Holographic Versatile Disc 1.

INTRODUCTION An HVD (Holographic Versatile Disc), a holographic storage media, is an advanced optical disk that's presently in the development stage. Polaroid scientist J.van Heerden was the first to come up wi th the idea for holographic three - dimensional storage in 1960. An HVD would be a successor to today's Blue-ray and HD-DVD technologies. The disk will store up to 3.9 terabyte (TB) of data on a single optical disk. Holographic data storage , a potential next generation storage technology, offers both high storage densi ty and fast readout rate. In this article, I discuss the physical origin of thes e attractive technology features, and the components and engineering required to realize them. 1.1 FEATURES of data to be orage devices, re 60,000 bits RAY Discs. Data transfer rate: l gbps. The technology permits over 10 kilobits written and read in parallel with a single flash. Most optical st such as a standard CD saves one bit per pulse. HVDs manage to sto per pulse in the same place. 1 HVD = 5800 CDs = 830 DVD =160 BLU-

1.2 LONGEVITY Holographic data storage can provide companies a method to preserv e and archive information. The write-once, read many (WORM) approach to data sto rage would ensure content security, preventing the information from being overwr itten or modified. Manufacturers believe this technology can provide safe storag e for content without degradation for more than 50 years, far exceeding current data storage options. 1

Holographic Versatile Disc 2. digital data must be impose d onto an optical wave front. preserving a replica of the interference pattern as a change i n absorption. (A common reference beam is a plane wave: a light beam that prop agates without converging or diverging. To do this. stored holographically with high volumetric densit y.1 Interference The reference beam is designed to be simple to reproduce at a later stage. s uch as a photopolymer or inorganic crystal or photographic film. and then extracted from the retrieved optical wave front with excellent dataf idelity. UNDERLYING TECHNOLOGY 2.the reference beam. 2 .) These interference fringes are recorded if the two beams have been overlapped within a suitable photosensitive media. refractive index or thickness.called the object beam .1 HOLOGRAPHY Holographic data storage refers specifically to the use of hologr aphy to store and retrieve digital data. Fig 2. A hologram preserves both the phase and amplitude of an optical wave fr ont of interest .by recording the optical interference pattern between it and a second coherent optical beam . The bright and dark variations of the interference pattern create chemical and/or physical chan ges in the media.

Holographic Versatile Disc Fig 2.2 Holography When the recording is illuminated by a readout beam similar to the original refe rence beam. If the 3 . some of the light is diffracted to "reconstruct" a copy of the objec t beam as shown in Fig.

Holographic Versatile Disc object beam originally came from a 3-D object.4 sh ows the interference fringes pattern stored on the disc.3 shows the two laser collinear holography technique and fig 2.near the bottom of the disk.' in which two laser rays. 2. are collimated into a singl e beam. one blue .green and one red.3 Collinear Holography Fig 2. The s ervo info is meant to monitor the coordinates of the read head above the disk (t his is similar to the track. then t he reconstructed hologram makes the 3-D object reappear. The role of the blue-green laser is to read the data encoded in the form of laser interference fringes from the holographic layer on the top. Fig 2.2 COLLINEAR HOLOGRAPHY HVD uses a technology called 'collinear holography. head and sector information on a normal hard disk d rive). Fig 2.4 Fringes Pattern 4 . while the red laser serves the purpose of a reference beam and also to read the servo info from the aluminum layer like in normal CDs .

PIT Fig 3. Dichroic layer (reflecting gre en light) 8. Distance layers 7. Red positioning/addres sing laser (650 nm) 3.1 HVD Structure 3. Photo polymeric la yer (data-containing layer) 6. Transparent bas e P. beam splitters to spilt the laser beams. Aluminum reflective layer (reflecting red light) 9.2 HVD READER PROTOTYPE To read data from an HVD we need an HVD reader. STRUCTURE 3. Polycarbon layer 5. Hologram (data) 4.1. 1. The following components ar e used in HVD. mirrors to direct the 5 . A blue-green argon laser. The following components are used to make a raeder.1 HVD STRUCTURE HVD structure is shown in fig 3.Holographic Versatile Disc 3. Green writing/reading laser (532 nm) 2.

an entire page of information is stored at once a s an optical interference pattern within a thick. photosensitive optical materia l (Fig 4. Fig 3. and ch arge-coupled device (CCD) cameras. In holographic data storage. This is done by intersecting two coherent laser beams within the st orage material.1 RECORDING DATA Holographic data storage works on the principle of holography . refractive index. or thickness of the ph otosensitive medium.Holographic Versatile Disc laser beams. Illuminating the stored grating with the reference wave rec onstructs the object wave.2 HVD Reader Prototype 4. called the reference beam. DATA STORAGE 4. le nses to focus the laser beams. called the object beam. is designed to be simple to rep roduce. lithium-niobate crystals or photopolymers.1). The first. LCD panels (spatial light modulator). A replica of the interference pattern i s stored as a change in the absorption. contains the information to b e stored. The resulting optical interference pattern causes chemical and/or physic al changes in the photosensitive medium. the second. 6 .

