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OF THE
University of California.
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COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
NEW YORK
ATLANTA LONDON
• •
BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO
•
MACMILLAN &
•
CO., Limited
•
BOMBAY CALCUTTA MELBOURNE
CO. OF TORONTO
THE MACMILLAN
CANADA,
Ltd.
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
BY
P.
A.
LAMBERT, M.A.
PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS, LEHIGH UNIVERSITY
NciM fork
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1907
AU
rights reserved
%
Copyright, 1907,
By
Set
the MACMILLAN COMPANY.
Published September, 1907.
up and electrotyped.
J. S.
Berwick & Smith Co. Cushing Co. Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.
—
PREFACE
The
transition
from secondary school to college
students.
is
disastrous for
many
This
is
due largely to the
fact that the student has not
been taught to make inde
pendent use of what he has learned.
The
transition
should be accompanied by training in the application of
the knowledge gained in the secondary school.
training
serves
a
Such
the
it
threefold
purpose
—
it
makes
student realize that he has acquired increased power,
reviews the work of the secondary school in an interest
ing manner, and
college.
it
gives an outlook into the
work
of the
Such a
believes
transition
course in mathematics the author
may
be based on this text on Computation and
Mensuration.
This transition course would naturally
*
come
at the
end of the secondary school course or at the
beginning of the college course.
The student
derived in
all
is
expected to refer constantly to his texts
on Algebra, Geometry, and
Trigonometry.
Formulas
to build on
elementary textbooks are neither proved
nor tabulated in this text.
the foundation already laid.
The aim here
is
165869
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
ARTICLE
1.
I
Approximate Computation
PAGK
1
2. 3. 4.
5.
Approximate Numbers Direct Measurement Indirect Measurement Approximate Multiplication Approximate Division
3
3 5
9
CHAPTER
6.
II
Graphic Computation
7.
8.
J^.
Graphic Representation of Numbers Addition and Subtraction of Segments
Multiplication and Division of Seginents
12
....
13
14
16
10. 11.
Square Hoot of a Segment Graphic Computation of Areas Graphic Solution of Triangles
17
18
•
CHAPTER
of a Point
III
The Method of Coordinates
12.
The Plane Coordinates
13.
14.
Area of a Triangle in Coordinates Areas of Any Rectilinear Figures
of Vertices
...
20
21
25
CHAPTER IV
Volumes of Solids bounded by Planes
15.
The Prismatoid
Special Cases of Prismatoids
.
27
.
16.
.
.
.
,
.
.29
Vlll
CONTENTS
CHAPTER V
Computation and Use of Trigonometric Functions
ARTICLE
,17.
PAGE
On Angles
Trigonometric Functions Computation of Trigonometric Functions
.
32 34
.
.
18. 19.
.36
39
20.
On
Vectors
CHAPTER VI
Computation and Use of Logarithms
21.
22. 23.
24.
Nature of Logarithms Computation of Common Logarithms Arrangement of Tables of Logarithms Computation by Means of Logarithms
.
44
45 50 54
59 62
25.
26.
The Compound The Slide Rule
Interest
....
Formula
.
CHAPTER
On
27. 28.
29.
VII
^
Limits
The Infinite Decreasing Geometric Progression The Length of a Curved Line The Computation of tt
...
65 66 67
69
30.
31.
An
Important Limit Length and Area of Involute of Circle
70
CHAPTER
VIII
Graphic Algebra
32. 33.
The Graph of an Equation Equations of Lines 34. Graphic Solution of Equations 35. Inequalities treated Graphically
73 75 76
.
•
.
.
.
.78
CONTENTS
IX
CHAPTER IX
Areas bounded by Curves
ARTICLE
PAGE
"
36.
37.
38.
Exact Areas Approximate Equation of a Curve Approximate Areas
. .
.
.
80
82
83
CHAPTER X
Volumes of Solids
39.
40. 41.
Exact Volumes Approximate Volumes
Applicability of Prismoidal
87
88
Formula
90
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
CHAPTER
I
APPROXIMATE COMPUTATION
Art.
1.
— Approximate
occurring
Numbers
in
Frequently numbers
computation
are
known
only approximately.
If the length of a line is to be
measured,
it
may be
absurd, either from the nature of the problem to be solved or the means of measurement employed, to attempt to determine the length of the line beyond hundredths of a foot.
The square
root of a
number not
a perfect square canits
not be expressed exactly in numbers, but
value to any desired
approximate
number of decimal places may be found.
of
For example, the approximate values
to one
V5 are as follows;
decimal place
2.2''"
to
two
decimal places 2.24"
decimal places 2.2361" decimal places 2.23607"
to three decimal places 2.236"'' to four
to five
to six
decimal places 2.236068"
to seven decimal places 2. 2360680" *
*In
place
is
these approximate values of
Vo
the figure in the last decimal
always the nearest integer.
B
1
2
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
In each approximate value the sign
+
or
—
written
after the last figure indicates
that the
error
must be
respectively added or subtracted.
case
is
The
error in every
not greater than 5 units of the decimal place next
following the last decimal place of the approximation.
The approximate value
place has been computed.
of
V5
to eight decimal places
cannot be determined until the figure in the ninth decimal
The
ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diam
eter cannot be expressed exactly in numbers, but its value
has been computed to 707 decimal places.
This ratio
is
is
denoted by
tt,
and
its
value to 15 decimal places
7r= 3.141592653589793.
The value
of
l.
tt
most commonly used
is
3.1416.
Problem
for
TT.
Find the limit
of error
when
^^ is
used
Pkoblem
for
TT.
2.
Find the
limit of error
when ^^J
is
used
Problem 3. Find the limits of error of the sums of V26, V27, V28, V29, each computed approximately to
four decimal
places*.
4.
Problem Problem
gram.*
The yard
is
defined by law as g^^ meter.*
Find the number
5.
of meters in a yard correct to 4 decimals.
is
The pound
defined
by law
as
2:204^2
kilo
Find the number
of kilograms in a
pound
correct
to 4 decimals.
*
By
decision oi United States Superintendent of Weights
5,
and Meas
ures,^
on April
1903, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury.
APPROXIMATE COMPUTATION
Art.
2.
3
— Direct
Measurement
the
The
direct
measurement
of
length of a line
is
effected
by
actually applying to the line the standard unit
of length.
However
carefully several
direct
measure
ments are made, the results are generally not the same.
By
universal agreement, the arithmetic
mean
of the re
sults of several direct
measurements, made with the same
be obtained from
care, is accepted as the best result to
these measurements.
Problem
inches.
6.
Eight measurements of a line give the
of the length of
values 186.4, 186.3, 186.2, 186.3, 186.2, 185.9, and 186.4
Find the best value
the line
based on these measurements.
Problem
25' 10".
;
7.
Four measurements
;
of an angle give 62°
62° 25' 1".5
62° 25' 23". 3, and 62° 25' 30". 0.
Find the best result determined by these measurements.
Problem
8.
Four measurements
of a base line give
1472.34, 1471.99, 1472.25, and 1472.14 feet.
Find the
best approximate length of the line to be obtained from
these measurements.
Art.
3.
— Indirect
Measurement
Example
l.
Suppose A, B,
C to
be three stations formlet it
ing the vertices of a right triangle, and
be required
to determine the length of the hypotenuse
AB
when an
obstruction between
A
and
B
makes the
direct measure
ment
If
of this length impracticable.
by
direct
measurement
^C= 1275.43
feet
and
4
COMPUTATION And mensuration
computed by means
of the
proposition in Geometry —
BC= 1526.56 feet, AB may be
The square on
the hypotenuse equals the
sum
of the
squares on the other two sides, or expressed as a formula,
AB'^
= AO^ +
may
BlP.
The number expressing
desired
lines
the length of
AB
is
found by
extracting a square root and
be carried out to any
number
of decimal places;
but since the measured
AC and BC are determined only to two decimals, it would be absurd to attempt to determine by computation the length of AB beyond two decimals.
Example
cumference
2.
Let
it
be required to determine the
cir
of a circle
whose diameter
of
this circle is
is
is
found by direct
measurement
to be 425.63 feet.
The circumference
it is
Since the diameter of the circle
x 425.63 feet. given to two decimals,
tt
impossible to determine by computation the circumIt is therefore
tt
ference beyond two decimal places.
to use
absurd
more decimal places
in the value of
tt
than are neces
sary to determine the product
places.
What
is
needed
is
x 425.63 to two decimal a method of approximate com
putation which will determine the circumference correct to two decimal places with the least amount of computation.
Mensuration
is
chiefly
concerned
with problems of
indirect measurement.
Problem
9.
In a right triangle the sides about the
right angle measure 875.27 feet and 56b A5 feet.
Com
pute the length of the hypotenuse.
APPROXIMATE COMPUTATION
Problem
365.18
feet.
5
lO.
The diameter Compute the length
of
a
circle
measures
of the circumference. of a circle measures
Problem
1000
feet.
ll. The circumference Compute the diameter.
4.
Art.
— Approximate
it
is
Multiplication
Example. Let
TT ><
be required to compute the product
425.63 correct to two decimal places.
carried out to three decimal places
The computation
in order that the second decimal place
The
first
step
is
ir
to
may be corrected. many decimal places determine how
to give three decimal
in the value of
must be used
places in the product.
imate value of
The computation consists in multiplying the approxTT by each figure of 425.63 and adding the
These partial products are to contain
•
partial products.
three decimal places each.
In order that the partial product of the approximate
value of
TT
by the
units' figure of 425.63 shall contain three
tt
decimal places, the value of
decimal places.
must be written
to three
For each integral place to the
425.63 the value of
to
ir
left of units' place in
must be extended one decimal place
that
the
the right in order
corresponding partial
product shall contain three decimal places.
In this example, therefore, the value of
ir
must be
written to five decimal places, and in order that the partial
product by the figure in the hundredths' place in 425.63
may
TT is
be corrected in the third decimal place the value of
written to six decimal places.
:
1
6
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
The dot placed over
the figure in the fifth decimal place
is
of
TT
indicates that this figure
tt
the last figure to the right
in the value of
to be used to
first
form the partial product
corresponding to the
figure to the left of 425.63.
As
uct
is
the figure of the multiplier for which a partial prodto be
computed moves one place
to the right, the
last figure of the
multiplicand to be used moves one place
to the left.
There
is
considerable advantage in forming the partial
left.
products for the figures of 425.63 from right to
last figures of the partial
The
products are corrected for the
tt.
rejected part of the value of
dicate the
•
The
signs
+
and
is
—
in
direction
of
the errors committed by these
indicates that the error
is
corrections.
The
sign
+
to be
added, the sign
—
that the error
to be subtracted.
of the error cannot exceed J of a unit of the third decimal place.
The numerical value
The computation now appears
as follows
3.141593
425.63
1256.637 + 62.832
15.7081.885.094+
1337.156
The
if
error of this result
must
lie
between
— IJ
6.
and
+
units of the third decimal place.
It is therefore uncertain
is
the figure in the second decimal place
5 or
:
APPROXIMATE COMPUTATION
It is necessary in this particular
7
problem to carry out
the approximate multiplication to 4 decimals as follows
3.1415927
425.63 1256.6371
62.831915.70801.8850.0942 +
1337.1562
The
error of this result
must
lie
between
1337.16.
—2
and
+J
units of the fourth decimal place.
correct to
Hence the product
computation
is
two places of decimals The following arrangement of
is
this
per
haps to be preferred.
Place the units' figure of 425.63 under the third decimal
place of the value of
tt
and then write in inverse order
the figures of 425.53 under the figures of the approximate
value of
line
TT.
This brings each figure of the multiplier in
is
with that figure of the multiplicand which
used to
ap
begin the corresponding partial product.
The above
:
proximate multiplications appear as follows
3.141593
36.524
3.1415927 36.524
1256 637^ 62 83215 708
188594+
1337.156
12566 628 157 18
371319080850942 +
1337.1562
8
COMPUTATION ANB MENSURATION
Problem
radius
is
12.
Find the circumference
of a shaft
whose
4.32 inches.
13.
Pkoblem
If a
yard
is
1.904 meters, find the num
ber of meters in 23.463 yards.
Problem
14.
Find the
interest
on 11525.75 for one
year at 6%, correct to f 0.01.
Problem
is
15.
The
distance of the
moon from
the earth
59.97 times the earth's radius.
If the earth's radius
is
3962.824 miles, find the distance to the
moon
correct
within 1 mile.
Problem
is
16.
Find the area of the
circle
whose radius
16:27
feet.
17.
Problem
radius
is
Find the volume of the sphere whose
3.53 feet.
18.
Problem
is
Find the volume
of the cone
whose base
a circle, radius 2.35 feet, altitude 5.75 feet.
Problem
allelopiped
19.
Find the volume
of the rectangular parfeet, 6.27 feet,
whose dimensions are 8.53
and
4.65 feet.
Problem
20.
Find the length
of the diagonal of the
parallelopiped in Problem 19.
Problem
21.
22. 23.
Compute 168 V3 Compute
tt
to
two decimal
places.
Problem
Problem
\/2 to three decimal places. to four decimal places.
Compute
tt^
—
APPROXIMATE COMPUTATION
Art.
5.
:
9
Approximate Division
be required to compute correct to
Example.
two places
Let
it
of decimals the diameter of the circle
feet.
whose
circumference measures 587.35
In order that the figure in the second decimal place of
the quotient
may
is
be controlled, the quotient of 587.35
to three
divided by
tt
computed
places
of
decimals.
places.
By
inspection the
quotient has three integral
Hence
six figures of the quotient are to be
computed.
The
nature of the problem shows that this computation requires
six figures of the divisor
and
six figures in the dividend.
The
article.
successive partial products are formed as in the
process of approximate multiplication in the preceding
The computation
587.350
is
arranged as follows
3.14159+
314 159 + 273 191
251 327 +
186.959
21864
18 8503 014 2 827
187 157 + 30
28 +
2
The
signs
+
and
—
placed after the partial products
indicate the direction of the error of the partial products
UNIVERSITY
10
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
error in the
j
sum of the partial products must be and — 1 units of the last decimal place of Hence the last remainder lies between the dividend. and h 3 of these units, and the error of the quotient lies
The
between
2
between
and
is
+
1
units of
the third decimal place.
is
Hence
the quotient correct to
two decimal places
186.96.
There
some advantage
in arranging the figures of the
quotient in such a manner that the partial products begin
with the product of the figure of the quotient and the
figure of the divisor directly over
it.
The computation
then takes this form,
587.350
3.14159 +
314 159+ 959.681 273 191
251 327 +
21 864 18 8503 014
2 .827
187 157 + 30 28 +
2
Problem
cumference
24.
is
Find the radius
Find the area
of the circle
whose
cir
425.76 feet.
of the circle
Problem
ference
is
25.
whose circum
628.32 feet.
26.
Problem
whose area
Find the circumference
feet.
of
the
circle
is
3848.45 square
APPROXIMATE COMPUTATION
Problem
27.
11
Find the diameter of a wheel which
