Heinemann English Language Teaching A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Limited Halley Court, Jordan Hill, Oxford 0X2 8EJ

The author and publishers are grateful to the following for their permission to use copyright material in this book p17 British Defence and Aid Fund for Southern
Africa (November 1990 appeal letter); p28 © The
Guardian (editorial text 21.2.91); p32 The Economist

TOKYO SINGAPORE KUALA LUMPUR MELBOURNE AUCKLAND JOHANNESBURG IBADAN GABORONE ISBN 0 435 28206 9 © Martin Mills 1993 First Published 1993 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in

(extract from 'A survey of Brazil' 7.12.91); p34 © The Guardian ('Wiser W e l s h still h a n k e r for chips' by Vivek C h a u d h a r y 5.6.91); p43 © The Guardian ('Cucumber thief put in cooler' by G a r e t h Parry 11.12.90); p 4 8 © The Observer ('Albania tanks roll to quell protests 1 by Mark Frankland 16.12.90); p53 © Carnell Ltd 1991 (advertisement: 'How to talk to your cat'); p58 © Times Newspapers Ltd 1986 ('Krishna leaders face criminal charges' by Mark Hosenball Sunday Times 1.9.86).

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cars Travel. holidays Organising Your Learning: Reading (2) . the occult Environmental problems Motoring.Contents page To the Student Organising Your Learning: Introduction 1 6 7 12 13 15 20 21 26 27 32 33 38 39 44 45 50 51 56 61 66 71 77 UNIT 1 Learning and teaching English Organising Your Learning: Dictionaries UNIT 2 The family Organising Your Learning: Vocabulary Organising Your Learning: Grammar UNIT 3 Prejudice Organising Your Learning: Speaking (1) UNIT 4 Entertainment going out Organising Your Learning: Writing UNIT 5 The Third World Organising Your Learning: Reading (1) UNIT 6 Health and medicine Organising Your Learning: Speaking (2) UNIT 7 Crime and law enforcement Organising Your Learning: Listening UNIT 8 UNIT 9 UNIT 10 UNIT 11 UNIT 12 UNIT 13 Answer key Political ideas Animals Unusual beliefs.

to file management. depending on the situation • speaking with little accent • speaking fluently. and register The exercises can be done in class or as set homework. Organising Your Learning: Introduction 1 Why go on studying English? Your English is fairly good now. and plan what you will do • keep a record. with little hesitation • writing • understanding what you hear • understanding what you read 3 What are your priorities? Bearing in mind the needs you considered in exercise 1 and your strengths and weaknesses. so it is essential to organise your own learning outside the classroom. the following basic rules are important: • set aside a regular. Most likely you manage quite well when you speak and hear it. or style of English. and a key is provided so that you can correct for yourself any exercise which you do on your own. even a simple one.To the Student This Workbook has four main aims: • to develop the suggestions made in your Coursebook about organising your learning • to offer further practice of the language presented in your Coursebook • to introduce and practise related vocabulary and grammar points • to provide further work on writing. realistic time for study or activities. Which of them are true for you? Are there any other reasons not mentioned here? • pure interest in the language. Note the advantages of studying in class or working on your English outside class time. using the following: VG: very good G: good QG quite good NVG: not very good • expanding your passive vocabulary (what you understand) • activating your passive vocabulary (using it) • using grammatically correct English: in writing and speaking in class outside 5 Organising work outside the classroom The Organising Your Learning units in this Workbook and in your Coursebook provide suggestions and demonstration activities for working on your English outside the classroom. So why do you want to go on studying? Look at the reasons for advanced English study below. Whatever shape your self-directed learning takes. You may well have other ideas of your own. and the culture(s) associated with it • a specific need to use English well in a particular situation • a long-term need for English in your work • a desire to speak English as the 'international language' • a need for English in your studies • to pass an EFL exam (why?) 2 What are your strengths in English? All learners are better at some things than others in English. to ways of making the most of your dictionary. • using an appropriate register. what do you most need to work on in your English? 4 Studying alone or in a group No course or language class can entirely reflect your personal priorities. and how this relates to what you want to achieve Good luck and enjoyable learning! . These range from fluency activities. pronunciation. Grade your own performance on the skills below. of what you have done • always be aware of the purpose of what you can do.

14 I'm not sure about teaching such a big group. working in the casualty department. 1 She won't mind starting work at 6am. e I'm used to teaching individual 'students. 11 Penguins don't mind the English winter a bit! 12 No problem. h They're used to lying in 'bed all morning. stressing the correct syllable. 13 These early suppers in England are really strange. 8 We didn't get to the restaurant till 1 lpm. 2 Paris to Athens in three days should be no problem3 The students find all this individual work a bit dull. j She's 'used to the sight of blood. in b used is stressed. 7 Working in an office will seem rather dull and safe. 1 They're used to working in 'groups m She's 'used to getting up early. 6 The students work together really efficiently. g I'm 'used to eating late in the evening. 2 Match each sentence below with a sentence in exercise 1. 1 . I expect. c They're'used to working in groups. a I'm used to eating late in the 'evening. Example: 8 We didn't get to the restaurant till I lpmt but that was OK. 5 Penguins find summers in the zoo a bit uncomfortable. in a evening is stressed. For example. f She's 'used to risking her life. b I'm 'used to teaching individual students. Check on page 77. n She's used to risking her'life. k I'm 'used to driving long distances without rest. but that was OK. 9 They won't like getting up at dawn in the army! 10 She won't be shocked. g I'm 'used to eating late in the evening. i They're 'used to cold weather. Say the sentences to yourself. I've given a lot of private lessons.UNIT Learning and teaching English be used to doing 1 The sentences below are marked to show sentence stress. d They're used to 'cold weather. 4 She won't worry about being sent off to cover the war.

(there. And I can't imagine your father in a hat. aren't you? I can't remember the last time I walked so far. continue) f There's no reason why he should feel that way any more. (resides. write OK below. I'll be happy. I know you found it a 10 rather strange colour. All right. He'll look 12 very ridiculous.. address) Alice no longer resldee at this address. A: Young people. B: Mr Smith is no longer employed by the company. adverbs qualify adjectives. In. (respect. that matter) e He doesn't want to go on living any more.UNIT 1 Language register: not. him. and write the new combination below. beliefs) c We don't mind them being here any more. (presents. 1 OK 2 absolutely I utterly amazing 3 4 5 Check on page 77. any more and no longer to speak of changes 3 Sentences A and B below talk about the same change of situation. (interest. A: Well. (objection. A: Still. Where adverbs and adjectives do match. (intention. B: It is not strange. these cases. She looks 7 absolutely scared that she's going to slip up and fall down. The first is done for you. 4 Absolutely annoying. I'm sure. (reason for. The bus company should do something about it. It is 5 fairly incredible that elderly people should have to walk in ice and snow in such weather. such an attitude) g I'm not going to take the job any more. 6 7 8 2 . The first two are done for you. replace one of the words. It really is 2 fairly amazing how difficult it is to get a bus whenever it snows. b He doesn't respect what his parents believe in any more. I bet he'll be 9 extremely delighted with it. the position) h People aren't hopeful any more that they can sort out the crisis without a war. a Alice doesn't live here any more. anyway. dear. hope. B: Amazing? I should say it is 3 utterly deplorable. crisis. but B is more formal. Do not change the form of the words. it is 11 absolutely ugly. for example. Sometimes the adverbs and adjectives don't match. presence) d I'm not interested in all that any more. because one of them is too strong or too weak.. I must say I'm 8 utterly pleased we went shopping today. (desire. too! What about me? I'm 6 absolutely freezing! B: Take that poor old lady over there. using the words in brackets. If we hadn't we would probably never have found Dad's present. Emphasis: neutral and strong adjectives Convert the following sentences in the same way. as long as it keeps his head warm. difficulties) 4 At twelve points in the dialogue below. A: Gosh. resolved peacefully) i This structure isn't difficult for me any more. A: Bob Smith doesn't workhere anymore. I'm 1 absolutely exhausted. mother. in fact. but I think it's nice.

It's __ ! Check on page 77. this pie is wide stone blind raving fast bored filthy dead tired asleep stiff right awake slow cold rich mad deaf drunk Modest hostess: Thank you. . and a castle in Scotland. I mean. c I stayed. some 'neutral' adjectives. they've got a 'Oh yes. or 'collocations'. I know it's that they should know soon. a flat in Paris. calm down. c A: Look. a Dinner's on the table. like tired can combine with other words to make strong. it is isn't it? It's my own recipe. _________________ . Using your dictionary. Emphasis: adjective collocations 6 Adjectives like exhausted are quite strong on their own. I suppose. but he doesn't make me laugh much. That's where they keep Uncle Angus locked up.UNIT 1 9 10 11 12 5 Fill in each gap in the following dialogues with an adverb + adjective combination. Check on page 77. yes.' 'Why? Is he a bit strange?' 'Strange? d e is more like it!' from I agree with him entirely. no matter how hard I tried. listen to me. you know. match words on the left with words on the right to form collocations. I must say. b A: You really must see the new Mel Brookes' comedy. but it's not that urgent. 3 . b The children were minutes of going to . he's What a tedious film. I was beginning to end. However. he's . they're house in the Bahamas.and bed they within were. surely? Check on page 77. emphatic combinations. B: I'm not a Mel Brookes fan really. B: Oh come on. Some left-hand words can be used more than once. that I couldn't sleep though. a Dinner guest: Mmm. come and eat or your food will be. 7 Fill the gaps with expressions from exercise 6. by the way. it is this letter is posted today.

. . Match the pictures and words and write the simile beneath each picture. and asked to see the manager. a The car left the road on a sharp bend and feU into the sea. . Pm sure they'll find her soon. p Don't look at the man just because he looks a bit strange! q He walked in.. where it broke into a thousand pieces... Using your dictionary. d I absolutely dislike that man. h He asked her to forgive him. . . very annoyed. . g We searched the country. i He pushed me out of the way in his hurry. 1 . and finally found the sort of house we were looking for. n I promise I'll never do it again. 4 eat pretty sleep r Unfortunately it poured with rain. j The kite rose into the air as the wind caught it. .. e She threw her glass at the wall. The first is done for you. Each picture can combine with one of the words below to make a simile. . plunged b The drawer was jammed shut but he managed to pull it open. replace each verb in italics with a more emphatic verb from the list. she's struggling to understand is stronger than she's trying to understand. Emphasis: strong verbs 9 As with adjectives..UNIT 1 Emphasis: similes 8 Similes with an adjective or a verb like stubborn as a mule and She works like a slave can also he used for emphasis. quiet light blind smoke drink (alcohol) old clean Check on page 77. . c The thieves took her bag and ran off with it. For example. hurried up the stairs. k The police suddenly came i n . some verbs are stronger than others. and began knocking on the door. but she refused to. o Don't give up. . . f . m . which spoilt the picnic.

but also help them to develop their own best way of learning. 5 . k It's useful to have dictionaries in the classroom look words up in.but also) (purpose: to achieve her own learning objectives) c A good language school will not only support its teachers with efficient teaching materials. Check on page 77. and add a clause of purpose with so that or in order to. . (apart from) (purpose: the teachers can present an organised programme of work) d Apart from working hard in the classroom. h Dictionaries print words in phonemic script . g Phonemic script is used pronounced. (not only) (purpose: to be able to present an organised programme of work) really have problems. b Some teachers ask their students to work in groups opportunity to talk freely. students how words are pronounced. Check on page 77. Explaining purpose and function 10 Complete the sentences in your own words using one of the following forms: infinitive in order to so that for (people) to (do) for doing Adding information and explaining purpose 11 Each sentence below makes two recommendations. d Our school has a language lab practise our pronunciation. i She writes words up on the blackboard students can see how they are spelt. c A language lab is good _____ pronunciation. 1 Make sure your written work is as good as you can make it your teacher can see where you her see how words are how words are practise my we can b Apart from participating in classroom work. f Phonemic script is pronounced. so that they can study effectively outside the classroom? a Some teachers ask their students to work in groups they can talk freely..UNIT 1 hurl grab hammer burst wrench race soar shatter stare shove swear demand loathe beg scour despair ruin Check on page 77. a A good language course should not only teach students the language. (not only. j She writes words up on the blackboard show how they are spelt. e I go to the language lab pronunciation. a good language student will work independently outside class time. but also pay them for preparation time. a good _ language course should help them to develop their own best way of learning. Rewrite the sentence using the expression in brackets. (apart from) (purpose: students can study effectively outside the classroom) Apart from teaching students the language. The first has been done for you. a good language teacher will spend time on lesson preparation.

compounds and phrasal verbs are easy to find • explanations in easy-to-understand English • helpful example sentences • information about grammar. Write out the phonemic transcriptions below in normal script. look them up in your dictionary. 4 I thought he was looking a bit low. 4 Using your dictionary. /su/ in low. which may contain several meanings. a operation b potential c particular d automobile e knuckle f coincidence g delicacy h kaleidoscope i quantitative j psychosomatic 6 Most sounds can be written in different ways in English (e. showing all the sounds in phonemic script. alone. with examples. 1 Compare two or three learner's dictionaries (the introductions and contents lists as well as the entries). measurements. derivatives (e.Organising Your Learning: Dictionaries Choosing and exploring a dictionary Bilingual dictionaries are useful when you know what you want to say. use two dictionaries. but don't know the word in English. if you use an English word as if it meant the same as its 'equivalent' in your own language in every context. check on page 77. so that meanings. abbreviations 2 Clear layout is especially important with very long entries. punctuation. 2 He was speaking in such a high voice. Mark what you think is the stressed syllable in each word below. nationalities. plus phrases. prefixes and suffixes. childish). To check your answers. . If you don't find the word. they can also lead you astray. Which one is quicker? 1 He looks as if he's high on something.g. (phrasal verb) 6 3 How words are pronounced should be made clear by your dictionary. and phrasal verbs. match the following words with their phonemic transcriptions on the right. If such a sound is at the beginning of a word you hear and want to look up. (phrase) 2 I feel like a Chinese takeaway. A monolingual learner's dictionary avoids this problem. important abbreviations. 3 We're low on sugar. A good idea is to record your teacher saying the example words. Christian names. so that you can listen to them from time to time. It should include a table. especially if you are deciding which one to buy. US/British differences • separate sections on grammar. idioms. compounds.g. loan). Do they contain the following? • words included specifically because they are common in modern English • clearly laid out entries. a longingly b yawning c flame-thrower d jumbled e lotion f chocolate g fearless h frightful Check on page 77. pronunciation. comparing dictionaries again if possible. try to guess the probable spelling. b Look up the following. It is worth spending some time finding out what information a dictionary can offer you. As a last resort. 1 She's lying low at the moment. try a different spelling. then practise saying the words correctly. Check in your dictionary. If you can. a Look up the following words as they are used in the sentence contexts. (compound) 3 He took to her straight away. place names. and keep looking until you find your word. childhood. and will tell you more about usage. style (formality/informality). 5 Word stress will also be shown by a good dictionary. However.

I wish I (1 tell _______ ) you ) be 'He's horrible. Now you're wishing you {8 never be born Wish + would with clauses of purpose 2 Change each sentence below into a wish + would sentence. Mummy. I wish you would listen properly. Oh. . ) laugh how horrible he is. do you? Yesterday you were in love. Everything (10 ) alright if only he {11 not ) at me. Mummy. including a so clause to explain purpose.. or would 1 Convert the infinitives in brackets to the correct tense. it's all gone wrong. what's so bad about him. He laughed at me. or could + infinitive. I wish you (13 take me seriously! I wish 1 {14 never mention ) it to you!' Check on page 77. in that case . ' 'Oh. so you would understand what you were supposed to be doing _____ ). . 'Oh.' 'He laughed at you in your new dress? Is that all? Oh well. a You don't understand what you're supposed to be doing. because you don't listen properly.wish + past simple/ past perfect. If I ( 2 know _____ what he was like. you change too quickly for me. The first has been done for you. you (7 not go ) with anyone. I wish I (4 be ) dead!' Don't talk such nonsense! So now you wish you (5 never meet ) him. I (3 never start ) going out with him. then? 7 . 1 wish 1(12 never buy ) the stupid dress. I wish I (9 keep up with ) you. All right. You said if you (6 not go ) to the disco with him.

d I wish you would be a little more patient. because I didn't go to university. I wish____________________________________ 8 . Example: I wish you would listen more carefully. I wish f Because you won't make up your mind. Wish + would or it's high time. which wish + would sentences could be replaced with a forceful It's time sentence? Write out the new sentences. I wish e I can't get any work done with you talking all the time. It's high time you came to the party. It's time you started listening more carefully! Below.UNIT 2 b You always make such a mess because you don't take enough care. e I couldn't get a good job. I can't book the tickets. It's high time is even more forceful. b I wish you would do some homework! c I wish it would stop raining. we usually add the verb to start. I could have helped if you had. I wish____________________________________ f We didn't know she could babysit. g I wish you would try this cheese. it's good. a You didn't tell me. I can't hear the television! I wish________________________________ Check on page 78. so I didn't cook anything nice for dinner. I wish you'd told me. Example: I wish you would come to the party. I wish c You didn't tell me you were coming. The first one has been done for you. f I wish they would put a stop to all these strikes. I wish d I couldn't go to university. followed by a clause of reason with a shortened third conditional. write a wish + had sentence. I wish ____________________________________ g He never fixes the car. because I didn't study hard at school. Example: I wish you would make up your mind.. b We spent a lot. not till they go home. i I wish you would grow up and act responsibly. Wish + past perfect with third conditional 3 For each sentence below. It's high time you made up your mind! This can't he done when wish + would doesn't express impatience. so we can't take a taxi home. j I wish you would explain tilings carefully Dad! Check on page 78. so we had to stay in. so I have to take the bus to work. 4 Wish + would can express impatient recommendation. I wish d We can't go to bed yet. you kids. so I couldn't help. It's time + past tense does this more forcefully. I wish ____________________________________ Check on page 78. I wish ___________________________________ h Behave yourselves.. h I wish you would be a bit more punctual. I wish c We can't get any sleep because of the noise you're making. (Wrong) Recommending a change of habit. a 1 wish the government would tackle inflation. e I wish you children would go to bed.

but in normal speech one of the syllables is so reduced that it disappears. The big dot shows the syllable which carries the primary stress. that's why I didn't leave him long ago. so I can't ring them up. it's increased interest rates! If______________________________________ e Tilings are bad for business because interest rates went up. My g Nobody will give him a job because he hasn't got a fixed address. third and mixed conditional sentences 5 Write second. didn't he? If __________________________ b I'm such a fool. Things f My marriage broke up because I was made redundant. If_ c I lost my address book. third or mixed conditional sentences based on the following prompts. Perhaps s o m e b o d y _ h He can't save any money because he hasn't got a job. He_____________________________________ Check on page 78. j He's in this mess because he came to London. 1 2 3 figurative fortuitous outmanoeuvre 4 oversubscribed 5 secondary satisfying secretary literary sentimental nevertheless hesitation schizophrenia formidable subsidiary underexposed extravagant reasonable saturated notwithstanding preservative impossible impractical unrestricted insensitive disenchantment disotderly polytechnic Check on page 78Were you right about the most common stress patterns? If_____________________________________ Phrasal verbs 7 Replace the words in italic with one of the phrasal verbs in Section E of your Coursebook. a How do you relate to your parents? b The marketing manager proposed some very interesting ideas. c Look. please! d Her son has the same personality as her. Using your dictionary. If ________ d This government doesn't know what it's doing. If i He can't rent a place to live because he hasn't got any money. Which of the stresspatterns do you think is/are the most common in English? Words in column 5 look like four-syllable words. e I used to like honey. I'm counting on you for this lift tomorrow. a I'm sure he's rich. Say the words to yourself. but I have stopped liking it. 9 .UNIT 2 Second. sort the words listed below into the 5 columns. he bought that new car. so don't disappoint me. Word stress and vowel reduction 6 Four-syllable words can be stressed in one of the following ways.

haven't seen them together for a long while. and the Maclaren. it soon it again. Look up each root verb in your dictionary and find a phrasal verb for each of the meanings. a Grow slowly become more enjoyable or attractive to (someone) become more grown up and stop doing (something) b Fall quarrel (with someone) become strongly attracted to someone laugh almost uncontrollably c Catch understand (something). a The Ferrari had tyre problems. c Look that's enough! I am not going to you talking to your mother like that! d He's still very strange. Beside each there are two or three meanings. a b e f 9 Below are the root verbs from four phrasal verbs.' 'We'll just have to baths. c Grammar exercises should try to help students. g I can't explain everything. the shock of it yet. 8 Fill the gaps with a phrasal verb from Section E. not them_______ . You'll learn more if you it _____ for yourself.' f I can't stand winter. h Many big companies their d Get h b Jack and Jill have . then. or restriction be successful and make progress in your life and career Check on page 78. 10 . or difficulty. I executives remaining single. you know. or realise something is happening catch someone making a mistake. I don't think he's . h Can you share books today? There aren't enough for everyone to have one. however. Write the particle or particles on the line after the root verb. preferring them to marry. but I think you'll find it you. d It's a funny-tasting wine at first. e 'There's no water. really keen to c _________________ g d Check on page 78. a She's very ambitious. I think. 10 Use one of the phrasal verbs you discovered in exercise 9 to complete each sentence below. b After a tyre change. or trick them into making one _____ cause something to be understood. make people understand avoid a law. Check on page 78. I'm already spring to arrive.UNIT 2 f Most criminals escape punishment for their crimes. g I really had to reprimand her this morning.

Taking Into account their morning and afternoon surgeries. Use two or three sentences as necessary. but I've it now. g You should have seen how ridiculous he looked. Take the case of GFs. they work far longer days than most people. They each other the day they met. and their visiting rounds. Professional people earn a lot. Each set comprises: • a generalisation • an example • supporting information Write sentences using the examples and supporting information to support the generalisations. j Well. it's not enough to understand it. i To teach grammar. but I'm sure you can good accountant. Put on the other hand they have to work hard for their money. h It was love at first sight. f I used to like pop music. there are certain regulations. Check on page 78. Supporting a statement: guided writing 11 Below are four sets of information. a • professional people earn a lot/but/hand/work hard/their money them with the help of a it to b • developing countries/capacity/create wealth/but crippled/debt • Brazil • largest/economies/world/but/huge export earnings/used/pay/interest/foreign debt c • apparently/difficult/reasonably-priced accommodation/London/short notice • German students/letter/London/Unit 1 • having/ Euston station/1 lpm/still/found/place/ stay/half-an-hour's/Yellow Pages d • European young people/tending/stay/home/ have/easy life/instead/own • German law student/The stay at home kids • four-room apartment/yet/cook/.UNIT 2 e The children had been missing school secretly for days before their parents what was happening./mother/washes/ clothes/him • GPs • taking/account morning and evening surgeries/ doing their rounds/work far longer day/most people 11 . for example. The first one has been done for you. somehow you've got to your students as well. we just _____ when he came in.

