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of Crystal Skull” The above statement is what a project manager will probably say somewhere in the middle of a project if there is no risk management in his plan. While the quotation is entertaining on wide screen, the same thing can’t be equally applied in a project, especially when the project manager is you. A risk plays important role on project resolution and risk management determines whether the project is going to be a big hit or be drowned like Titanic. What is risk? What is risk management? Risk is occurrence that comes with negative impact that has a probability to happen. Risk is not a certain occurrence. There are three elements of risk: potential loss, uncertainty, choice / decision than can be done to address that uncertainty and potential loss. There is reward in every risk. Otherwise the job containing the risk should not be done in the first place. To cope with risks inherent in every project, a manager must manage them. Risk management is a process of identifying risk, assessing risk, and taking steps to reduce risk to an acceptable level. Risk Management Steps Identify the risks Analyze. This is done by estimating probability of occurrence and the impact of every risk. Risk exposure is product of probability of occurrence and impact. For example, given 0.5% chance of a million dollar house caught on fire, the risk exposure is $ 5,000 (0.005 X $ 1,000,000). When it is required, ballpark approach of probability estimation can be employed to produce metric. Statistic can be a good source. Rank (prioritize) the risks by probability and impact. Calculate the exposure. Develop risk mitigation and contingency plan for risks with high exposure. Ways to resolve risk Risk Avoidance Completely avoid potential event by reducing the chance to zero. Example: A fabrication yard wants to replace the old maintenance software with new one. The new software provides GPS capability as optional package to provide the yard with greater control. However, since majority of crew are not technologically prepared, at the moment the GPS module is removed from the scope. Risk Reduction Reduce risk though mitigation, anticipation, or contingency plan. Risk Investigation is an effort to improve our knowledge about the risk. This can be done through simulation or prototyping. Risk Transfer the risk to other party that is more prepared. Example: After a structure is constructed, it needs to be delivered to installation site. To protect the company from financial loss, this process is insured or outsourced to specialized vendor. Risk Acceptance Some risks are within acceptable limit. Acceptance can only be used when dealing with risk that is highly likely to happen but has low impact.
Risk Due to technological barrier and IT proficiency issue, the user can not fully use the new application. Mitigation: Prepare the user with basic in operating the software. Train them as much as necessary to build acceptance, confidence and familiarity. There are variations of maintenance plan even for same equipment depending on the maintenance period. There is risk that only some of the maintenance plans are migrated. Mitigation: Create query to compare the number of maintenance plan in the legacy system (equipment by equipment) versus maintenance plans migrated to new system for both UAT and Production. Due to periodic nature of maintenance plan, jobs that fired outside testing period will not be verified during UAT. Example: some job is fired every 6 month while UAT will be conducted for 1 month (max). There if risk that even if the plans successfully migrated to new system, it won’t fire work order because it is not verified during UAT. If this happen, expensive yard equipment and construction project utilizing the equipment will be at risk. Mitigation: Setup monitoring scheme for maintenance plans scheduled to fire work order (plan with period greater than 1 month). This monitoring scheme is designed to be carried out by end user to make sure that every preventive job in master plan fires work order properly. Local management may develop gold plating, a phobia that leads to layers of requirements that may not be necessary. Mitigation: Cost benefit should be able to address it. User’s lack of enthusiasm to fully utilize the application due to the fact that the implementation has been forced. Mitigation: This is very likely to happen, but according to past experience the negative mood will disappear in just few months.
