Contents
Foreword 1. Sets 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 Introduction Sets and their Representations The Empty Set Finite and Infinite Sets Equal Sets Subsets Power Set Universal Set Venn Diagrams Operations on Sets Complement of a Set Practical Problems on Union and Intersection of Two Sets iii 1 1 1 5 6 7 9 12 12 13 14 18 21 30 30 30 34 36 49 49 49 55 63 74 86 86 87 88

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Relations and Functions 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Cartesian Product of Sets 2.3 Relations 2.4 Functions Trigonometric Functions 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Angles 3.3 Trigonometric Functions 3.4 Trigonometric Functions of Sum and Difference of Two Angles 3.5 Trigonometric Equations Principle of Mathematical Induction 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Motivation 4.3 The Principle of Mathematical Induction

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Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Complex Numbers 5.3 Algebra of Complex Numbers 5.4 The Modulus and the Conjugate of a Complex Number 5.5 Argand Plane and Polar Representation 5.6 Quadratic Equations Linear Inequalities 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Inequalities 6.3 Algebraic Solutions of Linear Inequalities in One Variable and their Graphical Representation 6.4 Graphical Solution of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables 6.5 Solution of System of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables Permutations and Combinations 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Fundamental Principle of Counting 7.3 Permutations 7.4 Combinations Binomial Theorem 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices 8.3 General and Middle Terms Sequences and Series 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Sequences 9.3 Series 9.4 Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) 9.5 Geometric Progression (G.P.) 9.6 Relationship Between A.M. and G.M. 9.7 Sum to n terms of Special Series

97 97 97 98 102 104 108 116 116 116 118 123 127 134 134 134 138 148 160 160 160 167 177 177 177 179 181 186 191 194 203 203 204 212 220 225

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10. Straight Lines 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Slope of a Line 10.3 Various Forms of the Equation of a Line 10.4 General Equation of a Line 10.5 Distance of a Point From a Line
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11. Conic Sections 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Sections of a Cone 11.3 Circle 11.4 Parabola 11.5 Ellipse 11.6 Hyperbola 12. Introduction to Three Dimensional Geometry 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Coordinate Axes and Coordinate Planes in Three Dimensional Space 12.3 Coordinates of a Point in Space 12.4 Distance between Two Points 12.5 Section Formula 13. Limits and Derivatives 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Intuitive Idea of Derivatives 13.3 Limits 13.4 Limits of Trigonometric Functions 13.5 Derivatives 14. Mathematical Reasoning 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Statements 14.3 New Statements from Old 14.4 Special Words/Phrases 14.5 Implications 14.6 Validating Statements 15. Statistics 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Measures of Dispersion 15.3 Range 15.4 Mean Deviation 15.5 Variance and Standard Deviation 15.6 Analysis of Frequency Distributions
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16. Probability 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Random Experiments 16.3 Event 16.4 Axiomatic Approach to Probability Appendix 1: Infinite Series A.1.1 Introduction A.1.2 Binomial Theorem for any Index A.1.3 Infinite Geometric Series A.1.4 Exponential Series A.1.5 Logarithmic Series Appendix 2: Mathematical Modelling A.2.1 Introduction A.2.2 Preliminaries A.2.3 What is Mathematical Modelling Answers

383 383 384 387 394 412 412 412 414 416 419 421 421 421 425 433

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Chapter

1

SETS
In these days of conflict between ancient and modern studies; there must surely be something to be said for a study which did not begin with Pythagoras and will not end with Einstein; but is the oldest and the youngest. — G.H. HARDY

1.1 Introduction
The concept of set serves as a fundamental part of the present day mathematics. Today this concept is being used in almost every branch of mathematics. Sets are used to define the concepts of relations and functions. The study of geometry, sequences, probability, etc. requires the knowledge of sets. The theory of sets was developed by German mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918). He first encountered sets while working on “problems on trigonometric series”. In this Chapter, we discuss some basic definitions and operations involving sets.

Georg Cantor (1845-1918)

1.2 Sets and their Representations
In everyday life, we often speak of collections of objects of a particular kind, such as, a pack of cards, a crowd of people, a cricket team, etc. In mathematics also, we come across collections, for example, of natural numbers, points, prime numbers, etc. More specially, we examine the following collections: (i) Odd natural numbers less than 10, i.e., 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 (ii) The rivers of India (iii) The vowels in the English alphabet, namely, a, e, i, o, u (iv) Various kinds of triangles (v) Prime factors of 210, namely, 2,3,5 and 7 (vi) The solution of the equation: x2 – 5x + 6 = 0, viz, 2 and 3. We note that each of the above example is a well-defined collection of objects in

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MATHEMATICS

the sense that we can definitely decide whether a given particular object belongs to a given collection or not. For example, we can say that the river Nile does not belong to the collection of rivers of India. On the other hand, the river Ganga does belong to this colleciton. We give below a few more examples of sets used particularly in mathematics, viz. N Z Q R Z+ Q+ : : : : : : the set of all natural numbers the set of all integers the set of all rational numbers the set of real numbers the set of positive integers the set of positive rational numbers, and

R + : the set of positive real numbers. The symbols for the special sets given above will be referred to throughout this text. Again the collection of five most renowned mathematicians of the world is not well-defined, because the criterion for determining a mathematician as most renowned may vary from person to person. Thus, it is not a well-defined collection. We shall say that a set is a well-defined collection of objects. The following points may be noted : (i) Objects, elements and members of a set are synonymous terms. (ii) Sets are usually denoted by capital letters A, B, C, X, Y, Z, etc. (iii) The elements of a set are represented by small letters a, b, c, x, y, z, etc. If a is an element of a set A, we say that “ a belongs to A” the Greek symbol ∈ (epsilon) is used to denote the phrase ‘belongs to’. Thus, we write a ∈ A. If ‘b’ is not an element of a set A, we write b ∉ A and read “b does not belong to A”. Thus, in the set V of vowels in the English alphabet, a ∈ V but b ∉ V. In the set P of prime factors of 30, 3 ∈ P but 15 ∉ P. There are two methods of representing a set : (i) Roster or tabular form (ii) Set-builder form. (i) In roster form, all the elements of a set are listed, the elements are being separated by commas and are enclosed within braces { }. For example, the set of all even positive integers less than 7 is described in roster form as {2, 4, 6}. Some more examples of representing a set in roster form are given below : (a) The set of all natural numbers which divide 42 is {1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, 42}.

SETS

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Note In roster form, the order in which the elements are listed is immaterial. Thus, the above set can also be represented as {1, 3, 7, 21, 2, 6, 14, 42}. (b) (c) The set of all vowels in the English alphabet is {a, e, i, o, u}. The set of odd natural numbers is represented by {1, 3, 5, . . .}. The dots tell us that the list of odd numbers continue indefinitely.

Note It may be noted that while writing the set in roster form an element is not generally repeated, i.e., all the elements are taken as distinct. For example, the set of letters forming the word ‘SCHOOL’ is { S, C, H, O, L} or {H, O, L, C, S}. Here, the order of listing elements has no relevance. (ii) In set-builder form, all the elements of a set possess a single common property which is not possessed by any element outside the set. For example, in the set {a, e, i, o, u}, all the elements possess a common property, namely, each of them is a vowel in the English alphabet, and no other letter possess this property. Denoting this set by V, we write V = {x : x is a vowel in English alphabet} It may be observed that we describe the element of the set by using a symbol x (any other symbol like the letters y, z, etc. could be used) which is followed by a colon “ : ”. After the sign of colon, we write the characteristic property possessed by the elements of the set and then enclose the whole description within braces. The above description of the set V is read as “the set of all x such that x is a vowel of the English alphabet”. In this description the braces stand for “the set of all”, the colon stands for “such that”. For example, the set A = {x : x is a natural number and 3 < x < 10} is read as “the set of all x such that x is a natural number and x lies between 3 and 10. Hence, the numbers 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 are the elements of the set A. If we denote the sets described in (a), (b) and (c) above in roster form by A, B, C, respectively, then A, B, C can also be represented in set-builder form as follows: A= {x : x is a natural number which divides 42} B= {y : y is a vowel in the English alphabet} C= {z : z is an odd natural number} Example 1 Write the solution set of the equation x2 + x – 2 = 0 in roster form. Solution The given equation can be written as (x – 1) (x + 2) = 0, i. e., x = 1, – 2 Therefore, the solution set of the given equation can be written in roster form as {1, – 2}. Example 2 Write the set {x : x is a positive integer and x2 < 40} in the roster form.

Example 3 Write the set A = {1. the numerator begin from 1 and do not exceed 6. Hence. 4. . 2 3 4 5 6 7 Solution We see that each member in the given set has the numerator one less than the demominator. 2. (v) The collection of all natural numbers less than 100. 18 are all divisors of 18 and so (iii) matches (a). Which of the following are sets ? Justify your asnwer. . 3. where n ∈ N} 1 2 3 4 5 6 Example 4 Write the set { . (i) The collection of all the months of a year beginning with the letter J. 3. L} (a) { x : x is a positive integer and is a divisor of 18} (ii) { 0 } (b) { x : x is an integer and x2 – 9 = 0} (iii) {1. x2 – 9 = 0 implies x = 3. 9.4 MATHEMATICS Solution The required numbers are 1. Solution We may write the set A as A = {x : x is the square of a natural number} Alternatively. A. 6. . 18} (c) {x : x is an integer and x + 1= 1} (iv) {3. (iii) A team of eleven best-cricket batsmen of the world. 3. . 5. (ii) The collection of ten most talented writers of India. 2 . (vi) A collection of novels written by the writer Munshi Prem Chand. where n is a natural number and 1 ≤ n ≤ 6 ⎬ ⎨x : x = n +1 ⎩ ⎭ Example 5 Match each of the set on the left described in the roster form with the same set on the right described in the set-builder form : (i) {P. 5. there are 9 letters in the word PRINCIPAL and two letters P and I are repeated. 2. 16. Finally. (ii) matches (c) as x + 1 = 1 implies x = 0. the given set in the roster form is {1. Also. in the set-builder form the given set is n ⎧ ⎫ .1 1. . (vii) The collection of all even integers. (iv) The collection of all boys in your class. R. . –3} (d) {x : x is a letter of the word PRINCIPAL} Solution Since in (d). 4. }in set-builder form. . So. 9. 6. –3 and so (iv) matches (b). Similarly. } in the set-builder form.3. 25. 9. 2. Also. so (i) matches (d). N. EXERCISE 1. 4. 6. I. . we can write A = {x : x = n2. 6}. 1. C.

A (ii) 8 . 4. We now write another set B as follows: .A (iv) 4.C. . 2. .H. 5. – 1 9 <x< } 2 2 6. . 125.9. 3.A Write the following sets in roster form: (i) A = {x : x is an integer and –3 < x < 7} (ii) B = {x : x is a natural number less than 6} (iii) C = {x : x is a two-digit natural number such that the sum of its digits is 8} (iv) D = {x : x is a prime number which is divisor of 60} (v) E = The set of all letters in the word TRIGONOMETRY (vi) F = The set of all letters in the word BETTER Write the following sets in the set-builder form : (i) (3.I. 2. . 5. A (iii) 0. . x2 ≤ 4} (iv) D = {x : x is a letter in the word “LOYAL”} (v) E = {x : x is a month of a year not having 31 days} (vi) F = {x : x is a consonant in the English alphabet which precedes k }. 12} (ii) {2. 5. Thus.16. .T.32} (iii) {5. (viii) The collection of questions in this Chapter. .E. 7. 3. . Let A = {1.100} List all the elements of the following sets : (i) A = {x : x is an odd natural number} (ii) B = {x : x is an integer. (iii) C = {x : x is an integer. . 6. . . . Match each of the set on the left in the roster form with the same set on the right described in set-builder form: (i) {1. 1. A (v) 2.8. .. 9. 625} (iv) {2.A. (ix) A collection of most dangerous animals of the world.3 The Empty Set Consider the set A = { x : x is a student of Class XI presently studying in a school } We can go to the school and count the number of students presently studying in Class XI in the school. the set A contains a finite number of elements. .S} (c) {x : x is natural number and divisor of 6} (iv) {1. 6}. . 9} (d) {x : x is a letter of the word MATHEMATICS}. Insert the appropriate symbol ∈ or ∉ in the blank spaces: (i) 5.4. 6} (a) {x : x is a prime number and a divisor of 6} (ii) {2.A (vi) 10. 6.SETS 5 2. . . . 4. 3} (b) {x : x is an odd natural number less than 10} (iii) {M. 3. 4.4.} (v) {1. 3. 25.

(ii) Let S be the set of solutions of the equation x2 –16 = 0. because there is no natural number between 1 and 2. We give below a few examples of empty sets. c. B is an empty set while A is not an empty set. (iii) Let G be the set of points on a line. If n (S) is a natural number. Consider some examples : (i) Let W be the set of the days of the week. 2. we mean the number of distinct elements of the set and we denote it by n (S).4 Finite and Infinite Sets Let A = {1. x is odd }. the set is called infinite. The sets A. 1. (i) Let A = {x : 1 < x < 2. 4. So. (iii) C = {x : x is an even prime number greater than 2}. Definition 1 A set which does not contain any element is called the empty set or the null set or the void set. 3. we represent . Thus. We say that the set of natural numbers is an infinite set.Then C is the empty set. but it is some natural number which may be quite a big number.6 MATHEMATICS B = { x : x is a student presently studying in both Classes X and XI } We observe that a student cannot study simultaneously in both Classes X and XI. then S is non-empty finite set. Then S is finite. the set B contains no element at all. B and C given above are finite sets and n(A) = 5. because 2 is the only even prime number. Then B is the empty set because the equation x2 – 2 = 0 is not satisfied by any rational value of x. Then W is finite. (ii) B = {x : x2 – 2 = 0 and x is rational number}. we write all the elements of the set within braces { }. we do not know the number of elements in C. x is a natural number}. (iv) D = { x : x2 = 4. How many elements does C contain? As it is. Definition 2 A set which is empty or consists of a definite number of elements is called finite otherwise. It is not possible to write all the elements of an infinite set within braces { } because the numbers of elements of such a set is not finite. B = {a. 5}. When we represent a set in the roster form. According to this definition. b. Then G is infinite. e. g} and C = { men living presently in different parts of the world} We observe that A contains 5 elements and B contains 6 elements. We see that the number of elements of this set is not finite since there are infinite number of natural numbers. because the equation x2 = 4 is not satisfied by any odd value of x. n(B) = 6 and n(C) = some finite number. Then A is the empty set. d. By number of elements of a set S. The empty set is denoted by the symbol φ or { }. Consider the set of natural numbers. Then D is the empty set.

3. the sets A = {1. {. 1. the two sets have exactly the same elements. 3. Note All infinite sets cannot be described in the roster form. {1. For example. if every element of A is also an element of B and if every element of B is also an element of A. since 2.–3. it is finite. the given set is infinite. . (ii) Given set = {2}. 2. 1. 3. it is finite. For example. . Note A set does not change if one or more elements of the set are repeated.. then the sets A and B are said to be equal. All these sets are infinite. Otherwise.5 Equal Sets Given two sets A and B. hence. 0. 3 .3. 1. Example 6 State which of the following sets are finite or infinite : (i) {x : x ∈ N and (x – 1) (x –2) = 0} (ii) {x : x ∈ N and x2 = 4} (iii) {x : x ∈ N and 2x –1 = 0} (iv) {x : x ∈ N and x is prime} (v) {x : x ∈ N and x is odd} Solution (i) Given set = {1. {1. because the elements of this set do not follow any particular pattern. 4. 5. . 2}. . it is finite. Hence.SETS 7 some infinite set in the roster form by writing a few elements which clearly indicate the structure of the set followed ( or preceded ) by three dots. 7. the set of real numbers cannot be described in this form. . (ii) Let A be the set of prime numbers less than 6 and P the set of prime factors of 30. 4} and B = {3. 2}. For example.} is the set of natural numbers. –1. (iii) Given set = φ. Then A = B. 3} are equal. 2. –2. the sets are said to be unequal and we write A ≠ B. 2. since each . Hence the given set is infinite (v) Since there are infinite number of odd numbers.1. 2 . . 2. 3 and 5 are the only prime factors of 30 and also these are less than 6. 3} and B = {2. Hence. Hence.} is the set of integers.} is the set of odd natural numbers. Then A and P are equal. We consider the following examples : (i) Let A = {1. (iv) The given set is the set of all prime numbers and since set of prime numbers is infinite. . . Definition 3 Two sets A and B are said to be equal if they have exactly the same elements and we write A = B. . Clearly. .

the set of letters in “LOYAL”. A and B are not equal sets. . Example 8 Which of the following pairs of sets are equal? Justify your answer. 2}. we find that. Also C = {5} but –5 ∈ D. B = {L. 3. . O. it follows that. L}. –1. 2. Which of the following are examples of the null set (i) Set of odd natural numbers divisible by 2 (ii) Set of even prime numbers (iii) { x : x is a natural numbers. Since 0 ∈ A and 0 ∉ B. 1.} (iii) {1. E = {x : x is an integral positive root of the equation x2 – 2x –15 = 0}. (i) X. Since B = φ but none of the other sets are empty. D ≠ E. L. Solution Since 0 ∈ A and 0 does not belong to any of the sets B. A ≠ E. B = {1. hence C ≠ D. EXERCISE 1. Thus. . 2. the only pair of equal sets is C and E. A ≠ C. . Y. Y} = B (ii) A = {–2. C = E. 0.99. B ≠ D and B ≠ E. 2}.8 MATHEMATICS element of A is in B and vice-versa. A ≠ D. Further. Since E = {5}. Thus. 3. X = {A. Solution (i) We have. (ii) A = {n : n ∈ Z and n2 ≤ 4} and B = {x : x ∈ R and x2 – 3x + 2 = 0}. Example 7 Find the pairs of equal sets. . x < 5 and x > 7 } (iv) { y : y is a point common to any two parallel lines} Which of the following sets are finite or infinite (i) The set of months of a year (ii) {1. A. the set of letters in “ALLOY” and B. X = {A. . C. B = {x : x > 15 and x < 5}. give reasons: A = {0}. O. Then X and B are equal sets as repetition of elements in a set do not change a set. That is why we generally do not repeat any element in describing a set. if any. Therefore B ≠ C. L. D = {x: x2 = 25}. . A ≠ B. C = {x : x – 5 = 0 }. L. 3. 100} (iv) The set of positive integers greater than 100 (v) The set of prime numbers less than 99 State whether each of the following set is finite or infinite: (i) The set of lines which are parallel to the x-axis (ii) The set of letters in the English alphabet (iii) The set of numbers which are multiple of 5 2.2 1. D and E. Y}. 5} and E = {5}. O. D = {–5.

b. 8. 10} B = { x : x is positive even integer and x ≤ 10} (iv) A = { x : x is a multiple of 10}. 14}. 4. –1}. We may note that for A to be a subset of B. 8. Y = set of all students in your class. A and B are the same sets so that we have A ⊂ B and B ⊂ A ⇔ A = B.e. C = { 4. where “⇔” is a symbol for two way implications. 3. 15. then we shall also have B ⊂ A. 1}. B = {x : x is solution of x2 + 5x + 6 = 0} (ii) A = { x : x is a letter in the word FOLLOW} B = { y : y is a letter in the word WOLF} From the sets given below. 12}. 16. 1. Definition 4 A set A is said to be a subset of a set B if every element of A is also an element of B. The fact that Y is subset of X is expressed in symbols as Y ⊂ X. we can write the definiton of subset as follows: A ⊂ B if a ∈ A ⇒ a ∈ B We read the above statement as “A is a subset of B if a is an element of A implies that a is also an element of B”. 20. We note that every element of Y is also an element of X. 18} (iii) A = {2. Using this symbol. 1} 1. B = { 10. In other words. 12. . 8. A ⊂ A. 4}. b. It follows from the above definition that every set A is a subset of itself. a } (ii) A = { 4. } Are the following pair of sets equal ? Give reasons. c. 5.. a}. F = { 0. then a ∈ B. i. If it so happens that every element of B is also in A. If A is not a subset of B. 16 } B = { 8. c. and is usually read as if and only if (briefly written as “iff”). 12. 3}. 25. state whether A = B or not: (i) A = { a. (i) A = {2. . It is possible that every element of B may or may not be in A. A ⊂ B if whenever a ∈ A. (iv) The set of animals living on the earth (v) The set of circles passing through the origin (0. 6. all that is needed is that every element of A is in B. 4. 2. select equal sets : A = { 2. 4. D = { 3. . 30. d } B = { d. We now consider some examples : . G = {1.SETS 9 4.0) In the following. H = { 0.6 Subsets Consider the sets : X = set of all students in your school. In this case. we agree to say that φ is a subset of every set. 2} E = {–1. 4. Since the empty set φ has no elements. It is often convenient to use the symbol “⇒” which means implies. we say that Y is a subset of X. 6. we write A ⊄ B. The symbol ⊂ stands for ‘is a subset of’ or ‘is contained in’. 8. B = { 1.

. . 3.6. For example. C (iv) B . –1. Let A and B be two sets. (Why?) Example 11 Let A. (ii) If A is the set of all divisors of 56 and B the set of all prime divisors of 56. Example 9 Consider the sets φ. If A ∈ B and B ⊂ C. 2} and C = {{1}. Solution No. (iv) Let A = { a. then B is a subset of A and we write B ⊂ A. give an example. . C = {1.10 MATHEMATICS (i) The set Q of rational numbers is a subset of the set R of real numbes. there are many important subsets of R. o. 4.} The set of rational numbers Q = { x : x = p . 5. 7. 9}. B (iii) A . B = {1. . 2. 0. . Here A ∈ B as A = {1} and B ⊂ C. Thus. (iii) Let A = {1. Is B a subset of A? No. also B is not a subset of A. . 3. The set of natural numbers N = {1. B = {{1}. 5} and B = {x : x is an odd natural number less than 6}. 2. Then A is not a subset of B. p. .} The set of integers Z = {. Let A = {1}. then A is called a proper subset of B and B is called superset of A. b.6. If A ⊂ B and A ≠ B . But A ⊄ C as 1 ∈ A and 1 ∉ C. u} and B = { a. B Solution (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (ii) A . 1. i. e. . 3. 2. . B and C be three sets. 2. and we write Q ⊂ R. If a set A has only one element. 3}. d}. . Note that an element of a set can never be a subset of itself. A = { 1. . 3 ∈ A also belongs to C B ⊂ C as each element of B is also an element of C. A ⊄ B as 3 ∈ A and 3 ∉ B A ⊂ C as 1. e. u} and B = { a. 9}. . C φ ⊂ B as φ is a subset of every set. is it true that A ⊂ C?. 3 }. If not. b.1 Subsets of set of real numbers As noted in Section 1. d}. . A = {1. q ∈ Z and q ≠ 0} q . i. 1. Insert the symbol ⊂ or ⊄ between each of the following pair of sets: (i) φ . o. 5. we call it a singleton set. . –2. . 3} is a proper subset of B = {1. . 3. 2. 4}. Then A ⊂ B and B ⊂ A and hence A = B. Example 10 Let A = { a.{ a } is a singleton set. c.. c. (Why?). We give below the names of some of these subsets. 3. 5. Is A a subset of B ? No. –3.

2 2 3 7 The set of irrational numbers.. 7] and the interval [–3. Thus [ a. ( a. Then the set of real numbers { y : a < y < b} is called an open interval and is denoted by (a. ∞ ) describes the set of real numbers in relation to a line extending from – ∞ to ∞. For example .e.2 Intervals as subsets of R Let a. Some of the obvious relations among these subsets are: N ⊂ Z ⊂ Q. T ⊂ R. N ⊄ T. b ] = {x : a ≤ x ≤ b} We can also have intervals closed at one end and open at the other. b ] = { x : a < x ≤ b } is an open interval from a to b including b but excluding a. On real number line. The set ( – ∞. 5) and B = [–7. b ∈ R and a < b. written in set-builder form. The interval which contains the end points also is called closed interval and is denoted by [ a. Thus T = {x : x ∈ R and x ∉ Q} = R – Q. 5 and π . Members of Q include –5 (which can be 1 7 11 5 . 1.SETS 11 which is read “ Q is the set of all numbers x such that x equals the quotient p q . while set ( – ∞. b themselves do not belong to this interval. Members of T include 2 . b ]. are shown in the Fig 1.. various types of intervals described above as subsets of R.e. 5 1 rational. where p and q are integers and q is not zero”. All the points between a and b belong to the open interval (a.1 Here. i.. 3 (which can be expressed as ) and – . . b). b) but a. These notations provide an alternative way of designating the subsets of set of real numbers.1. all real numbers that are not expressed as – ) . the set {x : x ∈ R. is composed of all other real numbers. 0 ) defines the set of negative real numbers. [ a. 9]. including a but excluding b. The set [ 0.6. Q ⊂ R. Fig 1. if A = (–3. For example. denoted by T. we note that an interval contains infinitely many points. b ) = {x : a ≤ x < b} is an open interval from a to b. –5 < x ≤ 7}. i. then A ⊂ B. ∞) defines the set of non-negative real numbers. can be written in the form of interval as (–5. 5) can be written in setbuilder form as {x : –3 ≤ x < 5}.

the universal set can be the set of rational numbers or. For another example. {x : x is a triangle in the same plane} (vii) {x : x is an even natural number} . . The universal set is usually denoted by U. while studying the system of numbers. We know that φ is a subset of every set . we have to deal with the elements and subsets of a basic set which is relevant to that particular context. . . the set of all even numbers. in human population studies. For example.{ 1 }. in all. φ. { 2 }. note that n [ P (A) ] = 4 = 22 In general. C. EXERCISE 1. 2. [a. In P(A).5 } (ii) { a. φ is a subset of {1. 2}. and all its subsets by the letters A. 2 }. 3.8 Universal Set Usually.7 Power Set Consider the set {1. if A is a set with n(A) = m. we know that every set is a subset of itself. . { 1. .3 1. 2 }. for that matter. the universal set consists of all the people in the world. c } .{x : x is a circle in the same plane with radius 1 unit} (v) {x : x is a triangle in a plane} . . b]. 1. { 1. { 1. then P( A ) = { φ. 4 } . . 2}. as in above. 2 } is a subset of {1.2 }} Also. 2}. B. etc.12 MATHEMATICS The number (b – a) is called the length of any of the intervals (a. d } (iii) {x : x is a student of Class XI of your school}. every element is a set. we are interested in the set of natural numbers and its subsets such as the set of all prime numbers. Let us write down all the subsets of the set {1. Definition 5 The collection of all subsets of a set A is called the power set of A. if A = { 1. viz. then it can be shown that n [ P(A)] = 2m. 1. We see that {1} and { 2 }are also subsets of {1. for the set of all integers. The set of all these subsets is called the power set of { 1.{x : x student of your school} (iv) {x : x is a circle in the plane} . . It is denoted by P(A). So. { 2 } and { 1. {x : x is an integer} . four subsets. Thus. b]. 2 } has. 4. For example. 3. the set R of real numbers. 2}. {x : x is a rectangle in the plane} (vi) {x : x is an equilateral triangle in a plane} . { 1 }. and so forth. in a particular context. [a. . . This basic set is called the “Universal Set”. . . b. . Also. . 2}. Thus. b). the set { 1. Make correct statements by filling in the symbols ⊂ or ⊄ in the blank spaces : (i) { 2. { b. So. 2 }. b) or (a. c.

b} (iii) {1.6. { 3. 1. 3. Which of the following statements are incorrect and why? (i) {3. In Venn diagrams. Examine whether the following statements are true or false: (i) { a.9.9 Venn Diagrams Most of the relationships between sets can be represented by means of diagrams which are known as Venn diagrams.2. 2. – 4 < x ≤ 6} (ii) {x : x ∈ R. 5. 6} and C = {0. – 12 < x < –10} (iii) {x : x ∈ R.3) Fig 1. 3 } ⊂ { 1. 8}. 3} ⊂ A (ix) φ ∈ A (x) φ ⊂ A (xi) {φ} ⊂ A Write down all the subsets of the following sets (i) {a} (ii) {a. 2. if A = φ? Write the following as intervals : (i) {x : x ∈ R. 4.8} 1. 4. 5) What universal set(s) would you propose for each of the following : (i) The set of right triangles.6. c } (v) { a } ∈ { a.5.4.3. 4} ∈ A (iii) {{3.SETS 13 2. 2. 2. 5} ⊂ A (vii) {1. the elements of the sets are written in their respective circles (Figs 1. 4 }. 6. 5. 3. 9. 4.4. 4} ⊂ A (ii) {3. 2.3. 0) (ii) [6 .5. 2. Given the sets A = {1. 3. B and C (i) {0. Venn diagrams are named after the English logician. c } (vi) { x : x is an even natural number less than 6} ⊂ { x : x is a natural number which divides 36} Let A = { 1. The universal set is represented usually by a rectangle and its subsets by circles. 7. c. These diagrams consist of rectangles and closed curves usually circles.2 and 1.2. a } (ii) { a.7.1. John Venn (1834-1883). e } ⊂ { x : x is a vowel in the English alphabet} (iii) { 1.8. 12] (iii) (6. 4}} ⊂ A (iv) 1 ∈ A (v) 1 ⊂ A (vi) {1. which of the following may be considered as universal set (s) for all the three sets A. 5} ∈ A (viii) {1. b. b } ⊄ { b. 3} (iv) φ How many elements has P(A).10} (iv) {1. b. 2. 5}. B = {2. 12] (iv) [–23. (ii) The set of isosceles triangles. 0 ≤ x < 7} (iv) {x : x ∈ R. 8. 6.2 . 4. 3. 6} (ii) φ (iii) {0. 3 ≤ x ≤ 4} Write the following intervals in set-builder form : (i) (– 3.7. 2. 5 } (iv) { a } ⊂ { a. 5 }.

1. Ashok}.. Solution We have.4. Example 12 Let A = { 2.. e.8. we get the number 18. Solution We have A ∪ B = { 2. Find X ∪ Y and interpret the set. 6. Show that A ∪ B = A Solution We have.3.2. we have learnt how to perform the operations of addition. i. Ashok} be the set of students from Class XI who are in the school football team. we get 65. 10.2. u } and B = { a. Example 14 Let X = {Ram. Geeta.4. U = {1. Symbolically. Each one of these operations was performed on a pair of numbers to get another number. 12} Note that the common elements 6 and 8 have been taken only once while writing A ∪ B. Example 13 Let A = { a.10} and B = {4.6. the common elements being taken only once. there are some operations which when performed on two sets give rise to another set. .10} is a subset. when we perform the operation of addition on the pair of numbers 5 and 13. Let Y = {Geeta.. o.10 Operations on Sets In earlier classes.. Fig 1. We will now define certain operations on sets and examine their properties.3.10. 4.6.14 MATHEMATICS Illustration 1 In Fig 1.3.8. 1. 8. u }. 10} is the universal set of which A = {2. and also B ⊂ A. Akbar} be the set of students of Class XI. 4. 12}.3 The reader will see an extensive use of the Venn diagrams when we discuss the union. 8. Again. Akbar. The union of A and B is the set which consists of all the elements of A and all the elements of B. 10. 6. subtraction. This example illustrates that union of sets A and its subset B is the set A itself. i. Similarly. Find A ∪ B. Henceforth. U = {1. 10} is the universal set of which A = {2.2.e. Geeta. performing the operation of multiplication on the pair of numbers 5 and 13. . i. we will refer all our sets as subsets of some universal set. i. David. u } = A. e. then A ∪ B = A. intersection and difference of sets. who are in school hockey team. X ∪ Y = {Ram.. A ∪ B = { a. The symbol ‘∪’ is used to denote the union. This is the set of students from Class XI who are in the hockey team or the football team or both. For example. we write A ∪ B and usually read as ‘A union B’. David. if B ⊂ A.1 Union of sets Let A and B be any two sets. .. multiplication and division on numbers. Illustration 2 In Fig 1.. 6} are subsets. o. 8} and B = { 6.

4 represents A ∪ B. Solution We have A ∩ B = { 2. we write A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ A and x ∈ B}. In symbols. 8 are the only elements which are common to both A and B. 9. 5. Definition 7 The intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all those elements which belong to both A and B.4. 8 }. φ is the identity of ∪) (Idempotent law) (Law of U) 1. Solution We see that 6.4 (ii) ( A ∪ B ) ∪ C = A ∪ ( B ∪ C) (Associative law ) (iii) A ∪ φ = A (iv) A ∪ A = A (v) U ∪ A = U (Law of identity element. Example 17 Let A = {1.10. 3. 2.2 Intersection of sets The intersection of sets A and B is the set of all elements which are common to both A and B.5 indicates the Fig 1. 5.5 interseciton of A and B. 7 }. 4. 3. we write. Symbolically. The shaded portion in Fig 1. Find A ∩ B and hence show that A ∩ B = B. Hence. Symbolically. 8. we can define the union of two sets as follows: Definition 6 The union of two sets A and B is the set C which consists of all those elements which are either in A or in B (including those which are in both). Hence A ∩ B = { 6. 7 } = B. . Find A ∩ B. Some Properties of the Operation of Union (i) A ∪ B = B ∪ A (Commutative law) Fig 1. A ∪ B = { x : x ∈A or x ∈B } The union of two sets can be represented by a Venn diagram as shown in Fig 1.SETS 15 Thus. X ∩ Y = {Geeta}. Example 16 Consider the sets X and Y of Example 14. We note that B ⊂ A and that A ∩ B = B. we write A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ A and x ∈ B} The shaded portion in Fig 1. The intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all those elements which belong to both A and B. Example 15 Consider the sets A and B of Example 12. 6. The symbol ‘∩’ is used to denote the intersection. Solution We see that element ‘Geeta’ is the only element common to both. 7. Find X ∩ Y. 5. 10} and B = { 2. 3.

(ii) ( A ∩ B ) ∩ C = A ∩ ( B ∩ C ) (Associative law). 8 } and B = { 1. 5. e.7 (i) to (v) . then U A and B are called disjoint sets. (iv) A ∩ A = A (Idempotent law) (v) A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C ) (Distributive law ) i. A B because there are no elements which are common to A and B. 4. For example. 7 }. 6. (i) (iii) (ii) (iv) (v) Figs 1. Then A and B are disjoint sets. 3. (iii) φ ∩ A = φ. let A = { 2.. A and B are disjoint sets.6 Some Properties of Operation of Intersection (i) A ∩ B = B ∩ A (Commutative law). ∩ distributes over ∪ This can be seen easily from the following Venn diagrams [Figs 1. Fig 1. The disjoint sets can be represented by means of Venn diagram as shown in the Fig 1.16 MATHEMATICS If A and B are two sets such that A ∩ B = φ. U ∩ A = A (Law of φ and U).6 In the above diagram.7 (i) to (v)].

b. find . 4. If A = {1. 4}. 2. We note that V – B ≠ B – V. B = { 2. 6}. we can rewrite the definition of difference as A – B = { x : x ∈ A and x ∉ B } The difference of two sets A and B can be represented by Venn diagram as shown in Fig 1. Find V – B and B – V Solution We have. Is A ⊂ B ? What is A ∪ B ? 3. 6. u}. o }. 4. since the element 8 belongs to B and not to A. 5} Y = {1. V – B = { e. since the element k belongs to B but not to V. o. o belong to V but not to B and B – V = { k }. 3. 10 }. i. 8 }and D = { 7. Example 18 Let A = { 1. A ∩ B and B – A are mutually disjoint sets. 7. the intersection of any of these two sets is the null set as shown in Fig 1. we write A – B and read as “ A minus B”. 3. e. Fig 1. i. 2. Find A – B and B – A. Let A = { a. 5. u } and B = { a. b }. B = {3. B = φ 2. 5. b. B = {a.8 Fig 1. 3}. 8. 6}.9. c} (iii) A = {x : x is a natural number and multiple of 3} B = {x : x is a natural number less than 6} (iv) A = {x : x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6 } B = {x : x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10 } (v) A = {1. A – B = { 1.9 EXERCISE 1. Symbolically.. 3} (ii) A = [ a. c}. 2. Using the setbuilder notation. i. The shaded portion represents the difference of the two sets A and B. 3. k. Find the union of each of the following pairs of sets : (i) X = {1. Example 19 Let V = { a. Solution We have. 6.3 Difference of sets The difference of the sets A and B in this order is the set of elements which belong to A but not to B. We note that A – B ≠ B – A. 8 }. If A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B. Remark The sets A – B. since the elements e. 5 belong to A but not to B and B – A = { 8 }.4 1. 5 }. C = {5. o. 3. u} B = {a. e. 3. 4. 2.8. i. then what is A ∪ B ? 4.SETS 17 1. 9.e.10. since the elements 1.

7. u } and { c. If A = { 3. c. C = {11. 10. d. 7} is called the Complement of A with respect to U. 15.18 MATHEMATICS 5. 6} are disjoint sets. 11} are disjoint sets. Now 2. 9. 11 }. 1. We see that 2 ∈ U but 2 ∉ A. 15}and D = {15. 13}. 15. d } and Y = { f. and 7 ∈ U but 7 ∉ A.11 Complement of a Set Let U be the universal set which consists of all prime numbers and A be the subset of U which consists of all those prime numbers that are not divisors of 42. 6. Similarly. find (i) A ∩ B (ii) B ∩ C (iii) A ∩ C ∩ D (iv) A ∩ C (v) B ∩ D (vi) A ∩ (B ∪ C) (vii) A ∩ D (viii) A ∩ (B ∪ D) (ix) ( A ∩ B ) ∩ ( B ∪ C ) (x) ( A ∪ D) ∩ ( B ∪ C) If A = {x : x is a natural number }. 6. 18. f } (iii) {x : x is an even integer } and {x : x is an odd integer} If A = {3. o. (i) A ∪ B (ii) A ∪ C (iii) B ∪ C (iv) B ∪ D (v) A ∪ B ∪ C (vi) A ∪ B ∪ D (vii) B ∪ C ∪ D Find the intersection of each pair of sets of question 1 above. b. because 2 is divisor of 42. 6. (iii) { 2. 11. 3. D = {5. 4. 9. e. 13. (i) { 2.e. 3 and 7 are the only elements of U which do not belong to A. 20 }. 12. o. 3. 7. 16 }. 2. b. d }are disjoint sets. c. 14. 7. d. 9. the set {2. find (i) X – Y (ii) Y – X (iii) X ∩ Y If R is the set of real numbers and Q is the set of rational numbers. 3 ∈ U but 3 ∉ A. (ii) { a. B = {7. 12. 11. 10 } and { 3. 11. e. i. find (i) A – B (ii) A – C (iii) A – D (iv) B – A (v) C – A (vi) D – A (vii) B – C (viii) B – D (ix) C – B (x) D – B (xi) C – D (xii) D – C If X= { a. A = {x : x ∈ U and x is not a divisor of 42 }. 15} are disjoint sets. Thus. b. g}. 14 } and { 3. 8. Justify your answer. i. 6.. 10. 9. i. 8. 7. 16. C = { 2. B = {x : x is an even natural number} C = {x : x is an odd natural number}andD = {x : x is a prime number }. 12. 4. and is denoted by . 3. 6. 5 } and { 3. 17}. 12. find (i) A ∩ B (ii) A ∩ C (iii) A ∩ D (iv) B ∩ C (v) B ∩ D (vi) C ∩ D Which of the following pairs of sets are disjoint (i) {1. B = { 4. e. 4} and {x : x is a natural number and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6 } (ii) { a. u } and { a. 10. 10. 20 }. 5. 21}. (iv) { 2. 8. then what is R – Q? State whether each of the following statement is true or false. The set of these three prime numbers.

we write A′ to denote the complement of A with respect to U. Find A′. If A and B are any two subsets of the universal set U. 5. A ∪ B and hence show that ( A ∪ B )′ = A′ ∩ B′. 5. 10} and A = {1. 3. 9. 6 } = A′ ∩ B′ It can be shown that the above result is true in general. then its complement A′ is also a subset of U. 4. A′ ∩ B′. 2. 3. 3. we want to find the results for ( A ∪ B )′ and A′ ∩ B′ in the followng example. then ( A ∪ B )′ = A′ ∩ B′.SETS 19 A′. Thus. This leads to the following definition. 7. B′ . Obviously A′ = U – A We note that the complement of a set A can be looked upon. 4. ( A ∩ B )′ = A′ ∪ B′ . 4. Definition 8 Let U be the universal set and A a subset of U. 5. 10 are the only elements of U which do not belong to A. 8. Example 20 Let U = {1. 2. 6. Solution Clearly A′ = {1. we see that A′ = {x : x ∈ U and x ∉ A }. 6}. Hence A′ ∩ B′ = { 1. 7. alternatively. Solution We note that 2. Note If A is a subset of the universal set U. A = {2. Example 21 Let U be universal set of all the students of Class XI of a coeducational school and A be the set of all girls in Class XI. Hence A′ = { 2. A′ is clearly the set of all boys in the class. 2. 4. Find A′. 4. So we have A′ = {2. Solution Since A is the set of all girls. Again in Example 20 above. 10 } (A′ )′ = {x : x ∈ U and x ∉ A′} = {1. 6 } ( A ∪ B )′ = { 1. 8. 9}. 4. 8. Similarly. Symbolically. Example 22 Let U = {1. we have A′ = { 2. These two results are stated in words as follows : . 3} and B = {3. 3. 6. 5. 7. 3. 5. 8. 9} = A It is clear from the definition of the complement that for any subset of the universal Hence set U. 6. as the difference between a universal set U and the set A. B′ = { 1. Thus. 6 } Also A ∪ B = { 2. 7}. Find A′. A′ = {x : x ∈ U and x ∉ A }. we have ( A′ )′ = A Now. 6}. 5 }. 6 }. 6. 3.10 }. Then the complement of A is the set of all elements of U which are not the elements of A. so that (A ∪ B )′ = { 1. 5}. 4. 4.

4. B = { 2. 4. 6. Find (i) A′ (ii) B′ (iii) (A ∪ C)′ (iv) (A ∪ B)′ (v) (A′)′ (vi) (B – C)′ If U = { a. (iii) (A ∩ B)′. 6. 8} and B = { 2. f.5 1. Some Properties of Complement Sets 1. (ii) A′ ∩ B′. what is A′? 2. 3. Laws of empty set and universal set φ′ = U and U′ = φ. 7. A = { 1. 8. 4. b. g} (iii) C = {a. d. 5. c. A = {2. e. h. 6. 5. 9 }. 5. write down the complements of the following sets: (i) {x : x is an even natural number} (ii) { x : x is an odd natural number } (iii) {x : x is a positive multiple of 3} (iv) { x : x is a prime number } (v) {x : x is a natural number divisible by 3 and 5} (vi) { x : x is a perfect square } (vii) { x : x is a perfect cube} (viii) { x : x + 5 = 8 } (ix) { x : 2x + 5 = 9} (x) { x : x ≥ 7 } (xi) { x : x ∈ N and 2x + 1 > 10 } If U = {1. 6 }. 3. These are called De Morgan’s laws. 3. g. 5. 2. c} (ii) B = {d. These are named after the mathematician De Morgan. (iv) A′ ∪ B′ Let U be the set of all triangles in a plane. 8. f. Verify that (i) (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ (ii) (A ∩ B)′ = A′ ∪ B′ Draw appropriate Venn diagram for each of the following : (i) (A ∪ B)′. Complement laws: (i) A ∪ A′ = U 2. e. find the complements of the following sets : (i) A = {a. De Morgan’s law: Fig 1.10 (ii) A ∩ A′ = φ (i) (A ∪ B)´ = A′ ∩ B′ (ii) (A ∩ B )′ = A′ ∪ B′ 3. 8 } and C = { 3. 4. 4. 9 }. 7}. g. 4}. 5.20 MATHEMATICS The complement of the union of two sets is the intersection of their complements and the complement of the intersection of two sets is the union of their complements. b. 2. The shaded portion represents the complement of the set A. 2. g} (iv) D = { f. 3. h}. . Let U = { 1. 4. 6. EXERCISE 1.10. c. a} Taking the set of natural numbers as the universal set. If A is the set of all triangles with at least one angle different from 60°. These laws can be verified by using Venn diagrams. 6. Law of double complementation : (A′ )′ = A 4. e. 3. The complement A′ of a set A can be represented by a Venn diagram as shown in Fig 1. 7.

.. how many elements does X ∩ Y have ? . (ii) φ′ ∩ A = .. (1) follows immediately...11). then n ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) + n ( C ) – n ( A ∩ B ) – n ( B ∩ C) – n (A ∩ C)+n (A ∩ B ∩ C) . . we will go through some practical problems related to our daily life. (2) Note that the sets A – B. . . In this Section. which verifies (2) (iii) If A. then (ii) n ( A ∪ B ) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) – n ( A ∩ B ) . . Fig 1. Fill in the blanks to make each of the following a true statement : (i) A ∪ A′ = . (iv) U′ ∩ A = . (3) In fact.The formulae derived in this Section will also be used in subsequent Chapter on Probability (Chapter 16). . X has 28 elements and Y has 32 elements. So. A ∩ B and B – A are disjoint and their union is A ∪ B (Fig 1. we get n [ A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) ] = n ( A ∩ B ) + n ( A ∩ C ) – n [ ( A ∩ B ) ∩ (A ∩ C)] = n ( A ∩ B ) + n ( A ∩ C ) – n (A ∩ B ∩ C) Therefore n ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = n (A) + n ( B ) + n ( C ) – n ( A ∩ B ) – n ( B ∩ C) – n(A ∩ C)+n (A ∩B ∩C) This proves (3). then (i) n ( A ∪ B ) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) .11 Let A and B be finite sets. B and C are finite sets.12 Practical Problems on Union and Intersection of Two Sets In earlier Section. . .SETS 21 7. (1) The elements in A ∪ B are either in A or in B but not in both as A ∩ B = φ. If A ∩ B = φ. (iii) A ∩ A′ = . In general. we have n ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = n (A) + n ( B ∪ C ) – n [ A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) ] [ by (2) ] = n (A) + n ( B ) + n ( C ) – n ( B ∩ C ) – n [ A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) ] [ by (2) ] Since A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C ).. intersection and difference of two sets. if A and B are finite sets. . Example 23 If X and Y are two sets such that X ∪ Y has 50 elements. 1. Therefore n ( A ∪ B) = n ( A – B) + n ( A ∩ B ) + n ( B – A ) = n ( A – B) + n ( A ∩B ) + n ( B – A ) + n ( A ∩ B ) – n ( A ∩ B) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) – n ( A ∩ B). we have learnt union.

Example 24 In a school there are 20 teachers who teach mathematics or physics. n ( Y ) = 32. 24 like to play cricket and 16 like to play football. How many students like to play both cricket and football ? Solution Let X be the set of students who like to play cricket and Y be the set of students who like to play football. have n ( M ∪ P ) = 20 . n ( X ∪ Y ) = 35. We. n ( M ) = 12 and n ( M ∩ P ) = 4 We wish to determine n ( P ). Example 25 In a class of 35 students.12 = 28 + 32 – 50 = 10 Alternatively. n ( Y ) = 16. 12 teach mathematics and 4 teach both physics and mathematics. n ( Y – X ) = 32 – k (by Venn diagram in Fig 1. Given n ( X) = 24. How many teach physics ? Solution Let M denote the set of teachers who teach mathematics and P denote the set of teachers who teach physics. Also. n (X ∩ Y) = ? By using the formula n ( X ∪ Y ) = n ( X ) + n ( Y ) – n ( X ∩ Y ). In the statement of the problem. then n ( X – Y ) = 28 – k . each student likes to play at least one of the two games. we obtain 20 = 12 + n ( P ) – 4 Thus n ( P ) = 12 Hence 12 teachers teach physics.22 MATHEMATICS Solution Given that n ( X ∪ Y ) = 50. and X ∩ Y is the set of students who like to play both games. therefore. Then X ∪ Y is the set of students who like to play at least one game.12 ) This gives 50 = n ( X ∪ Y ) = n (X – Y) + n (X ∩ Y) + n ( Y – X) = ( 28 – k ) + k + (32 – k ) Hence k = 10. n (X ∩ Y) = ? Using the formula n ( X ∪ Y ) = n ( X ) + n ( Y ) – n ( X ∩ Y ). Of these. n ( X ) = 28. suppose n ( X ∩ Y ) = k. we get 35 = 24 + 16 – n (X ∩ Y) . we find that n(X∩Y) = n ( X ) + n(Y) – n ( X∪Y) Fig 1. the word ‘or’ gives us a clue of union and the word ‘and’ gives us a clue of intersection. Using the result n ( M ∪ P ) = n ( M ) + n ( P ) – n ( M ∩ P ).

13 . we have B = ( B – A) ∪ ( A ∩ B). Find the number of individuals exposed to (i) Chemical C1 but not chemical C2 (ii) Chemical C2 but not chemical C1 (iii) Chemical C1 or chemical C2 Solution Let U denote the universal set consisting of individuals suffering from the skin disorder.e.13. n (X ∩ Y) = 5 5 students like to play both games. and 30 to both the chemicals C1 and C2..) or n ( B – A ) = n ( B ) – n ( A ∩ B ) = 50 – 30 = 20 Fig 1. Solution Let U denote the set of surveyed students and A denote the set of students taking apple juice and B denote the set of students taking orange juice. and so. n ( B ) = 50 and n ( A ∩ B ) = 30 (i) From the Venn diagram given in Fig 1.SETS 23 Thus. n (A) = n( A – B ) + n( A ∩ B ) (Since A – B) and A ∩ B are disjoint. (ii) From the Fig 1. i. A denote the set of individuals exposed to the chemical C1 and B denote the set of individuals exposed to the chemical C2. Now Example 27 There are 200 individuals with a skin disorder. the number of individuals exposed to chemical C1 but not to chemical C2 is 90. 150 as taking orange juice and 75 were listed as taking both apple as well as orange juice. n (B) = n (B – A) + n ( A ∩ B) (Since B – A and A ∩B are disjoint. n ( A ) = 120. 120 had been exposed to the chemical C1. 50 to chemical C2. Example 26 In a survey of 400 students in a school. we have A = ( A – B ) ∪ ( A ∩ B ).) or n ( A – B ) = n ( A ) – n ( A ∩ B ) = 120 –30 = 90 Hence. n (A′ ∩ B′) = n (A ∪ B )′ = n (U) – n (A ∪ B) = n (U) – n (A) – n (B) + n (A ∩ B) = 400 – 100 – 150 + 75 = 225 Hence 225 students were taking neither apple juice nor orange juice. Here n ( U) = 200. n (A) = 100. Then n (U) = 400. n (B) = 150 and n (A ∩ B) = 75.13. 100 were listed as taking apple juice. Find how many students were taking neither apple juice nor orange juice.

How many people like both coffee and tea? In a group of 65 people. (iii) The number of individuals exposed either to chemical C1 or to chemical C2. R. all the subsets of A are φ.. 6. 0. 0.e. {–1. {–1}. It follows that X = Y. 20 speak Spanish and 10 speak both Spanish and French. 37 like coffee. {–1. 250 can speak Hindi and 200 can speak English. The subsets of A having two elements are {–1. The subset of A having three elements of A is A itself. 52 like tea and each person likes at least one of the two drinks. 0}. 8. 1}. i. how many elements does Y have? In a group of 70 people. A. the number of individuals exposed to chemical C2 and not to chemical C1 is 20. { 0 }. 1}. 0}. A. The subset of A having no element is the empty set φ. { 1 }. Solution Let A = { –1. n (A∪B ) = n (A) + n ( B ) – n (A∩ B ) = 120 + 50 – 30 = 140. If X and Y are two sets such that X ∪ Y has 18 elements. T has 32 elements. R } Let Y be the set of letters in “ TRACT”. find n ( X ∩ Y ). Then Y = { T. {1}. {–1.{0. How many like tennis only and not cricket? How many like tennis? In a committee. 1}. How many speak at least one of these two languages? Miscellaneous Examples Example 28 Show that the set of letters needed to spell “ CATARACT ” and the set of letters needed to spell “ TRACT” are equal. 4. So. 50 people speak French. If X and Y are two sets such that n ( X ) = 17. Then X = { C. How many people can speak both Hindi and English? If S and T are two sets such that S has 21 elements. 1 }. 40 like cricket. EXERCISE 1. {0}. Example 29 List all the subsets of the set { –1. n ( Y ) = 23 and n ( X ∪ Y ) = 38. 1 }. T. X has 8 elements and Y has 15 elements . and S ∩ T has 11 elements. {0. Solution Let X be the set of letters in “CATARACT”. T } = { T. A. X ∪ Y has 60 elements and X ∩ Y has 10 elements.6 1. . how many elements does S ∪ T have? If X and Y are two sets such that X has 40 elements. The subsets of A having one element are { –1 }. 1} . 10 like both cricket and tennis. 1} and {–1.24 MATHEMATICS Thus. C } Since every element in X is in Y and every element in Y is in X. C. 2. 5. R. 7. 3. how many elements does X ∩ Y have? In a group of 400 people. 0.

X ∈ P ( A ) and X ∈ P ( B ) which implies X ∈ P ( A ) ∩ P ( B). n ( S ) = 200 and n ( S ∩ M ) = 50. Then n ( S ∪ M ) = n ( S ) + n ( M ) – n ( S ∩ M ) = 200 + 400 – 50 = 550 But S ∪ M ⊂ U implies n ( S ∪ M ) ≤ n ( U ). Thus. If these medals went to a total of 58 men and only three men got medals in all the three sports. n ( T ) = 450 So n(S∪T)=n(S)+n(T)–n(S∩T) = 720 + 450 – n (S ∩ T) = 1170 – n ( S ∩ T ) Therefore. A = B Example 31 For any sets A and B. Since A ∪ B = A ∩ B . 15 in basketball and 20 in cricket. B ⊂ A. Example 33 Out of 500 car owners investigated. 400 owned car A and 200 owned car B. the least value of n ( S ∩ T ) is 170. Thus. b ∈ A ∩ B. Example 32 A market research group conducted a survey of 1000 consumers and reported that 720 consumers like product A and 450 consumers like product B. Is this data correct? Solution Let U be the set of car owners investigated. Example 34 A college warded 38 medals in football.SETS 25 Example 30 Show that A ∪ B = A ∩ B implies A = B Solution Let a ∈ A. This gives P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ) ⊂ P ( A ∩ B) Hence P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ). Then a ∈ A ∪ B. So. Y ⊂ A ∩ B. Then Y ∈ P ( A) and Y ∈ P ( B ). Given that n ( U ) = 500. n (M ) = 400. So. So. So a ∈ B. Since A ∪ B = A ∩ B. b ∈ A. n ( S ∪ T ) is maximum when n ( S ∩ T ) is least. Let Y ∈ P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ). how many received medals in exactly two of the three sports ? . Then X ⊂ A ∩ B. This is a contradiction. Similarly. which implies Y ∈ P ( A ∩ B ). a ∈ A ∩ B. Therefore. the least number of consumers who liked both products is 170. Therefore. So. A ⊂ B. Hence. X ⊂ A and X ⊂ B. the given data is incorrect. Therefore. Therefore. n ( S ) = 720. if b ∈ B. 50 owned both A and B cars. what is the least number that must have liked both products? Solution Let U be the set of consumers questioned. Y ⊂ A and Y ⊂ B. show that P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ). But S ∪ T ⊂ U implies n ( S ∪ T ) ≤ n ( U ) = 1000. Given that n ( U ) = 1000. M be the set of persons who owned car A and S be the set of persons who owned car B. maximum values of n ( S ∪ T ) is 1000. Solution Let X ∈ P ( A ∩ B ). So. This gives P ( A ∩ B ) ⊂ P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ). S be the set of consumers who liked the product A and T be the set of consumers who like the product B. then b ∈ A ∪ B.

2. among the following sets. If it is false. and C be the sets such that A ∪ B = A ∪ C and A ∩ B = A ∩ C. If it is true.14 Here.14 n ( F ∩ B ∩ C ). then A ∈ C (iii) If A ⊂ B and B ⊂ C . then x ∉ A Let A. . respectively. P ( A ) ∪ P ( B ) = P ( A ∪ B )? Justify your answer. 3. basketball and cricket. 4. prove it. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 1 1. n (F ∪ B ∪ C ) = n ( F ) + n ( B ) + n ( C ) – n (F ∩ B ) – n (F ∩ C ) – n (B ∩ C ) + Fig 1. Decide. a denotes the number of men who got medals in football and basketball only. C = { 2. 8. (i) If x ∈ A and A ∈ B . n ( B ) = 15. Then n ( F ) = 38. d = n ( F ∩ B ∩ C ) = 3 and a + d + b + d + c + d = 18 Therefore a + b + c = 9. }. 5. then C – B ⊂ C – A. determine whether the statement is true or false. 4. . D = { 6 }. B. Show that B = C. 6 }. 6. then x ∈ B (ii) If A ⊂ B and B ∈ C . B = { 2. . b denotes the number of men who got medals in football and cricket only. which is the number of people who got medals in exactly two of the three sports. n ( C ) = 20 n (F ∪ B ∪ C ) = 58 and n (F ∩ B ∩ C ) = 3 Therefore. gives n ( F ∩ B ) + n ( F ∩ C ) + n ( B ∩ C ) = 18 Consider the Venn diagram as given in Fig 1. 6. Show that A = B Is it true that for any sets A and B. c denotes the number of men who got medals in basket ball and cricket only and d denotes the number of men who got medal in all the three. then x ∈ B (vi) If A ⊂ B and x ∉ B . which sets are subsets of one and another: A = { x : x ∈ R and x satisfy x2 – 8x + 12 = 0 }. give an example. . In each of the following. Assume that P ( A ) = P ( B ). 7. then A ⊂ C (iv) If A ⊄ B and B ⊄ C . B and C denote the set of men who received medals in football.26 MATHEMATICS Solution Let F. Show that the following four conditions are equivalent : (i) A ⊂ B(ii) A – B = φ (iii) A ∪ B = B (iv) A ∩ B = A Show that if A ⊂ B. Thus. then A ⊄ C (v) If x ∈ A and A ⊄ B . 4.

9 read both H and I. if every element of A is also an element of B. 50 know English and 25 know both. A = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A – B ) and A ∪ ( B – A ) = ( A ∪ B ) Using properties of sets. How many students are there in the group? In a survey of 60 people. It is denoted by P(A). Find: (i) the number of people who read at least one of the newspapers. Find how many students were taking neither tea nor coffee? In a group of students. 13.SETS 27 8. show that A = B. B ∩ C and A ∩ C are non-empty sets and A ∩ B ∩ C = φ. 16. Let A and B be sets. If A ∩ X = B ∩ X = φ and A ∪ X = B ∪ X for some set X. B and C such that A ∩ B. 10. otherwise. 100 were taking both tea and coffee. . show that (i) A ∪ ( A ∩ B ) = A (ii) A ∩ ( A ∪ B ) = A. A set A is said to be subset of a set B. 8 read both T and I. A set which consists of a definite number of elements is called finite set. Each of the students knows either Hindi or English. 26 read newspaper I. These are summarised below: A set is a well-defined collection of objects. 3 read all three newspapers. 150 students were found to be taking tea and 225 taking coffee. 26 liked product B and 29 liked product C. 11 read both H and T. A set which does not contain any element is called empty set. 14. B = B ∩ ( B ∪ X ) and use Distributive law ) Find sets A. Summary This chapter deals with some basic definitions and operations involving sets. 26 read newspaper T. 15. Show that for any sets A and B. the set is called infinite set. Find how many liked product C only. In a survey of 600 students in a school. 11. 9. 12 people liked products C and A. (ii) the number of people who read exactly one newspaper. Intervals are subsets of R. (Hints A = A ∩ ( A ∪ X ) . In a survey it was found that 21 people liked product A. 100 students know Hindi. it was found that 25 people read newspaper H. 12. If 14 people liked products A and B. Show that A ∩ B = A ∩ C need not imply B = C. Two sets A and B are said to be equal if they have exactly the same elements. A power set of a set A is collection of all subsets of A. 14 people liked products B and C and 8 liked all the three products.

then n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B).D.D. But Kronecker (1810-1893 A. Another German mathematician Gottlob Frege. Cantor’s work was well received by another famous mathematician Richard Dedekind (1831-1916 A. The difference of two sets A and B in this order is the set of elements which belong to A but not to B. to 1897 A.D.) castigated him for regarding infinite set the same way as finite sets.. Many paradoxes were produced later by several mathematicians and logicians.D. He published in a paper in 1874 A..28 MATHEMATICS The union of two sets A and B is the set of all those elements which are either in A or in B. The complement of a subset A of universal set U is the set of all elements of U which are not the elements of A. The intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all elements which are common. (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ and ( A ∩ B )′ = A′ ∪ B′ If A and B are finite sets such that A ∩ B = φ. If A ∩ B ≠ φ.D. .). His study of set theory came when he was studying trigonometric series of the form a1 sin x + a2 sin 2x + a3 sin 3x + . at the turn of the century. The Russell’s Paradox was not the only one which arose in set theory. It was the famous Englih Philosopher Bertand Russell (1872-1970 A. that the assumption of existence of a set of all sets leads to a contradiction. From 1879 onwards. that the set of real numbers could not be put into one-to-one correspondence wih the integers.D.) who showed in 1902 A. This led to the famous Russell’s Paradox.D. For any two sets A and B. Paul R.Halmos writes about it in his book ‘Naïve Set Theory’ that “nothing contains everything”. then n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B) – n (A ∩ B) Historical Note The modern theory of sets is considered to have been originated largely by the German mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918 A. Till then the entire set theory was based on the assumption of the existence of the set of all sets. he publishd several papers showing various properties of abstract sets. His papers on set theory appeared sometimes during 1874 A. presented the set theory as principles of logic.D.).

Despite all these difficulties. A modification of these axioms was done by Kurt Gödel in his monograph in 1940 A. In fact.D.D. John Von Neumann in 1925 A. Another one was proposed by Abraham Fraenkel in 1922 A. This was known as Von NeumannBernays (VNB) or Gödel-Bernays (GB) set theory. these days most of the concepts and results in mathematics are expressed in the set theoretic language. by Ernst Zermelo. the first axiomatisation of set theory was published in 1908 A.D.SETS 29 As a consequence of all these paradoxes. — — . introduced explicitly the axiom of regularity. Cantor’s set theory is used in present day mathematics.D. Later in 1937 A.D. Paul Bernays gave a set of more satisfactory axiomatisation.

blue}and B = {b. we get 6 distinct objects (Fig 2. b). – BERTHELOT 2. (blue. line l is parallel to line m. The concept of function is very important in mathematics since it captures the idea of a mathematically precise correspondence between one quantity with the other. How many pairs of coloured objects can be made from these two sets? Proceeding in a very orderly manner. father and son. c). Leibnitz (1646–1716) special relations which will qualify to be functions. In mathematics also. i. we notice that a relation involves pairs of objects in certain order. s). (blue. coat and shirt. c and s represent a particular bag. we will learn about G .Chapter 2 RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS Mathematics is the indispensable instrument of all physical research. In our daily life. Let us recall from our earlier classes that an ordered pair of elements taken from any two sets P and Q is a pair of elements written in small Fig 2. Finally. we come across many patterns that characterise relations such as brother and sister. s}.1). c). we come across many relations such as number m is less than number n. we can see that there will be 6 distinct pairs as given below: (red. s).1 . we will learn how to link pairs of objects from two sets and then introduce relations between the two objects in the pair. W.2 Cartesian Products of Sets Suppose A is a set of 2 colours and B is a set of 3 objects. In this Chapter. respectively. 2. teacher and student. c. In all these. (red. set A is a subset of set B. where b. (blue.. b).1 Introduction Much of mathematics is about finding a pattern – a recognisable link between quantities that change. Thus. (red. A = {red.e.

q ∈ Q } If either P or Q is the null set. MP.2 which are the pairs available from these sets and how many such pairs will there be (Fig 2. The 8 ordered pairs thus formed can represent the position of points in the plane if A and B are subsets of the set of real numbers and it is obvious that the point in the position (a1. b2. consider the two sets: A = {DL. MP. (DL. b3). (a1. (KA. respectively and B = {01. (MP. MP and KA . b1). (a2. (KA. This leads to the following definition: Definition 1 Given two non-empty sets P and Q.e.02). (a2.03). (blue.s). b3.03)}. 03 03}representing codes for the licence plates of vehicles issued 02 by DL. since there are 3 elements in each of the sets A and B.02).3 Remarks (i) Two ordered pairs are equal. Again. i. (KA.03). P × Q = { (p. where DL. consider the two sets A= {a1. (KA. if and only if the corresponding first elements are equal and the second elements are also equal. b2). A × B = {( a1. P × Q = φ From the illustration given above we note that A × B = {(red. Also note that the order in which these elements are paired is crucial.b). (MP.q). Fig 2. (a2. 01 If the three states. then P × Q will also be empty set. (blue. (KA. b1). (MP.c). It can easily be seen that there will be 9 such pairs in the Cartesian product. (MP. b4)}.b). (MP. (a1.s)}. with the DL MP KA restriction that the code begins with an element from set A.01). (DL.e.q) : p ∈ P. a1).01).RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 31 brackets and grouped together in a particular order. KA represent Delhi. (MP. Fig 2. As a final illustration.02. the code (DL.. b2) will be distinct from the point in the position (b2. DL)..02). For example. (red.01).03).2)? The available pairs are:(DL. Delhi.01). . (blue. b2). (KA. b4). (p. (a2. i. (a1. (DL.e. b3).02). (red.03). a2} and B = {b1. Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. p ∈ P and q ∈ Q .02). This gives us 9 possible codes. Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka were making codes for the licence plates of vehicles. 01) will not be the same as the code (01. i. The cartesian product P × Q is the set of all ordered pairs of elements from P and Q.c).01). b4} (Fig 2.3).01)..02). KA}. (DL.03) and the product of set A and set B is given by A × B = {(DL.

(3.4} and C = {4.6). . Solution Since the ordered pairs are equal. Therefore x + 1 = 3 and y – 2 = 1. (b. However. (1. (2.4). (1. (c. (2. b. 4). (iii) Since. by the definition of equality of ordered pairs. Example 1 If (x + 1. b.3). Therefore. a).4).3).6). (3. (2.1). (3.. (2. then n(A × B) = pq. (2. then there will be pq elements in A × B. r)} and Q × P = {(r. B = {3.6).3}. (2. c} and Q = {r}.4). then so is A × B. (1. we conclude that P × Q ≠ Q × P. (1. (3.4). (2.4)}. b. Example 2 If P = {a. 5.3). (2.4).4). (r. a).6}. r) is not equal to the pair (r. (2.5).4). r). we have A × (B ∪ C) = {(1.5). (B ∪ C) = {3. c ∈ A}.e. P × Q = {(a.4)} and (A × C) = {(1.5).6)} Therefore. Now (A × B) = {(1. (3. the corresponding elements are equal. c) is called an ordered triplet. (2. c)} Since.3). (2.2. (1. (3.3). y – 2) = (3.32 MATHEMATICS (ii) If there are p elements in A and q elements in B. A × (B ∩ C) = {(1.3). (1. the number of elements in each set will be the same. the pair (a. (2. Example 3 Let A = {1.3). r). (ii) (iv) Using the sets A × B and A × C from part (ii) above. Here (a. (2.5). (2. (iv) A × A × A = {(a.3). (3.4). (3.6)}.6). (B ∩ C) = {4}. b). 4. 6}.4). 4)}.4).4).5).5). (3. Find (ii) (A × B) ∩ (A × C) (i) A × (B ∩ C) (iv) (A × B) ∪ (A × C) (iii) A × (B ∪ C) Solution (i) By the definition of the intersection of two sets. find the values of x and y. i. b. (r. Solving we get x = 2 and y = 3. (iii) If A and B are non-empty sets and either A or B is an infinite set.5. 4).4).5).5). c) : a.4).6)}. Are these two products equal? Solution By the definition of the cartesian product.6).3). (3. (1. form the sets P × Q and Q × P. we obtain (A × B) ∪ (A × C) = {(1. (3. (3. (2. if n(A) = p and n(B) = q. (1.5). (1. (A × B) ∩ (A × C) = {(1. (3. (3. (3.6).

(y.1. y.2. P × P × P = {(1. 6} and D = {5. (z. (ii) A × C is a subset of B × D.2). (2. 8. (ii) If A and B are non-empty sets. 5}. If (x. find A and B.2). Let A = {1.2. 1}. 5. Solution A = set of first elements = {p. If the set A has 3 elements and the set B = {3.(n. (i) If P = {m. B = {3. C = {5. z) : x. y)}. rewrite the given statement correctly. .1). (1. 2).1. 1) are in A × B. find A × A × A. 3. where x. 1).1). 7.(p.2.1 2⎞ ⎛5 1⎞ ⎛x 1. 2}. y). State whether each of the following statements are true or false. Write A × B. Solution We have. If G = {7. then A × (B ∩ φ) = φ. Find A and B. (m. 2} and B = {3. 4}. 4. y ∈ R} which represents the coordinates of all the points in two dimensional space and the cartisian product R × R × R represents the set R × R × R ={(x. EXERCISE 2. n).1.2)}. y – ⎟ = ⎜ .2. Example 5 If R is the set of all real numbers.(a . 6. 3. y) such that x ∈ A and y ∈ B. (m. (b. m} B = set of second elements = {q. If A = {–1. m)}. r)}. x). 7. n} and Q = { n. 3⎠ ⎝3 3⎠ ⎝3 2.1). (1. 4}. 4. form the set P × P × P. m}. 8}. 4. q). 6. r). ⎟ . 4}. 8} and H = {5. what do the cartesian products R × R and R × R × R represent? Solution The Cartesian product R × R represents the set R × R={(x. then P × Q = {(m. then find the number of elements in (A×B).1). (b.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 33 Example 4 If P = {1. B = {1. 2}. Example 6 If A × B ={(p.1. 2. (2. find the values of x and y. If the statement is false. (1. (2. y and z are distinct elements. x). If ⎜ + 1. y. r}. 2}. z ∈ R} which represents the coordinates of all the points in three-dimensional space. q). (2. find A and B.2). y) : x. Let A = {1. find G × H and H × G. 2}. (iii) If A = {1. then A × B is a non-empty set of ordered pairs (x. 9. Verify that (i) A × (B ∩ C) = (A × B) ∩ (A × C). If A × B = {(a. How many subsets will A × B have? List them. Let A and B be two sets such that n(A) = 3 and n(B) = 2.

The subset is derived by describing a relationship between the first element and the second element of the ordered pairs in A × B.. Note that range ⊆ codomain. ... (4. Divya}. (a. 6}. The Cartesian product A × A has 9 elements among which are found (–1. Definition 3 The set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in a relation R from a set A to a set B is called the domain of the relation R. Example 7 Let A = {1. 0) and (0. (b.1).34 MATHEMATICS 10. y) as R= { (x. (c. (ii) An arrow diagram is a visual representation of a relation. Binoy). The whole set B is called the codomain of the relation R. Binoy. Remarks (i) A relation may be represented algebraically either by the Roster method or by the Set-builder method. The second element is called the image of the first element. Ali). Binoy). (3.6)}. Bhanu. (2. 2. Chandra. 3. b.2). 4. Bhanu). (5. R = {(1. c} and Q = {Ali.4.3 Relations Consider the two sets P = {a.4). y) : y = x + 1 } (i) Depict this relation using an arrow diagram. We can now obtain a subset of P × Q by introducing a relation R between the first element x and the Fig 2. (ii) Write down the domain. Define a relation R from A to A by R = {(x. 2. Then R = {(a.y): x is the first letter of the name y. x ∈ P. (c. Divya)}. Chandra)} A visual representation of this relation R (called an arrow diagram) is shown in Fig 2.Bhanu). Find the set A and the remaining elements of A × A. . (a. y ∈ Q}.3).5). The cartesian product of P and Q has 15 ordered pairs which can be listed as P × Q = {(a. (b.4 second element y of each ordered pair (x. Definition 4 The set of all second elements in a relation R from a set A to a set B is called the range of the relation R. Solution (i) By the definition of the relation. Definition 2 A relation R from a non-empty set A to a non-empty set B is a subset of the cartesian product A × B. 5. codomain and range of R. Ali).

(4. Remark A relation R from A to A is also stated as a relation on A. The range of this relation is {– 2. 3). 2. Fig 2. 25}. The set Q is the codomain of this relation. y ∈ Q} (ii) In roster form. 5}. 4). –5. 5. 4. 6}. –2). y): x is the square of y. Fig 2.. Example 9 Let A = {1.. –3). 2} and B = {3. 5. (4. 5. 6} and the codomain = {1. the number of subsets of A×B is 24. 2). (2.6 shows a relation between the sets P and Q.5 Example 8 The Fig 2. Find the number of relations from A to B. 2. 9. 3. –3. –5)} The domain of this relation is {4. the range = {2. Note that the element 1 is not related to any element in set P. (2. (25. 2.. y ∈ A}. 3. 3).2 1.14}.6 (9. Note The total number of relations that can be defined from a set A to a set B is the number of possible subsets of A × B. 3). (i) In set-builder form. 2. Write this relation (i) in set-builder form. 4. Write down its domain.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 35 The corresponding arrow diagram is shown in Fig 2.} Similarly.. 5). y) : 3x – y = 0. (1. (ii) in roster form. R = {(9. 4)}. 4}. A × B = {(1. Define a relation R from A to A by R = {(x. where x. the number of relations from A into B will be 24. codomain and range. 3. x ∈ P. Therefore. If n(A ) = p and n(B) = q. What is its domain and range? Solution It is obvious that the relation R is “x is the square of y”. Solution We have. 3. Let A = {1. EXERCISE 2. 3. . (25. (ii) We can see that the domain ={1. 4.5. Since n (A×B ) = 4. then n (A × B) = pq and the total number of relations is 2pq. R = {(x.

y. There are many terms such as ‘map’ or ‘mapping’ used to denote a function. b): a . visualise a function as a rule. x is a natural number less than 4. 8. we study a special type of relation called function. (i) Write R in roster form (ii) Find the domain of R (iii) Find the range of R. Define a relation R from A to B by R = {(x. Write R in roster form. 2. The Fig2.7 6.b): a. 5. If f is a function from A to B and (a. Write the relation R = {(x. Definition 5 A relation f from a set A to a set B is said to be a function if every element of set A has one and only one image in set B. Let A = {x. which produces new elements out of some given elements. 6. b ∈ Z. y) : y = x + 5. 9}. b ∈A. 2}. 3. where b is called the image of a under f and a is called the preimage of b under f. b is exactly divisible by a}. It is one of the most important concepts in mathematics.4 Functions In this Section. a – b is an integer}. In other words. Depict this relationship using roster form. 5} and B = {4. 2. x. y): the difference between x and y is odd. 7.36 MATHEMATICS 2. Find the domain and range of R. 4. 2. Define a relation R on the set N of natural numbers by R = {(x. 1. Let R be the relation on Z defined by R = {(a. Write down the domain and the range. 2. Determine the domain and range of the relation R defined by R = {(x. Fig 2. 3. Let R be the relation on A defined by {(a. Find the number of relations from A to B. What is its domain and range? Let A = {1. 6}. z} and B = {1. b) ∈ f. 3. 3. then f (a) = b. a function f is a relation from a non-empty set A to a non-empty set B such that the domain of f is A and no two distinct ordered pairs in f have the same first element. 9. 5}}. y ∈ B}. y ∈N}. . A = {1. x ∈ A. 4. x + 5) : x ∈ {0.7 shows a relationship between the sets P and Q. We can. Write this relation (i) in set-builder form (ii) roster form. x3) : x is a prime number less than 10} in roster form. 4.

(4. What is the domain... we can easily see that the relation in Example 7 is not a function because the element 6 has no image. f (7) = . Definition 6 A function which has either R or one of its subsets as its range is called a real valued function. y) : y = 2x. the relation in Example 9 is also not a function.2)}.7)} Solution (i) (ii) (iii) Since 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 y f (1) = .. Looking at the previous examples. this relation is a function. Example 11 Examine each of the following relations given below and state in each case. we will see many more relations some of which are functions and others are not.6)..(3.. Example 12 Let N be the set of natural numbers. (4.. Example 10 Let N be the set of natural numbers and the relation R be defined on N such that R = {(x.1). Using this definition. Since every element has one and only one image. codomain and range of R? Is this relation a function? Solution The domain of R is the set of natural numbers N. f (4) = .2).5). (6.. Since every natural number n has one and only one image. this relation is a function. Further.(2. (ii) R = {(2.4)} (iii) R = {(1.(3.. 3. if its domain is also either R or a subset of R. complete the table given below.. it is called a real function. giving reasons whether it is a function or not? (i) R = {(2. x. the relation in Example 8 is not a function because the elements in the domain are connected to more than one images. f (5) = . Again. Similarly.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 37 The function f from A to B is denoted by f: A B. (5.1).4)... f (2) = . The codomain is also N. f (3) = . (4. y ∈ N}.4).2). this relation is not a function. f (6) = . The range is the set of even natural numbers..(2. 4 are the elements of domain of R having their unique images.. Since the same first element 2 corresponds to two different images 2 and 4.3). Define a real valued function f:N x N by f (x) = 2x + 1. this relation R is a function.(3. (Why?) In the examples given below. Solution The completed table is given by x 1 2 3 4 y f (1) = 3 f (2) = 5 f (3) = 7 5 6 7 f (4) = 9 f (5) = 11 f (6) = 13 f (7) =15 .3)..

8 (ii) Constant function Define the function f: R → R by y = f (x) = c.4. Here domain of f is R and its range is {c}. Fig 2. Such a function is called the identity function. Here the domain and range of f are R.9 . x ∈ R where c is a constant and each x ∈ R. It passes through the origin.38 MATHEMATICS 2. Fig 2.8. The graph is a straight line as shown in Fig 2.1 Some functions and their graphs (i) Identity function Let R be the set of real numbers. Define the real valued function f : R → R by y = f(x) = x for each x ∈ R.

2 x are some examples 2 The functions defined by f(x) = x3 – x2 + 2. The graph of f is given by Fig 2. What is the domain and range of this function? Draw the graph of f. For example.10 Fig 2. Range of f = {x : x ≥ 0. x ∈ R.. where n is a non-negative integer and a0.an∈R.10 . y = f (x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + . a1.(Why?) Example 13 Define the function f: R → R by y = f(x) = x2.. if f(x)=3 for each x∈R.. a2. x ∈ R}.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 39 The graph is a line parallel to x-axis.. x y = f(x) = x2 Solution The completed Table is given below: x y = f (x) = x 2 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 –4 16 –3 9 –2 4 –1 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 9 4 16 Domain of f = {x : x∈R}. (iii) Polynomial function A function f : R → R is said to be polynomial function if for each x in R. and g(x) = x4 + of polynomial functions.9. then its graph will be a line as shown in the Fig 2..+ an xn. Complete the Table given below by using this definition. whereas the function h defined by h(x) = x 3 + 2x is not a polynomial function..

.... 2 . Fig 2.. f(3) = 27.5 .. f(–1) = –1.. f(–2) = –8.5 –1 –0..5 .5 . f = {(x.5 . What is the domain and range of this function? Example 15 Define the real valued function f : R – {0} → R defined by f (x) = x y = –2 –1.. f(2) = 8. where g(x) ≠ 0. 1 .5 0.5 2 1 1 1. –1 . etc... f(–3) = –27. Complete the Table given below using this definition. 1 x .5 – 0..67 –1 – 2 . Solution The completed Table is given by x y= –2 –1..40 MATHEMATICS Example 14 Draw the graph of the function f :R → R defined by f (x) = x3..x3): x∈R}. The graph of f is given in Fig 2. .11 (iv) Rational functions are functions of the type f (x ) . Solution We have f(0) = 0.. –0.. Therefore..5 0. where f(x) and g(x) are g (x) polynomial functions of x defined in a domain. 0.67 2 0.. f(1) = 1.25 0. x∈R.25 4 0. 1.11. x x ∈ R –{0}. 1 .5 1 x – 0.

(vi) Signum function The function f:R→R defined by Fig 2.13. FigFig 2.if x = 0 ⎪−1.. The domain of the signum function is R and the range is . the value of f(x) is the negative of the value of x.13 ⎧1. For each non-negative value of x.if x > 0 ⎪ f (x ) = ⎨0.12 (v) The Modulus function The function f: R→R defined by f(x) = |x| for each x ∈R is called modulus function. f(x) is equal to x.12.x < 0 The graph of the modulus function is given in Fig 2.if x < 0 ⎩ is called the signum function. i.e. ⎧ x. The graph of f is given in Fig 2. But for negative values of x.12 2.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 41 The domain is all real numbers except 0 and its range is also all real numbers except 0.x ≥ 0 f (x) = ⎨ ⎩ − x.

we shall learn how to add two real functions. . Then. 0. subtract a real function from another. where X ⊂ R. Such a function is called the greatest integer function. less than or equal to x.14. The graph of the function is shown in Fig 2. The graph of the signum function is given by the Fig 2. Fig 2. 1}. x ∈R assumes the value of the greatest integer. Fig 2. for all x ∈ X.2 Algebra of real functions In this Section. we define (f + g): X → R by (f + g) (x) = f (x) + g (x).4. (i) Addition of two real functions Let f : X → R and g : X → R be any two real functions.15. we can see that [x] = –1 for –1 ≤ x < 0 [x] = 0 for 0 ≤ x < 1 [x] = 1 for 1 ≤ x < 2 [x] = 2 for 2 ≤ x < 3 and so on.42 MATHEMATICS the set {–1. From the definition of [x].14 (vii) Greatest integer function The function f: R → R defined by f(x) = [x]. multiply a real function by a scalar (here by a scalar we mean a real number).15 2. multiply two real functions and divide one real function by another.

(f – g) (x) = x( x ) = 3 x2 x –x. (f – g) (x). x ≠ 0 and ⎜ g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ x . we mean a real number. 1 ⎛ f ⎞ – ( x) = x = x 2 . (f –g) (x). Here by scalar. 2 2 (f + g) (x) = x + 2x + 1. Example 16 Let f(x) = x and g(x) = 2x + 1 be two real functions. (v) Quotient of two real functions Let f and g be two real functions defined from X→R where X ⊂ R. (fg) (x) and ⎜ ⎟ (x). ⎝g⎠ 2 Solution We have. for all x ∈ X.Find ⎛ f ⎞ (f + g) (x). The quotient of f by g denoted by ⎛ f ⎞ f ( x) ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = . This is also called pointwise multiplication. for all x ∈ X. Then the product α f is a function from X to R defined by (α f ) (x) = α f (x). Then. we define (f – g) : X → R by (f–g) (x) = f(x) –g(x). ⎝g⎠ Solution We have (f + g) (x) = (fg) x = x + x. where X ⊂ R. (iii) Multiplication by a scalar Let f : X→R be a real valued function and α be a scalar. ⎜ ⎟ ( x ) . x ∈ X g ( x) ⎝g⎠ f g is a function defined by . (f –g) (x) = x – 2x – 1.x ≠ − (fg) (x) = x (2x + 1) = 2x + x . provided g(x) ≠ 0. ⎜ ⎟ 2x + 1 ⎝g⎠ 2 2 3 2 Example 17 Let f(x) = x and g(x) = x be two functions defined over the set of non- ⎛ f ⎞ negative real numbers. (fg) (x). ⎛ f ⎞ x2 1 ( x) = .RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 43 (ii) Subtraction of a real function from another Let f : X → R and g: X → R be any two real functions. (iv) Multiplication of two real functions The product (or multiplication) of two real functions f:X → R and g:X → R is a function fg:X → R defined by (fg) (x) = f(x) g(x). x ∈X. Find (f + g) (x).

Which of the following relations are functions? Give reasons. shape of the graph of the given function assumes the form as shown in Fig 2. Miscellaneous Examples Example 18 Let R be the set of real numbers. determine its domain and range.. (i) {(2. x ∈ R. Write down the values of (i) f (0).. Solution Here f(0) = 10. 2..5)}..1).7)} (iii) {(1. . f(10) = 20. x > 0. (ii) t(28) (iii) 9C + 32.5). and f(–1) = 9.1)} (ii) {(2.6). (ii) f (7). A function f is defined by f(x) = 2x –5. f(2) = 12. Find the domain and range of the following real functions: (i) f(x) = – x 3. (1.16. (5.3).16 .. (ii) f (x) = x2 + 2.4). when t(C) = 212.5).1). (2. If it is a function. . (10.1). Define the real function f: R→R by f(x) = x + 10 and sketch the graph of this function. (14.44 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 2..3 1. f(–2) = 8. (iii) f (x) = x.. The function ‘t’ which maps temperature in degree Celsius into temperature in degree Fahrenheit is defined by t(C) = Find (i) t(0) 5. Remark The function f defined by f(x) = mx + c . where m and c are constants.3). x is a real number. 5 t(–10) (iv) The value of C. f(–10) = 0 and so on. (11. (8.2). (17. (12. is called linear function. Therefore. x ∈ R. f(1) = 11. Above function is an example of a linear function. (6. x is a real number. 4. Fig 2.1). etc. (iii) f (–3). (14. (i) f (x) = 2 – 3x. Find the range of each of the following functions. (4.1). (8. (ii) f(x) = 9 − x2 .1).

a) ∈ R (iii) (a. b – a ∈ Z. this gives f(– 4) = 1 – (– 4) = 5. b – c ∈ Z. b) and (b. a) ∈ R. x=0 f (x) = ⎨ ⎪ x + 1. –1).b ∈ Q and a – b ∈ Z}.17 Fig 2. Hence the domain of f is R – {1. the graph of f is as shown in Fig 2. f(– 2) = 1 – (– 2) = 3 f(–1) = 1 – (–1) = 2. the function f (x) is defined for all real numbers except at x = 4 and x = 1. x > 0. x < 0 ⎪ 1 . a) ∈ R (iii) (a.1). (2. Show that (i) (a. (a. f (2) = 3. if follows that (a. Solution Since f is a linear function. and f(1) = 2. –3)} be a linear function from Z into Z. f(– 3) =1 – (– 3) = 4. f (1) = m + c = 1 and f (0) = c = –1. a – c = (a – b) + (b – c) ∈ Z. a – a = 0 ∈ Z. So. 1). f (3) = 4 f(4) = 5 and so on for f(x) = x + 1.b) ∈ R implies that a – b ∈ Z. etc. Example 21 Find the domain of the function f (x) = 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 x2 – 5x + 4 Solution Since x –5x + 4 = (x – 4) (x –1).c) ∈ R implies that (a. Thus.b): a.b) ∈ R implies that (b. Example 22 The function f is defined by ⎧1− x. (b. Also. Therefore.c) ∈R Solution (i) Since. x < 0. (–1. 4}. So. (0. f(x) = 1 – x. This gives m = 2 and f(x) = 2x – 1.3). f (x) = mx + c.a) ∈ R for all a ∈ Q (ii) (a. – 1) ∈ R.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 45 Example 19 Let R be a relation from Q to Q defined by R = {(a.b) ∈ R and (b.c) ∈ R Example 20 Let f = {(1. Therefore. x > 0 ⎩ Draw the graph of f (x). c) ∈ R implies that a – b ∈ Z. Find f(x). (ii) (a.17 . since (1. Solution Here. (0.

find 2 f (1. for all a ∈ N (ii) (a. 9.c) ∈ R.5. 2.1). Let A ={1. B = {1.c) ∈ R implies (a. (2.3). g(x) = 2x – 3. (2. Let R be a relation from N to N defined by R = {(a. Are the following true? (i) (a.a) ∈ R. If f (x) = x . (0. f – g and f g.–1). (1. x 2 – 8 x + 12 ( x − 1) . 7.1) – f (1) . –3)} be a function from Z to Z defined by f(x) = ax + b. (2. (–1.1 – 1) 3. 10.b) ∈ R.5). 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 ⎪ The relation g is defined by g ( x) = ⎨ ⎪3x . Find the domain of the function f (x) = x2 + 2 x + 1 .9). (b. Justify your answer in each case.1). 2 ≤ x ≤ 10 ⎩ Show that f is a function and g is not a function. b) : a.46 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 2 ⎧ 2 ⎪ x . b. 8. Find the domain and the range of the real function f defined by f (x) = 5. (3. ⎧⎛ ⎫ x2 ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ f = ⎨⎜ x. 4. respectively by f(x) = x + 1.16} and f = {(1.0 ≤ x ≤ 3 1. for some integers a.3.a) ∈ R (iii) (a.2. Find f + g. Let 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩⎝ 1 + x ⎠ ⎭ of f. Let f = {(1.3 ≤ x ≤10 ⎩ ⎧x2 . Determine a. g : R→R be defined.11. Find the domain and the range of the real function f defined by f (x) = x – 1 .15. 2 . Determine the range 6. The relation f is defined by f (x) = ⎨ ⎪3 x. ⎟ : x ∈ R ⎬ be a function from R into R. implies (b.9. Let f. Justify your answer in each case. b ∈N and a = b }.4}.11)} Are the following true? (i) f is a relation from A to B (ii) f is a function from A to B. (4.5).b) ∈ R. b.

then a = x and b = y. . where f(x) = y.12. The image of an element x under a relation R is given by y.The main features of this Chapter are as follows: Ordered pair A pair of elements grouped together in a particular order. Summary In this Chapter. z ∈ R} If (a. we studied about relations and functions. Function A function f from a set A to a set B is a specific type of relation for which every element x of set A has one and only one image y in set B. y. then n(A × B) = pq. y) ∈ R. y): x. b): a ∈ A. Find the range of f. y). Let f be the subset of Z × Z defined by f = {(ab. A × B ≠ B × A. The range of the function is the set of images. The domain of R is the set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in a relation R.10. If n(A) = p and n(B) = q.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 47 11. Cartesian product A × B of two sets A and B is given by A × B = {(a. y ∈ R} and R × R × R = (x. a + b) : a. b ∈ Z}. b ∈ B} In particular R × R = {(x.11. b) = (x. Relation A relation R from a set A to a set B is a subset of the cartesian product A × B obtained by describing a relationship between the first element x and the second element y of the ordered pairs in A × B. 12. Is f a function from Z to Z? Justify your answer. y. Let A = {9. z): x. A is the domain and B is the codomain of f.13} and let f : A→N be defined by f (n) = the highest prime factor of n. We write f: A→B. The range of the relation R is the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs in a relation R. where (x. A×φ=φ In general.