In doing this. The word overthrow is common to bubbles B. compounds like landscape. gasp. continuously expanding your active vocabulary is something you will probably have to work on yourself by a process of conscious learning. open a variety of smaller lists. for example. you are surrounded by English. so it appears on all three lists. The bubbles are linked in a chain by other words which are common to more than one list. The bubble puzzle opposite shows how this can work. finance. Place the vocabulary items given in the correct bubbles.g. landmark) items having a common aspect of meaning (e. rock music. and exposure to English will expand your passive vocabulary.Organising Your Learning: Vocabulary Teaching yourself vocabulary The vocabulary sections in your Coursebook aim to teach you new words and expressions. 1 Sources of new vocabulary If you are studying in Britain. and consolidate your learning. Which of the following sources of new vocabulary are available to you there? books newspapers magazines English-language videos BBC World Service radio English-language TV programmes native speakers other proficient speakers of English songs Which do you actively use for expanding your vocabulary? What are the advantages of each? 2 Selecting vocabulary to learn Criteria for choosing items to learn are very personal. topic (e. landlord. 3 Recording vocabulary A proper file (or small 'Filofax') is best for storing vocabulary. but I prevented him from leaving) How do you record the items you collect? A single word-list will soon become too long to work on and review. Items linking bubbles will appear on each list. This section will give you some ideas. because pages can be added where you like or thrown away when they are no longer needed. beyond belief) Lists like these are more effective because: • items on short lists are more prominent • items on meaningful lists are linked. However. as with bilingual dictionaries!) an explanation (not too long) a phonemic transcription (if the pronunciation is tricky) an example sentence. For example. Bubble puzzle The bubbles opposite contain eight lists. you think again about the meaning of items. winter) the type of item (e. C and D. Try to pick up a few items whenever you read or listen to English.g.g. a throwback to fall ill fiance overdraft to break up poll to throw out to pay off overcoat nuclear waste to overturn to fall to pieces rate of interest fiasco constituency bizarre budget deficit to overtake MP fall-out to fancy power station Check on page 79. in positions shown by the arrows. sport. 12 . according to. making the meaning and features of form clear (e. Items can be recorded with all or any of the following: a translation (but be careful. you can have ideas for new lists. Instead. and remembered together • reviewing can be more methodical • a topic list with very few items shows there is a gap in your knowledge • in deciding where to list a new item you think more about its rneaning(s) • when reviewing. your long-term learning will most likely be done in your own country. bubbles F and G are linked by to fall for someone. amazing. However. stare. Prevent he didn't want to stay.g. and duplicate or transfer existing items to them. but it seems to be true that choosing words for ourselves makes them easier to learn.

One solution to this problem is to use your corrected written work to help you analyse your performance in English. even though you know it isn't (quite) perfect. 13 . • Write problem items on a separate list. What lists might include the following? MP to fall ill H-bomb overtake overcoat Check on page 79. and the definitions etc in another. Put ones you know on one side. Below are some suggestions. • Teach words to fellow learners and ask them to test you on your lists. For example. until you have remembered all of them. • Pick four or five items at random. and exchange ideas with other learners. and write a sentence containing them all. or that camping was helpful in recalling o campo. an English learner might find donate a helpful link between give and the French word dormer. • Write problem items on slips of paper and stick them on your wall where you will keep seeing them. Cover each column in turn and test yourself on what is in the other. Work through the pack testing yourself. Probably the only time your b New lists are suggested by several of the items in the bubbles. • Try to find 'mediating words' which (ink the English item with its equivalent in your language. retention and consolidation Make a regular time for reviewing your word-store. • Use items you are fairly sure about in extended writing for your teacher. and give this special attention. Organising Your Learning: Grammar Setting a grammar research agenda At more advanced levels. the Portuguese word for countryside.4 Reviewing. Associating items in a sentence context makes them easier to recall. Peep at the ones you get wrong. and put them back at the bottom of the pack. • Arrange your lists with the words in one column. This can make you feel you can't progress any more. • Put problem items on cards with the item on the back and an example sentence (with a gap for the word) on the front. it is sometimes difficult to see where you can make improvements in your English.

{Some of these will be dealt with in your Coursebook). either with your grammar or by asking your teacher or another student. Genuine (not careless) errors show you what you need to research and practise. b I went to an Italian-speaking school. 1 The following twenty sentences are genuine examples of English from advanced students. d I'd rather you correct my errors. Check on page 79. underlined. a There are by far too many qualified lawyers. or to note down important errors and give you feedback later. and after 111 enter university to study law. whereas I did a secretarial course instead. 14 . h I don't see any reason to go again with the class to the computer room. for this it's hard to find work. k I'm not used to wtiting neither in English or in Italian. In this way. c I'm glad to hear that some of that I said was of interest. to that my mother could help me with my work in case I needed it. if you are in Britain) to correct you as you speak. m After graduated. such relative clauses and what clauses punctuation the first time adjective and i n f i n i t i v e . I had spent 3 months in Paris to present tenses in future subordinate clauses modals rather neither/nor present perfect/past simple Check on page 79. I just have finished my studies in Germany. can I ask you after lessons? Whatever we'll do I'm sure it will be useful. Correct the errors. I rather talk than studying always grammar.teacher can give your English her undivided attention is when marking and correcting your extended writing. and treat your returned homework as a basis for grammar research. f It seems sometimes almost impossible to keep pace with the others. j When I'll be back in Switzerland I'll have a holiday. I never had seen a so beautiful place as that. and set up an ongoing agenda of problem areas to be tackled. because every problem you deal with means another improvement in your English. Alternatively. Another idea is to ask your teacher (or others. and listen critically to the recording. I could go to university. i That is easy to be understood. Beside each item. enough. 2 Below are fifteen areas for further grammar research. g It's the first time I have to correct my own writing. please. At the following weekends I hope to see as much as possible from England. Exercises n o p q r s t perfect my French that I have studied for the previous 6 years. Use this attention. you know you're making progress. Study the errors. so. word order future tenses sequences and time expressions logical connectors prepositions in case too. based on the sentences. In case of needing advice. record yourself speaking unrehearsed. write the letter(s) of the sentences in exercise 1 in which the relevant errors appear. and can't it be a good idea to do a dictation every week? e Certificates prove you're really good jn something. I After this. I arrived back to Spain and began working in a multinational company which head office was at my home town. Each contains one or more errors.

and spoke again. The driver didn't see us at first. The previous night had been spent in a misty dripping wood. our misery complete. and I (2 can see) _ _ _ _ us a bit. A boy was leaning over a fence. had managed to 1 In the following story. our third. We rushed down to the edge of the road. but no lights. of a 15 . The driver said our stuff something we (9 can understand) Never mind. but there was no one. There was a haystack it. affirmative or negative. and it was a long time since the last car had passed.UNIT Prejudice Ability in the past could. nearby. We (6 can see)______it wasn't going very fast. I (11 can believe) before. hoping we (5 can make) it stop. thinly We heard a voice. and stopped. able to. if I hadn't been so worried. That might offer shelter! We started digging into it. If only I (12 can speak) the language! them was the water trickling down my neck. We all got out into the rain. but we (10 can get) inside. we huddled in the rain. and finally we (8 can make) it stop. Not (17 can make) covered by wet hay. If someone had been about. but after a few minutes all we (16 can achieve) any shelter at all for ourselves. I (15 can feel) virtual destruction of the haystack. perhaps. but I hadn't slept at all. He smiled. We followed him to a nearby house. Great! But after a few minutes. because we (1 can afford) or drink. but the car was going so slowly that we (7 can run) alongside it waving for a few seconds. the bus. we (14 can offer) money to take us in. We were in an even worse position than We (13 can make out) ______ small houses nearby. My first English lesson It was a rainy evening. with nothing to eat Suddenly we saw a car's headlights coming towards us. Perhaps I (4 can do). Jackie (3 can sleep) . the car turned up a narrow track. We were trying to hitchhike from Salonika to London. couldn't. getting to the Austrian border that night. . before walking away into the darkness. convert can + infinitive to an appropriate past form. could have. smiling and beckoning to us. he was smiling! It was a tiny car. We'd only got fifty miles that day.

him a bit. and hot milk. it to us. out compounds a out-of-date (adjective) b combination of clothes worn together (noun) c regular expenditure (noun) d strange. k People in villages are often cut off when there is heavy snow. we must throw away e That's a nice ideas and become truly modern. far from other places (adjective) up compounds g improve. and a table. a I earn quite a lot. i The _____ was repressed by troops. . the boy asked politely if 1(22 can give). and with the words 'mother' and 'eat' pointed to a shy. g Good news! There's been a slight sales figures. Check on page 79. 1(18 can weep) boy sat with us and tried to start a conversation. raise to a higher quality (verb) h sudden total change in a lifestyle. b Take it easy. rustic appearance. and were We slept well. So for an hour or two I tried to teach him . . Compound words 2 Use your dictionaries to discover compound words which have the following meanings. I (19 can understand). but the boy said they were happy (26 can offer) with relief! The that he had once studied English at school. 1 This is a rough ______ of my plan. (noun) 1 the cost of maintaining a property (noun) j rebellion by ordinary people (noun) k tense. very different from the normal (adjective) e a statement of the main facts or points (noun) f remote and private. especially in terms of statistics (noun) 3 Put one of the above compounds into each of the gaps below. in our h Young British people often behave and dress in ways intended to shock older people. before we went a lift to the nearest town for us. him an English lesson. tough-looking lady. We sat. the British 'upper classes' often open them to the paying public. you're wearing. bizarre. d To be a successful political party. what are you so about? in c Moving abroad is going to mean a real our lives. He led us inside. and after breakfast. he (20 can continue) clearly proud (21 can offer) with his studies.UNIT 3 very simple.early that morning he (23 can arrange) something. not a detailed proposal. We (25 can hardly find) us their hospitality. irritable or nervous (adjective) 1 improvement. but they insisted very firmly. but my _____ are so high that I never seem to have any spare money. We tried to refuse it. our f The government spent millions on nuclear capability. and presently the boy brought bread. As we were leaving they gave us a bag with bread and tomatoes in. but They had decided that we should have his mother's bedroom. Check on page 79. and I think I (24 can help) to eat on the way. words to thank them. salt. j Unable to afford the _____ of their country houses. tomatoes.

3 today. The court found only one of the 14 guilty 1 5 _ us. we cannot abandon so suddenly the thousands of people who depend 8 per month is needed. Meanwhile the work of Defence and Aid remains crucial.UNIT 3 Prepositions 4 Put prepositions in the gaps in the following letter. Legal Defence 1990 has seen a sharp rise 9 the number 10 political Dear Friend Your concern for the people of South Africa has been and continues to he 1 importance in their struggle against apartheid.686 individuals .333 caseload involving 34. . based on our present caseload. The notorious Internal Security Act is still being implemented and people continue to be arrested and detained. We must not fail in this last lap of the struggle. Organisations and people are unbanned and able to operate. The situation demands more.000 which many thousands 4 vital decades of brutal repression and through the long night of poverty and deprivation.the case in which the accused were sentenced 13 sentenced to death 16 death 14_ the grounds 17 being part of a crowd where a murder took the murder but the other 13 were 'Common Purpose'. To fulfil only the existing commitments. . Reports of torture and assaults in prison continue. The needs are place. But there is a new situation. Currently under review is the case of the Upington 14 . a minimum of £550. We hope that this number will decline but there is no sign of this yet. for the past forty years. and the death sentences have been quashed. It will take some least one or two years. It has helped to sustain them 2 tangible solidarity. This is a hopeful precedent. IDAF has successfully funded the appeal of the Delmas Three. money will be needed for their appeals. If their sentences are confirmed. women and children would.and many of those in prison have families that need support. The latest figures from IDAF are of a 4. has been done by Defence and Aid. Censorship has been lifted and human rights organisations are anxious to take 5 time 6 these structures to be fully effective . You have given people . be utterly destitute and the gaols in South Africa even more crowded than they are 17 .estimates are 7 much of the work that. support. There are still 50 people 11_ sentence of death whose cases are 18 review. not less.

. our history. Our inability to deep regret. The dialogues have been mixed together and everything put in the wrong order. and I'm telling you they're rubbish. I'm afraid. m Customer: Well. and in the other they are extremely rude. sir. and South Africa is truly democratic and free. I'll be glad to return them to our kitchen. Are you looking for trouble or something? 1 Manager: Hello. Thank you very much. There doesn't seem to be very much meat on them. i Customer: What's wrong with them? Look. We look forward to hearing from you. Each concerns the same complaint in a restaurant. The people of Britain their recognition of this special need and special Check on page 80. and I'll bring the menu. We cannot emphasise too strongly how urgently your support is needed if we are not only to continue but to increase the humanitarian support we have worked to provide . please. sir. decide which parts belong to each dialogue. and I'm sorry to cause any inconvenience. sir. a Manager: Not at all. Can I offer to bring you the menu again? f Manager: I am. d Customer: Yes. What can I do for you? g Customer: These spare ribs are no good. IDAF. Naturally. e Manager: Well. . it's about these spare ribs. We have always felt that because of Britain's close political and economic links 33 have been wonderfully generous 24 responsibility. sir. We urge you to maintain and extend your support at this crucial time 25 finally been relegated to the past. There are also a the police for death and injury.UNIT 3 overwhelming and. With our best wishes Sincerely yours apartheid has South Africa we have a special responsibility in this area of great human need. What's wrong with them? c Customer: You're the manager. for the first time 18 been compelled to refuse to take 19 charges of Public Violence which arise 20 large number of related civil actions 21 fund these cases is a cause 22 . Write the letters in the correct order in the grid below. It'll take as long as it takes. all right? It's you who's making the trouble. I eat here a lot. has the greatly increased number of cases involving the situation in the townships. they look all right to me. Language register in making complaints 5 Below are two dialogues. Just look at them! There's no way I'm paying for that! j Manager: Good evening. Well. b Manager: Just let me look at the ribs. We're very busy. can I be of any help? k Customer: Don't tell me I'm talking rubbish. Paying attention to the politeness of the language. One moment. h Manager: One steak. 18 . because of lack of funds. I suppose. I'm sorry you feel that way. but in one the customer and the manager are polite to each other. there's no meat on them.

but are you the manager? o Manager: Hmm. garden TV bathroom some places comfortable Check against the possible answer on page 80. u Customer: Certainly. to start with. considering there are two bedrooms. Not quite as meaty. d OK. and they definitely don't seem to be the same quality as usual. r Manager: Look. b Rewrite the evaluation.' This is basically a negative evaluation. and probably wouldn't have much of a social life. I'll take them back. I do actually eat here regularly. May I see them? Polite dialogue Rude Dialogue 6 By reference to the dialogues. v Manager: I'm sorry to hear that. It's selfcontained. So you'd tend to be a bit isolated. c Choose one of the other flats. On the other hand. Let's have a look at them. a What do you want? What can I do for you ? Writing an evaluation: guided writing 7 Study the information about flats in London on page 157 ofyourCoursebook. I'll take them back. £100 self-contained kitchen space two bedrooms sitting room c You're the manager. convert the impolite expressions below to their polite equivalents. It's true that it's got some advantages. t Manager: Rubbish. e Just look at them! f What do you want instead? 19 . some problems tube station long way centre isolated social life telephone b There's no meat on them. compared with some places. a sitting room — even if it is a small one . it's a long way from the centre . Well. I haven't got all day.. just keep your voice down. I must say they seem very similar to the spare ribs we usually serve. What do you want instead? s Customer: Give me a steak. I suppose.. one in favour of it and one against.and it hasn't got a telephone. So it would be a comfortable place to live. The following skeleton will help. which is good if you're going to spend time indoors. You've also got the use of a big garden. On top of that. because the problems are mentioned last. and write two balanced fact it's even a long way from the tube station . and there's quite a bit of space. The speaker is not recommending the flat. it's got a TV. and hurry it up. putting the information in a different order so that the final judgement is more positive. a Note the way connecting expressions are used in the following evaluation of the first flat.a kitchen and a bathroom. p Manager: Yeah. what do you want? q Customer: You see. at £100 a week. sir.. Sorry to bother you. but as you can see.. sir. will you? OK. but. I don't like to complain. but you must provide the connecting expressions.UNIT 3 n Customer: Good evening. it's not cheap. What's more. Fhe first one has been done for you.

If you do this regularly. and have these checked as well. She seemed pleased. perhaps your host family can help. Can you answer them? a 'I wish I knew. find it fun to imagine conversations. .' b I was invited to dinner and took some flowers for the hostess. now. 'What's a polite way of saying. In these situations. how do I start? c I'm annoyed because I've come to a terrible party. (producing some very peculiar English)? Whatever your reaction. and identify potential problems in this way. you shouldn't have. in clear contexts. What can I say in a light-hearted way.. or shortly afterwards. 'I regret having come' is too formal. say in a bus. What do I say if it was something I wished yesterday? 'I wished I knew' or 'I wished I had's now the third time in twenty minutes. The list can be in the form of: • situations (e. do you: I give up trying to say it? • express your meaning in another way. Alternatively. to be reformulated in English. and quickly note down the problem when you meet it. especially those studying in their own countries. so what do I say to the person I'm with? d I keep meeting the same acquaintance in a shopping centre . Did she mean I'd done something wrong? c 'It didn't live up to expectations. you will quickly build up a list of things you want to know.Organising Your Learning: Speaking (1) How do you s a y . What do I say as I leave? b Someone I know has failed an important exam. because it wasn't as bad as I'd feared? Check on page 80.g.' means that something wasn't as good as expected. structures or expressions written in your own language.' means I'm sorry that I don't know. because it's almost getting embarrassing? e How do I recommend a film. or expression when you need it. . If you are studying in Britain. I meet them in a public place and want to sympathise. word. and now it's my stop. 2 A student studying in Britain asked the following questions. you would probably like to find yourself in fewer of these situations. some learners.' I didn't understand. or a structure which doesn't say exactly what you mean? • translate from your own language word-forword. write example sentences or mini-dialogues in your file. One way of setting about this positively is to carry a small notebook with you whenever you can. by using a greater number of simpler words. but she said 'Oh.g. Ask your teacher or fellow learners to help you. 'What do I say when . After saying 'hello' and so on. very enthusiastically? Check on page 80. Exercises 1 An advanced learner of English has noted down the following situations and wants to know what is usually said. When you have found answers to your questions.. and find the exact structure. . Could I say 'English weather didn't live up to my fears'. ? ' ) • questions in English (e. Any ideas? a I've been chatting politely to someone I don't know. for example.?') • words. 20 . ? You probably still find that in certain situations or at certain points in conversations you just don't know the English way of saying what you want to express. in the present. .

And then. This seemed (6 be) finally manage (5 decrease) costs.UNIT Entertainment. going out Gerunds and infinitives 1 Convert the verbs in brackets to gerunds or infinitives with to. Add prepositions or pronouns where necessary. and naturally refuse (2 accept) sexist behaviour on public but the situation obliges (9 take) measures. treated as if they that this would entail half our workforce redundant. without (6 reduce) I regret (7 say) (8 make) hypocritical.' d 'He promised faithfully (I give) transport. The infinitives may be continuous (to be doing) or perfect {to have done). He told me Benson meant (3 have) my job and he was a man his . by {3 enable) our efficiency. in this outmoded way will find that modern women do not permit (5 do) (6 be) thanked (7 be) so. Men who insist (4 act) a lift. My proposal would succeed (2 save) {4 increase) it. . Simpkins advised (2 be) male persons guilty of such flagrant sexism will be severely criticised (8 patronise) women. when I saw him the 21 . such as that of men who attempt (3 offer) their seats. since that was exactly what Simpkins appeared (7 do) b Women resent (I be) Benson. our labour our production. Far from considerate. who wouldn't hesitate (4 betray) colleagues by (5 undermine) their backs. We would . careful with Benson. and never showed up. a Before (1 leave). strong were any different from men. them behind a little c 'The company cannot afford (1 continue) with its present policies.

with nothing and nowhere (passive infinitive). it!' for a big meal and a bottle of wine. For example: 1 remember him as (being) a very considerate man. I really think he should give up boxing. (instruction) . Some must be followed by a finite verb (with a subject). and (usually with see or find) to speak of discoveries. a He keeps healthy by taking sensible decisions. (dismiss) c He gives the impression of being rather arrogant. (come) g Much as (admire) his courage.UNIT 4 next day and accused (2 let down) pretended not (3 offer) {4 give) . I'm going out me the lift in the first place! He simply denied ever (5 say) anything about it. f To me. Convert the verbs in brackets to gerunds. at the airport Convert the following sentences. does. d But to bum my money wouldn't give me as much pleasure as (smoke) e She left early 50 as (arrive) in plenty of time. (regard) undrinkable. using as and the appropriate fonn of the verb in brackets. . (see) b She said he was unworthy of serious consideration. we're not doing f I've never had the opinion that he was mean. i The coffee was so sweet as (be) d I think he's the best in his field. watching sport on TV is as good as (watch) it live. h As far as (know) anything this Saturday. The infinitive: other uses 4 The infinitive can be used: to give instructions. and some only by the infinitive. he likes to waterski. followed by being and an adjective after certain verbs. infinitives. he as plus gerund or infinitive 3 Some phrases ending in as can be followed only by the gerund. in Rome. (describe) Check on page 81. j As well as (windsurf) e He seemed rather nervous. to speak formally of arrangements. a I think he's essential to the success of the deal. For example: You are to say nothing. to speak of impossibility. as being + adjective 2 We can express our opinions and impressions using as. or finite verb-phrases. 22 . (think) g Witnesses say the man is tall and heavily-built. (strike) Check on page 81. And even when I proved that he had done. Being can also be omitted. such as (refuse) b As soon as (arrive) to overeat or drink alcohol. c I think smoking cigarettes is the same as (burn) your money. he tried to get out of it (6 claim) _ _ _ _ not (7 remember) (8 do) Check on page 81.

