Preliminaries: laplace transform

,
b ɺ ɶ L{F (t )} ≡ [linear integral transform] ≡ ∫ F (t ) K (t , p) dt ≡ F ( p ); K (t , p ) = e − pt ; C = D ⋅∇ 2C ; a

(1.1)

Laplace transform fick’s law as,
∞ ∞ ɺ ɺ L{0} = ∫ (∇ 2C − D −1C )e − pt dt = 0 = ∇ 2 L{C} − D −1 ∫ Ce− pt dt 0 0

ɶ ɶ ɶ ɶ ɶ = ∇ 2 C − D −1 ( Ce − pt |∞ − pL{−C}) = ∇ 2 C − D −1 pC → D∇ 2C ( x, p) = pC ( x, p ) 0 The laplace transform ate up the time-derivative. Now we have an ODE.
Example: find the concentration profile in three dimensions for boundary condition C (0, t ) = C0 , and a constant-diffusivity-coefficient. Laplace transform the boundary condition as, ∞ ɶ ɶ L{C (0, t )} = L{C } → C (0) = C e − pt dt = −(C / p) e− pt |∞ = C / p → C (0) = C / p
0

(1.2)

0

0

0

t =0

0

0

(1.3)

Example: consider going to 1D, and consider having the same boundary condition C (0, t ) = C0 , whose Laplace ɶ transform was (1.3). Then: pC ( x, p ) of (1.2) constitutes a homogeneous1 ODE with constant coefficients, the
ɶ solution to which is a dying-exponential with amplitude A± = C0 / p = C (0) ,
ɶ C (0) = C0 / p

ɶ ∇ 2C =

d2 dx 2

ɶ ɶ ɶ C = ( p / D)C → C ( x, p) = A+ e +
p / Dx

p / Dx

+ A− e −

p / Dx

=

A± e ±

p / Dx

C → C ( x, t ) = 0 L−1{e ± p

x 2 } = C0 erfc( ) ; erfc z ≡ 1 − erf z = 1 − 4 Dt π
− ( 1 n +1) − a p 2

z

0

e

− z ′2

(1.4) dz′;

The inverse laplace transform that was needed is L−1{ p positive-frequency a ≥ 0 and n ≥ 1 . Plotting,
CHx,tL 2.0 t=0.0001 t=0.01 1.5 t=1

e

} ≡ 4 n t 3n ⋅ erfc( 1 a / t ) , which requires 2

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

x; D=1=C 0

(1.5)

1

Inhomogeneities are amenable to solution-methods described in EM 04 - 035 - greens theorem and BVPs in electrostatics, an (elementary) example of which is found in EM 04 - 094 - pr 35 - green function for potential of spherical conductor held at V0.