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flow-induced-vibration

flow-induced-vibration

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ANL/MCT/TM_- -I DE93 003191

FLOW-INDUCED

VIBRATION-

1992

(ANL Contract No. 31-109-ENG-38-85540)

Contents

P_agn
1 2 INTRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 2.1 Features 2.1.! 3 ......................................................................... TRANSFER of Short Course PROGRAM ......................................... Vibration ............... 2 2 4

on Flow-Induced

Benefits

to Participants

................................................

VIBRATION OF SENSING LINES AND RHR SYSTEM COMPONENTS ............................................................................ 3.1 3.2 3.3 Experimental Root Causes Data, Analytical Results, and Observations Vibration ........ ..........

5 5 7

of Sensing-Line

and RHR System

Course of Action to Remedy Sensing-Line and RHR System Vibration ............................................................................ VIBRATION .................................................................... ................................................................ Interaction of an Array .......... . ............................. ....................

8 9 9 9 10

4 5

VALVE

LITERATURE 5.1 5.2 Dynamic

SURVEY

Tube/Support Vibration

Flow-Induced

of Cylinders

6

_JNSTEADY-FLOW THEORY FOR FLUIDELASTIC INSTABILITY OF TUBE ARRAYS ....................................................................... 6.1 6.2 6.3 Motion-Dependent Experimental Test Procedure REMARKS Setup Fluid Forces .............................................

11 11 14 15 17 19 19

............................................................. Analysis .........................................

and Data

7

CLOSING

...................................................................

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

........................................................................

.....................................................................................

iii

......APPENDIX APPENDIX A: TPC Third NPS Units 1 & 2................ C: Flow-Induced Vibration of an Array of Cylinders........................... Valve Vibration ........................ Part 1 26 APPENDIX 37 iv ........................................... 20 B: A Review of Dynamic Tube-Support Interaction in Heat Exchanger Tubes .................. and Part II ...............

......... Arrangement Schematic Flow Representation of Data Diagram .......Figures 1 2 3 4 5 Tube Array Test Tube Channel in Crossflow ............................... of an Active Tube ................................................ Analysis Instrumentation ............. 12 15 16 17 18 ............................................................................ ...............................................................................................

• Flow-induced vibration of tube arrays was reviewed and the needs of Taipower in the area of fluid/structure interaction were identified as were the procedures necessary for Taipower to accomplish its goals (Ref. A computer program. resolution of design issues. on FIV was completed and key Taipower to handle future problems in the subject • The modified component cooling water (CCW) heat exchangers were assessed and the basis for a license from the Taiwan Atomic Energy Council (AEC)was established (Ref. to compute the added- • . the American Institute in Taiwan and the Coordination Council for North American Affairs of Taiwan signed a comprehensive agreement on joint United States/Taiwan cooperation in civilian uses of nuclear energy and related technical and scientific fields. was established mass matrices for tube arrays (Ref. review of designs. The main objectives of the program are to provide a technology transfer program on FIV for Taipower staff and to assist Taipower with various aspects of FIV including evaluation of reports and proposals. the following tasks were accomplished (Refs. ARRAY. A joint program on FIV was established in July 1988 between Taiwan Power Company (Taipower or TPC) and ANL. to June 30. 1988. 4).1 INTRODUCTION In October 1984. the subject of flow-induced vibration (FIV) problems in power plants was given high priority. 1 and 2): • A technology transfer program staff members were prepared area. 1990). The seismic reanalysis a report was submitted Fluid/structure of Chin Shan to the Taiwan activities spent-fuel AEC. were racks was assessed and • • interaction coordinated and provided a list of potential bidders for a fluid transient project and related publications and a recommendation for purchasing technical data on fluid coupling. In a meeting of this committee in 1987. and assisted in the promotion of Taipower/INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research)/University cooperation. 2). This agreement also established a joint committee to encourage this cooperation. and selected research studies. 3). recommendation for design modifications. During the first two years (July 1. attended by a representative of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