(arrangements) The key was nowhere to be found. There had been no h When she arrived. completing the sentence stems and using the infinitive. siddown. He looked up: 'allo. a I was shown into a 1 desk sat a 2 office. He was ( bones that something was going to go wrong. I know. tie perfectly in place. Check on page 81. the city was in turmoil. The first one is done for you. feeling 4 . imprecise feeling which you can't identify an office or flat which has good equipment or furniture 6 Use expressions from exercise 5 to fill the gaps. Language register in invitations 7 The language in the following dialogues is often either too polite and careful or too familiar and direct. Behind a large young man: impeccable haircut. It was a crazy. but she had a pessimistic feeling about the expedition. I'll never achieve ) it. neatly-clipped moustache. no thinking through. There's ( ) e She turned and saw her car disappearing into the distance. She arrived Hyphenated expressions: ill/well 5 Use your dictionaries to find expressions using ill or well which could describe the following. a an opinion or judgement which has a solid foundation in facts b a rich person c someone who feels uncomfortable. but perhaps didn't ( planning. 23 . 5 venture from start to tragic finish. b There's a royal visit to Canada next month. neat appearance in general f an action which was supposed to do good. (discovery) Rewrite the sentences below. OK?' I was surprised. You (instruction) g h i j a person who speaks in a polite way a decision which is destined to bring trouble a vague. In the brackets. By his appearance. Such elegance is only for the 3 it just costs too much. And as we now know. (impossibility) She woke to find that the sun had almost set. a Stay here until you're called. you know the look. I'll be wiv yer in a sec. She turned to f His execution is tomorrow. I'd expected him to be 5 ) . It was certainly 1 enough: the desire to save an endangered species was something everybody supported.UNIT 4 Parliament is to open tomorrow. and the parts that are too polite with a dotted line. Underline the parts that are too direct with a continuous line. d No action is possible to change the situation. He ( ) ( b She didn't know why. not relaxed d an unwise action which it was a mistake to do e a person who has a smart. She just felt it was somehow 2 she knew in her ) g We couldn't see him anywhere. write the function which the infinitive is performing. You_ _ ( ) ( in my shabby suit. these 3______ fears proved to be ) 4 . I sat there. in the end. The Queen c Don't leave this room for any reason.

I've had enough of this. I wonder if you could possibly give me an answer tomorrow? d Hi. Alan: Hi. What can I do for you? Francis: Do you want to come out with me tonight? Liz: What? Francis: For dinner. When? b I should imagine there would be no objection to that. There is a possibility that I will be free a little later. good evening. 24 e Dinner will be served in a matter of minutes. OK? 1 Jenny: 8 Rewrite the following extracts from the dialogue in a more appropriate style. Liz: No way. Mr Blake. Francis: It's Francis. See you. Jonathan: OK. There is a possibility that I will be free a little later. Check on page 81. I've had enough of this. The answer is no. I'll see what I can do. but to my knowledge we have no concrete plans at this time. that's a shame. why not. Ken: OK see you then. About 9 o'clock? Ken: Fine. Why on earth should I want to go out with you? Francis: Some other time then? When would suit you? Are you free tomorrow? Liz: I'm terribly sorry. Robin and I were wondering if you and Helen would like to come round for dinner sometime. Alan: Right you are. a OK. but I was wondering if there was any chance of your coming for a drink? 3 Francis: Hello. Dinner will be served in a matter of minutes. I wonder if you could possibly give me an answer tomorrow? Jonathan: Yeah. no problem. Jonathan: I should imagine there would be no objection to that. I'll pay. why not. but I was wondering if there was any chance of you coming for a drink? Ken: I can't really. OK? Goodbye. but I'm afraid I have a previous engagement. Francis: Oh. c Excellent. Ken? Ken: Yes. but to my knowledge we have no concrete plans at this time. When? Jenny: We were thinking of Friday. How about Thursday? Liz: Look. I do apologise. Sorry to bother you. Alan. Mr Blake. maybe. Would that be convenient? Alan: All right. Naturally I shall have to ask for confirmation from my wife. h Look. Liz: Ah. Sorry to bother you. Might that be convenient? f Do you want to come out with me tonight? g For dinner. I'll pay. I'll pop round and pick you up. no problem. Naturally I shall have to ask for confirmation from my wife. Shall I just see you in the pub? Alan: No. The answer is no. Francis Blake. but I'm not promising anything. Liz? Liz: Good evening.UNIT 4 Jonathan. OK? Goodbye. About 9. Jenny: Excellent. 2 Alan: Hello. .

At home. 5 pale/pasty-faced man with 6 a proud/an arrogant. and in order to achieve the high position he now holds. In the two paragraphs below. We looked round Jones' 1 cosy/cramped apartment. b i a ii ii b He is more likely to make 8 bold/rash decisions that the previous president. However. One word in each pair is positive-sounding. and secondly giving a negative impression of the new president and a positive impression of the ex-president. he is a very 12 shrewd/ Check on page 82. and probably 16 firmer/more repressive law-and-order policies. there are twenty places with a choice of two similar words. compared with the 18 hesitant/cautious former president. who. Rewrite passage b twice. In foreign policy. and secondly those which give a negative impression. both slim and skinny mean not fat.UNIT 4 Positive and negative connotations 9 It often happens that two words have very similar basic meanings. preferred 19 discreet/ surreptitious diplomatic 20 blackmail/pressure to the use of armed force. Using your dictionary. but have different connotations. I think we can expect a more 15 frugal/penny-pinching style of government. he must have shown greater 13 flexibility /lack of principle in private than was usually expected from his more 14 principled/ rigid predecessor. when he did act. with its 2 cheap/inexpensive furnishings and 3 gaudy I cheerful colours. first decide which words are positive and which negative. a i devious man. first using the words which give a positive impression of Jones and his flat. and his views more 11 simplistic/straightforward than those of his predecessor. He was a 4 skinny/ slim. 7 cocksure/'self'-confident air. but slim sounds positive and skinny sounds negative. first giving a positive impression of the new president and a negative one of the ex-president. the other negative-sounding. 25 . For example. His staff will find him 9 an abrasive/a forthright and 10 strong~wiUed/ domineering person to work with. Then rewrite passage a twice. expect a greater willingness to 17 intervene/mediae militarily in the affairs of smaller states.

Which of the following would you like to be able to write in English? • business letters • other formal letters • informal letters • postcards • faxes/telexes • essays as part of your studies at school or university • instructions • study notes or lecture notes • messages • stories • essays in EFL examinations Your Coursebook will help you with formal letters. Below are some examples of correction clues. and with the organised writing needed for studying. correcting the errors. . P. . Check on page 82. which you can use when you write. telling you the type of mistake you have made. . G listening the silence during a short W period . How can you improve? The more you write. I was A. . . Also. and why? Self-correction 1 If your teacher gives you clues. recommend the most important ONE of the following areas for the writer to do some remedial work on. W. spelling W . Your teacher can help you here by: • correcting your mistakes • rewriting parts of what you have written • helping you to correct your own mistakes and to rewrite • giving advice about how to improve Which of these do you think are most useful. take a word out of this line Study the two extracts below.. therefore I was delighted for getting your gentle invitation. . . .. Check on page 82. (which were written by real students). word-order Exp . . T as far as the ear could hear. wrong word WO . This will also help you prepare for writing as part of an EFL examination. G W. as long as you understand what you need to improve.. Rewrite each extract. special books are available on the market. P b WO G. grammar (not tense) S . . . . and build up a store of models. . G T. . I would like very much to come . therefore are used prepositions the order of adverbs and adverbial phrases in sentences. 2 For each extract. the better you will get. tense G . try to get hold of examples from real life.. writing is something you may never need to do very much in English. it will help you with self-correction.Organising Your Learning: Writing What do you need to write? Unlike speaking and listening.. Formal and informal vocabulary as (adverb) as past tenses where to end a sentence and start a new one vocabulary expansion how connectors like so. and the correction clues. particularly for business and commercial writing. a I went up the path to the door it was open V so I entered into the gloomy old house as GP quietly that I could. . . You can learn special vocabulary and stylistic points from these. with story-telling. . 26 P . wrong expression A .. WO WO I always had wanted to go in the Spring to Paris. there wasn't a sound Exp. put a word in here V. If other types of writing are important to you. punctuation T . that this morning has arrived.

The children go out more. ТЬе Ягзс опе Каз Ьееп сіопе £ог уои. Ken and Sue go out instead of watching TV. They speak French fluently. She does more exercise. b (get) fat (give up) smoking c (eat) lot (live) France d (not learn) much French (start) studying e (lose) weight (start) diet f (look) better (start) doing exercises g (go) out more (move) France h relationship (improve) (stop) TV all the time i The children (learn) French (move) France j (make) friends (go) out more Check on page 82. The situation now is: Ken doesn't smoke any more but he's very fat. Не'з Ьееп сіергеззесі зіпсе Не Іозс Ьіз ]оЬ.The Third World Зіпсе ^іїЬ рге5епї регівсї ог раз* зітріе 1 Зіпсе изшііу ге£егз Ьаск Со разе Сіте \УІСН сЬе разе зітріе сепзе. Зіпсе сап аЬо ге£ег со ап оп§оІП£ зісиасіоп. апсі изе Іс апсі гЬе р ю т р в Ье1о\у со т а к е 5Іпсе зепсепсез о£ ЬоїЬ Сурез. He's studying French without much success. е. a Ken (give up) smoking (move) France Ken has given up smoking since he moved to France. She's looking better. Оесісіе №Ііетег со изе гЬе ргезепс регґесс зітріе ог ргезепї. \УІСЬ а рсезепс регїесс ґепзе. Sue is thinner because she's on a diet now. рег£есс сопїіпиоиз сепзе Іп сЬе т а і п сіаизе. and have friends now.§. Кеасі ґЬе Іп£огтапоп аЬоиї сЬе ]опез £аті1у. Не'з Ьееп сіергеззеіі зіпсе Ке'з Ьееп ипетріоуесІ. He eats a lot. The Jones family moved to France two years ago. е. 27 .§.

since + present perfect simple refers to something that used to happen regularly. but that was ages ago. which remained at 9. B: It's ten years since I last ate a hamburger.5 to 9. then stopped happening (eating hamburgers). It is because ministers will brook no other way of bringing inflation down to the levels prevailing in Europe's Exchange Rate Mechanism: they continue doggedly to rely on high interest rates and rising unemployment alone. B or C with the same meaning. 5 a I started studying English a long time ago. c d I used to go riding a lot. The glossary will help you with words and expressions. f The war ended eighteen years ago. output as a whole declined by 1. 35 average earnings in manufacturing went up from 9. unemployment and high interest rates. In B. b I haven't seen him for twenty years. companies are still doling out wage and salary increases at nearly twice the rate of our competitors in Europe. in the third and fourth quarters of 1990.. For each sentence below. In 1980 the economy suffered four consecutive quarters where the output of the whole economy contracted by one per cent or more. since plus past simple refers to an event that only happened once (giving up junk food). Last week's figures showed no increase in the overall annual rise of earnings. In other words. g I haven't seen such a beautiful girl for years. If it can't happen again. Check on page 82. within this overall stagnation. 10 Yesterday's statistics show that. And what progress is being made there? None.. 25 Although it is likely that there will be a substantial reduction of 2 to 3 percentage points in the annual rate of price inflation in April. In A. in spite of sharply rising . while other sectors remained the same. there will be a third successive contraction of about one per cent in the first quarter of 1991. just before he died. To make sure you have understood it. there will be no lasting reduction in price inflation until Britain's propensity to pay wage increases comes down to European 30 levels. but that the pattern is looking ominously like a re-run of 1980/81. The problem is actually getting worse. A: It's a long time since I've eaten a hamburger. e He only left ten minutes ago.75 per cent in December.75 per cent. It is important to be clear why this is happening and why we are having to endure an unnecessarily severe 20 recession for the second time in a decade. If the redundancies currently recorded 15 are anything to go by. But. The last time the city saw such celebrations was thirty years ago. Rises.3 per cent and one per cent respectively. since + last + past simple refers to the last {most recent) time such a thing happened. with manufacturing output falling by one per cent and three per cent. It could still happen again. with manufacturing industry taking the hardest knocks. find answers to the questions at the end. we use for the last time.UNIT 5 2 Study the following sentences. write another type A. 40 28 . h The last time I spoke to him was a year ago. In C. falls and prepositions 3 Read the following editorial carefully. Yesterday' s figures detail ing Britain' s gross domestic product in the fourth quarter make it painfully clear not only that we 're now officially in recession (defined as two successive quarters of negative growth). C: It's ten years since I gave up junk food.

habit of paying doling out .. f There is certain to be a fall of 2 to 3 per cent in inflation in April. g The real cause of inflation is the fact that British companies keep giving wage increases. d The real cause of the recession is the way Ministers are fighting inflation. . . while in refers to the thing which is being measured. . UK output (production) rose by 1. reduction). of refers to the size of the rise or fall. 5 Study the graphs. while from and to refer to the former level and the new level. by refers to the size of the rise or fall.g. February 1991).with stubborn determination propensity to pay . .5 to 9. c More reduction in manufacturing output is expected for the current quarter (at the time of writing. 4 Study the following extracts from the article. contracted. 29 . Check on page 82.g.three months taking the hardest knocks . . To and from can also be used with nouns to refer to the new and old levels. output. contraction of about one per cent (line 15) there will be no . The first has been done for you.3% b From October to December 1990. e Ministers refuse to use high interest rates in the fight against inflation. contracted by one per cent or more (line 7) earnings went up from 9.75 per cent (line 35) there will be a .giving away for nothing Are these statements about the text true or false? a From July to September 1990. went up). Each sentence should be based on one of the prompts below. With nouns (e. reduction in price inflation (line 27) With verbs (e. UK manufacturing output fell by more than UK output as a whole. and write sentences about them.permit doggedly .UNIT 5 Glossary a quarter . contraction.suffering most brook .

The war 30 . . no should explained so I carefully. The beginning of each sentence is given. He looked at me b misunderstanding. The cause of the improvement in the service has been the bonue eystem. If you take part-time work you'll lose c severe revolution. b I was rather disappointed by the result. ed often form nouns with . The first one has been done for you. have find thing absolutely I d value of exports (substantial) (sharply) (£5bn) Check on page 83. . war turn attempted led to the caused an in which poverty. Sentence construction: word jumble Check on page 83. ed adjectives 7 Adjectives ending . but not always. For each sentence below. converting the adjectives to nouns and making any other necessary changes. . use your dictionary to help you write another with the same meaning. which we sign driving were saw been when hadn't the We hadn't c The look he gave me was more astonished than pleased. Nouns derived from . . a looking we long we for. merit. a The bonus system has brought about an improved service. The result was 6 The words in the following sentences have been jumbled up. in increase notwithstanding the bad. looks future company's stilt Notwithstanding e such should I extraordinary it that a happened. Punctuation marks follow the words which they follow in the sentence. .UNITS d the sales. . Unjumhle them and write the sentences in the spaces provided. I there be that d If you take part-time work you won't be entitled to unemployment benefit.

consumers' incomes and h He pushed at the locked door. The children danced around in Cause and effect 8 Fill the gaps with cause and effect connectors. . . The first letter of each word is given. Check on page 83. a Describing effects A drop in consumers' spending power 1 r in a corresponding drop in demand throughout the economy. 2 A a r _______ . surprised and annoyed. 4b of redundancies. Explaining causes The recent redundancies are 1 t_ . For r . and in turn. which was in turn 2 c b falling k They lived there contented for many years. industrial f We stared at the scene. The adjustment policies led to the production had to he reduced. more redundancies. This contraction in demand was 3 d to a drop in consumers' spending power. demand continued to fall a fall in throughout the economy. 7 c i I was more amused than frightened by their behaviour. when people lost __ industrial production was a r _____ o_ falling their jobs 5 b reduced 6 a demand throughout the economy . horrified and fascinated. He pushed at the locked door in 5c 6t their spending power fell further. Their behaviour caused me b ') 1 gaped at him. 5 1 . they were so excited and delighted. .4 O to this rising unemployment. which fell partly Check on page 83. We stared at the scene in g Ordinary people became progressively more impoverished as a result of the adjustment policies.r o______ a reduction in industrial production. . and 3 o c _____ of this was that many workers were made redundant. They lived there in demand throughout the economy. I gaped at him in industrial production.UNIT 5 e The children danced around. utterly stupefied by what he had told me.

and check by completing the story. Each of the cruzeiros in circulation today equals one million of the cruzeiros in circulation at the beginning of 1986. Turn each piece over in turn. keeping the pieces in the right order.' If you want to practise the phrases in bold for active use. Predicting c Without reading it. d Read a short story until two or three pages from the end. and invent other sentences on the same pattern. read the text below. then give yourself a short time limit to read it all... Can you think of any other ideas? 3 What do you want to improve in your reading? Below are some activities which you may find useful. perhaps for study • to read literature in the original. not mentioned here I 2 What are you going to read? It is better only to read the sort of thing which you would enjoy reading in your own language.050 cruzeiros to buy $1. Real GDP in 1991 is likely to be less than it was in 1986 .Organising Your Learning: Reading (1) Improving your reading 1 Why do you want to read in English? Below are some reasons for reading in English. skim a newspaper for an article which interests you. that will make for the third straight year of economic contraction. Reading quickly a If you are in Britain. 'Brazil has changed a lot over the past half-decade — almost entirely for the worse. watch foreign films with English subtitles. ten central-bank governors. rather than in translation • because you need to read English at work • to pick up new vocabulary Do you have another reason. but glance at each subtitle briefly as a whole. If you are in your own country. poems and short stories for each other. read it and try to predict what will be said on the next piece. Write down what you think the article says. copy them into your file. particularly in your writing. Build up a stock of these to keep in your classroom. is through consciously learning phrases in what you read. Write you predictions down. then try to predict what will happen by the end. If so. including words you don't know. five doses of economic shock therapy. Are any of them true for you? • to get information or ideas unavailable in your own language. It is likelier than not that the economy will shrink again in 1992. photocopy a short article on a topic you know something about. Your reading will soon become more efficient. in the month of October alone. Have you got any of your own? Using your reading to teach yourself phrases One way of widening your range of expression. b 32 . and you will be able to get all the meaning while the subtitle is on the screen. You and your fellow learners can get hold of things to read by: • finding a shop which sells English-language newspapers or books • finding an English language library you can join • recommending. . Don't read word for word. For example. There are other ideas for reading activities in the Projects and Assignments in your Coursebook. The currency's external value fluctuates madly. and four currencies. In these five years Brazil has had ten finance ministers. Cut it up into pieces of four or five lines each. Example: anything from April temperatures in London can be anything from 0°C to l5°C. paying attention to the phrases in bold. . lending and exchanging books or magazines • photocopying short texts like articles. you needed anything from 550 to 1. then go over it more slowly and check your first impression.

It's g But flying is a lot quicker. 33 . I don't think c The tree was four times as high as a man. It isn't d It's not nearly as simple as people think.UNIT Health and medicine Making comparative structures more informative 1 Convert each sentence to another with the same meaning. and a great deal more comfortable. a This is far easier than I thought it would be. It is a great j I don't find travelling alone nearly as enjoyable as travelling with friends. He earns four h I think the weather is a bit cooler today. This car costs Check on page 83. I find it a e This car is three times the price of that one. using the sentence stem given. This is nowhere f Going by car isn't nearly as expensive as flying. The tree was i Keeping fit is much easier if you can do it in a group. But going by car isn't b My salary is only a quarter as high as his.


2 Fill the gaps in the following text.

Wiser Welsh still hanker for chips
Vivek Chaudhary finds a region's health drive making inroads on workers' traditional fare
Wide-ranging health targets have been adopted in Wales 1 the beginning of last year in a programme 2 community groups and companies 3 the healthconscious catering manager at the Driver Vehicle Licensing Authority at Swansea conceded yesterday: 'We could sell chip butties all day long.' 4 the emphasis on healthier eating, chips are 5 as traditional as rugby in this part of South Wales. Douglas Manning has been using different oils, wholegrain rice 6 reducing sugar and salt used in cooking in the DVLA canteen. He offers vegetarian dishes and salads to workers 7 agrees: 'Twenty fiveper centof food cooked here is chips.' The Health For All In Wales scheme was first formulated as a heart disease prevention programme, Heartbeat Wales, in 1985 and expanded in January 1990 to tackle smoking stress and other problems. 'We have blazed a trail and the fact that both political parties are devoting attention to a health programme is a tribute to our success,' said Dr Simon Smarl of the Health Promotion Authority for Wales, a government-backed body leading the initiative. 8 its launch the percentage of smokers in Wales has fallen 9 4 per cent for men and 3 per cent 10 women. Surveys show those eating green vegetables and salads increasing 11 25 per cent to 45 per cent. Professor John Catford, executive director of the Health Promotion Authority for Wales admits that there is room for improvement. 'Areas like the valleys still suffer enormous health problems 12 to middle class areas. Health is 13 to many other factors and we need a strategy to tackle 14 adequately.' The DVLA canteen choice yesterday included six different salads, as well as pie and chips. Receptionist Jill Davis, tucking into a plate of chips, agreed it was a 'bad habit' 15 only has them once a week. The health promotion has made me more conscious of 16 I eat. I don't 17 have a chip pan at home' she added. Jan Morgan eating salad, boiled potatoes and cottagecheese said 'I have salad every 18 day. Since the health programme at work people vary more 19 they eat, but my family 20 love egg and chips.!

Glossary hanker for (headline) - want, desire catering manager {para 1) - person responsible for the provision of meals to employees chip butties (para 1) - sandwiches containing chips blazed a trail (para 4 ) - done something never done before, making it easier for others to follow the valleys (para 6) - the industrial, mostly workingclass part of Wales Check on page 83. 3 Colestera and Hypochondra are two small countries where eating habits have been changing. Using the graphs and the prompt words, write sentences comparing consumption ten years ago with consumption today. Be as informative as possible. The first one has been done for you.

KEY green vegetable white sugar alcohol dairy produce fish wholemeal bread and cereals



a people/many/green vegetables
People don't eat quite as

h people/near/white sugar/as
many green vegetables as

they b people/more/white sugar i people/about a quarter/alcohol


c consumption/wholemeal bread and cereals/than

j consumption/dairy produce/than

d consumption/dairy produce/deal

k consumption/fish/than

e people/seven/alcohol

1 people/three/quantity/wholemeal bread and cereals/than

f people/about half/fish Check on page 83. 4 Write sentences comparing the two countries regarding the aspects of health listed below. You will have to be slightly more imaginative this time. a fibre b vitamins c cholesterol d likelihood of heart disease e alcohol-related injuries f dental care



g consumption/green vegetables/than







17 to rest with your feet supported and your legs extended 18 He can't justify his action or opinion. 19 to be in such a bad condition that... 20 to begin walking more quickly Check on page 84.

