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INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING
Dr. Dheeraj Kumar Associate Professor ISM , DHANBAD
IS AN ART OR SCIENCE OF MAKING SUCH MEASREMENTS ON THE SURFACE OF EARTH, That when drawn on a plan or map on a scale, all the natural and man-made features mancan be shown in their correct horizontal and vertical relationships. relationships.
IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR SAFE AN ‘ TO THE SPECIFICATION ’ MINING. IS THE ‘ EYES AND EARS ’ OF THE MINING. IS ESSENTIAL TO LAYOUT THE DESIGN FROM ‘PAPER TO THE FIELD ’. IS USED IN THE CALCULATION OF VARIOUS REQUIRED QUANTITIES. IS VERY USEFUL IN PLANNING THE MINING OPERATIONS. IS HELPFUL IN INSTALLING MACHINES AND STRUCTURES. BRINGS THE ‘ MINE ON TO THE TABLE ’ FOR AND DECISIONS. DISCUSSIONS
(a) Fieldwork – Data Acquisition i.e. making measurements in the field. (b) Office-work – (i) Planning of & Preparation for Fieldwork. (ii) Processing of the field data – Computations (iii) Presentation of final product.
9/5/2012 FACTS ABOUT MEASUREMENTS No measurement is exact Every measurement contains error The true value of a measurement is never known Exact error in measurement is always unknown FIELDWORK INVOLVES (a) Reconnaissance (b) Survey Measurements & their Recording (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Measurement of Distances Measurement of Angles Measurement of Directions Measurement of Levels Measurement of Positions 3 .
centimetres Degs Mins Secs (DMS).471 acres) (1 ha = 10. sq. sq. meters. hectares.9/5/2012 TYPES OF MEASUREMENT Horizontal distances Vertical distances Slope distances Horizontal angles Vertical angles UNITS OF MEASUREMENT Length: Angles: Metres.kms (1 ha = 2. Grads (400gr = 360°) Radians (2 PI = 360°) sq.000 sq. m) Area: 4 . decimetres.
2mm +/. (c) Plotting (d) Obtaining in Formations from Plans or Processed Field data viz. INSTRUMENTS FOR DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS (i) Steel Tapes – Accuracy 1 in 1000 to 1 in 5000 (ii) Invar Tapes – Accuracy 1 in 10.000 and above.9/5/2012 OFFICE WORK INVOLVES (a) Computations (b) Assessment of Accuracies – Accuracy & Precision. volumes etc. (iii) Electronic Distance Meters – Accuracy +/. distances. areas.2 ppm to +/.5 mm +/-5ppm 5 .
L. 1” to 0. (d) based on Laser . (b) based on Visible Light – (Medium Range) upto 20 Km range (Geodimeters).Digital .C. Sokkia Redmini Series).Reflectorless EDMs – upto 700m Least Count Accuracy : : 1 mm + 2 to 5 mm + 2 to 5 ppm.C. (Manufacturing of only EDM instruments are now discontinued) INSTRUMENTS FOR ANGLE MEASUREMENTS (1) Dials (2) Theodolites Vernier .9/5/2012 ELECTRONIC DISTANCE METERS (a) based on Infrared – (Short Range) upto 6 Km range (Wild DI Series.). 20” to 1” .1″ 6 . L. 20” Microptic . (c) based on Microwave – (Long Range) upto 100 Km range (Tellurometer etc.1” (3) Electronic Theodolites (a) based on encoder disc (b) based on pattern disc Least Count 1″ to 0.
20″ (iv) Theodolites Used for Astronomical Observations 1″ to 20″ INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASUREMENTS OF LEVELS (i) Ordinary Levels – Least Count (ii) Precise Levels (iii) Digital Levels – Least Count – Least Count 5 mm .15 ′ to 30 ′ (ii) Theodolites Fitted with Compass 5 ′ to 15 ′ (iii) Gyro Theodolite .01 mm 1 mm to .9/5/2012 INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASUREMENTS OF DIRECTIONS (i) Magnetic Prismatic Compass .1mm 7 .1 mm to .1mm .