1992. how to develop a test plan and test procedure. A short course on FIV was given at Taipower on June 1 and 2. In addition. F. and engineers from several research institutes.Taipower expressed interest in extending the joint program so that ANL could provide continuing assistance. 2 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM A Taipower engineer. unsteady flow theory for fluidelastic instability of tube arrays. civil engineering. through June 30. 1991. To develop their capabilities and to establish future cooperation. power gen:_ration and transmission. and tests on motion-dependent fluid forces acting on tube arrays in crossflow. Participants included Taipower's staff. This provided him the opportunity to learn how to construct a test facility and instrumentation. assessment of sensingline and valve vibrations. to June 30. Work from May 1. In most cases. When a FIV problem is . He participated in several programs: chaotic dynamics of loosely supported tubes in crossflow. 1991. 1994). Lai. a structural or mechanical component becomes a problem or causes other problems when undesired effects of a flow field have not been accounted for in the design. FIV problems have been experienced in many fields. literature survey. was at the Thermal and Mechanical Sciences Section of ANL for the month of June 1991. engineers from Taiwan AEC and industries. two engineers from INER. Shyr. Y. also visited the Thermal and Mechanical Sciences Section of ANL for approximately two weeks in June 1991. professors from various universities. These discussions have facilitated the establishment of future joint programs. Fan and J. and FIV of heat exchanger tubes. including the aerospace industry. a series of technical discussions was held on future cooperation among Taipower/INER/ANL on FIV. J. and how to analyze and apply experimental data. 1992. included technology transfer.1 Features of Short Course on Flow-Induced Vibration Flow-induced vibration is a subject of current interest and has received continuing attention. In addition to INER participation in the test program on chaos of fluid/structure systems. Lai also participated in many technical discussions on various topics about fluid/structure interaction. The program was extended for several years (May 1. 2. C. summarized in this report. and offshore and undersea technology. The source of the problems has usually been improper design. N. through Taipower. His performance at ANL was excellent and contributed significantly to the success of the joint program between Taipower and ANL.

and experimental techniques. experimental techniques. the engineer has various options to eliminate the detrimental vibration.Stiffness-controlled instability . The objective of the sho. and the state of the art of the subject.Lock-in oscillations .Examples resonance .re discussed.Parametric resonance and combination . future research needs . the participants should understand the fundamental concepts of FIV. to develop an ability to anticipate and eliminate problems at the design stage. The emphasis is on understanding the phenomena. various phenomena. analytical models.Coupled modes and response .Added mass and fluid damping . however.Sloshing .Acoustic resonance .Damping-controlled instability .t course on FIV is to provide a general background for.noted in the design stage.Divergence . modification is usually very costly. The main purpose is to develop diagnostic skills and an ability to establish effective remedies for existing FIV problems.Strouhal numbers . analytical modeling._. the problems occur after the components are already in operation. In addition.Computer programs Vortex shedding . In many situations. available design guides.Examples • • Fluidelastic instability . and more importantly. and an approach to solving FIV problems in different fields. Common features of classes of problems are presented and the concepts are illustrated with specific examples from a wide variety of applications. Upon completion of this seminar. The information • presented is organized into the following in stationary fluid areas: Coupled fluid/structure vibration .

.1. 2.1 Benefits to Participants the short course on FIV. nine vicleo tapes were shown to illustrate different vibration mechanisms: (1) sloshing of water in a storage tank._:_:ructure interaction. Various phenomena of fluid/.Future development Discussion . (6) nonlinear response of tube rows in crossflow.Experimental data .ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Codes . Various mathematical models and vibration mechanisms.Wear . (8) chaotic vibration of simple mechanical systems. (7) tube/support interaction. (5) instability of tube arrays in crossflow.Examples in heat exchangers considerations • Chaotic - vibration General description Tubes conveying fluid Tube arrays in crossflow Examples • Design guides . and (9) weir instability. A simple experiment on the chaotic vibration of a two-degree-of-freedom system was demonstrated._ractical examples .Techniques to eliminate excessive vibration • In addition. (4) parametric resonance and lock-in oscillations. How to specify vibration tests for fluid/structure systems. (3) vortex-induced vibration of two tubes in tandem.TEMA (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer's Association) Standards -PVRC (Pressure Vessel Research Committee of Welding Research Council) guideline . the participants should Upon understand • • • • • completing The fundamental concepts of FIV and instability.Mathematical models . (2) pipes conveying fluid.Prediction and design . How to compute structural motion in response to flow.• Tube/support interaction .