At the end of that month. in a letter to Leibnitz. Algebra of functions For functions f : X → R and g : X → R. we have (f + g) (x) = f(x) + g(x). x ∈ X. 1698. and of numbers. x ∈ X.g (x). x ∈ X. = k f (x) ). (f – g) (x) = f (x) – g(x).g) (x) (kf) (x) = f (x) . Function is found in English in 1779 in Chambers’ Cylopaedia: “The term function is used in algebra. (f. x ∈ X. or constant quantities”. x ∈ X. Johan Bernoulli. for an analytical expression any way compounded of a variable quantity. — — . g Historical Note The word FUNCTION first appears in a Latin manuscript “Methodus tangentium inversa. f f ( x) ( x) = g ( x) . seu de fuctionibus” written by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646-1716) in 1673. Leibnitz replied showing his approval. for the first time deliberately assigned a specialised use of the term function in the analytical sense. Leibnitz used the word in the non-analytical sense. On July 5. He considered a function in terms of “mathematical job” – the “employee” being just a curve.48 MATHEMATICS A real function has the set of real numbers or one of its subsets both as its domain and as its range. g(x) ≠ 0.

Chapter 3 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS A mathematician knows how to solve a problem.C. he can not solve it. We have also studied the trigonometric identities and application of trigonometric ratios in solving the problems related to heights and distances. 3. – MILNE 3. describing the state of an atom. It was studied by sea captains for navigation. trigonometry is used in many areas such as the science of seismology.) angled triangle.2 Angles Angle is a measure of rotation of a given ray about its initial point. we will generalise the concept of trigonometric ratios to trigonometric functions and study their properties. The subject was originally developed to solve geometric problems involving triangles. In this Chapter. by engineers and others. analysing a musical tone and in many other areas. designing electric circuits. predicting the heights of tides in the ocean. In earlier classes. surveyor to map out the new lands.1 Introduction The word ‘trigonometry’ is derived from the Greek words ‘trigon’ and ‘metron’ and it means ‘measuring the sides of a triangle’. The original ray is Vertex Fig 3.1 . Currently. we have studied the trigonometric Arya Bhatt ratios of acute angles as the ratio of the sides of a right (476-550 B.

3.2.3 . viz. There are several units for Fig 3. This is often convenient for large angles. The measure of an angle is the amount of rotation performed to get the terminal side from the initial side. 1° = 60′. then the angle is negative (Fig 3. and one sixtieth of a minute is called a second. written as 1°. and a minute is divided into 60 seconds . The point of rotation is called the vertex. 1′ = 60″ Some of the angles whose measures are 360°. For example. – 30°. one complete revolution from the position of the initial side as indicated in Fig 3. the angle is said to be positive and if the direction of rotation is clockwise.2.1). One sixtieth of a degree is called a minute. we can say that a rapidly spinning wheel is making an angle of say 15 revolution per second. the angle is said to have a measure of one degree. degree measure and radian measure. A degree is divided into 60 minutes. viz. We shall describe two other units of measurement of an angle which are most commonly used. th Fig 3.50 MATHEMATICS called the initial side and the final position of the ray after rotation is called the terminal side of the angle. If the direction of rotation is anticlockwise.2 measuring angles. 420°. ⎛ 1 ⎞ 3. Thus.1 Degree measure If a rotation from the initial side to terminal side is ⎜ ⎟ of ⎝ 360 ⎠ a revolution. written as 1″. – 420° are shown in Fig 3. written as 1′. 270°.180°. The definition of an angle suggests a unit.

1 1 1 radian and –1 radian. we have θ = l or l = r θ. In the Fig 3. called the radian measure.4(i) to (iv). 2 2 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Fig 3. an arc of length r will subtend an angle of 1 radian. It is well-known that equal arcs of a circle subtend equal angle at the centre. OA is the initial side and OB is the terminal side. one complete revolution of the initial side subtends an angle of 2π radian. The figures show the angles whose measures are 1 radian. an arc of length l subtends an angle θ radian at the centre. Thus. More generally. Since in a circle of radius r.2 Radian measure There is another unit for measurement of an angle. an arc of length r subtends an angle whose measure is 1 l radian. in a circle of radius r.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 51 3. if in r a circle of radius r.2. Angle subtended at the centre by an arc of length 1 unit in a unit circle (circle of radius 1 unit) is said to have a measure of 1 radian. Thus. –1 radian. r .4 (i) to (iv) We know that the circumference of a circle of radius 1 unit is 2π. an arc of length l will subtend an angle whose measure is radian.

01746 radian approximately.52 MATHEMATICS 3. AP represents positive real number and AQ represents negative real numbers (Fig 3. P 2 1 1 A 0 − −1 − −2 Q O Fig 3. If we rope the line AP in the anticlockwise direction along the circle.3 Relation between radian and real numbers Consider the unit circle with centre O. then every real number will correspond to a radian measure and conversely.4 Relation between degree and radian Since a circle subtends at the centre an angle whose radian measure is 2π and its degree measure is 360°. we have 7 1 radian = 180° = 57° 16′ approximately. radian measures and real numbers can be considered as one and the same. Then the length of an arc of the circle will give the radian measure of the angle which the arc will subtend at the centre of the circle. π Also 1° = π radian = 0. Consider OA as initial side of an angle. Using approximate value of π as 22 . Let the point A represent the real number zero.2.5 3.2. Thus. it follows that 2π radian = 360° or π radian = 180° The above relation enables us to express a radian measure in terms of degree measure and a degree measure in terms of radian measure.5). 180 The relation between degree measures and radian measure of some common angles are given in the following table: Degree Radian 30° 45° 60° 90° 180° π 270° 360° 2π π 6 π 4 π 3 π 2 3π 2 . and AQ in the clockwise direction. Consider the line PAQ which is tangent to the circle at A. Let A be any point on the circle.

π = 180° and Radian measure = Degree measure = π Degree measure 180 × 180 × Radian measure π Example 1 Convert 40° 20′ into radian measure. we mean the angle whose degree measure is θ and whenever we write angle β. we can say that omitted. Note that when an angle is expressed in radians. Solution We know that 180° = π radian. Hence Therefore 40° 20′ = 40 121 1 π 121π degree = radian = radian. Thus. Example 3 Find the radius of the circle in which a central angle of 60° intercepts an arc of length 37.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 53 Notational Convention Since angles are measured either in degrees or in radians. 540 40° 20′ = Example 2 Convert 6 radians into degree measure. we adopt the convention that whenever we write angle θ°. the word ‘radian’ is frequently π π = 45° are written with the understanding that π and 4 4 are radian measures.9″ = 343°38′ 11″ approximately. Solution We know that π radian = 180°. Hence 6 radians = 1080 × 7 180 degree × 6 degree = π 22 7 degree 11 = 343° + = 343 7 × 60 minute [as 1° = 60′] 11 [as 1′ = 60″] = 343° + 38′ + Hence 2 minute 11 = 343° + 38′ + 10. Thus. we mean the angle whose radian measure is β. × 3 180 540 3 121π radian. 7 . 6 radians = 343° 38′ 11″ approximately.4 cm (use π = 22 ).

4 cm and θ = 60° = Hence.4×3×7 = = 35.e.28 cm. in 40 minutes. Hence.4×3 37. Find the radian measures corresponding to the following degree measures: (i) 25° (ii) – 47°30′ (iii) 240° (iv) 520° . Given that θ1 = 65° = and π 13π × 65 = radian 180 36 π 22π × 110 = radian 180 36 θ2 = 110° = Let l be the length of each of the arc. Solution Let r1 and r2 be the radii of the two circles. 3 Example 5 If the arcs of the same lengths in two circles subtend angles 65°and 110° at the centre. r = 36 36 13 2 Hence r1 : r2 = 22 : 13.7 cm π 22 Example 4 The minute hand of a watch is 1.5 cm long.1 1. θ = × 360° 3 3 4π radian. which gives r1 22 13π 22π × r1 = × r2 . the minute hand turns through or 2 2 of a revolution.5 × 4π cm = 2π cm = 2 × 3. the required distance travelled is given by 3 l = r θ = 1. the minute hand of a watch completes one revolution. Solution In 60 minutes. by r = r= 60π π radian = 180 3 l . we have θ 37. i. find the ratio of their radii. How far does its tip move in 40 minutes? (Use π = 3.14). Therefore. Therefore. EXERCISE 3.54 MATHEMATICS Solution Here l = 37.14 cm = 6.. Then l = r1θ1 = r2θ2.

Consider a unit circle with centre at origin of the coordinate axes. we have a2 + b2 = 1 or cos2 x + sin2 x = 1 Since one complete revolution subtends an angle of 2π radian at the centre of the circle. b) be any point on the circle with angle AOP = x radian. 4. 7. 2 Fig 3. We define cos x = a and sin x = b Since ∆OMP is a right triangle. for every point on the unit circle. 3. arcs of the same length subtend angles 60° and 75° at the centre. the length of a chord is 20 cm. we have OM2 + MP2 = OP2 or a2 + b2 = 1 Thus. 5π 7π (iv) 3 6 A wheel makes 360 revolutions in one minute.6 . find the ratio of their radii. we have studied trigonometric ratios for acute angles as the ratio of sides of a right angled triangle.6). i. 7 In a circle of diameter 40 cm. ∠AOB = π .3 Trigonometric Functions In earlier classes.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 55 2. Let P (a. We will now extend the definition of trigonometric ratios to any angle in terms of radian measure and study them as trigonometric functions. Find the length of minor arc of the chord.e. 7 (ii) – 4 (iii) 3. Find the angle in radian through which a pendulum swings if its length is 75 cm and th e tip describes an arc of length (i) 10 cm (ii) 15 cm (iii) 21 cm radius 100 cm by an arc of length 22 cm (Use π = 11 16 5. Through how many radians does it turn in one second? Find the degree measure of the angle subtended at the centre of a circle of 22 ). If in two circles. Find the degree measures corresponding to the following radian measurs (Use π = (i) 22 ). length of arc AP = x (Fig 3.. 6.

x ≠ n π. 0) and (0. where n is any integer π cos x = 0 implies x = (2n + 1) . ± π. when x is an integral multiple of π cos and cos x = 0. (–1. C and D are.e. sin x = 0 implies x = nπ. we again come back to same point P. sin π =0 2 cosπ = − 1 π =1 2 sinπ = 0 3π 3π =0 sin = –1 2 2 cos 2π = 1 sin 2π = 0 Now. n ∈ Z Further.. we have cos 0° = 1 cos sin 0° = 0.± . The coordinates of the points A. cos (2nπ + x) = cos x . sin (2nπ + x) = sin x . cos x vanishes when x is an odd 2 2 2 π . where n is any integer. i. we also observe that if x increases (or decreases) by any integral multiple of 2π. ± 3π.. x ≠ nπ. Thus 2 π. n ∈ Z .. respectively. Thus. i. ± 2π . sec x = 2 cos x sin x π . tan x = 2 cos x cos x . (0. the values of sine and cosine functions do not change. where n is any integer. –1). B. x ≠ (2n +1) . if we take one complete revolution from the point P. All angles which are integral multiples of are called 2 2 quadrantal angles. cot x = sin x cosec x = . . 0). where n is any integer.. Thus. where n is any integer... (1. 1). sin x 1 π . for quadrantal angles.± . 2 We now define other trigonometric functions in terms of sine and cosine functions: 1 .56 MATHEMATICS ∠AOC = π and ∠AOD = 3π π . where n is any integer. if x = ± multiple of π 3π 5π . Therefore. sin x = 0. if x = 0. .e. x ≠ (2n + 1) ..

7). 3. Therefore cos (– x) = cos x and sin (– x) = – sin x Since for every point P (a.7 . sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 It follows that 1 + tan2 x = sec2 x 1 + cot2 x = cosec2 x (why?) (why?) In earlier classes.1 Sign of trigonometric functions Let P (a. The values of trigonometric functions for these angles are same as that of trigonometric ratios studied in earlier classes. respectively.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 57 We have shown that for all real x. 45°. – 1 ≤ a ≤ 1 and Fig 3. cos x and tan x. b) on the unit circle. we have the following table: 0° sin cos tan 0 1 0 π 6 π 4 1 2 1 2 π 3 3 2 π 2 1 0 not defined π 3π 2 –1 0 not defined 2π 1 2 3 2 1 3 0 –1 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 1 The values of cosec x. –b) (Fig 3. b) be a point on the unit circle with centre at the origin such that ∠AOP = x. If ∠AOQ = – x. 60° and 90°.3. Thus. sec x and cot x are the reciprocal of the values of sin x. then the coordinates of the point Q will be (a. 30°. we have discussed the values of trigonometric ratios for 0°.

Likewise. domain of y = sin x and y = cos x is the set of all real numbers and range is the interval [–1. 1].3. sin x is positive for 0 < x < π. and negative for π < x < 2π.58 MATHEMATICS – 1 ≤ b ≤ 1. in the third quadrant 2 3π 3π ) a and b are both negative and in the fourth quadrant ( < x < 2π) a is 2 2 positive and b is negative. In fact. we observe that they are defined for all real numbers. We have learnt in previous classes that in the first quadrant (0 < x < second quadrant ( (π < x < π ) a and b are both positive. i.2 Domain and range of trigonometric functions From the definition of sine and cosine functions. – 1 ≤ y ≤ 1. cos x is positive for 0 < x < positive for π π 3π . Further. negative for < x < and also 2 2 2 3π < x < 2π. Therefore. . we can find the signs of other trigonometric 2 functions in different quadrants. I sin x cos x tan x cosec x sec x cot x + + + + + + II + – – + – – III – – + – – + IV – + – – + – 3. we have – 1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 and –1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1 for all x. Similarly. we have the following table.e.. we observe that for each real number x. – 1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1 and – 1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 Thus. in the 2 π < x <π) a is negative and b is positive.

n ∈ Z} and the range is the set of all real numbers. Similarly. The domain of 2 y = cot x is the set {x : x ∈ R and x ≠ n π. The domain of y = tan x is the set {x : x ∈ R and of y = sec x is the set {x : x ∈ R and x ≠ (2n + 1) π . we can discuss the behaviour of other trigonometric functions. y ≥ 1 or y ≤ – 1}. n ∈ Z} and range is the set {y : y ∈ R. as x increases from third quadrant. the statement tan x increases from 0 to ∞ (infinity) for 0<x< π π simply means that tan x increases as x increases for 0 < x < and 2 2 . the fourth quadrant. y ≤ – 1or y ≥ 1}. the domain of y = cosec x is the set { x : x ∈ R and x ≠ n π.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 59 1 sin x . sin x decreases from 1 to 0. as x increases from π to 3π . sin x increases from –1 to 0 as x increases from 2 I quadrant sin cos tan cot sec increases from 0 to 1 II quadrant decreases from 1 to 0 III quadrant IV quadrant π to π. in 2 3π to 2π. n ∈ Z} and range is the set of all real numbers. In the 2 π . In fact. sin x 2 decreases from 0 to –1 increases from –1 to 0 decreases from 1 to 0 decreases from 0 to – 1 increases from –1 to 0 increases from 0 to 1 increases from 0 to ∞ increases from –∞to 0 increases from 0 to ∞ increases from –∞to 0 decreases from ∞ to 0 decreases from 0 to–∞ decreases from ∞ to 0 decreases from 0to –∞ increases from 1 to ∞ increases from –∞to–1 decreases from –1to–∞ decreases from ∞ to 1 increases from –∞to–1 decreases from–1to–∞ cosec decreases from ∞ to 1 increases from 1 to ∞ Similarly. x ≠ (2n + 1) We further observe that in the first quadrant. we have the following table: Remark In the above table. sin x decreases from 0 to –1and finally. n ∈ Z} and range is the set 2 {y : y ∈ R. as x increases from 0 to increases from 0 to 1. the domain Since cosec x = π .

We have already seen that values of sin x and cos x repeats after an interval of 2π.8 Fig 3. to say that 2 cosec x decreases from –1 to – ∞ (minus infinity) in the fourth quadrant means that assumes arbitraily large positive values as x approaches to cosec x decreases for x ∈ ( of functions and variables.11 . 2π) and assumes arbitrarily large negative values as 2 x approaches to 2π. The symbols ∞ and – ∞ simply specify certain types of behaviour Fig 3.10 Fig 3. Hence.9 Fig 3. Similarly.60 MATHEMATICS π . We 3π . values of cosec x and sec x will also repeat after an interval of 2π.

13 shall see in the next section that tan (π + x) = tan x. find the values of other five 5 trigonometric functions.12 Fig 3. The graph of these functions are given above: Example 6 If cos x = – 3 . Since cot x is reciprocal of tan x. Therefore sin x = – which also gives cosec x = – 4 5 5 4 .TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 61 Fig 3. we have sec x = − 5 3 2 2 2 2 sin x + cos x = 1. Using this knowledge and behaviour of trigonometic functions. i. values of tan x will repeat after an interval of π. we can sketch the graph of these functions. Hence.e. sin x is negative. its values will also repeat after an interval of π. sin x = 1 – cos x sin2 x = 1 – sin x = ± 16 9 = 25 25 4 5 Since x lies in third quadrant. x lies in the third quadrant. Solution Since cos x = − Now or Hence 3 5 ..

4 cos x 3 sin x 5 . Solution Now Hence Since cot x = – sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x = 1 + sec x = ± 13 5 13 . Therefore sin 31π π π 3 = sin (10π + ) = sin = . x lies in second quadrant. 3 Example 8 Find the value of sin Solution We know that values of sin x repeats after an interval of 2π. 5 5 13 12 5 12 ) × (– )= 5 13 13 Since x lies in second quadrant. we have tan x = – 5 12 144 169 = 25 25 Example 7 If cot x = – trigonometric functions. 3 3 3 2 .62 MATHEMATICS Further. we have tan x = sin x 4 cos x 3 = and cot x = = . sec x will be negative. Therefore sec x = – which also gives cos x = − Further. we have sin x = tan x cos x = (– and cosec x = 1 13 = . sin x 12 31π . find the values of other five 12 12 5 .

x lies in second quadrant.4 Trigonometric Functions of Sum and Difference of Two Angles In this Section. 4 13 . 1. cosec (– 1410°) sin (– 19π 3 15π ) 4 11π ) 3 10. 2 3 . The basic results in this connection are called trigonometric identities. 12 Find the values of the trigonometric functions in Exercises 6 to 10. sin 765° 8. we shall derive expressions for trigonometric functions of the sum and difference of two numbers (angles) and related expressions. sin x = 3. We have seen that 1. 5 5 5. 9. Solution We know that values of cos x repeats after an interval of 2π or 360°. sec x = 1 . 6.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 63 Example 9 Find the value of cos (–1710°). Therefore. sin (– x) = – sin x 2. cos (–1710°) = cos (–1710° + 5 × 360°) = cos (–1710° + 1800°) = cos 90° = 0.2 Find the values of other five trigonometric functions in Exercises 1 to 5. cos (– x) = cos x We shall now prove some more results: . tan x = – . cos x = – 2. tan 7. cot x = 4. x lies in fourth quadrant. x lies in third quadrant. 5 3 . x lies in second quadrant. EXERCISE 3. x lies in third quadrant. cot (– 3.

sin (– y)] and P4 (1. P 2 . P 3 and P 4 will have the coordinates P 1 (cos x. P1P3 and P2P4 are equal.14 Consider the triangles P1OP3 and P2OP4. Also let (– y) be the angle P4OP3. By using distance formula. P3 [cos (– y). sin (x + y)]. cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y Consider the unit circle with centre at the origin. we get P 1 P 3 2 = [cos x – cos (– y)]2 + [sin x – sin(–y]2 = (cos x – cos y)2 + (sin x + sin y)2 = cos2 + cos2 y – 2 cos x cos y + sin2 x + sin2 y + 2sin x sin y = 2 – 2 (cos x cos y – sin x sin y) (Why?) Also. sin x).14). Therefore. They are congruent (Why?). 0) (Fig 3. Fig 3. Then (x + y) is the angle P4OP2. Therefore. P2 [cos (x + y). Let x be the angle P4OP1and y be the angle P1OP2.64 MATHEMATICS 3. P 2 P 4 2 = [1 – cos (x + y)] 2 + [0 – sin (x + y)]2 = 1 – 2cos (x + y) + cos2 (x + y) + sin2 (x + y) = 2 – 2 cos (x + y) . P 1 .

sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y We know that sin ( ⎛π ⎞ sin (x + y) = cos ⎜ − (x + y ) ⎟ = cos ⎝2 ⎠ = cos ( ⎛ π ⎞ ⎜ ( − x) − y ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π π − x ) cos y + sin ( − x) sin y 2 2 = sin x cos y + cos x sin y 8. Therefore. 9. we have ⎡π ⎛ π ⎞⎤ π − x ) = cos ⎢ − ⎜ − x ⎟ ⎥ = cos x. sin ( π π π − x ) = cos cos x + sin sin x = sin x. we get the following results: π cos ( + x ) = – sin x 2 cos (π – x) = – cos x π π sin ( + x ) = cos x 2 sin (π – x) = sin x π . 7 and 8. cos ( π – x ) = sin x 2 π and y by x in Identity (4). 4. sin (x – y) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y If we replace y by –y. we have P1P32 = P2P42.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 65 Since P 1 P 3 = P2P4. we get cos (x + (– y)) = cos x cos (– y) – sin x sin (– y) or cos (x – y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y 5. By taking suitable values of x and y in the identities 3. we get 2 If we replace x by cos ( 6. ⎠⎦ 2 ⎣2 ⎝ 2 7. Hence cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y 4. cos (x – y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y Replacing y by – y in identity 3. we get the result. 2 2 2 π – x ) = cos x 2 Using the Identity 5. 2 –2 (cos x cos y – sin x sin y) = 2 – 2 cos (x + y). in the Identity 7.

we have sin x cos y cos x sin y + cos x cos y cos x cos y tan (x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y − cos x cos y cos x cos y tan x + tan y = 1 – tan x tan y 11. 10. 2 Since none of the x. cos( x + y ) cos x cos y − sin x sin y Dividing numerator and denominator by cos x cos y. y and (x + y) is an odd multiple of tan (x + y) = π . y and (x + y) is a multiple of π. If none of the angles x. then 2 tan x + tan y 1 – tan x tan y π . y and (x + y) is an odd multiple of cos y and cos (x + y) are non-zero. Now tan (x + y) = sin( x + y ) sin x cos y + cos x sin y = . If none of the angles x. we get tan (x – y) = tan [x + (– y)] = tan x + tan (− y ) tan x − tan y = 1 − tan x tan ( − y ) 1+ tan x tan y 12. tan ( x – y) = tan x – tan y 1 + tan x tan y If we replace y by – y in Identity 10.66 MATHEMATICS cos (π + x) = – cos x π π cos (2π – x) = cos x sin (π + x) = – sin x π π sin (2π – x) = – sin x Similar results for tan x. cot x. sec x and cosec x can be obtianed from the results of sin x and cos x. it follows that cos x. then cot ( x + y) = cot x cot y – 1 cot y + cot x .

we get cos 2x = 1 – tan 2 x 1 + tan 2 x 15. cot (x – y) = cot x cot y – 1 cot y + cot x cot x cot y + 1 cot y – cot x If we replace y by –y in identity 12. y and (x + y) is multiple of π. cos 2x = cos2 x – sin2 x = 1 – sin2 x – sin2 x = 1 – 2 sin2 x. none of the x.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 67 Since. we get cos 2x = cos2x – sin2 x = 2 cos2 x – 1 = cos2 x – (1 – cos2 x) = 2 cos2x – 1 Again. Now. We have cos2 x − sin 2 x cos 2x = cos x – sin x = cos2 x + sin 2 x 2 2 Dividing each term by cos2 x. we get the result 1 – tan 2 x 14. we find that sin x sin y and sin (x + y) are non-zero. Again sin 2x = 2sin x cos x cos2 x + sin 2 x . cot ( x + y) = cos ( x + y ) cos x cos y – sin x sin y = sin ( x + y ) sin x cos y + cos x sin y Dividing numerator and denominator by sin x sin y. we have cot (x + y) = 13. we get sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x. cos 2x = cos x – sin x = 2 cos x – 1 = 1 – 2 sin x = 1 + tan 2 x 2 2 2 2 We know that cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y Replacing y by x. sin 2x = 2 sinx cos x = We have 2tan x 1 + tan 2 x sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y Replacing y by x.

tan 3 x = 3 tan x – tan 3 x 1 – 3tan 2 x We have tan 3x =tan (2x + x) 2tan x + tan x 1 – tan 2 x tan 2 x + tan x = = 1 – tan 2 x tan x 1 – 2tan x . 19.68 MATHEMATICS Dividing each term by cos2 x. cos 3x = 4 cos3 x – 3 cos x We have. sin 3x = sin (2x + x) = sin 2x cos x + cos 2x sin x = 2 sin x cos x cos x + (1 – 2sin2 x) sin x = 2 sin x (1 – sin2 x) + sin x – 2 sin3 x = 2 sin x – 2 sin3 x + sin x – 2 sin3 x = 3 sin x – 4 sin3 x 18. we get sin 2x = 16. cos 3x = cos (2x +x) = cos 2x cos x – sin 2x sin x = (2cos2 x – 1) cos x – 2sin x cos x sin x = (2cos2 x – 1) cos x – 2cos x (1 – cos2 x) = 2cos3 x – cos x – 2cos x + 2 cos3 x = 4cos3 x – 3cos x. tan 2x = We know that 2tan x 1 +tan 2 x 2tan x 1 – tan 2 x tan x + tan y tan (x + y) = 1 – tan x tan y Replacing y by x . sin 3x = 3 sin x – 4 sin3 x We have. tan x 1 – tan 2 x . we get tan 2 x = 2 tan x 1− tan 2 x 17.

. (3) (4) (5) (6) We know that cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y and cos (x – y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y Adding and subtracting (1) and (2). . Therefore . (4). we get cos (x + y) + cos(x – y) = 2 cos x cos y and cos (x + y) – cos (x – y) = – 2 sin x sin y Further sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y and sin (x – y) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y Adding and subtracting (5) and (6).. .. (1) . we get sin (x + y) + sin (x – y) = 2 sin x cos y sin (x + y) – sin (x – y) = 2cos x sin y Let x + y = θ and x – y = φ.. (7) .... (2) .. (8) ⎛ θ+φ ⎞ ⎛ θ−φ ⎞ x =⎜ ⎟ and y = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Substituting the values of x and y in (3).... we get ⎛ θ+φ ⎞ ⎛ θ −φ ⎞ cos θ + cos φ = 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛θ+φ⎞ ⎛θ – φ⎞ cos θ – cos φ = – 2 sin ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ θ+φ ⎞ ⎛ θ−φ ⎞ sin θ + sin φ = 2 sin ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ .. . (7) and (8)....TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 69 = 2tan x + tan x – tan 3 x 3 tan x – tan 3 x = 1 – tan 2 x – 2tan 2 x 1 – 3tan 2 x 20.. (i) cos x + cos y = 2cos x+ y x– y cos 2 2 x+ y x– y sin 2 2 (ii) cos x – cos y = – 2sin (iii) sin x + sin y = 2sin (iv) sin x – sin y = 2cos x+ y x– y cos 2 2 x+ y x– y sin 2 2 .

Example 10 Prove that π π 5π π 3sin sec − 4sin cot =1 6 3 6 4 Solution We have π π 5π π L. 2 2 2 2 Remarks As a part of identities given in 20. 2 2 2 2 x+ y x− y x+ y x− y cos sin . = 3sin sec − 4sin cot 6 3 6 4 =3× 1 × 2 – 4 sin 2 π⎞ ⎛ π ⎜ π − ⎟ × 1 = 3 – 4 sin 6⎠ 6 ⎝ 1 = 1 = R.H.H.S. =3–4× Solution We have sin 15° = sin (45° – 30°) = sin 45° cos 30° – cos 45° sin 30° = 1 3 1 1 3 –1 × − × = .S. we can prove the following results: 21. we can replace θ by x and φ by y. we get cos x + cos y = 2 cos sin x + sin y = 2 sin x+ y x− y x+ y x− y cos sin . (i) 2 cos x cos y = cos (x + y) + cos (x – y) (ii) –2 sin x sin y = cos (x + y) – cos (x – y) (iii) 2 sin x cos y = sin (x + y) + sin (x – y) (iv) 2 cos x sin y = sin (x + y) – sin (x – y). sin x – sin y = 2 cos . 12 . 2 2 2 2 2 2 Example 12 Find the value of tan 13 π . cos x – cos y = – 2 sin . Thus.70 MATHEMATICS ⎛ θ+φ ⎞ ⎛ θ−φ ⎞ sin θ – sin φ = 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Since θ and φ can take any real values. 2 Example 11 Find the value of sin 15°.

Solution We have L. we have .H. = sin (x + y ) sin x cos y + cos x sin y = sin (x − y) sin x cos y − cos x sin y Dividing the numerator and denominator by cos x cos y.S. we get sin ( x + y ) tan x + tan y = sin ( x − y ) tan x − tan y .TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 71 Solution We have tan 13 π = tan 12 π⎞ π ⎛π π⎞ ⎛ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ π + ⎟ = tan 12 12 ⎠ ⎝4 6⎠ ⎝ 1 3 = 3 −1 = 2 − 3 1 3 +1 3 π π 1− tan − tan 4 6 = = π π 1 + tan tan 1+ 4 6 Example 13 Prove that sin ( x + y ) tan x + tan y = sin ( x − y ) tan x − tan y . Example 14 Show that tan 3 x tan 2 x tan x = tan 3x – tan 2 x – tan x Solution We know that 3x = 2x + x Therefore. tan 3x = tan (2x + x) or tan 3x = tan 2 x + tan x 1– tan 2 x tan x or tan 3x – tan 3x tan 2x tan x = tan 2x + tan x or tan 3x – tan 2x – tan x = tan 3x tan 2x tan x or tan 3x tan 2x tan x = tan 3x – tan 2x – tan x. Example 15 Prove that ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ cos ⎜ + x ⎟ + cos ⎜ − x ⎟ = 2 cos x ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠ Solution Using the Identity 20(i).

Example 16 Prove that cos 7 x + cos 5 x = cot x sin 7 x – sin 5 x Solution Using the Identities 20 (i) and 20 (iv). Example 17 Prove that = Solution We have L.S.S.S.S.S.72 MATHEMATICS ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ L.H.H. we get 7 x + 5x 7 x − 5x cos cos x 2 2 = cot x = R. = = 7 x + 5x 7 x − 5x sin x 2cos sin 2 2 2cos L.H. = cos ⎜ + x ⎟ + cos ⎜ − x ⎟ ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠ π π ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 4 +x+ 4 −x⎟ ⎜ 4 + x – ( 4 − x) ⎟ = 2cos ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 2 cos 1 π cos x = 2 × cos x = 2 4 2 cos x = R. = sin 5 x − 2sin 3x + sin x = tan x cos5 x − cos x sin 5 x + sin x − 2sin 3x sin 5 x − 2sin 3 x + sin x = cos5 x − cos x cos5 x − cos x 2sin 3 x cos 2 x − 2sin 3 x sin 3 x (cos 2 x − 1) =– – 2sin 3x sin 2x sin 3x sin 2x 1− cos 2 x 2sin 2 x = = tan x = R.H.H.H.S. sin 2 x 2sin x cos x = = .

sin2 2 3.3 Prove that: 1. = tan 4 x = tan 2 x sin x − sin y cos x + cos y 2 2 = tan x− y 2 sin x − sin 3x sin x − cos x = 2 sin x cos 4 x + cos 3x + cos 2 x sin 4 x + sin 3x + sin 2 x = cot 3x . 21. 18. Find the value of: (i) sin 75° (ii) tan 15° 6. sin2 x + 2 sin 4x + sin 6x = 4 cos2 x sin 4x 15. cot π 1 π π + cos2 – tan2 = – 6 3 4 2 2. 20. 2sin 6 6 6 4 4 3 5. ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos ⎜ + x ⎟ − cos ⎜ − x ⎟ = − 2 sin x ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 13. cos2 2x – cos2 6x = sin 4x sin 8x 12. 8. sin (n + 1)x sin (n + 2)x + cos (n + 1)x cos (n + 2)x = cos x 11. cos (π + x) cos ( − x ) = cot 2 x ⎛π ⎞ sin (π − x) cos ⎜ + x ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎡ ⎤ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ 9. cos 9 x − cos 5 x sin 17 x − sin 3 x =− sin 2 x cos 10 x sin 5x + sin 3 x cos 5x + cos 3 x sin x + sin 3 x cos x + cos 3 x 17. 19. sin2 6x – sin2 4x = sin 2x sin 10x 14. 2sin2 7π π 3 π cos 2 = + cosec2 6 3 2 6 π 5π π π π 2 3π + cosec + 3tan 2 = 6 + 2cos 2 + 2sec 2 = 10 4. cot 4x (sin 5x + sin 3x) = cot x (sin 5x – sin 3x) 16. Prove the following: ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ cos ⎜ − x ⎟ cos ⎜ − y ⎟ − sin ⎜ − x ⎟ sin ⎜ − y ⎟ = sin ( x + y) 4 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ + x ⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ 1 + tan ⎜ ⎛π ⎞ ⎝ 1 − tan tan ⎜ − x ⎟ ⎝4 ⎠ x⎞ ⎟ x⎠ 2 7.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 73 EXERCISE 3. cos ⎜ + x ⎟ cos (2π + x) ⎢ cot ⎜ − x ⎟ + cot (2π + x) ⎥ = 1 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 10.

tan 4 x = 4tan x (1 − tan 2 x) 1 − 6 tan 2 x + tan 4 x 24. principal solutions are 5π 11π and . tan and Thus π = 6 π⎞ π 1 ⎛ 1 . tan ⎜ π – ⎟ = – tan = – 6⎠ 6 3 ⎝ 3 π⎞ π 1 ⎛ tan ⎜ 2π − ⎟ = − tan = − 6⎠ 6 3 ⎝ tan 5π 11π 1 = tan =− . 6 6 We will now find the general solutions of trigonometric equations. 6 6 3 Therefore. We have already learnt that the values of sin x and cos x repeat after an interval of 2π and the values of tan x repeat after an interval of π. cot x cot 2x – cot 2x cot 3x – cot 3x cot x = 1 23. cos 4x = 1 – 8sin2 x cos2 x 25. The solutions of a trigonometric equation for which 0 ≤ x < 2π are called principal solutions. Thus. In this Section. we shall find the solutions of such equations. 2π π⎞ π 3 ⎛ π 3 = sin ⎜ π − ⎟ = sin = = and sin . The following examples will be helpful in solving trigonometric equations: Example 18 Find the principal solutions of the equation sin x = Solution We know that. principal solutions are x = π 2π and . Example 19 Find the principal solutions of the equation tan x = − Solution We know that. 3 3⎠ 3 2 3 2 ⎝ Therefore. cos 6x = 32 cos6 x – 48cos4 x + 18 cos2 x – 1 3. We shall use ‘Z’ to denote the set of integers. The expression involving integer ‘n’ which gives all solutions of a trigonometric equation is called the general solution. 3 3 1 3 .5 Trigonometric Equations Equations involving trigonometric functions of a variable are called trigonometric equations.74 MATHEMATICS 22. sin 3 2 . We have already .

where n∈Z Hence x = (2n + 1)π + (–1)2n + 1 y or x = 2nπ +(–1)2n y.e. where n ∈ Z Proof If sin x = sin y. where n ∈ Z 2 x = 2nπ – y or x = 2nπ + y. cos x = cos y. then cos x – cos y = 0 i. 2 We shall now prove the following results: cos x =0 gives x = (2n + 1) Theorem 1 For any real numbers x and y. Hence sin x+ y 2 x+ y 2 x− y 2 x+ y π x− y –2 sin sin sin =0 =0 or x− y x− y 2 =0 x+ y 2 = nπ. where n ∈ Z = nπ or x = 2nπ ± y. we get x = nπ + (–1)n y. where n ∈ Z π . where n ∈ Z. Combining these two results. sin x = sin y implies x = nπ + (–1)n y. then 2 . x = (2n + 1) π – y or x = 2nπ + y.e. where n ∈ Z Theorem 3 Prove that if x and y are not odd mulitple of tan x = tan y implies x = nπ + y. = (2n + 1) or Theorem 2 For any real numbers x and y. where n ∈ Z. implies x = 2nπ ± y. where n ∈ Z Proof If cos x = cos y. where n ∈ Z π . where n ∈ Z 2 2 2 i. where n ∈ Z. Thus Therefore i. then sin x – sin y = 0 or 2cos which gives Therefore cos x+ y 2 x+ y 2 sin x− y 2 =0 = 0 or sin x− y 2 =0 = nπ.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 75 seen that: sin x =0 gives x = nπ.e..

Example 21 Solve cos x = Solution We have. where n ∈ Z.76 MATHEMATICS Proof or If tan x = tan y. which gives 3 4π . . 3⎠ ⎝ π⎞ ⎛π Solution We have. where n ∈ Z 3 2 Example 20 Find the solution of sin x = – 3 2 . x = nπ + y. The solutions obtained will be the same 2 although these may apparently look different. i. cos x = Therefore 1 π = cos 2 3 x = 2nπ ± π . then tan x – tan y = 0 sin x cos y − cos x sin y cos x cos y =0 which gives Therefore sin (x – y) = 0 (Why?) x – y = nπ. where n ∈ Z.. 3 π⎞ ⎛ Example 22 Solve tan 2 x = − cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . One may take any 3 2 3 other value of x for which sin x = − 1 2 .e. tan 2 x = − cot ⎛ x + π ⎞ = tan ⎜ + x + ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝2 3⎠ ⎝ . 3 x = nπ + ( − 1) n Note 4π 3 is one such value of x for which sin x = − . Solution We have sin x = – Hence sin x = sin = − sin π π⎞ 4π ⎛ = sin ⎜ π + ⎟ = sin 3 3⎠ 3 ⎝ 4π .

sin 4x = 0 or cos 2 x = 1 2 π 3 sin4 x = 0 or cos 2 x = cos 4 x = nπ or 2 x = 2nπ ± x= π . sin 4 x (2 cos 2 x − 1) = 0 Therefore i.e. 4 6 Example 24 Solve 2 cos2 x + 3 sin x = 0 Solution The equation can be written as or or Hence But Therefore 2 2 ( 1 − sin 2 x ) + 3 sin x = 0 2 sin x − 3 sin x − 2 = 0 (2sinx + 1) (sinx − 2) = 0 sin x = − 1 or sin x = 2 2 sin x = 2 is not possible (Why?) 1 7π = sin . 2 6 sin x = − .e. Solution The equation can be written as sin 6 x + sin 2 x − sin 4 x = 0 or 2 sin 4 x cos 2 x − sin 4 x = 0 i.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 77 or Therefore or 5π ⎞ ⎛ tan2 x = tan ⎜ x + ⎟ 6 ⎠ ⎝ 2 x = nπ + x + x = nπ + 5π . Hence i. 6 Example 23 Solve sin 2x – sin4 x + sin 6x = 0.e. where n∈Z 6 5π . where n∈Z. where n∈Z 3 nπ π or x = nπ ± . where n∈Z.

cosec x = – 2 Find the general solution for each of the following equations: 5. 6 EXERCISE 3. where x and y both lie in second quadrant. . Solution We know that sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y Now Therefore cos2 x = 1 – sin2 x = 1 – 9 25 . Substituting .78 MATHEMATICS Hence. tan x = 3 2. (1) = 16 25 4 cos x = ± . hence sin y is positive. cos x and cos y in (1).. cos 3x + cos x – cos 2x = 0 7. sin x + sin 3x + sin 5x = 0 Miscellaneous Examples Example 25 If sin x = 3 5 find the value of sin (x + y). 5 13 Since y lies in second quadrant. Hence Now i. sec2 2x = 1– tan 2x 9. cos x is negative. cot x = − 3 4. we get . where n ∈ Z. cos 4 x = cos 2 x 6.e.. cos y = − 12 13 . 5 Since x lies in second quadrant. cos x = − 4 5 144 169 = 25 169 sin2y = 1 – cos2y = 1 – sin y = ± 5 13 . the solution is given by x = nπ + ( − 1) n 7π . Therefore.4 Find the principal and general solutions of the following equations: 1. sec x = 2 3. sin 2x + cos x = 0 8. sin y. sin y = the values of sin x.

S. Then 1 = 1− y2 8 Let y = tan .TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 79 sin( x + y ) = 3 ⎛ 12 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎞ 5 × ⎜ − ⎟ + ⎜ − ⎟× 5 ⎝ 13 ⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ 13 = − 36 20 56 − =− .H.H. 65 65 65 Example 26 Prove that Solution x 9x 5x cos 2 x cos − cos 3 x cos = sin 5 x sin . 2 2 2 We have 1 ⎡ x 9x ⎤ 2cos 2 x cos − 2cos cos 3x ⎥ 2 ⎢ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 1⎡ ⎛ cos ⎜ 2 x + 2⎢ ⎝ ⎣ x⎞ x⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 9x ⎞ ⎛ 9x ⎞⎤ ⎟ + cos ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ − cos ⎜ + 3x ⎟ − cos ⎜ − 3x ⎟ ⎥ 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ L. Then 2 x = . 8 4 2 tan x 1 − tan 2 x tan 2 x = or π 2tan π 8 tan = 4 1 − tan 2 π 8 2y π . ⎝ 2⎠ 2 Example 27 Find the value of tan Solution Let x = Now π . 8 π π . = = = 1⎡ 5x 3x 15x 3x ⎤ 1 ⎡ 5x 15x ⎤ ⎢ cos 2 + cos 2 − cos 2 − cos 2 ⎥ = 2 ⎢ cos 2 − cos 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ 2⎣ ⎡ ⎧ 5 x 15 x ⎫ ⎧ 5 x 15 x ⎫⎤ ⎢ ⎪ + 2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 − 2 ⎪⎥ 1 −2sin ⎨ 2 ⎢ ⎬ sin ⎨ ⎬⎥ = 2⎢ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎥ ⎢ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5x ⎛ 5x ⎞ = − sin 5x sin ⎜ − ⎟ = sin 5x sin = R.S.

9 16 = 25 16 sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x = 1 + cos2 x = 16 25 or cos x = – 4 5 (Why?) 2 sin 2 sin2 sin x 2 x 2 x 4 9 = 1 – cos x = 1 + = . cos x is negative. y = tan is positve. 2 2 4 is positive and cos x 2 is negative. Hence 8 8 tan π = 2 −1 . sin Now Therefore Now Therefore or Again Therefore x 2 3π . π < x < .80 MATHEMATICS or Therefore Since y2 + 2y – 1 = 0 y= −2 ± 2 2 2 = − 1± 2 π π lies in the first quadrant. find the value of sin . 2 π x 3π < < . cos and tan . 5 5 2 = 9 10 = x 2 3 10 (Why?) 4 5 = 1 5 2cos2 cos2 = 1+ cos x = 1 − = 1 10 x 2 . 8 x x x 3 3π Example 28 If tan x = . 4 2 2 2 2 Solution Since π < x < Also Therefore.

= 1 + cos 2 x + 2 = = 2π ⎞ 2π ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 1 + cos ⎜ 2 x + 1 + cos ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 3 ⎟ 3 ⎠ . 2 cos π 9π 3π 5π cos + cos + cos =0 13 13 13 13 (sin 3x + sin x) sin x + (cos 3x – cos x) cos x = 0 .S. 2 2 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 3 Prove that: 1.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 81 or cos x 2 x 2 =− sin 1 10 x 2 = x 2 (Why?) ⎛ − 10 ⎞ ×⎜ ⎟ = – 3. 2. 3⎠ 3⎠ 2 ⎝ ⎝ We have L.H.S.H. ⎝ ⎠+ ⎝ 2 2 1⎡ 2π ⎞ 2π ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ⎛ ⎢ 3 + cos 2 x + cos ⎜ 2 x + 3 ⎟ + cos ⎜ 2 x − 3 ⎟ ⎥ 2⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ 1⎡ 2π ⎤ ⎢3 + cos 2 x + 2cos 2 x cos 3 ⎥ 2⎣ ⎦ 1⎡ π ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎢3 + cos 2 x + 2cos 2 x cos ⎜ π − 3 ⎟ ⎥ 2⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ = = = 1⎡ π⎤ ⎢3 + cos 2 x − 2cos 2 x cos 3 ⎥ 2⎣ ⎦ 1 3 [3 + cos 2x − cos 2 x ] = = R. 10 ⎝ 1 ⎠ 3 Hence tan = cos Example 29 Solution π⎞ π⎞ 3 ⎛ ⎛ Prove that cos2 x + cos2 ⎜ x + ⎟ + cos 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ = .

82 MATHEMATICS 3. (cos x – cos y)2 + (sin x – sin y)2 = 4 sin2 x+ y 2 x− y 2 5. an arc of length l subtends and angle of θ radians. cos x = − . cos x 2 and tan x 2 in each of the following : 1 9. then l=rθ Radian measure = Degree measure = cos2 x + sin2 x = 1 1 + tan2 x = sec2 x 1 + cot2 x = cosec2 x cos (2nπ + x) = cos x sin (2nπ + x) = sin x sin (– x) = – sin x cos (– x) = cos x π × Degree measure 180 180 × Radian measure π . sin x + sin 3x + sin 5x + sin 7x = 4 cos x cos 2x sin 4x 6. sin 3x + sin 2x – sin x = 4sin x cos Find sin x 2 cos 3x 2 . tan x = − . x in quadrant II 4 Summary If in a circle of radius r. (cos x + cos y)2 + (sin x – sin y)2 = 4 cos2 4. sin x = 1 . x in quadrant II 3 10. (sin 7 x + sin 5 x ) + (sin 9 x + sin 3 x) = tan 6 x (cos 7 x + cos 5 x ) + (cos 9 x + cos 3 x ) x 2 7. x in quadrant III 3 4 8.

y and (x ± y) is an odd multiple of tan (x + y) = tan (x – y) = π . then cot (x + y) = cot x cot y − 1 cot y + cot x cot x cot y + 1 cot (x – y) = cot y − cot x cos 2x = cos x – sin x = 2cos x – 1 = 1 – 2 sin x = 2 2 2 2 1 – tan 2 x 1 + tan 2 x .TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 83 cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y cos (x – y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y cos ( sin ( π − x ) = sin x 2 π − x ) = cos x 2 sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y sin (x – y) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y ⎛π ⎞ cos ⎜ + x ⎟ = – sin x ⎝2 ⎠ cos (π – x) = – cos x cos (π + x) = – cos x cos (2π – x) = cos x ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ + x ⎟ = cos x ⎝2 ⎠ sin (π – x) = sin x sin (π + x) = – sin x sin (2π – x) = – sin x If none of the angles x. then 2 tan x + tan y 1 − tan x tan y tan x − tan y 1 + tan x tan y If none of the angles x. y and (x ± y) is a multiple of π.

where n ∈ Z. . implies x = 2nπ ± y. where n ∈ Z. where n ∈ Z. where n ∈ Z. where n ∈ Z. cos x = 0 gives x = (2n + 1) π . 2 sin x = sin y implies x = nπ + (– 1)n y. tan x = tan y implies x = nπ + y. cos x = cos y.84 MATHEMATICS sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x = 2tanx 1 − tan 2 x 2 tan x 1 + tan 2 x tan 2x = sin 3x = 3sin x – 4sin3 x cos 3x = 4cos3 x – 3cos x 3tan x − tan 3 x tan 3x = 1− 3tan 2 x (i) cos x + cos y = 2cos (ii) cos x – cos y = – 2sin (iii) sin x + sin y = 2 sin (iv) sin x – sin y = 2cos x+ y x− y cos 2 2 x+ y x− y sin 2 2 x+ y x− y cos 2 2 x+ y x− y sin 2 2 (i) 2cos x cos y = cos ( x + y) + cos ( x – y) (ii) – 2sin x sin y = cos (x + y) – cos (x – y) (iii) 2sin x cos y = sin (x + y) + sin (x – y) (iv) 2 cos x sin y = sin (x + y) – sin (x – y). sin x = 0 gives x = nπ.

Aryabhatta (476A.W. 72°. etc. and comparing the ratios: H h = = tan (sun’s altitude) S s Thales is also said to have calculated the distance of a ship at sea through the proportionality of sides of similar triangles. 54°.) gave formulae to find the values of sine functions for angles more than 90°. Brahmagupta (598 A. etc. 36°.D.) got important results.D. and the introduction of the sine function represents the main contribution of the siddhantas (Sanskrit astronomical works) to the history of mathematics.. it was immediately adopted throughout the world.) is invariably associated with height and distance problems. arc cos x. Problems on height and distance using the similarity property are also found in ancient Indian works. The ancient Indian Mathematicians. etc.D.) The names of Thales (about 600 B. The Greeks had also started the study of trigonometry but their approach was so clumsy that when the Indian approach became known. Bhaskara I (600 A.).D. known as the sine of an angle. All this knowledge first went from India to middle-east and from there to Europe.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 85 Historical Note The study of trigonometry was first started in India.D.C. In India. Exact expressin for sines or cosines of 18°..D. for arc sin x. — — . the predecessor of the modern trigonometric functions. cos–1 x.. were suggested by the astronomer Sir John F.) and Bhaskara II (1114 A. are given by Bhaskara II. Bhaskara I (about 600 A. Hersehel (1813 A.). He is credited with the determination of the height of a great pyramid in Egypt by measuring shadows of the pyramid and an auxiliary staff (or gnomon) of known height. A sixteenth century Malayalam work Yuktibhasa (period) contains a proof for the expansion of sin (A + B). The symbols sin–1 x.

Chapter

4

PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
Analysis and natural philosopy owe their most important discoveries to this fruitful means, which is called induction. Newton was indebted to it for his theorem of the binomial and the principle of universal gravity. – LAPLACE

4.1 Introduction
One key basis for mathematical thinking is deductive reasoning. An informal, and example of deductive reasoning, borrowed from the study of logic, is an argument expressed in three statements: (a) Socrates is a man. (b) All men are mortal, therefore, (c) Socrates is mortal. If statements (a) and (b) are true, then the truth of (c) is established. To make this simple mathematical example, we could write: (i) Eight is divisible by two. G . Peano (ii) Any number divisible by two is an even number, (1858-1932) therefore, (iii) Eight is an even number. Thus, deduction in a nutshell is given a statement to be proven, often called a conjecture or a theorem in mathematics, valid deductive steps are derived and a proof may or may not be established, i.e., deduction is the application of a general case to a particular case. In contrast to deduction, inductive reasoning depends on working with each case, and developing a conjecture by observing incidences till we have observed each and every case. It is frequently used in mathematics and is a key aspect of scientific reasoning, where collecting and analysing data is the norm. Thus, in simple language, we can say the word induction means the generalisation from particular cases or facts.

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87

In algebra or in other discipline of mathematics, there are certain results or statements that are formulated in terms of n, where n is a positive integer. To prove such statements the well-suited principle that is used–based on the specific technique, is known as the principle of mathematical induction.

4.2 Motivation
In mathematics, we use a form of complete induction called mathematical induction. To understand the basic principles of mathematical induction, suppose a set of thin rectangular tiles are placed on one end, as shown in Fig 4.1.

Fig 4.1

When the first tile is pushed in the indicated direction, all the tiles will fall. To be absolutely sure that all the tiles will fall, it is sufficient to know that (a) The first tile falls, and (b) In the event that any tile falls its successor necessarily falls. This is the underlying principle of mathematical induction. We know, the set of natural numbers N is a special ordered subset of the real numbers. In fact, N is the smallest subset of R with the following property: A set S is said to be an inductive set if 1∈ S and x + 1 ∈ S whenever x ∈ S. Since N is the smallest subset of R which is an inductive set, it follows that any subset of R that is an inductive set must contain N. Illustration Suppose we wish to find the formula for the sum of positive integers 1, 2, 3,...,n, that is, a formula which will give the value of 1 + 2 + 3 when n = 3, the value 1 + 2 + 3 + 4, when n = 4 and so on and suppose that in some manner we are led to believe that the formula 1 + 2 + 3+...+ n =

n ( n + 1) is the correct one. 2

How can this formula actually be proved? We can, of course, verify the statement for as many positive integral values of n as we like, but this process will not prove the formula for all values of n. What is needed is some kind of chain reaction which will

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MATHEMATICS

have the effect that once the formula is proved for a particular positive integer the formula will automatically follow for the next positive integer and the next indefinitely. Such a reaction may be considered as produced by the method of mathematical induction.

4.3 The Principle of Mathematical Induction
Suppose there is a given statement P(n) involving the natural number n such that (i) The statement is true for n = 1, i.e., P(1) is true, and (ii) If the statement is true for n = k (where k is some positive integer), then the statement is also true for n = k + 1, i.e., truth of P(k) implies the truth of P (k + 1). Then, P(n) is true for all natural numbers n. Property (i) is simply a statement of fact. There may be situations when a statement is true for all n ≥ 4. In this case, step 1 will start from n = 4 and we shall verify the result for n = 4, i.e., P(4). Property (ii) is a conditional property. It does not assert that the given statement is true for n = k, but only that if it is true for n = k, then it is also true for n = k +1. So, to prove that the property holds , only prove that conditional proposition: If the statement is true for n = k, then it is also true for n = k + 1. This is sometimes referred to as the inductive step. The assumption that the given statement is true for n = k in this inductive step is called the inductive hypothesis. For example, frequently in mathematics, a formula will be discovered that appears to fit a pattern like 1 = 12 =1 4 = 22 = 1 + 3 9 = 32 = 1 + 3 + 5 16 = 42 = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7, etc. It is worth to be noted that the sum of the first two odd natural numbers is the square of second natural number, sum of the first three odd natural numbers is the square of third natural number and so on.Thus, from this pattern it appears that 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + ... + (2n – 1) = n2 , i.e, the sum of the first n odd natural numbers is the square of n. Let us write P(n): 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + ... + (2n – 1) = n2. We wish to prove that P(n) is true for all n. The first step in a proof that uses mathematical induction is to prove that P (1) is true. This step is called the basic step. Obviously 1 = 12, i.e., P(1) is true. The next step is called the inductive step. Here, we suppose that P (k) is true for some

PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

89

positive integer k and we need to prove that P (k + 1) is true. Since P (k) is true, we have 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + ... + (2k – 1) = k2 ... (1) Consider 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + ... + (2k – 1) + {2(k +1) – 1} ... (2) = k2 + (2k + 1) = (k + 1)2 [Using (1)] Therefore, P (k + 1) is true and the inductive proof is now completed. Hence P(n) is true for all natural numbers n. Example 1 For all n ≥ 1, prove that 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 +…+ n2 =

n (n + 1)(2 n + 1) . 6
n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 6

Solution Let the given statement be P(n), i.e., P(n) : 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 +…+ n2 = For n = 1, P(1): 1 =

1(1 + 1) (2 × 1 + 1) 1× 2× 3 =1 which is true. = 6 6 Assume that P(k) is true for some positive integers k, i.e.,

k (k + 1)(2k + 1) 6 We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is also true. Now, we have (12 +22 +32 +42 +…+k2 ) + (k + 1) 2
12 + 22 + 32 + 42 +…+ k2 = =

... (1)

k (k + 1)(2k + 1) + ( k + 1)2 6
k (k + 1) (2k + 1) + 6(k + 1)2 6

[Using (1)]

=

(k + 1) (2k 2 + 7 k + 6) = 6

(k + 1)( k + 1 + 1){2( k + 1) + 1} 6 Thus P(k + 1) is true, whenever P (k) is true. Hence, from the principle of mathematical induction, the statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers N.
=

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Example 2 Prove that 2n > n for all positive integers n. Solution Let P(n): 2n > n When n =1, 21 >1. Hence P(1) is true. Assume that P(k) is true for any positive integers k, i.e., 2k > k We shall now prove that P(k +1) is true whenever P(k) is true. Multiplying both sides of (1) by 2, we get 2. 2k > 2k i.e., 2
k+1

... (1)

> 2k = k + k > k + 1

Therefore, P(k + 1) is true when P(k) is true. Hence, by principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for every positive integer n. Example 3 For all n ≥ 1, prove that

1 1 1 1 n + + + ... + = 1.2 2.3 3.4 n(n + 1) n + 1 .
Solution We can write P(n):

1 1 1 1 n + + + ... + = 1.2 2.3 3.4 n( n + 1) n + 1 1 1 1 = = , which is true. Thus, P(n) is true for n = 1. 1.2 2 1 +1

We note that P(1):

Assume that P(k) is true for some natural numbers k, i.e.,

1 1 1 1 k + + + ... + = 1.2 2.3 3.4 k ( k + 1) k + 1
1 1 1 1 1 + + + ... + + 1.2 2.3 3.4 k (k + 1) ( k + 1) (k + 2)
⎡ 1 1 1 1 ⎤ 1 + + ... + = ⎢ + ⎥+ k ( k + 1) ⎦ ( k + 1) ( k + 2) ⎣ 1.2 2.3 3.4

... (1)

We need to prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. We have

=

k 1 + k + 1 (k + 1)( k + 2)

[Using (1)]

PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

91

(k 2 + 2 k + 1) k +1 k +1 k (k + 2) + 1 ( k + 1)2 = = = = = (k + 1) ( k + 2) (k + 1)(k + 2) ( k + 1) ( k + 2 ) k + 2 ( k + 1) + 1

Thus P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all natural numbers. Example 4 For every positive integer n, prove that 7n – 3n is divisible by 4. Solution We can write P(n) : 7n – 3n is divisible by 4. We note that P(1): 71 – 31 = 4 which is divisile by 4. Thus P(n) is true for n = 1 Let P(k) be true for some natural number k, i.e., P(k) : 7k – 3k is divisible by 4. We can write 7k – 3k = 4d, where d ∈ N. Now, we wish to prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. Now 7(k + 1) – 3(k + 1) = 7(k + 1) – 7.3k + 7.3k – 3(k + 1) = 7(7k – 3k) + (7 – 3)3k = 7(4d) + (7 – 3)3k = 7(4d) + 4.3k = 4(7d + 3k) From the last line, we see that 7(k + 1) – 3(k + 1) is divisible by 4. Thus, P(k + 1) is true when P(k) is true. Therefore, by princlple of mathematical induction the statement is true for every positive integer n. Example 5 Prove that (1 + x)n ≥ (1 + nx), for all natural number n, where x > – 1. Solution Let P(n) be the given statement, i.e., P(n): (1 + x)n ≥ (1 + nx), for x > – 1. We note that P(n) is true when n = 1, since ( 1+x) ≥ (1 + x) for x > –1 Assume that P(k): (1 + x)k ≥ (1 + kx), x > – 1 is true. We want to prove that P(k + 1) is true for x > –1 whenever P(k) is true. Consider the identity (1 + x)k + 1 = (1 + x)k (1 + x) Given that x > –1, so (1+x) > 0. Therefore , by using (1 + x)k ≥ (1 + kx), we have (1 + x) k + 1 ≥ (1 + kx)(1 + x) i.e. (1 + x)k + 1 ≥ (1 + x + kx + kx2).

... (1) ... (2)

... (3)

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MATHEMATICS

Here k is a natural number and x2 ≥ 0 so that kx2 ≥ 0. Therefore (1 + x + kx + kx2) ≥ (1 + x + kx), and so we obtain (1 + x)k + 1 ≥ (1 + x + kx) i.e. (1 + x)k + 1 ≥ [1 + (1 + k)x] Thus, the statement in (2) is established. Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all natural numbers. Example 6 Prove that 2.7n + 3.5n – 5 is divisible by 24, for all n ∈ N. Solution Let the statement P(n) be defined as P(n) : 2.7n + 3.5n – 5 is divisible by 24. We note that P(n) is true for n = 1, since 2.7 + 3.5 – 5 = 24, which is divisible by 24. Assume that P(k) is true i.e. 2.7k + 3.5k – 5 = 24q, when q ∈ N ... (1)

Now, we wish to prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. We have 2.7k+1 + 3.5k+1 – 5 = 2.7k . 71 + 3.5k . 51 – 5 = 7 [2.7k + 3.5k – 5 – 3.5k + 5] + 3.5k . 5 – 5 = 7 [24q – 3.5k + 5] + 15.5k –5 = 7 × 24q – 21.5k + 35 + 15.5k – 5 = 7 × 24q – 6.5k + 30 = 7 × 24q – 6 (5k – 5) = 7 × 24q – 6 (4p) [(5k – 5) is a multiple of 4 (why?)] = 7 × 24q – 24p = 24 (7q – p) = 24 × r; r = 7q – p, is some natural number. ... (2)

The expresion on the R.H.S. of (1) is divisible by 24. Thus P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. Hence, by principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all n ∈ N.

PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

93

Example 7 Prove that
n3 ,n∈N 3 Solution Let P(n) be the given statement.

12 + 22 + ... + n2 >

i.e., P(n) : 12 + 22 + ... + n2 >

n3 , n∈N 3

2 We note that P(n) is true for n = 1 since 1 >

13 3

Assume that P(k) is true i.e. P(k) : 12 + 22 + ... + k2 >

k3 3

...(1)

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. We have 12 + 22 + 32 + ... + k2 + (k + 1)2
= 12 + 22 + ... + k 2 + ( k + 1) >
2

(

)

k3 2 + ( k + 1) 3

[by (1)]

= =

1 3 [k + 3k2 + 6k + 3] 3

1 1 [(k + 1)3 + 3k + 2] > (k + 1)3 3 3

Therefore, P(k + 1) is also true whenever P(k) is true. Hence, by mathematical induction P(n) is true for all n ∈ N. Example 8 Prove the rule of exponents (ab)n = anbn by using principle of mathematical induction for every natural number. Solution Let P(n) be the given statement i.e. P(n) : (ab)n = anbn. We note that P(n) is true for n = 1 since (ab)1 = a1b1. Let P(k) be true, i.e., (ab)k = akbk We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. Now, we have (ab)k + 1 = (ab)k (ab)

... (1)

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MATHEMATICS

= (ak bk) (ab) = (ak . a1) (bk . b1) = ak+1 . bk+1

[by (1)]

Therefore, P(k + 1) is also true whenever P(k) is true. Hence, by principle of mathematical induction, P(n) is true for all n ∈ N. EXERCISE 4.1 Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all n ∈ N: 1. 1 + 3 + 32 + ... + 3n – 1 =
(3n − 1) . 2
2

⎛ n(n + 1) ⎞ 2. 1 + 2 + 3 + … +n = ⎜ ⎟ . ⎝ 2 ⎠
3 3 3 3

1 1 1 2n 3. 1+ (1 + 2) + (1 + 2 + 3) + ...+ (1 + 2 + 3 + ...n) = (n + 1) .
4. 1.2.3 + 2.3.4 +…+ n(n+1) (n+2) = 5. 1.3 + 2.32 + 3.33 +…+ n.3n =

n( n + 1) (n + 2) ( n + 3) . 4

(2n − 1)3n +1 + 3 . 4

⎡ n( n + 1) (n + 2) ⎤ 6. 1.2 + 2.3 + 3.4 +…+ n.(n+1) = ⎢ ⎥. 3 ⎣ ⎦
n(4n 2 + 6n − 1) . 3 8. 1.2 + 2.22 + 3.22 + ...+n.2n = (n–1) 2n + 1 + 2.

7. 1.3 + 3.5 + 5.7 +…+ (2n–1) (2n+1) =

9.

1 1 1 1 1 + + + ... + n = 1 − n . 2 4 8 2 2

10.

1 1 1 1 n + + + ... + = 2.5 5.8 8.11 (3n − 1)(3n + 2) (6n + 4) .
1 1 1 1 n(n + 3) + + + ... + = 1.2.3 2.3.4 3.4.5 n( n + 1) ( n + 2) 4( n + 1) ( n + 2) .

11.

PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 95 12. ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ . (2n + 7) < (n + 3)2. 3 1 1 1 1 n 16. 22.7 + 7. 12 + 32 + 52 + …+ (2n–1)2 = n(2n − 1)(2n + 1) . r −1 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ 13. n2 ⎠ ⎝ 9⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 14.9 (2n + 1)(2n + 3) 3(2n + 3) . In contrast to deduction. a + ar + ar2 +…+ arn-1 = a (r n − 1) . n (n + 1) (n + 5) is a multiple of 3..5 5. Summary One key basis for mathematical thinking is deductive reasoning.⎜ 1 + ⎟ = ( n + 1) . 21. in simple language we can say the word ‘induction’ means the generalisation from particular cases or facts. for which the correctness . Thus. x2n – y2n is divisible by x + y..10 + . 1 1 1 1 n + + + . 20.. 18. Each such statement is assumed as P(n) associated with positive integer n.. 24. 32n+2 – 8n – 9 is divisible by 8. ⎝ 1⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ n ⎠ 15. 23. 1. + (3n − 2)(3n + 1) = (3n + 1) . The principle of mathematical induction is one such tool which can be used to prove a wide variety of mathematical statements.... ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ ⎛ 7 ⎞ ⎛ (2n + 1) ⎞ 2 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ .7 7. 1 + 2 + 3 +…+ n < 1 (2n + 1)2.⎜ 1 + ⎟ = (n + 1) . 17. 41n – 14n is a multiple of 27. inductive reasoning depends on working with different cases and developing a conjective by observing incidences till we have observed each and every case.. 8 19.4 + 4. 102n – 1 + 1 is divisible by 11. + = 3.

Then assuming the truth of P(k) for some positive integer k. G. the truth of P (k+1) is established. De Morgan contributed many accomplishments in the field of mathematics on many different subjects. He was the first person to define and name “mathematical induction” and developed De Morgan’s rule to determine the convergence of a mathematical series. proof by mathematical induction is not the invention of a particular individual at a fixed moment. The name induction was used by the English mathematician John Wallis. Later the principle was employed to provide a proof of the binomial theorem. Peano undertook the task of deducing the properties of natural numbers from a set of explicitly stated assumptions. — — .96 MATHEMATICS for the case n = 1 is examined.The principle of mathematical induction is a restatement of one of the Peano’s axioms. The French mathematician Blaise Pascal is credited with the origin of the principle of mathematical induction. It is said that the principle of mathematical induction was known by the Phythagoreans. Historical Note Unlike other concepts and methods. now known as Peano’s axioms.

This means that i is a solution of the equation x2 + 1 = 0. denoted by Re z and b is called the imaginary part denoted by Im z of the complex number z. 2 + i3. 5. – GAUSS 5. is defined to be a ⎛ −1 ⎞ complex number. we have studied linear equations in one and two variables and quadratic equations in one variable. if z = 2 + i5. ⎝ 11 ⎠ For the complex number z = a + ib. we have i = −1 . In fact.2 Complex Numbers 2 W. the main objective is to solve the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. a is called the real part. (– 1) + i 3 . we need to extend the real number system to a larger system so that we can find the solution of the equation x2 = – 1. Then. R. So.Chapter 5 COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Mathematics is the Queen of Sciences and Arithmetic is the Queen of Mathematics. which is not possible in the system of real numbers. For example. For example. then Re z = 2 and Im z = 5. We have seen that the equation x2 + 1 = 0 has no real solution as x2 + 1 = 0 gives x2 = – 1 and square of every real number is non-negative. 4 + i ⎜ ⎟ are complex numbers. where D = b2 – 4ac < 0. where a and b are real numbers. Two complex numbers z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id are equal if a = c and b = d.1 Introduction In earlier classes. Hamilton (1805-1865) Let us denote −1 by the symbol i. A number of the form a + ib. .

. called the additive identity or the zero complex number. 5. (2 + i3) + (– 6 +i5) = (2 – 6) + i (3 + 5) = – 4 + i 8 The addition of complex numbers satisfy the following properties: (i) The closure law The sum of two complex numbers is a complex number. on solving simultaneously. We observe that z + (–z) = 0 (the additive identity). 5. the difference z1 – z2 is defined as follows: z1 – z2 = z1 + (– z2). we have the complex number – a + i(– b) (denoted as – z).3 Algebra of Complex Numbers In this Section.e. (ii) The commutative law For any two complex numbers z 1 and z 2 . z1 + z2 is a complex number for all complex numbers z1 and z2.. (1) 3 33 and y = .. z 3 . where x and y are real numbers. we shall develop the algebra of complex numbers.2 Difference of two complex numbers Given any two complex numbers z1 and z2. z 1 + z 2 = z 2 + z1 (iii) The associative law For any three complex numbers z 1. give x = . Then.98 MATHEMATICS Example 1 If 4x + i(3x – y) = 3 + i (– 6). called the additive inverse or negative of z. 4 4 5. then find the values of x and y. (v) The existence of additive inverse To every complex number z = a + ib. the sum z1 + z2 is defined as follows: z1 + z2 = (a + c) + i (b + d).1 Addition of two complex numbers Let z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id be any two complex numbers. (6 + 3i) – (2 – i) = (6 + 3i) + (– 2 + i ) = 4 + 4i and (2 – i) – (6 + 3i) = (2 – i) + ( – 6 – 3i) = – 4 – 4i .3. i. (iv) The existence of additive identity There exists the complex number 0 + i 0 (denoted as 0). which is again a complex number. z 2. (z1 + z2) + z3 = z1 + (z2 + z3). such that. For example. For example. for every complex number z. Solution We have 4x + i (3x – y) = 3 + i (–6) Equating the real and the imaginary parts of (1). which. we get 4x = 3.3. 3x – y = – 6. z + 0 = z.

z3. called the multiplicative inverse 2 2 (denoted by a +b a +b z of z such that 2 1 z. (i) The closure law The product of two complex numbers is a complex number. we have the complex number a –b 1 +i 2 or z–1 ). the product z1 z2 is defined as follows: z1 z2 = (ac – bd) + i(ad + bc) For example. z2. z (vi) The distributive law For any three complex numbers z1. the product z1 z2 is a complex number for all complex numbers z1 and z2. b ≠ 0). Then. (iv) The existence of multiplicative identity There exists the complex number 1 + i 0 (denoted as 1). for every complex number z. (ii) The commutative law For any two complex numbers z1 and z2. (iii) The associative law For any three complex numbers z 1 .3.3. z 3 . which we state without proofs. called the multiplicative identity such that z.3 Multiplication of two complex numbers Let z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id be any two complex numbers. = 1 (the multiplicative identity).4 Division of two complex numbers Given any two complex numbers z1 and z2. z 2 . (a) z1 (z2 + z3) = z1 z2 + z1 z3 (b) (z1 + z2) z3 = z1 z3 + z2 z3 5. (z1 z2) z3 = z1 (z2 z3). let Then z1 = 6 + 3i and z2 = 2 – i z1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ⎜ (6 + 3i) × ⎟ = 6 + 3i ) 2−i⎠ ( z2 ⎝ ⎛ − ( −1) ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ +i 2 2 2 ⎜ 22 + ( −1) 2 + ( −1) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ . (3 + i5) (2 + i6) = (3 × 2 – 5 × 6) + i(3 × 6 + 5 × 2) = – 24 + i28 The multiplication of complex numbers possesses the following properties. (v) The existence of multiplicative inverse For every non-zero complex number z = a + ib or a + bi(a ≠ 0. z1 z2 = z2 z1 . the quotient z is defined by 2 z1 1 = z1 z2 z2 z1 For example.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 99 5. where z2 ≠ 0 .1 = z.

However. for any integer k. the symbol i2 = – 3 3 i and − 3 i . by the symbol − . What if a < 0. 2 i6 = i2 ( ) 3 = ( − 1) = −1 . Now. i =–i 5. Generally. This result also holds true when either a > 0. the square roots of – 1 are i.100 MATHEMATICS ⎛ 2+i ⎞ 1 1 = ( 6 + 3i ) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎡12 − 3 + i ( 6 + 6 ) ⎤ = ( 9 + 12i ) ⎣ ⎦ 5 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 5 5. we can see that i and –i both are the solutions of the equation x2 + 1 = 0 or 2 x = –1. – i. 3i . i = –1.6 The square roots of a negative real number Note that i2 = –1 and ( – i)2 = i2 = – 1 Therefore. a −1 = −3 is meant to represent −a = −3 = a i. the square roots of –3 are Again. b > 0. i5 = i 2 i4 = i2 ( ) 2 = ( −1) = 1 2 ( ) 2 i = ( −1) i = i .5 Power of i we know that i 3 = i 2 i = ( −1) i = −i . etc. i −4 = 4 = = 1 3 1 −i i 1 i i 4k 4k + 1 4k + 2 4k + 3 In general. 2 −1 i 1 1 i i 1 1 = × = = i. 3 Also. 3 i only. i. if a is a positive real number. Similarly ( 3 i) = ( 3) 2 2 2 i2 = 3 (– 1) = – 3 2 ( − 3 i) = (− 3 ) Therefore. i i −1 i −3 = i− 2 = 1 1 = = − 1. Note that .3. we would mean i only. b < 0 or a < 0.3.. i = 1. we have 1 i i i −1 = × = = − i. b < 0? Let us examine. i = i.e. We already know that a × b = ab for all positive real number a and b.

Proof We have. can be proved to be true for all complex numbers. 5.3. which is a contradiction to the fact that i = − . if any of a and b is zero. Therefore.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 101 i 2 = −1 −1 = ( −1) ( −1) (by assuming a× b = ab for all real numbers) = 1 = 1. then. a × b ≠ ab if both a and b are negative real numbers. a × b = ab = 0. Example 2 Express the following in the form of a + bi: ⎛1 ⎞ (i) ( −5i ) ⎜ i ⎟ ⎝8 ⎠ Solution (i) (ii) ( −i ) ( 2i ) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜− i⎟ ⎝ 8 ⎠ 3 ( −5i ) ⎛ ⎜ 1 ⎞ −5 2 −5 5 5 i⎟ = i = ( −1) = = + i0 8 8 8 8 ⎝8 ⎠ 3 1 1 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ × i5 = i (ii) ( −i ) ( 2i ) ⎜ − i ⎟ = 2 × 8× 8×8 256 ⎝ 8 ⎠ ( ) 2 i= 1 i.7 Identities We prove the following identity ( z1 + z2 ) 2 2 2 = z1 + z2 + 2 z1 z2 . 256 . we can prove the following identities: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) ( z1 − z2 ) ( z1 − z2 ) 2 3 2 = z12 − 2 z1 z2 + z2 3 2 3 = z1 + 3 z12 z2 + 3z1 z2 + z2 3 2 3 = z1 − 3z12 z2 + 3 z1 z2 − z2 ( z1 + z2 ) 3 2 z12 – z 2 = ( z1 + z 2 ) ( z1 – z 2 ) In fact. (z1 + z2)2 = (z1 + z2) (z1 + z2). = (z1 + z2) z1 + (z1 + z2) z2 = z12 + z2 z1 + z1 z2 + 2 z2 2 = z12 + z2 z1 + z1 z2 + z2 2 = z12 + 2 z1 z2 + z2 (Distributive law) (Distributive law) (Commutative law of multiplicatoin) Similarly. for all complex numbers z1 and z2. many other identities which are true for all real numbers. clearly. Further.

Then. i. and 3 + i = 32 + 12 = 10 ..e. 3 + i = 3 − i .. we have (i) z1 z2 = z1 z2 (ii) z z1 = 1 provided z ≠ 0 2 z2 z2 ⎛ z1 ⎞ z1 z1 ± z2 = z1 ± z2 (v) ⎜ z ⎟ = z provided z2 ≠ 0. (5 – 3i)3 = 53 – 3 × 52 × (3i) + 3 × 5 (3i)2 – (3i)3 = 125 – 225i – 135 + 27i = – 10 – 198i.4 The Modulus and the Conjugate of a Complex Number Let z = a + ib be a complex number.102 MATHEMATICS Example 3 Express (5 – 3i)3 in the form a + ib. − 3 + −2 ( )( ) ( ) (2 3 −i = −6 + 3i + 2 6i − ) = (− 3 + 2 i) (2 3 − i ) 2 i = ( −6 + 2 ) + 3 (1 + 2 2 ) i 2 5. Example 4 Express − 3 + −2 2 3 − i in the form of a + ib Solution We have. denoted by | z |. −3i − 5 = 3i – 5 Observe that the multiplicative inverse of the non-zero complex number z is given by z–1 = or −b a a − ib 1 +i 2 = 2 = 2 2 = a +b a +b a 2 + b2 a + ib 2 z z 2 z z= z Furthermore. 2 − 5 i = 2 + 5 i . the modulus of z. the following results can easily be derived. Solution We have. of z. For example. denoted as z . is defined to be the non-negative real number a 2 + b 2 . is the complex number a – ib. i.e. For any two compex numbers z1 and z2 . 2 ⎝ 2⎠ (iii) z1 z2 = z1 z2 (iv) . z = a – ib. | z | = a 2 + b 2 and the conjugate 2 − 5i = 22 + ( − 5)2 = 29 .

COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 103 Example 5 Find the multiplicative inverse of 2 – 3i. 1+ 2 3 1 i 35 = 1 (i ) 2 17 = i i 1 i × = 2 =i −i −i i EXERCISE 5. 1. ( 5i ) ⎛ − ⎜ 3 ⎞ i⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ 2. Solution Then Let z = 2 – 3i 2 z = 2 + 3i and z = 22 + ( − 3) 2 = 13 Therefore. i − . i + i 3. the multiplicative inverse of 2 − 3i is given by z–1 = z z 2 = 2 + 3i 2 3 = + i 13 13 13 The above working can be reproduced in the following manner also. = 5 + 5 2i + 2i − 2 1− ( 2i ) 2 = −35 (ii) i = 3 + 6 2i 3(1 + 2 2i ) = = 1 + 2 2i . z–1 = 1 2 + 3i = 2 − 3i (2 − 3i )(2 + 3i) = 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 3 = = + i 2 13 13 13 2 − (3i) 2 Example 6 Express the following in the form a + ib (i) 5 + 2i 1 − 2i 5 + 2i 1 − 2i = (ii) i–35 5 + 2i 1 + 2i × 1 − 2i 1 + 2i Solution (i) We have.1 Express each of the complex number given in the Exercises 1 to 10 in the form a + ib.

E. (1 – i) – ( –1 + i6) 7. have been represented geometrically by the points A. 3(7 + i7) + i (7 + i7) 6. C. ⎜ + 3i ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 10. – 2). The plane having a complex number assigned to each of its point is called the complex plane or the Argand plane. .1. D. 3).1 1 – 2i which correspond to the ordered pairs (2. 0). Express the following expression in the form of a + ib : 12. 11. Some complex numbers such as 2 + 4i. ( –5.104 MATHEMATICS 4. (3 + i 5 ) (3 − i 5 ) ( 3 + 2 i) − ( 3 − i 2 ) 5.5 Argand Plane and Polar Representation We already know that corresponding to each ordered pair of real numbers (x. 4 – 3i 13. –2). ( – 2. y) in the XY-plane and vice-versa. 2 + 0i. respectively. 5. and (1. – 5 –2i and Fig 5. B. (2. (1 – i) ⎛1 ⎞ 9. y). respectively in the Fig 5. ⎡⎛ 1 7 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎢⎜ 3 + i 3 ⎟ + ⎜ 4 + i 3 ⎟ ⎥ − ⎜ − 3 + i ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣⎝ 3 5⎞ ⎛1 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ +i ⎟−⎜4+i ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝5 5⎠ ⎝ 4 8. – i 5 + 3i 14. – 2 + 3i. 1). 4). (0. and F. we get a unique point in the XYplane and vice-versa with reference to a set of mutually perpendicular lines known as the x-axis and the y-axis. y) can be represented geometrically as the unique point P(x. ⎜ −2 − i ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Find the multiplicative inverse of each of the complex numbers given in the Exercises 11 to 13. The complex number x + iy which corresponds to the ordered pair (x. 0 + 1i.

The x-axis and y-axis in the Argand plane are called. the real axis and the imaginary axis. respectively. y) and Q (x. the point (x. The representation of a complex number z = x + iy and its conjugate z = x – iy in the Argand plane are. Geometrically.3 .COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 105 Obviously. y) on the real axis (Fig 5. respectively. 0) (Fig 5.2 0 + i b. the points P (x. – y). – y) is the mirror image of the point (x. y) to the origin O (0. The points on the x-axis corresponds to the complex numbers of the form a + i 0 and the points on the y-axis corresponds to the complex numbers of the form Fig 5.3). the modulus of the complex number x + iy = x 2 + y 2 is the distance between the point P(x. in the Argand plane. Fig 5.2).

The latter is said to be the polar form of the complex number. θ). However.5.4). y = r sin θ and therefore. For any complex number z ≠ 0. for example – π < θ ≤ π.1 Polar representation of a complex number Let the point P represent the nonzero complex number z = x + iy.5 ( 0 ≤ θ < 2π ) Fig 5. x = r cos θ. can be such an interval.5 and 5.6) Fig 5.106 MATHEMATICS 5. We consider the origin as the pole and the positive Fig 5.6 (– π < θ ≤ π ) .We shall take the value of θ such that – π < θ ≤ π. Here r = x 2 + y 2 = z is the modus of z and θ is called the argument (or amplitude) of z which is denoted by arg z. called the polar coordinates of the point P. Let the directed line segment OP be of length r and θ be the angle which OP makes with the positive direction of x-axis (Fig 5. z = r (cos θ + i sin θ). 5.4 direction of the x axis as the initial line. (Figs. there corresponds only one value of θ in 0 ≤ θ < 2π. any other interval of length 2π. We have. called principal argument of z and is denoted by arg z. unless specified otherwise. We may note that the point P is uniquely determined by the ordered pair of real numbers (r.

r = 8 2 cos θ = − . r >0) cos θ = π 1 3 .COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 107 Example 7 Represent the complex number z = 1 + i 3 in the polar form. the required polar form is 8 ⎜ cos 3 3 ⎠ ⎝ . Example 8 Convert the complex number Solution The given complex number −16 1+ i 3 = −16 1 − i 3 × 1+ i 3 1− i 3 −16 1 − i 3 = 2 ( ) = −16 (1 − i 3 ) =− ( 1+ 3 1 − (i 3 ) 16 + 48 = r 2 cos 2θ + sin 2θ −i )=− +i (Fig 5. = r sin θ By squaring and adding.e. which gives θ = 2 2 Fig 5.8 θ=π– π 2π = 3 3 2π 2π ⎞ ⎛ + i sin ⎟ Thus. sin θ = Fig 5. Therefore. we get r 2 cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 4 ( ) i.e. sin θ = .. we get ( ) which gives Hence r = 64..8). r = = (conventionally. = r sin θ By squaring and adding.7 π π⎞ ⎛ Therefore. Let – 4 = r cos θ. required polar form is z = 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 3 3⎠ ⎝ The complex number z = + i −16 into polar form. 1+ i 3 is represented as shown in Fig 5. i.7. Solution Let 1 = r cos θ.

” As a consequence of this theorem.2 Find the modulus and the arguments of each of the complex numbers in Exercises 1 to 2. i. +i 8..e. z = – 1 – i 2. ≥ 0.108 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 5. Let us consider the following quadratic equation: ax 2 + bx + c = 0 with real coefficients a. the following result. “A polynomial equation has at least one root. which is of immense importance. some would be interested to know as to how many roots does an equation have? In this regard.” Example 9 Solve x2 + 2 = 0 Solution We have. b2 – 4ac = 12 – 4 × 1 × 1 = 1 – 4 = – 3 .e. Now. c and a ≠ 0. let us assume that the b2 – 4ac < 0. is arrived at: “A polynomial equation of degree n has n roots. – 1 – i 6. we know that we can find the square root of negative real numbers in the set of complex numbers. 1 – i 4. Also. the solutions to the above equation are available in the set of complex numbers which are given by x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac −b ± 4ac − b 2 i = 2a 2a Note At this point of time. Therefore. x = ± −2 = ± 2 i Example 10 Solve x2 + x + 1= 0 Solution Here. 1. x2 + 2 = 0 or x2 = – 2 i. the following theorem known as the Fundamental theorem of Algebra is stated below (without proof). – 3 7. i 5. – 1 + i 5. b.6 Quadratic Equations We are already familiar with the quadratic equations and have solved them in the set of real numbers in the cases where discriminant is non-negative. z = – +i Convert each of the complex numbers given in Exercises 3 to 8 in the polar form: 3..

conjugate of (3 − 2i ) (2 + 3i ) 63 16 is + i (1 + 2i) (2 − i ) 25 25 . x2 + 3x + 9 = 0 6. 9.3 Solve each of the following equations: 1. 2 x2 + x + 2 = 0 3. 2 5 2 5 EXERCISE 5. 10. x2 + 3 = 0 2. the solutions are given by x = Example 11 Solve −1 ± −3 −1 ± 3i = 2 ×1 2 5x2 + x + 5 = 0 Solution Here. – x2 + x – 2 = 0 5. x2 + 3x + 5 = 0 7.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 109 Therefore. . x2 – x + 2 = 0 8. the solutions are −1 ± −19 −1 ± 19i = . the discriminant of the equation is 12 − 4 × 5 × 5 = 1 – 20 = – 19 Therefore. = (3 − 2i ) (2 + 3i ) (1 + 2i) (2 − i ) 6 + 9i − 4i + 6 12 + 5i 4 − 3i × = 2 − i + 4i + 2 4 + 3i 4 − 3i 63 16 48 − 36i + 20i + 15 63 −16i − i = = 25 25 16 + 9 25 = Therefore. 2x2 + x + 1 = 0 4. 3x2 − 2 x + 3 3 = 0 x2 + x +1 = 0 2 x2 + x + 1 =0 2 Miscellaneous Examples Example 12 Find the conjugate of (3 − 2i) (2 + 3i ) (1 + 2i ) (2 − i ) . Solution We have .

2 1+ i 4 Hence. 1− i (ii) 1 1+ i Solution (i) We have. – = r sin θ 2 2 1 1 −1 . 1+ i 1 + i 1+ i 1 − 1+ 2i × = =i= 0 + i = 1 − i 1− i 1+ i 1+ 1 1 = r sin θ Now.110 MATHEMATICS Example 13 Find the modulus and argument of the complex numbers: (i) 1+ i . the modulus of (ii) We have Let 1 1− i 1− i 1 i = = = − 1 + i (1 + i) (1 − i) 1 + 1 2 2 1 1 = r cos θ. r = 1 i. let us put 0 = r cos θ.. prove that x + y = 1. we get r = Therefore θ = −π 4 1 1 −π is . a + ib 2 2 a − ib . the modulus of Example 14 If x + iy = Solution We have. 1− i 2 Hence.e. cosθ = . argument is . sin θ = 2 2 2 Proceeding as in part (i) above. sin θ = 1 Therefore. 2 Squaring and adding. r = 1 so that cos θ = 0. θ = π 2 1+ i π is 1 and the argument is . (a + ib) (a + ib) a 2 − b2 + 2abi a2 − b2 2ab x + iy = ( a − ib) ( a + ib) = = 2 2 + 2 2i 2 2 a +b a +b a +b .

