From KAUSHAL KUMAR, 6280 For orals fn 4,6 AIR COMPRESSOR Bumping clearance- what is bumping clearance, why it is called

so, would it increase with time or
decrease (may increase or decrease),how to adjust in tandem type, why not adjusted by using metal shims in palm end connection, effects of increased clearance, what was the value of bumping clearance on your ship( 1% of cyl. Bore, 1.8 mm(CYL bore 180mm ) n 1.4 mm(cyl. Bore 140mm))? Does B/E bearing adjustment in a/c affect the bumping clearance? Bumping clearance as the name signifies is a clearance given so that the piston of the marine reciprocating compressor would not bump into its cylinder head How to Check Bumping Clearance 1. In case a suitable opening is available the piston can be barred to the top dead centre and then feeler gauges can be put inside and the clearances checked at two three points. 2. The more convenient method is to take lead wire from the engine store and make a small ball based on the expected clearance and put it between the piston and the head from the valve opening. Then the piston is slowly turned to the top dead centre with the help of a Tommy bar. After that the piston is again turned down and the lead wire ball is extracted and the thickness measured with the help of a micrometer. This measurement would give the bumping clearance. The caution which must be observed in these methods is that the clearances of the main and the crank pin bearing have not been taken into account. The correct method is thus that after turning the piston to top dead centre the piston connecting rod must be jacked up with the help of a crow bar. It is only after this hidden clearance has been accounted for, will the correct bumping clearance be found. How to Adjust the Bumping Clearance 3. The cylinder head gaskets can be changed to a different thickness thus altering the bumping clearance. 4. The shims between the foot of the connecting rod and the bottom end bearing can be changed thus changing the bumping clearance. However after adjusting the bumping clearance the clearance should be checked once again to make sure that there is no error and the clearance is within the range as specified by the manufacturers. Change in bumping clearanceWear at the crankpin bearing. The crankpin bearing wears down due to use and this clearance can travel right up to the piston and an unloaded piston can hit the cylinder head. This type of wear can be recognized when the compressor makes impact sounds running unloaded at the starting and stopping operations. This type of wear would also be accompanied by a slow decrease in oil pressure over a period of time. Opening up of cylinder heads. In certain types of reciprocating compressors the cylinder head have to be removed for the changing of the first stage suction and discharge valves. When the cylinder head is put back the correct thickness of the cylinder head gaskets should be used otherwise it would change the bumping clearance.

Wear on the main bearings. Over all wear on the main bearings would lower the crank shaft and would thus lower the piston and increase the bumping clearances. IMPORTANT….bump clearance or squish is most definitely done with the head gasket installed between
head and cylinder. Use 2 pieces of lead. Put one piece of lead directly over each end of the wrist pin out near the edge of the piston but not under a valve. This will give you 2 measurements. 1. piston clearance or squish. 2. Piston/cylinder angle relative to crank. This angle is important as it shows the cylinders relationship to the crankshaft. If the pieces of lead are too different in thickness, the piston can run out of available ring compression and wrist pin end travel and contact the cylinder(scuff) at top and bottom. differential squish is how the Indians measure and determine the sum of machine errors and the need for half gaskets under the cylinder base on engines that have alignment issues. #4 lead shot is perfect for this measurement as it is a uniform size and crushes very consistently. A little dab of grease or drop of oil will hold them where you put them on top of the piston during the measurement.

Q. Relief v/v n fusible plug- setting (10% above stage pressure), Reason for lifting of relief v/v of LP stage and HP stage, where fitted? Why fusible plug is fitted, its material (tin, antimony, bismuth), what temp blows(121*C)?how to test relief v/v( by normal hydraulic p/p)?

Reasons of LP stage relief v/v lifting- HP stage suction v/v or discharge v/v leaking, 2nd stage suction n discharge v/v interchanged after over’hl. Reasons of HP stage relief v/v lifting- delivery v/v shut, setting error of pressure switch, delivery v/v which is SDNR type is fitted inverted. Lubrication- how it takes place in main/brg, crankpin bearing, upper n lower cyl. In case of tandem type,
how piston gets cooled? Pressure value n alarm value(2-4 bar, alarm at 2 bar)? Reasons….pressure suddenly drops, pressure drops slowly (increase in clearance of main brg or crankpin brg), increased oil consumption? Why Breather is provided in lub. Oil filling line? Is crankcase pressurized during running condition? For main brg n crankpin brg. Lubrication normally thr is a shaft driven gear p/p. For lower cyl. In tandem type- it’s by splash. For upper cylinder in tandem type thr is a supply line from the gear p/p going to suction side of air which supplies small amount of oil mist with air n that mist lubricates the upper cyl. Sometimes the supply is from drilled hole in con. Rod like we have in A/E. Reasons oil pressure not rising- motor rotation direction reverse, oil line block due to rag, no oil in sump, filter clogged, worn metal so increase of clearance. Increased oil consumption- too much oil in sump( above level H), oil scraper ring wear out, worn piston and liner. Breather- it is used so that pressure or vacuum is not created inside crankcase. It has filter so moisture and dirt don’t go inside and also has metallic plate on the inner side which don’t allow lub. Oil to come out.

Cooling line- pressure( 0.2-2 bar), alarms(90*c), why bursting disc, its material( copper), action if it bursts
during maneuvering, at what pressure it bursts, why we prefer bursting disc over relief valve( no chance of getting reset), purpose of intercooler n aftercooler, What if Main air compressor runs without cooling water(may cause explosion)? Auto drain trap working?
ANS. If bursting disc bursts during maneuvering- Inform the bridge about the problem and to give lesser kicks,

Start the stand by compressor, Isolate the compressor whose bursting disc is damaged, Change the bursting disc, if available onboard, If Not available, then let the S.W go into the E/room bilges, otherwise Fresh water cooled, then join a flexible hose and put into the expansion tank.

Suction n delivery v/v- how u will come to know they r leaking( temp. increase of air, relief v/v lift),
its affects, What would be the consequences of too high valve lift in an air compressor( chances of damage due to impact, decrease in vol. efficiency)? What would be the consequences of a high spring constant of spring plates in an air compressor(open late n sit with higher impact which may cause damage)? Can we interchange spring of suction n delivery v/v( no, delivery v/v spring stiffness is more)? parts of v/v(remember,the suction n delivery v/v for first stage r in single set but for 2nd stage they r different, the v/v parts for both suction n discharge of 2nd stage r same but arranged in opposite order)?

Starting- checks before manual starting, current value of air compressor?(Starting 310Amps,full load 30A) ANS. 1. Lubrication: check the oil level in the sump (b/w H n L)and in the lubricator tank.
2. Unloading: the valves in the unloading lines must be open. 3. Pressure gauge cocks: the cocks must be slightly open to avoid excessive pressure fluctuations which can damage the pressure gauges. 4. Air filter: check that the air intake filter is clean. 5. Cooling: check that the cooling water pressure is correct(0.2-2bar) and in the case of attached pumps a visual check of the pump and all the valves in the line must be open. 6. Relief valves: some relief valves have hand testing levers given for testing, the same can be done. 7. Air line piping: check that all the valves in the discharge piping are open and correctly lined up. 8. Final check: the compressor can be turned a few revolutions with a turning bar to check for the free movement. Why reciprocating type compressor(pr.ratio is higher )?why two stage, pv diag for you comp. clearance volume? each stage pressure(4-6 BAR, 25-30 BAR)? Can they vary from normal during starting? unloader ….purpose, design? What is volumetric efficiency, free air delivery? ANS. Free air delivery- volume of delivered air is measured at 1 atm and 15*C, it’s called free

air. If the valve has too much lift then the valve closes late and reduce volumetric efficiency and also its causes valve to close with greater impact and hence liable to break. Why 2 stage- first, bcoz we can’t give a pressure of 30 bars in single stage as the lub.oil will start burning.

Check the Oil level in the gear case. . 3. 2. Purifier ……Starting n disludging ? Small fire in purifier trays. density. aux.adjust feed rate(reduce). Q. Ensure that it is exactly half in the sight glass. use of gravity disc. by just starting and stopping the purifier motor. The bowl frame hood locked with hinges. pg-58-62. For ans see mcgeorge mar. we want to save work by moving towards isothermal line by providing intercooling b/w stages.OM2) Back Pressure: The back pressure should be adjusted after the purifier is started.T2/T1=(P2/P1)^n-1/n where n is around 1. lub. Q. Ensure the lines are set and respective valves are open. The back pressure ensures that the oil paring disc is immersed in the clean oil on the way of pumping to the clean oil tank. Check whether the brake is in released position. purifier formula.(around 95*C). . so increase size of gravity disc. In order to optimize the purification.oil is 200*C. the throughput must be minimum. • Starting the Purifier 1. Oil will start burning. Pre-checks before starting a Purifier 1. what to do if u want to change DO purifier for HFO purifier? ANS.SINCE DENSITY IN DECREASING..wt's ur action?? pairing disc? (SEE MM. so we keep the pressure ratio limited to 5:1. as there is a common mistake of fixing it in horizontal position.NOW FOR GRAVITY DISC. why we need disc stack. viscosity of feed oil inlet varies. adjust desludge time(increase desludge time as DO don’t have so much of impurities). If the Purifier is started after a overhaul. Usually the lines are set from settling tank to service tank. Start the purifier feed pump with the 3-way re-circulation valve in a position leading to settling tank. Also ensure the sight glass is in vertical position.. position of e-line? ANS. Throughput of oil feed: Throughput means the quantity of oil pumped into the purifier/hr. 4. The back pressure varies as the temperature. check the direction of rotation of the seperator. Secondly. then check all fittings are fiited in right manner. PURIFIER Why we need to heat oil.35 for air Now for p2/p1=30/1 T2=450*C And at this temp. adjust temp. Flash point for lub. 2.

• De-sludge Procedure 10. 14. Check for vibrations. reasons. purifier rpm not coming. The revolution counter gives the scaled down speed of the bowl. When d motor attains full speed does d horizontal shaft rotates at d same speed of motor? Q. 5. open the sealing water to the bowl. why frictional clutch in purifier?? ANS.it gives less staring current for motor. Now check whether the bowl has reached the rated speed by looking at the revolution counter. after the bowl reaching the rated RPM. Correspondingly adjust the back pressure. (This is done to ensure the bowl has closed properly). 15. Now the purifier is put into operation. 1. Wait for the back pressure to build up.change pulley if wear is 1mm. 9. 7.change friction block lining if wear is 3mm. The ratio for calculation can be obtained from the manual. (Ensure sufficient water is present in the operating water tank) 11. 13. 11 . 17. too.change spiral gear if wear down is more than 3mm. 12. Q. Start the Purifier. 4. also 2. Note the current (amps) during starting. . It goes high during starting and then when the purifier bowl picks-up speed and when it reaches the rated speed. Explain about purifier drive mechanism…. Repeat the steps 10. 18. which closes the bowl. 20.3. Now adjust the throughput to a value specified in the manual. The sealing water should be kept open till the water comes out of the waste water outlet. check the gear case for noise and abnormal heating. Once the water overflows through the waste water outlet.how you will check that ?when you will change it(see MM p4-12. the current drawn drops to normal value. During de-sludge we can hear a characteristic sound at the opening of the bowl. close the drains once steam appears. Now after 10 seconds.worm and worm wheel arrangement will break due to high starting torque. check for the current attaining its normal value. 6. 16.change brake lining if wear is 5 mm). Now open the bowl opening water. Now. Open the bowl closing water/operating water.12 & 13. stop the sealing water. Open the 3-way re-circulation valve such that the dirty oil feed is fed into the purifier. Ensure the feed inlet temperature has reached optimum temperature for separation as stated in the Bunker delivery note and nomogram (can get the separation temperature and gravity disc size from the nomogram) 8. 19. Change over the clean-oil filling valve to service tank. Check for overflowing of dirty-oil through waste water outlet & sludge port. Open the steam to the heater slightly ensuring the drains are open so that the condensate drains.