2. damage evaluation reports by INER. and 5. where N = 1. Taipower found that another nuclear power plant had experienced problems similar to theirs.• • • The significance of structural response. I had discussed the problem with the project engineer at the Susquehanna Nuclear Power Plant and had met with the contractor who replaced valve F017 in February 1991. sensing line vibration amplitude for one pump operating with a valve opening of 7% is approximately six times that for two pumps operating with a valve opening of 15%. i. The excitation of • . based on discussions with Taipower staff. sensing lines.1 Experimental Data. and a series of other reports provided by Taipower. 4. Taipower is in a good position to solve FIV problems in the future. 3 VIBRATION OF SENSING LINES AND RHR SYSTEM COMPONEN'I_ A preliminary evaluation of Taipower sensing lines and residual heat removal (RHR) system components was performed. risers. experimental data obtained by Taipower staff. Comparison of typical frequency spectra of a sensing line obtained with one and two pumps shows that all sensing lines are excited by the same source. valve F017. From my discussions with some of the participants. how to translage vibration specifications to design decisions. Analytical and information Results. The state of the art of the subject and current developments in different countries. Upon performing a series of tests to measure the responses of RHR pumps.. and that RHR pumps are the probable source. (GE). and Observations the excitation sources are Important data summarized below. the short course appears to have been well received.e. 3. The results show that valve F017 is the critical component and is the excitation source. based on the materials presented at the short course. The dominant frequencies changed dramatically when two pumps were used. • used to identify In some cases. The dominant response frequencies fs of all sensing lines with one pump operating are --17 N. analytical results and experimental data obtained by General Electric Co. The main objectives of this evaluation were to identify the potential root causes of vibration and to recommend a plan to alleviate vibration problems. 3. Available design guidelines. and fluid pressure.

unsteady flow will induce valve vibration but its vibration amplitude is not very significant. one with five vanes and the other with seven vanes. • RHR piping supports were damaged. that line of the sensing line is in response to riser • . One of the most likely mechanisms is fluidelastic instability of the valve with a small opening. Flow pulsations may be associated with RHR pumps. • The shape accurately of valve at small F017 valve had. According to a Taipower engineer who was standing next to a riser during the testing of the RHR shutdown cooling mode. parametric resonance is a possible mechanism. Two observations can be made: . and sensing-line orifices. the several times. This is an indication F017 valve stem had been replaced that severe vibration of the valve is a potential cause of RHR piping vibration. For a seven-vane 210 Hz. the mechanism may be forced vibration of the sensing lines due to riser vibration and unsteady flow. modified to control flow rate more The current shape of the valve is . are understood to have two stage impellers.If sensing lines are not excited by riser vibrations. they are most likely excited by fluid pulsations. vibration amplitudes of the risers are very small while the vibration amplitudes of sensing lines are extremely large. the damaged supports are located within =25 ft of valve F017. If sensing lines are not excited by riser oscillations. It is believed that the valve is subjected to fluidelastic instability with a small opening of 7%.3. which are operated at 1780 rpm (30 Hz). • According to Taipower staff. Normally. been openings. resonance of the sensing excitation becomes questionable. It is noted that fs =fp/N.4. Because of unsteady flow.If riser vibration is indeed very small while extremely large. 6 all sensing lines can be transmitted by fluid or risers. N= 12. that RHR pumps are one of the probable sources impeller. the pump excitation frequency fp is (1) of which shows excitation.. • RHR pumps. valve F017. This shows that the damage is most likely associated with the valve.6.