makes 373 revolutions in a mile.
Problem
made by
28.
How many
Compute
revolutions
per
mile
are
?
a locomotive drive wheel 4.5 feet in diameter
29.
Problem
—
to four decimal places.
Problem
number
30.
Find correct to four decimal places the
an angle of 1 radian.
revolves about the earth in 28
of degrees in
31.
Problem
The moon
days, 7 hours, 43 minutes, 11.5 seconds.
What
is
the
average angle passed over in a day
?
I
i
CHAPTER
II
GKAPHIO COMPUTATION
Art.
6.
— Graphic
Eepresextatiox of Numbers
a series of equidistant points.
call it zero.
On
a straiglit line
mark
Select one of these points
and
Starting from
zero point call the successive points in one direction
+ 1,
thus
+ 2, + 3, +
4, 4 5,
•••
,
the successive points in the oppo•••
.
site direction
— 1, — 2, — 3, — 4, — 5,
There
is
attached to each integral number, positive or negative, one
point of the line.
Insert between the points attached to
integral numbers, 3
two consecutive
and
4,
for example, nine equidistant
points and call these points 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4,8.5, 3.6, 3.7,
3.8, 3.9.
There
is
thus attached to each number containline.
ing not more than one decimal place one point of the
87654321
H
i
1
1
————
i t I
,
9
1
1
1
^
1
3
1
4
1
—
5
6
1
7
1
8
H
Fig.
1.
Theoretically, this operation of inserting between the
points attached to
tant points
little is
two consecutive numbers nine equidisrepeated indefinitely, but practically
may be
gained by attempting to attach points to numbers
containing more than one decimal place.
Conversely,
if
any point
is
taken at random on the
to the point can be de
straight line, the
number attached
12
—
GUAPHIC COMPUTATION
teriiiined to
13
one decimal place with considerable certainty,
but the attempt to determine the number beyond one decimal place would be accompanied by great uncertainty.
If the line
segment joining the points attached
is
to
two
consecutive whole numbers
the
taken as the unit of length,
of the line
number attached
to
any point
measures the
length of the line segment from the zero point to this point.
The
in
algebraic sign of the
line
number
indicates the direction
which the
segment extends from the origin.
numbers attached to successive equidistant points now becomes a scale for measuring the
straight line with
The
lengths of line segments.
Art.
7.
Addition and Subtraction of Segments
is
A
line
segment
a definite part of a straight line
line.
and
extending in a definite direction along the
A line segment has
point.
an
initial
point and a terminal point.
The segment extends from
the initial point to the terminal
A line
Two
segment
is
transferred from one straight line to
another by means of dividers.
line
segments are equal when one can be transsegments are to be added or subtracted they
line
ferred into the other.
When
line
are transferred to the same straight line.
To add two
direction,
segments having the same sign, lay
off
the two segments on a straight line both in the same
the initial point of the second.
making the terminal point of the first segment The line segment which
14
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
the initial point of the
is
now extends from
two.
first
segment
of the
to the terminal point of the second
the
sum
To add two
line
segments having opposite signs, lay
off
the two segments on a straight line in opposite directions,
making the terminal point of the first segment the initial point of the second. The line segment which now extends from the initial point of the first segment to the terminal
point of the second
is
their sum.
To
subtract two line segments, change the sign of the
segment to be subtracted and add to the other segment. To add or subtract numbers graphically, find from the
scale of
segments the line segments corresponding to the
given numbers, then find the sum or difference of these
line
segments and from the scale determine the corre
sponding number.
Art.
8,
— Multiplication
and Division of Segments
two
line segments, define the
To
find the product of
product by the proportion
product
:
multiplicand
= multiplier
is
:
unity.
The product
segment which
line
of
is
two
line
segments
therefore the line
the fourth proportional to the two given
line
is
segments and the unit
segment.
This fourth proportional
straight lines through a
constructed by drawing' two
point
common
making any conoft'
venient angle, the positive direction on each line being
indicated
by the arrowhead, and laying
from the
first
common
point the unit segment and multiplier on the
GRAPHIC COMPUTATION
15
straight line, the multiplicand on the second straight line.
Now
join the terminal points of the unit
segment and
the multiplicand
by a straight
line
and draw through the
terminal point of the multiplier a parallel to this straight
line.
The point
of intersection of this parallel with the
is
second straight line
the terminal point, the
common point
the initial point of the product segment.
In the figure
1^=^, hence 00=
To
find the quotient of
OA
.
OB.
two
line segments, define the
quotient by the proportion quotient
:
1
= dividend
segments
:
divisor.
is,
The quotient
segment which
of
is
two
line
therefore, the line
the fourth proportional to the unit line
segment and the two segments which are respectively the
dividend and the divisor.
This fourth proportional
straight lines through a
is
constructed by drawing two
point,
common
making any conpoint the
venient angle, laying off from the
common
dividend and divisor on the
first
straight line, the unit
segment on the second straight
straight line
line.
Now
join the ter
minal points of the unit segment and the divisor by a
and draw through the terminal point of the
16
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
line.
dividend a parallel to this straight
The
point where
is
this parallel intersects the second straight line
the ter
minal point, the
quotient segment.
common
point the initial point of the
In the figure
00 OA — = —,
To
,
hence
__ ^^ OA 0(7=—.
two
line
find graphically the product or the quotient of
numbers, find by means of the scale of segments the
segments corresponding to the given numbers.
Then
find the product or quotient of these line segscale the
ments and from the
number corresponding
to the
product or quotient segment.
Problem
7.3.
32.
Find graphically the product
of 8.6
and
Problem
33.
Find graphically the quotient
of
47.5
divided by 11.7.
Art.
If the
9.
— Square
Root of a Segment
product of two equal line segments equals the
is
given line segment, one of the equal segments
the square root of the given line segment.
called
GRAPHIC COMPUTATION
To
construct the line segment which
is
17
the square root
line
of the given line segment, find in
any manner two
segments whose product equals the given line segment. On the sum of these two line segments as a diameter, construct
a semicircumference.
The perpendicular
to the
diameter at the point of meeting of the two line segments
Fig.
4.
and terminating
required.
in the circumference
is
the line segment
Repeated applications of
to extract a root
this operation
which
is
any power
of 2
make it possible by the use of
the straight line and circle.
Problem
Problem
Art.
34.
Find graphically V24.
35.
Add
graphically Vl9, V2i, and V28.
10.
— Graphic
Computation of Areas
Construct as accurately as practicable the figure whose
area
is
to be
found on crosssection paper, taking the
dis
tance between consecutive lines to represent the unit of
length in the measurement of the figure.
the crosssection paper
The square
of
now
represents the unit of area,
and the area
of the figure is
determined by counting the
squares wholly within the boundary line of the figure and
18
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
line.
estimating the squares partially within the boundary
The accuracy
estimating the
of the result
depends upon the
skill
in
sum
of the partial squares.
Problem
whose
36.
Find graphically the area of the triangle
sides are 8, 12, 15 feet.
37.
Problem
Find graphically the area of the
is
circle
whose diameter
9 inches.
Problem
38.
Find graphically the area of the equiwhose
side is 7 feet.
lateral triangle
Art.
11.
— Graphic
for
Solution of Triangles
the
solution
of a triangle is
The data necessary
sufficient for the construction of the triangle.
If the triangle is constructed
with the given parts as
accurately as practicable by the aid of straight edge, protractor,
and
dividers,
by means
of these
same instruments
the values of the
unknown
parts of the triangle can be
found with considerable accuracy.
Problem
39.
Two
sides of a triangle are 7.8 feet
is
and
re
12.5 feet, their included angle
28°
W,
Find the
maining three parts graphically.
Problem
16.3 feet.
40.
Two
sides of a triangle are 9.5 feet
The angle
opposite the
first
side is 16°
and 15^
Find the other parts graphically.
Problem
41.
One
side of a triangle is 10.6 feet, the
adjacent angles are Qb° lb' and 80° 10^
the other two sides.
Find graphically
GRAPHIC COMPUTATION
19
Peoblem
feet,
42.
feet.
The
sides of a triangle are 18 feet, 25
and 29
Find the angles graphically.
Problem
12.8 feet.
43.
Two
sides of a triangle are 4.6 feet
and
The angle
opposite the former sides
is
60° 30'.
Find the remaining parts graphically.
—
CHAPTER
III
THE METHOD OP OOORLINATES
Art.
12.
The Plane Coordixates of a Poixt
In a given plane draw two straight lines perpendicular
to each other.
On
Y
each of these
lines,
with their inter
section at zero point, construct a linear scale, denoting the
positive
direction
line
on each
(3,2)
by an
Call
of
arrowhead.
(3.2)
these
two
lines
reference
the
X
^ X
axis
and the yaxis.
Select
any point
this point line paral
P in the plane, and
through
draw a
FiG.
5.
lei to
the I^axis to
meet the Xaxis. The number which expresses the distance and direction of this meeting point from the zero point is called the abscissa of the point P and is denoted by x.
Through
the point
meet the Faxis.
point
is
P draw a parallel to the Xaxis to The number which expresses, the disand
is
tance and direction of this meeting point from the zero
called the ordinate of the point
denoted by y.
The
abscissa of a point
may be
20
defined as the
number
which expresses the distance and direction of the point
—
THE METHOD OF COORDINATES
from the yaxis measured on a
parallel to the
21
Xaxis
;
and the ordinate may be defined as the number which expresses the distance and direction of the point from the
Xaxis measured on a parallel to the yaxis.
The
allel to
abscissa of a point determines a straight line par
the yaxis in which the point must be situated. ordinate of a point determines a straight line parthe Xaxis in which the point must be situated.
abscissa
The
allel to
The
and ordinate
of a point together determine
the point in the plane and are called the coordinates of the point.
The point whose coordinates
the point (3,
are
a:
=
3,
?/
= —2
is
called
 2).
44.
Problem
scissa is
Where Where
is
the point situated whose ab
4?
45.
is
Problem
nate
is
the point situated whose ordi
—5?
46. 47.
Problem
Locate the points (3, 5), (—4, 6),
(0, 8).
Problem
Problem
Problem
Construct the triangle whose vertices
are the points (10, 4), (6,
48.
 8),
(15, 12).
(5, 8), (10, 7)
Locate the points
and
find
the distance between them.
49.
Find the area
of the triangle
whose ver
tices are (3, 7), (8, 5), (13, 15).
Art.
13.
Area of Triangle
in Coordinates of Vertices
Suppose the vertices of the triangle to be the points
A (^r
^i)'
A
(^2' ^2)'
^3
C^3' ^3)
22
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
Two
cases will be considered, Case
I,
dinates of the vertices are positive, Case II,
these coordinates are negative.
It
when all the coorwhen some of
must be remembered that
and
line
line
segments parallel to
in the positive
the Xaxis are positive
direction of the Xaxis,
when they extend
segments parallel to the
in
yaxis are positive
when they extend
the
positive
direction of the Zaxis.
In the proposition
The
bases
area of a trapezoid
is
half the
sum
of the parallel
by the altitude, the bases and altitude
Y
are positive line segments.
Fig.
6.
Case
I.
The
area of the triangle
P^P^P^
equals the
sum
of the areas of the trapezoids
minus the area of
P^D^P^P^^ and P^B^D^P^ the trapezoid P^P^P^P^.
2
Hence Area triangle P^P^P^ = B^P^ x QB^P^ f B^P^) F i>3Z>2 X (DgPg + D2P2)  ^1^2 X (i>iPi +
OB^,
x^ =
AA)
Now x^ =
OB^, x^ = ODg, Vi = ^i^v
Vi
= ^2^T
Vz
= A^a
THE METHOD OF COORBINATES
Hence DiD^ =^s~~ ^v ^s^2 = ^2 ~ ^3^ ^1^2 2 Area P^P^P^ = (23  x^) (y^ + 7/^)
23
= ^2 ~ ^v ^^^
+ (^2  ^3) C2/3 +^2)  (^2  ^1) (^1 + ^2)Multiplying out and simplifying,
2
Area P^P^P^
= x^y^^ +
^^^2^/3
+ ^3^1  ^xVz  ^2^/1  ^3^2its
This expression for double the area of a triangle in
terms of the coordinates of
^1^1
vertices
is
readily repro
duced by arranging the coordinates of the vertices
in order in
two
^2^2 the
end
of the
columns and repeating at column the coordinates of the first
vertical
^^
^
point.
The
three positive terms of the area are the
^
products of each of the three abscissas by the next
the three ordinates by the
lower ordinate, and the three negative terms of the area
are the products of each of
next lower abscissa.
The
is
area of the triangle
is
positive
supposed to be described
in
such a
when the perimeter manner that the area
lies to
the left of the boundary line.
24
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
Case
II.
The
area of the triangle
area of the trapezoid
areas of the triangles
P^P^P^ equals P^E^E^P^ minus the sum of P^E^P^ and P^E^Py
the the
Hence
2
Area triangle P.P^P,
=
(P^E,^
+ ^3^3) x A^a  P^E^ X E^P,  P^E,
x^
X P,E,,
Now
x^
=
OZ>i,
x^= —B^ 0,
=
^2
02>3,
^1 = A^r
=  A^2'
3/3
=  ^3^3 ^v
and
Hence P^E^=  y^ ^y^^ P^E^ =  «/3 + Vv D^D^ = x^h x^, E^P^ = —x^ + x^, P^E^ = ^3 Area P^P^P^ = (2 ^1  ^2  2/3) ( ^ ^1 + ^3) 2
 ( 3/2 + 2/1) ( ^2 + ^1)  ( ^3 + ^1) (^3  ^i)This reduces to
2
Area P^P^P^
= ^1^2 + ^2^/3 + ^3^1  ^1^2  V'i^z  Vz^v
I.
the same result as was found for Case
This expression for double the area of a triangle in
terms of the coordinates of
its vertices is
entirely general. triangle
Problem
50.
Find the area
of
the
whose
vertices are the points (12,
— 5), ( —
of
8, 7),
(10, 15), the
coordinates being measured in inches.
Problem
51.
Find the area
the triangle the co
ordinates of whose vertices measured in chains are (15.75,
4.26), (18.25, 20.63), (21.43, 16.52).
Problem
8)
lie
52.
Show
that the points (1, 4), (3, 2),
(—3,
in a straight line.
THE METHOD OF COORDINATES
Art.
14.
25
— Areas
a
of
Any
Eectilinear Figures
Let PiCx^^i). ^(^2^2)'
vertices
of
quadrilateral.
^3(^3^3)' ^4(^4^4) be the The straight line P1P3
divides this quadrilateral into the triangles
P^P^P^ and
2
= 2 Area P^P^P^ =
Area P^P^P^
x^y^ x^y^
+ 2:2^3 + x^^  y^x^^  y^x^  y^x^. + x^^ + x^y^  y^x^  y^x^  y^Xy
x^^
Hence 2 Area P^PJP^P^
=
x^y^\
+ x^^ + x^y^  y^x^  ^2^3  ^3^4  ^4^1
^1^1
^22/2
^4^4
This expression for double the area of a quadrilateral
tices in regular order in
is
readily reproduced by writing the coordinates of the ver
two
vertical columns, the co
ordinates of the
first
vertex being repeated at the end of
the expression for
the cqlumns.;
The
positive terms of
the double area are the products of each abscissa by the
next lower ordinate
of each ordinate
;
the negative terms are the products
abscissa.
by the next lower
26
COMPUTATION And mensuration
This same method gives the area in terms of the co
ordinates of
its
vertices of
any rectilinear
figure.
Peoblem
53.
The
coordinates measured in chains of
the angular points of a quadrilateral field are (10.25, 0),
(3.21, 7.35), (