2 . Therefore 8sinθ = 0. i. n ∈ Z.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 111 So that. i −1 π π in the polar form. sin θ = 0 1 + 4sin 2θ Thus θ = nπ. cos + i sin 3 3 Example 16 Convert the complex number z = Solution We have. 1− 2i sinθ Solution We have. x – iy = a 2 − b2 2ab − 2 2i 2 2 a +b a +b ( a 2 − b 2 )2 4a 2b 2 (a 2 + b 2 ) 2 + 2 2 2 = 2 2 2 =1 x + y = (x + iy) (x – iy) = (a 2 + b 2 ) 2 (a + b ) (a + b ) 2 2 Example 15 Find real θ such that 3 + 2i sinθ is purely real.. z = i −1 1 3 + i 2 2 = 2(i − 1) 1 − 3i 2 i + 3 − 1 + 3i × = = 1+ 3 1 + 3i 1 − 3i 3 +1 = r sin θ 2 ( ) 3 −1 + 2 3 +1 i 2 Now. put 3 −1 = r cosθ . 3 + 2i sinθ (3 + 2i sinθ) (1 + 2i sinθ) = (1 − 2i sinθ) (1 + 2i sinθ) 1 − 2i sinθ 3+ 6i sinθ + 2i sinθ – 4sin 2θ 3 − 4sin 2θ 8i sinθ + = = 1+ 4sin 2θ 1 + 4sin 2 θ 1 + 4sin 2θ We are given the complex number to be real. Therefore.e.

27 x 2 − 10 x + 1 = 0 . the polar form is 5π 5π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 12 12 ⎠ ⎝ Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 5 ⎡ 18 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 25 ⎤ 1. prove that Re (z1 z2) = Re z1 Re z2 – Imz1 Imz2. 2 6. If x − iy = 1 + 7i (i) (2 − i) 2 . x2 − 2 x + 3 =0 2 8. sinθ = 2 2 2 2 π π 5π (Why?) + = 4 6 12 Hence. ⎝i⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ 3 2. θ = cosθ = 3 −1 3 +1 . we obtain 2 2 ⎛ 3 −1⎞ ⎛ 3 +1⎞ 2⎛ ⎜ +⎜ r =⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ = ⎝ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ( 3) + 1⎞ ⎟ 2× 4 ⎠= =2 4 4 2 Hence. For any two complex numbers z1 and z2. Reduce ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ to the standard form . (ii) 1 + 3i 1 – 2i Solve each of the equation in Exercises 6 to 9. Convert the following in the polar form: 4.112 MATHEMATICS Squaring and adding. ⎝ 1 − 4i 1 + i ⎠ ⎝ 5 + i ⎠ a − ib a 2 + b2 2 2 prove that x + y = 2 . 3 x − 4 x + 20 =0 3 7. r = 2 which gives Therefore. c − id c + d2 5. Evaluate: ⎢ i + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ . 2 ⎞ ⎛ 3 − 4i ⎞ ⎛ 1 − 3.

Let z1 = 2 – i. If α and β are different complex numbers with β = 1 . Find the modulus and argument of the complex number 15. 21x 2 − 28 x + 10 = 0 z1 + z2 +1 10. 2 x2 + 1 ( ) 12. then show that β–α 17. Find the number of non-zero integral solutions of the equation 1 – i 19. z2 = 1 + i. = 2x . u v + = 4( x 2 – y 2 ) . If a + ib = . Find the modulus of 1+ i 1− i − 1 − i 1+ i . If ⎜ ⎟ = 1 . ⎝ 1 ⎠ (ii) Im ⎜ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟. then show that (a2 + b2) (c2 + d2) (e2 + f 2) (g2 + h2) = A2 + B2 x . x y 16. If (a + ib) (c + id) (e + if) (g + ih) = A + iB. Find the real numbers x and y if (x – iy) (3 + 5i) is the conjugate of –6 – 24i. then find the least integral value of m. then find 1 – α β 18. prove that a2 + b2 = 2 x 2 + 1 2 . find z – z + i . Find ⎛ z1 z2 ⎞ (i) Re ⎜ z ⎟ . 1 − 3i 14. z2 = –2 + i. 13. ⎛1+ i ⎞ 20. ⎝1 – i ⎠ m . If z1 = 2 – i.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 113 9. 1 2 ( x 2 + 1) 2 ( x + i )2 11. If (x + iy)3 = u + iv. ⎝ z1 z1 ⎠ 1+ 2i .

denoted by a +b a +b z 2 ⎛ a2 −b ⎞ +i 2 ⎟ = 1 + i0 =1 multiplicative inverse of z such that (a + ib) ⎜ 2 2 a + b2 ⎠ ⎝ a +b For any integer k. i4k + 1 = i. a is called the real part and b is called the imaginary part of the complex number. is called a complex number. is given by z = a – ib. (θ is known as the r r argument of z. where r= x y . i4k + 2 = – 1. sinθ = . i4k = 1. i4k + 3 = – i The conjugate of the complex number z = a + ib. are given by x = −b ± 4ac − b 2 i 2a . Let z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id. b2 – 4ac < 0. x 2 + y 2 (the modulus of z) and cosθ = A polynomial equation of n degree has n roots. The value of θ. The solutions of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. Then (i) z1 + z2 = (a + c) + i (b + d) (ii) z1 z2 = (ac – bd) + i (ad + bc) For any non-zero complex number z = a + ib (a ≠ 0. The polar form of the complex number z = x + iy is r (cosθ + i sinθ). c ∈ R. called the 2 2 . is called the principal argument of z. b ≠ 0). such that – π < θ ≤ π. where a.114 MATHEMATICS Summary A number of the form a + ib. where a and b are real numbers. a ≠ 0. denoted by z . . b. there exists the complex number a −b 1 +i 2 or z –1.

) who first stated this difficulty clearly. “He mentions in his work ‘Ganitasara Sangraha’ as in the nature of things a negative (quantity) is not a square (quantity)’. “There is no square root of a negative quantity. Albert Girard (about 1625 A. xy = 40.) considered the problem of solving x + y = 10.D. therefore. Euler was the first to introduce the symbol i for −1 and W. b) thus giving it a purely mathematical definition and avoiding use of the so called ‘imaginary numbers’.) accepted square root of negative numbers and said that this will enable us to get as many roots as the degree of the polynomial equation. for it is not a square.) regarded the complex number a + ib as an ordered pair of real numbers (a. also writes in his work Bijaganita. Hamilton (about 1830 A.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 115 Historical Note The fact that square root of a negative number does not exist in the real number system was recognised by the Greeks. another Indian mathematician. it has. A. which was discarded by him by saying that these numbers are ‘useless’.D. no square root”. Bhaskara. But the credit goes to the Indian mathematician Mahavira (850 A.D. written in 1150. He obtained x = 5 + −15 and y = 5 – −15 as the solution of it. — — .” Cardan (1545 A.D.R.D.

he has to buy rice in packets only. ‘≤’ (less than or equal) and ≥ (greater than or equal) which are known as inequalities. then the total amount spent by her is Rs (40x + 20y) and we have 40x + 20y ≤ 120 . optimisation problems. 6. economics. (Why?) Hence 30x < 200 . etc.1 Introduction In earlier classes. Since. Now a natural question arises: ‘Is it always possible to translate a statement problem in the form of an equation? For example. statistics. psychology.Chapter 6 LINEAR INEQUALITIES Mathematics is the art of saying many things in many different ways... In this case. we have studied equations in one variable and two variables and also solved some statement problems by translating them in the form of equations. ‘>’ (greater than).. Your classroom can occupy atmost 60 tables or chairs or both. Here we get certain statements involving a sign ‘<’ (less than). If x denotes the number of packets of rice. we will study linear inequalities in one and two variables. which is available in packets of 1kg. if x denotes the number of registers and y. (1) Clearly the statement (i) is not an equation as it does not involve the sign of equality. the number of pens which Reshma buys.2 Inequalities Let us consider the following situations: (i) Ravi goes to market with Rs 200 to buy rice. The cost of one register is Rs 40 and that of a pen is Rs 20. The study of inequalities is very useful in solving problems in the field of science. mathematics. (2) . which he buys. In this Chapter.. he may not be able to spend the entire amount of Rs 200. then the total amount spent by him is Rs 30x. (ii) Reshma has Rs 120 and wants to buy some registers and pens. The price of one packet of rice is Rs 30. the height of all the students in your class is less than 160 cm. – MAXWELL 6.

. (4) Statement (3) is not an equation. 3 < 5 < 7 (read as 5 is greater than 3 and less than 7). (12) . (10) and (14) are strict inequalities while inequalities (7). 7 > 5 are the examples of numerical inequalities while x < 5. (6) . In this Chapter..LINEAR INEQUALITIES 117 Since in this case the total amount spent may be upto Rs 120. Inequalities (13) and (14) are not linear (in fact. it is an inequality while statement (4) is an equation.. ‘≤’ or ‘≥’ form an inequality.. (14) ax2 + bx + c > 0 Inequalities (5)....e. (3) . (9) .. y > 2. (2) and (3) above are inequalities.. b ≠ 0. (11) . (11)... these are quadratic inequalities in one variable x when a ≠ 0). (7) . Statements such as (1). Definition 1 Two real numbers or two algebraic expressions related by the symbol ‘<’. ‘>’. 3 < x < 5 (read as x is greater than or equal to 3 and less than 5) and 2 < y < 4 are the examples of double inequalities.... Note that the statement (2) consists of two statements and 40x + 20y < 120 40x + 20y = 120 . (10) .. (12).. (13) .. y ≤ 4 are the examples of literal inequalities... while inequalities from (9) to (12) are linear inequalities in two variables x and y when a ≠ 0. (6). we shall confine ourselves to the study of linear inequalities in one and two variables only... x ≥ 3. Inequalities from (5) to (8) are linear inequalities in one variable x when a ≠ 0. (8). (9).. (8) ... i. . (5) . and (13) are slack inequalities.. 3 < 5. Some more examples of inequalities are: ax + b < 0 ax + b > 0 ax + b ≤ 0 ax + b ≥ 0 ax + by < c ax + by > c ax + by ≤ c ax + by ≥ c ax + bx + c ≤ 0 2 .

6. Therefore. Obviously. For x = 3. For x = 1. L.2. 30x < 200 Note that here x denotes the number of packets of rice. which is true.H.1. For x = 6.S.5. ≤’ becomes ‘≥’ and so on) whenever we multiply (or divide) both sides of an inequality by a negative number.e.H. For x = 2. = 30 (0) = 0 < 200 (R. Obviously.S.H.4. L. = 30 (3) = 90 < 200.118 MATHEMATICS 6.2.3 Algebraic Solutions of Linear Inequalities in One Variable and their Graphical Representation Let us consider the inequality (1) of Section 6. which is true.H.S. L. we have For x = 0. L. For x = 7. In the case of solving inequalities. which is true.S.S.H. = 30 (7) = 210 < 200.S.S. L.2. the sign of inequality is reversed (i. We must have some better or systematic techniques for solving inequalities.S. = 30 (2) = 60 < 200. Before that we should go through some more properties of numerical inequalities and follow them as rules while solving the inequalities.H. L. ‘<‘ becomes ‘>’. i. . are called solutions of inequality and the set {0.H. we again follow the same rules except with a difference that in Rule 2.3. In the above situation. are 0. = 30 (5) = 150 < 200. L. = 30 (4) = 120 < 200.. viz. You will recall that while solving linear equations.e.H. we followed the following rules: Rule 1 Equal numbers may be added to (or subtracted from) both sides of an equation. = 30 (6) = 180 < 200.H. which is false. It is evident from the facts that 3 > 2 while – 3 < – 2.S.H. For x = 5. = 30 (1) = 30 < 200 (R. which make above inequality a true statement.S. – 8 < – 7 while (– 8) (– 2) > (– 7) (– 2) .3. x cannot be a negative integer or a fraction.). we find that the values of x. Rule 2 Both sides of an equation may be multiplied (or divided) by the same non-zero number. this method is time consuming and sometimes not feasible.S.6} is called its solution set.).4. Left hand side (L. which is true. which is true. which is true.) of this inequality is 30x and right hand side (RHS) is 200. Thus. These values of x. 16 > 14. any solution of an inequality in one variable is a value of the variable which makes it a true statement.5. For x = 4.. which is true. We have found the solutions of the above inequality by trial and error method which is not very efficient.H. L.1. which makes the above inequality a true statement.

. the solutions of the given inequality are . unless stated otherwise. 1. the solutions of the given inequality are .3. The solution set of the inequality is {1. 6 The solution set of the inequality is {. –1. (ii) x is a real number.. – 3. 6..e. 30 30 (i) When x is a natural number. 4.–1. the solutions of the inequality are given by x < 2. 0.. x < 20 / 3. Solution We are given 30 x < 200 or (ii) x is an integer. 6} Example 2 Solve 5x – 3 < 3x +1 when (i) x is an integer. Example 1 Solve 30 x < 200 when (i) x is a natural number. 5. – 2.. 2. – 3..6}. in this case the following values of x make the statement true. Now. 5.. 3. we shall solve the inequalities in this Chapter in the set of real numbers. we state the following rules for solving an inequality: Rule 1 Equal numbers may be added to (or subtracted from) both sides of an inequality without affecting the sign of inequality.LINEAR INEQUALITIES 119 Thus. Henceforth. i. – 4. 1 (ii) When x is a real number. 30 x 200 < (Rule 2). Solution We have. (ii) When x is an integer. 1. 5. 2. i.e.. – 1.4. the solution set of the inequality is x ∈ (– ∞. 2.. . then the sign of inequality is reversed.. Therefore. 4.–3. let us consider some examples. 1. But when both sides are multiplied or divided by a negative number. –2. set of integers and in the set of real numbers. 3. 2). Rule 2 Both sides of an inequality can be multiplied (or divided) by the same positive number. We have considered solutions of inequalities in the set of natural numbers. all real numbers x which are less than 2.. 3. 0.5. 5x –3 < 3x + 1 or 5x –3 + 3 < 3x +1 +3 (Rule 1) or 5x < 3x +4 or 5x – 3x < 3x + 4 – 3x (Rule 1) or 2x < 4 or x < 2 (Rule 2) (i) When x is an integer. –2. 0.2. 4.

all the real numbers which are greater than –2. i.1 Example 6 Solve Solution We have 3x − 4 x + 1 ≥ −1 . x ≥ 8 Thus. the solution set is (–2.. 4x + 3 < 6x + 7 or 4x – 6x < 6x + 4 – 6x or – 2x < 4 or x > – 2 i. Hence.e. Solution We have. ∞). are the solutions of the given inequality. i.120 MATHEMATICS Example 3 Solve 4x + 3 < 6x +7. Example 4 Solve Solution We have 5 – 2x x ≤ –5.. ∞). Show the graph of the solutions on number line. or 10 – 4x ≤ x – 30 or – 5x ≤ – 40. Example 5 Solve 7x + 3 < 5x + 9. 2 4 3x − 4 x + 1 ≥ −1 2 4 or or 3x − 4 x − 3 ≥ 2 4 2 (3x – 4) ≥ (x – 3) .e. Show the graph of the solutions on number line. all real numbers x which are greater than or equal to 8 are the solutions of the given inequality. x ∈ [8.1.e. 3 6 5 – 2x x ≤ –5 3 6 or 2 (5 – 2x) ≤ x – 30. Solution We have 7x + 3 < 5x + 9 or 2x < 6 or x < 3 The graphical representation of the solutions are given in Fig 6.. Fig 6.

such that their sum is less than 40.. So. 15. we get 10 < x < 19 ... (17.. both of which are larger than 10. the student must obtain a minimum of 70 marks to get an average of at least 60 marks. (15. respectively.. Solution Let x be the marks obtained by student in the annual examination. 19) . x < 19 From (1) and (3). 13. x can take the values 11.LINEAR INEQUALITIES 121 or or 6x – 8 ≥ x – 3 5x ≥ 5 or x ≥ 1 The graphical representation of solutions is given in Fig 6. so that the other one is x +2.. (1) . 17). (3) Since x is an odd number. 15). Then. Example 8 Find all pairs of consecutive odd natural numbers. Fig 6. (2) . Find the number of minimum marks he should get in the annual examination to have an average of at least 60 marks.2 Example 7 The marks obtained by a student of Class XI in first and second terminal examination are 62 and 48. 13). we get 2x + 2 < 40 i. Then 62 + 48 + x ≥ 60 3 or 110 + x ≥ 180 or x ≥ 70 Thus..2. and 17. the required possible pairs will be (11. (13.e. we should have x > 10 and x + ( x + 2) < 40 Solving (2). Solution Let x be the smaller of the two consecutive odd natural number.

2. 3 (1 – x) < 2 (x + 4) 21. 3. 24.1 1. (ii) x is an integer. Find all pairs of consecutive odd positive integers both of which are smaller than 10 such that their sum is more than 11. x (5 x − 2) (7 x − 3) < − 4 3 5 (2 x −1) (3 x − 2) (2 − x) ≥ − 3 4 5 Solve the inequalities in Exercises 17 to 20 and show the graph of the solution in each case on number line 17. 3x – 7 > 5x – 1 7. 92. (ii) x is a real number. 2 (2x + 3) – 10 < 6 (x – 2) 11. 3(x – 1) ≤ 2 (x – 3) 8. 94 and 95. find minimum marks that Sunita must obtain in fifth examination to get grade ‘A’ in the course. 4x + 3 < 6x + 7 6.122 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 6. when (i) x is a natural number. when (i) x is an integer. Find the number if minimum marks he should get in the third test to have an average of at least 60 marks. . 37 – (3x + 5) > 9x – 8 (x – 3) 12. 5. x (5 x − 2) (7 x − 3) < − 2 3 5 Ravi obtained 70 and 75 marks in first two unit test. Solve 24x < 100. x x > +1 3 2 3( x − 2) 5(2 − x) ≤ 5 3 13. To receive Grade ‘A’ in a course. when (i) x is a natural number. 4. 16. 18. Solve 5x – 3 < 7. 22. both of which are larger than 5 such that their sum is less than 23. 5x – 3 > 3x – 5 20. 1 ⎛ 3x ⎞ 1 ⎜ + 4 ⎟ ≥ ( x − 6) 2⎝ 5 ⎠ 3 14. one must obtain an average of 90 marks or more in five examinations (each of 100 marks). Solve 3x + 8 >2. 23. x x x + + < 11 2 3 10. 3x – 2 < 2x + 1 19. 3 (2 – x) ≥ 2 (1 – x) 9. Find all pairs of consecutive even positive integers. when (i) x is an integer. Solve the inequalities in Exercises 5 to 16 for real x. (ii) x is an integer. If Sunita’s marks in first four examinations are 87. Solve – 12x > 30. 15. (ii) x is a real number.

Each part is known as a half plane.LINEAR INEQUALITIES 123 25.3 Fig 6.. Let us consider the line ax + by = c.4 A point in the Cartesian plane will either lie on a line or will lie in either of the half planes I or II.4 Graphical Solution of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables In earlier section. if any. we have seen that a graph of an inequality in one variable is a visual representation and is a convenient way to represent the solutions of the inequality. The second length is to be 3cm longer than the shortest and the third length is to be twice as long as the shortest.. We shall now examine the relationship. then x . What are the possible lengths of the shortest board if the third piece is to be at least 5cm longer than the second? [Hint: If x is the length of the shortest board. b ≠ 0 . of the points in the plane and the inequalities ax + by < c or ax + by > c. Now. A vertical line will divide the plane in left and right half planes and a non-vertical line will divide the plane into lower and upper half planes (Figs.4). 6. 6. A man wants to cut three lengths from a single piece of board of length 91cm. (1) . We know that a line divides the Cartesian plane into two parts.3 and 6. a ≠ 0. respectively. Thus. 26. we will discuss graph of a linear inequality in two variables. (x + 3) and 2x are the lengths of the second and third piece. Fig 6. The longest side of a triangle is 3 times the shortest side and the third side is 2 cm shorter than the longest side. x + (x + 3) + 2x ≤ 91 and 2x ≥ (x + 3) + 5]. If the perimeter of the triangle is at least 61 cm. find the minimum length of the shortest side.

. and conversely. γ ) lies in the half plane II. we deduce that all points satisfying ax + by > c lies in one of the half planes II or I according as b > 0 or b < 0. γ) in the half plane II (Fig 6. In order to identify the half plane represented by an inequality. If it satisfies.β) on the line ax + by = c. all points (x. clearly. Consider case (ii).5 Thus. y) satisfying (i) lie on the line it represents and conversely. γ ) satisfies the inequality ax + by > c. b) (not online) and check whether it satisfies the inequality or not.e. Conversely.Take an arbitrary point Q (α . graph of the inequality ax + by > c will be one of the half plane (called solution region) and represented by shading in the corresponding half plane. it is just sufficient to take any point (a. then the inequality represents the half plane and shade the region . Q(α. γ > β (Why?) or b γ > bβ or aα + b γ > aα + bβ (Why?) or aα + b γ > c i. Consider a point P (α. Hence. let (α. any point in the half plane II satisfies ax + by > c. we can similarly prove that any point satisfying ax + by > c lies in the half plane I. Now. from Fig 6. Note 1 The region containing all the solutions of an inequality is called the solution region. Thus. 2. and conversely any point satisfying the inequality ax + by > c lies in half plane II. β) be a point on line ax + by = c and an arbitrary point Q(α. all the points lying in the half plane II above the line ax + by = c satisfies the inequality ax + by > c. so that aα + bβ = c.5. Fig 6. In case (i). we interpret. In case b < 0. let us first assume that b > 0. Thus. and conversely.124 MATHEMATICS There are three possibilities namely: (i) ax + by = c (ii) ax + by > c (iii) ax + by < c. b > 0.5). γ) satisfying ax + by > c so that aα + bγ > c aα + b γ > aα + bβ (Why?) ⇒ γ>β (as b > 0) ⇒ This means that the point (α.

2. 6).. 4. 40x + 20y = 120 . (0. If an inequality is of the type ax + by ≥ c or ax + by ≤ c. Thus. 0). of (1) is 40x + 20y = 40 (0) + 20y = 20y. In fact. 4).S. (2. 1). 2). 3. and see what will be the solutions of (1) in this case. 5. 2 and 3 are: (1. 3). Then L. the corresponding values of y can be 0. we have 20y ≤ 120 or y ≤ 6 . the set of such pairs will be the solution set of the inequality (1). we take one point say (0.. Let us now solve this inequality keeping in mind that x and y can be only whole numbers. In this case. If an inequality is of the form ax + by > c or ax + by < c. we find the pairs of values of x and y. (2) For x = 0. 0) is preferred. Similarly.6 inequality or not.6.2. 0). 3. (1. other solutions of (1).4). 1). in half plane I and check whether values of x and y satisfy the Fig 6. 2). For convenience. Let us now extend the domain of x and y from whole numbers to real numbers. the solutions of (1) are (0.. (3. let us consider the (corresponding) equation and draw its graph.2). then the points on the line ax + by = c are also included in the solution region. (0.. 1. (0. 1). which make the statement (1) true. 6 only. (3) In order to draw the graph of the inequality (1). when x = 1. So draw a dark line in the solution region. then the points on the line ax + by = c are not to be included in the solution region. To start with.. 0) This is shown in Fig 6. let x = 0. (1. the inequality represents that half plane which does not contain the point within it. (2. (1) while translating the word problem of purchasing of registers and pens by Reshma.. otherwise. You will see that the graphical method of solution will be very convenient in this case. (1. 5) and (0. So draw a broken or dotted line in the solution region. since the number of articles cannot be a fraction or a negative number. the point (0.H. 0). we obtained the following linear inequalities in two variables x and y: 40x + 20y ≤ 120 .LINEAR INEQUALITIES 125 which contains the point. (2. 0).3). In Section 6. 4. (0. . (0. For this purpose. (1. In this case.

Fig 6. 0).9 . the line is also a part of the graph. We select a point. 0) and substituting it in given inequality. half plane I is not the solution region of the given inequality. Example 9 Solve 3x + 2y > 6 graphically.7 Solution Graph of 3x + 2y = 6 is given as dotted line in the Fig 6. Thus.8) and determine if this point satisfies the given inequality. the solution region is the shaded region on the right hand side of the line x = 2. any point on the line does not satisfy the given strict inequality.7) of the inequality. the graph of the given inequality is half plane I including the line itself. we note that 3 (0) + 2 (0) > 6 or 0 > 6 . say (0. Clearly.8 excluding the points on the line is the solution region of the inequality. Hence. the shaded half plane II Fig 6. In other words. Thus. Fig 6. Example 10 Solve 3x – 6 ≥ 0 graphically in two dimensional plane. Hence. Since the points on the line also satisfy the inequality (1) above.9.126 MATHEMATICS We observe that x = 0. Solution Graph of 3x – 6 = 0 is given in the Fig 6. we see that: 3 (0) – 6 ≥ 0 or – 6 ≥ 0 which is false. Thus.8. say (0. We select a point (not on the line). y = 0 satisfy the inequality. Clearly half plane II is not the part of the graph. We shall now consider some examples to explain the above procedure for solving a linear inequality involving two variables. This line divides the xy-plane in two half planes I and II. which lies in one of the half planes (Fig 6. solutions of inequality (1) will consist of all the points of its graph (half plane I including the line). we say that the half plane I is the graph (Fig 6. which is false.

5 Solution of System of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables In previous Section. Solution Graph of y = 2 is given in the Fig 6. 3x + 4y ≤ 12 4. (2) Solution The graph of linear equation x+y=5 is drawn in Fig 6. Then we note that inequality (2) represents the shaded region above . – 3x + 2y ≥ – 6 8.10 EXERCISE 6. we draw the graph of the equation x – y = 3 as Fig 6. including the points on the line. 2x + y ≥ 6 3. y < – 2 10. x – y ≤ 2 6. the solution region is the shaded region below the line y = 2. x > – 3. 0) in lower half plane I and putting y = 0 in the given inequality. Hence. Thus.LINEAR INEQUALITIES 127 Example 11 Solve y < 2 graphically. 6. We will now illustrate the method for solving a system of linear inequalities in two variables graphically through some examples. we see that 1 × 0 < 2 or 0 < 2 which is true. We note that solution of inequality (1) is represented by the shaded region above the line x + y = 5. (0. x + y < 5 2.11. Fig 6. 2x – 3y > 6 7. every point below the line (excluding all the points on the line) determines the solution of the given inequality. Example 12 Solve the following system of linear inequalities graphically..2 Solve the following inequalities graphically in two-dimensional plane: 1.. 3y – 5x < 30 9. you have learnt how to solve linear inequality in one or two variables graphically. Let us select a point. x+y≥5 .11. (1) x–y≤3 . On the same set of axes. y + 8 ≥ 2x 5.10.11 shown in Fig 6...

12) including all the point on the lines are also the solution of the given system of the linear inequalities. Example 13 Solve the following system of inequalities graphically 5x + 4y ≤ 40 .. (1) x≥2 ... number of articles purchased.. the double shaded region. (2) y≥3 . including the points on the line. (2) y≥0 . Hence.12 Fig 6.. x ≥ 0.. Clearly. (3) Solution We draw the graph of the line 8x + 3y = 100 The inequality 8x + 3y ≤ 100 represents the shaded region below the line.13 . in such cases. Fig 6. including the points on the line 8x +3y =100 (Fig 6.. (1) x≥0 . for example.. number of units produced. common to the above two shaded regions is the required solution region of the given system of inequalities... Clearly. etc. Example 14 Solve the following system of inequalities 8x + 3y ≤ 100 .13).. (3) Solution We first draw the graph of the line 5x + 4y = 40.. x = 2 and y = 3 Then we note that the inequality (1) represents shaded region below the line 5x + 4y = 40 and inequality (2) represents the shaded region right of line x = 2 but inequality (3) represents the shaded region above the line y = 3. y ≥ 0 and the solution region lies only in the first quadrant. number of hours worked.128 MATHEMATICS the line x – y = 3. In many practical situations involving system of inequalities the variable x and y often represent quantities that cannot have negative values. shaded region (Fig 6.

x + y ≤ 9.. x – y ≤ 0.. y ≥ 0 11. 2x + y ≥ 8. 2x – y >1. y ≥ 2 4. x ≥ 0 . x – 2y < – 1 7... y ≥ 1. 2x + y ≥ 6. x + y ≥ 4 8. 3x + 2y ≤ 150. 2x – y > 0 6. (2) x>0 . 2x + y ≥ 4. The inequality (1) and (2) represent Fig 6. y ≥ 0. EXERCISE 6. x ≥ 1. represents the solution of the given system of inequalities. (3) . x + y > 4. 3x + 2y ≤ 12. 13. (4) y>0 Solution We draw the graphs of the lines x + 2y = 8 and 2x + y = 8. 4x + 3y ≤ 60. 3x + 4y ≥ 12. x + y ≥ 1. x ≥ 1. y ≥ 0 15. x ≥ 0.14 the region below the two lines. x + 4y ≤ 80. 2x – 3y ≤ 6 12... x ≥ 0. including the point on the respective lines. x + 2y ≤ 10. x. Since x ≥ 0. x ≤ 15. 5x + 4y ≤ 20.. every point in the shaded region in the first quadrant. y ≥ 2x. x +3y ≤ 30. y ≥ 2 10. 3x + 4y ≤ 60. y ≥ 0 14. every point in the shaded region in the first quadrant represent a solution of the given system of inequalities (Fig 6. 3x + 4y < 12 5.. x ≥ 3. including the points on the line and the axes. x ≥ 0 . y ≥ 0 2.14). x + y ≤ 6.LINEAR INEQUALITIES 129 Since x ≥ 0. y > x. y ≥ 2 3.3 Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: 1. x + y ≤ 3. y ≥ 0. x ≥ 3. (1) 2x + y ≤ 8 . Example 15 Solve the following system of inequalities graphically x + 2y ≤ 8 . x + 2y ≥ 10 9. x – 2y ≤ 3.

15 Thus. solution of the system are real numbers x lying between 2 and 6 including 2. (3) Also. We have – 8 ≤ 5x –3 < 7 or –5 ≤ 5x < 10 or –1 ≤ x < 2 Example 17 Solve – 5 ≤ Solution We have – 5 ≤ or or –10 ≤ 5 – 3x ≤ 16 5≥x≥– 5 – 3x ≤ 8. (2) Solution From inequality (1). we have two inequalities...130 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Examples Example 16 Solve – 8 ≤ 5x – 3 < 7.. x ≥ 2 . (4) If we draw the graph of inequalities (3) and (4) on the number line. (1) . 2≤x<6 . which are common to both.. we see that the values of x.e.. i.e.. 2 5 – 3x ≤8 2 or – 15 ≤ – 3x ≤ 11 11 3 –11 ≤ x ≤5 3 Example 18 Solve the system of inequalities: 3x – 7 < 5 + x 11 – 5 x ≤ 1 and represent the solutions on the number line. we have 11 – 5 x ≤ 1 or – 5 x ≤ – 10 i. we have 3x – 7 < 5 + x or x<6 ... Solution In this case. are shown by bold line in Fig 6.. which can be written as .. from inequality (2). Fig 6.15. which we will solve simultaneously. – 8 ≤ 5x – 3 and 5x – 3 < 7.

respectively. Then Total mixture = (x + 600) litres Therefore 30% x + 12% of 600 > 15% of (x + 600) and 30% x + 12% of 600 < 18% of (x + 600) or 30 x 12 15 + (600) > (x + 600) 100 100 100 30 x 12 18 + (600) < (x + 600) 100 100 100 30x + 7200 > 15x + 9000 30x + 7200 < 18x + 10800 15x > 1800 and 12x < 3600 x > 120 and x < 300. where C and F represent temperature in degree 9 Celsius and degree Fahrenheit. What is the range of temperature in degree Fahrenheit if conversion formula is given by C = 5 (F – 32).e. we get 9 5 (F – 32) < 35. the required range of temperature is between 86° F and 95° F. Thus. a solution of hydrochloric acid is to be kept between 30° and 35° Celsius. Putting C= 30 < or 5 (F – 32). . 9 9 9 × (30) < (F – 32) < × (35) 5 5 or 54 < (F – 32) < 63 or 86 < F < 95. Example 20 A manufacturer has 600 litres of a 12% solution of acid. Solution It is given that 30 < C < 35. How many litres of a 30% acid solution must be added to it so that acid content in the resulting mixture will be more than 15% but less than 18%? Solution Let x litres of 30% acid solution is required to be added. 120 < x < 300 and or and or or i.LINEAR INEQUALITIES 131 Example 19 In an experiment.

6 ≤ – 3 (2x – 4) < 12 4. 9. If we have 640 litres of the 8% solution. 1. how many litres of the 2% solution will have to be added? 13. What is the range in temperature in degree Celsius (C) if the Celsius / Fahrenheit (F) conversion formula is given by F= 9 C + 32 ? 5 12. A solution is to be kept between 68° F and 77° F. A solution of 8% boric acid is to be diluted by adding a 2% boric acid solution to it. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 6 Solve the inequalities in Exercises 1 to 6. –3≤4− −12 < 4 − 7x ≤ 18 2 3x ≤2 −5 −15 < 3( x − 2 ) ≤0 5 6. 2 ≤ 3x – 4 ≤ 5 3. 8. 7 ≤ ( 3x +11 ) ≤ 11 . How many litres of water will have to be added to 1125 litres of the 45% solution of acid so that the resulting mixture will contain more than 25% but less than 30% acid content? 14. 5. 5x + 1 > – 24.132 MATHEMATICS Thus. 3 (x + 2) > 2 – x 3x – 7 > 2 (x – 6) . find the range of their mental age. the number of litres of the 30% solution of acid will have to be more than 120 litres but less than 300 litres. 6 – x > 11 – 2x 5 (2x – 7) – 3 (2x + 3) ≤ 0 . CA where MA is mental age and CA is chronological age. If 80 ≤ IQ ≤ 140 for a group of 12 years old children. 7. 2x + 19 ≤ 6x + 47 . 5x – 1 < 24 2 (x – 1) < x + 5. 2 Solve the inequalities in Exercises 7 to 11 and represent the solution graphically on number line. 2. IQ of a person is given by the formula IQ = MA × 100. 11. . 10. The resulting mixture is to be more than 4% but less than 6% boric acid.

If an inequality is having < or > symbol. >. — — . But when both sides are multiplied (or divided) by a negative number. Both sides of an inequality can be multiplied (or divided ) by the same positive number. If an inequality is having ≤ or ≥ symbol. To represent x ≤ a (or x ≥ a) on a number line. To represent x < a (or x > a) on a number line. The values of x. then the inequality is reversed.LINEAR INEQUALITIES 133 Summary Two real numbers or two algebraic expressions related by the symbols <. Equal numbers may be added to (or subtracted from ) both sides of an inequality. then the points on the line are also included in the solutions of the inequality and the graph of the inequality lies left (below) or right (above) of the graph of the equality represented by dark line that satisfies an arbitrary point in that part. put a circle on the number a and dark line to the left (or right) of the number a. The solution region of a system of inequalities is the region which satisfies all the given inequalities in the system simultaneously. ≤ or ≥ form an inequality. put a dark circle on the number a and dark the line to the left (or right) of the number x. which make an inequality a true statement. then the points on the line are not included in the solutions of the inequality and the graph of the inequality lies to the left (below) or right (above) of the graph of the corresponding equality represented by dotted line that satisfies an arbitrary point in that part. are called solutions of the inequality.

1 Introduction Suppose you have a suitcase with a number lock. in this Chapter. we shall examine a principle which is most fundamental to the learning of these techniques. Here. you have forgotten this specific sequence of digits. You remember only the first digit which is 7. can he dress up with? There are 3 ways in which a pant can be chosen. Jacob Bernoulli this method will be tedious. there are 2 choices of a shirt. Some how. In order to open the lock. Similarly. immediately. Mohan has 3 pants and 2 shirts. there are 3 × 2 = 6 pairs of a pant and a shirt. For every choice of a pant. 7. In fact. The number lock has 4 wheels each labelled with 10 digits from 0 to 9. these techniques will be useful in determining the number of different ways of arranging and selecting objects without actually listing them.Chapter 7 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS Every body of discovery is mathematical in form because there is no other guidance we can have – DARWIN 7. we shall learn some basic counting techniques which will enable us to answer this question without actually listing 3-digit arrangements. As a first step. Therefore. a shirt can be chosen in 2 ways. how many sequences of 3-digits you may have to check with? To answer this question. How many different pairs of a pant and a shirt. The lock can be opened if 4 specific digits are arranged in a particular sequence with no repetition. because the number of possible (1654-1705) sequences may be large. because there are 3 pants available.2 Fundamental Principle of Counting Let us consider the following problem. you may. start listing all possible arrangements of 9 remaining digits taken 3 at a time. But. .

P3 and the two shirts as S1. Then. In how many ways can she carry these items (choosing one each). Fig 7. If we name the 2 school bags as B1. W2. these possibilities can be illustrated in the Fig. T3 and the two water bottles as W1. P2 . B2. 3 tiffin boxes and 2 water bottles. Let us consider another problem of the same type.1 bottle can be chosen in 2 differnt ways. S2. For each of these pairs a water Fig 7. T2.2. Sabnam can carry these items to school. Hence. After a school bag is chosen. 7. Sabnam has 2 school bags. A school bag can be chosen in 2 different ways.2 . 7. there are 6 × 2 = 12 different ways in which.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 135 Let us name the three pants as P1. the three tiffin boxes as T1. Hence. there are 2 × 3 = 6 pairs of school bag and a tiffin box. a tiffin box can be chosen in 3 different ways. these six possibilities can be illustrated in the Fig.1.

then the total number of occurrence to ‘the events in the given order is m × n × p. by the multiplication principle. keeping in mind that the repetition is not allowed.136 MATHEMATICS In fact. Hence. the required number of words is 24. . the principle is as follows: ‘If an event can occur in m different ways. following which. following which a third event can occur in p different ways.” The above principle can be generalised for any finite number of events. then the total number of occurrence of the events in the given order is m×n. Example 1 Find the number of 4 letter words. following which the third place can be filled in 2 different ways. simply. we have to choose any one of the possible orders and count the number of different ways of the occurence of the events in this chosen order.E. which can be formed out of the letters of the word ROSE. in both the cases. the fourth place can be filled in 1 way. with or without meaning. the problems of the above types are solved by applying the following principle known as the fundamental principle of counting. for 3 events. In the second problem. following which another event can occur in n different ways. the second place can be filled in by anyone of the remaining 3 letters in 3 different ways. For example. the number of ways in which the 4 places can be filled. Here. or. is 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 24. the multiplication principle. the required number of ways was the number of different ways of the occurence of the following events in succession: (i) (ii) (iii) the event of choosing a school bag the event of choosing a tiffin box the event of choosing a water bottle.O.S. where the repetition of the letters is not allowed. the required number of ways of wearing a pant and a shirt was the number of different ways of the occurence of the following events in succession: (i) (ii) the event of choosing a pant the event of choosing a shirt. following which another event can occur in n different ways. But. The first place can be filled in 4 different ways by anyone of the 4 letters R. which states that “If an event can occur in m different ways. Thus.” In the first problem. Following which. Solution There are as many words as there are ways of filling in 4 vacant places by the 4 letters. the events in each problem could occur in various possible orders.

how many words can be formed? One can easily understand that each of the 4 vacant places can be filled in succession in 4 different ways. the required number of two digits even numbers is 2 × 5. The upper vacant place can be filled in 4 different ways by anyone of the 4 flags. 10. there will be as many 3 flag signals as there are ways of filling in 3 vacant places in succession by the 5 flags. by the multiplication principle. There will be as many 2 flag signals as there are ways of filling in 2 vacant places in succession by the 5 flags available. the number of ways is 5 × 4 = 20. 3 flags. 4 flags and 5 flags separately and then add the respective numbers. 3 flags. Hence. Therefore. if a signal requires the use of 2 flags one below the other? Solution There will be as many signals as there are ways of filling in 2 vacant places in succession by the 4 flags of different colours.e. by the multiplication principle. Solution A signal can consist of either 2 flags. 2.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 137 Note If the repetition of the letters was allowed. how many different signals can be generated. the lower vacant place can be filled in 3 different ways by anyone of the remaining 3 different flags. let us count the possible number of signals consisting of 2 flags. if five different flags are available. 4 flags or 5 flags. By Multiplication rule. i. . in this case. Now. following which the ten’s place can be filled by any of the 5 digits in 5 different ways as the digits can be repeated.. the required number of words = 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 = 256. we start filling in unit’s place. Similarly. Hence. Example 2 Given 4 flags of different colours. 5 if the digits can be repeated? Solution There will be as many ways as there are ways of filling 2 vacant places in succession by the five given digits. Here. the required number of signals = 4 × 3 = 12. because the options for this place are 2 and 4 only and this can be done in 2 ways. Example 3 How many 2 digit even numbers can be formed from the digits 1. Example 4 Find the number of different signals that can be generated by arranging at least 2 flags in order (one below the other) on a vertical staff. following which. 4. 3.

which can be formed out of the letters of the word NUMBER. The required number of words = 6 × 5 × 4 = 120 (by using multiplication principle). we are counting the permutations of 6 different letters taken 3 at a time. 6. 4 and 5 assuming that (i) (ii) 2. MUN.. the order of writing the letters is important. Each arrangement is called a permutation of 4 different letters taken all at a time. one below the other? 7. 4. if no letter can be repeated? How many 5-digit telephone numbers can be constructed using the digits 0 to 9 if each number starts with 67 and no digit appears more than once? A coin is tossed 3 times and the outcomes are recorded. 2..1 1. If the repetition of the letters was allowed. Now. NUB. How many 3-digit numbers can be formed from the digits 1. we are actually counting the different possible arrangements of the letters such as ROSE. we need to count the arrangements NUM. 3. Here. 3.. EXERCISE 7. where the repetition of the letters is not allowed. etc. . if we have to determine the number of 3-letter words. 5. the required number of words would be 6 × 6 × 6 = 216. with or without meaning. 3. 5. 6 if the digits can be repeated? How many 4-letter code can be formed using the first 10 letters of the English alphabet. Here. . 2. in this list. how many different signals can be generated if each signal requires the use of 2 flags.. 4.138 MATHEMATICS The number of ways is 5 × 4 × 3 = 60. Continuing the same way. . REOS. NMU. repetition of the digits is allowed? repetition of the digits is not allowed? How many 3-digit even numbers can be formed from the digits 1. In other words. etc.. the required no of signals = 20 + 60 + 120 + 120 = 320. we find that The number of 4 flag signals = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 = 120 and the number of 5 flag signals = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 120 Therefore.. each arrangement is different from other. How many possible outcomes are there? Given 5 flags of different colours.3 Permutations In Example 1 of the previous Section.

× (n – 1) × n is denoted as n!.3. the second place can be filled in (n – 1) ways. In the following sub Section.. We define 0 ! = 1 We can write 5 ! = 5 × 4 ! = 5 × 4 × 3 ! = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 ! = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1! Clearly. .1 Permutations when all the objects are distinct Theorem 1 The number of permutations of n different objects taken r at a time.e..2 Factorial notation The notation n! represents the product of first n natural numbers.. . we shall obtain the formula needed to answer these questions immediately. . the product 1 × 2 × 3 × .3. We read this symbol as ‘n factorial’. i. The first place can be filled in n ways. × (n – 1) × n = n ! 1=1! 1×2=2! 1× 2 × 3 = 3 ! 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 4 ! and so on.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 139 Definition 1 A permutation is an arrangement in a definite order of a number of objects taken some or all at a time. . Thus. (n – (r – 1)) or n ( n – 1) (n – 2) . . ... 7. the rth place can be filled in (n – (r – 1)) ways. . following which. which is denoted by nPr. 7.. the number of ways of filling in r vacant places in succession is n(n – 1) (n – 2) . following which the third place can be filled in (n – 2) ways. 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 . where 0 < r ≤ n and the objects do not repeat is n ( n – 1) ( n – 2). for a natural number n n ! = n (n – 1) ! = n (n – 1) (n – 2) ! [provided (n ≥ 2)] = n (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) ! [provided (n ≥ 3)] and so on.. Proof There will be as many permutations as there are ways of filling in r vacant places . The symbol n! (read as factorial n or n factorial ) comes to our rescue.. ← r vacant places → by the n objects. .( n – r + 1).. Therefore. . (n – r + 1) This expression for nPr is cumbersome and we need a notation which will help to reduce the size of this expression. In the following text we will learn what actually n! means.

( ) Solution 5! We have to evaluate 2! 5 − 2 ! (since n = 5. r = 2. (10!) × ( 2 ) (10!) ( 2!) n! Example 7 Evaluate r ! n − r ! . Evaluate (i) 8 ! (ii) 4 ! – 3 ! .2 1. r = 2) ( ) 5! 5! 4×5 = = 10 . Example 6 Compute (i) 7! 5! 12! (ii) 10! (2!) ( ) Solution (i) We have 7 × 6 × 5! 7! = = 7 × 6 = 42 5! 5! and (ii) 12 × 11 × (10!) 12! = = 6 × 11 = 66.140 MATHEMATICS Example 5 Evaluate (i) 5 ! Solution and (ii) 7 ! (iii) 7 ! – 5! (i) 5 ! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 = 120 (ii) 7 ! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 ×7 = 5040 (iii) 7 ! – 5! = 5040 – 120 = 4920. find x. = 2 !( 5 − 2 )! 2! × 3! 2 We have Example 8 If 1 1 x + = 8! 9! 10! . 1 1 x Solution We have 8! + 9 × 8! = 10 × 9 × 8! Therefore So 1 x = or 9 10 × 9 x = 100. when n = 5. 1+ 10 x = 9 10 × 9 EXERCISE 7.

r = 5. n − r )( n − r − 1) . we can have In particular.3 × 2 × 1 ( ( n − r )! n Thus Pr = n! ( n − r )! . find x 6! 7! 8! 5..( n − r + 1)( n − r )( n − r − 1) . If 1 1 x + = . n! = n! 0! Counting permutations is merely counting the number of ways in which some or all objects at a time are rearranged.. when ( ) 3. 7.. Compute 8! 6! × 2! 4. 3 × 2 × 1...3 Derivation of the formula for nPr n Pr = n! . Arranging no object at all is the same as leaving behind all the objects and we know that there is only one way of doing so.0≤r≤n n − r )! ( n Let us now go back to the stage where we had determined the following formula: Pr = n (n – 1) (n – 2) . . r = 2 (ii) n = 9. Thus.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 141 2.0≤r ≤n .... Thus n Pr = n! . ( n − r )! . (n – r + 1) Multiplying numerator and denomirator by (n – r) (n – r – 1) . (i) n = 6.3 × 2 × 1 n! = . the formula (1) is applicable for r = 0 also. n Pn = n P0 = 1 = n! n! = n ! ( n − 0)! . when r = n. where 0 < r ≤ n This is a much more convenient expression for nPr than the previous one. (1) Therefore. . Is 3 ! + 4 ! = 7 ! ? n! Evaluate n − r ! .3. . . we get n Pr = n ( n − 1) ( n − 2 ) .

There are 2 Os. Here repetition is not allowed. we are solving some of the problems of the pervious Section using the formula for nPr to illustrate its usefulness. i.e. which are of the same kind. O2 are the same O.we have 2 ! permutations RO1O2T and RO2O1T which will be exactly the same permutation if O1 and O2 are not treated as different. in this case. RO 1O2T. Proof is very similar to that of Theorem 1 and is left for the reader to arrive at. Consider one of these permutations say. The number of permutations of 4-different letters.the required number of words would be 63 = 216. ROOT TOOR . 4! Therefore. where repetition is allowed. If the repetition is allowed.142 MATHEMATICS Theorem 2 The number of permutations of n different objects taken r at a time. the required number of words would be 44 = 256. the required number of permutations = 2! = 3 × 4 = 12 . Permutations when O1. In this case. the 2 Os as different. is nr. The number of 3-letter words which can be formed by the letters of the word 6! 6 NUMBER = P3 = 3! = 4 × 5 × 6 = 120.4 Permutations when all the objects are not distinct objects Suppose we have to find the number of ways of rearranging the letters of the word ROOT. 10! 7. if O1 and O2 are the same O at both places. clearly 12 P2 = 12! = 11 × 12 = 132. O1 and O2. taken all at a time is 4!.3.. the required number of words = 4P4 = 4! = 24. The number of ways in which a Chairman and a Vice-Chairman can be chosen from amongst a group of 12 persons assuming that one person can not hold more than one position. temporarily. in this case also. RO1O 2 T ⎤ RO 2 O1T ⎥ ⎦ T O1O 2 R ⎤ T O2 O1R ⎥ ⎦ Permutations when O1. O2 are different. the letters of the word are not all different. the repetition is not allowed. Here. Corresponding to this permutation. If repeation is allowed. Here. say. In Example 1. Let us treat.

taken all at a time is 9 !. The number of permutations of 9 different letters. in which I appears 2 times and T appears 3 times. T1. I1 NT1 SI2 T2 U E T3. let us treat these letters different and name them as I1. T2. Here if I1. In this case there are 9 letters. in this case. I2 are not same . Consider one such permutation. say. Temporarily. I2. T3.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 143 R O1T O 2 ⎤ R O 2 T O1 ⎥ ⎦ ROTO T O1R O 2 ⎤ T O 2 R O1 ⎥ ⎦ R T O1 O 2 ⎤ R T O 2 O1 ⎥ ⎦ TORO RTOO T R O1 O 2 ⎤ T R O 2 O1 ⎥ ⎦ O1 O 2 R T ⎤ O2 O1 T R ⎥ ⎦ TROO OORT O1 R O 2 T ⎤ O 2 R O1 T ⎥ ⎦ O1 T O 2 R ⎤ O 2 T O1 R ⎥ ⎦ OROT OTOR O1 R T O 2 ⎤ O 2 R T O1 ⎥ ⎦ O1 T R O 2 ⎤ O 2 T R O1 ⎥ ⎦ ORTO OTRO O1 O 2 T R ⎤ O 2 O1 T R ⎥ ⎦ OOTR Let us now find the number of ways of rearranging the letters of the word INSTITUTE.

have to . we have a more general theorem. total number of different permutations will be 9! 2! 3! We can state (without proof) the following theorems: Theorem 3 The number of permutations of n objects. p2 are of second kind.. if any. Therefore. Therefore. the required number of arrangements = 9! 5× 6× 7 ×8× 9 = = 7560 4! 2! 2 Example 10 How many 4-digit numbers can be formed by using the digits 1 to 9 if repetition of digits is not allowed? Solution Here order matters for example 1234 and 1324 are two different numbers..144 MATHEMATICS and T1. p1! p2! . . where p objects are of the same kind and rest are all different = n! p! . where p1 objects are of one kind. there will be as many 4 digit numbers as there are permutations of 9 different digits taken 4 at a time. pk! Example 9 Find the number of permutations of the letters of the word ALLAHABAD. first. T3 can be arranged in 3! ways. I2 can be arranged in 2! ways and T1. Therefore. then I1. T3 are not same. T2. are of different kind is n! . 9 Therefore. if the repetition of the digits is not allowed? Solution Every number between 100 and 1000 is a 3-digit number. 5. In fact. We. 2 L’s and rest are all different.. 3. Solution Here. the required 4 digit numbers = P4 = 9! 9! = = 9 × 8 × 7 × 6 = 3024.. Theorem 4 The number of permutations of n objects. there are 9 objects (letters) of which there are 4A’s. 2. T2. ( 9 – 4 )! 5! Example 11 How many numbers lying between 100 and 1000 can be formed with the digits 0. Hence. pk are of kth kind and the rest. 4.. 1. 2! × 3! permutations will be just the same permutation corresponding to this chosen permutation I1NT1SI2T2UET3.

PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 145 count the permutations of 6 digits taken 3 at a time. To get the number of such numbers. n > 4] n = 10. n > 4 n (ii) n –1 P4 5 = . This number is 5P2. . n (ii) Given that Therefore or or n –1 P4 5 = P4 3 3n (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) = 5(n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) (n – 4) 3n = 5 (n – 4) [as (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) ≠ 0. etc are such numbers which are actually 2-digit numbers and hence the number of such numbers has to be subtracted from 6P3 to get the required number.n>4 P4 3 Solution (i) Given that or Since P5 = 42 n P3 n (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) (n – 4) = 42 n(n – 1) (n – 2) n n>4 so n(n – 1) (n – 2) ≠ 0 Therefore. 042. This number would be 6P3. So The required number = 6 P3 − 5 P2 = 6! 5! − 3! 3! = 4 × 5 × 6 – 4 ×5 = 100 Example 12 Find the value of n such that n (i) n P5 = 42 P3 . But. by dividing both sides by n(n – 1) (n – 2). . so n = 10. .. these permutations will include those also where 0 is at the 100’s place. For example. we fix 0 at the 100’s place and rearrange the remaining 5 digits taking 2 at a time. . 092. we get (n – 3 (n – 4) = 42 or or or n2 – 7n – 30 = 0 n2 – 10n + 3n – 30 (n – 10) (n + 3) = 0 or n – 10 = 0 or n + 3 = 0 or n = 10 or n = – 3 As n cannot be negative.

the number of permutations in which the vowels are always together. This number would be 6P6 = 6!. Then we count permutations of these 6 objects taken all at a time. 3 yellow and 2 green discs be arranged in a row if the discs of the same colour are indistinguishable ? Therefore. U. in which there are 3 vowels. Then. Solution We have 5 4 Pr = 6 5 Pr −1 or 5× 4! 5! = 6× ( 4 − r )! ( 5 − r + 1)! or or or or or or Hence 5! 6 × 5! = ( 4 − r )! ( 5 − r + 1) ( 5 − r )( 5 − r − 1)! (6 – r) (5 – r) = 6 r2 – 11r + 24 = 0 r2 – 8r – 3r + 24 = 0 (r – 8) (r – 3) = 0 r = 8 or r = 3. 4 are of the first kind . which can be done in 8! ways. (ii) If we have to count those permutations in which all vowels are never together. Example 14 Find the number of different 8-letter arrangements that can be made from the letters of the word DAUGHTER so that (i) all vowels occur together (ii) all vowels do not occur together. 3. we have to subtract from this number. Corresponding to each of these permutations. assume them as a single object (AUE). namely.146 MATHEMATICS Example 13 Find r. by the multiplication principle the required number of permutations = 6 ! × 3 ! = 4320. This single object together with 5 remaining letters (objects) will be counted as 6 objects. Out of 9 discs. Solution (i) There are 8 different letters in the word DAUGHTER. E taken all at a time . we first have to find all possible arrangments of 8 letters taken all at a time. Since the vowels have to occur together. r = 8. U and E. Hence. if 5 4Pr = 6 5Pr–1 . A. the required number Solution Total number of discs are 4 + 3 + 2 = 9. we can for the time being. 8 ! – 6 ! × 3 ! = 6 ! (7×8 – 6) = 2 × 6 ! (28 – 3) = 50 × 6 ! = 50 × 720 = 36000 Example 15 In how many ways can 4 red. we shall have 3! permutations of the three vowels A.

count the arrangements of the remaining 11 letters. This single object together with 7 remaining objects will account for 8 objects. the number of arrangements 9! = 1260 . Since. E. . in which there are 3Ns and 2 Ds. by multiplication principle the 4! required number of arrangements E and I can be rearranged in = (iii) 8! 5! × = 16800 3! 2! 4! The required number of arrangements = the total number of arrangements (without any restriction) – the number of arrangements where all the vowels occur together. Therefore.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 147 (red). E. Therefore 12! The required number of arrangements = 3! 4! 2! = 1663200 (i) Let us fix P at the extreme left position. 4! 3! 2! Example 16 Find the number of arrangements of the letters of the word INDEPENDENCE. which are 4 Es and 1 I. 3 are of the second kind (yellow) and 2 are of the third kind (green). then. Corresponding to each of these arrangements. the required of words starting with P are = (ii) 11! = 138600 . E appears 4 times and D appears 2 times and the rest are all different. the 5 vowels E. In how many of these arrangements. we treat them as a single object being. Therefore. (i) do the words start with P (ii) do all the vowels always occur together (iii) do the vowels never occur together (iv) do the words begin with I and end in P? Solution There are 12 letters. These 8 objects. 5! ways. can be rearranged in 8! 3! 2! ways. of which N appears 3 times. they have to always occur together. 3! 2! 4! for the time There are 5 vowels in the given word. Therefore. we.

How many 3-digit numbers can be formed by using the digits 1 to 9 if no digit is repeated? 2. Z. (ii) all letters are used at a time. From a committee of 8 persons.3 1. 2. How many 4-digit numbers are there with no digit repeated? 3. 2. in how many ways can we choose a chairman and a vice chairman assuming one person can not hold more than one position? 6. using each letter exactly once? 9. Hence. 6. 7. (iii) all letters are used but first letter is a vowel? 10. In how many of the distinct permutations of the letters in MISSISSIPPI do the four I’s not come together? 11. Find n if n – 1P3 : nP4 = 1 : 9. assuming that no letter is repeated.148 MATHEMATICS (iv) = 1663200 – 16800 = 1646400 Let us fix I and P at the extreme ends (I at the left end and P at the right end). A team consisting of 2 players is to be formed. there are only 3 possible ways in which the team could be constructed. How many words. 7. order is not important. the required number of arrangements = 10! = 12600 3! 2! 4! EXERCISE 7. 4. (ii) vowels are all together. with or without meaning. We are left with 10 letters.4 Combinations Let us now assume that there is a group of 3 lawn tennis players X. How many of these will be even? 5. (i) 4 letters are used at a time. if. Y. 3. Find the number of 4-digit numbers that can be formed using the digits 1. 3. How many words. In how many ways can the letters of the word PERMUTATIONS be arranged if the (i) words start with P and end with S. . with or without meaning can be made from the letters of the word MONDAY. 5 if no digit is repeated. 4. In fact. can be formed using all the letters of the word EQUATION. (iii) there are always 4 letters between P and S? 7. How many 3-digit even numbers can be made using the digits 1. Find r if (i) 5 Pr = 2 6 Pr−1 (ii) 5 Pr = 6 Pr −1 . 8. In how many ways can we do so? Is the team of X and Y different from the team of Y and X ? Here. if no digit is repeated? 4.

YZ and ZX (Fig 7.3). This is why we have not included BA. B. C and D. BCE. ACD. denoted by nCr. There are as many as 6 combinations of 4 different objects taken 2 at a time. ABD. E. there are 3! permutations. these will be ABC. BCD. BDE.e. Now.. Hence. the number of permutations = 4C2 × 2!. 4C2 = 6. because. Taking 3 at a time. D. How many chords can be drawn by joining these points pairwise? There will be as many chords as there are combinations of 7 different things taken 2 at a time. the three objects in each combination can be . the order is not important. Corresponding to each combination in the list. CDE. B. C. ACE.3 These are XY. CA. There will be as many hand shakes as there are combinations of 12 different things taken 2 at a time. DA. Seven points lie on a circle. we can arrive at 2! permutations as 2 objects in each combination can be rearranged in 2! ways. AC. Here. In a combination. the number of permutations of 4 different things taken 2 at a time = 4P2. Therefore 4 P2 = 4C2 × 2! or 4! = 4C2 4 − 2 )! 2! ( Now. Corresponding to each of these 5C3 combinations. if we have to make combinations. i. BC. ADE.. Taking 2 at a time. CD. AB and BA are the same combination as order does not alter the combination. AD. Here. Twelve persons meet in a room and each shakes hand with all the others. if we have to make combinations.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 149 Fig. CB. let us suppose that we have 5 different objects A. 7. Here. On the other hand. these will be AB. Suppose we have 4 different objects A. BD. DB and DC in this list. Now consider some more illustrations. How do we determine the number of hand shakes. we obtain the formula for finding the number of combinations of n different objects taken r at a time. order is not important. ABE. X shaking hands with Y and Y with X will not be two different hand shakes. each selection is called a combination of 3 different objects taken 2 at a time.

Cn = Cr = n! r!( n − r )! . ( n − r )!( n − ( n − r ) )! ( ) . Therefore. We define nC0 = 1. As 3. if r = n . This way we define nC0 = 1. i. Hence. n n! n Remarks 1. 4. Selecting nothing at all is the same as leaving behind all the objects and we know that there is only one way of doing so. Thus Pr = n C r × r! . because r objects in every combination can be rearranged in r ! ways. it is n n r . n! 0! 2. r (n − r ) Hence n r = n r (n − r ) .e.e. the total number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time is nCr × r!. n In particular. n! = 1. 0 < r ≤ n.. n Cn− r = n! n! = n − r !r ! = n C r . 0 < r ≤ n . i. Proof Corresponding to each combination of nCr we have r ! permutations. From above ( n − r )! = C r × r! . Counting combinations is merely counting the number of ways in which some or all objects at a time are selected.. 0 ≤ r ≤ n. On the other hand. n! = 1 = n C0 . the number of combinations of n different things taken nothing at all is considered to be 1. the formula 0!( n − 0 )! n r = n is applicable for r = 0 also.150 MATHEMATICS rearranged in 3 ! ways. the total of permutations = 5 C3 × 3! Therefore 5 P3 = 5C3 × 3! or 5! = 5 C3 5 − 3)! 3! ( These examples suggest the following theorem showing relationship between permutaion and combination: Theorem 5 n Pr = n C r r! .

n = a + b n Theorem 6 C r + n C r −1 = n n +1 Cr Proof We have Cr + n Cr −1 = n! n! + r!( n − r )! ( r − 1)!( n − r + 1)! = n! n! + r × ( r − 1)!( n − r )! ( r − 1)!( n − r + 1) ( n − r )! = 1 ⎤ n! ⎡1 ⎢ r + n − r + 1⎥ ( r − 1)!( n − r )! ⎣ ⎦ n! n − r +1+ r ( n + 1)! = n +1 C × = r ( r − 1)!( n − r )! r ( n − r + 1) r!( n + 1 − r )! n = Example 17 If n C9 = n C8 . In how many ways can this be done? How many of these committees would consist of 1 man and 2 women? Solution Here.. selecting r objects out of n objects is same as rejecting (n – r) objects. n Ca = nCb ⇒ a = b or a = n – b. n! n! = 9!( n − 9 )! ( n − 8 )! 8! or Therefore 1 1 = 9 n −8 n or n – 8 = 9 C17 = 1 . Hence. Therefore. order does not matter. 3! 2! 2 Now.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 151 i. 1 man can be selected from 2 men in 2C1 ways and 2 women can be selected from 3 women in 3C2 ways. There will be as many committees as there are combinations of 5 different persons 5 taken 3 at a time. .. we need to count combinations. i. find Solution We have n C9 = n C8 i. Therefore. or n = 17 C17 = 17 Example 18 A committee of 3 persons is to be constituted from a group of 2 men and 3 women.. the required number of committees . 5.e.e.e. the required number of ways = C3 = 5! 4 × 5 = = 10 .

there are 13C1 ways of choosing 1 card from 13 cards of diamond. the required number of ways = 13! = 2860 4! 9! 12! = 495 . heart and there are 13 cards of each suit. = 4× (ii) There are13 cards in each suit. 13C4 ways of choosing 4 spades and 13C4 ways of choosing 4 hearts.152 MATHEMATICS 2 3 = C1 × C2 = 2! 3! × = 6. by multiplication principle. two are red cards and two are black cards. Therefore The required number of ways = 13C4 + 13C4 + 13C4 + 13C4. the required number of ways = 13C1 × 13C1 × 13C1× 13C1 = 134 (iii) There are 12 face cards and 4 are to be slected out of these 12 cards. Similarly. This can be done in 12C4 ways. spade. 4! 8! . there are 13 C4 ways of choosing 4 clubs. club. taken 4 at a time. 13C1 ways of choosing 1 card from 13 cards of spades. there are 13C4 ways of choosing 4 diamonds. Therefore. Therefore The required number of ways = 52 C4 = 52! 49 × 50 × 51× 52 = 4! 48! 2× 3× 4 = 270725 (i) There are four suits: diamond. Hence. 13 C1 ways of choosing 1 card from 13 cards of hearts. 1! 1! 2! 1! Example 19 What is the number of ways of choosing 4 cards from a pack of 52 playing cards? In how many of these (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) four cards are of the same suit. Therefore. are face cards. Therefore. cards are of the same colour? Solution There will be as many ways of choosing 4 cards from 52 cards as there are combinations of 52 different things. four cards belong to four different suits. 13C1 ways of choosing 1 card from 13 cards of clubs.

Therefore. with or without meaning. 2. . L and T. 7. In how many ways can one select a cricket team of eleven from 17 players in which only 5 players can bowl if each cricket team of 11 must include exactly 4 bowlers? A bag contains 5 black and 6 red balls. Determine n if (ii) 2nC3 : nC3 = 11 : 1 (i) 2nC2 : nC2 = 12 : 1 How many chords can be drawn through 21 points on a circle? In how many ways can a team of 3 boys and 3 girls be selected from 5 boys and 4 girls? Find the number of ways of selecting 9 balls from 6 red balls. Therefore. 9. namely. 5 white balls and 5 blue balls if each selection consists of 3 balls of each colour.E. I. 3.Uand 4 consonants. find nC2. In how many ways can a student choose a programme of 5 courses if 9 courses are available and 2 specific courses are compulsory for every student? 8. 6. 26 2 C 4 ways.O. Miscellaneous Examples Example 20 How many words. If nC8 = nC2. N.4 1. each of 3 vowels and 2 consonants can be formed from the letters of the word INVOLUTE ? Solution In the word INVOLUTE. 5. 4. namely.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 153 (iv) There are 26 red cards and 26 black cards. 4! 22! EXERCISE 7. the required number of ways = 26C2 × 26C2 ⎛ 26! ⎞ 2 =⎜ ⎟ = ( 325) = 105625 ⎝ 2! 24! ⎠ (v) 4 red cards can be selected out of 26 red cards on 4 black cards can be selected out of 26 black cards in 26C4ways. the required number of ways = 26C4 + 26C4 = 2× 26! = 29900. Determine the number of ways in which 2 black and 3 red balls can be selected. V. there are 4 vowels. Determine the number of 5 card combinations out of a deck of 52 cards if there is exactly one ace in each combination.

Therefore. Therefore. the team can consist of (a) 1 boy and 4 girls (c) 3 boys and 2 girls (b) 2 boys and 3 girls (d) 4 boys and 1 girl. The number of ways of selecting 2 consonants out of 4 = 4C2 = 6. 2 boys and 3 girls can be selected in 7C2 × 4C3 ways. In how many ways can a team of 5 members be selected if the team has (i) no girl ? (ii) at least one boy and one girl ? (iii) at least 3 girls ? Solution (i) Since. the group has only 4 girls. Note that the team cannot have all 5 girls. the number of combinations of 3 vowels and 2 consonants is 4 × 6 = 24. the team has to consist of at least 3 girls. the required number of different words is 24 × 5 ! = 2880. Therefore. 5 boys out of 7 boys can be selected in 7C5 ways. the required number of ways (ii) 7! 6× 7 7 = C5 = 5! 2! = 2 = 21 Since. at least one boy and one girl are to be there in every team. 3 boys and 2 girls can be selected in 7C3 × 4C2 ways. 4 girls and 1 boy can be selected in 4C4 × 7C1 ways. only boys are to be selected. 4 boys and 1 girl can be selected in 7C4 × 4C1 ways. each of these 24 combinations has 5 letters which can be arranged among themselves in 5 ! ways. 3 girls and 2 boys can be selected in 4C3 × 7C2 ways. because. the team will not include any girl. the team can consist of (a) 3 girls and 2 boys. Therefore. Therefore. therefore. the required number of ways = 4C3 × 7C2 + 4C4 × 7C1 = 84 + 7 = 91 .154 MATHEMATICS The number of ways of selecting 3 vowels out of 4 = 4C3 = 4. Therefore. 1 boy and 4 girls can be selected in 7C1 × 4C4 ways. Now. or (b) 4 girls and 1 boy. Example 21 A group consists of 4 girls and 7 boys. the required number of ways = 7C1 × 4C4 + 7C2 × 4C3 + 7C3 × 4C2 + 7C4 × 4C1 = 7 + 84 + 210 + 140 = 441 (iii) Since.

in which A appears 2 times. the remaining digits to be rearranged will be 0. we then rearrange the remaining 4 letters taken all at a time.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 155 Example 22 Find the number of words with or without meaning which can be made using all the letters of the word AGAIN. Also. 4s. If these words are written as in a dictionary. starting with G. A = 4! = 24. Similarly. 4. Therefore. There will be as many arrangements of these 4 letters taken 4 at a time as there are permutations of 4 different things taken 4 at a time. the number of words starting with 4! = 12 as after placing G 2! at the extreme left position. the numbers to be counted will be 7-digit only. there are 12 words starting with the next letter I. 2. 2. 2. 1000000 is a 7-digit number and the number of digits to be used is also 7. in which there are 3. 0. 2 or 4. Total number of words so far obtained = 24 + 12 + 12 =48. 2s and 2. The 50th word is NAAIG. as when 1 is 3! 2! 2 fixed at the extreme left position. the number of words = The 49th word is NAAGI. The number of numbers beginning with 1 = 6! 4 × 5 × 6 = = 60. so they can begin either with 1. what will be the 50th word? Solution There are 5 letters in the word AGAIN. A. Hence. 2. Then. Therefore. the required number of words = 5! = 60 . Total numbers begining with 2 = 6! 3× 4 × 5 × 6 = = 180 2! 2! 2 6! = 4 × 5 × 6 = 120 3! and total numbers begining with 4 = . 2! To get the number of words starting with A. we fix the letter A at the extreme left position. 2. we are left with the letters A. Example 23 How many numbers greater than 1000000 can be formed by using the digits 1. the numbers have to be greater than 1000000. 4? Solution Since. I and N. 4. 2. 4.

3! 2! = 420 . this will include those numbers also. There are 6 cross marked places and the three boys can be seated in 6P3 ways.g. How many words.. by multiplication principle. How many words. = 5! × 6P3 = 5!× Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 7 1. Note If one or more than one digits given in the list is repeated. clearly. respectively. the required number of numbers = 60 + 180 + 120 = 360. This can be done in 5! ways. the total number of ways 6! 3! = 4 × 5 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 = 14400. with or without meaning. × G × G × G × G × G ×. e. it will be understood that in any number. which have 0 at the extreme left position. In how many ways can this be done when the committee consists of: (i) exactly 3 girls ? (ii) atleast 3 girls ? (iii) atmost 3 girls ? 4. But. the three boys can be seated only at the cross marked places. the required number of numbers = 420 – 60 = 360. Example 24 In how many ways can 5 girls and 3 boys be seated in a row so that no two boys are together? Solution Let us first seat the 5 girls. Hence. Therefore. the digits can be used as many times as is given in the list. each of 2 vowels and 3 consonants can be formed from the letters of the word DAUGHTER ? 2. A committee of 7 has to be formed from 9 boys and 4 girls. If the different permutations of all the letter of the word EXAMINATION are . can be formed using all the letters of the word EQUATION at a time so that the vowels and consonants occur together? 3. Alternative Method 7! The number of 7-digit arrangements. The number of such 6! arrangements 3! 2! (by fixing 0 at the extreme left position) = 60. with or without meaning.156 MATHEMATICS Therefore. in the above example 1 and 0 can be used only once whereas 2 and 4 can be used 3 times and 2 times. For each such arrangement.

where p1 objects . There are 3 students who decide that either all of them will join or none of them will join. is denoted by nPr and is given by nPr = n! (n − r )! . following which another event can occur in n different ways. 6. where 0 ≤ r ≤ n. It is required to seat 5 men and 4 women in a row so that the women occupy the even places. taken r at a time.e. where repetition is not allowed.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 157 5. a question paper consists of 12 questions divided into two parts i. respectively. listed as in a dictionary.×n n! = n × (n – 1) ! The number of permutations of n different things.. A student is required to attempt 8 questions in all. 1. 11. How many such arrangements are possible ? From a class of 25 students. The number of permutations of n objects taken all at a time. The number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time. 8. 10 are to be chosen for an excursion party. is nr. In how many ways can a student select the questions ? Determine the number of 5-card combinations out of a deck of 52 cards if each selection of 5 cards has exactly one king. where repeatition is allowed.. 7 and 9 which are divisible by 10 and no digit is repeated ? The English alphabet has 5 vowels and 21 consonants. containing 5 and 7 questions. 7. How many words with two different vowels and 2 different consonants can be formed from the alphabet ? In an examination. 3. then the total number of occurrence of the events in the given order is m × n. n! = 1 × 2 × 3 × .. 10. 9. Part I and Part II. selecting at least 3 from each part. 5. how many words are there in this list before the first word starting with E ? How many 6-digit numbers can be formed from the digits 0. In how many ways can the excursion party be chosen ? In how many ways can the letters of the word ASSASSINATION be arranged so that all the S’s are together ? Summary Fundamental principle of counting If an event can occur in m different ways.

the subject matter of permutations and combinations had its humble beginnings in China in the famous book I–King (Book of changes)..D. 0 ≤ r ≤ n. pk objects are of the kth n! kind and rest. Bhaskaracharya (born 1114 A. Mahavira. Pingala. etc. In the 6th century B. goes to the Jains who treated its subject matter as a self-contained topic in mathematics. Some Arabic and Hebrew writers used the concepts of permutations and combinations in studying astronomy.158 MATHEMATICS are of first kind.D. It is difficult to give the approximate time of this work.. (around 850 A. determined the number of combinations of known planets taken two at a time. in his work Chhanda Sutra. if any. asserts that 63 combinations can be made out of 6 different tastes. two at a time.. since in 213 B. however.) is perhaps the world’s first mathematician credited with providing the general formulae for permutations and combinations. two at a time. Greeks and later Latin writers also did some scattered work on the theory of permutations and combinations.D. a Sanskrit scholar around third century B. is given by nCr = = n! r!( n − r )! . Outside India. for instance. the emperor had ordered all books and manuscripts in the country to be burnt which fortunately was not completely carried out.C... p2 objects are of the second kind... Sushruta Samhita. in his medicinal work. are all different is p ! p !.C.) treated the subject matter of permutations and combinations under the name Anka Pasha in his famous work Lilavati. The credit. taken one at a time. Bhaskaracharya gives several important theorems and results concerning the subject. . under the name Vikalpa. It appears that Rabbi ben Ezra did not .. three at a time and so on. 1 2 k The number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time. etc. p ! . This was around 1140 A. Sushruta. Rabbi ben Ezra. Among the Jains. gives the method of determining the number of combinations of a given number of letters.C. taken one at a time. In addition to the general formulae for nCr and nPr already provided by Mahavira. Historical Note The concepts of permutations and combinations can be traced back to the advent of Jainism in India and perhaps even earlier. denoted by n Cr .

. In 1321 A. Jacob Bernoulli (1654 – 1705 A. Levi Ben Gerson.). posthumously published in 1713 A.D. This book contains essentially the theory of permutations and combinations as is known today.D. nPn and the general formula for nCr.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 159 know the formula for nCr.D. another Hebrew writer came up with the formulae for nPr . — — . he was aware that nCr = nCn–r for specific values n and r. The first book which gives a complete treatment of the subject matter of permutations and combinations is Ars Conjectandi written by a Swiss. However.

2 Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) Let us have a look at the following identities done earlier: (a+ b)0 = 1 a+b≠0 (a+ b)1 = a + b (a+ b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 (a+ b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3 (a+ b)4 = (a + b)3 (a + b) = a4 + 4a3b + 6a2b2 + 4ab3 + b4 In these expansions. For example. etc. we study binomial theorem for positive integral indices only. (101)6. In this Chapter. – C. .P. in the successive terms. the sum of the indices of a and b is the same and is equal to the index of a + b. where n is an integer or a rational number. for higher powers like (98)5. we observe that (i) The total number of terms in the expansion is one more than the index. Using them. number of terms is 3 whereas the index of (a + b)2 is 2. (ii) Powers of the first quantity ‘a’ go on decreasing by 1 whereas the powers of the second quantity ‘b’ increase by 1.1 Introduction In earlier classes.. the calculations become difficult by using repeated multiplication. we have learnt how to find the squares and cubes of binomials like a + b and a – b. This difficulty was overcome by a theorem known as binomial theorem. in the expansion of (a + b)2 . However. 8. STEINMETZ 8. we could evaluate the numerical values of numbers like (98)2 = (100 – 2)2. (iii) In each term of the expansion. etc. (999)3 = (1000 – 1)3.Chapter 8 BINOMIAL THEOREM Mathematics is a most exact science and its conclusions are capable of absolute proofs. It gives an easier way to expand (a + b)n.

gives rise to 3 and 3 in the row for index 3 and so on.2 Pascal’s Triangle The structure given in Fig 8. Also. 2 and 2.2 by writing a few more rows.1 Do we observe any pattern in this table that will help us to write the next row? Yes we do. It can be seen that the addition of 1’s in the row for index 1 gives rise to 2 in the row for index 2. This array of numbers is known as Pascal’s triangle. The row for index 5 is 1 5 10 10 5 1 Using this row and our observations (i).BINOMIAL THEOREM 161 We now arrange the coefficients in these expansions as follows (Fig 8. Expansions for the higher powers of a binomial are also possible by using Pascal’s triangle. The addition of 1. We can extend the pattern given in Fig 8. It is also known as Meru Prastara by Pingla. This can be continued till any index of our interest. (ii) and (iii). we get (2x + 3y)5 = (2x)5 + 5(2x)4 (3y) + 10(2x)3 (3y)2 +10 (2x)2 (3y)3 + 5(2x)(3y)4 +(3y)5 = 32x5 + 240x4y + 720x3y2 + 1080x2y3 + 810xy4 + 243y5. 1 is present at the beginning and at the end of each row. Fig 8. .1): Fig 8. Let us expand (2x + 3y)5 by using Pascal’s triangle.2 looks like a triangle with 1 at the top vertex and running down the two slanting sides. after the name of French mathematician Blaise Pascal. 1 in the row for index 2.

162 MATHEMATICS Now. using this row and the observations (i). For this. 0 ≤ r ≤ n and n is a non-negative integer. if we want to find the expansion of (2x + 3y)12. we are first required to get the row for index 12. for the index 7 the row would be 7 C0 7C1 7C2 7C3 7C4 7C5 7C6 7C7. Thus. Also. we have (a + b)7 = 7C0 a7 + 7C1a6b + 7C2a5b2 + 7C3a4b3 + 7C4a3b4 + 7C5a2b5 + 7C6ab6 + 7C7b7 An expansion of a binomial to any positive integral index say n can now be visualised using these observations.3 Pascal’s triangle Observing this pattern. This can be done by writing all the rows of the Pascal’s triangle till index 12. . We are now in a position to write the expansion of a binomial to any positive integral index. will become more difficult. For example. This is a slightly lengthy process. we can now write the row of the Pascal’s triangle for any index without writing the earlier rows. as you observe. nC0 = 1 = nCn The Pascal’s triangle can now be rewritten as (Fig 8. We thus try to find a rule that will help us to find the expansion of the binomial for any power without writing all the rows of the Pascal’s triangle. if we need the expansions involving still larger powers. The process. we make use of the concept of combinations studied earlier to rewrite the numbers in the Pascal’s triangle.3) Fig 8. (ii) and (iii). that come before the row of the desired index. We know that n Cr = n! r!(n – r )! .

kCr + kCr–1 = k+1 Cr and k Ck = 1= k + 1Ck + 1) Thus. we have P (1) : (a + b)1 = 1C0a1 + 1C1b1 = a + b Thus...23 + 6C4x2.e.+ k+1 Ck+1 bk + 1 Now.... (a + b)n = nC0an + nC1an–1b + nC2an–2 b2 + .BINOMIAL THEOREM 163 8.. by principle of mathematical induction.. P (1) is true.2 + 6C2x422 + 6C3x3. (a + b)k + 1 = (a + b) (a + b)k = (a + b) (kC0 ak + kC1ak – 1 b + kC2 ak – 2 b2 +.+ kCk – 1 abk – 1 + kCk bk) [from (1)] = kC0 ak + 1 + kC1 akb + kC2ak – 1b2 +. P(n) is true for every positive integer n..26... + (kCk+ kCk–1) abk + kCkbk + 1 (by using k+1 [grouping like terms] = k + 1C0a k + 1 + k + 1C1akb + k + 1C2 ak – 1b2 +.24 + 6C5x.25 + 6C6.+ k + 1Ckabk + k + 1Ck + 1 bk +1 C0=1. (a + b)k + 1 = k+1 . Suppose P (k) is true for some positive integer k. (a + b)k = kC0ak + kC1ak – 1b + kC2ak – 2b2 + . it has been proved that P (k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.+ kCk-1abk + kCkbk + 1 [by actual multiplication] = kC0ak + 1 + (kC1+ kC0) akb + (kC2 + kC1)ak – 1b2 + .. We illustrate this theorem by expanding (x + 2)6: (x + 2)6 = 6C0x6 + 6C1x5. = x6 + 12x5 + 60x4 + 160x3 + 240x2 + 192x + 64 Thus (x + 2)6 = x6 + 12x5 + 60x4 + 160x3 + 240x2 + 192x + 64....e..bn – 1 + nCnbn For n = 1.+ kCkbk We shall prove that P(k + 1) is also true.+ kCk – 1 a2bk – 1 + kCk abk + kC0 akb + kC1ak – 1b2 + kC2ak – 2b3+.1 Binomial theorem for any positive integer n. i... ..+ nCn–1a. Let the given statement be P(n) : (a + b)n = nC0an + nC1an – 1b + nC2an – 2b2 + . Therefore.. (1) C0 ak + 1 + k+1 C 1 ak b + k+1 C2 ak – 1b2 + .bn–1 + nCnbn Proof The proof is obtained by applying principle of mathematical induction. i..2..+ nCn – 1a.

The notation n ∑ k =0 n n C k a n− k b k stands for C0anb0 + nC1an–1b1 + . one more than the index. n 8. + nCnxn Thus (1 + x)n = nC0 + nC1x + nC2x2 + nC3x3 + . At the same time the index of b increases by unity.. it can be seen that the sum of the indices of a and b is n in every term of the expansion... There are (n+1) terms in the expansion of (a+b)n. Thus. 5... + nCnxn = nC0 + nC1x + nC2x2 + nC3x3 + . + nCnxn .+nCnan–nbn. 4. and so on ending with zero in the last term...2 Some special cases In the expansion of (a + b)n. In the successive terms of the expansion the index of a goes on decreasing by unity.. + nCn (–y)n = nC0xn – nC1xn – 1y + nC2xn – 2y2 – nC3xn – 3y3 + .e. b = x.. we obtain (x – y)n = [x + (–y)]n = nC0xn + nC1xn – 1(–y) + nC2xn–2(–y)2 + nC3xn–3(–y)3 + . (ii) Taking a = 1.. the sum of the indices of a and b is n + 0 = n in the first term. 3. The coefficients Cr occuring in the binomial theorem are known as binomial coefficients. + (–1)n nCn yn Using this. (i) Taking a = x and b = – y.... 1 in the second and so on ending with n in the last term. k =0 n 2. (n–1) in the second term.. It is n in the first term. (n – 1) + 1 = n in the second term and so on 0 + n = n in the last term. i.164 MATHEMATICS Observations 1.+ nC ran–rbr + . In the expansion of (a+b)n..2. Hence the theorem can also be stated as ( a + b) n = ∑ n C k a n − k b k .. + (–1)n nCn yn Thus (x–y)n = nC0xn – nC1xn – 1 y + nC2xn – 2 y2 + . we obtain (1 + x)n = nC0(1)n + nC1(1)n – 1x + nC2(1)n – 2 x2 + .. where b0 = 1 = an–n. starting with zero in the first term. we have (x–2y)5 = 5 5 C0x5 – 5C1x4 (2y) + 5C2x3 (2y)2 – 5C3x2 (2y)3 + C4 x(2y)4 – 5C5(2y)5 = x5 –10x4y + 40x3y2 – 80x2y3 + 80xy4 – 32y5.

+ nCn.2 + 5C2 (100)322 – 5C3 (100)2 (2)3 + 5C4 (100) (2)4 – 5C5 (2)5 = 10000000000 – 5 × 100000000 × 2 + 10 × 1000000 × 4 – 10 ×10000 × 8 + 5 × 100 × 16 – 32 = 10040008000 – 1000800032 = 9039207968.01 and using binomial theorem to write the first few terms we have . we have 2n = nC0 + nC1 + nC2 + .. + (–1)n nCn ⎛ 2 3⎞ Example 1 Expand ⎜ x + ⎟ . b = – x. for x = 1.. and then use Binomial Theorem. 3 + 4 x x x x 108 81 + ... we have 4 ⎛3⎞ ⎛ 2 3⎞ 4 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎜ x + ⎟ = C0(x2)4 + 4C1(x2)3 ⎜ x ⎟ + 4C2(x2)2 ⎜ ⎟ + 4C3(x2) ⎜ ⎟ + 4C4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ x⎠ ⎝ x⎠ ⎝ x⎠ 2 3 4 4 = x8 + 4. x ≠ 0 x⎠ ⎝ Solution By using binomial theorem. Write 98 = 100 – 2 Therefore.BINOMIAL THEOREM 165 In particular.x4 ..x2.. 3 9 27 81 + 6. Example 3 Which is larger (1. for x = 1. (98)5 = (100 – 2)5 = 5C0 (100)5 – 5C1 (100)4. x x4 = x8 + 12x5 + 54x2 + Example 2 Compute (98)5. we obtain (1– x)n = nC0 – nC1x + nC2x2 – .000? Solution Splitting 1.x6 . Solution We express 98 as the sum or difference of two numbers whose powers are easier to calculate. + (– 1)n nCnxn In particular. 2 + 4. (iii) Taking a = 1.01)1000000 or 10. we get 0 = nC0 – nC1 + nC2 – .

i.01 + other positive terms = 1 + 10000 + other positive terms > 10000 Hence (1.166 MATHEMATICS (1. or or (6)n = 1 + 5n + 52.. then we say that b divides a with q as quotient and r as remainder.. in order to show that 6n – 5n leaves remainder 1 when divided by 25.01)1000000 = 1000000 C0 + 1000000 C1(0. + 5n–2.. + 5n-2) 6n – 5n = 25k+1 where k = nC2 + 5 .1 Expand each of the expressions in Exercises 1 to 5.nC2 + 53.. + nCn5n i.nC3 + .e..01)1000000 > 10000 Example 4 Using binomial theorem.. (1–2x) 5 ⎛2 x⎞ 2. 1. EXERCISE 8.nC3 + . we prove that 6n – 5n = 25k + 1. (2x – 3)6 .. + 5n-2) 6n – 5n = 1+ 25 (nC2 + 5 . We have (1 + a)n = nC0 + nC1a + nC2a2 + . Thus.e. Solution For two numbers a and b if we can find numbers q and r such that a = bq + r.01)1000000 = (1 + 0.. + nCnan For a = 5. 6n – 5n leaves remainder 1..nC3 + .. prove that 6n–5n always leaves remainder 1 when divided by 25. where k is some natural number. we get (1 + 5)n = nC0 + nC15 + nC252 + . This shows that when divided by 25.01) + other positive terms = 1 + 1000000 × 0.. ⎜ – ⎟ ⎝ x 2⎠ 5 3. + 5n 6n – 5n = 1+52 (nC2 + nC35 + ..