Probability (Scale 1 – 10)
After risks are all identified, special monitoring will be focused for those with high exposure. This topic will be covered in the future article. Introduction to Project Management #1 Every project manager has their own understanding of what project is based on their experience. 10 project managers will probably give 10 different definitions of what project means. Referring to PMBOK Guide (Project Management Body of Knowledge) from Project Management Institute, project is defined as “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service”. Project management is defined as “Application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements”. Project Resolution Statistic Standish Group 1995 report mentions that only 16.2% of project successfully completed on time and on budget. 52.7% executed with substantially higher cost, and disturbingly 31.1% project cancelled before they get
Initiation: During initiation a project is defined and authorized. It starts with requirement. He made it a requirement that every red flag must be closed or at least upgraded to yellow flag in the next progress report. Study case in this article is a fictional. Tools and infrastructure. The logical response to that challenge is to create a divide and conquer approach. Study Case ACME fabrication yard is constructing a pipe rack module deck. procurement Phases of project management. work package is a subset of a project that can be assigned to a specific part for execution. In construction business work breakdown structure. Managing Project One can define Project Manager as person who manages project constraints in a process to meet project objectives. only 9% of project successfully executed on time and on budget (as opposed to 16. Why work package? In the construction business. large companies perform worse performance compared to their smaller counterparts. A big project is divided into sub project / job codes. a 10 month duration from standard 6 month would be used. 2 years ago. Out of 10 yards globally. Corrective action and steering activities is included in this phase. Risk planning and schedule defined in this stage. Execution The requirement documentation was built addressing business user’s concern. Note: PMI® and PMBOK® are registered trademarks of Project Management Institute. piping. which headquarter is in US. Study Case: ACME ALPHA CMMS Implementation ACME ALPHA is a fabrication yard. Work Package in Construction Industry There is many ways to describe work package. cost. The keyword here is specific. communication. quality. Planning Project manager built a project plan with more emphasize to socialization plan. A data conversion module was designed so that the user would find their historical data in the new system without having to worry about reformatting their existing data to fit into new CMMS. the longer it tends to run and consequently the costlier it will become. planning: Objective and benefit are stated as project justification. Execution: Carry out the plan.completed. . According to Wikipedia (as of October 10. as well as subsequent application support plan were highlighted. and repeatedly asked more time for internal consolidation. this is translated to level 3 or 4 job execution. time. this number is chilling. Inc. It does not represent an actual fact in any companies. The other constraints are scope and cost. still in the same report. nature of job type (fabrication. Global operation manager congratulated project management team and business representatives for the successful project. Closing A small meeting was held by project manager attended by core team member and business representatives.2%). risk management and mitigation. Closing: Formalizing acceptance and project closure. maintained by local software vendor. accomplishment. What else does Project Manager manage? Scope. ACME ALPHA’s operation manager had so far succeeded in delaying the implementation of globally adopted CMMS due to “uniqueness” of the yard in terms of significantly lower manpower cost and cultural as well as technological barrier. and cost are widely recognized as triple constraints. Time. In a rare occasion global operation manager visited the yard to demonstrate the importance of the CMMS project. punch lists. ACME ALPHA was the only one who still use legacy system. 2012). Clarity of business objective. What makes it so difficult for a project to be successful? Project execution depends on the following success factors: Involvement from business users and executive management. The bigger the scope of a project. “Where are we now? How far are we from completion? How many percent complete is this project?” are common questions typically asked by construction manager or project director. Monitoring Project manager. electric). risk.000. Monitoring: Regular measurement and progress monitoring. PMI’s definition of project management gives the first constraint: time. The in scope and out of scope must be clearly stated for clarity. As the pressure from auditor increased. Quality of business resources and project management team. The scope was limited to preventive maintenance of large mobile equipment and any other equipment which purchased asset value exceeds USD 50. Global sponsor followed up every red flag raised in status report. local business sponsor. a branch of ACME Inc. Human resource. In a project of 10 million man hours. job codes divided into activity codes. scope. Division can be by discipline (structural. followed up by design. and finally activity codes into work packages. and business user as well IT resources attended bi-weekly meeting. Surprisingly. It is difficult if not impossible to change one of the constraints without affecting the other. or simply follows modular engineering design. Initiation Global Project Committee decided that for the ACME ALPHA project. those questions are not easy ones. Disregarding controversy surrounding Standish group report’s validity. the longer the project the bigger the effort to manage it. More time allocated to socialization effort and data migration to address user’s concern on historical data. In average. ACME Inc initiated a program to replace their out of date maintenance software. This phase is important to identify deviation from project plan. and development. construction. There is a direct logic in it. mechanical. Business user would have flexibility to repeat UAT as many as they like as long as it is conducted within 2 months frame. global operation manager decided to force the implementation of new CMMS in ACME ALPHA. In that meeting. material handling). milestone. testing.