two pumps can be used to reduce vibration amplitudes for loop B. It is emphasized that to avoid further damage to sensing lines. which will cause large and may amplify flow pulsations and excite loop vibration. However. the engineerr at the plant reported higher vibration with two pumps running.susceptible to fluidelastic instability. In any case. chaotic vibration may exist due to nonlinear boundary conditions. Sensing lines are excited by forced vibration and possibly by unsteady flow caused by valve F017 because of fluidelastic instability of the valve. The time history of sensing line N2E shows a dominant frequency of 17 Hz. 2. 5) Hz. The first crack initiation of sensing line N2E was at the 3 o'clock position. there are multiple frequency peaks at 17 N (N = 1. For loop A. of Sensing-Line and RHR System Vibration • 3. The maximum amplitude for N2E is =0.5 in. This shows that large-amplitude vibration is a cause of tube breakage and that bending vibration in the out-of-plane direction is a critical mode. the amplitudes of the sensing-line vibration appear to be about the same as those in loop B operating with two pumps. the dominant excitation force is due to fluidelastic instability of valw_ F017. This implies two possibilities. available information appears to be contradictory. • vibration Crack initiation occurred on the OD of the pipe. because in loop B. (1) RHR pumps are probable excitation sources. The original source of unsteady flow is due to RHR pumps. 4. The RHR pump is also a contributing factor. a best condition of pump and valve opening in loop A should be set to avoid excessive vibration. However. . vibration amplitudes for operating with two pumps are much smaller than those with one pump. 3. The vibration of RHR piping is believed to be excited by fluidelastic instability of the valve and unsteady flow. followed by initiation at the 9 o'clock position. In GE tests with two pumps.2 Root Causes Based on the available data. Crack growth occurred by cyclic stresses. (2) Because some U-bolt supports may not provide firm support (there is clearance between support and sensing line). the following conclusions can be made. The mechanisms are believed to be forced vibration due to risers and possibly the parametric resonance associated with pulsating flow. It is noted that the side effects and the effects on other components of operating two pumps such as heat exchangers should be considered should be assessed. however.

or a new valve that will not be subjected to fluidelastic instability at small openings should be used. should be asked to verify that their results are applicable for operating with one or two pumps. in which the flow field is modified forces are eliminated. Therefore. GE person_.el. . or modified. component is • Combination of fluid dynamic and structural dynamic attenuation. in which the structural modified so that it is less susceptible to vibration. Communication among different departments becomes very important. It is recommended that Taipower consider the replacement of valve F017 with CCI Drag Valves. a project manager.3 Course of Action Restoration to Remedy Sensing-Line Inteevity and RHR System Vibrations of all Affected Components Step 1. Taipower appears to have a strong line management system. but alone. Valve F017 is the most critical component. who follows the matrix system.' 8 3. the excitation sources are associated with valve F017 and partially with the RHR pumps. and supports should be repaired to satisfy ASME Codes. In the case at Taipower. valve F017 components can be changed. cracked pipes. This program involves engineers from several departments with different specialties. oscillations appear to be insignificant. so that Fluid dynamic fluid excitation attenuation. In each project. Based on the experience of the Susquehanna Nuclear Power Plant. Step 2: Three * Modification methods of Valve F017 are generally used to eliminate detrimental vibration. may be appointed to enhance coordination within Taipower and interaction with outside consulting firms. in which both flow field and structure are modified to reduce the vibration to a tolerable level. weakened. The RHR pumps induce unsteady flow. Qf the Structural Damaged sensing lines. • Structural dynamic attenuation. who have performed analyses and tests. a CCI Drag Valve appears to alleviate the problem.