8.75, 0), (2.37,

9.13).
Construct the
figure
and
find the area of the field in acres.
54.
Pkoblem
Compute
the
area and
construct
the
figure of the polygon the coordinates of
whose angular
points measured in feet are
(

27, 0), (20, 3.75), (16.5, 4), (15, 7.5),
55,
{^.Q^
Problems
56,
and
57.
The
coordinates measured
in chains of the successive corners of three tracts of land
bounded by straight lines are areas and construct the figures.
Problem 55
as follows.
Compute the
Problem 56
Problem
57
X
y
X
y
6.30
X
y
90
8.12
9.31
13.31
30
80

16.21
24.09
14.11
26.
7.21
140 130
25.11
30.
9.61
12.40
13.10
15.
50 54
90
80
23.
26.23
22.1
15.4
20.
10.
20.37 16.20
16.
100
60
10
5
40 20
7.23
16.48
11.
1.01
14.30
70
CHAPTER IV
VOLUMES OP SOLIDS BOUNDED BY PLANES
Art.
15.
— The
of
Prismatoid
The polyhedron two
gons in parallel
of triangles
allel
whose faces are any two polyplanes and whose other faces are composed
of these par
formed by so joining the vertices
polygons that each line in order forms a triangle
called a prismatoid.
with the preceding line and one side of either parallel
polygon
is
The
matoid.
parallel polygons are called the bases of the pris
The section of the prismatoid formed by a plane midway between the bases is called the midsection. The
perpendicular distance between the bases
altitude of the prismatoid.
is
called the
Call the altitude of the prismatoid A, the areas of the
bases h^ and
^2^
the area of the midsection m.
Let
be
any point in the midsection.
vertices of the midsection,
Draw
lines
from
to the
and
to the vertices of the pristo the vertices of the
matoid.
The
lines
drawn from
midsection divide the midsection into triangles.
planes determined by
The
and
and the edges
27
of the prismatoid
divide the prismatoid into two pyramid's
0ABC
28
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
0BEFa, and a series of tetrahedrons 0BDE, 0BEF, 0BFa, 0BCa,0OBa, OACB, and OABB.
The volume
of the
pyramid
0ABC is
is
^ h b^
;
the vol
ume
of the
pyramid 0BEFGr
J A
•
h^.
Fig.
9.
The
siud
triangle
is
BHK
is
similar to
of
the
triangle
is
BBE
HK
^ BE.
Hence area
BBE
4 times
the same
area of
BHK.
tetrahedrons
The
0BBE
and
0BHK have
and therefore are proportional to their bases. Hence volume 0BBE=4: times volume 0BHK. Tetrahedron O^jMT = tetrahedron BHOK. The volume of BOffK=ih' OHK. Hence volume 0BBE =
altitude
^h'OHK.
VOLUMES OF SOLIDS BOUNDED BY PLANES
In like manner
it is
29
proved that the
of
volume volume
volume
of of of of
0BEF = ^h OKL, OEFG =  A OLM.
volume volume volume
0BaC=^h OMK 0CDa^^h ONP. 0ACD =^h OPQ.
OABB = 
all
of
h
OQH.
is
^
The sum
It
of the
volumes of
the
these tetrahedra
of
A m.
•
follows
that
volume
the
prismatoid
is
4 m), that is, the volume of the prismatoid is ^2 J A(5j i of the altitude times the sum of the areas of the two
bases and four times the area of the midsection.
+
+
This result
is
called the prismoidal formula.
Art.
16.
— Special
Cases of Prismatoids
When
When
pyramid.
the bases are equal polygons, with their correparallel, the
sponding sides sponding sides
prismatoid
is
a prism.
the bases are similar polygons, with their correparallel, the
prismatoid
is
a frustum of a
When
pyramid.
one base becomes a point, the prismatoid
one base becomes a
a rectangle
is
a
When
wedge.
line,
the prismatoid
is
a
Wlien one face
is
is
and the bases are trape
zoids perpendicular to the rectangular face, the prismatoid
called a prismoid.
This
is
the general shape of a railway
cutting or embankment.
30
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
In case of a cutting or embankment,
when one
is
face
is
not a plane, the error in computing the volume
dimin
ished by measuring the areas of 2n\l equidistant cross
sections A^^ A^^ A^,
of the
J.^,
•••
,
A^^^ ^2»+i ^^^ finding the
A^
sum
J.g,
volumes of the prismoids whose bases are
^5,
is
and
A^ and
imation
A^ and ^7, ••• A^^ and A^^_^^, made closer by increasing w.
,
The approx
Problem
pyramid.
58.
From
the prismoidal formula derive the
formulas for the volumes of a pyramid and a frustum of a
Problem
is
59.
The base
of the great
pyramid
of
is
Egypt
477.6
a square 764 feet on a side
and the altitude
feet.
Find the volume in cubic yards.
60.
Problem
The
section of a canal
is
32 feet wide at
the top, 14 feet wide at the bottom, and 8 feet deep.
How many
canal
?
cubic yards were excavated in a mile of the
Problem 61. Find the volume of a rectangular wedge whose base is 70 meters by 20 meters, length of edge 110 meters, and altitude 24.8 meters.
Problem
62.
Find the number
of cubic yards of earth
excavated from a railway cutting made through ground
the original surface of which was an inclined plane run
ning in the same direction as the
the cutting
is
rails.
The length
of
4 chains 15 links, the breadth at bottom
30
feet,
the breadth at top at one end 75 feet, and at the
other end 135 feet, and the depths of these ends 20 feet
and 46
feet respectively.
VOLUMES OF SOLIDS BOUNDED BY PLANES
Problem
63.
31
A
railway
embankment
is
to be
made on
ground which slopes 20
feet in a mile in the direction of
the rails and the rails themselves slope 1 in 700.
embankment
the top
is
is
straight for 2^ miles.
The The breadth at
29
feet,
the slopes of the sides 1 in
is
height at the upper end
3 feet.
1, and the Find the number of
cubic yards of earth required for the embankment.
Problem
The depths
64.
A
railway cutting
is
to be
made 30
1
feet to 1.
wide at the bottom, the slopes of the sides being
in feet
on one side of the cutting, taken at
9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17,
intervals of 1 chain, are 12, 11, 10,
20, 21, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33, 37, 41, 45, 50,
53
;
the corre
sponding depths on the opposite
side, 15, 14, 13, 12, 14,
15, 17, 19, 22, 26, 28, 30, 33, 36, 39, 41, 44, 51, 57, 60, 58.
Find the number
of cubic yards of earth to be excavated.
CHAPTER V
COMPUTATION AND USE OP TEIGONOMETEIO PUNOTIONS
Art.
17.
— On
Angles
lines
The
figure
formed by two straight
is
proceeding
from a point
called an angle.
The two
and
point
their
is
straight lines are called the sides of the angle,
direction
is
indicated by
arrowheads.
The
called the vertex of the angle.
One
side of the angle is called the initial side, the other
the terminal side of the angle.
Fig.
10.
A
circular
arrow about the vertex between the two
sides with the
arrowhead at the terminal
side, indicates
which
angle.
side is to be considered the terminal side of the
The angle
is
;
called positive
when
this circular
is
arrow
is
anticlockwise
negative
when
the arrow
clockwise.
When
degree
is
the terminal side of the angle coincides with the
initial side the
angle
is
called a perigon.
An
angle of one
one three hundred and sixtieth of a perigon.
32
USE OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
The
ratio of the circuhir arc, described
33
with the vertex
sides of the
of the angle as a center
and bounded by the
is
angle, to the radius of the arc
called the circular meas
ure of the angle.
Denoting the circular measure
radius of the arc by
r, it
of the angle
by 6 and the
arc
follows that
—=
6 and arc
= rd.
Fig. 11.
,
When
measure
radius.
6
is
= 1,
arc
=r
;
that
is,
the unit angle in circular
the angle at the center of a circle which inter
cepts on the circumference an arc equal in length to the
The
unit angle in circular measure
is
called the
radian.
If the angle is four right angles, the arc is the circumfer
ence of the circle
;
that
is,
arc
=
2
irr.
Hence, the circular
is
measure of an angle of four right angles
2
tt
radians.
It follows that 2 TT radians are equivalent to 360°.
Hence,
1 radian
=
65.
and
1°
= zr^
radians.
Problem
Find the circular measure
of
an angle of
6° correct to four decimal places.
34
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
Pboblem
66.
Find the circular measure
of
an angle of
14° 21' 2b" correct to four decimal places.
Problem
Problem
67.
Find in degrees, minutes, and seconds
is
the angle whose circular measure
68.
.357.
Find
in degrees correct to four decimal
places the angle 1.258.
Art.
18.
— Trigonometric
XX'
from
Y
Functions
indefinite straight
lies
Call the vertex of the angle
line in
and the
which the
initial side of the
angle
XX'
,
Call
distances measured on
in the direction of the
Fig. 12.
arrowhead on the
itive side of
initial side positive, distances
measured
in the opposite direction negative.
Let
OX
be the pos
YY' through makes an angle of +90° with OX, call distances measured from towards Y positive and denote this by the arrowhead at Y, Now take any point P in the terminal side of the angle. The distance from to P is called the radial distance of the point P and is denoted by r. The radial distance is
.
XX'
Draw
a straight line
perpendicular to
XX',
If
OF
always positive.
:
USE OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
The
on the
projection of the radial distance r of the point
line
35
P
XX'
YY'
is
the abscissa x of the point P.
The
on the
projection of the radial distance r of the point
line
is
P
the ordinate y of the point P.
functions of an angle are the follow
The trigonometric
ing six ratios
The
sine of
an angle
is
the ratio of the ordinate of any
point in the terminal side to the radial distance of the
same point
;
that
is,
sin
= 
The cosine of an angle is the ratio of the abscissa of any point in the terminal side to the radial distance of the
same point
;
that
of
is,
cos
is
= the ratio of the ordinate of
The tangent
an angle
any point in the terminal side to the abscissa of the same
point
;
that
is,
tan 6
= 0,
The cotangent 6 is the reciprocal of the tangent The secant is the reciprocal of the cosine 0. The cosecant 6 is the reciprocal of the sine 6.
Two
sine
auxiliary trigonometric functions are the versedas follows
:
and coversedsine, defined
0,
versedsine 6
= 1 — cosine
Problem
struct the
coversedsine
=1—
of
sine 0.
is
69.
The tangent
an angle
i.
Con
angle and find the values of
all
the other
functions of the angle.
Problem
70
The
sine of
an angle
is
.375.
Compute
the cosine and the tangent of this angle.
7
36
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
Problem
71.
The
cosine of an angle
is
—.45.
Com
pute the sine and tangent of this angle.
Art.
If
19.
— Computation^
is
of Trigonometric Functions
an angle
given in degrees or in radians, the angle
may
be constructed by means of a protractor and the
lengths of the radial distance, abscissa, and ordinate of
any point
in the terminal side measured,
of.
and the
trigo
nometric functions
the angle computed.
This method does not in general determine the value of
the trigonometric functions beyond the
If
first
decimal place.
6
is
the circular measure of an angle, sine 6
may
be
computed to any required degree of approximation by means of the following infinite series, derived in the
Differential Calculus,
^^^
12. 81. 2.
+ ...
.
34.
5
1.23.4.5.6.7
Let
places.
it
be required to compute sine 20° to four decimal
The
circular
measure of 20°
is
(9
= =
.34907.
Hence
6
= .34907,
f72'73
^
»QQ707,
1.2.3.4.5
=^
QQ^Q^.
It follows that sine 20°
=
.3420.
The
error committed by omitting the terms of the in
finite series after
the third
may be written
^'*^1.2.3.4.5.67L
V89
8. 9 10. 11
—
USE OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
'^' ^^^
37
1.2.3.t.5.6.7 [(^  8^)(8.9.lVll
8 9. 10 11. 12.
13;
less
J
According
to
z
to (6) the error is negative,
and according
is
(a) the numerical value of the
7^
error
than
——— ——
^
;i
r
^
=.
Hence the
error committed
by omit
ting the terms of the infinite series after the third in com
puting sine 20°
.0000002.
is
negative and numerically less than
When
tions of 6
relations,
sine 6 has been computed, the remaining func