TOO MUCH OIL CIRCULATING IN SYSTEM.REFRIGIRATION SYSTEM TROUBLE HIGH CONDENSING PRESSURE . CHECK BULB ATTACHMENT. COMPRESSOR CRANKCASE SWEATING LEAKY SUCTION VALVE. DRAW OFF LIQUID INTO SERVICE CYLINDER. SYSTEM LOW ON REFRIGERANT. LIQUID REFRIGERANT FLOODING BACK FROM EVAPORATOR. INSUFFICIENT WATER FLOWING THROUGH CONDENSER. OR STUCK SOLENOID VALVE . REPLACE ANY FOUND DEFECTIVE . LOW CONDENSING PRESSURE. CONDENSER TUBES SUBMERGED IN LIQUID REFRIGERANT. OVERFEEDING OF EXPANSION VALVE. IMPROPER ADJUSTMENT OF EXPANSION VALVES EXPANSION VALVE POWER ELEMENT REPLACE EXPANSION VALVE POWER . ADD REFRIGERANT. CHECK FOR PARTIALLY CLOSED STOP VALVE. CORRECTIVE MEASURE INCREASE QUANTITY OF CONDENSING WATER. PURGE AIR FROM CONDENSER AIR ON NON-CONDENSABLE GAS IN SYSTEM . REFRIGERANT LINE RESTRICTION. REDUCE QUANTITY OF WATER . RUMP DOWN. FROSTING OR SWEATING OF A LIQUID LINE . TOO MUCH LIQUID IN RECEIVER. EXAMINE AND CLEAN SCREENS. CHECK FOR TOO MUCH OIL IN CIRCULATION. EXAMINE VALVES. WATER TOO COLD. CLEAN CONDENSER WATER TUBES. REGULATE EXPANSION VALVE. REMOVE HEAD. REMOVE. INSUFFICIENT REFRIGERANT IN SYSTEM. R EMOVE OIL . CHANGE EXPANSION VALVE ADJUSTMENT. RESTRICTED LIQUID LINE AND EXPANSION VALVE OR SUCTION SCREENS. LEAKY DISCHARGE VALVE. EXAMINE FASTENING OF THERMAL BULB. CONDENSER TUBES CLOGGED OR SCALED. CHECK FOR REFRIGERANT STORAGE. TOO MUCH WATER FLOWING THROUGH CONDENSER. POSSIBLE CAUSE INLET WATER WARM. LOW SUCTION PRESSURE. HIGH SUCTION PRESSURE. ADJUST VALVE TO GIVE MORE FLOW. CHECK FOR LEAKS. REMOVE HEAD. INCREASE QUANTITY OF WATER. EXAMINE VALVE AND REPLACE IF WORN. REDUCE QUANTITY OF WATER .

CLOGGED CONDENSER. INSUFFICIENT WATER FLOWING THROUGH CONDENSER. OR CLOGGED WITH FROST. LEAKING DISCHARGE VALVES. 4. 3. THERMAL EXPANSION VALVE NOT FEEDING PROPERLY. REPAIR OR REPLACE MOTOR. HIGH-PRESSURE CONTROL SWITCH DOES NOT CUT-IN. 6. SERVICE OR DISCONNECT SWITCH OPEN. I F OK. 8. b. REPLACE DISCHARGE VALVES. COMPRESSOR RUNS CONTINUOUSLY. 7. REPAIR LEAK AND RECHARGE SYSTEM. OVER-LOAD RELAYS TRIPPED. CHECK POWER SUPPLY. REPAIR OR REPLACE HIGH-PRESSURE CONTROL SWITCH. TEST FUSES AND RENEW IF NECESSARY. LOCATE AND REPAIR LEAKS. CHECK DISCHARGE PRESSURE AND RESET P. FUSES BLOWN. SEIZED COMPRESSOR. b. DEFECTIVE LOW-PRESSURE CONTROL SWITCH. 3. REPAIR OR REPLACE SWITCH. H. CUT-IN POINT OF LOW-PRESSURE CONTROL SWITCH TOO HIGH. REPAIR OR REPLACE LOW-PRESSURE CONTROL SWITCH. ADJUST. 5.CLOSE SWITCHES. CHECK WATER FLOW. MOISTURE FROZEN IN ORIFICE OR ORIFICE PLUGGED WITH DIRT. CONTROL SWITCH. ELECTRICAL MOTOR IN TROUBLE. DETERMINE IF WATER HAS BEEN TURNED OFF. C HECK FOR SCALED OR FOULED CONDENSER. REPAIR OR REPLACE THERMAL EXPANSION VALVE . COMPRESSOR SHORT CYCLES ON LOWPRESSURE CONTROL . REMOVE MOISTURE OR DIRT ( USE SYSTEM DEHYDRATOR). 8. CHECK VOLTAGE (SHOULD BE WITHIN 10 PERCENT OF NAMEPLATE RATING ). 2. SET L. 1. 6. LOW REFRIGERANT CHARGE. 2. LOW VOLTAGE. a. P. c. DIRTY. CHECK CONTROL DEFECTIVE HIGH-PRESSURE CONTROL SWITCH. CLEAN STRAINERS. REPAIR OR REPLACE COMPRESSOR.DEAD OR WEAK ELEMENT. COMPRESSOR WILL NOT RUN. TROUBLE IN STARTING SWITCH OR .DEFECTIVE SWITCH. CHARGE REFRIGERANT. CONTROL SWITCH TO CUT-IN AT CORRECT PRESSURE . 1 . POWER ELEMENT DEAD OR WEAK WATER FLOW THROUGH EVAPORATORS RESTRICTED OR STOPPED. 4. COMPRESSOR SHORT CYCLES ON HIGHPRESSURE CONTROL SWITCH. c. 7. C LEAN COILS OR TUBES . REPLACE POWER ELEMENT. RE-SET RELAYS AND FIND CAUSE OF OVERLOAD. 5. REMOVE RESTRICTION. ELECTRIC POWER CUT OFF. EVAPORATOR COILS PLUGGED. CLOSE SWITCH MANUALLY TO TEST POWER SUPPLY. DIRTY STRAINERS. a. SHORTAGE OF REFRIGERANT.

CONTROL CIRCUIT. DECREASED CAPACITY OF THE COMPRESSOR. COMPRESSOR BEARING WEAR OR PISTON SCORING . CHECK OIL LEVEL IN CRANKCASE. 9. COP= Q/ W 1 TON REFRIGERATION CAPACITY= RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER IN FORMING I TON OF ICE AT 0*C FROM WATER AT 0*C. ADJUST OR REPLACE EXPANSION VALVE. HAND OPERATING STEM OF CAPACITY CONTROL VALVE NOT TURNED TO AUTOMATIC POSITION. COMPRESSOR OIL BLACK REMOVE AIR FROM SYSTEM. REPAIR LEAK.1 DIGIT FROM LEFT IS ONE LESS THEN NUMBER OF C ATOMS. ADJUST OR REPLACE EXPANSION VALVE. 9. COMPRESSOR CONTINUES TO OPERATE AT FULL OR PARTIAL LOAD. PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE NOT OPENING . COMPRESSOR OIL GRAY OR METALLIC. ST 2ND IS ONE MORE THEN H ATOM THIRD IS NUMBER OF F ATOMS. LOW DISCHARGE PRESSURE WITH HIGH SUCTION PRESSURE . SUDDEN LOSS OF OIL FROM CRANKCASE. REPLACE RELIEF VALVE. NAMING OF REFRIGERENT. REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WORKS ON FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. . COMPRESSOR MOTOR STOPPED BY OIL PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL SWITCH. LIQUID REFRIGERANT SLUGGING BACK TO COMPRESSOR CRANK CASE . COPPER PLATING CAUSED BY MOISTURE IN THE SYSTEM . HIGH VAPOR SUPERHEAT. V/ V. REVERSE CARNOT CYCLE . CHECK OIL PUMP PRESSURE . OR DEHYDRATOR. ADVANTAGE OF UNDERCOOLING = INCREASE REFRIGERATION EFFECT BY REDUCING AMOUNT OF FLASH OFF AT EXP. BROKEN OR LEAKING OIL TUBE BETWEEN PUMP AND POWER ELEMENT. CAPACITY REDUCTION SYSTEM FAILS TO LOAD CYLINDERS. SET HAND OPERATING STEM TO AUTOMATIC POSITION. CHANGE FILTER DRIER. COMPRESSOR CONTINUES TO OPERATE UNLOADED. CARBONIZATION RESULTING FROM AIR IN THE SYSTEM . CIRCUIT INCLUDING TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE CONTROLS. PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE NOT CLOSING . ADJUST OR REPAIR PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE . REPLACE OR OVERHAUL COMPRESSOR. COMPRESSOR OIL BROWNISH IN COLOR ADJUST OR REPAIR PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE . CAPACITY REDUCTION SYSTEM FALLS TO UNLOAD CYLINDERS. DISCHARGE RELIEF VALVE LEAKING BACK TO THE SUCTION SIDE .