tube response in flow. To achieve this goal. . S. and a group of engineers visited TPC Third NPS units 1 and 2. other types of supports have also been used. Y. tube/support gap dynamics. Chen (Ref. To facilitate manufacture and allow for thermal expansion of the tubes. he discusses dynamics of loosely supported tubes. 5 5. The dynamics of tube/support interaction in heat exchangers is fairly complicated. Lai of Taipower. however. He points out that the supports for heat exchanger tubes are usually plates with drilled holes. The meeting participants included T. and design modifications were reported to the company (Appendix A). C. K. Fan of INER. N. T. small clearances are used between tubes and tube supports. and monitoring and maintenance group working together with INER will be able to identify the excitation mechanisms and choose the most appropriate contractor to eliminate the excessive vibration permanently. Chen reviews the dynamic tube/support interaction that occurs in heat exchanger tubes. Head of the Mechanical Division of Taipower's Nuclear Engineering Department. Taipower has found that valve EF-HCV 127 must be replaced yearly. During the June 4 meeting. 1992. and future research needs. what is needed is a design guide to predict the useful life of tubes under specific design flow conditions.1 LITERA_ Dynamic SURVEY TubeJSupport Interaction In Ref. The following topics are of particular importance: applicable to fluid effects with Nonlinear effects of the fluid in Linear-flow theories are no longer relatively large oscillation amplitudes. staff of TPC Third NPS. Lee. Chen present a lecture on FIV and to discuss valve vibration. Lee and F. possible excitation mechanisms. K. tube damage and wear. Chen of ANL. From a practical point of view. design considerations. and effects of various system parameters. The engineers in Taipower's Nuclear Engineering Department. and Taipower contractors. wear rate.4 VALVE VIBRATION On June 4. tube/support interaction characteristics. diagnostic techniques. 5. The purpose was to have S. Third Station. S. S. impact and wear due to flow excitations. Specifically. it is necessary to understand tube dynamics. 5) conducted a survey and summarized the current state of the art of this subject and identified future research needs. Valve vibration in the nuclear industry is an important topic.

axial and peripheral correlation of fluid pressure fluctuations. as well as • . Extensive studies are needed to quantify the wear rate as a function of different system parameters and excitation mechanisms. England • It is expected that dynamic tube/support continuing research for some years to come. An integrated analytical/experimental study of the nonlinear effects is needed. design guides to prevent FIV are still being developed or are not well developed and the state of the art is such that many key pvrameters in the analysis are not well quantified (Refs. is needed.10 the tube/support clearance are not well understood. Their response includes periodic oscillations. To predict tube life.2 B). 6 and 7). A systematic study. wear rate is a key parameter. including analysis and experimentation. and effects of other system parameters on fluid excitation forces. Motion-dependent fluid forces: Fluid function of reduced flow velocity and oscillation amplitude. chaotic vibration. • Wear rates for different oscillations induced by different mechanisms including subcritical vibration and fluidelastic instability. damping cylinder and stiffness as a pattern.:: of The review was presented au the Vibration in Brighton. Vibration Flow-Induced of an Array of Cylinders Flow-induced vibration in cylinder arrays has been a subject of extensive studies during the last decade for several reasons. Very limited studies have been perform¢_ to understand the nonlinear behavior. Many system components consisting of a group of cylinders still experience failure due to FIV and can result in significant repair costs. International Conference on Flow-Induced (Appendix 5. interaction will be a subj_:¢. and must be studied to resolve unsettled issues for developing prediction methods and design distributions in cylinder arrays. Tubes with loose supports are intrinsically nonlinear. Several topics are important of FIV and to provide the basis guides: • Flow field: Flow velocity transfer equipment. such as heat • Fluid excitation forces: Power spectral density of fluid excitation forces. are not well qum_tified. and random vibration.