may
be computed by means of the fundamental
sin2 ^
+
cos2
(9
=
1,
tan d
,
= ^^^, 6^
cos
cot 6
tan 6^
^
sec
=
cosec d
—
sin Q
cos d
The trigonometric
functions of any angle wli^tever
may
be found in terms of the trigonometric functions of an
angle not greater than 45°.
angles become known.
If Q denotes the circular measure of a small angle and Q" the number of seconds in this angle, approximately sin = tan = 6 = 6'' x circular measure 1"
Therefore
if
the functions of
all
angles from 0° to 45° are computed, the functions of
20t)264.8*
The approximation
from
0° to 38'
;
is
correct to six places of decimals
;
to five places of decimals to 1° 20'
to
four places of decimals to 2° 20".
38
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
Problem
72.
Construct the angle 50° and find the
trigonometric functions of the angle by measurement.
Problem Problem
places.
73.
Construct the angle 110° and find the
trigonometric functions of the angle by measurement.
74.
Compute the
sine of 18° to four decimal
Problem
mal
places.
75.
Compute the
sine of
115° to four deci
Problem
mal
places.
76.
Compute the
sine of 214° to four deci
Problem
77.
Show
that the circular measure, sine, and
tangent of any angle from 0° to 7° are the same to three
decimal places.
Problem
triangle,
if
78.
From
the
general
definitions
of
the
trigonometric functions of an angle, show that in a right
the hypotenuse
is c,
b,
the oblique angles
A
and
B and the sides opposite
A
CL
smA = ,
If the side
c
ceo
cos
A Az=, tan A
.
a and
b
4
a = ~.
a
is
so small
that the angle
A
compared with the sides 5 and does not exceed two or three degrees,
^^ 20 r""^ = 206261:8
and consequently
c
A"
'*pp'"°"^'""*^^y'
= ^2062^4.8
A.
approximately.
USE OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
39
Problem
79.
Find the area
of the equilateral triangle
is
inscribed in a circle whose radius
15.5 inches.
Problem
the altitude
80.
is
The angle
feet.
at the vertex of a cone is 25°,
12
Find the volume
of the cone.
Problem
where the
rail
81.
A
street railway track is 10 feet
is
from the
60°,
curbstone where the track
straight.
In passing a corner
the
of
street is deflected
feet
through an angle of
must be 4
from the corner.
Find the radius
the circular curve.
Problem
82.
The
is
greatest angle the radius of the
earth, 3963.3 miles, subtends
center of the sun
8". 8.
by lines drawn from the Find the distance of the sun
from the
earth.
83.
Problem
125
Two
sides of a triangle are 76 feet
is
and
feet, their
included angle
35° 15'.
Find the third
side of the triangle.
Problem
feet,
84.
The
three sides of a triangle are
17.5
26.7 feet, and 35.25 feet.
Find the angle opposite
the last side.
Problem
feet
85.
Two
sides of a parallelogram are 125.75
and 153.25
feet, their
included angle
is
67° 45'.
Find
the diagonals of the parallelogram.
Art.
20.
— On
which
Vectors
is
A
vector
is
a quantity
its
completely determined
by assigning
magnitude and
its direction.
A vector may therefore be represented by a line
segment
40
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
this line
and the angle which
segment makes with a fixed
indicated by the arrowhead
line of reference, the Xaxis, for example.
The
direction of a vector
is
placed at the terminal point of the line segment representing the vector.
Two
vectors are equal
when they have
the same magni
tude and the same direction.
The geometric
representative of the vector will be used
Y
as the vector itself.
Fig. 18.
Let
I
denote the length of the vector, 6 the angle the
vector makes with the Xaxis, x the projection of the
vector on the Xaxis, y the projection of the vector on the
Paxis.
From
the figure
I
(1)
cos 6
= X,
l?
(2) Zsin ^
= y.
Squaring equations (1) and (2) and adding,
= x'^\y\ = ^.
may
Dividing (2) by (1),
tan^
Hence from the
computed.
projections of a vector on the axes of
reference the length and direction of the vector
be
USE OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
If several vectors are
initial
41
drawn
in such a
is
manner that the
initial
point of each successive vector
the terminal point
of the preceding vector, the vector
drawn from the
point of the
first
vector to the terminal point of the last
vector
is
called the vector
sum
of the several vectors.
The sum
of the projections of the several vectors
is
on any
the
straight line
the projection of the vector
sum on
same straight
Let
Zj, ^2,
?3,
line.
?4
denote the lengths of the several vectors,
dp
^2' ^3'
^4 ^^^^ angles these vectors
make with
the Xaxis.
Fig. 14.
Let
I
denote the length of the vector sum,
the angle
this vector
makes with the Xaxis, x
its
projection on the
Xaxis,
^
its
projection on the yaxis.
From
I
the figure
cos d
sin
I
= X=l^ cos 6^ + = y = sin 6^ +
1^
?2 l^
^OS ^2
sin 0^
+
^3
^^S ^3
+ h ^^^ ^4'
f
+ l^ sin 6^
1^
sin 6^.
From these equations the length and direction of the sum may be computed. The displacement of a body is determined by its magnitude and direction. A displacement may therefore be
vector
represented by a vector.
42
If a
COMPUTATION AMD MENSUHATIOK
body has several successive displacements, each displacement may be represented by a vector, and the
resulting displacement
is
represented by the vector sum.
is
The
by a
force acting at a point
determined by
its
magni
tude and direction.
vector.
A
force
may therefore be represented
By
experiment
it is
at a point are represented
shown that if several forces acting by vectors, the vector sum rep
resents the resultant of the several forces.
Problem
order are 11
86.
Three sides of a quadrilateral taken in
feet, 1 feet,
and 8
feet,
and make angles of
with a fixed
line.
18° 18', 74° 50^
and 130°
20' respectively
Find the length and direction
quadrilateral.
of the fourth side of the
Problem
70°,
87.
A man walks 8, 12, 15, and 20 miles along
30°,
successive straight lines,
120° 15',
making angles respectively of and 155° with the E. W. line. Find the
dis
tance and bearing of his final position from the starting
point.
Problem
surve3^
88.
The following
are the field notes
of
a
Bearing means the direction from one station to
the next succeeding station.
Stations
Bearings
Distances
A
N.
31JW.
10 chains
9.25 chains
B
J)
N. 62f E.
S.
451
w.
10.40 chains
Plot the survey, find the distance and bearing from
to J),
C
and
find the inclosed area.
USE OF Trigonometric functions
43
of the
Problem
89.
Find the magnitude and direction
7,
resultant of three forces acting at a point of 11,
and 8
pounds and making angles respectively of 18°
18', 74° 50',
and 130°
20' with a fixed line.
90.
Problem
Find the magnitude and direction
of the
resultant of four forces acting at a point of
8, 12, 15,
20
pounds, making angles respectively of
v^^ith
30°, 180°, 225°, 330°
a fixed line.
CHAPTER VI
COMPUTATION AND USE OF LOGAEITHMS
Art.
21.
— Natuke
of Logarithms
Examine the
I.
tables,
11.
100
101
=1 = 10
IQo
101
=1 = .1
=.01
102=100
102
103 104
= 1000 104 = 10000 105 = 100000
103
= .001 = .0001 105 = .00001
Numbers with one
and
it is
integral place lie between 1 and 10,
evident that the exponent by which 10 must be
affected to give
numbers between 1 and 10 must
lie
be
tween
and
1.
In like manner it becomes evident that the exponent by which 10 must be affected to give a number with two integral places must lie between 1 and 2 to give a number with three integral places the exponent must lie between 2 and 3 and in general to give a number with n integral places the exponent must lie between n — 1 and n.
; ;
Decimal fractions with the
first
first significant
figure in the
it is
decimal place
lie
between
44
1
and
.1,
and
evident
COMPUTATION AND USE OF LOGARITHMS
45
from table II that the exponent by which 10 must be
affected to give
numbers between
1
and
.1
must
lie be*
and — 1. In like manner it becomes evident that the exponent by which 10 must be affected to give a decimal fraction with
tween
the
first significant
lie
figure in
the second decimal place
;
must
between
—1
lie
and
—2
to give a decimal fraction
with the
first significant figure in
the third decimal place,
the exponent must
between
—2
and
—3
;
and
in gen
eral to give a decimal fraction
with the
first significant
figure in the ^th decimal place, the exponent
between
must lie and — n. The exponent by which 10 must be affected to give any number is called the logarithm of that number to base 10. The logarithm to base 10 of a number is called the common logarithm of that number and is denoted by writing log^^ before the number. For example, log^Q 100
—(n— 1)
= 2,logi„.01=2.
Problem
3,
91.
If the base of a
system of logarithms
is
what are the logarithms
of 27, 243, 2V? ^^^?
Problem
logarithms
?
92.
Can
Can
1 be used as the base of a system of
Problem
93.
?
—5
be used as the base of a system
of logarithms
Art.
(a)
22.
— Computation
n^, ^3, n^
of
Common Logarithms
Let
?^J,
represent the logarithms of the
numbers
iVj, JV^, iVg, iV^
to base 10.
iV^
By
definition JV^
= 10"s
= 10«2,
iVg
= 10«3,
JST^
= lO"*.
46
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
The product
of the
numbers
iV^, JV^, iVg, iV^,
by the law
of indices in Algebra, is
Hence by the
definition of the logarithm,
log (iV^iiVa^glV^)
= ^^ + ^2 + ^3 + n^ = log iV\ + log + log JV3 + log iV^,
JSr^
that
is,
the logarithm of the product equals the
sum
of the
logarithms of the factors.
(5)
as a
Any number
common
in the decimal notation
may be writtea
fraction
is
whose denominator
375.485
whose numerator is integral and some power of 10. For example,
=
^llll^
= 375485
x
103.
Applying the rule
just proved to this product,
log 875.485
= log 375485 + log 103.
(5)
As
As
a consequence of
the direct computatiqn of
is
the logarithms of whole numbers only
necessary.
a consequence of (a) the direct computation of the
is
logarithms of prime numbers only
necessary.
The logarithms
to base 10 of the prime
numbers may
be computed to any required degree of approximation by
using the infinite series
(1)
logio(l
1
+
^)
=
logio^
+
2(0.43429448)^^ip^ +
1
3(2a;+ 1)3^5(22^
1
+
L_+ 7(2a;+l)7 + +
1)5
1
...+
(2
7il)(2 2J
is
+
l)2«i
(2n
+
l)(2 a; +1)2^+1
+
•
which
derived in the Differential Calculus.
COMPUTATION AND USE OF LOGARITHMS
The
is,
47
application of this formula requires the logi^a:, that
the logarithm of the
number one
less
than the given
prime, to be known.
Let
it
be required to compute the
common
logarithms
of 2, 4, 5 to five decimal places.
1.
Place
a:
=
1 in (1).
There results
log,„ 2
=
log,, 1
+
2(0.43429448)g + _!_
+ _!_
•
1 + 73'
1
The computations
in order to obtain
are carried out to six decimal places
the correction in the fifth decimal
is
place.
The following
a convenient arrangement of the
series
computation.
in brackets.
Begin by computing the sum of the
^=0.333333
i
=
0.388333
1 = 00.87037 8^
1 = 0.004115
35
1.1 = 0.012246
1.1 = 0.000823
5
3^
1 = 0.000457
1 = 0.000051 39
11 = 0.000065
11=0.000006
^^.1_ = 0.000001
0.346574
P = 0.000006
1 = 0.000007
48
COMPUTATION AND MENSUBATION
The sum
of all the omitted terms of the bracketed in
finite series is
13
313^15
than
315^17
317^19
3i9
which
is less
13 L3
313V
32^34
is
36^
an
is
J
The
series
in
parenthesis
infinite
decreasing
for
geometric progression, whose
sum
found by the
mula
S= ^—
1
to be .
r
8
of all the omitted terms of the original
Hence the sum
infinite series is less
than
^•p ^ = 0.00000006,
and does not influence the sixth decimal
It follows that
place.
logio2
= = = =
logio 1
+
2 (0.43429448)(0.346574)
0.30103.
21ogio 2
logio (1
2.
3.
Iogio4
logio 5
=
0.60206.
+
4)
=
logio 4
+
J
2 (0.43429448)
ri+i.i+i.i+i.i+i.i+...i
[9
3
93^5
9^
7
97^9
99
Computation
places:
of
sum
of infinite series to six decimal
COMPUTATION AND USE OF LOGARITHMS
?:
49
=0.111111
1
.

