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# Modal Analysis

Module 2

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Module 2

Modal Analysis

A. Define modal analysis and its purpose.

B. Discuss associated concepts, terminology, and mode extraction

methods.

C. Learn how to do a modal analysis in ANSYS.

D. Work on one or two modal analysis exercises.

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Modal Analysis

A. Definition & Purpose

• What is modal analysis?

• A technique used to determine a structure’s vibration

characteristics:

– Natural frequencies

– Mode shapes

– Mode participation factors (how much a given mode participates in a

given direction)

• Most fundamental of all the dynamic analysis types.

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Modal Analysis

… Definition & Purpose

Benefits of modal analysis

• Allows the design to avoid resonant vibrations or to vibrate at a

specified frequency (speakers, for example).

• Gives engineers an idea of how the design will respond to

different types of dynamic loads.

• Helps in calculating solution controls (time steps, etc.) for other

dynamic analyses.

Recommendation: Because a structure’s vibration characteristics

determine how it responds to any type of dynamic load, always perform a

modal analysis first before trying any other dynamic analysis.

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• General equation of motion:

• Assume free vibrations and ignore damping:

• Assume harmonic motion ( i.e. )

• The roots of this equation are e

i

2

, the eigenvalues, where i ranges

from 1 to number of DOF. Corresponding vectors are {u}

i

, the

eigenvectors.

| | | | ( ){ } { } 0 u M K

2

= e ÷

| |{ } | |{ } { } 0 u K u M = +

| |{ } | |{ } | |{ } ( ) { } t F u K u C u M = + +

Modal Analysis

B. Terminology & Concepts

) t sin( U u e =

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Modal Analysis

… Terminology & Concepts

• The square roots of the eigenvalues are e

i

, the structure’s natural

circular frequencies (radians/sec). Natural frequencies f

i

are then

calculated as f

i

= e

i

/2t (cycles/sec). It is the natural frequencies f

i

that are input by the user and output by ANSYS.

• The eigenvectors {u}

i

represent the mode shapes - the shape

assumed by the structure when vibrating at frequency f

i

.

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Modal Analysis

… Terminology & Concepts (cont.)

• Mode Extraction is the term used to describe the calculation of

eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

• Mode Expansion has a dual meaning. For the reduced method,

mode expansion means calculating the full mode shapes from the

reduced mode shapes. For all other methods, mode expansion

simply means writing mode shapes to the results file.

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Modal Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

Mode Extraction Methods

• Several mode extraction methods are available in ANSYS:

– Block Lanczos (default)

– Subspace

– PowerDynamics

– Reduced

– Unsymmetric

– Damped (full)

– QR Damped

• Which method you choose depends primarily on the model size

(relative to your computer resources) and the particular

application.

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Modal Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

… Mode Extraction Methods - Block Lanczos

• The Block Lanczos method is recommended for most

applications.

– Efficient extraction of large number of modes (40+) in most models

– Typically used in complex models with mixture of

solids/shells/beams etc.

– Efficient extraction of modes in a frequency range

– Handles rigid-body modes well

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Modal Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

… Mode Extraction Methods - Subspace

• When extracting a small number of modes (<40) in similar size

models, the subspace method can be more suitable.

– Requires relatively less memory but large diskspace

– May have convergence problems when rigid body modes are present.

– Not recommended when constraint equations are present.

– Generally superseded by Block Lanczos

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Modal Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

… Mode Extraction Methods - PowerDynamics

• For large (100K+ DOF) models and a small number of modes

(< 20), use the PowerDynamics method. It can be significantly

faster than Block Lanczos or Subspace, but:

– Requires large amount of memory.

– May not converge with poorly shaped elements or an ill-conditioned

matrix.

– May miss modes (No Sturm sequence check)

– Recommended only as a last resort for large models.

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Modal Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

… Mode Extraction Methods - Reduced

• For models in which lumping mass does not create a local

oscillation, typically beams and spars, use the Reduced method.

– Memory and disk requirements are low.

– In general fastest eigen solver

– Employs matrix reduction, a technique to reduce the size of [K] and

[M] by selecting a subset of DOF called master DOF.

– Reduction of [K] is exact but [M] loses some accuracy

– Accuracy of [M] depends on number and location of master DOF.

– Generally not recommended due to

• Expertise required in picking master DOF

• Efficient alternatives such as Block Lanczos

• reduced cost of hardware

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Modal Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

… Mode Extraction Methods - Unsymmetric

• The unsymmetric method is used for acoustics (with structural

coupling) and other such applications with unsymmetric [K] and [M].

