =1 X.
2 (a) Show that du = 2x dx. using the substitution u = 1 .0 (u~ 6 _ u~) du Let u = 1 . Repeat the previous question for each ofthe following indefinite integrals and substitutions. Exercise 6C 1.. (c) Hence find the primitive of 2x(1 + x 2)3. SOLUTION: 11 x~dx = . 2.] 2 .x.5 (e) JSin 3 xcosxdX [Letu=sinx. There is then no need ever to go back to x. x = 0. (b) Show that the integral can be written as J u 3 duo (d) Check your answer by differentiating it. Consider the integral J ~ dx. when x = 1.~ duo (c) Hence find the primitive of x \1'1  x2 .] [Letu=l+x 3 . dx. U = 1.1 u x 7 2 du t [U 7[1 =t x (I)+tx1 Let Then When when u = cos x. Consider the integral J 2x(1 + x 2 )3 dx.dx.] 3. WORKED EXERCISE: Find 11r sin x cos = x dx.] (f) [Letu=l+x J~dX 1 + X4 [Letu=l+x 4 . using the substitution u = cos x.5.x 2. 2 1.] \l'3x .sin x dx. u = 0.220 CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Substituting the Limits of Integration in a Definite Integral: A great advantage of this method is that the limits of integration can be changed from values of x to values of u. u = 1.] (d) J 3 dx [Let u = 3x . du = .u. (a) Show that x dx = } duo (b) Show that the integral can be written as } J u. and x = 1 . u = 1. and the substitution u = 1 + x ..x.°(1_ u)ylUdu =_ . When x = 0. but this time within a definite integral. 6 SOLUTION: 11r sin x cos6dx = _ . WORKED EXERCISE: Find 11 xvr=. Then du = . The first worked exercise below repeats the previous integrand. x = Jr.x and the substitution u = 1 . . (a) J 2(2x + 3)3 dx (b) J3x2(I+x3)4dX (c) J( 2x2)2dX 1+x [Let u = 2x + 3.
] tan x _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 6.] = tan x. using the given substitution.] (b) j x 2 Jx 3 1dx (c) [Letu=x 3 1.] [Letu=sin2x.] j e~ 2 dx x [Let u = .x 6 )i ' = sinx. X (a) (b) fai 1 cosx + sin x dx (c) (d) fa'!.: "6 cos 3 3 dx fa'!.] = lnx. 3 4 (a) j x (x + 1)5 dx [Let u = x4 + 1. Use the to find its equation.] =1x 2 . 7. using the substitution u (1 . using the given substitution. = = ~.1 x.sec2 x .dx [Let u = tan x.dx [Let u = sin. Find each indefinite integral.] e 2x 1 (d) j tan 3 x sec4 x dx [Let u 9.] [Let u +1 dx + 2x = x 2 + 2x.] (g) (h) (i) 1"o4sin42xcos2xdx Jo 4yX t e~ dx 1 [Let u = yIx.] (c) j Intanx cos d x x [Let u = In cos x. (a) A curve has gradient function substitution u (b) If y" = e 2x + e4x and passes through the point (0.CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus 6C Integration by Substitution 221 4..d x cos x sin 4 x 8. Evaluate each of the following. ~).: . Use the substitution u = x3 to find: (a) the exact area bounded by the curve y = 1 + x6 x2 ' the xaxis and the line x = 1.: cos 2 x sin x dx [Let u [Let u = cos x.] x 5.] 1 j Jo x 2e x3 dx [Let u = x3. (a) t 1 x 2 (2 + x 3 )3 dx dx [Let u = 2 + x 3 .] hI ~V3 e2 x~dx [Let u (e) l 1 nx dx x 1 2 1 o "4 o~ x {jx 2 (sinl x)3 ''.] (d) j yIx(l: yIx)3 dx [Let u = 1 + yIx.] _l_ dx xlnx [Let u = lnx.] fa'!. x (b) the exact volume generated when the region bounded by the curve y = the xaxis and the line x = 1 is rotated about the xaxis.] (f) (b) (c) (d) o 1 J1 + x4 2x3 4 [Letu=1+x . Find the exact value of each definite integral. y' = 1 and y (4X 2 )2 to find y' and then find y as a function of x..] (j) 1 3.] (e) jtan 2 2xsec 2 2xdx (f) [Letu=tan2x. Repeat the previous question for each of the following indefinite integrals and su bstitu tions. jJ (b) j (a) e2x 1 +e 2x dx [Let u = e 2x . X 3 ' and when x = 0.: cosx 2 dx 1 + sin x 1'!. use the substitution u = 4  x2 .
222 CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 d 10. using the substitution u (c) Hence show that sin.' Substituting x by a Function of u: 1 As a first example. = 1.] 12. Find i WORKED EXERCISE: xVI=Xdx. but can also be done through areas of segments. . u u = 1. 14. xaxis and the vertical line x 13. for 0 < x < 1. the = 3. and VI=X = 'u.4 dx x I I +x 15.. here is a quite different substitution which solves the integral given in a worked example of the last section. (a) Use the substitution u = Vx to find J JX(lx) 1 dx. 2 dx 1 + sm x [Let u = sin 2 x. (a) 1 ° ~ sin 2x .Vx ~. Use the substitution u = x + 1 to find: (a) the exact area of R. The substitutions are therefore of the form 'Let x = some function of u.(2x 1) 1 =x  ~. [HINT: (b) Use the substitution u = sec x to find: (i) io (Is 2sec Xsec x tan x dx J aX dx aX = In a] (ii) it sec S x tan x dx 11. using the given substitution. 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 2 1 2.1 + x x . (a) Show that dx(secx) = secxtallX. = O. SOLUTION: i1xVI=Xdx= 1°(1u 2 )u(2u)du ° = 21 (u 2  u )du 4 x=1u 2 • Then dx = 2u du. Use the substitution u = J Vs+v'2 = 7r f<) • 4v 2 6D Further Integration by Substitution The second stage of integration by substitution reverses the previous procedure and replaces x by a function of u. using the substitution x Let = 1. Use the substitution u = Vx=1 to find J~ 2x xI x+1 dx. Evaluate each integral. (b) Evaluate the integral in part (a) again.. (b) the exact volume generated when R is rotated about the xaxis.. = 2sin. The region R is bounded by the curve y = _x_ .] ( ) b J e 1 In x + 1 d (xlnx + 1)2 x [Let u = xlnx. The following integral uses a trigonometric substitution.to show that . When when x x = 2 [31U3 _lsuS]l ° = 0. =0+2(tt) 4 IS This question is a good example of the fact that an integral may be evaluated in a variety of ways.u2 .
x 2 = 6cosu. In practice. A full account of all this would require substitutions by restrictions of the functions given above so that they had inverse functions. when x = 6. in that given the value x = 3'1'2. however. (a) Show that dx = duo (b) Show that 1= (c) Hence find I. . Using the same substitution as in the previous question. u is determined by sin u = tV2. u = = 6 sin u. = ~(1l' .1 X 1 2 X 6 2 (7'2. u = f. and it is certainly not a concern of this course.CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus 60 Further Integration by Substitution 223 WORKED EXERCISE: Find r V36 . The shaded area is half the segment subtending an angle of 90°. (d) Check your answer by differentiating it. find: J u 5(u + 1) duo (a) J~ xI dx (b) J( xI X )2 dx .2) y (b) The integral is sketched opposite. work with positive square roots. so there are infinitely many possible values of u. whose inverses were not functions. (b) using the formula for the area of a segment. 136 MY . A similar problem occurred in the previous worked exercise.x 2 dx . where o = 1. this is rarely necessary.sin 7':. Consider the integral I = J x( xl)5 dx. and let x = u + 1. 2. work in the same quadrants as were involved in the definitions of the inverse trigonometric functions in Chapter One.x J3V2 6 2 dx: (a) using the substitution x = 6 sin u. Hence 1 6 3v2 .u 2 had two solutions. ~. Exercise 60 1. These problems arise because the functions involved in the substitutions were x = 1 . NOTE: Careful readers may notice a problem here. SOLUTION: (a) J3V2 r 6 V 36  x2 dx = = 1!s 4 Jf r 6 cos u 2 ~ X 6 cos u du 36a + ~ cos 2u) du Let Then and V36  x dx = [18u + 9 sin 2u] = (91l'+0)_(92 +9) 4 1r ! When x = 3'1'2.) : 2 = 9(~  1).u 2 and x = 6 sin u. = 6 cos u du. and with trigonometric functions. As a rule of thumb.2 .
1)2.u 2 (b) Use a similar approach to find: (i) (ii) J~ JV5  1 dx. ( a) Show that dx = 2u duo (b) Show that J = 2 J (u 4 u 2 ) duo (c) Hence find J.] r Jo 3 1 1 V36 ~ 1 x 2 o 4 + 9x 2 dx [Let x = ~ tan B.1 t(u + 1). find: (i) (ii) (iii) J_l_ J~ JVI 9+x 2dx [Letx=3tanB.. (d) Check your answer by differentiating it.224 CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 3.5dx [Let x = t(u 2 + 5).] x+2 (c) (d) 2x + 1 dx [Let x = V2x . Find each of the following indefinite integrals using the given substitution.] 1). and let x = u 2  1.2.x2 1 dx [Let x = dx [Let x = v'3 cos B.3) .] 2 Hu 2.] (g) (h) = u  _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 1 o 1+ 4 1 o 3 7 y'X dx [Let x = (u .] = 14 x~ /5 x 1 dx [Let x = 4 .] ly'X dx [Let x = (u . and let x = u . and hence find I.] 3 .1.x 21 + x . find: (a) 5. 1 2 (b) Using a similar approach.x 2 8.x2 dx.] 7.] X rx+I dx X +1 3 x2 [Let x = u 3  1.] 2x . (a) (b) J J J 1 x JX+1 dx 2 (b) x .2.] (iv) (v) (vi) J+ 1 16x dx [Let x = ttanB. 1 dB. 4.] x2 _ 6~ + 25 dx + 3.] 4 .u. and hence show that J = sinl 1 + C.d x [Let x = 1. (a) Consider the integral I = du.xp dx [Let x Jo 2 + x (c) Show that 1= 11 1 x(x + 1)3 dx [Let x = u . Evaluate. v9 .] J~ J J+ 1 dx 3xV4x .2 dx [Let x = u . Consider the integral J = J  xJX+1 dx.] dx [Let x = 6 sin B.u 2 .x 2 [Let x = u + 1.] 3 dx [Let x = t(u 2 (2xl)2 + 1).1.] . (a) Consider the integral J = Show that J = J Jh 17 /2 v3 + 1 1 dx [Let x = u 2x .] (e) (f) o 1. Using the same substitution as in the previous question. using the given substitution: (a) (b) t 3x dx [Let x Jo V3x + 1 (d) t (2 .] (iii) (iv) 1 dx [Let x = u .] 4x 2 ~ sin B.x 2 J + JV4 x 2 1 2x +4 dx [Let x = u1. and let x = 2 sin B.] x 6. 4x .
_ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 14.3 sin B. [These are confirmations rather than proofs. (a) Consider the integral I = Show that I = J J (1  1 3 x2)2 dx.4 ~dX 10.] . and the line x = l. (b) The region R is bounded by y = . Use the substitution x = r sin B.CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus 60 Further Integration by Substitution 225 9. dx [Let x = 5 cos B. Find the exact area of the region bounded by y = /3  x x2 . (iii) Hence confirm that 1= tr2(a . Find the equation of the curve y = J(x) if J'(x) = vxz=g x 3 and J(3) = o. r x (ii) Let x = rcosB.] (iv) (v) (vi) r~ x dx Jo /1 .] 11.] [Letx=2secB.x 2 dx [Let x = 2 sin B.. sec 2 BdB.] [Let x = sin B.] (a) Use integration to confirm that the area of a circle is 7rr2. the xaxis and line x = 4. Show that the +16 volume generated by rotating R about the yaxis is 167r ( v'2 In( v'2 + units 3 .sin a). [HINT: Use the substitution x = 3 sec B.x 2 x2 1 x2 9 (iii) 12 V 4 .=2_=2 and the xaxis and x double it. [HINT: Find the area bounded by the semicircle y = V'. Then justify the formula by regarding the ellipse as the unit circle stretched horizontally by a factor of a and vertically by a factor of b. the x. /x 2 1)) [HINT: Use the substitution y = sinB and the result in part (a). 2 (c) Use a similar approach to confirm that the area of the elli pse :2 + ~2 2 = 1 is 7rab.] 12. since the calculus of trigonometric functions was developed on the basis of the formulae in parts (a) and (b). and let x = sin B.] (b) Similarly. use the given substitution to find: (i) (ii) J (4 +IX2)~ dx 2 [Let x = 2tanB. and show that 1= 2r21: 2 sin 2 BdB.x2 J J ~dX + x 2 /25 .] 13. followed by the substitution u = cos B. (i) Show that the area is 1=2 r Jrcos ~O' Vr2 .] [Let x = 3tanB.x 2 dx. x +1 (b) Find the volume generated when R is rotated about the xaxis.jIx 2 X + c.and yaxes. the xaxis and the line x = l.] J2 t x 2 x 2. [HINT: Use the substitution x = tan B. (a) Multiply secB by sec B + tan B {] {]' and hence find sec u + tan u x J secBdB. (a) Sketch the region R bounded by y = _2_1. and hence show that I = . [HINT: Use the substitution x = yf.] (b) The shaded area in the diagram to the right is the segy ment of a circle of radius r cut off by the chord AB subtending an angle a at the centre o.
Since 2 10 = 1024 ~ 1000.dx eX + 1 = j2 . then keep halving the interval where the solution is trapped.. How can approximations be found. Halving the Interval: This is simply a systematic approach to constructing a table of values near the solution. These procedures were described in Section 3F of the Year 11 volume. and probably a graph. k.0.. and roughly where are they? 3. with Newton's method converging to the solution very fast indeed. hence we have trapped a solution between 1 and 2. We will write the equation as x2  y 2 . Does the equation have a solution? 2. the solution will be trapped successively within intervals of length until the desired order of accuracy is obtained. t. This section deals with two methods of finding approximate solutions. To obtain a sequence approximating a particular solution.. This means finding the positive root of the equation x 2 = 2. 2. Each successive application of the method will halve the uncertainty of the approximation. and another between 2 and 1.. correct to the required level of accuracy? Any work on approximations should therefore be preceded by an exploratory table of values. Locate the solutions roughly by means of a table of values and/or a graph.. there are three suc THREE QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT AN UNKNOWN EQUATION: 5 1.. If we keep halving the interval. (a) Use the substitution x = u to show that 2 j 2 X2 .226 CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 15.2.  x so that it has the form f( x) x = 0. How many solutions are there. eX + 1 6E Approximate Solutions and Newton's Method Most equations cannot be solved exactly. called halving the interval and Newton '8 method. Then 2 2 2 1 1 o 2 1 1 2 2 Hence there is solution between 1 and 2. . Each method produces a sequence of approximate solutions with increasingly greater accuracy. We shall seek approximations to the solution x = v'2 between 1 and 2. A function can only change sign at a zero or a discontinuity. where f( x) = x 2 . ApPROXIMATING SOLUTIONS BY HALVING THE INTERVAL: 6 Given the equation f( x) = 0: 1. . it will take roughly ten further steps to obtain three further decimal places. 2 eX + 1 x2ex (b) Hence find j 2 2 X2 . trap the solution within an interval.dx. to give the rough locations of the solutions. The easiest example of our methods is finding approximations to v'2. . !. Approaching an Unknown Equation: cessive questions to ask: Given an unknown equation.dx.
Let f( x) =x 1 2  2. and round up the righthand bound. Now tane is the gradient of y = f(x) at x = Xo. 0·4140 < 1697 < 1 4096' V2 < 1·4144. n ~ The graph shows that there is exactly one solution. Then by hand and by calculator. + Hence or in decimal form. and let it meet the xaxis at 1((X1. Draw a tangent at p(xo.Xl Xl = f(xo) f'(xo) .J P 1(.0) with angle of inclination e.O).f(xo)).f'(xo)' The formula can be applied successively to produce a sequence of successively closer approximations to the root. NEWTON'S METHOD: Suppose that x = Xo is an approximation to a root x = 0: of an equation f( x) = O. Then. _ PJ In 6.) WORKED EXERCISE: Solve cos x = x correct to three decimal places. y 1 (Strictly speaking. Then Xl will be a better approximation to 0: than Xo. so tan = !' (xo). and that it lies between x = 0 and x = 1. so that 757 1024' Newton's Method: The function graphed below has an unknown root at x and x = Xo is a known approximation to that root. so that Vi ~ 1·414. .f'(xo)' x = Xo This formula is the basis of Newton's method. so Xo . Y p e J that is. and consider the function y = cos x . 1 27 64 x 1 53 128 1 107 256 1 213 512 1 425 1024 1 849 2048 1697 1 4096 f(x) H ence 1 2 1 ::( + 53 1 128 ~2 V L + + + + + < or in decimal form. Let the solution be x = 0:. provided that the situation is favourable. a closer approximation is Xl 7 = Xo f(xo) . WORKED EXERCISE: v'2 cor SOLUTION: We have already found that V2 lies between 1 13 32 1 and 2. Let J = (xo. by halving the interval. JA=ll' tanu = 0:. 0·7387 < < 0: 0: < < 0·7393.x.CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus 6E Approximate Solutions and Newton's Method 227 Use the method of halving the interval to approximate rect to three significant figures. one should round down the lefthand bound. SOLUTION: a 1 "2 n n x x Y 0 1 2" 1 l 4 8" 5 11 16 23 32 47 64 95 128 189 256 ill 379 757 1024 1513 2048 1 0·46 0·38 0·02 0·19 0·09 0·03 1513 2048 + 0: ~ + 0·739. f(xo) .
then enter the formula using the key labelled IAnsl whenever Xo occurs in the formula. X2 = X3= X4 +2 2X n . For now.. and the sequence then converges rapidly as before. 2 (b) In general.. = = 1·414213562 . the formula only needs to be entered once. Xo is chosen on the wrong side of the root. Problem One . after which each successive approximation can be obtained simply by pressing I I. The first problem is hopefully only a nuisance ~ in the example below. A NOTE ON CALCULATORS: On many new calculators.f'( ) X n _1 f(xo) = Xo . =1·414215686 ..l 2X n . A NOTE ON THE SPEED OF CONVERGENCE: It should be obvious from the diagram above that Newton's method converges extremely rapidly once it gets going. SOLUTION: (a) Here so Hence f(x) J'(x) Xl = x2 = 2x.2".. use one step of Newton's method to obtain a better approximation Xl.f'(xo) = Xnl  X n l 2  2 2X n 1  = 2 f(2) 1'(2) 2X n _1 2 X n _1 2 Xn _1 2 +2 =2i . Xn = Xnl f(xnd . notice from the accompanying diagram that the function was carefully chosen so that it was increasing and concave up. general.l Xl 2 +2 X2 2 + 2 X3 + 2 2X3 2 X4 + 2 2X2 2 2XI = 1·416666666 . but the next approximation Xl is on the favourable side. Hence v'2 ~ = 1·41421356. Xn 2 X n _1 + 2 =  2X n 1 (c) Continue the process to obtain an approximation correct to eight decimal places. y (b) Show that III .11 .. As a rule of thumb. Enter the initial value Xo and press I = I... the method can easily run into problems. Xs = 2X4 = 1·414213562 .The Initial Approximation May Be on the Wrong Side: The original diagram above shows that Newton's method works when the curve bulges towards the xaxis in the region between X = IY and X = Xo. (c) Continuing these calculations.. the number of correct decimal places doubles with each step. . WORKED EXERCISE: ( a) Beginning with the approximation Xo = 2 for v'2.. In other situations. It would help intuition to continue these calculations using mathematical software capable of working with thirty or more decimal places. with Xo > IY.228 CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 We will mention below some serious questions about what makes a 'favourable situation'.
.CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus 6E Approximate Solutions and Newton's Method 229 WORKED EXERCISE: (a) Beginning with the approximate solution Xo = 0 of cos x of Newton's method to obtain Xl' · 1 Xnl sin Xnl + cos Xnl (b) Sh ow t h at In genera..smx .The Tangent May Be Horizontal: If the tangent at is horizontal. more serious problems could occur. why Xo = 0 cannot be taken as a suitable first approximation when finding v'2 by Newton's method. algebraically and geometrically.. Xn = .. 2 y Geometrically... and Xl cannot be found. cos Xnl .1 + sm Xnl (c) Find an approximation correct to eight decimal places. With Xo = 0. Xs = sinx4 + 1 Hence a::. Xn = Xnl . Algebraically. = x.: 0·73908513. it will never meet the xaxis.smXn_1  1 _ Xnl (sin Xnl Xnl sin Xnl sin Xnl + 1) + (cos Xnl sin Xnl + 1 + cos Xnl +1 y 1 Xnl) (c) Continuing the process.Xo . beginning on the wrong side of the stationary point. . SOLUTION: y Here f(x) Xl = X2   2 and f'(x) = 2x... the tangent at P(O. X = Xo WORKED EXERCISE: Explain. use one step SOLUTION: The graph below shows f( x) = cos x . hence there will be no approximation Xl.0 =0+sin 0 + 1 =1..l In general.x n .1 cos 0 . Xo (a) Let f(x)=cosxx. sin X2 + 1 X3 sin X3 + cos X3 = 0·739085133 . as shown in part (a). ~. = Xo  (b) Now that the approximation has crossed to the other side. 2 . the next approximation is x = 1. = Xo =0 xo2 . if we were to choose Xo = 1. . sin X3 + 1 X4 sin X4 + cos X4 = O· 739085 133 . The algebraic result is a zero denominator.v'2 instead of to v'2. so it never meets the xaxis.2) is horizontal. x :s. The diagram shows this happening. . = Xl "x "2 Problem Two . convergence will be rapid. then the sequence would converge to . Hence Xl cos Xo .2  x 2xo 2  02  2xO' which is undefined.1...sin x .. Then f' ( x) = .The Sequence May Converge to the Wrong Root: In the previous example. X2 sin Xl + cos Xl = 0·750363867 .. SinXI + 1 X2 sin X2 + cos X2 = 0·739112890 ..x in the interval . Problem Three . Were chosen further to the left..~ :s.
the sequence will move away from x = 0 instead of converging to it. (b) For Xo > 1. which has an inflexion at the origin.. X4 = 1. Once the sequence moves outside the two turning points. = x2  .5. (b) Evaluate P( ~) and hence show that the root to the equation P( x) = 0 lies in the interval 2 < x < 2~. xl. is ever at a turning point.5xo xo Hence Xl = Xo 3xo2 _ 5 3 x0 3 .5 . the tangent will be flatter than the tangent at x = 1. the sequence will simply oscillate between 1 and 1. or even Move Away from the Root: The diagram below shows the curve y = x 3 . 3 2 SOLUTION: Since f(x) = x . It is in such situations that Newton's method becomes a topic within modern chaos theory.2x . and the sequence will keep crossing sides. which has no zeroes at all.1. X3 = 1. and therefore that there is a root of the equation x 2 .1 = 0 between 2 and 3. ..230 CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Problem Four . it will converge to one of the other two zeroes.5x.The Sequence May Oscillate. show that P(2) < 0 and P(3) > 0.5xo . the tangent will be horizontal and the method will terminate. (a) If P(x) 2x . then neither side is favourable. Exercise 6E 1. Then because f(x) has odd symmetry. and will meet the xaxis to the right of the positive zero . J'(x) = 3x .5x.5x. (a) Substituting Xo = 1. x2. If we try to approximate the root x = 0 using Newton's method. show that the sequence will move away from x = O. one application of Newton's met h 0 d WI '11 give Xl 22 = 3xox03 5 (a) For Xo = 1. (c) Which end of this interval is the root closer to? Justify your answer by using the halving the interval method a second time. so X I will be to the left of 1.The Equation May Have No Solutions: The final Extension problem in the following exercise pursues the consequences when Newton's method is applied to the function f( x) = 1 + x 2 . .. Worse still. (b) When Xo is to the right of the turning point.xo 3 + 5xo 3xo2 .. But if any of xo. 3 . if Xo = 1. and if Xo > 1. y x Problem Five ... the sequence oscillates: X2 = 1. When Xo is between X = 1 and the turning point. 3 WORKEOExERCISE: Show that for f(x) = x . the sequence will then converge to that zero.5 2 X0 3 x 3xo2 . the tangent will slope upwards. Xl = _2_ 35 = 1. show that the sequence of approximations oscillates.
(c) (i) Show that the equation eX . (c) The actual answer to five decimal places is 2·51984. (a) (i) Show that the equation X3 + X2 + 2x . approximate the root near x = 2.. = 0. (ii) Use halving the interval twice to find an approximation to the root. (b) For x3 (c) (d) + x2 + 2x . For x4 + 2X2 . Show that Xn+l = 2 • 3x n . use one step of Newton's method to obtain a better approximation Xl. Xn+l 2 xn = 2x+ 5 n (c) Use part (b) to find NOTE: X2. (e) For loge x = sin x. Show that Xn+l = . Try doing this  enter Xo = 2 and part (b) using the key labelled Ans I I whenever Xo I = I. approximate the root near x = 1.5 = 0 has a root between 0·5 and 1·5.2cosx n . Xo = 2. giving your answer correct to two decimal places. ( a) Show that the equation x3 . X4 and Xs. which should confirm the accuracy of X4 to at least eight decimal places. Your calculator may be able to obtain each successive approximation simply by pressing I = I.X . For x3 .2x . (ii) Use halving the interval until you can approximate the root to one decimal place. Give your answer to one decimal place. Xo = 2.. 3 2X n + 2 (a) x3 . (a) Beginning with the approximate solution Xo = 2 of X2 5 = 0. X3. _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 7. then press I = I to get Xl. (b) (i) Show that the equation loge x = sin x has a root between 2 and 3.5 = 0. approximate the root near x = 1. Xo = 3. III general. ( a) For X2 .loge x = 3 has a root between 1 and 2.3 (c ) 2 SIll X . (ii) Use halving the interval to approximate the root to one decimal place. 5. X3.loge x = 3.. 3. Was the final number you substituted the best approximation to the root? . then enter the formula in is needed. (b) Show that .loge( x + 1) = 0. (ii) Use halving the interval once to approximate the root to one decimal place.3 = 0.1 = 0. (a) (i) Show that the function F(x) = x 3 loge(x + 1) has a zero between 0·8 and 0·9. (f) For eX . (b) (i) Show that the equation x4 + 2X2 . approximate the root near x = 1. X4 .1 = 0.9x . e Xn .16 = 0 has a root between 2 and 3.9 X eXn (x n 1)+1 (b) e . 4. Use Newton's method twice to find the indicated root of each equation. Then continue the process to obtain an approximation correct to eight decimal places. Show that Xn+1 = 2(sinxnxncosxn) 1.3 = 0 has a root between x = 0 and x = 1.2 = 0. (b) Use halving the interval three times to find a better approximation to the root. Repeat the steps of the previous question in each of the following cases. approximate the root near x = 0·8. (ii) Use halving the interval to approximate the root to one decimal place. approximate the root near X = 2. 6. press N ow pressing I = I successively should yield X2.3x .CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus 6E Approximate Solutions and Newton's Method 231 2.
(ii) Describe the resulting sequence Xl. D. show that a is the only real zero of P( x). (1·) Sh ow t h at Xn+I 1 = Xn + k. (a) On the same diagram. Determine which of the following cases applies when Newton's method is repeatedly applied with the given starting value Xo: A. (d) Use one iteration of Newton's method. x3. Then obtain an approximation correct to eight decimal places.t to obtain a second approximation. showing all (b) On your diagram...kx and x.tis.. Then continue the process to obtain an approximation correct to eight decimal places. sketch the graphs of y intercepts with the x and y axes. Use Newton's method with initial value a ::. Use Newton's method to find approximations correct to two decimal places. Explain from the graph of P( x) why this second approximation is not a better approximation to a than . . = e!x =5 x 2 . The value a shown on the axis is taken as the first approximation to the solution r of f(x) = O.. The equation f(x) = 0 has two real roots a and (3. Consider the graph of y = f(x). . (c) What can we deduce from parts (a) and (b) about the rates at which e. (b) Repeat part (a) with the function y = x.kx .35 (c) Y"158 9. x2. x2.k approach zero as x 7 oo? Draw a diagram to illustrate this. The diagram shows the curve y = f(x).232 CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 8. (a) Suppose that we apply Newton's method with starting value Xo = 0 repeatedly to the function y = e. with starting value Xl = 2. The sequence Xl. o y a r x x (a) (b) (c) (g) Xo = 2 (h) xo=2·9 (i) Xo = 3 (j) (k) (l) and y Xo = 3·1 Xo Xo =4 =5 13. Consider the polynomial P( x) = 4x 3 + 2x2 + l. (c) Show that 2 < a < l. where k is a positive constant.:: . indicate the negative root a of the equation x 2 + e!x = 5. which has turning points at x = 0 and x = 3 and a point of inflexion at x = 4. Is the second approximation obtained by Newton's method a better approximation to r than a is? Give a reason for your answer. a is approximated.. B. (3 is approximated. to show that a 18 is approximately . 10.. By sketching the graph of P( x). C.k (where once again k > 0) and starting value Xo = l. is moving away from both roots. x3. Use one application of Newton's method to show that 3 /098 is a better approximation to V'100.. The closest integer to V'100 is 3. The method breaks down at the first application. ( a) (b) (c) (d) Show that P( x) has a real zero a in the interval 1 < x < O. 12. (a) V13 (b) Vf. e+8 14. y y = f(x) 11. .
i.. For n = 1.. . 3. . IT. Our aim is to approximate applying Newton's method to the equation x2 . WORKED EXERCISE: The outer square in the diagram to the right has side length 2. . not 2n. . (N ote that the index on the RHS is 2 n . it is intended for 4 Unit students .. for n ~ O. for n = 1. . As mentioned in the Study Notes. define = Xn  f(xn) f'(xn) .CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus SF Inequalities and Limits Revisited 233 _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 15. .) (c) Show that when Newton's method is applied to finding V3. . (You may assume that f'(x n ) I 0.) (a) Show that IXn+1 . (b) Graph the function y = cot () for 0 < () < (c) Use the graph to show that there exists a real number ()n such that Xn = cot ()n and o < ()n < IT.2.. 2x n (b) Prove by induction that for all integers n (a) Show that Xn+l = ~ 0...xnl ~ 1. . for n = 1. Xl. deduce that cot ()n+l = cot 2()n. be the approximations obtained by successive applications of Newton's method. Suppose that a Va by ~ 2 is an integer which is not a perfect square. . This demanding section is intended to revisit the subject and focus attention on some of the types of arguments being used. 6F Inequalities and Limits Revisited Arguments about inequalities and limits have occurred continually throughout our work. 2 . . 3. ... 16. . . . . . Xn 2 + a . (e) Find all points Xl such that Xl = Xn+l. Find the areas of the circle and both squares. A Geometrical Argument Proving an Inequality about 1r: The following worked exercise does nothing more than prove that IT is between 2 and 4 hardly a brilliant result . .and for the more ambitious 3 Unit students.. who may want to leave it until final revision. . for some value of n. the twentieth approximation X20 is correct to at least one million decimal places. . . .a = O. ..familiarity with arguments about inequalities and limits is required in that course . .. . Let f(x) = 1 + x2 Xn+l and let Xl be a real number. .but it is a good illustration of the use of geometrical arguments. . and hence prove that 2 < IT < 4. . .. . 3.. using the initial value Xo = 2. 2. (d) By using the formula for tan 2A. X2. 2. Let xo. where the initial value Xo is the smallest integer greater than Va.
1 )x 2e . x :. the curve is concave up everywhere.l) and B( 1. (b) Find the equation of the chord. The outer square has side length 2.1 +2 e < 3. then lb f(x)dx < lb g(x)dx.l)x + 1 (using y = mx + b).l)x + 1) dx 11 [eX ] ~ < [He .234 CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 SOLUTION: so The circle has radius 1. y' = eX and y" = eX. then the chord joining the endpoints of the curve lies above the curve . (c) By integrating over the interval 0 :. so the chord is y = (e . x .1 < ~(e . prove that e SOLUTION: (a) Since y = eX. 1. and hence prove that Ve < < 3. so area of outer square = 22 = 4. the line is above the curve y = eX. e) on the curve y = eX lies above the curve in the interval 0 < x < l. USING CONCAVITY AND THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL TO PRODUCE INEQUALITIES: 8 • If a curve is concave up in an interval.2 2 +X] ~ e .1 (the rise is e . eX dx < ((e . the chord joining A and B lies above the curve. so substituting x = ~.1) + 1 (the chord is above the curve) Ve < (c) Since y ~(e + 1).1. prove that the chord joining the points A(O. When x = ~.1) + 1 1 < e . y = (e  l)x 11 + 1 is above y = eX in the interval 0 < x < 1. Since y" is positive for all x. WORKED EXERCISE: (a) Using the second derivative. the run is 1). as required. • If f(x) < g(x) in an interval a < x < b. He + 1). so area of inner square = ~ X 2 X 2 = 2. (b) The chord has gradient = e . Arguments using Concavity and the Definite Integral: The following worked exerCIse applies two very commonly used principles to produce inequalities. as required. e! < ~(e . In particular. The inner square has diagonals of length 2. < 7r < 4. But area of inner square Hence 2 < area of circle < area of outer square. area of circle = 7r X 12 = 7r.
(ii) Hence find the exact area of this outer hexagon.1) and B(1.< A 3V3 7r < 2V3. (c) Use the areas found in the previous parts to show that 2 < e < 3. e. (ii) Hence find the exact area of this hexagon. as shown in the first diagram. (b) Find the area of: (i) rectangle PBRQ. (a) Show that the tangent has equation y = i(x + 1). because a square can never be negative. but would seldom be required in the 3 Unit course. 4x ~ x 2 + 2x + 1 o ~ x 2 .2x + 1 O~(X_1)2. Suppose by way of contradiction that vx ~ i(x + 1). 2VX ~ x + 1. (c) Hence prove graphically that < i( x + 1). The diagram shows the points A(O. NOTE: Question 1 in the following exercise proves this result using arguments involving tangents and concavity. as shown in the second diagram. (ii) trapezium ABRQ. for all x ~ 0 except x = 1. (c) By considering the results in parts (a) and (b).e. (b) Find y".CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus 6F Inequalities and Limits Revisited 235 Extension . This is proven in the following worked exercise. (i) Show that LOAB is equilateral and hence find its area. (b) Another regular hexagon is drawn outside the circle. NOTE: This inequality was proven algebraically in the last worked exercise above.1 ) on the curve y = e. The diagram shows the curve y = and the tangent at x = 1. vx y vx 1 x 2. (a) Show that the exact area of the region bounded by the curve. show that 2. The algebraic argument used there is normal in the 4 Unit course. for all x ~ 0 except x = 1. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Show that/X < t( x + 1). (a) A regular hexagon is drawn inside a circle of radius 1 cm and centre 0 so that its vertices lie on the circumference. 3. Exercise 6F 1.1 ) square units. and hence explain why the curve is concave down for x > o. because it is true for any positive number x except 1. (i) Find the area of LOGH. Then Squaring.x . This is impossible except when x = 1. e 1 l!__________ _ Q x . the xaxis and the vertical lines x = 0 and x = 1 is (1 .Algebraic Arguments about Inequalities: The result Je < i (e + 1) proven above is unremarkable.
(a) Show that f'(l) = 1. 1'(x) 1'(1) = lim loge(1 h>O + hl f(x) . +1t n (c) Combine parts ( a) and (b) and replace h with 1 to show that n+CX) loge (1 lim n = 1. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 9. The points PG. . 8. (c) Find the areas of the trapezia AB DC and M N DC. 10 ? . the areas of: (i) l::. The points C and Dare the feet of the perpendiculars drawn from A and B to the xaxis. n (e) To how many decimal places is the RHS of the equation in part (d) accurate when 2 3 5 6 n = 10. and hence explain why f(x) is an increasing function. (d) Hence show that ~ < In 2 < t. The tangent to the curve at P cuts AC and BD at M and N respectively. The tangent at A meets the radius OB produced at M. (a) Find. and hence show that < sin x < x. for 0 < x < ~. 10\ 10 .x).OAB. for 0 < x < ~. 6.V3) ~ 3·2. 1 ~ and 2 respectively. (c) Find the equation of the chord 0 Q. in terms of r and x. 10 . The diagram shows the curve y = sin x for 0 ::. = l~ f(x (b) Use the definition ofthe derivative.to show that + h)*.236 CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 4. for 0 < x < ~.. that for all positive integers n. (a) Find the domain of f( x). x ::. + n(n n + 4) = tn(n + 1)(2n + 13). (a) Find the equation of the tangent at O. P and B on the curve y 1 =x have xcoor dinates 1. (d) By integrating sin x from 0 to ~ and comparing this to the area of l::. y 1 2" 1 2: 3: o 6 n 2" 1t 5. (a) Prove. (b) Find f'(x). ~) lie on the curve.. and a sector 0 AB subtending an angle of x radians at O. (iii) l::. show that 7r < 12(2 . ~. · 1x5+2x6+3x7+···+n(n+4) (b) Hence fi n d 1 1m 3 7. (d) Hence show that e = n+CX) (1 lim + 1 t. Suppose that f(x) = In(l + x) In(l. and hence show that < sin x < x. 1) and Q (~. using mathematical induction.. 10 .OAM.. (b) Find the coordinates of M and N. 1 X 5 +2 noo X 6 +3 X 7 + . (b) Hence show that sin x < x < tan x. (a) Show that the tangent at P has equation 4x + 9y = 12. The diagram shows a circle with centre 0 and radius r. .. that is. Let f(x) = logex. (ii) sector OAB. The pomts A. (b) Find the equation of the chord 0 P.ORQ.
(a) Solve the equation sin 2x = 2 sin 2 x.CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus 6F Inequalities and Limits Revisited 237 10. where n > 1. for all positive integers n. (c) Suppose that a and n are positive integers. (a) Show that . (a) Suppose that f(x) = v'f+X. (a) Show that 1'(x) = x n. A sequence is defined recursively by 1 t 1 .] 13. + ~t < e. and mark two points A(a. then sin 2x > 2 sin 2 x. t t( 14. then it is an integer. and hence find the limiting sum of the series. 1 + tn n=l (b) Hence find the limiting sum of the series L .8) when x 2: 8. using calculus.X x2 + X +X . 18. (a) Show... (b) Sketch the graph of y = lnx. Find 1'(8). where 0 < a < b. deduce that ~ In a + ~ In b < In(}a 11.x < nnen for x> n. (a) Prove by induction that 2n > n. the sum of the first 80 terms of the series 2 ~+~+ 1 5 + 224 + . for all positive values of x.:3  and 1 (a) Show that  tn . Evaluate lim ( V x 2 x+oo 1r. [HINT: Let x = n + 1. if n is a positive integer greater than 1. 12. for 0 < x < (b) Show that if 0 < x < ~. (b) Sketch the curve f(x) = v'f+X and the tangent at x = 8. / ) • [HINT: Multiply by V 2 +x+x vx +X . (c) Deduce that v'f+X S.1 (b) Hence find. (c) Obtain an expression for ~ 21_ . (b) Explain why the graph of y = f( x) lies completely above the xaxis for x > (c) Hence prove that eX > 1 + x 2 . (Don't attempt to find points of inflexion. as a fraction in lowest terms... by considering the graph of f(x) for x > n. n2 . ~ r 1 r=2 16. 1 tn+1 = 1.x ( n . . o.lna) and B(b.lnb) on the curve. (b) Hence show that 1 < yIri < 2..nnen). 1 + tn 00 1 17... (b) Show that the graph of f(x) has a maximum turning point at (n. + ~b). (c) Find the coordinates of the point P that divides the interval AB in the ratio 2 : 1.. (a) Show that 1'(x) is never negative. and hence sketch the graph for x 2: o.] n. Let f(x) = xn e. x (d) Deduce from part (c) that (1 1 1 15. that the graph of y = In x is concave down throughout its domain.1 n+1 = 2. What can we deduce about yIri. why xne.loge(1 + x 2 ).x). where n is a positive integer greater than I? :ta .1e. It is known that if is a rational number. 3 + x . (d) Using parts (b) and (c). The function f( x) is defined by f( x) = x ..) (c) Explain. Hence show that 1'(x) < for x > 8..
for all u > o. be pomts on the hyperbola y = . (i) Divide the expression a n +1 . . 22. B' and T' are the feet of the perpendiculars drawn from A. ' (b) Suppose that A'. (c) Hence show that lim (log X x) = o. + en. and n is a positive integer. a+b)n ::. show that (b) Explain why 0 J. (1  x 1 10. (i) Show that the sum of the areas of the two trapezia AA'T'T and TT' B' B is 2(k .bna by a . (e) From your graph. t 1 < } log x < x+CXJ .x. =xe 10 x( 1 10 x)9 7 (b) Find the two turning points of the graph of the function. x (a) Show that the tangents to the hyperbola at A and B intersect at T (k 2: 1k ~ 1) . 1) and B(k. where e is a (ii) Hence show that (1  1 2 n)n 2 > }. t (a) If x > 1. for x < 10. Consider the function y = eX (1 _ 1xO) 10 1 (a) Showthaty .1) k +1 square units. (10)10 9 20. an+bn 2 i).. y _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ . and hence show that a n+ I + bn+ I 2 anb + bna.u+2 < log( u + 1) < u. deduce that eX ::.238 CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 19. (b) (i) Solve the inequation x > 2x + l. Let A(l. The dIagram shows the curve y 1 = .b. Vx 1 . (c) Discuss the behaviour of the function as x (d) Sketch the graph of the function. for all integers n 2 2. for all integers n 2 5.. 1 where k > 1. b > 0. for all integers n 2 2. for t > o. O) 10 ::. (c) Suppose that a > 0. Band T to the xaxis.dt = }log x. 2u (ii) Hence prove that . (a) (i) Prove by induction that (1 + et > 1 nonzero constant greater than l. for all x > l.anb + bn +1 . (ii) Hence prove by induction that 2n > n 2 . (f) Hence show that ( 11)10 00 and as x 7 00. (ii ) Hence prove by induction that ( 221. e::. 1 .
for all k ~ 2: 2.. x2. and develop formulae for y"'. (b) Hence show that in In x dx (c) Use the trapezoidal rule on the intervals with endpoints 1. P3. • • • • ] 27. (a) Show that y" = u" v + 2u'v' + uv". (c) Hence show that Jo r e. and then use part (b) with PI = XSI. + x n . (a) Using the result in part (a) of the previous question. n to show that inlnxdx ~ tlnn+ln(nl)! (d) Hence show that n! < e nn+~ e. Show that L loge( nPr) ~ O.2: dx. e . NOTE: This is a preparatory lemma in the proof of Stirling's formula n! ~ . for x > O.slllx .. P2... (a) Given that sin x > 2x for 0 7r < x < ~. < e"""iC for 0 < sin x 2x x (ii) 1:..k + 1 (ii) (b) Deduce that kk < k! e k.. Prove that ~ Xl ( XIX2X3" 1. .(xlnx . and kl rectangles constructed between x = 2 and x = k+ 1. (i) e.. . e.1). y"" and y""'. = nln n n + 1... Pn are positive real numbers whose sum is 1. 26. (a) Show graphically that loge x (b) Suppose that PI./2i nn+~ e. + Xn • n When does equality apply in this relationship? [HINT: Let s = Xl + X2 + X3 + .n . show that: < ~. (b) Find the fifth derivative of y = (x 2 + X + l)e.x • (c) Use sigma notation to write down a formula for the nth derivative y(n). r=l n (c) Let Xl.sinx dx = 11r e2 sinx dx. [The binomial theorem and differentiation by the product rule] Suppose that y = uv is the product of two functions u and v of x.. 2. The diagram shows the curves y = log x and y = log(x 1).l < ~(k + 1)k+I. (a) Show that . X3.'X n ) n + X2 + X3 + .sinx dx < ~ (e . e  dx < 1:..n . 25. ••• . 3.. Xn be positive real numbers. e d 24.CHAPTER 6: Further Calculus 6F Inequalities and Limits Revisited 239 23. 7r  (b) Use the substitution u = x to show that 1:. show that: [k+l (i) logxdx=(k+l)log(k+l)log4k+l y k k+l x J2 J2 [k+l log(x . ••• .l)dx = klogk .x) dx = lnx. xI. where k 2: 2. which gives an approximation for n! whose percentage error converges to 0 for large integers n. .
in preparation for the next three sections. simple interest and compound interest. underlie the mathematics of natural growth. Sections 7C and 7D concern the specific application of the sums of GPs to financial calculations that involve the payment of regular instalments while compound interest is being charged . to various bases. it is quite possible to study Sections 7E7G first and then return to the applications of APs and GPs in Sections 7A7D. First. Thirdly. the rate of change in a quantity over time can be studied using the continuous functions presented towards the end of the chapter. Many of the applications will be financial.CHAPTER SEVEN Rates and Finance The various topics of this chapter are linked in three ways. is to establish the relationships between these phenomena and the known theories of sequences. geometric sequences and housing loans.this section will review the main results about APs and GPs and apply them to problems. exponential functions. Section 7E being a review of work on related rates of change in Chapter Seven of the Year 11 volume. or by means of the sequences that describe the changing values of salaries. compound interest. Sections 7E and 7F deal with the application of the derivative and the integral to general rates of change. GPs and compound interest. 7A Applications of APs and GPs Arithmetic and geometric sequences were studied in Chapter Six of the Year 11 volume . . many of the applications in the chapter are financial. Section 7G reviews natural growth and decay. and computer programs may be helpful in modelling rates of change of some quantities. in preparation for the treatment in Section 7H of modified equations of growth and decay. It is intended that by juxtaposing these topics. Prepared spreadsheets may be useful here in providing experience of how superannuation funds and housing loans behave over time. however. STUDY NOTES: Sections 7A and 7B review the earlier formulae of APs and GPs in the context of various practical applications. loans and capital values. For those who prefer to study the continuous rates of change first. The intention of the course.superannuation and housing loans are typical examples. including salaries. exponential functions and calculus. A handful of questions in Section 7G are designed to draw the essential links between exponential functions. Secondly. the close relationships amongst them in terms of content and method will be made clearer. and these can easily be left until Sections 7A7D have been completed.
How many chocolates will remain from an initial store of 12000 when everyone has left? The chocolates eaten daily form a series 200 + 198 + . + 2. so number of chocolates eaten = tn( a + £) = ~ X 100 X (200 + 2) = 10100. (b) Final salary = T12 = a + lId = 25 000 + 11 X 4545 151 = $75000. so her final salary is $75000. where d is a constant. OR Sn = tn(a+£) 600000 = ~ X 12 X (25000+£) 100 000 = 25 000 + £ £ = 75000. • The nth term of an AP is given by Tn 1 = a + (n  1 )d. called the common difference.l)d) = 600000 6(2a + lId) = 600000 6(50000 + lID) = 600000 50000 + lID = 100000 D = 4545 151 Hence the annual increment is about $4545. If the total amount earned at the end of twelve years is $600000. • Three terms T 1 .T1• t( a + b). They are providing one chocolate per day per person. £ = 2 and n = 100.T n . find. then her salary increases every year by a fixed amount $D. Her annual salaries form an AP with a S12 = 25000 and d = D. where a is the first term T 1 . SOLUTION: (b) her final salary. (use when £ = Tn is known). • A sequence Tn is called an arithmetic sequence if Tn . Every day after the first day. SOLUTION: WORKED EXERCISE: [Salaries and APs] Georgia earns $25000 in her first year.. one couple is able to return home. which is an AP with a = 200. correct to the nearest dollar: (a) the value of D. . (a) Put = 600000. WORKED EXERCISE: [A simple AP] Gulgarindi Council is sheltering 100 couples taking refuge in the Town Hall from a flood. for n 2:: 2.1 = d. ~n(2a + (n ..Tz • The arithmetic mean of a and b is = T2 . • The sum Sn of the first n terms of an AP is Sn = tn(a + £) ~n(2a + (n l)d) or Sn = (use when d is known). Hence 1900 chocolates will remain. it should be sufficient simply to list the essential definitions and formulae concerning arithmetic sequences.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7A Applications of APs and GPs 241 Formulae for Arithmetic Sequences: ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES: At this stage. T z and T3 are in AP if T3 .
and Tn = ar n .= r. involving both the nth term Tn and the nth partial sum Sn.. 2 • The geometric mean of a and b is.1 .05 1·5 WORKED EXERCISE: = 1oge 1·05 . < 1).. log}. (c) Find the total sales from the foundation of the company to the end of 2010... < r or Sn • The limiting sum Sco exists if and only if 1 < 1. where r is a constant.. GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES: Geometric sequences involve the one further idea • A sequence Tn is called a geometric sequence if .1) r1 __ a(l .242 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Formulae for Geometric Sequences: of the limiting sum. 1 a The following worked example is a typical problem on GPs. (a) The sales in anyone year constitute the nth term Tn of the series. T2 and T3 are in GP if T3 T2 = T2 T} . (b) Find the first year in which total sales will exceed $900000.05 5 ~ $765769. Notice the use of the changeofbase formula to solve exponential equations by logarithms.rn) 1.b or .1 2:: 2. loge 1·5 [Inflation and GPs 1 The General Widget Company sells 2000 widgets per year. called the common ratio. • The nth term of a GP is given by • Three terms T 1 . and then Sco = r. . • The sum Sn of the first n terms of a GP is Sn __ a(rn . for n Tn Tn . (a) Find the total sales in 1996. Each year. For example.1 Hence sales in = 600000 X 1·05 n . when the price was $300 per widget. the price rises 5% due to cost increases. beginning in 1991.b. 1996 = T6 = 600000 X 1. (d) During which year will the total sales of the company since its foundation first exceed $20 000 OOO? SOLUTION: The annual sales form a GP with a = 600000 and r = 1·05..r (easier when r (easier when r > 1)..
4 ar n . > Taking Logarithms when the Base is Less than 1. Hence n = 10. (~t <~ means n > 3. WORKED EXERCISE: Sales from the Gumnut Softdrinks Factory in Wadelbri were 50000 bottles in 2001.1) 0·05 12000000 X (1·05 n . < 20000 n 1 0·94 .05 20 $19839572. 600000 X 1·05 . Moreover. and Sn = a(rn r . (a) Put Then 50000 X Tn < 20000. (l·05 n Sn 1) 1. log 2~ .1 > I e ~ 8·31 oge 1·05 n> 9·31.5 n . The following worked exercise demonstrates this. = 20·1. log 1·5 and usmg the changeofbase formula. (a) In what year will sales first fall below 20000? (b) What will the total sales from 2001 onwards be eventually? (c) What proportion of those sales will occur by the end of 2020? The sales form a GP with a SOLUTION: = 50000 and r = 0·94. the GP in the exercise has a limiting sum because the ratio is positive and less than 1. the company will always continue to trade. Nevertheless. log 1·05 . and Limiting Sums: When the base is less than 1. n .05 1·5.1 .CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7A Applications of APs and GPs 243 (b) Put Then Tn > 900000. n (c) The total sales since foundation constitute the nth partial sum Sn of the series.05 2~.1) (d) Put Then 12000000 X > 20000000. but are declining by 6% every year. and sales first exceed $900000 in 2000. . For example. n and using the changeofbase formula.1 1) X = Hence total sales to 2010 = ~ (1·05 n . 600000 S20 = 12000000(1.< 20000 0·94 n . This limiting sum is used to interpret the word 'eventually'.1 < 0. > 20000000 > 2l 3 n > logl.1).1 > logl. and cumulative sales will first exceed $20000000 in 2011.05 n  .1 > 1. Hence n = 21.1 > 900000 1·05 n . passing from an index inequation to a log inequation reverses the inequality sign.
where 90 0 < x < 90 0 • (i) For what values of x does the series converge? (ii) What is the limit when it does converge? (b) In the diagram.tan 6 x. Hence n = 16.8 loge 0·94 . x A. Continue the construction of A 3 . B 3 . (iii) Find the limiting sum of A2A3 + A4A5 + A6A7 + ..94 20 0·06 ~ 71%. when 1 < tan x < 1. and OA 4 = OA 3 X tan 2 x = tan 6 x. ~OAIBI is rightangled at 0. and sales will first fall below 20000 in 2016.r 20 ) ~ _a_ a ( c) eventual sales lr .1 > 10go. 5 00 = _a_ = lr 1 l+tan 2 x cos 2 x. ~ 833333. (b) Eventual sales = 5 00 Sales to 2020 a(1 . = cos 2 x..tan 6 x. Hence AIA2 + A3A4 + . A 4 . •••• (i) Show that AIA2 = 1 . Since 1 < r < 1.0. so from the graph of tan x.r =1. WORKED EXERCISE: [A harder trigonometric application] (a) Consider the series 1 .. SOLUTION: (a) The series is a GP with a = 1 and r =  tan 2 x. n 2:: 15·8. by part (a).244 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 n ... OA 3 = OA 2 X tan 2 x = tan 4 x."'.. that is.tan 2 x + tan 4 x . so A3A4 = tan 4 x .tan 2 x + tan 4 x .94 0·4 (the inequality reverses) > log 0·4 e == 14. = 1 . . and LOAIBI = x. OA I has length 1.1 n . the series has a limiting sum. Continuing the process..r 50000 = 1 . (i) Hence the series converges when tan 2 x < 1. (ii) When the series converges. OA 2 OBI = tanx. (ii) = 1. ". lr 20 1. and construct A2B2 II AIB I . AIA2 so hence OA 2 = tan 2 x.tan 2 x and A3A4 = tan 4 ..tan 6 x + . where x < 45 0 • Construct LOB I A 2 = x.tan 2 x. . since 1 + tan 2 x = sec 2 x. (ii) Find the limiting sum of AIA2 + A3A4 + A5A6 + .
(a) An initial salary of $50000 increases each year by $3000. (ii) What is the sum of the first five terms? (iii) Explain why the series does not converge... are added. In which year will the salary first be at least twice the original salary? (b) An initial salary of $50000 increases by 4% each year. with 5% increments each year. In which year will the salary first be at least twice the original salary? . . NOTE: 1. and explain why they form an arithmetic sequence.. = ~Al . and find its value. (b) In which year will his salary be $42000? 4. at the end of ten years. Julian starts at the lower wage of $20000 per annum.. (ii) Explain why this geometric series has a limiting sum. (ii) Show that the nth term is Tn = 103 ... (a) Find her annual salary. and show that 68 is the minimum number of terms for which Sn is negative. with annual increases of $2500. This exercise is therefore a medley of problems on APs and GPs. with annual increments of $2000. + 104 + 106 + .CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7A Applications of APs and GPs 245 (iii) Every piece of OA I is on AlA2 + A3A4 + . (iii) Show that the limiting sum and the sum of the first ten terms are equal. An accountant receives an annual salary of $40000.. at the end of ten years. (a) The first few terms of a particular series are 2000 + 3000 + 4500 + . each correct to the nearest dollar. correct to the nearest dollar. (i) Show that it is a geometric series... 3... with annual increases of 15%. and find the first negative term. and find the common ratio. (iii) Find an expression for the sum Sn of the first n terms. and find the difference. or on A2A3 + A4AS so A2A3 + A4AS + .. (a) Find his annual salary. (a) Find Lawrence's annual wages in each of the first three years. (b) Consider the series 18 + 6 + 2 + . is an AP. + . and explain why they form a geometric sequence. with two introductory questions to revise the formulae for APs and GPs. Exercise 7A The theory for this exercise was covered in Chapter Six of the Year 11 volume. Lawrence and Julian start their first jobs on low wages.cos 2 X = sin 2 x. and find the common ratio. (i) Show that it is a geometric series. Lawrence starts at $25000 per annum.. ) = 1 .(AlA2 + A3A4 + . (c) Show that the first year in which Julian's annual wage is the greater of the two will be the sixth year. (a) Five hundred terms of the series 102 What is the total? (b) In a particular arithmetic series. 2. and find the common difference. and his total earnings. (b) In which year will her salary first exceed $70000? 5.. What is the sum of all the terms in the series? (c) (i) Show that the series 100 + 97 + 94 + .3n.. there are 48 terms between the first term 15 and the last term 10. and her total earnings. 6... (b) Find Julian's annual wages in each of the first three years. correct to the first three decimal places.. A secretary starts on an annual salary of $30000.
and graphics calculators account for 10% of sales. A certain algebraic equation is being solved by the method of halving the interval. Yesterday. SC75 cuts out 75% and SC90 cuts out 90% of UV rays. how many feed troughs are there? ( d) What is the total distance he will walk to fill all the troughs? 11. In the following questions. ( a) How many times does Franksworth advertise? (b) Find the sum of the numbers of days published in all the advertisements. Olim. The product with code SC50 cuts out 50% of harmful UV rays. and he has parked the truck with the grain 1 metre from the closest trough. you will need to consider the amount of UV light let through. After that it rolled away across the playground. A farmhand is filling a row of feed troughs with grain. One Sunday. Each trough requires three bucketloads to fill it completely. then 1 ~ metres and so on. ( a) Current sales of all calculators total 20000 per month.246 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 7. (c) Use trial and error to find the minimum number of layers of SC50 that would be required to cut out at least as much UV light as one layer of SC90. (c) On which day of the week is Christmas? 10. Sid and Nee work in the sales division of a calculator company. ( d) Similarly. Thi (pronounced 'tea'). Franksworth subsequently publishes similar advertisements every Sunday until Christmas. find how many layers of S C50 would be required to cu t out 99% of UV rays. with the two starting values 4 units apart. (a) What percentage of UV light does each cloth let through? (b) Show that two layers of SC50 would be equivalent to one layer of SC75 shade cloth. and then moves left or right to the location of each successive midpoint. The pen of a plotter begins at the lefthand value. a tennis ball used in a game of cricket in the playground was hit onto the science block roof. (a) What was the height reached after the nth bounce? (b) What was the height of the roof the ball fell from? (c) The last time the ball bounced. He decides that he will fill the closest trough first and work his way to the far end. while sales of graphics calculators are increasing by 150 per month. Together they find that sales of scientific calculators are dropping by 150 per month. A certain company manufactures three types of shade cloth. Luckily it rolled off the roof. 8. (a) How far will the farmhand walk to fill the 1st trough and return to the truck? How far for the 2nd trough? How far for the 3rd trough? (b) How far will the farmhand walk to fill the nth trough and return to the truck? (c) If he walks a total of 156 metres to fill the furthest trough. After bouncing on the playground it reached a height of 3 metres. (i) Show that (~)nl > 300. How many graphics calculators are sold per month? (b) How many more graphics calculators will be sold per month by the sales team six months from now? (c) Assuming that current trends continue. Pixi. (ii) How many times did the ball bounce? 12. After the next bounce it reached 2 metres. 120 days before Christmas. Franksworth store publishes an advertisement saying '120 shopping days until Christmas'. What total distance will the pen have travelled eventually? . The distance between adjacent troughs is 5 metres. its height was below 1 cm for the first time. how long will it be before all calculators sold by the company are graphics calculators? _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 9.