= 0.111111
9
1 = 0.001372
93
3 1
13
= 0.000457
0.000003
0.111571
1 = 0.000017
95
.1 =
9^
5
1 = 0.0000002
9'
The
third
error committed
by omitting
all
the terms after the
is
1 7'
1.1.
97^9
1+
99
1.
11
1+1. J_+... 913^
911
13
'
which
is less
than
.^
1
7
.
97V
Vl + 1 + 1 + 1 + ^
92
94
9«
.
.
= 0.00000C03,
y
and does not
affect the sixth decimal place.
It follows that
logio5
= logio4 h 2(0.43429448)(0.111571) = 0.60206 + 0.9691 = 0.69897.
94. 95.
96.
Problem
Problem
Compute Compute Compute Compute
Compute
log^^ 3.
log^^ 7.
Problem
Problem
logio 11.
logjo 13.
97.
98.
Problem
logio 17.
50
Art.
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
23.
— Arrangement
of Tables of Logarithms
of a
The common logarithm
parts,
number
consists of
two
an integer and a decimal fraction.
a table of fiveplace logarithms
it is
From
logio
found that
97756
=
4.99014, hence
last
lO^saoi*
=
97756.
Dividing the
cession,
equation by 10 several times in suc
^ 97750 _ 9775.6 102.99014 _ 977.56 101.99014 _ 97.756 100.99014 ^ 9.7756 101.99014 ^ 0.97756 102.99014 ^ 0.097756 103.99014 ^ 0.0097756 104.99014 ^ 0.00097756
104.99014 103.99014
= hence log^^ 9775.6 = hence log^^ 977.56 = hence log^^ 97.756 = hence log^^ 9.7756 = hence log^^ 0.97756 = hence logj^ 0.097756 = hence logj^ 0.0097756 = hence log^^ 0.00097756 =
lience log^^
97756
4.99014
3.99014 2.99014
1.99014
0.99014 1.99014 2.99014 8.99014
4.99014
The minus
logarithm
is
is
sign placed over the
1, 2, 3,
4 in the last
four logarithms denotes that only the integral part of the
negative.
The decimal part
of the logarithm
always positive.
This manner of writing the logarithm of a number
shall
is
adopted in order that the decimal part of the logarithm
depend only on the significant figures of the number and be independent of the position of the decimal point in the number.
When
the logarithm
is
is
w^ritten in this
manner, the
in
tegral part
called the characteristic; the decimal part,
the mantissa.
The
characteristic
is
determined by the rule:
COMPUTATION AND USE OF LOGARITHMS
If the
51
is
number
is
greater than
1,
the characteristic
positive and less by unity than the number of integral
places in the number.
If the
number
is less
than
1,
the characteristic
of the
is
neg
ative
and equal to the number
first significant
decimal place
occupied by the
figure of the
number.
is
The mantissa
of
the logarithm of a
number
taken
from the table of logarithms.
If fiveplace logarithms are used, it is
absurd to attempt
compute beyond six significant figures, and even the sixth figure and frequently the fifth figure is unreliable.
to
The
truth of this statement will become evident from the
computations themselves.
Examplp:
1.
Let
it
be required to find the
common
logarithm of 375.658 from the fiveplace table.
By
rule the characteristic
first
is
2.
sponding to the
secutive
four figures of the
The mantissa correnumber is taken
of the
directly from the table.
The logarithms
two con
numbers
of four significant figures
lies are
between which
the given
number
log 375.7 log 375.6
= 2.57484 = 2.57473
number
is
The
difference in the mantissa corresponding to 1 unit
of the fourth significant figure of the
11 units
of the fifth decimal place of the mantissa.
Assuming that the mantissa increases uniformly while the number increases by one unit of the fourth significant
figure, it follows that the increase of the
mantissa due to
units of the
the fifth figure of the
number
is .5
x 11
= 5.5
62
fifth
COMPUTATION AND MENSUBATION
decimal place, and the increase due to the sixth figure
of the
number
is
.08
x 11
= .88
units of the fifth decimal
place of the mantissa.
Collecting the results,
'^^^^f'^^F^N^
log 375.6
increase for .05
increase for
.
=2.57473
^'VERSITY
Ince
J
^^UFORhU^V^ ""^
= .000055 = 0000088 log 375.658 = 2.57479
008
.
Observe that
if
sixth significant
any figure other than zero stood in the place of the number, the logarithm of the
number to five decimal places would remain the same. The method of finding the corrections of the logarithm for the fifth and sixth figures of the number is called
interpolation.
Example 2. whose common
The
places in the
Let
it
be required to find the number
is
logarithm
3.72564.
characteristic
shows that there are four integral
required.
number
The
figures of the
number
corresponding to the mantissa are found from the table of
logarithms.
Take from the
table the logarithm next lower than the
it
given logarithm and subtract
from the given logarithm
and from the next higher logarithm.
3.72564
3.72558
6
3.72567
= log 5306
3.72558
9
= log 5307 = log 5306
A
difference of 9 units in the fifth decimal place of the
signifi
mantissa gives a difference of 1 unit in the fourth
.
COMPUTATION AND USE OF LOGARITHMS
Assuming that the
53
cant figure of the number.
rate of
change of the mantissa from log 5306 to log 5307 is uniform, the increase in the number due to the increase of
the mantissa by 6 units in the fifth decimal place
6i9
is
= .67
units of the fourth significant figure of the
number.
Hence
3.
72564
= log^, 5306. 67.
number
is
The
in the
sixth figure of this
9.
uncertain.
It
may
have any value from 2 to
This makes the uncertainty
number extend
to the fifth significant figure,
if
which
may
It
be either 6 or 7
the
number
is
to be expressed
correct to five significant figures.
appears from these examples that the use of fiveplace
logarithmic tables limits the computation to four or five
significant figures.
Problem
of 1476.38.
99.
From
?
a fiveplace table find the logarithm
What
lOO.
other numbers of six figures have the
same logarithm
Problem
of 8754.88.
From a fiveplace table find the logarithm What other numbers of six figures have the
?
same logarithm
Problem
loi.
From
is
a fiveplace table find the
number
whose logarithm
2.14896 and determine the limits of
uncertainty oi the number.
Problem
102.
From
is
a fiveplace table find the
number
whose logarithm
4.79658 and determine the limits of
uncertainty of the number.
Problem
io3.
How
does the change in the mantissa
signifi
corresponding to a change of 1 unit in the fourth
cant figure in the
number vary with the number ?
:
—
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
54
Art.
24.
Computation by Means of Logarithms
Logarithms are used to shorten the operations of multiplication, division, involution, and evolution.
These operations are performed by applying the following rules
Let logjQ
M= m, logj^ iV= n.
By
definition
M = w\
The product
of
ilff
jsr= io\
aiid iVis
Hence by
definition
logio (MJST)
I.
=m{n
= logj^ M^ ^ogio^;
that
is,
The logarithm
of the product equals the
sum
of the
logarithms of the factors.
The quotient
of
il[f
and iVis
— = 10"^~".
jsr
Hence by
definition
logio
II.
M=
7i?
^^^
~ ^ = ^^^10 ^ ^^Sio ^>
that
is,
The logarithm
of the quotient equals the logarithm
of the divisor.
of the dividend
minus the logarithm
Raising both sides of the equation
M= IC"
to the
power jt?.
Hence by
definition
logio
MP = p w = p
logiQ
M
5
that
is,
COMPUTATION AND USE OF LOGARITHMS
III.
55
The logarithm
of the
power
of a
number equals
the logarithm of the number multiplied by the exponent
of the power.
Extracting the r root of both sides of the equation
1
m
Hence by
definition
log,,
if
L
!?^
=1
T
logio
^;
that
is,
r
IV. The logarithm of the root of a number equals
the logarithm of the the root.
number divided by the index
of
In working a numerical problem,
first,
decide on
a
method
of
computation
;
second, arrange a scheme of com
putation; third, perform the computation.
Example. Let
feet,
it
be required to compute the lateral
area and the volume of a cone of revolution, altitude 29.75
radius of base 12.15 feet.
lateral area
Denoting the
by A^ the volume by
IT,
FJ the
radius of the base
by
(a)
(J)
i2,
and the altitude by
A = 'TrB ^E^\E% V= 1 ttR^H.
to («),
Applying logarithms
log J.
= log TT + log R + 1
log
(^ + E^).
:
56
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
Scheme
log
log
of computation
:
^ = 1.47349
H^ = 2. 94698
i?2^885.08
log ^2 =2.16916
= 147. 62 E^ + ff^ = 10S2.10
i^
log7r = 0.49715
+ log 72 = 1.08458 + 1 log (^2 + ji2^ = 1.50698
log v4 =3.08871
^ = 1226. 63
Applying logarithms
log
TT
square feet.
to (5),
r= log + 2 log R + log H log 3.
log
7r
Scheme
of computation
= 0.49715
2 log
i2= 2.16916 log ff= 1.47349
4.13980
 log 3 = 0.47712
log
F= 3. 66268 r= 4599.2 cubic feet.
and Fthe
fifth
In these values of
are uncertain.
A
and sixth figures
Problem
base
is
i04.
The chord
of a circular
segment of one
is
3.25 inches, the altitude of the segment
1.15
inches.
Find the diameter of the
io5.
circle.
Problem
Find the area of the surface of the
is
sphere whose radius
6.7 inches.
.
COMPUTATION AND USE OF LOGARITHMS
io6.
57
Problem
diameter
is
Find the volume of the sphere whose
feet.
15.36
107.
Problem
whose side
is
Find the area
of the equilateral triangle
27.16 feet.
1O8.
Problem
4:.idb
Find the capacity
in gallons of a rec
tangular cistern whose dimensions are 10.5, 6.35, and
feet.
Problem
io9.
Find the capacity
in gallons of a
tank
in the shape of a circular cylinder, radius of base 8.35 feet,
altitude 12.46 feet.
Problem
whose base
lateral
110.
is is
Find the volume
of a regular
pyramid
a square 4.18 feet
on a side and whose
edge
11.27 feet.
Problem
feet
111.
The
radius of a circle
is
8.57 feet.
Find
the least chord that can be
drawn through
a point 3.25
from the center.
112.
Problem
The diameter
of a circle
is
15.28 inches.
Find the length
of the tangent to the circle
from a point
20.15 inches from the center.
Problem
113.
In a right triangle the sides about the
right angle are 5.75 feet and 8.17 feet.
Find the perpen
dicular from the vertex of the right angle to the hypot
enuse.
Problem
a
114.
An
excavation 1.5 yards deep, rectan
gular at top and bottom, and in the form of a frustum of
long,
pyramid has its upper base 10 yards wide and 16 yards and the lower base 7.5 yards wide. How many cubic yards were removed to make the excavation ?
58
COMPUTATION AND MENSUBATION
Problem
115.
If the
atmosphere extends to a height
is
of
45 miles above the earth's surface, what
the ratio
of its
volume
to the
volume
of the earth,
assuming the
earth to be a sphere with a diameter of 7912 miles.
Problem
frustum
is
116.
The circumference
of the base of a conic
is
49.3 feet, the diameter of the top
is
12.5 feet,
the altitude
15.7 feet.
Find the surface and volume.
sphere
Problem
inches,
117.
is
On
a
whose radius
is
11.75
is
what
?
the area of a zone whose altitude
3.25
inches
Problem
130°,
118.
On
a sphere whose radius
is
28.5 feet
find the area of a spherical triangle
whose angles are 120°,
and 140°.
119.
Problem
On a sphere whose
and 140°.
diameter
is
25 inches
find the area of the spherical polygon
whose angles are
110°, 120°, 130°,
inches.
Problem 120. The sides of a What is the volume of
Problem
triangle are each 12.49
the solid generated by
?
revolving the triangle about one side
121.
A
dome
Find
is
in the
is
form of a spherical
zone of one base.
of the base 60 feet.
Its
height
30 feet and the diameter
its area.
Problem
and 7.25
feet
122.
Find the volume
of the frustum of the
cone of revolution, the radii of whose bases are 12.5 feet
and whose slant height
123.
is
9.75 feet.
is
Problem
altitude
is
The base
of a triangle
Q.b feet, the
15
feet.
Find at what distances from the base
COMPUTATION AND USE OF LOGARITHMS
lines parallel to the base
59
must be drawn
to divide the tri
angle into three equal areas.
Problem
feet,
124.
The
is
radius of the base of a cone
feet.
is
7.2
the altitude
25
the base planes parallel to
Find at what distances from the base must be drawn to
divide the cone into three equal volumes.
Problem
sphere
is
125.
Two
parallel planes divide the diameter
of a sphere into three equal parts.
The
radius of the
12
feet.
Find the
ratio of the
is
volumes of the
solids into
which the sphere
divided.
Art.
If a
25.
— The
Compound Interest Formula
sum
of
at
R per cent,
money P is invested at compound interest the amount at the end of the first year is
is
P(l + R).
This amount
year
the principal at the beginning of the
second year, hence the amount at the end of the second
is
P(l + R)\ P(l
In like manner the amount at the end of the third year
is
found to be
+ Ry.
t
In general the amount at the end of
years
is
^=
P(l + Ry.
the present worth of a
if
From this it follows that money A due t years hence, compound interest is
sum
of
money
is
worth
R
per cent
P = A(1 + RyK
Example
1.
What
is
the present worth of an annual
first
pension of $500 to run for 7 years, the
payment
to.
60
be
COMPUTATION AND MENSUBATION
date,
made one year from compound interest ?
and money being worth 5
%
The The The The The The The The
present worth of the
first
payment
is is
500 x 1.05"^
present worth of the second payment present worth of the third payment
500 x 1.052
500 x 1.05^ 500 x 1.05"*
is
present worth of the fourth payment
is
present worth of the fifth payment
present worth of the sixth payment
is is
is
500 x 1.05"^
500 x 1.05"^ 500 x 1.05"^
present worth of the seventh payment present worth of the seven payments
is
F=
=
500[1.05i
+
1.052
+
rnnl.058 1.051 ^^^ 11
1.05
+ 1.05* + 1.05^ + 1.056 + 1.057] rnAl.057  1 •^"" 1  1.05
1.053
^,,,11057
.05
=
10000(1