#2: Assembling piece marks Job description: Fabricate frame components. There is no fix guideline on how the yard planners must arrange the work package register. Alternative form of energy (other than fossil): bio fuel. Inflation and economic growth was severely affected by combination of these two factors. while careless estimation may give false representation of the actual. renewable energy is the fastest growing group and expected to supply 14% of total energy consumption in 2035 from 10% in 2008. This condition was further worsened by high oil price since oil contributes directly to production cost of fertilizer used for crop cultivation. etc gained popularity. same job can be delivered into two work packages. can petroleum maintain their market share as per today? Cut (50%) √ √ √ √ Grind (40%) √ √ √ QC inspection (10%) √ √ . geopolitical reason further jacked up the already high price. geothermal. shop / production engineer can start to update the work package status as per actual progress. The Future of Oil 2007 – 2008 financial crisis is an episode when world saw oil price shot to all time high $147 per barrel.This job code progress will then be rolled up to subsequent higher level up to project code. there were discussions around the world on how oil need to be substituted.#3: Site Assembly Job description: Site installation (install frame components on site). My recommendation is: yard planner must fit their arrangement to their 3 – 4 weeks foreseeable future. End product: beams with stiffeners welded.#1: Fabricating piece mark (individual part).7% complete. In fact.Job description: cut stiffeners. approach that fit somewhere in between those two options are chosen. The official reason of the price hike was demand associated with robust economic growth primarily from emerging markets.1) / 6 = 56. Do not leave it open for months otherwise it will require extra time to maintain and become unmanageable. beams. Countries which economy relies on government fuel subsidy to stimulate growth took double hit. The breakdown of activity codes M07_B99 (Fabrication and installation of module 7 deck structure) into work packages may look like this: Work Package No M07_B99_001 M07_B99_002 M07_B99_003 M07_B99_101 M07_B99_201 Work Package Description Cut Stiffener Cut Primary Beam Cut Secondary Beam Fabricate Deck Frame Component M07 Site Installation Man Hour MH1 MH2 MH3 MH4 MH5 Step #3: Execute work package. (4 X 0. although Saudi’s official commitment to compensate supply shortfall was at certain extent able to calm the market. cut primary beam. Consequently. So we can say that oil price hike exacerbated the situation. hydrogen. planner must put weight into each work package. Package to package tonnage comparison approach can be utilized. Rise of biofuel production – in response to higher oil price further boosted food demand. Work package arrangement is always depends to yard resources.7 %. In certain situation. Generally. cut secondary beam. update status.Step #1: Identify the construction sequence.4 + 2 X 0. Aside from economic. Exact calculation of man hour allocation as per fabrication drawing requires extensive resources. Unfavorable weather condition during 2007 led to bad harvest in many countries. In cases with material availability problem. it may be beneficial to share the load into two shops (two work packages). This is where the dilemma lies.7%. There were other significant economic reasons: the depreciation of US dollar relative to pre-crisis level and oil speculation.End product: deck frame installed Step #2: Assign (estimate) man hour into each work package To establish work package’s function as progress tracking. this work package is 56. Jobs of the same types are not necessarily to be done in the same work package. wind. algae. For example work package M07_B99_001 (Cut Primary Beam) progress status may looks like this: Piece mark Beam_B1 Beam_B21 Beam_B22 Beam_B3 Beam_B41 Beam_B42 Assuming that each beam has same amount of man hour allocation. Tips Work package should be planned in such a way that can be closed in few weeks. End product: stiffeners. contribution of this work package to job code M07_B99 is (MH2 / ΣMH) X 56. At the height of oil price. So.5 + 3 X 0. Tension in Middle East and North Africa sparked questions about supply disruption. and roll up progressOnce the numbers (MH1 – MH5) defined. Steady growth of economy catalyzed demand for oil and metals. particularly in emerging and low income countries.