(a) Find. Where is bulldozer A when the two meet? (c) Assume that the bulldozers keep moving towards each other and the bee keeps flying between the two. and each year sales are 20% more than the previous year's sales. with a 3metre gap between adjacent rows. the business has sales of $200000. (c) Show that when these series converge: . (ii) 1 + sin 2 x + sin 4 x + . (b) Find. in which year will his salary first exceed $60000? (d) If D = 2000. (c) If D = 2200.. ( a) Find D if his salary in his tenth year is $58800. (a) What is the length of the diagonal of the field? (b) What is the length of each row on either side of the diagonal? 3m 75m 100m .. (i) Where will this happen? (ii) How far will the bee have flown? 18.cos X + cos 2 x . 14.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7A Applications of APs and GPs 247 13.. The bee is disturbed by the commotion and flies at twice the speed of the bulldozers to land on the scoop of bulldozer B. in terms of t = tan the limiting sums of these series when they converge: 2 x··· (ii) 1+sinx+sin 2 x+··· (i) 1sinx+sin tx. the ratio of the GP. (b) Find D if his total earnings in the first ten years are $471000. (a) Show that the bee reaches bulldozer B when it is at x = 24. correct to two decimal places. (b) Find the total sales of the company as time goes on. (b) Immediately the bee lands.. as shown in the diagram. show that his total earnings first exceed $600000 during his 14th year. At 7:00 am the workers start up both bulldozers and start them moving towards each other at the same speed V m/s. In order to make best use of the sun.. A bee is sitting on the scoop at the very front of bulldozer A. Madeline opens a business selling computer stationery. and his salary increases each year by a fixed amount $D. the grape vines are planted in rows diagonally across the paddock. Madeline's sister opens a hardware store.) 1 1 ( 1 1 . and bulldozer B is 36 metres away at x = 36. and find that limiting sum: (i) 1 + cos 2 X + cos 4 X + . and sales in the fifth year are half the sales in the first year. Theodor earns $30000 in his first year. Sales in successive years form a GP. as a multiple of the first year's sales. Bulldozer A is at x = 0. The area available for planting in a particular paddock of a vineyard measures 100 metres by 75 metres. so that the bee will eventually be squashed. In its first year. . it takes off again and flies back to bulldozer A. = 2" sec 2 2" x (ii) 1+cosx+cos 2 x+···= tcosec2tx 17. (a) In which year do annual sales first exceed $1000 OOO? (b) In which year do total sales since foundation first exceed $2000 OOO? 15. in exact form. o 36 Two bulldozers are sitting in a construction site facing each other. 16. Let sales in the first year be $F. . [Limiting sums of trigonometric series] (a) Find when each series has a limiting sum.
3. 2. Let the base angle of the nth triangle be On. but does this mean that the spiral eventually stops turning? Answer the following questions to find out. Simple Interest. The diagram shows the beginning of a spiral created when each successive rightangled triangle is constructed on the hypotenuse of the previous triangle. show that n=l k1 1 L ~ 2: jk ~ dn .. (a) Write down the value of tan On. (d) Show that the lengths of these rows form an arithmetic sequence. But if we want the total amount An at the end of n units of time.. What is the common ratio? (c) Hence show that the limiting sum of the areas of the triangles is ~ tan O. 3:S: x :s: 4. '. . P which is an AP with first term + 3P R. .this gives An = P + P Rn. The altitude of each triangle is 1. n n 1 (d) Does the total angle through which the spiral turns approach a limit? 7B Simple and Compound Interest This section will review the formulae for simple and compound interest. . which is a linear function of n. P + 2P R. (e) Hence find the total length of all the rows of vines in the paddock.248 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (c) Confirm that each row two away from the diagonal is 112·5 metres long. 20. and it is easy to show by Pythagoras' theorem that the sequence of hypotenuse lengths is 1. 2:S: x :s: 3. we need to add the principal P . '" P + P R and common difference P R. 8 cos8 (b) Show that LOn 2: :2 L... _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 19. Clearly On gets smaller.. ( a) What is the area of the largest triangle? (b) Use the result for the ratio of areas of similar figures to show that the areas of successive triangles form a geometric sequence. V4. Substituting into this function the positive integers n = 1. each successive one built with its hypotenuse on a side of the previous one.:' n=l n=l k 1 k 1 [HINT: 0 2: ~ tan 0. Compound interest or depreciation can be understood both as a geometric sequence and as an exponential function. for 0 :s: 0 :s: ~.J (c) By sketching y = 1 ~ x and constructing the upper rectangle on each of the intervals :s: x :s: 2. . V2. but with greater attention to the language of functions and of sequences. Arithmetic Sequences and Linear Functions: The wellknown formula for simple interest is I = P Rn. Simple interest can be understood mathematically both as an arithmetic sequence and as a linear function. gives the sequence P + P R. V3. The diagram shows the first few triangles in a spiral of similar rightangled triangles. .
An = P+ PRn. This means that adding the interest is effected by multiplying by 1 + R. then the units of time must be months. 3. Geometric Sequences and Exponential Functions: The well. PROOF: Although the formula was developed in earlier years. compounding occurs over the unit of time mentioned when the interest rate is given. P(l + R)2. .12 = 0·015. (The initials 'pa' stand for 'per annum'. with base 1 + R.. and how the process of compounding generates a GP. and the interest rate per month is R = 0·18 . into this function gives the sequence P(l + R). Compound Interest. . then R = 0·07. P(l 1. which is Latin for 'per year'. 3 The total amount $An after n units of time is a linear function of n. common ratio 1 + R.known formula for compound interest is An = P(l + Rt. not a percentage. and the interest is R per unit time. compounded every unit of time. A n =P(l+Rt· This forms a GP with first term P(l + R) and common ratio 1 + R. substituting n = 1. For example. Then the total amount after n units of time is an exponential function of n. The initial principal is P. which is a GP with first term P(1 COMPOUND INTEREST: + R) and 4 Suppose that a principal $P earns compound interest at a rate R per unit time for n units of time. First. if the interest rate is 18% per year with interest compounded monthly.. Secondly. Then the simple interest $[ earned is [= PRn. 2.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 78 Simple and Compound Interest 249 SIMPLE INTEREST: Suppose that a principal $P earns simple interest at a rate R per unit time for n units of time. + 0·30) = 6500 P = $5000. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Put Since R = 0·06 and n P = 5. it is vital to understand how it arises. the amount A2 is obtained by multiplying Al by 1 + R: A2 = AI(1 + R) = P(1 + R)2.31 + P Rn = 6500. For example. if the interest rate is 7% pa.. if investing $P at 6% pa simple interest yields a total of $6500 at the end of five years. Unless otherwise stated. Be careful that the interest rate here is a number..1. Hence the amount Al at the end of one unit of time is Al = principal + interest = P + P R = P(l + R). .) Find the principal $P. Similarly.. This forms an AP with first term P +PR and common difference P R. this is an exponential function of n. Note that the formula only works when compounding occurs after every unit of time. P(1 + R)3.
(a) Find the total amount owing at the end of five years. = 10000 =2 = 10gl. Let the initial value be P. . and R = 0·0l. The interest rate is therefore 1% per month. She makes no repayments. Then An = P X 0·875 n .01 60 (5 years is 60 months). Depreciation: Depreciation is usually expressed as the loss per unit time of a percentage of the current price of an item. R = 0·125 is negative. so percentage loss = (0. continuing the process. so that when the money has been invested for n units of time. The formula for depreciation is therefore the same as the formula for compound interest. the amount owing doubles. (a) A60 = P X 1. An = A n. Then the total amount after n units of time is An = P(l. the units of time must be months.875 17 .A 18 = (0.875 17 .250 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Then. Put An = 0·1 X P.0·875 18 )p. (b) Find when. In which year will the value drop below 10% of the original cost.log 1·01 ' ~ 70 months. (b) Put Then 5000 X An 1·01 n l·01 n n = 10000.0.Rt. correct to the nearest month.base formula. and what will be the loss of value during that year. because the value is decreasing. compounded monthly.01 2 10g2 using the changeof. WORKED EXERCISE: An espresso machine bought on 1st January 2001 depreciates at 12~% pa. to find when the value has dropped to 10%. A4 = A3(1 + R) = P(l + R)4. DEPRECIATION: 5 Suppose that goods originally costing $P depreciate at a rate R per unit time for n units of time. Then P X 0·875 n = 0·1 X P 10gO·1 n = :log 0·875 ~ 17·24. SOLUTION: Because the interest is compounded every month. A3 = A2(1 + R) = P(l + R)3. WORKED EXERCISE: Amelda takes out a loan of $5000 at a rate of 12% pa.1 (1 + R) = P(l + R)n. ~ $9083.875 18 ) X 100% ~ 1·29%. SOLUTION: . Hence the depreciated value will drop below 10% during 2018. Loss during that year = Al7 . except that the rate is negative. as a percentage ofthe original cost? In this case.
He then added up these five values and thought that he was very rich. Hence find the smallest number of years required for the investment: (a) to double. She earned a total of $13824 in simple interest.91. (b) The final value of an investment. (a) On the basis of this information. At the end of each year. who has the better investment. Each invested $20000 for one year. If the original investment was $17000. correct to the nearest dollar. The depreciation rate on these cars is 15% per annum. What does $1000 grow to if invested for a year at 12% pa compound interest. 12 Compare these values with 1000 X eO. (b) to treble. What was the initial amount she invested? (c) A man invested $23000 at 3·25% per annum simple interest. and what are the final values of the two investments? (b) Juno then points out that her interest is compounded monthly. (a) What was the total he arrived at? (b) What was the actual value of his investment at the end of five years? 3. Howard has his invested at 6·75% per annum simple interest. a total of $31 222. Now who has the better investment? 4. (d) to increase by a factor of 10. ( d) monthly. where n is the number of quarters. (b) A woman invested an amount for nine years at a rate of 6% per annum. the final value of a $30000 investment was $45108. (f) daily (for 365 days)? (b) six mon thly. A company has bought several cars for a total of $229000. invested at 6·5% per annum simple interest for five years. and at the end of the investment period he withdrew all the funds from the bank. correct to the nearest quarter. • What do you notice? 6. (a) Calculate the value to which an investment of $12000 will grow if it earns compound interest at a rate of 7% per annum for five years. what was the interest rate? 2.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 78 Simple and Compound Interest 251 Exercise 78 NOTE: This exercise combines the work on series from Chapter Six of the Year 11 volume. . Howard is arguing with Juno over who has the better investment. (e) weekly (for 52 weeks). correct to two significant figures.73 in interest on a $40 000 investment at 6% per annum. 1. Find the amount invested. How many years did the investment last? (d) The total value of an investment earning simple interest after six years is $22610. (c) to quadruple. was $32364. (a) Find the total value of an investment of $5000 that earns 7% per annum simple interest for three years. compounded quarterly. (d) After six years of compound interest. a man wrote down the value of his investment of $10 000. while Juno has hers invested at 6·6% per annum compound interest. compounded yearly. Find the total value An when a principal P is invested at 12% pa simple interest for n years. and simple and compound interest from Years 9 and 10. compounded: (a) annually. if it was compounded annually? 5. (i) Show that 1·015 n ~ 1·1956. (ii) Hence find the period of the investment. not yearly. What was the rate of interest. What will be the net worth of the fleet of cars five years from now? _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 7. (c) quarterly.50. after ten years earning 15% per annum. (c) A bank customer earned $7824.
Each invests the money for one year. correct to two significant figures. compounded annually. Xiao and Mai win a prize in the lottery and decide to put $100000 into a retirement fund offering 8·25% per annum interest. Thirwin invests his money at 7·2% per annum simple interest. given its current value of $54391. If it has been depreciating at 17!% per annum for the last six years. Neri. would be needed to yield the same final balance? 11. compounded annually for three years. (a) Write down the total value An of an investment P if a simple interest rate R is applied over n periods. How long will it be before their money has doubled? Give your answer correct to the nearest month. An amount of $10000 is invested for five years at 4% pa interest. (b) Show that the term P nC k Rk is the sum of interest earned for any.22. Sid and Nee each inherit $10000. Neri invests hers at 7·2% per annum. (ii) Hence find a formula for the number of periods required for the total value to reach twice the principal. (i) Write down En. Nee invests in certain shares with a return of 8·1% per annum. the total value after n periods. Thirwin. Hence find the smallest number of years for the investment: (a) to double. what was the original value of the asset. A student was asked to find the original value. (c) Explain what each of the three terms of the formula in part (b) represents. (c) What is the significance of the greatest term in the binomial expansion. An in terms of rand n.252 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 8. (a) Write out the terms of P(l as a binomial expansion. in this context? + Rt . (b) Suppose that a simple interest rate of R per period applied instead. the total value after n periods. (b) to treble. (b) Show. compounded monthly. she should use the depreciation formula. Find the total value An when a principal P is invested at 12% pa compound interest for n years. k years over the life of the investment. (ii) Further suppose that for a particular value of n. (a) She incorrectly thought that since she was working in reverse. by means of the binomial theorem. = En. Sid invests his at 7% per annum. (i) Write down An. compounded monthly. The present value of a company asset is $350000. (c) to quadruple. not necessarily consecutive. (b) What rate of simple interest. of an invest ment earning 9% per annum. 16. correct to the nearest dollar. 9. 12. but must pay stockbrokers' fees of $50 to buy the shares initially and again to sell them at the end of the year. that the total value of the investment when compound interest is applied may be written as An = P + P Rn + P L k=2 n nC k Rk. Who is furthest ahead at the end of the year? 14. (a) A principal P is invested at a compound interest rate of r per period. compounded monthly. Derive a formula for R _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 15. (a) Find the final value of the investment. correct to the nearest $1000? 13. (d) to increase by a factor of 10. What value did she get? (b) What is the correct answer? 10.
1) (1·0S n . WORKED EXERCISE: (a) How much will the fund amount to by 30th June 2020? (b) Find the year in which the fund first exceeds $700000 on 30th June. it amounts to NI X 1·0S n . ratio r = 1·0S. (c) What annual instalment would have produced $1000000 by 2020? SOLUTION: Because of the large numbers involved. (b) Substituting M = 10000 and An = 700000.1).1 . This is a GP with first term a = 1·0SM. after the nth instalment is invested for just 1 year.1) =*= $494 229. so M = 10000 in parts (a) and (b). apart perhaps from the (fixed) interest rate.1 1·0SM X a(rn . An = 13·5 X 10000 X (1·0S 2o .. O·OS An = 13·5M X (a) Substituting n = 20 and M = 10000. so An = 1·0SM + 1·0S2 M + . Hence An = ''r . After the first instalment is invested for n years. This topic is intended to be an application of GPs. Developing the GP and Summing It: The most straightforward way to solve these problems is to find what each instalment grows to as it accrues compound interest.1) 1·0Sn 1 = ~ 13·5 log 1·0S =*= 23·6S.1 years.. Hence calculating the value of these investments at some future time requires the theory of GPs. Let M be the annual instalment. These final amounts form a GP. typically superannuation schemes.1) (l·osn . require money to be invested at regular intervals such as every month or every year. Robin and Robyn are investing $10000 in a superannuation scheme on 1st July each year. it amounts to M X 1·0S. it is usually easier to work with pronumerals. n = log( 1~~5 + 1) ~'" . Hence the fund first exceeds $700000 on 30th June 2024. beginning in 2000. 700000 = 13·5 X 10000 X (1·0S n . + 1·0Sn M. it amounts to M X 1·0S n .CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7C Investing Money by Regular Instalments 253 7C Investing Money by Regular Instalments Many investment schemes. because each individual instalment earns compound interest for a different length of time. compounded annually. The money earns compound interest at S% pa. after the second instalment is invested for n . which can then be summed. This makes things difficult. and n terms. and let An be the value of the fund at the end of n years. and learning formulae is not recommended.
M(l+R)x ((1+R)n1) An = R . An alternative approach would be to generate separately each ofthe formulae required in parts (a) and (b).1) n 0. so substitute n = 120.1·0015 X (1·0015 n . with interest of 7·8% pa. the interest rate is ~.~% = 0·65% per month.0065 120 . compounded weekly. 1000000 = 13·5 X M X (1. A _ 600 X 1·0065 X (1. both of which will yield the same amount at the end of ten years . + J\!J(l This is a GP with first term a = M(l + R). the formulae must be derived rather than just quoted from memory.0015 . Whichever approach is adopted. M ~ $138·65 (retain in the memory for part(c)). the second instalment is invested for n . Let M be the instalment and R the rate per unit time. = (1 + R).254 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (c) Substituting An = 1000000 and n = 20. in terms of the instalment M and the rate R. and n terms. and the last instalment is invested for 1 month. ratio r Hence An __ a(r n 1) r1 + Rt. and let An be the value of the fund at the end of n units of time.1 . compared with $7200 per year for the first.1) . the interest rate is ~'f% so substituting R = 0·0015. so An = M(l + R) + M(l + R)2 + . • Pay weekly. and substituting n = 520 and An = 109257 (from memory). WORKED EXERCISE: Charmaine is offered the choice of two superannuation schemes. (c) This is about $7210·04 per year. M = 600 and R = 0·0065. (b) For the second scheme.0065 ~ $109257 (retain in the memory for part(b)). compounded monthly.. M _ An X 0·0015 .08 20 1) M = 1000000 13·5 X (1. with interest of 7·8% pa. (a) For the first scheme. (a) What is the final value of the first scheme? (b) What are the second scheme's weekly instalments? (c) Which scheme would cost her more per year? SOLUTION: The following solution begins by generating the general formula for the amount An after n units of time. ..08 20 .1) n 0. and this formula is then applied in parts (a) and (b). and so amounts to M(l + Rt. The first instalment is invested for n months. and so amounts to J\!J(l + R). Writing this formula with M as the subject. = 0·15% per week. • Pay $600 per month.1) ~ $20234.1 months. and so amounts to M(l + Rt. A _ M X 1·0015 X (1·0015 n .
it is developed in two structured questions at the end of the Development section in the following exercise. by topping up the contributions. A company makes contributions of $3000 on 1st July each year to the superannuation fund of one of its employees. we have chosen not to display this method in the notes. (a) Let M be the annual contribution. and let Wn be the wage in the nth year. the amount to which the 2001 payment has grown by the beginning of 2021. Jane's parents put $20 into an investment account earning 9t% per annum compound interest. Exercise 7C 1. Because the working is slightly longer. invested for just one year? (iv) Hence write down a series for An1·065 M(1·065 n .1) (b) Hence show that An = 0. For those who are interested in the recursive method. Write down WI.065 .1) (b) Hence show that the total amount paid to the employee is An = 0. (i) What annual contribution would have produced this amount? (ii) By how much would the employee have to top up the contributions? 2. On her 18th birthday. however. (c) Find the total value of the fund when it is paid out on 1st January 2021.04 . how much will the company have paid over that time? Give your answer correct to the nearest dollar. _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 4. In the following parts. the advantage that its steps follow the progress of a banking statement. A company increases the annual wage of an employee by 4% on 1st January each year. to developing the GPs involved in these calculations. and what will be the total amount of the contributions? (d) Suppose that the employee wanted to achieve a total investment of $300000 after 25 years. M(l·04 n . W 2 and Wn in terms of M.1 years? (iii) What is the worth of the last contribution. round all currency amounts correct to the nearest dollar. (i) How much does the first instalment amount to at the end of n years? (ii) How much does the second instalment amount to at the end of n . A person invests $10000 each year in a superannuation fund. Jane's parents gave her the account and $20 cash in hand. (a) How much did the person invest over the life of the fund? (b) Calculate. 3. (a) Let M be the annual wage in the first year of employment. correct to the nearest dollar. The money earns compound interest at 6·5% per annum. The first deposit took place on the day of her birth. Compound interest is paid at 10% per annum on the investment. using recursion. It has. . Each year on her birthday. and let An be the value of the fund at the end of n years. (c) What will be the value of the fund after 25 years. The first payment is on 1st January 2001 and the last payment is on 1st January 2020.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7C Investing Money by Regular Instalments 255 An Alternative Approach Using Recursion: There is an alternative approach. (c) If the employee starts on $30000 and stays with the company for 20 years.
at age 65? (b) Unfortunately she dies at age 53. Each year the fees rise by 4!% due to inflation. what will be the balance of his account. He decides to start an investment account with a bank that pays 6!% per annum compound interest. He has decided to pay $5000 each year on his birthday into a combination life insurance and superannuation scheme that pays 8% compound interest per annum. Suppose that the man also dies of a heart attack just before age 50. (a) The man is in a dangerous job. his wife will inherit the value of the insurance to that point. At age 20. How much will his wife inherit? (c) What will the insurance company pay the man if he survives to his 65th birthday? 6. just before her 35th premium is due. How much is the fund worth at the end of ten years? . A person pays $2000 into an investment fund every six months. If he lives to age 65. A man about to turn 25 is getting married. If he dies before age 65. Answer the following correct to the nearest dollar. In 2001. when she is to be paid a lump sum. starting in Year 7 in 2001. correct to the nearest dollar. the finance company increases the indexed rate to 4% per annum to match the increased inflation rate. (a) How much will the company have paid the couple at the end of twenty years? (b) Immediately after the tenth annual pension payment is made. how much will her parents have paid the school over the six years? (b) Susan's younger sister is starting in Year 1 in 2001. A finance company has agreed to pay a retired couple a pension of $15000 per year for the next twenty years.256 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (a) How much money had Jane's parents deposited in the account? (b) How much money did she receive from her parents on her 18th birthday? 5. (a) What is the value of the payout. compounded monthly. (a) If he makes no further deposits. What will be the payout if he dies just before he turns 30? (b) The man's father died of a heart attack just before age 50. the company pays out the current value of the fund plus 25% of the difference had she lived until 65. (i) What is the current value of the life insurance? (ii) How much does the life insurance company pay her family? 10. the insurance company will payout the value of the policy in full. How much will they spend on her school fees over the next twelve years if she goes through to her HSC? 7. correct to the nearest dollar? 8. compounded annually. a woman takes out a life insurance policy in which she agrees to pay premiums of $500 per year until she turns 65. having contributed for 25 years to a superannuation fund that pays compound interest at the rate of 12!% per annum. the school fees at a private girls' school are $10000 per year. If she continues through to her HSC year. (a) Susan is sent to the school. 15 years from now? (b) If instead he also makes an annual deposit of $1000 at the beginning of each year. what will be the balance at the end of 15 years? 9. A woman has just retired with a payment of $500000. John is given a $10000 bonus by his boss. The insurance company invests the money and gives a return of 9% per annum. how much will the company have paid the couple at the end of twenty years? 11. correct to the nearest cent. If she dies before age 65. What was the size of her annual premium. Given these new conditions. indexed to inflation which is 3!% per annum. and it earns interest at a rate of 6% pa.
Investigate this and explain the difference. . and give your answer correct to the nearest dollar.• . (c) Using GP formulae. (d) Compare your answer with the value of superannuation after seven years if $1000 is deposited each year at the same rate of interest. pv. As mentioned in the notes above. to obtain expressions for A 2. (e) If each deposit is $100. (b) Use these recursive formulae to obtain expressions for A 2. (i) Calculate the final value of a superannuation fund. the builtin ExceF M function FV(rate. using a recursive method to generate the appropriate GP. In particular. (c) Use the recursive formulae in part (b). but has the advantage that its steps follow the progress of a banking statement. (b) Plot these points and join them with a smooth curve. m_J:= m * (1 + r) * ((1 + r) ~ n .1)). (a) If you have access to a program like ExceF M for Windows 98™. try checking your answers to questions 1 to 10. try checking your answers to questions 1 to 10 using the builtin financial functions.. = l·01(M + Ad. how much each deposit M must be if Cecilia wants the fund to amount to $30000 at the end of five years. the method has the disadvantage of requiring more steps in the working. r_.1) / r. and why An+I = l·01(M + An). add the areas of these rectangles. using Super[n_. (i) What do you notice? (ii) What do you conclude? 15. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 14. pmt. compounded weekly. (b) If you have access to a program like Mathematica TM. together with the value of Al in part (a). . An. compounded monthly. using SupContrib[p_. (a) Explain why Al = 1·002 X 100. how much will be in the fund after three years? (f) Hence find. ••• . (a) Draw up a table of values for V of values of n between 0 and 7. r_J:= p * r / ((1 + r) * n . nper. An. 13. invested for n years at a rate of T per annum with annual premiums of $m. A 3 . (d) Hence find how many weeks it will be before the couple has $100000. for n 2:: 2. n_. for n 2:: 2. using the following function definitions.01 n 1). A 3 . ((1 + r) ~ (ii) Calculate the premiums if the final value of the fund is p. show that An = 50100(1. correct to the nearest cent. A couple saves $100 at the start of each week in an account paying 10·4% pa interest. Let V be the value of an investment of $1000 earning compound interest at the rate of 10% per annum for n years. Let An be the amount in the account at the end of the nth week. (a) Explain why Al (b) Explain why A2 = 1·01 M. (d) Use the formula for the nth partial sum of a GP to show that An = 101M(1·01 n 1). and why An+l = 1·002(100 + An).CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7C Investing Money by Regular Instalments 257 The following two questions illustrate an alternative approach to superannuation questions. Let An be the amount in her account at the end of the nth month. What type of curve is this? (c) On the same graph add upper rectangles of width 1. NOTE: 12. Cecilia deposits $M at the start of each month into a savings scheme that pays interest of 1% per month. type) seems to produce an answer different from what might be expected.
the second instalment is invested for n .1) or. with compound interest charged on the balance owing at any time. The first instalment is invested for n . To find a formula for An.P). we need to calculate the value of each instalment under the effect of compound interest of 1% per month. the nth instalment is invested for no time at all.01 n2. (a) Find the amount owing at the end of n months.1·01 n(100M . and let An be the amount still owing at the end of n months. The extra complication is that an investment fund is always in credit.. and so amounts to M X 1. the most straightforward method is to calculate the final value of each payment as it accrues compound interest.1 M(1·01 n 1) = P X l·01 n 0·01 = P X l·01 n 100M(1.258 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 7D Paying Off a Loan Longterm loans such as housing loans are usually paid off by regular instalments. The calculations associated with paying off a loan are therefore similar to the investment calculations of the previous section. N atasha and Richard take out a loan of $200000 on 1st January 2002 to buy a house.01 nl. that means on the last day of each month. whereas a loan account is always in debit because of the large initial loan that must be repaid. The bit in brackets is a GP with first term a = M. + 1. SOLUTION: (a) Substituting P = 200000 and M = 2200 gives An = 100 X 2200 . (b) Find how long it takes to repay: (i) the full loan. Developing the GP and Summing It: As with superannuation.01 n. and then add these final values up using the theory of GPs. a(rn1) Hence An = P X l·01 n r . (b) (i) To find when the loan is repaid.1·01 n X 20000 = 220000 . and so amounts to M. . let M be the instalment. from the time that it is paid. ratio r = 1·01.. compounded monthly.2 months. and so amounts to M X 1. Interest is charged at 12% pa. We must also deal with the final value of the initial loan. reorganising. In this example. put An = 0: 1·01 n X 20000 = 220000 log 11 n = :log 1·01 ~ 20 years and 1 month. An = 100M . amounts to P X 1. (ii) half the loan. The initial loan.l·01 n X 20000. Hence An = P X 1·01 n . and they will repay the loan in monthly instalments of $2200. (c) How long would repayment take if they were able to pay $2500 per month? (d) Why would instalments of $1900 per month never repay the loan? WORKED EXERCISE: NOTE: The first repayment is normally made at the end of the first repayment period. and n terms.1 months.(M + l·01M + . Let P = 200000 be the principal.01 nl M).01 n . after n months.
Then 1·01 n X 50 000 = 250000 log 5 n=log 1·01 ~ 13 years and 6 months. The Alternative Approach Using Recursion: As with superannuation. (iii) Do likewise for the second instalment and for the nth instalment. This means that the debt would be increasing rather than decreasing. and the contract requires that the loan be paid off within twenty years. find M. what is the value of An? (d) Hence find an expression for M in terms of P and n. this method is developed in two structured questions at the end of the Development section in the following exercise. (c) When the loan is paid off. compounded monthly. so initially. (iv) Hence write down a series for An. $2000 of the instalment is required just to pay the interest. Exercise 70 1. 2.015 .CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 70 Paying Off a Loan 259 (ii) To find when the loan is half repaid. for the loan to be repaid. Again. Another way to understand this is to calculate initial interest per month = 200000 X 0·01 = 2000. put An 1·01 n X 20000 = 120000 log 6 n=log 1·01 ~ 15 years. M(1·015 n . which is always positive. so An = 190000 . (a) Let P be the principal. compounded monthly.l·01 n X (10000). the GP involved in loanrepayment calculations can be developed using an alternative recursive method. .1) (b) Hence show that An = P X 1·015 n 0. (e) Given the values of P and n above. I took out a personal loan of $10 000 with a bank for five years at an interest rate of 18% per annum. = 100000: (c) Substituting instead M = 2500 gives 100M =250000. correct to the nearest dollar. and they agree to pay the bank $2000 per month. so An = 250000 . The interest rate on the loan is 7·2% per annum. A couple takes out a $250000 mortgage on a house. (d) Substituting M = 1900 gives 100M =190000. (i) To what does the initial loan amount after n months? (ii) Write down the amount to which the first instalment grows by the end of the nth month. let M be the size of each repayment to the bank.1·01 n X 50000. Put An = 0. whose steps follow the progress of a banking statement. and let An be the amount owing on the loan after n months.
the calculations involved with reducible loans are reasonably complex. but the bank also offers a special rate of 6% pa for one year to people buying their first home. 4 (e) If it is paid out after n months. as this question demonstrates. 3. Find a series expression for An. (b) Find the size of each repayment to the bank. Some banks offer a 'honeymoon' period on their loans.260 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (a) Again let An be the balance on the loan after n months. (b) Using this amount. to be paid back monthly over 15 years. If the current home loan rate is 7·5% per annum. (c) Explain why this has happened. 6. Suppose that a mortgage is taken out on a $180000 house at 6·6% reducible interest per annum for a period of 25 years. This usually takes the form of a lower interest rate for the first year. correct to two significant figures. and state whether this is more or less than half the amount borrowed.006 . (a) Using the usual pronumerals. it is sometimes convenient to convert the reducible interest rate into a simple interest rate. As can be seen from the last two questions. What is the monthly instalment necessary to pay back a personal loan of $15000 at a rate of 13t% per annum over five years? Give your answer correct to the nearest dollar. _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 4. explain why A300 = o.1) (b) Hence show that An = P X 1·006 n 0. correct to the nearest dollar. that is. 5. (c) Find the amount owing on the loan at the end of the tenth year. (d) Find A 24o . using the special rate of interest. let P be the amount borrowed. . They work out that they can afford to pay $1650 per month to the bank. If the company repays the loan at the rate of $10000 per month. A personal loan for $30000 is approved with the following conditions. 8. A couple have worked out that they can afford to pay $19200 each year in mortgage payments. (c) Hence find the total paid to the bank. correct to the nearest dollar. show that 1·006 n = 4. what is the maximum amount that the couple can borrow and still payoff the loan? 7. show that AlO =I 0. The reducible interest rate is 13·3% per annum. Most questions so far have asked you to round monetary amounts correct to the nearest dollar. with payments made monthly over a period of 25 years. and hence show that the loan is actually paid out in less than twenty years. with payments to be made at sixmonthly intervals over five years. how long will it take? Give your answer in whole months with an appropriate qualification. The standard rate of interest is 8t% pa. the loan is not paid off in five years. over the life of the loan. (d) What amount is therefore paid in interest? Use this amount and the simple interest formula to calculate the simple interest rate per annum over the life of the loan. (a) Calculate the amount the couple would owe at the end of the first year. M(1·006 n . For that reason. Suppose that a couple borrowed $170000 for their first house. and let NI be the amount of each instalment. A company borrows $500000 from the bank at an interest rate of 5% per annum. to be paid in monthly instalments. with payments made monthly. and hence that n = 1 log og 1·006 (f) Find how many months early the loan is paid off. (a) Find the size of each instalment. This is not always wise.
Now that they have retired. and at the end of every month.) .M. (c) Use the recursive formulae in part (b). they are going to draw on that fund in equal monthly pension payments for the next twenty years. . and solve for n. they pay an instalment of $M. Let Bn be the balance left immediately after the nth payment. how much will each instalment be? 10. compounded monthly. and let M be the amount of the pension instalment. what is the maximum they can borrow. and why An+I = 1·005 An . compounded monthly.. Eric and Enid borrow $P to buy a house at an interest rate of 9·6% pa. A 3 .1) R . At the same time. A 3 . (d) If the maximum instalment they can afford is $1200. (b) Use these recursive formulae to obtain expressions for A 2 . A company buys machinery for $500000 and pays it off by 20 equal sixmonthly instalments. a couple have saved up $300000 in a superannuation fund. (c) Using GP formulae. how much is still owing after twenty years? 13. what is the maximum value of purchases that can be made in one day if the debt is to be paid off in two months? (b) How much would be saved in interest payments if the card holder instead saved up the money for two months before making the purchase? 11.M. compounded monthly. = O? (c) What is the value of M? NOTE: The following two questions illustrate the alternative approach to loan repayment questions. (d) Using GP formulae.1).M. using a recursive method to generate the appropriate GP.M. and why A n+1 = 1·00SA n . (a) Show that Bn = P X (1 (b) Why is B24D + Rr. They borrow the money on 15th September. They borrow the money at the beginning of January.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 70 Paying Off a Loan 261 (b) Use this value as the principal of the loan at the standard rate for the next 14 years. compounded monthly.) (e) Put An = 0 in part (c). Calculate the value of the monthly payment that is needed to pay the loan off. (e) Hence find. any balance will be earning interest at 5t% per annum. A couple buying a house borrow $P = $150000 at an interest rate of 6% pa. The current rate of interest on Bankerscard is 23% per annum. and on the 14th day of every subsequent month. An. Hence find how long will it take to payoff the loan of $100000 if each instalment is $1000. Let An be the amount owing after n months have passed. ••• . show that An = 1·005 n P . If the interest rate is 12% pa. compounded monthly. what each instalment should be if the loan is to be paid off in twenty years? (f) If each instalment is $1000. •. (Round up to the next month.200M(1·005 n . Let An be the amount owing at the end of n months. they pay an instalment of $M. (b) Explain why A2 = 1·005 Al . let P = 300000 and R be the monthly interest rate. the first payment being made six months after the loan is taken out.I  M((l + R)n .125M(1·00S n .M. An. Also. for n 2:: 2. 12. Can the couple afford to agree to the loan contract? 9. if the loan is to be paid off in 25 years? (Answer correct to the nearest dollar. Over the course of years. together with the value of Al in part (a). to obtain expressions for A 2. show that An = 1·00Sn P . The first payment is at the beginning of the first month. correct to the nearest cent.1). for n 2:: 2. (a) If a cardholder can afford to repay $1500 per month on the card. (a) Explain why Al = 1·005 P . (a) Explain why Al = 1·00SP .
correct to the nearest dollar? 7E Rates of Change . (b) the base area. that a loan of $P at an interest rate of R per month is repaid over n monthly instalments of $M. (a) How much will the company have paid the couple at the end of twenty years? (b) In return. The pile always remains in the shape of a cone with semivertical angle 45 0 • Find the rate at which: (a) the height. A man aged 25 is getting married.(M + p)J(n + P J(1+n = 0. A finance company has agreed to pay a retired couple a pension of $19200 per year for the next twenty years. (b) Suppose that I can afford to repay $650 per month on a $20000 loan to be paid back over three years.262 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 14. (a) Show that M . but compounded monthly. and should not be confused with an average rate of change. the calculation of the relationship between two rates is simply an exercise in applying the chain rule. WORKED EXERCISE: 3 Sand is being poured onto the top of a pile at the rate of 3m /min. using the chain rule. then differentiate with respect to time. correct to the nearest dollar? 15. and has decided to pay $3000 each year into a combination life insurance and superannuation scheme that pays 8% compound interest per annum. where J( = 1 + R. the balance will continue to earn interest at the same rate.] Suppose. [This question will be much simpler to solve using a computer for the calculations. During those 25 years. indexed to inflation that is 3!% per annum. correct to the nearest dollar? (b) What will be the size of pension payments. the couple pay an upfront fee which the company invests at a compound interest rate of 7% per annum. (c) Repeat the same problem using the bisection method. (a) What is the value of the policy when he reaches 65. The total value of the fee plus interest covers the pension payouts over the twentyyear period. which is the gradient of a chord. It is therefore the derivative ~~ of Q with respect to time t. using the usual notation. How much did the couple pay the firm up front. Calculating Related Rates: As explained previously. This section will review the work on rates of change in Section 7H of the Year 11 volume. Use these figures in the equation above and apply Newton's method in order to find the highest rate of interest I can afford to meet. and is the gradient of the tangent to the graph of Q against time. 16. is changing when the height is 2 metres. RELATED RATES: 6 Find a relation between the two quantities. .Differentiating A rate of change is the rate at which some quantity Q is changing. The next section will deal with the integration of rates. Give your answer correct to three significant figures. the insurance company will payout the value of the policy as a pension in equal monthly instalments over the next 25 years. Once he reaches 65. A rate of change is always instantaneous unless otherwise stated. in order to check your answer. where the emphasis is on using the chain rule to calculate the rate of change of a given function.
Substituting.dt . Hence the height is decreasing at ~ cm/ S. We know that dt = 0·01 m/s. Find the rate at which: (a) the height.. dt . and the base is sliding away from the wall at 1 cm/s. Since the semivertical angle is 45°. dV dV dh =xdt dh dt _ h 2 dh . 2V100 x x dx VlOO .AO B). The rate of change of volume is known to be dV = 3m 3 /min. dt 47r (b) The base area is Differentiating. (a) We know that and since r = h. . + y2 = 10 2 . A dA = 7rh 2 dA dh X dt = (since r dh dt = h).36 = 0·0075. Differentiating with respect to time (using the chain rule with the RHS).=::: X 0·01 .!. SOLUTION: Let the height be y and the distance from the wall be x.7r dt' dh Substituting. is changing when the foot is already 6 metres from the wall. dA 3 =2x7rx2xdt 47r = 3 m 2 Imino = 27rh dh WORKED EXERCISE: A 10 metre ladder is leaning against a wall.'l00x'2 . y = '. 3 = 7r X 22 X dt  dh 3 = m/min. dx SubstItutmg x = 6 and dt = 0·01. x 2 hence Differentiating.7rr2 h . r = h (isosceles l:. V = ~7rh3.dx X  =  dx dt 2x x2 .:=~==:. dy dy .CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7E Rates of Change  Differentiating 263 SOLUTION: Let the cone have volume V.. (a) By Pythagoras' theorem. dt B V 3 . dy dt . height h and base radius r.x 2 dt dx xdt' 6 V100 . dx and let the angle of inclination be O. (b) the angle of inclination.
.
A jackaroo is filling the trough with a hose at the rate of 2 litres per second. How fast is the angle of depression changing when the angle of depression is 15°? Convert your answer from radians per minute to degrees per minute. and find dt the rate of increase of its volume when the radius is 2 metres . Let () be the angle of elevation of I·5km the plane from the observer. and let the height of the cone be h. dS IS  = 2·41fT. The aircraft is flying at 650 km/h at an altitude of 1·5 km. Jules is blowing up a spherical balloon at a constant rate of 200 cm 3 /s. and show that it is the same as that of a sphere with radius equal to the cone's height. and suppose that the distance from A to B. (a) Show that the rate of change of volume is ~ = 30001fT. (b) Show that the sphere's rate of change of surface area .2'7rT 2 . The water trough in the diagram is in the shape of an isosceles right triangular prism.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7E Rates of Change  Differentiating 265 (a) Show that the sphere's rate of change of volume is dV dt = 1. Let the base have radius T. 5. with T = 2h. ( a) Show that dt = 41fT dV 2 dT dt· (b) Hence find the rate at which the radius is growing when the radius is 15 cm. (a) Find the cone's volume. (b) Find the rate at which the height is increasing when the radius of the base is 4 metres. (c) Find the radius and volume when the radius is growing at 0·5 cm/s. An observer at A in the diagram is watching a plane at P fly 650kmlh overhead. directly below the aircraft. 7. (b) Given that 1 litre is 1000 cm 3 . correct to the nearest degree. The radius is decreasing at a rate of 3 mm/min.  8. A lathe is used to shave down the radius of a cylindrical piece of wood 500 mm long. and find the rate of increase of its surface area when the radius is 4 metres. A 3 dx 3 (a) By writing x = () . find the rate at which the depth of the water is changing when h = 20. Convert your answer from radians per hour to degrees per second. ( a) Show that the volume of water in the trough when the depth is hcm is V = 300h 2 cm 3 . The boat is travelling towards the cliff at a speed of 50 m/min. The pile always remains in the same shape. (b) How fast is the circumference decreasing when the radius is: (i) 20 mm. 3 metres long. and he tilts his head so that he is always looking directly at the plane. as shown in the diagram. A boat is observed from the top of a 100metrehigh cliff. correct to the nearest degree. and find how fast the volume is decreasing when the radius is 30 mm. 9. 4. . Sand is poured at a rate of 0·5 m 3 /s onto the top of a pile in the shape of a cone. (ii) 37 mm? _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 6. is x km. show that d() 2 tan 2 sin 2 () • (b) Hence find the rate at which the observer's head is tilting when the angle of inclination to the plane is ~.
. hence the angles a and (3 are changing with time. ~ ____ __ (.O¥. (b) Keeping in mind that x.. 3 when x = 1. What strategies could the driver employ? (d) The speed limit is 100 km/h and the truck is travelling at 90 km/h. and the chord sub tends an angle 2() at the centre. use implicit differentiation to show that dx dt it(x .266 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 10.sin()cos()). find dx the rate of increase in the area if dt = V r.. [h Lca~_J. a and (3 are all functions of time. both travelling at a constant speed of V m/s.~x sec 2 (3 tan (3 . p 14. 11. A point moves anti clockwise around the circle x 2 + y2 = 1 at a uniform speed of 2 m/s. The car ~ accelerates at a uniform rate so that it is exactly alongside .. (The units on the axes are metres. and is 50 metres ahead of the car. How far before the overtaking lane should the car begin to accelerate if applying the objective in part (c)? 13. dr Instant. The volume of a sphere is increasing at a rate numerically equal to its surface area at that .vir2 1 . . A car is travelling C metres behind a truck. it is found that da dt =~ and (3 = ~. .. (d) Given that r = 2. IT (1 7) . 1) radIans per second. . The road widens L metres V ahead of the truck and there is an overtaking lane.~~~IIIIIo.. An aircraft at P is approaching and the radars are tracking it. (a) What is the acceleration of the car? 2 (b) Show that th~ speed of the car as it passes the truck is V + iii. The radius of the circle is r.x2 . .l. C L the truck at the beginning of the overtaking lane. The diagram shows a chord distant x from the centre of a circle.d : A 100m B x Q + 100) sec 2 a ..+~~~ . Why should this answer have been obvious without this formula? _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 12. when the point is above the xaxis. .. dA dA d() dx (b) Explain why dt = d() X dx X dt . (a) Find an expression for the rate of change of its xcoordinate in terms of x.lII::~. = 356 (v'3  1) radians per second and dt = 158 (v'3  d(3 . (a) Show that x tan (3 = (x + 100) tan a.~t. . (a) Show that the area of the segment cut off by this chord is A = r2(() . 1). ..tan a (c) Use part (a) to find the value of x and the height of the plane when a (d) At the angles given in part (c). Show that dt = 1. d() (c) Show that d x = . Find the speed of the plane.) (b) Use your answer to part (a) to find the rate of change of the xcoordinate as it crosses the yaxis at P(O.. The diagram shows two radars at A and B 100 metres apart. . (c) The objective of the driver of the car is to spend as little time alongside the truck as possible..
The original function can then be obtained by integration. 0 V = 150 + C. and (c) When t ~ dV __ 3e.. SOLUTION: (a) Since eX > 0 for all x.. (a) Initially. only the rate of change of a quantity as a function of time is known. (a) Show that ~~ is always positive. 15.o.. Sketch the function.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7F Rates of Change  Integrating 267 7F Rates of Change . Find I as a function of t.2 ) 129·7 megalitres. V = 0. where I is the mass in tonnes of ice remaining on the mountain. dt = 3e. When t = 0. and V is the volume in megalitres of water that has flowed out. .. I is decreasing or stationary..02t . since e.0 ... SOLUTION: (a) We are given that Integrating.o.e. = 150(1 .. and explain this physically. the flow d.e. V = 150(1 V + e.02t dV is always positive.0 . WORKED EXERCISE: The rate at which ice on the side of Black Mountain is melting during spring changes with the time of day according to ~~ = 5 + 5 cos 1~ t. (c) How much will flow from the well during the first 100 days? (d) Describe the behaviour of Vas t + 00. . because V is the amount that has flowed out.= . and t is the time in hours after midnight on the day measuring began.02t ). for some constant C. + (d) As t + 00.... (c) Show that the ice disappears at the end of the 20th day. where t is time gradually diminishes according to the formula dt = dV in days after time zero. of water from Welcome Well 3e.2 ) 150 = 1 .02t • dt V = _150e. (b) Find an expression for the volume of water obtained after time zero.0 . dI . dJr 11' 1= 5t + 60 11' sin..e.5 + 5 cos 12 t . 150. and find what percentage of the total flow comes in the first 100 days. = 100.02t O. there were 2400 tonnes of ice. WORKED EXERCISE: During a drought.0 .21:.02t Vi + C.. (b) We are given that Integrating. and find when I is stationary. V is always increasing. provided that the value of the function is known initially or at some other time.2 ~ Hence proportion of flow in first 100 days 86·5%. so so C = 150. (b) Show that for all t.. 150(1 .t 12 + C.Integrating In some situations.0 .....
(c) How much water was initially in the tank? 2..2+ /0 t m 3 /s. when cos I~ t = 1. (b) How long will it be before the perfume in the ball has run out and it needs to be replaced? (Answer correct to the nearest day. (Notice that I is never increasing. Jr · (b) Slllce 5 ::. Water is flowing out of a tank at the rate of dV dt = 5(2t  50). where t IS t +1 ~~ = . 61T.268 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 When t = 0.. (a) Find P as a function of t if the initial perfume content is 6·8. t = 0.) Exercise 7F 1.0 + C. = 5t + 6~ sin . The general solution for t (c) When t = 480. (e) Suppose that it is necessary to let out a total of 300 m 3 from the tank.. so 2400 I so C = 2400. where V is the volume in litres remaining in the tank at time t minutes after time zero. dI can never b ' . . I = 2400. 5. 24. The rate at which a perfume ball loses its scent over time is dP dt measured in days. How long should the tap be left fully on before gradually turning it off? dx 4. when the tap is fully on? (b) How long does it take to turn the tap off? (c) Given that when the tap has been turned off there are still 500 m 3 of water left in the tank. t = 0. 5 cos 12t ::. find its limiting position. so there can only be one solution for t. The velocity of a particle is given by dt 2 . As a consequence. (c) When does the particle reach x = I? (Answer correct to two decimal places. 21T. so the ice disappears at the end of the 20th day. dt e posItIve. .) 3..) . 48. I = 2400 + 0 + 2400 = 0. I is stationary when ~~ = 0.. 2:: 0 is .. find V as a function of t. t + 2400. find its displacement x as a function of time. melting ceases at midnight on each successive day. that is.4t . and = 0 . (a) When does the water stop flowing? (b) Given that the tank still has 20 litres left in it when the water flow stops. the flow rate while the tap is being turned off is given by (a) What is the initial flow rate. (d) Hence find how much water is released during the time it takes to turn the tap off.. A tap on a large tank is gradually turned off so as not to create any hydraulic shock. 41T.0 . = e. That is. (a) Does the particle ever stop moving? (b) If the particle starts at the origin.) (d) Where does the particle move to eventually? (That is. 72. find V as a function of t.
(b) Hence find t as a function of B. As a particle moves around a circle.O.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7F Rates of Change Integrating 269 _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 5. The flow of water into a small dam over the course of a year varies with time and is approximated by d: 1·2 . and t is the time measured in months from the beginning of January.2t . find () as a function of t. A ball is falling through the air and experiences air resistance.1). () < 3411". A certain brand of medicine tablet is in the shape of a sphere with diameter! cm. (d) Hence find how long it takes. if it is initially 200 metres above the ground. (b) Find the rate of change of the radius of the cone as a function of r. where W is the volume of water in the dam. where r is the radius of the sphere at time t hours. find t as a function of 7". (a) What is the maximum flow rate into the dam and when does this happen? (b) Given that the dam is initially empty. find W. (b) Explain. Over spring and summer. and show that it is one quarter of the volume of a sphere with the same radius. from the given rate. (b) Hence find r as a function of t. Sand is poured onto the top of a pile in the shape of a cone at a rate of 0·5 m 3 /s. 8. The apex angle of the cone remains constant at 90 0 • Let the base have radius r and let the height of the cone be h. its angular velocity is given by d = . is given by dt = 250( e. the snow and ice on White Mountain is melting with the time of day according to dI = 5 + 4 cos l~ t. . measured in thousands of cubic metres. for the pile to grow another 2 metres in height.. (a) It was estimated at that time that there was still 18000 tonnes of snow and ice on the mountain. Show that there will still be snow left on the mountain then. (c) By taking reciprocals and integrating. (c) The beginning of the next snow season is expected to be four months away (120 days). dB 1 7. (c) Using the result of part (a). in metres per dx second at time t. 6.2 . why the ice is always melting. The rate at which the pill dissolves is proportional to its surface area at that instant. dV dt = kS for some constant k.cos 2 . show that ~ ::. (c) Thus find k. that is. where x is the height above the ground. Find I as a function of t. Show that it will be full in three years. 9. where I is the tonnage of ice on the mountain at dt time t in hours since 2:00 am on 20th October. and the pill lasts 12 hours before dissolving completely. correct to the nearest second.. given that the initial radius of the pile was 10 metres. 10. (a) What is its initial speed? (b) What is its eventual speed? (c) Find x as a function of t. t. Its velocity. (a) Show that ~: = k. (a) Find the volume of the cone. and hence explain why the particle never moves through an angle of more than ~. (c) The capacity of the dam is 25200 m 3 . t 1+t (a) Given that the particle starts at B = ~.
(ii) We are told that + y 4 4 x ~~ = kA.th en dy dt = kyo e kt = k y. (i) Find this surface area A. More generally. (b) Find the value of k. (a) The diagram shows the spherical cap formed when the region between the lower half of the circle x 2 y2 = 16 and the horizontal line y = h is rotated about the yaxis. (c) Find. where Vo is the initial cost of the machinery. for some positive constant k. = Yo ekt .th en dy dt = e t = y. the percentage drop in value over five years.kt satisfies this differential equation. where Yo = O. 1 ·f Y = e t . correct to four significant figures. (a) Show that V = Vo e. the water evaporates at a rate proportional to its surface area (which is the circular area at the top of the cap). the only functions where the rate of growth is proportional to the value are functions of the form y = Ae kt . This means that at each point on the curve. Find how long it takes for the puddle to evaporate. This means that the rate of change of y = Ae kt is proportional to y. The natural growth theorem says that. conversely. . (d) Find. Find the volume V so formed.270 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 ~ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION ~ _ _ _ __ 11. Each year its value drops by 15%. correct to the nearest 0·1 years. that is. NATURAL GROWTH: Suppose that the rate of change of y is proportional to y: where k is a constant of proportionality. the gradient is equal to the height. (iii) The puddle is initially 2 cm deep and the evaporation constant is known to be k = 0·025 cm/min. The value V of some machinery is depreciating according to the law of natural decay ~~ = . The key idea here is that the exponential function y = et is its own derivative. When the sun comes out.k V. when the value has dropped by 90%. and correct to four significant figures. 1 ·f Y = Yo e kt . is the value of y at time t 7 Then y WORKED EXERCISE: ~ dy dt = ky. 7G Natural Growth and Decay This section will review the approaches to natural growth and decay developed in Section 13F of the Year 11 volume. (b) The cap represents a shallow puddle of water left after some rain. in exact form. Show that the rate at which the depth of the water changes is k.
This sequence forms a GP with first term Vo and ratio e.k ).e. V = Vo e. .0 e. Vo e. = 0·1 Vo = loge 0·1 ~ 14·2 years..k = 0.e.k A Confusing Term . years are Vo.k = 0·85. 1.kt .08t • The constant k = 0·08 is sometimes called the 'growth rate'.Vo e. 2. . dt The constant k is better described as the instantaneous proportional growth rate. so the value has dropped by about 55·63% over the 5 years. = 0·85. substituting t (b) When t = 1. loss of value during the third year = Vo e. 2nd.. (b) Loss of value during the first year loss of value during the = Vo . = k X = LHS.e. because 'growth rate' normally refers to the instantaneous increase dP ofthe number of individuals per unit time. Show that these losses form a GP.kt ) dt = kVo e. as the following worked exercise shows. These losses form a GP with first term Vo(l .kt Also.k ) and ratio e. 2. (d) Put V Then Vo e.kt kt t = 0·1 Vo.Vo e.k ).k (l . = 0·85 Vo. years. 1.kt into ~~ = kV. 3rd.. Continuing with the previous worked exercise: (a) show that the values of the machinery after 0. second year = Vo e. but this is a confusing term. and find the ratio of the GP. ..Vo e.k . and find the ratio of the GP. years forms a GP.. so 0·85 Vo = Vo e.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7G Natural Growth and Decay 271 SOLUTION: (a) Substituting V LHS = Va e. because the differential equation ~ = kP shows that k is the proportionality constant relating the instantaneous rate of growth and the population. .2k = Vo e. as required.. Natural Growth and GPs: WORKED EXERCISE: There are very close relationships between GPs and natural growth. RHS = ~ (11.k e.2k (1 .2 \ ••.2k .85 k = loge 0·85 ~ 0·1625. (c) When t = 5.k .k = Vo(l .3k = Vo e. Vo e.The 'Growth Rate': Suppose that a population P is growing according to the equation P = Po eO. SOLUTION: (a) The values after 0.5k ~ 0·4437 Vo.. Vo e.e.k ). V = 0 gives V = Vo eO = Vo. (b) find the loss of value during the 1st.
over the second year.: These increases form a GP with ratio 1·0833. and show that they form a GP.0 8 ::. the second year and the third year.08 .: $13534.0 8 dC dt = 12000 eO.: dC dt dC = 12000 e O. correct to the nearest dollar per year. eO. correct to the nearest dollar per year. increase = 150 000(e O. ::. 16 .08 1)::. represented by chords on the exponential graph. the 'instantaneous proportional growth rate'). over the third year.16(eO. and the average increases in cost over the first year. 16 dC dC ::. c $12999 per year. (c) Find the value of C when t = 1. WORKED EXERCISE: (a) Show that ~~ is proportional to C. with constant of proportionality 0·08. on 1st January 2002. expressed as a proportion of the cost at the start of that year. on 1st January 2003.: $15255 per year. (b) Substituting into on 1st January 2000. t = 2 and t = 3.two instantaneous rates. SOLUTION: (a) Differentiating.0 8 ) = 150000 X eO.0 8t = 0·08 C.08t ' per year. [Four different rates associated with natural growth] The cost C of building an average house is rising according to the natural growth equation C = 150 000 eO. These form a GP with ratio r = eO. dt dC is proportional to C. increase 1 = 150 000(eO. (b) Find the instantaneous rates at which the cost is increasing on 1st January 2000. dt = 12000 eO = $12000 dt = 12 000 eO. increase = 150000(eO. one absolute and one proportional. is constant.0 8 ::. The values of C when t = 0. (d) Show that the average increase in cost over the first year. The following worked exercise on inflation asks for all four of these rates. so over the first year. t = 1.1) ::.0 8 1) ~ $12493. on 1st January 2001. more correctly. represented by tangents on the exponential graph. and two average rates.: (c) dt = 12000 eO.0 8 150000 eO. 2002 and 2003.16 ) = 150000 X eO. and find the constant of proportionality (this is the socalled 'growth rate'. and show that they form a GP.0 8t .: 1·0833. where t is time in years since 1st January 2000. the second year an d the third year. or. There are in fact four different rates . so ~~ = 0·08 X 150000 X eO.272 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 It is important in this context not to confuse average rates of growth. one absolute and one proportional.eO.08(eO.16 _ eO. t = 2 and t = 3 are respectively $150000 " 150000 eO. with instantaneous rates of growth. 24 ::. 2001. $14082 per year. . 24 . 16 and 150000 eO.: $1466l.