For example. Scales & RF Scales & R.5m) (ii) Total Stations – Sub Centimeter Accuracy (iii) Global Position System – Accuracy 5mm to 10 mm (iv) Instruments with combined features viz. if 2 cm on a map represents 1 km on the ground. Total Station + Streo-camera etc.+ GPS . the scale represents the ratio of a distance on the map to the actual distance on the ground. Total Station.9/5/2012 INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASUREMENTS OF POSITIONS (i) Tacheometer – Sub meter Accuracy (+ 0. the scale would be 2 cm = 1 km Representative Fraction 8 . In each case.F Maps are made to scale.
miles and furlongs. Plain' scale 2. units. Vernier scale A plain scale is one on which it is possible to measure two dimensions only l such as units and lengths.9/5/2012 Types of Scale Scales may be classified as follows 1. yards. A short length is divided into a number of parts by using the principle of similar triangles in which like sides are proportional 9 . decimeters and centimeters. etc. Diagonal Scale 3. tenths and hundredths. it is possible to measure three dimensions such as metres. Diagonal Scale On a diagonal scale. metres and decimeters. feet and inches etc.
C) AREA. D) VOLUME.9/5/2012 Vernier Scale Vernier is a device for measuring the fractional part of one of the smallest divisions of a graduated scale. B) LOCATION OF A POINT. B) DIRECTION OF A LINE. 10 . It usually consists of a small auxiliary scale which slides along side the main scale. The Vernier carries an index mark which forms the zero of the Vernier Total Scale Reading = Main Scale reading + L. E) OTHER INFORMATION.C x Vernier Scale Reading Least Count L.C = s/n Where s = value of one smallest division on main scale n = Number of division on the Vernier MINE PLANS / MAPS USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF : A ) DISTANCE BETWEEN ANY TWO POINTS.
CALCULATE THE VOLUMES OF EXTRACTED AND/OR OVER-BURDEN. OVERMINERALS CORRELATE THE SURFACE AND U/G FEATURES ON HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL PLANES . MEASURE THE REQUIRED AREA WITHIN ANY DESIRED BOUNDARY. DIRECTIONS AND LEVELS BETWEEN ANY DESIRED POINTS. 11 . MEASURE THE DISTANCES.9/5/2012 MINE PLANS AND SECTIONS REQUIRED TO : SHOW THE RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE LOCATIONS OF VARIOUS FEATURES AND ELEMENTS OF THE MINE.
9/5/2012 Plan views should include North arrow and scale Existing features and proposed construction Details Provide detailed information that cannot be shown on plan Reference bubbles Elevations Provide side view of exterior of a building Construction grid lines and elevations may be shown Sections Provide a side view of the interior of an object Has an orientation of view that must be shown in plan Found using reference bubbles Example: Right-of-way cross sections Right-of- Profiles Shows a pipe or road centerline.. etc. along its length Has horizontal and vertical scales Shows existing ground line and proposed grade How are objects drawn along a profile? How are objects drawn that cross the axis of the profile? 12 .
ELECTRICITY PLAN 11. ACCIDENT PLAN.STONE6. LEASEHOLD BOUNDARY. WATER BODIES ETC.VENTILATION PLAN. CONTOURS. 4.000 OR 1 : 1. 6. UNDERGROUND PLAN SHOWING ALL IMPORTANT FEATURES AND ELEMENTS OF MINE . 13. 13 . SECTIONS FOR SEAMS DIPPING 30 DEG. HFL. 5.000 SCALE ) 2.RESCUE PLAN. 9.DUSTING PLAN 7. 8. 12. 10. ABANDONMENT AND DISCONTINUANCE MINE PLAN.STONE. COMPOSITE PLAN. GEOLOGICAL PLAN. MORE 14. WATER DANGER PLAN. WATER BODIES. SURFACE PLAN SHOWING ALL MAN-MADE MANAND NATURAL FEATURES. ANY OTHER PLAN REQUIRED BY DGMS.. CONTINUED …. SAMPLING PLAN. 3. BOUNDARIES ( ON 1 : 2. RLs.9/5/2012 VARIOUS MINE PLANS 1.