liquid fuel is important to facilitate economic activities. a snapped wire rope during critical lifting may cause millions of dollar for direct loss of material and man hour and penalty associated with delay.000 employees. petroleum contribution is mandatory. from key economic infrastructure component to personal grooming product. 365 days and every 125. 365 day 7. in their 2011 release of annual report. In competitive business like aviation. Liquid fuels consumption (majority are petroleum based) was estimated to grow from 85. The world is addicted to oil. But coal is not a clean fuel. the world still needs oil for other reason. . fertilizer. It is basically existed in products from concrete to toothpaste. Even if petroleum’s substitute as energy is discovered. clean. 500. EIA. Picture 1 – World Liquid Consumption by Sector (million barrels / day) The graphics shows how big the influence of these two sectors is to the liquid fuel consumption.7 million barrels / day to 112. This is not to mention loss of future business opportunity due to the damage reputation. and is a facilitator of international trade. and it will remain so for a long time. Energy Coal Wind / Hydro Solar Nuclear + Cheaper Renewable. plastics. a statistical and analytical agency of US Department of Energy. Preventive Maintenance and CMMS The importance of preventive maintenance. insecticide. feedstock. Note that normally mobile equipment has two types of maintenance frequencies: period (time-based) and meter hour. 1000. 30. 30. Cheapest substitute to replace oil as energy is coal. Industrial activity depends on machineries. 90. When there is economic activity.365 day Annual Maintenance (period) 10 X 48 = 480 10 X 48 = 480 40 X 48 = 1920 15 X 48 = 720 With only time-based maintenance taken into account. Liquid fuel is mainly used in transportation and industrial sector.The Fact Now let’s look at the fact. Due to the absence of significant technological advances in this form of energy. Transportation makes economic activity possible. 30. ACME yard makes 3. a 600 ton Liebherr crane requires maintenance every 7. 365 day 7. This substitution is risky and economically costly. Industry as a matter of fact is a direct response to demand. In fact it can be used as economic indicator. 180. it will remain so for long period. stated that fossil fuels are expected to continue supplying much of the energy used worldwide. So. 365 day 7.600 maintenance job annually. For example. most experts agree that its contribution is significant. 90. it releases more CO2 to air than oil. In oil and gas construction facility. Without good management.000 T 30 – 70 T 10 – 50 T 1 – 50 T Typical Maintenance (time-based) 7. Biggest sectors that use oil as energy: transportation and industry are mandatory for the world economy. relatively cheap Unlimited source of energy Dirty (contain more greenhouse gas than oil) Dependent to feasible geographic location High setup cost High risk Remark It is already the most widely used energy for electricity generation May have environmental impact (ex: dam construction) Cheap Decommissioning cost associated only to nuclear power plant Table 1 – Comparison of petroleum versus other form of energy. antiseptics and even cosmetics. It has various equipment’s in its inventory and following are the biggest types of heavy equipment with corresponding maintenance frequencies: Equipment Type Crawler Crane Hydraulic Crane Overhead Crane Forklift Qty 10 10 40 15 Capacity 100 – 1. most of which are dependent to liquid fuel. Every industry has ample evident and cases of how an equipment can cause millions of dollar of loss when it failed during critical job. Sample Case ACME is a middle size construction yard that employs 2. polyurethane. plane accident or even simpler engine delay may cause fortune to the airline.Summary Oil exists in every aspect of modern life.2 million barrels / day in 2035. substituting oil with bio fuel will affect the food supply (both directly and indirectly). 180. 180. Petroleum is used in the production of almost everything in the vicinity of modern life: asphalt. Even though the complexity of its relationship with economy is poorly understood. which translates into 300 job / month. 250. Notes EIA stands for Energy information Administration.
85 parts per million (ppm) against the permissible limit of 0. be disastrous for aqua-marine life in the adjoining Rupnarayan River. Doctors in Kolaghat acknowledge that several of their patients have respiratory and skin-related problems that could be linked to fly ash pollution. (ii) The regulatory authority shall normally accept the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. 4. excavator. Rigging equipments like chain block. Debate over pollution caused by fly ash Subhro Niyogi. A 40 ton Caterpillar forklift requires maintenance every 7. With this scale of job. lead time should provide window for procurement activity. and productivity improvement are few examples of short term expectation of CMMS deployment. mercury. spare part. analysis revealed fluoride content of over 1. 