0 8 . The population P of a rural town has been declining over the last few years. over the third year. will there be 4 grams of salt left undissolved? (e) Find the amounts of undissolved salt when t = 0. 2 and 3. (b) Initially. when there will be 10000 bacteria. for some positive constant k. 150000 ' 150000 X eO. correct to the nearest hour. (a) Show that S = 20e.0 8 . It is found that under certain conditions. Answer correct to the nearest bacterium. correct to the nearest 0·01 g.1 150000 X eO. (Answer correct to two decimal places. and show that P = 30 OOOe. (d) By solving 1000eO. Assume that the amount S left undissolved after t minutes satisfies the law of natural decay. (d) The local bank has estimated that it will not be profitable to stay open once the population falls below 16000.) (d) After how long. When will the bank close? .1 150000 X eO.1 over the first year. and find the common ratio. (c) Estimate the population ten years from now. 3.1 ~ 8·33%. Exercise 7G This exercise is a review of the material covered in Section 13E of the Year 11 volume. .kt satisfies the differential equation. ~~ = kS.0 8 ' 16 X (eO. find. = eO.0 8 . (a) Show that B satisfies the differential equation ~~ = 110B. Find how many bacteria there are after three hours. (b) Find the value of the positive constant k.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7G Natural Growth and Decay 273 (d) The three proportional increases are 150 OOO( eO ·08 . It . Five years ago the population was estimated at 30000 and today it is estimated at 21000.1) over the second year. (c) Find how much salt is left after five minutes. correct to the nearest second. with a little more stress laid on the rates.0 . (c) Use parts (a) and (b) to find how fast the number of bacteria is growing after three hours.1) = eO.kt satisfies this differential equation. and how fast the salt is dissolving then. where t is measured in hours. the number of bacteria is estimated to be 1000. It = 10000. Twenty grams of salt is gradually dissolved in hot water. (b) Given that only half the salt is left after three minutes.0 8 1) 150000 X eO. 1. where t is time in years from the first estimate.0 8 . for some positive constant k. NOTE: 1.0 8 X (eO. = eO. dP (a) Assume that the populatIOn obeys the law of natural decay dt = kP. 16 ' 8 so the proportional increases are all equal to eO. the number of bacteria in a sample grows ex ponentially with time according to the equation B = B o eO. show that these values form a GP. show that k = ~ log 2. 2. that is.
kt is a solution of this equation.2 and 3 hours (no need for calculus here). C = 1·01 Co to find the value of k. (i) What is the value of x at this time? (ii) Hence find the value of k. for 0:::. Let Co be the cost at time zero. (b) Given that the initial difference in heights is 30 cm. dt (a) Show that i = io e. then show that the percentage loss of mass per hour during each of these hours is the same. Hence find. t:::. (ii) the time required for the cost to double. and add the relevant chords and tangents. where k is a constant. the cost is 1% more than it was a month before. Find the values of Mo and k. A current io is established in the circuit shown on the right. and find the instantaneous rate of mass loss when t t = 1. (a) Use the compound interest formula of Section 7B to construct a formula for the cost C after t months. 1.kt .yt is a solution of this equation. (a) Write down the mass when t = 0. Thus (a) Show that x dt = kx. measured in centimetres. The liquid is let through at a rate proportional to the difference in the levels x. Hence find. find the value of A. 2nd and 3rd hour. (b) Given that the resistance is R = 2 and that the current in the circuit decays to 37% of the initial current in a quarter of a second. The left part of the chamber is initially more full of a liquid than the right. in exact form and then correct to four significant figures: (i) the percentage increase in the cost over twelve months. (b) Write down the average loss of mass during the 1st. (b) The natural growth formula C = Co e kt also models the cost after t months. A radioactive substance decays with a halflife of 1 hour. A chamber is divided into two identical parts by a porous membrane. dM (d) Show that . 1. Use the fact that when t = 1.] The cost C of an article is rising with inflation in such a way that at the start of every month. 7.. (c) The mass M at any time satisfies the usual equation of natural decay M = Mo e. The initial mass is 80 g.= kM. and the level in the left has fallen correspondingly by 2 cm. 6. _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ dt 0 ' (e) Sketch the Mt graph. [The formulae for compound interest and for natural growth are essentially the same. When the source of the current is removed. 5.274 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 4. (NOTE: 37% '* ~) R DR L . (c) The level in the right compartment has risen 2 cm in five minutes. t = 2 and t = 3.= iR. (ii) the time required for the cost to double. find L. in exact form and then correct to four significant figures: (i) the percentage increase in the cost over twelve months. dx = Ae. the current in di the circuit decays according to the equation L .
(Give k exactly. = 3. Given that y = Ao ekt. enters the stock market at the same time with shares at $1. (a) The price of shares in Bravo Company rose in one year from $5. dt dh =  if . where t is measured in months. kh (b) Show that h = ho e. then correct to three decimal places. The liquid inside is leaking through a small hole in the bottom of the tank. the concentration as one moves towards the cylinder. Use this information to find the values of the constants Co and k. find 1 (e) How long will it take to empty to a depth of just 5 metres? Answer correct to the nearest minute. Five metres closer. and by the end of the year these are worth $2. 9. (b) At the truck. show that the share price in cents is given by C = 100 eft. A tank in the shape of a vertical hexagonal prism with base area A is filled to a depth of 25 metres. correct to the nearest cent per month? . the concentration is C = 22500 ppm.25 to $6.) (c) Find the gas concentration at the cylinder. show that the share price in cents is given by B = 525e kt. (i) Assuming the law of natural growth. (i) Again assuming natural growth. (d) The accepted safe level for this gas is 30 parts per million. the concentration is C = 20000 ppm. The emergency services calculate how far back from the cylinder they should keep the public. (ii) Find the value of £. (a) Show that C = Co e kx is a solution of the above equation. (a) Show that it is not necessary to evaluate k in order to find y when t (b) Find y( 3) in terms of Ao. (c) During which month will the share prices in both companies be equal? (d) What will be the (instantaneous) rate of increase in ComIT shares at the end of that month. and it is found that the change in volume at any instant t hours after the tank starts leaking is proportional to the depth h metres. The emergency services are dealing with a toxic gas cloud around a leaking gas cylinder 50 metres away.1t is (c) What is the value of h o? (d) Given that the depth in the tank is 15 metres after 2 hours. where x IS the distance in metres towards the cylinder from their current position. a solution of this equation. ComIT. correct to the nearest part per million.10. that is. dx = kC. rounding their answer up to the nearest 10 metres. (a) Show that ~~ = kh.17. That is. The prevailing conditions mean that the concentration C in parts per million (ppm) of the gas increases proportionally to o dC . 11. (b) A new information technology company. where x = 0.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7G Natural Growth and Decay 275 8. (i) How far do they keep the public back? (ii) Why do they round their answer up and not round it in the normal way? 10. (ii) Find the value of k. y = ~Ao. it is found that at t = 1.
where A.) (a) Use the compound interest formula to write down the value A of the investment after t years. and find the decrease as a percentage of the initial value. the value V of a certain item is depreciating at an instantaneous rate of 15% of V per annum. and draw a graph showing this information. again to the nearest cent. ( a) Express dV in terms of V. (d) Find the instantaneous rate of decrease when t = 1. dt (b) The cost of purchasing the item was $12000. (i) Show that the second population was initially zero (that is. where rates are usually expressed not as instantaneous rates. N = N e . (ii) Draw a graph showing this information. 14. (i) Show that b = 0. and the population P2 of another town is growing at a constant rate. (e) Use your answer to either part (a) or part (c) to find the value of the investment after six years. the exponential term in A with base e. (c) Find V after one year. correct to the nearest 0·1 years. It is found that the straight line is tangent to the logarithmic graph at x = e. with PI = Ae t . It will usually take some work to relate the value k of the instantaneous rate to the average rate. B the model changes to N = C + e. (f) Hence find the instantaneous rate of growth after six years.276 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 The following two questions deal with finance. (d) Explain in terms of a reflection why the questions in parts (a) and (b) are equivalent. (c) Explain the effect of the change of base in parts (a) and (b) in terms of stretching. ( e) How long. compounded annually. (This is the average rate. for some a > 1. it is found that PI = P2 . When the population reaches a critical value. one being y = log x and the other y = mx +b. Band C are constants. (iii) Show that the result in part (i) does not change if PI = Aa t . The growing population of rabbits on Brair Island can initially be modelled by the law of natural growth. and show that it is a solution of the equation in part (a). and also that both populations are increasing at the same rate. At any time t.t' with the constants Band C chosen so that both models predict the same rate of growth at that time. . d dA (b) Use the result _(at) = atloga to show that . dt dt (c) Use the result a (d) = e10g a to reexpress dA Hence confirm that dt = Alog 1·07. for some a > 1. NOTE: 12. (ii) Show that the result in part (i) does not change if y = loga x.= Alog1·07.J (b) Two graphs are drawn on the same axes. When the first population reaches PI = Ae. that C = 0). but as average rates. does it take for the value to decrease to 10% of its cost? 13. (a) The population PI of one town is growing exponentially. Write V as a function of time t years since it was purchased. [HINT: You may want to use the identity at = e t10g a. not the instantaneous rate. with N = No e~t. An investment of $5000 is earning interest at the advertised rate of 7% per annum. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 15. correct to the nearest cent. with P2 = Bt + C.
Questions will always give a solution in some form. and W = 6·4 after 3 days. where A is the value of P . using the previous theory of natural growth.B at time zero.B. and substituting y = P . W = 8 . this means shifting the graph upwards by B.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7H Modified Natural Growth and Decay 277 (a) Find the values of Band C in terms of Nc and No. since we defined y by y =P . dt so dy dt = ky. where B is some fixed value of P: ~ 8 Then P NOTE: = k(P . (i) Find the values of A and k. Let y dy dt PROOF: Then = P . (iii) Find the rate of absorption of the water after 3 days.0. and may then ask to verify by substitution that it is a solution of the differential equation.Ae.B).B be the difference between dP . = k(P  P and B. MODIFIED NATURAL GROWTH: Suppose that the rate of change of a quantity P is proportional to the difference P . = B + Ae kt .B. and find that limit in terms of N c • 7H Modified Natural Growth and Decay In many situations. Despite the following proof. (a) Prove that for any constant A. where A is the initial value of P . When the tapestries were removed for repair. for some positive constant k of proportionality. SInce B IS a constant. since we are given that dP = k(P . (ii) Find when the water content has risen to 7·9 kg.B. = dt . but to the amount P . Hence. Mathematically.B). that is. (b) Show that the population reaches a limit. . where Yo is the initial value of y. which is easily done using theory previously established. where k is a constant of proportionality. The large French tapestries that are hung in the permanently airconditioned La Chatille Hall have a normal water content W of 8 kg. . they dried out in the workroom atmosphere. B). dW dt = k(8  W).B. y = yoe kt . The General Case: Here is the general statement of the situation. When they were returned. P WORKED EXERCISE: = B + Ae kt . the rate of increase of the water content was proportional to the difference from the normal 8 kg. (b) Weighing established that W = 4 initially. the rate of change of a quantity P is proportional not to P itself. memorisation of this general solution is not required.kt is a solution of the differential equation. (iv) Sketch the graph of water content against time.B by which P exceeds some fixed value B.
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Show that the velocity is always positive for t > 0. dT The rate at whIch the meat warms follows Newton's law of coolmg and so dt = k(T25). for any constant A. The liquid is let through at a rate proportional to the difference between the level x cm in the left compartment and the average level. (iii) Thus find the value of A. . . When both gravity and air resistance are taken into account. (c) Find the limiting value of the current in the circuit. where M is the concentration of the medicine in the blood t minutes dt after taking the pill. R (b) Given that initially the current is zero. The diagram shows a simple circuit containing an inductor L and a resistor R with an applied voltage V. (d) Given that R = 12 and L = 8 X 10. (b) Show that ~~ = 116 (160 .x). (a) Prove that I = RI + L dI. (a) Show that M = a(1 . (b) (i) What value does the level in the left compartment approach? (ii) Hence explain why the initial height is 30 cm. and explain what this represents.kt ) satisfies the given equation. 6. find how long it takes for the current to reach half its limiting value. 8. (c) What velocity does the body approach? ( d) How long does it take to reach one eighth of this speed? _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 7.eh t ). Circuit theory tells us that V t seconds.kt is a solution of this equation.Ae.280 CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 5. and explain this physically. . the medicine is absorbed into the bloodstream at a rate given by dM = k( M . Find the value of k. dx Thus dt = k(15 . (a) Show that T = 25 . if the concentration reaches 99% of the limiting value after 2 hours. Give your answer correct to three significant figures. (c) Find the temperature it reaches after another 45 minutes.e. dt where I is the current at time V 0 L R = V +Ae. with time t measured in minutes. and gives an initial concentration of zero. and find the value of A. find A in terms of V and R. Find the value of k. (c) The level in the right compartment has risen 6 cm in 5 minutes. A 1 kilogram weight falls from rest through the air. A tray of meat is taken out of the freezer at 9°C and allowed to thaw in the air at 25°C. (a) Confirm that the initial velocity is zero. The left compartment is initially full and the right is empty.3 . and a and k are constants. A chamber is divided into two identical parts by a porous membrane. 9. The velocity v is measured in metres per second.v). (a) Show that x = 15 + Ae. (b) The meat reaches 8°C in 45 minutes. (b) What is the limiting value of the concentration? (c) Find k. and downwards has been taken as positive.kt is a solution of this equation. When a person takes a pill.¥t is a solution of the differential equation.a). it is found that its velocity is given by v = 160(1 .
If they both begin drinking at the same time. w (e) Show that Q = 2000 + Ae. (a) Take reciprocals. In the diagram.   . . It is assumed that the population of a newly introduced species on an island will usually grow or decay in proportion to the difference between the current population P and the ideal population I. ____________ EXTENSION ____________ 11. and the population grows to 12 000 and then 18 000. Also assume that after the milk is added and stirred. how much salt is entering the tank per minute? (b) If there are Q grams of salt in the tank at time t. and is flowing in at the constant rate of w litres/min. Assume that the air temperature is colder than the coffee and that the milk is colder still.B) (b) Take exponentials and finally show that P . stirs it in and then waits for it to cool. A census is taken 7 weeks later and again at 14 weeks. A and k. a tank initially contains 1000 litres Salt water of pure water. so that there is always a total of 1000 litres in the tank. The man waits for the coffee to cool first. integrate. (a) If the salt water entering the tank contains 2 grams of salt per litre. (a) Prove that P = I + Ae kt is a solution of this equation. 13. (h) If there is 1 kg of salt in the tank after 5~ hours. the temperature drops by a fixed percentage. then just before drinking adds the milk and stirs. 12. (g) What happens to Q as t + oo? (f) Determine the value of A. (c) Find the population after 21 weeks. whose coffee is cooler? Justify your answer mathematically. [Alternative proof of the modified natural growth theorem] Suppose that a quantity P changes at a rate proportional to the difference between P and some fixed value B. correct to the nearest second? 10. that is.CHAPTER 7: Rates and Finance 7H Modified Natural Growth and Decay 281 (d) The patient starts to notice relief when the concentration reaches 10% of the limiting value. find w. The woman adds milk from the fridge.1000 is a solution of this differential equation.B = Ae kt . where k may be positive or negative. ~~ = k(P  1). dt = k(P . dQ (d) Use the prevIOUS parts to show that dt wt = 1000 (Q . Salt water begins pouring into the tank from a pipe and a stirring blade ensures that it is completely mixed with the pure water.B). (b) Initially 10 000 animals are released. = kt + C. When will this occur. Use these data to find the values of I. A second lOOOL Water and tank pipe draws the water and salt water mixture off at the salt water mixture same rate. how much salt is in 1 litre at time t? (c) Hence write down the amount of salt leaving the tank per minute.2000). dP that is. [The coffee drinkers' problem] Two coffee drinkers pour themselves a cup of coffee each just after the kettle has boiled. and hence show that 10g(P .
and has been evident in our treatment of the calculus. For example. As is common in Greek mathematics. Nevertheless. spoke of mathematics in mystical terms as the highest form of knowledge. called axioms. Geometry done using the methods established in Euclid's book is called Euclidean geometry. Euclid's Elements has been the most influential. The whole topic is intended to provide a quite different insight into the nature of mathematics. Our foundations can unfortunately be nothing like as rigorous as Euclid's. and our second theorem is his thirtysecond. and we have used these geometric results freely in arguments.CHAPTER EIGHT Euclidean Geometry The methods and structures of modern mathematics were established first by the ancient Greeks in their studies of geometry and arithmetic. but in their logic. and then develops arithmetic ideas from it.the Greek word theorem means 'a thing to be gazed upon' or 'a thing contemplated by the mind'. Of all the Greek books. Euclid introduces geometry first. For example. Their· work is extraordinary for their determination to prove details that may seem common sense to the layman. For example. the product of two numbers is usually understood as the area of a rectangle. and they need to be drawn. such as 'Things that are each equal to the same thing are equal to one another'. Their importance lies not in any practical use. and for their ability to ask the most important questions about the subjects they investigated. and was still used as a text book in nineteenthcentury schools. like the mathematician Pythagoras and the philosopher Plato. and that any hidden assumptions. We have assumed throughout this text that students were familiar from earlier years with the basic methods and results of Euclidean geometry. which has drawn its intuitions equally from algebraic formulae and from the geometry of curves.he writes down a handful of initial assumptions and definitions that mostly seem trivial. It was they who realised that mathematics must proceed by rigorous proof and argument. They need to be proven. Many Greeks. and they called their results theorems . Such intertwining of arithmetic and geometry is still characteristic of the most modern mathematics. This chapter and the next will now review Euclidean geometry from its beginnings and develop it a little further. and we have therefore included a number of construction problems in an unsystematic fashion. tangents and areas. three . we shall assume the four standard congruence tests rather than proving them. from ()swpiw 'behold' (our word theatre comes from the same root). Euclid constructs a large body of theory in geometry and arithmetic beginning from almost nothing . the arguments used here are close to those of Euclid. Constructions with straight edge and compasses are central to Euclid's arguments. and are strikingly different from those we have used in calculus and algebra. that all definitions must be stated with absolute precision. must be brought out into the open and examined.
Parallels and Angles 283 famous constructions unsolved by the Greeks .we shall describe some of their properties and list some of the assumptions we shall need to make about them. and takes place entirely in a fixed plane. All such questions have been placed at the start of the Development section. lines and planes. Lines. Attention should therefore be on careful exposition of the logic of the proofs. Two POINTS: Two distinct points A and B lie on one and only one line. will be the same as our approach to the real numbers . on the logical sequence established by the chain of theorems. but it represents a point in our imagination. • p A plane has no thickness.the trisection of a given angle. . which can be named AB or BA.working through these proofs is an essential part of the course. with their proofs left to structured questions in the following exercise. Most of this material will have been covered in Years 9 and 10. Our approach. POINTS: LINES: A line has no breadth. the squaring of a given circle (essentially the construction of 1f) and the doubling in volume of a given cube (essentially the construction of Y"2) .CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 8A Points. Almost all our work is twodimensional. There are many possible orders in which the theorems of this course could have been developed. Students should note carefully that the large number of further theorems proven in the exercises cannot be used in subsequent questions. and are marked 'COURSE THEOREM' . but the order given here is that established by the Syllabus. Rigorous definitions of these things are possi ble. except where the intention of the question is to provide a proof of the theorem. The only entirely new work is in the final Section 81 on intercepts. therefore. A point can be described as having a position but no size. the point P mayor may not lie on the line C. but very difficult. but extends infinitely in both directions. even through they may be more difficult than succeeding problems. Parallels and Angles The elementary objects of geometry are points. and it extends infinitely in all directions. PLAN ES: Points and Lines in a Plane: Here are some of the assumptions that we shall be making about the relationships between points and lines in a plane. The mark opposite has a definite width.were an inspiration to mathematicians of the nineteenth century grappling with the problem of defining the real numbers by nongeometric methods. but it represents a line in our imagination. and on the harder problems. Lines. All three constructions were eventually proven to be impossible. The drawing opposite has width and has ends. POINT AND LINE: Given a point P and a line C. and so is not a point. Lines and Planes: These simple descriptions should be sufficient. STUDY NOTES: Many of the theorems are only stated in the notes. All theorems marked as course theorems may be used in later questions. but perhaps not in the systematic fashion developed here. Points. SA Points.
o B c B o A . LAOB and LBOe are adjacent angles with common vertex 0 and common arm 0 B. Similarly. OPPOSITE RAY: The ray that starts at this same endpoint A.  _.eCONCURRENT LINES: Three or more distinct lines are called concurrent if they all pass through a single point.~ p  Collinear Points and Concurrent Lines: A third point mayor may not lie on the line determined by two other points. The common endpoint 0 is called the vertex of the angle. having common vertex 0 and common arm ~A. and their lengths compared and added and subtracted with compasses.  THE PARALLEL LINE THROUGH A GIVEN POINT: Given a line £ and a point P not on £. Angles: We need to distinguish between an angle and the size of an angle. Suppose that A and B are any two distinct points on a line £. and the rays 0 A and 0 B are called the arms of the angle. LENGTHS OF INTERVALS: We shall assume that intervals can be measured.A B A • B • RAYS: The ray AB consists of the endpoint A together with B and all the other points of £ on the same side of A as B is. THREE PARALLEL LINES: If two lines are each parallel to a third line. Intervals and Rays: These definitions rely on the idea that a point on a line divides the rest of the line into two parts. the overlapping angles LAOe and LAOB are adjacent angles. INTERVALS: The interval AB consists of all the points lying on £ between A and B. A • B • . then they are parallel to each other. either the lines intersect in a single point. Two angles are called adjacent anADJACENT ANGLES: gles if they have a common vertex and a common arm. including these two endpoints. written as £ 11m. . COLLINEAR POINTS: Three or more distinct points are called collinear if they all lie on a single line. The two rays 0 A and 0 B in the diagram form an angle named either LAOB or LBOA. there is one and only one line through P parallel to £. a third line may or may not pass through the point of intersection of two other lines.. but goes in the opposite direction. In the diagram opposite. is called the opposite ray.284 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Two LINES: Given any two distinct lines £ and m in a plane. ANGLES: An angle consists of two rays with a common endpoint. or the lines have no point in common and are called parallel lines. Also.
B = 130°. Lines. if adjacent angles are supplementary.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 8A Points. a = 105 ° (angles in a straight angle). Parallels and Angles 285 MEASURING ANGLES: The size of an angle is the amount of turning as one arm is rotated about the vertex onto the other arm. L OBTUSE ANGLES: An obtuse angle is an angle greater than a right angle and less than a straight angle. COURSE THEOREM ANGLES IN A STRAIGHT LINE AND IN A REVOLUTION: 1 • Two adjacent angles in a straight angle are supplementary. Our first theorem relies on the assumption that adjacent angles can be added. Of A ~ 0 x B ACUTE ANGLES: An acute angle is an angle greater than 0° and less than a right angle. REVOLUTIONS: A revolution is the angle formed by rotating a ray about its endpoint once until it comes back onto itself. A. Given that PQR is a line. Two angles are called supplementary if they add to 180°. • Conversely. The measurement of angles is based on the obvious assumption that the sizes of adjacent angles can be added and subtracted.there are about 360 days in a year. and so measures 90°. Then LXOA is called a right angle. • Adjacent angles in a revolution add to 360°. A straight angle is half a revolution. Band C are collinear (adjacent angles are supplementary). p Q R A B C B + 110° + 90° + 30° = 360° (angles in a revolution). and OX is a ray such that LXOA is equal to LXOB. RIGHT ANGLES: Suppose that AOB is a line. A right angle is half a straight angle. 105° is the supplement of 75°. and so measures 180°. 15° is the complement of 75°. they form a straight line. . REFLEX ANGLES: A reflex angle is an angle greater than a straight angle and less than a revolution. STRAIGHT ANGLES: A straight angle is the angle formed by a ray and its opposite ray. Angles at a Point: Two angles are called complementary if they add to 90°. A revolution is defined to measure 360°. For example. For example. and so the sun moves about 1° against the fixed stars every day. The units of degrees are based on the ancient Babylonian system of dividing the revolution into 360 equal parts .
give the names of the angles or lines or triangles referred to. Angles and Parallel Lines: The standard results about alternate. The marked angles LAOX and LBOY are vertically opposite. TRANSVERSALS: A transversal is a line that crosses two other lines (the two other lines mayor may not be parallel). (straight angle LXOY).the whole topic is traditionally regarded as providing training in the writing of mathematical proofs.l m.. or each reason can be given in brackets after the statement it justifies. let (3 = LBOX. m Using Reasons in Arguments: Geometrical arguments require reasons to be given for each statement . In the diagram to the right. 5a = 90° a = 18°. tis a transversal to the lines £ and m. meeting them at Land M respectively. A PROOF: + (3 = 180° . The authors of this book have boxed the theorems and assumptions that can be quoted as reasons. In each of the three diagrams below. Find a or () in each diagram below. These reasons can be expressed in ordinary prose.286 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Vertically Opposite Angles: Each pair of opposite angles formed when two lines intersect are called vertically opposite angles. wherever possible. and let I = LBOY. if they intersect so that one of the angles between them is a right angle. written as £ . (straight angle LAO B). otherwise there can be ambiguities about exactly what argument has been used. All reasons should.+ (3 = 180° a = . () = 40°. a X Perpendicular Lines: Two lines £ and m are called perpendicular. Let a = LAOX. AB and XY intersect at O. A X y X 2 COURSE THEOREM: Vertically opposite angles are equal. The unmarked angles LAOY and LBO X are also vertically opposite. all four angles must be right angles. (b) 3() = 120° (vertically opposite angles).. Because adjacent angles on a straight line are supplementary. WORKED EXERCISE: (a) (b) A SOLUTION: ~ 0 G B (a) 2a + 90° + 3a = 180° (straight angle LAOB). GIVEN: Let the lines AB and XY intersect at O. corresponding and cointerior angles are taken as assumptions. .. AIM: and so To prove that a B = .
NOTE: A phrase like '( cointerior angles)' alone is never sufficient as a reason. If the two lines are being proven parallel. ALTERNATE ANGLES: In the second diagram opposite. e + 110 0 + 120 0 = 360 0 (angles in a revolution at F). A M B SOLUTION: Then and so Construct FG " AB. Lines. then any two • If the lines are parallel. Our assumptions about corresponding. Parallels and Angles 287 CORRESPONDING ANGLES: In the first diagram opposite. If the two angles are being proven supplementary. then any two • If the lines are parallel. • If any pair of alternate angles are equal. the fact that the lines are parallel must also be stated. the two angles marked a and {3 are called corresponding angles. alternate angles are equal.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 8A Points. and on the same side of the transversal t. 3 The second group are often neglected. then any two crosses two lines. cointerior angles are supplementary. corresponding angles are equal. 0 (cointerior angles. . LNFG = 120 0 (alternate angles. They are the converses of the first group. then the lines are parallel. the fact that the cointerior angles are supplementary must be stated. then the lines are parallel. • If any two cointerior angles are supplementary. FG II AB). COINTERIOR ANGLES: In the third diagram opposite. because they are in corresponding positions around the two vertices Land M. alternate and cointerior angles fall into two groups. • If any pair of corresponding angles are equal. LABD = 115 ABIICD (cointerior angles are supplementary). [A problem requiring a construction] 4 WORKED EXERCISE: Find e in the diagram opposite. the two angles marked a and {3 are called cointerior angles. LM FG = 110 0 (alternate angles. ASSUMPTION: Suppose that a transversal • If the lines are parallel. FG II CD). so so LCAB = 65 0 (vertically opposite at A). e = 130 0 • Given that AC c N D WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: II ED. ASSUMPTION: Suppose that a transversal crosses two lines. and give conditions for the two lines to be parallel. because they are inside the two lines C and m. prove that AB II CD. AC II BD). The first group are consequences arising when the lines are parallel. the two angles marked a and {3 are called alternate angles. because they are on alternate sides of the transversal t (they must also be inside the region between the lines C and m). then the lines are parallel.
Find the angles a and (3 in the diagrams below. (b) Repeat part ( a) so that a pair of corresponding angles are about 90° and 120°. lines that are drawn straight are intended to be straight. giving all reasons. Unless otherwise indicated. giving reasons. all reasons must always be given. giving reasons. . Find the angles a and (3 in each figure below. 1. Show that AB II CD B in the diagrams below. (c) Repeat part (a) so that a pair of cointerior angles are both about 80°.288 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Exercise SA NOTE: In each question. (a) (b) (c) (d) c c B A 1l0"ia A ~135O 0 B Cl£~ Clt~ 0 A 0 0 A (e) (f) B B (g) D (h) c~o D C A ~D 0 A 0 ~ 22° T U BAA ~ 0 ex C D A 2. (a) Sketch a transversal crossing two nonparallel lines so that a pair of alternate angles formed by the transversal are about 45° and 65°. (b) (c) C D (a) T (d) T B D T 57° D A C w B D C 4. (a) (b) (c) T A U (d) B B D 35° B B D A C V ex W D T II A A ex 60° V ex ~ U T V W C D W 130° C A C D (e) A T (f) D B (g) T (h) A B ~ U V ex C W 57° D B L/ C A /15)7 D B C T U ex V ~ A W B C 3.
(a) C (c) A (d) 142° 38° D o ~ 63° V 0 B C A D C A B Show that OC . Show that A. giving reasons. (d) 64° 72° E T A 13 a B C F a a E D D C D (e) E B (f) a 120° C ApB a D 28° 17° C B A (g) C A (h) 132° D C A a T B u1<L B T D 7. 8. Give all steps in your arguments. (a) B D (b) F A (c) A c~.. Parallels and Angles 289 5. Show that OD. DEVELOPMENT Show that A. I and b in the diagrams below. Show that AB is not parallel to CD in the diagrams below. Lines. giving all reasons. (3.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 8A Points. (b) (d) (c) (a) c C D~: 13 a 0 B B 38° C ~D (g) D C 4 A D 3a 2a B 4aO E a A Sa D A (e) (f) (h) C B D A D~~ 8a 0 bkB A B D 6.L ~A.L OA. 0 and D are collinear..:/:U:. 0 and C are collinear. (a) A (b) B B D ( c) C (d ) B D V S00 w w C =S=S0.D T T U A C A C B D T . Find the angles a. Find the angles a and (3 in each diagram below.
6. 0 and D are not collinear. Find the angle a in each diagram below. 13 F Show that = 180 0 . 0 and C are not collinear. (a) T T "+.(a + . (a) c B ~A (b) F G E D (c) H D E c Which two lines in the diagram above are parallel? Which two lines in the diagram above form a right angle? N arne all straight angles and vertically opposite angles in the diagram.B A A E 4<1>24° 498° U 9+28 0 V B D T W 11. 00' D s f a E 13 F E Show that = a . cp in the diagrams below.Q R (d) a T "+. (a) x y (b) ~+ A:E B 00 (c) p.U A~B a+13 .U X ". Show that f EP//AB. .290 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 9.Q a a C D F R rc=CCC=0~ 12 0 S z E 60° s 13.6). Find () and Show that 0 D is not perpendicular to ~A. 12. f Show that = a +.+ y (b) R z T ALB y C (c) . Show that A. (b) B (a) (c) w (d) T A C C_~~OO 918° 98° D 164° B A 6079+4~oHV~. (a) c (b) A (c) 28 0 380 B C (d) B A ~~ 58° 0 25° D A 134~ 0 A C 0 B~ D C 0 Show that OC is not perpendicular to ~A. Show that A.6. giving reasons. 10.
LABD and LDBC are adjacent supplementary angles. (b) What are the possible configurations of two lines? Draw a diagram of each situation. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ D~ o A 16. Find LF BE in terms of k and C. What are three other ways of determining a plane? Draw a diagram of each situation. and that FB also divides LDBA in the ratio k : C. (g) a line intersecting a plane. Suppose that EB divides LDBC in the ratio of k : £. (f) a line parallel to a plane. Parallels and Angles 291 14. Given that the line F B bisects L DB C and the line E B bisects LAB D.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 8A Points. Two lines in space are called skew if they neither intersect nor are parallel. In the diagram to the right. There are two possible configurations of a point and a plane. Given the tetrahedron ABC D above. (d) three distinct planes intersecting in three distinct lines. (b) three distinct planes meeting at a line. as shown in the diagram. name all pairs of skew lines such that each passes through two of its vertices. (a) What are the possible configurations of a line and a plane? Draw a diagram of each situation. 18. . LABD and LDBC are adjacent supplementary angles. 19. Either the point is in the plane or it is not. Lines. A \1/ B C 17. The bisectors of adjacent supplementary angles form a right angle. THEOREM: A generalisation of the result in question 14. Show that the angles LAOD and LBOC are supplementary. the line CO is perpendicular to the line AO. prove that LF BE = 90 0 • THEOREM: A C 15. (a) (b) D 0\c A~ B There is only one plane that passes through any three given noncollinear points. In the diagram opposite. (c) three distinct parallel planes. In the diagram to the right. (e) two distinct parallel planes intersecting with a third plane. (c) What are the possible configurations of two planes? Draw a diagram of each situation. and the line DO is perpendicular to the line BO. Give concrete examples of the following: (a) three distinct planes meeting at a point.
292 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 8B Angles in Triangles and Polygons Having introduced angles and intervals. an exterior angle and the interior angle adjacent to it are adjacent angles on a straight line. II BC). and the three points are called its vertices (the singular is vertex). so they must be supplementary. and suppose that the side BC is produced to D (the word 'produced' simply means 'extended in the direction BC'). four such intervals form a quadrilateral. Then the angle LAC D between the side AC and the extended side CD is called an exterior angle of the triangle.. B CONSTRUCTION: Construct X AY through the vertex A parallel to BC. GIVEN: Let ABC be a triangle. Also. the intersections of these lines form the vertices of the triangle. Provided no two are parallel. Triangles: A triangle is formed by taking any three noncollinear points A. ~C A Exterior Angles of a Triangle: Suppose that ABC is a triangle. PROOF: and Hence LX AB LY AC a + j3 + . Band C and constructing the intervals AB. The exterior angles and interior angles are related as follows. LB = j3 and LC = . they must be equal in size. and our first task is to prove that their sum is always 180 0 • 5 COURSE THEOREM: The sum of the interior angles of a triangle is a straight angle. BC and CA. Let LA = a. . X AY 0 = 180 (straight angle). B c c Alternatively. we can now begin to develop the relationships between the sizes of angles and the lengths of intervals. =. Sections 8C8E then study the relationships between angles and lengths in triangles and quadrilaterals. Accordingly. AIM: To prove that a + j3 + . There are two exterior angles at each vertex. = 180 0 • KAY II BC). they form a triangle. D 6 COURSE THEOREM: An exterior angle of a triangle equals the sum of the interior opposite angles. X AY (alternate angles. this section is a study of angles A in polygons. a f''cb Interior Angles of a Triangle: A triangle is a closed figure. When three intervals are joined into a closed figure. an arbitrary number of such intervals form a polygon. The three intervals are called the sides of the triangle. and because they are vertically opposite. band c. and more generally. a triangle can be formed by taking three nonconcurrent lines a. meaning that it divides the plane into an inside and an outside. The three angles inside the triangle at the vertices are called the interior angles. = j3 (alternate angles.
and no vertex angle can be 180°.ABC and l::. AIM: To prove that LAC D = a + {3. BA II CZ). B CONSTRUCTION: Join the diagonal AC. (alternate angles.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 88 Angles in Triangles and Polygons 293 GIVEN: Let ABC be a triangle with BC produced to D. and their four endpoints are called vertices. BA II CZ).ABP). . D . the intervals are called sides. BP so () = 75° (exterior angle of l::.I{! D WORKED EXERCISE: Find () in each diagram below. meaning that all its interior angles are less than 180°. z /. Let LA = a and LB = {3. and the interior angles of l::.. . but only one diagonal of a nonconvex quadrilateral lies inside it. PROOF: and Hence LZCD = {3 LACZ = a LAC D = a (corresponding angles. The intervals joining pairs of opposite vertices are called diagonals . II CQ). labelled so that the diagonal AC lies inside the figure. 7 COURSE THEOREM: The sum of the interior angles of a quadrilateral is two straight angles.ACX).ABC have sum 180°.ABC).. so () = 50° (angle sum of l::. or nonconvex. In both cases. + {3 (adjacent angles).ADC.ADC have sum 180°. (b) LPBC = 110° (corresponding angles. we can prove that the sum of the interior angles is 360°. A CONSTRUCTION: Construct the ray CZ through the vertex C parallel to BA. AIM: To prove that LABC + LBCD + LCDA + LDAB = 360°. As with triangles. (a) A (b) Q B SOLUTION: ~ X C A (a) LC = 30° (angle sum of l::. (The sides can't cross each other.. Quadrilaterals: A quadrilateral is a closed plane figure bounded by four intervals. But the interior angles of quadrilateral ABC D are the sums of the interior angles of l::. Hence the sum of the interior angles of ABC D is 360°. meaning that one interior angle is greater than 180°. . A  PROOF: The interior angles of l::. GIVEN: Let ABC D be a quadrilateral. .notice that both diagonals of a convex quadrilateral lie inside the figure.) A quadrilateral may be convex.
and the following proof is restricted to that case. An be a convex polygon. The Exterior Angles of a Polygon: An exterior angle of a convex polygon at any vertex is the angle between one side produced and the other side... AnOA I . or nonconvex. with size 360 0 • Hence for the interior angles of the polygon. OA 2 . PROOF: The angle sum of the n triangles is 180n o • But the angles at 0 form a revolution. A 20A 3 . because they would have to involve negative angles. We will ignore exterior angles of nonconvex polygons. .360 0 = 180(n  2t.this is carried through in question 23 of the following exercise.. OAn. 8 COURSE THEOREM: The interior angles of an nsided polygon have sum 180( n2t.. and construct the intervals OAI. To prove that LAI + LA2 + . sum = 180n 0 . the proof requires mathematical induction because we need to keep chopping off a triangle whose angle sum is 180 0 . . When the polygon is nonconvex. Notice that even a nonconvex polygon must have at least one diagonal completely inside the figure. ••• . GIVEN: AIM: Let Al A2 . The situation is far easier when the polygon is convex. polygons can be convex.294 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Polygons: A polygon is a closed figure bounded by any number of straight sides (polygon is a Greek word meaning 'manyangled'). just as in a triangle. Here are some of the names: 3 sides: triangle 4 sides: quadrilateral 5 sides: pentagon 6 sides: hexagon 7 sides: heptagon 8 sides: octagon 9 sides: nonagon 10 sides: decagon 12 sides: dodecagon A pentagon An octagon A dodecagon Like quadrilaterals. There is a surprisingly simple formula for the sum of the exterior angles.. . + LAn = 180(n  2t. The following theorem generalises the theorems about the interior angles of triangles and quadrilaterals to polygons with any number of sides.. meaning that at least one interior angle is greater than 180 0 • A polygon is convex if and only if everyone of its diagonals lies inside the figure. A polygon is named according to the number of sides it has. and there must be at least three sides or else there would be no enclosed region. giving n triangles A I OA 2 . CONSTRUCTION: Choose any point 0 inside the polygon. meaning that every interior angle is less than 180 0 .
giving reasons.2)0 • each mtenor angle IS '"12 Substitution of 12 = 3 and 12 = 4 gives the familiar results that each angle of an equilateral triangle is 60 0 . the interior and exterior angles add to 180 0 . the exterior angle at each vertex is the angle one turns at that vertex. using the formula.. angI · . so the sum of all interior and exterior angles is 18012 0 • But the interior angles add to 180(12 . Hence the exterior angles must add to 2 X 180 0 = 360 0 • PROOF: Exterior Angles as the Amount of Turning: If one walks around a polygon. the amount of turning is always 360 0 (provided that the curve doesn't cross itself). In this way.. 1. lines that are drawn straight are intended to be straight. 180(12 . 180 X 10 Alternatively. 7 The exterior angles have sum 360 0 . all reasons must always be given.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 88 Angles in Triangles and Polygons 295 9 COURSE THEOREM: The sum of the exterior angles of a convex polygon is 360 0 • At each vertex. so each exterior angle is 360 0 Hence each interior angle is 150 0 (angles in a straight angle). Thus the sum of all the exterior angles is the amount of turning when one walks right around the polygon. SOLUTION: 12 = 30 0 • Exercise 88 NOTE: In each question. Unless otherwise indicated. the theorem can be generalised to say that when one walks around any closed curve. Simple division gives: COURSE THEOREM: 10 In an nsided regular polygon: 0 . (a) C (b) C (c) C (d) C A n B e A B A ~ B A B .2t. • eac h extenor e IS 360 12 . Regular Polygons: A regular polygon is a polygon in which all sides are equal and all interior angles are equal. and the previous theorem can be interpreted as saying just that. Clearly walking around a polygon involves a total turning of 360 0 . each interior angle is 12 = 150 0 . . Use the angle sum of a triangle to find () in the diagrams below.. and each angle of a square is 90 0 • WORKED EXERCISE: Find the sizes of each exterior angle and each interior angle in a regular 12sided polygon.
(i) interior angle. By drawing a diagram. (a) A (b) A (c) (d) D 8 C B D L D A C D 3. (a) a convex pentagon. (a) C (b) D ( c) ( d) 78° A A B 8 A B A L1 8 D C B D (e) C D (f) 100° c (g) D C (h) 140° D 8 B 8 A A ~ 8 28 B A 4.) 1 0 . (f) 12 sides. (d) 9 sides. giving reasons. and verify that the number of diagonals of a polygon with n sides is ~n( n .2 triangles: 2t (a) a pentagon. 6. Use the angle sum of a quadrilateral to find B in the diagrams below. of a regular polygon with: (e) 10 sides. (b) 6 sides. (ii) exterior angle. giving reasons. (This will be proven by mathematical induction in question 23. 5. Use the exterior angle of a triangle theorem to find B. find the number of diagonals of each polygon. (a) Find the number of sides of a regular polygon if each interior angle is: (ii) 144 0 (iii) 172 0 (iv) 178 0 (b) Find the number of sides of a regular polygon if its exterior angle is: (i) 135 0 (ii) 40 0 (iii) 18 0 (iv) 2" (i) 72 0 (c) Why is it not possible for a regular polygon to have an interior angle equal to 123°? (d) Why is it not possible for a regular polygon to have an exterior angle equal to 71 O? 7. Demonstrate the formula 180( n for the angle sum of a polygon by drawing examples of the following nonconvex polygons and dissecting them into n . (c) an octogon. Find the size of each (b) a hexagon. (c) a convex octagon. (d) a dodecagon.296 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (e) C (f) c (g) c (h) 8 8 A 8 B A ~ /e\ B 38 A A ~ ~ A c B 2. ( a) 5 sides.3): (b) a convex hexagon. (c) 8 sides.
giving all reasons. (b) (c ) A (a) (d) CDC A B E 10. (a) C (b) C (c) A (d) A (e) (f) (g) (h) C B C D E (d) D 11. Find the angles a and f3 in the diagrams below. Give all steps in your argument. in the diagrams below. (a) D E (b) a a 800 C C (c) 2a+15° 77° C 110° E 2a160 3ao A A B 4a53° . (a) E (b) A ( c) c (d) 45° 135° C 85° F C D (e) (f) D (h) Q D C a B B 9. Find the value of a in the diagrams below.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 88 Angles in Triangles and Polygons 297 8. Find the values of a in the diagrams below. giving all reasons. Find the angles e and 1. giving all reasons.
_ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ x 13.. COURSE THEOREM: COURSE THEOREM: An alternative approach to proving that the angle sum of a quadrilateral is 360°. construct the line XY through the vertex A parallel to BD. (a) Suppose that a quadrilateral has a pair of parallel sides. A y to D. LABC = (3 and LBCA = . Let ABC be a triangle with BC produced to D. From 0 draw 0 B' in the same direction as AB. (b) Hence determine if it is possible to have these angles in the ratio: (i) ~ (ii). and pick a point 0 outside the polygon. Construct the line C E through C parallel to BA. Show that a = 72° and (3 = 36°. Show that a = (3. An alternative proof that the angle sum of a triangle is 180°. A E B LJL c D 15. Let LCAB = a. Use alternate angles twice to prove that LAC D = a + (3. (a) What is the sum of the angles at O? (b) How are the exterior angles of the polygon related to the angles at O? B D' E' C' /JEB' F' G' A' . Use the theorems about angles in triangles to prove that the interior angle sum of quadrilateral ABC D is 360°. Next draw OC' in the same direction as BC. Draw a polygon ABC D . (a) C B (b) A (c) B (d) c B D C 2ex 3~ 2ex~ ex A C ~ D ex A D 0 ex A ~ B Show that a + (3 = 90°. Convince yourself that the sum of the exterior angles of a polygon is 360° by carrying out the following constructions. and name them AB and CD as shown.298 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 12. Prove the given relationships in the diagrams below. The diagrams show the result for the heptagon ABC DEFG. Let LCAB = a and LABC = (3. Prove that a + (3 + . An alternative proof of the exterior Given a triangle ABC with BC produced ~.. = 180°.. (a) Determine the ratio of the sum of the interior angles to the sum of the exterior angles in a polygon with n sides.. Use the assumptions about parallel lines and transversals to prove that the interior angle sum of quadrilateral ABC D is 360°. D A ~ B E E 17. Extend sides AB and DC to meet at E as shown. (b) Suppose that in quadrilateral ABC D there is no pair of parallel sides. D 14. COURSE THEOREM: angle theorem. 16. Show that ABIICD and ADIIBC. Then do the same for CD and so on around the polygon.
and LADB = D. and joining the diagonal PIPk to form a triangle and a polygon with k sides. Three lines with nonzero gradients mI. of these three equal angles? y c 20. convex or nonconvex. what is the length of the sides of the second polygon? 21. The acute angles a. (d) In each case. is 180( n . (b) Now suppose that L C E F is the interior angle of another A B E F regular polygon with m sides. (a) Find the size of LCEF as a function of n. Let LABD = {3. that opposite sides are parallel. and the bisector of LABC meets AC at D. (b) Prove that if all angles of a hexagon are equal. Suppose that a regular polygon has n sides of length l. Show that D = 45° + B t. (c) Prove more generally that this holds for polygons with 2n sides. (b) The three angles of a triangle PQ R form a geometric sequence. TRIGONOMETRY IN GEOMETRY: 25. a polygon with n sides has tn( n . (a) A quadrilateral in which all angles are equal need not have all sides equal (it is in fact a rectangle). Produce AB to F. LACB = . What is: ( a) the smallest possible size. if the first polygon has sides of length 1. Pk+I and PI of the (k + l)gon so that LPkPk+IPI is acute. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 24. Begin with a triangle. which has no diagonals. Band C. (a) What will be the length of the side of the regular polygon with 2n sides that is formed by cutting off the vertices of the given polygon? (b) Confirm your answer in the case of: (i) cutting the corners off an equilateral triangle to form a regular hexagon. Show that the smallest angle and the common ratio cannot both be integers. MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION IN GEOMETRY: (a) Use mathematical induction to prove that for n 2': 3. SEQUENCES AND GEOMETRY: (a) The three angles of a triangle ABC form an arithmetic sequence. LC AB = 90°.m21· 1 + mIm2 . Show that the middlesized angle is 60°. m2 and m3 intersect at the points A. (c) Hence find all pairs of regular polygons that are related in this way. 22. (ii) cutting the corners off a square to form a regular octagon. nevertheless. Find m in terms of n. are TRIGONOMETRY IN GEOMETRY: found using the usual formula tan a = I mI .3) diagonals.2)°. 23. {3 and" between each pair of lines. (b) Use mathematical induction to prove that the sum of the interior angles of any polygon with n 2': 3 sides. Three of the angles in a convex quadrilateral are equal. Let AB. and produce DC to meet AF at E. BC and CD be three consecutive sides of a regular polygon with n sides.. 19. Prove. then opposite sides are parallel. (b) the largest possible size.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 88 Angles in Triangles and Polygons 299 18. Begin the induction step by choosing three adjacent vertices P k . In the rightangled triangle ABC opposite.
and all interior angles equal. The congruence sets up a correspondence between the elements of the two figures. (b) If the signs of ml. In this correspondence.ABC are acute. angles. symmetry is handled by means of congruence. • matching regions have the same area. • matching intervals have the same length. if one figure can be moved to coincide with the other figure by means of a sequence of rotations. Congruence: Two figures are called congruent if one figure can be picked up and placed so that it fits exactly on top of the other figure. none of which are vertical and none horizontal. using the language of transformations: CONGRUENCE: 11 Two figures Sand T are called congruent. In a polygon with n sides. reflections and translations.ABC is obtuse. what can be deduced about the sign of mlm2m3? 26.300 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (a) If one of the angles of !::o.ABC? (c) If all angles of !::o. what can be deduced about !::o. and later through the more general idea of similarity. • matching angles have the same size. written as S == T. PROPERTIES OF CONGRUENT FIGURES: 12 If two figures are congruent. . lengths and areas are preserved. In Euclidean geometry. It is only by these methods that relationships between lengths and angles can be established. Counting clockwise turns as negative and anti clockwise turns as positive. through how many revolutions would you turn if you followed the alphabet around the following figures? (a) D (b) F G (c) F E F C A C G C B B 8C Congruence and Special Triangles As in all branches of mathematics. More precisely. 27. determine the sign of the product of the gradients of all the sides. m2 and m3 are all the same. symmetry is a vital part of geometry. explain why one of the acute angles found must be the sum of the other two.
and LR = LC (angle sums of triangles). A P 6ABC == 6PQ R (SAS). there is no ASS test two sides and a nonincluded angle . A R Hence QR = BC and RP = CA (matching sides of congruent triangles). (RHS). and the final line is the conclusion. almost all of our congruence arguments concern congruent triangles. Hence LP = LA. Using the Congruence Tests: A fully setout congruence proof has five lines . Hence LP = LA. Subsequent deductions from the congruence follow these five lines. LQ = LB and LR = LC (matching angles of congruent triangles).and we constructed two noncongruent triangles with the same ASS specifications.p A A ~p R Q 2 S 8 B 7 c C 6ABC == 6PQR (5SS). all vertices should be named in corresponding order. Throughout the congruence proof.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry Be Congruence and Special Triangles 301 Congruent Triangles: In practice. but we shall take them as assumptions. where they were related to the sine and cosine rules. and have already been discussed in Sections 4H~4J of the Year 11 volume. Hence LP = LA. These standard tests are known from earlier years. the next three set out the three pairs of equal sides or angles."S_. . or two sides and the included angle of one triangle are respectively equal to two sides and the included angle of another triangle. LR = LC and P R = AC (matching sides and angles of congruent triangles).the first line introduces the triangles. or the hypotenuse and one side of one right triangle are respectively equal to the hypotenuse and one side of another right triangle. or two angles and one side of one triangle are respectively equal to two angles and the matching side of another triangle. Euclid's geometry book proves four tests for the congruence of two triangles. Each of the four standard congruence tests is used in one of the next four proofs. Q . Here are examples of the four tests. STANDARD CONGRUENCE TESTS FOR TRIANGLES: SSS SAS 13 AAS RHS Two triangles are congruent if: the three sides of one triangle are respectively equal to the three sides of another triangle. As mentioned in those sections. LR = LC and PQ = AB (matching sides and angles of congruent triangles).
QOM. BC = DA (given). 3.POM == L. so L. To prove that LB = LC. B o A WORKED EXERCISE: Prove that L. LBAM = LCAM (construction). and the side opposite the apex is called the base. L.CDA (SSS). 3. 2. giving a test for a triangle to be isosceles. and hence that AD II BC. GIVEN: Let ABC be a triangle in which LB = LC = . PROOF: In the triangles ABC and CDA: 1. then the angles opposite those sides are equal. so Hence LBCA = LDAC (matching angles). The two equal sides are called the legs of the triangle (the Greek word 'isosceles' literally means 'equal legs'). . Let the bisector of LA meet BC at M. OM = OM (common).302 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 WORKED EXERCISE: The point M lies inside the arms of the acute angle LAOB.ABC == L. D lSI C A Isosceles Triangles: An isosceles triangle is a triangle in which two sides are equal. their intersection is called the apex.POM == L. C 14 COURSE THEOREM: If two sides of a triangle are equal. Prove that L. B A Test for a Triangle to be Isosceles: COURSE THEOREM: The converse of this result is also true. 2.ACM (SAS). so Hence LPOM = LQOM (matching angles).CDA. 15 Conversely. GIVEN: AIM: Let ABC be an isosceles triangle with AB = AC.ABM == L. if two angles of a triangle are equal.3. It is well known that the base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal. then the sides opposite those angles are equal.QOM (RHS). LOP M = LOQM = 90 0 (given). PM = QM (given).ABC == L. AB = AC (given). The perpendiculars M P and M Q to 0 A and 0 B respectively have equal lengths. 3. PROOF: In the triangles POM and QOM: 1. L. AC = CA (common). AM = AM (common). Hence LABM = LACM (matching angles of congruent triangles). AB = CD (given). and so AD II BC (alternate angles are equal). 2. A CONSTRUCTION: PROOF: In the triangles AB M and AC M: 1. and that OM bisects LAOB.
LB = LC (given). WORKED EXERCISE: Construct a circle with centre on the end A of an interval AX. Hence ~ B T M ~ C Equilateral Triangles: An equilateral triangle is a triangle in which all three sides are equal. all three sides are equal. An altitude of a triangle is the perpendicular from a vertex to the opposite side. and so LF AB = LGAB = 60°.ABC.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry Be Congruence and Special Triangles 303 AIM: To prove that AB = AC. that is. Hence f::. The following worked exercise shows how to construct an angle of 60° using straight edge and compasses. AM=AM (common). Then all three angles are equal. Then all three sides are equal.ACM (AAS). Circles and Isosceles Triangles: A circle is the set of all points that are a fixed distance (called the radi us) from a fixed point (called the centre).ABM == f::. . 3. if all angles of a triangle are equal. construct a circle meeting the first circle at F and G. and the following property of and test for an equilateral triangle follow easily from the previous theorem and its converse. PROOF: In the triangles AB M and AC M: 1. If two points on the circumference are joined to the centre and to each other. then it is equilateral. Conversely. f::. PROOF: Suppose that the triangle is equilateral. 16 COURSE THEOREM: All angles of an equilateral triangle are equal to 60°. AF = AB = AG = BF = BG. In the diagram to the right. These two words are useful when talking about triangles.AF Band f::.ABC. A CONSTRUCTION: Let the bisector of LA meet BC at M. LBAM = LCAM (construction) . The point M is the midpoint of BC.AG B are both equilateral triangles. It is therefore an isosceles triangle in three different ways. Compasses are used for drawing circles. meeting the ray AX at B. With centre B and the same radius. Prove that LF AB = LGAB = 60°. and since their sum is 180° . then the equal radii mean that the triangle is isosceles. where the compasspoint is fixed in the paper. suppose that all three angles are equal. so AB=AC (matching sides of congruent triangles). c . AP is one of the three altitudes in f::. they must each be 60°. Ak'}J X PROOF: Because they are all radii of congruent circles. and AM is one of the three medians in f::. A Medians and Altitudes: A median of a triangle joins a vertex to the midpoint ofthe opposite side. Conversely. because the pencil is held at a fixed distance from the centre. 2. meaning that the triangle is equilateral.
naming the vertices in matching order and giving a reason. (a) A DB Q~ 45° 5 5 45° B C p (b) D 10 C R A ~ 10 B R (c) E (d) 12 7 7 A P Q 30° 8 G~E 8 x F 2. In each part. lines that are drawn straight are intended to be straight. Name the congruent triangles in the correct order and state which test justifies the congruence. 1. identify the congruent triangles.304 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Exercise Be NOTE: In each question. Unless otherwise indicated. Hence deduce the size of the angle (). (a)c ~ ~ 5 12 A 13 B (b) Z 6 4 V 8 F 86° E Y 4 6 D 13 W . all reasons must always be given. naming the vertices in matching order and giving a reason. Hence deduce the length of the side x. identify the congruent triangles. In each part. The two triangles in each pair below are congruent. (a) A ~ 8 B c (b) I x D 3D" 55° E H 8 J p (c) s J6I 5 x/{ ~5 T v (d) 4 U Q 4 R L 12 M 3.
(a) A (c) (d) 48° P B D Q T 42° 8 R C Q C (e) (f) L (g) R (h) K 8 N s T L 1 5. another student wrotel::. Again. the base angles LB and LC are equal. What is the correct reason? G When asked to show that the two triangles above were congruent. Let M be any point on the base BC of an isosceles triangle ABC.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry Be Congruence and Special Triangles 305 (c) (d) 1 H 13~13 D c (b) P P F Q 4. In each part. (a) w (b) c v When asked to show that the two triangles above were congruent. What is the correct reason? 6. explain why the reason given is incorrect. and the side AM is common.UVW (RHS). Although both triangles are indeed rightangled.RST == l::. giving reasons. Find the size of angle () in each diagram below. (a) A c (b) B (c) c D B D D A A 7. although both triangles are rightangled. prove that the two triangles in the diagram are congruent.ABC (RHS).GH I == l::. is it possible to prove that the triangles ABM and AC M are congruent? . explain why the reason given is wrong. Using the facts that the legs AB and AC are equal. a student wrote l::.
Construct an arc with centre A. (i) Use the properties of reflections to explain why reflection in AM exchanges Band G. A'+X x . The interval AM bisects LBAG. construct an arc meeting the second arc at G. (a) What rotational and reflection symmetries does an isosceles triangle have? (b) What rotational and reflection symmetries does an equilateral triangle have? 10.l BG.306 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 8. construct a second arc meeting the first one at G.. Let LXOY be an angle and P Z be an interval. construct an arc with centre P. and hence explain why LB = LG. CONSTRUCTION: Copying an angle. name all the axes of symmetry of the triangle. 11. (ii) Name all the axes of symmetry of ~ABG. (a) c 5 R (b) c 5 u 5 A 6 B P 6 A 6 B S 6 T 9. Construct an arc with centre 0 meeting OX at A and OY at B. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 12. (a) Prove that ~AOB == ~FPG. meeting PZ at F. .. G/ F z . INTERPRETING THE PROPERTIES OF ISOSCELES AND EQUILATERAL TRIANGLES USING TRANSFORMATIONS: ( a) Sketched on the right is an isosceles triangle ~B AG with AB = AG. (b) Hence prove that LAOB = LFPG.. With radius AB and centre F. and why A AM . (b) The triangle ~ABG on the right is equilateral. (i) Using part (a). prove that ~ABD and ~GBD are isosceles.. and hence why LBAG = 60 0 • 13. Explain why ~ABG is equilateral. meeting the line AX at B. . CONSTRUCTION: Constructing an angle of 60 0 • Let AX be an interval. and hence explain why each interior angle is 60 0 • (ii) Describe all rotation symmetries of the triangle. (a) E A (b) c c A A ~GDB in the diaGiven that ~ABD gram above. With the same radius but with centre B. Explain why the given pairs of triangles cannot be proven to be congruent.l DB. prove that ~BDE is isosceles. With the same radius. why M bisects BG. If DM = M Band AG .