AS A RESULT. UNFORTUNATELY. BECAUSE THE VALVE MAINTAINS THE PRESSURE. ON DOING SO . T HE T HERMOSTATIC EXPANSION V ALVE CORRESPONDS TO THE OVERHEATING AT THE EVAPORATOR OUTLET AND. IN BOTH CONDITION CYL . AND A BLUE V/V IS FROM TOP AND DON’ T HAVE DIP TUBE AND IT IS FOR GAS CHARING.ONE RED IS CONNECTED TO DIP TUBE AND IS FOR LIQUID CHARGING. THIS RESULTS IN OPERATION OF THE EVAPORATOR CONTRARY TO THE PRODUCTION OF COLD. SO IT WILL BE ABSORBED .. LIQUID CHARGE. the reason being that the veg room is maintained at a temperature of +4 -5 degress while fish room is at about -12 to -15 degrees and the flow and amount of refrigerant at fish room and meat room is greater as compared to that of veg room. HAS 2 V/V.. IT ALSO MAINTAINS THE VALUE OF THIS FLOW. AFTER CONDENSER BCOZ BEFORE CONDENSER ALL IS GAS. A SPECIAL T PIECE VALVE BLOCK WITH MOUNTED PRESSURE GAUGE IS PROVIDED TO COMBINE THREE CONNECTORS INTER-CONNECTING: FOLLOWING STEPS ARE TO BE TAKEN FOR CHARGING GAS INTO THE REEFER PLANT: 1. IF ONLY ONE V/V THEN WE NORMALLY WE DON’T HAVE DIP TUBE AND IN THIS WHEN LIQUID THEN TURN DOWN BY HEAD. ON KEEPING CONSTANT PRESSURE . INCREASE . THERE IS LESS FLUID EVAPORATION. Q: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE "AUTOMATIC EXPANSION VALVE" AND THE " THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVE"? THE AUTOMATIC EXPANSION VALVE WAS THE FIRST VALVE DEVELOPED TO PREVENT MANUAL ADJUSTMENT OF THE FLUID METER.REFER COMPRESSOR CHARGING LIQUID AND GAS ? WHERE U CONNECT THE CHARGING CONNECTION? WHY WE TAKE PURGE AIR IN A SEALED CONTAINER? N HOW U WL COME TO KNOW DAT SYSTEM IS ENOUGH CHARGED WITHOUT WEIGHING BOTTLE ( SEE IN GAUGE GLASS). THEN USED AS EXPANSION VALVE . THEN CONNECT TO CHARGING POINT. IT DOES NOT ASSURE OVERHEATING. A LTERNATIVELY. WHICH WILL PROTECT THE COMPRESSOR.PURPOSE F BACK PRESSURE V/V IN REFER OF REFRIGRENT JUST AFTER EAVPORATER. ROOM. EXCESS REFRIGERANT STILL IN LIQUID STATE IS FED INTO THE EVAPORATOR. CHARGING CYL. T HE VALVE IS DESIGNED TO KEEP CONSTANT PRESSURE IN THE EXPANSION VALVE OUTLET. FOR CHARGING CONNECT CYL . HOW DIFFERENT ROOM TEMP R MAINTAINED IN REFRERATION SYSTEM ? ANS. SO IT INCREASE THE BACK PRESSURE IN VEG ROOM LINE. WE SET BACK PRESSURE. BACK PRESSURE V/V. IT WILL INCREASE OVERHEATING OF THE GAS AND LITTLE USE OF THE HEAT EXCHANGE SURFACE .T HESE COUNTERPARTS RESULTED IN REPLACEMENT OF THE AUTOMATIC EXPANSION VALVE BY THE T HERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVE IN MOST APPLICATIONS. WE KEEP CYL. AND SO THE SATURATION TEMP.CONNECTION IS B/W CONDENSER AND DRIER. hence if back pressure valve is not fitted then when refrigerants will come at the outlet of all the three rooms then the refrigerant will tend to flow towards veg room. CONNECT GAS BOTTLE OR CHARGING CYLINDER. ON THE OTHER HAND. WHEN ITS LOAD IS HIGHER.TO KEEP DIFFERENT TEMP OF DIFFERENT ROOMS. back pressure valve is fitted at the outlet of veg room. VACUUM PUMP AND CHARGING POINT IN THE REEFER SYSTEM TO THE VALVE BLOCK. IT ALSO INDIRECTLY CONTROLS THE TEMPERATURE . GAS CHARGING OF REFRIGERATION PLANT : FOR GAS CHARGING. REMEMBER. Q. WHICH RESULTS IN ITS RETURN TO THE COMPRESSOR.A S THE EVAPORATOR CAPACITY IS REDUCED. UPRIGHT. REFRIGERANT COMES TO CRANKCASE FIRST THEN IT GOES TO SUCTION SIDE OF 1ST CYL. THERE WILL BE GREATER FLUID VAPORIZATION AND IF THE VALVE MAINTAINS THE FLOW. ANS. BEFORE DRIER BCOZ MOISTURE MAY ENTER DURING CHARGING. . WG AS CHARGING . hence to avoid it a back pressure valve is fitted which will allow refrigerant to flow out only if the pressure inside the veg room outlet will be greater than the outlet from the main line. T O A BOTTLE .Q. PURGE . HOWEVER. THIS RESPONDS BETTER TO THE ACTUAL LOAD. JUST LITTLE BEFORE SUCTION LINE . WE USE IT IN VEG. SITUATED AT VEG ROOM DICHARGE . WITH HUGE MECHANICAL LOSS. HOWEVER. RESULTING IN A MORE EFFICIENT SYSTEM .CONNECTION IS IN SUCTION SIDE . IF THERE IS INCREASE IN LOAD.

CHECK THE OIL SEPARATOR FOR PROPER FUNCTIONING. T HEN SHUT THE VALVE IN THE VALVE BLOCK 5.OIL. MAKE SURE THE RECEIVER HAS 5 % SPACE FOR EXPANSION ENSURE THAT NO REFRIGERANT IS LEAKED OUT IN THE ENVIRONMENT AS THESE EFFECTS THE OZONE LAYER IN THE ATMOSPHERE .UNDERCHARGING?INDICATION.ACTIONS? OIL IN THE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM INDICATION: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • TEMPERATURE IS NOT DROPPING IN THE COLD ROOMS AS NORMAL.2. REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR RUNS FOR THE EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME. LUBRICATING OIL LEVEL IN THE COMPRESSOR WILL DROP.HARMS. INCREASE THE CONDENSER AND EVAPORATOR TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIALS AND REMOVE EXCESS FROST ON THE SUCTION PIPE . FIRST OPEN THE VALVE BETWEEN VACUUM PUMP AND CHARGING BOTTLE LOCATED IN THE VALVE BLOCK WITHOUT OPENING THE MAIN VALVE OF THE CHARGING CYLINDER. T HIS WILL SET THE LINE FOR CHARGING.OVERCHARGING. REFRIGERANT LEVEL WILL FALL IF OIL HAS CAUSED BLOCKAGE. T HIS WILL REMOVE ALL THE AIR INSIDE THE PIPE . CHECK THE DRIER FOR PROPER CLEANING AND IF ITS REQUIRE CLEANING CLEAN IT EVAPORATOR COIL SHOULD BE DRAINED TO REMOVE ANY TRACE OF OIL. NOW OPEN THE MAIN VALVES IN THE CHARGING CYLINDER AND CHARGING POINT OF THE REEFER SYSTEM 8. DEFECTIVE PISTON RINGS OR WORN OUT LINER OF THE COMPRESSOR MAY CAUSE THE OIL TO CARRY OVER ALONG WITH THE REFRIGERANT. COMPRESSOR MAY TAKE HIGH CAPACITY CURRENT DURING STARTING. NOW OPEN CHARGING BOTTLE PIPE VALVE AND THE CHARGING POINT PIPE VALVE LOCATED IN THE VALVE BLOCK. THE DISCHARGE OF THE VACUUM PUMP IS TO BE CONNECTED IN THE EMPTY RECOVERY BOTTLE 3. T HIS WILL ENSURE THERE ARE NO LEAKAGES IN THE SYSTEM 6. HEAT PIPES WITH BLOW TORCH. WITH A HIGH DISCHARGE PRESSURE AND NORMAL CONDENSING TEMPERATURE . NOW KEEP THE SYSTEM IDLE FOR 5 MINUTES TO CHECK THERE IS NO PRESSURE DROP. E NSURE THAT THE VACUUM PUMP VALVE IS SHUT 7. NOW OPEN THE VALVE OF THE CHARGING POINT PIPE IN THE VALVE BLOCK AND RUN THE VACUUM PUMP UNTIL THE VACUUM IS REACHED.MOISTURE. ONCE VACUUM IS REACHED. CLOSE THE VALVE OF CHARGE CYLINDER IN THE VALVE BLOCK 4. . DUE TO FACT THAT OIL ACT AS INSULATION IN THE EVAPORATOR. IF THERE IS OIL IN THE COOLING COILS. OIL MAY CARRY OVER FROM THE COMPRESSOR AND MAY NOT COME BACK TO THE COMPRESSOR DUE TO BLOCKAGE IN THE SYSTEM . IT MAY CAUSE EXCESSIVE FROST ON THE SUCTION LINE. CAUSES: ACTION : AIR IN THE SYSTEM INDICATION: • THIS MAY CAUSE THE REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR TO OVERHEAT. DO NOT OVERFILL THE SYSTEM.AIR. T HIS WILL REMOVE THE TRAPPED AIR FROM THIS PIPE . Q. THIS MAY HAPPEN IF THE OIL SEPARATOR IS NOT WORKING PROPERLY.

LEAKAGE OF REFRIGERANT AT THE SHAFT SEAL. AFTER PURGING THE AIR FROM THE SYSTEM DON’T FORGET TO SHUT THE PURGING VALVE. AIR IN THE SYSTEM CAN BE REMOVED BY COLLECTING THE SYSTEM GAS IN THE CONDENSER. AIR MAY ENTER IN TO THE SYSTEM. VALVE GLAND ETC. WITH CORRESPONDING INCREASE IN THE SATURATION TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE . CHARGE THE SYSTEM WITH FRESH REFRIGERANT AS REQUIRED. WHEN CW INLET AND OUTLET TEMP BECOME EQUAL . IF FREON-12 IS USED AIR MAY LEAKS IN TO THE SUCTION LINE BECAUSE THE WORKING PRESSURE OF THE FREON-12 REFRIGERANT IS LESS THAN THE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE. AND COLLECT AIR IN THE CYLINDER. LEAVING THE CONDENSER COOLING WATER ON AND VENTING OUT THE AIR FROM THE TOP OF THE CONDENSER BECAUSE AIR WILL NOT BE CONDENSED IN THE CONDENSER BUT REMAINS ON TOP OF THE CONDENSER ABOVE THE LIQUID REFRIGERANT. CAUSES: ACTION : OVERCHARGE OF REFRIGERATION SYSTEM INDICATION: • • • • • • THE LIQUID LEVEL IN THE CONDENSER IS TOO HIGH (HIGH CONDENSER GAUGE READING). OPEN THE VALVE. LOW GAUGE READINGS IN THE CONDENSER. IDENTIFY AND RECTIFY THE LEAKAGE OF REFRIGERANT FROM THE SYSTEM. IT MAY ALSO BE DUE TO THE FORMATION OFFICE ON THE REGULATOR. CAUSES: ACTION : • • • • • UNDERCHARGING OF REFRIGERATION SYSTEM INDICATION: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • COMPRESSOR IS RUNNING HOT AND PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPRESSOR FALLS OFF DUE TO HIGH SUPERHEAT TEMPERATURE AT THE SUCTION SIDE OF COMPRESSOR. CAUSES: ACTION : . DURING CHARGING. IT MAY REDUCE THE COOLING CAPACITY OF THE SYSTEM. SEE WHAT IS THE CONDENSING PRESSURE AND FROM COMPRESSOR SUCTION GAUGE FIND OUT SATURATION TEMP AT THAT CORRESPONDING CONDENSING PRESSURE . IT MAY CAUSE THE GAUGE POINTER OF THE CONDENSER TO JUMP INDEFINITELY. PUMPING DOWN. EXPANSION VALVE MAY BE BLOCKED AT THE STRAINER. HIGH PRESSURE SWITCH OF THE REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR ACTIVATES AND STOPS THE COMPRESSOR. LARGE VAPOR BUBBLES IN THE LIQUID SIGHT GLASS. IF THERE IS EXCESSIVE AIR. THIS WILL REDUCE THE AVAILABLE CONDENSING SURFACE . FLANGE COUPLINGS. IT MAY BE DUE TO THE REASON THAT EXCESSIVE REFRIGERANT HAS BEEN CHARGED IN THE SYSTEM. PARTIAL BLOCKAGE OF REFRIGERANT AT THE FILTER OR DRIER OR EVAPORATOR MAY CAUSE UNDERCHARGING. CLEAN THE FILTER AND DRIER. IF IT IS EQUAL TO CW TEMP THEN IT MEANS AIR HAS BEEN REMOVED. COOLING WATER AT FULL FLOW.• • • • • • THERE ARE POSSIBILITIES OF SMALL AIR BUBBLES IN THE LIQUID SIGHT GLASS OF THE CONDENSER. AMMETER READING FOR THE COMPRESSOR MOTOR IS LOWER THAN NORMAL. COMPRESSOR IS RUNNING FOR EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME. AIR IN THE SYSTEM MAY ALSO CAUSE OVER CHARGING INDICATION. CONDENSING PRESSURE OF THE REFRIGERANT IN THE CONDENSER MAY BE HIGH. SUCTION AND DISCHARGE PRESSURE OF THE COMPRESSOR IS LOW. CLOSE CONDENSER INLET VALVE . THE SUCTION AND THE DISCHARGE PRESSURES ARE HIGH. R ESTART THE COMPRESSOR WITH ALL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS. MAKING THE COMPRESSOR TO RUN FOR THE EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME . CONNECT THE COLLECTING CYLINDER TO THE PURGING LINE OF THE CONDENSER. RISE IN ROOM TEMPERATURE WHICH IS TO BE COOLED.