fluid damping. and response as a function of system parameters. Mathematically. it can be stated that fluid excitation forces appear in the right-hand side of the differential equations to describe a coupled fluid/tube system. For example. steam generators. It is expected to receive continuing attention for some time to come. Ali fluid force components that are a function of tube motion are called motion-dependent fluid forces. These fluid forces are called fluid excitation forces. the motion will disturb the flow field. consist of a group of tubes submerged in crossflow. the excitation forces can be divided into two groups. The fluid forces acting on the tubes will depend on tube motion. while motion-dependent fluid forces appear on the left-hand side of the equation. such as heat exchangers an_. steady and fluctuating drag and lift forces are typical fluid excitation forces. . 1. Each tube has the same radius R. they do not change tube characteristics.1 Motion-Dependent Fluid Forces Consider a group of n tubes vibrating in a row as shown in Fig. The fluid forces acting on the tubes result from the fluid flow. The main objective of the study described below is to present the motion-dependent fluid forces acting on a tube array. The axes of the tubes are parallel to one another and perpendicular to the x-y plane. it disturbs the flow field. In general. 6 UNSTEADY-FLOW OF TUBE ARRAYS THEORY FOR FLUIDELASTIC INSTABILITY Many system components. and fluid stiffness. Typical examples are fluid added mass. Fluid flow is a source of energy that can induce vibration and stability. response • Flow-induced vibration in an array of cylinders is a worthwhile topic for future research and an important subject in practical applications. simplified equations for different excitation mechanisms. Fluid forces will excite tube vibration and fluid excitation forces will cause forced vibration and resonance. Design guides: acceptance criteria Design guides for predicting cylinder and design modification techniques. Details of this review are published as feature articles of Shock and Vibration Digest (Appendix C).11 • Cylinder response: Mathematical models that incorporate ali fluid effects. motion-dependent fluid forces can change the tube characteristics and may induce instability. If the tubes of a tube array oscillate in a flow. On the other hand. and the fluid is flowing with a gap flow velocity U. In general. When a tube array is rigid. 6.

(2) ... fj and gj are given as (Ref. _ co j: _jk +P U2 2._[OCjkUk +tYjk k / j=1 and n / . 8) fj = . v /.12 !!ii! iI ii! ¸ ii!ii_i_i i !i iil "" iilii_..._.. =- iii!!i! i i i !!!i! r _ ii!ii i!!!_ X 00000 Y ' _ ooooo 00000 ooooo ooooo Fig. 1. resl=ectively. respectively.. The motion-dependent fluid-force components acting on tube j in the x and y directions are fj and gj. Tube Array in Crossflow The displacement components of tube j in the x and y directions are uj und vi.p uR2 k=l oc jk _t2 + ($jk Dt2 + .. .

_'-. O_jk. (6) Comparing c" Eqs. Fluid-force coefficients can be determined by measuring the fluid forces acting on the tubes due to oscillations of a particular tube. its displacement in the y direction is given by vk = v cos cot. In this study. we can also write the fluid force component as fj = (P _R2co2_jk +P U2(_ik )v coscot. tube k is excited in the y direction. (_jk. _'. Using Eqs. quasi-steady-flow theory. t_e unsteady-flow theory is used.-.efficients. _ik' (_jk' and l:jk are fired-stiffness coefficmnts. For example.13 gj=-P _R2 _jk _t 2 _t 2 --_ l:jk c'_'+_ik _t ) where p is fluid density. co is circular frequency of tube oscillations. Three flow theories have been used for fluid-force coefficients: quasi-staticflow theory. ' _jk. and l:jk are added mass co. and _'.T'_J k k' (7) and . and unsteady-flow theory.are fluidJK • _K JK damping coefficients. = 1 2 cos(cot (5) where Cjk is the fluid-force amplitude and _jk is the phase angle that the fluid force acting on tube j leads the displacement of tube k. 5 and 6 yields 1 _3 Ur jk = 2Cjk COS(_J . and aik.pU2CikV sin cot. The fluid force acting on tube j in the x direction can be written (4) +*jk)V. O_jk. t is time. 2 and 4.