(c) Prove that BE = EC. The diagonals AC and DB of quadrilateral ABCD are equal and intersect at X. (b) Prove that 6ABC == 6BAD. D is the midpoint of AB.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry Be Congruence and Special Triangles 307 14. the median AM has been constructed. AD = BC. c D~__ c 18. 17. show that AM bisects LCAB and that BM = MC. (c) Hence show that LDAC = LCBD. where 6ABC is isosceles with AB = AC. LCAB = LABD = CY. Also. show that it is also the perpendicular bisector. (b) If AM is the altitude from A perpendicular to BC. A A (a) Prove that LADE is a right angle. 15. (b) Prove that 6AED == 6BED. (a) Show that 6ABC == 6BAD. and DE is parallel to BC. and begin by proving that 6AM B == 6AMC. Let ABC be an isosceles triangle with AB = AC. (d) Show that AB II DC. A (a) If AM is the angle bisector of LA. For each proof. Prove that 6AM B is congruent to 6AM C. In each part you will prove a property of an isosceles triangle. THEOREM: Properties of isosceles triangles. (c) Thus show that 6C D X is also isosceles. use the same diagram. (b) Draw your own triangle ABC. AB (a) Show that II DC and CE = DE. show that it is also the perpendicular bisector of BC. and hence that LB = LC. (a) In the diagram above. In the diagram. and hence that LB = LC. B M c (c) If AM is the median joining A to the midpoint M of BC. COURSE THEOREM: Three alternative proofs that the base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal. but with the vertices in a different order. 16. Prove that the triangles AM Band AMC are congruent. (i) Prove that 6ABC == 6ACB. (ii) Hence prove that LB = LC. B . (b) Hence show that 6ABX is isosceles. Triangle ABC has a right angle at B. because it uses no construction at all. A A B M c (c) This is the most elegant proof. and on it construct the altitude AM. The two congruent triangles are the same triangle.
6.6. AE bisects LCAB and BE bisects LCBD. and LQPR = 48°. PENTAGONS AND TRIGONOMETRY: ABCDE is a regular pentagon with side length X. The line of centres 0 P intersects AB at M.ABO and . (a) Explain why .ABC is isosceles and find LCAB. (b) Show that . LCAB = LCBA = 0:. (b) Find LDC B in terms of 0: and (3. (c) Show that . The point X is constructed on AY so that LABX = LACB. (i) If .6.6.ABE is isosceles with LA = LE. LADX = LCDX. 22. (c) Hence find LEDB in terms of (3.ABC. (b) Show that .6.ABC.ABP are isosceles. AL!4.6. A A = = 23. (i) Prove that AD = CD. (a) A In . (a) State why . 20.ABC is isosceles with LA = LB.BOP. (ii) Hence prove that AB = C B. under what circumstances will . THEOREM: The line of centres of two intersecting circles is the perpendicular bisector of the common chord.PQ R is isosceles with PQ = PR.AOP . The bisectors of LPQR and LP RS meet at the point T.BMO.6.6.ABC is also isosceles.6. D The diagonals AC and B D of quadrilateral ABC D meet at right angles at X.6. The diagram to the right shows two circles intersecting at A and B. show that .6.AMO . AB is produced to D. Construct D on AB and Eon CB so that CD = CEo Let LACD = (3. The interval QR is produced to S. (ii) If .6.BXY is isosceles.6.6. (d) Hence show that AM = BM and AB LOP. Prove that .AB E be isosceles? (b) B B y c The bisector of LBAC meets BC at Y.6.308 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 19. (a) ~AT Q P (b) ~S R f6lE C A B D In the diagram. (ii) Find LQT R.DEA.6. c (a) Explain why LC DB = 0: + (3. In . (c) Find LC AD. = B E . (d) Find an expression for the area of the pentagon in terms of x and trigonometric ratios. (i) Find LPQR. Each interior angle is 108°.ABC .6. Also. 21. .
with D on the side BC and E on the side AC. (c) Hence prove that OA = OB = ~C. (c) [Extremely difficult] Suppose that AD and BE are angle bisectors. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 28. (c) Hence prove that OM bisects LAOB. THREE TESTS FOR ISOSCELES TRIANGLES: Consider the triangle ABC. and they have a common vertex O. and OB at Rand S respectively. and A is the image of C after a rotation of 90 0 (anti clockwise) about B. Co N STR U CTIO N: Another construction to bisect an angle. cutting OA at P and Q respectively. [HINT: Let F be the foot of the altitude from C to BD. (a) Prove that 6POS == 6ROQ. Find the location of M. Construct P between C and A so that C P = C B. Given LAO B. Prove that AC = B D. Show that 6ABC is isosceles. (b) Prove that 60QA == 60QC. Add the points G and H. (b) [More difficult] Suppose that AD and BE are medians. Let the perpendiculars from Q and R meet at 0. (a) Prove that 60RA == 60RB. A GEOMETRIC INEQUALITY: A c B A c The angle opposite a longer side of a triangle is larger than the angle opposite a shorter side. C A and AB of 6ABC. (b) Explain why LC BP = (). Show that 6ABC is isosceles. Let PS and QR meet at M.BC. the midpoint of AE. and show that this location is independent of the choice of C. A point C is chosen anywhere in the plane. and AD = BE. Show that 6ABC is isosceles. and the resulting circumcentre is the centre of the circumcircle through all three vertices.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry Be Congruence and Special Triangles 309 24. (a) Explain why a < (). 26. Q and R be the midpoints of the sides BC. THE CIRCUMCENTRE THEOREM: The perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle are concurrent. Let P. draw two concentric circles with centre 0. (c) Hence prove that a < LCBA. and let a = LA and () = LCPB. to the diagram. E is the image of C after a rotation of 90 0 (clockwise) about D. A E c A .] 29. Suppose that 6ABC is a triangle in which C A > C B. Band D are fixed points on a horizontal line. 25. A D B c 27. In the diagram. (a) [Straightforward] Suppose that AD and BE are altitudes. OC and OP. and OP 1. and AD = BE. OB. and AD = BE. A ROTATION THEOREM: The triangles OAB and OCD in the figure drawn to the right are both equilateral triangles. the two images of F under the two rotations. and join OA. (b) Hence prove that 6P MQ == 6RM S.
Notice that a parallelogram is a special sort of trapezium. Hence AP BQ is a parallelogram. however. ° . the diagonals of AP BQ bisect each other. are an essential part of the course. • A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel. Prove that AP BQ is a parallelogram. the sides and the diagonals. This section deals with trapezia and parallelograms. and the following section deals with rhombuses. Let £ meet the inner circle at A and B. rectangles and squares. and concentric circles are constructed with centre 0. and let m meet the outer circle at P and Q. If careful definitions are first given of five special quadrilaterals. COURSE THEOREM: 18 • • • • If a quadrilateral is a parallelogram. and should be carefully studied. or • one pair of opposite sides are equal and parallel. then: adjacent angles are supplementary. and opposite angles are equal. these theorems can then be stated very elegantly as properties of these special quadrilaterals and tests for them. The proofs. DEFINITIONS: 17 • A trapezium is a quadrilateral with at least one pair of opposite sides parallel. A trapezium A parallelogram Properties of and Tests for Parallelograms: The standard properties and tests concern the angles. or • the opposite sides are equal. or • the diagonals bisect each other. PROOF: Since the point is the midpoint of AB and of PQ.310 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 8D Trapezia and Parallelograms There are a series of important theorems concerning the sides and angles of quadrilaterals. WORKED EXERCISE: [A construction of a parallelogram] Two lines £ and m intersect at 0. These theorems have been treated in earlier years. Conversely. a quadrilateral is a parallelogram if: • the opposite angles are equal. Definitions of Trapezia and Parallelograms: These figures are defined in terms of parallel sides. and most proofs have been left to structured questions in the following exercise. and opposite sides are equal. and the diagonals bisect each other.
Place a ruler with two parallel edges fiat on the page. Construct two circles C and V with the common centre o. (a ) (b) (c ) 3a 3. What theorem tells us that ABQP is a parallelogram? CONSTRUCTION: Constructing a parallelogram from its diagonals. Show that sin A = sin B = sin C = sin D. then the quadrilateral must be a parallelogram? 6. CONSTRUCTION: Constructing a parallelogram from two equal parallel intervals. Construct two lines £ and m meeting at o. PROPERTIES OF A PARALLELOGRAM: In this question.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 80 Trapezia and Parallelograms 311 Exercise 8D NOTE: In each question. lines that are drawn straight are intended to be straight. 1. m 5. show that sin A = sinB = sinC = sinD. Solve this equation to find the angles a and {3. (a) a (b) 108° (c) ~ 78° (d) 65° ~ a II ( d) 2. (b) Quadrilateral ABC D is a trapezium with AB II DC and with LA = LB. giving reasons. 4. Find the angles a and {3 in the diagrams below. Use the tests for a parallelogram to explain why the quadrilateral ABC D is a parallelogram. and draw 4 cm intervals AB and PQ on each side of the ruler. you must use the definition of a parallelogram as a quadrilateral in which the opposite sides are parallel. and the other pair are equal. Is it true that if one pair of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are parallel. giving reasons. Explain why LA + LB = 180 0 and LA = LC. giving reasons. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 8. D c B . Let £ meet C at A and C. Write down an equation for a in each diagram below. all reasons must always be given. and let m meet V at Band D. (a) What rotation and refiection symmetries does every parallelogram have? (b) Can a trapezium that is not a parallelogram have any symmetries? B 7. TRIGONOMETRY: (a) If ABCD is a parallelogram. (a) COURSE THEOREM: Adjacent angles ofaparallelogram are supplementary. and opposite angles are equal. The diagram shows a parallelogram ABC D. Unless otherwise indicated.
(ii) Hence use the previous theorem to prove that the quadrilateral ABC D is a parallelogram. and also that LACB = LCAD. The diagram shows a parallelogram ABC D with diagonals meeting at M. then it is a parallelogram.312 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (b) COURSE THEOREM: Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal. A 8 8 B (d) Prove that ABC D is a trapezium. In the diagram. COURSE THEOREM: C (i) Prove that a + {3 = 180 0 • A ~ ~ B (ii) Hence show that AB II DC and AD II BC. D c (i) Prove that 6AC B == 6C AD. (d) COURSE THEOREM: If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other. A B = M C. then it is a parallelogram. Dr_':C (a) Prove that 6BAD == 6ABC. (b) COURSE THEOREM: If the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal. with AM = M C and B M = MD. (ii) Hence show that AD II BC. then it is a parallelogram. (i) Prove that 6ABM == 6CDM. (iii) Hence show that AB II DC and AD II BC. In quadrilateral ABCD. with diagonal AC. 10. then it is a parallelogram. (i) Prove that 6AC B == 6C AD. The diagram shows a quadrilateral ABC D in which AB = DC and AB II DC. (i) Prove that 6AC B == 6C AD. (c) COURSE THEOREM: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. with diagonal AC. The diagram shows a quadrilateral ABC D in which AB = DC and AD = BC. ABC D is a quadrilateral in which the diagonals meet at M. The diagram opposite shows a quadrilateral ABC D in which LA = LC = a and LB = LD = {3. LBAD A A D C B D . (ii) Thus prove that LC AB = LAC D. (ii) Hence show that AB = DC and BC = AD. (a) If the opposite angles of a quadrilateral are equal. (i) Prove that 6ABM == 6CDM (use part (b)). . D TESTS FOR A PARALLELOGRAM: These four theorems give the standard tests for a quadrilateral to be a parallelogram. (ii) Hence show that AM 9.+71 C B D C {g} A B = LABC and AD = BC. The diagram shows a parallelogram ABC D with diagonal AC. (b) Why does LABD (c) Show that = LC AB? LDAC = LDBC. (c) COURSE THEOREM: If one pair of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal and parallel.
] 16. (b) Hence prove that XY is concurrent with the diagonals. Construct BF II AD with F on DC. The points X and Y lie on BC and AD respectively such that BX (a) Explain why LABX = LCDY._____=.CYZ. (c) Hence prove that BQDP is a parallelogram. 13. (b) Explain why AB = CD. suppose that LABC = 00. Quadrilateral ABC D is a parallelogram.ABP == to:. The diagram to the right shows a parallelogram ABC D. (ii) Hence prove that LABC = 00. ( a) Suppose first that AD = BC. (ii) Hence prove that BC = AD. produced if necessary.. Let ABCD be a trapezium with AB II DC. ABC D is a parallelogram. with AX diagonal AC intersects XY at Z.CDY. (b) What type of quadrilateral is DX BY? (c) What condition needs to be placed on DX in order to guarantee that DXBY is a parallelogram'? . A point X is chosen on AB and Y is constructed on DC so that D X = BY. but AD not parallel to BC. (b) Conversely. (b) Prove that ABC D is a trapezium with equal base angles. Prove that the interval DE bisects the angle LADC.AXZ == to:. In the diagram. (b) Prove that to:. The previous two questions could have been solved more easily using the standard prop erties of and tests for a parallelogram. The (a) Prove that to:. 14. THEOREM: The base angles of a trapezium are equal if and only if the nonparallel sides are equal. ex A B 17. 15.ADP == to:.DC M. The diagonals of quadrilateral ABCD meet at M.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 80 Trapezia and Parallelograms 313 11. (a) Prove that to:. draw a picture of the situation. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ Dr_. Explain these alternative proofs. (a) Given that DXBY is not a parallelogram. (a) Draw a diagram showing this information. c x B c 12. = DY. Let LDAB = 00. (i) Prove that BF = AD. (c) Show that to:. 18. The diagram shows the parallelogram ABC D and points X A and Y on AB and CD respectively. = CY. (i) Prove that LBFC = 00. (d) Hence prove that AY C X is a parallelogram. [HINT: Begin by letting LADE = B.ABM == to:.:. The point E is constructed on the side AB in such a way that AD = AE.CDQ. Note that D X is not perpendicular to AB.ABX == to:. The points P and Q lie on this diagonal in such a way that AP = CQ. and to:.CBQ. The diagram shows the parallelogram ABCD with diagonal AC.
its opposite sides are equal. rectangles and squares are particular types of parallelograms. a quadrilateral is a rhombus if: • all sides are equal. COURSE THEOREM: 20 If a quadrilateral is a rhombus. PROOF: Since a rhombus is a parallelogram. Rectangles and Squares Rhombuses. each using o as one vertex. Since also two adjacent sides are equal. Conversely. most of the proofs have been encountered in earlier years. and • the diagonals bisect each vertex angle. As with the parallelogram. THEOREM: The quadrilateral formed by joining the midpoints of the sides of a quadrilateral is a parallelogram. . and are left to the exercises.314 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 19.P BQ and b. all four sides must be equal. and • the diagonals bisect each other at right angles.QPT. a rhombus is a 'pushedover square'. The diagram shows two vectors a and b starting from o. Rand S are the midpoints of BC. or • the diagonals bisect each vertex angle. (c) Hence show that the line joining the midpoints of two adjacent sides of a quadrilateral is parallel to the diagonal joining those two sides. D c 8E Rhombuses. so that the diagonals from 0 represent the vectors: (a) ba (b) ab (c) ab PARALLELOGRAMS AND VECTORS: B c a+b b o a A 20. and that P is the midpoint of AB. the vertex angles and the diagonals. CD and DA respectively. Draw three more parallelograms. the standard properties and tests concern the sides. but its formal definition is: 19 DEFINITION: A rhombus is a parallelogram with a pair of adjacent sides equal. and their definitions in this course reflect that understanding. (a) Explain why P BQT is a parallelogram. (b) Show that the four triangles b. Rhombuses and their Properties and Tests: Intuitively. The parallelogram 0 AC B has been completed so that the diagonal OC represents the vector a + b. b. b. (d) Hence show that PQRS is a parallelogram. the points Q. In quadrilateral ABC D.APT. or • the diagonals bisect each other at right angles. then: • all four sides are equal.TQC are all congruent. Again. The two points P and T lie on AB and AC respectively such that PT = BQ and PT II BQ.
Conversely. Since one angle is 90°. and are left to the exercises. a quadrilateral is a rectangle if: • all angles are equal. Hence the opposite sides AB and PQ are equal. suppose that all angles of a quadrilateral are equal. Then since they add to 360°. This allows a formal definition of the distance between two parallel lines. so the quadrilateral must be a parallelogram. it must be a parallelogram. suppose that all four sides of a quadrilateral are equal. Hence the opposite angles are equal. PROOF: Since a rectangle is a parallelogram. Rectangles and Squares 315 Conversely.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry BE Rhombuses. they must each be 90°. Since opposite sides are equal. The remaining proofs are left to structured exercises. and hence is a rectangle. all angles are right angles. or • the diagonals are equal and bisect each other. The standard properties and tests for a rectangle are: COURSE THEOREM: 22 If a quadrilateral is a rectangle. and the diagonals bisect each other at right angles and meet each side at 45°. its opposite angles are equal and add to 360°. DEFINITION: 24 A square is a quadrilateral that is both a rhombus and a rectangle. because all its vertex angles are right angles. This proves the first and fourth points. Rectangles and their Properties and Tests: of parallelogram. then: • all four angles are right angles. and since two adjacent sides are equal. . Then ABQ P forms a rectangle. it is therefore a rhombus. The remaining proofs are a little more complicated. A square is simply a quadrilateral that is both a rhombus and a rectangle. Conversely. it follows that all angles are 90°. and • the diagonals are equal and bisect each other. DEFINITION: 23 The distance between two parallel lines is the length of a perpendicular transversal. 21 DEFINITION: A rectangle is also defined as a special type A rectangle is a parallelogram in which one angle is a right angle. It follows then from the previous theorems that all sides of a square are equal. Squares: Rhombuses and rectangles are different special sorts of parallelograms. The Distance Between Parallel Lines: Suppose that AB and PQ are two transversals perpendicular to two parallel lines f and m. This proves the first and third points.
. lines that are drawn straight are intended to be straight. (ii) every rhombus have. (iii) every square have? (b) What rotation and reflection symmetries does a circle have? 4. but they occur frequently in problems. The diagonal AC intersects BE at F. however. and let them meet at O. NOTE: 1. Find the sizes of angles 0: and 4>. and let m meet V at Band D. (a) RHOMBUS: Construct any two perpendicular lines £. and bisects the vertex angles at P and Q. Exercise BE In each question. all reasons must always be given. Unless otherwise indicated.316 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 A NOTE ON KITES: Kites are not part of the course. A question below develops the straightforward proof that the diagonal PQ is the perpendicular bisector of the diagonal AB. and m. meet C at A and C. (a) (b) Inside the square ABC D is an equilateral LABE. as in the diagram to the right. where AP = BP and AQ = BQ. and should not be quoted as reasons unless they have been developed earlier in the same question. Construct two circles C and V with the common centre O. A kite is usually defined as a quadrilateral in which two pairs of adjacent sides are equal. Use the standard tests for a rhombus to explain why the quadrilateral ABC D is a rhombus. (a) D (b) (c) (d) c c B D A 2. giving reasons. CONSTRUCTIONS: Constructing a rectangle. ABCD is a rhombus with the diagonal AC shown. are not part of the course. rhombus and square from their diagonals. The line C E bisects LAC B. Q Theorems about kites. Find 0: in each of the figures below. Another question deals with tests for kites. 3. Let £. (a) What rotation and reflection symmetries does: (i) every rectangle have. Show that () = 30:.
Explain. (c) 5. (c) Let (3 = LDAC. congruence in this situation. Use the standard tests for a square to explain why the quadrilateral ABCD is a square. construct an arc with centre 0 and any radius meeting the arms OX and OY at A and B respectively. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ x 6. (b) Hence prove that LCDB = a. (a) Why is the quadrilateral OAMB a rhombus? (b) Hence prove that OM bisects LXOY. and let them meet at O. A = AB. Construct a circle C with centre 0 and any radius. Since a rhombus is a parallelogram. CONSTRUCTION: y construct two further arcs meeting at M. SQUARE: Construct any two perpendicular lines £ and m. we already know that the diagonals bisect each other. Let a. the diagonals of the rhombus ABC D meet at M.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry BE Rhombuses. COURSE THEOREM: c (i) What previous theorem proves that the quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram? (ii) Prove that 6AM D == 6AM B. Prove that LBAC = (3. then it is a rhombus. and let m meet C at Band D. .) (There is no need for B 7. then it is a rhombus. why a quadrilateral with all sides equal must be a rhombus. Use the standard tests for a rectangle to explain why the quadrilateral ABC D is a rectangle. and bisect the vertex angles. Explain why LABD = a. The following three parts are structured proofs of the standard tests for a rhombus listed in the notes above. Let £ meet C at A and C. I and {j be as shown. Rectangles and Squares 317 (b) RECTANGLE: Construct any two nonparallel lines £ and m. The diagram shows a quadrilateral ABC D in which the diagonals bisect each vertex angle. then it is a rhombus. The quadrilateral (c) COURSE THEOREM: If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each vertex angle. Let £ meet C at A and C. With the same radius and with centres A and B. (3. and let them meet at O. using the previous theorems and the definition of a rhombus. The diagram shows a quadrilateral ABC D in which the diagonals bisect each other at right angles at M. COURSE THEOREM: The diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles. TESTS FOR A RHOMBUS: (a) COURSE THEOREM: If all sides of a quadrilateral are equal. and hence that AD ABC D is then a rhombus by definition. Given an angle LXOY. and let m meet C at Band D. (a) Let a = LADB. B D. (b) If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other at right angles. The bisector of a given angle. In the diagram. (d) Hence prove that AC 1. Construct a circle C with centre 0 and any radius.
and explain why LMC B = 13. The points E and F are on the side CD in the square ABCD. prove that AB = AD. . prove that LABC = 90°. a a (ii) Hence prove that ABCD is a rectangle. prove that a = I. (b) COURSE THEOREM: The diagonals of a rectangle are D c equal and bisect each other... PROPERTIES OF RECTANGLES: The following two parts are structured proofs of the stan dard properties of a rectangle listed in the notes above. Produce AE and BF to meet at G. A B (iii) Hence prove that AC = B D. M (i) Explain why ABC D is a parallelogram. The diagram shows a quadrilateral ABC D in which all angles are equal.. : . Use the definition of a rectangle . with CF = DE. TESTS FOR A RECTANGLE: The following two parts are structured proofs of the standard tests for a rectangle listed in the notes above..and the properties of a parallelogram to prove that all four angles of a rectangle are right angles.318 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (i) Prove that a + 13 + 1+0 = 180°. (ii) Hence show that 6ABG is isosceles. meeting at M. A B (b) COURSE THEOREM: If the diagonals of a quadrilateral are equal and bisect each other. then it is a rectD. (i) Prove that 6BCE == 6ADE.as a parallelogram with one angle a right angle . (i) Use the properties of a parallelogram to show that the diagonals bisect each other. The diagram shows a rectangle ABC D. . prove that 13 = o. and explain why LABM = a. C . 10.. with diagonals drawn. (iv) Using the angle sum of the triangle ABC. 9. . (ii) Let a = LBAM. The diagram shows a quadrilateral ABC D in which the diagonals. (i) Prove that 6BCF == 6ADE. (iv) Finally. then it is a rectangle. angle. (ii) By taking the sum of the angles III 6ABC and 6ADC... (ii) Hence show that 6ABE is isosceles. A 8. (iii) Similarly. D c (a) COURSE THEOREM: If all angles of a quadrilateral are a a equal. (a) COURSE THEOREM: All the angles in a rectangle are right angles. and state why ABC D is a parallelogram. (i) Prove that all angles are right angles. (a) C (b) G B The point E is the midpoint of the side CD of the rectangle ABCD. (ii) Prove that 6ABC == 6BAD. are equal and bisect each other. A B (iii) Let 13 = LM BC.
with AP = BQ = CR. intersecting at Q. P is on AB. 16. The line parallel to a given line through a given point.. Rectangles and Squares 319 11. (b) Hence prove that PQRS is a rhombus. greater than ~AB. f. With the same radius. with centres at A and B. With increased radius. (a) Why is the quadrilateral AP BQ a rhombus? (b) Hence prove that PQ bisects AB and PQ 1. It is found that QA = QR and PS = SB. AB. P B . choose a point A on f.. and BP = DQ. construct an arc meeting f at B. (i) Prove that 6AB P == 6C B P == 6ADQ == 6C DQ. draw arcs with centres at A and B. construct an arc with centre P meeting f at A and B. CONSTRUCTION: The perpendicular bisector of an interval. (ii) Show that DECF is a rhombus. Q is on BC and R is on CD. Q £0+::: 14. (i) Explain why is DEC F a parallelogram. 13. P S B (a) Prove that 6BSR == 6RQA. Given a point P on a line f. A c Q A (a) Prove that 6PBQ == 6QCR. In the square ABCD. Given an interval AB./. construct arcs with centres at A and B meeting at M and N. In the triangle ABC. (b) Prove that LPQ R is a right angle. Given a line f and a point P not on f. 17. With centre A and radius AP. construct arcs of the same radius. CONSTRUCTION: A right angle at a point on a line./B \/ Q 15. With the same radius. Let the arcs meet at P and Q. (a) Why is the quadrilateral APQB a rhombus? (b) Hence prove that PQ II f. (a) (b) A B c P and Q lie on the diagonal B D of square ABCD.. The parallelogram PQRS is inscribed in 6P BA with Ron AB.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry BE Rhombuses. DC bisects LBCA. construct an arc with centre P meeting f at A and B. (ii) Hence show that APCQ is a rhombus. DE II AC and DF II BC. 12. draw arcs with centres at Band P meeting at Q. Given a line f and a point P not on f. p A'\\ . (a) Why is the quadrilateral AM BN a rhombus? (b) Hence prove that P lies on M Nand M N 1. CONSTRUCTION: CONSTRUCTION: The line perpendicular to a given line through a given point. (a) Why is the quadrilateral AP BQ a rhombus? (b) Hence prove that PQ 1. AB.
(b) Construct the point S that completes the rectangle APSR. (c) Show that LDAQ is a right angle. (a) Explain why LPBC R Q = LPRA. (c) Hence prove that LPBA =2 X LPBC. 19. (ii) Hence prove that BA = BC.CQD.qcos ()) . and it is found that PQ = QR = AB. TRIGONOMETRY: The quadrilateral ABC D is a parallelogram with AB = p. then the quadrilateral is a kite.] (a) THEOREM: The diagonals of a kite are perpendicular and one bisects the other. AD = q. The diagonals AC and BD intersect at M. (i) Prove that L:. and one is bisected by the other. (a) State why LADB = LCDB. [NOTE: This definition is not part of the course. The triangles ABC and APR are both rightangled at the vertices marked in the diagram. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 21. In the rhombus ABCD.AQD == L:.BC D.BCM. prove that DA D D B c = DC. (i) Prove that L:. The diagram shows a quadrilateral with perpendicular diagonals meeting at M. p . The midpoint of P R is Q. (b) THEOREM: If the diagonals ofa quadrilateral are perpendicular. Two THEOREMS ABOUT KITES: A kite is defined to be a quadrilateral in which two pairs of adjacent sides are equal. Let AE = x. 20.B AD == L:. p > q. and LBAD = ().320 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 18. Explain why Q is also the midpoint of AS and why PQ = AQ. (b) Prove that L:. (ii) Use the properties of the isosceles triangle ABC to prove that DB bisects AC at right angles. and AM = M C. (iii) Similarly. The diagram shows a kite ABC D with AB = BC and AD = DC. Show that p2 _ q2 x= 2(p . AP is constructed perpendicular to BC and intersects the diagonal B D at Q. The points E on AB and F on CD are chosen so that EBF D is a rhombus.BAM == L:. (d) Hence find LQCD.
. and on the assumption that area remains constant when regions are dissected and rearranged. The other four formulae can be proven using the diagrams below. which need to be studied until the logic of each dissection becomes clear. But the diagonals of a square are equal. . C' b ~ u ________ :___________: b .:j . The formula area = ~ X (product of the diagonals) gives another. . Because squares are rhombuses.. The first two formulae below are therefore definitions. approach that is often forgotten in problems.'. . . their areas can also be calculated using the formula area = (base) X (perpendicular height) associated with parallelograms. .. The proof of The Area of the Circle: The area of a circle is this result was discussed in Section lIB of the Year 11 volume as a preliminary to integration . . ~ :Fa+bj~ ]h E x a . some sort of infinite dissection is necessary. which extended the idea of area to regions with curved boundaries. 1fr 2 . 1 __________ p ________ : y . . and their proofs by dissection are reviewed below. . Parallelogram: area c = bh . their area can also be calculated using their diagonals. and quite different. . . .CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry SF Areas of Plane Figures 321 8F Areas of Plane Figures The standard area formulae are well known. Some of them were used in the development of the definite integral. The formulae below apply to figures with straight edges. STANDARD AREA FORMULAE: • SQUARE: • RECTANGLE: PARALLELOGRAM: 25 • • • TRIANGLE: RHOMBUS: • TRAPEZIUM: PROOF: area area area area area area = (side length)2 = (length) X (breadth) (perpendicular height) = ~ X (base) X (perpendicular height) = ~ X (product of the diagonals) = (average of parallel sides) X (perpendicular height) = (base) X h a Square: area = a2 Rectangle: area = bh . Triangle: area = ~bh Rhombus: area = ~xy Trapezium: area = ~h(a + b) NOTE: Because rhombuses are parallelograms. so the formula becomes area of square =~ X (square of the diagonal). and the proof therefore belongs to the theory of the definite integral. where r is the radius.because the boundary is curved. Course Theorem .Area Formulae for Quadrilaterals and Triangles: The various area formulae are based on the definition of the area of a rectangle as length times breadth. .
322 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Exercise 8F NOTE: The calculation of areas is so linked with Pythagoras' theorem that it is inconvenient to separate them in exercises. ( a) (b) ( c) (d ) 6 6 3. Find the area A and the perimeter P of the squares in parts (a) and (b) and the rectangles in parts (c) and (d).ABC = area 6. (a) Explain why area 6.. Let M be the midpoint of BC. (a) Explain why the area of a square is half the square of the diagonal." [ j24 : : /. (a) (b) .AC M have the same perpendicular height. (c) THE TWO AREA FORMULAE FOR TRIANGLES: Let 6.AB M and 6. In the trapezium ABCD. Find the area A and the perimeter P of the following figures. (b) Hence explain why area 6. Explain why the formula A = ~ X (base) X (height) for the area of the triangle is identical to the trigonometric area formulae A = ~ab sin C.ABD. AB II DC and AC intersects BD at X. (b) Show that the area of a rectangle with sides a and b is the same as the area of the square whose side length s is the geometric mean v. and join the median AM. using Pythagoras' theorem where necessary. . ' "./ (c) " (d) : 3Q// /~// ". THEOREM: The two triangles formed by the diagonals and the nonparallel sides of a trapezium have the same area.BCX = area 6. (b) Hence explain why 6.ADX. 1. 3 2.ABC be rightangled at C. Find the areas of the following figures: (a) (b) (c) (d) 11 o 8 6i 5 8 .. Pythagoras' theorem has therefore been used freely in the questions of this exercise.ABM and 6. although its formal review is in the next section. (a) Explain why 6. Sketch a triangle ABC.AC M have the same area.. Then find the lengths of any missing diagonals. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 5.b of the sides of the rectangle. . THEOREM: A median of a triangle divides the triangle into two triangles of equal area. .. Use Pythagoras' theorem to find missing lengths where necessary.. 6.'" ________0 4.
ABC D and PQ RS are squares. A parallelogram has sides of length a and b. The diagram shows a rectangle with a square offset in one corner. and one vertex angle has size (). (i) Find the area of ~AOB. (b) Hence find the shaded area outside the square. (ii) Find the area of the hexagon. (ii) Hence find the area of the hexagon. (a) Prove that ~ABD and ~ABC have equal areas. (a) Show that the area of the parallelogram is A = ab sin (). (c) Hence find the area of BE DG. 8. that is. R c s Q A A < 1f < 2V3. and ~AMD and ~BMC have equal areas. Prove that the four small triangles formed by the two diagonals of a parallelogram all have the same area. (a) The diagram shows a regular hexagon inscribed III a circle of radius 1 and centre o. (b) The second diagram on the right shows another regular hexagon escribed around a circle of radius 1. All dimensions shown are in metres.AD2 (b) Show that AG = 2AB by using Pythagoras' theorem. (c) Hence explain why ~V3 D D . ABCD and BFDH are congruent rectangles with AB = 8 and BC = 6. The diagonals of a parallelogram form the diameters of two circles. and AB = 1 metre. Let AP = x. TH EOREM: Conversely. In the diagram to the right. and what value of x gives this minimum? (c) Explain why the result is the same if the total area of the four triangles is maximised. 12. a quadrilateral in which the diagonals form a pair of opposite triangles of equal area is a trapezium. What is the area of the annulus between the two circles? . what is the ratio of the areas of the circles? (c) Under what circumstances do the circles coincide? 10. each side is tangent to the circle. AB2 . (a) Explain why ~ADG == ~H BG. F 13.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 8F Areas of Plane Figures 323 7. (a) Why are they concentric? (b) If the diagonals are in the ratio a : b. (c) Circles are drawn with the two diagonals as diameters. and hence find AG. (a) Find an expression for the area of PQ RS in terms of x. (b) What is the minimum area of PQRS. The diagonals of the quadrilateral ABC D meet at M. 11. In the diagram opposite. (a) Find the area of the square. (i) Find the area of ~OGH. Under what circumstances are they all congruent? 9. (b) Hence prove that AB II DC. band (). (b) Use the cosine rule to find the squares on the diagonals in terms of a. H 14.
(g) Hence find the angle between opposite edges at the eight points where four edges meet. (a) Show that the radius OA of the circle through the eight points inside the circle where three edges meet is !. The lengths of the sides of each rhombus and the decagon are all 1 cm. Q.3v 2 . The point P lies on the side BC. A DIFFICULT EQUALAREA PROBLEM: The diagram shows the design of the clockface on the stone towers at Martin Place and Central Railway Station in Sydney. correct to the nearest minute. CR and DS intersect at W. X. 2 and hence find OR. Show that the areas of ~DQ B and ~C P Rare equal. o .3v'2 r. (c) Use the kite OAQB to find the radius OQ of the circle through the eight points where four edges meet. (d) Show that cos i =~ J + v'2. (e) Find the lengths AR and RX. The diagram shows the tesselation of a decagon by two types of rhombus.324 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 15. The diagram above shows a square ABC D with the midpoints of each side being P. 16. Rand S as shown. Find the ratio of the areas of the small square W XY Z and the large square ABCD. (a) R (b) Q The diagram above shows a parallelogram ABCD. The intervals AB and DP are produced so that they intersect at R. one fat and the other thin. BQ. (b) Use the area of the kite AP X Q to show that RQ = l~ . and confirm that the interior angle at each vertex of the decagon is correct. Y and Z as shown. and the side C B is produced to Q so that BQ = BP. (f) Use AB and the area of tan a ~ABQ to show that = 6 . (b) Hence show that the area of the decagon is A = 5 sin 36°(2 cos 36° + 1) cm 2 • 17.l 27r . Let the inner circle have radius l. (a) Find both angles in each rhombus. The design within the inner circle seems to be based on dividing it into 24 regions of equal area. The intervals AP. and hence show that tan (3 = 7r(v'2 + 1) 7r 6 an d tan I = 12  7r(v'2 + 1) 7r .
YZ = a and XZ = b. PYTHAGORAS' THEOREM: 26 In a right triangle. because they can be the side lengths of a right triangle. An extension question below gives a complete list of Pythagorean triads. and is consequently rather subtle. 13 are Pythagorean triads. . and so 3. band c For example. But its proof needs attention. GIVEN: AIM: Let ABC be a triangle whose sides satisfy the relation a 2 + b2 To prove that L C = c2 • = 90 0 • CONSTRUCTION: Construct DXYZ in which LZ = 90 0 . and is one of hundreds of known proofs. A Pythagorean triad consists of three positive integers a. Pythagoras' Theorem: The following proof by dissection of Pythagoras' theorem is very quick. 12. Such triads are very convenient. having been the basis of so much of the course. GIVEN: AIM: Let DABC be a right triangle with LC To prove that AC 2 + BC 2 = AB2. = 90 0 • CONSTRUCTION: PROOF: Behold! (To quote an Indian text  is anything further required?) Pythagorean Triads: such that a 2 + b2 = c2 . and its proof is an application of congruence. and the converse theorem and its interesting proof by congruence will be new for many students. the square on the hypotenuse equals the sum of the squares on the other two sides. CONVERSE OF PYTHAGORAS' THEOREM: If the sum of the squares on two sides of a 27 triangle equals the square on the third side. The proof of the converse uses the forward theorem. As shown. Converse of Pythagoras' Theorem: The converse of Pythagoras' theorem is also true. 5 and 5. 4. then the angle included by the two sides is a right angle.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 8G Pythagoras' Theorem and its Converse 325 8G Pythagoras' Theorem and its Converse Pythagoras' theorem hardly needs introduction.
and its area is 100 cm z.20. Answer these questions.18 a (b) 28.24. altitude and hypotenuse c. (i) What are the lengths of the sides? (ii) Use trigonometry to find the vertex angles. Let B be the point 3 units along. Which of the following triplets are the sides of a rightangled triangle? (a) 30. Xy2 = a 2 + b2 (because XY is the hypotenuse) = c2 (given).b=5 (c) b=15. Leave your answer in surd form where necessary.c=7 PYTHAGORAS' THEOREM AND THE COSINE RULE: Let ABC be a triangle rightangled at C. A paddock on level ground is 2 km long and 1 km wide. and stretch the rope into a triangle with vertices A. (a) Let the diagonals have lengths 2x and 2y. how long will it take him if he jogs along the fences? 5. What type of triangle is this and what is its area? 6. (b) Write down the altitude in the special case where s = 2b. and its area is 24 cm z . how long will it take him if he walks across the diagonal? (b) If his assistant jogs along the diagonal in 15 minutes. A B C SOLUTION: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Let A be one end of the rope.c=20 (d) a=3. (i) How long is the other diagonal? (ii) How long are its sides? 7. (a) The diagonals of a rhombus are 16 cm and 30 cm. How long is the other diagonal? (c) One diagonal of a rhombus is 20 cm. with c Z as subject. Then since 3. Find the unknown side of each of the following rightangled triangles with base b.b=5 3. 4. (a) Use Pythagoras' theorem to find an equation for the altitude a of an isosceles triangle with base 2b and equal legs s.15 (c) 26. PROOF: WORKED EXERCISE: A long rope is divided into twelve equal sections by knots along its length. and explain why they are identical.10 (d) 25. (a) If a farmer walks from one corner to the opposite corner along the fences in 40 minutes. and so LC = LZ = 90 0 (matching angles of congruent triangles). Exercise 8G 1. so XY = c. (a) a=12. Hence find the area of an isosceles triangle with: (ii) equal legs 18 cm and base 20 cm. (b) A rhombus with 20 cm sides has a 12 cm diagonal. + yZ = 25.13 2. Explain how it can be used to construct a right angle. Band C.7 (e) 24. Hence the triangles ABC and XY Z are congruent by the SSS test. the triangle will be rightangled at B. Write down. . correct to the nearest minute.24. correct to the nearest second. The sides of a rhombus are 5 cm. and let C be the point a further 4 units along. Join the two ends of the rope. (b) a=4. (i) equal legs 15 cm and base 24 cm.24. 5 is a Pythagorean triad.24. and show that xy = 12 and x 2 (b) Solve for x and hence find the lengths of the diagonals. 4. the cosine rule and Pythagoras' theorem.326 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Using Pythagoras' theorem in ~XYZ.
DFG and F AH are congruent to ~ABC. i 5 ~_a:.v'3. (b) Use Pythagoras' theorem to write down a pair of equations for x and y. (a) In triangle ABC. 12. Then generate and check the Pythagorean triads given by: THE tFORMULAE: (i) a = 2. 13. 2ab. The triangle ABC is rightangled at C. Let the sides be An = c. b = 2 (iii) a = 4. 13 . The altitude is CD = y. (i) Show that the hypotenuse is t 2 + 1. the point D bisects the base. the areas of: (i) the square ABDF. .. (a) E = q2 and AD = pq.. band c. and hence find cos a without finding a.o: ____ Y d A 10 BxD (b) b c 15 A D In the diagram. (b) Hence show that LA = 90 0 • 11. COURSE THEOREM: An alternative proof of Pythagoras' theorem. Let BD = x and LA = a. Use Pythagoras' theorem in ~ADB and ~ADC to show that AB2 + DC 2 = AC 2 + B D2 . =8 In the rightangled ~ABC. then a 2 .(b . BC = a and CA = b. in terms of the sides a.b2. b = 1 (ii) a = 3. b = 3 (iv) a = 7. a 2 + b2 is a Pythagorean triad. (iii) the four triangles. Show that: (a) (b + c)2 . BC = 5 and AC = 13. . 15. In the diagram. Find the length of DE. The triangles BDE. (ii) What are the two possible lengths of the hypotenuse if another side of the triangle is 8 cm? (b) Show that if a and b are integers with b < a. The altitude through A in ~ABC meets the opposite side BC at D. AD = BE = 25. (c) Hence show that a 2 + b2 = c 2 • c B 10. CD (a) Find AB2 and AC 2.a. . ~PQR and ~QRS are both rightangled at Q.a 2 = a 2 . b = 4 _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 9.c)2 B (b) (a+b+c)(a+b+c)=(ab+c)(a+bc) . AB = 10. with LRPQ = 15 0 and LRSQ = 30 0 • (a) Find LP RS and hence show that P S = RS. and suppose that BD = p2. (c) Solve for x. (b) Find. (a) Two sides of a rightangled triangle are 2t and t 2 . with b > a. AB and AC = 15. (ii) the square CEGH. . Show that 4d 2 = b2 + 3a 2 • A 14. (b) Given that QR = 1 unit.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 8G Pythagoras' Theorem and its Converse 327 8. c .1. write down the lengths of QS and RS and deduce that tan 15 0 = 2 . Triangle ABC is rightangled at A. (a) Explain why HC = b . Let AD be an altitude of ~ABC.
(a) Use Pythagoras' theorem to write down three equations. The side BC is produced a distance q to Q while BA is produced a distance r to R. ApOLLONIUS' THEOREM: The sum of the squares on two sides of a triangle is equal to twice the sum of the square on half the third side and the square on the median to the third side. then their product is also the sum of two squares. Let AX = a. as required. (b) Hence show that the set of integers that are the sum of two squares is closed under multiplication. (a) Find expressions for AB 2. then the diagonals are perpendicular. b. c 22. prove that if two integers are each the sum of two squares. Let ABC D be a quadrilateral. CY = c. + x)2 + d 2. Use Pythagoras' theorem to show that B [HINT: + 3EA 2 = AD2 . if the sums of squares of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal. Let ABC D be a quadrilateral in which AB2 + C D2 = AD2 + BC 2. C D2 and AD2 in terms of a. (b) Prove that the equilateral triangle on the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle equals the sum of the equilateral triangles on the other two sides. The quadrilateral ABC D is a parallelogram with diagonal AC perpendicular to CD. CD = a and DE2 DA = c. Show that R r D c 'L_"::_ _ QA 2 + RC 2 = QR2 + AC 2 . and hence show that a 2 + b2 = 2( c2 + d 2). Let X and Y be the feet of the perpendiculars from Band D respectively to AC. (That is.ABC with AC = a. Let the altitude CE have length h. The triangle ABC has a right angle at B and the sides opposite the respective vertices are a. and let DE = x.l B D. THEOREM: If the diagonals of a quadrilateral are perpendicular. with diagonals meeting at right angles at M. The diagram shows L. The median CD has length d.. (a) Show that (a 2 + b2)(c 2 + d 2) = (ac + bd)2 + (ad . BY = b. B A 20. (b) Hence show that AB2 + C D2 = BC 2 + AD2. c a (b) Hence show that x = 0 and 21. band c. ( a) Use Pythagoras' theorem to show that A a 2 + b2 + c2 + d 2 = (a + x)2 + b2 + (c AC .bC)2. The two diagonals intersect at E. BC = b and AB = 2c. then the sums of squares on opposite sides are equal. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ A . a q 18.) . c and d. Q 19. BC 2. VARIANTS OF PYTHAGORAS' THEOREM: (a) Use Pythagoras' theorem to prove that the semicircle on the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle equals the sum of the semicircles on the other two sides. (b) Eliminate h and x from these equations.328 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 16. Begin by letting CA = 2d. DX = d and XY = x.] 17. THEOREM: Conversely.
and the other odd. 1 and hence show that q2 . where a. (a) Show that () = (b) Show that if P is outside the square. PYTHAGOREAN TRIADS: Suppose that a 2 + b2 = c2 . then () = ~. (b) Show that if a. and enlargements. b. The enlargement ratio involved in these transformations is called the similarity ratio of the two figures. and use Pythagoras' theorem.] (b) Prove that one of the three integers is divisible by 5. Prove that AX : X B = 1 : A. Its formal definition requires the idea of an enlargement.] 26. Two figures Sand T are called similar. (e) Show that part (d) is a complete list of primitive Pythagorean triads. [HINT: Find all the possible remainders when the square of a number is divided by 5. [HINT: Find all possible remainders when the square of each number is divided by 4. then q2 _ p2. Show that the line with gradient m through M( 1. band c. B 24. then the point P( a. The diagram shows a square ABC D with a point P inside it which is 1 unit from D. (c) Is the situation possible if P is 3 units from C instead of from B? c 3 3t. band c are integers.0) meets the unit circle x 2 + y2 = 1 again at P( a.] (b) Now suppose that P and Q divide the given interval AB internally and externally respectively in the ratio 1 : A. 8H Similarity Similarity generalises the study of congruence to figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. c is a Pythagorean triad. translations. 2pq. are both ratIOnal. q2 + p2 is a Pythagorean triad.p2. A QUESTION MORE EASILY DONE BY COORDINATE GEOMETRY: (a) The points P and Q divide a given interval AB internally and externally respectively in the ratio 1 : 2. (c) Suppose that m = pi q is any rational gradient between 0 and l. [HINT: Drop the perpendicular from X to AB. written as S III T. (3). (a) Prove that one of a and b is even. lies on the unit circle x 2 + y2 = l.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 8H Similarity 329 23. (d) Show that if the integers p and q in part (c) are relatively prime and not both odd. A LIST OF ALL PYTHAGOREAN TRIADS: A Pythagorean triad a. if one figure can be moved to coincide with the other figure by means of a sequence of rotations. The point X lies on the circle with diameter PQ. (3). 2 units from A and 3 units from B. Let LAP D = (). q2 + p2 is a primitive Pythagorean triad. b. 2pq.m 2 and (3 = l+m 2 2m . where a = l+m 2 1. (a) Show that every Pythagorean triad is a multiple of a primitive Pythagorean triad. 25. reflections. where a = alc and (3 = blc. SIMILARITY: 28 . Prove that AX: XB = 1: 2. (c) Repeat part (b) using coordinate geometry with the origin at A. c is called primitive if there is no common factor of a. which is a stretching in all directions by the same factor.
A 6 12 C Q B 5 R 2~ ~p B R 10 c 9 A 6ABC III 6PQ R (SSS). or two angles of one triangle are respectively equal to two angles of another triangle. intervals have lengths in the ratio 1 : k. and the ratio of two matching lengths equals the similarity ratio. angles are preserved. except that equal sides are replaced by proportional sides (the AAS congruence test thus corresponds to the AA similarity test). Since an area is the product of two lengths. Similar Triangles: As with congruence. or the hypotenuse and one side of a right triangle are respectively proportional to the hypotenuse and one side of another right triangle. or two sides of one triangle are respectively proportional to two sides of another triangle. Hence LP = LA.330 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 D D D 0 Like congruence. 6ABC III 6PQR (SAS). and the four standard tests for similarity of triangles will be assumptions. regions have areas in the ratio 1 : k 2 . SIMILARITY RATIO: 29 • matching • matching • matching • matching If two similar figures have similarity ratio 1 : k. similarity sets up a correspondence between the elements of the two figures. then angles have the same size. most of our arguments concern triangles. with similarity ratio 3 : 2. if the idea is extended into threedimensional space. These four tests correspond exactly with the four standard congruence tests. Hence LP = LA. then the ratio of the volumes of matching solids is the cube of the similarity ratio. the ratio of the areas of matching regions is the square of the similarity ratio. In this correspondence. . Likewise. solids have volumes in the ratio 1 : k 3 . LR = LC and PR = ~AC (matching sides and angles of similar triangles). LQ = LB and LR = LC (matching angles of similar triangles). An example of each test is given below. and the included angles are equal. with similarity ratio 2 : l. STANDARD SIMILARITY TESTS FOR TRIANGLES: SSS SAS 30 AA RHS Two triangles are similar if: the three sides of one triangle are respectively proportional to the three sides of another triangle.
PQ QR RP Hence = =AB BC CA (matching sides of similar triangles). 2. Show that 6TC N III 6RAY. so 6TCN 1I16RAY (AA).the AA similarity test. i . LTC N C 300 N TC 2 300 2·4 TC = 250 metres. A tower TC casts a 300metre shadow C N. The similarity ratio should be mentioned if it is known. and LP = LA (angle sums of triangles). so PQ II AC (corresponding angles are equal). and find the height of the tower and the similarity ratio.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 8H Similarity 331 A B D Q p p C R B C 8 12 Q L"'R 6ABC 1I16PQR (AA). LR = LC and QR = ~BC (matching sides and angles of similar triangles). 3. 6ABC 1I16PQR (RHS). and area 6ABC = area 6C D A (congruent triangles). because the corresponding order is needed when writing down the proportionality of sides. WORKED EXERCISE: In the triangles TC N and RAY: = LRAY = 90° (given). A 2·4 Y Prove that the interval PQ joining the midpoints of two adjacent sides AB and BC of a parallelogram ABC D is parallel to the diagonal AC. area 6BPQ = X area 6BAC (matching areas). LPBQ = LABC (common). with similarity ratio 1 : 2. P B = tAB (given). Using the Similarity Tests: Similarity tests should be set out in exactly the same way as congruence tests . and a man RA 2 metres tall casts a 2·4metre shadow AY. Keeping vertices in corresponding order is even more important with similarity. and cuts off a triangle of area one eighth the area of the parallelogram. so area 6BPQ = ~ X area of parallelogram ABC D. so Hence LBPQ = LBAC (matching angles of similar triangles). with similarity ratio 3 : 4. however. LCNT = LAY R = angle of elevation of the sun. 2. will need only four lines. QB = tCB (given). PROOF: In the triangles BPQ and BAC: 1. Hence LF = LA. Also. TC RA Hence CN AY (matching sides of similar triangles) SOLUTION: T 1. 6BPQ III 6BAC (SAS). The similarity ratio is 300 : 2·4 WORKED EXERCISE: :~ = 125 : 1.
Equal Ratios of Intervals and Equal Products of Intervals: The fact that the ratios of two pairs of intervals are equal can be just as well expressed by saying that the products of two pairs of intervals are equal: AB BC XY YZ is the same as AB X YZ = BC X XY. with similarity ratio 1 : 2. and very useful. PROOF: = 1 : 2. WORKED EXERCISE: Prove that the square on the altitude to the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the product of the intercepts on the hypotenuse cut off by the altitude. LAPQ = LABC (matching angles of similar triangles). however. and the similarity ratio is AP : AB Hence AQ = ~AC (matching sides of similar triangles). AP = ~AB (given). so L. GIVEN: AIM: Let P and Q be the midpoints of the sides AB and AC of L. COURSE THEOREM: 31 The interval joining the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half its length. The following worked exercise is one of the best known examples of this. ~"""""Q c The Converse Theorem: Since there are two conclusions.ABC. The following theorem. GIVEN: Let ABC be a triangle with LA = 90 0 • Let AP be the altitude to the hypotenuse.APQ III L. so Hence so Also. A PROOF: In the triangles APQ and ABC: 1. AQ = ~AC (given).ABC (SAS). PQ II BC). . c In the triangles APQ and ABC: 1. 2. 2. PQ = ~BC (matching sides of similar triangles). AIM: To prove that AQ = ~ AC. To prove that PQ II BC and PQ = ~BC.APQ III L.ABC. 3.ABC (AA). the interval through the midpoint of one side of a triangle and parallel to another side bisects the third side. L. and will be generalised in Section 81. A GIVEN: Let P be the midpoint of the side AB of L. is standard. The following theorem and its converse are standard results.332 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Midpoints of Sides of Triangles: Similarity can be applied to configurations involving the midpoints of sides of triangles. PQ II BC (corresponding angles are equal). 32 COURSE THEOREM: Conversely. LPAQ = LBAC (common). LAPQ = LABC (corresponding angles. LA = LA (common). there are several different theorems that could be regarded as the converse. Let the line parallel to BC though P meet AC at Q.
Name the similar triangles in the correct order and state which test is used. LABP = LCAP (proven above). 2. NOTE: 1. A NOTE ON THE GEOMETRIC MEAN: Recall from Chapter Six of the Year 11 volume that g is a geometric mean of a and b if g2 = ab. l:::.j3 (angle sum of l:::. because then the 2. all reasons must always be given. sequence a. Identify the similar triangles.PC A (AA). (a) (b) J . Unless otherwise indicated. PQ R 45° c c 9 6 D A 8 6 4 Q 4 B (c) 20 D (d) D A ~ 30° 4 I C B A 2. and hence deduce the length of the side x.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 8H Similarity 333 AIM: To prove that AP2 = BP X CPo A PROOF: Let LB = j3.P AB III l:::. Both triangles in each pair are similar. so LCAP = j3 (adjacent angles in the right angle LBAC). Then LBAP = 90° . giving a reason. B ~ P c so BP X C P = AP2. b forms a GP with ratio = ~. so BP AP Hence AP C P (matching sides of similar triangles). (b) (a) A £>. lines that are drawn straight are intended to be straight. In the triangles P AB and PC A: 1. LAPB=LCPA=90° (given). Exercise 8H In each question. g.BAP). Thus the previous result could a g be restated in the form of a theorem: The altitude to the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle is the geometric mean of the intercepts on the hypotenuse.
334 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (c) (d) N:_ _ _~M s 40° 161 5 12 Q 4 R x p 3. (a) (b) 5 10 7 M Q ex N 12 D 04 P Show that 6ADC III 6BC A. In part (b). and hence that AB II DC. and how much water is needed to fill it? (c) Two coins of the same shape and material but different in size weigh 5 grams and 20 grams. giving a reason. prove that VW II ZY. what is the diameter of the smaller coin? 6. If the larger coin has diameter 2 cm. Draw a diagram. (a) A building casts a shadow 24 metres long. while a man 1·6 metres tall casts a 0·6metre shadow. and hence deduce the size of the angle (). Prove that the triangles in each pair are similar. The house will have a swimming pool 10 metres long. (a) c~ A 10 13 (b) z 3 w 8 8 D 26 E (c) s 32 (d) 40 p P ~ 40 G 13 I H Q 4. . Identify the similar triangles. (b) An architect builds a model of a house to a scale of 1 : 200. Show that 60 PQ III 60 M N. with surface area 60 m 2 and volume 120 m 3 • What will the length and area of the model pool be. and hence find 0 Nand P N. (a) E (c) s (d) G c A A B P E F 5. and use similarity to find the height of the building.
.
BDA. and hence find DC.C BD III l:::. (e) two isosceles triangles.CAE. then BC = sina and AC = cosa. (b) two rectangles. and hence show a2 that P B = b + b . similar: (a) two squares. prove that l:::.AC D 111l:::. CB = CA = 1. ALTERNATIVE PROOF OF PYTHAGORAS' THEOREM: In the diagram.ABC 111l:::. Prove that the intervals joining the midpoints of the sides of any triangle dissect the triangle into four congruent triangles. (a) Show that l:::. and the sides opposite the respective vertices are a. Explain why the following pairs of figures are. (c) two rhombuses. x (c) Explain why cos 72° = 2"' and hence write down the exact value of cos 72°. and the vertex Q is on AB. c . The line PC. Let CD be the altitude from C to AB. ABC D is a parallelogram.ABC. with LARC = 72°. and find EC. 14.ABC is rightangled at C.ABC is isosceles. (a) Prove that l:::. (b) Similarly. l:::. (h) two regular hexagons. (b) Similarly.ABC 111l:::. (b) Use part (a) to find the exact value of x. The side PR is on the same line as BC. (b) Similarly.ABC. TH EOREM: NOTE: Many of the hundreds of proofs of Pythagoras' theorem are based on similarity. Let AB = c.ABC 111l:::. 17. ALTERNATIVE PROOF OF PYTHAGORAS' THEOREM: In the triangle ABC. and hence find BD in terms of the given sides. and find AD.QBR 111l:::. and AB = x. (a) Prove that l:::. (a) Prove that AB = BQ. or are not.ABC. there is a right angle at C. (c) Hence prove that LPBQ = LCAB. each similar to the original triangle.P BQ III l:::.P BQ 111l:::. 12. there is a right angle at C. (d) two equilateral triangles. and hence find P B in terms of the given sides.336 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 11. 16.ABC == l:::. (f) two circles. B 1 A D A p (c) Hence prove that a 2 + b2 = c 2 • 15. prove that l:::. Prove that l:::. (g) two parabolas.C AQ. l:::. (c) Hence prove that sin 2 a + cos 2 a = l. l:::. prove that l:::.BCD. In l:::. (b) The midpoint of CQ is P. meets AB produced at Q.ABC. (a) Prove that l:::. In the diagram. The bisector of LCAB meets BC at D. parallel to BD.ABC. The next three questions lead you through three of these proofs. and AB = l. BC = a and AB = c. band c. In the rectangle ABDE. (c) Hence prove that a 2 + b2 = c 2 • ALTERNATIVE PROOF OF PYTHAGORAS' THEOREM: A ~ E c D B c ~ 13.PQR. In the figure. Let LBAC = a.