1)10000 or 1000.BINOMIAL THEOREM 167 ⎛x 1⎞ 4. ⎛ n +1+1⎞ ⎟ . i. the middle term is ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ th ⎛n ⎞ ⎜ +1⎟ term. 13. The (r + 1)th term is also called the general term of the expansion (a + b)n.. Since 2. the middle term is ⎜ +1 ⎟ i. so there will be two middle terms in the th th . ⎝2 ⎠ 5th term.e. the third term is nC2an–2b2. 14. evaluate ( 3 + 2)4 – ( 3 – 2 )4 . n is even so n + 1 is odd. It is denoted by Tr+1.e. (ii) If n is odd. we have (i) If n is even. ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛8 ⎞ For example. whenever n is a positive integer. General and Middle Terms In the binomial expansion for (a + b)n. Hence. 11. Show that 9n+1 – 8n – 9 is divisible by 64. and so on. (102)5 8. the second term is nC1an–1b. Find (a + b)4 – (a – b)4. Prove that ∑3 r=0 n r n C r = 4n . in the expansion of (x + 2y)8. Using Binomial Theorem. Looking at the pattern of the successive terms we can say that the (r + 1)th term is n Cran–rbr. Hence or otherwise evaluate ( 2 + 1)6 + ( 2 – 1)6. (99)5 10. Thus Tr+1 = nCr an–rbr. indicate which number is larger (1. Therefore. ⎜ + ⎟ ⎝3 x⎠ 5 1⎞ ⎛ 5. evaluate each of the following: 6. then n +1 is even. ⎜ x + ⎟ x⎠ ⎝ 6 Using binomial theorem.. (101)4 9. then the number of terms in the expansion will be n + 1. Regarding the middle term in the expansion (a + b)n. we observe that the first term is n C0an. 8. Find (x + 1)6 + (x – 1)6. (96)3 7.3 1. 12.

we have. i.e. ⎟ . 4th and ⎜ (2x – y) .e. the middle terms are ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ th th 7 3. namely. i. T17 = T16 + 1 = 50C16 (2)50 – 16 a16 = 50C 16 234 a16.e. 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 2 n +1 + 1 ⎞ ⎟ .. 5th term. Given that So 50 T18 = 50C 17 233 a17 T17 = T 18 C 16 (2)34 a16 = 50C 17 (2)33 a17 50 C 16 . Example 5 Find a if the 17th and 18th terms of the expansion (2 + a)50 are equal. Solution The (r + 1)th term of the expansion (x + y)n is given by Tr + 1 = nCrxn–ryr. as 2n is even. r = 16 Therefore. i.e. n! . a= C16 × 2 50 C17 50! 17! . So in the expansion ⎟ term and ⎜ expansion.168 MATHEMATICS ⎛ n +1 ⎞ ⎛ n +1 ⎞ + 1⎟ term. Similarly. 2 33 = Therefore 50 50 = a 17 a 16 i. r + 1 = 17.(2n − 1) 2n xn.. (n + 1)th term. 33! × × 2 =1 16!34! 50! Example 6 Show that the middle term in the expansion of (1+x) 2n is 1. where x ≠ 0.e.. 2 34 C 17 .3. where n is a positive integer.. ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ th th ⎛ 7 +1 ⎞ ⎛ 7 +1 ⎞ + 1⎟ . ⎝x⎠ 2n n n This term is called the term independent of x or the constant term. ⎛1⎞ It is given by Cnx ⎜ ⎟ = 2nCn (constant). the middle term is ⎜ 2 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ 2n th i...5. For the 17th term.. In the expansion of ⎜ x + ⎟ .

2.. Thus. third and fourth terms in the binomial expansion (x + a)n are 240. th Tn+1 = 2nCn(1)2n – n(x)n = 2nCnxn = (2n)! n x n! n! = 2n (2n − 1) (2n − 2) ...2..3.5 . the coefficient of x6y3 is 9 C3 2 3 = 9! 3 9.e.3..n] n x n!n! [1.4.. Now Tr+1 = 9Cr x9 – r (2y)r = 9Cr 2 r .BINOMIAL THEOREM 169 ⎛ 2n ⎞ + 1⎟ .. 720 and 1080...3.2 = .( 2n)] n x n!n! = = [1.. 2 = 672.3.4.8..3. Solution As 2n is even.(2n − 2) (2n − 1) (2n) n x n!n! [1. 3! 6! 3. x9 – r ...3. y r .5.2.5.3.( 2n − 1) n n 2 x n! Example 7 Find the coefficient of x6y3 in the expansion of (x + 2y)9. Find x.. the middle term of the expansion (1 + x)2n is ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ th i.(2n − 1)]2 n [1..1 n x n! n! = 1.5.7 3 .. Comparing the indices of x as well as y in x6y3 and in Tr + 1 .2 Example 8 The second. Solution Given that second term T2 = 240 . (2n – 1)][2. we get r = 3.4. Solution Suppose x6y3 occurs in the (r + 1)th term of the expansion (x + 2y)9.6.(2n − 1)] n! n n 2 . a and n.x n! n! = = 1.. respectively. (n + 1) term which is given by.

i... 6 9 = n −1 2 (n − 2) . and from (4). Thus. (3) and C3x a = 1080 Dividing (2) by (1). The (r – 1)th term is nCr – 2 ar – 2. so we have. n = 55.. Similarly.. the coefficients of rth and (r + 1)th terms are nCr – 1 and nCr . (2) Solving equations(1) and (2)... we get. n = 5 a 3 = x 2 Solving these equations for a and x.170 MATHEMATICS We have So Similarly T2 = nC1xn – 1 . we have . rth and (r + 1)th terms.. n – 7r + 1 = 0 42 Cr .. (4) or a 6 = x ( n − 1) a 9 = x 2( n − 2) Dividing (3) by (2). Solution Suppose the three consecutive terms in the expansion of (1 + a)n are (r – 1)th. a n n n C1xn–1 . (1) .. =6 (n − 2)! x . n n Cr −2 1 = . Hence.e. respectively. we get x = 2 and a = 3. a = 240 C2xn–2 a2 = 720 n–3 3 . and its coefficient is nCr – 2. n – 8r + 9 = 0 7 C r −1 C r −1 7 = . we get n C 2 x n− 2 a 2 720 = i... (2) ... Since the coefficients are in the ratio 1 : 7 : 42.. 5x4a = 240. (1) n and n . n 240 C1 x n −1a (n − 1)! a . i..e. Find n. Example 9 The coefficients of three consecutive terms in the expansion of (1 + a)n are in the ratio1: 7 : 42. from (1).. .. (5) From (4) and (5).e.

Find n and r. (x2 – yx)12. Prove that the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x)2n is twice the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x)2n – 1. prove that coefficients of am and an are equal. x5 in (x + 3)8 2. 9. ⎛ x3 ⎞ ⎜3 − ⎟ ⎜ 6 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 7 ⎛x ⎞ 8. 3 x⎠ ⎝ th 18 6. Find the middle terms in the expansions of 7. (x2 – y)6 5.BINOMIAL THEOREM 171 EXERCISE 8. Write the general term in the expansion of 3. 11. In the expansion of (1 + a)m+n. ⎛ 1 ⎞ Find the 13 term in the expansion of ⎜ 9 x − ⎟ . Find the 4th term in the expansion of (x – 2y)12. a5b7 in (a – 2b)12 . 4. 3x ⎠ ⎝2 ⎛3 2⎞ 6 Solution We have Tr + 1 = C r ⎜ x ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ 6−r 6 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎝ 3x ⎠ 2 6−r r = Cr 6 ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 6−r (x ) ( − 1) r ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ r⎟ ⎝ x⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ r . x ≠ 0. ⎜ + 9 y ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ 10 . Find a positive value of m for which the coefficient of x2 in the expansion (1 + x)m is 6. The coefficients of the (r – 1)th. 10. 12. x ≠ 0. Miscellaneous Examples 1 ⎞ ⎛3 2 Example 10 Find the term independent of x in the expansion of ⎜ x − ⎟ . rth and (r + 1)th terms in the expansion of (x + 1)n are in the ratio 1 : 3 : 5.2 Find the coefficient of 1.

and its coefficient is nCr. Thus.nCr. ar and ar + 1 in the expansion of (1 + a)n are in arithmetic progression. ar and ar + 1 are nCr – 1. 1 1 + (r − 1)!(n − r + 1) (n − r ) (n − r − 1)! (r + 1) (r ) (r − 1)!(n − r − 1)! =2× 1 r ( r − 1)!(n − r ) ( n − r − 1)! ⎡ ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ ( n – r ) ( n − r + 1) + ( r + 1) (r ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ or 1 (r − 1)! (n − r − 1)! = 2× 1 ( r − 1)! (n − r − 1)![r (n – r )] i. i. Thus it can be seen that ar occurs in the (r + 1)th term. r = 4 (3) 6−8 5 = . prove that n2 – n(4r + 1) + 4r2 – 2 = 0. r (r + 1) + (n − r ) (n − r + 1) 2 = (n − r ) (n − r + 1)r (r + 1) r (n − r ) r(r + 1) + (n – r) (n – r + 1) = 2 (r + 1) (n – r + 1) r2 + r + n2 – nr + n – nr + r2 – r = 2(nr – r2 + r + n – r + 1) or or or . nCr – 1+ nCr + 1 = 2. Hence the coefficients of ar – 1. Solution The (r + 1)th term in the expansion is nCrar. This gives n! n! n! + =2× (r − 1)!(n − r + 1)! (r + 1)!(n − r − 1)! r!(n − r )! i.172 MATHEMATICS r = ( − 1) 6 Cr (3)6 − 2 r 12 − 3r x (2)6 − r The term will be independent of x if the index of x is zero. nCr and nCr + 1. 12 – 3r = 0. respectively. Hence 5 term is independent of x and is given by (– 1) C4 (2) 6− 4 12 th 4 6 Example 11 If the coefficients of ar – 1.e.. Since these coefficients are in arithmetic progression.e.e. 1 1 2 + = (n − r + 1) (n − r ) r (r + 1) r (n − r ) . so we have.

The terms containing a4 are 1 (10a4) + (8a) (–40a3) + (24a2) (80a2) + (32a3) (– 80a) + (16a4) (32) = – 438a4 . Example 13 Find the coefficient of a4 in the product (1 + 2a)4 (2 – a)5 using binomial theorem. We have (1 + 2a)4 = 4C0 + 4C1 (2a) + 4C2 (2a)2 + 4C3 (2a)3 + 4C4 (2a)4 = 1 + 4 (2a) + 6(4a2) + 4 (8a3) + 16a4. n2 – 4nr – n + 4r2 – 2 = 0 n2 – n (4r + 1) + 4r2 – 2 = 0 Example 12 Show that the coefficient of the middle term in the expansion of (1 + x)2n is equal to the sum of the coefficients of two middle terms in the expansion of (1 + x)2n – 1. This can be done if we note that ar. = 1 + 8a + 24a2 + 32a3 + 16a4 and (2 – a)5 = 5C0 (2)5 – 5C1 (2)4 (a) + 5C2 (2)3 (a)2 – 5C3 (2)2 (a)3 + 5C4 (2) (a)4 – 5C5 (a)5 = 32 – 80a + 80a2 – 40a3 + 10a4 – a5 Thus (1 + 2a)4 (2 – a)5 = (1 + 8a + 24a2 + 32a3+ 16a4) (32 –80a + 80a2– 40a3 + 10a4– a5) The complete multiplication of the two brackets need not be carried out.. the other expansion has two middle terms. We write only those terms which involve a4.e.e. The coefficients of ⎜ ⎟ and ⎜ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2n – 1 2n – 1 Cn – 1 and Cn. nth and (n + 1)th terms. as required. a4 – r = a4. The (n + 1)th term is 2nCnxn.BINOMIAL THEOREM 173 or i. ⎛ 2n − 1 + 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2n − 1 + 1 ⎞ + 1⎟ i. The coefficient of xn is 2nCn Similarly. these terms are Now 2n – 1 th th Cn – 1 + 2n – 1 Cn= 2nCn [As nCr – 1+ nCr = n+1 Cr]. Solution As 2n is even so the expansion (1 + x)2n has only one middle term which is ⎛ 2n ⎞ + 1⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ th i.e. respectively. (2n – 1) being odd. (n + 1)th term... Solution We first expand each of the factors of the given product using Binomial Theorem.

Example 14 Find the rth term from the end in the expansion of (x + a)n.e. The required term is 18C9 18 − 2r =0. so take We get r = 9. and n = (n + 1) – (2 – 1). x ≠ 0. ⎛3 1 ⎞ Example 15 Find the term independent of x in the expansion of ⎜ x + 3 ⎟ .174 MATHEMATICS Thus. The third term from the end is the (n – 1)th term of the expansion and n – 1 = (n + 1) – (3 – 1) and so on. 3 ⎞ ⎛ Solution The coefficients of the first three terms of ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ are mC0. i. the coefficient of a4 in the given product is – 438. Find the term of the expansion x ⎠ ⎝ containing x3. The second term from the end is the nth term of the expansion.. by the given condition. m being a natural number. 2 r 1 r 3 . Observing the terms we can say that the first term from the end is the last term.x = 18 C2 1 ..x 2r 18 − 2 r 3 Since we have to find a term independent of x. (–3) mC1 x ⎠ ⎝ m and 9 C2. 3 1 . 2 x⎠ ⎝ 18 Solution We have Tr + 1 = 18 Cr ( ) 3 x 18 − r ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝2 x ⎠ r = 18 Cr x 18 − r 3 . i. Therefore. And the (n – r + 2)th term is nCn – r + 1 xr – 1 an – r + 1. (n + 1)th term of the expansion and n + 1 = (n + 1) – (1 – 1). we have m m m C0 –3 mC1+ 9 mC2 = 559.. x > 0. i. Solution There are (n + 1) terms in the expansion of (x + a)n. Thus rth term from the end will be term number (n + 1) – (r – 1) = (n – r + 2) of the expansion. 29 Example 16 The sum of the coefficients of the first three terms in the expansion of 3 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ .e. 1 – 3m + 9m (m − 1) = 559 2 .e. term not having x. is 559.

Find the coefficient of x5 in the product (1 + 2x)6 (1 – x)7 using binomial theorem. prove that a – b is a factor of an – bn. Find n. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 8 1. Find a if the coefficients of x2 and x3 in the expansion of (3 + ax)9 are equal.99)5 using the first three terms of its expansion. So. i.. Evaluate ( 3+ 2 ) −( 6 3− 2 4 ) 6 . 2. if the ratio of the fifth term from the beginning to the fifth term from the ⎛4 1 ⎞ end in the expansion of ⎜ 2 + 4 ⎟ is 3⎠ ⎝ 6 :1 . 8.. 3. then either r = p or r = n – p] So. find r. r being a natural number. – 5940 x3. ) 4 7. Find a. Find the value of a + a − 1 ( ) ( n + a2 − a2 − 1 . respectively. whenever n is a positive integer.BINOMIAL THEOREM 175 which gives m = 12 (m being a natural number). x12 – 3r Since we need the term containing x3. Solution The coefficients of (r – 5)th and (2r – 1)th terms of the expansion (1 + x)34 are 34Cr – 6 and 34C2r – 2. 7290 and 30375. we get r = – 4 or r = 14. r = 14. Now Tr + 1 = 12 Cr x12 – r ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜− 2 ⎟ = ⎝ x ⎠ r 12 Cr (– 3)r . [Hint write an = (a – b + b)n and expand] 5. If a and b are distinct integers. the required term is 12C3 (– 3)3 x3.e. so put 12 – 3r = 3 i. 2 2 6. Thus. 4. respectively. either r – 6 = 2r – 2 or r–6 = 34 – (2r – 2) [Using the fact that if nCr = nCp. r = 3. Since they are equal so 34Cr – 6 = 34C2r – 2 Therefore. Example 17 If the coefficients of (r – 5)th and (2r – 1)th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)34 are equal.e. . r = – 4 is not possible. Find an approximation of (0. b and n in the expansion of (a + b)n if the first three terms of the expansion are 729.

..D. term.D.176 MATHEMATICS x 2⎞ ⎛ 9. This triangular arrangement is also found in the work of Chinese mathematician Chu-shi-kie in 1303 A.bn – 1 + nCnbn. The term binomial coefficients was first introduced by the German mathematician. Expand using Binomial Theorem ⎜ 1 + − ⎟ . 10. popularly known as Pascal’s triangle and similar to the Meru-Prastara of Pingla was constructed by the French mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623-1662 A. written by Pascal and published posthumously in 1665 A. The general term of an expansion (a + b)n is Tr + 1 = nCran – r. — — .+ n Cn – 1a.D. 4 Summary The expansion of a binomial for any positive integral n is given by Binomial Theorem.If n is odd. 0 ≤ n ≤ 7. if n is even.D. The arrangement of these coefficients was in the form of a diagram called Meru-Prastara. x ≠ 0 . br. Bombelli (1572 A..2 .) gave them for n = 1.D.D.. which is (a + b) n = n C 0 a n + n C 1 a n – 1b + n C 2 a n – 2b 2 + . The present form of the binomial theorem for integral values of n appeared in Trate du triange arithmetic. provided by Pingla in his book Chhanda shastra (200B.).D..C. 2..7 and Oughtred (1631 A.) in 1665. ⎛n ⎞ In the expansion (a + b) .) in approximately 1544 A. Michael Stipel (1486-1567A. Find the expansion of (3x – 2ax + 3a ) using binomial theorem. 2 x⎠ ⎝ 2 2 3 10. The arithmetic triangle. The coefficients of the expansions are arranged in an array.. This array is called Pascal’s triangle. for n = 1.) also gave the coefficients in the expansion of (a + b)n.. then the middle terms are ⎜ ⎟ and ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ th th Historical Note The ancient Indian mathematicians knew about the coefficients in the expansions of (x + y)n.. then the middle term is the ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ n th ⎛ n +1⎞ ⎛ n+1 ⎞ +1⎟ terms.

e. The amount of money deposited in a bank. 9.1 Introduction In mathematics.. population of human beings or bacteria at different times form a sequence.. second member. the word. “sequence” is used in much the same way as it is in ordinary English. In previous class. Sequences have important applications in several Fibonacci (1175-1250) spheres of human activities. we have studied about arithmetic progression (A.P). – DEDEKIND 9. and G.P. relationship between A. In this Chapter. over a number of years form a sequence. sum to n terms of squares of natural numbers and sum to n terms of cubes of natural numbers will also be studied. When we say that a collection of objects is listed in a sequence. that a person might have over 300 years.M. For example. Depreciated values of certain commodity occur in a sequence.. we usually mean that the collection is ordered in such a way that it has an identified first member. geometric mean. following specific patterns are called progressions. i. Sequences. grandparents. parents. third member and so on. special series in forms of sum to n terms of consecutive natural numbers.Chapter 9 SEQUENCES AND SERIES Natural numbers are the product of human spirit. besides discussing more about A.M.2 Sequences Let us consider the following examples: Assume that there is a generation gap of 30 years. we are asked to find the number of ancestors. Here. etc. arithmetic mean. the total number of generations = 300 = 10 30 . great grandparents.

. a10 = 1024..... In this process we get 3... 1. Consider the successive quotients that we obtain in the division of 10 by 3 at different steps of division. These quotients also form a sequence. . where n is a natural number. A sequence is called infinite. 4.. . it is possible to express the rule.. . if it is not a finite sequence.3. in the example of successive quotients a1 = 3.. The various numbers occurring in a sequence are called its terms. 8. …... a6 = 3. has no visible pattern. Thus. The nth term is also called the general term of the sequence. . 3. an = 2n – 1. 1024. which yields the various terms of a sequence in terms of algebraic formula. an arrangement of numbers such as 1.. in the sequence of odd natural numbers 1. the terms of the sequence of person’s ancestors mentioned above are: a1 = 2. …. but the sequence is generated by the recurrence relation given by a1 = a2 = 1 a3 = a1 + a2 a n = a n – 2 + a n – 1. In some cases.. .. 32.... …. ….. infinite in the sense that it never ends. 16.5. n > 2 This sequence is called Fibonacci sequence. the sequence of even natural numbers 2..... .. .3.. a4 = 8 = 2 × 4 . For example.. 6.3. The nth term is the number at the nth position of the sequence and is denoted by an.33333.. A sequence containing finite number of terms is called a finite sequence. .. …... third.. the nth term is given by the formula.3.. a2 = 4.. an... a3. Consider for instance. the subscripts denote the position of the term.3. sequence of ancestors is a finite sequence since it contains 10 terms (a fixed number). ….178 MATHEMATICS The number of person’s ancestors for the first. a23 = 46 = 2 × 23. These numbers form what we call a sequence. 5.. and so on.. we see that the nth term of this sequence can be written as an = 2n. where n is a natural number. . the sequence of successive quotients mentioned above is an infinite sequence. second. tenth generations are 2. a24 = 48 = 2 × 24.33.3.. etc. a3 = 8. 2. Often. a2 = 3. and so on.. .33. .. etc. … Here a1 = 2 = 2 × 1 a2 = 4 = 2 × 2 a3 = 6 = 2 × 3 . 8. Similarly. In fact. Similarly. For example. a2.. …. We denote the terms of a sequence by a1. 4.333. a3 = 3. .

the required terms are 7. we use the functional notation a(n) for an.an. (ii) an = n−3 .3 Series Let a1. Such sequence can only be described by verbal description. We now consider some examples. 3.k}. Thus.…. a2. we find that there is no formula for the nth prime. a2. the sum of the series is 16. 2. a3.…+ an + . In every sequence.The series is finite or infinite according as the given sequence is finite or infinite. 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 is a finite series with four terms. a3. we expect a theoretical scheme or a rule for generating the terms a1.. For example.. When we use the phrase “sum of a series. Series are often represented in compact form.…. called sigma notation.3. a2 = 9. we should not expect that its terms will necessarily be given by a specific formula. we get a1 = 2(1) + 5 = 7. it refers to the indicated sum not to the sum itself. (ii) Here an = n−3 1− 3 1 1 = − . Thus. However. a3 = 0 . is called the series associated with the given sequence . Example 1 Write the first three terms in each of the following sequences defined by the following: (i) an = 2n + 5. In view of the above. + an is abbreviated as ∑ ak . the expression a1 + a2 + a3 +. 9 and 11. 9. 4 Solution (i) Here an = 2n + 5 Substituting n = 1. a1 = 4 4 2 4 .… in succession.7. the series a1 + a2 + a3 + .….an. a2 = − .” we will mean the number that results from adding the terms.5. k =1 n Remark When the series is used.. 2. be a given sequence. a3 = 11 Therefore. Sometimes. using the Greek letter ∑ (sigma) as means of indicating the summation involved. Then... 3.. a sequence can be regarded as a function whose domain is the set of natural numbers or some subset of it of the type {1.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 179 In the sequence of primes 2.

a24 9. 4 Find the indicated terms in each of the sequences in Exercises 7 to 10 whose nth terms are: 7.5. Example 3 Let the sequence an be defined as follows: a1 = 1. an = an – 1 + 2 for n ≥ 2. the first three terms are – 1 . 10. an = n+3 . EXERCISE 9. an = 2n 6. an = 2n .3. a4 = a3 + 2 = 5 + 2 = 7.1 Write the first five terms of each of the sequences in Exercises 1 to 6 whose nth terms are: 1.180 MATHEMATICS Hence. a5 = a4 + 2 = 7 + 2 = 9.. 2 4 Example 2 What is the 20th term of the sequence defined by an = (n – 1) (2 – n) (3 + n) ? Solution Putting n = 20 . a3 = a2 + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5. we obtain a20 = (20 – 1) (2 – 20) (3 + 20) = 19 × (– 18) × (23) = – 7866. a7 n(n – 2) . – 1 and 0. a17. an = (–1)n–1 5n+1 n2 + 5 . an = 4n – 3. a n = n 4. a20 . Find first five terms and write corresponding series. an = 2n − 3 6 5. Solution We have a1 = 1. a9 n2 8. the first five terms of the sequence are 1. a2 = a1 + 2 = 1 + 2 = 3..7 and 9. an = (–1)n – 1n3. The corresponding series is 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 +. Hence. an = n (n + 2) 2. an = n n +1 3.

P. an . a1 = 3. the resulting sequence is also an A. a + d.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 181 Write the first five terms of each of the sequences in Exercises 11 to 13 and obtain the corresponding series: 11. 5 9. n ∈ N. the resulting sequence is also an A. The Fibonacci sequence is defined by 1 = a1 = a2 and an = an – 1 + an – 2. is divided by a non-zero constant then the resulting sequence is also an A. …. 4.. is multiplied by a constant. an = 3an – 1 + 2 for all n > 1 13. a3. 2. Then the nth term (general term) of the A.. a + 2d.P.. a + 2d. n = the number of terms.P. Here.P.4 Arithmetic Progression (A.) Let us recall some formulae and properties studied earlier. an = an – 1–1. . a + (n – 1) d be an A.P. Then l = a + (n – 1) d . is an = a + (n – 1) d.P. n > 2.P. Let a. A sequence a1. for n = 1. a1 = a2 = 2.….… is called arithmetic sequence or arithmetic progression if an + 1 = an + d. Sn= the sum to n terms of A.. a + d.P. a1 = – 1. n > 2 14.P. (in its standard form) with first term a and common difference d. a. : (i) If a constant is added to each term of an A. Let us consider an A. we shall use the following notations for an arithmetic progression: a = the first term.e.n≥2 n an +1 an .P. d = common difference.P. Find 12. i.P..P.P. a2. We can verify the following simple properties of an A. an = an −1 . l = the last term.P. where a1 is called the first term and the constant term d is called the common difference of the A. 3. (ii) If a constant is subtracted from each term of an A. (iv) If each term of an A. (iii) If each term of an A. then the resulting sequence is also an A.

P. and an = a + (n – 1) d = m Solving (1) and (2).. where m ≠ n.. 3n + 8 = Sum to n termsof second A.. a2 and d1. we have Sum to n terms of first A.P. and a= n+m–1 Therefore a p = a + (p – 1)d = n + m – 1 + ( p – 1) (–1) = n + m – p Hence. we get (m – n) d = n – m.P. a2... the common difference is given by d = a2 – a1 = (P + Q) – P = Q.. Example 6 The sum of n terms of two arithmetic progressions are in the ratio (3n + 8) : (7n + 15). find the pth term. Find the ratio of their 12th terms. 7 n + 15 . or d = – 1. Then Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 +.P. d2 be the first terms and common difference of the first and second arithmetic progression. the pth term is n + m – p.. Example 5 If the sum of n terms of an A. Solution We have am = a + (m – 1) d = n.P. if mth term is n and the nth term is m. Example 4 In an A..182 MATHEMATICS Sn = We can also write.. Sn = n [ 2a + (n −1)d ] 2 n [a + l ] 2 Let us consider some examples. find the common difference. Solution Let a1. is nP + are constants. (1) . Solution Let a1. (3) . (4) 1 n(n – 1)Q . where P and Q 2 1 n (n – 1) Q 2 Therefore S1 = a1 = P..+ an–1 + an = nP + . (2) . respectively. S2 = a1 + a2 = 2P + Q So that a 2 = S2 – S 1 = P + Q Hence. … an be the given A. According to the given condition.

00. with a = 3.M.M. between two numbers a and b as their average a +b .P.000.000. the required ratio is 7 : 16.M.000 to his income per year for the next 19 years. the A.. 79. 4. thus 2 constructed an A. 2 Hence. Such a number A is called the arithmetic mean (A. i. Example 7 The income of a person is Rs. The natural .e.P a2 +11d 2 . (1) Now 2a1 + 22d1 3 × 23 + 8 = 2a2 + 22d 2 7 × 23 + 15 Therefore [By putting n = 23 in (1)] a1 + 11d1 12th term of first A. he received in 20 years.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 183 or n [ 2a1 + ( n −1 )d1 ] 3n + 8 2 = n 2a2 + ( n −1 )d 2 ] 7n +15 [ 2 or 2a1 + ( n − 1) d1 3n + 8 = 2a2 + ( n − 1) d 2 7n + 15 12th term of first A. Using the sum formula. We have. a +11d1 = 1 th 12 term of second A. 16 by inserting a number 10 between 4 and 16.) of the numbers a and b.10.1 Arithmetic mean Given two numbers a and b. A.P. 16 Hence.P. in this case.P. 20 [600000 + 19 × 10000] = 10 (790000) = 79..000. Solution Here. A = a+b 2 We may also interpret the A. b is an A. We can insert a number A between them so that a. For example.000 as the total amount at the end of 20 years. and n = 20. Find the total amount.P.. 10. Note that. of two numbers 4 and 16 is 10.4.P. we have A – a = b – A.00. d = 10.00. we have an A.000. we get. 7 = th = a2 + 11d 2 12 term of second A.00. in the first year and he receives an increase of Rs. 3. S20 = 9. the person received Rs.

. A2.. Hence. A2 = a + 2d = 3 + 2 × 3 = 9. A2. n = 8... given any two numbers a and b...P... Solution Let A1...P. …. 16 becomes an A.... A6. More generally. . This gives d= b−a .e.P.. . 24 are in A. so that d = 3. 12. Here. i. A2. Thus A1 = a + d = 3 + 3 = 6. b is an A. Here.P.P. Let A1. n +1 b−a n +1 2(b − a ) n +1 Thus. . A2. a = 3.. . n numbers between a and b are as follows: A1 = a + d = a + A2 = a + 2d = a + A3 = a + 3d = a + . 15. A5 and A6 be six numbers between 3 and 24 such that 3. 3(b − a ) n +1 . A3.. A3. A4.. A5. b is the (n + 2) th term... we can insert as many numbers as we like between them such that the resulting sequence is an A. A5 = a + 5d = 3 + 5 × 3 = 18.. A6 = a + 6d = 3 + 6 × 3 = 21.. 12.. . A3 = a + 3d = 3 + 3 × 3 = 12. . …. A1. Therefore.. An = a + nd = a + n (b − a ) n +1 . An. . An be n numbers between a and b such that a. Example 8 Insert 6 numbers between 3 and 24 such that the resulting sequence is an A..... A4 = a + 4d = 3 + 4 × 3 = 15. A3. A1. A4... 8.. six numbers between 3 and 24 are 6. A3..P. 24 = 3 + (8 –1) d. b = a + [(n + 2) – 1]d = a + (n + 1) d. ? Observe that two numbers 8 and 12 can be inserted between 4 and 16 so that the resulting sequence 4. 18 and 21.. b = 24. 9..184 MATHEMATICS question now arises : Can we insert two or more numbers between given two numbers so that the resulting sequence comes out to be an A.

.P. 8. Show that the ratio of mth and nth term is (2m – 1) : (2n – 1). then find the value of n. 14. If a n + bn is the A. between a and b. 10. 25. 15. Between 1 and 31. 2 If the sum of a certain number of terms of the A. 2. … is 116. – 6. 13. 19. If the sum of n terms of an A.P.P. . 7. 11. Sum of the first p. find the common difference. In an A. m numbers have been inserted in such a way that the resulting sequence is an A. Insert five numbers between 8 and 26 such that the resulting sequence is an A.M. where p and q are constants. the first term is 2 and the sum of the first five terms is one-fourth of the next five terms. 4. then find the sum of the first (p + q) terms. Find the value of m. b and c.P. Find the ratio of their 18th terms.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 185 EXERCISE 9. respectively. terms is Prove that a b c ( q − r ) + ( r − p ) + ( p − q) = 0 p q r 12. a n−1 + b n−1 16. P. which are multiples of 5. find the value of m.. Find the sum of all natural numbers lying between 100 and 1000. where p ≠ q.P. is equal to the sum of the first q terms. − 11 . If the sum of first p terms of an A. Find the last term.P. whose kth term is 5k + 1. prove that the sum of first pq p q 6. – 5. Show that 20th term is –112. How many terms of the A. and the ratio of 7th and (m – 1)th numbers is 5 : 9. 9.2 1. 1 (pq +1)..P. is 3n2 + 5n and its mth term is 164. is (pn + qn2). 22. if pth term is 1 1 and qth term is . 3. Find the sum to n terms of the A. Find the sum of odd integers from 1 to 2001. If the sum of n terms of an A. The ratio of the sums of m and n terms of an A. … are needed to give the sum –25? 2 5. The sums of n terms of two arithmetic progressions are in the ratio 5n + 4 : 9n + 6. In an A.P. q and r terms of an A. a.P. is m2 : n2.P.P are.

0001. ar2.P. – . If he increases the instalment by Rs 5 every month. term immediately preceding a1 a2 a3 1 it. . a2.186 MATHEMATICS 17. a3. Common ratio in 1 and 0.. P. If the smallest angle is 120° .P.. 4 = 2 every term except the first term bears a constant ratio 2 = 2. how their terms progress? We note that each term. ar. l = the last term. for k ≥ 1. an. where a is called the first term and r is called the common ratio of the G. it is – and in (iii).. the problem of finding the nth term or sum of n terms of a geometric progression containing a large number of terms would be difficult without the use of the formulae which we shall develop in the next Section. to the 3 = 2.4. a1 = . 3 = . what amount he will pay in the 30th instalment? 18.000001. A sequence a1. . In (i). By letting a1 = a.…. 3 As in case of arithmetic progression. the constant ratio is 0. except the first progresses in a definite order. 3 Such sequences are called geometric sequence or geometric progression abbreviated as G. (iii) . In (ii).01. 1 a –1 a –1 a –1 and so on. state how do the terms in (iii) progress? It is observed that in each case.8. a a a a1 = 2. 2 = .. we observe. this constant ratio is 2.16. In each of these sequences. (ii) and (iii) above are 2. we obtain a geometric progression.01. 100. (ii) 1 –1 1 –1 . 9 27 81 243 .) Let us consider the following sequences: (i) 2. if each term is non-zero and ak + 1 ak = r (constant). find the number of the sides of the polygon.01.. in (ii). 4 = 9 a1 3 a2 3 a3 3 Similarly..5 Geometric Progression (G. we have and so on. A man starts repaying a loan as first instalment of Rs. The difference between any two consecutive interior angles of a polygon is 5°. 9.. ar3. a. r = the common ratio. We shall use the following notations with these formulae: a = the first term.. In (i)... … is called geometric progression. ….. geometric progression (i). respectively..

32...P. 9.according as G. + arn–1 or a + ar + ar2 + . can be written as a.P. (2) This gives a( r n −1) r −1 th th Example 9 Find the 10 and n terms of the G. 3rd term = a3 = ar2 = ar3–1 4th term = a4 = ar3 = ar4–1. Similarly. 9. we have rSn = ar + ar2 + ar3 + . ar.… . Thus. be a and the common ratio be r. and so on..P. 5th term = a5 = ar4 = ar5–1 Do you see a pattern? What will be 16th term? a16 = ar16–1 = ar15 Therefore.5. n = 9..+ arn–1 . i... So that n – 1 = 8. a.2.... Solution Here a = 5 and r = 5. + arn Subtracting (2) from (1). ar3. Therefore 131072 = an = 2(4)n – 1 or 65536 = 4n – 1 This gives 48 = 4n – 1. + arn–1 +. Write a few terms of it. we get (1 – r) Sn = a – arn = a(1 – rn) Sn = a (1 − r n ) 1− r . multiplying (1) by r. with first non-zero term ‘a’ and common ratio ‘r’. a10 = 5(5)10–1 = 5(5)9 = 510 and an = arn–1 = 5(5)n–1 = 5n . … arn – 1. Hence. is given by an = ar n−1 . 5. is finite or infinite. respectively.P.125.P.. 25. up to n terms is 131072? Solution Let 131072 be the nth term of the given G. a. The second term is obtained by multiplying a by r.. ar. Let the first term of a G.. third term is obtained by multiplying a2 by r. . Thus.. Here a = 2 and r = 4. the pattern suggests that the nth term of a G. Let us denote by Sn the sum to first n terms of G... or Sn = Example10 Which term of the G..P.. thus a2 = ar.are called finite or infinite geometric series. The series a + ar + ar2 + .P.e. a3 = a2r = ar2. (1) Case 1 If r = 1. G.P. ar2.1 General term of a G ...5.P. Then Sn = a + ar + ar2 +... Thus. 1st term = a1 = a = ar1–1.8. + a (n terms) = na Case 2 If r ≠ 1.. Sn = the sum of n terms.. We write below these and few more terms... Let us consider a G. . 2. .. 131072 is the 9th term of the G. we have Sn = a + a + a + .P. 2nd term = a2 = ar = ar2–1. Sum to n terms of a G .arn – 1. respectively.P.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 187 n = the numbers of terms. ar2.P.

S5 = 3 ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = 3 × 243 ⎢ ⎝3⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 211 .188 MATHEMATICS Example11 In a G. a3 = ar = 24 2 5 . Solution Here... are needed to give the 2 4 3069 sum 512 ? Solution Let n be the number of terms needed... 3.. 81 3 3 Example 13 How many terms of the G. (1) and a6 = ar = 192 . Substituting r = 2 in (1). Given that a = 3. Therefore 3 ⎡ ⎛ 2 ⎞n ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ n ⎡ ⎤ a (1 − r n ) ⎢ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎥ 3 ⎢1− ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎜ ⎟ = Sn = = 2 ⎢ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎥ 1− r ⎣ ⎦ 1− 3 ⎡ ⎛ 2 ⎞5 ⎤ 211 In particular. Hence a10 = 6 (2)9 = 3072. .P.P... 3 9 Solution Here a = 1 and r = 2 . Example12 Find the sum of first n terms and the sum of first 5 terms of the geometric 2 4 series 1 + + + ...Find the 10th term. (2) Dividing (2) by (1). we get r = 2.. . we get a = 6. the 3rd term is 24 and the 6th term is 192. r = Since Sn = a (1 – r n ) 1− r 1 3069 and Sn = 2 512 Therefore 3069 = 512 3(1 − 1 ) 2n = 6 ⎛ 1− 1 ⎞ ⎜ n ⎟ 1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1− 2 .

... Solution This is not a G. a. is Find the common ratio and the terms.. however. a = – 1 (considering only real roots) and Substituting a = –1 in (1). – 1.. . 77.. we get r = – 3 4 or – . – 1. the three terms of G. are : .e... solving. to n terms = = 7 [9 + 99 + 999 + 9999 + .P. 4 3 4 3 –3 3 4 –4 and .SEQUENCES AND SERIES 189 or or or 1 3069 = 1− n 2 3072 1 3069 3 1 1− = = n = 3072 3072 1024 2 2n = 1024 = 210. for r = 3 4 4 4 3 3 Example15 Find the sum of the sequence 7. (1) ⎛a⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (a ) (ar ) = – 1 ⎝r⎠ From (2). (2) 1 13 – –1 – r = or 12r2 + 25r + 12 = 0. 12 a . we get a3 = – 1.n terms] 9 . to n terms.. ar be the first three terms of the G. Example 14 The sum of first three terms of a G. i. 7777. Thus.to n term] 9 7 [(10 − 1) + (102 − 1) + (103 −1) + (104 − 1) + .. which gives n = 10.P.P.. Solution Let 13 and their product is – 1. 777. we can relate it to a G. we have .. Then r a 13 + ar + a = r 12 .P.. for r = .P. r 12 This is a quadratic in r.. by writing the terms as Sn = 7 + 77 + 777 + 7777 + .

…. Given any two positive numbers a and b. Let G1.256 is a G.P.G2. or 1 ⎛ b ⎞n + 1 .. G1.b is a G. Solution Let G1.G2. Gn be n numbers between positive numbers a and b such that a.n terms) – (1+1+1+.M. Thus. the number of ancestors preceding the person is 2046.Gn.5. ⎛ b ⎞ n+1 2 G 2 = ar = a ⎜ ⎟ . we can insert as many numbers as we like between them to make the resulting sequence in a G.P.G3 . .P. ⎝a⎠ ⎝a⎠ ⎛ b ⎞ n +1 G n = ar n = a ⎜ ⎟ ⎝a⎠ n Example17 Insert three numbers between 1 and 256 so that the resulting sequence is a G. = Solution Here a = 2. 8 great grandparents. r = 2 and n = 10 Using the sum formula a (r n −1) Sn = r −1 We have S10 = 2(210 – 1) = 2046 Hence. 9.190 MATHEMATICS = 7 [(10 + 102 + 103 + . the geometric mean of 2 and 8 is 4.P. Therefore.. and so on. Find the number of his ancestors during the ten generations preceding his own. We observe that the three numbers 2.3 Geometric Mean (G .4.….) The geometric mean of two positive numbers a and b is the number ab . r=⎜ ⎟ ⎝a⎠ ⎛ b ⎞ n+1 G 3 = ar = a ⎜ ⎟ .. ⎢ 9 ⎣ 10 − 1 9 ⎦ 9⎣ ⎦ Example 16 A person has 2 parents. G2.G3 be three numbers between 1 and 256 such that 1. b being the (n + 2)th term. This leads to a generalisation of the concept of geometric means of two numbers. ⎝a⎠ 3 3 1 Hence 2 ⎛ b ⎞ n+1 G1 = ar = a ⎜ ⎟ .n terms)] 9 ⎤ 7 ⎡ 10 (10n − 1) ⎤ 7 ⎡ 10(10n − 1) − n⎥ = ⎢ − n⎥ .P. G2..G1. 4 grandparents.we have b = ar n +1 .G3.8 are consecutive terms of a G.

we have a+b and G = ab 2 A–G= a +b a + b − 2 ab − ab = 2 2 ≥0 2 From (1).M. and G. we obtain a = 4.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 191 Therefore 256 = r4 giving r = ± 4 (Taking real roots only) For r = 4.M. (1) Example 18 If A.M. and G.. the numbers a and b are 4. of two positive numbers a and b are 10 and 8.. 4. 9.M. G3 = ar3 = 64 Similarly. 16..6 Relationship Between A.. –64. G2 = ar2 = 16. (3) ab = 64 . we have G1 = ar = 4. 64 or – 4. = ( a− b ) 2 . (2) G. Then A= Thus. we get a + b = 20 . 16 or 16. Solution Given that and From (1) and (2). respectively... (4) in the identity (a – b) = (a + b)2 – 4ab.M.M. b = 16 or a = 16. find the numbers. (1) . b = 4 Thus.. = a+b =10 2 .M. numbers are – 4. 16. (5) Solving (3) and (5). we obtain the relationship A ≥ G. between 1 and 256 so that the resulting sequences are in G.M. for r = – 4. A.. (4) 2 Putting the value of a and b from (3).. we get (a – b)2 = 400 – 256 = 144 or a – b = ± 12 . of two given positive real numbers a and b. Let A and G be A. and G.16 and – 64. 4 respectively. respectively.. Hence.P. = ab = 8 . we can insert...

The 5 th. are x.3. 20 terms. .0015. the numbers – 8. … are needed to give the sum 120? 14. y and z. Determine the first term. The 4th term of a G. . Given a G.. .. . k =1 11 39 12.. a2. is729 ? 1 1 1 1 .P. . 7 . 8 th and 11 th terms of a G. Determine its 7th term..015. 6.. . .P. 0. 2 2 ...P. How many terms of G.P. 16.. 9. for which sum of the first two terms is – 4 and the fifth term is 4 times the third term.3 3 . 0... y. x. Evaluate ∑ (2 + 3k ) .P. – are in G. whose 8th term is 192 and the common ratio is 2. 3. determine S7.P. is 128 ? (a) (c) (b) 3 . and the first term is – 3.15. 3.P. ...? 7 7 Find the sum to indicated number of terms in each of the geometric progressions in Exercises 7 to 10: 7. Prove that x.. 13. 17. The sum of first three terms of a G. Which term of the following sequences: 2. The sum of first three terms of a G.. 5 5 5 . 3 7 .P. 4. 2 4 8 Find the 12th term of a G. is square of its second term. the common ratio and the sum to n terms of the G. n terms.P. are p. 11. 4. – a3. 15. 21 ..P. x7. with a = 729 and 7th term 64. Find a G. x3. n terms (if x ≠ ± 1). x5. . 10th and 16th terms of a G. – a.P. 2. is and their product is 1. 10. respectively. is 16 and the sum of the next three terms is 128.P.3 1. 1.. If the 4th. . n terms (if a ≠ – 1). 33. is ? 3 9 27 19683 2 2 . z are in G.192 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 9.P. q and s. 0. Find the 10 common ratio and the terms.. 5. Show that q2 = ps.. Find the 20th and nth terms of the G. respectively. For what values of x.. 32.

21. Insert two number between 3 and 81 so that the resulting sequence is G. and if P is the product of n terms. 26.. 28. and find the common ratio.M. respectively. If the pth. prove that P2 = (ab)n. . 8. 19. then obtain the quadratic equation.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 193 18. 8.M. qth and rth terms of a G. If A and G be A. respectively. ar. 2 Show that the products of the corresponding terms of the sequences a. are a. …arn – 1 and A. how many bacteria will be present at the end of 2nd hour. If the first and the nth term of a G. The number of bacteria in a certain culture doubles every hour. 24. 32 and 128.M. 4. The sum of two numbers is 6 times their geometric means. If a. and G. show that (a2 + b2 + c2) (b2 + c2 + d2) = (ab + bc + cd)2 . of roots of a quadratic equation are 8 and 5.P. Find the sum of the products of the corresponding terms of the sequences 2. ar2. b and c. 29. AR2. If there were 30 bacteria present in the culture originally. 2. prove that the numbers are A ± ( A + G )( A − G ) . If A. and the second term is greater than the 4th by 18. 1 . Find the value of n so that a and b.P. 27. show that numbers are in the ratio 3 + 2 2 : 3 − 2 2 . What will Rs 500 amounts to in 10 years after its deposit in a bank which pays annual interest rate of 10% compounded annually? 32. Find four numbers forming a geometric progression in which the third term is greater than the first term by 9. respectively. AR. b. Prove that aq – r br – pcP – q = 1. (n + 1)th to (2n)th term is 1 .P. 8888… . to the sum of terms from 16.P.M. 4th hour and nth hour ? 31. rn 25. and G. respectively between two positive numbers. 88. 22. 32. 20.P.P. are a and b. a n+1 + b n+1 may be the geometric mean between a n + bn ( )( ) 30. … ARn – 1 form a G. 8. Find the sum to n terms of the sequence. Show that the ratio of the sum of first n terms of a G. 888. c and d are in G. 23.

....... we get .................. (i) Sn=1 + 2 + 3 + … + n....7 Sum to n Terms of Special Series We shall now find the sum of first n terms of some special series................... 2… successively.... we know that n ∑ k =1 + 2 + 3 + . 2.... 3… n... then Sn = n (n + 1) 2 (See Section 9.. ..4) (ii) Here Sn= 12 + 22 + 32 + … + n2 We consider the identity k3 – (k – 1)3 = 3k2 – 3k + 1 Putting k = 1...... (k + 1)4 – k4 = 4k3 + 6k2 + 4k + 1 Putting k = 1. + n) + n n3 = 3 ∑ k 2 – 3 ∑ k + n k –1 k –1 n n By (i)....... we obtain 13 – 03 = 3 (1)2 – 3 (1) + 1 23 – 13 = 3 (2)2 – 3 (2) + 1 33 – 23 = 3(3)2 – 3 (3) + 1 .... namely.. n3 – (n – 1)3 = 3 (n)2 – 3 (n) + 1 Adding both sides............. + n = k =1 n n (n + 1) 2 Hence Sn = = ∑ k 2 = 3 ⎢ n3 + ⎣ k =1 1⎡ 3n (n + 1) ⎤ 1 − n ⎥ = (2n3 + 3n 2 + n) 2 ⎦ 6 n (n +1)(2n + 1) 6 (iii) Here Sn = 13 + 23 + ..... Let us take them one by one........... we get n3 – 03 = 3 (12 + 22 + 32 + ... + n2) – 3 (1 + 2 + 3 + ................ ..194 MATHEMATICS 9.+n3 We consider the identity...... (i) 1 + 2 + 3 +… + n (sum of first n natural numbers) (ii) 12 + 22 + 32 +… + n2(sum of squares of the first n natural numbers) (iii) 13 + 23 + 33 +… + n3(sum of cubes of the first n natural numbers)...

........ ................ we get (n + 1)4 – 14 = 4(13 + 23 + 33 +.... we get Sn = 5 + 11 + 19 + 29 + .......... + an–2 + an–1 + an .......SEQUENCES AND SERIES 195 24 – 14 = 4(1)3 + 6(1)2 + 4(1) + 1 34 – 24 = 4(2)3 + 6(2)2 + 4(2) + 1 44 – 34 = 4(3)3 + 6(3)2 + 4(3) + 1 ............................... ........ n 2 (n + 1) 2 [ n (n + 1) ] Sn = = 4 4 2 Hence... + an–1 + an Sn = 5 + 11 + 19 + .. we know that k =1 ∑k = n n n (n + 1) 2 and k =1 ∑ k2 = n n (n + 1) (2n + 1) 6 Putting these values in equation (1)..........+ n2) + 4(1 + 2 + 3 +............. (1) From parts (i) and (ii)........ (n – 1)4 – (n – 2)4 = 4(n – 2)3 + 6(n – 2)2 + 4(n – 2) + 1 n4 – (n – 1)4 = 4(n – 1)3 + 6(n – 1)2 + 4(n – 1) + 1 (n + 1)4 – n4 = 4n3 + 6n2 + 4n + 1 Adding both sides.................+ n3) + 6(12 + 22 + 32 + ... Example 19 Find the sum to n terms of the series: 5 + 11 + 19 + 29 + 41… Solution Let us write or On subtraction....+ n) + n = 4∑ k3 + 6∑ k2 + 4∑ k + n k =1 k =1 k =1 n n n ............... we obtain 4 ∑ k 3 = n 4 + 4n 3 + 6n 2 + 4 n – k =1 6n (n + 1) (2n + 1) 4n (n + 1) – –n 6 2 or 4Sn = n4 + 4n3 + 6n2 + 4n – n (2n2 + 3n + 1) – 2n (n + 1) – n = n4 + 2n3 + n2 = n2(n + 1)2................

. (2n – 1) 2 9. 12 + (12 + 22) + (12 + 22 + 32) + . 5. 1 1 1 + + + 1× 2 2 × 3 3× 4 . 3 6 2 Example 20 Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth term is n (n+3). 3 × 8 + 6 × 11 + 9 × 14 + .. Solution Given that an = n (n + 3) = n2 + 3n Thus.. . + 202 7..(n – 1) terms] – an or an = 5 + (n – 1)[12 + (n − 2) × 2] 2 = 5 + (n – 1) (n + 4) = n2 + 3n + 1 Hence 2 2 Sn = ∑ ak = ∑ ( k + 3k + 1) = ∑ k + 3∑ k + n k =1 k =1 k =1 1 n n n n = n(n + 2)(n + 4) n(n +1)(2n + 1) 3n(n + 1) + +n = .. 10.... 1. Find the sum to n terms of the series in Exercises 8 to 10 whose nth terms is given by 8. the sum to n terms is given by Sn = ∑ ak = ∑ k 2 + 3∑ k k =1 k =1 k =1 n n n = n (n + 1) (2n + 1) 3n (n + 1) n(n + 1)(n + 5) + = .196 MATHEMATICS 0 = 5 + [6 + 8 + 10 + 12 + .. 1 × 2 × 3 + 2 × 3 × 4 + 3 × 4 × 5 + ... 6 2 3 EXERCISE 9. 1 × 2 + 2 × 3 + 3 × 4 + 4 × 5 +. 52 + 62 + 72 + . 4.. 3..4 Find the sum to n terms of each of the series in Exercises 1 to 7. n2 + 2n 2.. 6.. 3 × 12 + 5 × 22 + 7 × 32 + .. n (n+1) (n+4).

.. Solution Given that (a2 + b2 + c2) p2 – 2 (ab + bc + cd) p + (b2 + c2 + d2) ≤ 0 . which gives 2y = x + z. (6) Hence. y and z are in A.P.P.. then show that a. So aq ap = ar aq − ar q − r = = aq a p − aq p − q (why ?) .. b.P. by (5) and (6) q – r r – s .. r th and sth terms of an A. Solution Here ap = a + (p –1) d aq = a + (q –1) d ar = a + (r –1) d as = a + (s –1) d Given that ap. d and p are different real numbers such that (a2 + b2 + c2)p2 – 2(ab + bc + cd) p + (b2 + c2 + d2) ≤ 0. then show that (p – q). (4) . and a x = b y = c z .P.P.. (r – s) are also in G. (1) . Since a. p – q. b..P.. Hence.. (1) . b2 = ac Using (1) in (2).SEQUENCES AND SERIES 197 Miscellaneous Examples Example21 If pth...P. b = ky and c = kz. (5) Similarly ar as ar − as r − s = = = aq ar aq − ar q − r (why ?) . c are in G. aq. b.... (2) Example 23 If a.P.. (1) . therefore. x. c and d are in G.. c.. prove that x. z are in A. y. (2) . = p–q q–r 1 1 1 Example 22 If a. 1 1 1 Let a x = b y = c z = k Then a = kx .. (3) .P. qth... c are in G. (q – r). ar and as are in G. i. q – r and r – s are in G.e.P. we get k2y = kx + z. Solution . are in G.. b.

from (1) and (2).q. Thus x = dx2 + 2ex + f = 0 (Why ?).P. or q p r p q pr Hence d e f . bp – c = 0. (ap – b)2 + (bp – c)2 + (cp – d)2 = 0 or ap – b = 0.H.. ⎝ p ⎠ ⎝ p ⎠ 2 or dq2 – 2eqp + fp2 = 0 2 2 . b. . then show that Solution d e f . c and d are in G.198 MATHEMATICS But L. (2) Since the sum of squares of real numbers is non negative. which gives (ap – b)2 + (bp – c)2 + (cp – d)2 ≥ 0 ..P. (1) Dividing (1) by pq and using q = pr. we get 2e d f d 2e fp = + − + = 0.. = (a2p2 – 2abp + b2) + (b2p2 – 2bcp + c2) + (c2p2 – 2cdp + d2).r are in G. and the equations. p q r The equation px2 + 2qx + r = 0 has roots given by x= −2q ± 4q 2 − 4rp 2p Since p . are in A.. we have. q2 = pr. Example 24 If p. px2 + 2qx + r = 0 and dx2 + 2ex + f = 0 have a common root. . therefore. are in A.S. r are in G. Therefore −q −q but is also root of p p ⎛ −q ⎞ ⎛ −q ⎞ d⎜ ⎟ + 2e ⎜ ⎟ + f = 0.P. p q r .q.P.P. cp – d = 0 This implies that b c d = = =p a b c Hence a.

Find the last term and the number of terms. yields 1 as remainder. is 56. (bn + cn). Show that (q – r )a + (r – p )b + (p – q )c = 0 ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ 1 1⎞ 16. c. is equal to twice the mth term. If f is a function satisfying f (x +y) = f(x) f(y) for all x. If a + bx b + cx c + dx = = ( x ≠ 0) . then show that a. y ∈ N such that f(1) = 3 and x =1 ∑ f (x) = 120 . The sum of the first four terms of an A. Find the sum of integers from 1 to 100 that are divisible by 2 or 5. ⎝b c⎠ ⎝c a⎠ ⎝a b⎠ 17. then find the number of terms. find the numbers. are a. c. b. b. Find the common ratio of G. respectively. 5.P. d are in G. c.P.b ⎜ + ⎟ . respectively. If a. Find the sum of all numbers between 200 and 400 which are divisible by 7. 6. d are roots of x2 – 12x + q = 0. Prove that P2Rn = Sn. (cn + dn) are in G.P. b. 2.P. 13. Find the numbers. Let S be the sum. The sum of the last four terms is 112.c ⎜ + ⎟ are in A. is 56. Prove that (q + p) : (q – p) = 17:15. d form a G. S2 and S3. If the sum of three numbers in A. The pth.P. 10. prove that (an + bn). is 315 whose first term and the common ratio are 5 and 2. The sum of the third term and fifth term is 90. find the value of n.P. 15. we obtain an arithmetic progression.P. Show that the sum of (m + n)th and (m – n)th terms of an A. The sum of some terms of G. If the sum of all the terms is 5 times the sum of terms occupying odd places. P the product and R the sum of reciprocals of n terms in a G..P. Find the sum of all two digit numbers which when divided by 4. is 1.P. show that S3 = 3(S2 – S1) 4. c and d are in G. c are in A. prove that a. n 8. If its first term is 11. The sum of three numbers in G. qth and rth terms of an A. be S1.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 199 Miscellaneous Exercise On Chapter 9 1. If a ⎜ + ⎟ .P. 21 from these numbers in that order. 2n. A G.P.P. 3. 9. 18. ..P.P. respectively. b.P. 7. a − bx b − cx c − dx 14. 3n terms of an A.P. 12.P. consists of an even number of terms. is 24 and their product is 440. Let the sum of n. 11. If a and b are the roots of x2 – 3x + p = 0 and c. then find its common ratio. 7. where a. If we subtract 1. The first term of a G. b.

.P.M. A man deposited Rs 10000 in a bank at the rate of 5% simple interest annually. 4 workers dropped out on second day. 66 +.. show that 9 S2 = S3 (1 + 8S1).P. c are in A. 2 25. + n × (n + 1) 2 3n + 5 = 12 × 2 + 22 × 3 + .. c. respectively.. b. A farmer buys a used tractor for Rs 12000.. 1 1 1 20. How much will the tractor cost him? Shamshad Ali buys a scooter for Rs 22000.6 +. 15625. Find the estimated value at the end of 5 years.P.. Find the sum of the following series up to n terms: (i) 5 + 55 +555 + … (ii) . Find the sum of the following series up to n terms: 13 13 + 22 13 + 23 + 33 + + + . are in A.. He pays Rs 6000 cash and agrees to pay the balance in annual instalments of Rs 500 plus 12% interest on the unpaid amount.. 32. S3 are the sum of first n natural numbers. b. 666+… 22. Find the amount spent on the postage when 8th set of letter is mailed. which costs him Rs. Find the sum of the first n terms of the series: 3+ 7 +13 +21 +31 +… 24.. If a. 21.200 MATHEMATICS 19. Find the amount in 15th year since he deposited the amount and also calculate the total amount after 20 years. will depreciate each year by 20%. d are in G. 1 1+ 3 1+ 3 + 5 26.. of two positive numbers a and b. Show that a : b = m + m2 – n 2 : m – m2 – n 2 ( )( ). 1 × 22 + 2 × 32 + . e c d e are in G.M. He asks each one of them to copy the letter and mail to four different persons with instruction that they move the chain similarly. Show that 27. 28. 23. . Assuming that the chain is not broken and that it costs 50 paise to mail one letter. S2. prove that a. 4 more workers dropped out on third day and so on. How much will the scooter cost him? A person writes a letter to four of his friends. c. + n2 × (n + 1) 3n + 1 . is m : n.P. 29. and . 150 workers were engaged to finish a job in a certain number of days. The ratio of the A. Find the 20th term of the series 2 × 4 + 4 × 6 + 6 × 8 + . + n terms. 30. their squares and their cubes. If S1. and G. 31. A manufacturer reckons that the value of a machine. He pays Rs 4000 cash and agrees to pay the balance in annual instalment of Rs 1000 plus 10% interest on the unpaid amount.

2. The sum Sn of the first n terms of an A. is given by n n Sn = ⎡2a + ( n – 1) d ⎤ = ( a + l ) .. if the ratio of any term to its preceding term is same throughout. Usually. Summary By a sequence. The sum Sn of the first n terms of G... ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 a+b i. is given by .P. then the sum expressed as a1 + a2 + a3 + . .SEQUENCES AND SERIES 201 It took 8 more days to finish the work. The general or the nth term of G. Let a1. This constant is called common difference of the A.P. b is in A. we denote the first terms of A. by a and its common ratio by r. A sequence is called infinite if it is not a finite sequence. we define a sequence as a function whose domain is the set of natural numbers or some subsets of the type {1... we denote the first term of a G. A series is called finite series if it has got finite number of terms.P. by a.P. is called series. A. a2.P.P. A sequence containing a finite number of terms is called a finite sequence. The general term or the nth term of the A. a3. we mean an arrangement of a number in a definite order according to some rule.. be the sequence. This constant factor is called the common ratio.P.P.e. Find the number of days in which the work was completed.) is a sequence in which terms increase or decrease regularly by the same constant.P. the common difference by d and the last term by l.. 3. Also.P.. the 2 The arithmetic mean A of any two numbers a and b is given by sequence a. is given by an = a + (n – 1) d. An arithmetic progression (A.. A sequence is said to be a geometric progression or G.k). is given by an= arn – 1. Usually.

some 4000 years ago. knew of arithmetic and geometric sequences.D.e..) of any two positive numbers a and b is given by ab i.P.) also considered the sum of squares and cubes. if r ≠ 1 n 1–r The geometric mean (G. Noted Indian mathematicians Brahmgupta (598 A. James Gregory used the term infinite series in connection with infinite sequence.M.D. Aryabhatta (476 A.D.D. — — . It was only through the rigorous development of algebraic and set theoretic tools that the concepts related to sequence and series could be formulated suitably.D.).D. written around 499 A. Historical Note Evidence is found that Babylonians. was discovered by Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci (1170-1250 A. arithmetic and geometric sequences were known to early Greek writers.D. Among the Indian mathematician.). Mahavira (850 A. Another specific type of sequence having important applications in mathematics.) and Bhaskara (1114-1185 A. b is G. According to Boethius (510 A. In 1671 A. Seventeenth century witnessed the classification of series into specific forms.) was the first to give the formula for the sum of squares and cubes of natural numbers in his famous work Aryabhatiyam. the sequence a.202 MATHEMATICS a rn – 1 Sn = r –1 ( ) or a (1– r ) . called Fibonacci sequence.D. G. He also gave the formula for finding the sum to n terms of an arithmetic sequence starting with p th term.).

The resulting combination of analysis and geometry is referred now as analytical geometry. is a means and even the most powerful means to make children feel the strength of the human spirit that is of their own spirit. distance between two points. the location of the points (6. All these concepts are the basics of coordinate geometry. the point (3. – H. we initiated René Descartes the study of coordinate geometry. in his book ‘La Géométry. 0) in the XY-plane is shown in Fig 10. FREUDENTHAL 10. Let us have a brief recall of coordinate geometry done in earlier classes. it is a combination of algebra and geometry. as a logical system. – 4) is at 6 units distance from the y-axis measured along the positive x-axis and at 4 units distance from the x-axis measured along the negative y-axis.1. – 4) and (3. published in 1637. 0) is at 3 units distance from the y-axis measured along the positive x-axis and has zero distance from the x-axis. In the earlier classes.Chapter 10 STRAIGHT LINES G eometry. plotting of points in a plane. section formule. coordinate plane. etc. Mainly. To recapitulate. where we studied about (1596 -1650) coordinate axes. This book introduced the notion of the equation of a curve and related analytical methods into the study of geometry. Similarly. We may note that the point (6.1 We also studied there following important formulae: . A systematic study of geometry by the use of algebra was first carried out by celebrated French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes. Fig 10.1 Introduction We are familiar with two-dimensional coordinate geometry from earlier classes.

( − 3) + 3. . 4).204 MATHEMATICS I. y2) are ⎜ ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y 2 ⎞ . The coordinates of a point dividing the line segment joining the points (x1. . 10. the coordinates of the mid-point of the line segment joining the points (x1. y1). II. In particular.. in the ratio 1: 3 are given by x = and y = 1. we shall continue the study of coordinate geometry to study properties of the simplest geometric figure – straight line. which are supplementary.1 =0 1+ 3 For example. y2) internally. y2) is PQ = (x 2 – x1 ) + ( y2 – y1 ) 2 2 For example. distance between the points (6. 2 2 Remark If the area of the triangle ABC is zero. – 4) and (3. –3) and B (–3.2 Slope of a Line A line in a coordinate plane forms two angles with the x-axis.(− 3) = 0. B and C lie on a line. y1) and Q (x2. (3. y1) and (x2. 0) is ( 3 − 6 )2 + ( 0 + 4 )2 = 9 + 16 = 5 units. 9) internally. (x2. 2 For example. 16) is − 54 1 4( −2 − 16) + 3(16 − 4) + (−3)(4 + 2) = = 27. Area of the triangle whose vertices are (x1.e. Main focus is on representing the line algebraically.9 + 3. In the this Chapter. y2) and (x3. m+n ⎟ ⎝ m+n ⎠ 1. y3) is 1 x1 ( y 2 − y 3 ) + x 2 ( y 3 − y 1 ) + x 3 ( y1 − y 2 ) . if m = n. the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining A (1. y1) and (x2. they are collinear. 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 IV. 1+ 3 III. i. whose vertices are (4. – 2) and (– 3. the area of the triangle. then three points A. the line is a vital concept of geometry and enters into our daily experiences in numerous interesting and useful ways. in the ratio m: n are ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ m x 2 + n x1 m y 2 + n y1 ⎞ ⎟. ⎟. Despite its simplicity. Distance between the points P (x1. for which slope is most essential.

We observe that lines parallel to x-axis. y 1 ) and Q(x 2. Hence. But in ∆MPQ.STRAIGHT LINES 205 The angle (say) θ made by the line l with positive direction of x-axis and measured anti clockwise is called the inclination of the line. Obviously.3 (i) and (ii). θ ≠ 90° It may be observed that the slope of x-axis is zero and slope of y-axis is not defined. ∠MPQ = θ. 10.3 (i).2 the line l. 10. we proceed to find the slope of a line in terms of the coordinates of two points on the line. we have tan θ = Fig 10. (1) MQ y2 − y1 = .. Definition 1 If θ is the inclination of a line l. Draw perpendicular QR to x-axis and PM perpendicular to RQ as shown in Figs. The inclination of a vertical line (parallel to or coinciding with y-axis) is 90°. Therefore. x1 ≠ x2.2). MP x2 − x1 . The slope of a line is denoted by m.2.. 3 (i) . Thus. Obviously 0° ≤ θ ≤ 180° (Fig 10. m = tan θ. The inclination of the line l may be acute or obtuse..1 Slope of a line when coordinates of any two points on the line are given We know that a line is completely determined when we are given two points on it.. Let us take these two cases. slope of line l = m = tan θ. have inclination of 0°. Let P(x 1. otherwise the line will become perpendicular to x-axis and its slope will not be defined. Case 1 When angle θ is acute: In Fig 10. then tan θ is called the slope or gradient of Fig 10. y 2 ) be two points on non-vertical line l whose inclination is θ. (2) . or coinciding with x-axis. The slope of a line whose inclination is 90° is not defined.

if the slope of two lines l1 and l2 is same. x2 − x1 10. suppose that non-vertical lines l1 and l2 have slopes m1 and m2. i.4). respectively. =− 2 1 = x2 − x1 MP x1 − x2 Consequently.e. we see that in both the cases the slope m of the line through the points (x1. Let their inclinations be α and β.e. x2 − x1 Case II When angle θ is obtuse: In Fig 10. i. ..e. m1 = m2.206 MATHEMATICS From equations (1) and (2). θ = 180° – ∠MPQ.. α = β. slope of the line l Fig 10. α = β. y1) and (x2.2 Conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity of lines in terms of their slopes In a coordinate plane. we have m= y2 − y1 . i. Then tan α = tan β. Therefore. Now. respectively. 3 (ii) m = tan θ = tan ( 180° – ∠MPQ) = – tan ∠MPQ = − y2 − y1 MQ y −y . Therefore. Conversely. tan α = tan β Therefore m1 = m2. the lines are parallel. their slopes are equal. then their inclinations are equal.2. 4 By the property of tangent function (between 0° and 180°). If the line l1 is parallel to l2 (Fig 10. Fig 10. we have ∠MPQ = 180° – θ.. y2) is given by m = y2 − y1 . and hence.3 (ii).

1 tan α m1 m2 = – 1 1 m2 = − m 1 or Conversely. 4). – 2) is m= − 2 − ( − 2) 0 = = 0. Hence. then β = α + 90°. if m1 m2 = – 1. If the lines l1 and l2 are perpendicular (Fig 10. 5 Therefore. – 2) and (3. α and β differ by 90°. Example 1 Find the slope of the lines: (a) (b) (c) (d) Passing through the points (3. – 2). m1 Let us consider the following example. – 2) and (7. 7−3 4 (c) The slope of the line through the points (3. −1 − 3 −4 2 (b) The slope of the line through the points (3.. Solution (a) The slope of the line through (3. Passing through the points (3. tan α tan β = – 1. lines l1 and l2 are perpendicular to each other.. 4). – 2) and (3.e. – 2) and (–1. Thus. Passing through the points (3.. 4) is m= 4 − ( −2) 6 3 = =− . – 2) and (– 1. 4) is . – 2) and (7.e.tan β = tan (α + 90°) = – cot α = − i. m1 m2 = – 1. i. two non vertical lines l1 and l2 are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal. m2= − 1 or. Then tan α = – cot β = tan (β + 90°) or tan (β – 90°) Fig 10.STRAIGHT LINES 207 Hence.e. two non-vertical lines are perpendicular to each other if and only if their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. Therefore.5). i. Making inclination of 60° with the positive direction of x-axis.

208 MATHEMATICS 4 − ( − 2) 6 = . 10.3 Angle between two lines When we think about more than one line in a plane. Then θ = α2 – α1 and α1. 6 Now. Therefore tan θ = tan (α2 – α1) = and φ = 180° – θ so that tan φ = tan (180° – θ ) = – tan θ = – tan α 2 − tan α1 m − m1 = 2 1 + tan α1 tan α 2 1 + m1m2 (as 1 + m1m2 ≠ 0) m2 − m1 . Therefore. respectively. If α1 and α2 are the inclinations of lines L1 and L2. slope of the line is m= m = tan 60° = 3. there arise two cases: . Let θ and φ be the adjacent angles between the lines L1 and L2 (Fig10. then we find that these lines are either intersecting or parallel. We know that when two lines intersect each other. Here we will discuss the angle between two lines in terms of their slopes.6). α2 ≠ 90°. they make two pairs of vertically opposite angles such that sum of any two adjacent angles is 180°. as 1 + m1m2 ≠ 0 1 + m1m2 Fig 10. which is not defined. 3−3 0 (d) Here inclination of the line α = 60°. respectively.2. Then m1 = tan α1 and m2 = tan α2 . Let L1 and L2 be two non-vertical lines with slopes m1 and m2.

. Case II If which means that θ will be obtuse and φ will be acute. 3 . then tan θ will be negative and tan φ will be positive.STRAIGHT LINES 209 Case I If m 2 − m1 is positive. Solution We know that the acute angle θ between two lines with slopes m1 and m2 is given by Let m1 = tan θ = m2 − m1 1 + m1m 2 . which gives 1 1 m− 2 = 1 or − 2 = –1. Thus.. is given by tan θ = m 2 − m1 . respectively.. 1 + m1 m 2 which means θ will be acute and φ will be obtuse. 4 2 1 2 1 2 Now. then tan θ will be positive and tan φ will be negative. we get π tan = 4 m− 1 1+ m 2 or 1 = m− 1 1+ m 2 . as 1 + m1m 2 ≠ 0 1 + m1m 2 . 1 1 1+ 1+ m m 2 2 m− 1 Therefore m = 3 or m = − . Example 2 If the angle between two lines is π 1 and slope of one of the lines is . find 4 2 the slope of the other line. 1 + m1 m 2 m 2 − m1 is negative. (1) The obtuse angle (say φ) can be found by using φ =1800 – θ. the acute angle (say θ) between lines L1 and L2 with slopes m1 and m2. m2 = m and θ = . (1) 1 π .. putting these values in (1).

7 Example 3 Line through the points (–2. Fig 10. which gives m2 = 1 12 × = −1 or x = 4 . then two lines will coincide.8) if and only if slope of AB = slope of BC. 8 . 12) and (x. Fig 10. then they will lie on a line. 6) and (4. Solution Slope of the line through the points (– 2. If two lines having the same slope pass through a common point.7 explains the 3 reason of two answers.4 Collinearity of three points We know that slopes of two parallel lines are equal. slope of the other line is 1 3 or − . Hence. B and C are three points in the XY-plane. 8) is perpendicular to the line through the points (8. 3 x −8 10. Find the value of x.210 MATHEMATICS Hence.e.. 24) is 24 − 12 12 = x−8 x −8 Since two lines are perpendicular. 24). 6) and (4. if A. 12) and (x. Fig 10. three points are collinear (Fig 10.2. m1 m2 = –1. i. 8) is m1 = 8−6 2 1 = = 4 − ( −2 ) 6 3 Slope of the line through the points (8.

Find the distance between P (x1. 3. Draw a quadrilateral in the Cartesian plane.e. y1 − k y −y = 2 1 x1 − h x2 − x1 or or k − y1 y 2 − y1 = h − x1 x2 − x1 . y1) and Q (x2. points (0.STRAIGHT LINES 211 Example 4 Three points P (h. and the mid-point of the line segment joining the points P (0. Q and R are collinear. D) be any point on the line. y2) when : (i) PQ is parallel to the y-axis. when T = 0. which is equidistant from the points (7. time and distance graph of a linear motion is given. where D denotes the distance at time T.9. 4). (h – x1) (y2 – y1) = (k – y1) (x2 – x1).. (0. Also. Find vertices of the triangle. Solution Since points P. 0). whose vertices are (– 4.1 1. k). Therefore.9 8 − 2 D −8 or = 3−0 T −3 or D = 2(T + 1). Show that (h – x1) (y2 – y1) = (k – y1) (x2 – x1). we have Slope of PQ = Slope of QR.. –2). D = 8.e. y1) and R (x2. Find a point on the x-axis. Using the concept of slope. Solution Let (T. which passes through the origin. find law of motion. – 5) and (– 4. (5. D) are collinear so that Fig 10. 5. 6) and (3. i. Example 5 In Fig 10. 4. which is the required relation. 5). Find the slope of a line. (ii) PQ is parallel to the x-axis. 7). y2) lie on a line. 2. how distance depends upon time. 6 (T − 3) = 3 (D − 8) EXERCISE 10. (3. The base of an equilateral triangle with side 2a lies along the y-axis such that the mid-point of the base is at the origin. Two positions of time and distance are recorded as. – 4) and B (8. 2). D = 2 and when T = 3. . find its area. i. Q (x1. 8) and (T.

Without using the Pythagoras theorem. find what will be the population in the year 2010? Fig 10. 3 12. 7. – 1). Find the value of x for which the points (x. 11.3 Various Forms of the Equation of a Line We know that every line in a plane contains infinitely many points on it. find the slopes of the lines.1) and (4. Without using distance formula.–2). – 1). The slope of a line is double of the slope of another line. show that the points (4. 2) are the vertices of a parallelogram. k) lie on a line. 5) are collinear. show that k – y1 = m (h – x1). h k 14. find the slope of the line AB and using it. (3. b) and (0. which makes an angle of 30° with the positive direction of y-axis measured anticlockwise. 9. 4). 8. If slope of the line is m. k). show that a b + = 1. A line passes through (x1. 0). Find the slope of the line. 10. (a. 13.10 10. (3.–1) and (4. Consider the following population and year graph (Fig 10.10). –1) are the vertices of a right angled triangle. y1) and (h. 5) and (–1. 3) and (–3. If three points (h. (2. Find the angle between the x-axis and the line joining the points (3. If tangent of the angle between them is 1 . (4. This relationship between line and points leads us to find the solution of the following problem: . 0). show that points (– 2.212 MATHEMATICS 6.

11 Example 6 Find the equations of the lines parallel to axes and passing through (– 2. For the equation of L. y) is an arbitrary point in the XY-plane and L is the given line. Now. we will discuss the equation of a line under different conditions. otherwise false. 3). Of course the statement is merely an algebraic equation involving the variables x and y. Similarly. we wish to construct a statement or condition for the point P that is true.3. The y-coordinate of every point on the line parallel to x-axis is 3.11 (a)]. equation of the line parallel to y-axis and passing through (– 2.12.12 . the equation of a vertical line at a distance b from the x-axis is either x = b or x = – b [Fig 10.11(b)]. equation of the line parallel tox-axis and passing through (– 2. 10. when P is on L.1 Horizontal and vertical lines If a horizontal line L is at a distance a from the x-axis then ordinate of every point lying on the line is either a or – a [Fig 10. Similarly. Fig 10.STRAIGHT LINES 213 How can we say that a given point lies on the given line? Its answer may be that for a given line we should have a definite condition on the points lying on the line. Therefore. Solution Position of the lines is shown in the Fig 10. 3) is x = – 2. Suppose P (x. equation of the line L is either y = a or y = – a. therefore. Fig 10. Choice of sign will depend upon the position of the line according as the line is above or below the y-axis. 3) is y = 3.

therefore. y) be a general point on L (Fig 10. The three points P1.14).. if and only if. y2). i.3 Two-point form Let the line L passes through two given points P1 (x1. x − x1 x 2 − x1 or y − y 1 = y 2 − y1 ( x − x1 ). its coordinates satisfy the equation y – y0 = m (x – x0) Example 7 Find the equation of the line through (– 2. y − y1 y 2 − y1 = . equation of the given line is y – 3 = – 4 (x + 2) or 4x + y + 5 = 0.214 MATHEMATICS 10.3. y) on L satisfies (1) and no other point in the plane satisfies (1). 3). y0) is a fixed point on a non-vertical line L. Fig 10.e.. P2 and P are collinear..(1) Since the point P0 (x0 . y0) along with all points (x. which is the required equation. Let P (x. Equation (1) is indeed the equation for the given line L. y − y 0 = m ( x − x 0 ) x − x0 . 3) with slope – 4.e. by the definition. whose slope is m. Solution Here m = – 4 and given point (x0 .2 Point-slope form Suppose that P0 (x0. y1) and P2 (x2.14 i.13). Let P (x. y) be an arbitrary point on L (Fig 10.13 Thus. By slope-intercept form formula (1) above. y) lies on the line with slope m through the fixed point (x0. Then.. we have slope of P1P = slope of P1P2 Fig 10. the point (x. 10. x 2 − x1 . y0). the slope of L is given by m= y − y0 . y0) is (– 2.3.

y1 = – 1. Case I Suppose a line L with slope m cuts the y-axis at a distance c from the origin (Fig10. y) on the line with slope Fig 10. Solution Here x1 = 1. coordinates of the point where the line meet the y-axis are (0.15). The distance c is called the yintercept of the line L. We will now find equations of such lines... c). (4) Students may derive this equation themselves by the same method as in Case I. –1) and (3. 2 .15 m and y-intercept c lies on the line if and only if y = mx + c . Obviously. Case II Suppose line L with slope m makes x-intercept d. the point (x. y2) is given by y − y1 = y 2 − y1 ( x − x1) x 2 − x1 . Thus.STRAIGHT LINES 215 Thus. the equation of L is y − c = m ( x − 0 ) or y = mx + c Thus. Then equation of L is . y1) and (x2. which is the required equation. Using two-point form (2) above for the equation of the line. Example 9 Write the equation of the lines for which tan θ = inclination of the line and (i) y-intercept is – y = m( x − d ) 1 . by point-slope form. x2 = 3 and y2 = 5. equation of the line passing through the points (x1.3. we have y − (− 1) = or 5 − (− 1) (x − 1) 3 −1 − 3 x + y + 4 = 0 . (2) Example 8 Write the equation of the line through the points (1.. respectively. L has slope m and passes through a fixed point (0.(3) Note that the value of c will be positive or negative according as the intercept is made on the positive or negative side of the y-axis. c).4 Slope-intercept form Sometimes a line is known to us with its slope and an intercept on one of the axes. where θ is the 2 3 (ii) x-intercept is 4.. Therefore.. 5). 10..

e. slope of the line is m = tan θ = 1 3 and y . 2 (ii) Here.5 Intercept . is x y + =1 a b . 0) and y-axis at the point (0.and y-axes respectively. by slope-intercept form (3) above. by slope-intercept form (4) above. 2 2 Therefore. the equation of the line is y= 1 ( x − 4) or 2 y − x + 4 = 0 . .216 MATHEMATICS Solution (i) Here. By intercept form (5) above. respectively. equation of the line is x y + =1 −3 2 or 2x − 3 y + 6 = 0 . the equation of the line is y= which is the required equation. we have m = tan θ = Therefore. Solution Here a = –3 and b = 2. Obviously L meets x-axis at the point (a. a b Fig 10. 2 which is the required equation. b−0 (x − a) or ay = −bx + ab . b) (Fig .. we have y−0= i.. By two-point form of the equation of the line. 1 3 x − or 2 y − x + 3 = 0 .. 2 2 1 and d = 4.10. which makes intercepts –3 and 2 on the x. equation of the line making intercepts a and b on x-and y-axis.16).intercept c = – . 10. 0−a x y + = 1. (5) Example 10 Find the equation of the line.16 Thus.3.form Suppose a line L makes x-intercept a and y-intercept b on the axes.

by sin ω point-slope form. Therefore. so that the coordinates of the point A are (p cos ω. the equation of the line L is .17 In each case. The possible positions of line L in the Cartesian plane are shown in the Fig 10. Now. the line L has slope − 1 1 cos ω =− =− .3. Draw perpendicular AM on the x-axis in each case. line L is perpendicular to OA. Therefore The slope of the line L = − Thus. slope of OA tan ω sin ω cos ω and point A ( p cos ω. Let L be the line. Fig 10. our purpose is to find slope of L and a point on it.17.6 Normal form Suppose a non-vertical line is known to us with following data: (i) Length of the perpendicular (normal) from origin to the line. p sin ω) on it.STRAIGHT LINES 217 10. (ii) Angle which normal makes with the positive direction of x-axis. Further. whose perpendicular distance from origin O be OA = p and the angle between the positive x-axis and OA be ∠XOA = ω. we have OM = p cos ω and MA = p sin ω. p sin ω).

x cos 150 + y sin 150 = 4 or ( 3 +1 x + ) ( 3 − 1 y = 8 2. Solution Here. Given that K = 273 when F = 32 and that K = 373 when F = 212. (6) Example 11 Find the equation of the line whose perpendicular distance from the origin is 4 units and the angle which the normal makes with positive direction of x-axis is 15°.. the point (F. the equation of the line having normal distance p from the origin and angle ω which the normal makes with the positive direction of x-axis is given by x cos ω + y sin ω = p . we are given p = 4 and ω = 150 (Fig10. K) satisfies the equation K − 273 = or 373 − 273 100 ( F − 32 ) or K − 273 = ( F − 32 ) 212 − 32 180 .18). Express K in terms of F and find the value of F.18 3 +1 3 −1 x+ y = 4 or 2 2 2 2 This is the required equation. the equation of the line is Fig 10. 373) in XY-plane. ) Example 12 The Fahrenheit temperature F and absolute temperature K satisfy a linear equation.218 MATHEMATICS y − p sin ω = − cos ω ( x − p cos ω ) or sin ω x cos ω + y sin ω = p (sin 2ω + cos 2ω) or x cos ω + y sin ω = p.. K= . Hence. when K = 0. Now and cos 15° = sin 15º = 3 +1 2 2 3 −1 (Why?) 2 2 By the normal form (6) above. 273) and (212. (1) 5 ( F − 32 ) + 273 9 which is the required relation. By two-point form. we have two points (32. Solution Assuming F along x-axis and K along y-axis...

we get m= . 2. we get 5 2297 F+ 9 9 which is the required relation.2 In Exercises 1 to 8.. 7. When K = 0. For finding these two constants. 2 ( ) . 2 3 and inclined with the x-axis at an angle of 75o.. Passing through (0. 3) with slope 3. In all the examples above. 9 9 .. namely. – 4). Passing through 2.. 6. find the equation of the line which satisfy the given conditions: 1. we can take equation in the form K = mF + c . 1) and (2. Equation (1) gives 0= 5 ( F − 32 ) + 273 9 or F − 32 = − 273 × 9 = − 491. (4) Putting the values of m and c in (1). Intersecting the y-axis at a distance of 2 units above the origin and making an angle of 30o with positive direction of the x-axis. (4) gives F = – 459. (1) Equation (1) is satisfied by (32. 0) with slope m. that the equation y = mx + c. 373). m and c. we are given two conditions to determine the equation of the line. 5. Passing through the point (– 4. Again assuming Falong x-axis and K along y-axis. we need two conditions satisfied by the equation of line. contains two constants.STRAIGHT LINES 219 When K = 0. 4. Write the equations for the x-and y-axes. Passing through the points (–1. Therefore 273 = 32m + c .4. (3) 5 2297 and c = . EXERCISE 10..4 5 or F= − 459. (2) and 373 = 212m + c Solving (2) and (3). Alternate method We know that simplest form of the equation of a line is y = mx + c. Intersecting the x-axis at a distance of 3 units to the left of origin with slope –2.. 1 . K= Note We know... 273) and (212.4 .

9. 11. 2) are collinear. Find the equation of the line passing through (–3. where A. By using the concept of equation of a line. find the equation of the line. 2) and cutting off intercepts on the axes whose sum is 9. express L in terms of C. The owner of a milk store finds that. Find the equation of the line. 5). – 2) and (8. 15. Find equation of the line. The vertices of ∆ PQR are P (2. (– 2. Perpendicular distance from the origin is 5 units and the angle made by the perpendicular with the positive x-axis is 300. 13. 9). 3) and R (4. In an experiment. 10. a b 19. 16. 6). 14. 5) and (–3. 17. 0). 5) and perpendicular to the line through the points (2. find the equation of line parallel to it and crossing the y-axis at a distance of 2 units below the origin. 2) making an angle of the line is x y + = 2. 1). Find the equation of a line that cuts off equal intercepts on the coordinate axes and passes through the point (2. .220 MATHEMATICS 8. 10. 3) divides it in the ratio 1: n. 12. Find equation of the line passing through the point (2. Q (–2. 18. if L = 124.4 General Equation of a Line In earlier classes. Point R (h. he can sell 980 litres of milk each week at Rs 14/litre and 1220 litres of milk each week at Rs 16/litre. Also. b) is the mid-point of a line segment between axes. Assuming a linear relationship between selling price and demand. k) divides a line segment between the axes in the ratio 1: 2. The perpendicular from the origin to a line meets it at the point (–2. how many litres could he sell weekly at Rs 17/litre? P (a. 20. The length L (in centimetrs) of a copper rod is a linear function of its Celsius temperature C. 2π with the 3 positive x-axis. A line perpendicular to the line segment joining the points (1. we have studied general equation of first degree in two variables. Ax + By + C = 0. 0) and (2. 3). Find equation of the median through the vertex R. Graph of the equation Ax + By + C = 0 is always a straight line.942 when C = 20 and L= 125.134 when C = 110. Show that equation Find equation of the line through the point (0. B and C are real constants such that A and B are not zero simultaneously. prove that the three points (3.

. then x = − x-intercept is − C . has zero intercepts on the axes. B B We know that Equation (1) is the slope-intercept form of the equation of a line m=− A C . which is a line passing through the origin and. B B whose slope is − If B = 0.1 Different forms of Ax + By + C = 0 The general equation of a line can be reduced into various forms of the equation of a line.which is a vertical line whose slope is undefined and A C . then Ax + By + C = 0 can be written as y=− where A C x − or y = mx + c B B . 10. (1) A C and c = − . any equation of the form Ax + By + C = 0. then Ax + By + C = 0 can be written as x y x y + = 1 or + =1 C C a b − − A B where a= − C C and b = − ..4. where A and B are not zero simultaneously is called general linear equation or general equation of a line. A B We know that equation (1) is intercept form of the equation of a line whose x-intercept is − C C and y-intercept is − . A B If C = 0. by the following procedures: (a) Slope-intercept form If B ≠ 0. therefore. A (b) Intercept form If C ≠ 0. A B C = =− p cos ω sin ω . and y-intercept is − . both the equations are same and therefore. then Ax + By + C = 0 can be written as Ax + By = 0. (c) Normal form Let x cos ω + y sin ω = p be the normal form of the line represented by the equation Ax + By + C = 0 or Ax + By = – C. Thus.STRAIGHT LINES 221 Therefore.

(ii) x . the normal form of the equation Ax + By + C = 0 is x cos ω + y sin ω = p.. Proper choice of signs is made so that p should be positive. we have x-intercept as a = − and a b 3 5 . (2) Comparing (2) with y-intercept as b = x y 10 + = 1 .. C C 2 Now Ap sin ω + cos ω = − C 2 p = ( ) ( ) Bp + − C C or p = ± 2 2 =1 or Therefore C 2 2 A +B 2 2 A +B cosω = ± A 2 2 A +B and sinω = ± B 2 2 A +B .. (1) Comparing (1) with y = mx + c.and y-intercepts. Thus. 4 . we have slope of the given line as m = (ii) Equation 3x – 4y + 10 = 0 can be written as 3 x − 4 y = −10 or x y + =1 10 5 − 3 2 3 .. Find its (i) slope. Solution (i) Given equation 3x – 4y + 10 = 0 can be written as y= 3 5 x+ 4 2 . sin ω = ± B A +B 2 2 and p = ± C 2 A +B 2 .222 MATHEMATICS which gives 2 cos ω = − 2 Ap Bp and sin ω = − . 2 . Example 13 Equation of a line is 3x – 4y + 10 = 0. where cos ω = ± A A +B 2 2 .