1000.6 kg chromium and 11. shackle and sling normally numbered in thousands. within one hundred and five days of the receipt of the complete application with requisite documents.500 tonne of fly ash a day. have shrunk in numbers. Already. He pointed out that fly ash contained toxic trace elements of metals like antimony. OLDER PLANTS LIKE KTPS AND CESC'S TITAGARH ARE THE WORST POLLUTANTS. Fluoride causes flurosis that damages bone structure in children. TNN Aug 8. Longer lifetime With proper maintenance. FLY ASH COULD ALSO CAUSE RADIATION AS COAL CONTAINS NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES LIKE URANIUM-235. cadmium. Productivity If you believe that implementation of accounting software helps a company manage cash flow. beryllium. exactly same benefit can also be gained for implementing CMMS. 56 kg nickel. 5 kg cadmium. West Bengal Power Development Corporation Executive Director (operations) S Mahapatra felt the chemical composition would be no different from the ash produced in other power plants. lever hoist. A good CMMS enable user to see several weeks / months look-ahead maintenance job. tower crane. Decrease in operating cost and downtime. All we seek is that the source of pollution be checked. If 15 per cent of the toxic metals of the 3." said Gana Bijnan Samannay Kendra. For comparison. At another ash pond site near Sabarmati Thermal Power Plant in Gujarat. the regulatory authority shall request reconsideration by the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned within forty five days of the receipt of the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned while stating the reasons for the disagreement. substantial extension of equipment life time is expected. The metal accumulates in the body and causes defects in birth. 07.6 kg uranium. therefore. When spare part is not currently available. 1500 meter hours. grader. a study of food crops in National Thermal Power Corporation's Singrauli unit revealed presence of mercury. In fact a middle sized yard also utilizes man lift." senior WBPDCL officials said. it is mandatory to have CMMS that can kick a work order days before the maintenance date is due. The Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. in turn.1500 meter hours. Paschim Banga. The railways are also examining the proposal. several varieties of fish including the famed hilsa. Though no soil analysis has been done at Kolaghat. Asthma. A study of the fly ash slurry at Talcher Thermal Power Station in Orissa revealed the presence of large quantities of metal. 400. Scheduling With the sheer number of maintenance volume and different type of resources required for each job. 16. in contrast. Grant or Rejection of Prior Environmental Clearance (EC): (i) The regulatory authority shall consider the recommendations of the EAC or SEAC concerned and convey its decision to the applicant within forty five days of the receipt of the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned or in other words within one hundred and five days of the receipt of the final Environment Impact Assessment Report. yard that I currently worked for is substantially bigger than the ACME case.000 tonne of ash that the plant produced was soaked to the ground every day.42pm IST KOLKATA: This week's fly ash spill-over in the villages adjacent to Kolaghat Thermal Power Station has sparked a campaign to brand the coal by-product a "hazardous waste". 600. compressor. produces 3. URANIUM-238 AND THORIUM-232. 60. provides reliable data for quick and better strategic decision and in turn increasing productivity and decrease man hour loss. 1200.6 ppm to 1. We have to look at costs and other related factors. generator. KTPS. Experts proposed that the ash be transported back in the empty rakes to collieries from which coal is brought to the power plants. Secretary Bankim Datta. In short the following explains why we need CMMS: Manage complexity Big number of equipments and specific instruction tied with each type of maintenance job represent complexity of routine. 45 kg copper. bronchitis as well as eye and skin ailments including several types of allergy are common among children in the area. and various mobile transporters.2 ppm. thallium and vanadium. scheduling can be almost impossibly done with regular spreadsheet.2 kg cobalt a day. dozer. 30. "We don't want the power plant to be shut down. Lead time Lead time spares crews enough time to prepare maintenance job. The same thing applies when third party involvement (servicing vendor) is necessary. resources and consumable used. lead. One cannot allow such neglect for ever. 365 days and every 200. In cases where it disagrees with the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. selenium. shall consider the observations of the regulatory authority and furnish its views on the same within a further . The fly ash can then be used instead of sand to fill up the portions that have been mined. 2003. except as provided below. fluorine. It receives between 400 and 700 work orders of various mechanical equipments (excludes rigging equipment inspection) per week. The number displayed in the above table highlights only ACME’s major equipment. the adjacent river would receive 208 kg of iron. 56 kg zinc. and where Environment Impact Assessment is not required. "There's a need to label it a hazardous waste. arsenic. Though the state pollution control board is yet to analyse the fly ash slurry produced by KTPS. Any soaking could. "The idea seems workable." KTPS Paribesh Dushan Protirodh Committee Joint Secretary Bishwanath Poria said.5 kg thorium. An intimation of this decision shall be simultaneously conveyed to the applicant.