THEOREM: The medians of a triangle are concurrent. c . What are the possible values of a? 20. In the triangle ABC. (a) Prove that L:. (i) Prove that the unshaded triangles are similar.F DE. Let AB = a and let the ratio of similarity be AB : AD = k : f. the diagonals intersect at M. (b) Hence prove that PQ = ~ BC and PQ II BC.PQG III L:. b = 4. (a) Show that L:. 19.CPB. L:. E and F are the midpoints of AC and AB respectively.C BG.ABH. The triangles formed by the diagonals and the parallel sides of a trapezium are similar. (a) Prove that L:. (ii) Hence prove that ad = bc. and hence that GBHC is a parallelogram. THEOREM: The medians of a triangle are concurrent. and the resulting centroid trisects each median. C M = c and DM = d.APM III L:. The interval AG is produced to H so that AG = G H. Concurrency of the medians was proven in the previous question. ( d) Hence deduce the given theorem. and BM intersects AC at P. with AB = 8 and DC = 4.F BC III L:.AFG III L:. (b) Hence show that GC II B H.ABC III L:. prove that GB II CH. with similarity ratio 1 : 2. and let LAMB = B. (a) Prove that L:. and the other two triangles have equal areas.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 8H Similarity 337 18. M is the midpoint of AD. c = 3 and d = 2. (c) Similarly.ABC III L:. Let the medians PC and QB meet at G. A (ii) Hence find the area of the trapezium in exact form. AB = 2 X AD. In the rectangle ABCD. THEOREM: (i) Show that cos B = t and sin B = ~ .k) (c) Show that F D = k(C + k) . so it remains to prove that they trisect each other. (c) Prove that L:. (iii) Prove that the shaded triangles have the same area. 21. Let P and Q be the midpoints of the sides AB and AC of L:.ADE and LB is a right angle. In the diagram. ( c) Show that 9 X C p2 = 5 X AB2. (d) Now suppose that AB : AD = 2 : 3 and F D is an integer. BM = b. Let AM = a. and AH intersects BC at D. (b) What is the ratio of the lengths B F : F D? af(f . (b) Now suppose that a = 6.ABC. (b) Show that 3 X CP = 2 X CA.APQ. (a) In the trapezium ABCD. D M c A B c 22. The interval CE intersects BD at F. and BE and C F intersect at G. (d) Hence prove that BD = DC.
Three equal squares are placed side by side as shown in the diagram. This means that LAPS = a and LBPT = {3. the theorem can be applied to the intercepts cut off a transversal by three parallel lines. THE ANGLE OF INCIDENCE EQUALS THE ANGLE OF REFLECTION: Suppose that a light source is at A above a reflective surface ST.. What is the locus of X? (d) The kite OAPB is completed so that P is on the circumcircle of 6ABO. We will assume that light travels in a straight line and therefore that A'p B is a straight line. FOR REFLECTED LIGHT.{3). unlike previous sections. Let the image of A in the reflecting surface be at A' and let A' A intersect ST at C. Prove that LBAC = LDAE. and the reflected light is observed at B.338 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 23.a) and the angle of reflection is (90 0 . will be entirely new for most students. . First. 33 INTERCEPTS: A point P on an interval AB divides the interval into two intercepts AP and P B. (a) Prove that 60DB == 60CA. (b) Prove that 6APC == 6A' PC.l. [HINT: Construct BF . (c) Now suppose that 6C DO is fixed and 6ABO rotates about O. The word intercept needs clarification. A • • P • B This section. In both triangles. (a) Explain why AC = A'C and AP = A'p. (b) the sides are in GP. SEQUENCES AND GEOMETRY: Find the ratio of the sides in a rightangled triangle if: (a) the sides are in AP. and are left to the exercise.] A A ~l F E 81 Intercepts on Tranversals The previous theorem concerning the midpoints of the sides of a triangle can be generalised in two ways. 26. Further suppose that at the point of reflection P. Triangles ABO and C DO are similar isosceles triangles with a common vertex O. D (d) Hence prove that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. Show that LP X B = ~a. Points on the Sides of Triangles: The proofs of the following theorems are similar to the proofs of the previous two theorems. (c) Thus prove that 6APC B A A' III 6B PD. 25. Secondly. AC as shown. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 24. and AB. (b) Show that LBX A = a. the midpoint can be replaced by a point dividing the side in any given ratio. AC and DB are joined and meet (produced if necessary) at X. the angle of incidence is (90 0 . LO = a and 6ABO is the larger of the two triangles. AC and AD are drawn.
The second part follows from the first part with k : f so it will be sufficient to prove only the first part. A A j~Q j~Q C Given that AP : P B = AQ : QC = k : f. AP : P B = AQ : QC (intercepts). and so AY : Y Z = k : f (intercepts). But the opposite sides of the parallelograms APQY and YQRZ are equal. Conversely. PROOF: The configuration in ~AC Z is the converse part of the previous theorem. x and Hence 3 AC CQ AC CQ  (intercepts in ~APQ). and let AB : BC = k : f. B B C Given that PQ it follows that II BC. (intercepts in ~AQ R). it follows that PQ II BC and PQ : BC = k : k + f (intercepts). CONSTRUCTION: Construct the line through A parallel to the line PQ R. then the interval PQ is parallel to the third side BC.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 81 Intercepts on Tranversals 339 COURSE THEOREM: 34 If two points P and Q divide two sides AB and AC respectively of a triangle in the same ratio k : f. GIVEN: Let two transversals ABC and PQ R cross three parallel lines. Hence PQ : QR = k : f.51 4' . if three parallel lines cut off equal intercepts on one transversal. and PQ : BC = k : k + f. = 1 : 1. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Find x in the diagram opposite. then the ratio of the intercepts on one transversal is the same as the ratio of the intercepts on the other transversal. and let it meet the other two parallel lines at Y and Z respectively. Transversals to Three Parallel Lines: COURSE THEOREM: The previous theorems about points on the sides of a triangle can be applied to the intercepts cut off by three parallel lines. so AY = PQ and Y Z = Q R. In particular. 35 If two transversals cross three parallel lines. a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two sides in the same ratio. then they cut off equal intercepts on all transversals. AIM: To prove that PQ : QR = k : f. 7 4 x 7 4 3 X .
340 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Exercise 81 NOTE: In each question. y and z in the following diagrams. (a) A (b) p (d) x2 Q 3 3 T C E S 5 R 20 ~ M 2. all reasons must always be given. Find x. Find the values of x. y and z in the diagrams below. (d) 0 (a) 0 A o 8 4 p 5 B P x2 Q Q y . (a) 0 (b) A (c) y+3 A B H 8 D p 3 C Y P 4. Find the value of x in each diagram below. 1. Give a reason why AB II PQ II XY as appropriate. Unless otherwise indicated. (a) (b) G I H (c) 5 M (d) 2 2 J L 0 3 Q R (e) A B (f) x 15 (g) M Q N (h) 20 C E 2 x x R 0 P 8 S 3. lines that are drawn straight are intended to be straight. then find x and y.
= AE : EC = k : £. A D E AD : DB 9. If two points P and Q divide two sides AB and AC respectively of a triangle in the same ratio k : i. then the interval PQ is parallel to the third side BC and PQ : BC = k : (k + i). (a) G y (b) x I 1 z L 8 12 B Use Pythagoras' theorem to find x.ADE. In D. then the interval PQ is parallel to the third side BC and PQ : BC = k : k +£. the points P and Q divide the sides AB and AC respectively in the ratio k : i.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 81 Intercepts on Tranversals 341 5. Write down a quadratic equation for x and hence find the value of x in each case. B A c If two points P and Q divide two sides AB and AC respectively of a triangle in the same ratio k : i. (b) Hence prove that PQ II BC and PQ : BC = k : k + i.ABC. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 7. (a) Prove that D. ALTERNATIVE PROOF OF COURSE THEOREM: . In D.APQ. the interval DE is parallel to BC.ABC. PQ is produced to R so that PQ : QR = k : i and CR is joined. COURSE THEOREM: COURSE THEOREM: Conversely. In D.ABC. (a) A 4 (b) (d) G 8 I H x C x E x+2 13 K L 6. (a) Prove that D. (b) Let DE : BC = k : (k + i). F A Show that FG: GD = BC : CD and that AF : BG = BF : CG.ABC. the points P and Q divide the sides AB and AC respectively in the ratio k : £.ABC III D. y and z. a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two sides in the same ratio.ABC III D. Show that A 8. Find AF: AG. (c) A (d) D B c What sort of quadrilateral is ARPQ? Find the ratio of areas of ARPQ and D.
(a) Reflect the triangle RBQ in the line BQ. Prove that QR II BC. and DE is parallel to BC. Choose any point Q on the base. Given that BY : BC = 3 : 4. what is the length of the shorter side? 14. The base CB is produced to D.342 CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (a) Show that to"APQ III to"C RQ. (b) Construct C E perpendicular to AB at E and use the ratios of intercepts to prove the same result. Find how high above the ground the wires cross. 12. (b) In a certain trapezium.] . How would this height change if the poles were 11 metres apart? (b) In a narrow laneway 2·4 metres wide between two buildings. Wire stretches from the top of each pole to the foot of the other. and construct the perpendiculars to the equal sides. (a) Two vertical poles of height 10 metres and 15 metres are 8 metres apart. The ladders touch at their crossover point. with AB = AC. Choose any point P on 0 A and then construct PQ II AB and PR II AC. The points E on AB and F on AC are chosen so that E is the midpoint of the straight line DEF. AC and QR L. AB. How high is that crossover point? [HINT: You will need the height each ladder reaches up the wall. (b) Show that to"BCD == to"CBE. the length of AB is 18 cm. a 4metre ladder rests on one wall with its foot against the other wall. (a) A (b) C B c Choose any point 0 inside to"ABC and join to each vertex. and a 3metre ladder rests on the opposite wall. the line DE is parallel to the base BC. and XY is constructed parallel to AB. The triangle ABC is isosceles with AB = AC. AC. (c) Hence show that PQ II BC and PQ : BC = k : (k + e). A 10. (a) Use the intercepts theorem to prove that DB = EC. A D A D A 15. (b) Hence show that FC = 2 X EB. (b) Hence show that P BC R is a parallelogram. Prove that AF: AG = DE : BC. (a) Prove that EG II AC. o In to"AB C. and D is a point on AC such that B D L. (a) Prove that AB : CD = BY : YC. and hence show that RQ + PQ = BD. The triangle ABC is isosceles. intersecting BC at Y. with AB = AC. with QP L. The diagram shows a trapezium ABC D with AB II DC. A point G is chosen on AC and then DF is constructed parallel to BG. G is the point on the base such that CG = GD. The diagonals AC and B D intersect at X. then use similarity. The triangle ABC is isosceles. 13. A 11.
] 19. by substituting some values of n. . 3. [The harmonic series and Euler's constant] y o B 1 . THEOREM: The bisector of the angle at a vertex of a triangle divides the opposite side in the ratio of the including sides. ... to get some idea of the value of. A is the centre of a circle with radius R... sound will be the series of harmonics of the first pipe. : x r 1 2 3 4 nl n The righthand diagram above shows the curve y = l/x (not to scale). Describe the locus of Q as P moves around the circle.: 0·577 is called Euler's constant. .) . (a) Prove that 6APC is isosceles with AP = AC. ~. THEOREM: Conversely.EWf1ETpTJTOr. + . Prove this using a similar construction. . f1TJ8dr.. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 18. ....the word comes then the notes they from music.1 S.. . . Let En be the total area of the shaded regions inside the rectangles and above the curve.. show that as n 7 00.. t t t. x S. It remains unknown even whether. Let the line through C parallel to M A meet BA produced at P. . then the interval bisects the vertex angle. . if the interval joining a vertex of a triangle to a point on the opposite side divides that side in the ratio of the including sides. is rational or irrational.. [N OTE: The series 1 + ~ + ~ + + . Upper rectangles have been constructed on the intervals 1 S. (a) By considering the difference between the area of the rectangles and the area under 1 1 1 1 the curve. En converges to a limit. is called the harmonic series .+ . 2 S.n) =. 0 is a fixed point outside the circle and B is another fixed point on ~A. ::.+ . . the diagrams are not drawn to scale). B 17. 2. n. because if pipes are built of lengths 1. The strange number. y=~ .log n = En + .. and n . (b) Hence show that BM : MC = BA : AC. + ~ . x S. the point Q on the line OP is chosen so that AP " BQ.' (Inscribed over the doorway to Plato's Academy in Athens. cLcrLTW 'Let noone enter who does not know geometry. [HINT: Suppose that A divides OB in the ratio k : f. 6. .. . x S..] n+oo (1 + ~ + ~ + . In the diagram. ~. between and l. Suppose that M lies 011 the side BC of 6ABC. and LBAM = LCAM = Q.CHAPTER 8: Euclidean Geometry 81 Intercepts on Tranversals 343 p 16. show that 1 + . 2 3 n or a computer. For a given point P on the circle. By drawing appropriate diagonals. . 2 3 n n (b) The lefthand diagram above shows the shaded regions stacked on top of each other inside a unit square (be careful. ( c) Hence show that lim log Then use your calculator. .
working through these proofs is an essential part of the course. Sections 9E9G then examine tangents to circles and the angles they form with diameters and chords. but 3 Unit students should be reassured that these questions. and the methods of Euclidean geometry are particularly suited to this task . angles are handled far more easily in Euclidean geometry than in coordinate geometry. Many important properties of circles. and some are presented in structured questions placed at the start of the following development section. Sections 9A9D deal with angles at the centre and circumference of circles. Some proofs are written out in the notes.these converses concern the circumcircle of a right triangle. Three difficult converse theorems here are quite new . Some of the Extension sections of these exercises are longer than normal. the circle is easily defined geometrically in terms of centre and radius. and secondly. and two tests for the concyclicity of four points. Most students will therefore find the chapter rather demanding.first. 9A Circles. All these proofs are important . some definitions: radius centre concentric circles o . The 4 Unit HSC papers usually contain a difficult geometry question. as always. are beyond the standards of the 3 Unit HSC papers. remain to be developed. and many of the standard results associated with these questions have therefore been included in the Extension sections. Although this material may be familiar from earlier years. First. compasses being designed to implement this definition. Chords and Arcs The first group of theorems concern angles at the centre of a circle and their relationship with chords and arcs. and circles were essential in the development of the trigonometric functions. all the course theorems have been boxed.CHAPTER NINE Circle Geometry Circles have already been studied using coordinate methods. STUDY NOTES: As in the previous chapter. however. The section ends with the crucial theorem that any set of three noncollinear points lie on a unique circle. the emphasis now is less on numerical work and more on the logical development of the theory and on its applications to the proof of further results.
• A chord is the interval joining two distinct points on a circle. ". Prove that AC = BD = 5. hence AD2 = 52 + 52 AD = 5V2 . and LAOC = 60°. so LAOB = LBOC = LCOD = 30°. • A tangent is a line touching a circle in one point. so 6. 6. A y B x AB=XY (chords sub tending equal angles at the centre 0 are equal). The three equal chords subtend equal angles at the centre 0. and BD = 5. RADIUS.0 AC is equilateral. • A secant is the line through two distinct points on a circle. SOLUTION: o Secondly. (Pythagoras). SECANT. chords subtending equal angles at the centre have equal lengths. 2 The angle su btended at a point P by an interval AB is the angle LAP B formed at P by joining AP and BP. ~// B c=. Similarly. • A radius is the interval joining the centre and any point on the circle. and AC = 5. CHORD. COURSE THEOREM: 3 In the same circle or in circles of equal radius: • Chords of equal length subtend equal angles at the centre. DIAMETER: 1 • A circle is the set of all points that are a fixed distance (called the radius) from a given point (called the centre). • A diameter is a chord through the centre.0BD is equilateral.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9A Circles. But OA = OC (radii). BC and CD have equal lengths. CENTRE. • Conversely. Chords and Arcs 345 CIRCLE. WORKED EXERCISE: In the diagram below. Subtended angles: We shall speak of subtended angles throughout this chapter. LAOB = LXOY (equal chords AB and XY subtend equal angles at the centre 0). then find AD. the chords AB. • Two circles with a common centre are called concentric. . ANGLES SUBTENDED BY AN INTERVAL: subtended angle____ : p A ~. A Chord and the Angle Subtended at the Centre: The straightforward congruence proofs of this theorem and its converse have been left to the following exercise. TANGENT. particularly angles subtended by chords of circles at the centre and at a point on the circumference.
Conversely. so so Secondly. .. using the previous theorem. Sectors and Segments: Here again are the basic definitions. minor arc minor sector minor segment major sector major arc major segment A fundamental assumption of the course is that arc length is proportional to the angle sub tended at the centre. arc AB = arc XY (equal chords AB and XY cut off equal arcs).. so hence = arcXY = = == == = (equal chords cut off equal arcs).. LYXB (matching angles of congruent triangles). arc BY (subtracting arc X B from each arc). Conversely.jy o • y X X B x LAGB = LXGY and AB = XY (arcs AB and XY are equal). ARCS. called opposite arcs. Use equal arcs to prove that AX = BY and that to"EBX is isosceles. SECTORS AND SEGMENTS: 4 • Two points on a circle dissect the circle into a major arc and a minor arc.jy . Two equal chords AB and XY of a circle intersect at E. .346 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Arcs. called opposite segments. equal chords cut off equal arcs. BY (equal arcs cutoff equal chords). WORKED EXERCISE: arc AB = arc XY (arcs subtending equal angles at the centre are equal). • Two radii of a circle dissect the region inside the circle into a major sector and a minor sector. to"Y X B (SSS). The first two statements can be proven informally by rotating one arc onto the other.. Equal arcs cut off equal chords. The last two statements then follow from the first two.. arcs subtending equal angles at the centre are equal. G is the centre of each circle. we shall assume that: COURSE ASSUMPTION: S • • • • In the same circle or in circles of equal radius: Equal arcs subtend equal angles at the centre. In the following diagrams. arc AB arc AX AX to"ABX LABX EX x SOLUTION: First. called opposite sectors. In particular. EB (opposite angles are equal). • A chord of a circle dissects the region inside the circle into a major segment and a minor segment.
Let M be the midpoint of AB. COURSE THEOREM: 6 In the same circle or in circles of equal radius: • Equal chords are equidistant from the centre. Let the perpendicular from 0 meet AB at M. AM = BM (given). 2. LAMO == LBMO (SSS). then AB = XY (chords equidistant from the centre 0 are equal). • The perpendicular bisector of a chord of a circle passes through the centre. We must prove that 0 M . suppose that AB is a chord of a circle with centre O. and so LAM 0 = 90 0 • . OM = OM (common). 2. They are proven in the exercises. chords that are equidistant from the centre are equal. LOM A = LOMB = 90 0 (given). In the triangles AMO and BMO: 1.l AB. suppose that AB is a chord of a circle with centre O. OM = OM (common). Bu t AM B is a straight line. 3. To prove the second part. COURSE THEOREM: 7 • The perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9A Circles. and so the chord and the two radii form an isosceles triangle. A y y B X If AB =XY. OA = OB (radii). • Conversely. 3. If OM=ON. We must prove that AM = M B. In the triangles AM 0 and B M 0: 1. so Hence AM = B M (matching sides of congruent triangles). OA = OB (radii). Perpendiculars and Bisectors: The radii from the endpoints of a chord are equal. Chords and Arcs 347 Chords and Distance from the Centre: The following theorem and its converse about the distance from a chord to the centre are often combined with Pythagoras' theorem in mensuration problems about circles. The following important theorems are really restatements of theorems about isosceles triangles. Chords. then 0 M = 0 N (equal chords are equidistant from the centre 0). PROOF: A. B. To prove the first part. LAMO == LBMO (RHS). so Hence LAMO = LBMO (matching angles of congruent triangles). the interval from the centre of a circle to the midpoint of a chord is perpendicular to the chord. • Conversely.
COURSE CONSTRUCTION: 8 Given a circle. constructed as described here. SOLUTION: o (a) Then AM so 0 M2 and = M B (perpendicular from = 62 . BO and CO. . and join the radius 0 A. As proven in the first part. Every circle through A. The circle is called the circumcircle of the triangle formed by the three points. and let 0 be the intersection of the perpendicular bisectors 0 P and OQ of BC and C A respectively. WORKED EXERCISE: O. Its centre is the intersection of any two perpendicular bisectors of the intervals joining the points. (a) How far is the chord from the centre? (b) What is the sine of the angle between the chord and a radius at an endpoint of the chord? Let the centre be 0 and the chord be AB. and its centre is called the circum centre. as required. . GIVEN: Let ABC be a triangle. sin 0: Constructing the Centre of a Given Circle: The third part of the previous theorem gives a method of constructing the centre of a given circle.52 (Pythagoras). . . then they lie on a unique circle. so the centre must be their single common point. the perpendicular from 0 to AB bisects AB. but if they are not. AIM: To prove: A. PROOF: Since every perpendicular bisector passes through the centre. Constructing the Circle through Three Noncollinear Points: Any two distinct points determine a unique line. CONSTRUCTION: Join AO. Construct the perpendicular 0 M from 0 to AB. OM = v'il. = ~v'il. To prove the third part. . and construct their perpendicular bisectors. The circle with centre 0 and radius OC passes through A and B. Hence the perpendicular bisector of AB passes through 0. suppose that AB is a chord of a circle with centre O. centre to chord). Three points mayor may not be collinear. . the centre must lie on everyone of them. there is one and only one circle through the three points. a chord of length 10 units is drawn. COURSE THEOREM: 9 Given any three noncollinear points.348 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 C. In a circle of radius 6 units. and hence is the perpendicular bisector of AB. B. construct any two nonparallel chords. Band C has centre 0 and radius ~C. (b) Also. The point of intersection of these bisectors is the centre of the circle.
c B. BP = CP (given). LBPO = LC PO = 90 0 (given). Band C. 1. 2. Find 0:. Prove that ABC D is a rectangle. (a) (b) (c) S 0 G T B Prove that 60 AB is isosceles. 0 and Z are the centres of the two circles of equal radii. and the circle with centre 0 and radius OC passes through A and B. so 6BOP == 6COP (SAS). prove that arc ABC = arc BCD (d) and AC = BD. ( a) B (b) (c) A A . We have already shown that the perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the centre. Hence BO = CO (matching sides of congruent triangles). Hence 0 and Z coincide. Now suppose that some circle with centre Z passes through A. Prove that AFBG is a parallelogram. In part (c). Unless otherwise indicated. (d) Prove that 60 FG is equilateral.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9A Circles. all reasons must always be given. 6AOQ == 6COQ and AO = CO. Similarly. (e) F Prove that OS ZT is a rhombus. {3" and {yo In parts (g) and (h). OP = OP (common). any point labelled 0 is the centre of the circle. Exercise 9A NOTE: In each question. In the triangles BOP and COP: 1. (f) A B G Prove that arcs AL and M B have equal lengths. 2. Chords and Arcs 349 PROOF: B A. Hence BO = CO = AO. and so Z lies on both 0 P and OQ. and the radius is ~C. 3.
OM = ON. COURSE THEOREM: Two chords equidistant from the centre have equal lengths. In the diagram opposite. Construct any chord AB. In the diagram opposite. (a) Prove that LAOB == LXOY. (a) Trace the circle drawn to the right. ( c) Hence prove that AB = XY.let the bisector meet the circle at P and Q. 6. and are equidistant from the centre. Place three noncollinear points towards the centre of a page. COURSE THEOREM: Two chords subtending equal angles at the centre have equal lengths. and construct the midpoint 0 of PQ. then use the construction given in Box 8 to find its centre. then use the construction given in Box 9 to construct the circle through these three points. A y x 8. Find OX. and construct its perpendicular bisector . _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 5. QR and cos a. (b) Trace it again. (a) Prove that LOAM == LOXN. CONSTRUCTION: Find F H and cos a. (b) Prove that LO BM == LOY N. AB and XY are equal chords. (a) (b) H (c) Q Find AO. y 7. (b) Hence prove that AB = XY. Construct the centre of a given circle. In the diagram opposite.350 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (e) (g) A 3. "><> Y . COURSE THEOREM: Equal chords subtend equal angles at the centre. (a) Prove that LAOB == LXOY. then use and explain this alternative construction. (c) Prove that the chords are equidistant from the centre. CONSTRUCTION: Construct the circumcircle of a given triangle. 4. (b) Prove that LAO B = LX OY. the angles LAOB and LXOY subtended by AB and XY are equal.
CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9A Circles.] Prove that AF = BG. TH EOREM: Prove that LPAB = LQAB. 13. the line joining their centres is the perpendicular bisector of the common chord. In the diagram opposite. then the line joining the apex and the centre is perpendicular to the base. (c) Use the formula for the area of the segment to find the ratio of the overlapping area to the area of circle C. (a) Prove that 60AP == 60BP. (b) A¥_ _ _~ B o Prove that AF = BG. Prove that OD p II AP.. Prove that LTOY = B. CA = CB. In the configuration of the previous question. (d) Under what circumstances will OAP B form a rhombus? c o t. (a) B Prove that LPOG 11.] 12. THEOREM: If an isosceles triangle is inscribed in a circle. (a) A = 3{3. Two parallel chords in a circle of diameter 40 have length 20 and 10. (b) Hence prove that COM .l AB. [HINT: First use intercepts to prove that FO = OG. [HINT: First prove that 60AF == 60BF. two circles intersect at A and B. Chords and Arcs 351 9.. 15. c ..l 0 P. (a) Prove that LCAO = LCBO and LACM = LBCM.ttB 14. (c) Hence prove that AM = M Band AB . Prove that SP = SQ.l ST.] (b) (c) S Q K Q p Prove that F J = KG. suppose also that each circle passes through the centre of the other (the circles will then have the same radius). (a) Prove that the common chord sub tends 120 0 at each centre. [HINT: First prove that 60AF == 60BG. and that MG = M J. What are the possible distances between the chords? 10. (a) G ""~~ Prove that AF = BF. and that PQ . In the diagram opposite. (b) Find the ratio AB : 0 P. When two circles intersect. (b) Hence prove that 60 M A == 60 M B . and that AB is a diameter.
0). AIM: To prove that LAP B Join OP.0) in each case: (a) A = (4. 4.6) _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 19.12) (d) A=(6. The chord moves around the circle so that its length is unchanged. and find the smallest value of n for which: (i) A > 0·999 (ii) J. B and the origin 0(0. In the diagram to the right.] 17. Prove that £ = 2r sin tB. The ratio of the length of a chord of a circle to the diameter is A : 1. An nsided regular polygon is inscribed in a circle. (a) What is the length of the chord AD? (b) How far is the chord from the centre O? [HINT: Let 2x = AB = BC = CD. (c) Use trigonometric identities to reconcile the two results. GIVEN: Let AO B be a diameter of a circle with centre 0. and let h be the distance from the centre O.l for n = 3.B=(2. 18. = 90 0 • CONSTRUCTION: . and is said to be the first mathematical theorem ever formally proven. find the centre and radius of the circle passing through A. The converse of the angle in a semicircle theorem is new work.B=(2.0). TRIGONOMETRY: A chord of length £ sub tends an angle B at the centre of a circle of radius r. 6 and 8. B = (4. Let the ratio of the perimeter of the polygon to the circumference of the circle be A : 1.352 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 16. explain why they both have limit 1. Then use Pythagoras' theorem. (a) Prove that £2 (b) = 2r2(1. the two concentric circles have radii 1 and 2 respectively.2). and let P be a point on the circle distinct from A and B.l > 0·999 9B Angles at the Centre and Circumference This section studies the relationship between angles at the centre of a circle and angles at the circumference.l as functions of n. and let the ratio of the area of the polygon to the area of the circle be J.8) (c) A = (4.l : 1. 6ABO equilateral (b) A=(4. the following theorem is attributed to the early Greek mathematician Thales. Explain why the locus of the midpoint M of the chord is a circle. Traditionally. 10 COURSE THEOREM: An angle in a semicircle is a right angle. 20. (b) Find expressions of A and J. and find the ratio of the areas of the two circles.cos B). Angles in a Semicircle: An angle in a semicircle is an angle at the circumference subtended by a diameter of the circle.0). COORDINATE GEOMETRY: Using the result of Box 9. or otherwise. (a) Find A and J.
the circle whose diameter is the hypotenuse of a right triangle passes through the third vertex of the triangle. a = 67 0 (angle sum of . so Secondly. and let the diagonals AB and PQ intersect at O. Let ABP be a triangle rightangled at P. (angle in a semicircle). 0 and D are collinear. WORKED EXERCISE: A Since AP sub tends right angles at Nand B. LBAC = 90 0 (angle in a semicircle). forming two isosceles triangles . PROOF: Let WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Find a. Prove that the midpoint M of AP is equidistant from Band N. the circle with diameter AP passes through Band N. as required.0. To prove that P lies on the circle with diameter AB.0. a perpendicular P N is drawn to the hypotenuse.0.ABP).0.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 98 Angles at the Centre and Circumference 353 LA=a and LB=(3.0. so its statement must assert the existence of the semicircle.AP B to a rectangle AP BQ.AO P and . Hence the centre M of the circle is equidistant from Band N. AB II CD). PROOF: Q From any point P on the side BC of a triangle ABC rightangled at B. the diagonal AD passes through the midpoint 0 of BC. CONSTRUCTION: The diagonals of the rectangle AP BQ are equal. Since the diagonals of a rectangle bisect each other. SOLUTION: B ~ P C Angles at the Centre and Circumference: A semicircle subtends a straight angle at the centre. p GIVEN: AIM: Complete . But (a + (3) + a + (3 = 180 0 (angle sum of . given a right triangle. OR The midpoint of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equidistant from all three vertices of the triangle. and so LAPO = a and LBPO = (3. This relationship can be generalised to a theorem about angles at the centre and circumference standing on any arc. Now OA = OP = OB (radii of circle).BAC). and LD = 90 0 . Hence OA = OB = OP = OQ. Converse of the Angle in a Semicircle Theorem: The converse theorem essentially says 'every right angle is an angle in a semicircle'. and bisect each other. First. and prove that A. .BO P. so ABCD is a rectangle (all angles are right angles). which is twice the right angle it subtends at the circumference. COURSE THEOREM: 11 Conversely. so a+(3=90°. andLAPB=90°. LAC D = 90 0 (cointerior angles.
AIM: To prove that LAOB =2 X LAP B. depending on the position of P. the equal radii 0 A = OP = OB form isosceles triangles. {3. CONSTRUCTION: p Join PO. The angle 'standing on an arc' means the angle subtended by the chord joining its endpoints.. GIVEN: Let AB be an arc of a circle with centre 0. A . Let LAPO = 0: and LBPO = {3. so ¢ = 70 0 (angles on the same arc AP B). where 0 is the centre of the circle. First. SOLUTION: Secondly. In each case. reflex LAO B = 220 0 (angles in a revolution). WORKED EXERCISE: Find () and ¢ in the diagram opposite. 1. Find 0:. It is set as an exercise in the Extension section following. all reasons must always be given. but is not specifically in the course. The other two cases are left to the exercises. points labelled 0 or Z are centres of the appropriate circles. I and b in each diagram below. () = 110 0 (angles on the same arc AQB). X A Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 PROOF: There are three cases. CASE 1: LP AO = 0: and LP BO = {3 (base angles of isosceles triangles). Hence LAOX = 20: and LBOX = 2{3 (exterior angles). Unless otherwise indicated. as required.354 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 12 COURSE THEOREM: The angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc is twice any angle at the circumference standing on the same arc. NOTE: The converse of this theorem is also true. (a) (b) (c) (d) . and let P be a point on the opposite arc. a~d so LAOB = 20: + 2{3 = 2(0: + (3) = 2 X LAPE. and produce to X. Exercise 98 NOTE: In each question.
. A photographer is photographing the fa<. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ c 5. CONSTRUCTION: Constructing a right angle at the endpoint of an interval. 4. Prove that AC 1. he has to position himself so that the two ends of a building subtend a right angle at his camera. AX. Give reasons for your answers.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 98 Angles at the Centre and Circumference 355 (e) (f) B (g) F (h) F G (j) G (m) (n) (p) 2. and let it meet the circle again at C. COURSE THEOREM: Complete the other two cases of the proof that the angle at the centre subtended by an arc is twice the angle at the circumference subtended by that arc. Let AX be an interval. Let the circle pass through AX again at B. With any centre 0 above or below the interval AX. (a) c Eo') (b) (d) A B D F I 3. construct a circle with radius OA. In each diagram. Describe the locus of his possible positions.ade of a building. Construct the diameter through B. and name a diameter of it. and explain why he must be a constant distance from the midpoint of the building. name a circle containing four points. To do this effectively.
Band P. (b) A proof using the forward theorem: Construct the circle with diameter AB. AB = PB.] [HINT: Join BG. In each case. Then prove that AP II BQ. prove that G is the midpoint of AP. and let P be any other point on the circle. Then prove that 0: = 120 0 • Find 0:. ALTERNATIVE PROOFS THAT AN ANGLE IN A SEMICIRCLE IS A RIGHT ANGLE: Let AB be a diameter of a circle with centre 0. Explain why 0 M . ALTERNATIVE PROOFS OF THE CONVERSE: Let /::"ABP be rightangled at P. (i) Explain why LQP B = 0: + (3 and LAP B = 0: + (3. In part (a).l AP and OM II BP.. (3 and . (b) A (iii) Explain why the points P and X coincide. Book 1. and hence that LAP B = 90 0 • (c) Proof using intercepts: Let M be the midpoint of AP. (b) Proof using rectangles: Join PO and produce it to the diameter PO R.] . (i) Explain why LAX B (ii) Explain why P B AJL'lB = 90 0 • II X B. Hence prove that LP is a right angle. and find reflex LO. (a) p (b) p (c) p [HINT: Join BG. (a) (c) D 25 0 Explain why LB = 0:. We must prove that the points P and X coincide. A~'lB (ii) Hence prove that LAP B is a right angle. (i) Prove that 0 M . 8. (ii) Prove that /::"AO M == /::"PO M. (a) Euclid's proof. Use the diagonal test to prove that AP B R is a rectangle. Find 0: and (3. and join OP. 9. 7. (iii) Explain why 0 is equidistant from A. Let AP (produced if necessary) meet the circle again at X.356 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 6.] [HINT: Join OG and PB. p (a) Proof using intercepts: Let 0 and M be the midpoints of AB and AP respectively..l AP. Let LA = 0: and LB = (3. Proposition XX: Produce AP to Q..
] (a) A (b) (c) Q o 11. (3.l BG. H MG and G H F have diameters F H. (a) H A line through A meets the two circles again at F and Q. In part (a). (iii) If the radii are equal. Band G are collinear. I and (j in each diagram. Give careful arguments to find 0:. [HINT: Parts (b) and (c) will need congruence. (i) Prove that the circles F M H. Begin part (c) by proving that 0: = 120 0 • (a) (c) G 12. (iii) Prove that LBOZ = 0: and LBZO = (3. Let LF = 0: and LQ = (3. f3 and I in each diagram. 13. H G and GF respectively. . (iv) Prove that LFBQ = LOBZ. prove also that OM = MB. prove that FB = BG. (a) (b) p o B AOF and AZG are both diameters. (ii) Prove that the sum of the areas of the circles F M Hand GM H equals the area of the circle F H G.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 98 Angles at the Centre and Circumference 357 10. (b) F ~ M G (i) Prove that LA = LG = 45 0 • (ii) Prove that AD . (i) Prove that ~AOZ == ~BOZ. Find 0:. (ii) Prove that OZ bisects LAOB and LAZB. (iii) Prove that M lies on the circle BDO. (i) Join AB. and hence prove that LABF = LABG = 90 0 • (ii) Show that the points F.
WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: Ct Find f3 and I in the diagram opposite. (c) Find A when the ratio of the areas is twice its minimum value. Angles at the Circumference Standing on the Same Arc: An angle subtended by an arc at the circumference of a circle is also called 'an angle in a segment'. let length: breadth = A : l. and find this minimum ratio. OR Two angles at the circumference standing on the same or equal arcs are equal. and a punter standing at the edge of the track is following him with binoculars. and let P and Q be points on the opposite arc. CONSTRUCTION: PROOF: and Hence Join AO and BO. two angles in opposite arcs are supplementary. 15. 9C Angles on the Same and Opposite Arcs The previous theorem relating angles at the centre and circumference has two important consequences. The proof of this theorem relates the two angles at the circumference back to the single angle at the centre (the case of 'equal arcs' is left to the reader): p GIVEN: Let AB be an arc of a circle with centre 0. Secondly. the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary. (b) Prove that the ratio of the areas has its minimum when the rectangle is a square. then the circle with centre 0 and radius OA = OB also passes through C. (a) Show that the ratio of the areas of the circle and the rectangle is ~ ( A+ l) . (angles on the same arc AF). just as an angle in a semicircle is called 'an angle in a semicircle'. Ct. 16. . = 15° f3 = 35° I = 35 ° (angles on the same arc BG).358 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 14. THEOREM: The converse of the angle at the centre and circumference theorem. (exterior angle of 6BFM). or alternatively. CIRCULAR MOTION: A horse is travelling around a circular track at a constant rate. First. any two angles on the same arc are equal. This accounts for the alternative statement of the theorem: COURSE THEOREM: 13 Two angles in the same or equal segments are equal. AIM: To prove that LAP B LAOB LAOB LAPB = LAQB. MINIMISATION: In a rectangle inscribed in a circle. = 2 X LAPB = 2 X LAQB = LAQB. and a point P lies on the same side of AB as 0 such that LAOB = 2LAP B. (angles on the same arc AB). (angles on the same arc AB). Use circle geometry to prove that the punter's binoculars are rotating at a constant rate. Use the method of question 7( c) to prove that if 6AO B is isosceles with apex 0.
and let LP = e. GIVEN: Let ABC D be a cyclic quadrilateral. points labelled 0 or Z are centres of the appropriate circles. Hence LX AY = 180 0 . 0' + . one nonreflex. AX and AY.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9C Angles on the Same and Opposite Arcs 359 Cyclic Quadrilaterals: A cyclic quadrilateral is a quadrilateral whose vertices lie on a circle (we say that the quadrilateral is inscribed in the circle). . (facing A). as required. There are two angles at 0. by part (a). = 360 0 (angles in a revolution). 1. = 0'. = 180 0 .. e LQ = 180 0 (cointerior angles. Also e e Exercise 9C NOTE: In each question. A and Yare collinear. LBOD = 2. WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: In the diagram below. LBOD = 20' (facing C). so LY AB = (opposite angles of cyclic quadrilateral ABQY). one reflex. and let 0 be the centre of the circle ABCD. A cyclic quadrilateral is therefore formed by taking two angles standing on opposite arcs. (a) (b) (c) (d) . as appropriate in each diagram below. Hence 20' + 2. so (b) Also. LDCT = 180 0 B (straight angle). all reasons must always be given. with side BC produced to T. Let LA = 0' and LC = . which is why its study is relevant here. and so X AB is a straight line. Join AB. • An exterior angle of a cyclic quadrilateral equals the opposite interior angle. prove that X. P X II QY). Taking angles on the arc BAD. LXAB = 180 0 (opposite angles of cyclic quadrilateral ABP X). AIM: To prove: (a) 0' +. COURSE THEOREM: 14 • Opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary . = 180 0 (b) LDCT = 0' A CONSTRUCTION: PROOF: Join BO and DO. Find 0'. (a) Taking angles on the arc BCD. (3 and. Unless otherwise indicated.
Draw a diagram of ABCD.360 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (e) (f) D (g) (h) F I (i) A (k) (1) 2. and then explain why sin A = sin C and sin B = sin D. Find a. = LD. 4. Prove that LA = LB = LC Prove that AD = BC. (a) 80° L (e) (f) A (g) (h) 3. (a) (b) E Prove that CD Prove that EC II AB. . = ED. f3 and I as appropriate in each diagram. Suppose that ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral.
Given that DA bisects LBAG. Prove that AB . Q Give a reason why LQ = LP. (a) (b) AX bisects LGAB. t(). AY bisects LG AE. (e) (f) X Give a reason why LBXY = LBAY. ALTERNATIVE PROOF THAT THE OPPOSITE ANGLES OF A CYCLIC QUADRILATERAL ARE SUPPLEMENTARY: In the diagram opposite: (a) Prove that LDBG = () and LBDG = cpo (b) Hence prove that LDAB and LDG B are supplementary. Prove that LAPM = LQPB. prove that Y E bisects LXEB. Give a reason why LA = LQ. 0  t(). . Prove that AG bisects LDG B. 6. Give a reason why LBAD = LBEY. Prove that AQ II GP. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 5.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9C Angles on the Same and Opposite Arcs 361 (c) (d) D Prove that LAGB = a.l BG. Prove that AB bisects LX BY. Prove that LX M B = LAY B. Prove that LY AX = 90 0 • Prove that LYGX = 90 0 • (c) Give a reason why LAP B = Show that LBP N = LAQN Show that LAMB + LAN B (d) = 180 = ().
XGD and 6. Band Q are collinear. when produced. Given that F BG and P BQ are straight lines. Prove that P.AMQ 1116. Prove that QG is a diameter. (d) How should this theorem be restated when a pair of opposite sides is parallel? x y . THEOREM: Let the two pairs of opposite sides of a cyclic quadrilateral meet. Then find MB. Prove that AD II C F. prove that AG = AH. Give a reason why LQ = LG. (a) (b) B (d) 9. In the diagram opposite: (a) Explain why LXDA = B.PMB.XFB. (b) Using 6. prove that YM 1. If the radii are equal.MYF and 6.MYG.XM. at X and Y respectively. A and F are collinear. In each diagram. prove that QG II F P. prove that LF AP = LGAQ.362 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 7. (c) (d) QI7~ Find LBAF and LBAH. ( c) 8. prove that 6. prove that LXGD = cP. Given that AB bisects LFBl. (a) A (b) Prove that LBEF = a and find LC. Then the angle bisectors of LX and LY are perpendicular. Find LABP and LABQ. (c) Using 6. Prove that H. (e) (f) Q p Give a reason why LF BA = LF H A.
ABC. SIn a a). (a) Prove that if two chords of a circle bisect each other. Hence find the value of a = LAP B. . LP = a. D. BC (c) Hence prove that . B. 15.l AB. THEOREM: Diagonals in a regular polygon. (a) Explain why a is constant as P varies. then find dy d2 y (c) Find dB' and show that dB2 ( d) Prove that and simplify the maximum value. (a) Let LA _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ = a. then M B = M Q.= BOP. ( a) Prove that a cyclic parallelogram is a rectangle. then they are both diameters. then join PC. and have the value . sma (d) Repeat the construction and proof when LA is obtuse. THE SINE RULE AND THE CIRCUMCIRCLE: The ratio of any side of a triangle to the sine of the opposite angle is the diameter of the circumcircle. (b) More generally. Join BO and produce it to a diameter BOP. (c) Prove that the nonparallel opposite sides of a cyclic trapezium are equal.(sin B + sin( B + a)). 180 0 D E (b) Prove that a cyclic rhombus is a square. J( L is a fixed chord of length a. use the circumcircle to prove that the six angles between adjacent diagonals at P are all equal. and explain why = B. (b) Prove that if the chords AB and PQ intersect at M and M A BP = AQ and AP II QB. n 11. (a) In the regular octagon opposite.ORB to prove that CR. 12. prove that the angles between adjacent diagonals at any vertex of an nsided regular polygon are all equal. LAPQ = LABQ (c) Use b. In the diagram opposite. and let 0 be the centre of the circumcircle of b. Join CO and produce it to R. Let LA in b. and explain why 16.BPC is a right triangle. = yo y is maximum when B = HIT  ..CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9C Angles on the Same and Opposite Arcs 363 10. A The three altitudes of a triangle are concurrent (their intersection is called the ortho centre of the triangle). and E be five points in order around a circle with centre 0. Prove that LAB C + LCD E = 270 0 • 13. (a) Explain why OPCQ and AQPB are cyclic. 14. and the point P varies on the major arc J( L. (b) Use the sine rule to prove that y = /!. C. B p (b) Let LAC R = B. and join PQ. and let AOE be a diameter. (b) Explain why b.. the two altitudes AP and BQ meet at O. Let A. MAXIMISATION: In the diagram below. Let y be the sum of the lengths of P J( and PL. THE ORTHOCENTRE THEOREM: = M P..ABC be acute.OQC and b.
k=l 6 [HINT: Use the major diagonal AIA4 to divide the hexagon into two cyclic quadrilaterals. The converses of the two theorems of the previous section provide two general tests for four points to be concyclic. and join BX and C X. First. Join CO and produce it to R.. In the diagram. to prove that for Zn any cyclic polygon AIAz . (d) Prove that 6POC == 6PXC. and hence that PO = P X. (a) Prove that if ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. There is an important logical structure here to keep in mind. A B c 9D Concyclic Points A set of points is called concyclic if they all lie on a circle. 19. (a) Let P be the midpoint of BC. See also the related questions about the circumcircle and in circle of a triangle at the end of Exercises 4H and 41 in the Year 11 volume. with the centroid trisecting the interval joining the other two centres. and produce it to a point 0 so that OG : G M = 2 : 1. _1)k LAk = o. Secondly. (c) Prove that 6POB == 6PX B. Let M and G be the circumcentre and centroid respectively of 6ABC. prove that LPBO = cP. We must prove that 0 is the orthocentre of 6ABC. (b) Using 6QOA and 6POB. Let LCBX = cP and LBCX = 7jJ. then LA . 2) k=l 18. (c) Complete the proof. but four points mayor may not be concyclic. THE ORTHOCENTRE THEOREM: A proof using the circumcircle. The last two questions of Exercise 4J in the Year 11 volume contain a variety of algebraic results about cyclic quadrilaterals and their circumcircles. established using trigonometry.l AB. (e) By comparing 6POC and 6ROA.LD = O.. centroid and circumcentre of a triangle are collinear (the line is called the Euler line). (b) Hence prove that 0 lies on the altitude from A. Join MG. THE EULER LINE THEOREM: The orthocentre. MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION: The alternating sums of the angles of a cyclic polygon. A (a) Explain why LCAX = cP. Produce AP to meet the circumcircle of 6ABC at X. prove that CR .LB + LC . Those results and their proofs could be examined in the present context of Euclidean geometry. any three noncollinear points are concyclic. 20. as proven in Section 9A. and hence that LOCP = 7jJ. AZn with an even number of vertices.] (c) Use mathematical induction. Use the fact that AG : GP = 2 : 1 to prove that 6GM P III 6GAO. (b) Prove that if AIAzA3A4A5A6 is a cyclic hexagon. then apply part (a) to each quadrilateral. . and the same method as in part (b).364 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 17. then 2) _l)k LAk = o. but three points mayor may not be collinear. any two distinct points lie on a unique line. the two altitudes AP and BQ meet at O.
Cyclic Quadrilaterals: quadrilateral theorem are: COURSE THEOREM: The converses of the two forms of the cyclic 16 • If one pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral is supplementary. B. because AC subtends equal angles at D and G. and the second will follow immediately. being angles in a straight angle. Bu t Q B and X B intersect at B.Two Points on the Same Side of an Interval: We have proven that angles at the circumference standing on the same arc of a circle are equal. Join XB. P and Q are concyclic. PROOF: WORKED EXERCISE: In the diagram opposite. Since the exterior angle and the adjacent interior angle are supplementary. • If one exterior angle of a quadrilateral is equal to the opposite interior angle. so the quadrilateral ACGD is cyclic. Hence LAXB = LAQB. and so Q lies on the circle. then the quadrilateral is cyclic . so QB II X B (corresponding angles are equal). and is left to the exercises. LAXB = LAPB = 0: (angles on the same arc AB). SOLUTION: G Concyclicity Test .CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 90 Concyclic Points 365 Concyclicity Test . Prove that ACGD is cyclic. and the angles subtended at these points by the interval are equal. ~ B Let L B = (3. and are therefore the same line. Then LAGB = (3 (base angles of isosceles 6BAG) and LADC = (3 D (opposite angles of parallelogram ABC D). and that LACD = LAGD. The converse of this is: COURSE THEOREM: 15 If two points lie on the same side of an interval. The proof of the first test is similar to the previous proof. Hence Q and X coincide. The most satisfactory proof makes use of the forward theorem. we need only prove the first test. CONSTRUCTION: Construct the circle through A. . Hence LACD = LAGD (angles on the same arc AD). then the two points and the endpoints of the interval are concyclic. AB = AG. Using the forward theorem. and let the circle meet AQ (produced if necessary) at X. GIVEN: Let P and Q be points on the same side of an interval AB such that LAP B AIM: = LAQB =0:. then the quadrilateral is cyclic. To prove that the points A. Band P.
( a) Ar.B (b) T s D R ABC D is a cyclic quadrilateral (opposite angles are supplementary). moreover the interval is then a diameter of the circle. hence F B = GC (subtracting the equal intervals AF and AG). (a) B A (b) 1l0° A (c) A B (d) A B 30° D 70° C C D C D . so AB = AC (opposite angles of 6ABC are equal). Suppose secondly that F B = GC. WORKED EXERCISE: Prove that if FGC B is cyclic. hence FGCB is cyclic (exterior angle LAGF equals interior opposite angle LB). PQ RS is a cyclic quadrilateral (exterior angle equals opposite interior angle). the four points are concyclic by the earlier theorem that a right angle was an angle in a semicircle. These two tests for the concyclicity of four points should therefore be seen as generalisations of that theorem.366 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 WORKED EXERCISE: Give reasons why each quadrilateral below is cyclic. Then FG II BC (intercepts on AB and AC). In each diagram. points labelled 0 are centres of the appropriate circles. = GC. B Then LC = lX (exterior angle of cyclic quadrilateral FGC B) and L B = lX (exterior angle of cyclic quadrilateral FGC B). Then LAGF = lX (base angles of isosceles 6AFG). then FGC B is cyclic. A Let LAFG = lX. all reasons must always be given. Unless otherwise indicated. give a reason why ABC D is a cyclic quadrilateral. Suppose first that FGC B is cyclic. FG II BC). so LB = lX (corresponding angles. NOTE: When the angles subtended by the interval are right angles. 1. SOLUTION: c Exercise 90 NOTE: In each question. then F B Prove that if F B = GC.
Hence prove that LM BO = LM DO. 4. (a) Prove that every rectangle is cyclic. Prove that LBMD = 20. Construct the circle through A. 6. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral in which LA+ LBCD = 180°.l AC. (a) A (b) A B c M B (i) Prove that if ABMC is cyclic. (ii) Prove that if M C . (a) Prove that LBXD + LA = 180°. prove that the four darkened points are concyclic. then the quadrilateral is cyclic. then FGAH is cyclic and LAHG = LAFG. and let it meet BC (prod uced if necessary) at X.LB 5. then FGAH is cyclic and LBH F = LAGF. and that C and X coincide. then MC . (a) (b) C Prove that B EDC is cyclic. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ COURSE THEOREM: If one pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral is supplementary. (a) A (b) A ( c) A ( d) A B p (e) (f) (g) (h) Q c A A 3. Hence prove that LEBD = LECD. In each diagram. .l AC. + LC  LD = 0° is cyclic. (b) Prove that any quadrilateral ABC D in which LA . and that LADE = LABC. Join D X . then ABMC is cyclic.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 90 Concyclic Points 367 2. (ii) Prove that if LAHG = LAFG. Band D. and hence prove that B MOD is cyclic. (i) Prove that if LBH F = LAGF. (b) Prove that CD II X D.
(a) (b) M In the diagram above. (a) Let LP = O!. The altitudes AX and BY of 6. (ii) Prove that if LBAN = LCAP. Let P. (i) Show that AP /I CR. and the point P varies on the major arc of the circle. (iii) Prove that if R. then AP produced is a diameter of circle ABC. (a) Prove that ifAXY B is cyclic. then M A = M B. (b) Prove that M.ABX' reflected about AB to 6. (b) Explain why P X MY is cyclic.ABY. A. (a) (b) NP In the diagram above. The chord AB of the circle opposite is fixed. ABC D and PQRS are straight lines. Q and Mare concyclic. (c) Show that LAMB = 180 0 . Prove that the two triangles together form a cyclic quadrilateral AX BY. then AXY B is cyclic. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ B 12. P 11. M Band MC of a circle. Q and R be the midpoints of three chords M A. (i) Prove that if AP prod uced is a diameter of circle ABC. (ii) Show that AP S D is cyclic.O!. 8. then SBQM is cyclic. Q and Rare con cyclic. (i) Prove that LC PQ = B. and P are collinear. Let AB and XY be parallel intervals. (i) Prove that LPAB = B. The broken lines represent 6. (a) Prove that PQ II AB and Q R /I BC. then LBAN = LCAP. and find the locus of M. AB = 10 and BX = 7. The unbroken lines represent a construction of the two possible triangles ABX and ABX' in which LBAX = 40 0 . (iii) Hence prove that PQY X is cyclic. 9. not necessarily parallel. with AY and BX meeting at M.ABP meet at M. (ii) Prove that if S. TRIGONOMETRY: B y A "~ I 10 40° X' x . P. AB = AC.368 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 7. The spurious ASS congruence test can be related to cyclic quadrilaterals. 10. (b) Prove that if M A = M B. A and P are collinear. (ii) Prove that LC P A = cp. then R. B. Explain why O! is constant.
(b) Prove that C. 9E Tangents and Radii Tangents were the object of intensive study in calculus. Referring to the diagram in question 11. [HINT: Join NM. ABC and ADE are any two intervals meeting at A.b) cot ~O' = (c + b) cot(f3 + ~O'). Let LABC = f3 and LCAB = 0'. and let the circles C M B and EM D meet again at N.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9E Tangents and Radii 369 13. NC and NE. and construct the diameter F ACG. (b) Give a straightedgeandcompasses construction of the point P. H B (c) Prove that (d) Prove that 0' + f3 + . LBAO = f3 and LCAO = . Q and R are the feet of the three altitudes. 14. Let BE and DC meet at M.. G and H. because the derivative was defined as the gradient of the tangent. = 1 : 2 : 3. and the results in the remainder of this chapter are developed without reference to the derivative.] E c 15. A D (f) Adapt the construction to prove the theorem when c < b. and a point P is placed so that AP : B P : C P (a) Find the size of LAPB. (a) Prove that LRBO = LRPO = LQPO = LQCO = 0'. . Suppose that ABC D is a square. M and N. Prove that LFBC = f3 + ~O' = LFMC.bb tan tA in any triangle ABC. (b) Proceed similarly with f3 and . Its centre is the A midpoint of the interval joining the circumcentre and the orth 0 cen tre. THE NINEPOINT CIRCLE THEOREM: The circle through the feet of the three altitudes of a triangle passes through the three midpoints of the sides. (b) Prove that LY AX is constant. and that the interval XY has constant length. and hence that OH = HC. Construct the circle with centre A passing through B. Prove that ADNC and ABN E are cyclic. however. (c) Prove that LBFC (d) (e) + tA) = c. and bisects the three intervals joining the orthocentre to the vertices.b. In to"ABC opposite. and locate the centre of this circle. c+ = ~O' = LCMG. The circle PQ R meets the sides at L. = 180 LRLQ = 20'. (c) What is the locus of the mid point of XY? 16. LRP L. Let LABO = 0'. Band Fare concyclic. BL 17. Prove that CM = (c .. Let the perpendicular to F ACG through C meet BG at M. M. (a) Explain why AF = c and CG = c . P. A TRIGONOMETRIC THEOREM: tan(B Let ABC be a triangle in which c > b. and the intervals joining the orthocentre to the vertices at F. where the chord AB is constant and P varies: (a) Explain why AY X B is cyclic. Circles. were their original context. and hence that 0 • (e) Prove that LLHC = = LC.
Alternatively. OS and 1. 17 DEFINITION: tangent A tangent is a line that meets a circle in one point. or is a tangent touching it at one point.but the closest distance to the centre is the perpendicular distance. This result can easily be seen informally in two ways. a diameter is an axis of symmetry of a circle . so BA = OB = PB (LOBA is equilateral). and so the perpendicular line cannot meet the circle again. and prove that PAis a tangent to the circle. OP = OP (common). or misses the circle entirely. This tangent is the line through the point perpendicular to the radius at the point. 3. CONSTRUCTION: PROOF: Join OP. GIVEN: Let P Sand PT be two tangents to a circle with centre 0 from an external point P. called the point of contact. so Hence In the triangles SOP and TOP: OS = OT (radii). ~=1">. and is therefore a tangent. therefore the tangent is the line perpendicular to the radius. P S = PT (matching sides of congruent triangles). COURSE ASSUMPTION: 18 At every point on a circle. if a line ever comes closer than the radius to the centre. so LOAB = LOBA = 60° (angle sum of isosceles LOAB). Hence a = LP = 30° (exterior angle of isosceles LBAP). ~T.370 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Tangent and Radius: We shall assume that given a circle. First. LOSP = LOTP = 90° (radius and tangent). there is one and only one tangent to the circle at that point. (+::>P . AIM: To prove that P S = PT. Hence PAis a tangent to the circle. LSOP == LTOP (RHS). SOLUTION: IS o OA = OB (radii). then it will cross the circle twice and be a secant. We shall also make the following assumption about the relationship between a tangent and the radius at the point of contact. where 0 the centre. so a. a P Tangents from an External Point: The first formal theorem about tangents concerns 19 COURSE THEOREM: The two tangents from an external point have equal lengths. tangent at a point T on a circle must be a line whose point of closest approach to the centre is T . any line is a secant crossing a circle at two points. 2.this symmetry reflects the perpendicular line at the endpoint T onto itself. the two tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle. so LOAP = 90° (adjacent angles). WORKED EXERCISE: Find a in the diagram below.
In both cases. 0. if the circles are on opposite sides of the tangent. The two types are illustrated in the worked exercise below. T and Z are collinear. (c) Prove that their point of intersection is collinear O++7B1re with the two centres. if both circles are on the same side of the tangent. (b) LSPO = LTPO (matching angles of congruent triangles).CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9E Tangents and Radii 371 WORKED EXERCISE: Use the construction established above to prove: (a) The tangents from an external point sub tend equal angles at the centre. R (b) Prove that the four points of contact form a trapezium. They can touch externally or internally. y AIM: CONSTRUCTION: Join OT and ZT. COURSE THEOREM: 20 When two circles touch (internally or externally). Using the congruence ~SOP == ~TOP established above: (a) LSOP = LTOP (matching angles of congruent triangles). but the argument is practically the same in both. Given two unequal circles and a pair of direct or indirect common tangents (notice that there are two cases): (a) Prove that the two tangents have equal lengths. (b) The interval joining the centre and the external point bisects the angle between the tangents. WORKED EXERCISE: Let the two circles have centres 0 and Z. GIVEN: . LOTX = 90 0 and LZTX = 90 0 • Hence LOT Z = 180 0 (when the circles touch externally). because the circles can touch internally or externally. as the two diagrams below illustrate. x GIVEN: Let two circles with centres 0 and Z touch at T. and a type of direct common tangent if they touch internally. and construct the common tangent XTY at T. PROOF: x o =cry Direct and Indirect Common Tangents: given pair of circles: There are two types of common tangents to a DIRECT AND INDIRECT COMMON TANGENTS: 21 A common tangent to a pair of circles: • is called direct. PROOF: Touching Circles: Two circles are said to touch if they have a common tangent at the point of contact. There are two possible cases. To prove that 0. Notice that according to this definition. Since XY is a tangent and OT and ZT are radii. or LOTZ = 00 (when the circles touch internally). the two centres and the point of contact are collinear. the common tangent at the point of contact of two touching circles is a type of indirect common tangent if they touch externally. • is called indirect. T and Z are collinear. Let the tangents RT and US meet at M.