STRAIGHT LINES 223 Example 14 Reduce the equation of p and ω. Hence. Example15 Find the angle between the lines y − 3 x − 5 = 0 and Solution Given lines are 3y − x + 6 = 0 .. we get 3 1 x + y = 4 or cos 30° x + sin 30° y = 4 . (1) ( 3) 2 + (1)2 = 2 .. angle between two lines is either 30° or 180° – 30° = 150°. Solution Given equation is 3 x + y − 8 = 0 into normal form. 3 The acute angle (say) θ between two lines is given by tan θ = . we get p = 4 and ω = 30°. (2) 3 y − x + 6 = 0 or y = 3 x − 2 3 1 Slope of line (1) is m1 = 3 and slope of line (2) is m2 = m 2 − m1 1 + m1 m 2 1 . Find the values 3x + y − 8 = 0 Dividing (1) by ..... Example 16 Show that two lines a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 and a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 = 0 . b2 ≠ 0 are: .. (1) . y − 3 x − 5 = 0 or y = 3 x + 5 and . (3) Putting the values of m1 and m2 in (3)... we get 1 − 3 3 tan θ = 1 1+ 3 × 3 = 1− 3 1 = 2 3 3 which gives θ = 30°. (2) 2 2 Comparing (2) with x cos ω + y sin ω = p. where b1..

if m1. slope of the line perpendicular to line (1) is 2 m2 = − 1 = −2 m1 Equation of the line with slope – 2 and passing through the point (1. which gives a 2 . (2) y = − a2 x − c2 b2 b2 b1 Slopes of the lines (1) and (2) are m1 = − a1 and m2 = − (i) Lines are parallel.(1) Slope of the line (1) is m1 = 1 . Now b2 − a1 a 2 a1 a = . – 2)... which gives a1 a2 . = − 1 or a a + b b = 0 1 2 1 2 b1 b2 Example 17 Find the equation of a line perpendicular to the line x − 2 y + 3 = 0 and passing through the point (1. Solution Given lines can be written as y = − a1 x − c1 b1 b1 and . (1) .224 MATHEMATICS (i) Parallel if a1 b1 = a2 b2 . Therefore. .. and (ii) Perpendicular if a1 a 2 + b1 b 2 = 0 . if m1 = m2.. respectively. = − 2 or b1 b2 b1 b2 (ii) Lines are perpendicular.. – 2) is y − ( − 2) = − 2(x − 1) or y = − 2 x ..m2 = – 1. Solution Given line x − 2 y + 3 = 0 can be written as y= 1 3 x+ 2 2 . which is the required equation.

19). respectively.. If Fig10. and AB ⎛ C⎞ QR = ⎜ 0 + ⎟ + ⎝ A⎠ ( C − 0 B ) 2 = C AB 2 2 A +B Substituting the values of area (∆PQR) and QR in (1). which gives PM = 2 ⎛ C ⎞ Q ⎜ − . y1) is d. 0 ⎟ and R ⎝ A ⎠ C⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0.QR . (1) Also. whose distance from the point P (x1.. − ⎟ .STRAIGHT LINES 225 10. A x1 + B y 1 + C . Then. Thus.19 the line meets the x-and y-axes at the points Q and R. Let L : Ax + By + C = 0 be a line. area (∆PQR) = 1 C ⎞ ⎛ C ⎞⎛ C ⎛ ⎞ x1 ⎜ 0 + ⎟ + ⎜ − ⎟⎜ − − y1 ⎟ + 0 ( y 1 − 0 ) 2 B ⎠ ⎝ A ⎠⎝ B ⎝ ⎠ = 1 C C C2 x1 + y 1 + 2 B A AB or 2 area (∆PQR) = 2 C .5 Distance of a Point From a Line The distance of a point from a line is the length of the perpendicular drawn from the point to the line. coordinates of the points are is given by 1 area (∆PQR) = PM. we get . the area of the triangle PQR B⎠ ⎝ 2 area (∆PQR) QR . Draw a perpendicular PM from the point P to the line L (Fig10.

20 Distance between two lines is equal to the length of the perpendicular from point A to line (2). Therefore. the perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By+ C = 0 from a point (x1. distance between the lines (1) and (2) is ( −m) ⎛ − ⎜ c1 ⎞ ⎟ + ( −c2 ) ⎝ m⎠ 1 + m2 or d = c1 − c2 1 + m2 ... If lines are given in general form. 2 2 A +B Thus. Thus. the distance d between two parallel lines y = mx + c1 and y = mx + c2 is given by d= c1 − c2 1 + m2 . i.20.226 MATHEMATICS PM = A x1 + B y 1 + C 2 2 A +B . y1) is given by d= A x1 + B y1 + C 2 2 A +B or d= A x1 + B y1 + C . Ax + By + C1 = 0 and Ax + By + C2 = 0. 10.. (2) Line (1) will intersect x-axis at the point ⎛ c1 ⎞ A ⎜ − m . .. (1) y = mx + c1 and y = mx + c2 . ⎝ ⎠ Fig10. Therefore.e..5. 0 ⎟ as shown in Fig10.1 Distance between two parallel lines We know that slopes of two parallel lines are equal. two parallel lines can be taken in the form .

we get A = 3. C1 = 7 and C2 = 5. (ii) 6x + 3y – 5 = 0. (iii) y = 0. Find the distance of the point (–1. 4. Find the distance between parallel lines (i) 15x + 8y – 34 = 0 and 15x + 8y + 31 = 0 (ii) l (x + y) + p = 0 and l (x + y) – r = 0. 5. (1) Comparing (1) with general equation of line Ax + By + C = 0.. Find their perpendicular distances from the origin and angle between perpendicular and the positive x-axis. 1) from the line 12(x + 6) = 5(y – 2). . The distance of the given point from given line is d= Ax1 + By1 + C A +B 2 2 = 3. B = – 4 and C = – 26. (i) 3x + 2y – 12 = 0. Solution Given line is 3x – 4y –26 = 0 . Reduce the following equations into normal form. 2.intercepts. Find the points on the x-axis. Therefore.3 1. (ii) y – 2 = 0. y1) = (3. Reduce the following equations into slope . (i) x + 7y = 0. 5 Example 19 Find the distance between the parallel lines 3x – 4y +7 = 0 and 3x – 4y + 5 = 0 Solution Here A = 3. whose distances from the line x y + = 1 are 4 units. – 5) from the line 3x – 4y –26 = 0. Given point is (x1. (ii) 4x – 3y = 6. (i) x – 3y + 8 = 0. Reduce the following equations into intercept form and find their intercepts on the axes. 3. (iii) x – y = 4. (iii) 3y + 2 = 0..3 + ( –4 )( –5 ) – 26 3 + ( –4 ) 2 2 3 = .STRAIGHT LINES 227 then above formula will take the form d = C1 − C 2 A 2 + B2 Students can derive it themselves. –5). 5 EXERCISE 10. 3 4 6. B = –4. the required distance is d= 7–5 32 + ( –4 ) 2 2 = . Example 18 Find the distance of the point (3.intercept form and find their slopes and the y .

Solution Three lines are said to be concurrent. 9. 12. Find equation of the line perpendicular to the line x – 7y + 5 = 0 and having x intercept 3. If slope of one line is 2. Find the value of h. 18. Find equation of the line parallel to the line 3 x − 4 y + 2 = 0 and passing through the point (–2. at right angle. The line through the points (h. 3) intersects each other at an angle of 60o.. 2). 15. Find the values of m and c. 17. 2). 4) and (–1. Find the equation of the right bisector of the line segment joining the points (3. Two lines passing through the point (2. respectively. Find angles between the lines 3 x + y = 1and x + 3 y = 1. The perpendicular from the origin to the line y = mx + c meets it at the point (–1. 11. 16. –1) and C (1.. 2 p a b Miscellaneous Examples Example 20 If the lines 2 x + y − 3 = 0 . 3) and (4. find the value of k. B (4.. 5 x + ky − 3 = 0 and 3 x − y − 2 = 0 are concurrent. prove that p2 + 4q2 = k2. y1) and parallel to the line Ax + By + C = 0 is A (x –x1) + B (y – y1) = 0.. if they pass through a common point. point of intersection of any two lines lies on the third line. Here given lines are 2x + y – 3 = 0 . 13. 2). 3). 10. In the triangle ABC with vertices A (2. 8. Find the coordinates of the foot of perpendicular from the point (–1. then show that 1 1 1 = 2 + 2. If p is the length of perpendicular from the origin to the line whose intercepts on the axes are a and b. (1) 5x + ky – 3 = 0 .228 MATHEMATICS 7. 14. find equation of the other line.e. Prove that the line through the point (x1. find the equation and length of altitude from the vertex A. 1) intersects the line 7 x − 9 y − 19 = 0. 3) to the line 3x – 4y – 16 = 0. i. 3). If p and q are the lengths of perpendiculars from the origin to the lines x cos θ − y sin θ = k cos 2θ and x sec θ + y cosec θ = k. (2) ..

k) is the image of the point P (1. Slope of second line is tan 135° = –1. (1) . = (1 − 4 )2 + ( 4 − 1)2 = 3 2 units . distance of line (1) from the point P (4. 1). 2) in the line x − 3 y + 4 = 0 . −2−3 −9+ 4 −2−3 Therefore. we get . 4).21 y – 1 = – 1 (x – 4) or x + y – 5 = 0 . Example 21 Find the distance of the line 4x – y = 0 from the point P (4. Solution Let Q (h. y = 1 . we will first find the equation of the second line (Fig 10..STRAIGHT LINES 229 3x – y – 2 = 0 Solving (1) and (3) by cross-multiplication method... For this purpose. we get x = 1 and y = 4 so that point of intersection of the two lines is Q (1.. (3) 1 x y = = or x = 1. 1) and Q (1. Since above three lines are concurrent. 1) along another line. (1) Fig 10. 4).. 1) along the line (2) = The distance between the points P (4..1 – 3 = 0 or k = – 2. Example 22 Assuming that straight lines work as the plane mirror for a point..1 + k . the point (1. Solution Given line is 4x – y = 0 In order to find the distance of the line (1) from the point P (4. Now. 2) in the line x – 3y + 4 = 0 . Equation of the line with slope – 1 through the point P (4. we have to find the point of intersection of both the lines. the point of intersection of two lines is (1. 1) is . 1) will satisfy equation (3) so that 5.. 1) measured along the line making an angle of 135° with the positive x-axis. (2) Solving (1) and (2). find the image of the point (1.21).

. the line (1) is the perpendicular bisector of line segment PQ (Fig 10. i. point ⎜ ⎛ h +1 k + 2 ⎞ .22 Therefore. ⎟ will satisfy the equation (1) so that 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 h +1 ⎛ k + 2 ⎞ − 3⎜ ⎟ + 4 = 0 or h − 3k = −3 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ Solving (2) and (3). ..230 MATHEMATICS Fig10... 5 5 ⎛6 7⎞ Hence. we get h = . 2) in the line (1) is ⎜ . Slope of line x − 3 y + 4 = 0 ..22). (3) 6 7 and k = . Hence so that Slope of line PQ = k − 2 −1 = h −1 1 3 −1 . (2) or 3h + k = 5 and the mid-point of PQ. ⎝5 5⎠ Example 23 Show that the area of the triangle formed by the lines y = m1 x + c1 . the image of the point (1.e. y = m 2 x + c 2 (c –c ) and x = 0 is 1 2 2 2 m1 − m 2 . ⎟ .

⎜( ( m1 − m2 ) ⎟ . c1) and Q (0. we get x= ( c2 − c1 ) ( m1 − m2 ) and y = ( m1c2 − m2c1 ) ( m1 − m2 ) Fig 10..... Therefore. Solution Given lines are 5x – y + 4 = 0 . Therefore 5α1 – β1 + 4 = 0 and 3 α2 + 4 β 2 – 4 = 0 Fig 10. two vertices of the triangle formed by lines (1) to (3) are P (0. 5).24 . 23). respectively (Fig10.. 2) ⎝ 1 ⎠ Now... (2) Let the required line intersects the lines (1) and (2) at the points .STRAIGHT LINES 231 Solution Given lines are y = m1 x + c1 . third vertex of the triangle is R ⎜ m − m . Third vertex can be obtained by solving equations (1) and (2). (1) 3x + 4y – 4 = 0 .24). β2).23 ⎛ ( c2 − c1 ) ( m1c2 − m2 c1 ) ⎞ ⎟ Therefore. (α1. Obtain its equation.. (2) x=0 . (3) We know that line y = mx + c meets the line x = 0 (y-axis) at the point (0. c2) (Fig 10. (1) y = m2 x + c2 . β1) and (α2. Solving (1) and (2). c). the area of the triangle is = ⎛ m c − m2 c1 ⎞ c −c 1 − c2 ⎟ + 2 .1 ( c2 − c1 ) + 0 ⎜ 0 ⎜ 1 2 2 ⎝ m1 − m2 ⎠ m1 − m2 ⎝ ⎛ m c − m c ⎞ ( c −c ) = c − 1 2 2 1 1 2 m1 − m2 ⎟ ⎠ 2 1 2 m1 − m 2 Example 24 A line is such that its segment between the lines 5x – y + 4 = 0 and 3x + 4y – 4 = 0 is bisected at the point (1...

k) is any point. 4 We are given that the mid point of the segment of the required line between (α1.. Solution Given lines are 3x – 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 5 … (1) … (2) Let (h. which is the equation of required line.232 MATHEMATICS 4 – 3α 2 . Example 25 Show that the path of a moving point such that its distances from two lines 3x – 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 5 are equal is a straight line. whose distances from the lines (1) and (2) are equal. Therefore or β1 = 5α1 + 4 and β 2 = β +β α1 + α 2 = 1 and 1 2 = 5 . 5) and (α1. 5). 2 2 or α1 + α 2 = 2 and 5 α1 + 4 + 2 4 − 3α2 4 = 5. β1 = 5. we get α1 = 222 26 20 26 +4= and α 2 = and hence. (3) or α1 + α 2 = 2 and 20 α1 − 3 α 2 = 20 Solving equations in (3) for α1 and α2. which gives 3h – 2k – 5 = 3h + 2k – 5 or – (3h – 2k – 5) = 3h + 2k – 5. β2) is (1. . β1) and (α2. .. β1) is −5 β −5 y −5 = 1 ( x − 1) or y − 5 = 23 (x − 1) 26 α1 − 1 −1 23 or 107x – 3y – 92 = 0. . 23 23 23 23 223 Equation of the required line passing through (1. Therefore 3h − 2k − 5 9+4 = 3h + 2k − 5 9+4 or 3h − 2k − 5 = 3h + 2k − 5 .

STRAIGHT LINES 233 Solving these two relations we get k = 0 or h = equations y = 0 or x = 5 . Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 10 1. point. 4. Find the equation of the lines through the point (3. if the equation x cos θ + y sinθ = p is the normal form of the line 3 x + y + 2 = 0. Thus. . sin φ). x + y = 0 and x – k = 0. which cut-off intercepts on the axes whose sum and product are 1 and – 6. Find the equation of the line parallel to y-axis and drawn through the point of intersection of the lines x – 7y + 5 = 0 and 3x + y = 0. 2. sin θ) and (cos φ. 6. Find perpendicular distance from the origin of the line joining the points (cosθ. Hence. Find the value of p so that the three lines 3x + y – 2 = 0. (c) Passing through the origin. path of the point 3 equidistant from the lines (1) and (2) is a straight line. 5. y = m2x + c2 and y = m3x + c3 are concurrent. 7. Find the equation of a line drawn perpendicular to the line x y + = 1 through the 4 6 8. 3. px + 2 y – 3 = 0 and 2x – y – 3 = 0 may intersect at one point. then show that m1(c2 – c3) + m2 (c3 – c1) + m3 (c1 – c2) = 0. 9. (b) Parallel to the y-axis. the point (h. where it meets the y-axis. Find the equations of the lines. Find the values of θ and p. If three lines whose equations are y = m1x + c1. 11. Find the values of k for which the line (k–3) x – (4 – k2) y + k2 –7k + 6 = 0 is (a) Parallel to the x-axis. Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines y – x = 0. k) satisfy the 3 5 . 2) which make an angle of 45o with the line x – 2y = 3. What are the points on the y-axis whose distance from the line x y + = 1 is 3 4 4 units. respectively. which represent straight lines. Find the equation of the line passing through the point of intersection of the lines 4x + 7y – 3 = 0 and 2x – 3y + 1 = 0 that has equal intercepts on the axes. 12. 10.

The hypotenuse of a right angled triangle has its ends at the points (1. 8) with respect to the line x +3y = 7 assuming the line to be a plane mirror. Find the image of the point (3. 17.0 and − a 2 − b2 . Prove that the product of the lengths of the perpendiculars drawn from the x y cosθ + sin θ = 1is b 2 . x 2 − x1 x1 − x 2 If a line makes an angle á with the positive direction of x-axis. 3) and (– 4. the line joining (–1. 1) and (5. α ≠ 90°. 7) is divided by the line x + y = 4? 15. x 1 − m tan θ 14. 2) reflects on the x-axis at point A and the reflected ray passes through the point (5. then the slope of the line is given by m = tan α. Slope of horizontal line is zero and slope of vertical line is undefined. Find equation of the line which is equidistant from parallel lines 9x + 6y – 7 = 0 and 3x + 2y + 6 = 0. A person standing at the junction (crossing) of two straight paths represented by the equations 2x – 3y + 4 = 0 and 3x + 4y – 5 = 0 wants to reach the path whose equation is 6x – 7y + 8 = 0 in the least time. If sum of the perpendicular distances of a variable point P (x. x 1 ≠ x 2. 16. 22. Show that the equation of the line passing through the origin and making an angle θ with the line y = mx + c is y m + tan θ = ± .0 to the line ) ( ) Summary Slope (m) of a non-vertical line passing through the points (x1. 23. y1) and (x2. 19. find the value of m. Find the equation of the legs (perpendicular sides) of the triangle. Find the distance of the line 4x + 7y + 5 = 0 from the point (1. a b 24. y) from the lines x + y – 5 = 0 and 3x – 2y +7 = 0 is always 10. 2) so that its point of intersection with the line x + y = 4 may be at a distance of 3 units from this point.234 MATHEMATICS 13. 1). In what ratio. y2) is given by m = y 2 − y1 y1 − y 2 = . Find the coordinates of A. Find equation of the path that he should follow. If the lines y = 3x +1 and 2y = x + 3 are equally inclined to the line y = mx + 4. A ray of light passing through the point (1. Show that P must move on a line. . 3). 20. 21. Find the direction in which a straight line must be drawn through the point (–1. 2) along the line 2x – y = 0. 18. points ( a 2 − b 2 .

simultaneously. . yo). Equation of a line making intercepts a and b on the x-and y-axis. y1) and (x2. The perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By+ C = 0 from a point (x1. is called the general linear equation or general equation of a line. y) lies on the line with slope m and through the fixed point (xo. respectively. is x y + = 1. y2) is given by y − y1 = y 2 − y1 ( x − x1). with A and B are not zero. a b The equation of the line having normal distance from origin p and angle between normal and the positive x-axis ω is given by x cos ω + y sin ω = p .STRAIGHT LINES 235 An acute angle (say θ) between lines L1 and L2 with slopes m1 and m2 is m2 – m1 given by tanθ = 1 + m m . y1) is given by d = . if and only if its coordinates satisfy the equation y – y o = m (x – xo). 1 2 Two lines are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal. is given by d = Ax1 + B y1 + C C1 − C 2 2 2 A +B . If a line with slope m makes x-intercept d. Any equation of the form Ax + By + C = 0. The point (x. Three points A. Equation of the vertical line having distance b from the y-axis is either x = b or x = – b. Two lines are perpendicular if and only if product of their slopes is –1. B and C are collinear. if and only if slope of AB = slope of BC.1 + m1 m2 ≠ 0 . y) on the line with slope m and y-intercept c lies on the line if and only if y = mx + c . 2 2 A +B Distance between the parallel lines Ax + By + C1 = 0 and Ax + By + C2 = 0. x 2 − x1 The point (x. Equation of the horizontal line having distance a from the x-axis is either y = a or y = – a. Then equation of the line is y = m (x – d). Equation of the line passing through the points (x1.

reflectors in flashlights and automobile headlights.1 Introduction In the preceding Chapter 10. viz.C. The names parabola and hyperbola are given by Apollonius.1).2 Sections of a Cone Let l be a fixed vertical line and m be another line intersecting it at a fixed point V and inclined to it at an angle α (Fig11. Suppose we rotate the line m around the line l in such a way that the angle α remains constant. circles. – BERTRAND RUSSELL 11. parabolas and hyperbolas. we have studied various forms of the equations of a line.Chapter 11 CONIC SECTIONS Let the relation of knowledge to real life be very visible to your pupils and let them understand how by knowledge the world could be transformed. -190 B. Then the surface generated is a double-napped right circular hollow cone herein after referred as Fig 11. In this Chapter. 11. in the subsequent sections we will see how the intersection of a plane with a double napped right circular cone results in different types of curves. These curves have a very wide range of applications in fields such as planetary motion. we shall study about some other curves. These curves are in fact.C. 1 . known as conic sections or more commonly conics because they can be obtained as intersections of a plane with a double napped right circular cone..) design of telescopes and antennas. etc. ellipses. Apollonius (262 B. Now.

4). (d) When 0 ≤ β < α. 3 cone and extending indefinitely far in both directions (Fig11. the line l is the axis of the cone. (c) When β = α. parabola and hyperbola When the plane cuts the nappe (other than the vertex) of the cone. the section is a circle (Fig11. the plane cuts entirely across one nappe of the cone).2.7).2). . (In each of the above three situations.6). Let β be the angle made by the intersecting plane with the vertical axis of the cone (Fig11. we have the following situations: (a) When β = 90o. Thus. The intersection of the plane with the cone can take place either at the vertex of the cone or at any other part of the nappe either below or above the vertex. The point V is called the vertex.5). If we take the intersection of a plane with a cone. the section is an ellipse (Fig11. 11. conic sections are the curves obtained by intersecting a right circular cone by a plane. (b) When α < β < 90o.CONIC SECTIONS 237 Fig 11. the section is a parabola (Fig11. ellipse. the section so obtained is called a conic section. the plane cuts through both the nappes and the curves of intersection is a hyperbola (Fig11. The vertex separates the cone into two parts called nappes. We obtain different kinds of conic sections depending on the position of the intersecting plane with respect to the cone and by the angle made by it with the vertical axis of the cone.3). 2 Fig 11. The rotating line m is called a generator of the cone.1 Circle.

5 Fig 11. It is the degenerated case of a parabola.10).8). we have the following different cases: (a) When α < β ≤ 90o. It is the degenerated case of a hyperbola. then the section is a point (Fig11. (c) When 0 ≤ β < α. the plane contains a generator of the cone and the section is a straight line (Fig11.238 MATHEMATICS Fig 11. .9). 4 Fig 11.2 Degenerated conic sections When the plane cuts at the vertex of the cone.2. 6 Fig 11. the section is a pair of intersecting straight lines (Fig11. (b) When β = α. 7 11.

9 11. Fig 11. .11). The fixed point is called the centre of the circle and the distance from the centre to a point on the circle is called the radius of the circle (Fig 11.3 Circle Fig 11.CONIC SECTIONS 239 In the following sections. 8 Fig 11. 10 Definition 1 A circle is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed point in the plane. we shall obtain the equations of each of these conic sections in standard form by defining them based on geometric properties.

11 Fig 11. . However. 12 The equation of the circle is simplest if the centre of the circle is at the origin. Therefore.e. k = 2 and r = 4.0) and radius r. the equation of the required circle is (x + 3)2 + (y –2)2 = 16 Example 3 Find the centre and the radius of the circle x2 + y2 + 8x + 10y – 8 = 0 Solution The given equation is (x2 + 8x) + (y2 + 10y) = 8 Now. {x – (– 4)}2 + {y – (–5)}2 = 72 Therefore.k) and radius r . y) be any point on the circle (Fig11. by the definition. Therefore. the given circle has centre at (– 4. Let P(x. k) be the centre and r the radius of circle. Solution Here h = –3. we derive below the equation of the circle with a given centre and radius (Fig 11. (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 This is the required equation of the circle with centre at (h. we have (x – h)2 + (y – k )2 = r i. By the distance formula. Example 2 Find the equation of the circle with centre (–3. we get (x2 + 8x + 16) + (y2 + 10y + 25) = 8 + 16 + 25 i. Then. completing the squares within the parenthesis. Example 1 Find an equation of the circle with centre at (0.12). | CP | = r . 2) and radius 4. (x + 4)2 + (y + 5)2 = 49 i.240 MATHEMATICS Fig 11.e.e. –5) and radius 7. Given C (h.12). the equation of the circle is x2 + y2 = r2. Solution Here h = k = 0.

–b) and radius 6.5) lie inside. 13. outside or on the circle x2 + y2 = 25? . Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (2.3)2 = 12.3 and r2 = 12.3) and radius 4 4. 15. find the equation of the circle with 1.1 In each of the following Exercises 1 to 5. 7.5) and whose centre is on the line 4x + y = 16. Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (4.5.2) and radius 2 3. – 2).7)2 + (y – 1. centre ( 2. we have h+k=2 . (x + 5)2 + (y – 3)2 = 36 8.58 Hence. Solution Let the equation of the circle be (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2. 14. Since the circle passes through (2. we have . (1) (2 – h)2 + (–2 – k)2 = r2 and (3 – h)2 + (4 – k)2 = r2 . 10. k = 1.CONIC SECTIONS 241 Example 4 Find the equation of the circle which passes through the points (2. we get h = 0. centre (–a...1) and whose centre is on the line x – 3y – 11 = 0.4) and whose centre lies on the line x + y = 2. centre (1. (2) Also since the centre lies on the line x + y = 2.4).1) and (6. ) and radius 12 2 4 2 5. (3) Solving the equations (1)..3) and (–1.7. (2) and (3)..3). Does the point (–2. – 2) and (3.5). 12. 3. centre (0. Find the equation of the circle passing through (0. centre (–2. find the centre and radius of the circles.. and (3. 11. x2 + y2 – 8x + 10y – 12 = 0 a2 − b2 .58. EXERCISE 11.1) and radius 1 1 1 .2) and passes through the point (4. Find the equation of the circle with radius 5 whose centre lies on x-axis and passes through the point (2. x2 + y2 – 4x – 8y – 45 = 0 9. 2x2 + 2y2 – x = 0 In each of the following Exercises 6 to 9. the equation of the required circle is (x – 0..0) and making intercepts a and b on the coordinate axes. Find the equation of a circle with centre (2.

A line through the focus and perpendicular to the directrix is called the axis of the parabola.4. (‘Para’ means ‘for’ and ‘bola’ means ‘throwing’.242 MATHEMATICS 11.13).14 .4 Parabola Definition 2 A parabola is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed line and a fixed point (not on the line) in the plane.1 Standard equations of parabola The equation of a parabola is simplest if the vertex is at the origin and the axis of symmetry is along the x-axis or y-axis. which are equidistant from the fixed point and the fixed line is the straight line through the fixed point and perpendicular to the fixed line. i. Note If the fixed point lies on the fixed line.15 (a) to (d). the shape described when you throw a ball in the air). then the set of points in the plane.14). The point of intersection of parabola with the axis is called the vertex of the parabola (Fig11. Fig 11. We call this straight line as degenerate case of the parabola.e. The four possible such orientations of parabola are shown below in Fig11. Fig 11. The fixed line is called the directrix of the parabola and the fixed point F is called the focus (Fig 11.. 13 11.

. (x – a)2 + y2 = (x + a)2 or x2 – 2ax + a2 + y2 = x2 + 2ax + a2 or y2 = 4ax ( a > 0). Fig 11. and the equation of the directrix is x + a = 0 as in Fig11.15 (a) with focus at (a. and directricx x = – a as below: Let F be the focus and l the directrix. Take O as origin. the mid-point O is on the parabola and is called the vertex of the parabola.15 (a) to (d) We will derive the equation for the parabola shown above in Fig 11.CONIC SECTIONS 243 Fig 11. 0) a > 0. Then. Produce MO to X.16 Let P(x. we have PF = (x + a) 2 (x – a ) 2 + y 2 = (x + a )2 i.16. 0). Let FM be perpendicular to the directrix and bisect FM at the point O. Let the distance from the directrix to the focus be 2a. (1) where PB is perpendicular to l. By the definition of parabola. By the distance formula. The coordinates of B are (– a. OX the x-axis and OY perpendicular to it as the y-axis. the coordinates of the focus are (a. we have (x – a) 2 + y 2 and PB = Since PF = PB. y).e. y) be any point on the parabola such that PF = PB. .. .

then the axis of symmetry is along the x-axis and if the equation has an x2 term. When the axis of symmetry is along the y-axis the parabola opens (c) upwards if the coefficient of y is positive. Fig 11.y) lies on the parabola. The axis of the parabola is the positive x-axis. Parabola is symmetric with respect to the axis of the parabola. y) satisfy the equation (2) PF = = (x – a) 2 + y 2 . . Conversely. (d) downwards if the coefficient of y is negative. vertex at the origin and thereby the directrix is parallel to the other coordinate axis. from (2) and (3) we have proved that the equation to the parabola with vertex at the origin. Note The standard equations of parabolas have focus on one of the coordinate axis. we have the following observations: 1.15 (d) as x2 = – 4ay. focus at (a. (2) = (x – a) 2 + 4ax (x + a) 2 = PB . From the standard equations of the parabolas.. then the axis of symmetry is along the y-axis. These four equations are known as standard equations of parabolas. 3. let P(x. Fig 11. When the axis of symmetry is along the x-axis the parabola opens to the (a) right if the coefficient of x is positive.If the equation has a y2 term. Similarly. Discussion In equation (2). the study of the equations of parabolas with focus at any point and any line as directrix is beyond the scope here.15 (b) as y2 = – 4ax...0) and directrix x = – a is y2 = 4ax.15..244 MATHEMATICS Hence. However. 2. Thus. we can derive the equations of the parabolas in: Fig 11. since a > 0. (3) and so P(x. (b) left if the coefficient of x is negative.15 (c) as x2 = 4ay. Fig11. x can assume any positive value or zero but no negative value and the curve extends indefinitely far into the first and the fourth quadrants. any point on the parabola satisfies y2 = 4ax.

19 Thus. The coefficient of x is positive so the parabola opens to the right. so the axis of symmetry is along the x-axis. . the focus of the parabola is (2. through the focus and whose end points lie on the parabola (Fig11. AF = AC.18 Example 5 Find the coordinates of the focus. And since the parabola is symmetric with respect to x-axis AF = FB and so AB = Length of the latus rectum = 4a. Fig 11.17 Fig 11.4. Comparing with the given equation y2 = 4ax.18). 0) and the equation of the directrix of the parabola is x = – 2 (Fig 11. Solution The given equation involves y2. Length of the latus rectum is 4a = 4 × 2 = 8.CONIC SECTIONS 245 11. But Hence AC = FM = 2a AF = 2a. axis.2 Latus rectum Definition 3 Latus rectum of a parabola is a line segment perpendicular to the axis of the parabola. we find that a = 2. the equation of the directrix and latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 8x. Fig 11. To find the Length of the latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 4ax (Fig 11.17). By the definition of the parabola.19).

But the parabola passes through (2.. we have 22 = – 4a (–3). y2 = 10x 3. and passes through the point (2.246 MATHEMATICS Example 6 Find the equation of the parabola with focus (2. it must open downwards. the y-axis is the axis of the parabola.–3) which lies in the fourth quadrant. x2 = – 16y 2.0) and directrix x = – 2.e. Hence the required equation is y2 = 4(2)x = 8x Example 7 Find the equation of the parabola with vertex at (0. Solution Since the parabola is symmetric about y-axis and has its vertex at the origin. 6.–3). 0) and focus at (0. Since the parabola passes through ( 2. 3x2 = – 4y. the equation of the directrix and the length of the latus rectum. thus.e. Thus the equation is of the form x2 = – 4ay. 2). y2 = – 8x x2 = – 9y In each of the Exercises 7 to 12. i. Solution Since the focus (2.–3). we have x2 = 4(2)y. i. equation of the parabola is of the form x2 = 4ay. Solution Since the vertex is at (0. i. find the equation of the parabola that satisfies the given conditions: . the x-axis itself is the axis of the parabola.2) which lies on y-axis. the equation is of the form x2 = 4ay or x2 = – 4ay. ⎝ 3⎠ EXERCISE 11. Therefore..0) lies on the x-axis. where the sign depends on whether the parabola opens upwards or downwards. find the coordinates of the focus. a = Therefore..e. Since the directrix is x = – 2 and the focus is (2. y2 = 12x 4.2 In each of the following Exercises 1 to 6. Hence the equation of the parabola is of the form either y2 = 4ax or y2 = – 4ax. x2 = 8y. axis of the parabola. the equation of the parabola is 1 3 ⎛1⎞ x2 = − 4 ⎜ ⎟ y. the parabola is to be of the form y 2 = 4ax with a = 2. Example 8 Find the equation of the parabola which is symmetric about the y-axis.0). 1.0) and the focus is at (0. x2 = 6y 5.

11.2) and symmetric with respect to y-axis. . directrix x = – 6 9. Vertex (0.0) 8.22 We denote the length of the major axis by 2a.21 Fig 11. Focus (6. The end points of the major axis are called the vertices of the ellipse(Fig 11. Fig 11.20).0). Focus (0. the length of the semi major axis is a and semi-minor axis is b (Fig11.20 The mid point of the line segment joining the foci is called the centre of the ellipse. Note The constant which is the sum of the distances of a point on the ellipse from the two fixed points is always greater than the distance between the two fixed points.0). 5 Ellipse Definition 4 An ellipse is the set of all points in a plane. focus (–2.CONIC SECTIONS 247 7.22). Vertex (0. focus (3. The two fixed points are called the foci (plural of ‘focus’) of the ellipse (Fig11.0) 11. The line segment through the foci of the ellipse is called the major axis and the line segment through the centre and perpendicular to the major axis is called the minor axis.0). Vertex (0.–3). 12. Thus. directrix y = 3 10. Vertex (0. the sum of whose distances from two fixed points in the plane is a constant.21).0). Fig 11. the length of the minor axis by 2b and the distance between the foci by 2c.0) passing through (2. passing through (5.3) and axis is along x-axis.

a = b.. Case (ii) When c = a. Case (i) When c = 0. then b = 0.e. e = c . if we keep a fixed and vary c from 0 to a. a 2 − b2 .23). the resulting ellipses will vary in shape.24). we have 2 b 2 + c 2 = 2a.5.248 MATHEMATICS 11.24 11. and so the ellipse becomes circle (Fig11.1 Relationship between semi-major axis. Take a point P at one end of the major axis. The ellipse reduces to the line segment F1F2 joining the two foci (Fig11.5.5.3.e.25). By the definition of ellipse. i. or a 2 = b2 + c2 .3 Eccentricity Fig 11..e..e. semi-minor axis and the distance of the focus from the centre of the ellipse (Fig 11.2 Special cases of an ellipse In the equation c2 = a2 – b2 obtained above. a . Fig 11. Sum of the distances from the point Q to the foci is F1Q + F2Q = Fig 11. i. Thus. both foci merge together with the centre of the ellipse and a2 = b2. F1P = F1O + OP) = c + a + a – c = 2a Take a point Q at one end of the minor axis. a = b2 + c 2 c= 11. Sum of the distances of the point P to the foci is F1 P + F2P = F1O + OP + F2P (Since.23 b2 + c2 + b2 + c2 = 2 b2 + c 2 Since both P and Q lies on the ellipse.25 Definition 5 The eccentricity of an ellipse is the ratio of the distances from the centre of the ellipse to one of the foci and to one of the vertices of the ellipse (eccentricity is denoted by e) i.. i. circle is a special case of an ellipse which is dealt in Section 11.

in terms of the eccentricity the focus is at a distance of ae from the centre. we have ( x + c) 2 + y 2 + i. We will derive the equation for the ellipse shown above in Fig 11. (1) PF1 + PF2 = 2a.26.26 (a) with foci on the x-axis.5.27).4 Standard equations of an ellipse The equation of an ellipse is simplest if the centre of the ellipse is at the origin and the foci are (a) Fig 11. 11.. The two such possible orientations are shown in Fig 11. y) be any point on the ellipse such that the sum of the distances from P to the two x2 y 2 + =1 foci be 2a so given a 2 b2 . ( x − c) 2 + y 2 = 2a ( x − c )2 + y 2 ( x + c) 2 + y 2 = 2a – . Let the coordinates of F1 be (– c.27 Using the distance formula.. 0) (Fig 11. Let O be the origin and the line from O through F2 be the positive x-axis and that through F1as the negative x-axis. Let P(x. 0) and F2 be (c. Fig 11.26 on the x-axis or y-axis. the line through O perpendicular to the x-axis be the y-axis.e.CONIC SECTIONS 249 Then since the focus is at a distance of c from the centre. Let F1 and F2 be the foci and O be the midpoint of the line segment F1F2. Let..

250 MATHEMATICS Squaring both sides. a2 b (Since c2 = a2 – b2) Hence any point on the ellipse satisfies . PF1 = = ( x + c) 2 + y 2 ⎛ a2 − x2 ⎞ ( x + c) 2 + b 2 ⎜ ⎜ a2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ a2 − x2 ⎞ ( x + c) 2 + ( a 2 − c 2 ) ⎜ ⎟ (since b2 = a2 – c2) a2 ⎠ ⎝ cx ⎞ c ⎛ ⎜a+ ⎟ =a+ x a⎠ a ⎝ 2 = Similarly PF2 = a − x a c . (2) Conversely. y) satisfy the equation (2) with 0 < c < a. we get (x + c)2 + y2 = 4a2 – 4a which on simplification gives ( x − c) 2 + y 2 + ( x − c) 2 + y 2 ( x − c) 2 + y 2 = a − Squaring again and simplifying. x2 y2 + 2 =1 a2 b x2 y2 + 2 = 1. let P (x.. Then ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜ 1− 2 ⎟ y =b ⎜ a ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 Therefore.. we get c x a x2 y2 + 2 =1 a2 a − c2 i.e..

y) is a point on the ellipse. Similarly. we have x2 y2 = 1 − 2 ≤ 1.CONIC SECTIONS 251 Hence PF1 + PF2 = a + c c x + a – x = 2a a a . x2 y2 + =1 . the ellipse lies between the lines y = – b and y = b and touches these lines. (3) So. y) on the ellipse. satisfies the geometric condition and so a2 b P(x. Ellipse is symmetric with respect to both the coordinate axes since if (x. any point that satisfies x2 y2 + 2 = 1. That is.. 2. a 2 b2 Discussion From the equation of the ellipse obtained above. major axis is along the x-axis if the coefficient of x2 has the larger denominator and it is along the y-axis if the coefficient of y2 has the larger denominator.26). so – a ≤ x ≤ a. x2 ≤ a2.26 (b) as These two equations are known as standard equations of the ellipses. Hence from (2) and (3). The major axis can be determined by finding the intercepts on the axes of symmetry. –y) are also points on the ellipse.. we have the following observations: 1. The foci always lie on the major axis. the ellipse lies between the lines x = – a and x = a and touches these lines. b2 a 2 . we proved that the equation of an ellipse with centre of the origin and major axis along the x-axis is x2 y 2 + = 1. From the standard equations of the ellipses (Fig11.. we can derive the equation of the ellipse in Fig 11. i. and any line through the centre as major and the minor axes passing through the centre and perpendicular to major axis are beyond the scope here. it follows that for every point P (x. Note The standard equations of ellipses have centre at the origin and the major and minor axis are coordinate axes. Similarly. y) lies on the ellipse. –y) and (– x. the study of the ellipses with centre at any other point. However. (x.e. then (– x. y). a2 b Therefore.

e.t.5 Latus rectum Definition 6 Latus rectum of an ellipse is a line segment perpendicular to the major axis through any of the foci and whose end points lie on the ellipse (Fig 11.r. a Since the ellipse is symmetric with respect to y-axis (of course.252 MATHEMATICS 11. l = a a2 2b2 . l ). l ) Since A lies on the ellipse x2 y 2 + = 1 .5. (ae. the major 25 9 . we have a 2 b2 (ae) 2 l 2 – 2 =1 a2 b ⇒ l2 = b2 (1 – e2) But Therefore e2 = l2 = c2 a2 – b2 b2 = =1 – 2 a2 a2 a b4 b2 . AF2 = F2B and so length of the latus rectum is Example 9 Find the coordinates of the foci.28)..i. the vertices. 28 Let the length of AF2 be l. the eccentricity and the latus rectum of the ellipse x2 y 2 + =1 25 9 x2 y2 Solution Since denominator of is larger than the denominator of . it is symmetric w.. both the coordinate axes). the minor axis. To find the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse x2 y 2 + =1 a 2 b2 Fig 11. i. the length of major axis.e. Then the coordinates of A are (c.

the major axis is 9 4 along the y-axis. we get a 2 b2 c = a 2 – b 2 = 25 – 9 = 4 Therefore. Comparing the given equation with a = 5 and b = 3.CONIC SECTIONS 253 axis is along the x-axis. 0). 5 a 5 Example 10 Find the coordinates of the foci. eccentricity is Solution The given equation of the ellipse can be written in standard form as x2 y2 + =1 4 9 Since the denominator of y2 x2 is larger than the denominator of . Comparing the given equation with the standard equation x2 y2 + = 1 . the vertices.3) and (0. the equation will be of the form ellipse is x2 y 2 + = 1 . 3 Example 11 Find the equation of the ellipse whose vertices are (± 13. b2 a 2 Also and c= e= a2 – b2 c 5 = a 3 = 9–4= 5 Hence the foci are (0. Solution Since the vertices are on x-axis. 0) and foci are (± 5. the lengths of major and minor axes and the eccentricity of the ellipse 9x2 + 4y2 = 36. vertices are (– 5. length of the major axis is 6 units. –3). 5 ) and (0. – 5 ). 0) and (5. the coordinates of the foci are (– 4.0) and (4.0). Also x2 y 2 + = 1 . the length of the minor axis is 4 units and the eccentricity of the 5 . vertices are (0. where a is the semi-major axis. 0). we have b = 2 and a = 3. a 2 b2 . Length of the major axis is 10 units length of the minor axis 2b is 6 units and the 2b 2 18 4 = and latus rectum is .

Therefore. Solution The standard form of the ellipse is and (–1. 4) lie on the ellipse. we have x2 y2 + 2 = 1.e.4). 3) a2 b .254 MATHEMATICS Given that a = 13.. b2 a 2 20 = 10 2 c 2 = a2 – b2 gives 52 = 102 – b2 i. the major axis is along the y-axis. Since the points (4. whose length of the major axis is 20 and foci are (0. (1) …. the equation of the ellipse is x2 y2 + =1 75 100 Example 13 Find the equation of the ellipse. we get 25 = 169 – b2 . 7 15 2 Solving equations (1) and (2)..(2) 16 9 + 2 =1 2 a b and 1 16 + 2 =1 2 a b 247 247 2 and b = .e. equation of the ellipse is of the form Given that a = semi-major axis = and the relation x2 y2 + =1. with major axis along the x-axis and passing through the points (4. i. 3) and (– 1. So. Solution Since the foci are on y-axis. c = ± 5. 169 144 Example 12 Find the equation of the ellipse.. b2 = 75 Therefore. we find that a = Hence the required equation is . b = 12 Hence the equation of the ellipse is x2 y2 + = 1.. ± 5). from the relation c2 = a2 – b2.

0) Length of minor axis 16. Foci (± 3. 17. 0) Length of major axis 26. the eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse.CONIC SECTIONS 255 x2 y2 + = 1 . 16. ends of minor axis (± 1. x2 y2 =1 + 100 400 7. a = 4 b = 3. foci on a x axis. 18. 11. foci (± 5.. 20. major axis on the y-axis and passes through the points (3. the vertices. foci (± 4.6 Hyperbola Definition 7 A hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane. 4x2 + 9y2 = 36 In each of the following Exercises 10 to 20. ⎛ 247 ⎞ 247 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 7 ⎠ 15 EXERCISE 11. ends of minor axis (0. foci (0. 14. 0). 5. 0). x2 y2 + =1 4 25 x2 y 2 + =1 49 36 3. 0) Vertices (0. ± 5 ). ± 2) Ends of major axis (0.2). the difference of whose distances from two fixed points in the plane is a constant. 0). find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: 10.e. Centre at (0. 1. the minor axis. 19. 13. 0). i.6).0). 36x2 + 4y2 = 144 8. foci (± 4. the length of major axis. x2 y2 + =1 16 9 4. ± 5) Vertices (± 6. 11. c = 4. x2 y2 + =1 36 16 x2 y2 + =1 25 100 2. foci (0. 16x2 + y2 = 16 9. find the coordinates of the foci. . 15.3) and (6. Major axis on the x-axis and passes through the points (4. 12. centre at the origin.3 In each of the Exercises 1 to 9. ± 6). 0) Ends of major axis (± 3. 6. Vertices (± 5. ± 13). 7x2 + 15y2 = 247. 2) and (1.

AF1 = BF2 So that. The points at which the hyperbola intersects the transverse axis are called the vertices of the hyperbola (Fig 11..30 Also 2b is the length of the conjugate axis (Fig 11. we have BF1 – BF2 = AF2 – AF1 (by the definition of the hyperbola) BA +AF1– BF2 = AB + BF2– AF1 i. We denote the distance between the two foci by 2c.30). The line through the foci is called the transverse axis and the line through the centre and perpendicular to the transverse axis is called the conjugate axis.30. To find the constant P1F2 – P1F1 : By taking the point P at A and B in the Fig 11.29 The term “difference” that is used in the definition means the distance to the further point minus the distance to the closer point. BF1 – BF2 = BA + AF1– BF2 = BA = 2a .29). The mid-point of the line segment joining the foci is called the centre of the hyperbola. The two fixed points are called the foci of the hyperbola. the distance between two vertices (the length of the transverse axis) by 2a and we define the quantity b as b = c2 – a2 Fig 11.e.256 MATHEMATICS Fig 11.

31.31 (b) We will derive the equation for the hyperbola shown in Fig 11. Since c ≥ a. y) be any point on the hyperbola such that the difference of the distances from P to the farther point minus the closer point be 2a. the ratio e = 11.6.0) (Fig 11. In terms of the eccentricity. So given. Let F1 and F2 be the foci and O be the mid-point of the line segment F1F2.6. the foci are at a distance of ae from the centre.31(a) with foci on the x-axis. the eccentricity is never less than one.32). Let P(x.1 Eccentricity c is called the eccentricity of the a hyperbola.CONIC SECTIONS 257 11. (a) Fig 11. The line through O perpendicular to the x-axis be the y-axis.2 Standard equation of Hyperbola The equation of a hyperbola is simplest if the centre of the hyperbola is at the origin and the foci are on the x-axis or y-axis. PF1 – PF2 = 2a Fig 11. The two such possible orientations are shown in Fig11.0) and F2 be (c. Let O be the origin and the line through O through F2 be the positive x-axis and that through F 1 as the negative x-axis.32 . Let the coordinates of F1 be (– c. Definition 8 Just like an ellipse.

(x + c ) 2 + y 2 = 2a + (x – c) 2 + y 2 Squaring both side. we get x2 y2 – 2 =1 a 2 c – a2 i.. Therefore. we get (x + c)2 + y2 = 4a2 + 4a and on simplifying. a a . a– c c x becomes negative. PF2 = a – a x c c x > a.e. Then y 2 = b 2 ⎛ x2 – a2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ a ⎠ Therefore. a In hyperbola c > a. we get (x – c ) 2 + y 2 + (x – c)2 + y2 cx –a= a (x – c) 2 + y 2 On squaring again and further simplifying. PF1 = + = + (x + c ) 2 + y 2 ⎛ x2 – a2 ⎞ c (x + c )2 + b 2 ⎜ x ⎟ = a+ a2 ⎠ a ⎝ Similarly.. Thus. y) satisfy the above equation with 0 < a < c. a 2 b2 Conversely. PF2 = x – a. x > a. x2 y 2 – =1 a 2 b2 (Since c2 – a2 = b2) Hence any point on the hyperbola satisfies x2 y 2 – = 1 1.258 MATHEMATICS Using the distance formula.e. let P(x. we have (x + c ) 2 + y 2 – (x – c ) 2 + y 2 = 2a i. and since P is to the right of the line x = a.

Therefore. any point that satisfies x2 y 2 – = 1 . we have the following observations: 1.29).. then PF1 – PF2 = a + c ⎞ ⎛ c PF1 = – ⎜ a + x ⎟ . a ⎠ a ⎝ In that case P F2 – PF1 = 2a. a 2 b2 Note A hyperbola in which a = b is called an equilateral hyperbola. . So.CONIC SECTIONS 259 Therefore c cx x – + a = 2a a a Also. it follows that.0) and transverse axis along x-axis is x2 y 2 – =1. Thus. Similarly. – y) are also points on the hyperbola. Note The standard equations of hyperbolas have transverse and conjugate axes as the coordinate axes and the centre at the origin. note that if P is to the left of the line x = – a. then (– x. but the study of such cases will be dealt in higher classes.e. we x2 y2 = 1 + 2 ≥ 1. no real intercept on the conjugate axis). Hyperbola is symmetric with respect to both the axes. y). no portion of the curve lies between the a lines x = + a and x = – a. we proved that the equation of hyperbola with origin (0.31 (b) as y 2 x2 − =1 a 2 b2 These two equations are known as the standard equations of hyperbolas. since if (x. have for every point (x.e. From the standard equations of hyperbolas (Fig11. 2 a b i. i. there are hyperbolas with any two perpendicular lines as transverse and conjugate axes. – y) and (– x. y) on the hyperbola. Discussion From the equation of the hyperbola we have obtained. we can derive the equation of the hyperbola in Fig 11. (x. y) is a point on the hyperbola. x ≥ 1. x ≤ – a or x ≥ a. However. (i. lies on the a 2 b2 hyperbola.e. PF2 = a – x .

a Example 14 Find the coordinates of the foci and the vertices. 0).260 MATHEMATICS 2. c 5 2b 2 32 = .Also. the eccentricity. y 2 x2 – =1 16 1 y 2 x2 – = 1 . x2 y 2 – =1 9 16 y 2 x2 – =1 25 16 11. we find that a 2 b2 .3 Latus rectum Definition 9 Latus rectum of hyperbola is a line segment perpendicular to the transverse axis through any of the foci and whose end points lie on the hyperbola. it is easy to show that the length of the latus rectum in hyperbola is 2b 2 . It is the positive term whose denominator gives the transverse axis. (ii) y2 – 16x2 = 1 9 16 x2 y 2 – = 1 with the standard equation 9 16 Solution (i) Comparing the equation x2 y 2 – =1 a 2 b2 Here. has transverse axis along x-axis of length 6. a = 3. the coordinates of the foci are (± 5. we have Comparing the equation with the standard equation a = 4. b = 4 and c = a 2 + b 2 = 9 + 16 = 5 Therefore. 0) and that of vertices are (± 3. As in ellipse.6. For example. while has transverse axis along y-axis of length 10. The foci are always on the transverse axis.the length of the latus rectum of the hyperbolas: (i) x2 y2 – = 1 . The latus rectum = = The eccentricity e = a 3 a 3 (ii) Dividing the equation by 16 on both sides. b = 1 and c = a 2 + b2 = 16 + 1 = 17 .

± (0.e.. c = 3 and b = c2 – a2 = 25/4. a = 2 2 2 Also. 3y2 – x2 = 108 – 36 108 .. i. it follows that c = 12. 6. 100 y2 – 44 x2 = 275.. we take a = 6 and so b2 = 108. ± 3) and vertices (0. a = – 24. the equation of the required hyperbola is x2 y2 = 1 . Also. 17 ) and that of the vertices are 2b 2 1 17 c = 2 = . ± 4). i. the equation of the hyperbola is of the form y 2 x2 =1 – a 2 b2 Since vertices are (0. ±12) and the length of the latus rectum is 36. since foci are (0. ± 3).e. . i. the coordinates of the foci are (0. Length of the latus rectum = Therefore 2b 2 = 36 or b2 = 18a a c2 = a2 + b2. Solution Since foci are (0. gives 144 = a2 + 18a a2 + 18a – 144 = 0. Therefore. So Since a cannot be negative. ⎛ 11 ⎞ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ Example 16 Find the equation of the hyperbola where foci are (0. Therefore. 2 Solution Since the foci is on y-axis.e.CONIC SECTIONS 261 Therefore. ± 12). ± 11 11 ). the equation of the hyperbola is x2 y2 – = 1. The latus rectum The eccentricity e = = 2 a 4 a Example 15 Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (0. ± 11 ).

foci (± 3. If the origin is taken at the vertex and the axis of the mirror lies along the positive x-axis. 1. e = 15. Foci (0. there . ± 10 ). vertices (± 7. Vertices (± 2. 0). Foci (± 5. foci (0. 49y2 – 16x2 = 784. Thus y2 = 900 Therefore y = ± 30 Hence AB = 2y = 2 × 30 = 60 cm. 11. the equation of the parabolic section is y2 = 4 (5) x = 20 x Note that x = 45.262 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 11. find the coordinates of the foci and the vertices. 3. 12. Foci (0. 0). Vertices (0.3) 4 . In each of the Exercises 7 to 15. 0). Solution Since the distance from the focus to the vertex is 5 cm.0). Vertices (0. ± 8) 9. passing through (2.4 In each of the Exercises 1 to 6. If the mirror is 45 cm deep. the latus rectum is of length 8. 0) 8. 7. find the distance AB (Fig 11. ±13). ± 5). find the equations of the hyperbola satisfying the given conditions. 3 Miscellaneous Examples Example 17 The focus of a parabolic mirror as shown in Fig 11. the eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the hyperbolas. 13. 9y2 – 4x2 = 36 16 9 9 27 4. foci (0. the latus rectum is of length 12 14. 0). a = 5. Foci (± 3 5 . We have. x2 y2 y 2 x2 – =1 – =1 2.33). ± 5) 10. the transverse axis is of length 8. Fig 11.33 is at a distance of 5 cm from its vertex. 5y2 – 9x2 = 36 6. Foci (± 4. the conjugate axis is of length 24. 16x2 – 9y2 = 576 5. ± 3).33 Example 18 A beam is supported at its ends by supports which are 12 metres apart. Since the load is concentrated at its centre.

A point P(x. Solution Let AB be the rod making an angle θ with OX as shown in Fig 11. ⎟ . i. y) the point on it such that AP = 6 cm. Since it passes through ⎛ 3 ⎞ 36 ×100 ⎛ 3 ⎞ = 300 m ⎟ .e. we have (6)2 = 4a ⎜ 12 ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ Let AB is the deflection of the beam which is Therefore i.35 and P (x. Show that the locus of P is an ellipse. x 2 = 4 × 300 × x= 1 2 m.CONIC SECTIONS 263 is a deflection of 3 cm at the centre and the deflected beam is in the shape of a parabola. Coordinates of B are (x. Since AB = 15 cm. Fig 11. a = ⎜ 6. Fig 11.34. we have PB = 9 cm. From P draw PQ and PR perpendicular on y-axis and x-axis. Let the coordinate axis be chosen as shown in Fig 11. 100 100 2 = 24 100 24 = 2 6 metres Example 19 A rod AB of length 15 cm rests in between two coordinate axes in such a way that the end point A lies on x-axis and end point B lies on y-axis.35 .e.. How far from the centre is the deflection 1 cm? Solution Let the vertex be at the lowest point and the axis vertical. respectively. ).34 The equation of the parabola takes the form x2 = 4ay. y) is taken on the rod in such a way that AP = 6 cm.

2. Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines joining the vertex of the parabola x2 = 12y to the ends of its latus rectum. A rod of length 12 cm moves with its ends always touching the coordinate axes. An arch is in the form of a parabola with its axis vertical. 4. An arch is in the form of a semi-ellipse. Find the height of the arch at a point 1. find the focus. An equilateral triangle is inscribed in the parabola y2 = 4 ax. Find the length of a supporting wire attached to the roadway 18 m from the middle. 8. A man running a racecourse notes that the sum of the distances from the two flag posts from him is always 10 m and the distance between the flag posts is 8 m. cos θ = ∆ PRA. Find the length of the side of the triangle.264 MATHEMATICS From From Since ∆ PBQ.5 m from one end. 6. The roadway which is horizontal and 100 m long is supported by vertical wires attached to the cable. which is 3 cm from the end in contact with the x-axis. It is 8 m wide and 2 m high at the centre. 7. How wide is it 2 m from the vertex of the parabola? The cable of a uniformly loaded suspension bridge hangs in the form of a parabola. . the longest wire being 30 m and the shortest being 6 m. 5. where one vertex is at the vertex of the parabola. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 11 1. 3. The arch is 10 m high and 5 m wide at the base. Find the equation of the posts traced by the man. Determine the equation of the locus of a point P on the rod. If a parabolic reflector is 20 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep. sin θ = cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1 ⎛ x⎞ ⎛ y⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝9⎠ ⎝6⎠ 2 2 x 9 y 6 or x2 y2 + =1 81 36 Thus the locus of P is an ellipse.

the sum of whose distances from two fixed points in the plane is a constant. A parabola is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed line and a fixed point in the plane. a 2 b2 Latus rectum of an ellipse is a line segment perpendicular to the major axis through any of the foci and whose end points lie on the ellipse. The equation of a circle with centre (h. A circle is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed point in the plane. a2 b a The eccentricity of an ellipse is the ratio between the distances from the centre of the ellipse to one of the foci and to one of the vertices of the ellipse. The equations of an ellipse with foci on the x-axis is x2 y 2 + =1. A hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane. 0) a > 0 and directrix x = – a is y2 = 4ax. k) and the radius r is (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2. The equation of a hyperbola with foci on the x-axis is : x2 y 2 − =1 a 2 b2 . Length of the latus rectum of the ellipse x2 y 2 2b 2 + 2 = 1 is .CONIC SECTIONS 265 Summary In this Chapter the following concepts and generalisations are studied. Latus rectum of a parabola is a line segment perpendicular to the axis of the parabola. The equation of the parabola with focus at (a. An ellipse is the set of all points in a plane. the difference of whose distances from two fixed points in the plane is a constant. through the focus and whose end points lie on the hyperbola. Length of the latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 4ax is 4a.

Fermats treatise on the subject. Isaac Barrow avoided using cartesian method.D. But the fundamental principle and method of analytical geometry were already discovered by Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665 A. Geometry as initially studied by the ancient Indians and Greeks. Historical Note Geometry is one of the most ancient branches of mathematics. In the 200 B. Apollonius wrote a book called ‘The Conic’ which was all about conic sections with many important discoveries that have remained unsurpassed for eighteen centuries.266 MATHEMATICS Latus rectum of hyperbola is a line segment perpendicular to the transverse axis through any of the foci and whose end points lie on the hyperbola. Descartes came to be regarded as the unique inventor of the analytical geometry. Length of the latus rectum of the hyperbola : x2 y 2 2b2 − 2 = 1 is : .C. He used several types of coordinates including polar and bipolar. was continued for some 1300 years.) wrote an important textbook on analytical geometry. Unfortunately. Leibnitz used the terms ‘abscissa’. So.D.). etc. The synthetic approach to the subject of geometry as given by Euclid and in Sulbasutras.C. Newton used method of undetermined coefficients to find equations of curves. who made essentially no use of the process of algebra.. He was the first who organised the geometric figures based on certain axioms suggested by physical considerations. He also gave the intercept form of the linear equation.) was the first to give the distance formula although in clumsy form. L’ Hospital (about 1700 A. Modern analytic geometry is called ‘Cartesian’ after the name of Rene Descartes (1596-1650 A. Cramer .) whose relevant ‘La Geometrie’ was published in 1637. a a2 b The eccentricity of a hyperbola is the ratio of the distances from the centre of the hyperbola to one of the foci and to one of the vertices of the hyperbola. Clairaut (1729 A.D.D. The Greek geometers investigated the properties of many curves that have theoretical and practical importance. ‘ordinate’ and ‘coordinate’. entitled Ad Locus Planos et So LIDOS Isagoge (Introduction to Plane and Solid Loci) was published only posthumously in 1679 A.D. Euclid wrote his treatise on geometry around 300 B..

C. Monge (1781 A.) and Apollonius (200 B. a civil engineer.D. Lacroix (1765–1843 A. Many important discoveries. C. and the length of the perpendicular from (α. both in Mathematics and Science.F. S. — — . He gave the ‘two-point’ form of equation of a line as y –β= β′ – β (x – α) α′ – α (β – ax – b) 1 + a2 .) studied conic sections for their own beauty.CONIC SECTIONS 267 (1750 A.) made formal use of the two axes and gave the equation of a circle as ( y – a)2 + (b – x)2 = r He gave the best exposition of the analytical geometry of his time. have been linked to the conic sections. Lame. β) on y = ax + b as ⎛ a′ – a ⎞ His formula for finding angle between two lines was tan θ = ⎜ 1 + aa′ ⎟ . In 1818.D. gave mE + m′E′ = 0 as the curve passing through the points of intersection of two loci E = 0 and E′ = 0. It is.D.C. These curves are important tools for present day exploration of outer space and also for research into behaviour of atomic particles.) was a prolific textbook writer. surprising that one has to wait for more than 150 years after the invention of analytical geometry before finding such essential basic formula. of ⎝ ⎠ course.) gave the modern ‘point-slope’ form of equation of a line as y – y′ = a (x – x′) and the condition of perpendicularity of two lines as aa′ + 1 = 0. The Greeks particularly Archimedes (287–212 B. but his contributions to analytical geometry are found scattered.

For example. we do not have to deal with points lying in a plane only. a point in space has three coordinates.T. consider the position of a ball thrown in space at different points of time or the position of an aeroplane as it flies from one place to another at different times during its flight. BELL 12. namely the floor of the room and two adjacent walls of the room. we shall study the basic concepts of geometry in three dimensional space. NCERT. if we were to locate the position of the Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) lowest tip of an electric bulb hanging from the ceiling of a room or the position of the central tip of the ceiling fan in a room. “A Hand Book for designing Mathematics Laboratory in Schools”. . In actual life.* * For various activities in three dimensional geometry one may refer to the Book. So. we will not only require the perpendicular distances of the point to be located from two perpendicular walls of the room but also the height of the point from the floor of the room. Similarly.Chapter 12 INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY Mathematics is both the queen and the hand-maiden of all sciences – E.1 Introduction You may recall that to locate the position of a point in a plane. These lines are called the coordinate axes and the two numbers are called the coordinates of the point with respect to the axes. we need two intersecting mutually perpendicular lines in the plane. Therefore. 2005. The three numbers representing the three distances are called the coordinates of the point with reference to the three coordinate planes. In this Chapter. we need not only two but three numbers representing the perpendicular distances of the point from three mutually perpendicular planes.

LM be y and MP be z.1). we drop a Fig 12. We may note that these lines are mutually perpendicular to each other. y. y. z) lies in the octant XOYZ and so all x. we locate a point in the space.2 perpendicular PM on the XY-plane with M as the foot of this perpendicular (Fig 12.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 269 12. Y′OY and Z′OZ. XOYZ′. called. respectively the XY-plane.2 Coordinate Axes and Coordinate Planes in Three Dimensional Space Consider three planes intersecting at a point O such that these three planes are mutually perpendicular to each other (Fig 12. We take Fig 12. respectively. z are positive.y and z are called the x. from the point M. then the line Z′OZ will be vertical. X′OYZ′. as to how. coordinate planes and the origin. in front of the YZ-plane along OX as positive and to the back of it along OX′ as negative. we now explain. These octants could be named as XOYZ. If the plane of the paper is considered as horizontal. we draw a perpendicular ML to the x-axis. If P was in any other octant. II. y and z coordinates. how. Let OL be x. we may note that the point P (x. X′OY′Z′ and XOY′Z′. consisting of coordinate axes. The three coordinate planes divide the space into eight parts known as octants. Then x.. YZ-plane and the ZX-plane. The distances measured from XY-plane upwards in the direction of OZ are taken as positive and those measured downwards in the direction of OZ′ are taken as negative. y and z-axes. and denoted by I. X′OY′Z. These lines constitute the rectangular coordinate system.2. . The point O is called the origin of the coordinate system. given a triplet of three numbers (x. These three planes intersect along the lines X′OX. y. XOY′Z. The planes XOY. III. the distance measured to the right of ZX-plane along OY are taken as positive. to the left of ZX-plane and along OY′ as negative..1 the XOY plane as the plane of the paper and the line Z′OZ as perpendicular to the plane XOY. Similarly. meeting it at L. X′OYZ. y and z would change . 12. given a point in the space. called the x. respectively.2). are known as the three coordinate planes. YOZ and ZOX.3 Coordinates of a Point in Space Having chosen a fixed coordinate system in the space.y.. VIII . the signs of x. respectively. z). In Fig 12. we associate with it three coordinates (x. Given a point P in space.z) and conversely. Then. of the point P in the space.

1 s ant Oct nates rdi Coo I + + + II – + + III – – + IV + – + V + + – VI – + – VII – – – VIII + – – x y z . then locate the point M in the XY-plane such that (x.270 MATHEMATICS accordingly. Remark The sign of the coordinates of a point determine the octant in which the point lies. y. z). y. we locate the three points A. the point P will have the coordinates x. Conversely. z). z). BDPE and CEPF is obviously the point P. Thus. given any triplet (x. z) is any point in the space. namely. y. Thus. through the point P in the space. we would first fix the point L on the x-axis corresponding to x. B and C we draw planes parallel to Fig 12.0. y.0). respectively (Fig 12. OB = y and OC = z. given x. then x. B and C. Then. ADPF. z) of real numbers. Let OA = x. Note that LM is perpendicular to the x-axis or is parallel to the y-axis. The coordinates of any point on the x-axis will be as (x. there is a one to one correspondence between the points in space and ordered triplet (x. y and z. B and C on the three coordinate axes. The following table shows the signs of the coordinates in eight octants. Through the points A. y and z are perpendicular distances from YZ. y. we draw three planes parallel to the coordinate planes. Table 12. The point of interesection of these three planes. Note The coordinates of the origin O are (0. ZX and XY planes. y. The point P so obtained has then the coordinates (x. respectively. y and z and we write P (x. y-axis and z-axis in the points A. to each point P in the space there corresponds an ordered triplet (x. respectively.0) and the coordinates of any point in the YZ-plane will be as (0. Alternatively. Having reached the point M. z).0. y.3).3 the YZ-plane. we draw a perpendicular MP to the XY-plane and locate on it the point P corresponding to z. Conversely. y. corresponding to the ordered triplet (x. y) are the coordinates of the point M in the XY-plane. z) of real numbers. We observe that if P (x. ZX-plane and XY-plane. z). meeting the x-axis.

3. Let us now extend this study to three-dimensional system. –1. 3).4 .. – 2) lies in octant VI. EXERCISE 12. –5). –2..1. –5).0.– 2) lie. 6) (2. y2. 2. 2. 2. 2) lies in second octant and the point (–3. (4. z1) and Q ( x2. Fill in the blanks: (i) The x-axis and y-axis taken together determine a plane known as_______. (–3. Therefore. OY and OZ. (iii) Coordinate planes divide the space into ______ octants. since ∠PAQ is a right angle. (– 4. (4. Through the points P and Q draw planes parallel to the coordinate planes so as to form a rectangular parallelopiped with one diagonal PQ (Fig 12. it follows that. Solution For the point F. – 4. if P is (2.1 1. (ii) The coordinates of points in the XY-plane are of the form _______. Example 2 Find the octant in which the points (–3. What can you say about its y-coordinate? Name the octants in which the following points lie: (1. z2) be two points referred to a system of rectangular axes OX.4. (4.1. –5). . triangle ANQ is right angle triangle with ∠ANQ a right angle.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 271 Example 1 In Fig 12.1. (1) Also. 1. What are its y-coordinate and z-coordinates? A point is in the XZ-plane. 4. 2. the point (–3. find the coordinates of F. –7). (– 4. Let P(x1.5).5). 5). the coordinates of F are (2. PQ2 = PA 2 + AQ2 Fig 12. 12. A point is on the x -axis. in triangle PAQ.4 Distance between Two Points We have studied about the distance between two points in two-dimensional coordinate system.2) and (–3. the distance measured along OY is zero.4). 3).1. Now.. –2.3. 2. y1. Solution From the Table 12.

Example 3 Find the distance between the points P(1. 0. 20. 5). the vertices of a right angled triangle? Solution By the distance formula. –3.. Solution The distance PQ between the points P (1. 2). Example 5 Are the points A (3. –1) are collinear. 6. Now.. i.. we have PQ2 = PA2 + AN2 + NQ2 PA = y2 – y1.272 MATHEMATICS Therefore . 1. 30) and C (25. then OQ = 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 . 4) and Q (– 4. In particular.e. Solution We know that points are said to be collinear if they lie on a line. y2. PQ = QR = and PR = (1 + 2) 2 + ( 2 − 3) 2 + (3 − 5) 2 = 9 + 1 + 4 = 14 (7 − 1) 2 + (0 − 2) 2 + (−1− 3) 2 = 36 + 4 + 16 = 56 = 2 14 (7 + 2) 2 + (0 − 3) 2 + (−1− 5) 2 = 81 + 9 + 36 = 126 = 3 14 Thus. 3) and R (7. 5). 1. z1) and (x2. – 41. 2) is PQ = = = (−4 − 1) 2 + (1 + 3) 2 + (2 − 4) 2 25 + 16 + 4 45 = 3 5 units Example 4 Show that the points P (–2. 9).–3. z2). we have AB 2 = (10 – 3)2 + (20 – 6)2 + (30 – 9)2 = 49 + 196 + 441 = 686 BC 2 = (25 – 10)2 + (– 41 – 20)2 + (5 – 30)2 . y1. 2. PQ + QR = PR. z2). (2) From Now Hence Therefore 2 AQ2 = AN2 + NQ2 (1) and (2). Q (1. Q and R are collinear. B (10. which gives the distance between the origin O and any point Q (x2. 3. y2. 4) and Q (– 4. AN = x2 – x1 and NQ = z2 – z1 PQ = (x2 – x1)2 + (y2 – y1) + (z2 – z1)2 PQ = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 +( y 2 − y1 ) 2 +( z2 − z1 ) 2 2 This gives us the distance between two points (x1. Hence. P. point P is origin O. if x1 = y1 = z1 = 0.

1). Verify the following: (i) (0. 6. 7. y. where A and B are the points (3. 6. (ii) (0. –10). 4) are the vertices of a parallelogram. 4. 3. Show that the points (–2. 4. 10). 9. 0. 2. z) . 0) and B (– 4. 0. Hence. Let the point R (x. – 6) are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. 3. 9. the sum of whose distances from A (4. we have learnt how to find the coordinates of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio internally. Find the equation of the set of points which are equidistant from the points (1. 3) and (3. 3. –3. 3). (1. we have (x – 3)2 + (y – 4)2 + (z – 5)2 + (x + 1)2 + (y – 3)2 + (z + 7)2 = 2k2 i. 5). –1) are collinear. 6) and (– 4.. 3) and (–2. 0. 2. 3) and (7. respectively. (–1. 6) are the vertices of a right angled triangle. Find the distance between the following pairs of points: (i) (2. – 4) and (1. –1). 2. the triangle ABC is not a right angled triangle. 5).2 1. 2x2 + 2y2 + 2z2 – 4x – 14y + 4z = 2k2 – 109. –1) (iv) (2. 0) is equal to 10. we extend this to three dimensional geometry as follows: Let the two given points be P(x1. 4) 3. 7. 3. Here PA2 = (x – 3)2 + (y – 4)2 + ( z – 5)2 PB2 = (x + 1)2 + (y – 3)2 + (z + 7)2 By the given condition PA2 + PB2 = 2k2. (1.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 273 = 225 + 3721 + 625 = 4571 CA 2 We find that = (3 – 25)2 + (6 + 41)2 + (9 – 5)2 = 484 + 2209 + 16 = 2709 CA2 + AB2 ≠ BC2. z). 8) and (2. Now. EXERCISE 12. –3. Example 6 Find the equation of set of points P such that PA2 + PB2 = 2k2. 5) and (4. (4. Solution Let the coordinates of point P be (x. (1. y2. –7). –7. 5. 7. y1.e. 2. 5) and (–1. –1. 4. (iii) (–1. 2) and (2. 1) (iii) (–1. 1. 12. y. (ii) (–3. – 6) and (4.5 Section Formula In two dimensional geometry. 2. –2. z2). Find the equation of the set of points P. z1) and Q (x2. 3.

then its coordinates are obtained by replacing n by – n so that coordinates of point R will be ⎛ mx2 − nx1 my2 − ny1 mz 2 − nz1 ⎞ . y2. . Also note that quadrilaterals LNRS and NMTR are parallelograms. Through the point R draw a line ST parallel to the line LM.y = 1 and z = 1 . z1) and Q (x2. then m : n = 1 : 1 so that x = x1 + x2 y + y2 z + z2 . 2 2 2 . Therefore. Draw PL. Fig 12. ⎜ ⎟ m−n m−n ⎠ ⎝ m−n Case 1 Coordinates of the mid-point: In case R is the mid-point of PQ. Obviously PL || RN || QM and feet of these perpendiculars lie in a XY-plane. the coordinates of the point R which divides the line segment joining two points P (x1. Line ST will intersect the line LP externally at the point S and the line MQ at T.5.5 m PR SP SL − PL NR – PL z − z1 = = = = = n QR QT QM − TM QM – NR z2 − z This implies z= mz 2 +nz1 m+n Similarly. we get y = my2 + ny1 mx2 + nx1 and x = m+n m+n Hence. m+n ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ If the point R divides PQ externally in the ratio m : n. y1. m+n . RN and QM with the XY-plane. by drawing perpendiculars to the XZ and YZ-planes. z2) internally in the ratio m : n are ⎛ mx2 + nx1 my2 + ny1 mz2 + nz1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ m+n . The points L. M and N will lie on a line which is the intersection of the plane containing PL. QM and RN perpendicular to the XY-plane. as shown in Fig 12. The triangles PSR and QTR are similar.274 MATHEMATICS divide PQ in the given ratio m : n internally.

y. . Then coordinates of the point P are ⎛ 2 k − 4 4 k + 6 6 k + 10 ⎞ . y. Then Thus. – 2. 4. (2. Therefore x= 2(3) +3(1) 9 2(4) + 3( −2) 2 = . y= = 2+3 5 2+3 5 . –2. z) be the point which divides line segment joining A(1. 19). Example 7 Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points (1. the point P coincides with point C. 0. 3) and B (3. 4. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ k +1 k +1 k +1 ⎠ Let us examine whether for some value of k. prove that the three points (– 4. –5) externally in the ratio 2 : 3. 1+k ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ Generally. –2. 4. – 2) be the given points. z) be the point which divides segment joining A (1. Let the point P divides AB in the ratio k : 1. 6. y = = − 14 . . and (ii) externally. z1) and Q (x2. 4. –5) in the ratio 2 : 3 (i) internally. 6. 3) and (3. –2) are collinear. 3) and B (3. –14. Example 8 Using section formula. ⎟ ⎝5 5 5 ⎠ (ii) Let P (x. 6) and (14. 4. 10).INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 275 These are the coordinates of the mid point of the segment joining P (x1. z= 2(−5) + 3(3) − 1 = 2+3 5 ⎛ 9 2 −1⎞ ⎜ . Case 2 The coordinates of the point R which divides PQ in the ratio k : 1 are obtained by taking k = m which are as given below: n ⎛ k x 2 + x1 ky2 + y1 kz 2 + z1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1+k . y1. z = = 19 2 + (−3) 2 + ( −3) 2 + ( −3) Therefore. Solution Let A (– 4. . y2. 0. the required point is x = 2(3) + ( −3)(1) 2( 4) + ( −3)(−2) 2(−5) + ( −3)(3) = − 3. –5) internally in the ratio 2 : 3. 6) and C(14. the required point is (–3. 1+k . B (2. this result is used in solving problems involving a general point on the line passing through two given points. z2). 10). Solution (i) Let P (x.

10) and (6. 8. Then the coordinates of P are . Let the coordinates of the vertices A.276 MATHEMATICS On putting 2k − 4 =14 .Hence A. C (14. z3). . respectively. y. z1). (x2. y3. – 8) at P (x. then k +1 2 and 6k + 10 = k +1 3 6( − ) + 10 2 = −2 3 − +1 2 Therefore. Solution Let YZ-plane divides the line segment joining A (4. 10. Therefore. 0. B. ⎝ 2 +1 2 +1 2 +1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ or ⎛ x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3 z1 + z2 + z3 ⎞ . y2. Solution Let ABC be the triangle. B. Let D be the mid-point of BC. (x2. – 8) is divided by the YZ-plane. z2) and (x3. 10) and B (6. ⎜ ⎟ 3 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ Example 10 Find the ratio in which the line segment joining the points (4. we get k = − 3 k +1 2 3 4( − ) + 6 2 =0 3 − +1 2 When 4k + 6 3 = k = − . C are collinear. z2) and (x3. y1. –2) is a point which divides AB externally in the ratio 3 : 2 and is same as P. Hence coordinates of D are ⎛ x2 + x3 y 2 + y3 z2 + z3 ⎞ . z) in the ratio k : 1. y2. z1). Example 9 Find the coordinates of the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are (x1. 10. y3. 8. . ⎝ . the coordinates of G are ⎛ ⎛ x2 + x3 ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ y2 + y3 ⎞ ⎛ z 2 + z3 ⎞ ⎜ 2⎜ ⎟ + x1 2 ⎜ ⎟ + y1 2 ⎜ ⎟ + z1 ⎟ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎜ ⎝ ⎟ . Hence. y1. ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 Let G be the centroid of the triangle. z3). it divides the median AD in the ratio 2 : 1.C be (x1.

k =− EXERCISE 12. 7) and (3. or 4 + 6k =0 k +1 2 3 Therefore. (ii) 2 : 3 externally. B (–1. 5) and (1. 2. – 4). YZ-plane divides AB externally in the ratio 2 : 3. 3). 2 ⎟ are collinear. its x-coordinate is zero. – 4.3 1. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ k +1 k +1 k +1 ⎠ Since P lies on the YZ-plane. Using section formula. Solution To show ABCD is a parallelogram we need to show opposite side are equal Note that. ⎛ 1 ⎞ C ⎜ 0 . 3. . 8).. 2. –5. 6) in the ratio (i) 2 : 3 internally. Given that P (3. 7. Find the ratio in which Q divides PR. –10) are collinear. – 6) and Q (10. Q (5. 3. ⎝ 3 ⎠ Find the coordinates of the points which trisect the line segment joining the points P (4. –2. 4. 1) and 5. C (2. 4. –16. 3. . – 6) and R (9. 2. AB = BC = CD = DA = (−1 − 1) 2 +(−2 − 2) 2 +(−1 − 3) 2 = (2 + 1) 2 +(3 + 2) 2 +( 2 + 1) 2 = ( 4 − 2) 2 +(7 − 3) 2 +(6 − 2) 2 = (1 − 4) 2 +(2 − 7) 2 +(3 − 6) 2 = 4 + 16 + 16 = 6 9 + 25 + 9 = 43 4 + 16 + 16 = 6 9 + 25 + 9 = 43 Since AB = CD and BC = AD. 2. i. show that the points A (2. but it is not a rectangle. 2.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 277 ⎛ 4 + 6k 8 + 10k 10 − 8k ⎞ . Miscellaneous Examples Example 11 Show that the points A (1. –3. ABCD is a parallelogram. .e. 6). 4). 4. 8. –1). Find the ratio in which the YZ-plane divides the line segment formed by joining the points (–2. 6) are the vertices of a parallelogram ABCD. Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points (– 2. 2) and D (4. B (–1.

Three vertices of a parallelogram ABCD are A(3. Q (– 4. 2). 0. B (0. 3 3 3 Hence. –5) and B (– 2. 1). B (1. 3. . If the coordinates of A and B are (3. 0. Solution Let the coordinates of C be (x. 2). y.. y. y = 1. b and c. 2c). 0).e. i. –5. 14. Now or or ( x − 3) 2 + ( y − 4) 2 + ( z + 5) 2 = ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 + ( z − 4) 2 ( x − 3) 2 + ( y − 4) 2 + ( z + 5) 2 = ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 + ( z − 4) 2 10 x + 6y – 18z – 29 = 0. 2. 4) are equal.. 1. z) be any point such that PA = PB. 0) and (6. Find the lengths of the medians of the triangle with vertices A (0. 1. x = 1. it is required to prove that ABCD is not a rectangle. 4. Then x + 3−1 y −5+ 7 z+7−6 = 1. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 12 1. –10) and R(8. Example 13 The centroid of a triangle ABC is at the point (1. 1. 3b.e. 7) and (–1. 7. using the property that diagonals AC and BD bisect each other. Note We can also show that ABCD is a parallelogram.4. – 4) and C (– 1. 2. Solution If P (x. – 1. For this. If the origin is the centroid of the triangle PQR with vertices P (2a. 1). z) and the coordinates of the centroid G be (1. Find the coordinates of the fourth vertex. 6). respectively. We have AC BD = = ( 2 − 1) 2 +(3 − 2) 2 +(2 − 3) 2 = 1 + 1 + 1= 3 ( 4 + 1) 2 +(7 + 2) 2 +(6 + 1) 2 = 25 + 81 + 49 = 155 . 1. – 6). then find the values of a.278 MATHEMATICS Now. 2. Example 12 Find the equation of the set of the points P such that its distances from the points A (3. 1. z = 2. 6). coordinates of C are (1.. i. i. = 1. we show that diagonals AC and BD are unequal. = 1. 2). ABCD is not a rectangle. find the coordinates of the point C.e. Since AC ≠ BD.

. y1. where k is a constant. 3. ⎜ ⎟ and ⎜ ⎟ m+ n m+n ⎠ m–n m–n ⎠ . . –2. y2. y and z-axes. find the equation of the set of points P such that PA2 + PB2 = k2. y and z are the distances from the YZ. (i) Any point on x-axis is of the form (x. –7). z2) is given by PQ = ( x2 − x1 )2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 + ( z2 − z1 )2 The coordinates of the point R which divides the line segment joining two points P (x1 y1 z1) and Q (x2. y2. The coordinates of a point P in three dimensional geometry is always written in the form of triplet like (x. respectively. y. Find the coordinates of the point R. ⎝ m+n ⎝ m–n respectively. z). y. The coordinates of the point R are given ⎛ 8k + 2 − 3 10k + 4 ⎞ by ⎜ .If A and B be the points (3. 0. the coordinate axes of a rectangular Cartesian coordinate system are three mutually perpendicular lines. The three planes determined by the pair of axes are the coordinate planes. A point R with x-coordinate 4 lies on the line segment joining the points P(2. 4) and Q (8. Summary In three dimensions. The coordinates of the mid-point of the line segment joining two points . called XY. –3. The axes are called the x. z2) internally and externally in the ratio m : n are given by ⎛ mx2 + nx1 my2 + ny1 mz2 + nz1 ⎞ ⎛ mx2 – nx1 my2 – ny1 mz2 – nz1 ⎞ . 10). ⎟ ]. Distance between two points P(x1. ZX and XY-planes. [Hint Suppose R divides PQ in the ratio k : 1.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 279 4. 5. 5). Find the coordinates of a point on y-axis which are at a distance of 5 2 from the point P (3. YZ and ZX-planes. z1) and Q (x2. 0) (ii) Any point on y-axis is of the form (0. 4. 0. z). . ⎝ k +1 k +1 k +1 ⎠ 6. The three coordinate planes divide the space into eight parts known as octants. . 0) (iii) Any point on z-axis is of the form (0. 0. Here x. 5) and (–1.

D. Although suggestions for the three dimensional coordinate geometry can be found in their works but no details.) took up systematically the three dimensional coordinate geometry. . z1) and Q(x2. 3 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ Historical Note Rene’ Descartes (1596–1650 A. z2) are ⎜ ⎟. (x2.).) and La Hire (1640-1718 A. are ⎜ ⎟. — — . to Leibnitz introduced the three coordinate planes which we use today. y2.280 MATHEMATICS ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 z1 + z2 ⎞ . L. J. the well-known application of which is in the Space-Time Continuum of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Descartes had the idea of coordinates in three dimensions but did not develop it. the father of analytical geometry.D.D. y1. z1) ⎛ x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3 z1 + z2 + x3 ⎞ .).D. 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 The coordinates of the centroid of the triangle.D. P(x1.Euler (1707-1783 A.D.D. It was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that geometry was extended to more than three dimensions.Bernoulli (1667-1748 A. y1. who gave a systematic development of analytical solid geometry for the first time in a paper presented to the French Academy in 1700 A. y2. z3). whose vertices are (x1. z2) and (x3.). essentially dealt with plane geometry only in 1637 A. . y3. It was Antoinne Parent (1666-1716 A.D. in Chapter 5 of the appendix to the second volume of his “Introduction to Geometry” in 1748 A. The same is true of his co-inventor Pierre Fermat (1601-1665 A.) in a letter of 1715 A.D.D.

Then we give a naive definition of limit and study some algebra of limits. The objective is to find the veloctiy of the body at time t = 2 seconds from this data. we give an intuitive idea of derivative (without actually defining it).1 gives the distance travelled in metres at various intervals of time in seconds of a body dropped from a tall cliff. Calculus is that branch of mathematics which mainly deals with the study of change in the value of a function as the points in the domain change. We also obtain derivatives of certain standard functions.9t2 metres in t seconds. One way to approach this problem is to find the average velocity for various intervals of time ending at t = 2 seconds and hope that these throw some light on the velocity at t = 2 seconds. The adjoining Table 13. Average velocity between t = t1 and t = t2 equals distance travelled between t = t1 and t = t2 seconds divided by (t2 – t1). First.9t2.Chapter 13 LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES With the Calculus as a key. i. Then we come back to a definition of derivative and study some algebra of derivatives. Hence the average velocity in the first two seconds Sir Issac Newton (1642-1727) .e. 13.. Mathematics can be successfully applied to the explanation of the course of Nature – WHITEHEAD 13. distance s in metres covered by the body as a function of time t in seconds is given by s = 4.2 Intuitive Idea of Derivatives Physical experiments have confirmed that the body dropped from a tall cliff covers a distance of 4.1 Introduction This chapter is an introduction to Calculus.

11 1.6 – 4.8 18.551 From Table 13.5 3 4 s 0 4. As we make the time intervals ending at t = 2 smaller. t 0 1 1.5 1.8 1.99 19.15 1. The following Table 13.2 t1 v 0 9.551m/s.2.5 17.9 1.716 30.62 1. we see that we get a better idea of the velocity at t = 2. the average velocity between t = 1 and t = 2 is (19. This conclusion is somewhat strengthened by the following set of computation. Compute the average velocities for various time intervals starting at t = 2 seconds.625 44.8 m / s .1 2.99 seconds and 2 seconds.6 20. we observe that the average velocity is gradually increasing.8 1 14. we conclude that the average velocity at t = 2 seconds is just above 19.609 23.7 1.282 MATHEMATICS Distance travelled between t2 = 2 and t1 = 0 = Time interval (t2 − t1 ) = Table 13.876 17.689 18.1 78.2 2.7 m/s ( 2 − 1) s Likewise we compute the average velocitiy between t = t1 and t = 2 for various t1.95 2 2. Hoping that nothing really dramatic happens between 1.63225 19.6 − 0 ) m = 9.1 (19.05 2. ( 2 − 0) s Similarly.4 Table 13.95 19.2 gives the average velocity (v). As before the average velocity v between t = 2 seconds and t = t2 seconds is = Distance travelled between 2 seconds and t2 seconds t2 − 2 Distance travelled in t2 seconds − Distance travelled in 2 seconds t2 − 2 = .9 ) m = 14. t = t1 seconds and t = 2 seconds.9 11.9 19.59225 21.025 15.355 1.

01 29. In the first set of computations.9t2 at t = 2 is between 19. This is a plot of distance s of the body from the top of the cliff versus the time t elapsed.09 19.551m/s and 19.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 283 = Distance travelled in t2 seconds − 19.5 22. As is well-known. we have found the average velocities decreasing in time intervals ending at t = 2 and then hope that nothing dramatic happens just after t = 2.05 20.3 gives the average velocity v in metres per second between t = 2 seconds and t2 seconds.6 t2 − 2 The following Table 13. approaches zero.58 20. In the limit as the sequence of time intervals h1. h2. we get better idea of the velocity at t = 2.5 2.649 m/s. both these sequences of average velocities must approach a common limit. Purely on the physical grounds. We say that the derivative of the distance function s = 4.649. velocity is the rate of change of distance. We can safely conclude that the velocity of the body at t = 2 is between 19.551 m/s and 19.845 19.4 24.1 2.3 t2 v 4 3 2.2 2.649 m/s.. the sequence of average velocities approaches the same limit as does the Fig 13. From the given data of distance covered at various time instants we have estimated the rate of change of the distance at a given instant of time.1 sequence of ratios .. what we have done is to find average velocities in increasing time intervals ending at t = 2 and then hope that nothing dramatic happens just before t = 2. Technically. Table 13.649 Here again we note that if we take smaller time intervals starting at t = 2. .05 2.1.551 and 19. In the second set of computations. Hence what we have accomplished is the following. An alternate way of viewing this limiting process is shown in Fig 13. we say that the instantaneous velocity at t = 2 is between 19..