Stop the compressor and shut off the inlet and outlet valves of compressor. close inlet outlet of drier. Loosen the oil drain plug in the compressor crankcase and extract the amount oil... .0. GIVING SOME OF THE INDICATION OF UNDER CHARGING .. Change drier.Start the compressor momentarily(0.?what will u check to insure that condenser is working properly. . Open bypass v/v. IT MAY CAUSE LUBRICATION PROBLEMS AND BREAKDOWN OF THE LUBRICATING OIL IN THE REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR. tightened up the oil plug. So we have different pressure at inlet and outlet.1.2. . MOISTURE IN THE SYSTEM THIS NORMALLY COMES WITH THE INGRESS OF AIR IN THE SYSTEM.Collect the refrigerant into the condenser by shutting off the condenser outlet valve. Tev equalising connection.. . MOISTURE MAY FREEZE AT THE EXPANSION VALVE . Extracting Oil . use the vacuum pump to extract the air from the compressor crankcase). We can do this when plant is running. recharging LO in refrigerant compressor? 2.ii.) Ensure to bleed off air every after charging and extracting refrigeration oil. Pump down the refrigerant into the compressor only. .. We use where evaporator is large. COLLECT REFRIGENANT AND REMOVE ALL AIR AND MOISTURE BY VACUUM PUMP IF THE AMOUNT IS HUGE . reasons and what u will do? Refrigration system LO properties. Precautions: .After charging to the correct level.5.i.• • • • REMOVE THE REFRIGERANT FROM THE SYSTEM. . Why? ANS.Open the oil filling plug and start filling the oil slowly.what is the function of condenser.) and how will u make sure that it is being restored? Changing of filter drier of ref. STARTING THE COMPRESSOR.6 seconds) to facilitate speedy charging. . IT WILL CONTRIBUTE TO THE CORROSION IN THE SYSTEM . Q. comp? ANS. That is if bulb comes out then. PURGE THE AIR FROM THE SYSTEM AND MAINTAIN EFFECTIVE COOLING. Ensure that refrigerant .Bleed off air in the compressor casing by slightly opening the suction valve and loosening connecting caps from the high pressure gauge (In case connection fittings for vacuum pump are provided. Act as second line of defense. 69. For changing filter drier.compressor crankcase.what will be the effect??reasons 4 icing on expansion v/v? Q.) Care to be taken when charging oil so that no air will be trapped in the .what is sub cooling. ACTION : • • RENEW SILICA GEL IN CASE OF MINOR MOISTURE. . Q. bulb in thermostatic exp v/v has come off.what will happen if temp diff between inlet and outlet of cooling sea water is increasing(cooling water flow is less or chocked) or decreasing(scaling. open inlet outlet n close bypass. AND THEN OPERATING THE CHARGING VALVE . . THIS IS DONE BY CONNECTING A CYLINDER TO THE LIQUID LINE CHARGING VALVE.pressure is higher than the atmosphere.. REMOVE ICE FROM THE REGULATOR BY USING ANY OF THE DEFROSTING METHODS.what is short cycling OF REFRIGIRATION. recharging LO in refrigerant compressor.

temp. trips on that.so chances of fire is very less. S/B RATIO-3.LONG STROKE-3.K.S/B RATIO-UPTO 2.Q. refrigeration oil separator working. M-ENGINE PROGRAMME C-CAMSHAFT CONTROLLED(OTHER USED IS E-ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED) C-COMPACT. In 1996 and onward the MC-C versions of the small and medium bore engines were added to the programme.is thr any diff . they impinge on the baffles. S-SUPERLONG STROKE. CONDITIONING WHAT IS SPECIFIC HUMIDITY.. MAIN ENGINE AND AUX.APRROX.and.. H-HYUNDAI’s HIMSEN(HIMSEN STANDS FOR-Hitouch and Hitech Medium 21-CYLINDER BORE IN cm . AUXILLARY ENGINE . Make and type of a/e and m/e with meanings.. 3. As vapour enters the oil separator. PSYCHOMETRIC CHART. IS CONTROLLED IN AIR CON. HOW TEMP. Impingement type. so less bcoz of cool refrigerant . Did refrgrt’n compressor have relief door?(NO) Why not?(crankcase doesn’t have o2. In this case the -C stands for "compact". ENGINE FULL FORM Q. ANS. RELATIVE HUMIDITY. SENSIBLE HEAT. simplified cross-head and a variety of other smaller changes to facilitate the "compact" concept. The small and medium bore MC-C engines are thus best suited to vessels operating for prolonged periods at the power at which the engines are optimised. of refer and AC plant.fitted in discharge line. 32-PISTON STROKE IN cm Speed Engine) . They feature an integrated camshaft housing. LIGIONILA BACTERIA. BURMEISTER AND WEIN (GERMANY) 6-NO. there is reduction in velocity due to larger area of separator. And later gets drained to crankcase through a float valve. as the engines were intended to be lighter. OF CYLINDERS. SYSTEM..8 AND ABOVE(OTHER IS L. M/E-MAN B&W 6S46MC-C MAN-MASCHINEN FABRIK AUGSBERG NURMBERG (DENMARK). Since oil particles have greater momentum. Alarms. In exchange the fuel injection system was simplified and the VIT system was made an option.8) 46-CYLINDER BORE IN cm . cheaper and yet more powerful. type complete.interlocks. Press.why required? ANS.. also vol. OF CYLINDERS ..5H 21/32 5-NO. WET BULB TEMP.if yes y? AIR. Its a closed container fitted with a series of baffle. What is suc. of crankcase is less so no need as per regulation) Q.2 AND SHORT STROKE .

This shall be shown and recorded.When an engine is in operation leakage of starting air valves is shown by overheating of the branch pipe connecting the starting air valve to the starting air rail. air bottle(seamless low carbon manganese steel). why negative cam for air distributor. safeties provided.MAIN ENGINE AND A/E STARTING AIR SYSTEM How starting air system works. what action if…. regulation (for cyl. master starting v/v. starting air line. how starting air is introduced in ME type engine(starting v/v is solenoid controlled. regulations regarding reversing capacity of engine. the engine should be stopped and the air start valve replaced. Machinery should be able to reverse the direction of thrust of the propeller to bring the ship to rest from maximum ahead service speed in sufficient time and reasonable distance. and 4-st naturally n supercharged engines. it must immediately be started for a short period in the opposite direction. In cases where the starting air supply has to be cut off to some cylinders. starting air v/v gets stuck.no air distributer). as one unit is now out of operation. timing dig. Should this not give the desired result. material of…. starting in all crankshaft positions cannot always be expected. starting difficulties. why air bottle v/v is slow opening type. Sufficient power for going astern shall be provided to enable proper control of the ship in all circumstances. For uniflow. and to open the indicator cocks. puncture valve operated or whatever) on the affected unit and the bridge informed. by means of the turning gear. SOLAS Requirements: Chapter Two (Reg. Remember to cut off the starting air before turning. is thr a drain line in starting air line (yes. If the engine does not turn on starting air in a certain crankshaft position.their working. function of …. what extra precaution if m/e running with one starting v/v isolated. WHAT SHOULD I DO IF AN AIR START VALVE JAMS OPEN WHILST MANOEUVRING? The fuel pump should be lifted (fuel rack zeroed. loop. For checking.what starting arrangement on A/E. if air coming from indicator cock that means leaking. stainless steel v/v n spindle).close master v/v. at lowest point in the pipe). The load should be kept at a minimum. BODY REQUIREMENTS FOR A REVERSIBLE ENGINE The main propulsion machinery is to be capable of maintaining in free route astern at least70% of the ahead MCR revolutions for a period of at least 30 minutes. bring that piston to tdc. . open master v/v. crash maneuvering how. The power developed in astern direction should be 60 %of ahead. As soon as safe to do so. starting air v/v(cast steel body. ANS. The reversing characteristics of the propulsion plant are to be recorded during trails. open indicator cock.)and construction. why overlap is necessary.. 28 & 03) 1. regulations regarding size of air bottle. Bore 230 mm or more+reversing then on all cyl. 2. interlocks. how you will come to know. it will be necessary to turn the engine to a better starting position. During periods of manoeuvring the temperature of each supply pipe from the air rail to the starting air valve should be checked by feeling the pipe as close to the valve as possible. why bursting disc or flame arrestor…. why not air kick started. ANS. how starting and reversing takes place in MAN B&W n sulzer... The heating occurs due to the leakage of hot gases from the engine cylinder into the starting air line connected to the starting air rail.bursting disc bursts during maneuvering. engage turning gear. after which reversal is to be made to the required direction of rotation.air distributer(to select timing n sequence).

SCAVENGE FIRE. Acknowledge the telegraph. Can you change the fuel injection timing or stop the fuel flow in one of the 3 injectors in a single unit in RT-flex. how many doors. ! Control from Engine Side. 5. ! Give START order. 3. SCAVENGE FIRE -reasons(give at least 6). total area of escape in relief door.2. t decreses. 2. Also at nozzle the pressure decreses which increases the velocity.see the special instruction book for the Bridge Control System. Oil properties( oilyness is imp. Yes. 4.)? After how many cycle alfa lubricator injects fuel?( every 4th cycle) Why exhaust gas temp. 9. The engine will continue to rotate (at slowly decreasing speed). OMD alarm . indications. Its bcoz of intermolecular collision. because the velocity of the ship through the water will drive the propeller. is less at exhaust v/v(320*c) but more at entry to turbine(380*c)??pressure of exhaust gas after turbocharger(0. see Plate 70305): ! Give REVERSING order. Give the engine a STOP order. See Items 8. Ans. EGB FIRE CRANKCASE EXPLOSION -Safeties provided in crankcase. Crash-Stop (FPP-Plants and Reversible CPP-Plants) The procedure is valid for: ! Control Room Control. When the START-LEVEL is reached in the opposite direction of rotation (8-12% of MCR-speed) ! Give order to run on fuel. Cyl. regulations. Main brg. WECS can give signal to any one of the rail valve separately and hence the particular injection control valve will operate and the particular fuel injector will inject the fuel. Now PV=NRT. CRANKCASE EXPLOSION.11. When the engine speed has fallen to the REVERSING-LEVEL (15-30% of MCR-speed. what extinguishing arrangements is there. what if major fire takes place. how to use that? WHAT PRECAUTIONS WHEN ENGINE IS RUNNING on less number of units? ANS. Check that the limiters in the governor are not cancelled.2 and 10. depending on engine size and type of ship.3 bar).4. See Items 8. As p decreses. 1. and thereby turn the engine. 9. we can stop the fuel through any one injectors at a time. MANUAL 704. action to be taken when passage through a narrow seaway. at what pressure crankcase door lifts. what will u do ? How to check it’s false alarm.4.2 and 10. x-head brg seizure…action? How to know that there's an instrumental error from the crankweb deflection readings or we have not taken reading correctly? . This improves the injection pressure at low rpm and loads and hence improve combustion. Regarding crash-stop during Bridge Control. What are different types of oil mist detectors and where are they used and why? How oil mist formed in crankcase and what safeties provided and maintenance on them? Do all crankcase doors in A/E have relief v/v? What to conclude if fitted in alternative doors or only in fwd n aft? Why no crankcase relief v/v in air compressor and reefer compressor.2. how do u test the v/v.