1. RT = RM + MT = SM + MU = SU (indirect case). = 180 20: (angle sum of to"RM S). In the indirect case.MT = SM . 0 0  (c) :From the previous worked exercise.MU = SU (direct case). M (c) OM Z is a straight line. or common. o. = 180 20: (vertically opposite. and hence LRMO = LTMZ = 90 0  0:. S. R AIM: To prove: a (a) RT = SU. angle). Unless otherwise indicated. In the direct case. all reasons must always be given. RT = RM . Exercise 9E NOTE: In each question. and the obvious lines at points labelled R. points labelled 0 or Z are centres of the appropriate circles. LRS M LRM S LT MU LUTM RS = 0: (base angles of isosceles to"RM S). I TU (alternate or corresponding angles are equal). 0 M Z is a straight line by the converse of the vertically opposite angles result. Find 0: and (3 in each diagram below. RM 0: (b) Let Then so so so Hence = LSRM. (b) RS PROOF: II UT. T and U are tangents. both OM and ZM bisect the angle between the two tangents. (a) and so or s = SM (tangents from an external point). = 0: (base angles of isosceles to"TMU). T M = U M (tangents from an external point). OM and ZM must be the same arm of the angle with vertex M. T (a) (b) (c) (d) a p T a Q 54° 0 p o T s (e) B (f) s R .372 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 CONSTRUCTION: Join OM and ZM.
Find x in each diagram. S + DC = AD + BC. (c) B (d) D Prove that AB 5. (3 and I in each diagram below.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9E Tangents and Radii 373 2. (a) s (c) A 4. (a) A c (b) R p S 1_1 T o B D Prove that the tangents at S and at Tare parallel. P Sand PT from the point P on the common tangent at the point S of contact are equal. (a) 3. Given a circle with centre 0 and struct the circle with diameter 0 intersect at A and B. conP. /// 0\\ " B . and let the two circles PA and P B are tangents. Prove that CONSTRUCTION: tangents to a given circle an external point P. Prove that the three tangents P R. C Prove that 0 SPT is cyclic. Find a. and hence that LOST = LOPT and LTOP = LTSP. A Construct the from a given external point.
Using this. (b) Hence find the height of the pile of three circles of equal radius r drawn to the right. B . (b) THEOREM: In the same notation. (b) ABC is an equilateral triangle. Prove that the common tangent M R at the point of contact bisects the direct common tangent ST.M PT III :T = 7 and MP = 28. (ii) AB II CD.0 P. Prove: (i) the direct common tangents AC and BD are equal. A DEVELOPMENT 8. 7. and that S R 1. In each diagram. (c) R Q (d) p Prove that PT II RQ. S p /::. prove by congruence that T S 1. 9. Find the radius of the outer circle if: (a) ABC D is a square.374 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 6. (a) THEOREM: The line joining the centre of a circle to an external point is the perpendicular bisector of the chord joining the points of contact. (ii) AB II CD. (c) Given that OM (i) Prove that /::. find ST. (a) Show that an equilateral triangle of side length 2r has altitude of length rV3.T R. (ii) Hence prove that TM2 = PM X OM. both circles have centre 0 and the inner circle has radius r. the semi chord T M is the geometric mean of the intercepts PM and OM. It was proven that LTOM = LSOM in a worked exercise.MTO. (a) A (b) M B Prove: (i) the indirect common tangents AD and BC are equal.
In each diagram below.b c) and m = f(a b . f = f(a . [HINT: Let LTMP = B. Given that PT = PM.c). [HINT: In part (c). then let LR = B. Use the fact that a tangent is perpendicular to the radius at the point of contact to find a rulerandcompasses construction of the circle. band c in m terms of f and m. and fit inside a larger circle which they touch internally. TH EOREM: Suppose that two circles touch externally. prove that PO is perpendicular to SO. Prove this theorem using a suitable diagram. use Pythagoras' theorem to form an equation in x.] CONSTRUCTION: Construct the circle with a given point as centre and tangential to a given line not passing though the point. (a) A (b) A k m m C Suppose that the circle RST is inscribed in l:o. prove: (i) l:o. 14. .CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9E Tangents and Radii 375 10.] (a) A (b) (c) F x x G C x c 11. 15. Prove that k = ~(a b c). Prove = f(m +f) f ' and find a. drop a perpendicular from P to QT.PAT Illl:o. (ii) AP II QB. B C + + + + Suppose further that LABC that k = 90°. In each diagram. [HINT: Join TO and TS. (a) p (b) A Af~'f_7IT o p 12.] 13. Then the triangle formed by the three centres has perimeter equal to the diameter of the larger circle.ABC. (a) (b) RfL_l S Prove that B A = AS.QBT. and then solve it.
(a) THEOREM: The direct common tangent of two circles touching externally is the geometric mean of their diameters (meaning that the square of the tangent is the product of the diameters). Find the length of the direct common tangent. and are tangent to AG and AF respectively. The intervals I L. 19. with a common chord of length 16 cm. Find the lengths of the direct and indirect common tangents. (b) Prove that IL = 1M = IN. (a) Two circles of radii 5 cm and 3 cm touch externally. Find the area of the small piece AST exactly and approximately. THE INCENTRE THEOREM: The angle bisectors of the vertices of a triangle are concurrent. (c) Two circles of radii 5 cm and 4 cm are 3 cm apart at their closest point. 1M and IN are perpendiculars to the sides. Find the length of the direct common tangent.376 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 16. (c) Prove that 6CIL == 6CIM. F ~ B A G 17. suppose that AB is the altitude to the hypotenuse of the right triangle AFG. (d) Complete the proof. (ii) Prove that 6AG Bill 6F AB. Find the exact values of the lengths T P and BP. . Prove that the circles with diameters AF and AG intersect again at B. (a) Prove that 6AIN == 6AIM and 6BIL == 6BIN. and their point of intersection (called the incentre) is the centre of a circle (called the incircle) tangent to all three sides. (b) Two circles of radii 17 cm and 10 cm intersect. Band G are collinear. the angle bisectors of LA and LB of 6ABC meet at I. A 20. and hence prove that AB is the geometric mean of F Band G B (meaning that AB2 = F B X GB). (b) TH EOREM: The difference of the squares of the direct and indirect common tangents of two nonoverlapping circles is the product of the two diameters. (i) Prove that F. (a) Two circles with centres 0 and Z intersect at A and B so that the diameters AO F and AZG are each tangent to the other circle. 18. (a) (b) A ~ 5 0 B P B c ~ R 6m T A S » C TRIGONOMETRY: The figure AT B in the diagram above is a semicircle. MENSURATION: This window is made in four pieces. Prove the following general cases of the previous question. In the diagram opposite. (b) Conversely.
22. the chord AB divides the circle into two segments . and let SAT be the tangent at A. (b) Four spheres of equal radius r are placed in a stack so that each touches the other three. and the radius of the largest circle that can be constructed in this region. 23. (b) CONSTRUCTION: Given two nonintersecting circles. (a) THEOREM: Suppose that there are three circles of three different radii such that no circle lies within any other circle. . the tangents to the two circles from a point outside both of them are equal if and only if the point lies on the common tangent at the point of contact. In the diagram below. The alternate segment theorem claims that the two angles are equal. (a) CONSTRUCTION: Given two intersecting lines. 24. use Pythagoras' theorem to prove that P R = P S if and only if x = O. Find the height of the stack.] (b) THEOREM: Prove that the orthocentre of a triangle is the incentre of the triangle formed by the feet of the three altitudes. then the direct common tangents to each pair of circles form a cone. [HINT: Replace the three circles by three spheres lying on a table. GIVEN: Let AB be a chord of a circle with centre 0. 9F The Alternate Segment Theorem The word 'alternate' means 'the other one'. and the angle AP B lies in the other segment. (a) Three circles of equal radius r are placed so that each is tangent to the other two.the angle a = LBAT lies in one of the segments. CONSTRUCTION: Construct the diameter AOQ from A. Let LAP B be an angle in the alternate (other) segment to LB AT. the common tangents at the three points of contacts are equal and concurrent. construct the four circles of a given radius that are tangential to both lines. Find the area of the region contained between them. They meet at the incentre of the triangle formed by the three centres. In the diagram to the right. and the incircle passes through the three points of contact. p (b) THEOREM: Given three circles such that each pair of circles touches externally. (a) THEOREM: If two circles touch.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9F The Alternate Segment Theorem 377 _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 21. The Alternate Segment Theorem: 22 COURSE THEOREM: Stating the theorem verbally: The angle between a tangent to a circle and a chord at the point of contact is equal to any angle in the alternate segment. Prove that the three points of intersection of the direct common tangents to each pair of circles are collinear. Use the result of part (a) to prove this theorem. AIM: To prove that LAP B = LBAT. and join BQ. construct their direct and indirect common tangents.
Secondly. 0 Exercise 9F NOTE: In each question.TBS (AA). LAT S = LT B S (alternate segment theorem). ll. Sand 0 are concyclic. ··l . Hence Since T A LT S A = LT S B (matching angles of similar triangles). 2. T and U are tangents. S.378 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Let LBAT Since LQAT LBAQ Again. and LA = LF = ll. (c) First. (a) Find ll. points labelled 0 or Z are centres of the appropriate circles. so L:. (b) Prove that T. Secondly. ST mg d AS X ST BS BS = ST2.ATSIIIL:. AS and AT are tangents to a circle with centre 0. Unless otherwise indicated. and II = 60 0 • (b) LSOT = 120 0 (angles on the same arc ST). = LQ = II s In the diagram to the right. BS = ST2. A. = 90 = ll. so LA and L SOT are supplementary.TBS.AT S is equilateral. (a) Prove that L:. since LQBA LQ Hence LF PROOF: WORKED EXERCISE: = ll. and the obvious lines at points labelled R. SOLUTION: (a) First. SOLUTION: (a) In the triangles ATS and TBS: 1. (angle in a semicircle). AS (b) Usmg matc h · ·SI es 0 fSImI ar tnang1es. LAST = II (alternate segment theorem). WORKED EXERCISE: In the diagram to the right. prove that T A and T B are diameters. Hence L:. 0 0 0 Q = 90 = 90 (radius and tangent). LTSA = LTSB = 90 • and T B subtend right angles at the circumference.ATS (b) Prove that AS X III L:. they are diameters. all reasons must always be given. . AT and BT are tangents. T (c) If the points A. LTSA and LTSB are supplementary (angles on a straight line). L AT S = II (al ternate segment theorem). (angles on the same arc BA). Sand B are collinear. Hence T ASO is a cyclic quadrilateral. LTAS = LBT S (alternate segment theorem). .
Prove that AE II PTQ. express CY. (b) (c) (d) 4. Prove that ET bisects LATQ. (a) p (b) Q p (c) Q p (d) Q p Prove that ET = EA. .CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9F The Alternate Segment Theorem 379 1. Prove that TA = TE. State the alternate segment theorem. 'Y and (j in each diagram below. (b) F (c) (d) B B Q A G (e) (f) A (g) F (h) A 0 B G p Q (i) c (j) (k) (1) 3. to illustrate it. and draw several diagrams. In each diagram below. 2. (3 and 'Y in terms of (). Find (a) CY. with tangents and chords in different orientations. (3. In each diagram below. PTQ is a tangent to the circle.
8.380 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 5. (a) Let a = LBAT. (iii) Prove that AT X BS = ST2. 9. (b) FindLOBAandLAOB. (b) The lines SA and SB are tangents. (a) T The lines SA and T B are tangents. Find a and (3. T and B are collinear. (a) s (b) y p y The two circles touch externally at T. Prove that TA II CB. ANOTHER PROOF OF THE ALTERNATE SEGMENT THEOREM: Let AB be a chord of a circle. (ii) Prove that !:::"SAT III !:::"BST. (c) HenceshowthatLP=a. (3 and . The lines SB and PBQ are tangents. The tangents at Sand T meet at the centre O. Prove that AB II QP. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 6. (b) B The line TC is a tangent. (a) (b) p The line SB is a tangent. (i) Prove that AT II SB. and XTY is the common tangent there. (ii) Prove that !:::"SAT III !:::"BTS. Find a. 7. . (iii) Prove that AT X BT = ST2. (i) Prove that LSAT = LBST. Prove that SA II P BQ. Let LAP B be an angle in the alternate segment to LBAT. and find LOAB.. and XTY is the common tangent at T. and let SAT be the tangent at A. Prove that the points Q. (a) The two circles touch externally at T. and AS = AT.
and AT B is a tangent. Prove that ET = EG.ST B. (a) Prove that LRSA = LUTB. = AS X (d) Prove that if the points A. 12. when the two circles touch internally. The line STU is a tangent parallel to PQ. and ET is a tangent.l PQ. . ST is a direct common tangent to two circles touching externally at U. 11. 14. A LOCUS PROBLEM: Two circles of equal radii intersect at A and B. prove that TS bisects LASB. (a) (b) If ST II AB and T M is a tangent. BT. then LSF A = 60°. (a) Prove that LQPB = LPQB. Prove that Q. U and T has centre X and is tangent to AS and BT. then AB is not a tangent to either circle.T M Bill L. (c) Explain why if the two circles have different diameters. (a) Prove that AT .CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9F The Alternate Segment Theorem 381 10. 13. (b) Prove that AS and BT are parallel diameters.AST (c) Prove that ST 2 s III L. If the circles are tangent at S. (b) Prove that L. A variable line through A meets the two circles again at P and Q. Investigate what happens in question 6. RSTU is a direct common tangent to the two circles. (a) E (b) s The line TG bisects LBT A. Draw the appropriate diagrams and prove the corresponding results. G and B are collinear. and X UY is the common tangent at U. prove that L.l BS.TAS. (c) What is the locus of M. Band T are collinear. where M is the midpoint of PQ. parts (a) and (b). as the line P AQ varies? ( d) What happens when Q lies on the minor arc AB? 15. B (b) Prove that BM . (d) Prove that the circle through S.
BQ and CR. THEOREM: p (a) Prove that LAMC = LAMB = 120 0 • (b) Prove that P. c and d. In this final section. and this point is the point of intersection of the three concurrent lines AP. and with secants and tangents from an external point. Construct the circles through A. and differentiating implicitly with respect to B. 2sm dA (c) Hence prove that dB 9G Similarity and Circles The theorems of the previous sections have concerned the equality of angles at the circumference of a circle. as shown. prove that d'lj. . MAXIMISATION THEOREM: a e b (a) Explain why A = tabsinB + tcdsin'lj. .382 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 16. Band R. (a) Prove that LBAH = a. 19. A A cyclic quadrilateral has the maximum area of all quadrilaterals with the same side lengths in the same order. and let GAH be the tangent to the circle at A. . C and Q and through A.) . Band P is tangent to SAT. Let the quadrilateral have fixed side lengths a. dB d c ab sin B cd sin 'Ij. Then the circle through A. Then the three circumcircles of the equilateral triangles intersect in a common point. (c) Prove that LAM Q = 60 0 • (d) Hence prove the theorem. (b) By equating two expressions for the diagonal. and thus prove the theorem. 'Ij. Go back to that theorem (see Box 13). The alternate segment theorem has an interesting relationship with the earlier theorem that two angles at the circumference subtended by the same arc are equal. Suppose also that LBAT = LAP B = a.. Band P. R 18. b. ab sin( B + 'Ij. BCP and CAQ be built on the sides of an acuteangled triangle ABC. Construct the circle through A. Let A be its area. The alternate segment theorem describes what happens when Q is in the limiting position at A. M and Bare con cyclic. THE CONVERSE OF THE ALTERNATE SEGMENT THEOREM: Suppose that the line SAT passes through the vertex A of 6ABP and otherwise lies outside the triangle. and variable opposite angles B and 'Ij. The similarity will then allow us to work with intersecting chords. and let the two circles meet again at M. 17. H Let equilateral triangles ABR. (b) Hence explain why the lines SAT and G AH coincide. C. we shall use these equal angles to prove similarity. and ask what happens to the diagram as Q moves closer and closer to A.
the tangent is the geometric mean of the intercepts on the secant. the product of the two intervals from the point to the circle on the secant is equal to the square of the tangent. The intercepts are now the two intervals on the secant from the external point. so In the triangles AP M and Q EM: LA = LQ (angles on the same arc PE). CONSTRUCTION: PROOF: Join AP and EQ. AIM: To prove that AM X ME = PM X MQ. CONSTRUCTION: PROOF: Join AP and EQ. the previous theorem still applies. ~APM Q III ~QEM  (AA). In other words. and let MAE and M PQ be secants to the circle. provided that we reinterpret the theorem as a theorem about secants from an external point. AM AM QM ME = PM (matching sides of similar triangles). 23 COURSE THEOREM: If two chords of a circle intersect. EM = PM X MQ. To prove that AM X AIM: ME = PM X MQ. COURSE THEOREM: 25 . ~APM AM Hence QM that is. PM . AM X ME (AA).CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9G Similarity and Circles 383 Intercepts on Intersecting Chords: When two chords intersect. GIVEN: Let AE and PQ be chords of a circle intersecting at M. 2. With this interpretation. the same theorem applies. each is broken into two intervals called intercepts. l. III ~QEM Intercepts on Secants: When two chords need to be produced outside the circle. X that is. l. The first theorem tells us that the product of the intercepts on one chord equals the product of the intercepts on the other chord. the product of the two intervals from the point to the circle on the one secant is equal to the product of these two intervals on the other secant. the product of the intercepts on the one chord is equal to the product of the intercepts on the other chord. Intercepts on Secants and Tangents: A tangent from an external point can be regarded as a secant meeting the circle in two identical points.. Given a circle. 2. and a secant and a tangent from an external point. LAMP = LQME (common). COURSE THEOREM: 24 Given a circle and two secants from an external point. EM PM X MQ. LAMP = LQME (vertically opposite angles). before they intersect. so Hence In the triangles AP M and QEM: LMAP = LMQE (external angle of cyclic quadrilateral). GIVEN: Let M be a point outside a circle.(matching sides of similar triangles).
and let MT be a tangent to the circle. Exercise 9G In each question. M CONSTRUCTION: PROOF: Join AT and ET. Find x in the two diagrams below. WORKED EXERCISE: (a) (b) LJ 6 SOLUTION: (a) 8(x + 8) = 6 X 12 x = 1. (a) (c) (d) 9 .a. Unless otherwise indicated. T and U are tangents. • The geometric mean is the number 9 such that That is. (b) x 2 x( x + 5) (x (intercepts on intersecting chords) x+8=9 + 5x + 9)(x  = 62 36 = 0 4) = 0 x =4 (tangent and secant) (x must be positive).b. 2. S. Let MAE be a secant to the circle. Find x in each diagram below. all reasons must always be given. 6AT Mill 6T EM (AA). Let M be a point outside a circle. 1. or 9 ~ = !{. In the triangles AT M and T EM: LATM = LTEM (alternate segment theorem). 2m = a + b or m = 2. NOTE: 1. and the obvious lines at points labelled R. a (if 9 is positive) 9 = v. TM EM AM X ME = TM2. so Hence that is. AIM: To prove that AM X ME = TM2. points labelled 0 or Z are centres of the appropriate circles.. LAMT = LTME (common). a+b That IS. .m = m . AM TM (matching sides of similar triangles).. GIVEN: l = ab.384 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Recall the definitions of arithmetic and geometric means of two numbers a and b: • The arithmetic mean is the number m such that b .
the common chord of the two circles bisects each direct common tangent. then the four endpoints of the two intervals are con cyclic. AM DM (a) Prove that . In the diagram opposite. (a) Prove that . 5.6DM B. ST is a direct common tangent. Then AB DC is cyclic. (d) Prove that ACBD is cyclic.6DMB. _ _ _ _~DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 3. (a) (b) (i) Explain why M B = x. CONVERSE OF THE INTERSECTING CHORDS THEOREM: If the products of the intercepts on two intersecting intervals are equal. When two circles intersect. .. D = CM III X DM. . CONVERSE OF THE SECANTS FROM AN EXTERNAL POINT TH EOREM: Let two intervals AB M and CD M meet at their common endpoint M. and suppose that AM X BM B A M . (i) Explain why C D ~ AB. (ii) Find the radius 0 C.= ~. (iii) Find the area of C ADB. A c M B (c) Prove that LCAM = LBDM.6AMC . In the diagram. (c) Prove that AC B D is cyclic.6AMC III . (iii) Find the area of CADB. .CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9G Similarity and Circles 385 (e) 10 (f) (g) x (h) x 2. THEOREM: s (a) Give a reason why SJ(2 = J(A X J(B. AM X BM = CM X DM. 4. CM BM (b) Prove that . C (b) Prove that LCAM = LBDM.. (ii) Find x. (b) Hence prove that S J( = T J(.
TS. (ii) Prove that OT . (i) Prove that LFT P = 0:. 9. that is. C 10. Let LTF'M = 0:. prove that OF 2 = OM X OP). (d) Show that 0 F is the geometric mean of 0 M and 0 P (that is. (ii) Prove that FT bisects LMT P.x 2 . (g) Show that 6AT Mill 6T BM III 6ABT. (a) Prove that 60TM 1116TPM. that is. (b) Prove that x is the geometric mean of a and b. (d) Prove that. (a) P' B P' T F'f_1f''Ot'F'"'p s (b) F'jL"'_~+F'_::>p s THEOREM: In the diagram. What happens when 20 is reflex? TRIGONOMETRY WITH OVERLAPPING CIRCLES: . s CONVERSE THEOREM: In the diagram. (h) Show that T M2 = xy. (a) Show that t 2 = y(x + y). (i) Prove that LT F' M = 0:. (b) Show that d 2 + t 2 . THE ALTITUDE TO THE HYPOTENUSE: In the diagram opposite. P A f_'Jc. (b) Prove that TM2 = OM X PM.. PT and P S are tangents from an external point P to a circle with centre O. (i) Show that tx = d X T M. (a) Suppose that two circles C and V ofradii rand s respectively overlap. (c) Prove that the radius of the circle is the arithmetic mean of a and b.. (c) Prove that OM X OP = OM X MP+ OM2. with the common chord subtending angles of 20 and 24> at the respective centres of C and V. PT P' and PS are tangents. provided a I b.l F'OF. 8. Show that the ratio sin 0 : sin 4> is independent of the amount of overlap. A CONSTRUCTION OF THE GEOMETRIC MEAN: In the diagram to the right. x=~.1 BA. the arithmetic mean of a and b is greater than their geometric mean. AT is a tangent. THE ARITHMETIC AND GEOMETRIC MEANS: (a) Give a reason why MQ = x. (iii) Prove that T P is a tangent. (d) Where does the circle with diameter T A meet the first circle? (e) Where does the circle with diameter AB meet the first circle? (f) Use part (d) to show that d 2 = x(x + y)..j B Q 7. and LFTM = LFTP = 0:.y2 = 2xy. (iii) Prove that F'T bisects LMT P'. being equal to s : r.1 T P.386 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 6. r = t(a + b). (c) Show that TM .
(a) By applying the intersecting chord theorem three times. HARMONIC CONJUGATES: M In the configuration of question 9: (a) Prove that M divides F' F internally in the same ratio that P divides F' F externally.lM and F. (b) Prove that F' F is the harmonic mean of F'M and F' P (meaning that arithmetic mean of F. Given three circles such that each pair of circles touch externally. 15. then the three common chords are concurrent. Let their direct common tangents meet at an angle 2(). and let AB = f. (M is called the harmonic conjugate of P with respect to F' and F). (b) Explain why EM must be the third common chord. the common chords AB and CD meet at M. prove that EM X MX = EM X MY. and suppose by way of contradiction that it meets MC again at X. 14. (ii) Prove that AR : RB = AB' : A'B. Let the line 0 Z meet the circles at A'. Choose R on AB so that the tangents RS and RT to the two circles have equal length t. Show that TRIGONOMETRY WITH TOUCHING CIRCLES: s A r 1 + sin () . (c) Repeat the construction and proof when the common chords AB and CD meet outside the two circles. and suppose that MC 2 = MA X MB. Given three circles such that each pair of circles overlap. and that their radii are rand s. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 11.CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry 9G Similarity and Circles 387 (b) Suppose that two circles touch externally. with r > s.1 . (i) Prove that a point H outside both circles lies on the perpendicular to 0 Z through R if and only if the tangents from H to the two circles are equal. Band B' as shown.sin () . Construct the circle ABC. In the diagram opposite. and the line EM meets the two circles again at X and Y. Prove this theorem by making suitable adaptions to the previous proof. Then MC is tangent to the circle ABC. then the three common tangents at the points of contact are concurrent. Let the intervals AB M and C M meet at their common endpoint M. THEOREM: THEOREM: E 12. THE RADICAL AXIS THEOREM: F~ F is the (a) Suppose that two circles with centres 0 and Z and radii rand s do not overlap. CONVERSE OF THE SECANT AND TANGENT THEOREM: 13. u U  H S A' o . p). (a) Prove that MA X MB = MC X MX. . A. (b) Hence prove that C and X coincide.
(c) Find the ratio AG : G B in terms of r. (b) Construct a square whose area is equal to the area of a given triangle. The line through B perpendicular to the diagonal AC meets AC at M and meets the side AD at F. CONSTRUCTION: Construct the circle(s) tangent to a given line and passing through two given points not both on the line. (c) Construct a square whose area is equal to the area of a given polygon. AB and BC form a GP. G (b) Show that the lengths FA. 16. (d) Is it possible to choose the ratio r so that DG is a common tangent to the circles with diameters AF and BC respectively? (e) Is it possible to choose the ratio r so that the points D. F. meeting at F and G. A DIFFICULT THEOREM: Prove that the tangents at opposite vertices of a cyclic quadrilateral intersect on the secant through the other two vertices if and only ifthe two products of opposite sides of the cyclic quadrilateral are equal. A TRIANGLE AND A POLYGON: (a) Use the configuration in question 6 to construct a square whose area is equal to the area of a given rectangle. (i) Prove that if H is any point outside both circles. A. (a) Write down five other triangles similar to 6AM F. '+1 f! 1« CONSTRUCTIONS TO SQUARE A RECTANGLE. (ii) Prove that AR : RB = AB' : A' B. . 17. In the diagram below. Let OZ meet FG at R. The line DM meets the side AB at G. and find r if AG and GB have equal lengths. with AB = £. nand B' as shown. then H lies on FG produced if and only if the tangents from H to the two circles are equal. ABC D is a rectangle with AB : BC = 1 : r. G and Bare concyclic and distinct? GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES IN GEOMETRY: 19. Let the line OZ meet the circles at A'. 18.388 CHAPTER 9: Circle Geometry CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (b) Suppose that two circles with centres 0 and Z and radii rand s overlap.
leading to the development of binomial probability. and is fundamental to understanding statistics. The classic examples of this are tossing a coin. Further work in probability requires some systematic counting procedures. Section 10J on binomial probability combines the binomial theorem from Chapter Five with the counting procedures. (A die. That formula will rest on the idea of dividing the results of an experiment into equally likely possible outcomes. is a cube with its corners and edges rounded so that it rolls easily. particularly in Section lOB to deal with 'and'. is involved in almost every experiment done in science. 6. and applied to probability in Sections lOR and lOr. This is a complete list of the possible outcomes. plural dice. The language of sets is used here. STUDY NOTES: Throughout the chapter. Section 10D deals with probability tree diagrams.) The outcome of this experiment is the number on the top face when the die stops rolling.1. This chapter will first review some of the basic ideas of probability. or drawing a card from a pack. and with the numbers 16 printed on its six sides. which presented a straightforward account of the elementary ideas about sets. giving six possible outcomes . 4. . Equally Likely Possible Outcomes: The idea of equally likely possible outcomes is well illustrated by the experiment of throwing a die. one and only one of these outcomes can occur. throwing a die. These counting procedures open up the link between probability theory and the binomial expansion.it may help to review Section 1J in the Year 11 volume. 'or' and 'not' . however. because each time the die is rolled. Sections 10AlOC review in a more systematic manner the basic ideas of probability from earlier years. lOA Probability and Sample Spaces Our first task is to develop a workable formula for probability that can serve as the foundation for the topic. 5. 2. which will be new to most students. We will also need to make reference to probabilities that are experimentally determined. attention should be given to the fallacies and confusions that inevitably arise in any discussion of probability. which are developed in Sections lOElOG.CHAPTER TEN Probability and Counting Probability arises when one performs an experiment that has various possible outcomes. Probability. 3. and then establish various systematic counting procedures that will allow more complicated probability questions to be solved. but for which there is insufficient information to predict precisely which of these outcomes will occur. using the language of sets.
then: THE FUNDAMENTAL FORMULA FOR PROBABILITY: 2 P( event ) = number of possible outcomes number of favourable outcomes . The Fundamental Formula for Probability: Suppose that we need a throw of at least 3 on a die to win a game. With the results of the experiment thus divided into six equally likely possible outcomes. Then the probability ~ is assigned to each of these equally likely possible outcomes. we now assign the probability is to each of these six outcomes. we have no reason to expect that anyone outcome is more likely to occur than any of the other five. and we call these six possible outcomes equally likely possible outcomes. or forming a queue of people in a 'random order'. There are many ways of interpreting these words.meaning that one and only one of these n outcomes will occur. Alternatively. we will speak about drawing a card 'at random' from a pack. some of which are favourable for a particular event and the others unfavourable. Notice that the six probabilities are equal and they all add up to 1.390 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Provided that the die is completely symmetric. Then getting at least 3 is called the particular event under discussion. I ) number of favourable ou tcomes = number of possible outcomes 4 6 2 3 In general. In the case of a thrown die. one could interpret the phrase 'equally likely' as meaning that the die is perfectly symmetric. saying that a die is thrown 'randomly' means that we are justified in assigning the same probability to each of the six possible outcomes. n Randomness: Notice that it has been assumed that the terms 'more likely' and 'equally likely' already have a meaning in the mind of the reader. the outcomes 3. 5 and 6 are called favourable for this event. In the context of equally likely possible outcomes. In a similar way. it is not biased in any way. that is. The probability assigned to getting a score of at least 3 is then P ( scormg at east 3 . EQUALLY LIKELY POSSIBLE OUTCOMES: 1 Suppose that the possible results of an experiment can be divided into n equally likely possible outcomes . and there is no reason to expect one outcome to be more likely than another. and the other two possible outcomes 1 and 2 are called unfavourable. The word random can be used here. 4. if the results of an experiment can be divided into a number of equally likely possible outcomes. The general case is as follows. one could interpret it as saying that we lack entirely the knowledge to make any statement of preference for one outcome over another.
/3· !. 4. . K (King). diamonds. (e) a picture card (Jack. 5. Q (Queen). 4. 5. 6. WORKED EXERCISE: A card is drawn at random from a pack of playing cards. (c) a seven. THE SAMPLE SPACE AND THE EVENT SPACE: space S. Since all 52 cards are red or black. 2. 6}. 10. The four suits are two black suits: two red suits: .CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10A Probability and Sample Spaces 391 The Sample Space and the Event Space: The language of sets makes some of the theory of probability easier to explain . \I hearts. the set of all equally likely possible outcomes is called the sample space. • spades. 8. J (Jack). 3 P(E) lEI = 1ST. 2. Since no card is green. 4. Since there is 1 seven of hearts. Then. Queen. p(green card) = 22 = o. (f) a green card. and the set of all favourable outcomes is called the event space. It is assumed that when a pack of cards is shuffled. The basic probability formula can then be restated in set language. In general. (b) a heart. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) In each case. clubs. The event 'scoring at least 3' is the set E = {3. 6}. the order is totally random. there are 52 equally likely possible outcomes. 3. 9. 5. i. An ace can also be regarded as a 1. P(picture card) = !~ = 133. P(heart) = !~ = Since there are 4 sevens.~ = Since there are 12 picture cards.some review of Section 1J of the Year 11 volume may be helpful at this stage. Each of the four suits contains 13 cards: A (Ace). Probabilities Involving Playing Cards: So many questions in probability involve a pack of playing cards that any student of probability needs to be familiar with them . 7. P( red or black card) = ~~ = 1. This set is called the sample space and is represented by the outer rectangular box. SOLUTION: (g) red or black. A pack of cards consists of 52 cards organised into four suits. meaning that there is no reason to expect anyone ordering of the cards to be more likely to occur than any other. <:. The Venn diagram on the right shows the six possible outcomes when a die is thrown. each containing 13 cards. Find the probability that the card is: (d) a red card. King).the reader is encouraged to acquire some cards and play some simple games with them. 3. using the symbol IAI Suppose that an event E has sample for the number of members of a set A.. P(red card) = . P( seven) = 5~ = Since there are 26 red cards. P(7\1) = 512. which is called the event space and is represented by the ellipse. Since there are 13 hearts. The set of all these outcomes is s S = {I. (a) the 7 of hearts.
The following worked example shows how a twodimensional dot diagram can be used for calculations with the sample space of a die thrown twice. The various parts can now be answered by counting the dots representing the various event spaces. all possible outcomes are favourable outcomes. Tree Diagrams: Listing the sample space of a multistage experiment can be difficult. the two throws can be regarded as two separate stages of the one experiment. P(double) = 366 = Since 11 pairs contain a 4. In particular. and the dot diagrams of the previous paragraph are hard to draw in more than two dimensions. . 0 < P( event) < 1. plus an initial column labelled 'Start' and a final column listing the possible outcomes. Since getting a green card is impossible. For example. Find the probability that: (e) the sum of the two numbers is six.6. (f) the sum is at most four. all equally likely. P(sum is 6) = Since 6 pairs have sum 2. Graphing the Sample Space: Many experiments consist of several stages. at least one number is four. the sample space of a twostage experiment can be displayed on a twodimensional graph. WORKED EXERCISE: (a) (b) (c) (d) the pair is a double. both numbers are even. when a die is thrown twice. . The reason for using the word 'sample space' rather than 'sample set' is that the sample space of a multistage experiment takes on some of the characteristics of a space. both numbers are greater than four. . 3 or 4. the probability lies between 0 and 1. The 36 dots therefore represent the 36 different possible outcomes of the twostage experiment. there are no favourable outcomes. The horizontal axis in the diagram to the right represents the six possible outcomes of the first throw. ("1£ i: 0 6 5 4 3 2 1 • • • • • • 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 throw • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Since there are 6 doubles. P(sum at most 4) = 366 = ~. and the vertical axis represents the six possible outcomes of the second throw. SOLUTION: " ::. P(both greater than 4) = 3~ = Since 9 pairs have two even members. P(both even) = = Since 5 pairs have sum 6. P( at least one is a 4) = ~!. • An event has probability 1 if and only if it is certain to happen. t. Such diagrams have a column for each stage. A die is thrown twice. so the probability is 1. and getting a red or black card is certain to happen. i. and the sample space of a threestage experiment can be displayed in a threedimensional graph. IMPOSSIBLE AND CERTAIN EVENTS: 4 • An event has probability 0 if and only if it cannot happen. Tree diagrams provide a very useful alternative way to display the sample space. Since all the cards are either red or black. which is the full sample space.392 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Impossible and Certain Events: Parts (f) and (g) of the previous worked exercise were intended to illustrate the probabilities of events that are impossible or certain. Since 4 pairs consist only of 5 or 6. • For any other event. Notice that for the other five events. so the probability is o.6 t.
and it is common for a question to ask for comment on a given argument. '0' and 'U'. and the middle letter is chosen from 'L' and 'M'. The first and last letters are chosen from the three vowels 'A'. but no reason has been offered as to why each team is equally likely to win. Thus 'word' simply becomes a convenient device for discussing arrangements of things in particular orders.the arrangement doesn't have to have any meaning or be a word in the dictionary. with repetition not allowed.' WORKED EXERCISE: SOLUTION: (a) [Identifying the fallacy] The division of the results into the three given outcomes is correct.it is not sufficient only to offer an alternative argument with a different conclusion.' (b) 'Brisbane is one of fourteen teams in the Rugby League. i t· < T<~ H<~ :~ ~~ [Offering a replacement question] What can be said with confidence is that if a team is selected at random from the fourteen teams. It is most important in such a situation that any fallacy in the given argument be explained . 8 12 UMA UMO The Meaning of 'Word': In the worked exercise above. SOLUTION: AMO AMU OLA OLU (a) P('ALO') (b) P(no (c) P(not both 'M' and 'U') = (d) P(alphabetical order) = 1~ = 112' '0') = 1~ = t· OMA OMU ULA ULO = ~. Hence the probability of getting one of each is ~. so the argument is invalid. The tree diagram to the right lists all twelve equally likely possible outcomes. since two of these outcomes. and throughout this chapter. and one of each. but no reason is offered as to why these outcomes are equally likely. 1st 2nd 3rd (b) the letter '0' does not occur. Invalid Arguments: Arguments offered in probability theory can be invalid for all sorts of subtle reasons. 1st Start coin 2nd coin Outcome [Supplying the correct argument] The diagram on the right divides the results of the experiment into four equally likely possible outcomes. then the probability that it is the premiershipwinning team is 114' . 'word' simply means an arrangement of letters . The two vowels must be different. Comment on the validity of these arguments. there are three outcomes: two heads. it follows that P(one of each) = = (b) [Identifying the fallacy] The division into fourteen possible outcomes is correct provided that one assumes that a tie for first place is impossible. two tails. because repetition was not allowed. HT and TH. are favourable to the event 'one of each'. so the probability that Brisbane wins the premiership is 114. ALU (d) the letters are in alphabetical order. List the sample space. = ~. (a) 'When two coins are tossed together. Start Outcome ALO (c) 'M' and 'U' do not both occur.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10A Probability and Sample Spaces 393 WORKED EXERCISE: A threeletter word is chosen in the following way. then find the probability that: (a) the word is 'ALO'.
If we threw the die 6000 times. or even the first. one might. however. a probability of t would predict about 320 pointup results. we would expect to get 5 or 6 about ~ X 6000 = 2000 times (but interestingly enough we would be quite surprised if we got 5 or 6 exactly 2000 times). The questions in the following worked example could raise difficult issues beyond the scope of this course. so this can be excluded. agree to take this as an indication of the community's collective wisdom on the fourteen probabilities. and would predict about 916667 pointup results. it would probably not disturb our confidence. Hence the estimate of seems reasonable. pointup and pointdown. and there seems to be no way to analyse the results of the experiment into equally likely possible outcomes. (b) Since a probability of 190 would predict about 360 pointup results and would predict about 367 pointup results. WORKED EXERCISE: A drawing pin is thrown 400 times. decimal place. but the estimate of can now reasonably be rejected.394 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 NOTE: It is difficult to give a complete account of part (b). If the probability were however. we would have expected about 200 pointup results. Similarly. Experimental Probability: When a drawing pin is thrown. But these two outcomes are not equally likely. If there is an organised system of betting. Thus one interpretation of the statement that getting 5 or 6 has probability ~ is: As (number of trials) + 00. In the absence of any fancy arguments from physics about rotating pins falling on a smooth surface. although if it happened 1723 times. there are two possible outcomes. although we can safely assume that those with knowledge of the game would have some idea of ranking the fourteen teams in order from most likely to win to least likely to win. we would expect to get 5 or 6 about ~ X 60 = 20 times. but the intention here is only that they be answered briefly in a commonsense manner. both these fractions seem consistent with the experiment. and falls pointup 362 times. h number of 5s and 6s number of trials + 1 3 . (a) What probability does this experiment suggest for the result 'pointup'? (b) Discuss whether the results are inconsistent with a probability of: (ii) (iii) (iv) t (i) 1 0 (c) A machine repeats the experiment 1000000 times and the pin falls pointup 916203 times. (c) A probability of 190 would predict about 900000 pointup results. to g g Interpreting Probability as an Experimental Limit: The experimental meaning of probability is a little elusive. and can reasonably be excluded. The probability of getting 5 or 6 on a die is but what does this mean when we repeatedly throw a die? If we throw the die 60 times. So we conclude that P(pointup) ~ 0·9. g i. since we would expect different runs of the same experiment to differ by small numbers. there would be little confidence in this result past the second. or might not. What answers would you now give for part (b)? 9 g t SOLUTION: (a) These results suggest P(pointup) ~ 0·905. we can gain some estimate of the two probabilities by performing the experiment a number of times. but with only 400 trials. It is not clear that an exact probability can be assigned to the event 'Brisbane wins'.
. A book has 150 pages. 19. six red apples and five green apples. A bag contains eight red balls. (e) either C. [N OTE: The letter Y is normally classified as a consonant. three green capsicums. (d) a capsicum. and yet we seem to understand what it means to assign probabilities to them. (f) one of the letters of the word MATHS. (b) blue. 5. and their bets seem to rely on some estimate of the probability that Australia will win that particular series. . one card is drawn at random. 10. (b) a tail.] 6. (g) it is a heart or a spade. (h) the number e. 2. are inherently unrepeatable. (e) a prime number. Find the probability that it shows: (a) a head. 7. (f) a square number. Find the probability that: (a) it is black. (f) a threedigit number. (b) red. (c) has two digits. ( a) is divisible by 5. From a regular pack of 52 cards. . 20. (b) is a multiple of 13. 4. (d) a multi pIe of three. 8. An integer x. (h) it is a red five or a black seven. find the probability that the uppermost face is: (a) three. A number is selected at random from the integers 1. If a marble is chosen at random. 2. (b) a multiple of 20. Find the probability that the page number is: (a) greater than 140. (c) a number greater than four.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10A Probability and Sample Spaces 395 Some experiments. 9. The book is randomly opened at a page. (i) a rational number. If a die is rolled. (b) a vowel. (f) a green capsicum. many people bet money on Australia beating England in a particular test series. (c) it is a king. (a) the letter S. :s: x :s: 200.. (c) an even number. . 3. (c) either a head or a tail. (d) a number less than 25. (c) an apple. 3. Find the probability that it is: (a) green. One item is chosen at random. (d) it is the jack of hearts. (e) it is a club. (f) it is a picture card. A letter is randomly selected from the 26 letters in the English alphabet. find the probability that it is: (a) yellow. Find the probability that the letter is: (c) a consonant. D or E. (d) an odd number. where 1 (c) an odd number. is chosen at random. (b) a number greater than 15. (d) is a square number. (e) either 72 or 111. (Most would agree that this probability is much greater than i!) Exercise 10A 1. A coin is tossed. (d) neither a head nor a tail. (b) yellow or green. (g) a multiple of 4. A bag contains three times as many yellow marbles as blue marbles. seven yellow balls and three green balls. (d) the letter I. (f) has three equal digits. In a bag there are four red capsicums. however. (i) it is less than a four. A ball is selected at random. (b) it is red. Find the probability it is: (a) red. Determine the probability that it: (e) is greater than 172. Find the probability of choosing: (a) the number 4. For example. (c) not yellow. (b) an even number. (e) a red apple.
(c) a tail and a number less than four.. Hence find the probability that the two tosses result in: ( a) two heads. (d) a head and a prime number. 8 and 9. noting that order is important. A biased coin is tossed 300 times. 15. (b) a tail and a number greater than four. (iii) Amanda is not selected for either position. (iii) the queen is the second card chosen. Estimate the total number of fish in the dam just prior to the sample of thirty being removed. 12. jack. A hand of five cards contains a ten. (d) neither Anna nor David is selected. (c) Charlie is chosen but Bill is not. Use a tree diagram to list all the possible outcomes. (g) at least one two. ) 114 3 ( . (d) a total score of seven. Fifty tagged fish were released into a dam known to contain fish. of which eight were found to be tagged..) 1 ( 1"2 ( . (ii) the king is not selected. Two dice are thrown simultaneously. (a) What probability does this experiment suggest for the result 'heads'? (b) Discuss whether the results are inconsistent with a probability of: . (i) a five and a number greater than three. A die is rolled and a coin is tossed. Bill. Use a tree diagram to list the possible outcomes. (ii) a number greater than 39. Hence find the probability of obtaining: (a) a head and an even number. (vi) a perfect square. (c) a head on the first toss and a tail on the second. (v) a number ending in 2. (j) the same number on both dice. and lands on heads 227 times. (b) Repeat part ( a) if the first card is replaced before the second card is drawn. 18. the first card not being replaced before the second card is drawn. (b) If one of the twodigit numbers is chosen at random. (b) Find the probability that: (i) Carol is captain and Emma is vicecaptain. A fair coin is tossed twice. (a) Draw a tree diagram to illustrate the possible outcomes. From the integers 2. 13. 16. king and ace. List the sample space.396 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 11. 14. two are chosen at random to be on the Student Representative Council. (e) a total score greater than nine. (b) a head and a tail. (a) Use a tree diagram to list the possible pairings. (b) Anna is chosen.. (ii) Belinda is either captain or vicecaptain. (h) neither a one nor a four appearing. Charlie and David. (c) a double five. find the probability that it is: (i) the number 82. From a group of four students. (iii) an even number. Belinda. and hence find the probability that: (a) Bill and David are chosen. (b) obtaining a four on the second throw. 17. List the set of 36 possible outcomes on a twodimensional graph. Later a sample of thirty fish was netted from this dam. twodigit numbers are formed in which no digit can be repeated in the same number. (iv) Emma is vicecaptain. two cards are drawn in succession. From the hand. queen. Carol. (iv) a multiple of 3. ) lllg 7 (iv) ~ . and hence find the probability of: (a) obtaining a three on the first throw. Anna. A captain and vicecaptain of a cricket team are to be chosen from Amanda. (f) an even number on both dice. Dianne and Emma. 19. 3. (a) Find the probability that: (i) the ace is selected.
(b) at least one head and at least one tail. determine the probability that: ( a) in a family of two children there are: (i) two girls. (b) exactly three tails. A cow wanders randomly around the field. Therefore the probability that the next game between these two teams results in a draw is ~. show that the probability that it lies across a crack is ~.' t. Identify precisely any fallacies in the arguments. (a) 'On every day of the year it either rains or it doesn't. A man with no knowledge of the game or the players declares that one particular player will win his semifinal. Find the probability if the needle has length half the width of the floorboards. Find the probability if the needle has length twice the width of the floorboards. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 26. (ii) no girls. Show that if its inclination to the cracks is B. white and black beads. either Hawthorn wins. where n > 1. 24. A coin is tossed three times. (a) four heads. 22. If the births of boys and girls are equally likely.' 25. (f) more tails than heads. but lose the final. (iii) more boys than girls. the chance that Peter answers a question correctly is t. and if possible. 23. If you choose one bead at random from the bag. Then find the probability of obtaining: (a) three heads. (d) at most one head. A rectangular field is 60 metres long and 30 metres wide. find the probability of obtaining: (a) n heads. [Buffon's needle problem  (a) (b) (c) (d) an example of continuous probability] A needle. Find the probability that the cow is: (a) more than 10 metres from the edge of the field. ( d) at most one head. (b) a head and two tails. then the probability that it lies across a crack is sin B. Therefore the chance that it will rain tomorrow is (b) 'When the Sydney Swans play Hawthorn. Comment on the following arguments. Hence devise a probabilistic experiment to compute 7f.' t.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10A Probability and Sample Spaces 397 _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 20. Draw a tree diagram to illustrate the possible outcomes. (i) three boys. (e) more heads than tails.some angles are a problem because probabilities cannot ever exceed 1. 21.' (d) 'A bag contains a number of red. An unbiased coin is tossed four times. (f) a head on the second toss. (c) at least two tails. If a coin is tossed n times. (ii) two girls and one boy. (b) not more than 10 metres from a corner of the field. (e) two heads and two tails. Find the probability of obtaining: (c) at least two heads. by integrating across all possible angles. The probability that he is correct is l. (b) in a family of three children there are: (iii) one boy and one girl. give some indication of how to correct them. the Swans win or the game is a draw.' (c) 'When answering a multiplechoice test in which there are four possible answers given to each question. whose length is equal to the width of the floorboards. but take care . . is thrown at random onto the floor. the probability that it is black is (e) 'Four players play in a knockout tennis tournament resulting in a single winner. Then.
and need not be added. The complementary event of an event E is the event 'E does not occur'. 5 Suppose that E is an event with sample space S. and calculations become easier.lEI. In the Venn diagram of such a situation. SOLUTION: The complementary event E is drawing a card that is a black odd number less than ten. or all three of these' are understood. the double six is but one outcome 1 3 6' SOLUTION: amongst 36 possible outcomes. so using the complementary event formula above: P(E) . In Section 1J of the Year 11 volume.42 _ 21 . or red. . One outcome of this is that we can use Venn diagrams to visualise the possible outcomes. Since s lEI = lSI . and commented that the complement of a set is closely linked to the word 'not'.P(E).398 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 lOB Probability and Venn Diagrams The language of sets was introduced in the previous section when speaking about the sample space and the event space. Define the complementary event E to be the event 'E does not occur'.52 26' Mutually Exclusive Events and Disjoint Sets: Two events A and B with the same sample space S are called mutually exclusive if they cannot both occur. Using a Venn diagram. WORKED EXERCISE: What is the probability of failing to throw a double six when throwing a pair of dice? As discussed in the previous section. Then P(E) = 1 . the words 'or any two of these. and is written as E. This complementary event has ten members: There are 52 possible cards to choose. Complementary Events and the Word 'Not': I t is often easier to find the probability that an event does not occur than the probability that it does occur. the two events A and B are represented as disjoint sets (disjoint means that their intersection is empty). the complementary event E is represented by the region outside the circle in the diagram to the right. it follows COMPLEMENTARY EVENTS: that P(E) =1 P(E). and so has probability Hence P( not throwing a double six) =1 P( dou ble six) 35 36' WORKED EXERCISE: A card is drawn at random from a pack. we defined the complement E of a set E to be the set of things in S but not in E.52 . NOTE: Remember that the word 'or' always means 'and/or' in logic and mathematics. The new notation E for complementary event is quite deliberately the same notation as that for the complement of a set. Thus in this worked example.1 10 . Find the probability that it is an even number. or a picture card.
not necessarily mutually exclusive. so P(A or E) = ~ +~ = t.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 108 Probability and Venn Diagrams 399 In this situation. and 6 P(A or E) = P(A) + P(E). the event 'A and E' is impossible.this rule is often called the addition rule of probability. It was explained in Section 1J of the Year 11 volume that the word 'or' is closely linked with the union of sets. THE EVENTS 7 'A OR E' AND 'A AND E': Suppose that A and E are two events with sample space S.P(A and E) . suppose that A and E arc any two events with the same sample space S. and the event 'A and E' is often written as 'A n E' or just 'AE'. and the event 'A or E' will be represented by the union Au E. Then A and E are mutually exclusive. For this reason. and so have to be subtracted. WORKED EXERCISE: If three coins are tossed. and has probability zero. and P(A or E) = P(A) + P(E)  P(A and E). HTH. Since IA U EI = P(A or IAI + lEI for disjoint E) = P(A) + P(E). it follows that MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE EVENTS: Suppose that A and E are mutually exclusive events with sample space S. The event 'A and E' will then be represented by the intersection A n E of the two sets. SOLUTION: Let A be the event 'one tail' and E the event 'three tails'.IA n EI. and A = {HHT. the event 'A or E' is often written as 'A U E'. . It follows then that P(A or E) = P(A) + P(E) . On the other hand. The Venn diagram of the situation will now represent the two events A and E as overlapping sets within the same universal set S. Then the event 'A or E' is represented by AU E. Then the event 'A and E' is represented by the intersection An E and the event' A or E' is represented by the union AU E. THH} and E = {TTT}. 00 s sets. find the probability of tossing an odd number of tails. the event 'A or E' is represented on the Venn diagram by the union Au E of the two sets. B~0 HHH HTT THT TTH The full sample space has eight members altogether (question 20 in the previous exercise lists them all). and the word 'and' is closely linked with the intersection of sets. because the members of the intersection An E are counted in A and again in E. s The general counting rule for sets is IA U EI = IAI + lEI .The Addition Rule: More generally. The Events 'A and B' and 'A or B' . The event 'A and E' cannot occur. and has probability zero.
Since these numbers add to 29. B = {3. this leaves only one girl playing neither tennis nor netball. 5}. NOTE: Exercise 108 1. find: (a) (b) (c) (d) P(n = 5) P( n f. ¥. B = {b. t}. and let N be the event 'she plays netball'. 4. and take the universal set to be {I. c. the numbers 6 and 16 can then be written into the respective regions 'tennis but not netball' and 'netball but not tennis'. n. When breeding labradors. A = {h. B = {odd numbers less than 10} (b) Let A = {I. 4. a. how many would you expect to be defective? 5. 5. 6. b. 0. A student has a 22% chance of being chosen as a prefect. 8. i.400 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 WORKED EXERCISE: In a class of 30 girls. e. 9. List the members of: (i) A (ii) B (iii) An B (iv) An B (v) Au B (vi) AU B 2. what is the probability that a girl chosen at random from the class plays neither sport? SOLUTION: Let T be the event 'she plays tennis'. 2. If n denotes the number on the uppermost face. 3. 4. 7. 9}. h. 6. 10} (iv) A = {prime numbers less than 10}. What is the chance that he will not be chosen as a prefect? 3. The chance of a new light globe being defective is 1 1 5. 7. 5. r. 9. 3. 3. 7. o} 9}. B = {2. 10}. the probability of breeding a black dog is (a) What is the probability of breeding a dog that is not black? (b) If you breed 56 dogs. 3. 5) P(n = 4 or n = 5) P(n = 4 and n = 5) (e) (f) (g) (h) P(n P( n P(n P(n is is is is even or odd) neither even nor odd) even and divisible by three) even or divisible by three) . Starting with the 7 girls in the intersection. (a) What is the probability that a new light globe will not be defective? (b) If 120 new light globes were checked. 8. [A brief review of set notation. Students should refer to Exercise 1J of the Year 11 volume for a more substantial list of questions. P(N or T) P(neither sport) = ~~ + ~~ 29 30' 7 30 (1) =11 30· P(N or T) An alternative approach is shown in the diagram.] (a) Find AU B and An B for each pair of sets: (i) A (iii) = { 1. Then and Hence and P(T) = ~~ P(N) = ~~ P(N and T) = 370. 13 play tennis and 23 play netball. 10} and B = {4. 6. A die is rolled. 5. how many would you expect to be not black? 4. If 7 girls play both sports. 7} (ii) A = { 1.
find: (i) P(A) (ii) P(B) (iii) P(A and B) (iv) P(A or B) (v) P(neither A nor B) 10. Two dice are thrown. (b) (1) Are the events A and C mutually exclusive? (ii) Find P(A). (d) If A and B are mutually exclusive and P(A) = and P(B) = find P(A or B). a jack and a ten. a ten. IfP(A) = ~.. (a) (b) . Let A be the event that an even number appears. P(A and C) and hence evaluate P(A or C). Find the probability that the card: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) is is is is is a jack. P(B). A. 00 IfP(A) = ~ and P(B) = ~. (c) (i) Are the events Band D mutually exclusive? (ii) Find P(B).. C: a multiple of 3 is chosen. Find: (a) (b) (c) ( d) (e) P(a is odd) P( b is odd) P(a and b are odd) P( a or b is odd) P(neither a nor b is odd) (f) P(a = 1) (g) P(b=a) (h) P(a=landb=a) (i) P(a=lorb=a) (j) P(a ::J 1 and a ::J b) 9. a black picture card. P(B) = ~ and P(A or B) = ~. P(A and B) and hence evaluate P(A or B)... 7. P(B) = ~ and P(A and B) = find: (i) P(A) (ii) P( B) (iii) P(A or B) (iv) P(neither A nor B) (v) P(not both A and B) t. (a) (i) Are the events A and B mutually exclusive? (il) Find P(A). (a) Are A and B mutually exclusive? (b) Find: (i) P(A) (ii) P(B) (iii) P(A and B) (iv) P(A or B) 8.. P(C). B.. a jack or a ten. (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) is is is is is black. Use the addition rule P(A or B) = P(A) IfP(A) = ~ and P(B) = find: (i) P(A) (ii) P(B) (iii) P(A or B) (iv) P(A and B) (v) P(not both A and B) t.P(A and B) to answer the following questions: (a) If P(A) = P(B) = ~ and P(A and B) = find P(A or B).._ _ _. + P(B) . Let B be the event that a number greater than two appears. A die is thrown. t *. a picture card. black or a picture card. neither black nor a picture card. find P(B).. B: a number greater than 15 is chosen. P(D).. neither a jack nor a ten. . The events A. find P(A and B). D: a onedigit number is chosen. C and Dare: A: an even number is chosen. An integer n is picked at random. t. (c) r . P(B and D) and hence evaluate P(B or D).. A card is selected from a regular pack of 52 cards. (c) If P(A or B) = 190' P(A and B) = t and P(A) = ~. where 1 ~ n ~ 20. Let a and b denote the numbers rolled.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 108 Probability and Venn Diagrams 401 6. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 11. (b) If P(A) = ~..
(ii) he drinks Gatorade™ but not water.] (b) A new car dealer offers three options to his customers: power steering. It is known that 20 study the piano and 15 study the violin. there are 26 who study Latin and 15 who study Greek and 8 who take both languages. Find the probability that: (a) it is prime. One person drank Coke™ and Fanta™ but not Sprite™. 11 tried out for rugby and soccer. Find the probability that a person selected at random from the group drank Sprite™ only. while four people did not drink any of them. 25 included power steering and a CD player. (c) does not study either language. 21 drank Sprite™ and 17 drank FantaTM.32 tried out for rugby. 14. 15. (b) tried out for exactly two sports. how many cars did he sell? (c) Extend the formula to the unions of four sets. Some players drink only water. find the probability that: (i) he drinks water but not Gatorade™. He sold 72 cars without any options. 12 with all three options. and 5 tried out for all three sports. 38 included power steering and air conditioning. Sprite™ or FantaTM. Draw a Venn diagram and find the probability that a student chosen at random: (a) studies only Latin. Is it possible to draw a sensible Venn diagram of four sets? . air conditioning and a CD player. Band C. 15 tried out for cross country. (d) it is either prime or it has remainder 1 after division by 4. Each student in a music class of 28 studies either the piano or the violin or both. 29 tried out for soccer. (c) it is prime and it has remainder 1 after division by 4. (d) did not tryout for a sport. A group of 60 students was invited to tryout for three sports: rugby. soccer and cross country . List the twentyfive primes less than 100. 17. Using the formula established in (a). 8 tried out for rugby and cross country. 22 included air conditioning and a CD player. (b) it has remainder 1 after division by 4. A number is drawn at random from the integers from 1 to 100. 13. all 21 members of an Australian Rules football team consume liquid. Draw a Venn diagram and find the probability that a student chosen at random: (a) tried out for only one sport. (b) studies only Greek. _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 18. Find the probability that a student selected at random studies both instruments. 43 people were surveyed and asked whether they drank Coke™. In a group of 50 students. 16. (a) Given three finite sets A. 55 included air conditioning and 70 included a CD player. each with finitely many elements. find a rule for calculating n(A U B U C). If there are 14 players who drink water and 17 players who drink Gatorade™: (a) How many drink both water and Gatorade™? (b) If one team member is selected at random. During a game. 19 drank Coke™. 83 included power steering. some players drink only Gatorade™ and some players drink both. Three people drank all of these. [HINT: Use a Venn diagram and pay careful to attention to the elements in An B n C. [The inclusionexclusion principle] This rule allows you to count the number of elements contained in the union of the sets without counting any element more than once.402 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 12. (c) tried out for at least two sports. 9 tried out for soccer and cross country.