We study a few illustrative examples to gain some familiarity with the concept of limits. (See Fig 2.13.10 Chapter 2). From the Fig 13. This is intuitively x→0 clear from the graph of y = |x| for x ≠ 0. Chapter 2).1 it is safe to conclude that this latter sequence approaches the slope of the tangent to the curve at point A. Computing the value of g(x) for values of x very near to 0. .284 MATHEMATICS C1B1 C2 B2 C3 B3 . In other words. So. We say lim f ( x ) = 0 x →0 (to be read as limit of f (x) as x tends to zero equals zero). f (x) → l.. etc. the instantaneous velocity v(t) of a body at time t = 2 is equal to the slope of the tangent of the curve s = 4. Consider the function f(x) = x2.3 Limits The above discussion clearly points towards the fact that we need to understand limiting process in greater clarity. x≠2. 13. x ≠ 0. the value of f(x) also moves towards 0 (See Fig 2.9t2 at t = 2. lim g(x) = 0.2 . . . Observe that as x takes values very close to 0. AC1 AC2 AC3 where C1B1 = s1 – s0 is the distance travelled by the body in the time interval h1 = AC1. This is somewhat strengthened by considering the graph of the function y = h(x) given here (Fig 13. we see that the value of g(x) moves towards 0. Observe that g(0) is not defined. x →a Consider the following function g(x) = |x|. Consider the following function. The limit of f (x) as x tends to zero is to be thought of as the value f (x) should assume at x = 0.. x−2 Compute the value of h(x) for values of x very near to 2 (but not at 2). x2 − 4 . Convince yourself that all these values are near to 4. then l is called limit of the function f (x) which is symbolically written as lim f ( x ) = l .2). h( x) = Fig 13. In general as x → a.

This value is called the right hand limit of f(x) at a.. x > 0 Graph of this function is shown in the Fig 13. the left hand limit of f (x) at 0 is lim f ( x) =1 . Some of the points near and to the left of 5 are 4. This naturally leads to two limits – the right hand limit and the left hand limit. 4. Fig 13. the right hand limit of f (x) at 0 is x →0 + lim f ( x ) = 2 . x →a Illustration 1 Consider the function f(x) = x + 10.e. Similarly.99.3. Summary We say xlim– f(x) is the expected value of f at x = a given the values of f near →a x to the left of a. the left hand limit. This value is called the left hand limit of f at a. . i.995. Similarly. x→0 Similarly. It is clear that the value of f at 0 dictated by values of f(x) with x ≤ 0 equals 1. 4. Values of the function at these points are tabulated below.95.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 285 In all these illustrations the value which the function should assume at a given point x = a did not really depend on how is x tending to a.. and hence we say that the limit of f (x) as x tends to zero does not exist (even though the function is defined at 0). Let us compute the value of the function f(x) for x very near to 5. consider the function ⎧ 1. the real number 5. i.. .9. etc. i. To illustrate this. all the values of x near a could be less than a or could be greater than a. Right hand limit of a function f(x) is that value of f(x) which is dictated by the values of f(x) when x tends to a from the right... Note that there are essentially two ways x could approach a number a either from left or from right.e.001.3 In this case the right and left hand limits are different. the value of f at 0 dictated by values of f (x) with x > 0 equals 2. 4. If the right and left hand limits coincide. We want to find the limit of this function at x = 5. x ≤ 0 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩ 2. We say lim+ f ( x ) is the expected value f at x = a given the values of x→a f near x to the right of a. we call that common value as the limit of f(x) at x = a and denote it by lim f(x).e. .

5. the graph of the function f(x) = x +10 approaches the point (5. we deduce that value of f(x) at x = 5 should be greater than 14.729 0.1 15. It is reasonable to assume that the value of the f(x) at x = 5 as dictated by the numbers to the left of 5 is 15.001.995 and 5. when x approaches 5 from the right. This is given in the Table 13.1 are also points near and to the right of 5. Chapter 2. 5.99 14. x →5 x →5 This conclusion about the limit being equal to 15 is somewhat strengthened by seeing the graph of this function which is given in Fig 2.9 0. i.995 14. In this figure.16. x →5+ lim f ( x ) = 15 .01 1. we note that as x appraches 5 from either right or left. Let us try to find the limit of this function at x = 1. it is likely that the left hand limit of f(x) and the right hand limit of f(x) are both equal to 15.01.4.003003001 assuming nothing dramatic happens between .286 MATHEMATICS 5.e. we tabulate the value of f(x) at x near 1.01 5.9 14. x →5 – lim f ( x ) = 15 .95 4.331 From this table. Thus.001 5.995 and less than 15. We observe that the value of the function at x = 2 also happens to be equal to 12. 15). Proceeding as in the previous case.1 1.970299 0..99 4.1 From the Table 13.9 4. Table 13.4.999 0.99 0.01 15. Hence.e. Illustration 2 Consider the function f(x) = x3. f(x) should be taking value 15.003003001 1..4 x f(x) 4.995 5.001 15.95 14.001 assuming nothing dramatic happens between x = 4. Similarly.001 1. x →5 − lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 15 .030301 1.997002999 1. Table 13.997002999 and less than 1. i. we deduce that value of f(x) at x = 1 should be greater than 0.5 x f(x) 0. Value of the function at these points are also given in the Table 13.

Illustration 4 Consider the constant function f(x) = 3.999 5.6 is now self-explanatory. x →1− lim f ( x ) = 1 . x →1+ Hence.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 287 x = 0. Chapter 2.e.4 .03 2.. Let us try to find its limit at x = 2. This function being the constant function takes the same Fig 13.01 6. Illustration 3 Consider the function f(x) = 3x. when x approaches 1 from the right.99 5.85 1.. We record this as x →2 − lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 6 x →2 x →2 Its graph shown in Fig 13. i. The following Table 13. 1). we note that as x approaches 1 from either right or left. the value of f(x) seem to approach 6. f(x) should be taking value 1.e.4 strengthens this fact.95 5. it is likely that the left hand limit of f(x) and the right hand limit of f(x) are both equal to 1.1 6.001 6. We observe. x →1− lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 1 .97 1. the graph of the function f(x) = x3 approaches the point (1.11. Let us try to find the limit of this function at x = 2. that the value of the function at x = 1 also happens to be equal to 1.997 2.. i.003 2. It is reasonable to assume that the value of the f(x) at x = 1 as dictated by the numbers to the left of 1 is 1. Thus.6 x f(x) 1. x →1 x →1 This conclusion about the limit being equal to 1 is somewhat strengthened by seeing the graph of this function which is given in Fig 2.7 1.3 As before we observe that as x approaches 2 from either left or right.001. Similarly. Table 13.9 5. lim f ( x ) = 1 . Here again we note that the value of the function at x = 2 coincides with the limit at x = 2.999 and 1. again. In this figure.

01 2.2 2. its value at points close to 2 is 3. i. 2).288 MATHEMATICS value (3. in this case) everywhere.9 1.5 lim x 2 = 1. In fact.. Table 13. We want to find lim f ( x ) . ⎦ x →1 x →1 x →1 ⎣ lim x.7. x →a Illustration 5 Consider the function f(x) = x2 + x.e.71 0.7 x f(x) 0.5. Chapter 2.64 From this it is reasonable to deduce that x →1− lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 2 . again we observe that the lim f (x) = f (1) x→1 Now. Hence lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 3 x→2 x →2 x→2 Graph of f(x) = 3 is anyway the line parallel to x-axis passing through (0.9.31 1. convince yourself of the following three facts: Fig 13. Here.0301 1. it is easily observed that lim f ( x ) = 3 for any real number a. + x →1 x →1 From the graph of f(x) = x2 + x shown in the Fig 13.997001 1. it is clear that as x approaches 1.9701 0.99 1. lim x = 1 and lim x + 1 = 2 x →1 x →1 x →1 Then Also lim x 2 + lim x = 1 + 1 = 2 = lim ⎡ x 2 + x ⎤ . ⎦ x →1 ⎣ ⎦ x →1 x→1 x →1 ⎣ . lim ( x + 1) = 1. the graph approaches (1. From this also it is clear that the required limit is 3. We x →1 tabulate the values of f(x) near x = 1 in Table 13.1 2.999 1.2 = 2 = lim ⎡ x ( x + 1) ⎤ = lim ⎡ x 2 + x ⎤ . 3) and is shown in Fig 2.

we observe that lim f (x) = f (0) = 1.9850 – 0.8).01 1. π x→ 2 where the angle is measured in radians.0950 From the Table 13. We are interested in lim sin x .8 (Chapter 3). x→0 Here we tabulate the (approximate) value of f(x) near 0 (Table 13.001 0.1 0.9999 π + 0.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 289 Illustration 6 Consider the function f(x) = sin x.9).9989995 0. Here. we tabulate the (approximate) value of f(x) near this. can you convince yourself that lim [ x + cos x ] = lim x + lim cos x is indeed true? x →0 x →0 x→ 0 .1 2 0. we may deduce that x → 0− lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 1 x→0 x →0 x→0 In this case too.1 2 0.01 0. x→ π 2 Table 13.1 1.98995 – 0.01 2 0. this is supported by the graph of f(x) = sin x which is given in the Fig 3. we may deduce that x→ π (Table 13.00995 0.0009995 0.9950 Illustration 7 Consider the function f(x) = x + cos x. Further.9950 π − 0. Now.8 x f(x) π − 0.001 1.9999 π + 0. Table 13. we observe that lim sin x = 1. In this case too.9. We want to find the lim f (x).01 2 0.9 x f(x) – 0. From 2 lim− f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 1 π 2 x→ π 2 x→ π 2 .

290

MATHEMATICS

1 for x > 0 . We want to know lim f (x). x→0 x2 Here, observe that the domain of the function is given to be all positive real numbers. Hence, when we tabulate the values of f(x), it does not make sense to talk of x approaching 0 from the left. Below we tabulate the values of the function for positive x close to 0 (in this table n denotes any positive integer). From the Table 13.10 given below, we see that as x tends to 0, f(x) becomes larger and larger. What we mean here is that the value of f(x) may be made larger than any given number.

Illustration 8 Consider the function f ( x ) =

Table 13.10

x f(x) Mathematically, we say

1 1
lim f ( x ) = + ∞
x →0

0.1 100

0.01 10000

10–n 102n

We also remark that we will not come across such limits in this course. Illustration 9 We want to find lim f ( x ) , where x →0
⎧ x − 2, x < 0 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ 0 , x = 0 ⎪ x + 2, x > 0 ⎩

As usual we make a table of x near 0 with f(x). Observe that for negative values of x we need to evaluate x – 2 and for positive values, we need to evaluate x + 2.
Table 13.11

x f(x)

– 0.1 – 2.1

– 0.01 – 2.01

– 0.001 – 2.001

0.001 2.001

0.01 2.01

0.1 2.1

From the first three entries of the Table 13.11, we deduce that the value of the function is decreasing to –2 and hence.
x →0 −

lim f ( x ) = −2

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

291

From the last three entires of the table we deduce that the value of the function is increasing from 2 and hence
x → 0+

lim f ( x ) = 2

Since the left and right hand limits at 0 do not coincide, we say that the limit of the function at 0 does not exist. Graph of this function is given in the Fig13.6. Here, we remark that the value of the function at x = 0 is well defined and is, indeed, equal to 0, but the limit of the function at x = 0 is not even defined. Illustration 10 As a final illustration, we find lim f ( x ) , x →1 where
⎧x + 2 x ≠ 1 f ( x) = ⎨ x =1 ⎩ 0
Table 13.12 Fig 13.6

x f(x)

0.9 2.9

0.99 2.99

0.999 2.999

1.001 3.001

1.01 3.01

1.1 3.1

As usual we tabulate the values of f(x) for x near 1. From the values of f(x) for x less than 1, it seems that the function should take value 3 at x = 1., i.e.,
x →1−

lim f ( x ) = 3 .

Similarly, the value of f(x) should be 3 as dictated by values of f(x) at x greater than 1. i.e.
x →1+

lim f ( x ) = 3 .

But then the left and right hand limits coincide and hence
lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 3 . +
x →1 x →1

x →1−

Graph of function given in Fig 13.7 strengthens our deduction about the limit. Here, we

Fig 13.7

292

MATHEMATICS

note that in general, at a given point the value of the function and its limit may be different (even when both are defined). 13.3.1 Algebra of limits In the above illustrations, we have observed that the limiting process respects addition, subtraction, multiplication and division as long as the limits and functions under consideration are well defined. This is not a coincidence. In fact, below we formalise these as a theorem without proof. Theorem 1 Let f and g be two functions such that both lim f (x) and lim g(x) exist.
x →a x →a

Then (i) Limit of sum of two functions is sum of the limits of the functions, i.e.,
lim [f(x) + g (x)] = lim f(x) + lim g(x).
x →a x →a x →a

(ii) Limit of difference of two functions is difference of the limits of the functions, i.e.,

lim [f(x) – g(x)] = lim f(x) – lim g(x).
x →a x →a x →a

(iii) Limit of product of two functions is product of the limits of the functions, i.e.,

lim [f(x) . g(x)] = lim f(x). lim g(x).
x →a x →a x →a

(iv) Limit of quotient of two functions is quotient of the limits of the functions (whenever the denominator is non zero), i.e.,

lim

x →a

g ( x)

f ( x)

=

lim f ( x )
x →a

lim g ( x )
x→ a

Note In particular as a special case of (iii), when g is the constant function such that g(x) = λ , for some real number λ , we have

lim ⎡( λ. f ) ( x ) ⎤ = λ.lim f ( x ) . ⎦ x→a ⎣ x →a
In the next two subsections, we illustrate how to exploit this theorem to evaluate limits of special types of functions. 13.3.2 Limits of polynomials and rational functions A function f is said to be a polynomial function if f(x) is zero function or if f(x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 +. . . + anxn, where ais are real numbers such that an ≠ 0 for some natural number n. We know that lim x = a. Hence
x →a

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

293

lim x 2 = lim ( x.x ) = lim x.lim x = a. a = a 2
x→a x→ a x→a x→ a

An easy exercise in induction on n tells us that

lim x n = a n
x →a

Now, let f ( x ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + ... + an x n be a polynomial function. Thinking of each of a0 , a1 x, a2 x 2 ,..., an x n as a function, we have
lim f
x→a

( x ) = lim ⎡a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + ... + an x n ⎤ ⎦ x →a ⎣
2 n = lim a0 + lim a1 x + lim a2 x + ... + lim an x x →a x→ a x→a x →a 2 n = a0 + a1 lim x + a2 lim x + ... + an lim x x →a x →a x→ a

= a0 + a1a + a2 a 2 + ... + an a n = f (a) (Make sure that you understand the justification for each step in the above!)

g ( x) A function f is said to be a rational function, if f(x) = h x , where g(x) and h(x) ( )
are polynomials such that h(x) ≠ 0. Then

lim f ( x ) = lim
x →a

g ( x) h( x)

x→ a

=

lim g ( x )
x →a

lim h ( x )
x→ a

=

g (a) h ( a)

However, if h(a) = 0, there are two scenarios – (i) when g(a) ≠ 0 and (ii) when g(a) = 0. In the former case we say that the limit does not exist. In the latter case we can write g(x) = (x – a)k g1 (x), where k is the maximum of powers of (x – a) in g(x) Similarly, h(x) = (x – a)l h1 (x) as h (a) = 0. Now, if k ≥ l, we have
lim f ( x ) =
x→a

lim g ( x )
x→ a

lim h ( x )
x →a

=

lim ( x − a ) g1 ( x )
k x→ a

lim ( x − a ) h1 ( x )
l x →a

294

MATHEMATICS

lim ( x − a )
=
x→a x →a

( k −l )

g1 ( x )

lim h1 ( x )

=

0. g1 ( a ) h1 ( a )

=0

If k < l, the limit is not defined.
2 ⎡ 3 ⎤ Example 1 Find the limits: (i) lim ⎣ x − x + 1⎦ x →1

(ii) lim ⎡ x ( x + 1) ⎤ ⎦ x →3 ⎣

(iii)

x →−1 ⎣

lim ⎡1 + x + x 2 + ... + x10 ⎤ . ⎦

Solution The required limits are all limits of some polynomial functions. Hence the limits are the values of the function at the prescribed points. We have (i) lim [x3 – x2 + 1] = 13 – 12 + 1 = 1 x→1 (ii) lim ⎡ x ( x + 1)⎤ = 3 ( 3 + 1) = 3 ( 4 ) = 12 ⎦ x →3 ⎣ (iii)
x →−1 ⎣

lim ⎡1 + x + x 2 + ... + x10 ⎤ = 1 + ( −1) + ( −1)2 + ... + ( −1)10 ⎦
= 1 − 1 + 1... + 1 = 1 .

Example 2 Find the limits:
⎡ x2 + 1 ⎤ ⎥ (i) lim ⎢ x →1 x + 100 ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x ⎤ ⎥ (ii) lim ⎢ x →2 x2 − 4 ⎣ ⎦

(iii)

⎡ ⎤ x2 − 4 lim ⎢ 3 ⎥ 2 x →2 x − 4 x + 4 x ⎣ ⎦

(iv)

⎡ x3 − 2 x2 ⎤ lim ⎢ 2 ⎥ x →2 x − 5 x + 6 ⎣ ⎦

1 ⎡ x−2 ⎤ − 3 (v) lim ⎢ 2 . 2 x →1 ⎣ x − x x − 3x + 2 x ⎥ ⎦
Solution All the functions under consideration are rational functions. Hence, we first evaluate these functions at the prescribed points. If this is of the form
0 , we try to 0

rewrite the function cancelling the factors which are causing the limit to be of the form
0 . 0

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

295

(i) We have lim (ii)

x2 + 1 12 + 1 2 = = x →1 x + 100 1 + 100 101
0 . 0

Evaluating the function at 2, it is of the form
2

x ( x − 2) x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x lim = lim Hence 2 x → 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x→2 x −4
= lim x →2

x ( x − 2)

( x + 2)
=

as x ≠ 2

=

2 ( 2 − 2) 2+2

0 = 0. 4

(iii) Evaluating the function at 2, we get it of the form

0 . 0

Hence lim
x →2

( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x2 − 4 2 = lim x→2 x ( x − 2) x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x

( x + 2) 2+2 4 = lim x x − 2 = 2 2 − 2 = 0 x →2 ( ) ( )
which is not defined. (iv) Evaluating the function at 2, we get it of the form
x2 ( x − 2) x3 − 2 x 2 lim 2 = lim x →2 ( x − 2 )( x − 3 ) x→2 x − 5 x + 6

0 . 0

Hence

= lim x →2

( 2) 4 x2 = = = −4. ( x − 3) 2 − 3 −1
2

296

MATHEMATICS

(v) First, we rewrite the function as a rational function.

⎡ 1 1 ⎡ x−2 ⎤ ⎢ x−2 − − 3 = ⎢ x ( x − 1) x x 2 − 3 x + 2 ⎢ x 2 − x x − 3x 2 + 2 x ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣

(

)

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

⎡ x−2 ⎤ 1 = ⎢ x x −1 − x x −1 x − 2 ⎥ ) ( )( )⎥ ⎢ ( ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ x2 − 4x + 4 − 1 ⎤ = ⎢ x x −1 x − 2 ⎥ )( )⎥ ⎢ ( ⎣ ⎦

x2 − 4x + 3 = x x −1 x − 2 ( )( )
Evaluating the function at 1, we get it of the form

0 . 0

Hence

⎡ x2 − 2 ⎤ x2 − 4x + 3 1 lim lim ⎢ 2 − 3 ⎥= x →1 x − x x − 3x 2 + 2 x ⎦ x →1 x ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ⎣

( x − 3)( x − 1) = lim x x − 1 x − 2 x →1 ( )( )
x−3 1− 3 = lim x x − 2 = 1 1 − 2 = 2. x →1 ( ) ( )

We remark that we could cancel the term (x – 1) in the above evaluation because x ≠ 1. Evaluation of an important limit which will be used in the sequel is given as a theorem below. Theorem 2 For any positive integer n,
lim xn − an = na n−1 . x →a x − a

Remark The expression in the above theorem for the limit is true even if n is any rational number and a is positive.

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

297

Proof Dividing (xn – an) by (x – a), we see that xn – an = (x–a) (xn–1 + xn–2 a + xn–3 a2 + ... + x an–2 + an–1) Thus, lim
xn − an = lim (xn–1 + xn–2 a + xn–3 a2 + ... + x an–2 + an–1) x →a x − a x →a

= an – l + a an–2 +. . . + an–2 (a) +an–l = an–1 + an – 1 +...+an–1 + an–1 (n terms)
n −1 = na

Example 3 Evaluate:

x15 − 1 x →1 x10 − 1 Solution (i) We have
(i) lim

(ii) lim

x →0

1+ x −1 x

lim

x →1

15 10 x15 − 1 lim ⎡ x − 1 ÷ x − 1 ⎤ ⎥ = x →1 ⎢ x −1 ⎦ x10 − 1 ⎣ x −1

⎡ x15 − 1 ⎤ ⎡ x10 − 1 ⎤ lim ⎢ ÷ lim ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ = x →1 ⎣ x − 1 ⎦ x →1 ⎣ x − 1 ⎦

= 15 (1)14 ÷ 10(1)9 (by the theorem above) = 15 ÷ 10 =

3 2

(ii) Put y = 1 + x, so that y → 1 as x → 0. Then
lim

x →0

y −1 1+ x −1 = lim y →1 y – 1 x
1 1

y 2 − 12 = lim y →1 y −1

=

1 1 1 2 −1 (1) (by the remark above) = 2 2

298

MATHEMATICS

13.4 Limits of Trigonometric Functions The following facts (stated as theorems) about functions in general come in handy in calculating limits of some trigonometric functions. Theorem 3 Let f and g be two real valued functions with the same domain such that f (x) ≤ g( x) for all x in the domain of definition, For some a, if both lim f(x) and x →a
lim g(x) exist, then lim f(x) ≤ lim g(x). This is illustrated in Fig 13.8. x →a x →a x →a

Fig 13.8

Theorem 4 (Sandwich Theorem) Let f, g and h be real functions such that f (x) ≤ g( x) ≤ h(x) for all x in the common domain of definition. For some real number a, if lim f(x) = l = lim h(x), then lim g(x) = l. This is illustrated in Fig 13.9. x→a x→a
x→ a

Fig 13.9

Given below is a beautiful geometric proof of the following important inequality relating trigonometric functions.

cos x <

sin x <1 x

for 0 < x <

π 2

(*)

sinx is positive and thus by dividing throughout by sin x.. we have sin x < x < tan x. i. 2 In the Fig 13.π.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 299 Proof We know that sin (– x) = – sin x and cos( – x) = cos x. OA < AB. From ∆ OCD. .CD < . we have 2 x 1 < . Further. Since length OA is positive. it is sufficient to prove the inequality for 0 < x < π . Fig 13. Thus OA sin x < OA.(OA) 2 < OA. Hence. Also tan x = and OA OA hence AB = OA. join AC. tan x. CD AB (since OC = OA) and hence CD = OA sin x. CD < x . we have sin x cos x sin x <1 x which complete the proof. Taking reciprocals throughout. (i) lim sin x =1. x < OA.. cos x < Proposition 5 The following are two important limits. O is the centre of the unit circle such that the angle AOC is x radians and 0 < x < π . x →0 x Proof (i) The inequality in (*) says that the function sin x is sandwiched between the x function cos x and the constant function which takes value 1. Line segments B A and 2 CD are perpendiculars to OA. x →0 x (ii) lim 1 − cos x =0. tan x. sin x = Since 0 < x < 1< π .e.e.AB . Then Area of ∆OAC < Area of sector OAC < Area of ∆ OAB.10 1 x 1 OA. 2 2π 2 i.10.

.lim ⎢ x→0 ⎣ 4 x ⎥ ⎢ 2 x ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ sin 4 x ⎤ ⎡ sin 2 x ⎤ ÷ lim = 2. This 2 x .sin ⎛ x ⎞ ⎜2⎟ x →0 x x ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎛x⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ .1.300 MATHEMATICS Further.0 = 0 = lim ⎜2⎟ x x →0 x →0 ⎝ ⎠ 2 Observe that we have implicitly used the fact that x → 0 is equivalent to may be justified by putting y = x → 0 . 2 sin 4 x sin 2 x (ii) lim Example 4 Evaluate: (i) lim x →0 x →0 tan x x Solution (i) lim x →0 ⎡ sin 4 x 2 x ⎤ sin 4 x . since lim cos x = 1.2⎥ = lim ⎢ x →0 ⎣ 4 x sin 2 x ⎦ sin 2 x ⎡ sin 4 x ⎤ ⎡ sin 2 x ⎤ ÷ = 2.lim sin ⎛ x ⎞ = 1. 4x → 0 and 2x → 0) . ⎝2⎠ Then 1 − cos x lim = lim x →0 x →0 x ⎛x⎞ ⎛ x⎞ 2sin 2 ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = lim ⎝ 2 ⎠ . we recall the trigonometric identity 1 – cos x = 2 sin2 ⎜ ⎟ . 4lim0 ⎢ x → ⎣ 4 x ⎥ 2 x →0 ⎢ 2 x ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = 2. ⎛x⎞ To prove (ii). we see that the proof of (i) of the theorem is x→0 complete by sandwich theorem.1 = 2 (as x → 0.

If both are 0.a+b+c ≠ 0 x →1 cx 2 + bx + a 1 1 + 12. f ( x) Say. 1.1 = 1 x →0 x cos x x →0 x x →0 cos x x A general rule that needs to be kept in mind while evaluating limits is the following. = q(a) . lim x →3 x 4 − 81 2 x2 − 5x − 3 9. see if we can write f(x) = f1 (x) f2(x) so that f1 (a) = 0 and f2 (a) ≠ 0. where q(x) ≠ 0.e.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 301 (ii) We have lim x →0 sin x sin x 1 tan x . then we see if we can get the factor which is causing the terms to vanish. lim = lim = lim = 1. First we check x→a ( ) the value of f (a) and g(a). lim x 2 x →−2 x + 2 13. b ≠ 0 sin bx .. Similarly. lim 22 ⎞ ⎛ 2. lim ⎜ x − ⎟ x→π ⎝ 7 ⎠ 5. a. where g1(a) = 0 and g2(a) ≠ 0.1 Evaluate the following limits in Exercises 1 to 22. Cancel out the common factors from f(x) and g(x) (if possible) and write g ( x) Then f ( x) = q ( x ) . lim z 6 −1 ax 2 + bx + c . lim πr r →1 4x + 3 x →4 x − 2 3 x 2 − x − 10 x2 − 4 1 x → −1 6. lim x →0 sin ax . lim x →2 8. i. lim z →1 z3 −1 1 11. lim x →0 ax + b cx + 1 10. p(a) p ( x) lim x →a g ( x) f ( x) EXERCISE 13. lim x →0 sin ax bx 14. lim ( x + 1)5 − 1 x x→0 7. we write g(x) = g1 (x) g2(x). given that the limit lim g x exists and we want to evaluate this. lim x10 + x 5 + 1 x −1 2 3. lim x + 3 x →3 4.

Find x →1 ⎪− x − 1. Find lim f ( x ) . Suppose f ( x ) = ⎨ 4. lim (cosec x − cot x ) x →0 20. Evaluate lim f ( x ) . π x→ 2 lim ⎧ 2 x + 3. x ≤ 0 23. lim cos 2 x − 1 x →0 cos x − 1 x →0 ax + x cos x b sin x sin ax + bx a. lim f ( x ) . ⎪ 28. x = 0 ⎩ ⎧ x ⎪ . lim x →0 22. x = 0 ⎩ 27. x≠0 26. lim π π − x x→π ( ) 18. lim x →0 cos x π−x 17. b.302 MATHEMATICS sin ( π − x ) 15. where f ( x ) = | x | −5 x →5 ⎧ a + bx . Find lim f ( x ) and lim f ( x ) . where f ( x ) = ⎨3 x + 1 . x > 0 x →0 x →1 ) ⎩ ( ⎧ 2 ⎪ x − 1. where f ( x ) = ⎨ | x | x →0 ⎪ 0. Find lim f ( x ) . where f ( x ) = ⎨ 2 24. ⎩ x ≤1 x >1 ⎧| x | ⎪ . lim x sec x x →0 21. ⎪ b − ax . a + b ≠ 0 . ⎩ x→1 x <1 x =1 x >1 and if lim f (x) = f (1) what are possible values of a and b? . x≠0 25. lim 16. ax + sin bx tan 2 x π x− 2 19. where f ( x ) = ⎨ x x →0 ⎪ 0.

. In these. The heart of the matter is derivative of a function at a given point in its domain of definition. It is of very general interest to know a certain parameter at various instants of time and try to finding the rate at which it is changing. evaluate lim f ( x ) . . compute lim f (x). people maintaining a reservoir need to know when will a reservoir overflow knowing the depth of the water at several instances of time. x→ a →a 1 ⎧ x + 1. x<0 ⎪ If f ( x ) = ⎨ nx + m . and many such cases it is desirable to know how a particular parameter is changing with respect to some other parameter. For what integers m and n does both lim f ( x ) x →0 ⎪ 3 nx + m .. ⎪ x − 1. x > 0 ⎩ For what value (s) of a does lim f (x) exists? x →a 31. x < 0 ⎪ x=0 .. Rocket Scientists need to compute the precise velocity with which the satellite needs to be shot out from the rocket knowing the height of the rocket at various times. There are several real life situations where such a process needs to be carried out. Let a1. .LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 303 29. x >1 ⎩ and lim f ( x ) exist? x →1 13... an.. ⎧ mx 2 + n . For instance..5 Derivatives We have seen in the Section 13. that by knowing the position of a body at various time intervals it is possible to find the rate at which the position of the body is changing. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 . . If f ( x ) = ⎨ 0. What is xlim (x) ? For some a ≠ a1. a2. x →1 32. 30. an be fixed real numbers and define a function f ( x ) = ( x − a1 ) ( x − a2 ) .2. ( x − an ) . Financial institutions need to predict the changes in the value of a particular stock knowing its present value. If the function f(x) satisfies lim f ( x) − 2 x2 − 1 x →1 = π . . a2.

lim f ( a + h) − f (a ) h→0 Observe that f′ (a) quantifies the change in f(x) at a with respect to x. Example 6 Find the derivative of the function f(x) = 2x2 + 3x – 5 at x = –1. Solution We first find the derivatives of f(x) at x = –1 and at x = 0. Derivative of f (x) at a is denoted by f′(a). Also prove that f ′ (0) + 3f ′ ( –1) = 0. h →0 h h →0 h The derivative of the function 3x at x = 2 is 3. We have f ' ( −1) = lim f ( −1 + h ) − f ( −1) h h→0 ⎡ 2 ( −1 + h )2 + 3 ( −1 + h ) − 5⎤ − ⎡ 2 ( −1)2 + 3 ( −1) − 5⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h →0 h = lim 2h 2 − h = lim ( 2h − 1) = 2 ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 h→0 h f (0 + h ) − f (0) h h→0 and f ' ( 0 ) = lim h→0 ⎡ 2 ( 0 + h )2 + 3 ( 0 + h ) − 5⎤ − ⎡ 2 ( 0 )2 + 3 ( 0 ) − 5⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h →0 h . The derivative of f at a is defined by h provided this limit exists.304 MATHEMATICS Definition 1 Suppose f is a real valued function and a is a point in its domain of definition. Example 5 Find the derivative at x = 2 of the function f(x) = 3x. Solution We have f′ (2) = lim f ( 2 + h ) − f ( 2) h 3( 2 + h ) − 3( 2) h h→0 = lim h→0 = lim h →0 6 + 3h − 6 3h = lim = lim 3 = 3 .

Solution Since the derivative measures the change in function. The Fig 13. Fig 13. supported by the following computation. h Similarly f ' ( 3) = lim h→0 h→0 We now present a geometric interpretation of derivative of a function at a point. Solution Let f(x) = sin x. The following illustrates this.11 . Example 7 Find the derivative of sin x at x = 0.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 305 = lim Clearly 2h 2 + 3h = lim ( 2h + 3) = 2 ( 0 ) + 3 = 3 h→0 h→0 h f ' ( 0 ) + 3 f ' ( −1) = 0 Remark At this stage note that evaluating derivative at a point involves effective use of various rules.11 is now self explanatory. This is indeed. Then f ′(0) = lim f (0 + h) − f (0) h sin ( 0 + h ) − sin ( 0 ) h h→0 = lim h→0 = lim sin h =1 h →0 h Example 8 Find the derivative of f(x) = 3 at x = 0 and at x = 3. h→0 h h 3−3 =0. Let y = f(x) be a function and let P = (a. f(a)) and Q = (a + h. f(a + h) be two points close to each other on the graph of this function. limits are subjected to. f ' ( 0 ) = lim f ( 0 + h ) − f (0) h f ( 3 + h ) − f ( 3) h h→0 = lim = lim h→0 3−3 0 = lim = 0 . intuitively it is clear that the derivative of the constant function must be zero at every point.

Definition 2 Suppose f is a real valued function. h Clearly the domain of definition of f′ (x) is wherever the above limit exists. This is referred to as derivative of f(x) dx dx or y with respect to x. Formally. we define derivative of a function as follows. If the derivative exists at every point. Hence lim = lim f (a + h) − f (a ) h→0 f ′ ( a ) = tan ψ . it defines a new function called the derivative of f . For a given function f we can find the derivative at every point. the function defined by h wherever the limit exists is defined to be the derivative of f at x and is denoted by f′(x).306 MATHEMATICS We know that f ′ ( a ) = lim f (a + h) − f (a) h From the triangle PQR. It is also denoted by D (f (x) ). Solution Since f′ ( x) = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h h→0 . the point Q tends to P and we have QR h→0 Q → P PR h This is equivalent to the fact that the chord PQ tends to the tangent at P of the curve y = f(x). derivative of f at x = a is also denoted by d f ( x) dx a or df dx a ⎛ df ⎞ or even ⎜ ⎟ . This definition of derivative is also called the first principle of derivative. Sometimes f′ (x) is denoted by lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h→0 Thus f ' ( x ) = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h→0 d ( f ( x )) or if y = f(x). as h tends to 0. In the limiting process. Further. it is clear that the ratio whose limit we are taking is precisely equal to tan(QPR) which is the slope of the chord PQ. ⎝ dx ⎠ x = a Example 9 Find the derivative of f(x) = 10x. Thus the limit turns out to be equal to the slope of the tangent. it is denoted by dy . There are different notations for derivative of a function.

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 307 = lim = lim 10 ( x + h ) − 10 ( x ) h h→0 10h = lim (10 ) = 10 . f ′(x) = lim = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h h→0 h →0 a−a 0 = lim = 0 as h ≠ 0 h →0 h h 1 x Example 12 Find the derivative of f(x) = Solution We have f ′(x) = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h h→0 1 1 – = lim ( x + h) x h →0 h 1 ⎡ x − ( x + h) ⎤ = lim h ⎢ x x + h ⎥ h →0 )⎥ ⎢ ( ⎣ ⎦ −1 1 ⎡ −h ⎤ = lim h ⎢ x x + h ⎥ = lim x x + h h →0 ( h →0 ) )⎥ ⎢ ( ⎣ ⎦ = − 1 x2 . f ′(x) = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h h→0 = ( x + h )2 − ( x )2 lim h→0 h = lim ( h + 2 x ) = 2 x h →0 Example 11 Find the derivative of the constant function f (x) = a for a fixed real number a. Solution We have. h→ 0 h →0 h Example 10 Find the derivative of f(x) = x2. Solution We have.

we expect the rules for derivatives to follow closely that of limits.5. d d d ⎡ f ( x ) . d d d ⎡ f ( x ) − g ( x )⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ dx f ( x) − dx g ( x ) . ⎣ ⎦ dx dx dx (ii) Derivative of difference of two functions is difference of the derivatives of the functions. g ( x ) + f ( x) . dx (iii) Derivative of product of two functions is given by the following product rule. Then ( uv )′ = u ′v + uv′ This is referred to a Leibnitz rule for differentiating product of functions or the product rule. Theorem 5 Let f and g be two functions such that their derivatives are defined in a common domain. d d d ⎡ f ( x ) + g ( x )⎤ = f ( x) + g ( x) . Similarly. We will not prove these here. Then (i) Derivative of sum of two functions is sum of the derivatives of the functions. the quotient rule is . d d f ( x ) . We collect these in the following theorem.308 MATHEMATICS 13. The last two statements in the theorem may be restated in the following fashion which aids in recalling them easily: Let u = f ( x ) and v = g (x). g ( x )⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ dx f ( x ) . dx g ( x) dx (iv) Derivative of quotient of two functions is given by the following quotient rule (whenever the denominator is non–zero). g ( x) − f ( x) g ( x) d ⎛ f ( x ) ⎞ dx dx ⎜ ⎟= dx ⎝ g ( x ) ⎠ ( g ( x ) )2 The proofs of these follow essentially from the analogous theorem for limits. As in the case of limits this theorem tells us how to compute derivatives of special types of functions.1 Algebra of derivative of functions Since the very definition of derivatives involve limits in a rather direct fashion.

Thus by the product rule we have f ′ ( x ) = (10 x )′ = ( uv )′ = u ′v + uv′ = 0. h→0 We use this and the above theorem to compute the derivative of f(x) = 10x = x + .x and hence d d d df ( x.1 = 2 x . . ( x ) = dx dx dx dx = 1.x ) = ( x ) . + x ) (ten terms) d d x +.+ x (ten terms) dx dx = 1 + . Proof By definition of the derivative function. f(x) = 10x = uv we know that the derivative of u equals 0. We note that this limit may be evaluated using product rule too. Write f(x) = 10x = uv. + 1 (ten terms) = 10.x + x. This is because f’(x) = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h h→0 = lim x+h−x h →0 h = lim1 = 1 .x + 10. It is easy to see that the derivative of the function f(x) = x is the constant function 1. More generally. Theorem 6 Derivative of f(x) = xn is nxn – 1 for any positive integer n. By (1) of the above theorem df ( x ) d = dx dx = ( x + . Here. we have f ' ( x ) = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h h→0 = lim h →0 ( x + h )n − x n h .. .. x + x..LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 309 ⎛ u ⎞′ u ′v − uv′ ⎜ ⎟ = v2 ⎝v⎠ Now. . Also derivative of v(x) = x equals 1. where u is the constant function taking value 10 everywhere and v(x) = x.. We have f(x) = x2 = x . let us tackle derivatives of some standard functions. we have the following theorem.1 = 10 On similar lines the derivative of f(x) = x2 may be evaluated. + x (ten terms)....

..e.. Remark The above theorem is true for all powers of x. x n−1 (by product rule) dx dx n −1 ( ) ( = 1. which has been proved earlier.. n can be any real number (but we will not prove it here). + h . Then. + a1 x + a0 be a polynomial function. dx Proof of this theorem is just putting together part (i) of Theorem 5 and Theorem 6. = nx n−1 ..x n−1 x = dx dx = ( ) ( ) ( ) ) d d ( x ) .4. the derivative function is given by df ( x ) = nan x n−1 + ( n − 1) an −1 x x − 2 + .310 MATHEMATICS Binomial theorem tells that (x + h)n = hence (x + h) – x = h(nx n n n–1 ( n C0 x n + ) ( C )x n 1 n −1 h + ..2 Derivative of polynomials and trigonometric functions We start with the following theorem which tells us the derivative of a polynomial function. The result is true for n = 1.x + x. Thus df ( x ) ( x + h) − xn = lim dx h →0 h = lim h nx n −1 + . ( n − 1) x n − 2 (by induction hypothesis) = x n −1 + ( n − 1) x n−1 = nx n−1 .. + 2a2 x + a1 . where ai s are all real numbers and an ≠ 0. 13. + h n n–1 ). + h n−1 h ( ) h →0 n −1 n −1 = lim nx + .. i. + ( n C n h n and ) +.. We have d n d x.. Example 13 Compute the derivative of 6x100 – x55 + x. Solution A direct application of the above theorem tells that the derivative of the above function is 600 x99 − 55 x54 + 1 .... h →0 ( ) Alternatively. we may also prove this by induction on n and the product rule as follows. xn −1 + x.... Theorem 7 Let f(x) = an x n + an−1 x n−1 + .

+ 50x49.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 311 Example 14 Find the derivative of f(x) = 1 + x + x2 + x3 +. Hence u′ = 1 and v′ = 1. + 50 = Example 15 Find the derivative of f(x) = ( 50 )( 51) 2 = 1275.1 = cos x lim cos ⎜ x + ⎟ . + 50(1)49 = 1 + 2 + 3 + .. Therefore df ( x) d ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ d ⎛ u ⎞ u ′v − uv ′ 1( x ) − ( x + 1)1 1 = ⎜ = =− 2 ⎟ = dx ⎜ v ⎟ = 2 2 dx dx ⎝ x ⎠ v x x ⎝ ⎠ Example 16 Compute the derivative of sin x. . Then f ( x + h) − f ( x) sin ( x + h ) − sin ( x ) df ( x ) = lim = lim h→0 h→0 dx h h ⎛ 2x + h ⎞ ⎛ h ⎞ 2cos ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ (using formula for sin A – sin B) = lim h →0 h h sin h⎞ ⎛ 2 = cos x. Then f ( x + h) − f ( x) tan ( x + h ) − tan ( x ) df ( x ) = lim = lim h→0 h→0 dx h h 1 ⎡ sin ( x + h ) sin x ⎤ lim ⎢ = h→0 h cos x + h − cos x ⎥ ( ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . .lim . We use the quotient rule with u = x + 1 and v = x. Solution A direct application of the above Theorem 7 tells that the derivative of the above function is 1 + 2x + 3x2 + . . At x = 1 the value of this function equals 1 + 2(1) + 3(1)2 + .. = h →0 2 ⎠ h →0 h ⎝ 2 Example 17 Compute the derivative of tan x. Solution Let f(x) = tan x. Solution Let f(x) = sin x. . . x +1 x Solution Clearly this function is defined everywhere except at x = 0. + x50 at x = 1..

. For the function f ( x) = x100 x 99 x2 + +. 2. 4. sin h 1 . Find the derivative of the following functions from first principle.lim h h→0 cos ( x + h ) cos x 1 = sec 2 x . (i) (iii) x 3 − 27 (ii) (iv) ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) x +1 x −1 1 x2 5. . df ( x ) d = ( sin x sin x ) dx dx = ( sin x )′ sin x + sin x ( sin x )′ = ( cos x ) sin x + sin x ( cos x ) = 2sin x cos x = sin 2 x . Find the derivative of x2 – 2 at x = 10. Find the derivative of x at x = 1. Find the derivative of 99x at x = l00. 100 99 2 . EXERCISE 13. 3.+ + x +1. cos2 x Example 18 Compute the derivative of f(x) = sin2 x.2 1. Solution We use the Leibnitz product rule to evaluate this.312 MATHEMATICS ⎡ sin ( x + h ) cos x − cos ( x + h ) sin x ⎤ ⎥ = lim ⎢ h →0 h cos ( x + h ) cos x ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ sin ( x + h − x ) = lim h cos x + h cos x (using formula for sin (A + B)) h →0 ( ) = lim h →0 = 1.

But.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 313 Prove that f ′ (1) = 100 f ′ ( 0 ) . For some constants a and b. Find the derivative of cos x from first principle. we have f ′ ( x ) = lim h →0 f ( x + h) − f ( x) h 2 ( x + h ) + 3 2x + 3 − x−2 = lim x + h − 2 h →0 h . + a n −1 x + a n for some fixed real number a. Find the derivative of x n + ax n −1 + a 2 x n− 2 + . 11. where f is given by (i) f (x) = 2x + 3 x−2 (ii) f (x) = x + 1 x Solution (i) Note that function is not defined at x = 2. find the derivative of (i) ( x − a) ( x − b) (ii) ( ax 2 +b ) 2 (iii) x−a x −b 8. 7. Find the derivative of the following functions: (i) sin x cos x (iv) cosec x (vi) 5sin x − 6 cos x + 7 (ii) sec x (v) 3cot x + 5cosec x (vii) 2 tan x − 7 sec x (iii) 5sec x + 4 cos x Miscellaneous Examples Example 19 Find the derivative of f from the first principles. x−a 3 4 (ii) ( 5x 3 + 3x − 1 ) ( x − 1) x −3 ( 5 + 3 x ) x −4 3 − 4 x −5 5 −9 (iv) x 3 − 6 x ( ) ( ) (vi) 2 x2 − x + 1 3x − 1 10. Find the derivative of (i) 2 x − (iii) (v) xn − an for some constant a. . . 6. Find the derivative of 9.

where f(x) is (i) sin x + cos x (ii) x sin x Solution (i) we have f ' ( x ) = = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h sin ( x + h ) + cos ( x + h ) − sin x − cos x h h→0 = lim h →0 sin x cos h + cos x sin h + cos x cos h − sin x sin h − sin x − cos x h . Example 20 Find the derivative of f(x) from the first principles. note that the function f ′ is not defined at x = 0. we have f ′( x ) 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎜x+h+ ⎟−⎜x+ f ( x + h) − f ( x) x+h⎠ ⎝ ⎝ = lim = lim h →0 h →0 h h = lim h →0 1⎞ ⎟ x⎠ 1⎡ 1 1⎤ ⎢h + x + h − x ⎥ h⎣ ⎦ ⎞⎤ 1⎡ x − x−h⎤ 1⎡ ⎛ 1 lim ⎢ h + ⎟⎥ ⎥ = lim ⎢ h ⎜ 1 − = h →0 h ⎜ ⎟ x ( x + h ) ⎥ h →0 h ⎢ ⎝ x ( x + h ) ⎠⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎤ 1 1 = lim ⎢1 − x x + h ⎥ = 1 − 2 h →0 x ( )⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ Again. But. The function is not defined at x = 0.314 MATHEMATICS = lim h →0 = lim h →0 ( 2 x + 2h + 3)( x − 2 ) − ( 2 x + 3)( x + h − 2 ) h ( x − 2 )( x + h − 2 ) ( 2 x + 3)( x − 2 ) + 2h ( x − 2 ) − ( 2 x + 3)( x − 2 ) − h ( 2 x + 3) h ( x − 2 )( x + h − 2 ) –7 7 2 = lim ( x − 2 ) ( x + h − 2 ) = − h →0 ( x − 2) (ii) Again. note that the function f ′ is also not defined at x = 2.

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 315 = lim = lim sin h ( cos x − sin x ) + sin x ( cos h − 1) + cos x ( cos h − 1) h h →0 h→0 ( cos h − 1) sin h ( cos h − 1) ( cos x − sin x ) + lim sin x + lim cos x h→0 h→0 h h h f ( x + h) − f ( x) h = lim = cos x − sin x (ii) f ' ( x ) = lim ( x + h ) sin ( x + h ) − x sin x h h→0 h→0 = lim = lim = lim ( x + h )( sin x cos h + sin h cos x ) − x sin x h x sin x ( cos h − 1) + x cos x sin h + h ( sin x cos h + sin h cos x ) h + lim h→0 x cos x sin h + lim ( sin x cos h + sin h cos x ) h→0 h h→0 h→0 x sin x ( cos h − 1) h h→0 = x cos x + sin x Example 21 Compute derivative of (i) f(x) = sin 2x (ii) g(x) = cot x Solution (i) Recall the trigonometric formula sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x. Thus df ( x ) d d ( 2sin x cos x ) = 2 ( sin x cos x ) = dx dx dx = 2 ⎡( sin x )′ cos x + sin x ( cos x )′ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 2 ⎡( cos x ) cos x + sin x ( − sin x ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = 2 cos 2 x − sin 2 x ( ) (ii) By definition. cos x . We use the quotient rule on this function sin x dg d d ⎛ cos x ⎞ = (cot x) = ⎜ dx dx dx ⎝ sin x ⎟ ⎠ . g(x) = cot x = wherever it is defined.

h′( x) = x 5 − cos x . We use the quotient rule on this function wherever sin x ( x 5 − cos x)′ sin x − ( x 5 − cos x) (sin x )′ (sin x ) 2 . Alternatively. we use the fact tan x that the derivative of tan x is sec2 x which we saw in Example 17 and also that the derivative of the constant function is 0.316 MATHEMATICS = (cos x)′ (sin x) − (cos x) (sin x)′ (sin x )2 = ( − sin x)(sin x) − (cos x)(cos x) (sin x) 2 sin 2 x + cos2 x = − cosec 2 x 2 sin x = − 1 . Here. this may be computed by noting that cot x = d d ⎛ 1 ⎞ dg (cot x ) = = dx dx ⎜ tan x ⎟ dx ⎝ ⎠ = (1)′ (tan x ) − (1) (tan x)′ (tan x) 2 (0) (tan x) − (sec x) 2 = (tan x) 2 = − sec 2 x = − cosec 2 x tan 2 x Example 22 Find the derivative of (i) x 5 − cos x sin x (ii) x + cos x tan x Solution (i) Let h( x ) = it is defined.

8. d. 4 x − 2 14. b. (x + a) ⎛r ⎞ 3. c. cx + d ax + b px + qx + r 2 7. cosec x cot x 13. (ax + b) n (cx + d ) m 16.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 317 = (5 x 4 + sin x) sin x − ( x5 − cos x) cos x sin 2 x − x 5 cos x + 5 x 4 sin x + 1 = (sin x )2 (ii) We use quotient rule on the function h′( x) = x + cos x wherever it is defined. 1 1− x 1+ 9. a b − 2 + cos x 4 x x 11. tan x ( x + cos x)′ tan x − ( x + cos x ) (tan x)′ (tan x) 2 (1 − sin x ) tan x − ( x + cos x) sec2 x = (tan x) 2 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 13 1. 10. r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): (i) − x (ii) (− x) −1 (iii) sin (x + 1) (iv) cos (x – 2. Find the derivative of the following functions from first principles: π ) 8 Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a. cos x 1 + sin x . (px + q) ⎜ + s ⎟ ⎝x ⎠ 1 x 6. ( ax + b )( cx + d )2 1 ax + bx + c 2 ax + b 5. q. px 2 + qx + r ax + b 4. (ax + b) n 15. p. sin (x + a) 12.

if they coincide. x 4 (5sin x − 3cos x ) (x 2 + 1 cos x ) ( ax 2 + sin x ) ( p + q cos x ) ⎛π ⎞ x 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ 27. sin x 30. 3 x + 7cos x 29. x sin n x 25. For functions f and g the following holds: lim [ f ( x ) ± g ( x) ] = lim f ( x ) ± lim g ( x) x →a x →a x →a lim [ f ( x). sec x − 1 sec x + 1 sin( x + a) cos x 19.318 MATHEMATICS 17. g ( x) ] = lim f ( x ). 28. 23. sin n x 22. 24. For a function f and a real number a. sin x + cos x sin x − cos x a + b sin x c + d cos x 18. 21. Similarly the right hand limit. 20. ( x + cos x ) ( x − tan x ) x 1 + tan x 4 x + 5sin x 26. Limit of a function at a point is the common value of the left and right hand limits. one may be defined and not the other one).lim g ( x ) x →a x→ a x→a ⎡ f ( x) ⎤ lim f ( x) x →a lim ⎢ ⎥= x → a g ( x) ⎣ ⎦ lim g ( x) x→ a Following are some of the standard limits lim xn − an = na n−1 x →a x − a . lim f(x) and f (a) may not be same (In x →a fact. ( x + sec x ) ( x − tan x ) Summary The expected value of the function as dictated by the points to the left of a point defines the left hand limit of the function at that point.

W. Both of them independently invented calculus around the seventeenth century. After the advent of calculus many mathematicians contributed for further development of calculus. The rigorous concept is mainly attributed to the great .LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 319 lim x →0 sin x =1 x 1 − cos x =0 x →0 x The derivative of a function f at a is defined by lim f ( a + h) − f ( a) h Derivative of a function f at any point x is defined by f ′( a) = lim h →0 df ( x) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) = lim h →0 dx h For functions u and v the following holds: f ′( x) = (u ± v )′ = u ′ ± v′ (uv)′ = u ′v + uv′ ⎛ u ⎞′ u ′v − uv′ provided all are defined. ⎜ ⎟ = v2 ⎝v⎠ Following are some of the standard derivatives. d n ( x ) = nx n −1 dx d (sin x) = cos x dx d (cos x) = − sin x dx Historical Note In the history of mathematics two names are prominent to share the credit for inventing calculus. Leibnitz (1646 – 1717). Issac Newton (1642 – 1727) and G.

Lagrange and Karl Weierstrass. F.L. Chemistry.320 MATHEMATICS mathematicians. He wrote ∆ x = i i → 0.L. Starting with definition of a limit. But just in 1900. So calculus became beyond the reach of youngsters. pioneered the teaching of calculus to first year students. J. y′ for f ′ (x)”. Cauchy gave examples such as the limit of sin α α ∆ y f ( x + i ) − f ( x) . it was thought that calculus is quite difficult to teach. — — . Griffin. Economics and Biological Sciences are enjoying the fruits of calculus. Before 1900. Cauchy used D’ Alembert’s limit concept to define the derivative of a function. This was regarded as one of the most daring act in those days.L. Today not only the mathematics but many other subjects such as Physics. and called the limit for for α = 0. A. Cauchy gave the foundation of calculus as we have now generally accepted in our textbooks. the “function derive’e. John Perry and others in England started propagating the view that essential ideas and methods of calculus were simple and could be taught even in schools. Cauchy.

All of us know that human beings evolved from the lower species over many millennia. How well this ability can be used depends on each person’s power of reasoning. In mathematical language. How to develop this power? Here. An elephant weighs more than a human being. we shall discuss the process of reasoning especially in the context of mathematics. The main asset that made humans “superior” to other species was the ability to reason. George Boole (1815 . the president of India was a woman. as to grope for a thing in the dark when you have a candle stick standing by you.1 Introduction In this Chapter. In this Chapter. – ARTHENBOT 14.2 Statements The basic unit involved in mathematical reasoning is a mathematical statement. . there are two kinds of reasoning – inductive and deductive.Chapter 14 MATHEMATICAL REASONING There are few things which we know which are not capable of mathematical reasoning and when these can not. it is as great a folly to make use of another. Let us start with two sentences: In 2003. We have already discussed the inductive reasoning in the context of mathematical induction. we shall discuss about some basic ideas of Mathematical Reasoning.1864) 14. we shall discuss some fundamentals of deductive reasoning. it is a sign that our knowledge of them is very small and confused and where a mathematical reasoning can be had.

consider the sentence: Women are more intelligent than men. For example. None of these is considered as a statement in mathematical language. There is no confusion regarding these. we are not in a position to determine whether it is true or false. But the sentence: For any natural numbers x and y. Such a sentence is not acceptable as a statement in mathematics. Whenever we mention a statement here. unless we know what x and y are.322 MATHEMATICS When we read these sentences. The sum of two positive numbers is positive. Sentences involving variable time such as “today”. There is no ambiguity regarding these sentences. On the other hand. the first two are true and the third one is false. because the first one is an exclamation. Some people may think it is true while others may disagree. Some examples are: Two plus two equals four. Regarding this sentence we cannot say whether it is always true or false . Therefore. A sentence is called a mathematically acceptable statement if it is either true or false but not both. In mathematics such sentences are called statements. the sentence Tomorrow is Friday . “tomorrow” or “yesterday” are not statements. Can you think of an example of a sentence which is vague or ambiguous? Consider the sentence: The sum of x and y is greater than 0 Here. Therefore. Now. That means this sentence is ambiguous. the sum of x and y is greater than 0 is a statement. y = –3 and true when x = 1 and y = 0. For example. This is because it is not known what time is referred here. we come across many such sentences. this sentence is not a statement. it is false where x = 1. it is a “mathematically acceptable” statement. Of these sentences. the second an order and the third a question. Where are you going? Are they statements? No. consider the following sentences : How beautiful! Open the door. they are statements. All prime numbers are odd numbers. While studying mathematics. we immediately decide that the first sentence is false and the second is correct.

Give reasons for your answer.. we usually denote them by small letters p. therefore. (ii) Every set is a finite set. Would you call this a statement? Note that the period mentioned in the sentence above is a “variable time” that is any of 12 months. it may be fun but for others it may not be.. q. But we know that the sentence is always false (irrespective of the month) since the maximum number of days in a month can never exceed 31. what makes a sentence a statement is the fact that the sentence is either true or false but not both. The same argument holds for sentences with pronouns unless a particular person is referred to and for variable places such as “here”. (iii) It is a scientifically established fact that sun is a star and. Hence it is a statement. (iv) Mathematics is fun. The sentence is correct (true) on a Thursday but not on other days.. Therefore. “there” etc. Hence it is a statement.. we denote the statement “Fire is always hot” by p. the sentences She is a mathematics graduate. While dealing with statements. So. Hence it is a statement. r. This means that this sentence is not always true. (ii) This sentence is also false since there are sets which are not finite.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 323 is not a statement. this sentence is a statement. (iii) The sun is a star. (i) 8 is less than 6. This is also written as p: Fire is always hot. For example. For example. (v) There is no rain without clouds. (iv) This sentence is subjective in the sense that for those who like mathematics. . Hence it is not a statement. (vi) How far is Chennai from here? Solution (i) This sentence is false because 8 is greater than 6. are not statements. this sentence is always true. Kashmir is far from here. Example 1 Check whether the following sentences are statements. Here is another sentence There are 40 days in a month.

14. Therefore. (vii) The product of (–1) and 8 is 8. EXERCISE 14. Here. Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer. 2.3 New Statements from Old We now look into method for producing new statements from those that we already have. (vi) This is a question which also contains the word “Here”. we look at an important technique that we may use in order to deepen our understanding of mathematical statements. Hence it is not a statement.3. Let us consider the statement: p: New Delhi is a city The negation of this statement is . Hence it is a statement. (iii) The sum of 5 and 7 is greater than 10.1 Negation of a statement The denial of a statement is called the negation of the statement. (x) All real numbers are complex numbers.324 MATHEMATICS (v) It is a scientifically established natural phenomenon that cloud is formed before it rains. (v) The sides of a quadrilateral have equal length. this sentence is always true. An English mathematician. Give three examples of sentences which are not statements. 14. As a first step in our study of statements. (i) There are 35 days in a month. The above examples show that whenever we say that a sentence is a statement we should always say why it is so. (ix) Today is a windy day. (iv) The square of a number is an even number. This “why” of it is more important than the answer. (vi) Answer this question. (ii) Mathematics is difficult. (viii) The sum of all interior angles of a triangle is 180°. we shall discuss two techniques. This technique is to ask not only what it means to say that a given statement is true but also what it would mean to say that the given statement is not true. “George Boole” discussed these methods in his book “The laws of Thought” in 1854. Give reasons for the answers.1 1.

phrases like. Definition 1 If p is a statement. (ii) 7 is rational. This means that if you take any rectangle. Note While forming the negation of a statement. both the diagonals have the same length. This does not mean that no person in Germany speaks German. (ii) The negation of the statement in (ii) may also be written as It is not the case that 7 is rational. We shall consider more examples. It says merely that at least one person in Germany does not speak German. The denial of this sentence tells us that not everyone in Germany speaks German.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 325 It is not the case that New Delhi is a city This can also be written as It is false that New Delhi is a city. . (i) Both the diagonals of a rectangle have the same length. Solution (i) This statement says that in a rectangle. then both the diagonals have the same length. then the negation of p is also a statement and is denoted by ∼ p. The negation of this statement is It is false that both the diagonals in a rectangle have the same length This means the statement There is atleast one rectangle whose both diagonals do not have the same length. This can also be rewritten as 7 is not rational. Let us consider the statement p: Everyone in Germany speaks German. by looking at the negation of a statement. we may improve our understanding of it. Here is an example to illustrate how. and read as ‘not p’. Example 2 Write the negation of the following statements. “It is not the case” or “It is false that” are also used. This can simply be expressed as New Delhi is not a city.

This statement is true. We know that this statement is false.2 Compound statements Many mathematical statements are obtained by combining one or more statements using some connecting words like “and”. This can be rewritten as There exists a natural number which is not greater than 0. 14. etc. This statement is true because we know that square is a quadrilaterial such that its four sides are equal. (ii) There does not exist a quadrilateral which has all its sides equal. (ii) The negation of the statement is It is not the case that there does not exist a quadrilateral which has all its sides equal. (iv) The negation is It is false that the sum of 3 and 4 is 9. (iii) Every natural number is greater than 0. Consider the following statement p: There is something wrong with the bulb or with the wiring. This can also be rewritten as Australia is not a continent.326 MATHEMATICS Example 3 Write the negation of the following statements and check whether the resulting statements are true. This also means the following: There exists a quadrilateral which has all its sides equal. This can be written as The sum of 3 and 4 is not equal to 9. “or”. (i) Australia is a continent. Solution (i) The negation of the statement is It is false that Australia is a continent.3. (iv) The sum of 3 and 4 is 9. This is a false statement. (iii) The negation of the statement is It is false that every natural number is greater than 0. This statement tells us that there is something wrong with the bulb or there is .

(ii) The component statements are p: It is raining. r: There is something wrong with the wiring. (iv)The component statements are . (iii)The component statements are p: All rational numbers are real. This leads us to the following definition: Definition 2 A Compound Statement is a statement which is made up of two or more statements. (ii) It is raining and it is cold. The connecting word is ‘and’. q: The grass is green. (iii) All rational numbers are real and all real numbers are complex. suppose two statements are given as below: p: 7 is an odd number. This is a compound statement. q: All real numbers are complex. Example 4 Find the component statements of the following compound statements. In this case. (iv) 0 is a positive number or a negative number.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 327 something wrong with the wiring. The connecting word is ‘and’. each statement is called a component statement. connected by “or” Now. Solution Let us consider one by one (i) The component statements are p: The sky is blue. q: 7 is a prime number. Let us consider some examples. The connecting word is ‘and’. (i) The sky is blue and the grass is green. These two statements can be combined with “and” r: 7 is both odd and prime number. q: It is cold. That means the given statement is actually made up of two smaller statements: q: There is something wrong with the bulb.

328 MATHEMATICS p: 0 is a positive number. (vi) 24 is a multiple of 2. (iv) Chandigarh is the capital of Haryana and UP. q: All prime numbers are even number. q: A person who has taken computer science can go for MCA. (iii) The component statements are p: A person who has taken Mathematics can go for MCA. Both these statements are true. Solution (i) The component statements are p: A square is a quadrilateral. Here the connecting word is ‘and’. 4 and 8. Here the connecting word is ‘or’. q: A square has all its sides equal. (ii) The component statements are p: All prime numbers are odd number. (iv) The component statements are p: Chandigarh is the capital of Haryana. q: Chandigarh is the capital of UP. The first statement is true but the second is false. Both these statements are false and the connecting word is ‘or’. We know that both these statements are true. (ii) All prime numbers are either even or odd. The connecting word is ‘or’. (v) 2 is a rational number or an irrational number. Here the connecting word is ‘and’. (i) A square is a quadrilateral and its four sides equal. q: 0 is a negative number. Example 5 Find the component statements of the following and check whether they are true or not. (v) The component statements are . (iii) A person who has taken Mathematics or Computer Science can go for MCA.

2. (i) Number 3 is prime or it is odd. (ii) (iii) (iv) 2 is not a complex number All triangles are not equilateral triangle. “or”. 2 is an irrational number. 3. (v) Every natural number is an integer. we observe that compound statements are actually made-up of two or more statements connected by the words like “and”. (ii) 14. 100 is divisible by 3. Are the following pairs of statements negations of each other: (i) The number x is not a rational number. All the three statements are true. The number x is an irrational number. r: 24 is a multiple of 8. Here the connecting words are ‘and’. The first statement is false and second is true. q: 24 is a multiple of 4. The number 2 is greater than 7. Thus. Here the connecting word is ‘or’. . (ii) (iii) All integers are positive or negative. etc.2 1. Find the component statements of the following compound statements and check whether they are true or false. Write the negation of the following statements: (i) Chennai is the capital of Tamil Nadu. 11 and 5. These words have special meaning in mathematics. The number x is not an irrational number. (vi) The component statements are p: 24 is a multiple of 2. EXERCISE 14. We shall discuss this mattter in the following section.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 329 p: q: 2 is a rational number. The number x is a rational number.4 Special Words/Phrases Some of the connecting words which are found in compound statements like “And”.

4. we observe that both statements are true. We have the following rules regarding the connective “And” 1. Example 6 Write the component statements of the following compound statements and check whether the compound statement is true or false. . We discuss this below. etc.1 The word “And” Let us look at a compound statement with “And”. (iii) All living things have two legs and two eyes. are often used in Mathematical Statements. 2. Here. Let us look at another statement. r: Its location can be determined. q: A line extends indefinitely in both directions. The statement can be broken into two component statements as q: A point occupies a position. p: A point occupies a position and its location can be determined. Solution (i) The component statements are p: A line is straight.330 MATHEMATICS “Or”. it is necessary to understand the role of these words. p: 42 is divisible by 5. 14. 6 and 7. The compound statement with ‘And’ is true if all its component statements are true. s: 42 is divisible by 7. When we use these compound statements. (i) A line is straight and extends indefinitely in both directions. (ii) 0 is less than every positive integer and every negative integer. This statement has following component statements q: 42 is divisible by 5. These are called connectives. r: 42 is divisible by 6. The component statement with ‘And’ is false if any of its component statements is false (this includes the case that some of its component statements are false or all of its component statements are false). we know that the first is false while the other two are true. Here.

In order to understand statements with “Or” we first notice that the word “Or” is used in two ways in English language. A student who has taken biology or chemistry can apply for M. p: A mixture of alcohol and water can be separated by chemical methods. In this case. as well as the students who have taken only one of these subjects. What does this mean? This means that if two lines in a plane intersect. q: 0 is less than every negative integer. This leads us to an important note. It is important to note the difference between these two ways because we require this when we check whether the statement is true or not. . Note Do not think that a statement with “And” is always a compound statement as shown in the above example. the compound statement is false. A person cannot have both ice cream and pepsi. p: An ice cream or pepsi is available with a Thali in a restaurant. the word “And” is not used as a conjunction. This is called an exclusive “Or”. consider the following statement. Here we mean that the students who have taken both biology and chemistry can apply for the microbiology programme. who do not want a pepsi can have an ice cream. That is. p: Two lines in a plane either intersect at one point or they are parallel. Alternatively. Therefore. the compound statement is false. This means that a person who does not want ice cream can have a pepsi along with Thali or one does not want pepsi can have an ice cream along with Thali. The second statement is false. the compound statement is true. Both these statements are false. (ii) The component statements are p: 0 is less than every positive integer. then they are not parallel. Let us first look at the following statement. if the two lines are not parallel. That is this statement is true in both the situations. Here the word “And” refers to two things – alcohol and water. We know that this is a true statement. This sentence cannot be considered as a compound statement with “And”. q: All living things have two eyes.2 The word “Or” Let us look at the following statement. Therefore. then they intersect at a point. Here is another statement.Sc.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 331 Both these statements are true. we are using inclusive “Or”. therefore. Now. microbiology programme. (iii) The two component statements are p: All living things have two legs.4. 14. Therefore.

Its component statements are q: 125 is a multiple of 7. A compound statement with an ‘Or’ is true when one component statement is true or both the component statements are true. Consider another statement. For example. Both q and r are false. determine whether an inclusive “Or” or exclusive “Or” is used. Therefore. when q is true r is false and when r is true q is false. Example 7 For each of the following statements. (ii) Here also “Or” is inclusive since school is closed on holiday as well as on Sunday. the compound statement p is false. consider the following statement. 2. (iv) Here also “Or” is exclusive because a student cannot take both French and Sanskrit. Solution (i) Here “Or” is inclusive since a person can have both a passport and a voter registration card to enter a country. p: Two lines intersect at a point or they are parallel The component statements are q: Two lines intersect at a point. you need a passport or a voter registration card. . A compound statement with an ‘Or’ is false when both the component statements are false. (ii) The school is closed if it is a holiday or a Sunday. Therefore. r: 125 is a multiple of 8. Rule for the compound statement with ‘Or’ 1. (iii) Two lines intersect at a point or are parallel. Give reasons for your answer. (i) To enter a country. p: 125 is a multiple of 7 or 8. Then. r: Two lines are parallel. the compound statement p is true. (iii) Here “Or” is exclusive because it is not possible for two lines to intersect and parallel together.332 MATHEMATICS Let us look at an example. (iv) Students can take French or Sanskrit as their third language.

Therefore. Therefore. the compound statement is false.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 333 Again. consider the following statement: p: The school is closed. (iii) Here “Or” is exclusive. we know that the first statement is false and the second is true and “Or” is exclusive. the compound statement is true. r: School is closed if there is a Sunday. Therefore. therefore. r: Mumbai is the capital of Karnataka. if there is a holiday or Sunday. Solution (i) The component statements are p: 2 is a rational number. Example 8 Identify the type of “Or” used in the following statements and check whether the statements are true or false: (i) 2 is a rational number or an irrational number. When we look at the component statements. Let us consider some examples. p: Mumbai is the capital of Kolkata or Karnataka. (ii) The component statements are p: To get into a public library children need an identity card. it is inclusive “Or” the compound statement is also true when children have both the card and the letter. . The component statements are q: School is closed if there is a holiday. Consider another statement. q: To get into a public library children need a letter from the school authorities. (iii) A rectangle is a quadrilateral or a 5-sided polygon. q: 2 is an irrational number. we get that the statement is true. as well as when they have both. Both q and r are true. Both these statements are false. Here. (ii) To enter into a public library children need an identity card from the school or a letter from the school authorities. Children can enter the library if they have either of the two. The component statements are q: Mumbai is the capital of Kolkata. the compound statement is true. an identity card or the letter.

EXERCISE 14. This means that if S denotes the set of all prime numbers. Although these statements may look similar. 2. This means that there is atleast one rectangle whose all sides are equal.3 1. Another phrase which appears in mathematical statements is “there exists”. (ii) Square of an integer is positive or negative. (iv) x = 2 and x = 3 are the roots of the equation 3x2 – x – 10 = 0. (1) is true and (2) is false. they do not say the same thing. then for all the members p of the set S. a mathematical statement that says “for every” can be interpreted as saying that all the members of the given set S where the property applies must satisfy that property.3 Quantifiers Quantifiers are phrases like. p is an irrational number. For example. A word closely connected with “there exists” is “for every” (or for all). We should also observe that it is important to know precisely where in the sentence a given connecting word is introduced. Thus. consider the statement. in order for a piece of mathematical writing to make sense. all of the symbols must be carefully introduced and each symbol must be introduced at precisely the right place – not too early and not too late. As a matter of fact. For example. For each of the following compound statements first identify the connecting words and then break it into component statements.4. . Consider a statement. For every positive number x there exists a positive number y such that y < x. compare the following two sentences: 1. In general. The words “And” and “Or” are called connectives and “There exists” and “For all” are called quantifiers. p is an irrational number. (i) All rational numbers are real and all real numbers are not complex. p: For every prime number p. There exists a positive number y such that for every positive number x. “There exists” and “For all”. especially when we have to check the validity of different statements. p: There exists a rectangle whose all sides are equal.334 MATHEMATICS 14. Thus. we have seen that many mathematical statements contain some special words and it is important to know the meaning attached to them. (iii) The sand heats up quickly in the Sun and does not cool down fast at night. we have y < x.

you should have a ration card or a passport. then it is a multiple of 3. r: If you are born in some country. We shall illustrate these ways in the context of the following statement. (i) x + y = y + x is true for every real numbers x and y. For example. q : you are citizen of that country. we observe that it corresponds to two statements p and q given by p : you are born in some country. For example. “only if” and “if and only if ”. Give reasons for your answer. (iii) There exists a capital for every state in India. 4. Another point to be noted for the statement “if p then q” is that the statement does not imply that p happens. To put it in other words” not happening of p has no effect on happening of q. (ii) There exists real numbers x and y for which x + y = y + x. Let p and q denote the statements p : a number is a multiple of 9. State whether the “Or” used in the following statements is “exclusive “or” inclusive. There are several ways of understanding “if p then q” statements. Check whether the following pair of statements are negation of each other. Then the sentence “if p then q” says that in the event if p is true. we shall discuss the implications of “if-then”. (ii) (iii) To apply for a driving licence. then q must be true. Identify the quantifier in the following statements and write the negation of the statements. All integers are positive or negative. 3. q: a number is a multiple of 3. (i) Sun rises or Moon sets. (ii) For every real number x. . consider the statement. The statements with “if-then” are very common in mathematics. 14. then you are a citizen of that country.5 Implications In this Section. One of the most important facts about the sentence “if p then q” is that it does not say any thing (or places no demand) on q when p is false. x is less than x + 1. When we look at this statement. if you are not born in the country.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 335 2. (i) There exists a number which is equal to its square. then you cannot say anything about q. r: If a number is a multiple of 9. Give reasons for your answer.

then it is not equilateral. p only if q. The converse of a given statement “if p. p implies q is denoted by p ⇒ q. then you were not born in India. p is a sufficient condition for q. Note that both these statements convey the same meaning. (iii) If a triangle is not isosceles. let us consider more examples. then ∼p”. If the physical environment changes. Example 9 Write the contrapositive of the following statement: (i) If a number is divisible by 9. To understand this. then you are a citizen of India. then q is “if ∼q. q is a necessary condition for p. it is isosceles. let us consider the following “if-then” statement. This says that a number is a multiple of 9 implies that it is a multiple of 3. This says that if a number is not a multiple of 3. it is necessarily a multiple of 3. Then the contrapositive of this statement is If the biological environment does not change. This says that knowing that a number as a multiple of 9 is sufficient to conclude that it is a multiple of 3. then it is divisible by 3.5. This says that a number is a multiple of 9 only if it is a multiple of 3. For example. then q” is if q.336 MATHEMATICS Then. then it is not a multiple of 9.1 Contrapositive and converse Contrapositive and converse are certain other statements which can be formed from a given statement with “if-then”. Next. then the biological environment changes. . Solution The contrapositive of the these statements are (i) If a number is not divisible by 3. 3. ∼q implies ∼p. 5. (iii) If a triangle is equilateral. 14. we shall consider another term called converse. (ii) If you are born in India. 2. The above examples show the contrapositive of the statement if p. 4. This says that when a number is a multiple of 9. then the physical environment does not change. then p. if p then q is the same as the following: 1. it is not divisible by 9. The symbol ⇒ stands for implies. (ii) If you are not a citizen of India.

then n is even. Example 10 Write the converse of the following statements. Then check whether the statements are true or not. Solution (i) The component statements are given by p : Triangle ABC is equilateral. (i) If a number n is even. then a > b.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 337 For example. first identify the corresponding component statements. we infer that the given compound statement is true. then you have done all the exercises of the book. then it is divisible by 10. q : ab is a rational number. (ii) If you get an A grade in the class. (ii) If you do all the exercises in the book. q : Triangle ABC is Isosceles. (iii) If two integers a and b are such that a – b is always a positive integer. then it is isosceles. Since an equilateral triangle is isosceles. Let us consider some more examples. Example 11 For each of the following compound statements. then ab is a rational number. (i) p if and only if q (ii) q if and only if p . it is divisible by 5 is q: If a number is divisible by 5. (iii) If two integers a and b are such that a > b. (i) If a triangle ABC is equilateral. you get an A grade in the class. (ii) If a and b are integers. Solution The converse of these statements are (i) If a number n2 is even. ‘If and only if’. the compound statement is true. then a – b is always a positive integer. (ii) The component statements are given by p : a and b are integers. since the product of two integers is an integer and therefore a rational number. represented by the symbol ‘⇔‘ means the following equivalent forms for the given statements p and q. then n2 is even. the converse of the statement p: If a number is divisible by 10.

then the number is divisible by 3. EXERCISE 14. q: If a number is divisible by 3. Solution (i) A rectangle is a square if and only if all its four sides are equal. x is an even number implies that x is divisible by 4.338 MATHEMATICS (iii) p is necessary and sufficient condition for q and vice-versa (iv) p ⇔ q Consider an example. (i) p: If a rectangle is a square. 2. Something is cold implies that it has low temperature. Combine these two statements using “if and only if ”. (ii) A number is divisible by 3 if and only if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3. then they do not intersect in the same plane. then all its four sides are equal. then x is odd. If a natural number is odd. then the rectangle is a square. Write the contrapositive and converse of the following statements. A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if its diagonals bisect each other. Rewrite the following statement with “if-then” in five different ways conveying the same meaning. To get an A+ in the class. it is necessary that you do all the exercises of the book. (ii) p: If the sum of digits of a number is divisible by 3. Example 12 Given below are two pairs of statements. You cannot comprehend geometry if you do not know how to reason deductively.4 1. Write each of the following statements in the form “if-then” (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) You get a job implies that your credentials are good. If the two lines are parallel. then its square is also odd. 3. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) If x is a prime number. The Bannana trees will bloom if it stays warm for a month. then the sum of its digits is divisible by 3. q: If all the four sides of a rectangle are equal. .

appear in the given statement. If you do not have winter clothes. then in order to show that the statement “p or q” is true. then you live in Delhi. then you do not live in Delhi. and which of the implications “if and only”. Case 1 By assuming that p is false.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 339 4. “if-then”. show that p must be true. we will discuss when a statement is true. If you have winter clothes. Rule 3 Statements with “If-then” . one must answer all the following questions. then the quadrilateral is not a parallelogram. What does the statement mean? What would it mean to say that this statement is true and when this statement is not true? The answer to these questions depend upon which of the special words and phrases “and”. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other. 14. “there exists”. If a quadrilateral is a parallelogram. Rule 1 If p and q are mathematical statements. “or”. then its diagonals bisect each other. show that q must be true. we shall discuss some techniques to find when a statement is valid. To answer this question. Case 2 By assuming that q is false. the following steps are followed.6 Validating Statements In this Section. Identify the statements given below as contrapositive or converse of each other. then in order to show that the statement “p and q” is true. then it is a parallelogram. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral do not bisect each other. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) (ii) If you live in Delhi. Step-1 Show that the statement p is true. then you have winter clothes. Given statements in (a) and (b). Rule 2 Statements with “Or” If p and q are mathematical statements . We shall list some general rules for checking whether a statement is true or not. Step-2 Show that the statement q is true. one must consider the following. Here. and which of the quantifiers “for every”.

for some integer n. Thus we have shown that ∼q ⇒ ∼p Note The above example illustrates that to prove p ⇒ q. then q is true. then p is true Now we consider some examples. then q is true and (ii) If q is true. y = 2n + 1.(Direct method) Case 2 By assuming that q is false. If x. That is assume that if p is true. it is enough to show ∼q ⇒ ∼p which is the contrapositive of the statement p ⇒ q. If x. we apply Case 1 of Rule 3. y ∈ Z are such that x and y are odd. Case 1 By assuming that p is true. Then x = 2m + 1. for some integer m. Solution Let us name the statements as below . then xy is odd. p is true means that x and y are odd integers. Solution Let p : x. y ∈ Z such that x and y are odd q : xy is odd To check the validity of the given statement. This shows that p is not true. then both x and y are odd.340 MATHEMATICS In order to prove the statement “if p then q” we need to show that any one of the following case is true. we need to show. Therefore. Thus xy = (2m + 1) (2n + 1) = 2(2mn + m + n) + 1 This shows that xy is odd. Suppose we want to check this by using Case 2 of Rule 3. prove that q must be true. prove that p must be false.(Contrapositive method) Rule 4 Statements with “if and only if ” In order to prove the statement “p if and only if q”. This gives the statement ∼q : Product xy is even. the given statement is true. This is possible only if either x or y is even. Example 14 Check whether the following statement is true or false by proving its contrapositive. Example 13 Check whether the following statement is true or not. We assume that q is not true. This implies that we need to consider the negation of the statement q. (i) If p is true. y ∈ Ζ such that xy is odd. then we will proceed as follows.

xy = 2ny for some integer n. we conclude that p is true. p: 7 is irrational Solution In this method. we shall discuss this. we arrive at some result which contradicts our assumption. then the second happens and also if the second happens. This means that there exists positive integers a and b a 7 = . we assume that the given statement is false. where a and b have no common factors. we discuss another method. then the first happens. q : both x and y are odd.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 341 p : xy is odd. 14. This shows that xy is even. We have to check whether the statement p ⇒ q is true or not. Then x = 2n for some integer n. That is we assume that such that 7 is rational. We can express this fact as If a tumbler is half empty. we have shown that ∼q ⇒ ∼p and hence the given statement is true.e. ∼p is true. then it is half empty. Example 15 Verify by the method of contradiction. We know that if the first statement happens.. q : A tumbler is half full. Now what happens when we combine an implication and its converse? Next.e. Squaring the equation. b . then it is half full. That is ∼p is true. ∼q ⇒ ∼p Now ∼q : It is false that both x and y are odd. Thus. Therefore. If a tumbler is half full. Now. This implies that x (or y) is even. we assume that p is not true i. We combine these two statements and get the following: A tumbler is half empty if and only if it is half full. that is.1 By Contradiction Here to check whether a statement p is true. by checking its contrapositive statement i. Let us consider the following statements. Then.5. Therefore. p : A tumbler is half empty.

Show that the following statement is true by the method of contrapositive. (ii) q: The equation x2 – 1 = 0 does not have a root lying between 0 and 2. For this purpose we need to show that if p then ∼q. then n is prime. Next. Example 16 By giving a counter example. The method involves giving an example of a situation where the statement is not valid. . If n is an odd integer. 4. In the above. then the triangle is an obtuse angled triangle. The name itself suggests that this is an example to counter the given statement. generating examples in favour of a statement do not provide validity of the statement. To show this we look for an odd integer n which is not a prime number. (iii) method of contrapositive 2.5 1.342 MATHEMATICS a2 ⇒ a2 = 7b2 ⇒ 7 divides a. But we have already shown that 7 divides a. we have discussed some techniques for checking whether a statement is true or not. show that the following statement is false. then x is 0” is true by (i) direct method. Note In mathematics. Therefore. Show that the statement p: “If x is a real number such that x3 + 4x = 0. counter examples are used to disprove the statement. By giving a counter example. we conclude that the given statement is false. the statement 7 is irrational is true. (ii) method of contradiction. Such an example is called a counter example. Show that the statement “For any real numbers a and b. 7b2 = 49c2 ⇒ b2 = 7c2 ⇒ 7 divides b. Solution The given statement is in the form “if p then q” we have to show that this is false. then x is also even. However. we shall discuss a method by which we may show that a statement is false. (i) p: If all the angles of a triangle are equal. Thus. This shows that the we get 7 = assumption 7 is rational is wrong. 3. p: If x is an integer and x2 is even. So n = 9 is a counter example. Hence. show that the following statements are not true. EXERCISE 14. This implies that 7 is a common factor of both of a and b which contradicts our earlier assumption that a and b have no common factors. a2 = b2 implies that a = b” is not true by giving a counter-example. there exists an integer c such b2 that a = 7c. Then a2 = 49c2 and a2 = 7b2 Hence. 9 is one such number.

The component statements of the given statement are p : you are wet when it rains. x2 ≠ 2 (iii) The negation of the statement is ∼r: There exists a bird which have no wings. then –x < – y. (ii) q: The centre of a circle bisects each chord of the circle. (v) t : 11 is a rational number. t: you are wet when it rains or you are in a river. Miscellaneous Examples Example 17 Check whether “Or” used in the following compound statement is exclusive or inclusive? Write the component statements of the compound statements and use them to check whether the compound statement is true or not. (ii) Negation of q is “it is false that q”. (i) p: Each radius of a circle is a chord of the circle. Here both the component statements are true and therefore. This statement can be rewritten as ∼q: For all real numbers x. the compound statement is true. Solution “Or” used in the given statement is inclusive because it is possible that it rains and you are in the river. ∼q: There does not exist a rational number x such that x2 = 2. . (iv) s: If x and y are integers such that x > y. (ii) q: There exists a rational number x such that x2 = 2. This can be expressed as ∼p: There exists a real number x such that x2 < x. (iv) s: All students study mathematics at the elementary level. Thus ∼q is the statement. x2 > x. q : You are wet when you are in a river. Solution (i) The negation of p is “It is false that p is” which means that the condition x2 > x does not hold for all real numbers. (iii) r: Circle is a particular case of an ellipse. Which of the following statements are true and which are false? In each case give a valid reason for saying so.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 343 5. (iii) r: All birds have wings. Example 18 Write the negation of the following statements: (i) p: For every real number x. Justify your answer.

The implication if p. We have to check whether this statement is true. then q is the statement: If the integer n is odd. then p If q. Then n = 2k + 1 when k is an integer. Here the sufficient condition is “driving over 80 km per hour”: Similarly. then n2 is an even integer n is even implies that n = 2k for some k. n2 is one more than an even number and hence is odd. Example 19 Using the words “necessary and sufficient” rewrite the statement “The integer n is odd if and only if n2 is odd”. then q also indicates that q is necessary for p. Then n2 = 4k2. then q indicates that p is sufficient for q.344 MATHEMATICS (iv) The negation of the given statement is ∼s: There exists a student who does not study mathematics at the elementary level. Case 1 If p. then you will get a fine. That is . Solution The necessary and sufficient condition that the integer n be odd is n2 must be odd. To check the validity of “p if q”. then p is the statement If n is an integer and n2 is odd. q : you will get a fine. Let us assume that n is odd. then n2 is odd. Thus n2 = (2k + 1)2 = 4k2 + 4k + 1 Therefore. We have to check whether this statement is true. The contrapositive of the given statement is: If n is an even integer. Let p and q denote the statements p : the integer n is odd. n2 is even. we have to check whether “if p then q” and “if q then p” is true. That is driving over 80 km per hour is sufficient to get a fine. q : n2 is odd. Example 20 For the given statements identify the necessary and sufficient conditions. if p. then n is odd. Solution Let p and q denote the statements: p : you drive over 80 km per hour. t: If you drive over 80 km per hour. then q If p. We check this by contrapositive method. Therefore. Case 2 If q. Also check whether the statement is true.

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345

When you drive over 80 km per hour, you will necessarily get a fine. Here the necessary condition is “getting a fine”.

Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 14
Write the negation of the following statements: (i) p: For every positive real number x, the number x – 1 is also positive. (ii) q: All cats scratch. (iii) r: For every real number x, either x > 1 or x < 1. (iv) s: There exists a number x such that 0 < x < 1. 2. State the converse and contrapositive of each of the following statements: (i) p: A positive integer is prime only if it has no divisors other than 1 and itself. (ii) q: I go to a beach whenever it is a sunny day. (iii) r: If it is hot outside, then you feel thirsty. 3. Write each of the statements in the form “if p, then q” (i) p: It is necessary to have a password to log on to the server. (ii) q: There is traffic jam whenever it rains. (iii) r: You can access the website only if you pay a subsciption fee. 4. Rewrite each of the following statements in the form “p if and only if q” (i) p: If you watch television, then your mind is free and if your mind is free, then you watch television. (ii) q: For you to get an A grade, it is necessary and sufficient that you do all the homework regularly. (iii) r: If a quadrilateral is equiangular, then it is a rectangle and if a quadrilateral is a rectangle, then it is equiangular. 5. Given below are two statements p : 25 is a multiple of 5. q : 25 is a multiple of 8. Write the compound statements connecting these two statements with “And” and “Or”. In both cases check the validity of the compound statement. 6. Check the validity of the statements given below by the method given against it. (i) p: The sum of an irrational number and a rational number is irrational (by contradiction method). (ii) q: If n is a real number with n > 3, then n2 > 9 (by contradiction method). Write the following statement in five different ways, conveying the same meaning. p: If a triangle is equiangular, then it is an obtuse angled triangle. 1.

7.

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Summary
A mathematically acceptable statement is a sentence which is either true or false. Explained the terms: Negation of a statement p: If p denote a statement, then the negation of p is denoted by ∼p. Compound statements and their related component statements: A statement is a compound statement if it is made up of two or more smaller statements. The smaller statements are called component statements of the compound statement. The role of “And”, “Or”, “There exists” and “For every” in compound statements. The meaning of implications “If ”, “only if ”, “ if and only if ”. A sentence with if p, then q can be written in the following ways. p implies q (denoted by p ⇒ q) p is a sufficient condition for q q is a necessary condition for p p only if q ∼q implies ∼p The contrapositive of a statement p ⇒ q is the statement ∼ q ⇒ ∼p . The converse of a statement p ⇒ q is the statement q ⇒ p. p ⇒ q together with its converse, gives p if and only if q. The following methods are used to check the validity of statements: (i) direct method (ii) contrapositive method (iii) method of contradiction (iv) using a counter example.

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– – – – – – – –

Historical Note
The first treatise on logic was written by Aristotle (384 B.C.-322 B.C.). It was a collection of rules for deductive reasoning which would serve as a basis for the study of every branch of knowledge. Later, in the seventeenth century, German mathematician G. W. Leibnitz (1646 – 1716 A.D.) conceived the idea of using symbols in logic to mechanise the process of deductive reasoning. His idea was realised in the nineteenth century by the English mathematician George Boole (1815–1864 A.D.) and Augustus De Morgan (1806–1871 A.D.) , who founded the modern subject of symbolic logic.