or for necessary technical reasons. 2003 . This period of validity may be extended by the regulatory authority concerned by a MAXIMUM PERIOD OF FIVE YEARS provided an application is made to the regulatory authority by the applicant within the validity period. was published in the Gazette of India . However. the following sub-paragraphs shall be inserted. read with clause (d) of sub-rule (3) of rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules. except in respect of things done or omitted to be done before such supersession. And whereas. namely: . after giving a personal hearing to the applicant. 1324 (E) dated the 15th September . 2006 Notification S. (vi) Deliberate concealment and/or submission of false or misleading information or data which is material to screening or scoping or appraisal or decision on the application shall make the application liable for rejection. 1994. within three months from the 1st day of September. 1986. In this regard the regulatory authority may also consult the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee as the case may be. Rejection of an application or cancellation of a prior environmental clearance already granted. Sub-section (ii) MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS New Delhi 14th September. make provisions in their tender .O. within three months from the 1st day of September. or scoping. and Section 3. and Supplementary Form 1A. therefore. unless prior environmental clearance has been accorded in accordance with the objectives of National Environment Policy as approved by the Union Cabinet on 18th May.O. and following the principles of natural justice.2005 inviting objections and suggestions from all persons likely to be affected thereby within a period of sixty days from the date on which copies of Gazette containing the said notification were made available to the public. shall. on such ground. as applicable. In the said notification. in the case of Area Development projects and Townships [item 8(b)]. State Public Works Departments and other State Government Agencies. 1533 Whereas. in paragraph 3.“”(2A) All agencies including the Central Public Works Department and State Government agencies concerned with utilization of fly ash for construction purposes shall. 2003 make provisions for the use of fly ash and fly ash based bricks. as applicable. Extraordinary. VALIDITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE (EC): The “Validity of Environmental Clearance” is meant the period from which a prior environmental clearance is granted by the regulatory authority. 1986 for imposing certain restrictions and prohibitions on new projects or activities. together with an updated Form 1. the validity period shall be limited only to such activities as may be the responsibility of the applicant as a developer. the applicant may proceed as if the environment clearance sought for has been granted or denied by the regulatory authority in terms of the final recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. 2005. National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). for Construction projects or activities (item 8 of the Schedule). and the final recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned shall be public documents. Now. section 3. 9. or completion of all construction operations in case of construction projects (item 8 of the Schedule). or screening.period of sixty days. unless any of these is sequentially dependent on such clearance either due to a requirement of law. 2006 and the procedure specified in the notification. being undertaken in any part of India1. 5. to the start of production operations by the project or activity. in accordance with the procedure specified hereinafter in this notification. The prior environmental clearance granted for a project or activity shall be valid for a period of ten years in the case of River Valley projects (item 1(c) of the Schedule). 1986 for the purpose of this notification. the decision of the regulatory authority. 1986 and in supersession of the notification number S. or decision by the regulatory authority concerned. Part-II. a draft notification under sub-rule (3) of Rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules. (2B) All agencies undertaking construction of roads or fly over bridges including Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH). Part II. copies of the said notification were made available to the public on 15th September. and cancellation of prior environmental clearance granted on that basis. Central Public Works Department (CPWD). the Central Government hereby directs that on and from the date of its publication the required construction of new projects or activities or the expansion or modernization of existing projects or activities listed in the Schedule to this notification entailing capacity addition with change in process and or technology shall be undertaken in any part of India only after the prior environmental clearance from the Central Government or as the case may be. Published in the Gazette of India. or appraisal. blocks or tiles or aggregates of them in the schedule of approved materials and rates. by the Central Government or the State or Union territory Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA). (iv) On expiry of the period specified for decision by the regulatory authority under paragraph (i) and (ii) above. by the State Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority. or on the expansion or modernization of existing projects or activities based on their potential environmental impacts as indicated in the Schedule to the notification.a. duly constituted by the Central Government under sub-section (3) of section 3 of the said Act.O. (v) Clearances from other regulatory bodies or authorities shall not be required prior to receipt of applications for prior environmental clearance of projects or activities. And whereas. (iii) In the event that the decision of the regulatory authority is not communicated to the applicant within the period specified in sub-paragraphs (i) or (ii) above. The decision of the regulatory authority after considering the views of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned shall be final and conveyed to the applicant by the regulatory authority concerned within the next thirty days. project life as estimated by Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee subject to a maximum of thirty years for mining projects and five years in the case of all other projects and activities. all objections and suggestions received in response to the above mentioned draft notification have been duly considered by the Central Government. in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) and clause (v) of sub-section (2) of section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act. to be constituted by the Central Government in consultation with the State Government or the Union territory Administration concerned under sub-section (3) of section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act. 60 (E) dated the 27th January. shall be decided by the regulatory authority. sub-section (ii) vide number S. to which the application for prior environmental clearance refers.Extraordinary. or may be presumed by the applicant to have been granted under sub paragraph (iv) of paragraph 7 above.