Check on page 84. Parts of the body idioms

6 Complete the sentences below, using some of the above expressions, a Don't worry about the trial, the prosecution

5 Use your dictionary to help you match the following expressions with the meanings below. Ten of the meanings are false. a to put your foot in it b to put your feet up c to put your heads together d on your own head be it e to take something to heart f I'll be glad to see the back of him g to shut your eyes to something h he doesn't have a leg to stand on i it's on its last legs j I told him to his face that 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 36 It's nearing the final stages (e.g. a film or a race), to consult and solve a problem together to say something which causes embarrassment He is so poor he can't support himself. You must make this decision for yourself. I told him that... (but I meant something else). to be strongly affected or upset by something It'll be nice to see him again. to reserve a table, hotel room etc If anything bad happens to you, it'll be your own fault. I told him honestly and openly that... I'm fed up with having him around here. to refuse to do something which is wrong It's in such a bad state that it will soon stop working. to reach an agreement in a negotiation to pretend you can't see something bad happening

We'll soon break their case down. b Gosh I'm exhausted. When I get home I'm going to for an hoar.

c He was so rude to everyone at the party that we

d I'm afraid I rather when I asked how her husband was, but I didn't know they were separated. e Come on, if you've got something to say to me,

f OK, now

and see

if you agree on the answers to the exercise. g In mid 1989, communism in Eastern Europe was already h He didn't mean to upset you, don't .

i We can't go on the way they treat their children, we've got to do something about it. j 'Look I'm going to do it my way, OK?' 'OK, OK!

but nothing seems to work.UNIT6 Advice and suggestions 7 Below is the dialogue from Section F of your Coursebook. if you don't care about my asking? Gladys: 34. it's easier saying than doing. if you asked my opinion. if you don't mind my saying so. I've got enough weight to lose that it hardly seems worth starting. Gladys. Gladys: Well. you're thin anyway. I just can't resist the temptation. a bit more that last year. Gladys. but what's the point? Jack: Look. Jack: Good heavens. Jack: Well. you know. I think you're being fairly negative. in fact? Gladys: About 14 stone. but that's a lot of fat for one heart to carry. Jack: That's a horrible lot. heart attacks of course. The thing is. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Check on page 84. but they didn't work any good. Jack: Seriously. For you it's easy to talk. Underline the errors and write the correct word or phrase in the space provided below. I mean. you've got a point I agree. Jack: Well. Gladys. I hardly don't stop. complicated diets don't work. you've got to statt. Do you really think it's too bad? Jack: Do you mind if I asked how much you weigh in these days? Gladys: Oh. I'm sure you're right. I hope you let me say so. What do you mean. you know. you're getting really fat. Perhaps I'd better. Well. What do you think I should to do? Jack: Well. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 37 . Jack: Have you tried doing exercises? Gladys: Oh yes. If you don't lose weight you're going to pass through problems. How many times a day do you eat? Gladys: Well. Jack. I really think you do ought to lose weight. you are dangerously fat. I know your point. You'd better to do something about it. Gladys: Yes. Gladys. Gladys: All right. if you want to know what 1 think. really. Jack: How many times did you go. I tried keep-fit classes. you've simply got to resist it. I try again. Jack: Well. Gladys: Yes. I hate to say that. a few. the manner I see it. if I were you. what are you expecting? You've got to keep it up! Gladys: Oh. if you don't bother my asking? Gladys: Oh. have you tried just eating less often? Why don't you just eat twice a day? Gladys: I've tried that. dangerously? Jack: Well. and I have tried a few diets. isn't it? I mean it's alright for you. but it's not good. It's simple. How old are you. Gladys: I agree entirely. three or four. well. Jack: Well. I didn't laugh about it. except that now it contains thirty errors. perhaps I would. you know. How much do you weigh.

or speak ungrammatically. follow the advice in the Organising Your Learning sections: Vocabulary. you probably still have problems when you speak in English. Language problems If you are fluent. After a while. You can pick such expressions up from other speakers. then press 'pause'. Compare your version with the original. find out if there is an English Club you can join. speak into the cassette recorder. does the same. f A cassette-friend Instead of a penfriend. or can't find the right language for the right situation. When you want to say something. where members meet in each other's houses. Why not join an evening class run by your local education authority? You are sure to find an interesting course. Later in your Coursebook they are practised. try the same topic again a little later. learn language for interrupting and resisting interruption. watch an English-language video. but lack vocabulary. and mix them up. perhaps replying. make an effort to speak a little louder. Grammar and Speaking (1) will help you to solve your problems for yourself. and can set up social contacts as well. and correspond by cassette rather than letters. choose a topic-card to speak about. try to meet British people. Pick a card and record yourself speaking for a minute on the topic. and use it. c Acting out a scene With fellow learners. and choose a scene that is not too difficult.Organising Your Learning: Speaking (2) Improving your oral fluency Even as an advanced learner. You'll probably sound better than you expected! If not. g Get out and about If you are in Britain. and do it again until you are satisfied. listen to the recording. try not to worry about speaking completely accurately all the time. If you tend to speak quietly. if your school has one. Only one person speaks at a time. h An English club In your own country. d I haven't finished! If you find it hard to have your say in conversations. Write out the script as accurately as you can. and only English is spoken. If this is the case. a language laboratory or self-access centre with mini-labs. Perhaps practice in communicating is more important! Below are some suggestions for out-of-class activities to provide communication practice and help you improve your fluency and communicative ability. or. e Speak up! Pay attention to how loudly you speak. and record yourselves. If your English is good. The next speaker. try to find a cassette-friend. This is also a good basis for language research. a Just a minute Write some topics on pieces of card. b 38 . fluent speaker. the advice in the Cyrganising Your Learning sections: Vocabulary. act it out together. Grammar and Speaking (1) and you should find that your fluency improves as you become more confident with your English. Lack of oral fluency and confidence This may be caused by a simple lack of English. but you are still not a confident. Listen to yourself. Can I say something? With fellow learners. Pronunciation problems Problems of pronunciation can probably be dealt with most effectively in class.

She s_ t in London. by the 39 .UNIT Crime and law enforcement Crime vocabulary g She said she hadn't committed the crime. She was the crime. 1 The ten sentences below tell a story. and the police caught her. e She was r magistrate. W gave e i Her lawyer asked questions of the prosecution witnesses. j The jury decided she was guilty. Rewrite them without changing the meaning. k The judge decided she had to spend five years in prison. the crime c She had to go to a Magistrate's Court. She p h People gave important information in court. She a b a magistrate.The first letters of some words are given. f She was tried in London. She c . She ______ an o_______ . and was a . b The police formally accused her of the crime. five years1 i . She was Check on page 85. a She broke the law. The C D the prosecution witnesses. d The magistrate decided that she had to wait for her trial in a cell. using the prompt words given.

A: Do you suppose they got home safely? B: I expect they got home safely. formality. He'll do well at Ellipsis and substitution: rewriting dialogues 4 Some of the sentences in the following dialogue sound strange because everything is said in full. she _ _ _ . their ideas. but you didn't have to drive home. why haven't they rung to say they are home? They would have rung to say they were home. 40 . to go now. shottening them where possible through ellipsis and substitution. I'm sure. spiteful sporadic miserly fearless oppose hinder grasp misunderstanding misapprehension kindly first-hand parsimonious intrepid understand incessant vicarious help support Check on page 85. A: Well. Use your dictionary. a 'Hello. write both. and the other words which they must be used with. but I'm a bit myself. m I bought a n He's a nice. Use your dictionary to pair the following words up according to similar meaning. darling!'. find an antonym or a synonym on the right. If you think more than one word fits. blue sweater. to drive. A: Yes. Wait till little boy. B: I was drinking a lot. b The people here are so _____ against foreigners! c He looked a little tired and. Rewrite them. dangerous hard up hold -with shout sensible approve of impoverished prejudiced wise bawl pale wan harmful biased Decide which of the words can go in the gaps below. too. f Smoking is a dirty and g I vote for them because I h The referee was accused of being decisions. B: Paul didn't have to drive home.UNIT 7 Synonyms and antonyms 2 Synonyms are words which are the same or very similar in meaning. j 'Come here. if they are home. . B: They don't always ring to say they are home. Rose had to drive home. in his young people drinking so much. you know. and write your answer. ill. i I don't habit. grammatical considerations. Check on page 85. Synonyms: the importance of context 3 Two words very similar in meaning may not be interchangeable in every context because of factors such as slight differences in meaning. Why shouldn't they have got home safely? Don't you think they got home safely? A: I certainly hope they got home safely. But Paul was drinking so much. desperately to make a living. Antonyms are words with opposite meanings. school. I I think it might be the trouble's over. For each word in the left-hand column. waving from across the street. trying as if he'd been e I don't think it would be very after all I've drunk. Well of course they got home safely. if they were home. soldier!' the sergeant k I wish I could help you out. d The villagers lived miserable lives.

1 He doesn't want me to go. a forthcoming Check page 85.' g I tried to get through. she only pretended to like him. Primary and secondary stress 6 Sort the words below into the columns according to stress. Use a dictionary. I'm learning. but I'm longing to see her. No reply.' Shorten the following sentences by deleting the root verb and wherever possible the to of the infinitive. but I've decided to go. A B A B A B A B A B A B A B c It wasn't necessary to go. substandard outspoken breathtaking fanciful foolhardy outrageous foreknowledge repulsive disgusting overdraft fraternal interesting uprising outpouring substructure lightheaded exhausted disfigured constructive outbuilding implement sensible 41 . Check on page 85. e I can't be sure that he touched the other car. j She thinks I don't want to see her. k She didn't like him. a 'Will you succeed?' 'Well I certainly intend to succeed!1 b They wanted me to resign. .'Well. they wouldn't have forgotten to ring. but I finally managed to persuade her. Examples: 'Can you play the piano?' . Ah. f 'Will you visit them again?' 'We hope to visit them again. A: No. but we tend to. but failed to get through. Oh. dear. B: I also know them. all right. .' 'We don't always eat meat for dinner. only the root verb can be omitted. B: They might have forgotten to ring. I know them. dear . but I refused to resign. it is usual to omit the entire infinitive in short answers. After other verbs. Do you want me to call them? A: Would you call them? B: Of course. i She didn't hit him. b underwear Ellipsis with the infinitive 5 After some verbs. d I'd love to come but I can't afford to come.UNIT 7 A: They said they would ring to say they are home. but he appeared to touch it. but she threatened to hit him. so I didn't bother to go. h It wasn't easy to persuade her.

I don't think this is a very 4 It's not going to get us anywhere. She expressed serious 6 policy. The first syllable carries the main stress in both. but the second syllable in sensible is much more reduced than the second syllable in breathtaking. The Minister was asked some rather 5 questions. In both. about the new 7 Use your dictionary to fill the gaps in the following groups of sentences with derivatives of the words given below each group. the Government has treated the refugees absolutely 3 . In refusing political asylum. Jacky and Jill are aged eight. the second syllable carries the main stress. When you have checked. His daughters jane. Sort the words in columns a and b into the four new columns below. which is sure to cause some debate. is a better word. As 2 42 a woman in her high position. Feeling 8 their journey. obedience from about accepting . they do it openly. Derivatives about how to set about it? line of inquiry. rest fruit point if I stay in the same job too after their sleep. so could you give me a few 3 Check on page 85. reduce the unstressed syllables in columns 2 and 4 until they almost disappear. There are two derivatives for each word. I'm new to the job. Say the words breathtaking and sensible to yourself. practise saying the words to yourself.UNIT 7 Say the words substandard and exhausted to yourself. which he answered badly. 1 b The search was 1 1 wouldn't say he's shy. 2 think. that 3 breathtaking 4 sensible shame respect fit question : we didn't find a thing. 1 ••• 2 ••• substandard exhausted has a Rolls Royce and a chauffeur. they continued reserve . You can't always expect 8 your children. but the first syllable in exhausted is much more reduced than the first syllable in substandard. a That was a very 1 questionable decision by the referee. six and three 4 His attitude towards the boss was so 5 he ended up losing his job. To emphasise the contrast in pronunciation. The flat is unfurnished except for one or two kitchen 6 The police are utterly 7 bribes. she I start to feel 7 long. The first is done for you.

. but . Sentence 1 A robber held up a petrol station He used a cucumber He was given 3. . . and . M r Lancaster. . Mr Lancaster told him:'If you don't give me a lot of 11 money. had successfully held up a garage brandishing a plastic bag 3 with a 'long object in it'. but that really in the final analysis is not the point. . .' The terrified man gave him £60.. the jury heard how Mr Lancaster first hailed the taxi and then drove to a greengrocer's shop His purpose was to buy the cucumber and a bunch of bananas Mr Lancaster lives in Mora Street. but this was blocked in the forecourt by angry customers.. aged 30. Sentences 1. where . 5 He escaped down a subway. Two days later he tried to rob the same garage with the cucumber.UNIT 7 Guided writing: sentence combination 8 The following text has fourteen sentences. which the . Combine the short sentences below to produce the missing sentences. Sentence 13 I accept this is at the lower end of the robbery scale This is a serious matter These courts are required to comply with sentencing policy While I . . . the jury . East London During . 7. . Shoreditch.. . . . . 4 He chose a London taxi as his getaway vehicle.. 6 Police later found him hiding in bushes where he claimed he was relieving himself. . crime. I accept it was not a real gun. first Sentence 8 He offered the taxi driver a banana He was driven to his flat He changed his clothes He put on a pair of dark glasses After . . Use the clue words in the order in which they are given. h e . who . with . .5 years yesterday to think about the crime The judge said the crime was 'at the lower end of the robbery scale' The judge said the crime was no joke A . flinging away the bag with the cucumber in it. . and write them in the spaces provided. . Sentence 7 His trial was at Knightsbridge Crown Court In his trial he was convicted of the two robberies During his trial. approached thecashier with thecucumber 10 held inside a plastic bag. 12 Judge Patricia Coles QC said: 'It undoubtedly was not a joke. . . I will shoot and kill you. i n which . Check on page 86. . o f .. . CUCUMBER THIEF PUT IN COOLER G A R E T H P A R R Y 2 Carl Lancaster. and 13 are missing. . 13 said prosecuting counsel Miss Tracy Ayling. . . . . . . . . 8. 9 Mr Lancaster and the unwitting taxi driver then drove to the Shell petrol station in nearby Old Street where he got out and 14 The least sentence she could pass was concurrent terms of Vk years for each robbery. 43 .

Cover the subtitles if there are any! g Record a real conversation involving at least one native speaker of English and yourself. d If you watch an English language video with subtitles. e Listen to a short piece of a video with the TV screen covered. f Watch a short piece of video with the volume turned down. b Try to write down all the words of one of your favourite songs in English. c Listen to songs in English. would you listen extensively or intensively to each of the following? Why. d Arrange to have English language satellite TV at home. Try to guess where the characters are and what they are doing. Listen again. a Record the radio news. by lip-reading and by paying attention to their expressions and postures. sentence by sentence. Listen to it again. and try to write down exactly what is said. This is no problem if you are studying in Britain. pausing every few words. Do you have any other ideas? Share them with your fellow learners and find out theirs. or for some other reason). pausing each time to write out the sentence as well as you can remember it. not details or individual words) and intensive listening (listening hard because individual words are important. Activities suggested in Projects and Assignments Your extensive listening skills will improve naturally with exposure to English. If you are studying in your own country.Organising Your Learning: Listening 1 Listening skills The skill of listening can be broken down into subskills. cover the subtitles and see how long you can go on listening and understanding without them. Check by playing the piece with both sound and vision. Were there any points where you had listening problems? What was the reason? Try to write down exactly what was said at that point. In your own language. 44 . and choose an item which interests you. You may even be able to guess what their expressions and postures are. (See Organising Your Learning: Speaking (2). so that you can listen to them again. Listen a third time. in each case? a an airport announcement b a boring talkative neighbour whom you meet at a bus-stop c the news on TV d someone who speaks your language with an extremely strong foreign accent e a passer-by giving you street directions f someone reading an important address to you over the telephone 2 Exposure 3 Intensive listening activities The following are some activities you can do outside the classroom to improve your intensive listening. b Hire English language videos with or without subtitles. Compare the final version with your original understanding of the item. f Ask colleagues or friends who are native speakers of English to speak only English to you. e Listen to BBC World Service radio. If you start to get lost. c Record English language TV programmes which interest you. you have to make more effort to ensure this exposure. Which of the following could you personally do? a See English language films at the cinema as often as possible. g Join an English Club. Write down in your own words what you understand of it after one listening. listening as many times as necessary. according to what we are listening to and to our reasons for listening. Do you have any other ideas for increasing your exposure to English? throughout your Coursebook provide more listening practice. uncover the subtitles again for a while. Try to work out what the charactets are saying. The two most-used skills are those of extensive listening (listening for the general idea. replaying parts when necessary.

Dozens of them have been passed in recent years condemning similar acts by more acceptable governments.Relative clauses These people come 1 Combine each group of sentences to form one sentence. other Check on page 86. in enforced. 45 . The annual income of these people is lower than £12. Even people cars. The value of the cars is considered as part of their income for tax purposes. However. the d 'The United Nations resolutions must and will be enforced. e However. This unacceptable military occupation continues in defiance of these resolutions.000. The regulations come into force next year. a The work of some people doesn't involve much driving. other UN resolutions show no sign of being enforced. You know even less than I do about it.' The resolutions. c These new regulations will not affect some people. using relative clauses.Some words and commas are given. but you must put more commas where necessary. Even these people are often provided with company cars. I discussing something do. b I don't see the point of our discussing it.

which was shot in the Sahara. His latest film. b Until now. shot in the Sahara. c Children brought up in poverty are prone to disease. is his most expensive so far. Some spaces have been filled for you. it took everyone by surprise lose your life no longer talk about discover occur all over the world not any more edifice conceal take pride in people are worried express an interest in gun I'm afraid be told about die say you're interested in someone who works for me worldwide item runoff a victory building amazing a great many discuss in search of firearm do A more formal to place your complete trust in there was widespread amazement at it B less formal to really trust a win happen find/find out a lot of one of my employees be informed about 46 . Language register: matching exercise 3 Complete Column A and Column B with the words and expressions below. his last one was the most expensive film ever made. Put formal items in Column A and informal items of similar meaning in Column B. is his most expensive so far. a His latest film.UNIT 8 Ellipsis in passive voice relative clauses 2 Expand the sentences below by writing in full the elliptical passive forms. Be careful with tenses! The first one has been done for you.

which a lot of men have died looking for. but the thing you said you were interested in isn't for sale any more. e I've just found out that someone who works for me. f He spends every weekend in his garden. which took everyone by surprise. Remember that formality determines the position of prepositions in relative clauses. but perform be proud of there is concern extraordinary looking for thing abscond Check on page 86. Using the more formal words and expressions from exercise 3. Language register in relative clauses 4 The sentences below. Check on page 87.000. make the sentences more formal without changing the meaning. a They talked about the situation in Zimbola. who I really trusted. b That's the bag the gun was hidden in. h Here is the diamond. are informal in style. d Sorry. which people all over the world are worried about. containing relative clauses. has run off with £10. which people used to do human sacrifices in. g The outcome of the election.UNIT 8 hide sorry. All the words and expressions must be used. which the President was told about by his staff. which he's really proud of. {use the passive voice in your answer) i This meeting. was a win for the socialists. happened in New York. 47 . c The expedition found this amazing building.

combine each verb with an adverbial particle (e. down. to knock out .g. Albanians were encouraged by the 24 of Ceausescu in Romania into25 they could get rid of their 26 o harsh regime.g. The first has been done for you. that gestures of this kind will have much 15 ef . Compound nouns derived from phrasal verbs 6 In compound nouns derived directly from phrasal verbs the adverbial particle goes last. President Ramiz Alia has been trying to move Albaniaout of backwardness and isolation since he 8 over as communist boss after the death of the post war revolutionary and tyrant Enver Hoxha in 1985. Last week's events 23 sug change may come violently. though 6 yesterday the situation appeared calmer. Violence was particularly marked in Shkoder and the dreary steel town 5 Elbasan near Tirana. Albania Tanks Roil to Quell Protests A week of disturbances in towns 1 th Albania has exposed the danger 2 fa Europe's last communist regime as it tries to liberalise 3 w losing control.UNIT 8 Gap-filling exercise 5 Fill the gaps in the following article. up. It is improbable. out. Sometimes the first tetter or letters are given.a fight-back). over) to produce a compound noun which matches with one of the definitions. material etc d value of business done by a company n sudden significant success in war. and many scores are waiting to be settled 30_ almost half a century of unremitting repression. a something which causes delay hold up b end of a romantic relationship c taking of control over a company etc f drastic reorganisation of personnel crack take hold break shake turn g undignified retreat from previous claims.a knock-out. The country has an old29tr____ of feuds to the death between tribes and families. Stress is always on the first word in the compound. 21 would come only by getting 22 of it. Kadare said then that he had 19 to the conclusion that Albania's 20 reg could not be reformed. Ismael Kadare. (e. severe repression 48 . Last week both Kadare and intellectuals in Albania 27 exp apprehension at the 28 pr of violent change. six verbs are given below. 14 . defected while 18 a visit to Paris. The regime's dilemma was brought into 16 sh focus in October when the 17 greatest writer. research etc e sudden. admitting you were wrong h large-scale concealment of scandalous facts i a problem stopping you from continuing with your plans j a newspaper review k multiple road crash 1 disappointment write pile climb set let cover m arrangement of objects. Check on page 87. Ramiz Alia 11 a told the students that he 1 2 _ sacking seven 13 m of the ruling politburo. For each group of definitions. At talks with student leaders last week Alia 9 p to allow independent political parties to take part in elections to the national assembly already 10pl_ for February. Government forces were 7 rep to be in control with tanks patrolling the streets of Elbasan. Troubles that began a week ago with student demonstrations in the capital Tirana spread as 4 th along a trail of gunpowder to Shkoder in the north and the comfortless resort town of Sarande in the south. Using your dictionary. to fight back .

. the first letter of a word is given. many Ministers have ! I expected something much on drug Being mammals. the administration has admitted the previously denied involvement of the President in the scandal. although dolphins breathe air. a I'm afraid there's been a not DJ. for which all tickets are sold lay sell mix break set show j Security checks at airports take time and cause . Smith. 1 The advertisement looked much more attractive after they had changed the m I thought that film was quite good. dolphins. 7 Use one of the compound nouns to fill in the gaps in the following sentences. humans can f The ____^ of their marriage was unexpected. . 6 S . and three have been sacked. which had been hidden in a massive operation. humans communicate by making noises to each other. 1 dolphins. seem to have no interest in c There are rumours that a multinational company is to attempt a has an annual __ of British Copper. k Fog has caused a catastrophic motorway. are fairly happy in d The discovery of the new drug is a _ will revolutionise treatment of heart disease. They had seemed to be getting on fairly well. 4 either medium. tending to live in societies. humans to be highly intelligent. g Police have launched a vigorous __ dealing. 10 U humans. e In a humiliating . Strangely. 3 humans nor dolphins can breathe water. 7 n humans lay eggs. of over £10bn. every concert was a . h What a better! 1 In the Cabinet . dolphins 8 dolphins. 5 humans and dolphins are believed by . Sometimes. 49 . Comparison and contrast 8 Fill the gaps to complete the sentences below comparing and contrasting dolphins and humans. involving 142 vehicles. 9 be trained to play skilful games with balls. but they're necessary. Humans are social creatures. however. 2u humans. However.UNIT 8 0 the way an organisation is arranged p someone who likes to appear clever or impressive q the act of mistaking one thing or person for another r a very successful show. but it got a terrible in the newspaper. changed jobs. Humans. dolphins live in groups.H. b The group's US tour was a huge success. however. Smith. which investigating the languages of other species. Check on page 87. they soon die if they are out of the water. on the Ml Check on page 87. I'm D. which . dolphins are not paid for displaying their skills.