Chapter

15

STATISTICS
“Statistics may be rightly called the science of averages and their estimates.” – A.L.BOWLEY & A.L. BODDINGTON

15.1 Introduction
We know that statistics deals with data collected for specific purposes. We can make decisions about the data by analysing and interpreting it. In earlier classes, we have studied methods of representing data graphically and in tabular form. This representation reveals certain salient features or characteristics of the data. We have also studied the methods of finding a representative value for the given data. This value is called the measure of central tendency. Recall mean (arithmetic mean), median and mode are three measures of central tendency. A measure of central Karl Pearson tendency gives us a rough idea where data points are (1857-1936) centred. But, in order to make better interpretation from the data, we should also have an idea how the data are scattered or how much they are bunched around a measure of central tendency. Consider now the runs scored by two batsmen in their last ten matches as follows: Batsman A : 30, 91, 0, 64, 42, 80, 30, 5, 117, 71 Batsman B : 53, 46, 48, 50, 53, 53, 58, 60, 57, 52 Clearly, the mean and median of the data are Batsman A Batsman B Mean 53 53 Median 53 53 Recall that, we calculate the mean of a data (denoted by x ) by dividing the sum of the observations by the number of observations, i.e.,

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x=

1 n

i =1

∑ xi

n

Also, the median is obtained by first arranging the data in ascending or descending order and applying the following rule.
⎛ n + 1⎞ If the number of observations is odd, then the median is ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠
th

observation.
th

⎛n⎞ If the number of observations is even, then median is the mean of ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠
th

and

⎛n ⎞ ⎜ + 1⎟ observations. ⎝2 ⎠ We find that the mean and median of the runs scored by both the batsmen A and B are same i.e., 53. Can we say that the performance of two players is same? Clearly No, because the variability in the scores of batsman A is from 0 (minimum) to 117 (maximum). Whereas, the range of the runs scored by batsman B is from 46 to 60. Let us now plot the above scores as dots on a number line. We find the following diagrams:

For batsman A

For batsman B

Fig 15.1

Fig 15.2

We can see that the dots corresponding to batsman B are close to each other and are clustering around the measure of central tendency (mean and median), while those corresponding to batsman A are scattered or more spread out. Thus, the measures of central tendency are not sufficient to give complete information about a given data. Variability is another factor which is required to be studied under statistics. Like ‘measures of central tendency’ we want to have a single number to describe variability. This single number is called a ‘measure of dispersion’. In this Chapter, we shall learn some of the important measures of dispersion and their methods of calculation for ungrouped and grouped data.

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15.2 Measures of Dispersion
The dispersion or scatter in a data is measured on the basis of the observations and the types of the measure of central tendency, used there. There are following measures of dispersion: (i) Range, (ii) Quartile deviation, (iii) Mean deviation, (iv) Standard deviation. In this Chapter, we shall study all of these measures of dispersion except the quartile deviation.

15.3 Range
Recall that, in the example of runs scored by two batsmen A and B, we had some idea of variability in the scores on the basis of minimum and maximum runs in each series. To obtain a single number for this, we find the difference of maximum and minimum values of each series. This difference is called the ‘Range’ of the data. In case of batsman A, Range = 117 – 0 = 117 and for batsman B, Range = 60 – 46 = 14. Clearly, Range of A > Range of B. Therefore, the scores are scattered or dispersed in case of A while for B these are close to each other. Thus, Range of a series = Maximum value – Minimum value. The range of data gives us a rough idea of variability or scatter but does not tell about the dispersion of the data from a measure of central tendency. For this purpose, we need some other measure of variability. Clearly, such measure must depend upon the difference (or deviation) of the values from the central tendency. The important measures of dispersion, which depend upon the deviations of the observations from a central tendency are mean deviation and standard deviation. Let us discuss them in detail.

15.4 Mean Deviation
Recall that the deviation of an observation x from a fixed value ‘a’ is the difference x – a. In order to find the dispersion of values of x from a central value ‘a’ , we find the deviations about a. An absolute measure of dispersion is the mean of these deviations. To find the mean, we must obtain the sum of the deviations. But, we know that a measure of central tendency lies between the maximum and the minimum values of the set of observations. Therefore, some of the deviations will be negative and some positive. Thus, the sum of deviations may vanish. Moreover, the sum of the deviations from mean ( x ) is zero. Also Mean of deviations =

Sum of deviations 0 = =0 Number of observations n

Thus, finding the mean of deviations about mean is not of any use for us, as far as the measure of dispersion is concerned.

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Remember that, in finding a suitable measure of dispersion, we require the distance of each value from a central tendency or a fixed number ‘a’. Recall, that the absolute value of the difference of two numbers gives the distance between the numbers when represented on a number line. Thus, to find the measure of dispersion from a fixed number ‘a’ we may take the mean of the absolute values of the deviations from the central value. This mean is called the ‘mean deviation’. Thus mean deviation about a central value ‘a’ is the mean of the absolute values of the deviations of the observations from ‘a’. The mean deviation from ‘a’ is denoted as M.D. (a). Therefore, M.D.(a) =

Sum of absolute values of deviations from 'a' . Number of observations

Remark Mean deviation may be obtained from any measure of central tendency. However, mean deviation from mean and median are commonly used in statistical studies. Let us now learn how to calculate mean deviation about mean and mean deviation about median for various types of data 15.4.1 Mean deviation for ungrouped data Let n observations be x1, x2, x3, ...., xn. The following steps are involved in the calculation of mean deviation about mean or median: Step 1 Calculate the measure of central tendency about which we are to find the mean deviation. Let it be ‘a’. Step 2 Find the deviation of each xi from a, i.e., x1 – a, x2 – a, x3 – a,. . . , xn– a Step 3 Find the absolute values of the deviations, i.e., drop the minus sign (–), if it is there, i.e., x1 − a , x2 − a , x3 − a , ...., xn − a Step 4 Find the mean of the absolute values of the deviations. This mean is the mean deviation about a, i.e.,

M.D.(a) =
Thus and

∑ xi − a
i =1

n

n

M.D. ( x ) = M.D. (M) =

1 n

∑ xi − x
i =1 n i =1

n

, where x = Mean

1 n

∑ xi − M , where M = Median

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351

Note In this Chapter, we shall use the symbol M to denote median unless stated otherwise.Let us now illustrate the steps of the above method in following examples. Example 1 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the following data: 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 4, 8, 12 Solution We proceed step-wise and get the following: Step 1 Mean of the given data is

x=

6 + 7 + 10 + 12 + 13 + 4 + 8 + 12 72 = = 9 8 8

Step 2 The deviations of the respective observations from the mean x , i.e., xi– x are 6 – 9, 7 – 9, 10 – 9, 12 – 9, 13 – 9, 4 – 9, 8 – 9, 12 – 9, or –3, –2, 1, 3, 4, –5, –1, 3 Step 3 The absolute values of the deviations, i.e., xi − x are 3, 2, 1, 3, 4, 5, 1, 3 Step 4 The required mean deviation about the mean is

M.D. ( x ) = =

∑ xi − x
i =1

8

8

3 + 2 + 1 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 1 + 3 22 = = 2.75 8 8

Note Instead of carrying out the steps every time, we can carry on calculation, step-wise without referring to steps. Example 2 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the following data : 12, 3, 18, 17, 4, 9, 17, 19, 20, 15, 8, 17, 2, 3, 16, 11, 3, 1, 0, 5 Solution We have to first find the mean ( x ) of the given data

x =

1 20 200 ∑ xi = 20 = 10 20 i =1

The respective absolute values of the deviations from mean, i.e., xi − x are 2, 7, 8, 7, 6, 1, 7, 9, 10, 5, 2, 7, 8, 7, 6, 1, 7, 9, 10, 5

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MATHEMATICS

Therefore and

∑ xi − x
i =1

20

= 124

M.D. ( x ) =

124 = 6.2 20

Example 3 Find the mean deviation about the median for the following data: 3, 9, 5, 3, 12, 10, 18, 4, 7, 19, 21. Solution Here the number of observations is 11 which is odd. Arranging the data into ascending order, we have 3, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 18, 19, 21 Now
⎛ 11 + 1 ⎞ Median = ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝
th

or 6th observation = 9

The absolute values of the respective deviations from the median, i.e., xi − M are 6, 6, 5, 4, 2, 0, 1, 3, 9, 10, 12 Therefore and

∑ xi − M = 58
i =1

11

M.D. ( M ) =

1 11 1 ∑ xi − M = 11 × 58 = 5.27 11 i =1

15.4.2 Mean deviation for grouped data We know that data can be grouped into two ways : (a) Discrete frequency distribution, (b) Continuous frequency distribution. Let us discuss the method of finding mean deviation for both types of the data. (a) Discrete frequency distribution Let the given data consist of n distinct values x1, x2, ..., xn occurring with frequencies f1, f2 , ..., fn respectively. This data can be represented in the tabular form as given below, and is called discrete frequency distribution: x : x1 x2 x3 ... xn f : f1 f2 f3 ... fn (i) Mean deviation about mean First of all we find the mean x of the given data by using the formula

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353

x=

∑ xi fi
i =1 n

n

∑ fi
i =1

=

1 N

∑ xi fi ,
i =1

n

where

∑x f
i =1 i

n

i

denotes the sum of the products of observations xi with their respective

frequencies fi and N =

∑f
i =1

n

i

is the sum of the frequencies.

Then, we find the deviations of observations xi from the mean x and take their absolute values, i.e., xi − x for all i =1, 2,..., n. After this, find the mean of the absolute values of the deviations, which is the required mean deviation about the mean. Thus

M.D. ( x ) =

∑f
i =1

n

i

xi − x

∑f
i =1

n

1 n = ∑ f i xi − x N i =1

i

(ii) Mean deviation about median To find mean deviation about median, we find the median of the given discrete frequency distribution. For this the observations are arranged in ascending order. After this the cumulative frequencies are obtained. Then, we identify , where 2 N is the sum of frequencies. This value of the observation lies in the middle of the data, therefore, it is the required median. After finding median, we obtain the mean of the absolute values of the deviations from median.Thus, the observation whose cumulative frequency is equal to or just greater than

N

M.D.(M) =

1 N

∑f
i =1

n

i

xi − M

Example 4 Find mean deviation about the mean for the following data : xi 2 5 6 8 10 12 fi 2 8 10 7 8 5 Solution Let us make a Table 15.1 of the given data and append other columns after calculations.

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MATHEMATICS

Table 15.1

xi 2 5 6 8 10 12

fi 2 8 10 7 8 5 40

fixi 4 40 60 56 80 60 300

xi − x
5.5 2.5 1.5 0.5 2.5 4.5

f i xi − x 11 20 15 3.5 20 22.5 92

N = ∑ f i = 40 ,
i =1

6


i =1

6

f i xi = 300 ,

∑f
i =1

6

i

xi − x = 92

Therefore and

x=

1 N


i =1

6

fi xi = 1 N

1 × 300 = 7.5 40

M. D. ( x ) =

∑ fi
i =1

6

xi − x =

1 × 92 = 2.3 40

Example 5 Find the mean deviation about the median for the following data: xi fi 3 3 6 4 9 5 12 2 13 4 15 5 21 4 22 3

Solution The given observations are already in ascending order. Adding a row corresponding to cumulative frequencies to the given data, we get (Table 15.2).
Table 15.2

xi fi c.f.

3 3 3

6 4 7

9 5 12

12 2 14

13 4 18

15 5 23

21 4 27

22 3 30

Now, N=30 which is even.

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355

Median is the mean of the 15th and 16th observations. Both of these observations lie in the cummulative freqeuncy 18, for which the corresponding observation is 13.
Therefore, Median M = 15th observation + 16th observation 2 = 13 + 13 2 = 13

Now, absolute values of the deviations from median, i.e., xi − M are shown in Table 15.3.
Table 15.3

xi − M

10 3 30
8

7 4 28
8

4 5 20

1 2 2

0 4 0

2 5 10

8 4 32

9 3 27

fi f i xi − M

∑f
i =1

i

= 30 and
1 N

∑f
i =1

i

xi − M = 149

Therefore

M. D. (M) =

∑ fi
i =1

8

xi − M

=

1 × 149 = 4.97. 30

(b) Continuous frequency distribution A continuous frequency distribution is a series in which the data are classified into different class-intervals without gaps alongwith their respective frequencies. For example, marks obtained by 100 students are presented in a continuous frequency distribution as follows : Marks obtained 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 Number of Students 12 18 27 20 40-50 17 50-60 6

(i) Mean deviation about mean While calculating the mean of a continuous frequency distribution, we had made the assumption that the frequency in each class is centred at its mid-point. Here also, we write the mid-point of each given class and proceed further as for a discrete frequency distribution to find the mean deviation. Let us take the following example.

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MATHEMATICS

Example 6 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the following data. Marks obtained Number of students 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 2 3 8 14 8 3 2

Solution We make the following Table 15.4 from the given data :
Table 15.4

Marks obtained 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80

Number of students fi 2 3 8 14 8 3 2 40
N =

Mid-points xi 15 25 35 45 55 65 75

f ix i

xi − x

fi xi − x

30 75 280 630 440 195 150 1800

30 20 10 0 10 20 30

60 60 80 0 80 60 60 400

Here


i =1

7

fi = 40, ∑ fi xi = 1800,
i =1

7

∑ fi
i =1

7

xi − x = 400

Therefore

x=

1 7 1800 ∑ fi xi = 40 = 45 N i =1

and

M.D. ( x ) =

1 7 1 ∑ fi xi − x = 40 × 400 = 10 N i =1

Shortcut method for calculating mean deviation about mean We can avoid the tedious calculations of computing x by following step-deviation method. Recall that in this method, we take an assumed mean which is in the middle or just close to it in the data. Then deviations of the observations (or mid-points of classes) are taken from the

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357

assumed mean. This is nothing but the shifting of origin from zero to the assumed mean on the number line, as shown in Fig 15.3

Fig 15.3

If there is a common factor of all the deviations, we divide them by this common factor to further simplify the deviations. These are known as step-deviations. The process of taking step-deviations is the change of scale on the number line as shown in Fig 15.4

Fig 15.4

The deviations and step-deviations reduce the size of the observations, so that the computations viz. multiplication, etc., become simpler. Let, the new variable be denoted by d i =

xi − a , where ‘a’ is the assumed mean and h is the common factor. Then, the h
n

mean x by step-deviation method is given by
∑ f d i =1 i i × h x=a+ N

Let us take the data of Example 6 and find the mean deviation by using stepdeviation method.

5.5 Marks obtained 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 Number of Mid-points di = students fi 2 3 8 14 8 3 2 40 xi 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 xi − 45 10 fi d i xi − x f i xi − x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 –6 –6 –8 0 8 6 6 0 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 60 60 80 0 80 60 60 400 Therefore 7 ∑ fi d i x = a + i=1 ×h N = 45 + 0 × 10 = 45 40 and M . (x ) = 1 N ∑ fi i =1 7 xi − x = 400 = 10 40 Note The step deviation method is applied to compute x . Rest of the procedure is same. Let us recall the process of finding median for a continuous frequency distribution. and form the following Table 15. (ii) Mean deviation about median The process of finding the mean deviation about median for a continuous frequency distribution is similar as we did for mean deviation about the mean. The only difference lies in the replacement of the mean by median while taking deviations.D. Table 15. Then. The data is first arranged in ascending order.358 MATHEMATICS Take the assumed mean a = 45 and h = 10. the median of continuous frequency distribution is obtained by first identifying the class in which median lies (median class) and then applying the formula .

l.D.f. respectively the lower 2 limit . h and C are. (M) = 1 Example 7 Calculate the mean deviation about median for the following data : Class Frequency 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 6 7 15 16 4 2 Solution Form the following Table 15.6 from the given data : Table 15.. the frequency. N is the sum of frequencies. the absolute values of the deviations of mid-point xi of each class from the median i.6 Class Frequency fi Cummulative frequency (c. 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 6 7 15 16 4 2 50 23 13 3 7 17 27 138 91 45 112 68 54 508 . xi − M are obtained.e. f i xi − Med. n ∑ fi xi − M N i =1 The process is illustrated in the following example: Then M. After finding the median. the width of the median class and C the cumulative frequency of the class just preceding the median class.) 6 13 28 44 48 50 Mid-points xi 5 15 25 35 45 55 xi − Med. f.STATISTICS 359 N −C 2 Median = l + ×h f where median class is the class interval whose cumulative frequency is just greater than or equal to N .

13. 7. x i fi 7 10 4 5 8 15 3 4 30 24 7 6 21 5 6 50 28 9 2 27 6 3 70 16 10 2 30 7 5 90 8 12 2 35 8 15 6 Find the mean deviation about the median for the data in Exercises 7 and 8. 14. 42. 46. f = 15. 49 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data in Exercises 5 and 6. 16.16 N i =1 EXERCISE 15. x i fi 7. 36. 54. 42.1 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data in Exercises 1 and 2. 45. 40. 60. x i fi 8. 13. 72. (M) = 1 1 6 ∑ fi xi − M = 50 × 508 = 10. 17 2. 4. 17 4. 63. C = 13. 11. 53. 20–30 is the median 2 N −C ×h Median = l + 2 f Here l = 20. 1. 70. 18. h = 10 and N = 50 Therefore. We know that N or 25th item is 20-30. 25 − 13 × 10 = 20 + 8 = 28 15 Thus.D. 16. 44 Find the mean deviation about the median for the data in Exercises 3 and 4. 10. 12. 10. Therefore. 55. 3. x i 5 10 15 20 25 fi 6. 38. 51. 13. 9.360 MATHEMATICS th The class interval containing class. 48. 46. 11. 5. Mean deviation about median is given by Median = 20 + M. 12. . 17. 46. 8.

otherwise the deviations may cancel among themselves. the mean deviation about median calculated for such series can not be fully relied. Calculate the mean deviation about median age for the age distribution of 100 persons given below: Age 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 Number 5 6 12 14 26 12 16 9 [Hint Convert the given data into continuous frequency distribution by subtracting 0. Find the mean deviation about median for the following data : Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Number of 6 8 14 16 4 2 Girls 12. mean deviation may give unsatisfactory results. The absolute values were taken to give meaning to the mean deviation.3 Limitations of mean deviation In a series. 15. Standard deviation is such a measure of dispersion. Also mean deviation is calculated on the basis of absolute values of the deviations and therefore. The sum of the deviations from the mean (minus signs ignored) is more than the sum of the deviations from median. Another way to overcome this difficulty which arose due to the signs of deviations.Thus. Thus.STATISTICS 361 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data in Exercises 9 and 10. Height 95-105 105-115 115-125 125-135 135-145 145-155 in cms Number of 9 13 26 30 12 10 boys 11.5 from the lower limit and adding 0. This implies that we must have some other measure of dispersion. 9.4. the median is not a representative central tendency. where the degree of variability is very high. the mean deviation about the mean is not very scientific. is to take squares of all the deviations. the absolute values of the deviations were taken. cannot be subjected to further algebraic treatment. Therefore. Obviously all these squares of deviations are .5 Variance and Standard Deviation Recall that while calculating mean deviation about mean or median. Income 0-100 100-200 200-300 300-400 400-500 500-600 600-700 700-800 per day Number 4 8 9 10 7 5 4 3 of persons 10.5 to the upper limit of each class interval] 15. in many cases.

. 31. x3. x3...xn are close to the mean x and therefore... 24.. the sum of squares of deviations of observations for set B from the mean y is given by ∑(y i =1 31 i − y ) 2 = (15–30)2 +(16–30)2 + (17–30)2 + . 18. 55. there is a lower degree of dispersion. On the contrary.+ 142 + 152 = 2 [152 + 142 + . Can we thus say that the sum ∑ (x − x) i i =1 n 2 is a reasonable indicator of the degree of dispersion or scatter? Let us take the set A of six observations 5. 25. 41. 34..362 MATHEMATICS non-negative. 36. If this sum is zero. 44. 29. 43. 37. 26. 25. Here n = 15) 6 (Because sum of squares of first n natural numbers = .+ (xn − x )2 = ∑(x − x) i =1 i n 2 .. 28. 15. 33. Let x1.. there is a higher degree of dispersion of the observations from the mean x . + 12] = 2× 15 × (15 + 1) (30 + 1) = 5 × 16 × 31 = 2480 6 n (n + 1) (2n + 1) . Now. 22. x2. 40. 19. 42. .. The sum of squares of deviations from x for this set is ∑ (x − x) i =1 i 6 2 = (5–30)2 + (15–30)2 + (25–30)2 + (35–30)2 + (45–30)2 +(55–30)2 = 625 + 225 + 25 + 25 + 225 + 625 = 1750 Let us now take another set B of 31 observations 15...... 21. The mean of the observations is x = 30. 45. The mean of these observations is y = 30 Note that both the sets A and B of observations have a mean of 30. x2. 27. xn be n observations and x be their mean. 35.. Then (x1 − x)2 + (x2 −x)2 + .. This implies that there is no dispersion at all as all observations are equal to the mean x . 20. 16.. this indicates that the observations x1. 30.+ (–1)2 + 02 + 12 + 22 + 32 + . 45.+ (44–30)2 +(45–30)2 = (–15)2 +(–14)2 + . if this sum is large. 17. If ∑ (x − x) i i =1 n 2 is small . 35. then each ( xi − x ) has to be zero. 32.... 39. 38. 23.

In case of the set A. mean of the squares of the deviations from mean is called the variance and is denoted by σ 2 (read as sigma square). we will tend to say that the set A of six observations has a lesser dispersion about the mean than the set B of 31 observations. we can say that the sum of squares of deviations from the mean is not a proper measure of dispersion. we have Fig 15.6 Thus. i. it is × 2480 = 80. we have Fig 15. even though the observations in set A are more scattered from the mean (the range of deviations being from –25 to 25) than in the set B (where the range of deviations is from –15 to 15)..67 and in case of the set B. For the set A.. the variance of n observations x1. 6 31 This indicates that the scatter or dispersion is more in set A than the scatter or dispersion in set B. Mean = Thus. Therefore. i.STATISTICS 363 If ∑ (x − x) i i =1 n 2 is simply our measure of dispersion or scatter about mean. To overcome this difficulty we take the mean of the squares of 1 n the deviations.e. we have n i =1 1 1 × 1750 = 291. This number. This is also clear from the following diagrams. xn is given by . we can take 1 ∑ ( xi − x ) 2 as a quantity which leads to a proper measure n of dispersion.5 For the set B.... we take ∑ ( xi − x ) 2 .. x2. which confirms with the geometrical representation of the two sets.e.

since variance involves the sum of squares of (xi– x ).5. The number of observations is n = 10 Table 15. Therefore. 20. (1) Let us take the following example to illustrate the calculation of variance and hence.7 xi 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 di = xi − 14 2 Deviations from mean (x i– x ) –9 –7 –5 –3 –1 1 3 5 7 9 (x i– x ) 81 49 25 9 1 1 9 25 49 81 330 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 .1 Standard Deviation In the calculation of variance. 12. For this reason. 24 Solution From the given data we can form the following Table 15. standard deviation of ungrouped data... we find that the units of individual observations xi and the unit of their mean x are different from that of variance. the standard deviation. usually denoted by σ . 16. is given by σ= 1 n ∑ ( xi − x ) 2 n i =1 . 18. 8. Example 8 Find the Variance of the following data: 6. 10. 22.7. the proper measure of dispersion about the mean of a set of observations is expressed as positive square-root of the variance and is called standard deviation. The mean is calculated by step-deviation method taking 14 as assumed mean.364 MATHEMATICS σ2= 1 n ∑ ( xi − x ) 2 n i =1 15. 14.

. . fn 1 n ∑ fi (xi − x )2 N i =1 In this case standard deviation (σ ) = where N = ∑ fi . we get Table 15. f3 .STATISTICS 365 ∑d Therefore Mean x = assumed mean + 1 Variance ( σ ) = n 2 n i =1 i n × h = 14 + 5 × 2 = 15 10 and 1 ∑ ( xi − x )2 = 10 × 330 = 33 i =1 10 Thus Standard deviation ( σ ) = 33 = 5. . .2 Standard deviation of a discrete frequency distribution Let the given discrete frequency distribution be x: x1. . x3 ..8).8 xi 4 8 11 17 20 24 32 fi 3 5 9 5 4 3 1 30 fi x i 12 40 99 85 80 72 32 420 xi – x –10 –6 –3 3 6 10 18 ( xi − x ) 2 100 36 9 9 36 100 324 f i ( xi − x ) 2 300 180 81 45 144 300 324 1374 .. i =1 n . xn f: f1. Example 9 Find the variance and standard deviation for the following data: xi fi 4 3 8 5 11 9 17 5 20 4 24 3 32 1 Solution Presenting the data in tabular form (Table 15.5. .74 15. x2. (2) Let us take up following example. .. f2.

77 15.3 Standard deviation of a continuous frequency distribution The given continuous frequency distribution can be represented as a discrete frequency distribution by replacing each class by its mid-point. Then. 7 ∑ fi xi = 420.8 30 and Standard deviation (σ ) = 45 .366 MATHEMATICS N = 30.8 = 6. ∑ fi ( xi − x ) i =1 i =1 7 7 2 = 1374 Therefore x= ∑ fi xi i =1 N 2 = 1 × 420 = 14 30 Hence 1 variance (σ ) = N = ∑ fi (xi − i =1 7 x )2 1 × 1374 = 45. If there is a frequency distribution of n classes each class defined by its mid-point xi with frequency fi. n where x is the mean of the distribution and N = ∑ fi .5. i =1 Another formula for standard deviation We know that 1 Variance (σ ) = N 2 ∑ i =1 n fi ( xi − x ) 2 = n n 1 N ∑ fi ( xi 2 + i =1 n x 2 − 2 x xi ) 1 ⎡ = N ⎢ ⎣ 1 ⎡ = N ⎢ ⎣ ∑ fi xi 2 + i =1 n ∑ x 2 fi − i =1 ∑ 2x i =1 n ⎤ fi xi ⎥ ⎦ ∑ fi xi 2 + i =1 n n ⎤ x 2 ∑ fi − 2 x ∑ xi fi ⎥ i =1 i =1 ⎦ . the standard deviation will be obtained by the formula σ = 1 N ∑ fi ( xi − i =1 n x)2 . the standard deviation is calculated by the technique adopted in the case of a discrete frequency distribution.

variance and standard deviation for the following distribution : Class Frequency 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 3 7 12 15 8 3 2 Solution From the given data. Table 15.9 Class 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 Frequency Mid-point (f i ) (x i) 3 7 12 15 8 3 2 50 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 f ix i 105 315 660 975 600 255 190 3100 (x i– x ) 2 729 289 49 9 169 529 1089 f i (x i – x ) 2 2187 2023 588 135 1352 1587 2178 10050 . we construct the following Table 15.STATISTICS 367 = n ⎤ 1 n ⎤ ⎡ 1⎡ n fi xi + x 2 N − 2 x . (3) Example 10 Calculate the mean... standard deviation (σ ) = . N x ⎥ ⎢ Here ∑ xi fi = x or ∑ xi fi = Nx ⎥ ⎢∑ N i =1 N ⎣ i =1 i =1 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ = 1 N ∑ i =1 n 2 fi xi + x 2 − 2 x 2 = 1 N ∑ fi xi 2 − i =1 n x 2 or ⎛ n ⎜ ∑ fi xi 1 n 2 ⎜ i =1 2 = ∑ fi xi − ⎜ N σ N i −1 ⎜ ⎝ 1 N ⎞ 2 ⎟ n ⎡ n ⎤ ⎟ = 1 ⎢ N ∑ fi xi 2 − ⎛ ∑ fi xi ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ N 2 ⎢ i =1 ⎝ i =1 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ n ⎞ N ∑ f i xi − ⎜ ∑ f i xi ⎟ ⎝ i =1 ⎠ i =1 n 2 2 2 Thus.9.

10: Table 15. by formula (3).10 xi 3 8 13 18 23 48 Now.18 Example 11 Find the standard deviation for the following data : xi fi 3 7 8 10 13 15 18 10 23 6 Solution Let us form the following Table 15.368 MATHEMATICS Thus Mean x = 1 N ∑fx i =1 7 i i = 3100 = 62 50 2 Variance σ = N ( ) 1 ∑ f i (xi − x )2 i =1 7 = and 1 × 10050 = 201 50 Standard deviation (σ ) = 201 = 14. we have fi 7 10 15 10 6 614 f ix i 21 80 195 180 138 x i2 9 64 169 324 529 f ix i2 63 640 2535 3240 3174 9652 σ = = = 1 N 1 48 N∑ fi xi − ( ∑ fi xi ) 2 2 48 × 9652 − (614) 2 1 463296 − 376996 48 .

Standard deviation ( σ ) = 6. (1) width of class-intervals).12 = 15.STATISTICS 369 1 × 293. i.77 = 6..4. it is possible to simplify the procedure. (2) Replacing xi from (1) in (2). Let the step-deviations or the new values be yi. Let the assumed mean be ‘A’ and the scale be reduced to 1 times (h being the h ... yi = xi − A h or xi = A + hyi ∑fx i n i We know that x = i =1 N .12 48 Therefore.5. we get = ∑ f ( A + hy ) i i i =1 n x N = n n ⎛ n ⎞ 1 ⎛ n ⎞ ⎜ ∑ f i A + ∑ h f i yi ⎟ = ⎜ A ∑ f i + h ∑ f i yi ⎟ N ⎝ i =1 ⎠ N ⎝ i =1 ⎠ i =1 i =1 1 = A.N +h N Thus Now ∑ fi yi i =1 n N n ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ because ∑ fi = N ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ i =1 x=A+h y Variance of the variable x.. (3) 1 N ∑ fi ( xi − x )2 i =1 n ∑ fi (A + hyi − A − h y )2 i =1 n (Using (1) and (3)) . σ x = = 1 N 2 . By using step-deviation method.. Shortcut method to find variance and standard deviation Sometimes the values of xi in a discrete distribution or the mid points xi of different classes in a continuous distribution are large and so the calculation of mean and variance becomes tedious and time consuming..e.

370 MATHEMATICS = 1 N h2 N ∑ fi h2 (yi − y )2 i =1 n n = i.11 Class Frequency fi Mid-point yi= xi 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 xi − 65 10 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 y i2 9 4 1 0 1 4 9 fi yi –9 – 14 – 12 0 8 6 6 – 15 f i y i2 27 28 12 0 8 12 18 105 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 9 0-100 3 7 12 15 8 3 2 N=50 . Variance and Standard Deviation for the following distribution.. (4) .. (5) Let us solve Example 11 by the short-cut method and using formula (5) Examples 12 Calculate mean.. or ∑ fi (yi − y )2 = h × variance of the variable y 2 i =1 i 2 2 σ x2 = h σ y σ x = hσ y From (3) and (4)..11 from the given data : Table 15. Here h = 10 We obtain the following Table 15. Classes Frequency 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 3 7 12 15 8 3 2 Solution Let the assumed mean A = 65.e. we have n ⎛ n ⎞ h N ∑ fi yi 2 − ⎜ ∑ fi yi ⎟ σx = N i =1 ⎝ i =1 ⎠ 2 .

First n natural numbers 3. Classes Frequencies 0-30 30-60 60-90 90-120 120-150 150-180 180-210 2 3 5 10 3 5 2 . 7. 6. 8. 12. 1. xi fi 5. xi fi 60 2 61 1 62 12 63 29 64 25 65 12 66 10 67 4 68 5 Find the mean and variance for the following frequency distributions in Exercises 7 and 8. 7.STATISTICS 371 Therefore x= A+ ∑ fi yi × h = 65 − 15 × 10 = 62 50 50 Variance σ2 = h2 N2 ⎡ 2 ⎢ N ∑ fi yi − ( ∑ fi yi ⎣ 2 ) 2⎤ ⎥ ⎦ = (10 ) ⎡50 × 105 − (–15)2 ⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎦ (50) ⎣ = 1 [5250 − 225] = 201 25 and standard deviation (σ ) = 201 = 14. 10. xi fi 6 2 92 3 10 4 93 2 14 7 97 3 18 12 98 2 24 8 102 6 28 4 104 3 30 3 109 3 6. Find the mean and standard deviation using short-cut method. 12 2.18 EXERCISE 15. First 10 multiples of 3 4.2 Find the mean and variance for each of the data in Exercies 1 to 5. 4. 13.

Whenever we want to compare the variability of two series with same mean. is said to be more consistent than the other. 48.5. is said to be more variable than the other. where σ and x are the standard deviation and mean of the data.372 MATHEMATICS 8.52.] 15.5-36.5 . 40. Classes Frequencies 0-10 5 10-20 8 20-30 15 30-40 16 40-50 6 9. x ≠ 0 . Find the mean. 36. which are measured in different units.5. . The mean deviation and the standard deviation have the same units in which the data are given.V. of children 70-75 75-80 80-85 85-90 90-95 95-100 100-105 105-110 110-115 3 4 7 7 15 9 6 6 3 10. The series having lesser C. = σ x × 100 .5. The diameters of circles (in mm) drawn in a design are given below: Diameters No.5-44. we calculate the coefficient of variance for each series. we have studied about some types of measures of dispersion. of circles 33-36 15 37-40 17 41-44 21 45-48 22 49-52 25 Calculate the standard deviation and mean diameter of the circles.48.5-40.5. we do not merely calculate the measures of dispersion but we require such measures which are independent of the units.V. The series having greater C.V.V. variance and standard deviation using short-cut method Height in cms No.) The coefficient of variation is defined as C. The measure of variability which is independent of units is called coefficient of variation (denoted as C.6 Analysis of Frequency Distributions In earlier sections. For comparing the variability or dispersion of two series. [ Hint First make the data continuous by making the classes as 32.5 .5 and then proceed. 44.

. A B No. (1st distribution) = C. of workers Average monthly wages Variance of distribution of wages 5000 Rs 2500 81 6000 Rs 2500 100 σ2 In which plant.V.V. (1st distribution) = x × 100 1 σ C.STATISTICS 373 15. can be compared on the basis of values of σ 1 and σ 2 only.6. Thus. Also. (1) × 100 . A or B is there greater variability in individual wages? Solution The variance of the distribution of wages in plant A ( σ 12 ) = 81 Therefore. Let us now take following examples: Example 13 Two plants A and B of a factory show following results about the number of workers and the wages paid to them.Vs.V. and x2 and σ2 be the mean and standard deviation of the second distribution. the series with greater standard deviation (or variance) is called more variable or dispersed than the other. we say that for two series with equal means.. (2nd distribution) = σ2 x2 × 100 Given x1 = x2 = x (say) Therefore and C. the series with lesser value of standard deviation (or variance) is said to be more consistent than the other. Then and 1 C...1 Comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean Let x1 and σ1 be the mean and standard deviation of the first distribution. (2) x It is clear from (1) and (2) that the two C. (2nd distribution) = σ1 x × 100 .V. standard deviation of the distribution of wages in plant A ( σ 1 ) = 9 .

Then C.85 x2 70 Example 15 The following values are calculated in respect of heights and weights of the students of a section of Class XI : Height Weight Mean Variance 162. Example 14 Coefficient of variation of two distributions are 60 and 70.V. i.2500.69 cm2 52. σ 2 = 16 Let x1 and x2 be the means of 1st and 2nd distribution.69cm2 Standard deviation of height = Variance of weight = 23. (2nd distribution) = 70 = σ2 x2 ×100 16 16 × 100 or x2 = × 100 = 22. standard deviation of the distribution of wages in plant B ( σ2 ) = 10 Since the average monthly wages in both the plants is same. the plant B has greater variability in the individual wages. C.. σ 1 = 21 C.e.V. the variance of the distribution of wages in plant B ( σ 2 2 ) = 100 Therefore.e. Solution Given C. Thus. (2nd distribution) = 70. (1st distribution) = Therefore 60 = σ1 x1 × 100 21 21 ×100 or x1 = × 100 = 35 x1 60 and i.3 cm . we have to calculate their coefficients of variation. respectively.V.6 cm 127.1361 kg2 Can we say that the weights show greater variation than the heights? Solution To compare the variability. (1st distribution) = 60. therefore.V. Given Therefore Also Variance of height = 127. and their standard deviations are 21 and 16.1361 kg 2 127.69cm = 11. Rs. respectively. the plant with greater standard deviation will have more variability. What are their arithmetic means.374 MATHEMATICS Also.36 kg 23.

of wage earners Mean of monthly wages Variance of the distribution of wages (i) Which firm A or B pays larger amount as monthly wages? (ii) Which firm.V. shows greater variability in individual wages? 586 Rs 5253 100 Firm B 648 Rs 5253 121 . find out which is more stable in value: X 35 54 107 52 105 53 105 56 106 58 107 52 104 50 103 51 104 49 101 Y 108 3.) in weights = Standard Deviation Mean × 100 11. belonging to the same industry. gives the following results: Firm A No. From the data given below state which group is more variable.V. in heights Therefore. the coefficient of variations (C.) are given by (C.36 × 100 = 6. EXERCISE 15.3 162.) in heights = = and (C.81 52. An analysis of monthly wages paid to workers in two firms A and B.1361 kg = 4.V. we can say that weights show more variability than heights.V.6 4.95 × 100 = 9.V. in weights is greater than the C.3 1. 10-20 20-30 30-40 9 10 17 20 32 30 40-50 50-60 60-70 33 25 40 43 10 15 70-80 9 7 From the prices of shares X and Y below. A or B? Marks Group A Group B 2.STATISTICS 375 Therefore Standard deviation of weight = 23. A or B.18 Clearly C.81 kg Now.

i =1 50 ∑ yi2 = 1457. For the team B.376 MATHEMATICS 4. ∑ 20 ∑ ∑ xi n i =1 20 i =1 i =1 y=2x or x= 1 y 2 Substituting the values of xi and x in (1). i =1 50 ∑ xi2 = 902. Find which team may be considered more consistent? The sum and sum of squares corresponding to length x (in cm) and weight y (in gm) of 50 plant products are given below: ∑ xi = 212 . x2. of matches 0 1 1 9 2 7 3 5 4 3 5. i =1 50 ∑ yi = 261 .6 i =1 50 Which is more varying.... Solution Let the observations be x1.e. . We know that Variance σ 20 ( ) 2 1 = n ∑ (xi − x ) .. i.e. mean number of goals scored per match was 2 with a standard deviation 1. The following is the record of goals scored by team A in a football session: No. If each observation is multiplied by 2. 5 = 2 i =1 20 1 20 ∑ (xi − x )2 20 i =1 ..e. we get . xi = Therefore i.. y= 1 yi 2 1 20 1 20 1 20 yi = 2 xi = 2 . find the new variance of the resulting observations.. Given that variance = 5 and n = 20.8 .25 goals. x20 and x be their mean. then yi = 2xi i. the length or weight? Miscellaneous Examples Example 16 The variance of 20 observations is 5. (1) or ∑ (xi − x )2 = 100 i =1 If each observation is multiplied by 2. of goals scored No. and the new resulting observations are yi .

Example 18 If each of the observation x1.. 2 and 6.xn is increased by ‘a’. x2. (3) From (2) and (3). we get x2 + y2 – 2xy = 97 – 72 i. Therefore.. we have x2 + y2 + 2xy = 169 . (1) 1 5 2 variance = 8. Example17 The mean of 5 observations is 4.76 + 2. . .4 + 1. 8.. y = 9 when x – y = – 5 Thus.. Now or Therefore Also i.4 = 1+ 2 + 6 + x + y 5 22 = 9 + x + y x + y = 13 ..20 = 11.56 + x + y –8.. (5) So.e. (x – y)2 = 25 or x–y= ±5 . y.. show that the variance remains unchanged. y = 4 when x – y = 5 or x = 4. the variance of the resulting observations becomes k2 times the original variance.24. If three of the observations are 1. ⎠ i =1 ⎝ Thus the variance of new observations = 20 2 ∑(y i =1 20 i − y ) 2 = 400 1 × 400 = 20 = 22 × 5 20 Note The reader may note that if each observation is multiplied by a constant k.8 × 13 + 38.STATISTICS 377 1 ⎞ ⎛1 ∑ ⎜ 2 yi − 2 y ⎟ = 100 .4 (x + y ) + 2 × ( 4. 6. the series is 1. find the other two observations..e. (2) But from (1).6 + x 2 + y 2 − 2 × 4.72 Therefore x2 + y2 = 97 . where a is a negative or positive number.24 = Mean x = 4. 2..56 + 5..4 and their variance is 8.24 = ∑ ( xi −x ) n i =1 1⎡ 2 2 2 2 3. i. we get x = 9.e... x. we have 2xy = 72 ..4 + 2. Solution Let the other two observations be x and y. from (1) and (5).4 ) ⎤ ⎣( ) ( ) ( ) ⎦ 5 2 2 or 41. (4) Subtracting (4) from (2). the remaining observations are 4 and 9..

Incorrect standard deviation (σ) = 5. . (1) 1 n ∑ yi = n ∑ (xi + a) i =1 i =1 n 1 n n ⎤ 1⎡n 1 ⎢∑ xi + ∑ a ⎥ = = n n i =1 ⎦ ⎣ i =1 ∑x + i i =1 n na =x+a n . Example 19 The mean and standard deviation of 100 observations were calculated as 40 and 5. Then y= . (2) i. Then the variance is given by σ 12 = 1 n ∑ (xi − x ) i =1 n 2 If ‘a is added to each observation..e.e.1. the new observations will be yi = xi + a Let the mean of the new observations be y . y = x+a Thus. What are the correct mean and standard deviation? Solution Given that number of observations (n) = 100 Incorrect mean ( x ) = 40. x2.. the variance of the new observations σ2 2 1 = n 1 = n ∑ (yi − y ) 2 = i =1 n i =1 n 1 n ∑ ( xi + a − x − a) 2 n i =1 [Using (1) and (2)] ∑ (xi − x )2 = σ 12 Thus. 40 = ∑ xi = 4000 i =1 100 .. respectively by a student who took by mistake 50 instead of 40 for one observation..378 MATHEMATICS Solution Let x be the mean of x1.1 We know that x= 1 n ∑ xi n i =1 1 100 ∑ xi or 100 i =1 i. the variance of the new observations is same as that of the original observations. Note We may note that adding (or subtracting) a positive number to (or from) each observation of a group does not affect the variance.xn ....

01 − 1592.01 = × Incorrect ∑ xi − (40) 2 i =1 × Incorrect ∑x i =1 n 2 i – 1600 Incorrect ∑ xi = 100 (26.01 = 25 =5 .STATISTICS 379 i.e.9 100 100 1 n Also Standard deviation σ = ∑ xi i =1 n n 2 1⎛ n ⎞ − 2 ⎜ ∑ xi ⎟ n ⎝ i =1 ⎠ 2 2 2 = 1 100 1 100 n n 1 n 2 ∑ x − (x ) i =1 i i. Thus Incorrect sum of observations = 4000 the correct sum of observations = Incorrect sum – 50 + 40 = 4000 – 50 + 40 = 3990 Hence Correct mean = correct sum 3990 = = 39. or Therefore 5.01 + 1600) = 162601 2 i =1 n Now Correct ∑ xi = Incorrect 2 i =1 ∑x i =1 n 2 i – (50)2 + (40)2 = 162601 – 2500 + 1600 = 161701 Therefore Correct standard deviation = Correct n ∑x 2 i − (Correct mean) 2 = = 161701 100 − (39.e.1 = 26.9) 2 1617.

x2. 12. (M) = ∑ ( xi – M ) n . Given that x is the mean and σ2 is the variance of n observations x1. ax2.. 5. standard deviation are measures of dispersion. Quartile deviation. If five of the observations are 2. respectively. 14. Later on it was found that three observations were incorrect. which were recorded as 21. 12 and 13. 10. respectively. variance. If each observation is multiplied by 3. ax3. respectively. (ii) If it is replaced by 12. (x ) = ∑ ( xi – x ) .9 20 4. respectively. find the new mean and new standard deviation of the resulting observations. 12. The mean and variance of 7 observations are 8 and 16. Range = Maximum Value – Minimum Value Mean deviation for ungrouped data M. .D. 2. The mean and standard deviation of marks obtained by 50 students of a class in three subjects. 6. 3.. .D. The mean and standard deviation of 20 observations are found to be 10 and 2.. find the remaining two observations. Find the mean and standard deviation if the incorrect observations are omitted. 10. Physics and Chemistry are given below: Subject Mean Standard deviation Mathematics 42 12 Physics 32 15 Chemistry 40. it was found that an observation 8 was incorrect. On rechecking. which of the three subjects shows the highest variability in marks and which shows the lowest? The mean and standard deviation of a group of 100 observations were found to be 20 and 3. (a ≠ 0). Summary Measures of dispersion Range. mean deviation.xn. respectively. axn are a x and a2 σ2.. The mean and variance of eight observations are 9 and 9. Prove that the mean and variance of the observations ax1. Calculate the correct mean and standard deviation in each of the following cases: (i) If wrong item is omitted.25. 7. Mathematics. 7. Find the remaining two observations. respectively. 4.. If six of the observations are 6.380 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Exercise On Chapter 15 1. 21 and 18.. n M.. The mean and standard deviation of six observations are 8 and 4.

( x ) = ∑ fi ( xi – x ) . the series with lesser standard deviation is more consistent or less scattered. 2 where yi = xi − A h × 100. M.V.D.STATISTICS 381 Mean deviation for grouped data N N Variance and standard deviation for ungrouped data M. In India also. In the year 3050 B. ∑ ( xi – x ) n n Variance and standard deviation of a discrete frequency distribution σ2 = 1 1 2 2 ∑ fi ( xi − x ) . This suggests that statistics is as old as human civilisation.. The system of collecting data related to births and deaths is mentioned in Kautilya’s Arthshastra (around 300 B.). x For series with equal means. particularly. Coefficient of variation (C. σ = N N∑ fi xi2 − ( ∑ fi xi ) N Shortcut method to find variance and standard deviation.C.C.D.) A detailed account of administrative surveys conducted during Akbar’s regime is given in Ain-I-Akbari written by Abul Fazl. where N = ∑ f i 1 1 2 σ= ∑ (xi – x )2 .) = σ Historical Note ‘Statistics’ is derived from the Latin word ‘status’ which means a political state. about 2000 years ago. σ 2 ⎢ ∑ i i ⎥ ⎦ N ⎣ = h N N ∑ fi yi2 − ( ∑ fi yi ) .C. x ≠ 0. perhaps the first census was held in Egypt. σ2 = σ2 = 2 h2 ⎡ N f y 2 − ( ∑ fi yi ) ⎤ . . during the regime of Chandra Gupta Maurya (324-300 B. (M) = ∑ fi ( xi – M ) . σ = N ∑ fi ( xi − x ) N Variance and standard deviation of a continuous frequency distribution σ2 = 2 1 1 2 ∑ fi ( xi − x ) . we had an efficient system of collecting administrative statistics.

. probability).e. applied it to various diversified fields such as Genetics. Francis Galton (1822-1921). The theoretical development of statistics came during the mid seventeenth century and continued after that with the introduction of theory of games and chance (i. Sir Ronald A. Biometry. an Englishman. Education. published in 1713. known as the Father of modern statistics. — — . Agriculture. etc. Karl Pearson (1857-1936) contributed a lot to the development of statistical studies with his discovery of Chi square test and foundation of statistical laboratory in England (1911). in the field of Biometry. Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) stated the Law of Large numbers in his book “Ars Conjectandi’.382 MATHEMATICS Captain John Graunt of London (1620-1674) is known as father of vital statistics due to his studies on statistics of births and deaths. Fisher (1890-1962). pioneered the use of statistical methods.

another theory of probability was developed by A. . these theories can not be applied to the activities/experiments which have infinite number of outcomes. to obtain the probability of an event. We have obtained the probability of getting an even number in throwing a die as 3 1 i. In classical theory we assume all the outcomes to be equally likely.6 (i. – JOHN ARBUTHNOT 16. In Class IX. In other words.e. Thus. He .2.Chapter 16 PROBABILITY Where a mathematical reasoning can be had.1 Introduction In earlier classes. as to grope for a thing in the dark. in 1933. we find the ratio of the number of outcomes favourable to the event. Here the 6 2 total possible outcomes are 1. to define probability.4. a Russian mathematician. when you have a candle in your hand.4. This is logically not a correct definition. This theory of probability (1903-1987) is known as classical theory of probability. Kolmogorov.. we assume that all outcomes have equal chance (probability) to occur. Recall that the outcomes are called equally likely when we have no reason to believe that one is more likely to occur than the other. The outcomes in favour of the event of ‘getting an even number’ are 2. we studied about the concept of probability as a measure of uncertainty of various phenomenon. Thus. This is called statistical approach of probability. to the total Kolmogorove number of equally likely outcomes. we used equally likely or equally probable outcomes. For instance. we learnt to find the probability on the basis of observations and collected data. three in number).3.e. In general. Both the theories have some serious difficulties.N..5 and 6 (six in number). it is as great a folly to make use of any other.

events. 5. when they are repeated under identical conditions. Let us now consider some examples. Find a sample space. Check whether the experiment of tossing a die is random or not? In this chapter.384 MATHEMATICS laid down some axioms to interpret probability. Let us learn about these all. The outcomes of this experiment are 1.2 Random Experiments In our day to day life. when a coin is tossed it may turn up a head or a tail. without knowing the three angles. but we are not sure which one of these results will actually be obtained. in his book ‘Foundation of Probability’ published in 1933. 6} is called the sample space of the experiment. To understand this approach we must know about few basic terms viz. the possible outcomes may be . 4. Such experiments are called random experiments. random experiment. An experiment is called random experiment if it satisfies the following two conditions: (i) It has more than one possible outcome. The set of outcomes {1. In other words. Since either coin can turn up Head (H) or Tail(T). we shall refer the random experiment by experiment only unless stated otherwise. etc. Example 1 Two coins (a one rupee coin and a two rupee coin) are tossed once. if we are interested in the number of dots on the upper face of the die. we can definitely say that the sum of measure of angles is 180°. We also perform many experimental activities. Sample space is denoted by the symbol S. Each element of the sample space is called a sample point. (ii) It is not possible to predict the outcome in advance. 2. 3. 16. we perform many activities which have a fixed result no matter any number of times they are repeated. For example given any triangle. 16. Thus. 2.1 Outcomes and sample space A possible result of a random experiment is called its outcome.2. Solution Clearly the coins are distinguishable in the sense that we can speak of the first coin and the second coin. Consider the experiment of rolling a die. in what follows next. For example. each outcome of the random experiment is also called sample point. 3. or 6. where the result may not be same. In this Chapter. we will study about this approach called axiomatic approach of probability. sample space. 4. the set of all possible outcomes of a random experiment is called the sample space associated with the experiment. 5.

5).H) = HH Head on first coin and Tail on the other = (H.3). Similarly.2). We denote this outcome by an ordered pair (1. Solution (i) Let Q denote a 1 rupee coin. H or R. (5. HT.5). the outcomes may be RH or RQ. (2. find the number of elements of this sample space. (4. The first coin he takes out of his pocket may be any one of the three coins Q.6). (2.1). the outcome is denoted by the ordered pair (3. corresponding to H. The number of elements of this sample space is 6 × 6 = 36 and the sample space is given below: {(1. (5. Lastly. (4. the second draw may be H or R. (5. this sample space is given by S = {(x.3).4). (6. In general each outcome can be denoted by the ordered pair (x.3).T) = TT Thus.2). corresponding to R. (4. (6.3). (3.3). Also. He takes out two coins out of his pocket.4).1).1).H) = TH Tail on both coins = (T.5). Simlarly. (1. if ‘3’ appears on blue die and ‘5’ on red. TH.5). So. the sample space is S = {HH.6)} Example 3 In each of the following experiments specify appropriate sample space (i) (ii) A boy has a 1 rupee coin.2). (1. (6. (5.4).1). (3.6).1).2). (6. (5. Corresponding to Q.4).5). (2. (1. (6.2). a 2 rupee coin and a 5 rupee coin in his pocket.1). the outcomes may be HQ or HR.3). where x is the number appeared on the blue die and y is the number appeared on the red die. (4.2). the second draw may be H or Q.6).6) (5. H denotes a 2 rupee coin and R denotes a 5 rupee coin. (2.5). (3. . (4. one after the other. (1.2). (2. (2. y).T) = HT Tail on first coin and Head on the other = (T. Therefore. A person is noting down the number of accidents along a busy highway during a year.4).6) (3. the second draw may be Q or R. (6. For the sake of simplicity the commas are omitted from the ordered pairs. TT} Note The outcomes of this experiment are ordered pairs of H and T. (4. (3. (1. (3. Therefore. Solution Suppose 1 appears on blue die and 2 on the red die. y): x is the number on the blue die and y is the number on the red die}.4).5). Example 2 Find the sample space associated with the experiment of rolling a pair of dice (one is blue and the other red) once. So the result of two draws may be QH or QR.PROBABILITY 385 Heads on both coins = (H.

. 7. its colour and the number on its uppermost face is noted. 5. HQ. or some other positive integer. (i) What is the sample space if we are interested in knowing whether it is a boy or girl in the order of their births? . Example 5 Consider the experiment in which a coin is tossed repeatedly until a head comes up.386 MATHEMATICS Thus. T6}. describe the sample space for the indicated experiment. RH. one of white colour and one of blue colour are placed in a bag. and 1 boy and 3 girls in Room Y. An experiment consists of recording boy–girl composition of families with 2 children.2. Specify the sample space for the experiment in which a room is selected and then a person. Describe the sample space of this experiment.1 In each of the following Exercises 1 to 7. or the 3rd toss and so on till head is obtained. Hence. Similarly. One die is selected at random and rolled. Describe the sample space.. 2. T2. HWi means head on the coin and ball Wi is drawn. Thus. HR. 2 boys and 2 girls are in Room X. A coin is tossed and a die is thrown. A coin is tossed three times.. W2. B3 and the white balls by W1.. A die is thrown two times. Ti means tail on the coin and the number i on the die. HW1. Here HBi means head on the coin and ball Bi is drawn. T5. T4.. 6. A coin is tossed and then a die is rolled only in case a head is shown on the coin. T1. TTH. B2. if it shows tail we throw a die. a sample space associated with this experiment is S= {0.1. HB2. we draw a ball from a bag consisting of 3 blue and 4 white balls. TTTTH. Then a sample space of the experiment is S = { HB1. A coin is tossed four times. Describe the sample space. Solution Let us denote blue balls by B1. the desired sample space is S= {H. 1. RQ} (ii) The number of accidents along a busy highway during the year of observation can be either 0 (for no accident ) or 1 or 2. W4. 8.} Example 4 A coin is tossed. HB3. HW3. 3. 4.} EXERCISE 16. or the 2nd toss. HW2. TTTH. One die of red colour. QR. T3. If it shows head. W3. TH. Solution In the experiment head may come up on the first toss. the sample space is S={QH.. HW4.

the coin is tossed twice. An experiment consists of tossing a coin and then throwing it second time if a head occurs. we find the following correspondence between events and subsets of S. A die is thrown repeatedly untill a six comes up. 12. 2. Now suppose that we are interested in those outcomes which correspond to the occurrence of exactly one head. we draw a ball from a box which contains 2 red and 3 black balls. 3 and 4 are written separatly on four slips of paper. If the number on the die is odd. A person draws two slips from the box. a die is thrown. If the out come is a head. These two elements form the set E = { HT.PROBABILITY 387 (ii) 9. Each bulb is tested and classified as defective (D) or non – defective(N). A coin is tossed. TT}. we throw a die. Suppose 3 bulbs are selected at random from a lot. Describe the sample space for the experiment. What is the sample space for this experiment? 16. Find the sample space. If the die shows up an even number. Consider the experiment of tossing a coin two times. 15. Write the sample space for this experiment. A coin is tossed. 11. . 14. Find the sample space for this experiment. If it shows head. The sample space serves as an universal set for all questions concerned with the experiment. What is the sample space if we are interested in the number of girls in the family? A box contains 1 red and 3 identical white balls. 13. If it shows a tail.3 Event We have studied about random experiment and sample space associated with an experiment. Write the sample space of this experiment. An associated sample space is S = {HH. The slips are put in a box and mixed thoroughly. one after the other. Similarly. If a tail occurs on the first toss. TH. TH} We know that the set E is a subset of the sample space S . What is the sample space for the experiment? The numbers 1. 10. then a die is rolled once. the die is thrown again. without replacement. HT. Write the sample space for this experiment. 16. An experiment consists of rolling a die and then tossing a coin once if the number on the die is even. We find that HT and TH are the only elements of S corresponding to the occurrence of this happening (event). Two balls are drawn at random in succession without replacement.

the event E of a sample space S is said to have occurred if the outcome ω of the experiment is such that ω ∈ E. TT} φ The above discussion suggests that a subset of sample space is associated with an event and an event is associated with a subset of sample space. TH.3. we say that the event E has not occurred. 3. If the outcome ω is such that ω ∉ E. In fact φ is called an impossible event and S. Thus. 4.388 MATHEMATICS Description of events Number of tails is exactly 2 Number of tails is atleast one Number of heads is atmost one Second toss is not head Number of tails is atmost two Number of tails is more than two Corresponding subset of ‘S’ A = {TT} B = {HT. TT} S = {HH. the whole sample space is called the sure event. To understand these let us consider the experiment of rolling a die. Definition Any subset E of a sample space S is called an event. the event E = φ is an impossible event. HT. i.e. Now let us take up another event F “the number turns up is odd or even”.2 Types of events Events can be classified into various types on the basis of the elements they have. 16.. TT} D = { HT.1 Occurrence of an event Consider the experiment of throwing a die. we say that the empty set only correspond to the event E. The associated sample space is S = {1. In the light of this we define an event as follows. 2. i. Thus. 16. As a matter of fact if outcomes are 2 or 3.. Let E denotes the event “ a number less than 4 appears”. 5. TT} C = {HT. If actually ‘1’ had appeared on the die then we say that event E has occurred. Can you write the subset asociated with the event E? Clearly no outcome satisfies the condition given in the event. TH.3. Impossible and Sure Events The empty set φ and the sample space S describe events.e. 1. In other words we can say that it is impossible to have a multiple of 7 on the upper face of the die. TH. Clearly . 6} Let E be the event “ the number appears on the die is a multiple of 7”. we say that event E has occurred Thus. no element of the sample space ensures the occurrence of the event E.

TTH.e.3. THH. in the experiment of “tossing a coin thrice” the events E: ‘Exactly one head appeared’ F: ‘Atleast one head appeared’ G: ‘Atmost one head appeared’ etc. 1. 5. Let A. An associated sample space is S = {HHH. TH. the event F = S is a sure event. 16. TT} There are four simple events corresponding to this sample space. intersection. TTH. HHT. difference. E2={HT}. viz. HTH. it is called a simple (or elementary) event. 3. all outcomes of the experiment ensure the occurrence of the event F. we say that ‘not A’ occurs. HHT. TTT} Let A={HTH. Like-wise we can combine two or more events by using the analogous set notations. complement of a set etc. take the experiment ‘of tossing three coins’. THH} be the event ‘only one tail appears’ Clearly for the outcome HTT. THT. we have studied about different ways of combining two or more sets. HHH} G= {TTT. the event A has not occurred. there are exactly n simple events. The subsets of S associated with these events are E={HTT.. 2. B. Compound Event If an event has more than one sample point. HTT.} = S. Thus. C be events associated with an experiment whose sample space is S. a sample space is S={HH. . In a sample space containing n distinct elements. TTH} Each of the above subsets contain more than one sample point.3 Algebra of events In the Chapter on Sets.THT. HTH.TTH} F={HTT. 6. But we may say that the event ‘not A’ has occurred. For example. HTT.PROBABILITY 389 F = {1. HT. For example. 2. 3. These are E1= {HH}. THT. E3= { TH} and E4={TT}. 4. with every outcome which is not in A. there corresponds another event A ′ called the complementary event to A. i. Complementary Event For every event A. it is called a Compound event. It is also called the event ‘not A’. union. are all compound events. THH. Thus. For example in the experiment of tossing two coins. HHT. Simple Event If an event E has only one sample point of a sample space.THT. hence they are all compound events.

6)} so A ∩ B = {(6.1). (6. which belong to both ‘A and B’.5). the set A–B may denote the event ‘A but not B’. and B = {(5. 3. 5. 4. Write the sets representing the events (i) Aor B (ii) A and B (iii) A but not B (iv) ‘not A’.. (6. Solution Here S = {1. 5} and B = {1. TTH. For example. Therefore Event ‘A or B’ = A ∪ B = {ω : ω ∈ A or ω ∈ B} 3.3).6)}. If A and B are two events.6)} may represent the event ‘the score on the first throw is six and the sum of the scores is atleast 11’.e. 3. (6. HTT. then ‘A ∪ B’ is the event ‘either A or B or both’. The Event ‘A and B’ We know that intersection of two sets A ∩ B is the set of those elements which are common to both A and B. 5} (ii) ‘A and B’ = A ∩ B = {3. in the experiment of ‘throwing a die twice’ Let A be the event ‘score on the first throw is six’ and B is the event ‘sum of two scores is atleast 11’ then A = {(6.We know that A – B = A ∩ B´ Example 6 Consider the experiment of rolling a die. 5} Obviously (i) ‘A or B’ = A ∪ B = {1. TTT} or A′ = {ω : ω ∈ S and ω ∉A} = S – A. (6. The Event ‘A but not B’ We know that A–B is the set of all those elements which are in A but not in B.6} .5). then the set A ∩ B denotes the event ‘A and B’.390 MATHEMATICS Thus the complementary event ‘not A’ to the event A is A′ = {HHH.5). 3. (6. 3. Therefore. 2.5} (iii) ‘A but not B’ = A – B = {2} (iv) ‘not A’ = A′ = {1.4. When the sets A and B are two events associated with a sample space. The Event ‘A or B’ Recall that union of two sets A and B denoted by A ∪ B contains all those elements which are either in A or in B or in both.2}. i. A ∩ B = {ω : ω ∈ A and ω ∈ B} Thus.6)} Note that the set A ∩ B = {(6. (6. 6}. This event ‘A ∪ B’ is also called ‘A or B’. THT. (6. B be the event ‘getting an odd number’. 4.4).6). Let A be the event ‘getting a prime number’.5). (6. A = {2. 2. (6. 2.

4. 3}. events Ei and Ej are pairwise disjoint and i =1 ∪ E i = S . if Ei ∩ Ej = φ for i ≠ j i. En are called mutually exclusive and exhaustive n events.e. A ‘an odd number appears’ and B ‘an even number appears’ Clearly the event A excludes the event B and vice versa. 4} ∪ {5. 5} and B = {1.3. B: ‘a number greater than 2 but less than 5 appears’ and C: ‘a number greater than 4 appears’. E2. a sample space is S = {1. .3. We have S = {1. 4. 3. 2. En are said to be exhaustive if atleast one of them necessarily occurs whenever the experiment is performed. if E1.. consider the events A ‘an odd number appears’ and event B ‘a number less than 4 appears’ Obviously A = {1. 5.PROBABILITY 391 16. B and C are called exhaustive events. i. E2. Let us define the following events A: ‘a number less than 4 appears’. 6} Clearly A ∩ B = φ. ..e. 16..e. In other words.4} and C = {5. 5} and B = {2. . Further. 6} = S..In other words. 2. 2. 6}. In general... Here A = {1. 3} Now 3 ∈ A as well as 3 ∈ B Therefore. Consider events.. In this case the sets A and B are disjoint... E2. 2..... i. ∪ E n = ∪ E i = S i =1 n then E1. . events E1. Such events A. 3. . 6}. if they can not occur simultaneously.4 Mutually exclusive events In the experiment of rolling a die. 6}. two events A and B are called mutually exclusive events if the occurrence of any one of them excludes the occurrence of the other event. 3. 4. Then A = {1. 5. In general. Again in the experiment of rolling a die. there is no outcome which ensures the occurrence of events A and B simultaneously. E2.. A and B are not mutually exclusive events. En are called exhaustive events. 2. We observe that A ∪ B ∪ C = {1. then events E1. 3. Remark Simple events of a sample space are always mutually exclusive. B = {3. 3} ∪ {3... A and B are disjoint sets. En are n events of a sample space S and if E1 ∪ E 2 ∪ E 3 ∪ .5 Exhaustive events Consider the experiment of throwing a die...

THH. Which pairs of these events are mutually exclusive? Solution There are 36 elements in the sample space S = {(x. 3). 4). 1). Hence. 3). 2). 6)} C = {(1. 2). B: ‘Exactly one head appears’ and C: ‘Atleast two heads appear’. A: ‘No head appears’. 6)} ≠ φ Therefore. 5). (5. 5). (6. 1).392 MATHEMATICS We now consider some examples. B ∩ C ≠ φ and B ∩ D ≠ φ. 4). HTH. (6. (1.e. 3). 3). 1). HTH. D). (4. the events are pair-wise disjoint. (6. Thus. C). Then A = {(1. 5). Let us consider the following events associated with this experiment A: ‘the sum is even’. 5). (1. A ∩ B = φ. Also C ∩ D = φ and so C and D are mutually exclusive events. 3). D: ‘the sum is greater than 11’. Do they form a set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive events? Solution The sample space of the experiment is S = {HHH. (5. HHH} Now A ∪ B ∪ C = {TTT. the pairs. Similarly A ∩ C ≠ φ. 4). (1. 1). 3. (2. (1. HHT. 6). Example 8 A coin is tossed three times. A. 6)} We find that A ∩ B = {(1. THT. (4. 5. consider the following events. D) are not mutually exclusive events. A. Example 7 Two dice are thrown and the sum of the numbers which come up on the dice is noted. HHH} = S Therefore. (6. (3. (3. (3. (2. 1). HHT. (2. 6}. (2. 2). 5). (3. 1). A ∩ D ≠ φ. B: ‘the sum is a multiple of 3’. (2. (2. y): x. (3. (4. 2). (3. C: ‘the sum is less than 4’. (4. (6. 4). (5. (B. C). THH. 6). they are mutually exclusive. 2)} and D = {(6. 6)} B = {(1. (6. 4). (A. 2). THT. 1). (5. B and C form a set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. (2. 1). A and B are not mutually exclusive events. 2. 4). TTH}. 6). (5. (4. B = {HTT. 3). TTT} and A = {TTT}. (5. y = 1. HTT.. i. B and C are exhaustive events. (B. . 2). C = {HHT. 5). HTH. TTH. (A. TTH. THT. A ∩ C = φ and B ∩ C = φ Therefore. HTT. (4. Also. 4. THH.

(v) Three events which are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.2 1. Are E and F mutually exclusive? 2. state true or false: (give reason for your answer) (i) A and B are mutually exclusive (ii) A and B are mutually exclusive and exhaustive (iii) A = B′ . Two dice are thrown. E ∪ F. 3. which are not mutually exclusive. Describe the events (i) A ′ (ii) not B (iii) A or B (iv) A and B (v) A but not C (vi) B or C (vii) B and C (viii) A ∩ B′ ∩ C′ 7. D ∩ E. Describe the following events: A: the sum is greater than 8. (ii) Three events which are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. B: 2 occurs on either die C: the sum is at least 7 and a multiple of 3. Let E be the event “die shows 4” and F be the event “die shows even number”. Describe the following events: (i) A: a number less than 7 (iii) C: a multiple of 3 (v) E: an even number greater than 4 (ii) (iv) (vi) B: a number greater than 7 D: a number less than 4 F: a number not less than 3 Also find A ∪ B. D – E. A ∩ B. B and C are as follows: A: getting an even number on the first die. An experiment involves rolling a pair of dice and recording the numbers that come up. B: getting an odd number on the first die. Which pairs of these events are mutually exclusive? 4. F′. A die is rolled. B denote the event “two heads and one tail show”. Let A denote the event ‘three heads show”. 6. Three coins are tossed. C: getting the sum of the numbers on the dice ≤ 5. A – C. (iv) Two events which are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. C denote the event” three tails show and D denote the event ‘a head shows on the first coin”. Refer to question 6 above. E ∩ F′.PROBABILITY 393 EXERCISE 16. A die is thrown. The events A. Describe (i) Two events which are mutually exclusive. (iii) Two events. Which events are (i) mutually exclusive? (ii) simple? (iii) Compound? 5. Three coins are tossed once.

.394 MATHEMATICS (iv) A and C are mutually exclusive (v) A and B′ are mutually exclusive. we have studied some methods of assigning probability to an event associated with an experiment having known the number of total outcomes..1] satisfying the following axioms (ii) P (S) = 1 (i) For any event E. . we get P (E ∪ φ) = P (E) + P (φ) or P(E) = P(E) + P (φ) i. Let S be the sample space of a random experiment. P (φ) = 0. Axiomatic approach is another way of describing probability of an event.e.e. In our day to day life we use many words about the chances of occurrence of events.e. + P (ωn) = 1 (iii) For any event A.e... In earlier classes. we take F = φ and note that E and φ are disjoint events. ωi ∈ A. ωn} It follows from the axiomatic definition of probability that (i) 0 ≤ P (ωi) ≤ 1 for each ωi ∈ S (ii) P (ω1) + P (ω2) + . ωn . in ‘a coin tossing’ experiment we can assign the number of the outcomes H and T. P(H) = and P(T) = (1) to each Clearly this assignment satisfies both the conditions i... P (E) ≥ 0 (iii) If E and F are mutually exclusive events.. For example. ω2 . from axiom (iii). Therefore. It follows from (iii) that P(φ) = 0.. In this approach some axioms or rules are depicted to assign probabilities.4 Axiomatic Approach to Probability In earlier sections. C are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. i. sample space and events associated with these experiments. i. 16. Let S be a sample space containing outcomes ω1 . we have considered random experiments. The probability P is a real valued function whose domain is the power set of S and range is the interval [0.. Note It may be noted that the singleton {ωi} is called elementary event and for notational convenience. ω2. B′. Probability theory attempts to quantify these chances of occurrence or non occurrence of events. (vi) A′.. each number is neither less than zero nor greater than 1 and . then P(E ∪ F) = P(E) + P(F). P(A) = ∑ P(ωi ). S = {ω1. we write P(ωi ) for P({ωi }). To prove this..

PROBABILITY 395 P(H) + P(T) = 1 1 + =1 2 2 1 1 . Hence. in this case. (2) 4 4 Does this assignment satisfy the conditions of axiomatic approach? Yes. we can assign the numbers p and (1 – p) to both the outcomes such that 0 ≤ p ≤ 1 and P(H) + P(T) = p + (1 – p) = 1 This assignment. We now consider some examples.1 Solution (a) Condition (i): Each of the number p(ωi) is positive and less than one..4 1 6 0. too.. ω6}.. 4 We find that both the assignments (1) and (2) are valid for probability of H and T. probability of H = and probability of T = 3 . ω2.6 0. In fact.3 1 6 0.2 1 6 0. and probability of T = 2 2 Therefore. satisfies both conditions of the axiomatic approach of probability. Example 9 Let a sample space be S = {ω1. Condition (ii): Sum of probabilities = 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + + =1 6 6 6 6 6 6 ... in this case we can say that probability of H = If we take P(H) = 1 3 and P(T) = .Which of the following assignments of probabilities to each outcome are valid? Outcomes ω 1 ω2 ω3 ω4 ω5 ω6 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 1 6 1 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 8 1 12 2 3 1 3 1 3 − 1 4 − 1 3 1 12 0.. we can say that there are many ways (rather infinite) to assign probabilities to outcomes of an experiment.5 3 2 0.

2 + 0.396 MATHEMATICS Therefore. the assignment is valid (b) Condition (i): Each of the number p(ωi) is either 0 or 1.∀ ωi ∈ B 1 1 1 3 + + = 8 8 8 8 1 1 1 1 4 1 + + + = = 8 8 8 8 8 2 Let us consider another experiment of ‘tossing a coin “twice” = P(BBG) + P(BGB) + P(GBB) + P(BBB) = The sample space of this experiment is S = {HH.6 = 2. sum of probabilities = 0.4 + 0. where B stands for a defective or bad pen and G for a non – defective or good pen. We may get 0. GGB} and B = {BBG.3 + 0. Let the probabilities assigned to the outcomes be as follows Sample point: Probability: BBB BBG BGB GBB BGG GBG GGB GGG 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 Let event A: there is exactly one defective pen and event B: there are atleast two defective pens. the assignment is not valid (d) (e) 3 > 1.1. 2 or 3 defective pens as result of this examination.∀ωi ∈ A = P(BGG) + P(GBG) + P(GGB) = and P(B) = ∑ P(ωi ). the assignment is not valid 2 Since. BGB. the assignment is valid (c) Condition (i) Two of the probabilities p(ω5) and p(ω6) are negative. BBB} P(A) = ∑ P(ωi ). Since p(ω6) = 16. GBG.1 Probability of an event Let S be a sample space associated with the experiment ‘examining three consecutive pens produced by a machine and classified as Good (non-defective) and bad (defective)’.1 + 0. GGB. TT} Let the following probabilities be assigned to the outcomes . 1. HT. Condition (ii) Sum of the probabilities = 1 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 1 Therefore. BGG. Hence Now A = {BGG. TH. BGB. GBB.4. the assignment is not valid. A sample space associated with this experiment is S = {BBB. BBG. GBG. GGG}.5 + 0. GBB.

such that n(S) = n and n(E) = m.PROBABILITY 397 P(HH) = 1 1 2 9 ..3 Probability of the event ‘A or B’ Let us now find the probability of event ‘A or B’.. i.e. If each out come is equally likely.e. i... HTH. Let all the outcomes are equally likely to occur. HTH.e. THH} and B = {HTH. P (A ∪ B) Let A = {HHT. i. p + p + .e.. HHH} Now P (A ∪ B) = P(HHT) + P(HTH) + P(THH) + P(HHH) . we have F = {HH} = P(HH) + P(TT) = and P(F) = P(HH) = 16. + p (n times) = 1 i=1 n or np = 1 i. P(HT) = . Here E = {HH. for all wi ∈ E 1 9 4 + = 4 28 7 For the event F: ‘exactly two heads’. THH..4. P(ωi) = p. P(TH) = . p = 1 n Let S be a sample space and E be an event. P(TT) = 4 7 7 28 Clearly this assignment satisfies the conditions of axiomatic approach.. ω2.. Now.e. THH.2 Probabilities of equally likely outcomes Let a sample space of an experiment be S = {ω1. then it follows that P(E) = m n = Number of outcomes favourable to E Total possible outcomes 16.. HHH} be two events associated with ‘tossing of a coin thrice’ Clearly A ∪ B = {HHT. for all ωi ∈ S where 0 ≤ p ≤ 1 Since ∑ P(ωi ) =1 i.4. let us find the probability of the event E: ‘Both the tosses yield the same result’.. TT} Now P(E) = Σ P(wi). the chance of occurrence of each simple event must be same. ωn}.

e. ∀ωi ∈ A ∩ B = P( A) + P( B) − P (A ∩ B) Thus we observe that. P( A ∪ B) = P( A) + P( B) − P (A ∩ B) In general. then 1 1 1 1 4 1 P ( A ∪ B) = + + + = = 8 8 8 8 8 2 Also and Therefore P(A) = P(HHT) + P(HTH) + P(THH) = P(B) = P(HTH) + P(THH) + P(HHH) = P(A) + P(B) = 3 3 6 + = 8 8 8 3 8 3 8 It is clear that P(A ∪ B) ≠ P(A) + P(B) The points HTH and THH are common to both A and B . P(A ∪ B) = [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ ωi ∈ (A–B) ] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ ωi ∈ A ∩ B] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ ωi ∈ B – A ] (because A–B.e.. then by the definition of probability of an event..398 MATHEMATICS If all the outcomes are equally likely. (1) [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (A ∩ B)] = P(A ∪ B) + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ ωi ∈ A ∩ B] = P(A ∪ B) + P(A ∩ B) . In the computation of P(A) + P(B) the probabilities of points HTH and THH. Since we have A ∪ B = (A–B) ∪ (A ∩ B) ∪ (B–A) . ∀ωi ∈ A ∪ B . A ∩ B and B – A are mutually exclusive) Also P(A) + P(B) = [ ∑ p(ωi ) ∀ ωi ∈ A ] + [ ∑ p(ωi ) ∀ ωi ∈ B] = [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (A–B) ∪ (A ∩ B) ] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (B – A) ∪ (A ∩ B) ] = [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (A – B) ] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (A ∩ B) ] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (B–A) ] + . the elements of A ∩B are included twice. i. we have P ( A ∪ B ) = ∑ p ( ωi ) . P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) − ∑ P(ωi ) .. Thus to get the probability P(A ∪ B) we have to subtract the probabilities of the sample points in A ∩ B from P(A) + P(B) i. if A and B are any two events associated with a random experiment. [using (1)] .

. 8} associated with the experiment of drawing a card from a deck of ten cards numbered from 1 to 10.PROBABILITY 399 Hence P(A ∪ B) = P (A) +P(B) – P(A ∩ B) . Using Axiom (iii) of probability. (2) and P(B) = P ( A ∩ B) + P (B – A) .. Alternatively. for mutually exclusive events A and B. .. it can also be proved as follows: A ∪ B = A ∪ (B – A).. i. 16.10} If all the outcomes 1. 3.4 Probability of event ‘not A’ Consider the event A = {2...10 are considered to be equally likely. then A ∩ B = φ Therefore P(A ∩ B) = P (φ) = 0 Thus.4. then the probability of each outcome is 1 10 .. which is Axiom (iii) of probability...1 If A and B are disjoint sets.. where A ∩ B and B – A are mutually exclsuive. where A and B – A are mutually exclusive. they are mutually exclusive events. 4. 2.. Clearly the sample space is S = {1.e. (3) Subtracting (3) from (2) gives P (A ∪ B) – P(B) = P(A) – P (A ∩ B) or P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P (B) – P (A ∩ B) The above result can further be verified by observing the Venn Diagram (Fig 16. we have P( A ∪ B) = P ( A) + P (B) .1) Fig 16. and B = (A ∩ B) ∪ (B – A). 6.. 2. we get P (A ∪B) = P (A) + P (B – A) .

the number of possible outcomes is 52. 9. Example 10 One card is drawn from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards. a club or..e.e. calculate the probability that the card will be (i) a diamond (ii) not an ace (iii) a black card (i. A ∩ A′ = φ and A ∪ A′ = S or P(A ∪ A′) = P(S) Now P(A) + P(A′) = 1. or P( A ′ ) = P(not A) = 1 – P(A) We now consider some examples and exercises having equally likely outcomes unless stated otherwise. P(A) = 13 1 = 52 4 i. by using axioms (ii) and (iii). Probability of a diamond card = (ii) We assume that the event ‘Card drawn is an ace’ is B Therefore ‘Card drawn is not an ace’ should be B′. 10} Now P(A′) = P(1) + P(3) + P(5) + P(7) + P(9) + P(10) = Thus.400 MATHEMATICS Now P(A) = P(2) + P(4) + P(6) + P(8) = 1 1 1 1 4 2 + + + = = 10 10 10 10 10 5 Also event ‘not A’ = A ′ = {1. Solution When a card is drawn from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards. (i) Let A be the event 'the card drawn is a diamond' Clearly the number of elements in set A is 13. If each outcome is equally likely. 7. Therefore. 3. a spade) (iv) not a diamond (v) not a black card.e. P(A′) = 6 3 = 10 5 3 2 = 1 − = 1 − P ( A) 5 5 Also.. we know that A′ and A are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events i. We know that P(B′) = 1 – P(B) = 1 − 4 1 12 =1 − = 52 13 13 . 5.

C be defined as A: ‘the disc drawn is red’ B: ‘the disc drawn is yellow’ C: ‘the disc drawn is blue’. number of elements in the set C = 26 i. A disc is drawn at random from the bag.e.e. The discs are similar in shape and size. Solution There are 9 discs in all so the total number of possible outcomes is 9. (iv) not blue. (iii) blue. We know that P(not C) = 1 – P(C) = 1 − 1 1 = 2 2 1 2 Therefore. Probability of not a black card = Example 11 A bag contains 9 discs of which 4 are red. so the event ‘card drawn is not a diamond’ may be denoted as A' or ‘not A’ Now P(not A) = 1 – P(A) = 1 − (v) 1 3 = 4 4 The event ‘card drawn is not a black card’ may be denoted as C′ or ‘not C’. 2 Thus. i.e.. P(C) = 26 1 = 52 2 1 . Probability of a black card = (iv) We assumed in (i) above that A is the event ‘card drawn is a diamond’. i. (i) The number of red discs = 4. n(C) = 3 .e. (v) either red or yellow. 3 are blue and 2 are yellow. (ii) yellow. P(B) = 2 9 (iii) The number of blue discs = 3. B.PROBABILITY 401 (iii) Let C denote the event ‘card drawn is black card’ Therefore. Let the events A. Calculate the probability that it will be (i) red.. n (B) = 2 P(A) = Therefore. n (A) = 4 Hence 4 9 (ii) The number of yelow discs = 2.. i.

Solution Let E and F denote the events that Anil and Ashima will qualify the examination. we have Therefore P(not C) = 1 − P(A or C) = P (A ∪ C) = P(A) + P(C) = 4 1 7 + = 9 3 9 Example 12 Two students Anil and Ashima appeared in an examination. (b) (c) Atleast one of them will not qualify the examination and Only one of them will qualify the examination. Find the probability that (a) Both Anil and Ashima will not qualify the examination. Given that P(E) = 0. i.402 MATHEMATICS 3 1 = 9 3 (iv) Clearly the event ‘not blue’ is ‘not C’.13 P (atleast one of them will not qualify) = 1 – P(both of them will qualify) = 1 – 0. The probability that both will qualify the examination is 0.e. Ashima will not qualify the examination. The probability that Anil will qualify the examination is 0..05.02.02 = 0.10. We know that P(not C) = 1 – P(C) Therefore.10 – 0.02. P(C) = 1 2 = 3 3 (v) The event ‘either red or yellow’ may be described by the set ‘A or C’ Since. Then (a) The event ‘both Anil and Ashima will not qualify the examination’ may be expressed as E´ ∩ F´.87 (b) . A and C are mutually exclusive events.13 = 0.e.05 + 0.05 and that Ashima will qualify the examination is 0.98 Therefore P(E´ ∩ F´) = P(E ∪ F)´ = 1 – P(E ∪ F) = 1 – 0.. i. respectively.10 and P(E ∩ F) = 0. Anil will not qualify the examination and F´ is ‘not F’. P(F) = 0.02 = 0. E´ is ‘not E’. Since. Also Now or E´ ∩ F´ = (E ∪ F)´ (by Demorgan's Law) P(E ∪ F) = P(E) + P(F) – P(E ∩ F) P(E ∪ F) = 0.

Out of two women.05 – 0. and Ashima will not qualify) or (Anil will not qualify and Ashima will qualify) i. P ( Two men ) = 2 4 Hence C2 1 1 = 4 = C2 C2 6 EXERCISE 16.10 – 0.3 1. ω7 } . ω3 . Therefore (c) P ( One man ) = 2 C1 × 2 C1 2 × 2 2 = = 4 2×3 3 C2 Two men can be selected in 2 C 2 way. ω6 . One man out of 2 can be selected in 2 C1 ways and one woman out of 2 can be selected in 2 C1 ways. ω4 . Which of the following can not be valid assignment of probabilities for outcomes of sample Space S = {ω1 . ω2 . (a) No men in the committee of two means there will be two women in the committee. E ∩ F´ or E´ ∩ F. two can be selected in 2 C 2 = 1 way. Together they can be selected in 2 C1 × 2 C1 ways.11 Example 13 A committee of two persons is selected from two men and two women. ω5 . Therefore. where E ∩ F´ and E´ ∩ F are mutually exclusive.. P(only one of them will qualify) = P(E ∩ F´ or E´ ∩ F) = P(E ∩ F´) + P(E´ ∩ F) = P (E) – P(E ∩ F) + P(F) – P (E ∩ F) = 0.02 + 0. Out of these four person. Therefore (b) P ( no man ) = 2 4 C 2 1× 2 × 1 1 = = 4×3 6 C2 One man in the committee means that there is one woman.e.02 = 0. two can be selected in 4 C 2 ways. What is the probability that the committee will have (a) no man? (b) one man? (c) two men? Solution The total number of persons = 2 + 2 = 4.PROBABILITY 403 (c) The event only one of them will qualify the examination is same as the event either (Anil will qualify.

what is the probability of the event ‘not A’. Find the probability that letter is (i) a vowel (ii) a consonant 9.2 1 7 0.2 0. A fair coin is tossed four times. (c) Calculate the probability that the card is (i) an ace (ii) black card. (ii) A number greater than or equal to 3 will appear. (iv) A number more than 6 will appear.1 1 7 0.03 0.7 0.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 2. 4.01 0. (a) How many points are there in the sample space? (b) Calculate the probability that the card is an ace of spades. (iii) A number less than or equal to one will appear. (v) A number less than 6 will appear.4 0.05 0.5 – 0.1 – 0. 8.1 0. There are four men and six women on the city council. Find the probability of getting (i) 3 heads (ii) 2 heads (iii) atleast 2 heads (iv) atmost 2 heads (v) no head (vi) 3 tails (vii) exactly two tails (viii) no tail (ix) atmost two tails 2 is the probability of an event.3 0. If one council member is selected for a committee at random.3 1 7 0. find the probability that the sum of numbers that turn up is (i) 3 (ii) 12 6. and a person win Re 1 for each head and lose Rs 1.6 0.2 0. A fair coin with 1 marked on one face and 6 on the other and a fair die are both tossed. A coin is tossed twice. find the probability of following events: (i) A prime number will appear. From the sample space calculate how many different amounts of money you can have after four tosses and the probability of having each of these amounts. 5.404 MATHEMATICS Assignment (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ω 1 ω 2 ω 3 ω 4 ω 5 ω 6 ω 7 0. how likely is it that it is a woman? 7.1 1 7 0.6 1 7 0. A die is thrown.50 for each tail that turns up.01 0. A card is selected from a pack of 52 cards.4 1 7 0.2 1 7 0. Three coins are tossed once. 11 10. what is the probability that atleast one tail occurs? 3. A letter is chosen at random from the word ‘ASSASSINATION’. If .

6 0. if A and B are mutually exclusive 5 5 1 1 1 . 18..8 13.7. Events E and F are such that P(not E or not F) = 0. and if these six numbers match with the six numbers already fixed by the lottery committee.48 and P(A and B) = 0. (ii) P(not E and not F).5 . A and B are events such that P(A) = 0. If the probability of passing the English examination is 0.7.35 0.1. 17.5 and the probability of passing neither is 0.42. If a student is selected at random from the class.] 12. 19.25 . P(A ∩ B) = 0. Determine (i) P(not A). find the probability that he will be studying Mathematics or Biology. In a lottery. (i) P(E or F). P(B) = 0. Given P(A) = events.95. P(B) = 0. P(F) = and P(E and F) = . 3 1 and P(B) = . a person choses six different natural numbers at random from 1 to 20. What is the probability of passing both? The probability that a student will pass the final examination in both English and Hindi is 0. What is the probability of Winning the prize in the game.PROBABILITY 405 11.16.. 14.7 0.8 and the probability of passing the second examination is 0.25. Fill in the blanks in following table: P(A) P(B) P(A ∩ B) P(A ∪ B) (i) (ii) (iii) 1 3 1 5 1 15 . the probability of a randomly chosen student passing the first examination is 0. 20. what is the probability of passing the Hindi examination? . P(A ∪ B) = 0. (ii) P(not B) and (iii) P(A or B) In Class XI of a school 40% of the students study Mathematics and 30% study Biology. 0.. P(B) = 0.5..5. [Hint order of the numbers is not important. he wins the prize. The probability of passing atleast one of them is 0.6 (ii) P(A) = 0. If E and F are events such that P(E) = 16. Find P(A or B). State whether E and F are mutually exclusive.. 10% of the class study both Mathematics and Biology. In an entrance test that is graded on the basis of two examinations. find 4 2 8 15.4.75. Check whether the following probabilities P(A) and P(B) are consistently defined (i) P(A) = 0. 0..35 0.