– Calculates complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors:

• Real part is the natural frequency.

• Imaginary part indicates stability - negative means stable, positive

means unstable.

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Modal Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

… Mode Extraction Methods - Damped

• Damping is normally ignored in a modal analysis, but if its effects

are significant, the Damped method is used.

– Typical application is rotor dynamics, where gyroscopic damping

effects are important.

– Two ANSYS elements, BEAM4 and PIPE16, allow gyroscopic effects to

be specified in the form of real constant SPIN (rotational speed,

radians/time).

– Calculates complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors:

• Imaginary part is the natural frequency.

• Real part indicates stability - negative means stable, positive

means unstable.

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Modal Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

… Mode Extraction Methods - Q-R damped

• A second mode extraction method that considers damping effects

is the Q-R Damped method.

– Faster and more stable than the existing Damped Solver

– Works with poorly conditioned models

– All forms of damping allowed including damper elements

– Combines the best features of the real eigensolution method (Block

Lanczos) and the Complex Hessenberg method (QR Algorithm)

– Outputs complex eigenvalues ( frequency and stability) and damping

ratio of each mode

– Supports the use of a material dependent damping ratio [MP,DMPR] in

a subsequent mode superposition harmonic analysis

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Modal Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

… Mode Extraction Methods - Q-R damped

MODOPT,QRDAMP,NMODE

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FEA Model Characteristics:

111,129 active dofs

10 damped modes

Alpha, Beta and Element damping

0

20000

40000

60000

80000

100000

120000

140000

160000

QRDAMP DAMP

CPU (sec)

ELAPSE (sec)

Modal Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

… Mode Extraction Methods - Q-R damped

Comparison Demonstrating the Superior Solution Performance

of the QR Damped Mode Extraction Method

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Extraction

method

Linear Solver

Used

Remarks

Block Lanczos Sparse Matrix Recommended for most applications; Most stable;

Subspace Frontal Solver

Stable but slow; Requires large disk space; Has

difficulty with constraint equations / rigid body

modes

Powerdynamics PCG solver

Same as subspace but with PCG solver; Can

handle very large models; Lumped mass only; May

miss modes; Modes cannot be used in

subsequent spectrum and PSD analyses

Reduced Frontal Solver

In general fastest; Accuracy depends on Master

DOF selection; Limitations similar to Subspace;

Not recommended due to expertise required in

selecting Master DOF.

Modal Analysis - Terminology & Concepts

Summary for symmetric, undamped solvers

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Modal Analysis

C. Procedure

Four main steps in a modal analysis:

• Build the model

• Choose analysis type and options

• Apply boundary conditions and solve

• Review results

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Modal Analysis Procedure

Build the Model

• Remember density!

• Linear elements and materials only. Nonlinearities are ignored.

• See also Modeling Considerations in Module 1.

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Modal Analysis Procedure

Choose Analysis Type & Options

Build the model

Choose analysis type and

options

• Enter Solution and choose

modal analysis.

• Mode extraction options*

• Mode expansion options*

• Other options*

*Discussed next

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Choose Analysis Type & Options

Mode extraction options

• Method: Block Lanczos

recommended for most applications.

• Number of modes: Must be specified

(except Reduced method).

• Frequency range: Defaults to entire

range, but can be limited to a desired

range (FREQB to FREQE).

Specification of a frequency range

requires additional factorizations and

it is typically faster to simply request

a number of modes which will overlap

the desired range.

• Normalization: Discussed next.

defaults to 1e8

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Choose Analysis Type & Options

Normalization of mode shapes:

• Only the shape of the DOF solution has real meaning. It is

therefore customary to normalize them for numerical efficiency or

user convenience.

• Modes are normalized either to the mass matrix or to a unit matrix

(unity).

– Normalization to mass matrix is the default, and is required for a

spectrum analysis or if a subsequent mode superposition analysis is

planned.

– Choose normalization to unity when you want to easily compare

relative values of displacements throughout the structure.

• Modes normalized to unity cannot be used in subsequent mode

superposition analyses (transient, harmonic, spectrum or random

vibration)

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Choose Analysis Type & Options

Mode expansion:

• You need to expand mode shapes if you want to do any of the

following:

– Have element stresses calculated.

– Do a subsequent spectrum or mode superposition analysis.