Use your dictionary to help you. . immoral. He was tried and acquitted at Acton Crown Court in September 1984.fibres from Mr Morris's clothing on the overalls. They planted fibres from his clothing on a mask and pair of overalls abandoned by the robbers as they fled after the abortive raid. Mr Morris.Mr Morris. accounts etc). a evil. is seeking damages for malicious prosecution from the MetropoKtanPoliceCommissionerandPCs Desmond Cooke. said the officers took part in a 'wicked conspiracy' to implicate him in a raid on a sub-post office in west London. 5 Study the four lists below. of Chiswick. Exercises 4 Reread the text. 2 Reading will also show you new ways to use familiar vocabulary.. had played no part in the raid and the fibres must have been put there by the police. . west London. he said. These words can be recorded as discussed in Organising Your Learning: Vocabulary. and find at least one word or expression in the text which could be added to each. naughty b to falsify (information. (para2) . The police deny fabricating evidence and claim they had an honestbelief in Mr Morris's guilt. had played no part in the raid. 41.. (para 7) Find three other uses of part in your dictionary and add them to your list with example sentences of your own. In the text there are two expressions using part: . But Mr Morris. Stephen Deacon and Leif Bailey. and find five new words or expressions to add to your own list of Crime and Law Enforcement vocabulary. Read the following text and underline words or expressions you have studied in your Coursebook... His arrest in November 1983 and his prosecution and months in custody had had a 'profound and devastating' effect on him. after spending nine months in custody.. Set yourself a target of. five new words from every newspaper article or every page of a novel which you read. who spentnine months in custody before being acquitted. Itlinked himto the raid.. who has no previous Check on page 87. Milton Morris. Colin Challenger. a forgery. waistcoat d catastrophic. Mr Challenger added.. disastrous 6 Sometimes you may want to start a new list because of vocabulary items you come across. Mr Morris was charged with attempted armed robbery on 15 December and remanded in custody.the officers took part in a wicked conspiracy. Check on page 87. Decide what is the common characteristic of the items on each list. to take someone in c cap. convictions. How many did you remember? Evidence in robbery case 'was planted by police' AWINDOWCLEANERyesterdayaccused three police officers in the High Court of fabricating forensic evidence to support a charge of attempted armed robbery. The trial continues today. his counsel. say.. destructive.. The forensic evidence .Organising Your Learning: Reading (2) Reading for vocabulary consolidation and expansion 1 Reading consolidates vocabulary you have studied or picked up elsewhere. You have already studied the expressions: to be charged with (a crime) to be remanded in custody to be convicted But the text demonstrates that we can also say: a charge of (crime) to spend (time) in custody to have (previous) convictions 3 Use your reading to consciously acquire new vocabulary. his hair on the mask and glass from the scene of the crime on his shoes . told the court. bow-tie. it was claimed.appeared damning.

a 'It says you can't take pictures in the museum. but two are not. His c The whole town is talking about us.' I assure Check on page 87. it says you've got to leave it at the desk. Make any other changes which make the passive voice sentence sound more formal. Most are possible in the passive voice. a I can't stand it when people stare at me.' Cameras c 'Someone's doing his house up for him.Language register and the passive voice 1 Rewrite the sentences below from the active voice to the passive voice. beginning with the words given. they e We're not going to stand for it! It 51 . someone will take care of them. beginning with the words given.' The book h 'OK. Decide which these are. and mention the agent only when necessary.' Cameras are b 'Look. but you will gradually pick up a feeling for this. no problem with January. The passive voice with prepositions 2 The sentences below contain prepositional phrases and verbs. Pay careful attention to the position of prepositions.' She e 'People are searching for the kid who's gone missing.' The f 'It was crazy ever to close this window. I can't stand b He's fallen in love with his teacher. There is no rule about when prepositional phrases and verbs can be used in the passive voice (even native speakers may disagree!). Don't worry.' He d 'They've talked her into changing her mind. then convert the others.' This g 'You'd better finish writing the book by January. We d Don't worry.

The first has been done for you. Just why don't you? trying to b directionless __ c tall d bird e arrogant _______ ______ h kangaroo ______ i hurry ______ j sudden ______ . a to chicken out b to make a pig of yourself c to let sleeping dogs lie teach that student anything. but at the last minute he lost his nerve and Check on page 87. Do you think she really wants to learn ? e Oh dear. I don't feel too good this morning. d Pm beginning to feel I'm Check on page 87. she was sure. a lazy lounge f crash g slippers ______ ______ home late from work every night. a ttsur b fuselhf c gloneu d plotep e creph ______ . but it was a long time ago. I'm afraid I with the curry last night. He had a lover. Solve the anagrams and write in the middle column. in a place which doesn't suit you 6 to decide to ignore some problem which is not causing trouble at the moment 6 Complete each sentence with one of the expressions in exercise 5. and feel they belong in the new country. f pale g trowe h sadh i direst j redawn _______ _ 3 to eat too much of something 4 to lose your courage 5 to be uneasy. she shouldn't have done it. This whole takeover needs d to flog a dead horse e to feel like a fish out of water f to smell a rat 1 to waste your efforts for no return 2 to sense that something suspicious is going on Check on page 87. bearing in mind the special meaning of each verb. but British footballers usually b His wife in Italy. f He intended to ask her out. match the following animal-based idiomatic expressions with their meanings below. . Children hate g A team of special investigators ought to look into this whole takeover. when he started coming 4 Match the words below to the verbs in exercise 3 above. Verbs of movement and posture 3 Below are anagrams of some of the movement and posture verbs in your Coursebook. 52 . OK. Idiomatic expressions with names of animals 5 Using your dictionary. a Some people enjoy living abroad. c Don't start that old argument again.UNIT 9 f Children hate it when adults don't listen to them.

when you learn the secret of HOW TO TALK TO YOUR CAT. • Why your cat circles in your lap before settling 10 . so you'll know when your pet is happiest .the spcxial friend who 2 your life has so much to say to you about his feelings and 3 .now. facial expressions and often intricate body 8 . 1_______ ! .your cat is telling you how much she loves you. and answers at last fascinating mysteries of feline behaviour such as: • Why your cat rubs you to show affection . • What kinds of toys and games your cat likes best.. You may be surprised to discover the warmth and strength of the 14 of affection between you and your cat 15 __ you understand her unique language of communication ..with their ears. if only you know how to listen and what to look for.. Watch! . London EC2M 5PJ Registered in England No. HOW TO TALK TO YOUR CAT Your cat is talking to you. and how best to show her 9 . Order your copy of YOUR TALKING CAT today . Remember. and illustrated charts of feline facial 12_ and tail positions that reveal the 13 of your cat's moods and feelings.. . whiskers. and wish to better communicate with your pet for a deeper. . In fact. There are nineteen different ways cats say ' meow1. . . • Why your cat doesn't like to be stared at. And there is also a 'Cat Talk' Chart 11__ your cat's language. eyes and 6 . . London Wall. .2470149 53 .UNIT 9 Gap-filling exercise 7 Fill the gaps in the following advertisement with one word. using the handy coupon below: © 1991 Carnell Ltd. . . with their poses and movements! YOUR TALKING CAT shows you how to talk to your cat.there's a lot more cat talk than 'meow1. how to 7 your cat's meows. If you're a cat lover like me. more loving 4______ . And each has its own special 5 ! Cats also talk in body language . . then you'll want to find out HOW TO TALK TO YOUR CAT. . 27 Salisbury House. • Why your cat always seems to come over when you're reading or doing paperwork . and the ultimate toy to distract him.

I've got to go into the centre at lunchtime. no problem.' 5 I peered into the darkened room.UNIT 9 Verbs of facial expression 8 Read the following and find verbs of facial expression which have the meanings given below. angry look i to watch in a fixed way. and it's raining. 'I've got some good news for you all. shut your mouth at least. 54 . The headmistress frowned slightly with irritation. what Colin: Well.' pouted the little girl. because something is hard to see b to look at something in a steady. c 1 . relaxed way 9 What expression(s) might be associated with the following? a looking into the eyes of someone you love b trying to read a bus timetable which is old and dirty c passing your exams d seeing a polar bear walk down your road e concentrating on a crossword puzzle f a snob g a childish person not being allowed to do something he wants to h someone being hypnotised i being unable to speak. but it's a 1I me your car. 4 'Hello everyone/ he beamed. Her mother glared at her furiously. with eyes wide open John: Ah.' he sneered. John. but showing your boyfriend you are very displeased with something he has just said Requests and permission: gap-fill dialogue 10 Fill the gaps in the following dialogues. Haven't you ever been to a topless beach before? And please stop staring at that girl. showing that you feel you're being treated badly d to smile broadly and happily e to contract your forehead in annoyance or concentration f to be so amazed that your mouth falls open John: S_______ . because I'll be using . and tried again. g to show in your expression that you feel yourself to be superior h to give a very intense. and you can't make me. she'll notice._ f_______? ? c to push your lips forward. 6 'I can't say I'm surprised that you enjoy hot dogs. Underline the verbs. S_______ a______ t Colin: OK. 'After all. if you're not careful!' 3 We gazed in silence as the sun slowly went down over the sea. but couldn't see anybody.' a to look intently. I won't go. normally I w b______ d today. you're British. which says something about your taste in food. then write them in the spaces provided. it myself. 1 'It's not fair. well. but said nothing. 2 'Don't gape like that. I' d s_______' w ? . A dialogue between two friends at work Colin. The first letters of some words are given.

.. .W ? Guided writing: sentence combination 11 Join each of the following groups of sentences to form one or two long sentences. justification. 55 . . it. . it. John: Hello. all right? Check on page 88. population. . I'm s_________ to o________ like this. .UNIT 9 A telephone conversation between two business acquaintances Derek: Derek Reynolds. (Two sentences). S 2pm? b Most people would support a moderate movement. and g_______ back to you. p y o . Some animal rights activists use wildly inappropriate terrorist methods. It would pursue peaceful means. This is because of age or other circumstances. Derek. . but I could try to rearrange that. . friends John Carling. . These activists only alienate the majority of the population. long . W ________ to change the time? Derek: It d m John: When d I y . if possible. As I say. They ask themselves this with some justification. . I'm supposed to be busy then.. . _I'd g if . but there's no w_______ I c Derek: Don't w w I a________ make the morning. but that meeting we arranged. head. Derek: Let me see. This cannot be denied. a movement. . .. as indicated. Derek: Hello. . They often provide uncomplaining companionship to people. . using the clues given below. John. aim was to . . Listen.. . I'll s about rearranging the other thing. M o s t . n a . . These people have no other friends. Derek. denied . methods only . a Many people find the presence of so many dogs in Britain a nuisance. pursued . . Well. Although . The majority of the population ask themselves if these people are quite right in the head. activists who . Sometime during the afternoon. to speak to y c Id_ John: Hi. Its aim would be to end the use of animals in nonmedical experiments. I'm s__. I s John: W .

I hated the idea of leaving New York. . it's just the strange stories I've heard about the place which . We moved to this house a few months ago. and my little boy just pulled her out of the way in time.. well. but I'd lost my job... when that wardrobe nearly fell on my baby daughter for no reason. It's an old wooden house in a small town in New England.. And the other day. accidents will happen. beginning!/ it hadn't been for. or But for. 56 . a wifc/move/house b financial situation/New York c low price/buy d strange stories/worry e noises/like f my little boy/daughter/killed g films/nobody/believe Check on page 88.Conditionals with but for. Haunted? No. no! It's just those stupid Hollywood films that make people believe in ghosts. I've often wondered why it was so low. that's how come we managed to buy it. I quite like the place really.. It was my wife's idea. the paragraph. Hie price was really low. If it weren t for. so it was a question of improving our financial situation. . Well. Apart from these noises at night. Use the prompt words given. But I don't worry really... I suppose it's nothing. if not for 1 Write sentences based on. not mine..

verbs are in the past tense. which would be an interesting life. I a 'If I were offered a job in another country.' would have didn't b 'If I would have so much money that I was I in a position to stop working for good. were taken on 3 astrologer. I would do any kind of work that was offered to me and wasn't illegal. Noun-preposition collocations 3 Complete the noun-preposition collocations by filling the gaps below. which was probably one where they wouldn't speak would be offered would probably be ' didn't speak English. non-identifying relative clauses and coordinate clauses are conditional. a US president who was 2 _____ office for eight years. In the monologues below. I would work for whoever offered me employment. because we wanted didn't matter didn't know would have a professional crew to sail it for us. and if perhaps nothing in politics should surprise us any more. Otherwise. and they crcwed sent liked would crew the yacht for us!' Check on page 88. and my wife and I would go went on I bought went sailing whenever we would want . Examples: If I lost my job. a 1 whole. Otherwise. It seems a fair bargain. we had would still have 1 would send our children on a training course (whether they would like i it or not). to my 3 4 . And it wouldn't matter that we wouldn't know how to sail. they do give up their freedom or possessions. I. They do less harm than religions usually do. and I would do as 1 was told. verbs in the main clause.Devotees are obligation to join. would take ' it like a shot unless the salary I would he really low. If I lost my job. or I wouldn't take it. fringe religions and cults. of an thoughts. Though. 5 they receive peace of mind. Each line represents a word. after all. If I lost my job. Underline your choices. I'm 2 of b It is simply 1 ___________ belief rhat important decisions taken by the most powerful man in the world. I would sell antiques. in a way. even supposing that I had would be would go on spending money as fast as I do now.UNIT 10 Tenses in long second conditional sentences 2 In long second conditional sentences. if we still had enough money left. which I would buy in auctions and sell in a market. 4 . In which case the conditions of took i was employment had to be really good. to me. I think I would buy a yacht. 57 . choose whether to use the past tense or the conditional tense. Check on page 88.

Although at first authorities did not take Bryant seriously. Africa was carved European colonies. a temple leader in California and a close associate of the late guru. fill the following gaps with prepositions. . a former devotee who had launched a campaign to expose what he claimed were corrupt Krishna leaders. Alexander Kulik. The swami. The business associate was eventually murdered. The authorities said a financial firm set 14_ under the auspices of the Krishna movement. a He was convicted explosions. Steven Bryant. In May. Washington THE GENTLE image of Hare Krishna disciples chanting their way 1 American streets hides a sinister world of murder. Trouble has been brewing in the sect 8_ the death in 1977 9 Swami Prabhupada. Police believe a high-ranking sect memberpaid25 the murder to silence Bryant. evidence surfaced that some factions of the movement had adopted highly unorthodox fund-raising activities. Glossary racketeering: making money from illegal business fiefdoms: areas of influence factions: competing groups within a movement. Several of his saffron-robed leading disciples then carved the United States 11 independent fiefdoms which competed with each other 12 money and converts. aclash 22 materialism and the Krishna's religious devotion. Violence 17 rival cult members has intensified 18 the last year. sheriff of Marshall county. political party etc. New York. according 2 investigators hunting 3 the crooked leaders of the sect. 24 his death they began to investigate his charges and discovered evidence to support many of them. Bryant gave lengthy interviews to police in which he charged some Krishna leaders 23 condoning child abuse and immorality. There's a kind of holy war going on 7 the Krishna movement. an international agency has been set c He is credited campaign. They say they have been acting more 4 associates of Al Capone than children of a benevolent eastern deity. a Krishna devotee. Prasadam Distributors International. the success of the charges of causing 58 . West Virginia. 5 Having checked your answers to exercise 4. You may use each word more than once- Krishna leaders face criminal charges by Mark Hnsenbali. was convicted 13_ charges of distributing heroin. Two years later. Two of the company's officials pleaded guilty 15 charges of kidnapping a business associate whom they suspected 16 embezzling cash. claimed that the incidentresulted21. and organising prostitution and burglary rings. Thomas Dresher. was beaten unconscious 19 a disgruntled devotee who attacked him 20 a steel pipe. d In the nineteenth century. launder: convert illegally-earned money into apparently legal money condoning: approving of.UNIT 10 Prepositions 4 Fill the gaps in the article with prepositions. Before his death. drug running and prostitution. was shot dead while driving his van near the sect's Los Angeles temple. was used to launder drug dealing profits.' said Donald Bordenkircher. where the Hare Krishna cult has a large settlement. Dresher had already pleaded guilty to murdering a second Krishna disciple who disappeared in 1983. b Under the auspices of UNESCO. settlement leader. who was known as Keith Ham while a student 20 years ago at Columbia University. A federal grand jury in West Virginia is expected to order a nationwide probe 5 charges that some Krishna leaders have engaged in brutal violence to silence rivals and 6 largescale racketeering to line their own pockets. the 82-year-old Indian holy man who is credited 10_______ importing the religion to North America. was recently charged with murdering Bryant. allowing to happen auspices: approval and support Check on page 88. Kirtanananda Swami Bhaktipada.

a unemployment b the majority c wishes big d sense e winds f the part great g rain h an opinion of i a blow heavy j an opportunity k a while/an hour/ten minutes 1 speeds (s) good m a possibility n views o a smell/taste strong p quality q business r profits high s finance t industry u difficulty best v a mistake w a quantity x an accent large y losses z an influence Check on page 88. g The bank is suspected __ drug money. The first letters of some words have been given.UNIT 10 e The accident resulted procedures. since he was recognised by one of the staff as an ex-employee. f MPs are calling for a probe a failure of safety 7 Fill the gaps below with collocations from exercise 6. Check on page 88. Each line represents a word. the question. Check on page 89. c Good evening. having laundered m the two supermarkets engaged_____a price war. and losing a 4 g o to the Government's role in the scandal. It half-hour just to understand p of 6 Match the nouns on the left with the adjectives on the right which can combine with them to strengthen them. A man with a 3_ Scottish accent forced staff at gunpoint to load the equipment into a van. and then the 3 b the evening to answer it. h In competing with each other customers. . a 'The latest trade figures are a 1 s in favour of lowering interest rates. it will be making a 3 . There is a 3 heavy snow tonight. more than one adjective could he used. b He had 1 took him a 2 d in writing the essay. and drove off at 4 . Police say there is 5 c that the man will be caught. here is the weather. so don't drive unless it is absolutely necessary. Adjective/noun collocations resuscitate the economy.' she said. d A1 quantity of 2 h q sound equipment was stolen today from a disco in the West End of London. 'Should the Government not have the 2_ s_ to do this. Sometimes. 1_ w and 2 h hit most of the p of country today.

usually with a change in meaning. Turn is also more formal and is used especially with changes of colour. can we have a break? f At this rate we're going to few months. get. Check on page 89. but not usually with go adjectives. d I think you're e I'm _____ tired. a bit wet. Put each adjective below into one of the columns. g Younger students quickly there is a charge of activity. 1 The weather was beginning to so we came home. i Dear Mum. turn or become in each gap below. to go pale. you know. p Turn that walkman down. I knew it would. brown and begin to 60 . to get angry).UNIT 10 Go and get with adjectives 8 Go and get are commonly used with adjectives to mean become {e. a bit too thin. he embarrassment. behaviour. everything's very well here. and it's bedtime in half an hour. ever so grey. o I hate it when my dad ______„ mad at me and shouts. Put a correct form of go. turn and become with adjectives 9 In more formal style. if you look carefully at the example sentence(s) it gives for each adjective. k He had two hit records and bald angry blind pale old deaf bad cold mad wild bored drunk crazy violent white (and other colours) thin fat nasty bankrupt wrong insane ready tired unfriendly cloudy difficult windy famous rich well impossible excited wet dry broke lost famous overnight. c He bright red with ready. get. bored unless bankrupt in a go pale angry get j The kids are _____ too exited. r In autumn. Your dictionary should help. bald since you last saw him. Some adjectives can go in either column. and weather. You must use become or turn if you think it is both possible and stylistically appropriate. a On seeing us. we're going. h Everything _____ wrong. you'll you're not careful. b Come on. q The crowd. become can be used with most adjectives from the get list. m I believe the nights are n His hair colder. the leaves fall.g. hasn't it? Language register: go. wild when she appeared on deaf if stage in a blaze of light.