1.057).
1.057, pass to logarithms,
,
To compute x =
loga; = 7 log 1.05 = 0.14833 = 1.85167. .'.X = 0.710667.
It follows that
P= 10000(1 0.710667)
=
Example
ment
2.
12893.33.
In
how many
years will an annual pay
of $300 meet principal and interest of a debt of f 2000, money being worth 5 % compound interest ?
COMPUTATION AND USE OF LOGARITHMS
Let
t
t
61
the
represent the required
number
of years.
At
end
the
of
years the debt amounts to 2000 x 1.05^
is to be made at the end of amount at the end of t years is 300 X 1.05'~i. The amount at the end of t years of the second annual payment is 300 x 1.05'~2, and so on for the The last annual payment is to be successive payments. made at the end of the t years and its value then is #300. Hence the sum of the amounts of the t annual payments
If the first
first
annual payment
year, its
is
A=
300[1
+ 1.05
4
1.052
+
1.053
+
...
+
1.05'i]
= 30oli^^^^ = 6000(1. 05^ 1).
At
the the end of t years the amount of the debt amount of the annual payments. Hence
is
to equal
2000 X
1.05'
=
6000(1.05'

1).
Solving this equation for
1.05',
1.05'
=
=
1.5.
Passing to logarithms,
^log 1.05
log 1.5.
Solving for
t,
^^logL5
log 1.05
3 3^ ^
Problem
6
126.
What
is
the present worth of 82000
interest, if
due 10 years hence without
money
is
worth
%
compound
interest ?
Problem annum on a
127.
life
A
man pays
$3500
a
premium
of
8104 per
policy of
for
twenty years before
62
death.
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
Money being worth
company gain
5
%
compound
interest, does
?
the insurance
or lose,
and how much
Problem
is
128.
A
town, whose property has the
as
sessed valuation of $7,325,000 and whose annual tax rate
19 mills on fl, issues bonds to the amount of $225,000
to build a
interest
laid to
and maturing in 15 years.
this interest
sewerage system, these bonds being at 4 per cent An extra tax is to be
meet
and to provide a sinking fund
of interest in the sinking
to
redeem the bonds, the rate
fund
being 3 J per cent compounded annually. How mills must be added to the tax rate for this purpose
many
?
Problem
bridge.
129.
A
town
finds
it
necessary to build a
is
The
cost of a stone bridge
$20,000, the cost of
the bridge 50 years.
maintenance 150 per year, the
life of
The
cost of a steel bridge
is
$10,000, the cost of mainof the bridge 15 years.
tenance $150 per year, the
life
The town can borrow money
terest
at 4 per cent
compound
town
inits
and
realize
4 per cent compound interest on
is ?
sinking fund.
What
the cost per year to the
of
each of the two bridges
Art.
If line
26.
— The
off
Slide Eule
segments are laid
from one point of a straight
line proportional to the mantissas of the logarithms of
numbers from 100
rithm
is
to 1000,
and the number whose logais
represented by the line segment
written over
the terminal point of the line segment, there will be formed
a logarithmic scale.
P'rom a logarithmic scale nine inches long constructed
COMPUTATION AND USE OF LOGARITHMS
in this
63
manner the line segment which represents the logarithm of a number of three figures, and conversely the number to three figures whose logarithm is represented by
a given line segment, can be read off with considerable
accurac}^
two numbers, apply to the logarithmic scale the sum of the line segments representing Over the terminal point the logarithms of the numbers. of the sum of these line segments stands the number which
find the product of
is
To
the product of the two given numbers.
I
I
I
I
1
1
1
1
itiiMiiiiiliiiihiiiliiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiUM^
Fig. 15.
To
find the quotient of
two numbers, apply to the
loga
rithmic scale the difference of the line segments repre
senting respectively the dividend and divisor.
Over the
terminal point of the difference of these line segments
stands the
number which
is
the quotient of the two given
numbers.
The
which
slide rule consists of slides
two logarithmic
scales,
one of
along the other.
To
scale
this
find the product of
slide rule,
locate
two numbers by means of the one number on the fixed logarithmic
initial
and bring the number. Now
is
point of the sliding scale over
locate the second
ing scale and in line with this
the product
number on the slidnumber on the fixed scale
found.
To
find the quotient of
slide rule, locate
two numbers by means of the the dividend on the fixed scale and the
64
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
and bring these two numThe quotient is the number on the
divisor on the sliding scale
bers over each other.
fixed scale in line with the initial point of the sliding
scale.
To
find the square root of a
number by means
of the
slide rule, bisect
the line segment which represents the
logarithm of the number and find the number whose loga
rithm
is
represented by the corresponding line segment.
In like manner any root of a number
may
be found by
means
of the slide rule.
CHAPTER
YII
ON LIMITS
Art.
27.
— The
Infinite Decreasing Geometric
Progression
The formula
for the sura of the first
first
n terms
of a geois
metric progression whose
ar^
term
a
is
a and ratio r
ar^
—
a
a
r1
whence
'
1r 1r'
ar^
1r
is,
1r
;
In these formulas a and r for a particular progression
have fixed values; that
that
they are constants
aS'^
while n
may
be any positive integer and the value of
is,
depends on n;
limit,
n and S^ are
variables.
If r is less
than unity and n increases without
the progression becomes an infinite decreasing geometric
progression.
The
difference
between the variable
/^„
and the constant
r
is less
1r
one,
if
——
is
numerically equal to ^
^
1r
.
When
than
any numerical value, however
p
66
small, be assigned in
advance, a value of n can be computed such that for this
66
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
all
value of n and
larger values of n the difference between
shall be less
the variable S^ and the constant
:;
1
—r
than
the value assigned.
This
is
expressed by saying that
the limit of
the
variable S^
when n
is
infinitely increased is the constant
1r
,
and
it is
written
limit
aSJ
=
1r
of the difference
^
In general,
if
a variable approaches a constant in such a
manner that the numerical value
between
the variable and the constant becomes and remains less
than any value, however small, that can be assigned in
advance, the variable
its limit.
is
said to approach the constant as
Pkoblem
terms of 1
increased.
130.
Find the