2 READING DATA 7 .Holographic Versatile Disc Fig 4.000 gigabytes) per cubic c entimeter. 4. a spatial light modulator is used to encode th e object beam with the data for storage. several thousand) can be stored on a single volume. An optical inference pattern results fr om the crossing of the beams' paths. a multitude of holograms (theoretically. a reference b eam and an object or signal beam. By adjusting the reference beam angle or wavelen gth. The theoretical limits for the storage density of this techniq ue are approximately tens of terabits (1 terabyte = 1. the resulting data is represented in an optical pa ttern of dark and light pixels.1 Recording Data Light from a single laser beam is divided into two separate beams. creating a chemical and/or physical change in the photosensitive medium.

Holographic Versatile Disc A backward-propagating reference wave. as long as they are distinguishable by the direc tion or the spacing of the gratings. 8 . Such separation can be accomplished by chan ging the angle between the object and reference wave or the laser wavelength. illuminating t he stored grating from the "back" side. rather than according to its address as shown below in Fig 4. which reconstructs t he original plane wave reference beam. This beam can be focused onto a detector and provides an optical measurement of the correlation between the stored data a nd the illuminating object beam. reconstructs an object wave that also pr opagates backward toward its original source. this reference wave is diffracted by the inter ference patterns in such a fashion that only the desired object beam is signific antly reconstructed and imaged on an electronic camera. Because of the thickness of the hologram. An y particular data page can then be read out independently by illuminating the st ored gratings with the reference wave that was used to store that page.2 Reading Data. A large number of these interferen ce gratings or patterns can be superimposed in the same thick piece of media and can be accessed independently. Another way to retrieve data involves illuminating it with a diverging object beam. This technique can allow one to search the stor ed data according to its content.

Each pixel is independent microscopic shutters t hat can either block or pass light using liquid-crystal or micro-mirror technolo gy.a planar array con sisting of thousands of pixels. 9 . HARDWARE 5. such as a CCD camera or CMOS se nsor array.1 SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR To use volume holography as a storage technology. Liquid crystal panels and micro-mirror arrays with 1280 X 1024 pixels are co mmercially available due to the success of computerdriven projection displays. allowing the holographic storage system to reach an input data rate of 1 Gbit pe r second assuming that laser power and material sensitivities would permit. T he pixels in both types of devices can be refreshed over 1000 times per second. di gital data must be imprinted onto the object beam for recording and then retriev ed from the reconstructed object beam during readout. The device for putting dat a into the system is called a spatial light modulator (SLM) .Holographic Versatile Disc 5. The data are read using an array of detector pixels.

but for large pixel arrays this requires careful optical des ign and alignment. faster readout and lower latency could be reached by steering the ref erence beam angle non . This goal requires high laser power (at least 1 W). If there are 1 million pixels per data page and each pixel stores one bit then t he readout rate is 1 Gigabit per second. With mechanical acc ess (i. Even with these req uirements. and by electronic ally reading only the desired portion of the detector array.mechanically.1 Spatial Light Modulator To access holographically . and a detector with a million pixels that can be read out at high frame rates. getting to the right spot is slow (long latency). b ut reading data out can be quick. which implies that 1000 pages of data can be retrieved per second. but these are n ot yet commercially available. A frequently mentioned goal is an integration time of about 1 millisecond.e.stored data. a spinning disk). Both the capacity a nd the readout rate are maximized when each detector pixel is matched to a singl e pixel on the SLM. Low-noise mega pixel CMOS detector arrays that ca n support 500 frames per second have also been demonstrated. Non .Holographic Versatile Disc Fig 5. a storage material capable of high diffraction efficiencies. Frame r ates of 1 kHz have been demonstrated in such "mega pixel" CCDs . 10 .. the correct reference beam must first b e directed to the appropriate spot within the storage media.mechanical access leads to possibility f or lower latency. by using a pulsed laser.

TYPES 6. Examples include photo addressable polymers. but both can have problems repro ducing the object beam faithfully. the illuminated molecules in a so-called direct-write or photo chromatic ma terial undergo a local change in their absorption or index of refraction. a photopolymer material polymerizes in respo nse to optical illumination: material diffuses from darker to brighter regions s o that short monomer chains can bind together to form long molecular chains. Bec ause this diffusion process can be photo triggered. that can lead to changes in index of ref raction or absorption.1 READ ONLY A material that permanently stores volume holograms must generally support some irreversible photochemical reaction. and binding of absorbers to polymer hosts. However. sensitivities can be made hi gh enough to support holographic recording with single short pulses.Holographic Versatile Disc Fig 5. triggered by the bright regio ns of the optical interference pattern. Both type s of materials are inexpensive to make in bulk. For example. In contrast to photopolym ers. 11 . th e high sensitivity means that some of the media volume may be inadvertently affe cted by partial exposure as nearby spots are recorded.2 Data Storage 6. driven by photochemistry or photo-induced molecular reconfiguration.