Correlation is beyond this course. What is the probability of obtaining at least two on the die followed by a head?' T H I .I .Labor in the last State election. In our example above. then toss a coin. Thus P( at least two and ahead) = 152' Now let us consider the two stages separately. the throwing of the die clearly does not affect the tossing of the coin. The full sample space of such an experiment can quickly become too large to be conveniently listed. Independent Events: The word 'independent' needs further discussion. First note the elector's gender. Thus the probability of the compound event 'getting at least two and a head' can be found by multiplying together the probabilities of the two stages. Here is a very common and important type of experiment where the two stages are not independent: 'Choose an elector at random from the NSW population. giving probability ~.' In this example. and we want the outcome A = 'getting at least two' . Then ask if (s )he voted Labor or non. where the word 'independent' means that the outcome of one stage does not affect the outcome of the other stage..here there are two possible outcomes and one favourable outcome. but is one of the most common things statisticians study in their routine work. we would suspect that the gender and the political opinion of a person may not be independent.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10C MultiStage Experiments 403 toe MultiStage Experiments This section deals with experiments that have a number of stages. and that there is correlation between them. as almost every opinion poll has shown over the years. TwoStage Experiments . and there are 5 X 1 = 5 X P(AB) =5X 1=~ 6 X 2 6 X ~ = P(A) 2 P(B).. all equally likely. and instead we shall develop a rule for multiplying together the probabilities associated with each stage. The second stage is tossing a coin. This is in fact the case. The first stage is throwing a die. The argument here can easily be generalised to any twostage experiment. then 8 P(AB) = P(A) X P(B). and we want the outcome B = 'tossing a head' . 1 2 3 4 5 6 die Graphed on the right are the twelve possible outcomes of the experiment. TWOSTAGE EXPERIMENTS: If A and B are independent events in successive stages of a twostage experiment. Hence = 12 possible outcomes.here there are six possible outcomes and five favourable outcomes. so the two events are independent.The Product Rule: question about a twostage experiment: Here is a simple '0 OJ i:= 'Throw a die. . giving probability ~. with a box drawn around the five favourable outcomes. The full experiment then has 6 X 2 favourable outcomes.
An are independent events. WORKED EXERCISE: A coin is tossed four times. (d) there are exactly two heads. P( dou ble. What is the probability that the first throw is a dou ble and the second throw gives a sum of at least four? We saw in Section lOA that when two dice are thrown. H.404 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 WORKED EXERCISE: A pair of dice are thrown twice. Find the probability that: (a) the first three coins are heads. A tree diagram may help in producing that listing. • • • • • • 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 throw MultiStage Experiments . which continues the previous example. ~ 1 • • • • • •••• •••• ••• • •••• •••• • • • • • i g = ~~. A 2 .1). there are 36 pos SOLUTION: sible outcomes. MULTISTAGE EXPERIMENTS: If AI. (2.The Product Rule: The same arguments clearly apply to an experiment with any number of stages. SOLUTION: (a) P(HHHH) = txt 1 X txt (b) P( at least one head)  16· =1=1 P(TTTT) 116 = i~· Listing the Favourable Outcomes: The product rule is often combined with a listing of the favourable outcomes. then 9 WORKED EXERCISE: A coin is tossed four times.1) and (1.s· (b) P( middle two are tails) (c) (d) 1 = P(HTTH) + P(HTTT) + P(TTTH) + P(TTTT) 1 1 1 1 1 = 16 + 16 + 16 + 16 = 4· P(at least 3 heads) = P(HHHH) + P(HHHT) + P(HHTH) + P(HTHH) + P(THHH) 1 1 1 1 1 5 = 16 + 16 + 16 + 16 + 16 = 16· P( exactly 2 heads) = P(HHTT) + P(HTHT) + P(THHT) + P(HTTH) + P(THTH) + P(TTHH) (since these are all the six possible orderings of H. (b) the middle two coins are tails. There are six doubles amongst the 36 possible outcomes. (c) there are at least three heads. graphed in the diagram to the right. although this is hardly necessary in the straightforward worked exercise below. T and T) 1 11 = 16 + 1 1 1+ 16 + 16 3 16 + 16 + 16 = S· . (b) there is at least one head. Find the probability that: (a) every toss is a head. sum at least four) = X 6 ""2 ~ 6 5 N5 4 i· g.2) give a sum at least four. so P(sum is at least four) = ~~ = Since the two stages are independent. so P( double) = 3 6 = All but the pairs (1. SOLUTION: (a) P(the first three coins are heads) = P(HHHH) + P(HHHT) (notice that the two events HHHH and HHHT are mutually exclusive) = 16 + 16 (since each of these two probabilities is 1 1 txt txt) X . ••• .
two with angels. If she does. two with reindeer. retell the experiment as 'Choose. but the experiment can be retold in a different manner so that the probabilities are the same. then Dinesh has four chances out of nine of sitting on the balcony. without replacement. five are chosen at random to be seated on the balcony for dinner. What is the probability that Sandra and Dinesh both sit on the balcony? Retell the method of choosing the random seating as 'Choose where Sandra sits. WORKED EXERCISE: From a room of ten people. First he writes down Harry's name. What is the probability that both are even? The probability that the first number is even is ~.10· 1 The graph on the right allows the calculation to be checked by examining its full sample space. then he chooses a pair for Harry. then choose where Dinesh sits'. 2 X ~ X ~ X ~ X ~ . 5 4 3 2 1 ·0· • •• •• • ·0· 1st 1 2 3 4 5 number •••• io • ••• Retelling the Experiment: Sometimes. When this even number is removed. giving the same probability of = 110.An Extension of the Product Rule: The product rule can be extended to the following question.' All that now matters is the person he chooses to pair with Harry. Since there are nine names remaining. so the probability that the second number is also even is Hence P(both even) = ~ X SOLUTION: t t.g. but the calculations are much simpler. 3. in order. WORKED EXERCISE: A box contains five discs numbered 1. 2 X ~ Alternatively.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10C MultiStage Experiments 405 Sampling Without Replacement . the manner in which an experiment is told makes calculation difficult. He has two cards with Christmas trees. He then proceeds similarly with the remaining eight names. there are only 20 possible outcomes. Sandra then has five chances out of ten of sitting on the balcony.g. SOLUTION: Hence P(both on balcony) = 150 . Then P(neither inside) = 180 . the probability that it is Helmut is ~. and find the probability that neither Sandra nor Dinesh sits inside'. where the two stages of the experiment are not independent. 'Wes decides to pair up the friends who will receive matching cards. 4 and 5. Two numbers are drawn in succession. . 2. two with snow. What is the probability that Harry and Helmut get matching cards? SOLUTION: Retell the process as follows. and two with Santa Claus. WORKED EXERCISE: Wes is sending Christmas cards to ten friends. the five people to sit inside. one even and three odd numbers remain. Because doubles are not allowed. The two boxed outcomes are the only outcomes that consist of two even numbers.
find the probability of: (i) three heads. followed by a letter from (c) 1. (g) the number 4. 3. [Valid and invalid arguments] Identify any fallacies in the following arguments. Use the product rule to find the probability of drawing: (e) an even number and a vowel. One card is drawn at random from each set. (b) If you toss the coin three times. 9. Therefore the probability that a student chosen at random likes classical music and plays a classical instrument is 10%. (b) a six and a tail. (ii) tails. give some indication of how to correct them. D and E. (i) a spade then a heart. (c) the first globe is faulty and the second one is not. Use the product rule to find the probability of obtaining: (c) an even number and a tail. Two marbles are picked at random. (ii) three tails. A coin is weighted so that it is twice as likely to fall heads as it is tails. 8. C and D are independent events. (ii) two clubs. Find the probability of drawing: (b) two blue marbles. A coin and a die are tossed. the word MATHS. (a) 4andB. 2. (c) a red marble from the first bag and a blue marble from the second. If possible. one from a bag containing three red and four blue marbles. C. Suppose that A. 6. 4. red in that order? (b) What is the probability of this event if the disc is replaced after each draw? 7. with P(A) and P(D) = Use the product rule to find: (a) P(AB) (b) P(AD) (c) P(BC) (d) P(ABC) (a) a three and a head. then D. A box contains five light globes.' . (d) the second globe is faulty and the first one is not. one at a time without replacement. and the other from a bag containing five red and two blue marbles. (a) Write down the probabilities that the coin falls: (i) heads. green. (a) 'The probability that a Year 12 student chosen at random likes classical music is 50%. and the probability that a student plays a classical instrument is 20%. B.406 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Exercise 10C 1. then A or B or C. two cards are drawn at random without replacement. (b) Repeat the question if the first card is· replaced before the second card is drawn. Find the probability of drawing: (iii) a jack then a queen.P(C) = t (f) P(ABCD) (e) P(BCD) 2. 5. 3. one at a time without replacement. Find the probability that: (a) both globes are faulty. (b) neither globe is faulty. tail. and another set contains the letters A. (b) 2 or 5. One set of cards contains the numbers 1. B. two of which are faulty. (a) From a standard pack of 52 cards. A box contains twelve red and ten green discs. (f) a number less than 3. (iv) the king of diamonds then the ace of clubs. P(B) = ~. head in that order. (d) a number less than five and a head. and E. 4 and 5. (iii) head. (d) an odd number and C. (a) two red marbles. Two globes are selected. Three discs are selected. r = l. (a) What is the probability that the discs selected are red.
then an odd number. (b) miss the bullseye three times. (c) If only one of them passes. then a fi ve. ( e) (f) (g) (h) (i) hit the bullseye exactly once. There is a oneinfive chance that you will guess the correct answer to a multiplechoice question. a one and a four in any order.. The probability that it wins any game is ~. A die is rolled twice. (b) at least three draws are required. ( d) the first correctly and the remainder incorrectly.' _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 10. (a) What is the probability that the nth throw is n on each occasion? (b) What is the probability that the nth throw is n on exactly five occasions? 14. Find the probability that: (a) exactly two draws are required. CCCIC. (a) all five correctly.] 15. IlICI. Using H for hit and M for miss. find the probability that exactly one of the three passes. find the probability that it is Gabriel. an even number. Using the product rule. . assuming that successive shots are independent. . (a) Find the probability that Sophia passes and the other two fail. IlCIl. MHM and MMH. (f) [HINT: Part (d) requires adding the probabilities requires a similar calculation. He has a 90% chance of hitting the bullseye. so the probability that it defeats all of the other seven teams is t. (c) exactly four draws are required. (b) any double. find the probability of rolling: a four and then a one. (c) the first. the probability that it shows heads the next time is still ~. and part (f) 11. The test contains five such questions .label the various possible results of the test as CCCCC. (e) exactly one correctly. Then. miss the bullseye exactly once. Gabriel and Elizabeth take their driving test. [HINT: Add the probabilities of CIIlI. CCCCI. use the product rule to find the probability that he will: (d) (a) hit the bullseye three times. From a bag containing two red and two green marbles. IlIlC. and the second and fourth incorrectly. miss the bullseye on the first shot only. [HINT: In part (c). An archer fires three shots at a bullseye. a five and then an even number. A die is thrown six times. (c) a number greater than three.. ~ and ~ respectively.] (f) exactly four correctly. marbles are drawn one at a time without replacement until two green marbles have been drawn. consider the colour of the fourth marble drawn.' 1)7 ("2 1. What is the chance that you will answer: (b) all five incorrectly. third and fifth correctly. and the probability that it shows an odd number is ~. Nevertheless. = 128· (d) 'A normal coin is tossed and shows heads eight times.] 13.] (a) a double two. (d) a one and then a four.. of HMM. list all eight possible outcomes. (e) (c) hit the bullseye on the first shot only. an even number and a five in any order. The chances that they pass are ~.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10C MultiStage Experiments 407 (b) 'The probability of a die showing a prime is ~. ICIlI. (d) exactly three draws are required. Sophia. (b) By listing the possible outcomes for one of the girls passing and the other two failing. [HINT: List the possible outcomes first. 12. Hence the probability that it shows an odd prime number is ~ X ~ = (c) 'I choose a team at random from an eightteam competition.
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16. (a) If a coin is tossed repeatedly, find the probability of obtaining at least one head in:
(i) two tosses, (ii) five tosses, (iii) ten tosses. (b) Write down the probability of obtaining at least one head in n tosses. (c) How many times would you need to toss a coin so that the probability of tossing at least one head is greater than O·9999?
17. (a) When rolling a die n times, what is the probability of not rolling a six?
(b) Show that the probabilities of not rolling a six on 1, 2, 3, ... tosses of the coin form a GP, and write down the first term and common ratio. (c) How many times would you need to roll a die so that the probability of rolling at least one six was greater than 190 ?
18. One layer of tinting material on a window cuts out
t of the sun's UV rays.
9 10
(a) What fraction would be cut out by using two layers? (b) How many layers would be required to cut out at least of the sun's UV rays?
19. In a lottery, the probability of the jackpot being won in any draw is
lo'
(a) What is the probability that the jackpot prize will be won in each of four consecutive draws? (b) How many consecutive draws need to be made for there to be a greater than 98% chance that at least one jackpot prize will have been won?
20. [This question and the next are best done by retelling the story of the experiment, as explained in the notes above.] Nick has five different pairs of socks to last the week, and they are scattered loose in his drawer. Each morning, he gets up before light and chooses two socks at random. Find the probability that he wears a matching pair:
( a) on the first morning, (b) on the last morning,
( c) on the third morning, ( d) the first two mornings,
( e) every morning, (f) every morning but one.
21. Kia and Abhishek are two of twelve guests at a tennis party, where people are playing doubles on three courts. The twelve have been divided randomly into three groups of four. Find the probability that:
(a) Kia and Abhishek play on the same court, (b) Kia and Abhishek both play on River court, (c) Kia is on River court and Abhishek is on Rose court.
_ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __
22. [A notoriously confusing problem] In a television game show, the host shows the contestant three doors, only one of which conceals the prize, and the game proceeds as follows. First, the contestant chooses a door. Secondly, the host opens one of the other two doors, showing the contestant that it is not the prize door. Thirdly, the host invites the contestant to change her choice, if she wishes. Analyse the game, and advise the contestant what to do. 23. In a game, a player draws a card from a pack of 52. If he draws a two he wins. If he draws a three, four or five he loses. If he draws a heart that is not a two, three, four or five then he must roll a die. He wins only if he rolls a one. If he draws one of the other three suits and the card is not a two, three, four or five, then he must toss a coin. He wins only if he tosses a tail. Given that the player wins the game, what is the probability that he drew a black card?
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100 Probability Tree Diagrams
409
IOD Probability Tree Diagrams
In more complicated problems, and particularly in unsymmetric situations, a probability tree diagram can be very useful in organising the various cases, in preparation for the application of the product rule.
Constructing a Probability Tree Diagram: A probability tree diagram differs from the
tree diagrams used in Section lOA for counting possible outcomes, in that the relevant probabilities are written on the branches and then multiplied together in accordance with the product rule. An example should demonstrate the method. Notice that, as before, these diagrams have one column labelled 'Start', a column for each stage, and a column listing the outcomes, but there is now an extra column labelled 'Probability' at the end. A bag contains six white marbles and four blue marbles. Three marbles are drawn in succession. At each draw, if the marble is white, it is replaced, and if it is blue, it is not replaced. Find the probabilities of drawing zero, one, two and three blue marbles.
WORKED EXERCISE:
With the ten marbles in the bag, the probabilities are ~ and If one blue marble is removed, the probabilities become ~ and ~. If two blue marbles are removed, the probabilities become ~ and
SOLUTION:
t.
i.
Start
1st draw
2nd draw
3"
3
W~B~W
~B 3
i
yW~B
yw
3rd draw Outcome Probability
WWW WWB N5
8 i2 5
WBW
WBB BWW BWB BBW BBB
~
8 4
fs
45
3"
2
B(W~B
l3 27 1 2 5' 8 /2 5 225
1 3 0'
W
45
B <:W l B 4
10 30
1
1
Multiplying probabilities along each arm, and then adding the cases,
P(no blue marbles) = P( one blue marble) = P( two blue marbles) = P( three blue marbles) =
NOTE:
+ 245 + 485 = 151~25' + 445 + 110 = !;b,
Your calculator will show that the eight probabilities in the last column of the diagram add exactly to 1, and that the four answers above also add to l. These are useful checks on the working.
An Infinite Probability Tree Diagram:
Some situations generate an infinite probability tree diagram. In the following, more difficult worked example, the limiting sum of a GP is used to evaluate the resulting sum.
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WORKED EXERCISE:
Wes and Wilma toss a coin alternately, beginning with Wes. The first to toss heads wins. What probability of winning does Wes have?
SOLUTION:
The branches on the tree diagram below terminate when a head is tossed, and the person who tosses that head wins the game. Space precludes writing in either the final outcome or the product of the probabilities! From the diagram, P(Wes wins) = + ~ + 312 + .... This is the limiting sum of the GP with a = and r =
t
t
t,
so
P(Wes wins)
= _a_ 1 r
Start Wes Wilma Wes Wilma Wes Wilma
Exercise 100
1. A bag contains three black and four white discs. A disc is selected from the bag, its colour
is noted, and it is then returned to the bag before a second disc is drawn. (a) Draw a probability tree diagram and hence find the probability that:
(i) both discs drawn are white, (ii) the discs have different colours. (b) Repeat the question if the first ball is not replaced before the second one is drawn.
2. Two light bulbs are selected at random from a large batch of bulbs in which 5% are defective. Draw a probability tree diagram and find the probability that: (a) both bulbs are defective, (b) at least one bulb works. 3. One bag contains three red and two blue balls and another bag contains two red and three blue balls. A ball is drawn at random from each bag. Draw a probability tree diagram and hence find the probability that: (b) the balls have different colours. (a) the balls have the same colour, 4. In group A there are three girls and seven boys, and in group B there are six girls and four boys. One person is chosen at random from each group. Draw a probability tree diagram and hence find the probability that: (a) both people chosen are of the same sex, (b) one boy and one girl are chosen. 5. There is an 80% chance that Gary will pass his driving test and a 90% chance that Emma will pass hers. Draw a probability tree diagram, and find the chance that: (a) Gary passes and Emma fails, (b) Gary fails and Emma passes, (c) only one of Gary and Emma passes, ( d) at least one fails.
6. In an aviary there are four canaries, five cockatoos and three budgerigars. If two birds are selected at random, find the probability that: ( a) both are canaries, (b) neither is a canary, ( c) one is a canary and one is a cockatoo, (d) at least one is a canary.
7. In a large coeducational school, the population is 47% female and 53% male. Two students are selected at random. Find, correct to two decimal places, the probability that:
(a) both are male,
(b) they are of different sexes.
8. The probability of a woman being alive at 80 years of age is 0·2, and the probability of her husband being alive at 80 years of age is 0·05. What is the probability that: (a) they will both live to be 80 years of age, (b) only one of them will live to be 80?
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9. The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are each written on a card. The cards are shuffled and one card is drawn at random. The number is noted and the card is then returned to the pack. A second card is selected, and in this way a twodigit number is recorded. For example, a 2 on the first draw and a 3 on the second results in the number 23. (a) What is the probability of: (ii) an odd number being recorded? (i) the number 35 being recorded, (b) Repeat the question if the first card is not returned to the pack before the second one is drawn. 10. A factory assembles calculators. Each calculator requires a chip and a battery. It is known that 1% of chips and 4% of batteries are defective. Find the probability that a calculator selected at random will have at least one defective component. 11. Alex and Julia are playing in a tennis tournament. They will play each other twice and each has an equal chance of winning the first game. If Alex wins the first game his confidence increases, and his probability of winning the second game is increased to 0·55. If he loses the first game he loses heart so that his probability of winning the second game is reduced to 0·25. Find the probability that Alex wins exactly one game. 12. In a raffle in which there are 200 tickets, the first prize is drawn and then the second prize is drawn without replacing the winning ticket. If you buy 15 tickets, find the probability that you win: (a) both prizes, (b) at least one prize. 13. The probability that a set of traffic lights will be green when you arrive at them is ~. A motorist drives through two sets of lights. Assuming that the two sets of traffic lights are not synchronised, find the probability that: (a) both sets of lights will be green, (b) at least one set of lights will be green.
_ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __
14. A box contains ten chocolates, all of identical appearance. Three of the chocolates have caramel centres and the other seven have mint centres. Hugo randomly selects and eats three chocolates from the box. Find the probability that: (a) the first chocolate Hugo eats is caramel, (b) Hugo eats three mint chocolates, (c) Hugo eats exactly one caramel chocolate, ( d) Hugo eats at least two caramel chocolates. 15. In a bag there are four green, three blue and five red discs. (a) Two discs are drawn at random, and the first disc is not replaced before the second disc is drawn. Find the probability of drawing: (i) two red discs, (ii) one red and one blue disc, (iii) at least one green disc, (b) Repeat the above questions if the first disc is (iv) a blue disc on the first draw, (v) two discs of the same colour, (vi) two differently coloured discs. replaced before the second disc is drawn.
16. Max and Jack each throw a die. Find the probability that: (a) they do not throw the same number, (b) the number thrown by Max is greater than the number thrown by Jack, (c) the numbers they throw differ by three, (d) the product of the numbers is even.
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17. In basketball, the chance of a girl making a basket from the freethrow line is 0·7 and the chance of a boy making the basket is 0·65. Therefore if a boy and a girl are selected at random, the chance that at least one of them will shoot a basket is 1·35. Explain the problem with this argument. 18. A game is played in which two coloured dice are rolled once. The six faces of the black die are numbered 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 14. The six faces of the white die are numbered 3, 6, 9, 12, 13, 15. The player wins if the number on the black die is bigger than the number on the white die. ( a) Calculate the probability of a player winning the game. (b) Calculate the probability that a player will lose at least once in two consecutive games. (c) How many games must be played before you have a 90% chance of winning at least one game? 19. Two dice are rolled. A three appears on at least one of the dice. Find the probability that the sum of the uppermost faces is greater than seven. 20. In a game, two dice are rolled and the score given is the maximum of the two numbers on the uppermost faces. For example, if the dice show a three and a five, the score is a five. (a) Find the probability that you score a one in a single throw of the two dice. (b) What is the probability of scoring three consecutive ones in three rolls of the dice? (c) Find the probability of a six in a single roll of the dice. (d) Given that one of the dice shows a three, what is the probability of getting a score greater than five? 21. A set of four cards contains two jacks, a queen and a king. Bob selects one card and then, without replacing it, selects another. Find the probability that: (a) both Bob's cards are jacks, (b) at least one of Bob's cards is a jack, (c) given that one of Bob's cards is a jack, the other one is also. 22. A twentysided die has the numbers from 1 to 20 on its faces. (a) If it is rolled twice, what is the probability that the same number appears on the uppermost face each time? (b) If it is rolled three times, what is the probability that the number 15 appears on the uppermost face (i) exactly twice, (ii) at most once? 23. In each game of Sic Bo, three regular sixsided dice are thrown once. (a) In a single game, what is the probability that all three dice show six? (b) What is the probability that exactly two of the dice show six? (c) What is the probability that exactly two of the dice show the same number? (d) What is the probability of rolling three different numbers on the dice? 24. Shadia has invented a game for one person. She throws two dice repeatedly until of the two numbers shown is either six or eight. If the sum is six, she wins. If is eight, she loses. If the sum is any other number, she continues to throw until is six or eight. (a) What is the probability that she wins on the first throw? (b) What is the probability that a second throw is needed? (c) Find an expression for the probability that Shadia wins on her first, second throw. (d) Calculate the probability that Shadia wins the game. the sum the sum the sum
or third
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25. In a game, Anna and Ingrid take turns at drawing, and immediately replacing, a ball from an urn containing three blue and four green balls. The game is won when Anna draws a blue ball, or when Ingrid draws a green ball. Anna goes first. Find the probability that:
(a) Anna wins on her first draw, (b) Ingrid wins on her first draw,
(c) Anna wins in less than four of her turns, (d) Anna wins the game.
26. A bag contains two green and two blue marbles. Marbles are drawn at random, one by
one, without replacement, until two green marbles have been drawn. (a) What is the probability that exactly three draws will be required? (b) If the marbles are replaced after each draw, and the first one drawn is green, find the probability that three draws will be required.
27. Prasad and Wilson are going to enlist in the Australian Army. The recruiting officer will be in town for seven consecutive days, starting on Monday and finishing the following Sunday. The boys must nominate three consecutive days on which to attend the recruitment office. They do this randomly and independently of one another.
(a) By listing all the ways in which to choose the three consecutive days, find the probability that they both go on Monday. (b) What is the probability that they meet at the recruitment office on Tuesday for the first time? (c) Find the probability that Prasad and Wilson will not meet at the recruitment office. (d) Hence find the probability that they will meet on at least one day at the recruitment office.
28. There are two white and three black discs in a bag. Two players A and B are playing a
game in which they draw a disc alternately from the bag and then replace it. Player A must draw a white disc to win and player B must draw a black disc. Player A goes first. Find the probability that: (a) player A wins on the first draw, (b) player B wins on her first draw, (c) player A wins in less than four of her draws, (d) player A wins the game.
29. A coin is tossed continuously until, for the first time, the same result appears twice in
succession. That is, you continue tossing until you toss two heads or two tails in a row. (a) Find the probability that the game ends before the sixth toss of the coin. (b) Find the probability that an even number of tosses will be required.
_ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __
30. A bag contains g green and b blue marbles. Three marbles are randomly selected from
the bag. (a) Write down an expression for the probability that the three marbles chosen were green. (b) If the bag had initially contained one additional green marble, the probability that the three marbles chosen were green would have been double that found in part (a). g2 _ g _ 2 18 (i) Show that b = (ii) Show that b = g  4 +   .
5g 5g (iii) Sketch a graph of b against g, indicating the gcoordinates of any stationary points.
(iv) Hence determine all possible numbers of green and blue marbles.
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10E Counting Ordered Selections
It should be clear by now that probability problems would become easier if we could develop greater sophistication in counting methods. This section and the next two take a break from probability questions to develop a more systematic approach to counting. Two questions dominate these sections:
1. Are the selections we are counting ordered or unordered? 2. If they are ordered, is repetition allowed or not?
Sections 10E and 10F develop the theory of counting ordered selections, with and without repetition, then Section lOG will deal with unordered selections.
The Multiplication Principle for Ordered Selections: An ordered selection can usually
be regarded as a sequence of choices made one after the other. An efficient settingout here is to use a box diagram to keep track of these successive choices. How many fiveletter words can be formed in which the second and fourth letters are vowels?
WORKED EXERCISE:
NOTE: SOLUTION:
Unless otherwise indicated, always take 'y' as a consonant. We can select each letter in order: 1st letter 21 2nd letter 5 3rd letter 21
X
4th letter 5
5th letter 21
Number of words = 21 X 5 X 21 = 231525.
MULTIPLICATION PRINCIPLE:
5
X
21
10
Suppose that a selection is to be made in k stages. Suppose that the first stage can be chosen in nl ways, the second in n2 ways,
X n2
Then the number of ways of choosing the complete selection is nl
x· .. X nk.
Ordered Selections With Repetition: A general formula can now be found for the number of ordered selections with repetition. Suppose that kIetter words are to be formed from n distinct letters, where any letter can be used any number of times. Then each successive letter in the word can be chosen in n ways: 1st letter
n
2nd letter
n
3rd letter
n
... ...
kth letter
n
giving n k distinct words altogether.
11
ORDERED SELECTIONS WITH REPETITION:
The number of kIetter words formed from
n distinct letters, allowing repetition, is nk.
WORKED EXERCISE:
(a) How many sixdigit numbers can be formed entirely from odd digits? (b) How many of these numbers contain at least one 7?
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SOLUTION:
(a) There are five odd digits, so the number of such numbers is 56. (b) We first count the number of these sixdigit numbers not containing 7. Such numbers are formed from the digits 1, 3, 5 and 9, so there are 46 of them. Subtracting this from the answer to part (a), number of numbers = 56  46 = 11 529.
Ordered Selections Without Repetition:
Counting ordered selections without repetition typically involves factorials, because as each stage is completed, the number of objects to choose from diminishes by l.
WORKED EXERCISE:
In how many ways can a class of 16 select a committee consisting of a president, a vicepresident, a treasurer and a secretary?
SOLUTION: Select in order the president, the vicepresident, the treasurer and the secretary (we assume that the same person cannot fill two roles).
president 16 Hence there are 16
X
vicepresident 15 15
X
treasurer 14
secretary 13
14
X
16! 13 =  , possible committees. 12.
The General Case  Permutations:
{A, B, C, D, E}.
A permutation or ordered set is an arrangement of objects chosen from a certain set. For example, the words ABC, CED, EAB and DBC are all permutations of three letters taken from the 5member set
The symbol np k is used to denote the number of permutations of k letters chosen without repetition from a set of n distinct letters. The previous worked exercise is easily generalised to show that there are becomes the formula for np k : 1st letter n Hence np k 2nd letter nl 3rd letter n2 4th letter n3
(n:·,
k )! such permutations, so this
... ...
kth letter nk+l
= n(n 
1)(n  2)(n  3)··· (n  k + 1) _ n(n  1)(n  2)(n  3) x··· X 2 X 1 (n  k)( n  k  1) X ... X 2 X 1 n! (n  k)! .
ORDERED SELECTIONS WITHOUT REPETITION (PERMUTATIONS):
The number of kIetter words that can be formed without repetition from a set of n distinct letters is
n
12
n!
Pk=(n_k)!·
For example, the number of permutations of three distinct letters taken from the 5member set {A, B, C, D, E} is
5P3
= 2. = 60. 5;
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WORKED EXERCISE:
How many eightdigit numbers, and how many ninedigit numbers, can be formed from the nine nonzero digits if no repetition is allowed?
SOLUTION:
Number of 8digit numbers
= 9Ps
9! 1! = 9!
Number of 9digit numbers
= 9P 9
9!
O!
= 9!
NOTE: It may seem surprising that these two results are equal. Notice, however, that every eightdigit number with distinct nonzero digits can be extended to a ninedigit number of this type simply by tacking the missing digit onto the lefthand end. This establishes a onetoone correspondence between the two sets of numbers, for example,
96281 745
~
396281745
(tacking the missing 3 onto the left),
which explains why the two answers are the same. In general, np nl and np n are both equal to n!
The Permutations of a Set:
A permu tation of a set is an arrangement of all the members of the set in a particular order. The number of such permutations is a special case of the previous parafraph  if the set has n members, then the number of . . np n. , permu tatlOns IS n = , = n.
o.
13
PERMUTATIONS OF A SET:
The number of permu tations of an n member set, that is, the number of distinct orderings of the set, is np n = n!
This result is so important that it should also be proven directly using a box diagram. In the boxes below, members are selected in turn to go into the first position, the second position, and so on. 1st position n 2nd position n1 3rd position n2
...
...
nth position 1
Hence the number of orderings is n(n  l)(n  2) ... 1
= n!
as expected.
WORKED EXERCISE: In how many ways can 20 people form a queue? Will the number of ways double with 40 people? SOLUTION:
With 20 people, number of ways = 20! [~2·4 X lOIS]. With 40 people, number of ways = 40! [~8·2 X 10 47 ]. Hence 40 people can form a queue in about 3 X 10 29 times more ways than 20 people.
A General Counting Principle  Deal with the Restrictions First:
Many problems have some restrictions in the way things can be arranged. These restrictions should be dealt with first. It is also important to keep in mind that the order of the boxes represents the order in which the choices are made, not the final ordering of the objects, and that they can be used in surprisingly flexible ways. When using boxes for counting ordered selections, deal with any restrictions first. Remember that the boxes are in the order in which the selections are made.
DEAL WITH THE RESTRICTIONS FIRST:
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WORKED EXERCISE:
Eight people form two queues, each with four people. Albert will only stand in the lefthand queue, Beth will only stand in the righthand queue, and Charles and Diana insist on standing in the same queue. How many ways can the two queues be formed?
SOLUTION:
Place Albert in any of the 4 possible positions in the lefthand queue, Then place Beth in any of the 4 positions in the righthand queue. Place Charles in any of the remaining 6 positions. Place Diana in one of the 2 remaining positions in the same queue. There remain 4 unfilled positions, which can be filled in 4! ways: Albert 4 Beth 4 Charles 6 Diana 2 6
X
last four positions 4!
Hence number of ways
=4 X 4 X = 4608.
2
X
4!
A General Counting Principle  Compound Orderings: In some ordering problems, particular members must be grouped together. This produces a compound ordering, in which the various groups must first be ordered, and then the individuals ordered within each group.
COMPOUND ORDERINGS:
15
First order the groups, then order the individuals within each group. (In this context, a group may sometimes consist of a single individual.)
WORKED EXERCISE: Four boys and four girls form a queue at the bus stop. There is one couple who want to stand together, the other three girls want to stand together, but the other three boys don't care where they stand. How many acceptable ways are there of forming the queue? SOLUTION: There are five groups the couple, the group of three girls, and the three groups each consisting of one individual boy. These five groups can be ordered in 5! ways. Then the individuals within each group must be ordered.
order the 5 groups 5! Hence number of ways = 5!
X
order the couple 2! 2!
X
order the 3 girls 3!
3! = 1440.
Exercise 10E
1. Evaluate, using the formula np r
n! = ..,c:(nr)!'
2. List all the permutations of the letters of the word DOG. How many are there? 3. List all the permutations of the letters EFGHI, beginning with F, taken three at a time. 4. Find how many arrangements of the letters of the word FRIEND are possible if the letters are taken: (a) four at a time, (b) six at a time.
2. how many outcomes are possible? (b) If you toss two coins and roll three dice. 9? (b) How many of these end in I? ( c) How many of these are even? (d) How many are divisible by 5? ( e) How many are greater than 7000? (c) consist of odd digits only. 5 and 6 if no digit can be repeated? How many of these are greater than 400? 7. 16. starting with the digit 9. five skirts. (a) If repetitions are not allowed. In how many ways can seven people be seated in a row of seven different chairs? 8. (b) any of the digits can occur more than once. Users of automatic teller machines are required to enter a fourdigit pin number. (a) In how many ways can the letters of the word NUMBER be arranged? (b) How many begin with N? (c) How many begin with N and end with U? (d) In how many is the N somewhere to the left of the U? . 8 and 9 if: (a) no digit is to be repeated. 7 and 9. 7. assuming that she wears one of each item? 11. (b) if there is no repetition of letters or digits. How many threedigit numbers can be formed using the digits 2. In how many ways can one of Jack's cards be exchanged for one of Meg's cards? _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 12. a car licence plate consists of two letters followed by four digits. 3. phone numbers at present consist of eight digits. Find how many pin numbers: (a) are possible.. . A woman has four hats. how many outcomes are possible? 10. (a) In how many ways can they finish? (b) In how many ways can the gold. (a) How many phone numbers are possible? (b) How many of these end in an odd number? (c) How many consist of odd digits only? (d) How many are there that do not contain a zero. Find how many of these are possible: (a) if there are no restrictions. 17. Jack has six different foot ball cards and Meg has another eight different foot ball cards. 6. silver and bronze medals be awarded? 9. Repeat the previous question if repetitions are allowed. (a) If you toss a coin and roll a die. 8. two handbags and six pairs of shoes. 6. digits 1.418 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 5. In Sydney. how many fourdigit numbers can be formed from the 15. In how many ways can she be attired. 4. (d) start and end with the same digit. Find how many fourdigit numbers can be formed using the digits 5. and in which the consecutive digits alternate between odd and even? 13. (d) if the letters are D and Q and the digits are 3. (c) if the second letter is X and the third digit is 3. Eight runners are participating in a 400metre race. 6.. In Tasmania. (b) consist of four distinct digits. three blouses. 14.
In how many ways can it be arranged so that: (a) the shortest question is first and the longest question is last? (b) the shortest and longest questions are next to one another? 22. the M is somewhere to the right of the U. 29. (ii) if two particular people must sit next to one another. In Morse code. 26. (b) begin with three vowels. A Maths test is to consist of six questions. (ii) if one particular person must sit at either end. middle and last positions. all the consonants must be in a group at the end of the word. Repeat parts (a)~(d) of the previous question if repetition is allowed. . in how many ways can the bike be filled? 24. Find how many ways this can be done if: (a) the boys and girls alternate. six Science books and four English books be placed on a shelf. How many different letters is it possible to represent if a maximum of ten symbols are used? 25. only two can drive. In how many ways can a boat crew of eight women be arranged if three of the women can only row on the bow side and two others can only row on the stroke side? 23. (iii) if two particular people must sit next to one another. If among five people. (a) How many sevenletter words can be formed without repetition from the letters of the word INCLUDE? (b) How many of these do not begin with I? (c) How many end in L? (d) How many have the vowels and consonants alternating? (e) How many have the C immediately following the D? (f) How many have the letters Nand D separated by exactly two letters? (g) How many have the letters Nand D separated by more than two letters? 28. one passenger behind the driver and one in the sidecar. Find how many arrangements of the letters of the word UNIFORM are possible: (a) (b) (c) (d) if if if if the vowels must occupy the first.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10E Counting Ordered Selections 419 18. (iv) if neither of two particular people can sit on either end of the row. (c) have three vowels occurring together. (b) Find in how many ways can n people be placed in a row of n chairs: (i) if one particular person must be on either end of the row. Find how many arrangements of the letters of the word BEHAVING: (a) end in NG. if the books relating to each subject are to be kept together? 21. 19. Fiveletter words are formed without repetition from the letters of PHYSICAL. (iii) if two of them are not permitted to sit at either end. (a) (b) (e) (f) How How How How many many many many (b) the boys and girls sit in distinct groups. (a) Find in how many ways ten people can be arranged in a line: (i) without restriction. Four boys and four girls are to sit in a row. consist only of consonants? (c) How many begin with a vowel? begin with P and end with S? (d) How many contain the letter Y? have the two vowels occurring next to one another? have the letter A immediately following the letter L? 27. In how many ways can three Maths books. 20. the word must start with U and end with M. A motor bike can carry three people: the driver. letters are formed by a sequence of dashes and dots.
3.420 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 30.5 and 6? (b) How many of these numbers are greater than 56432? (c) How many of these numbers are less than 56432? 33. (c) How many of them are divisible by 5? (d) How many of them are divisible by 3? (b) If72npn=42n+lPn. (ii) How many of them are even? (b) Repeat the two parts to this question if repetitions are allowed. and the four girls don't mind where they stand.2. For example. . 4 and 5.4. 4123 is a derangement of 1234. (a) How many such numbers are there? (b) How many of them are odd? 38. (a) How many fivedigit numbers can be formed from the digits 0. (b) One way of determining the value of D( n) for a particular value of n is by the inclusion/exclusion principle. In how many ways can the queue be formed? 31.3. without repetition.3. (a) How many fivefigure numbers can be formed from the digits 2. (a) Integers are formed from the digits 2. (a) If 8 P r = 336. the remaining three boys wish to stand together. Consider the case where n = 4.5. 35. (a) Find the values of D(l). Find in how many ways can they finish if there are no dead heats and the swimmer in Lane 2 finishes: (a) immediately after the swimmer in Lane 5. (b) after the swimmer in Lane 5. (i) How many ways are there of arranging 4 objects in a row? (ii) How many of these would leave one specific object unmoved from its original position? This number would need to be subtracted from (a).8 and 9. How many different accommodation arrangements are there if the other three can go to any of the other youth hostels? 37. (i) How many such numbers are there? (a) How many different accommodation arrangements are there ifthere are no restrictions on where the backpackers stay? (b) How many different accommodation arrangements are there if each backpacker stays at a different youth hostel? (c) Suppose that two of the backpackers are brother and sister and wish to stay in the same youth hostel. (c) Using the result np r = (n:' r )!' prove that: (i) n+lP r 39. but 4132 is not.findthevalueofr. .3 and 4 if repetitions are not allowed? (b) How many of these are odd'? (c) How many are divisible by 5? 36. 1. 34. Five backpackers arrive in a city where there are five youth hostels. D(2) and D(3) by listing. There are two brothers who want to stand together. There are eight swimmers in a race. We will denote the number of derangements of n objects by D( n). In how many ways can this be done if: (a) there are no restrictions? (b) Jim will only stand in the left hand queue? (c) Sean and Liam must stand in the same queue? 32. Eight people are to form two queues of four. [Derangements] = nPr + rnp r _ 1 (ii) nPr = n2Pr+2rn2Pr_l +r(r1)n. Numbers less than 4000 are formed from the digits 1. with repetitions not allowed.findn. Five boys and four girls form a queue at the cinema.2P r _ 2 ____________ EXTENSION ____________ A derangement of n distinct objects is an arrangement of them so that none of the n objects appear in their original positions.
l)D(n . Taking account of both overcountings: number of ways = . some of them would leave both the first and second elements unchanged. We have also overcounted by a factor of 3! = 6. Thus you need to add back the number of arrangements that leave any two of the objects unmoved. the object in the nth place changes places with the object in the rth place. X 3. 7! This method is easily generalised.counting permutations in which there are identical elements.. we have subtracted some of the arrangements twice. (a) How many ways can this be done? (b) How does this change if one of the wine glasses now is chipped... we would conclude: number of ways = 7! But we have overcounted by a factor of 2! = 2. [An alternative formula for derangements] As above. Suppose that n> 2. 2. X £k! n'. 10F Counting with Identical Elements. (c) Find an expression for D(5). because the Es can be interchanged without changing the word. £k alike of a final type. How many derangements are there of this type? (c) Hence find a recurrence relation for D( n).CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10F Counting with Identical Elements. (a) Suppose that in a derangement of the n objects. and two tumblers have now been replaced by two identical tumblers slightly different from the other two? . WORKED EXERCISE: Four identical wine glasses and four identical tumblers are to be arranged in a line across the front of a cupboard. Hence find an expression for D(4). = 420. Explain why the number of ways this can happen is (n . In the language of 'words': COUNTING WITH IDENTICAL ELEMENTS: 16 Suppose that a word of n letters has £1 alike of one type. . because the three Ss can be permuted amongst themselves in 3! ways without changing the word. . How many of these are there? (iv) Now you will need to subtract the number of arrangements that leave three objects unmoved and so on. denote the number of derangements of n objects by D(n). but the object in the nth place does not move to the rth place. in doing so. stating the initial conditions. 40. and Cases This section covers two ideas .. (b) The second alternative is that the object in the rth place moves to the nth place. and counting in which the box methods of the previous section break down and cases have to be considered. £2 alike of another type. For example. Counting with Identical Elements: Finding the number of different words formed by using all the letters of the word 'PRESSES' is complicated by the fact that there are three Ss and two Es. If the seven letters were all different.2).. (d) Hence find an expression for D(n). Then the number of distinct words that can be formed from the letters is number of words = £1! X £2! X . and Cases 421 (iii) However.
and provides the essential link between the binomial theorem and probability. Then the number of distinct words that can be formed from the letters is number of words = n! k! X (n . X = 70.8! 2. The other mark that would give 120 ways is 3/10. Below is the expansion of (A + B)5 into 32 terms. 4..k)!   n C k· WORKED EXERCISE: In a tenquestion test.. = 120. because each term involves choosing either A or B from each of the five brackets in turn. SOLUTION: The Connection with the Binomial Theorem: The fact that the number of words with k As and n . PERMUTATIONS OF WORDS CONTAINING ONLY TWO DIFFERENT LETTERS: 17 Suppose that a word with n letters has k alike of one type and the remaining n . This is true in general. 10! so number of ways = .422 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 SOLUTION: (a) Number of ways = 4.k Bs is k can be seen directly from the binomial expansion. X 4. There are 25 = 32 terms.. 2. 8'. Notice that lOC 7 = lOC3 = 120. which is none other than 8 C 4 . 3. one mark is awarded for each question. X X Words Containing Only Two Different Letters: The theory about counting with identical letters assumes particular importance when there are only two types of letters. (b) Number of ways 1.. as in part (a) of the previous worked exercise. 4. 7.. The answer to part (a) was ~. X =. = 1680. In how many ways can a pupil score 7/10? For what other mark is there the same number of ways of achieving it? The mark of 7/10 means there were 7 correct and 3 incorrect.k alike of another type. . nc (A + B)5 = (A + B)(A + B)(A + B)(A + B)(A + B) = AAAAA + AAAAB + AAAB A + AAB AA + AB AAA + B AAAA + AAABB + AABAB + ABAAB + BAAAB + AABBA + ABABA + BAABA + ABBAA + BABAA + BBAAA + AABBB + ABABB + BAABB + ABBAB + BABAB + BBAAB + ABBBA + BABBA + BBABA + BBBAA + ABBBB + BABBB + BBABB + BBBAB + BBBBA +BBBBB = A 5 + 5A 4 B + 10A 3B2 + 10A 2B3 + 5AB 4 + B 5 . initially without any simplification or collection of terms. because for this mark there would be 3 correct and 7 incorrect. X 3.
Find the number of permutations of the following words if all the letters are used: (a) BOB (b) ALAN (c) SNEEZE (d) TASMANIA (e) BEGINNER (f) FOOTBALLS (g) EQUILATERAL (h) COMMITTEE (i) WOOLLOOMOOLOO 2. Eight balls. X = 120. 'E' and'S'.. X 2.k Bs. one white ball and one black ball. 2. for example. This leaves six letters which we must then arrange in order. there are then 2 Es and 3 Ss. (b) there are seven red balls and one white ball. Find how many arrangements are possible: (a) if there are no restrictions.6!2. Using Cases: Many counting problems are too complicated to be analysed completely by a single box diagram. 1. In such situations. three white balls and two black balls.. so number of words = . 'R'. More generally. so number of words 6! 6! = I" = 120. 2. 3.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10F Counting with Identical Elements. If P or R is omitted (2 cases). 5. however. . Find how many different arrangements are possible if: (a) all balls are of a different colour. If an E is omitted. the coefficient nC k of Ak B n . 1. Six coins are lined up on a table. 1.I = 180. (d) there are three red balls. WORKED EXERCISE: How many sixletter words can be formed by using the letters of the word 'PRESSES'? We omit in turn each of the four letters 'P'. SOLUTION: so number of words = . Five identical green chairs and three identical red chairs are arranged in a row. and Cases 423 This should make it clear that. there are then 3 Ss. 2. (b) four heads and two tails. 2.k in the expansion of (A + BY' is the number of all possible words formed from k As and n . 4. are arranged in a line. Exercise 10F 1. the use of cases is unavoidable. to minimising the number of different cases that need to be considered. How many numbers can be formed? 3. identical except for colour. Attention should be given. Find how many patterns are possible if there are: (a) five tails and one head. (b) if there must be a green chair on either end. X 2 (doubling for the two cases) Hence the total number of words is 180 + 120 + 120 = 420. the coefficient sC 3 = 10 of A 3 B2 is simply the number of all possible words formed from 3 As and 2 Bs.I 3. . (c) there are six red balls. there are then 2 Es and 2 Ss. (c) three tails and three heads. 3. The six digits 1.3 are used to form a sixdigit number. If an S is omitted.
(d) so that the K is somewhere to the left of the C. Containers are identified by a row of coloured dots on their lids. Find how many ways the letters of the word DECISIONS can be arranged: (i) there are no restrictions. (a) How many fiveletter words can be formed by using the letters of the word STRESS? (b) How many fiveletter words can be formed by using the letters of the word BANANA? 14. each of which requires the answer 'Yes' or 'No'. if more than seven answers are 'Yes'. (ii) the two Os are together. Sixletter words are formed using two As and four Bs. The colours used are yellow. each of which is red or green. (f) if an odd number of answers are 'Yes'. (c) so that the two Ss are separated by at least one other letter. show how all the different possible words can be derived from the expansion of (A + B)6. By referring to the relevant section of the notes. (a) without restriction. what is the number of possible codes? (b) What is the number of different codes possible if only five dots are used? 13. (f) the letter N is not at either end. (c) the Is. if the two Os are to be separated? 9. (a) Find the number of arrangements of the letters in SLOOPS if: (iii) the two Os are to be separated. (a) If six dots are used. if two are 'Yes' and eight are 'No'. there are to be no more than three yellow dots. (d) the Ns occupy the end positions. Find the number of ways the form can be filled in: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) without restriction. A motorist travels through eight sets of traffic lights. (g) if exactly three answers are 'Yes'. if the first and last answers are 'Yes'. no more than two green dots and no more than one purple dot. (a) In how many ways could this happen? (b) What other number of red lights would give an identical answer to part (a)? 7.424 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 6. In how many ways can the letters of the word PROPORTIONALITY be arranged so that the vowels and consonants still occupy the same places? 11. . (b) so that the vowels and consonants alternate. 10. In any arrangement. (c) so that the vowels come first followed by the consonants. green and purple. Ns and Ts are together. (h) ifthe first and last answers are 'Yes' and exactly four more are 'Yes'. (b) the Is are together. if five are 'Yes' and five are 'No'. (b) How many arrangements of the letters in TATTO 0 are there. (a) without restriction. and they occur together. A form has ten questions in order. 15. 12. (e) an N occupies the first but not the last position. (iv) the Os are together and the Ss are together. 8. He is forced to stop at three sets of lights. Find how many arrangements of the letters of the word TRANSITION are possible if: (a) there are no restrictions. (d) so that the N is somewhere to the right of the D. Find how many ways the letters of the word SOCKS can be arranged in a line: (b) so that the two Ss are together.
C. How many different arrangements are possible if no two identical shirts are next to one another? 18. D} {B. 19. Binary numbers consist of a sequence of Os and Is. UNORDERED SELECTIONS: If a set S has n members. (b) the Es are together. Find how many arrangements there are of the letters of the word GUMTREE if: (a) there are no restrictions. C. = A 2. (c) Hence show that the total number of possible sequences is aH+Ic b .] _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 17. in how many of these arrangements do the letters of KOALA appear in their correct order. )' . = 6. C} {A. (a) If they are all of different colours. For example. For example. D} The central result of the section is the following. but not necessarily together? 20. These are . the number of unordered selections. (ii) two letters. One such number contains exactly a Os and at most b Is. (f) the G is somewhere to the left of the U and the M is somewhere to the right of the U. D} {C. Bob is about to hang his eight shirts in the wardrobe.'( nn~ r. B} {A. (iii) three letters. or subsets. B. (b) Prove that: aco + a+l C 1 + a+Z C z + . You will need to recall that nCr = r. (a) If the number contains a + b digits. X 2. of two distinct letters taken from the fourmember set {A. D} is 4C 2 the six subsets listed above. = k! X (n _ k)! n! = n Ck . (v) five letters. the fourmember set {A. (c) the Es are separated by: (i) one letter. + aHC b = a+b+I C b .. show that there are aHCb possible sequences. B. (iv) four letters. He has four different styles of shirt. two identical ones of each particular style.. If the letters of the word GUMTREE and the letters of the word KOALA are combined and arranged into a single twelveletter word. (d) the G is somewhere between the two Es. lOG Counting Unordered Selections This section now turns from the ordered selections of the previous two sections to the counting of unordered selections. D} has six twomember subsets: {A.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10G Counting Unordered Selections 425 16. Ten coloured marbles are placed in a row. (e) the M is somewhere to the left of both Es and the U is somewhere between them. An unordered selection of distinct objects chosen from a certain set can be regarded simply as a subset of the set. how many arrangements are possible? (b) What is the minimum number of colours needed to guarantee at least 10000 different patterns? [HINT: This will need a guessandcheck approach. then the number of unordered selections of k members from the set is 18 number of kmember subsets The total number of subsets of S is 2n. C} {B.
the number of kmember subsets of an nmember set is indeed nc k . X 2! threemember subsets. because there are two choices for each letter in turn. {A.E}.using the box notation: Is A in or out? 2 Is B in or out? 2 Is C in or out? 2 Is Din? 2 Is E in? 2 Here is a list of those 32 subsets. 1 form the row of the Pascal triangle indexed by n = 5 and add to 25 = 32. 5.D. we know that the number of fiveletter words consisting so this must be the number of 3. {C.D} {B.E} ~ ~ ~ ~ YYNYN YYNNY YNYYN YNYNY {B. {A. the total number of fiveletter words consisting entirely of Y sand Ns is 25 = 32. {A.C. {E} 102membersubsets: {A. E}. {D}.E} ~ YNNYY {A.E}.C.D}.B. For example. {B. An Example of the Result: Before giving any proof.D.C.D} {A. however. Thus at least for n = 5.B.C.E}.E}.D. here is an example to illustrate the result. every subset of S can be described by visiting each member A. 5. {B. C.C}. {A. A Proof Using Words Containing only Two Distinct Letters: Continuing with the example above.C. {A.D} {A.C}. {C}. The total number of subsets of S is 25 = 32. Moreover.C.C. of three Y s and two N s is ~ = 5 C3 = 10. {C.D.E} 1 5member subset: {A. C.B. {D.C.E}.E} ~ ~ ~ ~ NYYYN NYYNY NYNYY NNYYY From the previous section. 10. D. answering 'yes' or 'no' as to whether that member is included in the subset. .D. arranged according to the number of their members: 1 Omember subset : 0 5 1membersubsets: {A}. {B. 10.E} 5 4membersubsets: {A. {C.B.D}. D and E of S in turn. Let S be the fivemember set S = {A. {A.E}. The result is that every subset of S corresponds to a fiveletter word consisting entirely of Y sand Ns. {A.E}. {A. B.E} {C.E}. {B.D}.B.D.B.C.C. E} The numbers 1.B}. C.C. Two different proofs of the result will be offered. {A.E}. so this must be the total number of subsets. because choosing a subset or unordered selection from S requires looking at every member of S and deciding whether to include it in the subset or not . B.426 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 This result brings the whole theory of the binomial expansion into probability and counting.E} {A.E}.D.C} ~ YYYNN {A.B.D. and it will dominate the remainder of this chapter.B. {A.D}. B. each of the ten threemember subsets of S is paired below with the corresponding word consisting of three Ys and two Ns: {A.E}.B.D}. {B. D.E} {B. {A.C}.C. {B.D}.D}.D. {B}. {B.E} 10 3member subsets: {A.
C.E} The reason for this is that there are 3P3 = 3 X 2 X 1 = 6 ways of ordering the subset {B. to the threemember subset {B. In particular. But every kmember subset can be ordered in kpk = k! ways. there is a onetoone correspondence between the kmember subsets of S and the nC k words consisting of k Ys and n . The Meaning of the Notation nC k: The notation does not originate with the binomial theorem.C. Thus the correspondence between threeletter words and threemember subsets is manytoone.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10G Counting Unordered Selections 427 In general. C. and the letter C in nCk stands for 'combination'.kpk = (n :·k)! . In general. for example. When we turn to unordered selections. A Proof Moving from Ordered Selections to Unordered Selections: We saw in Section IOE that the number of threeletter words formed without repetition from the five letters A. (a) How many ways can four people be selected from this group to play the first game? (Ignore the subsequent organisation into pairs..k! = k! nCk X (:. let the members of the nmember set S be listed in some order: Again. D and E is 5P3 = 5 X 4 X 3 = 60.) (b) How many of these ways will include Maria and exclude Alex? (c) If there are four women and six men. WORKED EXERCISE: Ten people meet to play doubles tennis. but with this piece of counting theory.. etymology. C. . as required. BEC.. This is the origin of the more recent convention of calling nC k 'n choose k'. so the correspondence between the ordered selections and the unordered selections is manytoone with overcounting by a factor of k! Hence the number of (unordered) kmember subsets of S is . EBC. Hence the number of threemember subsets is 60 . _ k)! = nCk. how many ways can two men and two women be chosen for this game? (d) Again with four women and six men. E}. CEB. By a convenient. ECB ~ {B. in how many ways will women be in the majority? . choosing a subset T of S means visiting every member of S and saying 'yes' or 'no' as to whether that member is to be included in the subset T. Unordered selections are also called combinations.6 = 10. there are six distinct words which all correspond. Thus there is a onetoone correspondence between the subsets of S and the set of 2n words of n letters consisting entirely of Y sand Ns. but false. however. CBE. the letter C also stands for 'choose'. with a sixfold overcounting. n Pk = (n _ k)! words of k letters can be formed wi thou t repetition n! from the members of S. just as the letter P in npk stands for 'permutation'.k Ns. npk . E}: BCE. B.
WORKED EXERCISE: Let S positive even numbers. 8. 10. 4. and since Alex is excluded. three further people must be chosen. but it gives a onetoone correspondence between the twomember and threemember subsets of a fivemember set: {A. E} f+ f+ f+ f+ f+ {A. Not only does this confirm that 5C 2 = 5C 3 .D.E} {B. D} {A.D} {A. Hence number of ways = 8C 3 = 56.E} {B. This task can be done equally well by choosing the three people who will not be making tea. = {2. number of ways with four women = 1. E} {A. (c) Number of ways of choosing the women = 4 C 2 = 6. D} {B. (b) Since Maria is included. B. 6.C} {A. and we are all familiar with 'invisible enemies' or 'unforgivable actions' or 'days when no rain fell'. C. every subset T corresponds to its complement T: This correspondence is a natural or canonical correspondence.D} {A. Words such as 'at least'. a situation can often be described just as well by saying what it is not as by saying what it is.C} f+ f+ f+ f+ f+ {C. number of ways of choosing the men = 6C 2 = 15. so number of ways of choosing all four = 15 X 6 = 90. In normal language.E} {B.nCk = nc n_k: Suppose that two people are to be chosen from five to make afternoon tea. E} {A.C.D. so number of ways with a majority of women = 24 + 1 = 25.E} {B.C.D. C } In this correspondence. Thus for every choice of two people out of five. the remaining three people is a corresponding choice of three people out of five.B} {A.C.E} {B. E} { D.E} { C. D } { C. 'not' and 'excluding' should always be regarded as warnings that the problem may best be solved by considering the complementary situation. (d) Number of ways with one man and three women = 6C 1 X 4C 3 = 24. 12} be the set consisting of the first six (a) How many subsets of S contain at least two numbers? (b) How many subsets with at least two numbers do not contain 8? (c) How many subsets with at least two numbers do not contain 8 but do contain 10? . 'at most'.428 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 SOLUTION: (a) Number of ways = lOC 4 = 210.D} {A. B. there are now eight people to choose these three from. B. A Natural (or Canonical) Correspondence . but the correspondence is by no means restricted to mathematics.