limit of the
+

+
+
2V
+
FT
+
*"
sum of the first n when n is infinitely
n does the sum of
*'*
Problem
the
first
131.
For what values
of 1
of
n terms
+
J
+
the limit of the
sum by
less
^ +2V + "sS: + than .00001 ?
^i^^^ from
Akt.
28.
— The
Length of a Curved Line
of a curved line
is
The approximate length
parts of which
fit
found by
the
inscribing or circumscribing a broken straight line
the corresponding parts of the curved
line as closely as
is
may
be practicable.
The approximation
of the parts
made
closer
by diminishing the lengths
%
ON LIMITS
The limits of the broken line. measurement are soon reached. The length
of a
67
of
accuracy of direct
curved line
is
defined as the limit of the
inscribed or circumscribed broken line
of parts of the broken line
is
when
the
number
such a
is
infinitely increased in
manner that the length
infinitely diminished.
of each part of the
broken line
By
using this definition the length of a curved line
may
be computed either exactly or to any required degree of
approximation.
Art.
29.
— The
Computation of
tt
By
definition
circumference of circle
TT
semicircumference
radius
diameter
Hence
If
if
the radius
is
made
unity,
tt
equals the length of
the semicircumference.
(?„
represents the length of the side of the regular
circle,
polygon of n sides inscribed in the
about the
and
f„
represents
the side of the regular polygon of n sides circumscribed
circle,
the semicircumference always lies between
is
^nCn and ^nt„ and the semicircumference
limit of ^
It is
the
common
and  nt^ when n readily proved that
ncJ^
t„
is infinitely
increased.
(1)
=
—
hexagon
is
(2)
c^n
= V2  Vicl
the radius
1.
The
side of the inscribed regular
of the circle.
Hence Cq=
By formula
(1) the side
68
COMPUTATIOIf
AND MENSUBATION
^g,
of the circumscribed regular hexagon,
is
computed.
By
formula (2) the side of the inscribed regular polygon
e^^^ is
of 12 sides,
computed.
inscribed
of
By
(2)
repeated successive application of formulas (1) and
of
the sides
and circumscribed regular
sides
is
polygons, the
number
whose
six multiplied
by
any power
of two,
may
be computed.
The
results of
twelve successive applications of for
mulas (1) and (2) give the following table of values for
the semiperimeters of the polygons;
n
6
\nc,.
3.0000000
Intn 3.4641016
12 24
3.1058285
3.1326286
3.2153903
3.1596599
3.1460862 3.1427146
48
96
3.1393502 3.1410319
3.1414524
"
192 384
768
3.1418730
3.1416627
3.1416101
3.1415576
3.1415836
1536
3072 6144
3.1415904
3.1415921
3.1415970
3.1415937
3.1415925
3.1415929
3.1415927
the circle, and therefore
tt,
12288
3.1415926
of
The semicircumference
always
lies between the semiperimeters of the inscribed and circumscribed regular polygons of the same number
of sides.
Hence the value
3.141593.
.
of
tt
correct to six decimal places
is
—
ON LIMITS
By
There
direct
69
of
tt
measurement the value
could not be
determined beyond the second or third decimal place.
is
no limit to the approximation that
may be
reached by computation.
Art.
30.
An Important
Limit
The
derivation of
many
of the formulas for the deter
mination,
exact or approximate, of lengths, areas, and
is
volumes
based on the limit,
when n
is
infinitely infirst
creased, of the ratio of the
sum
of the
1
p
powers of the
n natural numbers
as a formula, IP
to the
p+
power
of w, or expressed
limit
+
2^ 4 3^
+
4^
+
if
5^
h
•••
+
nP
tP+i
If
p
a
is
any positive integer, and
"^
a
>
6,
^
—
—=
aP +aP^b
+
aP^^
+
•••
+
aJ^i
+
h^
which may be written
(1)
CP
(1),
+ i)b''<^^^^^^. a —
h successively
•••
,
From
by placing
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
equal to
1,
w and a
=J+
(p (p
{p
+
4
1) 1^
(;?+"l)
1) 1)
4
< 2^+1  1^+1, 2^ < 3^+1 2^+1, 3^ < 4^+1  3^+1, 4^ < 5^+1  4^+1, <
(w
(j9 4
1) ^^
+
1)^+1

ri^+i.
—
70
I
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
Adding
these
n
inequalities,
(^p
+
1)(1^
+
2^
+
3^
+ 4^ +
•••
+
w^)
Dividing the
IP
last inequality
by
(jt?
< (n+ 1)^+1  1^+^ + l)n^+i,
r
+
2^
+ <
3^
+ 4^+
•••
f
nP
1
A
1 Yl^_l_
1
jt?
+
1
{l+^J + £C±_l)+...+iL_±l}, n^i n
I
2!7i2
J
and
finally
Ip 4 2^ 4 3^ 4^ 4^P+i
+
•••
^n^
1
JO 4
1
<
jt?
+
1
I
w
2!?i'
n^pi
If
now
9i
is
infinitely
increased, since
 becomes n
in
finitely small
jt?
—
1,
a finite
limit
n=oo
and the number number,
1^
of terms in the bracket is
+
2^
+
3^
+
4^4
•••
+71^
^^+1
^ _1_ 1*
i?+
Art.
31.
Lexgth and Area of Involute of Circle
around a
circle,
If a fine inextensible string, coiled
be
uncoiled from the circle and the string be always kept
taut, the free extremity of the string will trace the curve
called the involute of the circle.
Denote the radius
into
of the circle
by
rd.
r
and suppose the
Divide the arc r6
length of the string uncoiled to be
n equal parts and
inscribe in the arc a regular broken
ON LIMITS
line.
line.
71
Denote by a the length
of each part of the
If
broken
Then
a
=
2r
sin
— 2n
.
the string were
if
wound
around the broken
line
and then uncoiled,
S^ represents
Fig.
16.
the length of the curve traced
string and A^^
by the extremity the area swept over by the string,
An
of the
\ji
n
n
n
1
n n
n J
...
^„=2 7'2sin2 H
zn\ji
+
H
7i
.
j
When
n
is
infinitely increased, the
the circular arc
rd
as its limit,
broken line approaches and the involute of the
broken line approaches the involute of the circular arc as
its limit.
6 Since limit sin—74=00
= limit
n=»
—
6
,
it
'zn
2n
follows that
limit S.
= re^
limit
p +2+3+4
L ^
+ . +>»1,g,^
limit n=«
4„ = 1 ,^^3 ii„,it
n=oo
ri^+2^+3^+f++>»n ^ i ,.^.
J
72
COMPUTATION AND MEN8UBATI0N
Problem
132.
Find the length and area
from ^
of the involute
of the circle radius r extending
=
to ^
= 2 tt.
Problem
of the circle
Find the length and area of the involute radius r extending from ^ = 27rto ^ = 4 7r.
133.
—
CHAPTER
VIII
GEAPHIO ALGEBEA
Art.
If
32.
The Graph of an Equationis satisfied
an equation /(a;, y) = of every point (x^ y) of a
by the coordinates
every point
(a:, ?/)
line,
and
if
whose coordinates
satisfy the equation is a point of the
line, the line is called the
graph of the equation.
To construct the graph of an equation /(ic, y) = 0, compute the values of y for different values of a;, and locate the points whose coordinates are the pairs of corresponding
real values of
x and
y.
The graph
of the equation
is
the
smooth curve drawn through the points located.
Example. Construct the graph The corresponding pairs of real
of x^\y^
— ^.
y
are
values of x and
a;=_3
2
±2.24
and
1
±2.83
for
+1
±3
?/
+2
±2.24
+3
0.
y=
For
graph
a;
±2.83
is
a:
>+3
lies
x< — 3,
imaginary.
a:
lies
between the
lines lines
graph also
between the
= 3 and ^ = 3 and
«/
= — 3. = — 3.
Hence the The
Locating the points whose coordinates are the corre
sponding pairs of values of x and y and drawing a smooth line through these points, it becomes evident that the
graph resembles a
circle.
73
74
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
In fact the form of the equation shows at once that the graph is a circle whose radius is 3 and center the origin.
\r
^
1
\
^
\
\
/
^
X
\v
Fig. 17.
yJ
Notice that for
the circle x^
all
points (x^ y) on the circumference of
(a;,
= 0; that for all points + y) within the circle aP'\y'^  9 < and that for all points (a:, ^) without the circle + /9>0. Problem 134. Construct the graph of 3a^— 4«/ = 12. Problem 135. Construct the graph of x^\y'^ — 16.
y"^ 9
;
a:2
Problem Problem Problem
ise.
Construct the graph of
— + ^ = 1.
137.
Construct the graph of
Construct the graph of
?/2
!:c2
138. 139.
Problem
Construct the graph of
= 4 x. = 4 y.
GBAPHIC ALGEBRA
lb
Problem
Problem
140.
141.
Construct the graph oi y Construct the graph
= Zx— ba^. oiy = b — x\Qx^,
Art.
33.
— Equations
of Lines
Suppose the relation between the coordinates of any
point
P (x^ y)
to be expressed
by the
^
first
degree equation
(1)
Ax^ By
PiCa^i, «/i),
C=^.
2/3)
Let
PgC^
^2)^
A(%
be any three points
is,
whose coordinates
satisfy this equation, that
Ax^ j^By^{ 0=0, Ax^ + %2 +0=0, Ax^ + %3 + C = 0.
The
elimination of A, B^
^1(^2
C gives

^3)
+
^2(^3

^i)
+
^3(^1

^2)
is
=
^•
The
lefthand
member
of this equation
double the
^^
area of the triangle whose vertices are P^, Pg' ^3
follows that the area of the triangle whose vertices are
any three points whose coordinates
zero;
satisfy equation (1) is
lie
that
is,
these three points
of
in a straight line.
is
Hence the graph
straight line.
every
first
degree equation
a
The equation
(2)
0.2
+
^2
=
^2
expresses the fact that the distance from the origin to the
point (x, y) is a. Therefore all points (x^ y\ whose coordinates satisfy equation (2) are located on the circle
whose radius
is
a and center at origin.
76
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
From
equation (2)
y
=
Va2
is,
—
ic^.
Multiplying y by _, that
multiplying each ordinate of
the circle by the same factor , a
a
which reduces to
The curve formed by the
nates satisfy equation (3)
satisfy the equation ^
is
points
(x^
y^ whose coordi
called the
(.t,
ellipse.
The curve formed by the
points
y) whose coordinates
(4)
is
^^' = 1
the points {x^ y) whose coordi
called the hyperbola.
The curve formed by
nates satisfy the equation
(5)
is
y'^
=
1'px
called the parabola.
Problem
142.
Show
that
the
area
of
the
ellipse
^ + f = 1
is iTob.
Art.
34.
— Graphic
Solve
Solution op Equations
equation
a^
Example
graphically.
1.
the
—1 x +
1
=
Construct the graph oi y
=
x^
—
1
x
{1,
QttAPHtC
ALGEhBA
n
— 1 x + l = 0.
The
abscissas of the points
where the graph intersects
to be 1.3, 1.7,
<
>
the JTaxis are the roots of the equation x^
These roots are found by measurement
Y
— 3.1.
t __:n:__±
1
^...,
^^
7 r
X
\\::;::: ::::
7
f
^^ V ^^ 7 ^
'
:;z /\
4
/
mm
Fig. 18.
\v
r
\
:::o:;:i: ^x
ST
A
\/ ^z
\\
'
±.
Fig. 19.
Example
tions ^2
2.
a;
Solve graphically the simultaneous equa
=
10
and
x^
+
^'^
=
25.
Construct the graphs of these two equations on the
same axes of reference.
equations.
The coordinates
of the points of
intersection of the graphs are the
common
solutions of the
The
143.
144.
points of intersection are (2.1, 4.4) and
(2.1,4.4).
Problem
Pkoblem
Solve graphically x^
—
4:x
—
15
7
Solve graphically
Solve graphically
a^\7x—
= 0, = 0.
Problem
145.
o^ ^ y^ z= 25,
^2=
10
?/2
a;
—
4.
a^.
Problem
146.
Solve graphically
rr^
+
=
25,
z^if =
78
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
Art.
35.
— Inequalities
treated Graphically
Example. Show
of
graphically for
what
pairs of values
X and y the inequalities
y \l>0 2x\ y Q>0 ^x\2y\ 10>0
X
are true
?