.1 Use the prompts to produce sentences expressing a change of mind. I guess/think/suppose Hi forget about it. but now that the damage has been paid for. previous intention a inform police b buy dollars c walk d they offer him job e Luis party World Cup Final TV f call doctor g take mortgage buy flat h take job El Pagador i write you j they baby Check on page 89. 61 new fact damage paid for exchange rate up weather clouded over found out prison Brazil out her fever down interest rate up civil war you phoned he lost job new intention/prediction forget about it wait a while in after all think twice call off wait see how tomorrow have keep renting stay Britain not bother wait / was going to Inform the police. The first has been done for you.

so there (be) ______ a garden to play in. Lisbon's nice. Lisbon? Answers a b c d e f g h l Yes. number them accordingly and complete them by converting the verbs in brackets into the present continuous. Is that right? 6 What 2 Got a job? 3 That's all fixed up. Questions 1 I heard you were going to move abroad. the future continuous. about 5 I've heard the traffic's bad. next month actually. the house. is it. yes. outside the centre. I hope. arrangements. by the way? Check on page 89. so I (can) spend some time with them in the mornings. the kids? 7 That's fixed up. so I (go) ______ to work in the late afternoons. We (be) ________ OK. Apparently. And we (live) _ _ _ in a house. They (go) ______ to school in the afternoons. Not especially. no. 3 In the following utterances. I (start) at the beginning of September. Well I (not earn) very much but enough to live on quite comfortably. Nice place to work. a Newsreader: 'The Prime Minister is attending a special session of the UN Security Council later this week. but I (work) in the evenings. but I forgot. is it? 4 Great. And that's when everybody else (come) back. I'm going to get you one then if you like. or future simple with to be. Rewrite the utterances correctly.' Check on page 89. but at least it's not too expensive. Yes. all that picturesque. Yes.1 e 'You won't go out in this rain just to get a newspaper.' d 'I would ask her. so it (not be). will you? Look. I (teach) English in a small school in Lisbon. Yes. So I (not sit) in a traffic jam every day. I (work) . the future forms used are either incorrect or stylistically inappropriate (too formal or informal). that's right.' b Hotel receptionist: 'Do you want breakfast in your room?' c Child: 'I am to spend the weekend at my Grannie's. We (move) to Portugal on the twentieth. is it? 8 Is it a nice area? 9 What about money. but yes.UNIT 11 The future. Decide which order the answers go in. 62 . so I'm walking past the newsagents anyway. I'll go to the town centre myself a bit later on. we (move) straight in as soon as we arrive. We (not live) ______ as close to the beach as we would like. Well. intentions and predictions 2 The following conversation has been split into questions (in the correct order) and jumbled answers.

his body made as it hit the c How much is she earning these days? floor told his attacker that he was already unconscious. goodness. Beside each utterance write the letter of the other one in the pair. what of it. o / / /___/ shutters were fastened. it was nice and simple. . The window was closed and the wooden Sentence stress and sounds: vowels 5 Say the dialogues below to yourself. gerund. Jenny. - f I'll let you know soon. bark howl tinkle screech creak thud roar tap hiss rattle crunch crack click Check on page 89. Use each word once only. The stick struck Chalmers on the forehead with 6 7. he wouldn't be needing glasses where he was going. but he could still hear 3 4 5 of the gale outside. and decide which vowel in each utterance carries the main stress. just as the small masked figure behind him brought the heavy walking stick down with all her strength. she thought. irritably. she stepped on his glasses. apparently. put the definite or indefinite article. 'among' is better. a bit after. a The house was quiet. i We'll send out search parties. Thank j But he could be anywhere in the country. Inside the bedroom he turned the light on with 'Yes. His car! He whirled round. a Shall I call round about seven? b No. 'between' in that situation? / / h No. Holding it to his ear he shook it and heard 2 faint . if you 2 . a man so old and thin that he looked as if his bones 3 shook him. g Do I say. and the broken lenses 8 her foot. Well. Pair each utterance with another which stresses the same vowel. come in. or the correct tense of the verb). and took the light bulb out. b He reached inside the lampshade. you know. 4 Fill each gap with one of the sound-words given below (noun. and of tyres as a car was driven away at top speed. and drew in his breath with 1 sharp of pain as he under d A fortune. / / e You don't absolutely have to do it. / / / / touched the hot light bulb. 1 The creaking of the old stairs as Chalmers walked up was startlingly loud. all that was needed was a new light bulb! 63 . please. come in!' he 2 His butler stood before him. The first one has been done for you. Suddenly he heard of a powerful engine outside. heavy and he fell to the carpet.UNIT 11 Sound-words c There was 1 polite on the door. As she turned away. He got a cloth. Where necessary. and the stressed sound in phonemic script. The first has been done for you. sharp .

(what) d I find night driving very tiring because of the of the car headlights coming in the other direction. I suppose. s Can I have a chat for a moment? t Of course you can. (looked) e I've always liked walking in the countryside. I saw her face for a moment as the match ______ .UNIT 11 k Where shall we sir? 1 I'm not that bothered. b The reason they failed wasn't lack of planning. b She lit a cigarette. to be replaced by the quiet red of her cigarette in the darkness. get on with it! / / / / / / / / d There appeared to have been a fight. (it) c He believed in his own ability and this gave him confidence. / / / / / / Check on page 89. including the word in brackets in the form in which it is given. (didn't) o And were you upset when that happened? p Wouldn't you have been? q Where have you been all day? / / / / h You mustn't forget how young he is. (to) j People resented his behaviour.. 64 . Words describing light u Why don't we go by car. a There was a of lightning and almost immediately afterwards a deafening crack of thunder overhead. making sure you stress the right syllable and pronounce the vowel correctly. When you have checked your answers. write another with the same meaning. say the dialogues aloud. then the match went out. (as) g Please don't do that. . (my) My original intention wae to leave early. really. . Check on page 89. c . then? v Well we could. I intended to leave early. (rise) r It's none of your business where I've been. 7 Fill each gap below with one of the 'light' words listed at the end of the exercise. a Originally. . paying special attention to the example sentences. Mixed structures: sentence rewriting 6 For each sentence below. (account) i I suddenly realised I hadn't seen John all day. m Now how shall I put this? n Oh. (something) f She was far less interested in football than I was. Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the words.

everything as everyone long stays should out as be As g Government. is a on d companies. offered return helping refused. there seems to be water on the road ahead. what don't they yourself i it what there? how long difference make get does to it takes j as a this which Mr Smith by conditions. a his job I in reluctantly In g I love to see the sea sunlight. in one I for was of which him. Punctuation marks follow the same word that they follow in the sentence. 65 . of an directly lost working This b whole deforestation. j My candle _____ as a slight breeze blew in through the window. result arm. glow flash gleam glare sparkle flicker twinkle blaze flare Check on page 90. as the hot air makes a mirage. Sometimes. f He gazed across the valley at the lights of the distant town _ _ _ in the soft darkness. a say. Unjumble them. calm. was he of cause downfall of attempting to the accused the He shimmer h largest said built. the great ballroom was with the light of many chandeliers. I think it's called a c earth beyond did thing utterly why she such me. was caused unsafe accident. consequence from as area soil a uncontrolled of the erosion. h The newly polished car ___ sunlight. and write the sentences in the spaces provided.UNIT 11 e Sometimes. him I'd you'll me his for with in to let have be in the bright I'd i Seen from the garden. when you are driving on hot days. you. Sentence construction: word-jumble f sorted shortly. e glad if touch get number. the beginning of the sentence is given. suffers As Check on page 90. it to ship be the ever by is far 8 The words in the following sentences have been jumbled up. like diamonds in the effect. no be let matter persuaded.

Which ones have a basically affirmative meaning (i. . There is very little likelihood that the climate will change dramatically in the near future. . . you are given a Yes or No as your basic answer. There is very little likelihood that . You need not use all the expressions above. The first two are done for you. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility t h a t . and may use any more than once. and which have a negative meaning? Which ones express strong probability {or certainty).. cars Register: formal expressions to talk of probability 1 Study the following list of formal it is . . . . a Were they going too fast? (yes **) It is possible that they were going too faet b Will the climate change dramatically in the near future? (No ****). It seems beyond doubt that. . constructions. It is inconceivable t h a t . that something happened or will happen). c Will the government fall this month? (No ******) d Will the government fall this year? (Yes *) .UNIT Motoring. There is a strong possibility t h a t . . and which ones weaker probability!1 It is impossible t h a t . . . .. . . . 2 Use the expressions in exercise 1 to form answers to the questions below. .e. It's quite possible that. There is no doubt whatsoever t h a t . . Each time.. and there is . It is possible that. . Check on page 90. and a number of stars (from six to one) to indicate the degree of probability. . . It's unlikely that. . .

a Everything was going well. i Are women drivers safer than men? (Yes ******) Every th ing _______ j Has he left the country already? (Yes ***) c It looks as if the situation has been brought back under control. and vice versa. From what I hear. It „_____ h Will cars be banned from all cities in the future? (Yes *) b It looked to me as if everything had been prepared correctly. f Have the hostages been taken to another location? (Yes ****) g Will there be another global conflict in the near future? (N Below. It k Has he left the country already? (No **) Check on page 90. OR type B It looks as if there's been a mistake. convert type A sentences to type B sentences. e Judging from what he said. by the sound of it. The situation d Judging by appearances. It f It sounds to me as if they made a mistake getting married so young. It sounds as if he's happy in his new job. we can use seems with an infinitive (more formal) or it looks/sounds as if/ though (less formal). he seems to be very happy in his new job.UNIT 12 e Will Japanese car manufacturers take over the luxury car market in the next few years? (Yes *****) Language register: seems + infinitive or sounds/ looks as though 3 In interpreting situations. everything seems to be getting back to normal. they seem to be heading for a divorce. Examples: type A There seems to have been a mistake. They __ 67 .

(say) j Judging by appearances. then? for four or five _____ hours liquor store a flashlight mean . US 4 Complete the following sentences. US and GB vocabulary 5 Complete the columns with words from section C of your Coursebook. We in such conditions. you silly child (kill) _______ after midnight. Check on page 90. (leave) j It's interesting that you that. they seemed to have come to blows already that evening. It f It's strange that he Normally he stays quite late. I the a suggestion? i It looked to us as if they were arguing about something. Modal verbs: sentence completion GB a ground floor b take-away food c d mates e a crossroads f g the pavement h l mean j rubbish Check on page 90. h It sounded as if we'd been wasting our time trying to persuade him. (leave) g It is quite unacceptable that prisoners so early. you say. By then we hours. (drive) d So you left the club three hours later. he seemed to me to have no intention of changing his mind. They house by that time. using a modal verb phrase including the correct form of the verb in brackets. (keep) h I wonder if I _ (make) i No. a Isn't this ready yet? It ago. It Check on page 90. That (be) e Didn't you see that car coming? You .UNIT 12 g In conversation. don't call then. (finish) b You'd already done it? You mean I ? (bother) c We'll need to stop for a break around lunchtime.

Check on page 91. before winter but it might be tougher than he thinks. right. instead of nervous or excited i an indiscreet act. considering he hardly knew her. c He seems very about his exam tomorrow. convincing speech aimed at persuading someone fiasco a respected adviser or expert (slightly ironic expression) bravado a long story or narration prima donna something getting louder or more intense 69 .g. a The police made straight for the centre of the in an attempt to stop the fighting. permission to act freely g a thick. scenario a smooth. f Rooms in our hotels have the same anywhere in the world. socially embarrassing j having an over-simple or a too innocent view of the world k something which is absurdly disorganised 1 style of furnishing and decoration m abrupt in manner. g It was rather of him to trust her. US speakers invariably stress the second syllable of these words. though some have taken on slightly different meanings in English.UNIT 12 Words borrowed from French 6 Words borrowed from French are very common in English. What a way for a footballer to start! e I knew very little about the social rules of their culture. warm bed cover h casual and dismissive. so the occasional was inevitable. garage) while newer entrants still seem quite foreign (e. some having become truly English words (e. duvet). d He made his professional against Benfica in Lisbon. and write them in the spaces provided. i The police must have freedom to act as they think f a free hand. Use your dictionary to match the following words and phrases with their meanings below. music or art e uncomfortable and awkward in social situations 7 Fill each gap below with one of the words or phrases from exercise 6. but a democracy cannot give them a complete . Words borrowed from other languages 9 The commonly-used words and expressions below come from a variety of languages.g. h The new manager is going to put people's backs up with his way of dealing with colleagues. b We'd better buy a new comes on. nouns decor debut duvet melee fiance faux pas carte blanche genre farce adjectives grotesque gauche blase naive brusque a exaggerated to the point of being ugly or ridiculous b a performer's first public performance c a lot of people struggling or fighting in a confused way d a particular style in literature. not considering people's feelings n the man a woman is going to marry Check on page 91. Use your dictionary to help you match them to the meanings on the right.

.. . . wreck . retreated . . . . possible . conclusion . alone . . . .. . g The President's promises to resist the invasion to the end turned out to be pure h In response to the . behaved . . but incorporate all the word and punctuation prompts provided below. . . . me . . point .. . looked . . Check on page 91. should be. road. but it was a bit harder to see what that something should be.. . Lifting . . means. . perhaps if I waited a minute or two. that d The college has invited a number of linguistics to speak at the conference. . . . o w n . . this way . . when . i A number of of the revolution. . flame . waited. I had to do something. Not being by any means an expert on cars. I backed off to the other side of the road so that I could think things over from a safe distance. . . this might be serious trouble. I looked carefully. Just then. adopt. . the situation . This sort of thing ha d happened before of course .. . . . smoke. time . On the other hand. . . . . . . . . . side . . . . bonnet. itself. . .. . but it was the first time I had felt so concerned. . . . e x p e r t . particularly on an old wreck like mine. . .. . . . . I am . .the car was fifteen years old and was no longer the car it had been when it was new. . . . this point. . . order . .... . plainly enough. rock. road . . . come . .. e What a ! How can you put up with I had only been driving a few minutes when I noticed that the car wasn't right. a Ugh. . . . . 1 . . .. few minutes. . . . wise . .. quite . . never caused . . time . c o m i n g . . . I . . . thought. . . . courageous attitude. c a r s . . off. be done.. cool down . . making whatever grammatical and lexical changes are necessary. . f a i n t . I concluded that this was the most sensible thing I could do. few minutes. and sure enough there were wisps of acrid smoke coming from the engine. no m e a n s . Guided writing: rewriting a text 11 Rewrite the story below. more . .. noticed . behaviour like that? f Coursebook writers must take care in choosing themes and texts.. . see. . . car.. could . 70 can be envisaged as a result Check on page 91. . . seemed .. the national coach had no option but to resign. carefully. . I decided to pull over to have a look at the engine. burning. . . . safety . Check on page 91. . . n o t . struck .. Keep as closely to the original as possible. of his b Once again we had to listen to the failed job application. . since some topics are many countries. . wisest.. fifteen years. . engine. but mixing cocktails isn't my . disintegration. intended to impress something you are especially good at someone temperamental and difficult to work with. As I lifted the bonnet I thought I could smell burning. alarming shaking . . in of public criticism. . . concern before. . . action . .UNIT 12 guru crescendo saga spiel taboo forte detailed prediction of the way a situation could develop considered by society to be too 'bad' or offensive even to talk about failure so complete as to be ridiculous a reckless. engine. By the look of it. . . first time . . . j Every time he meets a girl he fancies he uses the same old _____ to get her interested in him. . . . . . . . and sat down on a rock.. . plain . the engine would cool down. . car . hadn't. . . . I saw the first small flame above the engine. . . . . trouble. . It was making a strange noise and every now and then it would shake so alarmingly that it seemed to be about to disintegrate. 10 Fit one of the words from exercise 9 into each gap.. that's disgusting! Sorry... . . . . more . . . hand. . . . .. . engine . w a s .. c The election campaign was such a the organisers were sacked. off. . . . . . . .. .. matter .

Check on page 91. into the kitchen. h It was only when the lesson began that 1 suddenly realised I was in the wrong classroom. a He tried to allay their suspicions about his absence with a false explanation. and rewrite the sentences. be patient and find out all the alternatives first. holidays Phrasal verbs e I studied ail the information I could find on the 1 Replace the words in italics with phrasal verbs from Section E of your Coursebook. your theory is not supported by the facts.UNIT Travel. d It's not fair. He'll threaten you. c Unfortunately. but he hasn't got the nerve to really do what he threatens. 71 . you're not going to escape doing the washing up this time! g Don't take out insurance with the first company you speak to. b Come on. f Don't worry. you always support her when we argue. company before I took the job.

3 Below are five root-verbs commonly used in phrasal verbs. Write the particle or particles on the correct line. I'll this offer with my wife.UNIT 13 2 Fill the gaps with phrasal verbs from Section E of your Coursebook. Each line represents a word. i Look. c Sports stars often _____ popularity by doing advertisements. e They persuaded him to secretary of the committee. a Don't it . to see Jack. with meanings beside them. but that's got to be the fuel consumption. a set b out begin consider as counterbalancing another fact c read see more in a book. she's always . responsibility etc. interesting ideas. a Can you you? b We've got to try and resigning. e As soon as the kids get back from school. trick someone accept a task. patronising way e then talk to you again. The first has been done for you. treat I getting a visa for the her b What it all___________________is that they don't really like each other any more: that's the real problem. the job of your students. I thought deceive. h I didn't want to do it. the address if I read it to Check on page 91. really! The others me _ it. genuine antiques are very hard to unless you pay a fortune. discuss 72 . We need her! c How do States? d Don't them as your equals. get possession of happen admit that something you said was unfair or wrong write down exactly what someone is saying k 1 Check on page 91. do it today! g come h i take their j persuade someone not to do something obtain. which is huge. it's bigger and faster. than is really there d talk speak to someone in a superior. Look up each root-verb in your dictionary and find a phrasal verb for each of the meanings. 4 Put one of the phrasal verbs you discovered in exercise 3 into each of the gaps below. f Take your flowers and go! Nothing can all those horrible things you said! g She's incredibly creative. attitude etc. Each line represents a word. d I was rather he was in Australia. g Yes. they straight _____ the television. h Nowadays.

Dialogue completion exercise B A: Ah. The people are so friendly. Check on page 91. How about you? B A: Oh. but his own people weren't _____ words. He was there last summer. Anyway. I don't mind a lot of people around. and the hot weather is the reason I go! Anyway. but I'm perfectly healthy. The first one has been done for you. actually. actually. a I wonder if you'd mind turning that radio down. personally. I love it. d I wouldn't t t be a very good idea. Scotland. m Reformers try to make social change _____ through political action. B: A: I'm sure there is. Sometimes the first letter of a word is given. then. B A: My brother. Each line represents a word. it .UNIT 13 i Some people try to _____ all sorts of significant meanings j OK. b I haven't the f talking about. April is a month I like to spend in England. 1 He was a very popular President abroad. Check on page 91. B A: Oh. I didn't like the look of him. they say. eh? B A: Wrong? Nothing as far as I know! Lovely place. apparently. B A: I found it delicious. did you have a nice time there ? 6 Complete the following sentences. B: A: Well. at least that's the plan. A: Have you ever been to Greece? B A: 1976? So was I! B A: July. How about you? B A: Oh come on. e The truth o don't really care. I to upset you. if you want my opinion. I didn't mean B A: Back to Crete. Apparently it poured with rain for the whole week. well I've heard just the opposite. B A: Crete. yes. Anyway I like plenty of oil on my food. they say it is. do you? 73 m is that you . the scenery is fantastic. How about you? B A: You don't seem very sure. It's giving me a headache. I'm sorry. did you? Perhaps you met the wrong ones. their dreams. B A: Have you? Ah. Hmm. isn't it? So that was all right in the end. Beautiful place. don't exaggerate. Mixed structures: sentence completion by his fine 5 Fill in speaker B's part of the dialogue. Contractions count as one word. c I refused to have anything d i you're him.

but it was clear that there wasn't. 74 . What a relaxed. 1 Well. f There is a certain . they . p I'm afraid there seems s q In no k s of accident in the street outside. k As f scheduled for 3 pm. but regardless 1 n Much a takes. __t you. I know. I'm going to Words borrowed from French 7 Use your dictionary to help you fill each gap in the following sentences with one of the French words or expressions below. i Even the children's rooms have bathrooms. m It'll be a long job. Check on page 92. h In bringing about a but I suppose he thought he was acting for the best.UNIT 13 f No m marry him. it's got to be done. o I must s I'd r he hadn't told them. r__ h policy. which she finds totally inadequate. sympathetic atmosphere! ___ w which he'd been treated. g In s a says. about working on TV. he's a reaching the summit. he enabled it to present a more united image. j Not being in for going out. rapprochement rapport raison d'etre en suite en masse critique par excellence suave risque mystique Check on page 92. and the admission of guilt. really. I'm afraid I must turn your offer down. of NATO was to oppose the decided to spend the evening watching television. he didn't stop loving her. i Had there b o p b Don't be deceived by his very dangerous man! c Some of his jokes are a bit manner. party suddenly livened up. the meeting is still e Her article is a well-argued of current but I must be going now. j All the guests seemed to arrive . h Contrary w I'd b 1 to suppose. this be taken as an wings of his party. considering his programme is on when children might be watching. we would have continued. it's. d The whole Soviet Union. the food at the restaurant was rather good. a She certainly seems to have a wonderful with the students. g He doesn't do much else on the field. so. but it's just another job. but he is a goalscorer ! between the warring . All are commonly used in English.

(put) h Which has meant less overtime. Pair each utterance with another which stresses the same diphthong. d It's impossible to know for sure. g That's what we should do. we would never have managed. 1 There's one over there. b Recently. f No. say the dialogues aloud. crime has been increasing. of course. Mixed structures: sentence rewriting d Starting right away. really. Mr Robinson! 9 For each sentence below. Beside each utterance write the letter of the other one in the pair. 8 Say the dialogues below to yourself. write anothet with the same meaning. k Let's try and find a timetable. a How much do I owe you? b That'll be forty-five pounds. and decide which diphthong in each utterance carries the main stress. c So I should take better care of myself. (on) c Don't say it's my fault. a I need to know if he was telling the truth. doctor? p Just as well it was insured. When you have checked your answers. (as) m What's a more formal way of saying 'hide'. g There's been a big drop in output. making sure you stress the right diphthong and pronounce it correctly. (way) i Why did you steal such a thing? j I'm not sure any more. One has been done for you.UNIT 13 Sentence stress and sounds: diphthongs o The car was completely destroyed. (course) 75 . then Check on page 92. sir. and the stressed sound in phonemic script. by the look of it. it was the boy that ran away. The first is done for you. I think I'm right in saying. (Henry's) f I made the most honest reply that I could. e If Henry hadn't helped. (true) e You said the girl ran away today?. including the word in brackets in the form in which it is given. apparently. n 'Conceal' is more formal.

I have decided to cancel my visit. 76 . (habit) i In the eighties. they left. (wasn't) 1 Considering the recent troubles.UNIT 13 h I assure you I don't normally ask strangers for money. (light) Check on page 92. (provision) k Soon afterwards. Britain's industrial base contracted. (saw) j Not enough information is provided.