DCBA} (i) Let the event ‘she visits A before B’ be denoted by E Therefore. DABC. ADCB BACD. ACDB. If one of these students is selected at random. ACBD. ABDC. CDAB. CBAD. . CADB. ADBC} n ( F) 4 1 Therefore. ABDC. ABDC. P ( F) = n S = 24 = 6 ( ) Students are advised to find the probability in case of (iii). DBCA.Therefore.406 MATHEMATICS 21. A sample space for the experiment is S = {ABCD. 30 opted for NCC. DBAC. DACB ACBD. ADBC. ADCB} Thus (ii) P(E) = n(E) n ( S) = 12 1 = 24 2 Let the event ‘Veena visits A before B and B before C’ be denoted by F. CBDA. DCAB. DCAB. or D is 4! i. Miscellaneous Examples Example 14 On her vacations Veena visits four cities (A. BCAD. E = {ABCD. In a class of 60 students. BCDA CABD. What is the probability that she visits (i) (iii) (v) A before B? A first and B last? A just before B? (ii) (iv) A before B and B before C? A either first or second? Solution The number of arrangements (orders) in which Veena can visit four cities A. 24. The student has opted neither NCC nor NSS. ACDB. CABD. DACB.. BADC. n (S) = 24. (iv) and (v). CDAB. find the probability that (i) (ii) (iii) The student opted for NCC or NSS. DABC. Here F = {ABCD. C and D) in a random order. CDBA DABC. Since the number of elements in the sample space of the experiment is 24 all of these outcomes are considered to be equally likely.e. ADBC. 32 opted for NSS and 24 opted for both NCC and NSS. C. BDAC. B. B. CADB. The student has opted NSS but not NCC. BDCA.

.. it contains (i) all Kings (ii) 3 Kings (iii) atleast 3 Kings. B. (1) . C are three events associated with a random experiment. prove that P ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = P ( A ) + P ( B ) +P ( C ) − P ( A ∩ B ) − P ( A ∩ C ) – P ( B ∩ C) + P ( A ∩ B ∩ C) Solution Consider E = B ∪ C so that P (A ∪ B ∪ C ) = P (A ∪ E ) = P ( A) + P ( E) − P ( A ∩ E ) Now P ( E ) = P ( B ∪ C) = P ( B) + P ( C ) − P ( B ∩ C ) . Thus P ( A ∩ E ) = P ( A ∩ B ) + P ( A ∩ C ) – P ⎡ ( A ∩ B) ∩ ( A ∩ C ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ . Solution Total number of possible hands = 52 C7 48 (i) Number of hands with 4 Kings = 4 C 4 × from the rest 48 cards) C3 (other 3 cards must be chosen 4 Hence P (a hand will have 4 Kings) = C 4 × 48 C3 1 = 52 7735 C7 (ii) Number of hands with 3 Kings and 4 non-King cards = 4 C3 × 48 C 4 4 Therefore P (3 Kings) = C3 × 48 C 4 9 = 52 1547 C7 (iii) P(atleast 3 King) = P(3 Kings or 4 Kings) = P(3 Kings) + P(4 Kings) = 9 1 46 + = 1547 7735 7735 Example 16 If A.PROBABILITY 407 Example 15 Find the probability that when a hand of 7 cards is drawn from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards. (2) Also A ∩ E = A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C ) [using distribution property of intersection of sets over the union]...

There is only one finishing order for this. i. B and C finish first. B.e. each with ( 5 − 3 )! 1 . 3! 6 1 = = 60 60 10 Thus P(A. 4 cards are drawn from a well – shuffled deck of 52 cards. respectively. What is the probability of obtaining 3 diamonds and one spade? . D and E. B and C are first three to finish) = Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 16 1. 1 . we get P [ A ∪ B ∪ C] = P ( A ) + P ( B) + P ( C ) − P ( B ∩ C ) . 60 A. (3) – P ( A ∩ B) − P ( A ∩ C ) + P ( A ∩ B ∩ C ) Example 17 In a relay race there are five teams A.. 20 blue marbles and 30 green marbles.. what is the probability that (i) all will be blue? (ii) atleast one will be green? 2. B and C are the first three finishers. C. Therefore. B and C are first three to finish (in any order) (Assume that all finishing orders are equally likely) Solution If we consider the sample space consisting of all finishing orders in the first three places. A box contains 10 red marbles. 60 A. ABC. 5 marbles are drawn from the box. B and C. second and third. B and C finish first. (a) (b) What is the probability that A. the sample points corresponding to this event will be 3! in number. What is the probability that A.e. second and third respectively) = (b) So P (A. B and C finish first.408 MATHEMATICS = P ( A ∩ B) + P ( A ∩ C ) – P [ A ∩ B ∩ C] Using (2) and (3) in (1). respectively. second and third.. i. There will be 3! arrangements for A. a probability of (a) 5! = 5 × 4 × 3 = 60 sample points. we will have 5 P3 ..

69 and P(A ∩ B) = 0. what is the probability of forming a number divisible by 5 when. Three letters are dictated to three persons and an evelope is addressed to each of them. If you and your friend are among the 100 students. What is the probability that the spokesperson will be either male or over 35 years? 9. No. Particulars of five persons are as follows: S. 4.e. A and B are two events such that P(A) = 0. 3. 1. two sections of 40 and 60 are formed. From the employees of a company. Find (i) P(A ∪ B) (ii) P(A´ ∩ B´) (iii) P(A ∩ B´) (iv) P(B ∩ A´) 8. The number lock of a suitcase has 4 wheels. 5. 1.54. the letters are inserted into the envelopes at random so that each envelope contains exactly one letter. What is the probability of not getting a prize if you buy (a) one ticket (b) two tickets (c) 10 tickets. What is the probability of a person getting the right sequence to open the suitcase? . Name Harish Rohan Sheetal Alis Salim Sex M M F F M Age in years 30 33 46 28 41 A person is selected at random from this group to act as a spokesperson. 3. 7. and 7. If 4-digit numbers greater than 5. three faces each with number ‘2’ and one face with number ‘3’. If die is rolled once. 2. Out of 100 students. P(B) = 0.000 are randomly formed from the digits 0. A die has two faces each with number ‘1’.PROBABILITY 409 3.35. In a certain lottery 10. each labelled with ten digits i. Find the probability that at least one letter is in its proper envelope.000 tickets are sold and ten equal prizes are awarded. what is the probability that (a) you both enter the same section? (b) you both enter the different sections? 6. from 0 to 9. 5 persons are selected to represent them in the managing committee of the company. (i) the digits are repeated? (ii) the repetition of digits is not allowed? 10. 5. The lock opens with a sequence of four digits with no repeats. determine (i) P(2) (ii) P(1 or 3) (iii) P(not 3) 4. 5..

... then P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) If A is any event. then P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B) equivalently. If A and B are any two events. n(S) = number of elements in the set S.. then P(not A) = 1 – P(A) ... we studied about the axiomatic approach of probability.410 MATHEMATICS Summary In this Chapter. Equally likely outcomes: All outcomes with equal probability Probability of an event: For a finite sample space with equally likely outcomes Probability of an event P(A) = n(A) . En are mutually exclusive and exhaustive if E1 ∪ E2 ∪ . E2. P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B) If A and B are mutually exclusive.∪ En = S and Ei ∩ Ej = φ V i ≠ j Probability: Number P (ωi) associated with sample point ω i such that (i) 0 ≤ P (ωi) ≤ 1 (iii) P(A) = i i (ii) ∑ P ( ω ) for all ω ∈ S = 1 i i i ∑ P ( ω ) for all ω ∈ A. The main features of this Chapter are as follows: Sample space: The set of all possible outcomes Sample points: Elements of sample space Event: A subset of the sample space Impossible event : The empty set Sure event: The whole sample space Complementary event or ‘not event’ : The set A′ or S – A Event A or B: The set A ∪ B Event A and B: The set A ∩ B Event A and not B: The set A – B Mutually exclusive event: A and B are mutually exclusive if A ∩ B = φ Exhaustive and mutually exclusive events: Events E1. where n(A) = number of elements in n(S) the set A. The number P (ω ) is called probability of the outcome ωi.

a gambler Chevalier de Metre approached the well known French Philosoher and Mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) for certain dice problem. N Kolmogorove (1903–1987). It had its origin in the 16th century when an Italian physician and mathematician Jerome Cardan (1501–1576) wrote the first book on the subject “Book on Games of Chance” (Biber de Ludo Aleae). — — . A Frenchman and the Russian P. Kolmogorove is credited with the axiomatic theory of probability. a Dutchman. evolved out of practical consideration. a Frenchman Pierre Laplace (1749–1827).PROBABILITY 411 Historical Note Probability theory like many other branches of mathematics. Pascal became interested in these problems and discussed with famous French Mathematician Pierre de Fermat (1601–1665). His book ‘Foundations of Probability’ published in 1933. Besides. outstanding contributions to probability theory were also made by Christian Huygenes (1629–1665).L Chebyshev (1821–1897). It was published in 1663 after his death. Bernoulli (1654–1705). A. Both Pascal and Fermat solved the problem independently. J. Pascal and Fermat. In 1654. introduces probability as a set function and is considered a classic. A Markov (1856–1922) and A. De Moivre (1667–1754).

+ n Cn xn Here.. This series can also be expressed in abbreviated form using the sigma notation. called Binomial Series.. It gives us a particular type of infinite series.1.3 (1 + x ) m = 1 + mx + holds whenever x < 1 . A. we discussed the Binomial Theorem in which the index was a positive integer. giving an infinite series in which the index is negative or a fraction and not a whole number. Observe that if we replace index n by negative integer or a fraction.2 Binomial Theorem for any Index In Chapter 8.. i. + an + . . = ∑a k =1 ∞ k In this Chapter. i. We illustrate few applications. .. having infinite number of terms is called infinite sequence and its indicated sum. by examples. an.. . . . 1. a1 + a2 + a3 + . then the combinations n C r do not make any sense. a sequence a1.2.e...1. . . we shall study about some special types of series which may be required in different problem situations. We now state (without proof).Appendix 1 INFINITE SERIES A.1 Introduction As discussed in the Chapter 9 on Sequences and Series. . the Binomial Theorem... a1 + a2 + a3 + . a2. + an + . Theorem The formula m ( m − 1) 2 m ( m − 1)( m − 2 ) 3 x + x + . We know the formula (1 + x)n = n C0 + n C1 x + . is called an infinte series associated with infinite sequence.e..2 1... we state a more general form of the theorem in which the index is not necessarily a whole number.. In this Section. . n is non-negative integer.

– 1< x < 1 is necessary when m is negative integer or a fraction. .. .r We give below certain particular cases of Binomial Theorem. . . i.. Note that there are infinite number of terms in the expansion of (1+ x)m. . ( m − r + 1) a m − r b r 1.2 a m − 2b 2 + .. For example.. This is not possible ( −2 )( −3) 1.. Note carefully the condition | x | < 1.2. 3.INFINITE SERIES 413 Remark 1...e. ⎛ x⎞ Example 1 Expand ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ − 1 2 . if we take x = – 2 and m = – 2. 2.3. . . . when m is a negative integer or a fraction Consider ( a + b) m ⎡ ⎛ b ⎞⎤ b⎞ m⎛ = ⎢ a ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎥ = a ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ a⎠ ⎣ ⎝ a ⎠⎦ ⎡ b m ( m − 1) m = a ⎢1 + m a + 1. (1 + x) – 2 = 1 –2 x + 3x2 – 4x3 + . when | x | < 2. we obtain (1 − 2 )−2 = 1 + ( −2 )( −2 ) + or 1= 1 + 4 + 12 + . 2.⎥ ⎝a⎠ ⎥ ⎦ m ( m − 1) 1.. 4.. (1 + x) – 1 = 1 – x + x2 – x3 + . . This expansion is valid when b < 1 or equivalently when | b | < | a |.. these are left to students as exercises: 1. when we assume x < 1 . . (1 – x) – 2 = 1 +2x + 3x2 + 4x3 + . (1 – x) – 1 = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + . . a The general term in the expansion of (a + b)m is m ( m − 1)( m − 2 ) ..2 ( −2 )2 + .2 ⎢ ⎣ m m −1 = a + ma b + m m 2 ⎤ ⎛b⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + .

. a n is called G.. arn–1 is taken as the standard form of G. then the resulting sequence a. if ak +1 ak = r (constant) for k = 1.. ... 2 4 .P.P.. 3 9 Here a = 1.3 Infinite Geometric Series From Chapter 9. a sequence a 1 . ⎝ 3⎠ . . ...P.414 MATHEMATICS Solution We have ⎛ x⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ − 1 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ 2 ⎜ − ⎟ −x ⎜ − ⎟⎜ − ⎟ = 1 + ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ + ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ − x ⎞ + . n–1...1.. 1. r = 2 .3. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1.P. the common ratio of G. 4 32 A. where a is first term and r. We have 3 n ⎛2⎞ 1− ⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 3 ⎡1 − ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎤ Sn = ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎝3⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1− 3 n . . a 2. + arn – 1 which is given by Sn = a 1− rn 1− r ( ). Let us consider the G... Earlier. ar2.. . 2 ⎝ 2⎠ = 1+ x 3x 2 + + . a 3. ... In this section. if we take a1 = a. . . .. . and illustrate the same by examples. ar. we state the formula to find the sum of infinite geometric series a + ar + ar2 + . .+ arn – 1 +. . (1) ⎛ 2⎞ Let us study the behaviour of ⎜ ⎟ as n becomes larger and larger.. 3.. Section 9. we have discussed the formula to find the sum of finite series a + ar + ar2 + . 2. . Particularly..

... In this case. Thus. Therefore.INFINITE SERIES 415 n ⎛2⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ n 1 0. as n → ∞.1316872428 10 0.. = 2 2 2 1 1 2 = = 1 3 ⎛ 1⎞ 1− ⎜ − ⎟ 1+ 2 ⎝ 2⎠ S= a 1− r (ii) 1 − . In other words.. for infinite geometric progression a.. r n → 0 as n → ∞ since | r | <1 and then 1− r a as n → ∞ . = =2 1 2 2 2 23 1− 2 1 1 1 + 2 − 3 + . ⎜ ⎟ becomes closer and closer to ⎝3⎠ ⎛2⎞ zero.00030072866 ⎛2⎞ We observe that as n becomes larger and larger.6667 5 0.. we find that ⎝3⎠ n n the sum of infinitely many terms is given by S = 3. ⎜ ⎟ → 0 . Mathematically. Sn → we have For example (i) 1+ 1 1 1 1 + + + . we say that as n becomes sufficiently large. sum to infinity of infinite geometric series is denoted by S. Thus. if numerical value of common ratio r is less than 1. ar2.01734152992 n 20 0. then a 1− rn Sn = ( ) 1− r a ar n − = 1− r 1− r ar n → 0 . Consequently. ar. ⎜ ⎟ becomes ⎝3⎠ ⎛2⎞ sufficiently small. . 1− r Symbolically.

+ n−1 + .P... which gives < 4 . (3) . 2 2 2 2 2 . the great Swiss mathematician introduced the number e in his calculus text in 1748... . it is clear that its sum is also positive. 4 4 −5 −5 Hence... (2) .... The number e is useful in calculus as π in the study of the circle.. which gives < 2 4 3! 2 2 3! 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 < = and 3 = .1. . −5 5 −5 . (1) 1! 2! 3! 4! The sum of the series given in (1) is denoted by the number e Let us estimate the value of the number e.. 1 5 1+ 4 4 A. Consider the following infinite series of numbers 1 1 1 1 + + + + . 4 16 64 Solution Here a = −5 1 and r = − . the sum to infinity is 4 = 4 = −1 .4 Exponential Series Leonhard Euler (1707 – 1783). 16 5! 2 2 5! 120 1 1 1 1 + 3 + 4 + . Also | r | <1 ... .. 3! 4! 5! n! and Observe that 1 1 1 1 1 1 = and 2 = . . which gives 8 4! 23 2 4! 24 1 1 1 1 1 1 = and 4 = . Consider the two sums 1+ 1 1 1 1 + + + .. Since every term of the series (1) is positive. + + .......416 MATHEMATICS Example 2 Find the sum to infinity of the G.

(5) ⎧ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 1 ⎞⎫ = ⎨1 + ⎜ 1 + + 2 + 3 + 4 + . we get ... Remark The exponential series involving variable x can be expressed as ex = 1 + x x 2 x3 xn + + + .. ⎟ ⎬ 2 2 2 ⎠⎭ ⎩ ⎝ 2 2 = 1+ 1 1 1− 2 =1+ 2 = 3 Left hand side of (5) represents the series (1). + n−1 + .INFINITE SERIES 417 Therefore.. we can say that 1 1 < n −1 . Solution In the exponential series e = 1+ x x x 2 x3 + + + . Therefore 1⎞ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎛1 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ 3! + 4! + 5! + . Therefore e < 3 and also e > 2 and hence 2 < e < 3.⎟ n! ⎝ 1! 2! ⎠ ⎝ 3! 4! 5! ⎠ ⎧⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎞⎫ < ⎨⎜ 1 + + ⎟ + ⎜ 2 + 3 + 4 + ...⎟ 2 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎜1 + 1! + 2! ⎟ on both sides of (4). when n > 2 n! 2 We observe that each term in (2) is less than the corresponding term in (3).. 1! 2! 3! n! Example 3 Find the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of e2x+3 as a series in powers of x. we get.. + n! ⎟ < ⎜ 2 + 3 + 4 + . 1! 2! 3! replacing x by (2x + 3)...... + + . + n−1 + .... by analogy...... ⎟ ⎬ 2 2 2 ⎠⎭ ⎩⎝ 1! 2! ⎠ ⎝ 2 .. ⎝ ⎠ .... + + .. + n−1 + .. (4) Adding 1 ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎛1 1 1 ⎞ ⎜1 + + ⎟ + ⎜ + + + ..

. 1+ 1! 2! Here. we have ex = 1 + x x 2 x3 xn + + + . = 2e 3 Thus.418 MATHEMATICS e 2 x+ 3 = ( 2 x + 3) + ( 2 x + 3) 2 + . the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of e2x+3 is 2! Example 4 Find the value of e2. rounded off to one decimal place. Thus 2e is the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of e2x+3. the general term is Binomial Theorem as ( 2 x + 3) n n! = (3+ 2 x) n .. + + ... ⎣ ⎦ n! n Here.. the coefficient of x is series is 2 C 2 3n − 2 2 2 .. Therefore...⎥ e3 ⎢1 + = ⎣ 1! 2! 3! ⎦ 22 e 3 .. Solution Using the formula of exponential series involving x. 1! 2! 3! n! . This can be expanded by the n! 1⎡ n n 2 n 3 + C1 3n −1 ( 2 x ) + n C2 3n− 2 ( 2 x ) + ... the coefficient of x2 in the whole n! n− 2 n =2 ∑ ∞ n ∞ n ( n − 1) 3 C 2 3n − 2 22 2 = n! n! n= 2 ∑ ∑ ∞ = 2 3n –2 [using n! = n (n – 1) (n – 2)!] n = 2 ( n − 2 )! ⎡ 3 32 33 ⎤ 2 ⎢1 + + + + .⎥ = ⎣ 1! 2! 3! ⎦ = 2e3 . + ( 2 x ) ⎤ . e2x 3 ⎡ 2 x (2 x ) 2 (2 x)3 ⎤ + + + . Alternatively e2x+3 = e3 ..

INFINITE SERIES 419 Putting x = 2.. log e (1 + x ) = x − Note The expansion of loge (1+x) is valid for x = 1.. we have ⎛ 2 2 2 23 2 4 ⎞ 25 ⎛ 2 2 2 23 ⎞ e2 < ⎜1 + + + + ⎟ + ⎜ 1 + + 2 + 3 + .. Theorem If | x | < 1.355. then x 2 x3 + − .. the value of e2.4. rounded off to one decimal place..5 Logarithmic Series Another very important series is logarithmic series which is also in the form of infinite series. A. is 7.. 2 3 The series on the right hand side of the above is called the logarithmic series.4 ...4. 2 3 4 . On the other hand.355 and 7.. 3 3 15 45 ≥ the sum of first seven terms ≥ 7. 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! = 1+ 2 + 2 + 4 2 4 4 + + + + . We state the following result without proof and illustrate its application with an example. we get 1 1 1 log e 2 = 1 – + – + . ⎟ 6 ⎝ 1! 2! 3! 4! ⎠ 5! ⎝ 6 6 ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ 2 ⎞ 4 ⎛ 1 ⎛1⎞ 4⎜ 1 ⎟ 2 ⎟ = 7 + = 7. = 7 + ⎜ 1 + + ⎜ ⎟ + ... Substituting x = 1 in the expansion of loge (1+x). we get e2 = 1 + 2 2 2 23 2 4 25 2 6 + + + + + + . ⎟ = 7 + ⎜ ⎟ 15 ⎜ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 15 ⎜ 1 − 1 ⎟ 5 ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ Thus. e2 lies between 7.. Therefore.1.

β are the roots of the equation x 2 − px + q = 0 . 2 3 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ α 2 x 2 α 3 x3 β 2 x 2 β3 x 3 αx − + − ... prove that log e 1 + px + qx 2 = ( α − β ) x − ( ) α 2 + β 2 2 α 3 + β3 3 x + x − .⎥ + ⎢βx − + − .. We have also assumed that both | α x | < 1 and | β x | < 1. We know this from the given roots of the quadratic equation. we have used the facts α + β = p and αβ = q . Here.⎥ Solution Right hand side = ⎢ 2 3 2 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = log e (1 + α x ) + log (1 + β x ) 2 = log e 1 + ( α + β ) x + αβx = log e ( (1 + px + qx ) 2 ) = Left hand side..420 MATHEMATICS Example 5 If α.. — — ..

The process of translation is called Mathematical Modelling. if he measures the angle of elevation as 40° and the distance as 450m. then we discuss the steps involved in the process of modelling.2. he knows that if he has an angle of elevation and the distance of the foot of the tower to the point where he is standing. Both of which are easily measurable. So. It is physically very difficult to measure the height using the measuring tape. Management etc. Indians.2. The process of translation of a real-life problem into a mathematical form can give a better representation and solution of certain problems. both of which have facilitated the handling of lengthy and complicated problems. artisans and craftsmen based many of their works of art on geometric prinicples.1 Introduction Much of our progress in the last few centuries has made it necessary to apply mathematical methods to real-life problems arising from different fields – be it Science.2 Preliminaries Mathematical modelling is an essential tool for understanding the world. Babylonians and Greeks indulged in understanding and predicting the natural phenomena through their knowledge of mathematics. In olden days the Chinese. The use of Mathematics in solving real-world problems has become widespread especially due to the increasing computational power of digital computers and computing methods. Egyptians. his job is now simplified to find the angle of elevation to the top of the tower and the distance from the foot of the tower to the point where he is standing. then the problem can be solved as given in Example 1. Here we shall familiaries you with the steps involved in this process through examples. the other option is to find out the factors that are useful to find the height. A. Suppose a surveyor wants to measure the height of a tower. then he can calculate the height of the tower. Thus.Appendix 2 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING A. So. We shall first talk about what a mathematical model is. Finance. From his knowledge of trigonometry. . The architects.

. So we look for a relation connecting these three quantities. (1) Fig 1 This is an equation connecting θ.839 = 377. Let us now look at the different steps used in solving the problem. That means we found an equation representing the real problem. we used some geometry and found that the problem can be represented geometrically as given in Fig 1. Find the height of the tower. We also know that the angle of elevation. Step 2 The three quantities mentioned in the problem are height. distance and angle of elevation. denoted by θ.422 MATHEMATICS Example 1 The angle of elevation of the top of a tower from a point O on the ground. in this step we formulated the problem mathematically. AB denotes the tower. In the Step 2. This is obtained by expressing it geometrically in the following way (Fig 1). Step 1 We first try to understand the real problem. . Step 3 We use Equation (1) to solve h. Let h denote the height.. In the problem a tower is given and its height is to be measured. distance and angle of elevation. is 40°. We have θ = 40°. That means in this step we have studied the real-life problem and identified the parameters. In step 1. It is given that the horizontal distance of the foot of the tower from a particular point O on the ground is 450 m. Then we get h = tan 40° × 450 = 450 × 0. Then d = 450m. Then we used the trigonometric ratio for the “tangent” function and found the relation as h = d tan θ So. h and d. Then we have tan θ = h or h = d tan θ d . Solution We shall solve this in different steps. The real problem is to find the height h of the tower using the known distance d and the angle of elevation θ. OA gives the horizontal distance from the point O to foot of the tower. we have studied the real problem and found that the problem involves three parameters height. is 40°. and d = 450m.6m Step 4 Thus we got that the height of the tower approximately 378m. Let d denotes this distance. which is 450 m away from the foot of the tower. ∠AOB is the angle of elevation.

In the last step. This equivalent consists of one or more equations or inequalities etc. based on the known paths of balls before it hits the batsman’s leg. Proper flow of blood is essential to transmit oxygen and other nutrients to various parts of the body in humanbeings as well as in all other animals. for example. 3. Department of Agriculture wants to estimate the yield of rice in India from the standing crops. wind speed. Scientists identify areas of rice cultivation and find the average yield per acre by cutting and weighing crops from some representative fields. simulated. 1. Based on some statistical techniques decisions are made on the average yield of rice. “why is it necessary to use mathematics to solve different situations. which are called the mathematical models.6m.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 423 In Step 3. Once data are received from many stations around the country and feed into computers for further analysis and interpretation. We call this as Interpreting the mathematical solution to the real situation In fact these are the steps mathematicians and others use to study various reallife situations. 4. This simulated model is used to take decision of LBW. assuming that the batsman is not there. barometers to measure airpressure. Meteorology department makes weather predictions based on mathematical models. The instruments are used to measure these parameters which include thermometers to measure temperature. hygrometers to measure humidity. How do mathematicians help in solving such problems? They sit with experts in the area. Then . anemometers to measure wind speed. That is we found Solution of the problem. We shall consider the question. Any constriction in the blood vessel or any change in the characteristics of blood vessels can change the flow and cause damages ranging from minor discomfort to sudden death. we interpreted the solution of the problem and stated that the height of the tower is approximately 378m. 2. a physiologist in the first problem and work out a mathematical equivalent of the problem. Mathematical equations are arrived at. air pressure. we solved the mathematical problem and got that h = 377.” Here are some of the examples where mathematics is used effectively to study various situations. The problem is to find the relationship between blood flow and physiological characteristics of blood vessel. etc. Some of the parameters which affect change in weather conditions are temperature. In cricket a third umpire takes decision of a LBW by looking at the trajectory of a ball. humidity.

D. Within the town are two river islands that are connected to the banks with seven bridges as shown in (Fig 2). He proved this by inventing a kind of diagram called a network. This means that all the vertices have an odd number of arcs. B and C. Remember that the problem was to travel around town crossing each bridge only once. Before we explain the process. Since there can only be one beginning and one end. that is made up of vertices (dots where lines meet) and arcs (lines) (Fig3). and 3 join to riverbank B. Euler proved it could not be done because he worked out that. it just not possible to do! . These have been marked A. heard about the problem. The seven lines (arcs) are the seven bridges. Leonhard Euler. but now is Russian. visiting all the vertices. Example 2 (Bridge Problem) Konigsberg is a town on the Pregel River. there can only be two odd vertices if you are to trace over each arc only once. He used four dots (vertices) for the two river banks and the two islands. a Swiss Fig 2 mathematician in the service of the Russian empire Catherine the Great. but it proved to be difficult problem. On Euler’s network this meant tracing over each arc only once. and 3 join to island D. A mathematical model is a representation which comprehends a situation. we shall discuss what a mathematical model is. to have an odd vertex you would have to begin or end the trip at that vertex. Since the bridge problem has 4 odd vertices.424 MATHEMATICS solve the model and interpret the solution in terms of the original problem. A. 5 bridges (arcs) join to island C. You can see that 3 bridges (arcs) join to riverbank. In 1736 Euler proved that the walk was not possible to do. (Think about it). which in the 18th century was a German town. An interesting geometric model is illustrated in the following example. People tried to walk around the town in a way that only crossed each bridge once. so Fig 3 they are called odd vertices (An even vertex would have to have an even number of arcs joining to it).

All of us are familiar with the simple pendulum. an extra bridge was built in Konigsberg. Conversion of physical situation into mathematics with some suitable conditions is known as mathematical modelling. B and C still have odd degree. using each bridge only once? Here the situation will be as in Fig 4. much water has flown under the bridges in Konigsberg. understanding the process involved in the motion of simple pendulum. In 1875. joining the land areas A and D (Fig 4). We have studied that the motion of the simple pendulum is periodic. So. Is it possible now for the Konigsbergians to go round the city. Identifying the relevant factors In this. The invention of networks began a new theory called graph theory which is now used in many ways. what we need to find is the period of oscillation. Definition Mathematical modelling is an attempt to study some part (or form) of the real-life problem in mathematical terms. Mathematical modelling is nothing but a technique and the pedagogy taken from fine arts and not from the basic sciences. A.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 425 After Euler proved his Theorem. This pendulum is simply a mass (known as bob) attached to one end of a string whose other end is fixed at a point. we give a precise statement of the problem as Statement How do we find the period of oscillation of the simple pendulum? The next step is formulation. 1. After the addition of the new edge. we shall define what mathematical modelling is and illustrate the different processes involved in this through examples. Fig 4 However. Based on this. Let us now understand the different processes involved in Mathematical Modelling. As an illustrative example. Understanding the problem This involves. The period depends upon the length of the string and acceleration due to gravity. including planning and mapping railway networks (Fig 4). both the vertices A and D have become even degree vertices. Four steps are involved in this process. Formulation Consists of two main steps. So. it is possible for the Konigsbergians to go around the city using each bridge exactly once. for example. we consider the modelling done to study the motion of a simple pendulum. we find out what are the factors/ .2.3 What is Mathematical Modelling? Here.

We take two metal balls of two different masses and conduct experiment with each of them attached to two strings of equal lengths. Finding the solution The mathematical formulation rarely gives the answer directly. This indicates that the mass m is not an essential parameter for finding period whereas the length l is an essential parameter. calculation or applying a theorem etc. . Usually we have to do some operation which involves solving an equation. Mathematical description This involves finding an equation. inequality or a geometric figure using the parameters already identified. This process of searching the essential parameters is necessary before we go to the next step. In the case of simple pendulum. which is assumed to be constant at a place. In the case of simple pendulums the solution involves applying the formula given in Equation (2).. It implies that the relation between T and l could be expressed T2 = kl It was found that k = 4π 2 . the mass of the bob (m). we have identified four parameters for studying the problem. 2.. Here. (2) Equation (2) gives the mathematical formulation of the problem. This gives the equation g . Now. the factors are period of oscillation (T). Now. These values were plotted on a graph which resulted in a curve that resembled a parabola. For this we need to understand what are the parameters that affect the period which can be done by performing a simple experiment. our purpose is to find T. (1) T = 2π l g . We measure the period of oscillation... experiments were conducted in which the values of period T were measured for different values of l. So. effective length (l ) of the pendulum which is the distance between the point of suspension to the centre of mass of the bob. we consider the length of string as effective length of the pendulum and acceleration due to gravity (g). we perform the same experiment on equal mass of balls but take strings of different lengths and observe that there is clear dependence of the period on the length of the pendulum. We make the observation that there is no appreciable change of the period with mass. For example. in the case of pendulum.426 MATHEMATICS parameters involved in the problem.

we will reject it.36 sec The table shows that for l = 225 cm.042 Now. improve it.056 3. In the case of simple pendulum. we conduct some experiments on the pendulum and find out period of oscillation. This process is called validation of the model. T = 3. T = 3. error = 3. we compare the measured values in Table 2 with the calculated values given in Table 1. The process of describing the solution in the context of the real situation is called interpretation of the model.36 = 0. Once we accept the model. or else. Interpretation/Validation A mathematical model is an attempt to study. .MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 427 The period of oscillation calculated for two different pendulums having different lengths is given in Table 1 Table 1 l T 225 cm 3.36 sec. then test it again. In other words. The difference in the observed values and calculated values gives the error.04 sec and for l = 275 cm.011 which is small and the model is accepted. we measure the effectiveness of the model by comparing the results obtained from the mathematical model. In this case. Many times model equations are obtained by assuming the situation in an idealised context. for l = 275 cm. the essential characteristic of a real life problem. The results of the experiment are given in Table 2. we have to interpret the model.352 3. For example. with the known facts about the real problem.371 3. The model will be useful only if it explains all the facts that we would like it to explain. Otherwise.371 – 3. Table 2 Periods obtained experimentally for four different pendulums Mass (gms) 385 230 Length (cms) 275 225 275 225 Time (secs) 3. we can interpret the solution in the following way: (a) The period is directly proportional to the square root of the length of the pendulum.04 sec 275cm 3. and mass m = 385 gm.

y are related by the equation z = 10x + 20y . Our validation and interpretation of this model shows that the mathematical model is in good agreement with the practical (or observed) values. Determine the daily minimum cost of the food mix. We just pick one or two main factors to be completely accurate that may influence the situation. Then try to obtain a simplified model which gives some information about the situation.06 Cost per Kg Rs 10 Rs 20 The dietary requirements of the special food stipulate atleast 30% protein and at most 5% fibre. Example 3 A farm house uses atleast 800 kg of special food daily.09 . This leads us to an important observation.60 Nutrients present per Kg Fibre . Now. The real world is far too complex to understand and describe completely. (1) The problem is to minimise z with the following constraints: . So the variables (factors) that are to be considered are x = the amount of corn y = the amount of soyabean z = the cost Step 2 The last column in Table 3 indicates that z..02 .. x. We study the simple situation with this model expecting that we can obtain a better model of the situation. Solution Step 1 Here the objective is to minimise the total daily cost of the food which is made up of corn and soyabean.428 MATHEMATICS (b) It is inversely proportional to the square root of the acceleration due to gravity. The special food is a mixture of corn and soyabean with the following compositions Table 3 Material Corn Soyabean Nutrients present per Kg Protein . in such situation we look for a better model and this process continues. But we found that there is some error in the calculated result and measured result. So. This is because we have neglected the mass of the string and resistance of the medium. we summarise the main process involved in the modelling as (a) Formulation (b) Solution (c) Interpretation/Validation The next example shows how modelling can be done using the techniques of finding graphical solution of inequality.

(2) (b) The food should have atleast 30% protein dietary requirement in the proportion as given in the first column of Table 3.21x – . x + y ≥ 800 . (3) and (4) by grouping all the coefficients of x..6 and y = 329.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 429 The farm used atleast 800 kg food consisting of corn and soyabean i.. Step 3 This can be solved graphically.. (3) (c) Similarly the food should have atmost 5% fibre in the proportion given in 2nd column of Table 3.4) i.e. The shaded region in Fig 5 gives the possible solution of the equations. (4) We simplify the constraints given in (2).02x + 0. x = 470.4 = 11294 This is the mathematical solution. (a) Fig 5 This gives the value of z as z = 10 × 470.09x + 0.e....05 (x + y) . ...4. y.3 (x + y) .06 y ≤ 0.6y ≥ 0. Statement Minimise z subject to x + y ≥ 800 0. Then the problem can be restated in the following mathematical form. This gives 0.6.6 + 20 × 329.30y ≤ 0 0.01y ≥ 0 This gives the formulation of the model. From the graph it is clear that the minimum value is got at the point (470.329.03x – . This gives 0.

1.4 kg of soyabean. 2005. protein and fibre is Rs 11294 and we obtain this minimum cost if we use 470. Example 4 Suppose a population control unit wants to find out “how many people will be there in a certain country after 10 years” Step 1 Formulation We first observe that the population changes with time and it increases with birth and decreases with deaths.6 kg of corn and 329.430 MATHEMATICS Step 4 The solution can be interpreted as saying that. Let B(t) denote the number of births in the one year between t and t + 1 and D(t) denote the number of deaths between t and t + 1. B (t ) P (t ) is called the birth rate for the time interval t to t + 1. This means that there is a constant b. we shall discuss how modelling is used to study the population of a country at a particular time. Let t denote the time in years. 2. For any time t. the only source of population change is birth and death. “The minimum cost of the special food with corn and soyabean having the required portion of nutrient contents. There is no migration into or out of the population. Add the number of births in that year and subtract the number of deaths in that year... 1st.. t = 0 stands for the present time. Then we get the relation P (t + 1) = P (t) + B (t) – D (t) Now we make some assumptions and definitions 1. called the birth rate.” In the next example. . Then t takes values 0. Assumptions 1. Likewise.. we deduce that.. say t0 = 2006. and a constant d. the death rate is the same for all intervals. As a result of assumptions 1 and 2. The birth rate is the same for all intervals. How will we do that. (1) 2. i. called the death rate so that. We find the population by Jan.. b= B (t ) P (t ) and d= D (t ) P (t ) . D (t) P (t) is called the death rate for the time interval t to t + 1. We want to find the population at a particular time.e. 2. Suppose we want to find the population in a particular year. for t ≥ 0. let p (t) denote the population in that particular year. . t = 1 stands for the next year etc. for all t ≥ 0.

155..02 and d = 0.. What will the population be in 10 years? Using the formula. is an exponential function. we get P(t) = (1 + b – d)t P (0) .. . (2) .25 Step 3 Interpretation and Validation Naturally.000 and the rates are b = 0... 2. In terms of r. this result is absurd.01)10 (250.000. we are not getting the exact answer because of the assumptions that we have made in our mathematical model.000. Step 2 – Solution Suppose the current population is 250. we do some approximation and conclude that the population is 276. . 2. Equation (4) becomes .000) = 276. where c and r are constants. t = 0. since one can’t have 0..531 (approximately).01.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 431 P (t + 1) = P(t) + B(t) – D(t) = P(t) + bP(t) – dP(t) = (1 + b – d) P(t) Setting t = 0 in (2) gives P(1) = (1 + b – d)P (0) Setting t = 1 in Equation (2) gives P(2) = (1 + b – d) P (1) = (1 + b – d) (1 + b – d) P (0) = (1 + b – d)2 P(0) Continuing this way. has built-in assumptions and approximations. . (5) P(t) = P(0)r t P(t) is an example of an exponential function.. by its very nature. (4) for t = 0.000. P(10) = (1.531.104622125) (250. The above examples show how modelling is done in variety of situations using different mathematical techniques.000) = (1. in more high-flown language.155... we calculate P(10). the Malthusian parameter. Here. 1. Any function of the form cr t.... Obviously. (3) (Using equation 3) . the most important . Since a mathematical model is a simplified representation of a real problem. in honor of Robert Malthus who first brought this model to popular attention. 1. Equation (5) gives the mathematical formulation of the problem.25 of a person. So. The constant 1 + b – d is often abbreviated by r and called the growth rate or.

. It may happen that we need a new formulation. we try to identify the sources of the shortcomings. new mathematical manipulation and hence a new evaluation. when the obtained results are interpreted physically whether or not the model gives reasonable answers. Thus mathematical modelling can be a cycle of the modelling process as shown in the flowchart given below: START ↓ < ASSUMPTIONS/AXIOMS ↓ FORMULATION ↓ SOLUTION ↓ INTERPRETATION < ↓ VALIDATION ↓ NO YES SATISFIED < < STOP — — .e.432 MATHEMATICS question is to decide whether our model is a good one or not i. If a model is not accurate enough.

80} (iv) D = {2. c. (i) (vii) (i) (i). 44. T. 5. . 71. 2. 6 ≤ x ≤ 12 } (iii) { x : x ∈ R. E = G (v) Finite (v) Infinite EXERCISE 1. (i) A = {–3. 26. . –10) (iii) [ 0. { 1 }. 3. j } 6. E.2 1. N. 4 ] 7. { 2 }. April. } (ii) B = {0. Y} (vi) F = {B. . O. (ix). 6 < x ≤ 12 } (iv) { x R : – 23 ≤ x < 5 } 9. 4. (i) ∈ (ii) ∉ (iii) ∉ (vi) ∈ (v) ∈ (vi) ∉ 3. 3. 0. 4. –2.3 1. (i) A = {1. 2 }. 35. November } (vi) F = {b. { a }. 6] (ii) (– 12. E. O. 2 } (iv) D = { L. 7 ) (iv) [ 3. 3. d. 6. 3. G. (i) { x : x = 3n and 1 ≤ n ≤ 4 } (ii) { x : x = 2n and 1 ≤ n ≤ 5 } (iii) { x : x = 5n and 1 ≤ n ≤ 4 } (iv) { x : x is an even natural number} (v) { x : x = n2 and 1 ≤ n ≤ 10 } 5. 5. (iv). – 3 < x < 0 } (ii) { x : x ∈ R. (iv) Finite (ii) Infinite (ii) Yes (ii) No (ii) Infinite (iii) Finite (iv) Infinite Finite (iii) Infinite (iv) Finite No (iii) Yes (iv) No Yes 6. 2. (vi). { 1. 2. 0. b } φ. (v). (viii). 3 } { 1. B= D. September. (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii). M. f. (i) ↔ (c) (ii) ↔ (a) (iii) ↔ (d) (iv) ↔ (b) EXERCISE 1. A } (v) E = { February. (xi) φ { a }. { 2. { 1. –1. 2. Y. (i). . (ii) φ. 3 } (vi) ⊂ (vi) True (iv) φ (– 4. 1. { b } { a.} 4.1 1. 5} (v) E = {T. 2. 6 } (ii) B = {1. I. 3. 3. g. (iii) . R. 4 } (iii) C = { –2. 3. 4. { 3 }. 53. –1. June. 1. h. (i) { x : x ∈ R. (vii). 62. 3 }. 4. 1. 2. 2. (vii) and (viii) are sets. (i).ANSWERS EXERCISE 1. (i) (iii) 1 (i) ⊂ (ii) ⊄ (iii) ⊂ (iv) ⊄ (v) ⊄ ⊂ False (ii) True (iii) False (iv) True (v) False (v). 5. R. 5. 5} (iii) C = {17.

(iii) (iv) { 11 } (ii) C (iii) D { 2 } {vi){ x : x is an odd prime number } (ii) {3. 3. 16 } (i) {3. 16. 5 } (iii) (ii) A ∪ B = { a. 6 } (ii) {1. 4. x ∈ N} (v) A ∪ B = {1. 18. 11. 9. e. g. 15. 9} (ii) {1. 6. 9 ) (v) { 1. 6. 5. 4. 11 } (ix) {7. o. (i) (iv) 3. d . (i) X ∩ Y = { 1. 8. 6. 8. u } A ∪ B = {x : x = 1. 11 } 7. 5. 8. 7. 3 } 2. 3. 12. 2. 6. (i) B (v) (iv) {4. e. 5. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 1. 2. 5. (i) { a. 11 } (v) φ (viii) { 7. 4. 9. 4 } (vi) { 1. A B = { a. 15 } (iv) φ 8. 7. 9. 9 } { d. 3 } (ii) A ∩ B = { a } (i) { 7. c. 20 ) (vii) {20 ) (x) { 5.5 (i) (iv) 2. { 5. 11 } (vii) { 3. 10. 20 } (xi) {2. h } { b. 4. 6. 10. 4. 3. 14} (v) { 2. 5. (i) { 1. Set of irrational numbers 12. 4. 6. 9. 2. c.8 } (iii) {3. d } (iii) T (iv) T 10. 6. Yes.434 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 1. b. 10. 8. 5. 10) (v) {1. b. h} (ii) { a. 2. 3. b. 9. (i) X ∪ Y = {1. 10. 4. d. 9 } (iii) {7. 4. 5. 16 } (vi) { 5. 12. c. 6. 7. 8. 9. 7. 9. 3. B (iv) A ∪ B = {x : 1 < x < 10. 9. 9 } { 5. f. 7. 7. 3. 4. 3. 8. 15 } (ii) { 11. (i) F EXERCISE 1. 15. 5. 12. 21 } (viii) { 4. c } 4. 9. 5 or a multiple of 3 } 3. 7. 9. 4. 15. 21} (iii) {3. 2. 5. 10} 5. 2. g } 11. 16} (xii) {5. 8. 3. f. 9. 10 ) (iii) { 3 } (iii) φ (vii) φ (x) { 7. 8 } (vi) (1. 21} (ix) { 2. 14. 9.4 1. 13 } (vi) { 7. 2. 14. 8 } (iv) {3. 6. e ) { x : x is an odd natural number } { x : x is an even natural number } { x : x ∈ N and x is not a multiple of 3 } { x : x is a positive composit number and x = 1 ] . 20} (ii) F (iii) { b . 8. 8. h } (iii) { b. 6. 18. c } (ii) {f. i. 7. 18. 2. 7. 6. 7. 6. 6. 4.

3 } 13. m)} (ii) False A × B is a non empty set of ordered pairs (x. We may take A = { 1. D ⊂ B. 3 }. (i) U (ii) A 9 } 2 EXERCISE 1. A ⊂ B. (8. 4)} A × B will have 24 = 16 subsets. The number of elements in A × B is 9. y. 2). 60 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 1 1.ANSWERS 435 (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) { x : x is a positive integer which is not divisible by 3 or not divisible by 5} { x : x ∈ N and x is not a perfect square } { x : x ∈ N and x is not a perfect cube } { x : x ∈ N and x = 3 } (ix) { x : x ∈ N and x = 2 } (xi) { x : x ∈ N and x > (iii) φ (iv) φ (x) { x : x ∈ N and x < 7 } 6. (– 1.1 1. 3). 5 6. 8)} 4. (1. False 12. 125 15. (1. 7). z} and B = {1. 325 14. –1. y} 8. b}. x = 2 and y = 1 2. (–1. (7. 9. n) (m. 4). D ⊂ C 2. 1). 19 3. (5. m) (n. B = {x. (7. A ⊂ C. 50 7. (–1. B = { 1. –1). (1. 4). 7). 1. 1).6 1. A = {a. –1. –1). 7. A × B = {(1. 5). 1). –1. – 1). 30 2. 42 8. (1. 7). –1). A = {x. 25. 1. (i) False P × Q = {(m. (1. 1. –1. (n. 30 16. D ⊂ A. 35 4. (4. (8. (i) False (ii) False (iii) True (iv) False (v) False (vi) True 7. 2)} H × G = {(5. 2 }. B ⊂ C. (–1. (2. (1. (1. (2. (4. 1. –1). 4). C = { 2 . (8. 1)} A × A × A = {(–1. 8). 1)} 6. 8). – 1). 1). y) such that x ∈ A and y ∈ B (iii) True 5. n). 11 EXERCISE 2. (2. A × A = {(– 1. 3). is the set of all equilateral triangles. 5). G × H = {(7. 2 5. 3.2} . (2. 52.

Domain = {2. (4. (i) R = {(x. 2). (i) yes. 5} (i) R = {(1. 5. 7). (3. 3.2). (3. 9. 6).} Range of R = {5. ∞) . 5. 6. 3. (3. (1. 10. 6} (iii) Range of R = {1. 3). 3). 2. 4. 4. (1. 6} 7. 4. 1). 8. 4.. 343)} 9. 4. 27). 12} Co domain of R = {1. (4. –1). 3. 8. (1. 5. 12. (2. 2. (0. (2. R = {(1. (7. Domain of R = Z Range of R = Z 6. (i) Domain = R. 6.5)}. Range of R = {3. 4. –1). 7} (ii) R = {(5. 0). (3. y) : y = x – 2 for x = 5. Domian of R = {0. 6). 3} Range of R = {6. 4). 6)} 4. 14. 5. Range = (– ∞. 4). (7. 1. (1. 2. 7.3). (5. R = {(1. 17}.. 6). A = {–1. (0. (–1. 3. 8)} Domain of R = {1. (2. (1. Domain = (2.. 2. 3. 1) EXERCISE 2. –1). 10} 8. 0). 4). 125). 3. (2. 0] (ii) Domain of Function = {x : –3 ≤ x ≤ 3} (iii) Range of Function = {x : 0 ≤ x ≤ 3} (i) f (0) = –5 (i) t (0) = 32 (ii) f (7) = 9 (ii) t (28) = (iii) f (–3) = –11 t (–10) = 14 (iii) Range = R (iv) 100 2. 6. 7}. (3.3 1.4). 4. (i) Range = (– ∞. . 9). 3). 14} 2. (3. (2. 1}. (6. Domain of R = {5. 6). 2. 7} (iii) No. R = {(1. 9. (5.436 MATHEMATICS 10. No. 2) 412 (iii) 5 (ii) Range = [2. 9). 14}. remaining elements of A × A are (–1. (1. (3. 6. 0. 8. (5. (6.2 1. (2 4). 11. 5. Range = {1. 2. Range = {1} (ii) yes. (1. 6)} (ii) Domain of R = {1. 4} Range of R = {3. of relations from A into B = 26 EXERCISE 2. 8). (1. 6. 1). 6). 6). 8} 3. 2. 7. 4). R = {(2. 12)} Domain of R = {1. 4). 6. 6).

∞). 6. cot x = − 3 5 4 4 3 4 5 3 5 4 3. (i) Yes. tan x = 5 4 5 3 3 4. tan x = 3 . a = 2. ∞) Domain = R. (i) 4. tan x = − . 5. sin x = − 12 13 5 12 5 .ANSWERS 437 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 2 2. b = – 1 9. 13 } EXERCISE 3. sec x = − . 4. cosec x = – . cos x = − .1 1. tan x = − . cot x = − 13 12 13 5 12 . cosec x = . 12° 36′ 20π 3 (iii) 2 15 (ii) 1 5 7 25 EXERCISE 3. Domain = [1. cosec x = – . 11. cos x = – . 2. sec x = − . 5 : 4 3. sec x = −2. No 12. Domain of function is set of real numbers except 6 and 2. Range = [0. (ii) No 11. Range of f = {3. 4π 3 (iii) 300° (iii) 26π 9 (iv) 210° (iv) 6.2 3 2 1 . cosec x = – . Range = non-negative real numbers Range = Any positive real number x such that 0 ≤ x < 1 (f + g) x = 3x – 2 8. 7. 5π 36 (i) 39° 22′ 30″ (i) 19π 72 (ii) –229° 5′ 29″ (ii) – 5. 5. (i) No (ii) No (iii) No (f – g) x = – x + 4 ⎛ f ⎞ x +1 3 . sin x = − . sin x = − 5 4 5 3 4 2. cos x = . x≠ ⎜ ⎟x= 2x − 3 2 ⎝g⎠ 10. cot x = 2 3 3 1.1 3. 2. 12π 7.

nπ + . n ∈ Z 6 2 2. . 6. . 3. 4 + 15 4 4 8. or + . . cos x = − .n∈Z 2 2 8 9.2 5 5 6 3 . . 1 EXERCISE 3. 2nπ ± .4 1. π 4π π .3 5. nπ + (–1) n . x= nπ π . 1 2 5 13 12 13 12 . .n∈Z 6 6 6 x= nπ or x = nπ. sin x = 6. n ∈ Z 3 7π π or (2n + 1) . . or 2nπ ± .– .n∈Z 6 6 6 π π x = (2n + 1) . .438 MATHEMATICS 5. 5. 8. or n π ± . 2 8. cosec x = . π 5π π . n ∈ Z 3 3 3 5π 11π 5π .n ∈ Z 3 3 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 3 5 2 5 . 3 2 10. (i) 3 +1 2 2 (ii) 2 – 3 EXERCISE 3. 9.– 2 3 3 8 + 2 15 8 − 2 15 . 7. sec x = − . 10. nπ ± . 3 9. 4. n ∈ Z 3 3 3 7π 11π 7π . cot x = − 13 5 13 12 5 7. n ∈ Z 4 3 x = nπ + ( − 1) n x= nπ nπ 3π .

−22 107 −i 3 27 –7 2 i 2 11. 3 5. 3. i EXERCISE 5. 5π 6 3. 0 6. 6. −1 ± 7 i 2 2 −1 ± 7 i 2 2 8. 7. –π –π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4. 2. –4 5 3 −i 14 14 − 19 21i − 5 10 7. 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 8 . −3π −3π ⎞ ⎛ + i sin 2 ⎜ cos ⎟ 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 6. 14 + 28 i 8. 12. ± 3i −3 ± 11 i 2 2. −1 ± 7 i 4 1± 7 i 2 3. 2 – 7 i 2. −2π 3 2 . –1 ± 7i –2 2 ± 34 i 2 3 5. −1 ± (4− 2 ) i 2 10. . 2.3 1. 3π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 5. 27 14. 9. 13.2 1 .ANSWERS 439 EXERCISE 5.1 1. i 4. 3 (cos π + i sin π) π π⎞ ⎛ π π 7 . cos + i sin 6 6⎠ 2 2 ⎝ EXERCISE 5. 17 5 =i 3 3 4 3 +i 25 25 9. −3 ± 3 3 i 2 4. − 242 − 26i 10.

8..12) 26. 307 + 599 i 442 5. 1± 12. x ≥ –1. – 1. (–∞.9) 25.} 6. More than or equal to 35 23. 4. 3. 1. y = – 3 20. (–∞. –3] 11. 0 14. (4. ∞) 18. (– ∞. . Greater than or equal to 8 but less than or equal to 22 . 2. Greater than or equal to 82 24. ∞) 17. (– ∞. – 2. (–∞.. – 3} (ii) (–∞. 4 EXERCISE 6.. 2 10. (10. –3) 10.} (ii) {.7). 120] 16. (–2. 3.8). 9 cm 22. 2] 15. 1. ∞) 7.2. x = 3.. (6. −2 . 18. (ii) 0 5 13. 4] 12. x < – 2 . (–∞. (–∞.440 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 5 1. ∞) 9. 1} (i) {–1. (4.3. 5 2 ± i 27 27 1 3π .. 14 14 ± i 21 21 4 5 5 15. (5.10). –1. 2] (ii) {. (7. (–∞.. 19. (8. 4} (i) No Solution (i) {. (i) 17. 20. 2] 5. (– ∞. 1 2 i 2 3π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 8. 2) (ii) (–2. 0. (i) 3π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ .1 1. x > – 1. – 3. –6) 14. x < 3. 2 – 2 i 3.. 0. 3.. (ii) 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 7 . 2 4 6. 0. 2 4 ± i 3 3 9. – 2. 2. 2. 7 21.4. (i) {1. – 4. 6) 13.

2 1. 6. 5. . 3.ANSWERS 441 EXERCISE 6. 4. 2.

10. 8.3 1. 9.442 MATHEMATICS 7. 2. EXERCISE 6. .

8. 4. 6. 7.ANSWERS 443 3. 5. .

444 MATHEMATICS 9. . 12. 11. 14. 13. 10.

2) 7. [– 4.ANSWERS 445 15. (0. (i) 125. 336 . 5. 5040 4. 13. More than 320 litres but less than 1280 litres. ⎜ ⎥ 3 ⎦ ⎝ 3 ⎡ 11 ⎤ ⎢1. 5) 8. 5. [– 7. 2] 6.8. Between 20°C and 25°C 12. 14.5 litres but less than 900 litres. [2. 7) 9. ∞) 10. (ii) 60. (–5. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 6 1.1 1. More than 562. (–1. 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 11. ⎛ – 80 – 10 ⎤ . 20 3. 1] 3. 108 6. Atleast 9. 11] 2. EXERCISE 7.6 but more than 16. (5. 3] 4. (– 23. 8 2.

(1. 907200 8. (ii) 18 5. (iii) 25401600 4. 420 10. (ii) 15120 2. 151200 EXERCISE 8. 48 8. (i) 30. 30. 198 . 64 x –576 x + 2160 x – 4320 x3 + 4860 x2 – 2916 x + 729 2. 11040808032 6. (ii) 720. 9509900499 8. 9.2 1.446 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 7. 4536 3. x 5 5 x 2 10 10 5 1 + + + 3+ 5 x+ 243 81 27 9 x 3x x x 6 + 6 x 4 + 15 x 2 + 20 + 15 6 1 + 4+ 6 2 x x x 7. 40320 EXERCISE 7. 120. 22 C 7+ 22C 10 11.4 1. 9 7. (ii) 588. 200 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 7 1. 2000 9. 28 4. No 3. (i) 5. (iii) 240 10. 45 5. (i) 40320. 35 2. 4. 5. 40 8. (ii) 6 6. 884736 9. 120 9. 3960 4.3 1. 5. (ii) 2419200. 104060401 11. 50400 7. 2880 3. 33810 (i) 1814400. 4 C 1× 48C 4 2. (i) 3. 11. 210 7. 60 56 6. 3600 4. 40 6 10. 504 2. 64 EXERCISE 7.1) 10000 > 1000 12.1 1. (iii) 1632 6. 8(a3b + ab3). 2(x6 + 15x4 + 15x2 + 1). 778320 3. 1440 5. (i) 504. 1–10x + 40x2 – 80x3 + 80x4 – 32x5 32 40 20 5 x5 − 3+ − 5 x + x3 − 8 32 x x5 x 6 5 4 3. (ii) 4 (i) 360.

r = 3 −105 9 35 12 x . 729 11. 12. 18564 10.x12− 2 r . a= 9 7 6. 27x6 – 54ax5 + 117a2x4 – 116a3x3 + 117a4x2 – 54a5x + 27a6 EXERCISE 9.. 35 2.y r ( −1)r 12 Cr . . 2a8 + 12a6 – 10a4 – 4a2 + 2 8. 4. a = 3. 2. 49 128 9. 2 6 24 120 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎝ 24 ⎠ ⎝ 120 ⎠ .. n = 6 5. n = 7.ANSWERS 447 EXERCISE 8. 396 6 7. 2. 360 23 3 + 11 + 35 + 107 + 323 + . 21 and 2 2 2 2 5. . 15625 7. – 1+ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + . −1 −1 −1 −1 ⎛ −1 ⎞ ⎛ −1 ⎞ ⎛ −1 ⎞ ⎛ −1 ⎞ . 107. .2 1. 24. . . 8. 35.. and 6 6 2 6 6 3 9 21 75 . – 1760 x9y3 8. 1 2 3 4 5 . . 1 1 1 5 7 − . 0. 14 3. 65. .. 93 6.9510 9. −1.. n = 7. 25. b = 5. 1512 4. –125. 16 and 32 4. . 323.y r 5. – 101376 3.1 1. 2 3 4 5 6 3. 7. 15. . 8. 2. 3. ( −1) r 6 Cr . . m = 4 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 8 1. 8. –3125. 625. x 8 48 12. 61236 x5y5 6. 10. 3. n = 10 16 8 32 16 x 2 x3 x 4 + 2 − 3 + 4 − 4x + + + −5 x x 2 2 16 x x 10.x24−r . 11.

–24 26. 5. 5 5 . 98450 8.. 120. n ( n + 1) ( n + 2 ) ( n + 3) 4 . 9 EXERCISE 9. 179 321 14. x2 –16x + 25 = 0 27.3 1.. 496 20. (c) 9th 1⎡ 20 1 − ( 0. 27 16.1)10 EXERCISE 9. 22 + 3 11 3 −1 2 ( ) ( 5 2 2 5 5 2 12. 2 + 2 + 1 + 0 + (–1) + . 3072 4. (b) 12th. 5 or 20 9.. 20 and 23 17.2 1. 4 10. ( ) 1− x 2 11. 17. rR 21. ..or 4.4 1. 14. (a) 13th . 1 n ( 5n + 7 ) 2 13. 30 (2n) 2 32. 11. 2. 2q 4. 2 −1 7 7 13. 0 15. Rs 245 18.2. or . 14.1. . 2059 80 8 −4 −8 −16 10n − 1 − n . − 32. 2 5 5 2 2 5 16 16 n . 2. 2 20 2n 2. 3 3 3 81 9 19..1) ⎤ ⎦ 6⎣ x 3 1 − x 2n 8. . Rs 500 (1. –1. 12. n= 31. Terms are .1. 1002001 2. 3. 3 5 8 14. ± 1 7. r = or . 4 16. 16. 9 and 27 ( ) –1 30. 7 2 ( ⎛ n ⎞ 3 + 1 ⎜ 3 2 − 1⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ) 9. 480. 14 7. ⎡1 − ( − a )n ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 1+ a 10. and 2 3 5 EXERCISE 9. n ( n + 1) ( n + 2 ) 3 2. – 2187 6. 6. 2. ) 15. 18. 64. − 8. –6. 0.. 1. 1.448 MATHEMATICS 13. .

9. (i) 4. Rs 17000. 104. 8. (ii) 81 9 3 27 ( ) ( ) 22.5 Crores 2 . 1 . 5. 295000 EXERCISE 10. ± 3 6. ( ) n ( n + 1) ( 2n + 1) + 2 2n − 1 6 ( ) 10. 25 days 29. x = 1 11. 0 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ 10. – a). n 2 n + 3n + 5 3 ( ) 25. 2 2. 135° 8. ) − 1 2 ⎛ 15 ⎞ 4. (0. 4 11.0 5. n n +1 5. a). n ( 2n + 1) ( 2n − 1) 3 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 9 2. ⎜ . a). n ( n + 1) ( n + 2 ) 12 8. 3n (n + 1) (n + 3) n ( n + 1) 3n 2 + 23n + 34 12 7. or 1 1 and 1. 8. (0. (0. (ii) x2 − x1 7. Rs 39100 32. and 3.ANSWERS 449 3. – 3 ( ) ( 3a. 1680 23. 6 12. Rs 5120 28. Rs 16680 31. or – 1 and –2. Rs 43690 30. – a) and − 3a. 11 5.1 1. 4 21. 3050 9. 16. or − and – 1 2 2 14. 160. 1 and 2. n ( n + 1) 3n 2 + 5n + 1 6 ( ) 4. 1210 10. (i) y2 − y1 . 8729 8. n 2n2 + 9n + 13 24 ( ) 27. 121 square unit. 11 7. 32 50 n 5n 2n 2 10 − 1 − 1 − 10− n − .0 or (0. 2840 2 6.

L= . x + y = 5 15. (ii) y = −2 x + . 3x – 4y + 18 = 0 10.450 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 10. (– 2. (iii) x cos 315° + y sin 315° = 2 2 . 2x + y + 6 = 0 7. 5x – y + 20 = 0 12.6. 120° (ii) x cos 90° + y sin 90° = 2. −2. 315° 5. 2x – 9y + 85 = 0 19. 0 7 7 3 3 x y 3 + =1. 0. (i) (iii) 2 2 y = − . 5 units 3. 3 3 4. 4. 1340 litres.3 1. 0) and (8. 12. x y 3 −2 2 + = 1. 3 x + y − 2 = 0 and 3 x + y + 2 = 0 10. − . (i) x cos 120° + y sin 120° = 4. 90°. 2. . 6. . 17 2 l 8. − 2 . 6. 4. 2. intercept with y-axis = − and no intercept with x-axis. x + 2y – 6 = 0. 0) 7. EXERCISE 10. 2kx + hy = 3kh. 2x + y – 6 = 0 14. (1 + n)x + 3(1 + n)y = n +11 13. 2 2 . 16. (ii) units. 8. (i) 65 1 p+r units. y = mx 5. y + 7x = 21 9. (ii) 4 6 2 2. (iii) y = 0x + 0.942 90 17. 0. y = 0 and x = 0 4. 5x + 3y + 2 = 0 ( 3 +1 x − ) ( 3 −1 y = 4 ) ( 3 –1 ) x − 3y + 2 3 = 0 9. (i) 1 1 5 5 y = − x + 0. x – 2y + 10 = 0 3.2 1.192 ( C − 20 ) + 124. 3x – 4y + 8 = 0 3x + y = 10 11. 30° and 150° 22 9 ( 3 + 2 x + 2 3 – 1 y = 8 3 + 1 or ) ( ) ( 3 − 2 x + 1 + 2 3 y = –1 + 8 3 ) ( ) .

r = 6 65 8. ⎜ 0. (c) 6 or 1 2.ANSWERS 451 13. y – x = 1. x = 1. c ( 1 1 . y = 1.c = 2 2 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 10 1. (b) ± 2. (a) 3. m= 1 5 . x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y –3 = 0 3. 1 : 2 16. 2x – 3y + 18 = 0 11. r = 53 9. 5 14. 7π . line is parallel to x . x2 + y2 – 2x – 2y = 0 5. 36x2 + 36y2 – 36x – 18y + 11 = 0 4. 2x + y = 5 17. ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 6. ⎜ . 19. – 4). 119x + 102y = 205 EXERCISE 11. 3). c(–5. 23 5 units 18 8. x2 + y2 + 4x – 21 = 0 & x2 + y2 – 12x + 11 = 0 . x2 + y2 – 6x – 8y + 15 = 0 11. ⎜ . 5. r = 6. – 5). 1± 5 2 7 ⎛ 13 ⎞ 22. 4). − 3x + 2 y = 6 sin (φ – θ) φ–θ 2 sin 2 8 ⎞ ⎛ 32 ⎞ ⎛ 4. x2 + y2 – 4y = 0 2. − ⎟ ⎝ 25 25 ⎠ 15. x=− 5 22 7. 0) .e. x + 3y = 9 15. k2 square units 12.1 1. x2 + y2 + 2ax + 2by + 2b2 = 0 7. ⎜ 0 . c(4.axis 17. c(2. 2 ⎛ 68 49 ⎞ 14. − ⎟ . 0 ⎟ ⎝5 ⎠ 24. 13x + 13y = 6 9. 3x – y = 7. (–1.1 6 3. r = 4 4 10. 18x + 12y + 11 = 0 18. 21. x2 + y2 – 7x + 5y – 14 = 0 12. Slope of the line is zero i. 2 x − 3 y = 6 .

e = Latus rectum = 8 5 7 . 3 3 ). length of the Latus rectum = 8 4. Major axis = 10.axis.x . F (–2. 4 3. y2 = 24x 10. since the distance of the point to the centre of the circle is less than the radius of the circle.x . 5 2 5 . x2 + y2 – ax – by = 0 14. axis .y . directrix x = – 3. ± 21 ).y . axis .x . axis . F ( ± 7 .2 1. –4). e = Latus rectum = 20 .axis. V (± 6. 0).axis. 2x2 = 25y 1. x2 = – 12y 11. Major axis = 8. 0). 2y2 = 9x EXERCISE 11. axis . Inside the circle. length of the Latus rectum = 12 2. Minor axis = 4 . directrix y = . length of the Latus rectum = 6 2 2 3. directrix x = – 6.y . Minor axis = 6 . F ( . length of the Latus rectum = 9 4 4 7. F (0. F (0. y2 = –8x 8. F (0. length of the Latus rectum = 16 5. Minor axis = 8 .3 9. directrix y = 4. ± 5). Major axis = 12. F (3.0). length of the Latus rectum = 10 2 –9 9 ) .axis.axis. F (0.452 MATHEMATICS 13. 6 16 3 21 . 0). 0). axis . directrix y = – . V (0. y2 = 12x 12. 5 2. EXERCISE 11. 0). e = Latus rectum = 9 2 .axis. V ( ± 4. 0) axis . F (± 20 . directrix x = 2. x2 + y2 – 4x – 4y = 5 15.

x2 y2 + =1 144 169 x2 y 2 + =1 1 5 x2 y 2 + =1 16 7 12. V ( ± 3.ANSWERS 453 4. x2 y 2 + =1 36 20 x2 y2 + =1 169 144 x2 y 2 + =1 25 9 .0). Minor axis = 20 . 2 2 2 . Major axis = 8 . e = Latus rectum = ( ) 1 2 5 .± 20). e = Latus rectum = 5 5. ± 4). 13. Major axis =14 . ± 4 2 ). 3 6. ± 75 ). ± 10 3 ). 14. 3 9. V (± 7. Major axis = 6 . 4 3 15 . Minor axis = 2 .± 6). F ( ± 5 . 17. F (0.± 15 . e = Latus rectum = 3 . Major axis =40 . V (0. V (0. 0). Minor axis = 10 . Major axis = 20. Major axis =12 . Minor axis = 4 . 2 13 . 0).± 10). e = Latus rectum = 10. 15. x2 y 2 + =1 25 9 x2 y 2 + =1 9 4 x2 y 2 + =1 64 100 8 3 11. e = Latus rectum = 8. V (0. e = Latus rectum = 10 7.0). F (± 13 . 7 72 7 3 . 4 F 0. V (0. F (0. Minor axis = 12 . Minor axis = 4 . F (0. 16. 18.

14.56m (approx.4 9 5 . Focus is at the mid-point of the given diameter. Vertices (0. Latus rectum = 2 4 9. x2 y2 + =1 81 9 4. Foci (0. 13. Vertices (± 4. y 2 x2 − =1 9 16 x2 y 2 − =1 25 20 x2 y2 − =1 5 5 8. e = 7. 0).) 3. x + 4y = 52 or 2 2 x2 y 2 + =1 52 13 EXERCISE 11. e = 4.± 6 14 4 5 ). Foci (± 5. Vertices (0. Latus rectum = 3 3 ).23 m (approx. 0). e = 3. 18 sq units 8. 12. 2. Vertices (0. 2. 0). Foci (0. e = . ± 65 ).) 7. e = 2.± 2 14 5 13 . 0). ± 4). Vertices (0. 15. x2 y 2 + =1 10 40 20. 8 3a . 10. Latus rectum = 5 3 3 6.) 5. x2 y 2 + =1 25 9 6. x2 y2 − =1 4 5 x2 y2 − =1 16 9 x2 y2 − =1 4 12 49 65 . ± 3). 9. Foci (± 10. Foci (0 ± 6). Latus rectum = 9 2 5 64 . 1. ± 13 ). ± 2). e = 5.11 m (approx. Foci (0. y 2 x2 − =1 25 39 y 2 x2 − =1 25 144 x2 9 y2 − =1 49 343 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 11 1. 11.454 MATHEMATICS 19. Latus rectum = 18 1. Vertices (± 6. Latus rectum = 4 2 2.

1 15.plane (ii) (x.ANSWERS 455 EXERCISE 12. x – 2z = 05. III. 11. a = – 2. 7 3. – 10. (ii) ( − 8. V.17 . – 6. 2 : 3 5. 4. I. 2. IV. y and z . c=2 3 EXERCISE 13. – 4. (8. 0) 2. ⎟ . (1. 7 34 . (i) ⎜ . b 13.2 1. – 2). 9x2 + 25y2 + 25z2 – 225 = 0 EXERCISE 12. π 7.3 ⎛ −4 1 27 ⎞ 1.3) 2. y . 22 ⎞ ⎛ 2. ⎜ π − ⎟ 7 ⎠ ⎝ 3. 8) 4.1 1. y. b = − 16 .coordinate is zero (iii) Eight regions EXERCISE 12. 0) and (0. 16. VI. 6) 6. 0) 5. (i) XY . – 2. 1 : 2 ⎝ 5 5 5 ⎠ 3. – 2. II. 11 4 9. 5 10. 1 4 a b a b 1 π . 2 14. (0. 2) Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 12 1. (6.1 1. x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 x − 7 y + 2 z = k 2 – 109 2 2. . 6 5. (4. 8. 19 2 108 7 − 1 π − 1 2 6. VIII.coordinate are zero 3. 12. (i) 2 5 (ii) 43 (iii) 2 26 (iv) 2 5 4. VII 4.

(i) (iii) (v) (vii) (ii) 20x3 – 15x2 + 6x – 4 (iii) −3 ( 5 + 2x ) x4 (iv) 15x4 + 24 x5 –2 x (3x – 2) –12 36 – + 10 (vi) 2 ( x + 1) (3 x – 1)2 x5 x cos2 x 5sec x tan x – 4sin x – 3cosec2 x – 5 cosec x cot x 2sec2 x – 7sec x tan x 10. 27. (i) 3x2 6. Limit does not exist at x = 0 lim f (x) = 0 and lim f (x) = (a – a ) (a – a ) . 2.. 3. 0 23. EXERCISE 13.2 1.. 20 4. 29. a +1 b 0 22. 4 21. 2 Limit does not exist at x = 1 Limit does not exist at x = 0 0 28. (a – a ) 1 2 x x →a lim f (x) exists for all a ≠ 0. x → a1 19. For lim f (x) to exists. 1 (iii) −2 x3 −2 (iv) ( x − 1)2 nx n −1 + a (n − 1)x n − 2 + a 2 (n − 2)x n−3 + .. 2 32. 1 26. 6 20. 24. (i) 2x − a − b (ii) 4ax ax 2 + b ( ) a −b (iii) ( x − b )2 8.. (i) 2 (v) 11.456 MATHEMATICS 17. x →a 31. – sin x (ii) sec x tan x (iv) – cosec x cot x (vi) 5cos x+ 6sin x . + a n−1 7. b = 4 18. 25. a = 0. 99 (ii) 2x – 3 3. lim f (x) exists for any integral value x→0 x→1 of m and n. 30. nx n − anx n−1 − x n + a n ( x − a) 2 9 . we need m = n.

(i) – 1 (ii) − qr + ps x2 1 x2 π⎞ ⎛ (iii) cos (x + 1) (vi) −sin ⎜ x − ⎟ 8⎠ ⎝ 2. 13. x ≠ 0. 4. 24. – cosec3 x – cosec x cot2 x 17. − apx 2 − 2bpx + ar − bq ( px 2 + 2x + r ) 2 9.ANSWERS 457 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 13 1. ( cx + d ) 2 ( x – 1) 2 . cos (x+a) 15. −1 1 + sin x n–1 −2 ( sin x − cos x ) 2 18. −4a 2b + 3 − sin x x5 x 11.1 7. 23. 16. ⎡ ( ax + b )n −1 ( cx + d )m−1 ⎣ mc ( ax + b ) + na ( cx + d )⎤ ⎦ 14. 2 x 12. n sin x cos x 20. x3 ( 5 x cos x + 3 x sin x + 20 sin x − 12cos x ) − x 2 sin x − sin x + 2 x cos x −q sin x ax 2 + sin x + ( p + q cos x )( 2 a x + cos x ) ( ) − tan 2 x ( x + cos x ) + ( x − tan x )(1 − sin x ) 35 + 15 x cos x + 28 cos x + 28 x sin x − 15sin x ( 3x + 7 cos x )2 . ( ax − ( 2ax + b ) 2 + bx + c ) 2 8. 26. −2 6. apx 2 + 2bpx + bq − ar ( ax + b ) na ( ax + b ) n−1 2 10. 2sec x tan x ( sec x + 1) cos α cos2 x 2 19. 2c (ax+b) (cx + d) + a (cx + d)2 ad − bc 5. bc cos x + ad sin x + bd ( c + d cos x ) 2 21. 22. 25. 1 3.

it is not a statement. The three examples can be: (i) Everyone in this room is bold. Therefore. (1 + tanx ) 2 ( x + sec x ) (1 − sec 2 x ) + ( x − tan x ) . This is not a statement because from the context it is not clear which room is reffered here and the term bold is not precisely defined. it is not a statement. 1. Unless. squares and rhombus have equal length whereas rectangles and trapezium have unequal length. it is not a statement. (vi) It is an order and therefore. (1 + sec x tan x ) sin x − n x cos x sin n +1 x EXERCISE 14. This is also not a statement because who ‘she’ is. we know what θ is. (vii) This sentence is false as the product is (–8). Therefore. (ii) She is an engineering student. For example. is not a statement. 30. (v) This sentence is sometimes true and sometimes false. Therefore.1 (i) This sentence is always false because the maximum number of days in a month is 31. it is a statement. it is a statement. (iii) “cos2θ is always greater than 1/2”. it is a statement. Therefore. (iv) This sentence is sometimes true and sometimes not true. π ( 2 sin x − x cos x ) 4 sin 2 x 1 + tanx − x sec 2 x 28. (ix) It is not clear from the context which day is referred and therefore. For example the square of 2 is even number and the square of 3 is an odd number. . (x) This is a true statement because all real numbers can be written in the form a + i × 0. 29.458 MATHEMATICS x cos 27. we cannot say whether the sentence is true or not. (ii) This is not a statement because for some people mathematics can be easy and for some others it can be difficult. 2. (iii) This sentence is always true because the sum is 12 and it is greater than 10. it is a statement. (viii) This sentence is always true and therefore. Therefore.

The component statements are: All rational numbers are real. Therefore. (ii) “For every”. the pairs are negations of each other. 1. The component statements are: Square of an integer is positive. (i) (ii) (iii) EXERCISE 14. the component statements are: The sand heats up quickily in the sun. .ANSWERS 459 EXERCISES 14.” which is the same as the second statement” This is because when a number is not irrational. (iii) “And”. (i) (ii) 3.2 1. 100 is divisible by 3. Number 3 is prime.100 is divisible by 11 and 100 is divisible by 5 (False). Square of an integer is negative. (ii) “Or”. the given pairs are negations of each other. (iii) “There exists”. The negation is There exists a state in India which does not have a capital. all integers are negative (False). (i) “There exists”. (i) Chennai is not the capital of Tamil Nadu. 2 is a complex number. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2. All integers are positive. The sand does not cool down fast at night. The number 2 is not greater than 7.3 (i) “And”. it is a rational. All real numbers are not complex. The negation of the first statement is “the number x is a rational number. Therefore. The negation is There exists a real number x such that x is not less than x + 1. The component statements are: 2 x = 2 is a root of the equation 3x – x – 10 = 0 2 x = 3 is a root of the equation 3x – x – 10 = 0 2. (iv) “And”. All triangles are equilateral tringles. Every natural number is not an integer. The negation is There does not exist a number which is equal to its square. The negation of the first statement is “x is an irrational number” which is the same as the second statement. number 3 is odd (True).

4 1. it is sufficient that the number is odd If the square of a natural number is not odd. The converse is If a number x in odd. The contrapositive is If two lines intersect in the same plane. then x is an even number. If the banana tree stays warm for a month. then they are not parallel The converse is If two lines do not interesect in the same plane. then it is a prime number. This statement can be written as “If x is an even number. then you can comprehend geometry.460 MATHEMATICS No. If you get a job. then x is not a prime number. If x is not divisible by 4. (i) Exclusive (ii) Inclusive (iii) Exclusive 3. (i) (ii) . 4. then it will bloom. then x is divisible by 4”. For the square of a natural number to be odd. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2. instead of the statement given in (ii). then x is not an even number. For a natural number to be odd it is necessary that its square is odd. then you can not comprehend geometry. A natural number is odd only if its square is odd. EXERCISE 14. The converse is If you do not know how to reason deductively. then the natural number is not odd. The negation of the statement in (i) is “There exists real number x and y for which x + y ≠ y + x”. (i) A natural number is odd implies that its square is odd. The converse is. The contrapositive is. The contrapositive is If a number x is not odd. then they are parallel The contrapositive is If something is not at low temperature. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 3. If x is divisible by 4. then it is cold The contrapositive is If you know how to reason deductively. then it is not cold The converse is If something is at low temperature. then your credentials are good.

Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 14 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2. by the rule of inequality (v) False. then it has no divisors other than 1 and itself. If you get A+ in the class. then it is not hot outside. (i) 1.5 5. In the equation of an ellipse if we put a = b. . The converse of the statement is If I go to beach. (iii) True. then it is not a sunny day. then it is hot outside. (ii) The given statement can be written as “If it is a sunny day. then I go to a beach. Contrapositive Converse Contrapositive Converse EXERCISE 14. a (i) (ii) b (i) (ii) If diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other. The converse of the statement is If a positive integer has no divisors other than 1 and itself. The statement can be written as “If a positive integer is prime. then it is a parallelogram. (i) False. it should intersect the circle in two points. then you do all the exercises in the book. Since 11 is a prime number. The contrapositive of the statement is If positive integer has divisors other than 1 and itself then it is not prime. By definition of the chord. (ii) False. There exists a cat which does not scratch. A chord which is not a dimaeter gives the counter example. therefore 11 is irrational. There exists a real number x such that neither x > 1 nor x < 1. (iii) The converse is If you feel thirsty. The contrapositive is If you do not feel thirsty. then it is a sunny day. There does not exist a number x such that 0 < x < 1. then it is a prime. then it is a circle (Direct Method) (iv) True. The contrapositive is If I do not go to a beach. There exists a positive real number x such that x–1 is not positive.ANSWERS 461 (iii) (iv) 4. This can be shown by giving a counter example.

EXERCISE 15. 7.23 11. The compound statement with “Or” is 25 is a multiple of 5 or 8 This is true statement.4 3. 132 5. 9. 5. 11. Same as Q1 in Exercise 14. (iii) If you can access the website.1 1. 7.52. The compound statement with “And” is 25 is a multiple of 5 and 8 This is a false statement. 1. 8.09 6. 4. 6.27 EXERCISE 15.3 1. 20. 5. 29. 16 10. 10.5 4.28 3.1 12. 8 2. 100.55.69 9.1. 93. 6. (i) You watch television if and only if your mind in free. B 4.99 (ii) 10. 2. 2.25 n + 1 n2 − 1 . 105. 27. then you pay a subscription fee. then there is traffic jam.4 6. 3. (iii) A quadrilateral is equiangular if and only if it is a rectangle. 5. (ii) If it rains. 12 5. (i) 10. 1. (ii) B Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 15 1. 4. 16. (ii) You get an A grade if and only you do all the homework regularly.33 7. 64. 43.5. 74.2 1.462 MATHEMATICS (i) If there is log on to the server. 2 12 3. 19. (i) B. 2276 10. then you have a password.036 .98 6.4 8. 8 3. Y 5. 107. 9. 43. A 2. 3. 7 8.2.32 9.25 7. 10. 157.35 EXERCISE 15. 1. 3 5. Weight 3. Highest Chemistry and lowest Mathematics 7.34 4. 24.92 2.

2.. 3} (v) {6} (vi) {3. (4. and “getting at least two tails” (ii) “Getting no heads”. H42. 6}. (4.3). (5. 6} (ii) φ (iii) {3.6). R3. . B and C are mutually exclusive. B5.2). R4.5). (2..2.3. DNN. H3. (5.6} {(1.6)} B = {(1. E∩F = {6}. XB2. (2.. (3.6).4). 1HT. H63.. (1. . y = 1. 4. T3..4). DND. TTHT.. HTTT. (1. 1TH.6). T4. YG5} {R1. HT. 15. (6.1). HTHT. y) : x. 2. HTTH. A and C. T4. H6. TTHH. {HHH. B1. (6.2.. . 6}.5}. .. H65.5). BG.5. 12.3). T5. W5.1). TTTT} {H1.1. H4. HHTH. H4. HTH. H62. H23. H22. 4H. H26. A – C = {1.. 3TT. 5. HHHT.6). (2. 16. (2. H5. 4). (4. 5. (2. YG4. (4. 5TH.2).2). (2.. R5.6). (6. “getting exactly one head” and “getting at least two heads” . 3. W4. H21.1). (1.3). HTHH.6). (6.2).1... (2. H2. 3. HTT. T2.6). HHT.1). 9. (2. 4). H2.4. (3. 4. TB1.. H6} {6. 7. NDD. (2. H25.4). R6. H1. (2. (1. (5. (5. H5. No. A∪B = {1. W6. T6} {H1.5)..4). (i) {1.6). 4. B6} (i) {BB. . 6T} {TR1. H2. THHT.4.2). 2). THT. 10. (2. 2T. (5. W3.6)} {HHHH. T1. H5. H4.2).5. C and D (ii) A and C (iii) B and D (i) “Getting at least two heads”. D – E = {1. H24. (1. NDN. 6.2. (6. (1. E∩ F′ = φ.6). 3HT. T3. H64. or 3. (6.3)} {1HH.1). NND. 1. 2.6). WR. (4. (2. H6. (i) A and B. . W1.6). H5..6). 4. T5. 6} (iv) {1. (4.3). (6. 2H. GG} (ii) {0. (6. (6. 5. H66} {(1. 5.2). 4T. NNN} {T.ANSWERS 463 EXERCISE 16. H44. (5.6)} C ={(3. (1... GB. (3. 3HH.1). XG2. (2.6). H3.3). THTT. B2. H1. TTT} {(x. (5.4). 2).6). H61.6). THTH. .2.. (6. WW} [HH. 2. TB2. H45. TTH. D∩E = φ. } EXERCISE 16. 2} {RW. XG1. TR2. (4. HHTT. 5HT. 8. 5HH. (3.6).2). 2. 14. YB3. 11. T6} {DDD. (2. F′ = {1. H41. (2.2). R2. 1TT. 1). YG3. . (1.5).1 1.2 1.5. 2. 5TT. 2} 3. B4. (3.. W2.3}. B and C. 4.3).5). THHH.2. TTTH.1. 6H.6). (4. (2. H43.. 6}.2). T} {XB1. (5.6)} A and B. 5. THH. DDN.. (1. H3. TB3. H3.. H46. T2. T1. B3.. 13.6).6). 3TH. B∪C = {3. A = {(3. A∩B = φ.

2). (4. (3. (4.2). (1. (5. (3. (4. (3.4). (1.4). (1.5).5). (4. (6. (i) (b) Yes (c) No (d) No (e) No 2. (1.2). (4.3).4).2).2). (3. (6.6).4).2).2).5).6). (2. (2. 4.4).3). (2.3).5).5).4). (5. 3 4 1 1 1 (ii) (c) (i) 52 13 2 1 2 1 5 (ii) (iii) (iv) 0 (v) 2 3 6 6 1 1 (ii) 12 12 6. (3.4). (1.3).4).5). (5.6). (5. (4.1). (2.4).1). (2.2). (3.4).3). (4. (4.6). (a) Yes 3. (6.3). (6. (4. (3.3). (2.1).4). (5.1). and “getting exactly two tails” (iv) “Getting exactly one head” and “getting exactly two heads” (v) “Getting exactly one tail”. (6.6)} (vii) B ∩ C = {(1. (6.4). (2.1).4). (5. (4. (1. (1. (5. (2. (3. (6. (1.2). (1.4).5).3). (4.4). (1.1)} (i) A′ = {(1.5). (6.6). (4. (i) True (ii) True (iii) True (iv) False (v) False (vi) False EXERCISE 16.3). (3.4). (2.6)} = S (iv) A ∩ B = φ (v) A – C = {(2. (6. (2.3).1). (5. (1. (1.2)} (viii) A ∩ B′ ∩ C′ = {(2. (3. (5.5).3).1).3).2).5). (5.4). (4. (3.2).1).2).4).1). (6. (3.4).1). 1). (6. (5. (5.6)} B = {(1.5). 6.1). (2.1).2). (4. (3. (2.3). (4. (5. (6.3). (2.1). (6.6). (6.2). “getting exactly two tails”. (1.3). (3.2).2). (1. (6. (3. (1.1).5).3).4). (2. (2.6)} = A (iii) A∪B = {(1.2). (4.2). (6. (4. (2. (5. (5.3). (6.4). (3. (4.5).2).4).2).2).6).1).2). (6.2).3). (6.4). 1).4).2). (5.1). (4. (i) 5. (4.5).2). (1.4).5).3).6). (1.3). (4. (5.5). (6.3).6). (2.3). (1. A = {(2. (2.1). (3. (5. (1. (3.5).2).4).6)} C = {(1.6).1).5). 1).1). (6.5). (4. (1. (5.3). (6. (2. (6.1). (4. (4.6). (5.6).6). (6.2). and getting exactly three tails” Note There may be other events also as answer to the above question. (3. (6.4). (3. (2.6). (2.3).5). (1. (3.3).3). (3. (6.1). (3. (1.2).1). (1. (6. (3.2). (4. (6. (4.1). (3. (2. (5. (1. (2. (3.3). (5.1). (6. (1.2).3 1. (a) 52 (b) 3 5 .6).464 MATHEMATICS (iii) “Getting at most two tails”.6)} (vi) B ∪ C = {(1.3). (5. (1.6). (2. (6.6).6).5).1). (3. (4. (2.5).1).4).5).1). (3. (4.6).5).5). (4. (5.6)} 7. (4.5).5).6)} = B (ii) B′ = {(2.3).

00) = P (Losing Rs 3.00 loss. (ii) Yes 13. 7.34 9. P ( Winning Rs 4.00 gain. (i) 4 5 2 5 (ii) 3 8 10.00) = 16 4 8 1 1 . 1 5040 .50) = .12 (iii) 0.50 loss. (i) 3.50) = 8. 4 5 17.15 (ii) 3 8 11 30 (iii) 16. (i) 15.00) = . P(Winning Rs 1.ANSWERS 465 7.52 (iii) 0. 13 C1 52 C4 999 1000 (b) C2 10000 C2 9990 9990 1 1 5 (ii) (iii) 2 2 6 17 33 (b) 16 33 4. (i) 9. (i) 7 15 5 8 19 30 (ii) 0. (a) 6. 1 1 3 . 1.88 (ii) 0. Rs 3. Re 1.5 (iii) 0. (a) C5 60 C5 (ii) 1 − 30 C5 2. (i) No. 4 16 1 3 1 7 1 1 3 1 7 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) 8 8 2 8 8 8 8 8 8 10. No 19. (c) 10000 C10 C10 2 3 8. 1 38760 12. Rs 4.6 21. 60 C5 13 C3 .74 20. 0. (i) 9 11 6 13 (ii) 7 13 11. 0.65 (ii) 2 15 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 16 20 1. Rs 1. (i) 5. P (Losing Re.00 loss. (i) 0. P (Losing Rs 6. because P(A∩B) must be less than or equal to P(A) and P(B).58 (ii) 0.50 gain. Rs 6.19 (iv) 0. 0. (i) 0. (i) 18.55 14.

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