(b) We consider now the 5member set T = {2. 6.. We now have another interpretation of this identity. we first choose 6 points out of 10.630 = 1470. (ii) overlap? SOLUTION: A.. . (i) Hence (ii) By subtraction. (c) Since 10 has already been chosen. Take anyone of those 6 points. number of nonoverlapping pairs = 210 X 3 = 630. and choose the other 2 points in its triangle. so number of such subsets = 24 . so number with at least 2 members = 25 . 10. The binomial expansion is + yt = nco xn yO + nC I x n . Substituting x = y = 1 gives 2 n = nco + nC I + nC 2 + . and choosing 3 adjacent points. so number of triangles = IDC3 = 120. which again can be done in IOC 6 = 210 ways. 6 12}.• . (b) To form two triangles. + nC n X Oyn. Number of Omember subsets = 1 (the empty set). 12}. (a) How many triangles can be drawn with these points as vertices? (b) How many pairs of such triangles can be drawn. + nc n . we must choose 3 points out of 10. so number with at least 2 members = 26 . Hence number of pairs of triangles = 210 X 10 = 2100.I yl + nC2 x n . which can be done in IOC 6 = 210 ways. first choose 6 points out of 10.. + nC n = 2n.. Number of Imember and Omember subsets = SCI + sC o = 6. (c) To form two nonoverlapping triangles. 4. this can be done in 5C 2 = 10 ways. 4. which means (x that the row indexed by n in the Pascal triangle adds to 2n. and the total number of subsets is nco + nC I + nC 2 + . These 6 points can be made into two nonoverlapping triangles in 3 ways. AID are arranged in order around a circle. Each Row of the Pascal Triangle Adds to 2n: One identity about the Pascal triangle needs review here.1 = 15. .. A3 (a) To form a triangle.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10G Counting Unordered Selections 429 SOLUTION: (a) Number of Imember and Omember subsets = 6C I + 6C O = 7. A 2 . by arranging the 6 points in cyclic order.7 = 57. if the vertices of the two triangles are distinct? (c) In how many such pairs will the triangles: (i) not overlap. number of overlapping pairs = 2100 .. WORKED EXERCISE: [A harder question] Ten points AI.. An nmember set has nCk kmember subsets.6 = 26.2 y2 + . we need to choose subsets with at least one member from the fourmember set U = {2.
there are exactly two men. In how many ways can they be assigned to a table? (i) ascending order. 6. ( c) there are at least two green balls. all members are to be male. There is one table for six. Find how many committees are possible if: (a) (b) (c) (d) there are no restrictions. (g) a particular man must be included. A team of seven netballers is to be chosen from a squad of twelve players A. _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 8. (a) there are no restrictions. (a) Consider the digits 9. (b) Why do these two questions involve unordered selections? 11. one table for four and one table for two. from a group of ten people: (i) two people are chosen. B. (b) if the captain C is to be included. 8. . (a) Find how many possible combinations there are if. 7. (b) Why are the answers identical? (a) five men and three women. Find how many possible combinations there are if: (c) there is exactly one odd number. (e) there is at least one odd number. G. (b) there are exactly two green balls. Q. 2. (f) there is a majority of women. (ii) eight people are chosen. Four numbers are to be selected from the set of the first eight positive integers. Four balls are simultaneously drawn from a bag containing three green and six blue marbles. 2. H. (e) if one of F and L is to be included and the other excluded. Find how many ways can they be chosen: (a) with no restrictions. 5. J. List all possible combinations. 7.430 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 Exercise 10G 1. (b) three people from a choice of seven. (d) all the numbers must be even. find how many groups there are of: (b) four women and four men. (c) if J and K are both to be excluded. Sand T. E. F. C. Two people are chosen from a group of five people called P. all members are to be female. From a party of twelve men and eight women. 1 and O. Twelve people arrive at a restaurant. (a) What is the number of combinations of the letters of the word EQ U ATIO N taken four at a time (without repetition)? (b) How many contain four vowels? (c) How many contain the letter Q? 9. Find how many drawings are possible if: (a) the balls may be of any colour. A committee of five is to be chosen from six men and eight women. and find how many there are. D. 3. (d) if A is included but H is not. 4. 5. 4. (c) two people from a choice of six. Find how many ways you can form a group of: (a) two people from a choice of seven. (b) there are two odd numbers and two even numbers. 10. 6. (d) there are more blue balls than green balls. K and L. (h) a particular man must not be included. R. (d) five people from a choice of nine. I. 3. Find how many fivedigit numbers are possible if the digits are to be in: (ii) descending order. (e) there are four women and one man.
2. (e) consisting of three twos and another pair. ten male and ten female. four of them on bikes and two walk.15. (c) divisible by 3.9. 17. There are ten basketballers in a team.. (a) How many triangles can be drawn with these points as vertices? (b) How many pairs of such triangles can be drawn if the vertices of the two triangles are distinct? ( c) In how many such pairs will the triangles: (i) not overlap. 22. Twelve points are arranged in order around a circle. Nine players are to be divided into two teams of four and one umpire. (d) divisible by 5. There are ten points in a plane. No other set of three of these points is collinear. Ten points are chosen in a plane. From a standard deck of 52 playing cards.3.. Find how many ways: (a) the starting five can be chosen. .CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10G Counting Unordered Selections 431 12.19} be the many many many many subsets subsets subsets subsets does of S with with How How How How set of the first ten positive odd integers. (c) containing all four kings. ( a) (b) ( c) (d) How How How How many many many many diagonals diagonals diagonals diagonals are are are are there there there there in in in in a a a a (d) consisting of three diamonds and two clubs. Find how many ways two numbers can be selected from the numbers 1. (e) divisible by 6. Twenty students. ( a) How many sets of three points can be selected from those five that are collinear? (b) How many triangles can be formed using the ten points as vertices? 15. (a) How many lines can be drawn through pairs of the points? (b) How many triangles can be drawn if each of the vertices is at one of the given points? (c) How many of the triangles have a particular point as one of the vertices? (d) How many of the triangles have two particular points making up one of the sides? 14. five of which are collinear.17. are to travel from school to the sports ground.5. (b) consisting of diamonds only. . 21. (ii) overlap? 19. six of them in cars. 8.1l. how many different combinations are possible? . 9 so that their sum is: (a) even. (a) In how many ways can they be distributed for the trip? (b) In how many ways can they be distributed if none of the boys walk? 13. quadrilateral? pentagon'! decagon? polygon with n sides? 18. In how many ways can a group of six people be divided into two unequal groups? 16. (b) they can be split into two teams of five. (a) In how many ways can the teams be formed? (b) If two particular people cannot be on the same team. find how many fivecard hands can be dealt: (a) consisting of black cards only. Eight of them go in a minibus. no three of which are collinear. 7. (f) consisting of one pair and three of a kind. Let (a) (b) ( c) (d) S = {1. Shave? contain at least three numbers? at least three numbers do not contain 7? at least three numbers do not contain 7 but do contain 19? 20.13. (b) odd.
. 'Is repetition allowed?' .. In these more complicated questions._3 m+nC 2 = mC 2 + mC l nC l + nC 2 m+nC 3 = mC 3 + mc 2n C l + mC l nC 2 + nC 3 A 25. (a) nc .+1 (b) n+1c. given a group of four players? (b) In how many ways can two games of doubles tennis be arranged.. How many different combinations are there of three different integers between one and thirty inclusive such that their sum is divisible by three? 29. when this is possible. 24. Counting the Sample Space and the Event Space: It is usually easier to use unordered selections.. the two questions that need to be asked are: 'Is the selection ordered?' and if so...432 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 23.... (ii) each game is to be a game of mixed doubles. find the number of positive divisors of 315000. IOU Using Counting in Probability The purpose of this section is to apply the counting procedures of the last three sections to questions about probability.._l + 3 nC. A piece of art receives a mark out of 100 for each of the categories design. How many ways are there of putting the die into the box? _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ B 27. c (a) How many different routes are possible? (b) How many different routes are possible if you must pass through C? (c) How many different routes are possible if you cannot move along the top line of the grid? (d) How many different routes are possible if you cannot move along the second row from the top of the grid? 26. = nc. (a) The six faces of a number of identical cubes are painted in six distinct colours. By considering its prime factorisation. = nc.. How many different cubes can be formed? (b) A die fits perfectly into a cubical box. counting procedures are required for counting both the sample space and the event space. + nC. given a group of eight players? (c) Six married couples are to play in three games of doubles tennis. The diagram shows a grid measuring 4 cm by 6 cm._2 + nC. The aim is to get from point A in the top lefthand corner to point B in the bottom righthand corner by moving along the black lines either downwards or to the right. In how many ways is it possible to score a mark of 200/300? 28. A single move is defined as shifting along one side of a single square.._l (c) n+2c. (e) (f) = nc. + 3 nC. technique and originality.. but as always.. (a) How many doubles tennis games are possible..+1 = n+1c . + 2 nC. Use the fact that nc._1 + nC. + nc . thus it takes you ten moves to get from A to B._2 (d) n+3c.. is the number of unordered selections of r objects from n objects to provide combinatoric proofs of each of the following. Find how many ways the pairings can be arranged if: (i) there are no restrictions.
so the number of favourable numbers is 4 X 10 X 10 X 10 Hence P( at least 60 000) = ~..CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10H Using Counting in Probability 433 WORKED EXERCISE: Three cards are dealt from a pack of 52. This indicates that it would be quite reasonable to do part (a) using ordered selections. the club can be anyone of three positions. . 3X2X1 39 P(l club and 2 hearts) = 13 X 78 X 52 X 51 X 50 Hence 850 (b) Let the sample space be the set of all ordered selections of 3 cards from 52. because in a hand with one club and two hearts. Hence the number of fivedigit numbers = 9 X 10 X 10 X 10 X 10 = 90000. 8 or 9. (d) that the digits are distinct and in increasing order. (c) that the digits are distinct. SOLUTION: (a) Let the sample space be the set of all unordered selections of 3 cards from 52. so and number of such hands in the order "C?C? = 13 X 13 X 12. and choosing the 2 hearts from 13 in 13C2 = 78 ways. the first digit can be 6. 2500 1 and P( all dIgIts are even) = 90000 = 36· . . and to do part (b) using unordered selections. WORKED EXERCISE: A fivedigit number is chosen at random. but the other digits can be anyone of the ten digits. Hence P("C?C?) = 13 52 X X 13 51 X X 12 50 = ~.. in any order. (a) Find the probability that one club and two hearts are dealt. 850 NOTE: The answer to part (b) must be ~ of the answer to part (a). X 10 = 40000.3X 2X 1 We can now choose the hand by choosing 1 club from 13 in 13C1 = 13 ways. The first digit of a fivedigit number cannot be zero. Find the probability: (b) that it consists only of even digits.. (b) Find the probability that one club and two hearts are dealt in that order. (b) If all the digits are even. 7. giving nine choices. number of ordered hands = 52P3 = 52 X 51 X 50. (a) that it is at least 60000. although the methods chosen above are more natural to the way in which each question was worded. Hence number of such numbers = 4 X 5 X 5 X 5 X 5 = 2500. SOLUTION: (a) To be at least 60000. but a variety of methods is needed to establish the sizes of the various event spaces. so the hand can be chosen in 13 X 78 ways. there are four choices for the first digit (it cannot be zero) and five choices for each of the other four. 52 X 51 X 50 so number of unordered hands = 52 C3 = . Problems Requiring a Variety of Methods: The sample spaces in the two worked examples following are easily found.
so P(d' . (c) the number contains exactly three sevens.8.) Hence number of such numbers = number of unordered subsets of { 1.7 digits: position of the three 7s sC 3 = 10 choose first non7 9 choose second non7 9 giving 810 such strings. SOLUTION: (a) This can be approached using the complementary event: number of fivedigit numbers without a 4 = 8 X 9 X 9 X 9 X 9 = 52488. 9X 9X 8X 7X 6 and P( dIgIts are dIStInct) = 90000 = 625 . similarly number without a 5 = 52488.434 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (c) This is counting without replacement: 1st digit 9 so 2nd digit 9 3rd digit 8 4th digit 7 5th digit 6 189 number of such numbers = 9 X 9 X 8 X 7 X 6 . 13696 856 Hence P(at least one 4 and at least one 5) = 90000 = 5625 . 37512 521 P( at least one 4) = 90000 = 1250 . . so number of fivedigit numbers with a 4 = 90000 . are d"IStInct an d"In IncreasIng or d) IgIts er WORKED EXERCISE: 126 7 = 90000 = 5000 . (b) the number contains at least one four and at least one five. 3. by first placing the three 7s and then choosing the first and second non. (c) Counting the number of fivedigit numbers with exactly three 7s requires cases. 6. Hence number with no 5 or no 4 = 52488 + 52488 . 7. find the probability that: Continuing with the previous worked ex (a) the number contains at least one four. Secondly. First we count the fivedigit strings with exactly three 7s. Hence (b) This can be approached using the addition theorem: number without a 4 = 52488. . 9} = 9C S = 126. we must subtract the number of fivedigit strings with exactly three 7s and beginning with zero: . (d) Every unordered fivemember subset of the set of nine nonzero digits can be arranged in exactly one way into a fivedigit number with the digits in increasing order. 2. . and number with no 5 and no 4 = 7 X 8 X 8 X 8 X 8 = 28672.76304 = 13696.4.52488 = 37512. since a number can't begin with the digit zero. [A harder example] ercise. 5. and number with at least one 5 and at least one 4 = 90000 . (Note that the digit zero cannot be used. (d) the number contains at least three sevens. .28672 = 76304.
3. (c) they are all diamonds. (h) two are 7s and one is a 6.36 = 774 such numbers. (e) they are all picture cards. Hence there are 810 . seven yellow and five blue balls. (b) all the balls are of the same colour. A bag contains three red. Hence the number with at least three 7s = 774 + 44 + 1 = 819. Find the probability that: (a) the four numbers drawn are 1. three are selected at random. (c) there are two red balls and one blue ball. (f) Ian. (a) How many different committees can be formed? (b) If there are five men in the club. Find the probability that the committee will contain: ( a) only AFL foot baIlers. Exercise 10H 1. (d) the number 7 is drawn but the number 1 is not. the two of clubs and the seven of diamonds. (d) all the balls are of different colours. (g) one is a seven. If three balls are drawn from the bag simultaneously. (b) only soccer players. Find the probability that: (a) they are the jack of spades. giving 44 numbers altogether. Four pieces of paper are drawn at random. 5. (c) the number 8 is not drawn. (d) at least one soccer player. (c) three soccer players and two AFL footballers. (b) the number 9 is one of the numbers drawn. a particular soccer player. Any fivedigit number with exactly four 7s has one of the five forms where the * in *7777 is a nonzero digit. There are eight numbers of the first form. (e) at most one soccer player. find the probability that: ( a) all three balls are yellow. 4. 2. 43 and P( number has exactly three 7s) = 90 000 = 5000· 774 (d) The number 77 777 is the only fivedigit number with five 7s. (i) exactly one is a diamond. The integers from 1 to 10 inclusive are written on ten separate pieces of paper. what is the probability that the selected committee consists entirely of males? 2. 3 and 6. 819 91 and P(at least three 7s) = 90000 = 10000 .CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10H Using Counting in Probability 435 position of the three 7s 4C 3 = 4 choose the other non7 9 giving 36 such strings. . (d) they are all of the same suit. (b) all three are aces. one is an eight and one is a nine. and nine of the other four forms. (f) two are red and one is black. A committee of three is to be selected from the nine members in a club. A sports committee of five members is to be chosen from eight AFL footballers and seven soccer players. (j) at least two of them are diamonds. From a standard pack of 52 cards.
Answer the following questions. _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ __ 10. A tank contains 20 tagged fish and 80 untagged fish. (d) the number starts with 5 and then the 4s and 3s alternate. On each day. Find the probability that: (a) the boys and girls alternate. (b) two Es are together and one is apart. and each card is replaced before the next one is drawn. The digits 3. (a) What is the probability of selecting no tagged fish on a given day? (b) What is the probability of selecting at least one tagged fish on a given day? (c) Calculate the probability of selecting no tagged fish on every day for a week. The letters of the word PRINTER are arranged in a row. Find the probability that: (a) the word starts with the letter E. (d) the vowels and the consonants alternate. 4. Find the probability that: (a) the parents sit on the end and the three children are in the middle. Repeat the previous question if the cards are selected from the pack one at a time. of whom Patrick and Jessica are two. 14. Three boys and three girls are to sit in a row. 8. If one of these numbers is selected at random. (b) Patrick and Jessica are not next to each other. four fish are selected at random. ( c) all the letters E are apart. (d) What is the probability of selecting no tagged fish on exactly three of the seven days during the week? . The letters of KETTLE are arranged randomly in a row. (d) the word starts and ends with E. find the probability that: (a) it is even. (e) the 3s are separated by at least one other number. they are returned to the tank. (c) there are three letters between Nand T. (d) the Es and Ts are together in one group. 13. 12. (c) two specific girls sit next to one another. (b) it ends in 5. Find the probability that: (a) the two letters E are together. Find the probability that: (a) Patrick and Jessica occupy the end positions. Find the probability that: (a) the word starts with R and ends with S. (b) the letters I and P are next to one another. 9. 11. (c) the 4s occur together. 4. Find the probability that: (a) the letters E are together. (e) the vowels are together. 3. Six people. 4 and 5 are placed in a row to form a sixdigit number. (b) the boys and girls sit together.436 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 6. (b) the parents sit next to one another. The letters of PROMISE are arranged randomly in a row. and after noting whether they are tagged or untagged. (b) the two letters E are not together. (d) there are at least three letters between Nand T. (c) the letters P and R are separated by at least three letters. A family of five are seated in a row at the cinema. 7. arrange themselves in a row. The letters of ENTERTAINMENT are arranged in a row. (c) the two letters E are together and the two letters T are together. correct to three significant figures. 15. (b) the letters P and R are next to one another.
A poker hand of five cards is dealt from a standard pack of 52. (c) so that after each draw the disc is replaced with one of the opposite colour. Find the probability that all three discs are black. 23. (c) threeofakind. 18. B. (b) at least four are from the same team. 3 or 4 digits in them. A bag contains seven white and five black discs. 4. 19. Find the probability that of the five players selected: (a) three are numbered 4 and two are numbered 9. number is divisible by 5. 3 and 4 are used to form numbers that may have 1. 10. 20. (f) a straight (five cards in sequence regardless of suit). (b) with replacement.2. (b) two pairs. and in each team. C and D each consist of ten players. (a) A senate committee of five members is to be selected from six Labor and five Liberal senators. 6 and 7 (no repetitions allowed). (c) there will be one group of five and an individual. 17. if the discs are chosen: (a) without replacement. (c) it is greater than 200. (h) a royal flush (ten. number is odd. Four adults are standing in a room that has five exits.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10H Using Counting in Probability 437 16. What is the probability that Labor will have a majority on the committee? (b) The senate committee is to be selected from N Labor and five Liberal senators. (five cards of the same suit). (j) the number is greater than 500.. given that the probability of Labor having a majority on the committee is greater than ~. Six people are to be divided into two groups. Find the probability that: ( a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the the the the the number is 4 73. queen. (a) What is the probability that all four adults leave the room via the same exit? (b) What is the probability that three particular adults use the same exit and the fourth adult uses a different exit? . jack. 9. 21. 2. A threedigit number is formed from the digits 3. (d) fourofakind. (g) the number contains the digits 3 and 5. 5. 22. (e) a full house (one pair and three of a kind). number starts with 4 and ends with 7. If one of the numbers is selected at random. The digits 1. number is divisible by 3. (d) it is odd and greater than 3000. king and ace in a single suit). Three discs are chosen from the bag. Four basketball teams A. (i) all digits in the number are odd. (f) the number contains the digit 3. (b) there will be two in one group and four in the other. 2. Five players are to be selected at random from the four teams. find the probability that: (a) it has three digits. (g) a flush. (h) the number contains the digits 3 or 5. Find the probability that: (a) there will be three in each group. (e) it is divisible by 3. . Find the probability of obtaining: (a) one pair. Each adult is equally likely to leave the room through anyone of the five exits. each with at least one person.. Use trial and error to find the minimum value of N.. the players are numbered 1. (b) it is even.
(b) If there are n people in the group. find an expression for the probability of at least one common birthday. Sir Lancelot. (c) By choosing a number of values of n. ( a) Assuming that all eight players are equally likely to win a match. [The birthday problem] (a) Assuming a 365day year. (d) How many people need to be in the group before the probability exceeds 0·5? (e) How many people need to be in the group before the probability exceeds 90%? _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ 26. and the remaining adult comes out a different exit? (d) What is the probability that no more than two adults come out the same exit? 24. all the five roundtable seatings below of King Arthur. The games to be missed by each player are randomly and independently selected. Find the probability that exactly one of the main courses is not chosen by any of the diners. For example. During the seven games of the football season. The winner of each of the quarterfinals plays a semifinal to see who enters the final. Answer correct to two significant figures. (b) Repeat the question if there are n diners and a choice of n main courses. show that the probability that any two particular players will play each other is (b) What is the probability that two particular people will play each other if the tournament starts with 16 players? (c) What is the probability that two particular players will meet in a similar knockout tournament if 2 n players enter? :i. Max and Bert must each miss three consecutive games. (a) What is the probability that they both have the first game off together? (b) What is the probability that the second game is the first one missed by both players? (c) What is the probability that Max and Bert miss at least one of the same games? 27. find the probability that in a group of three people there will be at least one birthday in common.438 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (c) What is the probability that any three of the four adults come out the same exit. (a) Five diners in a restaurant choose randomly from a menu featuring five main courses. Eight players make the quarterfinals at Wimbledon. 101 Arrangements in a Circle Arrangements in a circle or around a round table are complicated by the fact that two arrangements are regarded as equivalent if one can be rotated to produce the other. Queen Guinevere. plot a graph of the probability of at least one common birthday against n for n :S 50. 25. Sir Bors and Sir Percival are to be regarded as the same: .
Find how many ways can this be done: (a) without restriction. Seat Guinevere 1 (b) Seat Arthur 1 Seat Lancelot 3 Seat Bors 2 Seat Percival 1 N umber of ways = 6. (c) if Guinevere sits between Lancelot and Bors. Guinevere. because until that time. all the seats are identical.. Seat Bors 1 Seat Arthur 2 Seat Percival 1 (d) Seat Arthur 1 Number of ways Seat Lancelot 2 Seat Guinevere 3 Seat Bars 2 Seat Percival 1 = 12. Find how many ways can this be done: 1·. 19 COUNTING ARRANGEMENTS IN A CIRCLE: There is essentially only one way to seat the first person. (d) if Arthur and Lancelot do not sit together. ARRANGING GROUPS AROUND A CIRCLE: 20 First choose an order for each group. (b) if the boys and girls alternate.~ (a) Seat Arthur 1 Number of ways Seat Guinevere 4 Seat Lancelot 3 Seat Bors 2 Seat Percival 1 = 24. the principle is the same as the principle for compound orderings established in Section 10E.····· ~. (e) if four couples sit together.«. Seat Lancelot 2 (c) Seat Guinevere 1 Number of ways = 4. Bors and Percival sit around a round table. but reckoning that there is essentially only one way to seat the first person who sits down. WORKED EXERCISE: Five boys and five girls are to sit around a table. Then arrange the groups around the circle. dealing with the restrictions first as always. . (d) if the boys sit together and the girls sit together.:. WORKED EXERCISE: (b) if Guinevere sits at Arthur's right hand. because until then. reckoning that there is essentially only one way to place the first group. Arranging Groups Around a Circle: When arranging groups around a circle. all the seats are equivalent."••• 1 (a) without restriction. (c) if there are five couples.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 101 Arrangements in a Circle 439 The Basic Algorithm: The most straightforward way of counting arrangements in a circle is to seat the people in order. but Walter and Maude do not.~.·····. SOLUTION: DtO. all of whom sit together. Arthur. Lancelot.' ~ ~ .
with the restriction that Maude does not sit next to Walter: Walter 1 Maude 3 1st couple 4 X 2nd couple 3 3rd couple 2 4th couple 1 N umber of ways = 24 3 X 4! = 1152... (e) Order each of the four couples in 2 ways. (c) Each couple can be ordered in 2 ways. WORKED EXERCISE: Three Tasmanians.440 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 SOLUTION: (a) 1st 1 2nd 9 3rd 8 4th 7 5th 6 6th 5 7th 4 8th 3 9th 2 10th 1 Number of ways = 9! = 362880. 3rd boy 3 4th boy 2 4! 5th boy 1 1st girl 5 2nd girl 4 3rd girl 3 4th girl 2 5th girl 1 (b) 1st boy 1 2nd boy 4 Number of ways = 5! X = 2880. so the total number of favourable orderings is 6 X 6 X 6 X 2. Then seat the two groups around the table: grou p of boys 1 grou p of girls 1 Number of ways = 5! X 5! X 1 = 14400. 6x6x6x2 Hence P(groups are together) = . To find the number of favourable orderings. There are now four couples and two individuals to seat around the table. (d) The boys can be ordered in 5! ways.. counting allows probability problems to be solved by counting the sample space and the event space. giving 16 orderings of the couples. there are 1 X 8! possible orderings. Probability in Arrangements Around a Circle: As always... and the girls in 5! ways also. giving 25 orderings of the five couples. What is the probability that the three groups are seated together? Using the same boxes as before. then order the three groups around the table in 1 X 2 X 1 = 2 ways. three New Zealanders and three people from NSW are seated at random around a round table..8x7x6x5x4x3x2x1 3 280 SOLUTION: .. first order each group in 3! = 6 ways. Then seat the five couples around the table: 1st couple 1 2nd couple 4 3rd couple 3 4th couple 2 5th couple 1 Number of ways = 25 X 4! = 768....
(a) there are no restrictions. Betty. Ben. (b) A is opposite R. (ii) a circle. (c) if Betty sits on Bob's righthand side. what is the probability that these two members of the committee will sit next to one another? . each with five seats. if one particular boy wants to sit between two particular girls. What is the probability that they are sitting opposite one another? 8. A committee of three women and seven men is to be seated randomly at a round table. (b) if the boys and the girls alternate. (b) if Bob is to sit in his favourite chair. Eight people are arranged in: (a) a straight line. (b) all the even numbers are together. 7. Find how many ways the integers 1. 6. Find how many ways this can be done: (a) if there are no restrictions. _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 5. Four boys and four girls are arranged in a circle. 2. (a) Find how many ways five people can be arranged in: (i) a line. 7. In how many ways maya group of ten people be seated? 11. (e) if Belinda and Betty are not to sit next to one another. (b) a circle. (e) the two numbers 1 and 7 are next to one (c) the odd and even numbers alternate. I. (b) Find how many ways ten people can be arranged in: (i) a line. three blue and one green marble. If the conditions in (a) apply. Find the probability that: (a) the vowels are together. 5. Q and R are arranged in a circle. 6. 4. (a) How many different arrangements of the committee are possible if the rowers and basketballers both sit together in groups.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 101 Arrangements in a Circle 441 Exercise 101 1. Bob. A sports committee consisting of four rowers. 8 can be placed in a circle if: (d) at least three odd numbers are together. (b) there are eight red. another. if a particular boy and girl wish to sit next to one another. Twelve marbles are to be placed in a circle. 4. if two particular boys do not wish to sit next to one another. (c) the vowels and consonants alternate. 9. if the boys and girls are in distinct groups. The letters A. 10. 2. (d) three particular people sit together. but no rower sits next to a basketballer? (b) One rower and one cricketer are related. Find how many arrangements of n people around a circle are possible if: (a) there are no restrictions. (b) two particular people must sit together. 3. E. (d) if Brad is to sit between Bob and Ben. There are two distinct round tables. (c) two particular people sit apart. Find how many ways can this be done if: (a) all the marbles are of different colours. P. (d) at least two vowels are next to one another. Brad and Belinda are to be seated at a round table. Find how many ways this can be done: (a) (c) (d) (e) (f) if there are no restrictions. three basketballers and two cricketers sits at a circular table. In how many ways can they be arranged so that two particular people sit together? 3. (a) What is the probability that the three females will sit together? (b) The committee elects a president and a vicepresident. (ii) a circle.
xi.F <S 6 F SFFF ixixixi= rN6 FSSS ixixixi= 1196 1 S<S FSSF ixixixi= 1~~6 FSFS ixixixi= li~6 FSFF ixi. and their respective probabilities. and not necessarily equally likely. (a) Consider a necklace of six differently coloured beads. A group of n men and n + 1 women sit around a circular table.F<.= Ii96 SSFF i.xi. two red and four green beads be placed on a bracelet if the beads are identical apart from colour? [HINT: This will require a listing of patterns to see if they are identical when turned over.xixi.S <S SSSF i.xixi= 1~6 SFSS i.= Il96 1 .xi.xixixi= 1~6 SFFS ixixixi= 1~6 5 . conventionally called 'success' and 'failure'. Start 1st throw 2nd throw "6 1 s{S<. Hence find how many different arrangements there are of the six beads on the necklace. (b) In how many ways can ten different keys be placed on a key ring? ( c) In how many ways can one yellow. (S F "6 F "6 5 F{S<. and provides a beautiful example of the relationship between probability and the theory of polynomials. when a die is thrown four times.F <S 6 F FFFF ixixixi= tlJ'6 3rd throw . Example .xi.] 10J Binomial Probability This final section combines probability with the theory of the expansion of the binomial (x + y t.xi= 1196 SSFS i.xixi.= 1196 1 <S SFSF i. clockwise and anti clockwise arrangements of the beads do not yield different orders. . We shall be concerned with multistage experiments in which: • all the stages are identical.xixi= /lJ'6 FFSS ixixixi= 1~~6 1 <S FFSF ixixixi= NJ'6 FFFS i xi xi xi= 1122J'6 5 . (S F "6 F 4th throw Outcome Probability SSSS i. and • each stage has only two possible outcomes. what is the probability of getting exactly two sixes? Let S (success) be the outcome 'throwing a six' and F (failure) be the outcome 'not throwing a six'.xi.442 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ EXT ENS ION _ _ _ _ _ __ 12.xi. Because the necklace can be turned over. Here is the probability tree diagram showing the sixteen possible outcomes.xi.Repeatedly Attempting to Throw a Six on a Die: If a die is thrown four times. How many arrangements are possible if no two men are to sit next to one another? 13. .xi.F<.
and at each stage the probability of 'success' is p and of 'failure' is q. X 2. There are 13 clubs in the pack. A . [This example shows also how to use complementary events and cases to answer questions. because there are = 4C 2 ways of arranging two Ss and two Fs.k) failures.] Six cards are drawn at random from a pack of 52 playing cards.k failures in any order) = nCkpk qnk. SOLUTION: (c) at least one is a club. ( d) at least four are clubs. FFSS. SFSF.The General Case: Suppose that a multistage experiment consists of n identical stages. which is the term in pk qnk in the expansion of the binomial (p + qt. Find. Moreover. FSSF. 3 and 4 sixes: Result 4 sixes 3 sixes 2 sixes 1 six Probability Approximation 0·00077 0·01543 0·11574 0·38580 0·48225 o sixes 4C 4 X (i)4 4C 3 X (i)3 4C 2 X (i)2 4C 1 X (i)l 4Co X (i)O X (~)O X (~)l X (~)2 X (~)3 X (~)4 The five probabilities of course add up to 1. FSFS. Binomial Probability .k failures in that order) = pk qnk. 1. 2. 2. where p + q = 1. But there are nCk ways of ordering k successes and (n . the probability that: WORKED EXERCISE: (a) two are clubs.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10J Binomial Probability 443 The outcome 'two sixes' can be obtained in 4C 2 = 6 different ways: SSFF. each being replaced before the next is drawn. SFFS. This is the term in pkqnk in the expansion of (p + qt. Similar arguments apply to the probabilities of getting 0.k failures in any order) = nCkpk qnk. so at each stage the probability of drawing a club is :to Applying the formula with p = :t and q = ~: 15 X 34 1215 (a) P(twoareclubs)=6C2X(:t)2x(~)4= 46 46 ' . the five probabilities are the successive terms in the binomial expansion of (i + ~)4 = 4C O X (!)4 X (~)O + 4C 1 X (!)3 X (~)l + 4C2 X (!)2 X (~)2 + 4C 3 X (i)l X (~)3 + 4C 4 X (i)O X (~)4. Then P( k successes and n . so P(k successes and n . Each of these six outcomes has the same probability (i)2 X (~? so P(two sixes) = 4C 2 X (~)2 X (~)2. as fractions with denominator 46. (b) one is a club. BINOMIAL PROBABILITY: Suppose that the probabilities of 'success' and 'failure' in any stage of an nstage experiment are p and q respectively. Then 21 P(k successes and n .
A company making light bulbs finds. without careful thought.6C O X (~)O 3367 46 ' X (~)6) (d) P( at least four are clubs) = P(four are clubs) + P(five are clubs) = 6C 4 X (~)4 X (~)2 + 6C 5 X (~)5 15 X 32 + 6 X 3 + 1 46 154 46 . + P(six are clubs) X (~)1 + 6C 6 X (~)6 X (~)O An Example where p = q =~: A particular case of binomial probability is when the probabilities p and q of 'success' and 'failure' are both ~. .444 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 (c) P(at least one is a club) = 1. Then: (a) P(X = 0) = 0. This is a fairly low probability. Let X be the number of defective (b) P(X 2: 2) =1=1 (P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) ) (0. have expected a higher probability than this. WORKED EXERCISE: A light bulb is classed as 'defective' if it burns out in under 1000 hours.omial Probability: Some of the most straightforward and important applications of binomial theory arise in situations where the probabilities of 'success' and 'failure' are determined experimentally. If it packs its bulbs in boxes of 50. but of course any result from about 45 to 55 heads would be unlikely to surprise us. find.99 50 '*' 0·605.99 50 + soC} X 0.(~)6 (or 1. p = 0·01 and q bulbs in the box. after careful testing. correct to three significant figures: (a) the probability that a box will contain no defective bulbs. Experimental Probabilities and Bin.99 49 ) '*' 0·089. WORKED EXERCISE: If a coin is tossed 100 times. It should now be clear that in general NOTE: P(k heads in n tosses of a coin) = nC k X (~)n. In this case. what is the probability that it comes up heads exactly 50 times (correct to four significant figures)? SOLUTION: Taking p = q = ~.01 1 X 0. that 1% of its bulbs are defective. SOLUTION: = 0·99.P(all are nonclubs) = 1. P(50 heads) = 100C50 X (~)50 X 0)50 '*' 0·0796. (b) the probability that at least two bulbs in a box are defective. We might.
6 an Pk Pk  I d q . WORKED EXERCISE: Joe King and his sister Fay make shirts for a living.. so the inequation (1) is true for k = 0.6· _ 5 (a) Let Then and so = P( k sixes). (b) Also. 2. (a) What is the most likely number of sixes that will be thrown? (b) What is the probability that that particular number of sixes is thrown (answer correct to four significant figures)? SOLUTION: Here P . it may take some work to find the probability of success at each stage. 1.. we proceed as in Section 5E. Joe works more slowly but more accurately. PHI 100! X pHI q99k Pk k! X (100 .IOOC k+1 pk+l q99k . Fay works faster. .CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10J Binomial Probability 445 Binomial Probability and the Maximum Term in a Binomial Expansion: The earlier theory in Chapter Seven on the maximum term in a binomial expansion has an important application in binomial probability.k 5k + 5 > 1 5k + 5 < 100 .k)! 100! X pk qIOOk (k + l)q 100 .. of which 2% are defective. what is the probability (to three significant figures) that no more than two shirts in a box are defective? . If they send out their shirts in randomly mixed parcels of 30 shirts. when each stage of the experiment is itself a compound event.. that is. making 30 shirts a day. An Example where Each Stage is a Compound Event: Sometimes.> 1 PHI Pk (1) 100 . PI6 = IOOC l6 X (~)16 X (~)84 '* 0·1065.k 6k < 95 k < 15~. solving PHI> Pk.. of which 4% are defective. > PlOO· Thus the most likely number of sixes is 16.k b·· 5k + 5 ' su stItutmg p I =6 d an q 5 = 6· To find the greatest value of P k . . making 20 shirts a day. = lOOC k pk qIOOk (k+1)!x(99k)! (100k)p X ~~~~~~ _ P k+1 .. . because it allows us to find the event with the greatest probability. < P l5 < P I6 > P 17 . 15 and false otherwise. Hence Po < PI < . WORKED EXERCISE: A die is thrown 100 times.
2. What is the probability that in a group of 15 randomly selected people. (b) there are two girls and three boys. 2) = P(X = 0) + P(X = 1) + P(X = 2) (ill)30 + 30e X (121)29 X±+ 30e X (121)28 X (±)2 125 1 125 125 2 125 125 ~ 0·930. Find. If twelve jurors are randomly selected. eleven or twelve times). Let N denote the number of times that the number 3 is shown on the uppermost face. it rains on average every two days out of three. find the probability that in four shots: (a) he has exactly three hits. In a oneday cricket game. (c) ten or more times (that is ten. Five out of six people surveyed think that Tasmania is the most beautiful state in Australia. !. 1. a batsman has a chance of t of hitting a boundary every time he faces a ball. Then P(X ::. 7. Assuming that successive shots are independent events. (c) there are four boys and one girl. Find the probability that 5 appears on the uppermost face: (a) exactly three times. Exercise 10J NOTE: Unless otherwise specified.125' 4 d 121 so P = 125 an q = 125· Let X be the number of defective shirts. find the probability that in a family of five children: (a) all are boys. A marksman finds that on average he hits the target five times out of six. Let W denote the number of wet days in a week. correct to four decimal places: (a) P(N = 2) (b) P(N < 2) (c) P(N2:2) 8. Assume that the probability that a child is female is and that sex is independent from child to child. at least 13 of them think that Tasmania is the most beautiful state in Australia? . A jury roll contains 200 names. what is the probability of ending up with an allmale jury? 6. assuming that successive strikes are independent? 3. find: (a) P(W = 3) (b) P(W = 2) (c) P(W = 0) (d) P(W2:1) 4. the probability p that the shirt is defective is p = P(Joe made it. what is the probability that he will hit exactly two boundaries. 5. (b) he has exactly two misses. If he faces all six balls in an over. Giving your answers as fractions in simplest form. (d) at least one will be a girl. A die is rolled twelve times. and it is defective) + P(Fay made it. (b) exactly eight times. During the wet season. Assuming that the types of weather on successive days are independent events. leave your answers in unsimplified form.446 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 SOLUTION: If a shirt is chosen at random from one parcel. then using the product rule and the addition rule. A die is rolled six times. and it is defective) 20 2 30 4 = 50 X 100 + 50 X 100 4 . 70 of females and 130 of males.
' . (b) he misses at least once. Find. the probability that the jackpot prize will exceed $200000 when it is finally won. the probability that exactly two of those voters voted for party A is 4C 2 X (0·45)2 X (0·55)2. and each question has five possible answers. the probability that the jackpot prize will be won: (i) exactly once in ten independent lottery draws. only one of which is correct. (b) What assumptions have been made in arriving at your answer? 17. correct to five decimal places. 45% of voters voted for party A. Five families have three children each. (b) During an election. (b) The jackpot prize is initially $10000 and increases by $10000 each time the prize is not won. _ _ _ _ _ _ DEVELOPMENT _ _ _ _ __ 11. What is the probability of answering exactly seven questions correctly by chance alone? Give your answer correct to six significant figures. The probability that a jackpot prize will be won in a given lottery is 0·012. Assuming that earthquake frequencies on successive days are independent. The probability that a small earthquake occurs somewhere in the world on anyone day is 0·95. (a) Find. An archer finds that on average he hits the bullseye nine times out of ten. 10% of the books are mathematics books. (ii) each family has more boys than girls.bulb torches: (a) there will be no more than two with defective bulbs. (a) How many times must a die be rolled so that the probability of rolling at least one six is greater than 95%? (b) How many times must a coin be tossed so that the probability of tossing at least one tail is greater than 99%? 16. What is the probability that in a randomly selected batch of ten one. and then select a voter from each of four houses in the street. 12.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10J Binomial Probability 447 9. A poll indicates that 55% of people support Labor party policy. Hence if I select a street at random. 15. correct to three decimal places. Hence if! go to a shelf and choose five books from that shelf. 10. (a) Find.. find the probability that in twenty attempts: (a) he scores at least eighteen hits. If five people are selected at random. Comment on the validity of the following arguments: (a) 'In the McLaughlin Library. correct to five decimal places. (ii) at least once in ten independent lottery draws. 14. 13. (b) there will be at least two with defective bulbs. what is the probability that a majority of them will support Labor party policy? Give your answer correct to three decimal places. A torch manufacturer finds that on average 9% of the bulbs are defective. then the probability that all five books are mathematics books is 10.5 . there are ten questions. Assuming that successive attempts are independent. the probability that: (i) at least one of these families has three boys. what is the probability that a small earthquake occurs on exactly 28 of January's 31 days? Leave your answer in index form. In a multiplechoice test.
the probability that: ( a) the first two days chosen will be fine and the remainder wet. and what is the probability that that particular number of heads is tossed? (c) From a 52card pack. and what is the probability that that particular number of aces is drawn? . how many times would you expect the number of even numbers showing to exceed the number of odd numbers showing? (b) If eight coins are tossed sixty times. What is the most likely number of aces that will be drawn. What is the most likely number of twos that will be thrown and what is the probability that that particular number of twos is thrown? (b) A coin is tossed 41 times. A man is restoring ten old cars. find the probability that: (i) all the apples will have to be discarded. on average the 1955 models will start 65% of the time and the 1962 models will start 80% of the time. (b) exactly four of the cars will start. correct to six decimal places. 19. (b) If the operation is carried out eight times. The ratio of Red Delicious to Golden Delicious is 4 : 1. (c) he hits exactly three aces and the other serve lands in. One bag contains three red and five white balls. During winter it rains on average 18 out of 30 days. (a) A die is rolled 200 times. the probability that at any time: (a) exactly three of the 1955 models and one of the 1962 models will start. how many times would you expect the number of heads to exceed the n1. you will need to find the greatest term in the expansion of (p + qt. One in every fifty Golden Delicious and one in everyone hundred Red Delicious apples will need to be discarded because they are undersized. One bag is chosen at random. Red Delicious and Golden Delicious. What is the most likely number of heads that will be tossed. (a) If six dice are rolled one hundred times. find the probability that: (i) exactly three red balls are drawn. A tennis player finds that on average he gets his serve in eight out of every ten attempts and serves an ace once every fifteen serves. Give each probability unsimplified. a ball is selected from that bag. (ii) at least three red balls are drawn. and then correct to four significant figures. He serves four times. (iii) less than two apples will be discarded. a card is drawn 35 times. six of them manufactured in 1955 and four of them manufactured in 1962. 20. [Probability and the greatest term in a binomial series] In each part. its colour is noted and then it is replaced. The apples are randomly mixed together before they are boxed.] 21. Find. 23. correct to four decimal places. 22. (b) he hits at least three aces. Find.lmber of tails? 24. (ii) half of the apples will have to be discarded.448 CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 18. Five winter days are selected at random. (a) Find the probability that the ball chosen is red. (b) more rainy days than fine days have been chosen. When he tries to start them. and another bag contains four red and four white balls. where p and q are the respective probabilities of 'success' and 'failure'. correct to four decimal places. Assuming that successive serves are independent events. (a) What is the probability that an apple selected from a box will need to discarded? (b) If ten apples are randomly selected from a box. find. the probability that: (a) all four serves are in. [HINT: You will need to consider five cases. and is replaced after each draw. An apple exporter deals in two types of apples.
without replacement. (a) Find. the probability that the number 19 is drawn in at least two of the next five games played. (i) What is the probability that. correct to four decimal places. (iii) at least two of them support the same team. in anyone game. 25. The probability that any particular number is drawn in any game is 0·2. = 22n (n!)2 _ _ _ _ _ _ EXTENSION _ _ _ _ __ (2n)! 26. in anyone game. correct to five decimal places.CHAPTER 10: Probability and Counting 10J Binomial Probability 449 (d) Repeat part (iii) for the number of spades that will be drawn. n ::::. correct to five decimal places. 24% followed Collingwood and 11% followed Sydney. If a fair coin is tossed 2n times. (a) Expand (a n1c 3 • 20 C 4 + b + c)3. Use the expansion in (a) to find. . the probability that if three people are randomly selected: (i) one supports Hawthorn. The game consists of drawing four balls. the probability that the number 19 is drawn in exactly two of the next five games played. 1 1 glvenbyPk = (2n) (2) k (2) 2nk . from the twenty balls in the barrel. one supports Collingwood and one supports Sydney. 65% supported Hawthorn. k (a) Show that the most likely outcome is k (b) Show that Pn = n. all four selected numbers are less than or equal to n? (ii) Show that the probability that. the probability of observing k heads and 2n . (ii) exactly two of them support Collingwood. (b) Find. (b) In a survey of football supporters. 20. n is the largest of the four numbers drawn is 27. (c) Let n be an integer where 4 ::::.k tails is . A game is played using a barrel containing twenty similar balls numbered 1 to 20.
.. er' 1 / . domain: 2 ::. The inverse of g is {(2.(4. 1 (c) (x) = x . x ::.1 (x) = 1 + vIx"=3. The inverse of f is {(2. both increasing. . 2 range: 0::. (d) The inverse is not a function. . f is neither increasing nor decreasing.::: 1 / //~ //<y =x //y . both increasing. e . 2. 0.1 (x) = x 2 2 f(x)=\!lx / 1 /' 2 / '" x y r'ex) U //~ 3 = x 2 + 3.~'}' =i x j(x) =x2  4 dy 8 dx = 2ft' 2 y 9(b) F. y ::. x 1 . (d) domain: 3::. fix) " . .Answers to Exercises Chapter One Exercise 1 A (Page 5) 1(a) (c) The inverse is not a function.. y ::. :~////. domain: x . . for g it isn't. . range: y . f is neither increasing nor decreasing.::: 3. 5 range: 0::. x . both increasing. (2. 6(a) gl(x) = Vx. Y =>S. 0. 1). (2. y 4 e y=~/ .///'/ . 2 e . . range: y./'y=x / //](X) = Jx 3 Y Y 4 F' 5(a) 3 2 1 F 3 2 1 inverse relation x 1 4(a) (b) 2 3 4 x 1 2 3 x r f1(x) = ~x.0). 1). x ::. 2 ::. 0). y ::.::: 0. x ::. 1 (x) = ~ xI.::: 2. y::. 5.::: 0. y ::. domain: x . range: 0 ::. . (b) They are inverse functions. .(3. x ::..'" e .2)}./// / rl(x) = F'ex) . . ./ . 1 /. both increasing. 3(a) 0 ::. domain: x .3 (b) domain: 0 ::. 2 7(a) 3x 2 (b) 1 i(y + 1)% dx dy = 2y = 2x Y /:.. i 2 3 ::. j(x) Both x. y=x y 3 2 f '" Y g e .1 (x) f1(x) y = log2 x. • 2(a) 1 2 3 (b) 4 x • r 1 = x 2 + 3. .. 2)}. inverse relation x (e) (f) f.::: 0 (b) gl(x) = ~. .. 4 (c) F. x ~ 1 3 . range: y ::.' 1 . 0 (c) gl(X) = ~. (c) For f it is./.
(e) y = ~ex (I) sinh x is a onetoone function. 1 (iii) gl(x) = 1~ (d) domain: x:::. the graph of f( x) passes the horizontal line vertex: (2. that = g(2). neither increasing nor decreasing (c) 1 :::. yintercept: 4 (b) x 2: 2 (c) x > !Q 3 (d) The easy way is to solve y = f(x) simultaneously with y = x.4) and (6. The graph of the inverse is a vertical line. decreasing (c) x = V2 . 2 x 15(a) all real x (c) f' (x) > 0 for all real x.2). increasing (e) g 1 (x) = (x + 2)2 Y 1 4 1 1 x 1 y = g lex) =2+VX+4 (I) g(x) is neither."" domain: all real x. 14(b) 4 xintercepts: 0. (d) For each value of y. which is not a function. (0.. y 12(a) y= ~ 13(a) (b) (1./' No.) (I v1+x 2 1 ' sm .Answers to Chapter One 451 10(a) x = e (b) Reflect y = In x in the xaxis. V3.1) g(x) Shift two units to the left and four units down. x:::.. 11(b) x gl(X) = x1 ' 2x 19(b) for x > 1.2).0) and (1. which is Y = sinhx / / ~j'. range: y> 0 (e) Both are decreasing. V3. 0. 0 (c) 0 < x :::. stationary points: (1../' f1(x) = e1. positive for all real x.N 21(b) functions whose domain is x = 0 alone 22(a) all real x (b) 0 Y y=x ~ (d) ~(ex+eX). then shift it one unit up. (c) x 2: 2 (d) x 2: 4. It works because the graphs meet on the line of symmetry y = x. x :::. (e) 4 . They intersect at (4. lor x 2: 1. h1 x +C Y = sinhx test. there is only one value of x.6). 1 (d) 2:::.~ 3. 16(a) r 1 (x) = log C~x) 24(b)(ii) neither (b) x :::. (c)(i) 1 :::. (d) 17(b) . (k)  i (I) .~ (i) .1). vertex: (2. for example. (1. That is. 1 (d) (e) t (b) r 1 = J1~X (x) Exercise 1 B (Page 12) 1(a) (I) increasing 1·16 2·42 (b) 0·64 (c) 0 (j) (c) 1·32 (d) 1·67 (I) ~ 7r (e) 1·9S (9) 0 2(a) 0 (h) ~ i (d) ~ (e) . so the inverse is not a function. //'y =x /. gl(X) = 1+v'f=X2 x (e) Because of the result in part (a). g( ~) From part (a) we see.~ /. 20(a) .. 13°)..4)..x .. . x :::. gl(x) is increasing. (b) xintercepts: 4..
1 C~:2) < ~ 1(a) ~~ y ~ < tan ~ y Exercise 1C (Page 17) domain: all real x.it 1 x (e) domain: range: ~ odd ~ 1T. range: 0 ~ y ~ neither 3(a) 1 1T.452 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 3(a) (I) 1447 1·373 (b) (b) 1·694 (e) (e) 0·730 (d) 0·730 (f) (e) 1·373 y 1t y TC 4(a) ~ (h) 5(a) 1 1 (d) % (e)! 37r 0 ~ (i) i (b) ~ 3: . odd ~*++ X _________________________ 1: ~ ________________________ _ 4 1t '2 X 1 1 It .~ (b) ~~ vIl3 1 ~~ 2 all real x.. range: 0 ~ y ~ 1T. 2 (g)% i (e) "6 7r (d) ""4 (e) (f) (v) 1 0 3 i Fa ~ 1 2 X '2 1t 6(a)(i) (vi) 7(a) 8(a) (ii) 12 5 (iii) ~ V5 (e) (e) (iv) 187 (d) ~V7 ~~ (b) 1°'10 V5 .. odd 2 1t 1 1 2 n X 1 Y 1 X y 2 1t 1 2(a) 1 x 7r domain: 0 < x < 2. range: ~ y < ~.x 2 ) ~ ~. which is . neither (b) domain: all real x.. range: ~ ~ y ~ ~.x X 2 (b) 1 16(a) x =:3 x=!(notethatx#l) 1 (b) x = :3 or 1 :3 1 20 x 23(b) 3 = 2" or 0 < tan.. o ~ tan. range: ~ ~ y ~ ~. range: 1T ~ Y ~ odd (b) domain: ~ ~ x ~ ~. all real x. range: 0 ~ y X (e) domain: 1 ~ x ~ 1. 1T. range: 2 neither (b) domain: 2 ~ x ~ 0. odd . 2 domain: 1 neither (b) ~ x ~ 1..2 14(a) cot (d) .. tion. y < y < ~..odd y TC y 2 1t 4(a) domain: 1 ~ x ~ 1. (e) 1T . (b) It is because the sine curve is symmetrical about x =~..~ 15(a) 2 e 1!. range: ~ < y < ~. (d) domain: 1 ~ x ~ 1. neither < Y < 2' 7r X TC (e) domain: 1 ~ x ~ 1. range: 1T ~ Y ~ 0.1 C.. 1 X ~ (e) domain: y TC n 9(b) 13(a) % 2 is outside the range of the inverse sine func range: 0 neither < y < 1T.~ ~ y ~ ~.
range: 0 ~ y 37r 9(a) (b) domain: 0 ~ x ~ 2. 3 x 1t ~ X t x (e) domain: all real X. neither (I) domain: 1 ~ x ~ 1. range: 0 ~ y ~ %. 0. range: ~ <y< ~ .2 _ Y < 2' _ 3" odd (b) domain: ~ ~ x ~ ~.~ ~ y ~ ~ (b) Y 21t "4 "8 n n n = ~.Answers to Chapter One 453 y Z n y 21t y 31t 1 1 x 1 _1. 2 X T 3n 21t ! ~. 5(a) domam: 1 3" < 2' range. range: . neither n __________ :::..1 (x) = tanIx 1 ~ 1 x y 41t y 8(a) domain: 0 < x 2. ~ (e) x =! y Z x 1 6(a)(i) (b)(i) 2 3 1 ~ 1 x 1 2 x 1 < x < 0 (ii) 27r ~ Y ~ 27r domain: 0 ~ x ~ 1. range: 0 ~ y ~ 47r. range: ~ ~ y ~ ~.1(x) ( x Y = cos x 1 Z n (e) domain: 1 ~ x ~ 3.range: 0 ~ y ~ ~. range: 7r < < 7r y 1t y 3n y T Z n "4 1 1 Z x "4 n 1 i _1.1" y = tan. range: 0 ~ y < 27r domain: all real x. . range: 7r < y < 0. odd 7(a)(i) y 1t Z n Y = cos x 1 1t 1 y 1 y 1 n z x x "3 n y = sinlx~ 2 1t 2 x (b)(i) y Z n (ii) 1t y y = cos. neither (d) domain: 2 ~ x ~ 2. neither 1 2 _ <X _ < (ii) domain: 1 <x < y "4 n % y ~ y ~ % (iii) domain: all real x. range: 1 x .
range:  i :S Y :S i (b) . (2n+l)1T where n is 2 ' (d) Y 1 _li x  4 ~ It x an integer.~ :S x :S ~ 1./. It's even. range: ~ :S Y :S ~. x . so we reflect in the xaxis and then shift ~ units up.X :S 7r. (d) Y 1 % 10(a) 1 1 x Y (b) It Y 2 It 2  14(a) T 1 2 domain: all real x.454 Answers to Exercises CAMBRIDGE MATHEMATICS 3 UNIT YEAR 12 2n y y 2 It 12(a) (e) Y "3 It n 13 1 2 x x (e) domain: ~ :S x :S 1.1 cosx 1T 1 1 (e) 1 x cos 1 COS x. range: ~ < Y < ~. so we reflect in 16(a) 1 the xaxis and then shift (~Y ~ units up. 1 so sin cos. period: 27r. = "2  Y 2 (b) odd neither Y 1 2 2 x y=tx y 1 1 x domain: all real x.x 2': O. sinl x 2 Y ' It 6 "3 1 "3 2 1 x 13(a) 1 :S x :S 1.. odd (b) x (e) 7r  2 (e) 11(a) odd Y 1 _li Y 1 1 x 4 _li y=2x 15 sin. (g) Y ..sin 1 sin x. even 1 (b) O:S cos. odd (b) x (e) cos 1 sin x = ~ .
since the function is even. Y 1 (b) 2\111 . ~) < y < 7r. normal is y (b) Tangent is y = ~x + ~ .1 x (b) (d) x22x+2 1 1 3e 3x "2 h 1 x domain: x 2: 1 or x :S 1.r=x 2y'X I I ~ (9) 2x Jlog x(1log x) 2VIx (i) I)X 2 1 :S x :S 1. even The yaxis.x (e) XY X+Y Y n normal is y = 5(b) ~ 6(a) h x + ~ + 2. 7r (b) ~ 7(b) concave up 9(a) cos. 11(a) (b) 2x () e VIx 4 m 22(a)(i) domain: all real x. (e) 13(e) 1 1 x 1 (ii) }5 rad/s 1 ~ x domain: all real x.!x (b) I)X2 (e) VI~4X2 2 and for x (d) (h) < l. Y (d) When x  > 1. and is tanI x + tanl 2 . Vi (b) & (9) 2" n "2 n x 2: 1 or x < 1 (e) They are undefined.2 for x < ~. odd (e) y "2o~ = 27r  n 1 /// n Y=f(~ ¥ 2n 15(a) 16(a) x <':~ 18(a) y 3n (b)(i) ~ (ii) 4. since § is undefined. m(i) f 1+~X2 (e) ') (I ~ (~V..x 2 y2 .)~ / . 18(a) 1 :S x :S 1 (e) g(x) = ~ for O:S x :S l. odd VIe Gx eX (e) V7+12x4x 2 2 (e) VI. odd. (e) 20(a) 21(a) (ii) 17(a) f 2 (b) 2 (e) 1 (d)1 4(a) Tangent is y = 6x + 7r.~ :S y :S ~. and f'(x) = 1 when cos x < O.I' f' ( x) > 0 for x > 1 1 1 x Exercise 10 (Page 22) 2(a) v.!X2 x2+4x+5 I (9) (k) U V12~X4 sm . range: except for the value at x = 0 < y :S f.2 domain: all real x.I X + 2. point y "2 n y