10) Q .(SEE 904. how is thrust taken.advan.How was your engine piston cooling …line diagram. When the crankshaft vibrates axially.chances of mixing with crankcase oil. Bore cooling-advan. We add p+s reading nd f+a reading.sen26)Why oil is supplied to shoes. wear(0. r.e.crshd0.2-0. bore). distortion.(see r. Disadvan. a very important alarm on it? Explain crosshead lubrication. And y does it happen? ANS.708. A/E cyl.r.. BOTTOM END BEARING CLEARANCE? .. Cracks.4-0.max. oil cooled piston adv & disadv. Q. Q.? ANS. problems with castings of internal ribs r not thr. or we have not taken reading correctly.7% of cyl. head has been removed. not guide in xhead lubrication?bore relief? tangential runout?clearance(m/b 0. Trim is more.nd diff shuldn't vary much.3? Main engine's main bearing clearance.. need separate system with p/p etc.. antipolising ring(material is steel. ship is moving too much in ballast condition. water cooled piston vs. Limit is 65*C to prevent oxidation.. is crankshaft able to move axially .sen 13.sen41)?liner material(gulia p249).6. cooling water side corrosion n scale etc. diff is low whereas in case of oil upper temp. oscillation of the shaft in forward and aft directions. Water. inside a cylindrical casing. & why oil cooled piston were not used earlier if they r have so many advantages? Bore cooling? advan.sen70)? Q.in bore system cooling takes place by jet n shaker effect. we can keep water temp.to know dat error.specific heat more than oil so less amount of water is needed. how is the telescopic pipe arrangement…how will make sure proper cooling . The casing is filled with system oil on both side of flanges supplied via small orifice. It consists of a damping flange integrated to the crankshaft and placed near the last main bearing girder. This oil provides the damping effect.if it does what prevents it.. What is this phenomenon. 6. as high as 90*C so temp. Q.honing(gulia244)?running in(done for matching to reduce adhesive wear)(r.if it vry much den may be dere s problem in gauge. the oil in the sides of damping flange circulates inside the casing through a throttling valve provided from one side of the flange to the other. MANUAL 704 AND VOL 2. parallel to the shaft horizontal line. temp. What modification ...full description? What is axial and torsion vibrations how they are reduced in engine? Moment compensator everything? ANS..4.. Q.. temp at piston surface can be reduced to 400*C from 500*C as in case of cage type cooling. also the reading on both sides around bdc shud come zero. Axial Damper: The Axial damper is fitted on the crankshaft of the engine to dampen the shaft generated axial vibration i..crankpin0.909-16. easily available n cheap.after taking liner calibration f-a readings are more and p-s readings are less. which gives a damping effect. How to cut off a fuel pump? Why not cut off by closing fuel inlet valve to that cylinder? ANS.. and pressure.2-0. How to take cylinder liner calibration for M/E n A/E(both have same method)?consquences of operating with worn liner? how to calibrate template?max. corrosion. What all checks to be carried out? what on piston? ANS..

4 in inlet n 0..nothing else.. why thr(p152 r. which diagram suggests error in ir indicator instrument.... how to take atmospheric line. n piston on firing tdc).? What is mean effective pressure..9 on exhaust). what is tappet clearance. how they held in position? .excessive liner lubrication in main engine? EFFECTS? desired properties of cylinder lube oil(oilyness..how to find out mip?why we do not use indicator instrument for A/E(see sanyal p309? Why draw card is called 90 degree out of phase? In books it is written that ... so it is called out of phase diagram.people took draw cards on experience and after so many trail and error practices nothing else..So if the rotation of the indicator drum is controlled by us. Also we have to make lub..then how come it is said to be exactly 90 degree out of phase..while taking draw card the indicator drum is rotated manually with the help of string attached to it.... this is purely on experience. what is its effect if increased or decreased? adjustment..viscosity. draw all diagrams on single ordinate and abscissa with timing diagram for 2 stroke engine. viscosity index)? Where r quill. why tappet clearance.. draw power card and draw card at a situation when you are taking card and engine tripped on some mechanical trip? what will be the maximum pressure you vil get then. purpose if each. what is 90 deg in phase and 90 deg out of phase.what is clover leafing? 3.. Tappet adjustment in engine having two inlet and exhaust v/vs(first balance yoke then adjust tappet)? what checks you will make on inlet and exh v/vs springs during overhaul(check length.. My DOUBT. procedure. tappet on my generators(0.. If at bottom what happen.twist). tbn. draw card is taken with indicator drum 90 degree out of phase with the piston stroke. it will make the system complex bcoz then we will have to make quills like arrangement at many points. Oil enter crosshead at last so supplying to shoes is better. how will u remove exhaust valve of generator..what u check before tappet clearance(engine cold...ANS.. Q. Q.sen)how lub oil spreads on cylinder. Types of indicator cards.

expansion tank purpose (give six). Butt clearance will increase or decrease after 8000 hrs? What about stuffing gland rings? ANS. SINCE IT IS SITUATED AT HIGHEST POINT IT MAINTAINS CONSTANT HEAD ON THE SYSTEM AND SO REDUCE CHANCES OF AIR INGRESS OR STEAM FORMATION. In m/e 1st order moment r compensated by providing idle gear in chain drive arrangement.. ANS. which 1 is better and why.Q. smoke from exhaust). ignition delay.BecOz there is no change in the direction of scavenge air in the cylinder. When butt clearance of stuffing gland becomes zero then we change the ring. Side dry 24-48 hrs n wet every week) kab karte h. Uniflow is better because there is less intermixing of scavenge air and exhaust gas..T/C lubrication(manual708)?what is surging. And place for adding chemical for treatment.what if less? Fire point.tur..LOOP FLOW and cross flow. locking of t/c.oiliness? Fuel knock and how u know it(by Fluctuation in rpm. running indications dat it cleaned? pressure of exhaust gas after T/C(0-350mmWC). Q.def.BCOZ OF LEAKAGE AND EVAPORATION.and when cyl. Bore)will increase and those of stuffing box rings( 3 and 4 mm) will decrease with time.sen). which 1 has more power stroke and why? ANS. Length is more than loop n cross scavenging becomes difficult.why we call it expansion tank? It is also called compensation tank. balance weight r fitted only in a/e bcoz during exhaust stroke piston tries to fly out n also to reduce 1st order moment. P-V diagram of impeller.2nd order moment is also compensated by providing a smaller idle gear which rotate at double the engine rpm and is fitted at chain drive.sen.inducer. blade fixing. why is a balance weight fitted ? why not in main engine? ANS. 3.and hw it occur? and what will u do if continuous surging takes place? outboard bearing inboard bearing? From main lub oil system? In case M/E z stopped …. pour point. function of inducer(guide air smoothly to centre of impeller) and impeller(p181r. 2. Uniflow has more power stroke bcoz of better scavange efficiency and use of super long stroke. flash point. ignition point...PROVIDE A PLACE FOR ADDING MAKE UP FEED. Q. name other 2. Butt clearance of piston ring (intial 0. 1. .5-1% cyl. Q.wt governs it?hw it can b minimised?what property of fuel oil is responsible for it? Q. diffuser. Uniflow scavenging.what is viscosity? Types? Viscosity index? SFOC and hw to calculate? cetane no.what provision z provided for its lubrication? T/C MAKE (met type)water n dry washing (see r. after burn(spark from the funnel.1.ALLOW FOR EXPANSION.

its strength is reduced and crack and failure may occur. with respect to A/E Piston what is the name of the top most piston ring? How will one identify which piston ring goes in which groove if the rings get intermixed???? Top most ring is known as compression ring. Q.. So we use it only in a/e and not in m/e. Between 0. Q. why in a/e crankshaft is drilled for lubrication but not in M/E? ANS. . TWO ST. of cotter and why only those no. 83.. If too large -à blow past. Oil burning due to high temp. labyrinth sealing..is it fitted in A/E(yes)..BUT IN A/E AMOUNT OF EXHAUST IS LESS SO IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO ROTATE SPINNER BY EXHAUST IN A/E SO WE USE ROTOCAP. If the Ring clearance is too high then hammering and reduction of piston ring landing surface area in grooves.. its in 2 pieces held in place by a cir-clip. If their is cabon deposits in the groove or the groove clearance is too low then gases may pass directly between liner and piston ring outer surface and pushing the ring in to the groove causing Ring collapse. GIVE LONG STROKE CONCEPT.4mm and ring should be renewed if it reaches 0. oxidation..? ANS. M/E SHUD BE SLOW SPEED ENGINE FOR BETTER HULL EFFICIENCY..purpose .. Oil cooling by water then may be due to water contamination. N 2ST engine are more efficient at slow rpm. resulting breaking of ring and liner crack.7mm Butt clearance : Will allow thermal expansion. dis-color. what is difference between valve rotocap and spinner and why rotocap on A/E and spinners on M/E.Q. working(last main bearing towards alternator is thrust bearing.purpose there ? thrust brg .. it holds the exhaust v/v spindle. of pieces.SPINNER ARE JUST VANES.that can be matched with that given in manual. MORE POWER PRODUCED. Exhaust gas leaking due to leaking labyrinth seal. Cotter is In a/e. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE BUTT CLEARENCE IS NOT USUALLY SPECIFIED AS LIMIT OF 15% WEAR ON THE RADIAL THICKNESS OF THE PISTON RING AUTOMATICALLY PUTS A LIMIT TO THE BUTT CLEARENCE Q. if lub.it is provided bcoz during power stroke .. Q. what is the driving force in both of them. lub.. By drilling a hole in crankshaft.Maintenance and parts of valve rotocap. thrust bearing .. Q.Every piston ring has engraved marking. purpose of cotter?? ANS.?no.?CAN WE PUT PROPELLER IN FWD OF SHIP (propeller efficiency will increase but hull efficiency will decrease)? ANS.AMOUNT OF EXHAUST IS MUCH MORE SO IT CAN ROTATE THE V/V. Also can be compare with the sequence in which the piston ring of other piston of the unit is arranged. Vertical Groove clearance : around 0.NORMALLLY 6-8 IN NUMBER.material n how many.LO tests ( all five with name and how pensky martin test carried out ).. why 2stroke engines for propulsion and 4stroke engines for power generation.5 – 1% of the liner bore. forming deposits. Q. piston ring calibration?? Groove clearences : Necessary because – to ensure free in and out movement of the ring in the groove to suit the liner bore. T/C lub oil. M/E EXHAUST V/V IS BIG.to allow the gas to pass in the clearance space to press the ring against the liner. At high rpm scavenging becomes difficult.reasons.