There is no longer any reason for him to take such an attitude. This structure no longer presents any difficulties for me.Answer Key Organising Your Learning: Introduction 4 The following are some ideas. in order to be able to present an organised programme of work. in order to achieve her own learning objectives. He no longer has any desire to continue living. raving mad d dead right e bored stiff 77 . Organising Your Learning: Dictionaries 4 a longingly /lorjirjli/ /p:nrrj/ b yawning /fleimQreoa/ c flame-thrower /d3Ambald/ d jumbled /foujan/ e lotion f chocolate /tfokalat/ /fisbs/ fearless S /fraitful/ h frightful 6 a irksome b encroach c roughage d phial e curtail f autopsy g chaotic h psalm i knoll j earl Unit 2 1 1 could tell 2 had known 3 would never have started 4 were 5 you'd never met 6 couldn't go 7 wouldn't go 8 you'd never been born 9 could keep up with 10 would have been 11 hadn't laughed 12 I'd never bought 13 would take 14 had never mentioned Alice no longer resides at this address. I no longer have any intention of accepting the position. fast asleep. or That matter no longer holds any interest for me. so that they can present an organised programme of work. c Apart from supporting its teachers with efficient teaching materials. in class lots of speaking opportunities you have company there is a teacher to organise activities. and to monitor your English outside you can work only on what you need you work when and for as long as you want you work at your own speed you follow your own interests you can use language in 'real-life' situations Unit 1 2 1m 2k 9h l0j a b c d e f g h i 31 4f 5d 6c 7n 11i 12b 13a 14 e 8g 8 a as light as a feather c as old as the hills e as quiet as a mouse g to sleep like a log i as blind as a bat b to eat like a horse d to smoke like a chimney f as clean as a whistle h as pretty as a picture j to drink like a fish 9 h wrench c grabbed d loath e hurled f shattered g scoured h begged i shoved j soared k burst 1 rushed m hammering n swear o despair p stare q demanded r ruined 10 asothat b (in order) to give them c forworkingon d so that e (in order) to f for showing g so that students can h (in order) to show i so that j (in order) to k for students to 1 so that 11 b A good language student will not only participate in classroom work. d A good language teacher will not only work hard in the classroom. wide awake c filthy rich. There is no longer any hope that the crisis can be resolved peacefully. We no longer have any objection to their presence. to guide and advise you. though you may have others which are equally valid. I no longer have any interest in that matter. He no longer has any respect for his parents' beliefs. but also work independently outside class time. I OK 2 absolutely/utterly amazing 3 OK 4 absolutely infuriating 5 absolutely incredible 6 OK 7 absolutely terrified 8 rather pleased 9 absolutely delighted 10 OK II absolutely hideous 12 utterly ridiculous 5 a absolutely delicious rather/quite tasty b absolutely hilarious quite funny c absolutely essential quite important 6 dead tired fast asleep bored stiff dead right wide awake dead slow stone cold filthy rich raving mad stone deaf blind drunk 7 a stone cold b dead tired. but also spend time on lesson preparation. a good language school will pay them for preparation time.

He has a four-room apartment. I would have cooked something nice for dinner if you had. so we could go to bed. f My marriage wouldn't have broken up if I hadn't lost my job. c I wish you would be quiet/wouldn't make so much noise. j He wouldn't be in this mess if he hadn't come to London. so you wouldn't always make such a mess. we could have taken a taxi home if we hadn't. so I could book the tickets. c It is apparently difficult to find reasonably-priced accommodation in London at short notice. Having arrived at Euston Station at 1 lpm. f I wish you would make up your mind. e I wish you'd stop talking all the time. so I wouldn't have to take the bus to work. g I wish he would fix the car. but its huge export earnings are used to pay the interest on its foreign debt. f I wish we'd known she could babysit. I could ring them up. g Perhaps somebody would give him a job if he had a fixed address. I could have gone to university if I had. d I wish I'd studied harder at school. 4 a It's high time the government did something about inflation! b It's high time you started doing some homework! e It's high time you children went to bed! f It's high time they put a stop to all these strikes! h It's high time you started being a bit more punctual! i It's high time you grew up and acted responsibly! 5 a If he wasn't rich. for example. so I could get some work done. b If I weren't such a fool. he could save some money. .ANSWER KEY 2 b I wish you'd take more care. Brazil. so I could hear the television. it wouldn't have raised interest rates. yet he doesn't have to cook. he wouldn't (couldn't) have bought that new car. we wouldn't have had to stay in if we had. i If he had some money. c I wish you'd told me you were coming. catch out 10 a get on b fallen out c catch (them) out d grows on e caught on to f grown out of g fell about h fell for i get (it) across j get round 11 Possible answers: b Developing countries have the capacity to create wealth. he could rent a place to live. has one of the largest economies in the world. and his mother washes his clothes for him. I would have left him long ago. grow out of fall out with. The German law student in The stay at home kids is a case in point. d If this government knew what it was doing. get on catch on. e I wish I'd gone to university. fall about get it across. they still hadn't found a place to stay after half-an-hour's working through the Yellow Pages. so we could get some sleep. but are crippled by debt. c If I hadn't lost my address book. 3 b I wish we hadn't spent such a lot. e Things would be better for business if interest rates hadn't gone up. I could have got a good job if I had. 78 1 •••• figurative formidable saturated satisfying 2 •••• fortuitous impractical preservative impossible disorderly extravagant insensitive subsidiary 3 •••• outmanoeuvre schizophrenia unrestricted sentimental notwithstanding hesitation disenchantment polytechnic 4 •••• oversubscribed nevertheless underexposed 5 ••• secondary secretary literary reasonable 7 a get on with b put forward c let me down d takes after e gone off f get away with g tell her off h to go round 8 a fell behind b caught up with c stand for d got over e go without f longing for g work out h frown on 9 a grow on. d I wish they would go home. get round. d European young people are tending to stay at home and have an easy life instead of living on their own. fall for. Take the case of the German students mentioned in the letter about London in Unit 1. h 1 wish you kids would behave yourselves. h If he had a job.

r neither/nor: k present perfect/past simple/past perfect: m Unit 3 1 1 couldn't afford 2 couldn't see 3 had managed to sleep 4 would have been able to/ could have 5 could make/would be able to make 6 could see 7 were able to run 8 managed to make/ were able to make 9 couldn't understand 10 were able to/managed to get 11 couldn't believe 12 could speak 13 could make out 14 could have offered 15 could feel 16 had been able to/had managed to achieve 17 having been able to make 18 could have wept 19 was able to understand 20 hadn't been able to continue 21 to be able to offer 22 could give 23 had been able to/had managed to arrange 24 was able to help 25 could hardly find 26 to have been able to offer 2 a outmoded b outfit c outgoings d outlandish e outline f out-of-the-way g upgrade h upheaval 1 upkeep j uprising k uptight 1 upturn 3 a outgoings b uptight c upheaval d outmoded e outfit f upgrading g upturn h outlandish i uprising j upkeep k out-of-the-way 1 outline 79 . whose head office was in my home town. I spent 3 months in Paris to perfect my French. UNESCO) to fall ill: sickness and health H-bomb: weapons and war overtake: driving vocabulary overcoat: clothes and accessories Organising Your Learning: Grammar 1 a There are far too many qualified lawyers. and after that I'm going to enter university to study law. s in case: b.g. k I'm not used to writing either in English or in Italian. t future tenses: j sequences and time expressions: j. which I had studied for the previous 6 years. p In case I need advice. n. such: a. d I'd rather you corrected my errors. s I arrived back in Spain and began working for a multinational company. p too. so it's hard to find work. h I don't see any reason to go to the computer room with the class again. n logical connectors: 1. d rather: d. enough. b I went to an Italian-speaking school. r. and mightn't it be a good idea to do a dictation every week? e Certificates prove you're really good at something. I'm sure it will be useful. q modals: I. n Over the next few weekends I hope to see as much as possible of England. f It sometimes seems almost impossible to keep pace with the others. t I had never seen such a beautiful place as that. t relative clauses and what clauses: c. s punctuation: c. 1 could have gone to university. BBC. j When I'm back in Switzerland I'm going to have a holiday.ANSWER KEY Organising Your Learning: Vocabulary Bubble puzzle a A 1 to owe 2 to pay off 3 rate of interest 4 budget deficit 5 overdraft B 1 overdraft 2 to overthrow 3 to overtake 4 to overturn 5 overcoat C 1 to overthrow 2 to throw out 3 a throwback D 1 an MP 2 a poll 3 constituency 4 overthrow 5 coup d'etat E 1 coup d'etat 2 fiasco 3 bizarre 4 fiance F 1 fiance 2 to break up 3 to fall for 4 to fancy someone G 1 to fall for 2 to fall to pieces 3 to fall ill 4 fall-out H 1 fall-out 2 power station 3 nuclear waste 4 H-bomb b Possible answers: MP: acronyms (e. can I ask you after lessons? q Whatever we do. g It's the first time I have had to correct my own writing. b prepositions: e. o I have just finished my studies in Germany. 2 word order: f. h. so. c I'm glad to hear that some of what I said was of interest. 1. a. q first time: g adjective + infinitive: i present tenses in future subordinate clauses: j. but I did a secretarial course instead. o. i That is easy to understand. please. m After graduating. r I would rather talk than always study grammar. m. so that my mother could help me with my work jf I needed it. 1 After this.

The garden and TV are also a plus. 6 b There doesn't seem to be very much meat on them. and I'll bring the menu. v Manager: I'm sorry to hear that. it's a long way from the centre . . and I'm telling you they're rubbish. which is important. and hurry it up. it is self-contained. a Manager: Not at all. Sorry to bother you. o Manager: Hmm. c Customer: You're the manager. it's really good!' a You would say I wished I had known (but in fact. there's no meat on them.' d 'We must stop meeting like this!' or 'Hi. I'll take them back. I'll be glad to return them to our kitchen. What's wrong with them? Look. but as you see . What can I do for you? m Customer: Well. Can I offer to bring you the menu again? d Customer: Yes. k Customer: Don't tell me I'm talking rubbish. . . It'll take as long as it takes. . please. but as you can see . just keep your voice down. t Manager: Rubbish. I haven't got all day. Well. sir. I don't like to complain. but are you the manager? f Manager: I am. I do actually eat here regularly. but are you the manager? d Naturally. it's about these spare ribs. p Manager: Yeah. c Good evening.' c 'I'm beginning to wish we'd never come here. e Manager: Well. . sir. Not quite as meaty. Organising Your Learning: Speaking (1) 1 Possible answers a 'Well. I was sorry to hear you failed your exam. and I'm sorry to cause any inconvenience. in fact . Wei!. f Can I offer to bring you the menu again? 7 b Possible answer: Of course it's got some problems. you know. Just look at them! There's no way I'm paying for that! r Manager: Look. and they definitely don't seem to be the same quality as usual. 80 . I'm afraid.even from the tube station. One moment. sir. On the other hand. Sorry to bother you. What's wrong with them? i Customer. e . Bye!' b 'By the way. that's a polite thing some people say when a person does something nice for them without being asked to. Rude dialogue 1 Manager: Hello. they look all right to me. sir. We're very busy. Are you looking for trouble or something? b Manager: Just let me look at the ribs. c No. And that's not to mention the rent. So your social life would probably suffer. I suppose. I'll be glad to return them to our kitchen. will you? OK. you only use didn't live up to when something isn't as good as expected. what do you want? g Customer: These spare ribs are no good. .and you'd be even more isolated because it hasn't got a telephone. What do you want instead? s Customer: Give me a steak. and there's a lot of space. I eat here a lot.ANSWER KEY 4 1 of 2 through (during would also be possible here) 3 without 4 of 5 on 6 for 7 at 8 on 9 in 10 of 11 under 12 under 13 to 14 for 15 of 16 on 17 of 18 in 19 on 20 from 21 against 22 of 23 with 24 in 25 until 5 Polite dialogue j Manager: Good evening. plus kitchen and bathroom. q Customer: You see. you didn't know). You must be really disappointed. Naturally. I'm sorry you feel that way. especially if you would be spending quite a lot of time about the place. considering it's got two bedrooms and a sitting room. we meet again e 'Have you seen (the film)? You must try and see it. all right? It's you who's making the trouble. it's been nice talking to you. Thank you very much. . b No. I must say they seem very similar to the spare ribs we usually serve. May I see them? u Customer: Certainly. . There doesn't seem to be very much meat on them. sir. To start off with. I'm afraid. Let's have a look at them. can I be of any help? n Customer: Good evening. b u t . sir. which is a bit high at £100 a week. h Manager: One steak.

ANSWER KEY Unit 4 1 a 1 leaving 2 me to be 3 to have 4 to betray 5 undermining 6 to me to be 7 to be doing to b 1 being 2 to accept 3 to offer 4 on acting 5 them to do 6 being 7 for being 8 for patronising c 1 to continue 2 in saving 3 enabling us 4 to increase 5 to decrease 6 reducing 7 to say 8 making 9 us to take d 1 to give me 2 him of letting me down 3 to have offered 4 to give 5 saying (or having said) 6 by claiming 7 to remember 8 doing (or having done) 2 a I see him as (being) essential to the success of the deal. (impossibility) h She arrived to find the city in turmoil. well-heeled c ill-at-ease d ill-advised e well-groomed f well-intentioned g well-spoken h ill-fated i ill-defined j well-appointed 6 a 1 well-appointed 2 well-groomed 3 well-to-do 4 ill-at-ease 5 well-spoken b 1 well-intentioned 2 ill-fated 3 ill-defined 4 well-founded 5 ill-advised 81 . b She dismissed him as (being) unworthy of serious consideration. (instruction) d There's nothing to be done. g Witnesses describe the man as (being) tall and heavily-built. (discovery) f He is to be executed tomorrow. f I've never thought of him as (being) mean. (arrangement) c You are not to leave this room for any reason. (arrangement) g He was nowhere to be seen. (impossibility) e She turned to see her car disappearing into the distance. (instruction) b The Queen is to visit Canada next month. c He comes over as (being) rather arrogant. d I regard him as (being) the best in his field. (discovery) 5 a well-founded b well-to-do. 3 a refusing b I arrive c burning d smoking e to arrive f watching g I admire h I know i to be j windsurfing 4 a You are to stay here until (you are) called. e He struck me as (being) rather nervous.

when he did act. 2 It looks as if Student a should concentrate mostly on where to end sentences. e f g h 3 a False. self-confident air. g I was thinking of going out for dinner together. He was a skinny. h I'm sorry. In foreign policy. (lines 27-29) . e She's lost weight since she started her diet. It's only ten minutes since he leftIt's eighteen years since the war ended. Let me know tomorrow. expect a greater willingness to intervene militarily in the affairs of smaller states compared with the hesitant former president. Thanks anyway. who.-. want to come for a drink? e We're having dinner in a few minutes. if you can. cocksure air. At home. he is a very shrewd man. and in order to achieve the high position he now holds. pasty-faced man with an arrogant. However. I listened to the silence for a short time . Organising Your Learning: Writing 1 a . It's twenty years since I've seen him. and his views more simplistic than those of his predecessor. and his views more straightforward than those of his predecessor. he must have shown greater lack of principle in private than was usually expected from his more principled predecessor. .ANSWER KEY b That should be OK. expect a greater willingness to meddle militarily in the affairs of smaller states. and probably more repressive law-and-order policies. with its cheap furnishings and gaudy colours. b i He is more likely to make bold decisions than the previous president.. preferred surreptitious diplomatic blackmail to the use of armed force. with its inexpensive furnishings and cheerful colours. I went up the path to the door. It fell by 1. I spoke to him for the last time a year ago. ii We looked around Jones' cramped apartment. he is a very devious man. They insist on doing so (lines 23-24) f False. Unit 5 1 b Ken has got fat since he gave up smoking. Bye. d Hi. and probably firmer law-and-order policies. and in order to achieve the high position he now holds. but I don't really think so. However. so I entered the gloomy old house as quietly as I could. which arrived this morning. His staff will find him an abrasive and domineering person to work with. {lines 10-13) cTrue. i The children have learnt French since they moved to France. ii He is more likely to make rash decisions than the previous president. There wasn't a sound to be heard. I must go now. I would very much like to come. 9 a i We looked around Jones' cosy apartment. j They've made friends since they've been going out more. (lines 14-17) d True {lines 20-24) e False. . It's thirty years since the city has seen such celebrations/since the last time the city saw such celebrations. I think we can expect a more penny'pinching style of government. pale man with a proud. . who. I had always wanted to go to Paris in the spring. It is likely (lines 25-27) g True. Look. In foreign policy. and Student b on the order of adverbials in sentences. when he did act. It was open.3% (line 12) b True. but later should be OK. his staff will find him a forthright and strong-willed person to work with. It's ages since I've been riding. c Good. h Their relationship has improved since they stopped watching TV all the time. b . I'll have to check. c He's been eating a lot since he's been living in Franced He hasn't learnt much French since he started studying. . preferred discreet diplomatic pressure to the use of armed force.. Will that be all right for you? f I was wondering if you'd like to come out with me tonight. At home. he must have shown greater flexibility in private than was usually expected from his more rigid predecessor. g They've been going out more since they moved to France. 2 a b c d It's a long time since I started learning English. but I think we're free. I think we expect a more frugal style of government. He was a slim. then. f She's been looking better since she started doing exercises. so I was delighted to receive your kind invitation. It's years since I've seen such a beautiful girl. compared with the cautious former president.

c The war caused severe poverty. f People only eat about half as much fish as they used to. so that there should be no misunderstanding. the company's future still looks bad. 83 . k Consumption offish is slightly higher than it used to be. g The adjustment policies led to the progressive impoverishment of ordinary people. b Unemployment has risen by 250. or It's far more expensive to fly than to go by car. though in some cases other words would not be incorrect. d If you take part-time work you'll lose your entitlement to unemployment benefit. c The tree was four times the height of the man. Output has fallen from 21 million tons to 20. c The rate of inflation has risen by 3%. 1 People eat three times the quantity of wholemeal bread and cereals that they used to eat.ANSWER KEY 5 a There has been a slight fall in output. 1 since 2 involving 3 although 4 despite 5 still 6 and 7 but 8 since 9 by 10 for 11 from 12 compared 13 linked 14 these 15 but 16 what 17 even 18 single 19 what 20 still 3 b People consume/use slightly more white sugar than they used to. or Output has suffered a contraction of/2%. e The children danced around in excitement and delight. f It's far cheaper to go by car than to fly. i People only drink about a quarter as much alcohol as they used to. d Consumption of dairy produce is a great deal higher than it used to be. which in turn led to an attempted revolution. j I gaped at him in utter stupefaction at what he had told me.000. There has been an increase of 10% in unemployment. h People don't use/consume anywhere near as much white sugar as they used to. b He earns four times as much as I do. g But going by car isn't anywhere near as quick or as comfortable. d It is a great deal more complicated than people think. f We stared at the scene in horror and fascination. d There has been a substantial rise in the value of exports. h He pushed at the locked door in surprise and annoyance. There has been an increase of 3% in the rate of inflation. d Notwithstanding the increase in sales. There has been a contraction of " % in A output. The value of exports has risen sharply.9 million tons. 2 The following are the words which appeared in the original text. 7 b The result was a disappointment to me. b I explained carefully. k They lived there in contentment for many years. e 1 find it absolutely extraordinary that such a thing should have happened. g Consumption of green vegetables is far higher than it used to be. i Their behaviour caused me more amusement than fear. e This car costs three times as much as that one. The value of exports has risen by £7 billion. j Consumption of dairy produce is far lower than it used to be. c Consumption of wholemeal bread and cereals is slightly lower than it used to be. h I don't think the weather's quite as hot today. i It isn't nearly as hard to keep fit if you can do it in a group. c He looked at me more in astonishment than pleasure. j I find it a lot more enjoyable to travel with friends than to travel alone. 8 a 1 resulted 2 As a result 3 one consequence 4 Owing 5 consequently 6 this reason 7 causing b 1 the result of 2 caused by 3 due 4 because 5 because 6 as a result of Unit 6 1 a This is nowhere near as hard as I thought it would be. c People drink seven times as much alcohol as they used to. 6 a We hadn't been driving long when we saw the sign which we were looking for.

you know. 21 For you it's easy to talk. you know. e Alcohol-related injuries are probably much more common in Colestera (than in Hypochondra). Perhaps I'd better. How many times a day do you eat? Gladys: Well. Do you really think it's 3 too bad? Jack: Do you mind if I 4 asked how much you weigh 5 m_these days? Gladys: Oh. I tried keep-fit classes. 1 better do 2 should 3 that 4 ask 5 these days 6 more than last year 7 I wouldn't laugh 8 an awful lot 9 you don't mind me saying 10 but you 11 if you don't mind 12 it 13 you ought to 14 see 15 ought to 16 want 17 I hardly stop 18 no good 19 way 20 easier said than done 21 It's easy for you to talk 22 so much 23 I suppose you're right 24 do 25 mind 26 do you expect 27 rather 28 have 29 suppose 30 I'll try 84 . three or four. I 17 hardly don't stop. well. Gladys: Yes. Jack. Gladys. Jack: Seriously. Gladys: I 23 agree entirely. really. c People in Colestera consume far more cholesterol (than people in Hypochondra). Gladys: All right. you're getting really fat. but what's the point? Jack: Look. isn't it? 1 mean it's all right for you. Gladys: Yes. a few. if you don't 25 bother my asking? Gladys: Oh. If you don't lose weight you're going to 28 pass through problems. I 30 try again. a 3 b 17 c2 i 14 j l l 6 a b c d e f g h i j dl0 e7 f 12 g16 h 18 hasn't got a leg to stand on put my feet up were glad to see the back of him put my foot in it say it to my face put your heads together on its last legs take it to heart closing our eyes to on your own head be it 7 Jack: Good heavens. you know. in fact? Gladys: About 14 stone. What do you mean dangerously? Jack: Well. Jack: Well. How old are you. if I were you. It's simple. I think you're being 27 fairly negative. 1 14 know your point. if you 16 asked my opinion. You'd 1 better to do something about it. complicated diets don't work. 1 hate to say 12 that. I hope 9 you let me say so. have you tried just eating less often? Why don't you just eat twice a day? Gladys: I've tried that. 1 just can't resist the temptation. but nothing seems to work. I'm sure you're right. Jack: How many times did you go. 10 you are dangerously fat. if you don't mind my saying so. How much do you weigh. you've got a point I 29 agree. What do you think I 15 should to do? Jack: Well. heart attacks of course. I really think 13 you do ought to lose weight. perhaps I 2 would. I 7 didn't laugh about it. Jack: That's a 8 horrible lot. d There is a far greater likelihood of suffering from heart disease in Colestera (than in Hypochondra). Well. the 19 manner I see it. Jack: Have you tried doing exercises? Gladys: Oh yes. you've got to start. but it's 18 not good. Jack: Well. Jack: Well. if you 11 don't care about my asking? Gladys: 34. Jack: Well. a bit 6 more that last year. but they didn't 24 work any good. Gladys. what 26 are you expecting? You've got to keep it up! Gladys: Oh. Gladys. b The diet in Hypochondra contains far more vitamins (than that in Colestera). you've simplygot to resist it. but that's a lot of fat for one heart to carry. Gladys. it's 20 easier saying than doing. Gladys: Well.ANSWER KEY 4 Possible answers: a People in Hypochondra eat much more fibre (than people in Colestera). if you want to know what I think. 1 mean. I've got 22 enough weight to lose that it hardly seems worth starting. f People in Colestera probably need a lot more dental care (than people in Hypochondra). you're thin anyway. The thing is. and I have tried a few diets.

dear . She pleaded not guilty.kindly oppose . B: They might have forgotten. I'd love to come but I can't afford to. I certainly intend to!' They wanted me to resign. all right. She appeared before a magistrate. but you didn't have to drive home. 'Will you visit them again?' 'We hope to. substandard outspoken. She thinks I don't want to see her. B: Neither did Paul. She didn't hit him. 6 a ••• forthcoming. .hinder 3 dangerous . She didn't like him. B: So was I. exhausted disfigured. But Paul was drinking so much. Ah. He doesn't want me to go. fraternal lightheaded. j She was sentenced to five years' imprisonment. B: So do I.' I tried to get through. not a general attitude) c pale. It wasn't necessary to go. It wasn't easy to persuade her. Witnesses gave evidence. Why shouldn't they have? Don't you think they did? A: I certainly hope so.fearless Antonyms spiteful . and was arrested.ANSWER KEY Unit 7 1 a b c d e f g h She committed an.biased pale . wan d impoverished (hard-up is too informal) e wise. but I refused.parsimonious grasp . but failed. you know. A: No. She was remanded in custody by the magistrate. if they're home why haven't they rung to say so? They would have. if they were. Rose did. constructive b ••• underwear. foolhardy overdraft.wan a shouted (bawled sounds too rough and vulgar) b prejudiced (biased is to do with a particular situation. interesting uprising. shouted k hard-up (see above) 1 dangerous (see above) m pale (if people are wan they look pale and not well) n sensible (for people. B: They don't always. whereas we know that smoking causes harm) g approve of (hold with must be in the negative) h biased (see above) i approve of. of course they did. 5 a b c d e f g h i j k 1 'Will you succeed? 'Well. .bawl sensible . sensible f harmful {dangerous suggests that something bad might happen. but she threatened to. repulsive disgusting. A:Yes. outbuilding implement. She was charged with the crime.impoverished hold with . they wouldn't have. Do you want me to call them? A: Would you? B: Of course.vicarious incessant . The Counsel for the Defence cross-examined the prosecution witnesses. I can't be sure that he touched the other car. but I finally managed. breathtaking fanciful.misunderstanding intrepid . wise implies age and experience) 4 A:Do you suppose they got home safely? B: I expect so. A: They said they would.harmful hard up . so I didn't first-hand .wise prejudice . she only pretended to. She stood trial in London. you win. I know them.sporadic help . but he appeared to.approve of shout . 2 Synonyms miserly . They promised to. i She was convicted of the crime. dear. sensible 1 ••• substandard forthcoming outspoken outrageous foreknowledge lightheaded 2 ••• exhausted repulsive disgusting fraternal disfigured constructive 85 . hold with j bawled. Oh.understand misapprehension . but I've decided. Well. offence. outpouring substructure. No reply. but I'm longing to. A: Look. outrageous foreknowledge.