which provides the support for Tube 1. tube pitch. 3) and one group of tubes is active while the others are dummy tubes. 4).1-cm (15-in. 7 and 8 when the force amplitude Cjk and phase angle Ojk are measured. relatively flexible tube.2 Experimental Setup amplitude. Then t_ik and _ik can be calculated from Eqs. The flow passes through a series of screens and honeycombs and then into a rectangular flow channel. and a 12. fluid-force reduced flow velocity only. For a given tube array.635-cm (0. 6. and a 0. fluidforce coefficients are functions of oscillation amplitude (A/D) and reduced flow velocity (Ur).) length.035-in. The added-mass coefficient ajk in Eq. The water level is controlled by standpipes in the output tank and the flow is controlled by the running speed of the pump motor.) OD. In addition. with a 0. prescribed oscillations can be imported to Tube 1 in the x or y direction. 7 can be calculated by the potential flow theory (Ref. _jk 1 = 2cJ k sin_j k.25-in. 8). 2. For smallcan be considered a function of the The test channel is shown in Fig.028-in. The velocity profile in the An array of tubes is assembled in the test area (see Fig. Both the oscillation amplitude and frequency of the shaker can be controlled in the appropriate range. (8) where U r is the reduced flow velocity (U r = _U/o)R). Fluid force coefficients depend on tube arrangement.75-in. The relatively rigid main bodies of the tubes are constructed from stainless steel tubing with a 2.) length (Fig. where A is vibration amplitude oscillations. and flow velocity. test area is measured with a turboprobe flowmeter. All tubes except Tube 1 are clamped to a support plate with a nut attached to the smaller supporting tube. Water is pumped into an input tank.54-cm (1-in. and a 38.089-cm (0. Tube 1 is not attached to the support plate. Other fuid-force coefficients can be obtained in the same mariner.07-cm (4. oscilia_ion frequency. oscillation amplitude. but passes through a circular hole in the support plate and is connected to an electromagnetic shaker. is fastened to the upper end cap of each tube.14 . Thin brass caps are soldered to both ends of each tube and a smaller. .071-cm (0.) wall thickness. Flow velocity is measured by a turbine flowmeter. a 0.) wall thickness. coefficients and D is tube diameter.) OD.

Normally. _'l i I " t .04 lb) of force acting on the middle of the active tubes. . only a small portion of the supporting tube (less than 1. Therefore the strain gauges do not require waterproofing... :During tests. The two sets of strain gauges measure the force components in the two perpendicular directions with a sensitivity of =1 volt for 0... two sets of strain gauges are placed on the outer surface of the smaller tube where the outer surface of the tube has been machined to a s. .18 Newtons (0..15 Input Tank Flow Channel Output Tank / . Test rea A _ _ ' _ _.3 cm) is submerged in water. • Static method in air: The active tube is held fixed at the supported and a given force is applied at the middle of the active length..3 Test Procedure and Data Analysis (active tubes) are calibrated by two methodsmstatic The force transducers and dynamic. 2... the water surface is kept at such a level that the active length of the tubes is submerged in the flow. Test Channel For the active tubes. Then. 6._Turbine ". / Flow Conditioners _i/ .ii ! "--¢"_ Tosump Fig. the inertia force due to the sinusoidal oscillations is used to determine the calibration constant. Flow ' Flowmeter Control Valve Supply fromPump . _ ToSump _ / Flow/ ___.. end • Dynamic method in air and in water: The tube is excited at a given frequency and amplitude in air or in water._:aller diameter.ii .../ Inlet _i_ _J_ _[_= _ ] rX_.__.'" • .. .'"' ! ' ... _ .

- Rectangular rray A !_ ___ 00000 00000 x ooooo CO000 OOOOO 00000 Y . the calibration . 3.. O O O . Motion-dependent fluid forces are measured Tube 1 oscillating in the lift or drag direction. with .. 2.. method is used... fairly consistent constant from the dynamic results are obtained. for active Tubes 1. and 3. Fig... Tube Arrangement In general._ ooooo Triangular Array "_ 0 =- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 x 0 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o L_ y In application.• TubeRow 16 r o O x ¢_.--Y =..