axial opening of web will occur. what s running direction interlock? hw s d arrangement? hw it s working?(refer arahna) If the direction of rotation of the engines contrary to the command from the Telegraph. the fuel cut out servo must operate to shut-off fuel. how slackness is measured? What is pinching screw? Action if tie rod is slack (retighten)? How to remove broken tie-rod? Can we run engine with broken tie-rod (yes. stuffing box diagram with rings name. Q. in case the engine is already running. Q.y? how to rectify?safeties?tools? ANS. corrosion).see r. purpose? how u will come to know that its slack.ADHESIVE WEAR(DUE TO IMPROPER LUBRICATION)..ABRASIVE WEAR.how pressure is developed in lubricator and how pressur is maintained in quills? liner ovality? why liner wear in f-a part? in 1 unit it is found to be more than other.(SEE R. of cylinder. It is boundry lubrication. Thus fuel is cut-off. SEE MANUAL VOL 2. What is the role of holder bridge in a thrust block and how thrust is transferred to the ship’s hull. CORROSIVE WEAR( high n low temp. 47. crankcase inspection of auxilairy engine.less air).yellow(excess sulphur)..black smoke(excess oil. as can be seen in the sketch below. Liner wear down is normally more in p-s direction but in tanker during long ballast passage it is more in frwd..sealing ring clearances? 1. 2.blue smoke(lub. If the camshaft does not reverse. The Running direction interlock in this engine is connected to the camshaft. NO.how quills and lubricator works with diagram.oil burning). In this situation. what is pinching of connecting rod(moving con. then oil pressure does not act on the fuel cut-off servomotor. M/E fuel injector overhauling and testing? Did fuel injectors can be separately injected in both? (YES in ME type) will it increase the combustion pressure? Q.sen p292) . but reduce load)? Can u see any tie rod from above? Are their tie-rods in A/E(no bcoz single casing type n have underslung crankshaft)? ANS.so thrust will be there. thus preventing the re-starting of theengine in the wrong direction.to absord that thrust it is provided. overhauling of A/E fuel injector and testing. OF TIE RODS IN A 6 cyl M/E.aft direction due to trim. Mainly in aft. elongation gauge's use for measuring bottom end bearing bolts.912-3 Did your engine can be adjusted for Exhaust valve timings? Why?(YES) . Q. Rod with crowbar sideways). the starting air is not allowed to be released. and will be operated by the movement of the camshaft.1. white smoke(excess moisture). scrapper ring . (2n+2) n = no.SEN p54). In addition. 2-what are the causes of liner wear down ? when piston rings are stuck or broken what it is called exactly(engineering term)? ANS. we consider it as the'wrong' direction.

Taken in running engine at full load. Propeller but we can’t increase mean piston speed above certain limit..p... Radial T/C vs Axial T/C? Advantages? Emergency lub. What is super long stroke and its advantages. q. During working it rotates showing that v/v is working... MIP=the pressure which when acting on the piston will perform the same work as performed during the cycle. 3. here we also take virtual tappet clearance. from fwd and when running astern it is from aft. Its effects and changes that have been made in engine design to counter its effects. and inspection in spindle? . NORMALLY WE DON’T CHANGE but we change if chain slack.? The “Sac” is a small volume within the fuel flow path of an electronic fuel injector. ANS.and running astern greater force act at rudder so higher torque. why turning moment is more while running ahead than astern?? Why torque on rudder is more while running astern?? turning moment is more in running ahead due to neutral point which is about L/6 dist. So to reduce rpm we increase stroke. overhaul of globe v/v &gate v/v.hw fitted and y fitted??(SEE ARHANA) 5.. Of turbocharger? Why coil spring is being replaced by spring air in M/E? Can u see ne moving part in exhaust V/V from outside? What it represents? ANS.8. resin chocks?how it better than conventional one??where fitted. POWER? How to calculate power if indicator fucked. Q. it is defined as the volume between the valve seat (fuel shut off point) and the entrance to the final metering orifice of the injector. In this study..?( torsiometer) Q...what is SAC vol in injectors.... Q.s = 2x stroke x rps..ANS.. We can see rotation check rod from outside. MEP= theoretical pressure acting on the engine during power stroke. We can also check that v/v s closed or not if needed during adjustment. Q.. hull efficiency is more when we have slow turning large dia.. advantages= cheaper fuel can be burnd as more time is available for burning. how to calculate SFOC. Now since m.. Superlong stroke= stroke/bore ratio is more then 3. Q. This sac causes fuel injectors to deliver uncalibrated excess fuel . Difference b/w MIP n MEP? ANS.

high efficiency. they must be ground together by using a guide for centering and a suitable grade lapping paste. For DC open ckt voltage is 50V(so DC is more safe). Which current source is preferred. The bottom portion of the valve will be separate.(AC bcoz more compact plant. If all mark gone then ok else do more lapping. electric arc is used as a source of heat to melt base metal and if filler metal is used then filler metal also. How we knw that lapping is done. ELECTRIC ARC WELDING Q. Then loosen the gland flange and the gland bush. Any scratches must be removed with an emery paper or oil stone. stem etc will come out.The valve and the valve seat must be inspected and if found to be in fairly good condition. So more lapping. less initial cost and less maintenance). 3. . Gate v/v Open the wheel nut and remove the hand wheel.normally we use high voltage and low current system. Thereafter with the help of a dial gauge put on a magnetic stand at a suitable point. Check the stem for straightness.ANS.in electric arc welding. The valve stem should then be screwed clockwise and it would come out from below along with the valve disc. Remove all the gland packing’s with a gland packing extractor. Power source has two cables with holders. but the correct method is to put it on a lathe and center it. Put v/v n turn half round. cellulose etc) outside to protect the molten metal from oxidation. Procedure. Unscrew the valve stem from beneath the bonnet. check the distortion.1. 2. globe v/v -Remove the wheel nut and the wheel handle. Check the stem for scratches. open circuit voltage is around 80V(bcoz voltage shud b high enough to strike an arc and low enough to b safe for welder). as these can damage the gland packing. A 1200 grit lapping paste would be suitable in most conditions (carborandum). Electrode’s bare part is clamped to electrode holder.For AC system.bcoz thread Is not in full portion so it will damage. Open the gland bolts and slacken the gland flange and the gland bush. Turn v/v by one turn. Open the bonnet bolts and remove the bonnet along with the bonnet and the valve wedge. The other holder is connected to base metal. Mark pencil mark at some places on seat. Remove the set screw that is securing the valve disc to the stem. AC or DC. inspection in spindle 1. An electrode is used which has filler metal at the core and a flux coating (of metal alloy.Check all the threaded parts for damage and if there is any damage on the thread then the threads must be dressed by a needle file. The simplest method of checking is by rolling on a flat surface. Power source. Apply Prussian blue on seat. But for welding we need high current. for thickness more than 5mm. D= 5mm dia. Electrode current= KxD. SAME LAPPING CHECK MEHTOD FOR EXHAUST V/V. If all v/v gets colored then ok else v/v or seat is not properly even. K= 40-60. Procedure and safeties for electric arc welding. So we use transformers for AC and welding generator n rectifier for DC. 2. low voltage system. 4. Butt weld and lap weld? Name various parts where such welds are carried out? soldering?? ANS.Hold the bonnet in a vice and open the gland bolts.Open the bonnet bolts and the top portion of the valve along with the valve seat.

So the number of windings should never go less then certain number. wire sling. Most of CSM inspections (all except steering gear and pressure vessels) is carried out by Chief Engineer. belts etc. These porous filler materials aid in the prevention of high-pressure gas pockets forming in the cylinder.where placed n working? ANS. Surveyor comes to ship several times per year and inspects various machinery components. Welding should not be carried out in hot/humid conditions which might cause sweat or damp clothing. cylinder. and it is based on schedule given in Continous Machinery Survey.edge of upper is then welded to the surface of lower. Buttweld-the weld is formed by placing two pieces of metal with their edge side by side n then welding the edges together. So we provide lower limit switch. you must let the cylinder stand upright for a minimum of 2 hours before using. Wear welder's goggles or a face shield. 4) motor is fitted with thermal protection trip. shackle. Q. torch. and also on the fuel gas bank. NOTE: Acetone contaminates the hoses. Acetylene odor that is readily detected even when the gas is highly diluted with air.how acetelene(C2H2)stored in cylinder??why it is stored in form of acetone?? what is pressure and safety? Flashback arrestor…. regulators. 2) Emergency stop is provided in the remote so that the operator can stop the crane at any time. produces a hot flame. 5) Additional tools like i-bolts..A slight shock is likely to cause it to explode. You should not store acetylene cylinders on their side. such as charcoal.Cylinder Design Acetylene can be safely compressed up to 18 bar when dissolved in acetone and stored in cylinders filled with porous material. Upper limit switch is to trip the motor on reaching max. Class societies allow another form of Survey to be performed on the ships with well established PMS. Under no circumstances whatsoever should a welder work in wet conditions. portland cement or firebrick. having a temperature around 3000°C. No one walks or stand below the crane when it is in the loaded condition. but if they are. if due to un-avoidable circumstances the Arrestor cannot be places close to the cutting nozzle or the flame then it should be placed of the main pipe line. Q. Where should a Flashback Arrestor be placed? Its Working? The flashback arrestor should be placed at the closest point to the flame. up and down direction so that the travel of the trolley and hence crane should not overshoot the rack’s end. Pure acetylene is self-explosive if stored in the free state under a pressure of 2bar. Inspection is scheduled every five years and the system is intended to assure good functionality of ship's machinery and therefore safety of the ship. up. engine room overhead crane safeties n maintenance ?why lower n upper limit switch is provided? What type of brake n its working? Crane takes the load due to the friction b/w the rope windings and the drum. trip will activate saving the motor winding from burning. Lap weld-made by placing one piece of metal on the other so that they overlap . the spring applies the brake. 3)motor is fitted with distance limit switch in both transverse and longitudinal direction. What are all the system you had in your ship according to pms . . ACETYLENE When burned with oxygen. Acetylene becomes extremely dangerous if used above 1atm(1 bar). determining their condition.Safeties-worn in addition to the personal protective equipment. ACETELENE STORAGE Q. based on regular PMS jobs. When the motor windings get overheated. 1)electromagnetic brakes are used which are fitted inside the rotating drum. vessel. and Class surveyor is coming on board the ship only once a year to inspect items Chief Engineer is not entitled to and to check what items were inspected since last Class inspection. used for lifting must be checked before use. Survey of various machinery components is performed usually with regular Class surveyor inspection. This allows the acetone to settle to the bottom of the cylinder. Being a liquid. They keep compressing a spring by power n when power goes. What are pms and cms…. and disrupts the flame. Acetone is a liquid chemical that dissolves large portions of acetylene under pressure without changing the nature of the gas. Mechanical stoppers are provided for both directions in case the electrical distance limit trips fail.and cms? Ans. Q. Class societies allow special status to ships with well implemented PMS. As PMS is increasing overall safety and reliability of the ship. acetone can be drawn from an acetylene cylinder when it is not upright.Load limit switch is also fitted which will trip the motor if the load to be lifted is above the crane capacity.