the marginal heading “”Responsibilities of Thermal Power Plants”" shall be substituted. “”Every coal or lignite based thermal power plant shall take the following steps to ensure the utilisation of ash generated by it. 4. the words “one hundred kilometres”" shall be substituted. (3C) All authorities sanctioning or renewing any land. And. regulations and specifications laid down by the authorities mentioned in sub. block or tile manufacturing unit within a radius of one hundred kilometres of the coal or lignite based thermal power plant in cases where the manufacturer does not mix a minimum of 25 per cent by weight of fly ash or pond ash in the manufacture of bricks or blocks or tiles. make necessary specifications/guidelines for road or fly over embankments that are not covered by the specifications laid down by the Indian Road Congress (IRC).AMENDMENTS 1.paragraph (1). 1999 (hereinafter referred to as the said notification) which the Central Government proposes to make under sub-section (1) and clause (v) of sub-section (2) of section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act. In the said notification. the words “”or a representative of local brick kiln owners association. Rajagopalan) Joint Secretary to the Govt.“(1A) . sub-section (ii) vide S. the thermal power plant shall maintain month-wise records of ash made available to each brick kiln. 1164 (E). V. Section 3. .763 (E) dated 14th September. for the words “fifty kilometers”". [F. the words “one hundred kilometres”" shall be substituted. in addition to cancellation of consent order issued to establish the brick kiln.documents.O. group. the competent authority.”" . 1986. only the minimum quantity of soil required for the purpose shall be excavated from soil borrow area. blocks and tiles located within a radius of 50 to 100 kilometres of a coal or lignite based thermal power plant comply with the provisions of sub-paragraphs (1) and (2). 1986 (29 of 1986) read with clause (d) of sub-rule (3) of rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules. the following paragraph shall be inserted. person or organization shall. dated the 5th November. (b) after sub-paragraph (1). Now. namely: . “”All coal or lignite based thermal power plants shall utilise the ash generated in the power plants as follows: -”". the Central Government hereby makes the following amendments to the said notification. 979 (E):. concrete blocks. in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) and clause (v) of sub-section (2) of section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act. the following sub.763(E) dates 14/9/1999 Dumping and disposal of fly ash discharged from coal or lignite based thermal power plants on land S. the topsoil should be kept or stored separately.(a) in sub-paragraph (1). 2. Any deviation from this direction can only be agreed to on technical reasons if the same is approved by Chief Engineer (Design) or Engineer-in-Chief of the concerned agency or organization or on production of a certificate of “Pond ash not available”" from the thermal power plant(s) (TPPs) located within 100 kilometres of the site of construction. (c) in sub. of India Footnote. Part II.”" shall be inserted. federation. in the preamble. were published in the Gazette of India. in paragraph 1. the 27th August 2003. panels”". 3.”". soil or clay mining lease shall not grant such lease or extension of lease or renewal to clay brick. 1986. therefore.”". manufacturers of clay bricks.“” The thermal power plants have to ensure availability of fair quantity of ash to each user including brick kilns.“”2A. including those relating to soil borrow area or pit as per sub-paragraph (7) of paragraph 1.”". And. The cancellation of mining lease shall be decided by the district administration after giving the holder of such lease an opportunity of being heard. whereas copies of the said Gazette were made available to the public on 27th November 2002.paragraph (3) of paragraph 3. (ii) the following shall be added at the end.O. person or organization shall within a radius of 100 kilometres of a coal or lignite based thermal power plant allow reclamation and compaction of low-lying areas with soil. In the said notification. “”Subject to the rules made under the Environment (Protection) Act. [27/8/2003] – Amendments to S. (29 of 1986) reclamation of sea shall be a permissible method of utilization of fly ash. ***** (3B) In case of non-compliance of the provisions of sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 1. (b) for the opening words. bricks. SP: 58 of 2001. (g) after sub-paragraph (4). Part II. (6) Soil required for top or side covers of embankments of roads or flyovers shall be excavated from the embankment site and if it is not possible to do so. Sub-section (ii) dated the 6th November.763 (E) dated 14. In either case.