Unit 8 1 a Even people whose work doesn't involve much driving are often provided with company cars. 2 b Until now. must and will be enforced. d In the 1950s.' e However. You have no visual help. and all the details are important. Sentence 8 After offering the taxi driver a banana he was driven to his flat. which the judge said was 'at the lower end of the robbery scale' . Sentence 13 While I accept this is at the lower end of the robbery scale.ANSWER KEY 3 breathtaking foolhardy uprising outpouring substructure outbuilding 4 sensible underwear fanciful interesting implement sensible f Intensive. probably. which will not affect people whose annual income is lower than £12. c These new regulations. but the information may be complex. a more formal 7 a 2 befits 3 shamefully 4 respectively 5 disrespectful 6 fittings 7 shameless 8 unquestioning b 1 fruitless 2 reserved 3 pointers 4 fruitful 5 pointed 6 reservations 7 restless 8 rested 8 Sentence 1 A robber who held up a petrol station with a cucumber was given 3% years yesterday to think about the crime. first hailed the taxi and then drove to a greengrocer's shop to buy the cucumber and a bunch of bananas. because of the difficulty of recognising the words. dozens of which have been passed in recent years condemning similar acts by more acceptable governments.000. where he changed his clothes and put on a pair of dark glasses. unless you heard something of urgent interest. b I don't see the point of our discussing something you know even less about/about which you know even less/than I do. You have visual help. to hear if it is relevant to you. hts last one was the most expensive film that had ever been made. many countries. to hear all the information. c Extensive. In any case. achieved independence. b Extensive. the jury heard how Mr Lancaster. Shoreditch. e However. c Children who are brought up in poverty are prone to disease. nations which have been denied political expression for years often take time to achieve genuine democracy. in which he was convicted of the two robberies. the value of which is considered as part of their income for tax purposes. f Civil rights which are considered to be basic in rich countries have to be fought for elsewhere. other UN resolutions. b less formal to really trust a win it took everyone by surprise die happen talk about find/find out a lot of someone who works for me all over the world be told about building to place your complete trust in a victory there was a widespread amazement at it lose your life occur discuss discover a great many one of my employees worldwide be informed about edifice 86 . d Intensive. show no sign of being enforced. come into force next year. Sentence 7 During his trial at Knightsbridge Crown Court. Then. All this. First. if it is relevant. d 'These United Nations resolutions. in defiance of which rhis unacceptable military occupation continues. and these courts are required to comply with sentencing policy. and must hear every word. with no visual clues to help you. Organising Your Learning: Listening 1 a Intensive.but still no joke. visual information would help you. All you need is to follow approximately in order to 'make polite noises' from time to time. of Mora Street. east London. so the listening itself wouldn't need to be so intensive. which had been ruled by colonial administrations for years. e Intensive. this is a serious matter.

planted c (clothes) overalls d (damage. turnover d breakthrough e climb-down. armed robbery. in which he takes great pride. to plant (evidence). No passive Children hate not being listened to by adults. cover-up t break up g crackdown h let down i shake up j hold-ups k pile-up 1 layout m write-up 3 a strut b shuffle c lounge d topple e perch f leap g tower h dash i stride j wander 4 b wander c tower d perch e strut g shuffle h leap i stride j dash 5 a4 b3 c6 dl e5 (2 f topple 6 a feel like fish out of water b smelt a rat c let sleeping dogs lie d flogging a dead horse e made a pig of myself f chickened out 7 The following words appeared in the original advertisement. about which there is worldwide concern. {to seek) damages. was a socialist victory. the scene of the crime 5 a (bad) wicked b (deception. f He spends every weekend in his garden. tried. has absconded with £10. at which there was widespread amazement. g The outcome of the election. occurred in New York.ANSWER KEY conceal I'm afraid perform take pride in express an interest in there is concern extraordinary in search of item abscond firearm no longer hide sorry. charged with. 5 1 throughout 2 facing 3 without 4 though 5 of 6 by 7 reported 8 took 9 promised 10 planned 11 also 12 was 13 members 14 though 15 effect 16 sharp 17 country's 18 on 19 come 20 regime 21 change 22 rid 23 suggest 24 overthrow 25 hoping 26 own 27 expressed 28 prospect 29 tradition 30 after 6 b break-up c takeover d turnover e crackdown f shake up g climb-down h cover-up i set-back j write-up k pile-up 1 let-down m layout n breakthrough o set-up p show-off q mix-up r sell-out 7 a mix-up b sell-out c takeover. This whole takeover needs to be looked into by a team of special investigators. 4 a They discussed the situation in Zimbola. PC. h Here is the diamond. 2 a b c d e i g I can't stand being stared at. but do he proud of say you're interested in people are worried amazing looking for thing run off gun not any more 8 1 Like 2 unlike 3 Neither 4 in contrast 5 Both 6 Similarly 7 neither 8 nor 9 Like 10 Unlike Organising Your Learning: Reading (2) 1 You should recognise: accused. evidence. in search of which a great many men have lost their lives. 1 Listen 2 shares 3 needs 4 relationship 5 meaning 6 tail 7 interpret 8 language 87 . raid. though in some cases other words would not be incorrect. they will be taken care of. in which human sacrifices used to be performed. Don't worry. i This meeting. disaster) devastating Unit 9 1 a Cameras are not to be taken into the museum. in whom I placed complete trust. f This window should never have been closed. about which the President was informed by his staff. c The expedition discovered this extraordinary edifice. b That is the bag in which the firearm was concealed. d She has been persuaded to change her mind. h I assure you that the book will be finished by January.000. g The book must be finished by January. acquitted. in custody. d I'm afraid the item in which you expressed interest is no longer for sale. trial. 4 Possible additions are: fabricating evidence. prosecution. No passive We are being talked about by the whole town. e I've just discovered that one of my employees. forensic evidence. remanded in custody. c He is having his house redecorated. e The missing child is being searched for. untruth) to fabricate. b Cameras must be left at the desk.

would crew 3 a 1 On the 2 in favour 3 mind 4 under no 5 in return b 1 beyond 2 in 3 the advice 4 on second 4 The following are the prepositions which appeared in the original article. normally I would. but I could try to rearrange that. no problem. I'll see what 1 can do about rearranging the other thing. I'm sorry to put you out like this. I'm supposed to be busy then. Derek: Hello. wouldn't matter. wanted. in d into e from f into g of 6 Where more than one adjective is possible. as long as it pursued peaceful means. 1 along 2 to 3 for 4 like 5 into 6 in 7 within 8 since 9 of 10 with 11 into 12 for 13 on 14 up 15 to 16 of 17 among 18 during 19 by 20 with 21 from 22 between 23 with 24 after 25 for 5 a on b up c with h for. d If it weren't (But) for the strange stories I've heard. Would it be possible to change the time? Derek: It depends. wouk take. can I ask a favour? John: Sure. we wouldn't have left New York. 2 a were offered. well. would have. John: Would you? I'd be grateful if you would As I say. it cannot be denied that they often provide uncomplaining companionship to people who. John. When did you have in mind? John: Sometime during the afternoon. would buy. b If it hadn't been (But) for my financial situation. have no other friends. and it's raining. went on. all right? 11 a Although many people find the presence of so many dogs in Britain a nuisance. would you? John: Ah. wouldn't b had. would send. nobody would believe in ghosts. animal rights activists who use wildly inappropriate terrorist methods only alienate the majority of the population. would probably be. didn't speak. Sorry about that. I've got to go into the city centre at lunch time. we wouldn't have been able to buy our house. was. Listen. What can I do for you? John: Hi. John: Hello. because I'll be using it myself. b Most people would support a moderate movement whose aim was to end the use of animals in nonmedical experiments. Derek: Don't worry about it. who ask themselves with some justification if these people are quite right in the head. liked. this is John Carling. and get back to you. still had. but that meeting we arranged. though in some cases other prepositions would not be incorrect. Unit 10 1 a If it hadn't been (But) for my wife. c If it hadn't been (But) for the low price. didn't know. we wouldn't have moved house.ANSWER KEY 9 yours 10 down 11 translating 12 expressions 13 range 14 bonds 15 once 16 understanding 17 delighted 18 refund 19 enclose 20 charge 8 a peer b gaze c pout d beam e frown f gape g sneer h glare i stare 9 a gazing b peering c beaming d gaping/staring e frowning f sneering g pouting h gazing i glaring 10 Colin: John. The stronger adjective is written in italics. Well. but it's a bit difficult today. because of age or other circumstances. wouldn't worry. nice to speak to you again. g If it weren't (But) for all those stupid Hollywood films. but there's no way I can make the morning. Colin: OK. good wishes d good sense e high. Derek: Derek Reynolds. the most common is given first. a high unemployment b the great majority c best. e If it weren't (But) for the noises at night. Derek. Say 2 pm? Derek: Let me see. was. I suppose. if possible. would have. I'm sorry to put you out. would go. my baby daughter would have been killed. Derek. However. what is it? Colin: Well. I don't suppose you'd lend me your car. f If it hadn't been (But) for my little boy. good opportunity k a good ten minutes/a good while/a good hour 1 high speeds m a strong possibility n strong views 88 . I would quite like the place. strong winds f the best part g heavy rain h a high opinion of i a heavy blow j a great.


o a strong smell/taste p high, good quality q big business r high profits s high finance t heavy industry u great difficulty v a big mistake w a large quantity x a strong, heavy accent y heavy losses a z strong influence 7 a 1 strong argument 2 good sense 3 big mistake 4 great opportunity b 1 great difficulty 2 good 3 best part c 1 High winds 2 heavy rain 3 strong possibility d 1 large 2 high quality 3 strong 4 high speed 5 a good chance 8 go cold, bald, pale, mad, crazy, white, (and other colours) wrong, bad, blind, deaf, broke, wild, insane, bankrupt, well get angry, old, cold, drunk, violent, thin, fat, ready, tired, unfriendly, cloudy, windy, bored, excited, lost, wet, well, nasty, mad, difficult, dry, impossible, famous, rich, 9 a turned b get c has gone d getting e getting f go g become h has gone/is going i going j getting k became 1 get m turning n has gone 0 gets p go q went r turn
Unit 11

2 1 h Yes, that's right, next month actually. We're moving to Portugal on the twentieth. 2 d Yes, I'll be teaching English in a small school in Lisbon. 3 f Yes, I'm starting at the beginning of September. 4 b Well, I'll be working outside the centre, so it won't be all that picturesque, but yes, Lisbon's nice. 5 i Apparently, yes, but I'll be working in the evenings, so I'll be going to work in the late afternoon. And that's when everybody else will be coming back. So I won't be sitting in a traffic jam every day, I hope. 6 e They'll be going to school in the afternoons, so I'll be able to spend some time with them in the mornings. And we'll be living in a house, so there'll be a garden to play in, 7 a Yes, we're moving straight in as soon as we arrive. 8 c Not especially, no. We won't be living as close to the beach as we would like, but at least it's not too expensive. 9 g Weli, I won't be earning very much, but enough to live on quite comfortably. We'll be OK. 3 a 'The Prime Minister is to attend a special session of the UN Security Council later this week.' b 'Will you be wanting breakfast in your room?' c i'm spending the weekend at my Grannie's.' d 'I was going to ask her but I forgot.' e 'You're not going to go out/not going out in this rain just to get a newspaper, are you? Look, I'm going to the town centre myself a bit later on, so I'll be walking past the newsagents anyway. I'll get you one then if you like.' 4 a 2 a click 3 the howling 4 the roar 5 a screech 6 a sharp crack 7 The heavy thud 8 crunched b 1 a sharp hiss 2 a faint tinkle c 1 a polite tap 2 barked 3 would rattle

1 b I was going to buy dollars, but now the exchange rate has gone up, 1 think I'll wait a while. c 1 was going to go for a walk, but now the weather has clouded over, I suppose I'll stay in after all. d They were going to offer him a job, but now they've found out he's been in prison, I guess they'll think twice about it. e Luis was going to have a party to watch the World Cup Final on TV, but now Brazil have been knocked out, I guess he'll call it off, f I was going to call the doctor, but now her fever has come down, I think I'll wait and see how she is tomorrow. g I was going to take out a mortgage to buy a flat, but now the interest rate has gone up, I suppose I'll have to keep renting. h I was going to take a job in El Pagador, but now civil war has broken out, I suppose I'll stay in Britain. 1 I was going to write to you, but now you've phoned, I guess I won't bother. j They were going to have a baby, but now he's lost his job, I suppose they'll wait.

6 b It wasn't because of lack of planning that they failed/It wasn't lack of planning that caused them to fail/their failure. c What gave him confidence was his belief in his own ability/It was his belief in his own ability that gave him confidence. d It looked as if there had been a fight.


e Walking in the countryside is something I've always liked. f She wasn't nearly as interested in football as I was. g I'd rather you didn't do that. h You must take his age into account/take into account how young he is. i It suddenly occurred to me that I hadn't seen John all day. j His behaviour gave rise to resentment. 7 a flash b flared c glow d glare e shimmering f twinkling g sparkling h gleamed i blazing j flickered 8 a No matter what they say, don't let yourself by persuaded, b As a consequence of uncontrolled deforestation, the whole area suffers from soil erosion, c Why on earth she did such a thing is utterly beyond me. d In return for helping him, 1 was offered a job in one of his companies, which I reluctantly refused, e I'd be glad to get in touch with him for you, if you'll let me have his number. f As long as everyone stays calm, everything should be sorted out shortly, g He was accused of attempting to cause the downfall of the Government. h It is said to be by far the largest ship ever built. i What difference does it make how long it takes to get there? j This accident, as a result of which Mr Smith lost an arm, was directly caused by unsafe working conditions.
Unit 12

2 c It is inconceivable that the government will fall this month. d It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that the government will fall this year. e It seems beyond doubt that Japanese car manufacturers will take over the luxury car market in the next few years. f There is a strong possibility that the hostages have been taken to another location. g There is very little likelihood that there will be another global conflict in the near future, (or There is very little likelihood of another global conflict in the near future.) h It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that cars will be banned from all cities in the future. i There is no doubt that women drivers are safer than men. j It's quite possible that he has left the country already. k It is unlikely that he has left the country already, 3 a It sounded as if/though everything was going well. b Everything seemed to have been prepared correctly. c The situation seems to have been brought back under control. d It looks as if/though everything is getting back to normal. e It sounds as if/though they're heading for a divorce. f They seem to me to have made a mistake getting married so young, g It sounded to me as if/though he had no intention of changing his mind. h We seemed to have been wasting our time trying to persuade him. i They seemed to us to be arguing about something. j It looked as if/though they had come to blows already that evening. 4 a ought to/should have been finished b needn't have bothered c will have been driving d would have been e might/could have been killed f should have left g should be kept h might make i will have left j should say

1 Affirmative, in order of strength There is no doubt whatsoever t h a t . . . It seems beyond doubt t h a t . . . There is a strong possibility t h a t . . . It's quite possible t h a t . . . It is possible t h a t . . . It is not impossible t h a t . . . It is not beyond the bounds of possibility t h a t . . . Negative, in order of strength It is inconceivable t h a t . . . There is very little likelihood t h a t . . . It's unlikely t h a t . . .

a b c d e

ground floor take-away food off-licence mates a crossroads

first floor take-out food liquor store buddies an intersection



f g h i j

a torch the pavement tough, vicious mean rubbish

a flashlight the sidewalk mean stingy garbage

6 a grotesque b debut c melee d genre e gauche f carte blanche g duvet h blase i faux pas j naive k farce 1 decor m brusque n fiance Note: naive is used for both men and women, while a female fiance is spelt fiancee. 8 a melee b duvet c blase d debut e faux pas f decor g naive h brusque i carte blanche 9 scenario fiasco bravado prima donna guru crescendo saga spiel taboo forte detailed prediction of the way a situation could develop failure so complete as to be ridiculous a reckless, courageous attitude, intended to impress someone temperamental and difficult to work with. a respected adviser or expert (slightly ironic expression) something getting louder or more intense a long story or narration a smooth, convincing speech aimed at persuading someone considered by society to be too 'bad' or offensive even to talk about something you are especially good at

side of the road. It looked as if I might be in serious trouble. Something had to be done, that was plain to see, but it wasn't quite as easy to see what that something should be. On the other hand, it was possible that the engine could cool down in a few minutes if I waited. Having come to the conclusion that this was the wisest course of action to adopt, I sat down on a rock. It was at this point that the first flame showed itself above the engine.

Unit 13
1 a He tried to explain away his absence. b Come on, into the kitchen, you're not going to get out of the washing-up this time! c Unfortunately, your theory is not borne out by the facts. d It's not fair, you always side with her when we argue. e I read up on the company before I took the job. f Don't worry. He'll threaten you, but he hasn't got the nerve to go through with it. g Don't take out insurance with the first company you speak to, be patient and shop around first. h It was only when the lesson began that it dawned on me that I was in the wrong classroom. 2 a put it off b boils down to c cash in on d taken aback e head straight for f make up for g coming up with h talked me into 3 b set against c read into d talk down to e talk over f talk out off g come by h come about i take back j take down k take in 1 take on 4 a take down b talk . . . out of c set about d talk down to e take on f talk . . . over g set against h come by i read . .. into j take . . . back I taken in m come about 5 The following are only suggestions, but the main ideas should be as here. B: Yes, I was there in 1976. B: Really, what month? B: April. Greece gets so crowded in summer, and the weather's too hot for me. B: Which part of Greece did you go to? B: You think so? I found them rather unfriendly, actually. B: Maybe I did. How did you like the food? B: I thought it was absolutely disgusting, to tell you the truth. So oily. I don't think I've ever eaten worse in my life. 91

1 0 a forte b saga c fiasco d gurus e prima donna f taboo g bravado h crescendo i scenarios j spiel 11 I hadn't been driving more than a few minutes when it struck me that something was the matter with the car. A strange noise was coming out of the engine, and from time to time there would be such an alarming shaking that the car seemed to be on the point of disintegration. It was by no means the first time the car had behaved in this way I'd had it for fifteen years, and it wasn't a new car any more. However, it had never caused me such concern before. It seemed to me that it would be wise to pull off the road so that I could look under the bonnet. Lifting the bonnet, I noticed a faint smell of burning. I looked carefully, and as I thought, the engine was giving off wisps of acrid smoke. Since I am by no means an expert on cars, let alone on an old wreck like my own, I retreated in order to consider the situation from the safety of the other

It wasn't long before they left. but nothing's fixed. c I refused to have anything to do with him. j Not being in the mood for going out. he didn't stop loving her. d I wouldn't think that would be a very good idea. n Much as I regret having to do so. 92 . I've heard. i Had there been any possibility of our reaching the summit. but it was clear that there wasn't. g In spite of the way in which he'd been treated. B: Where are you going this year? B: Well./It wasn't Song after that that they left. we would have continued. yes. I assure you (that) I am not in the habit of asking strangers for money. p I'm afraid there seems to have been some kind of accident in the street outside. 1 Well. h Contrary to what I'd been led to suppose. it's got to be done. 7 a rapport b suave c risque d raison d'etre e critique f mystique g par excellence h rapprochement i en suite j en masse 9 b c d e f g h i j k 1 Recently. B: What's wrong with Scotland? B: There's some lovely scenery there. we were thinking of perhaps going to Scotland.B: Fair enough. q In no way should this be taken as an admission of guilt. the food at the restaurant was rather good. I'm afraid I must turn your offer down. I'm going to marry him. crime has been on the increase. Mostly because it's such a beautiful place. k As far as I know. you know. There's no way of knowing for sure. but regardless of how long it takes. B: I've heard the weather's good in summer. m It'll be a long job. but it's very bad for the health. But for Henry's help we would never have managed. the meeting is still scheduled for 3pm. I made as honest a reply as I could. it's been nice talking to you. but I must be going now. The eighties saw a contraction in Britain's industrial base. I did. if you want my opinion. B: Overall. There is insufficient provision of information. I didn't like the look of him. B: Who from? 6 b 1 haven't the faintest idea what you're talking about. e The truth of the matter is that you don't really care do you? f No matter what anybody says. Don't put the blame on me. but I suppose he thought he was acting for the best. 1 have decided to cancel my visit. That's the course {of action) that we should follow. o I must say I'd rather he hadn't told them. they decided to spend the evening watching television. In the light of the recent troubles.

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