reported test facility. the The This task is also being sponsored water channel. Displacement and force signals are filtered by band-pass filters to eliminate low.1 cm SupportPlate . the magnitude of the forces acting on the active tubes. in a good position to handle future FIV problems more effectively. instrumentation. the test facility. as well as engineers from industry.0 Hz. and data analysis systems are ready for a tests. These signals are analyzed to obtain the oscillation displacement of the tube. Schematic Representation of an Active Tube A flow diagram of the instrumentation and exciter is shown in Fig. by ANL.1 cm _L -I_ 11. Fig. and experimental data obtained are expected 7 CLOSING REMARKS The joint program between Taipower and ANL has been very beneficial. and research institutes. . The experimental data will be in the near future. and has key staff members. instrumentation.1 to 2. 4. to be very useful. It provides an opportunity for Taipower staff to learn the state of the art of FIV and resolution of some FIV problems. 5.' 17 Strain Gauges I L. are provided by ANL. Upon completion of the third year of the program. including analyzer. r 38. and the phase between the motion-dependent fluid force and tube displacement. The exciter provides sinusoidal displacement at a frequency varying from =0. Taipower has accomplished the following: • Completed another technology transfer program on FIV. The first tube array is a row of tubes with a pitch-to-diameter ratio Tests of the tube row are in progress.35. The series of of 1. universities.and high-frequency noises and then are digitized and stored in the fast fourier transform analyzer.

:i:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_.I Transducer Strain__ G Strain Gage Amplifier _ Bandpass Filter ------_ BandFilter pass Strain Gage Amplifier _ Bandpass Filter ------ Outputs: Displacement Force Phase Angle _ Analyzer Fig. Taipower and ANL in this subject area is • Continuing cooperation between expected to be very fruitful. Completed the setup of a test facility to measure motion-dependent fluid forces. This facility is expected to be very useful to Taipower and the FIV community._:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:i:i:_ =:i_i_:_: Electronics __:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_t ". * Completed reviews of FIV of an array of cylinders in crossflow and dynamic tube/support interaction. 18 DisplacementTransducer ElectromagneticExciter I Displacement li:i::. and identified future research needs to achieve Taipower's goals. . Flow Diagram • Completed and valves of Data Analysis Instrumentation of sensing lines preliminary assessments and recommended future of the vibration courses of action.. 5.

A Review of Dynamic Tube-Support Interaction Sxchanger Tubes. S. _CF_ 1. Shock and Vibration Digest. 23. S. 204. Published by Mechanical Engineering Limited. Chen.. S. Flow-Induced Vibration of an Array of Cylinders. Structures. 1-6 (Nov. S. Publishers 5. S. S. 111-120 (1991). Part H. Y. Kao. Chen. Chen.S. 1990).. i Argonne National Laboratory 3. Power are P. Lai. S. Flow-Induced Water Heat Exchangers. 1. H. FED-Vol. C. S. 3-11 (1992). Department of Energy under Contract Agreement 31-109-Eng-3885540. Lee. 3-9 (1991). Vibration PVP-Vol. Unsteady Fluid Forces and Fluidelastic Vibration of a Group of Circular Cylinders. Y. 1989). pp. S. T. S. Lee. Chen. of Component Cooling 189. Flow-Induced Vibration. Chen. No. Vol. ANL/MCT-89/4 (Nov. Many engineers in the Nuclear Engineering Department of Taiwan Company have contributed to various aspects of the program. Forum on Unsteady Flow . S. Chen. pp. Vol. ASME Publication. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 19 This work was sponsored by Taiwan Power Company under an agreement with the U. S. Yeh.1990.. Cheng. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Flow Induced Vibrations. The 8. Argonne National Laboratory Report 2 Chen. pp. Y. P. Report ANL/MCT-90/2 (Sept.. Flow-Induced Vibration-1990. Shock and Vibration Digest. S. pp. F. Flow-Induced Vibration Hemisphere Publishing Corp. S. 1990). The 7.. 102/PVP-Vol. No. S. (1987). 4.. and Chen. H.. 153-163 (1990). K. of Circular Cylindrical in Heat Engineers. Part I. S. pp. and H. S.. 24. 12. Flow-Induced Vibration of an Array of Cylinders. 6. ASME Publication.. among them C. . Chen..

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