“(5) No agency. – The principal notification was published in the Gazette of India. (i) after the words “”products such as cement.979(E). after brackets and letters “”(AIBTMF)”". Only pond ash shall be used for compaction. the words “”or a combination thereof”" shall be inserted.9.O. 1986 (29 of 1986) read with clause (d) of sub-rule (3) of rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules. (7) No agency.paragraphs shall be inserted. S. namely: . 1986.Whereas a draft of certain amendments to the Government of India in the Ministry of Environment and Forests notification number S. and b. within a radius of 100 kilometres of a thermal power plant undertake construction or approve design for construction of roads or flyover embankments in contravention of the guidelines/ specifications issued by the Indian Road Congress (IRC) as contained in IRC specification No. for the words “fifty kilometers”".O. Voids created due to soil borrow area shall be filled up with ash with proper compaction and covered with topsoil kept separately as above. Section 3. the following sub-paragraphs shall be inserted. In the said notification. in paragraph 2. after paragraph 2. 2002 vide S.1999. (a) for the marginal heading “”Utilisation of ash by Thermal Power Plants”". This certificate shall be provided by the TPP within two working days from the date of making a request for ash. MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTSNOTIFICATION New De1hi. namely: . Utilization of fly ash for reclamation of sea. (f) in sub-paragraph (4). This would be done as an integral part of embankment project within the time schedule of the project. namely: . Extraordinary. To enable the competent authority to verify the actual use of ash.No.”". In the said notification.O. namely: .16-2/95HSMD] (Dr. shall move the district administration for cancellation of the mining lease. They shall also ensure that such reclamation and compaction is done in accordance with the bye-laws.O. namely: -”". 2002 inviting objections and suggestions from all persons likely to be affected thereby before the expiry of sixty days from the date on which copies of the Gazette containing the said draft amendments were made available to the public. (3 D) It shall be sufficient compliance of this notification if within twelve months from the date of issue of this notification. whereas all the objections and suggestions received from all persons likely to be affected thereby in respect of the said draft notification have been duly considered by the Central Government. schedules of approved materials and rates as well as technical documents.
(iii) 75 per cent by 31st August. as the case may be. (2A) The concerned State Government shall be the enforcing and monitoring authority for ensuring compliance of the provisions of sub. (e) after sub-paragraph (3). hotels.(i) 25 per cent by 31st August 2004. the following sub-paragraphs shall be inserted.“” (2) The authority for ensuring the use of specified quantity of ash as per subparagraph (1) shall be the concerned Regional Officer of the State Pollution Control Board or the Pollution Control Committee. blocks and tiles shall apply: . and (iv) 100 per cent by 31st August 2007. used in each construction project. brackets and figure “”under sub-paragraph (1)”" shall be substituted. resorts and cottages and the like. (1B) The provisions of sub-paragraph (1A) shall be applicable to all construction agencies such as Housing Boards and those in the private sector builders of apartments. (ii) 100 per cent by 31st August 2005. namely:.”". as the case may be. blocks and tiles. the following subparagraphs shall be substituted. within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of application by it. and tiles and similar other fly ash based products shall be taken within thirty days from the date of receipt of the application by the competent authority. A decision on consent to establish the brick kiln shall be taken by the Pollution Control Board or the Pollution Control Committee. namely: . . block.“”(3A) A decision on the application for manufacture of fly ash bricks.paragraph (lA). (ii) 50 per cent by 31st August 2005. brackets and figure “”under para (1)”" the words. In respect of construction of buildings within a radius of 50 kilometres from a coal or lignite based thermal power plant the following minimum per centage (by volume) of use of bricks. It shall be the responsibility of the construction agencies either undertaking the construction or approving the design or both to ensure compliance of the provisions of sub-paragraph (1A) and to submit such returns as may be called for and compliance reports to the State Government or Union territory Administration”".Every construction agency engaged in the construction of buildings within a radius of fifty to one hundred kilometres from a coal or lignite based thermal power plant shall use fly ash bricks or blocks or tiles or clay fly ash bricks or cement fly ash bricks or blocks or similar products or a combination or aggregate of them in such construction as per the following minimum percentage (by volume) of the total bricks. as the case may be. namely: . (d) in sub-paragraph (3). (c) for sub-paragraph (2). 2006. for the words.(i) 50 per cent by 31st August 2004.