M/E fuel supply p/p. Online flame arrestors (passive) – (most commonly used) Mechanical flame arrestors are filled with metal or ceramic. m/e lub. it may leave a background in the developed area that can mask indications or defects.what is meant by removing excess dye(dye colour is RED.piston top surface. which all parts to be dye tested during decarb?(crankshaft.M/E fuel circulating p/p.Bearings). casing the flashback to die out. if a flame travels to the face of the arrestor.what is proof stress? destructive and non destructive tests?swl? ans.why so? why not c/f p/p? if so then y? where to be fitted? what must b the minimum capacity(MY SHIP capacity 280m3/h at 4 bar)?y that much only? ANS. This dissipates the heat and quenches the flashback. which absorbs heat from a flashback.) as it specifically refers to the amount of energy required to stress the material to 0. a temperature switch is often installed on the flame side of each arrestor (adding an "active" element). oil system of m/e type of pump .piston grooves. M/E LUB. commonly known as bleed-out.?features? ANS.DIA –ATLEAST 2/3 OF DIA OF MAIN SEA WATER INLET. Any areas that bleed-out can indicate the location. OR By blocking the flow of fuel gas in the opposite direction by acting like a non return valve. ignition temperature can be reached on the upstream side of the arrestor and the flashback can proceed. Once the arrestor temperatures increase enough. in that instance the safety factor would be a 10.E/M BILGE INJECTION V/V IS FIITED TO HIGHEST CAPACITY P/P(MY SHIP 310m3/h). Oil p/p can be centrifugal p/p but then its impeller is open type and is provided at bottom by increasing the size of spindle so that there is no problem of priming. Q. flame can be prevented from moving into the pipe regardless of the mixture velocity.v/v is fitted after p/p suction v/v so that thr is no need to open suction v/v of p/p. EM/GNCY BILGE INJECTION V/V. with a suitable thermal fuse plug. [the indication size is not the actual size of the defect] . By placing a flame arrestor at the end of the flammable mixture pipe feeding a flare or burner.VALVE HAND WHEEL OF THIS V/V AND MAIN SEA WATER INLET V/V MUST BE ATLEAST 0. If excess penetrant is not properly removed. Emergency bilge suction is used only at the time of engine room flooding. OIL P/P. this may also produce false indications severely hindering your ability to do a proper inspection. In addition. Bilge injection valve dia. For this reason.46m ABOVE FLOOR. SWL is determined by dividing the minimum breaking strength (MBS) of a component by a safety factor assigned to that type and use of equipment.ITS SCREW P/P AND E/M BILGE P/P IS CENTRIFUGAL P/P(see p367reeds). proof stress can be found by referring to the stress/strain curve at the point where strain is = 0.FUEL CIRCULATING P/P.KPa etc. OR By blocking the fuel gas path. The safety factor generally ranges from 4 to 6 unless a failure of the equipment could pose a risk to life. orientation and possible types of defects on the surface. Q. OR By passing a potentially flammable mixture through a water chamber or some sort of heat sink. Q. once the developer is applied.Flashback arrestor quenches the flame using the following methods a) By reducing the velocity of the flame. reducing the flame velocity even lower than the minimum flame velocity of the fuel gas b) Stops the flame propagation into or through a pipe. With a low enough hydrocarbon/air mixture flow rate. Type of pump for emergency bilge suction. This value approximates to the yield stress in materials not exhibiting a definite yield point.2% its original volume. The developer draws penetrant from defects out onto the surface by reducing surface tension of the dye and by capillary action to form a visible indication. quenching it to a temperature below what is needed for ignition. emergency bilge suction pump has no suction filters fitted before and after the valve.2% original volume (the material has grown 0. developr white)?how developer draws it up from crack? Ans.2% in volume) proof stress will be given as a measurement of energy (MPa. Q.IT’S A SDNR V/V. lub. This stops the flame. it can become stable at that point. Heating of the arrestor body and internals results.FUEL SUPPLY P/P.

1. impellers. leaking mechanical seals. why is necessary to maintain temperature of shell of fwg.Na etc)? ANS. possible causes? what was d disch rate of ur ejector pump? fwg principle and wrking?Routine maintenance on a fresh water generator?With the time the dia. IS LESS-FRESH WATER PRODUCTION WILL REDUCE.what is dolomite filter(it increase ph n ad mineral)how it add minerals 2 water.HYDROXIDE(MgOH).. IF SHELL TEMP. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP TROUBLESHOOTING?? TROUBLE Does not deliver any liquid Insufficient priming liquid Insufficient pump speed CAUSE Excessive discharge pressure (such as a partially closed valve or some other obstruction in the discharge line) Excessive suction lift Clogged impeller passages Wrong direction of rotation Clogged suction screen (if used) Ruptured suction line Loss of suction pressure Insufficient capacity Crackling noise from the pump casing Air leakage into the suction line Insufficient speed of the pump Excessive suction lift Clogged impeller passages Excessive discharge pressure Mechanical defects (such as worn wearing rings. 3.Ca.what r the minerals(K. stuffing box packing.. JACKET WATER TEMP.AT LOWER TEMP..IS INCREASING THEN CAUSES.CALCIUM SULPHATE.2. fwg starting? How 2 make fwg water portable.how to check (erosion)?Overhaul of fresh water generator. if temperature is increasing possible cause and solution.SCALE FORMATION IN SHELL .or sleeves) Does not develop enough discharge pressure Insufficient speed of the pump Air or gas in the liquid being pumped Mechanical defects (such as worn wearing rings. of the nozzle of air ejector enlarged . IS HIGH. impellers. fresh water gen yield z reduced.THEN FORM HARD SCALE DEPOSITS OF MAG. INCREASING.FRESH WATER GENERATOR Q. IMPROPER AMOUNT OF FEED WATER SUPPLY.ABOVE 80C.. IF SHELL TEMP. and sleeves) Works for a while and then fails to deliver liquid Air leakage into the suction line Air leakage in the stuffing boxes Clogged water seal passages . FORM SOFT DEPOSITS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE. Q.) IF TEMP.

vit operation is only active for engine in ahead direction and control is fron bridge or ECR. compressed air is supplied to the top of the piston. WATER SIDE CLEANING-if temperature of air at cooler outlet increase considerably.e. and no injection takes place.or when STOP is activated. So it is normally 85% of MCR in normal vit. the other one called the vit rack is connected to threaded barrel(barrel is threaded here) by a threaded sleeve. It consists of a piston which communicates with the pneumatic/electric system of the engine. Then it is circulated from tank to tank for proper mixing. the fuel oil is returned through bores to the pump housing. puncture valve(see909)? Vit? what is breakpoint? (gulia.how M/E and A/E (see water side n air side in aux. causing the piston with pin to be pressed downwards and `puncture' the oil flow to the fuel valve. But it can be adjusted in super vit. In the event of actuation of the shut-down system. vit setting). Below 7 bar cavitation may occue. what is manometer normal pr.p219) puncture valve is fitted in the top cover of the pump. and varying the start of injection.above 8 bar shock absorber may not function properly.in conventional fuel p/p.What chemical used (ACC 9. one controls the end of injection by rotating the plunger in the barrel as per engine load. Is controlled by a rack depending on engine load. Then it is pumped to air cooler where we have nozzles on the upper side of cooler. SEE VOL 2. early injection. p/p has two suctions. Fuel pressure is kept b/w 7-8 bar.5bar(min. or the "Fuel Oil Leakage Alarm System".the start of injection advances i. FOR BOTH M/E AND A/E. WEAR RING & MECHANICAL SEAL & LANTERN RING . fresh water is supplied to nozzles for washing. As the engine load increases above 40%.when running astern or from local control.one from a tank and other from fresh water line.it is the load after which the pmax is maintained constant.this is to avoid frequent changes of pump lead during manoeuvring.85%MCR at which engine is dsigned to have reached pmax.. After cleaning. thus altering the position of the spill ports relative to the plunger.what is interval of cleaning. In vit system two racks are there.first the tank is filled with fresh water and chemical acc9 is added to it. Breakpoint. it should be cleaned ?How will u come 2 know air cooler needs cleaning? ANS. and the barrel is prevented from rotating. engine folder)air cooler cleaning done. Air cooler cleaning p/p is provided for cooling air side of m/e air cooler.retardation of injection timing takes place so that max.start of injection is fixed and end of injection i. AIR SIDE CLEANING-if pressure drop across air cooler becomes double.vit racks are operated by pneumatic signal between 0. vit setting) to 5 bar(max. When the engine load reached approx. as the sleeve cannot move axially.e the amount of fuel injected in the cyl. As long as the puncture valve is activated. the barrel moves up and down.Insufficient liquid on the suction side Excessive heat in the liquid being pumped M/E & A/E AIR COOLER CLEANING (BOTH AIR N WATER SIDE) Q.the system is set up so that there is no change in injection timing at low loads(40%MCR).910-1.). (160mm aq)and what pr. then as the sleeve rotates. Vit. The drain goes to bilges. Advantage of vit. the maneuvering system delivers preset pressure to vit actuators.Savings in fuel. as SFOC decreases by around 5g/bhp-hr at 90% MCR. PUNCTURE V/V & VIT FUEL PUMP Q. combustion pressure is kept constant between 85% and 100% MCR.

chain and lock hand wheels. Should the pump be operated without liquid . It decrease the amount of leakage loss around the impeller. Removal of CENTRIGUGAL Pump for Inspection? 1 Isolate pump electrical circuit breaker on main switch board and attach a warning notice. how you will make sure it is usable or not. slings and shackles are satisfactory. Fix a shackle to lifting pad eye above pump and hang chain block.what is the function of wear ring in pumps?where fitted?parts of mechanical seal? inspection in mechanical seal during overhauling. Switch off and lock pump supply at its local supply panel. Use a center-punch to mark coupling and casing. 13. Located at center of gland and It is a hollow ring which receives liquid from discharge side of p/p and cool. Dismantle the impeller. Wear rings r fitted to the impeller and/or the pump casing. Disconnect all external fittings from pump casing e. 2. (Light smear of grease on gasket / faces) 11. or from drawing air into the pump when under vacuum conditions.. 5. 6. 10.kya dekhoge ki mech. 3. pressure gauge.prevent liquid under pressure from leaking out of the pump. seal change karna hai? types of c/f p/p? lantern ring fitting?? ANS. 3.Q. Rectify pitting or erosion in the impeller and casing with brass putty. fixed tag and remove motor supply cables. Q. lubricate the gland. Wear rings are typically found on pumps with closed impellers. This causes the faces to become very hot. Lantern ring is provided in centrifugal p/p stuffing gland. Lay motor on its side out of harm’s way. oil reservoirs and air cock. (Cardboard and masking tape is quick and efficient method.even for a very short period of time . 12.g. 2. Pump 1. cooling pipe. pump shaft and internal volute/casing can now be inspected for erosion. taping over bare ends with insulating tape. ensuring SWL of block. Connect shackle and sling to motor eyebolt and lift motor clear of pump using overhead chain block. 8.seal can occur due to. Remove the gland packing and disregard. And also as name indicates 'WEAR' which is a ring can sacrifice its size by taking friction generated between stationary and rotating elements. crack open the pipes / pump flange joints carefully to ensure that pump has drained off and is safe for opening.) 9. Attach a warning notice to pump local supply panel. Inspection Procedure for CENTRIFUGAL Pump and Motor? ANS. and remove the wear ring. Q. protecting machined surfaces on both pump and motor coupling halves against damage.abrasive particles in the liquid being pumped infiltrates with the liquid between the seal faces and grind away the carbon primary ring.Abrasives. replacing it on rebuild.Rotating and fixed face: The rotating face is connected to the rotating shaft while the fixed face is connected to the pump housing. Scrape off old gasket and check mating surfaces. pitting and wear. It is provided bcoz the gland may not get proper cooling as p/p may be under vacuum. 7. The binder mixed with the carbon breaks down and the face of the primary ring turns to a dull black powder. Function of mech. The pump shaft with impeller can be lifted out of casing. Check main drive shaft bearings and thrust bearings for wear and replace if required. (Do Not Operate or Men at Work). 4. The primary ring is made primarily of carbon. The normal shiny face of the primary ring and mating ring. Parts of Mech. then remove the coupling bolts. Seal. Remove bolting from top cover and remove cover. Damage to mech. pms routine.the primary and mating ring faces are denied lubricant. Mechanical seal. Impeller. Open pump suction and discharge pipe drain valves to bilge and when water ceases to flow.seal. and renew gasket on assembly. Heat Damage-Excessive heat can damage the primary ring and the elastomer parts. Close suction and discharge valves. The replacement of rings is cheaper than replacing impellers/casing. . Disconnect.