Topographical Surveys b. Hydrographic Survey 3. Engineering Survey Military Survey Mine Survey Geological Survey Chain Survey Theodolite Survey Traverse Survey Triangulation Survey Tacheometric Survey Plane Table Survey C. City Survey 2. Cadastral Survey c. Land Surveying a. 5. SURVEYING : Classifications A. Based on Instruments Used 1. 3. 3. 4. 6. LOCATION OF A POINT BY MEASUREMENT FROM TWO POINTS OF REFERENCE . 2. 2. Astronomical Survey B. 4. 14 . Based on Object of Survey 1.9/5/2012 SURVEYING : PRINCIPLES WORKING FROM WHOLE TO THE PART. Classification based on nature of field survey 1.
velocity of flow in streams.S. 15 . Photographic survey In this type of survey. information is collected by taking photographs from selected points using a camera. and artificial features such as roads and canals.L. Astronomical Survey The Astronomical Survey is carried out to determine the absolute location of any point on the surface of earth. Archeological Survey This type of survey is carried out to gather information about sites that are important from archeological considerations and for unearthing relics of antiquity. bridges and reservoirs.9/5/2012 SURVEYING : Classifications Topographical surveys They are carried out determine the position of natural features of a region such as rivers. depth of water bodies. streams. The purpose of such surveys is to prepare maps and such maps of are called topo-sheets. hills etc. cross-section area of crossflow etc. topo- Hydrographic Survey HydroHydro-graphic survey is carried out to determine M. water spread area. (Mean Sea Level). SURVEYING : Classifications Engineering Survey This type of survey is undertaken whenever sufficient data is to be collected for the purpose of planning and designing engineering works such as roads. The survey consists of making observations to heavenly bodies such as stars.
etc 2. refraction. NATURAL ERRORS: Errors caused by natural phenomena. temperature. such as graduations on theodolite circle or tape 3. such as vertical crosshair not aligned perfectly on target 16 . PERSONAL ERRORS: Errors caused by human limitations of the observer. such as wind. aero- Reconnaissance Survey In this type of survey. SOURCES OF ERROR 1.9/5/2012 SURVEYING : Classifications Aerial Survey In this type of survey data about large tracks of land is collected by taking photographs from an aero-plane. data is collected by marking physical observation and some measurements using simple survey instruments. INSTRUMENT ERRORS: Errors resulting from imperfections in measuring instruments. humidity.
temperature) and can generally be computed and correction applied RANDOM ERRORS Errors that obey the laws of probability (beyond control of observer) . BUT LESS ACCURATE (B) . BUT LESS PRECISE 17 .9/5/2012 TYPES OF ERRORS SYSTEMATIC ERRORS These errors conform to mathematical and physical laws (e. but they can be estimated using statistical methods ACCURACY AND PRECISION (A).no absolute method to compute and eliminate these errors.PRECISE.g.MORE ACCURATE.
236 ERRORS MISTAKE BLUNDER ACCURACY SPECIFICATIONS A ) PLOTTING : .229 235.236 235. 25 mm ON THE SCALE OF THE MINE PLAN.234 214. B ) TRIANGULATION : CLOSING ERROR ON THE BASE LINE 1:5.237 234.0.000 C ) TRAVERSING : SURFACE (i) ANGLE CLOSURE = LC√N (ii) COORDINATES CLOSURE = 1 in 3000 18 .233 235.9/5/2012 ERRORS IN SURVEYING SUPPOSE A DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS IS MEASURED AS: 235.
ACCURACY SPECIFICATIONS E) LEVELLING : SURFACE 2 cm / km F) LEVELLING : UNDERGROUND (i) Through adit or shaft 1/5000 of distance between surface and U/G BMs (ii ) Through Incline 1/2500 of the inclined distance G) CORRELATION SURVEY Two Measurements of directions to agree within 2 minutes of an arc.9/5/2012 ACCURACY SPECIFICATIONS D) TRAVERSING :UNDERGROUND (i) ANGLE CLOSURE = (LC+20)√N (ii) COORDINATES CLOSURE = 1 in 2500 FOR MAIN AND 1 in 1500 FOR SUBSIDIARY AND 1 in 500 FOR TIE – LINES. 19 .
DISPLACEMENTS. HORIZON CLOSURE. TRIANGULAR ERROR. ANGLES – TWO MEASURES. LEVELLING – READINGS ON ALL THE THREE HAIRS. DISTANCES . 4.9/5/2012 PRECAUTIONS 1. ANGLE CLOSURE. STAFF VERTICAL. 3. 20 . INSTUMENTS – ADJUSTMENTS OF COLLIMATION. PLATE LEVELS AND OPTICAL PLUMMETS.TWO MEASURES 2.