read. In addition. Fig 6. electrons photo excited at the bright fringes diffuse or drift (are pushed by an electric field) and are retrapped at a dark fringe. erasing individual holograms from a small storage volume without affecting the other superimposed holograms is quite complicated.2 READ-WRITE In contrast to the organic WORM media. where small blocks of data are written. The trappe d charge can be rearranged by later illumination. Fig 6. By using noncentro symmetric crystals exhib iting a linear electro-optic effect.1 Electron cloud 12 . the resulting spatial modulation of electri c field leads to a corresponding local change in index of refraction. the recording rates of photorefractive materials a re typically 5-50 times slower than the achievable readout rate at any given las er power. and erased with equal facility.Holographic Versatile Disc 6.1 shows spatial re-configuration of electronic cloud. However. most erasable holographic materials tend to be inorganic photorefractive crystals doped with transition me tals or rare-earth ions. These materials react to an optical interference patter n by transporting and trapping electrons. so it is possible to erase rec orded holograms and replace them with new ones. This would seem to enable a read -write storage device. thus producing modulation i n electric fields. In an ensemble sense.

11.Holographic Versatile Disc 7. MORE ON HVD 7. which is enough for non-stop playi ng for a year. Its next stated goals are 30 GB HV D cards and submission of these standards to the International Organization for Standardization for ISO approval. The market for this format is not initiall y the common consumer. The pictures of every landmass on Earth .1 HVD ADOPTION The biggest challenge for HVD will be in establishing itself in the commercial market.like the ones shown in Google Eart h .5 STORAGE CAPACITY IN CONTEXT The entire US Library of Congress can be stored on six HVDs.2 STANDARDS On December 9. assuming that every book has been scanned in the text format. and the reader will be priced anywher e in the range of $10. defining a 100 GB HVD-ROM disc.000 to $15. given its h igher cost margins. dedicated to standardizing HVD formats based on Optware's technology. when commercially avail able.can be stored on two HVDs. which as of now seems to be a distant dream. 2007. 7. but enterprises with very large storage needs.600 . TC44 published the first two HVD standards: ECMA-377. It is anticipated that a single HVD. 2004 at its 88th General Assembly the standards bod y Ecma International created Technical Committee 44.900 hours of video.9 TB HVD can hold an ywhere between 4. 7. a 3. On June 11. 13 . may cost anywhere between $100-120 . With MPEG4 ASP encoding.000. The L ibrary of Congress is the largest in the world and contains over 130 million ite ms. defining a 200 GB HVD "recordable cartridge" and ECMA-378.

MPEG-4 AVC (H.Holographic Versatile Disc 7.264).6 HVD AT A GLANCE Fig 7. and VC-1 Theoretical ly up to 3.1 HVD Media type: Encoding: Capacity: Ultra-high density optical disc MPEG-2.9 TB 14 .

High-def inition video. 8.Holographic Versatile Disc Developed: Usage: By HSD Forum Data storage.9 TB 532 nm (Green) 120 mm Yes 1 Gbps 10. & the possibility of ultra high definition video.7 GB 650 nm (Red) 120 mm No 11. COMPARISON PARAMETERS Capacity Laser Wavelength Disc Diameter Hard Coating Data Transfer Rate (Raw Dat a) Data Transfer Rate (Audio/Video) DVD 4.08 Mbps BLU-RAY 25 GB 405 nm (Bue) 120 mm Yes 36 Mbps HVD 3.1 15 .08 Mbps 54 Mbps 1 Gbps Table 8.

16 . conve ntional data storage technologies. CONCLUSION The Information Age has led to an explosion of information available to users. So a n HVD would be a successor to today's Blue-ray and HD-DVD technologies. Storing information throughout the volume of a medium—not just on its surface—offers an intriguing high-capacity alternative. However.9 terabytes on a single disc. Holographic data st orage is a volumetric approach which. are approachin g physical limits. It can transfer data at the rate of 1 Gigabit per second. significant results from longstanding research efforts. W hile current storage needs are being met. although conceived decades ago. where individual bits are stored as distinct magnetic or optical changes on the surface of a recording medium. HVD gives a practical way to exploit the ho lography technologies to store data up to 3.Holographic Versatile Disc 10. storage technologies must continue to improve in order to keep pace with the rapidly increasing demand. and progress in holographic recording materials. has made r ecent progress toward practicality with the appearance of lower-cost enabling te chnologies. The technology permits over 10 kilobits of data to be written and read in parallel with a single flash.

com/definition/HVD http://www.htm http://hvd-forum.scribd.com/hvd. com http://www.org/abouthvd/techn ology.com/20051114/technology05. REFERENCES • • • • • • http://electronics.html 17 . tech-faq.howstuffworks.html http://searchstorage.shtml http://www.com/hvd.techtarget.Holographic Versatile Disc 11.expresscomputeronline.