e. if water leaking from inside then liner crack n if leaking from outside then sealing o-ring leaking. In order to have an efficient heat transfer the economizer tubes need to be filled with the water completely. 6. Some bearings are now sealed for life and will not require greasing. Megger check motor windings to ensure no dampness is present and windings are in good condition. bearing clearance. then as per the above equation 'm' decreases finally the amount of heat transfer 'Q' will decrease. ACTION IN CASE OF BLACKOUT . before opining door check for leakage. Oil is coming more from a bearing then it means that bearing cl. EGB takes suction from the boiler drum and after passing through the economiser tubes the water is fed back into the same drum. Q. which will be higher than boiler steam drum pressure. check b. Give all parts a good clean removing any dirt/ medium residue 7.If the economiser tubes are supplied with the water having same pressure then the water in the tubes will be converted into water and steam.e. Hence the Safety valve setting of EGB will be higher than that of its counterpart in Boiler. Drive Motor 1. Check impeller / shaft key and keyways for damage and undue wear. SAFETY V/V OF ECONOMISER Q. has increased. If these checks are satisfactory. crankcase inspection of aux. Unscrew impeller shaft securing nut and check threads are in satisfactory condition. Because of this the safety valve of egb which is kept on the return line of the boiler kept at high pressure. Rotate shaft at speed by hand. Enter date of overhaul and parts renewed in the pump maintenance record card. in my day at sea it was general practice is to replace with new rings at major overhaul. open door then check sealing rings of door. 5. 2. Hence the pressure of feed water in the EGB. Check wear ring clearance using feeler gauges.Since heat transfer q=mct where m is the mass of the water.For increasing the pressure.the return line from the economiser to the boiler drum is provided with a spring loaded valve which increases the pressure in the line. check thr elongation. Grip motor drive shaft /coupling firmly and check for excess axial and longitudinal movement.why is EGB safety v/v lifting pressure is more than that of boiler safety v/v lifting pressure? The Exhaust Gas Boiler is circulated with feed water by Boiler Water Circulating pump and the pump takes its suction from Boiler Steam drum.4. So heat taken away from the water decreases as a result it results in overheating of tubes. the bearings should be replaced.bearing bolt locking arrangement. move piston to tdc n use torch and check liner for water leakage. check sideways movement of piston rod with a crow bar. retighten to manufacturers torque settings. then take gear drive mechanism backlash. grease bearings as required. Any doubt on either counts. allowing it to run to a stop whilst listening for excess noise from bearings. Oil is coming properly from all points. tightness of b. 3. So in order to prevent steam formation the water is supplied at higher pressure ( At higher pressure the boiling point of water will increase). check bolt tightness of main bearing bolt and take clearance. will be the pressure of steam drum and circulating pump discharge pressure. Any suspect readings indicate a full motor strip to check condition of rotor and stator. check condition of lub.The water which is at high pressure when enters into the steam drum back. its pressure reduces as a result boiling (Vapourisation) of water will take place inside the drum producing steam. in the end start priming pump n check lubricating nozzles n see if lub. if lub. eng and m/e(see new folder)? ANS. If steam is present in the tubes. Oil.

(Non-essential machinery). Start taking soundings of all e/r db tanks and bilges. SOOT BLOWING IS NOT ALLOWED IN PORT OR PILOTAGE PASSAGE. 10. 2. start the pre.inform bridge. HOW TO DO01. Start the generator and take it on load. be calm and composed.turbocharger surging. cement bags.activate engineer alarm. Find out the problem and reason for blackout and rectify the same.Go to bottom platform. find out here flooding is taking place.ENGINE IS TO BE RUNNING AT FULL LOAD. INFORM BRIDGE THAT YOU ARE ABOUT TO START SOOT BLOWING OF THE BOILER SO THAT CORRECTIVE ACTION BY THE BRIDGE WATCHKEEPER CAN BE TAKEN AND ALL SOOT EXHAUST SHOULD BE AWAY FROM THE VESSEL. If auxiliary boiler was running.heavy vibration. HOW TO Shoot BLOW EGB? ANS. Close the feed of the running purifier to avoid overflow and wastage of fuel.VESSEL TO BE AT LEAST 50 NM FROM LAND.In case of Blackout following precautions and actions should be taken:1.Bilge high level alarm will come. Reset breakers that are included in preferential tripping sequence. Change over to high sea chest. then use manual priming handle (provided in some generator).make sure sounding pipe caps are closed. if not. IF BULKHAED LEAKING-use collision mat.Stop m/e. 8. Before starting the generator set. 9. E/R FLOODING 1.isolate the pipe line and rectify. bring the fuel lever to zero position.if any lakage is seen. Soot blowing not to be done if there is an indication of soot fire. Reset breakers and start all the other required machinery and system. If the main propulsion plant is running. Start pumping out bilges using emergency bilge suction. wait for bridge instruction. 6. Emergency generator will restore the power in no time. Note down the time and soundings.they may ask for deballasting or astern kick. shut the main steam stop valve to maintain the steam pressure. 5. 4. GROUNDING how we will come to know.bridge will come to know from echo sounder so call bridge. Lower bilge level. Find out the leakage. Inform Officer on bridge briefly about the condition. to check change in sounding. Then immediately start the main engine lube oil pump and main engine jacket water pump. Call for man power and inform the chief engineer. FOR USA.repeat sounding after 15 min.lubrication priming pump if the supply for the same is given from the emergency generator. what will u do in case of grounding n E/R FLOODING? Ans. Q. SHOOT BLOWING OF ECONOMISER Q.Increased load on engine. 2. Never panic in such situation. 7. . 3. Call engineer’s alarm.

cement boX 2. the gearbox and the electric motor. 05.cut that pipe and fit new pipe and weld.1. IN VERY WATCH 2. MOVE THE SOOT BLOWERS BY HAND. 4. And then weld later. WHEN TO DO. galvanized from both sides and painted. Material of sea water line-mild steel.use rubber piece and marling rope 4.take a pipe of little larger dia. WHEN PRESSURE DROP INCREASES BY 15mmWG. the long retractable soot blower can be used in areas with higher flue gas temperature than any other soot blower type. The blowing medium is supplied through an automated poppet valve.rubber piece and C-clamp 3. Hole in a sea water line how will u repair? If hole is big? Hole is small??If line is not pressuresd ?Material of sea water line?? Ans. WHEN GAS OUTLET TEMP. retractable soot blowers working ? The blower carriage consists of three separate components: the lance hub assembly. OPEN THE STEAM INLET FULL ONCE ENSURED THAT THE CONDENSATE IS COMPLETELY DRAINED. 3.cut it from middle and fit it and then weld. 03.change pipe from flange to flange 2. AFTER EGB IS 15*C HIGHER THEN CLEAN EGB GAS TEMP. Hole in bulkhead. Retractable property improves the cleaning effect and reduce erosions due to high temperature flue gases. Q.use pipe repairing kit-it has fiberglass tape and epoxy. If hole is big1. or collision mat etc.The lance hub housing contains the lance hub. If hole is small1. Q. CLOSE ALL STEAM INLET AND EXHAUST PIPING TO THE SOOT BLOWER AND CHECK PRESSURE DROP. Because the lance tube is fully retracted from the furnace and cooled through the blowing medium. OPEN STEAM INLET TO SOOT BLOWER SLOWLY AND LET ALL THE CONDENSATE PASS ON TO THE RETURN LINE BY KEEPING THE LINES OPENED. which is supported by two special roller bearings.use rubber piece and jubilee clip 3. 04.use cement bags.02. DRAIN THE CONDENSATE FROM THE STEAM INLET AND RETURN LINES OF THE SOOT BLOWER STEAM PIPING. . AND CHECK THE CONTENTS WHICH ARE COMING OUT OF THE FUNNEL.

Safety and relief valve difference?? ANS. so it opens gradually. Resistant to corrosion at high temp. nickel. Q. Gun metal-10 %tin. Q.it is characterize by rapid. Npsh available. trim by aft. no need to use tank on top it will move CG up. Also known as suction lift. opens in proportion to the increase of system pressure over the opening pressure. reduce water from aft peak tank. As a duty engg. gunmetal was eventually superseded by steel.8%.4% . aluminium. sea water pump casing. Actions. good strength n hardness at high temp. Strong and corrosion resistant.2.carbon 0. STAINLESS STEEL – CHROMIUM=18%.1% and rest iron. where used.Definition of suction head and characteristics? ANS. engine load increases. Indications. NIMONIC ALLOY. composition? Properties? Example of similar metal? ANS.1%.0. full opening action.20%.88 % copper.4%. advantages of hydrophore system? ANS. Relief Valve . . titanium.Q. Q. NICKEL. iron -3%. The head that a pump must provide by providing pressure drop on the suction side to raise the liquid from the supply well to the level of the pump. what to do if hole in rudder(rudder breach )and how u will come to know? how to take propeller and rudder drop? ANS. chromium. CAN TRANFER water to any height on ship.2 % zinc.CU:NI= 2:1 IT IS RESISTENT TO SEA WATER CORROSION AND EROSION. Q.reduce rudder movements. Used earlier in bearings castings boiler fittings. Originally used chiefly for making guns.. Safety Valve .liquid applications. Gun metal. creep resistant.1. CARBON.it is the head that the p/p shud provide by causing drop in preesure to raise liquid from tank level.motor ampere increases. MONEL METAL. Gunmetal casts and machines well and is resistant to corrosion from steam and sea water. Stainless steel when comes in contact with air or water forms a layer of protective chromium oxide which prevents it from corrosion. sluggish operation.75%.

for above 305mm it is 8mm) Rudder drop. Then remove rope guard at take propeller drop. n for water type it depends upon dia. .Propeller drop. For some engine this reference point is marked on the propeller and for some engine we have to bring the piston of cyl. here given as a girder which is typical. Nearest to fltwheel at TDC.taken by trammel gauge. When the vessel is built a distinct centrepunch mark is placed onto the ruder stock and onto a suitable location on the vessels structure. The trammel is manufactured to suit these marks As the carrier wears the upper pointer will fall below the centrepunch mark by an amount equal to the wear down.(max. This takes the form of an 'L' shape bar of suitable construction.taken by poker gauge.2 mm for oil type. Of shaft. First the propeller is brought at the reference point.

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