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Plastic part

Plastic part

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Published by Chetan Chaudhari
This document provides information about plastic manufacturing
This document provides information about plastic manufacturing

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Published by: Chetan Chaudhari on Jan 20, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Two main components of extruder are Barrel and Screw Die is not a component of extruder; it is a special tool that is fabricated for the particular profile to be produced Internal diameter of barrel typically ranges from 25 to 150 mm and L/D ratio ranges from 10 to 30. Higher L/D is used for thermoplastics and lower for elastomers Extruder rotates around 60 rpm

The screw performs three functions and is divided into sections: Feed Section: Stock is moved from the hopper port and is preheated. air entrapped amongst the pallets is extracted from the melt. . and the material is compressed Metering section: Melt is homogenized and sufficient pressure is developed to pump it through die opening. Compression section: Polymer is transformed into liquid consistency. Build pressure in the metering section Straighten the flow of polymer and remove its memory of circular motion imposed by screw. Function of Breaker Plate Filter containment and hard lumps from the melt.

Typical pressure gradient in an extruder Extruder and die characteristics Side view cross-section of die for coating electrical wire by extrusion .

Die configuration and extruded products .

Melt fracture (a) Sharkskin (b) Bambooing .

Complex and intricate shapes are possible to produce.In this process polymer is heated to a highly plastic state and forced to flow under high pressure into a mould cavity. where it solidifies. The process produces discrete components that are always net shape. . however the challenge is to design mould so that the part can be ejected successfully Process is economical in large production as the cost of mould is very high.

Typical Moulding Cycle Mould is closed Melt is injected cavity Screw is retracted Mould opens and part is ejected .

Details of two plate mould for thermoplastic Injection Moulding (a) Closed (b) Open mould .

Three plate mould (a) Open (b) Close .

which is up to 10% for typical thermoplastics Contraction of crystalline polymer is more than than amorphous Shrinkage is expressed as reduction in linear size (mm/mm) when cooled from moulding temperature to room temperature.Two alternative type of Injection Moulding machines Screw preplasticizer Plunger type (Older machine) Shrinkage Considerations High thermal expansion. Fillers in the plastic tend to reduce shrinkage .

it can also occur around ejection pins. Later when it solidifies a depression is seen on the outer surface due to shrinkage. The properties of weld line are inferior. (4) excessive shot size. and/or pressure.Defects in Injection Moulding Short Shots: solidified before completely filling the cavity. . When the outer skin solidifies and the and inner core remains mushy. Weld lines: It is formed when the melt comes from two sides and forms weld. (2) Injection pressure too high compared to clamping force. The defect is usually caused by (1) vents and clearances in the mold that are too large. Flashing: the polymer melt is squeezed into the parting surface between mold plates. The defect can be corrected by increasing temp. A void is also caused by the same phenomenon. (3) melt temperature too high. Sink marks and voids: Occur in thick molded section. These defects can be addresses by increasing packing pressure following injection. A better solution is to design a part having uniform section.

Compression Molding (1)Charge is loaded (2) and (3) Charge is compressed and cured and (4) part is ejected and removed .

Port transfer molding Plunger transfer molding .

Blow Molding (1) Extrusion of parison (2) Parison is pinched at the top and sealed at the bottom around a metal bow pin as the two halves of the mold come together (3) the tube is inflated so that it takes the shape of the mold cavity and (4) mold is opened and part is removed .

Injection Blow Molding Stretch Blow Molding .

Rotational Molding or Rotomolding .

A flat sheet is softened by heating. A vacuum draws the sheet into cavity 4. 2. The softened sheet is kept over a concave cavity 3.Vacuum Thermoforming 1. The plastic hardens on contact with the cold mold surface and the part is removed and then trimmed .

Pressure Thermoforming Vacuum Thermoforming with positive mold .

Pre-stretching the sheet prior to draping and vacuuming it Mechanical Thermoforming .

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