Construct the graphs of the equations
The graph
every point
of the equation
x
—
y
y
\ 1 ==
divides the
XF'plane into two parts, such that for the coordinates of
(x^ ?/) in
one part x
—
+ 1>
and
for the
Fig. 20.
coordinates of every point (x^ y) in the other part x — y + 1 <0. Determine by trial for which part x — y \l>0
and indicate
this part of
the plane by the arrowhead
placed on the graph.
GRAPHIC ALGEBRA
79
Kepeat the same operation with the other two graphs.
The shaded
(^x,
triangle in the figure contains all the points
satisfy simultaneously the three
y) whose coordinates
given inequalities.
Problem
equalities
147.
?/
Solve graphically the simultaneous in
2—
2;2
+ 4>0, _
25
a:— 2?/
+ 5<0, + 5y — 4<0.
2;
Problem
equalities
148.
f
Solve graphically the simultaneous in
^2
<
0,
2
2;
+
y

10
>
0.
—
CHAPTER IX
AEEAS BOUNDED BY OUEVES
Art.
If the
36.
Exact Areas
is
equation of a curve
known, the ordinate
is
corre
sponding to any abscissa
If
may be computed.
not known, the
a curve
is
given whose equation
ordinate corresponding to any abscissa
may
be measured.
Denote by a and h the abscissas of the end points of a curve and assume h>a. Divide h — a into m equal parts and call each part A, so that mh = b — a.
Denote by
of the curve
^q, y^,
i/^,
y^,
• • •
,
?/^
the ordinates of the points
of h.
whose distances from a are the multiples
X
Fig. 21.
Construct rectangles on each successive ordinate and
the adjacent part oil
spective ordinate.
80
—a
located to the right of the re
AREAS BOUNDED BY CURVES
81
The limit of the sum of the areas of these rectangles when m is infinitely increased is the area bounded by the curve, the ordinates of the end points of the curve and
the Xaxis.
If'
the relation between
ordinate and abscissa
is
ex
pressed by an equation of the form
(1)
7/
= AiBx\C2^hI>:i^{determined exactly.
•••
\]Srx\
this limit can be
Consider the rectangle constructed on the ordinate
corresponding to the point whose distance from a
2/1
is Ih.
The
area of this rectangle
is
~
Substituting for A
the area bounded
its
value
m
,
the
expression for
by the curve
(1), the Xaxis,
and the
ordinates corresponding to x=^a^
l=m\
x=h
becomes
I
Area
= limit
V
A(ha)\B(hay
m
and
finally
Area
= ^ (/, _ a) +  (6  a^ + ^(h  a^
+
When
the area
...+
N
+
Nw+i (j_«)
^7
w
is
= 1,
equation (1) represents a straight line and
given by the formula
Area
= A(h  a) + f (6  a)2.
—
82
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
When
area
is
71
= 2,
equation (1) represents a parabola and the
given by
Area
= A(ha) + ~(h + ay{ ^(h + a^.
149.
Problem
a;
Find the area bounded by ^
?/
= 3f52;,
2:
a:^^
= 2,
rr
= 10,
and
150.
= 0.
?/
Pkoblem
a;
Find the area bounded by
«/
=2 +6
x^
= 0, = 5,
a?
and
151.
= 0.
Find the area bounded by
Problem
a;
= 2py,
= 0, x= a^
Art.
and
?/
= 0.
37.
Approximate Equation of a Curve
curve
is
If the equation of a
not of the form (1),
it
may
be possible to express approximately the relation between
ordinate and abscissa
by means
of
an equation of the form
(1) and thus obtain an approximate value of the area.
For example, the equation
x^
of the circle is
+
y'^
= r%
Srr*
from which
^
,
^/^
This
2
L2r^24r4246r6
convergent for
all all
r,
n
1'^^
1
1
3
5a;6
]
J
values of x
infinite series is
numerically less than
hence for
such values y can be
• • •
expressed in the form
A+ Bx\ Cx^ + 1>^ +
+ iVic"
to
any required degree
and consequently the area of the circular segment may be computed to any desired degree of approximation by the methods of the
of approximation,
previous article.
If a
curve
is
given whose equation
is
not known, and
if
the abscissas of the end points are
x—a
and
x = h^
divide
AREAS BOUNDED BY CURVES
h h
83
k^
— a into n equal parts — a = nk. The ordinates
may
• • •
and
call
each part
so that
corresponding to the points of
division
be measured.
Denote by
y^, y^, y^. Vz^a,
the ordinates corresponding to the abscissas
^Vn a + ^, a + 2 ^,
a
+3
A:,
,
0^
+ w^.
determine an equation of the form
It is possible to
(1)
y^^A^Bx^Cx^^D:^^ • + Nx\
is satisfied
which
by the coordinates
of these n{l points
of the curve.
For the successive substitution
n\l points
(a, yo), (a4/c, y{),
of the coordinates of the
(a {2k,
^/g),
•••,
(a
+ wA:,
?/„)
in
equation (1) furnislies n\l equations of the first degree between the n { 1 coefficients of equation (1). These equations determine the coefficients.
In general the higher the degree of equation (1), and
consequently the greater the number of points the line
represented by equation
(1)
has
in
common with
the
given curve, the more closely will the line represented by
equation (1)
area bounded
fit
the given curve
approximation of
and the closer will be the the area bounded by equation (1) to the
by the given curve.
Art.
38.
— Approximate
When w =
y
1,
Areas
equation
(1)
be
First approximation.
comes
=A+
a)
Bx,
and
Area
= A(h —
+ —(b —
a^.
84
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
Denoting the ordinates of the end points of the given
curve by ^^ and ^^^
yi
= ^^ y^ = A + B(h
a).
From
these equations
A '=
y^^
B= ~
+ ^2)
7
•
Substituting these values,
Area
This
is
=
^
(^^
the approximation found by replacing the given
curve by a straight line joining the end points of the
curve.
Second approximation.
When
Qx\
?^
=
2,
equation (1) be
comes
y
= A^Bx{=
vl(5
^^^
Area

«)
+ f (5 
aj'
+ ^(h 
a^.
Denoting the three equidistant ordinates of the given
curve by
y^, y^, y^,
y, y^
= A^^Cha}\^Cbay,
= A + B(ha)+
Q(h

ay.
From
these equations
^=
Vv
h
—
a
•
(5
 af
AREAS BOUNDED BY CURVES
Substituting these values,
85
Area
This
is
=
—^
(t/^
+
4 ^2
+ ^s)
the approximation found by replacing the given
curve by a parabola through three points of the curve
with equidistant ordinates.
It
is
known
S,
as Simpson's
approximation for the area bounded by a curve.
Third approximation.
When n =
equation
(1) be
comes
and
Area
= AQh 
a)
+~(h  ay+^^b  ay + ~(h ay,
Z
O
4:
curve by
Denoting the four equidistant ordinates of the given i/^, y^, y^, and y^,
y^
y^ y^
= A^ \B(h  «) + \C(h  ay + i^BQy  ay, = A + lB(h  a) + I C(h  ay + ^^j D(h  ay, = A + B(iba)^ C(h  ay + D(h  ay.
(7,
Solving these equations for A, B,
D and
5,
substituting,
Area
=\(ha)
for
{y^
+
8(^3
ri
+ y^) +
4 or
y^.
the resulting a
Other approximations.
When
=
expression
the approximate area does not take
simple form.
When
^y Vv Vv
w
=
6,
if
the equidistant ordinates are denoted
^3' ^4^ Vh' y%>
Vv ^^^ expression
for the area is
i/^)
Area
=
^^(h
is
+
a) {y^
+
^^
+ ^^ + y^ + 5(^2 +
+ 6 y^ }.
This
Weddle's approximation for the area bounded
by a curve.
86
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
The
application of these several formulas for areas will
if
not give close approximations
the equidistant ordinates
have a wide range of values.
It is therefore
important to
break up the given curve into parts such that for each
part the equidistant ordinates have a small range of values
and apply the formulas
to each part separately.
Problem
152.
By using the value of tt compute
correct to
two decimal places the area of the segment of the circle whose radius is 14 feet bounded by a diameter and a chord parallel to the diameter and distant 7 feet from the diameter.
Problem
153.
Compute
six
equidistant
ordinates
of
the circular segment of Problem 149 and find the error
of the first approximation.
Problem
Problem 150,
154.
Using the
six equidistant ordinates of
find the error of Simpson's approximation.
155.
Problem
Compute seven
equidistant ordinates of
the circular segment of Problem 149 and find the error
of Weddle's approximation.
Problem
of
156.
Find, approximately, the area of a plot
side
ground bounded on one
by a straight
line
and on
the other by an irregular curve.
line is 8.97 chains,
The length
of the straight of 31 equi
and the lengths in chains
distant ordinates taken in order, measured from this line
to the opposite boundary, are
1.37
2.46
1.83
2.73
2.31
2.91
'
2.52
3.21
2.58 2.75 1.98 2.76
2.47
2.63
2.32
2.01
1.98
2.93
1.74
3.41
1.50
3.92
1.59
3.42
2.37 2.42
2.76
2.01
1.75
1.50
1.65
CHAPTER X
VOLUMES OF SOLIDS
Art.
39.
— Exact
Volumes
Suppose two
solid extends
parallel planes to be
from the one plane to
drawn such that the the other and is con
tained wholly between the two planes.
Divide the distance between these two planes into n
equal parts, and through the points of division pass planes
parallel to the planes
drawn
at the start.
Starting from one of the original parallel planes, con
FiG. 22.
struct cylinders on the successive plane sections of the
solid as bases with one of the n equal parts of the distance between the original parallel plahes as altitude.
Denoting by Xq, X^, X^, Xg, X^,
87
•
X,i the areas of
88
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
the successive equidistant sections of the solid, and the
distance between the parallel planes including the solid
hj
h
— a^
the
sum
of the
volumes of the cylinders
is
It
and the volume of the given
solid is the limit of this
sum
when n
is
infinitely increased.
If the areas of the successive
plane sections of the solid
can be expressed in terms of the distance x from one of
the end planes by an equation of the form
X = A + Bx\Cx^ + I)3?\Ex^+
the limit of the
••.
+iV^%
In fact
sum can be determined
is
exactly.
the determination of this limit
identical with the deter
mination of the limit for areas of Article 36.
Art.
40.
— Approximate
is
Volumes
The volume Volume =
« = Q0
of a solid
given by the expression
iimit(Xo+Xi+
It follows that the
X2+X3+X4+ of n.
+x„_i)^i:^.
71
approximation to the volume
is
made
closer
by increasing the value
First approximation.
When n=l,
denoting by
X^ and
X2
the areas of the end sections,
Volume
=
^
(Xj
+ X^).
Second approximation. When ^ = 2, denoting by Xj, X^^ and X3 the areas of the three equidistant sections,
Volume =
^
(Xi
+ 4 X^ + X3).
VOLUMES OF SOLIDS
This
is
89
the prismoidal formula.
Third approximation.
When
w
= 3,
denoting the areas
of the four equidistant sections
by X^, X^, X^, and X^,
Volume
=
1
(5
 a) [X^ + ^CX^ + X^) + XJ.
When
w
Fourth approximation.
= 6,
denoting the areas
of the seven equidistant sections
by Xj, Xg, Xg, X^, Xg,
Xg, Xy,
Volume
=
157.
Problem!
The
solid generated
its
by revolving a
chord
is
cir
cular segment of one base about
circular spindle.
called a
Find the
is
first,
second, third, and fourth
if
approximations of the volume of the circular spindle
radius of the circle
the
14 feet and the height of the circular
segment
is
T feet.
158.
Problem
rest
A
vessel laden with a cargo
is
floats
at
in
still
water and the line of flotation
marked.
Upon From
the removal of the cargo every part of the vessel
rises 3 feet,
the
when the known lines
line of flotation
is
again marked.
of the vessel the areas of the
two
planes of flotation and of five equidistant sections are
calculated and found to be as follows, expressed in square
feet:
3918
3794
3661
3517
3361
3191
3004
Find the weight of the cargo removed, supposing 355
cubic feet of water to weigh 10 tons.
90
Art.
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
41.
— Applicability
of Prismoidal Formula
The prismoidal formula Volume = l(h a)(Xi
allel
+ 4 Xg +
X3)
gives the exact volume of any solid
bounded by two parCx\
planes provided
X=A\Bx^
where
X denotes the
Q
area of a section of the solid
made
dis
by a plane parallel to the end planes, x denotes the
A, B^
a.
tance from this plane section to one of the end planes, and
are constants.
^
For prisms and cylinders
X=A
and the prismoidal formula applies. h. For pyramids and cones
X=Cx^
and the prismoidal formula
c.
applies.
For frustums
of pyramids and cones
X=^A + Bx +
and the prismoidal formula
d.
Cx^
applies.
For a sphere
X= iri^axx^)
Fig. 23.
and the prismoidal formula
applies.
VOLUMES OF SOLIDS
e.
91
For an
ellipsoid of revolution or spheroid
or
and
the
prismoidal
formula
applies.
Fig.
24.
^.
For any
Y
ellipsoid
X=7r^C2axx^)
and
tlie
prismoidal
formula applies.
Fig. 25.
g.
For the paraboloid of revolution
Y
X= 2pirx
>X
and the
prismoidal
for
mula
applies.
Fig. 26.
92
COMPUTATION AND MENSURATION
Problem
159.
The radius
of a sphere is 10 feet.
Find
the volume of the spherical segment whose bases are distant 2 feet and 4 feet from the center of the sphere.
Problem
leo.
Find the volume of the
2 2
solid generated
by revolving the
ellipse
~\^=l
about the
rcaxis.
Problem
I6I.
Find the volume of the
ellipsoid
whose
axes are 10, 14, 18 inches.
Problem 162. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about the a;axis that part of the parabola y2 = 2jt?a; bounded by a: = and x = a.
Problem
radius
is
163.
Find the volume
of the sphere
whose
R,
164.
Problem
bases
Find the volume of the frustum
is
of a
cone of revolution whose altitude
A,
the radii of the
M and r.
165.
Problem
A
cask
is
constructed in the shape of
the middle frustum of a spheroid.
of the cask are length 1^ meters,
The
inside dimensions
end diameters  meter,
in
bung diameter ^ meter.
liters
Find the capacity of the cask
and
in gallons.
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