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Choose Analysis Type & Options

Mode expansion (continued):

• Recommendation: Always expand as many modes as the number

extracted. The cost of this is minimal.

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Choose Analysis Type & Options

• Other analysis options:

• Lumped mass matrix

– Mainly used for slender beams and thin shells, or for wave

propagation problems.

– Automatically chosen for PowerDynamics method.

• Pre-stress effects

– For Pre-stressed modal analysis (discussed later).

• Full damping

– Used only if Damped mode extraction method is chosen.

– Damping ratio, alpha damping, and beta damping are allowed.

– BEAM4 and PIPE16 also allow gyroscopic damping.

• QR damping

– All types of damping are allowed.

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Modal Analysis Procedure

Apply BC’s and Solve

Build the model

Choose analysis type and options

Apply boundary conditions and solve

• Displacement constraints: Discussed next.

• External loads: Ignored since free vibrations are assumed.

However, ANSYS creates a load vector which you can use in a

subsequent mode superposition analysis.

• Solve: Discussed next.

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Apply BC’s and Solve

Displacement constraints:

• Apply as necessary, to simulate actual fixity.

• Rigid body modes will be calculated in directions not constrained.

• Non-zero displacements are not allowed.

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Modal Analysis Procedure

... Apply BC’s and Solve

Displacement constraints (continued):

• Be careful with symmetry

• Symmetry BC’s will only produce

symmetrically shaped modes, so some

modes can be missed.

Full Model

Symmetry BC Anti-Symmetry BC

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Apply BC’s and Solve

Displacement constraints (continued):

For the plate-with-hole model, the lowest non-zero mode for the full and

the quarter-symmetry case is shown below. The 53-Hz mode was missed

by the anti-symmetry case because ROTX is non-zero along the

symmetry boundaries.

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Apply BC’s and Solve

Solve:

• Typically one load step.

• Multiple load steps can be used to study the

effect of different displacement constraints

(symmetry BC in one load step and anti-symmetry

BC in another, for example).

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Modal Analysis Procedure

Review Results

Build the model

Choose analysis type and options

Apply boundary conditions and solve

• Review results using POST1, the general postprocessor

• List natural frequencies

• View mode shapes

• Review participation factors

• Review modal stresses

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Review Results

Listing natural frequencies:

• Choose “Read Results > By Pick” in the General Postproc menu.

• Notice that each mode is stored in a separate substep.

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Review Results

Viewing mode shapes:

• First read in results for the

desired mode using First Set, Next

Set, or By Load Step.

• Then plot the deformed shape:

General Postproc > Plot Results >

Deformed Shape…

• Notice that the graphics legend

shows mode number (SUB = ) and

the frequency (FREQ = ).

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Review Results

Viewing mode shapes (continued):

• You can also animate the mode shape: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls >

Animate > Mode Shape...

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Review Results

Participation Factors:

• Calculated for each mode in global translation and rotation

directions

• High value in a direction indicates that the mode will be excited by

forces in that direction

• Values are relative based on a unit displacement spectrum

• The final participation factor value (ROTZ) can be retrieved into a

parameter using *GET command. A spectrum analysis with a

specified direction (SED,0,1,0) could be used to obtain other

values

• Also printed out (to the output file) is the effective mass. Ideally

the sum of the effective masses in each direction should equal

total mass of structure

• Effective Mass = (participation factor)

2

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Review Results

Modal stresses:

• Available if element stress calculation is activated when choosing analysis

options.

• Stress values have no real meaning, however these can be used to

highlight hot spots

• If mode shapes are normalized to unity, you can compare stresses at

different points for a given mode shape

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Modal Analysis Procedure

… Review Results

Mode shapes

normalized to

unity

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Modal Analysis

Procedure

Build the model

Choose analysis type and options

Apply boundary conditions and solve

Review results

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D. Workshop - Modal Analysis

This workshop consists of two problems:

1. Modal analysis of a plate with a hole

– A step-by-step description of how to do the analysis.

– You may choose to run this problem yourself, or your instructor may

show it as a demonstration.

– Follow the instructions in your Dynamics Workshop supplement

(WS2: Modal Analysis - Plate with a Hole, Page WS-17 ).

2. Modal analysis of a model airplane wing

– This is left as an exercise to you.

– Follow the instructions in your Dynamics Workshop supplement

(WS3: Modal Analysis - Model Airplane Wing, Page WS-23 ).